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Full text of "Dictionary of national biography"

DICTIONARY 



OF 



NATIONAL BIOGRAPHY 



DRANT EDRIDGE 



DICTIONARY 



OF 




EDITED BY 



LESLIE STEPHEN 



VOL. XVI. 
DRANT EDRIDGE 



MACMILLAN AND CO. 

LONDON : SMITH, ELDER, & CO. 
1888 



DPi 

18 



V-lfe 



LIST OF WEITEES 



IN THE SIXTEENTH VOLUME. 



0. A OSMUND AIRY. 

J. G. A. . . J. G. ALGER. 

T. A. A. . . T. A. ARCHER. 

G. F. E. B. G-. F. BUSSELL BARKER. 

T. B THOMAS BAYNE. 

W. B THE KEV. WILLIAM BENHAM, B.D., 

F.S.A. 

Gr. T. B. . . G-. T. BETTANY. 

A. C. B. . . A. C. BICKLEY. 

B. H. B. . . THE EEV. B. H. BLACKER. 

W. Gr. B. . . THE KEV. PROFESSOR BLAIKIE, D.D. 

G. C. B. . . G. C. BOASE. 

Gf. S. B. . . G-. S. BOULGER. 

A. H. B. . . A. H. BULLEN. 

E. C-N. . . . EDWIN CANNAN. 

H. M. C. . . H. MANNERS CHICHESTER. 

A. M. C. . . Miss A. M. CLERKE. 

T. C. .... THOMPSON COOPER, F.S.A. . 
W. P. C. . . W. P. COURTNEY. 
L. C LIONEL GUST. 

E. W. D. . THE EEV. CANON DIXON. 

B. D EGBERT DUNLOP. 

J. W. E. . . THE EEV. J. W. EBSWORTH, F.S.A. 

F. E FRANCIS ESPINASSE. 

0. F Louis FAGAN. 

1 H. F. . . C. H. FIRTH. 

I". Gr. F. . . J. G-. FOTHERINGHAM. 



W. H. F. . THE HON. AND EEV. CANON FRE- 

MANTLE. 
E. Gf ElCHARD GARNET!, LL.D. 

J. W.-G. . . J. WESTBY-GIBSON, LL.D. 
Gf. Gr GfoRDON GOODWIN. 

A. G THE EEV. ALEXANDER GORDON. 

E. E. G. . . E. E. GRAVES. 

W. A. G. . W. A. GREENHILL, M.D. 
J. A. H. . . J. A. HAMILTON. 

T. H THE EEV. THOMAS HAMILTON, D.D. 

W. J. H. . . PROFESSOR W. JEROME HARRISON. 

T. F. H. . . T. F. HENDERSON. 

G. J. H. . . G. J. HOLYOAKE. 

J. H Miss JENNETT HUMPHREYS. 

E. H-T. . . THE LATE EGBERT HUNT, F.E.S. 
W. H. ... THE EEV. WILLIAM HUNT. 

B. D. J. . . B. D. JACKSON. 

A. J THE EEV. AUGUSTUS JESSOPP, D.D. 

J. K. L. . . PROFESSOR J. K. LAUGHTON. 

S. L. L. . . S. L. LEE. 

H. E. L. . . THE EEV. H. E. LUARD, D.D. 

G. P. M. . . G. P. MACDONELL. 

M. M. ... JENEAS MACKAY, LL.D. 

J. A. F. M. J. A. FULLER MAITLAND. 

C. T. M. . C. TRICE MARTIN, F.S.A. 

F. T. M. . . F. T. MARZIALS. 

C. M COSMO MONKHOUSE. 



VI 



List of Writers. 



KM 


NORMAN MOORE, M.D. 


W. B. S. . 


. W. BARCLAY SQUIRE. 


A. N 
R B 0*B 


ALBERT NICHOLSON. 
E BARRY O'BRIEN. 


L. S. 
H. M. S. . 


. LESLIE STEPHEN. 
. H. MORSE STEPHENS. 


T 


THE REV. THOMAS OLDEN. 


C. W. S. . 


. C. W. BUTTON 


N. D. F. P. 


N. D. F. PEARCE. 


H. E. T. . 


. H. E. TEDDER. 


G. G. P. . . 
N. P 


THE REV. CANON PERRY. 
THE REV. NICHOLAS POCOCK. 


T. F. T. . 
E. V. . . . 


. PROFESSOR T. F. TOUT. 
. THE EEV. CANON VENABLES. 


B. L. P. . . 


R. L. POOLE. 


R H V. . 


. LlEUT.-CoLONEL VETCH E E 


S.L.-P. . . 
J. M. R. . . 
W. E 


STANLEY LANE-POOLE. 
J. M. EIGG. 
WILLIAM EGBERTS 


A. V. 
M. G. W. 
F W T 


. ALSAGER VIAN. 
. THE REV. M. G. WATKINS. 


C. J. E. . . 
L. C. S. . . 
G. B. S. . . 


EEV. C. J. ROBINSON. 
LLOYD C. SANDERS. 
G. BARNETT SMITH. 


C. W-H. . 

W. W. . . 


. CHARLES WELCH. 
. WARWICK WROTH. 



DICTIONARY 



OF 



NATIONAL BIOGRAPHY 



Drant 



Drant 



DRANT, THOMAS (d. 1578?), divine 
and poet, son of Thomas Drant, was born at 
Hagworthingham in Lincolnshire ; matricu- 
lated as pensioner of St. John's College, Cam- 
bridge, 18 March 1558,proceededB. A. 1560-1, 
was admitted fellow of his college 21 March 
1560-1, and commenced M.A. 1564. On 
the occasion of Queen Elizabeth's visit to 
the university in August 1564 he composed 
copies of English, Latin, and Greek verses, 
which he presented to her majesty. At the 
commencement in 1565 he performed a public 
exercise (printed in his ' Medicinable Mo- 
rall ') on the theme ' Corpus Christi non est 
ubique.' He was domestic chaplain to Grin- 
dal, who procured for him the post of divinity 
reader at St. Paul's. In 1569 he proceeded 
B.D., and on 28 July in that year he was 
admitted by Grindal's influence to the pre- 
bend of Chamberlainwood in the church of 
St. Paul's. On 8 Jan. 1569-70 he preached 
before the court at Windsor, strongly rebuk- 
ing vanity of attire. He was admitted to the 
prebend of Firles in the church of Chichester 
21 Jan. 1569-70, to the rectory of Slinfold 
in Sussex 31 Jan., and to the archdeaconry 
of Lewes 27 Feb. On Easter Tuesday 1570 
he preached a sermon at St. Mary Spital, 
London, denouncing the sensuality of the 
citizens ; and he preached another sermon at 
the same place on Easter Tuesday 1572. He 
had some dispute with Dr. William Overton, 
treasurer of the church of Chichester, and 
afterwards bishop of Lichfield and Coventry, 
whom he accused in the pulpit of pride, 
hypocrisy, ignorance, &c. He is supposed 
to have died about 17 April 1578, as the 
archdeaconry of Lewes was vacant at that 
late. 

Drant is the author of : 1. ' Impii cuius- 
lam Epigrammatis qvod edidit Richardus 
Shacklockus . . . Apomaxis. Also certayne 

VOL. XVI. 

H 



of the special! articles of the Epigramme, re- 
futed in Englyshe,' 1565, 4to, Latin and Eng- 
lish. 2. ' A Medicinable Morall, that is, the 
two Bookes of Horace his Satyres Eng- 
lyshed. . . . The wailyngs of the prophet 
Hieremiah, done into Englyshe verse. Also 
epigrammes,' 1566, 4to. Some copies have 
at the back of the title a dedicatory inscrip- 
tion, ' To the Right Honorable iny Lady 
Bacon, and my Lady Cicell, sisters, fauourers 
of learnyng and vertue.' The rhymed trans- 
lation of Horace's satires is wholly devoid of 
grace or polish. Among the miscellaneous 
pieces that follow the translation of Jere- 
miah are the English and Latin verses that 
Drant presented to the queen on her visit to 
Cambridge in 1564, English verses to the 
Earl of Leicester, and Latin verses to Chan- 
cellor Cecil. In 1567 appeared : 3. ' Horace 
his arte of Poetrie, pistles, and Satyrs, Eng- 
lished and to the Earle of Ormounte, by 
Tho. Drant, addressed,' 4to. Drant found 
the labour of translating Horace difficult, for 
in the preface he writes : ' I can soner trans- 
late twelve verses out of the Greeke Homer 
than sixe oute of Horace.' 4. ' Greg. Nazian- 
zen his Epigrams and Spiritual Sentences,' 
1568, 8vo. 5. ' Two Sermons preached, the 
one at S. Maries Spittle on Tuesday in Easter 
weeke 1570, and the other at the Court of 
Windsor . . . the viij of January . . . 1569.' 
n. d. [1570?], 8vo. 6. 'A fruitful and neces- 
sary Sermon specially concernyng almes gev- 
ing,' n. d. [1572 ?], 8vo, preached at St. Mary 
Spittle on Easter Tuesday 1572. 7. 'In 
Solomonis regis Ecclesiastem . . . paraphrasis 
poetica,' 1572, 4to, dedicated to Sir Thomas 
Heneage. 8. ' Thomse Drantae Angli Ad- 
vordingamii Prsesul. Ejusdem Sylva,' 4to, 
undated, but published not earlier than 1576, 
for it is dedicated ' Edmvndo Grindallo Can- 
tuario Archiprsesuli,' and in 1576 Grindal 



Drapentier - 

was appointed to the see of Canterbury. In 
the British Museum is preserved Queen 
Elizabeth's presentation copy, with manu- 
script dedicatory verses (on the fly-leaf), in 
which Drant speaks of an unpublished trans- 
lation of the Book of Job : 

once did I with min hand 
Job mine thee give in low and loyal wise. 
In ' Sylva ' (pp. 79-80) is a copy of verses 
headed ' De seipso,' in which, he observes 
Sat vultu laudandus eram, flavusque comarum ; 
Corpore concrevi, turbae numerandus obesse. 

There are Latin verses to Queen Elizabeth, 
Grindal, Parker, Lord Buckhurst, and others, 
and on pp. 85-6 are verses in Drant's praise 
by James Sandford in Greek, Latin, Italian, 
and French. Commendatory Latin verses 
by Drant are prefixed to Foxe's ' Acts and 
Monuments,' 1570; Sadler's translation of 
Vegetius's ' Tactics,' 1572 ; Carter's annota- 
tions to Seton's ' Dialectica,' 1574 ; Alexan- 
der Neville's ' Kettus,' 1575 ; Llodowick 
Lloyd's ' Pilgrimage of Princes,' n. d. He 
has a copy of English verses before Peterson's 
' Galateo,' 1576. In the correspondence of 
Spenser and Gabriel Harvey allusion is made 
to Drant's rules and precepts for versification. 
' I would heartily wish,' writes Spenser to j 
Harvey in 1580, ' you would either send me I 
the rules and precepts of arte, which you 
obserue in quantities, or else folio we mine 
that M. Philip Sidney gaue me, being the 
very same which M. Drant deuised, but en- ' 
larged with M. Sidney's own iudgement, and , 
augmented with my obseruations ' (HARVEY, 
Works, ed. Grosart, i. 36). In ' Pierces Su- 
pererogation ' Harvey uses the expression 
'Dranting of verses' (ib. ii. 131). Drant's 
unpublished works included a translation of 
the ' Iliad,' as far as the fifth book, a trans- ' 
lation of the Psalms, and the 'Book of Solo- 
mons Prouerbs, Epigrames, and Sentences ' 
spirituall,' licensed for press in 1567. Ex- I 
tracts from sermons that he preached at ' 
Chichester and St. Giles, Cripplegate, are I 
preserved in Lansdowne MS. 110. Tanner I 
ascribes to him ' Poemata varia et externa, 
Paris, 15 . . ., 4to.' 

[Cooper's Athenae Cantabrigienses ; Strype's 
Annals, ii. 2, 379-80 (1824); Ames's Typogr. 
Antiq. (Herbert), pp. 654, 858, &c. ; Nichols's 
Progresses of Queen Elizabeth, iii. 36-8 ; Corser's 
Collectanea ; Riteon's Bibliographia Poetica ; 
Drant's Works.] A. H. B. 

DRAPENTIER, JAN (/. 1674-1713), 
engraver, was the son of D. Drapentier or 
Drappentier, a native of Dordrecht, who en- 
graved some medals commemorative of the 
great events connected with the reign of 



Draper 

William and Mary, and also a print with the 
arms of the governors of Dordrecht, published 
by Balen in his 'Beschryving van Dordrecht' 
(1677). Jan Drapentier seems to have come 
to England and worked as an engraver of 
portraits and frontispieces for the booksellers. 
These, which are of no very great merit, in- 
clude portraits of William Hooper (1674), 
Sir James Dyer (1675), Richard Baxter, 
the Earl of Athlone, Viscount Dundee, Dr. 
Sacheverell, the seven bishops, and others. 
He is probably identical with the Johannes 
Drapentier who by his wife, Dorothea Tucker, 
was father of a son Johannes, baptised at 
the Dutch Church, Austin Friars, on 7 Oct. 
1694. He was largely employed in engrav- 
ing views of the country seats of the gentry, 
&c., in Hertfordshire for Chauncy's history 
of that county (published in 1700). Later 
in life he seems to have returned to Dor- 
drecht, where a Jan Drapentier became en- 
graver to the mint, and engraved several 
medals commemorative of the peace of Rys- 
wick and other important events down to the 
treaty of Utrecht in 1713. He also engraved 
an allegorical broadside commemorating the 
latter event. An engraving of the House of 
Commons in 1690 is signed ' F. Drapentier 
sculpsit.' 

[Strutt'sDict. of Engravers ; Franks and Grue- 
ber's Medallic History of England; Kramm's 
Levens en Werken der Hollandsche Kunstschil- 
ders ; Moens's Registers of the Dutch Church, 
Austin Friars ; Bromley's Cat. of Engraved Bri- 
tish Portraits ; Lowndes's Bibl. Man.] L. C. 

DRAPER, EDWARD ALURED (1776- 
1841), colonel, a cousin of General Sir Wil- 
liam Draper [q. v.], was born at Werton, Ox- 
fordshire, 22 Oct. 1776, and was educated at 
Eton, where he displayed abilities. While 
at Eton he was made a page of honour to 
George III, and seems to have acquired the 
lasting friendship of the king's sons. He was 
appointed ensign in the 3rd foot guards in 1794, 
and became a lieutenant and captain in 1796. 
He served with his regiment in Holland and 
Egypt. As a brevet-major he accompanied 
Lieutenant-general Grinfield to the West In- 
dies as military secretary in 1802, and brought 
home the despatches after the capture of St. 
Lucia in 1803, receiving the customary step 
and gratuity of 500/. Early in 1806 Sir 
Thomas Picton, then a brigadier-general, was 
brought to trial for acts of cruelty alleged to 
have been committed during his brief govern- 
ment of the island of Trinidad. Draper, who 
had known Picton in the West Indies, brought 
out an ' Address to the British Public ' (Lon- 
don, 1806), in which, with much irrelevant 
detail, he broadly charged the commissioners 
of inquiry in Picton's case, Colonel Joseph 



Draper 

Fullarton, F.R.S., and the Right Hon. John 
Sullivan,with wilful and corrupt misrepresen- 
tation, upon which the latter filed a criminal 
information against Draper for libel. Draper 
was convicted before the court of king's bench 
and was sentenced to and underwent three 
months' imprisonment , which drew forth much 
sympathy from his friends, the first to visit 
him after his arrival in Newgate being the 
Prince of Wales, attended by Sir Herbert 
Taylor. Draper served with his battalion in 
the Walcheren expedition, but was afterwards 
compelled by pecuniary difficulties to sell his 
commission, despite the efforts of his friends 
to save it. In 1813 he was appointed chief 
secretary in the island of Bourbon (Reunion), 
and virtually administered the government 
during the temporary suspension of the acting 
governor, Colonel Keating. When Bourbon 
reverted to France, Draper was removed to 
Mauritius, and held various posts, as chief 
commissioner of police, acting colonial secre- 
tary, acting collector of customs, civil engi- 
neer and surveyor-general, registrar of slaves, 
stipendiary magistrate of Port Louis, and 
treasurer and paymaster-general. On one oc- 
casion his independent line of action dis- 
pleased the governor, General Hall, who sus- 
pended him, but on the case being referred 
home, Draper was reinstated and Hall re- 
called. In 1832, during the government of 
Sir Charles Colville, a new difficulty arose. 
The home government desired the appoint- 
ment of Mr. Jeremie to the office of pro- 
cureur-general. The appointment was repu- 
diated by the whole of the inhabitants. A 
question then arosebefore the council, of which 
Draper was a member, whether Jeremie should 
be upheld in his appointment or sent home. 
Draper took the popular side, and became 
the leader of the opposition party, to which 
Governor Colville gave way, and ordered 
Jeremie home. Before the latter returned 
again, Draper had been ordered by the home 
government to be dismissed from his appoint- 
ments. He returned to England, and after an 
interview with William IV was awarded a 
pension of 5001. a year until another appoint- 
ment could be found for him in Mauritius. 
Soon after he was appointed joint stipendiary 
of Port Louis, and later colonial treasurer and 
paymaster-general, which post he held up to 
his death, 22 April 1841. 

Draper was a man of agreeable manners, 
and, apart from the powerful interest he ap- 
pears to have had at home, was a popular 
official. In his young days he was known in 
racing circles as a gentleman rider, and he 
inaugurated racing in Mauritius. In 1822 he 
married Mile. Krivelt, a Creole lady, by whom 
he had several children, two of whom, a 



j Draper 

son, afterwards in the colonial service, and 
a daughter, married to the late General 
Brooke, son of Sir Richard Brooke, bart., 
survived him. 

[A very florid biographical notice of Draper 
appeared in Gent. Mag. new ser. xvi. 543 ; 
Draper's Address to the British Public (London, 
1806), and some remarks on his case appended 
to the Case of P. Finnerty (London, 1811), may 
be consulted; also Parl. Papers, Eeps. 1826, 
iii. 87, 1826-7, vi. 287, containing evidence on 
the state of affairs which led up to the Jeremie 
dispute. Some ex parte pamphlets relating to 
the latter are in Brit. Mus. Cat. under ' Jeremie, 
John, the younger.'] H. M. C. 

DRAPER, JOHN WILLIAM, M.D., 
LL.D. (1811-1882), chemist, born at St. 
Helen's, near Liverpool, on 5 May 1811, was 
educated at Woodhouse Grove School. Here 
he showed scientific tastes, and, after some 
instruction from a private teacher, he com- 
pleted his studies at University College, 
London. Shortly after attaining his majority 
Draper emigrated to the United States (in 
1833), whither several members of his family 
had preceded him. He studied at the uni- 
versity of Pennsylvania, where he took the 
degree of doctor of medicine in 1836, pre- 
senting as his thesis an essay on ' The Crys- 
tallisation of Camphor under the Influence 
of Light.' Draper contributed several papers 
on physiological problems to the ' American 
Journal of Medical Sciences,' which led to 
his appointment in 1836 as professor of che- 
mistry and physiology at Hampden Sidney 
College, Virginia. Here his capabilities for 
original scientific research found full play, 
and the publication of his results brought 
him the offer of the professorship of chemistry 
and physiology in the university of New York, 
a post which he accepted in 1839. In 1841 
he took an active part in organising a medical 
department in connection with the university, 
acting as secretary until I860, when he suc- 
ceeded Dr. Valentine Mott as president, an 
office which he held till 1873. 

Draper married young ; he had three sons 
and three daughters. Of his sons Henry 
Draper (b. 1837) became famous as an astro- 
nomer and spectroscopist, and John Christo- 
pher Draper attained equal celebrity for hi 
researches in physiology. Their father spent 
the latter part of his life in a quiet retreat 
at Hastings, on the Hudson, a few miles 
from New York city. He died on 4 Jan. 
1882, and was buried in Greenwood cemetery f 
Long Island. 

Draper distinguished himself in the depart- 
ments of molecular physics, of physiology, 
and of chemistry. The results of his work 
appeared mainly in the ' American Journal 



Draper 



Draper 



of Science,' the 'Journal of the Franklin 
Institute,' and the ' Philosophical Magazine.' 
His principal papers were devoted to inves- 
tigations concerning the phenomena of light 
and heat, and these their author collected 
and republished in one volume in 1878 under 
the title of ' Scientific Memoirs, being expe- 
rimental contributions to a Knowledge of 
Radiant Energy.' In 1835 he published ac- 
curate experiments showing that Mrs. Somer- 
ville and others were incorrect in their sup- 
position that, steel can be magnetised by 
exposure to violet light. In 1837 he com- 
menced a series of researches upon the 
nature of the rays of light in the spectrum. 
Using the then little-known spectroscope, 
Draper showed first that all solids become 
self-luminous at a temperature of 977 F., 
and that they then yield a continuous spec- 
trum ; and that as the temperature of the body 
rises it emits more refrangible rays, the in- 
tensity of the rays previously emitted also 
increasing. In 1843 Draper photographed 
the dark lines in the solar spectrum, and in 
1857 he showed the superiority of diffraction 
over prismatic spectra. He devoted special | 
energy to the study of the ultra-violet, or, as j 
he styled them, tithonic rays, showing the 
presence of absorptive bands in them, as well 
as in the ultra-red rays. His latest papers 
' On the Distribution of Heat and of Che- | 
mical Force in the Spectrum' which ap- j 
peared in the ' Philosophical Magazine ' for ; 
1872, may be considered as a summary of 
his views on the subject. His conclusions | 
that ' every radiation can produce some spe- 
cific effect,' and that it is a misnomer to limit 
the term of ' chemical rays ' to those at the 
violet end of the spectrum, for ' we must ' 
consider the nature of the substance acted ! 
upon as well as the light,' are now generally 
accepted. 

In 1839 Draper obtained portraits, for the 
first time,by the daguerreotype process. Early 
in 1840 Draper succeeded in taking the first 
photograph of the moon ; ' the time occupied 
was twenty minutes, and the size of the figure 
about one inch in diameter.' In 1851 he se- 
cured phosphorescent images of the moon. 
To measure the chemical intensity of light 
Draper devised in 1843 a chlor-hvdrogen 
photometer, an instrument which was sub- 
sequently perfected and employed by Bunsen 
and Roscoe. Draper was among the first, if 
not the first, to obtain photographs of micro- 
scopic objects by combining the camera with 
the microscope. He used daguerreotypes ob- 
tained in this way to illustrate his lectures 
on physiology given at the university of New 
York between 1845 and 1850. Draper ap- 
plied his studies on capillary attraction to 



explain the motion of the sap in plants, and 
between 1834 and 1856 he published several 
papers upon this and kindred subjects, in- 
cluding the passage of gases through liquids, 
the circulation of the blood, &c. In 1844 
and 1845 Draper carefully studied the elemen- 
tary body chlorine, showing that it existed 
in two states active and passive and ex- 
amining the action of light upon it and its 
compound with silver (silver chloride). The 
action of light upon plants formed the sub- 
ject of another research (1843), and Draper 
showed that it was the yellow rays which 
were chiefly instrumental in the production 
of chlorophyll. Besides these detached ' Me- 
moirs,' Draper wrote two valued text-books 
of science, a 'Text-book of Chemistry '(1846), 
and a ' Human Physiology ' (1856), each of 
which passed through several editions. 

In 1875 the American Academy of Arts 
and Sciences gave Draper the Rumford medal 
for his ' Researches in Radiant Energy,' the 
president justly declaring him to have taken 
' a prominent rank in the advance of science 
throughout the world.' Draper was led, as 
he declares, by his physiological studies, to 
apply to nations the same laws of growth 
and development, presenting the results in 
his ' History of the Intellectual Development 
of Europe ' (1862), a book which has been 
translated into many languages. Another 
work which has been highly praised for its 
impartiality and philosophical elevation is 
Draper's ' History of the American Civil War,' 
published 1867-70. In 1874 Draper wrote 
the ' History of the Conflict between Science 
and Religion,' to which Professor Tyndall 
wrote the preface. By many Draper has 
been regarded as a materialist, but he was a 
theist and a firm believer in a future state. 
In the Royal Society's ' Catalogue of Scien- 
tific Papers ' Draper's name is appended to 
fifty-one, besides three written in conjunc- 
tion with W. M. Higgins. 

[American Journal of Science, February 1882 ; 
Scientific American (with portrait), 14 Jan. 1882 ; 
Nature, 19 Jan. 1882; Eeport of the Rumford 
Committee of the American Academy of Art sand 
Sciences, 1876.] "W. J. H. 

DRAPER, SIK WILLIAM (1721-1787), 

lieutenant-general, was born in 1721 at Bris- 
tol, where his father, Inglebv Draper, was an 
officer of customs, According to Granger, 
his grandfather was William Draper of Bes- 
wick, near Beverley, a famous Yorkshire fox- 
hunting squire, noticed in ' Biog. Hist .' iii. 239. 
His uncle, Charles Draper, was a captain of 
dragoons (Gent. Mag. Ixiv. (ii.) 860). He 
was sent to Bristol grammar school under 
the Rev. Mr. Bryant, and was afterwards at 



Draper 

Eton, scholar of King's College, Cambridge, 
1740, where he took his B.A. degree in 1744, 
and subsequently a fellow of his college, and 
M.A. 1749. Meanwhile, instead of taking 
holy orders as his friends had intended, he 
obtained an ensigncy in a regiment of foot 
then commanded by Lord Henry Beauclerk 
(afterwards 48th foot, now 1st Northamp- 
ton), on 26 March 1744 (Home Off. Mil. 
Entry Book, xvii. 466). Beauclerk's regi- 
ment, of which Henry Seymour Conway 
[q. v.j was afterwards colonel, was present at 
Culloden 16 April 1746, and on 21 May fol- 
lowing Draper was appointed adjutant of one 
of the battalions of the Duke of Cumberland's 
own regiment, 1st foot guards, in which at 
first he held no other rank (ib. xx. 249). He 
went to Flanders with the 2nd battalion 1st 
guards in January 1747 (HAMILTON, Hist. 
Cfren. Guards, ii. 141), and became lieutenant 
and captain in the regiment 29 April 1749 
(ib. app. vol. iii.) He appears at one time 
to have been aide-de-camp to the second 
Duke of Marlborough when master-general 
of the ordnance (Gent. Mag. xxvi. 44), and 
on 23 Feb. 1756 married his first wife, Caro- 
line, second daughter of Lord William Beau- 
clerk, brother of his old colonel and son of 
the first Duke of St. Albans (ib. xxvi. 91). 

On 14 Nov. 1757 Draper, still a lieutenant 
and captain Istfootguards, was commissioned 
as lieutenant-colonel commandant to raise a 
regiment of foot a thousand strong for ser- 
vice in the East Indies. The regiment took 
rank as the 79th foot, but in an early impres- 
sion of the army list for 1758 figures wrongly 
as the 64th. The rendezvous was at Col- 
chester. The regiment was partly formed of 
companies drafted entire from the 4th, 8th, 
and 24th foot, and the authorities appear to 
have considered the old-fashioned wooden 
ramrods good enough for it, in place of steel 
(see War Office Marching Books and War- 
rant Books, under date). Draper arrived at 
Madras with the regiment, which lost fifty 
men by ' Brest fever ' (ship-typhus) on the 
way out, in the Pitt Indiaman on 14 Sept. 
1758 (OKME, ii. 368), and at its head re- 
peatedly distinguished himself during the 
siege of Fort St. George from November 1758 
to January 1759 (ib. pp. 390-459). When 
Stringer Lawrence resigned on account of 
ill-health in February 1759, the command of 
the troops in Madras devolved on Draper, 
who was too ill to take it up, and returned 
home soon afterwards (ib. ii. 463). Early in 
1760 Draper was appointed deputy quarter- 
master-general of a projected secret expedi- 
tion under Major-general Kingsley (Home 
Off. Mil. Entry Book, xxvi. 5). The expedi- 
tion was originally intended to proceed to 



5 



Draper 



Mauritius and Bourbon (Reunion), but this 
was changed, and it was secretly instructed 
to rendezvous at Quiberon for an attack on 
the fortress of Belle Isle, on the coast of 
Brittany. Various circumstances, including 
the death of the king, delayed the operations, 
and on 13 Dec. 1760 the authorities, as the 
season was so far advanced, ordered the troops, 
which had been long on board ship at Spit- 
head, to be relanded (BEATSON, Nav. and 
Mil. Memoirs, ii. 420, iii. 167 n.) Draper 
held no rank in the expedition which cap- 
i tured Belle Isle the year after. He was pro- 
moted colonel 19 Feb. 1762, and in June that 
year again arrived at Madras with the rank 
of brigadier-general, in the Argo frigate, to 
assume command of an expedition against 
1 Manilla. His original instructions are pre- 
served among Lord Leconfield's manuscripts, 
and are printed at length in ' Hist. MSS. 
Comm.' 7th Rep. 316 et seq. Under Draper 
and Admiral Cornish the expedition appeared 
off Manilla unexpectedly 25 Sept. 1762. A 
landing was effected with great difficulty 
owing to the advanced season, and on 6 Oct. 
1762 the place was carried by assault with 
comparatively little opposition, the victors 
accepting bills on Madrid for a million ster- 
ling in lieu of pillage (BEATSON, ii. 496- 
515, iii. 185 n.) Draper returned home at 
once and presented the Spanish standards to 
his old college. On Wednesday, 4 May 1763, 
'the Spanish standards taken at Manilla by 
General Draper, late fellow, were carried in 
procession to King's College chapel by the 
scholars of the college. A Te Deum was 
sung, and the Rev. W. Barford, fellow and 
public orator, delivered a Latin oration. The 
flags were placed on either side of the altar- 
rails, but were afterwards removed to the 
organ-screen ' (CoopEK, Annals of Cambridge, 
iv. 327). The state of affairs at Manilla after 
Draper's departure is detailed in ' Calendar 
Home Off. Papers,' 1760-5, pp. 584-9. The 
Spanish court refusing to recognise the treaty, 
Draper strongly urged the government to in- 
sist on payment of the ransom, his share of 
which amounted to 25,000 He published 
his views in a pamphlet entitled ' Colonel 
Draper's Answer to the Spanish Arguments 
claiming the Galleon and refusing Payment 
of the Manilla Ransom from Pillage and De- 
struction ' (London, 1764). But the govern- 
ment were not in a position to press the 
matter, and Draper, recognising the hope- 
lessness of the case, let it drop. He was ap- 
pointed lieutenant-governor of Great Yar- 
mouth, a post worth 150/. a year, and on 
13 March 1765 was appointed colonel of 
the 16th foot, his old corps, the 79th, having 
ceased to exist. On 4 March 1766 he received 



Draper 

permission to exchange with Colonel Gisborne 
to the Irish half-pay of the late 121st (king's 
royal volunteers), a" brief-lived regiment of 
foot lately disbanded in Ireland, and to re- 
tain his lieutenant-governorship on the Eng- 
lish establishment as well (see Calendar 
Home Off. Papers, 1766-9, pars. 96, 136). 
He was made K.B. the same year. On 21 Jan. 
1769 appeared in the ' Public Advertiser ' the 
first of the famous letters of Junius, contain- 
ing an attack on various high personages, and 
among others on the Marquis of Granby, then 
commander-in-chief. Draper, who appears to 
have been rather vain of his scholarship, and 
claimed ' very long, uninterrupted, and inti- 
mate friendship ' with Granby, replied in a 
letter dated 26 Jan. 1769, defending Granby 
against the aspersions of his anonymous as- 
sailant. Junius retorted with sarcasms on 
Draper's tacit renunciation of the Manilla 
claims, and on his exchange with Colonel 
Gisborne, the latter, an everyday transaction, 
being represented as ' unprecedented among 
soldiers.' 'By what accident,' asked Junius, 
' did it happen that in the midst of all this 
bustle and all these claims for justice to your 
injured troops, the name of the Manilla ran- 
som was buried in a profound, and since then 
an uninterrupted silence ? Did the ministers 
suggest any motive powerful enough to tempt 
a man of honour to desert and betray his fel- 
low-soldiers ? Was it the blushing ribbon 
which is now the perpetual ornament of your 
person ? or was it the regiment which you 
afterwards (a thing unprecedented among 
soldiers) sold to Colonel Gisborne ? or was 
it the governorship, the full pay cf which 
you are content to hold with the half-pay of 
an Irish colonel ? ' (Jtrinus, second letter). 
Draper in reply stated that in September 
1768 he and Admiral Sir S.Cornish had waited 
on Lord Shelburne in respect of the Manilla 
claims, and had been frankly told, as by pre- 
vious secretaries of state, that their rights 
must be sacrificed to the national conveni- 
ence. He continued (Draper's second letter) : 
' On my return from Manilla his majesty, by 
Lord Egremont, informed me that 1 should 
have the first vacant red ribbon, as a reward 
for my services in an enterprise which I had 
planned as well as commanded. The Duke 
of Bedford and Mr. Grenville confirmed these 
assurances many months before the Spaniards 
had protested the ransom bills. To accommo- 
date Lord Clive, then going upon a most im- 
portant service in Bengal, I waived my claim 
to the vacancy which then happened. As 
there was no other vacancy until the Duke 
of Grafton and Lord Rockingham were joint 
ministers, I was then honoured with the 
order, and it is surely no small honour to me 



Draper 

that in such a succession of ministers they 
were all pleased to think that I deserved it ; 
in my favour they were all united. On the 
reduction of the 79th foot, which served so 
gloriously in the East Indies, his majesty, 
unsolicited by me, gave me the 16th foot as 
an equivalent. My reasons for retiring are 
foreign to the purpose ; let it suffice that his 
majesty was pleased to approve of them ; they 
are such as no one can think indecent who 
knows the shocks that repeated vicissitudes 
of heat and cold, of changes and sickly cli- 
i mates will give the strongest constitutions in 
a pretty long course of service. I resigned 
i my regiment to Colonel Gisborne, a very good 
j officer, for his Irish half-pay and 200/. Irish 
annuities, so that, according to Junius, I have 
been bribed to say nothing more of the Ma- 
nilla ransom and to sacrifice those brave men 
by the strange arrangement of accepting 380/. 
per annum and giving up 800/.' Junius then 
insinuated that Draper had made a false de- 
claration on accepting his half-pay, which 
Draper likewise disproved. The correspond- 
ence ended with Junius's seventh letter. It 
was reopened on the republication of Junius's 
letters by Draper repeating his denials of 
Junius's statements and defending the Duke 
of Bedford against the gross accusations of 
the latter. It finally closed with Draper's 
' Parting Word to Junius.' dated 7 Oct. 1769, 
and Junius's reply. The correspondence was 
! subsequently published under the title of 
I ' The Political Contest ' (London, 1769). 
1 Draper was credited with the authorship of 
the letters signed ' Modestus,' replying to 
Junius's observations on the circumstances 
attending the arrest by civil process of Ge- 
! neral Gansell of the guards, but in a foot- 
' note to Wade's ' Junius,' i. 235, it is stated 
1 that the writer in the ' Public Advertiser ' 
using that signature was a Scottish advo- 
cate named Dalrymple. While the contro- 
versy was at its height Draper lost his wife, 
who died on 1 Sept. 1769, leaving no issue. 
Draper left England soon after for a tour in 
the northern provinces of America, which 
were then beginning to attract travellers. He 
arrived at Charleston, North Carolina, in Ja- 
nuary 1770: journeyed north through Mary- 
land, where he met with a distinguished re- 
ception, and at New York the same year 
married his second wife, Susanna, daughter 
of Oliver De Lancey, senior, of that city, after- 
wards brigadier-general of loyalist provincials 
during the war of independence, and brother 
of Chief-justice James De Lancey (DEAKE, 
Am. ioff.) The lady's family was wealthy, 
but she appears to have received a pension 
of 3007. a year from the Irish civil establish- 
ment soon after her marriage (Calendar Home 



Draper 






Off. Papers, 1770-2, p. 638). Draper became 
a major-general in 1772. In 1774 Horace 
Walpole speaks of him as the probable second 
in command of the reinforcements going to 
America, and as writing plans of pacification 
in the newspapers {Letters, vi. 135, 155). Be- 
fore and after his second marriage Draper 
resided at Manilla Hall, Clifton Downs, now 
the convent of La Mere de Dieu, where he 
erected a cenotaph to the thirty officers and 
one thousand men of the old 79th who fell 
in the East Indies in 1758-65. He became 
a lieutenant-general in 1777. In 1778 he 
lost his second wife, who left one child, a 
daughter born in 1773, who survived her 
parents, and on 17 March 1790 married John 
Gore. She died a widow at Hot Wells on 
26 July 1793 (Gent. Mag. Ix. (i.) 273, Ixiii. 
(ii.) 674). 

In 1779 Draper was appointed lieutenant- 
governor of Minorca, under Lieutenant-ge- 
neral Hon. James Murray, at a salary of 730/. 
a year and allowances. He served through 
the famous defence of Fort St. Philip against 
a combined force of French and Spaniards 
from August 1781 until February 1782, when 
want and the ravages of the scurvy com- 
pelled the plucky little garrison to accept 
honourable terms (BEATSON, v. 618-22, vi. 
note; also Arm. Reg. 1782, app. 241). There 
appears to have been no cordiality between 
Draper and Murray, and shortly before the 
end of the siege Draper was suspended by 
Murray. After their return home Draper 
preferred twenty-nine charges of misconduct 
of the most miscellaneous character against 
the governor, who was tried by a general 
court-martial, presided over by Sir George 
Howard, K.B., which sat at the Horse Guards 
in November-December 1782 and January 
1783. The court honourably acquitted Mur- 
ray of all charges save two some arbitrary 
interference with auction dues in the island, 
and the issue of an order on 15 Oct. 1781 
tending to discredit and dishonour the lieu- 
tenant-governor for the which he was sen- 
tenced to be ' reprimanded.' The king ap- 
proved the finding and sentence, but in recog- 
nition of Murray's past services dispensed 
with any reprimand other than that conveyed 
by the finding. The king also ' expressed 
much concern that an officer of Sir Wm. 
Draper's rank and distinguished character 
should have allowed his judgment to be so 
perverted by any sense of personal grievance 
as to view the general conduct of his superior 
officer in an unfavourable light, and in con- 
sequence to exhibit charges against him which 
the court after diligent investigation have 
considered to be frivolous and ill-founded.' 
Lest some intemperate expressions let fall by 



7 Draxe 

Draper should lead to further consequences, 
the court dictated an apology to be signed 
by Draper and accepted by Murray. The 
matter then ended. Newspaper accounts of 
the trial describe Murray as ' very much 
broke,' but Draper looked ' exceedingly well 
and in the flower of his age ; his star was 
very conspicuous and his arm always care- 
fully disposed so as never to eclipse it.' The 
proceedings of the court were published from 
the shorthand notes of Mr. Gurney, but as 
Draper's rej oinder to Murray's defence, though 
read before the court, was not included 
therein, Draper published it under the title 
' Observations on the Hon. Lieutenant-gene- 
ral Murray's Defence ' (London, 1784, 4to). 
In a letter to Lord Carmarthen, dated in 1784 
(Brit. Mus.Addit. MS. 28060, f. 153), Draper 
urges his claims, stating that his lieutenant- 
governorship, his wife's fortune in America, 
and his just claims to the Manilla ransom 
have all been sacrificed to save the country 
further effusion of blood and treasure . During 
the remainder of his life Draper lived chiefly 
at Bath, where he died 8 Jan. 1787. He 
was buried in the abbey church, where was 
erected a tablet to his memory bearing a 
Latin epitaph composed by his old fellow- 
student at Eton and Cambridge, Christopher 
Anstey of the ' Bath Guide ' [q. v.J A copy 
of the epitaph is given in ' Gent. Mag.' Ix. 
(ii.) 1127. 

[The best biographical notices of Draper are 
in Georgian Era, voL ii.. 1 ; Gent. Mag. Ivii. (i.) 
91 ; and the notes to .Letters of Junius, ed. by 
Wade, in Bohn's Standard Library, but all con- 
tain inaccuracies, especially in the military de- 
tails. Among the authorities consulted in the 
above memoir in addition to those cited are 
Corry's Hist, of Bristol, ii. (natives) 292 (1818, 
4to) ; Eton Eegistrum Regale ; Cautabrigienses 
Graduati, vol. i. ; War Office Records ; Army 
Lists ; Hamilton's Hist. Gren. Guards (1872, 
8vo) ; Orme's Hist, of Mil. Trans, in Indoostan 
(London, 1763); Beatson's Nav. and Mil. Me- 
moirs (1793, 8vo); Walpole's Letters, ed. Peter 
Cunningham, vols. ii. iii. iv. vi. viii. ; Calendars 
Home Office Papers; Brit. Mus. Cat. of Printed 
Books, under ' Draper ; ' Gent. Mag., the more 
important notices in which occur in xxxiv. 590, 
xxxix. 68-71, 371, 430 (controversy with Junius), 
(ib. 537-8 Modestus and Junius), Ivii. (i.) 91, and 
Ix. (ii.) 1127.] H. M. C. 

DRAXE, THOMAS (d. 1618), divine, was 
born at Stoneleigh, near Coventry, Warwick- 
shire, ' his father being a younger brother of a 
worshipfull family, which for many years had 
lived at Wood-hall in Yorkshire ' (FTJLLEK, 
Worthies, ed. 1662, 'Warwickshire,' p. 125). 
His name does not occur in the pedigree given 
by Hunter (South Yorkshire, ii. 108), nor in 
that by Glover ( Yorkshire, Visitation of, 1584- 



Dray cot 



Drayton 



1585, ed. Foster, p. 342). He received his principal of "White Hall (afterwards included 
education at Christ's College, Cambridge, as in Jesus College), Oxford, and of Pirye Hall 
a member of which he afterwards proceeded adjoining. On 23 June 1522 he was admitted 
B.D. In 1601 he was presented to the vicarage bachelor of canon law, taking his doctor's 
of Dovercourt-cum-Harwich, Essex (framed , degree on 21 July following (Reg. of Univ. 
succession list of vicars in Harwich Church), of Oxford, Oxf. Hist. Soc., i. 72). He held 
but, disliking the east coast, he left a curate in ' the family rectory of Draycot. On 1 1 Dec. 
charge, and lived variously at Coventry and at 1527 he was instituted to the vicarage of 
Colwich in Staffordshire (Prefaces to Worte). \ Hitchin, Hertfordshire (CLUTTEKBUCK,.ffer?- 
A few years before his death he returned to ' fordshire, iii. 36), which he exchanged on 
Harwich, ' where,' says Fuller, who gives the 5 March 1531 for the rectory of Cottingham, 
wrong year of his death, ' the change of the J Northamptonshire^ (BRIDGES, Northampton- 
Aire was conceived to hasten his great change ' 
( Worthies, loc. cit.) He was buried at Har- 
wich on 29 Jan. 1618 (parish register). ' A 
pious man and an excellent preacher,' Draxe 
was author of: 1. 'The Churches Securitie; 
together with the Antidote or Preservative of 
everwaking Faith . . . Hereunto is annexed 
a ... Treatise of the Generall Signes ... 



of the Last Judgement,' 4to, London, 1608. 
2. ' The Worldes Resurrection, or the general 
calling of the Jewes. A familiar Commentary 



shire, ii. 299). He became prebendary of 
Bedford Major in the church of Lincoln, 
11 Feb. 1538-9 (LE NEVE, Fasti, ed. Hardy, 
ii. 107), was archdeacon of Stow, 15 Jan. 
1542-3 (ib. ii. 80), and archdeacon of Hunt- 
ingdon, 27 July 1543 (ib. ii. 52), both in the 
same church of Lincoln. On 2 Dec. 1547 
he was appointed by convocation head of a 
committee to draw up a form of a statute for 
paying tithes in cities (SiRYPE, Memorials of 
Cranmer, 8vo ed., i. 221). He was chan- 



upon the eleventh Chapter of Saint Paul to cellor for a time to Longland, bishop of 

the Romaines,' 4to, London, 1608 (with new Lincoln, and to Baine, bishop of Coventry 

title-page, 4to, London, 1609). 3. The Sicke- and Lichfield, in which offices he acted with 

Man's Catechisme ; or Path-way to Felicitie, the greatest cruelty against the protestants 

collected and contrived into questions and (FoxE, Acts and Monuments, ed. Townsend, 

answers, out of the best Divines of our time. v. 453, vii. 400-1, viii. 247-50, 255, 630, 638, 

Whereunto is annexed two prayers,' 16mo 745, 764). In 1553 he was one of the com- 

(London), 1609. 4. ' Calliepeia ; or a rich mittee for the restitution of Bishop Bonner 

Store-house of Proper, Choice and Elegant (STRYPE, Memorials, 8vo ed., vol. iii. pt. i. 

Latine Words and Phrases, collected for the p. 36). On 8 Sept. 1556 he was admitted 

most part out of all Tullies works,' 8vo, prebendary of Longdon in the church of 

T .*"1" /!/* 1 Al O /fl-^ /~.nnA<nxl C-., T * 1 f* IT / T "K T _ _ _ n t* 1 TT 1 /"> 1 IX 



London, 1612 (the second impression, en- 
larged, 8vo, London, 1613 ; another edition, 
8vo, London, 1643). 5. ' Novi Cceli et nova 
Terra, seu Concio vere Theologica, ... in 
qua creaturarum vanitas et misera servitus, 
earundem restitutio, . . . et . . . corporis 
humani resurrectio, in eadem substantia 



Lichfield (LE NEVE, Fasti, ed. Hardy, i. 614). 
At Elizabeth's accession he refused to take 
the oath of supremacy, and was accordingly 
stripped of all his preferments, except the 
rectory of Draycot, which he contrived to 
keep. In 1560 he was a prisoner in the Fleet 

. . . (Cal. State Papers, T)ow.. Addenda 1547 -65, 

describuntur et demonstrantur,' 8vo, Op- p. 524). From ' An Ancient Editor's Note- 
penheim, 1614. 6. ' Bibliotheca scholastica book,' printed in Morris's ' Troubles of our 
instructissima. Or, Treasurie of Ancient Catholic Forefathers' (3rd series, p. 35), 
Adagies and Sententious Proverbes, selected where, however, there is some confusion of 
out of the English, Greeke, Latine, French, dates, we learn that < Dr. Draycott, long 
Italian, and Spanish, 8vo, London, 1633, a prisoner, at length getting a little liberty, 
posthumous publication, the preface of which went to Draycot, and there died,' 20 Jan. 
s dated from* Harwich, Julii 30, 1615' (an- 1570-1 (monumental inscription preserved 
o her edition 8vo^ London, 1654). Fuller in DODD, Church Hist., 1737, i. 516). 
also states that Draxe < translated all the r^-j u . o 

worksof 'Master Perkins (his countryman and ' ^TJ^JSff^Kf^SS, ^T 
coUegiat) into Latine, which were printed ! , n 
at Geneva,' 2 vols. fol., 1611-18. 

[Authorities as above ; Fuller's Hist, of Univ 
of Cambridge (Nichols), p. 137; New-court's 
Eepertorium, ii. 220 ; Brit. Mus. Cat ] G G 



DRAYCOT, ANTHONY 

name and place in Staffordshire. 



(d. 1571), 



, , English Catholics, ii. 105; 

General Index to Strype's Works (8vo), i. 239 ; 
Lansd. MS. 980, f. 282.] G. G. 

DRAYTON, MICHAEL (1563-1631), 
poet, was born at Hartshill, near Atherstone, 



Warwickshire, in 1563. He states in his 
epistle to Henry Reynolds that he had been 
He was a page, and it is not improbable that he 



Dray ton 



was attached to the household of Sir Henry 
Goodere of Powlesworth; for in a dedica- 
tory address prefixed to one of his ' Heroical 
Epistles' (Mary, the French queen, to Charles 
Brandon) he acknowledges that he was in- 
debted to Sir Henry Goodere for the ' most 
part ' of his education. Aubrey says that he 
was the son of a butcher ; but Aubrey also 
describes Shakespeare's father as a butcher. 
We have it on Drayton's own authority (' The 
Owle,' 160-1) that he was ' nobly bred ' and 
' well ally'd.' There is no evidence to show 
whether he was a member of either univer- 
sity. His earliest work, ' The Harmonie of 
the Church,' a metrical rendering of portions 
of the scriptures, was published in 1591. 
Prefixed is a dedicatory epistle, dated from 
London, 10 Feb. 1590-1, 'To the godly and 
vertuous Lady, the Lady Jane Deuoreux of 
Merivale,' in which he speaks of the ' boun- 
tiful hospitality ' that he had received from 
his patroness. This book, which had been 
entered in the ' Stationers' Register,' 1 Feb. 
1590-1, under the title of ' The Triumphes of 
the Churche,' for some unknown reason gave 
offence and was condemned to be destroyed ; 
but Archbishop Whitgift ordered that forty 
copies should be preserved at Lambeth Palace. 
Only one copy, belonging to the British 
Museum, is now known to exist. ' A Hea- 
venly Harmonie of Spirituall Songs and Holy 
Hymnes,' 1610 (unique), is the suppressed 
book with a different title-page. In 1593 
appeared 'Idea. The Shepheards Garland. 
Fashioned in nine Eglogs. Rowlands Sacri- 
fice to the Nine Muses.' These eclogues, 
which were written on the model of the 
' Shepherd's Calendar,' afterwards underwent 
considerable revision. There was room for 
improvement, the diction being frequently 
harsh and the versification inharmonious, 
though much of the lyrical part is excellent. 
In the fourth eclogue there is introduced an 
elegy, which was afterwards completely re- 
written, on Sir Philip Sidney ; and it is pro- 
bably to this elegy (not, as some critics have 
supposed, to a lost poem) that N[athaniel ?] 
B[axter?], in speaking of Sidney's death, 
makes reference in ' Ourania,' 1606 : 

noble Drayton ! well didst them rehearse 
Our damages in dryrie sable verse. 

In 1593 Drayton published the first of his his- 
torical poems, ' The Legend of Piers Gaveston,' 
4to, which was followed in 1594 by ' Matilda, 
the faire and chaste Daughter of the Lord 
Robert Fitzwater.' Both poems, after revi- 
sion, were reprinted in 1596, with the addi- 
tion of The Tragicall Legend of Robert, Duke 
of Normandie,' the volume being dedicated to 
Lucy, countess of Bedford. After the dedi- 



) Drayton 

catory epistle comes a sonnet to Lady Anne 
Harington, wife of Sir John Harington. There 
is also an address to the reader, in which 
Drayton states that ' Matilda ' had been ' kept 
from printing ' because the stationer ' meant 
to join them together in one little volume/ 
The statement is curious, for the 1594 edition 
of ' Matilda ' is dedicated to Lucy, daughter 
of Sir John Harington, afterwards Countess 
of Bedford, and must have been published 
with Drayton's knowledge. A poem in rhymed 
heroics on the subject of ' Endymion and 
Phoebe/ n.d., 4to, entered in the ' Stationers' 
Register ' 12 April 1594, was doubtless pub- 
lished in that year. Lodge quotes from it 
in ' A Fig for Momus,' 1595. There are some 
interesting allusions to Spenser, Daniel, and 
Lodge. It was not reprinted, but portions 
were incorporated in 'The Man in the Moone,' 
and the dedicatory sonnet to the Countess of 
Bedford was included in the 1605 collection 
of Drayton's poems. 

Before leaving Warwickshire Drayton paid 
his addresses to a lady who was a native of 
Coventry and who lived near the river Anker. 
In her honour he published, in 1594, a series 
of fifty-one sonnets under the title of ' Ideas 
Mirrovr : Amours in Quatorzains,' 4to. Dray- 
ton attached no great value to the collection, 
fortwenty-two of the sonnetsprinted in 'Ideas 
Mirrovr' were never reprinted. The lady 
(celebrated under the name ' Idea ') to whom 
the sonnets were addressed did not become 
the poet's wife, but he continued for many 
years to sing her praises with exemplary con- 
stancy. In the 1605 collection of his poems 
he has a ' Hymn to his Lady's Birth-place,' 
which is written in a strain of effusive gal- 
lantry. The magnificent sonnet, ' Since there's 
no help, come let us kiss and part,' first ap- 
peared in the 1619 folio. An epistle, ' Of his 
Lady's not coming to town,' first published 
in the 1627 collection, shows that his devo- 
tion, after thirty years' service, was un- 
changed. All his biographers agree that he 
lived and died a bachelor; but it is to be 
noticed that Edmond Gayton (not a very sure 
^uide), in 'Festivous Isotes on Don Quixote,' 
1654, p. 150, states that he was married. 

The first poem planned on a large scale is 
' Mortimeriados,' published in 1596, and re- 
published with many alterations in 1603, 
under the title of ' The Barrens Wars.' To 
the revised edition Drayton prefixed an ad- 
dress to the reader, in which he states that, 
as at first the dignity of the thing was the 
motive of the dooing, so the cause of this my 
second greater labour was the insufficient 
landling of the first.' Originally the poem 
lad been written in seven-line stanzas, but 
in the second edition the ' ottava rima ' was 



Dray ton 



10 



Drayton 



substituted, ' of all other the most complete 
and best proportioned.' Drayton was con- 
stantly engaged in revising his works, and 
' The Barons' Wars ' saw many changes be- 
fore it reached its final shape. ' Mortimeria- 
dos' was dedicated, in nine seven-line stanzas, 
to the Countess of Bedford ; but when, in 
1603, Drayton reissued the poem, he withdrew 
the dedication and cancelled various refe- 
rences to his patroness. In the eighth eclogue 
of ' PoemesLyrick and Pastorall,' n.d.(1605 ?), 
he inveighs against a certain Selena, who had 
temporarily befriended 'faithfull Rowland,' 
but had afterwards transferred her patronage 
to ' deceitfull Cerberon.' Rowland is the pas- 
toral name which Drayton had adopted for 
himself; Cerberon's personality is matter for 
conjecture : but it is more than probable that 
Selena was intended for the Countess of 
Bedford. The invective was cancelled in 
later editions. 

' England's Heroicall Epistles,' 1597, his 
next work of importance, is the most read- 
able of Drayton's longer works. The book 
was modelled on Ovid's 'Heroides,' and Dray- 
ton has shown himself to be no unworthy 
pupil of the skilful Roman artist. A second 
edition appeared in 1598 ; a third, with the 
addition of the sonnets, in 1599 ; a fourth in 
1602, again with the sonnets ; and a fifth, 
with ' The Barons' Wars,' in 1603. Historical 
notes are appended to each epistle ; and to 
each pair of epistles (with a few exceptions) 
Drayton prefixed a dedication to some dis- 
tinguished patron. In the dedication to the 
Earl of Bedford he mentions the obligations 
under which he stood to the family of the 
Haringtons, and states that he had been com- 
mended to the patronage of Sir John Haring- 
ton's daughter, Lucy, countess of Bedford, 
by ' that learned and accomplished gentle- ] 
man Sir Henry Goodere (not long since de- 
ceased), whose I was whilst hee was, whose 
patience pleased to beare with the imperfec- 
tions of my heedles and unstained youth.' 

From Henslowe's ' Diary ' it appears that 
Drayton was writing for the stage between 
1597 and 1602. He wrote few plays single- 
handed, but worked with HenryChettle [q.v.], 
Thomas Dekker [q. v.], and others. In De- 
cember 1597 he was engaged with Munday 
on a lost play called ' Mother Redcap.' On 
20 Jan. 1598-9 he received three pounds ' in 
earneste of his playe called Wm. Longberd' 
(Diary, ed. Collier, p. 142), and on the fol- 
lowing day he acknowledged the receipt of 
' forty shillinges of Mr. Phillip Hinslowe, in 
part of vi", for the playe of Willm. Long- 
sword' (ib. p. 95). Probably both entries 
refer to the same lost play. In 1599 he 
wrote the ' First Part of Sir John Oldcastle,' 



with Wilson, Hathway, and Munday ; and 
in January 1599-1600 he was engaged with 
the same authors on ' Owen Tudor.' There 
was a ' Second Part of Sir John Oldcastle ; ' 
but it is not clear whether it was written by 
the four playwrights or whether Drayton was 
solely responsible. ' The First Part of the 
true and honorable History of the Life of 
Sir John Oldcastle ' was published in 1600 
in a corrupt form. Some copies fraudulently 
bear Shakespeare's name on the title-page. 
In May 1602 Drayton wrote, with Dekker, 
Webster, Middleton, and Munday, a play 
which Henslowe calls 'too harpes' ('Two 
Harpies '). The anonymous ' Merry Divel of 
Edmonton,' 1608, has been attributed to 
Drayton on the authority of Coxeter, but no 
evidence has been adduced in support of 
Drayton's claim. 

There is a tradition that Drayton was em- 
ployed by Queen Elizabeth on a diplomatic 
mission in Scotland. In an obscure passage 
of the satirical poem ' The Owle,' 1604, he 
states that he went in search of preferment 
' unto the happie North,' and ( there arryv'd, 
disgrace was all my gayne.' On the acces- 
sion of James he published ' To the majestic 
of King James. A gratulatorie Poem/ 1603, 
4to, and in the following year gave a further 
proof of his loyalty in ' A Paean Triumphall : 
composed for the societie of the Goldsmiths 
of London congratulating his Highnes Mag- 
nificent Entring the Citie,' 1604. But his 
hopes of gaining advancement from James 
were rudely disappointed ; his compliments 
met with indifference and contempt. Many 
years afterwards (1627) in an epistle to his 
friend George Sandys he refers to the ill- 
treatment that he had experienced. Chettle, 
in ' England's Mourning Garment,' n.d.(1603), 
hints that he had been too hasty in paying 
his addresses to the new sovereign : 

Think 'twas a fault to have thy Verses scene 
Praising the King ere they had mournd the Queen . 

In 1604 appeared ' The Owle,' an allegorical 
poem, in imitation of Spenser's 'Mother Hub- 
bard's Tale,' on the neglect shown to learn- 
ing. If Drayton had not expressly stated 
that it was written earlier than the ' Gratu- 
latorie Poem,' it would be reasonable to as- 
sume that it was inspired by indignation at 
the treatment that he had received from the 
king. ' The Owle ' was dedicated t o the young 
Sir Walter Aston [q. v.], to whom he also 
dedicated the 1603 edition of 'The Barrens 
Wars ' and ' Moyses in a Map of his Miracles,' 
1604. From a passage in the last-named poem 
it has been hastily inferred that Drayton had 
witnessed at Dover the destruction of the 
Spanish armada. At his investiture as knight 



Drayton 



of the Bath in 1603 Sir Walter Aston made 
Drayton one of his esquires (DOUGLAS, Peer- 
age, ed. Wood, i. 127), a title which Drayton 
afterwards used somewhat ostentatiously. 
In ' Poems : by Michaell Draiton Esquire/ 
1605, the word ' Esquire' is made to occupy 
a line by itself. About 1605 appeared the 
undated ' Poemes Lyrickand Pastorall : Odes, 
Eglogs, the Man in the Moone,' 8vo, with a 
dedication to Sir Walter Aston. The volume 
contains some of Drayton's choicest work. 
Here first appeared the famous ' Ballad of 
Agincourt,' which is unquestionably the most 
spirited of English martial lyrics ; the fine 
ode ' To the Virginian Voyage/ the charm- 
ing canzonet ' To his coy Love/ the address 
' To Cupid/ and other delightful poems. 
Two of the odes ('Sing we the Rose' and 
the address to John Savage) were never re- 
printed ; the rest of the volume, after revision, 
was included in the 1619 folio. The col- 
lection of ' Poems/ 1605, 8vo, with commen- 
datory verses by Thomas Greene, Sir John ' 
Beaumont, Sir William Alexander, &c., em- 
braces ' The Barons' Wars/ * England's He- 
roical Epistles/ ' Idea/ and the ' Legends.' j 
Other editions appeared in 1608, n. d., 1610, f 
and 1613. The edition of 1610 has at the 
end an additional leaf containing a commen- 
datory sonnet by Selden. In 1607 Drayton 
published another of his legends, ' The Le- 
gend of Great Cromwell/ which was repub- 
lished with alterations in 1609, and was in- 
cluded in the 1610 ' Mirour for Magistrates.' 
The first eighteen songs of Drayton's long- 
est and most famous poem, ' Poly-Olbion, or a 
Chorographicall Description of all the Tracts, 
Rivers, Mountaines, Forests, and other Parts ; 
. . . of Great Britaine/ fol., appeared in 1613, : 
with an engraved as well as a printed title- j 
page, a portrait by Hole of Prince Henry, to 
whom the work was dedicated, and eighteen I 
maps. To each song are appended copious 
annotations, full of antiquarian learning, by I 
John Selden. A second part, containing 
songs xix-xxx, was written later, and the j 
complete poem (with commendatory verses 
before the second part by William Browne, 
George Wither, and John Reynolds) was pub- 
lished in 1622. Selden's annotations are con- 
fined to the first part. It is not surprising 
that Drayton experienced some difficulty in 
finding a publisher for so voluminous a work. 
In a letter to William Drummond of Haw- 
thornden, dated 14 April 1619, he writes: 
' I thank you, my dear, sweet Drummond, for 
your good opinion of " Poly-olbion." I have 
done twelve books more ; . . . but it lieth by 
:ne, for the booksellers and I are in terms. 
They are a company of base knaves, whom I 
)oth scorn and kick at.' The nature of the 



c Drayton 

subject made it impossible for the poem to 
be free from monotony. The ' Poly-Olbion' 
is a truly great work, stored with learning of 
wide variety, and abounding in passages of 
rare beauty. It was the labour of many years, 
for so early as 1598 Francis Meres reported 
that ' Michael Drayton is now in penning in 
English verse a poem called " Pola-olbion." ' 
Prince Henry, to whom it was dedicated, 
held Drayton in esteem : for it appears from 
Sir David Murray's account of the privy purse 
expenses of the prince that Drayton was an 
annuitant to the expense of 101. a year. 

In 1619 Drayton collected into a small 
folio all the poems (with the exception of the 
'Poly-Olbion') that he wished to preserve, 
and added some new lyrics. The collection 
consists of seven parts, each with a distinct 
title-page dated 1619, but the pagination is 
! continuous. In some copies the general title- 
page is undated ; in others it bears date 1620. 
At the back of the general title-page is a por- 
' trait of Drayton, engraved by Hole, and round 
the portrait is inscribed ' Effigies Michaelis 
i Drayton, Armigeri, Poeta3 Clariss. J5tat. suse 
j L. A Chr. cio. DC. xiii.' A fresh volume of 
1 miscellaneous poems, ' The Battaile of Agin- 
court/ &c., appeared in 1627, sm. fol. Here 
was published for the first time the dainty and 
inimitable fairy poem, ' Nimphidia.' ' The 
Shepheards Sirena' and 'The Quest of Cyn- 
thia ' are agreeably written, though the latter 
poem is far too long. ' The Battaile of Agin- 
court ' (not to be confused with ' The Ballad of 
I Agincourt') and 'The Miseries of Queen Mar- 
garite ' contain some spirited passages, but tax 
the reader's patience severely. Among the 
' elegies ' is the interesting ' Epistle to Henry 
Reynolds/ in which Drayton delivers his views 
on the merits of various contemporary Eng- 
lish poets. It may be doubted whether Dray- 
ton had any great liking for the drama ; his 
praise of Shakespeare is tame in comparison 
with his enthusiasm for Spenser. One epistle 
is addressed to William Browne of Tavistock, 
and another to George Sandys, the translator 
of Ovid's ' Metamorphoses ; ' both are written 
in a tone of sadness. ' An Elegie vpon the 
death of the Lady Penelope Clifton ' and 
' Vpon the three Sonnes of the Lord Shef- 
field, drowned in Humber' had previously 
appeared in Henry Fitzgeoffrey's ' Certayn 
Elegies/ 1617. At the beginning of the vo- 
lume are commendatory verses by I. Vaughan, 
John Reynolds, and the fine ; Vision of Ben 
Jonson on the Muses of his friend, M. Dray- 
ton/ which opens with the question whether 
he was a friend to Drayton. When he visited 
William Drummond of Hawthornden in 1619, 
Jonson stated that ' Drayton feared him ; and 
he [Jonson] esteemed not of him [Drayton] ; ' 



Dray ton 



12 



Drayton 



spoke disparagingly of the ' Poly-Olbion,' and 
had not a word to say in Drayton's praise. 

Drayton's last work was 'The Muses Eli- 
zium lately discovered by a new way over 
Parnassus . . . Noahs floud, Moses his birth 
and miracles. David and Golia,' 1630, 4to. 
The pastorals were dedicated to the Earl of 
Dorset, and at p. 87 there is a fresh dedica- 
tion to the Countess of Dorset, preceding the 
sacred poems. Of ' Noah's floud ' and the 
two following poems there is little to be said : 
but ' The Muses Elizium,' a set of ten ' Nim- 
phalls,' or pastoral dialogues, is full of the 
quaint whimsical fancy that inspired ' Nirn- 
phidia.' The description of the preparations 
for the Fay's bridal in the eighth ' N imphall ' 
is quite a tour de force. 

Drayton died in 1631 and was buried in 
Westminster Cathedral, where a monument 
was erected to him by the Countess of Dor- 
set. The inscription (' Do, pious marble, let 
thy readers know,' &c.) is traditionally as- 
cribed to Ben Jonson. It is quite in Jonson's 
manner, but it has also been claimed for 
Randolph, Quarles, and others. In Ashmole 
MS. 38, art. 92, are seven three-line stanzas 
which purport to have been ' made by Mi- 
chaell Drayton, esquier, poet laureatt, the 
night before hee dyed.' There is a portrait 
of Drayton at Dulwich College, presented 
by Cartwright the actor. In person he was 
small, and his complexion was swarthy. He 
speaks of his ' swart and melancholy face ' 
in his ' Legend of Robert, Duke of Normandy.' 
His moral character was unassailable, and 
he was regarded by his contemporaries as a 
model of virtue. ' As Aulus Persius Flaccus,' 
says Meres in 1598, ' is reputed among all 
writers to be of an honest life and upright 
conversation, so Michael Drayton (quern 
toties honoris et amoris causa nomino) among 
schollers, souldiers, poets, and all sorts of 
people is helde for a man of vertuous disposi- 
tion, honest conversation, and well-governed 
carriage.' Similar testimony is borne by the 
anonymous author of ' The Returne from 
Pernassus.' His poetry won him applause 
from many quarters. He is mentioned under 
the name of ' Good Rowland ' in Barnfield's 
' Affectionate Shepheard,' 1594, and he is 
praised in company with Spenser, Daniel, and 
Shakespeare in Barnfield's ' A Remembrance 
of some English Poets,' 1598. Lodge dedi- 
cated to him in 1595 one of the epistles in 
< A Fig for Momus.' In 1596 Fitzgeoffrey, 
in his poem on Sir Francis Drake, speaks of 
' golden-mouthed Drayton musicall.' A very 
clear proof of his popularity is shown by the 
fact that he is quoted no less than a hundred 
and fifty times in ' England's Parnassus,' 1600. 
Drummond of Hawthornden was one of his 



fervent admirers. Some letters of Drayton 
to Drummond are published in the 1711 edi- 
tion of Drummond's works. Another Scotch 
poet, Sir William Alexander,was his friend. 
Jonson told Drummond that ' Sir W. Alex- 
ander was not half kinde unto him, and ne- 
glected him, because a friend to Drayton.' In 
his epistle to Henry Reynolds he mentions 

j ' the two Beaumonts' (Francis Beaumont and 
Sir John Beaumont) and William Browne as 
his ' deare companions and bosome friends.' 
Samuel Austin in ' Urania,' 1629, claims ac- 
quaintance with Drayton. There is no direct 
evidence to show that Shakespeare and Dray- 
ton were personal friends, but there is strong 
traditional evidence. The Rev. John W r ard, 
sometime vicar of Stratford-on-Avon, states 
in his manuscript note-book that ' Shakespear, 
Drayton, and Ben Jhonson had a merry meet- 
ing, and, itt seems, drank too hard, for Shake- 
spear died of a feavour there contracted.' The 
entry was written in 1662 or 1663. In the 
1594 and 1596 editions of ' Matilda ' there 
is a stanza relating to Shakespeare's ' Rape 
of Lucrece.' It was omitted in later editions, 
but no inference can be drawn from the omis- 

; sion, for Drayton was continually engaged 
in altering his poems. A stanza relating to 
Spenser was also omitted in later editions. 
Some critics have chosen to suppose that 
Drayton was the rival to whom allusion is 
made in Shakespeare's sonnets. It is not 

; uninteresting to notice that Drayton was 
once cured of a ' tertian ' by Shakespeare's 

I son-in-law, Dr. John Hall (Select Observa- 
tions on English Bodies, 1657, p. 26). 

Drayton has commendatory verses before 
MorleyV First Book of Ballets,' 1595; Chris- 

i topher Middleton's ' Legend of Duke Hum- 

; phrey,' 1600 : De Serres's ' Perfect Use of 
Silk-wormes,' 1607 ; Davies's ' Holy Rood/ 
1609; Murray's ' Sophonisba,' 1611 ; Tuke's 

I 'Discourse against Painting and Tinctur- 

i ing of Women,' 1616 ; Chapman's ' Hesiod,' 
1618 ; Munday's < Primaleon of Greece,' 1619 ; 

j Vicars's ' Manuductio,' n. d. [1620 ?] ; Hol- 
land's ' Naumachia,' 1622 ; Sir John Beau- 
mont's ' Bosworth Field,' 1629. Some of these 
poetical compliments are subscribed only with 
the initials ' M. D.' Poems of Drayton are 
included in ' England's Helicon,' 1600 ; some 
had been printed before, but others were 
published for the first time. There are verses 
of Drayton, posthumously published, in ' An- 
nalia Dubrensia,' 1636. An imperfect col- 
lection of Drayton's poems appeared in 1748, 

j fol., and again in 1753, 4 vols. 8vo ; but his 

. poetry was little to the taste of eighteenth- 
century critics. From a well-known passage 
of Goldsmith's 'Citizen of the World' it 
would seem that his very name had passed 



Drayton 

into oblivion. Since the days of Charles 
Lamb and Coleridge his fame has revived, 
but no complete edition of his works has yet 
been issued. In 1856 Collier edited for the 
Roxburghe Club a valuable collection of the 
rarer works : ' The Harmonic of the Church,' 
' Idea. The Shepheards Garland,' ' Ideas 
Mirrour,' ' Endimion and Phoabe,' ' Morti- 
meriados,' and ' Poemes Lyrick and Pastorall.' 
The Rev. Richard Hooper in 1876 issued an 
edition of the ' Poly-Olbion ' in three volumes ; 
and the same editor is preparing a complete 
critical edition of Drayton's entire works, 
with a full list of varies lectiones, an under- 
taking which will involve vast labour. Fac- 
simile reprints of the early editions are being 
issued by the Spenser Society. A volume of 
selections from Drayton's poems was edited 
by the present writer in 1883. 

[Memoir by Collier, prefixed to the Roxburghe 
Club collection of Drayton's Poems, 1856; Col- 
lier's Bibliographical Catalogue ; Corser's Col- 
lectanea ; Hazlitt's Bibliographical Collections ; 
Bibliotheca Heberiana, pt. iv. ; Addit. MS. 24491 
(Hunter's Chorus Vatum) ; Henslowe's Diary.] 

A. H. B. 

DRAYTON, NICHOLAS DE (fl. 1376), 
ecclesiastic and judge, was appointed warden 
of King's College, Cambridge, on 1 Dec. 
1363, with a salary of fourpence a day, and 
an allowance of eight marcs per annum for 
robes. In 1369 he was suspected of heresy, 
and the Bishop of London was authorised to 
commit him to prison (20 March). In 1376 
he was appointed a baron of the exchequer. 
The date of his death is uncertain. He is 
commonly described as ' magister.' 

[Rymer's Fcedera, ed. Clarke, iii. pt. ii. 716, 
889, 1064 ; Foss's Lives of the Judges.] 

J. M. R. 

DREBBEL, CORNELIS (1572-1634), 
philosopher and scientific inventor, born in 
1572 at Alkmaar in Holland, was the son 
of Jacob Drebbel, of a family of good posi- 
tion. He shared a house at one time with 
Hubert Goltzius, whose sister he married. In 
early life he executed some etchings, includ- 
ing a set of the ' Seven Liberal Arts ' after 
Hendrik Goltzius, the ' Judgment of Solomon ' 
after Karel van Mander, &c., and a bird's-eye 
view of Alkmaar, the original plate of which 
was preserved in the town hall there, per- 
mission being given in 1747 to Gysbert Boom- 
kamp to publish it in his 'Alkmaer en derzelfs 
Geschiedenissen.' Drebbel, however, devoted 
most of his time to philosophy, i.e. science and 
mathematics, and soon gained great repute. 
About 1604 he came to England, perhaps ac- 
companying his friend Constantyn Huygens, 
or at the instance of Sir William Boreel. He 



j Drebbel 

was favourably received by James I, who took 
a great interest in his experiments, and gave 
him an annuity and, apparently, lodgings in 
Eltham Palace. Drebbel here perfected an 
ingenious machine for producing perpetual 
motion, which he presented to the king, and 
which became one of the wonderful sights of 
the day. It is alluded to by Ben Jonson in 
one of his Epigrams, and in his comedy of ' The 
Silent Woman ' (act v. scene 3), and also by 
Peacham in his ' Sights and Exhibitions in 
England ' (prefixed to Coryat's ' Crudities,' 
1611). Drebbel's machine is described and 
figured by Thomas Tymme in ' A Dialogue 
Philosophicall, wherein Nature's secret closet 
is opened, &c., together with the wittie inven- 
tion of an artificial perpetuall motion, pre- 
sented to the King's most excellent Maiestie,' 
1612. On 1 May 1610 the Duke of Wiirtem- 
berg, then on a tour in England, went to 
Eltham to see the machine, and his secretary 
describes Drebbel as' a very fair and handsome 
man, and of very gentle manners, altogether 
different from such like characters.' Dreb- 
bel's fame reached the ears of the emperor 
of Germany, Rudolph II, himself an ardent 
student of science and philosophy, who en- 
treated James I to allow Drebbel to come to 
his court at Prague to exhibit his inventions. 
After the emperor's death, in 1612, Drebbel 
seems to have again returned to England ; 
but he revisited Prague, having been appointed 
tutor to the son of the emperor Ferdinand II. 
He had just settled down in great prosperity 
when Prague was captured by the elector 
palatine, Frederick V, in 1620, and Drebbel 
not only lost all his possessions, but was 
thrown into prison, from which he was only 
released at the personal intercession of the 
king of England. He then returned to Eng- 
land, and in 1625 attended James's funeral. 
In 1626 he was employed by the office of 
ordnance to construct water engines. He 
was also sent out by the Duke of Bucking- 
ham in the expedition to La Rochelle, being 
in charge of several fireships, at a salary of 
150^. per month. He was one of a company 
formed to drain the fens and levels of eastern 
England. He died in London in 1634. Dreb- 
bel, who has been styled by some critics as 
a mere alchemist and charlatan, was highly 
thought of by such scientific authorities as 
Peiresc, Boyle, and others. Besides the ma- 
chine for perpetual motion, he has been cre- 
dited with the invention of the microscope, 
telescope, and thermometer, but he was more 
probably the first to introduce these im- 
portant discoveries into England. He also 
invented a submarine boat, which was navi- 
gable, without the use of artificial light, from 
Westminster to Greenwich, and machines for 



Dreghorn 



Drennan 



producing rain, lightning, thunder, or ex- 
treme cold at any time. The last-named ex- 
periment he is reported to have performed on 
a summer's day in Westminster Hall before 
the king, with the result of driving all his 
audience hastily from the building. He is 
further credited with the invention of an ex- 
traordinary pump, an ' incubator ' for hatch- 
ing fowls, an instrument for showing pictures 
or portraits of people not present at the time 
possibly a magic lantern and other in- 
genious arrangements for light or reflection 
of light. He is also stated to have discovered 
the art of dyeing scarlet, which he communi- 
cated to his son-i n-law, Dr. Kufler, from whom 
it was called 'Color Kuflerianus.' Pepys 
(Diary, 14 March 1662) mentions that Kufler 
and Drebbel's son Jacob tried to induce the 
admiralty to adopt an invention by Drebbel 
for sinking an enemy's ship. This they alleged 
had been tried with success in Cromwell's 
time. It seems to have been an explosive 
acting directly in a downward direction. 
Drebbel wrote, in Dutch, a treatise on the 
' Nature of the Elements ' (Leyden, 1608, 
German translation ; Haerlem, 1621, Dutch; 
Frankfort, 1628, Latin translation). This 
work and a tract on the 'Fifth Essence,' 
together with a letter to James I on ' Per- 
petual Motion,' were issued in Latin at Ham- 
burg, 1621, and Lyons, 1628. His portrait 
was engraved on wood by C. von Sichem, and 
on copper by P. Yelyn, and is to be found 
in some editions, of his works. 

[W. B. Rye's England as seen by Foreigners 
temp. Eliz. and James ; Biographic Universelle ; 
the Imperial Dictionary of Universal Biography ; 
Karel van Mander's Vies des Peintres (ed. Hy- 
mans), ii.270; Immerzeel (and Kramm), Levens 
en Werken der Hollandsche en \ 7 laamsche Kunst- 
schilders, &c.] L. C. 

DREGHORN, LORD. [See MACLAURIX, 
JOHN, 1734-1796.] 

DRELINCOURT, PETER (1644-1722), 
dean of Armagh, born in Paris 22 July 1644, 
was the sixth son of Charles Drelincourt 
(1595-1629), minister of the reformed church 
in Paris, and author of ' Les Consolations 
de 1'Ame centre les Frayeurs de la Mort ' 
(Geneva, 1669), translated by Marius D'As- 
signy [q.v.] as the ' Christian's Defence against 
the Fear of Death,' 1675. To the fourth 
edition of the translation (1706) Defoe added 
his ' Apparition of Mrs. Veal.' Peter gra- 
duated M. A. in Trinity College, Dublin, 1681, 
and LL.D. 1691. Having been appointed 
chaplain to the Duke of Ormonde, lord-lieu- 
tenant of Ireland, he became in 1681 pre- 
centor of Christ Church Cathedral, Dublin ; 
in 1683 archdeacon of Leighlin; and 28 Feb. 



1690-1 dean of Armagh, retaining his arch- 
deaconry, and holding at the same time the 
rectory of Armagh. He died there 7 March 
1721-2, and was buried in the cathedral, 
where a fine monument by Rysbrach was 
erected by his widow to his memory. On a 
mural tablet, in Latin, is a minute account 
of his origin and promotions, and on the 
front of the sarcophagus an inscription in 
English verse. It alludes to the erection in 
Armagh of the ' Drelincourt Charity School ' 
by the dean's widow, who endowed it with 
90/. per annum. To their daughter, Vis- 
countess Primrose, the citizens of Armagh 
are chiefly indebted for a plentiful supply of 
water. Drelincourt's only publication is 'A 
Speech made to ... the Duke of Ormonde, 
Lord-Lieutenant of Ireland, and to the . . . 
Privy Council. To return the humble thanks 
of the French Protestants lately arriv'd in 
this kingdom; and graciously reliev'd by 
them,' 4to, Dublin, 1682. 

[Todd's Catalogue of Dublin Graduates ; Cot- 
ton's Fasti Ecclesise Hibernicae, ii. 53, 398, iii. 
33, v. 91 ; Stuart's Historical Memoirs of Ar- 
magh, pp. 518, 539.] B. H. B. 

DRENNAN, WILLIAM (1754-1820), 
Irish poet, son of the Rev. Thomas Drennan, 
presbyterian minister at Belfast, was born in 
that city on 23 May 1754. He was educated 
at the university of Glasgow, where he took 
the degree of M.A. in 1771, and he then pro- 
ceeded to Edinburgh to study medicine. At 
Edinburgh he was noted as one of the most 
distinguished students of his period, not only 
in medicine, but in philosophy; he became a 
favourite pupil and intimate friend of Dugald 
Stewart, and after seven years of study took 
his M.D. degree in 1778. After practising his 
profession for two or three years in his native 
city, he moved to Newry, where he settled 
down, and where he first began to take an in- 
terest in politics and literature. In the great 
political movement in Ireland of 1784, Dren- 
nan, like all the other Ulstermen who had felt 
the influence of Dugald Stewart, took a keen 
interest. His letters to the press, signed 
' Orellana, the Irish Helot,' attracted uni- 
versal attention. In 1789 he moved to Dublin, 
where he soon got into good practice, and be- 
came a conspicuous figure in the social life 
of the Irish capital. Drennan was a member 
of the jovial club of the ' Monks of the Screw,' 
a friend of Lysaght and Curran, and well 
known for his poetical powers. In politics he 
continued to take a still deeper interest ; he 
was a member of the political club founded 
in 1790 by T. A. Emmett and Peter Bur- 
rowes, and in June 1791 he wrote the ori- 
ginal prospectus of the famous society of the 



Drew 



Drew 



United Irishmen. Of this society he was 
one of the leaders ; he was several times its 
chairman in 1792 and 1793, and as an elo- 
quent writer was chosen to draw up most of 
its early addresses and proclamations (for 
a list of these, see MADDEN, Lives of the 
United Irishmen, 2nd series, p. 267). He 
was tried for sedition and acquitted on 26 June 
1794, after an eloquent defence by Curran, 
but after that date he seems to have with- 
drawn from the more active projects of his 
friends and from complicity in their plots, and 
he was not again molested by the authori- 
ties. But his beautiful lyrics, published first 
in the ' Press ' and in the ' Harp of Erin,' 
show how deeply he sympathised with his 
old associates, and they were soon famous 
throughout the length and breadth of Ire- 
land. In 1791 he published his poem, ' To 
the Memory of William Orr,' sometimes 
called the 'Wake of William Orr,' which 
was followed in 1795 by 'When Erin first 
rose,' and in 1798 by ' The Wail of the Women 
after the Battle ' and ' Glendalough.' These 
are the most famous of Drennan's lyrics, and 
on them his fame chiefly rests. He is also 
claimed as the first Irish poet who ever called 
Ireland by the name of the Emerald Isle. 
The troubles of 1798 brought his political 
career to a close, and on 3 Feb. 1800 he 
married an English lady of some wealth, and 
in 1807 left Dublin altogether. He settled 
in Belfast, but gave up practice and devoted 
himself solely to literary pursuits. He foun- 
ded the Belfast Academical Institution, and 
started the ' Belfast Magazine,' to which he 
largely contributed. In 1815 he published 
his famous lyrics in a volume as ' Fugitive 
Pieces,' and in 1817 a translation of the 
' Electra ' of Sophocles. After a quiet mid- 
dle age, he died at Belfast on 5 Feb. 1820, 
and was buried in that city, being carried to 
the grave by six protestants and six catho- 
lics. Drennan was possessed of real poetical 
genius, but his fame was overshadowed by 
that of Moore, to whom many of Drennan's 
best poems have been frequently attributed. 
[Madden's Lives of the United Irishmen, 2nd 
ser. 2nd ed. pp. 262-70 ; Madden's History of 
Irish Periodical Literature ; Webb's Compendium 
of Irish Biography ; Glendalloch and other poems, 
with a life of the author by his sons, J. S. and 
W. Drennan.] H. M. S. 

DREW, EDWAED (1542 P-1598), re- 
corder of London, eldest son of Thomas Drew 
(b. 1519), by his wife Eleanora, daughter of 
William Huckmore of the county of Devon, 
appears to have been born at the family seat of 
Sharpham, in the parish of Ashprington, near 
Totnes,and spent some time at the university. 
An entry in the register of Exeter College, 



Oxford, records the payment in 1557 by a 
Mr. Martyn of 2*. for the expenses of Drew, 
a scholar of the college {Register, ed. Boase, 
p. 201). He does not appear to have taken 
a degree, but proceeding to London devoted 
himself to the study of the law, and was ad- 
mitted a student of the Inner Temple in No- 
vember 1560, being then probably of the usual 
age of eighteen. He obtained a lucrative prac- 
tice both in London and in his native county, 
and rapidly attained high legal distinctions. 
He became a master of the bench of the Inner 
Temple in 1581, and Lent reader in 1584; his 
shield of arms with this date still remains 
in Inner Temple Hall. 

In Michaelmas term 1589 Drew, with seven 
other counsel, was appointed serjeant-at-law. 
Two of his associates in the honour of the 
coif (John Glanvil and Thomas Harris) were 
like him natives of Devon, and Fuller has pre- 
served a popular saying about the three 
Serjeants, current in their day, that 'One 
gained, spent, gave as much as the other two ' 
(Worthies, 1811, i. 283). Drew seenjs to 
answer best to the first description, his suc- 
cess in pleading enabling him to purchase 
large estates in Combe Raleigh, Broadhem- 
bury, Broad Clist, and elsewhere. In 1586 
he was co-trustee, with other eminent law- 
yers, of certain manors belonging to George 
Gary of Devonshire. He was elected member 
of parliament for Lyme Regis in October 
1584, and for Exeter in 1586 and again in 
November 1588 ; in 1592 he was appointed 
recorder of Exeter. On 17 June in the same 
year he succeeded Chief-justice Coke as re- 
corder of London, and became M.P. for the 
city. A speech of the usual fulsome kind is 
preserved in Nichols's ' Progresses of Queen 
Elizabeth ' (iii. 228), made by Drew to the 
queen in 1593 when presenting the newly 
elected lord mayor, Sir Cuthbert Buckle, for 
her majesty's approval. On 27 March 1594 
Drew resigned the recordership, having been 
appointed justice of assize and gaol delivery 
for Essex and Kent, and was presented by the 
city for his faithful service with 'a basin and 
ewer of silver-gilt containing one hundred 
ounces.' 

Drew became queen's serjeant in 1596, and 
was much employed about this time by the 
privy council in the examination of political 
prisoners and in various legal references (State 
Papers, Dom. Ser. 1591-4, 1595-7). Risdon, 
his countryman and contemporary, writing 
some fifteen years after his death, says that 
his ' knowledge and counsel won him a gene- 
ral love ' (Surv. of Devon, 1811, p. 43). His 
death appears to have been sudden, and is 
ascribed by John Chamberlain, in a letter 
dated 4 May 1598, to gaol fever caught while 



Drew 



16 



Drew 



riding the northern circuit with Mr. Justice until his death. In 1877 he was elected 
Beaumont, who also died on 22 April (CHAM- Hulsean lecturer at Cambridge, and the fol- 
BERLAIN'S Letters, Camd. Soc. 8). His will i lowing year he published his discourses in a 
was signed, probably in extremis, on 25 April volume entitled ' The Human Life of Christ 

1598, and proved in the P. C. C. on 16 May fol- revealing the order of the Universe With 

lowing (LEAVYN, p. 44). Drew sold the family an Appendix,' 8vo, London, 1878. Drew, 
seat of Sharpham for 2,250/., and erected the j who was a fellow of the Royal Geographical 
mansion of Killerton on the site of some mo- | Society, and at one time an active member 
nastic buildings in the parish of Broad Clist. i of the British Association, died suddenly at 

- i -i T i _ _ i _"!"_ .i-i : _T_ TT^l HP_! '. . ^ . Ci~l T ~ioorv "TT _ 



Here he lived, and was buried in the parish 



in the south aisle, erected to his and his wife's 
memory in 1622, with a Latin inscription in 



Holy Trinity vicarage, 21 Jan. 1880. He 
married, 20 May 1845, Mary, eldest daugh- 
ter of William Peek of Norwood, Surrey 
(ib. xxiv. 189). His other writings are : 



prose and verse. By his wife, Bridget Fitzwil- ! 1. 'Eight Sermons, with an Appendix,' 8vo, 
liam of Lincolnshire, he had four sons and ' London, 1845. 2. ' The Distinctive Excel - 
three daughters, all of whom survived him. lencies of the Book of Common Prayer. A 
Thomas, his eldest son and heir, was knighted I Sermon [on Lamentations, iii. 41] preached 
by Charles I, and removed the family mansion in Old St. Pancras Church; with a preface 
from Killerton to Grange in the parish of i containing a brief history of that church,' 
Broadhembury, which has ever since remained ' 8vo, London, 1849. 3. 'Scripture Studies, 

or Expository Readings in the Old Testament,' 
12mo, London, 1855. 4. ' Reasons of Faith, 
or the order of the Christian Argument de- 
veloped and explained ; with an Appendix,' 



the seat of the family. 

[Prince's Worthies of Devon, 1810, pp. 334-7; 
Tuckett's Devonshire Pedigrees, p. 62 ; Masters 
of the Bench of the Inner Temple, 1883, p. 15 ; 



Keturn of Names of Members of Parl. 1878 ; Ly- 
sons's Magna Britannia, Devonshire ; Dugdale's 
Orig. Jurid. p. 188, &c. ; Burke's Hist, of the 
Commoners, iv. 672.] C. W-H. 

DREW, GEORGE SMITH (1819-1880), 
Hulsean lecturer, son of George Drew, tea 
dealer, of 11 Tottenham Court Road, London, 
was born at Louth, Lincolnshire, in 1819. 
Admitted a sizar of St. John's College, Cam- 
bridge, on 22 Jan. 1839, he took his B.A. 
degree as 27th wrangler in 1843, and was 
ordained the same year (College Register}. 
After serving a curacy at St. Pancras, Lon- 
don, for about two years, he was presented 
to the incumbency of the Old Church, St. 
Pancras, in 1845 ( Gent. Mag. new ser. xxiv. 
298), and to that of St. John the Evangelist, 



8vo, London, 1862; 2nd edition, 8vo, London, 
1869. 5. ' Bishop Colenso's Examination 
of the Pentateuch examined; with an Ap- 
pendix,' 8vo, London, 1863. 6. ' Ecclesia 
Dei,' 8vo, London, 1865. 7. ' Church Life,' 
8vo, London, 1866. 8. ' Korah and his Com- 
pany ; with other Bible teachings on sub- 
jects of the day, etc.,' 8vo, London, 1868. 
9. ' Ritualism in some Recent Developments/ 
8vo, London, 1868. 10. ' Church Restora- 
tion : its Principles and Methods,' 8vo, Lon- 
don, 1869. 11. ' Divine Kingdom on Earth 
as it is in Heaven,' 8vo, London, 1871. 
12. ' Nazareth : its Life and Lessons,' 8vo, 
London, 1872. 13. ' The Son of Man : his 
Life and Ministry,' 8vo, London, 1875. 
14. ' Reasons of Unbelief; with an Appendix,' 



in the same parish, in 1850 (ib. xxxiv. 85). | 8vo, London, 1877. He also wrote largely 
He was one of the earliest promoters of in Fairbairn's ' Imperial Bible Dictionary,' 
evening classes for young men, and pub- Cassell's ' Bible Dictionary,' the ' Christian 
lished three lectures in support of the move- i Observer,' the ' Contemporary Review,' and 
ment in 1851 and 1852. He had taken his [ the ' Sunday Magazine.' Some of his works 
M.A degree in 1847, and became vicar of i exhibit much scholarship. 
Pulloxhill, Bedfordshire, in 1854 (ib xliii. [Gua rdian, 28 Jan. 1880, p. 108 col. 3, p. 109 
H}. During the winter and spring of 18o6-7 col. 3 ; Crockford's Clerical Directory (1879), p. 
he made a tour in the East, and as the result " 
he composed a book published as ' Scripture 
Lands in connection with their History,' 
8vo, London, 1860 ; 2nd edition, 8vo, Lon- 
don, 1862, and again, 8vo, London, 1871. 
Drew was vicar of St. Barnabas. South 
Kensington, from 1858 till 1870, was select 



282 ; Brit. Mus. Cat.] 



G.Gr. 



DREW, JOHN (1809-1857), astronomer, 
was born at Bower Chalk, Wiltshire, in 1809. 
His father dying when he was but a year old, 
his education depended mainly upon his own 
exertions, which were so effectual that at 



preacher to the university of Cambridge in ! the age of fifteen he was prepared to enter 
1869-70, and rector of Avingt on, Hampshire, ! upon the profession of a teacher. After two 
during 1870-3, but returned to London in the ' years spent as assistant in a school at Melks- 
last named -year as vicar of Holy Trinity, { ham, he removed to Southampton, where he 
Lambeth, a preferment which he retained i made his permanent abode, and conducted a 



Drew 



Drew 



school ably and successfully during sixteen 
years. His first celestial observations were 
made with a three and a half foot refractor, 
for which he substituted later an excellent 
five-foot achromatic by Dollond, mounted 
equatorially, and in 1847 installed in a small 
observatory, built by him for its reception in 
his garden (Monthly Notices, x. 68). With 
the help of a fine transit-circle by Jones, ac- 
quired soon after, and of the Beaufoy clock, 
lent by the Royal Astronomical Society, he 
very accurately determined the time, and sup- 
plied it during many years to the ships leaving 
Southampton. 

He published in 1835 ' Chronological Charts 
illustrative of Ancient History and Geogra- 
phy,' which he described as ' a system of pro- 
gressive geography;' and in 1845 'A Manual 
of Astronomy : a Popular Treatise on Descrip- 
tive, Physical, and Practical Astronomy, with 
a familiar Explanation of Astronomical In- 
struments, and the best methods of using 
them.' A second edition was issued in 1853. 
At the Southampton meeting of the British 
Association in 1846, Drew was appointed one 
of the secretaries of the mathematical section, 
and printed for the use of the association a 
pamphlet ' On the Objects worthy of At- 
tention in an Excursion round the Isle of 
Wight, including an Account of the Geolo- 
gical Formations as exhibited in the Sections 
along the Coast.' Shortly afterwards he de- 
termined upon instituting systematic meteo- 
rological observations, and summarised the 
results for 1848 to 1853 inclusive, in two 
papers on the ' Climate of Southampton,' 
read before the British Association in 1851 
and 1854 respectively (Report, 1851, p. 54 ; 
1854, p. 29). Invited to assist in the founda- 
tion of the Meteorological Society in 1850, he 
sought, as a member of the council, to forward 
its objects by writing a series of papers ' On 
the Instruments used in Meteorology, and on 
the Deductions from the Observations,' which 
were extensively circulated among the mem- 
bers of the society, and formed the ground- 
work of a treatise on ' Practical Meteorology,' 
published by Drew in 1855, and re-edited by 
his son in 1860. His last work was a set of 
astronomical diagrams, published by the De- 
partment of Science and Art in 1857, faith- 
fully representing the moon, planets, star- 
clusters, nebulae, and other celestial objects 
(Monthly Notices, xvi. 14). Among the papers 
communicated by him to the Royal Astrono- 
mical Society (of which he was elected a 
member on 9 Jan. 1846), may be mentioned 
one on the 'Telescopic Appearance of the 
Planet Venus at the time of her Inferior Con- 
junction, 28 Feb. 1854' (ib. xv. 69), record- 
ing a considerable excess of the observed over 

TOL. xvi. 



the calculated breadth of the crescent. Drew 
died after a long illness at Surbiton in Surrey, 
on 17 Dec. 1857, aged 48. He was a corre- 
sponding member of the Philosophical Insti- 
tute of Bale, and had taken a degree of doctor 
in philosophy at the university of the same 
place. 

[Monthly Notices, xviii. 98 ; the same in Mem. 
R. Astr. Soc. xxvii. 126; Andre et Rayet, L'Astro- 
nomie Pratique, i. 166 ; Royal Society's Cat. of 
Scientific Papers.] A. M. C. 

DREW, SAMUEL (1765-1833), meta- 
physician, born 6 March 1765, was the son 
of Joseph Drew, by his second wife, Thomasin 
Osborne. Joseph Drew made a hard living 
in a cottage near St. Austell, Cornwall, by 
streaming for tin and a little small farming. 
He had been impressed by a sermon from 
Whitefield and was one of the early Cornish 
methodists. Samuel was put to work in the 
fields at seven years old, his parents receiving 
2d. a day for his labour. His mother died in 
1774, when his father married again; and 
Samuel, finding home disagreeable, was ap- 
prenticed to a shoemaker at St. Blazey when 
between ten and eleven. He was a wild lad 
and joined in smuggling adventures, but was 
discouraged for a time (as he always asserted) 
by meeting one night a being like a bear with 
fiery eyes which trotted past him and went 
through a closed gate in a supernatural 
manner. Soon afterwards he ran away from 
his master, but was found at Liskeard and 
brought back to his father, who, after some 
difficulties, was now prospering as a farmer at 
Polplea, near Par. He afterwards worked 
for a time at Millbrook, Plymouth, and was 
nearly drowned in a smuggling adventure, 
from which he had not been deterred by any 
bogey. Returning to his home he became 
journeyman shoemaker in a shop at St. Aus- 
tell in January 1785. The death of an elder 
brother, who had been a studious youth of 
religious principles, and the funeral sermon 
preached upon him by Adam Clarke [q.v.], had 
a great effect upon his mind, and he joined the 
Wesleyan society in June 1785. He took a 
keen interest in politics, began to read all the 
books he could find, and was much impressed 
by a copy of Locke's ' Essay.' He set up in 
business for himself in 1787. He became a 
class-leader and a local preacher in 1788 ; and 
though some accusation of heresy led to his 
giving up the class-leadership for many years, 
he continued to preach through life. On 
17 April 1791 he married Honour Hills. He 
began to write poetry, always kept a note-book 
by the side of his tools, and used to write 
with his bellows for a desk. His first publi- 
cation was ' Remarks upon Paine's " Age of 

C 



Drew 



18 



Droeshout 



Reason," ' caused by some controversy with 
a freethinking friend, which appeared in 1799 
and was favourably noticed in the ' Ant i- Ja- 
cobin Review' for April 1800. He made the 
acquaintance of the antiquary John Whit- 
aker, the vicar of Ruan-Lanihorne, and of 
John Britton [q. v.] In July 1800 he pub- 
lished some ' Observations ' upon R. Polwhele's 
* Anecdotes of Methodism,' defending his sect 
against Polwhele's charges. Whitaker now 
encouraged him to complete a book upon 
which he had long meditated, which was 
finally published by subscription in 1802. It 
was entitled ' Essay on the Immateriality and 
Immortality of the Soul.' It had much suc- 
cess. After the first publication he sold the 
copyright to a Bristol bookseller for 20/. 
After four editions had appeared in England 
and two in America, he brought out a fifth 
with additions in 1831, which he sold for 
250/. His old adversary Polwhele generously 
reviewed him with high praise in the ' Anti- 
Jacobin' for February 1803. He became 
famous as the ' Cornish metaphysician,' and 
made many friends among the clergy, though 
he declined to become a candidate for the 
orders of the church of England. He formed 
a close intimacy with Adam Clarke, through 
whose influence he was elected in 1804 a mem- 
ber of the Manchester Philological Society. 
Another friend was the Rev. Dr. Thomas 
Coke [q. v.], who was writing various books 
for the Wesleyan conference. He was also 
superintendent of the Wesleyan missions, and, 
being overwhelmed wi th work,employed Drew 
to write for him. The books appeared under 
the name of Coke, and were in fact from his 
notes, but it seems that Drew was the chief 
author, though he did not complain of the 
concealment of his name. In 1806 he was 
invited through Clarke to revise metaphysical 
works for the ' Eclectic Review,' but the con- 
nection did not last long. In 1809 he pub- 
lished an ' Essay on the Identity and Resur- 
rection of the Body,' which attracted little 
notice, though it reached a second edition in 
1822. About the same time he began to 
write an essay for the Burnett prize [see 
BTTENETT, JOHX, 1729-1784], which, however, 
was adjudged in 1814 to J. L. Brown and 
J. B. Sumner. He published his essay in 
1820 ; but it did not attract much notice. 

In 1814 he undertook a history of Corn- 
wall. Part of it had been written by F. Hit- 
chins, on whose death the composition was 
entrusted to Drew. Though Drew is only 
described as editor, he wrote the greatest part. 
It is not more than a fair compilation. 

In 1819 he moved to Liverpool, again 
through the recommendation of Clarke. H 
was to edit the 'Imperial Magazine,' started 



in March 1819, and superintend the business 
of the ' Caxton Press.' A fire destroyed the 
buildings at Liverpool, and the business was 
transferred to London, where Drew settled. 
Here he was employed in absorbing work, 
which seems to have tried his health. Hopes 
of making a provision for retirement to Corn- 
wall were disappointed by pecuniary losses. 
He made short visits to Cornwall, during 
one of which his wife died at Helston, 19 Aug. 
1828, at the house of a son-in-law. Drew 
rapidly declined in strength after this blow. 
He returned to his work in London, but died 
at Helston 29 March 1833, while staying with 
his son-in-law. He had seven children, of 
whom six survived him. 

Drew's writings are interesting as those of a 
self-taught metaphysician, who seems to have 
read nothing on his first publication except 
Locke and Watts. It cannot be said, how- 
ever, that his arguments show more than a 
strong mind, quite unversed in the literature 
of the subject. He appears to have been 
a very honourable and independent man, 
strongly attached to his family, and energetic 
as a preacher and writer. 

[Life by his eldest son (2nd edit.), 1835 ; Auto- 
biographical sketch prefixed to Essay on Identity, 
&e. 1809; Polwhele's Biographical Sketches of 
Cornwall,!. 96-103 ; Boase and Courtney's Biblio- 
theca Cornubiensis ; Smiles's Self-Help.] L. S. 

BRING, RAWUNS (ft. 1688), physi- 
cian, son of Samuel Dring, born at Bruton, 
Somersetshire, was educated at Wadham 
College, Oxford, of which he became first 
scholar and a fellow in 1682. He proceeded 
B.A. 27 June 1679, M.A. 24 May 1682. Then 
entering on the physic line, he practised at 
Sherborne, Dorsetshire. He was the author 
of ' Dissertatio Epistolica ad amplissimum 
virum & clarissimum pyrophilum J. N. Ar- 
migerum conscripta ; in qua Crystallizatio- 
nem Salium in unicam et propriam, uti di- 
cunt, figuram, esse admodum incertam, aut 
accidentalem ex Observationibus etiam suis, 
contra Medicos & Chymicos hodiernos evin- 
citur,' 16mo, Amsterdam, 1688. According 
to Wood, ' the reason why 'tis said in the 
title that it was printed at Amsterdam is 
because the College of Physicians refused 
to license it, having several things therein 
! written against Dr. Martin Lister.' 

[Wood's Athenae Oxon. (Bliss), iv. 738 ; Wood's 
Fasti Oxon. (Bliss), ii. 369, 383.] G. G. 

DRINKWATER, JOHN. [See BE- 
THT7NE, JOHX DRIXKWATEK, 1762-1844.] 

DROESHOUT, MARTIN (ft. 1620- 
1651), engraver, belonged to a Netherlandish 
family, of which numerous members were- 



Droeshout 



Drokensford 



settled in England. In the registers of the 
Dutch Church, Austin Friars, published by 
W. J. C. Moens, F.S.A. (Lymington, 1884), 
there are several entries concerning the family, 
the name being spelt Droeshout, Droshaut, 
Drossaert, Drussoit, &c. From these, and 
from a return of foreigners living in London 
in 1593 (HAMPER, Life of Sir William Dug- 
dale, appendix), it appears that about 1590 
Michael Droeshout of Brussels, ' a graver in 
copper, which he learned in Brussels,' after 
sojourning in Antwerp, Friesland, and Zee- 
land, came to London, where John Droes- 
hout, painter, and Mary, or Malcken, his 
wife, had been settled for some twenty years, 
who seem to have been his parents. Michael 
Droeshout, from whose hand there exists a 
curious allegorical engraving of the ' Gun- 
powder Plot,' married on 17 Aug. 1595 Su- 
sanna van der Ersbek of Ghent, and, among 
other children, was father of John Droeshout, 
baptised 16 May 1596, and of Martin Droes- 
hout, baptised 26 April 1601. There was also 
a Martin Droeshout, apparently brother of 
Michael, who was twice married at the Dutch 
Church, viz. on 26 Oct. 1602 to Anna Winter- 
beke of Brussels, and 30 Oct. 1604 to Janneker 
Molyns of Antwerp. He was granted deniza- 
tion on 20 Jan. 1608, being described as 
' Martin Droeshout, painter, of Brabant ' 
(Cal. State Papers, Dom. Ser., James I). A 
Martin Droeshout was admitted a member of 
the Dutch Church in 1624, and it is with one 
of these, probably the younger, that we may 
identify the artist known throughout the 
literary world as the engraver of the por- 
trait of William Shakespeare prefixed to the 
folio edition of his works published in 1623, 
with the well-known lines by Ben Jonson 
affixed below it. This is considered by Mr. 
George Scharf, C.B., F.S. A.(' On the Principal 
Portraits of Shakespeare,' Notes and Queries, 
23 April 1864), as having the first claims to 
authenticity, since it is professedly a portrait 
of the great dramatist. He further says that 
' a general feeling of sharpness and coarse- 
ness pervades Droeshout's plate, and the 
head looks very large and prominent with 
reference to the size of the page and the 
type-letters around it ; but there is very 
little to censure with respect to the actual 
drawing of the features. On the contrary, 
they have been drawn and expressed with 
Treat care. Droeshout probably worked from 
i good original, either a " limning " or crayon- 
Irawing, which having served its purpose 
>ecame neglected and is now lost.' Be- 
ides the portrait of Shakespeare, Droeshout 
ngraved numerous other portraits, some of 
irhich are of extreme rarity, and also title- 
ages for booksellers. His engravings are 



executed in a stiff and dry manner, which, 
however, occasionally attains to some excel- 
lence ; there may be instanced the full-length 
portraits of George Villiers, duke of Buck- 
ingham, and of James, marquis of Hamilton. 
Among other portraits were John Fox,Mount- 
joy Blount, earl of Newport, General William 
Fairfax, Sir Thomas Overbury, *Dr. Donne, 
Hilkiah Crooke, and others. In the print 
room at the British Museum are some rare 
sets of engravings of the ' Sibyls ' and the 
' Seasons.' Contemporary with Martin Droes- 
hout, and pursuing the same profession in a 
similar but inferior style, was JOHN DROES- 
HOUT (1596-1652), who may be identified 
with the John Droeshout mentioned above 
as an elder brother of Martin Droeshout. 
He was employed by booksellers, for whom 
he engraved portraits of Arthur Johnston, 
John Babington, Richard Elton, John Danes. 
Jeffrey Hudson, and others, besides other 
frontispieces and broadsides. He also en- 
graved a set of plates to ' Lusitania Liberata,' 
by Don Antonio de Souza, including some 
portraits of the kings of Portugal. In his 
will, dated 12 Jan. 1651-2, and proved 
18 March 1651-2 (P. C. C., Somerset House, 
55, Bowyer), he describes himself as 'of St. 
Bride's, Fleet Street, London, Ingraver,' and 
mentions his wife Elizabeth, his nephew 
Martin, his two sons-in-law, Isaac Daniell 
and Thomas Alford, and his servant or ap- 
prentice, Thomas Stayno. 

[Eedgrave's Diet, of Artists ; Nagler's Mono- 
grammisten, iii. 2243, iv. 1733; Granger's Biogr. 
Hist, of England ; Bromley's Cat. of Engraved 
English Portraits ; Lowndes's Bibl. Man. ; in- 
formation from Mr. W. J. C. Moens, F.S.A.. ; 
authorities cited above.] L. C. 

DROGHEDA, VISCOUNT and EARL OF. 
[See MOORE, CHARLES and HENRY.] 

DROKENSFORD, JOHN DE (d. 1329), 
bishop of Bath and Wells, born probably 
in the village of Drokensford, or, as it is 
now called, Droxford, in Hampshire, was 
controller of the wardrobe to Edward I in 
1291, and continued to hold that office until 
1295, when he appears as keeper of the 
wardrobe (STEVENSON, Docwnents, i. 204, ii. 
16). These offices gave him much employ- 
ment both in auditing accounts and in di- 
recting expenditure, and he was in constant 
attendance at court. He accompanied Ed- 
ward in the expeditions he made to Scotland 
in 1291 and 1296. In 1297 he discharged 
the duties of treasurer during a vacancy. 
The next year he was again in Scotland, and 
was busily engaged in finding stores for the 
castles that were in the hands of the king, 
and he appears to have again accompanied 

C2 



Drokensford 



20 



Dromgoole 



Edward I on the expedition of 1303-4. His 
services were rewarded with ecclesiastical 
preferments ; he was rector of Droxford, of 
Hemingburgh and Stillingfleet in Yorkshire, 
and of Balsham in Cambridgeshire ; he held 
prebends in Southwell and four other col- 
legiate churches in England, besides certain 
prebends in Ireland; was installed as pre- 
bendary in the cathedral churches of Lichfield, 
Lincoln, and Wells; and was chaplain to the 
pope (Ls NEVE; WHARTOI*; Calendar). His 
secular emoluments were also large, for he ap- 
pears to have had five residences in Surrey, 
Hampshire, and Kent, besides a sixth estate in 
Chute Forest, Wiltshire, and a grant of land 
in Windsor Forest {Calendar). He is some- 
times incorrectly styled chancellor, or keeper 
of the great seal, simply because on one oc- 
casion, as keeper of the wardrobe, he had 
charge of the great seal for a few days during 
a vacancy. After the death of Edward I 
he ceased to hold office in the wardrobe, and 
in the first year of Edward II sat in the ex- 
chequer as chancellor (MADOi). On 25 Dec. 
1308 the king, in sending his conge ffelire 
to the chapters of Bath and Wells, nomi- 
nated him for election ; he received the tem- 
poralities of the see on 15 May 1309, was 
consecrated at Canterbury on 9 Nov., and 
was enthroned at Wells about twelve months 
afterwards. During the first four years of 
his episcopate he was seldom in his diocese : 
' political troubles,' he writes, in December 
1312, ' having hindered our residence ' (Ca- 
lendar). In later years, though often in Lon- 
don and elsewhere, and paying an annual 
visit to his private estates, he was also much 
in Somerset. He did not make either Bath 
or Wells his headquarters, but moved about 
constantly, attended apparently by a large 
retinue, from one to another of the manor- 
houses, sixteen or more in number, attached 
to the see and used as episcopal residences. 
Magnificent and liberal, he was, like many 
of his fellow-bishops, a worldly man, and by 
no means blameless in the administration of 
his patronage, for he conferred a prebend 
on a member of the house of Berkeley who 
was a layman and a mere boy, and in the 
"bountiful provision he made for his relations 
out of the revenues of his church he was 
not always careful to act legally (ib.) He 
had some disputes with his chapter which 
were settled in 1321 (REYNOLDS). Although 
he was left regent when the king and queen j 
crossed over to France in 1313, and was one 
of the commissioners to open parliament, he 
found himself ' outrun in the race for secular 
preferment ' in the reign of Edward II, and 
probably for this reason was hostile to the 
king (SxiJBBs). He joined in the petition 



for the appointment of ordainers in March 
1310 (Ann. Londin. p. 170). In July 1321 
he and others endeavoured to arrange a peace 
between the king and the malcontent lords 
at London (Ann. Paulini, p. 295). At the 
same time he was concerned in the rebellion 
against Edward, and in February 1323 the 
king wrote to John XXII and the cardinals 
complaining of his conduct, and requesting 
that he should be translated to some see out 
of the kingdom (Fcedera). He signed the 
letter sent by the bishops to the queen in 
1325 exhorting her to return to her husband, 
and on 13 Jan. 1327 took the oath to sup- 
port her and her son at the Guildhall of 
London (Ann. Paulini, p. 323). He died at 
his episcopal manor-house at Dogmersfield, 
Hampshire, on 9 May 1329, and was buried 
in St. Katharine's Chapel in his cathedral 
church, where his tomb is still to be seen. 
Two months before his death he endowed a 
chantry to be established at the altar nearest 
to his grave. 

[Bishop Hobhouse's Calendar of Drokensford's 
Register (Somerset Record Soc., printed for sub- 
scribers) ; Stevenson's Documents illustrative of 
the History of Scotland (Rolls Ser.) ; Le Neve's 
Fasti (Hardy) ; Wharton's Anglia Sacra, i. 568 ; 
Godwin, De Praesulibus. p. 375 ; Foss's Judges, 
iii. 86 ; Madox's Hist, of the Exchequer, ii. 30 ; 
Rymer's Foedera, iii. 989, ed. 1705; Annales 
Londin. ; Annales Paulini, ap. Chronicles, Edw. I 
and Edw. II, ed. Stubbs (Rolls Ser.) ; Stubbs's 
Constitutional History, ii. 355 ; Reynolds's Wells 
Cathedra], pp. 145, 147.] W. H. 

DROMGOOLE, THOM AS, M.D. (1750?- 
1826 ?), was born in Ireland somewhere about 
the middle of the eighteenth century, and took 
his medical degree at the university of Edin- 
burgh. He settled as a physician in Dawson 
Street, Dublin, and became a prominent mem- 
ber of the catholic board, which met at the 
beginning of the century to further the cause 
of catholic emancipation. Dromgoole was 
an anti-vetoist, that is, he was opposed to 
the purchase of freedom for the catholics at 
the price of giving the government a veto in 
the appointment of their bishops. In 1813 
he made some vigorous speeches on the sub- 
ject, overthrowing Grattan's contention in 
the House of Commons that the veto was 
approved in Ireland, and materially contri- 
buting to the temporary defeat of the Catho- 
lic Emancipation Bill. In the following year 
his speeches were published, together with 
an anonymous ' Vindication,' said by Mr. 
W. J. Fitzpatrick to have been written by Dr. 
Lanigan, who also, according to the same au- 
thority, was the real author of the speeches, 
though they were ' enunciated through the 
ponderous trombone of Dromgoole's nasal 



Drope 



21 



Drue 



twang.' Shell, describing Dromgoole's mode 
of emphasising the end of each sentence in 
his speeches by knocking loudly on the ground 
with a heavy stick, spoke of him as ' a kind 
of rhetorical paviour.' Dromgoole's ill-timed 
outspokenness brought a hornets' nest about 
his ears ; he was satirised by Dr. Brennan 
under the name of ' Dr. Drumsnuffle,' and 
was at last driven into exile, ending his days 
at Rome under the shadow of the Vatican. 
He probably died between 1824 and 1829. 

[W. J. Fitzpatrick's Irish Wits and "Worthies, 
ch. xxiv. ; Wyse's Catholic Association of Ireland, 
i. 161.] L. C. S. 

DROPE, FRANCIS (1629 P-1671), arbo- 
riculturist, a younger son of the Rev. Thomas 
Drope, B.D., vicar of Cumnor, Berkshire, 
and rector of Ardley, near Bicester, Oxford- 
shire, was born at Cumnor vicarage about 
1629, became a demy of Magdalen Col- 
lege, Oxford, in 1645, three years after his 
brother John, and graduated as B.A, in 
1647. In 1648 he was ejected, having pro- 
bably, like his brother, borne arms for the king, 
and he then became an assistant-master in a 
private school, kept by one William Fuller, 
at Twickenham. At the Restoration he pro- 
ceeded M. A. (23 Aug. 1660), and in 1662 was 
made fellow of his college. He subsequently 
graduated as B.D. (12 Dec. 1667), and was 
made a prebendary of Lincoln (17 Feb. 1669- 
1670). He died 26 Sept. 1671, and was buried 
in the chancel of Cumnor Church. His one 
work, ' A Short and Sure Guide in the Prac- 
tice of Raising and Ordering of Fruit-trees,' 
is generally described as posthumous, being 
published at Oxford', in 8vo, in 1672. The 
work is eulogised in the ' Philosophical Trans- 
actions,' vol. vii., No. 86, p. 5049, as written 
from the author's own experience. 

Drope's elder brother, JOHN (1626-1670), 
was demy of Magdalen College, Oxford, in 
1642 ; proceeded B.A. 12 July 1645 ; ' bore 
arms for the king' in the garrison of Oxford; 
was made fellow of his college in 1647, being 
ejected by the parliamentary visitors the next 
year ; became master at John Fetiplace's 
school at Dorchester about 1654 ; proceeded 
M.A. at the Restoration (23 Aug. 1660) ; was 
restored to his fellowship ; studied physic, 
which he practised at Borough, Lincolnshire, 
and died at Borough in October 1670. He 
was a poet on a small scale, and published 'An 
Hymensean Essay ' on Charles II's marriage 
in 1662, a poem on the Oxford Physic Garden, 
1664, and other poems which Wood read in 
manuscript. 

[Wood's Athense Oxon. ed. Bliss, iii. 941 ; 
Fasti, ii. 103, 228, 299 ; Felton's Portraits of 
Writers on Gardening, p. 31.] G. S. B. 



DROUT, JOHN (fi. 1570), poet, was, as 
we learn from the title-page of his only known 
work, an attorney of Thavies Inn. He is 
author of a black-letter tract of thirty leaves, 
entitled ' The pityfull Historic of two louing 
Italians, Gaulfrido and Barnardo le vayne,. 
which ariued in the countrey of Grece, in 
the time of the noble Emperoure Vaspasian. 
And translated out of Italian into Englishe 
meeter,' &c., 12mo, London, 1570. In de- 
dicating ' this, the first frutes of my trauell,' 
to Sir Francis Jobson, knt., lieutenant of the 
Tower, Drout mentions his parents as still 
living, and expresses his own and their obli- 
gations to Jobson. In 1844 John Payne 
Collier reprinted twenty-five copies of this 
piece from a unique copy. Collier doubts 
whether Drout really translated the story 
from the Italian, and suggests that Drout de- 
scribes it as a translation so that he might 
take advantage of the popularity of Italian, 
novels. In his preliminary remarks upon 
'Romeo and Juliet,' Malone, whose sole know- 
ledge of Drout's book was derived from its 
entry in the ' Stationers' Registers,' supposed 
it to be a prose narrative of the story on which 
Shakespeare's play was constructed (MALONE, 
Shakespeare, ed. Boswell, vi. 4). It is not in 
prose, and only a part relates to the history 
of Romeo and Juliet ; it is in the ordinary 
fourteen-syllable metre of the time, divided 
into lines of eight and of six syllables. It is 
merely valuable to the literary antiquary. 

[Arber's Transcript of Stationers' Eegisters, i. 
204 b ; Lowndes's Bibl. Manual (Bohn), ii. 869 r 
voce ' Gaulfrido,' Appendix, p. 250 ; Athenaeum, 
26 April 1862, p. 563.] G. G. 

DRUE, THOMAS (fl. 1631), dramatist,, 
is the author of an interesting historical play, 
' The Life of the Dvtches of Svffolke,' 1631 r 
4to, which has been wrongly attributed by 
Langbaine and others to Thomas Hey wood. 
The play was published anonymously, but it is- 
assigned to Drue in the ' Stationers' Registers r 
(under date 13 Nov. 1629) and in Sir Henry 
Herbert's ' Office-book.' Another play, ' The 
Bloodie Banquet. By T. D.,' 1620, 4to, has 
been attributed without evidence to Drue. 
An unpublished play, the 'Woman's Mis- 
take,' is ascribed in the ' Stationers' Registers/ 
9 Sept. 1653, to Robert Davenport [q. v.] and 
Drue. Possibly the dramatist may be the 
Thomas Drewe who in 1621 published 'Daniel 
Ben Alexander, the converted Jew, first 
written in Syriacke and High Dutch by him- 
selfe. Translated . . . into French by S. 
Lecherpiere. And out of French into Eng- 
lish,' 4to. 

[Arber's Transcript of Stationers' Registers, iv. 
188 ; Chalmers's Supplemental Apology, p. 217.] 

A. H. B. 



Druitt 



22 



Drummond 



DRUITT, ROBERT (1814-1883), medi- 
cal writer, the son of a medical practitioner 
at Wimborne, Dorsetshire, was born in De- 
cember 1814. After four years' pupilage with 
Mr. Charles Mayo, surgeon to the Winchester 
Hospital, he entered in 1834 as a medical 
student at King's College and the Middlesex 
Hospital, London. He became L.S.A. in 
1836, and M.R.C.S. in 1837, and settled in 
general practice in Bruton Street, Berkeley 
Square. In 1839 he published the ' Surgeon's 
Vade-Mecum,' by which he is best known. 
Written in a very clear and simple style, it 
became a great favourite with students, and 
the production of successive editions occupied 
much of the author's time. The eleventh 
edition appeared in 1878, and in all more than 
forty thousand copies were sold. It was re- 
printed in America, and translated into several 
European languages. In 1845 Druitt be- 
came F.R.C.S. by examination, and in 1874 
F.R.C.P., later receiving the Lambeth degree 
of M.D. He practised successfully for many 
years, and also engaged in much literary 
work, having for ten years (1862-72) edited 
the ' Medical Times and Gazette.' He was 
an earnest advocate of improved sanitation, 
and from 1856 to 1867 was one of the medi- 
cal officers of health for St. George's, Hanover 
Square. From 1864 to 1872 he was president 
of the Metropolitan Association of Medical 
Officers of Health, before which he delivered 
numerous valuable addresses. In 1872 his 
health broke down, and he for some time lived 
in Madras, whence he wrote some interest- 
ing ' Letters from Madras ' to the ' Medical 
Times and Gazette.' On his retirement 370 
medical men and other friends presented him 
with a cheque for 1,2151. in a silver cup, 
* in evidence of their sympathy with him in 
a prolonged illness, induced by years of gene- 
rous and unwearied labours in the cause of 
humanity, and as a proof of their apprecia- 
tion of the services rendered by him as an 
author and sanitary reformer to both the 
public and the profession.' After an exhaust- 
ing illness he died at Kensington on 15 May 
1883. In 1845 he married a Miss Hopkin- 
son, who with three sons and four daughters 
survived him. 

Druitt was a man of wide culture, being 
well versed in languages, as well as in science 
and theology. Church music was one of his 
special studies, and as early as 1845 he wrote 
a ' Popular Tract on Church Music.' A man 
of reserved manners, he was both a wise and 
a sympathetic friend. Besides his principal 
work, Druitt wrote a small work on ' Cheap 
Wines, their use in Diet and Medicine,' which 
appeared first in the 'Medical Times and 
Gazette' in 1863 and 1864, and was twice re- 



printed in an enlarged form in 1865 and 1873. 

In 1872 he contributed an important article 

on 'Inflammation' to Cooper's 'Dictionary 

of Practical Surgery.' Among his minor 

writings may also be mentioned his paper on 

I the ' Construction andManagement of Human 

I Habitations, considered in relation to the 

Public Health' (Transactions of the Royal 

\ Institute of British Architects, 1859-60). 

[Medical Times and Gazette, 19 and 26 May 
1883, pp. 561, 600-1.] G. T. B. 

DRUMMOND, ALEXANDER (&1769), 

consul, author of ' Travels through the diffe- 
rent Countries of Germany, Italy, Greece, and 
parts of Asia, as far as the Euphrates, with 
an Account of what is remarkable in their 
present State and their Monuments of Anti- 
quity '(London, 1754, fol.), was son of George 
Drummond of Newton, and younger brother 
of George Drummond, lord provost of Edin- 
burgh [q. v.] Of his early years there is no 
account. He started on his travels, via Har- 
wich and Helvoetsluys, in May 1744, reached 
Venice in August and Smyrna in December 
that year, and Cyprus in March 1745. His 
observations by the way, and in excursions, 
made in the intervals of what appear to have 
been commercial pursuits, during residence 
in Cyprus and Asia Minor in 1745-50, are 
given in his book in the form of letters, 
mostly addressed to his brother, and accom- 
panied by some curious plates. In one of 
these excursions he reached Beer, on the Eu- 
phrates. Drummond was British consul at 
Aleppo in 1754-6. He died at Edinburgh 
on 9 Aug. 1769. A portrait of him is cata- 
logued in Evans's 'Engraved Portraits ' (Brit. 
Mies. Cat., subd. v.), London, 1836-53. 

[Anderson's Scottish Nation (Edinb. 1859-63), 
ii. 66 ; Watt's Bibl. Brit. ; Drummond's Travels, 
ut supra; Court and City Eegisters, 1753-7; 
Scots Mag. 1769, xxxi. 447.] H. M. C. 

DRUMMOND, ANNABELLA (1350 ?- 
1402), queen of Scotland, daughter of Sir 
John Drummond of Stobhall, was the wife 
of Robert III of Scotland and mother of 
James I. The family of Drummond derive 
their name from Drymen in Stirlingshire, but 
trace their descent from Maurice, a Hun- 
garian, who is said to have accompanied Edgar 
Etheling and his sisters to Scotland from Hun- 
gary in 1068, and to have been made, by Mal- 
colm Canmore, after his marriage with Mar- 
garet, steward of Lennox. His descendant, 
Sir John de Drummond of Drymen, taken 
prisoner by Edward I, but released in 1297, 
had, by the daughter of the Earl of Menteith, 
Sir Malcolm de Drummond, who fought with 
Bruce at Bannockburn. His eldest son, a 



Drummond 



2 3 



Drummond 






second Sir Malcolm, died in 1348, leaving 
three sons, John, Maurice, and Walter. His 
daughter Margaret married, first, Sir John 
Logie ; secondly, David II in 1363,very shortly 
after the death of his first wife, Joanna, daugh- 
ter of Edward II. From David she was di- 
vorced by the Scottish bishops in 1370. SHe 
appealed to the pope, but the terms of his 
sentence, if pronounced, are not known. This 
marriage, deemed discreditable probably from 
her having been the king's mistress before the 
death of her first husband, brought the Drum- 
monds into royal favour, and among other 
gifts was the grant through the queen of the 
lands of Stobhall, Cargill, and Kynloch to 
Malcolm de Drummond, her nephew, in 1368 
(Exchequer Rolls, ii. 298). Sir John, by his 
marriage to Mary, heiress of Sir William de 
Montefex, acquired other estates, Kincardine 
and Auchterarder in Perthshire, and had by 
her four sons (Sir Malcolm,who married Iso- 
bell, countess of Mar, but left no issue ; Sir 
John, who succeeded to the family estates ; 
William,who married the heiress of Airth and 
Cumnock, the ancestor of the Drummonds of 
Cumnock and Hawthornden ; Dougal, bishop 
of Dunblane) and three daughters, of whom 
the eldest was Annabella. 

Her family, which had thus grown in im- 
portance by alliance with royal and other 
noble houses, was at the height of prosperity 
in the second half of the fourteenth century. 
In 1397 Annabella married John Stewart 
of Kyle (afterwards Robert III), the eldest 
son of Robert the high steward, who was 
created in 1367 Earl of Atholl, and next year 
Earl of Carrick. Four years before her aunt 
Margaret Logie married David II. The double 
connection of the aunt with the king and her 
niece with the son of the presumptive heir 
produced jealousy, and, according to Bower, 
the high steward and his three sons were cast 
into separate prisons at the suggestion of the 
queen. Her divorce led to their release and 
restoration to their former favour (FoEDUN, 
BOWER'S Continuation, xiv. 34). 

In 1370 Robert the steward, grandson of 
Bruce, by his daughter Marjory, succeeded 
to the crown as Robert II on the death of 
David II. John, earl of Carrick, the husband 
of Annabella, eldest son of the steward by his 
first wife, Elizabeth Mure of Rowallan, was 
"born about 1337. Tall and handsome in 
person, but inactive by disposition, and lamed 
by a horse's kick, the Earl of Carrick was 
even less fitted to be a king than his father. 
He allowed the reins of government during 
his father's life as well as his own to fall 
into the hands of his ambitious brother, 
Walter, earl of Fife ; while his younger bro- 
ther, Alexander, earl of Buchan, the Wolf 



of Badenoch, earned that name by his law- 
less rapacity in the district of Moray. During 
j the reign of his father the Earl of Carrick 
; was keeper of Edinburgh Castle, for which 
he had five hundred merks a year as salary 
(Exchequer Rolls, 1372, ii. 393, iii. 66-87). 
In this capacity he continued the buildings of 
David's tower, begun in the former reign, and 
received payments for munitions and provi- 
sions, which point to his personal residence 
with Annabella in the Castle. Annabella re- 
ceived during her father-in-law's reign pay- 
ment of several sums for ward of land, pro- 
bably assigned to her as her marriage portion. 
! In 1384 her husband was invested by par- 
liament with authority to enforce the law, 
owing to the incapacity of his father, and in 
April of the following year he was directed 
to inflict punishment on the Katherans of 
the north ; but at a council in Edinburgh 
on 1 Dec. 1388 he was superseded by his 
brother, the Earl of Fife, already chamberlain 
and keeper of Stirling Castle, who was elected 
guardian of the kingdom, with the power 
of the king, until Robert's eldest son, the 
Earl of Carrick, should recover health, or 
his (the earl's) son and heir become of an 
age fit for governing. This son was David, 
afterwards Duke of Rothesay, a boy of ten, 
to whom Annabella, after a long period of 
marriage without issue, gave birth in 1378 
{Act Parl. i. 555-6). Robert II dying twelve 
years after, the Earl of Carrick succeeded, 
exchanging his name of John, of ill omen 
through the recollection of Baliol and John 
of England, for that of Robert III. Robert II 
was buried at Scone on 13 Aug. 1390 ; on 
the 14th Robert III was crowned ; on the 
15th, the feast of the Assumption, Annabella 
was crowned queen ; and on the 16th the 
oaths of homage and fealty were taken by 
the barons, a sermon being each day preached 
by one of the bishops, that on the queen's 
coronation by John of Peebles, bishop of 
Dunkeld. In the parliament of the following 
March 1391 an annuity of 2,500 merks was 
granted to the queen from the counties of 
Edinburgh, Aberdeen, Perth, Linlithgow, 
Dundee, and Montrose, and another of 640/. 
was then or soon after settled on her son 
David, earl of Carrick (Exchequer .Records, 
iii. 252, 288). During the first eight years 
of Robert III, Scotland, having been included 
in the truce of Lenlingham, was at peace 
with England, and the chief power was re- 
tained by the Earl of Fife, but as his salary 
for the office of guardian of the kingdom does 
not appear in the records after 1392, it is 
possible that he may have ceased to hold it 
and the king attempted to govern. In 1394 
Queen Annabella appears on the scene in 



Drummond 



Drummond 



a tantalising correspondence, of which two 
letters only have been preserved from her to 
Richard II. They relate to a proposed mar- 
riage between a relation of Richard and one 
of the royal children of Scotland, whether a 
son or daughter is uncertain. In the first, 
dated 28 May, while expressing her desire 
for the alliance, she says the time for the 
conference proposed by Richard is too soon, 
as the king is in a distant part of Scotland, 
and requests Richard, if the king has ap- 
pointed a more convenient time, to send some 
of his councillors to make a good conclusion 
of the matter. In the second, of 1 Aug., she 
mentions that she has just borne an infant 
son, James by name, and that the king, then 
in the Isles, had named 1 Oct. for the confer- 
ence. The infant James cannot have been the 
member of the royal family intended, so it 
must have been either his elder brother David 
or one of his sisters, or perhaps another bro- 
ther Robert, called the steward, who died 
young, and is only known from entries in 
the Exchequer Records (1392, iii. 390, 400). 
Nothing, however, came of the proposed 
marriage. In a council at Scone in January 
1398 David, the heir-apparent, was created 
Duke of Rothesay, and his uncle, the Earl 
of Fife, Duke of Albany. The king's ill- 
health still continuing, Rothesay, now in his 
twentieth year, was appointed governor of 
the realm for three years, but with the ad- 
vice of a council of which the Duke of Albany 
was principal member. At the same council 
Queen Annabella complained of the failure 
to pay her annuity, and letters were directed 
to the customars of the burghs, and also to 
the chamberlain, ordering its payment with- 
out delay in future. Albany had since 1382 
held that office, which gave him the control 
of the royal revenues. 

In the same year as the council of Scone 
the queen held a great tournament in Edin- 
burgh, in which twelve knights, of whom the 
chief was her son David, duke of Rothesay, 
took part. The marriage of Rothesay two 
years later to Elizabeth Douglas, daughter 
of Archibald the Grim, earl of Douglas, al- 
though he had been before promised to Eliza- 
beth, daughter of the Earl of March, led to 
the revolt of that nobleman and an invasion 
of Scotland by Henry IV, who in 1399 had 
dethroned Richard II. Henry advanced as 
far as Edinburgh, where he besieged the castle, 
but declining a personal combat offered by 
Rothesay, and unable to take the castle, he 
returned home. Albany, it is probable, had 
supported the Earl of March, while the queen 
and council favoured the alliance of the heir 
to the kingdom with the Earl of Douglas. 
The deaths within one year (1401-2) of the 



queen, the Earl of Douglas, and Irail, the good 
bishop of St. Andrews, were a fatal blow to 
the endeavour to restrain the ascendency of 
Albany. It became a proverb, says Bower, 
that then the glory of Scotland fled, its honour 
retreated, and its honesty departed. Not many 
months after the queen's death Rothesay was 
deposed from his office of regent and found 
first a prison at Falkland, and then an early 
and obscure tomb at Lindores. 

Though doubts have been raised, the sus- 
picion that Albany was his murderer is con- 
firmed by the course of events. At a council 
in Edinburgh on 16 May 1402 a declaration 
of the innocence of Albany and the Earl of 
Douglas in the arrest and death of Rothesay 
suggests, like a similar remission to Both- 
well, the probability of their guilt. In 1403 
Sir Malcolm Drummond, brother of the queen, 
was murdered by Alexander, a natural son of 
the "Wolf of Badenoch. 

James, now heir-apparent, was despatched 
by his father to the court of France, but cap- 
tured by a vessel of Henry IV in February, 
and the aged and infirm monarch himself 
died on 4 April 1406. The whole power of 
the kingdom was henceforth absorbed by 
Albany as regent. While other points are 
doubtful in this period of Scottish history, 
the character of Annabella Drummond has 
been praised by all historians. Wyntoun. 
pronounces on her this panegyric : 

Dame Annabill, qwene off Scotland 
Taire, honorabil, and plesand, 
Cunnand, curtays in hir efferis, 
Luvand, and large to strangeris. 

She died at Scone in 1402, and was buried" 
at Dunfennline. A small house at Inver- 
keithing of two stories, both vaulted, is still- 
pointed out by tradition as her residence. 
When the present writer visited it, it was a 
lodging-house for navvies, and as Dunferm- 
line was so near it can only have been oc- 
casionally, if ever, occupied by the queen, 
perhaps for bathing. 

Besides James, afterwards king, the Duke 
of Rothesay, and Robert, who died young, the 
offspring of her marriage were four daughters 
Margaret, who married Archibald Tyne- 
man, fourth earl of Douglas, and duke of 
Touraine in France ; Mary, who had four hus- 
bands : first in 1397, George Douglas, earl of 
Angus, second, 1409, Sir James Kennedy of 
Dunmore, third,William, lord of Graham, and 
in 1425 Sir William Edmonston of Duntreath ; 
Elizabeth, who married Sir James Douglas of 
Dalkeith ; Egidia, who was not married. 

A portrait of Queen Annabella by Jamesin. 
at Taymouth, engraved in Pinkerton's ' Scot- 
tish Gallery,' vol. ii., who thinks it may have- 



Drummond 



Drummond 



been taken from her tomb at Dunfermline, 
well represents the graciousness and beauty 
for which she was celebrated. Some of its 
features may be traced in her son James I, 
and his daughters Margaret, the wife of the 
dauphin, afterwards Louis XI, and Isobel, 
wife of Francis, Duke of Bretagne. 

[Acts Parl. Scot. vol. i. ; Fordun, Wyntoun, 
and the Book of Pluscarden ; Exchequer Rolls, 
vols. ii. and iii., andBurnet's Preface to vol. iv., 
where many important dates are fixed ; Pinker- 
ton's Hist, of Scotland ; History of the House 
of Drummond.] JE. M. 

DRUMMOND, EDWAED (1792-1843), 
civil servant, second son of Charles Drum- 
mond, banker, of Charing Cross, by Frances 
Dorothy, second daughter of the Rev. Edward 
Lockwood, was born 30 March 1792, and be- 
came at an early age a clerk in the treasury, 
where he was successively private secretary 
to the Earl of Ripon, Canning, Wellington, 
and Peel. So highly did the duke think of 
him that he expressed his satisfaction in the 
House of Lords at having secured his ser- 
vices. Having been seen travelling alone in 
Scotland in Peel's carriage and coming out 
of Peel's London house by a madman named 
Daniel Macnaghten, a wood-turner of Glas- 
gow, who had some grudge against Peel, 
Drummond was shot by him in mistake for 
Peel between the Admiralty and the Horse 
Guards, Whitehall, as he was walking towards 
Downing Street, 20 Jan. 1843. He was shot 
in the back, and though he managed to walk 
to his brother's house and the ball was ex- 
tracted that evening, he died after suffering 
but little pain at 9 A.M., 25 Jan., at Charlton, 
near Woolwich, where he was buried 31 Jan. 
Some controversy arose as to the treatment 
of his wound, which was said to have been 
unskilful (see pamphlet by J. DICKSON, 1843). 
Macnaghten was acquitted on the ground of 
insanity. 

[Gent. Mag. 1789 and 1843 ; Eaikes's Journal, 
iv. 249 ; Life of Prince Consort, i. 162 ; Times, 
21 and 27 Jan. 1843.] J. A. H. 

DRUMMOND, GEORGE (1687-1766), 
six times lord provost of Edinburgh, was 
born there 27 June 1687. His father is de- 
scribed as a 'factor' in Edinburgh, where 
Drummond was educated. He displayed at 
an early age a considerable aptitude for figures, 
and is said to have made in his eighteenth year 
most of the calculations for the committee 
of the Scottish parliament when negotiating 
with a committee of the English parliament 
the financial details of the contemplated union. 
He was appointed, 16 July 1707, accountant- 
general of excise on its introduction into 
Scotland. He was an ardent supporter of the 



Hanoverian succession, and he is described 
as in 1713 working actively to defeat the 
designs of the Scottish Jacobites. He was 
appointed a commissioner of customs 10 Feb. 
1715, with a salary of 1,000/. a year, Allan 
Ramsay, though a Jacobite, welcoming in 
some cordial verses the promotion of ' dear 
Drummond ' (Poems, i. 375). In the same 
year he is said to have raised a company of 
volunteers and with them to have joined the 
Duke of Argyll and the royal forces employed 
in suppressing the Earl of Mar's insurrection. 
The statement that he wrote on horseback a 
letter from the field, which gave the magis- 
trates of Edinburgh the first news of the 
battle of Sheriffmuir, 13 Nov. 1715, is not 
confirmed by any record of the incident in 
the council minutes. He seems to have be- 
come a member of that body in 1715. In 
1717 he was elected by it treasurer to the 
city, in 1772 dean of guild, and in 1725 lord 
provost. At this last period he is described as 
exercising dictatorial power in the general 
assembly of the kirk (WoDROW, iii. 200). 
At the age of seventeen Drummond had be- 
come deeply religious (GRANT, i. 365). In. 
1727 he was appointed one of the commis- 
sioners for improving fisheries and manufac- 
tures in Scotland. 

With Drummond's first provostship began 
a new era in the history of modern Edin- 
burgh. The government and patronage of 
the university were in the hands of the town 
council, and Drummond made such use of 
his opportunities as one of its members, that 
from 1715 until his death nothing was done 
without his advice (BowER, ii. 305). A medi- 
cal faculty was established and five new 
professorships instituted. Chairs were given 
to a number of eminent men, from Alexander 
Monro secundus and Colin M'Laurin to Adam 
Ferguson and Hugh Blair, and through Drum- 
mond Robertson the historian became prin- 
cipal of the university. In the first year of 
his provostship Drummond revived a dor- 
mant scheme for the establishment of an in- 
firmary on a small scale by procuring the 
allocation to that object of the stock of the 
fishery company, of which he had been chief 
manager, and which was being dissolved. 
The scheme took effect in 1729, but Drum- 
mond never rested until he had procured the 
funds for a far larger institution, and its 
erection on the site where it remained until 
recent years. The charter incorporating, 
25 Aug. 1736, the Royal Infirmary named 
him one of its managers, and he was pro- 
minent in the ceremony when its foundation- 
stone was laid, 2 Aug. 1738. He and Alex- 
ander Monro were constituted the building 
committee. He was called at the time ' the 



Drummond 



Drummond 



father of the infirmary,' and after his death 
there was placed in its hall his bust by 
Nollekens (since transferred to the New Royal 
Infirmary), with an inscription by Principal 
Robertson proclaiming that to him ' this coun- 
try is indebted for all the benefits which it de- 
rives from the Royal Infirmary.' Drummond 
Street, in its vicinity, was called after him. 

Drummond had married in 1707 a wife 
whodied in 1718. His second wife, a daughter 
of Sir James Campbell of Aberuchill (his col- 
league on the board of customs), whom he 
married in 1721, died in 1732. These two 
wives bore him fourteen children. He fell 
into embarrassments in spite of his large 
income as commissioner of customs. They 
prevented him from marrying a morbidly 
pietistic lady of whose name only the initials 
' R. B.' are given, to whom he was much 
attached, and in the efficacy of whose prayers 
and accuracy of whose predictions he had a 
superstitious faith. There is a great deal 
about her in the fragments of his manuscript 
diary, from the middle of 1736 to the last 
weeks of 1738, preserved in the library of the 
university of Edinburgh (see the account of 
it with extracts in GORDON, ii. 364-8). His 
circumstances were probably not improved 
by the abolition of his office of commissioner 
of customs and his appointment to a com- 
missionership of excise, 1737-8, but in Janu- 
ary 1739, having apparently broken off the 
singular connection with ' R. B.,' he was re- 
lieved from his money difficulties by marrying 
a third and wealthy wife. 

With the rebellion of 1745 Drummond was 
foremost in calling for and organising resist- 
ance on the part of the citizens of Edinburgh 
to its occupation by the rebels. Through his 
efforts a body of volunteers was raised, and at 
his persuasion they were ready to march out 
of Edinburgh, and, with some regulars, meet 
the enemy in the open. Drummond, who was 
captain of the first or College company, found 
himself, however, unsupported by the autho- 
rities, and the zeal of the volunteers melted 
away until the only course left was to con- 
sent to their disbandment. Home (iii. 54 rc.) 
has charged Drummond with simulating mar- 
tial ardour in order to make himself popular 
in view of the approach of the usual timefor 
the municipal elections, but this accusation 
is rebutted by Dr. Carlyle, who was himself 
a member of the College company of volun- 
teers {Autobiography, pp. 119-20). Drum- 
mond's own account of the collapse is to be 
found in the report (State Trials, xviii. 962, 
&c.) of the evidence which he gave at the 
trial of Archibald Stewart, the then provost 
of Edinburgh, for neglect of duty, against 
whom he was a principal witness. With the 



surrender of Edinburgh Drummond joined Sir 
John Cope's force, and after witnessing its 

! defeat at Prestonpans is said to have accom- 

1 panied Cope to Berwick, and thence to have 

j corresponded with the government. In 1745 
the usual autumn elections had not taken place 
in Edinburgh. Those of 1746 the govern- 
ment ordered to be determined by a poll of 
the citizens instead of by partial co-optation. 
Drummond was elected provost, both of the 
two lists of candidates which were circulated 
being headed with his name. 

In 1750-1 Drummond was a third time 
lord provost, and in 1752 he prefixed a printed 
letter commendatory (Scots Mag. Ixiv. 467) 
to copies of proposals for carrying on certain 
public works in the city of Edinburgh, which 
were drawn up by Gilbert Elliot (the third 
baronet), and which included one for an ap- 
plication to parliament to extend the ' royalty ' 
of the city northward, where the New Town 
of Edinburgh is now. A portion of the 
scheme was sanctioned by an act of parlia- 
ment passed in 1753 (26 George II, cap. 36), 
in which Drummond was named one of the 

' commissioners for carrying it out. On 3 Sept. 

j in the same year the works were begun by 
Drummond laying, as grand-master of the 

| Scotch Freemasons, the first stone of the Edin- 

i burgh Royal Exchange, before what has been 
described as the greatest concourse of people 

, that had ever assembled in Edinburgh (LTOX, 
p. 217). To promote this and other improve- 
ments Drummond became a fourth time lord 

i provost, 1754-5. In 1755, his third wife 
having died in 1742, he married a fourth, a 
rich English quakeress with 20,000?., and 
then probably it was that he became the 
owner of Drummond Lodge, at that time an 
isolated country house on the site of what is 
now Drummond Place, also called after him, 
and in the heart of the New Town of Edin- 
burgh. There, on stated days, he kept an 

; open table. In 1755 he was appointed one 
of the trustees of the forfeited estates, and a 
manager of the useful Edinburgh Society for 
the Encouragement of the Arts, Sciences, 
Manufactures, and Agriculture. Appointed 

: lord provost for two years a fifth time in 1758, 
he took in hand the extension of Edinburgh 
northward, necessary steps to which were 

j the draining of the North Loch and the erec- 

i tion of a bridge over its valley. The extension 
of the royalty northward met, like most of 
Drummond's schemes of improvement, with 
much opposition, and a bill authorising it 
which was introduced in parliament had to be 
abandoned. With the second year of Drum- 
mond's sixth and last provostship, 17623, the 
draining of the North Loch was effected, and 
the erection of the bridge with funds derived 



Drummond 



Drummond 



from loans and voluntary subscriptions de- 
cided on. 

As acting grand-master of the Scotch Free- 
masons, Drummond laid the foundation-stone 
of the North Bridge on 21 Oct. 1763. The 
year after his death was passed the act ex- 
tending the royalty over the fields to the 
north of the city, and the foundation-stone 
was laid of the first house in the New Town 
of Edinburgh. Drummond died at Edinburgh 
on 4 Nov. 1766, and was buried in the Canon- 
gate churchyard, near the grave of Adam 
Smith. He received a public funeral such 
as his native city had seldom witnessed. Sir 
A. Grant (i. 304) calls him ' the greatest 
sedile that has ever governed the city of Edin- 
burgh, and the wisest and best disposed of 
all the long list of town councillors and pro- 
vosts who during 275 years acted as patrons 
of the college or university.' Drummond 
was of the middle size, and his manners were 
conciliatory and agreeable. In advanced age 
the dignity of his person was such that, ac- 
cording to Dr. Somerville (p. 45), a stranger 
entering a meeting of Edinburgh citizens for 
the consideration of important business would 
at once have selected Drummond as the fittest 
person to take the lead in council. He was 
an easy and graceful public speaker. There 
are specimens of his official correspondence 
in Maitland's ' History of Edinburgh,' and a 
few of his letters on university matters in 
Thomson's ' Life of Cullen,' 1832. In the 
' Miscellany of the Abbotsford Club,' i. 419, 
&c. is printed ' Provost Drummond's Account 
of the Discussion in the House of Commons 
upon the application of Daniel Campbell, Esq. 
of Shawfield for compensation for his losses 
by the riot in Glasgow,' caused by the impo- 
sition of an excise duty on ale. The letter 
is dated 25 March 1725, and contains a lively 
and graphic description of a parliamentary 
debate. Drummond had a town house in 
' Anchor Close,' High Street (LTON, p. 207). 
Besides Drummond Lodge he seems to have 
had at one time a country house at Colinton, 
near Edinburgh, where there are to be seen 
cedars grown from seed sent him by his brother 
Alexander [q. v.] who was consul at Aleppo 
(New Statistical Account of Scotland, 1832, 
i. 112). A sister of theirs gained considerable 
notoriety as a quaker preacheress throughout 
the kingdom, in the course of her expeditions 
raising money for her brother's scheme of a 
Royal Infirmary, and once delivering an ad- 
dress before Queen Caroline, the consort of 
George II. Her later career was an unhappy 
one (see the account of her in CHAMBERS, 
iii. 559, &c.) 

[Memoir of Drummond in Scots Mag. for 
1802, vol. Ixiv., abridged in Chambers's Biog. 



Diet, of Eminent Scotsmen ; Sir Alexander 
Grant's Story of the University of Edinburgh 
during its first three hundred years, 1884 ; 
Bower's Hist, of the University of Edinburgh, 
1817, &c. ; Autobiography of Dr. Alexander 
Carlyle, 1860; Howell's State Trials; Chambers's 
Domestic Annals of Scotland from the Revolu- 
tion to the Rebellion of 1745, 1861 ; Home's Hist, 
of the Rebellion in 1745 (in vol. iii. of Works, 
1822); Wodrow's Analecta (Maitland Club pub- 
lications) ; Lyon's Hist, of the Lodge of Edin- 
burgh, No. I., 1873; Somerville's My own Life 
and Times; Poems of Allan Ramsay, 1800; 
Maitland's and Arnot's Histories of Edinburgh ; 
authorities cited ; communications from Mr. Wil- 
liam Skinner, city clerk of Edinburgh, and Mr. 
R. S. Macfie, Dreghorn, Mid-Lothian.] F. E. 

DRUMMOND, SIB GORDON (1772- 
1854), general, fourth son of Colin Drummond, 
by the daughter of Robert Oliphant of Rossie, 
N.B., entered the army as an ensign in the 1st 
regiment, or Royal Scots, in 1789, which he 
j oined in Jamaica. He was rapidly promoted, 
and became lieutenant in the 41st regiment 
in March 1791, captain in January 1792, major 
of the 23rd regiment in January 1794, and 
lieutenant-colonel of the 8th, or king's Liver- 
pool regiment, on 1 March 1794. This regi- 
ment, with which he was more or less con- 
nected for the rest of his life, he joined in 
the Netherlands, and served at its head dur- 
ing the campaign of 1794 and the winter re- 
treat of 1794-5, and especially distinguished 
himself at Nimeguen. From September 1795 
to January 1796 he served in Sir Ralph 
Abercromby's campaign in the West Indies, 
and in 1799, after having been promoted 
colonel on 1 Jan. 1798, he accompanied the 
same general to the Mediterranean with his 
regiment, first to Minorca and then to Egypt, 
where his regiment formed part of Cradock's 
brigade. Drummond distinguished himself 
throughout the campaign in Egypt, and 
commanded his regiment in the battles of 
8, 13, and 21 March, and at the capture of 
Cairo, and then of Alexandria. When the 
campaign was over he took his regiment first 
to Malta and then to Gibraltar, and left it in 
1804 to take command of a brigade on the home 
staff in England. On 1 Jan. 1805 he was pro- 
moted major-general, and in May of that year 
he took command of a division in Jamaica, 
which he held while his old comrade, Sir Eyre 
Coote (1762-1824) [q. v.], was governor and 
commander-in-chief of that colony until Au- 
gust 1807. In December 1808 Drummond 
was transferred to the staff in Canada, and 
was retained there after his promotion to the 
rank of lieutenant-general on 4 June 1811 as 
second in command to Sir George Prevost. 
He played a most important part throughout 
the American war of 1812-14 upon the Cana- 



Drummond 



Drummond 



dian frontier, but his most important feat of 
arms was winning the battle of Niagara on 
25 July 1814. The year 1813had beenmarked 
by many disasters to the inadequate English 
fleet on the great lakes, and it was not until 
1814 that Drummond, after receiving rein- 
forcements from the Peninsular regiments, j 
was able to make a real impression on the 
American troops. He had his forces, amount- 
ing in all to not more than 2,800 men, con- 
veyed across Lake Erie to Chippewa, and 
they had hardly established themselves near 
the Niagara Falls before they were fiercely 
attacked by the American troops under Gene- 
ral Brown. The attacks lasted until mid- 
night, when the Americans were at last 
totally repulsed with heavy loss ; but the 
fierceness of the battle maybe judged by the 
fact that the English casualties amounted to 
no less than 878 men killed, wounded, and 
missing, including Major-general Phineas 
Riall, Drummond's second in command, who 
was wounded and taken prisoner. Drummond 
immediately followed up his success by at- ] 
tacking the enemy's headquarters at Fort 
Erie, which had been actually carried on 
25 Aug., when a terrible explosion caused a 
panic, and the fort which had been so hardly 
gained was evacuated by his troops. He re- 
mained in front of Fort Erie, repulsed a violent 
assault made upon his position on 18 Sept., 
and on 6 Nov. successfully occupied that post, 
which was abandoned by the American troops. 
Peace was concluded with the United States 
in the following year, but the services of the 
army which had wiped out the disgrace of 
the defeats of 1813 were not forgotten, and 
Drummond was gazetted a K.C.B. Drum- 
mond returned to England in 1815, and after 
being made colonel of the 97th regiment in 
1814, and of the 88th in 1819, and promoted 
general in 1825, he was transferred to the colo- 
nelcy of his old regiment, the 8th, which had 
distinguished itself at the battle of Niagara in 
1814. He was made a G.C.B. in 1837, and 
died in Norfolk Street, Park Lane, London, 
on 10 Oct. 1854, at the age of eighty-two. 

[Eoyal Military Calendar ; Gent. Mag. De- 
cember 1854; Belsham's American War of 1814; 
Drummond's Despatches published in the London 
Gazette.] H. M. S. 

DRUMMOND, HENRY (1786-1860), 
politician, eldest son of Henry Drummond, 
banker, of the Grange, Hampshire, by his wife 
Anne, daughter of Henry Dundas, first Vis- 
count Melville [q. v.], was born in 1786. His 
father died in 1794, and his mother marrying 
again and going to India about 1802, the boy 
was left in charge of his grandfather, Lord 
Melville, and at his house often saw and be- 
came a favourite of Pitt. From his seventh to 



his sixteenth year he was at Harrow, and after- 
wards passed two years at Christ Church, Ox- 
ford, but took no degree. He became a partner 
in the bank at Charing Cross, and continued for 
many years to attend to the business. In 1807 
he made a tour in Russia, and on his return to- 
England married Lady Henrietta Hay, eldest 
daughter of the ninth earl of Kinnoull. He had 
two daughters by her, one of whom married 
Lord Lovaine, and the other Sir Thomas Roke- 
wood Gage, bart. In 1810 he entered parlia- 
ment as M.P. for Plympton Earls, and suc- 
ceeded in getting passed the act (52 Geo. Ill, 
c. 63) against embezzlement by bankers of 
securities entrusted to them for safe custody; 
but after three years his health failed, and h& 
retired. In June 1817, ' satiated with the 
empty frivolities of the fashionable world,' 
he broke up his hunting establishment and 
sold the Grange, and was on his way with 
his wife to the Holy Land, when, under cir- 
cumstances which he seems to have thought 
providential, he came to Geneva as Robert 
Haldane was on the point of leaving it, and 
continued Haldane's movement against the 
Socinian tendencies of the venerable company 
and the consistory, the governing bodies at 
Geneva. His wealth and zeal made him so 
formidable that he was summoned before the 
council of state, and thought it safer to with- 
draw from his house at Secheron, within the 
Genevese jurisdiction, to a villa, the Campagne 
Pictet, on French soil, whence for some time 
he carried on the movement of reform. He 
addressed and published a letter to the con- 
sistory, circulated Martin's version of the 
scriptures, encouraged the ministers rejected 
by the company to form a separate body, which 
was done 21 Sept. 1817, despatched at his own 
cost a mission into Alsace, and in 1819 helped 
to found the Continental Society, and con- 
tinued for many years largely to maintain it 
(A. HALDANE, Lives of the Haldanes). Though 
accustomed to attack the political economists, 
he in 1825 founded the professorship of poli- 
tical economy at Oxford. He was an enthu- 
siastic supporter and one of the founders of 
the Irvingite church, in which he held the 
rank of apostle, evangelist, and prophet. It 
was at Drummond's house at Albury, Surrey, 
that at Advent 1826 the < little prophetic par- 
liament ' of Irving, Wolff, and others met for 
six days' discussion of the scriptures, when the 
catholic apostolic church was practically ori- 
ginated. Edward Irving introduced Drum- 
mond to Carlyle, who caustically described 
' his fine qualities and capacities ' and ' enor- 
mous conceit of himself ' in his ' Reminis- 
cences ' (ed. Norton, ii. 199). When Carlyle 
dined with Drummond at Belgrave Square 
in August 1831, he wrote that he was 'a 






Drummond 



Drummond 



singular mixture of all things of the saint, 
the wit, the philosopher swimming, if I 
mistake not, in an element of dandyism' 
FROUDE, Life of Carlyle, 1795-1835, ii.'l77). 
Drummond built a church for the Irvingites 
at Albury at a cost of 16,000/., and Irving- 
ism long prevailed in the locality. He 
also supported its quarterly magazine, the 
'Morning Watch,' visited Scotland as an 
apostle in 1834, was ordained an angel for 
Scotland in Edinburgh, and was preaching 
on miracles in the chief church of the body 
as late as 1856. He believed that he heard 
supernatural voices at Nice ; and in 1836 
Drummond posted down to the Archbishop 
of York at Nuneham to tell him of the 
approaching end of the world ( Greville Me- 
moirs, 1st ser. iii. 333; McCuLLAGH TOR- 
KENS, Life of Lord Melbourne, ii. 176). He 
-was returned to parliament in 1847 as mem- 
ber for West Surrey, and held that seat till 
his death. He was a tory of the old school, 
but upon his election did not pledge himself 
to any party. He always voted for the budget 
on principle, no matter what the government 
of the day might be. In 1855 he supported 
the ministry under the attacks upon them for 
their conduct of the war, declaring that the 
house was ' cringing ' to the press, was a 
member of Roebuck s committee of inquiry, 
and prepared a draft report, which was re- 
jected. He was particularly active during the 
^debates upon the Divorce Bill in 1857. He 
was a frequent speaker and a remarkable 
figure in the house, perfectly independent, 
scarcely pretending to consistency, attacking 
all parties in turn in speeches delivered in 
an immovable manner, and with an almost 
inaudible voice, full of sarcasm and learning, 
but also of not a little absurdity. He spoke 
especially on ecclesiastical questions, in sup- 
port of the Ecclesiastical Titles Bill and of 
the inspection of convents, and against the 
admission of Jews to parliament. (For de- 
scriptions of his character see KINGLAKE, 
Crimean War, 6th ed. vii. 317 ; HOLLAND, 
Recollections, 2nd ed. p. 156; Quarterly Re- 
view, cxxxii. 184 ; OLIPHANT, Life of Edward 
Irving, 4th ed. pp. 176, 203.) He wrote many 
pamphlets, most of which were republished 
'with his speeches after his death by Lord 
Lovaine, and several religious and devotional 
"works, and brought out at great cost one 
volume of a ' History of Noble British Fami- 
lies ' (1846). He was a generous landlord, 
allowing allotments to his labourers at Al- 
bury as early as 1818. He died at Albury 
20 Feb. 1860. 

[Memoir in LordLovaine's edition of his work; 

Croker Papers ; Oliphant's Life of E. Irving ; 

Gent. Mag. December I860.] J. A. H. 



DRUMMOND, JAMES, first LORD MA- 
DERTY (1540P-1623), second son of David, 
second lord Drummond, by his wife, Lilias, 
eldest daughter of William, second lord 
Ruthven, was born about 1540. He was edu- 
cated with James VI, who throughout his 
life treated him with marked favour. On his 
coming of age his father gave him the lands 
and titles of the abbey of Inchaffray in Strath- 
earn, in virtue of which possession he was 
known as ' commendator' of Inchaffray. He 
also had charters of the baronies of Auchter- 
arder, Kincardine, and Drymen in Perthshire 
and Stirling, 3 Sept. 1582, and 20 Oct. of the 
lands of Kirkhill. In 1585 he was appointed 
a lord of the bedchamber by James VI. He 
was with the king at Perth 5 Aug. 1600, 
during the so-called Gowrie plot, and after- 
wards gave depositions relative to the affair. 
In 1609 (31 Jan.) the king converted the 
abbey of Inchaffray into a temporal lordship, 
and made Drummond a peer, with the title 
of Lord Maderty, the name being that of the 
parish in which Inchaffray was situated. He 
had further charters of Easter Craigton in 
Perthshire, 23 May 1611 ; of the barony of 
Auchterarder (to him and his second son), 
27 July 1615 ; and of the barony of Inner- 
peffray,24 March 161 8. He died in September 
1623. He married Jean, daughter of James 
Chisholm of Cromlix, Perthshire, who through 
her mother was heiress of Sir John Drum- 
mond of Innerpeffray, which property she 
brought into her husband's family, and by her 
he had two sons (John, second lord Maderty, 
and James of Machany) and four daughters, 
Lilias, Jean, Margaret, and Catherine. 

[Douglas and Wood's Peerage of Scotland, 
ii. 550 ; Anderson's Scottish Nation, iii. 529.] 

A. V. 

^DRUMMOND, JAMES, fourth EARL and 
first titular DTJKE OF PERTH (1648-1716), was 
elder son of James, third earl, prisoner at the 
battle of Philiphaugh, 13 Sept. 1645, who died 
2 June 1675. His mother, who died 9 Jan. 
1656,wasLadyAnne Gordon, eldest daughter 
of George, second marquis of Huntly . He was 
educated at St. Andrews, and visited France 
and possibly Russia. On 18 Jan. 1670 he 
married Lady Jane Douglas, fourth daughter 
of William, first marquis of Douglas, and he 
succeeded to the earldom at his father's death 
in 1675 (DOUGLAS, Peerage of Scotland). The 
depressed condition of his family made him 
ready to take any measures for improving it, 
and at the end of 1677 he wrote to Lauderdale 
to offer his co-operation in the worst act of that 
governor's rule of Scotland the letting loose 
of the highlanders upon the disaffected western 
shires (Lauderdale Papers, Camden Soc. iii. 



f, 



article can be revised and supplemented by de Lille,' fasc. xlii, c. 1934), which includes 
A. Joly, ' Un converti de Bossuet : James extracts from Perth's own account of his 
Drummond, due de Perth, 16481716 ' conversion and adds much fresh information 
(' Mem. et travaux des facultes catholiques i about his life after 1693. 



Drummond 



Drummond 



93). At the suggestion of the bishops of Scot- 
land he was added to the committee of coun- 
cil which accompanied the army (ib. p. 95), 
and was himself made a member of the privy 
council in 1678 (DOUGLAS). Apparently dis- 
satisfied wit h this reward he j oined the ' party,' 
as it was called, the body of Scottish nobles 
who opposed Lauderdale in this year under 
the leadership of Hamilton, their chief ground 
of complaint being this very invasion of the 
west, in which Perth had eagerly assisted, 
and he was one of those who came to Lon- 
don in April 1678 and acted in concert with 
Shaftesbury and the Duke of Monmouth. 
In the reports made to Lauderdale he is 
spoken of as ' busy and spiteful,' and as one 
of the ' chief incendiaries ' among the parlia- 
mentary opposition who were then engaged 
upon their last attack on Lauderdale (Lauder- 
dale Papers, iii. 132). The efforts of the 
'party' succeeded so far that to weaken 
their influence orders were sent to despatch 
the highlanders from the west, but failed 
as regarded Lauderdale himself. He then 
returned with the ' party ' to Scotland, and 
took part in the opposition to Lauderdale in 
the convention of July 1678 (ib. p. 249). 
During 1681 he was in partnership with 
William Penn in the settlement of East New 
Jersey (Hist. MSS. Comm. 6th Eep. 700 b). 
In August 1682 he was one of the commis- 
sioners for the trial of the mint in Scotland 
(ib. p. 658 a), and as such took part in the 
prosecution of the treasurer-deputy, Charles 
Maitland of Haltoun, Lauderdale's brother, 
for peculation. During this year he was 
again at Whitehall. He was at this time in 
confidential communication with Archbishop 
Sancroft, expressing his love of ' the church 
of England, of which I hope to live and die 
a member' (CLARKE, Letters of Scottish Pre- 
lates, p. 40). On 16 Nov. 1682 he was made 
justice-general and extraordinary lord of ses- 
sion; and he presided at the trial of Sir 
Hugh Campbell of Chesnock for treason. 
He did his best for the crown, since the estate, 
if confiscated, was promised to one of Charles's 
illegitimate children, but he was unable to 
force the jury to find a verdict of guilty. He 
was also, by the influence of the Duchess of 
Portsmouth, made one of the seven who 
formed the cabinet for the management of 
Scottish affairs (OMOND. Lord Advocates of 
Scotland, i. 223). In 1684 Perth attached 
himself to the faction of his kinsman, the 
Duke of Queensberry, in opposition to that 
of Aberdeen, the lord chancellor. On the 
dismissal of Aberdeen, . Perth succeeded to 
the chancellorship, and was also made, on 
16 July 1684, sheriff principal of the county 
of Edinburgh and governor of the Bass. 



For ten years, Burnet says, he had seemed in- 
capable of an immoral or cruel action, but 
was now deeply engaged in the foulest and 
blackest of crimes (Hist, own Time, i. 587). 
He is especially notorious as having added 
to the recognised instruments of torture that 
of the thumbscrew, and as having thereby 
extracted, especially from Spence, who was 
supposed to be in concert with Argyll, con- 
fessions which the boot could not extort. 
On the death of Charles II he was continued 
in office by James II. As late as July 1685 
he was still in correspondence with Sancroft 
about ' the best and most holy of churches ; ' 
he mentioned an occasion on which he had 
preferred James's life to his own, and said 
significantly, ' So now, whenever the occasion 
shall offer, life, fortune, reputation, all that 
should be dear to an honest man and a 
Christian, shall go when my duty to God and 
his vicegerent calls for it.' On 1 July he 
again wrote, lamenting that he was ' least 
acceptable where I study most to please r 
(CLARKE, pp. 68, 71, 76, 82). This could 
refer to nobody but James. He speedily 
found the right method of making himself 
more acceptable. James had just published 
the celebrated papers in vindication of the 
catholic faith found in Charles's strong box. 
Perth declared himself convinced by their ar- 
guments, and prevailed on his brother, John 
Drummond [q. v.], Lord Melfort, to join him 
in his apostasy. He had meanwhile quarrelled 
with Queensberry, lord treasurer of Scotland, 
his former patron, and the quarrel was brought 
before James. Previous to the conversion 
James had determined to dismiss Perth, but 
after it Queensberry, a staunch protestant, was 
himself turned out, having merely a seat on 
the treasury commission, and Perth and Mel- 
fort became the chief depositaries of the royal 
confidence (BTJRKET, i. 653). After the death 
of his first wife, Perth married Lilias, daugh- 
ter of Sir James Drummond of Machany, by 
whom he had four children. This lady dying 
about 1685, Perth within a few weeks mar- 
ried his first cousin, Lady Mary Gordon, 
daughter of Lewis, third marquis of Huntly, 
and widow of Adam Urquhart of Meldrum. 
With her, according to Burnet (i. 678), 
Perth had had an intrigue of several years' 
standing, without waiting for the necessary 
dispensation from Rome. The pope remarked 
that they were strange converts whose first 
step was to break the laws of the church, 
and was with difficulty prevailed upon to 
grant the dispensation. Perth now esta- 
blished a private chapel in his house at Edin- 
burgh, and a cargo of popish trinkets and 
vestments arrived at Leith. The mob rose, 
attacked Perth's house and insulted his wife. 



Drummond 



Drummond 



The troops fired on the people. Several of the 
ringleaders were captured and hanged. Perth, 
believing that Queensberry was the author of 
the attack, in vain promised a pardon to one of 
them if he would accuse his rival (FOUNTAIN- 
HALL, 31 Jan., 1 Feb. 1685-6). He was now 
the chief agent in the catholic administration 
of Scotland, and when James announced to the 
privy council his intention of fitting up a chapel 
in Holyrood he carried through the council 
an answer couched in the most servile terms 
(MACATTLAY, i. 619). He succeeded, however, 
in inducing James to revoke the proclamation 
ordering all officials, civil and military, to 
give up their commissions and take out new 
ones without taking the test, and to receive 
remissions for this breach of the law at the 
price of 81. each. He was entrusted also 
with the negotiations which James opened 
with the presbyterians (BALCARRES, Memoirs 
Bannatyne Club). In 1687 he was the first 
to receive the revived order of the Thistle. 
In the same year he resigned the earldom of 
Perth and his heritable offices in favour of 
his son and his son's male heir (DOUGLAS). 

When James retreated from Salisbury be- 
fore William, the people, in the absence of 
the troops, whom Perth had unwisely dis- 
banded, rose in Edinburgh. Perth, who was 
detested equally for his apostasy and his 
cruelty, departed under a strong escort to his 
seat of Castle Drummond. Finding himself 
unsafe there, he fled in disguise over the 
Ochil mountains to Burntisland, where he 
gained a vessel about to sail to France. He 
had, however, been recognised, and a boatful 
of watermen from Kirkcaldy pursued the 
vessel, which, as it was almost a dead calm, 
was overtaken at the mouth of the Forth. 
Perth was dragged from the hold in woman's 
clothes, stripped of all he had, and thrown 
into the common prison of Kirkcaldy. Thence 
he was taken to Stirling Castle, and lay there 
until he was released in June or August 1693 
on a bond to leave the kingdom under a penalty 
of 5,0001. He went at once to Rome, where he 
resided for two years, when he joined James's 
court at St. Germain. He received from James 
the order of the Garter, was made first lord of 
the bedchamber, chamberlain to the queen, 
and governor to the Prince of Wales. On the 
death of James II he was, in conformity with 
the terms of the king's will, created Duke of 
Perth. He died at St. Germain on 11 March 
1716, and was buried in the chapel of the 
Scotch College at Paris. He is described as 
very proud, of middle stature, with a quick 
look and a brown complexion, and as telling 
a story ' very prettily.' By his third wife, who 
died in 1726, he had three children. 

[Authorities cited above.] 0. A. 



DRUMMOND, JAMES, fifth EARL and 
second titular DUKE OF PERTH (1675-1720), 
was the eldest son of James Drummond, fourth 
earl of Perth [q. v.], by his first wife, Jane, 
fourth daughter of William, first marquis 
of Douglas. He joined his uncle Melfort 
in France shortly after the deposition of 
James II. He began studying at the Scotch 
College, Paris, but on James going to Ireland 
joined the expedition, and was present at all 
the engagements of the campaign. He then 
resumed his studies in Paris, and afterwards 
travelled in France and Italy. In 1694 his 

j father, released on condition of his leaving 
Scotland, met him at Antwerp after five years r 
separation, and describes him as ' tall, well- 
shaped, and a very worthy youth.' He had re- 

i cently danced before the French and Jacobite 

I courts at Versailles with great approbation. 

I The young man was allowed in 1695 to return 
to Scotland, but was so much a prey to melan- 
choly that his father sent him word ' to be 
merry, for a pound of care will not pay an 
ounce of debt.' In 1707 he was one of the 
Scotch Jacobites who conferred with Colonel 
Hooke, the Pretender's envoy, and though a 
catholic he stipulated that there should be 
security for the protestant religion. In 1708 
he collected two hundred men at Blair Athol 
in expectation of the Pretender's arrival. For 
this he was summoned to Edinburgh, sent 
to London, and imprisoned in the Tower. 
In 1713 he made over his estates to his in- 
fant son. In the rising of 1715 he under- 

, took with two hundred of his Highlanders 

, and some Edinburgh Jacobites to surprise 
Edinburgh Castle, but the scheme miscarried. 
He commanded the cavalry at Sheriffmuir. 
He escaped from Montrose in February 1716 
with the Pretender and Lords Melfort and 
Mar, and after five days' passage reached 
Gravelines. He was subsequently with the 
Pretender at Rome and in Spain. He died at 
Paris in 1720 and was buried beside his father 
at the Scotch College, where his white marble 
monument still exists. His widow, Jane, 
daughter of the fourth Marquis of Huntly, 
entertained Charles Edward for a night at 
Drummond Castle in 1746, and was nine 
months a prisoner at Edinburgh for collect- 

I ing taxes for him. She died at a great age 

' at Stobhall in 1773. 

[Perth's Letters, Camden Society, 1845; Lut- 
trell's Journal ; Epitaph at Scotch College ; 
Douglas and Wood's Peerage of Scotland, ii. 
364.] J. G. A. 

DRUMMOND, JAMES, sixth EARL and 
third titular DTJKE OF PERTH (1713-1747), 
born 11 May 1713, was eldest son of James 
Drummond, fifth earl of Perth [q. v.] He 
was brought up by his mother at Drummond 



Drummond 



Drummond 



Castlejtill his father's death, -when his mother 
took him and his younger brother John to 
France. This step gave great offence to the 
boy's kinsmen and to the Scotch Jacobites, 
who feared that it might entail a confisca- 
tion of the estates, and would be held up to 
odium by the whigs. They accordingly urged 
the Pretender to interfere, but he replied that 
as she pleaded her husband's repeated injunc- 
tions, and her anxiety for a catholic educa- 
tion for her children, he could do nothing. 
The boy was accordingly educated at Douay, 
then sent to Paris to learn accomplishments, 
and is said to have excelled in mathematics. 
On reaching manhood he returned to Scot- 
land, interested himself in agriculture and 
manufactures, and, though his father's at- 
tainder had deprived him of a legal title, 
styled himself and was recognised by his 
neighbours as Duke of Perth. In July 1745 
the authorities resolved on arresting him as a 
precautionary measure, and Sir Patrick Mur- 
ray and Campbell of Inveraray undertook to 
effect this under the guise of a friendly visit. 
This treacherous scheme miscarried, for when 
after dinner they disclosed their errand he 
asked leave to retire to a dressing-room, es- 
caped by a back staircase, crept through 
briars and brambles past the sentinels to a 
ditch, lay concealed till the party had left, 
borrowed of a peasant woman a horse with- 
out saddle or bridle, and in September joined 
the Young Pretender at Perth. When Murray 
was afterwards a prisoner at Prestonpans, 
Perth's only revenge was the ironical remark, 
' Sir Patie, /am to dine with you to-day.' He 
conducted the siege of Carlisle, where he ig- 
nored his superior officer, Lord George Mur- 
ray, in a way which made the latter proffer his 
resignation, but the quarrel was appeased. 
During the retreat from Derby he was sent with 
a hundred horse to hurry up the French rein- 
forcements, but passing through Kendal with 
his escort a little in advance he narrowly 
escaped capture in his carriage. Anxious to 
avoid useless bloodshed, he told his men to 
fire over the heads of the mob. His servant 
was knocked off his horse by a countryman, 
who rode off with it and with the portman- 
teau containing a large sum of money, and 
Perth had to renounce his mission. He was 
not at the battle of Falkirk, having been left 
with two thousand men to continue the siege 
of Stirling. His chief exploit was the sur- 
prising of Lord London's camp, 29 March 
1746. He had secretly collected thirty-four 
fishing boats, crossed Dornoch Firth from 
Portmahamock, and jumping into four feet 
of water was the first to land, but the suc- 
cess would have been much greater had not 
a long parley with an outpost enabled the 



main body to escape. Four vessels laden 
with arms, victuals, uniforms, plate, and fur- 
niture, were, however, captured. At Cullo- 
den he commanded the left wing. On his 
standard-bearer bringing him next day the 
regimental colours he exclaimed, ' Poor as I 
am, I would rather than a thousand pounds 
that my colours are safe.' The French ship 
Bellone ultimately rescued Perth, with his 
brother, Sheridan, and Hay, but, exhausted 
by fatigues and privations, he died on board, 
13 May 1746, and the ship being detained by 
contrary winds his body had to be com- 
mitted to the deep. His name was inserted 
in the act of attainder passed the same month. 
Douglas's description of him, ' bold as a lion 
in the field of battle, but ever merciful in the 
hour of victory,' seems fully justified. The 
Perths, indeed, are a striking instance of the 
moral superiority of the later over the earlier 
Jacobites. 

Perth's brother JOHN (d. 1747), fourth duke, 
was also educated at Douay, showed decided 
military tastes, passed through several grades 
in the French army, then raised the Royal 
I Scotch regiment, and was sent in December 
I 1745 with this and other reinforcements to 
j Scotland. He called upon six thousand 
Dutch soldiers to withdraw, as having capi- 
tulated in Flanders and promised not to serve 
against France. Hessians had to be sent for 
to take their place. His tardiness in joining 
Charles Edward is not easy to explain, for he 
was repeatedly urged to hasten his move- 
ments, but his march was perhaps through a 
hostile country, and the firths were watched 
by English cruisers. He came up just be- 
fore the battle of Falkirk, and mainly con- 
tributed to its success, taking several pri- 
soners with his own hand, having a horse 
killed under him, and receiving a musket-shot 
in the right arm. On the siege of Stirling 
being raised he covered the rear. At Cullo- 
den he was posted in the centre, and pre- 
vented the retreat from becoming a rout. 
He died, without issue, at the siege of Ber- 
gen-op-Zoom in 1747, and was succeeded by 
his uncle John, son of James, first duke, by 
his second wife, who died, also without issue, 
in 1757. John's half-brother Edward, sixth 
duke, son of the first duke by his third wife, 
was a zealous Jansenist, and was confined 
in the Bastille for his opinions, his wife (a 
daughter of Middleton) being twice refused 
the last sacraments and obliged to apply for 
judicial compulsion. He died at Paris in 
1760, being the last male descendant of the 
first duke. 

[Letters of Eguilles, Kevue ^Retrospective, 
1885-6 ; Lockhart Papers; Douglas and Wood's 
Peerage.] J. G. A. 



Drummond 



33 



Drummond 



DRUMMOND, JAMES (1784 P-1868), 
botanical collector, elder brother of Thomas 
Drummond (d. 1835) [q. v.], was elected as- 
sociate of the Linnean Society in 1810, at 
which time he had charge of the Cork botanic 
garden. In 1829 he emigrated to the then 
newly established colony of Swan River, 
Western Australia, and ten years later began 
to make up sets of the indigenous vegetation 
for sale, but previously several of his letters 
giving accounts of his widely extended jour- 
neys for plants had been published by Sir 
William Hooker in his various journals. Dr. 
Lindley's ' Sketch of the Vegetation of the 
Swan River,' 1839, was drawn up from Drum- 
mond's early collections, the botany of that 
part of the Australian continent then being 
little known. He died in Western Australia 
27 March 1863, aged 79. The genus Drum- 
mondiu was created by De Candolle to com- 
memorate his botanic services, but that genus 
Is now merged in Mitellopsis. Drummondia 
of Hooker has not been accepted by bryolo- 
gists, the species being referred to Anodon- 
tium of Bridel, but finally Drummondita, 
a genus of Diosmeae, was founded by Dr. 
Harvey in 1855. 

[Proc. Linn. Soc. (1863-4), pp. 41-2; La- 
segue' s Bot. Mus. Delessert, p. 282 ; Bentham's 
Flora Australiensis, i. 10*; Hooker's Journal 
Bot. (1840), ii. 343; Hooker's Kew Journal 
(1850), ii. 31, (1852) iv. 188, (1853) v. 115,403.] 

B. D. J. 

DRUMMOND, JAMES (1816-1877), 
subject and history painter, born in 1816, 
was the son of an Edinburgh merchant, noted 
for his knowledge of the historical associa- 
tions of the Old Town. On leaving school 
he entered the employment of Captain Brown, 
the author of works on ornithology and cog- 
nate subjects, as a draughtsman and colourist. 
He did not, however, remain long in that 
situation, and found more congenial work in 
the teaching of drawing, on giving up which 
he became a student in the School of Design, 
under Sir William Allan [q. v.] He was eigh- 
teen years of age when he first exhibited in 
the Royal Scottish Academy ; the subject was 
' Waiting for an Answer.' In the following 
year's exhibition Drummond was represented 
by < The Love Letter,' and in 1837 by ' The 
Vacant Chair.' He was enrolled as an asso- 
ciate of the academy in 1846, and was elected 
an academician in 1852. In 1857 he was 
chosen librarian of the academy, and in the 
following year, along with Sir Noel Paton 
and Mr. James Archer, was entrusted with 
the task of preparing a report upon the best 
mode of conducting the life school of the 
academy. This report was presented to the 
council in November of the same year, and 

VOL. XVI. 



met with unanimous approval. On the death 
of W. B. Johnstone, R.S.A., in 1868, Drum- 
mond was appointed to the office of curator 
of the National Gallery. From an early 
period of his life he devoted himself closely 
to the study of historical art ; his treatment 
of such subjects was distinguished no less by 
imaginative grasp and power than by the care 
with which he elaborated the archaeological 
details. Among his large pictures of an his- 
torical nature are ' The Porteous Mob ' (which 
was purchased and engraved by the Asso- 
ciation for the Promotion of the Fine Arts 
in Scotland, and now hangs in the National 
Gallery of Scotland), 'Montrose on his way to 
Execution,' ' The Covenanters in Greyfriars 
Churchyard,' ' Old Mortality,' ' John Knox 
bringing Home his Second Wife,' 'Peace,' 
and ' War.' The last two pictures were ex- 
hibited in the Royal Academy of London, 
and were purchased by the prince consort. 
'War 'was engraved for the 'Art Journal.' 
Drummond also painted numerous minor 
works of a similar type, some of which were 
illustrative of such incidents as Sir Walter 
Scott at an old bookstall, and James VI on 
a visit to George Heriot's shop. For Lady 
Burdett-Coutts he painted the view of Edin- 
burgh Castle from the window of her lady- 
ship's sitting-room in the Palace Hotel, with 
portraits of the baroness and her friend Mrs. 
Brown. He was one of the most active 
members of the Royal Scottish Society of 
Antiquaries, member of the council, and 
curator of the museum. At the meetings of 
the society he read numerous papers, which 
were generally illustrated. He died in Edin- 
burgh on 12 Aug. 1877. 

[Redgrave's Diet, of Artists ; Art Journal, 
1877, p. 336.] L. F. 

DRUMMOND, JAMES LAWSON, 
M.D. (1783-1853), professor of anatomy, 
younger brother of William Hamilton Drum- 
mond, D.D. [q.v.], was born at Lame, co. 
Antrim, in 1783. His school years were 
passed at the Belfast Academy, and he re- 
ceived a surgical training at the Belfast Aca- 
demical Institution. After acting as navy 
surgeon in the Mediterranean for some years 
(1807-13), heretired from theservice (21 May 
1813), and went to Edinburgh for further 
study. On 24 June 1814 he graduated M.D. 
at Edinburgh, exhibiting a thesis on the 
comparative anatomy of the eye. He at once 
began practice in Belfast. In 1817 he volun- 
teered a course of lectures on osteology at 
the Academical Institution, and succeeded 
in obtaining the establishment of a chair of 
anatomy, of which he was elected (15 Dec. 
1818) to be the first occupant. This post he 



Drummond 



34 



Drummond 



held until 1849, when the collegiate depart- 
ment of the institution was merged in the 
Queen's College (opened in November 1849). 
His retirement was partly due to the cir- 
cumstance that in the previous year he had 
broken his leg, and the accident had told 
upon his general health. He was one of the 
leading projectors of the botanic gardens 
at Belfast (1820) ; and in conjunction with 
seven other gentlemen (locally known as his 
apostles) he founded the Belfast Natural 
History Society (5 June 1821). This society 
began in 1823 to make collections of objects 
of scientific interest, and at length laid the 
foundation-stone (4 May 1830) of a museum, 
which was opened on 1 Nov. 1831. In 1840 
the society enlarged its title to ' Belfast Na- 
tural History and Philosophical Society.' 
Benn speaks of Drummond as ' an able pro- 
moter of all scientific and literary matters in 
Belfast.' He died at his residence, 8 College 
Square North, adjoining the museum, on 
17 May 1853, and was buried at Ahoghill, 
co. Antrim, on 19 May. He was thrice mar- 
riedfirst to Getty ; secondly, to Ca- 
tharine Mitchell : thirdly, to Eliza O'Rorke 
but had no issue. His widow still (1888) 
survives. 

Besides papers in the ' Transactions ' of the 
Royal Society of Edinburgh, and articles in 
the ' Magazine of Natural History ' and the 
'Belfast Magazine' (a periodical which began 
in 1825), he was the author of: 1. ' Thoughts 
on the Study of Natural History ' Belf. 1820, 
12mo (anon., consists of an address in seven 
chapters to the proprietors of the Academical 
Institution, recommending the foundation of 
a museum). 2. ' First Steps to Botany,' 
1823, 12mo. 3. ' Letters to a Young Natu- 
ralist,' 1831, 12mo (the most popular of his 
works, and in its time very serviceable in the 
promotion of scientific tastes). 4. 'First 
Steps to Anatomy,' 1845. 12mo. He was an 
able draughtsman, and illustrated his own 
works. At the time of his death he had nearly 
ready for the press a work on conchology, and 
another on the wild flowers of Ireland. 

[Belfast Daily Mercury, News Letter, and 
Northern Whig, all of 20 May 1853 ; Benn's Hist, 
of Belfast, 1880, ii. 232 ; Proceedings of Belf. Nat. 
Hist, and Philos. Soc., 1882, p. 13 sq. ; private 
information.] A. G. 

DRUMMOND, JOHN, first LORD DRO- 
MOND (d. 1519), statesman, ninth succes- 
sive knight of his family, was the eldest son 
of Sir Malcolm Drummond of Cargill and 
Stobhall, Perthshire, by his marriage with 
Mariot, eldest daughter of Sir David Murray 
of Tullibardine in the same county. He sat in 
parliament 6 May 1471, under the designa- 



tion of dominus de Stobhall. On 20 March 
1473-4 he had a charter of the offices of 
seneschal and coroner of the earldom of 
Strathearn (Registrum Magni Sigilli Hegum 
Scotorum, ed. Paul, 1424-1513, p. 236), in 
which he was confirmed in the succeeding 
reign (ib. p. 372). In 1483 he was one of 
the ambassadors to treat with the English, 
to whom a safe-conduct was granted 29 Nov. 
of that year ; again, on 6 Aug. 1684, to treat 
of the marriage of James, prince of Scotland, 
and Anne de la Pole, niece of Richard III. 
He was a commissioner for settling border 
differences nominated by the treaty of Not- 
tingham, 22 Sept. 1484 ; his safe-conduct into 
England being dated on the ensuing 29 Nov. 
He was raised to the peerage by the title 
of Lord Drummond, 29 Jan. 1487-8. Soon 
after he joined the party against James III, 
and sat in the first parliament of James IV, 
6 Oct. 1488. In this same year he was ap- 
pointed a privy councillor and justiciary of 
Scotland, and was afterwards constable of 
the castle of Stirling. In 1489 the so-called 
Earl of Lennox rose in revolt against the 
king. He had encamped at Gartalunane, on 
the south bank of the Forth, in the parish of 
Aberfoyle, but during the darkness of the 
night of 11 Oct. was surprised and utterly 
routed by Drummond (BUCHANAN, Her. Scotic. 
Hist. lib. xiii. c. v.) As one of the commis- 
sioners to redress border and other grievances, 
Drummond had a safe-conduct into England 
22 May 1495, 26 July 1511, 24 Jan. 1512-13, 
and 20 April 1514 (HARDY, Syllabus of 
\ Rymer's Fcedera, ii. 729, 743, 745 ; Letters 
and Papers of Sen. VIII, ed. Brewer, i. 274, 
| 316, 448, 478, 789). In 1514 Drummond 
| gave great offence to many of the lords by 
promoting the marriage of his grandson, Ar- 
chibald Douglas, sixth earl of Angus, with the 
queen-dowager Margaret. Lyon king-at- 
j arms (Sir William Comyn) was despatched 
to summon Angus before the council, when 
Drummond, thinking that he had approached 
the earl with more boldness than respect, 
struck him on the breast. In 1515 John, 
duke of Albany, was chosen regent, but be- 
cause Drummond did not favour the election 
he committed him (16 July) a close prisoner 
to Blackness Castle, upon an allegation that 
he had used violence towards the herald {Let- 
ters fyc. of Henry VIII, vol. ii. pt. i. pp. 187, 
205, 520). He was tried capitally, found 
guilty, and his estates forfeited. However, 
he Avas not long in coming to terms with 
Albany. With other lords he signed the 
answer of refusal to Henry VIII, who had 
advised the removal of Albany, to which his 
seal is affixed, 4 July 1516, and in October 
he announced his final separation from the 



Drummond 



35 



Drummond 



queen's party (ib. pp. 643, 772). He was in 
consequence released from prison and freed 
from his forfeiture, 22 Nov. 1516. He died at 
Drummond Castle, Strathearn, in 1519, and 
was buried in the church of Innerpeffray. He 
was succeeded by his great-grandson David. 
In Douglas's ' Peerage of Scotland ' (ed. Wood, 
ii. 361) Drummond is absurdly stated to have 
married ' Lady Elisabeth Lindsay, daughter 
of David, duke of Montrose.' His wife was 
Elizabeth Lindsay, daughter of Alexander, 
fourth earl of Crawford, and by her he had 
three sons and six daughters. Malcolm, 
the eldest son, died young ; David, master of 
Drummond, is not mentioned in the pedi- 
grees, but is now believed to have been the 
chief actor in the outrage on the Hurrays at 
Monivaird Church, for which he was executed 
after 21 Oct. 1490 (Exchequer Rolls of Scot- 
land, ed. Burnett, vol. x. p. 1, with which cf. 
Accounts of the Lord High Treasurer, Scot- 
land, ed. Dickson, vol. i. pp. cii-civ) ; William 
was living in March 1502-3 ; and John was ! 
ancestor of the Drummonds of Innerpeffray i 
and of Riccarton. Of the daughters, Mar- 
garet [q. v.], mistress of James IV, was > 
poisoned in 1501 ; Elizabeth married George, 
master of Angus, and was great-grandmother 
of Henry, lord Darnley; Beatrix married 
James, first earl of Arran ; Annabella married 
William, first earl of Montrose ; Eupheme, 
the wife of John, fourth lord Fleming, was 
poisoned in 1501 ; and Sibylla shared a like 
fate. Drummond was the common ancestor 
of the viscounts of Strathallan and of the 
earls of Perth and Melfort. 

[Douglas's Peerage of Scotland (Wood), ii. 
360-1 ; Malcolm's Memoir of the House of Drum- 
mond, pp. 67-86; Regi strum Magni Sigilli Regum 
Scotorum (Paul), 1424-1513, (Paul and Thom- 
son) 1513-46 ; Exchequer Rolls of Scotland 
(Burnett), vols.vii-x. ; Accounts of the Lord High 
Treasurer, Scotland (Dickson), vol. i. ; Cal. State 
Papers, Scottish Ser. (1509-89), p. 1 ; Letters and 
Papersof Hen. VIII (Brewer), 1509-16.] G. a. 

DRUMMOND, JOHN, first EAEL and 
titular DUKE OF MELFORT (1649-1714), was 
the second son of James, third earl of Perth. 
In 1673 he was captain of the Scotch foot 
guards. In 1677 his elder brother, James, 
fourth earl of Perth [q. v.], in a letter to 
Lauderdale offering to assist in dragooning the 
covenanters, complains of the family's decay, 
but honours soon fell thick upon them. In 
1679 Drummond became deputy-governor of 
Edinburgh Castle, in 1680 lieutenant-general 
and master of the ordnance, in 1681 treasurer- 
depute of Scotland under Queensberry, and 
in 1684 secretary of state for Scotland. In' 
1685 he was created Viscount Melfort, with 
a grant from the crown of Melfort, Argyll- 



shire, and other estates. In 1686 he was raised 
to an earldom, and exchanged Melfort for Ric- 
carton, Cessnock,&c.,Cessnock, worth 1,0001. 
a year, having by a shameless act of spoliation 
been taken from Sir Hugh Campbell. The re- 
version of these peerages was to the issue of 
his second marriage with Euphemia, daughter 
of Sir Thomas Wallace of Craigie, his sons by 
his first wife (a Fifeshire heiress, Sophia Lun- 
dey or Lundin, daughter of Margaret Lundey 
and Robert Maitland, Lauderdale's brother) 
being passed over as staunch protestants. 
Melfort and his brother, in order to supplant 
Queensberry, had declared themselves con- 
verted to Catholicism by the controversial 
papers found in Charles II's strong box, and 
paraded by James II as a proof that Charles 
had always been a catholic. According to 
Burnet this double conversion was suggested 
by Perth and reluctantly adopted by Melfort ; 
but the latter so far surpassed his brother in 
ability and unscrupulousness that the scheme 
was more likely his. Whereas, moreover, 
Perth's conversion appears to have acquired 
sincerity, Melfort's character never inspired 
confidence either in his political or his reli- 
gious professions. It is, however, but fair to 
state that their mother, Lady Anne Gordon, 
was a catholic. For three year's the two 
brothers ruled Scotland. Melfort, one of the 
first recipients of the revived order of the 
Thistle, was in London when William of 
Orange landed. He hastily provided for the 
worst by resigning his estates to the crown 
and having them regranted to his wife, with 
remainder to his son John. He advocated a 
wholesale seizure of influential whigs and 
their relegation to Portsmouth ; but Sunder- 
land's plan of rescinding all arbitrary mea- 
sures prevailed. He was one of the witnesses 
to the will executed by James (17 Nov. 1688), 
and on the desertion of Churchill was meant 
to succeed him in the bedchamber. Quitting 
England before his master he landed at Am- 
bleteuse 16 Dec. (N.S.), and countersigned 
James's letter to the privy council, which 
reached London 8 (18) Jan. 1689. His wife,, 
with her son, speedily joined him, thus vir- 
tually abandoning her claim to the estates, 
and his Edinburgh house was pillaged by the 
mob, the charters and other papers being 
destroyed or dispersed. One of the hand- 
somest men of his time, an accomplished 
dancer, of an ' active, undertaking temper,' 
as the ' Stuart Papers ' euphemistically style 
his arrogant and monopolising disposition, 
Melfort acquired unbounded influence over 
James, and his adversaries never felt them- 
selves secure except by keeping him at a dis- 
tance from the king. Perth's suggestion that 
it was his wife who incited him to abuse that 

D2 



Drummond 



Drummond 



influence by soliciting favours and preroga- 
tives is a fraternal excuse which cannot be 
accepted. In March 1689 Melfort accompa- 
nied James to Ireland, but became so ob- 
noxious both to the Irish Jacobites and to 
the French envoy, Avaux, that James was 
constrained in September to send him back to 
France on the plea of reporting on the situa- 
tion and requesting reinforcements. Avaux 
asserts that Melfort had been afraid to show 
his face in Dublin by daylight, and would 
have to leave by night. He had countersigned 
and doubtless drawn up James's imprudent 
threatening letter to the Scotch convention ; 
and Claverhouse, when he invited the king 
to cross over from Ireland, stipulated that 
Melfort should not be employed in Scotch 
business. Mary of Modena, like her husband, 
was under Melfort's spell, so that Louis XIV 
found it necessary to remove him from St. 
Germain by despatching him as Jacobite en- 
voy to Rome. One Porter, who had already 
held that post, and was on his way back from 
Ireland, found himself forestalled, and had 
to remain in France. At Rome Melfort, ac- 
cording to the gossip of the time, pressed In- 
nocent XII for a loan of money, but was told 
the expenses of his election had left him bare. 
What is more certain is that on the false re- 
port of William Ill's death he wrote a letter 
of congratulation to the dethroned queen. 
Meanwhile his estates had been sequestrated, 
and in February 1691 a large quantity of 
goods belonging to him, said to be worth 
5,OOOJ. or 6,OOOZ., were seized in London. 
These may have included the Vandycks, Ru- 
bens, and other pictures, sold for the benefit 
of his creditors in 1693, when Evelyn tells 
us that Whitehall was thronged with great 
lords, and that the paintings went ' dear 
enough.' By the end of 1691 Melfort was 
back at St. Germain, and with the Prince 
of Wales and Lord Powis was made K.G. 
Middleton's arrival in April 1693 put an end 
to his ascendency. James, however, commis- 
sioned him to forward to the pope his pro- 
clamation of April 1693, drawn up in Eng- 
land and reluctantly signed by him, in which 
he promised good behaviour if reinstated, and 
Melfort assured his holiness that the pledges 
offered to the church of England were not to 
be taken too seriously. In 1695 Melfort as 
a Jacobite refugee was attainted, and his arms 
publicly torn at Edinburgh market cross. In 
1696, however, it was reported that he had 
vainly asked James's permission to return to 
England. Certain it is that he was banished to 
Rouen, but in the following year was allowed 
to live in Paris and pay occasional visits to 
St. Germain, his bedchamber salary being 
restored. In 1697 it was believed in London 



that he was about to return under a pardon. 
In 1701 the postmaster-general, Sir Robert 
Cotton, found in the Paris mail-bag a letter 
addressed by Melfort at Paris to Perth at 
St. Germain. It spoke of the existence of 
a strong Jacobite party in Scotland, and of 
Louis XIV as still contemplating a Jacobite 
restoration. This letter, submitted by Wil- 
liam to both houses as a proof of French per- 
fidy, gave great offence to Louis, who, even 
had he then meditated a rupture of the treaty 
of Ryswick, would not have made Melfort 
his confidant. In London the seizure of the 
letter was really or ostensibly attributed to 
accident ; but in France, where the mode of 
making up the mails was of course best 
known, Melfort was believed to have written 
the letter with a view to its reaching London 
and embroiling the two countries. He was 
consequently banished to Angers, and never 
saw James again ; but the latter on his death- 
bed directed that Melfort should be recalled, 
and that the dukedom secretly conferred on 
him years before should be publicly assumed. 
St. Simon, however, no bad judge of cha- 
racter, shared to the last the suspicions of 
Melfort's infidelity. His character manifestly 
will not clear him from such suspicions, but 
he was apparently too deeply committed to 
James's cause for treachery to profit him, yet 
Marlborough is said to have been informed 
by one of Melfort's household of the intended 
plan of operations in Scotland in 1708. Mel- 
fort expired at Paris in 17 14 after a long illness. 
His widow, a great beauty in her time, died 
at St. Germain in 1743, at the age of ninety. 
By his first wife he had three sons, James, 
Robert, and Charles, and three daughters, 
Ann, Elizabeth, and Mary ; by his second, six 
sons, John (second duke), Thomas (in the 
Austrian service), William (apriest), Andrew 
(a French officer), Bernard (who died in child- 
hood at Douay), and Philip (a French officer), 
besides several daughters, two of whom were 
married successively to the Spanish Marquis 
Castelblanco. The male line by Melfort's first 
marriage died out in 1800 with Baron Perth, 
to whom the Drummond estates had been 
restored, and who bequeathed them to his 
daughter, Lady Willoughby de Eresby . John, 
the second earl or duke (1682-1754), took 
part in the rising of 1715, and was succeeded 
by his son James, who, having lost his feet 
in the German wars, could not go to Scotland 
in 1745, but sent his brother Louis, comte 
de Melfort, who was wounded and captured 
at Culloden. The fourth duke, James Louis, 
and the fifth, his brother Charles Edward, a 
catholic prelate, unsuccessfully claimed the 
Drummond estates, the French revolution 
having deprived them of the county of Lus- 



Drummond 



37 



Drummond 



san, acquired by the second duke's marriage. 
Their nephew, George Drummond, obtained 
in 1853 the repeal of the attainder, and his 
recognition as Earl of Perth and Melfort, 
though without recovering any of the estates. 

[Historical Facts regarding the succession, &c., 
by the Earl of Perth, Paris, 1866 ; Burnet's His- 
tory of my own Time; Luttrell's Brief Rela- 
tion ; Douglas's Peerage of Scotland ; Lauderdale 
Papers, Camd. Soc.] J. Gr. A. 

DRUMMOND, MARGARET (1472?- 
1501), mistress of James IV of Scotland, was 
probably the youngest of the five daughters 
of John, first lord Drummond [q. v.] by his 
wife, Lady Elizabeth Lindsay, daughter of 
Alexander, fourth earl of Crawford. The 
period at which her intimacy with James IV 
commenced has been very generally misap- 
prehended. It is represented by Tytler, Bur- 
ton, Strickland, and other writers on the his- 
tory of Scotland that in 1488, immediately 
on his accession, the boy-king lived at Lin- 
lithgow in splendour and constant festivity 
with his girl-mistress. But these statements 
are based only on the frequent payments for 
dress and other things, as recorded in the 
' Treasury Accounts of Scotland,' made to 
the 'Lady Margaret,' who was not, as these 
authors have supposed, Margaret Drummond, 
but was without doubt the king's aunt, Lady 
Margaret Stewart. The first entry in the ac- 
counts referring to ' M. D. ' (under \vhich 
initials, or as ' Lady Margaret of D.,' Margaret 
Drummond is invariably mentioned) occurs 
in May 1490, and there is no evidence that 
her connection with the king was of earlier 
date. From that time onwards entries con- 
cerning her are frequent. On 9 June 1496 she 
was placed under the care of Sir John and 
Lady Lindsay at Stirling Castle, where she re- 
mained till the end of October, when she was 
transferred to the charge of Sir David King- 
horn at Linlithgow. In March of the fol- 
lowing year further payments were made to 
Lady Lindsay ' for M. D.'s expenses, eleven 
days she was in Stirling when she passit 
hame.' In this same year Margaret bore the 
king a daughter, who was known by the 
name of Lady Margaret Stewart, and who 
was married successively to Lord Huntly, 
the Duke of Albany, and her cousin, Sir John 
Drummond. The intercourse of Margaret 
Drummond with James IV, who was pas- 
sionately attached to her, probably continued 
to her death, which occurred in 1501 under 
circumstances of grave suspicion. It is com- 
monly said that a poisoned dish was served 
to her at breakfast, and that she and her two 
sisters Eupheme, wife of Lord Fleming, 
and Sybilla who happened to be at table 



with her, all ate of it and died of the effects. 
Another tradition is that the poison was ad- 
ministered to them at a morning celebration 
of the holy communion. That the three sis- 
ters died together from poisoning is tolerably 
certain, but the authorship of the crime re- 
mains unknown. It has been variously at- 
tributed to the jealousy of certain noble fami- 
lies (in Hist, of Noble British Families, 1846, 
vol. ii. pt. xvii., the Kennedys are named) 
and to the designs of the courtiers, who be- 
lieved that while Margaret lived the king 
would refuse to marry ; but this latter story 
is falsified by a deed preserved in the ' Fos- 
dera' (xii. 707), which shows that before 
Margaret's death James IV had bound him- 
self to marry Margaret Tudor. In a letter 
addressed many years afterwards by this 
queen to Lord Surrey (Cotton. MS. Calig. 
B. 1, fol. 281) she incidentally speaks of 'Lord 
Fleming [who] for evil will he had to his 
wife [Eupheme Drummond] caused poison 
three sisters, and one was his wife; and this is 
known as truth in all Scotland.' The bodies 
of the three ladies Drummond were buried 
in Dunblane cathedral, in a vault the posi- 
tion of which was marked by three blue- 
marble stones; these stones, though more 
than once removed, still remain in the choir 
of the cathedral, but there is now no trace 
of any inscription on them. The child of 
Margaret Drummond was brought up at the 
king s expense, and in the ' Treasury Ac- 
counts ' appear payments made at regular 
intervals for several years to priests to sing 
masses for the mother's soul. It has been 
sometimes supposed that the ballad of ' Tay's 
Bank ' alludes to Margaret and was possibly 
written by James IV. 

There is no sufficient foundation for the 
story, repeated, among others, by Don Pedro 
de Ayala (Cal. of Letters and State Papers 
relating to England and Spain, ed. Bergen- 
roth, i. 170), Moreri (Grand Dictionnaire, 
1740), and Agnes Strickland (Lives of the 
Queens of Scotland, ed. 1850, i. 20), that 
James IV was privately married to Mar- 
garet Drummond, but was compelled to wait 
for a dispensation from the pope before he 
could make the fact public, since he and his 
wife were within the degrees of consangui- 
nity prohibited by the canon law. The re- 
lationship between the two was most remote, 
they being cousins in the fifth degree, through 
their common ancestor Sir John Drummond, 
whose daughter, Annabella [q-v.], was mar- 
ried to Robert III of Scotland. 

[Harl. MS. 4238, fol. 312; David Malcolm's 
Genealogical Memoir of the Most Noble and 
Ancient House of Drummond, Edinburgh, 1808 ; 
Accounts of Lord High Treasurer of Scotland, 



Drummond 



Drummond 



ed. T. Dickson, vol. i. pref. p. cxxxii and passim ; 
Tytler's History of Scotland, 3rd ed., iii. 444, 
519. The story of Margaret Drummond and 
her sisters has been embodied, with a greater 
admixture of romance ^ than fact, in the Yellow 
Frigate, a novel by James Grant.] A. V. 

DRUMMOND, PETER ROBERT 
(1802-1879), biographer, the son of a small 
farmer, was born and educated in the parish 
of Madderty, Perthshire, and in early life 
worked as a carpenter. He attained skill as 
a maker of picture-frames, and in this way 
was brought a good deal into the society of 
picture-dealers and gained some knowledge 
of art. In after years he became an enthu- 
siastic collector of pictures and engravings. 
While at Glasgow as assistant in the shop of 
an uncle, a provision merchant, his love of 
literature first developed itself. Towards the 
close of 1832 he opened a circulating library 
at 15 High Street, Perth. This supplied 
a want much felt at the time in the town. 
During the same year he made the acquaint- 
ance of Robert Nicoll, the poet [q. v.J, then 
apprenticed to Mrs. Robertson, a grocer, on 
the opposite side of the street. By Drum- 
mond s advice Nicoll gave up grocery and 
started a bookselling business in Dundee. 
A few years later Drummond was able to 
move to larger premises at 32 High Street, 
where, relinquishing to a large extent his 
circulating library, he entered fully into the 
bookselling trade. He was here the means 
of introducing Jenny Lind, Grisi, and other 
famous singers to Perth audiences. From 
32 High Street Drummond removed to 46 
George Street, and there commenced theerec- 
tion of what is now the Exchange Hotel. 
He intended to use the premises as a print- 
ing office, and perhaps to start a newspaper. 
He resolved, however, to turn farmer, and 
completing the building as an hotel, he made 
over his bookselling business to his cousin 
John, and took the holding of Balmblair, in the 
parish of Redgorton, Perthshire, from Lord 
Mansfield. About 1859 he exhibited his col- 
lection of pictures in the Exchange Hall. By 
1873 he had retired from farming, and hence- 
forth devoted himself to the preparation of 
his books. He died suddenly at his house, 
Ellengo wen, Almond Bank, about three miles 
to the north-west of Perth, on 4 Sept. 1879, 
in his seventy-seventh year, and was buried 
at Wellshill cemetery, Perth, on the 9th. 
A few days after appeared his ' Perthshire in 
Bygone Days : one hundred Biographical Es- 
says,' 8vo, London, 1879. Another work, 
' The Life of Robert Nicoll, poet, with some 
hitherto uncollected Pieces,' 8vo, Paisley 
(printed) and London, 1884, was edited by 
his son, James Drummond. His intention 



was to have issued with it a complete edition 
of Nicoll's poems when the copyright in the 
old edition had expired. Both books contain 
many amusing stories, and are creditable spe- 
cimens of local literature. Drummond wrote 
J several pamphlets on political and agricul- 
tural subjects, and frequently contributed to 
the ' Scotsman' and the Perth press. In 1850 
he published a pamphlet entitled ' The Te- 
nants and Landlords versus the Free Traders, 
by Powdavie,' the aim of which was not the 
advocacy of a protective system, but of jus- 
tice to the agricultural interest. An inge- 
nious mechanic, Drummond gained a medal 
at the exhibition of 1851 for a churn ; he 
also invented an agricultural rake which re- 
ceived honourable mention at the exhibition 
of 1862. 

[Information from 3Ir. James Drummond; 
Perthshire Constitutional, 8 Sept. 1879, p. 2, 
col. 3, p. 3, col. 2 ; Perthshire Advertiser, 5 Sept. 
1879, p. 2, col. 6, and 11 Sept., p. 2, col. 8; Perth- 
shire Courier, 9 Sept. 1879, p. 3, col. 2.] G. G. 

^DRUMMOND, ROBERT HAY (1711- 

1776), archbishop of York, second son of 
George Hay, viscount Dupplin (who suc- 
ceeded his father as seventh earl of Kinnoull, 
1719), and Abigail, the youngest daughter 
of Robert Harley, earl of Oxford, lord high 
treasurer, was born in London on 10 Nov. 
1711. His birth is mentioned by Swift in 
the 'Letters to Stella,' and his infancy is 
thus referred to by Bentley in the dedica- 
! tion of his edition of Horace to Lord Oxford, 
! 8 Dec. 1711 : ' Parvulos duos ex filia nepotes, 
! quorum alter a matre adhuc rubet.' When 
J six years old he was ' carried ' by Matthew 
Prior to Westminster School, of which Dr. 
Freind was then head-master, where he re- 
mained 'admired,' we are told, 'for his talents, 
and beloved for the pleasantry of his man- 
i ners, and forming many valuable friendships 
! among his schoolfellows.' While a boy at 
| Westminster, when acting in 'Julius Caesar' 
i before George II and Queen Caroline, his in- 
\ trepidity in proceeding with his part when 
; his plume of ostrich feathers had caught fire 
1 attracted the notice of the queen, who con- 
\ tinued his warm patroness till her death in 
| 1737. From Westminster he removed to 
i Christ Church, Oxford. Having taken his 
i B. A. degree 25 Nov. 1 73 1 , he j oined his cousin, 
Thomas, duke of Leeds, in the ' grand tour,' 
from which he came home in 1735, in the 
opinion of his uncle not only ' untainted, but 
much improved' (Earl of Oxford to Swift, 
19 June 1735). He had been originally de- 
stined for the army, but on his return to 
England he went back to Christ Church, took 
his M.A. degree 13 June 1735, and read di- 
vinity with a view to his entrance into holy 



Drummond 



39 



Drummond 



orders. In the year of his ordination he was 
presented by his uncle to the family living of 
Bothal, Northumberland, and by the influ- 
ence of Queen Caroline, when only in his 
twenty-fifth year, appointed to a royal chap- 
laincy. In 1739, as heir of his great-grand- 
father, William, first earl of Strathallan, who 
had entailed a portion of hisPerthshireestates 
to form a provision for the second son of the 
Kinnoull family, he assumed the name and 
arms of Drummond. As royal chaplain he 
gained the confidence and esteem of George II, 
whom he attended during the German cam- 
paign of 1743, and on 7 July of that year 
preached the thanksgiving sermon for the 
victory of Dettingen before the king at Hanau. 
On his return to England he entered on a 
prebendal stall at Westminster, to which he 
had been appointed by his royal patron in the 
preceding April (L,E NEVE, ed.Hardy, iii. 366). 
On 9 June 1745 he was admitted B.D. and 
D.D. at Oxford. Drummond was consecrated 
bishop of St. Asaph in Kensington Church 
24 April 1748. The thirteen years spent by 
him in this see were among the happiest of 
his life. He was deservedly respected, and 
we are told that he ' constantly mentioned 
the diocese with peculiar affection and de- 
light.' He would seem to have dispensed 
the large patronage of the see with sound 
judgment. He was not, however, in advance 
of his age. He made no attempt to popu- 
larise the church among the Welsh-speaking 
population of the diocese, and publicly ex- 
pressed his hope that ' that people would see 
it their best interest to enlarge their views 
and notions, and to unite with the rest of 
their fellow-subjects in language as well as 
in government' {Charity Schools Sermon, 
1753). In 1761 Drummond was translated 
to Salisbury. Here, however, he remained 
only a few months. He was elected to 
Salisbury in June; the following August 
the see of York became vacant by the death 
of Archbishop Gilbert, and Drummond was 
at once chosen as his successor. ' Previous 
to the coronation,' writes Horace Walpole, 
' the vacant bishoprics were bestowed. York 
was given to Drummond, a man of parts and 
of the world,' and ' a dignified and accom- 
plished prelate.' His election took place 
3 Oct., and his confirmation 23 Oct. As a 
proof of the high esteem in which he was held 
and of his reputation as a preacher, he was 
selected while archbishop-designate to preach 
the sermon at the coronation of George III 
and Queen Charlotte, 22 Sept. 1761. This ser- 
mon was pronounced by contemporary critics 
as ' sensible and spirited,' and ; free from ful- 
some panegyrick.' The style is dignified and 
the language well chosen, and the relative 



duties of monarch and subjects are set forth 
without flattery and without compromise. 
Drummond now became lord high almoner to 
the young king. He is stated to have re- 
formed many abuses connected with the office, 
and to have put a stop to the system by which 
persons of rank and wealth had been accus- 
tomed to make use of the royal bounty to 
secure a provision for persons having private 
claims upon them. D uring the life of George II 
Drummond, who was a whig and an adherent 
of the Duke of Newcastle, exercised consider- 
able political power, and was an influential 
speaker in the House of Lords. In 1753, 
when a charge was laid before the privy 
council against Bishop Johnson of Glouces- 
ter, together with Mr. Stone and William 
Murray, afterwards Lord Mansfield [q. v.], of 
having drunk the Pretender's health, he de- 
I fended his old schoolfellows with so much 
earnestness and eloquence that he secured 
their acquittal, and the proposed inquiry was 
negatived in the House of Lords by a large 
majority, George II remarking that ' he was 
indeed a man to make a friend of.' The 
change of policy which speedily followed the 
accession of George III, when indignities 
were heaped upon the leading members of 
the old whig party, aroused the indignation 
and disgust of the archbishop. Except when 
his duty as a churchman called for it, he 
ceased his attendance at the House of Lords, 
and retiring to his own private mansion at 
Brodsworth in Yorkshire, of which we are 
told he ' made an elegant retreat,' he devoted 
himself to the vigorous oversight of his dio- 
cese and the education of his children, which 
he personally superintended. In 1749 he 
married Henrietta, daughter of Peter Auriol, 
' a merchant of London, by whom he had a 
! numerous family. He instructed his children 
himself. History, of which he had an extensive 
j and accurate knowledge, was his favourite sub- 
' ject, and his son gratefully records ( the per- 
spicuous and engaging manner ' in which he 
imparted his instruction, and the lucidity with 
which he traced the continuity and connection 
of all history, sacred and profane, ' with the 
zeal and fervour of honest conviction.' For 
the use of his children he drew up some clear 
and comprehensive chronological tables. As 
a bishop he was certainly quite on a level 
with the standard of his age. A somewhat 
extensive collection of his letters existing in 
manuscript proves him to have been a good, 
sensible, practical man of business. In his 
religious views he was strongly opposed to 
Calvinism, and did not scruple to express freely 
his dislike of passages in the Articles and Ho- 
milies which appeared to favour those tenets. 
He fully shared in the suspicion which in that 



Drummond 



Drummond 



age of formality attached to the term ' en- 
thusiasm,' which he vehemently denounced, 
while he was equally ardent in defence of 
what he styled ' the decent services and ra- 
tional doctrines of the church of England.' 
Noble manners, an engaging disposition, af- 
fable and condescending address, a genial 
and good-humoured bearing, even if some 
allowance is made for partiality in descrip- 
tion, make up an attractive portrait. His 
hospitality was generous, even to excess, and 
if the gossip of the day is to be credited his 
own example did not place any severe re- 
straint on the clergy who gathered round his 
table. On his death Horace Walpole speaks 
of him as ' a sensible, worldly man, but much 
addicted to his bottle ' (WALPOLE, Last Dia- 
ries, ii. 8-9). His son more guardedly re- 
cords that 'wherever he lived hospitality j 
presided ; wherever he was present elegance, 
festivity, and good humour were sure to be \ 
found. His very failings were those of a ' 
heart warm even to impetuosity.' His open- 
handed, generous character was manifested 
in the splendid additions he made to the ar- 
chiepiscopal palace at Bishopthorpe, where 
he also erected a new gateway, ornamented i 
the chapel at great cost, and rebuilt the parish i 
church in the taste of the day. It deserves 
notice that, in an age when the fine arts suf- 
fered from prevalent neglect, the archbishop 
proved himself a liberal patron of English 
artists (LECKY, Hist, of England in the Eigh- 
teenth Cent. vi. 161). In 1766 he lost his 
eldest daughter at the age of sixteen, and in 
1773 his wife died. He never recovered this 
last blow, and died at Bishopthorpe 10 Dec. i 
1776. By his own desire he was buried under 1 
the altar of the parish church, with as little 
pomp as possible. Of his five sons the eldest, 
Robert Auriol, succeeded his uncle, Thomas | 
Hay [q. v.], as ninth earl of Kinnoull, 1787. ! 
Six ot the archbishop's sermons which had 
been printed separately at the time of their \ 
delivery were collected by his youngest son, ; 
the Rev. George Hay Drummond, and pub- 
lished in one volume, Edinburgh, 1803, to- 
gether with a short memoir and ' A Letter on 
Theological Study.' These sermons display 
clearness of thought and force of expression, 
the matter is sensible and to the point, the 
composition is good, and the language digni- 
fied. The ' Letter on Theological Study ' was 
written to a young friend, and not intended 
for publication. The advice as to the selec- 
tion of books is very sensible, and free from 
narrowness,wide reading being recommended, 
including works not strictly theological. A 
portrait by Sir Joshua Reynolds was engraved 
by Watson. A small medallion portrait is 
prefixed to his sermons. 



[Memoirs of his life by his son, prefixed to 
his Sermons ; Cassan's Lives of the Bishops of 
Salisbury, pp. 284-303 ; Walpole's History and 
Diaries; sources referred to in the article.] 

E. V. 

DRUMMOND, SAMUEL (1765-1844), 
portrait and historical painter, was born in 
London on 25 Dec. 1765. His father fought 
for the Pretender in 1745, and in consequence 
was obliged to leave the country for some 
time. At the age of fourteen Samuel ran oft' 
to sea, but after six or seven years he left the 
service, and determined to devote himself to 
art. Without having had any instruction 
he began by drawing portraits in crayons, 
and for several years he was employed upon 
the 'European Magazine.' He then attempted 
painting in oil, and exhibited for the first 
time some portraits at the Society of Artists 
in 1790. In 1791 he sent to the Royal 
Academy ' Wilton's First Sight of Olivia * 
and two other pictures ; in 1793, two sea- 
pieces, with some portraits ; in 1801, ' The 
Woodman;' and in 1804, 'The Drunken Sea- 
man ashore ' and ' Crazy Jane.' In 1808 he was 
elected an associate of the Royal Academy, 
where many years later he succeeded Archer 
James Oliver as curator of the painting 
school. He gained some repute by his naval 
subjects, such as the ' Death of Nelson,' exhi- 
bited at the British Institution in 1807, the 
' Battle of Trafalgar,' and the ' Battle of the 
Nile,' exhibited at the same place in 1825, the 
first two of which have been engraved, and a 
large picture of ' Admiral Duncan receiving 
the Sword of the Dutch Admiral De Winter 
after the Battle of Camperdowne,' exhibited 
in 1827, a commission from the directors of 
the British Institution, by whom it was pre- 
sented to Greenwich Hospital. In 1829 he 
sent to the British Institution 'The Gallantry 
of Sir Walter Raleigh.' His principal occupa- 
tion was portrait-painting, but he also painted 
landscapes, in which he imitated the Floren- 
tine pictures of Wilson. His later works 
were chiefly subjects from the Bible and the 
poets, some of which have been engraved. 
Between 1790 and 1844 he exhibited 303 
pictures and drawings at the Royal Academy r 
and 101 at the British Institution and other 
London exhibitions. In the latter part of his 
life his circumstances became reduced, and he 
frequently received assistance from the funds 
of the Royal Academy. He died in London 
on 6 Aug. 1844. 

Portraits by him of the elder Charles 
Mathews, the comedian, and of Richard 
Parker, the leader of the mutiny at the 
Nore, were in the National Portrait Exhibi- 
tion of 1867. In the National Portrait Gallery 
are a portrait in oil of Sir Marc Isambard 



Drummond 



Drummond 



Brunei, exhibited at the Royal Academy in 
1836, and a miniature on ivory of Mrs. Fry. 

[Redgrave's Diet, of Artists of the English 
School, 1878 ; Sandby's Hist, of the Royal Aca- 
demy of Arts, 1862, i. 397 ; Seguier's Critical 
and Commercial Diet, of the Works of Painters, 
1870; Royal Academy Exhibition Catalogues, 
1791-1844 ; British Institution Exhibition Cata- 
logues (Modern), 1807-43.] R. E. G. 

DRUMMOND, THOMAS (d. 1835), bo- 
tanical collector, -was the younger brother of 
James (1784 P-1863 ?) [q. v.] He was born 
in Scotland, and during the early part of his 
life was at Don's nursery, Forfar. He first 
became known to botanists by his distributed 
sets of mosses, ' Musci Scotici,' and after- 
wards was attached as assistant-naturalist to 
Dr. Richardson in Sir John Franklin's se- 
cond land expedition. He accordingly sailed 
from Liverpool 16 Feb. 1825, and reached 
New York on the 15th of the following 
month. The expedition moved westward by 
the river Hudson and lakes Ontario and 
Winnipeg to the Mackenzie river. Drum- 
mond quitted the main party at Cumberland 
House to explore the Rocky Mountains. In 
the spring of 1831 Drummond journeyed on 
foot by the Alleghany Mountains, reaching 
St. Louis in July, where he fell ill. In con- 
sequence of this delay he was unable to join 
the fur traders on their expedition to the 
north. He therefore was compelled to con- 
fine his explorations to New Orleans and 
thereabouts. Hence he made a botanical tour 
in Texas ; at Velasco an attack of cholera 
prostrated him, but on recovering he con- 
tinued his labours. He embarked finally for 
Havana 9 Feb. 1835, and died at that port 
early in March. The plants sent home by 
Drummond were described by Sir William 
Hooker in his ' Flora Boreali- Americana,' his 
' Journal of Botany,' and ' Companion to the 
Botanical Magazine.' 

[Lasegue's Bot. Mus. Delessert, pp. 196-8, 204; 
Hooker's Bot. Misc. (1830), i. 178-219 ; Hooker's 
Journal Bot. (1834), i. 50-60, (1840) ii. 187.] 

B. D. J. 

DRUMMOND, THOMAS (1797-1840), 
engineer and administrator, was born in Edin- 
burgh on 10 Oct. 1797. His father, James 
Drummond, was a member of the society 
of writers to the signet and the representa- 
tive of a branch of a Scotch family of ancient 
lineage. James Drummond married in 1792 
Elizabeth, daughter of James Somers of Edin- 
burgh, a lady of personal attractions and great 
force of character. Thomas was the third child 
of this marriage. At the age of thirteen he 
entered the university of Edinburgh. Pro- 
fessor Leslie said of him : ' No young man has 



ever come under my charge with a happier 
disposition or more promising talents.' In 
1813 he became a cadet at Woolwich, and in 
1815 entered the royal engineers. Drum- 
mond's progress at Woolwich was rapid, and 
the esteem in which he was held by his 
teachers great. ' At the last examination,' 
he writes on 13 April 1813, ' I got from the 
bottom of the sixth academy to be fifth in 
the fifth academy, by which I took fifty-five 
places and was made by Captain Gow (the 
commanding officer) head of a room.' Pro- 
fessor Barlow spoke of his originality, inde- 
pendence, ' steady perseverance,' and kindli- 
ness of heart, which were distinguishing traits 
at every period of his life. 

In 1819 Drummond became acquainted 
with Colonel Thomas Frederick Colby [q. v.] 
in Edinburgh, and in 1820 joined that officer in 
the work of the ordnance survey. Drummond 
was now twenty-three years of age, and he 
entered into his new labours with zeal. He 
devoted himself with increased energy to his 
favourite studies, mathematics and chemistry, 
in which he made rapid progress under Pro- 
fessors Brand and Faraday at the Royal Insti- 
tution. Among the difficulties felt in carrying 
out the survey the labour of making observa- 
tions in murky weather was very great. This 
labour was minimised by the scientific genius 
of Drummond. His two inventions a lime- 
light, better known as 'the Drummond light/ 
and an improved heliostat, an instrument 
consisting of a mirror connected with two tele- 
scopes, and used for throwing rays of light in 
a given direction immensely facilitated the 
work of observation both by day and night, 
and armed the survey officers with powerful 
weapons for carrying on their operations. 
The light soon made a sensation in the scien- 
tific world. Sir John Herschel describes the 
impression produced when the light was first 
exhibited in the Tower : ' The common Ar- 
gand burner and parabolic reflector of a 
British lighthouse were first exhibited, the 
room being darkened, and with considerable 
effect. Fresnel's superb lamp was next dis- 
closed, at whose superior effect the other 
seemed to dwindle, and showed in a manner 
quite subordinate. But when the gas began 
to play, the lime being brought now to its 
full ignition and the screen suddenly removed, 
a glare shone forth, overpowering, and as it 
were annihilating, both its predecessors, which 
appeared by its side, the one as a feeble gleam 
which it required attention to see, the other 
like a mere plate of heated metal. A shout 
of triumph and of admiration burst from all 
present.' 

In 1824-5 the survey of Ireland com- 
menced, and in the autumn of the latter 



Drummond 



Drummond 



year the light was brought into requisition. 
The triangulation commenced by observa- 
tions between Divis mountain, near Belfast, 
and Slieve Snaght, the highest hill of Innis- 
howen, a distance of sixty-seven miles. It 
was essential that a given point on Slieve 
Snaght should be observed from Divis, but 
though the work of observation was carried 
on from 23 Aug. to '26 Oct. the required 
point could not be sighted. Then the Drum- 
mond light was brought into play, with a 
result of which General Larcom has given a 
graphic account. Drummond's skill was also 
used in perfecting the Colby, or, as they are 
sometimes called, the Colby-Drummond com- 
pensation bars, by means of which the base of 
Lough Foyle the most accurately measured 
base in the world according to Sir John Her- 
schel was measured [see COLBY, THOMAS 
FREDERICK]. In 1829 Drummond was en- 
gaged in rendering the limelight which he 
had discovered fit for lighthouse purposes. 
Experiments were tried to test its efficiency, 
and we have an account of the most important 
of these from an eye-witness. Several lights 
were exhibited from a temporary lighthouse at 
Purfleet in competition with the Drummond 
light, and Captain Basil Hall, who witnessed 
the exhibition, wrote to Drummond : ' The 
fourth light was that which you have devised, 
and which, instead of the clumsy word " lime," 
ought to bear the name of its discoverer. The 
Drummond light, then, the instant it was un- 
covered elicited a sort of shout of admiration 
from the whole party as being something much 
more brilliant than we had looked for. The 
light was not only more vivid and conspicu- 
ous, but was peculiarly remarkable from its 
exquisite whiteness. Indeed, there seems no 
great presumption in comparing its splendour 
to that of the sun, for I am not sure that the 
eye would be able to look at the disc of such 
light if its diameter were made to subtend 
half a degree.' 

The superior brilliancy of the light having 
been established, the cost of production was 
very great, and Drummond was engaged in 
devising means for lessening the expense of 
manufacturing gas, management, &c., when 
in 1831 he glided into politics. In that year 
Drummond met Brougham at the house of 
& common friend, Mr. Bellenden Ker. An 
intimacy soon sprang up between them. 
Other political acquaintances were by de- 
grees formed, Drummond's worth was quickly 
recognised, and when the time came for ap- 
pointing the boundary commission in connec- 
tion with the great Reform Bill Drummond 
was made head of the commission. For his 
services in connection with the commission 
a pension of 300Z. a year was conferred on 



him, but with characteristic independence 
he declined after two years to accept it any 
longer. The business of the boundary com- 
mission over, Drummond's political friends 
resolved to keep him among them. In 1833 
he became private secretary to Lord Al- 
thorp, then chancellor of the exchequer. In 
1835 he was appointed under-secretary at 
Dublin Castle, and entered upon his great 
work of the administration of Ireland. Drum- 
mond arrived in Ireland at a critical moment 
in the history of the country. The Catholic 
Emancipation Act of 1829 had not brought 
contentment in its train, because the adminis- 
tration of the law continued one-sided and 
unjust. Admitted by law to political posts, 
catholics were excluded in fact ; and all poli- 
tical power still remained in the hands of 
the protestant ascendency minority. Under 
these circumstances, O'Connell carried on an 
agitation for the repeal of the union from 
1830 to 1835, and used his great influence 
in Ireland to thwart the executive and em- 
barrass successive administrations. After the 
general election of 1835 O'Connell held the 
balance between the two great English parties, 
and finally threw his weight into the scale 
in favour of the whigs. AYith his aid the 
whigs, under Lord Melbourne, came into 
office, and a compact was practically made 
between the government and the Irish leader. 
The basis of this compact known as the 
Lichfield House compact was that O'Con- 
nell should suspend the demand for repeal, 
and that the government should pass reme- 
dial measures for Ireland and administer the 
affairs of the country on principles of justice 
and equality. The Irish administration was 
nominally entrusted to Lord Mulgrave, the 
lord-lieutenant, and Lord Morpeth, the chief 
secretary, but Drummond was really in com- 
mand. 

He was practically the governor of the 
country, and for five years managed its affairs 
with wisdom, firmness, and justice, making 
j the executive at once strong, popular, and 
efficient. Prior to his arrival Ireland was 
i the scene of political agitation, social dis- 
j order, and religious feuds. The Orangemen, 
j irritated and alarmed at the emancipation of 
the catholics, had formed an army of not 
less than two hundred thousand men to up- 
i hold the prerogatives of the dominant class. 
: Orange processions and armed demonstra- 
' tions terrorised Ulster and overshadowed 
j the executive in Dublin. Catholic peasants 
struggled fiercely to overthrow the tithe sys- 
tem, and fought pitched battles with the 
' military and police. The agrarian war raged 
i with wonted fury, faction fights disgraced 
I the land, and O'Connell loudly called for the 



Drummond 



43 



Drummond 



repeal of the union as the only remedy for 
his country's ills. Drummond was equal to 
the situation. While engaged on the ord- 
nance survey he had studied the Irish ques- 
tion on the spot. He was moved by the 
miseries of the people, touched by the injus- 
tice to which they were subjected, and pained 
by the evidence of misrule which everywhere 
met his eye. Ireland became to him a second 
fatherland, and he entered upon his labours 
full of zeal for the national welfare and deter- 
mined to administer the law with even-handed 
justice. Drummond set out for Ireland on 
18 July 1835. On 19 Nov. following he 
married, in England, Miss Kinnaird, the ward 
and adopted daughter of Richard (' Conversa- 
tion ') Sharp [q. v.], an accomplished, attrac- 
tive, and intelligent woman, who entered 
into his labours with sympathy and zest. In 
December 1835 Drummond took up his resi- 
dence at the under-secretary's lodge in the 
Phoenix Park, Dublin. His attention was 
first directed to the organisation of 'an effec- 
tive police force. Prior to his time the police 
were an inefficient, partisan, and corrupt 
body. Catholics were practically excluded 
from the force, and public confidence in con- 
sequence withdrawn from it. ' Order ' in 
Dublin was maintained by four hundred un- 
derpaid, worn-out, and drunken watchmen, 
while throughout the provinces the force 
formed rather a centre of disturbance than 
a security for peace. Under Drummond the 
four hundred Dublin watchmen were replaced 
by a thousand able and efficient constables, 
while that great constabulary force, now 
grown to ten thousand men, and composed 
chiefly of catholic peasants, was formed to 
justify the belief of Drummond that the peace 
could best be kept in Ireland by trusting 
Irishmen, when fairly treated, to keep it. 
Drummond's innovation startled many minds, 
but an experience of fifty years has proved 
the soundness of his judgment. Drummond 
found the local magistrates as untrustworthy 
as the old police. In his own language he 
' clipped their wings ' by practically placing 
over them stipendiaries who acted directly 
under his authority. These stipendiaries ad- 
ministered the law with great justice and won 
the confidence of the people, hitherto withheld 
from the petty session courts. The Orange 
Society was almost supreme in the land, keep- 
ing alive the bitter feeling of sectarian hate. 
In Drummond's time the old Orange Society 
was completely broken up. Orange lodges 
Avhich existed in the army were disbanded, 
secret signs and pass- words, then in use, were 
discovered and prohibited; Orange proces- 
sions were put down, Orange magnates repri- 
manded, and the organisation entirely stripped 



of the power for mischief and disturbance 
which it had so long possessed. The notorious 
faction fights, which were of constant occur- 
rence in the south, met with treatment of equal 
vigour. It had been the practice to allow 
the faction fighters to settle their differences 
among themselves. Drummond reprimanded 
the police for their listlessness, urged them to 
vigorous action, and under pain of dismissal 
ordered the chiefs to prevent the coming to- 
gether of the opposing factions. Finding 
that the holding of fairs was made the oc- 
casion of many of those faction fights, he 
suppressed numerous fairs where the business 
! was insignificant but the disorder great. The 
| tithe war was a great difficulty to Drum- 
mond. From 1830 to 1834 it had raged 
fiercely. Tithes were collected at the point 
of the bayonet, peasants were shot down and 
bayonetted by police, and police were stoned 
and pitchforked by peasants. Parliament had 
declared that the tithe system needed reform, 
but the church insisted that, pending reform, 
tithes should at all hazards be collected. Drum- 
mond set himself to keep the peace pending 
tithe reform. He refused to force six million 
catholics to pay tithes to the church of eight 
hundred thousand protestants while parlia- 
ment was preparing to reform or abolish the 
tithe system. But he took precautions to pro- 
tect from violence all who were engaged in 
exercising their legal rights. Police were no 
longer despatched as tithe collectors to shoot 
j down peasants, but peasants were not allowed 
to assault or slay the agents of the law. The 
executive no longer appeared as the instru- 
ment of a class, but it did not degenerate 
into a weapon of the popular party. This 
impartiality was new to the people and won 
their hearts. Legal rights harshly exercised 
were no longer enforced, and the people, find- 
ing an executive bent on justice, and power- 
ful to protect as well as punish, showed a 
disposition, hitherto unknown, to obey the 
law. The peace was kept until the Tithe 
Commutation Act of 1838 reformed the sys- 
tem, and relieved the peasantry from at least 
the direct payment of the obnoxious impost. 
The agrarian war also engaged Drummond's 
attention. In 1833 a strong ' coercion ' act 
had been passed to put down agrarian dis- 
turbances, but it had so far failed that in 
1834 the lord-lieutenant declared that 'it 
was more safe to violate the law than obey 
it.' Drummond understood the land ques- 
tion in all its bearings. He was far too sound 
an administrator not to be aware that, what- 
ever might be the causes of disturbance, law 
and order should be upheld and outrages 
put down with a strong hand. Abandoning 
the old methods, he enforced the ordinary 



Drummond 



44 



Drummond 



law with vigour. The abandonment of coer- 
cion made him popular with the masses of 
the people, and even those who sympathised 
with the agrarian organisations forgot the 
severity in the justice of the ruler. For the 
first and only time in Irish history an or- 
ganisation of Irish peasants was formed to 
help the executive in bringing agrarian offen- 
ders to justice, and this society was formed 
in the very centre of agrarian disturbances 
itself Tipperary. There was no difficulty in 
getting evidence against agrarian offenders ; 
there was no difficulty in getting juries to 
convict where the evidence was clear. While 
arresting and punishing offenders against the 
law, Drummond cautioned the landlords to 
be circumspect in the exercise of their legal 
powers, and in a famous letter, which has 
made an epoch in Irish history, told them 
that ' property has its duties as well as its 
rights.' The letter was an answer to a com- 
munication addressed to the Irish govern- 
ment in 1838 by Lords Glengall, Lisrnore, 
and thirty other Tipperary magistrates, re- 
lative to the murder of a Mr. Cooper. The 
magistrates pleaded for more stringent legisla- 
tion for the suppression of crime. Drummond 
replied (22 May 1838) with the far-famed 
sentence, and he continued : ' To the neglect 
of those duties [i.e. of property] in times past 
is mainly to be ascribed that diseased state of 
society in which such crimes take their rise.' 

Drummond had to grapple with political 
agitation as well as social disorders and re- 
ligious feuds. O'Connell had long been the 
enemy of every Irish administration. But 
Drummond conciliated the great agitator, 
and while he ruled the cry of repeal was si- 
lent. O'Connell felt that no ruler responsible 
to an Irish parliament for the administration 
of the country could govern with more ability 
and justice than Drummond. Accordingly 
he lent the weight of his authority to the sup- 
port of the executive, and the extraordinary 
spectacle was for the first time seen of Irish 
agitator and English administrator working 
hand in hand to maintain order and uphold 
the law. No better proof of Drummond's 
success can be given than by stating that the 
number of troops in the country two years 
before his arrival was 23,998 ; the number 
when he ceased to rule 14,956, the number 
seven years after he had ceased to rule 28,108. 

Drummond devised schemes for the de- 
velopment of the resources of the country 
and the employment of the poor. At his sug- 
gestion a railway commission, over which he 
presided, was appointed (October 1836), and 
proposals were made for the construction by 
the state of trunk lines from Dublin to Cork, 
with branches to Kilkenny, Limerick, and 



Waterford, and from Dublin north to Navan, 
branching to Belfast and Enniskillen. Un- 
fortunately, owing to political and private 
jealousies, Drummond's scheme was not 
carried out. But time has justified his fore- 
sight and wisdom in the transaction, and 
his calculations as to the paying capabilities 
of the different routes have been singularly 
' verified. Of the work of the commission it 
; has been said ' the labours of the commis- 
\ sioners were most arduous : their report, 
i with the evidence on which it was founded, 
and the explanatory maps and plans which 
! accompanied it, is one of the ablest ever 
submitted to parliament.' Of the minor 
work done by Drummond for Ireland the 
municipal boundaries commission, the abo- 
lition of the hulks at Cork, and the suppres- 
sion of the disgraceful Sunday drinking booths 
in the Phoenix Park, Dublin, may be men- 
tioned. Nor should it be forgotten that Drum- 
mond was the first man who threw open the 
doors of Dublin Castle to all comers. Each 
day he held a levee, to which peer and peasant, 
landlord and tenant, catholic and protestant 
could come on equal terms. The gift of con- 
ciliation was perhaps the greatest charm of 
| Drummond's character. Before he came to 
Ireland the Duke of Leinster declared that 
he would nevermeet O'Connell ; butatDruni- 
| mond's instance the great duke and O'Connell 
! met on a common platform to promote Drum- 
i mond's schemes for the welfare of their com- 
; mon country. Drummond was attacked by 
: a faction, and a parliamentary committee was 
appointed to show that crime had increased 
under his administration. The upshot of thi& 
inquiry was a splendid vindication of his go- 
vernment. 

' The inquiry,' says Lord John Russell,. 
' ended by proving that crime had diminished, 
and that the increased security for property 
was demonstrated by this most conclusive 
test, that five years' more purchase was given 
for land in 1839 than had been given for 
seven years' before.' During Drummond's 
rule, we learn from another authority, Chief 
Baron Pigott, ' homicide diminished 13 per 
cent., firing at the person 55 percent., incen- 
diary fires 17 per cent., attacks upon houses 
63 per cent., killing or maiming cattle 12 per 
cent., levelling houses 65 per cent., illegal 
meetings, 70 per cent.' In fact, the character 
of Drummond's government has been summed 
up in a single sentence by Sir William So- 
merville, an influential landlord, proprietor, 
and afterwards chief secretary to the lord- 
lieutenant. * What I remark,' he says, ' in 
Ireland at present [1839] with the greatest 
satisfaction is the growing feeling of respect 
for the law.' Drummond sank beneath the- 



Drummond 



45 



Drummond 



work he had undertaken. He devoted all 
his energies to public affairs, and he died in 
the public service. Mrs. Drummond says in 
1838 : ' I often say that I might as well have 
no husband, for day after day often passes 
without more than a few words passing be- 
tween us.' And ' from last Monday until this 
morning, a week all but a day, he never even 
saw his baby, although in the same house with 
her. . . . He is very thin and very much older 
in appearance than when you last saw him.' 
Drummond was then suffering from his la- 
bours in connection with the railway com- 
mission. In 1839 his health became worse, 
and for a short time he sought rest and change 
of scene. But in February 1840 he returned 
little better to Ireland, and resumed his du- 
ties. After working nine hours at his office 
on Saturday, 11 April, he was taken ill on 1 
Sunday, and died on Wednesday, 15 April, j 
He was not allowed to see his children, and j 
left a bible for each as ' the best legacy ' he 
could give. He left a message, telling his 
mother that he remembered her instructions 
on his deathbed. He requested to be buried 
in Ireland, the land of his adoption, and in 
whose service he had lost his life. He was 
buried at Mount Jerome cemetery, Harold's 
Cross, Dublin, on 21 April 1840. Though 
the funeral was intended to be private, it par- 
took of a public character. It was attended 
by almost every person of importance in the 
state or city. The whole populace joined in 
the procession. In 1843 a statue, executed 
by the Irish artist Hogan, was erected by 
public subscription to Drummond's memory, 
and placed in the City Hall, Dublin. Drum- 
mond left three daughters : Mary Elizabeth, 
who in 1863 married Mr. Joseph Kay, Q.C., 
author of ' The Social Condition and Educa- 
tion of the People of Europe,' and ' Free Trade 
in Land ' [see KAY, JOSEPH] ; Emily, and 
Fanny, who died in 1871. Mrs. Drummond 
still (1888) survives. 

[McLennan's Memoir of Thomas Drummond ; 
Webb's Compendium of Irish Biography ; Han- 
sard's Annual Register; public press from 1835 
to 1840 ; Madden's Ireland and its Rulers.] 

E. B. O'B. 

DRUMMOND, WILLIAM (1585-1649), 
of Hawthornden, poet, was eldest son of 
John Drummond, first laird of Hawthornden, 
in the parish of Lasswade, seven miles from 
Edinburgh. The father, born in 1553, be- 
came gentleman-usher to James VI in 1590; 
was knighted in 1603 when he came to Eng- 
land with James ; died in 1610, and was 
buried at Holyrood. The family was a 
branch of the Drummonds of Stobhall, whose 
chief representative became Earl of Perth on 
4 March 1604-5. Through Annabella Drum- 



mond [q. v.], daughter of Sir John of Stob- 
hall, who married Robert III of Scotland 
in 1357 and was the mother of James I, 
the poet claimed relationship with the royal 
family. His mother, Susannah, was sister 
of William Fowler, a well-known burgess of 
Edinburgh, who was private secretary to 
Queen Anne of Denmark, and accompanied 
her to England in 1603. William was born 
at Hawthornden 13 Dec. 1585. He had three 
younger brothers, James, Alexander, and 
John, and three sisters, Ann, Jane, and Re- 
becca. After spending his boyhood at the 
Edinburgh High School, he proceeded to Edin- 
burgh University ; benefited by the tuition 
of John Ray. the humanity professor, and 
graduated M.A. in 1605. In 1606 he paid a 
first visit to London while on his way to the 
continent to study law. His father was re- 
siding with the court at Greenwich as gentle- 
man-usher to the king (Key. Privy Council 
of Scotland, ed. Masson, vii. 490). William 
bought and read the recent books of such 
writers as Sidney, Lyly, and Shakespeare, and 
in June, July, and August 1606 described in 
letters to a Scottish friend the court festivities 
which celebrated the visit of Queen Anne's 
father, King Christian of Denmark. In 1607 
I and 1608 Drummond attended law lectures at 
! Bourges and Paris ; studied Du Bartas and 
, Rabelais ; read Tasso and Sannazzaro in 
French translations, and sent home accounts 
of the pictures in the Paris galleries. 

In 1609 he was again in Scotland, and his 
j sister Ann married John Scot, afterwards of 
j Scotstarvet, Fifeshire, his lifelong friend. A 
1 year later he revisited London, and on his 
] return home his father's death (1610) made 
him laird of Hawthornden. Abandoning all 
notion of practising law, he retired to his 
! estate and read assiduously in almost all lan- 
guages. His library numbered 552 volumes, 
including fifty of the latest productions of 
contemporary English poets. It was only 
after much reading that Drummond attempted 
' poetic composition, and, following the ex- 
i ample of Sir William Alexander [q. v.], he 
wrote in English rather than in Scotch. A 
poetic lament on the death of Prince Henry, 
' Tears on the Death of Meliades,' was his 
earliest publication (1613), and came from the 
press of Andro Hart of Edinburgh. At the 
same time he edited a collection of elegies 
by Chapman, Rowley, Wither, and others, 
under the title of ' Mausoleum, or the Choisest 
Flowres of the Epitaphs,' Edinburgh (Andro 
Hart), 1613. 

In 1614 Drummond visited Menstrie, and 
introduced himself to William Alexander 
[q. v.], who received him kindly, and was 
thenceforward one of his regular correspon- 



Drummond 



4 6 



Drummond 



dents. Sir Robert Kerr (afterwards Earl of 
Ancrum), Sir Robert Ay toun, and Sir David 
Murray were also friendly with him, and in- 
tercourse with them excited in him some 
interest in English and Scottish politics. But 
Drummond rarely left Hawthornden, and 
divided his time between poetry and mechani- 
cal experiments. He married about 1614 the 
daughter of one Cunningham of Barns (near 
Crail, Fifeshire). His wife died within the 
year. In 1616 he published a collection of 
poems embodying his love and grief, together 
with some earlier songs and madrigals. A 
second edition quickly followed. 

In 1617 Drummond celebrated James I's 
visit to Scotland with a long poetic panegyric 
entitled ' Forth Feasting.' Henceforth London 
society interested itself in his poetic efforts, 
and in the summer of 1618 he was cheered by 
a visit from one Joseph Davis, who brought a 
flattering message from Michael Drayton, 
one of Drummond's favourite authors. An 
amiable correspondence followed. In one letter 
Drummond suggested that Drayton, who had 
quarrelled with his London publishers, should 
publish the last books of the ' Polyolbion ' 
with his own publisher, Andro Hart of Edin- 
burgh. In his ' Epistle on Poets and Poetry ' 
Dravton speaks highly of 'my dear Drum- 
mond.' Late in 1618 Drummond made the 
personal acquaintance of Ben Jonson. Jonson 
had walked from London to Edinburgh in 
August, but there is no proof that the expe- 
dition was made, as Drummond's early bio- 
graphers assert, in order to make Drum- 
mond's acquaintance. Before Christmas Jon- 
son visited Drummond at Hawthornden, and 
remained for two or three weeks. Drummond 
took careful notes of his conversation, which 
chiefly turned on literary topics, and although 
they corresponded in effusive terms subse- 
quently, Drummond's private impression of 
Jonson was not favourable. When leaving 
Edinburgh in January 1619, Jonson promised 
Drummond that if he died on the road home, 
all that he had written while in Scotland 
should be forwarded to Hawthornden. At 
the same time Drummond undertook to send 
to London accounts of Edinburgh, Loch 
Lomond, and other notable Scottish scenes, 
for Jonson to incorporate in a projected 
account of his Scottish tour ; but this work 
was not completed. In 1620 Drummond was 
seriously ill. Three years later fire and 
famine devastated Edinburgh, and Drum- 
mond in deep depression issued a volume of 
religious verse (' Flowers of Zion '), together 
with a philosophic meditation on death (in 
prose) entitled 'The Cypresse Grove.' A 
second edition appeared in 1630. Meanwhile 
Drummond was corresponding with Sir Wil- 



liam Alexander about James I's translation 
of the Psalms, and some of his suggestions 
were adopted. An extravagantly eulogistic 
sonnet commemorated James's death in 1625. 

On 29 Sept. 1626 a draft of a three years' 
patent was prepared for certain mechanical 
inventions which Drummond had recently 
perfected. Sixteen were specified, and most 
of them were military appliances. The first 
was described as a cavalry weapon, or box- 
pistol ; among the others were new kinds of 
pikes and battering-rams, telescopes and burn- 
ing-glasses, together with instruments for 
observing the strength of winds, for convert- 
ing salt water into sweet, and for measuring 
distances at sea. The patent was finally 
granted 24 Dec. 1627. In the same year 
(1627) Drummond presented to Edinburgh 
University a collection of five hundred books, 
which are still kept together in a separate 
room of the university library. A catalogue 
drawn up by the donor was printed by John 
Hart, Andro Hart's successor. Drummond 
was out. of Scotland in 1628 and in 1629, but 
was at home in May 1630, and soon after- 
wards paid a visit to his dead wife's relations 
at Barns. In July 1631 Drayton wrote to 
Drummond renewing their old acquaintance- 
ship, and early in 1632 Drummond, on learn- 
ing of Drayton's death, expressed deep grief in 
a letter to Alexander, Viscount Stirling. In 
the same year he married a second wife, 
Elizabeth, sister of James Logan of Monar- 
lothian, and granddaughter of Sir Robert 
Logan of Rest air ig. 

Soon after his second marriage Drum- 
mond's pride in his ancestry was hurt by a 
claim put forth by William Graham, earl 
of Menteith, to the earldom of Strathearn. 
Menteith's pretensions reflected on the legiti- 
macy of Robert III of Scotland, the husband 
of Drummond's ancestress Annabella Drum- 
mond. The poet opened a correspondence 
on the subject with the head of his clan, 
John Drummond, earl of Perth ; drew up a 
genealogy of the family, and sent a tractate 
in manuscript to Charles I in December 1632, 
entitled ' Considerations to the King,' in which 
he tried to confute Menteith's claim, and sug- 
gested that Menteith should be punished for 
his presumption. After preparing for his kins- 
man an essay on ' Impreses,' he set to work on 
a ' History of Scot land [ 1 424-1 542] during the 
Reigns of the Five Jameses,' all of whom were 
direct descendants of Robert III and Anna- 
bella Drummond. His brother-in-law, Scot of 
Scotstarvet, encouraged him in the work, but 
it was not printed until after Drummond's 
death. In May 1 633 he furnished the speeches 
and poems for the entertainment which cele- 
brated Charles I's long-delayed coronation at 



Drummond 



47 



Drummond 



Edinburgh, and in 1638 published the last ! 
of his works issued in his lifetime, ' A Pas- ! 
torall Elegie ' on the death of Sir Anthony 
Alexander, son of his friend Alexander, earl 
of Stirling. In 1638, too, Drummond rebuilt 
his house at Hawthornden, and stayed with 
Scot of Scotstarvet while the work was in 
operation. 

In the political turmoil that preceded the 
civil wars in Scotland Drummond played as 
small a part as possible. Although a con- 
servative he resented the persecution of Lord 
Balmerino, who had openly protested against 
Charles I's ecclesiastical policy (Letter to \ 
Robert Kerr, Earl ofAncrum, 2 March 1635). | 
He amused himself by privately distributing 
political squibs among his intimate friends, 
and there he handled all parties with equal j 
severity. An appeal for peace addressed to 
king, priests, and people, entitled ' Irene, or 
a Remonstrance for Concord, Amity and 
Love,' had a wide circulation in manuscript 
in 1638. The rise of the covenanters in arms 
was a heavy blow, but the importunity of 
his neighbours, the Earl of Lothian of New- 
battle Abbey and Porteous the parson of 
Lasswade, seems to have led him to sign the 
covenant, although he was no friend to the 
cause. Similarly he was compelled to con- 
tribute to the support of the army raised in 
1Q39 to invade England, but in his manu- 
script tracts he earnestly dissuaded his coun- 
trymen from venturing on active hostilities 
(cf. The Magical Mirror, or a Declaration 
upon the Rising of the Noblemen, Barons, 
Gentlemen, Burgesses in Arms, 1 April 1639 ; 
Queries of State ; The Idea ; and Load Star). 
In ' A Speech to the Noblemen,' &c., dated 
2 May 1639, he emphatically warned them 
that civil war could only end in a military 
dictatorship. In ' Considerations to the Par- 
liament,' dated September 1639, he sarcasti- 
cally recommended fifty-eight new laws, one 
of which was to allow the provost of Edin- 
burgh to pray in the cathedral to the accom- 
paniment of pistol-shots instead of the organ, 
and another to authorise schoolboys to expel 
their masters every seventh year and choose 
their own teachers. During the first out- 
break (the first bishops' war) the Marquis of 
Douglas invited Drummond to stay with him, 
and took his advice about a projected publi- 
cation of a family history. The Earl of Perth 
entreated the poet to visit him during the 
second outbreak in 1640, but Drummond de- 
clined to leave home in both instances, and 
was entrusted in the second war with some 
slight military duties, which he performed 
with great reluctance. In February 1639-40 
he lost his friend Stirling, and among the 
Drummond papers are notes for a poem to 



his memory, which was to be entitled ' Al- 
phander,' but there is no further trace of it. 
When Charles I came to Scotland at the end 
of the war in 1641, Drummond wrote a 
' Speech for Edinburgh to the King,' in which 
he plainly declared himself opposed to the 
covenanters, and later in 1642, when Scot- 
land was distracted by the conflicting appeals 
of Charles I and his parliament, Drummond 
circulated a tract entitled ' 2/cta^ia^t'a,' in 
which he defended the royalists for petition- 
ing the privy council in the king's favour. 
He protested against the solemn league and 
covenant in ' Remoras for the National 
League between Scotland and England ' in 
1643. But he apparently signed the new 
covenant soon afterwards, and compounded 
with his conscience by composing severely 
sarcastic verses on the presbyterians and their 
English allies. The circulation of these pieces 
in manuscript was wide enough to give 
Drummond a bad reputation, and he was 
more than once summoned before 'the circu- 
lar tables ' (i.e. covenanting committees) to 
account for his conduct. He defended him- 
self by elaborate arguments in favour of the 
liberty of opinion and the press, and the 
charges were not pressed. In 1643 Drum- 
mond helped to secure the election of an ex- 
bishop, James Fairly, to the vacant parish of 
Lasswade. 

Drummond strongly sympathised with 
Montrose. On 28 Aug. 1645 Montrose at 
the head of the royalist army issued orders 
that Drummond was not to be molested by 
his men, and that the Hawthornden property 
was to be specially protected. Drummond 
wrote to Montrose offering to place his ; Irene ' 
at his disposal, and Montrose replied by in- 
viting Drummond to bring the paper to him 
at Bothwell. After Montrose's defeat, and 
just before his escape to Norway in 1646, he 
addressed (19 Aug.) a letter of thanks to 
Drummond for his ' good affection ' and ' all 
his friendly favours.' In ' Objections against 
the Scots answered' (1646) Drummond sup- 
ported a proposal to negotiate with Charles I. 
When in 1648 the Scots resolved to resort 
again to arms in the king's behalf, Drum- 
mond vehemently pleaded for the appoint- 
ment of the royalist Duke of Hamilton as 
leader of the Scottish army, and wrote a 
' Vindication of the Hamiltons ' in reply to 
a pamphlet which aifected to deprecate the 
appointment from a royalist point of view. 
The execution of the king is said to have 
hastened Drummond's death. The poetry he 
wrote in his late years chiefly consisted of 
sonnets on the death of friends, or religious 
verses. All indicated a settled gloom. In 
April 1649 he was revising his genealogy of 



Drummond 



4 8 



Drummond 



the Drummond family. On 4 Dec. following 
he died at Hawthornden, and was buried in 
the church of Lasswade. Colonel George 
Lauder wrote a very pathetic poem on his 
death, entitled 'Damon.' All his brothers 
and sisters except James died before him. 
Bv his second marriage Drummond had nine 
children five sons and four daughters but 
only two sons and a daughter survived him. 
The daughter Elizabeth married Dr. Hender- 
son, an Edinburgh physician. The younger 
son Robert died in 1607. The heir, William, 
was knighted by Charles II ; inherited land 
at Carnockfrom another branch of the family, 
and died in 1713. Sir William's granddaugh- 
ter, Mary Barbara, whose second husband, 
Bishop William Abernethy, took the surname 
of Drummond [see DRUMMOND, WILLIAM 
ABERNETHT], succeeded to the Hawthomden 
property, and was the last lineal descendant 
of the poet. She died in 1789. 

In 1655 there was printed in London a 
volume of Drummond's prose works. The 
editor was a ' Mr. Hall of Gray's Inn,' and 
some copies contain a dedication to Scot of 
Scotstarvet, signed by Drummond's eldest 
son, William. The title ran : ' The History 
of Scotland from the year 1423 until the year 
1524 : containing the Lives and Reigns of 
James the I, the H, the III, the IV, the V. 
With several Memorials of State during the 
Reigns of James VI and Charles I.' Only 
f The Cypresse-Grove ' the prose meditation 
on death first issued in 1623, had been pub- 
lished before, but the ' Memorials of State ' 
did not include Drummond's emphatically 
royalist tracts, like the ' Irene ' and the 
* SKia/ia^/a,' some of which were destroyed 
by Drummond's relatives. A second posthu- 
mous volume, ' Poems by that most famous 
Wit, William Drummond,' was issued by the 
same London publisher in 1656. All that 
had been already published was here reprinted, 
together with some sixty new sonnets, madri- 
gals, and elegies. Edward Phillips, Milton's 
nephew, edited this collection, and spoke 
extravagantly of Drummond's genius. An 
epigram by Arthur Johnston and an English 
poem by Archbishop Spottiswoode are among ! 
the commendatory verses. A few copies con- 
tain a dedication to Scot of Scotstarvet. This 
edition of Drummond's poems was reissued in 
1659. In* 1683 there was issued anonymously 
at Edinburgh a macaronic or dog-Latin poem 
in hexameters, entitled ' Polemo-Middinia 
inter Vitarvam et N ebernam ' a farcical ac- 
count of a quarrel between the tenants of Scot 
of Scotstarvet and those of his neighbour, 
Cunningham of Barns. This was reprinted 
at Oxford in 1691 and edited by Edmund 
Gibson, afterwards bishop of London, together 



with James V's ' Christ's Kirk on the Green,' 
j and in this volume Drummond was positively 
I declared to be the author. The facts that no 
mention of such a work is found in the Haw- 
thornden MSS. and that Drummond never 
claimed it in his lifetime make its author- 
ship doubtful. But when in 1711 Bishop 
Sage and Ruddiman prepared the chief col- 
lected edition of Drummond's works in both 
verse and prose, this piece was included and 
its authenticity distinctly asserted in the 
prefatory memoir. The folio of 1711 includes 
all Drummond's extant prose tracts and many 
of his letters, together with all the previously 
printed poems and some additional verse 
hitherto unprinted. Among the latter are 
some vesper hymns, translated from Latin, 
which had already appeared without an 
author's name in the Roman catholic primer 
first printed at St. Omer by John Heigham in 
1619, and republished in the primer of 1632. 
That a sturdy protest ant like Drummond 
should have contributed to a Roman catholic 
sen-ice-book looks at a first glance so im- 
probable that the authenticity of these hymns 
has been questioned. Internal evidence, how- 
ever, favours their attribution to Drummond. 
The editor of the 1632 primer distinctly states, 
too, that they ' are a new translation done by 
one of the most skilfull in English Poetrie,' 
and it is quite possible that Drummond made 
the translation on one of his early visits to the 
continent (ORBY SHIPLEY, Annus Sanctus, 
pref.,1884 ; Athenesum, 1885, i. 376). Reissues 
of Drummond's poems appeared in 1832 (by 
the Maitland Club), in 1833 (by Peter Cun- 
ningham), and in 1857 (by W. D. Turnbull). 
These three editions include many poems, 
recovered from the Drummond MSS. 

In 1782 Dr. Abernethy Drummond, the 
husband of the poet's last lineal descendant, 
presented a mass of his manuscripts to the 
Scottish Society of Antiquaries. In 1827 
David Laing carefully arranged these papers 
in fifteen volumes and published extracts 
from them in the ' Archseologia Scotica,' iv. 
57-110, 224-70. Besides transcripts of his 
poems and tracts, the manuscripts contain 
Drummond's notes of his conversations with 
Ben Jonson, lists of the books he read from 
1606 to 1614, and many more letters than 
those published in the folio of 1711. A re- 
print of the : Conversations with Jonson ' was 
issued by the Shakespeare Society in 1842. 

A portrait by Gaywood, prefixed to the 
1655 volume, was re-engraved for the 1711 
edition and for Professor Masson's ' Life ' 
(1873). 

Drummond is a learned poet, and is at his 
best in his sonnets. Italian influence is always 
perceptible, and his indebtedness to Guarini 



Drummond 



49 



Drummond 



is very pronounced. Yet sonnets like those 
on ' Sleep ' and the ' Nightingale ' possess 
enough natural grace and feeling to give them 
immortality, and borrowed conceits are often 
so cleverly handled by Drummond that he 
deserves more praise than their inventor. 
His madrigals show a rare command of diffi- 
cult metres, but are less sprightly than could 
be wished . The elegy on Prince Henry, which 
has been compared with ' Lycidas,' is solemnly 
pathetic. Drummond anticipated Milton in 
using the metre of the ' Hymn of the Na- 
tivity.' The prose of ' The Cypresse-Grove ' is 
majestic and suggests Sir Thomas Browne, 
but the historical and political tracts are 
not noticeable for their style. Drummond's 
political epigrams and satires are dull and 
often pointless. 

[The Life of Drummond by Professor Masson 
(1873) is an elaborate monograph on the poet's 
literary and political position and influence. See 
also Archseologia Scotica, iv. ; memoir prefixed 
to the 1711 edition of Drummond's Works; Cor- 
ser's Collectanea Anglo-Poetica.] S. L. L. 

DRUMMOND, WILLIAM, first VIS- 
COUNT OP STRATHALLAN (1617 ? - 1688), 
royalist general, was the fifth and youngest 
son of John Drummond, second Baron Ma- 
derty, by his wife, Helen, eldest daughter 
of Patrick Lesly, commendator of Lindores. 
His father was among the first of the no- 
bility who joined the Marquis of Montrose 
at Bothwell after the battle of Kilsyth in 
1645, for which he suffered imprisonment. 
Born in 1617 or 1618, Drummond was edu- 
cated at the university of St. Andrews. From 
1641 to 1645 he served with Colonel Robert 
Monro in Ireland, and subsequently with the 
latter's nephew, Sir George Monro, who suc- 
ceeded to the Irish command. He was pre- 
sent when Sir George put the Marquis of 
Argyll to flight at Stirling in 1648. During 
the same year he again went over to Ireland 
and joined the Marquis of Ormonde, then in 
arms for the king. In 1648-9 he was in 
London. There, says Burnet, Drummond was 
recommended by some friends among the 
covenanters to Cromwell. He happened to 
hear Cromwell's discussion with the commis- 
sioners sent from Scotland to protest against 
putting the king to death, and he afterwards 
told Burnet that ' Cromwell had plainly the 
better of them at their own weapon, and upon 
their own principles ' (Own Time, Oxford 
edition, i. 71-3). After witnessing the pre- 
parations for the execution of the king, the 
next day he joined Charles II in Holland. 
At the battle of Worcester in 1651, where he 
commanded a brigade, he was taken prisoner 
and carried to Windsor, but managed to es- 

VOL. XVI. 



cape and reach the king at Paris. He soon 
afterwards landed at Yarmouth, and contrived 
to reach Scotland disguised as a carrier, bear- 
ing with him the royal commission. He was 
with the royalists under the Earl of Glen- 
cairn in the highlands in 1653, where his 
kinsman, Andrew Drummond, brother of Sir 
James Drummond of Machanay, commanded 
a regiment of Athole-men, and continued in 
their ranks until they were dispersed by the 
parliamentary general, Morgan, at the end of 
1654 (BURNET, i. 103-4). He now sought 
permission of Charles to enter the Muscovite 
service. Accordingly in August 1655 he ac- 
companied his friend Thomas Dalyell [q. v.] 
to Russia (Egerton MS. 15856, f. 69 b\ 
where he quickly gained the favour of the 
czar, Alexis Michaelovitch, and was ap- 
pointed colonel, afterwards lieutenant-gene- 
ral, of the ' strangers, ' and governor of 
Smolensko (ib. i. 368). There, as he him- 
self says, he ' served long in the wars at home 
and abroad against the Polonians and Tar- 
tars ' (Genealogie of the most Ancient House 
of Drummond"). After the Restoration it was 
not without great difficulty that Charles pre- 
vailed on the czar to allow Drummond to 
leave his dominions. He returned to Eng- 
land in 1665, bringing with him a nattering 
testimonial of his services from Alexis (Addit. 
MS. 21408). In January 1666 the king ap- 
pointed him major-general of the forces in 
Scotland, with a seat on the council (Cal. 
State Papers, Dom. 1666-7, pp. 18, 575). 
He was thought to have become a severe 
disciplinarian ; ' he had yet too much of the 
air of Russia about him,' says Burnet (i. 499). 
With Dalyell he was popularly supposed to 
have introduced torture by the thumbscrew, 
' having seen it in Moscovia ' (LATJDEK, Histori- 
cal Notices of Scotch Affairs, Bannatyne Club, 
ii. 557). In 1667 he went to London to urge 
upon the king the necessity of a standing 
army and the harshest measures against the 
refusers of the declaration (WoDEOW, Church 
of Scotland, ed. Burns, ii. 81). Little ac- 
customed to brook contradiction, he found 
himself in constant conflict with Lauderdale, 
who on 29 Sept. 1674 caused him to be im- 
prisoned in Dumbarton Castle on a mere sur- 
mise of his having corresponded with some of 
the exiled covenanters in Holland (WoDROW, 
ii. 270; BURNET, ii. 56-7 ; Addit. MS. 23137, 
f. 49). On being released by order dated 
24 Feb. 1675-6 (WODEOW, ii. 357), he was re- 
stored to his command, and between 1678 and 
1681 received the honour of knighthood. He 
represented Perthshire in the parliament of 
1669-74, in the convention of 1678, and in the 
parliaments of 1681-2 and 1685-6 (FOSTER, 
Members of Parliament, Scotland, 2nd edition, 



Drummond 



Drummond 



p. 105). Towards the end of March 1678 he, 
along with the Duke of Hamilton and others, 
made a journey to court in order to represent 
the grievances of the country to the king 
(WODROW, ii. 449, 453). In 1684 he was 
appointed general of the ordnance. On the 
accession of James II the following year 
he was nominated lieutenant-general of the 
forces in Scotland, and a lord of the trea- 
sury. In April 1684, on the resignation 
of his brother David, third baron Maderty, 
' to save expences,' he succeeded to that j 
title (LAUDER, Historical Notices, Banna- 
tyne Club, ii. 535), and was created Vis- | 
count of Strathallan and Baron Drummond 
of Cromlix,by patent 6 Sept. 1686. In March 
1686 he accompanied the Duke of Hamilton 
and Sir George Lockhart to Westminster to ; 
confer with the king, who had proposed that, 
while full liberty should be granted to the ' 
Roman catholics in Scotland, the persecution 
of the covenanters should go on without miti- 
gation. Drummond, although a loose and 
profane man, ' ambitious and covetous,' had i 
yet sufficient sense of honour to restrain him 
from public apostasy. In the significant 
phrase of a relative, he lived and died ' a bad : 
Christian but a good protestant.' On return- : 
ing to Edinburgh he joined with his col- | 
leagues in declaring that he could not do \ 
what the king asked (MACATJLAY, Hist, of 
England, vol. ii. ch. vi. pp. 117, 121). He 
died at the end of March (not January) 1688 
(LuTTRELL, Relation of State Affairs, 1857, 
i. 436), and was buried at Innerpeffiray on 
4 April, aged 70. His funeral sermon by 
Principal Alexander Monro of Edinburgh 
contains many interesting details of his life. 
After his return to Scotland he married 
Elizabeth, daughter of Sir Archibald John- 
ston, lord Warriston, and widow of Thomas 
Hepburn of Humbie, Haddingtonshire. By 
this lady, who was buried at St. George's, 
Southwark, in 1679, he had one daughter, 
Elizabeth, married to Thomas, sixth earl of 
Kinnoull,and a son William, second viscount 
of Strathallan. The latter died 7 July 1702. 
Drummond's male line failed on the death of 
his grandson William, third viscount, 26 May 
1711, at the age of sixteen. Drummond, who 
had ' a great measure of knowledge and learn- 
ing' (BtrRNET, i. 416), drew up in 1681 a valu- 
able history of his family, a hundred copies 
of which were privately printed by David 
Laing, 4to, Edinburgh, 1831 (LOWNDES, Bibl. 
Manual, ed. Bohn, ii. 677). A few of his 
letters to Glencairn, Tweeddale, Lauderdale, 
and Lady Lauderdale, are preserved among 
the Additional MSS. in the British Museum 
(Addit. MS. 4156; Index to Cat. of Addi- 
tions to the MSS. 1854-75, p. 447). 



[Douglas's Peerage of Scotland (Wood), ii. 
551-2; Malcolm's Memoir of the House of 
Drummond, pp. 101-3; Monro's Sermons, 8vo, 
London, 1693, pp. 476-502 ; Patrick Gordon's 
Diary (Spalding Club), passim ; Diaries of the 
Lairds of Brodie (Spalding Club) ; Burton's Hist, 
of Scotland, 2nd ed. vii. 69 ; Lauder's Historical 
Notices of Scottish Affairs (Bannatyne Club) ; 
Lauder's Historical Observes of Memorable Oc- 
currents (Bannatyne Club); Wodrow's Church of 
Scotland, ed. Burns, n. ir.] G. G. 

DRUMMOND, WILLIAM, fourth VIS- 
COUNT OF STRATHALLAN (1690-1746), Jaco- 
bite, born in 1690, was the fourth but eldest 
surviving son of Sir John Drummond, knt., 
of Machany, Perthshire, by his wife, Mar- 
garet, daughter of Sir William Stewart, knt., 
of Innernytie. His father, grandson of the 
Hon. Sir James Drummond of Machany, 
second son of James Drummond, first lord 
Maderty [q. v.], and colonel of the Perthshire 
foot in the ' engagement ' to rescue Charles I 
in 1648, was outlawed in 1690 for his attach- 
ment to the house of Stuart. On 26 May 1711 
Drummond succeeded his cousin William as 
fourth Viscount of Strathallan. He was 
among the first to engage in the rising of 
1715, and was taken prisoner at the battle of 
Sheriffmuir, 13 Nov. of that year, and carried 
to Stirling, but under the act of grace passed 
in 1717 was not subjected to prosecution or 
forfeiture at that time (BROWNE, History of 
the Highlands, ed. 1845, ii. 326, 355). In 
1745, within a fortnight after Prince Charles 
i Edward raised his standard at Glenfinnan, 
Drummond joined him with reinforcements 
at Perth, and was left commander-in-chief of 
i the prince's forces in Scotland when the latter 
\ marched into England. At the battle of Cul- 
loden,14 April 1746, he commanded with Lord 
i Pitsligo the Perth squadron in the second line 
| of the highland army (ib. iii. 242), and was 
i unhorsed at the final charge of the English 
j forces. Endeavouring to remount with the 
i assistance of a servant, he was run through 
the body by an officer of dragoons, and died 
soon afterwards (CHAMBERS, Rebellion of 
1745-6, ed. 1869, p. 311 n.) Bishop Forbes 
' states that the officer was Colonel Howard, 
I whom Drummond, ' resolving to die in the 
j field rather than by the hand of the execu- 
tioner,' had purposely attacked (Jacobite Me- 
moirs, ed. Chambers, p. 296). He had mar- 
ried (contract dated 1 Nov. 1712) Margaret, 
eldest daughter of Margaret, baroness Nairne, 
and Lord William Murray, whose devotion to 
the cause of the chevalier led to her imprison- 
ment in the castle of Edinburgh from 11 Feb. 
to 22 Nov. 1746 (JOHNSTONE, Memoirs of 
the Rebellion, 3rd ed. p. 152), and by her had 
seven sons and six daughters. She died at 



Drummond 



Drummond 



Machany 28 May 1773. James, the eldest 
son, also took part in the rebellion of 17-45, 
and \vas included in the act of attainder 
passed 4 June 1746 as ' James Drummond, 
eldest son of William, viscount of Strathallan,' 
although he had then actually succeeded his 
father in that title. He died at Sens in 
Champagne, 22 June 1765. 

[Douglas's Peerage of Scotland (Wood), ii. 
553-5 ; Malcolm's Memoir of the House of 
Drummond, pp. 110-15; Chambers's Rebellion 
of 1745-6, ed. 1869, pp. 68, 258,270,311 ; Mis- 
cellany of the Spalding Club, vol. i.] Gr. G. 

DRTJMMOND, SIR WILLIAM (1770 ?- 
1828), scholar and diplomatist, was a mem- 
ber, and eventually the head, of the Drum- 
monds of Logie- Almond. He may perhaps 
be identified with the William, son of John 
Drummond of Perth, who matriculated at 
Christ Church, Oxford, 24 Jan. 1788, aged 18 
(FOSTER, Alumni O.ron. i. 389). He first at- 
tracted attention as an author by a learned 
work entitled 'A Review of the Govern- 
ments of Sparta and Athens' (London, 1795). 
In 1795 he was returned to parliament in 
the tory interest for the borough of St. 
Mawes, and in the two following parlia- 
ments, those of 1796 and 1801, he sat for 
Lostwithiel. Diplomacy, however, attracted 
him rather than debate. In 1801 he was 
sent as envoy extraordinary and minister 
plenipotentiary to the court of Naples, when 
he was sworn of the privy council, and in 
1803 as ambassador to the Ottoman Porte, 
when he was honoured with the order of the 
Crescent, which was confirmed by license in 
the ' London Gazette,' 8 Sept. 1803. As am- 
bassador he does not appear to have played 
a very active part. ' I do not know Mr. Drum- 
mond,' wrote Nelson on 16 Jan. 1804, ' but 
I am told he is not likely to make the Porte 
understand the intended purity of our cabi- 
net ' (Nelson Despatches, v. 374). In 1806 
he was once more envoy extraordinary to the 
court of Naples, and embarked in an unsuc- 
cessful scheme for securing the regency of 
Spain to Prince Leopold of Sicily. His diplo- 
matic career came to an end in 1809 (for his 
appointments consult HAYDN'S Book of Dig- 
nities). In the previous year he had been 
one of the claimants of the Roxburghe peer- 
age (Roxburghe Peerage ; Minutes of Evidence 
before the Committee of Privilege). Meanwhile 
he had published ' Philosophical Sketches on 
the Principles of Society and Government ' 
(anonymous) in 1793 ; ' The Satires of Per- 
sius, translated,' followed in 1798; and a 
philosophical treatise entitled ' Academical 
Questions ' in 1805. In 1810 he published, 
in conjunction with Robert Walpole, ' Hercu- 
lanesia, or Archaeological and Philological 



Dissertations, containing a manuscript found 
among the ruins of Herculaneum.' The first 
part of a poem in blank verse on ' Odin ' 
was published in 1817 ; in it Odin is identi- 
fied with Pharnaces, the son of Mithridates. 
The same hardihood of speculation marks 
Drummond's most important work ' Ori- 
gines, or Remarks on the Origin of several 
Empires, States, and Cities,' such as Assyria 
and Babylon, which was published in four 
volumes from 1824 to 1829. But perhaps his 
most daring writing was ' O3dipus Judaicus,' 
printed for private circulation in 1811. It 
is an attempt to prove that many parts of 
the Old Testament are allegories, chiefly de- 
rived from astronomy (thus Joshua is a type 
of the sun in the sign of Ram, Jericho the 
moon in her several quarters), and was ac- 
companied by a very polemical preface, pub- 
lished separately. This curious anticipation 
of modern theories professed to be written 
from the standpoint of a theist. It was very 
severely handled by George D'Oyly [q. v.], 
who accused Drummond of appropriating the 
ideas of Charles Francois Dupuis, and there 
were several other replies. Some one, probably 
Drummond himself, criticised his critics under 
the nom de guerre of ' Vindex,' in ' Letters 
to the Rev. G. D'Oyly ' (1812). Towards 
the end of his life Drummond lived chiefly 
abroad, and he died at Rome on 29 March 
1828. He was made a fellow of the Royal 
Society on 4 April 1799, and a D.C.L. (Ox- 
ford) on 3 July 1810. 

[Gent. Mag. 1828, ii. 90 ; for a criticism of 
Odin see the Eclectic Keview, new ser. viii. 77, 
and for one on the (Edipus Judaicus the Quar- 
terly Eeview, ix. 329.] L. C. S. 

DRUMMOND, WILLIAM ABER- 
NETHY (1719 P-1809), bishop of Edin- 
burgh, born in 1719 or 1720, was descended 
from the family of Abernethy of Saltoun in 
Haddingtonshire. He at first studied medi- 
cine, and took the degree of M.D., but was 
subsequently for many years minister of an 
episcopalian church in Edinburgh. Having 
paid his respects to Prince Charles Edward, 
when he held his court at Holyroodin 1745, 
he was afterwards exposed to much annoyance 
and even danger on that account, and was 
glad to avail himself of his medical degree, 
and wear for some years the usual profes- 
sional costume of the Edinburgh physicians. 
He took the additional surname of Drum- 
mond on his marriage, 3 Nov. 1760, to Mary 
Barbara, widow of Robert Macgregor of 
Glengarnock, and daughter and heiress of 
William Drummond of Hawthornden, Mid- 
lothian, grandson of the poet (BURKE, Peer- 
age, 1887, p. 444; Gent. Mag. xxx. 542). 

E 2 



Drummond 



Drummond 



He was consecrated bishop of Brechin at 
Peterhead, 26 Sept. 1787, and a few weeks 
later was elected to the see of Edinburgh, to 
which the see of Glasgow was afterwards 
united. About the middle of February 1788 
the news reached Scotland that on 31 Jan. 
of that year Prince Charles Edward had died 
at Rome. Drummond was the first among 
the bishops to urge that the time had now 
come for the episcopalians to give a public 
proof of their submission to the house of 
Hanover by praying in the express words of 
the English liturgy for the king and royal 
family. This was accordingly done through- 
out Scotland on 25 May. A bill of ' relief 
for pastors, ministers, and lay persons of the 
episcopal communion in Scotland ' having 
been prepared, Drummond, with Bishops 
Skinner and Strachan, set out for London in 
April 1789 to promote its progress through 
parliament. Drummond continued bishop of 
Edinburgh till 1805, when, on the union of 
the two classes of episcopalians, he resigned 
in favour of Dr. Daniel Sandford. He re- 
tained, however, his pastoral connection with 
the clergy in the diocese of Glasgow till his 
death, which took place at his residence, 
Hawthornden, 27 Aug. 1809, at the age of 
eighty-nine or ninety (Scofe Mag. Ixxi. 719). 
His wife died at Edinburgh, 11 Sept. 1789, 
in her sixty-eighth year (ib. li. 466), having 
had an only child, a daughter, who died 
before her. Drummond was a good theo- 
logian and well-meaning, but, says Russel, 
' his intemperate manner defeated in most 
cases the benevolence of his intentions, and 
only irritated those whom he had wished to 
convince ' (KEITH, Cat. of Scottish Bishops, 
ed. Russel, Append., p. 529 ; with which cf. 
SKIXNER, Annals of Scottish Episcopacy, p. 
480). He wrote several small tracts, among 
which may be mentioned: 1. ' A Dialogue 
between Philalethes and Benevolus : wherein 
M. G. H.'s defence of Transubstantiation. in 
the Appendix to his Scripture Doctrine of 
Miracles displayed, is fully examined and 
solidly confuted. With some Observations 
on his Scripture Doctrine of Miracles,' 12mo, 
Edinburgh, 1776. 2. ' A Letter to the Clergy 
of his Diocese, 8 March 1788,' 8vo, Edin- 
burgh, 1788. 3. ' A Letter to the Lay Mem- 
bers of his Diocese, April 1788. With large 
notes,' 8vo, Edinburgh, 1788. He also fur- 
nished a preface and notes to Bishop Jollv's 
abridgment of Charles Daubeny's ' Guide to 
the Church,' 8vo, Edinburgh, 1799. His 
letters to Bishops Douglas and Skinner, 
mostly on the recognition of the Scotch epi- 
scopal church of the Hanoverian line of suc- 
cession, are among the Egerton and Addi- 
tional MSS. in the British Museum (Index 



to the, Cat. of Additions to the MSS. 1854-75, 
p. 448). Drummond presented in 1782 to 
the Edinburgh University the manuscripts of 
William Drummond of Hawthornden [q. v.], 
the ancestor of his wife. 

[Keith's Cat. of Scottish Bishops (Eussel), 
Appendix, pp. 529, 54o ; Skinner's Annals of 
Scottish Episcopacy, pp. 68, 76, 83, 84, 479-80 ; 
Foster's Baronetage (1882), p. 190; Cat. of Li- 
brary of Advocates, ii. 76.] G. G. 

DRUMMOND, WILLIAM HAMIL- 
TON, D.D. (1778-1 865), poet and controver- 
sialist, eldest son of AVilliam Drummond, 
surgeon, R.N., by his wife Rose (Hare), was 
born at Lame, co. Antrim, in August 1778. 
His father, paid off in 1783, died of fever 
soon after entering on a practice at Bally- 
clare, co. Antrim. His mother, left without 
resources, removed to Belfast with her three 
children, and went into business. Drum- 
mond, after receiving an education at the 
Belfast Academy, under James Crombie, D.D. 
[q. v.], and WiUiam Bruce, D.D. (1757- 
1841) [q. v.], was placed in a manufacturing 
house in England. Harsh usage turned the 
thoughts of the sensitive boy from the pro- 
spects of commercial life, and at the age 
of sixteen he entered Glasgow College (No- 
vember 1794) to study for the ministry. 
Straitened means interrupted his course, and 
left him without a degree, but he acquired 
considerable classical culture, and as a very 
young student began to publish poetry, in 
which the influence of the revolutionary ideas 
of the period culminating in 1798 is apparent. 
Leaving Glasgow in 1798 he became tutor 
in a family at Ravensdale, co. Louth, pur- 
suing his studies under the direction of the 
Armagh presbytery, with which he connected 
himself on the ground of its exacting a high 
standard of proficiency from candidates for 
the ministry. In 1799, returning to Belfast, 
he was transferred to the Antrim presbytery, 
and licensed on 9 April 1800. He at once re- 
ceived calls from First Holywood and Second 
Belfast, and accepting the latter was ordained 
on 26 Aug. 1800, the presiding minister be- 
ing William Bryson [q. v.] He became popu- 
lar, especially as a preacher of charity ser- 
mons, and dealt little in topics of controversy. 
On his marriage he opened a boarding-school 
at Mount Collyer, and lectured on natural 
philosophy, having among his pupils Thomas 
Romney Robinson, the astronomer. He was 
one of the first members of the Belfast Lite- 
rary Society (founded 23 Oct. 1801), and 
contributed to its transactions several of his 
poems. Bishop Percy of Dromore sought his 
acquaintance, and obtained for him the de- 
gree of D.D. from Marischal College, Aber- 



Drummond 



53 



Drummond 



deen (29 Jan. 1810). In 1815 he was an 
unsuccessful candidate for the chair of logic 
and belles-lettres in the Belfast Academical 
Institution, and on 15 Oct. in that year he 
was called to Strand Street, Dublin, as col- 
league to James Armstrong, D.D. [q. v.] In- 
stalled on 25 Dec., he entered on the chief 
charge of his long life. He was soon elected 
a member of the Royal Irish Academy, con- 
tributed frequently to its Transactions, held 
for many years the office of its librarian, and 
took a scholarly interest in Celtic literature. 
His poetical pieces, versified from ancient 
Irish sources, are graceful paraphrases rather 
than close translations. Most of his writings 
show traces of very wide reading. His house 
was crammed with the heterogeneous results 
of an insatiable habit of book-collecting. 

Some years after his settlement in Dublin 
Drummond came out as a polemic, exhibiting 
in this capacity a degree of sharpness and vi- 
vacity which seemed a rather remarkable out- 
come of his gentle and genial temperament. In 
two instances (in 1827 and 1828) he took ad- 
vantage of discussions between disputants of 
the Roman catholic and established churches 
as occasions for bringing forward arguments 
for Unitarian views ; and in the controversies 
thus provoked he was always ready with a 
reply. His essay on 'The Doctrine of the 
Trinity ' is the best specimen of his polemics. 
His ' Life of Servetus ' is a continuous on- 
slaught on what he supposed to be unamiable 
tendencies of Calvinism. 

Drummond's tastes were simple, and in 
harmony with the thorough kindliness of his 
disposition. A character singularly sweet 
and pure was enlivened by a bright vein of 
humour. His fine countenance dignified a 
short stature. He was very near-sighted, 
and without an ear for music. In old age 
he suffered from attacks of apoplexy, under 
which his powers of recollection were gradu- 
ally extinguished. He died at Lower Gar- 
diner Street, Dublin, on 16 Oct. 1865, and 
was buried at Harold's Cross cemetery, near 
Dublin, on 20 Oct. He married, first, Bar- 
bara, daughter of David Tomb of Belfast, and 
had several children, of whom William Bruce 
Drummond and two daughters survived him ; 
and secondly, Catherine (d. 22 April 1879), 
daughter of Robert Blackley of Dublin, by 
whom he left issue Robert Blackley Drum- 
mond, minister of St. Mark's, Edinburgh ; 
James Drummond, LL.D., principal of Man- 
chester New College, London, and a daughter ; 
another daughter by the second marriage died 
before him. 

Drummond as a poet is natural, pleasing 
and melodious, rich in pathos, and full of 
enthusiasm. He is at his best in his very 



vigorous hymns, the use of which has not 
been limited to his own denomination. 

The following is a full list of his poems : 
1. ' Juvenile Poems : By a Student of the 
University of Glasgow ' [1795], 8vo. 2. < Hi- 
bernia. A Poem. Part the First,' Belfast, 
1797, 8vo (apparently all published). 3. ' The 
Man of Age,' Belfast, 1797, 8vo (' of age ' 
means 'aged'); 2nd edition, in which 'some 
things are suppressed,' Glasgow, 1798, 8vo 
(to this edition is added an ode on the death 
of Robert Burns). 4. ' The Battle of Tra- 
falgar; a Poem in two books,' 1806, 12mo 
(contributed to Belfast Literary Society, 
3 March). 5. ' The First Book of T. Lucretius 
Carus on the Nature of Things. Translated 
into English verse,' Edinb., 1808, 16mo (Bel- 
fast Literary Society, 7 March). 6. 'The 
Giant's Causeway,' Belfast, 1811, 8vo (three 
books, with two maps and five plates ; Belfast 
Literary Society, 2 March 1807). 7. 'An 
Elegiac Ballad on the Funeral of the Prin- 
cess Charlotte,' Dublin, 1817, 8vo (anon.) 
8. ' Who are the Happy,' &c., Dublin, 1818, 
8vo (appended are other poems and thirty- 
three hymns). 9. ' Clontarf,' Dublin, 1822, 
18mo (anon.) 10. 'Bruce's Invasion of Ireland,' 
Dublin, 1826, 16mo. 11. ' The Pleasures of 
Benevolence,' 1835, 12mo. 12. ' Ancient 
Irish Minstrelsy,' Dublin, 1852, large 12mo 
(eight of the pieces in this volume had al- 
ready appeared in vol. ii. of Hardiman's ' Irish 
Minstrelsy,' 1831). Of his many controversial 
works, including several separate sermons, it 
may suffice to mention 13. ' The Doctrine of the 
Trinity,' 1827, 8vo; 2nd edition, 1827,8vo; 3rd 
edition, 1831, 8vo (reprinted also in America). 
14. ' Unitarian Christianity the Religion of 
the Gospel,' 1828, 8vo. 15. ' Unitarianism 
no feeble and conceited Heresy,' 1829, 8vo 
(addressed to Archbishop Magee, in reply to 
a publication by a layman, P. Dixon Hardy, 
commended by Magee). 16. ' Original Sin,' 
1832, 8vo. 17. 'An Explanation and De- 
fence of the Principles of Protestant Dissent,' 
1842, 8vo (in reference to proceedings taken 
against Unitarian trustees by Duncan Chis- 
holm, alias George Matthews). Apart from 
polemics were 18. ' Humanity to Animals,' 
1830, 8vo. 19. 'An Essay on the Rights 
of Animals,' 1838, 12mo. His biographical 
publications are 20. ' Funeral Sermon for 
James Armstrong, D.D.,' Dublin, 1840, 12mo. 
21. ' Autobiography of Archibald Hamilton 
Rowan, with additions,' &c., Dublin, 1840, 
12mo. 22. ' The Life of Michael Servetus,' 
&c., 1848, 12mo. Besides papers in the ' Trans- 
actions of the Royal Irish Academy,' may be 
mentioned his academy prize essay, 23. ' The 
Poems of Ossian,' Dublin, 1830, 4to (defends 
Macpherson's authorship). Posthumous was 



Drury 



54 



Drury 



24. 'Sermons,' 1867, 8vo (with memoir and 
two portraits). 

[Memoir by J. S. Porter, prefixed to posthumous 
sermons, 1867 ; Armstrong's Appendix to Mar- 
tineau's Ordination Service, 1829, p. 77 ; Unita- 
rian Herald, 27 Oct. 1865, p. 345 (biographical 
notice, apparently by J. S. Porter) ; manuscript 
records of Antrim presbytery ; manuscript ' In 
Memoriam ' by his daughter, Mrs. John Camp- 
bell ; private information.] A. G. 

DRURY, SIR DRU or DRUE (1531 P- 
1617), courtier, the fifth but third surviving 
son of Sir Robert Drury, knt., of Hedgerley, 
Buckinghamshire, by his wife Elizabeth, 
daughter and heir of Edmund Brudenell, was 
born probably in 1531 or 1532. He was a 
younger brother of Sir William Drury [q. v.] 
At the accession of Elizabeth he was ap- 
pointed gentleman-usher of the privy chamber, 
a post which he continued to hold during the 
succeeding reign. He seems to have been suc- 
cessful in keeping in the good graces of the 
queen, except on one occasion (C/. State 
Papers, Dom. 1547-80, p. 170). In Septem- 
ber 3579 he received the honour of knight- 
hood at Wanstead, Essex (METCALFE,^! Book 
of Knights, p. 133). In November 1586 he 
was sent to Fotheringay to assist Sir Amias 
Paulet in the wardership of Mary Queen of 
Scots (Cal. State Papers, Scottish Ser., ii. 
1015, 1018). He was nominated constable of 
the Tower in 1595-6. Drury, whom Camden 
describes as a sincere, honest man, and a puri- 
tan in his religion ('Annals of Elizabeth,' in 
KEXNETT, Hist, of England, ii. 501), died at 
his seat, Riddlesworth, Norfolk, 29 April 
1617, aged about eighty-six, though on his 
monument the age of ninety-nine is absurdly 
given (LE NEVE, Monumenta Anglicana, i. 
59). His will of 7 July 1613 was proved in 
P. C. C. 31 May 1617 (registered 39, Weldon). 
He married, first, Elizabeth, daughter of Sir 
Philip Calthorpe, knt., who had been twice 
married, first to Sir Henry Parker, K.B., eldest 
son of Henry, lord Morley, and secondly, after 
1550, to Sir William Woodhouse, knt., of 
Waxham, Norfolk; she brought him a moiety 
of Riddlesworth. In 1 582 he married for hfs 
second wife Catherine, daughter and heiress 
of William Finch of Linsted, Kent, acquir- 
ing with her the manor of Sewards in that 
parish, and Perry Court at Preston in the 
same county. By this lady, who died 13 Sept. 
1601, aged 45, and was buried at Linsted, 
he had an only son, Drue Drurv (created a 
baronet 7 May 1627 ; died 23 April 1632), 
and three daughters : Elizabeth, wife of Sir 
Thomas Wingfield, knt., but afterwards wife 
of Henry Reynolds ; Anne, wife of Sir Robert 
Boteler, knt. ; and Frances. Some interest- 
ing letters from Drury and his second wife 



to Sir Julius Caesar, written in 1588, 1596, 
and 1603-14, are to be found in the Lans- 
downe and Additional MSS. in the British 
Museum. 

Drury is to be distinguished from a Drue 
Drury of Eccles and Rollesby, Norfolk, who 
married Anne, daughter and coheiress of 
Thomas, sixth baron Burgh of Gainsborough, 
and was knighted at Whitehall 23 July 1603, 
before the coronation of the king (METCALFE, 
A Book of Knights, p. 147). 

[Addit. MS. 19127, ff. 181, 183, 187 ; Letter- 
book of Sir Amias Paulet, ed. Morris ; Blome- 
field'sNorfolk(8vo),i. 278, 280, 281,283 ;Hasted's 
Kent (fol.), ii.681y, 689, 810; Cullum's Hawsted 
and Hardwick, 2nd edit., p. 133 ; General Index 
to Strype's Works (8vo), i. 240 ; Chamberlain's 
Letters (Camd. Soc.), p. 40 ; Fuller's Worthies 
(1662), Norfolk, p. 272 ; Hist, of Norfolk (by 
J. Chambers), ii. 719-21 ; Notes and Queries, 
2nd ser. vii. 89, 1 37, viii. 324, 5th ser. viii. 349, 
393, ix. 257, 6th ser. iv. 101.] G. G. 

DRURY, DRU (1725-1803), naturalist, 
was born 4 Feb. 1725 in W'ood Street, Lon- 
don. Drury claimed descent from Sir Dru 
Drury [q. v.l His father was a silversmith, 
and married four times. Mary Hesketh 
was the mother of Dru and of seven others, 
who all died young. The boy was care- 
fully educated, and assisted his father in the 
business. When Dru was twenty-three his 
father resigned it to him, and he married, 
7 June 1748, Esther Pedley, a daughter of 
his father's first wife by her former husband, 
and thus became possessed of several freehold 
houses in London and Essex, which brought 
him an annual income of between 250/. and 
3001. In 1771 he purchased a silversmith's 
stock and shop at 32 Strand. Here he made 
nearly 2,000/. per annum for some years, but 
failed, as it seems from no fault of his own, 
in 1777. He behaved most honourably to 
his creditors, and by their assistance was 
able to recommence business in the next 
year. His wife died in 1787. He had by 
her seventeen children, of whom all except 
three, who survived him, died young. In 
1789 he retired from trade and gave up the 
business to his son. From the time when he 
began life on his own account he had been 
an eager student of entomology, inserting ad- 
vertisements in foreign papers which solicited 
specimens either by exchange or purchase. 
His cabinets soon became famous. Donovan 
speaks of his ' noble and very magnificent col- 
lections.' Smeathman (himself distinguished 
by his researches among the termites or white 
ants) was one of his most valued collectors. 
Thus he expended large sums in order to en- 
rich his cabinets with new specimens. He 
now spent his time between Broxbourne, 



Drury 



55 



Drury 



where lie still amused himself collecting in- 
sects, and London. He was also a lover of 
gardening and of angling in the Lea and New 
River. His favourite amusements for several 
years consisted in making wines from dif- 
ferent kinds of fruit, and conducting experi- 
ments in distillation. Always of an active 
mind, speculations connected with obtaining 
gold led him to engage many travellers, espe- 
cially Lewin, to join his projects. These gene- 
rally turned out disappointments to all parties. 
At length he removed to Turnham Green, 
but a complication of ailments began to weigh 
him down. He died of stone, 15 Dec. 1803, 
his love for insects continuing to the last, 
and was buried in the church of St. Marti n's- 
in-the-Fields, London. His daughter mar- 
ried Mr. Andr (a relative of Major Andre), 
a merchant in the city. 

Entomology was much advanced by Drury's 
writings, but even more by the excellent 
figures which accompanied them, the work of 
Moses Harris. His descriptions often lack 
scientific precision ; but his notices of the 
libellulidae and of the insects of Sierra Leone 
are specially valuable. Some of his papers 
came into Mr. Westwood's hands. Drury's 
collection was remarkably fine, many of the 
specimens being unique. It had taken thirty 
years in its formation. His cabinets were 
sold by auction at his death, and brought 
6147. 8*. Qd., with about SOW. more for the 
cabinets, books, and copper-plates of the illus- 
trations. One cabinet is said to have con- 
tained eleven thousand insects. Linnaeus, 
Kirby, and Fabricius each held Drury in high 
estimation, and named insects after him. 
Together with Pallas, the younger Linnaeus, 
and Haworth, they were wont to correspond 
with him. His ' Exotic Entomology ' was in 
part translated into German, and annotated 
by G. W. F. Panzer, 1785. 

Drury was a man of the highest honour, 
upright and religious, active both in mind 
and body, and devotedly attached to ento- 
mology. His works are : 1. ' Illustrations 
of Natural History, exhibiting upwards of 
240 figures of Exotic Insects,' 3 vols. 4to, 
London, 1770-82. 2. ' Illustrations of Exotic 
Entomology, with upwards of 650 figures 
and descriptions of new Insects.' This was 
edited with notes by J. 0. Westwood, 3 vols. 
4to, London, 1837, the original volumes being 
very rare. 3. ' Directions for Collecting In- 
sects in Foreign Countries,' about 1800, a fly- 
leaf of three pages, which he sent all over 
the world, and which was translated into 
several languages. 4. ' Thoughts on the 
Precious Metals, particularly Gold, with di- 
rections to Travellers, &c., for obtaining 
them, and selecting other natural riches from 



the rough diamond down to the pebble-stone,' 
| 1801, 8vo, London. He styles himself in 
this ; goldsmith to her majesty,' and was an 
F.L.S. Its directions are very miscellaneous, 
and range from clothing and diet to crystal- 
lography. 

[Bibl. Zoologise, Agassiz and Strickland, ii. 
266 ; Life by Lieutenant-colonel C. H. Smith in 
the Naturalists' Library, i. 17-71, from materials 
supplied by Drury's grandsons; Discourse on 
the Study of Natural History and Taxidermy 
and Biography, pp. 51, 171, by W. Swainson, in 
Lardner's Cabinet Cyclopaedia; Gent. Mag. 1804, 
vol. Ixxiv. pt. i. p. 86 ; Memoir by J, 0. Westwood 
prefixed to Exotic Entomology.] M. G. W. 

DRURY, HENRY (1812-1863), arch- 
deacon of Wilts, eldest son of Henry Joseph 
Thomas Drury (1778-1841), by his wife Caro- 
line, daughter of A. W. Taylor of Boreham 
Wood, Hertfordshire, and grandson of Joseph 
Drury (1750-1834), was born at Harrow 
1 1 May 1812. After passing through Harrow 
with distinction he was admitted minor pen- 
sioner of Caius College, Cambridge, 14 June 
1831, and began residence in the following 
October (College Register). In 1833 he won 
the Browne medal for the Latin ode, and in 
1835 that for the epigrams. An eye com- 
plaint prevented further academic successes 
as an undergraduate. In 1837 he took the 
ordinary B.A. degree, proceeding M.A. in 
1840. In 1838 he became classical lecturer 
at Caius, but, having been ordained, he left 
Cambridge in 1839 to take sole charge of 
Alderley, Gloucestershire, a curacy which he 
exchanged the following year for that of 
Bromham, Wiltshire. Drury, together with 
some friends, projected and published the 
' Arundines Cami,' a collection of translations 
into Latin and Greek verse by different Cam- 
bridge men. The first edition was published 
in a beautiful form in 1841, and four subse- 
quent editions appeared during Drury's life- 
time ; a sixth, after his death, was edited by 
Mr. H. J. Hodgson in 1865. These successive 
editions contained several new pieces. Drury 
became rector of Alderley in 1843, and two 
years later vicar of Bremhill with Foxham 
and Highway, Wiltshire, a preferment which 
he received from Dr. Denison, bishop of Salis- 
bury, to whom, and his successor in the see, 
Dr. Hamilton, he was examining chaplain. 
In 1855 he was installed prebendary of Ship- 
ton in Salisbury Cathedral, was appointed 
chaplain to the House of Commons by Mr. 
Speaker Denison in 1857 (Gent. Mag. 3rd 
ser. iii. 454), and became archdeacon of 
Wilts in July 1862. He died at BremhiU 
25 Jan. 1863, after two days' illness. On 
13 Dec. 1843 he married Amelia Elizabeth, 
eldest daughter of the Rev. Giles Daubeny, 



Drury s 

rector of Lydiard Tregoze, Wiltshire (Gent. 
Mag. new "ser. xxi. 194). 'After taking 
holy orders,' writes Mr. H. J. Hodgson, ' Mr. 
Drury proved himself a sound theologian and 
a valuable assistant to the bishop of his diocese, 
an earnest preacher, and an active parish 
priest. ... As a friend and companion he 
was most genial and affectionate, possessed 
of lively wit and humour, full of anecdote 
and badinage, but tempered with excellent 
tact and judgment, all combined with a 
modesty and absence of self-assertion. 

[Information kindly communicated by H. .T. 
Hodgson, esq., and the Master of Caius ; Burke's 
Landed Gentry, 4th edit., p. 395 ; Gent. Mag. 
3rd ser. xiv. 660-1 ; Crockford's Clerical Di- 
rectory, 1860, p. 175.] G. G. 

DRURY, HENRY JOSEPH THOMAS 
(1778-1841), scholar, son of the Rev. Joseph 
Drury [q. v.], by Louisa, daughter of Benja- 
min Heath, D.C.L., of Exeter, was born at 
Harrow on 27 April 1778, and educated at 
Eton and King's College, Cambridge (B.A. 
1801, M. A. 1804), of which society he became 
a fellow. Drury became under-master, and 
afterwards master, of the lower school at 
Harrow, and among his pupils was Lord 
Byron (see a letter from Byron to Drury 
dated 18 Oct. 1814 in MOOKE'S Life of Lord 
Byron). In 1820 he was presented to the 
rectory of Fingert. He died at Harrow on 
5 March 1841. By his wife, Caroline, daugh- 
ter of A. W 7 . Taylor of Boreham W'ood, Hert- 
fordshire, he had a son Henry [q. v.] 

Drury had a great reputation in his day 
as a classical scholar, but contented himself 
with editing selections from the classics for 
the use of Harrow School. He also formed a 
most valuable library of the Greek classics, 
both printed editions and manuscripts, which 
was sold after his death, two parts in 1827 
for 8,917Z. 13., and the third in 1837 for 
1,693^. He was an original member of the ! 
Roxburghe Club, London, and contributed to I 
their collection a reprint of ' Cock Lorell's i 
Boat ' (1817) and ' The Metrical Life of Saint 
Robert of Knaresborough' (1824), from aj 
manuscript in his possession, which was de- ; 
ciphered and transcribed by Joseph Hasle- 
wood the bibliographer. Among Drury's nu- 
merous friends were Dr. Dibdin the biblio- 
grapher, who mentions him several times in 
' The Bibliographical Decameron,' and Lord 
Byron. In Moore's ' Life of Lord Byron ' are 
to be found several letters from the poet to 
his former tutor, written in affectionate terms 
and without much regard to the propriety 
usually preserved in a correspondence with 
a divine. 

[Gent. Mag. 1841, new ser. xvi. 323; some 
additional facts are to be found in Heathiana : 



Drury 



Notes Genealogical and Biographical of the family 
of Heath, privately printed, 1881.] L. C. S. 

DRURY, JOSEPH (1750-1834), head- 
master of Harrow School, son of Thomas 
Drury, a member of an old Norfolk family, 
was born in London on 11 Feb. 1750, was 
admitted scholar of Westminster in 1765, 
and was elected to Trinity College, Cambridge, 
in 1768 (WELCH). He found himself unable to 
continue his residence at Cambridge through 
lack of means, and in 1769, on the recom- 
mendation of Dr. Watson, afterwards bishop 
of Llandaff, he obtained an assistant-mas- 
tership at Harrow under Dr. Sumner. On 
the appointment of Dr. Heath to the head- 
mastership in 1771 Drury was almost per- 
suaded to join in the secession of Samuel 
Parr, who set up an opposition school at Stan- 
more, taking with him one of the under- 
masters and several boys ; he decided to re- 
main loyal to the ancient foundation, became 
one of Heath's most efficient assistants, and 
on 5 Aug. 1775 married his youngest sister, 
Louisa, daughter of Benjamin Heath, D.C.L. 
(Heathiana, p. 22). On the resignation of 
Dr. Heath in 1785 Drury, who was then in. 
his thirty-sixth year, was elected to succeed 
him. He graduated B.D. in 1784 and D.D. 
in 1789. He held the head-mastership for 
twenty years. W 7 hen Heath left, the number 
of boys at the school was a little over two- 
hundred, a slight diminution took place during 
Drury's earlier years of office, and in 1796 
the numbers were only 139. After a period 
of depression the school increased rapidly 
under his management, and in 1803 num- 
bered 345 boys, among whom were many 
who afterwards became famous, and an ex- 
traordinarily large number of the nobility for 
the size of the school (THORNTON). This in- 
crease, which marks an epoch in the life of 
the school, must be ascribed mainly to the 
character of the head-master. Asa teacher 
Drury was eminently successful, and while 
he insisted on scholarship taught his boys to 
appreciate classical literature, and encouraged 
Latin and English composition both in prose 
and verse, and the practice of public recita- 
tion. His influence over his boys may be 
judged by the feelings he inspired in such a 
difficult pupil as Lord Byron [q. v.] Though 
he was a firm disciplinarian the boys con- 
sidered him a kind master, they knew that 
he was sincerely anxious for their welfare, 
and they admired his dignified manners and 
easy address. Byron speaks most warmly of 
him in a note to ' Childe Harold,' canto iv. 
st. 75, and under the name of Probus in 
' Childish Recollections ' and lines ' On a 
Change of Masters ' in ' Hours of Idleness.' 
He appears to have been the first head-master 



Drury 



57 



Drury 



who exempted tiie higher forms from flogging ; 
he disliked flogging, and the system of moni- 
torial caning seems to have grown up in his 
time. The ill-health of his wife and his own 
desire for rest and for country pursuits led 
him to resign the head-mastership in 1805 ; 
he retired to Dawlish, Devonshire, where he 
had already purchased an estate called Cock- 
wood, and there occupied himself in farming 
his land, in the duties of a magistrate, and 
the pursuits of a country gentleman. He 
became acquainted with Charles Kean the 
elder when acting at Exeter in 1810-11, went 
to see him act in different characters night 
after night, Avarnily admired his talents, and 
helped to establish him at Drury Lane Theatre. 
For some years he was vicar of Aldwinkle, 
Northamptonshire ; he did not reside there, 
and held the living on condition of resigning it 
to a son of the patron, Lord Lilford ; his only 
other church preferment was the prebend of 
Dultincote in Wells Cathedral, to which he 
was instituted in 1812. He died at Cockwood 
on 9 Jan. 1834, at the age of eighty-four, and 
was buried at St. Leonard's, Exeter. Drury 
left three sons, all in holy orders: Henry 
Joseph Thomas [q. v.], for forty-one years 
assistant-master of Harrow, the father of the 
Rev. Benjamin Heath Drury, late assistant- 
master of Harrow ; Benjamin Heath, assist- 
ant-master of Eton ; and Charles, rector of 
Pontesbury, Shropshire, and one daughter, 
Louisa Heath, the wife of John Herman 
Merivale, commissioner of bankruptcy. Mark 
Drury, the second master of Harrow, who 
was a candidate for the head-mastership in 
1805 (MooKE, Life of Byron, p. 29), was 
Drury's younger brother. 

[Annual Biography and Obituary, xix. 1-36, 
contains a memoir of Drury by his youngest 
son, Charles ; Thornton's Harrow School, pp. 
191-214; Welch's Alumni Westmonast. pp. 383, 
388 ; Drake's Heathiana, p. 22 ; Le Neve's Fasti, 
i. 203 ; Byron's Childe Harold, iv. 75, and Hours 
of Idleness; Moore's Life of Byron, ed. 1847, 
pp. 19, 20, 29, 66, 89, 103, 117, 267; information 
kindly supplied by the Kev. Benjamin Heath 
Drury.] W. H. 

DRURY, SIR ROBERT (d. 1536), speaker 
of the House of Commons, eldest son of Roger 
Drury, lord of the manor of Hawsted, Suffolk, 
by Felicia, daughter and heir of William 
Denton of Besthorpe, Norfolk, was educated 
at the university of Cambridge, and probably 
at Gonville Hall. He figures with his father 
as commissioner of array for Suffolk in 1487 
(Materials for the Reign of Henry VII, Rolls 
Ser., ii. 135). He was a barrister-at-law 
and a member of Lincoln's Inn, being men- 
tioned in the list preserved by Dugdale among 
the ' governors ' of that society in 1488-9, 



1492-3, and 1497 (Orig. 258), but the date 
of his admission is uncertain. On 17 Oct. 
1495 he was elected speaker of the House of 
Commons, being then knight of the shire for 
Suffolk (Rot. Parl. vi. 459). This parliament 
produced many private acts and one public 
statute of importance, whereby it was enacted 
that ' no person going with the king to the 
wars shall be attaint of treason' (11 Hen. VII, 
c. i.) Bacon characterises this measure as 
' rather just than legal and more magnanimous 
than provident,' but praises it as ' wonderful, 
pious, and noble' (BACON'S Works, Literary 
and Professional, ed. Spedding, i. 159). In 
1501 he obtained from Pope Alexander VI 
a license to have a chapel in his house, ' the 
parish church being a mile distant and the 
road subject to inundations and other perils.' 
On 29 Aug. 1509 he attested the document 
whereby Henry VIII renewed his father's 
treaty with Scotland, and he was also one of 
the commissioners appointed to receive the 
oath of the Scottish king and to treat for the 
redress of wrongs done on the border (RYMEE, 
Fcedera, xiii. 262, 263, 264). On 12 March 
1509-10 he obtained a license to impark two 
thousand acres of land, and to fortify his 
manors in Suffolk (Letters and Papers . . . 
Henry VIII, i. 143). Between June 1510 
and February 1512-13 inclusive he was en- 
gaged with various colleagues in the attempt 
to pacify the Scottish border by peaceful 
methods, and to obtain redress for wrongs 
committed (RYMEE, Fcedera, xiii. 276, 301, 
346). He witnessed the marriage of the Prin- 
cess Mary on 9 Oct. 1514 (Letters and Papers 
. . . Henry VIII, i. 898), was appointed 
knight for the body in 1516 (ib. vol. ii. pt. i. 
p. 872), was one of a commission appointed 
to examine suspects arrested in the district 
of St. Martin's-in-the-Fields in July 1519 
(ib. vol. iii. pt. i. p. 129), was present on the 
Field of the Cloth of Gold in 1520, and on 
10 July of the same year was in attendance 
on the king when he met the Emperor Charles 
at Gravesend (ib. 241, 243, 326). In 1521 
he was a commissioner for perambulating and 
determining the metes and bounds of the 
town of Ipswich (ib. 469). In 1522 he was 
in attendance on the king at Canterbury (ib. 
967). In 1523 and 1524 he was chief com- 
missioner for the collection of the subsidy in 
Suffolk and town of Ipswich, and in 1524 he 
was a commissioner for the collection of the 
loan for the French war (ib. 1365, 1366, 1457, 
vol. iv. pt. i. pp. 82, 238). He is mentioned 
in 1526 as one of the legal or judicial com- 
mittee of the privy council, ranking in point 
of precedence next after Sir Thomas More 
(ib. pt. iii. 3096). In 1530 he was one of the 
commissioners of gaol delivery for Ipswich 



Drury 5 

(ib. 2919), was appointed commissioner of 
sewers for Suffolk in December 1534, and 
died on 2 March 1535-6 (ib. vii. 596, viii. 
75). He was buried in St. Mary's Church, 
Bury St. Edmunds, under a stone monu- 
ment, the wooden palisade of the tomb bear- 
ing the inscription, ' Such as ye be some time 
were we, such as we are such shall ye be. 
Miserere nostri.' Drury married twice. By 
his first wife, Anne, daughter of Sir William 
Calthorpe, knight, of Burnham-Thorpe, Nor- 
folk, he had issue (besides daughters) Sir Wil- 
liam Drury, who succeeded him at Hawsted, 
and Sir Robert Drury of Hedgerley, Buck- 
inghamshire, father of Sir William Drury 
[q. v.], lord president of Munster, and of Sir 
Dru Drury [q. v.] By his second wife, Anne, 
relict of Edward, lord Grey, he had no issue. 

[Cullum's Hawsted, pp. 131, 142, 145 ; Cooper's 
Athense Cantabr. i. 56 ; Manning's Lives of the 
Speakers.] J. M. K. 

DRURY, ROBERT (1567-1607), catho- 
lic divine, born of a gentleman's family in 
Buckinghamshire in 1567, was educated in 
the English College of Douay, then tempo- 
rarily removed to Rheims, where he arrived 
1 April 1588. He received the minor orders 
at Rheims on 18 Aug. 1590, and on the 17th 
of the following month he, with several other 
students, was sent to the college lately founded 
at Valladolid by Philip II of Spain for the 
education of the English clergy. After being 
ordained priest there, he was sent in 1593 to 
England, where he zealously laboured on the 
mission, chiefly in London and its vicinity. 
He was one of the appellant priests who op- 
posed the proceedings of the archpriest Black- 
well [see BLACKWELL, GEORGE] ; and his name 
occurs among the signatures attached to the 
appeal of 17 Nov. 1600, dated from the prison 
at Wisbech (DoDD, Church Hist. ii. 259). He 
was also one of the thirteen secular priests 
who, in response to the queen's proclamation, 
subscribed the celebrated protestation of alle- 
giance (31 Jan. 1602-3), which was drawn up 
by William Bishop [q.v.], afterwards bishop 
of Chalcedon (BTJTLER, Hist. Memoirs of the 
English Catholics, 3rd edit. ii. 56-65). In 
1606 the government of James I imposed 
upon catholics a new oath, which was to be 
the test of their civil allegiance. About this 
time Drury was apprehended, brought to 
trial, and condemned to death for being a 
priest and remaining in this realm, contrary 
to the statute of 27 Eliz. He refused to save 
his life by taking the new oath, and conse- 
quently he was drawn to Tyburn, hanged, 
and quartered on 26 Feb. 1606-7. 

' A true Report of the Arraignment, Tryall, 
Conviction, and Condemnation of a Popish 



Drury 



Priest named Robert Drewrie ' appeared at 
London, 1607, 4to, and is reprinted in the 
' Harleian Miscellany,' vol. iii. 

[Challoner's Memoirs of Missionary Priests 
(1742), ii. 16; Douay Diaries, pp. 218, 232,234 ; 
Morris's Troubles of our Catholic Forefathers, 
iii. 329 ; Gi How's Bibl. Diet. ; Panzani's Memoirs, 
p. 85.] T. C. 

DRURY, ROBERT (1587-1623), Jesuit, 
born in Middlesex in 1587, was son of Wil- 
liam Drury [q. v.], D.C.L., judge of the pre- 
rogative court (who was converted to the 
catholic faith in articulo mortis), and his 
wife, Mary, daughter of Sir Richard South- 
well of Woodrising, Norfolk, a relative of 
Father Robert Southwell the poet. He was 
educated in London, and at the age of four- 
teen was sent to the English College at Douay, 
where he began his course of humanities, 
which he completed at St. Omer. On 9 Oct. 
1605 he entered the English College, Rome, 
for his higher course. After receiving minor 
orders he joined the Society of Jesus in Oc- 
tober 1608, and subsequently he repaired to 
Posna to finish his theology, arriving there 
28 Feb. 1611-12. In 1620 he was rector of 
the college at St. Omer, and afterwards was 
sent on the mission to his native country, 
where he became a distinguished preacher. 
He was professed of the four vows 8 Sept. 

1622. Occasionally he went under the names 
of Bedford and Stanley. 

He lost his life on Sunday, 5 Nov. (N.S.) 

1623, at the ' Fatal Vespers"' in Blackfriars. 
On the afternoon of that day about three 
hundred persons assembled in an upper 
room at the French ambassador's residence, 
Hunsdon House, Blackfriars, for the pur- 
pose of participating in a religious service by 
Drury and William Whittingham, another 
Jesuit. While Drury was preaching the great 
weight of the crowd in the old room sud- 
denly snapped the main summer-beam of the 
floor, which instantly crashed in and fell into 
the room below. The main beams there also 
snapped and broke through to the ambassa- 
dor's drawing-room over the gate-house, a 
distance of twenty-two feet. Part of the 
floor, being less crowded, stood firm, and the 
people on it cut a way through a plaster wall 
into a neighbouring room. The two Jesuits 
were killed on the spot. About ninety-five 
persons lost their lives, while many others 
sustained serious injuries. The bigotry of 
the times led some people to regard this ca- 
lamity as a judgment on the catholics, ' so 
much was God offended with their detestable 
idolatrie ' (LYSONS, Environs, iv. 410). Fa- 
ther John Floyd met the reproach by pub- 
lishing ' A Word of Comfort to the English 



Drury 

Catholics,' St. Omer, 1623, 4to. A quaint 
and apparently accurate account of the acci- 
dent is given in ' The Doleful Even- Song' 
(1623), written by the Rev. Samuel Clarke, 
a puritan; and another description will be 
found in 'The Fatall Vesper' (1623), ascribed 
to William Crashaw, father of the poet (Cat. 
of the Huth Library, i. 365). 

There is a eulogium of Drury in the pre- 
face to a book called ' F. Robert Drury's Re- 
liquary ' (1624), containing his prayers and 
devotions. Stow says that he was reputed 
T)y his fellow-churchmen to be a man of 
great learning, and generally admitted to be 
of good moral life (Survey of London, ed. 
1633, p. 380). 

[Cunningham's Handbook for London (1849), 
i. 94; Dodd's Church Hist. ii. 410; J'iaries of 
the English College, Douay, pp. 218, 232, 234 ; 
Foley's Records, i. 77-97, v. 1007, vi. 235, 247, 
vii. 21 1 ; Fuller's Church Hist. (Brewer), v. 539 ; 
Gillow's Bibl. Diet. ; Lowndes's Bibl. Man. 
(Bohn), i. 211 ; More's Hist. Missionis Anglic. 
Soc. Jesu, p. 451 ; Notes and Queries, 3rd ser. 
x. 447 ; Oliver's Jesuit Collections, p. 83 ; Pen- 
nant's Account of London (1793), p. 238: Thorn- 
bury's Old and New London, i. 199-204.] 

T. C. 

DRURY, ROBERT (fi. 1729), traveller, 
born in London 24 July 1687, was the son of 
a tavern-keeper, ' well known and esteemed 
for keeping that noted house called "The 
King's Head," or otherwise distinguished by 
the name of the " Beef Stake House."' 'Not- 
withstanding all the education my father be- 
stowed on me, I could not be brought to think 
of any art, science, trade, business, or profes- 
sion of any kind whatsoeA-er, but going to sea.' 
His father at last consented to let him under- 
take an East India voyage, and on 19 Feb. 1701 
Drury embarked for Bengal in the Degrave 
Indiaman. The outward voyage was unevent- 
ful, but in setting out on her return the vessel 
ran aground in the river, and upon getting to 
sea was found to have sprung a leak, which 
increased to such an extent that it was ne- 
cessary to run her ashore off the coast of 
Androy (called by Drury Anterndroea), the 
most southern province of Madagascar. The 
majority of the crew got safe to land, and 
were at first kindly treated by the native 
chief, who was highly gratified at the advent 
of so many white men, whom he expected to 
be of service to him in his wars. The Eng- 
lishmen naturally objected, and conceived and 
executed a plan for seizing the chiefs person, 
and detaining him as a hostage until they 
should have reached the territory of another 
petty prince,who wasunderstood to be friendly 
to white men. The undertaking, ably con- 
ceived, was miserably carried out ; the Eng- 



59 



Drury 



lishmen, continually pursued and harassed, 
were enticed into surrendering their captive, 
and having thus parted with their only se- 
curity were eventually massacred by the na- 
tives upon the very border of the friendly 
territory. Two or three boys were alone 
spared, of whom Drury was one. He was 
assigned as a slave to the most barbarous of 
the nobles of the district, and for some time 
underwent great hardship, and was in fre- 
quent danger of life and limb from his 
master's brutality. Gradually his condition 
improved, he obtained a cottage and plot of 
ground, married a native wife, took part in 
the civil broils of the inhabitants, and at 
length found means to escape to a neighbour- 
ing chieftain, who protected him. His pur- 
pose was to go still further northward to the 
province which he calls Feraingher (Fire- 
nana), beyond the great river Oneghaloye, 
which he understood to be frequently visited 
by European ships. He succeeded in es- 
caping, and made his way through a vast 
uninhabited forest, subsisting on roots and 
honey and the wild cattle he killed by the 
way, and crossing the Oneghaloye by help of 
a float, in great danger from alligators. He 
found that ships had ceased to visit Ferain- 
gher, which was ruined by war, and owed 
his deliverance to what seemed at first a most 
untoward event, his capture by the invading 
and plundering Sakalavas, at this day, next 
to the Hovas, the leading people in Mada- 
gascar. After some cruel disappointments 
in endeavours to communicate with his coun- 
trymen, who occasionally visited the coast, 
he contrived to convey news of his existence 
and his condition to his father, who commis- 
sioned a ship's captain to ransom him, and he 
was eventually permitted to depart, after 
fifteen years' residence on the island. 

It is painful, though only what might be 
expected, to learn that Drury returned to 
Madagascar in the character of a slave trader, 
buying slaves to sell again in the Virginia 
plantations. He appears, however, to have 
made but one voyage. He afterwards became 
porter at the India House, and is related by 
Mr. Duncombe to have had a house in or near 
Lincoln's Inn Fields, and to have diverted 
visitors by exhibiting the Madagascar method 
of hurling javelins in the then unenclosed 
space. The time of his death is unknown. 
He died after 1729, when his travels were 
first published, and before 1743, when in a 
second edition of his book he was stated to 
be dead. 

Drury's narrative, published in 1729, stands 
in the very first rank of books of travel and 
adventure. He had the good fortune to fall 
in with a most able editor whose identity has 



Drury ( 

never transpired, but who has been conjec- 
tured to be Defoe. His theological views, 
however, are unlike Defoe's, and he implies, 
with whatever truth, that he has been on the 
coast of Guinea. AVhoever he was, he was 
content merely to abridge Drury's artless story 
and fit it for general reading. Either he or 
Drury, or both, possessed an eminent dramatic 
faculty, and great power of bringing scenes 
and persons vividly before the eye. Drury's 
religious controversies with the natives are 
most humorously recounted, and the cha- 
racters of the various petty chiefs and their 
wars are a better illustration of a Homeric 
state of society than most commentaries on 
the ' Iliad.' The editor betrays a certain bias 
in one respect ; he is evidently a believer in 
natural religion, as distinguished from reve- 
lation, and he involuntarily represents the 
people of Madagascar as more pious, moral, 
and innocent than is quite consistent with 
fact, superior as they really are to most un- 
civilised nations. In every other point the 
truth of Drury's narrative has been entirely 
corroborated, so far as the case admits, by 
the knowledge since acquired of other parts 
of the island. The wild and remote district 
where his lot was cast has hardly been visited 
since his time, and will be the last portion of 
Madagascar to be explored. 

Later editions of Drury's travels appeared 
in 1743, 1808, and 1826, the last being vol. v. 
of the series of autobiographies published by 
Hunt & Clarke. 

[Drury's Madagascar, or Journal during Fif- 
teen Years' Captivity on that Island.] R. G-. 

DRURY, SIR WILLIAM (1527-1579), 
marshal of Berwick and lord justice to the 
council in Ireland, third son of Sir Robert 
Drury of Hedgerley, Buckinghamshire, and 
his wife Elizabeth, daughter of Edmund Bru- 
denell, esq., was born at Hawstead in Suffolk 
on 2 Oct. 1527. Having completed his educa- 
tion at Gonville Hall, Cambridge, he attached 
himself as a follower to Lord Russell, after- 
wards created Earl of Bedford. Accompanying 
this nobleman into France on the occasion of 
the joint invasion of that country by Charles V 
and Henry VIII in 1 544, he took an active part 
in the sieges of Boulogne and Montreuil, but 
had the mishap to be taken a prisoner during 
a skirmish in the neighbourhood of Brussels. 
On being ransomed he served for a short time 
at sea, becoming ' an excellent maritimal man.' 
In 1549 he assisted Lord Russell in sup- 
pressing a rebellion that had broken out in 
Devonshire owing to the reforming and icono- 
clastic government of the protector Somerset. 
Though, like his patron, a staunch adherent 
of the reformed church, he refused to coun- 



Drury 



| tenance the ambitious designs of the Duke 
| of Northumberland in his attempt to alter 
I the succession, and on the death of Ed- 
ward VI he was one of the first to declare 
, for Queen Mary. His religion, however, and 
I his connection with the Earl of Bedford 
j rendering his presence distasteful to Mary, 
he prudently retired from court during her 
reign (Collectanea Topo</raphica,vi.92; CUL- 
LTJM, History of Jfawsted, p. 133 ; FULLER, 
Worthies, Suffolk ; COOPER, Athence Cantab.) 
The accession of Elizabeth at once restored 
Drury to public life ; and the government of 
Mary of Lorraine seeming to call for English 
interference in Scotland, he was despatched 
to Edinburgh in October 1559 to investigate 
the state of parties there, and to view the 
new fortifications of Leith, then said to be 
rapidly approaching completion. The pro- 
; priety of sending him on this secret mission 
1 was at first doubted by Cecil, owing to 
the fact that his brother ' was thought -to 
be an inward man with the emperor's am- 
bassador.' But his conduct speedily removed 
these suspicions, and confirmed Sir Ralph 
Sadler's opinion of him as being ' honest, 
j wise, and secret.' Elizabeth having deter- 
, mined to assist the lords of the congregation, 
and the siege of Leith having been under- 
taken, Drury had again the misfortune to 
fall into the enemy's hands ; but beyond a 
short detention he seems to have suffered no 
other injury, for on 10 Oct. 1560 he married 
Margaret, daughter of Thomas, lord Went- 
worth, and widow of John, last lord Williams 
of Thame, in the church of St. Alphage, 
London. His experience, prudence, and per- 
sonal bravery qualifying him for service on 
the borders, he was, in February 1564, ap- 
pointed to succeed Sir Thomas Dacre as mar- 
shal and deputy-governor of Berwick, an 
office which he continued to fill until 1576, 
and his letters to Cecil regarding the pro- 
gress of events in Scotland are among the 
most important state documents relative to 
this period. In April 1567 he received a 
challenge from Bothwell for uttering foul 
reproaches against him, but having expressed 
his willingness to meet him, the earl's ardour 
cooled and the meeting never took place. 
The winter of 1569-70 was an anxious time 
for the wardens of the marches owing to the 
rising of the northern earls. But the rebel- 
lion having been suppressed, and the Earl of 
i Northumberland carried off a prisoner to 
! Lochleven Castle, Drury and Sir Henry Gates 
were, in January 1570, commissioned to treat 
with the regent Murray for his surrender. 
While passing through the streets of Lin- 
lithgow on his way to meet them, Murray 
; met his death at the hand of Bothwelhaugh. 



Drury 



61 



Drury 



Drury too seems to have had at the same time 
a narrow escape, ' for it was meant by Fernie- 
hurst and Buccleuch to have slain him on 
his return from Edinburgh.' Owing to the 
nightly raids of the Scots, the state of the 
north country at this time was such, he wrote 
to Cecil, ' as it would pity any English heart 
to see.' And in April 1570 he accompanied 
the Earl of Sussex on a retaliatory expedition 
into Scotland. Ninety castles and strong- 
holds razed to the ground and three hundred 
towns and villages in flames marked the 
course of the army through Liddisdale, Teviot- 
dale, and the Merse. On 11 May, having 
been knighted by the lord-lieutenant, Drury, 
with an army of 180 lances, 230 light horse, 
and 1,200 foot, again entered Scotland. 
Marching rapidly to Edinburgh he endea- 
voured, according to his instructions, to per- 
suade Lethington and Grange to a ' surcease 
of arms ' on Elizabeth's terms ; but failing 
in this he hastened to Glasgow, only to find 
that the Duke of Chatelherault and the Earl 
of Westmorland had raised the siege and 
taken refuge in the highlands. Lord Flem- 
ing, however, was at Dumbarton, and with 
him he endeavoured to open negotiations, 
which were brought to an abrupt termination 
by a dastardly attempt to assassinate him, 
not without, there was good reason for be- 
lieving, the connivance of Lord Fleming him- 
self, to whom accordingly Sir George Gary 
sent a challenge, which was declined by that 
nobleman. On his return journey he razed 
the principal castles belonging to the Hamil- 
tons and ravaged the whole of Clydesdale 
with fire and sword. The good effect of 
these raids proving only temporary, he was 
despatched in May 1571 into Scotland to 
discover the relative strength of parties there, 
and Elizabeth finding from his report that 
the regent was ' in harder case than was con- 
venient for the safety of the king,' he was 
ordered ' to travail to obtain a surcease of 
arms on both sides so that it may be bene- 
ficial for the king's party.' His travail was 
in vain ; but while at Leith he again nar- 
rowly escaped being shot in the open street. 
These repeated attempts to take his life caused 
him considerable anxiety, not so much, he 
wrote to Lord Burghley, on account of per- 
sonal danger, but more because of his wife 
and children. In February 1572 Thomas 
Randolph was joined with him on the same 
bootless errand. They were politely received 
by the regent and by those in the castle ; 
but, finding their intervention ineffectual, 
they returned to Berwick on 23 April. But 
the arrival of De Croc in May with instruc- 
tions from the French king to persuade the 
queen's party to submit to the regent in- 



duced Elizabeth once more to send Drury 
to assist in negotiating a peace. Fearing 
that he might never return from a journey 
so fraught with danger, he besought Lord 
Burghley to extend his favour to his wife 
and children if he chanced to end his life in 
her majesty's service. On 12 July he wrote 
that he had again been attacked on the high- 
way; this being the eighth shot that had 
been discharged at him in Scotland after the 
like sort. With De Croc playing his own 
game little good could be expected from the 
negotiations ; and having heard that a re- 
quest had been made to Burghley that some 
more efficient person than himself might be 
sent, he expressed his hope that their wish 
might be granted, ' for he would sooner serve 
the queen in Constantinople than among such 
an inconstant and ingrate people.' At last 
Elizabeth determined to reduce the recal- 
citrants by force ; and once more, in April 
1573, he appeared in Edinburgh ; this time 
with an English army and a heavy train of 
artillery at his back. The castle having re- 
fused to submit, he planted his guns with 
skill and care. On 21 May the assault com- 
menced. Day and night the batteries blazed, 
and on the 28th the castle surrendered. With 
its capture, the death of Maitland, and the 
execution of Kirkcaldy of Grange, the civil 
war came practically to an end. Drury, it 
is said, was greatly distressed at the fate of 
Kirkcaldy, ' for he was a plain man of war and 
loved Grange dearly.' A few days before his 
death Kirkcaldy said of Drury that ' he had 
ever found him deal uprightly in his sove- 
reign's cause,' and there can be little doubt 
that it was his probity of conduct that caused 
him to be so much hated and detested by the 
time-serving men around him. It ought to 
be remarked that the very vague and probably 
malicious charge preferred against him of 
' taking ' the crown jewels of Scotland is 
without foundation in fact (SADLEE, State 
Papers, i. ; MACHYN, Diary, p. 244; Calendar 
of Foreign Papers, vii. viii. ix. x. ; Calendar 
relating to Scotland, i. ; CHTJRCHYAKD, Chips ; 
MELVILLE, Memoirs; BIRRELL, Diary; Re- 
gister of the Privy Council of Scotland, ii. 247, 
330). 

In 1574, owing to the threatening state of 
affairs in Ireland, the privy council had half 
determined to send him with an army into 
Munster. But the danger passed away, and 
with it the necessity for immediate action. 
In 1576, however, Elizabeth having given her 
consent to the re-establishment of a resident 
government in Munster and Connaught, he 
was persuaded, much to the satisfaction of 
Sir Henry Sidney, to accept the post of pre- 
sident of Munster. No sooner had he been 



Drury < 

established in his government than he pro- 
ceeded to reduce the province to order and 
obedience. The nobility and gentry were 
obliged to enrol the names of their followers 
and become sureties for their good and peace- 
able behaviour ; assessments levied for the 
maintenance of the army and the increase of 
the revenue ; Limerick Castle repaired and 
other garrisons fortified ; the practice of coyne 
and livery suppressed ; sheriffs appointed in 
Desmond and Thomond ; assizes held at Cork, 
Waterford, Limerick, and Kilkenny, and four 
hundred natives hanged for malpractices 
within a year. His government was severe, 
but he found the natives on the whole well 
inclined to justice, though the anger of the 
nobles was hot against him for his interfer- 
ence between them and their peasantry, espe- 
cially in the matter of coyne and livery. But 
troublous days were at hand, and Sidney, 
foreseeing what he was unable to resist, ob- 
tained the appointment of Drury as lord 
justice on 26 April 1578, and shortly after- 
wards took his departure into England. 
Hardly had he received the sword of state 
when the country was convulsed by the 
landing of James Fitzmaurice and Dr. Sanders 
in Kerry on 18 July 1579, and the subsequent 
rising of the Earl of Desmond. Stricken 
down though he was with ' the disease of 
the country,' and barely able to sit in his 
saddle, the lord justice determined ' to stand 
stoutly to the helm,' and Colonel Malby 
having inflicted a defeat on the rebels he 
proceeded about the end of September to take 
the field against them. But before he was 
able to accomplish his purpose he was obliged 
to return to Waterford, where he died about 
13 Oct. 1579. His body was embalmed 
and taken to Dublin, where, after lying in 
state for some time, it was buried almost 
secretly in St. Patrick's Cathedral, the funeral 
obsequies being left to a more convenient 
season. Subsequently a monument bearing 
hisefngy was erected in his honour, no vestige 
of which now remains. He was a man of 
sincere piety ; faithful to his trust and loyal 
to his queen ; severe in his government, but 
endeavouring to be scrupulously just (Carew 
Cal. ii. ; HAMILTON, Irish Cal. ii. ; Cox, Hi- 
hernia Anglicana, i. ; MASON, History of St. 
Patrick's Cathedral}. 

[There is a fairly accurate but incomplete life 
in Cooper's Athenae Cantabrigienses. The sources 
of information mentioned in it have, however, 
been for the most part superseded by the publica- 
tion of the Calendars of State Papers as noticed 
above.] f R. D. 

DRURY, WILLIAM (d. 1589), civilian, 
third son of John Drury of Rougham, Suffolk, 
by Elizabeth, daughter of John Goldingham of 



2 Drury 

Belstead in the same county, was educated at 
Trinity Hall, Cambridge, where he took the 
degree of LL.B. in 1553. He was appointed 
regi us professor of civil law in the university of 
Cambridge, with a salary of 401. per annum, on 
30 Jan. 1558-9, and took the degree of LL.D. 
in 1560 (RYMER, Fcedera (Sanderson), xv. 
502). Admitted advocate at Doctors' Com- 
mons on 5 May 1561, he shortly afterwards 
became secretary to Archbishop Parker 
(CooTE, Catalogue of Civilians, 45 ; Parker 
Correspondence (Parker Soc.), p. 363). In 1562 
Parker appointed him his commissary for the 
faculties. He was also a member of the ec- 
clesiastical commission as early as 1567, and 
on 28 June of that year was appointed visitor 
of the churches, city, and diocese of Norwich. 
Drury was one of the civilians consulted by 
Elizabeth in 1571 on the important points of 
international law raised by the intrigues of 
the Bishop of Ross on behalf of Mary Stuart. 
Briefly stated, the questions were(l) whether 
an ambassador plotting insurrection, or aid- 
ing and abetting treason against the sovereign 
to whom he was accredited, did not forfeit 
his privileges as an ambassador and become 
amenable to the ordinary law of the land ; 
and (2) whether a deposed and refugee sove- 
reign was capable by international law of 
having an ambassador in his land of asylum 
in such sense as to clothe the ambassador with 
the personal inviolability ordinarily belong- 
ing to his rank. The civilians answered the 
first question in a sense adverse to the am- 
bassador, and their decision was held at the 
time conclusive, and acted on accordingly ; 
but, though much discussed since, it has not 
been generally approved by publicists, or fre- 
quently followed in practice by statesmen. 
The second question they answered in the 
affirmative, adding, however, the proviso, ' so 
long as he do not exceed the bounds of an 
ambassador.' The case is generally regarded 
by publicists as the locus classicus on the sub- 
ject (Eurghley State Papers (Murdin), p. 18 ; 
PHILLIMORE, International Law, 3rd ed. ii. 
161, 205). On 28 Nov. 1574 Drury received 
from Archbishop Parker a grant of the ad- 
vowson of Buxted, Sussex, to hold jointly 
with the archbishop's son John, and at some 
date not later than 21 April 1577 he was 
appointed master of the prerogative court 
of Canterbury. He was also appointed, on 
12 Nov. 1577, locum tenensim Dr. Yale, Arch- 
bishop Grindal's vicar-general (GRINDAL, Re- 
mains, 446 ; STRYPE, Parker (fol.), i. 121, 
248, 253, ii. 476 ; STRYPE, Whitc/ift (fol.), i'. 
80 ; STRYPE, Grindal (fol.), p. 231). At this 
time he seems to have incurred some suspicion 
of popish views (Cal. State Papers, Dom. 
1547-80, p. 576). He was sworn master ex- 



Drury 



Dry 



traordinary in chancery on 10 Oct. 1580, and 
master in ordinary in chancery 10 Feb. 1584-5 
(MoNRO, Acta Cancellarice, p. 547). In 1584 
he was consulted as to the best mode of de- 
fending the revenues of the church against an 
apprehended confiscation by the crown under 
cover of a writ of melius inquirendum. An 
opinion drawn up by him on this occasion, in 
which he advises the collection of evidence 
to prove that ' the tenth part of the fruits of 
the land is not possessed by the clergy,' and 
certain propositions in the nature of argu- 
ment to strengthen the case, are preserved in 
Strype's ' Annals,' iii. pt, i. (fol.), 230-2, and 
App. bk. i. No. xli. He died shortly before 
Christmas 1589 (LODGE, Hlustmtions,ii. 382), 
and was buried in the church of St. Mary 
Magdalen, Old Fish Street, London. Drury 
married Mary, daughter of Sir Richard South- 
well of Woodrising, Norfolk, by whom he had 
issue four sons and two daughters. He re- 
sided at Brett's Hall, in the parish of Tend- 
ring, Essex (MoRANT, Essex, i. 471). His 
wife survived him, and married Robert Forth, 
LL.D., civilian (Coll. Top. et Gen. iii. 310). 
His eldest son, John, was knighted in 1604. 
Another son, Robert (1587-1623), is noticed 
above. 

[Nichols's Progresses (James I), p. 465 ; Cul- 
lum's Hawsted, p. 129 ; Morant's Essex, ii. 311 ; 
Cooper's Athense Cantabr. ii. 74.] J. M. K. 

DRURY, WILLIAM (fl. 1641), drama- 
tist, was an English gentleman (' nobilis An- 
glus ') ' of singular parts and learning,' and 
it has been conjectured that he was a nephew 
of William Drury the civilian [q. v.] He was 
for some time imprisoned in England on ac- 
count of his adherence to the catholic religion, 
but about 1616 he was released through the 
intercession of Count Gondomar, the Spanish 
ambassador in London. In October 1618 he 
began to teach poetry and rhetoric at the Eng- 
lish College at Douay. He wrote three Latin 
plays in verse,which were exhibited with great 
applause, first privately in the refectory of the 
college, and afterwards publicly in the qua- 
drangle. These are : 1 . ' Alvredus sive Alfre- 
dus,Tragi-Comcedia ter exhibita in seminario 
Anglorum Duaceno ab ej usdem collegii Juven- 
tute, Anno Domini JI.DC.XIX.,' Douay, 1620, 
16mo (on the history of Alfred the Great 
and his subsequent deliverance of his people). 
At the end of the volume is a poem entitled 
' De venerabili Eucharistia ab apibus inventa 
et mirabiliter servata, de qua scribit Caesarius, 
lib. 9, cap. 8. Carmen elegiacum.' 2. ' Mors, 
comoedia.' Printed with the preceding work, 
Douay, 1620, 16mo. Death and the Devil, 
in person, play the principal parts in this 
curious drama, or rather farce, of which Douce 



speaks in laudatory terms in his book on Hol- 
bein's ' Dance of Death ' (edit. 1858, p. 156). 
3. ' Reparatus, sive Depositum. Tragico- 
Comoadia.' First published, together with the 
two preceding works, in Drury's ' Dramatica 
Poemata,' Douay, 1628, 12mo ; reprinted at 
Antwerp, 1621, 12mo. 

[Dodd's Church Hist. ii. 425; Duthillceul, 
Bibl. Douaisierme, 1842, nos. 168, 770, 1509; 
Lowndes's Bibl. Man. (Bohn), p. 667 ; Grillow's 
Bibl. Diet. ; Catalogue of Printed Books in British 
Museum.] T. C. 

DRY, SIB RICHARD (1815-1869), Tas- 
manian statesman, born at Elphin,nearLaun- 
ceston in the island of Tasmania, on 15 June 
1815, was educated at a private school in 
Campbell Town. In February 1844 he was 
nominated to a seat in the old council by 
Sir John Eardley Wilmot, then the lieu- 
tenant-governor, and afterwards formed one 
of the ' patriotic six ' who opposed Wilmot's 
financial schemes. They resigned in 1846, as 
a protest against Wilmot's unconstitutional 
government, but were subsequently reap- 
pointed when Sir William Thomas Denison 
succeeded Wilmot as lieutenant-governor. 
Dry became one of the prominent members 
of the anti-transportation league, and in 1851, 
when representative institutions were first 
introduced into Tasmania, he was elected 
member for Launceston. On 30 Dec. 1851 
Dry was chosen speaker of the new legislative 
council, and soon afterwards an address to 
the queen strongly remonstrating on the in- 
flux of criminals was adopted by the majo- 
rity of the council. After further struggles 
on the part of the colonists, it was at length 
officially notified, in May 1853, that trans- 
portation had absolutely ceased. In 1855 
Dry resigned the office of speaker, and visited 
Europe for the sake of his health. He was 
knighted by letters patent in March 1858. 
In 1862 he was elected to the legislative 
council as member for Tamar, and in Novem- 
ber 1866 became colonial secretary and pre- 
mier, in the place of James Whyte, whose 
government Dry had successfully opposed on 
the question of direct taxation. He died in 
office on 1 Aug. 1869, in his fifty-fifth year, 
and was buried in Hagley Church, the chancel 
of which was erected to his memory by his 
fellow-colonists. Fenton states that Dry 
' was perhaps the most popular statesman 
Tasmania ever possessed.' This was in great 
measure due to his tact and conciliatory 
demeanour, which secured him the respect 
of his supporters and opponents alike. Dry 
inherited a large estate at Quamby from his 
father, who had left Ireland during the 
political troubles of the last century, and 
amassed a considerable fortune in the land 



Dryander 



6 4 



Dry den 



of his adoption. Dry married Clara, daughter 
of George Meredith of Cambria, Great Swan 
Port, but left no issue. 

(Teuton's Hist, of Tasmania (1884), passim; 
Melbourne Age for 9 Aug. 1869, p. 3 ; Heaton's 
Australian Diet, of Dates (1879), p. 58 ; West's 
Hist, of Tasmania (1852), i. 252; London Gazette, 
1858, vol. i. pt. ii. p. 1415.] G. F. R B. 

DRYANDER, JONAS (1748-1810), bo- 
tanist, was born in Sweden in 1748. He was 
sent by his uncle, Dr. Lars Montin, to whom 
his education was entrusted, first to the uni- 
versity of Gottenburg and afterwards to that 
of Lund, where he graduated in 1 776, his thesis 
being published as ' Dissertatio Gradualis 
Fungos regno vegetabili vindicans,' Lund, 
4to, 1776. Attracted by the fame of Lin- 
naeus, he then proceeded to Upsala, and hav- 
ing subsequently acted as tutor to a noble- 
man he came to England, and in 1782, on 
the death of his friend Solander, succeeded 
him as librarian to Sir Joseph Banks at Dean 
Street, Soho. Dryander afterwards became 
librarian to the Royal Society, and was one 
of the original fellows, the first librarian, 
and a vice-president of the Linnean Society, 
founded by his friend, Sir J. E. Smith, in 
1788. When the society was incorporated 
in 1802, Dryander was the chief author of its 
laws. He was the main author of the first 
edition of Alton's ' Hortus Kewensis,' pub- 
lished in 1789, and of part of the second edi- 
tion, issued between 1810 and 1813, and he 
edited Roxburgh's ' Plants of the Coromandel 
Coast,' between 1795 and 1798 ; but his 
' magnum opus ' was the ' Catalogus Biblio- 
thecae Historico-Naturalis Josephi Banks, 
Baronetti,' London, 1796-1800, 5 vols., of 
which Sir James Smith writes that 'a work ' 
so ingenious in design and so perfect in execu- | 
tion can scarcely be produced in any science.' | 
Dryander died at the Linnean Society's house 
in Soho Square 19 Oct. 1810. A portrait of : 
him by George Dance, 1796, was lithographed ' 
by W. Daniell in 1812, and his services to 
botany were commemorated by his friend 
Thunberg in the genus Dryandra, a group of 
South African Proteacese. 

[Mem. and Corresp. of Sir J. E. Smith, i. 165; ! 
Nichols's Lit. Anecd. ix. 43 ; Encyclopaedia Bri- 
tannica.] G. S. B. 

DRYDEN, JOHN (1631-1700), poet, was 
born 9 Aug. 1631 at Aldwinkle All Saints, 
Northamptonshire (the precise day is doubt- 
ful ; MALONE, p. 5). His father was Erasmus, 
third son of Sir Erasmus Dryden, bart., of 
Canons Ashby, Northamptonshire ; his mother 
was Mary, daughter of Henry Pickering, rector 
of Aldwinkle from 1597 to 1637, in which 
year he died, aged 75. Erasmus and Mary ! 



Dryden were married 21 Oct. 1630 at Pilton, 
near Aldwinkle (Notes and Queries, 2nd ser. 
xii. 207). The Drydens (or Dridens), origi- 
nally settled in Cumberland, had moved into 
Northamptonshire about the middle of the 
sixteenth century. Erasmus Dryden after 
his marriage lived at Tichmarsh, where the 
Pickerings had a seat. John Dryden had 
' his first learning ' at Tichmarsh, where hia 
parents were buried, and where, in 1722, a 
monument was erected to him and them by 
Elizabeth Creed, daughter of his first cousin, 
Sir Gilbert Pickering. He was admitted to 
a scholarship at Westminster; Busby was 
his head-master, and Locke and South among 
his contemporaries. He was elected to a 
scholarship at Trinity College, Cambridge, 
admitted 11 May, and matriculated 6 July, 
1650. Dryden remembered Busby's floggings 
till the day of his death (To Montague, Oc- 
tober 1699), but sent his two eldest sons to 
the school. Two letters addressed to Busby 
about these boys in 1682 show that Dryden | 
respected his old master, to whom he inscribed 
a translation of the fifth satire of Persius in 
1693. Dryden, as appears from a note to 
the translation of the third satire, had trans- 
lated it for Busby when a schoolboy, and 
performed many similar exercises. Dryden ' 
also contributed an elegy in 1649 to the 
' Tears of the Muses on the death of Henry, ' 
Lord Hastings ; ' and in 1650 prefixed a 
commendatory poem to the ' Epigrams ' of 
John Hoddesdon. The only known fact about 
his academical career is that in July 1652 he 
was ' discommuned,' and had to apologise in 
hall for contumacy to the vice-master. Some 
perversion of this story probably gave rise to 
the scandal told by Shadwell that he had 
been in danger of expulsion for saucily tra- 
ducing a ' nobleman ' (SHADWELL, Medal of 
John Bayes), He graduated as B. A. in January 
1654, but never obtained a fellowship. 

Dryden's father died in June 1654, and 
left a small estate at Blakesley to his son. 
Malone estimates this at 601. a year, of which 
201. went to his mother until her death in 
1676 (MALONE, pp. 440-1). Dryden, for what- 
ever cause, did not proceed to his M.A. de- 
gree, probably, as Christie suggests, because 
the fee then payable by the owner of a life es- 
tate would have swallowed up seven-eighths 
of his yearly income. A letter, written in 
1655 to his cousin Honor, daughter of his 
uncle Sir John Dryden, in the conventional 
language of contemporary gallantry, indicates 
a passing fit of lovemaking of no importance. 
The lady, who was a beauty, remained un- 
married, and died about 1714 at Shrewsbury 
(BELL, Dryden, i. 19). On leaving Cam- 
bridge Dryden seems to have found employ- 



Dryden 



ment in London. Both Drydens and Picker- 
ings had taken the popular side in the civil 
war. His grandfather, Sir Erasmus, had 
been imprisoned by Charles for refusing ' loan 
money' (CHRISTIE, Dryden, pp. xvii, 329). 
His father was a justice of the peace for 
Northamptonshire, and is said to have been 
a ' committee-man ' under the Commonwealth. 
His first cousin, Sir Gilbert Pickering (son 
of his father's sister by Sir John Picker- 
ing, eldest brother of his maternal grand- 
father), was one of the judges on the king's 
trial, though absent on the day of sentence. 
He was chamberlain to Cromwell and nomi- 
nated a peer by him in^l658. Shadwell says 
(Medal of John Bayes) that Dryden began 
life as clerk t/b this cousin. Upon Cromwell's 
death (3 Sept. 1658) Dryden wrote his ' He- 

/roic Stanzas,' which were published, with two 
other poems, by Edmund Waller and Sprat 
(afterwards bishop of Rochester). By an un- 
lucky collocation his next publications were 

, the 'Astrsea Redux,' celebrating the Restora- 
tion, and a ' Panegyric ' upon the king's coro- 

' nation. A line in the poem on Cromwell 
(saying that he essayed 

\ft" To stanch the blood by breathing of the vein) 

was afterwards interpreted to mean that the 
panegyrist of Charles had approved of the 
execution of Charles's father. The phrase 
clearly refers to Cromwell's energy i\\ the 
war, nor can it be said that the poem shows 
' puritan sympathies. It proves only that Dry- 
den was quite willing to do poetical homage 
to the power which then seemed to be per- 
lently established. The order which fol- 
awed the Restoration was no doubt more 
jngenial. Sir Gilbert Pickering, though he 
scaped punishment, except incapacitation for 
"ice, could no longer help his cousin. 
Dryden now lodged with Herringman, a 
3okseller in the New Exchange, for whom, 
jcording to later and improbable scandal, 
worked as a hack-writer. Herringman 
iblished his books until 1679. Here he 
scame acquainted with Sir Robert Howard, 
i younger son of the royalist Earl of Berk- 
ihire. A poem by Dryden is prefixed to a 
rolume published in 1660 by Howard, to 
yhom he acknowledged many obligations in 
he preface to his 'Annus Mirabilis.' On 
Dec. 1663 Dryden married Lady Elizabeth 
Toward, his friend's sister (see SHARPE'S 
'eerage, under 'Howard, Earl of Suffolk,' 
id BELL, p. 24). The marriage was at St. 
within's, London, and the consent of the 
rents is noted on the license, though Lady 
izabeth was then about twenty-five. She 
is the object of some scandals, well or 
founded; it was said that Dryden had 

70L. XVI. 



5 Dryden 

been bullied into the marriage by her bro- 
thers (Dry den! s Satire to his Muse, attributed 
to Lord Somers, though disavowed by him 
and reprinted in ' Supplement to Works of 
Minor Poets,' 1750, pt. ii.) ; and a letter 
written by her to the second Earl of Chester- 
field (CHESTERFIELD, Letters, 1829, p. 95) 
shows questionable intimacy with a dissolute 
nobleman. A small estate in Wiltshire was 
settled upon them by her father (see Dedica- 
tion to ' Cleomenes '). The lady's intellect 
and temper were apparently not good ; her 
husband was treated as an inferior by her 
social equals, and neither his character nor 
the conditions of his life afford a presumption 
for his strict fidelity. Scandal connected his 
name with that of an actress, Ann Reeve 
(SHADWELL, Epistle to the Tories). An old 
gentleman, who gave his recollections to the 
' Gentleman's Magazine ' for 1745 (p. 99), 
professed to have eaten tarts with Dryden's 
' Madam Reeve ' at the Mulberry Garden. 
Our knowledge, however, is very imperfect, 
and it is certain that both Dryden and his 
wife were warmly attached to their children. 

Dryden was already making his way. On 
26 Nov. 1662 he had been elected a mem- 
ber of the Royal Society. In his epistle to 
Walter Charleton he speaks of Bacon, Gil- 
bert, Boyle, and Harvey. A more congenial 
employment was provided by the opening of 
the two theatres the King's, directed by 
Killigrew, and the Duke's, directed by D'Ave- 
nant. Dryden had begun and laid aside a 
play with a royalist moral, of which the Duke 
of Guise was the hero. His first acted play, 
the 'Wild Gallant,' was performed at the\ 
King's Theatre in February 1663, and failed. 
A poem to Lady Castlemaine acknowledges 
the favour shown to the author by the king's 
mistress. His second play, the ' Rival Ladies,'- 
a tragi-comedy, succeeded fairly at the same 
theatre later in the same year. On 3 Feb. 
1664 Pepys records that he saw Dryden, 'the 
poet I knew at Cambridge,' at the coffee-house 
in Covent Garden with ' all the wits of the 
town.' In August Pepys saw and admired 
the ' Rival Ladies.' Dryden had helped Sir 
Robert Howard in the 'Indian Qiven/ a 
tragedy upon Montezuma, brought out with " 
great splendour and marked success in 
January 1664. He produced a sequel, the 
'Indian Emperor,' which was brought out ^ 
with the same scenes and dresses in the be- 
ginning of 1665, and repeated the success of 
its predecessor. 

The theatres were closed from May 1665 
till the end of 1666 by the plague and the 
fire of London. Dryden retired for some time 
to Charlton in Wiltshire, a seat of his father- 
in-law, Lord Berkshire, where his eldest son 

F 



Dryden 



66 



Drydei 



was born. He composed two remarkable 
works during his retreat the ' Annus Mira- 

'bilis/ which, with occasional lapses into his 
juvenile faults, shows a great advance in sus- 
tained vigour of style ; and the ' Essay on 
Dramatic Poesy/ which appeared in 1668 and 
included part of a rather sharp controversy 
with Sir Robert Howard. Dryden had writ- 
ten the tragic scenes of the ' Rival Ladies ' 
in rhvme, and had defended the practice in 
a preface to the published play in 1664. The 
' Essay ' defends the same thesis in answer 
to some criticisms in Howard's preface to 
has own plays (1666), and, like all Dryden's 
critical writings, is an interesting exposition 
of his principles. A contemptuous reply fol- 
lowed from Howard in the preface to his 

, ' Duke of Lerma,' and a ' Defence ' by Dryden 

in 1668. The friendship of the two dispu- 
tants was not permanently broken off. They 
were on friendly terms during the last years 
of Howard's life. He died in 1698. 

With the reopening of the theatres Dryden 
again became active. A comedy called ' Se- 

jcret Love, or the Maiden Queen,' was pro- 
duced at the King's Theatre in March 1667. 
Pepys was enraptured with the play and with 
the acting of Nell Gwyn, who was beginning 
her career on the stage. In 'the same year 
Dryden produced ' Sir Martin Mar-all,' one of 
"nis most successful plays, founded on a trans- 
lation of Moliere's ' L'Etourdi ' by the Duke of 
-Newcastle, and an alteration of tbe 'Tempest,' 
for which, however, D'Avenant seems to have 
been chiefly responsible. Both plays were pro- 
duced at the Duke's Theatre. Their success 
had so raised Dryden's reputation that he now 
made a contract with the company of the 
King's Theatre. From a petition of the com- 
pany to the lord chamberlain in 1678 (first ! 
printed by Malone), it appears that Dryden ! 
undertook to provide three plays a year, and ' 
received in return a share and a quarter out 
of the twelve shares and three quarters held ; 
by the whole company. He failed to provide ' 
the stipulated number of plays, not always 
producing one in a year ; but ne received his \ 
share of profits, amounting at first to 300/. 

100/. a year. The theatre was burnt in I 
1672, and debts were contracted for the re- ' 
building, which cost about 4,000/. Dryden's 
profits were consequently diminished. The 
company say that upon his complaint they 
allowed him the customary author's ' third 

Anight ' for his ' All for Love ' (1678), although ! 
as a shareholder he had no right to this 
payment, and they protest against his giving 

_a new play, ' CEdipus,' to the n val Duke's com- 
pany without compensating his own share- 
holder. The result does not appear, nor ! 
Dryden's answer, if he made one. 



In 1668 the Archbishop of Canterbury, at 
the king's request, conferred upon Dryden 
the degree of M. A. In 1670 he had the more 
solid appointments of poet laureate and his- 
toriographer. Malone points out that among 
the powerful patrons who may have helped 
him at this season were Lord Clifford, Sir 
Charles Sedley, Lord Buckhurst (Earl of 
Dorset), Lord Mulgrave, and the Duch. 
of Portsmouth. He acknowledges general 
obligations in various dedications ; but w.- 
may believe that he was appointed on his 
merits. D'Avenant, who died in 1668, was his 
predecessor in the first , and James Howell .who 
died in 1666, in the last appointment. The 
offices were now joined in one patent, with a 
salary of 200/. a year and a butt of canary 
wine. Dryden was also to have the two years' 
arrears since D'Avenant's death. His whole 
income, including his private estate and fees 
from dedications and profits from publication, 
is estimated by Malone (pp. 440-6) as reach- 
ing at the highest (1670-0) oo7l. a year, after- 
wards falling to 420/. till the loss of his offices 
on the revolution. The salary, however, was 
so ill paid that in 1684 it was four yean in 
arrear. An additional salary of 1001. a year 
was granted to him some time before J^fc 
(Treasury Warrants, first published by Peter 
Cunningham in notes to Johnson's ' Lives.' 
i. 334, and by R. Bell in edition of Drydem's 
'Poems,' 1854). His income would have 
been a good one for the time if regularly re- 
ceived, but it was mainly precarious. 

Between 1668 and 1681 Dryden prod^H 
about fourteen plays of various kinds. Hk 
comedies have found few apologists. ^Miat- 
ever their literary merits, they gave offence 
even at the time by their license. Pepys con- 
demns his next venture, ' An Evening's Love 
or the Mock Astrologer' (1668) (from the 
Feint Astrologue of the younger Comeflle, 
and the D&pit Amoureux), partly upon thi* 
ground, and Evelyn mentions it as a symptom 
of the degeneracy and pollution of the stage. 
Another play called ' Ladies a la Mode/ pro- 
duced in September of the same year, and 
apparently a complete failure, is only known 
from Pepys's mention. (Mr. Gosse thinks that 
it may perhaps be identified with a play called 
' The Mall, or the Modish Lovers/pu'blished 
in 1674 with a preface by ' J. D.,' SAIXTSBWBY, 
I>ryden,f.58.) Two were performed in |f>,.'. 
the ' Marriage a la Mode,' which succeeded, 
and the 'Assignation/ which failed. A comedy 
called ' The Kind Keeper, or Mr. Limberham/ 
produced in 1678, was withdrawn after th- - 
days on account of the enmity of the vicious 
persons attacked by its honest satire, accord- 
ing to Dryden ; according to others, because 
the satire, honest or not, was disgusting. 



Dryden 

The published version, though apparently 
purified from the worst passages, is certainly 
offensive enough. 

Dryden adopted other not very creditable 
devices to catch the public taste. In 1673 
,he produced the tragedy ' Amboyna, or the 
Cruelties of the Dutch to the English Mer- 
chants,' a catchpenny production intended 
to take advantage of the national irritation 
against the Dutch, then threatened by the 
Anglo-French alliance. In a .similar manner 
Dryden took advantage of the Popish plot, 
by a play named ' The Spanish Friar, or the 

Double Discovery,' performed in 1681. It is 
a bitter attack upon the hypocrisy and licen- 
tiousness attributed to the catholic priesthood. 
A more singular performance was the ' State of 
Innocence,' an opera, which is founded upon 
Milton's 'Paradise Lost' (published 1669). 
Aubrey states that Dryden asked Milton's 
permission to put his poem into rhyme, and 
that Milton replied, ' Ah ! you may tag my 
verses if you will.' In the preface Drvden 
speaks of 'Paradise Lost' as 'one of* the 
greatest , most noble, and sublime poems which 
either this age or nation hath produced.' The 
as! miration was lasting. Richardson, in his 
t o ' Paradise Lost ' (1734, p. cxix), tells 
.; story, which iff certainly inaccurate in de- 
tails (MALONE, p. 113), to the effect that 
' ryden said to Lord Buckhurst (afterwards 
Earl of Dorset), ' This man cuts us out and 
the ancients too.' His famous epigram upon 
Milton was first printed in Tonson's folio 
lit ion of ' Paradise Lost' in 1688. 
Dryden's most important works during 
1 his period were the ' heroic tragedies.' Of 
these ' Tyrannic Love, or the Royal Martyr,' 
and the two parts of ' Almanzor and Alma- 
hide, or the Conquest of Granada,' appeared 
in 1669 and 1670. Nell Gwyn appeared in 
all three, and it is said that'she first attracted 
Charles II when appearing as Valeria in 

/Tyrannic Love.' Dryden's last (and finest) 
rhymed tragedy, 'Aurengzebe, or the Great 

x Mogul' (which Charles II read in manuscript, 
giving hints for its final revision), was pro- 
duced in 1675. The dedication to John Shef- 
field, lord Mulgrave (afterwards Duke of 
Buckinghamshire), states that he was now 
desirous of writing an epic poem, and he asks 
Mulgrave to use his influence with the king to 
obtain some means of support during the com- 
position. He says, probably with sincerity, 
that he never felt himself very fit for tragedy, 
and that many of his contemporaries had sur- 
passed him in comedy. The subjects which 
ae had considered, as appears from his ' Dis- 
course on Satire' (1693), were Edward the 
FJlack Prince and King Arthur. He had 
till some hopes of ' making amends for ill 



5? Dryden 

I plays by an heroic poem ; ' and Christie sug-/ 
I gests that the pension of 100/. a year was a 
result of this application. Dryden, however, 

instead of carrying out this scheme, devoted 

himself to writing his finest play, ' All for* 
j Love.' Abandoning his earlier preference 
i for rhyme, he now ' professed to imitate the 
j divine Shakespeare, and produced a play 
i which, if inferior to the noble ' Antony and 

Cleopatra,' may be called a not unworthy com- 
l pet itor. Dryden, it may be noted, had written 

a fine encomium upon Shakespeare in his 
1 ' Essay of Dramatic Poesy,' and in the pro- 
| logue to the altered 'Tempest' appears the 

famous couplet : 

But Shakespeare's magic could not copied be ; 
: Within that circle none durst walk but he. 

; At a later period (1679) he brought out an 
alteration of ' Troilus and Oessida,' the pro- 
; logue of which contains fresh homage to 
i Shakespeare. Dryden adapted Shakespeare's 
i plays to the taste of the time, but he did more 
I than any contemporary to raise the reputa- 
tion of their author, whom, contrary to the 
prevalent opinion, he preferred to Ben Jon- 
son : ' I admire him ' ( Jonson), ' but I love 
j Shakespeare.' The heroic tragedies, of which 
Dryden was the leading writer, and which as 
he admits (Dedication of Spanish Friar) led 
him to extravagant declamation, produced 
some lively controversy. The famous ' Re- 
hearsal,' in which they were ridiculed with 
remarkable wit, was first performed in De- 
cember 1671. It had long been in prepara- 
tion, the Duke of Buckingham, the ostensible 
author, receiving help, it is said, from Butler 
(of ' Hudibras'), Sprat, and others. The hero, 
Bayes, was first intended for D'Avenant, but 
after D'Avenant's death in 1668 Dryden be- 
came the main object of attack, and passages 
of his ' Indian Emperor' and ' Conquest of 
Granada' were ridiculed. 'Bayes' thus be- 
came the accepted nickname for Dryden in 
the various pamphlets of the time. The ' Re- 
hearsal' was brought out at the King's Theatre, 
in which Dryden had a share, and the part 
of Amaryllis was taken by Ann Reeve, whose 
intrigue with him was noticed in the play. 
Dryden, in his ' Discourse on Satire,' gives 
his reasons for not retorting, and appears to 
have taken the assault good-humouretUy. He 
had another literary controversy in 1673. 
Elkanah Settle had published h$ ' Empress 
of Morocco,' with a dedication/containing a 
disi espectful notice of Dryden. /Dryden joined 
with Crowne and Shadwelbio attack Settle 
in a coarse pamphlet, and/Settle replied by 
a sharp attack upon the ' Conquest of Gra- 
nada.' John Dennis [q. v.] (who went to 
Cambridge in 1676) reports that Settle was 

F2 



Dryden 



68 



Dryden 



considered as a formidable rival to Dryden 
at the time, and was the favourite among the 
younger men at Cambridge and London. 

Another controversy is supposed to account 
for a singular incident in Dryden's career. 
He was beaten by some ruffians while re- 
turning from Will's coffee-house on the 
night of 18 Dec. 1679. The supposed insti- 
gator of this assault was John Wilmot, earl 
of Rochester. Dryden had dedicated a play 
to Rochester in 1673, and had written a 
letter warmly acknowledging his patronage. 
But Rochester had taken up some of Dryden's 
rivals and had a bitter feud with Mulgrave, 
whose ' Essay on Satire ' (written in 1675 
and circulated in manuscript in 1679) was 
perhaps corrected, and was supposed at the 
time to have been written, by Dryden. The 
authorship is apparently ascribed to Dryden 
by Rochester in a letter to Henry Savile 
(ROCHESTER, Letters, 1697, p. 49), probably 
written in November 1679. The ' Essay ' 
contained an attack upon Rochester, who 
says in another letter that he shall ' leave the 
repartee to Black Will with a cudgel ' (ib. 
p. 5). The threat was probably fulfilled, but 
nothing could be proved at the time, although 
a reward of 501. was offered for a discovery of 
the offenders. There is little reason to doubt 
Rochester's guilt, and the libels of the day 
frequently taunt Dryden with his suffering. 
The disgrace was supposed to be with the 
victim. The Duchess of Portsmouth (see 
LUTTKELL, i. 30), who was attacked in the 
4 Essay,' together with the Duchess of Cleve- 
land, as one of Charles's ' beastly brace,' was 
also thought to have had some 'share in this 
dastardly offence. 

The erroneous belief that Dryden had taken 
a share in satirising Charles, and his attack 
upon the catholics in the ' Spanish Friar,' sug- 
gested the hypothesis that Dryden was in 
sympathy with Shaftesbury's opposition to 
the court. A libeller even represented him 
as poet laureate to Shaftesbury in an ima- 
ginary kingdom ('Modest Vindication of 
Shaftesbury' in Somers Tracts, 1812, viii. 
' ; and another said that his pension had 
taken from him, and that he had written 
the N^panish Friar ' in revenge. He put an 
end to \ny such impression by publishing the 
first of Bus great satires. The ' Absalom and 
.Achitophel ' appeared in November 1681. 
ShaftesbuA had been in the Tower since 
2 July, and Vas to be indicted on 24 Nov. 
The satire, according to Tate, had been sug- 
gested to Drydeh by Charles. Although the 
grand jury threw out the bill against Shaftes- 
bury, the success of the poetic attack was 
unprecedented. Johnson's father, a book- 
seller at the time, said \that he remembered 



no sale of equal rapidity except that of the 
reports of Sacheverell's trial. The reputa- 
tion has been as lasting as it was rapidly 
achieved. The ' Absalom and Achitophel ' 
is still the first satire in the language for 
masculine insight and for vigour of expres- 
sion. Dryden tells us that by the advice of Sir 
George Mackenzie he had read through the 
older English poets and had written a treatise 
(suppressed at Mulgrave's desire) on the laws 
of versification. He had become a consum- 
mate master of style, and had now found the 
precise field for which his powers of mind 
fully qualified him. The passage praising 
Shaftesbury's purity as a judge, which greatly 
heightens the effect of the satire, was intro- 
duced in the second edition. Benjamin Martyn 
(employed by the fourth Earl of Shaftesbury 
to write the life of the first) states that this 
addition was made in return for Shaftesbury's 
generosity in nominating Dryden's son to the 
Charterhouse, after the first edition of the 
satire. The story, highly improbable in itself, 
is discredited by the fact that Dryden's son 
Erasmus was admitted to the Charterhouse 
in February 1683 on the nomination of 
Charles II, while Shaftesbury himself nomi- 
j nated Samuel Weaver in October 1681, that 
is, just before the publication. It is now 
impossible to say what suggested the state- 
ment. Dryden at any rate continued his sati- 
rical career and his assaults upon Shaftes- 
bury. A medal had been struck in honour of 
the ignoramus of the grand jury, and Charles 
(according to a story reported by Spence) 
suggested to Dryden the subject of his next 
satire, ' The Medal,' which appeared in March 
1682. Retorts had already been attempted, 
and others followed. Buckingham published 
' Poetical Reflections,' Samuel Pordage pub- 
lished ' Azaria and Hushai,' and Elkanah 
Settle ' Absalom Senior or Achitophel Trans- 
posed.' The ' Medal ' produced the ' Medal 
Re versed,' by Pordage, ' Dryden's Satire to his 
Muse ' (see above), and the ' Medal of John 
Bayes,' by Shadwell, who had been on friendly 
terms with Dryden, but now came forward 
as the champion of the whigs. Dryden 
turned upon Shadwell in ' Mac Flecknoe,' a 
satire of great vigour and finish, which served 
as the model of the ' Dunciad.' Dryden is 
said to have thought it his best work (' Dean 
Lockier,' in SPEXCE'S Anecdotes, p. 60). It 
was published on4 Oct. 1682. On lONov. fol- 
lowing appeared a second part of ' Absalom 
and Achitophel.' It was mainly written by 
Nahum Tate ; but Dryden contributed over 
two hundred forcible lines and probably re- 
vised the whole. Shadwell and Settle again 
appear as Og and Doeg. A year had thus 
produced the great satires which show Dryden 



L * 



Dry den 



6 9 



Dryden 



at his highest power. Two other works, sug- 
gested by contemporary controversy, occu- 
pied him at the same time. The ' Religio 
/ Laici ' a defence of the Anglican position, 
which shows his singular power of arguing 
in verse was suggested by a translation of 
Simon's ' Critical History of the Old Testa- 
ment,' executed by a young friend, Henry 
Dickinson (the name is ascertained by Duke's 
poem to Dickinson on the occasion). He also 
co-operated with Nathaniel Lee in produc- 
ing the ' Duke of Guise.' The story, which 
in Dryden's early effort had been intended 
to suggest a parallel to the English rebel- 
lion, was now to be applied to the contest of 
the court against Shaftesbury and Monmouth. 
Dryden, however, did his best to extenuate 
his own responsibility in a 'Vindication' 
separately published. The Duchess of Mon- 
mouth had long been his first and best pa- 
troness (Preface to King Arthur). 

Dryden was now at the height of his re- 
putation as the leading man of letters of the 
day. He was much sought after as a writer 
of prologues and epilogues. He contributed 
both prologue and epilogue to Southerne's 
first play in February 1682, and, according 
to Johnson, raised his price on the occasion 
from two guineas to three (the sums have 
been stated less probably as four and six 
guineas and as five and ten guineas, see 
MALONE, p. 456). He contributed prologue 
and epilogue in the following November for 
the first play represented by the King's and 
Duke's Companies, who had now combined 
at Drury Lane. He contributed a preface to 
a new translation of Plutarch's ' Lives ' in 
1683 ; translated Maimbourg's ' History of 
the League ' in 1684 ; and published two 
volumes of ' Miscellaneous Poems ' in 1684 
and 1685, including contributions from other 
writers. A letter (undated, but probably of 
1683) to Laurence Hyde, earl of Rochester, 
shows that Dryden was writing under the 
spur' of poverty. He begs for a half-year's 
salary. He is in ill-health and almost in 
danger of arrest. His three sons are growing 
up and have been educated ' beyond his for- 
tune.' ' It is enough,' he says, ' for one age 
to have neglected Mr. Cowley and starved 
Mr. Butler/ On 17 Dec. 1683 Dryden was 
appointed, perhaps in answer to this appeal, 
a collector of customs in the port of London 
(JOHNSON, Lives, ed. Cunningham, i. 335). 
The fixed salary was only 51. a year, but 
presumably consisted in great part of fees. 
The dedication to (Laurence Hyde) Lord 
Rochester of Cleomenes' in 1692 shows that 
Dryden's application for arrears had been to 
some extent successful. Dryden wrote an 
called ' Albion and Albanius ' to cele- 



brate Charles's political successes. It had 
been rehearsed before the king, and a sequel, 
' King Arthur,' was ready when Charles 
died (5 Feb. 1685). It was produced, with 
alterations, after James's accession (8 June j 
1685). The excitement produced by Mon- 
mouth's rebellion put a stop to the perfor- 
mance and caused great loss to the company. 
In an ode to the king's memory Dryden had 
managed skilfully to insinuate that Charles's 
encouragement of art had more frequently 
taken the form of praise than of solid re- 
ward. In 1676 Dryden had said (Dedication 
to Aurengzebe) that he lived wholly upon 
the king's bounty, though in 1693 (Discourse 
on Satire) he complained that the king had 
ncouraged his design for an epic poem with 
nothing but fair words. He was clearly de- 
pendent upon the royal favour for a large 
part of his income, and the withdrawal of 
favour would mean ruin. The dependence 
was now transferred to James II. James* 
continued Dryden's offices (omitting the lau- 
reate's butt of sack) and the pension of 100J. 
allowed by Charles. Some months after- 
wards (19 Jan. 1686) Evelyn notices a re- 
port that Dryden, with his two sons and 
Mrs. Nelly (miss to the late king),' were 
going to mass. The opinion that such con- 
verts were equally venal was certainly not 
unnatural. Macaulay has given his sanction 
to the opinion by the account in his history, 
written under the belief (now proved to be 
erroneous) that the pension of 10(W. a year 
was an addition by James instead of a re- 
newal of a previous grant. 

The purity of Dryden's motives has been 
frequently discussed. He has not the pre- 
sumption in his favour which arises from a 
sacrifice of solid interests. He was a depen- 
dent following a master with a crowd of 
undoubtedly venal persons. Nor is there the 
presumption which arises from loftiness of 
character. Dryden's gross adulation of his 
patrons was marked by satirists even in his 
own age (see e.g. 'Letter to the Tories,',, 
prefixed to SHADWELL'S Medal of John Bayes)^ 
and he pandered disgracefully to the lowest 
tastes of his audiences. Nor was the r^y 
gious change associated with any mo~ jeJWas 
vulsion, or the result of any profoun' 6 occa- 
lectual process. He had been indi fau thors 
religious controversy till he wa&> 276-80.) 
his most marked prejudice was - ne 9 
priests of all religions, frequen n tt en in Sep- 
contemporaries. He had satiif^S* '^- Birch 
catholics in the ' Spanish Discoverable) in 
protestant feeling was exc ^pending a fort- 
compare such a conversion other hand, War- 
minds. But, in a sens?' ' preserves a story 
been sincere enough. 7 ds the famous Lord 



Dryden ; 

4 Religio Laici ' he says that he was ' natu- 
rally inclined to scepticism in philosophy.' 
The courtiers of Charles II varied between 
' Hobbism ' and Catholicism. Dryden, first 
inclined to Hobbism, may well have been 
led to Catholicism by a not unusual route. 
If all creeds are equally doubtful, a man 
may choose that which is politically most 
congenial, or he may accept that which 
offers the best practical mode of suppressing 
painful doubts. Dryden's language in the 
' Religio Laici,' while retailing the ordinary 
'arguments for the Anglican position, ex- 
presses a marked desire for an infallible 
'de. His critical writings show a mind 
iously open to accept new opinions. It 
y well be that, holding his early creed on 
y light grounds, he thought that the ar- 
gument for an infallible church, when pre- 
sented to him for the first time, was as un- 
answerable as it appeared for a time to 
Chillingworth and Gibbon. Though inte- 
rested motives led him to look into the 
question, the absence of-any ,strong_c.onvic- 
tions would make it easy to accept the solu- 
tion now presented. Once converted, he 
appears to have grown into a devoted mem- 
ber of the church in his age. He was speedily 
employed in defence of his new faith. He 
translated Varillas's ' History of Religious 
Revolutions.' Burnet asserts (Defence of 
his Reflections upon Varilla$) that his own 
attack upon Varillas caused the publication 
to be abandoned. He was employed by 
James to answer Stillingfleet, who had as- 
sailed the papers upon Catholicism published 
by James himself and attributed to his first 
wife and his brother. Some sharp passages 
followed, in which Stillingfleet had the ad- 
vantage due to his superior learning and prac- 
tice in controversy. Dryden's most important 
^work, ' The Hind and the Panther ' (said to 
have been composed at Rushton, a seat of 
theTreshams in Northamptonshire), was pub- 
lished in April 1687. Although the poem is 
written in Dryden's best manner, and has 
many spirited passages, especially the attack 
pon Burnet as 'the Buzzard,' it must be 
^d that not even Dryden's skill could make 
|jed theological controversy very read- 
^ae^he most famous retort was by Charles 
end to' 1 (after wards Lord Halifax) and Mat- 
first of l? r > called ' The Hind and Panther 
xAchitoph\to the story of the Country Mouse 
Shaftesbur Mouse.' This is a kind of sup- 
2 July, and - ' Rehearsal,' in which Bayes 
The satire, acftllegory intended as a parody 
gested to Dryd the Panther.' DeanLockier 
grand jury thretobably enough) that Dry- 
bury, the succes'king of this ' cruel usage ' 
unprecedented, allows to whom he had 
seller at the time, t. 



Dryden 



alwavs been very civil ' (SPEXCE, Anecdotes, 
p. 61). 

Dryden translated a life of St. Francis 
Xavier, and in a dedication to the queen 
declared that her majesty had chosen the 
saint for a patron and that her prayers might 
be expected to bring an heir to the throne. 
When an heir actually appeared (10 June 
1688) Dryden brought out a congratulatory 
poem, ' Britannia Rediviva,' before the end 
of the month. - 

The revolution of 1688 put an end to any 
hopes which Dryden might have entertained 
from James's patronage. He lost all his offices, 
Shadwell succeeding him as poet laureate. 
He received some considerable benefaction 
from his old friend Buckhurst, now earl of 
Dorset, which Prior probably exaggerated in 
a dedication to Dorset's son, where he says 
that Dorset made up the loss of the laureate's 
income. Dryden remained faithful to his 
creed. Recantation, it is true, was scarcely 
possible, and could have brought nothing but 
contempt. Dryden, however, behaved with 
marked dignity during his later years. He 
laboured at his calling without querulous 
complaint or abject submission. He returned 
for a time to dramatic writing. In 1690 were 
performed a tragedy ' Don Sebastian ' and' 
his successful comedy called ' Amphitryon.'" 
' Don Sebastian ' divides with ' All for Love '- 
the claim to be his best play, especially on 
the strength of the famous scene between 
Sebastian and Dorax. In 1691 he brought 
out ' King Arthur,' altered to fit it to the " 
times by omitting the politics.. Purcell com- 
posed the music, and it had a considerable 
success. In 1692 he produced ' Cleomenes, r 
the last act of which, in consequence of his 
own illness, was finished by Southerne. A 
tragi-comedy called 'Love Triumphant ' was 
announced as his last play, and failed com- 
pletely in 1694. Congrevehad been introduced 
to Dryden by Southerne. Dryden recognised 
the merits of the new writer with generous 
warmth. He addressed some striking lines 
to Congreve on the appearance of the 'Double 
Dealer ' (1693), in which the old dramatist 
bequeathed his mantle and the care of his 
reputation to the rising young man. Dryden 
with his disciple came in for a share of the 
assault made by Jeremy Collier upon con- 
temporary dramatists in 1698. Dryden, with 
good judgment and dignity, confessed to the 
partial justice of the attack, though saying, 
truly enough, that Collier's zeal had carried 
him too far (Preface to Fables). 

As his dramatic energy slackened, Dryden 
laboured the more industriously in other direc- 
tions. His poem ' Eleonora '(1692), written ins. 
memory of the Countess of Abingdon (Cnnis- 



Dryden 



Dryden 



TIE, p. Ixvi), was probably written to order 
and paid for by the widower, as the poet had 
been unknown to both earl and countess. In 
1693 appeared a translation of Juvenal and 
' Persius, in which Dryden was helped by his 
sons. The ' Discourse on Satire ' was pre- 
fixed. A third and fourth volume of ' Mis- 
cellanies,' to which Dryden contributed, ap- 
, peared in 1693 and 1694. He now undertook 

' his translation of Virgil. Tradition states 
(MALONE, 233) that the first lines were writ- 
ten upon a pane of glass at Chesterton House, 
Huntingdonshire, the seat of his cousin, John 
Driden (whose name was always thus spelt). 
Part of the translation was written at Sir 
William Bowyer's seat, Denham, Bucking- 
hamshire, and part at Lord Exeter's seat, 
Burleigh. Great interest was taken in the 
work. Addison wrote the arguments of the 
books and an ' Essay upon the Georgics.' 
The book was published by subscription, a 
system of joint-stock patronage now coming 
into vogue. ' Paradise Lost ' had been thus 
published in 1688, and Wood's 'Athense 
Oxonienses' in 1691. It is impossible to 
decide what was the precise result to Dryden. 
There were 101 subscriptions of five guineas, 
for which engravings were to be supplied, 
and 252 at two guineas. It does not appear 
how the proceeds were divided between Dry- j 
den and his publisher Tonson. It seems that 
Dryden received 501. in addition for each book 
of his translation. Dryden also received pre- 
sents from various noble patrons especially 
Lord Clifford, Lord Chesterfield, and Shef- 
field (at this time Marquis of Normanby), to 

- whom the ' Pastorals,' the ' Georgics,' and the 
' ^Eneid ' were especially dedicated. Pope, 
who may have known the facts from Tonson, 
told Spence that the total received by Dryden 
was 1,200/., and the estimate is not impro- 
bable. Dryden's correspondence with Tonson 
showed a good many bickerings during the j 
publication. One cause of quarrel was Ton- 
son's desire that the book should be dedicated 
to William III. Dryden honourably refused ; 
but Tonson had the engravings adapted for 
the purpose by giving to /Eneas the hooked 
nose of William (DRYDEN, Letter to his. son, 
3 Sept. 1697). The translation was published 
in July 4697 and was favourably received. 
It has since been admired for its own merits 
of style if not for its fidelity. Bentley, as it 
seems from a letter to Tonson, 'cursed it 
heartily ' before its publication, whether from 
an actual perusal does not appear. Swift 
speaks of it contemptuously in his dedication j 
of the ' Tale of a Tub,' and elsewhere refers [ 
bitterly to Dryden. The statement is made 
by Johnson and Deane Swift (Essay on Swift, 
p. 117) that the hatred was caused by Dry- 



den's remark upon Swift's Odes, ' Cousin 
Swift, you will never be a poet.' Swift was, 
however, an exception to the general rule. 
All the distinguished young men of letters 
looked up with reverence to Dryden. His 
' Virgil ' was a precedent for Pope s ' Homer,' 
which eclipsed the pecuniary results of the 
literary reputation of the earlier poem. 

Having finished Virgil, Dryden set about 
the work generally called his ' Fables.' It > 
included versions of the first ' Iliad,' of some 
of Ovid's 'Metamorphoses,' and tales from 
Chaucer and Boccaccio. By an agreement of 
20 March 1699 he was to receive two hundred 
and fifty guineas from Tonson for ten thousand 
verses, of which seven thousand five hundred 
were already in Tonson's hands. The whole 
sum was to be made up to 3001. on the appear- 
ance of a second edition, which was not 
reached till 1713. The volume as published 
contains some twelve thousand verses. From 
letters between Dryden and Samuel Pepys it 
appears that Pepys suggested the ' Good Par- 
son.' Other poems added were an address to 
his cousin John Driden, and a dedication of 
' Palamon and Arcite ' to the Duchess of Or- 
monde. Dryden thought himself successful 
in these poems and sent them to Charles 
Montagu, his old antagonist, who was now 
chancellor of the exchequer. The letter and 
references in letters to his cousin, Mrs. Steward 
(daughter of Mrs. Creed), show that he was 
expecting some favour from government. He 
says, however, that he cannot buy favour by 
forsaking his religion. He had refused, though 
pressed by his friends, to write a compliment- 
ary poem upon Queen Mary's death in 1694. 
His cousin made him what he calls (to Mrs. 
Steward, 11 April 1700) ' a noble present,' 
and the Duke of Ormonde is said to have 
been equally liberal. An improbable tradition - 
(given by Derrick) states the amount of each 
gift as 5001. The ' Fables ' again show Dry- 1, 
den's energy of thought and language un- 
diminished by age. Some minor poems had 
.appeared during the same period. The most 
famous was the ' Alexander's Feast.' A musi-y 
cal society had been formed in London, which 
held an annual celebration of St. Cecilia's day 
(22 Nov.) The first recorded performance was 
in 1683. Dryden composed an ode for the occa- 
sion in 1 687 . (A list of all the odes, with authors 
and composers, is given in MALONE, 276-80.) 
He was again invited to write the ode for 
1697, and a letter to his son written in Sep- 
tember says that he is then writing it. Birch 
mentions a letter (not now discoverable) in 
which Dryden speaks of spending a fort- 
night upon the task. On the other hand, War- 
ton in his ' Essay on Pope ' presences a story 
that St. John (afterwards the famous Lord 



Dryden 7 

Bolingbroke) found Dryden one morning in 
great agitation, for which he accounted -by 
eayingthat he had sat up all night writing the 
ode. The subject had so impressed him that 
he had finished it at a sitting. It would be 
easy to suggest modes of harmonising these 
statements, but the facts must remain uncer- 
tain. It is equally uncertain whether the 
society did or did not pay him 40, as Der- 
rick reportsonthe aut hority of Walter Moyle, 
while Dryden tells his son the task was ' in 
no way beneficial.' The ode was published 
separately in 1697. Malone (p. 477) pre- 
serves the tradition that Dryden confirmed 
the compliment of a young man (afterwards 
Chief-justice Mackay) by saying ' A nobler 
ode never was produced nor ever will be.' 
Dryden was now breaking in health. A few 
traditions remain as to his later years. Friends 
and admirers had gathered round him. He 
was to be seen at Will's coffee-house, where 
(the only fact recovered by ' old Swiney ' for 
Johnson's use) he had a chair by the fire in 
winter and by the window in summer. Ward 
tells us {London Spy, pt. 10) how the young 
wits coveted the honour of a pinch from Dry- 
den's snuff-box. Dryden spent his evenings at 
the coffee-house. A few scraps of his talk 
carefully collected by Malone (pp. 498-510) 
are, it is to be hoped, unfair specimens of 
his powers. Fletcher's ' Pilgrim ' was per- 
formed for the benefit of his son Charles in the 
beginning of 1700. It was revised by Van- 
brugh for the occasion, and Dryden contri- 
buted an additional scene, together with a 
Srologue and epilogue (vigorously attacking 
lackmore, who had provoked his wrath by 
an assault in the ' Satire against Wit '), and 
a ' Secular Masque.' George Granville (after- 
wards Lord Lansdowne) prepared an adap- 
tation of the ' Merchant of Venice,' to be 
performed for his benefit. His death caused 
the profits to be transferred to his son Charles. 
He had a correspondence with enthusiastic 
young ladies, especially Mrs. Thomas,to whom 
*ave the name Corinna ; he was courted 
ohn Dennis, then a critic of reputation, as 
as by some of higher and in some cases 
permanent fame, such as Congreve, 
son, Southerne, Vanbrugh, Granville, 
and Moyle. Pope, then a boy in his twelfth 
year, managed to get a sight of him, and 
he held the post of literary dictator, pre- 
viously assigned to Ben Jonson, and after- 
wards to Addison, Pope, and Samuel John- 
son. He often visited his relations in the 
country, and anecdotes show that he played 
bowls and was fond of fishing. During March 
and April 1700 he was confined to the house 
by gout. A toe mortified, a.nd he declined to 
submit to amputation, which was advised by 




t Dryden 

a famous surgeon, Hobbs. He died with 
great composure, 1 May 1700, at his house 
in Gerrard Street. He had lived from 1673 
to 1682 in Fetter Lane, Fleet Street, where 
the house, pulled down in 1887, had a tablet 
in commemoration, and from 1682 to 1686 in 
Long Acre (JoHsrsox, Lives (Cunningham), 
i. 320). A tablet affixed to 43 Gerrard Street, 
Soho, states that he also resided there. He 
left no will, and his widow having renounced, 
his son Charles administered to his effects on 
10 June. A private funeral was proposed, and 
Montagu offered to pay the expenses, which 
explains Pope's famous allusion in the cha- 
racter of Bufo 

He helped to bury whom he helped to starve. 

Some of Dryden's friends, including Lord 
Jeffreys, son of the chancellor, objected. The 
body was embalmed, and upon Garth's appli- 
cation was allowed to be deposited in the 
College of Physicians until the funeral on 
13 May. On that day Garth pronounced a 
Latin oration, Horace's ' Exegi monumen- 
tum ' was sung to music, and the body was 
buried by the side of Chaucer and Cowley in 
the ' Poets' Corner ' of Westminster Abbey. 
Dryden's friends filled fifty carriages, and fifty 
more followed. Farquhar speaks of the cere- 
mony as incongruous and burlesque, ' fitter 
for Hudibras than him.' The grave remained 
unmarked until 1720, when a simple monu- 
ment was erected by the Duke of Bucking- 
hamshire (stirred, it is said, by Pope's inscrip- 
tion upon Rowe, where allusion was made to 
the ' rude and nameless stone ' which covered 
Dryden). The Duchess of Buckinghamshire 
substituted the bust by Scheemakers in 1731 
for an inferior bust placed upon the first 
monument. 

Mrs. Thomas (Corinna) fell into distress 
and became one of CurlTs authors. She sup- 
plied him with a fictitious account of Dry- 
den's funeral addressed to the author of Con- 
\ greve's life, in which it was published. It 
j was founded, according to Malone, on Far- 
' quhar's letter and a poem of Tom Brown's 
| called 'A Description of Mr. D n's Funeral.' 
| Corinna's misstatements are sufficiently con- 
futed by Malone (pp. 355-82), though they 
long passed current as genuine. 

Lady Elizabeth Dryden, who (according 
to doubtful traditions recorded by Malone, 
p. 395) was on distant terms with her hus- 
band and his relations in later years, became 
insane soon after his death, and survived till 
the summer of 1714. They had three sons. 
| CHAELES, born at Charlton in 1666, was edu- 
cated at Westminster, elected to Trinity Col- 
lege, Cambridge, in 1683, and wrote some 
poems, one of which, in Latin, appeared in 



Dryden 



73 



Dryden 



the second ' Miscellany.' He executed the 
seventh satire for his father's translation of 
Juvenal in 1692. About that time he went 
to Italy and was appointed chamberlain to 
Pope Innocent XII. Here he wrote an Eng- 
lish poem which appeared in the fourth ' Mis- 
cellany.' He returned to England about 1697 
or 1698 ; administered to his father's effects ; 
was drowned in the Thames near Datchet, and 
buried at Windsor 20 Aug. 1704. Dryden, 
who was a believer in astrology, calculated 
his son's horoscope, and on the strength of it 
prophesies in 1697 that he will soon recover his 
health, injured by a fall at Rome. Corinna 
constructed an elaborate fiction upon this 
basis, showing that Dryden had foretold three 
periods of danger to his son ; at one of which 
Charles fell from a (non-existent) tower of the 
Vatican five stories high and was ' mashed 
to a mummy' for the time (WILSON, Life 
of Cong r eve). Malone reprints this narrative 
(pp. 404-20), which is only worth notice from 
the use made of it in Scott's ' Guy Mannering.' 

JOHN, the second son, born in 1667-8, was 
also at Westminster, and was elected to Christ 
Church in 1685. His father preferred to place 
him under the care of Obadiah Walker, the 
Roman catholic master of University Col- 
lege. He went to Rome with his brother. He 
translated the fourteenth satire of Juvenal for 
his father's version, and wrote the ' Husband 
his own Cuckold,' performed in 1696, with 
a prologue by his father, and an epilogue by 
Congreve. An account of a tour in Italy and 
Malta, made by him in 1700 in company with 
a Mr. Cecil, was published in 1776. He died 
at Rome 28 Jan. 1701. 

ERASMUS HENRY, the third son, born 2 May 
1669, was a scholar at the Charterhouse, and 
' elected to the university ' November 1685. 
He studied at Douay, entered the novitiate 
of the Dominicans 1692, was ordained priest 
in 1694, was at Rome in 1697, residing in 
the convent of the English Dominicans, and 
in that year was sent to the convent of Holy 
Cross, Bornheim, of which he was sub-prior 
till 1700. He then returned to England to 
labour on the mission in Northamptonshire 
(GILLOW, English Catholics). From 1708 he 
resided at Canons Ashby, which in that year 
had passed by will to his cousin Edward, eldest 
son of the poet's younger brother, Erasmus. 
In 1710 he became baronet upon the death of 
another cousin, Sir John Dryden, grandson 
of the first baronet. He was apparently im- 
becile at this time and died soon after. He 
was buried at Canons Ashby, 4 Dec. 1710. 

Dryden was short, stout, and florid. A 
contemporary epigram, praising him as a 
poet, says ' A sleepy eye he had and no sweet 
feature,' and a note explains that ' feature ' 



here means 'countenance.' His nickname, 
' Poet Squab,' suggests his appearance. A 
large mole on his right cheek appears in all 
his portraits. The earliest portrait is said to 
be that in the picture gallery at Oxford, dated 
on the back 1655, which is probably an error 
for 1665. , A portrait was painted by Riley 
in 1683, and engraved by Van Gunst for 
the Virgil of 1709. Closterman painted a 
portrait about 1690, from which there is a 
mezzotint by W. Faithorne, jun. Kneller 
painted several portraits, one of which was 
presented by the poet to his cousin, John 
Driden. It is not now discoverable. From 
another (about 1698) by Kneller, painted for 
Jacob Tonson as one of a series of the Kit-Cat 
Club, there is an engraving by Edelwick in 
1700, said to be the best likeness. The original 
is at Bayfordbury Hall, Hertfordshire. An- 
other portrait by Kneller belonged to Charles 
Seville Dryden in 1854. A portrait of Dry- 
den was at Addison's house at Bilton ; and 
there was a crayon drawing at Tichmarsh, 
which afterwards belonged to Sir Henry Dry- 
den of Canons Ashby. A portrait in pencil 
by T. Forster, taken in 1697, was (1854) in 
the possession of the Rev. J. Dryden Pigott. 
Horace Walpole had a small full-length por- 
trait by Maubert. (Further details are given 
by MALONE, pp. 432-7, and BELL, p. 978.) 

The affection of his contemporaries and 
literary disciples proves, as well as their direct 
testimony, that in his private relations Dry- 
den showed a large and generous nature. 
Congreve dwells especially upon his modesty, 
and says that he was the ' most easily dis- 
countenanced ' of all men he ever knew. The 
absence of arrogance was certainly combined 
with an absence of the loftier qualities of 
character. Dryden is the least unworldly of 
all great poets. He therefore reflects most 
completely the characteristics of the society 
dominated by the court of Charles II, which 
in the next generation grew into the town of 
Addison and Pope. His drama, composed' 
when the drama was most dependent upon 
the court, was written, rather in spite of 
his nature, to win bread and to please his' 
patrons. His comedies are a lamentable con- ' 
descensibn to the worst tendencies cf the time. 
His tragedies, while influenced by the French 
precedents, and falling into the mock heroics 
congenial to the hollow sentiment of the 
court, in which sensuality is covered by a 
thin veil of sham romance, gave not infre- 
quent opportunity for a vigorous utterance 
of a rather cynical view of life. The de- 
clamatory passages are often in his best style. 
Whatever their faults, no tragedies com- 
parable to his best work have since been 
written for the stage. The masculine sense 



Dryden 



74 



Dryden 



w E 

v, JJ 



and power of sustained arguments gave a 
force unrivalled in English literature to his 
satires, and the same qualities appear in the 
vigorous versification of the ' Fables,' which 
are deformed, however, by the absence of 
delicate or lofty sentiment. His lyrical 
poetry, in spite of the vigorous ' Alexander's 
Feast,' has hardly held its own, though still 
admired by some'critics. His prose is among 
the first models of a pure English style. Dry- 
den professed to have learned prose from his 
contemporary Tillotson. Other examples 
from theologians, poets, and essayists might 
easily be adduced to show that Dryden had 
plenty of rivals in the art. The conditions 
of the time made the old pedantry and con- 
ceits unsuitable. Dryden, like his contem- 
poraries, had to write for men of the world, 
not for scholars trained in the schools, and 
wrote accordingly. But he stood almost 
alone as a critic, and if his views were cu- 
riously flexible and inconsistent, they are 
always enforced by sound arguments and 
straightforward logic. His invariable power 
of understanding and command. of sonorous 
verse gave him a reputation which grew 
rather than declined during the next cen- 
tury. The correct opinion was to balance 
him against Pope, somewhat as Shakespeare 
had been balanced against Jonson, as show- 
ing more vigour if less art. Churchill was 
his most conspicuous imitator; Gray, like 
Pope, professed to have learned his whole skill 
in versification from Dryden. Warton places 
him just below Pope, and distinctly below 
Shakespeare, Milton, and Spenser. Scott still 
places him next to Shakespeare and Milton, 
and expresses the conservative literary creed 
of his time. Perhaps the best modern criticism 
will be found in Lowell's 'Among my Books.' 
Dryden's dramatic works (with dates of 
first performance and publication) are : 1 . ' The 
Wild Gallant,' February 1662-3,1669. 2. 'The 
Rival Ladies,' 1663 (?), 1664. 3. 'The Indian 
Emperor,' 1665, 1667 ; defence of ' Essay on 
a )rainatic Poesy' added to second edition, 
B68. 4. ' Secret Love, or the Maiden Queen,' 
m7, 1668. 5. 'Sir Martin Mar-all,' 1667, 
160% 6. 'TlmTempest'(withD'Avemmt), 
1 6i 17 , 1670. 7.V An Evenings Love, or the 
Mock AstrologerV 1668, 1671. 8. 'Tyrannic ! 
Love, or the RoW Martyr,' 1669, 1670. 
9, 10. ' Conquest oi^Granada ' (two parts), i 
1670, 1672 ;' Essay ori Heroic Plays ' prefixed, i 
and ' Essay on Dramatic Poetry "of the Last 
Age' appended. 11. 'Marriage a la Mode,' 

1672, 1673. 12. ' The Assignation, or Love 
in a Nunnery,' 1672, 1673. 13. ' Amboyna,' 

1673, 1673. " 14. 'The State of Innocence' 
(not acted), 1674, with apology fo*Jieroic ! 
poetry and poetic license. 15. ' Aurengzebe/ 



1675, 1676. 16. 'All for Love,' 1677-8, 
1678. 17. 'The Kind Keeper, or Mr. 
Limberham/ 1678, 1678. 18. ' (Edipus ' 
(with N. Lee ; the first and third acts are 
Dryden's), 1679, 1679. 19. 'Troilus and 
Cressida,' 1679, 1679. 20. 'The Spanish 
Friar,' 1681, 1681. 21. ' The Duke of Guise ' 
(with N. Lee : the first scene, the fourth and 
half the fifth act are Dryden's), 1682, 1683; a 
' Vindication ' separately published. 22. ' Al- 
bion and Albanius,' 1685, 1685. 23. 'Don 
Sebastian,' 1690, 1690. 24. 'Amphitryon,' 
1690, 1690. 25. ' King Arthur/ 1691, 1691. 
26. ' Cleomenes,' 1692, 1692. 27. ' Love Tri- 
umphant,' 1693-4, 1694. The 'Essay on 
Dramatic Poesy ' appeared in 1668, and the 
notes and observations on the ' Empress of 
Morocco/ in which Dryden had some share, 
in 1674. 

Dryden's original poems appeared as fol- 
lows : 1. ' Heroic Stanzas, consecrated to the 
Memory of his Highness Oliver, late Lord 
Protector/ &c., two editions in 1659, the 
first probably being that in which it appears 
as one of ' Three Poems upon the Death of 
his late Highness/ &c. 2. ' Astraea Redux/ 

1660. 3. 'Panegyric on the Coronation/ 

1661. 4. 'Annus"Mirabilis,'lG67. 5. 'Ab- 
salom and Achitophel/ part i. 1681. 6. 'The 
Medal,' March 1682. 7. 'Mac Flecknoe/ 
October 1682. 8. ' Absalom and Achitophel/ 
part ii. (with Nahum Tate), November 
1682. 9. ' Religio Laici/ November 1682. 
10. 'Threnodia Augustalis/ 1685. 11. 'The 
Hind and the Panther/ 1687. 12. ' Britan- 
nia Rediviva/ 1688. 13. ' Eleonora/ 1692. 
14. 'Alexander's Feast/ 1697. 

Dryden contributed many small pieces to 
various collections, some of them subsequently 
reprinted in his 'Miscellany Poems' (see be- 
low). Among them are the poem on the death 
of Lord Hastings, published in ' Lachrymse 
Musarum/ 1649 : a poem prefixed to John 
Hoddesdon's ' Sion and Parnassus/ 1650 ; and 
to Sir R. Howard's poems, 1660 ; to Walter 
Char let on's ' Chorea Gigantum/ 1663 ; to Lee's 
' Alexander,' 1677 ; to Roscommon's ' Essay 
on Translated Verse/ 1680; and to Congreve's 
' Double Dealer,' 1694. The ode to ' The Pious 
Memory of the Accomplished Young Lady 
Mrs. Anne Killigrew ' first appeared in her 
collected poems, 1686. Songs attributed to 
Dryden are in the ' Covent Garden Drollery/ 
1672, and (see Notes and Queries, 1st ser. ix. 
95) in ' New Court Songs and Poems/ 1672. 
The ' Te Deum ' and ' Hymn on St. John's 
Eve ' were first published by Sir W. Scott. 
Dryden wrote between ninety and a hundred 
prologues and epilogues. A ' Satire against 
the Dutch/ attributed to him in the ' State 
Poems' (1704) and dated 1662, is really com- 



Dryden 



75 



Drysdale 



posed of the prologue and epilogue to ' Am- 
boyna' (1673). Other spurious poems are in 
the same collection. 

Dryden's poetical translations are : 1. ' Ju- 
venal and Persius,' 1693 (the 1st, 3rd, 6th, 
10th, and 16th Satire of Juvenal, all Persius, 
and the ' Essay on Satire ' prefixed, are by 
Dryden ; the 7th Satire of Juvenal by his son 
Charles, and the 14th by his son John). 
2. < Virgil/ 1697 (Knightly Chetwood wrote 
the life of Virgil, Walsh the preface to the 
' Pastorals,' and Addison the preface to the 

* Georgics '). 3. ' Fables, Ancient and Modern, 
translated into Verse from Homer (the first 
Iliad), Ovid, Boccaccio, and Chaucer, with 
Original Poems,' 1700. 

Dryden also contributed the preface and 
two epistles to the translation of Ovid's 
Epistles (1680), and other translations are 
in the ' Miscellany Poems.' The first volume 
of these appeared in 1684, containing re- 
prints of his Satires, with translations from 
Ovid, Theocritus, and Virgil, and some pro- 
logues and epilogues. The second volume,with 
the additional title ' Sylvse,' appeared in 1685, 
containing translations from the '^Eneid,' 
Theocritus, and Horace. The third, with the 
additional title ' Examen Poeticum,' appeared 
in 1693, containing translations from Ovid's 

* Metamorphoses,' the ' Veni, Creator Spiritus,' 
epitaphs, and ' Hector and Andromache ' from 
the 6th Iliad. The fourth, called also the 
' Annual Miscellany,' appeared in 1694, and 
contained a translation of the ' Georgics,' bk. 
iii. Dryden was the author of. nearly all the 
poems in the first two volumes, but only con- 
tributed a few poems to the others. A fifth 
volume, by other writers, appeared in 1704, 
and a sixth in 1706. 

Dryden's prose works, besides the prefaces 
to plays, &c., mentioned above, included a 
life of- Plutarch, prefixed to translation by 
various hands, 1683 ; a translation from Maim- 
bourg's ' History of the League,' 1684 ; ' De- 
fence of Papers written by the late King . . . ,' 
1686 ; translation of Bohours's 'Life of Xavier,' 
1688 ; preface to Walsh's ' Dialogue concern- 
ing Women,' 1691 ; a character of St. Evre- 
mont, prefixed to St. Evremont's ' Miscel- 
laneous Essays,' 1692 ; a character of Poly- 
bius, prefixed to a translation by Sir Henry 
Sheere, 1693 ; and a prose translation of 
Dufresnoy's ' Art of Painting,' 1695. 

In 1701 Tonson published his dramatic 
works ln~I vol. folio ; an edition in 6 vols. 
12mo, edited by Congreve, appeared in 
1717. In 1701 Tonson also published his 
* Poems on Various Occasions ' in 1 vol. folio ; 
an edition in 2 vols. 12mo appeared in 1742 ; 
and an edition in 4 vols. (edited by S. 
Derrick) in 1760. Malone published the 



' Critical and Miscellaneous Prose Works ' 
in 4 vols. 8vo in 1800. An edition of the 
whole works, edited by Scott, in 18 vols. 8vo, 
appeared in 1808 ; it was reprinted in 1821, 
and was reissued, under the editorship of Mr. 
G. Saintsbury, in 1884, &c. 

[Perfunctory lives of Dryden are in Gibber's 
Lives of the Poets (1753) and in Derrick's Col- 
lective Edition of Dryden's Poems (1760). The 
first important life was Johnson's admirable per- 
formance in the Lives of the Poets (1779-81). 
The best edition is that edited by Peter Cunnmg- 
'ham (1854), containing some new facts. In 1800 
Malone published a badly -written life, in which 
nearly all the ascertainable facts are collected, 
forming the first volume of the Miscellaneous 
Prose Works. Scott prefixed an excellent life 
to the edition of Dryden's Complete Works 
(1808). The lives by Eobert Bell prefixed to 
the Aldine edition (1854), and especially that 
by W. D. Christie prefixed to the Globe edition 
of Dryden's Poems (1870), are worth consulting. 
See also Dryden by G. Saintsbury in the English 
Men of Letters Series, and a valuable study of 
Dryden and his contemporaries in Le Public et 
les Homines de Lettres en Angleterre (1660- 
1744), by Alexandre Beljame (1881).] L. S. 

DRYSDALE, JOHN, D.D. (1718-1788), 
Scottish divine, third son of the Rev. John 
Drysdale, by Anne, daughter of William 
Ferguson, was born at Kirkaldy on 29 April 
1718, and educated at the parish school in 
that town. Among his schoolfellows was 
Adam Smith, with whom he formed a 
friendship which was preserved throughout 
life. In 1732 he proceeded to the univer- 
sity of Edinburgh, where he read classics, 
philosophy, and theology, but took no de- 
gree. In 1740 he took orders in the esta- 
blished church of Scotland. For some years 
he officiated as assistant to the Rev. James 
Bannatyne, minister of the college church, 
Edinburgh, and in 1748 he obtained, through 
the interest of the Earl of Hopetoun, the 
living of Kirkliston in Linlithgowshire, of 
which the presentation was in the crown. 
In 1762 he was presented by the town council 
of Edinburgh to Lady Tester's Church. A 
lawsuit took place upon his appointment, the 
House of Lords ultimately deciding against 
the claim of the ministers and elders to have 
a joint right with the council. The call was 
sustained in the general assembly, even by 
the opponents of the claim, and Drysdale was 
admitted 14 Aug. 1764. On 15 April 1765 he 
received from Marischal College, Aberdeen, 
the diploma of D.D. In 1767 he vacated Lady 
Tester's Church to succeed Dr. John Jardine 
as one of the ministers of the Tron Church, 
Edinburgh. He was afterwards preferred, 
on the recommendation of Dr. Robertson, the 
eminent historian, to a royal chaplaincy, to 



Duane 



76 



Dubhdalethe 



which was attached one-third of the emolu- 
ments of the deanery of the Chapel Royal. In 
1773 he was elected moderator, and in 1778 
assistant-clerk, of the general assembly, of 
which in 1784 he was re-elected moderator, 
and, by the death of Dr. Wishart in the fol- i 
lowing year, became principal clerk. He ] 
died on 16 June 1788 at his house in Princes 
Street, Edinburgh. In ecclesiastical politics 
Drysdale belonged to the ' moderate ' party. 
He was reputed a master of pulpit eloquence. 
He married the third daughter of William 
Adam, architect, and was survived by his 
wife and two daughters, the eldest of whom 
married Andrew Dalzel [q. v.], professor of 
Greek in the university of Edinburgh, who 
edited two volumes of his father-in-law's ser- 
mons, with a highly laudatory biography pre- 
fixed, Edinburgh, 1788, 8vo. 

[Gent. Mag. 1788, p. 565; Life by Dalzel; Brit. 
Mus. Cat. ; Scott's Fasti, i. 60, 63.] J. M. E. 

DUANE, MATTHEW (1707-1785), coin 
collector and antiquary, was born in 1707 
(Duane's mural monument ; Gent. Mag. says 
1703). He was a lawyer by profession, and 
was eminent as a conveyancer. Charles 
Butler [q. v.] was his pupil, and he published 
reports of cases in the king's bench under John 
Fitzgibbon. Duane devoted much of his time 
to antiquarian studies, especially numisma- 
tics. His coin collection was chiefly formed 
from the Oxford, Mead, Folkes, Webb, Torre- 
mozze, and Dutens cabinets. He sold his 
Syriac medals in 1776 to Dr. William Hunter, 
who presented them to Glasgow University. 
Dutens published in 1774 ' Explication de 
quelques Medailles Pheniciennes du Cabinet 
de M. Duane.' Duane employed F. Bartolozzi 
to engrave twenty-four plates of the coins of 
the Greek kings of Syria, a series which he 
specially collected. These plates were first 
published in 1803 in Gough's ' Coins of the 
Seleucidse.' Bartolozzi was also employed 
to engrave coins of the kings of Macedonia 
(from Amyntas I to Alexander the Great) in 
Duane's collection. The plates were issued 
in a quarto volume without date. Duane 
discovered and purchased ten quarto volumes 
of the ' Brunswick Papers,' and placed them 
in the hands of Macpherson for the latter's 
' Original Papers concerning the Secret His- 
tory of Great Britain,' &c. 1775. Among his 
friends was Giles Hussey, the artist, many of 
whose works he possessed. Duane was a 
fellow of the Royal Society and of the So- 
ciety of Antiquaries, and was a trustee of the 
British Museum, to which institution he 
presented minerals, antiquities, and miscel- 
laneous objects in 1764-77. He died in 
Bedford Row, London, on 6 (mural monu- 



ment) or 7 (Gent. Mag.) Feb. 1785, from a 
paralytic stroke. He was buried in the St. 
George's porch of St. Nicholas Church, New- 
castle, and there is a monument to him on 
the south wall of the church. His coins and 
medals were sold by auction 3 May 1785, and 
a catalogue was printed. His library, together 
with that of his nephew and heir, Michael 
Bray, was sold in London in April 1838 by 
Leigh and Sotheby. Duane married Dorothy, 
daughter of Thomas Dawson. She died in 
1799. 

[Mural monument in St. Nicholas, Newcastle, 
erected by Duane's widow ; Gillow's Bibl. Diet, 
of English Catholics, ii. 132; Butler's Hist. 
Memoirs of English Catholics (1822), iv. 460; 
Brand's Hist, of Newcastle, i. 290, 301 ; E. Mac- 
kenzie's Newcastle, i. 261,262; Gent. Mag. 1 785, 
vol. Iv. pt. i. p. 157 ; Nichols's Lit. Anecd. ii. 280, 
iii. 37, 147, 497-9, 759, iv. 705, vi. 302, viii. 189, 
692 ; Nichols's Lit. Illustr. viii. 458 ; Combe's 
Numm. vet. ... in Mus. Gul. Hunter, pp. vii, viii ; 
Michaelis's Ancient Marbles in Great Britain, 
65 ; General Guide to British Museum, 1886.] 

W. W. 

DUBHDALETHE (d. 1064) was son of 
Maelmuire, son of Eochaidh, and had been 
ferleighinn or lector at Armagh in 1049, 
when, on the death of Amalgaidh, comharb 
or successor of St. Patrick, he succeeded to 
that dignity, thus being the third of that 
name who held- it. He entered on his office 
on the day of Amalgaidh's death, which 
proves that the appointment was not made 
by popular election but on some other prin- 
ciple accepted and recognised by the clergy 
and people. The lectorship thus rendered 
vacant was filled by the appointment of ^Edh 
o Forreidh, who had been for seventeen years 
bishop of Armagh. Sir James Ware, who 
terms Dubhdalethe archbishop of Armagh, 
finds a difficulty in the fact of Forreidh 
having been also bishop during his time. 
But the comharb of Armagh, or primate in 
modern language, was not necessarily a bishop^ 
and in the case of Dubhdalethe there is even 
some doubt whether he was ordained at all. 
A bishop was a necessary officer in every 
ecclesiastical establishment like that at Ar- 
magh, but he was not the chief ecclesiastic. 
In 1050 Dubhdalethe made a visitation of 
Cinel Eoghain, a territory comprising the 
county of Tyrone and part of Donegal, and 
brought away a tribute of three hundred 
cows. In 1055, according to the ' Annals of 
Ulster,' he made war on another ecclesiastic, 
the comharb of Finnian, by which is meant 
the abbot of Clonard, in the south-west of 
the county of Meath. A fight ensued between 
the two parties, in which many were killed. 
The quarrel probably related to some dis- 



Dubhdalethe 



77 



Du Bois 



puted property belonging to one or other of 
the abbeys concerned. This entry is omitted 
by the ' Four Masters,' according to a practice 
not unusual with them of suppressing incon- 
venient facts. 

In 1064 they record his death, and add 
that ' Maelisa assumed the abbacy,' Thus 
the duration of Dubhdalethe's primacy was 
fifteen years. Ware, however, states that, 
according to the ' Psalter of Cashel,' it was 
only twelve, ' which,' he says, ' affords some 
room to suspect that Gilla Patrick MacDo- 
nald, who is expressly called archbishop of 
Armagh in the " Annals of the Four Masters " 
at 1052, ought to intervene between Amal- 
gaidh and Dubhdalethe, which will pretty 
well square with the death of the latter in 
1065 [1064].' But in fact Gilla Patrick is 
only termed prior by the ' Four Masters,' and 
more exactly by the ' Annals of Ulster,' see- 
nab or vice-abbot. St. Bernard of Clairvaux, 
in his ' Life of Maelmogue or Malachy, Pri- 
mate of Armagh ' (1134-7), refers in severe 
terms to the usage ' whereby the holy see 
[Armagh] came to be obtained by hereditary 
succession,' and adds, ' there had already been 
before the time of Celsus (d. 1129) eight in- 
dividuals who were married and without 
orders, yet men of education.' One of these 
must have been Dubhdalethe, but St. Ber- 
nard was in error in viewing the influence 
of the hereditary principle at Armagh as un- 
usual. The comharbs of St. Finnian, St. 
Columba, and other famous saints succeeded 
according to certain rules in which kinship 
to the founder played an important part. 
And thus it was that Dubhdalethe succeeded 
his predecessor on the day of his death, and 
. that Maelisa, on the death of the former, 
' assumed ' the abbacy. 

Dubhdalethe was the author of ' Annals of 
Ireland,' in which he makes use of the Chris- 
tian era. This is one of the earliest instances 
in Ireland, if we accept O'Flaherty's opinion, 
that it only came into use there about 1020. 
He considered him as contemporary with 
Mugron, abbot of Hy (d. 980), and as he 
must therefore have been at least sixty-nine 
years old when he became primate, and may 
naturally be presumed to have compiled his 
' Annals ' at an earlier period, he may have 
been actually the first to use it. His ' An- 
nals 'are quoted in the 'Annals of Ulster' 
(1021), p. 926, and in the 'Four Masters,' 
p. 978. He is also reported to have been the 
author of a work on the archbishops of Ar- 
magh down to his own time. 

[O'Conor's Seriptt. Eer. Hib. iv. 290 ; Annals 
of the Four Masters, ii. 587, 887; Ware's "Works 
(Harris), p. 50 ; Colgan's Trias Thaum. p. 298 b; 
Lanigan's Eccles. Hist. iii. 428, 448.] T. 0. 



DUBOIS, CHARLES (d. 1740), treasurer 
to the East India Company, lived at Mitcham, 
Surrey, where he had a garden filled with the 
newest exotics at that time in course of intro- 
duction. As regards botany, he seems to have 
been chiefly a patron rather than a worker ; 
thus he appears as one of twelve English 
subscribers to Micheli's ' Nova Genera,' 1728. 
His name, however, occurs as having con- 
tributed observations to the third edition of 
Ray's ' Synopsis,' 1724. His dried plants 
occupy seventy-four folio volumes, the entire 
number of specimens being about thirteen 
thousand, and are in excellent preservation ; 
they form part of the herbarium at the Ox- 
ford Botanic Garden. He died 21 Oct. 1740. 
Brown established his genus Duboisia in 
commemoration. 

[Gent. Mag. (1740), x. 525; Nichols's Lit. 
Illustr., i. 366-76 (mentioned in letters) ; Dau- 
beny's Oxford Bot. Garden, p. 49.] B. D. J. 

DU BOIS, LADY DOROTHEA (1728- 
1774), authoress, was the eldest daughter of 
Richard Annesley [q. v.], afterwards sixth 
earl of Anglesey, by Ann Simpson, daughter 
of a wealthy merchant of Dublin. She was 
born in Ireland in 1728, one year after her 
father had become Lord Altham. In 1737 
he succeeded to the earldom. At this time 
the earl made provision for his countess and 
her children, assigning 10,000^. a year to 
Dorothea; but about 1740 he repudiated his 
marriage, declared his children illegitimate, 
and turned them all out of doors. An action 
brought by the countess in 1741 resulted in 
an interim order for a payment by the earl 
of 4:1. per week ; but this payment was never 
made, and the ladies suffered the greatest 
distress. About 1752 Dorothea secretly mar- 
ried Du Bois, a French musician, and became 
the mother of six children. In 1759 she 
heard that her father had made a will leaving 
her 5s., in quit of all demands, as his natural 
daughter ; and in 1 760, on recovery from the 
birth of her sixth child, she undertook a 
journey to Camolin Park, Wexford, where 
he was lying ill, to induce him to acknow- 
ledge his marriage with her mother. She was 
repulsed with much indignity by the woman 
then claiming to be the earl's wife. In 1761 
the earl died, his estates devolving on the son 
of the wife in possession. Lady Dorothea 
then laid the whole story before the world 
in ' Poems by a Lady of Quality,' which she 
dedicated to the king, and published by sub- 
scription at Dublin in 1764. In 1765 her 
mother died. In 1766 Dorothea published 
' The Case of Ann, Countess of Anglesey, 
lately Deceased,' appealing for help to prose- 
cute her claims; with the same object she 



Du Bois 



Dubois 



issued ' Theodora,' a novel, in 1770, dedicated 
to the Countess of Hertford. In 1771 she 
published ' The Divorce,' 4to, a musical en- 
tertainment, sung at Marylebone Gardens in 
1772; and 'The Haunted Grove,' another 
musical entertainment by her, not printed, 
was acted at Dublin. About 1772 she brought 
out ' The Lady's Polite Secretary,' preceded 
by a ' Short English Grammar.' Meanwhile, 
the Anglesey estates were subject to lawsuits 
from various sides, but none of them benefited 
Lady Dorothea, and her life was passed in 
bitter poverty. She died in Grafton Street, 
Dublin, of an apoplectic fit, early in 1774. 

[Gent. Mag. xiv. from month to month, 
xxxvi. 537-9, xlii. 224, 291, xliv. 94; manu- 
script notes to Theodora, Brit. Mus. copy ; the 
Case; Baker's Biog. Dram. (Reed), i. 210, ii. 168, 
285.1 J - H - 

DU BOIS, EDWARD (1622-1699), 
painter. [See under Du Bois, SIMON.] 

DUBOIS, EDWARD (1774-1850), wit 
and man of letters, son of William Dubois, 
a merchant in London, originally from the 
neighbourhood of Neufchatel, was born at 
Love Lane, in the city of London, 4 Jan. 
1774. His education was carried on at home, 
and he became possessed of a considerable 
knowledge of the classics and a fair acquaint- 
ance with French, Italian, and Spanish. He 
adopted literature as his profession, and al- 
though he was called to the bar at the Inner 
Temple, on 5 May 1809, he did not meet 
with sufficient success to abandon his pen. 
He was a regular contributor to various perio- 
dicals, and especially to the ' Morning Chro- 
nicle ' under Perry. Art notices, dramatic cri- 
ticisms, and verses on the topics of the day 
were his principal contributions ; and to the 
last day of his life he retained his position 
of art critic on the staff of the ' Observer.' 
When the ' Monthly Mirror' was the pro- 
perty of the eccentric Thomas Hill, it was 
edited by Dubois, and on Hill's death he 
was benefited as one of the two executors 
and residuary legatees by a considerable 
accession of fortune. Theodore Hook was 
among his assistants on that periodical, and 
from Dubois Barham obtained, when writing 
Hook's life, ' many of the most interesting 
details ' of the wit's early history. He as- 
sisted Thomas Campbell in editing the first 
number of Colburn s ' New Monthly Maga- 
zine,' but before the second number could be 
issued differences broke out and they sepa- 
rated (REDDING, Fifty Years' Recollections, 
ii. 161-5). For a few years he was the editor 
of the ' Lady's Magazine,' and for the same 
period he conducted the ' European Maga- 
zine.' He is sometimes said to have been ' a 



connection ' of Sir Philip Francis, at other 
; times his private secretary, and they were 
certainly on intimate terms of friendship from 
| 1807 until Francis's death in 1818. If Francis 
had gone out as governor of Buenos Ayres 
j in 1807, Dubois would have accompanied him 
' as private secretary. He compiled Francis's 
biography in the 'Monthly Mirror' for 1810, 
and wrote the life of Francis which appeared 
in the 'Morning Chronicle' for28'Dec. 1818. 
When Lord Campbell was composing his 
' Memoir ' of Lord Loughborough, Dubois 
obtained for him a long memorandum from 
j Lady Francis on the authorship of the ' Let- 
! ters of Junius' (CAMPBELL, Chancellors, vi. 
: 344-7). The first of these lives is said to 
have prompted the publication of John Tay- 
lor's 'Junius Identified,' and it has more 
than once been insinuated that Dubois was 
the real author of that volume. Consider- 
able correspondence and articles on the gene- 
ral subject of the ' Letters of Junius' and 4 
on Mr. Taylor's work appeared in the ' Athe- 
naeum' and 'Notes and Queries' for 1850 
(some of which will be found in DILKE'S 
Papers of a Critic, vol. ii.), but the connec- 
tion of Dubois with the authorship of ' Junius 
Identified ' was set at rest by the assurance 
of Mr. Taylor (Notes and Queries, 1850, pp. 
258-9) that he ' never received the slightest 
assistance from Mr. Dubois.' For many 
years, at least twenty years, he was assistant 
to Serjeant Heath, judge of the court of 
requests, a ' strange and whimsical court,' as 
it has been designated. When county courts 
were established a judgeship was offered to 
Dubois, but he preferred to continue as Mr. 
Heath's deputy. About 1833 he was ap- 
pointed by Lord Brougham to the office of 
treasurer and secretary of the Metropolitan 
Lunacy Commission, and on the abolition of 
that body in 1846 was employed under the 
new commission without any special duties. 
These appointments he retained until his 
death, and their duties were discharged by 
him with success ; for although he loved a 
joke, even in court, he never allowed this 
propensity to get the mastery over his natu- 
ral astuteness. His face was naturally droll, 
his wit was caustic, and he was ' capital at 
the dinner table.' He died at Sloane Street, 
Chelsea, on 10 Jan. 1850, aged 76. He mar- 
ried at Bloomsbury Church in August 1815 
Harriet Cress well, daughter of Richard Ches- 
lyn Cresswell, registrar of the Arches Court of 
Canterbury. By her, who survived him, he 
had three sons, and one daughter. One of 
his last acts was to raise a subscription for 
the family of the late R. B. Peake, the dra- 
matist. 

Dubois's works were of an ephemeral cha- 



Dubois 



79 



Du Bois 



racter, and appeared when he was a young 
man. They were: 1. 'A Piece of Family Bio- j 
graphy,' dedicated to George Colman, 3 vols., j 
1799. 2. ' The Wreath ; Selections from 
Sappho, Theocritus, Bion, and Moschus, with 
a Prose Translation and Notes. To which 
are added remarks on Shakespeare, and a ^ 
comparison between Horace and Lucian,' i 
1799. In this compilation he was assisted 
by Capel Lofft. The remarks on Shakespeare 
chiefly show coincidences and imitations be- 
tween his works and those of the ancient 
classics. 3. ' The Fairy of Misfortune, or 
the Loves of Octar and Zuleima, an Italian 
Tale translated from the French, by the 
author of " A Piece of Family Biography," ' 

1799. The original work, ' Mirza and Fating,' 
was published at the Hague in 1754. 4. ' St. 
Godwin ; a Tale of the 16th, 17th, and 18th 
Century, by Count Reginald de St. Leon/ 

1800. A skit on Godwin's novel of St. Leon. 
5. ' Old Nick ; a Satirical Story in Three 
Volumes,' 1801 ; 2nd ed. 1803. Dedicated l 
to Thomas Hill. This story showed the pos- 
session of much vivacity and humour. 6. ' The 
Decameron, with remarks on the Life and 
Writings of Boccaccio, and an Advertisement 
by the Author of " Old Nick," ' 1804. The 
translation, which was suggested by Thomas 
Hill, was a revision of that issued anony- j 
mously in 1741, and the task of supervision ! 
was entrusted to Dubois. 7. ' Rhymes ' [anon, 
by Octavius Gilchrist of Stamford, and edited j 
by Dubois], 1805. 8. ' Poetical Translations ! 
of the Works of Horace, by Philip Francis. ' 
New Edition, with Additional Notes, by 
Edward Du Bois,' 4 vols., 1807. The book- 
sellers required the immediate publication of 
a corrected ' copy of the most approved edi- 
tion of Dr. Francis's Horace,' and Dubois 
was aided in his undertaking by Capel Lofft, 
Stephen Weston, and Sir Philip Francis, the 
last of whom furnished three ingenious notes. 
9. When the travels of Sir John Carr were 
attracting attention, Dubois undertook, at the 
instance of the publishers of the ' Monthly 
Mirror,' to write a satirical pamphlet in ridi- 
cule of the knight's efforts in literature. It 
was called ' My Pocket-book, or Hints for 
a "Ryghte merrie and conceitede tour, in 
quarto ; to be called, ' The Stranger in Ire- 
land,' in 1805. By a Knight Errant," ' 1807. 
This satire quickly passed through two edi- 
tions, and was followed by 'Old Nick's 
Pocket-book,' 1808, written in ridicule of 
Dubois, by a friend of Carr, who was stung 
by these strokes of satire into bringing an 
action against Hood and Sharpe, in vindica- 
tion of his literary character. The case came 
before Lord Ellenborough and a special jury, 
at Guildhall, 1 Aug. 1808, when the judge 



summed up strongly in favour of the defen- 
dants, and the verdict was given for them. 
Two reports of the trial were issued, one on 
behalf of the plaintiff and the other in the 
interest of the defendants, and the latter re- 
port was also appended to a third edition of 
'My Pocket-book.' 10. 'The Rising Sun.' 
11. ' The Tarantula, or the Dance of Fools ; 
by the Author of " The Rising Sun," ' 1809. 
An overcharged satire on fashionable life in 
1809, which is sometimes, but probably with- 
out sufficient reason, attributed to Dubois. 
12. ' Facetiae, Musarum Delicise, or the Muses' 
Recreation, by Sir J. M. [Mennis] and Ja. S. 
[James Smith] . . . with Memoirs [by Du- 
bois] of Sir John Mennis and Dr. James 
Smith,' 1817, 2 vols. He also edited Harris's 
'Hermes' (6th edit. 1806); ' Fitzosborne's 
Letters,' by Melmoth (llth edit. 1805); 'Bur- 
ton's Anatomy' (1821); 'Hayley's Ballads,' 
with plates by William Blake (1805) ; and 
'Ossian's Poems' (1806). 

[Life of Sir P. Francis, by Parkes and Meri- 
vale, i. xxiii, 327, ii. 384-5; Collier's Old Man's 
Diary, pt. iv. p. 23 ; Maclise's Portrait Gallery, 
p. 265 ; Literary Gazette, 1850, pp. 52-3 ; Hal- 
kett andLaing's Anonymous Lit. iii. 1911, 2207, 
2250; New Monthly Mag. Ixxxi. 83-4 (1847); 
Gent. Mag. xxxiii. 326-7 (1850); information 
from his son, Mr. Theodore Dubois.] W. P. C. 

DU BOIS, SIMON (d. 1708), painter, was 
the youngest son of Hendrick Du Bois, and 
Helena Leonora Sieveri, his wife. He is 
stated to have been born at Antwerp, but it 
appears that in 1643 Hendrick Du Bois was 
a resident in Rotterdam, where he died in 
1647, being described as a painter and dealer 
in works of art ; so -that it is doubtful whether 
Du Bois was of Flemish or Dutch origin. He 
seems to have visited Italy with his brother 
Edward, and commenced his career as a 
painter of small battle-pieces in the Italian 
fashion: but subsequently he received in- 
struction from Wouvermans, and took to 
pain ting horses and cattle pictures. He gained 
a great reputation for his works in this style, 
and so nearly approached the manner of the 
great masters then in vogue, that he was able 
to sell many of his pictures as their works, 
excusing himself on the ground that, if he 
put his own name to them, their merit would 
never be recognised. He had a curious neat 
way of finishing his figures, which he also 
employed in portrait-painting ; according to 
Vertue he was induced to turn his hand to 
this by the advice of a lady friend. He came 
to England in 1685, and was fortunate in 
securing the patronage and friendship of 
Lord-chancellor Somers, who sat to him for 
his portrait and paid him liberally. James 
Elsum [q. v.] wrote an epigram on this 



Du Bosc 



Dubourdieu 



portrait of the lord chancellor. Du Bois lived 
in Covent Garden with his brother, and had 
plenty of practice, amassing considerable 
sums of money, which they hoarded together. 
Late in life, and: after his brother's death, 
about!707,he married Sarah, daughter of Wil- 
liam Van de Velde the younger [q. v.], but 
only survived a year, dying in May 1708. In 
his will (P. C. C., Somerset House, 113, Bar- 
rett), among legacies to his wife and relations, 
he leaves to Lord Somers ' my father's and 
mother's pictures drawn by Van Dyke, and 
my case of books and the books therein ; ' and 
further to his wife ' the copper-plates of my 
father and mother, and the prints printed 
from the same.' These portraits by Van- 
dyck (SMITH, Catalogue, Nos. 821 and 723) 
were noted by Dr. Waagen {Treasures of 
Art in Great Britain, iv. 520) as being in 
the collection of the Earl of Hardwicke 
at Wimpole. They were finely engraved 
by Cornells Visscher. Among the portraits 
painted by Du Bois in England were those 
of Archbishop Tenison, at Lambeth Palace ; 
John Wilmot, earl of Rochester, at Knole 
Park ; Lord Berkeley of Stratton ; William 
Bentinck, earl of Portland (engraved in mezzo- 
tint by R. Williams, and in line by J. Houbra- 
ken) ; Adrian Beverland (engraved in mezzo- 
tint by I. Beckett) : four portraits of Sir 
Richard Head, bart., his wife and family (un- 
fortunately destroyed by the great fire at the 
Pantechnicon, Lowndes Square, London, in 
February 1874), and others. His widow re- 
married a Mr. Burgess. Vertue mentions 
various portraits of Du Bois himself. His 
elder brother, EDWAEDDUBOIS (1622-1699?), 
was also a painter, though of inferior merit 
to his brother. He was a ' history and land- 
skip painter,' according to Vertue, born at 
Antwerp, and ' disciple to one Groenwegen, 
a landskip painter likewise.' He travelled 
with his brother to Italy, and remained there 
eight years studying the antiques. He also 
worked some time in Paris, and on his way 
to Italy executed some works for Charles Em- 
manuel, duke of Savoy. He came to London 
and lived with his brother in Covent Garden, 
where he died at the age of 77. His name 
appears as publisher on Visscher's prints of 
the portraits of his parents mentioned above. 
[Redgrave's Diet, of Artists; Vertue's MSS. 
(Brit. Mus. Add. MSS. 23068-75) ; Pilkington's 
Diet, of Painters ; Obreen and Scheffer's Rotter- 
damsche Historienbladen ; Guiffrey's Van Dyck ; 
Chaloner Smith's Engraved British Mezzotint 
Portraits.] L. C. 

DU BOSC, CLAUDE (1682-1745 ?), en- 
graver, was born in France in 1682. In 
1712 he came to England with Claude Du- 
puis to assist Nicholas Dorigny [q. v.] in 



engraving the cartoons of Raphael at Hamp- 
ton Court, where he resided for some time, 
until the engravings were nearly completed. 
Dorigny having some disagreement with his 
assistants, they left him ; Dupuis returned 
to Paris, and Du Bosc set up as an engraver 
on his own account. He prepared a set of en- 
gravings done by himself from the cartoons, 
but Dorigny's engravings, being superior, held 
the day. In February 1714 Du Bosc under- 
took with Louis Du Guernier [q. v.] to en- 
grave a series of plates illustrative of the 
battles of the Duke of Marlborough and 
Prince Eugene. He sent to Paris for two more 
engravers, Bernard Baron [q. v.] and Beau- 
vais, to help him to complete this work, which 
was accomplished in 1717. Vertue states that 
towards the end of 1729 Baron and Du Bosc 
went overto Paris, Du Bosc wishing to arrange 
matters relating to the trade of print-selling, 
as he had now set up a shop, and that Vanloo 
then painted both their portraits, which they 
brought to England. In 1733 he published 
an English edition of Bernard Picart's ' Re- 
ligious Ceremonies of All Nations,' some of 
the plates being engraved by himself. Among 
other prints engraved by him were ' Apollo 
and Thetis ' and ' The Vengeance of Latona,' 
after Jouvenet; some of the 'Labours of Her- 
cules ' and 'The Sacrifice of Iphigenia,' after 
Louis Cheron ; ' The Head of Pompey brought 
to Caesar,' after B. Picart ; ' The Continence 
of Scipio,' after N. Poussin ; ' The Temple of 
Solomon,' after Parmentiere; a portrait of 
Bonaventura Giffard, and numerous book- 
illustrations for the publishers, including 
numerous plates for Rapin's 'History of 
England' (folio, 1743). His drawing was 
often faulty, and his style devoid of interest. 
[Redgrave's Diet, of Artists ; Dussieux's Les 
Artistes Francais a 1'Etranger ; Vertue's MSS. 
(Brit. Mus. Add. MSS. 23068-76) Le Blanc's 
Manuel de 1' Amateur d'Estampes.] L. C. 

DUBOURDIEU, ISAAC (1597 P-1692 ?), 
French protestant minister at Montpellier, 
was driven from that place in 1682, and took 
refuge in London, where he is said by a con- 
temporary author to have 'held primary rank' 
among his fellow pastors, and to have been 
' wise, laborious, and entirely devoted to the 
welfare of the refugee church.' In 1684 he 
published 'A Discourse of Obedience unto 
Kings and Magistrates, upon the Anniver- 
sary of his Majesties Birth and Restaura- 
tion,' and continued to preach in the Savoy 
Chapel, of which he was one of the ministers, 
at least as late as 1692. The exact dates of 
both his birth and death are uncertain. 

[Haag's La France Protestante ; Agnew's Pro- 
testant Exiles from France in the Reign of 
Louis XIV.] F. T. M. 



Dubourdieu 



81 



Dubourg 



DUBOURDIEU, JEAN (1642 P-1720), 
French protestant minister, son of Isaac Du- 
bourdieu [q. v.], was born at Montpellier in 
1642 accordingto Agnew, in 1648 according to 
Haag,in 1652 according to Didot, and became 
one of the pastors of that town. In 1682 he 
published a sermon entitled ' Avis de la Sainte 
Vierge sur ce que tous les siecles doivent 
dire d'elle,' which led to a short controversy 
with Bossuet. At the revocation of the edict 
of Nantes he came to England, followed by 
a large portion of his flock, and soon after- 
wards attached himself as chaplain to the 
house of Schomberg. He was by the side of 
the duke at the Boyne, and accompanied the 
duke's youngest sou, Duke Charles, to Turin 
in 1691. Duke Charles was mortally wounded 
and taken prisoner by the French army under 
Catinat at the battle of Marsiglia in 1693, 
and Dubourdieu took the body to Lausanne 
for interment. In 1695 he published a ser- 
mon delivered on the eve of Queen Mary's 
funeral ; and in the following year his most 
important work, ' An Historical Dissertation 
upon the Thebean Legion.' He had been 
moved to write on this subject by witnessing 
the worship given to these saints while at 
Turin (see chap. i. of the book). 

Dubourdieu was one of the pastors of the 
French church in the Savoy, London ; and 
there was a JEAN ARMAND DUBOURDIEU pas- 
tor of the same church at the same time, who 
took a very prominent part among the re- 
fugees, published several books, pamphlets, 
and sermons, was chaplain to the Duke of 
Devonshire, was appointed in 1701 to the rec- 
tory of Sawtrey-Moynes in Huntingdonshire, 
and cited in May 1713 before the Bishop of 
London, at the instance of the French am- 
bassador, to answer for certain very viru- 
lent published attacks upon the French king, 
whom he had accused, among other things, 
of personal cowardice. 

These two Dubourdieus, Jean and Jean 
Armand, have been assumed by most bio- 
graphers to be the same person. Agnew, how- 
, ever, in his ' Protestant Exiles from France,' 
shows almost conclusively that they were dis- 
tinct persons, Jean Armand being possibly the 
nephew, but more probably the son, of Jean. 
Indeed, if we accept 26 July 1720 as the 
date of Jean's death, he cannot have been the 
same man as Jean Armand, who preached one 
of his sermons in January 1723^4 (M&phibo- 
seth, ou le caractere (Pun bon sujet, London, 
1724). 

JEAN ARMAND DUBOURDIEU was a fierce 
controversialist, an ardent protestant, a 
?taunch supporter of the Hanoverian succes- 
sions, and a good hater of Louis XIV. He 
reached in both English and French. The 

VOL. XVI. 



date of his birth is uncertain. He died in 
the latter part of 1726. 

A list of the books of Jean and Jean Ar- 
mand Dubourdieu, but given as the works 
of one author, will be found in Haag's ' La 
France Protestante.' 

[Moreri's Grand Dictionnaire Historique ; 
Haag's La France Protestante ; Agnew's French 
Protestant Exiles.] F. T. M. 

DUBOURG, GEORGE (1799-1882), 
writer on the violin, grandson of Matthew 
Dubourg [q. v.], published in 1836 ' The 
Violin, being an Account of that leading 
Instrument and its most eminent Professors,' 
&c., a work which has since been frequently 
reprinted. He was also the author of the 
words of many songs, the best known of 
which is John Parry's 'Wanted a Gover- 
ness.' During the greater part of his long 
life Dubourg contributed to various news- 
papers, especially at Brighton, where he lived 
for several years. Latterly he settled at 
Maidenhead, where he died on 17 April 1882. 

[Information from Mr. A. W. Dubourg, Mr. 
D. H. Hastings and local newspapers.] W. B. S. 

DUBOURG, MATTHEW (1703-1767), 
violinist, born in 1703, was the son of a famous 
dancing-master named Isaac. He learnt the 
violin at an early age, and first appeared at 
Thomas Britton's [q. v.] concerts, where he 
played a solo by Corelli, standing on a joint- 
stool. Tradition says he was so frightened that 
he nearly fell to the ground. WhenGeminiani 
came to England in 1714, Dubourg was put 
under him. Even at this time he must have 
been a remarkable performer, for on 7 April 
1715 he played a solo on the stage at the 
Lincoln's Inn Fields Theatre at a benefit per- 
formance, in the advertisement of which he 
is described as ' the famous Matthew Du- 
bourg, a youth of 12 years of age,' and on 
the 28th of the same month he had a benefit 
concert of his own. In 1728 he succeeded 
Cousser as master of the viceroy of Ireland's 
band, the post having been previously refused 
by Geminiani. Dubourg went to Ireland, 
but his duties were not onerous, and he spent 
much of his time in England, where he taught 
both Frederick, prince of Wales, and the 
Duke of Cumberland. In his official position 
at Dublin he composed birthday odes and 
other ceremonial music, but none of his works 
have been printed. He led the orchestra for 
Handel on the latter's visit to Ireland in 
1741, taking part in the first performance of 
the ' Messiah ; ' he also played at the Oratorio 
concerts at Covent Garden given by Handel 
in 1741 and 1742. It is said that on one occa- 
sion when Handel was conducting, Dubourg, 



Dubricius 



Dubricius 



' having a close to make ad libitum, wan- 
dered about so long in a fit of abstract 
modulation that he seemed uncertain of the 
original key. At length, however, he accom- 
plished a safe arrival at the shake which was 
to terminate this long close, when Handel, 
to the great delight of the audience, cried 
out, loud enough to be heard in the most 
remote parts of the theatre, " Welcome home, 
welcome home, Mr. Dubourg ! " ' On 3 March 
1750-1 Dubourg was elected a member of 
the Royal Society of Musicians, and in 1752 
he succeeded Testing as master of the king^s 
band ; but he still continued to retain his 
post at Dublin, where he was visited in 1761 
by Geminiani, who died in his house. Du- 
bourg died at London, 3 July 1767, and 
was buried in the churchyard of Paddington 
Church. The epitaph on his gravestone has 
been printed by Burney. As a violinist he 
was remarkable for his fire and energy, and 
it was noticed that his style differed materi- 
ally from that of his master, Geminiani. 
Hawkins mentions a portrait of him when 
a boy, which hung in a Mrs. Martin's con- 
cert room, Sherborn Lane : this seems to have 
disappeared, though a miniature of him when 
a boy is now in the possession of his great- 
granddaughter. Burney says a portrait of 
him was in the possession of his daughter, 
Mrs. Redmond Simpson. A portrait of him 
by Van der Smissen is now in the possession 
of his great-grandson, Mr. A. W. Dubourg. 

[Dubourg's Hist, of the Violin, ed. 1836, p. 
184 ; Ha-wkins's Hist, of Music, v. 76, 362-3 ; 
Burney's Hist, of Music, iv. 645 ; Eecords of the 
Eoyal Society of Musicians; Egerton MS. 2159, 
51; newspapers for 1715; Schoelcher's Life of 
Handel ; information from Mr. A. W. Dubourg.] 

W. B. S. 

DUBRICIUS (in Welsh Dyfrig), SAINT 
(d. 612), was one of the most famous of the 
early Welsh saints, and the reputed founder 
of the bishopric of Llandaff. The date of his 
death is the most authentic information we 
have about him, as that is obtained from the 
tenth-century Latin annals of Wales (Annales 
Cambria, p. 6 : ' Conthigirni obitus et Dibric 
episcopi ') ; but this meagre statement does 
not even mention the name of his see, if, in- 
deed, fixed bishops' sees existed at that period 
in the British church. Later accounts of 
Dubricius are much more copious, but are in 
no sense of an historical character. The earliest 
of his lives is that contained in the twelfth- 
century ' Lectiones de vita Sancti Dubricii,' 
printed in the ' Liber Landavensis '(pp.75-83). 
This was probably composed in 1120, on the 
occasion of the translation of the saint's bones 
from Bardsey to a shrine within Llandaff 
Cathedral by Urban, bishop of that see. It 



is, of course, a pious homily, intended pri- 
marily for edification, but it is important as 
having been written before Geoffrey of Mon- 
mouth's fictions were published, and as there- 
fore containing whatever ancient tradition of 
the saint remained. According to this life, 
Dubricius was the son of Eurddil, daughter of 
a British king called Pebiau. He was miracu- 
lously conceived and more miraculously born. 
When he became a man ' his fame extended 
throughout all Britain, so that there came 
scholars from all parts to him, and not only 
j raw students, but also learned men and doc- 
I tors, particularly St. Teilo.' For seven years 
| he maintained two thousand clerks at Henllan 
on the Wye, and again at his native district, 
called from his mother Ynys Eurddil, also 
apparently in the same neighbourhood. He 
afterwards became a bishop, visited St. Illtyd, 
performed many miracles, and at last, laying 
aside his bishop's rank, he left the world and 
lived till the end of his life as a solitary in the 
island of Bardsey, 'the Rome of Britain,' 
where he was buried among the twenty thou- 
sand other saints in the holy island. In this 
life there is nothing more incredible than in 
most lives of early Celtic saints ; the title 
archbishop is only once given to him, and more 
stress is laid upon his sanctity than upon his 
episcopal rank. His chief abodes are on the 
banks of the Wye. But in the account of the 
early state of the church of Llandaff prefixed 
to this life, it is said that Dubricius was con- 
secrated by Germanus, archbishop over all the 
bishops of southern Britain, and bishop of 
the see of Llandaff, founded by the liberality 
of King Meurig. But Germanus died in 448, 
and the date of Dubricius's death here given 
is 612, the same as that in the 'A mi ales 
Cambriae.' This latter fact is in itself some 
evidence that old traditions at least had been 
embodied in this account, though the chrono- 
logical error in the account of the foundation 
is so gross. But the author, in regretting his 
inability to describe at length Dubricius's 
miracles, tells us that ' the records were con- 
sumed by the fires of the enemy or carried 
off to a far distance in a fleet of citizens 
when banished.' A few years later, however, 
Geoffrey of Monmouth gave a much more 
elaborate account of Dubricius in his ' His- 
tory of the Britons,' which is absolutely un- 
historical. This describes Dubricius as the 
archbishop of the Roman see of Caerleon, 
who crowned Arthur king of Britain and 
harangued the British host before the battle 
of Mount Baden. Other accounts connect 
Dubricius with David and the synod of Llan- 
ddewi Brevi. When Dubricius laid down his 
episcopal office he consecrated David ' arch- 
bishop of Wales ' in his stead. Thus was the 



Dubthach 



Dubthach 



primacy of Britain transferred from Caerleon 
to Menevia. But this story is obviously the 
result of the desire to free the see of St . Dav id's 
from the metropolitical authority of Canter- 
bury, and is first found in its full form in the 
polemical writings of Giraldus Cambrensis. 
There is no occasion to do more than mention 
the amplified story of Geoffrey as it appears 
in the later lives of the saint. 

According to the ' Lectiones ' the day of 
Dubricius's death was 14 Nov., but he was 
usually commemorated on 4 Nov. His trans- 
lation, which the same authority dates on 
23 May, was generally celebrated on 29 May. 

[The chief lives of Dubricius are 1, the above- 
mentioned Lectiones, printed in Liber Landa- 
vensis, edited by the Rev. W. J. Rees for the 
Welsh MSS. Society, with an English transla- 
tion ; 2, Geoffrey of Monmouth's Historia Bri- 
tonum, bk. viii. c. 2, bk. ix. c. 1, 4, 12, 13, 15 ; 
3, Vita S. Dubricii, by Benedict of Gloucester, 
in Wharton's Anglia Sacra, ii. 654-61 ; 4, the 
life in Capgrave's Nova Legenda Angliae ; 5, se- 
veral manuscript lives enumerated in Hardy's 
Descriptive Cat. of Materials, i. 40-4. For 
modern authorities see especially Haddan and 
Stubbs's Councils and Ecclesiastical Documents, 
i. 146-8; and R. Rees's Welsh Saints, pp. 144, 
170,176,191.] T. F. T. 

DUBTHACH MACCU LUGIR (6th 
cent.), termed in later documents mac hui 
Lugair, was chief poet and brehon of Lao- 
gaire, king of Ireland, at the time of St. 
Patrick's mission. The king, jealous of the 
saint's power, had given orders that when he 
presented himself next at Tara no one should 
rise from his seat to do him honour. The 
next day was Easter day, and it was also 
a great feast with Laogaire and his court. 
In the midst of their festivity, 'the doors 
being shut as in our Lord's case,' St. Patrick 
with five of his companions appeared among 
them. None rose up at his approach but 
Dubthach, who had with him a youthful poet 
named Fiacc, afterwards a bishop. The saint 
upon this bestowed his blessing on Dubthach, 
who was the first to believe in God on that 
day. The Tripartite life of St. Patrick states 
that Dubthach was then baptised and con- 
firmed, and Jocelyn adds that thenceforward 
he dedicated to God the poetic gifts he for- 
merly employed in the praise of false gods. 

When he had been some time engaged in 
preaching the gospel in Leinster, St. Patrick 
paid him a visit. Their meeting took place 
at Domnach-mar-Criathar, now Donaghmore, 
near Gorey, co. Wexford, and St. Patrick in- 
quired whether he had among his ' disciples ' 
any one who was ' the material of a bishop,' 
whose qualifications are enumerated in the 
' Book of Armagh.' Dubthach replied he knew 



not any of his people save Fiacc the Fair. 
At this moment Fiacc was seen approaching. 
Anticipating his unwillingness to accept the 
office, St. Patrick and Dubthach resorted to a 
stratagem. The saint affected to be about to 
tonsure Dubthach himself, but Fiacc coming 
forward begged that he might be accepted' 
in his place, and he was accordingly tonsured 
and baptised, and ' the degree of a bishop 
conferred on him.' O'Reilly, in his ' Irish 
Writers,' erroneously ascribes to Dubthach 
' an elegant hymn . . . preserved in the 
calendar of Oengus.' One of the manuscripts 
of that work is> indeed in the handwriting of 
a scribe named Dubthach, but he was quite a 
different person from Maccu Lugir. Another 
poem beginning ' Tara the house in which re- 
sided the son of Conn,' found in the ' Book of 
Rights,' and also assigned to him by O'Reilly, 
is there said to be the composition of Benen or 
Benignus. But there is a poem in the ' Book 
of Rights ' which is assigned to him by name. 
It relates to ' the qualifications of the truly 
learned poet,' and consists of thirty-two lines 
beginning ' No one is entitled to visitation or 
sale of his poems.' There are also three other 
poems of his preserved in the ' Book of Lein- 
ster.' These have been published with a trans- 
lation by O'Curry in his ' Manuscript Materials 
of Irish History.' They relate to the wars 
and triumphs of Enna Cennselach and his 
son Crimthann, both kings of Leinster. That 
these poems were written after his conversion 
to Christianity appears from the following : 
' It was by me an oratory was first built and 
a stone cross.' The passage of greatest in- 
terest in these poems is that in which he says : 
' It was I that gave judgment between Lao- 
gaire and Patrick.' The gloss on this explains r 
' It was upon Nuadu Derg, the son of Niall 
[brother of Laogaire], who killed Odhran, 
Patrick's charioteer, this judgment was given.' 
The story is told in the introduction to the 
' Senchus Mor.' By order of Laogaire, Odhran, 
one of St. Patrick's followers, was killed by 
Nuadu in order to try whether the saint would 
carry out his own teaching of forgiveness of 
injuries. St. Patrick appealing for redress 
was permitted to choose a judge, and selected 
Dubthach, who found himself in a difficult 
position as a Christian administering a pagan 
law. ' Patrick then (quoting St. Matthew 
x. 20) blessed his mouth and the grace of 
the Holy Ghost alighted on his utterance,' 
and he pronounced, in a short poem which 
is preserved in the ' Senchus Mor,' the deci- 
sion that ' Nuadu should be put to death for 
his crime, but his soul should be pardoned 
and sent to heaven.' This (it is stated) was 
' a middle course between forgiveness and 
retaliation.' After this sentence 'Patrick 

G2 



Ducarel 



8 4 



Ducarel 



requested the men of Ireland ' to come to one 
place to hold a conference with him. The 
result was the appointment of a committee of 
nine to revise the laws. It was composed of 
three kings, three bishops, and three profes- 
sors of literature, poetry, and law. Chief 
among the latter was Dubthach. It became 
his duty to give an historical retrospect, and 
in doing so he exhibited ' all the judgments 
of true nature which the Holy Ghost had 
spoken from the first occupation of this 
island down to the reception of the faith. 
What did not clash with the word of God 
in the written law and in the New Testa- 
ment and with the consciences of believers 
was confirmed in the laws of the brehons by 
Patrick and by the ecclesiastics and chief- 
tains of Ireland. This is the " Senchus Mor." ' 
It was completed A.D. 441, and is supposed to 
have been suggested by the revision of the 
Roman laws by Theodosius the younger. It 
was put into metrical form by Dubthach as 
an aid to memory, and accordingly the older 
parts appear to be in a rude metre. The work 
was known by various names, ' The Law of 
Patrick,' ' Noifis, or the Knowledge of Nine,' 
but more generally as the ' Senchus Mor.' 

[Ussher's Works, vi. 400-1 ; O'Curry's Manu- 
script Materials, pp. 482-93; Lanigan's Eccl. 
Hist. i. 273-303 ; O'Reilly's Irish Writers, pp. 
xxvii-viii ; Calendar of Oengus, pp. 3, xiii ; 
Book of Rights, pp.xxxiv, 236-8; Hogan's Vita 
Patricii, pp. 104-6; Senchus Mor, Rolls ed. pp. 
5-15.] T. 0. 

DUCAREL, ANDREW COLTEE.D.C.L. 

( 1 7 1 3-1 785) , civilian and antiquary, was born 
in 1713 in Normandy, whence his father, who 
was descended from an ancient family at Caen, 
came to England soon after the birth of his 
second son James, and resided at Greenwich. 
In 1729, being then an Eton scholar, he was 
for three months under the care of Sir Hans 
Sloane on account of an accident which de- 
prived him of the use of one eye. On 2 July 
1731 he matriculated at Oxford as gentleman 
commoner of St. John's College. He gra- 
duated B.C.L. in 1738, was incorporated in 
that degree at Cambridge the same year, was 
created D.C.L. at Oxford in 1742, and went 
out a grand compounder on 21 Oct. 1748 
(FOSTER, Alumni Oxon. i. 390 ; Addit. MS. 
5884, f. 81 b). He was admitted a member 
of the College of Advocates at Doctors' Com- 
mons 3 Nov. 1743 (CooxE, English Civilians, 
p. 119). On recovering from a severe illness, 
in which he had been nursed by his maid 
Susannah, he married her out of gratitude in 
1749, and she proved to be 'a sober, careful 
woman' (GROSE, Olio, 2nd edit. p. 142). He 
was elected commissary or official of the pecu- 
liar and exempt jurisdiction of the collegiate 



church or free chapel of St. Katharine, near 
the Tower of London, in 1755. He was ap- 
pointed commissary and official of the city 
and diocese of Canterbury by Archbishop 
Herring in December 1758 ; and of the sub- 
deaneries of South Mailing, Pagham, and 
Terring in Sussex, by Archbishop Seeker, on 
the death of Dr. Dennis Clarke in 1776. 

From his youth he was devoted to the study 
of antiquities. As early as 22 Sept. 1737 he 
was elected a fellow of the Society of Anti- 
quaries of London, and he was one of the first 
fellows of that society nominated by the pre- 
sident and council on its incorporation in 1755. 
He was also elected 29 Aug. 1760 a member 
of the Society of Antiquaries at Cortona, was 
admitted a fellow of the Royal Society of 
London 18 Feb. 1762, became an honorary 
fellow of the Society of Antiquaries of Cassel 
in November 1778, and of the Society of 
Antiquaries of Edinburgh in 1781. 

In 1755 he unsuccessfully endeavoured to 
obtain the post of sub-librarian at the British 
Museum ; but he was appointed keeper of the 
i library at Lambeth 3 May 1757, by Arch- 
: bishop Hutton, and from that time he turned 
' his attention to the ecclesiastical antiquities 
| of the province of Canterbury. He greatly 
I improved the catalogues both of the printed 
i books and the manuscripts at Lambeth, and 
made a digest, with a general index, of all 
the registers and records of the southern pro- 
I vince. In this laborious undertaking he was 
j assisted by his friend, Edward Rowe Mores, 
i the Rev. Henry Hall, his predecessor in the 
office of librarian, and Mr. Pouncey, the en- 
graver, who was for many years his assistant 
as clerk and deputy librarian. Ducarel's share 
of the work was impeded by the complete 
blindness of one eye and the weakness of the 
other. Besides the digest preserved among 
the official archives at Lambeth, he formed 
for himself another manuscript collection in 
forty-eight volumes, which were purchased 
for the British Museum at the sale of Richard 
; Gough's library in 1810. In 1763 Ducarel 
j was appointed by the government to digest 
! and methodise, in conj unction with Sir Joseph 
Ayloffe and Thomas Astle, the records of 
the state paper office at Whitehall, and after- 
: wards those in the augmentation office. On 
I the death of Seeker he unsuccessfully applied 
for the post of secretary to the succeeding 
archbishop. 

For many years he used to go in August 
on an antiquarian tour through different parts 
of the country, in company with his friend 
Samuel Gale, and attended by a coachman 
and footman. They travelled about fifteen 
miles a day, and put up at inns. After dinner, 
while Gale smoked his pipe, Ducarel tran- 



Ducarel 



Ducarel 



scribed his topographical and archaeological 
notes, which after his death were purchased 
by Richard Gough. In Vertue's plate of Lon- 
don Bridge Chapel the figure measuring is 
Ducarel, and that standing is Gale. With 
his antiquarian friends Ducarel associated on 
the most liberal terms, and ' his entertain- 
ments were in the true style of old English 
hospitality.' He was in the habit of de- 
claring that, as an old Oxonian, he never knew 
a man till he had drunk a bottle of wine with 
him. During more than thirty years' con- 
nection with Lambeth Palace he was the 
valued friend or official of five primates 
Herring, Hutton, Seeker, Cornwallis, and 
Moore. He was a strong athletic man, and 
had a firm prepossession that he should live 
to a great age. The immediate cause of the 
disorder which carried him off was a sudden 
surprise on receiving at Canterbury a letter 
informing him that Mrs. Ducarel was at the 
point of death. He hastened to his house in 
South Lambeth, took to his bed, and three 
days afterwards died, on 29 May 1785. He 
was buried on the north side of the altar of 
St. Katharine's Church. His wife survived 
him more than six years, dying on 6 Oct. 
1791 (Gent. Mag. lxi.973). 

His coins, pictures, and antiquities were 
sold by auction, 30 Nov. 1785, and his books, 
manuscripts, and prints in April 1786. The 
greater part of the manuscripts passed into the 
hands of Richard Gough and John Nichols. 

His portrait, engraved by Francis Perry, 
from a painting by A. Soldi, executed in 1746, 
is prefixed to his ' Series of Anglo-Gallic 
Coins ''(1757). This portrait has also been 
engraved by Rothwell and Prescott. 

The following is a list of his works : 1. ' A 
Tour through Normandy, described in a letter 
to a friend' (anon.), London, 1754, 4to. This 
tour was undertaken, in company with Dr. 
Bever, in 1752, and his account of it, consider- 
ably enlarged, was republished, with his 
name, under the title of ' Anglo-Norman An- 
tiquities considered, in a Tour through part of 
Normandy, illustrated with 27 copperplates,' 
London, 1767 ,fol. ; inscribed to Bishop Lyttel- 
ton, president of the Society of Antiquaries. 
A French translation, by A. L. Lechaude 
D'Anisy, appeared at Caen, 1823-5, 8vo, with 
thirty-six plates of the tapestry, 4to. 2. ' De 
Registris Lambethanis Dissertatiuncula,' 
London, 1756, 8vo. 3. 'A Series of above 200 
Anglo-Gallic, or Norman and Aquitain Coins 
of the antient Kings of England,' London, 
1757, 4to. 4. Letters showing that the 
chestnut-tree is indigenous to Great Britain. 
In 'Philosophical Transactions,' arts. 17-19. 
5. ' Some Account of Browne Willis, Esq., 
LL.D.,' London, 1760, 4to. 6. Letter to 



Gerard Meerman, grand pensioner at the 
Hague, on the dispute about Corsellis being 
the first printer in England. This was read 
to the Society of Antiquaries in 1760. A 
Latin translation by Dr. Musgrave and Meer- 
man's answer were published in vol. ii. of 
Meerman's ' Origines Typographic^,' 1760. 
They were reprinted by Nichols, with a second 
letter from Meerman, in a supplement to 
Bowyer's ' Two Letters on the Origin of Print- 
ing,' 1776. 7. 'A Repertory of the Endow- 
ments of Vicarages in the Diocese of Canter- 
bury,' London, 1763, 4to : 2nd edition, 1782, 
8vo, to which were added the endowments of 
vicarages in the diocese of Rochester. 8. ' A 
Letter to William Watson, M.D., upon the 
early Cultivation of Botany in England; 
and some particulars about John Tradescant, 
gardener to Charles I,' London, 1773, 4to. 
This appeared originally in ' Philosophical 
Transactions,' Ixiii. 79. 9. ' Notes taken 
during a Tour in Holland, 1775,' manuscript. 
10. Account of Dr. Stukeley, prefixed to vol. ii. 
of his ' Itinerary,' 1776. 11. ' A List of various 
Editions of the Bible and parts thereof in 
English, from the year 1526 to 1776, from a 
MS. (No. 1140) in the Archiepiscopal Library 
at Lambeth, much enlarged and improved,' 
London, 1776, 8vo (see NICHOLS, Lit. Anecd. 
vi. 390; LOWNDES, Sibl. Man., ed. Bohn, 
p. 198). 12. ' Some Account of the Alien 
Priories, and of such lands as they are known 
to have possessed in England and Wales,' col- 
lected by John Warburtoii, Somerset herald, 
and Ducarel, 2 vols., London, 1779, 8vo; 
new edit. 1786. 13. ' History of the Royal 
Hospital and Collegiate Church of St. Katha- 
rine, near the Tower of London,' 1782, with 
seventeen plates. 14. 'Some Account of the 
Town, Church, and Archiepiscopal Palace of 
Croydon,' 1783. In Nichols's ' Bibl. Topo- 
graphica Britannica,' vol. ii. 15. ' History 
and Antiquities of the Archiepiscopal Palace 
of Lambeth,' 1785. In ' Bibl. Topographica 
Britannica,' vol. ii. A valuable appendix to 
this work by the Rev. Samuel Denne [q. v.] 
was published in 1795. 16. ' Abstract of the 
Archiepiscopal Registers at Lambeth, com- 
piled by Ducarel, with the assistance of 
E. R. Mores, Mr. Hall, and Mr. Pouncey,' 
Addit. MSS. 6062-6109. 17. Account of Doc- 
tors' Commons, manuscript prepared for the 
press. 18. ' Testamenta Lambethana ; being 
a complete List of all the Wills and Testa- 
ments recorded in the Archiepiscopal Register 
at Lambeth,1312-1636.' Another manuscript 
intended for Mr. Nichols's press. 19. Memoirs 
of Archbishop Hutton. Manuscript pur- 
chased at Ducarel's sale, for the Hutton family. 
20. Correspondence; letters to him, Addit. 
MSS. 23990 and 15935 ; and correspondence 



Duchal 



86 



Duchal 



with William Cole in Addit. MSS. 5808 
f. 185, 5830 f. 200 b, and 6401 f. 8. 

[Memoir by John Nichols in Biog. Brit. (Kip- 
pis), reprinted with additions in the Literary 
Anecdotes, vi. 380; Addit. MSS. 5867 f. 149, 
6109, 15935, 28167 f. 70 ; Index to Addit, MSS. 
( 1 783-1 835), p. 148; Egerton MS. 834; Thomson's 
List of Fellows of the Royal Society.p.l; Lowndes's 
Bibl. Man. (Bohn), p. 680 ; Notes and Queries, 3rd ! 
ser. xi. 149, 4th ser. i. 49, xii. 307, 356, 7th 
ser. ii. 36 ; Walpoliana, i. 73 ; Evans's Cat. of 
Engraved Portraits, Nos. 3346, 3347 ; Cave- 
Browne's Lambeth Palace (1883), pref. pp. ix, 
xi, 66-8, 105, 106; Cat. of Printed Books in 
Brit. Mus.; Cat. of Oxford Graduates, p. 198.] 

T. C. 

DUCHAL, JAMES, D.D. (1697-1761), 
Irish presbyterian divine, is said to have been 
born in 1697 at Antrim. The year is pro- 
bably correct, but the place mistaken ; his 
baptism is not recorded in the presbyterian 
register of Antrim. In the Glasgow matricu- 
lation book he describes himself as ' Scoto- 
Hibernus.' His early education was directed j 
by an uncle, and in his studies for the ministry | 
he was assisted by John Abernethy, M.A. 
(1680-1740) [q. v.], the leader of the non- I 
subscribing section of the presbyterians of j 
Ulster. Duchal proceeded to Glasgow Col- j 
lege, where he entered the moral philosophy 
class on 9 March 1710, and subsequently 
graduated M.A. Early in 1721 he became 
minister of a congregation (originally inde- 
pendent, but since 1696 presbyterian) in 
Green Street, Cambridge. The congregation, 
numbering three hundred people, was subsi- 
dised by a grant from the presbyterian board. 
Duchal had leisure for study, and lived much 
among books, with the habits of a valetudi- 
narian. In after life he referred to his Cam- 
bridge period as the 'most delightful' part of 
his career. In 1728 he published a small 
volume of sermons, which show the influ- 
ence of Francis Hutcheson. Two years later 
Abernethy was called from Antrim to Dublin, 
and Duchal became his successor. An entry i 
in the Antrim records states that on ' agwst 
the 14 1730 Mr. James Dwchhill cam to 
Antrim and on the 16 of it which was owr 
commwnion sabath preached and served tw 
tabels which was his first work with ws.' He 
was installed on 6 Sept. On 7 Sept. William 
Holmes was ordained as the first minister of 
the subscribing section that had seceded from 
Abernethy's congregation in 1726. Duchal 
began (anonymously) a controversy with ' 
Holmes, and the pamphlets which "ensued 
formed the closing passage in a discussion 
which had agitated Ulster presbyterianism 
from 1720. Abernethy's death on 1 Dec. 
1740 was followed early in 1741 by the death 



of Richard Choppin, his senior colleague in 
the ministry at Wood Street, Dublin. The 
sole charge as their successor was offered to 
Thomas Drennan, father of William Dren- 
nan, M.D. [q. v.], who declined, and recom- 
mended Duchal. Duchal removed to Dublin 
in 1741. His delicate health and shy dispo- 
sition kept him out of society; he approves 
the maxim that ' a man, if possible, should 
have no enemies, and very few friends' 
(Sermons, 1762, i. 469). His closest intimates 
were William Bruce (1702-1755) [q. v.] and 
Gabriel Cornwall (d. 1786), both his juniors. 
He was affable to young students, and un- 
wearied in his errands of benevolence (in- 
cluding medical advice) among the poor. 

Duchal's studies were classical and philo- 
sophical rather than biblical. Late in life he 
returned to the study of Hebrew, in order 
to test the positions of the Hutchinsonian 
system [see HTJTCHINSON, JOHN, 1674-1737], 
in which he found nothing congenial to his 
ideas. Duchal was an indefatigable writer 
of sermons. Like most divines of his age, 
he was ready to lend his compositions, but 
never borrowed, and rarely repeated. His 
eulogist reckons it an extraordinary circum- 
stance that he discarded his Antrim sermons 
on removing to Dublin ; it may be added 
that he did not use his Cambridge sermons 
at Antrim. He wrote his discourses in sets, 
like courses of lectures. A very able series, 
devoted to ' presumptive arguments ' for Chris- 
tianity, gained him when published (1753) 
the degree of D.D. from Glasgow. He com- 
posed aloud, while taking his daily walks, 
and committed the finished discourse to paper 
at great speed, in excruciatingly fine crow- 
quill penmanship, with more attention to 
weight of diction than to grace of style. He 
left seven hundred sermons as the fruit of 
his Dublin ministry; a few he had himself 
designed for the press, others were selected 
for publication by his friends, but many sets 
were broken through the unfaithfulness of 
borrowers. 

Duchal's was the most considerable mind 
among the Irish non-subscribers. He had 
not the gifts which fitted Abernethy for a 
popular leader, but his intellect was more 
progressive, and his equanimity was never 
disturbed by the ambition of a public career. 
He never trimmed or turned back. From a 
robust Calvinistic orthodoxy he passed by 
degrees to an interpretation of Christianity 
from which every distinctive trace of ortho- 
doxy had vanished. Archdeacon Blackburne 
(accordingto Priestley) questioned ' his belief 
of the Christian revelation,' but for this sus- 
picion there is no ground. Kippis observes 
that Leechman has plagiarised (1768) the 



Duchal 



Duck 



substance and even the treatment of three 
remarkable sermons by Duchal on the spirit 
of Christianity (1762). 

Duchal is less known as a biographer, but 
his character portraits of Irish non-subscrib- 
ing clergy are of great value. The original 
draft of seven sketches, without names, has 
been printed (Christian Moderator, April 
1827, p. 431) from a copy by Thomas Dren- 
nan ; the first three are Michael Bruce (1686- 
1735) [q. v.], Samuel Haliday [q. v.J, and 
Abernethy. They were worked up, with 
some softening of the criticism, in the funeral 
sermon for Abernethy, with appended bio- 
graphies (1741). Witherow quite erroneously 
assigns these biographies to James Kirk- 
patrick, D.D. [q. v.] 

Duchal was assisted at Wood Street in 
1745 by Archibald Maclaine, D.D., the trans- 
lator of Mosheim, but he had no regular col- 
league till 1747, when Samuel Bruce (1722- 
1767), father of William Bruce, D.D. (1757- 
1841) [q. v.], was appointed. In the opinion 
of his friends, Duchal's laborious fulfilment of 
the demands of his calling shortened his days. 
He died unmarried on 4 May 1761, having 
completed his sixty-fourth year. 

He published: 1. 'The Practice of Religion,' 
&c., 1728, 8vo (three sermons ; one of these 
is reprinted in ' The Protestant System,' vol. i. 
1758). 2. 'A Letter from a Gentleman,' 
&c., Dublin, 1731, 8vo (anon., answered by 
Holmes, 'Plain Reasons,' &c., Dublin, 1732, 
8vo). 3. 'Remarks upon "Plain Reasons,'" 
&c., Belfast, 1732, 8vo (anon., answered by 
Holmes, 'Impartial Reflections/ &c., Bel- 
fast, 1732, 8vo). 4. 'A Sermon on occasion 
of the . . . death of ... John Abernethy,' 
&c., Belfast, 1741, 8vo (preached at Antrim 
7 Dec. 1740; appended are Duchal's Memoirs 
of the Revs. T. Shaw, W. Taylor, M. Bruce, 
and S. Haliday ; the publication was edited 
by Kirkpatrick, who added a 'conclusion'). 
5. ' Memoir ' (anon.) of Abernethy, prefixed 
to his posthumous ' Sermons,' 1748, 8vo. 
43. ' Second Thoughts concerning the Suffer- 
ings and Death of Christ/ &c., 1748, 8vo 
(anon.) 7. ' Presumptive Arguments for 
the ... Christian Religion/ &c., 1753, 8vo 
(eleven sermons, with explanatory preface). 
Also funeral sermons for : 8. Mrs. Bristow, 
Belfast, 1736, 8vo ; 9. Rev. Hugh Scot, 
Belfast, 1736, 8vo ; 10. J. Arbuckle, M.D., 
Dublin, 1747, 8vo. 11. Prefatory 'Letter' 
to Cornwall's Essay on the Character of 
W. Bruce, 1755, 8vo (dated 25 Aug.) Pos- 
thumous were : 12. ' Sermons/ vol. i., Dublin, 
1762, 8vo, vols. ii. iii., Dublin, 1764, 8vo. 
13. ' On the Obligation of Truth, as con- 
cerned in Subscriptions to Articles/ &c. (pub- 
lished in ' Theological Repository/ 1770, 



ii. 191 sq.) 14. ' Letter to Dr. Taylor on the 
Doctrineof Atonement ' (' Theol. Repos.' 1770, 
ii. 328 sq. ; reprinted in William Graham's 
' The Doctrine of Atonement/ 1772). Other 
essays from Duchal's manuscripts sent to 
Priestley for publication were lost in the 
passage to Liverpool. Six small volumes, 
containing forty-seven autograph sermons 
by Duchal, 1721-40, which on 18 Nov. 1783 
were in the possession of William Crawford, 
D.D. [q. v.], were presented by James Gibson, 
Q.C., to the library of Magee College, Derry. 

[Essay on the Character of the Author, in a 
Letter to a Friend (by Gabriel Cornwall), pre- 
fixed to Sermons, vol. ii., 1764, partly reprinted 
in Monthly Review, October 1764, p. 278 sq. ; 
Biog. Brit. (Kippis), 1793, v. 410 sq. ; Univ. 
Theol. Mag., January 1804, p. 9 sq. ; Monthly 
Repository, 1810, p. 626; Christian Moderator, 
April 1827, p. 431 ; Armstrong's Appendix to 
Martineau's Ordination Service, 1829, p. 72 ; 
Butt's Memoirs of Priestley, 1831, i. 105, 120, 
122, 135 ; Hincks's Notices of W. Bruce and Con- 
temporaries, in Christian Teacher, January 1843, 
p. 77 sq. ; Reid's Hist. Presb. Church in Ireland 
(Killen), 1867, iii. 220, 318 ; James's Hist. Litig. 
Presb. Chapels, 1867, p. 652 ; Witherow's Hist, 
and Lit. Mem. of Presb. in Ireland, 2nd ser., 1880, 
p. 15 sq., 22 sq. ; Killen's Hist. Cong. Presb. 
Church in Ireland, 1886, p. 17 ; Antrim Presby- 
terian register (manuscript) ; Glasgow matri- 
culation book.] A. G. 

DUCIE, EARL OF (1802-1853). [See 
MORETON, HENRY GEORGE FRANCIS.] 

DUCK, SIR ARTHUR (1580-1648), ci- 
vilian, second son of Richard Duck by Joanna, 
his wife, was born at Heavitree, Devonshire, 
in 1580, entered Exeter College, Oxford, in 
1595, and there graduated B. A. in June 1599. 
He afterwards migrated to Hart Hall, where 
he proceeded M.A. on 18 May 1602. In 1604 
he was elected a fellow of All Souls (Lansd. 
MS. 985, f. 77). He took the degree of LL.B. 
on 16 Dec. 1607, and that of LL.D. on 9 July 
1612, having spent some years in foreign 
travel. In 1614 he was admitted an advocate 
at Doctors' Commons. Between this date and 
1617 he made a journey into Scotland in some 
official capacity, but in what does not appear 
(Cal. State Papers, Dom. 1611-18, p. 496). 
On 16 Jan. 1623-4 he was returned to par- 
liament for Minehead, Somersetshire, having 
on 5 Jan. preceding been appointed king's 
advocate in the earl marshal's court (ib, 1623- 
1625, p. 145). He is said to have held the 
office of master of requests, but the date of 
his appointment is not clear. He certainly 
acted in a judicial capacity as early as May 

1625 (ib. 1625-6, p. 33). An opinion of Duck's, 
advising that a statute drafted by Laud in 

1626 for Wadham College, Oxford, by which 



Duck 



88 



Duck 



fines were to be imposed on absentee fellows, 
was not ultra vires, is mentioned in the ' Ca- 
lendar of State Papers,' Dom. 1625-6, p. 525. 
On, or soon after, his translation from the see 
of Bath and Wells to that of London (1628), 
Laud appointed Duck chancellor of the dio- 
cese of London, to which the chancellorship 
of the diocese of Bath and Wells was added 
in 1635. Duck pleaded on behalf of Laud an 
ecclesiastical case tried before the king's coun- 
cil at Whitehall on appeal from the dean of 
arches in 1633. By Laud's directions the 
altar in St. Gregory's Church, London, had 
been placed in the chancel, whence it had been 
removed by order of Sir Henry Martin, dean 
of arches. Charles himself gave judgment, 
deciding that when not in use the altar should 
remain in the chancel, but that its position 
on occasion of the celebration of the eucharist 
should be left to the discretion of the minister 
and churchwardens. On 17 Dec. 1633 Duck 
was placed on the ecclesiastical commission, 
and in 1634 he was appointed visitor of the 
hospitals, poorhouses, and schools in the dio- 
cese of Canterbury (ib. 1631-3, pp. 108, 255 ; 
1633-4, pp. 327, 530; 1635, p. 233; 1636-7, 
p. 429; 1641-3, p. 532). A multitude of 
minutes in the ' Calendar of State Papers ' 
from this date until 1643 show the volume 
and variety of the business transacted by him 
in his character of ecclesiastical commis- 
sioner. In the first parliament of 1 640 he again 
represented Minehead. In 1645 he was ap- 
pointed master in chancery (HARDY, Cata- 
logue of Lord Chancellors, $*c.) In September 
1648 Charles, then a prisoner in the Isle of 
Wight, requested that the parliament would 
permit Duck to attend him to assist him in 
the conduct of the negotiations then pending. 
It is not clear whether the request was granted 
or not. Duck died suddenly in Chelsea 
Church on 16 Dec. 1648, and was buried at 
Chiswick in May 1649. He held by sublease 
the prebendal manor of Chiswick, which nar- 
rowly escaped pillage by the parliamentary 
troops in 1642. His property was subse- 
quently sequestrated (WHITELOCKE, Mem. 
234, 235 ; Cal. State Papers, Dom. 1641-3, 

E372 ; SMYTH, Obituary, Camden Soc., 27 ; 
YSONS, Environs, ii. 191, 218). Duck mar- 
ried Margaret, daughter of Henry South- 
worth, by whom he had nine children. 
Two daughters only survived him. His wife 
died on 15 Aug. 1646, and was buried in 
Chiswick Church. Duck is the author of two 
works of some merit : 1. ' Vita Henrici Chi- 
chele archiepiscopi Cantuariensis sub regibus 
HenricoV et VI,' Oxford, 1617, 4to, reprinted, 
ed. William Bates, in ' Vitse Selectorum ali- 
quot Virorum,' London, 1681, 4to, translated 
by an anonymous hand, London, 1699, 8vo. 



2. ' De Usu et Authoritate Juris Civilis Ro- 
manorum,' London, 1653 (in which he was 
much assisted by Gerard Langbaine), trans- 
lated by J. Beaver in 1724, and bound in the 
same volume with the translation of Fer- 
rieres's ' History of the Roman Law,' London, 
8vo. 

[Wood's Athenfe Oxon. iii. 257 ; Wood's Fasti 
Oxon. i. 296, 321, 348 ; Lists of Members of 
Parliament (Official Return of) ; Fuller's Wor- 
thies (Devon) ; Prince's Worthies of Devon.] 

J. M. R. 

DUCK, SIR JOHN (d. 1691), mayor of 
Durham, was apprenticed early in life to a 
butcher at Durham, though from an entry in 
the guild registers it appears that in 1657 
some opposition was raised to his following 
the trade. The foundation of his subsequent 
fortunes is said to have been laid by the 
following incident. ' As he was straying in 
melancholy idleness by the water side, a raven 
appeared hovering in the air, and from chance 
or fright dropped from his bill a gold Jacobus 
at the foot of the happy butcher boy.' This ad- 
venture was depicted on a panel in the house 
which he afterwards built for himself in Dur- 
ham, where he became exceedingly prosper- 
ous, and in 1680 served the office of mayor. 
Taking an active part in politics during the 
last years of the Stuarts, he attracted the 
attention of the government, and in 1686 his 
useful loyalty was rewarded by a patent of 
baronetcy. In this he is described as ' of 
Haswell on the Hill,' a manor which he had 
purchased with his accumulated wealth in 
the year of his mayoralty. He built and en- 
dowed a hospital at Lumley, but as he had 
no issue his title became extinct at his death, 
26 Aug. 1691. 

[Surtees' Hist, of Durham, i. 53, 54, &c. ; Le 
Neve's Baronets ; Burke's Extinct Baronetage.] 

C. J. R. 

DUCK, NICHOLAS (1570-1628), law- 
yer, eldest son of Richard Duck by Joanna, 
I his wife, was born at Heavitree, Devonshire, 
I in 1570, and entered Exeter College, Oxford, 
on 12 July 1584. He left the university 
without a degree, and entered Lincoln's Inn, 
where he was called to the bar, and of which 
he was one of the governors from 1615 until 
his death. He was also reader at Lincoln's 
Inn in Lent 1618, and the same year was 
elected recorder of Exeter. He is recorded 
to have given 51. to the fund for building 
Lincoln's Inn Chapel in 1617 (DUGDALE, 
Oriff. 235, 255, 264-5). He died on 28 Aug. 
, 1628, and was buried in Exeter Cathedral.. 
He was brother of Sir Arthur Duck [q. v.] 

[Prince's Worthies of Devon ; Lansd. MS. 985, 
f. 77.] J. M. R. 



Duck 



89 



Duckenfield 



1,0 



DUCK, STEPHEN (1705-1756), poet, 
was born in 1705 at Charlton in Wiltshire. 
His parents were poor, and after some slight 
education up to the age of fourteen, he was 
employed as an agricultural labourer at 4s. Qd. 
a week. He was married in 1724, and was 
the father of three children in 1730. He 
managed to save a little money and bought 
a few books. With a friend of similar tastes 
he tried to improve his mind by reading what- 
ever literature they could procure. ' Paradise 
Lost/ which he puzzled out with a dictionary, 
the ' Spectator,' and L'Estrange's translation 
of ' Seneca's Morals ' were his first favourites. 
He afterwards procured a translation of Tele- 
maque, Whiston's ' Josephus,' an odd volume 
of Shakespeare, Dry den's ' Virgil,' Prior's 
poems, ' Hudibras,' and the ' London Spy.' He 
began to write verses at intervals of leisure, 
generally burning them. His fame spread, 
however, and in 1729 a ' young gentleman 
of Oxford ' sent for him and made him write 
an epistle in verse, afterwards published in his 
poems. The neighbouring clergy encouraged 
him, especially a Mr. Stanley, who suggested 
the ' Thresher's Labour ' as the subject of a 
new poem. At Mrs. Stanley's request he 
wrote the ' Shunammite.' A clergyman at 
Winchester spoke of him to Mrs. Clayton (af- 
terwards Lady Sundon), who recommended 
him to Queen Caroline. Lord Macclesfield 
read Duck's verses to her on 11 Sept. 1750.. 
The queen, according to Warburton, sent the 
manuscript of Duck's poems to Pope, con- 
cealing the author's name and position. Pope 
thought little of them, but, finding that Duck 
had a good character, did what he could to 
help him at court, and frequently called upon 
him at Richmond. Gay, who had heard of 
this 'phenomenon of Wiltshire' from Pope, 
writes to Swift (8 Nov. 1 730) from Amesbury, 
saying that he envies neither Walpole nor 
' Stephen Duck, who is the fortunate poet of 
the court.' The queen allowed him 301. (or 
50.) a year, and in April 1733 made him 
yeoman of the guard. Duck's good fortune 
excited the spleen of Pope's friends who were 
not patronised. Swift tells Gay (19 Nov. 1730) 
that Duck is expected to succeed Eusden as 
poet laureate. A contemptuous epigram upon 
Duck is printed in Swift's works. Duck be- 
came a wonder ; his ' Poems on several Sub- 
jects ' were published with such success that 
a tenth edition is dated 1730. Duck's first 
wife had died in 1730. In 1733 he married 
Sarah Big, the queen's housekeeper at Kew, 
and in 1735 he was made keeper of the queen's 
library at Richmond, called Merlin's Cave 
( Gent. Mag. v. 331, 498). In 1736 his < Poems 
on several Occasions' were published by sub- 
scription, with an account of his career by 



Joseph Spence [q. v.] In 1746 he was or- 
dained priest ; in August 1751 he became 
preacher at Kew Chapel; and in January 
1752 was appointed to the rectory of Byfleet, 
Surrey, where Spence had settled in 1749. 
In 1755 he published ' Caesar's Camp on 
St. George's Hill,' an imitation of Denham's 
' Cooper's Hill.' His mind gave way about 
this time, and he drowned himself 21 March 
1756, in a fit of dejection, in a trout stream 
' behind the Black Lion Inn ' at Reading. 
Kippis says in the ' Biographia ' that his poems 
are nearly on a level with some of those 
in Johnson's collection, an estimate which 
may be safely accepted. He seems to have 
been modest and grateful to his benefactors ; 
and it must be admitted that Queen Caroline 
was more successful than some later patrons 
in helping a poor man without ruining him. 
Besides the above volumes, the second of 
which includes the former, he published a 
few congratulatory pieces addressed to the 
royal family. Lord Palmerston gave a piece 
of land to provide an annual feast at Charl- 
ton in commemoration of the poet. The rent 
in 1869 was 21. 9s. 9d., and annual dinner was 
still given at the village inn to all adult males, 
from the proceeds and subscriptions. 'Arthur 
Duck ' is the pseudonym adopted by the author 
of a gross parody upon Stephen Duck's poems 
called 'The Thresher's Miscellany' (1730), 
though in Davy's ' Suffolk Collections' (Add. 
MS. 19166, f. 71) this Duck is supposed to be 
a real person. 

[Spence's Account of the Author prefixed to 
Duck's Poems on several Occasions ; Life prefixed 
to Poems on several Subjects; Gent. Mag.iii. 216, 
xvi. 329, xxi. 381, xxri. 206 ; New General Biog. 
Diet. 1761, iv. 533; Pope's Works (by Elwin), 
vii. 202, 208, 443; Notes and Queries, 4th series, 
iv. 423, 529.] L. S. 

DUCKENFIELD, ROBERT (1619- 
1689), colonel in the army of the parliament, 
the eldest son of Robert Duckenfield of 
Dukinfield, Cheshire, and Frances, daughter 
of George Preston of Holker, Lancashire, 
was born in 1619, and baptised at Stockport 
on 28 Aug. of that year. He joined Sir 
William Brereton on the side of the parlia- 
ment on the outbreak of the civil war. Along 
with other Cheshire gentlemen he lent his 
aid in defending Manchester at the siege in 
1642, and was engaged at the siege of Wythen- 
shawe Hall, near Stockport, the seat of the 
Tattons, which held out more than a year, 
and was not taken until 25 Feb. 1643-4. He 
was also at the storming of Beeston Castle 
and other royalist garrisons in Cheshire. On 
25 May 1644 he was posted with his troops at 
Stockport bridge to bar the advance of Prince 
Rupert into Lancashire ; but he suffered de- 



Duckenfield 



9 o 



Duckett 



feat at the hands of the prince. In the pre- 
vious year he had been appointed one of the 
commissioners for Cheshire for sequestrating 
the estates of the delinquents, and for raising 
funds for the parliament. He wrote several 
letters at this time and later complaining of \ 
the arrears of his soldiers' pay, and of the ctiffi- ! 
culty he had in keeping his men together. But 
in spite of all discouragements he proved his 
zeal for the parliament. In May 1648 he had 
a meeting with the gentlemen of Cheshire, 
and promised to raise three regiments of foot 
and one of horse. He served as high sheriff 
of Cheshire in 1649, and was appointed go- 
vernor of Chester in 1650, and soon afterwards 
took the command of the militia raised in 
the Broxton and Wirral hundreds. As go- 
vernor of Chester he was charged with the | 
duty of summoning and attending the court- I 
martial to try the Earl of Derby, Captain I 
John Benbow, and Sir T. Featherstonhaugh. j 
Duckenfield seems to have tried, but in vain, to ; 
save Lord Derby, or at all events to delay the 
trial. The court-martial was held at Chester i 
on 29 Sept. 1651, and the earl was executed 
at Bolton on 15 Oct. following. Before the 
sentence was carried out Duckenfield was or- 
dered to proceed to the Isle of Man, of which 
he was designated governor, and through 
treachery he succeeded in reducing the island 
and taking the Countess of Derby and her 
children prisoners, for which he received the 
thanks of parliament. Lord Derby, while 
waiting in prison, wrote to his wife advising 
her that it would be best not to resist the 
forces sent against the isle, adding that 
' Colonel Duckenfield, being so much a gentle- 
man born, will doubtless for his own honour's 
sake deal fairly with you.' 

He was returned in July 1653 as one of the 
members of parliament for Cheshire, and in the 
same month was placed on Cromwell's council. ] 
In aletter from Duckenfield, 23 March 1654-5, 
addressed to Cromwell in answer to an invi- 
tation to serve in a regiment of horse, he j 
wrote : ' I am not afraid of my own life or 
estate, and to improve the talent I have I i 
should be glad to serve your lordship in any 
foreign war within the continent of Europe 
rather than within this nation ' (NOBLE, He- \ 
gicides, ii. 196). In September 1655 he was 
nominated a commissioner for ejecting scan- 
dalous and insufficient ministers and school- 
masters in Cheshire (Cal. State Papers, 1655, 
p. 321). He was associated with General 
Lambert in 1659 in suppressing Sir George 
Booth's ' Cheshire Rising ' in favour of the 
exiled king, and had 2001. voted to him for 
his services. Immediately after the Restora- 
tion he was tried as one of the officers who 
sat on the court-martial on the Earl of Derby 



when he denied that he had in any way ' con- 
sented to the death or imprisonment of that 
honourable person' (Hist. MSS. Comm. 7th 
Rep. 116). He was released from custody, 
but in August 1665 was sent to the Tower, 
and afterwards to Chester Castle, on suspi- 
cion of being concerned in a plot to seize the 
king and restore the parliament. He seems 
to have been imprisoned more than a year 
(Cal. State Papers, 1664-5, 1665-6, 1666-7). 
After this date he lived quietly at Dukinfield 
Hall, taking part in public affairs only as a 
leader of the nonconformists of the district. 
He died on 18 Sept. 1689, aged 70, and was 
buried at Denton, Lancashire. 

He married as a first wife Martha, daugh- 
ter of Sir Miles Fleetwood of Hesketh, Lan- 
cashire, and by her he had eight children, of 
whom the eldest, Robert, was created a 
baronet on 16 June 1665, two months before 
his father's imprisonment. He took as a 
second wife, in 1678, Judith, daughter of 
Nathaniel Bottomley of Cawthorne, York- 
shire, by whom he had six children. One of 
them became a nonconformist minister, but 
subsequently conformed and died vicar of 
Felixkirk, Yorkshire, 1739. He published in 

1707 a little book entitled ' The Great Work 
of the Gospel Ministry Explain'd, Confonn'd, 
and Improv'd.' 

A portrait of Colonel Duckenfield was 
published by Ford of Manchester in 1824. 

[Earwaker's East Cheshire, ii. 13, 20; Orme- 
rod's Cheshire, 1st edit. iii. 397; Calendar of 
State Papers, Dom. Series, 1649-67 ; House of 
Lords' Journals, xi. 87, 88, 91, 97, 119: Hist. 
MSS. Comm. 7th Eep. 95, 116; Eush worth's 
Hist, Col. vii. 946, 1127; Whitelocke's Memorials, 
1732; Noble's Eegicides, 1798, i. 192; Barlow's 
Cheshire, 1855, pp. 121, 159; Stanley Papers 
(Raines), Chetham Soc. vol. ii. ; Fairfax Corresp. 
(Bell), iii. 79; Memorials of the Great Civil 
"War (Cary), i. 281; Palatine Note-book, iii. 89, 
194; Booker's Denton, Chetham Soc., xxxvi. 115; 
Cheshire Sheaf, 1883, ii. 281.] C. W. S. 

DUCKET, ANDREW (d. 1484), presi- 
dent of Queens' College, Cambridge. [See 
DOKET.] 

DUCKETT, GEORGE (d. 1732), author, 
of Hartham, Wiltshire, and Dewlish, Dorset- 
shire, was the second son and heir of Lionel 
Duckett (1651-1693). He was elected mem- 
ber for the family borough of Calne, Wiltshire, 
on 11 May 1705, and was again returned in 

1708 and 1722. He married in 1711 Grace, 
the only daughter and heiress of Thomas 
Skinner of Dewlish. Duckett was on friendly 
terms with Addison and Edmund Smith 
[q. v.], both of whom were frequent visitors 
to Hartham, where Smith died in July 1710. 



Duckett 



Duckett 



About 1715, perhaps in conjunction with 
Sir Thomas Burnet (1694-1753) [q. v.], he 
published ' Homerides, or a Letter to Mr. 
Pope, occasioned by his intended translation 
of Homer ; by Sir Iliad Doggerel,' and in 1716 
the same authors produced ' Homerides, or 
Homer's First Book modernised ' (1716). In 
1715 also Curll published 'An Epilogue to a 
Puppet Show at Bath concerning the same 
Iliad/ by Duckett alone. According to Curll, 
several things published under Burnet's name 
were in reality by Duckett (Key to the Dun- 
dad, p. 17). In 1717 appeared anonymously 
' A Summary of all the Religious Houses in 
England and Wples ' (pp. xxiv, 100), which 
contained titles and valuations at the time 
of their dissolution, and an approximate esti- 
mate of their value, if existing, in 1717. 
James West, in a letter dated 18 Jan. 1730, 
saya : ' George Duckett, the author of the 
" SummaryAccount of the Religious Houses," 
is now a commissioner of excise ' (Rawl. 
MSS. R.L. ii. 168, and HEARNE, MS. Diary, 
vol. cxxvii. f. 163, quoted in ' Duchetiana,' 
p. 245). Burnet was at the time considered 
part author of this interesting tract. Burnet 
and Duckett promoted two weekly papers, 
the ' Grumbler ' and ' Pasquin ' respectively. 
The first number of the former was dated 
14 Feb. 1714-15 (NICHOLS, Lit. Anecd.iv. 88, 
viii. 494). Nichols and Drake, through a 
careless reading of the notes to the ' Dun- 
ciad,' ascribe the ' Grumbler ' to Duckett alone. 
Burnet is bracketed with him in the ' Dunciad ' 
(iii. 11. 173-80). ' Pope Alexander's Supre- 
macy and Infallibility examined,' in which 
Duckett co-operated with John Dennis, ap- 
peared in 1729. About twenty years after 
the death of Edmund Smith, Duckett in- 
formed Oldmixon that Clarendon's 'History' 
was before publication corrupted by Aldrich, 
Smalridge,and Atterbury, and that Smith be- 
fore he died confessed to having helped them, 
and pointed out some spurious passages. A 
bitter controversy resulted ; Duckett's charge 
entirely broke down, and it is now unknown 
who was primarily responsible. Duckett, who 
was one of the commissioners of excise from 
1722 to 1732, and who is sometimes alluded 
to as Colonel (the title of his brother Wil- 
liam), died 6 Oct. 1732 (Gent. Mag. ii. 1030), 
his wife surviving until 1755. 

[Sir George F. Duckett's Duchetiana, pp. 46, 
48, 55, 57, 59-62, 65, 66, 81, 106, 219, 245; Notes 
to Dunciad, bk. iii. 11. 173-80; Johnson's Lives of 
the Poets, ' Edmund Smith' and ' Pope ; ' TheCur- 
liad, p. 37; Eemarksupon the Hist, of the Royal 
House of Stuart (1 73 1 ), pp. 6, 7 ; Malone's Prose 
Works of Dryden, i. pt. i. p. 347. Some very 
interesting extracts from Duckett's note-books 
appear in Duchetiana, pp. 60-3.] W. K. 



DUCKETT, JAMES (d. 1601), book- 
seller, was a younger son of Duckett of Gil- 
thwaiterigg, in the parish of Skelsmergh in 
Westmoreland, and was brought up as a pro- 
testant. He had, however, for godfather James 
Leybourne of Skelsmergh, who was executed 
at Lancaster, 22 March 1583, for denial of the 
queen's supremacy. Duckett was appren- 
ticed to a bookseller in London, became con- 
verted, and was imprisoned for not attending 
church. He bought out the remainder of 
his time, set up as a bookseller, was received 
into the Roman catholic church, and about 
1589 married a widow. Nine out of the 
next twelve years of his life were passed in 
prison. His last apprehension was caused 
by Peter Bullock, a bookbinder, who gave 
information that Duckett had in stock a 
number of copies of Southwell's ' Supplica- 
tion to Queen Elizabeth.' These were not 
found, but a quantity of other Roman catholic 
books were seized on the premises. Duckett 
was imprisoned in Newgate 4 March 1601, 
and brought to trial during the following 
sessions. Sentence of death was then pro- 
nounced against him and three priests, and 
he was hanged at Tyburn with Peter Bullock 
(the witness against him) 19 April 1601. 
Duckett's son was prior of the English Car- 
thusians at Nieuport in Flanders. 

[Challoner's Memoirs of Missionary Priests, 
1741, i. 401-5; Gillow's Bibl. Diet. ii. 133-5.] 

H. E. T. 

DUCKETT, JOHN (1613-1644), catho- 
lic priest, descended from an ancient family 
settled at Skelsmergh, Westmoreland, was 
born at Underwinder, in the parish of Sed- 
bergh, Yorkshire, in 1613, being the third 
son of James Duckett, by his wife Frances 
(Girlington). He received his education 
in the English College, Douay, and was or- 
dained priest in September 1639. Afterwards 
he resided for three years in the college of 
Arras at Paris, and was then sent to serve on 
the mission in the county of Durham. After 
labouring there for about a year he was cap- 
tured by some soldiers of the parliamentary 
army on 2 July 1644, and sent to London 
in company with Father Ralph Corbie [q. v.], 
a Jesuit, who was taken in his vestments as 
he was going to the altar to celebrate mass. 
They were examined by a committee of parlia- 
ment, and confessed themselves to be priests. 
Being committed to Newgate, they were con- 
demned to death on account of their sacer- 
dotal character, and suffered at Tyburn on 
7 Sept. 1644. It is a remarkable circum- 
stance that they appeared in ecclesiastical 
attire on being brought out of prison, to be 
drawn on a hurdle to the place of execution. 



Duckett 



Duckworth 



Duckett had put on a long cassock, such as 
is usually worn by the secular clergy in ca- 
tholic countries, while Corbie was in the 
usual religious habit of the Society of Jesus. 
Both the priests had their heads shaven in 
the form of a crown. 

Duckett left in manuscript an account of 
his apprehension and imprisonment ; and a 
' Relation concerning Mr. Duckett,' by John 
Horsley, Father Corbie's cousin, and fellow- 
prisoner of the two priests in Newgate, is 
printed in Foley's ' Records,' iii. 87-90, from 
a manuscript preserved at Stony hurst. 

[Challoner's Missionary Priests (1742), ii. 271; 
Douay Diaries, pp. 38, 40, 287, 421 ; Foley's 
Kecords, iii. 73 ; Dodd's Church Hist. iii. 97 ; 
Gillow's Bibl. Diet,] T. C. 

DUCKETT, WILLIAM (1768-1841), 
United Irishman, born at Killarney in 1768, 
was sent to the Irish College at Paris, and 
gained a scholarship at Sainte-Barbe, then 
conducted by the Abb6 Badnel. Returning to 
Ireland, he contributed to the revolutionary 
' Northern Star,' under the signature of ' Ju- 
nius Redivivus.' These letters, according to 
his own account, made it prudent for him to 
quit Ireland, and in 1796 he was in Paris. 
Tone, who was also in Paris, regarded him 
as a spy, and complained that he forestalled 
him by submitting to the French government 
several memorandums on the state of Ire- 
land, that he constantly crossed his path in 
the ministerial antechamber, tried to force his 
conversation on him, and by addressing him 
in English betrayed his incognito. When, 
moreover, Tone arrived with Hoche at Brest, 
Duckett was there, intending to accompany 
them, but was not allowed to embark. Inl798 
he was reported to Castlereagh as having 
been sent to Hamburg with money destined 
for a mutiny in the British fleet and for 
burning the dockyards. This, coupled with 
his outlawry by the Irish parliament, ought 
to have vouched for his sincerity, but he was 
suspected of betraying Tandy and Blackwell 
at Hamburg. The existence of traitors in the 
camp was so notorious that suspicion often fell 
on the innocent. He married a Danish lady at- 
tached to the Augustenburg family ^ returned 
to Paris about 1803, and became a professor at 
the resuscitated college Sainte-Barbe. Duro- 
zoir, one of his pupils, and himself a literary 
man, speaks in high terms of his classical at- 
tainments, his wonderful memory, and the in- 
terest which he imparted to lessons 011 Shake- 
speare and Milton by felicitous comparisons 
with the ancients. Duckett seems to have 
shunned, or been shunned by, Irish exiles in 
Paris, yet Durozoir testifies to his anti-Eng- 
lish feeling and to his admiration of the French 



revolution. In 1819, no longer apparently 
connected with Sainte-Barbe, he conducted 
English literature classes, as also girls' classes 
on the Lancastrian system. Between 1816 
and 1821 he published odes on Princess Char- 
lotte's death, Greek and South American in- 
dependence, &c., productions evidently con- 
fined to a small circle in Paris. In 1828 he 
issued a ' Nouvelle Grammaire Anglaise.' He 
died in 1841 in Paris after a long illness, 
quoting his favourite Horace on his deathbed, 
and receiving extreme unction. He left two 
sons, Alexander, a physician, accessit at the 
Val-de-Graceexamination,1828, and William 
(1803-1873), a French journalist, translator 
of German works, and editor or compiler of 
the ' Dictionnaire de la Conversation,' 52 vols., 

:ompleted in 1843, to a large extent a trans- 
lation of Brockhaus. This William had a 
son, William Alexander (1831-1863), who 

ontributed to the new edition of the ' Dic- 
tionnaire,' and published an illustrated work 
on French monuments, also a daughter, Ma- 
thilde (1842-1884?), who studied under 
Rosa Bonheur, exhibited at the Paris Salon, 
1861-8, and taught drawing in Paris. 

[Moniteur Universel, 10 April 1841 ; supple- 
ment to Diet, de la Conversation ; Memoirs of 
Castlereagh ; Madden's United Irishmen; Life of 
Tone.] J. G. A. 

DUCKWORTH, SIB JOHN THOMAS 

(1748-1817), admiral, descended from a fa- 
mily long settled in Lancashire, son of the 
Rev. Henry Duckworth, afterwards vicar of 
Stoke Poges, and canon of Windsor, was born 
at Leatherhead in Surrey (of which place his 
father was curate) on 28 Feb. 1747-8. As a 
mere child he was sent to Eton, but left at 
the age of eleven, and entered the navy, under 
the care of Admiral Boscawen, on board the 
Namur, in which he had a young volunteer's 
share in the destruction of M. de la Clue's 
squadron in Lagos Bay. On Boscawen's 
leaving the Namur she joined the fleet under 
Sir Edward Hawke, and took part in the 
battle of Quiberon Bay. After being an acting- 
lieutenant for some months, Duckworth was 
confirmed in the rank on 14 Nov. 1771. He 
afterwards served for three years in the Kent, 
guardship at Plymouth, with Captain Feild- 
ing, whom he followed to the Diamond fri- 
gate early in 1776 as first lieutenant. The 
Diamond was sent to North America ; and 
at Rhode Island, shortly after her arrival, on 
18 Jan. 1777, in firing a salute, a shot which 
had been carelessly left in one of the guns 
struck a transport, on board which it killed 
five men. A court-martial was ordered and 
immediately held to try ' the first lieutenant, 
gunner, gunner's mates, and gunner's crew ' 



Duckworth 



93 



Duckworth 



for neglect of duty. They were all acquitted, 
but on the minutes being submitted to Lord 
Howe, the commander-in-chief, he at once 
pointed out the gross irregularity of trying 
and acquitting a number of men who were 
not once named ; and of omitting from the j 
charge the very important clause ' for caus- 
ing the death of five men.' He therefore 
ordered a new court" to be assembled ' to try 
by name the -several persons described for 
the capital offence, added to the charge of 
neglect of duty.' The captains summoned 
to sit on this second court-martial declined 
to do so, ' because the persons charged had 
been already tried and honourably acquitted,' 
on which Howe again wrote to the commo- 
dore at Rhode Island, repeating the order, 
and now naming the several persons ; and 
with a further order that, in case the re- 
fusal to constitute a court-martial was per- 
sisted in, he should cause ' every captain j 
refusing to perform his required duty in that 
respect to be forthwith suspended from his 
command ' (Howe to Sir Peter Parker, 17 
and 20 April 1777). To this order a nomi- 
nal obedience was yielded ; the court was 
constituted, but the proceedings were merely 
formal ; the minutes of the former trial were 
read and ' maturely considered : ' and the court 
pronounced that these men ' having been ac- 
quitted of neglect of duty, are in consequence 
thereof acquitted of murder or any other crime 
or crimes alleged against them ' (Minutes of 
the Court-martial). The Diamond after- 
wards joined Admiral Byron's flag in the 
West Indies, and in March 1779 Duckworth 
was transferred to Byron's own ship, the 
Princess Royal, in which he was present in 
the action off Grenada on 6 July [see BYRON, 
JOHN, 1723-1786]. Ten days later he was 
promoted to be commander of the Rover, 
and on 16 June 1780 was posted into the 
Terrible, from which he was moved back to 
the Princess Royal as flag-captain to Rear- 
admiral Rowley, with whom he went to 
Jamaica. In February 1781 he was moved 
into the Bristol, and returned to England 
with the trade (BEATSON, vi. 229, 268). 

On the outbreak of the war with France 
in 1793, Duckworth was appointed to the 
Orion of 74 guns, which formed part of the 
Channel fleet under Lord Howe, and in the 
action off Ushant on 1 June 1794, when 
Duckworth was one of the comparatively few 
[see CALDWELL, SIR BENJAMIN; COLLING- 
WOOD, CUTHBERT, LORD] whose merits Howe 
felt called on to mention officially, and who, 
consequently, received the gold medal. Early 
in the following year he was transferred to 
the Leviathan of 74 guns, in which he joined 
the flag of Rear-admiral Parker in the West 



Indies, where, in August 1796, he was ordered 
to wear a broad pennant. He returned to 
England in 1797, and during that and in the 
early part of the following year, still in the 
Leviathan, commanded on the coast of Ire- 
land. He was then sent out to join Lord 
St- Vincent in the Mediterranean, and was 
shortly afterwards detached in command of 
the squadron appointed to convoy the troops 
to Minorca, and to cover the operations in 
that island (7-15 Nov. 1798), which capitu- 
lated on the eighth day. The general in 
command of the land forces was made a 
K.B., and Duckworth conceived that he was 
entitled to a baronetcy, a pretension on which 
Lord St. Vincent, in representing the matter 
to Lord Spencer, threw a sufficiency of cold 
water (BRENTON, Nav. Hist. ii. 348 ; JAMES, 
Nav. Hist. (edit. 1860), ii. 222). 

On 14 Feb. 1799 Duckworth was promoted 
to be rear-admiral of the white ; and after 
remaining some months as senior officer at 
Port Mahon, he joined Lord St. Vincent 
(22 May) in his unsuccessful pursuit of the 
French fleet under Admiral Bruix. In June 
he was again detached to reinforce Lord Nel- 
son at Naples, and in August was back at 
Minorca. He was next ordered to take com- 
mand of the blockading squadron off Cadiz ; 
and there, on 5 April 1800, he fell in with a 
large and rich Spanish convoy, nearly the 
whole of which was captured. Duckworth's 
share of the prize-money is said, though 
possibly with some exaggeration, to have 
amounted to 75,0001. In the June following 
he went out to the West Indies as comman- 
der-in-chief on the Leeward Islands station ; 
and in March and April 1801, during the 
short period of hostilities against the northern 
powers, he took possession of St. Barthoto- 
mew, St. Thomas, and the other islands be- 
longing to Sweden or Denmark. They were 
all restored on the dissolution of ' the armed 
neutrality ; ' but Duckworth, in recognition 
of his prompt service, was made a K.B. 
6 June 1801. In the end of the year he re- 
turned to England ; but, on the renewal of 
the war in 1803, was sent out as commander- 
in-chief at Jamaica, in which capacity he di- 
rected the operations which led to the sur- 
render of General Rochambeau and the French 
army in San Domingo. He was promoted to be 
a vice-admiral on 23 April 1804 ; and in April 
1805 he returned to England in the Acasta 
frigate. Immediately after his arrival, on 
25 April, he was tried by court-martial on 
charges preferred by Captain Wood, who had 
been superseded from the command of the 
Acasta, in what he alleged to be an oppres- 
sive manner, in order that, under a captain 
of Duckworth's own choosing, the frigate 



Duckworth 



94 



Duckworth 



might be turned into a merchant ship. It j 
was charged and proved and admitted that an ; 
immense quantity of merchandise was brought j 
home in the ship ; and that this was in direct j 
contravention of one of the articles of war, was 
established by the opinion of several of the J 
leading counsellors of the day ; but the court- 
martial, accepting Duckworth's declaration i 
that the articles brought home were for pre- j 
sents, not for sale, pronounced the charges 
' gross, scandalous, malicious, shameful, and 
highly subversive of the discipline and good 
government of his majesty's service,' and j 
' fully and honourably acquitted ' him of all ! 
and every part. This sentence, so contrary to j 
the letter and strict meaning of the law, was i 
brought before parliament by Captain Wood's j 
brother on 7 .Tune ; but his motion, ' that j 
there be laid upon the table of this house the j 
proceedings of a late naval court-martial . . . | 
also a return from the customs and excise of j 
all articles loaded on board the Acasta that 
had been entered and paid duty,' was nega- 
tived without a division ; the house appa- 
rently considering that Duckworth's charac- 
ter and the custom of the service might be 
held as excusing, if they did not sanction, 
the irregularities which he had certainly 
committed (Parl. Debates, 7 June 1805, vol. v. 
col. 193 ; RALFE, Naval Chronology, i. 107). 
In the September following Duckworth, 
with his flag in the Superb, was ordered to 
join the fleet before Cadiz, which he did on 
15 Nov. He was then left in charge of the 
blockade ; but on 30 Nov., having received 
intelligence that the French squadron, which 
had escaped from Rochefort, was cruising in 
the neighbourhood of Madeira, he hastily sent 
off a despatch to Collingwood, and sailed in 
hopes to intercept it. The enemy had, how- 
ever, quitted that station before his arrival, 
and after looking for it as far south as the 
Cape Verd Islands, he was re turning to Cadiz, 
when, on the morning of Christmas day, he 
sighted another French squadron of six sail 
of the line and a frigate, a force nominally 
equal to that under his command. He chased 
this for thirty hours ; when, finding three of 
his ships quite out of sight, one hull down, 
and the other about five miles astern, the 
Superb being herself still seven miles from 
the enemy, he gave over the chase. For so 
doing he has been much blamed (JAMES, iv. 
92), on the ground, apparently, that the Su- 
perb might and could have held the whole 
French squadron at bay till her consorts came j 
up. But as after thirty hours' chase the Su- j 
perb was still seven miles astern, it must have 
been many hours more before she could have 
overtaken the enemy ; nor is there any pre- 
cedent to warrant the supposition that one 



English 74-gun ship could have contended 
on equal terms with six French. 

Being in want of water, Duckworth now 
determined to run for the Leeward Islands, 
despatching the Powerful to the East Indies 
to reinforce the squadron there, in case the 
ships which had escaped him should be bound 
thither. At St. Christophers, on 21 Jan. 
1806, he was joined by Rear-admiral Coch- 
rane [see COCHRANE, SIR ALEXANDER FOR- 
RESTER INGLIS] in the Northumberland, with 
the Atlas, both of 74 guns, and on 1 Feb. had 
intelligence of a French squadron on the coast 
of San Domingo. He naturally supposed this 
to be the squadron which he had chased on 
Christmas day, and immediately put to sea, 
with a force of seven sail of the line, two fri- 
gates, and two sloops. On 6 Feb. he sighted 
the French squadron abreast of the city of San 
Domingo. It was that which he had vainly 
looked for at Madeira, and consisted of five 
sail of the line one of 120 guns and three 
frigates, under the command of Vice-admiral 
Leissegues. On seeing the English squadron 
the French slipped their cables and made 
sail to the westward, forming line of battle, 
with the frigates in shore. In the engage- 
ment that ensued Duckworth won a complete 
victory, three of the enemy's ships being cap- 
tured, the other two driven ashore and burnt ; 
the frigates only made good their escape, the 
English frigates being occupied in taking pos- 
session of the prizes. Some English writers 
have blamed Duckworth for not having also 
secured the frigates (JAMES, iv. 103). But 
in fact, the average force of the French ships 
was much greater than that of the English ; 
and the best French writers, attributing their 
defeat principally to the wretched state of 
their gunnery practice, lay no stress on the 
alleged inferiority of force (CHEVALIER, His- 
toire de la Marine Franqaise sous le Consulat 
et ^Empire, p. 255). Duckworth's force was 
no doubt superior both in the number of guns 
and in the skill with which they were worked, 
and he cleverly enough utilised it to achieve 
one of the completest victories on record. 
This the admiralty acknowledged by the dis- 
tribution of gold medals to the flag-officers 
and captains, by conferring a baronetcy on 
Louis, the second in command, and by mak- 
ing Cochrane, the third in command, a K.B. 
A pension of 1,000/. was settled on Duck- 
worth ; the corporation of London gave him 
the freedom of the city and a sword of honour ; 
and from other bodies he received valuable 
presents ; but notwithstanding these tan- 
gible rewards, Duckworth felt that the con- 
ferring honours on his subordinates, but not 
on him, was a slur on his reputation, and he 
almost openly expressed his discontent. 



Duckworth 



95 



Duckworth 



Duckworth had meantime rejoined Col- 
lingwood in the Mediterranean, and on the 
misunderstanding with the Ottoman Porte 
in 1807 was sent with a squadron of seven 
ships of the line and smaller vessels to dic- 
tate conditions under the walls of Constanti- 
nople. His orders, written at a distance, 
and in ignorance of the real state of things, 
proved perplexing. He was instructed to pro- 
vide for the ambassador's safety, but the 
ambassador was already at Tenedos when he 
arrived there. He was instructed to anchor 
under the walls of Constantinople; but it 
was found that the Turks, with the assist- 
ance of French engineers, had so strengthened 
and added to the fortifications of the Darda- 
nelles as to make the passage one of very 
great difficulty. His orders, however, seemed 
imperative, and he determined to proceed as 
soon as a leading wind rendered it possible. 
On 19 Feb. 1807, with a fine southerly 
breeze he ran through the strait, sustaining 
the fire of the batteries, silencing the castles 
ofSestos and Abydos, and destroying a squa- 
dron of Turkish frigates at anchor inside of 
them. On the evening of the 20th the ships 
anchored about eight miles from Constanti- 
nople, a head wind and lee current not per- 
mitting them to approach nearer. The Turks, 
advised by the French, quite understood that 
the squadron was, for the time, powerless. 
The negotiation which Duckworth opened 
proved inoperative ; the Turks would con- 
cede nothing, and devoted themselves to still 
further strengthening the batteries in the 
Dardanelles. After a few days, understand- 
ing the peril of his situation, Duckworth de- 
cided that a timely retreat could alone save 
him ; and accordingly, on 3 March, he again 
ran through the strait, receiving as he passed 
a heavy fire from the forts and castles, some 
of which mounted guns of an extreme size, 
throwing stone shot of twenty-six inches in 
diameter [see CAPEL, SIE THOMAS BLADEN]. 
Duckworth had many enemies, and they 
did not lose the opportunity of criticising 
his conduct in a very hostile spirit. He 
had not obtained a treaty, and he had not ap- 
proached within eight miles of Constantino- 
ple. James, who throughout writes of Duck- 
worth in a spirit of bitter antagonism, pro- 
nounces him to have been wanting in ' abi- 
lity and firmness ' (iv. 230), though he admits 
also that he was much hampered by his in- 
structions, and by ' a tissue of contingencies 
and nicely drawn distinctions ... by a string 
of if s and buts, puzzling to the understand- 
ing and misleading to the judgment.' This 
perhaps errs on the other side ; for, though 
the instructions were no doubt puzzling and 
contradictory, the chief difficulty arose out 



of their ordering a line of action which local 
circumstances rendered impossible. Had 
Duckworth been able to anchor his ships 
abreast of Constantinople, within two hun- 
dred yards of the city walls, his demands 
would have carried the expected weight ; at 
the distance of eight miles they were simply 
laughed at. It has been said commonly 
enough that Duckworth ought to have de- 
manded a court-martial on his conduct ; it 
would almost seem that he did meditate doing 
so, and took Collingwood's opinion on the 
matter. At any rate, Collingwood, writing 
to the Duke of Northumberland a few months 
later, said : ' I have much uneasiness on Sir 
John Duckworth's account, who is an able 
and zealous officer : that all was not per- 
formed, that was expected is only to be at- 
tributed to difficulties which could not be 
surmounted ; and if they baffled his skill, I 
do not know where to look for the officer to 
whom they would have yielded ' (RALFE, ii. 
299). 

During 1808-9 Duckworth continued ac- 
tively employed in the Channel and on the 
coast of France ; on one occasion, in 1808, 
chasing an imaginary French squadron round 
the North Atlantic, to Lisbon, Madeira, the 
West Indies, and the Chesapeake. From 
1810 to 1813 he was governor and comman- 
der-in-chief at Newfoundland, where he is 
said to have earned the good opinion of the 
inhabitants both in his naval and his civil 
capacity. On his return to England he was 
created a baronet, 2 Nov. 1813 ; he had pre- 
viously attained the rank of admiral on 
31 July 1810. In January 1817 he was ap- 
pointedcommander-in-chief at Plymouth, but 
died within a few months, on 31 Aug. He 
was twice married : first, to Anne, daughter 
of Mr. John Wallis of Trenton in Cornwall, 
by whom he had one son, slain at Albuera, 
and a daughter, who married Rear-admiral 
Sir Richard King; and secondly, to Su- 
sannah Catherine, daughter of Dr. William 
Buller, bishop of Exeter, by whom he had 
two sons. 

Of all the men who have attained distinc- 
tion in the English navy, there is none whose 
character has been more discussed and more 
confusedly described. We are told that he 
was brave among the brave, but shy if not 
timid in action; daring and skilful in his 
conceptions, but wanting in that spirit and 
vigour which should actuate an English na- 
val officer ; frank and liberal in his disposi- 
tion, but mean, selfish, and sensual ; one of 
the most distinguished and worthy charac- 
ters in the profession, but incapable of giving 
vent to one generous sentiment. The con- 
tradictions are excessive ; and though, at this 



Duckworth 



9 6 



Ducrow 



distance of time, it is impossible to decide 
with any certainty, we may believe that he 
was a good, energetic, and skilful officer, and 
that, as a man, his character would have 
stood higher had he been much better or 
much worse ; had he had the sweetness of 
temper which everybody loves, or the crabbed- 
ness of will which everybody fears. 

[Naval Chronicle, xviii. 1, with a portrait; 
Ealfe's Naval Biography, ii. 283 ; Gent. Mag. 
(1817), vol. Ixxxvii. pt. ii. pp. 275, 372; Foster's 
Baronetage.] J. K. L. 

DUCKWORTH, RICHARD (fl. 1695), 
campanologist, a native of Leicestershire, is 
probably identical with the Richard Duck- 
worth mentioned, under date 4 May 1648, 
in the ' Register of Visitors of Oxford Uni- 
versity appointed by the Long parliament in 
1647 ' as one of the ' submitting ' undergra- 
duates of New Inn Hall (p. 38), and with 
the Richard Ducker who, according to the 
same authority, was a member and perhaps 
scholar of Brasenose College about the same 
time (ib. p. 483). He matriculated at New 
Inn Hall in 1649, graduated B.A. in 1651, 
and proceeded M.A. in 1653. He is said to 
have been ' afterwards of University College ' 
(ib. p. 569). Wood tells us that he was ' put 
in fellow of Brazen-nose college from New 
Inn Hall by the visitors, took the degrees in 
arts and holy orders, and preached for some 
time near Oxon.,' and that afterwards ' he 
was created B.D., and on the death of Dan. 
Greenwood became rector of Steeple Aston 
in Oxfordshire in 1679.' He adds that, ' the 
parishioners and he disagreeing, he left that 
place, and in 1692 or thereabouts became 
principal of St. Alban's Hall,' and that he 
published the following works : 1. ' Tintin- 
nalogie, or the Art of Ringing,' &c., London, 
1671, 8vo. 2. ' Instructions for Hanging of 
Bells, with all things belonging thereunto.' 

[Wood's Athenae Oxon. ed. Bliss, iv. 794.] 

J. M. E. 

DUCROW, ANDREW (1793-1842), 
equestrian performer, was born at the Nag's 
Head, 102 High Street, Southwark, Surrey, 
on 10 Oct. 1793. His father, Peter Ducrow, 
was bom at Bruges in Belgium, and was by 
profession a ' strong man ; ' he could lift from 
the ground and hold between his teeth a table 
with four or five of his children on it. Lying 
upon his back he could with his hands and 
feet support a platform upon which stood 
eighteen grenadiers. He came to England in 
1793, and gave performances in the ring at 
Astley's Amphitheatre, where he was known 
as the ' Flemish Hercules.' The son at three 
years of age was set to learn his father's 
business, and then proceeded to vaulting, 



tumbling, dancing on the slack and tight 
rope, balancing, riding, fencing, and boxing. 
His master in tight-rope dancing was the 
well-known harlequin and dancer, Richer. 
At the age of seven he was sufficiently ac- 
complished to take part in a fete given at 
Frogmore in the presence of George III. 
From the strictness of his early training, 
under his father, he acquired the courage 
which so distinguished his after career. In 
1808 he was chief equestrian and rope-dancer 
at Astley's, enjoying a salary of 10/. a week. 
Five years later his father took the Royal 
Circus in St. George's Fields (the site of the 
present Surrey Theatre), Blackfriars Road, 
and here he first won applause as a panto- 
mimist as Florio, the dumb boy, in the ' Forest 
of Bondy, or the Dog of Montargis.' On the 
close of the Royal Circus and the bankruptcy 
of Peter Ducrow, Andrew returned to Astley's 
and took to acting upon horseback. His bold 
riding, personal graces, and masterly gesticu- 
lation attracted great attention. On the death 
of the father in 1814 the charge of the widow 
and family fell to the son. Accompanied by 
his brothers and sisters, and taking with him 
his famous trick horse, Jack, he joined Blon- 
dell's Cirque Olympique and made his appear- 
ance at Ghent. Subsequently he visited the 
chief towns of France. His success was almost 
unprecedented, and soon brought himtoFran- 
coni's Circus at Paris, where he secured un- 
bounded popularity. He left Paris, accom- 
panied by his brother, John Ducrow, who was 
clown to the ring, and his family, including 
his sister, who was afterwards known to fame 
as Mrs. W. D. Broadfoot, and travelled through 
France, meeting everywhere with extraordi- 
nary favour. At his benefit at Lyons he was 
presented with a gold medal by the Duchesse 
d'Angouleme. On 5 Nov. 1823, accompanied 
by his horses, he took part in Planche's drama 
' Cortez, or the Conquest of Mexico,' at Co vent 
Garden Theatre, but the piece was not a great 
success (GENEST, English Stage, ix. 248-50). 
In the following season he was engaged for 
a part in the ' Enchanted Courser, or the 
Sultan of Kurdistan,' produced at Drury Lane 
on 28 Oct. 1824 (GENEST, ix. 282). He 
next reappeared at Astley's, and soon becom- 
ing proprietor of the theatre in conjunction 
with Mr. William West, commenced a long 
career of prosperity. He was patronised by 
William IV, who fitted up an arena in the 
pavilion at Brighton in 1832 that Ducrow 
might there perform his feats of horsemanship 
and give his impersonations of antique statues 
which he was accustomed to introduce in his 
scene of Raphael's dream, to the accompani- 
ment of William Callcott's music. In 1833, 
under Alfred Bunn's management, he pro- 



Dudgeon 



97 



Dudley 



'duced at Drury Lane the spectacle of St. 
George and the Dragon.' This was followed by 
' King Arthur and the Knights of the Round 
Table/ the success of which was mainly due 
to the efforts of Ducrow, who received 100/. 
from Queen Adelaide. He was known as 
the ' king of mimics ' and as the ' colossus of 
equestrians.' The majority of the attractive 
acts of horsemanship still witnessed in the 
ring are from examples set by him. He was 
five feet eight inches in height, of fair com- 
plexion, and handsome features, and as a 
contortionist could twist his shapely limbs in 
the strangest forms. The number of persons 
employed at Astley's exceeded a hundred 
and fifty, and the weekly expenses were 
seldom less than 5001. On 8 June 1841 
Astley's Amphitheatre was totally destroyed 
by fire (Times, 9 June 1841, p. 5). Ducrow's 
mind gave way under his misfortunes, a,nd 
he died at 19 York Road, Lambeth, on 27 Jan. 
1842. His funeral, attended by vast crowds 
of people, took place on 5 Feb. in Kensal Green 
cemetery, where an Egyptian monument was 
erected to his memory. Notwithstanding his 
losses he left property valued at upwards of 
60,000/. He married, first, in 1818, Miss 
Griffith of Liverpool, a lady rider, who died 
in 1836 ; secondly, in June 1838, Miss Wool- 
ford, a well-known equestrienne. His brother, 
John Ducrow, the clown, died on 23 May 
1834, and was buried at Lambeth. 

[Gent. Mag. July 1834, p. 108, April 1842, 
pp. 444-5; All the Year Bound, 3 Feb. 1872, 
pp. 223-9; Observer, 30 Jan. 1842, p. 1, 6 Feb. 
p. 3 ; Alfred Bunn's The Stage (1840), i. 143-7 ; 
Frost's Circus Life (1876), pp. 43, 322.] 

G. C. B. 

DUDGEON, WILLIAM (fi. 1765), phi- 
losophical writer, resided in Berwickshire. 
He published: 1. 'The State of the Moral 
World considered ; or a Vindication of Pro- 
vidence in the Government of the Moral 
World,' 1732, 8vo (an attempt to solve the 
problem of the existence of evil). 2. ' Phi- 
losophical Letters concerning the Being and 
Attributes of God,' 1737, 8vo (addressed to 
the Rev. Mr. Jackson, a follower of Clarke. 
Dudgeon argues that Clarke's principles in- 
volve the conclusion that God is the only 
substance). 3. ' A Catechism founded upon 
Experience and Reason. Collected by a 
Father for the use of his Children,' with an 
' Introductory Letter to a Friend concerning 
Natural Religion,' 1744, 8vo (here natural 
religion is treated as the common element in 
all religious systems which alone is true). 
A collective edition of the foregoing appeared, 
under the title of ' The Philosophical Works 
of Mr. William Dudgeon,' in 1765, 8vo. 

[Brit. Mus. Cat.] J. M. K. 

TOL. XVI. 



DUDGEON, WILLIAM (1753 P-1813), 
poet, son of John Dudgeon, farmer, was born 
about 1753 at Tyninghame, East Lothian. 
His mother was an aunt of Robert Ainslie 
[q. v.], writer to the signet, a friend of Burns. 
Dudgeon was educated with Rennie the engi- 
neer at Dunbar. His father procured for him a 
thirty years' lease of an extensive tract of 
land near Dunse in Berwickshire. This farm, 
much of which was in the condition of a wil- 
derness, he cultivated for many years with 
much success. He gave it the name of Prim- 
rose Hill, and there he wrote several songs, 
one of which, ' The Maid that tends the 
Goats,' was printed and became very popu- 
lar. It may be read in Allan Cunningham's 
edition of Burns's ' Works,' p. 533. His other 
pieces remain in manuscript. He also occu- 
pied his leisure with painting and music. In 
May 1787 he was introduced to Burns, then 
on a visit to Mr. Ainslie of Berrywell, near 
Dunse, father of Robert Ainslie. Burns made 
the following entry in his journal : ' Mr. 
Dudgeon, a poet at times, a worthy remark- 
able character, natural penetration, a great 
deal of information, some genius, and extra- 
ordinary modesty ' (BURNS, Works, ed. Cun- 
ningham, p. 53). Dudgeon died on 28 Oct. 
1813, and was buried in the churchyard of 
Prestonkirk. 

[Anderson's Scottish Nation ; Irving's Book of 
Scotsmen.] J. M. E. 

DUDLEY, EAEL OP (1781-1833). [See 
WARD, JOHN WILLIAM.] 

DUDLEY, ALICE, DUCHESS DUDLEY. 
[See under DUDLEY, SIR ROBERT, 1573- 
1639.] 

DUDLEY, AMBROSE, EARL OF WAR- 
WICK (1528 P-1590), born about 1528, was 
fourth son of John Dudley [q. v.], created 
Earl of Warwick early in 1514, and Duke 
of Northumberland in 1551. Like all his 
brothers, he was carefully educated, and 
Roger Ascham speaks of him as manifesting 
high intellectual attainments. He served 
with his father in repressing the Norfolk re- 
bellion of 1549, and was knighted 17 Nov. 
During the reign of Edward VI he was pro- 
minent in court festivities and tournaments, 
and was intimate with the king and Princess 
Elizabeth (cf. 'Edward VI's Journal,' in NI- 
COLAS, Literary Remains, pp. 384, 388, 389). 
He joined his father and brothers in the at- 
tempt to place his sister-in-law, Lady Jane 
Grey (wife of his brother Guildford), on 
the throne in 1553; was committed to the 
Tower (25 July) ; was convicted of treason, 
with Lady Jane, and his brothers, Henry and 
Guildford, on 13 Nov., but was released and 



Dudley 9 

pardoned 18 Oct. 1554. In 1555 his mother's 
death made him lord of Hale-Owen. Two 
years later he and his brothers, Henry and 
Robert, joined the English troops sent to 
support the Spaniards at the siege of St. 
Quentin. All fought with conspicuous bravery 
at the great battle there, and Henry was 
killed. In consideration of this service Queen 
Mary (7 March 1557-8) excepted the two 
survivors, Ambrose and Robert, and their 
three sisters from the act of attainder which 
had involved all the family in 1553 (cf. 4 
and 5 Phil. & Mary, cap. 15). The acces- 
sion of Elizabeth, who had been friendly with 
Ambrose in earlier years, secured his political 
advancement. He was granted (12 March 
1558-9) the manor of Kib worth Beauchamp, 
Leicestershire, together with the office of 
chief pantler at coronations an office which 
had been hereditary in his father's family. 
He became master of the ordnance 12 April 
1560, Baron de LTsle 25 Dec. 1561, and Earl 
of Warwick on the day following. 

In September 1562 the French protestants 
occupied Havre and offered to surrender the 
town to Elizabeth if an English force were 
sent to their aid in their struggle with the 
Guises. The offer was accepted, and on 1 Oct. 
1562 Warwick was appointed captain-gene- 
ral of the expedition. He issued strict orders 
to his soldiers to treat the inhabitants with 
courtesy, and rendered effective assistance 
outside the town to Prince Cond6, the pro- 
testant leader (FORBES, State Papers, ii. 181, 
332, 368). In April 1563 Conde came to 
terms with the catholics, and Warwick was 
directed to evacuate Havre. Elizabeth, dis- 
satisfied with her allies, ordered Warwick to 
hold it against all comers. On 22 April he 
was installed K.G. in his absence, and Sir 
Henry Sidney acted as his deputy (MACHYN, 
p. 308). A plot on the part of the inhabi- 
tants of Havre to murder Warwick led him 
to expel all the French. Thereupon protes- 
tants and catholics combined to besiege the 
city. The English suffered terrible priva- | 
tions ; sickness was terribly fatal, and after j 
three months' endurance Warwick capitu- j 
lated with Elizabeth's consent (29 July 1563). j 
Wliile negotiating the terms from the ram- ! 
parts Warwick was struck by a poisoned 
bullet, which permanently injured his health. 
He was ultimately allowed to leave with the 
remnants of his army, who spread through 
London the plague that had devastated Havre. 
On his return there was some talk of a mar- 
riage between Warwick and Mary Queen of j 
Scots. On 10 Aug. 1564 he was created 
M.A. at Cambridge, and in 1566 D.C.L. at 
Oxford. He was a commissioner for the 
trial of Mary Queen of Scots in 1568. 



Dudley 



In 1569 Warwick and Clinton were nomi- 
nated the queen's lieutenants in the north 
for the purpose of crushing the rebellion of 
the Earls of Northumberland and Westmor- 
land. On 4 May 1571 he was made chief 
butler of England ; was a commissioner for 
: the trial of Thomas, duke of Norfolk ; was 
j admitted to the privy council 5 Sept. 1573, 
I and became lieutenant of the order of the 
j Garter in 1575. In October 1586 he took 
j part in the trial of Queen Mary of Scot- 
i land, and the prisoner specially appealed to 
j his sense of justice before the proceedings 
I terminated. His old wound grew trouble- 
i some in the following years : his leg was am- 
putated, and he died from the effects of the 
operation at Bedford House, Bloomsbury, 
20 Feb. 1589-90. Sir William Dethick con- 
I ducted the elaborate funeral, which took place 
in the chapel of the Blessed Virgin at Warwick 
on 9 April 1590. An altar-tomb with a long 
inscription was erected by his widow. Lord 
Burghley, the Earl of Cumberland, and the 
Earl of Huntingdon, his brother-in-law, were 
overseers of his will. Much of his property 
reverted to the crown, and the park of Wedge- 
nock, Warwickshire, was granted in 1601 to 
Sir Fulke Greville. Small bequests were made 
to the Countess of Pembroke, his niece, 
to Sir Francis Walsingham, and to Lords 
Cobham and Grey de Wilton. Warwick 
married: first, Anne, daughter of William 
Whorwood, by Cassandra, daughter of Sir 
Edward Grey ; secondly, before 13 Sept. 
1553, Elizabeth, daughter of Sir Gilbert 
Talboys, and heiress of George, lord Talboys ; 
and thirdly, on 11 Nov. 1565, Lady Anne, 
daughter of Francis Russell, earl of Bedford. 
By his first wife, who died 26 May 1552 at 
Otford, Kent, Warwick had an only son, John, 
but he died before his mother. Warwick had 
no other issue. His third wife died 9 Feb. 
1603-4. He was popularly known as the 
' Good Lord Warwick,' and was attached to 
the puritans. He was governor of the posses- 
sions and revenues of the preachers of the 
gospel for Warwickshire. He also encou- 
raged maritime enterprise, and was the chief 
promoter of Martin Frobisher's first voyage 
in 1576. Portraits are at Hatfield, Woburn 
Abbey, and Lumley Castle. An engraving 
appears in Holland's ' Heraologia.' 

[Cooper's Athenae Cantab, ii. 66, 594; Biog. 
Brit. (Kippis) ; Doyle's Baronage ; Burke's Ex- 
tinct Peerage ; Fronde's History ; Wriothesley's 
Chronicle (Camd. Soc.), ii. 91, 104; ]achyn's 
Chronicle (Camd. Soc.) ; Sydney Papers, ed. 
Collins, where will is printed, p. 40.] S. L. L. 

DUDLEY, LADY AMYE, nee ROBSART 
(1532 P-1560). [See under DUDLEY, ROBERT, 
EARL or LEICESTER.] 



99 



Dudley 



DUDLEY, SIR ANDREW (d. 1559). 
[See DUDLEY, EDMUND, ad fin.] 

DUDLEY, DUD (1599-1684), ironmas- 
ter, born in 1599, was the fourth natural son 
of Edward Sutton, fifth baron Dudley, by 
Elizabeth, daughter of William Tomlinson of 
Dudley. He was summoned from Balliol 
College, Oxford, to superintend his father's 
ironworks at Pensnet in Worcestershire in 
1619. These ironworks consisted of one fur- j 
nace only and two forges, all of them being I 
worked with charcoal. In his ' Metallum 
Martis ' Dudley informs us that ' wood and 
charcole growing then scant and pit-coles in 
great quantities abounding near the furnace, 
did induce me to alter my furnace, and to 
attempt, by my new invention, the making of 
iron with pit-cole.' Dudley found the quality 
of his iron ' to be good and profitable, but the 
quantity did not exceed three tuns per week.' 
In 1607 there were a hundred and forty 
hammers and furnaces for making iron in this 
country, which, Norden tells us, ' spent each 
of them, in every twenty-four hours, two, 
three, or four lodes of charcoal, which in a 
year amounteth to an infinite quantity.' In 
the reign of Elizabeth an act was passed for 
the preservation of timber in Sussex, Surrey, 
and Kent. The destruction of timber went 
on, and between 1720 and 1730 the above 
furnaces, and those of the Forest of Dean 
(without the Tintern Abbey works), consumed 
annually 17,350 tons, or a little more than 
five tons a week for each furnace. 

The rapid destruction of our forests led to 
experiments on the smelting of iron with pit 
coal. Coal, however, was dug and used for 
fuel as early as 853. In 1239 a charter was 
granted to the townsmen of Newcastle-on- 
Tyne to dig for coal. Simon Sturtevant in 
1611 first obtained a patent for the term of 
thirty-one years for the use of ' sea-coale or 
pit-coale ' for various metallurgical opera- 
tions. John Rovenson in 1613 was said to 
have satisfactorily effected what Sturtevant 
failed to perform, and on 15 May he obtained 
a patent which secured to him the ' sole pri- 
viledge to make iron and all other metals 
with sea-cole, pit-cole, earth-cole, &c.' Simon 
Sturtevant failed entirely, and John Roven- 
son having succeeded only in inventing ' re- 
verberatory furnaces with a milne [wind- 
mill] to make them blow,' the matter was 
taken up by Mr. Gombleton of Lambeth and 
Dr. Jordan of Bath, who were not more fa- 
voured by success than the others. 

Dudley, stimulated by these results, com- 
menced his experiments with coal, and they 
appear to have been at once fairly success- 
ful. He found at Pensnet in Worcestershire 



one blast furnace and two forges all working 
with charcoal. He altered this furnace, and 
his ' first experiment was so successful that he 
made iron to profit.' In 1665 Dudley pub- 
lished his ' Metallum Martis, or Iron made 
with Pit-Coale, Sea-Coale, &c., and with 
the same fuell to melt and fine imperfect 
Metals, and refine perfect Metals.' In this 
work he carefully refrained from disclosing 
his method. ' The quality of the metal,' 
he says, ' was found to be good and profit- 
able, but the quantity did not exceed above 
three tuns per week.' In 1619 Dudley's father 
obtained for him a patent from the king for 
thirty-one years. In the following year a 
disastrous flood (known as the ' May-day 
flood ') not only ' ruinated the author's iron- 
works but also many other ironworks.' This 
destruction of Dudley's furnaces was received 
with joy by his rival ironmasters, who also- 
complained to the king that Dudley's iron 
was not merchantable. The king then ordered 
Dudley to send samples of his bar-iron to the 
Tower of London to be duly tested by com- 
petent persons. The result was favourable to 
Dudley, and he with his father, Lord Dudley, 
obtained an extension of the patent for four- 
teen years. This enabled him to continue to 
produce annually a large quantity of good 
merchantable iron, which he sold at I2L per 
ton. Dudley's opponents succeeded in wrong- 
fully depriving him of his works and inven- 
tions. He afterwards erected a furnace at 
Himley in Staffordshire, but not having a 
forge he was obliged to sell his iron to char- 
coal ironmasters, who did him considerable 
mischief by disparaging the metal. Eventu- 
ally he was compelled to rent the Himley 
furnace to a charcoal ironmaster. He now 
constructed a larger furnace at Askew Bridge 
(or Hasco Bridge), in the parish of Sedgley, 
Staffordshire, in which, by using larger bellows 
than ordinary, he produced seven tons of pig- 
iron weekly, the greatest quantity ever made 
up to that time with pit coal in Great Britain. 
Dudley was again molested, a riot occurred, 
and his bellows were cut to pieces. Not only 
was he prevented from making iron, but he 
was harassed by lawsuits and imprisoned in 
the Compter in London for a debt of several 
thousand pounds, until the expiration of the 
term of his first patent. In 1639 Dudley, in 
the face of much opposition, obtained the grant 
of a new patent ' not only for the making of 
iron into cast-works and bars, but also for 
the melting, extracting, refining, and reduc- 
ing of all mines, minerals, and mettals with 
pit-coal and peat.' On the strength of his 
new patent he entered into partnership with 
two persons at Bristol, and began to erect a 
new furnace near that city in 1651. But 

' 



Dudley i 

this involved him in litigation. Of this affair 
Dudley writes : ' They did unjustly enter 
Staple Actions in Bristow because I was of 
the king's party ; unto the great prejudice of 
my inventions and proceedings, my patent 
being then almost extinct, for which and my 
stock am I forced to sue them in chancery.' 

He relates that Cromwell granted several 
patents and an act for making iron with pit 
coal in the Forest of Dean, where furnaces 
were erected at great cost. Dudley was in- 
vited to visit Dean Forest, and to inspect 
the proposed methods, which he condemned. 
These works failed, as did also attempts made 
to conduct operations at Bristol. Dudley 
petitioned Charles II, on the day of his land- 
ing, for a renewal of his patent, but meeting 
with a refusal, he ceased from further prose- 
cuting his inventions. 

He does not in ' Metallum Martis ' (1665) 
give any hint of his process, but the proba- 
bility is that he used coke instead of raw 
coal. He was clearly the first person who 
ceased to use charcoal for smelting iron ore, 
and who employed with any degree of suc- 
cess pit coal for this purpose. It was not, 
however, until about 1738 that the process 
of smelting iron ore in the blast-furnace with 
coal was perfected by Abraham Darby [q. v.] 
at the Coalbrookdale Ironworks. 

Dudley was colonel in the army of Charles I 
and general of the ordnance to Prince Maurice. 
It is recorded that he was captured in 1648, 
condemned, but not beheaded. He married 
(12 Oct. 1626) Elinor, daughter of Francis 
Heaton of Groveley Hall, but he left no issue. 
He died and was buried in St. Helen's Church, 
Worcester, 25 Oct. 1684. 

[Dudley's Metallum Martis, or Iron made with 
Pit-Coale, Sea-Coale, &c., 1665 ; Eovenson's 
Treatise of Metallica, 1613 ; Sturtevant's Metal- 
lica, or the Treatise of Metallica, 1612 ; Percy's 
Metallurgy, Iron and Steel, 1864; Herald's Visi- 
tation of the County of Stafford, made in the year 
1608 ; Nash's Worcestershire, vol. ii. app. 149 ; 
Norden's Surveyors' Dialogue (1607), p. 212; 
Mushet's Papers on Iron and Steel, 1840 ; Holin- 
shed's Chronicle, 1577 ; Plot's History of Staf- 
fordshire ( 1 686), p. 1 28 ; William Salt, Archaeolog. 
Soc. Coll. ii. pt. ii. 36-8, v. pt. ii. 114-17.] 

K. H-T. 

DUDLEY, EDMUND (1462 P-1510), 
statesman and lawyer, born about 1462, was 
the son of John Dudley, esq., of Atherington, 
Sussex, by Elizabeth, daughter and coheiress 
of Thomas or John Bramshot of Sussex. John 
Dudley was sheriff of Sussex in 1485. By 
his will, dated 1 Oct. 1500, he directs that he 
phould be buried at Arundel in his ' marbill 
tombe,' and desires prayers for the souls of 
many relatives, among them ' William, late 



Dudley 



bishop of Dunelme,' i.e. Durham, and ' my 
brother Oliver Dudley.' Sir Reginald Bray 
is also mentioned as an intimate friend. Both 
William and Oliver Dudley were sons of John 
Sutton, baron Dudley [q. v.], while Sir Re- 
ginald Bray was one of the baron's executors. 
Hence there can be little doubt that John 
Dudley was another of the baron's sons. Ed- 
mund's descendants claimed direct descent 
from the baronial family, but the claim has 
been much disputed. His numerous ene- 
mies asserted that Edmund Dudley's father 
was a carpenter of Dudley, Worcestershire, 
who migrated to Lewes. Sampson Erdes- 
wicke, the sixteenth-century historian of Staf- 
fordshire, accepted this story, and William 
Wyrley, another Elizabethan genealogist, 
suggested that Edmund's grandfather was a 
carpenter. But the discovery of his father's 
will disproves these stories, and practically 
establishes his pretensions to descent from the 
great baronial family of Sutton, alias Dudley. 

Dudley was sent in 1478 to Oxford and 
afterwards studied law at Gray's Inn, where 
the arms of the barons of Dudley were em- 
blazoned on one of the windows of the hall. 
According to Poly dore Vergil, his legal know- 
ledge attracted the attention of Henry YTI 
on his accession (1485), and he was made a 
privy councillor at the early age of three- 
and-twenty. This promotion seems barely 
credible, but it cannot have been long delayed. 
Seven years later Dudley helped to negotiate 
the peace of Boulogne (signed 6 Nov. 1492 
and renewed in 1499). His first wife, Anne, 
sister of Andrews, lord Windsor, and widow 
of Roger Corbet of Morton, Shropshire, died 
before 1494, when he obtained the wardship 
and marriage of Elizabeth, daughter of 
Edward Grey, viscount Lisle, and sister and 
coheiress of her brother John. 

Stow asserts that Dudley became under- 
sheriff of London in 1497. It has been doubted 
whether a distinguished barrister and a privy 
councillor would be likely to accept so 
small an office. But it seems clear that 
at this period Dudley was fully in the king's 
confidence and had formulated a financial 
policy to check the lawlessness of the barons, 
whom the protracted wars of the Roses had 
thoroughly demoralised. In carrying out the 
policy Dudley associated Sir Richard Empson 
[q. v.] with himself. The great landowners 
were to enter into recognisances to keep the 
peace, and all taxes and feudal dues were to be 
collected with the utmost rigour. Although, 
like astute lawyers, Dudley and Empson had 
recourse to much petty chicanery in giving 
effect to their scheme, their policy was adapted 
to the times and was dictated by something 
more than the king's love of money. The 



Dudley 



Dudley 



small post of under-sheriff would prove use- 
ful in this connection, and the fact that both 
Dudley and Empson resided in St. Swithin's 
Lane confirms Dudley's alleged association 
with the city. 

The official position of Dudley and Empson 
is difficult to define : they probably acted as a 
sub-committee of the privy council. Polydore 
Vergil calls them ' fiscales judices,' but they 
certainly were not j udges of the exchequer nor 
of any other recognised court. Bacon asserts 
that they habitually indicted guiltless per- 
sons of crimes, and, when true bills were 
found, extorted great fines and ransoms as 
a condition of staying further proceedings. 
They are said to have occasionally summoned 
persons to their private houses and exacted 
fines without any pretence of legal proce- 
dure. Pardons for outlawry were invariably 
purchased from them, and juries were ter- 
rorised into paying fines when giving verdicts 
for defendants in crown prosecutions. These 
are the chief charges brought against them 
by contemporary historians. Bacon credits 
Dudley with much plausible eloquence. 

In 1504 Dudley was chosen speaker in the 
House of Commons, and in the same year 
was released by a royal writ from the neces- 
sity of becoming a serjeant-at-law. In the 
parliament over which Dudley presided many 
small but useful reforms were made in legal 
procedure. In 1506 Dudley became steward 
of the rape of Hastings, Sussex. Grafton 
states that in the last year of Henry VII's 
reign Dudley and Empson were nominated, 
under some new patent, special commissioners 
for enforcing the penal laws. Whether this 
be so or no, their unpopularity greatly in- 
creased towards the end of the reign. On 
21 April 1509 their master, Henry VII, died. 
Sir Robert Cotton (Discourse of Foreign War} 
quotes a book of receipts and payments kept 
between Henry VII and Dudley, whence it 
appears that the king amassed about four and 
a half million pounds in coin and bullion 
while Dudley directed his finances. The re- 
venue Dudley secured by the sale of offices 
and extra-legal compositions was estimated 
at 120,000^. a year. 

Henry VIII had no sooner ascended the 
throne than he yielded to the outcry against 
Dudley and Empson and committed both to 
the Tower. The recognisances which had been 
entered into with them were cancelled on the 
ground that they had been* made without any 
cause reasonable or lawful ' by ' certain of the 
learned council of our late father, contrary to 
law,reason, and good conscience.' On 16 July 
1509 Dudley was arraigned before a special 
commission on a charge of constructive trea- 
son. The indictment made no mention of his 



financial exactions, but stated that while in 
the preceding March Henry VII lay sick 
Dudley summoned his friends to attend him 
under arms in London in the event of the 
king's death. This very natural precaution, 
taken by a man who was loathed by the ba- 
ronial leaders and their numerous retainers, 
and was in danger of losing his powerful pro- 
tector, was construed into a plan for attempt- 
ing the new king's life. Conviction followed. 
Empson was sent to Northampton to be tried 
separately on a like charge in October. In the 
parliament which met 21 Jan. 1509-10 both 
were attainted. Henry VIII deferred giving 
orders for their execution, but popular feel- 
ing was not satisfied. Dudley made an abor- 
tive attempt to escape from the Tower with 
the aid of his brother Peter, his kinsman, 
James Beaumont, and others. On 18 Aug. 
1510 both he and Empson were beheaded on 
Tower Hill. Dudley was buried in the church 
of Blackfriars the same night. With a view 
to obtaining the king's pardon Dudley em- 
ployed himself while in the Tower in writ- 
ing a long political treatise entitled ' The 
Tree of Commonwealth,' an argument in fa- 
vour of absolute monarchy. This work never 
reached the hands of Henry VIII. Stow 
gave a copy to Dudley's grandson, Ambrose 
Dudley [q. v.], earl of Warwick, after whose 
death it came into the possession of Sir 
Simonds D'Ewes. Several copies are now 
known ; one is in the Chetham Library, 
Manchester, another in the British Museum 
(Harleian MS. 2204), and a third belongs to 
Lord Calthorpe (Hist. MSS. Comm. 2nd Rep. 
40). It was privately printed at Manchester 
for the first time in 1859 by the brotherhood 
of the Rosy Cross. A copy of Dudley's will, 
dated on the day of his death, is extant in the 
Record Office. He left his great landed estates 
in Sussex, Dorsetshire, and Lincolnshire to 
his wife with remainder to his children. His 
brother Peter is mentioned, and the son Jerome 
was placed under four guardians, Bishop Fitz- 
James,Dean Colet, Sir Andrews Windsor, and 
Dr. Yonge, till he reached the age of twenty- 
two. Certain lands were to be applied to 
the maintenance of poor scholars at Oxford. 
Dudley also expresses a wish to be buried in 
Westminster Abbey, 

By his first wife Dudley had a daughter 
Elizabeth, married to William, sixth lord 
Stourton. By his second wife he had three 
sons : John [q. v.], afterwards duke of North- 
umberland, Andrew, and Jerome. SIR AN- 
DREW DUDLEY was appointed admiral of the 
northern seas 27 Feb. 1546-7. He was 
knighted by Somerset 18 Sept. 1547, when 
ordered to occupy Broughty Craig at the 
mouth of the river Tay together with Lord 



Dudley i 

Clinton. This operation was accomplished 
21 Sept. In 1549 Sir Andrew became one 
of the four knights in attendance on the 
young king, and keeper of his wardrobe. A 
year later he was appointed keeper of the 
palace of Westminster, and soon afterwards 
captain of Guisnes. A small pension was 
granted him 17 May 1551. Early in 1552 
he quarrelled with Lord Willoughby, deputy 
of Calais, as to his jurisdiction at Guisnes. 
On 6 Oct. 1552 the dispute led to the recall 
of both officers. On 20 May 1552 Sir Andrew 
was directed to survey Portsmouth, and on 
17 March 1552-3 was created K.G. A mar- 
riage between him and Margaret Clifford, 
daughter of the Earl of Cumberland, was ar- 
ranged to take place soon afterwards, but the 
death of Edward VI led to his ruin (NICHOLS, 
Lit. Remains of Edward VI, in Roxburghe 
Club ; Calendar of Hatfield MSS. i. 127- 
132). Sir Andrew was implicated with his 
brother John in the attempt to place Lady 
Jane Grey on the throne, but after imprison- 
ment, trial, and conviction was set at liberty 
off 18 Jan. 1554-5. His will, dated 1556, is 
printed in the 'Sydney Papers' (p. 30). He 
died without issue in 1559. Dudley's widow 
married, about 1515, Sir Arthur Plantagenet 
[q. v.], Edward IV's natural son, by Lady 
Elizabeth Lucy. Sir Arthur was created 
Viscount Lisle, in right of his wife, in 1523, 
and was for many years governor of Calais. 
By him Dudley's widow had three daughters, 
Bridget, Frances, and Elizabeth. 

[Wood's Athense, ed. Bliss, i. 12-14; Sydney 
Papers, ed. Collins, i. 16-18; Holinshed's Chro- 
nicle; Bacon's Henry VII; State Trials, i. 28-38 ; 
Herbert's Henry VIII ; Brewer's Henry VIII, i. 
69-70; Henry VIII State Papers, i. 179; Dug- 
dale's Baronage, ii. 214; Biog. Brit. (Kippis) ; 
Polydore Vergil's Henry VIII. For the genea- 
logy see the authorities under DUDLEY, JOHN 
BUTTON DB. For the indictment see Second Re- 
port of Deputy-Keeper of Records, app. 3.] 

S. L. L. 

DUDLEY, LOUD GUILDFORD (d. 1554), 
husband of Lady Jane Grey, was the fourth 
son of the powerful John Dudley [q. v.], duke 
of Northumberland. When the duke was at 
the height of his power, in Edward VI's 
reign, Lord Guildford was his only unmar- 
ried son. In July 1552 the duke determined 
on a match between him and Margaret Clif- 
ford, grandniece of Henry VIII and daughter 
of Henry, first earl of Cumberland [q. v.] 
Edward VI interested himself in the scheme, 
and wrote on the subject to both the Duke 
of Northumberland and the Earl of Cumber- 
land. But the duke's views changed. Mar- 
garet Clifford early in 1553 was offered by 
the duke to his younger brother, Sir Andrew 



2 Dudley 

Dudley [see under DUDLEY, EDMTJU D], and on 
21 May (Whitsunday) Lord Guildford was 
married by his father's direction to Lady Jane 
Grey, daughter of the Duke of Suffolk [see 
DUDLEY, LADY JANE]. This marriage was part 
of the desperate project of Northumberland for 
transferring the succession of the crown from 
the Tudor family to his own. By the instru- 
ment which he prevailed on the dying young 
king to sign (21 June) the crown was to go 
from both the king's sisters, Mary and Eliza- 
beth, to the heirs male of Frances, duchess of 
Suffolk, provided that any should be born 
before the king's death ; failing which it was 
to pass to the Lady Jane Grey, the duchess's 
daughter, and her heirs male. The Lady Jane, 
during the brief royalty to which this plot 
gave rise, though attached to her youthful 
husband, refused to grant him the title of king, 
affirming that it lay out of her power (FnotrDE, 
vi. 16). But in a despatch dated 15 July 1553 
Sir Philip Hoby and Sir Richard Mory son, the 
English envoys at Brussels, gave him the 
title of king. After the defeat of the enter- 
prise Guildford was committed to the Tower, 
with his wife; and on 13 Nov. 1553 was led, 
along with her, his brothers Ambrose and 
Henry, and Archbishop Cranmer,to the Guild- 
hall, where he was arraigned of treason, and 
pleaded guilty. The sentence was not carried 
out until the commotion of Wyatt, in the 
following spring, had caused fresh alarm. He 
was then beheaded on Tower Hill 12 Feb., 
immediately before the execution of the Lady 
Jane. A portrait, exhibited at the National 
Portrait Exhibition of 1866, is in the posses- 
sion of Baron North. 

[Nichols's Queen Jane and Queen Mary (Camd. 
Soc.), pp. 32, 34, 55 ; Nichols's Literary Eemains 
of Edward VI (Roxburghe Club), clxv, clxviii, 
cxc ; authorities under DUDLEY, LADY JANE, 
and notes supplied by the Rev. Canon R. W. 
Dixon.] 

DUDLEY, SIR HENRY BATE (1745- 
1824), journalist, born at Fenny Compton, 
Warwickshire, on 25 Aug. 1745, was the 
second son of the Rev. Henry Bate, who for 
many years held the living of St. Nicholas, 
Worcester, and afterwards became rector of 
North Fam bridge in Essex. He is said to have 
been educated at Queen's College, Oxford, but 
though the letters M. A. and LL.D. are some- 
times given after his name, it does not appear 
that he ever received a degree at either uni- 
versity. Having taken orders Bate succeeded 
to the rectory of North Fambridge upon his 
father's death, but most of his time was spent 
in London, where he became well known as 
a man of pleasure. In 1773 an affray at 
Vauxhall Gardens brought him into consider- 



Dudley 



103 



Dudley 



able notoriety, and about this time he be- 
came curate to James Townley, the vicar of 
Hendon, and author of the celebrated farce, 
* High Life below Stairs.' Bate was one of 
the earliest editors of the ' Morning Post,' 
which was established in 1772. The smart- 
ness of his articles and the excitability of his 
temperament frequently involved him in per- 
sonal quarrels, which sometimes ended in a 
fight or a duel, and he thus earned the nick- 
name of the ' Fighting Parson.' Bate never 
lost an opportunity of keeping himself well 
before the public, and Horace Walpole, in a 
letter to Lady Ossory, 13 Nov. 1776, records 
one of Bate's advertisements : ' Yesterday, 
just after I arrived, I heard drums and trum- 
pets in Piccadilly ; I looked out of the win- 
dow, and saw a procession with streamers 
flying. At first I thought it a press-gang, 
but seeing the corps so well drest, like Hes- 
sians in yellow, with blue waistcoats and 
breeches, and high caps, I concluded it was 
some new body of our allies, or a regiment 
newly raised, and with new regimentals for 
distinction. I was not totally mistaken, for 
the colonel is a new ally. In short, this was a 
procession set forth by Mr. Bate, Lord Lyttel- 
ton's chaplain, and author of the old " Morn- 
ing Post," and meant as an appeal to the town 
against his antagonist, the new one' {Letters, 
Cunningham's edit.vi. 391-2).?Bate continued 
to be editor of the ' Morning Post ' until 1780, 
when he quarrelled v/ith some of his coadju- 
tors, and on 1 Nov. started the ' Morning 
Herald' upon liberal principles, and in opposi- 
tion to his old paper. About the same time he 
also founded two other newspapers, the ' Cour- 
rier de 1'Europe,' a journal printed in French, 
and the ' English Chronicle.' On 25 June 1781 
he was committed to the king's bench prison 
for the term of twelve months for a libel on 
the Duke of Richmond which had appeared 
in the ' Morning Post ' during his editorship 
on 25 Feb. 1780. The judgment had been 
delayed until the prison had been 'sufficiently 
repaired to admit of prisoners after the de- 
vastation committed by the rioters in June 
1780' (DOUGLAS, Reports, 1783, pp. 372-6). 
In 1781 Bate bought the advowsonof Brad- 
well-juxta-Mare in Essex for 1,500/. and in 
1784 assumed the additional name of Dudley, 
in compliance with the will of a relation of 
that name. Upon the death of the incum- 
bent of Bradwell in 1797, Dudley presented 
himself to the living. It appears that im- 
mediately after the purchase Dudley had be- 
come the curate of Bradwell, and had obtained 
from the absentee rector a lease of the glebe 
and tithes. The bishop therefore refused to 
institute him on the ground of simony, and 
legal proceedings were commenced by Dud- 



ley. When a compromise was at length 
agreed to, it was discovered that the right 
of presentation had lapsed to the crown, and 
in the exercise of its right the chaplain- 
general of the army had been appointed. 
The case attracted considerable attention at 
the time, and it was- thought an exceedingly 
hard one, Dudley having spent during the 
life of the previous incumbent more than 
28,000^. in rebuilding the church, reclaiming 
and embanking the land, and otherwise im- 
proving the benefice. An address from the 
magistrates of the county in Dudley's favour 
was presented to Addington in June 1801. 
Towards the close of 1804 Dudley was pre- 
sented to the living of Kilscoran in the 
barony of Forth, co. Wexford, and in the fol- 
lowing year was appointed chancellor of the 
diocese of Ferns. In 1807 he also became 
rector of Kilglass in the county of Longford. 
Resigning his Irish benefices in 1812 he was 
in that year presented to the rectory of Wil- 
lingham, Cambridgeshire, and on 17 April 
1813 was created a baronet. In 1816 he 
was presented by the inhabitants of Cam- 
bridgeshire with a piece of plate for ' his very 
spirited and firm conduct during the riots ' 
which had occurred in the earlier part of that 
year. In 1817 he was appointed to a pre- 
bendal stall in Ely Cathedral. Dudley died 
at Cheltenham on 1 Feb. 1824 in his seventy- 
ninth year. He was an intimate friend of 
Garrick and the associate of all the wits of 
the day. He introduced William Shield to 
the public as an operatic composer, and was 
one of the earliest admirers of the talents 
of Mrs. Siddons. He was a magistrate for 
seven English and four Irish counties, but 
his career was not altogether a creditable 
one. Johnson in discussing his merits with 
Boswell said, ' Sir, I will not allow this man 
to have merit. No, sir ; what he has is rather 
the contrary : I will indeed allow him cour- 
age, and on this account we so far give him 
credit ' .(BoswELL, Life of Johnson, 1831, v. 
196). In 1780 he married Mary, daughter of 
James White of Berrow, Somersetshire, and 
sister of the celebrated actress, Mrs. Hartley, 
but had no issue, and the baronetcy conse- 
quently became extinct upon his death. Por- 
traits of Dudley and his wife by Gains- 
borough were exhibited at the Grosvenor 
Gallery in 1885 (Catalogue of the Gains- 
borough Exhibition, Nos. 75 and 171), both 
of which have been engraved by James Scott. 
Dudley was one of the minor contributors to 
the ' Rolliad,' which originally appeared in 
his newspaper, the ' Morning Herald.' 

He wrote the following works : 1. ' Henry 
and Emma, a new poetical interlude, altered 
from Prior's " Nut-Brown Maid," with addi- 



Dudley 



104 



Dudley 



tions and a new air and chorus (the music by 
Dr. Arne),' &c., anon., London, 1774, 8vo. 
2. ' The Rival Candidates, a comic opera in 
two acts,' &c., London, 1775, 8vo. 3. ' The 
Blackamoor washed White, a comic opera/ 
London, 1776, 8vo. The songs only of this 
opera were printed. It was acted for four 
nights in February 1776, at Drury Lane, but 
led to such disturbances that it was obliged to 
be withdrawn. 4. ' The Flitch of Bacon, a 
comic opera in two acts ; as it is performed at 
the Theatre Royal in the Haymarket,' London, 
1779, 8vo. It was set to music by William 
Shield, and was the first of his compositions 
which appeared on the stage. 5. ' The Dramatic 
Puffers, a prelude, as performed at the Theatre 
Royal in Co vent Garden,' anon. , London, 1 782, 
8vo. 6. ' The Magic Picture, a play ' (al- 
tered from Massinger), London, 1783, 8vo. 

7. ' Remarks on Gilbert's Last Bill for the 
Relief of the Poor,' London, 1788, 8vo. 

8. ' The Woodman, a comic opera, in three 
acts ; as performed at the Theatre Royal, 
Covent Garden, with universal applause,' 
London, 1791, 8vo. The music was com- 
posed by Shield. 9. 'The Travellers in 
Switzerland, a comic opera, in three acts, as 
performed at the Theatre Royal, Covent Gar- 
den,' London, 1794, 8vo. The music was com- 
posed by Shield. 10. ' Passages selected by 
Distinguished Personages, on the great Lite- 
rary Trial of Vortigern and Rowena ; a 
comi-tragedy, " whether it be or be not from 
the immortal pen of Shakespeare ? " ' 5th ed. 
London, 1795 P-1807, 4 vols. 8vo. This is a 
satire on the leading public characters of the 
day in a series of passages professing to be 
quotations from Ireland's play. It originally 
appeared from time to time in the ' Morning 
Herald,' and was written by Dudley and his 
wife. 11. ' Letters, &c., which have lately 
passed between the Bishop of London and the 
Rev. H. B. Dudley respecting the Advowson 
of the vacant rectory of Bradwell near the 
Sea, Essex,' London, 1798, 8vo. 12. 'A Few 
Observations respecting the present state of 
the Poor ; and the Defects of the Poor Laws : 
with some remarks upon Parochial Assess- 
ments and Expenditures,' 3rd edit. London, 
1802, 8vo. 13. 'A Short Address to the 
. . . Lord Primate of all Ireland, recom- 
mendatory of some Commutation or Modi- 
fication of the Tythes of that Country ; with 
a few Remarks upon the present state of the 
Irish Church,' 3rd edit. London, 1808, 8vo, 
This tract was republished in ' The Pam- 
phleteer,' vi. 239-56. 14. ' Letter to the Rev. 
R. Hodgson on his "Life of Bishop Por- 
teous," ' 1811, 8vo. 15. ' A Sermon de- 
livered at the Cathedral of Ely on Monday, 
17 June 1816, before Mr. Justice Abbott, Mr. 



Justice Burrough, and Chief-justice Chris- 
tian, on the opening of their special commis- 
sion for the trial of the rioters. Printed at 
the request of the grand jury,' Cambridge, 
1816, 4to. 

[Burke's Extinct Baronetage, 1844, p. 175; 
Gent. Mag. 1810, vol. Ixxx. pt. i. p. 183, 1824, 
vol. xciv. pt. i. pp. 273-6,638-40, 1828, vol. 
xcviii. pt. i. p. 496 ; Annual Register, 1824, 
Chron. pp. 296-7 ; Baker's Biog. Dram. (1812), 
vol. i. pt. i. p. 210; Reminiscences of Henry 
Angelo (1828), i. 153-69; Public Characters 
(1823), i. 538-9; Rose's Biog. Diet, 1848, vii. 
162-3 ; The Yauxhall Affray, or the Macaronies 
Defeated (1773) ; London Mag. 1773, xlii. 461-2; 
Andrews's Hist, of British Journalism (1859), i. 
211-13,222-3 ; Watt's Bibl. Brit, (1824); Alli- 
bone's Diet, of English Literature (1859), i. 526 ; 
Diet, of Living Authors (1816), pp. 1 00-1 ; Notes 
and Queries, 1st ser. ii. 114, iii. 130, xii. 471 ; 
Brit. Mus. Cat.] G. F. R. B. 

DUDLEY, HOWARD (1820-1864),wood 
engraver, was the only son of George Dudley 
of Tipperary, and Sarah, daughter of Natha- 
niel Cove, coal merchant, of Salisbury Square, 
Fleet Street, London. He lost his father at 
an early age, and removed with his mother to 
Easebourne, near Midhurst, Sussex. Here he 
devoted his holiday time to the history and 
antiquities of the neighbourhood, and when 
only fourteen years of age determined to 
illustrate these in print. Setting up a small 
printing-press of his own he produced in 1835 
a small volume entitled ' Juvenile Researches, 
or a Description of some of the Principal 
Towns in the Western Part of Sussex and the 
Borders of Hants, interspersed with various 
pieces of Poetry by a Sister, and illustrated 
by numerous wood-engravings executed by 
the Author.' Dudley set the types himself, 
and without any teaching engraved the nu- 
merous illustrations. These, though very 
rough, show great taste, and are very remark- 
able for an artist of so tender an age. He 
printed it one page at a time, and his sister, 
Miss M. A. Dudley, supplied the poetry. 
This little volume met with so much success 
that Dudley was encouraged to reprint it in 
a slightly enlarged form, and in 1836 to pub- 
lish another similar volume, entitled ' The 
History and Antiquities of Horsham,' con- 
taining thirty woodcuts and four lithographic 
views, all executed by himself. He made 
collections for a quarto volume entitled ' The 
History and Antiquities of Midhurst,' to be 
illustrated with 150 woodcuts and lithogra- 
phic drawings ; but having now adopted the 
profession of a wood engraver, and obtained 
sufficient employment, he was unable to carry 
it out. From 1845 to 1852 he resided and 
exercised his art in Edinburgh, but eventually- 



Dudley 



105 



Dudley 



returned to London, where he died in Holford 
Square, Pentonville, 4 July 1864, aged 44. 
He married, in Edinburgh, Jane Ellen, second 
daughter of Alexander Young, but left no 
family. 

[Gent. Mag. 3rd ser. xviii. (1865) 101 ; 
Lower's Worthies of Sussex (ed. 1865); Brit. 
Mus. Cat.] L. C. 

DUDLEY, LADY JANE (1537-1554), 
commonly called LADY JANE GREY, was eldest 
surviving daughter of Henry Grey, marquis 
of Dorset, afterwards duke of Suffolk, by 
Frances, daughter of Charles Brandon, duke 
of Suffolk, and of Mary, younger sister of 
Henry VIII. She was thus the cousin of Ed- 
ward VI, and about the same age, being born 
at Bradgate, Leicestershire, in October 1537. 
She had two younger sisters, Catherine and 
Mary. The beauty of her person was equalled 
by that of her mind and character ; and her 
learning and acquirements were remarkable. 
Fuller states that her parents treated her 
with great severity, ' more than needed to 
so sweet a temper.' John Aylmer [q. v.], 
afterwards bishop of London, was employed 
by her father as his children's domestic tutor, 
and Lady Jane proved an exceptionally apt 
pupil. When barely nine she entered the 
household of Queen Catherine Parr, and 
until Queen Catherine's death, in September 
1548, was much in her society. The child 
was chief mourner at her mistress's funeral. 
Queen Catherine's second husband, Lord 
Thomas Seymour of Sudeley, purchased Lady 
Jane's wardship of her parents soon after 
he became a widower, and she stayed with 
him at Hanworth or Seymour Place till his 
fall in 'January 1548-9. He had promised 
Lady Jane's father that he would assist him 
in marrying the girl to her cousin, the 
young king. But Seymour's brother, the 
protector Somerset, was planning a union 
between Edward VI and his own daughter 
Jane, while he destined Lady Jane for the 
hand of his son, the Earl of Hertford. The 
complications which followed these opposing 
schemes partly account for Seymour's tragic 
fate, for while Lady Jane remained in Sey- 
mour's custody Somerset was powerless to 
pursue his own plans. After her guardian's 
execution Lady Jane returned to Bradgate 
to continue her studies under Aylmer. In 
the summer of 1550 she was visited there by 
Roger Ascham [q. v.], who relates how he 
found her reading Plato's ' Phsedo ' while the 
rest of the family were hunting in the park 
(Schoolmaster, ed. Mayor, pp. 33, 213). To 
him she rehearsed the severity of her parents, 
who requited ' with pinches, nips, and bobs ' 
the defects of her deportment or of her em- 



broidery needle ; and the relief which she 
felt in the gentleness of her tutor Aylmer, 
who opened to her the treasures of the an- 
cient world. On 14 Dec. 1550 Ascham wrote 
to his friend Sturm of her almost incredible 
skill in writing and speaking Greek. She 
promised to send Ascham a Greek letter, and 
he wrote to her from Germany (18 Jan. 
1550-1) expressing anxiety to receive it. At 
fifteen she was adding Hebrew to Greek, 
Latin, Italian, and French, and corresponding 
with Bullinger, the learned pastor of Zurich. 
Her three letters to Bullinger are now pre- 
served in Zurich Library. With them was 
originally sent a piece of embroidery worked 
by herself, but this is now lost. Her feminine 
accomplishments were no less celebrated than 
her graver studies. John Ulmer, or ab Ulmis, 
a Swiss pupil of Bullinger whom Lady Jane's 
father protected in England, wrote admiringly 
to his friends abroad of her learning and amia- 
bility, and confidently predicted in 1551 her 
marriage with Edward VI. In the autumn 
of 1551 Lady Jane's father became Duke of 
Suffolk. Thenceforth she was constantly at 
court and in the society of the Princess Mary 
as well as of the king. She was in attend- 
ance (in October 1551) on Mary of Guise, 
queen-dowager of Scotland, on her visit to 
London. 

After the fall of Somerset, the Duke of 
Suffolk allied himself with John Dudley 
[q. v.], duke of Northumberland. In 1553 
he brought his family to his house at Sheen, in 
close proximity to Sion House, the residence 
of the Dudleys. A marriage between Lady 
Jane and Guildford Dudley [q. v.], fourth son 
of Northumberland, was proposed as part of 
the well-known plot for altering the succes- 
sion from the Tudors to the Dudleys upon 
the decease of Edward VI. The young king 
was the readier to accede to this project, 
which set aside his sisters, because of his 
attachment to Jane. The marriage took place 
on 21 May 1553 (Whitsunday) at Durham 
House, the Dudleys' London house. At the 
same time and place Lady Jane's sister Ca- 
therine married Lord Herbert, the Earl of 
Pembroke's son, and Lord Guildford's sister 
Catherine married Lord Hastings, the Earl 
of Huntingdon's son. According to a Vene- 
tian visitor to England, Lady Jane had vehe- 
mently resisted the match, and only yielded 
to the personal violence of her father. It 
has been urged that Lady Jane's intercourse 
with her husband before marriage produced 
something like affection, but no evidence on 
the point is accessible. It had been suggested 
that after the marriage Lady Jane should 
continue to reside with her mother, but her 
husband's family insisted on her residing 



Dudley 



1 06 



Dudley 



with them, and she soon came to regard 
her husband's father and mother with deep 
detestation. The mental distress which 
she suffered in the month after her union 
led to a serious illness which nearly proved 
fatal. 

On 6 July Edward VI died. No public 
announcement was made till 8 July. On the 
evening of the 9th Northumberland carried 
Lady Jane before the council, and Ridley 
preached in favour of her succession at St. 
Paul's Cross. Lady Jane swooned when in- 
formed by the council that she was Edward's 
successor. On 10 July she was brought in a 
barge from Sion House to the Tower of Lon- 
don, pausing on her way at Westminster and 
Durham House. After taking part in an 
elaborate procession which passed through 
the great hall of the Tower, Lady Jane 
retired with her husband to apartments 
which had been prepared for her. Later in 
the day she signed a proclamation (printed 
by Richard Grafton) announcing her ac- 
cession, in accordance with the statute 35 
Henry VIII and the will of the late king, 
dated 21 June. Orders were also issued to the 
lords-lieutenant making a similar announce- 
ment, and despatches were sent to foreign 
courts. These were signed ' Jane the Quene. 
Public proclamation of her accession was, 
however, only made at King's Lynn and 
Berwick. On 9 July the Princess Mary wrote 
to the council declaring herself Edward VI's 
lawful successor. On the llth twenty-one 
councillors, headed by Northumberland, re- 
plied that Lady Jane was queen of England. 
On 12 July Lord-treasurer Winchester sur- 
rendered the crown jewels to the new queen 
Jane (see inventory in Harl. MS. 611), and 
on the same day she signed a paper accredit- 
ing Sir Philip Hoby as her ambassador at the 
court of Brussels. Lord Guildford Dudley, 
Lady Jane's husband, claimed the title of 
king ; but Lady Jane declined to admit the 
claim, and insisted on referring the matter to 
parliament. 

Meanwhile Mary's supporters were in arms 
in the eastern counties. On 12 July it was 
proposed that Lady Jane's father should lead 
the force which was to be despatched against 
them ; but by Lady Jane's express desire the 
Duke of Northumberland took Suffolk's 
place. On 16 July Ridley preached again in 
Lady Jane's favour, but the end was at hand. 
Three days later Mary had been proclaimed 
queen throughout the country. Northumber- 
land's failure was complete. Suffolk, per- 
ceiving that resistance was useless, himself 
proclaimed Mary at the gates of the Tower 
(19 July). Hetoldhis daughter, whose health 
had suffered greatly from the excitement of 



the earlier part of the week, that she was a 
prisoner, and that her reign was over. She 
expressed herself resigned to her fate, and 
desirous of retiring into private life. Mary 
was doubtful how to treat Lady Jane. She 
pardoned her father and mother, and when 
the imperial ambassador pressed on her the 
necessity of summarily executing Lady Jane 
she denied the necessity. Lady Jane appears 
to have been confined in the house of the lieu- 
tenant of the Tower, Sir John Brydges [q. v.], 
and on 27 July an anonymous visitor dined 
with her there, and recorded her conversation. 
She spoke with respect of Mary, but with 
great bitterness of her father-in-law. In the 
following autumn she had liberty to walk in 
the queen's gardens and on the hill within the 
Tower precincts. She was arraigned at the 
Guildhall for high treason 14 Nov. in com- 
pany with her husband, his brothers Ambrose 
[q. v.] and Henry, and Archbishop Cranmer. 
She walked to the hall wearing ' a black gown 
of cloth, a French hood, all black, a black 
velvet book hanging before her, and another 
book in her hand, open' {Chron. of Q. Jane, 
p. 32). To the charge of treason she pleaded 
guilty, and was sentenced to death. Execu- 
tion, however, was suspended, and, like most 
of the Dudleian party, she might have re- 
ceived mercy but for the dangerous outbreak 
of Wyatt in the following winter, in which 
her father, Suffolk, was weak enough to par- 
ticipate. Friday, 9 Feb. 1553-4, was the date 
first fixed for her own and her husband's 
execution, but a respite till Monday the 12th 
was finally ordered. On the Friday Lady 
Jane was visited by John Feckenham, dean 
of St. Paul's, and discussed religion with 
him, strongly enforcing her protestant views. 
She refused to see her husband on the day 
of her execution, lest the interview should 
disturb ' the holy tranquillity with which they 
had prepared themselves for death '(HEYLTN). 
Her last acts were to write pathetic letters 
to her father and sister Catherine, and to 
present to the lieutenant of the Tower an 
English prayer-book (now in the British 
Museum, Harl. MS. 2342) in which she had 
written an affecting farewell. Husband and 
wife were both beheaded on Tower Hill on 
12 Feb. 1554, the young bride beholding the 
bleeding body of her husband as she herself 
went to the scaffold (see the pathetic account 
of her execution in Chron. of Q. Jane, p. 55). 
This ill-advised severity first stained the fame 
of Queen Mary. From the scaffold Lady 
Jane made a speech asserting that she had 
never desired the crown and that she died 
' a true Christian woman.' With her husband 
she was buried in the church of St. Peter ad 
Vincula within the Tower. 



Dudley 



107 



Dudley 



The Lady Jane, like her father, was a 
strong adherent of the reformed opinions, 
probably a Calvinist, and pertinaciously de- 
fended her views against the Roman Anglican 
divines who visited her in prison. 

The works attributed to Lady Jane are 
as follows : 1. Her proclamation referred 
to above, first printed by Richard Grafton, 

1553, reprinted in ' Harleian Miscellany ' and 
Somers Tracts. 2. 'A Conference, Dialogue- 
wise, held between the Lady Jane Dudley 
and Mr. Jo. Feckenham four days before her 
death,' London, 1554, 1569 (?), and 1625, re- 
printed in Foxe's ' Acts and Monuments ' and 
Heylyn's ' Church History ; ' translated in 
Florio's ' Historia.' 3. ' An Epistle of the 
Ladye Jane, a righte vertuous woman, to a 
learned Man of late falne from the Truth of 
God's most holy Word for fear of the Worlde,' 

1554, together with Feckenham's dialogue, 
Lady Jane's letter to her sister Catherine, and 
her speech on the scaffold. This book is stated 
by Strype to have been printed at Strasburg. 
The ' Epistle,' according to Strype, was ad- 
dressed to Harding ; but this is an error, since 
Harding's apostasy did not take place in Lady 
Jane's lifetime. 4. Three^ letters to Bullinger, 
published at Zurich in 1840, with a facsimile 
of the second letter ; also in ' Zurich Letters ' 
of the Parker Society. These pieces, together 
with a letter to her father in Harl. MS. 
2194, f. 23, were collected by Sir H. N. 
Nicolas in 1825, and issued with a memoir. 
Those numbered 1, 2, and 3 also appear in 
Foxe's ' Acts and Monuments.' A Latin 
elegy by Sir Thomas Chaloner the elder [q. v.] 
was published in his ' De Rep. Anglorum 
instauranda,' 1579. 

Portraits described as those of Lady Jane 
Grey are fairly numerous. One, doubtfully 
attributed to Holbein, and formerly in the col- 
lection of Colonel Elliott of Nottingham, is en- 
graved in Holland's ' Hercoologia,' in Fuller's 
'Holy and Profane State,' in Howard's ' Life/ 
and Sir H. N. Nicolas's ; Remains.' Another, 
attributed to Lucas de Heere [q. v.], now at 
Althorpe, was engraved in Dibdin's ' yEdes 
Spencerianse.' Attempts have been made to 
show that this is merely a religious picture, 
representing St. Mary Magdalene ; but there 
seems no valid reason to doubt its genuine- 
ness. Colonel Tempest owned a third portrait, 
attributed to Mark Garrard. A fourth is in 
the Bodleian Library, and a fifth belongs to 
Lord Houghton. Lodge engraved a portrait 
formerly in the possession of the Earl of Stam- 
ford (cf. Notes and Queries, 1st ser. vi. 341, 
3rd ser. x. 132, xii. 470, and Catalogue of 
National Portrait Exhibition of 1866). 

[The Chronicle of Queen Jane and of Two 
Years of Queen Mary, ' written by a resident in 



the Tower of London,' who has not been identified, 
was edited, with valuable notes and documents, 
for the Camden Society by Mr. J. G. Nichols in 
1850. It is the leading authority for the events 
of Lady Jane's nine-days' reign. The original is 
in Harl. MS. 194. In an appendix is a list of 
the State Papers of the reign, a few of -which are 
printed at length in Ellis's Original Letters. The 
Greyfriars' Chronicle (Camd. Soc.) covers similar 
ground. Another valuable authority is the 
Italian ' Historia delle cose occorse nel regno 
d'Inghilterra in materia del Duca di Nortomber- 
lan dopo la morte di Odoardo VI,' first issued 
' Nell' Academia Venetiana, MDLVIII.' This was 
a surreptitious compilation by a Ferrarese named 
Giulio Raviglio Kosso from the despatches of 
Giovanni Michele, Venetian ambassador in Eng- 
land 1554-7, and Federigo Badoaro, Venetian 
ambassador to Charles V. It is dedicated to 
Margaret of Austria by Luca Contile, Academico 
Venetiano. Equally important is the rare Italian 
' Historia de la Vita e de la morte de 1' Illustriss. 
Signora Giovanna Graia,' by ' Michelangelo Florio, 
Fiorentino gia Predicatore famoso del Sant' 
Euangelo in piu cita d'ltalia et in Londra.' The 
title-page concludes- with ' Stampato appresso 
Richardo Pittore nel'anno di Christo 1607.' Most 
of the letters and works attributed to Lady Jane 
are translated into Italian at the close of Florio's 
biography. Girolamo Pollini, in his ' L'Historia 
Ecclesiastica della Rivoluzion d'Inghilterra, 
Roma,' 1594, prints some documents. Miss 
Strickland has made some use of these authorities 
in her notice of Lady Jane in Tudor Princesses 
(London, 1868). Lady Jane Grey and her Times, 
by George Howard, 1822, and Sir H. N. Nicolas's 
memoir prefixed to his collection of Lady Jane's 
writings, are both useful. See also Foxe's Acts 
and Monuments; Holinshed's Chronicle; Graf- 
ton's Chronicle ; Stow's Chronicle ; Fuller's Holy 
and Profane State (1652), 294-8 ; Heylyn's Re- 
formation ; Strype's Annals and Life of Aylmer ; 
Nichols's Leicestershire, iii. 667 ; J. G. Nichols's 
Literary Remains of Edward VI (Roxburghe 
Club); Ascham's Letters, ed. Giles. Two trage- 
dies The Innocent Usurper (1683), by John 
Banks, and Lady Jane Grey, by Nicholas Rowe 
(1715) deal with Lady Jane's history. The 
Rev. Canon Dixon has supplied notes for this 
article.] S. L. L. 

DUDLEY, JOHN (SUTTON) BE, BARON 
DUDLEY (1401 P-1487), statesman, was son of 
John de Sutton V (d. 1406), grandson of John 
de Sutton IV (d. 1396), and great-grandson 
of John de Sutton III, who was dead in 1370. 
The great-grandfather was the son of John 
de Sutton II (d. 1359), who was son and heir 
of another John de Sutton I, by Margaret, 
sister and coheiress of John de Somery, baron 
of Dudley (d. December 1321). This John de 
Somery was owner of the castle and lordship 
of Dudley, Staffordshire, which had been in his 
family since an ancestor married in Henry II's 
time Hawyse, sister and heiress of Gervase 



Dudley 



108 



Dudley 



Paganell (cf. WILLIAM SALT, Archteolog. Soc. 
Coll. ix. pt. ii. 9-11). He became Baron Dudley 
in right of a writ of summons which was issued 
on the meeting of each parliament summoned 
between 1308 and 1322. John de Somery s 
brother-in-law, John de Sutton I, came, on 
his marriage, into possession of the Dudley 
estates, and his son, John de Sutton II, re- 
ceived a summons to sit as a baron in parlia- 
ment 25 Feb. 1341-2. He was there de- 
scribed as 'Johannes de Sutton de Duddeley.' 
The same honour was not extended to the 
third, fourth, or fifth John de Suttons. The 
sixth John de Sutton, the subject of this 
memoir, was five years old on his father's 
death in 1406. His mother was Constance 
Blount. He was regularly summoned to 
parliament from 15 Feb. 1439-40 tiU his 
death in 1487. The writ entitles him ' Jo- 
hannes Sutton de Dudley,' and although the 
surname Sutton was never definitely aban- 
doned, he and his descendants usually called 
themselves Dudley or Sutton, alias Dudley. ! 
Dugdale and the best authorities treat this j 
John Sutton de Dudley as the first baron ' 
Dudley of the Sutton family. It is true that j 
a predecessor had been summoned to parlia- 
ment as feudal baron of Dudley in virtue of 
his tenure of Dudley Castle, but the peerage 
practically originated in the writ issued to ; 
the sixth John de Sutton, 15 Feb. 1439-40. ! 
Its subsequent issue was not interrupted till 
the line failed. 

Dudley served in France under Henry V 
and bore the royal standard at the king's 
funeral in 1422. In 1428 he succeeded Sir 
John de Grey as viceroy of Ireland. He 
made a savage attack on the O'Byrnes, who 
threatened the borders of the Irish Pale ; pre- 
sided over a parliament at Dublin in 1429, j 
and resigned office in the next year. In 1444 
he was granted 100/. by Henry VI in con- I 
sideration of his services in this and the pre- | 
ceding reign, and was ambassador to the Duke 
of Brittany in 1447 and to the Duke of Bur- i 
gundy in 1449. For a time he was treasurer 
to the king, and in 1451 was created K.G. 
He took up arms for the Lancastrians in the 
wars of the Roses, was taken prisoner at the 
battle of St. Albans (21 May 1455), and 
was sent to the Tower (Paston Letters, ed. 
Gairdner, i. 327, 336). He apparently was 
at liberty in 1459, when he was wounded at 
the battle of Bloreheath. On Edward IVs I 
accession he made his peace with the Yorkists, 
and was in as high favour with Edward as with 
his predecessor. He was granted a hundred 
marks from the revenues of the duchy of 
Cornwall and 100/. from the customs of the 
port of Southampton. In 1477-8 he w'as in 
France with the Earl of Arundel as ambas- 



sador to negotiate a continuance of the peace 
treaty. On 24 May 1483 he held the feast 
of St. George at Windsor. He died 30 Sept. 
1487, and was buried in the priory of St. 
James, Dudley. His will, dated 17 Aug. 1487, 
appointed Sir William Hussey and Sir Regi- 
nald Bray [q. v.] executors. 

Dudley married Elizabeth, daughter of Sir 
John Berkeley, and widow of Edward Charl- 
ton, last lord Charlton of Powys [q. v.], who 
died in 1422 ; she was dead in 1479. His 
eldest son, Edmund, died in his father's life- 
time ; another son, John, was probably father 
of Edmund Dudley [q. v.] William [q. v.], 
the third son, became bishop of Durham. 
Oliver, the fourth son, was slain at the battle 
of Edgecote, near Banbury, 25 July 1469 : 
his will, made three days before the battle, 
is extant ; his brother William is named as one 
of his executors. The heir, Edmund, married 
(1) Joice, daughter of John, lord Tiptoft, and 
sister of the well-known Earl of Worcester ; 
and (2) Matilda or Maud, daughter of Thomas, 
baron Clifford. By his first wife he had two 
sons, Edward and John, and a daughter, Joice, 
and by his second wife seven sons and four 
daughters. The eldest son, Edward (b. 1457), 
succeeded his grandfather as second Baron 
Dudley in 1487, and married Cecilie, daughter 
of Sir W'illiam Willoughby. He died in 1531 . 
He was succeeded as third Baron Dudley by 
his half-witted son John (b. 1496), who was 
nicknamed ' Lord Quondam ; ' was with 
Henry VIII in France in 1513, when he is 
doubtfully said to have been knighted ; sold 
his estates of Dudley to John Dudley, duke of 
Northumberland [q. v.] ; became a destitute 
pauper; was never summoned to parliament; 
married Cecily, daughter of Thomas Grey, 
marquis of Dorset, and was buried with elabo- 
rate Roman catholic ceremonies in St. Mar- 
garet's, Westminster, 17 Sept. 1 553 (MACHYN, 
p. 44 ; WOOD, Letters, iii. 78, 80). The third 
baron's eldest son, EDWARD, was fourth BAEOX 
DUDLET; saw service in Ireland in 1536 under 
his uncle, Lord Leonard Grey, and in Scot- 
land in 1546: was knighted 2 Oct. 1553,- 
was restored to Dudley Castle in 1554 ; was 
lieutenant of Hampnes, Picardy, 1556-8 ; 
and entertained Queen Elizabeth at Dudley 
Castle in 1575. After an unsuccessful suit 
to a w r idow Anne, lady Berkeley, he married 
(1) Catherine, daughter of Sir John Brydges 
[q. v.], first lord Chandos ; (2) Jane, daughter 
of Edward Stanley, lord Derby ; and (3) Mary, 
daughter of William, lord Howard of Effing- 
ham. He was buried at St. Margaret's, West- 
minster, 12 Aug. 1586. Edward, the fourth 
baron's heir, was fifth baron Dudley. He 
married Theodosia, daughter of Sir James 
Harrington, and had a son Ferdinando, created 



Dudley 



109 



Dudley 



K.B. in 1610, who married Honora, daughter 
of Edward Seymour, lord Beauchamp, and 
was buried at St. Margaret's 23 Nov. 1621. 
The fifth baron survived his heir till 23 June 
1643. He had a large illegitimate family by 
a mistress, Elizabeth Tomlinson of Dudley, 
among them Dud Dudley [q. v.] His only 
legitimate representative, his son's daughter 
Frances (d. 1697), married Humble (d. 1670), 
.son of William Ward, the ancestor of the later 
Lords Dudley and Ward (cf. WILLIAM SALT, 
Arch&olog. Soc. Coll. v. pt. 2, pp. 114-17). 

[The difficulties connected -with the Dudley 
pedigree are fully discussed in Adlard's The 
Sutton Dudleys of England and the Dudleys of 
Massachusetts in New England (1862) ; in the 
Herald and Genealogist, ii. 414-26, 494-9, v. 98- 
127 (chiefly by H. Sydney Grazebrook) ; in Notes 
and Queries, 2nd ser. xi. 152, 198,239, 272, 398, 
434 ; and in Charles T wamley's History of Dudley 
Castle (1867). But the best authority is a paper 
by Mr. H. Sydney Grazebrook in Staffordshire 
Hist. Coll. of the William Salt Society, vol. ix. 
pt. 2 (1888). See also Dugdale's Baronage, ii. 
214 et seq. (where many errors have been de- 
tected) ; Biog. Brit. (Kippis) (where the Dudley 
genealogy is treated in a separate article) ; 
Baker's Northamptonshire; Shaw's Staffordshire; 
Ormerod's Cheshire; Gilbert's Viceroys of Ire- 
land, pp. 323-7 ; Walcott's St. Margaret's, West- 
minster ; Wood's Letters of Illustrious Ladies.] 

S. L. L. 

DUDLEY, JOHN, DUKE OF NORTHUM- 
BERLAND (1502 P-1553), was the son of Ed- 
mund Dudley [q. v.], privy councillor to 
Henry VII, and of Elizabeth Grey, daugh- 
ter and coheiress of Edward Grey, viscount 
Lisle. His father was beheaded in the first 
of Henry VIII. In 1512-13 the son, being 
of the age of eleven, was restored in blood 
by act of parliament, and his father's at- 
tainder was repealed. He became known at 
court for his daring and address in martial 
exercises. In 1523 he attended the Duke of 
Suffolk, who landed at Calais with an army, 
and the same year he was knighted by his 
general in France. In 1524 Dudley per- 
formed, with other knights, at tilt, tourney, 
barriers, and the assault of a castle erected 
in the tilt-yard at Greenwich, where the 
king kept his Christmas (HALL). In 1533 
he was made master of tho Tower armoury ; 
in 1536 he served as sheriff of Stafford- 
shire ; and the year after he was in Spain. 
In 1537 he became chief of the king's hench- 
men, and 29 Sept. 1538 was deputy-governor 
of Calais. In 1540 he was appointed master 
of the horse to Anne of Cleves, and at the 
meeting of that princess with the king on 
Blackheath he led her spare horse, trapped to 
the ground in rich tissue (Antiq. Repertory, 



vol. iii.) In 1542 he was made warden of the 
Scottish marches, raised to the peerage as 
Viscount Lisle, and appointed-great ^admiral 
for life. He now sailed to Newcastle, where 
he took on board his fleet the Earl of Hert- 
ford, afterwards Duke of Somerset, who was 
commander-in-chief in the horrible expedi- 
tion of fire and sword of that year, in which 
many of the southern Scottish monasteries 
were destroyed and Edinburgh was burned to 
the ground. After scouring the seas on his 
return the admiral passed to France, where 
he led the assault on Boulogne, which was 
taken, and entered in triumph by Henry VIII 
in 1544. On 23 April 1 543 he was made a privy 
councillor and K.G. Being appointed governor 
of Boulogne (30 Sept. 1544), he remained there 
to the end of the war in 1546, performing seve- 
ral notable exploits by land and sea. On 
18 July 1546 he was sent ambassador to Paris. 
In 1547 he was left by Henry VIII one of the 
executors of his will, as a sort of joint regent 
with fifteen others, but he seems to have ac- 
quiesced in the designs of Somerset, the uncle 
of the young King Edward VI, who turned the 
joint regency into his own sole protectorate. 
In the same year (18 Feb. 1546-7) he was 
created Earl of Warwick and high chamber- 
lain of England. There was some talk of his 
choosing the title of Earl of Coventry. On 
4 Feb. he resigned his office of great admiral to 
Somerset's brother, Lord Thomas Seymour of 
Sudeley. He was appointed lord-lieutenant, 
under Somerset, of the army going into Scot- 
land (August 1547). The great victory of 
Pinkie (] Sept. 1547) was chiefly ascribed to 
his conduct. In 1549 he was again appointed 
to serve against the Scots, but the agrarian 
rising of Ket the tanner in Norfolk diverted 
his attention to a more pressing danger. 
He threw himself into Norwich, and in the 
bloody battle of Dussindale entirely defeated 
the host of the rebellious peasantry. 

On Warwick's return home, a meeting of 
his friends was held at his house (Ely Place) 
on 6 Oct. 1549, and it was asserted that 
Somerset was in open insurrection against 
the king and his council. Daily meetings of 
Warwick's supporters took place till 13 Oct., 
when Somerset was sent to the Tower, and 
all power passed into the hands of his rival. 
On 28 Oct. Warwick became one of the six 
lords attendant on the king, and for a second 
time great admiral. On 2 Feb. following he 
was appointed lord great master of the house- 
hold and president of the council. On 8 April 
he became lord warden-general of the north, 
but deemed it wiser to stay at home for the 
present than take up an office which de- 
manded his presence away from the court. 
On 20 Dec. he was ' allowed a train of a 



Dudley 



no 



Dudley 



hundred horsemen. Next year he became [ 
earl marshal (20 April 1551), warden of the | 
marches towards Scotland (27 Sept.), and on , 
11 Oct. duke of Northumberland. The con- 
test was being renewed in vain by Somerset, I 
the fallen lord protector, who was now charged 
with plotting against Northumberland's life. 
Northumberland attended his rival's trial 
(1 Dec. 1551), and, baffled by superior ability, 
Somerset was brought to the scaffold (22 Jan. , 
1551-2). The ascendency of Northumberland 
was thus complete. All who were suspected , 
of hostility were roughly dealt with. On j 
22 Dec. the duke took the great seal from ; 
Lord-chancellor Rich, and on 22 April caused j 
the degradation of William, lord Paget, from \ 
the chapter of the Garter. In June he went I 
to take up his office in the north, and to re- j 
press disturbances. He was royally enter- 
tained on the journey, stopping with the Cecils 
at Burghley, near Stamford. He was in Lon- 
don again in July, having appointed Thomas, 
first lord Wharton, his deputy in the north. 
In order to increase his reputation he had 
a genealogical tree compiled, proving his de- 
scent from the baronial house of Sutton, alias 
Dudlev, and purchased the family's ancestral 
home, Dudley Castle, Staffordshire, of John, 
sixth baronDudley (TWAMLEY, Dudley Castle, 
1867). The illness of Edward VI early in 
1553 prompted to Northumberland's aspiring 
mind the design of altering the succession in 
favour of his own family. He procured from 
Edward letters patent ' for the limitation of 
the crown' (NICHOLS, Queen Jane, App. L), 
by which the king's sisters, Mary and Eliza- 
beth, were set aside in favour of any heir male 
that might be born, during the king's lifetime, 
of the Lady Frances, duchess of Suffolk, and 
aunt of the king ; failing whom the crown 
was to go to the Lady Jane Grey, daughter of 
the said Frances, to whom Northumberland 
married (21 May 1553) one of his own sons, 
Guildford Dudley [q. v.] In furtherance of 
this scheme Northumberland showed the most 
furious violence, declaring himself ready to 
fight for it in his shirt, browbeating the judges, 
and compelling them and most of the council, 
including Cranmer, to sign the instrument 
(21 June). On the death of the king, 6 July 
1553, he caused the Lady Jane to be pro- 
claimed queen, and himself took the field 
(12 July) on her behalf against Princess 
Mary, whose supporters quickly gathered 
together in the eastern counties. The total 
failure of his attempt through the desertion 
of his forces was followed by his arrest at 
Cambridge, where, abandoning hope, he made 
proclamation for Queen Mary with the tears 
running down his face. On 23 July he was 
brought to the Tower ; on 18 Aug. he was 



arraigned for high treason and condemned ; 
and on the 22nd of the same month he was 
executed on Tower Hill, most of his confede- 
rates being pardoned or dismissed with fines. 
On the scaffold he blamed others for his own 
acts, avowed himself a catholic, and attri- 
buted all the recent troubles in England to 
the breach with the papacy. Extraordinary 
importance was attached at the time to this 
declaration, of which many manuscript ver- 
sions are extant. It was printed officially 
in London by ' John Cawood, printer to the 
Quenes highnes,' soon after his death, under 
the title of ' The Saying of John, Duke of 
Northumberlande,vppon the scaffolde. ' Latin 
and Dutch translations were issued at Lou- 
vain in the same year. In 1554 there was 
published, without name of place of publica- 
tion, a French ' Response a la Confession du 
feu Due lean de Northumbelade,' from a re- 
formed point of view. 

Dudley was the ablest man of the time 
after the death of Henry V1I1. He was a 
consummate soldier, a keen politician, and a 
skilful administrator. His nature was bold, 
sensitive, and magnanimous. His conduct 
at Norwich and Dussindale, where, before 
the action, he bound his hesitating officers 
to conquer or die by the knightly ceremony 
of kissing one another's swords, and where, 
after the fate of the day was determined, he 
stopped further resistance and slaughter by 
riding alone into the ranks of the enemy and 
pledging his word for their lives, is to be ad- 
mired. He was as lenient after as on the day 
of the victory ; and the severities exercised on 
Ket's followers were against his advice or in his 
absence. In the same way he spared the life 
of his rival, Somerset, as long as he could. On 
the other hand, when his own life lay under 
forfeit, this brave soldier manifested painful 
despair. He was a great man, but his cha- 
racter was spoiled by avarice, dissimulation, 
and personal ambition. He pillaged the re- 
ligious houses, the chantries, and the church 
as unscrupulously as any, heaping on himself 
a vast accumulation of their spoils. He went 
with the Reformation merely for his own 
advantage. Bishop Hooper and John Knox 
were for a time his proteges. The latter was 
often in his society, and in October 1552 he 
endeavoured to obtain for him the bishopric of 
Rochester. But on 7 Dec. 1552 Northumber- 
land wrote that he found Knox ' neither 
gratefull nor pleaseable.' Bale dedicated to 
him, 6 Jan. 1552-3, his 'Expostulation . . . 
agaynste the blasphemyes ... of a papyst of 
Hamshyre.' Northumberland sought to foist 
Robert Home into the bishopric of Durham 
after the deprivation of Cuthbert Tunstall. 

His recantation on the scaffold destroved 



Dudley n 

Northumberland's popularity with the puri- 
tans. John Knox, in his ' Faythfull Admo- 
nition made ... to the professors of God's 
Truth in England ' (1554), turned upon him 
all his artillery of invective, likening him to 
Achitophel, while Ponet compared him to 
Alcibiades ( Treatise of Politic Poiver*), though 
Bale had previously discerned in him a more 
flattering resemblance to Moses (Expostula- 
tion), and to Sandys (Sermon at Cambr., ap. 
Fox) he had appeared to be a second Joshua. 
The indignation of writers of the other side 
has been excited by his rapacity, especially 
by his dissolving the great see of Durham, 
which he had formally effected when his end 
came. Northumberland became chancellor 
of the university of Cambridge in January 
1551-2. According to a letter sent him by 
Roger Ascham at the time, he had literary 
interests, and was careful to give all his chil- 
dren a good education. His personal unpopu- 
larity, which, according to Noailles, the 
French ambassador, fully accounted for the 
ruin of Lady Jane Grey's cause, is best illus- 
trated by the long list of charges preferred 
against him by one Elizabeth Huggons in 
Augustl552 (see NICHOLS, Edward VI, clxvi), 
and by the ' Epistle of Poor Pratte,' printed 
in 1554, and reprinted in Nichols's ' Chronicle 
of Queen Jane and Queen Mary.' Several 
interesting letters to and from the duke 
appear in the ' Calendar of the Hatfield MSS.,' 
vol. i. 

He married Jane, daughter and heiress of 
Sir Edward Guildford, by whom he had five 
sons and two daughters. The eldest son, 
JOHN, called in his father's lifetime LOKD 
LISLE and EARL OFWAKWICK, married, 3 June 
1550, Anne Seymour, daughter of the Duke 
of Somerset. What was Northumberland's 
object in making this alliance is not known. 
Edward VI attended the wedding. On 18 Jan. 
1551-2 young Warwick was allowed to main- 
tain a train of fifty horsemen, and on 28 April 
1552 became master of the horse. He was 
remarkably well educated, and in 1552 Sir 
Thomas Wilson dedicated to him his ' Arte 
of Rhetorique.' Like all his brothers, he was 
implicated in his father's plot in favour of 
Lady Jane Grey ; was condemned to death 
in 1553 ; was pardoned, but died without 
issue in 1554, ten days after his release from 
the Tower. His widow married, 29 April 
1555, Sir Edward Unton, K.B., by whom 
she had seven children. From 1566 she was 
insane. Three other of Northumberland's 
sons, Ambrose, Robert, and Guildford, are 
separately noticed. Henry, the fifth son, was 
slain at the battle of St. Quentin in 1555. 
Of the two daughters, Mary married Sir Henry 
Sidney and was mother of Sir Philip Sidney; 



Dudley 



Catherine became the wife of Henry Hastings, 
earl of Huntingdon. 

[Cooper's Athense Cantabr. 112, 543, and autho- 
rities cited there. There is also a life of Dudley 
in the Antiq. Repert., vol. iii. Many particulars 
are given in Blomefield's Norfolk, vol. ii., and in 
Tytler's Edward VI and Mary. Among general 
historians see Fox, Heylyn, Strype, Collier, Fuller 
(bk. viii.), Burnet, Lingard, Hume ; of foreign 
historians, Thuanus, lib. xiii. ; and Sepulveda's 
De Eeb. Gest. Car. V, lib. xxix. (Op. ii. 486). Of 
modern works, Froude's History, vols. v. vi., and 
Dixon's History of the Church, vol. iii., should be 
consulted. See also Historia delle cose occorse 
nel regno d'Inghilterra in materia del Duca di 
Nortomberlan dopo la morte di Odoardo VI, 
Venice,'] 558, described in authorities under DUD- 
LEY, LADY JANE ; Chronicle of Queen Jane and 
Queen Mary (Camd. Soc.), 1850 ; Nichols's Lite- 
rary Remains of Edward VI (Roxburghe Club), 
1857 ; Doyle's Baronage ; notes supplied by Mr. 
S. L. Lee.] R. W. D. 

DUDLEY, JOHN (1762-1856), miscel- 
laneous writer, eldest son of the Rev. John 
Dudley,vicar of Humberstone, Leicestershire, 
was born in 1762. He was first educated at 
Uppingham school, whence he went to Clare 
Hall, Cambridge. He proceeded B.A. 1785 
(when he was second wrangler and mathe- 
matical prizeman), and M.A. 1788. In 1787 
he was elected fellow, and in 1788 tutor. In 
1794 he succeeded his father in the living 
of Humberstone. His grandfather had pre- 
viously held the benefice, which continued in 
the family for three generations during 142 
years. In 1795 he was also presented to the 
vicarage of Sileby, Leicestershire. According 
to his own account (advertisement to Nao- 
logy), Dudley spent ' a long and happy life ' as 
' a retired student,' occupying himself chiefly 
with mythological and philosophical studies. 
He died at Sileby, 7 Jan. 1856. 

Dudley wrote : 1 . ' Sermon preached before 
the University of Cambridge on the Trans- 
lation of the Scriptures into the Languages 
of Indian Asia,' Cambridge, 1807. 2. ' The 
Metamorphosis of Sona, a Hindu Tale,' in 
verse, 1810. 3. ' A Dissertation showing the 
Identity of the Rivers Niger and Nile,' 1821. 
4. ' Naology,or a Treatise on the Origin, Pro- 
gress, and Symbolical Import of the Sacred 
Structures of the most Eminent Nations and 
Ages of the World,' 1846. 5. ' The Anti- 
Materialist, denying the Reality of Matter 
and vindicating the Universality of Spirit,' 
1849. This is a treatise written under the 
influence of the philosophy of Berkeley, to 
whose memory it is dedicated. 

[Gent. Mag. February 1856, pp. 197-8 ; Ro- 
milly's Cantab. Grad. p. 116; British Museum 
Catalogue.] F. W-T. 



Dudley 



112 



Dudley 



DUDLEY, LETTICE, COUNTESS OP 
LEICESTER (d. 1634). [See under DUDLEY, 
ROBEBT, EARL OF LEICESTER.] 

DUDLEY, ROBERT, EARL OF LEICES- 
TER (1532 P-1588), Queen Elizabeth's fa- 
vourite, was fifth son of John Dudley, duke 
of Northumberland [q. v.l by Jane, sister of 
Sir Henry Guildford, K.G. Edmund Dud- 
ley [q. y.] was his grandfather. He was born 
24 June 1532 or 1533 (ADLARD, Amye Rob- 
sart, p. 16), was carefully educated, and ac- 
quired a good knowledge of Latin and Italian 
in youth (WILSON , Discourse of Usury, 1572). 
Roger Ascham at a later date expressed re- 
gret that he had preferred mathematics to 
cla'ssics, and praised ' the ability of inditing 
that is in you naturally ' (ASCHAM, Works, 
ed. Giles, ii. 104). When about sixteen 
Dudley was brought by his father into the so- 
ciety of the young king, Edward VI, and of 
his sister, Princess (afterwards Queen) Eliza- 
beth. The latter was of his own age, and was 
attracted from their first acquaintance by 
his ' very goodly person.' Dudley was soon 
knighted. On 4 June 1550 he was married 
at the royal palace of Sheen, Surrey, to Amy, 
daughter of Sir John Robsart. The king 
attended the wedding and made a note of it 
in his diary. 

AMY ROBSART was the only legitimate 
child of Sir John Robsart, lord of the manor 
of Siderstern, Norfolk, by Elizabeth, daughter 
of John Scott of Camberwell, Surrey, and 
widow of Roger Appleyard (d. 1530), lord of 
the manor of Stanfield, Norfolk. By her 
first husband Lady Robsart had four children, 
John, Philip, Anne, and Frances, and to her 
the manor of Stanfield was bequeathed, with 
remainder to her son John. She died in 1549. 
Amy was, like her husband, about eighteen 
at the date of the marriage. Her father 
settled some property on her just before (May 
1550), and at the same time a second deed of 
settlement was signed by both Sir John Rob- 
sart and Dudley's father making provision 
for Dudley. On 4 Feb. 1552-3 Dudley's father 
granted Hemsby Manor, near Yarmouth, 
to ' Robert Dudley, lord Dudley, my son, 
and the Ladie Amie, his wife.' The early 
days of their married life were apparently 
spent in Norfolk, where Dudley was promi- 
nent in local affairs. He became j oint-steward 
of the manor of Rising and constable of 
the castle (7 Dec. 1551) ; joint-commissioner 
of lieutenancy for Norfolk (16 May 1552), 
and M.P. for the county in 1553. But Dud- 
ley's father often took him to court, whither 
Lady Amy did not accompany him. In April 
1551 he seems to have visited the court of 
Henry II of France at Amboise in company 



with his adventurous friend, Thomas Stuke- 
ley. He was appointed a gentleman of the 
king's privy chamber on 15 Aug. 1551 ; at- 
tended Mary of Guise, the queen-dowager of 
Scotland, on her visit to London in October 
1551 ; became master of the buckhounds 
(29 Sept. 1552) ; and during the king's last ill- 
ness (27 June 1553) received gifts of lands at 
Rockingham, Northamptonshire, and Eston, 
Leicestershire (Cal. State Papers, 1547-80, 
p. 52). In January 1551-2 he took part in 
two royal tournaments. 

On Edward VI's death (6 July 1553) Dud- 
ley aided his father and brothers in their at- 
tempt to place his sister-in-law, Lady Jane 
Grey, on the throne. Early in July he pro- 
claimed Lady Jane Grey queen of England 
at King's Lynn, Norfolk (Chronicle of Queen 
Jane, Camd. Soc. 111). He was committed 
to the Tower (26 July), and was arraigned, 
attainted, and sentenced to death 22 Jan. 
1553-^i. During his confinement in the Tower 
Lady Amy was allowed to visit him a proof 
that they were on good terms. He was released 
and pardoned 18 Oct. 1554. In 1557 he ac- 
companied his brothers, Ambrose and Henry, 
to Picardy [see DUDLEY, AMBROSE], and acted 
as master of ordnance to the English army 
engaged in the battle of St. Quentin, where 
his brother Henry was killed. For his military 
services he and his only surviving brother, 
Ambrose, together with their sisters, Lady 
Mary Sidney and Lady Catherine Hastings, 
were restored in blood by act of parliament 
7 March 1557-8 (4 and 5 Phil. & Mary, c. 12). 
King Philip is said to have shown him some 
favour and to have employed him in carrying 
messages between himself and Queen Mary. 

Elizabeth's accession gave Dudley his op- 
portunity. He was named master of the 
horse on 11 Jan. 1558-9, K.G. on 23 April, 
and was sworn of the privy council. On 
3 Nov. he and Lord Hunsdon held the lists 
against all comers in a tournament at Green- 
wich, which the queen attended. Immediately 
afterwards Dudley was granted a messuage 
at Kew, the sites of the monasteries of Wat- 
ton and Meux, both in Yorkshire, together 
with a profitable license to export woollen 
cloths free of duty and the lieutenancy of 
the forest and castle of Windsor. The royal 
liberality was plainly due to the queen's af- 
fection for Dudley. There can be no doubt at 
all that on her accession she contemplated 
marrying him. She made no secret of her in- 
fatuation. As early as April 1559 De Feria, the 
Spanish ambassador, declared that it was use- 
less to discuss (as Philip II wished) the queen's 
union with the Archduke Charles, seeing that 
Elizabeth and Dudley were acknowledged 
lovers. Dudley at first seemed willing to 



Dudley 



Dudley 



entertain the match with the archduke, but 
in the following November he told Norfolk, 
its chief champion, that no good Englishman 
would allow the queen to marry a foreigner. 
De Quadra, De Feria's successor, reported 
that the queen's encouragement of Dudley's 
' over-preposterous pretensions ' so irritated 
Norfolk and other great noblemen that the 
murder of both sovereign and favourite had 
been resolved upon. In January 1559-60 De 
Quadra designates Dudley ' the king that is 
to be,' and describes his growing presumption 
and the general indignation excited by ' the 
queen's ruin.' On 13 Aug. 1560 Anne Dowe 
of Brentford was the first of a long line of 
offenders to be sent to prison for asserting 
that Elizabeth was with child by Dudley. 

Meanwhile Lady Amy, Dudley's wife, lived 
for the most part in the country. Extant 
accounts kept by her husband's stewards show 
that at the beginning of Elizabeth's reign she 
was travelling about in Suffolk and Lincoln- 
shire, and paid occasional visits to Christ- 
church, Camberwell, and London. Her most 
permanent home seems to have been the house 
of a Mr. Hyde at Denchworth, near Abing- 
don. Hyde had a brother William who was 
M.P. for Abingdon ; he had bought land of 
Dudley's father, and was friendly with Dudley 
himself. Dudley's account-books show that 
he frequently visited Lady Amy at Mr. 
Hyde's in 1558 and 1559. She spent large 
sums on dress, for which her husband's 
stewards paid. A letter addressed by her to a 
woman tailor , William Edney of Tower Royal, 
respecting an elaborate costume is still pre- 
served at Longleat. Another of her letters 
(Harl. MS. 4712), dated 7 Aug. (1558 or 
1559), and addressed to John Flowerdew, 
steward of Siderstern, gives, in her husband's 
name, several detailed directions about the 
sale of some wool on the Siderstern estate, 
which had become the joint property of her 
husband and herself on her father's death in 
1557. The language suggests a perfect un- 
derstanding between husband and wife. Early 
in 1560 Lady Amy removed to Cumnor Place, 
which was not far from Mr. Hyde's. An- 
thony Forster or Forrester, the chief control- 
ler of Dudley's private expenses and a perso- 
nal friend, rented Cumnor of its owner, Wil- 
liam Owen, son of George Owen, Henry VIII's 
physician, to whom the house had been 
granted by the crown in 1546. Forster was 
M.P. for Abingdon in 1572, purchased Cum- 
lor in the same year, and nothing is historic- 
ally known to his discredit. Besides Forster 
nd his wife, Lady Amy found living at Cum- 
or Mrs. Odingsells, a widow and a sister of 
Ir. Hyde of Denchworth, and Mrs. Owen, 
Villiam Owen's wife. On Sunday, 8 Sept. 
voi/. xvi. 



1560, Lady Amy is said to have directed the 
whole household to visit Abingdon fair. The 
three ladies declined to go, but only Mrs. 
Owen dined with Lady Amy. Late in the 
day the servants returned from Abingdon and 
found Dudley's wife lying dead at the foot 
of the staircase in the hall. She had been 
playing at tables with the other ladies, it was 
stated, had suddenly left the room, had fallen 
downstairs and broken her neck. 

Dudley heard the news while with the queen 
at Windsor, and directed a distant relative, 
Sir Thomas Blount, to visit Cumnor. Blount 
was instructed to encourage the most stringent 
public inquiry, and to communicate with John 
Appleyard, Lady Amy's half-brother. All 
manner of rumours were soon abroad. Mrs. 
Pinto, Lady Amy's maid, said that she had 
heard her mistress ' pray to God to deliver her 
from desperation,' and although she tried to re- 
move the impression of suicide which her words 
excited, Dudley's reported relations with 
Elizabeth go far to account for Lady Amy's 
alleged ' desperation.' Thomas Lever, a clergy- 
man of Sherburn, wrote to the privy council 
(17 Sept.) of 'the grievous and dangerous 
suspicion and muttering ' about Lady Amy's 
death, and it was plainly hinted that Dudley 
had ordered Anthony Forster to throw Lady 
Amy downstairs. On 13 Sept. Dudley re- 
peated to Blount his anxiety for a thorough 
and impartial investigation, and (according 
to his own account) corresponded with one 
Smith, foreman of the jury. He added that 
all the jurymen were strangers to him. A 
verdict of mischance or accidental death was 
returned. Dudley seems to have suggested 
that a second jury should continue the in- 
quiry, but nothing followed. On a Friday, 
probably 20 Sept., his wife's body was removed 
secretly to Gloucester Hall, now Worcester 
College, Oxford, and on Sunday, 22 Sept., was 
buried with the most elaborate heraldic cere- 
mony in St. Mary's Church. The corporation 
and university attended officially. Dudley- 
was absent, and ' Mrs. Norrys, daughter and 
heire of the Lord Wylliams of Thame,' acted 
as chief mourner. John Appleyard was also 
present. Dr. Francis Babington [q. v.], one 
of Dudley's chaplains, preached the sermon, 
and is said to have tripped once and described 
the lady as ' pitifully slain ' (Leicester's Com- 
monwealth, pp. 22, 36). 

That Dudley was, as Cecil wrote a few 
years later, ' infamed by his wife's death ' is 
obvious. If the court gossip reported by the 
Spanish ambassador is to be credited, Dudley, 
in his desire to marry the queen, had talked 
of divorcing or of poisoning his wife many 
months before she died. De Quadra, indeed, 
wrote home at the time that the news of her 



Dudley 



114 



Dudley 



death reached London (11 Sept.): 'They [i.e. 
the queen and Dudley] were thinking of de- 
stroying Lord Robert's wife. . . . They had 
given out that she was ill, but she was not 
ill at all ; she was very well and taking care 
not to be poisoned. . . . The queen, on her 
return from hunting [on 4 Sept.], told me 
that Lord Robert's wife was dead or nearly 
so, and begged me to say nothing about it.' 
According to this statement Dudley and the 
queen conspired to murder Lady Amy, but 
this terrible charge is wholly uncorroborated. 
Lady Amy's death undoubtedly removed the 
chief obstacle to the marriage of the queen 
with Dudley, and the influential persons at 
court, who were determined that Elizabeth 
should not take this disastrous step, naturally 
exaggerated the rumours of Dudley's guilt in 
order to disqualify him for becoming the 
royal consort. Throgmorton, the English 
ambassador at Paris, frequently reported to 
Cecil that Dudley was universally credited 
on the continent with the murder of his wife, 
but this was Throgmorton's invariable pre- 
face to an impassioned protest against the 
proposed marriage of the queen with her 
favourite. On 30 Nov. the queen told one of 
her secretaries that the verdict of the jury 
left no doubt that Lady Amy had died acci- 
dentally, and Sir Henry Sidney, Dudley's 
brother-in-law, in the following January 
assured the Spanish ambassador that the 
malicious rumours were totally unfounded. 
Cecil, although no friend to Dudley, comes 
to the conclusion that they could not be sup- 
ported. In 1567 the charge of murder was 
revived by John Appleyard, who declared 
that the jury was suborned, but on being 
examined by the privy council he made an 
abject apology and confessed that he had wil- 
fully slandered Dudley because he had been 
disappointed in not receiving greater gifts 
from his brother-in-law. In 1584 the story 
adopted by Sir Walter Scott in ' Kenilworth' 
was first published in a libel on Dudley usually 
known as ' Leicester's Commonwealth ' (see in- 
fra) . There Anthony Forster and Sir Richard 
Verney, apparently of Compton Verney, War- 
wickshire, one of Dudley's private friends, 
were said to have flung Lady Amy downstairs. 
But none of the statements in this libel de- 
serves credit. There is no ground for con- 
necting Verney in any way with the tragedy. 
The author of the ' Yorkshire Tragedy ' (1608) 
obviously wrote in reference to the scanda- 
lous charge : 

The surest way to chain a woman's tongue 
Is break her neck a politician did it. 

In spite of the suspicious circumstances of 
the death, nothing can be historically proved 



against Dudley. His absence from the in- 
quest and funeral is a point against him. 
The anxiety expressed in his letters to Blount 
that the jury should pursue their investiga- 
tion to the furthermost, at the same time that 
he was himself writing privately to the jury, 
is consistent with his guilt. But all the 
unpleasant rumours prove on examination 
to be singularly vague, and are just such as 
Leicester's unpopularity, caused by his rela- 
tions with the queen, would have led his 
numberless enemies to concoct. It is diffi- 
cult to believe that the alleged murder would 
have been hushed up when so many persons 
regarded it to the interest of themselves and 
the nation to bring it home to Dudley. The 
theory of suicide has most in its favour. 

Whatever were the queen's relations with 
Dudley before his wife's death, they became 
closer after it. It was reported that she was 
formally betrothed to him, that she had se- 
cretly married him in Lord Pembroke's house, 
and that she was ' a mother already ' (January 
1560-1). But Elizabeth was never so com- 
pletely a victim to her passion as to allow her 
lover to control her political action, and his 
presumption often led to brief though bitter 
quarrels, On 30 Nov. 1560 the queen pro- 
mised to raise him to the peerage, but sud- 
denly tore up the patent. Dudley tried in 
vain to supplant Cecil. Although Cecil was 
for a time out of favour with Elizabeth owing 
to Dudley's machinations, his position was 
never seriously jeopardised. The puritan 
preachers were hottest in their denunciation 
of Elizabeth's behaviour with Dudley, and this 
was one of the causes which led Elizabeth to 
yield to Dudley's unprincipled and impolitic 
suggestion to seek Spanish and catholic aid in 
bringing about their union. Sir Henry Sidney 
in January 1560-1 first asked De Quadra 
whether he would help on the marriage if 
Dudley undertook to restore the Roman ca- 
tholic religion in England. In February 
Dudley ^and the queen both talked with the 
Spaniard openly on the subject; in April 
Dudley accepted the terms offered by De 
Quadra. He promised that England should 
send representatives to the council of Trent, 
and talked of going himself. On 24 June De 
Quadra accompanied Elizabeth and her lover 
on a water-party down the Thames, when 
they behaved with discreditable freedom. In 
a long conversation De Quadra undertook to 
press on their union on condition that they 
should acknowledge the papal supremacy. 
The negotiation was kept secret from the 
responsible ministers, but Cecil suspected 
the grounds of De Quadra's intimacy with 
Dudley and Elizabeth, and powerful opposi- 
tion soon declared itself. Dudley's personal 



Dudley i 

enemies and the catholic nobles agreed that 
Dudley should only marry the queen at the 
cost of a revolution, and De Quadra wrote 
home that if the marriage tookplace Philip II 
would find England an easy conquest. With 
curious duplicity Dudley also corresponded 
with the French Huguenots to induce them 
to support his ambitious marriage scheme. 
But his over-confidence did not please the 
queen. In July 1561 the king of Sweden 
offered Elizabeth his hand. Dudley ridiculed 
the offer, and the queen, irritated by his man- 
ner, said in the presence chamber that ' she 
would never many him nor none so mean 
as he,' and that his friends ' went about to dis- 
honour her' (State Papers, Foreign, 22 July). 
Dudley straightway asked permission to go to 
sea and obtained it, but he remained at home 
and was soon reconciled to his mistress. When 
the succession question was debated in 1562, 
Dudley supported the pretensions of Lord 
Huntingdon, the husband of his sister Cathe- 
rine. In the autumn of the same year the 
queen, on what she judged to be her death- 
bed, nominated her favourite protector of the 
realm. Next year the reports that Elizabeth 
had children by Dudley revived. One Robert 
Brooke of Devizes was sent to prison for pub- 
lishing the slander, and seven years later a man 
named Marsham of Norwich was punished for 
the same offence. An English spy in Spain in 
1588 reported that a youth aged twenty-six, 
calling himself Arthur Dudley, and claiming 
to be Elizabeth's son by Dudley, had lately 
arrived in Madrid. He was born, he said, in 
1562 at Hampton Court. Philip II received 
him hospitably, and granted him a pension 
of six crowns a day, but he was clearly a pre- 
tender (ELLIS, Orig. Letters, 2nd ser. iii. 135- 
136 ; LINGAKI), Hist. 1874 edit. vi. 367-8). 

Although Dudley did not abandon hope of 
the marriage, it is plain that during 1563 
Elizabeth realised its impracticability. Cecil, 
Sussex, Hunsdon, and Dorset did all they 
could to discredit Dudley, and his presump- 
tuous behaviour led to more frequent explo- 
sions of wrath on the queen's part. On one 
occasion Dudley threatened to dismiss one 
Bowyer, a gentleman of the black rod. The 
matter was brought to thequeen's knowledge. 
She sent for Dudley and publicly addressed 
him : ' I have wished you well, but my favour 
is not so locked up for you that others shall 
not partake thereof. ... I will have here but 
one mistress and no master' (NATJNTON, Frag- 
menta, ed. Arber, p. 17). About 1563 the 
question of Queen Mary Stuart's marriage 
was before the English council, and Eliza- 
beth, with every appearance of generous self- 
lenial, suggested that Dudley should become 
he Scottish queen's husband. She would 



Dudley 



have preferred, she said, a union between 
Queen Mary amd Dudley's brother Ambrose, 
but was willing on grounds of policy to sur- 
render her favourite. In June 1564 Dudley 
made friends with De Silva, the new Spanish 
ambassador, and once more declared himself 
to be devoted to Spain. De Silva wrote home 
that if Cecil could only be dismissed and re- 

j placed by Dudley, Spain and England would 

! be permanent allies. On 28 Sept. 1564 Dudley 
was created Baron Denbigh, and on 29 Sept. 
Earl of Leicester. In October (according to 
Melville, the Scottish ambassador) Eliza- 
beth declared herself resolved to press on the 
match between Dudley and Queen Mary, and 
it was stated that she had bestowed an earl- 
dom on him to fit him for his promotion. The 
union of Mary with Darnley in 1565 brought 
the scheme to nothing. 

The old nobility at Elizabeth's court ac- 
quiesced with a very bad grace in Leicester's 

! predominance. In March 1565 Norfolk, who 
had persistently opposed himself to Dudley's 
pretensions, quarrelled openly with him in the 
queen's presence. They were playing tennis 
together before Elizabeth. During a pause 
Leicester snatched the queen's handkerchief 
from her hand and wiped his face with it. 

'Norfolk denounced this action as 'saucy,' and 
blows followed. In August 1565 the queen 
paid her first visit to Kenilworth, which 
she had granted Leicester (6 Sept. 1563). 
While the court was at Greenwich in June 
1566 Sussex and Leicester had a fierce alter- 
cation in Elizabeth's presence, and the queen 
herself brought about a temporary reconcilia- 
tion. Early in 1566 the Archduke Charles 
renewed his offer of marriage with Elizabeth, 
and the queen discussed it so seriously that 
Leicester acknowledged in a letter to Cecilthat 
his fate was sealed. Cecil drew up more than 
one paper in which he contrasted Leicester and 
the archduke as the queen's suitors, much to 
thelatter's advantage. He declared Leicester 
to be insolvent, to be ' infamed by his wife's 
death,' and anxious to advance his personal 
friends. Little change in Leicester's personal 
relations with the queen was apparent while 
the negotiations with the archduke were 
pending, and he did what he could to ruin 
the scheme. In December 1567 he strongly 
opposed in the council Sussex's and Cecil s 
proposal to bring the archduke to England. 
In order to obstruct his rivals' policy he 
boldly turned his back on his old relations 
with the catholics and raised a cry of ' popery.' 
As early as 1564 Leicester had been making 
advances to the puritans, and Archbishop 
Parker and he had had some differences as to 
the toleration to be extended to their practices 
(SiETPE, Parker, i. 311). Subsequently he 

12 



Dudley 



116 



Dudley 



figured as their chief patron at court, and 
ostentatiously took Thomas Cartwright under 
his protection. Jewel was now directed by 
him to stir up the puritans in London against 
the marriage. Sussex vainly remonstrated 
and threatened to denounce him publicly as 
the betrayer of the queen and country. Early 
in 1568 Leicester's victory was assured and 
the archduke's offer rejected. 

Outside the court Leicester's position was 
reckoned all-powerful. Elizabeth had made 
him rich in spite of his extravagant habits. 
Four licenses to export woollen cloth ' un- 
woved ' were issued in 1561 and 1562. In 
1563 he received from the crown the manor 
and lordship and castle of Kenilworth, the 
lordship and castle of Denbigh, and lands in 
Lancashire, Surrey, Rutland, Denbigh, Car- 
marthen, York, Cardigan, and Brecknock 
(Pat. 5 Eliz. 4th part ; Orig. 5 Eliz. 3rd part, 
rot. 132). The manors of Caldecote and Pe- 
lynge, Bedfordshire, with many other parcels 
of land, followed in the next year, and in 
1566 sixteen other estates in different parts 
of England and Wales were assigned him 
(Grig. 8 Eliz. 1st part, rot. 56 ; Pat. 8 Eliz. 
7th part). In 1565 he was granted a license 
to ' retain' one hundred persons, and became 
chancellor of the county palatine of Chester. 
In 1562 he was appointed high steward of 
Cambridge University, and stayed with the 
queen at Trinity College in August 1564, 
when she paid her well-known official visit. 
Soon afterwards (31 Dec. 1564) he became 
chancellor of Oxford University, and directed 
the elaborate reception of Elizabeth there in 
August 1566. A public dialogue, in Latin 
elegiacs, between Elizabeth and her favourite 
was printed (Elizabethan Oxford (Oxf. Hist. 
Soc.),pp. 157-68). In January 1565-6 Leices- 
ter and Norfolk were created by the French 
king, Charles IX, knights of St. Michael ( ASH- 
HOLE, Garter, p. 369), and in 1571 Leicester 
kept -with great state at Warwick the feast of 
St. Michael, when his gorgeous attire excited 
general admiration (cf. Topogr. Bibl. Brit. 
vol. iv. pt. ii.) 

In 1568 Mary Queen of Scots fled to 
England for protection ; the catholic lords of 
the north of England were meditating open 
rebellion, and attempts were being made at 
court under the guidance of Norfolk to get 
rid of Cecil. Leicester fostered the agitation 
against Cecil, and told the queen that she 
would never be safe while Cecil had a head 
on his shoulders. He also sought to make 
the presence of Queen Mary serve his own 
ends. He received with enthusiasm her en- 
voy, the Bishop of Ross; deprecated the 
bishop's suggestion that he should himself 
marry the Scottish queen; sent her presents, 



' and finally agreed to forward the catholic 
plot for marrying her to the Duke of Norfolk. 
Elizabeth was bitterly opposed to this dan- 
i gerous scheme, but Leicester freely argued 
with her on the point. Meanwhile Leicester, 
1 with characteristic baseness, allowed it to be 
\ assumed by the conspirators that he was 
looking with a favourable eye on the treason- 
able conspiracy hatching in the north. He 
obviously believed Elizabeth's fall to be at 
hand and was arranging for the worst. But 
| Cecil was more powerful than Leicester cal- 
culated. Elizabeth's goA'ernment weathered 
the storm with comparative ease. Norfolk 
' was sent to the Tower in October 1569, and the 
rebellion of the northern earls was crushed 
in November. Leicester recognised that his 
I influence with the queen inmattersof politics 
i would not compare with Cecil's. ' Burghley,' 
j he wrote 4 Nov. 1572, ' could do more with 
! her in an hour than others in seven years.' 
I But, so far as his personal relations with the 
! queen were concerned, his position was un- 
changed, although his hopes of marriage were 
i nearly ended. 

In 1570 and 1571, with much show of dis- 
interestedness, Leicester strongly supported 
the proposal that Elizabeth should marry the 
Duke of Aniou. Private affairs doubtless en- 
couraged this policy. In 1571 he contracted 
himself to Douglas Sheffield, widow of John, 
second baron Sheffield, and daughter of Wil- 
liam, first lord Howard of Effingham. In May 
1573 he secretly married the lady at Esher. 
Two days later a son, Robert [see DUDLEY, 
SIB ROBEKT, 1573-1649], was born, of whose 
legitimacy there can be little doubt. Appa- 
rently fearing the queen's wrath, Leicester 
never acknowledged this marriage. His in- 
fatuation for Lady Douglas was falsely said 
by his enemies to have led him to poison her 
former husband. But his sentiments soon 
changed, and he offered Lady Sheffield 7007. 
a year to ignore their relationship. The offer 
was indignantly rejected. Leicester was after- 
wards reported to have attempted to poison 
her, and to have so far succeeded as to de- 
prive her of her hair and nails. Gilbert Tal- 
bot wrote to his father, 11 May 1573, that 
two ladies had long been in love with Leices- 
ter, Lady Sheffield and Lady Frances Howard, 
that the queen suspected their passion, and 
spies were watching Leicester (LoBGE, Illus- 
trations, ii. 100). But his influence at court 
was not seriously imperilled. Evidence of 
the power which he was credited in the 
country with exerting indirectly on ministers 
of state is given by the records of the town 
of Tewkesbury for 1573. The citizens had 
petitioned for a charter of incorporation, and 
when the proceedings dragged, they ' levied 



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and gathered ' among themselves money to 
purchase for Leicester ' a cup of silver and gilt,' 
and subsequently ' an ox of unusual size.' 

In July 1575 Leicester entertained the 
queen at Kenilworth. The royal party arrived 
at the castle on Saturday, 9 July, and remained 
there till Wednesday, 27 July. As early as 
1570 Leicester had begun to strengthen the 
fortifications of his palace, and to celebrate 
the queen's visit he is said to have added 
largely to the munition and artillery there. 
Elaborate pageants were arranged, and all the 
festivities were on an exceptionally gorgeous 
scale. Shakespeare is believed to have wit- 
nessed some part of the fantastic enter- 
tainments. Oberon's vision in ' Midsummer 
Night's Dream ' (ii. 148-68) has been ex- 
plained as a description of what the poet 
actually saw in Kenilworth Park. In the fines 
on Cupid's shaft aimed ' at a fair vestal throned 
by the west ' and falling on ' a little western 
flower,' a covert hint has been detected of 
Leicester's relations both with the queen and 
Lady Sheffield (cf. HALPIN, Oberon's Vision 
Illustrated, Shakspere Soc., 1843). Two full 
reports of the reception accorded to Elizabeth 
at Kenilworth were issued in 1576 one by 
Robert Laneham, clerk of the council, and 
the other (entitled ' Princely Pleasures at 
the Courte at Kenelwoorth ') by George Gas- 
coigne. In July 1576 Leicester was in ill- 
health, and his doctors insisted on his drink- 
ing Buxton waters. 

Leicester's ambition was still unsatisfied. 
In September 1577 Elizabeth was contem- 
plating the despatch of an army to fight 
against Spain in the Low Countries, and 
Leicester resolved to obtain the post of com- 
mander-in-chief. He had wholly abandoned 
his flirtations with Spain, and took shares 
in Drake's expedition, which sailed in No- 
vember. Elizabeth raised no objection to 
Leicester's application for the generalship, 
but, after giving a definite promise to help the 
Low Countries, she suddenly, in March 1578, 
declined to send an army abroad. Leicester 
was deeply disappointed, but private affairs 
were again occupying him. Although un- 
able to rid himself of Lady Sheffield, he was 
making love to Lettice, the widowed countess 
of Essex, with whose late husband, Walter 
Devereux, first earl of Essex [q. v.], he had 
been on very bad terms. When Essex died 
at Dublin in 1576, it was openly suggested 
that Leicester had poisoned him, but the re- 
port proved baseless. Lady Essex, who was 
well known to the queen, and interchanged 
gifts with her on New Year's day 1578, had 
long been on intimate terms with Leicester, 
and had stayed at Kenilworth during the fes- 
tivities of 1575, while her husband was in Ire- 



land. Early in 1578 the Duke of Anjou, now 
Duke d' Alencon, renewed his offer of marriage 
to Elizabeth, and it was seriously entertained 
for a second time. Astley, a gentleman of 
the bedchamber, reminded the queen that 
Leicester was still free to marry her. She 
grew angry and declared it would be ' unlike 
herself and unmindful of her royal majesty 
to prefer her servant whom she herself had 
raised before the greatest princes of Christen- 
dom ' (CAMDEN). In 1578 Leicester, having 
finally abandoned all hopes of the queen's 
hand, married Lettice Knollys, countess of 
Essex. The ceremony was first performed 
at Kenilworth, and afterwards (21 Sept. 
1578) at Wanstead, in the presence of Leices- 
ter's brother, Warwick, Lord North, Sir 
Francis Knollys, the lady's father, and others. 
Wanstead, which was henceforth a favourite 
home of Leicester, had been purchased a few 
months before, and the queen visited him 
there in the course of the year (NICHOLS, 
Progresses, ii. 222). The fact of the marriage 
was kept carefully from Elizabeth's know- 
ledge, although very many courtiers were in 
the secret. In August 1579 M. de Simier, 
the French ambassador, who was negotiating 
Alencon's marriage, suddenly broke the news 
to the queen. Elizabeth behaved as if she 
were heartbroken, and three days later pro- 
mised to accept Alencon on his own terms. 
She ordered Leicester to confine himself to the 
castle of Greenwich, and talked of sending 
him to the Tower, but Sussex advised her to 
be merciful. Leicester's friends declared that 
he voluntarily became a prisoner in his own 
chamber on the pretence of taking physic 
(GREVILLE, Life of Sir P. Sidney). 

The queen rapidly recovered from her anger, 
and Leicester returned to court, resolved to 
avenge himself on De Simier, and to put an 
end to the French marriage scheme. He was 
credited with endeavouring to poison the 
ambassador, and when a gun was accident- 
ally discharged at the queen's barge on the 
Thames, while Elizabeth, De Simier, and Lei- 
cester were upon it, it was absurdly suggested 
that De Simier had been shot at by one of 
Leicester's agents. Alencon arrived in 1580. 
Leicester attended him and the queen, and in 
February 1580-1 accompanied the duke on his 
way to the Low Countries as far as Antwerp 
by Elizabeth's order. On Leicester's return 
Elizabeth had an interview with him and 
reproached him with staying too long abroad. 
Rumours were spread that Leicester aimed 
at becoming prince of the protestant provinces 
of Holland, and the queen openly charged 
him with conspiring with the Prince of 
Orange against her. Leicester did not deny 
that his ambition lay in the direction indi- 



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cated, but warned the queen that if she, as 
in her irritation she hinted, intended to ally 
herself with Spain against the Low Countries, 
she would have to prepare for war with France 
as well as with the Netherlands. 

Leicester's presumption was now at its 
zenith. With an eye on the Low Countries as 
an appanage for himself, he in December 1582 
proposed that Arabella Stuart should marry 
Robert, his infant son by his wife Lettice, and 
thus the crown might possibly enter his own 
family. He also suggested that one of his 
stepdaughters would make a good wife for 
James of Scotland. The latter proposal led 
to a passionate protest from Elizabeth, who 
loathed Leicester's wife, and denounced her 
with terrible vehemence (June 1583). In 1584 
Leicester suggested the formation of the well- 
known association for the protection of the 
queen's person, chiefly with the object of cir- 
cumventing the catholic nobility, whom the 
queen's treatment of Queen Mary was drawing 
into treasonable devices. In the same year 
Leicester was held up to the nation's detesta- 
tion in an anonymous pamphlet, first issued 
at Antwerp as ' The copye of a letter wryten 
by a Master of Arte at Cambridge,' but better 
known as ' Leicester's Commonwealth.' The 
author, who is assumed on highly doubtful 
grounds to be the j esuit Parsons, tried to prove 
that the ancient constitution of the realm was 
practically subverted, and that the govern- 
ment of the country had been craftily absorbed 
by Leicester, whose character was that of an 
inhuman monster. All offices of trust were, 
it was alleged, in his hands or those of his re- 
lations. The corporation of Leicester replied 
to these charges by entertaining the earl at 
an elaborate banquet on Thursday 18 June, 
while he was staying with his sister, the 
Countess of Huntingdon. Sir Philip Sidney, 
Leicester's nephew, circulated a vindication 
of his uncle and his family (printed by Collins 
in the ' Sydney Papers '). On 26 June 1585 
Elizabeth issued an order in council forbid- 
ding the book's circulation, and asserting on 
her own knowledge that its charges were 
false. As an historical authority it certainly 
has no weight, but as an indication of the 
hatred that Leicester had succeeded in ex- 
citing, it is of importance to his biographer. 
In August 1585 Burghley wrote to Leicester 
to complain of certain contemptuous speeches 
which the earl was reported to have made 
concerning him. Leicester replied at great 
length, denying the imputation. He lamented 
the envy which his position at court excited, 
but deprecated the notion that he wished for 
Burghley's place, and asserted that he had 
always been Burghley's friend (STKYPE, An- 
nals, in. i. 503-6). 



In the autumn of 1585 Elizabeth at length 
resolved to intervene in the Low Countries. 
A great English army was to be sent to the aid 
of the States-General in their war with Spain, 
and the command of the expedition was be- 
stowed on Leicester (September 1585). His 
intimacy with the queen made the appoint- 
ment satisfactory to England's allies, but 
his incapacity soon showed its imprudence. 
In December he reviewed his troop of six 
hundred horse in London, and marched to 
Harwich. He disembarked at Flushing 
10 Dec. The Dutch received him trium- 
phantly. Gorgeous pageants and processions 
were arranged in his honour. At Utrecht 
Jacobus Chrysopolitanus and Arnold Eyck 
issued extravagant panegyrics; the former 
added a brief history of the earl's reception, 
and on 23 April 1586 Leicester celebrated 
with abundant pomp the feast of St. George 
in the city. At Ley den the memory of similar 
festivities lasted so long that the students 
on 7 June 1870 gave an imitation of them 
to celebrate the 295th anniversary of the 
Leyden High School. At the Hague was 
published in 1586 an elaborate series of 
twelve engravings representing the trium- 
phal procession which welcomed Leicester 
to the town. Leicester had good grounds 
for writing home to the queen that the 
Netherlanders were devoted to her, but he 
was in no hurry to take the field. On 14 Jan. 
1585-6 a deputation from the States-General 
offered him the absolute government of the 
United Provinces. Leicester declared that 
he was taken by surprise, and pointed out 
that his instructions only permitted him to 
serve the States-General and not to rule them. 
Further entreaties followed, and Leicester 
yielded. On 25 Jan. he was solemnly installed 
as absolute governor, and took an oath to pre- 
serve the religion and liberty of his subjects. 
On 6 Feb. a proclamation was issued announc- 
ing his new dignity (translation printed in 
Somers Tracts, 1810, i. 420-1). Davison, the 
English envoy at the Hague, with whom 
Leicester had long been on intimate terms, 
was sent home to communicate the news to 
Elizabeth. 

All was known before Davison arrived. 
The queen was indignant, and threatened to 
recall the earl. It was reported that Leices- 
ter's wife was about to join her husband 
with a great train of ladies, and the queen's 
wrath increased. Burghley, Walsingham, 
and Hatton urged that Leicester's conduct 
had been politic. Leicester, who soon learned 
of the disturbance created by his action, 
argued in a despatch that he had been mo- 
dest in accepting the mere title of governor, 
and blamed Davison for not defending him 



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fairly. Sir Thomas Heneage reached Flush- 
ing (3 March), and brought letters announc- 
ing Elizabeth's displeasure. Leicester replied 
by sending Sir Thomas Sherley, but the queen 
did not relent. The quarrel was distracting 
attention from the objects of the expedition, 
and Burghley threatened to resign unless 
Elizabeth gave a temporary ratification of 
the earl's appointment. At last she yielded 
so far as to allow him to continue in his office 
until the council of state could devise such 
a qualification of his title and authority as 
might remove her objection without peril to 
the public welfare. After more negotiations 
and renewed outbursts of the queen's wrath, 
the matter ended by the Dutch council of 
state petitioning Elizabeth to maintain the 
existing arrangement until they could with- 
out peril to themselves effect some change 
(June 1586). The queen had published her 
displeasure and had relieved herself of all 
suspicions of collusion with Leicester. She 
therefore raised no further difficulties. 

Leicester's arrogance soon proved to the 
States-General that they had made an error. 
He called his Dutch colleagues ' churls and 
tinkers,' and was always wrangling with 
them over money matters. ' Would God I 
were rid of this place,' he wrote (8 Aug.), 
and bitterly remarked that the queen had suc- 
ceeded in ' cracking his credit.' In military 
matters Leicester was no match for the 
Spaniards under the Duke of Parma. He 
succeeded in relieving Grave, and vainly 
imagined that the enemy were completely 
ruined by the victory. On 23 April Leicester 
was reviewing his troops at Utrecht when 
news was brought him that the Spaniards 
were marching to recapture Grave. He 
marched leisurely to Arnheim and Nimeguen 
with the avowed intention of intercepting the 
enemy, but as he had no news of their route 
Leicester never met the attacking force, and 
Grave was recaptured with ease. To allay 
the panic which this ludicrous failure pro- 
duced in Holland, Leicester tried the go- 
vernor of Grave, Baron Henart, by court- 
martial, and sent him to the scaffold. Prince 
Maurice and Sir Philip Sidney seized Axel, 
and partly retrieved the failing reputation 
of the English army. Leicester in his des- 
patches blamed everybody for his own neglect 
of duty, and let Nuys fall to the enemy with- 
out raising a finger to protect it. The equip- 
ment and temper of part of his army were cer- 
tainly unsatisfactory, and he had repeatedly 
to make an example of deserters, but his petty 
wrangling with Norris and other able col- 
leagues explains much of his failure. In 
August a gentle letter of reprimand from the 
queen, the receipt of fresh supplies of money, 



and the advice of Sir William Pelharn, en- 
abled Leicester to improve his position. On 
2 Sept. he relieved Berck ; the enemy soon 
retired into winter quarters ; the forts about 
Zutphen and Deventer were captured by the 
gallantry of Sir Edward Stanley and Sir 
William Pelham; and the indecisive cam- 
paign was at an end. Leicester came home, 
making no provision for the command of the 
army. He had laboured hard for the execu- 
tion of Mary Queen of Scots, had written 
letters pressing it on the queen while in Hol- 
land, and had hinted when Elizabeth seemed 
to hesitate that Mary might be privately 
strangled. He now renewed his importu- 
nities, and on 8 Feb. 1586-7 the execution 
took place. 

In January 1586-7 Deventer was betrayed 
to the Spaniards, and the States-General 
begged for Leicester's return. The queen 
refused the demand, but, after directing him 
to avoid hostilities, sent him over in June 
to inform the Dutch that they must come to 
terms, with Spain. Parma was besieging 
Sluys, and declined to entertain negotiations 
for peace. The English were forced to renew 
the war, but it was too late to save Sluys, 
which fell in August. The wretched plight 
of the English soldiers rendered them nearly 
useless. Leicester did little or nothing, and 
he was finally recalled on 10 Nov. 1587. 
With characteristic love of display he had a 
medal struck with the motto ' Invitus desero 
non Gregem sed ingratos.' A party still 
supported him in Holland, and resisted his 
successor. On 12 April 1588 a proclamation 
was issued by the States, announcing his 
final resignation of his high office (trans- 
lation in Somers Tracts, 1810, i. 421-4). 

On Leicester's return home he was wel- 
comed as of old by the queen. She seemed 
to place increased confidence in him. In May 
and June 1588, while the country was pre- 
paring to resist the Spanish Armada, he was 
constantly in her company, and received the 
appointment of 'lieutenant and captain-ge- 
neral of the queen's armies and companies ' 
(24 July). He joined the camp at Tilbury 
on 26 July, and when the danger was over 
the queen visited the camp, and rode with him 
down the lines (9 Aug.) One of Leicester's 
latest letters described to Lord Shrewsbury 
(15 Aug.) Elizabeth's glorious reception by 
the troops. At the same time she had a pa- 
tent drawn up constituting him lieutenant- 
general of England and Ireland, but, yielding 
to the protests of Burghley, Hatton, and Wal- 
singham, she delayed signing it. Leicester 
withdrew fromLondon at the end of August. 
While on the way to Kenilworth he stopped at 
his house at Cornbury, Oxfordshire, and there 



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he died of ' a continual fever, as 'twas said,' 
on 4 Sept. 1588, aged about fifty-six. Ben 
Jonson tells the story that he had given his 
wife ' a bottle of liquor which he willed her 
to use in any faintness, which she, not know- 
ing it was poison, gave him, and so he died ' 
( Conversation* with Drummond, p. 2-4). Bliss 
in his notes to the ' Athense Oxon.,' ii. 74-5, 
first printed a contemporary narrative to the 
effect that the countess had fallen in love 
with Christopher Blount [q. v.], gentleman 
of the horse to Leicester ; that Leicester 
had taken Blount to Holland with the inten- 
tion of killing him, in which he failed ; that 
the countess, suspecting her husband's plot, 
gave him a poisonous cordial after a heavy 
meal while she was alone with him at Corn- 
bury. Blount married the countess after 
Leicester's death, and the narrator of the 
story gives as his authority William Haynes, 
Leicester's page and gentleman of the bed- 
chamber, who saw the fatal cup handed to 
his master. But the story seems improbable 
in face of the post-mortem examination, which 
was stated to show no trace of poison. Leices- 
ter was buried in the lady chapel of the col- 
legiate tomb at "Warwick. The gorgeous 
funeral cost 4,000/. An elaborate altar-tomb 
with a long Latin inscription was erected 
there to his memory by his wife, Lettice. 
By her he had a son, Robert, who died at 
Wanstead 19 July 1584, and was buried in 
the Beauchamp Chapel, Warwick. Leices- 
ter's will, dated at Middleburg, 1 Aug. 1587, 
was proved by the countess, the sole exe- 
cutrix, two days after his death. He left 
to the queen, with strong expressions of 
fidelity, a magnificent jewel set with emeralds 
and diamonds, together with a rope of six 
hundred ' fair white pearls.' Wanstead was 
appointed for the countess's dowager-house. 
Sir Christopher Hatton, the Earl of Warwick, 
and Lord Howard of Effingham were over- 
seers of the will. His personalty was valued 
at 29,820/. (cf. Harl. Rolls, D. ^^Inven- 
tories of his pictures at Kenilwortn^Leices- 
ter House, and Wanstead have been printed 
(Notes and Queries, 3rd ser. ii. 201-2, 224-5). 
There are 183 entries, among them portraits 
of himself, his relatives, the queen, and the 
chief foreign generals and statesmen of the 
time. Leicester's widow, after marrying Sir 
Christopher Blount, sought in vain a recon- 
ciliation with Elizabeth in 1597 ; remained 
on friendly terms with Robert, earl of Essex, 
her son by her first husband, till his execu- 
tion in 1601 ; took some part in the educa- 
tion of Robert, third earl of Essex, her grand- 
son ; resisted the efforts of Leicester's son, 
Sir Robert Dudley [q. v.], to prove his legiti- 
macy; and died, vigorous to the last, on 



25 Dec. 1634, aged 94. She was buried by 
Leicester in Beauchamp Chapel, AVarwick, 
and some verses on her death by Gervase 
Clifton were painted on a tablet hung near 
the Leicester monument. 

' Laws and Ordinances,' drawn up for the 
English army in Holland, and published in 
London in 1587, is the only printed work of 
which Leicester was author, but numerous 
letters appear ' in Digges's ' Compleat Am- 
bassador,' 1655, in ' Cabala,' 1671, and in 
the 'Leycester Correspondence,' 1844. They 
all show much literary power. His style is 
colloquial, but always energetic. In 1571 
Leicester founded by act of parliament a 
hospital at Warwick for twelve poor men. 
The first warden was Ralph Griffin, D.D., 
and the second Thomas Cartwright, the puri- 
tan [q. v.] Leicester drew up statutes for 
the institution, 26 Nov. 1585 (COLLINS, Syd- 
ney Papers, i. 46-7). 

Leicester was a patron of literature and 
the drama. Roger Ascham, whose son Dud- 
; ley (b. 1564) was his godson, often wrote of 
i his literary taste. Gabriel Harvey devoted 
! the second book of his ' Congratulationes 
: Valdinenses,' London, 1578, to his praises, 
and printed eulogies by Pietro Bizari, Carlus 
Utenhovius, Walter Haddon, Abraham Hart- 
well, and Edward Grant. Geoffrey Whitney, 
i when dedicating to him his ' Choice of Em- 
blemes ' (1586), states that many famous men 
I had been enabled to pursue their studies 
I through his beneficence. Home dedicated to 
him his translation of two of Calvin's sermons 
in 1585, and Cartwright was always friendly 
with him. While patronising the puritan 
controversialists he exhibited with charac- 
teristic inconsistency an active interest in the 
drama. As early as 1571 ' Lord Leicester's 
Men' performed a play before the queen when 
visiting Saffron Walden. In succeeding years 
the same company of actors is often men- 
tioned in the accounts of the office of revels. 
[ On 7 May 1574 the first royal patent granted 
' to actors in this country was conceded to the 
Earl of Leicester in behalf of his actor-ser- 
vants, at whose head stood James Burbage 
[q. v.j Plays or masques formed the chief 
attractions of the Kenilworth festivities of 
1575 (CoLLiEE, Hist. English Dramatic 
Poetry, i. 192, 202, 224-6, iii. 259). 

Love of display and self-indulgence are Lei- 
cester's most striking personal characteristics. 
By his extravagant dress, his gluttony, and his 
cruel treatment of women he was best known 
to his contemporaries. That he was also an 
accomplished poisoner has been repeatedly 
urged against him, but the evidence is incon- 
clusive in all the charges of murder brought 
against him. In politics his aim was to con- 



120/7, 

1. 1 7 from foot. Add to reference ' see also 
inventories in drchaeologia, Ixxiii. 28-52.' 



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121 



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trol and (at first) marry the queen, whose 
early infatuation for him decreased but never 
died. He was a clever tactician, and con- 
trived to turn the least promising political 
crises into means of increasing his influence 
at court. The general policy of Elizabeth 
was unaffected by him. The piety with which 
he has been credited in later life does not 
merit serious attention. In person he was 
stated to be remarkably handsome, although 
' towards his latter end he grew high-coloured 
and red-faced' (NATJNTON), tall in stature, 
dignified in bearing, and affable in conversa- 
tion. The best portrait is that by Mark 
Garrard at Hatfield. Another (with a page) 
by Zucchero belongs to the Marquis of Bath. 
A third at Penshurst was painted in 1585. 
Others are in the University Library, 
Cambridge, and at Corpus Christi College, 
Cambridge. In the large picture of Queen 
Elizabeth visiting Hunsdon House (1571), 
belonging to Mr. G. D. W. Digby, Leicester 
is the courtier standing nearest to the queen 
(Catalogue of Exhibition of National Por- 
traits, 1866). 

[There is no good biography of Leicester. 
' The copy of a Letter wryten by a Master of 
Arte of Cambridge to his Friend in London con- 
cerning some talke past of late between two 
worshipfull and grave men about the present 
state and some proceedyngs of the Erie of Leyces- 
ter and his friendes in England,' is the full title 
of the scurrilous libel attributed to Father Par- 
sons, usually quoted as ' Leicester's Common- 
wealth,' and known from the green-edged leaves 
of the original edition as ' Father Parson's Green 
Coat.' Some letters in Cole's MSS. xxx. 129, show 
clearly that Father Parsons was not the author, 
but that it was the work of a courtier who en- 
deavoured to foist responsibility on Parsons. 
This book, which treats Leicester as a profes- 
sional poisoner and a debauchee, is the founda- 
tion of all the chief lives. It was first printed 
probably at Antwerp in 1584; it appeared in 
a French translation under the title of 'La Vie 
Abominable, Euses, Trahisons, Meurtres, Im- 
postures,' &c. (Paris? 1585), and in a Latin 
version bylulius Briegerus at Naples in 1585 as 
' Flores Calvinistici decerpti ex Vita Eoberti 
Dudlei, comitis Leicestrise.' It was republished 
in London in 1641 as 'Leicester's Commonwealth 
identified, 'and was versified as 'Leicester's Ghost' 
about the same time. Orders were issued for its 
suppression in October 1641 (Cal. State Papers, 
1641-3, p. 136). It formed the basis of Dr. 
Drake's ' Secret Memoirs of Kobert Dudley, 
Earl of Leicester' (London, 1706, 2nd edit. 1706, 
3rd edit. 1708), which was given in 1721 the new 
title 'Perfect Picture of a Favourite.' Drake 
pretended to print the libel ' for the first time 
from an old manuscript.' In 1727 Dr. Jebb 
issued a Life ' drawn from original writers and 
records,' which does not place less reliance than 



its predecessors on ' Leicester's Commonwealth,' 
but quotes many other authorities. The Amy 
Robsart episode has been the subject of numerous 
books. Ashmole's account, which Sir Walter Scott 
adopted, is printed in his 'Antiquities of Berk- 
shire,' i. 140-54, and is drawn from ' Leicester's 
Commonwealth.' More critical examinations of 
the story appear in A. D. Bartlett's ' Cumnor 
Place' (1850), in Pettigrew's 'Inquiry concerning 
the Death of Amy Eobsart' (1859), and in J. G. 
Adlard's 'Amye Robsart' (a useful collection of 
authorities and genealogical information about the 
Eobsart family) (1861). Canon Jackson printed 
several manuscripts relating to Lady Amy, now at 
Longleat, in ' Wiltshire Archaeological and Natu- 
ral Hist. Mag.,'xvii. 47-93 (May 1877), and in 
'Nineteenth Century' for March 1882 he argues 
strongly for Leicester's innocence. Mr. Walter 
Rye, in his ' Murder of Amy Robsart a brief 
for the prosecution ' (1885), attempts to convict 
him by treating ' Leicester's Commonwealth ' as 
trustworthy evidence, and interpreting unfavour- 
ably much neutral collateral information. A 
valuable list of royal grants made to Leicester, 
and some contemporary documents at Hatfield, 
notably Appleyard's ' Examination,' appear in 
Mr. Rye's appendix. ' Cumnor Hall,' the well- 
known ballad on Amy Robsart, by W. J. Mickle, 
first appeared in Evans's Ballads, 1784, and first 
directed Sir Walter Scott's attention to the sub- 
ject. His novel of 'Kenilworth' was issued 
in 1821. Its historical errors, often exposed, 
were fully treated of by Herrmann Isaac in ' Amy 
Eobsart und Graf Leicester' in 1886. Leices- 
ter's important letters to Blount, written imme- 
diately after Amy's death, were first printed from 
the Pepys's Collection in Lord Braybrooke's edi- 
tion of Pepys's ' Diary ' in 1848. For Leicester's 
career in Holland the 'Leycester Correspondence,' 
ed. John Bruce (Camd. Soc. 1844), which covers 
his first visit, 1585-6, is, together with Motley's 
History, most valuable. 'A brief Eeport of the 
Militarie Service done in the Low Countries by 
the Earl of Leicester, written by one that hath 
served in a good place there,' is a contemporary 
eulogy (London, 1587). Contemporary accounts of 
his triumphal progress through Utrecht, Leyden, 
and the Hague are mentioned above. A Ee- 
monstrance (in French) against his conduct in 
Holland appeared at Utrecht in 1587, and his 
reply (in Dutch) at Dordrecht in the same year. 
Madame Toussaint wrote a Dutch novel entitled 
'Leicester en Nederland,' and at Deventer in 1847 
was issued Hugo Beijerman's ' Oldenbarneveld : 
de Staten von Holland en Leycester,' a discus- 
sion of his policy. See also Froude's History 
(very valuable for the Spanish accounts of Leices- 
ter) ; Lingard's Hist. ; Naunton's Fragmenta Ee- 
galia ; Camden's Annals ; Stow's Annals ; Sydney 
Papers, ed. Collins ; Sir Dudley Digges's Corn- 
pleat Ambassador (1655); Cabala (1671); Cal. 
State Papers (Domestic) (1547-88); Nichols's 
Progresses, especially ii. 613-24; Cal. Hatfield 
Papers, i.; Cooper's Athense Cantabr. ii. 30, 543 ; 
Wood's Athenae Oxon.,ed. Bliss, ii. 74-5 ; Strype's 



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Annals, Memorials, and Lives of Parker and 
Whitgift; Biog. Brit. (Kippis) ; Notes and 
Queries, 6th ser. iii. 283 (an imprinted letter to 
the Earl of Bedford, 17 Sept. 1565); Dugdale's 
Warwickshire. The fullest account of Lettice, 
Leicester's third wife, is in Gent. Mag. (1846) 
i. 250 et seq. ; it is by Mr. J. Gr. Nichols.] 

3. L. L. 

DUDLEY, SIR ROBERT, styled DUKE 
or NORTHUMBERLAND and EARL OF WAR- 
WICK (1573-1 649), naval commander and in- 
ventor, was son of Robert Dudley [q. v.], earl 
of Leicester, by Douglas Sheffield, widow of 
John, second baron Sheffield, and daughter 
of William, first lord Howard of Effingham. 
Dudley's legitimacy was never legally esta- 
blished. He adduced evidence to show that 
his parents formally contracted themselves at 
a house in Cannon Row, Westminster, in 1571 ; 
that in May 1573, two days before his own 
birth at Sheen, they were secretly married at 
Esher, Surrey ; that Sir Edward Horsey gave 
the lady away ; that Dr. Julio and seven others 
witnessed the ceremony ; that the secrecy was 
due to his father's desire to keep the marriage j 
from Queen Elizabeth's knowledge, and that | 
until he was three years old, and his father's 
affections were transferred to the Countess of 
Essex, Leicester treated him as his lawful 
heir. About 1577 Leicester seems to have 
offered Lady Sheffield 7001. to induce her to 
disavow the marriage, but this bribe she in- 
dignantly declined. In 1578 Leicester mar- 
ried the Countess of Essex, whereupon Lady 
Sheffield married Sir Edward Stafford of 
Grafton. These marriages, whose validity 
was not disputed, are the substantial ground 
on which Dudley has been adjudged ille- 
gitimate ; but they are not incompatible with 
the allegation that his father and mother ] 
went through a marriage ceremony at Esher j 
in 1573. His godfathers were Sir Henry 
Lee and his father's brother, Ambrose Dudley 
[q. v.], earl of Warwick. Lady Dacres of 
the South was his godmother, but none of 
these persons were present at his baptism. 
The Earl of Warwick always seems to have 
treated the child with kindness. For a time 
Dudley lived with his mother, and his father 
was denied access to him. But when he was 
five or six Leicester obtained possession of 
him, and sent him to a school kept by Owen 
Robin at Offington, near Worthing, Sussex. 
In 1587 he was entered at Christ Church, 
Oxford, as an earl's son, and placed under 
the care of Thomas Chaloner. Leicester died 
in 1588, and left to young Robert after the 
death of Warwick the Kenilworth estate, 
with the lordships of Denbigh and Chirk. 
Warwick died in 1589, and Robert took pos- 
session of the property. At the time he was 



a handsome youth, learned in mathematics, 
and an admirable horseman. Before he was 
nineteen he married a sister of Thomas Ca- 
vendish [q. v.l, the circumnavigator, whose 
exploits he wished to emulate. On 18 March 
1592-3 the mayor of Portsmouth was directed 
by the privy council to deliver to Dudley two 
ships, the property of Cavendish, who had 
lately died at sea. Immediately afterwards 
he projected an expedition to the South Seas, 
but the government laid obstacles in the way 
of his departure. On 6 Nov. 1594 he started 
on a voyage to the West Indies with two 
ships (the Earwig and Bear). He destroyed 
much Spanish shipping at Trinidad ; visited 
the Orinoco river, naming an island at its 
mouth Dudleiana, and after exploring Guiana, 
arrived at St. Ives, Cornwall (HAKLUYT, iii. 
574 et seq.) In 1596 Dudley was with Essex 
at Cadiz, and was knighted by his commander. 
On his return Dudley, now a widower, mar- 
ried Alice or Alicia, daughter of Sir Thomas 
Leigh of Stoneleigh, Warwickshire. His 
eldest daughter Alicia was baptised at Kenil- 
worth 25 Sept. 1597. Immediately after- 
wards he resolved to secure legal proof of his 
legitimacy, and to claim the titles of his 
father, Leicester, and uncle, Warwick. A 
suit was commenced in the Archbishop of 
Canterbury's court of audience, and Dr. Za- 
chary Babington was commissioned to ex- 
amine witnesses. Many persons deposed on 
oath to the Esher marriage. But Lettice, 
Leicester's widow, was unwilling that the law- 
fulness of her marriage should be questioned, 
and Robert Sidney, son of Leicester's and 
Warwick's sister Mary (wife of Sir Henry 
Sidney), also resisted the claim. An infor- 
mation was filed in the Star-chamber charg- 
ing Dudley, Sir Thomas Leigh (his father- 
in-law), Dr. Babington, and others with a 
criminal conspiracy. All proceedings were 
stayed, and documents and depositions im- 
pounded. Chafing at this injustice, Dudley 
applied for and was granted a three years' 
license to travel abroad (25 June 1605). An 
extant letter from Dudley to his father's 
friend, Arthur Atye, dated Stoneleigh, 2 Nov. 
1605, shows that Dudley was then in Eng- 
land, and had not yet abandoned all hope of 
obtaining a legal decision in favour of his 
claims. But a month or so later Dudley 
abandoned his home for ever. 

With him there went, in the disguise of a 
page, Elizabeth, the beautiful daughter of Sir 
Robert Southwell of Woodrising, Norfolk, 
and his own cousin-german. This lady was 
his mistress. He is said to have married her 
by papal dispensation at Lyons, and to have 
repudiated his former marriage with Alice 
Leigh, by whom he had a large family of 



Dudley 



123 



Dudley 



daughters, on the ground that he had been 
precontracted to some one else. Orders were 
issued by the English government for Dud- 
ley's return (2 Feb. 1606-7), to meet a charge 
of having assumed abroad the title of Earl 
of Warwick. He refused to obey, and his 
estates were forcibly sold. On 21 Nov. 1611 
Kenil worth, which had been valued at 38,550/., 
was purchased for 14,500/. by Henry, prince 
of Wales ; but Dudley, who claimed to retain 
the office of constable of the castle, obtained 
nothing from the transaction. The Sidneys 
of Penshurst seized his estates of Balsall and 
Long Itchington ; but his daughters Cathe- 
rine and Anne recovered them after many 
years' litigation. On the appeal of Sir Thomas 
Leigh, the privy council ordered (21 May 
1616) the sale of all Dudley's remaining pro- 
perty for the benefit of his forsaken wife and 
daughters. On 30 July 1621 Sir Thomas 
Chaloner wrote that if Dudley made proper 
provision for his legitimate family, means 
might be found for his return to England. 

Dudley meanwhile settled at Florence, and 
became a Roman catholic. In 1612 he sent 
to his friend, Sir David Foulis, a pamphlet 
about bridling parliaments, with a view to 
recovering James I's favour. An accompany- 
ing note was signed ' Warwick.' Under the 
same signature he forwarded to Foulis in 
the same year 'A Proposition for Henry, 
Prince of Wales,' which chiefly dealt with 
the necessity on England's part of maintain- 
ing an efficient navy, and suggested a new 
class of war-ships, called Gallizabras, and car- 
rying fifty cannon. In January 1613-14 he 
sent further letters from Leghorn, describing 
his nautical inventions. On 15 July 1614 he 
informed Foulis that he could build his own 
kind of ship, and wished to return to Eng- 
land ; but this wish was never gratified. In 
1613 he bought a house of the Rucellai family 
at Florence, still standing in the Vigna 
Nuova. His ingenuity as a shipbuilder and 
mathematician attracted the attention of 
Cosmo II, duke of Tuscany, whose wife, Mag- 
dalen, archduchess of Austria, and sister of 
the emperor, Ferdinand II, appointed him 
her grand chamberlain. On 9 March 1620 
the emperor, who had heard of his accom- 
plishments and knew his history, created him 
Earl of Warwick and Duke of Northumber- 
land in the Holy Roman Empire, and he was 
enrolled by Pope Urban VIII among the 
Roman nobility. Dudley was employed by 
Ferdinand II, who succeeded his father, 
CosmoII, as Duke of Tuscany in 1621, to drain 
the morass between Pisa and the sea, an ope- 
ration to which the town of Leghorn owed 
its future prosperity. A pension was granted 
him for this skilful piece of engineering. He 



built himself a palace at Florence, and was 
presented with Carbello Castle in the neigh- 
bourhood. Lord Herbert of Cherbury visited 
Dudley at Florence in 1614, and has described 
the meeting at length in his ' Autobiography.' 
i John Bargrave [q.v.] met him in 1646, and 
j has also left on record an account of his in- 
terview. He died at Carbello 6 Sept. 1649. 
His remains were placed in the nunnery of 
Boldrone, where they are said to have re- 
mained as late as 1674. A stone coroneted 
shield with the bear and ragged staff en- 
graved upon them is still preserved in what 
remains of the Florentine church of San Pan- 
crazio, and is locally described as part of a 
tomb set up there above Dudley's body. Eliza- 
beth Southwell, who died before Dudley, 
was certainly buried in that church, but the 
tomb and inscription were destroyed by the 
French in 1798. 

ALICE DUDLEY, Dudley's deserted wife, was 
created in her own right Duchess Dudley on 
23 May 1645. The patent which recognises 
her husband's legitimacy confers the prece- 
dence of a duke's daughters on her surviving 
children. The title was confirmed by Charles II 
in 1660. The duchess resided at Dudley 
House, St. Giles's-in-the-Fields, once the resi- 
dence of her husband's grandfather, the Duke 
of Northumberland, and she enjoyed the rents 
of some of her husband's landed property. 
She was a great benefactor of the church and 
parish of St. Giles, and bequeathed large sums 
to the parochial charities, on her death at Dud- 
ley House, 22 Jan. 1668-9. She was buried 
at Stoneleigh. A funeral sermon (' Mirror of 
Christianity'), preached at St. Giles's Church 
by the rector, Robert Boreman [q. v.], was 
published. A portrait is at Trentham Hall, 
Staffordshire. Of her seven daughters by 
Dudley, Alicia, born at Kenilworth in 1597, 
died in 1621. Frances married Sir Gilbert 
Kniveton of Bradley, Derbyshire, and died 
before 1645, being buried in St. Giles's Church. 
Anne was wife of Sir Robert Holbourne, and 
died in 1663. Catherine married Sir Richard 
Leveson of Trentham ; died in 1673, and was 
buried at Lilleshall, Shropshire. 

Dudley is credited with having had thirteen 
children by Elizabeth Southwell. Five sons 
were alive in 1638, of whom the fourth, Fer- 
dinando, was a Dominican, and the eldest, 
Carlo, called himself ' duca di Nortumbria ' 
after his father's death. Carlo married Maria 
Maddalena Gouffier, daughter of Due de Ro- 
hanet of Picardy, and died at Florence in 1686. 
His son and heir, Ruperto, was first cham- 
berlain to Maria Christina, queen of Sweden, 
while she lived at Rome. One of Carlo's 
daughters married Marquis Palliotti of Bo- 
logna, whose son was hanged at Tyburn, and 



Dudley 



124 



Dudley 



whose daughter, Adelhida, married Charles 
Talbot, duke of Shrewsbury. Of Dudley's 
six daughters, Anna died in 1629, and was 
buried in the church of San Pancrazio, where 
her father and mother set up an elaborate 
tomb. Teresa married Conte Mario di Car- 
pegna ; a third married the Prince of Piom- 
bino; the fourth, Marquis of Clivola; the 
fifth, Duke di Castillon del Lago (Woor.). 

Dudley wrote the following: 1. 'A Voyage 
... to the Isle of Trinidad and the Coast of 
Paria,' printed in Hakluyt's ' Voyages,' iii. 574 
(1600). 2. ' A Proposition for His Majesty's 
Service to bridle the Impertinence of Parlia- 
ments,' written in 1612, and forwarded to Sir 
David Foulis. The manuscript was found in 
Sir Robert Cotton's library in 1629, and caused 
much commotion in both the court and par- 
liamentary parties. It frankly recommended 
to James I a military despotism, and was 
first printed in Rush worth's 'Collections' 
(1659). [For a full account of the confusion 
caused by the distribution of copies in 1629, 
see art. COTTON, SIR ROBERT.] 3. ' Dell 'Ar- 
cano del Mare di D. Roberto Dvdleo, Dvca 
di Northvmbria e Conte di Warvick,' Florence, 
vol. i. (1646), vols. ii. and iii. (1647), dedi- 
cated to Ferdinand II, duke of Tuscany. 
These magnificent volumes are divided into 
six books ; the first deals with longitude, and 
the means of determining it ; the second sup- j 
plies general maps, besides charts of ports and j 
harbours, in rectified latitude and longitude ; ! 
the third treats of maritime and military dis- [ 
cipline ; the fourth of naval architecture ; the j 
fifth of scientific or spiral navigation ; and j 
the sixth is a collection of geographical maps, i 
Numerous diagrams give the book great value. 
A second edition appeared at Florence in 
1661. Wood states that Dudley was also the 
author of a physical work called ' Catholicon,' 
' in good esteem among physicians.' Wood 
had never seen a copy; none is known, 
and it has been inferred that it was a book 
of medical prescriptions thumbed out of ex- 
istence. But it is quite possible that Dudley 
is credited with such a book in error, caused 
by the fact that a Pisan doctor, Marco Cor- 
nachini, published at Florence in 1619 a work 
dedicated to Dudley, describing a powder of 
extraordinarily effective medical properties 
invented by Dudley. The powder, composed of 
scammony, sulphuret of antimony, and tartar, 
appears in many English and foreign phar- 
macopoeias as ' Pulvis Warwicensis,' or ' Pul- 
vis Comitis de Warwick.' Wood also adds 
that Dudley was ' noted for riding the great 
horse, for tilting, and for his being the first of 
all that taught a dog to sit in order to catch 
partridges.' 

Engraved portraits appear in Adlard's 



' Amye Robsart' and in ' The Italian Bio- 
graphy.' There is a close resemblance be- 
tween his features and those of Shelley. 

[Wood's Athense Oxon. (Bliss), iii. 258-62, 
communicated by Dudley's son Carlo in a letter 
dated from Home 17 Oct. 1673 ; The Italian Bio- 
graphy of Sir Robert Dudley, Kt. . . .andNotices 
of Dame Alice Dudley, privately printed, without 
author's name, date, or place (an ill-arranged but 
elaborate work by the Rev. Vaughan Thomas, B.D. 
(1775-1853), vicar of Stoneleigh, issued about 
1856, and representing the accumulations of fifty 
years) ; Adlard's Memoirs and Correspondence 
(from the State Papers), forming an appendix 
to Amye Robsart and the Earl of Leicester 
(1870); Salvetti's Correspondence in Hist. MSS. 
Comm. llth Rep. pt. i. 174, 181-3; Walpole's 
Royal and Noble Authors, ii. ; Biog. Brit. (Kippis) ; 
Lord Herbert of Cherbury's Autobiogr. (1886), 
pp. 156-7 ; Bargrave's Alexander VII, Camd. 
Soc. ; Sir N. H. Nicolas' s Report of Proceedings 
on claim to Barony of De L'Isle, 1829 ; Gillow's 
Bibl. Diet, of English Catholics.] S. L. L. 

DUDLEY, THOMAS (ft. 1670-1680), 
engraver, was a pupil of Wenceslaus Hollar 
[q. v.], and his plates are etched in a manner 
resembling, but greatly inferior to, his mas- 
ter's style. A book-plate in the print room 
of the British Museum shows him to have 
had considerable technical skill, but his por- 
traits and figures are ill drawn. His most 
important work was a series of etchings exe- 
cuted in 1678, representing the life of ^Esop, 
from drawings by Francis Barlow [q. v.], 
(now in the print room aforesaid), and added 
by Barlow to his second edition of the ' Fables ' 
(1687). A few portraits by him are known, 
including one of Titus Gates on a broadside, 
entitled 'A Prophecy of England's Future 
Happiness.' In 1679 he seems to have visited 
Lisbon in Portugal, as he engraved portraits 
of John IV and Peter II of Portugal, of 
Theodosius Lusitanus (1679), Bishop Russel 
of Portalegre (1679), and of a general, the 
last named (in the print room) being signed 
' Tho. Dudley Anglus fecit Vlissippone.' 

[Huber et Roost's Manuel des Curieux et des 
Amateurs de 1'Art, vol. ix. ; Le Blanc's Manuel 
de 1'Amateur d'Estampes ; Cat. of the Suther- 
land Collection of Portraits.] L. C. 

DUDLEY, WILLIAM (d. 1483), bishop 
of Durham, younger (probably third) son of 
John Sutton de Dudley, baron Dudley [q. v.], 
by Elizabeth Berkeley, his wife, was educated 
at University College, Oxford, proceeding 
B.A. 1453-4, and M.A. 1456-7. He was 
instituted to the living of Malpas, Cheshire, 
in 1457, became rector of Hendon, Middlesex, 
on 24 Nov. 1466, was appointed to various 
prebendal stalls in St. Paul's Cathedral be- 
tween 1468 and 1473, and was archdeacon 



Duesbury 



125 



Duff 



of Middlesex 16 Nov. 1475. Edward IV 
showed him special favour and made him dean 
of the Chapel Royal, dean of the collegiate 
church of Bridgnorth (1471), prebendary of 
St. Mary's College, Leicester (2 Aug. 1472), 
dean of Windsor (1473), prebendary of Wells 
(1475-6), and bishop of Durham (October 
1476). In 1483 he was nominated chan- 
cellor of the university of Oxford in place of 
the king's brother-in-law, Lionel Wydville, 
bishop of Salisbury. He died 29 Nov. 1483, 
and was buried beneath an elaborate monu- 
ment in the chapel of St. Nicholas in West- 
minster Abbey. 

[Ormerod's Cheshire; Nichols's Leicestershire, 
i. 335 ; Wood's Hist, of Colleges and Halls, ii. 55, 
64; Le Neve's Fasti, ed. Hardy; Godwin, De 
Prsesulibus, p. 717.] S. L. L. 

DUESBURY, WILLIAM (1725-1786), 
china manufacturer, born 7 Sept. 1725, was 
son of William Duesbury, currier, of Can- 
nock in Staffordshire. He first practised as 
an enameller at Longton in the same county, 
but in 1755 he moved with his father to 
Derby. At this time the Derby potworks 
on Cockpit Hill were held by Messrs. John 
and Christopher Heath, bankers in the town, 
while at the same time a French refugee, 
Andrew Planch^, was making china figures 
in an obscure tenement in Lodge Lane. 
Duesbury learnt the art from Planche, and 
entered into an agreement with him and 
John Heath to establish a china manufactory. 
Soon after the Heaths failed, Duesbury, 
having cleared himself from the debts which 
their failure brought upon him, set up a 
china manufactory for himself in the Not- 
tingham Road. This may fairly be called 
the first foundation of the Derby china manu- 
factory. Duesbury managed to obtain a good 
staff of workmen and assistants, and the 
manufactory soon became prosperous and im- 
portant, and the products extensively sought 
after. In June 1773 he opened a warehouse 
in London at No. 1 Bedford Street, Covent 
Garden, and had periodical sales by auction 
of his stock. In 1770 he purchased the 
works and stock of the defunct manufactory 
at Chelsea, in 1775 those of the manufactory 
of Bow, in 1777 those of Giles's manufactory, 
Kentish Town, besides others ; he thus be- 
came the most important china manufacturer 
in the kingdom, and enjoyed the royal pa- 
tronage. Duesbury died in November 1786, 
and was buried in St. Alkmund's, Derby. By 
his wife, Sarah James of Shrewsbury, he had 
several children, of whom WILLIAM DTJES- 
BtrRY, the eldest surviving son, succeeded to 
the proprietorship of the works. He was born 
in 1763, and the prosperity of the works 



reached its highest point shortly after he suc- 
ceeded to them. He took into partnership 
an Irish miniature-painter named Michael 
Kean. Duesbury's health broke up early, 
and he died in 1796. By his wife, Elizabeth, 
daughter of William Edwards, solicitor, of 
Derby (who remarried the above mentioned 
Kean), he left three sons, of whom William 
Duesbury, born in 1787, inherited, but did 
not take part in the works, which in 1809 
were disposed of to Robert Bloor [q. v.] The 
second son, Frederick Duesbury, became a 
well-known physician in London, and was 
father of Henry Duesbury, who practised as 
an architect in London, and died in 1872. 

[Haslem's Old Derby China Manufactory; 
Jewitt's Ceramic Art of Great Britain ; Wallis 
and Bemrose's Pottery and Porcelain of Derby- 
shire.] L. C. 

DUFF (Dubh, the Black) (d. 967), king 
of Celtic Alban (Scotland), son of Malcolm, 
succeeded, in 962, Constantine, son of In- 
dulph, in whose reign Edinburgh (Dun Eden) 
was relinquished by the Angles, who had 
held it since Edwin of Deira (617-632) 
gave it its name. It now became a Celtic 
fort. In 965 Duff defeated Colin, the son of 
Indulph, supported by the abbot of Dunkeld 
and the chief of Athole at Drumcrub in Strath- 
earn. Two years later Colin reversed this 
victory and expelled Duff, who, according to 
a later chronicle, was afterwards, when at- 
tempting to recover his kingdom, slain at 
Forres. His body was hidden under the 
bridge of Kinloss, and the sun did not shine 
till it was found and buried. An eclipse on 
10 July 967 may have originated or confirmed 
this story. 

[Skene's Celtic Scotland, i. 367, where the 
original sources are given ; Robertson's Scotland 
under her Early Kings, i. 77.] JE. M. 

DUFF, ALEXANDER, D.D., LL.D. 

(1806-1878), missionary, was born at Auch- 
nahyle in the parish of Moulin, Perthshire, 
26 April 1806. In his boyhood he came 
under deep religious impressions, and in his 
course of study in arts and theology at the 
university of St. Andrews was much influ- 
enced by Chalmers, then professor of moral 
philosophy. As soon as he finished his theo- 
logical course, he accepted an offer made to 
him by the committee of the general assembly 
on foreign missions to become their first mis- 
sionary to India. Ordained in August 1829, 
Duff proceeded on his way, and after being 
twice shipwrecked on the voyage, and losing 
all his books or other property, reached Cal- 
cutta in May 1830. After much considera- 
tion he determined to make Calcutta his base 
of operations, and to conduct the mission in 



Duff 



126 



Duff 



a different manner from any other. His plan 
was to open an English school, which should 
by-and-by develope into a college, this to be- 
come the headquarters of a great campaign 
against Hinduism. The Bible was to be the 
great centre and heart of all his work, and 
the leading aim of the mission would be to 
impress its truths. But along with this there 
would be taught every form of useful know- 
ledge, from the A B C up to the subjects of 
the most advanced university studies. The 
use of the English language in his school was 
a great innovation, and brought down on him 
much unfavourable criticism. But he was 
firmly persuaded, and the result has justified 
his belief, that the English language was de- 
stined to be the great instrument of upper 
education in India, and he had the immovable 
conviction that nothing was betterfitted than 
our western knowledge to undermine the su- 
perstitions of the country and open its mind 
to the gospel. It was a leading feature of 
his plan from among the converts of the mis- 
sion to train up native preachers of the gos- 
pel, it being his decided conviction that only 
through native teachers and preachers could 
India become Christian. 

From the beginning his school was highly 
successful. Some very decided conversions 
took place in its earliest years, bringing on 
it a fearful storm, but openly stamping it 
with the character of a mission school, while 
it began to expand into a missionary col- 
lege, that soon after obtained unprecedented 
renown. Duff was cheered by the co-opera- 
tion of Sir Charles Trevelyan, who arrived 
at Calcutta soon after himself, and by the 
friendship of the governor-general, Lord Wil- 
liam Bentinck [q. v.] His plan received an 
extraordinary impulse from a minute of the 
governor-general in council on 7 March 1835, 
in which it was laid down that in the higher 
education the great object of the British 
government ought to be the promotion of 
European science and literature among the 
natives of India, and that all the funds appro- 
priated for the purposes of education would 
be best employed on English education alone. 
A pamphlet of Duff's, entitled 'New Era 
of the English Language and Literature in 
India,' showed the immense importance which 
he attached to this minute. He confessed, 
however, that the enactment had a defect in 
treating the spread of Christianity in India 
as a matter of worldly expediency. 

Broken down in health by ceaseless and 
enthusiastic activity, Duff visited his native 
country in 1834. Here his enthusiasm did 
not at first receive a very flattering response ; 
but when he was called to address the general 
assembly, and when, in response to this call, 



the young man of twenty-nine was able to 
hold the whole audience as by a spell for 
nearly three hours, in a speech which for com- 
bined exposition, reasoning, and impassioned 
appeal was almost without a parallel, his 
triumph was complete. For some years after- 
wards he went through the country expound- 
ing his plan, and not only secured general 
approval, but on the part of many awakened 
a new interest in the work of missions gene- 
rally and cordial devotion to his own mis- 
sion in particular. 

Duff returned to India in 1840. Ever since 
the issue of Lord William Bentinck's minute, 
a vehement controversy had been going on 
between the ' Orientalists,' as the party was 
called who were opposed to it, and the friends 
of European education. In 1839 Lord Auck- 
land, governor-general, adopting a reaction- 
ary policy, passed a minute, the object of 
which was to effect a compromise between 
j the two parties. Duff took up his pen, and 
in a series of letters which appeared in the 
' Christian Observer ' endeavoured to show 
the mischief and the folly of supporting at 
one and the same time the absurdities of the 
east and the science of the west. All his 
life Duff fought hard for a more reasonable 
and consistent policy, but without the com- 
plete success which he longed for. On re- 
visiting India at this time, he found many 
proofs of the progress of western ideas. His 
own institution was now accommodated in 
a structure that had cost between 5,000/. and 
6,OOOZ., and was attended by between six 
and seven hundred pupils, and the college de- 
partment was in full and high efficiency. In 
1843 the disruption of the Scottish church 
took place, and as Duff, with all the other 
foreign missionaries of the church, adhered 
to the Free church, all the buildings, books, 
and apparatus of every description that had 
been collected for his mission had to be sur- 
rendered. Once more he found himself in 
the same state of destitution in which he had 
been after his shipwrecks, on his first arrival 
in the country. But his spirit rose to the 
occasion, and being very cordially encouraged 
by the church at home, which determined, 
notwithstanding its other difficulties, to sup- 
port all its missionaries, he proceeded with 
his work. By-and-by a new institution was 
provided, more suited to the enlarged opera- 
tions now carried on. He was cheered by 
the hearty support of men like Sir James 
Outram and Sir Henry Lawrence, and by the 
accession of a new band of converts which 
included several young men of high caste and 
of equally high attainments. The success of 
the mission caused a great crusade by the 
supporters of the native religions against it, 



Duff 



127 



Duff 



and it passed through one of the severest of 
those social storms to which it was always 
exposed in times of success. He had the 
satisfaction of seeing several of his pupils re- 
ceiving training for the work of native mis- 
sionaries, and beginning that work. Branch 
schools, too, were formed in several villages 
in the neighbourhood of Calcutta. The ope- 
rations of the mission were greatly enlarged. 

In 1844 Lord Hardinge became governor- 
general. One of his first acts was to declare go- 
vernment appointments open not only to those 
who had studied at Government College, but 
to the students of similar institutions, a step 
which greatly delighted Duff. In the same 
year Duff took part in founding the ' Calcutta 
Review/ to the early numbers of which he 
contributed frequently. The first editor was 
Mr. (afterwards Sir J. W.) Kaye, who on 
leaving Calcutta in 1845 besought Duff to 
undertake the charge, the ' Review ' having 
proved a great success. Duff continued to 
edit it till ill-health drove him likewise away 
in 1849, when it was handed over to one of his 
colleagues. This arrangement continued till 
1856, when the ' Review ' passed into other 
hands. 

In 1849 Duff had the advantage, on his 
way home, of traversing India and seeing 
many of the chief seats of mission work. His 
second visit home was signalised by his ele- 
vation to the chair of the general assembly 
of the Free church in 1851, and another mis- 
sion tour, the chief object of which was to 
induce that church to place its foreign mis- 
sion scheme on a higher and less precarious 
platform, and secure for it an income adequate 
to its great importance. Hardly less was it 
signalised by his appearance before Indian 
committees of parliament, to give evidence 
on various questions, but especially that of 
education. This led to the famous despatch 
of Lord Halifax, president of the board of 
control, addressed to the Marquis of Dal- 
housie, then governor-general, and signed by 
ten directors of the East India Company. This 
despatch was really inspired by Duff, and em- 
bodied the very views with which he had 
started his work in 1830. It proceeded on 
the principle that 'the education we desire to 
see extended in India must be effected by 
means of the English language in the higher 
branches of education, and by that of the ver- 
nacular languages to the great mass of the 
people.' The plan embraced a system of uni- 
versities, secondary schools, primary schools, 
normal schools, art, medical, and engineering 
colleges, and finally female schools. The sys- 
tem of grants in aid was to be applied with- 
out restriction. The Bible was to be in the 
libraries of the colleges and schools, and the 



pupils were to be allowed freely to consult 
it, and to ask questions on it of their instruc- 
tors, who if they chose might give instructions 
on it, but out of school hours. While Duff 
was delighted with this minute, it was a great 
disappointment to him during all the remain- 
der of his life that he could not get its pro- 
visions fully and fairly carried into effect. 

In 1854 Duff, at the earnest solicitation of 
a citizen of great enthusiasm and public spirit, 
Mr. George H. Stuart of Philadelphia, paid 
a visit to the United States. His travels and 
orations in that country were a series of 
triumphs. ' No such man has visited us since 
the days of Whitefield ' was the general tes- 
timony as he parted from them on the quays 
of New York. ' Never did any man leave 
our shores so encircled with Christian sym- 
pathy and affection.' The university of New 
York conferred on him the degree of LL.D. 
The university of Aberdeen had previously 
made him D.D. 

When he returned to India in 1856, Lord 
Canning was governor-general, and there 
were mutterings of the great storm which 
soon burst out. Duff, who knew the people 
well, was not unprepared for it, and with 
other missionaries had been urging on the au- 
thorities his views regarding the right treat- 
ment of the people. What followed was re- 
corded by him in a series of twenty-five letters 
to the convener of the foreign missions com- 
mittee,which were published from time to time 
in the 'Witness' newspaper, and afterwards 
collected in a volume which went through 
several editions, entitled ' The Indian Mutiny : 
its Causes and Results ' (1858). When the 
mutiny was over, Duff preached a memorable 
sermon in the Scotch Free church, in which, 
like another Knox, he condemned the policy 
of the government, some of whose members 
were present. The mutiny had no such un- 
favourable effect as some dreaded on the pro- 
gress of Christianity in India. In 1850, a census 
showed the native protestant Christians to 
be 127,000. In 1871 the number was 318,363. 
Among the martyrs during the mutiny was 
his third convert, Gopeenath Nundi. The 
loyalty of the native Christians to the British 
government was conspicuous. 

During this period of Duff's stay in India, 
his chief object of public solicitude was the 
university of Calcutta, now in the course of 
foundation. He had been appointed by the 
governor-general to be one of those who drew 
up its constitution. ' For the first six years 
of the history of the university,' says his 
biographer, Dr. George Smith, ' in all that 
secured its catholicity, and in such questions 
as pure text-books and the establishment of 
the chair of physical science contemplated in 



Duff 



Duff 



the despatch, Dr. Duff led the party in the 
senate.' Dr. Banerjea has written thus of 
his leadership : ' The successive vice-chan- 
cellors paid due deference to his gigantic 
mind, and he was the virtual governor of the 
university. The examining system still in 
force was mainly of his creation. . . . He was 
the first person that insisted on education in 
the physical sciences.' In 1863 the office of 
vice-chancellor was pressed upon him by Sir 
Charles Trevelyan, to whose recommendation 
the viceroy would probably have acceded, but 
the state of things at home was such that the 
church recalled him to preside over its mis- 
sions committee. It was thought to be time 
that Duff should leave India, his health being 
so impaired as to make a permanent change 
a necessity. 

The memorials devised in his honour on 
his leaving were very numerous. In the cen- 
tre of the educational buildings of Calcutta 
a marble hall was erected as a memorial of 
him. Four Duff scholarships were instituted 
in the university. A portrait was placed in 
one college, a bust in another. A few Scotch- 
men in India and adjacent countries offered 
him a gift of 11,OOOJ., the capital of which he 
destined for the invalided missionaries of his 
own church. Conspicuous among those who 
gave utterance to their esteem for him as he 
was leaving them was Sir Henry Maine, who 
had succeeded to the post of vice-chancellor 
of the university. Maine expressed his ad- 
miration for Duff's thorough self-sacrifice, and 
for his faith in the harmony of truth, remark- 
ing that it was very rare to see such a com- 
bination of the enthusiasm of religious con- 
viction with fearlessness in encouraging the 
spread of knowledge. 

On his way home in 1864 Duff, in order 
to become practically acquainted with other 
missions of his church, visited South Africa, 
and traversed the country in a wagon, in- 
specting the mission stations. In 1865 he 
learned that his Calcutta school had for the 
first time been visited by a governor-general, 
Sir John Lawrence, who wrote to him that 
it was calculated to do much good among the 
upper classes of Bengal society. Installed as 
convener of the foreign missions committee, 
Duff set himself to promote the work in every 
available way. To endow a missionary chair 
in New College, Edinburgh, he raised a sum 
of 10,OOOZ. He had never thought, of occu- 
pying the chair, but circumstances altered 
his purpose and he became first missionary 
professor. He superintended all the arrange- 
ments for carrying into effect the scheme so 
dear to Dr. Livingstone, of a Free church 
mission on the banks of Lake Nyassa. He 
travelled to Syria to inspect a mission in 



the Lebanon. He co-operated with his noble 
friends, Lady Aberdeen and Lord Polwarth, 
in the establishment of a mission in Natal, 
the ' Gordon Memorial Mission,' designed to 
commemorate the two sons of Lady Aber- 
deen, whose career had terminated so tragi- 
cally, the sixth earl of Aberdeen and the Hon. 
J. H. H. Gordon. In 1873, when the state 
of the Free church was critical, on account of 
a threatened schism, Duff was a second time 
called to the chair. This danger, strange to 
say, arose from a proposal for union between 
the Free church and the United Presbyterian, 
which Duff greatly encouraged. Among his 
latest acts was to take an active part in the for- 
mation of the ' Alliance of Reformed Churches 
holding the Presbyterian System,' whose first 
meeting, however, in 1877, he was destined 
not to be able to attend. His health, which 
for many years had been precarious, underwent 
a decided change for the worse in 1876-7, and 
he died on 12 Feb. 1878. What personal pro- 
perty he had he bequeathed to found alecture- 
ship on missions on the model of the Bampton. 

Duff's principal publications were as fol- 
lows: 1. 'The Church of Scotland's India 
Mission,' 1835. 2. ' Vindication of the Church 
of Scotland's India Missions,' 1837. 3. 'New 
Era of English Language and Literature in 
India,' 1837. 4. ' Missions the end of the 
Christian Church,' 1839. 5. ' FareweU Ad- 
dress,' 1839. 6. 'India and India Missions,' 
1840. 7. ' The Headship of the Lord Jesus 
Christ,' 1844. 8. ' Lectures on the Church 
of Scotland,' delivered at Calcutta, 1844. 
9. 'The Jesuits,' 1845. 10. 'Missionary Ad- 
dresses,' 1850. 11. ' Farewell Address to the 
Free Church of Scotland,' 1855. 12. Several 
sermons and pamphlets. 13. ' The World- 
wide Crisis,' 1873. 14. ' The True Nobility 
Sketches of Lord Haddo and the Hon. 
J. H. Hamilton Gordon.' 15. Various articles 
in the ' Calcutta Review.' 

[Letter to Dr. Inglis respecting the wreck of 
the Lady Holland, 1830; Missionary Record of 
Church of Scotland and of Free Church of Scot- 
land ; Disruption Worthies ; Life of Alexander 
Duff, D.D., LL.D., by George Smith, C.I.E., 
LL.D., 2 vols.; Men -worth remembering, Alex- 
ander Duff, by Thomas Smith, D.D. ; Daily Re- 
view, 13 Feb. 1878 ; Proceedings of General 
Assembly of Free Church, 1878.] W. G. B. 

DUFF, JAMES, second EARL OP FIFE 
(1729-1809), was second son of William Duff, 
Lord Braco of Kilbryde. His father, son of 
William Duff of Dipple, co. Banff, was M.P. 
for Banffshire 1727-34, was created Lord 
Braco in the peerage of Ireland 28 July 1735, 
and was advanced to the dignity of Earl of 
Fife and Viscount Macduff, also in the peerage 
of Ireland, by patent dated 26 April 1759, 



Duff 



129 



Duff 



on proving his descent from Macduff, Earl of I 
Fife. His mother -was his father's second | 
wife, Jean, daughter of Sir James Grant of I 
Grant, hart. He was born 29 Sept. 1729. . In 
1754 he was elected M.P. for Banff, and was ! 
re-elected in 1761, 1768, 1774, and 1780, and ; 
in the parliament of 1784 represented the I 
county of Elgin. He succeeded his father in j 
the title and estates in September 1763, and 
devoted himself to the improvement of the 
property, which he largely increased by the 
purchase of land in the north of Scotland. 
He was twice awarded the gold medal of the 
Society for the Encouragement of Arts, Manu- 
factures, and Commerce, for his plantations, 
with which he covered fourteen thousand 
acres. He offered the farmers on his estate 
every inducement to cultivate their land on 
the most approved principles, and himself set 
the example by instituting near each of his 
seats a model farm, where agriculture and 
cattle-breeding were carried on under his per- 
sonal supervision. In 1782 and 1783, when 
all crops failed, he allowed his highland 
tenants a reduction of twenty per cent, on 
their rents, and disposed of grain to the poor 
considerably below the market price, import- 
ing several cargoes from England, which he 
sold at a loss of 3,0001. He was created a 
British peer by the title of Baron Fife, 19 Feb. 
1790. He held the appointment of lord-lieu- 
tenant of county Banff, and founded the town 
of Macduff, the harbour of which was built 
at a cost of 5,0001. He died at his house in 
Whitehall, London, 24 Jan. 1809, and was 
buried in the mausoleum at Duff House, 
Banffshire. He married, 5 June 1759, Lady 
Dorothea Sinclair, only child of Alexander, 
ninth earl of Caithness, but he had no issue, 
and his British peerage became extinct on his 
death. He was succeeded in his Scotch earl- 
dom by his next brother, Alexander. 

' [Douglas and Wood's Peerage of Scotland, 
i. 578; Scots Mag. Ixxi. 159 ; Foster's Members 
of Parliament (Scotland).] A. V. 

DUFF, SIR JAMES (1752-1839), general, 
only son of Alexander Duff of Kinstoun, 
N.B., entered the army as an ensign in the 
1st or Grenadier guards on 18 April 1769. 
He was promoted lieutenant and captain on 
26 April 1775, and made adjutant of his bat- 
talion in 1777, and on 30 April 1779 he was 
knighted as proxy for the celebrated diplo- 
matist Sir James Harris, afterwards first 
earl of Malmesbury, at his installation as a 
knight of the Bath. He was promoted cap- 
tain and lieutenant-colonel on 18 July 1780, 
colonel on 18 Nov. 1790, and major-general 
on 3 Oct. 1794, and in 1797 received the 
command of the Limerick district. While 

VOL. XVI. 



there he rendered important services during 
the insurrection of 1798, and managed to keep 
his district quiet in spite of the state of affairs 
elsewhere. He was promoted lieutenant- 
general on 1 Jan. 1801, and general on 25 Oct. 
1809, and at the time of his death, at Fun- 
tington, near Chichester, on 5 Dec. 1839, he 
was senior general in the British army, and 
was one of the few officers who held a com- 
mission for over seventy years. It is note- 
worthy that he had as aides-de-camp during 
his Limerick command two famous officers, 
William Napier [q. v.] and James Dawes * 
Douglas [q. v.] There are numerous allusions 
to him in the ' Life of Sir William Napier.' 

[Royal Military Calendar; Gent. Mag. March 
1840; Life of Sir William Napier.] H. M. S. 

DUFF, JAMES, fourth EARL OF FIFE 
(1776-1857), Spanish general, elder son of 
the Hon. Alexander Duff, who succeeded his 
brother as third Earl Fife in 1809, was born 
on 6 Oct. 1776. He was educated at Edin- 
burgh and was not intended for the army. 
On 9 Sept. 1799 he married Mary Caroline, 
second daughter of John Manners, who 
died on 20 Dec. 1805. Thereupon Duff 
sought distraction in 1808 by volunteering 
to join the Spaniards in their war against 
Napoleon. His assistance was gladly re- 
ceived, especially as he came full of enthu- 
siasm and with a full purse, and he was made 
a major-general in the Spanish service. He 
served with great distinction at the battle of 
Talavera, where he was severely wounded in 
trying to rally the Spanish runaways, and 
was only saved from becoming a prisoner by 
the gallantry of his lifelong friend, Major 
(afterwards Lieutenant-general Sir) S. F. 
Whittingham. In that year, 1809, he became 
Viscount Macduff on his father's accession 
to the Irish earldom of Fife, but he still con- 
tinued to serve in Spain, and was present 
during the defence of Cadiz against Marshal 
Victor, and was again severely wounded in 
the attack on Fort Matagorda in 1810. Ori 
17 April 1811 he succeeded his father as 
fourth Earl Fife, and as lord-lieutenant of 
Banffshire, and returned to England, after 
being made for his services a knight of the 
order of St. Ferdinand. He was elected 
M.P. for Banffshire in 1818, and made a lord 
in waiting in the following year, and he was 
created a peer of the United Kingdom as 
Lord Fife on 27 April 1827, in which year 
he was also made a knight of the Thistle. 
"He soon afterwards retired altogether to 
Scotland, where he lived at Duff House, 
Banffshire, much beloved by his tenantry 
and greatly interested in farming and cattle 
raising, and there he died, aged 80, on 9 March 



Duff 



130 



Duff 



1857. He was succeeded by his nephew, 
James Duff, the elder son of his only brother, 
General the Hon. Sir Alexander Duff, G.C.H., 
who was a most distinguished officer, and com- 
manded the 88th regiment, the Connaught 
Rangers, from 1798 to 1810, serving at its head 
in Baird's expedition from India to Egypt in 
1801, and in the attack on Buenos Ayres in 
1806, and who had predeceased him in 1851. 

[Whittingham's Life of Sir S. F. Whitting- 
ham ; Gent. Mag. April 1857 ; and for Sir Alex- 
ander Duff's services, Royal Military Calendar, 
ed. 1820, in. 169.] H. M. S. 

DUFF, JAMES GRANT (1789-1858), 
historian, eldest son of John Grant of Kin- 
cardine O'Xeil and Margaret Miln Duff of 
Eden, who died 20 Aug. 1824, was born in 
the town of Banff on 8 July 1 789. His father 
dying about 1799, his mother removed to 
Aberdeen, where he went to school, and to the 
Marischal College. He was designed for the 
civil service of the East India Company, but 
impatient at the prospect of delay in obtaining 
a post he accepted a cadetship in 1805 and 
sailed for Bombay. Having studied at the 
cadet establishment there, he joined the Bom- 
bay grenadiers, was present in 1808 as ensign 
in command at the storming of Maliah, a forti- 
fied stronghold of freebooters, where he dis- 
played conspicuous gallantry, and his party 
was almost cut to pieces. At an unusually 
early age he became adjutant to his regi- 
ment and Persian interpreter, and was even 
more influential in it than this position indi- 
cated. While still lieutenant he attracted the 
attention of Mountstuart Elphinstone [q. v.], 
then resident of Poona, and became, along 
with Captain Pottinger, his assistant and de- 
voted friend. Elphinstone's character of him 
in 1858 was ' a man of much ability, and what 
is more, much good sense.' He was particu- 
larly successful in understanding the native 
character, and in discovering the mean be- 
tween too rapid reform and too great deference 
to native prejudice and immobility. During 
the long operations against the Peishwa Bajee 
Rao, terminating in his overthrow, Grant took 
a considerable part, both in a civil and in a 
military capacity, holding now the rank of 
captain in his regiment (see FORREST, Offi- 
cial Writings of Elphinstone, pref. memoir). 
Upon the settlement of the country he was 
appointed in 1818 to the important office of 
resident of Sattara. His instructions are 
contained in a letter of Elphinstone's, dated 
8 April 1818, and his remuneration was fixed 
at two thousand rupees per month, with al- 
lowances of fifteen hundred rupees per month, 
and in addition his office establishment (see 
Parl. Papers, 1873, vol. xxxviii. pt. i.) Here, 
in the heart of a warlike province, the centre 



of the Mahratta confederacy, with but one 
European companion and a" body of native 
infantry, he succeeded in maintaining him- 
self. By proclamation 1 1 April 1818 Elphin- 
stone made over to Grant full powers for the 
arrangement of the affairs of Sattara. Pertab 
Sing the rajah was rescued from his captivity 
by the peishwa after the battle of Ashteh 
February 1819 and restored to the throne 
under the tutelage of Grant. By treaty 
25 Sept. 1819 Grant was to administer the 
country in the rajah's name till 1822, and 
then transfer it to him and his officers when 
they should prove fit for the task. Grant 
carefully impressed upon the rajah that any 
intercourse with other princes, except such 
as the treaty provided for, would be punished 
with annexation of his territory, and trained 
him so successfully in habits of business that 
Pertab Sing, having improved greatly under 
his care (see HEBER, Journal, ii. 212), was 
made direct ruler of Sattara in 1822 ; but 
under Grant's successor, General Briggs, his 
behaviour was unsatisfactory. (For some de- 
tails of Grant's administrative policy see his 
report on Sattara in Elphinstone's ' Report on 
the Territories taken from the Peishwa, 1821.') 
Duringthis time Grant concluded the treaties 
with the Sattara jaghiredars, viz. 22 April 
1820, the Punt Sucheo, the Punt Prithee 
Nidhee, the Duflaykur, and the Deshmook 
of Phultun, and 3 July 1820, the Rajah of 
Akulkote and the Sheikh Waekur (as the 
names are given by Aitcheson). The ar- 
rangements which he prescribed both for the 
etiquette of the Durbar and for the manage- 
ment of the revenue remained as he left them 
for many years. After five years the anxiety 
and toil broke down his health, and compelled 
his return to Scotland, where he occupied 
himself in completing his ' History of the 
Mahrattas,' the materials for which he had 
long been collecting with great diligence and 
under peculiarly favourable opportunities, 
through his access to state papers, and fa- 
mily and temple archives, and his personal 
acquaintance with the Mahratta chiefs (see 
in COLEBROOKE, Life of Elphinstone, several 
letters to and from Grant). It was published 
in 1826. About 1825 he succeeded to the 
estate of Eden, and taking the additional 
name of Duff settled there, improving the 
property. In 1850 his wife, Jane Catharine, 
the only daughter of Sir Whitelaw Ainslie, an 
eminent physician and author of the ' Materia 
Medica Indica,' whom he married in 1825, 
succeeded to an estate in Fifeshire belonging 
to her mother's family, whereupon he took 
the further name of Cuninghame. He died 
on 23 Sept. 1858, leaving a daughter and two 
eons, of whom the elder, Mountstuart Elphin- 



Duff 



Duff 



stone, has been M.P. for the Elgin Burghs, 
under-secretary for India 1868-74, and for 
the colonies 1880-1, and governor of Madras 
1881-6. 

[Banffshire Journal, September 1858, from 
which all the other periodical notices are taken ; 
Duff's History of the Mahrattas ; Burke's Landed 
Gentry ; Aitcheson's Indian Treaties, vol. iv. ; 
Colebrooke's Elphinstone ; Dr. Murray Smith on 
Sattara in Calcutta Review, x. 437.] J. A. H. 

DUFF, EGBERT (d. 1787), vice-admiral, 
cousin of William Duff, first earl of Fife, 
was promoted to commander's rank on 4 Dec. 
1744, and in 1746 had command of the Terror 
bomb on the coast of Scotland. On 23 Oct. he 
was posted to the Anglesea, a new ship of 
44 guns, which he commanded on the coast 
of Ireland and the home station till the peace 
in 1748. In 1755 he was appointed to the 
Rochester of 50 guns, which was employed 
during the following years on the coast of 
France either in independent cruising or as 
part of the grand fleet. In 1758 Duff was 
with Commodore Howe in the squadron cover- 
ing the expeditions against St. Malo, Cher- 
bourg, and St. Cas; and in 1759 was senior 
officer of the little squadron stationed on the 
south coast of Bretagne to keep watch over 
the movements of the French in Morbihan, 
while Hawke with the fleet blockaded Brest. 
He was lying at anchor in Quiberon Bay, 
his squadron consisting of four 50-gun ships 
and four frigates, when, on the morning of 
20 Nov., his outlook gave him intelligence of 
the French fleet to the southward of Belle 
Isle. He .hastily put to sea and stood to the 
southward, chased by the French. Suddenly 
the English ships tacked to the eastward, 
their men manning the rigging, cheering and 
throwing their hats into the sea. They had 
just made out the English fleet in hot pur- 
suit of the French, which, partly owing to 
Its turning aside to chase Duff's squadron, 
was overtaken before it could get into a safe 
anchorage [see HAWKE, EDWARD, LORD]. 
Duff had no actual share in the battle which 
followed, but by reason of the prominent 
part he took in the overture his name is 
closely connected with the glories of that 
great day. He was afterwards appointed to 
the Foudroyant, a crack ship of 80 guns, in 
which he accompanied Rear-admiral Rod- 
ney to the West Indies, and took part in the 
reduction of Martinique, January and Fe- 
bruary 1762. On 31 March 1775 he was pro- 
moted to be rear-admiral, and in April was 
sent out as commander-in-chief at Newfound- 
land. In September 1777 he was appointed 
to the command of the Mediterranean, with 
his flag in the Panther. When the siege of 
Gibraltar was begun in 1779, Duff co-operated 



with the garrison so far as the very limited 
force at his disposal permitted ; but the go- 
vernment, not being able to strengthen his 
command, recalled him early in the following 
year. He had been promoted to be vice-ad- 
miral on 29 Jan. 1778, but held no further 
command after his return to England in 1780. 
During his later years he was grievously af- 
flicted with gout, an attack of which in the 
stomach caused his death at Queensferry on 
6 June 1787. 

He married in 1764 Helen, the daughter 
of his cousin the Earl of Fife. By her he 
had several children, whose descendants are 
now numerous. It may be noted as a curious 
coincidence that his grand-nephew, George 
Duff, who was slain at Trafalgar in command 
of the Mars, had before the battle the com- 
mand of the inshore squadron, watching the 
motions of the enemy in Cadiz. 

[Charnock's Biog. Navalis, v. 444 ; Beatson's 
Nav. and Mil. Memoirs, vol. iii.] J. K. L. 

DUFF, WILLIAM (1732-1815), mis- 
cellaneous writer, a Scotch minister and M.A., 
was licensed by the presbytery 25 June 1755, 
called 18 Sept., and ordained 8 Oct., when 
he was appointed to the parish of Glenbucket, 
Aberdeenshire. Thence he was transferred to 
Peterculter in the same county, 24 Oct. 1766, 
being admitted 4 March 1767. He was 
nominated minister of Foveran, also in Aber- 
deenshire, in February 1774, and took up his 
residence a twelvemonth later. There he 
got a new church built in 1794, and died 
father of the synod, 23 Feb. 1815, in the 
eighty-third year of his age, and sixtieth of 
his ministry (Scots Mag. Ixxvii. 319). On 
4 Sept. 1778 he married Ann Mitchell, by 
whom he had two sons and four daugh- 
ters. Duff is author of: 1. 'An Essay on 
Original Genius and its Various Modes of 
Exertion in Philosophy and the Fine Arts, 
particularly in Poetry' (anon.), 8vo, London, 
1767, a work which exhibits considerable 
acquaintance with classical authors. A sequel 
is 2. ' Critical Observations on the Writings 
of the most celebrated Original Geniuses in 
Poetry,' 8vo, London, 1770. 3. ' The His- 
tory of Rhedi, the Hermit of Mount Ararat. 
An Oriental Tale ' (anon.), 12mo, London, 
1773. 4. ' Sermons on Several Occasions,' 
2 vols. 12mo, Aberdeen, 1786. 5. ' Letters 
on the Intellectual and Moral Character of 
Women,' 8vo, Aberdeen, 1807. 6. 'The 
Last Address of a Clergyman in the Decline 
of Life,' 8vo, Aberdeen, 1814. Duff also 
furnished an account of Foveran to Sir J. 
Sinclair's ' Statistical Account of Scotland ' 
(ed. 1791-9, vi. 62-70, xxi. Appendix, pp. 
135-7). 

I 2 



Duffer in 



132 



Dufief 



[Hew Scott's Fasti Eccl. Scot., vol. iii. pt. ii. 
pp. 513, 555, 608; Brit. Mus. Cat.; Cat. of 
Library of Advocates, ii. 680.] G. G. 

DUFFERIN, LADY (1807-1867). [See 
SHERIDAX, HELEN SELISTA.] 

DUFFET, THOMAS (fl. 1678), drama- 
tist, was originally a milliner in the New 
Exchange, London, who unfortunately took 
to play-writing. He obtained some notoriety 
by burlesquing the rhymed tragedies with 
which Dryden, Shadwell, and Settle enter- 
tained the town. As literature, his produc- 
tions are beneath criticism. That by which 
he is best remembered is ' The Mock Tem- 
pest,' acted at the Theatre Royal in 1675, 
and written to draw away the audience from 
the theatre at Dorset Gardens, where Dryden 
and Davenant's alteration of Shakespeare's 
' Tempest ' was then in its full run. Of this 
travesty Dryden afterwards wrote : 

The dullest scribblers some admirers found, 
And the Mock Tempest was a while renown'd : 
But this low stuff the town at last despis'd, 
And scorn'd the folly that they once had priz'd. 

Duffet wrote also : 1. ' The Empress of 
Morocco, a farce' (anon.), 4to, London, 
1674, intended to throw ridicule on Settle's 
popular tragedy of the same title. It is 
followed by ' An Epilogue spoken by Witches 
after the mode of Macbeth,' ' perform'd with 
new and costly machines.' 2. ' The Spanish 
Rogue,' a comedy in verse, 4to, London, 1674. 
This, the most indecent of his plays, is 
appropriately dedicated to 'Madam Ellen 
Gwyn.' 3. 'Beauties Triumph, a masque 
[in verse]. Presented by the Scholars of 
Mr. Jeffery Banister and Mr. James Hart, at 
their new Boarding School for Young Ladies 
and Gentlewomen, kept in that House which 
was formerly Sir Arthur Gorges, at Chelsey,' 
4to, London, 1676, a curious lesson in what 
was then considered high moral culture. 
4. ' Psyche Debauch'd, a comedy,' 4to, Lon- 
don, 1678, a travesty of Shadwell's tragedy. 
To Duffet is ascribed the authorship of the 
anonymous comedy entitled ' The Amorous 
Old Woman. . . . Written by a Person of 
Honour,' 4to, London, 1674 (afterwards re- 
issued with a new title-page, 'The Fond 
Lady,' 4to, London, 1684). He also wrote 
a paltry volume of ' New Poems, Songs, 
Prologues and Epilogues . . . set by the 
most eminent Musicians about the Town,' 
8vo, London, 1676, and a broadsheet ballad, 
undated, called ' Amintor's Lamentation for 
Celia's Unkindness.' 

[Baker's Biog. Dram. (1812), i. 210-11, ii. 25, 
53, 19-i, iii. 52, 186, 293; Notes and Queries, 
3rd ser. xii. 63 ; Brit. Mus. Cat,] G. G. 



DUFFIELD, WILLIAM (1816-1863), 
still-life painter, born at Bath in 1816, and 
educated in that city, was the second son of 
Charles Duffield, at one time proprietor of 
the Royal Union Library. At an early age 
he displayed a decided predilection and talent 
for drawing. Mr. George Doo, the engraver, 
having been struck by Duffield's highly ela- 
borated pen-and-ink sketches and faithful 
copies of his engravings, offered to take him 
as his pupil without a premium. A few years 
later he placed himself under Lance, and was 
noted for his unremitting attention and assi- 
duity as a student of the Royal Academy. 
After completing the usual course of study 
in London, he returned to Bath, and later 
on proceeded to Antwerp, where, under Baron 
Wappers, he worked for two years. In 1857 
he resided at Bayswater, and died on 3 Sept. 
1863. In 1850 he was married to Mary Eliza- 
beth, eldest daughter of Mr. T. E. Rosenberg 
of Bath, and a painter of fruit and flowers ; 
she was a member of the Institute of Painters 
in Water-Colours. 

[Ottley's Dictionary of Recent and Living 
Painters and Engravers ; Redgrave's Dictionary 
of Artists.] L. F. 

DUFFUS, LOKDS. [See SUTHEBLAOT.] 

DUFFY, EDWARD (1840-1868), Fenian 
leader, was born at Ballaghaderreen, county 
of Mayo, in 1840. In 1863 he gave up a 
situation and devoted himself to spreading 
Fenian principles in Connaught, becoming in 
fact ' the life and soul of the Fenian move- 
ment west of the Shannon.' He was arrested 
11 Nov. 1865, with James Stephens, Charles 
J. Kickham, and Hugh Brophy, at Fairfield 
House, Sandymount, but after a brief im- 
prisonment was released on bail in January 
1866, in the belief that he was dying of con- 
sumption. He again applied himself to the 
organisation, was rearrested at Boyle on 
11 March, tried 21 May 1867, and sentenced 
to fifteen years' penal servitude. He was 
found dead in his cell at Millbank prison, 
17 Jan. 1868. The concluding sentences of 
his speech delivered in the dock before con- 
viction have been inscribed on his tomb in 
Glasnevin cemetery, Dublin. 

[T. D. Sullivan's Speeches from the Dock, 
23rd ed. pt. i. pp. 208-10 ; A. M. Sullivan's New 
Ireland, 6th ed. p. 264 ; Webb's Irish Compen- 
dium, p. 160.] G. G. 

DUFIEF, NICOLAS GOUIN (1776?- 
1834), French teacher, a native of Nantes, was 
born in or about 1776. His father, a knight 
of the order of St. Louis, served during the 
revolution as a volunteer under the French 
princes in Germany ; his mother, the Countess- 



Dugard 



133 



Dugard 



Victoire Aimee Libault Gou'inDufief, was per- 
sonally engaged in the many battles fought 
by her relative, General Charette, against the 
revolutionists, for which she was afterwards 
known as ' the heroine of La Vendee.' Dufief, 
though a stripling of fifteen, joined in 1792 the 
royal naval corps assembled under the Count 
d'Hector at Enghein, and went through the 
campaign with his regiment in the army of 
the brothers of Louis XVIII until its dis- 
bandment. The same year he sought refuge 
in England, but soon afterwards sailed for 
the West Indies, and was attracted thence 
to Philadelphia, which he reached in July 
1793. During his sojourn in America he be- 
came acquainted with Dr. Priestley, Thomas 
Jefferson, and other eminent men. Here, 
too, he published an essay on 'The Philo- 
sophy of Language,' in which he first ex- 
plained to the world how he was led to make 
those discoveries ' from which my system of 
universal and economical instruction derives 
such peculiar and manifold advantages.' For 
nearly twenty-five years he taught French 
with success in America and in England, to 
which he returned about 1818. He died at 
Pentonville 12 April 1834. His chief work 
is 'Nature displayed in her mode of teaching 
Language to Man ; being a new and infal- 
lible Method of acquiring Languages with 
unparalleled rapidity: deduced from the ana- 
lysis of the human mind, and consequently 
suited to every capacity: adapted to the 
French. To which is prefixed a development 
of the author's plan of tuition,' 2 vols. 8vo, 
London, 1818, which despite its size and cost- 
liness reached a twelfth edition in the author's 
lifetime. Shortly before his death he com- 
pleted ' A Universal, Pronouncing, and Criti- 
cal French-English Dictionary,' 8vo, London, 
1833. He was author, too, of ' The French 
Self-interpreter, or Pronouncing Grammar,' 
12mo, Exeter (1820 ?). 

[Prefaces to Nature Displayed; Gent. Mag. 
new ser. i. 561.] Gr. G. 

DUGARD, SAMUEL (1645 P-1697), di- 
vine, son of Thomas Dugard, M.A., rector of 
Barford, Warwickshire, by Anne his wife, 
was born at Warwick in or about 1645, his 
father being at the time head-master of the 
grammar school of that town. At the begin- 
ning of 1661, when about sixteen years of 
age, he entered Trinity College, Oxford, as a 
commoner, but was admitted a scholar on 
30 May 1662, and graduated B.A. on 20 Oct. 
1664. Then taking orders, he was elected to 
a fellowship in June 1667, proceeding M.A. 
on the following 31 Oct. He subsequently 
became rector of Forton, Staffordshire, and 
on 2 Jan. 1696-7 was collated to the prebend 



of Pipa Minor alias Frees in Lichfield. He 
died at Forton in the spring of the same year. 
He left a family of five sons and five daugh- 
ters. He published: 1. 'The True Nature 
of the Divine Law, and of Disobedience there- 
unto ; in Nine Discourses, tending to show, 
in the one a Loveliness, in the other a De- 
formity, by way of Dialogue between Theo- 
philus and Eubulus,' 8vo, London, 1687. 
2. ' A Discourse concerning many Children, 
in which the Prejudices against a numerous 
Offspring are removed, and the Objections 
answered, in a Letter to a Friend,' 8vo, Lon- 
don, 1695. Wood also ascribes to him ' The 
Marriages of Cousin Germans vindicated from 
the Censures of Unlawfulnesse and Inexpe- 
diency. Being a Letter written to his much 
Honour'd T. D.' [without author's name], 
8vo, Oxford, 1673, 'mostly taken, as 'tis said, 
from Dr. Jer. Taylor's book called Ductor 
Dubitantium, &c.' In November 1674 Du- 
gard sent to Dr. Ralph Bathurst, vice-chan- 
cellor of Oxford, a ' Relation concerning a 
strange Kind of Bleeding in a Little Child 
at Lilleshall in Shropshire,' which was printed 
in the ' Philosophical Transactions' (ix. 193). 

[Addit. MS. 23146; Wood's Athense Oxon. 
(Bliss), iv. 679; Wood's Fasti (Bliss), ii. 277, 
298 ; Dugdale's Warwickshire (Thomas), pp.488- 
489 ; Le Neve's Fasti (Hardy), i. 619.] G-. G-. 

DUGARD, WILLIAM (1606-1662), 
schoolmaster, son of the Rev. Henry Dugard, 
was born at the Hodges, Bromsgrove Lickey, 
Worcestershire, on 9 Jan. 1605-6. He waa 
educated at the Royal School, by Worcester 
Cathedral ; became a pensioner at Sidney 
Sussex College, Cambridge, under his uncle, 
Richard Dugard, B.D. ; and took degrees of 
B.A. in 1626, and M.A. in 1630. In 1626 
he was usher of Oundle school, and in 1630 
master of Stamford school. In 1635 he sued 
the corporate authorities for misappropriation 
of school lands and other abuses. Two years 
afterwards he became master of Colchester 
grammar school. He increased the number 
of scholars from nine to sixty-nine, and re- 
paired the school at his own expense, but 
gave offence to the townsmen, and was com- 
pelled to resign in January 1642-3. In May 
1644 he was chosen head-master of Merchant 
Taylors' School in London. In 1648 the 
court of aldermen ,Ae'cted him examiner of 
their schools in / Ae country. He was the 
first to set up i, folio register of his school, 
with full particulars of the scholars admitted. 
It is still preserved in the Sion College li- 
brary. This record has two loyal Greek 
verses on the death of Charles I., and two 
other Greek verses on the burial of Crom- 
well's mother. He printed at his private press 



Dugard 



Dugdale 



Salmasius's ' Defensio regia pro Carolo primo,' 
in 1649-50. The council of state committed 
him to Newgate, ordered the destruction of j 
his presses and implements, and directed the 
Merchant Taylors' Company to dismiss him ! 
from their school. His wife and family were 
turned out of doors, and his printing effects, [ 
worth 1,000/., seized. After a month's impri- 
sonment, however, his release was effected by | 
his friendMilton, and hispeace madewithpar- ' 
liament. It is said by Dr. Gill, on the strength 
of Dugard's assertion upon his deathbed, that 
Milton found Dugard printing an edition of 
the ' Eikon Basilike ' about the time of his j 
arrest, and compelled the insertion of the 
prayer from Sidney's ' Arcadia,' which he 
afterwards ridiculed in the ' Eikonoklastes.' 
Milton's answer to Salmasius was printed at 
Dugard's press. 

On Dugard's release from Newgate he 
opened a private school on St. Peter's Hill. 
Bradshaw, however, a few months after- 
wards, ordered the Merchant Taylors' Com- 
pany to replace him for his special services 
to the public as schoolmaster, and as printer 
to the state, and after a third peremptory 
letter Dugard was reinstated 25 Sept. 1650. 
In 1651-2 some of his books were publicly 
burnt by order of the House of Commons, 
such as ' The Racovian Catechism.' Yet in 
the same year he printed a French transla- 
tion of Milton's ' Eikonoklastes,' and calls 
himself ' Guill. Dugard, imprimeur du con- 
seil d'etat.' The governors of the school, on 
the burning of his works, desired him to re- 
linquish his press-work, but his imprint ap- 
pears year by year until his death. In June 
1661, after public warning by the school au- 
thorities of various breaches of order, chiefly 
in taking an excessive number of scholars 
(275), he was dismissed. A month after he 
opened a private school in White's Alley, 
Coleman Street, and soon had 193 pupils 
under his care. He died 3 Dec. 1662. From 
his will, made a month before, he seems to 
have survived his second wife, and left only 
a daughter, Lydia, not of age. His first 
wife, Elizabeth, died at Colchester in 1641. 
Two sons, Richard (b. 25 June 1634) and 
Thomas (b. 29 Nov. 1635), entered Merchant 
Taylors' School in 1644, the former being 
elected to St. John's College 1650. He lived 
at Newington Butts in 1660, when he con- 
cealed in his house James Harrington, author 
of ' Oceana,' and gave a bond for him of 5,000/. 
This was in gratitude to Harrington, who had 
saved him formerly from being tried for his 
life. 

His works are: 1. 'Rudimenta Graecae 
Linguae, for the use of Merchant Taylors' 
School,' before 1656. 2. ' The English Rudi- 



ments of the Latin Tongue,' London, 1656 r 
12mo. 3. ' Yestibulum Linguae Latinae,' Lon- 
don, 1656. 4. ' Lexicon Graeci Testamenti Al- 
phabeticum,' London, 1660, 8vo, pp. 752. The- 
manuscript of a new edition by the younger 
Bowyer, who took great pains with it, was 
[ prepared in 1774, but not published. 5. ' Rhe- 
: tonces Compendium,' London, 8vo. 6. <? Eyx~ 
| pi8iov . . . sive manuale Grsecse Linguae 
Caspario Seidelio,' 3rd edition, London, 1665. 
6. ' Rhetorices Elementa quaestionibus et re- 
sponsionibus explicata,' &c., several editions, 
the 7th, London, 1673, 8vo. 

[Dugard's Works; Stow's Survey, i. 169, 170 1 
203; Wood's Athenae (Bliss), ii. 178 ; Kennett's 
i Register, p. 447; Milton's Works; Journals of the 
House of Commons, 1652; Nichols's Lit. Anecd. 
| i. 525, iii. 164, 290; Reading's Sion College 
Library, p. 41; Wilson's Merchant Taylors' 
School, pp. 159, 268-71, 276, 288, 289, 304-14, 
318, 323-8 ; Morant's Essex, i. 177.] J. W.-G. 

DUGDALE, RICHARD (Jl. 1697), the 
Surey demoniac, who was born about 1660, 
was the son of Thomas Dugdale of Surey, 
near Whalley, Lancashire, a gardener, and 
servant to Thomas Lister of Westby in York- 
shire. In 1689 (or according to another ac- 
count about 1694), when about eighteen years 
of age, he went to the rush-bearing fete at 
Whalley, and getting drunk, quarrelled and 
fought with one of the revellers about dancing, 
an exercise in which he considered he ex- 
celled. On returning to his master's house 
he professed to have seen apparitions, and the 
following day, being unwell and lying down, 
he declared that he had been alarmed by the 
door opening and a mist entering, followed 
by various supernatural appearances. Be- 
coming subject to violent fits, Dugdale left 
his situation and went home, when a phy- 
sician was called in without benefiting him, 
as the fits continued and increased. Dug- 
dale's father now applied to Thomas Jolly, 
the ejected minister of Altham, who with 
eight or nine other nonconformist ministers 
met almost every day at the house and endea- 
voured to exorcise the devil, which Dugdale 
affirmed to possess him, by prayer, examina- 
tion, and fasting, but without result for at 
least a year. Meanwhile Dugdale's fame had 
spread abroad, and he was visited by several 
thousand persons, some dozens making de- 
clarations of his strange condition before Lord! 
Willoughby and other magistrates. It was 
claimed for Dugdale that he foretold future 
events, spoke languages of which he was ig- 
norant, and sometimes with two voices at 
once, was at times wildly blasphemous, and 
at others preached sermons, that he was pos- 
sessed of extraordinary strength, and was 
sometimes ' as light as a bag of feathers, and 



Dugdale 



135 



Dugdale 



at others as heavy as lead,' that he vomited a 
large hair broom, and did a number of other 
miraculous things. Baxter and Mather were 
so impressed that they wished to quote his 
case in their works on witchcraft ; but Lord- 
chief-justice Holt is said to have discovered 
that the whole affair was an imposition. Dug- 
dale seems to have been hysterical, and with 
the aid of his relations to have traded on the 
credulity of his visitors. A number of pam- 
phlets were written, some denouncing him 
as a cheat, and others supporting the theory 
of his demoniacal possession. After the lapse 
of considerably more than a year the fits left 
him, and up to 1697, when he was last heard 
of, he had only had one unimportant return 
of them. A woodcut portrait is prefixed to 
Taylor's ' Surey Impostor.' 

[Noble's Granger, i. 379 ; Hist, of Whalley ; 
The Surey Demoniack (1697) ; Taylor's Surey Im- 
postor (1697) ; Middleton's Miraculous Powers, 
p. 232 (ed. 1749).] A. C. B. 

DUGDALE, STEPHEN (1640 P-1683), 
informer, came first into public notice as a 
' discoverer ' of the so-called Popish plot. He 
had been converted to Romanism by one 
Knight, a priest, in 1657 or 1658, being at 
that date about eighteen years of age. Owing 
to Knight's infirmities Dugdale was trans- 
ferred to Francis Evers, a Jesuit, in Stafford- 
shire. He ingratiated himself into the con- 
fidence of various priests, and professed to 
become acquainted with plots debated at 
private meetings, and to have seen numerous 
letters. At first these were chiefly concern- 
ing money and weapons, ' that they should 
be in readiness with all necessaries when the 
king should die, to assist the duke against 
the protestants ' (Information of 30 Oct. 
1680, p. 2). In 1677 Dugdale was steward to 
Lord Aston at Tixall, Staffordshire, where 
he cheated the workmen of their wages, and 
was regarded as 'the wickedest man that 
ever lived on the face of the earth ' (Sam- 
bridge's testimony at Lord Stafford's trial). 
In July or August letters arrived connected 
with the plot. The Jesuits and the catholic 
lords were said to be deeply implicated. 
Meetings at Tixall followed in August and 
September 1678 ; the death of Sir Edmond- 
bury Godfrey was discussed, and money was 
subscribed lavishly. By September Dugdale 
found himself about to be dismissed for em- 
bezzlement and general misconduct. He 
thereupon 'made his discovery to the justices 
of the peace,' when they issued warrants for 
the apprehension of George Hobson and 
George North. Although he professed to 
have broken open letters from Paris to Evers 
and others, he had little but hearsay evidence, 



and pretended to have destroyed the most 
dangerous documents on the eve of his de- 
parture. He charged John Tasborough and 
Mrs. Ann Price with soliciting him to sign a 
paper of recantation, and offering him 1,0001. 
reward for it. In the following February 
these persons were tried at the king's bench, 
convicted, and sentenced to pay fines respec- 
tively of 2001. and 1001. Price had been Dug- 
dale's fellow-servant and sweetheart at Tixall. 
Afterwards Dugdale led a shifty, vagabond 
life, giving evidence and writing pamphlets, at 
first associating chiefly with Bedloe, Gates, 
and Edward Turberville, but afterwards 
turning against Stephen College [q. v.] and 
confronting Gates. He gave evidence against 
the ' five popish lords ' in October 1678. On 
24 Dec. 1678 he swore an information before 
Thomas Lane and J. Vernon in Staffordshire. 
At the trial of the five Jesuits (13 June 1679, 
&c.) Dugdale charged two of them with 
consulting to bring about the assassination 
of Charles II. He charged Whitebread with 
writing a letter providing for the entertain- 
ment of ' good stout fellows,' viz. the four 
Irish ' ruffians ' who were reported to be hired 
for the regicide. Next day, 14 June, at the 
trial of Richard Langhorn the barrister, 
Dugdale was a chief witness for the prosecu- 
tion. Again, at the trial of Sir George 
"Wakeman, 18 July, &c., Dugdale swore 
' general evidence ; ' but he was already fall- 
ing into discredit, and an acquittal followed. 
He swore, on the second day of Lord Staf- 
ford's trial, 1 Dec. 1680, that the accused had 
been present at the ' consults ' at Tixall in 
September 1628, and also at Abnett's house 
in Stafford, where talk had been about slay- 
ing the king, and that on the 20th or 21st 
Stafford offered him 500/. to commit the 
crime. The prolonged dispute at the trial 
was chiefly concerning dates. But it came 
to light that Dugdale had tried to bribe 
sundry persons to give false evidence against 
Stafford and other persons. On the last day 
of the trial, while the votes were being taken, 
Dugdale walked about very melancholy. 
William Smith, late schoolmaster of Isling- 
ton (who had educated Gates), asked him the 
reason. He replied, ' I believe he'll be 
'quitted, and I am undone; but let what 
will come out I am ruined.' He was under- 
stood to be willing to appear against Shaftes- 
bury, and gave evidence against Stephen 
College at the Old Bailey, when a verdict 
of Ignoramus was returned, 8 July 1681. 
Again on the 17th, at the Oxford trial of the 
same man, Dugdale swore against him, and 
thus came into direct conflict with his old as- 
sociates. Luttrell writes that Dugdale and his 
fellows ' have quite lost their credit,' both with 



Dugdale 



136 



Dugdale 



the court party and the fanatics. In Octo- 
ber Dugdale vainly complained to the council 
of Dr. Lower, who stated that he had treated 
him for an infamous disease, Dugdale having 
sworn at College's trial that his previous ill- 
ness had be.en caused solely by the Romanists 
having tried to poison him. Lower and the 
apothecary proved the case, and the council 
dismissed the false witness ' not to trouble 
them any more.' Dugdale then caused Cap- 
tain Clinton to be apprehended, 28 Dec. 1681, 
for defaming him, but the council set Clinton 
at liberty on bail. Dugdale had fallen into a 
state of abject terror, fancying that a stranger 
whom he met at the Three Tuns, a Charing 
Cross tavern, was Viscount Stafford or his 
ghost come back, and continued so terrified 
with the apprehension that he was very 
uneasy and went away. That both Edward 
Turberville and DugSale gave way to drink, 
and in their delirium tremens imagined spec- 
tres and died miserably, was reported to 
Secretary Jenkins {Intrigues of the Popish 
Plot laid open, pp. 25, 26, 1685). Dugdale 
died a day or two before 26 March 1682-3 
(LrTTKELL, i. 253). 

[Proceedings against the Five Popish Lords 
for High Treason, 25 Oct. 1678; Trial of Thomas 
Whitebread, Harcourt, Gawen, Fenwick, and 
Turner, 1679 ; Trial of Kichard Langhorn, esq., 
at the Old Bailey, for High Treason, 1679 ; Trial 
of Sir George Wakeman, 18 July 1679, &c. ; 
Trial of William, Viscount Stafford, 1680-1 ; 
The Information of Stephen Dugdale, gent., de- 
livered at the Bar of the House of Commons, 
1 Nov. 1680; The Further Information of S. 
Dugdale, delivered at the Bar of the House of 
Commons, 24 Nov. 1680 ; A Narrative of Un- 
heard-of Popish Cruelties towards Protestants 
beyond Seas ; or a New Account of the Bloody 
Spanish Inquisition, published as a Caveat to 
Protestants. By Mr. Dugdale, 1680, and dedi- 
cated to James, duke of Monmouth, by Eichard 
Dugdale [q. v.], trading on the name of Stephen to 
circulate this catchpenny compilation, referring 
to the Tasborough Trial, p. 20, and Stephen Dug- 
dale's fear of the Inquisition ; No Faith or Credit 
to be given to Papists, with Reflections on the 
Perjury of Will. Vise. Stafford, in relation to 
Mr. Stephen Dugdale, by John Smith, gentleman, 
discoverer of the Popish Plot, 1681 (depositions 
of ten obscure witnesses who swore afterwards 
that they had seen Stafford in conversation with 
Dugdale); The Trial and Conviction of John 
Tasborough and Ann Price for Subornation of 
Perjury, in endeavouring to persuade Mr. Dug- 
dale to retract, &c., February 1680; TheTrialof 
Stephen College at Oxford, 17 Aug. 1681 (here 
Dugdale swore that College spoke treasonable 
words against the king at Oxford) ; Cobbett's 
State Trials, vii. Nos. 251, 252, 253, 260, 271, 
viii. No. 281 (Stephen College) ; North's Examen, 
1740 ; LuttrelTs Brief Hist. Eelation, vol. i. 



1857 ; Ballad Society's Bagford Ballads, 1876- 
1878, p. 676, &c. ; Eoxburghe Ballads, 1883, 
iv. 121 et seq. ; Sir John Eeresby's Memoirs, 
1875, pp. 147, 194.] J. W. E. 

DUGDALE, SIR WILLIAM (1605- 
1686), Garter king-of-arms, was born at Shu- 
stoke, near Coleshill, Warwickshire, 12 Sept. 
1605, ' at which time was a swarm of bees in 
his father's garden, then esteemed by some a 
happy presage on the behalf of the babe ' 
(WooD, Fasti, ii. 13). His father, John 
Dugdale, of a Lancashire family, having ac- 
companied some pupils to Oxford, remained 
at the university for his own purposes, at 
thirty matriculating at St. John's College, 
studying civil law, succeeding a kinsman of 
the same surname as bursar and steward of 
his college, and after fourteen years' residence 
selling what property he had in Lancashire 
to settle at Shustoke (cf. WOOD in HAMPER, 
p. 6 n., DUGDALE, ib. pp. 6-7, and RAIXE, 
pp. 5-6). Dugdale was sent at the age of ten 
to Coventry, where he remained at school for 
five years, and then returning home was set 
by his father to read ' Littleton's " Tenures " 
and some other law-books and history.' He 
married in his eighteenth year to please his 
father, who was old and infirm, and after 
whose death he bought Blythe Hall, near 
Coleshill, which remained to the end of his 
days his country home. Here he made the 
acquaintance of William Burton (1575-1645) 
[q. v.], author of the ' Description of Lei- 
cestershire,' and through him of Sir Symon 
Archer [q. v.], who was collecting material for 
a history of Warwickshire, and who, finding 
in Dugdale a love of antiquarian research, 
procured his co-operation in the task. Ac- 
companying Archer on a visit to London, 
Dugdale was introduced by him to Sir Henry 
Spelman, who made him acquainted with Sir 
Christopher (afterwards Lord) Hatton, and 
comptroller of the household of Charles I, 
and strongly advised him to co-operate with 
Roger Dodsworth [q. v.], then collecting 
documents illustrative of the antiquities of 
Yorkshire and of the foundation of monas- 
teries there and in the north of England. 
Dugdale gained through Hatton access to 
the records in the Tower, and to the Cottonian 
collection among other repertories of manu- 
scripts. Dugdale was not rich, but Hatton's 
liberality enabled him to undertake the com- 
pletion of a work on the antiquities of War- 
wickshire independently of Sir Symon Archer. 
Through Hatton's and Spelman's united in- 
fluence Dugdale was appointed a pursuivant 
extraordinary with the title of Blanch Lyon 
in September 1638. In March 1639 he be- 
came Rouge Croix pursuivant, with rooms in 
the Heralds' College and a yearly salary of 



Dugdale 



137 



Dugdale 



201. Hatton is said to have foreseen very 
early the fall of the church of England, and 
he commissioned Dugdale to proceed with a 
draughtsman, both of whose expenses he paid, 
and have drawings made of the monuments 
and armorial bearings, and copies taken of the 
epitaphs, in Westminster Abbey, St. Paul's, 
and a number of provincial churches. Their 
mission seems to have been performed in 
1641 (cf. DUGDALE, Life, by himself, in HAM- 
PER, p. 14, and Epistle Dedicatory to History 
of St. Paul's). 

Dugdale was summoned as a pursuivant to 
attend the king at York on 1 June 1642, and 
when the civil Avar broke out he was em- 
ployed in the delivery of royal warrants de- 
manding the submission of garrisons holding 
towns and fortified places for the parliament. 
He accompanied Charles I to Oxford when 
it became the royalist headquarters, October 
1642, and in the following month he received 
from the university the degree of M.A. He 
was created Chester herald on 10 April 1644. 
His estate being among those sequestrated, 
and the allowance granted him by the king 
remaining unpaid, he seems to have supported 
himself for some time on what he received 
for arranging and marshalling the elaborate 
funerals of persons of station (Life, p. 21 ; 
WOOD, Fasti, ii. 18). During his stay in Oxford 
he frequented assiduously the Bodleian and 
other libraries, collegiate and private, to col- 
lect, materials for his * Warwickshire,' for the 
work which developed into the ' Monasticon,' 
and for one on the history of the English peer- 
age (see the preface to his Baronage), a scheme 
also projected and in part executed by Roger 
Dodsworth [q. v. ] On the surrender of Oxford 
to Fairfax, 20 June 1646, Dugdale proceeded 
to London and compounded for his estate, 
the whole amount of his payments being 168/. 
In the summer of 1648 he spent three months 
in Paris with his exiled friends the Hattons, 
and derived some information respecting alien 
priories in England from an examination of 
the collections on the history of French 
monasteries left by the well-known Andre 
Duchesne. In 1649-50 Dugdale was busy 
with the ' Warwickshire ' and the ' Monasti- 
con.' In August 1651, speaking of the ' Mo- 
nasticon ' as Dodsworth's ' work of monastery 
foundations ' (Correspondence in HAMPER, 
p. 264), Dugdale says that it is ' ready for 
the press,' but in January 1652 (ib. p. 266) 
that he had been some eight months away from 
home in London, ' so great a task have I had 
to bring Mr. Dodsworth's confused collections 
into any order, and perfect the copy from the 
Tower and Sir Thomas Cotton's library.' 
The London booksellers having declined the 
first two volumes of the ' Monasticon ' for a 



sum sufficient to cover the cost of the tran- 
scripts made for them, according to Dugdale 
( Life, by himself, p. 24), he and Dodsworth 
'joined together and hired several sums of 
money ' to defray the expense of publication. 
Rushworth, of the ' Historical Collections,' 
contributed so liberally for this object that 
the work, Dugdale acknowledges (Corre- 
spondence, p. 284), could not have been pub- 
lished without him. Only a tenth part of 
the first volume had gone through the press, 
but the remainder of both volumes was ready 
for it, when Dodsworth died, August 1654. 
The proportion in which Dodsworth and 
Dugdale contributed to the first two volumes 
has been a subject of dispute (cf. GOUGH, 
Anecdotes of British Topography, p. 55, 
HUNTER, pp. 247-9, WOOD, Fasti, p. 24, and 
RAINE, pp. 16-19). In the first draft of Sir 
John Marsham's UpoTrvKaiov, prefixed to vol. i., 
Dugdale's share in the work seems to have 
been ignored (Somner to Dugdale, Correspond- 
ence, p. 282). But in it when printed, and 
while ascribing to Dodsworth the chief ho- 
nour of the work, Marsham spoke of Dugdale 
as one ' qui tantam huic operi supellectilem 
contulit, ut authoris alterius titulum optime 
meritus sit.' Both volumes were undoubt- 
edly edited by Dugdale, who, writing a short 
time before the appearance of vol. i., says : 
' It hath wholly rested on my shoulders ; 
nay, I can manifest it sufficiently that a full 
third part of the collection is mine' (Cor- 
respondence, p. 284), and he adds that Rush- 
worth, who had done financially so much for 
the work, ' would not by any means but that 
I should be named with Mr. Dodsworth as a 
joint collector of the materials.' 

The first volume of the monumental work 
was issued in 1655, with the title ' Monasti- 
con Anglicanum, sive Pandectse Coenobiorum 
Benedictinorum, Cluniacensium, Cistercien- 
sium, Carthusianorum, a primordiis ad eorum 
usque dissolutionem, ex MSS. Codd. ad Mo- 
nasteria olim pertinentia ; archivis Turrium 
Londinensis, Eboracensis, Curiarum Scac- 
carii, Augmentationum ; Bibliothecis Bod- 
leiana, Coll. Reg. Coll. Bened., Arundelliana, 
Cottoniana, Seldeniana, Hattoniana, aliisque 
digest! perRogerum Dodsworth Eborac.,Guli- 
elmum Dugdale Warwic.' The volume con- 
sists largely of charters of foundation, dona- 
tion, and confirmation (in the last two cases 
frequently abridged) granted to monastic esta- 
blishments, the Latin translations of those 
in Anglo-Saxon being executed by Somner. 
In editing them Dugdale often showed a lack 
of critical discernment (see Sir Roger Twys- 
den's letter to him, Correspondence, p. 335). 
It contains also a vast mass of information re- 
specting the history and biography of English 



Dugdale 



138 



Dugdale 



monachism, and of cathedrals and collegiate 
churches. Of the numerous architectural 
and other plates (see catalogue of them in 
LOWNDES, ii. 684), several are by Hollar, and 
inscriptions on many of them record that these 
were executed at the expense of the persons 
whose names and armorial bearings are given. 
The publication of the volume excited the ire 
of many puritans, but it was cordially wel- 
comed by the quasi-puritan Lightfoot, then 
vice-chancellor of Cambridge, (Correspon- 
dence, p. 290). It was rather largely purchased 
by the English Roman catholic gentry, and for 
the libraries of foreign monasteries, and thus 
it gradually became scarce. Accordingly, in 
1682, appeared a second edition of it, ' editio 
secunda, auctior et emendatior. cum altero ac 
elucidiori indice,' a reprint of the first edition, 
with a few insignificant additions and omis- 
sions (see collation of it in the catalogue of the 
Grenville Library, Brit. Mus., pt. i. p. 213). 
In the following year, 1656, was issued 
Dugdale's archaeological and topographical 
masterpiece, on which so many county his- 
tories have been modelled his ' Antiquities 
of Warwickshire. Illustrated from Records, 
Leiger-Books, Manuscripts, Charters, Evi- 
dences, Tombes, and Armes. Beautified with 
maps, prospects, and portraictures,' with a 
dedication to Lord Hatton and an address 
' to the Gentry of Warwickshire,' in which 
Sir Symon Archer's labours are gratefully 
acknowledged. Most of the plates are by 
Hollar, though on many of them his name 
does not appear (see catalogue of all of them 
in UPCOTT, p. 1247, &c.) The county is de- 
scribed hundred by hundred, and the topo- 
graphy follows as nearly as possible the course 
of the streams. The bulk of the volume con- 
sists of pedigrees and histories of county fa- 
milies, in conjunction with accounts of the 
places where they were settled, and of reli- 
gious and charitable foundations and their 
founders, all of them remarkable for general 
accuracy, and accompanied by constant re- 
ferences to authorities. Jeremy Taylor, ac- 
knowledging a presentation copy, spoke of 
the volume as ' very much the best of any- 
thing that ever I saw in that kind ; ' and 
Anthony a Wood (Life, by himself, p. xxiv) 
could not find language adequate to describe 
how his ' tender affections and insatiable desire 
of knowledge was ravished and melted down 
by the reading of that book.' In 1718 was 
issued a second edition, ' printed for John 
Osborn and Thomas Longman at the Ship 
in Paternoster Row,' revised from Dugdale's 
own corrected copy, the editor, the Rev. Dr. 
William Thomas, continuing the work to the 
time of publication, and adding sundry maps 
and views (see collation of it in UPCOTT, 



p. 1259, &c.) In 1763-5 a third and hitherto- 
the latest edition was issued in numbers by 
a Coventry printer, being a verbatim reprint 
of the original edition with maps, &c., from 
Thomas's. An interleaved copy of this third 
edition in the library of the British Museum 
contains much additional printed and manu- 
script matter, some of it from the author's 
original manuscript, and inserted by Hamper, 
the diligent and competent editor of Dug- 
dale's autobiography, diary, and correspond- 
ence. 

In or about 1656 there came into Dugdale's 
hands a mass of documents relating to old 
St. Paul's, and working on this and other 
material he produced in 1658 ' The History 
of St. Paul's Cathedral in London. From the- 
foundation until these times. Extracted out 
of original Charters, Records, Leiger-Books, 
and other manuscripts. Beautified with sun- 
dry prospects of the Church, figures of tombs 
and monuments,' some of them destroyed 
during the puritan regime. The volume was 
appropriately dedicated to Lord Hatton. Most 
of the plates are by Hollar (see catalogue of 
them in UPCOTT, p. 695). The work is ex- 
tremely valuable, from the descriptions and 
drawings of St. Paul's before its destruction 
by the fire of London. Dugdale left a copy 
of it corrected, enlarged, and continued as if 
for a new edition, and the discovery of this 
led to the publication by the Rev. Dr. May- 
nard of a second edition (1716). Dugdale's 
continuation, printed here, extending to 1685, 
gives lists of the subscribers to and sub- 
scriptions for both a restoration of the old 
fabric just before the fire of London, and for 
the erection of the new fabric after it, with 
copious financial details of the latter opera- 
tion. Maynard added Dugdale's autobio- 
graphy, and, under a wrong impression that 
it was Dugdale's, 'An Historical Account 
of the Northern Cathedrals,' &c., which was 
omitted in the third, the last and the best,, 
edition of the 'History of St. Paul's,' that 
of 1818, by the late Sir Henry Ellis, 'with 
a continuation ' embracing the modern his- 
tory of St. Paul's ' and additions, including^ 
the republication of Sir William Dugdale's 
! own life from his own manuscript.' The- 
plates were throughout engraved chiefly by 
Finden, and to faithful copies of most of those 
j in the original work were added many illus- 
j trative of the present cathedral. 

With the Restoration Dugdale at once and 
spontaneously resumed his heraldic functions 
by proclaiming the king at Coleshill, May 10 
1660 (Diary in HAMPER, p. 105). On the 14th 
of the following month he was appointed 
Norroy through the influence of Clarendon, 
who appreciated his literary labours. In 1661 



Dugdale 



139 



Dugdale 



was issued, with an adulatory dedication to 
Charles II, the second volume of the ' Monas- 
ticon,' ' Monastic! Anglican! Volumen alte- 
rum, de Canonicis Regularibus Augustinianis, 
scilicet Hospitalariis, Templariis, Gilbertinis, 
Prsemonstratensibus & Maturinis, sive Trini- 
tariis, cum appendice ad volumen primum de 
Ccenobiis aliquot Gallicanis, Hibernicis et 
Scoticis, necnon quibusdam Anglicanis antea 
omissis.' As in vol. i., Dodsworth's and Dug- 
dale's names appear together on the title-page 
of vol. ii., the issue of which had been deferred 
until the proceeds of the sale of the other 
enabled Dugdale to bear the expense of pub- 
lishing it. He was allowed to import the 
paper for it duty free. Several of the plates 
(see catalogue of them in LOWNDES, ii. 685) 
are engraved by Hollar. In 1662 appeared 
Dugdale's ' History of Imbanking and Drayn- 
ing of divers Fenns and Marshes, both in 
foreign parts and in this Kingdom, and of the 
improvements thereof ' a work conspicuous 
for its prolixity as well as for its exhibition 
of research. It was written at the instance 
of Lord Gorges, surveyor-general of the great 
level of the fens, of which it contains a 
history and minute topographical description, 
illustrated by maps and plans, and preceded 
by a vast mass of matter very little relevant 
to that undertaking. There is an account 
of the volume, with extracts, in the article 
' Agriculture : Draining ' in the ' Quarterly 
Review ' for December 1844. Dugdale re- 
ceived for it from Lord Gorges 1501. Five 
hundred copies of it having been destroyed 
in the fire of London (see Dugdale's letter of 
15 Oct. 1666, printed in the catalogue of the 
Grenville Library, Brit. Mus., pt. i. p. 215), 
the volume became so scarce that a copy of 
it fetched ten guineas when in 1772 it was 
reissued, with the spelling modernised, at 
the expense of the corporation of the Bedford 
Level, and edited by their registrar, C. N. 
Cole, partly from the copy used by Dugdale 
himself. In 1666 (not 1664, the date given 
by Dugdale in his autobiography) were pub- 
lished two works of Sir Henry Spelman's, 
edited by Dugdale for Sir Henry's grandson, 
Charles Speknan : (1) the ' Glossarium Ar- 
chfeologicum,' mainly a reissue of part 1 of 
the ' Archseologus ' published in 1626, with 
the addition of part ii., which had remained 
in manuscript. A groundless charge was 
brought against Dugdale of having interpo- 
lated this work to gratify his political pre- 
judices (cf. Life, by himself, p. 29 n., and 
BISHOP GIBSON'S Life of Spelman, a. 4) ; 
(2) vol. ii. of the ' Concilia,' greatly enlarged 
by Dugdale's contributions, which are marked 
with an asterisk. Clarendon and Sheldon 
were contributors to the fund of 3161. sub- 



scribed to defray the cost of the publication, 
of both books, the sale of which yielded a 
profit of 201, , though the ' greater part ' of the 
impression, in which Dugdale had a pecu- 
niary interest, was destroyed in the fire of 
London. His account of the expenditure in 
the publication of these works contains the 
curious item {Correspondence, p. 360 n.) of 
II. 9s. 6d. ' spent in entertainments upon the 
booksellers when I did receive moneys from, 
them.' In 1666 was published his ' Origines 
Juridiciales, or Historical Memorials of the 
English Laws, Courts of Justice,' &c. ' Also^ 
a Chronologic of the Lord Chancellors ' and 
other holders of judicial olfices. The informa- 
tion given respecting the inns of court, and 
chancery is particularly copious and curious. 
With the exception of a few presentation 
copies, the whole impression of this volume 
was destroyed in the fire of London. A second 
edition of it was published in 1671 and a third 
in 1680, in both the lists of chancellors, &c., 
being continued up to date. Abridgments 
of it, with similar continuations, appeared 
in 1685 and 1737. A ' History and Antiqui- 
ties of the Inns of Court,' extracted from 
Dugdale, published with a view to correct 
abuses in their administration, and said to 
be edited by John Brayner (Brit. Mus. Cat.), 
appeared in 1780, and reappeared in the same 
year as part ii. of ' History and Antiquities 
relative to the Origin of Government,' almost 
wholly extracted from Dugdale. Both parts 
were reissued in 1790 as ' Historical Memo- 
rials of the English Laws ' (TJpcoTT, p. 762). 
The third and final volume of the ' Mo- 
uasticon ' was issued in 1673 without Dods- 
worth's name on the title-page, though doubt- 
less it contained material collected by him 
(WooD, Fasti, ii. 25). The full title is ' Mo- 
nastic! Anglicani Volumen tertium et ulti- 
mum : Additamenta qusedam in volumen 
primum ac volumen secundum jampridem 
edita : Necnon Fundationes sive Dotationes 
Ecclesiarum Cathedralium ac Collegiatarum 
continens : ex archivis Regiis, ipsis autogra- 
phis, ac diversis codicibus manuscriptis de- 
cerpta, et hie congesta per Will. Dugdale 
Warwicensem.' In a prefatory address Dug- 
dale acknowledges his obligations to Sir Tho- 
mas Herbert and Anthony a Wood, who con- 
tributed many charters to the volume. For- 
the copyright Dugdale received 50/. and 
twenty copies of the volume. An outcry, by 
no means wholly puritan, was, with its com- 
pletion, renewed against the work as furnish- 
ing details respecting the landed property 
taken from the Roman catholics during Re- 
formation times, and thus aiding them to 
claim its recovery when, as was then dreaded 
by many, their religion should be re-esta- 



Dugdale 



140 



Dugdale 



Wished and re-endowed. The first abridg- 
ment of the whole work for English readers 
was published in 1693, and its title-page re- 
presents the ' Monasticon' as ' now epitomised 
in English page by page. With sculptures 
of the several religious habits.' It is an ex- 
tremely meagre performance, its three volumes 
containing only some 330 pages, and it has 
scarcely any value higher than that of a 
table of contents. The dedication is signed 
' J. W.,' supposed to be James Wright, the 
historian of Rutlandshire. According to 
Granger (Biog. Hist, of England, 2nd ed. iii. 
116), the publication of the 'Monasticon' 
' was productive of many lawsuits by the 
revival of old writings,' and * J. W.,' in an 
address ' to the reader,' mentions the notice- 
able fact that the work had been admitted in 
the courts at Westminster as ' good circum- 
stantial evidence' when the records tran- 
scribed in it could not otherwise be recovered. 
A second English abridgment, much more 
worthy of the original, appeared in 1718, 'Mo- 
nasticon Anglicanum, or the Histories of the 
ancient Abbies, Monasteries,' &c. ' The whole 
corrected and supplied with many useful ad- 
ditions by an eminent hand,' doubtless the 
Captain John Stevens who in 1722-3 added to 
Dugdale's work two supplementary volumes 
containing many charters and the histories of 
the friaries not given in the ' Monasticon.' 
This abridgment is wholly in English. The 
edition of the 'Monasticon' which has prac- 
tically superseded all the others is the magni- 
ficent one in 6 vols. (in 8) fol. with the imprint 
1817-30: 'Monasticon Anglicanum . . . anew 
edition enriched with a large accession of ma- 
terials now first printed . . . the history of 
each religious foundation in English being pre- 
fixedto irrespective series of Latin charters.' 
It was published in fifty-four parts, the first 
of which was issued on 1 June 1813, under 
the editorship of the Rev. Bulkeley Bandinel, 
the chief librarian of the Bodleian. After 
the issue of part four there were associated 
with him John Caley, of the augmentation 
office, and Mr., subsequently Sir Henry Ellis, 
principal librarian of the British Museum, who 
seems thenceforth chiefly to have discharged 
the duties of editorship. What was best in 
Stevens's additions was incorporated in this 
edition, which contains accounts of hundreds 
of religious houses not mentioned by Dugdale. 
Hollar's chief plates were re-engraved for it, 
and its 246 illustrations are said to have cost 
six thousand guineas. The so-called new 
edition, 8 vols. 1846, is simply a reprint of 
this (see Notes and Queries, 4th ser. ix. 506, 
x. 18, 218). 

Acommission, dated 2 July 1662 ( Cal. State 
Fapers, Dom. 1662, p. 427), had directed Dug- 



dale, as Norroy, to make a visitation of his 
province there had been none for fifty years 
or so and there ' to reform and correct all 
arms unlawfully borne or assumed,' often at 
the suggestion and with the sanction, espe- 
cially during the Commonwealth times, of de- 
puties of former heralds as well as of other less 
authorised persons whose right to exercise 
heraldic functions Dugdale denied. His pro- 
vince comprised the counties of Derby, Not- 
tingham, Stafford, Chester, Lancaster, York, 
the bishopric of Durham, Northumberland, 
Cumberland, and Westmoreland, and during 
his visitations, 1662-70, he dealt severely 
with those whom he regarded as interlopers 
usurping his authority and intercepting the 
emoluments of his office. He tore down the 
hatchments which they had set up, he de- 
nounced and resisted their attempts to mar- 
shal funerals, and one of them whose heraldic 
authority had been very generally accepted 
in Cheshire and Lancashire, the third Randle 
Holme or Holmes [q. v.], he also prosecuted 
at Stafford assizes, recovering from him 
201. damages with costs. So stringent was 
his procedure that a lady of rank in Cum- 
berland is found appealing to Joseph Wil- 
liamson, then under-secretary of state, and 
expressing her fear that an approaching funeral 
would be disturbed by Dugdale, from whom 
a menacing letter had been received (ib. 1664- 
1665, p. 272). Of his accounts of visitations 
the following have been published: 1. ' The 
Visitation of the County of Yorke, begun 
1665, and finished 1666,' printed by the 
Surtees Society 1859, and said to be edited 
by R. Davies ; an index to it by G. J. Ar- 
mytage appeared in 1872. 2. ' The Visita- 
tion of the County Palatine of Lancaster, 
made in 1664-5,' 1872, &c., being vols. Ixxxiv. 
Ixxxv. Ixxxviii. of the Chetham Society's pub- 
lications, Canon Raine, the editor, prefixing 
to vol. Ixxxviii. an excellent memoir of Dug- 
dale. Vol. xxiv. of the same society's pub- 
lications contains ' A Fragment illustrative 
of Dugdale's Visitation of Lancashire,' 1851. 
3. 'The Visitation of Derbyshire taken in 
1662,' 1879. Dugdale was created Garter 
king-of-arms oh 24 May 1677, with a salary 
of 100/. a year and an official residence 
(much dilapidated) at Windsor. He built 
himself a residence in the College of Arms. 
On being made Garter he was knighted. 

In 1675-6 had appeared Dugdale's im- 
portant work, ' The Baronage of England, or 
an Historical Account of the Lives and most 
Memorable Actions of our English Nobility. 
Deduced from public records, antient his- 
torians, and other authorities,' 3 vols. fol. 
His researches went back to the Saxon times, 
and his record covers all the peerages of the 



Dugdale 



141 



Dugdale 



period between them and the years of publi- 
cation. Authorities are constantly cited in 
the margin. In the preface, giving the his- 
tory and plan of the work, he acknowledges 
his debt to the manuscript collections of 
Robert Glover, the Somerset herald, and 
to 'the elaborate collections from the Pipe 
Rolls made by Mr. Roger Dodsworth, my late 
deceased friend ' for a baronage never com- 
pleted. Preceded only by such meagre per- 
formances as Brooke's ' Catalogue of Nobility,' 
Dugdale's genealogical, historical, and bio- 
graphical account of the English peerage 
was the first work worthy of its subject. His 
notices of the numerous extinct peerages have 
secured it from being superseded by the great 
work of Arthur Collins among others, and of 
the portions of Dugdale's volumes relating to 
them extensive use has been made by Thomas 
Christopher Banks [q. v.] in his ' Dormant 
and Extinct Baronage of England.' Of course 
in a first performance on the scale of Dug- 
dale's there were many errors. Anthony a 
Wood, who furnished Dugdale with numer- 
ous corrections for a second edition, says that 
the officers of the College of Arms found that 
they could not rely on Dugdale's pedigrees 
(Fasti, ii. 26). Specialists in isolated sections 
of peerage history have pointed out serious 
mistakes in the work, none with more acri- 
mony than the author of ' Three Letters con- 
taining remarks on some of the numberless 
errors and defects in Dugdale's " Baronage," ' 
&c., 1730-8, attributed in the ' Biographia 
Britannica ' (art. 'Dugdale') where cha- 
racteristic extracts from it are given to a 
certain Cfharles Hornby, secondary of the 
pipe office, but by the Gloucester bookseller 
who reprinted them in 1801 to Rawlinson 
the antiquary. On the merits of the ' Baro- 
nage,' and what through more recent research 
have become its deficiencies, there are judi- 
cious remarks in the article 'The Ancient 
Earldoms of England ' in vol. i. (p. 1 et seq.) 
of Nichols's ' Topographer and Genealogist ' 
(1846), where stress is laid on the good 
example set by Dugdale, and not always fol- 
lowed by some even of the best of his suc- 
cessors, in rejecting ' legendary fictions and 
cunningly devised fables to flatter either the 
fond fancies of old families or the unwarranted 
assumptions of new.' Dugdale received per- 
mission to import for vols. ii. and iii. of the 
' Baronage ' paper duty free, so that the amount 
remitted should not exceed 4OOI. From the 
booksellers to whom he sold the copyright of 
the ' Baronage ' he was to receive twenty- 
four copies of the work in quires and ten 
shillings a sheet, which would yield a little 
more than 150Z. The year after the publi- 
cation of the last volume they told him that 



few copies remained unsold, and that a new 
edition would be brought out 'ere long r 
(Correspondence, p. 413), but no second 
edition of the ' Baronage ' has ever appeared. 
Dugdale's own corrections and additions are 
printed in vols. i. and ii. of Nichols's ' Col- 
lectanea Historica et Topographica ' (1834- 
1843), in vols. iv-viii. of which work are 
also given nearly all of those, much more 
numerous, which were left in a finished state 
by Francis Townsend, Windsor herald (d. 
1819), who made them for his projected new 
edition of the ' Baronage.' 

Dugdale's other and subsequently pub- 
lished works are: 1. 'A Short View of the 
late Troubles in England ... As also some 
parallel thereof with the Barons' Wars in the 
time of K. Henry III. But chiefly with that 
in France called the Holy in the reigns of 
Henry III and Henry IV, late Kings of the 
Realm. To which is added a perfect nar- 
rative of the Treaty of Uxbridge in 1644 ' 
(published anonymously), 1681. This work 
is written throughout in a strain of vehe- 
ment animosity to all who took the anti- 
royalist side, and has little historical value, 
though as a chronicle and from the copious- 
ness and precision of its dates it may be use- 
ful for reference. The narrative of the Treaty 
of Uxbridge is merely a reprint of a pam- 
phlet printed at Oxford in 1645, which con- 
tained the text of communications between 
the king and the parliament, with the mani- 
festos of both, and which Dugdale may or may 
not at the time of its issue have seen through 
the press. 2. ' The Ancient Usage in bearing 
of such Ensigns of Honour as are commonly 
call'd Arms, with a Catalogue of the present 
Nobility of England . . . Scotland . . . and 
Ireland,' 1682. This, mainly a compilation, 
includes lists of knights of the Garter, of baro- 
nets to 1681, and of the shires and boroughs 
in England and Scotland returning members 
to the parliaments of the two countries, these 
last, according to Anthony a Wood (Fasti, ii. 
27), having been drawn up by Charles Spel- 
man. The edition of 1812 has been noticed 
under BANKS, THOMAS CHKISTOPHEE. 3. ' A 
perfect copy of all Summons of the Nobility 
to the Great Councils and Parliaments of this 
realm from the xlix. of Henry the III d until 
these present times,' 1685, a contribution of 
some value to peerage literature. In the pre- 
face Dugdale argues in an anti-democratic 
spirit against certain statements of the claims 
to antiquity of popular representation in par- 
liament. A verbatim reprint was issued in 
1794 (?) at Birmingham (LOWNDES, ii. 693). 
4. 'The Life of ... Sir William Dugdale . . . 
published from an original manuscript,' 1713. 
This, one of Edmund Curll's publications, was- 



Dugdale 



142 



Dugdale 



the first appearance in print of Dugdale's au- 
tobiography. 5. ' Directions for the Search 
of Records and Making Use of them, in order 
to an Historicall Discourse of the Antiquities 
of Staffordshire,' written for Dr. Plot, the 
historian of that county, printed in Ives's 
'Select Papers, chiefly relating to English 
Antiquities,' 1773, and interesting from its 
account of the local distribution of the public 
records in Dugdale's time. The letters be- 
tween Dugdale and Sir Thomas Browne, 
published in the latter's posthumous works, 
are given in the correspondence in Hamper's 
work. 

Evelyn in his 'Diary,' 21 May 1685, men- 
tions dining at the table of Henry, second 
earl of Clarendon, ' my lord privy seal's,' in 
the company of Dugdale, who spoke of him- 
self, then in his eighty-first year, as ' having his 
sight and his memory perfect.' He died ' in 
his chair ' at Blythe Hall, 10 Feb. 1686, of 
fever, according to Anstis (HAMPER, p. 41 n.), 
'contracted by tarrying too long in the mea- 
dows near his house.' He had spent a good 
deal of money in improving his estate, and 
this explains Anthony a Wood's reference to 
his death as caused ' by attendance too much 
on his worldly concerns.' Wood's intimacy 
with Dugdale had been disturbed by at least 
one serious disagreement, but his verdict on 
him (Fasti, ii. 28) is much more just than 
that of Anstis, who, because Dugdale was not 
only laborious himself but skilful in making 
use, to all appearance both legitimate and 
duly acknowledged, of the labours of others, 
has stigmatised him as 'that grand plagiary ' 
(HAMPER, p. 497 n.) That Dugdale was a 
man of helpful disposition there are several 
indications, such as those in the autobio- 
graphy of Gregory King [q. v.], the Lancas- 
ter herald, who when very young entered 
his service, and Somner's grateful statement 
that without his ' most active and effective 
assistance ' his ' Dictionarium Saxonico-La- 
tino-Anglicum ' could never have been pub- 
lished. Almost the only glimpse of Dugdale 
in private life is given by Anthony a Wood, 
who spent some days with him (August 1676) 
among the records in the Tower, and who 
describes them as dining together daily in 
jovial company 'at a cook's house within the 
Tower.' In January 1678 Dugdale was al- 
lowed to import ' two tuns of wine ' free of 
duty (BLACK, No. 1134, 146 a.) He be- 
queathed many of his manuscripts to the 
Ashmolean Museum at Oxford, founded by his 
son-in-law, Elias Ashmole [q. v.], and they 
have been since transferred with its other 
manuscripts to the Bodleian. The catalogue 
of them, published by Bishop Gibson in 1692, 
is reprinted in the appendix (No. II) to Ham- 



per's volume. Others, more or less important, 
were when Hamper wrote in the possession 
j of a descendant of Dugdale at Merevale, 
Warwickshire. The collections which he 
made for Lord Hatton belonged in 1860 to 
I that nobleman's representative, the Earl of 
j Winchilsea (Notes and Queries, 2nd ser. x. 
I 76). Many of his pedigrees and other manu- 
scripts are in the British Museum ; among 
them (Lansdowne MS. No. 722) is a brief 
diary of one of Dugdale's journeys when 
he was writing his account of draining 
in the fen county, ' Things Observable in 
our Itinerary begun from London, 19 May 
1657.' 

Sir William Dugdale's only surviving son, 
JOHN (1628-1700), born 1 June 1628, was 
appointed with the Restoration chief gentle- 
man usher to the great Lord Clarendon on 
26 Oct. 1675 ; Windsor herald, deputy to his 
father as Garter, 8 Dec. 1684 ; and Norroy 
March 1686, when he was knighted. He was 
a faithful and affectionate son, and is sup- 
posed to have written the continuation of 
his father's life from 1678, when the auto- 
biography breaks off. Certainly he wrote 
down from his father's table-talk ' Some 
Short Stories of Sir William Dugdale's, in 
substance as neere his words as can be re- 
memb'red,' a few extracts from which are 
given by Hamper. In 1685 was printed, on 
a single sheet, ' A Catalogue of the Nobility 
of England according to their respective pre- 
cedencies as it was presented to his Majesty 
by John Dugdale, Esq., . . . deputy to Sir 
Wm. Dugdale, on New Year's Day, 1684,' 
i.e. 1684-5, ' to which is added the blazon 
of their paternal Coats of Arms respectively, 
and a list of the present Bishops,' reprinted 
with additions (LOWNDES, ii. 683) in 1690. 
Sir John Dugdale died at Coventry 31 Aug. 
1700. 

[Dugdale's Works ; The Life (written by him- 
self and continued to his death), Diary, and Cor- 
respondence of Sir William Dugdale . . . with an 
appendix containing an account of his published 
writings . . . edited by William Henry Hamper, 
1 vol. 4to, London, 1827; Biographia Britannica 
(Kippis); Wood's Athense Oxonienses, ed. Bliss; 
Bishop Gibson's Life of Sir Henry Spelman, 
prefixed to his edition of Sir Henry Spelman's 
English Works, 1723; Noble's History of the 
College of Arms, 1804; Upcott's Bibliographical 
Account of English Topography, 1818; Gough's 
British Topography, 1780, and Anecdotes of 
British Topography, 1768; Lowndes's Biblio- 
grapher's Manual, ed. Bohn ; Joseph Hunter's 
Three Catalogues describing the contents of the 
. . . Dodsworth MSS. in the Bodleian, &c., 
1838 ; W. H. Black's Catalogue of the Ashmo- 
lean Manuscripts, 1845; Catalogue British Mu- 
seum Library ; authorities cited.] F. E. 



Dugres 



'43 



Duigenan 



DUGRES, GABRIEL (Jl. 1643), gram- 
marian, born at Saumur, alludes obscurely 
to his origin in his life of Richelieu, where, 
.after stating that he came of a good family 
of Angiers, he says that his paternal uncle 
lived at the French court together with other 
relations, the MM. les Botrus, who were 
greatly favoured by the queen during Riche- 
lieu's ascendency over Louis XIII. Obliged 
to quit France on account of his religion in 
1631, he came to Cambridge, where he gave 
lessons in French, and by the liberality of 
his pupils was enabled to publish his ' Breve 
et Accuratum Grammaticse Gallicse Com- 
pendium, in quo superflua rescinduntur & 
necessaria non omittuntur,' 8vo, Cambridge, 
[1636. Three years later he was teaching at 
)xford, as appears from his ' Dialogi Gallico- 
Anglico-Latini,' 8vo, Oxford, 1639. Some of 
these dialogues are very amusing as giving a 
picture of the mode of living and manners of 
our forefathers. A second edition, enlarged, 
with ' Regulfe Pronunciandi, ut et Verborum 
Gallicorum Paradigmata,' appeared 8vo, Ox- 
ford, 1652; a third, without the additions, 
was issued 12mo, Oxford, 1660. Dugres was 
also author of 'Jean Annan Du Plessis, Duke 
of Richelieu and Peere of France ; his Life, 
&c.,' 8vo, London, 1643, which, although 
written, as he says, with ' a ruffe pen,' is an 
interesting tract. It was followed by a trans- 
lation ' out of the French copie ' of The Will 
and Legacies of Cardinall Richelieu . . . to- 
gether with certaine Instructions which he 
left the French King. Also some remarkeable 
passages that hath happened in France since 
the death of the said Cardinall,' 4to, London, 
1643. 

[Prefaces to Works cited above, which correct 
the account of Dugres given in Wood's Athense 
Oxon. (Bliss), iii. 184.] G. G, 

DU GUERNIER, LOUIS (1677-1716), 
engraver, born in Paris in 1677, was pro- 
bably a descendant of the well-known French 
artists of the same name. He was a pupil of 
Louis de Chatillon, and came to England in 
1708. He was a member of the academy 
in Great Queen Street, and gained consider- 
able skill as a designer, etcher, and en- 
graver there. He was eventually chosen one 
of the directors, and remained so until he 
died. He was specially employed on small 
historical subjects, as illustrations to books 
and plays. In 1714 he was associated with 
Claude du Bosc [q. v.] in engraving the 
battles of the Duke of Marlborough. Among 
other plates engraved by him were portraits 
of the Duke and Duchess of Queensberry after 
Kneller, Dr. Isaac Barrow, Thomas Otway, 
and others ; also an engraving of ' Lot and 



his Daughters,' after Michel Angelo da Cara- 
vaggio, done at the request of Charles, lord 
Halifax, and some plates for Baskett's large 
Bible. He died of small-pox 19 Sept. 1710, 
aged 39. Vertue says that ' he was of stature 
rather low than middle size, very obliging, 
good temper, gentleman-like, and well be- 
loved by all of his acquaintance.' 

[Redgrave's Diet, of Artists ; Bellier de la 
Chavignerie's Dictionnaire des Artistes Francois ; 
Vertue's MSS. (Brit. Mus. Add. MS. 23068); 
Bromley's Catalogue of Engraved British Por- 
traits.] L. C. 

DUHIGG, BARTHOLOMEWTHOMAS 

(1750 P-1813), Irish legal antiquary, born 
about 1750, was called to the Irish bar in 
1775. He was for a long period librarian to 
King's Inns, Dublin, and also held the post, 
of assistant-barrister for the county of Wex- 
ford. He died in 1813. He was married, 
and had one son, an officer in the army. Du- 
higg wrote: 1. 'Observations on the Opera- 
tion of Insolvent Laws and Imprisonment 
for Debt,' republishedDublin,1797. 2. 'Letter 
to the Right Honourable Charles Abbot on 
the Arrangement of Irish Records, &c.,' Dub- 
lin, 1801. 3. ' King's Inns Remembrancer, an 
Account of Irish Judges on the Revival of 
the King's Inns Society in 1607,' Dublin, 
1805. 4. 'History of the King's Inns, or an 
Account of the Legal Body in Ireland from 
its connection with England,' Dublin, 1806. 
Duhigg also projected, but never published, 
' A Completion of King's Inns Remembrancer, 
giving an Account of the most Eminent 
Irish Lawyers, and a History of the Union 
with Ireland ' (History of the King's Inns, 

B614). In a letter from Dr. Anderson to 
ishop Percy, 3 Sept. 1805 (NICHOLS, Illtcs- 
trations of Literature, vii. 156), Duhigg is 
noted as ' a writer of curious research and 
information,' but as writing ' a bad English 
style.' In addition to his legal investigations 
he appears to have studied with much care 
the old Irish language. 

[Dedication to History of King's Inns ; Notes 
and Queries, 2 July 1859, p. 9, 10 Nov. 1860, 
p. 419 ; Brit. Mus. Cat.] F. W-T. 

DUIGENAN, PATRICK (1735-1816), 
Irish politician, son of a farmer named 
O'Duibhgeannain, was born in the county of 
Leitrim in 1735. His father had intended 
him for the catholic priesthood, but the boy's 
abilities were perceived by the protestant 
clergyman of his parish, who educated him, 
and eventually made him a tutor in his school. 
He succeeded in gaining a scholarship at 
Trinity College, Dublin, in 1756, took the 
degree of B.A. in 1757, and M.A. in 1761, 



Duigenan 



144 



Duke 



in which year he was elected to a fellowship. 
He became an LL.B. in 1763, and an LL.D. 
in 1765, and was called to the Irish bar in 
1767. He first made his mark in Dublin by 
leading the opposition against the election of 
John Hely Hutchinson as provost of Trinity 
College in 1771, and by writing numerous 
pamphlets on the subject, which he collected 
into a volume under the title of ' Lachrymse 
Academics, or the present deplorable state 
of the College.' After this opposition he felt 
bound to resign his fellowship when Hutchin- 
son was elected, and he then devoted himself 
to his practice at the bar, which increased 
rapidly. He became a king's counsel, and a 
bencher of the King's Inns in 1784, and king's 
advocate-general of the high court of ad- 
miralty of Dublin in 1785. His politics were 
of a most pronounced protestant type, and he 
was soon looked upon with great favour by the 
government because of his declared opposi- 
tion to the schemes of Grattan and his friends. 
His protestantism brought him into notice 
with the Irish bishops, and he became in 
quick succession vicar-general of the dioceses 
of Armagh, Meath, and Elphin, judge of the 
consistorial court of Dublin, and judge of the 
admiralty court. He was brought into the 
Irish House of Commons in 1790 as M.P. for 
Old Leighlin, and gave evidence of his reli- 
gious opinions by his speech on the Catholic 
Bill, which was published in 1795. He was 
also strongly in favour of the union, and was 
one of the leading speakers on the government 
side during the debates on that quest ion, and 
when it was finally carried he was appointed 
one of the commissioners for distributing com- 
pensation under it. For this service he was 
sworn of the Irish privy council, and was 
soon after appointed professor of civil law in 
Trinity College, Dublin. He was elected 
M.P. for the city of Armagh to the first 
united parliament of Great Britain and Ire- 
land, and continued to sit for that place 
until his death. In the united parliament 
he was distinguished for his singularly bitter 
opposition to all demands for catholic eman- 
cipation in Ireland ; he spoke upon hardly 
any other subject, but upon this he was the 
most violent speaker in the House of Com- 
mons. Yet, in spite of his convictions, he 
married a Miss Cusack, a catholic lady, 
whom he permitted to keep a catholic chap- 
lain, and at his death he left all his fortune 
to his wife's nephew, Sir William Cusack 
Smith, son and heir of Sir Michael Smith, 
the catholic master of the rolls in Ireland. 
Duigenan was almost as famous in the House 
of Commons for his antiquated bob-wig and 
Connemara stockings, as he was for his anti- 
catholic proclivities. He died suddenly, after 



' being present at the debate the night before, 
at his lodgings in Bridge Street, Westminster, 
on 11 April 1816. 

[Webb's Compendium of Irish Biography; 
Phillips's Curran and his Contemporaries ; Grat- 
tan's Life and Times of Henry Grattan ; Gent. 
Mag. May 1816.] H. M. S. 

* DUKE, EDWARD (1779-1852), anti- 
quary, born in 1779, was the second son of 
! Edward Duke of Lake House, Wiltshire, by 
Fanny, daughter of John Field of Islington. 
He was educated at Magdalen Hall, Oxford, 
where he graduated B.A. 1803, M.A. 1807. 
He was ordained in 1802, and engaged in i 
clerical work at Turkdean, Gloucestershire, 
and Salisbury. In 1805 he came into the 
estates and the mansion at Lake, which had 
been in his family since 1578. Duke devoted 
his leisure to antiquities. In company with 
Sir R. C. Hoare he explored the tumuli on his 
estates, and the antiquities there discovered 
were described in Hoare 's 'Ancient Wilts,' and 
were preserved in the museum at Lake House. 
Between 1823 and 1828 Duke contributed to 
the ' Gentleman's Magazine,' chiefly on Wilt- 
shire antiquities. In his ' Druidical Temples 
of the County of Wilts,' London, 1846, 12mo, 
he maintained that the early inhabitants of 
Wiltshire had 'pourtrayed a vast planetarium 
or stationary orrery on the face of the Wilt- 
shire downs,' the earth being represented by 
Silbury Hill, and the sun and planets, revolv- 
ing round it, by seven ' temples,' four of stone 
and three of earth, placed at their proper 
distances. He also published ' Prolusiones 
Historicse, or Essays illustrative of the Halle 
of John Halle, citizen ... of Salisbury' 
(temp. Henry VI and Edward IV), vol. i. 
(only), Salisbury, 1837, 8vo. Duke was an 
active Wiltshire magistrate, and was a fellow 
of the Society of Antiquaries and of the 
Linnean Society. He died at Lake House 
on 28 Aug. 1852, aged 73. He married in 
1813 Harriet, daughter of Henry Hinxman 
of Ivy Church, near Salisbury, by whom he 
had four sons and four daughters. The eldest 
son, Edward, entered the church and suc- 
ceeded to the estates. 

[Gent. Mag. 1852, new ser. xxxviii. 643-4; 
Burke's Visitation of Seats and Arms (1854), 
2nd ser. i. 63, 64 ; Hoare's Modern Wiltshire ; 
Cat. Oxf. Grad.] W. W. 

DUKE, RICHARD (1659 P-1711), poet 
and divine, was born at London, ' the son of 
an eminent citizen,' probably a short time 
before the Restoration, since he was admitted 
to Westminster School in 1670. He was 
elected to Trinity College, Cambridge, in 
1675, and proceeded B.A. in 1678, M.A. in 



Duke 



145 



Dumaresq 



1682. He lived in close intercourse with the 
courtiers, the play-writers, and actors, was a 
general favourite, and probably wrote much 
satirical verse, which can only be identified 
occasionally by internal evidence. Johnson 
wrote : ' His poems are not below mediocrity, 
nor have I found much in them to be praised. 
With the wit he seems to have shared the 
dissoluteness of the times .' Among the works 
by Duke, which have not been claimed for 
him, was the caustic satire on Titus Gates, 
printed by Nathanael Thompson, ' A Pane- 
gyrick upon Gates,' which is referred to in 
Duke's acknowledged companion poem, ' An 
Epithalamium upon the Marriage of Captain 
William Bedloe,' issued at Christmas 1679, 
and this was followed, near the end of August 
1680, by ' Funeral Tears upon the Death of 
Captain William Bedloe.' He complimented 
the queen at Cambridge, September 1681. 
Conjointly with Went worth Dillon, earl of 
Roscommon [q. v.], Duke wrote several lam- 
poons on the misguided Duke of Monmouth 
during his so-called progresses in the west. He 
wrote in 1683, being then a fellow of Trinity, 
an ' Ode on the Marriage of Prince George of 
Denmark and the Lady Anne.' On the death 
of Charles II he produced the poem beginning 
' If the indulgent Muse,' &c. He translated the 
fifth elegy of Ovid's book i., the fourth and 
eighth odes of Horace, book ii. ; the ninth 
ode (Horace and Lydia) of book iii., and the 
Cyclops, idyl xi.-, of Theocritus, for Dryden, 
with whom he appears to have been on terms 
of friendship, although he addressed him else- 
where as ' the unknown author of " Absalom 
and Achitophel." ' He praised him in a poem 
for his adaptation of ' Troilus and Cressida;' 
he also complimented Creech (for his ' Lucre- 
tius '), Nat Lee, Otway, and Edmund Waller. 
He translated two of Ovid's epistles in 1683. 
He wrote several original Latin poems and a 
translation of Juvenal's fourth satire. To 
Dryden's third ' Miscellany,' 1693, he con- 
tributed anonymously two amatory songs. 
His ' Detestation of Civil War ' is expressed 
in a poem ' To the People of England.' One 
of his Dryden ' Miscellany ' poems, ' Floriana,' 
had in 1684 celebrated the Duchess of South- 
ampton. Before the accession of James II 
he entered into holy orders, and was in 1687 
presented to the rectory of Blaby in Leices- 
tershire. In 1688 he was made a prebendary 
of Gloucester, and soon afterwards became 
Gloucester proctor in convocation and also 
chaplain to Queen Anne. Three of his sermons 
;vere separately published, while he was rec- 
or of Blaby and prebendary of Gloucester. 
These show that ' he was a shrewd and sound 
livine.' A small volume of fifteen sermons, 
raised by Felton, was issued at Oxford in 

VOL. XVI. 



1714. His clerical life was blameless. Dr. 
Jonathan Trelawney, bishop of Winchester, 
in June 1707 made Duke his chaplain, and in 
July 1710 presented him to the rich living 
of Witney, Oxfordshire, 700/. per annum. 
' Having returned from an entertainment ' on 
Saturday night, 10 Feb. 1711, he was found 
dead in his bed next morning. Atterbury 
and Mat Prior had been among his intimate 
friends, and on 16 Feb. (Swift writes in his 
Journal to Stella) they ' went to bury poor 
Dr. Duke.' ' Dr. Duke,' Swift writes, ' died 
suddenly two or three nights ago ; he was one 
of the wits when we were children, but turned 
parson and left it, but never writ further than 
a prologue [to Lucius Junius Brutus, by Nat. 
Lee, 1681] or recommendatory copy of verses. 
He had a fine living given him by the Bishop 
of Winchester about three months ago ; he 
got his living suddenly, and he got his dying 
so too ' (ib.) Duke's ' Poems upon Several 
Occasions ' were collected in 1717, and pub- 
lished in conjunction with those of Roscom- 
mon, including the fragmentary beginning of 
' The Review,' declared to have been never 
before printed. Jacob Tonson says that it was 
written ' a little after the publishing of Mr. 
Dryden's " Absalom and Achitophel," ' No- 
vember 1681 ; ' he was persuaded to under- 
take it by Mr. Sheridan, then secretary to the 
Duke of York ; but Mr. Duke, finding Mr. 
Sheridan designed to make use of his pen to 
vent his spleen against several persons at 
court that were of another party than that 
he was engaged in, broke off proceeding in it, 
and left it as it is now printed.' 

[Johnson's Lives of the English Poets, vol. ii. 
1 779, ed. Hazlitt, ii. 253, 1 854, ed. Peter Cunning- 
ham (some inaccuracies as to dates and miscel- 
lanies), ii. 63, 64, 1854; Luttrell's Relation, i. and 
vi . ; E . Sanford's Life and Poem s of Richard Duke, 
1819 ; R. Anderson's Brit. Poets, vi. 1793 ; Chal- 
mers's English Poets, ix. 1810 ; Ovid's Epistles, 
translated, 1683; Plutarch's Lives, translated by 
Duke, &c., 1683 ; Worksof Jonathan Swift, p. 2?3, 
1868; Bagford Ballads, pp. 794 et seq., 1878 ; 
Ballad Society's reprint of the Roxburghe Col- 
lection of Ballads,iv. 156-70, &c., 1881 ; Dryden's 
Miscellany Poems, vol. i. 1684, iii. 224, 225, 1685; 
Poems upon Several Occasions, 1717 ; and Ser- 
mons as above cited.] J. W. E. 

DUMARESQ, PHILIP (1650 P-1690), 
seigneur of Samares, in the parish of St. Cle- 
ment's, Jersey, the eldest son of Henry Du- 
maresq by his wife Margaret, only daughter 
of Abraham HSrault of St. Heliers, is said on 
doubtful authority to have been born ' about 
1650' (PAYNE, Armorial of Jersey, pp. 134-5, 
141 pedigree). His father, a staunch parlia- 
mentarian, had been dismissed from his office 
of jurat of the royal court at the beginning 



Dumaresq 



146 



Dumbleton 



of the civil war, but was reinstated along 
with his father-in-law by the council of state 
in August 1653 (Cal. State Papers, Dora. 
1653-4, p. 118). The son, however, appears 
to have held different views. At an early 
age he entered the navy, and attained the 
rank of captain. He was sworn in jurat of 
the royal court, 2 Feb. 1681. On the acces- 
sion of James II in 1685, he presented him 
with a manuscript, giving an account of the 
Channel Islands, with suggestions for their j 
defence. It remained among the state papers j 
until about the close of the last century, when j 
it was transmitted to Admiral d'Auvergne, I 
duke of Bouillon, the then naval commander i 
at Jersey. By his permission copies were j 
allowed to be made. ' If I am not mistaken,' j 
says Edward Durell, ' the original is still in 
the governor's office' (FALLE, Jersey, ed. Du- 
rell, 1837, p. 284). Payne (Armorial,?. 135) 
wrongly asserts the original to be ' preserved 
at the British Museum ; ' he had probably con- 
fused it with ' a plan of the coast of the island 
of Jersey' by John Dumaresq (Addit. MS. 
15496, f. 14). From his letters Dumaresq 
seems to have been an amiable, well-informed 
man, who devoted most of his time to gar- 
dening, fruit, and tree culture. He was the 
friend and correspondent of John Evelyn 
(Addit. MS. 15857, ff. 225-7 ; EVELYN, Diary, 
ed. 1850-2, iii. 189, 227-8). There are also 
a few of his letters to Christopher Lord Hat- 
ton, when governor of Jersey, in Addit. MS. 
29560, ff. 108, 212, 318. Shortly before his 
death he imparted to Philip Falle, who was 
then engaged on his history of the island, ' a 
set of curious observations ; ' but what was 
still more valuable, an accurate survey of i 
Jersey, ' done on a large skin of vellum,' and ; 
' equally calculated for a sea chart and a land 
map,' which in a reduced form adorns the j 
front of Falle's book (see Falle's prefaces ! 
to first (1694) and second (1734) editions). ! 
Dumaresq died in 1690. By license bearing 
date 24 June 1672 he married at the Savoy j 
Chapel, London, Deborah, daughter of Wil- ; 
liam Trumbull of Eastham'pstead, Berkshire 
(CHESTER, London Marriage Licenses, ed. 
Foster, p. 426 ; pedigree of Trumbull in MAR- \ 
SHALL'S Genealogist, v'\. 100). Mrs. Dumaresq 
died in 1720 at Hertford (Probate Act Book, 
P. C. C. 1720), and desired to be buried at j 
Easthampstead ' as near my dear father as i 
maybe.' Her will of 25 Dec. 1715, with two I 
codicils of 2 (sic) Dec. 1715, and 24 Oct. 1717, i 
was proved at London 20 Dec. 1720 (regis- ] 
tered in P. C. C., 252, Shaller). Dumaresq's ' 
only child, Deborah, married Philip, son of 
Benjamin Dumaresq, a junior scion of Du- 
maresq des Augres, but she died without 
issue. She was the last of her family who 



held the seigneurie of Samares, having con- 
veyed it to the Seale family. 

[Falle's Account of the Isle of Jersey (Durell), 
pp. x, xxx. 284-5 ; Eawlinson MS., Bodleian 
Library, A. 241, f. 1206; authorities cited 
above.] G. G. 

DUMBARTON, EARL OF (1636P-1692). 
[See DOUGLAS, LORD GEORGE.] 

DUMBLETON, JOHN OF (/. 1340), 
schoolman, was doubtless a native of the village 
of Dumbleton in Gloucestershire. Another 
John of Dumbleton was a monk at Worcester 
shortly before, and in 1299 was appointed 
prior of Little Malvern (Annales Monastici, 
iv. 542, 548, ed. H. R. Luard, Rolls Series, 
1869) ; but the subject of this notice, though 
the church of Dumbleton was closely con- 
nected with the abbey of Abingdon (see the 
Annales Monasterii de Abingdon, passim, ed. 
J. Stevenson, Rolls Ser.), did not enter the 
monastic life, but became a fellow of Merton 
College, Oxford, the statutes of which ex- 
cluded all but seculars. At what date he 
went to Oxford is unknown. The biographers 
say that he nourished in 1320, but such dates 
are notoriously in most cases conjectural. 
The college accounts testify to the existence 
of a Thomas of Dumbleton in 1324, but do 
not mention John until 1331. It is pos- 
sible that 'Thomas' is a mistake for ' John.' 
On 27 Sept. 1332 he was presented to the 
living of Rotherfield Peppard, near Henley, 
in the archdeaconry of Oxford, which, how- 
ever, he resigned in 1334. In 1338-9 we 
find him attending college meetings at Mer- 
ton (THOROLD ROGERS, History of Agricul- 
ture and Prices, ii. 670-4, 1866). In February 
1340-1 he was named one of the first fellows 
of Queen's College in the original statutes 
(p. 7, ed. 1853); but in 1344 and 1349 his name 
reappears in the books of Merton College. 
Whether at Queen's or at Merton, he may 
be presumed to have remained at Oxford for 
the rest of his life, and there to have written 
the works which won him a distinguished 
scholastic reputation, evidence of which may 
be found in the number of copies of his writ- 
ings still preserved in the college libraries, 
as well as in the curious fact that the fame 
of John Chilmark [q. v.], which was not in- 
considerable in the latter part of the four- 
teenth century, rested to a great extent upon 
a treatise, ' De Actione Elementorum,' which 
is in fact, according to the statement of it* 
very title (Bodleian Library, Digby M 
Ixxvii. f. 153 b\ nothing but a ' compendia 
derived from the fourth book of Dumblet a's 
' Summa Logicse.' 

Dumbleton wrote : 1. ' Summa Logics et 
Naturalis Philosophise ' (Merton College, cod. 



Dumbreck 



147 



Dun 



cccvi. f. 9 ; COXE, Catalogue, p. 121 6) in ten 
books; in another manuscript (Magdalen 
College, cod. xxxii. ; COXE, Catalogue, p. 20) 
it is comprised in nine books ; while a third 
(Merton College, cod. cclxxix. ; COXE, Cata- 
logue, p. 110 b), entitled ' Summa de Logicis 
et Naturalibus,' is described as consisting of 
eight. Not less confusing is the title of the 
work. In a second manuscript at Magdalen 
College (cod. cxcv. ; COXE, Catalogue, p. 89) 
it is even styled ' Summa de Theologia major,' 
a work which Bale not unnaturally distin- 
guished from what he called the ' De Philo- 
sophia Natural!' (i. e. the 'Summa Logicse'). 
To the former he assigned the ' incipit' of the 
prologue, and to the latter that of the first 
book of what is actually one and the same 
work. 2. A small treatise called by Bale 
' De Logica Intellectual!,' but entitled in 
the Merton College MS. cccvi. f. 3, ' Liber 
de Insolubilibus, de significatione et suppo- 
sitione Tenninorum, de Arte Obligatoria, &c. 
3. Besides these books Bale enumerates a 
' Summa Theologise minor,' ' Summa Artium,' 
'In Philosophiam Moralem libri x.' (appa- 
rently the same with the ' Summa Logicae'), 
and a commentary on the Canticles. As 
Bale does not mention the opening words of 
these writings, it is not possible to identify 
them ; but there can be hardly a doubt that 
the commentary on Canticles is included in 
the list from a misreading of Leland, who 
ascribes the work to ' Dumbelegus quidam,' 
or Dumbley. 4. Wood refers to some verses 
by Dumbleton at Merton, beginning, ' rex 
Anglorum,' which are to be found in the Col- 
lege MS. cccvi. f. 8, between the short logical 
treatise and the ' Summa ' above mentioned ; 
but beyond this juxtaposition there is no 
evidence to connect them with the name of 
Dumbleton. 

[Leland's Comm. de Scriptt. Brit, cccxxvii. 
p. 325 ; Bale's Scriptt. Brit. Cat. v. 14, p. 394 ; 
Tanner's Bibl. Brit. 237 ; G-. C. Brodrick's Me- 
morials of Merton College, p. 190 (1885).] 

E. L. P. 

DUMBRECK, SIB DAVID (1805-1876), 
army medical officer, the only son of Thomas 
Dumbreck, collector of inland revenue at 
Glasgow, by Elizabeth, youngest daughter of 
David Sutherland of the same service, was 
born in Aberdeenshire in 1805 and educated 
at the university of Edinburgh, where he 
graduated M.D. in 1830, having previously, in 
1825, passed as a licentiate of the Royal Col- 
lege of Surgeons in Edinburgh. He entered 
the army as a hospital assistant on 3 Nov. 
1825, became assistant surgeon in 1826, sur- 
geon in 1841, surgeon-major in 1847, and de- 
puty inspector-general on 28 March 1854. 
Prior to the breaking out of hostilities with 



Russia he was despatched on a special mission 
early in 1854 to the expected seat of war, 
and traversed on his mission Servia, Bulgaria, 
and part of Roumelia, crossing the Balkans on 
his route. He was subsequently for a short 
time principal medical officer with the army, 
and served with it in the field as senior deputy 
inspector-general, and was present in this capa- 
city and attached to headquarters at the time 
of the affair of Bulganac, the Alma, capture of 
Balaklava, battles of Balaklava and Inkerman, 
and siege of Sebastopol. His rewards were a 
medal with four clasps, the fourth class of the 
Medjidie, and the Turkish medal. He was ga- 
zetted C.B. on 4 Feb. 1856, became K.C.B. 
on 20 May 1871, and was named honorary 
physician to the Queen on 21 Nov. 1865. 
On 19 July 1859 he was promoted to be an 
inspector-general of the medical department, 
and on 1 May in the following year was 
placed on half-pay and received a special 
pension for distinguished services. He died 
at 34 Via Montebello, Florence, on 24 Jan. 
1876, and his will was proved on 21 March 
under 12,OOOJ. He married, on 27 Feb. 1844, 
Elizabeth Campbell, only daughter of George 
Gibson of Leith. 

[Hart's Annual Army List, 1876, pp. 593,596; 
Dod's Peerage, 1876, p. 263 ; Illustrated London 
News, 5 Feb. 1876, p. 143, and 15 April, p. 
383.] G-. C. B. 

DU MOULIN. [See MOULIN.] 

DUN, LOKD OF. [See ERSKINE, JOHN, 
1509-1591, Scottish reformer.] 

DUN, SIB DANIEL (d. 1617), civilian. 

[See DONNE.] 

DUN, FINLAY (1795-1853), musician, 
was born at Aberdeen, 24 Feb. 1795. He 
was educated at the Perth grammar school 
and at Edinburgh University, but, his musi- 
cal tastes developing, went to Paris, where he 
studied the violin under Baillot. He next 
went to Milan, and afterwards accepted an 
engagement as first viola player in the or- 
chestra of the San Carlo Theatre at Naples. 
Either at Paris or Milan he had lessons from 
Mirecki, and at Naples he made the acquaint- 
ance of Crescentini, with whom he studied 
singing. On returning to Scotland Dun 
settled at Edinburgh, where he spent the 
remainder of his life, occupied in teaching 
the violin, composition, and singing. He 
published a collection of solfeggi with an in- 
troduction on vocal expression in 1829, but 
his name is best known by the collections 
of Scotch songs which he edited. He was 
also the composer of two symphonies (neither 
of which was published), of several glees and 

L 2 



Dun 



148 



Dun 



songs, and some unimportant dance music. 
He died suddenly at Edinburgh, 28 Nov. 
1853. 

[Scotch newspapers; Brown's Diet, of Musi- 
cians; Baptie's Musical Biogr. ~| W. B. S. 

DUN, JOHN, B.D. (1570 P-1631). [See 
DOWNE.] 

DUN, SIR PATRICK (1642-1713), Irish 
physician, was born at Aberdeen in January 
1642, being second son of Charles Dun, dyer, 
by his second wife, Katherine Burnet. His 
granduncle, Dr. Patrick Dun, was principal of 
Marischal College, Aberdeen, and endowed 
Aberdeen grammar school. There is no au- 
thentic record of Dun's education, but there 
is presumptive evidence that he studied at 
Aberdeen and on the continent. He appears 
in 1676 in Dublin as ' physician to the state 
and my lord-lieutenant ' (according to Sir John 
Hill, quoted in Culloden Papers, Lond. 1865), 
and was elected one of the fourteen fellows 
of the Dublin College of Physicians in 1677. 
From 1681 to 1687 he was president of the 
college, and again in 1690-3, in 1696, 1698, 
and 1706. He was one of the founders of 
the Dublin Philosophical Society in 1683, 
before which he read a paper on ' The Ana- 
lysis of Mineral Waters ; ' and the first record 
of a public dissection in Dublin was in 1684 
by a Mr. Patterson, on the body of a male- 
factor procured by Dun. That he became 
M.D. of Dublin is proved by his subsequent 
incorporation at Oxford in 1677, as given in 
the ' Catalogue of Oxford Graduates, 1772.' 
Dun was evidently a leading physician in 
Dublin, and had great social influence. He 
was the friend and medical adviser of Arch- 
bishop King (1650-1729), and of many other 
influential people. In 1688 he espoused the 
winning side in politics, and was appointed 
physician to the army in Ireland, and ac- 
companied the army for some time in 1689 
and 1690, but could not obtain payment for 
his services, although he with others simi- 
larly situated petitioned parliament several 
times, their accounts being passed, but never 
paid (' Petition of Sir P. Dun and others,' 
1706 ? in British Museum). In 1696 he was 
knighted by the lords justices, and in 1704, 
having represented that there was a hospital 
for the sick of the army in Dublin without a 
physician, he was appointed in 1705 phy- 
sician-general of the army, at a salary of 10s. 
a day. 

In September 1692 Dun was returned to 
the Irish parliament as member both for Mul- 
lingar (Westmeath) and Killileagh (Down), 
and elected to sit for the latter. He was again 
returned for Mullingar in 1695 and in 1703. 
He does not appear to have taken an active 



part in parliament, but in 1707 he petitioned 
to have a charge put on the Earl of Granard's 
estate in his favour, the earl owing him money 
at ten per cent, interest. 

After Dun became president of the College 
of Physicians in 1690, he was active in pro- 
curing a new charter, which was granted in 
1692, and rendered the college independent 
of Trinity College. In 1694 Dun married 
Mary, daughter of Colonel Jephson, by whom 
he had one son, who died young. In 1711 
Dun made his will, by which he left the re- 
sidue of his estate, after certain payments to 
his widow, to found a professorship of physic 
in the Dublin College of Physicians, and to 
carry out the intentions he had previously 
(in 1704) expressed in a scheme for providing 
one or two professors of physic, and for re ading 
public lectures and making public anatomi- 
cal dissections, also for lectures on osteology, 
operations of surgery, botany, materia me- 
dica, &c., for the instruction of students of 
physic, surgery, and pharmacy. He died at 
Dublin on 24 May 1713, and was buried 
in his own vault in St. Michan's Church, 
Dublin. 

Dun's house was given to the College of 
Physicians for a meeting-place, and his library 
was also given to the college. In 1715 a 
charter was obtained incorporating the pro- 
fessorship he had endowed, under the title 
' The King's Professorship of Physic in the 
city of Dublin.' Disputes arose as to the 
carrying out of the trust between Lady Dun, 
Dr. Mitchell (Dun's brother-in-law), and the 
college, and it was not until 1740 that a com- 
plete settlement took place. In 1743 an act 
of parliament was obtained for establishing 
in place of the king's professor three pro- 
fessors of physic, of surgery, and midwifery, 
and of pharmacy and materia medica. Addi- 
I tional professorships were founded in 1785. 
' In 1800 a further act was obtained, founding 
a hospital known as Sir Patrick Dun's Hos- 
pital, and considerably developing the ' School 
of Physic in Ireland.' 

A fine portrait of Dun in the robes of a 
doctor of physic, by Sir Godfrey Kneller, is 
in the convocation hall of the Dublin College 
of Physicians. An engraving from it by 
W. H. Lizars accompanies Belcher's memoir, 
and is also printed in the ' Dublin Quarterly 
Journal of Medical Science,' 1846 and 1866. 

[Belcher's Memoir of Sir Patrick Dun, Dub- 
lin Quarterly Journal of Medical Science, 1866, 
vol. xlii., second edition, enlarged, published by 
the Dublin College of Physicians, 1866 ; notice (by 
Sir W. Wilde) in Dublin Quarterly Journal of 
Medical Science, 1846, ii. 288-93; Osborne's An- 
nals of Sir Patrick Dun's Hospital, 1844; other 
authorities quoted by Belcher.] G. T. B. 



Dunan 



149 



Dunbar 



DUNAN or DONAT (1038-1074), bishop 
of Dublin, was an Easterling or Ostman, and 
the first of the line of prelates who have oc- 
cupied the see. Ware, who mentions several 
so-called bishops of Dublin of an earlier 
date, is supported by the ' Martyrology of 
Donegal,' but Dr. Lanigan is of opinion that 
there are no sufficient grounds for so regard- 
ing them, except in the case of Siadhal or 
Sedulius, who appears to have been a bishop. 
Dunan is, however, termed abbot of Dublin 
in the ' Annals of the Four Masters ' (A.D. 
785), and from this it would seem he was 
only a monastic bishop ; diocesan episcopacy 
had not been established in Ireland in his 
time. Dunan, therefore, must be regarded as 
the first bishop of Dublin in the modern sense 
of the title. The ' Four Masters ' term him 
ardeasbog, which Dr. O'Donovan translates 
archbishop, but Dr. Todd has pointed out that 
the correct rendering of the word is ' chief or 
eminent bishop,' and that it includes no idea 
of jurisdiction. His diocese was comprised 
within the walls of the city, beyond which 
the Danish power did not extend. 

The chief event of his life appears to have 
been the foundation of the church of the 
Holy Trinity, commonly called Christ Church, 
or more properly its endowment and reor- 
ganisation in accordance with the views of 
the Danish settlers. For it appears, from an 
Inquisition held in the reign of Richard II, 
that a church had been ' founded and en- 
dowed there by divers Irishmen whose names 
were unknown, time out of mind, and long 
before the conquest of Ireland.' This ancient 
site was bestowed on Dunan by Sitric, king 
of the Danes of Dublin, and with it ' suffi- 
cient gold and silver ' for the erection of the 
new church, and as an endowment he granted 
him 'the lands Bealduleek, Rechen, and Port- 
rahern, with their villains, corn, and cattle.' 

Sitric, according to the annalist Tigernach, 
had gone over the sea in 1035, probably for 
the sake of religious retirement, leaving his 
nephew as king of Dublin in his place. This 
was three years before Dunan's appointment, 
and as the king died in 1042, it must have 
been when he became a monk, if Tigernach 
is right, that he made the grant referred to, 
and therefore the new foundation of Christ 
Church must have taken place between 
1038-42. 

The site is described in the ' Black Book ' 
of Christ Church as ' the voltes or arches 
founded by the Danes before the arrival of 
St. Patrick in Ireland, and it is added that 
St. Patrick celebrated mass in an arch or 
vault which has been since known by his 
name.' This story, as it stands, cannot be 
accepted as authentic history, for St. Patrick 



died according to the usual belief in 490, 
whereas the earliest mention of Danes in 
Ireland is in 795. In the recent discovery 
made at Christ Church of a crypt hitherto 
unknown some very ancient work was found, 
which may not improbably be part of the 
buildings here referred to. If so, they may 
be the remains of the ecclesiastical struc- 
tures originally occupied by the abbots of 
Dublin. The legendary connection of the 
place with St. Patrick belongs to the period 
when, as Dr. O'Donovan observes, ' the Chris- 
tian Danes refused to submit to the ecclesi- 
astical jurisdiction of Armagh, and when it 
was found useful by the Danish party to have 
it believed that their ancestors had been 
settled in Dublin as early as the fifth cen- 
tury, and were converted to Christianity by 
St. Patrick.' 

When the church was built, and the secu- 
lar canons by whom it was to be served were 
installed, Dunan furnished it with a liberal 
supply of relics, of which a list is given in 
the ' Book of Obits of Christ Church,' pub- 
lished by Dr. Todd. Other buildings erected 
by him were the church of St. Michael (now 
the Synod House), hard by the cathedral, 
and a palace for himself and his successors. 
He entered into a correspondence with Lan- 
franc on some ecclesiastical questions about 
which he desired information. Lanfranc's 
answer is preserved, and has been published 
by Archbishop Ussher. It is highly probable 
that this deference to the Archbishop of Can- 
terbury may have had something to do with 
the claim put forward by the latter in a synod 
held in 1072, two years before Dunan's death, 
in which, on the supposed authority of Bede, 
he asserted his supremacy over the church of 
Ireland a claim which Dunan's successor 
admitted in the most explicit manner at his 
consecration in Canterbury Cathedral. 

Dunan died on 12 Feb. 1074, and was 
buried in Christ Church, at the right-hand 
side of the altar. There was another who also 
bore the alternative name of Donat (1085), 
but he is more generally known as Dungus, 
and is thus distinguished from the subject of 
the present notice. 

[Cogadh Gaedhel re Gallaibh, p. 289 ; Annals 
of Four Masters, A.D. 785, 1074; Lanigan's Eccl. 
Hist. iii. 200, 228, 433-5 ; Todd's St. Patrick, 
pp. 14, 16, 466 ; Ussher's Works, iv. 488, 567, 
vi. 424 ; Book of Eights, p. xii; Martyrology of 
Donegal.] T. 0. 

DUNBAR, EARL OP (d. 1611). [See 
HOME, GEORGE.] 

DUNBAR, VISCOTJKT. [See CONSTABLE 
HENRY, d. 1645.] 



Dunbar 



Dunbar 



DUNBAR, AGNES, COUNTESS OF Dun- 
BAR and MARCH (1312 P-1369), known from 
her swarthy complexion as BLACK AGX ES, is 
celebrated for her spirited defence of Dunbar 
Castle in January 1337-8. The countess was 
the daughter of Randolph, earl of Moray, and 
Isabel, the only daughter of Sir John Stewart 
of Bonkyl, and, through her father, grand- 
niece to Robert Bruce. 

She married PATRICK DTJNBAR, tenth earl 
of Dunbar and March (1285-1369), who 
first came into prominence as an adherent 
of the English. After Bannockburn (1314) 
he received Edward II into his castle of 
Dunbar, whence the king was conveyed to 
England. But shortly afterwards he came 
to terms with his cousin Robert I, and in 
the following year he was one of the par- 
liament at Ayr which settled the succession 
to the Scotch crown. For the next fifteen 
years Patrick continued to actively support 
Robert and David II. He helped to cap- 
ture Berwick, signed the letter to the pope 
asserting the independence of Scotland, com- 
manded one of David's armies at Dupplin, 
and as governor of Berwick Castle directed 
its defence when besieged by Edward III. 
But after Halidon HiU (1333) he put himself 
under Edward's protection, engaged to gar- 
rison Dunbar Castle with English troops, and 
attended Edward Baliol at the parliament 
at Edinburgh in 1334. At the end of that 
year, however, he renounced his allegiance to 
Edward III, and for the rest of his life re- 
mained a supporter of the national cause. 
He was engaged in a campaign against the 
English invaders in 1337, when his wife 
defended their castle, and at the battle of 
Durham he held part command of the left 
wing of the royal army. After that defeat 
and the capture of the Scottish king he was 
especially active in his endeavours to obtain 
DaA'id's release, and when that event took 
place became one of his sureties. He was 
rewarded by David with a grant of castle- 
wards of all his lands and a pension of 40 
per annum, and Dunbar was made a free burgh 
in his favour. In 1363 the earl, for a reason 
no longer known, rebelled against David, but 
was quickly and effectually suppressed. 

Dunbar Castle was one of the few important 
Scotch fortresses which had not been taken 
by the English in January 1337-8 ; and since 
its position, overlooking a convenient port, 
rendered its acquisition desirable, siege was 
laid to it by the Earls of Salisbury and Arun- 
del with a large force. In the absence of her 
husband the defence was undertaken with re- 
markable courage by Agnes. Not content 
with merely directing measures of resistance, 
she would mount the battlements to jeer at 



the assailants, and among other words put 
into her mouth as uttered on these occasions 
is the well-known taunt addressed to the 
Earl of Salisbury with reference to the fate 
awaiting his battering-ram : 

Beware Montagow, 

For farrow shalt thy sow. 

As further evidence of her contempt for the 
English armament, she is said to have sent 
out maids, gorgeously attired, to wipe off 
with clean handkerchiefs the marks made on 
the towers by stone and leaden balls. Twice 
the castle came near to falling : once through 
the treachery of a porter who had been 
bribed, and later through scarcity of provi- 
sions, the harbour being blocked up. In this 
last difficulty relief was brought by Sir Alex- 
ander Ramsay, who successfully ran the block- 
ade. After six months of fruitless operations 
the English gave up the attack as hopeless, 
and the siege was raised. 

On the death without issue of her brothers, 
Thomas and John, who perished, the one at 
Dupplin in 1332 and the other at Durham in 
1346, the Countess of Dunbar and her hus- 
band kept possession of the earldom of Moray, 
which was afterwards transferred to their 
younger son. They also obtained the Isle of 
Man, the lordship of Annandale, tlje baronies 
of Morton and Tibber in Nithsdale, of Mord- 
ington, Longformacus, and Dunse in Berwick- 
shire, of Mochrum in Galloway, Cumnock in 
Ayrshire, and Blantyre in Clydesdale. In 
1368 the earl resigned his earldom to their 
eldest son, George, who succeeded him, and 
in the same year their eldest daughter, Agnes, 
became the mistress of David II, whose affec- 
tion for her was the chief reason of his divorce 
from Margaret Logic; she afterwards married 
Sir James Douglas of Dalkeith. Another 
daughter, Elizabeth, married Sir John Mait- 
land of Lethington, and from her was de- 
scended the Duke of Lauderdale, who took 
as second title the marquisate of March. The 
Earl of Dunbar, then plain Sir Patrick de 
Dunbar, died in 1369, at the age of eighty- 
four, and his wife is said to have died about 
the same time. 

COLTJMBA DUNBAR (1370 P-1435), bishop 
of Moray, grandson of Agnes Dunbar, and 
younger son of George Dunbar, eleventh earl 
of March, was dean of St. Mary Magdalene, 
Bridgnorth, in February 1403 (Exioif , Shrop- 
shire, i. 338) ; became dean of the collegiate 
church of Dunbar 1412, and bishop of Moray 
3 April 1422. Henry VI granted him safe- 
conducts through England on his way to 
Rome and Basle respectively in 1433 and 
1434. He carried on the restoration of the 
cathedral of Elgin, and rebuilt the great 



Dunbar 



Dunbar 



window over the west door. He died at his 
palace of Spynie in 1435, and was buried in 
the Dunbar aisle of Elgin Cathedral, where 
the effigy on his tomb still survives. 

[Douglas and "Wood's Peerage of Scotland, ii. 
169, 170; Boece and Stewart's Bulk of the 
Croniclis of Scotland (Eolls Ser.), ed. Turn bull, 
iii. 341; Exchequer Eolls of Scotland, ii. 654, 
and pref. pp. Ixiii, Ixxv n. ; Burke's Dormant 
and Extinct Peerage ; Kidpath's Border History 
(1776), p. 325; Burton's Hist, of Scotland, ii. 
324 ; Keith's Bishops of Scotland, p. 143 ; infor- 
mation from Capt. A. H. Dunbar.] A. V. 

DUNBAR, GAVIN (1455 P-1532), bishop 
of Aberdeen, was the fourth son of Sir Alex- 
ander Dunbar of Westfield, by his wife Eliza- 
beth, daughter of Alexander Sutherland of 
Duffus. Keith states that he was the son of 
Sir John Dunbar of Cumnock, by Jane, eldest 
daughter of the Earl of Sutherland, but the 
express reference of Dunbar to his mother 
as Elizabeth Sutherland is in itself decisive. 
He was born about 1455. In 1487 he was 
appointed dean of Moray, and some time be- 
fore 24 Nov. 1506 he became archdeacon of 
St. Andrews. In 1503 he was named a mem- 
ber of the privy council of James IV, and 
clerk register. On 10 July 1512 he confirmed 
a league between Scotland and France against 
England (Cal. State Papers, Henry VIII, 
vol. i. entry 3303). Along with Duplessis, 
the French ambassador, and Sir Walter Scott 
of Balwearie he was sent to meet the English 
ambassadors at Coldingham to negotiate a 
peace with England, when, although a gene- 
ral peace was not concluded, the renewal 
of a truce between the two kingdoms was 
signed on 16 Jan. 1515-16 (BISHOP LESLEY, 
Hist, of Scotland, p. 105). In June 1518 he 
became bishop of Aberdeen. For his adhe- 
rence to the regent Albany he was, along 
with the chancellor, Archbishop Beaton, im- 
prisoned by the queen-mother in August 
1524. Their imprisonment led to a remon- 
strance on the part of Pope Clement VII 
(Cal. State Papers, Henry VIII, vol. iv. 
entry 784), and as ' no great matter ' was 
found against them they were set at liberty 
some time in November. Lesley charac- 
terises Dunbar as ' ane wyse godlie man,' 
and states that he devoted the whole of the 
revenues of his see to works of charity and 
benevolence (Hist. Scotl. p. 112). He com- 
pleted the work of his predecessor, Bishop 
Elphinstone, in regard to the foundation of 
the university of Aberdeen, and the erection 
of the class rooms and professors' houses of 
Bang's College (Album Amicorum Collegii 
Itegii Aberdonensis, quoted in Fasti Aberdon. 
p. 533). Elphinstone having also begun a 
bridge across the Dee, to which his executors 



declined to contribute, Dunbar called them 
to account, and made them render the money 
left them in the legacy. This being insuffi- 
cient to complete it, he supplemented it out of 
his own pocket, and in addition made provi- 
sion for its permanent maintenance (Sroiis- 
WOOD, Hist, of the Church of Scotland, i. 110). 
He also spent large sums in improving and 
ornamenting the cathedral of St. Machar; 
he built two steeples on the western tower, 
erected the south transept, decorated the in- 
terior, and brought from abroad for use in 
the services chalices of gold and other vessels 
of silver. In 1529 he endowed two chaplain- 
cies in the cathedral of Moray, and in 1531 
he endowed a hospital in Old Aberdeen for 
the maintenance of twelve poor men. Demp- 
ster attributes to Dunbar ' Contra Hereticos 
Germanos' and 'De Ecclesia Aberdonensi.' 
The latter title is probably an erroneous 
designation for the ' Epistolare de tempore 
et de Sanctis,' which he caused to be com- 
piled and written at his expense at Antwerp 
for the use of his cathedral. It is still pre- 
served in the university, and is printed in 
' Reg. Episcop. Aberd.' (ii. 236-54). In 1531 
Dunbar opposed the grant of a yearly con- 
tribution by the clergy in support of the new 
College of Justice, and was appointed to pro- 
secute an appeal to Rome against the tax. 
He died 10 March 1531-2 (Reg. Episcop. 
Aberd. ii. 211), and was buried in the aisle 
of the cathedral called Bishop Dunbar's aisle, 
where his tomb may still be seen, although 
the effigy in black marble was destroyed at 
the Reformation. When the reformers broke 
down the monument, they found, as not un- 
frequently happens, that the body presented 
no external symptoms of decay. 

[Keg. Episcop. Aberd. (Maitland Club) ; Fasti 
Aberd.(Spalding Club); State Papers.HenryVIII ; 
Register of the Great Seal of Scotland ; Keith's 
Scottish Bishops ; Dempster's Hist. Eccles. G-ent. 
Scot. ; Lesley's Hist, of Scotland ; Spotiswood's 
Hist, of the Church of Scotland.] T. F. H. 

DUNBAR, GAVIN (rf. 1W), tutor of ^ 
James V, archbishop of Glasgow, and lord- 
chancellor of Scotland, was descended from 
the Dunbars of Mochrum, Wigtownshire, a 
branch of the Dunbars, earls of Moray. He 
was the third son of Sir John Dunbar of 
Mochrum by his second wife, Janet, daughter 
of Sir Alexander Stewart of Garlies, and was 
a nephew of Gavin Dunbar, bishop of Aber- 
deen [q. v.jjjile received his education at the 
university of Glasgow, where he greatly dis- 
tinguished himself in the classical and phi- 
losophical studies, as well as subsequently in 
theology and common law. He obtained holy 
orders from his uncle, through whose influ- 

#* The date of his birth 

was c. 1497 ( see epitaph in John Dunbar, 
Epirrammata, 1616, vi. no. xxxix, where 
Gavin is made to say " Lustra decem vixi 
florui et interii ").' 



Dunbar 



152 



Dunbar 



ence probably he was made dean of Moray. 
In the following year he obtained the priory 
of Whithorn in Galloway, and shortly after- 
wards became tutor to James V. For this 
office he was supposed to possess pre-eminent 
qualifications as regards both learning and 
personal character. The excessive influence 
exercised by the ecclesiastics during the reign 
of James V must undoubtedly be ascribed to 
Dunbar, who retained through life his special 
confidence and respect. On the translation 
of Archbishop James Beaton [q. v.] to St. 
Andrews, Dunbar was appointed on 24 Sept. 
1524 to succeed him, and was consecrated 
5 Feb. 1525. At Dunbar's instigation James V 
and Margaret brought a variety of influences 
to bear on Pope Clement VII, to obtain 
his exemption from the jurisdiction of the 
archbishop of St. Andrews, who claimed to 
be primate and legatus natus in Scotland 
(see numerous letters in Cal. State Papers, 
Hen. VHI, vol. iv. pt. i.) On 3 Aug. Dun- 
bar was named one of a commission who on 
28 Sept. confirmed a peace with England (ib. 
entry 1668). In the following year he was 
named a member of the privy council, and 
subsequently a lord of the articles. He con- 
curred in the sentence passed against Patrick 
Hamilton 13 Feb. 1527-8 (sentence printed 
in CALDEEWOOD, Hist. i. 78-80), and for this 
was specially commended in a letter sent to 
the archbishop of St. Andrews by the doctors 
of Louvain (ib. 80-2). After the escape of 
James V from the Earl of Angus, Dunbar 
was appointed to succeed Angus as lord high 
chancellor, the seals being delivered to him 
on 28 July 1528. Buchanan, referring to his 
appointment, says ' he was a good and learned 
man, but some thought him a little defective in 
politics ' (Hist. ofScotl., Bond's trans. ii. 160). 
On 13 Sept. of the same year he was one of 
those who sat on the Earl of Angus's forfeiture 
(Cal. State Papers, Hen. VIII, vol. iv. pt. ii. 
entry 4728). It seems to have been on the ad- 
vice of Lord-chancellor Dunbar that James V 
instituted the College of Justice, which was 
made to consist of fourteen judges, the chan- 
cellor having the power to preside when he 
so willed. It was also provided that the pre- 
sident should be a clergyman. The college 
was instituted in his presence and that of the 
king 27 May 1532. During the absence of 
the king in France in 1536 to wed the Prin- 
cess Magdalene he acted as one of the lords 
of the regency, and about the same time the 
king gave him the abbacy of Inchaflray in 
commendam. In February 1539 Archbishop 
Dunbar, along with the archbishop of St. An- 
drews and the bishop of Dunblane, concurred 
in the burning at the stake of Thomas Forret, 
vicar of Dollar, and others, for heresy, on the 



castle hill of Edinburgh (Ktfox, Works, i. 
63 ; CALDEEWOOD, i. 124). He also shortly 
afterwards condemned Jerome Eussell and a 
youth named Kennedy to be burned at Glas- 
gow. He would at the last have spared their 
lives, but for the remonstrances of the agents 
of Beaton (KJNOX, i. 65). On the death of 
James V, Dunbar was continued in the lord- 
chancellorship under Arran, was appointed a 
lord of the articles, and was also sworn a mem- 
ber of the governor's privy council. When, 
at the instance of Lord Maxwell, an act was 
made on 19 March, permitting the reading 
of the New Testament in the vulgar tongue, 
Dunbar in his own name and that of the other 
prelates of the kingdom protested against it. 
The same year he was compelled to resign 
the chancellorship to Cardinal David Bea- 
ton [q. v.], who was not satisfied with the 
amount of zeal displayed by Dunbar in re- 
sisting heresy, and whose strenuous ambi- 
tion pined after an office which carried with 
it the possibilities of exercising so much power 
in civil affairs. In 1545, when George Wi- 
shart went to preach at Ayr, Dunbar resolved 
on the experiment of depriving him of an au- 
dience by himself preaching in the kirk ; but 
Wishart, by adjourning to the market, at- 
tracted nearly the whole audience from the 
kirk, leaving the archbishop to ' preach to his 
jackmen and to some old bosses of the toune ' 
(ib. i. 127). In the same year the old dispute 
as to the priority of the archbishop of St. An- 
drews or Glasgow, which led to the special 
exemption of Dunbar by Pope Clement VII 
from the jurisdiction of James Beaton, was 
the cause of an extraordinary scene between 
Dunbar and Cardinal David Beaton. The 
scene is related by Knox with a biting hu- 
mour, which no doubt exaggerates the ludi- 
crous aspects of the incident. The Arch- 
bishop of St. Andrews having had occasion 
to visit Glasgow, a question arose at the door 
of the cathedral as to precedency between the 
cross-bearers of the two archbishops, and the 
quarrel led to a personal contest, in which, 
according to Knox, ' rockettis war rent, typ- 
petis war torne, crounis war knapped, and 
syd gounis mycht have bene sein wantonly 
wag from the one wall to the other ' (ib. 147). 
The incident is no doubt introduced by Knox 
to exhibit in as odious a light as possible their 
persecution of George Wishart. He repre- 
sents the rival archbishops as becoming re- 
conciled through their common zeal in pro- 
moting the martyrdom of Wishart : ' the 
blood of the innocent servant of God ' burying 
' in oblivion all that braggine and boast ' (ib. 
148). Dunbar answered the summons of 
Beaton to be present at the trial of Wisharfr 
in February 1546, subscribed the sentence for 



Dunbar 



153 



Dunbar 



his execution, ' and lay ower the east blok- 
house with the said cardinall, till the martyr 
of God was consumed by fyre ' (t'6.) Dunbar 
died on the last day of April 1547, and was 
buried in the choir of his cathedral. His re- 
mains were discovered in 1855 during the 
repairs on the choir (for description of them 
see GORDON, Eccles. Hist. Scotl. ii. 525-6). 
He built the gatehouse of his episcopal palace, 
on which he inscribed his arms. Knox says 
that Dunbar was ' known a glorious fool,' a 
description which indicates possibly Knox's 
contempt both of Dunbar's regard for eccle- 
siastical ceremony and of his weak personal 
character, which made him merely Beaton's 
unwilling tool. But beside Knox's judgment 
must be set that of Buchanan, which, if not 
entirely inconsistent with it, supplements and 
in some respects qualifies it. In the exagge- 
rated language excusable in an epigram, and 
especially in a Latin epigram, Buchanan 
affirms that when he sat down as the guest 
of Dunbar he envied not the gods their nectar 
and ambrosia; but it must be remembered 
that Buchanan also states in plain prose that 
some thought Dunbar ' defective in politics.' 
The seal of Dunbar is engraved in the ' Reg. 
Episcop. Glasg.,' published by the Maitland 
Club. 

[Keith's Scottish Bishops ; Crawfurd's Officers 
of State, pp. 74-6 ; Haig and Brunton's Senators 
of the College of Justice, 1-5 ; Gordon's Eccles. 
Hist. Scotl. vol. ii. ; Reg. Episcop. Glasg. (Mait- 
land Club) ; Cal. State Papers, Hen. VIII, vol. 
iv. ; Knox's Works ; Histories of Calderwood 
and Buchanan.] T. F. H. 

DUNBAR, GEORGE (1774-1851), clas- 
sical scholar, the child of humble parents, 
was born at Coddingham in Berwickshire 
in 1774. He was employed in youth as a 
gardener, but was incapacitated from manual 
labour by a fall from a tree. Dunbar then 
had the good fortune to attract the notice 
of a neighbouring proprietor, who aided him 
to acquire a classical education. About 
the beginning of the nineteenth century he 
went to Edinburgh, and was employed as 
tutor in the family of Lord-provost Fettes. 
Within a few months he was selected as as- 
sistant to Andrew Dalzel, the professor of 
Greek at the university, and on the death of 
the latter in 1806 was appointed his successor, 
when he received the degree of M.A. from 
the university (February 1807). Dunbar 
filled the Greek chair until his death, though 
in his later years his duties were performed by 
a substitute, Mr. Kirkpatrick. He was twice 
married, and died at Rose Park, Edinburgh, 
on 6 Dec. 1851. 

As a classical scholar Dunbar did not leave 
behind him a very enduring reputation, and 



the bulk of his work has but little permanent 
value. His industry, however, was very great. 
He completed a Greek grammar left unfinished 
by Dalzel (' Elementa Linguae Graecse/ pt. i. by 
Professor Moor of Glasgow, published 1806, 
pt. ii. by Dalzel and Dunbar, published 1814, 
Edin. and London), and added a third volume 
to Dalzel's ' Collectanea Graeca Majora' (Lon- 
don, 1820). On his own account he published 
an edition of Herodotus, with Latin notes, 
' Herodotus cum annotationibus ' (7vols.Edin. 
1806-7); 'Prosodia Graeca' (Edin. 1815); 
' Analecta Graeca Minora' (London, 1821) ; 
a very foolish ' Inquiry into the Structure 
and Afiinity of the Greek and Latin Lan- 
guages . . . with an appendix in which the 
derivation of the Sanskrit from the Greek 
is endeavoured to be established ' (London, 
1827) ; ' Exercises on the Greek Language ' 
(Edin. 1832) ; ' Elements of the Greek Lan- 
guage ' (Edin. 1834, 2nd ed. 1846) ; ' Greek 
Prosody' (Edin. 1843); 'Extracts from Greek 
Authors ' (Edin. 1844). Dunbar's best work 
was the compilation of lexicons. In con- 
junction with E. H. Barker [q. v.] he wrote 
a ' Greek and English and English and Greek 
Lexicon ' (Edin. 1831), which was well re- 
ceived. His own ' Greek and English and 
English and Greek Lexicon ' (Edin., 1st ed. 
1840, 2nd ed. 1844, 3rd ed. 1850) was the 
result of eight years' labour, with very con- 
siderable assistance from Dr. Francis Adams 
[q. v.] It is a carefully arranged and thorough 
piece of research, but is now practically 
superseded. 

[Caledonian Mercury, 8 Dec. 1851 ; Brit. Mus. 
Cat.] L. C. S. 

DUNBAR, JAMES, LL.D. (d. 1798), 
philosophical writer, was educated at King's 
College, Aberdeen, of which he was electe'd 
a ' regent ' in 1766, and in that capacity he 
taught moral philosophy there for thirty 
years. He published : 1. ' De Primordiis Civi- 
tatum Oratio in qua agitur de Bello Civili 
inter Magnam Britanniam et Colonias nunc 
flagrante,' London, 1779, 4to. 2. ' Essays 
on the History of Mankind in rude and un- 
cultivated ages,' London, 1780, 8vo; 2nd 
edition 1781. The latter work deals with such 
topics as the ' Primeval Form of Society/ 
' Language as an Universal Accomplishment/ 
'The Criterion of a Polished Tongue/ 'The 
Hereditary Genius of Nations.' Dunbar was 
in favour of the amalgamation of King's Col- 
lege with Marischal College. He died in his 
rooms at King's College on 28 May 1798. 

[Fasti Aberdon. (Spalding Club), vol. Ixxxviii. ; 
Thorn's Aberdeen, vol. ii. app. i. 13, 14, 52; 
Nichols's Lit. Illustr. iv. 822 ; Gent. Mag. (1798), 
pp. 539, 622.] J. M. E. 



Dunbar 



154 



Dunbar 



DUNBAR, ROBERT NUGENT (d. 
1866), poet, lived many years in the Antilles 
and elsewhere in the West Indies. He re- 
corded his impressions of the scenery and ro- 
mance of the Western Archipelago in sundry 
volumes of verse, which contain a good many 
reminiscences of Byron and Moore. The notes 
are worth reading. The titles of his poems 
are: 1. 'The Cruise; or, a Prospect of the 
West Indian Archipelago : a Tropical Sketch, 
with Notes, Historical and Illustrative,' 8vo, 
London, 1835. 2. 'The Caraguin : a Tale 
of the Antilles,' 8vo, London, 1837. 3. ' In- 
dian Hours ; or Passion and Poetry of the 
Tropics. Comprising the Nuptials of Bar- 
celona and the Music Shell,' 8vo, London, 
1839. 'The Nuptials of Barcelona' was 
afterwards published separately, 8vo, London, 
1851. 4. 'Beauties of Tropical Scenery; 
Lyrical Sketches, and Love-Songs. With 
Notes, Historical and Illustrative,' 8vo, Lon- 
don, 1862 ; 2nd edit. 8vo, London, 1864 ; 3rd 
edit., with additions, 8vo, London, 1866. 
Dunbar was also the author of a slight piece, 
'Garibaldi at the Opera of " Masaniello," ' 
8vo, London, 1864. As long ago as 1817 he 
had mourned the death of the Princess Char- 
lotte in 'The Lament of Britannia,' 8vo, 
London. He died at Paris in 1866. 

[Prefaces to Works ; Brit. Mus. Cat. ; Gent. 
Mag. 4th ser. ii. 424.] G. G. 

DUNBAR, WILLIAM (1465 P-1530 ?), 
Scotch poet, probably a native of East Lo- 
thian, was born between 1460 and 1465. 
Laing thinks it unlikely that the date of his 
birth could be later than 1460, but there is no 
definite knowledge on the point. It is like- 
wise difficult to settle precisely who Dunbar 
was by descent, but in the curious 'Flyting' 
between him and his contemporary wit, 
Walter Kennedy, certain references seem to 
connect him with the family of the tenth 
Earl of March. It is surmised, with some 
show of probability, that he may have been 
the grandson of Sir Patrick Dunbar of Beill 
in East Lothian, Sir Patrick himself being a 
younger son of this earl, and known as one 
of the hostages for James I in 1424. Almost 
nothing has been discovered regarding Dun- 
bar's youth, although he is assumed to have 
been the William Dunbar that entered St. 
Andrews University in 1475, and graduated 
as master of arts in 1479. For the next 
twenty years his own works supply all the 
available information regarding his career. 
The principal fact of the period is that he 
had joined and forsaken the order of Francis- 
can friars. Dunbar's heart had not been in 
work of this kind ; he acted, he says, 
Lyk to ane man that with a gaist was marrit. 



There is his own authority, given in his 
' Visitation of St. Francis,' for stating that 
he found himself wholly unfitted for the ex- 
acting functions of begging friar. Still he is 
able to put it on record that his experience 
had been considerably enlarged by his per- 
formance of the duties so far as he had un- 
derstood them. ' In the habit of that order,' 
he says (as paraphrased by Laing), ' have I 
made good cheer in every flourishing town 
in England betwixt Berwick and Calais ; in 
it also have I ascended the pulpit at Dernton 
and Canterbury; and crossed the sea at Dover, 
and instructed the inhabitants of Picardy.' 
The period in which he was a begging friar 
is a curious episode in Dunbar's career, and 
it undoubtedly furnished him with some of 
the strongest material afterwards utilised in 
his satires. He was desirous of being a 
churchman, and longed for legitimate prefer- 
ment, but he lacked sympathy with the beg- 
ging fraternity, and regarded his sojourn in 
their midst as the epoch of his wild oats. 
Wrinkle, wile, falsehood, he avers, abounded 
in his conduct as long as he ' did beir the 
freiris style,' but he felt he must be other- 
wise placed to give full expression to his 
genuine manhood. He would remain devoted 
to the church, but he would likewise seek to 
be honest, and true to his higher nature. 

Towards the close of the fifteenth century 
Dunbar had become attached to the court of 
James IV, on whose missions (as seems to 
be indicated in the ' Flyting ') he probably 
visited several continental countries before 
1500. From the 'Flyting' we gather that 
once the ship in which he started from 
Leith was driven by a storm far from its in- 
tended course, and wrecked on the coast of 
Zealand, Kennedy apparently finding a ma- 
licious amusement in the fancy picture he 
draws of his antagonist as he ' sits superless ' 
in his distress, or cries ' Caritas pro amore 
Dei ' from door to door. There is little doubt 
that Dunbar attended the Earl of Bothwell 
and Lord Monypenny to Paris in 1491, bear- 
ing at the same time a certain royal commis- 
sion that implied individual action of his own 
beyond the Alps the following spring. The 
next undoubted item in his history it is, 
indeed, one of the first fully attested facts 
is under date of 15 Aug. 1500, when there is 
the important record in the ' Privy Seal Re- 
gister ' of a decree for 10. a year for the poet. 
This pension he was to receive for life, or 
' untill he be promoted by our sovereign lord 
to a benefice of the value of forty pounds pr 
more yearly.' Subsequently the grant was 
increased, first to 2QL, and then to 80/., ' dur- 
ing life, or untill promoted to a benefice of 
100/. or above.' The benefice never came, 



Dunbar 



155 



Dunbar 



and although it is not unlikely that the poet's 
old age was comfortable, we have no distinct 
record of him after Flodden. 

Between the date of his becoming a sa- 
laried court poet and the battle of Flodden 
the only ascertained facts in Dunbar's career, 
apart from suggestive allusions in the poems, 
connect him with the marriage of James IV 
and Margaret Tudor. He seems to have ac- 
companied the ambassadors sent to the court 
of Henry VII to negotiate the marriage, and 
it was probably this visit that inspired him 
with his poem 'In Honour of the City of 
London.' There is little doubt, moreover, 
that he is the ' rhymer of Scotland ' referred 
to in the ' Privy Purse Accounts of Henry VII ' 
as receiving, during a second visit (probably 
when the princess was affianced), certain sums 
of money in return for satisfaction given to 
his royal audience. The marriage and his 
first great poem, ' The Thrissill and the Rois,' 
both belong to 1503. Dunbar seems to have 
been a privileged favourite of the queen, and 
a valuable descriptive poem, ' The Quenis 
Progress at Aberdeen,' which is manifestly 
the result of actual observation, would seem 
to show that he was in her train when she 
visited the north of Scotland in 1511. It is 
only a surmise that she would do her best for 
him when her own sad change of circum- 
stances occurred after Flodden, 8 Sept. 1513. 
Owing to loss and irregularity of the trea- 
surer's accounts for ten years after Flodden, 
there is no record to show whether or not 
Dunbar's pension was continued ; and it is 
curious enough that there is no mention in 
his works of what Lyndsay calls ' that most 
dolent day,' or of his own later fortunes. If 
he were alive after 1513, he must have been 
very different from the Dunbar of previous 

Jears, who was so full of the movement of 
is time, and so anxious regarding his own 
worldly position. With the exception of the 
'Orisone,' a lament on public degeneracy, 
written when the Duke of Albany went to 
France, and bringing the record at least to 
1517, he gives no expression of his interest 
in anything outside of his own study. The 
poems that may fairly be set down to his 
later years are mainly of a moral and reli- 
gious character, evidently indicating that the 
poet had set himself to gather up the results 
of his experience. Two explanatory theories 
have been proposed regarding this difficulty : 
one, that Dunbar fell with the king at Flod- 
den, and therefore did not write the ' Ori- 
sone ; ' and the other, that the queen dowa- 
ger had helped him to church preferment, 
and that he passed the evening of his life in 
studious retirement and faithful application 
to his clerical duties. The problem, in all 



likelihood, will never be solved. The one 
thing clear about Dunbar after Flodden is 
that he was dead in 1530, for in that year Sir 
David Lyndsay, in his ' Testament and Com- 
playnt of the Papyngo,' pays him a high tri- 
bute as a poet of the past. There is some- 
thing to be said for Laing's inference, from 
Lyndsay's reference to Gawin Douglas as 
the greatest of poets recently deceased, that 
Dunbar's death must be placed earlier than 
1522, the year in which Douglas is known to 
have died. 

The only one of Dunbar's poems that can 
be accurately dated is ' The Thrissill and the 
Rois,' written in honour of the royal mar- 
riage 9 May 1503, three months before Mar- 
garet, the English rose, arrived as consort 
of Scotland's thistle, James IV. He was, 
however, a recognised poet before this, for 
Gawin Douglas, in 1501, pays him a special 
tribute in his ' Palice of Honour.' In all like- 
lihood three more of his best poems ' The 
Goldyn Targe,' the ' Flyting ' (divided with 
Kennedy), and the 'Lament for the Makaris' 
were produced between 1503 and 1508. 
In the latter year these poems issued from 
the press of Chepman & Myllar, who had in- 
troduced the art of printing into Scotland 
in 1507. The other poems cannot be chrono- 
logically arranged, although it is probable 
that such satires as ' The Twa Marriit We- 
men and the Wedo ' and ' The Dance of the 
Sevin Deidly Synnis,' in which he reaches 
his highest level, are later than these. In 
range and variety of interest and subject, in 
swiftness and force of attack, and in vividness 
and permanence of effect, Dunbar is equally 
remarkable. His allegories are more than 
merely ingenious exercises in the art of mys- 
tical deliverance, as such things had been 
prone to become after Chaucer's time; his 
lyrics are charged with direct and steadfast 
purpose, and while they are all melodious, 
the best of them are resonant and tuneful ; 
and the humorous satires are manifestly the 
productions of a man of original and pene- 
trating observation, gifted above most with a 
sense of the hollowness and weakness of evil, 
and with the ability to render it ridiculous. 
By 'The Thrissill and the Rois' Dunbar 
brilliantly proved himself a worthy laureate. 
We have frequent glimpses of him, in late 
minor poems, in relation to royalty. He 
would appear (as already mentioned) to have 
been a special favourite with the queen, to 
whom he addresses certain playful lyrics on 
her wardrobe-keeper, Doig, and so on, and in 
whose presence he describes himself as tak- 
ing part in a certain uncouth dance arranged 
for her amusement. Towards the king he 
adopts a different tone. While apparently 



Dunbar 



156 



Dunbar 



enjoying his position at court, and making 
fair use of his time both as royal servitor and 
as poet, he seems all through to have longed 
for the benefice he had been taught to ex- j 
pect. His ambition, he explains, is by no 
means lofty, for if his majesty would but 
grant him the appointment his soul longs for 
he would be pleased with ' ane kirk scant 
coverit with hadder.' He tempts him with 
many ingenious addresses, ranging from such 
embittered satires as ' The Fenyet Friar of 
Tungland,' and the ' Dream of the Abbot of 
Tungland,' through reflective monologues like 
the ' Worldis Instabilitie,' and on to direct ; 
epistolary lyrics, posing in touching meta- 
phor as ' the king's grey horse, auld Dunbar.' 
James apparently considered Dunbar more 
happily placed as he was than if he had a 
parish under his charge, and so no benefice 
was ever bestowed as a mark of the king's 
appreciation. The suggestion, sometimes 
made, that Dunbar may have been morally 
unfit for the position of parish priest is worth- i 
less, for besides the fact that a man's character i 
must have been very bad indeed to debar him 
in those days from church preferment, it has ! 
been ascertained that Dunbar was in full 
orders. He performed mass in the king's pre- 
sence for the first time on 17 March 1504, and 
there is nothing to show why he should not 
have done the same many times and under any 
possible circumstances. James, however, kept | 
him as his laureate, and in thus having helped i 
in the development of the greatest of the i 
' makaris ' to use Dunbar's own happy ver- 
nacular equivalent for poets he is entitled 
to a certain credit. 

The poems increased while the benefice 
lingered. Soon after the allegorical bridal 
song, as already said, came ' The Goldyn 
Targe,' the ' Flyting,' and the ' Lament.' In 
the first of these the poet represents Cupid 
as steadily repelled by Reason with golden 
targe or shield, till a powder thrown into his 
3yes overpowers him. The poem has an even 
and sustained interest, and several of its de- 
scriptions are appreciative and vivid. The 
' Flyting between Dunbar and Kennedy ' is 
a comparative trial of wits, wherein each 
seems to say the worst he possibly can of 
the other for the amusement of their readers. 
It set the example afterwards followed by 
James V and Lyndsay, and by Alexander 
Montgomery and Sir Patrick Hume. That 
the one poet did not forfeit the other's re- 
gard by the strong language used is seen in 
the affectionate tone with which Dunbar 
mourns over the impending death of ' guid 
Maister Walter Kennedy' in the 'Lament 
for the Makaris.' This is one of the most 
tender and fascinating of memorial poems. 



Its Latin refrain, ' Timor mortis conturbat 
me,' suggests the macaronic verse which is a 
minor feature of interest in Dunbar's work, 
and its pathetic sentiment and sober re- 
flection readily introduce us to his medita- 
tive poems. Representative pieces in this 
class are ' No Treasure avails without Glad- 
ness,' ' Meditation in Winter,' ' Love Earthly 
and Divine,' and the various poems on our 
Lord. 

But although Dunbar is attractive and sa- 
tisfying as a lyrist and writer of allegory, he 
is strongest and most poetical as a satirical 
humorist. Either he or some other standing 
close to Chaucer wrote the ' Freiris of Ber- 
wik,' and he is the author of the ' Twa Mar- 
riit Wemen and the Wedo,' which is at once 
a somewhat repulsive and a very witty satire, 
and fairly challenges comparison with the 
' Wife of Bath.' His greatest humorous sa- 
tire, however, is 'The Dance of the Sevin 
Deidly Synnis ' (with its appendages about 
' Telyouris ' and ' Sowtaris '), which may owe 
something to Langland, but is Scotch in con- 
ception and range as well as in imagery. The 
sins, from pride to gluttony, are depicted in 
their repulsive deformity, while old Mahoun 
and his idiosyncrasies are scrutinised with 
inquisitive and boisterous humour such as 
never afterwards played about them till they 
received the treatment of Burns. 

The edition of Dunbar's poems issued by 
Chepman & My liar in 1508, and no doubt 
seen through the press by himself, disappeared 
from view, and only one imperfect copy is 
known to exist. This was found in Ayrshire 
in 1788, and is now in the Advocates' Li- 
brary, Edinburgh. Had it not been that 
many of his poems were included in the Ban- 
natyne and Maitland MSS. of the sixteenth 
century, Dunbar would have been almost, if 
not altogether, lost to English literature. 
He seems to have been overlooked by writers 
on Scottish poetry from the time of Lyndsay's 
reference, 1530, till Ramsay produced speci- 
mens of his work in the ' Evergreen,' 1724. 
From that date he received attention from 
editors, notably Lord Hailes, Pinkerton, Rit- 
son, and Sibbald, whose ' Chronicle of Scottish 
Poetry,' 4 vols. 1802, contains thirty-two of 
his poems. The first complete collection, and 
the one that is likely to remain the standard 
edition, is that of David Laing, 2 vols. 1834. 
The late Dr. John Small, of the Edinburgh 
University Library, edited Dunbar for the 
Scottish Text Society, 1884. His lamented 
death occurred before he completed the bio- 
graphical and critical introduction which he 
intended to prefix to the work, but in a pre- 
fatory note to the text as issued to subscri- 
bers he expresses his opinion that Dunbar 



Dunboyne 



157 



Duncan 



* was born about the year 1460 and died about 

1513: 

[Warton's Hist, of Engl. Poetry, vol. ii. ; Pin- 
kerton's Ancient Scotish Poems, vol. i- ; Ellis's 
Specimens of Early English Poets, vol. i. ; Sir 
Walter Scott's Memoirs of George Bannatyne ; 
Tytler's Lives of Scottish Worthies ; Irving's 
Lives of the Scotish Poets, vol. i., and Hist, of 
Scotish Poetry, chap. xi. ; Chambers's Biog. Diet. 
of Eminent Scotsmen, vol. ii. ; David Laing's 
Poems of William Dunbar, with Notes and 
Memoir of his Life.] T. B. 

DUNBOYNE, LORD. [See BUTLER, 
JOHN, D.D., d. 1800, catholic bishop of Cork.] 

DUNCAN I (d. 1040), king of Scotland, 
succeeded his grandfather, Malcolm Macken- 
neth (d. 25 Nov. 1034), in the throne of 
Scotland. His mother's name, according to 
a twelfth-century tradition, was Bethoc, the 
daughter of the latter king ; his father was 
Crinan or Cronan, abbot of Dunkeld (MARIA- 
NUS Scorers, p. 556 ; TIGERNACH, pp. 284-8 ; 
Chronicles of the Picts and Scots, p. 152). 
This Cronan must be regarded as a great 
secular chief and lay abbot of Dunkeld, oc- 
cupying a position somewhat similar to that 
of the titular comharbs of Armagh during 
the same century. According to Mr. Skene, 
Bethoc was married to Cronan before 1008 
A.D., the year in which her younger sister 
married Sigurd, earl of Orkney. 

During his father's lifetime Duncan appears 
to have borne the title of ' rex Cumbrorum,' 
i.e. to have been" king of the Strathclyde 
Welsh. He was probably appointed to this 
office on the death of Owen or Eugene the 
Bald, who is said to have been slain about 
the time of the battle of Carham (1018 A.B.), 
in which he was certainly engaged (SiM. OF 
DTTRHAM, ii. 118 ; SKENE). As Lothian, the 
northern part of the great earldom of North- 
umbria, was ceded to Malcolm about the 
same time (SiM. OF DURHAM, pp. 217-18), 
Mr. Skene considers it not improbable that 
Duncan was ruler of the whole territory south 
of the Firths of Forth and Clyde. His name, 
however, is not mentioned with those of his 
father, Macbeth and Jehmarc, when those 
princes submitted to Canute in 1031 A.D. 
(A.-S. Chron. i. 290-1). 

Malcolm appears to have cleared the way 
only just before his own death for his grand- 
son's succession by the murder of one whom 
the ' Ulster Annals ' call ' the son of the son of 
Boete, son of Cuiaed,' in whom we may pro- 
bably see the rightful heir to the throne by 
law of tanistry (Ann. of Ulst. p. 321 ; SKENE, 
p. 399). Next year Duncan appears to have 
become king of Scotia without opposition; 
and in virtue of his former possessions must 



have been direct sovereign or at least over- 
lord of Cumbria, Lothian, and Albania. The 
latter half of his reign was disturbed by the 
aggression of Eadulf, earl of the Northum- 
brians, who, apparently in 1038, harried the 
'Britons' of Cumbria (SiM. OF DURHAM, 
ii. 198 ; SKENE) ; and it is perhaps to the 
same time that we ought to assign Duncan's 
unsuccessful expedition against Durham (SiM. 
OF DURHAM, i. 9 ; SKENE). 

In the northern part of Scotland Sigurd, 
earl of Orkney, had fallen at the battle of 
Clontarf (1014 A.D.), leaving a young son, 
Thorium, who, being King Malcolm's grand- 
son, was also Duncan's cousin. Between 
Thorfinn's domains and Albany, or Scotland, 
properly so called, lay Moray, ruled by its 
Celtic mormaer. To this office Maelbaethe 
or Macbeth seems to have succeeded about 
1029 A.D., and the title he, like his prede- 
cessor, bore of Ri Alban' seems to have chal- 
lenged the pretensions of Malcolm and Dun- 
can. The latter king probably aimed at re- 
suming his cousin's territories of Caithness 
and Sutherland, when he gave this earldom 
to his nephew, Moddan, whom he sent north 
to make good his claim. Forced to retire 
before his rival Thorfinn, Moddan found his 
uncle at Berwick, received fresh troops, and 
was again despatched towards Caithness, 
while the king himself sailed in the same 
direction, hoping to place Thorfinn between 
the two armies. A naval engagement in the 
Pentland Firth frustrated this plan, and 
drove Duncan southwards to Moray Firth. 
Meanwhile Moddan had occupied Caithness, 
and was now at Thurso, waiting reinforce- 
ments from Ireland, while Thorfinn had gone 
south in pursuit of Duncan, who was muster- 
ing a new army. Moddan was surprised and 
slain by Thorfinn's lieutenant, Thorkell Fostri, 
who then hastened to rejoin the earl at Torf- 
ness or Burghhead. After a desperate struggle 
Duncan was defeated, ' and some say he was 
slain.' Such is the account given of Dun- 
can's death in the ' Sagas,' where he himself 
appears under the ' strange designation of 
Karl or Kali Hundason,' that is, either ' the 
Churl, or Kali, the son of the Hound,' where 
the hound can be none other than Crinan, the 
abbot of Dunkeld (SKENE, i. 401 ,- cf. how- 
ever, RHYS'S theory in Celtic Britain, p. 260, 
where the writer would identify the Hound's 
son with Macbeth). 

More precise, however, is the entry of Mari- 
anus Scotus (ap. PERTZ, v. 557), an almost 
contemporary annalist, who says that in the 
autumn of 1040 was slain ' a duce Macbetho 
mac Finnloech, who succeeded him, and 
reigned for seventeen years.' A gloss gives 
the day of the month 14 Aug. This Macbeth 



Duncan 



158 



Duncan 



must be identified with the Maelbaethe, mor- 
maer of Moray or Ri Alban mentioned above. 
According to Mr.Skene, Macbeth, after waver- 
ing in his allegiance to Duncan, finally threw 
in his fortunes with Thorfinn, and ultimately 
divided the realm with his ally. Macbeth 
thus, in Mr. Skene's opinion, obtained the dis- 
tricts south and west of the Tay ' in which 
Duncan's strength mainly lay/ while 'Cum- 
bria and Lothian probably remained faithful 
to the children of Duncan.' A consistent tra- 
dition, going back through Fordun (c. 1361) 
to the twelfth century, makes the murder per- 
petrated at Bot hngouane or Bothgofnane (Pit- 
gaveny, near Elgin), whence the king was 
carried to Elgin before his death. From this 
place the corpse was taken to lona for burial 
(Chron. of Picte and Scots, ed. Skene, p. 52; 
FORDUN, ed. Skene, i. 188). Marianus Scotus, 
consistently with his own dates, makes Dun- 
can reign five years nine months; in this 
he is supported by one or two early autho- 
rities, most of whom, however, write six years 
(ib. pp. 29, 63, &c. ; cf. pp. 101, 210). 

According to Fordun, Duncan's rule was 
very peaceful ; but no stress can be laid on 
the account he gives of this king's yearly pro- 
gress through his realm to restrain the injus- 
tice of his lords. The same writer remarks 
that he was slain by the unsteadiness of a 
family that had already slain his grandfather 
and great-grandfather. In a poem written 
before 1057 A.D. he appears as ' Duncan the 
Wise ; ' in Tighernac's ' Annals ' he is said to 
have perished ' immatura setate a suis occi- 
sus ; ' and the prophecy of St. Berchan, perhaps 
dating from the early half of the twelfth cen- 
tury, calls him ' Il-galrach,' or the much dis- 
eased. He is described as ' a king not young, 
but old.' There are allusions to his ' banner 
of red gold,' and his skill in music. These 
phrases are of some interest as belonging to 
the prototype of Shakespeare's ' King Duncan,' 
whose mythical story may be traced with all 
its accretions in Fordun, pp. 187-8 ; Bower, 
ed. Goodall, iv. cc. 49, 50, &c., and v. ; Mayor 
(ed. 1521),fol.42 ; Boethius, book xii. ; Bu- 
chanan, book vii. ; and Holinshed (ed. 1808), 
v. 264-9. 

Duncan had two sons, Malcolm (afterwards 
Malcolm, king of Scotland) and Donald Bane 
(TIGERNACH, sub ann. 1057 : MARIANUS Sco- 
urs, p. 558 ; A.-S. Chron. ii. 196). His wife, ac- 
cording to Boece, was the daughter of Siward, 
earl of Northumberland (fol. 249 b). A third 
son, Maelmare, is said to have been the an- 
cestor of the earls of Atholl (SKENE, i. 434). 
From Simeon of Durham we may infer that 
Duncan had a brother Maldred, who married 
Aldgitha, the daughter of Earl Uchtred, and 
granddaughter of Ethelred the Unready, and 



by her became the father of Cospatric, earl of 

Northumberland (SiM. OF DURHAM, i. 216). 

[Authorities quoted above.] T. A. A. 

DUNCAN II (d. 1094), king of Scotland, 
was the eldest son of Malcolm III (Canmore), 
by his wife Ingibrorg, widow of Thorfinn, the 
Norwegian earl of Orkney (SKENE, i. 434). 
His father had given him as a hostage to Wil- 
liam I, probably at the treaty of Abernethy in 
1072 (FREEMAN, Norman Conquest, iv. 517). 
When William I died he was apparently more 
or less of a state prisoner, and as such was set 
free and knighted by Robert when he entered 
Normandy in 1087. On the death of Mal- 
j colm he was probably regarded as his father's 
I true heir in Cumbria and the Norwegian dis- 
j tricts north of the Spey. In Scotia proper, 
; or Albania, from the Forth to the Tay, the 
law of tanistry must have powerfully sup- 
i ported the pretensions of his uncle, Donald 
! Bane, who is said to have at once seized 
i upon Edinburgh Castle. On hearing of his 
father's death Duncan did fealty to William 
Rufus, under whose banners he was then 
serving, and collected a force of English and 
Normans for the maintenance of his claim to 
J Scotland, where Donald Bane had been elected 
king, and, placing himself at the head of the 
national party, had driven all the English 
of his dead brother's court out of the country. 
Duncan succeeded in expatriating his uncle 
and establishing himself in his stead ; but 
the young king found his followers unpopu- 
lar with the very Scots who had- made him 
king. These rose up in a body, cut off the 
strangers almost to a man, and only consented 
to retain Duncan as their king on condi- 
tion of his taking an oath to introduce no 
more English or Normans into the country. 
It is curious after this to find that in the 
next year the Scotch, at the instigation of 
Donald Bane, slew their king treacherously, 
and once more expelled the English, and set 
Donald Bane upon the throne. Fordun makes 
Duncan slain at Montheclrn, by Malpei or 
Malpedir, earl of Mearns, and buried in lona 
(SIMEON OF DURHAM, ii. 222-4; FLORENCE 
OF WORCESTER, ii. 21, 31-5 ; A.-S. Chron. ii. 
196-8 ; SKENE, Celtic Scotland, i. 433, &c.) 
The exact dates of these events are some- 
what obscure. Malcolm is said to have died 
13 Nov. 1093 (FORDUN, p. 219), his eldest son 
Edward two days later, and Queen Margaret 
on 16 Nov. Simeon of Durham also gives 
Malcolm's death on St. Brice's day, and Mar- 
garet's three days later; whereas Duncan's 
death is admitted by all authorities to have 
taken place in 1094. This, even if we place 
Duncan's death at the very end of 1094, hardly 
leaves space for admitting with Fordun (p. 



Duncan 



159 



Duncan 



223) that Duncan reigned for eighteen months 
and did not obtain the throne till his uncle 
had ruled for six. 

Duncan married Ethreda, or Etheldreda, 
the daughter of Gospatric, earl of Northum- 
berland. Two of his charters are still extant, 
one to the church of Durham. His son, Wil- 
liam FitzDuncan, was earl of Moray, and his 
grandson Donald Ban Mac William, figured 
very prominently as a claimant for the throne 
of Scotland against William the Lion (Cal, of 
Doc. relating to Scotland, ii. 16; BENEDICT OF 
PETERBOROUGH, ii. 8). This Donald, if really 
a son of William FitzDuncan, must have 
been illegitimate, for the memorandum on this 
family genealogy (c. 1275'A.D.) only recognises 
one son as born to FitzDuncan, i.e. the ill- 
fated ' Boy of Egremond' (Cal. of Doc. ii. 16, 
c.) Duncan himself is styled ' Filius Mal- 
colmi nothus ' by AVilliam of Malmesbury 
(ed. Hardy, ii. 627). 

[Authorities quoted in text.] T. A. A. 

DUNCAN, ADAM, VISCOUNT DUNCAN 
(1731-1804), admiral, second son of Alex- 
ander Duncan of Lundie in Perthshire, entered 
the navy in 1746 on board the Trial sloop, 
under the care of his maternal uncle, Captain 
Robert Haldane, with whom, in the Trial and 
afterwards in the Shoreham frigate, he con- 
tinued till the peace in 1748. In 1749 he was 
appointed to the Centurion, then commis- 
sioned for service in the Mediterranean, by the 
Hon. Augustus (afterwards Viscount) Keppel 

S[. v.], with whom he was afterwards in the 
orwich on the coast of North America, and 
was confirmed in the rank of lieutenant on 
10 Jan. 1755. In August 1755 he followed 
Keppel to the Swiftsure, and in January 1756 
to the Torbay, in which he continued till his 
promotion to commander's rank on 21 Sept. 
1759, and during this time was present in the 
expedition to Basque Roads in 1757, at the re- 
duction of Goree in 1758, and in the blockade 
of Brest in 1759, up to within two months 
of the battle of Quiberon Bay, from which his 
promotion j ust excluded him. From October 
1759 to April 1760 he had command of the 
Royal Exchange, a hired vessel employed in 
petty convoy service with a miscellaneou 
ship's company, consisting to a large extent 
of boys and foreigners, many of whom (he 
reported) could not speak English, and al" 
impressed with the idea that as they hac 
been engaged by the merchants from whom 
the ship was hired they were not subject to 
naval discipline. It would seem that a mis- 
understanding with the merchants on this 
point was the cause of the ship's being put 
out of commission after a few months. As a 
commander Duncan had no further service 



jut on 25 Feb. 1761 he was posted and ap- 
>ointed to the Valiant, fitting for Keppel s 
>road pennant. In her he had an important 
share in the reduction of Belle Isle in June 
1 761, and of Havana in August 1762. He 
returned to England in 1763, and, notwith- 
standing his repeated request, had no further 
employment for many years. During this 
ime he lived principally at Dundee, and 
married on 6 June 1777 Henrietta, daughter 
of Robert Dundas of Arniston, lord-president 
of the court of session [q. v.] It would seem 
that his alliance with this influential family 
obtained him the employment which he had 
been vainly seeking during fifteen years. 
Towards the end of 1778 he was appointed 
to the Suffolk, from which he was almost 
immediately moved into the Monarch. In 
January 1779 he sat as a member of the 
court-martial on Keppel, and in the course 
of the trial interfered several times to stop 
the prosecutor in irrelevant and in leading 
questions, or in perversions of answers. The 
admiralty was therefore desirous that he 
should not sit on the court-martial on Sir 
Hugh Palliser [q.v.], which followed in April, 
and the day before the assembling of the court 
sent down orders for the Monarch to go to 
St. Helens. Her crew, however, refused to 
weigh the anchor until they were paid their 
advance ; and as this could not be done in 
time, the Monarch was still in Portsmouth 
harbour when the signal for the court-martial 
was made (Considerations on the Principles of 
Naval Discipline,8vo, 1781, p. 106 .) ; so that, 
sorely against the wishes of the admiralty, 
Duncan sat on this court-martial also. 

During the summer of 1779 the Monarch 
was attached to the Channel fleet under Sir 
Charles Hardy ; in December was one of the 
squadron with which Rodney sailed for the 
relief of Gibraltar, and had a prominent share 
in the action off St. Vincent on 16 Jan. 1780. 
On returning to England Duncan quitted 
the Monarch, and had no further command 
till after the change of ministry in March 
1782, when Keppel became first lord of the 
admiralty. He was then appointed to the 
Blenheim of 90 guns, and commanded her 
during the year in the grand fleet under Ho we, 
at the relief of Gibraltar in October, and the 
rencounter with the allied fleet off Cape 
Spartel. He afterwards succeeded Sir John 
Jervis in command of the Foudroyant, and 
after the peace commanded the Edgar as 
guardship at Portsmouth for three years. 
He attained flag rank on 24 Sept. 1787, be- 
came vice-admiral 1 Feb. 1793, and admiral 
1 June 1795. In February 1795 he was ap- 
pointed commander-in-chief in the North Sea, 
and hoisted his flag on board the Venerable. 



Duncan 



160 



Duncan 



A story is told on the authority of his daugh- 
ter, Lady Jane Hamilton, that this ap- 
pointment was given him by Lord Spencer, 
at the instance of Mr. Dundas, afterwards 
Lord Melville (REPPEL, i. 144 .) ; but as Lord 
Spencer was not at that time, nor for two 
years afterwards, first lord of the admiralty, 
the anecdote is clearly inaccurate in at least 
one of its most important details. 

During the first two years of Duncan's 
command the work was limited to enforcing 
a rigid blockade of the enemy's coast, but 
in the spring of 1797 it became more im- 
portant from the knowledge that the Dutch 
fleet in the Texel was getting ready for sea. 
The situation was one of extreme difficulty, 
for the mutiny which had paralysed the fleet 
at the Nore broke out also in that under 
Duncan, and kept it for some weeks in en- 
forced inactivity. Duncan's personal influence 
and some happy displays of his vast personal 
strength held the crew of the Venerable to 
their duty ; but with one other exception, 
that of the Adamant, the ships refused to 
quit their anchorage at Yarmouth, leaving 
the Venerable and Adamant alone to keep 
up the pretence of the blockade. For- 
tunately the Dutch were not at the time 
ready for sea ; and when they were ready and 
anxious to sail, with thirty thousand troops, for 
the invasion of Ireland, a persistent westerly 
wind detained them in harbour till they 
judged that the season was too far advanced 
(Life of Wolfe Tone, ii. 425-35). For politi- 
cal purposes, however, the government in 
Holland, in spite of the opinion of their ad- 
miral, De Winter, to the contrary, ordered 
him to put to sea in the early days of October. 
' I cannot conceive,'wrote Wolfe Tone (Life, ii. 
452), ' why the Dutch government sent out 
their fleet at that season, without motive or 
object, as far as I can learn. My opinion is 
that it is direct treason, and that the fleet 
was sold to Pitt, and so think Barras, Ple- 
ville le Pelley, and even Meyer, the Dutch 
ambassador, whom I have seen once or twice.' 
This of course was scurrilous nonsense, but 
the currency of such belief emphasises De 
Winter's statement to Duncan, that ' the 
government in Holland, much against his 
opinion, insisted on his going to sea to show 
they had done so ' (Arniston Memoirs, 250). 
Duncan, with the main body of the fleet, was 
at the time lying at Yarmouth revictualling, 
the Texel being watched by a small squadron 
under Captain Trollope in the Russell, from 
whom he received early information of the 
Dutch being at sea. He at once weighed, 
with a fair wind stood over to the Dutch 
coast, saw that the fleet was not returned to 
the Texel, and steering towards the south 



sighted it on the morning of 11 Oct. about 
seven miles from the shore and nearly half- 
way between the villages of Egmont and 
Camperdown. The wind was blowing straight 
on shore, and though the Dutch forming their 
line to the north preserved a bold front, it 
was clear that if the attack was not made 
promptly they would speedily get into shoal 
water, where no attack would be possible. 
Duncan at once realised the necessity of cut- 
ting off their retreat by getting between them 
and the land. At first he was anxious to 
bring up his fleet in a compact body, for at 
best his numbers were not more than equal 
to those of the Dutch ; but seeing the ab- 
solute necessity of immediate action, without 
waiting for the ships astern to come up, with- 
out waiting to form line of battle, and with 
the fleet in very irregular order of sailing, in 
two groups, led respectively by himself in the 
Venerable and Vice-admiral Onslow in the 
Monarch, he made the signal to pass through 
the enemy's line and engage to leeward. It 
was a bold departure from the absolute rule 
laid down in the ' Fighting Instructions,' still 
new, though warranted by the more formal 
example of Howe on 1 June 1794 ; and on 
this occasion, as on the former, was crowned 
with complete success. The engagement was 
long and bloody; for though Duncan, by pass- 
ing through the enemy's line, had prevented 
their untimely retreat, he had not advanced 
further in tactical science, and the battle was 
fought out on the primitive principles of ship 
against ship, the advantage remaining with 
those who were the better trained to the great 
gun exercise (CHEVALIER, Histoire de la 
Marine Franqaise sous la premiere Repu- 
blique, 329), though the Dutch by their ob- 
stinate courage inflicted great loss on the 
English. It had been proposed to De Winter 
to make up for the want of skill by firing 
shell from the lower deck guns ; and some 
experiments had been made during the sum- 
mer which showed that the idea was feasible 
(WoLFB TONE, ii. 427) ; but want of fami- 
liarity with an arm so new and so dangerous 
presumably prevented its being acted on in 
the battle. 

The news of the victory was received in 
England with the warmest enthusiasm. It 
was the first certain sign that the mutinies 
of the summer had not destroyed the power 
and the prestige of the British navy. Dun- 
can was at once (21 Oct.) raised to the peer- 
age as Baron Duncan of Lundie and Viscount 
Duncan of Camperdown, and there was a 
strong feeling that the reward was inade- 
quate. Even as early as 18 Oct. his aunt, Lady 
Mary Duncan, wrote to Henry Dundas, at 
that time secretary of state for war : ' Report 



Duncan 



161 



Duncan 



says my nephew is only made a viscount. 
Myself is nothing, but the whole nation 
thinks the least you can do is to give him an 
English earldom. . . . Am sure were this pro- 
perly represented to our good king, who 
esteems a brave, religious man like himself, 
would be of my opinion. . . . ' (Arniston Me- 
moirs, 251). It was not, however, till 1831, 
many years after Duncan's death, that his 
son, then bearing his title, was raised to the 
dignity of an earl, and his other children to 
the rank and precedence of the children of an 
earl. 

Till 1801 Duncan continued in command 
of the North Sea fleet, but without any fur- 
ther opportunity of distinction. Three years 
later, 4 Aug. 1804, he died quite suddenly at 
the inn at Cornhill, a village on the border, 
where he had stopped for the night on his 
journey to Edinburgh (ib. 252). He left a 
family of four daughters, and, besides the 
eldest son who succeeded to the peerage, a 
second son, Henry, who died a captain in the 
navy and K.C.H. in 1835. It was of him 
that Nelson wrote : ' I had not forgot to notice 
the son of Lord Duncan. I consider the near 
relations of brother-officers as legacies to the 
service' (11 Jan. 1804, Nelson Despatches, v. 
364), and to whom he wrote on 4 Oct. 1804, 
sending a newspaper with the account of Lord 
Duncan's death : ' There is no man who more 
sincerely laments the heavy loss you have 
sustained than myself; but the name of Dun- 
can will never be forgot by Britain, and in 
particular by its navy, in which service the 
remembrance of your worthy father will, 
I am sure, grow up in you. I am sorry not 
to have a good sloop to give you, but still 
an opening offers which I think will insure 
your confirmation as a commander ' (ib. vi. 
216). 

Duncan was of size and strength almost 
gigantic. He is described as 6 ft. 4 in. in 
height, and of corresponding breadth. When 
a young lieutenant walking through the 
streets of Chatham, his grand figure and hand- 
some face attracted crowds of admirers, and 
to the last he is spoken of as singularly hand- 
some (Colburn's New Monthly Magazine, 1836, 
xlvii. 466). His portrait, by Hoppner, has 
been engraved. Another, by an unknown 
artist, but presented by the first Earl of Cam- 
perdown,isin the Painted Hall at Greenwich, 
Another, by Copley, has also been engraved. 
A statue by Westmacott, erected at the 
public expense, is in St. Paul's. 

[Ralfe's Naval Biography, i. 319 ; Naval Chro- 
nicle, iv. 81 ; Charnock's Biographia Navalis, vi. 
422 ; James's Naval History of Great Britain 
(edit. 1860), ii. 74; Keppel's Life of Viscount 
Keppel.] J. K. L. 

VOL. XVI. 



DUNCAN, ANDREW, the elder (1744- 
1828), physician and professor at Edinburgh 
University, was the second son of Andrew 
Duncan, merchant and shipmaster, of Crail, 
afterwards of St. Andrews, his mother being 
a daughter of Professor William Vilant, and 
related to the Drummonds of Hawthornden. 
He was born at Pinkerton, near St. An- 
drews, on 17 Oct. 1744, and was educated 
first by Sandy Don of Crail, celebrated in the 
convivial song of ' Crail Town,' and after- 
wards by Richard Dick of St., Andrews. He 
proceeded next to St. Andrews University, 
where he obtained the M.A. degree in 1762. 
As a youth he was known as ' the smiling 
boy,' and his character for good nature was 
retained through life. Lord Erskine and his 
brother Henry Erskine were among his school- 
fellows and fast friends through life. In 1762 
he entered Edinburgh University as a medi- 
cal student, being the pupil of Cullen, John 
Gregory, Monro secundus, Hope, and Black. 
He was president of the Royal Medical So- 
ciety in 1764, and five times afterwards. His 
attachment to the society continued through 
life ; he was its treasurer for many years ; 
and in 1786 a gold medal was voted to him 
for his services. On the completion of his 
course of studies in 1768, he went a voyage 
to China as surgeon of the East India Com- 
pany's ship Asia. Refusing an offer of five 
hundred guineas to undertake a second voyage, 
Duncan graduated M.D. at St. Andrews in 
October 1769, and in May 1770 became a licen- 
tiate of the Edinburgh College of Physicians. 
In the same year he was an unsuccessful 
candidate for the professorship of medicine 
in St. Andrews University. In February 
1771 he married Miss Elizabeth Knox, who 
bore him twelve children. His eldest son, 
Andrew [q. v.], became also a professor at 
Edinburgh. His third son, Alexander (1780- 
1859), became a general in the army, and 
distinguished himself in India. 

During the absence of Dr. Drummond, pro- 
fessor-elect of medicine at Edinburgh, Dun- 
can was appointed to lecture in 1774-6. 
Drummond failing to return, Dr. James Gre- 
gory was elected professor, and Duncan started 
an extra-academical course, as well as a pub- 
lic dispensary, which afterwards became the 
Royal Public Dispensary, incorporated by 
royal charter in 1818. In 1773 he com- 
menced the publication of ' Medical and 
Philosophical Commentaries,' a quarterly 
journal of medicine, at first issued in the 
name of ' a society in Edinburgh,' Duncan 
being named as secretary. The seventh vo- 
lume was entitled ' Medical Commentaries 
for the year 1780, collected and published 
by Andrew Duncan,' and reached a third 

M 



Duncan 



162 



Duncan 



edition. The series extended ultimately to 
twenty volumes, the last issue being in 1795, 
after which the publication was entitled' An- 
nals of Medicine,' of which eight volumes 
were issued. In 1804 it was discontinued 
in favour of the ' Edinburgh Medical and 
Surgical Journal,' edited by his son. 

Duncan's extra-academical lectures were 
continued with considerable success till 1790, 
in which year he attained the presidency of 
the Edinburgh College of Physicians. On 
Cullen's resignation in that year he was suc- 
ceeded in the professorship of medicine by 
Dr. James Gregory, and Duncan followed 
the latter in the chair of the theory or insti- 
tutes of medicine (physiology). In 1792 he 
proposed the erection of a public lunatic 
asylum in Edinburgh, having first conceived 
the idea after hearing of the miserable death 
of Robert Fergusson [q. v.] in 1774 in the 
common workhouse. It was not until many 
difficulties had been surmounted that the pro- 
ject was at last accomplished, and a royal 
charter was granted in 1807 under which a 
lunatic asylum was built at Morningside. 
In 1808 the freedom of Edinburgh was con- 
ferred upon Duncan for his services in the 
foundation of the dispensary and the asylum. 
In 1809 he founded the Caledonian Horti- 
cultural Society, which, being afterwards in- 
corporated, became of great scientific and 
practical value. In his later years Duncan 
was actively occupied in promoting the es- 
tablishment of a public experimental garden, 
the scheme for which was actively progress- 
ing at his death. In 1819 his son became pint 
professor with him, and in 1821 Dr. W. P. 
Alison [q. v.] succeeded to that post, but 
Duncan continued to do much of the duty to 
the last. In 1821, on the death of Dr. James 
Gregory, Duncan became first physician to the 
king in Scotland, having held the same office 
to the Prince of Wales for more than thirty 
years. In 1821 he was elected president of 
the Edinburgh Medico-Chirurgical Society 
at its foundation. In 1824 he was again 
elected president of the Edinburgh College 
of Physicians. Although in his later years 
he failed to keep up with the progress of 
physiology, his zeal was unabated, and he 
discharged many useful offices with extreme 
punctuality. He used to say that the busi- 
ness of no institution should be hindered by 
his absence, whether it was forwarded by his 
presence or not. For more than half a cen- 
tury he walked to the top of Arthur's Seat on 



from the lectures of the founders of the Edin- 
burgh School of Medicine, and a hundred vo- 
lumes of practical observations on medicine 
in his own handwriting. A portrait of him by 
Raeburn is in the Edinburgh Royal Dispen- 
sary, as well as a bust ; a full-length por- 
trait was painted in 1825 for the Royal Medi- 
cal Society by Watson Gordon. 

Duncan was an industrious and perspicu- 
ous rather than a brilliant lecturer. He was 
both generous and hospitable to his pupils. 
Being of very social instincts, he founded seve- 
ral clubs, among which the Harveian Society, 
founded in 1782, was the most notable. He 
was its secretary till his death, and never 
failed to provide its annual meeting with an 
appropriate address, usually commemorating 
, some deceased ornament of the medical pro- 
i fession. The Esculapian and gymnastic clubs 
I were also of his foundation, and many of his 
poetical effusions were read or sung at their 
meetings. He was much beloved for the 
geniality and benevolence of his character. 

Duncan's larger works, besides those al- 
ready mentioned, are : 1. 'Elements of Thera- 
( peutics,' 1770, second edition 1773. 2. 'Me- 
dical Cases,' 17 78, third edition 1784; trans- 
I lated into Latin, Ley den, 1785 ; translated 
i into French, Paris, 1797. 3. An edition of 
, Hoffmann's ' Practice of Medicine,' 2 vols. 
! 1783. 4. ' The Xew Dispensatory,' editions 
of 1786, 1789, 1791. 5. ' Observations on the 
; Distinguishing Symptoms of three different 
Species of Pulmonary Consumption,' 1813, 
I second edition 1816. In connection with 
l the Harveian Society, Duncan published an 
oration in praise of Harvey, 1778; and me- 
moirs of Monro primus, 1780 ; Dr. John 
Parsens, 1786 ; Professor Hope, 1789 ; Monro 
secundus, 1818 ; Sir Joseph Banks, 1821 ; 
and Sir Henry Raeburn, 1824. 

In connection with one of Dr. James Gre- 
gory's many controversies, Duncan published 
his ' Opinion,' 1808, and a ' Letter to Dr. 
James Gregory,' 1811, from which the facts 
can be gathered. A number of his poetical 
effusions are included in ' Carminum Rario- 
rum Macaronicorum Delectus ' (Esculapian 
, Society), 1801, second edition enlarged: and 
I ' Miscellaneous Poems, extracted from the 
Records of the Circulation Club, Edinburgh,' 
'. 1818. He also selected and caused to be 
published ' Monumental Inscriptions selected 
from Burial Grounds at Edinburgh/ 1815. 



[Autobio^r. Fragment in Misc. Poems, by 

AT A. D., 1818; Huie's Harveian Oration for 1829 ; 

May-day morning, accompl^hmg this for the Chambers Biog. Diet, of Eminent Scotsmen, ed. 
last time on 1 May 1827. He died on o July ! Thomson; Cockburn's Memorials, p. 284; Grant's 

Story of Edinb. Univ. ii. 406-7; Fragment of 
Life of the Scriba Prsetorius in Misc. Poems of 
( Circulation Club above mentioned.] G. T. B. 



i July 

1828, in his eighty-fourth year. Ho be- 
queathed to the Edinburgh College of Phy- 
sicians seventy volumes of manuscript notes 



Duncan 



163 



Duncan 



DUNCAN, ANDREW, the younger 
(1773 - 1832), physician and professor at 
Edinburgh University, son of AndrewDuncan 
the elder [q. v.], was born at Edinburgh on 
10 Aug. 1773. He early showed a strong 
bias towards medicine, and was apprenticed 
(1787-92) to Alexander and George Wood, 
surgeons of Edinburgh. He graduated M. A. 
at Edinburgh in 1793, and M.D. 1794. He 
studied in London in 1794-5 at the Windmill 
Street School, under Baillie, Cruickshank, 
and Wilson, and made two long visits to the 
continent, studying medical practice in all 
the chief cities and medical schools, including 
Gottingen, Vienna, Pisa, Naples, and many 
others, and becoming intimate with such men 
as Blumenbach, Frank, Scarpa, Spallanzani, 
&c. Thus he gained a knowledge of conti- 
nental languages, practice, and men of mark, 
which few men of his time could boast. Re- 
turning to Edinburgh, he became a fellow of 
the College of Physicians, and physician to the 
Royal Public Dispensary, assisting his father 
also in editing the ' Annals of Medicine.' He 
afterwards became physician to the Fever 
Hospital at Queensberry House. In 1803 
he brought out the ' Edinburgh'New Dispen- 
satory,' a much improved version of Lewis's j 
work. This became very popular, a tenth 
edition appearing in 1822. It was translated 
into German and French, and was several 
times republished in the United States. The 
preparation of successive editions occupied 
much of Duncan's time. From 1805 also he 
was for many years chief editor of the ' Edin- 
burgh Medical and Surgical Journal,' which 
speedily gained a leading position. 

From his continental experience Duncan 
had early seen the necessity of more com- 
plete study of medicine in its relation to the 
state, especially to the criminal law, and he 
brought forward the importance of the sub- 
ject at every opportunity for some years. In 
1807 a professorship of medical jurisprudence 
and medical police was created at Edinburgh, 
with Duncan as first professor, with an en- 
dowment of 1001. per annum ; but attendance 
upon lectures in this subject was not made 
compulsory. From 1809 to 1822 he acted 
most efficiently as secretary of senatus and 
librarian to the university ; while from 1816 
till his death he was an active member of the 
' college commission ' for rebuilding the uni- 
versity, and to him is greatly due the success 
with which the Adam-Playfair buildings 
were carried out. In 1819 he resigned his pro- 
fessorship of medical jurisprudence on being 
appointed joint professor with his father 
of the institutes of medicine. In 1821 he 
was elected without opposition professor of 
materia medica, in which chair he achieved 



great success. He worked indefatigably, al- 
ways improving his lectures and studying 
every new publication on medicine, British 
or foreign. He was often at his desk by three 
in the morning. In 1827 he had a severe 
attack of fever, and his strength afterwards 
gradually declined. He lectured until nearly 
the end of the session 1831-2, and died on 
13 May 1832, in his fifty-eighth year. 

Duncan's chief work was the ' Dispensa- 
tory' already mentioned. He published a 
supplement to it in 1829. In 1809 he con- 
tributed to the ' Transactions ' of the High- 
land Society a ' Treatise on the Diseases 
which are incident to Sheep in Scotland.' 
He also published in 1818 ' Reports of the 
Practice in the Clinical Wards of the Royal 
Infirmary of Edinburgh.' Perhaps his most 
distinctive discovery was the isolation of the 
principle ' cinchonin ' from cinchona, as re- 
lated in ' Nicholson's Journal,' 2nd ser. 
vol. vi. December 1803. Besides writing 
copiously in his own ' Journal,' he also wrote 
occasionally for the ' Edinburgh Review.' 

The younger Duncan had more culture and 
more originality than his father, but lacked 
his strong constitution and evenly balanced 
temperament. His visits, his ' Dispensa- 
tory,' and his 'Journal' made him widely 
known on the continent, and few foreigners 
came to Edinburgh unprovided with intro- 
ductions to him ; his foreign correspondence 
also was extensive. He was well versed in 
the fine arts, music, and foreign literature. 
His manners were simple, unaffected, and 
unobtrusive, his feelings sensitive and deli- 
cate, and his character for honour and in- 
tegrity was very high. 

[Chambers's Biog. Diet, of Eminent Scotsmen, 
ed. Thomson ; Grant's Story of Edinburgh Uni- 
versity.] a. T. B. 

DUNCAN, DANIEL (1649-1735), phy- 
sician, of an ancient Scotch family, several 
members of which belonged to the medical 
profession, was born in 1649 at Montauban 
in Languedoc, where his father, Peter Dun- 
can, was professor of physic. Having lost 
both his parents while he was quite an in- 
fant, he came under the guardianship of his 
maternal uncle, Daniel Paul, a firm protes- 
tant, like the other members of his family, 
by whom he was sent for his preliminary 
education to Puy Laurens. Here he made 
the acquaintance of Bayle, who was not (as 
is sometimes said) his pupil, but a fellow- 
student, two years his senior, and at that 
time a protestant like himself. Duncan then 
went to Montpellier to study medicine, and, 
after living for several years in the house of 
Charles Barbeyrac, took the degree of M.D. 

M 2 



Duncan 



164 



Duncan 



in 1673. He next went to Paris, where he 
became acquainted with the minister Colbert, 
by whom he was appointed physician-general 
to the army before St. Omer, commanded by 
the Duke of Orleans in 1677. After the peace 
of Nimeguen he appears to have left the 
army, published in Paris his first medical work 
in 1678, and then passed two years in London, 
where he employed himself especially in col- 
lecting information about the great plague 
of 1666. In 1681 he was summoned back to 
Paris to attend his patron Colbert, after whose 
death in 1683 he returned to his native town 
of Montauban. Here he was so well received 
that he might have remained for many years ; 
but in consequence of the revocation of the 
edict of Nantes in 1685 he determined to leave 
the country altogether and settle in England. 
Accordingly in 1690 he withdrew to Switzer- 
land, where, at first in Geneva and afterwards 
for some years in Berne, he employed himself, 
not only in the practical and professorial 
duties of his profession, but also especially 
in relieving the distress of the large numbers 
of French emigrants who were obliged to 
leave their country. In 1699 Philip, land- 
grave of Hesse, sent for him to Cassel, where 
his wife was seriously ill. Duncan was suc- 
cessful in his treatment of her case, and at- 
tributed her illness in a great measure to 
the immoderate use of hot liquors, such as 
tea, coffee, and chocolate, which had lately 
been introduced into Germany, and were 
indulged in to excess by the richer classes. 
To check this pernicious habit he wrote a 
little treatise in a popular style for private 
circulation in manuscript, which some years 
later he published at the suggestion of his 
friend Boerhaave. He resided for three years 
in the landgrave's palace, and while at Cassel 
continued his generous assistance to the nu- 
merous French protestants who emigrated 
into Germany. The fame of his liberality and 
skill reached Berlin, and procured for him a 
pressing invitation tothat city from Frederick, 
the newly created king of Prussia, which he 
accepted in 1702. But, though he was ap- 
pointed professor of physic and also physi- 
cian to the royal household, he found the 
intemperate habits of the court so distasteful 
to him, and the necessary expenses of living 
so excessive, that in 1703 he passed on to the 
Hague, where he remained for about twelve 
years. Itwas not till near the end of 1714that 
he was able to carry out the intention which 
he is supposed to have formed early in life of 
finally settling in England. He would have 
reached this country a few months earlier but 
that he was suddenly seized with paralysis, 
from which, however, with the exception of 
a slight convulsive motion of the head, he 



entirely recovered. He had often solemnly 
declared that if his life were prolonged to the 
age of seventy, he would consecrate the re- 
mainder of it to the gratuitous service of 
those who sought his advice. To this reso- 
lution he steadily adhered, and for the last 
sixteen years of his life would take no fees, 
although, owing to the serious loss brought 
upon him by the bursting of the South Sea 
bubble in 1721, they would have been by no 
means unacceptable. When one was offered 
to him he would say with a smile, ' The poor 
are my only paymasters now, and they are 
the best I ever had ; for their payments are 
placed in a government fund that can never 
fail, and my security is the only King who 
can do no wrong.' His conversation is said 
to have been ' easy, chearful, and interesting, 
pure from all taint of party scandal or idle 
raillery.' He died in London 30 April 1735, 
aged 86, leaving behind him an only son, of 
the same name. 

The following is a list of Duncan's medical 
works, the purport of which is sufficiently 
indicated by their titles, and which are no 
longer interesting or valuable, as being 
founded on the obsolete hypotheses of the 
iatro-chemical school of medicine. Probably 

I Bayle correctly expressed the opinion of his 

1 contemporaries when he said that ' the works 

i which he had published were excellent, and 
did him great honour ' (Diet. Hist, et Crit., 

, art. 'Cerisantes,' ii. 117, ed. 1740). 1. 'Ex- 
plication nouvelle et mechanique des actions 
animales, ou il est traite des fonctions de 
Tame,' Paris, 1678. 2. ' La Chymie naturelle, 
ou I'explication chymique et mechanique de 
la nourriture de 1'animal,' 1st part, Paris, 1681 ; 
2nd and 3rd parts, ' de Tevacuation particu- 
liere aux femmes,' and 'de la formation et de 
la naissance de 1'animal,' Montauban, 1686. 

I Reprinted in Latin at the Hague, 1707. 

| 3. ' Histoire de 1' Animal, ou la connoissance 
du corps anime par la mechanique et par la 

i chymie,' Paris, 1682. Reprinted in Latin, 
Amsterdam, 1683. 4. 'Avis salutaire a tout 
le monde centre Tabus des choses chaudes, et 

1 particulierement du cafe, du chocolat, et du 
the,' Rotterdam, 1705, afterwards in English, 
London, 1706, and in German, Leipzig, 1707. 

! Duncan is said to have left behind him a great 

| number of manuscripts, mostly physical, some 
upon religious subjects, and one containing 
many curious anecdotes of the history of his 
own times ; but where these papers are at pre- 
sent, or whether they are still in existence, 

I the writer has not discovered. They are not 
in the British Museum. 

[Notice in the Bibliotheque Britannique, 

i La Have, 1735, v. 219, &c. ; abridged in an 

I ' Elogium Danielis Duncani,' in the Jsova Acta 



Duncan 



165 



Duncan 



Eruditorum, Supplem. iv. 1742, and translated 
with additions in Kippis's Biog. Brit. 1793.] 

W. A. OK 

DUNCAN, EDWARD (1804-1882), 
landscape-painter, etcher, and lithographer, 
born in London in 1804, first studied aqua- 
tint engraving under Robert Havell. In 
1831 he became a member of the New So- 
ciety of Painters in Water-Colours, and in 
1848 was elected a member of the Old Water- 
Colour Society, where he exhibited ' Ship- 
wreck ' and the ' Lifeboat ' in 18o9 and 1860. 
Several of his aquatints were published by 
T. Gosden in the ' Sportsman's Repository,' 
among them ' Pheasant-shooting ' and ' Par- 
tridge-shooting.' He died on 11 April 1882, 
and his remaining works were sold at Christie's 
on 11 March 1885 ; among the most finished 
drawings were ' Loch Scavaig,' ' The Fisher- 
man's Return,' and scenery in England, Scot- 
land, and Wales. 

[Ottley's Diet, of Kecent and Living Artists.] 

L. F. 

DUNCAN, ELEAZAR(<2. 1660), royalist 
divine. [See DTJNCON.] 

DUNCAN, HENRY, D.D. (1774-1846), 
founder of savings banks, was^ born in 1774 
at Lochrutton, Kirkcudbrightshire, where his 
father, George Duncan, was minister. After 
studying for two sessions at St. Andrews 
University he was sent to Liverpool to begin 
commercial life, and under the patronage 
of his relative, Dr. Currie, the biographer of 
Burns, his prospects of success were very fair ; 
but his heart was not in business, and he soon 
left Liverpool to study at Edinburgh and 
Glasgow for the ministry of the church of 
Scotland. At Edinburgh he joined the Spe- 
culative Society, and became intimate with 
Francis Horner and Henry Brougham. In 
1798 he was ordained as minister of Ruthwell 
in Dumfriesshire, where he spent the rest of 
his life. Duncan from the first was remarkable 
for the breadth of his views, especially in what 
concerned the welfare of the people, and the 
courage and ardour with which he promoted 
measures not usually thought to be embraced 
in the minister's role. In a time of scarcity 
he brought Indian corn from Liverpool. At 
the time when a French invasion was dreaded 
he raised a company of volunteers, of which 
he was the captain. He published a series 
of cheap popular tracts, contributing to the 
series some that were much prized, afterwards 
collected under the title ' The Cottage Fire- 
side.' He originated a newspaper, ' The Dum- 
fries and Galloway Courier,' of which he was 
editor for seven years. 

But the measure which is most honour- 



ably connected with his name was the insti- 
tution of savings banks. The first savings 
bank was instituted at Ruthwell in 1810, 
and Duncan was unceasing in his efforts to 
promote the cause throughout the country. 
His influence was used to procure the first 
act of parliament passed to encourage such 
institutions. By speeches, lectures, and pam- 
phlets he made the cause known far and 
wide. The scheme readily commended itself 
to all intelligent friends of the people, and 
the growing progress and popularity of the 
movement have received no check to the 
present day. Great though his exertions 
were, and large his outlay in this cause, he 
never received any reward or acknowledg- 
ment beyond the esteem of those who appre- 
ciated his work and the spirit in which it 
was done. 

In 1823 he received the degree of D.D. 
from the university of St. Andrews. In 1836 
he published the first volume of a work which 
reached ultimately to four volumes, entitled 
' The Sacred Philosophy of the Seasons.' It 
was well received, and ran through several 
editions. To the ' Transactions of the Scot- 
tish Antiquarian Society ' he contributed a 
description of a celebrated runic cross which 
he discovered in his parish and restored, and 
on which volumes have since been written. 
He made a memorable contribution likewise 
to geological science by the discovery of the 
footmarks of quadrupeds on the new red 
sandstone of Corncockle Muir, near Loch- 
maben. 

While at first not very decided between 
the moderate and the evangelical party in 
the church, Duncan soon sided with the lat- 
ter, and became the intimate friend of such 
men as Dr. Chalmers and Dr. Andrew Thom- 
son. In the earlier stages of the controversy 
connected with the Scottish church he ad- 
dressed letters on the subject to his old col- 
lege friends Lord Brougham and the Marquis 
of Lansdowne, and to Lord Melbourne, home 
secretary. In 1839 he was appointed mode- 
rator of the general assembly. In 1843 he 
joined the Free church, leaving a manse and 
grounds that had been rendered very beau- 
tiful by his taste and skill. He was a man 
of most varied accomplishments manual, 
intellectual, social, and spiritual. With the 
arts of drawing, modelling, sculpture, land- 
scape-gardening, and even the business of an 
architect, he was familiar, and his know- 
ledge of literature and science was varied 
and extensive. In private and family life he 
was highly estimable, while his ministerial 
work was carried on with great earnestness 
and delight. The stroke of paralysis that 
ended his life on 19 Feb. 1846 fell on him 



Duncan 



1 66 



Duncan 



while conducting a religious service in the , ' Biographia Britannica.' He was born 3 Nov. 
cottage of an elder. \ 1721 (School Reg. \ entered Merchant Taylors' 

The following is a full list of Duncan's at the age of twelve, and proceeded thence 
publications: 1. Pamphlet on Socinian con- (1739) to St. John's College, Oxford, as pro- 



froversy, Liverpool, 1791. 2. Three sermons. 
3. 'Essay on Nature and Advantages of Parish 
Banks,' 1815. 4. Letter to John H. Forbes, 
esq. [on parish banks, and in answer to his 
letter to editor of 'Quarterly Review'], 1817. 
5. ' Letter to W. R. K. Douglas, Esq., M.P., 
on Bill in Parliament for Savings Banks,' 
1819. 6. Letter to same advocating abolition 
of commercial restrictions, 1820. 7. ' Letter 
to Managers of Banks for Savings in Scot- 
land.' 8. ' The Cottage Fireside.' 9. ' The 
Young South Country Weaver.' 10. ' AVil- 
liam Douglas, or the Scottish Exiles,' 3 vols., 
1826. 11. 'Letter to Parishioners of Ruth- 
well on Roman Catholic Emancipation,' 1829. 
12. ' Presbyter's Letters on the West India 
Question,' 1830. 13. 'Account of the remark- 
able Runic Monument preserved at Ruth- 
well Manse,' 1833. 14. 'Letters to Rev. Dr. 
George Cook on Patronage and Calls,' 1834. 
15. 'Sacred Philosophy of the Seasons,' 4 vols., 
1835-6. 16. Letter to his flock on the reso- 
lutions of the convocation, 1842. 17. Arti- 
cles in ' Edinburgh Encyclopaedia ' ' Blair,' 
' Blacklock,' ' Carrie.' 18. Account of tracks ] 
and footmarks of animals found in Corn- 



bationary fellow. After graduating (M.A. 
1746), and taking holy orders, he became chap- 
lain to the forces, and served with the king's 
own regiment during the Scots' rebellion in 
1746, and afterwards at the siege of St. Phi- 
lip's, Minorca. Made D.D. by decree of con- 
vocation in 1757, he was presented six years 
later to the college living of South Warn- 
borough, Hampshire, which he retained until 
his death at Bath, 28 Dec. 1808. He published 
a sermon on ' The Defects and Dangers of a 
Pharisaical Righteousness,' Glasgow, 1751 ; 
' An Address to the Rational Advocates for 
the Church of England,' by Phileleutherus 
Tyro (1759) ; ' The Evidence of Reason in 
Proof of the Immortality of the Soul. Col- 
lected from the manuscripts of Mr. Baxter 
(by J. D.), to which is prefixed a letter from 
the editor to Dr. Priestley' (1779); and a 
poetical ' Essay on Happiness, in four books, r 
which went through a second edition in 1772 r 
besides tracts and other fugitive pieces. 

[Robinson's Reg. of Merchant Taylors' School, 
ii. 82; Brit. Mus. Cat.; Gent. Mag. 1809, u 
89.] C. J. R. 



DUNCAN, JOHN (1805-1849), African 
cockle Muir (' Transactions Royal Society of traveller, born in 1805, was the son of a small 
Edinburgh,' xi.) 19. Many articles in ' Edin- farmer of Culdoch, near Kirkcudbright, KB. 
burgh Christian Instructor.' " ' " ...- 

Duncan's second wife was Mary Grey, 
daughter of George Grey of West Ord, sis- 
ter of John Grey of Dilston, a well-known 
Northumbrian gentleman (see Memoir by his 
daughter, MRS. JOSEPHINE BUTLER), and 
widow of the Rev. R. Lundie of Kelso. She 
was a lady of considerable accomplishments 
and force of character, and author of several 



books: 1. 'Memoir of the Rev. M. Bruen.' 



He had a strong frame and little education. 
WTien seventeen years old he enlisted in the 
1st regiment of life guards. He taught him- 
self drawing during his service, and in 1839 
left the army with a high character. He next 
obtained an appointment as master-at-arms 
in the Albert, which with the Wilberforce 
and the Soudan sailed on the Niger expedi- 
tion in 1842. On the voyage out he was 
wounded by a poisoned arrow in a conflict 



2. ' Memoir of Mary Lundie Duncan ' (her w ith the natives at the Cape de Verde Isles, 
daughter, author of several well-known hymns ' Duncan held a conspicuous position in all the 
for children). 3. ' Missionary Life in Samoa, treaties made with the native chiefs. He- 
being the Life of George Archibald Lundie ' was selected to march at the head of his 



(her son). 4. 'Children of the Manse.' 5. 'Ame- 
rica as I found it.' 

[Scott's Fasti, pt. ii. 626-7; Disruption Wor- 
thies ; Life of Henry Duncan, D.D., by his son, 
Rev. G. J. C. Duncan ; Pratt's Hist, of Savings 
Banks ; Levin's Hist, of Savings Banks ; Notice 
of Dr. Duncan in Savings Bank Magazine, by 
John Maitland, esq., with note by Dr. Chalmers ; 
private information.] W. G. B. 



party, in the cumbrous uniform of a life- 
guardsman, when the heat was fearful even 
to the natives themselves. When at Egga, 
the highest point reached by the Albert on the 
Niger, he ventured upon an exploration further 
up, taking a few natives only, but sickness com- 
pelled the abandonment of the project. On 
reaching Fernando Po Duncan was attacked 
by fever, the effects of which were aggravated 1 
by his previous wound. Of three hundred in 
the Niger expedition, only five survived, and 



DUNG AN, JOHN, D.D. (1721-1808), mis- 

cellaneous writer, was a younger son of Dr. , , 

Daniel Duncan, author of some religious tracts, Duncan reached England in a most emaci- 
and grandson of Daniel Duncan, M.D. [q. v.], ated condition. As soon as his health im- 
whose memoir (together with an account of : proved Duncan proposed to penetrate the 
the Duncan family) he contributed to the [ unknown land from the western coast to the 



Duncan 



167 



Duncan 



Kong mountains, and between the Lagos and 
Niger rivers. His plans were approved by 
the Geographical Society, and the lords of 
the admiralty granted him a free passage in 
the Prometheus, which left England 17 June 
1844, and reached Cape Castle 22 July fol- 
lowing. After an attack of fever he com- 
menced his journey from the coast to Why- 
dah, and afterwards made the unexampled 
feat of a passage through the Dahomey 
country to Adofidiah, of which he sent par- 
ticulars to the Geographical Society, dated 
19 April and 4 Oct. 1845. He was refused 
a passage through the Ashantee country, but 
was favourably received by the king of 
Dahomey. Another attack of fever was fol- 
lowed by a breaking out of the old wound, 
and Duncan made preparations to amputate 
his own leg. He succeeded, however, in re- 
turning to Cape Coast. There, early in 1846, 
he planned a journey to Timbuctoo. Funds 
to assist him were being forwarded by his 
friends in England, when his health com- 
pelled him to return, and he sailed for home 
in February 1846. 

In 1847 he published ' Travels in Western 
Africa in 1845 and 1846, comprising a Jour- 
ney from Whydah through the Kingdom of 
Dahomey to Adofidiah in the Interior,' 2 vols. 
London, 12mo. The preface is dated ' Felt- 
ham Hill, August 1847.' The work has a 
steel portrait of the author by Durham, and 
a map of the route. The same year he con- 
tributed to ' Bentley's Miscellany ' a paper 
in two parts, entitled ' Some Account of the 
late Expedition to the Niger.' 

In 1849 Duncan proposed to continue his 
explorations, and the government appointed 
him vice-consul at Whydah. He arrived in 
the Bight of Benin, but died on board the 
ship Kingfisher on 3 Nov. 1849. He was 
married, and his wife survived him. 

Duncan's sense and powers of observation 
make up for deficient education, and his 
book contains many interesting notices of 
African superstitions. 

[Duncan's Work; Journ. of Geog. Soc. vol. xvi. 
pp. xliii, 143, 154, vol. xviii. p. Iviii, vol. xix. 
p. Ixxviii, vol. xx. p. xxxviii ; Bentley's Miscel- 
lany, 1847, pp. 412, 469; Gent. Mag. 1850, i. 
327-8, quoted from the Literary Gazette.] 

J. W.-G. 

DUNCAN, JOHN, LL.D. (1796-1870), 
theologian, was born at Aberdeen in 1796 of 
very humble parentage. Keceiving a small 
bursary, he contrived to attend the classes 
of Marischal College, and early distinguished 
himself as a linguist and philosopher. While 
a student of divinity, first in the Secession 
and then in the Established Church hall, he 
was at one time troubled by religious doubts. 



After temporary employment as a proba- 
tioner he was ordained on 28 April 1836 
to the charge of Milton Church, Glasgow. 
On the occurrence of a vacancy in the chair 
of oriental languages in the university of 
Glasgow, he offered himself as a candidate, 
stating in his application that he knew He- 
brew, Syriac, Arabic, Persian, Sanscrit, Ben- 
gali, Hindostani, and Mahratti ; while in 
Hebrew literature he professed everything, 
including grammarians, commentators, law 
books, controversial books, and books of ec- 
clesiastical scholastics, and of belles-lettres. 
His application failed, but his college gave 
him the degree of LL.D. in 1840. 

On 7 Oct. 1840 the committee of the 
church of Scotland for the conversion of the 
Jews appointed him their first missionary to 
Pesth (Budapest). Here his labours, with, 
those of like-minded colleagues, had a re- 
markable effect. The Archduchess Maria 
Dorothea, wife of the Prince Palatine, and 
daughter of the king of Wiirtemberg, was 
most friendly, and helped the mission in many 
ways. Duncan's learning and character at- 
tracted great attention ; many pastors of the 
reformed church of Hungary were much in- 
fluenced by him, and even some Roman ca- 
tholic priests attended some of his lectures. 
Among his converts from Judaism were the 
Rev. Dr. Edersheim, now a well-known 
clergyman of the church of England, and the 
Rev. Dr. Adolph Saphir, of the English pres- 
byterian church, London. 

From Pesth Duncan was recalled in 1843 
to occupy the chair of oriental languages in 
New College, Edinburgh, the theological in- 
stitution of the Free church. Here he la- 
boured till his death in 1870. For this office 
he was very poorly qualified in one sense, 
but very admirably in another. His habits 
utterly unfitted him for teaching the ele- 
ments of Hebrew or other languages, as well 
as for the general conduct of a class. But 
' his vast learning, his still more remarkable 
power of exact thought, and, above all, the 
profound reaches of his spiritual experience, 
which penetrated and illuminated from within 
the entire range of his scientific acquirements, 
admirably qualified him to handle the exegesis 
of scripture, and especially that of the Old 
Testament.' As a professor he was quite 
unique ; his absence of mind, the facility 
with which he was often carried away by an 
idea, and the unexhausted fulness of thought 
he would pour on it, making his class-room a 
place of most uncertain employment, while his 
profound originality, his intellectual honesty, 
his deep piety, and childlike simplicity, hu- 
mility, and afFectionateness, could not but 
command the respect of every student. 



Duncan 



168 



Duncan 



It was in conversational intercourse with 
minds trained to abstract thought that his 
power as a thinker chiefly appeared. The 
results of his thought were usually given in 
sententious aphorisms, much in the manner 
of a rabbi ; while in concision and precision 
of language he showed the influence of Aris- 
totle. He had very little faith in the achieve- 
ments of philosophy ; its constructive power 
was very small ; it could never raise man to 
the heights to which he aspired. He relied 
for the discovery of truth on the voice of 
God which he claimed to have heard in the 
scriptures. 

Duncan wrote very little. He edited in 
1838 a British edition of Robinson's ' Lexicon 
of the Greek New Testament ; ' published a 
lecture on the Jews and another on protes- 
tantism, and contributed a lecture on ' The 
Theology of the Old Testament ' to the inau- 
gural volume of the New College, Edinburgh. 
A volume of sermons and communion ad- 
dresses was published after his death. But 
such contributions were no fair sample of the 
man. Much of him may be learned from the 
' Colloquia Peripatetica ' (1870) of Professor 
Knight of St. Andrews, a favourite and most 
admiring student, who, living under the same 
roof with him for two summers in his student 
days, took notes of his conversation, and has 
reproduced many of his most characteristic 
sayings. This book has passed through 
several editions (oth ed. 1879). 

Duncan died on 26 Feb. 1870, aged 74. He 
married Janet Douglas, who died 28 Oct. 
1852. 

[Life of the late John Duncan, LL.D., by 
David Brown, D.D., Professor ot Theology, 
Aberdeen, 1872; Recollections of John Duncan, 
LL.D., by A. Moody Stuart, D.D. ; Colloquia 
Peripatetica, by Professor Knight, LL.D. ; the 
Pulpit and the Communion Table, edited by 
D. Brown, D.D. ; Disruption Worthies ; personal 
acquaintance.] W. Or. B. 

DUNCAN, JOHN (1794-1881), weaver 
and botanist, was born at Stonehaven, Kin- 
cardineshire, on 19 Dec. 1794. His mother, 
Ann Caird, was not married to his father, 
John Duncan, a weaver of Drumlithie, eight 
miles from Stonehaven, and she supported 
herself and the boy by harvesting and by 
weaving stockings. The boy never went to 
school, but very early rambled widely over 
the rough cliffs, and procured rushes in the 
valleys, from which he made pith wicks for 
sale. From the age of fifteen he went as herd- 
boy in various farms, receiving cruel treat- 
ment, which increased his natural shyness 
and developed various peculiarities. During 
his boyhood he acquired a strong love for 
wild plants. In his own words, ' I just took 



a notion to ken ae plant by anither when I 
was rinnin' aboot the braes. I never saw a 
plant but I lookit for the marrows o'd [that 
is, for those similar], and as I had a gweed 
memory, when I kent a flower ance, I kent 
it aye.' He could always in after life recall 
the precise spot where he had seen any par- 
ticular plant in boyhood, though he might 
have only seen it again after many years, and 
never have known its name or scientific posi- 
tion till then. 

In 1809 Duncan was apprenticed for five 
years to a weaver in Drumlithie, a village of 
country linen- weavers. His master, Charles 
Pirie, a powerful ill-tempered man, who had 
almost conquered the celebrated Captain Bar- 
clay [see ALLARDICE, ROBERT BARCLAY], 
and also carried on an illicit still and smug- 
gled gin, was exceedingly cruel to his ap- 
prentice ; but his wife, who had some educa- 
tion, inspired the boy with the wish to read, 
and he at last acquired moderate skill in 
reading, though it was always difficult for 
him, probably through his extreme short- 
sightedness. He did not learn to write till 
after he was thirty years of age. Meanwhile 
his love of nature continued, and was further 
stimulated by obtaining the loan of Cul- 
peper's ' British Herbal,' then in great repute 
among village herbalists. He thus learnt to 
name some plants for himself. In 1814, how- 
ever, when his apprenticeship had still some 
months to run, his servitude became so in- 
tolerable that he ran away and returned to 
Stonehaven, where he lived with his mother 
for two years. By dint of extreme care, for 
wages were very low, he managed to save 1 /. 
to buy a copy of Culpeper, and he became 
master of its contents andof herbalism, which 
he practised all his life. From Culpeper, 
too, and the astrology it contained, he gained 
an introduction to astronomy, which he after- 
wards studied as deeply as his means per- 
mitted. In 1816 Duncan and his mother re- 
moved to Aberdeen, where he learnt woollen- 
weaving. He married in 1818, but his wife 
proved unfaithful, and, after deserting him, 
continually annoyed him and drained his 
scanty purse. In 1824 Duncan became a 
travelling or household weaver, varying his 
work with harvesting, and taking a half- 
yearly spell of training as a militiaman at 
j Aberdeen for nearly twenty years. He became 
! an excellent weaver, studying the mechanics 
1 of the loom, and purchasing ' Essays on the 
Art of Weaving ' (Glasgow, 1808), by a name- 
sake, the inventor of the patent tambouring 
machinery, Peddie's ' Weaver's Assistant,' 
1817, and ' Murphy on Weaving,' 1831. He 
also devoted himself to advancing his general 
education by the aid of dictionaries, grammars, 



Duncan 



169 



Duncan 



&c,, proceeding also to acquire some Latin 
and Greek. He gradually purchased Sir John 
Hill's edition of the 'Herbal,' Tournefort's 
* Herbal/ Rennie's ' Medical Botany/ and 
several works on astrology and astronomy. 
He never possessed a watch after he left 
Aberdeen, but became an expert dialler, and 
made himself a pocket sun-dial on Ferguson's 
model. Indeed, from his outdoor habits of 
astronomical observation he was nicknamed 
Johnnie Meen, or Moon, and also ' the Nog- 
man/ from his queer pronunciation of the 
word ' gnomon/ which he often used. For 
many years he lived in the Vale of Alford, 
under Benachie, and devoted himself chiefly 
to astronomy and botany. His loft at Auch- 
leven, under the sloping roof of a stable, was 
aptly dignified by the villagers as ' the philo- 
sopher's hall/ or briefly ' the philosopher/ a 
name it retained for many years after he left 
it. At this period, when not yet forty years 
old, he had a striking and antiquated aspect, 
dressed in a blue dress-coat and vest of his 
own manufacture with very high neck, and 
brass buttons, corduroy trousers, generally 
rolled halfway up to his knees, and white 
spotted neckcloth, a tall satin hat, carrying 
a big blue umbrella and a staff, and walking 
with an absorbed look. These clothes, scru- 
pulously guarded, lasted him fifty years. He 
was extremely cleanly and abstemious, his 
bed, board, washing, and dress not costing 
him more than four shillings a week. In 
1836 he made the acquaintance of Charles 
Black, gardener at Whitehouse, near Nether- 
ton. They became fast friends, and greatly 
lielped each other in the study of botany. 
They formed large collections of every at- 
tainable plant for many miles round, preserv- 
ing and naming them, and spending the 
greater part of many nights over their study. 
Sir W. J. Hooker's ' British Flora ' they only 
managed to see at a local innkeeper's, whose 
son, then deceased, had had the book pre- 
sented to him. In 1852 Duncan at last became 
the possessor of the innkeeper's precious vo- 
lumes for one shilling, when they were sold 
by auction. It may be judged that in his 
botanical pursuits no obstacles, except defi- 
ciencies of early training and opportunity, 
were too great to be overcome by Duncan. 
'The story of his studies, as told by Mr. Jolly, 
is a rare lesson in perseverance and a remark- 
able picture of pure love of nature and of 
genuine knowledge for their own sake. With- 
out adding definitely to science, Duncan lived 
emphatically a high life in extreme poverty 
and obscurity, only emerging once as far as 
Edinburgh, where the botanical gardens, in 
which his friend Black was then engaged, 
afforded him wonderful delight. His herba- 



rium unfortunately, though most carefully 
guarded, succumbed largely to dampness and 
insects, but in 1880, when he presented it to 
Aberdeen University, it still contained three- 
fourths of the British species of flowering 
plants, and nearly every species mentioned 
in Dickie's ' Flora of Aberdeen, Banff, and 
Kincardine/ including collections of almost 
all the plants growing in the Vale of Alford, 
for which he had received prizes at the Alford 
horticultural show in 1871. He never made 
any more prominent public appearance than 
as a reader of essays before a mutual instruc- 
tion class at Auchleven. After 1852 Duncan 
lived in the village of Droughsburn, perform- 
ing every office for himself except the pre- 
paration of his meals. He was a regular and 
devout church-goer, being an ardent Free 
church man, but always took some wild 
flowers to church and spread them on the 
desk before him from pure delight. He ac- 
quired considerable knowledge of animals, 
purchasing Charles Knight's ' Natural His- 
tory/ and in later years he studied phreno- 
logy. He was a zealous liberal in politics. 
In 1874, from failing health, the old man 
was obliged to seek parish help, a deep 
humiliation to him. In 1878 Mr. W. Jolly 
of Inverness, who had visited him in the 
preceding year, gave an account of Duncan 
in ' Good Words/ which brought him some 
assistance ; but he had kept his poverty 
scrupulously from the knowledge of Mr. Jolly 
and other friends, and it was not till 1880 
that a public appeal was made on his behalf, 
which produced 320/., with many expres- 
sions of sympathy which cheered Duncan's 
declining life. He died on 9 Aug. 1881 in 
his eighty-seventh year, having left the 
balance of the fund raised for him to furnish 
prizes for the encouragement of natural 
science, especially botany, among the school 
children of the Vale of Alford. 

Duncan was about five feet seven in height, 
muscular and spare, large-headed, short- 
sighted, and altogether odd-looking ; but to 
a keen observer he appeared a man of power- 
ful mind and great energy and determination. 
His love of books and large relative expen- 
diture upon them was only matched by his 
true kindliness of heart and marked gene- 
rosity to the weak. When in extreme need he 
gave up his allowance of coal for some years 
to an imbecile he considered more needy, and 
he found means to be a true helper of many 
around him. Orderliness, cleanliness, honesty, 
with great reticence and shyness, were among 
his prominent characteristics. His intimate 
friend, James Black, wrote of him : ' John 
was my human protoplasm, man in his least 
complex form. He seemed to be a survival 



Duncan 



170 



Duncan 



of those rural swains who lived in idyllic 
simplicity.' 

[Jolly's articles in Good Words, April, May, 
and June 1878, reprinted in Page's (Dr. Japp's) 
Leaders of Men, 1880; Jolly's Life of Duncan, 
London, 1883, with etched portrait.] G. T. B. 

DUNCAN, JONATHAN, the elder ! 
(1756-1811), governor of Bombay, son of 
Alexander Duncan, was born at Wardhouse, 
Forfarshire, on 15 May 1756. He received a 
nomination to the East India Company's civil 
service, and reached Calcutta in 1772. After 
serving in various subordinate capacities, he 
was selected, because of his known upright- 
ness, to fill the important office of resident 
and superintendent at Benares by Lord Corn- 
wallis in 1788. This was the situation in 
which most scandals had been caused by the 
eager desire for gain of the company's ser- 
vants ; Duncan put down these scandals with 
a strict hand, and thus made himself very 
unpopular with his subordinates. Yet he 
also found time to look into matters of na- 
tive administration, and was the first resi- 
dent who devoted himself to putting down 
the practice of infanticide at Benares. When 
Lord Cornwallis returned to England, he did 
not forget to praise Duncan to the court of j 
directors, and entirely without solicitation 
from himself he was appointed to the impor- 
tant office of governor of Bombay in 1795. 
He held this post for sixteen years, the most 
important perhaps in the whole history of the 
English in India. The effects of his long 
government are still to be seen in the present 
composition and administration of the Bom- 
bay presidency, for this was the period in 
which the company's servants were engaged 
in making the company the paramount power 
in India. Duncan went on the principle of 
recognising any petty chieftain, who had 
a right to the smallest tribute from the 
smallest village, as a sovereign prince. This 
policy accounts for the innumerable small 
states, nearly six hundred in number, now 
ruled through the Kathiawar, Mahi Kantha, 
and Rewa Kantha agencies, which forms 
the distinguishing feature of the Bombay 
presidency, as distinguished from the rest of 
India, where only important chieftains were 
recognised as sovereigns, and the smaller ones 
treated as only hereditary zemindars. Though 
recognising their sovereign rights, Duncan 
had no hesitation in regulating the local 
government of these little princelets, and 
exerted himself especially for the suppression 
of infanticide in Kathiawar. While thus 
occupied in local affairs, Duncan did not for- 

get to take his full share in the great wars 
y which Lord Wellesley broke the power 



of Tippoo Sultan and the Marathas. He 
equipped and sent a powerful force under 
Major-general James Stuart, which marched 
upon Mysore from the Malabar coast, and as- 
sisted in the capture of Seringapatam in 1799 ; 
he supplied troops for Sir David Baird's expe- 
dition to Egypt in 1801 ; he warmly seconded 
Major-general Arthur Wellesley in his cam- 
paign against the Marathas in 1803 ; and he 
directed the occupation and final pacification 
of Guzerat and Kathiawar by Colonel Keat- 
ing's expedition in 1807. He died at Bombay 
on 11 Aug. 1811, and is buried in St. Thomas's 
Church there, where a fine monument has- 
been erected to him. His eldest son Jona- 
than is noticed below. 

[Higginbotham'sMen whom India has known; 
the Cornwallis Correspondence ; Wellesley Des- 
patches.] H. M. S. 

DUNCAN, JONATHAN, the younger 
(1799-1865), currency reformer, born at Bom- 
bay in 1799, was the son of Jonathan Duncan 
the elder [q. v.], governor of the presidency. 
He received his preliminary training under a 
private tutor named Cobbold. On 24 Jan. 
1 817 he was entered a pensioner of Trinity 
College, Cambridge, and took the ordinary 
B.A. degree in 1821 (College Register). Hi* 
easy circumstances left him leisure to indulge 
a fondness for literature and politics. In 
1836-7 he edited the first four volumes of the 
short-lived ' Guernsey and Jersey Magazine/ 
8vo, Guernsey, London. In 1 840 he published 
a translation of F. Bodin's ' Resume de 1'His- 
toire d'Angleterre,' 12mo, London. For the 
'National Illustrated Library' he furnished a 
' History of Russia from the foundation of the 
Empire by Rourick to the close of the Hun- 
garian Wars,' 2 vols. 8vo, London, 1854, part 
of which is a translation from the French of 
A. Rabbe. After 1841 Duncan lived chiefly 
in London. Besides contributing to general 
literature, he wrote and spoke frequently on 
questions of reform, such as land tenure and 
financial matters. He disapproved of what 
he termed the ' silly sophisms ' of Sir Robert 
Peel, and considered the monetary system of 
Samuel Jones Loyd to have been framed! 
for the express purpose of sacrificing labour 
to usury. Under the signature of 'Aladdin' 
he wrote in 'Jerrold's Weekly News' a series 
of ' Letters on Monetary Science,' in which 
these and similar views are enunciated with 
considerable vehemence. The ' Letters ' were 
afterwards republished in a collective form. 
In 1850 he started ' The Journal of Indus- 
try,' which collapsed after sixteen numbers 
had appeared. 

His other writings are: 1. 'Remarks on 
the Legality and Expediency of Prosecutions- 



Duncan 



171 



Duncan 



for Religious Opinion. To which is annexed, 
An Apology for the Vices of the Lower Or- 
ders/ 8vo, London, 1825. 2. ' The Reli- 
gions of Profane Antiquity ; their Mytho- 
logy, Fables, Hieroglyphics, and Doctrines. 
Founded on Astronomical Principles,' 8vo, 
London, Guernsey printed (1830?). 3. 'The 
Dukes of Normandy, from the time of Rollo 
to the expulsion of John by Philip Augustus 
of France,' 12mo, London, 1839. 4. 'The 
Religious Wars of France, from the Acces- 
sion of Henry the Second to the Peace of 
Vervins,' 8vo," London, 1840. 5. ' The His- 
tory of Guernsey ; with occasional notices of 
Jersey, Alderney, and Sark, and biographical 
sketches,' 8vo, London, 1841. 6. ' How to 
reconcile the Rights of Property, Capital, 
and Labour. Tract I.,' 8vo, London, 1846. 

7. ' The National Anti-Gold Law League. 
The Principles of the League explained, versus 
Sir R. Peel's Currency Measures, and the par- 
tial Remedy advocated by the Scottish Banks. 
In a Speech at Glasgow,' 8vo, London, 1847. 

8. ' The Principles of Money demonstrated, 
and Bullion ist Fallacies refuted/ 16mo, Lon- 
don, 1849. 9. 'The Bank Charter Act: ought 
the Bank of England or the People of Eng- 
land to receive the Profits of the National 
Circulation ? Second edition. With Re- 
marks on the Monetary Crisis of November 
1857,' 8vo, London, 1858. Duncan died at 
his residence, 33 Norland Square, Netting 
Hill, on 20 Oct. 1865, aged 65 (Times, 24 Oct. 
1865, obituary). 

[Tupper's Hist, of Guernsey, preface, p. v; 
Gent. Mag. 3rd ser. xix. 662 ; Brit. Mus. Cat, ; 
Allibone's Diet, of Engl. Lit. i. 529.] G. G. 

DUNCAN, MARK (1570 P-1640), regent 
of the university of Saumur, son of Thomas 
Duncan of Maxpoffle, Roxburghshire, by 
Janet, daughter of Patrick Oliphant of Sow- 
doun in the same county, is supposed to have 
been born about 1570, and to have been edu- 
cated partly in Scotland and partly on the 
continent. He certainly took the degree of 
M.D., but at what university is not known. 
From Duplessis-Mornay, appointed governor 
of Saumur by Henry IV in 1589, he received 
the post of professor of philosophy in the uni- 
versity of Saumur, of which he subsequently 
became regent. He is said to have been versed 
in mathematics and theology, as well as in 
philosophy, and to have acquired such a re- 
putation for medical skill that James I of- 
fered him the post of physician in ordinary 
at the English court, and even forwarded to 
him the necessary patent ; but to have de- 
clined the royal invitation out of regard to 
his wife (a French lady), who was reluctant 
to leave her native land. He published in 



1612 ' Institutiones Logicfe/ to which Bur- 
gersdijck, in the preface to his own ' Institu- 
tiones Logicse' (2nd ed. 1634), acknowledged 
himself much indebted, and which indeed 
seems to have served as a model to the latter 
work; also (anon.) in 1634, 'Discours de la 
Possession des Religieuses Ursulines de Lou- 
dun/ an investigation of the supposed cases 
of demoniacal possession among the Ursuline 
nuns of Loudun. The phenomena had been 
attributed to the sorcery of Urbain Grandier, 
cure and canon of Loudun, who had been 
burned at the stake in consequence. Duncan 
explained them, at much risk to himself, as the 
result of melancholy. He is said to have been 
shielded from the vengeance of the clergy 
only by the influence of the wife of the Ma- 
rechal de Brez6, then governor of Saumur. 
This work elicited an answer in the shape of 
' a ' Trait6 de la M^lancholie ' by the Sieur de 
la Menardiere, and that in its turn an ' Apo- 
logie pour Mr. Duncan, Docteur en Medecine, 
dans laquelle les plus rares effects de la Me- 
lancholie et de 1'imagination sont expliquez 
contre les reflexions du Sieur de la M re par 
le Sieur de la F. M.' La Fleche (no date). 
Duncan also wrote a treatise entitled ' Aglos- 
sostomographie ' on a boy who continued to 
speak after he had lost his tongue, pronoun- 
cing only the letter r with difficulty. The 
faulty Greek of the title, which should have 
been ' Aglossostomatographie/ was very se- 
verely criticised in prose and verse by a rival 
physician of Saumur, named Benoit. Dun- 
can resided at Saumur until his death, which 
took place in 1640, to the regret, it is said, 
of protestants and catholics alike. He had 
issue three sons, who took the names re- 
spectively of Cerisantis, Saint Helene, and 
Montfort. 

His eldest son, MAKK DUNCAN DE CERI- 
SANTIS (d. 1648), was for a time tutor to the 
Marquis de Faure, and was employed by Riche- 
lieu in certain negotiations at Constantinople 
in 1641 ; but in consequence of a quarrel with 
M. de Caudale was compelled to leave France, 
and entered the Swedish service. He returned 
to France as the Swedish ambassador resident 
in 1645. Shortly afterwards he quitted the 
Swedish service, renounced his protestantism, 
and went to Rome, where in 1647 he met the 
Due de Guise, then meditating his attempt to 
wrest the kingdom of Sicily from Spain, whom 
he accompanied to Naples in the capacity of se- 
cretary. He is said also to have been secretly 
employed by the French king to furnish in- 
telligence of the duke's designs and move- 
ments. He died of a wound received in an 
engagement with the Spaniards in February 
1648. The authenticity of the ' Memoires 
du Due de Guise/ published in 1668, was 



Duncan 



172 



Duncan 



impugned by the brother of Cerisantis, Saint 
Helene, mainly on the ground of the some- 
what disparaging tone in which Cerisantis is 
referred to in them. The genuineness of the 
work is, however, now beyond dispute, and 
it must be observed that the duke, while im- 
puting to Cerisantis excessive vainglorious- 
ness, gives him credit for skill and intrepidity 
in the field. Ceriaantis was esteemed one of 
the most elegant Latinists of his age, and pub- 
lished several poems, of which ' Carmen Gra- 
tulatorium in nuptias Car. R. Ang. cum Hen- 
rietta Maria filia Henrici IV R. F.' is the most 
celebrated. 

[Bayle's Diet. Hist, et Crit. (ed. 1820), art. 
'Cerisantis;' Memoiresdu Due de Guise (Petitot), 
i. 62, 211-14, 225-6, 271, 364, ii.48; Anderson's 
Scottish Nation ; Brit. Mus. Cat. ; Watt's Bibl. 
Brit.] J. M. E. 

DUNCAN, PHILIP BURY (1772-1863), 
keeper of the Ashmolean Museum, Oxford, 
was born in 1772 at South Warnborough, 
Hampshire, where his father was rector. He 
was educated at Winchester College (where 
he afterwards founded the ' Duncan Prizes'), 
and at New College, Oxford, of which he be- 
came a fellow in 1792. He graduated B.A. 
1794, M.A. 1798. Among the school and 
college friends with whom he continued in- 
timate were Archbishop Howley, Bishop 
Mant, and Sidney Smith. He was called to 
the bar in 1796, and for a few years attended 
the home and the western circuits. From 
1801 till his death he lived much at Bath, 
and promoted many local scientific and phi- 
lanthropic schemes. He was elected presi- 
dent of the Bath United Hospital in 1841. 
In 1826 he was made keeper of the Ashmolean 
Museum, in succession to his elder brother, 
JOHN SHUTE DUXCAX, author of ' Hints to 
the Bearers of Walking Sticks and Um- 
brella,' anonymous, 3rd edit. 1809; ' Botano 
Theology ,'1825; and ' Analogies of Organised 
Beings,' 1831. Philip Duncan increased the 
Ashmolean zoological collections, and him- 
self gave many donations. He also presented 
to the university casts of antique statues and 
various models. Duncan advocated the claims 
of physical science and mathematics to a 
prominent place in Oxford studies. He was 
instrumental in establishing at Oxford, as also 
at Bath, a savings bank and a society for the 
suppression of mendicity. He resigned his 
keepership in 1855, and was then given the 
honorary degree of D.C.L. He had published 
in 1836 'A Catalogue of the Ashmolean 
Museum/ 8vo, and in 1845 had printed at con- 
siderable cost a ' Catalogue of the MSS. be- 
queathed by Ashmole to the Universitv of 
Oxford ' (edited by W. H. Black). Among 



Duncan's other publications were : 1. ' An 
Essay on Sculpture [1830?], 8vo. 2. ' Re- 
liquiae Romance' (on Roman antiquities in 
England and Wales), Oxford, 1836, 8vo. 
3. ' Essays on Conversation and Quackery,' 
1836, 12mo. 4. 'Literarv Conglomerate,' 
Oxford, 1839, 8vo. 5. ' Essays and Miscel- 
lanea,' Oxford, 1840, 8vo. 6. 'Motives of 
Wars,' London, 1844, 8vo. Duncan died on 
12 Nov. 1863, at Westfield Lodge, his resi- 
dence, near Bath, aged 91. He was unmar- 
ried. He was a man of simple habits and 
refined tastes. Archbishop Howley said of 
him and his brother : ' I question whether any 
two men with the same means have ever 
done the same amount of good.' 

[Gent. Mag. 1864, 3rd ser. xvi. 122-6; Cat. 
of Oxf. Grad. ; Brit. Mus. Cat.] W. W. 

DUNCAN, THOMAS (1807-1845), 
painter, was born at Kinclaven, Perthshire, 
24 May 1807. At an early age he drew like- 
nesses of his young companions, and while 
still at school he painted the whole of the 
scenery for a dramatic representation of ' Rob 
Roy,' which he and his schoolfellows under- 
took to perform in a stable-loft. His father 
took alarm at what he considered unprofit- 
able waste of time, and placed him in the 
office of a writer to the signet. As soon as 
he had served his time he obtained his father's 
leave to go to Edinburgh and enter the 
Trustees' Academy. There he made rapid 
progress under Sir William Allan [q. v.], 
whom he succeeded as head-master a few 
years later. He began to exhibit at the Scot- 
tish Academy in 1828, and first attracted 
I notice by his pictures of ' A Scotch Milk 
f Girl' and ' The Death of Old Mortality,' ex- 
' hibited at the Royal Institution in 1829, 
which were followed in 1830 by that of ' The 
Bra' Wooer.' These and other early works 
won for him so much reputation that in 1830 
he was elected an academician of the newly 
founded Scottish Academy, in which he held 
at first the professorship of colour, and sub- 
sequently that of drawing. He devoted him- 
self chiefly to portraiture, but from time to 
time he produced genre and historical pic- 
tures. Among these were ' Lucy Ashton at 
the Mermaid's Fountain ' and ' Jeanie Deans 
j on her Journey to London,' exhibited in 1831 ; 
1 Cuddie Headrigg visiting Jenny Dennison,' 
in 1834 ; ' Queen Mary signing her Abdica- 
tion,' in 1835 ; ' Old Mortality ' and ' A Co- 
venanter,' in 1836; 'Anne Page inviting 
Master Slender to Dinner,' in 1837 ; and 
' Isaac of York visiting his Treasure Chest ' 
and ' The Lily of St. Leonards,' in 1838. 

In 1840 he sent to the exhibition of the 
Royal Academy in London his well-known 



Duncan 



173 



Duncan 



picture of ' Prince Charles Edward and the 
Highlanders entering Edinburgh after the i 
Battle of Preston,' in which he introduced | 
the portraits of several eminent Scotchmen 
then living, and which appeared again in the 
Royal Scottish Academy in 1841. ' The 
\Vaefu' Heart,' an illustration from the ballad 
of ' Auld Robin Gray,' now in the Sheep- ' 
shanks collection, South Kensington Mu- | 
seum, was his contribution to the Royal 
Academy exhibition of 1841, and ' Scene . 
on Benormen, Sutherlandshire ' (or ' Deer- ; 
stalking'), to that of 1842 ; while to that of | 
1843 he sent 'Prince Charles Edward asleep 
after the Battle of Culloden, protected by 
Flora Macdonald and Highland Outlaws.' 
Both these pictures of Prince Charles Ed- 
ward became the property of Mr. Alexander 
Hill, and were engraved, the first by Frede- 
rick Bacon, and the second by H. T. Ryall. 
These works led to his election in 1843 as an 
associate of the Royal Academy, and in 1844 
he exhibited pictures of ' Cupid ' and ' The 
Martyrdom of John Brown of Priesthill, 
1685,' the latter of which is now in the Glas- 
gow Corporation Galleries of Art. This was 
his last exhibited work, with the exception 
of a masterly portrait of himself, which ap- 
peared at the Royal Academy in 1846, after 
his death, and which was purchased by fifty 
Scottish artists and presented by them to the 
Royal Scottish Academy. Shortly before his 
last illness he received a commission from the 
Marquis of Breadalbane to paint a picture in 
commemoration of Queen Victoria's visit to 
Taymouth Castle, and a finished sketch for it, 
together with an unfinished sketch of ' George 
Wishart on the day of his Martyrdom dis- 
pensing the Sacrament in the Prison of the 
Castle of St. Andrews,' appeared in the ex- 
hibition of the Royal Scottish Academy in 
1846. He died in Edinburgh, 25 April 1845, 
from a tumour on the brain, and was buried 
in the Edinburgh cemetery at Warriston. 
His principal pictures represent scenes in 
Scottish history, and show a considerable gift 
for colour. His portraits are faithfully and 
skilfully rendered, and evince delicate feeling 
for female beauty and keen appreciation of 
Scottish character. They include those of 
Sir John M'Neill, Professor Miller, Lord 
Robertson, Lord Colonsay, Dr. Gordon, and 
Dr. Chalmers. Several of Duncan's works are 
in the National Gallery of Scotland : ' Anne 
Page inviting Master Slender to Dinner,' 
' Jeanie Deans and the Robbers,' ' Bran, a 
celebrated Scottish Deerhound,' 'The Two 
Friends, Child and Dog,' and portraits of 
himself, Lady Stuart of Allanbank, John 
M'Neill of Colonsay and Oronsay, and Dun- 
can M'Neill, lord Colonsay. The original 



model of a bust of Duncan, by Patrick Park, 
R.S.A., is in the Royal Scottish Academy. 

[Chambers's Biographical Dictionary of Emi- 
nent Scotsmen. 1868,1.507; Bryan's Biographi- 
cal and Critical Dictionary of Painters and En- 
gravers, ed. Graves, 1886, i. 436; Redgrave's 
Dictionary of Artists of the English School, 1878; 
Armstrong's Scottish Painters, 1888, pp. 62-3; 
Scotsman, 30 April 1845 ; Art Journal, 1847, 
p. 380, with portrait engraved by J. Smyth from 
a painting by himself; Catalogues of the Exhi- 
bitions of the Royal Scottish Academy. 1828-46 ; 
Catalogues of the Exhibitions of the Royal A"a- 
demy, 1840-6 ; Catalogue of the National Gal- 
lery of Scotland, 1883.] R. E. G. 

DUNCAN, WILLIAM (1717-1760), pro- 
fessor of philosophy at Aberdeen, son of Wil- 
liam Duncan, an Aberdeen tradesman, by 
his wife Euphemia Kirkwood, daughter of a 
wealthy farmer in Haddingtonshire, was born 
in Aberdeen in 1717. He was sent to the 
Aberdeen grammar school, and afterwards to 
Foveran boarding school under George Forbes. 
When sixteen he entered the Marischal Col- 
lege, and studied Greek under Thomas Black- 
well (1701-1757) [q. v.] In 1737 he took 
his M.A. degree. Having a dislike for the 
ministry, for which he was intended, he 
proceeded to London and wrote for the book- 
sellers. His first works were published anony- 
mously. He assisted David Watson with his 
' Works of Horace,' 2 vols. 1741, 8vo. He 
published : 1. ' Cicero's Select Orations,' in 
English with the original Latin, London, 

17 . . . , 8vo (a well-known school book often 
republished. Sir Charles Wentworth issued 
the English portion only in 1777). 2. 'The 
Elements of Logick,' divided into four books, 
part of Dodsley's ' Preceptor,' London, 1748, 
8vo, and often reprinted. 3. ' The Commen- 
taries of Caesar, translated into English, to 
which is prefixed a Dissertation concerning 
the Roman Art of War,' illustrated with cuts, 
London, 1753, fol. Other editions in 1755, 
1832, 1833. 

Duncan was appointed by the king to be 
professor of natural and experimental philo- 
sophy in the Marischal College, Aberdeen, on 

18 May 1752. He did not enter upon his 
duties until August 1753. 

Duncan died unmarried 1 May 1760. He 
was sociable, but subject to fits of depression 
caused by sedentary habits. He was an 
elder of the church session of Aberdeen. 
He had several sisters and a younger brother,. 
John, a merchant, three times chief magis- 
trate of Aberdeen. 

[Duncan's Works ; Statistical Account of Scot- 
land, xii. 1191; Biog. Brit. (Kippis), v. 500; 
Monthly Review, vii. 467-8 ; Nichols's Lit.. 



Duncan 



174 



Duncanson 



Anecd, iii. 268 ; Bowyer's Miscellaneous Tracts, 
1785, has several notes on Duncan's Caesar.] 

J. W.-G. 

DUNCAN, WILLIAM AUGUSTINE 
(1811-1885), journalist, a native of A.ber- 
deenshire, was born in 1811, and educated 
for the Scottish national church. He subse- 
quently embraced Catholicism, was accepted 
as a student at the Scots Benedictine Col- 
lege, Ratisbon, and afterwards at the new 
college at Blairs, Kincardineshire, but having 
offended the authorities there by too out- 
spoken criticism on a sermon, he gave up all 
thoughts of entering the priesthood. He 
started a publishing and bookselling business 
in Aberdeen, out of which he came some five 
years later rather poorer than when he began. 
He then resorted to teaching and to writing 
for the press, and was an earnest advocate of 
the Reform Bill of 1832 and of Lord Stan- 
ley's Irish education scheme. In July 1838 
Duncan went out to New South Wales, be- 
coming a publisher in Sydney. The following 
vear he was appointed editor of a newly esta- 
blished Roman catholic journal, the ' Austra- 
lasian Chronicle.' On relinquishing this post 
in 1843 he issued a paper of his own, ' Dun- 
can's Weekly Register of Politics, Facts, and 
General Literature.' In 1846 he was ap- 
pointed by Sir George Gipps sub-collector 
of customs at Moreton Bay, and soon after 
settling at Brisbane he was placed on the 
commission of the peace, made water police 
magistrate, guardian of minors, and local im- 
migration commissioner. In January 1859 
lie succeeded Colonel Gibbes as collector of 
customs for New South W T ales, which ap- 
pointment he held until 1881. On his return 
to Sydney, after thirteen years' absence, he 
declined the chairmanship of the National 
Board of Education ; but afterwards accepted 
an ordinary seat at the board, of which he 
remained a prominent member until its dis- 
solution. Duncan was afterwards on the 
council of education, and was also chairman 
of the free public library. For his services 
to the colony he was awarded the distinction 
of C.M.G. in 1881, together with a pension 
from the colonial government. He died in 
1885. 

Duncan, whose acquaintance with modern 
languages was unusually extensive, trans- 
lated from the Spanish of Pedro Fernandes 
de Queiros an ' Account of a Memorial pre- 
sented to his Majesty [Philip III., king of 
Spain], concerning the Population and Dis- 
covery of the Fourth Part of the World, 
Australia the unknown, its great Riches and 
Fertility, printed anno 1610,' Spanish and 
English, 8vo, Sydney, 1874, to which he ap- 
pended an introductory notice. He was the 



author of ' A Plea for the New South Wales 
Constitution,' 8vo, Sydney, 1856, and of a 
number of pamphlets on education and other 
subjects. It is stated that he left in manu- 
script a history of the colony down to the 
time of the government of Sir George Gipps. 
[Heaton's Australian Diet. pp. 5960 ; Times, 
17 Aug. 1885, p. 7, col. 6; Colonial Office List 
1885, p. 332 ; Brit. Mus. Cat.] G. G. 

DUNCANSON, ROBERT (d. 1705), 
colonel, is described as being ' descended of 
the family of Fassokie in Stirlingshire ' (Notes 
and Quei-ies, 2nd ser. viii. 109), a family dis- 
tinguished for its adherence to the house 
of Argyll. When Archibald, ninth earl of 
Argyll, made his descent on Scotland in 
1685, he sent off Sir Duncan Campbell, with 
the two Duncansons, father and son, to at- 
tempt, at the last moment, new levies in his 
own county (Fox, Reign of James II, 4to 
edit. p. 193). Duncanson, as major of Ar- 
gyll's foot regiment, was second in command 
to Lieutenant-colonel James Hamilton, who 
had the planning of the Glencoe massacre. 
On 12 Feb. 1692, Hamilton having received 
orders to execute the fatal commission from 
Colonel John Hill, directed Duncansou to 
proceed immediately with four hundred of 
his men to Glencoe, so as to reach the post 
which had been assigned him by five o'clock 
the following morning, at which hour Hamil- 
ton promised to reach another post with a 
party of Hill's regiment . Whether Duncanson 
hesitated to take an active personal part in 
the massacre is matter of conjecture. ' The 
probability is,' says Dr. James Browne, 'that 
he felt some repugnance to act in person,' as 
immediately on receipt of Hamilton's order 
he despatched another order from himself to 
Captain Robert Campbell of Glenlyon, who 
had already taken up his quarters in Glencoe, 
with instructions to fall upon the Macdonalds 
precisely at five o'clock the following morn- 
ing, and put all to the sword under seventy 
years of age (BROWXE, Hist, of 'the Highlands, 
ed. 1845, ii. 216, 217). ' You are to have a 
speciall care,' runs this despatch, ' that the 
old fox and his sone doe on no ace' escape 
yo r hands. Yow're to secure all the avenues 
that none escape ; this yow are to put in exe- 
cution at 5 a cloack precisly, and by that 
time, or verie shortly efter it, I'll strive to be 
at yow w* a stronger party. If I do not come 
to yow at 5, yow are not to tarie for me, but 
to fall on ' (Papers illustrative of the High- 
lands of Scotland, Maitland Club, pp. 72, 73, 
74). Fortunately, the severity of the weather 
prevented Duncanson from reaching the 
glen till eleven o'clock, six hours after the 
slaughter, so that he had nothing to do but to 



Dunch 



175 



Buncombe 



assist in burning the houses and carrying off 
the cattle (BROWNE, ii. 220). No proceedings 
were taken against him. The Scotch parlia- 
mentary commission of inquiry of 1695, in- 
deed, recommended the king ' either to cause 
him to be examined in Flanders about the 
orders he received, and his knowledge of the 
affair, or to order him home for trial,' but 
"William declined acting on either sugges- 
tion (ib. ii. 224). Duncanson was promoted 
to the colonelcy of the 33rd regiment, 12 Feb. 
1705, and fell at the siege of Valencia de 
Alcantara on the following 8 May. 

[Authorities as above ; Burton's Hist, of Scot- 
land, 2nd edit. vii. 404 ; Notes and Queries, 2nd 
ser. viii. 109, 193, 252, 3rd ser. vii. 96-7.] 

G. G. 

DUNCH, EDMUND (1657-1719), poli- 
tician and bon-vivant, was descended from a 
very ancient family resident at Little Wit- 
tenham, in the hundred of Ock, Berkshire, 
monuments to several of whom are printed 
in Ashmole's ' Berkshire,' i. 58-67. The chief 
of his ancestors was auditor of the mint to 
Henry VIII and Edward VI, and squire-ex- 
traordinary to Queen Elizabeth, who bestowed 
on him the manor of Little Wittenham. 
Another, Sir William Dunch, who died in 
1612, married Mary, the aunt of Oliver Crom- 
well, and his great-grandson was Edmund, 
son of Hungerford Dunch, M.P. for Crick- 
lade, who died in 1680. Dunch was born in 
Little Jermyn Street, London, 14 Dec. 1657, 
and baptised 1 Jan. 1658. He joined heartily 
in the revolution of 1688, and seems to have 
adhered to whiggism throughout life. From 
January 1701 to July 1702, and from May 
1705 to August 1713, he represented in par- 
liament the borough of Cricklade. In the 
ensuing House of Commons (November 1713 
to January 1715) he sat for Boroughbridge in 
Yorkshire, and from the general election in 
January 1715 until his death he was member 
for Wallingford, a constituency which several 
of his ancestors had served in parliament. 
The freedom of that borough had been con- 
ferred on him on 17 Oct. 1695, and he was at 
one time proposed as its high steward, but 
was defeated by Lord Abingdon, who polled 
fifteen votes to his six. On 2 May 1702 
Dunch married Elizabeth Godfrey, one of the 
maids of honour to the queen, and one of the 
two daughters and coheiresses of Colonel 
Charles Godfrey, by Arabella Churchill, sister 
to the Duke of Marlborough. Her elder sister 
married Hugh Boscawen, afterwards Lord 
Falmouth. It was rumoured in June 1702 
that he would be created a baron of England ; 
gossip asserted in April 1704 that Colonel 
Godfrey would become cofferer of the house- 
hold, and that Dunch would succeed his 



father-in-law as master of the jewel office ; 
and a third rumour, in 1708, was that Dunch 
would be made comptroller of the household. 
The place of master of the household to 
Queen Anne was the reward of his services 
on 6 Oct. 1708, and he was reappointed to 
the same post under George I (9 Oct. 1714) ; 
but when the comptrollership became vacant 
by the death of Sir Thomas Felton, in March 
1709, Dunch tried for it in vain. He died on 
31 May 1719, and was buried in the family 
vault at Little Wittenham on 4 June. The 
male line of this branch then became extinct, 
but he had cut off the entail of the property 
and left it to his four daughters Elizabeth, 
married in 1729 to Sir George Oxenden ; 
Harriet, the wife (3 April 1735) of the third 
Duke of Manchester ; Catherine, who died 
young and unmarried ; and Arabella, the 
wife (6 Feb. 1725) of Edward Thompson, 
M.P. for York. The fate of the last lady is 
told by Lord Hervey, in his ' Memoirs of the 
Reign of George II,' ii. 346. According to 
this chronicler she had two children by Sir 
George Oxenden, and on his account was 
separated from her husband, and died in 
childbirth. An elegy to Mrs. Thompson was 
written by Lady Mary Wortley Montagu, 
and is printed in her 'Letters' (1861 ed.), ii. 
484-5. Dunch was one of the Kit-Cat Club, 
and his portrait was duly painted and en- 
graved. He was a descendant of Oliver 
Cromwell, and his wife, who was one of the 
beauties commemorated in the Kit-Cat Club 
verses, was half-sister to the illegitimate 
children of James II. He was a great 
gamester, and is said to have clipped his for- 
tunes by his gambling. 

[Noble's continuation of Granger, iii. 175; 
Memoirs of liit-Cat Club (1821), p. 209 ; 
Nichols's Collection of Poems, v. 171-2: Lady 
M. W. Montagu's Letters (1861), i. 481, ii. 298 ; 
Noble's Cromwell, ii. 155-6; Wentworth Papers, 
p. 78 ; Hedges's Wallingford, ii. 211, 239 ; 
Luttrell's Eelation of State Affairs (1857), v. 
169, 185, 419 ; Bliss's Rel. Hearnianse (1857), i. 
429-30 ; Burn's Fleet Marriages, p. 75.] 

W. P. C. 

DUNCOMB, JOHN (1765-1839), topo- 
grapher. [See DUNCTJMB.] 

DUNCOMBE, SIR CHAELES (d. 1711), 
banker and politician, was, according to one 
account, the son of Mr. Duncombe of Dray- 
ton Beauchamp, Buckinghamshire, whose 
family came from Ivinghoe in the same county, 
and according to another he was born in Bed- 
fordshire of mean parentage, while his sister, 
Ursula Duncombe, on her marriage in 1678 
to Thomas Browne of St. Margaret's, West- 
minster, was described as * of liickmansworth, 



Buncombe 



176 



Duncombe 



Herts, spinster, about 20.' He is entered in 
the pedigrees of the family in Burke's ' Peer- 
age ' ( sub. ' Feversham ') and Hoare's ' Wilt- 
shire' (sub. 'Downton,' iiL 45) as the son 
of Alexander Duncombe of Drayton, Buck- 
inghamshire (who married, 15 May 1645, 
Mary, daughter of Richard Paulye, lord of 
the manor of Whitchurch in that county), 
and as baptised at Whitchurch 16 Nov. 1648. 
The entry in Le Xeve's ' Knights ' runs : ' His 
father, a haberdasher of hatts in Southwark 
as some say, others that he was steward to 
Sir Will. Tiringham of Tiringham in Bucks,' 
and the balance of probability inclines to the 
hitter statement. Charles was apprenticed 
to Alderman Backwell [q. v.], the leading 
goldsmith of London, whose son and heir was 
married to the daughter of Sir William Ty- 
ringham; but on his master's financial em- 
barrassment he succeeded in escaping en- 
tanglement. In the ' London Directory ' of 
1677, in the list of ' goldsmiths who keep 
running cashes,' occur the names of ' Char. 
Duncoinb and Richard Kent, at the Gras- 
hopper in Lombard Street,' and the firm is 
stated to have been established there a few 
years before that date. So early as 1672 
buncombe had attained to a leading position 
in the city of London. He was at that time 
banker to Lord Shaftesbury, from whom he 
received a timely warning of the projected 
closing of the exchequer by Charles Lt, and 
by this means he was enabled to withdraw 
' a very great sum of his own,' and 30,000/. 
belonging to the Marquis of Winchester, 
afterwards the first duke of Bolton. He re- 
mained a city banker until August 1695, 
when Luttrell records in his ' Diary : ' ' This 
week Charles Duncomb sold all his effects in 
the Bank of England, being 80,000/.' On his 
retirement, ' at the moment when the trade 
of the kingdom was depressed to the lowest 
point,' he purchased the estate of Helms- 
ley in Yorkshire, which had been bestowed 
by the House of Commons on Fairfax, and 
had passed in dowry with Fairfax's daughter 
to the Duke of Buckingham. This was the 
greatest purchase ever made by any subject 
in England ; the consideration money is fixed 
by Evelyn ' at neare 90,000/., and he is re- 
ported to have neare as much in cash.' The 
character of old Euclio (PoPE, Moral Essays, 
ep. i. 11. 256-61), the dying miser who, even 
in his last agony, could not consent to part 
with all his substance, has been fathered on 
Duncombe, and Pope alludes to his acquisi- 
tion of hind in the couplet 

And Helmsley. once proud Buckingham's delight, 
Slides to a scrivener or city-knight. 

Macaulay describes the transfer of the estate, 



and adds : ' In a few years a palace more 
splendid and costly than had ever been in- 
habited by the magnificent Yilliers rose amidst 
the beautiful woods and waters which had 
been his, and was called by the once humble 
name of Duncombe.' 

Under Charles II and James II the re- 
ceivership of the customs was held by Dun- 
combe (Harl. MS. 7020), and when the hitter 
monarch fled to France, he sent to the re- 
ceiver for ' 1,5001. to carry him oversea, which 
he denied,' a proceeding which caused Dun- 
combe's name to appear as the only excepted 
citizen in the general declaration of pardon 
which the exiled James issued on 20 April 
1692. When the lieutenancy of London 
carried their address to the Prince of Orange, 
desiring him to repair forthwith to the city, 
i Duncombe formed one of the deputation. 
After his retirement from business he took a 
more active part in public affairs. Among 
, his landed purchases was the estate of Barford, 
i in the borough of Downton in Wiltshire, and 
j that constituency returned him to parliament 
from October 1695 till he was expelled from 
I the House of Commons in 1698, and again 
j from 1702 to the year of his death. In the 
j city of London he took high rank among the 
leaders of the tory citizens ; and as the 
Bank of England was started and fostered 
j by whig financiers, it met with his opposi- 
j tion (ROGERS, First Fine Years of Sank of 
I England, passim). He was elected sheriff 
on 24 June 1699 without a poll, and when 
the corporation waited on the king at Ken- 
sington on 20 Oct. in the same year to ex- 
| press their satisfaction at his safe return 
| Duncombe was knighted. On 31 May 1700 
j he was chosen alderman of Bridge ward by 
a majority of three to one, and in that year 
he was nominated as lord mayor of London, 
with the result that on the declaration of 
the polling of the livery the numbers were 
Duncombe 2,752, Abney 1,919, Hedges 1,912, 
and Dashwoood 1,110 (1 Oct. 1700). A 
week later the aldermen met to make their 
choice, when by fourteen votes to twelve, 
amid great excitement and fierce recrimina- 
tions, they gave their decision in favour of 
Abney. He was a whig, and Duncombe was 
a tory, and as the new East India Company 
worked for Abney, the old body laboured for 
his opponent. Next year Duncombe was again 
nominated as lord mayor, but his election did 
not take place until September 1708, when 
he was unanimously chosen to that office. 
He was treasurer of the Artillery Company 
for five years (1703-8), but his party's man- 
agement of its affairs did not prove beneficial 
to the company's interests. 

Duncombe had obtained his receivership of 



Buncombe 



177 



Buncombe 



the excise through Sunderland's influence, 
and had been ejected from his post by Mon- 
tague. A demand for the payment into the 
exchequer for the public service of 10,000/. 
was made upon him, and instead of paying 
the demand note in silver, he made up the 
amount in exchequer bills, then at a discount, 
and pocketed the difference, about 400J. This 
in itself was not a criminal offence, but it 
was discovered that the bills had been falsely 
endorsed as having been a second time issued, 
and had thus been wrongly credited with an 
interest of 71. 12s. per cent, per annum. 
Macaulay says that ' a knavish Jew ' had 
been employed by Duncombe in forging these 
' endorsements of names/ and that some were 
' real and some imaginary.' The matter came 
before the House of Commons on 25 Jan. 1 698, 
and in less than a week Duncombe had been 
committed a close prisoner to the Tower, had 
pleaded illness, and after a confession (as was 
alleged) of his guilt, had been expelled from 
parliament. A bill of pains and penalties, 
by which two-thirds of his property, real and 
personal, was seized for public uses, passed the 
commons on 26 Feb., ' after much debate 
yeas 139, noes 103.' It went to the upper 
house, when 'three great tory noblemen,' 
Rochester, Nottingham, and Leeds, headed 
the opposition, and the Duke of Bolton, re- 
membering Duncombe's good offices in 1672, 
exerted all his interest on behalf of the ac- 
cused. After much debate the bill was re- 
jected on 15 March by one vote (yeas 48, 
noes 49), and Duncombe was immediately set 
at liberty, only to find himself recommitted 
to the Tower by the order of the lower house 
(31 March 1698), and kept a prisoner there 
until parliament was prorogued on 7 July. In 
the following spring (4Feb. 1699) he was tried 
at the court of king's bench ' for false endors- 
ing of exchequer bills,' but was found not 
guilty, through a mistake in the information. 
This was amended in the next term, but ' the 
jury, without going from the bar, found him 
not guilty ' (17 June 1699), and further pro- 
ceedings against him were abandoned. 

Duncombe kept his shrievalty and mayor- 
alty in the hall of the Goldsmiths' Company, 
of which body he was a leading member, but 
he made no gift to its corporate funds. While 
he was sheriff many of the unhappy wretches 
detained in the London prisons for debt were 
released through his liberality, for which he 
was justly lauded in a Latin poem of four 
pages by Gulielmus Hogaeus. At the cost of 
6001. he erected ' a curious dyal ' in the church 
of St. Magnus, near London Bridge. His 
country house at Teddington was built and 
fitted up by himself, the ceilings being painted 
by Verrio, and the carvings being the work 

vol.. xvi. 



of Grinling Gibbons. A poem on this house 
was addressed to Duncombe by Francis Man- 
ning, and will be found in his poems, p. 180. 
A poetical description of his country house 
of Barford, at Downton, and an account of 
the festivities there on New Year's day 1708, 
are in ' Pylades and Corinna, or Memoirs of 
Richard Gwinnett and Elizabeth Thomas ' 
(1731), and are reprinted in Hoare's ' Modern 
Wiltshire.' The pageant at his mayoralty 
was described in the usual strain by Elkanah 
Settle in a tract of six pages. Duncombe 
died at Teddington 9 April 1711. It was at 
first proposed, as appears in the long memo- 
randum in Le Neve's ' Knights,' that he 
should be interred in state in St. Paul's Ca- 
thedral ; but the intention was changed, and 
he was buried in the south transept of Down- 
ton, where a monument was placed to his 
memory. He left no will, and administration 
to his effects was granted, 30 May 1711, to 
his sister, Ursula Browne, his mother, Mary 
Duncombe, renouncing her right. His father 
apparently died early in life ; his mother 
lived to the age of ninety-seven, and was 
buried in Teddington Church on 7 Nov. 1716. 
The second Duke of Argyll married, as his 
first wife, Duncombe's niece, Mary Browne, 
and she acted as her uncle's lady mayoress. 
The old alderman was the richest commoner 
in England, and Swift, in chronicling his 
death, adds : ' I hear he has left the Duke of 
Argyll . . . two hundred thousand pounds. 
I hope it is true, for I love that duke 
mightily.' The duchess left no children, but 
from Duncombe's brother is descended the 
present Earl of Radnor, and his sister was 
the progenitrix of the Earl of Feversham. 

[Swift's Works (1883), ii. 223; Orridge's Citi- 
zens of London, pp. 241-2; Vernon Correspon- 
dence(1841),i.469-88,ii.l9-26,iii. 138-41; Her- 
bert's History of the Livery Companies of Lon- 
don,- ii. 204; Hoare's History of Wiltshire (iii. 
sub. ' Downton '), pp. 26, 40-5 ; Le Neve's Knights 
(Harl. Soc.), pp. 468-9 ; Luttrell's Briff Histori- 
cal Relation of State Affairs (1857), passim ; 
Evelyn's Diary (1827), iii 354, 363 ; Price's 
Handbook of London Bankers (1876), pp. 94-5; 
Marriage Licenses (Harl. Soc. vol. xxiii.), p. 283 ; 
Biog. Brit. (Kippis), v. 504 ; Burnet's Own Time 
(Oxford ed., Lord Dartmouth's notes), i. 533; 
Hist. MSS. Comm. 10th Rep. appendix, pt. iv. 
450 ; Macaulay's History, iv. 630, v. 19, 37 et 
seq.] W. P. C. 

DUNCOMBE, JOHN (1729-1786), mis- 
cellaneous writer, only child of William Dun- 
combe [q. v.], was born inLondon on 29 Sept. 
1729. He was first educated at two schools 
in Essex, then entered, 1 July 1745, Corpus 
Christi College, Cambridge, where he pro- 
ceeded B.A. 1748, M.A. 1752. He was after- 

X 



Buncombe 



178 



Buncombe 



wards chosen fellow of his college, ' was in 
1753 ordained at Kew Chapel by Dr. Thomas, 
bishop of Peterborough, and appointed, by the 
recommendation of Archbishop Herring, to 
the curacy of Sundridge in Kent ; after which 
he became assistant-preacher at St. Anne's, 
Soho' (Gent. Mag. March 1786, p. 188). 
Buncombe was in succession chaplain to 
Squire, bishop of St. David's, and to Lord 
Cork. In 1757 Archbishop Herring, his con- 
stant friend, presented him to the united 
livings of St. Andrew and St. Mary Bredman, 
Canterbury. He was afterwards made one 
of the six preachers in the cathedral, and in 
1773 obtained from Archbishop Cornwallis 
the living of Herne, near Canterbury, ' which 
afforded him a pleasant recess in the summer 
months.' The archbishop also appointed him 
master of St. John's Hospital, Canterbury, 
and, as no emolument was annexed, gave 
him a chaplaincy, which enabled him to hold 
his two livings. Duncombe died at Canter- 
bury 19 Jan. 1786. He married in 1761 
Susanna [see DuNCOMBE,SrsAXXA], daughter 
of Joseph Highmore. She and an only daugh- 
ter survived him. 

Duncombe seems to have had some fame as 
a preacher, and to have been a man of varied 
if not high attainments. Of his many poems 
the best known were, 'An Evening Con- 
templation in a College, being a Parody on 
the " Elegy in a Countrv Churchyard " ' 
(1753), 'The Feminead' (1754), 'Transla- 
tions from Horace' (1766-7). His numerous 
occasional pieces, as ' On a Lady sending 
the Author a Ribbon for his Watch/ do not 
require notice (for full list see Gent. Mag. 
June 1786, pp. 451-2, and Biog. Brit. ed. 
Kippis, iv. 511). Of works connected with 
archaeology, Duncombe wrote : 1. 'Historical 
Description of Canterbury Cathedral,' 1772. 
2. A translation and abridgment of Battely's 
* Antiquities of Richborough and Reculver ' 
1774. 3. ' History and Antiquities of Recul- 
ver and Herne,' and ^f the ' Three Archi- 
episcopal Hospitals at and near Canterbury ' 
(contributed to Nichols's ' Bibliotheca Topo- 
graphica Britannica.' vols. i. and iv. 1780). 
Duncombe edited : 1. ' Letters from Italy ' 
of John Boyle, first earl of Cork and Orrery, 
1773. 2. ' Letters by several Eminent Per- 
sons deceased, including the Correspondence 
of J. Hughes, Esq.,' 1773. 3. 'Letters from 
the late Archbishop Herring to William 
Duncombe, Esq'., deceased,' 1777. 4. ' Select 
Works of the Emperor Julian,' 1784. He 
also published several sermons. 

[Gent. Mag. 1786, pt.i.; Biog. Brit. ed. Kippis, 
v. 509 et seq. ; European Mag. ix. 66 ; Cantebr. 
Grad. (1659-1787), p. 124 ; Notes and Queries, 
4th ser. viii. 243 ; Brit. Mus. Cat.] F. W-T. 



DUNCOMBE, SUSANNA(1730?-1812), 
poetess and artist, only daughter of Joseph 

I Highmore, the painter, and illustrator of 
' Pamela,' was born about 1730, probably in 
London, either in the city or Lincoln's Inn 
Fields. She was one of a party to whom 
Richardson read his ' Sir Charles Grandison; ' 
and she made a sketch of the scene, which 
forms the frontispiece to vol. ii. of Mrs. Bar- 
bauld's ' Correspondence of Samuel Rich- 
ardson.' She contributed the story of ' Fi- 
delio and Honoria ' to ' The Adventurer ; ' 
was eulogised by John Duncombe [q. v.] as 
Eugenia in his ' Feminead,' 1754; and, after a 
protracted courtship, they were married on 
20 April 1763, and went to his living in 
Kent, taking her father with them. In 1773 

: she furnished a frontispiece to vol. i. of her 
husband's ' Letters by John Hughes : ' she also 

! wrote a few poems in the ' Poetical Calendar,' 
and in 1782 some of her poems appeared in 

' Nichols's ' Select Collection.' In January 

' 1786 she was left a widow, with one child, a 
daughter, and took up her residence in the 
Precincts, Canterbury. In 1808 her portrait 
of Mrs. Chapone was transferred from her 
' Grandison' frontispiece to the second edit ion 
of ' Mrs. Chapone's Posthumous Works.' She 
died on 28 Oct. 1812, aged about eighty-two, 
and was buried with her husband at St. Mary 
Bredman, Canterbury. 

[Bryan's Diet, of Painters ; Chalmers's Biog. 
| Diet. ; Gent. Mag. Lsxxii. ii. 497.] J. H. 

DUNCOMBE, THOMAS SLINGSBY 
(1796-1861), M.P. for Finsbury, was the el- 
dest son of Thomas Duncombe of Copgrove, 
near Boroughbridge, in the West Riding of 
Yorkshire, by his wife Emma, eldest daughter 
of John Hinchliffe, bishop of Peterborough, 
and nephew of Charles, first Baron Fever- 
sham. He was born in 1796, and was sent 
to Harrow School in 1808, where he remained 
until Christmas 1811. Shortly before leaving 
school he was gazetted an ensign in the Cold- 
stream guards, and in November 1813 he em- 
barked with part of his regiment for Holland, 
and during the latter portion of the campaign 
acted as aide-de-camp to General Ferguson. 
Returning to England he took no part in the 
battle of Waterloo, and being raised to the 
rank of lieutenant on 23 Nov. 1815 retired 
from the army on 17 Nov. 1819. Duncombe 
unsuccessfully contested Pontefract in 1821, 
and Hertford in 1823, as a whig candidate. 
At the general election in June 1826, how- 
ever, he was returned for the latter borough, 
defeating Henry Lytton Bulwer by a majo- 
rity of ninety-two. Duncombe's first speech 
which attracted the attention of the house 
was made in the debate on the ministerial 



Buncombe 



179 



Buncombe 



explanations on 18 Feb. 1828 (Purl. Debates, 
new ser. xviii. 540-3). He was again returned 
for Hertford at the general elections of 1830 
and 1831, but lost his seat at the general elec- 
tion in December 1832. The Marquis of Salis- 
bury, whose influence was predominant in the 
borough, had employed every means to oppose 
Duncombe's return ; but the election was 
afterwards declared void on the ground of 
bribery, and both writs were suspended during 
the rest of the parliament. Duncombe's five 
contests for the borough are computed to have 
cost him no less than 40,000/. After his 
defeat at Hertford, Duncombe became more 
advanced in his political views, and threw in 
his lot with the radicals. On 1 July 1834 he 
was returned for the newly created borough of 
Finsbury in the place of Robert Grant, who 
"had been appointed governor of Bombay, and 
from this date until his death Duncombe con- 
tinued to sit for that borough. The incidents 
arising out of some remarks upon his charac- 
ter which appeared in ' Fraser's Magazine ' 
for September 1834 will be found in ' Fraser's 
Magazine,' x. 494-504. Being always ready 
to undertake the cause of the unfortunate, 
without regard to the opinions they might 
hold, Duncombe, on 30 May 1836, moved 
that an address be presented to the king ask- 
ing his intercession with Louis-Philippe for 
the liberation of Prince Polignac and the other 
imprisoned ministers at Havre (ib. 3rd ser. 
xxxiii. 1191-5). In the summer of 1838 he 
visited Canada, and upon his return to Eng- 
land exerted himself in the defence of his 
friend Lord Durham, the late governor-gene- 
ral. In 1840 he took up the case of the 
imprisoned chartists, and in March spoke in 
favour of an address to the queen for the free 
pardon of Frost, Jones, and Williams. This 
action, however, only received the support 
of seven members, one of whom was Ben- 
jamin Disraeli, and was negatived by a ma- 
jority of sixty-three (ib. lii. 1142-4) ; but 
Duncombe's motion in the following year for 
the merciful consideration of all political of- 
fenders then imprisoned in England and Wales 
was more successful, and was only lost by the 
casting vote of the speaker (ib. Iviii. 1740- 
1750). On 2 May 1842 he presented the 
people's petition praying for the six points of 
the charter. This monster petition was said 
to have been signed by 3,315,752 persons, and 
' its bulk was so great that the doors were not 
wide enough to admit it, and it was necessary 
to unroll it to carry it into the house. When 
unrolled it spread over a great part of the 
floor, and rose above the level of the table ' 
(ib. Ixii. 1373). His motion on the following 
day, that the petitioners should ' be heard 
to themselves or their counsel at the bar of 



the house,' was defeated by a majority of 236. 
On 14 June 1844 he presented a petition from 
Mazzini and others, complaining that their 
letters had been opened by the post office (ib. 
Ixxv. 892), and was the means of raising a 
storm of popular indignation against Sir James 
Graham, the home secretary, who acknow- 
ledged that he had issued a warrant for the 
opening of the letters of one of the petitioners. 
According to his biographer Duncombe took 
part in the plot which led to Prince Louis 
Napoleon's escape from Havre in May 1846. 
In the same year he presented the petition of 
Charles, duke of Brunswick, to the House of 
Commons. Though unsuccessful in his at- 
tempt to induce parliament to interfere, Dun- 
combe continued to interest himself in the 
affairs of the duke, who in December 1846 
made an extraordinary will in his favour, the 
contents of which are given at length in Dun- 
combe's ' Life ' (ii. 68-70). Subsequently 
Duncombe for some years employed his secre- 
tary in running to and fro between England 
and France on secret missions to the duke and 
the emperor of the French. His father died 
on 7 Dec. 1847, but owing to Duncombe's finan- 
cial embarrassments the Yorkshire estate 
which he inherited had to be immediately sold 
for the benefit of his numerous creditors. 
Though Duncombe had to a great extent iden- 
tified himself with the chartists, he entirely 
discountenanced their idea of an appeal to 
physical force, and in 1848 did his best to 
restrain them from the demonstration of 
10 April. In 1851, at the request of Mazzini, 
he became a member of the council of the 
'Friends of Italy.' On 9 Feb. 1858 he de- 
fended the emperor, Louis Napoleon, from 
the attack which had been made upon him 
in the debate on the motion for leave to bring 
in the Conspiracy to Murder Bill, and, for 
once deserting the radical party, took no part 
in the division (Parl. Debates, 3rd ser. cxlviii. 
979-81). In 1861 he interested himself on 
behalf of Kossuth in the question of the 
Hungarian notes. In spite of his ill-health, 
which for many years before his death pre- 
vented his regular attendance in the house, 
a number of his reported speeches will be 
found in the ' Parliamentary Debates ' of 
this session. He died on 13 Nov. 1861 at 
South House, Lancing, Sussex, in the sixty- 
sixth year of his age, and was buried at Kensal 
Green cemetery on the 21st. Duncombe was 
a good-looking and agreeable man, popular 
alike in society and in his constituency of 
Finsbury. He had the reputation of being 
the best-dressed man in the house, and was 
a fluent, though eccentric, speaker. His 
speeches, without being actually witty, al- 
ways raised a laugh, and he has been described 

N2 



Buncombe 



1 80 



Buncombe 



bv an acute observer as being 'just the man 
for saving at the right moment what every- 
body wished to be said and nobody had the 
courage to say.' Though rather a clever man 
of fashion than a man of great political mark 
in the house, Buncombe, as an advocate of 
radical views, had a considerable following in 
the country. He commenced a work on ' The 
Jews of England, their History and Wrongs,' 
but only the preface and ninety-four pages 
seem to have been printed, and nothing was 
published. According to his biographer his 
' published pamphlets would fill a volume ; ' 
but none of these appear under his name in 
the ' Brit. Mus. Cat.' A crayon portrait of 
Buncombe by Wilkins was exhibited at the 
third Loan Exhibition of National Portraits 
in 1868 (No. 391 Cat.) 

[Life and Correspondence of Thomas Slingsby 
Buncombe (1868) ; Foster's Peerage, 1883, p. 
288 ; Harris's Hist, of the Radical Party in Par- 
liament (1885); Annual Register, 1861, vol. ciii. 
app. to chron. p. 432; Gent. Mag. 1861, new ser. 
xi. 697, 1862, xii. 93-4; Eraser's Mag. 1846, 
xxxiv. 349-52 ; Quarterly Review, cxxxviii. 37- 
40; Athenaeum for 23 Nov. 1867, pp. 675-7; 
Times for 7 Jan. 1868 ; Hayward Letters, 1886, 
ii. 172, 175-6, 181-3 ; Official Return of Lists 
of Members of Parliament, ii. 304, 318, 331, 343, 
354, 368, 384, 402, 418, 434, 450.] G. F. R. B. 

DUNCOMBE, WILLIAM (1690-1769), 
miscellaneous writer, youngest son of John 
Buncombe of Stocks in the parish of Aldbury, 
Hertfordshire, was born in Hat ton Garden, 
London, 9 Jan. 1690. He was educated at 
Cheney in Buckinghamshire and at Pinner in 
Middlesex, and in 1706 entered as clerk in the 
navy office. This he quitted in 1725, and being 
in easy circumstances was able to give the 
remainder of his long life to his favourite 
literary pursuits. He had already translated 
some parts of Horace (1715 and 1721), and 
the ' Athaliah ' of Racine (1722), and he now 
wrote a number of fugitive pieces for the 
' Whitehall Evening Post,' of which he was 
part proprietor. A somewhat curious inci- 
dent (with which no doubt the resignation of 
his clerkship was connected) brought about 
or hastened his marriage. He held a lottery 
ticket for 1725 in partnership with a Miss 
Elizabeth Hughes. The ticket was ' drawn 
a prize of 1,000/.,' and the partners were 
married on 1 Sept. of the following year. In 
1728 an attack by Buncombe in the 'London 
Journal ' on the ' Beggar's Opera,' in which 
he showed ' its pernicious consequences to the 
practice of morality and Christian virtue,' 
attracted some notice. It gained him the 
acquaintance and lifelong friendship of Br. 
Herring, afterwards archbishop of Canter- 
bury (their correspondence was edited by 



Buncombe's son in 1777), who warmly ap- 
proved of Buncombe's position. In 1732 
Buncombe's most ambitious effort, his tragedy 
of ' Lucius Junius Brutus,' founded on Vol- 
taire's play, was approved of by ' the theatri- 
cal triumvirate. Booth, Cibber, and Wilts,*" 
and its production promised. This did not 
take place till November 1734, 'when the 
town was empty, the parliament not sitting, 
and Farinelli in full song and feather at the 
Haymarket.' As the author said, 'the qua- 
vering Italian eunuch proved too powerful 
for the rigid Roman consul.' ' Brutus ' ran 
; six nights at Brury Lane. It obtained some 
applause, and we are assured ' that there was 
scarcely a dry eye in the boxes during the 
last scene between Brutus and Titus ' (where 
Brutus condemns his son to death, act v.. 
sc. 9). It was again acted in February 1735, 
and printed the same year. A second edition 
appeared in 1747. 

When the Jacobite rising of 1745 occurred^ 
Buncombe, who was a devoted friend of the 
Hanoverian succession, reprinted a sermon 
(really written by Br. Arbuthnot) purport- 
j ing to be ' preached to the people at the 
I Mercat Cross of Edinburgh.' He prefixed 
to this an account of the advantages which 
had accrued to Scotland from the union with 
England. He also reprinted with a preface 
I a tract which his relative Mr. Hughes had 
j written in regard to the rising of 1715, but 
, which had never appeared, ' On the Compli- 
| cated Guilt of Rebellion.' In 1749 Buncombe 
was ' accidentally instrumental to the detec- 
] tion of Archibald Bower ' [q. v.], from whose 
account he had compiled a narrative of his 
escape from the inquisition. This being pub- 
lished attracted considerable notice, and was 
one of the circumstances which led to the 
damaging attack made by Bouglas, bishop 
; of Salisbury, on Bower's veracity (collection 
. relating to Archibald Bower in British Mu- 
. seum MS.) Buncombe died in Margaret 
Street, Cavendish Square, London, 26 Feb. 
| 1769, and was buried near his wife (d. 1736) 
I in Aldbury Church, Hertfordshire. He was 
j survived by his only child, John Buncombe 

, [q- v -] 

In addition to the works already named 
and a number of occasional pieces in prose 
and verse, Buncombe edited his friend Henry 
Needler's ' Original Poems, Translations, 
Essays,' and Letters ' (1724), John Hughes's 
'Poems' (1735), Jabez Hughes's 'Miscel- 
lanies in Prose and Verse' (1737), Samuel 
Say's ' Essays and Poems ' (1743), and a 
volume of Archbishop Herring's sermons 
(1763). He also translated Werenfel's ' On 
the Usefulness of Bramatic Interludes in the 
Education of Youth ' (1744). 



Duncon 



181 



Duncon 



[Biog. Brit. ed. Kippis, v. 504 ; Gent. Mag. 
for 1769, p. 168; Lond. Mag. for 1769, p. 333; 
Annual Eegisier for 1769, p. 172; Addit. MS. 
31588, f. 2.] F. W-T. 

DUNCON, ELEAZAR (d. 1660), royalist 
divine, was probably matriculated at Queens' 
College, Cambridge, but took his B. A. degree 
as a member of Cains College, whence he 
was elected fellow of Pembroke Hall in 
1618 {Antiquarians 1 Communications, Cambr. 
Antiq. Soc. i. 248). On 13 March 1624-5, 
being M. A., he was ordained deacon by Laud, 
then bishop of St. David's (LAUD, Autobio- 
graphy, Oxford, 1839, p. 33), receiving priest's 
orders from Neile, at that time bishop of 
Durham, on 24 Sept. 1626 (HUTCHINSON, 
Durham, ii. 188; COSIN, Correspondence, 
Surtees Soc. i. 200). He became a great 
favourite with Neile, who made him his 
chaplain, and gave him several valuable pre- 
ferments. In January 1627-8, being then 
B.D., he was collated to the fifth stall in 
the church of Durham (LE NEVE, Fasti, ed. 
Hardy, iii. 312), obtaining the twelfth stall 
at Winchester 13 Nov. 1629 (ib. iii. 43). On 
10 April 1633, having taken his doctor's de- 
gree in the previous March, he became rector 
of Haughton-le-Skerne, Durham (SuRTEES, 
Durham, iii. 342). He resigned his stall at 
Winchester, 24 April 1640, to succeed to the 
prebend of Knaresborough-cum-Brickhill in 
York Minster on the following 1 May (Ls 
NEVE, iii. 197). He was also chaplain to the 
king. Duncon, who was one of the most 
learned as well as ablest promoters of Laud's 
high church policy, \vas stripped of all his 
preferments by the parliament, and retired to 
the continent. In 1651 he was in attendance 
upon theEnglish court in France, and officiated 
with other exiled clergymen in Sir Richard 
Browne's chapel at Paris (EVELYN, Diary, ed. 
1879, ii. 20, 30 re.) During the same year he 
went to Italy ( COSIN, Correspondence, i. 280), 
but in November 1655 he was living at Sau- 
mur, busied with some scheme of consecrating 
bishops (CLARENDON, State Papers, vol. iii. 
appendix, pp. c, ci, ciii ; CosiN, Works, Anglo- 
Cath. Libr., iv. 375 re. a). On 28 Aug. 1659 
Cosin, writing from Paris to Sancroft, says 
of Duncon, ' now all his imployment is to 
make sermons before the English merchants 
at Ligorne and Florence ' ( Correspondence, i. 
290). According to the statement of his 
friend, Dr. Richard Watson, it seems that 
Duncon died at Leghorn in 1660 (preface to 
Dvacoyt'sDeAdoratione) ; in Barnabas Oley's 
preface to Herbert's ' A Priest to the Temple ' 
he and his brother, John Duncon, are men- 
tioned as having ' died before the miracle of 
our happy restauration.' His only known 
work, 'De Adoratione Dei versus Altare,' 



being his determination for the degree of 
D.D., 15 March 1633, appears to have been 
published soon after that date, and the argu- 
ments answered in a tract entitled ' Super- 
stitio Superstes ' (CAWDRY, preface to Bow- 
ing towards the Altar}. It was reprinted 
after the author's death by R. Watson, 12mo 
(Cambridge ?), 1660, an English version, by 
I. D., appearing a few months later, 4to, Lon- 
don (1661). A reply by Zachary Crofton 
[q. v.] entitled 'Altar- Worship,' 12mo, Lon- 
don, 1661, giving small satisfaction to the 
puritans, a violent tirade by Daniel Cawdry 
[q. v.], ' Bowing towards the Altar . . . im- 
pleaded as grosselySuperstitious,'4to, London, 
1661, came out shortly afterwards. Two of 
Duncon's letters to John Cosin, dated respec- 
tively 9 July 1637 and 20 April 1638, are in 
Additional MS. 4275, ff. 197, 198. 

JOHN DUNCON, brother of Eleazar, was, as 
he says, holding a cure in Essex at the time 
of the civil war (preface to 3rd edition of 
The Returnes, &c.) After his deprivation he 
was received into the house of Lady Falk- 
land. He is author of a quaint and once 
popular religious biography, ' The Returnes 
of Spiritual Comfort and Grief in a devout 
Soul. Represented (by entercourse of Let- 
ters) to the Right Honourable the Lady 
Letice, Vi-Countess Falkland, in her Life 
time. And exemplified in the holy Life and 
Death of the said Honorable Lady ' (with- 
out author's name), 12mo, London, 1648 ; 2nd 
edition, enlarged, 12mo, London, 1649 ; an- 
other edition, 'with some additionals,' 12mo, 
London, 1653; 3rd edition, enlarged, 12mo, 
London, 1653. It was partly reproduced 
in the various editions of Dr. Thomas Gib- 
bons's ' Memoirs of eminently Pious Women ' 
(1777, 1804, 1815). 

Another brother, EDMUND DTJNCON, LL.B., 
was sent by Nicholas Ferrar [q. v.] of Little 
Gidding, near Huntingdon, to visit George 
Herbert during his last illness. Herbert placed 
the manuscript of ; A Priest to the Temple ' 
in his hands, with an injunction to deliver it 
to Ferrar. Duncon afterwards became pos- 
sessed of it, and promoted its publication 
(OLEY, preface). He also gave some slight 
assistance to Walton when writing his life 
of Herbert. On 23 May 1663 he was insti- 
tuted to the rectory of Friern Barnet, Mid- 
dlesex (NEAVCOURT, Repertorium, i. 606). He 
died in 1673. His son, John Duncon, M.A., 
a bachelor, succeeded to the living, but sur- 
vived a few weeks only, dying at Cambridge 
in the beginning of 1673-4. Administration 
of his estate was granted to his sister, Ruth 
Duncon, 10 Feb. 1673-4 {Administration Act 
Book, P. Q C., 1674, f. 17 b). Unlike his 
brothers Edmund Duncon was a puritan (see 



Duncon 



182 



Duncumb 



hi* letter to John Ellis, Addit. MS. 28930, , printer of Pugh's Hereford Journal.' Two 
f o^ | years later he accepted an engagement from 

r- i Qt Q f Par>r* i Charles, eleventh duke of Norfolk, the owner, 

[Authont.es cited above; Cal. State Papers, extensive estates in the county, 

vm ifi29-31 DD 20, 483, 1631-3, p. II, ioo<> ^ . ' 

'" t,~ \'J , - 11 ifiso in 515. to compile and edit a history of Herefordshire. 



1634 p. 150, 1636-7, p. 14, 1639-40, pp. 010, o ^i-STS-TrS 

539. 542. 1651-2, p. 271 ; Kennett's Register, The terms were '21. '2s. per week for collecting 



p. 489 
359.] 



Notes and Queries, 1st ser. ix. 56, 184, 

G. Gr. 



DUNCON, SAMUEL (Jl. 1600-1659), 



materials, with extra payment for journeys 
out of the county, the work to be the pro- 
perty of the duke. The first volume, contain- 
ing a general history of the county and ac- 



considerable means, and devoted to the par 
liamentary side in the civil wars. In 1640 
he was ' strayed three times ' for refusing to 
pay ship-money. He was ordered to march 
with the king's forces against the Scots ; but 
he was allowed, after some troublesome nego- 
tiations, to hire a substitute. Processes were 
also begun against him in the commissaries 
court and the court of arches. This caused 



. . x ^ T " 1* -f O gcrAicioi. 1JJBW y vl. LUC wWVUMrj CU1U. d^~ 

political writer, was a citizen of Ipswich, ol count of the d wag publisned 4to Here- 

:J AKA V1^ vnrtnmc anrl naTAtpH trt t HP. T^flr f -t -| o/\ J J .!_ / , f 1 

ford, 1804: and the first part ot a second 
volume, containing the hundreds of Broxash 
and Ewyas-Lacy, with a few pages of Grey- 
tree hundred, in 1812. At the death of the 
duke in December 1815 the supplies stopped 
and Duncumb ceased to work. The unsold 
portions of the work, with the pages of Grey- 
tree hundred then printed but not published, 
i being part of the duke's personal estate, were 
him to repair several times to London, and removed from Hereford to a warehouse in 
led finally to his being ' damnified abou !^ n d on > w hich place the parcels remained 
300/.' Duncon complained to the parliament, und i stur bed and forgotten until 1837, when 
but without result. When the civil war the whole stock was purc hased by Thomas 
broke out he as well as his father and father- Th the ^i^ller, who disposed of his 
in-law aided the parliament with many con- c -^ of yols j and H ^^ the p&ge5 of 
tributions, by raising troops (which brought Greytree (319^58 >, to which he appended an 
him into direct communication with Crom- ind ^ Aftgr m yol u was completed 
well), and by acting as high collector of as- 
sessments tiU 1651. Duncon seems finally to 
have settled in London, and to have died 
about the time of the Restoration. Duncon 
wrote : 1. 



index in 1866 by Judge "W. H. Cooke, 
issued a third volume containing the 
of Greytree in 1882. A fourth 
volume will include the parishes in the hun- 



Several Propositions of pubhck dred Q CTrimswO rth. A useful supplement 
concernment presented to his _ Excellency to Duncuml) and Cooke's history is George 
the Lord GeneraU Cromwell,' 16ol. 2.' Seve- g troil ^ s 'Heraldry of Herefordshire,' fol, 
ral Proposals offered by a Fnend to Peace and London> 1848 mrifcrMB, preface to vol. i. ; 
Truth to the serious consideration of the C<K) postscript to vol. ii. p. 401, preface 
keepers of the Liberties of the People of tOTO i i) 

England,' &c., 1659. The chief end of these Duncum v s connection with the local news- 
tracts is (besides the recital of the author s 
sacrifices for the Commonwealth) towards 
the ' settling of peacemakers in every city 
and county of this nation.' These peace- 



makers were to be the ' most understanding 



paper ceased in 1791, when he entered inta 
holy orders. He was instituted to the rec- 
tory of Talachddu in Brecknockshire in 1793" 
(Gent. May. vol. Ixiii. pt. ii. p. 1219), and to 
Frilsham, Berkshire, in the same year. la 



._ _ _ __ , IJAI ii^iiiiAJ.i j^r^ri. jvc*i i 11 ^. jjj. mmfs oct.uj.'-, t BOM.* j-i*. 

plain honest-harted men that the people of 1809 he became m5tor of Tortingt on, Sussex,. 

J . -. 4- . 4. AA .<.U 4-; n ^I I Kmw +-,i-nf*4-if^-n -n*Q C *-.. ' 



the district could find. Their function was 
to be to settle all sorts of disputes, and thus 
avoid as far as possible the necessity for law 
courts (see CAMPBELL, Liiw of the Chancel- 
lors, viii. 359, for a somewhat similar scheme 
proposed by Lord Brougham). 

[Works; Addit. MSS. 21418, f. 270, 21419, 
f. 145.] F. W-T. 

DUNCUMB, JOEDs (1765-1839), topo- 
grapher, born in 1765, was the second son of 
Thomas Duncumb, rector of Shere, Surrey. 
He was educated at a school in Guildford, 
under a clergyman named Cole, and at Trinity 
College, Cambridge. He proceeded B.A. in 



but resigned the living soon afterwards on 
his institution to Abbey Dore, Herefordshire 
(ib. vol. Ixxix. pt. ii. p. 778), the Duke of 
Norfolk being the patron of both benefices. 
In 1815 he obtained the vicarage of Mansel- 
Lacy, Herefordshire, from Mr. (afterwards 
Sir) Uvedale Price (ib. vol. Ixxxv. pt. i. p. 561), 
and held both these Herefordshire benefices 
at his death. 

Duncumb was secretary to the Hereford- 
shire Agricultural Society from its formation 
in 1797, and published in 1801 an ' Essay on 
the Best Means of Applying Pasture Lands, 
&c., to the Production of Grain, and of re- 



1787, and M.A. in 1796. In 1788 he settled converting them to Grass,' 8vo, London, 
at Hereford in the dual capacity of editor and Another useful treatise was a ' General View 



Dundas 



183 



Dundas 



of the Agriculture of the County of Here- 
ford,' 173 pp. 8vo, London, 1805, for the con- 
sideration of the Board of Agriculture and 
Internal Improvement. He also published 
two sermons, one preached 7 March 1796, 
the day appointed for the general fast, 16 
pp. 8vo, London ; the other preached in the 
cathedral church, 3 Aug. 1796, at the annual 
meeting of the subscribers to the General 
Infirmary in Hereford, and printed for the 
benefit of the charity, 16 pp. 8vo, London, 1797 
(WATT, Bibl. Brit. i. 323 o). By 1809 he had 
become a fellow of the Society of Antiquaries. 
Duncumb died at Hereford 19 Sept. 1839, 
aged 74 (Gent. Mag. new ser. xii. 660-1), 
and was buried in the church of Abbey Dore, 
where a monument is placed to his memory. 
He married in 1792 Mary, daughter of Wil- 
liam Webb of Holmer, near Hereford, by 
whom he had three children : Thomas Edward 
(d. 1823) and William George (d. 1834), and 
a daughter. All died unmarried. Mrs. Dun- 
cumb died in 1841. Duncumb's manuscript 
collections were sold by his widow to a local 
bookseller. He lived in Hereford from 1788 
to his death, and was never resident on any 
of his various preferments. 

[The above memoir has been for the most 
part compiled from information kindly com- 
municated by Judge Cooke. See also Gent. Mag. 
vol. xciii.pt. ii. p. 644, new ser. i. 219, v. 209. xvi. 
664 ; Oxford Graduates (1851), p. 199.] G. G. 

DUNDAS, CHARLES, BAKOX AMES- 
BUKY (1751-1832), born 5 Aug. 1751, was 

S mnger son of Thomas Dundas of Fingask, 
.P. for Orkney and Shetland 1768-71, and 
a commissioner of police in Scotland 31 Jan. 
1771, who died 16 April 1786. His mother 
was his father's second wife, Janet, daughter 
of Charles Maitland, sixth earl of Lauderdale. 
He was called to the bar, but devoted him- 
self to a political life. He first sat for the 
borough of Richmond in 1774, then for Ork- 
ney and Shetland (1781-4), again for Rich- 
mond, and finally for Berkshire, which he 
represented in ten successive parliaments 
(1794-1832). He was finally the second 
eldest member in the house. Dundas was a 
liberal in politics. In 1802, on the resigna- 
tion of Mitford (afterwards Lord Redesdale), 
the then speaker, he was nominated by She- 
ridan as his successor in opposition to Abbot. 
He, however, withdrew from the contest. 
Dundas was counsellor of state for Scotland 
to the Prince of Wales, and colonel of the 
White Horse volunteer cavalry. 

Dundas was twice married. His first wife, 
Anne, daughter of Ralph Whitley of Aston 
Hall, Flintshire, by whom he had one daugh- 
ter, Janet, wife of Sir James Whitley Deans 



Dundas [q. v.], brought him the considerable 
estate of Kent bury-Amesbury, Wiltshire, and 
other property. His second wife, whom he 
married on 25 Jan. 1822, was his cousin, Mar- 
garet, daughter of Charles Barclay, and widow 
of (1) Charles Ogilvy, and (2) Major Archi- 
bald Erskine. Dundas was made a peer as 
Lord Arnesbury by letters patent 11 May 1832. 
He died 7 July 1832 at his residence in Pim- 
lico, whereupon the title became extinct. 
Lady Amesbury died 14 April 1841. 

[Gent. Mag. August 1832; Burke's Dormant 
and Extinct Peerages (1883), pp. 183-4 ; Addit. 
MS. 2867, ff. 164, 166; Foster's Members of 
Parliament (Scotland).] F. W-T. 

DUNDAS, SIB DAVID (1735-1820), 
general, was the third son of Robert Dundas, 
a merchant of Edinburgh, by his wife Mar- 
garet, daughter of Thomas Watson of Muir- 
house. He was educated at the Royal 
Academy at Woolwich, and assisted in the 
great survey of Scotland under his maternal 
uncle, General David Watson, and under 
General Roy from 1752 to 1755. He was 
appointed a lieutenant fireworker in the 
royal artillery in 1754, a practitioner en- 
gineer in 1755, and a lieutenant in the 
56th regiment in 1756, in which year he re- 
ceived the post of assistant quartermaster- 
general to General Watson. He threw up 
his staff appointment in 1758 to join his 
regiment when ordered on foreign service, 
and was present at the second Duke of Marl- 
borough's attack on St. Malo, at General 
Bligh's capture of Cherbourg, and at the fight 
at St. Cas. At the close of the same year he 
joined the army under the command of Prince 
Ferdinand of Brunswick in the threefold 
capacity of assistant quartermaster-general, 
engineer, and lieutenant of infantry, and left 
Germany on the conclusion of the campaign 
to join the 15th light dragoons, into which 
he had just been promoted captain. Colonel 
Eliott, afterwards Lord Heathfield, who com- 
manded that regiment , took a fancy to Dundas, 
who acted as his aide-de-camp in the cam- 
paigns of 1760 and 1761 in Germany, when 
he was present at the battles of Corbach, 
Warburg, and Clostercampen, the siege of 
Wesel, and the battle of Fellinghausen, and 
also in the expedition to Cuba in 1762, when 
Eliott served as second in command to Lord 
Albemarle at the capture of Havana. At the 
end of the seven years' war Dundas commenced 
that study of his profession which eventually 
caused him to be considered the most pro- 
found tactician in England. He was pre- 
sent every year at the manoeuvres of the 
French, Prussian, or Austrian armies, and 
was able to get a thorough insight into the 



Dundas 



184 



Dundas 



military reforms of Frederick the Great, 
which had revolutionised the armies of Eu- 
rope. In 1770 he was promoted major, and 
when the war of American independence 
broke out in 1774 he was anxious to go on 
active service. On further consideration he 
thought it would be better for him rather to 
work out his new system of tactics, and he 
therefore purchased in 1775 the lieutenant- 
colonelcy of the 12th light dragoons instead. 
He was appointed quartermaster-general in 
Ireland in 1778, promoted colonel in 1781, 
and made lieutenant-colonel of the 2nd Irish 
horse in 1782, when he again had leisure 
to study the military systems of the conti- 
nent. He attended the Prussian autumn 
manoauvres in Pomerania, Silesia, and Mag- 
deburg in 1785, 1786, and 1787, and in 
1788 he brought out the results of his long 
study in his great work, ' The Principles of 
Military Movements, chiefly applicable to 
Infantry.' The publication of this book made 
his reputation, and for the next ten years 
Dundas was constantly employed. In 1789 
he was appointed adjutant-general in Ireland, 
on 28 April 1790 he was promoted major- 
general, and on 2 April 1791 made colonel of 
the 22nd regiment. In June 1792 the ' Rules 
and Regulations for the Formation, Field 
Exercises, and Movements of His Majesty's 
Forces,' which he had drawn up by the direc- 
tion of the authorities at the Horse Guards, 
were issued as the official orders for the 
army, and were speedily followed by the 
* Rules and Regulations for the Cavalry,' 
for which Dundas was largely indebted to 
the experience of Sir James Stewart Denham 
[q. v.] Under these rules and regulations 
the armies which fought under Abercromby, 
Moore, and Wellington were disciplined. 
When war broke out with France in 1793, 
Dundas was sent to Jersey to report on the 
practicability of a descent on St. Malo, after 
which he paid a short visit to the Duke of 
York's army before Dunkirk, where he served 
for a short time in command of a brigade, 
and then in October travelled through Ger- 
many and Italy to Toulon, where he took up 
the post of second in command to General 
O'Hara. When O'Hara was taken prisoner, 
Dundas took command of the small English 
force at Toulon ; but he soon saw the im- 
possibility of holding that city against the 
great superiority of the French troops. After 
repelling the attacks of 17 and 18 Dec. he 
became one of the chief advocates for. the 
evacuation of that city, which was carried 
into effect on 29 Dec. He took his army to 
Elba and then to Corsica, where he super- 
intended the capture of San Fiorenze, and 
then hurried across the continent to join the 



Duke of York in Flanders. He commanded 
a brigade of cavalry at the battle of Tournay 
on 22 May 1794, and when the Duke of York 
returned to England he received the com- 
mand of the troops on the lower Waal, 
amounting to eight thousand men. With 
this force he fought the battle of Gelder- 
malsen, and on 30 Dec. the battle of Tuyl, 
when, in spite of his inferiority of numbers, 
he drove the French back across the Waal. 
But it was impossible to hold the AVaal for 
long, and Dundas had, in spite of his victories, 
to cover the disastrous retreat of the British 
army on Bremen with his cavalry. When 
Lord Harcourt returned to England with 
the infantry in April 1795, Dundas was left 
in command of twenty-four squadrons of 
cavalry, with which he served in Westphalia 
until the final recall of the troops from the 
continent in January 1796. He was largely 
rewarded for his great services, being ap- 
pointed colonel of the 7th light dragoons on 
23 Dec. 1795, made quartermaster-general at 
the Horse Guards in 1796, and promoted 
lieutenant-general and made governor of 
Landguard fort in 1797. As quartermaster- 
general he had much to do in reorganising 
the army after the disasters in Flanders, and 
in enforcing his 'Rules and Regulations.' 
He also commanded the camps of exercise at 
Weymouth and Windsor, which brought him 
into intimate relations with the king. In 
1799 he accompanied the Duke of York in 
the expedition to the Helder. He commanded 
the second column in the battle of 19 Sept., 
and the centre column in the fierce attack 
on Bergen on 2 Oct., when his services were 
particularly praised by the Duke of York, 
but he felt obliged on the 17th to acquiesce 
in the convention of Alkmaer, as no good had 
been done and no ground gained by these 
battles. In 1801 he was made colonel of the 
2nd dragoons and governor of Fort George 
in the place of Sir Ralph Abercromby, in 
1802 he was promoted general, and in 1803 
he resigned his post at the Horse Guards to 
take command of the southern district. In 
1804 he was made a knight of the Bath and 
appointed governor of Chelsea Hospital, and 
in 1805 he resigned his command and retired 
to Chelsea, where he lived for the rest of his 
life. He acted as president of the court of 
inquiry held upon the conduct of Sir Hew 
Dalrymple, Sir Harry Burrard, and Sir Arthur 
Wellesley as to the convention of Cintra in 
1808, and in the following year he was se- 
lected to succeed the Duke of York as com- 
mander-in-chief of the army. It was felt 
necessary that the duke should resign after 
the disclosures caused by the inquiry of the 
House of Commons into the case of Mrs. Mary 



Dundas 



185 



Dundas 



Anne Clarke [q. v.], and it was considered 
best to choose some one who would at once 
carry out the great reforms begun by the duke, 
and be ready to resign to the duke when the 
scandal should have blown over. Dundas 
was chosen, because as the duke's right-hand 
man at the Horse Guards he thoroughly un- 
derstood his military policy, besides being a 
most intimate friend. Dundas was accord- 
ingly sworn of the privy council, and held 
the post of commander-in-chief of the army 
from 18 March 1809 to 26 May 1811, a period 
signalised by the victories of Talavera and 
Busaco and the retreat to Torres Vedras, and 
he was then perfectly ready to resign to the 
Duke of York. He was transferred to the 
colonelcy of the 1st or king's dragoon guards 
in 1813, and lived quietly at Chelsea Hospital 
until his death there, at the age of eighty-five, 
on 18 Feb. 1820. Dundas, who married Char- 
lotte, daughter of General Oliver de Lancey, 
barrackmaster-general, left no children. His 
widow died in April 1840, and his property 
devolved on his nephew, Robert Dundas of 
Beechwood in Midlothian, one of the prin- 
cipal clerks of the court of session in Scot- 
land, who was created a baronet in 1821, and 
died 28 Dec. 1835. 

Sir Henry Bunbury devotes the following 
passage to Sir David : ' General Dundas had 
raised himself into notice by having formed a 
system for the British army, compiled and di- 
gested from the Prussian code of tactics both 
for the infantry and the cavalry. This work had 
been eagerly adopted by the Duke of York, as 
commander-in-chief, and had become the uni- 
versal manual in our service. The system was 
in the main good, and written on right prin- 
ciples, though the book was ill-written, and 
led the large class of stupid officers into strange 
blunders. But a uniform system had been 
grievously needed, for no two regiments,before 
these regulations were promulgated, moved in 
unison. Dundas was a tall, spare man, crabbed 
and austere, dry in his looks and demeanour. 
He had made his way from a poor condition 
{he told me himself that he walked from 
Edinburgh to London to enter himself as a 
fireworker in the artillery) ; and there were 
peculiarities in his habits and style which 
excited some ridicule among young officers. 
But though it appeared a little out of fashion, 
there was " much care and valour in that 
Scotchman"' (Narratives of some Passages in 
the Great War with France, 1799-1810). 

[Eoyal Military Calendar, ed. 1820, i. 284- 
301 ; Chambers'8 Diet, of Eminent Scotsmen; 
Georgian Biography ; Moore's Life of Sir John . 
Moore ; Bunbury's Narrative of some Passages j 
in the Great War with France; Gent. Mag. March 
1820.] H. M. S. 



DUNDAS, SIR DAVID (1799-1877), 
', statesman, the eldest surviving son of James 
Dundas of Ochtertyre, Perthshire, by his 
marriage with Elizabeth, daughter of Wil- 
liam Graham of Airth, Stirlingshire, was born 
in 1799. Admitted on the foundation of 
Westminster at the age of thirteen, he was 
elected to Christ Church, Oxford, in 1816, 
i where he graduated B.A. 3 Feb. 1820, and 
i was elected a student of the society ; he pro- 
ceeded MA. 2 Nov. 1822. He was called to 
j the bar at the Inner Temple, 7 Feb. 1823, 
i and went the northern circuit. He was also 
j a member of the Scotch bar. In March 1840 
i he was elected member of parliament for 
! Sutherlandshire, and in the following April 
was appointed a queen's counsel, being elected 
a bencher of his inn in due course. He re- 
presented Sutherlandshire for twelve years 
till 1852, and sat for it again from April 1861 
until May 1867. He entered parliament as 
an adherent of the liberal party, and on 
10 July 1846 was appointed solicitor-general 
under Lord John Russell, receiving the cus- 
tomary knighthood on 4 Feb. 1847. Indifferent 
health obliged him to resign office 25 March 
1848, when it was thought he would have 
accepted the more comfortable and permanent 
post of principal clerk of the House of Lords. 
He, however, declined it. In May 1849 he 
again took office, this time as judge-advocate- 
general, was sworn a privy councillor on the 
following 29 June, and retired with his party 
in 1852. Thereafter it was understood that 
he did not care for further professional or 
political advancement. An accomplished 
scholar, he lived a somewhat retired life at 
his chambers, 13 Bang's Bench Walk, Inner 
Temple, where he had brought together a 
fine library. He died unmarried on 30 March 
1877, aged 78. Dundas was an honorary M. A. 
of Durham University, and from 1861 to 1867 
a trustee of the British Museum. He al- 
ways gave his steady support to Westminster 
School, and was a constant attendant at its 
anniversaries and plays. He was one of those 
' Old Westminsters ' who most strongly op- 
posed the proposal of removing the school 
into the country. 

[Welch's Alumni Westmon. 1852, pp. 475, 
480, 553 ; Law Times, 18 July 1846, 1 April 
1848, 7 April 1877; Foster's Members of Parlia- 
ment (Scotland), p. 110.] G. G. 

DUNDAS, FRANCIS (d. 1824), general, 
of Sanson, Berwickshire, colonel 71st high- 
land light infantry, was second son of Robert 
Dundas of Arniston the younger [q. v.], 
who held various important judicial posts in 
Scotland and died in 1787, by his second 
wife, Jean, daughter of William Grant, lord 



Dundas 



186 



Dundas 



Prestongrange (see FOSTER'S Peerage, under 
' Melville '). He was appointed ensign 1st ' 
foot guards 4 April 1775, and became lieu- | 
tenant and captain in January 1778. In i 
May 1777 he was one of the officers of the [ 
guards sent out to relieve a like number in 
America (HAMILTON, Hist. Gren. Guards, ii. 
225). He fought at Brandywine and Gor- 
mantown, in the attack on the Delaware forts, 
and in the action of Monmouth during the 
march from Philadelphia to New York. He 
was frequently employed on detached ser- 
vices during the campaigns of 1778-9, and 
being appointed to the light company of his 
regiment, formed for service in America 
the regiments of guards did not possess per- 
manent light companies until some years later 
- commanded it under Lord Cornwallis in 
Carolina and Virginia, where it formed the 
advance guard of the army, and was daily en- 
gaged with the enemy. He was one of the 
officers who surrendered with Cornwallis 
at York Town, 19 Oct. 1781 (ib. ii. 255). 
He became captain and lieutenant-colonel 
11 April 1783, exchanged as lieutenant- 
colonel to 45th foot, and thence in 1787 to 
1st royals, a battalion of which he com- 
manded in Jamaica from 1787 to 1791. He 
was adjutant-general with Sir Charles Grey 
at the capture of Martinique and Guadaloupe 
in 1794. In 1795 he was appointed colonel- 
commandant of the Scotch brigade a corps 
formed out of the remains of the Scotch 
brigade in the sen-ice of the United Pro- 
vinces of Holland, which was then taken into 
British pay, and afterwards became the 94th 
foot for which he raised an additional bat- 
talion. The same year he was ordered to the 
West Indies with the expedition under Sir 
Ralph Abercromby, but, being driven back 
by stress of weather to Southampton, was 
countermanded and appointed to command 
the troops at the Cape of Good Hope, whither 
he proceeded in August 1796. The chief 
events of his military command in South 
Africa were the mutiny on board the men- 
of-war in Table Bay in 1797, and the Kaffir 
war on the Sundays river in 1800. Together 
with the command of the troops he held the 
post of acting governor from Lord Macart- 
ney's departure in November 1798 until the 
arrival of the new governor, Sir George 
Young, in December 1799, and again from 
the recall of the latter in 1801 until the 
colony was restored to the Dutch in 1803. 
He commanded the Kent division of the army 
collected on the south coast of England under 
Sir David Dundas [q. v.] during part of the 
invasion alarms of 1804-5, commanded a di- 
vision under Lord Cathcart in the Hanover 
expedition of 1805-6, and again commanded 



on the Kentish coast after his return. He 
became lieutenant-general in 1802, and gene- 
ral in 1812. After the 94th (Scotch brigade) 
was disbanded in 1818, he was appointed 
colonel of the 71st highland light infantry. 
He was also transferred from the governorship 
of Carrickfergus, to which he was appointed 
in 1787, to that of Dumbarton Castle. He 
was never on half-pay. 

Dundas married Eliza, daughter of Sir J. 
Gumming, H.E.I.C.S., by whom he had two- 
sons and one daughter. He died 15 Jan. 
1824. 

[Foster's Peerage.under ' Melville ; ' Philippart's 
Roy. Mil. Cal. 1820, i. 388 ; Gent. Mag. xc. pt. i. 
378. Particulars of the military operations ia 
which Dundas took part will be found in Hamil- 
ton's Gren. Guards, ii. 225-55, London, 1872 ; 
Cooper Willyams's Campaign in West Indies in 
1794, London, fol. ; Bunbury's Narrative of 
some Passages in the War, pp. 174-80, Lon- 
don, 1852. Some account of affairs at the Cape 
during his command "will be found in Allardyce's- 
Life of Admiral Elphinstone, Viscount Keith 
(Edinburgh, 1883), in Sir John Barrow's writing* 
on the Cape, in Theodore Hook's Life of Sir David 
Baird, in the Journal of Lady Anne Barnard 
(printed in the Earl of Balcarres's Lives of the 
Lindsays, London, 1858), and in Extraordinary 
Military Career of John Shipp (London, 1843), 
vol. i.] H. M. C. 

DUNDAS, HENRY, first VISCOUNT MEL- 
VILLE (1742-1811), fourth son of Robert 
Dundas of Arniston the elder [q. v.], lord 
president of the court of session 1748-53, by 
his second wife, Anne, daughter of Sir Wil- 
liam Gordon of Invergordon, bart., was born 
on 28 April 1 742. Robert Dundas, second lord 
Arniston [q. v.], was his grandfather. He- 
was educated at Edinburgh High School and 
University, and was admitted a member of the 
Faculty of Advocates on 26 Feb. 1763. Dun- 
das acquired the art of public speaking in the 
general assembly of the church of Scotland,, 
which at that time was the great school of ora- 
tory in Scotland, and, being of a well-known 
legal family, he rapidly obtained a large prac- 
tice at the bar. His first appointment was 
that of assessor to the magistrates of the city, 
and shortly afterwards he was made one of the 
depute-advocates. At the age of twenty-four 
Dundas was appointed solicitor-general for 
Scotland, and his half-brother, the lord presi- 
dent of the court of session, was, by royal war- 
rant dated 20 June 1766, ordered to allow ' Mr. 
Henry Dundas, his majesty's sole solicitor in 
Scotland, to sit within the bar.' At the general 
election in October 1774 he was elected mem- 
ber for the county of Midlothian, for which, 
he continued to sit until the dissolution in, 
1790, with the exception of a few months at 



Dundas 



Dundas 



the end of 1782, when he represented the 
borough of Newtown in the Isle of AVight. 
He made his first speech in the House of 
Commons on 20 Feb. 1775, in the debate on 
Lord North's propositions for conciliating the 
American colonists. Dundas showed his in- 
dependence by alluding ' in very strong terms ' 
to the inconsistency of the prime minister, 
and declared that he could never accede to 
any concessions whatever ' until the Ameri- 
cans did, in direct terms, acknowledge the 
supremacy of this country ; much less could 
he consent to such concessions while they i 
were in arms against it '(Parl. Hist, xviii. 332). 
He spoke again on 6 March in favour of the 
bill for restricting the trade of the New Eng- 
land colonies, and in reply to Thomas Towns- 
hend, who had urged the injustice of an act 
which made no discrimination between the 
innocent and the guilty, but starved all alike, 
declared that the bill, which was both just j 
and merciful, ' had his most hearty approba- ! 
tion,' and that, ' as to the famine which was 
so pathetically lamented, he was afraid it 
would not be produced by this act ' (ib. 387-8). | 
On 24 May 1775 he was appointed lord ad- 
vocate in the place of James Montgomery, 
who had been made chief baron of the ex- 
chequer in Scotland, but it was not until 

20 July that Dundas presented his commis- 
sion in the high court of justiciary. From 
this time Dundas devoted his attention chiefly 
to politics, though at first he regularly ap- 
peared as the public prosecutor in the Scotch 
courts. In 1777 he was appointed joint keeper 
of the signet in Scotland, but still continued 
to oppose every plan for effecting a reconci- 
liation with the American colonists. 

In February 1778 his support of Powys's 
amendment for the repeal of the Massachu- 
setts charter made the king so indignant 
that, in a letter to Lord North, he declared 
' the more I think on the conduct of the ad- 
vocate of Scotland, the more I am incensed 
against him ; more favours have been heaped 
on the shoulders of that man than ever were 
bestowed on any Scotch lawyer, and he seems 
studiously to embrace every opportunity to 
create difficulties ; but men of tallents when 
not accompanied with integrity are pests in- 
stead of blessings to society, and true wisdom 
ought to crush them rather than to assist 
them ' (Letter 454). The king, however, 
recognising Dundas's use as a debater, soon 
afterwards became reconciled to him, and on 

21 April 1779 wrote to Lord North : ' Let 
the lord advocate be gained to attend the 
whole session and let him have the confidence 
concerning measures in parliament ' (Letter 
561). On 14 May 1778 Dundas gave notice 
of his intention to bring in a bill, similar to 



Sir George Savile's, for the relief of the Roman 
catholics in Scotland (Parl. Hist. xix. 1142). 
But the agitation which was immediately 
commenced in that country against the pro- 
posed toleration assumed such formidable 
proportions that Dundas was obliged to aban- 
don his intention. To such an extent had 
sectarian bitterness been aroused, that, though 
in the general assembly a motion against the 
proposed change had been defeated by a large 
majority in May 1778, in the following year 
a resolution was passed by the same body 
declaring that ' a repeal of the laws now in. 
force against papists would be highly inex- 
pedient, dangerous, and prejudicial to the 
best interests of religion and civil society in. 
this part of the United Kingdom.' 

Dundas took a prominent part in the de- 
bate on Dunning's famous resolution relating 
to the influence of the crown on 6 April 1780, 
and tried to end the discussion by moving- 
that the chairman should leave the chair, 
but ultimately withdrew this motion and 
moved the addition to the resolution of the 
words ' that it is necessary to declare.' This 
amendment, which was made apparently for 
the sake of gaining time, was immediately 
accepted by Fox, and Dundas thereupon voted 
with the government in the minority (ib. 
xxi. 360-1, 366, 374). 

In April 1781 he was made chairman of 
the secret committee appointed to report on 
the causes of the war in the Carnatic and 
the state of the British possessions in that 
part of India. On 9 April 1782 he moved 
that the six reports which he had presented 
should be referred to a committee of the 
whole house, and in a speech lasting nearly 
three hours strongly condemned the mis- 
management of the Indian presidencies (ib. 
xxii. 1275-83). On 30 May following his re- 
solutions declaring that Warren Hastings 
and William Hornby (president of the coun- 
cil of Bombay) having ' in sundry instances 
acted in a manner repugnant to the honour 
and policy of England,' ought to be removed 
from their respective offices, were agreed to 
(ib. xxiii. 75-6). But though an order for 
the recall of Hastings was made by the di- 
rectors, it was subsequently rescinded, and 
he remained in India until 1785. Dundas 
retained the office of lord advocate during 
the Rockingham and Shelbume administra- 
tions, and on 19 Aug. 1782 was also ap- 
pointed by the latter minister treasurer of 
the navy. He was admitted to the privy 
council on 31 July 1782, and was also given 
the office of keeper of the Scotch signet, as 
well as the patronage of all places in Scotland 
(Fox, Memorials and Correspondence, 1853, 
ii. 29). Shortly before Shelburne's downfall 



Dundas 



188 



Dundas 



Dundas entered into negotiations for the pur- 
pose of securing Lord North's support to the 
ministry. The latter, however, refused to com- 
mit himself, and directly afterwards formed 
the coalition with Fox which put an end to 
the Shelburne administration (ib. pp. 30-7). 
Dundas then attempted to prevail on Pitt to 
accept the office of prime minister, but after 
& long ministerial interregnum the coalition 
government came into power in April 1783, 
and Dundas was succeeded as treasurer of the 
navy by Charles Townshend. The office of 
lord advocate Dundas continued to hold for 
some time longer, but in spite of his boast 
that ' no man in Scotland will venture to 
take my place,' he was at length displaced 
by Fox in August 1783 in favour of Henry 
Erskine. On 14 April 1783 Dundas moved 
for leave to bring in his bill for the regula- 
tion of the government of India (Parl. Hist. 
xxiii. 757-60). As the government after- 
wards brought in a bill of their own. Dundas 
abandoned his, and vehemently denounced 
Fox's as ' big with the most alarming conse- 
quences to the constitution ' (ib. 1401-3). 

Upon Pitt's accession to power Dundas 
once more became treasurer of the navy, an 
office which he continued to hold until June 
1800. He was also appointed one of the 
committee of the privy council for trade and 
foreign plantations on 5 March 1784, and on 
the passing of Pitt's East India Bill was con- 
stituted a member of the board of control on 
3 Sept. in the same year. Though Dundas 
did not become president of the board of 
control until 28 June 1793, the management 
of Indian affairs was practically left in his 
hands from the first formation of the board. 
Towards the close of the session of 1784 
Dundas brought in a bill for the restoration 
of the forfeited estates in Scotland, which 
was received with great favour in that coun- 
trv, and passed through both houses with 
little difficulty (24 Geo. Ill, sess. 2, c. 57). 
In December 1785 Dundas, who had for some 
years been dean of the Faculty of Advocates, 
resigned that office and was succeeded by 
Henry Erskine. When Burke brought the 
charge arising out of the Rohilla war against 
Hastings in June 1786, Dundas, in spite of 
the resolutions which he had himself carried 
in the House of Commons in 1782, opposed 
it. In his speech on this occasion he called 
Hastings ' the saviour of India,' and endea- 
voured to explain his own position by de- 
claring that, though he still condemned the 
Rohilla war, what he had formerly desired 
was the recall, and not the criminal prose- 
cution, of Hastings (Parl. Hist. xxvi. 87-9). 
A few days later the ministry suddenly 
changed their policy, and when Fox brought 



forward the charge relating to the rajah of 
Benares, Pitt spoke in favour of the motion 
and Dundas silently voted with the majority. 
At the general election in June 1790 Dundas 
was returned for the city of Edinburgh, for 
which constituency he continued to sit until 
his elevation to the peerage. In June 1791 
he became home secretary, in the place of 
Lord Grenville, who had been appointed the 
secretary for foreign affairs. Dundas's ap- 
pointment, which was at first merely a pro- 
visional one, was confirmed on the refusal of 
Lord Cornwallis, who was then in India, to 
accept the post. 

On 23 April 1793 Dundas moved a reso- 
lution pledging the house to secure the re- 
newal of the monopoly to the East India 
Company for a further term of years. He 
defended the government of India by the 
company at great length, and maintained 
that the country had been indebted to the 
company for the great increase of its ship- 
ping (ib. xxx. 660-85). His speech on this 
occasion was in Pitt's opinion one which, ' for 
comprehensive knowledge of the history of 
India, and of the various sources of the Bri- 
tish commerce to the East Indies, . . . though 
it might have been equalled in that house, 
had never been excelled' (ib. 945). On the 
accession of the Duke of Portland to the 
ministry in the summer of 1794 he was ap- 
pointed home secretary in the place of Dun- 
das, who accepted the new secretaryship of 
war. As the duke shortly afterwards laid 
claim to all the rights of patronage which 
Dundas had hitherto possessed, the latter 
announced that he should resign the seals 
and relinquish the conduct of the war. After 
great pressure from Pitt, who declared that 
he should ' give up all hope of carrying on 
the business with comfort, and be really 
completely heartbroken if you adhere to the 
resolution ' ( STANHOPE, Life of Pitt, ii. 53), 
and a letter from the king desiring him ' to 
continue secretary of state for the war,' 
Dundas consented to remain in office. On 
10 June 1800 he was appointed keeper of 
the privy seal of Scotland. The credit of 
the Egyptian campaign of 1801 was in a 
great measure due to his energy and perse- 
verance, as he both planned and carried out 
the expedition against the opinion of Pitt 
and the king. With reference to this cam- 
paign it is related that Dundas used after- 
wards to tell with pride how on one occasion 
the king proposed a toast ' to the minister 
who planned the expedition to Egypt, and 
in doing so had the courage to oppose his 
king.' On Pitt's resignation in March 1801 
Dundas resigned the office of secretary for 
war, and in the following May resigned his 



^ 



Dundas 



189 



Dundas 



position at the board of control. Dundas, 
however, gave Addington his general sup- 
port, and at the general election of 1802 
managed the Scotch elections in the interest 
of the government so successfully that out 
of the forty-five members returned only two 
were whigs. Greatly to Pitt's surprise Dun- 
das accepted a peerage from Addington, and 
on 24 Dec. 1802 was created Viscount Mel- 
ville of Melville in the county of Edinburgh, 
and Baron Dunira in the county of Perth. 
Melville unsuccessfully attempted to induce 
Pitt to join the Addington ministry, and on 
the return of Pitt to power was appointed 
first lord of the admiralty on 15 May 1804. 
In 1785 Dundas had carried through a bill 
for ' better regulating the office of treasurer 
of the navy ' (25 Geo. Ill, c. 31), the object 
of which was to prevent the treasurer for the 
time being from appropriating any part of 
the money passing through his hands to his 
own private use. In 1802 an act was passed 
(43 Geo. Ill, c. 16) by which five commis- 
sioners were appointed to inquire into the 
frauds and irregularities which were sup- 
posed to exist in the several naval depart- 
ments. On 13 Feb. 1805 their tenth report, 
which dealt with the office of treasurer of 
the navy, was presented to the house (Par/. 
Debates, iii. 1147-1212). The commissioners 
had extended their inquiry back to the time 
when Barre was treasurer in 1782. Melville 
had been examined before them on 5 Nov. 
1804, and their report gave rise to consider- 
able suspicions against him, as it was con- 
clusively shown that large sums of public 
money during his tenure of office had been 
applied to other uses than those of the navy. 
On 8 April 1805 Samuel Whitbread called 
the attention of the House of Commons to the 
tenth report, and moved a series of resolutions 
setting out the case against Melville (ib. iv. 
255-9). Pitt thereupon moved the previous 
question, and promised that in the event of 
his motion being carried he would then move 
that the report should be remitted to a select 
committee. Wilberforce, in a powerful speech, 
gave his ' most cordial and sincere support ' to | 
Whitbread's motion. Upon a division, in a | 
house of 432 members, the numbers were 
found to be equal, and the speaker (Abbot), 
after some hesitation, gave his vote in favour 
of the original motion. Melville immediately 
resigned the office of first lord of the admi- 
ralty, and on 9 May his name was erased 
from the roll of the privy council. On 
25 April Whitbread moved that the tenth 
report should be remitted to a select com- 
mittee, which was appointed on the follow- 
ing day. On 27 May the report of the select 
committee was presented to the house (ib. 



v. i-cxxxii). Melville was heard at the bar 
of the House of Commons in his own de- 
fence on 11 June, and at the close of his 
speech Whitbread moved that ' Henry, lord 
viscount Melville, be impeached of high 
crimes and misdemeanors.' On the morn- 
ing of the 13th Whitbread's motion was lost 
by 272 to 195, and Bond's amendment in 
favour of a criminal prosecution by the 
attorney-general was carried by 238 to 229. 
It was subsequently thought by Melville's 
friends that an impeachment would be less 
dangerous than a trial before Lord Ellen- 
borough and a jury; and on 25 June Ley- 
cester s motion, that the house should proceed 
by impeachment and that the attorney-gene- 
ral should stay the proceedings in the pro- 
secution already ordered, was ultimately 
agreed to. On the following day Whitbread, 
in obedience to the order of the house, pro- 
ceeded to the House of Lords and impeached 
Melville of high crimes and misdemeanors. 
The impeachment was commenced in West- 
minster Hall on 29 April 1806. Whitbread 
opened the case for the prosecution, and 
both Piggott and Romilly, the attorney- and 
solicitor-general, were heard on behalf oi 
the commons during the course of the pro- 
ceedings. Melville was defended by Plumer, 
afterwards the master of the rolls, Adam, 
and Hobhouse. After a trial lasting fifteen 
days the peers reassembled on 12 June 
and acquitted Melville on all the charges, 
the majorities in his favour varying from 
27 to 128, while on the fourth charge the 
acquittal was unanimous (HowELL, State 
Trials, 1821, xxix. 549-1482). On the second 
and third charges, which accused Melville 
of permitting Trotter, his paymaster, to with- 
draw public money from the Bank of Eng- 
land, and of conniving at its use by Trotter 
for his own private emolument, Melville was 
only acquitted by majorities of 27 and 31. 
These two charges were the strongest point 
of the prosecution ; for though it is tolerably 
clear that Melville did not embezzle any of 
the public money himself, it is equally evi- 
dent that he was guilty of considerable ne- 
gligence, and that he had acted contrary to 
the spirit of the act of 1785. On the forma- 
tion of the Duke of Portland's ministry, Mel- 
ville's eldest son was appointed president of 
the board of control, and on 8 April 1807 
Melville was restored to the privy council. 
Though he continued to take great interest 
in public affairs, and often gave his advice 
on matters connected with India and the 
navy, he never again took office. In October 
1809 he declined Perceval's offer of an earl- 
dom (Diary of Lord Colchester, 1861, ii. 218). 
His last speech in the House of Lords was 



Dundas 



190 



Dundas 



delivered on the occasion of the third read- 
ing of the Scotch Judicature Bill on 14 June 
1810 (Parl Debates, xvii. 644). He died 
suddenly at Edinburgh, at the house of his 
nephew, the lord chief baron, on 28 May 1811, 
in the seventieth year of his age, and was 
buried in one of the aisles of the old church 
at Lasswade, Midlothian. 

Melville was twice married. By his first 
wife, Elizabeth, daughter of David Rennie 
of Melville Castle, whom he married on 
16 Aug. 1765, he had three daughters and 
an only son, Robert Saunders Dundas [q. v.~], 
who afterwards became the second viscount. 
He married secondly, on 2 April 1793, Lady 
Jane Hope, sixth daughter of John, second 
earl of Hopetoun, by whom he had no issue. 
His second wife, surviving him, married, on 
16 Feb. 1814, Thomas, lord Wallace, and 
died on 29 June 1829. 

As the intimate friend and trusted lieu- 
tenant of Pitt, Dundas fills an important 
place in the political history of the age in 
which he lived. Without any gift of elo- 
quence, and in spite of his broad Scotch 
j accent and ungraceful manner, he was a 
' steady debater and a lucid and argumenta- 
tive speaker. Deficient alike in refinement 
and in literary taste, he was possessed of 
great political sagacity and of indefatigable 
industry. In his private life he was frank 
and straightforward in character, convivial 
in his habits, and utterly indifferent about 
money. For nearly thirty years he was the 
most powerful man in Scotland, and, as the 
election agent for the government, controlled 
the elections of the Scotch representative 
peers, as well as of the Scotch members of 
the House of Commons. As treasurer of 
the navy, he introduced various improve- 
ments into the details of the admiralty de- 
partments, and carried through several mea- 
sures for the improvement of the condition 
of seamen and their families. 

As the practical head of the board of con- 
trol, the management of Indian affairs was 
in his hands for more than sixteen years. 
* His celebrated reports,' says Lord Brougham, 
' upon all the complicated questions of our 
Asiatic policy, although they may not stand 
a comparison with some of Mr. Burke's in 
the profundity and enlargement of general 
view, any more than their style can be com- 
pared with his, are nevertheless performances 
of the greatest merit, and repositories of in- 
formation upon that vast subject, unrivalled 
for clearness and extent ' (Statesmen of the 
Time of George III, i. 228). On the other 
hand, James Mill says that ' the mind of 
Mr. Dundas was active and meddling, and 
he was careful to exhibit the appearance of 



a great share in the government of India. 
. . . But I know not any advice which he 
ever gave, for the government of India, that 
was not either very obvious or wrong ' (His- 
tory of British India, 1858, iv. 398). It 
is worthy of notice that the possibility ' of 
an attack on India either through Persia or 
some part of Asia' was one that Dundas had 
often in contemplation, and it was upon this 
ground that he ' insisted with the court of 
directors on establishing a resident at Bag- 
dad' (Castlereagh Despatches, 2nd ser. 1851, 
v. 456). His earlier political career is thus 
ruthlessly satirised in the ' Rolliad ' (1788, 
p. 43):- 

For true to public Virtue's patriot plan, 
He loves the Minister, and not the Man ; 
Alike, the Advocate of North and Wit, 
The friend of Shelburne, and the guide of Pitt. 

He was created an LL.D. by the university 
of Edinburgh on 11 Nov. 1789, was lord 
rector of the university of Glasgow from 
1781 to 1783, and on 2 Feb. 1788 was ap- 
pointed chancellor of the university of St. 
Andrews. 

Three monuments have been erected to 
his memory, viz. a marble statue by Sir 
Francis Chantrey in the outer house of the 
court of session ; a column, surmounted by 
a statue, in the centre of St. Andrew Square, 
Edinburgh, which was erected in 1821 by 
the officers and seamen of the royal navy ; 
and a third on the hill overlooking Dunira 
in Perthshire, where he frequently lived 
during the closing years of his life. Three 
portraits of Melville, painted respectively by 
Romney, Raeburn, and Reynolds, were ex- 
hibited at the Loan Collection of Scottish 
National Portraits at Edinburgh in 1884 
(Catalogue Nos. 290, 305, 475). Etchings 
by Kay will be found in the two volumes of 
< Original Portraits ' (Nos. 48, 117, 150, 211, 
256), and a coloured portrait is given in the 
second volume of Drummond's ' Histories of 
Noble Families ' (1846), vol. ii. Besides a 
number of his speeches, the following letters 
and correspondence of Lord Melville's have 
been published : 1. ' The Letter of the 
Right Honourable Henry Dundas . . . unto 
the Right Honourable Thomas Elder, Post- 
master-General of Scotland,' &c. [Edin- 
burgh, 1798], 8vo. 2. ' Letter from the Right 
Honourable Henry Dundas to the Chair- 
man, Deputy-Chairman, and Court of Di- 
rectors of the East India Company,' London, 
July 1801, 8vo. 3. ' A Letter from the Right 
Honourable Lord Viscount Melville to the 
Right Hon. Spencer Percival relative to the 
Establishment of a Naval Arsenal at North- 
fleet,' second edition, London [1810], 4to. 



Dundas 



191 



Dundas 



4. ' A Letter from Lord Viscount Melville 
to the Right Hon. Spencer Perceval on the 
subject of Naval Timber,' London, 1810, 
8vo. 5. ' A Letter from the Right Hon. Lord 
Viscount Melville to the Earl of Aber- 
deen relative to the Management of the Civil 
Service of the Navy,' London [1810], 4to. 
6. ' Letters from the Right Hon. Henry 
Dundas to the Chairman of the Court of Di- 
Tectors of the East India Company upon an 
Open Trade to India,' London, 1813, 8vo. 

[Omond's Lord Advocates of Scotland (1883), 
ii. 83-162; Omond's Arniston Memoirs (1887); 
Anderson's Scottish Nation (1863), ii. 97-9 ; Chal- 
mers's Biog. Diet, of Eminent Scotsmen (1868), 
i. 513-19; Stanhope's Life of Pitt (1861-2); 
Mahon'sHist.of England ( 1851-4), vols.vi-viii. ; 
Donne's Correspondence of King George the Third 
with Lord North (1867), ii. 139, 245; Mill's 
Hist, of British India (1858), vols. iv. v. vi. ; 
Brougham's Statesmen of the Time of George III, 
1st ser. (1839) pp. 227-35 ; Foster's Peerage 
{1883), p. 483; Annual Register, 1811, chron. 
pp. 190-1 ; Graduates in the University of 
Edinburgh (1858), p. 258; Scots Mag. 1765, 
xxvii. 391, 1793, Iv. 205, 1811,lxxiii. 479-80; 
Haydn's Book of Dignities, 1851; Official Return 
of Members of Parliament, pt. ii. pp. 160, 168, 
173, 186, 198, 211, 225; Brit. Mus. Cat.] 

G. F. R. B. 

DUNDAS, HENRY, third VISCOUNT 
MELVILLE (1801-1876), general, eldest son 
of Robert Saunders Dundas, second viscount 
Melville[q. v.], was bom on 25 Feb. 1801. He 
entered the army as an ensign and lieutenant 
in the 3rd or Scots guards on 18 Nov. 1819, 
was promoted captain into the 83rd regiment 
In April 1824, and major and lieutenant- 
colonel in the same regiment on 11 July 1826 
and 3 Dec. 1829. His regiment was in Canada 
when the rebellion of 1 837 broke out, and Dun- 
das showed such vigour in its suppression, and 
more particularly in repelling a body of Ame- 
rican brigands who landed near Prescott in 
Upper Canada in 1838, that he was made a 
C.B. and promoted colonel and appointed an 
aide-de-camp to the queen on 28 Nov. 1841. 
He exchanged into the 60th Rifles in 1844, 
and accompanied his battalion to India, and 
"was appointed a brigadier-general on the Bom- 
bay staff in 1847. He was chosen to com- 
mand the column sent from Bombay to co- 
operate with Lord Gough's army in the second 
Sikh war, and was present at the siege and 
capture of Multan as second in command to 
General Whish, and joined the main army 
just before the battle of Goojerat. In that 
battle his division played a leading part ; he 
was mentioned in despatches, received the 
thanks of parliament and of the directors of 
the East India Company, and was made a 
K.C.B. He returned to England in 1850, 



and succeeded his father as third viscount 
in 1851. He was promoted major-general 
on 20 June 1854, and commanded the forces 
in Scotland from 1856 to 1860, in which year 
he was made governor of Edinburgh Castle. 
He was promoted lieutenant-general on 5 May 
1860, appointed colonel-commandant of the