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fe -, 

b / 1 4 f 




J. G. A. . . J. Or. ALGER. 

T. A. A. . . T. A. ARCHER. 



Gr. T. B. . . Gr. T. BETTANY. 

A. C. B. . . A. C. BICKLEY. 

B. H. B. . . THE EEV. B. H. BLACKER. 


G-. C. B. . . G. C. BOASE. 

E. T. B. . . Miss BRADLEY. 


A. H. B. . . A. H. BULLEN. 


E. C-N. . . . EDWIN CANNAN. 


A. M. C. . . Miss A. M. CLERKE. 





C. H. C. . . C. H. COOTE. 

W. P. C. . . W. P. COURTNEY. 




C. H. D. . . C. H. DERBY. 


L. F Louis FAGAN. 

C. H. F. . . C. H. FIRTH. 


J. T. Gr. . . J. T. GILBERT, F.S.A. 
E. C. K. Gr. E. C. K. GONNER. 



W. A. G. . . W. A. GREENHILL, M.D. 

J. A. H. . . J. A. HAMILTON. 



T. F. H. . . T. F. HENDERSON. 

B. D. J. . . B. D. JACKSON. 
T. E. K. . . T. E. KEBBEL. 


S. L. L. . . S. L. LEE. 

H. E. L. . . THE EEV. H. E. LUARD, D.D. 

G. P. M. . . G. P. MACDONELL. 

W. D. M. . THE EEV. W. D. MACRAY, F.S.A. 


List of Writers. 

C. T. M. . . C. TRICE MARTIN, F.S.A. 

F. T. M. . . F. T. MARZIALS. 

L. M. M. . . MlSS MlDDLETON. 








J. F. P.. . . J. F. PAYNE, M.D. 


R. L. P. . . R. L. POOLE. 
J. M. R. . . J. M. RIGG. 

C. J. R.. . 
J, H. R. . 
G. B. S. . 
G. W. S. . 
L. S. . . . 
H. M. S. . 
C. W. S. . 
E. C. S. . 
H. R. T. . 
T. F. T. . 

E. V. . . . 
R. H. V. . 
A. V. ... 
M. G. W.. 

F. W-T. . 
W. A. W. 
W. W. . 

. C. W. SUTTON. 
. Miss SUTTON-. 
. H. R. TEDDER. 






VISCOUNTESS, d. 1679.] 

SEA (d. 1720), poetess, was the daughter of 
Sir William Kingsmill of Sidmonton, near 
Southampton, and the wife of Heneage Finch, 
second son of Heneage, second earl of Win- 
chilsea [q. v.] Her husband succeeded to the 
title as fourth earl on the death of his nephew 
Charles in 1712. Finch was gentleman of the 
bedchamber to James II when Duke of York, 
and his wife maid of honour to the second 
duchess. Anne Finch was a friend of Pope, 
of Rowe, and other men of letters. Her most 
considerable work, a poem on ' Spleen/ written 
in stanzas after Cowley's manner, and pub- 
lished in Gildon's ' Miscellany,' 1701, inspired 
Howe to compose some verses in her honour, 
entitled ' An Epistle to Flavia.' Pope ad- 
dressed ' an impromptu to Lady Winchilsea ' 
(Miscellanies, 1727), in which he declared 
that ' Fate doomed the fall of every female 
wit' before < Ardelia's' talent. She replied 
by comparing ' Alexander' to Orpheus, who 
she said would have written like him had he 
lived in London. The only collected edition 
of her poems was printed in 1713, containing 
a tragedy never acted, called ' Aristomenes, 
or the Royal Shepherd,' and dedicated to 
the Countess of Hertford, with ' an Epi- 
logue to [Rowe's] Jane Shore, to be spoken 
by Mrs. Oldfield the night before the poet's 
day ' (printed in the General Dictionary, x. 178, 
from a manuscript in the countess's posses- 
sion). Another poem, entitled ' The Prodigy,' 
written at Tunbridge Wells, called forth 
Cibber's regret that the countess's rank made 
her only write occasionally as a pastime. 
Wordsworth sent a selection of her poems 
with a commendatory sonnet of his own to 
Lady Mary Lowther, and remarked in a pre- 


fatpry essay to his volume of 1815 that Lady 
Winchilsea's ' nocturnal reverie 'was almost 
unique in its own day, because it employed 
new images < of external nature.' On her 
death, 5 Aug. 1720, she left a number of un- 
published manuscripts to her friends, the 
Countess of Hertford and a clergyman named 
Creake, and by their permission some of these 
poems were printed by Birch in the < General 
Dictionary/ She left no children. Her hus- 
band died 30 Sept, 1726. Her published works 
were : 1. The poem on ' Spleen,' in < A New 
Miscellany of Original Poems,' published by 
Charles Gildon, London, 1701, 8vo; repub- 
lished under the title of ' The Spleen, a Pin- 
darique Ode ; with a Prospect of Death, a Pin- 
darique Essay/ London, 1709, 8vo. 2. 'Mis- 
cellany Poems, written by a Lady/ 1713, 8vo. 
[General Diet. x. 178 ; Biog. Brit. vii. Suppl. 
p. 204 ; Cibber's Lives of the Poets, iii. 321 ; Wai- 
pole's Royal and Noble Authors, ed. Park, iv. 87; 
Collins's Peerage, ed. 1779, iii. 282; Cat. of Printed 
Books, Brit. Mus.] . T. B. 

(1647-1730), born in 1647, was the eldest son 
of Heneage Finch, first earl of Nottingham 
[q. v.], by Elizabeth, daughter of Daniel Har- 
vey, a London merchant. Like his father he 
was educated at Westminster School, and 
proceeded to Christ Church, Oxford, as a 
gentleman-commoner in 1662. He left with- 
out a degree, entered the Inner Temple, and 
was chosen F.R.S. 26 Nov. 1668.' He seems 
to have been first elected to parliament for 
Great Bedwin, Wiltshire, 10 Feb. 1672-3, 
but does not appear to have sat till he was 
returned by the borough of Lichfield 7 Aug. 
1679. He had been made a lord at the 
admiralty 14 May. He adhered to the 
tory politics of his family, became a privy 



councillor 4 Feb. 1679-80, and was first lord 
of the admiralty from 19 Feb. following to 
22 May 1684. He was elected M.P. by both 
Lichfield and Newtown in March 1681, but 
was called to the House of Lords by his 
father's death, 18 Dec. 1682. As a privy 
councillor he signed the order for the pro- 
clamation of James II, and up to the time of 
Monmouth's insurrection was one of that 
king's steadiest supporters. But the ecclesias- 
tical policy afterwards adopted by the govern- 
ment damped the loyalty of the cavaliers and 
laid the foundation of that new tory party 
which held itself aloof from the Jacobites. 
Nottingham came in time to be recognised as 
their head. Their distinguishing tenet was 
devotion to the established church in pre- 
ference even to hereditary right. In the reign 
of Anne they were called the Hanoverian 
tories, and sometimes known by the nickname 
of the * Whimsicals.' Nottingham's career 
was consistent throughout. He was one of 
the last men in England to accept the re- 
volution settlement; but having once ac- 
cepted it, he was one of the very few eminent 
statesmen of his time who never seem to 
have intrigued against it. Though Swift ac- 
cuses him of having corresponded with the 
Stuarts, the charge, made in a moment of great 
exasperation, is not countenanced by any of 
his contemporaries. His private character is 
universally represented as stainless. Howe 
tells us that he had an intrigue with an opera 
singer, Signora Margaretta, afterwards Mrs. 
Tofts. But this was empty gossip. Both his 
principles and his virtues marked him out to 
be a leader of the clergy, with whom his influ- 
ence was unbounded. This influence was the 
secret of Nottingham's importance for nearly 
a generation after the death of Charles II. 

In the spring of 1688 the whigs resolved to 
take Nottingham into their confidence, and 
invite his co-operation in the intended revo- 
lution. He was for a time inclined to join in 
the appeal to the Prince of Orange ; but on 
second thoughts he declared that he could 
take no active part against his rightful sove- 
reign. He admitted that his share in their 
confidence had given the whigs the right to 
assassinate him on breaking with them, and 
some of them were rather inclined to take him 
at his word. But they ended by relying on his 
honour, and had no reason to regret it. 

Nottingham was a prominent figure in the 
parliamentary debates which folio wed James's 
flight from England. The tories were in favour 
of Bancroft's plan a regency, that is, during 
the minority of the Prince of Wales; and this 
was the policy proposed by Lord Nottingham 
in the House of Lords. The motion was only 
lost by 51 votes to 49 ; and then the lords pro- 


ceeded to consider the resolution which had 
been adopted by the commons declaring the 
throne vacant. This was opposed by Notting- 
ham, and the resolution was rejected by 55 
votes to 41. But the House of Commons re- 
fused to give way, and the House of Lords 
found it necessary to yield. Nottingham 
proposed a modification of the oaths of alle- 
giance and supremacy for the sake of tender 
consciences, which was accepted by both 
houses, and he then fairly threw in his lot 
with the new regime, though he still main- 
tained in theory his allegiance to the Stuarts. 
Nottingham, according to Bishop Burnet, was 
the author of the distinction between the king 
dejure and the king de facto, in which the old 
cavalier party found so welcome a refuge. 

In December 1688 he was made one of the 
secretaries of state with charge of the war 
department, an office which he retained till 
December 1693. One of his first duties was 
the introduction of the Toleration Act. He 
seems to have sincerely believed it to be con- 
ducive to the stability of the church. It left 
the Act of Uniformity, the Test and Corpora- 
tion Acts, the Conventicle Act, the Five Mile 
Act, and the act making attendance at church 
compulsory, in full force, only enacting that 
on certain conditions dissenters might be ex- 
empted from the penalties attaching to the 
violation of the law. These conditions were 
intended to serve as a test by which dan- 
gerous dissenters could be distinguished from 
harmless ones. Those, it was thought, who 
would subscribe five of the Thirty -nine 
Articles, take the oath of allegiance, and sign 
the declaration against popery might be safely 
trusted. Ten years before, Nottingham, as 
a member of the House of Commons, had 
framed a bill on much the same lines, which 
only failed to become law by an artifice. At 
the same time he now brought in a less popular 
measure, a comprehension bill, for enabling 
dissenters to conform to the church of Eng- 
land. The Bishop of London supported the 
bill in the House of Lords, where, oddly 
enough, it was violently opposed by Bishop 
Burnet. But Nottingham would probably 
have succeeded in his efforts had it not been 
for the dissenters themselves. Those who 
were unwilling to accept the compromise 
were naturally interested in preventing others 
from accepting it, and between the active 
hostility of its enemies and the lukewarm 
support of its friends, the measure fell to the 
ground. An attempt made at the same time 
by some members of the whig party to repeal 
the Test Act was dropped with it. 

When William III set out for Ireland in 
the summer of 1690 he left behind him a 
council of nine, of whom Nottingham was 




one, to act as the advisers of Mary, and it fell 
to his lot to bring her the tidings of the battle 
of theBoyne. Nottingham, who was admitted 
to a greater share of the queen's confidence 
than any other English statesman, always 
said that if she survived her husband William 
she would bring about the restoration of her 
father James. He had, however, bitter enemies 
in parliament. He was hated by the extreme 
men of both sides, and was perhaps not much 
loved even by those who respected him. Much 
discontent was caused by the failure to follow 
up the victory of La Hogue in May 1692. 
The public threw the blame on Admiral Rus- 
sell, the commander of the allied fleet, and 
Russell in turn threw the blame on Notting- 
ham, from whom he received his orders. A 
parliamentary inquiry ended in nothing ; but 
Russell was acquitted of all blame by the 
House of Commons, though Nottingham was 
defended by the lords. The king found it 
necessary to do something ; he was very un- 
willing to part with Nottingham, and accord- 
ingly persuaded Russell to accept a post in 
the household, Admirals Killigrew and De- 
laval, both tories, being entrusted with the 
command of the Channel fleet. They thus 
became responsible for the disaster which 
happened to the convoy under the command 
of Sir George Rooke [q.v.] in the Bay of Lagos 
in June 1693, and when parliament met in 
November they were forced to retire. Russell 
was appointed first lord of the admiralty and 
commander of the Channel fleet, and Notting- 
ham's resignation was inevitable. The king 
parted from him with great reluctance. He 
thanked him for his past services, and declared 
that he had no fault to find with him. 

Nottingham remained out of office till the 
accession of Anne. Six weeks after William's 
death (8 March 1702) he was appointed secre- 
tary of state, with Sir Charles Hedges for his 
colleague. Though a consistent anti-Jacobite, 
Nottingham was a staunch tory. He upheld 
during the war of the Spanish succession the 
doctrine, thenceforward identified with the 
tory policy, that in a continental war we 
should act rather as auxiliaries than as prin- 
cipals, and that our operations should be ex- 
clusively maritime. This opinion, whenever 
the opportunity offered, Nottingham upheld 
in his place in parliament. But his heart was 
in the church question, to which he was ready 
to sacrifice even his party allegiance. 

As soon as the new parliament assembled 
a bill for the prevention of occasional con- 
formity was introduced in the House of 
Commons by St. John, no doubt after due 
consultation with the leader of the church 
party. Both the Corporation Act and the 
Test Act were designed to keep all places of 

public trust or authority in the hands of 
members of the church of England. And 
the question that arose during the last years 
ot the seventeenth century was simply this, 
whether the evasion of the law by dissenters 
should be connived at or prevented. It was 
supposed that no honest dissenters would com- 
municate according to the rites of the church 
of England merely to obtain a qualification for 
office, but it was found in practice that the 
large majority of them did so, and indeed 
had been in the habit of so communicating 
before the passing of the Test Act. Notting- 
ham had shown both in 1679 and 1689 that he 
was no bigot, and it is possible that circum- 
stances of which we know nothing may have 
contributed to make him prefer an attempt 
to enforce the test to the alternative policy 
of connivance at conduct which could hardly 
raise the reputation of the occasional con- 
formists themselves. Three sessions running, 
1702, 1703, and 1704, the bill was passed 
through the commons, and Nottingham 
exerted himself to the utmost to get it car- 
ried through the upper house. But it was all 
in vain, and the question was allowed to rest 
again for seven years. 

Nottingham resigned in 1704, when he 
found it impossible to agree with his whig 
colleagues. He told the queen that she must 
either get rid of the whig members of the 
cabinet or accept his own resignation. Greatly 
to the minister's mortification she decided 
on the latter, and from this time Notting- 
ham's zeal as a political tory began to cool, 
and the very next year he took his revenge 
on the court by persuading some of his tory 
friends to join with him in an address to the 
crown, begging that the Elect ress Sophia 
might be invited to reside in England. Anne, 
who was exceedingly sensitive on this point, 
never forgave Nottingham, and he in his turn 
continued to drift further and further away 
from his old associates. Against Harley he 
was supposed to nurture a special grudge. 
He had committed the grave offence of ac- 
cepting the seals which Nottingham had 
thrown up, and the ex-secretary was quite 
willing to retaliate whenever an opportunity 
should occur. 

In 1710 the trial of Sacheverell took place. 
Nottingham throughout took Sacheverell's 
side, and signed all the protests recorded by 
the opposition peers against the proceedings 
of his accusers. 

His rupture with the court may be said 
to have been complete when, on the death 
of Lord Rochester, lord president of the coun- 
cil, in April 1711, the post was conferred on 
the Duke of Buckingham. The privy seal, 
which became vacant about the same time, 



was given to Bishop Robinson, and from 
that moment it is no want of charity to con- 
clude that Nottingham felt his cup was full. 
"When it was known that the new govern- 
ment were bent on putting an end to the 
war, the whig opposition became furious. 
But in the House of Commons the tories 
had a large majority, and in the House of 
Lords the whigs required some help from 
the other side. Nottingham was in a similar 
predicament with regard to the Occasional 
Conformity Bill. He was sure of the com- 
mons, but in the upper house he had hither- 
to been unsuccessful, and was likely to be 
so unless the opposition could be disarmed. 
The bargain was soon struck. The whigs 
agreed to withdraw their resistance to the 
Church Bill on condition that Nottingham 
in turn would support them in an attack 
upon the government. He readily accepted 
an offer which enabled him to gratify his love 
of the church and his hatred of the ministry 
at the same moment. On 7 Dec. 1711 he 
moved an amendment to the address, declar- 
ing that no peace would be acceptable to this 
country which left Spain and the Indies in 
the possession of the house of Bourbon. It 
was carried by a majority of twelve, and 
Harley and St. John replied by the creation 
of twelve new peers. 

Nottingham, however, claimed his reward. 
A week after the division the Occasional Con- 
formity Bill was reintroduced into the House 
of Lords, and on 22 Dec. received the royal 
assent. It provided that l if any officer, civil 
or military, or any magistrate of a corporation 
obliged by the acts of Charles the Second to 
receive the sacrament, should during his con- 
tinuance in office attend any conventicle or 
religious meeting of dissenters such person 
should forfeit 40/., be disabled from holding 
his office, and incapable of being appointed 
to another till he could prove that he had not 
been to chapel for twelve months.' In this 
unprincipled transaction Nottingham, though 
sincere enough in his zeal for the church, was 
actuated quite as much by jealousy of the 
Earl of Oxford as by disapproval of the policy 
of Bolingbroke. Nottingham can have had no 
concern in a tract published L* 1713 bearing 
his name. The tract, entitled ' Observations 
on the State of the Na< ion/ maintains the 
ultra low-church view <~.i church government 
and doctrine. It wa? reissued in the ' Somers 
Tracts' in 1751 as ' The Memorial of the State 
of England in Vindication of the Church, the 
Queen, and the Administration.' 

Nottingham, who probably expected that 
the vote of the House of Lords would bring 
the ministry to the ground and pave the way 
for his own return to office, was mistaken. 

It is to his credit that having gained all that 
he thought necessary for the church in 1711 
he opposed the Schism Bill, which was car- 
ried in June 1714 to please the still more 
ultra section of the high church tories. Yet 
by so doing he again served his own interests, 
for it helped to cement his good understand- 
ing with the whigs and' to insure his being 
recommended for high office on the accession 
of George I. The new king landed at Green- 
wich on 18 Sept. 1714, and in the first Ha- 
noverian ministry Nottingham was made pre- 
sident of the council, with a seat in the* 
cabinet, then consisting of nine peers. But he- 
only held office for about a year and a half. 
In February 1716 it was moved in the House 
of Lords that an address should be presented 
to the king in favour of showing mercy to the 
Jacobite peers, then lying under sentence of 
death for their share in the rebellion of 1715. 
The government opposed the motion, but 
Nottingham supported the address, which 
was carried by a majority of five. It produced 
no effect, except on the* unlucky intercessor, 
who was immediately deprived of his appoint- 
ment, and never again employed in the ser- 
vice of the crown. His only parliamentary 
appearances of any importance after this date 
were in opposition to the Septennial Bill in 
1716, and the repeal of the Occasional Con- 
formity Bill in 1719. His name appears in 
the protest against the first ; but the second 
passed with less difficulty, and no protest 
appears on the nrnutes. 

After his re + Irement from office Notting- 
ham lived pri cipally at Burley-on-the-Hill, 
near Oakhem, Rutlandshire, a very fine coun- 
try seat which had been purchased by his 
father from the second Duke of Buckingham, 
and which is still in possession of a branch of 
the Finch family. It was here that he wrote 
' The Answer of the Earl of Nottingham to 
Mr. Whiston's Letter to him concerning the 
eternity of the Son of God/ 1721, which re- 
stored all his popularity with the clergy, rather 
damaged by his acceptance of office with the 
whigs. The pamphlet rapidly reached an 
eighth edition. Nottingham died 1 Jan. 
1729-30, shortly after he had succeeded ta 
the earldom of Winchilsea on the decease of 
John, fifth earl, 9 Sept. 1729, the last heir in 
the elder branch of Sir Moyle Finch, whose 
heir Thomas was first earl of Winchilsea [see 
under FINCH, SIK THOMAS]. Nottingham 
married, first Lady Essex Rich, second daugh- 
ter and coheiress of Robert, earl of Warwick, 
and secondly Anne, daughter of Christopher, 
viscount Hatton. By his first wife he had a 
daughter, Mary ; by his second five sons and 
seven daughters. Edward Finch-Hatton, the 
youngest son, is separately noticed. 




In person Nottingham was tall, thin, 
-and dark-complexioned. His manner was so 
solemn and the expression of his countenance 
was, generally speaking, so lugubrious, that he 
acquired the nicknames of Don Diego and Don 
Dismal, he and his brother, Heneage, first earl 
of Aylesford [q. v.], being known as the Dis- 
mals. He figures as Don Diego in the ' History 
of John Bull ' and in the < Tatler ' (1709), and 
Swift in his correspondence is always making 
fun of him. He is the subject of a famous 
ballad, ' An Orator Dismal of Nottingham- 
shire,' by the same eminent hand. When he 
joined the whigs in 1711 the ' Post Boy ' 
(6 Dec.) offered a reward of ten shillings 
to any one who should restore him to his 
friends, promising that all should be forgiven. 
Reference is there made to his ' long pockets.' 

[Macaulay's Hist, of England; Stanhope's Hist, 
of England and Queen Anne ; Burnet's Hist, of 
his own Time ; Somerville's Hist, of Queen Anne 
and Political Transactions; Somers Tracts; Swift's 
Diary and Correspondence; Coxe'sLife of Marl- 
borough ; Wai pole's Letters ; Cunningham's Hist, 
of the Eevolution ; Wyon's Eeign of Queen Anne ; 
Stoughton's Eeligion in England; Doyle's Baron- 
age; W elch's Alumni Westmonast. p. 570; Wood's 
Athense Oxon (Bliss), iv. 651.] T. E. K. 

FINCH, EDWARD (/. 1630-1641), 
royalist divine, is said by Walker and others 
to have been brother of John, lord Finch of 
Fordwich [q. v.], and thus younger son of 
Sir Henry Finch [q. v.], by Ursula, daughter 
of John Thwaites of Kent. The genealogists 
state that John was Sir Henry's only son, 
but there is little doubt that they are wrong. 
On 9 Dec. 1630 Edward was admitted to the 
vicarage of Christ Church, Newgate. Walker 
celebrates him as the first of the parochial 
clergy actually dispossessed by the committee 
for scandalous ministers. A resolution of par- 
liament, 8 May 1641, declared him unfit to 
hold any benefice. The articles against him 
allege that he had set up the communion- 
table altarwise, and preached in a surplice ; I 
they also detail a list of charges more or less 
affecting his character. Walker, who had not 
seen the pamphlet containing the articles and 
evidence in the case, makes the best of Finch's 
printed defence, but on Finch's own showing 
there was ground for scandal. Finch died 
soon after his sequestration ; his successor, 
William Jenkyn, was admitted on 1 Feb. 
1642, ' per mort. Finch.' There is a doubt 
as to whether he was married. It was said 
that he had lived seven years, apart from his 
wife, but he denied that he had a wife. 

Finch published ' An Answer to the Ar- 
ticles/ &c., London, 1641, 4to. This was in 
reply to ' The Petition and Articles . . . ex- 
hibited in Parliament against Edward Finch, 

Vicar of Christ's Church, London, and brother 
to Sir J. Finch, late Lord Keeper,' &c., 1641, 
4to. This pamphlet has a woodcut of Finch, 
and a cut representing his journey to Ham- 
mersmith with a party of alleged loose cha- 
racters. The main point of Finch's defence 
on this charge was that one of the party was 
his sister. 

[Walker's Sufferings, 1714, i. 69 sq., ii. 170; 
Calamy's Continuation, 1727, i. 17, 18; pam- 
phlets above cited.] A. G. 

FINCH, EDWARD (1664-1738), com- 
poser, bom in 1664, was the fifth son of 
Heneage, first earl of Nottingham [q. v.] He 
proceeded M.A . in 1079, and became fellow of 
Christ's College, Cambridge. He represented 
the university of Cambridge in the parlia- 
ment of 1689-90. He was ordained deacon 
at York in 1700, became rector of Wigan, was 
appointed prebendary of York 26 April 1704, 
and resided in the north end of the treasurer's 
house in the Close, taking an active interest 
in musical matters, as appears from the family 
correspondence. Finch was installed pre- 
bendary of Canterbury 8 Feb. 1710. He 
died 14 Feb. 1737-8, aged 75, at York, where 
a monument erected by him in the minster 
to his wife and brother (Henry, dean of 
York) bears a bust and inscription to his 

Finch's ' Te Deum ' and anthem, ' Grant, 
we beseech Thee/ both written in five parts, 
are to be found in Dr. Tud way's ' Collection 
of Services' (Harleian MSS. 7337-42) ; <A 
Grammar of Thorough Bass,' with examples, 
a manuscript of sixty-six pages, is in the Euing 
Library at Glasgow. Of Finch's manuscript 
letters, that addressed to his brother Daniel, 
second Earl of Nottingham [q. v.], and dated 
Winwick, 12 July 1702, is of interest ; he 
there enunciates his views of a sinecure and 
discusses other questions of preferment. 

[Collins's Peerage, iii. 290; Graduati Canta- 
brigienses, 1823, p. 168; Le Neve's Fasti, iii. 
650; Diet, of Musicians, 1827, i. 247;'s 
Survey of Cathedrals, 1742, i. 176; Drake's 
Eboracum, 1736, pp. 51 3", 559, 570; Addit. MSS. 
28569 f. 130, 29588 f. 88, 32496 f. 48 b ; 
Hasted's Hist, of Canterbury, 1801, ii. 63 ; Har- 
leian MSS. 2264 f. 267, 7342 p. 306; Gent. 
Mag. viii. 109; Brown's Biog. Diet, of Musi- 
cians, p. 246.] L. M. M. 

FINCH, EDWARD (1756-1843), gene- 
ral, fourth son of Heneage, third earl of Ayles- 
ford, by Lady Charlotte Seymour, daughter 
of Charles, sixth duke of Somerset, was born 
on 26 April 1756. He went to Westminster 
School as a queen's scholar in 1768, and was 
elected to Trinity College, Cambridge, in 
1773, proceeding B.A. in 1777. He entered 



the army as a cornet in the llth dragoons on 
27 Dec. 1778, exchanged into the 20th light 
dragoons, and on 7 Oct. 1779 was promoted 
lieutenant into the 87th regiment. He ac- 
companied this regiment to the West Indies 
in January 1780, and served there and in 
America until he was promoted lieutenant 
and captain into the 2nd or Coldstream guards 
on 5 Feb. 1783. On 11 May 1789 he was 
elected M.P. for Cambridge, a seat which he 
held for thirty years, and on 3 Oct. 1792 he 
was promoted captain and lieutenant-colonel. 
He accompanied the brigade of guards to 
Flanders under General Lake in 1793, and 
served throughout the campaigns under the 
Duke of York with great credit. He was 
present at the actions of Caesar's Camp and 
Famars, in the famous engagement of Lin- 
celles, and at the battles of Hondschoten, 
Lannoy, Turcoing, and round Tournay. He 
remained with his corps until the withdrawal 
of the British troops from the continent in 
April 1795. He was promoted colonel on 
3 May 1796, and nominated to command the 
light companies of the guards in Coote's ex- 
pedition to cut the sluices at Ostend [see 
COOTE, SIB EYEE, 1762-1824], but was pre- 
vented from going by an accidental injury he 
received the day before the expedition sailed. 
He was present with the guards in the sup- 

?ression of the Irish rebellion of 1798, and in 
799 commanded the 1st battalion of the 
Coldstreams in the expedition to the Helder 
and at the battles of Bergen. In the follow- 
ing year Finch was appointed to the command 
of the brigade of cavalry, consisting of the 
12th and 26th light dragoons, which ac- 
companied Sir Ralph Abercromby's army to 
Egypt. His regiments hardly came into 
action at all in the famous battles of March 
1801, for the ground was not well adapted 
for cavalry, and he only covered the siege 
operations against Alexandria. He received 
the thanks of parliament with the other 
generals, and on 1 Jan. 1801 he was pro- 
moted major-general. In 1803 he took com- 
mand of the 1st brigade of guards, then 
stationed at Chelmsford, consisting of the 
1st battalion of the Coldstreams and the 1st 
battalion 3rd guards, and commanded that 
brigade in the expedition to Denmark in 
1809, and at the siege of Copenhagen. In 
1804 he was appointed a groom of the bed- 
chamber to the king, on 25 April 1808 he was 
promoted lieutenant-general, and on 3 Aug. 
1808 appointed colonel of the 54th regiment. 
On 18 Sept. 1809 he was transferred to the 
colonelcy of the 22nd foot, and on 12 Aug. 
1819 he was promoted general. His seniority 
to Lord Wellington prevented him from being 
employed in the Peninsula, and he never saw 

service after 1809. He continued to sit in the 
House of Commons for Cambridge, through 
the influence of the Duke of Rutland, until 
December 1819, when he accepted the Chil- 
tern Hundreds, and throughout the thirty 
years of his parliamentary career his seat was 
only once contested, in 1818. Finch, after 
1819, entirely retired from public life, and he 
died on 27 Oct. 1843, at the age of eighty- 
seven, being at the time of his death the sixth 
general in order of seniority in the English 

[Royal Military Calendar ; Hart's Army List ; 
Mackinnon's History of the Coldstream Guards; 
Welch's Alumni Westmonast. p. 397 ; Gent. Mag. 
December 1843.] H. M. S. 

1862), water-colour painter, son of Francis 
Finch, a merchant in Friday Street,Cheapside, 
London, was born 22 Nov. 1802, and spent his 
boyhood at Stone, near Aylesbury. When 
twelve years of age, at that time fatherless, 
he was placed under John Varley, with whom 
he worked altogether five years, a friend 
having paid a premium of 200/. Among his 
earliest patrons was Lord Northwick, a patron 
of the fine arts, who employed the youth in 
making views of his mansion and grounds. 
Some time after leaving his master's studio 
the same friend who had assisted in placing 
him there afforded him the benefit of a tour 
through Scotland. After his return he doubted 
for some time whether he should continue 
the practice of landscape or enter as a student 
at the Royal Academy. He joined Sass's 
life academy and produced several portraits, 
but circumstances drawing him back to land- 
scape-painting he became a candidate for ad- 
mission into the then newly formed Society 
of Painters in Water Colours. On 11 Feb. 
1822 he was elected an associate, and on 
4 June 1827 a member of that society. He 
first exhibited at the Royal Academy in 1817, 
at that period living at 44 Conduit Street, 
Bond Street. He married in the spring of 
1837, and resided for some time in Charlotte 
Street and afterwards in Argyle Square, 
Euston Road. On 10 Oct. 1861 Finch lost 
the use of his limbs, and died 27 Aug. 1862. 
He possessed a fine voice, and was a thorough 
musician, as well as a poet. He printed a 
collection of sonnets entitled ' An Artist's 
Dream.' Among his best works may be 
mentioned ' Garmallon's Tomb,' oil (1820) ; 
4 View of Loch Lomond' (1822) : 'View on 
the River Tay' (1827); 'View of Wind- 
sor Castle ' (1829) ; ' View of the College 
of Aberdeen ' (1832) ; scene from Milton's 
'Comus' (1835); 'Alpine Scene, Evening ' 
(1838); 'A W T atch Tower' (1840); 'The 




Thames near Cookham, Berkshire ' (1845) ; 
' Ruined Temple, Evening ' (1852) ; < Rocky 
Glen, Evening ' (1855) ; ' The Curfew Gray's 
Elegy' (1860) ; l Pastoral Retreat ' (1861) ; 
and l Moonlight over the Sea ' (1862). His 
portrait has been engraved by A. Roffe. 

[Memoir and Eemains of F. 0. Finch, by Mrs. 
E. Finch, London, 1865, 8vo.] L. F. 

FINCH, SIR HENEAGE (d. 1631), 
speaker of the House of Commons, was the 
fourth son of Sir Moyle Finch of Eastwell, 
Kent, and grandson of Sir Thomas Finch 
[q. v.] His mother was Elizabeth, daughter 
of Sir Thomas Heneage of Copt Hall, Essex, 
and granddaughter on the mother's side of 
Thomas, lord Berkeley of Berkeley Castle. 
Admitted a member of the Inner Temple in 
November 1597, he was called to the bar in 
1606. At a by-election in 1607 he was re- 
turned to parliament for Rye. He spoke in 
July 1610 in the debate on ' impositions,' 
maintaining the following positions : (1) ' that 
the king, though upon a restraint for a time, 
may impose for a time, much more for ever;' 
(2) ( that he may dispense with a law for ever, 
because the law is for ever ; ' (3) ' that he may 
make a bulwark in any land, but not take 
money not to do it ; ' (4) * that the king hath 
power only to make war. If all the subjects 
will make war without the king, it is no war ' 
(Parl. Debates, 1610, Camden Soc., p. 116). 
He was one of the lawyers who argued before 
the king and council on 6 April 1612 the moot 
point ' whether baronets and bannerets were 
the same promiscuously ; ' and desiring to give 
dignity to the argument, opened l with a phi- 
losophical preamble, omne principium motus 
est intrmsecum,' at which the king, being 
much displeased, said : ' Though I am a king 
of men. yet I am no king of time, for I grow 
old with this ; ' and therefore, if he had any- 
thing to speak to the matter, bade him utter 
it. Whereupon Finch, with great boldness, 
undertook to prove much, but did nothing 
(Hist. MSS. Comm. 10th Rep. App. pt. iv. 9). 
In 1616 he was employed in conjunction with 
Bacon in an attempt to reduce the statute 
law to some sort of consistency with itself 
(SPEDDING, Letters and Life of Bacon, vi. 71). 
In 1620-1 he was returned to parliament for 
"West Looe, otherwise Portpighan, Cornwall. 
He took part in the debate of 3 Dec. 1621 on 
the Spanish match, supporting the proposal 
to petition the king against it (Parl. Hist. 
i. 1320). In the preceding February he had 
been appointed recorder of London (Index to 
Remembrancia, p. 295), and he represented 
the city in parliament between 1623 and 
1626. On 22 June 1623 he was knighted at 
Wanstead, and three days later he was called 
to the degree of serjeant-at-law. On 8 July 

following he was further honoured by the 
elevation of his mother, then a widow, to the 
peerage as Viscountess Maidstone, with re- 
mainder to her heirs male. This honour was 
procured through the interest of Sir Arthur 
Ingram at the price of a capital sum of 
13,000/. and an annuity of 500/., to secure 
which Copt Hall manor and park were mort- 
gaged. She was afterwards, viz. on 12 July 
1628, created Countess of Winchilsea, also 
with remainder to her heirs male. She died 
in 1633, and was buried at Eastwell under a 
splendid monument. Sir Heneage's eldest 
brother, Thomas, succeeded her as first earl 
of Winchilsea (cf. art. FINCH, SIB THOMAS ; 
NICHOLS, Progr. James I, iii. 768, 875, 878; 
DUGDALE, Chron. Ser. 105; COLLINS, Peerage, 
ed. Brydges, iii. 387 ; Cal. State Papers, Dom. 
1619-23, pp. 223, 623; Hist. MSS. Comm. 4th. 
Rep. App. 283 b, 290 a). On 7 July 1625 Finch 
read the report of a committee of the House 
of Commons to which had been referred the 
consideration of two works recently published 
by Richard Montagu, afterwards bishop of 
Chichester, viz. ' A New Gag for an Old Goose ' 
and 'Appello Csesarem,' which were thought 
to savour somewhat rankly of Arminianism 
and popery. The result of the report was that 
the publication of the books was treated as 
a breach of privilege and Montagu arrested. 
The plague then raging severely, the debtors 
in the Fleet petitioned the House of Com- 
mons for a habeas corpus. Finch on 9 July 
spoke in favour of granting a release, but so 
as to save the rights of the creditors. On 
9 Aug. he was present at a conference with 
the lords touching certain pardons illegally 
granted by the king to some Jesuits, but is 
not recorded to have done more than read 
the lord keeper's speech. On 10 Aug. he 
spoke in favour of granting the subsidies in 
reversion demanded by the king, but advised 
that the grant should be accompanied with 
a protestation never to do the like upon any 
necessity hereafter (Commons 7 Debates, 1625, 
Camden Soc., pp. 47, 51, 65, 94, 113 ; Commons' 
Journ. i. 805 ; Parl. Hist. ii. 18-19, 35). On 
6 Feb. 1625-6 he was elected to the speaker's 
chair (Commons' Journ. i. 816). His speech 
at the opening of parliament was divided be- 
tween the conventional self-abasement, praise 
of the 'temperate' character of the laws, 
' yielding a due observance to the prerogative 
royal, and yet preserving the right and liberty 
of the subject,' fulsome flattery of the king, 
and denunciation of popery and Spain. In 
1628 he was elected to the bench of his inn. 
On 10 April 1631 he was nominated one of 
the commissioners for the repair of St. Paul's 
Cathedral. He died on 5 Dec. following and 
was buried at Ravenstone in Buckingham- 




shire (Cal. State Papers, Dom. 1625-6 p. 248, 
1631-3 pp. 6, 207 ; NICHOLS, Progr. James I, 
' iii. 768 ; Parl. Hist. ii. 41). Finch married 
twice. His first wife was Frances, daughter 
of Sir Edmund Bell of Beaupre Hall, Norfolk, 
and granddaughter of Sir Robert Bell [q. v.], 
chief baron of the exchequer and speaker of 
the House of Commons in the reign of Eliza- 
beth. She died on 11 April 1627, and on 
16 April 1629 Finch married, at St. Dunstan's 
in the West, Elizabeth, daughter of William 
Cradock of Staffordshire, relict of Richard 
Bennett, mercer and alderman of London, an 
ancestor of the Earls of Arlington. By his 
first wife Finch had issue seven sons and four 
daughters. His eldest son, Heneage [q. v.], 
was lord keeper and first earl of Nottingham. 
Another son, Sir John [q. v.], was a physician. 
For the hand of Mrs. Bennett, who brought 
Finch a fortune, he had several rivals, among 
them Sir Sackville Crow and Dr. Raven, a 
conjunction which afforded much amusement 
to the town. Another suitor was Sir Edward 
Dering(Cb//. Gen.v.2lS', Proceedings 
in Kent, 1640, Camden Soc.) By this lady 
Finch had issue two daughters only, viz. 
(1) Elizabeth, who married Edward Madison, 
and (2) Anne, who married Edward, viscount 
and earl of Conway. 

Finch compiled ' A Brief Collection touch- 
ing the Power and Jurisdiction of Bishops,' 
which remains in manuscript (Hist. MSS. 
Comm. 4th Rep. App. 353). 

[Morant's Essex, i. 47; Berry's County Ge- 
nealogies (Kent), p. 207 ; Hasted's Kent, iii. 199, 
387 ; Official Return of Lists of Members of 
Parliament; Inner Temple Books; Collins's Peer- 
age, ed. Brydges, iii. 387 ; Manning's Lives of 
the Speakers.] J. M. R. 

TINGHAM (1621-1682), successively solicitor- 
general, lord keeper, and lord chancellor, was 
born 23 Dec. 1621, probably at Eastwell in 
Kent (WooD, Athence Oxon.}, and was the 
eldest son of Sir Heneage Finch [q. v.], knight, 
recorder of London, and speaker in Charles I's 
first parliament, and of Frances, daughter of 
Sir Edmund Bell of Beaupre Hall in Nor- 
folk. He was grandson of Elizabeth, created 
*t Countess of Winchilsea by Charles I [see 
* under FINCH, SIR THOMAS], and p 1 - of 
Sir John, lord Finch [q. v.], keeper of the 
seals to Charles I. He was educated at West- 
minster School, whence he went to Christ 
Church, entering in the Lent term of 1635. He 
then joined the Inner Temple, where he soon 
became a distinguished student, with special 
proficiency in municipal law. He took no 
part in the troubles of the civil war, and 
during the usurpation conducted an exten- 
sive private practice (COLLINS, Peerage}. Of 

this, however, there does not seem to be any 
direct evidence. By the time of the Restora- 
tion he was evidently well known, for he 
was returned for the Convention parliament 
both for Canterbury and St. Michael's in 
Cornwall, electing to sit for the former. In 
honour of the occasion he was entertained 
by the city at a banquet (Hist . MSS. Comm. 
9th Rep. 165 ). On 6 June 1660 he was 
made solicitor-general, and on the next day 
was created a baronet of Ravenstone in Buck- 
inghamshire (COLLINS, Peerage). He at once 
became the official representative of the court 
and of the church in the House of Commons. 
In the great debate of 9 July 1660 on the 
future form of the church, Finch in an un- 
compromising speech treated the matter as 
not open to argument, since there was ' no 
law for altering government by bishops ; ' he 
jeered at 'tender consciences,' and hoped the 
house would not ' cant after Cromwell.' On 
30 July he urged the expulsion from their 
livings of all ministers who had been pre- 
sented without the consent of the patrons, 
and opposed any abatement in the articles 
or oaths. In the matter of the Indemnity 
Bill he was deputed by the commons to 
manage the conference between the two 
houses on 16 Aug., and strongly supported 
the exclusion from pardon of the late king's 
judges, a compromise which he felt to be 
necessary to secure the passing of the mea- 
sure so warmly desired by the king and 
Clarendon. On 12 Sept. he spoke against 
the motion that the king should be desired 
to marry a protestant, and on 21 Nov. pro- 
posed the important constitutional change 
whereby the courts of wards and purveyance 
were abolished, and the revenue hitherto 
raised by them was for the future levied on 
the excise. It is significant of the real ob- 
jects of the court that as law officer of the 
crown he opposed (28 Nov.) the bill brought 
in by Sir Matthew Hale for giving effect to 
the king's declaration regarding ecclesiasti- 
cal affairs by embodying it in an act. And 
in the debate regarding the ill-conduct of 
the troops, on 14 Dec., he spoke against the 
proposal to accompany the bill of supply 
with a complaint of grievances (Parl. Hist. 
vol. iv.) lie was of course one of the pro- 
secuting counsel in the trial of the regicides 
in October 1660, where he is described in one 
account as effectually answering Cooke, the 
framer of the impeachment of Charles I (Hist. 
MSS. Comm. 5th Rep. 181 b\ though by the 
report in the state trials he appears only to have 
formally opened the case against the prisoner. 
In April 1661 Finch was elected to 
Charles's second parliament, both for the 
university of Oxford and for Beaumaris in 



Anglesey, electing to sit for the former 
(Journals of the House of Commons, 13 May 
1661). He was carried by the influence of 
Clarendon, whose son Laurence Hyde stood 
with him, of the Bishop of Oxford, and of the 
heads of houses, against strong opposition 
aroused apparently by the conduct of their 
former representative, Selden (Cal. State 
Papers, 1660-1). He appears to have dis- 
appointed his constituents by not assisting 
to get rid of the hearth-tax (WooD, Athence 
Oxon.} In this year also he was made trea- 
surer and autumn reader of the Inner Temple. 
He chose as the subject of his lectures, which 
excited much attention, lasting from 4 to 
17 Aug., the statute of the 39th of Elizabeth, 
concerning the recovery of debts of the crown, 
which had never previously been discussed. 
The favour in which he stood was shown by 
the presence of the king and all the great offi- 
cers of state at a banquet in his honour on 
the 15th in the Inner Temple (ib. ; PEPYS, 
Diary ; DUGDALE, Origines Juridiciales). It 
is noticeable that in one matter upon which 
Charles seemed really bent, toleration of dis- 
sent, he certainly opposed the court. In 
February 1663 he was made chairman of the 
committee of the commons which drew up 
in the most uncompromising terms an ad- 
dress to the king praying for the withdrawal 
of his declaration of indulgence (Parl. Hist. 
vol. iv.), and in March was the representative 
of the house in the conference with the lords 
about a bill against the priests and Jesuits 
(Cal. State Papers, Dom. Ser. 1663-4). In 
October 1664 he was leading counsel for the 
Canary merchants in their endeavour to ac- 
quire a new charter (EVELYN, Diary, 27 Oct.) 
When the house met at Oxford in 1665 he 
again vehemently espoused the intolerant 
policy of the Anglican church by pressing for- 
ward the Five Mile Act ; and at the proroga- 
tion he, with Hyde, Colonel Strangways, and 
Sir John Birkenhead, received the honorary 
degree of D.C.L. (7 Nov.), having with the two 
latter (Commons' Journals, 31 Oct. 1665), by 
order of the commons, communicated to the 
university on 31 Oct. 1665 the thanks of the 
house for its ' loyalty in the late rebellion, 
especially in refusing to submit to the visi- 
tation of the usurped powers, and to take the 
solemn league and covenant' (Cal. State 
Papers, Dom. Ser. 1664-5). In the debate 
on the Five Mile Act, when Vaughan wished 
to add the word ' legally ' to i commissioned 
by him,' Finch pointed out that the addition 
was unnecessary, and his argument was 
adopted by Anglesey in the lords, where 
Southampton moved the same addition (BuK- 
:NET, Own Time, i. 225). In the session of 
1666 he spoke against the Irish Cattle Bill 

(Cal. State Papers, Dom. Ser. 1666-7), and 
in October 1667 on Clarendon's impeachment. 
The account is obscure, but apparently he did 
what he could to check the violence of the 
commons, insisting on sworn evidence, though 
willing that it should be kept secret. On 
18 Feb. 1668 he did the court good sendee 
by shelving the bill for holding frequent par- 
liaments on the ground of informal intro- 
duction (Parl. Hist.) ; and in the same month, 
in the celebrated Skinner controversy, he 
pleaded against Skinner before the lords on 
behalf of the East India Company (PEPYS, 
22 Feb. 1668). In December 1668, on the 
motion for impeaching the Earl of Orrery, 
he warned the house against acting upon 
'out-of-door accusation' (Parl. Hist.} On 
10 May 1670 he became attorney-general, 
and soon afterwards councillor to Queen 
Catherine. He was chamberlain of Chester 
from 1673 to 1676. He exercised a mode- 
rating influence in the debates on the bill 
for 'preventing malicious maiming,' which 
followed the outrage on Sir John Coventry 
[q. v.], and he successfully opposed the 
proposal for a double assessment of default- 
ing members of the house by the argu- 
ment that by tacking it to the subsidy bill 
a matter affecting the commons only would 
come before the lords. In April 1671 he 
conducted with great skill the conferences 
between the lords and commons on the sub- 
ject of the interference of the former in 
'money bills, from which dates practically the 
cessation of the practice. His ability in the 
conduct of this matter was recognised by the 
formal thanks of the house. On 6 Feb. 1673 
he argued in favour of the ' chancellor's writs/ 
the writs issued for parliamentary elections 
during the recess by Shaftesbury, on the 
ground that parliamentary privilege was then 
dormant, but could not make head against 
the determination of the house to suffer no 
court interference. In the great debate of 
10 Feb. on the king's declaration of indul- 
gence, while repudiating the doctrine ad- 
vanced by Shaftesbury of a distinction be- 
tween the exercise of the royal power in 
ecclesiastical and temporal affairs, he de- 
fended the legality and expediency of the 
declaration. * A mathematical security,' he 
said, we cannot have ; a moral one we have 
from the king.' Seeing the temper of the 
house, however, he concluded by the illogical 
motion that the king be petitioned ' that it 
might be so no more.' In March 1673 he 
passionately opposed the Naturalisation of 
Foreigners Bill, and in October did his best 
in vain to combat the determination of the 
commons to refuse further supplies for the 
Dutch war (Parl. Hist.) 




On the dismissal of Shaftesbury, Finch be- 
came lord keeper of the seals, 9 Nov. 1673, 
and as such was made on 4 Jan. 1674 the 
unconscious mouthpiece of the first direct 
lie which Charles had ventured openly to 
tell his parliament (ib.} On 10 Jan. he was 
raised to the peerage as Baron Finch of Daven- 
trv, from the manor in Northamptonshire of 
which he was owner (COLLINS, Peerage). On 
19 Dec. he surrendered the seals, to receive 
them again immediately with the higher 
title of lord chancellor, the office carrying 
with it apparently a salary of 4,000/. a year 
(Autobiography of Roger North, p. 165). In 
the same year he was made lord-lieutenant 
of Somersetshire. In 1675 he was, accord- 
ing to Burnet, one of the chief arguers for 
the non-resisting test (Own Time, i. 383). 
As lord chancellor he had at the beginning 
of each session to supply an elaboration of 
the king's speech, and this he did, ' spoiling 
what the king had said so well by over- 
straining to do it better' (RALPH). In this 
year he conducted the case of the lords in 
the great Fagg controversy. In 1677 he 
presided as lord high steward of England on 
the trial of the Earl of Pembroke for man- 
slaughter (WooD, Athena Oxon.} A signal 
instance of the adroitness, joined, it should 
be said, with unimpeached probity, by which, 
almost alone among his contemporaries, he 
managed to secure at once permanence in 
office and freedom from parliamentary attack, 
occurred in the matter of Danby's impeach- 
ment. Charles, to the great anger of the 
commons, had given Danby a pardon in bar 
of the impeachment. The house appointed 
a committee, who demanded from Finch an 
explanation of the fact that the pardon bore 
the great seal. Finch's statement was that 
he neither advised, drew, nor altered it ; that 
the kin^ commanded him to bring the seal 
from \N hitehall, and being there he laid it 
upon the table ; thereupon his majesty com- 
manded the seal to be taken out of the bag, 
which it was not in his power to hinder ; 
and the king wrote his name on the top of 
the parchment, and then directed to have it 
sealed, whereupon the person who usually 
carried the purse affixed the seal to it. He 
added that at the time he did not regard 
himself as having the custody of the sea] 
i I'.'rl. lli*t. iv. 1114). AVhen the case of 
nby was before the lords he argued for 
tlu right of bishops to vote in trials for trea- 
son, and carried his view as to preliminaries 
though not as to final judgment (BURNET 
UK); COLLINS, Peerage}. There 
is among Sir Charles Bunbury's manuscript.* 

. Sull'olk. a treatise on the i 
power of granting pardons, ascribed with 

most probability to Finch (Hist. MSS. Comm. 
3rd Rep. 241 ). Some autograph notes, cer- 
ainly his, on the Habeas Corpus Act of 1679 
Belong to Alfred Morrison, esq. (ib. 9th Rep. 
457 a}. He conducted the examination be- 
fore the privy council of the ' party ' lords 
who came from Scotland in 1678 to complain 
of Lauderdale, and, though evidently holding 
a brief for the duke, was unable to shake 
their position (BURNET, Own Time, i. 420). 
That Finch was not above using the ordi- 
nary jargon of court flattery appears in his 
exclamation, when Charles tried the experi- 
ment of a newly modelled privy council, 
' It looked like a thing from heaven fallen 
into his master's breast.' During the popish 
terror Finch appears to have given no offence 
to either side. He presided, however, as lord 
high steward at the trial of Lord Stafford, 
and his conduct formed a pleasing contrast 
to that which so often disgraced the courts 
in the latter years of Charles's reign. He 
showed personal courtesy to the prisoner, 
provided him with all proper means of de- 
fence, and pronounced sentence in a speech 
greatly admired at the time, ' one of the best 
he had ever made ' (BuRNET, Own Time, i. 
492). He, however, gave his own vote'against 
Stafford, and complied so far with the pre- 
vailing fashion as to assume the whole truth 
of the ' plot,' and even to father the absurd 
cry that London had been burned by the 
papists (ib. i. 492; State Trials). Burnet 
accounts for his patronage of the plot as the 
result of fear of parliamentary attack in con- 
sequence of his conduct in the matter of 
Danby's pardon (ib. ii. 261). Only one slip 
does Finch appear to have made in his discreet 
avoidance of giving offence. In 1679, on re- 
ceiving Gregory, the new speaker of the 
house, he allowed himself to declare that the 
king ' always supports the creatures of his 
power.' Shaftesbury at once fastened on the 
expression; Finch was compelled to apolo- 
gise, and a resolution was carried not to enter 
it upon the minutes of the house (RANKE, 
Hist. England, iv. 77). In the great ques- 
tion of the succession, Finch was of course 
against exclusion. But by Charles's com- 
mand he proposed the middle and entirely 
impracticable scheme of ' limitations ' (ib. iv. 
80). On 12 May 1681 he was created Earl 
of Nottingham, and died 18 Dec. 1682, in the 
sixty-first year of his age, after a life spent in 
unremitting official and professional toil. He 
was buried at Ravenstone, near Newport 
Pntnu'll in Buckinghamshire, of which place 
- the owner and benefactor (COLLINS, 
Peerage}. He married Elizabeth Harvey, 
daughter of Daniel Harvey, merchant of Lon- 
don (probably one of the members for Surrey in 



the Convention parliament), by whom he had 
a numerous family. The eldest son, Daniel 
[q. v.], became second earl. Heneage, the 
second son [q. v.], was solicitor-general, and 
was created earl of Aylesford. The fifth son, 
Edward [q. v.], was a musical composer. Not- 
tingham's favourite residence, Kensington 
House, he bought of his younger brother John 
[q. v.] His son Daniel [q. v.] sold it to Wil- 
liam III. 

^ The fact that throughout an unceasing offi- 
cial career of more than twenty years, in a 
time of passion and intrigue, Finch was never 
once the subject of parliamentary attack, nor 
ever lost the royal confidence, is a remark- 
able testimony both to his probity and dis- 
cretion. His success in the early part of 
the reign arose from the fact that he was 
in the first place a constitutional lawyer 
of the highest repute, 'well versed in the 
laws' (BuKNET, Own Time,i. 365). Dryden 
bears the same testimony in ' Absalom and 
Achitophel,' where he is described as Amri. 
These qualifications made him a man of ex- 
treme usefulness at a time when the consti- 
tution had to be restored after many years 
of dislocation. Until he finally left the 
house scarcely a committee of importance 
was formed on which he was not placed, 
usually as chairman. He was appointed to 
draw up the letter of congratulation from 
the commons to Charles on his arrival in 
England; and he had the management of 
almost all the important controversies which 
were so frequently held with the lords. His 
forensic eloquence is testified to on all hands ; 
though Burnet says he was too eloquent on 
the bench, in the lords, and in the commons, 
and calls his speaking laboured and affected. 
Roger North in his autobiography (p. 198) 
confirms this view, saying that his love of 
* a handsome turn of expression gave him a 
character of a trifler which he did not so 
much deserve.' In the high-flown language 
of the time he was named the English Ros- 
cius and the English Cicero. 

Burnet states to his credit that, though 
he used all the vehemence of a special pleader 
to justify the court before the lords, yet, as 
a judge, Finch carried on the high tradition 
of his predecessor, Shaftesbury. In his own 
court he could resist the strongest applica- 
tions even from the king himself, though he 
did it nowhere else. The same historian calls 
him ' ill-bred, and both vain and haughty ; 
he had no knowledge of foreign affairs, and 
yet he loved to talk of them perpetually.' 
Burnet's last words about him are, how- 
ever, a recognition of the purity and fitness 
of his presentations of clergymen to livings 
in the chancellor's gift. His portrait was 

painted by Lely. There is a print by Hou- 

[The chief authorities are the Journals of the 
House of Commons; Wood's Athense Oxon. (Bliss), 
iv. 66; Parliamentary History; Burnet's Own 
lime; Collins s Peerage.] Q. A 

WnrcHJMHA (d. 1689), was the son of 

Ihomas, the first earl, whose mother Eliza- 
beth had been created Countess of Winchil- 
sea in her widowhood by Charles I (1628). 
Heneage, educated at Emmanuel College^ 
Cambridge, succeeded to the title of Viscount 
Maidstone in 1633, and of Earl of Winchilsea 
in 1639. He distinguished himself on the 
royalist side during the great rebellion, pro- 
viding auxiliary troops (horse and foot) at his 
own expense, and supplying ' with great 
hazard ' Charles II's * necessities in foreign 
parts.' He was a friend of Monck and was 
made governor of Dover Castle in 1660. 
Upon the Restoration he was created a baron, 
by the title of Lord Fitzherbert of Eastwell 
(from which family the Finches claimed de- 
scent), 26 June 1660, and on 10 July was 
appointed lord-lieutenant of Kent. Early in 
1661 he went on an important embassy to 
Sultan Mahomet Chan IV, and published an 
account of it the same year. He remained as 
English ambassador at Constantinople eight 
years, and on his return journey wrote from 
Naples to the king a description, which was 
afterwards printed, of the eruption of Mount 
Etna. He was reinstated on his arrival in 
England lord-lieutenant of Kent and go- 
vernor of Dover Castle, but was, with a long 
list of other lieutenants, dismissed from the 
former post in 1687. When James II was 
stopped at Feversham by the Kentish fisher- 
men, he wrote to Winchilsea,. who was at 
Canterbury, asking him to come to him. The 
earl arrived before night (12 Dec.), and in- 
terposed on behalf of the king besides moving 
him to a more suitable lodging in a private 
house (Add. MS. 32095, f. 298 ; RALPH, His- 
tory, i. 1068). When James fled for the 
second time, Winchilsea was one of those 
who voted for offering the vacant throne to 
William and Mary, and in March 1689 was 
again made lord-lieutenant of Kent. He 
died in August the same year. He married 
four times : (1) Diana, daughter of Francis, 
fifth lord Willoughby of Parham ; (2) Mary, 
daughter of William Seymour, marquis of 
Hertford; (3) Catherine, daughter of Sir 
Thomas Norcliff ; (4) Elizabeth, daughter of 
John Ayres, esq. Out of twenty-seven chil- 
dren sixteen lived to ' some maturity.' 

His published works were : 1. 'Narrative 
of the Success of his Embassy to Turkey. 




The Voyage of the Right Honourable He- 
neage Finch from Smyrna to Constantinople. 
His Arrival there, and the manner of his 
Entertainment and Audience with the Grand 
Vizier and Grand Seignieur,' London, 1661. 
2. 'A true and exact Relation of the late 
prodigious Earthquake and Eruption of Mount 
Etna, or Mount Gibello, as it came in a Letter 
written to his Majesty from Naples. By the 
Right Honourable the Earl of Winchelsea, 
his Majesty's late Ambassador at Constanti- 
nople, who on his return from thence, visit- 
ing Catania, in the Island of Sicily, was an 
eye-witness of that dreadful spectacle. To- 
gether with a more particular Narrative of 
the same, as it is collected out of several 
relations sent from Catania. With a View 
of the Mountain and Conflagration,' London, 
1669, fol. 

[Collins's Peerage, ed. 1779, iii. 280 ; Walpole's 
Eoyal and Noble Authors, ed. Park, iii. 316; 
Kycaut's Hist, of the Turks, ii. 97, &c. ; Luttrell's 
Relation of State Affairs, i. 422, 575 ; Brit. Mus. 
Cat. ; Doyle's Baronage.] E. T. B. 

AYLESFORD (1647 P-1719), second son of 
Heneage Finch, first earl of Nottingham [q. v.], 
was educated at Westminster School and 
Christ Church, Oxford. He left the univer- 
sity without a degree, and entering the legal 
profession was admitted a barrister of the 
Inner Temple. His name soon became known 
as the author of various reports of celebrated 
trials and other legal tracts; he was appointed 
king's counsel 10 July 1677, and solicitor- 
general in 1679, entering parliament as mem- 
ber for the university of Oxford in the same 
year. In 1686 he was deprived of the solicitor- 
generalship by James II, and two years later 
pleaded as leading counsel on the side of the 
seven bishops. He sat for Guildford in the 
parliament of 1685, again representing the 
university of Oxford in the Convention par- 
liament of 1689-90, and all subsequent ones 
(except that elected in 1698), till his pro- 
motion to the peerage in 1703 {Members of 
Parliament Blue Book, pt. i. see Index). Bur- 
net relates that in the debate on the Act of 
Settlement of 1701 Finch attempted to alter 
the clause for abjuring the Prince of Wales 
into an obligation not to assist him, and pressed 
his point * with unusual vehemence in a debate 
that he resumed seventeen times in one ses- 
sion against all rules ' (BURNET, History of his 
cvm Time, ed. 1823, iv. 537-8 and note). In 
August 1702 he was chosen by the university 
to present a complimentary address to Queen 
Anne on her visit to Oxford, and in 1703 was 
created, * in consideration of his great merit 
and abilities,' Baron Guernsey, and sworn of 
the privy council. Burnet remarks that there 

were great reflections on the promotion of 
Finch and others, to make, it was said, a 
majority for the Stuarts in the House of 
Lords. In 1711 he also became master of the 
jewel house. On the accession of George I he 
was raised to the peerage, taking the title 
of Earl of Aylesford, an estate having been 
left to him there, with a large fortune, by his 
wife's father. Besides this new dignity he 
was again sworn of the privy council, and 
created chancellor of the duchy of Lancaster, 
which office he resigned in 1716. He died 
22 July 1719, and was buried at Aylesford, 
Kent. He married Elizabeth, daughter and 
coheir of Sir John Banks of Aylesford, by 
whom he had nine children. 

His portrait appears in the print engraved 
by White in 1689 of the counsel of the seven 

[Collins's Peerage, ed. 1779, iv. 316 ; Sharpe's 
Peerage, i. 20 ; Welch's Alumni "Westmonas- 
terienses,p.571 ; Poynter's Chronicle, 1703,1711 ; 
Luttrell's Relation of State Affairs; Burnet's 
History of his own Time, ed. 1823, ii. 106, 397; 
Doyle's Baronage.] E. T. B. 

FINCH, SiRHENRY(rf. 1625), serjeant- 
at-law, was the second son of Sir Thomas 
Finch [q. v.] of East well, Kent, by Catherine, 
daughter and heir of Sir Thomas Moyle. His 
elder brother, Sir Moyle Finch, was the father 
of Sir Heneage Finch [q. v.], speaker of the 
House of Commons in the reign of Charles I, 
whose son Heneage [q. v.], first earl of Not- 
tingham, was lord chancellor to Charles II. 
Sir Henry Finch was educated, according to 
Wood, 'for a time ' at Oriel College, Oxford, 
where, however, he seems to have taken no 
degree, and was admitted of Gray's Inn in 
1577, and called to the bar there in 1585 
(DouTHWAiTE, Gray's Inn, p. 62). He seems 
to be identical with a certain Henry Finch 
of Canterbury, who held from the arch- 
bishop a lease of Salmstone rectory, except 
the timber and the advowson, between 1583 
and 1600. In February 1592-3 he was re- 
turned to parliament for Canterbury, and 
he retained the seat at the election of 1597. 
He became an ( ancient ' of his inn in 1593, 
and the same year was appointed counsel 
to the Cinque ports. He was reader at his 
inn in the autumn of 1604. In 1613 he was 
appointed recorder of Sandwich, on 11 June 
1616 he was called to the degree of serjeant- 
at-law, and nine days later he received the 
honour of knighthood at Whitehall (Cal. 
State Papers, Dom. 1598-1601 p. 533, 1611- 
1G18 p. 373; Official Return of Lists of 
Members of Parliament; DUGDALE, Chron. 
Ser. 103 ; NICHOLS, Progr. James I, iii. 173 ; 
BOYS, Collections for a History of Sandwich t 
pp. 423, 779). At this time he was en- 

Finch i 

gaged, in conjunction with Bacon, Noy, and 
others, upon an abortive attempt at codifying 
the statute law, described by Bacon as ' the 
reducing of concurrent statutes heaped one 
upon another to one clear and uniform law.' 
About the same time his opinion was taken 
by the king on the * conveniency ' of mono- 
poly patents, and to him, jointly with Bacon 
and Montague, was entrusted the conduct of 
the business connected with the patent in- 
tended to be granted to the Inns of Court 
(SPEDDING, Letters and Life of Bacon, vi. 71, 
84, 99). He took part in the argument on 
the question whether baronets ranked as 
bannerets before the king and council on 
6 April 1612 (Hist. MSS. Comm. 10th Rep. 
App. pt. iv. 9). In 1621 he published a work 
entitled 'The World's Great Restauration, 
or Calling of the Jews, and with them of all 
Nations and Kingdoms of the Earth to the 
Faith of Christ,' in which he seems to have 
predicted as in the near future the restora- 
tion of temporal dominion to the Jews and 
the establishment by them of a world-wide 
empire. This caused King James to treat 
the work as a libel, and accordingly Finch 
was arrested in April 1621. He obtained his 
liberty by disavowing all such portions of the 
work as might be construed as derogatory to 
the sovereign and apologising for having writ- 
ten unadvisedly. Laud, in a sermon preached 
in July 1621, took occasion to animadvert on 
the book. It was suppressed and is now 
extremely rare (Notes and Queries, 2nd ser. 
xi. 127 ; Cal. State Papers, Dom. 1619-23, 
pp. 247, 248). He must have been in em- 
barrassed circumstances in 1623, as his son 
John [q. v.] having become surety for him was 
only protected from arrest for debt by an order 
under the sign-manual (Cal. State Papers, 
Dom. 1619-23, p. 515). He died in October 
1625, and was buried in the parish church of 
Boxley, Kent (HASTED, Kent, iv. 624). By 
his wife Ursula, daughter of John Thwaites of 
Kent, he was father of John, lord Finch of 
Fordwich [q. v.] (BEEKT, County Genealogies 
(Kent), p. 206), and of Edward (Jl. 1630- 
1641) [q. v.], royalist divine, whom the genea- 
logists overlook. Besides the ' Great Restaura- 
tion,' Finch published a legal treatise of con- 
siderable merit entitled ' No/zorf^i'ia, cestas- 
cavoir un Description del Common Leys 
d'Angleterre solonque les Rules del Art Pa- 
rallelees ove les Prerogative le Roy, &c.,&c., 
Per Henrie Finch de Graye'slnne, Apprentice 
del Ley,' Lond. 1613, fol. It is dedicated in 
remarkably good Latin, ' Augustissimo Prin- 
cipi omnique virtutum genere splendidissimo 
Jacobo Magno Dei gratia Britannise Regi.' It 
consists of four books. The first treats of 
what is now called jurisprudence, and is 

; Finch 

mainly devoted to expounding the distinc- 
tion between natural and ' positive ' law. It 
is learnedly written, Plato and Cicero being 
frequently cited. The second book deals with 
the common law, customs, prerogative, and 
statute law ; the third with procedure, anc 
the fourth with special jurisdictions, e.g. those 
of the admiral and the bishop. The treatise 
is written in law French. An English ver- 
sion, entitled ' Law, or a Discourse thereof 
in Four Books, written in French by Sir 
Henry Finch, Knight, His Majesty's Ser- 
jeant-at-law, done into English by the same 
author,' appeared in London in 1627, 8vo ; 
1636, 12mo; 1678, 8vo: and was edited with 
notes by Danby Pickering of Gray's Inn, in 
1789, 8vo. It differs in some important par- 
ticulars from the original work. Another 
and much closer translation was published 
in the last century under the title, ' A De- 
scription of the Common Laws of England 
according to the Rules of Art compared with 
the Prerogatives of the King/ &c., London, 
1759, 8vo. As an exposition of the common 
law, Finch's Law, as it was called, was only 
superseded by Blackstone's ' Commentaries,' 
so far as it dealt with jurisprudence only by 
the great work of Austin. A little abstract 
of the work, entitled ' A Summary of the 
Common Law of England,' appeared in Lon- 
don in 1673, 8vo. 

[Wood's Athense Oxon. (Bliss), ii. 387; Wool- 
rych'sLiv-esofEminentSerjeants-at-law,i. 391-3;. 
Berry's County Genealogies (Kent).] J. M. K. 

FINCH, HENRY (1633-1704), ejected! 
minister, was born at Standish, Lancashire,, 
and baptised on 8 Sept. 1633. He was edu- 
cated at the grammar schools of Standish and 
Wigan. Calamy does not say at what uni- 
versity he graduated. After preaching in the 
Fylde country (between the Lune and the 
Ribble) he was presented in 1656 to the vicar- 
age of Walton-on-the-Hill, Lancashire, a 
parish which then included the town of Liver- 
pool. He was a member of the fifth presby- 
terian classis of Lancashire. In July 1659" 
he took a rather active part in the plans 
for the rising of the ' new royalists ' under 
Sir George Booth (1622-1684) [q.v.] His 
property was seized by the parliamentary 
sequestrators, and not restored ; but for the* 
restoration of the monarchy in the following 
year he would probably have lost his bene- 
fice. Unable to accept the terms of the Uni- 
formity Act, he was ejected in 1662. He- 
retired to Warrington, where ^ he lived for 
some years in dependence on his wife's rela- 
tives. The Five Mile Act (1665) compelled 
him to leave, and he settled in Manchester 
(not then a corporate town), where he sup- 
ported himself by keeping a school. Both at 


Warrington and Manchester he attended the 
ordinary services in the established church, 
preaching only occasionally on Sunday even- 
ings in his own dwelling to such restricted 
gatherings as the law allowed. On the in- 
dulgence of 1672 he took out a license as a ' ge- 
neral presbyterian minister,' and officiated in 
the licensed' private oratory ' (Birch Chapel), 
which was in the hands of Thomas Birch of 
Birch Hall, Lancashire, though the legal 
o v vTiers were the warden and fellows of the 
collegiate church of Manchester. On 29 Oct. 
1672 he took part in the first ordination con- 
ducted by the ejected nonconformists, in the 
house of Robert Eaton at Deansgate, Man- 
chester. On the outbreak of the Monmouth 
rebellion (1685) Finch was imprisoned at 
Chester; this was probably the occasion when, 
as Calamy relates, ' they thrust a conformist 
into his place ' at Birch Chapel, but * that pro- 
iect dropt,' and Finch was allowed to resume 
his ministry. 

The Toleration Act (1689) was the means 
of calling attention to the insecurity of his 
position. Birch Chapel, being a consecrated 
place, could not be licensed as a dissenting 
meeting-house. Finch, however, stayed on 
until the death of Thomas Birch the younger 
in 1697, when the chapel was ceded by his son, 
George Birch, to the legal owners. Finch 
then preached at licensed houses in Platt and 
Birch, till his friends built a meeting-house 
at Platt (1700), Finch himself contributing 
20/. towards the erection, which cost 95/. in 
all. The opening discourse was preached by 
Finch's son-in-law, James Grimshaw of Lan- 
caster, author of ' Rest from Rebels,' 1716. 

Finch was a member of the provincial meet- 
ing of united ministers (presbyterian and 
congregational) formed in Lancashire in 1693 
on the basis of the London ' agreement ' of 
1691, involving a doctrinal subscription. He 
preached before this meeting on two occa- 
sions, 4 Aug. 1696, and 13 Aug. 1700, both 
at Manchester. Calamy acknowledges the 
value of Finch's corrections to his account of 
the silenced ministers. It is interesting to 
note that, though a strong supporter of the 
revolution of 1688, Finch was ' a charitable 
contributor while he liv'd' to the distressed 
nonjurors. Finch died on 13 Nov. 1704, and 
was succeeded by Robert Hesketh, early in 
whose ministry the chapel was conveyed 
(25-6 Oct. 1706) in trust for the mainte- 
nance of an 'orthodox' ministry. 

PETER FIXCH (1661-1754), presbyterian 
minister, son of the above, was born on 6 Oct. 
1661. On 3 May 1678 he entered the non- 
conformist academy of Richard Frankland 
[q. v.] at Natland, Westmoreland. He soon 
removed to the university of Edinburghjwliere 

4 Finch 

he graduated M.A. on 16 July 1680. His 
first employment was as chaplain in the family 
of William Ashurst, afterwards knighted [see 
ASHURST, HENRY]. In 1691 he was invited 
to become colleague at Norwich to Josiah 
Chorley [q. v.] ; his first entry in the pres- 
byterian register of baptisms is dated 1 June 
1692. He remained at his post for over sixty- 
two years, and survived Edward Crane [q. v.] 
and Thomas Dixon the younger [see under 
DIXON, THOMAS], both of whom had been 
designated as his successor. Himself a strict 
Calvinist, Ke contributed much, by his love 
of peace, to preserve concord when doctri- 
nal differences threatened to divide his flock. 
From 1733 John Taylor, the Hebraist, was 
his colleague. He died on his ninety-third 
birthday, 6 Oct. 1754, and was buried in the 
church of St. Peter Mancroft, Norwich. A 
small portrait of him hangs in the vestry of 
the Octagon Chapel. His great-grandson, 
Peter, was mayor of Norwich in 1827. 

[Calamy's Account, 1713, p. 404 sq. ; Con- 
tinuation, 1727, i. 564; Monthly Repository, 
1811, p. 261; Taylor's Hist. Octagon Chapel, 
Norwich, 1848, p. 15 sq. ; Booker's Hist. Ancient 
Chapel of Birch (Chetham Soc.), 1858; Cat. of 
Edinb. Graduates (Bannatyne Club), 1858 ; 
Halley's Lancashire Nonconformity, 1869, p. 
94, &c. ; Manuscript Minutes of Provincial Meet- 
ing of Lancashire Ministers (1693-1700), in pos- 
session of trustees of Cross Street Chapel, Man- 
chester ; papers relating to Platt Chapel, in 
possession of G-. W. Rayner Wood.] A. G. 

OF FORDWICH (1584-1660), speaker of the 
House of Commons and lord keeper, son of 
Sir Henry Finch [q. v.], by Ursula, daugh- 
ter of John Thwaites, was born on 17 Sept. 
1584, admitted a member of Gray's Inn in 
February 1600, and called to the bar on 
8 Nov. 1611. Clarendon states that he ' led 
a free life on a restrained fortune,' and that 
he ' set up upon the stock of a good wit and 
natural parts, without the superstructure of 
much knowledge in the profession by which 
he was to grow ' (Rebellion, Oxford ed. i. 
130), and Finch himself, on the occasion of 
his instalment as lord chief justice, publicly 
confessed that the first six years of his 
pupilage were mainly devoted to other pur- 
suits than the study of the law (RTTSHWORTH, 
Hist. Coll. ii. 256). In 1614 he was returned 
to parliament for Canterbury. In 1617 he 
was elected a bencher of his inn, where, in 
the autumn of the following year, he dis- 
charged the duties of reader (DouTHWAiTE, 
Gray's Inn, p. 66). Foss says, without giv- 
ing his authority, that in 1617 he was elected 
recorder of Canterbury. He was certainly 
recorder of the city in March 1618-19 (Ecje'r- 



ton MS. 2584, f. 177), and was dismissed by 
the corporation shortly afterwards. The 
cause of his removal does not appear. Finch 
himself, in a letter dated 4 Jan. 1619, solicit- 
ing the interest of Lord Zouch, warden of 
the Cinque ports, with the privy council, 
from which he had obtained a mandamus 
against the corporation for his reinstatement, 
speaks vaguely of the ' factious carriage ' of 
one Sabin (ib. f. 100). The corporation 
had refused to obey the order of the privy 
council, and it remained as yet unenforced. 
On 19 May 1620 the corporation wrote 
to the Archbishop of Canterbury and Lord 
Zouch praying that they might not be com- 
pelled to re-elect Finch, as it would be 
* against their consciences and their charter, 
and greatly to the disquiet of the city.' On 
28 May, however, they changed their tone, 
humbly informing the council that they were 
willing to re-elect Mr. Finch as their recorder,' 
and craving ' pardon for discontenting their 
lordships' (Cal. State Papers, Dom. 1619- 
1623, pp. 108, 144, 146, 148). Finch was 
returned to parliament for "Winchelsea in 
February 1623-4, but was unseated on peti- 
tion on the ground that certain voters had 
been excluded by the mayor. A new writ 
issued on 19 March, and Finch was re-elected 
(Comm. Journ. i. 739). He exchanged Win- 
chelsea for Canterbury at the election of 
1625. On 31 May the king, and on 13 June 
1625 the king and queen paid a visit to Can- 
terbury, and were received with an address 
by Finch as recorder. The addresses, notes 
of which are preserved in Sloane MS. 1455, ff. 
1-6, must have been remarkable only for the 
style of fulsome adulation in which they 
were conceived. In 1626 he was knighted 
and appointed king's counsel and attorney- 
general to the queen ( Cal. State Papers, Dom. 
1625-6, p. 456 ; Rof ER, Fcedera, Sanderson, 
xiii. 633, 866). On 17 March 1627-8 he was 
elected speaker of the House of Commons, 
being still member for Canterbury (Comm. 
Journ. i. 872). His speech to the throne, 
couched though it was in language of the 
most extravagant loyalty, nevertheless con- 
cluded with three petitions: (1) that the 
house might be assured of the immunity of 
its members from arrest, (2) that freedom of 
debate might be respected, (3) that access to 
the royal person might be granted on suit- 
able occasions (Par I. Hist. ii. 225). On 
14 April 1628 he presented a petition against 
the practice of billeting soldiers on private 
citizens. On 5 May he conveyed to the king 
the answers of the commons to various royal 
messages, in particular to the demand of the 
king to know whether the commons would 
rest content with his ( royal word and pro- 

mise for the redress of their grievances, 
-bmch expressed on behalf of the commons 
at once their entire confidence in the royal 
word, and their settled conviction that no 
less than a public remedy will raise the de- 
jected hearts ' of the people at large (ib. pp. 
281, 346). In the debate on the royal mes- 
sage of 5 June, enjoining the commons not 
to meddle with affairs of state or asperse 
ministers, Sir John Eliot having risen osten- 
sibly to rebut the implied charge of aspersing 
ministers, Finch, < apprehending Sir John in- 
tended to fall upon the duke ' (Buckingham), 
said, with tears in his eyes : < There is a com- 
mand laid upon me to interrupt any that 
should go about to lay aspersion on the 
ministers of state ; ' upon which Eliot sat 
down, the house, after some desultory con- 
versation, resolved itself into a committee of 
public safety, and Finch repaired to the king, 
from whom next day he brought a concilia- 
tory message. On this occasion he seems to 
have acted as a mediator between the king 
and the commons. Sir Robert Philips, who 
replied to the royal message on behalf of the 
house, while expressing himself very cau- 
tiously on the general question, lauded Finch 
as one who had ' not only at all times dis- 
charged the duty of a good speaker, but of a 
good man' (ib. pp. 402-7 ; Cal. State Papers, 
Dom. 1628-9, p. 153). In September and 
October 1628 Finch was associated with the 
attorney-general, Sir Robert Heath, in in- 
vestigating the circumstances attending the 
assassination of the Duke of Buckingham 
(ib. pp. 332, 343). On 25 Feb. 1628-9 Finch 
delivered a message from the king command- 
ing the adjournment of the house. Several 
members objected that adjournment was a 
matter for the house to determine, and Sir 
John Eliot proceeded to present a remon- 
strance on the subject of tonnage and pound- 
age, which Finch refused to read. Eliot 
then read it him self. Finch, however, refused 
to put the question, and, rising to adjourn the 
debate, was forced back into the chair, and 
held there by Denzil Holies, Valentine, and 
others, Holies swearing 'God's wounds he 
should sit still till it pleased them to rise.' 
Finch burst into tears, exclaiming, ' I will 
not say I will not, but I dare not,' remind- 
ing the house that he had been their ' faith- 
ful servant,' and protesting ' he would sacri- 
fice his life for the good of his country, but 
durst not sin against the express command 
of his sovereign.' Meanwhile with locked 
doors the substance of Eliot's remonstrance 
was adopted by the house and declared car- 
ried. Shortly afterwards parliament was 
dissolved, not to meet again for eleven years 
(Parl. Hist. ii. 487-91). In 1631 Finch was 




much employed in Star-chamber and high 
commission cases (Reports of Cases in the 
Courts of Star-chamber and High Commis- 
sion, Camd. Soc.) In the autumn of 1633, 
the Inns of Court having decided to provide 
a grand masque for the entertainment of the 
king and queen, by way at once of testify- 
ing their loyalty and protesting against the 
austere views lately published by Prynne in 
his * Histrio-Mastix,' Finch was elected one 
of the committee of management. The per- 
formance, which took place on Candlemas 
day (2 Feb. 1633-4), is described at some 
length by Whitelocke, and seems to have 
been a very splendid pageant. The masquers 
went in procession from Ely House, Holborn, 
by way of Chancery Lane and the Strand to 
Whitehall. The dancing took place in the 
palace, the queen herself dancing with some 
of the masquers. The revels were prolonged 
far into the night, and terminated with a 
stately banquet. Finch was subsequently 
deputed to convey the thanks of the members 
of the four inns to the king and queen for 
their gracious reception of the masquers. 
The entertainment was afterwards repeated 
by royal command in the Merchant Taylors' 
Hall (WHITELOCKE, Memoirs, pp. 19, 22). 
About the same time Finch was busily en- 
gaged in the proceedings taken against 
Prynne in the Star-chamber. His speech, in 
which he charges Prynne with veiling under 
the name of Herodias a libel on the queen, is 
reported in * Documents relating to William 
Prynne ' (Camd. Soc. pp. 10, 11). Attorney- 
general Noy dying in the following August 
was succeeded by Sir John Banks, and Sir 
Robert Heath having been removed from 
the chief-justiceship of the court of common 
pleas on 14 Sept., Finch was appointed to 
succeed him on 16 Oct., having taken the 
degree of serjeant-at-law on 9 Oct. Notes 
of his speeches on being sworn in as serjeant, 
taking leave of Gray's Inn on 12 Oct., and 
being sworn in as chief justice, are preserved 
in Sloane MS. 1455, ff. 7-15. These changes 
inspired some legal wit with the following 
couplet : 

Noy's floods are gone, the Banks appear, 
The Heath is cropt, the Finch sings there. 

(DUGDALE, Chron. Ser. 106-7; CROKE, Rep. 
Car. p. 375 ; Cal. State Papers, Dom. 1634-5, 
p. 221). On the bench Finch distinguished 
himself by the height to which he carried 
the royal prerogative, and the severity of his 
sentences. Thus a certain James Maxwell 
and his wife Alice having been found guilty 
in the Star-chamber (17 April 1635) of libel- 
ling the king and the lord keeper, and Lord 
Cottington proposing a fine of 3,000/. for the 

offence against the king and the same sum to 
the lord keeper, the lord chief baron moved 
to add in the case of the woman a whipping, 
in which he was supported by Finch. The 
motion, however, was lost. In another Star- 
chamber case (27 Jan. 1636-7) one Elm- 
stone having been sentenced to imprisonment 
and also to stand in the pillory at Westmin- 
ster, Finch moved to add that he lose his 
ears. The motion was lost. On Prynne's 
second trial (1637) Finch surpassed himself 
in brutality. He drew the attention of the 
court to the fact that some remnants of 
Prynne's ears still remained, and moved that 
they be cut close, and that he be stigmatised 
with the letters S. L. (seditious libeller) on 
his cheeks, which proposals were adopted 
into the sentence. In the case of John Lang- 
ton (1638), one of the subordinate officials of 
the exchequer, charged with abuse of the royal 
prerogative, Finch doubled the fine of 1,000/. 
proposed by Lord Cottington, and added the 
pillory, imprisonment, and disability to hold 
office, in which the rest of the court con- 
curred, Archbishop Laud, however, being for 
raising the fine to 5,000/. Finch also added 
a whipping to the sentence of fine, pillory, 
and mutilation proposed by Lord Cottington 
for one Pickering, a Roman catholic, found 
guilty in 1638 of libelling the king and queen 
by calling them Romanists, and sacrilegiously 
converting part of a churchyard into a "pig- 
sty (Cal. State Papers, Dom. 1635 p. 31, 
1636-7 p. 398, 1637 p. 214, 1637-8 pp. 384, 
474 ; COBBETT, State Trials, iii. 717, 725). 

On 12 Feb. 1636-7 the king laid before 
the judges a case for their opinion on the 
legality of ship-money. The opinion which 
they all subscribed, but for which, according 
to Clarendon, Finch was mainly responsible, 
was to the effect that the king had an uncon- 
trolled discretion in the matter. To this opinion 
Finch and the majority of his colleagues 
adhered on the occasion of the trial of Hamp- 
den in the exchequer chamber. He delivered a 
long P j some what 'rambling judgment, con- 
clud^xg^with the statement that 'upon com- 
mon law and the fundamental policy of the- 
kingdom the king may charge his subjects for 
the defence of the kingdom when it is in dan- 
ger,' and ' that the king is sole j udge of the dan- 
ger, and ought to direct the means of defence ' 
(COBBETT, State Trials, iii. 843, 1243). Of this 
judgment Clarendon says that it made ship- 
money ' more abhorred and formidable than 
all the commitments by the council table-, 
and all the distresses taken by the sheriffs in 
England ; the major part of men looking upon 
these proceedings with a kind of applause- 
to themselves, to see other men punished for 
not doing as they had done ; which delight 

Finch ] 

was quickly determined when they found 
their own interest, by the unnecessary logic 
of that argument, no less concluded than 
Mr. Hampden's ' (Rebellion, i. 127/130). In 

^^. .^c^^en's ' (Rebellion, i. 127/130). In 
March 1638-9 Finch was sworn of the privy 
council, and on 17 Jan. 1639-40 he obtained 
through the influence of the queen the place 
of lord keeper, then vacant by the death of 
Lord Coventry. His appointment was far 
from giving universal satisfaction. Thus, Sir 
Richard Cave writes to Sir Thomas Roe, 
under date 7 Feb. 1639-40: < The lord keeper 
Ifeeps such a clatter in his new place that 
they are more weary of him in the chancery 
than they were before in the common pleas.' 
On 7 April 1640 he was created Baron Finch of 
Fordwich in Itieni (Letters of Lady Brilliana 
Harley (Camd. Soc.), p. 32 ; Cal. State Papers, 
Dom. 1639-40 pp. 341, 344, 436, 1640 
p. 12). The Short parliament of 1640 was 
opened by the king on 13 April with a few 
words indicative of the gravity of the situa- 
tion, the task of more fully setting forth the 
royal wishes and intentions being devolved 
upon the lord keeper. After dwelling upon 
the magnanimity shown by the king in ' se- 
questering the memory of all former dis- 
couragements,' and once more summoning a 
parliament, Finch proceeded to expatiate upon 
the threatening aspect of Scottish affairs, and 
the consequent necessity of obtaining imme- 
diate supplies. On this theme he again en- 
larged on 20 April, but with no effect, the 
commons resolving that grievances must take 

r Finch 

but his wife, Lady Mabel, was permitted to 
occupy them at the annual rent of 100/. so 
long as they should continue in sequestration 
(Lords' Journals, vi. 568 a, vii. 272 ; Add 
MS. 5494, f. 206). They seem to have been 
subsequently redeemed for 7,000/., though 
Finch s name does not appear in Dring's 
'Catalogue' (1733) (Parl. Hist. ii. 528-34 
552-60, 685-98; COBBETT, State Trials, iv. 
18; Cal. State Papers, Dom. 1661-2, p. 328). 
During his exile Finch seems to have resided 
principally at the Hague. Here in 1641 
Evelyn met him, and lodged for a time in 
the same house with him, the house, oddly 
enough, of a Brownist, where, says Evelyn, 
' we had an extraordinary good table ' (Diary, 
26 July and 19 Aug. 1641). Two letters to 
Finch, one from Henrietta Maria, the other 
from Elizabeth, queen of Bohemia, belonging 
to this period, maybe read in 'Archseologia,' 
xxi. 474 et seq. They are of slight histori- 
cal importance, but by the familiarity of their 
style serve to show the intimate terms on 
which he stood with the writers. A letter to 
Sir Christopher Hatton, dated 3 Jan. 1640-1, 
announcing his arrival at the Hague (Add. 
MSS. 28218 f. 9, 29550 f. 49), was printed in 
1641 (Brit. Mus. Cat. < Finch '). Another to 
Dr. Cosin, dean of Peterborough, written in 
a very inflated style, but not without touches 
of humour, is undated, but must have been 
written in 1641 or 1642, as it contains a re- 
ference to the ' danger that hangs over the 
head ' of Cosin, viz. the prosecution in the 

precedence of supply. On 5 May parliament high commission court for innovating in re- 
was dissolved. One of the first acts of the ligion, which terminated 22 Jan. 1642 in se- 

Long parliament was the exhibition of articles 
of impeachment against Finch. The princi- 
pal counts in the indictment were three : 
(1) his arbitrary conduct when speaker on 
the occasion of Eliot's motion on tonnage 
and poundage ; (2) malpractices on the bench 
in 1635 for the purpose of extending the 
royal forest in Essex beyond its legal boun- 
daries ; (3) his conduct in Hampden's case 
{Harleian Miscellany, v. 566-9 ; Somers 
Tracts, iv. 129-32; Trevelyan Papers, Camd. 
Soc. iii. 199-200). Finch appeared at the 
bar of the House of Commons during the pre- 
liminary stage (21 Dec.), and made an ela- 
borate speech in his own defence, but took 
refuge in Holland before the form of the ar- 
ticles was finally determined, arriving at the 
Hague on 31 Dec. 1640. According to Cla- 
rendon (Rebellion, i. 311, 526) the house was 
' wonderfully indisposed to hear anything 
against ' him, though Falkland denounced 
him as the ' chief transgressor' in the mat- 
ter of ship-money. His estates in Kent and 
Middlesex were sequestrated in 1644, being 
estimated as of the annual value of 338/. ; 


questration. It was printed in 1642 
and reprinted in 1844 (Newcastle Reprints 
of Rare Tracts, Historical, i.) On 14 July 
1647 Finch petitioned the House of Lords 
for leave to return home to die in his native 
country. The petition was ordered to be 
considered, and was entered in the journal 
of the house, but no leave appears to have 
been granted (Lords 1 Journals, vii. 331). In 
October 1660 Finch was one of the commis- 
sioners for the trial of the regicides, but took 
little part in the proceedings. He died on the 
27th of the following month, and was buried 
in St. Martin's Church, near Canterbury. As 
he left no male issue the peerage became ex- 
tinct. Finch married first Eleanor, daughter 
of George Wyat; and secondly, Mabel, daugh- 
ter of the Rev. Charles Fotherby, dean of 
Canterbury. Smith (Obituary, Camd. Soc., 
p. 52) calls him a ' proud and impious man, 
but loyal to his prince.' His character has 
been painted in black colours by Campbell ; 
but though a bigoted supporter of despotic 
power, there is no reason to suppose that he 
was other than a conscientious man. His 





view of the duty of a judge was certainly very 
humble, if we may credit the statement of 
Clarendon (Rebellion, i. 130) that while lord 
keeper he announced his intention of giving 
effect on all occasions to the mandates of the 
privy council. It has, however, never been 
suggested that he was open to pecuniary cor- 
ruption. Wood says that he was the author 
of a * Manuale Mathematicum,' curiously 
written on vellum with his own hand, for- 
merly preserved among the manuscripts in 
the Ashmolean Museum (Athence Oxon. ed. 
Bliss, ii. 388), but now missing from the Ash- 
molean collection at the Bodleian (BLACK, 
Cat. p. 1505). He was also one of the first 
donors to Gray's Inn library (DOUTHWAITE, 
Grays Inn, p. 176). 

[Berry's County Genealogies (Kent) ; Camp- 
bell's Lives of the Chancellors ; Foss's Lives of 
the Judges.] J. M. R. 

FINCH, SIR JOHN (1626-1682), physi- 
cian, younger son of Sir Heneage Finch, 
speaker of the House of Commons [q. v.], 
was born in 1626, and, after education at Mr. 
Sylvester's school in the parish of All Saints, 
Oxford, entered Balliol College as a gentleman 
commoner and graduated B. A. 22 May 1647. 
In 1648 he left Oxford, and graduated M. A. 
at Christ's College, Cambridge, in 1649 ; then 
went to Padua and took the degree of M.D. 
in that university. He became English consul 
at Padua, and was made syndic of the univer- 
sity. The Grand Duke of Tuscany afterwards 
appointed him to a professorship at Pisa. At 
the Restoration he returned to England, and 
on 26 Feb. 1661 was elected an extraordinary 
fellow of the College of Physicians of London. 
' Obpraeclara doctoris Harvei merita,' say the 
college annals, probably in reference to the 
fact that Harvey had been a doctor of physic 
of the university of Padua. Lord Clarendon 
presented Finch to the king, who knighted 
him on 10 June 1661, and on 26 June in the 
same year he was created M.D. at Cambridge, 
Dr. Carr appearing as his proxy. He was 
one of the fellows admitted by the council 
of the Royal Society, in virtue of the power 
given them for two months, on 20 May 1663. 
The house now called Kensington Palace 
belonged to Finch, and in 1661 he sold it to 
his elder brother, Sir Heneage Finch, after- 
wards Lord Nottingham. In 1665 he was 
sent as minister to the Grand Duke of Tus- 
cany, and in 1672 was promoted to be am- 
bassador at Constantinople. On his voyage 
thither he stopped at Leghorn and at .Malta 
to arrange the restitution of some ffoods be- 
longing to the basha of Tunis which had 
been seized bv English privateers. On 2 MAJ 
1676 he left bis house in Pera, with a n-t inuc 
of one hundred and twenty horses and fifty- 

five carts of baggage, and after a nine days' 
journey reached Adrianople. The object of 
the visit was to obtain the sultan's confirma- 
tion of privileges granted to English residents 
in his dominions, and after tedious delays 
this was accomplished on 8 Sept. The town 
was crowded, and the ambassador, who had 
at first wretched lodgings, was later obliged 
to live in tents in the fields owing to an 
epidemic of plague, of which some of his 
household died. He returned to Constanti- 
nople, and in 1682 to England. He died of 
pleurisy on 18 Nov. 1682 in London, whence 
his body was conveyed by his kinsmen to 
Cambridge and there buried, as he had desired, 
near that of his friend Sir Thomas Baines 
[q_.v.], in the chapel of Christ's College. Their 
friendship is the most interesting circum- 
stance of the life of Finch. It began ab 
Cambridge, where Henry More the Platonist 
introduced Finch, on his migration from Ox- 
ford, to Baines, already a member of Christ's 
College. They pursued the same studies and 
lived in the same places, both graduated in 
medicine at Padua, were admitted fellows of 
the College of Physicians of London on the 
same day, and were together created doctors 
of physic at Cambridge. When Finch had 
been knighted he sought the same honour for 
Baines, and when he went abroad as an am- 
bassador he took Sir Thomas Baines with 
him as physician to the embassy. They con- 
sulted together on every difficulty, and at 
Constantinople were known as the ambas- 
sador and the chevalier, and it was considered 
as important to secure the influence of the 
one as of the other. Thus constant through- 
out life they are buried side by side, under 
the same marble canopy, and are every year 
commemorated as benefactors of their college, 
where they jointly founded two fellowships 
and two scholarships, anxious to encourage 
in future generations the formation of friend- 
ships at the university as true and as lasting 
as their own. 

[Hunk's Coll. of Phys. i. 298; Pepys's Diary 
6th ed. in. 446 ; Cambridge University Calendar 
1 868 ; North's Life of the Hon. Sir Dudley North' 
Knt., London, 1744; tomb in the chapel of 
Christ's College, Cambridge; Dodd's Church 
History, iii. 257; Wood's Fasti, ed. Bliss ii 


FINCH, ROBERT (1783-1830), anti- 
quary, born in London on 27 Dec. 1783 was 
the only son of Thomas Finch, F.R S ' He 
was educated for a short time at St. Paul's 
Schoo , and at eighteen was admitted at 

"I '" r A ?^ x S rd - He ^^ RA - 

09. He was ordained in 1807 

and officiated at Maidstone and elsewhere 

ie went abroad, visiting Portugal^ 



France, Switzerland, Italy, Greece, and the 
Holy Land. For several years before his 
death he lived in Rome. He died at his 
residence, the Palazzo del Re di Prussia, in 
Rome, on 16 Sept. 1830, from malarial fever. 
Finch had a great love of the fine arts, and 
studied antiquities and topography. He left 
his library, pictures, coins, and medals to the 
Ashmolean Museum, Oxford, and his plate 
to Balliol College. He was a fellow of the 
Society of Antiquaries, and a contributor to 
the ' Gentleman's Magazine 'and other periodi- 
cals. He married in 1820, when in Italy, 
Maria, eldest daughter of Frederick Thom- 
son of Kensington, but left no issue. 

[Gent. Mag. 1830, vol. c. pt. ii. pp. 567-8.] 

W. W. 

FINCH, ROBERT POOLE (1724-1803), 
divine, son of the Rev. Richard Finch, was 
born at Greenwich 3 March 1723-4, entered 
Merchant Taylors' School in 1736, and was 
admitted a member of Peterhouse, Cambridge, 
whence he graduated B.A. 1743, M.A. 1747, 
D.D. 1772. He became a preacher of some 
eminence, published numerous sermons, and 
was also an author of a treatise upon oaths 
and perjury, which passed through many 
editions. In 1771 he was appointed rector 
of St. Michael's, Cornhill, but resigned in 
1784, on becoming rector of St. John the 
Evangelist, Westminster. In 1781 he was 
made prebendary of Westminster, and re- 
taining this appointment until his death, 
18 May 1803, was buried in the abbey. 

He published in 1788 ' Considerations upon 
the Use and Abuse of Oaths judicially taken/ 
which became a standard work among the 
publications of the Society for Promoting 
Christian Knowledge. 

[Robinson's Reg. of Merchant Taylors' School ; 
Chester's Westminster Abbey Keg. p. 469.] 

C. J. R. 

FINCH, SIE THOMAS (d. 1563), mili- 
tary commander, was second son of Sir Wil- 
liam Finch, who was knighted for his services 
at the siege of Terouenne in 1513, and at- 
tended Henry VIII with a great retinue in 
1520. His mother, his father's first wife, was 
Elizabeth, daughter of Sir James Cromer of 
Tunstall, Kent, and widow of Sir Richard 
Lovelace. An elder brother, Lawrence, died 
without issue, and Thomas succeeded to his 
father's property. He was trained as a soldier, 
and in 1553 was engaged in suppressing 
Wyatt's rebellion in Kent. On the day after 
Mary's coronation (2 Oct. 1553) he was 
knighted. Soon after Elizabeth's accession 
(1559), Nicholas Harpsfeld [q. v.], archdeacon 
of Canterbury, threatened violent resistance 
to the new ecclesiastical legislation, and Finch 

was despatched to Canterbury to disarm his 
household. Early in 1563 he was appointed, 
in succession to Sir Adrian Poynings, knight- 
marshal of the army then engaged in war 
about Havre. He at once sent his half- 
brother, Sir Erasmus Finch, to take tempo- 
rary charge, and his kinsman Thomas Finch 
:o act as provost-marshal. He himself em- 
barked in the Greyhound in March with two 
mndred followers, among them James and 
John Wentworth, brothers of Lord Went- 
worth, another brother of his own, a brother 
of Lord Cobham, and a nephew of Ambrose 
Dudley, earl of Warwick. When nearing 
Havre the ship was driven back by contrary 
winds towards Rye. Finch and his friends 
induced the captain ' a very good seaman,' 
says Stow l to thrust into the haven before 
the tide,' and ' so they all perished' with the 
exception of * seven of the meaner sort ' 
(19 March). The news reached the court 
two days later, and produced great consterna- 
tion (Cecil to Sir Thomas Smith in WEIGHT, 
Queen Elizabeth, i. 133). A ballad com- 
memorating the misfortune was licensed to 
Richard Griffith at the time (COLLIEE, Sta- 
tioners 1 Registers, 1557-70, Shakespeare Soc. 
73). Finch was buried at Eastwell, Kent. 

Finch married Catherine, daughter and 
coheiress of Sir Thomas Moyle, chancellor 
of the court of augmentations, and thus 
came into possession of Moyle's property of 
Eastwell, at his death 2 Oct. 1560. He 
owned other land in Kent, and on 9 Dec. 
1558 Aloisi Pruili, Cardinal Pole's secretary, 
requested Cecil to direct Finch to allow the 
officers of the cardinal, then just dead, to 
dispose of oxen, hay, wood, and deer belong- 
ing to their late master in St. Augustine's 
Park, Canterbury (Cal. State Papers, Dom. 
1547-80, p. 116). His widow remarried Ni- 
cholas St. Leger, and died 9 Feb. 1586-7. 
Of his children, three sons and a daughter 
survived him. The second son, Sir Henry 
Finch, serjeant-at-law, is separately noticed. 
The third', Thomas, died without issue in the 
expedition to Portugal in 1589. The daugh- 
ter, Jane, married George Wyatt of Bexley, 
son of Sir Thomas Wyatt of Allington, Kent. 
Finch's heir, Moyle, created a baronet 27 May 
1611, married in 1574 Elizabeth, daughter of 
Sir Thomas Heneage of Copt Hall, Essex ; 
inherited Eastwell on his mother's death in 
1587 ; obtained a license to enclose one thou- 
sand acres of land there, and to embattle his 
house, 18 Jan. 1589, and died 14 Dec. 1614. 
His widow was created, in consideration of 
her father's services, Viscountess Maidstone, 
8 July 1623, and Countess of Winchilsea, 
12 July 1628, both titles being granted with 
limitation to heirs male. She died and was 





buried at Eastwell in 1633. Her eldest son, 
Thomas, succeeded her as Earl of Winchilsea. 
Her fourth son, Sir Heneage [q. v.], was 
speaker of the House of Commons, 1626-31. 

[Collins's Peerage, ed. Brydges, iii. 378-9 ; 
Hasted's Kent, iii. 198-9; Stow's Chronicle, 
1614, pp. 654-5; Wright's Queen Elizabeth, 
i. 127, 133 ; Froude's Hist. vi. 201 ; Machyn's 
Diary, pp. 302, 308.] S. L. L. 

FINCH, WILLIAM (d. 1613), merchant, 
was a native of London. He was agent to 
an expedition sent by the East India Com- 
pany, under Captains Hawkins and Keel- 
ing, in 1607 to treat with the Great Mogul. 
Hawkins and Finch landed at Surat on 
24 Aug. 1608. They were violently opposed 
by the Portuguese. Finch, however, obtained 
permission from the governor of Cambay to 
dispose of the goods in their vessels. In- 
cited by the Portuguese, who seized two of 
the English ships, the natives refused to have 
dealings with the company's representatives. 
During these squabbles Finch fell ill, and 
Hawkins, proceeding to Agra alone, obtained 
favourable notice from the Emperor Jehang- 
hire. Finch recovered, and joined Hawkins 
at Agra on 14 April 1610. The two re- 
mained at the mogul's court for about a year 
and a half, Finch refusing tempting offers to 
attach himself permanently to the service of 
Jehanghire. Hawkins returned to England, 
but Finch delayed his departure in order to 
make further explorations, visiting Byana 
and Lahore among other places. Finch 
made careful observations on the commerce 
and natural products of the districts visited. 
In 1612 the mogul emperor confirmed and 
extended the privileges he had promised to 
Finch and Hawkins, and the East India Com- 
pany in that year set up their first little fac- 
tory at Surat. Finch died at Babylon on his 
way to Aleppo from drinking poisoned water 
in August 1613. 

[Purchas ; Pre vest's Histoire de Voyages ; 
Dow's Hist, of Hindostan ; Cal. State Papers, 
East Indies, 1513-1617, Nos. 449, 649, 650 ] 

J. B-Y. 

FINCH, WILLIAM (1747-1810), divine, 
son of William Finch of Watford, Hertford- 
shire, was born 22 July 1747, entered Mer- 
chant Taylors' School in 1754, and was elected 
thence in 1764 to St. John's College, Oxford. 
He graduated B.C.L. in 1770 and D.C.L. in 
1775. In 1797 he accepted the college living 
of Tackley, Oxfordshire, and in the same 
year was appointed Bampton lecturer. He 
took as his subject ' The Objections of Infidel 
Historians and other writers against Christi- 
anity.' The lectures were published in 1797, 
together with a sermon preached before the 

university on 18 Oct. 1795. Finch, who does 
not appear to have published anything else 
except a sermon preached before the Oxford 
Loyal Volunteers (Oxford, 1798), died 8 June 
1810, and was buried at Tackley. 

[Robinson's Reg. of Merchant Taylors' School, 
ii. 114 ; Oxf. Matr. Reg. ; Brit. Mus. Libr. Cat.] 

C. J. R. 

diplomatist, was fifth son of Daniel Finch 
[q. v.], sixth earl of Winchilsea and second 
earl of Nottingham. He proceeded M.A. of 
Trinity College, Cambridge, in 1718, was 
elected M.P.for his university to every parlia- 
ment that met between 1727 and 1764, and 
instituted with his fellow-member, Thomas 
Townshend, the Members' Prizes in the 
university for essays in Latin prose. He held 
a long succession of diplomatic posts. He 
was envoy extraordinary and minister plenipo- 
tentiary to Sweden ; in the same capacity 
was present at the diet of Ratisbon, 1723, 
and went to the States-General in 1724. On 
8 Feb. 1724-5 he was appointed to the court 
of Poland, and on 11 Jan. 1739 to that of 
Russia. On returning home he became groom 
of the royal bedchamber (1742), master of 
the robes (June 1757), and surveyor of the 
king's private woods in November 1760. He 
assumed in 1764 the additional name of 
Hatton, under the will of his aunt, Elizabeth 
(5 Oct. 1764), daughter of Christopher, vis- 
count Hatton. He died 16 May 1771. In 
1746 he married Elizabeth, daughter of Sir 
Thomas Palmer of Wingham, Kent, by whom 
he had two sons, George (b. 30 June 1747) 
and John Emilius Daniel Edward (b. 19 May 
1755), besides three daughters. George Wil- 
liam [q. v.], the eldest son of Edward Finch- 
Hatton's heir, George, succeeded as tenth earl 
of Winchilsea and sixth earl of Nottingham 
on the death of his cousin in 1826. 

[Collins's Peerage, iii. 296-7.] 

HAM (1791-1858), politician, was born at 
Kirby, Northamptonshire, on 19 May 1791. 
His father, George Finch-Hatton of Eastwell 
Park, near Ashford, Kent, M.P. for Rochester 
1772-84, died 17 Feb. 1823, having married in 
1785 Lady Elizabeth Mary, eldest daughter of 
David Murray, second earl of Mansfield. She 
died 1 June 1825. George William, the elder 
son, was educated at Christ's College, Cam- 
bridge, where he proceeded B.A. in 1812. 
On 13 Oct. 1809 he became a captain in the 
Ashford regiment of Kentish local militia, on 
14 Dec. 1819 commenced acting as a lieute- 
nant of the Northamptonshire regiment of 
yeomanry, and on 7 Sept. 1820 was named 




a deputy-lieutenant for the county of Kent. 
His cousin, George Finch, ninth earl of Win- 
chilsea and fifth earl of Nottingham, having 
died on 2 Aug. 1826, he succeeded to these 
peerages. He presided at a very large and 
influential meeting held on Pennenden Heath, 
Kent, on 10 Oct. 1828, when strongly worded 
resolutions in favour of protestant principles 
were carried. In his place in the House of 
Lords he violently opposed almost every 
liberal measure which was brought forward. 
He was particularly noted as being almost 
the only English nobleman who was willing 
to identify himself with the Orange party in 
Ireland, and he was accustomed to denounce 
in frantic terms Daniel O'Connell, Maynooth, 
and the system of education carried out in 
that college. Occasionally he took the chair 
at May meetings at Exeter Hall, but his in- 
temperate language prevented him from be- 
coming a leader in evangelical politics. The 
Catholic Relief Bill of 1829 encountered his 
most vehement hostility, and ultimately led 
to a duel with the Duke of Wellington. Lord 
"VVinchilsea, in a letter to the secretary of 
King's College, London, wrote that the duke, 
' under the cloak of some coloured show of 
zeal for the protestant religion, carried on an 
insidious design for the infringement of our 
liberties and the introduction of popery into 
every department of the state.' The duke re- 
plied with a challenge. The meeting took place 
inBatterseaFieldson21 March 1829, the duke 
being attended by Sir Henry Hardinge, and 
his opponent by Edward Boscawen, viscount 
Falmouth. The duke fired and missed, where- 
upon Winchilsea fired in the air and then 
apologised for the language of his letter (An- 
nual Register, 1829, pp. 58-63; STOCQUELEE, 
Life of Wellington, ii. 147-8, with portrait of 
Winchilsea ; STEINMETZ, Romance of Duel- 
ling, ii. 336-43). He was a very frequent 
speaker in the lords, and strenuously opposed 
the Reform Bill and other whig measures. 
He was gazetted lieutenant-colonel comman- 
dant of the East Kent regiment of yeomanry 
20 Dec. 1830, named a deputy-lieutenant for 
the county of Lincoln 26 Sept. 1831, and 
created a D.C.L. of Oxford 10 June 1834. 
He died at Haverholme Priory, near Slea- 
ford, Lincolnshire, 8 Jan. 1858. 

He was the writer of a pamphlet entitled 
1 Earl of Winchilsea's Letter to the " Times," 
calling upon the Protestants of Great Bri- 
tain to unite heart and soul in addressing 
the Throne for a Dissolution of Parliament,' 

Winchilsea was married three times : first, 
on 26 July 1814, to Georgiana Charlotte, 
eldest daughter of James Graham, third duke 
of Montrose, she died at Haverholme Priory 

13 Feb. 1835 ; secondly, on 15 Feb. 1837, to 
Lmily Georgiana, second daughter of Sir 
Charles Bagot, G.C.B., she died at Haver- 

& ?T y Mar garetta, eldest daughter 
of Edward Royd Rice of Dane Court, Kent. 
[Portraits of Eminent Conservatives and 
Statesmen, 1st ser. 1886, with portrait; Doyle's 
Baronage (1886), iii. 690, with portrait after 
T. Philhpps; Carpenter's Peerage for the People 
(1841), pp. 772-3; Gent. Mag. February 1858 
pp. 211-12.] G. C. JB. 

1857), engraver, was younger brother, fellow- 
pupil, and coadj utor of William Finden [q. v.l , 
and shared his successes and fortunes. He 
executed some separate works, among early 
ones being a set of etchings for Duppa's ' Mis- 
cellaneous Opinions and Observations on the 
Continent,' 1825, and ' Illustrations of the 
Vaudois in a Series of Views,' 1831. He was 
also a large contributor of illustrations to the 
annuals, books of beauty, poetry, and other 
sentimental works then in vogue. The sepa- 
rate engravings executed by him included 
1 The Harvest Waggon,' after Gainsborough ; 
'As Happy as a King,' after W. Collins; 
'Captain Macheath in Prison,' after G. S. 
Newton ; ' The Little Gleaner,' after Sir W. 
Beechey; 'The Princess Victoria,' after 
Westall; 'Othello telling his Exploits to 
Brabantio and Desdemona,' after Douglas 
Cowper, &c. He died at St. John's Wood, 
aged 65, on 9 Feb. 1857. 

[Art Journal, 1852 ; Bryan's Diet, of Painters 
and Engravers, ed. Graves ; Eedgrave's Diet, of 
Artists; Athenaeum, September 1852; Encycl. 
Brit. 9th ed. ; Brit. Mus. Cat.] L. C. 

FINDEN, WILLIAM (1787-1852), en- 
graver, was apprenticed to James Mitan, an 
engraver, one of the articles of his appren- 
ticeship being that he was never to be a can- 
didate for academy honours ; it is probable, 
however, that he derived much instruction 
from his careful study of the works of James 
Heath (1766-1834) [q. v.] He worked chiefly 
in conjunction with his younger brother and 
fellow-pupil, Edward Finden [q. v.], and was 
at first employed in his master's line of engrav- 
ing, illustrating the books published by Sharpe, 
Sutton, and others, engraving Smirke's draw- 
ings for ' Don Quixote.' This rather cramped 
style of book illustration the Findens de- 
veloped to a very great extent. They esta- 
blished a large school of pupils, who worked 
under their direction, and executed most of 
the works which bear the Findens' name, the 
Findens confining themselves principally to 
supervision, and to giving the few touches 
necessary to produce the elaborate finish 




and precision in which their productions ex- 
celled. This mechanical elaboration perhaps 
renders their works cold, and prevents their 
great excellency from being duly appreciated. 
Among the earlier works produced by Wil- 
liam Finden were the illustrations to Sir 
Henry Ellis's edition of Dugdale's ' History 
of St. Paul's,' 1818, Dibdin's ' ^Edes Althor- 
pianse,' 1822, &c. The brothers were both 
employed in engraving the Elgin marbles for 
the British Museum, and also on the illus- 
trations for ' The Arctic Voyages ' published 
by Murray; Brockedon's 'Passes of the Alps,' 
1829; Campbell's ' Poetical Works,' 1828; 
and Lodge's ' Portraits,' 1821-34. They pub- 
lished on their own account and at their own 
cost in 1833 the illustrations to Moore's 'Life 
and Works of Lord Byron.' This last-named 
work created a great sensation. It was fol- 
lowed by other works of a popular nature, 
1 The Gallery of the Graces,' from pictures by 
Chalon, Landseer, and others, 1832-4 ; l Land- 
scape Illustrations of the Bible,' after Turner, 
Callcott, Stanfield, and others, 1834-6 ; l By- 
ron Beauties,' 1834 ; ' Landscape Illustrations 
to the Life and Poetical Works of George 
Crabbe,' 1834 ; ' Portraits of the Female 
Aristocracy of the Court of Queen Victoria/ 
after Chalon, Hayter, and others, 1838-9; 
'Tableaux of National Character, Beauty, 
and Costume,' first edited by Mrs. S. C. Hall, 
then by Mary Russell Mitford (among the 
contributors of poetry was Elizabeth Barrett, 
afterwards Mrs. Browning [q. v.]), &c. The 
large profits which the brothers Finden gained 
from these works were risked and finally 
dissipated in an ambitious production, ' The 
Royal Gallery of British Art,' 1838, &c. ; 
this publication, though admirably planned 
and beautifully executed, was unsuited to a 
public whose taste for annuals and illustra- 
tions of poetry had been surfeited to excess. 
It was the deathblow to the fortunes of the 
two Findens. William Finden died a widower 
after a short illness on 20 Sept. 1852, in his 
sixty-fifth year, and was buried in Highgate 
cemetery ; one of his last acts was to sign a 
petition to the queen for the recognition of 
the claims of engravers to the full honours 
of the Royal Academy. Besides the publi- 
cations above mentioned and numerous other 
illustrative works he produced some impor- 
tant single works, notably the full-length 
portrait of George IV, painted by Sir Thomas 
Lawrence for the Marchioness of Conyngham 
(a collection of progressive proofs of this en- 
graving is in the print room at the British 
Museum); ' Sheep Washing' and ' The Vil- 
lage Festival,' by Sir David Wilkie (in the 
National Gallery); 'The Highlander's Re- 
turn,' 'The Highlander's Home,' and 'The 

Naughty Boy,' after Sir Edwin Landseer; 
and ' The Crucifixion,' after W. Hilton, Fin- 
den's last work, which was purchased by the 
Art Union for 1,470/. 

[For authorities see under FINDEN, EDWARD 

FINDLATER, ANDREW (1810-1885), 
compiler, born at Aberdour, Aberdeenshire, 
in 1810, was educated at the university of 
Aberdeen, where he graduated and for some 
time attended the divinity classes. On leaving 
college he became schoolmaster at Tillydesk, 
and subsequently head-master of Gordon's 
Hospital, Aberdeen. In 1853 he began a life- 
long connection with the publishing firm of 
Messrs. Chambers, Edinburgh. In the same 
year was published his essay on ' Epicurus ' in 
the ' Encyclopaedia Metropolitan.' His first 
work for Messrs. Chambers was an edition 
of their ' Information for the People,' which 
appeared in 1857. Shortly afterwards he was 
entrusted with the editorship of their ' Ency- 
clopaedia,' in which he wrote several articles. 
He also prepared for the ' Educational Course ' 
of the same firm manuals on language, astro- 
nomy, physical geography, and physiography, 
and put forth new editions of their ' Etymo- 
logical Dictionary' and the 'Miscellanies.' 
In addition to these literary productions, he 
contributed a series of essays entitled ' Notes 
of Travel ' and various other articles to the 
' Scotsman.' In 1864 he received the degree 
of LL.D. from the university of Aberdeen. 
His work is characterised by singular clear- 
ness of exposition. His handbook on philo- 
logy, for which study he had a special liking, 
is particularly concise and intelligent. He 
died on 1 Jan. 1885. He married a daughter 
of Thomas Barclay, sheriff-clerk of Fifeshire, 
who died in 1879. 

[Scotsman, 2 Jan. 1885; private information.] 

W. B-E. 

FINDLATER, CHARLES (1754-1838), 
agricultural writer and essayist, was born 
10 Jan. 1754 in the manse of West Linton, 
Peeblesshire. His grandfather, Alexander 
Findlater, was a native of Moray, and 'mar- 
ried into the famous Scotch family, Kirkaldy 
of Grange. Thomas (1697-1778), his son, 
was minister of West Linton, but his settle- 
ment there in 1729 was resolutely opposed by 
certain of the parishioners, and led to the rise 
of a secessionist congregation, which still sur- 
vives. Charles was Thomas Findlater's son 
by his second wife, Jean, daughter of Wil- 
liam Brown, an Edinburgh bookseller. He 
graduated at Edinburgh University 14 Nov. 
1770. In 1777 he was ordained assistant to 
his father, and in 1790 was presented by the 
Duke of Queensberry to the neighbouring 



parish, Newlands, where he lived until 1835, 
and then retiring from duty, died at Glasgow 
28 May 1838, aged 84. His appointment at 
Newlands, like his father's at West Linton, 
wasfopposed, and led to the establishment of 
a seceding congregation, which yet exists. 
He married (26 July 1791) Janet Hay Russell 
(who was accidentally burnt to death in 1828). 
He was father of the synod of Lothian and 
Tweeddale, and was buried at Newlands. A 
marble bust of him, executed at the cost of 
many admirers, is in the Peebles Art Gallery. 

Himself of the moderate theological school, 
Findlater's liberal opinions and neglect of 
conventionalities, united with much kind- 
ness of heart and intellectual power, marked 
him among his brother clergy. The cordi- 
ality of his friendship and correctness of his 
life were universally acknowledged. He esta- 
blished one of the first local savings banks, 
and used to carry his account-book for it 
regularly with him on his pastoral visitations. 
He would sing a song at a cottar's wedding, 
and on many wintry Sundays gather his con- 
gregation round him in his kitchen and give 
them dinner afterwards. 

Findlater's books show him to have been 
well read in moral and political economy. 
He published: 1. { Liberty and Equality; a 
Sermon or Essay, with an Appendix on God- 
win's system of society in his "Political Jus- 
tice,"' 1800. This sermon, preached at New- 
lands, was directed against the l new doctrine 
of French philosophy, the monstrous doc- 
trine of equality.' Few of his parishioners 
could have understood a word of it. Yet 
some sympathisers with the obnoxious doc- 
trine attacked Findlater, and he was obliged 
to hide himself until the lord advocate, Sir 
James Montgomery, was able to appease the 
outcry. The sermon was dedicated to Mont- 
gomery when printed. 2. * General View of 
the Agriculture of the County of Peebles,' 
Edinburgh, 1802. This is descriptive rather 
than didactic. Restates that pigeons and bees 
are rather disadvantageous than otherwise to 
the Peebles farmers from their impoverish- 
ing the ground, and, curiously enough, never 
mentions in his survey either the game or 
the fish of the county. The industry and 
sobriety of the inhabitants are commended, 
1 with the exception of a few instances of per- 
version of principle, occasioned by the in- 
troduction of the French philosophy, and 
these chiefly confined to the county town.' 
3. * Sermons or Essays, as the Reader shall 
chuse to design them, upon Christian Duties,' 
1830. In these are contained ' a plain state- 
ment of some of the most obvious principles 
of political economy.' 4. Accounts of West 
Linton and of Newlands in Sinclair's 'Sta- 

tistical Account ' and in the new < Statistical 

[Findlater's Works in the British Museum ; 
Dr. Hew Scott's Fasti Ecclesiae Scoticanse, pt. i! 
247, 253 ; Presbytery and Synod Eecords at 
Newlands; private information from the Rev. 
J. Milne, minister of Newlands.] M. Or. W. 

EARL or. [See OGILVT, JAMES, 1664-1730.] 


(1812-1875), geographer and hydrographer, 
born in London, 6 Jan. 1812, was a descendant 
of the Findlaysof Arbroath, Forfarshire. His 
grandfather was a shipowner of that port, who 
transferred his business to the river Thames 
about the middle of last century. Findlay's 
father, Alexander Findlay, also a geographer, 
was born in London in 1790, and became one 
of the original fellows of the Royal Geogra- 
phical Society on its foundation in 1830. 
Among his numerous undertakings success- 
fully completed was an atlas sheet of the 
environs of London (1829) to a distance of 
thirty-two miles from St. Paul's (upon a 
half-inch scale), every line of which was his 
own handiwork. He died in 1870. The son 
early devoted himself to the compilation of 
geographical and hydrographical works, and 
his atlases of* Ancient and Comparative Geo- 
graphy ' are known all over the world. In 
1851 ne completed the revision of Brookes's 
' Gazetteer,' and the same year published his 
earliest important work, on the ' Coasts and 
Islands of the Pacific Ocean,' in 2 vols. of 
1 ,400 pages. By the death of John Purdy, 
the hydrographer, in 1843, he succeeded to 
the foremost position in this branch of nau- 
tical research and authorship. His researches 
in the kindred science of meteorology further 
attracted the attention of Admiral Fitzroy, 
who in the earlier days of meteorological in- 
vestigation invited him to join an official de- 
partment then about to be established, but 
Findlay preferred an independent career. In 
the course of years of immense labour he pre- 
pared and issued six large nautical directories, 
which have proved invaluable to the mari- 
time world. These directories are accom- 
panied by illustrations, charts, &c., and in- 
clude 'the North Atlantic Ocean,' 'The 
South Atlantic Ocean/ ' The Indian Ocean,' 
1 Indian Archipelago, China, and Japan,' ' The 
South Pacific Ocean,' and ' The North Pacific 
Ocean.' ' These works,' observes Sir Henry 
Rawlinson, 'constitute a monument of in- 
dustry and perseverance, and are accepted as 
standard authorities in every quarter of the 
globe.' As a cartographer Findlay exhibited 
a wide practical knowledge of the sailor's 
requirements which even the hydrographic 



department of the admiralty was not able to 
surpass, and he executed a series of charts uni- 
versally known and appreciated by the mer- 
cantile marine. The Society of Arts awarded 
Findlay its medal for his dissertation on ' The 
English Lighthouse System.' Subsequently 
he published 'Lighthouses and Coast Fog 
Signals of the World.' At the time of Sir 
John Franklin's catastrophe he carefully sifted 
all the probable and possible routes, and as a 
member of the Arctic committee of the Royal 
Geographical Society materially assisted in 
preparing the arguments which induced the 
government to send out the Alert and Dis- 
covery expedition of 1875. On the death of 
Laurie, the London geographical and print 
publisher, in 1858, Findlay took up his busi- 
ness, which soon sprang into renewed activity 
under his guidance, and in 1885, on the dis- 
persal of the navigation business of Van Keu- 
len of Amsterdam, founded in 1678, it became 
the oldest active firm in Europe for the publi- 
cation of charts and nautical works. Find- 
lay devoted much time to the labours of his 
friend, Dr. Livingstone, in central Africa, and 
he also carefully investigated the question of 
the sources of the Nile. For the record of the 
Burton and Speke explorations in the lake 
regions of central equatorial Africa during 
1858-9 he constructed a map of the routes 
traversed. He also wrote a paper on the con- 
nection of Lake Tanganyika with the Nile, 
accompanying it by a comparative series of 
maps relating to the northern end of the lake. 
Findlay served on various committees ap- 
pointed by the British Association for the 
Advancement of Science, and contributed 
the following papers to section E : at Liver- 
pool in 1853, ' On the Currents of the Atlan- 
tic and Pacific Oceans ; ' Exeter, 1869, ' On 
the Gulf Stream, and its supposed influence 
upon the Climate of N.-W. Europe.' 

In 1844 Findlay was elected a fellow of 
the Royal Geographical Society, and soon 
became an active member of its council and 
committees. To the ' Journal ' of the society 
he contributed several papers, as well as to 
the ' Transactions of the Royal United Service 
Institution,' and to the ' Transactions of the 
Society of Arts.' Findlay's services were 
pronounced equally worthy of remembrance 
with those of Arrowsmith and Petermann. In 
1870 the Societa Geografica Italiana elected 
him one of its foreign honorary members. 
Findlay's various publications embrace a total 
of no less than ten thousand pages, all of 
which are in active use. He died at Dover 
on 3 May 1875. 

[Royal Geographical Society's Journal, vol. 
xlv. 1875; Athenaeum, May 1875; Bookseller, 
June 1875 ; private memoranda.] G. B. S. 

FINDLAY, ROBERT, D.D.(1721-1814) r 
Scotch divine, son of William Findlay of 
Waxford, Ayrshire, born 23 Nov. 1721, was 
educated at Glasgow, Leyden, and Edinburgh, 
and was ordained a minister of the kirk of 
Scotland in 1744. He had charges succes- 
sively at Stevenston (1743), Galston (1745), 
Paisley (1754), and St. David's Church, Glas- 
gow (1756), was appointed professor of di- 
vinity in the university of Glasgow in 1782, 
and died 15 June 1814. He published in the 
Library ' for July 1761 A Letter to the 
Rev. Dr. Kennicott vindicating the Jews 
from the Charge of Corrupting Deut. xxvii. 4,' 
which, on Kennicott's replying in the * Li- 
brary,' he followed up with ' A Second Letter 
to Dr. Kennicott upon the same subject, 
being an Answer to the Remarks in the " Li- 
brary " for August 1761, and a further illus- 
tration of the argument.' This letter he 
sent to the ' Library ; ' but the editor of that 
magazine having had enough of the contro- 
versy, it appeared separately in January 1762. 
Both letters were signed ' Philalethes.' A 
more ambitious task next engaged Findlay's 
attention, viz. an examination of the views 
on the credibility of Josephus and the Jewish 
and Christian Scriptures propounded by Vol- 
taire in his ' Philosophic de 1'Histoire.' This 
work appeared under the title of ' A Vin- 
dication of the Sacred Books and of Josephus, 
especially the former, from various misrepre- 
sentations and cavils of the celebrated M. de 
Voltaire,' Glasgow, 1770, 8vo. Findlay also 
published a pamphlet on ' The Divine Inspi- 
ration of the Jewish Scriptures and Old 
Testament,' London, 1803, 8vo. 

[Irving's Book of Eminent Scotsmen ; Brit. 
Mus. Cat.; Cleland's Annals of Glasgow, ii. 
114; Hew Scott's Fasti Eccl. Scot. ii. 26, 116, 
187, 203.] J. M. R. 

1641), master of the ceremonies, was son of 
Robert Finet of Soulton, near Dover, Kent, 
who died early in 1582. His mother was 
Alice, daughter and coheiress of John Wen- 
lock, a captain of Calais. His great-grand- 
father, John Finet, an Italian of Siena, came 
to England as a servant in the train of Car- 
dinal Campeggio in 1519, settled here and 
married a lady named Mantell, maid of honour 
to Catherine of Arragon. John was brought 
up at court and commended himself to 
James I by composing and singing witty 
songs in the royal presence after supper. Sir 
Anthony Weldon (Court of Xing James, 
1812, i. 399) credits Finet's songs with much 
coarseness. On 17 Jan. 1617-18 he is said to- 
have offended his master by the impropriety 
of some verses that he introduced into a play 



produced at court (Cal. State Papers, Dom. 

17 Jan. 1618). Finet was in Paris early in 
1610, and sent home an account of the treat- 
ment accorded to duellists in France, dated 
19 Feb. 1609-10 (see Cott. MS. Titus, C. iv.) 
He seems to have been at the time in the 
service of Lord-treasurer Salisbury ( Cal. State 
Papers, Dom. 29 April 1612). Wood states 
that he was in France on diplomatic business 
in 1614, but on 15 Dec. 1614 he was reported 
in a contemporary news-letter to have just 
returned from Spain, whither he had been 
despatched to present gifts of armour and 
animals to members of the royal family (id. 
15 Dec. 1614). Next year he was with the 
king at Cambridge. On 23 March 1615-16 
he was knighted, and on 13 Sept. 1619 he 
was granted the reversion of the place of 
Sir Lewis Lewknor, master of the cere- 
monies, whom he had already begun to assist 
in the performance of his duties. On 19 Feb. 
1624-5 he was granted a pension of 120/., 
vacant by the death of Sir William Button, 
assistant-master of the ceremonies, and on 

18 March 1624-5 he was formally admitted 
into Button's office on the understanding 
that on Finet's promotion to Lewknor's place 
the office should be abolished. On Lewk- 
nor's death Finet succeeded to the mastership 
of ceremonies (12 March 1625-6). Thence- 
forward Finet was busily employed in en- 
tertaining foreign envoys at the English 
court, and determining the numerous diffi- 
culties regarding precedence which arose 
among the resident ambassadors. He was in- 
timate with all the courtiers. Lord Herbert 
of Cherbury (Autobiography, ed. S. L. Lee, 

?. 164) had made his acquaintance before 
616. In 1636 it was proposed at Oxford 
to confer on him the degree of D.C.L., but it 
is doubtful if the proposal was carried out. 
Finet died 12 July 1641, aged 70, and was 
buried on the north side of the church of St. 
Martin's-in-the-Fields. Sir Charles Cotterell 
[q. v.] was his successor at court. 

In 1618 Finet married Jane, the ' lame ' 
daughter of Henry, lord Wentworth, of 
Nettlestead, Suffolk, whose brother Thomas 
was created Earl of Cleveland 7 Feb. 1624-5. 
By her he had a son, John, and two daugh- 
ters, Lucy and Finetta. 

Finet was the author of the following : 
1. 'The Beginning, Continvance, and Decay 
of Estates. Written in French by R. de Lu- 
sing, L. of Alymes, and translated into Eng- 
lish by I. F.' (London, 1606); dedication, 
signed lohn Finet, to Richard Bancroft, arch- 
bishop of Canterbury : an essay on the his- 
tory of the Turks in Europe. 2. 'Finetti 
Philoxenis : some choice observations of S r 
John Finett, knight, and master of the cere- 

monies to the two last kings, Touching the 
Reception and Precedence, the Treatment 
and Audience, the Puntillios and Contests 
of Forren Ambassadors in England,' London, 
1656. The dedication to Philip, viscount 
Lisle, is signed by the editor, James Howell 
[q. v.] The incidents described by Finet 
chiefly concern the reign of James I. A 
manuscript copy of the book belongs to 
C. Cottrell Dormer, esq., of Rousham, near 
Oxford (Hist. MSS. Comm. 2nd Rep. 83). An 
interesting letter from Finet to Lord Clifford 
is among the Duke of Devonshire's MSS. at 
Bolton Abbey (ib. 3rd Rep. 39). Others are 
at Hatfield and the Record Office. Some 
recipes by Finet appear in a manuscript 
volume belonging to the late E. P. Shirley 
of Ettington Hall, Oxford (ib. 5th Rep. 365). 

[Wood's Fasti, ed. Bliss, ii. 492-3 ; Cal. State 
Papers, Dom. 1611-41; Berry's County Gene- 
alogies, Kent, p. 449; authorities cited in the 
text.] S. L. L. 

FINEUX, SIB JOHN (d. 1525). [See 



(f 1685-1717), composer, a native of Olmiitz 
in Moravia, came to England probably about 
1685. This date is fixed by the preface to 
his first composition, ' Sonatse XII,' in which 
he says that it was the fame of James II 
which led him to bid farewell to his native 
land. The work was published in 1688, but 
from his calling the king ' tutissimum contra 
aemulos et invidos zoilos patrocinium ' it may 
be inferred that he had at that time been 
long enough in England to make enemies, 
who no doubt resented the intrusion of a 
foreigner. The title of his opus primum is 
' Sonatae XII, pro diversis instruments . . . 
authore Godefrido Finger Olmutio-Moravo 
Capellae Serenissimi Regis Magnaa Britanisa 
Musico ' (no publisher's name is given). A 
beautifully engraved frontispiece shows the 
composer protected by Minerva, offering be- 
fore a bust of the king his musical produc- 
tion, on which is inscribed the motto, * Puras 
non plenas aspice manus.' A false interpre- 
tation of this title seems to have given rise 
to the impression that Finger was appointed 
chapel-master to the king (ROGER NORTH, 
Memoirs of Mustek, ed. Rimbault ; GROVE, 
Dictionary), but it is plain that no such office 
was claimed in the title, and it is also almost 
a matter of certainty that Nicholas Staggins- 
held the post during the whole period of 
Finger's residence in England. For some time 
Finger was no doubt a member of the king's- 


band. His Op. 2 (published by Walsh) con- 
sisted of six sonatas for two flutes, and in 
1690 he published (privately, according to 
Rimbault) ' VI Sonatas or Solos,' three for 
violin and three for flute, dedicated to the 
Earl of Manchester. On 5 Nov. 1691 a set 
of ' Ayres, Chacones, Divisions, and Sonatas 
for violins and flutes/ composed by Finger and 
John Banister, was advertised in the 'Lon- 
don Gazette' (No. 2712) as being on sale at 
Banister's house. Shortly afterwards, says 
the authority above quoted, he joined God- 
frey Keller in a set of sonatas in five parts 
for flutes and hautboys (PLAYFORD, General 
Catalogue, 1701). Other instrumental works 
are stated by Hawkins to be in Estienne 
Roger's catalogue. On 5 Feb. 1693 Finger's 
setting of Theophilus Parsons's ode on St. 
Cecilia's day was performed ' at the consort 
in York-buildings ' (advertised in the ' London 
Gazette,' No. 2945). He had already begun 
writing music for the theatre, having made a 
first attempt in this new capacity in the pre- 
vious year, on the production of Southerne's 

* Wives' Excuse ' at Drury Lane. The list 
of plays for which he wrote music is, as 
far as can be ascertained, as follows : Con- 
greve's 'Love for Love,' 1695, and 'The 
Mourning Bride,' 1697 ; Ravenscroft's ' Anato- 
mist,' in which was inserted the masque 
by Motteux, entitled ' The Loves of Mars and 
Venus,' 1697 (the music, written in con- 
junction with J. Eccles, was published by 
Heptinstall and dedicated to Sir Robert 
Howard) ; N. Lee's The Rival Queens ' (with 
Daniel Purcell) ; Elkanah Settle's ' Virgin 
Prophetess/ Baker's ' Humours of the Age/ 
Mrs. Trotter's 'Love at a Loss/ Gibber's 
'Love makes a Man,' and Farquhar's 'Sir 
Harry Wildair/ all in 1701. These were 
most probably written, though not performed, 
before the ' Prize Music/ as it w r as called, was 
publicly heard. On 18 March 1699 the 

* London Gazette ' contained an advertise- 
ment to the effect that ' several persons of 
quality' had offered a sum of two hundred 
guineas for the best musical settings of a 
certain work not named in the advertisement. 
This was Congreve's masque ' The Judgment 
of Paris/ and the four prizes were to be in 
this proportion : one hundred, fifty, thirty, 
and twenty guineas. As to how long a time 
was allowed for the work information is not 
forthcoming; the successful compositions 
were, however, performed early in the new 
century. The prizes were awarded in this 
order : John Weldon, John Eccles, Daniel 
Purcell, and Godfrey Finger. The early au- 
thorities seem to agree in considering Finger 
to have been the best of the competitors, and 
the award is generally explained as the result 

> Finger 

of animosity against a foreigner. At this 
point of musical history English music en- 
joyed for a brief space exceptional popularity. 
The foreign element which had made its 
appearance with the Elizabethan inadrigalists 
had died out, and the advent of the Italian 
opera and Handel did not take place until 
a few years later. The judges of the com- 
positions were not masters of the art, but 
members of the fashionable world. The Hon. 
Roger North says, in recounting the history 
of the affair in his ' Memoirs of Musick ' (ed. 
Rimbault, p. 117) : ' I will not suppose, as 
some did, that making interest as for favour 
and partiality influenced these determina- 
tions, but it is certain that the comunity of 
the masters were not of the same opinion 
with them. Mr. G. Finger, a german, and a 
good musitian, one of the competitors who 
had resided in England many years, went 
away upon it, declaring that he thought he 
was to compose music for men and not for 
boys.' Some authorities allege as the reason 
of his departure the inadequate performance 
of his work, which Fetis states, but without 
giving his source of information, to have 
taken place on 11 March 1701. In 1702 he 
was appointed chamber-musician to Sophia 
Charlotte, queen of Prussia, and for some 
years he lived at Breslau. After the queen's 
death an opera, ' Der Sieg der Schonheit iiber 
die Helden/ was performed in Berlin in De- 
cember 1706. It was composed by Finger 
and A. R. Strieker, and the ballets were by 
Volumier. He is said to have produced an- 
other opera, ' Roxane ' (Telemann's account, 
quoted by MATTHESON), but the fact that 
Strieker wrote an opera, 'Alexanders und 
Roxanens Heirath/ produced at Berlin in 
1708, makes it uncertain whether Telemann 
was not in error, especially as he does not 
express his meaning very lucidly. In 1717 
he was appointed chapel-master at the court 
of Gotha. He is said to have held the 
title of ' Churpfalzischer Kammerrath ' at the 
time of his death, but the date is not forth- 

[Sonatse XII, &c., title quoted above ; Hon. 
Roger North's Memoirs of Musick, ed. Rim- 
bault, 1846, p. 117 et seq. and notes; Grove's 
Diet. i. 524, &c. ; Burney's Hist. iii. 579, iv. 
632; Hawkins's Hist. (ed. 1853), 701, 764, 824; 
London Gazette, references given above ; Tetis's 
Dictionnaire, sub voce ; Mattheson's Grundlage 
einer Ehrenpforte, Hamburg, 1740, p. 362 ; 
Schneider's Geschichte der Oper, &c., 1852, pp. 
23, 24; Addit.MS. in Brit. Mus. 31466, consisting 
of sixty-six sonatas for violin, thirteen of which 
are by Finger. Manuscript scores of the music 
in the 'Rival Queens' and the 'Virgin Prophetess' 
are in the Fitzwilliam Museum at Cambridge.] 

J. A. F. M. 



FINGLAS, PATRICK (Jl. 1535), Irish 
judge, was appointed baron of the exchequer 
in Ireland by Henry VIII in or before 1520, 
and afterwards, by patent dated at Westmin- 
ster 8 May 1534, he was constituted chief 
justice of the king's bench in that kingdom 
in the place of Sir Bartholomew Dillon. He 
resigned the latter office in or before 1535. 

He wrote 'A. Breviat of the getting of 
Ireland, and of the Decaie of the same.' 
Printed in Harris's ' Hibernica,' edit. 1770, 
i. 79-103. It appears that the original ma- 
nuscript of this work is in the Public Record 
Office (State Papers, Henry VIII, Ireland, 
vol. xii. art. 7). It is described in the calendar 
as ' An Historical Dissertation on the Con- 
quest of Ireland, the decay of that land, and 
measures proposed to remedy the grievances 
thereof arising from the oppressions of the 
Irish nobility.' 

[Ware's Writers of Ireland (Harris), p. 93 ; 
Liber Hibernise, ii. 30, 49 ; Cal. of State Papers 
relating to Ireland, 1509-73 (Hamilton), pp. 3, 
9, 14, 161.] T. C. 

FINGLOW, JOHN (d. 1586), catholic 
divine, born at Barnby, near Howden, York- 
shire, was educated at the English College 
of Douay, during its temporary removal to 
Rheims, where he was ordained priest on 
25 March 1581. Being sent on the mission 
he laboured zealously in the north of Eng- 
land until he was apprehended and com- 
mitted to the Ousebridge Kidcote at York. 
He was tried and convicted of high treason, 
for being a priest made by Roman authority, 
and for having reconciled some of the queen's 
subjects to the catholic church. He was 
executed at York on 8 Aug. 1586. 

[Douay Diaries, pp. 10, 28, 160, 176, 178, 
261, 293; Challoner's Missionary Priests (1741), 
i. 183; Dodd's Church Hist. ii. 106; Morris's 
Troubles of our Catholic Forefathers, 3rd series ; 
Stanton's Menology, p. 387.] T. C. 

a brother in the Franciscan or Greyfriars' 
monastery at Norwich, where he was also 
educated, was born at Finingham in Suffolk, 
and nourished in the reign of Henry VI. 
He was a very learned man, skilled, as Pits 
expresses it, in all liberal arts, excelling es- 
pecially in canon law, and was the author 
of numerous Latin works. The chief pur- 
pose of his writings was in defence of the 
Franciscans against the common accusation 
that their profession of poverty was hypo- 
critical. The titles given of his works are 
as follows : 1 . ' Pro Ordine Minorum.' 2. ' Pro 
dignitate Status eorum.' 3. ' Casus Conci- 
liorum Anglige.' 4. ' De Casibus Decretorum.' 
5. 'De Casibus Decretalium.' 6. 'De Extra- 

vagantibus.' 7. * De Excommunicationibus.' 
Tanner describes a manuscript of the last in 

University Library (E. e. v. 11). 

[Pits, De Anglise Scriptt. p. 652 ; Bale's Scriptt. 
Brit. cent. viii. 23 ; Tanner's Bibl. Brit. p. 280 ; 
Blomefield's Hist, of Norfolk, iv. 113 ; Wadding's 
Scriptt. Min. Ord. (1650), p. 308.] E. T. B. 

FINLAISON, JOHN (1783-18CO), statis- 
tician and government actuary, son of Donald 
Finlayson (who spelt the name thus), was 
born at Thurso in Caithness-shire, 27 Aug. 
1783, and at the age of seven was by the 
death of his father left an orphan. In 1802 
he became factor to Sir Benjamin Dunbar 
(afterwards Lord Duffus), whose whole es- 
tates, together with those of Lord Caith- 
ness, were entrusted to his management when 
he was only nineteen years of age. He soon 
after went to Edinburgh to study for the 
bar, but having visited London in 1804 on 
business, he became attached to Elizabeth, 
daughter of the Rev. James Glen, and re- 
ceiving the offer of an appointment under the 
board of naval revision, which enabled him 
to marry at once, he entered the government, 
service in July 1805. He was shortly after 
promoted to be first clerk to the commission, 
and filled that office till the board closed its 
labours in August 1808. For some time pre- 
viously he had also acted as secretary to a 
committee of the board, and in that capacity, 
although but twenty-three, he framed the 
eleventh and twelfth reports of the commis- 
sion (Eleventh and Twelfth Reports of the 
Commissioners for Revising the Civil Affairs of 
His Majesty's Navy, 1809; Parl Papers, 
1809, vol. vi.), and was the sole author of 
the system for the reform of the victualling 
departments. The accounts had seldom been 
less than eighteen months in arrear, but 
by Finlaison's system they were produced, 
checked, and audited in three weeks, when 
the saving made in Deptford yard only in the 
first year, 1809, was 60,000/. In 1809 he 
was employed to devise some plan for arrang- 
ing the records and despatches at the admi- 
ralty, and after nine months of incessant ap- 
plication produced a system of digesting and 
indexing the records by which any document 
could be immediately found. This plan met 
with such universal approval that it was 
adopted by France, Austria, and Russia, and 
its inventor received as a reward the order 
of the Fleur-de-lys from Louis XVIII in 1815 
(BAROtf CHARLES DTTPIN, Voyages dans la 
Grande-Bretagne, 1821, pt. ii. vol. i. pp. 60- 
67). In the same year he was appointee 
keeper of the records and librarian of the ad- 
miralty, and became reporter and precis write] 



on all difficult and complicated inquiries aris- 
ing from day to day. During the twelve 
years while he held this post he was also en- 
gaged in many other confidential duties. He 
was desired by Lord Mulgrave to prepare the 
materials for a defence of the naval adminis- 
tration before parliament in 1810, and with 
three months' labour collected a mass of in- 
formation which enabled Mulgrave to make 
a successful defence. In 1811 Finlaison com- 
piled an exact account of all the enemy's naval 
forces. Such information had never before 
been obtained with even tolerable accuracy. 
Experience proved it to be correct, and it was 
quoted in parliament as an authority. In 
the same year he was employed to investi- 
gate the abuses of the sixpenny revenue at 
Greenwich Hospital, a fund for the support 
of the out-pensioners, and in his report showed 
that by other arrangements, as well as by 
the reform of abuses arid the abolition of 
sinecure places, the pensions might be much 
increased. The subject of the increase of 
the salaries of the government clerks having 
twice been forced on the notice of parlia- 
ment, John Wilson Croker in 1813 directed 
Finlaison to fully inquire into the case of 
the admiralty department, when, after six 
months of close attention, he completed a 
report, upon which was founded a new system 
of salaries in the admiralty. In 1814 he com- 
piled the first official * Navy List,' a work of 
great labour, accuracy, and usefulness. It 
was issued monthly, and he continued the 
duty of correcting and editing it until the 
end of 1821. From 1817 to 1818 he was 
occupied in framing a biographical register 
of every commissioned officer in the navy, in 
number about six thousand, describing their 
services, merits, and demerits ; this work he 
engrafted on to his system of the digest and 
index, where it formed a valuable work of re- 
ference for the use of the lords of the admi- 
ralty. He introduced into the naval record 
office a hitherto unknown degree of civility 
towards the public and of readiness to impart 
information. Having as librarian found many 
valuable state papers relating to the Ameri- 
can war, he was in 1813 induced to attempt 
the completion of Sir Redhead Yorke's ' Naval 
History,' which was intended to form a part 
of Campbell's l Lives of the Admirals.' He 
carried out his design in part by continu- 
ing the history down to 1780. This por- 
tion of the work was printed for private cir- 
culation, but its further progress was aban- 
doned. In 1815 Dr. Barry O'Meara, physi- 
cian to Napoleon at St. Helena, commenced 
a correspondence with Finlaison, his private 
friend, on the subject of the emperor's daily 
life. In 1824, by the desire of the writer, 

the letters were burnt. Some copies of 
:hem, however, had fallen into other hands 
and were published in 1853 in a book en- 
titled ' Napoleon at St. Helena and Sir Hud- 
son Lowe.' Finlaison now completed a work 
on which he had been employed since 1812, 
the fund for the maintenance of the widows 
and orphans of all who were employed in the 
civil departments of the royal navy. Through 
Lord Melville's intervention his efforts ter- 
minated successfully in the establishment of 
the fund by order in council 17 Sept. 1819. 
The naval medical supplemental fund for 
the widows of medical officers also owed to 
him its existence and subsequent prosperity. 
Until 1829 he remained the secretary, when 
the directors treated him so ungenerously 
that he resigned, and by mismanagement this 
fund was ruined in 1860. The success of 
these charities, together with his subsequent 
investigation into the condition of friendly 
societies, upon which he was employed by a 
select committee of the House of Commons 
in 1824, introduced him to a private practice 
among benefit societies ; he constructed tables 
for many of these, furnished the scheme of 
some, and entirely constituted others. Among 
other societies with which he became con- 
nected were : the London Life, the Amicable 
Society, the Royal Naval and Military Life 
Assurance Company, and the New York Life 
Assurance and Trust Company. The govern- 
ment in 1808 instituted a new system of 
finance based upon the granting of life an- 
nuities, the tables used being the Northamp- 
ton tables of mortality. On 1 Sept. 1819 
Finlaison made a first report to Nicholas 
Vansittart [q. v.], in which he demonstrated 
the great loss that was sustained by the go- 
vernment in granting life annuities at prices 
much below their value, the loss in eleven 
years having been two millions sterling ( WAL- 
FORD, Insurance Cyclopaedia^ v. 496-514). 
His report was not printed till 1824, when 
he was directed to make further investiga- 
tions into the true laws of mortality prevail- 
ing in England. The result of his studies 
was the discovery that the average duration 
of human life had increased during the cen- 
tury. His tables were also the first which 
showed the difference between male and fe- 
male lives ('Life Annuities. Report of J. 
Finlaison, Actuary of the National Debt, on 
the Evidence and Elementary Facts on which 
the Tables of Life Annuities are founded/ 

Before the close of 1819 he furnished the 
chancellor of the exchequer with a statement 
of the age of each individual in the receipt of 
naval half-pay or pensions, fourteen thousand 
persons, thence deducing the decrement of 



life among 1 them. In 1821 Mr. Harrison em- 
ployed him for several months in computa- 
tions relative to the Superannuation Act, and 
in 1822 he was occupied in considerations re- 
lative to the commutation of the naval and 
military half-pay and pensions. The measure 
consequently suggested by him was finally 
established by negotiations with the Bank of 
England in 1823 for its acceptance of the 
charge for public pensions in consideration of 
the ' dead weight ' annuity. All the calcula- 
tions were made by him, and it was plainly 
stated in the House of Commons that in the 
whole establishment of the Bank of England 
there was not one person capable of computing 
the new annuity at the fractional rate of inte- 
rest agreed upon. On 1 Jan. 1822 he was re- 
moved from the admiralty to the treasury, 
and appointed actuary and principal account- 
ant of the check department of the national 
debt office, the duties of which position he 
performed for twenty-nine years. For many 
years after he had sought to impress on the 
government the loss which the country was 
sustaining by the use of erroneous tables, he 
was treated with neglect and contempt, and 
it was only by the accidental production of 
one of his letters before Lord Althorpe's com- 
mittee of finance in March 1828 that the 
matter was brought forward. This letter 
proved that the revenue was losing 8,OOOZ. a 
week, and that this loss was concealed by 
the method of preparing the yearly accounts. 
The immediate suspension of the life annuity 
system took place, and, remodelled upon the 
basis of Finlaison's tables, it was resumed in 
November 1829 with a saving in five years 
of 390,000/. In 1831 he made computations 
on the duration of slave and Creole life, pre- 
liminary to the compensation made to the 
slaveowners 1 Aug. 1834. He was con- 
sulted by the ecclesiastical commissioners on 
the means of improving church property, on 
the question of church leases, and finally on 
the subject of church rates; he made various 
reports on these matters, and on one occasion 
was summoned to attend the cabinet to ex- 
plain his views to the ministers. On the 
passing of the General Registration Act in 
1837, his opinion was taken on the details of 
the working of the scheme, and he was the 
first witness called before the parliamentary 
committee on church leases in the following 
year. The Institution of Actuaries being 
formed in 1847, he was elected the first pre- 
sident, and retained that position until his 
death. In 1848 he wrote two reports on the 
act for lending money to Irish landlords. He 
retired from the public service in August 
1851, and employed his remaining days in 
his favourite study of scripture chronology, 

and the universal relationship of ancient and 
modern weights and measures. He died at 
15 Lansdowne Crescent, Netting Hill, Lon- 
don, 13 April 1860. He married in London, 
first, m 1805, Elizabeth, daughter of the Rev. 
James Glen, she died at Brighton in 1831 ; 
secondly, in 1836, Eliza, daughter of Thomas 
Davis of Waltham Abbey. His son Alexan- 
der Glen Finlaison, who was born at White- 
hall on 25 March 1806, is also an author and 
an authority on insurance statistics. 

Finlaison was the author of : 1. ' Report of 
the Secretary to the Supplemental Fund for 
the Relief of the Widows and Orphans of the 
Medical Officers of the Royal Navy/ 1817. 

2. ' Tables showing the Amount of Contri- 
butions for Providing Relief in Sickness/ 1833. 

3. ' Rules of the Equitable Friendly Institu- 
tion, Northampton, with Tables/ 1837. 4. <Ac- 
count of some Applications of the Electric 
Fluid to the Useful Arts by A. Bain, with a 
Vindication of his Claim to be the First 
Inventor of the Electro-Magnetic Printing 
Telegraph, and also of the Electro-Magnetic 
Clock/ 1843. 5. ' Tables for the use of 
Friendly Societies, for the Certificate of the 
Actuary to the Commissioners for the Reduc- 
tion of the National Debt. Constructed from 
the original computations of J. Finlaison, by 
A. G. Finlaison/ 1847. He also produced 
some lyrical poems of considerable merit. 

[Times, 17 April 1860, p. 9, and 23 April, 
p. 9 ; G-ent. Mag. August 1860, pp. 194-5 ; As- 
surance Mag. April 1862, pp. 147-69 ; Walford's 
Insurance Cyclopsedia (1874), iii. 300-3 ; Macau- 
lay's England (1858), i. 284 ; Southwood Smith's 
Philosophy of Health (1835), i. 115-47.] 

GK C. B. 

1857), Irish journalist, son of John Finlay, 
tenant farmer, of Newtownards, co. Down, by 
his wife, Jane Dalzell, was born 12 July 1793 
at Newtownards, and began life as a printer's 
apprentice in Belfast, where he started as a 
master printer in 1820. The letterpress which 
issued from his works was distinguished by 
both accuracy and elegance, being far superior 
to any that had previously been produced in 
Ireland. In 1824 he founded the ' Northern 
Whig.' Liberalism being then a very unpo- 
pular creed in Ulster, Finlay was frequently 
prosecuted for press offences. On 21 July 
1826 he was indicted for publishing in the 
'Northern Whig ' a libel tending to bring into 
disrepute the character of a certain ' improv- 
ing ' landlord. The libel consisted in a letter 
purporting to be by a small farmer in which 
the improvements alleged to have been ef- 
fected by the landlord in question were denied 
to be improvements at all, and in which a 
character for litigiousness was imputed to 




the landlord. Finlay was sentenced to three 
months' imprisonment, without the option of 
a fine, and the publication of the ' Northern 
Whig' was suspended from August 1826 
until May 1827. From the first Finlay ad- 
vocated the emancipation of the Roman ca- 
tholics, and it was in the columns of the 
' Northern Whig ' that William Sharman 
Crawford [q.v.] propounded his celebrated 
views on tenant-right. Some comments in 
the ' Northern Whig ' on the conduct of Lord 
Hertford's agent led to another prosecution for 
libel in 1830, which, however, was abandoned 
when it transpired that Daniel O'Connell had 
volunteered for the defence. On a similar 
charge he was found guilty on 23 July 1832 
and sentenced to three months' imprisonment 
and fined 50/. In spite, however, of these 
proceedings, the ' Northern Whig ' continued 
from time to time to give expression to similar 
views which were adjudged libellous and 
occasioned its proprietor very heavy legal ex- 
penditure. To the extension of the suffrage, 
the disestablishment of the Irish church, and 
the reform of the land laws Finlay through 
his paper gave a steady and zealous support ; 
but, though a personal friend of O'Connell, 
he opposed the movement for the repeal of 
the union and the later developments of Irish 
disaffection, such as the Young Irelandism of 
Mitchell and the agitation which resulted in 
the abortive insurrection of Smith O'Brien. 
He died on 10 Sept. 1857, bequeathing his 
paper to his son, Francis Dalzell Finlay, by 
whom it was conducted until 1874, when it 
was transferred to a limited company. Finlay 
married in 1830 Marianne, daughter of the 
Rev. William Porter, presbyterian minister, 
of Newtonlimavady, co. Derry. 

[Northern Whig, 12 Sept. 1857 ; information 
from F. D. Finlay, esq.] J. M. K. 

FINLAY, GEORGE (1799-1875), his- 
torian, was son of Captain John Finlay, R.E., 
F.R.S., and brother of Kirkman Finlay (d. 
1828) [q. v.] His grandfather, James Fin- 
lay, was a Glasgow merchant. He was born 
21 Dec. 1799, at Faversham, Kent, where 
his father was inspector of the government 
powder mills. The latter died in 1802, and 
George was for some time instructed by his 
mother, to whose training he attributed his 
love of history. His education was con- 
tinued at an English boarding-school, and in 
the family of his uncle, Kirkman Finlay of 
Glasgow [q. v.], under private tutors. He 
subsequently studied law in Glasgow, and 
proceeded about 1821 to the university of Got- 
tingento acquaint himself with Roman juris- 
prudence. While there he began to doubt 
his vocation for law, and, partly influenced 

by his acquaintance with a Greek fellow- 
student, ' resolved to visit Greece and judge 
for myself concerning the condition of the 
people and the chances of the war.' In No- 
vember 1823 he met Byron at Cephaloiiia. 
1 You are young and enthusiastic,' said Byron, 
' and therefore sure to be disappointed when 
you know the Greeks as well as I do.' The 
number of Hellenes and Philhellenes about 
Byron gave umbrage to the Ionian govern- 
ment, which was bound to remain neutral. 
Finlay quitted the island on a hint from Sir 
Charles Napier, and, after narrowly escap- 
ing shipwreck, made his way successively 
to Athens and Missolonghi, where for two 
months he spent nearly every evening with 
Byron, who, Parry says, ' wasted much of 
his time ' in conversation with the future 
historian and other such frivolous persons. 
Quitting Missolonghi before Byron's death, 
Finlay joined Odysseus on an expedition into 
the Morea, but, disgusted with the general 
venality and rapacity, returned to the head- 
quarters of the government, where things 
were no better. A malarious fever compelled 
him to return to Scotland, where he passed his 
examination in civil law, but was soon again 
in Greece at the invitation of his intimate 
friend Frank Abney Hastings [q. v.], who 
had built a steamer in which Finlay took his 
passage. He continued fighting for Greece, 
or engaged in missions on her behalf, until 
the termination of the war, when he pur- 
chased an estate in Attica, ' hoping to aid in 
putting Greece into the road that leads to a 
rapid increase of production, population, and 
material improvement.' 1 1 lost my money 
and my labour, but I learned how the sys- 
tem of tenths has produced a state of society, 
and habits of cultivation, against which one 
man can do nothing. When I had wasted 
as much money as I possessed, I turned my 
attention to study.' His unfortunate invest- 
ment had at least the good results of com- 
pelling his continual residence in the country, 
with which he became most thoroughly ac- 
quainted, and of stimulating his perception 
of the evils which, in the past as in the pre- 
sent, have deteriorated the Greek character 
and injured the credit and prosperity of the 
nation. The publication of his great series 
of histories commenced in 1844, and was 
completed in 1861, when he wrote the auto- 
biographical fragment which is almost the sole 
authority for his lifgjx- His correspondence 
is lost or maccessible^and, notwithstanding 
his courteous hospitality, acknowledged by 
many travellers, little more seems to be known 
of his life in Greece than his constant endea- 
vours to benefit the country by good advice, 
j sometimes expressed in language of excessive 

*\ It is now in the library of the 
British School at Athens. For an account of 
his diaries, letter books, and correspondence, 
and a detailed biblioeraohv of his nublisheH 



if excusable acerbity, but which, if little fol- 
lowed, was never resented by the objects of 
it. His most important effort was the series 
of letters he addressed to the ' Times ' from 
1864 to 1870, which, being translated by the 
Greek newspapers, produced more effect than 
his earlier admonitions. He also contributed 
to ' Blackwood's Magazine,' the 'Athenaeum/ 
and the ' Saturday Review/ and occasionally 
visited England, not later, however, than 
1854. He wrote in Greek on the stone age 
in 1869, and in the following year published 
the French narrative of Benjamin Brue, the 
interpreter who accompanied the Vizier Ali 
on his expedition into the Morea in 1715. 
Among his other writings are an essay on the 
site of the holy sepulchre (1847), and pam- 
phlets on Greek politics (1836) and finance 
(1844). His essays on classical topography, 
never collected by himself, were published 
in 1842 in a German translation by S. F. W. 
Hoffmann. He died at Athens 26 Jan. 1875 ; 
the date 1876 given in the Oxford edition of 
his history is an unaccountable mistake. 

Finlay's great work appeared in sections, 
as follows : l Greece under the Romans/ 1844 ; 
' Greece to its Conquest by the Turks/ 1851 : 
1 Greece under Ottoman and Venetian Domi- 
nation/ 1856 ; 'Greek Revolution/ 1861 . After 
the author's death the copyright of these seve- 
ral works was offered to the delegates of the 
Clarendon Press by his representatives, and 
in 1877 all were brought together under the 
title of ' A History of Greece from its Con- 
quest by the Romans to the present time, 
B.C. 146 to A.D. 1864/ and published in seven 
volumes under the able editorship of the 
Rev. H. F. Tozer. The whole had been 
thoroughly revised by Finlay himself, who, 
besides aiming throughout at a greater con- 
densation of style, had added several new 
chapters, chiefly on economical subjects, en- 
tirely recast the section on Mediaeval Greece 
and Trebizond, and appended a continuation 
from 1843 to the enactment of the constitu- 
tion of 1864. The period covered by the 
history, therefore, is no less than two thou- 
sand and ten years. 

Finlay is a great historian of the type of 
Polybius, Procopius, and Machiavelli, a man 
of affairs, who has qualified himself for treat- 
ing of public transactions by sharing in them, 
a soldier, a statesman, and an economist. 
He is not picturesque or eloquent, or a mas- 
ter of the delineation of character, but a sin- 
gular charm attaches to his pages from the 
perpetual consciousness of contact with a 
vigorous intelligence. In the latter portion 
of his work he speaks with the authority of 
an acute, though not entirely dispassionate, 
eye-witness ; in the earlier and more exten- 

sive portion it is his great glory to have shown 
now interesting the history of an age of slavery 
may be made, and how much Gibbon had 
left undone. Gibbon, as his plan requires, 
exhibits the superficial aspects of the period 
m a grand panorama ; Finlay plunges beneath 
the surface, and brings to light a wealth of 
social particulars of which the mere reader 
of Gibbon could have no notion. This being 
Finlay's special department, it is the more to 
his praise that he has not smothered his story 
beneath his erudition. He may, indeed, even 
appear at a disadvantage beside the Germans 
as regards extent and profundity of research, 
but this inferiority is more than compensated 
by the advantages incidental to his prolonged 
residence in the country. His personal dis- 
appointments had indeed caused a censorious- 
ness which somewhat defaces the latter part 
of his history, and is the more to be regretted 
as it affected his estimate of the value of his 
own work, and of its reception by the world. 
In character he was a frank, high-minded, 
public-spirited gentleman. 

[Autobiography prefixed to vol. i. of the Ox- 
ford edition of Finlay's History ; Memoir in 
Athenaeum, 1875; Sir Charles Newton in Aca- 
demy, and Professor Freeman in Saturday Re vi ew, 
1875.] K. G. 

FINLAY, JOHN (1782-1810), Scottish 
poet, was born of humble parents at Glasgow 
in December 1782. He was educated in one 
of the academies at Glasgow, and at the age 
of fourteen entered the university, where he 
had as a classmate John Wilson (' Christo- 
pher North '), who states that he was distin- 
guished ' above most of his contemporaries.' 
While only nineteen, and still at the uni- 
versity, he published f Wallace, or the Vale 
of Ellerslie, and other Poems' in 1802, dedi- 
cated to Mrs. Dunlop of Dunlop, the friend 
of Burns, a second edition with some addi- 
tions appearing in 1804, and a third in 1817. 
Professor Wilson describes it as displaying ' a 
wonderful power of versification/ and possess- 
ing * both the merits and defects which we look 
for in the early compositions of true genius.' 
The prospect of obtaining a situation in one 
of the public offices led him to visit London 
in 1807, and while there he contributed to 
the magazines some articles on antiquarian 
subjects. Not finding suitable employment 
he returned to Glasgow in 1808, and in that 
year he published ' Scottish Historical and 
Romantic Ballads, chiefly ancient, with Ex- 
planatory Notes and a Glossary.' As the 
title indicates, the majority of the ballads 
were not his own composition, but Sir Walter 
Scott nevertheless wrote of the book : ' The 
beauty of some imitations of the old Scottish 


3 2 


"ballads, with the good sense, learning, and 
modesty of the preliminary dissertations, 
must make all admirers of ancient lore regret 
the early loss of this accomplished young 
man.' He also published an edition of Blair's 
4 Grave,' wrote a life of Cervantes, and super- 
intended an edition of Adam Smith's ' Wealth 
of Nations.' In 1810 he left Glasgow to 
visit Professor Wilson at Ellerlay, West- 
moreland, but on the way thither was seized 
with illness at Moffat, and died there on 
8 Dec. He had begun to collect materials 
for a continuation of Warton's ' History o 

[Memoir with specimens of his poetry ii 
Blackwood's Mag. ii. 186-92 ; J. Grant Wilson' 
Poets and Poetry of Scotland, ii. 46-8 ; C. Rogers' 
Scottish Minstrel, iii. 57-62.] T. F. H. 

FINLAY, KIRKMAN (d. 1828), phil 
hellene, was son of Captain-lieutenant John 
Finlay, RE., F.R.S., who died at Glasgow 
in 1802 (Scots Mag. Ixiv. 616), and brother o 
George Finlay [q. v.] His education was carec 
for by his uncle, Kirkman Finlay [q. v.], lore 
provost of Glasgow. When about twenty 
years of age, being in possession of a hand- 
some fortune, he proceeded to Greece for the 
purpose of engaging in the war of indepen- 
dence. In February 1824 he became ac- 
quainted with Lord Byron and Prince Mav- 
rocordatos, both then at Missolonghi, who 
entrusted him with conciliatory messages for 
Odysseus and other refractory chiefs. At 
Byron's request, Finlay with two comrades 
set out in March in charge of powder and 
other military stores, forwarded from Misso- 
longhi to Odysseus for his war in Negropont. 
On crossing the stream of the Phidari, which 
had been much swollen by the rains, he 
missed the ford, lost the most valuable part 
of his baggage and papers, and very nearly 
his life. Finlay continued one of the few 
philhellenes, undaunted by disappointment 
and disgust, constant and persistent to the 
cause he had adopted. On that cause he 
spent his fortune, energies, and life. During 
a sortie of the Turks from the fortress of 
Scio on 29 Jan. 1828 he was shot through 
the head at the first attack, as he was at- 
tempting to rally a body of men under his 
command. He fell dead on the spot. 

[Moore's Life of Lord Byron ; Count Gamba's 
Narrative of Lord Byron's Last Journey to 
Greece, pp. 223-4 ; Gent. Mag. TO!, xcviii. pt. i. 
p. 372.1 G. G. 

FINLAY, KIRKMAN (1773-1842), lord 
provost of Glasgow, the son of James Finlay, 
merchant, was born in Glasgow in 1773. He 
was educated at the grammar school and 
at the university, and at an early age en- 

tered on business on his own account. In 
1793 he took a prominent part in opposing 
the monopoly of the East India Company in 
the cotton trade. He became a magistrate 
of Glasgow in 1804, and in 1812 he was 
elected lord provost of the city. He was 
M.P. for Glasgow from 1812 to 1818, and 
during this time distinguished himself as a 

Political economist of an advanced type. In 
819 he was appointed rector of the uni- 
versity. He was really one of the founders 
of the commerce of Glasgow, on the wider 
basis which it took after the failure of the 
tobacco trade with America. He married 
Janet, daughter of Mr. John Struthers. He 
died in 1842, at Castle Toward, a residence 
which he built on the Firth of Clyde. George, 
the Greek historian, and Kirkman Finlay, 
both separately noticed, were his nephews. 

[MacGeorge's History of Glasgow ; Glasgow- 
Past and Present ; Irving's Eminent Scotsmen 1 

W. B-E. 

FINLAYSON, GEORGE (1790-1823), 
naturalist and traveller, born of humble pa- 
rents at Thurso in 1790, was clerk to Dr. 
Somerville, chief of the army medical staff 
in Scotland, and afterwards to Dr. Farrel, chief 
of the army medical staff in Ceylon, whence 
he was removed to Bengal, and attached to 
the 8th light dragoons as assistant-surgeon 
in 1819. In 1821-2 he accompanied the 
mission to Siam and Cochin China in the 
character of naturalist, returning with it to 
Calcutta in 1823. By this time his health 
was thoroughly broken, and he soon after- 
wards died. The journal which he had kept 
during the mission was edited, with a prefa- 
tory notice of the author, by Sir Stamford 
Raffles, F.R.S., under the title of ' The Mis- 
sion to Siam and Hue, the capital of Cochin 
China, in the years 1821-2, from the Journal 
of the late George Finlayson, Esq.,' London. 
1826, 8vo. 

[Eaffles's memoir, noticed above; Quarterly 
Review, 1826.] J. M. R. 

1808), divine, was born on 15 Feb. 1758, 
at Nether Cambushenie, in the parish of 
Dunblane, Perthshire, where his ancestors 
lad been settled for several centuries. He 
made rapid progress at school, and began his 
tudies in the university of Glasgow at the age 
'f fourteen. He held two tutorships, and sub- 
sequently became amanuensis to Professor 
Anderson, who had discovered his abilities, 
n 1782 he became domestic tutor to two sons 
f Sir William Murray of Ochtertyre. As 
;he family spent the winter in Edinburgh, 
? inlayson continued his studies at the uni- 
ersity. He was licensed to preach in 1785. 




In this year the Duke of Atholl offered Fin- 
layson the living of Dunkeld, which he was 
induced to decline, as Sir William Murray in- 
formed him that an arrangement was pro- 
posed to procure for him the chair of logic 
in the university of Edinburgh. He was 
offered the living of Borthwick, near Edin- 
burgh, of which parish he was ordained 
minister on 6 April 1787. He had assumed 
the duties of the logic professor in the winter 
session of 1786-7. He was now rising into 
reputation with a rapidity the more remark- 
able from his modest disposition. The most 
experienced sages of the church respected his 
judgment in questions of ecclesiastical policy. 
He therefore dedicated much of his leisure 
to study the laws, constitution, and history 
of the Scottish church, and began to take an 
active part in the details of its political 
government. This made him gradually lean 
more to the ecclesiastical than to the literary 
side of his functions. He soon became a 
leader on the moderate side in the church 
courts. In 1790 he was presented by the 
magistrates of Edinburgh to Lady Tester's 
church ; in 1793 he was appointed to succeed 
Robertson, the historian, in the collegiate 
church of the old Grey Friars; in 1799, on a 
vacancy occurring in the high church, he was 
chosen by the town council to fill that col- 
legiate charge. This last is considered the 
most honourable appointment in the church 
of Scotland, and it was, at the time, rendered 
more desirable from the circumstance that 
he had for his colleague Hugh Blair [q. v.j, 
whose funeral sermon he was called upon to 
preach in little more than a year. The uni- 
versity of Edinburgh conferred on Finlayson 
the degree of D.D. (28 March 1799), and in 
1802 he was elected moderator of the general 
assembly. He was elected king's almoner in 
the same year, but resigned the post almost 
immediately. These honours indicate the 
general estimate of Finlayson's merits. Fin- 
layson established his ascendency on the 
wisdom of his councils and his knowledge of 
the laws and constitution of the church, and 
among his own party his sway was unlimited. 
Those who differed from him in church politics 
freely acknowledged his honourable character 
and the purity of his motives : his political 
opponents, in points of business unconnected 
with party, were occasionally guided by his 
judgment. His manner was simple and un- 
presuming ; he was below the average height. 
He wrote the life of Dr. Hugh Blair, and a 
volume of his sermons was published after 
his death. In 1805 his constitution began 
to decline. In 1807 he was constrained to 
accept the assistance of one of his earliest 
friends, Principal G. II. Baird [q. v.], who 


taught the class during the remainder of that 
session. _ On 25 Jan. 1808, while conversing 
with Baird, he was seized with a paralytic 
affection. Among the few words he was able 
to articulate was the following sentence * I 
am about to pass to a better habitation, where 
ail who believe in Jesus shall enter.' On his 
deathbed the senatus academicus of the uni- 
versity and the magistrates of Edinburgh 
waited on him and asked him to name the 
successor to his chair. In deference to his 
advice, an offer of the chair was made to 
Principal Baird, the gentleman he had named 
He died on 28 Jan. 1808, and was honoured 
with a public funeral in the cathedral church 
of Dunblane. His students and others erected 
a monument to his memory at Dunblane, and 
a memorial window of stained glass was 
placed in Grey Friars by his old pupil Prin- 
cipal Lee of Edinburgh University. He pub- 
lished : 1. ' Heads of an Argument in sup- 
port of the Overture respecting Chapels of 
Ease,' 1798. 2. < A Sermon on Preaching,' 
Edinburgh, 1801. 3. < Sermons,' Edinburgh, 

[Life by Baird; Encyclopaedia Perthensis ; 
Chambers's Biog. Diet, of Eminent Scotsmen ; 
Anderson's Scottish Nation ; Hew Scott's Fasti 
Eccl. Scot. ; Proceedings of the General As- 
sembly of the Church of Scotland ; private in- 
formation.] A. K. M. F. 

(1770-1854), disciple of Richard Brothers 
[q. v.], was born in Scotland in 1770. His 
descendants make him the second son of 
Colonel John Hamilton M'Finlay, who mar- 
ried, about 1765, Lady Elizabeth Mary Alex- 
ander, eldest sister of the last Earl of Stir- 
ling. He was originally a writer at Cupar- 
Fife, and removed thence to Edinburgh. His 
relations with Brothers, which began in 1797, 
are detailed in the article on that enthusiast. 
He printed at Edinburgh a couple of pam- 
phlets before repairingto London. In London 
he was ' in considerable practice as a house- 
agent.' Brothers led him to change the spel- 
ling of his name, by telling him his ancestors 
had some l fine leys ' of land granted them for 
deeds of valour. Brothers, who died (1824) 
in Finlayson's house at Marylebone, made it 
his dying charge to his friend that he should 
write against a rival genius, Bartholomew 
Prescot of Liverpool. This Finlayson did, 
describing Prescot's ' System of the Universe/ 
very correctly, as a ' misapprehended mistaken 
elaborate performance, or book.' 

He printed a variety of pamphlets, reite- 
rating Brothers's views, and developing his 
own peculiar notions of astronomy, for which 
he claimed a divine origin. The heavenly 
bodies were created, he thinks, partly 'to 





amuse us in observing them.' The earth he 
decides to be a perfect sphere, ' not shaped 
like a garden turnip, as the Newtonians make 
it ; ' the sun is a created body ' very different 
from anything we can make here below ; ' the 
stars are ' oval-shaped immense masses of 
frozen water, with their largest ends fore- 

Finlayson was reduced in extreme and 
widowed age to a parish allowance of 3s. Qd. 
weekly, supplemented by 5s. from Busby, in 
whose house Brothers had lived from 1806 
to 1815. Prescot and John Mason (a brush- 
maker), though a disciple of Brothers, refused 
to assist him. He died on 19 Sept. 1854, and 
was buried in the same grave as Brothers at 
St. John's Wood. He married, in 1808, Eliza- 
beth Anne (d. 1848), daughter of Colonel 
Basil Bruce (d. 1800), and had ten children. 
His eldest son, Kichard Brothers Finlayson, 
who took the name of Richard Beauford, was 
a photographer at Galway, where he died on 
17 Dec. 1886, aged 75. 

Finlayson printed : 1. l An Admonition to 
the People of all Countries in support of 
Richard Brothers,' 8vo (dated Edinburgh, 
7 Sept. 1797). 2. The same, ' Book Second,' 
containing * The Restoration of the Hebrews 
to their own Land,' 8vo (dated Edinburgh, 
27 Jan. 1798). 3. 'An Essay/ &c. 8vo (on Dan. 
xii. 7, 11, 12 ; dated London, 2 March 1798). 
4. ' An Essay on the First Resurrection, and 
on the Commencement of the Blessed Thou- 
sand Years,' 8vo (dated London, 14 April 
1798). 5. ' The Universe as it is. Discovery 
of the Ten Tribes of Israel and their Restora- 
tion to their own Land/ 1832, 8vo. 6. 'God's 
Creation of the Universe/ 1848, 8vo (contains 
some of his letters to the authorities respect- 
ing his claims on Brothers's estate ; Mason 
and Prescot were angry at this publication, 
but Finlayson had ' a dream and vision ' of 
Brothers, approving all he had done). 7. 'The 
Seven Seals of the Revelations.' 8. 'The 
Last Trumpet/ &c., 1849, 8vo (incorporates 
No. 7 ; there are several supplements, the 
latest dated 21 Feb. 1850). Also nine large 
sheets of the ground plan of the New Jeru- 
salem (with its 56 squares, 320 streets, 4 
temples, 20 colleges, 47 private palaces, 16 
markets, &c.) ; and twelve sheets of views 
of its public buildings ; all these executed by 
Finlayson for Brothers (the original copper- 
plates were in the hands of Beauford, whose 
price for a set of the prints was 38/.) Fin- 
layson's pamphlets are scarce ; he deposited 
his stock with Mason, after whose death it 
was destroyed. 

[Finlayson's Works ; information from his 
eldest son, and from H. Hodson Rugg, M.D. ; 
tombstone at St. John's Wood.] A. Gr. 

FINLAYSON, THOMAS (1809-1872), 
united presbyterian minister, second son of 
Thomas Finlayson, a farmer, was born at Col- 
doch, Blair Drummond, Perthshire, 22 Dec. 
1809. He received his elementary education 
at the parish school of Kincardine in Men- 
teith, and preparatory to entering college 
engaged in a special study of the classics at 
a school in the village of Doune in Kilma- 
dock parish. At the university of Glasgow 
and at the theological hall of the united 
secession church he went through the usual 
course of training, and was licensed as a 
preacher of the gospel in April 1835 by the 
presbytery of Stirling and Falkirk. Part of 
his period of study was spent in teaching a 
school at Dumbarton, where he formed a 
friendship with the Rev. Dr. Andrew Somer- 
ville, who afterwards became the secretary 
of the foreign mission of the united presby- 
terian church. In November 1835 Finlayson 
was ordained minister of the Union Street 
congregation, Greenock, where he founded 
a missionary society, and in two years per- 
suaded his people to pay off the large debt 
existing on the church. After twelve years 
of admirable ministerial work in Greenock 
he was called to be colleague and successor 
to the Rev. John M'Gilchrist of Rose Street 
Church, Edinburgh, and, having accepted the 
call, was inducted to the ministry there in 
September 1847. The congregation to which 
he now became minister was one of very 
few churches which at that time set an ex- 
ample and gave a tone to the whole church. 
They at once attached themselves to their 
new minister. He was elected moderator of 
the supreme court of his church in 1867, and 
shortly afterwards received the degree of D.D. 
from the university of Edinburgh. As one of 
the most ardent promoters of the manse fund, 
he was the chief agent in raising 45,000, 
which led to the spending of 120,OOOJ. in 
building and improving manses in two hun- 
dred localities. In the management of the 
augmentation fund he also took a deep in- 
terest. As a preacher he excelled in distinct 
and powerful exhibition of the truth ; what- 
ever he had to say came fresh from his own 
independent thought, went straight to the 
heart of the subject, and made an immediate 
impression on his hearers. The untimely 
death in 1868 of his eldest son Thomas, 
a promising advocate at the Scottish bar, 
caused him intense grief, from which he never 
fully recovered. On 7 Oct. 1872 his con- 
gregation celebrated the semi-jubilee of his 
ministry in Edinburgh. Having gone to 
Campbeltown to take part in an induction 
service there, he was suddenly attacked with 
failure of the heart's action, and was found 

Finn Barr 


Finn Barr 

dead in his bed on 17 Oct. 1872. He wa 
buried in the Grange cemetery, Edinburgh 
on 22 Oct. He married, in 1836, Miss Chrystal 
by whom he had six children. 

[Memorials of the Rev. Thomas Finlayson 
D.D., 1873, with portrait; John Smith's Our 
Scottish Clergy, 1849, 2nd ser. pp. 295-301.] 

G. C. B. 

FINN BARE,, SAINT and BISHOP (d. 623), 
of Cork, was son of Amergin, of the tribe oi 
Ui Briuin Ratha of Connaught, who were 
descended from Eochaidh Muidmheadhon, 
brother of Olioll Olum, king of Munster. 
Amergin left Connaught for Munster and 
settled in the territory of Muscraidhe (Mus- 
kerry), in the county of Cork, where he ob- 
tained an inheritance and land at a place 
called Achaidh Durbchon ; he was also chief 
smith to Tigernach, king of the Ui Eachach 
of Munster, who lived at Rathlin in the 
neighbourhood of Bandon. Amergin married 
in defiance of the king's prohibition, and the 
couple were ordered to be burnt alive. A 
thunderstorm which prevented the sentence 
from being carried out was regarded as a 
divine interposition, and they were set free. 
A child having been born from this union, 
they returned to Achaidh Durbchon, where 
he was baptised by a bishop named MacCorb, 
who gave him the name of Luan (or Lochan 
according to another account). When he 
was seven years old three clerics of Munster 
Brendan, Lochan, and Fiodhach who had 
been on a pilgrimage to Leinster, came to re- 
visit their native territories, and stopping at 
the house of Amergin admired the child. 
Eventually they were allowed to take him 
away to be educated. On their return with 
him they arrived at a place called Sliabh 
Muinchill, where it was thought suitable that 
he should read his alphabet (or elements), be 
tonsured, and have his name changed. The 
cleric who cut his hair is said to have ob- 
served : ' Fair [finn] is this hair [barra] of 
Luan.' Let this be his name, said another, 
1 Barr-finn or Finn-barr.' His name, however, 
in popular usage, as well as in many autho- 
rities, has always been Barra or Bairre. On 
this occasion Brendan was observed to weep 
and then soon after to smile, and when asked 
the reason replied, ' I have prayed to Almighty 
God to grant me three territories in South 
Munster for my use and that of my successors, 
viz. from the Blackwater to the Lee, from the 
Lee to the Bandon, and from the Bandon to 
Bere Island, but they have been granted to 
Barra for ever. I wept because I fear I am 
blameworthy in God's sight, and I smiled 
again for joy because of the love which God 
manifested for Barra.' The three clerics, with 

Barra proceeding on their journey, arrived at 
S Gabhran, now Gowran, in the county 
of Kilkenny. Here he read his psalms and 
began his studies, and his diligence was shown 
by his prayer that a heavy fall of snow might 
continue to block his hut until he could read 
his 'saltair.' It is said to have continued ac- 
cordingly. He next went to Cuil Caisin (now 
Coolcashm), in the barony of Galmoy, county 
of Kilkenny, where he marked out and founded 
that church, and thence to Aghaboe, where he 
blessed a church and stayed for a while. He 
departed at the request of his predecessor, St. 
Canice, after some negotiation, and went to 
MacCorb, by whom he had been baptised. The 
latter had been a fellow-pupil of St. David, 
and both were reputed to have been pupils 
of Pope Gregory, which probably means that 
they studied his writings, which'were held in 
high esteem by the Irish. About this time 
Fachtna, an aged chieftain of Muscraidhe 
Breogain, now the barony of Clanwilliam, in 
county of Tipperary, whose son and daughter 
Finn Barr had cured, and whose wife he was 
said to have brought to life, made a grant to 
him of RathMhartir in perpetuity. Here there 
is an important difference between the Irish 
and Latin lives, the latter giving Fiachna as 
the name of the chieftain, whom Ussher, ap- 
pearing to have known only the Latin life, 
identifies with the king of West Munster. But 
the Irish life evidently gives the correct ac- 
count. With MacCorb Finn Barr read the 
gospels of St. Matthew and the ecclesiastical 
rules, to which another authority adds the 
Epistles of St. Paul. It was while in this 
neighbourhood that he stayed at Lough Eirce, 
in a place called Eadargabhail (Addergoole), 
where, according to the Irish life, he had a 
school in which many famous saints are said 
to have been educated. There has been much 
discussion as to the situation of Lough Eirce, 
chiefly o wing to an error of Colgan, who placed 
"t in the neighbourhood of Cork. There is 
a townland of Addergoole in the parish of 
A.ghmacart in the south of Queen's County, 
and adjoining it in co. Kilkenny is the parish of 
Eirke, in a low-lying district. Here the site 
of the school must be looked for. At Lough 
Eirce there was also a female school, presided 
over by a sister of Finn Barr's. Coming now 
to his own country, he founded a church at 
Achaidh Durbchon. t Near this/ says the Irish 
life, 'is the grotto [cuas] of Barra, and there is 
a lake or tarn there, from which a salmon is 
>rought to him every evening.' This appears 
o be the lake of Gougane Barra, at the source 
>f the river Lee, which probably derives its 
name from the cuadhan, pronounced cuagan 
the little cavity) of Barra. Warned, as we 
Te informed, by an angel not to stay at the 

D 2 

Finn Barr 

Finn Barr 

hermitage, as his resurrection was not to be 
there, he set out, and crossing the Avonmore 
(Blackwater) proceeded in a north-easterly 
direction until he arrived at Cluain, where 
he built a church. This place, which has 
been strangely confounded with Cloyne, 
near Cork, is stated by Colgan to have been 
situated between Sliabh g-Crot (the Galtees) 
and Sliabh-Mairge, and appears to be Cluain- 
ednech, now Clonenagh, a townland near 
Mountrath, in the Queen's County. Here, 
when he had stayed some time, he was visited 
"by two pupils of St. Kuadan, whose church of 
Lothra was some thirty miles distant. These 
clerics, Cormac and Baithin, had asked 
Ruadan for a place to settle in. l Go/ he 
said, 'and settle wherever the tongues of 
your bells strike.' They went on until they 
arrived at the church of Cluain, where their 
bells sounded. They were much disap- 
pointed at finding the place already occupied, 
not thinking they would be allowed to stay 
there, but Barra gave them the church an'd 
all the property in it, and leaving the place 
returned to co. Cork, and came to Corcach 
Mor, or t The Great Marsh,' now the city of 
Cork. Here he and his companions were en- 
gaged in fasting and prayer, when Aodh, son 
of Conall, the king of the territory, going in 
search of one of his cows which had strayed 
from the herd, met with them and granted 
them the site of the present cathedral. Before 
settling there finally, Barra was admonished 
by an angel, we are told, to go to the place to 
the westward, ' where,' he said, f you have 
many waters, and where there will be many 
wise men with you.' 

A long time after this, Barra, with Eolang, 
David, and ten monks, is said to have gone 
to Home to be consecrated a bishop, but the 
pope refused to consecrate him, saying the 
rite would be performed by Jesus Christ 
himself. The Latin lives, instead of Barra's 
journey to Rome, tell of a message brought 
by MacCorb from the pope informing him 
how he was to be consecrated. At this time, 
MacCorb having died, Barra desired to have 
Eolang of Aghabulloge as a soul-friend or 
confessor in his place. According to the 
' Calendar ' of Oengus, Eolang was originally 
at Aghaboe, and probably accompanied Barra, 
whose pupil he had been. Eolang declined, 
say ing, 'Christ will take your hand from mine 
and hear your confession.' It was reported 
that Barra afterwards wore a glove on one of 
his hands which Christ had touched, to hide 
its supernatural brightness. Seventeen years 
after the foundation of Cork, feeling that his 
death was near, he went to Clonenagh, and 
there died suddenly. His remains were 
brought to Cork and honourably interred, 

and in after times his bones were taken up 
and enshrined in a silver casket. His pas- 
toral character is thus described : 'The man of 
God abode there [at Cork], building up not so- 
much a house of earthly stones as a spiritual 
house of true stones, wrought by the word and 
toil through the Holy Spirit.' His generosity 
is often referred to. Cumin of Condeire, in his 
poem, says : ' He never saw any one in want 
whom he did not relieve; ' and the ' Calendar' 
of Oengus at 25 Sept. notices ' the festival of 
the loving man, the feast of Barre of Cork,' 
and in his ' Life ' he is the ( amiable champion * 
(athleta). In after times, when Fursa was 
at the city of Cork, ' he saw [in vision] a 
golden ladder near the tomb of the man 
of God, to conduct souls to the kingdom of 
Heaven, and he beheld the top of it reach to 
the sky.' 

Barra's travels are scarcely referred to in 
his ' Life.' He is said to have gone to- 
Britain with St. Maidoc. In Reeves's edition 
of Adamnan's ' St. Columba ' reference is- 
made to ' his repeated and perhaps protracted' 
visits to St. Columba at Hy,' though no- 
notice of them is found in his 'Life.' There- 
is an extraordinary story in the Rawlin- 
son manuscript of his having borrowed a 
horse from St. David in "Wales and ridden* 
over to Ireland, in memory of which a brazen 
horse was made and kept at Cork, but there 
is nothing of this in the other lives. He is- 
the patron saint of Dornoch, the episcopal 
seat of Caithness, where his festival is per- 
formed riding on horseback, a usage which 
seems to have some connection with the 
legend just mentioned. The island of Barra 
also claims him as patron and derives its name 
from him. According to Gerald de Barre, or 
Giraldus Cambrensis, his family name was 
derived from this island, and thus ultimately 
from the saint. Mr. Skene thinks the name 
Dunbarre is connected with him, as Dunblane- 
with St. Blane. The name undergoes many 
modifications. He is termed Finn Barr, Barr- 
f hinn, or Barr-f hind, which by the silence 
of f h becomes Barrind, and then Barrindus. 
He is also Barr-og, or Barrocus, Bairre, Barra,, 
and Barre, the last being his name in popular 
usage. In the parallel lists of Irish and 
foreign saints in the ' Book of Leinster ' he is 
said to have been ' like Augustine, bishop of 
the Saxons, in his manner of life.' He died 
on 25 Sept. most probably in 623. 

[Beatha Barra MS. 23 a, 44, Royal Irish 
Academy; Codex Kilkenniensis, fol. 132 b, 134; 
Codex Bodl. Rawlinson B. 485, both published 
by Dr. Caulfield in his Life of St. Finn Barr ; 
Lanigan's Eccl. Hist. ii. 314-18; Calendar of 
Oengus at 25 Sept. ; Reeves's Adarnnan, Ixxiv.J 

T. 0. 




FINNCHU, SAINT (/. 7th cent.), of 
Brigobann, now Brigown, in the county 
of Cork, was son of Finnlug, a descendant of 
Eochaidh Muidhmeadhon, and an inhabi- 
tant of Cremorne, county of Monaghan. Finn- 
lug's first wife, Coemell, was of the Cian- 
machta of Glen Geimhin. After a married life 
of thirty years Coemell died, and Finnlug 
married Idnait, daughter of Flann, also of the 
Ciannachta. Soon after he was expelled from 
Ulster with his followers, and making his way 
to Munster the king, Aengus Mac Nadfraoich, 
granted him land in the province of Mog-Ruth 
(Fermoy) . Here Idnait gave birth to the child 
Finnchu, who was baptised by Ailbe of Imlach 
Ibair (Emly), and ' a screpall, that is seven 
pennies of gold, paid as a baptismal fee.' The 
form of his name given in the ' Calendar ' of 
Oengus is Chua, to which Finn (fair) being 
,-added makes Chua-finn, and by transposition 
Finnchua. The Irish life and the ' Martyr- 
ology of Donegal' make him son of Finn- 
lug, son of Setna, but in other authorities 
lie is son of Setna. He was placed with 
Cumusgach, king of Teffia (in Westmeath 
and Longford), with whom he remained seven 
years. At the end of that time Comgall 
q. v.] of Bangor (county of Down) obtained 
leave to educate the child as an ecclesias- 
tic at Bangor. Here he distinguished him- 
self by his courage in bearding the king of 
Ulaidh, who had insisted on grazing his horses 
on the lands of the monastery. Nine years 
later Comgall died, and Finnchu succeeded 
him as abbot, though he does not appear in 
the regular lists. Seven years afterwards he 
was expelled from Bangor and the whole of 
Ulaidh, ' because of the scarcity of land.' He 
then returned to Munster, where the king of 
Cashel allowed him to choose a place of re- 
sidence. Finnchu said : * I must not settle in 
any place save where my bell will answer me 
without the help of man.' From Cashel he 
proceeded to the territory of Fermoy, and on 
the morrow his bell answered him at Fan 
Muilt (the wether's slope). As this was the 
queen's home farm, he would have been 
evicted had he not consented to pay rent. 
After this Finnchu ' marked out the place 
and arranged his enclosure, and covered his 
houses, and allotted lands to his households.' 
Hither came to him Conang, king of the 
Deisi, who prostrated himself to him, and 
Finnchu gave him, ( as a soul-friend's jewel, his 
own place in heaven.' Then, in order to obtain 
a place in heaven instead of that which he 
had given away, he suspended himself by the 
armpits from hooks in the roof of his cell, 
so that ' his head did not touch the roof, nor 
his feet the floor.' Thenceforth the place was 
called Bri gobann (Smith's Hill), now Mit- 

chelstown, from the skill shown by the 
smiths who manufactured the hooks. During 
seven years he continued to practise this self- 
mortification until he was visited by St. 
Ronan Finn with an urgent request for help 
from the king of Meath, who was distressed 
by the inroads of British pirates. After much 
persuasion he saw St. Ronan, ' though sorely 
ashamed of his perforated body holed by 
chafers and beasts.' Accompanying St. Ronan 
to Tara, on the night of his arrival an inroad 
took place, and by Finnchu's advice, ' all, both 
laymen and clerics, turned right-handwise 
and marched against the intruders,' with the 
result that they slew them, burnt their ships, 
and made a mound of their garments. 

At this time, dissensions having arisen 
between the two wives of Nuadu, king of 
Leinster, he sent oif his favourite wife to 
Munster * on the safeguard of Finnchua of 
Sliabh Cua.' Arrived near Brigown the saint 
desired she should not come any further until 
her child was born, for at that time ' neither 
wives nor women used to come to his church.* 

On the birth of the child he was baptised 
by Finnchu, and named Fintan. In a war 
which ensued between the king of Leinster 
and the kinsmen of his neglected wife, Finn- 
chu was successful in obtaining the victory for 
the king. Fintan was with him, and when 
the king begged that the boy might be left 
with him, Finnchu consenting gave him ' his 
choice between the life of a layman and that 
of a cleric.' Having chosen the latter the 
land was bestowed on him, from which he was 
afterwards known as St. Fintan of Cluain- 
ednech. The St. Fintan (d. 634) [q. v.] gene- 
rally known by this title was the son of Tul- 
chan, but it appears from his ' Life ' that there 
were four of the name at Cluain-ednech. Re- 
turning to Munster, Finnchu was next called 
to repel an attack from the north, the queen 
of Ulaidh having instigated her husband to 
invade Munster to provide territory for her 
sons. The king of Munster was then living 
at Dun Ochair Maige (the fort on the brink 
of the Maige), now Bruree, in the county of 
Limerick, and when he and his consort be- 
held 'the splendid banners floating in the 
air, and the tents of royal speckled satin 
pitched on the hill,' they sent for Finnchn, 
who had promised, if occasion required, to 
come, 'with the CennCathach [head battler], 
even his own crozier.' After vainly trying 
to make peace, he ' marched in the van of 
the army with the Cenn Cathach in his hand, 
and then passed right-handwise round the 
host.' For the complete victory which fol- 
lowed the king awarded ' a cow from every 
enclosure from Cnoc Brenain to Dairinis of 
Emly, and a milch cow to the cleric carrying 



his crozier in battle.' Ciar Cuircech, nephew 
of the king of Kerry, having been sent adrift 
on account of suspected treason, had been 
taken by pirates, and was retained by them 
as guide, and for three autumns they harried 
Kerry, and carried off the corn. The king 
sent for his relative, Finnchu (the Ciarraige 
and Finnchu's mother being both of the seed 
of Ebir). The saint came to the rescue, and 
1 his wrath arose against the maurauders, and 
the howling and rending of a hound pos- 
sessed him on that day, wherefore the name 
of Finnchu [fair hound] clave to him.' Ciar 
was spared by Finnchu, who took him away, 
and placed him in the territory since called 
from him Kerrycurrihy, in the county of Cork. 
The last warlike adventure in whichFinnchu 
was engaged was the repelling an invasion of 
the Clanna Neill. The people of Munster, 
who were then without an overking, elected 
Cairbre Cromm, a man of royal descent, who 
was at this time ' in waste places hunting 
wild swine and deer.' He consented to lead 
them on condition that Finnchu accompanied 
him. On coming in sight of the enemies' 
camp the Munster men ' flinch from the fight 
in horror of the Clanna Neill,' but stirred by 
the warning of Finnchu that not a homestead 
would be left to them if they did not fight, 
they gained the victory. Cairbre Cromm was 
then made king of Munster, but being dis- 
satisfied with his appearance, as ' his skin was 
scabrous,' he besought Finnchu to bestow a 
goodly form on him, and the saint ' obtained 
from (jod his choice of form for him.' His 
shape and colour were then changed, so that 
he was afterwards Cairbre the Fair. 

After this he made a vow that he would 
not henceforth be the cause of any battles. 
He gave his blessing to the rulers of Munster, 
and they promised to pay the firstlings of 
cows, sheep, and swine to him and his suc- 
cessors, together with an alms ' from every 
nose in Fermoy.' Then he went to his own 
place, and thence it is said to Rome, for he 
was penitent for the battles and deeds he had 
done for love of brotherhood. He is associated 
in Oengus with two foreign saints, Mammes 
and Cassian. Little of a religious character 
appears in the present life, but in Oengus he 
is said to have been ' a flame against guilty 
men,' and that ' he proclaimed Jesus.' His 
religion appears to have chiefly consisted in 
ascetic practices of an extreme character. He 
was supposed to lie the first night in the same 
grave with every corpse buried in his church. 
In an Irish stanza current in the north of the 
county of Cork he is associated with Molagga, 
Colman of Cloyne, and Declan, all very early 
saints, and he is termed ' Finnchu the as- 
cetic.' The anachronisms in this life are more 

formidable than usual, but may possibly be 
explained by the habit of using the name of 
a well-known king for the reigning sove- 
reign, as in the case of Pharaoh and Caesar. 
The year of his death is not on record, but it 
must have been a long time after he left 
Bangor, which was in 608. His day is 25 Nov. 

[The Irish life in the Book of Lismore, trans- 
lated by Whitley Stokes, D.C.L. ; Martyrology 
of Donegal, p. 317; Eeeves's Eccles. Autiq. of 
Down, &c., p. 381 ; Calendar of Oengus, cxix, 
clxxii.] T. 0. 

FINNERTY, PETER (1766 P-1822), 
journalist, born in or about 1766, was the 
son of a trader at Loughrea in Gal way. He- 
was brought up as a printer in Dublin, and 
became the publisher of ' The Press,' a na- 
tionalist newspaper started by Arthur O'Con- 
nor in September 1797. The violence of 
that journal caused it to be prosecuted by 
the government. On 22 Dec. 1797 Finnerty 
was tried before the Hon. William Downes, 
one of the justices of the court of king's 
bench in Ireland, upon an indictment for a 
seditious libel. The prosecution was insti- 
tuted in consequence of the publication of a 
letter signed 'Marcus,' on the subject of the 
conviction and execution of William Orr, a 
presbyterian farmer, on a charge of adminis- 
tering the United Irish oath to a private in 
the Fifeshire Fencibles. Finnerty refused 
to divulge the writer's name, and, although 
John Philpot Curran made a most eloquent 
speech in his defence, he was found guilty. 
The sentence was that he should stand in 
and upon the pillory for the space of one 
hour ; that he should be imprisoned for two- 
years from 31 Oct. 1797 (the day he was 
arrested) ; that he should pay a fine "of 201. 
to the king ; and that he should give secu- 
rity for his future good behaviour for seven 
years from the end of his imprisonment, him- 
self in 500/., and two sureties in 250/. each. 
The whole of this sentence was eventually car- 
ried into effect. Finnerty, on 30 Dec., stood 
for one hour in the pillory opposite the ses- 
sions house in Green Street, in the presence 
of an immense concourse of sympathising* 
spectators. He was accompanied by some 
of the leading men in the country. On 
being released from the pillory he said to the 
people : ' My friends, you see how cheerfully I 
can suffer I can suffer anything, provided 
it promotes the liberty of my country.' The 
crowd cheered this brief address enthusiasti- 
cally, but they were quickly dispersed by the 
military (HowELL, State Trials, xxvi. 902- 
1018; CuKRAtf, Speeches, 2nd edit, by Davis, 

On regaining his liberty Finnerty came to 




London and obtained an engagement as a 
parliamentary reporter on the staff of the 
'Morning Chronicle.' In 1809 he accom- 
panied the Walcheren expedition as special 
correspondent, in order to supply the ' Chro- 
nicle' with intelligence, but his bulletins 
soon induced the government to ship him 
home in a man-of-war. This he attributed to 
Lord Castlereagh, whom he libelled accord- 
ingly. On 7 Feb. 1811 he was sentenced by 
the court of queen's bench to eighteen months' 
imprisonment in Lincoln gaol for a libel 
charging his lordship with cruelty in Ireland. 
The talent and courage which he displayed 
at the trial obtained for him a public sub- 
scription of 2,000. He memorialised the 
House of Commons on 21 June against the 
treatment he had experienced in prison, ac- 
cusing the gaolers of cruelty in placing him 
with felons, and refusing him air and ex- 
ercise. The memorial gave rise to several 
discussions, in which he was highly spoken 
of by Whitbread, Burdett, Eomilly, and 
Brougham (HANSARD, Parl. Debates, 1811, 
xx. 723-43). He died in Westminster on 
11 May 1822, aged 56. 

Finnerty was an eccentric Irishman, ex- 
tremely quick, ready, and hot-headed. Much of 
his time was spent with.PaulHiffernan [q. v.], 
Mark Supple, and other boon companions at 
the Cider Cellars, 20 Maiden Lane, Covent 
Garden. He published : 1. ' Report of the 
Speeches of Sir Francis Burdett at the late 
Election,' 1804, 8vo. 2. ' Case of Peter Fin- 
nerty, including a Full Report of all the 
Proceedings which took place in the Court 
of King's Bench upon the subject . . . with 
Notes, and a Preface comprehending an Es- 
say upon the Law of Libel,' 4th edit. London, 
1811, 8vo. 

[Phillips's Curran and his Contemporaries, 
p. 184 ; Gent. Mag. vol. xcii. pt. i. p. 644 ; Biog. 
Diet, of Living Authors, p. 116; Andrews's 
British Journalism, ii. 31, 66 ; Notes and Queries, 
2nd ser. ix. 306; Grant's Newspaper Press, ii. 
224 ; Hunt's Fourth Estate, ii. 275.] T. C. 

FINNEY, SAMUEL (1719-1798), minia- 
ture-painter, born at Wilmslow, Cheshire, 
13 Feb. 1718-19, was eldest son of Samuel 
Finney of Fulshaw, Cheshire, and Esther, 
daughter of Ralph Davenport of Chorley. 
His family being in pecuniary difficulties, 
Finney came up to London to study law, but 
quitted that profession for painting. He 
established himself as a miniature-painter, 
working both in enamel and on ivory, and 
was very successful. He exhibited minia- 
tures at the Exhibition of the Society of Ar- 
tists in 1761, and in 1765 exhibited a minia- 
ture of Queen Charlotte, having been ap- 

pointed 'enamel and miniature painter to her 
majesty.' He was a member of the Incor- 
porated Society of Artists, and in 1766 sub- 
scribed the declaration roll of that society. 
Having amassed a fortune sufficient to pay 
off the encumbrances on the old family estate, 
Finney in 1769 retired to Fulshaw, became 
a justice of the peace, and devoted the re- 
mainder of his life to quelling the riots, then 
so prevalent in that part of Cheshire, and in 
local improvements. He also compiled a 
manuscript history of his family, part of 
which was printed in the ' Cheshire and Lan- 
cashire Historical Collector,' vol. i. A small 
portrait of Finney is in the possession of his 
descendant, Mr. Jenkins of Fulshaw ; it was 
engraved by William Ford of Manchester, 
and the plate was destroyed after twelve 
copies had been struck off. He died in 1798, 
and was buried at Wilmslow. He was twice 
married, but left no children. 

[Kedgrave's Diet, of Artists; Graves's Diet. of 
Artists, 1760-1880; Earwaker's East Cheshire, 
i. 154.] L. C. 

FINNIAN, SAINT (d. 550), of Cluaini- 
raird, now Clonard, in the county of Meath, 
son of Finlugh, son of Fintan, a descendant of 
Conall Cearnach, one of the heroes of the Red 
Branch, was born in Leinster. He was bap- 
tised by a Saint Abban, and afterwards placed 
when of suitable age under the charge of Fort- 
chern. With him he read ' the Psalms and 
the Ecclesiastical Order.' On reaching the 
age of thirty he crossed the sea, and accord- 
ing to the Irish life went to Tours, called by 
the Irish Torinis. where he became a friend 
of St. Caeman. But the Latin life, the author 
of which, according to Dr. Todd, had the Irish 
before him, substitutes Dairinis, an island in 
the bay of Wexford, in which there was a 
well-known monastery. The resemblance in 
sound may have suggested the correction, as 
Caeman was connected with Dairinis. But 
as the ' Office of St. Finnian' also mentions a 
visit to Tours, and two of St. Finnian's pupils, 
Columcille and Columb Mac Criomthainn, 
are said to have visited Tours, the Irish life 
may be correct. Finnian, probably on his 
way back, was at Cell Muine, or St. David's 
in Wales, where he met David, Gildas, and 
Cathmael or Docus. Here he is said to have 
stayed thirty years, and to have spoken the 
British language ' as if it was his own native 
tongue.' Finnian was employed to negotiate 
with the Saxon invaders, and failing in this 
is said to have overthrown them by super- 
natural means. An angel warned him to re- 
turn to Ireland, which was in need of his 
teaching, instead of visiting Rome as he 
wished to do. He obeyed the divine call, and 



landed, according to Dr. Lanigan, first at the 
island of Dairinis, where he paid a second 
visit to St. Caeman. Leaving the island he 
coasted along, and finally landed at one of 
the harbours of Wexford, where he was well 
received by Muiredach, son of the king of 
Leinster, who honoured him, not as Dr. Lani- 
gan says, by prostrating himself before him, 
but by taking him on his back across the 
fields. The king having offered him any site 
he pleased for a church, he selected Achad 
Aball, now Aghowle, in the barony of Shil- 
lelagh, in the county of Wicklow. Here he 
is said to have dwelt sixteen years. Moving 
about and founding churches in several places, 
he arrived at Kildare, where he ' stayed for 
a while, reading and teaching/ and on leaving 
was presented by Brigit with a ring of gold, 
which she told him he would require. After- 
wards a slave at Fotharta Airbrech, in the 
north-east of the King's County, complained 
that the king demanded an ounce of gold for 
his freedom. Finnian having weighed the ring 
(ring money ?) given him by Brigit, found it 
to be exactly one ounce, and he purchased the 
man's freedom. This slave was St.Caisin of Dal 
m Buain. Crossing the Boy ne, he next founded 
a church at Ross Findchuill, also called Esgar 
Brannain, now Rosnarea. One of a raiding 
party from Fertullagh in Westmeath passing 
by his church became his disciple, and after- 
wards his successor at Clonard. This was 
Bishop Senach of Cluain Foda Fine, now 
Clonfad, in the county of Westmeath. It 
was probably at this time that he established 
his school at Clonard, in A.D. 530, according 
to Dr. Lanigan. Disciples came to him from 
all parts of Ireland till the number is said to 
have reached three thousand, and he acquired 
the title of ' the Tutor of the Saints of Ire- 
land.' Many celebrated men were educated 
under him, among them Columcille, Columb 
of Tir da Glas, the two Ciarans, and others. 
To each of his pupils on their departure he 
gave a crozier or a gospel (i.e. a book of the 
gospels), or some well-known sign. These 
gifts became the sacred treasures of their re- 
spective churches. From his disciples he se- 
lected twelve who were known as ' the twelve 
Apostles of Ireland.' These, according to Dr. 
Todd, formed themselves into a kind of cor- 
poration, and exercised a sort of jurisdiction 
over the other ecclesiastics of their times. 
They were especially jealous of the right 
of sanctuary which they claimed for their 

A bard named Gemman, also termed ' the 
master,' and mentioned in Adamnan's ' Co- 
lumba' as a tutor, brought him a poem cele- 
brating his praises, and asked in return that 
' the little land he had should be made fer- 

tile.' Finnian replied, ' Put the hymn which 
thou hast made into water, and scatter the 
water over the land.' This is in accordance 
with Bede's description of the virtues of Irish 
manuscripts when immersed in water (EccL 
Hist. bk. i. chap, i.) In the Latin life he 
orders Gemman ' to sing the hymn over the 
field.' Some of the pupils of Finnian having 
been attracted to St. Ruadan of Lothra, for- 
merly one of his disciples, he visited that saint 
at the request of his school, and an amicable 
contest took place between them, with the 
result that Ruadan consented ' to live like 
other people.' The special reason for the 
flocking of students to Lothra is said to have 
been ' a lime tree from which there used to 
drop a sweet fluid in which every one found 
the flavour he wished.' His next journey 
was into Luigne, now the barony of Leyney, 
co. Sligo, whither he was accompanied by 
Cruimther (or presbyter) Nathi. Here he 
founded a church in a place called Achad 
caoin conaire, now Achonry, where his well 
and his flagstone were shown. 

When he had thus 'founded many churches 
and monasteries, and had preached God's 
word to the men of Ireland,' he returned to 
Clonard. Here his pupil, Bishop Senach, ob- 
serving ' his meagreness and great wretched- 
ness,' and * seeing the worm coming out of 
his side in consequence of the girdle of iron 
which he wore,' could not restrain his tears. 
Finnian comforted him by reminding him that 
he was to be his successor. His food was a 
little barley bread, and his drink water, ex- 
cept on Sundays. 

In the ' Martyrology of Donegal ' he is com- 
pared to St. Paul, the parallel being carried 
out in detail. Finnian was the chief of the 
second order of Irish saints ; he is sometimes 
said to have been a bishop, but it is not so 
stated in his life, and it is improbable, as the 
second order were nearly all presbyters. He 
died at Clonard, and, according to the ' Chro- 
nicon Scotorum,' of the pestilence known as 
the Buidhe Conaill, or yellow plague, which 
ravaged Ireland in A.D. 550. The language 
of his life is ambiguous, but seems to agree 
with this : ' As Paul died in Rome for the 
sake of the Christian people, even so Finnian 
died in Clonard that the people of the Gael 
might not all die of the yellow plague.' The 
' Annals of the Four Masters ' place his death 
at 548 (549), which is too early. Colgan's 
opinion that he lived as late as 563 is founded 
on a statement referring not to him but to 
St. Finnian of Maghbile. He is said in the 
Irish life to have reached the age of 140, and 
if his stay in different places was so long as 
mentioned, this would seem to be necessary, 
but the numbers can scarcely be intended to 



fee taken literally. ' Thirty ' seems to be used 
indefinitely in the lives of Irish saints. St. 
Finnian's day in the ' Martyrology of Done- 
gal' is 12 Dec., though 11 Feb., 3 Jan., and 
26 March have also been mentioned. 

[Lives from the Book of Lismore, translated 
by Whitley Stokes, D.C.L., pp. 222-30; Lani- 
.gan's Eccl. Hist. i. 468, &c., ii. 21, 22 ; Dr.Todd's 
St. Patrick, pp. 98-101 ; Martyrology of Donegal, 
p. 333 ; Annals of the Four Masters, A.D. 548 ; 
Eeeves's Adamnan, p. 136.] T. 0. 

FINTAN, SAINT (d. 595), of Cluain- 
ednech, according to his pedigree in the ' Book 
of Leinster,' and his life as quoted by Colgan, 
was the son of Gabren and Findath, and a 
descendant of Feidlimid Rectmar. In the 
1 Codex Kilkenniensis ' his father is called 
Crymthann, but Gabren is added in the mar- 
gin, apparently as a correction. Again, in 
the ' Life of Finnchu ' he is said to have been 
the son of Nuadu, king of Leinster, by his 
wife, Anmet. But as, according to some ac- 
counts, there were four Fintans at Cluain- 
ednech, the son of Nuadu was evidently a 
different person from the subject of the present 
notice. On the eighth day after his birth our 
Fintan was baptised at Cluain mic Trein, 
which may be presumed to have been in or 
near Ross, anciently called Ros mic Trein. 
He studied with two companions, Coemhan 
and Mocumin, under Colum, son of Crim- 
thann, afterwards of Tirdaglas, now Terry- 
glas, barony of Lower Ormond, county of 
Tipperary. Coemhan became eventually abbot 
of Enach Truim, now Annatrim, in Upper 
Ossory, and Mocumin, otherwise Natcaoim, 
was also subsequently of Tirdaglas. 

The party of students and their master 
moved about, and on one occasion stayed at 
Cluain-ednech, where there was then no 
monastery. Here such numbers flocked to 
them that they had to move to Sliabh Bladma, 
now Slieve Bloom. Looking back from the 
mountain-side it was said that angels were 
hovering over the place they had left, and 
Fintan was at once advised to build his mo- 
nastery there, which he did about A.D. 548. 
This place is now Clonenagh, a townland near 
Mountrath in the Queen's County. Here he 
led a life of the severest asceticism, but not- 
withstanding the strictness of his rule many 
sought admission to his community. ' The 
monks laboured with their hands after the 
manner of hermits, tilling the earth with hoes, 
and, rejecting all animals, had not even a 
single cow. If any one offered them milk or 
butter it was not accepted ; no one dared to 
bring any flesh meat.' 

This mode of life being felt as a reproach 
by the neighbouring clergy, a council assem- 

bled, at which St. Cainnech of Kilkenny and 
others were present, who visited St. Fintan 
and requested him for the love of God to re- 
lax the extreme rigour of his rule. Fintan 
after much persuasion conceded the changes 
proposed as regarded his community, but re- 
fused to alter his own mode of living. His 
discernment of character is shown in the case 
of two relatives of one of his monks. After 
the young man had failed to convert them, 
Fintan visited them and pronounced that one 
would be converted, but that the case of the 
other was hopeless. He seems to have been 
kind to his community, for when some of 
them, eager, like all the Irish of the period, for 
foreign travel, went away without his leave, 
and proceeded to Bangor in Ulster, and thence 
to Britain, he said to those who spoke of 
them, ' They are gone for God's work.' 

A warlike party once left the heads of 
their enemies at the gate of Clonenagh. They 
were buried by the monks in their own ceme- 
tery, Fintan saying that all the saints who lay 
in that burial-ground would pray for them, as 
the most important part of their bodies was 
buried there. At this time the king of North 
Leinster held the son of the king of South 
Leinster (or Hy Censelach) prisoner, intend- 
ing to kill him as a rival, but Fintan and 
twelve disciples went to the king at a town 
named Rathmore, in the north-east of the 
county of Kildare, to remonstrate with him. 
The king ordered the fortress to be firmly 
closed against him, but Fintan overcame all 
resistance, and rescued the youth, who after- 
wards became a monk at Bangor. 

Walking on one occasion in the plain of 
the Liffey, he met Fergna, son of Cobhthach, 
and kneeled before him. The man was much, 
surprised, but Fintan told him he was to be- 
come a monk. He said : ' I have twelve sons 
and seven daughters, a dear wife, and peace- 
ful subjects,' but he eventually gave up all. 
Bishop Brandubh, ' a humble man of Hy Cen- 
selach,' went to Fintan to become one of his 
monks. Fintan met him in the monastery 
of Achad Finglas, near Slatey, and desired 
him to remain in this monastery, ' where,' he 
added, ' the mode of life is more tolerable 
than in mine/ 

His most famous pupil was Comgall [q.v.] 
of Bangor, who came to him at Cluain-ednech. 
Here he joined the community, but so hard 
was the life that he grew weary of it, and 
the devil tempted him to return to his native 
place. He told Fintan of this, but shortly 
after, when praying at a cross to the west of 
Cluain-ednech, a supernatural light broke in 
on him, and he became quite happy. Fintan 
then sent him back to his native place to 
build churches and rear up servants to Christ. 



He subsequently founded the famous monas- 
tery of Benchor (Bangor) in Ulster. 

Fintan when on his deathbed appointed as 
his successor Fintan Maeldubh. In the ' Lebar 
Brecc ' notes on the ' Calendar ' of Oengus 
there are said to have been four Fintans there. 
His life was a continual round of fasts, night 
watches, and genuflexions. He is termed by 
Oengus ' Fintan the Prayerful,' and on the 
same authority we read, ' he never ate during 
his time, save woody bread of barley, and 
clayey water of clay.' In the parallel list of 
Irish and foreign saints, he, as /chief head of 
the monks of Ireland,' is compared with 
Benedict, 'head of the monks of Europe/ 
His day is 17 Feb. 

[Colgan's Acta Sanct. Hibernise, p. 349, &c. ; 
Codex Kilkenniensis ; Marsh's Library, Dublin, 
p. 74 aa ; Calendar of Oengus, lii. liii. ; Martyr- 
ology of Donegal, p. 51 ; Lanigan's Eccl. Hist. ii. 
227-30.] T. O. 

FINTAN or MUNNU, SAINT (d. 634), 
of Tech Munnu, now Taghmon, co. Wexford, 
was son of Tulchan, a descendant of Conall 
Gulban, son of Niall of the Nine Hostages, 
his mother, Fedelm, being of the race of 
Maine, son of Niall. He used to leave his 
father's sheep to go for instruction to a holy 
man named Cruimther (or presbyter) Grel- 
lan, who lived at Achad Breoan. The sheep did 
not suffer, and it was even rumoured that two 
wolves were seen guardingthem. St. Comgall 
of Bangor on his way from Connaught met 
with him at Uisnech (now Usny), in the 
parish of Killare, barony of Rathconrath, co. 
Westmeath. Comgall allowed the boy to 
join him, and on the first day initiated him 
into his discipline by refusing to allow him 
a draught of water until vespers in spite of 
the heat. 

Fintan is said to have gone next to the 
school of St. Columba at Cill mor Ditraibh ; 
but this seems inconsistent with the dates of 
his life. His regular studies were carried on 
under Sinell of Cluaininis, an island in Lough 
Erne, who is described as ' the most learned 
man in Ireland or in Britain.' With him 
he continued nineteen years, studying the 
Scriptures in company with nine others. In 
making their bread they were not permitted 
to separate the chaff from the wheat ; but all 
being ground together, the flour was mixed 
with water and baked by means of stones 
heated in the fire. 

On the completion of his studies he went 
to Hy to enter the monastery, but found that 
St. Columba was dead, and Baithin, his suc- 
cessor, refused to accept him, alleging that 
St. Columba had anticipated his coming, and 
directed him not to receive him. ' He will 
not lik^ this,' he added, 'for he is a rough 

man ; therefore assure him that he will be 
an abbot and the head of a congregation.' 
This story, which is not only found in his 
lives, but in Adamnan's ' Life of Columba,' is. 
stated in the latter to have been communi- 
cated to the author by Oissene, who had it 
from the lips of Fintan himself. Fintan is 
described as fair, with curly hair and a high 
complexion. On his return to Ireland he took 
up his abode in an island named Cuimrige or 
Cuinrigi, where he founded a church at a 
place called Athcaoin ; but having ascended 
a mountain to pray he was so disturbed by 
the cries and tumult at the battle of Slenne 
(perhaps of Sleamhain, near Mullingar, A.D. 
602) that he left the island. He next passed 
on to his own neighbourhood in the territory 
of Ely, but did not visit or salute any one. 
Here he built Tech Telle (now Tehelly), in 
the north of the King's County, where he re- 
mained five years. He permitted his mother 
to visit him with his two sisters, but said 
that if she came again he would depart to 
Britain. Probably in allusion to this a poem 
attributed to Colum Cille, says : ' The mother 
that bore thee, O Fintan, Munnu, bore a 
son hard to her family.' Soon afterwards 
a virgin with five companions presented her- 
self at Tech Telle, and said to the steward : 
' Tell the strong man who owns this place 
to give it to me, for he and his fifty youths 
are stronger than I and my five, and let 
him build another for himself.' Fintan com- 
plied, ordering his pupils to bring only their 
axes, books, and chrismals with their ordinary 
clothing, and the two oxen which drew the 
wagon with the books. But he refused to bless 
her, and told her that the church would not 
be associated with her name, but with that 
of Telle, son of Segein. He and his party th en 
proceeded to the UiBairrche (now the barony 
of Slieve Margy in the Queen's County), 
where there was a monastery of Comgall of 
Bangor, over which one of his pupils named 
Aed Gophan (or Guthbinn ?) presided. He 
was obliged to go away into exile for twelve 
years, and left Fintan to take charge during 
his absence. Meanwhile, Comgall having 
died, ' the family ' of the monastery came to 
Fintan, but he refused their several requests 
either to accept the abbacy of Bangor, or to 
become one of the monks there, but said 
that he would leave the place if he could 
surrender it to Aed Gophan, who entrusted 
it to him. Then they said : f You had better go 
and seek for him, even if you have to go to 
Rome, and we will wait your return.' He 
therefore set out with five companions, but 
after crossing one field he met with Aedh 
returning after twelve years of exile. Leaving 
Ui Bairrche, Fintan came to Achad Liacc, in 




the barony of Forth, co. Wexford. Here one 
day when in the woods he met three men 
clothed in white garments, who told him, 
' Here will be your city/ and they marked out 
in his presence seven places in which after- 
wards the chief buildings of his city should 
be erected, and Fintan placed crosses there. 
The chieftain of the country of Forth, named 
Dimma, who had offended him by unseemly 
rejoicing over a homicide, repenting, 'offered 
him the land where his city Taghmon now is.' 
He asked for a reward, and when Fintan 
promised him the kingdom of heaven, said : 
1 That is not enough, unless you also give me 
long life and all my wishes, and allow me to 
be buried with your monks in holy ground.' 
All these requests Fintan granted to him. 
The community of Fintan consisted of fifty 
monks, and their daily food was bread with 
water and a little milk. Dimma, chieftain 
of the territory, had placed his two sons in 
fosterage one, Cellach, at Airbre in Ui Cenn- 
selaigh with St. Cuan; the other, Cillin, 
with Fintan at Taghmon. The father going 
to visit them found Cellach dressed in a blue 
cloak, with a sheaf of purple arrows on his 
shoulder, his writing tablet bound with brass, 
and wearing shoes ornamented with brass. 
Cillin, in a cloak of black undyed sheep's 
wool, a short white tunic, with a black border 
and common shoes, chanting psalms with 
other boys behind the wagon. The king was 
displeased, but Fintan told him that Cellach 
would be slain by the Leinster people, while 
Cillin would be ' the head of a church, a 
wise man, a scribe, bishop, and anchorite,' 
and would go to heaven. 

Fintan's rugged character is illustrated in 
an imaginary dialogue between him and the 
angel who used to visit him. Fintan asked 
why another, whom he mentioned, was higher 
in favour than himself. Because, was the re- 
ply, 'he never caused any one to blush, whereas 
you scold your monks shamefully.' * Then/ 
Fintan indignantly replied, ' I will go into 
exile and never take any more pains with my 
monks.' ' No/ said the' angel, ' but the Lord 
will visit you.' That night Fintan became a 
leper, and continued so for twenty-three years. 
This is referred to in the ' Calendar ' of Oen- 
gus, where he is called ' crochda/ crucified 
or bearing a cross. 

Fintan's most remarkable appearance was 
at the council of Magh Ailbe or Whitefield, 
where the propriety of adopting changes made 
on the continent in the Rule of Easter was 
discussed. Laisrean or Molaisse of Leighlin, 
with his friends, defended the new system 
and the new order. Fintan and all others 
maintained the old. The king of Ui Bairrche, 
impatient at Fintan's delay in coming, spoke 

tauntingly of his leprosy. When he arrived 
the king asked him to speak. ' Why/ said 
Fintan, turning fiercely to him, ' do you ask 
me, a leprous man, for a speech ? When you 
were abusing me Christ blushed at the right 
hand of the Father, for I am a member of 
Christ.' Fintan proposed the ordeal by fire and 
then by water, or a contest in miraculous 
power ; but Laisrean would not risk the danger 
of defeat. Dr. Lanigan is not accurate in 
saying that ' Fintan soon after withdrew his 
opposition, and agreed with his brethren of 
the south/ for the ' Codex Salmanticensis T 
states that the council broke up, assenting to 
his conclusion : ' Let every one do as he be- 
lieves, and as seems to him right/ words 
which fairly express the tolerant spirit of the 
Irish church. It is added by the writer of 
his ' Life' that whenever he addressed a guest 
in rough or hasty language he would not eat 
until he had apologised, saying: 'At that mo- 
ment I was the son of Tulchan according to 
the flesh, but now I am spiritually the son 
of God.' Lanigan does not allow that he was 
at Clonenagh ; but Bishop Reeves, following 
Colgan, holds that he was * fourth in a suc- 
cession of Fintans there.' He has given his 
name to a Taghmon, also in Westmeath, and 
is commemorated at Kilmun in Cowall (Scot- 
land), where he is buried according to the 
' Breviary of Aberdeen.' There was also a 
church in LochLeven called after him. In the 
1 Litany ' of Oengus f one hundred and fifty 
true martyrs ' who lived under his rule are 
invoked, and two hundred and thirty-three 
are referred to in the ' Martyrology ' of Tam- 
laght ; but this does not imply that they were 
all living at one time. The name Mundu or 
Munnu is interpreted in the * Lebar Brecc ' 
as a contraction of mo-Fhindu, the F in the 
compound becoming silent; Fintan is also 
a contraction of Findu-an. His day is cele- 
brated 21 Oct. 

[Acta Sanct.Hibernise ex codice Salman ticensi, 
London, 1888; Calendar of Oengus, clix. ; Lani- 
gan's Eccl. Hist. ii. 404-8; Ussher's Works, vi. 
503; Eeeves's Adamnan, pp. 18, 27; the Kev. 
James Gammack, in Diet, of Christian Biography, 
ii. 520.] T. 0. 

FIKBAJSTK, JOSEPH (1819-1886), rail- 
way contractor, son of a Durham miner, was 
born at Bishop Auckland in 1819. At the 
age of seven he was sent to work in a colliery, 
and attended a night-school. In 1841 he se- 
cured a sub-contract in connection with the 
Woodhead tunnel on the Stockton and Dar- 
lington railway, and in 1845 and 1846 took 
contracts on the Midland railway. The oppo- 
sition to railway construction was so^ great 
at this time that on one occasion Firbank 
was captured and kept a prisoner for twenty- 




four hours. Noblemen would not permit the 
contractors or their workmen to approach 
their demesnes. In 1848 Firbank was en- 
gaged on the Rugby and Stamford branch 
of the North- Western railway, and lost most 
of his savings by the bankruptcy of the 
former contractor of the line. When the 
Monmouthshire Railway and Canal Com- 
pany transformed their mineral tramways 
and canals into passenger railways in 1854, 
Firbank took the contract for dealing with 
the canals in the town of Newport, Mon- 
mouthshire. He also took the contract for 
the maintenance of the lines for seven years, 
and this contract was several times renewed. 

Firbank established himself at Newport, 
where he formed an intimate friendship with 
Mr. Crawshaw Bailey, the ironmaster, who 
supported him in his early undertakings. He 
was employed in South Wales for thirty 
years, until the absorption of the Monmouth- 
shire company by the Great Western. In 
1856 Firbank took a contract for the widen- 
ing of the London and North- Western rail- 
way near London, and afterwards (1859-66) 
various contracts on the Brighton line. He 
was also engaged upon the Midland Com- 
pany's Bedford and London extension (1864- 
1868), which involved great difficulties and 
ultimately cost the company upwards of 
3,000,000/. He was contractor in 1870 on 
the Settle and Carlisle extension of the Mid- 
land railway. He was afterwards contractor 
for many lines, the most difficult undertaking 
being the Birmingham west suburban section 
of the Midland railway. 

In 1884 Firbank built the St. Pancras 
goods depot of the Midland railway. The 
last contract taken by him was for the Bourne- 
mouth direct line from Brokenhurst to Christ- 
church. It proved to be the most troublesome 
of all his undertakings, and was finally com- 
pleted by his son, Joseph T. Firbank. The 
lines constructed by Firbank from 1846 to 
1886 amounted to forty-nine. All through 
his career he was a generous employer, doing 
his best to promote the welfare of those whom 
he employed. 

Firbank died at his residence, near New- 
port, on 29 June 1886. He was twice married, 
and was survived by his second wife and 
seven children. Firbank has been described 
as ' an excellent specimen of the class of 
Englishmen who rise up not so much by 
any transcendent talents, as by intelligence 
and energy,' and above all by a scrupulous 
1 honesty, inspiring confidence' (SAMUEL 
LAING). He was indefatigable in work, re- 
tiring to rest by nine o'clock and rarely 
rising later than five. His business faculties 
were very great. He was a j ustice of the peace 

and deputy -lieutenant for the county of Mon- 

[F. M'Dermott's Life and Work of Joseph 
Firbank, 1887.] G-. B. S. 

FIREBRACE, HENRY (1619-1691), 
royalist, sixth son of Robert Firebrace of 
Derby, who died in 1645, by Susanna, daugh- 
ter of John Hierome, merchant, of London, 
held the offices of page of the bedchamber, 
yeoman of the robes, and clerk of the kitchen 
to Charles I, which he obtained through the 
interest of the Earl of Denbigh. He became 
much attached to the king, and was able to 
be of service to him on more than one occa- 
sion at Uxbridge, in connection with the 
negotiations there in 1644, Oxford, and else- 
where. After the king's surrender to the Scots 
at Newark, in 1646, Firebrace joined him 
at Newcastle, and attended him to Holmby 
House and Hampton Court, and again after 
his flight to the Isle of Wight he obtained 
permission to attend him as page of the bed- 
chamber during his confinement in Caris- 
brooke Castle. Here he determined, if pos- 
sible, to effect the king's escape, and accord- 
ingly contrived one evening, as Charles was 
retiring to rest, to slip into his hand a note 
informing him of a place in the bedchamber 
where he had secreted letters from friends 
outside. A regular means of communication 
was thus established between the king and 
his most trusted supporters. They thus con- 
certed a plan of escape. At a signal given 
by Firebrace Charles was to force his body 
through the aperture between the bars of his 
bedchamber window, and let himself down 
by a rope ; Firebrace was then to conduct 
him across the court to the main wall of the 
castle, whence they were to descend by an- 
other rope and climb over the counterscarp, 
on the other side of which men and horses 
were to be in waiting to carry them to a 
vessel. On a night, the precise date of which 
cannot be fixed, but which was probably early 
in April 1648, Firebrace gave the signal by 
throwing something against the bedchamber 
window. The king thrust his head into the 
aperture, and succeeded in squeezing some 
portion of his body through it, but then stuck 
fast, and could with difficulty get back into 
the room. Firebrace was not slow in devis- 
ing a new plan, which he communicated to 
the king by a letter. A bar was to be cut in 
one of the windows, from which the king 
would be able to step upon a wall and escape 
over the outworks. The king, who had al- 
ready begun filing one of the bars of his bed- 
chamber window, expressed approval of the 
new plan as an alternative scheme. In the 
end, however, he abandoned an attempt 




at secret flight as impracticable. In a 
letter (26 April) lie commanded Firebrace 
i heartily and particularly to thank, in my 
name, A. C. F. Z., and him who stayed for 
me beyond the works, for their hearty and 
industrious endeavours in this my service.' 
The cipher letters are supposed to stand for 
Francis Cresset, Colonel William Legg, groom 
of the bedchamber, Abraham Doueett, and 
Edward Worsely. The person l who stayed 
beyond the works ' appears to have been one 
John Newland of Newport, who had provided 
the vessel for the king's use. On the day 
before his execution Charles charged Dr. Wil- 
liam Juxon to recommend Firebrace to Prince 
Charles as one who had been ' very faithful 
and serviceable to him in his greatest extre- 
mities.' After this we lose sight of Firebrace 
until the Restoration, when he petitioned to 
be appointed to one or other of the posts 
which he had held under the late king. The 
petition, which was supported by a certificate 
from Juxon, then archbishop of Canterbury, 
of Charles's recommendation, was granted, 
and Firebrace was appointed to the several 
offices of chief clerk of the kitchen, clerk- 
comptroller-supernumerary of the household, 
and assistant to the officers of the green 
cloth. He died on 27 Jan. 1690-1. 

Firebrace married, first, Elizabeth, daugh- 
ter of Daniel Dowell of Stoke-Golding, 
Leicestershire ; secondly, Alice, daughter of 
Richard Bagnall of Reading, relict of John 
Bucknall of Creek, Northamptonshire ; and 
thirdly, Mary, of whom nothing seems to be 
known except that she was buried in the 
north cloister of Westminster Abbey on 
1 Feb. 1687-8. By his first wife he had issue 
four sons and one daughter. His eldest son, 
Henry, became a fellow of Trinity College, 
Cambridge, and entered the church ; his 
second son, Basil (d. 1724), went into busi- 
ness, was sheriff of London in 1687, and was 
created a baronet on 28 July 1698. In De- 
cember 1685 a royal bounty of 1,694/. was 
paid him {Secret Services of Charles II and 
James II, Camd. Soc. p. 114). Reference is 
made to him in Luttrell's ' Relation.' The 
dignity became extinct in 1759. The origi- 
nal form of the name Firebrace, sometimes 
spelt Ferebras, is said to have been Fier a 
bras ; the family was probably of Norman 

[Nichols's Leicestershire, iv. pt. ii. 726 ; Hist. 
MSS. Comm. 4th Kep. App. 274 b, 7th Eep. App. 
224 a ; Sir Thomas Herbert's Memoirs, 1702, 
pp. 185-200 ; Dr. Peter Barwick's Life of Dr. 
John Barwick (translation by Hilkiah Bedford, 
pp. 87-9, 380-7 ; Wotton's Baronetage, iv. 65- 
77 ; Cal. State Papers, Dom. 1660-1, p. 20 ; Coll. 
Top. et Gen. vii. 163, viii. 20.] J. M. E. 

FIRMIN, GILES (1614-1697), ejected 
minister, son of Giles Firmin, was born at 
Ipswich in 1614. As a schoolboy he received 
religious impressions from the preaching of 
John Rogers at Dedham, Essex. He matricu- 
lated at Emmanuel College, Cambridge, in 
December 1629, his tutor being Thomas Hill, 
D.D. [q. v.] At Cambridge he studied medi- 
cine. In 1632 he went with his father to 
New England. While at Boston, Massa- 
chusetts, he was ordained deacon of the first 
church, of which John Cotton was minister. 
At Ipswich, Massachusetts, he received in 
1638 a grant of 120 acres of land. He prac- 
tised medicine in New England, and had the 
repute of a good anatomist. About 1647 
he returned to England, leaving a wife and 
family in America. He was shipwrecked 
on the coast of Spain ; Calamy relates, as a 
1 well-attested ' fact, that at the very time 
when he was in danger of being drowned, his 
little daughter of four years old roused the- 
family in New England by continually cry- 
ing out < My father ! ' 

In 1648 Firmin was appointed to the vi- 
carage of Shalford, Essex, which had been 
vacant a year since the removal of Ralph 
Hilles to Pattiswick. At Shalford he was 
ordained a presbyter by Stephen Marshall 
[q. v.] and others. He is returned in 1650 
as ' an able, godly preacher.' He appears to 
have been a royalist in principle, for he 
affirms that he was one of those who ' in the- 
time of the usurpation ' prayed for ' the af- 
flicted royal family.' Very soon he got into 
controversy on points of discipline. He was a 
strong advocate for the parochial system, in- 
sisted on imposition of hands as requisite for 
the validity of ordination, and denied the 
right of parents who would not submit to 
discipline to claim baptism for their children. 
With Baxter he opened a correspondence in 
1654, complaining to him that ' these separa- 
tists have almost undone us.' The quakers 
also troubled his parish. In ecclesiastical 
politics he followed Baxter, preferring a re- 
formed episcopacy to either the presbyterial 
or the congregational model, but laying most 
stress on the need of a well-ordered parish. 
He actively promoted in 1657 the ' agree- 
ment of the associated ministers of Essex ' 
on Baxter's Worcestershire model. 

After the king's return he writes to Bax- 
ter (14 Nov. 1660) that he is most troubled 
about forms of prayer; these, he says, 'will 
not downe in our parts.' He is ready to 
submit to bishops, ' so they will not force 
me to owne their power as being of divine 
authoritie,' and adds, ' some episcopacies I 
owne.' In spite of the persuasion of his seven 
children he refused to conform. As the result* 

of his ejection (1662), Shalford Church was 
closed for some months. 

Firmin retired to Ridgewell, Essex, per- 
haps on the passing of the Five Mile Act 
(1665). He supported himself by medical 
practice, and was much in request. The 
neighbouring justices, who valued his pro- 
fessional services, took care that he should 
not be molested, though he regularly held con- 
venticles, except once a month, when there 
was a sermon at Ridgewell Church which 
he attended. On 22 July 1672 Daniel Ray, 
who had been ejected from Ridgewell, took 
out licenses qualifying him to use his house 
as a 'presbyterian meeting-place.' Firmin on 
1 Dec. took out similar licenses. Ray removed 
in 1673, and Firmin remained till his death 
in sole charge of the congregation. It still 
exists, and now ranks with the independents. 

Firmin retained robust health as an octo- 
genarian, and was always ready to take his 
part in polemics. He had broken a lance 
with his old friend Baxter in 1670, and in 
1693 he entered the lists of the Crispian con- 
troversy, which was then breaking up the 
newly formed * happy union ' of the London 
presbyterians and independents. He was 
a well-read divine, if somewhat captious. 
Calamy reckons him at his best in an experi- 
mental treatise. He was taken ill on a Sun- 
day night after preaching, and died on the 
following Saturday, in April 1697. He mar- 
ried, in New England, Susanna, daughter of 
Nathaniel Ward, pastor of the church at 
Ipswich, Massachusetts. 

Davids gives an imperfect list of seventeen 
of Firmin's publications. His chief pieces 
are : 1. ' A Serious Question Stated,' &c., 
1651, 4to (on infant baptism). 2. ' Separa- 
tion Examined,' &c., 1651 [i.e. 15 March 
1652], 4to. 3. ' Stablishing against Shaking/ 
&c., 1656, 4to (against the quakers ; the 
running title is ' Stablishing against Quak- 
ing ; ' answered by Edward Burrough [q. v.] 
4.' Tythes Vindicated,' &c., 1659, 4to. 6.' Pres- 
byterial Ordination Vindicated,' &c., 1660, 
4to. 6. ' The Liturgical Considerator Con- 
sidered,' &c., 1661, 4to (anon., in answer to 
Gauden). 7. < The Real Christian,' &c., 1670, 
4to ; reprinted, Glasgow, 1744, 8vo (in this 
he criticises Baxter ; it is his best piece ac- 
cordingto Calamy). 8/ The Question between 
the Conformist and the Nonconformist,' &c., 
1681, 4to. 9. < Hai/ovpywi,' &c., 1693 (against 
Davis and Crisp). 10. ' Some Remarks upon 
the Anabaptist's Answer to the Athenian 
Mercuries,' &c. (1694), 4to (apparently his 
last piece). He wrote also in defence of 
some of the above, and in opposition to John 
Owen, Daniel Cawdry [q. v.], Thomas Grant- 
ham (d. 1692) [q. v.], and others. 

[Calamy's Historical Account of his Life and 
Times, 1713, p. 295; Continuation, 1727, p. 458; 
Davids's Annals of Evang. Nonconf. in Essex, 
1863, pp. 440, 449, 457 ; Dexter's Congrega- 
tionalism of the last Three Hundred Years, 
1880, p. 574 n. ; Firmin's letters to Baxter, in 
the collection of Baxter MSS. at Dr. Williams's 
Library (extracts, occasionally needing correction, 
are given by Davids) ; Hunter's manuscripts, 
Addit. MSS. 24478, p. 114 6.] A. G-. 

FIRMIN, THOMAS (1632-1697), phi- 
lanthropist, son of Henry and Prudence Fir- 
min, was bornat Ipswich in June 1632. Henry 
Firmin was a parishioner of Samuel Ward, 
the puritan incumbent of St. Mary-le-Tower, 
by whom in 1635 he was accused of erro- 
neous tenets ; the matter was brought before 
the high commission court, but on Firmin's 
making satisfactory submission the charge 
(particulars of which are not disclosed) was 
dismissed. Thomas was apprenticed in Lon- 
don to a mercer, who attended the services 
of John Goodwin [q. V.] the Arminian, then 
vicar of St. Stephen's, Coleman Street. He 
learned shorthand, and took down Goodwin's 
sermons. As an apprentice his alacrity gained 
him the nickname of ' Spirit.' An elder ap- 
prentice accused him of purloining 5/., but 
afterwards confessed that the theft was his 
own. The late story (KENNETT) according to 
which Firmin, during his apprenticeship, pre- 
sented -a petition in favour of John Biddle 
[see BIDDLE, JOHN], and was dismissed by 
Cromwell as a ' curl-pate boy,' does not tally 
with earlier accounts. Kennett, however, 
gives as his authority John Mapletoft, M.D. 
[q. v.], who was a relative of Firmin. 

With a capital of 100/. Firmin began busi- 
ness as a girdler and mercer. His shop was at 
Three Kings Court, in Lombard Street ; he had 
a garden at Hoxton, in which he took great 
delight. Slender as were his means he con- 
trived to keep a table for his friends, especially 
ministers. His frank hospitality brought him 
(after 1655) into relations with such men as 
Whitchcote, Worthington, Wilkins, Fowler, 
and Tillotson. In this way, somewhat earlier, 
he became acquainted with Biddle, whose in- 
fluence on Firmin's philanthropic spirit was 
important. It was from Biddle that he learned 
to distrust mere almsgiving, but rather to 
make it his business to fathom the condition 
of the poor by personal investigation, and to 
reduce the causes of social distress by eco- 
nomic effort. Biddle also deepened Firmin's 
convictions on the subject of religious tolera- 
tion, and without converting him to his own 
specific opinions made him heterodox in the 
article of the Trinity. Biddle was Firmin's 
guest in 1655, prior to his banishment, and it 
was largely through Firmin's exertions that a 




pension of one hundred crowns was granted 
by Cromwell to the banished man. 

Sympathy with the oppressed had some- 
thing to do with Firmin's religious leanings. 
He expressed himself as hating popery ' more 
for its persecuting than for its priestcraft.' 
In 1662 he raised money partly by ' collec- 
tions in churches ' for the exiled anti-trinita- 
rians of Poland ; but when (1681) the Polish 
Calvinists met the same fate Firmin was fore- 
most in efforts for their relief, collecting about 
680/. His acquaintance with religious con- 
troversies was gained in conversation, for he 
was never a student. There was scarcely a 
divine of note whom he did not know. He 
helped young clergymen to preferment, and 
it is said that Tillotson, after becoming dean 
of Canterbury (1672), when obliged to leave 
town, ' generally left it to Mr. Firmin to pro- 
vide preachers ' for his Tuesday lecture at St. 
Lawrence, Jewry. Tillotson was aware that 
Firmin's freedom of opinion did not bias his 
judgment of men. 

Firmin's first philanthropic experiment was 
occasioned by the trade disorganisation of the 
plague year (1665). He provided employ- 
ment at making up clothing for hands thrown 
out of work. It was the only one of his en- 
terprises by which he suffered no pecuniary 
loss. During the great fire (1666) his Lom- 
bard Street premises were burned. He se- 
cured temporary accommodation in Leaden- 
hall Street, and in a few years was able to 
rebuild in Lombard Street, and to carry on 
his business with increased success. In 1676 
he left the management of the concern in the 
hands of his nephew and partner, Jonathan 
James (son of his sister Prudence), who had 
been his apprentice ; he was then worth about 
9,000/. Henceforth he devoted his time and 
great part of his means to works of public 
benefit. He had been elected about 1673 a 
governor of Christ's Hospital, the first public 
recognition of his worth. 

He had two schemes already in operation. 
About 1670 he had erected a building by the 
river for the storage of corn and coals, to be 
retailed to the poor in hard times at cost 
price ; how this plan worked is not stated. 
Early in 1676 he had started a ' workhouse 
in Little Britain, for the employment of the 
poor in the linen manufacture ; ' he built new 
premises expressly for it. Tillotson suggests 
that the hint of this ' larger design' was taken 
from the example of Thomas Gouge [q. v.], 
who was one of the frequenters of Firmin's 
table. Firmin employed as many as seven- 
teen hundred spinners, besides flax-dressers, 
weavers, &c. He paid them for their work 
at the current rate, but, finding that they must 
work sixteen hours a day to earn sixpence, he 

added to their earnings in various ways, giving 
a sort of bonus in coal to good workers. His 
arrangements for the comfort and cleanliness 
of his hands, and for the industrial training 
of children rescued from the streets, were ad- 
mirable. Nothing is said of his directly fos- 
tering the education of the children, but he 
printed large editions of a ' Scripture Cate- 
chism' (probably by Bishop Edward Fowler 
[q.v.]), and gave rewards to such as learned it. 

The scheme never paid its way. Firmin 
sold his linens at cost price, but the sale 
flagged ; for the first five years the annual 
loss was 200/. He invoked the aid of the 
press, in the hope of getting the corporation 
of London to take the matter up as a public 
enterprise, but in vain. The scale of pro- 
duction was diminished, yet the loss increased. 
Two or three friends helped to make it good, 
but the main burden rested on Firmin. In 
1690 the patentees of the linen manufacture 
took over the scheme, retaining Firmin as its 
manager at a salary of 100/. a year, and re- 
ducing the rate of wages. The new arrange- 
ment was unsuccessful, Firmin's honorarium 
was not paid, and the enterprise was once 
more thrown on his hands. He kept it up to 
the day of his death, and nominally contrived 
to make it pay, only however by keeping the 
wages low, and supplementing them by pri- 
vate doles to his workers. His last wish was 
for two months more of life, in order that he 
might remodel his 'workhouse.' This was 
done after his death by James, his partner, a 
prudent man, who had saved Firmin from 
ruining himself by drawing too largely on the 
ready money of the firm. He had put down 
his coach rather than drop some of his spin- 
ners. The higher rate of wages obtainable at 
the woollen manufacture led Firmin to at- 
tempt its introduction as a London industry. 
He took for this purpose a house in Artillery 
Lane; but wool was too dear; his hands 
were too slow ; after losing money for two 
years and a quarter he abandoned the trial. 

Firmin deserves notice as a prison philan- 
thropist. From about 1676 he interested 
himself in the condition of prisoners for debt, 
freeing several hundreds who were detained 
for small sums, and successfully promoting 
acts of grace for the liberation of others. He 
visited prisons, inquired into the treatment 
pursued, and prosecuted harsh and extor- 
tionate gaolers. His biographer relates that 
one of these incriminated officials hanged him- 
self rather than face a trial. 

Firmin was a strong patriot as regards 
English manufactures, strenuously opposing 
the importation of French silks. But when 
the protestant refugees came over from France 
in 1680 and following years he was the first 


4 8 


to assist them to set up their own trades. 
Most of the moneys devoted to their relief 
passed through his hands, he himself collect- 
ing some 4,000/. His pet project of a linen 
manufacture he started for them at Ipswich 
in 1682. 

In politics Firmin does not seem to have 
taken any part till 1685. His opposition to 
James II's unconstitutional proceedings cost 
him for a time his governorship at Christ's 
Hospital. Not won by James's declaration 
for liberty of conscience he largely aided the 
circulation of pamphlets which sounded the 
alarm against it. His principles seem to have 
been republican, but he was a devoted ad- 
herent to William of Orange. To Robert 
Frampton [q. v.], the nonjuring bishop of 
Gloucester, Firmin remarked, ( I hope you 
will not be a nonconformist in your old age.' 
Frampton retorted that Firmin himself was 
' a nonconformist to all Christendom besides 
a few lowsy sectarys in Poland.' On the pro- 
testant exodus from Ireland in 1688-9 Firmin 
was the principal commissioner for the relief 
of the refugees ; more than 56,OOOZ. went 
through his hands, and eight of the protestant 
hierarchy of Ireland addressed to him a joint 
letter of thanks. He was rendering a similar 
service for the nonjurors in 1695, when he 
was stopped by the interference of the go- 

In conjunction with his friend, Sir Robert 
Clayton [q. v.], Firmin was an indefatigable 
governor of Christ's Hospital, carrying out 
many improvements, both of structure and 
arrangement. On Sunday evenings it was 
his custom to attend the scholars' service, and 
see that their ' pudding-pies ' for supper were 
of proper ' bigness.' In April 1693 he was 
elected a governor of St. Thomas's Hospital, 
of which Clayton had been made president 
in the previous year. Firmin carried through 
the work of rebuilding the hospital and 
church. Among his admirable qualities was 
the faculty for interesting others in benevo- 
lent designs and calling forth their liberality. 
He was a kind of almoner-general to the me- 
tropolis, keeping a register of the poor he 
visited, recommending their cases, and ap- 
prenticing their children. 

Luke Milbourn [q. v.] in 1692 speaks of 
Firmin as a ' hawker ' for the Socinians, f to 
disperse their new-fangled divinity.' Only 
four books of this class are known with cer- 
tainty to have been promoted by him. In 
1687 was printed at his expense ' A Brief 
History of the Unitarians, called also So- 
cinians.' It is in the shape of four letters, 
written for his information, probably by Ste- 
phen Nye, and is noteworthy as marking the 
first appearance in English literature of the 

term ' Unitarian,' a name unknown to Biddle. 
In 1689 he printed ' Brief Notes on the Creed 
of St. Athanasius,' a sheet by an unknown 
author. Tillotson, who had lectured on the 
Socinian controversy at St. Lawrence, Jewry, 
in 1679-80, felt himself compelled by 'calum- 
nies ' to publish the lectures in 1693. He 
sent a copy to Firmin, who printed a letter 
(29 Sept. 1694) in reply, probably by Nye, 
under the title ' Considerations on the Ex- 
plications of the Doctrine of the Trinity' 
(sometimes confounded with a tract of 1693 
with similar title, and by the same hand). 
This he laid before Tillotson, who remarked 
that Burnet's forthcoming exposition of the 
articles ' shall humble your writers.' In 1697, 
at Firmin's instance, appeared ' The Agree- 
ment of the Unitarians with the Catholick 
Church,' a work which more closely expresses- 
his own views than any of the foregoing. 
He never departed from the communion of 
the church of England, but put a Sabellian 
sense on the public forms. At the time of 
his death he was meditating a plan of * uni- 
tarian congregations ' to meet for devotional 
purposes as fraternities within the church. 

Firmin was an original member of the ' So- 
ciety for the Reformation of Manners ' (1691), 
and was very active in the enforcement of fines 
for the repression of profane swearing. Kettle- 
well's biographer speaks of his disinterested 
charity, and Wesley, who abridged his life- 
for the ' Arrninian Magazine,' calls him ' truly 

Firmin had injured his health by over- 
exertion and neglecting his meals, and had 
become consumptive. He was carried off in 
a couple of days by a typhoid fever, dying 
on 20 Dec. 1697. Bishop Fowler [q.v.J at- 
tended him on his deathbed. He was buried 
in the cloisters at Christ's Hospital, where a 
marble slab is placed to his memory. A me- 
morial pillar stands in the grounds of Marden 
Park, Surrey, the seat of his friend Clayton r 
where ' Firmin's Walk ' perpetuates his name. 
There is no portrait of Firmin ; he is described 
as a little, active man, of frank address and 
engaging manner. His autograph will (dated 
7 Feb. 1694) shows illiteracy. 

Firmin died worth about 3,000/. He was- 
twice married : first, in 1660, to a citizen's- 
daughter with a portion of 5QOL ; she died 
while Firmin was at Cambridge on business, 
leaving a son (d. about 1690) and a daughter 
(d. in infancy) ; secondly, in 1664, to Mar- 
garet (d. 14 Jan. 1719, aged 77), daughter of 
Giles Dentt, J.P., of Newport, Essex, alder- 
man of London ; by her he had several chil- 
dren,who all died in infancy, except the eldest, 
GILES, born 22 May 1665 (Tillotson was his 
godfather). Giles received his mother's por- 




tion and became a promising merchant ; h 
married Rachel (d. 11 April 1724), daughte 
of Perient Trott and sister of Lady Clayton 
died at Oporto on 22 Jan. 1694, and wa 
buried at Newport on 13 April ; his wido^ 
afterwards married Owen Griffith, rector o 
Blechingley, Surrey. 

Firmin's only known publication wa 
* Some Proposals for the Imploying of the 
Poor, especially in and about London, anc 
for the Prevention of Begging. In a Lette 
to a Friend. By T. F.,' 1678, 4to. An en- 
larged issue appeared in 1681, 4to ; two edi- 
tions same year. It was reprinted in a col- 
lection of ' Tracts relating to the Poor/ 1787 

[The Charitable Samaritan, or a Short and 
Impartial Account of ... Mr. T. F. ... by a 
gentleman of his acquaintance, 1698, 4to; Life 
of Mr. Thomas Firmin, 1698, 8vo, 2nd edition 
1791, 12mo (the writer had known him since 
1653 ; appended is a funeral sermon, probably 
by the same writer, ' preached in the country') ; 
Vindication of the memory of Thomas Firmin 
from the Injurious Reflections of ... Milbourn, 
1698, 4to (apparently by the writer of the Life) ; 
Account of Mr. Firmin's Religion, &c., 1698, 
8vo ; Tillotson's Funeral Sermon for G-ouge, 
1681; Penn's Key Opening the Way, 1692; 
Milbourn's Mysteries in Religion, 1692; Grounds 
and Occasions of the Controversy concerning the 
Unity of God, 1698; Life of Kettlewell, 1718, 
p. 420 ; Kennett's Register, 1728, p. 761 ; Bur- 
net's Hist, of his own Time, 1734, ii. 211 sq.; 
Birch's Life of Tillotson, 1753, p. 292 sq. ; Life 
by Cornish, 1780; Arminian Magazine, 1786, 
p. 253; Wallace's Antitrin. Biog., 1850, i. (his- 
torical introduction), iii. 353 sq.; Life of Bishop 
Frampton (Evans), 1876, p. 187; State Papers, 
Dom. Chas. I, cclxi. 105; Cole's manuscripts, v. 
27 sq.; Hunter's manuscript (Addit. MS. 24478, 
p. 1146); Firmin's will at Somerset House.] 

A. G-. 

FIRTH, MARK (1819-1880), founder 
of Firth College, Sheffield, was born at Shef- 
field25 April 1819 and left school in 1833. His 
father, Thomas Firth, was for several years 
the chief melter of steel to the firm of San- 
derson Brothers & Co., Sheffield, receiving 
70*. a week ; here his two sons, Mark and 
Thomas, on leaving school, joined him, and 
each had 20s. a week. Their demand for an 
increase of wages being refused, they com- 
menced a business of their own with a six- 
hole furnace in Charlotte Street (1843). At 
first they manufactured steel exclusively for 
home consumption, and then gradually ex- 
tended their business to Birmingham. By 
perseverance and energy they at last acquired 
an immense American connection, and in 
1849 erected the Norfolk Works at Sheffield, 
which cover thirteen acres of ground. In 1848 


Thomas Firth, senior, died, and Mark became 
the head of the firm, which soon acquired 
other works at Whittington in Derbyshire 
which occupy twenty-two acres, and several 
torges at Clay Wheels, near Wadsley. A 
speciality of the business was casting steel 
blocks for ordnance, and shot both spheri- 
cal and elongated, in addition to all kinds 
of heavy forgings for engineering purposes, 
.brom gun-blocks of seven inches diameter 
they went up to sixteen inches for the 81-ton 
gun, the heaviest single casting made. The 
whole of the steel employed in the manu- 
facture of guns for the British government 
was Firth's steel. When the government 
found it necessary to have a steel core for 
their great guns, the Firths laid down ma- 
chinery which cost them 100,000/., it being 
understood that they should be compensated 
for their outlay by receiving the government 
work. The principal feature of their busi- 
ness was the refining and manufacture of 
steel, in which they were unrivalled. They 
supplied foreign iron, which they imported 
in immense quantities from Swedish mines, 
of which they had concessions. After sup- 
plying the Italians with a 100-ton gun, 
:hey cast a dozen similar ingots for massive 
ordnance. The British government obtained 
bur of these, but they were never used in 
;he armament of any war ship. The Firths 
Burnished nearly all the steel gun tubes afloat 
n the British navy, and a large propor- 
tion of those used by the French. Three 
ounger brothers, John, Edward, and Henry, 
)ecame members of the firm of T. Firth & 
Sons. Mark Firth was one of the original 
members of the Iron and Steel Institute on 
ts establishment in 1869, and remained con- 
nected with it to his decease. Having gained 
a large fortune, he made many donations to 
lis native place. His first gift of any mag- 
litude was 1,000/., which he added to a 
egacy of 5,000/. left by his brother Thomas 
d. 1858) for the erection of a Methodist 
Sew Connexion training college and the 
ducation of young men about to enter the 
ministry. In 1869 he erected and endowed 
lark Firth's Almshouses at Ranmoor, near 
is own residence, at a cost of 30,0007. ; in 
his building are thirty-six houses, which are 
eft to the poor of Sheffield for ever. For 
bree successive years he held the office of 
master cutler, and in his third year enter- 
ained Henry, duke of Norfolk, 2 Sept. 1869, 
nthe occasion of his taking possession of his 
states as lord of Hallamshire. His next gift 
as a freehold park of thirty-six acres for a re- 
reation ground. The Prince and Princess of 
A^ales opened this park on 16 Aug. 1875, and 
\rere for two days Firth's guests at Sheffield. 



Perhaps the most useful act of his life was the 
erection and fitting up of Firth College at a 
cost of 20,000, its endowment with 5,000/., 
and the foundation of a chair of chemistry 
with 150/. a year. This building was opened 
"by Prince Leopold 20 Oct. 1879, and a great 
educational work has since been carried on 
in the institution. Firth, who was mayor 
of Sheffield in 1875, died of apoplexy and 
paralysis at his seat, Oakbrook, 28 Nov. 1880, 
and was buried in Sheffield general cemetery 
on 2 Dec., when a public procession nearly 
two miles in length followed his remains to 
the grave. His personalty was sworn under 
600,000^. in January 1881. He married first, 
15 Sept. 1841, Sarah Bingham, who died in 
1855, and secondly Caroline Bradley, in Sep- 
tember 1857, and left nine children. 

[Practical Magazine (1876), vi. 289-91, with 
portrait ; Gratty's Sheffield Past and Present 
(1873), pp. 305* 312, 332-4, with view of Firth's 
Almshouses ; Hunter's Hallamshire (Gatty's ed. 
1869), p. 215 ; Times, 29 Nov. 1880, p. 9, and 
3 Dec., p. 3 ; Illustrated London News, 21 Aug. 
1875, pp. 185-90, and 28 Aug., pp. 193, 196, 
208, with portrait; Engineer, 3 Dec. 1880, p. 
417 ; Journal of Iron and Steel Institute, 1880, 
No. 2, pp. 687-8.] G-. C. B. 


(1733-1800), oboist and composer, lived 
many years in London, was chamber musi- 
cian to the queen (Charlotte), and took a 
prominent part in the Bach- Abel and other 
concerts of modern classical music which 
were to bring about a great change in musical 
taste. Born at Freiburg (Breisgau) in 1733, 
Fischer was in 1760 a member of the Dresden 
court band, and later entered the service of 
Frederick the Great for a short time. In the 
course of his travels he came to London, took 
lodgings, according to an advertisement of 
the time, at Stidman's, peruke-maker, Frith 
Street, Soho, and announced his concert for 
2 June 1768. As early as 1774 he joined the 
quartet parties at court, but his appointment 
as queen's musician dates from 1780, with a 
salary of 180/. l The original stipend of the 
court musicians,' says Mrs. Papendiek in her 
journals, ' had been 100/.; but on giving up 
their house 30/. had been added, and 25/. for 
the Ancient Music concerts. They had four 
suits of clothes, fine instruments, and able 
masters to instruct them when required.' The 
same lady gives a lively account (p. 143) 
of the practical jokes played on the popular 
oboist by the Prince of Wales and his friends 
(see also KELLY, Reminiscences, i. 9, and 
PARKE, p. 48, for anecdotes). Fischer esta- 
blished his reputation in England by his bril- 
liant playing at the Professional, Nobility, 
and New Musical Fund concerts, and espe- 

cially at the Handel commemoration per- 
formances at Westminster Abbey. In 1780 
he married Mary, the beautiful younger 
daughter of Gainsborough ; it is said that a 
separation soon followed. Perhaps it was 
because he was refused the post of master of 
the king's band and composer of minuets that 
Fischer left England in 1786, but in spite of 
disappointments of various kinds he returned 
in 1790 to London. On the night of 29 April 
1800, while performing a solo part in his con- 
certo at the Queen's House, and ' after hav- 
ing executed his first movement in a style 
equal to his best performance during any 
part of his life,' he was seized with an apo- 
plectic fit. Prince William of Gloucester 
supported him out of the room, and the king, 
who was much affected, had the best medical 
assistance called ; but Fischer died within an 
hour at his lodgings in Soho, desiring in his 
last moments that all his manuscript music 
might be presented to his majesty. 

George III has recorded his appreciation 
of his faithful musician's performance in a 
critical note appended in his own handwrit- 
ing to the proof-sheets of Dr. Burney's ' Ac- 
count of the Handel Commemoration.' The 
testimony of the younger Parke, himself an 
oboist of repute, is of even greater value. 
After remarking that Fischer arrived in this 
country in very favourable circumstances, the 
two principal oboe players, Vincent and Simp- 
son, using an instrument which in shape and 
tone bore some resemblance to a post-horn, 
he continues : t The tone of Fischer was soft 
and sweet, his style expressive, and his exe- 
cution at once neat and brilliant.' A. B. C. 
Dario compared the tone of his oboe to that 
of a clarionet, Giardini commented on its 
power, and Burney and Mrs. Papendiek 
agree in praising him. Mozart, on the other 
hand, writing from Vienna 4 April 1787, ob- 
serves that whereas Fischer's performance had 
pleased him upwards of twenty years ago in 
Holland, it now appeared to him undeserving 
of its reputation. Mozart was even more severe 
upon Fischer's compositions, yet he paid a 
substantial compliment to the celebrated 
minuet (composed by Fischer for a court ball 
on the occasion of the king of Denmark's visit 
to England) by writing and often playing a 
set of variations upon it (Kochel, No. 179); 
and Burney bears witness to the merit of his 

There were published at Berlin : Oboe con- 
certo ; pianoforte concerto ; popular rondo ; 
concerto for violin, flute, or oboe ; six duos 
for two flutes, Op. 2 ; ten solos for flute and 
oboe. In London appeared : Three concertos 
for principal oboe, Nos. 8, 9, 10 ; the same 
for pianoforte ; seven divertimentos for two 



flutes ; ten sonatas for flute ; three quartets 
and two trios for German flutes, violin, viola, 
and cello, from eminent masters, revised by J. 
C. Fischer (GERBER). Pohl mentions 'God 
save great George our King,' for four solo 
voices, chorus and harp accompaniment, newly 
harmonised ; and ' The Invocation of Neptune,' 
solo quartet and chorus. 

Gainsborough's portrait of Fischer, now at 
Hampton Court, is full of expression; another 
by the same artist is mentioned by Thick- 
nesse, 'painted at full length .... in scarlet 
and gold, like a Colonel of the Foot Guards.' 
It is said to have been exposed for sale at a 
picture dealer's in Catherine Street. 

[Burney's History of Music, iv. 673 ; Mendel, 
iii. 540 ; Grove's Diet. i. 528 ; Pohl's Mozart 
und Haydn in London, ii. 53 ; The Gazetteer, 
No.12, p. 246 ; Mrs. Papendiek's Journals, i. 65, 
ii. 125; Parke's Musical Memoirs, pp. 48, 334; 
Fulcher's Life of Gainsborough, pp. 74, 118, 
200; Thicknesse's Gainsborough, 1788, p. 24; 
Times, 1 May 1800; Gent. Mag. vol. Ixx. pt. i. 
p. 488 ; D'Arblay's Memoir of Burney, 1832, ii. 
385; Jahn's Mozart, 1882, ii. 343; Gerber's 
Tonkiinstler-Lexikon, 1812, i. 137.] L. M. M. 

(1786-1875), painter, born at Hanover on 
16 Sept. 1786, was the youngest of three sons 
of a line-engraver, who died very soon after 
the birth of the youngest child, leaving his 
family in poverty. Fischer at the age of 
fourteen was placed as pupil with J. H. 
Ramberg, the fashionable court painter, by 
whom he was employed in painting portraits, 
theatrical scenery, and generally assisting 
his master. He became capable of earning 
enough money to support his mother. In 
1810 he betook himself to England, and his 
Hanoverian connection rendered it easy for 
him to obtain the patronage of royalty. He 
painted miniature portraits of Queen Char- 
lotte and the junior members of the royal 
family, and was employed by the prince re- 
gent to paint a series of military costumes. 
He painted the present queen twice, once in 
1819 as an infant in her cradle, and again in 
1820. In 1817 he began to exhibit at the 
Royal Academy, and continued to do so up 
to 1852, occasionally contributing also to 
the Suffolk Street Exhibition. His works 
were ^ chiefly portraits in miniature, but he 
occasionally exhibited landscapes in water- 
colours. He continued to paint up to his 
eighty-first year, and died 12 Sept. 1875. 
Fischer was an industrious but inferior artist. 
Some sketches by him in the print room at 
the British Museum show spirit and intelli- 
gence, especially two pencil portraits of Wil- 
liam Hunt and his wife. He published a few 
etchings and lithographs. 

[Redgrave's Diet, of Artists ; Graves's Diet of 
Artists, 1760-1880 ; Royal Academy Catalogues.] 

L. C. 

FISH, SIMON (d. 1531), theologian and 
pamphleteer, was a member of the university 
of Oxford, and entered Gray's Inn about 1525, 
which is the first date that can be approxi- 
mately fixed in his life. In London he formed 
one of a circle of young men who gave ex- 
pression to the popular dislike of Wolsey 
and denounced the riches of the church. 
One of their boldest undertakings was the 
production of an interlude, written by one 
Mater Roo (a member of Queens' College, 
Cambridge), the object of which was to hold 
up Wolsey to ridicule. Fish acted a part 
in this interlude, and, fearing the wrath of 
Wolsey, fled into the Low Countries, where 
he consorted with other English exiles, chief 
of whom were Tyndale and Roy. From 
them it would seem that he learned the 
principles of protestantism, and he turned 
his energies to the promotion of the Refor- 
mation in England. Wolsey's wrath against 
him soon passed away, and he returned to 
London, where he acted as an agent for the 
sale of Tyndale's New Testament. He lived 
in a house by the White Friars, and one 
Necton confessed that he bought from him 
copies of Tyndale's prohibited book, ' now 
five, now ten, to the number of twenty or 
thirty ' (Necton's confession in STRYPE, Me- 
morials, i. App. No. 22). Such conduct drew on 
him suspicion, and he again fled to the Low 
Countries, probably about the end of 1527. 
There he wrote his famous * Supplication of 
the Beggars.' 

So far it is possible to adapt Foxe's narra- 
tive (Acts and Monuments, ed. 1837, iv. 656, 
&c.) to other known facts about Fish's life. 
About the date of the ' Supplication ' and its 
influence in England, Foxe gives two con- 
tradictory accounts without seeing that they 
are contradictory: (1) He tells us that Fish 
found means to send a copy of the ' Suppli- 
cation ' to Anne Boleyn early in 1528 ; Anne 
was advised by her brother to show it to 
Henry VIII, who was much amused by it 
and kept the copy. On hearing this Mrs. 
Fish made suit to the king for her husband's 
return, but apparently received no answer. 
However, on Wolsey's fall, in October 1529, 
Fish ventured to return, and had a private 
interview with Henry VIII, who 'embraced 
him with a loving countenance,' and gave 
him his signet ring as a protection against 
Sir Thomas More, in case the new chancellor 
should continue the grudge of his predecessor. 
(2) He tells us that the book was brought 
to the king by two London merchants, who 
read it aloud. When they had done the 

E 2 



king said, * If a man should pull down an 
old stone wall, and begin at the lower part, 
the upper part thereof might chance to fall 
upon his head/ meaning that Fish's exhor- 
tation to deal with the monks and friars was 
hazardous advice until the royal supremacy 
had been established. After saying this the 
king took the book and put it away, com- 
manding the merchants to keep their inter- 
view a secret. Of these accounts the first is 
very improbable in itself, and makes Fish a 
much more important personage than he was. 
Moreover, Foxe evidently thought that Wol- 
sey was Fish's personal enemy, and he did 
not know of Fish's return to London and of 
his second flight. The second account of 
Henry VIII's interview with the London 
merchants is quite credible in itself, and the 
king's remark is so characteristic both of the 
man and of the times as to make the story ex- 
tremely probable. If this be accepted, Fish's 
' Supplication ' was written in 1528, was 
brought secretly to London at the end of 
that year, and was presented to Henry VIII 
early in 1529. Henry VIII, who was feeling 
his way towards an ecclesiastical revolution, 
appreciated the advantage of winning popu- 
lar support. Fish's pamphlet was admirably 
fitted to impress men's minds, and just before 
the assembling of parliament in November 
London was flooded with copies of it, in a 
way which suggests the connivance of some 
one in authority. ' The Supplication of the 
Beggars ' was exactly suited to express in a 
humorous form the prevalent discontent. It 
purported to be a petition from the class of 
beggars, complaining that they were robbed 
of their alms by the extortions of the begging 
friars ; then the monks and the clergy gene- 
rally were confounded with the friars, and 
were denounced as impoverishing the nation 
and living in idleness. Statistics were given 
in an exaggerated form ; England was said to 
contain fifty thousand parish churches (the 
writer was counting every hamlet as a parish), 
and on that basis clerical revenues were com- 
puted, with the result that a third of the 
national revenue was shown to be in the 
hands of the church. The pamphlet was 
fudged by Sir Thomas More to be of sufficient 
importance to need an answer, l The Suppli- 
cation of Poor Soules in Purgatory,' which is 
fairly open to the criticism that it makes 
the penitents in purgatory express themselves 
in very unchastened language about events 
on earth. 

At the end of 1529 Fish returned to Eng- 
land ; but, though Henrv VIII was ready to 
use Fish's spirited attack upon the church, 
he was not prepared to avow the fact, or to 
stand between him and the enemies whom 

he had raised up. It is not surprising that 
he was suspected of heresy, that his book 
was condemned by Archbishop Warham 
(WiLKiNS, Concilia, iii. 737), and that he 
was in great difficulties. Whether the pres- 
sure of his difficulties overcame him, or he 
underwent a change of opinion we cannot 
tell ; but Sir Thomas More wrote : ' This good 
zele had, ye wote well, Symon Fysh when 
he made the Supplication of Beggars ; but 
God gave him such grace afterwards that he 
was sorry for that good zele, and repented 
himself, and came into the church again, and 
forswore and forsook all the whole hill of 
those heresies out of which the fountain of 
that same good zele sprang' ( Works, eA. 1557, 
p. 881). Perhaps More overestimated the 
result of his answer to Fish. At all events, 
Fish's perplexities were ended by his death 
of the plague early in 1531. Very soon after 
his death his wife married James Bainham 
[q. v.], who was burned as a heretic in April 

Fish's ' Supplication ' was not only remark- 
able for its vigorous style and for its imme- 
diate influence, but was the model for a series 
of pamphlets couched in the same form. It 
was first printed in England in 1546, and 
was embodied in Foxe's l Acts and Monu- 
ments ' (iv. 660, &c., ed. 1837). It has also 
been edited, with three of its successors in 
the same style, in ' Four Supplications/ by 
Furnivall and Cooper, for the Early English 
Text Society, 1871. Besides this work Foxe 
also ascribes to Fish a t Summe of Scripture 
done out of Dutch/ of which a unique copy 
exists in a volume of pamphlets in the British 
Museum (C. 37, a), where it was first identi- 
fied by Mr. Arber in his introduction to a 
' Proper Dialogue in Rede me and be not 
Wroth ' (English Reprints, 1871). There are 
also assigned to Fish * The Boke of Merchants, 
rightly necessary to all Folks, newly made 
by the Lord Pantopole ' (London, 1547), and 
' The Spiritual Nosegay' (1548). 

[Foxe's Acts and Monuments, iv. 606, &c. ; 
Wood's Athense Oxon. ed. Bliss, i. 59 ; Tanner's 
Bibliotheca, p. 280 ; Furnivall's Introduction to 
the Supplication (Early English Text Sou.), 
1871.] M. C. 

FISH, WILLIAM (1775-1866), a musi- 
cian of Norwich, was born in that city in 
1775. He commenced his musical career as 
violinist (GROVE) in the orchestra of the 
theatre, and, after studying under Sharp, the 
oboist, and Bond, the pianist and organist, 
was fitted to take part in various capacities 
in the important local concerts and cathedral 
festivals. He was organist of St. Andrew's, 
Norwich, opened a music warehouse, and be- 




came well known in the neighbourhood as a 
teacher. He died 15 March 1866, a later 
date than that suggested by the musical dic- 
tionaries. Fish's Opus I., a sonata in the 
Mozartean manner, was followed by a num- 
ber of less interesting pianoforte pieces, some 
ballads (words and music by the composer), 
among which ' The Morning Star ' may be 
singled out, an oboe concerto, and some "fan- 
tasias for the harp. His unpublished works 
are said to have included a manuscript can- 
tata to words by Mrs. Opie, and some pieces 
(presumably for band) played at the Nor- 
wich Theatre. 

[Grove's Diet. i. 530 ; Diet, of Musicians, 1827, 
i. 249 ; History of Norfolk, 1829, ii. 1283 ; Notes 
from Eegister Office, Norwich ; Norfolk News, 
17 March 1866 ; Fish's music in Brit. Mus. 
Library.] L. M. M. 

or FIZACRE, RICHARD DE (d. 1248), 
Dominican divine, is said to have been a na- 
tive of Devonshire (FULLEK, i. 442, iii. 20). 
Trivet styles him 'natus Oxonia/ where, how- 
ever, other manuscripts read Exonia (p. 230). 
Bale makes him study ' the scurrilities of the 
Sophists' at Oxford and Paris ; but the whole 
story of the latter visit is probably nothing 
more than the expansion of a very dubious sug- 
gestion in Leland's i Commentaries ' (BALE, 
p. 294 ; LELAND, ii. 275). Like Robert Bacon 
[q. v.], Fishacre in his old age became a Domi- 
nican ; but as the two friends continued to 
read divinity lectures for several years after 
entering the order in the schools of St. Ed- 
ward, his entry can hardly be dated later 
than 1240, and perhaps like Robert Bacon's 
should be placed ten or more years earlier 
(TRIVET, pp. 229-30). The two comrades 
died in the same year, 1248 (MATT. PARIS, 
v. 16). In their own days they were con- 
sidered to be without superior, or even equal, 
in theology or other branches of science ; 
nor was their eloquence in popular preach- 
ing less remarkable (ib.~) Leland calls Fish- 
acre, Robert Bacon's ' comes individuus,' and 
adds that the two were as fast linked together 
in friendship as ever Theseus was to Piri- 
thous. He even hints that the former died 
of grief on hearing of his friend's decease 
(LELAND, ii. 275; FULLER, ubi supra). Fish- 
acre was buried among the Friars Preachers 
at Oxford. He was the first of his order in 
England who wrote on the ' Sentences' (One/ 
MS. No. 43, quoted in Coxe). Wood makes 
him a friend and auditor of Edmund Rich 
(Hist. II. ii. 740). 

Fishacre's works are: 1. Commentaries on 
Peter Lombard's ' Book of Sentences,' four 
books (manuscripts at Oriel College, Nos. 31, 
43, and Balliol, No. 57, Oxford, and, accord- 

ing to Echard, at the Sorbonne in Paris, &c. ) 
2. .Treatises on the Psalter (to the seventieth 
Psalm only according to Trivet). 3. 'Super 
Parabolas Salamonis.' To these Bale adds 
other dissertations : 'De Pcenitate,' 'Postillse 
Morales,' ' Commentarii Biblia?/ < Qusestiones 
Variae," Quodlibetaquoqueetaliaplura.' Pits 
says he was the first Englishman to become a 
doctor m divinity. The same writer states 
theologian of the early part of the fifteenth 
century, often appeals to Fishacre's authority 
while Bale adds that William Woodford (d. 
1397), the Franciscan, and William Byntre 
relied on him for the same purpose. Echard 
assigns him another work, ' De Indulgentiis.' 
[Matt. Paris, ed. Luard (Rolls Ser.), vol. v. ; 
Trivet, ed. Hog (Engl. Hist. Soc.); Leland's Com- 
mentaries, ed. 1709 ; Bale's Scriptores, ed. 1559, 
p. 294; Pits's Commentaries, ed. 1619, p. 317; 
Fuller's Worthies, ed. 1840, i. 422, iii. 419-20; 
Anthony a Wood's Hist, and Antiquities of Ox- 
ford, ed. Gutch, ii. 740; Echard's Scriptores 
Ordinis Praedicatorum, i. 118-19; Coxe's Cat. of 
Oxford MSS. ; Tanner's Scriptores.] T. A. A. 


1767), afterwards NORRIS, generally known as 
KITTY FISHER, courtesan, seems to have been 
of German origin, since her name is frequently 
spelt Fischer, and once by Sir Joshua Reynolds 
Fisscher. She became the second wife of 
John Norris of Hempsted Manor, Benenden, 
Kent, sometime M.P.for Rye. Her later life, in 
which she devoted herself to building up her 
husband's dilapidated fortunes, was in strik- 
ing contrast with her previous career, which 
was sufficiently notorious. Ensign (after- 
wards Lieutenant-general) Anthony George 
Martin (d. 1800) is said to have introduced 
her into public life. In London she was 
known as a daring horsewoman, and also cre- 
dited with the possession of beauty and wit. 
A satire in verse, ' Kitty's Stream, or the No- 
blemen turned Fishermen. A comic Satire 
addressed to the Gentlemen in the interest of 

the celebrated Miss K y F r. By Rig- 

dum Funnidos/ 1759, 4to, of which a copy, 
with manuscript notes by the Rev. John Mit- 
ford, is in the British Museum, says that her 
parentage was ' low and mean,' that she was 
a milliner, and had neither sense nor wit, 
but only impudence. Other tracts concern- 
ing her, mentioned in the ' Gentleman's Ma- 
gazine/ 1760, are ' An odd Letter on a most 
interesting subject to Miss K. F h r,' 6d., 
Williams ; < Miss K. F 's Miscellany/ Is., 
Ranger (inverse) : and ' Elegy to K. F h r.' 
A further satire on her among the satirical 
tracts in the king's library at the British 
Museum is ( Horse and Away to St. James's 
Park on a Trip for the Noontide Air. Who 




rides fastest, Miss Kitty Fisher or her gay 
gallant?' It is a single page, and claims 
to have been written and printed at Straw- 
berry Hill. Mme. d'Arblay states (Memoirs, 
i. 66) that Bet Flint once took Kitty Fisher 
to see Dr. Johnson, but he was not at home, 
to her great regret. She died at Bath, and 
at her own request was placed in the coffin 
in her best dress. This gave rise to ' An Elegy 
on Kitty Fisher lying in state at Bath ' (query 
same as the elegy previously mentioned ?), 
an undated broadside with music assigned to 
Mr. Harrington. She was buried at Benenden. 
The Benenden registers give the date of her 
burial as 23 March 1767. It has been attempted 
to associate her with folklore in the expres- 
sions, ' My eye, Kitty Fisher,' and in a rhyme 
beginning < Lucy Locket lost her pocket, Kitty 
Fisher found it.' Her chief claim to recogni- 
tion is that Sir Joshua Reynolds more than 
once painted her portrait. Several paintings 
of her by him seem to be in existence. One 
was in 1865 in the possession of John Tolle- 
mache, M.P., of Peckforton, Cheshire. Others 
were in 1867 'lent to the National Portrait 
Gallery by the Earl of Morley and by Lord 
Crewe. The last is doubtless that concern- 
ing which in Sir Joshua's diary, under the 
date April 1774, is the entry, ' Mr. Crewe for 
Kitty Fisher's portrait, 521. 10s.' This is 
curious, however, in being seven years after 
Mrs. Norris's death. Mitford says in his 
manuscript notes before mentioned that a 
portrait by Sir Joshua is ' at Field-marshal 
Grosvenor's, Ararat House, Richmond,' and 
one is gone to America. Two portraits, one 
representing her as Cleopatra dissolving the 
pearls, are engraved. In the l Public Adver- 
tiser ' of 30 March 1759 is an appeal to the 
public, signed C. Fisher, against ' the base- 
ness of little scribblers and scurvy malevo- 
lence.' After complaining that she has been 
* abused in public papers, exposed in print- 
shops,' &c., she cautions the public against 
some threatened memoirs, which will have 
no foundation in truth. The character of 
Kitty Willis in Mrs. Cowley's 'The Belle's 
Stratagem ' is taken from Kitty Fisher. Hone's 
' Every-day Book' says in error that ' she be- 
came Duchess of Bolton,' and Cunningham's 
1 Handbook to London' states that she lived 
in Carrington Street, Mayfair. 

[Notes and Queries, 3rd ser. viii. 81, 155, 4th 
ser. v. 319, 410 ; Bromley's Cat. of Engraved 
Portraits ; Ann. Reg. ii. 168 ; Boswell's Johnson, 
ed. Birkbeck Hill ; works cited.] J. K. 

FISHER, DANIEL (1731-1807), dis- 
senting minister, born at Cockermouth in 
1731, was appointed in 1771 tutor in classics 
and mathematics at Homerton College, where 

he was afterwards divinity tutor. He was a 
rigid Calvinist and staunch dissenter. He 
died at Hackney in 1807 after a lingering 
illness, in which he lost the use of all his 
faculties. Two funeral sermons were preached 
on the occasion, one of which, by the Rev. 
Samuel Palmer, was published under the 
title of 'The General Union of Believers/ 
London, 1807, 8vo. 

[Brit. Mus. Cat. ; Evans's Cat. of Engraved 
British Portraits, ii. 152.] J. M. R. 

FISHER, DAVID, the elder (1788 P- 
1858), actor, one of the managers of Fisher's 
company, which had a monopoly of the Suf- 
folk theatres, was the son of David Fisher 
(d. 6 Aug. 1832), manager of the same circuit. 
Fisher made his first appearance in London at 
Drury Lane, as Macbeth, 3 Dec. 1817. This 
was followed on the 5th by Richard III, and 
on the 10th by Hamlet. The recovery from ill- 
ness of Kean arrested his career. On 24 Sept. 
1818, at Drury Lane, then under Stephen 
Kemble, he played Jaffier in ' Venice Pre- 
served.' Subsequently he appeared as Lord 
Townly in the 'Provoked Husband,' and 
Pyrrhus in ' Orestes.' He was the original 
Titus in Howard Payne's l Brutus, or the 
Fall of Tarquin,' 3 Dec. 1818, and Angelo 
in Buck's < Italians, or the Fatal Accusation/ 
3 April 1819. He failed to establish any 
strong position, and discovered at the close 
of the second season that his presence was 
necessary on the Suffolk circuit. On 7 Nov. 
1823 he appeared at Bath in { Hamlet,' and 
subsequently as Shylock, Leon, and Jaffier. 
He was pronounced a sound actor, but with 
no claim to genius, and failed to please. Re- 
turning again to the eastern counties, he built 
theatres at Bungay, Beccles, Halesworth, 
Eye, Lowestoft, Dereham, North Walsham, 
and other places. About 1838 he retired to 
Woodbridge, where he died 20 Aug. 1858. 
He was a musician and a scene-painter, and 
in the former capacity was leader for some 
time of the Norwich choral concerts. 

[Grenest's Account of the English Stage ; Gent. 
Mag. 1858, ii. 422 ; Theatrical Inquisitor, vol. xi.] 

J. K. 

FISHER, DAVID, the younger (1816?- 
1887), actor, the son of David Fisher the elder 
[q. v.], was born at East Dereham, Norfolk, 
a town on a circuit established by his grand- 
father, and managed by his father and his 
uncle. An accident to his leg disqualified him 
for the stage, and he appeared as principal 
violinist at local concerts. A recovery, never 
perfect, enabled him to join the company at 
the Prince's Theatre, Glasgow. After a stay 
of four years he appeared 2 Nov. 1853 at 
the Princess's Theatre, under Charles Kean's 




management, as Victor in the ' Lancers, or the 
Gentleman's Son,' an adaptation of ' Le Fils 
de Famille ' of Bayard. During six years he 
played at this house in various novelties and 
revivals, including a trifling production from 
his own pen entitled { Music hath Charms ' 
(June 1858). In 1859 he joined the Adelphi 
under B.Webster's management,where he was 
the original Abbe Latour in the ' Dead Heart ' 
of Watts Phillips. In 1863 he gave, at the 
Hanover Square Rooms and at St. James's 
Hall, an entertainment called 'Facts and 
Fancies/ and in the autumn of the same year 
rejoined the Princess's, then under Yining's 
management. In 1865 he played, at the 
Haymarket, Orpheus in Blanche's 'Orpheus 
in the Haymarket.' In 1866-8 he was at 
Liverpool as stage-manager for Mr. H. J. 
Byron, playing at the Amphitheatre and 
Alexandra theatre. When the Globe Theatre, 
London, opened, 28 Nov. 1868, he was the first 
Major Treherne in Byron's ' Cyril's Success.' 
He appeared in succession at Drury Lane, the 
Olympic, the Globe, the Opera Comique, the 
Criterion, the Mirror (Holborn) Theatre, now 
destroyed, and the Princess's, playing in pieces 
by H. J. Byron, Mr. Boucicault, and other 
writers. His last appearance in London was 
at the Lyceum in 1884, as Sir Toby Belch. 
After that period he played in the country. 
He died in St. Augustine's Road, Camden 
Town, on 4 Oct. 1887, and was buried at 
Highgate cemetery. The ' Era ' says that not 
a single actor attended his funeral. Fisher 
was below the middle height, a stiff-built 
man, who tried to conceal his lameness by 
a dancing-master elegance. Concerning his 
Abbe, Latour, John Oxenford said in the 
* Times ' that ' he came to the Adelphi a se- 
cond-rate eccentric comedian, and showed 
himself an able supporter of the serious 
drama.' He left a son on the stage, who per- 
petuated the name of David Fisher borne by 
at least four generations of actors. 

[Pascoe's Dramatic List. 1879; The Players, 
1860 ; Cole's Life and Times of Charles Kean ; 
Era newspaper, 8 and 15 Oct.; personal recol- 
lections.] J. K. 

FISHER, EDWARD (/. 1627-1655), 
theological writer, was the eldest son of Sir 
Edward Fisher, knight, of Mickleton,Glouces- 
tershire. In 1627 he entered as a gentleman 
commoner at Brasenose College, Oxford, and 
graduated B.A. on 10 April 1630. He was 
noted for his knowledge of ecclesiastical his- 
tory and his skill in ancient languages. He 
-was a royalist, and a strong upholder of the 
festivals of the church against the puritans. 
He based the obligation of the Lord's day 
purely on ecclesiastical authority, declining 

to consider it a sabbath. He succeeded to his 
father's estate in 1654, but finding it much 
encumbered he sold it in 1656 to Richard 
Graves. Getting into debt he retired to Car- 
marthen and taught a school, but his creditors 
found him out, and he fled to Ireland. Here 
he died, at what date is not known. His 
body was brought to London for burial. He 
was married, but his wife died before him. 
The only publications which can be safely 
identified as his are : 1. * The Scriptures Har- 
mony ... by E. F., Esq.,' &c., 1643, 4to (a 
tract somewhat on the lines of HughBrough- 
ton's * Concent of Scripture/ 1588). 2. ' An 
Appeale to thy Conscience,' &c., without 
place, 'printed in the 19th yeare of our 
gracious lord King Charles,' &c. (British 
Museum copy dated 20 April 1643; it is 
quite anonymous, but easily identified as 
Fisher's). 3. The Feast of Feasts, or the 
Celebration of the Sacred Nativity,' &c.,0xf. 
1644, 4to (quite anonymous, but identified 
as Fisher's by the Bodleian Catalogue, and 
in his style). 4. l A Christian Caveat to the 
old and new Sabbatarians, or a Vindication 
of our Gospel Festivals . . . By a Lover of 
Truth ; a Defender of Christian Liberty ; and 
an hearty Desirer of Peace, internall, ex- 
ternall, eternall to all men,' &c., 1649 (i.e. 
1650), 4to ; 4th edit. 1652, 4to, < By Edward 
Fisher, Esq.,' has appended 'An Answer to 
Sixteen Queries touching the . . . observa- 
tion of Christmass, propounded by Joseph 
Hemming of Uttoxeter ' (reprinted ' Somers 
Tracts,' 1748, vol. iv.) ; 5th edit. 1653, 4to ; 
another edit. 1655, 4to, has appended l Ques- 
tions preparatory to the more Christian Ad- 
ministration of the Lord's Supper ... by 
E. F., Esq.' The ' Caveat,' which reckons 
Christmas day and Good Friday as of equal 
authority with the Lord's day, was attacked 
by John Collinges, D.D. [q. v. j, and by Giles 
Collier [q. v.] Parts of the ' Caveat ' were 
reprinted by the Seventh Day Baptists of 
America, in l Tracts on the Sabbath/ New 
York, 1853, 18mo. 

In Tanner's edition of Wood's ' Athense/ 
1721, Fisher is identified with E. F., the 
author of the ' Marrow of Modern Divinity ' 
[see BOSTON", THOMAS, the elder] ; and the 
identification has been accepted by Bliss, 
Hill Burton, and others. It is doubted by 
Grub, and internal evidence completely dis- 
proves it. The author of the ' Marrow ' has 
been described as ' an illiterate barber,' but 
nothing seems known of him except that 
in his dedication to John Warner, the lord 
mayor, he speaks of himself as a ' poore in- 
habitant ' of London. The following publi- 
cations, all cast into the form of dialogue, 
and bearing the imprimatur of puritan li- 



censers, may be safely ascribed to the same 
hand: 1. 'The Marrow of Modem Divinity . . 
by E. F.,' &c., 1645, 8vo ; 4th edit. 1646, 8vo, 
has recommendatory letters by Burroughes, 
Strong, Sprigge, and Prittie. 2. ' A Touch- 
stone for a Communicant ... by E. F.,' c., 
1647, 12mo (Caryl's imprimatur). 3. 'The 
Marrow of Modern Divinity: the Second 
Part ... by E. F.,' &c., 1649, 8vo. The 19th 
edit, of the ' Marrow' was published at Mont- 
rose, 1803, 12mo. It was translated into 
Welsh by John Edwards, a sequestered 
clergyman ; his dedication is dated 20 July 
1650 ; later editions are Trefecca, 1782, 12mo ; 
Carmarthen, 1810, 12mo. 4. ' London's Gate 
to the Lord's Table,' &c., 1647, 12mo ; the 
title-page is anonymous, but the signature 
1 E. F.' appears at the end of the dedication to 
Judge Henry Rolle of the pleas, and Mar- 
garet his wife. 5. 'Faith in Five Funda- 
mentall Principles . . . by E. F., a Seeker of 
the Truth,' &c., 1650, 12mo. 

[Wood's Athena Oxon. 1691 i. 866, 1692 ii. 
132 ; Wood's Athense Oxon. (Bliss), iii. 407 sq. ; 
Burton's History of Scotland, 1853,ii. 31 7; Grub's 
Ecclesiastical History of Scotland, 1861, iv. 54; 
Cox's Literature of the Sabbath Question, 1865, 
i. 237, &c. ii. 418; Rees's History of Protestant 
Nonconformity in Wales, 1883, p. 77 (compare 
Walker's Sufferings, 1714, ii. 237); publications 
of Fisher and E. F.] A. G. 

FISHER, EDWARD(1730-1785?),mez- 
zotint engraver, born in Ireland in 1730, was 
at first a hatter, but took to engraving, went 
to London, and became a member of the In- 
corporated Society of Artists in 1766, where 
he exhibited fourteen times between 1761 
and 1776. His earliest dated print is 1758, 
and his latest 1781. He resided in 1761 in 
Leicester Square, and moved to Ludgate 
Street in 1778. It is said that Reynolds 
called him ' injudiciously exact ' for finishing 
too highly the unimportant parts of the plate. 
After his death, about 1785, most of his 
coppers were dispersed among several print- 
sellers, and in some cases tampered with. 
He engraved over sixty plates of portraits, 
including George, earl of Albemarle, after 
Reynolds : Robert Brown, after Chamberlin ; 
"William Pitt, earl of Chatham, after Bromp- 
ton; Colley Gibber, after Vanloo; Chris- 
tian VII of Denmark, after Dance ; David 
Garrick, after Reynolds ; Simon, earl Har- 
court, after Hunter ; Roger Long, after B. 
Wilson ; Hugh, earl of Northumberland, 
and Elizabeth, countess of Northumberland, 
after Reynolds ; Paul Sandby, after F. Cotes ; 
Laurence Sterne, after Reynolds ; and the 
following fancy subjects : 'Lady in Flowered 
Dress/ after Hoare* ; ' Hope Nursing Love,' 
or, according to Bromley, Theophila Palmer, 

afterwards Mrs. Gwatkin, after Reynolds; 
and ' Heads from " Vicar of Wakefield," ' 
ten plates engraved from his own designs 
and published in 1776. 

[Redgrave's Diet, of Artists ; J. Chaloner 
Smith's Descriptive Catalogue of British Mezzo- 
tints, pt. ii. p. 485.] L. F. 

FISHER, GEORGE (1794-1873), astro- 
nomer, was born at Sunbury in Middlesex on 
31 July 1794. One of a large family left to- 
the care of a widowed mother, he received 
little early education, and entered the office 
of the Westminster Insurance Company at 
the age of fourteen. Here his devotion to 
uncongenial duties won the respect and re- 
wards of his employers. His scientific aspi- 
rations had, however, been fostered by Sir 
Humphry Davy, Sir Joseph Banks, Sir Eve- 
rard Home, and other eminent men, and he 
entered St. Catharine's College, Cambridge, 
in 1817, whence he graduated B.A. in 1821,, 
M.A. in 1825. His university career was in- 
terrupted by his appointment, on the recom- 
mendation of the Royal Society, as astronomer 
to the polar expedition fitted out in H.M. ships 
Dorothea and Trent in 1818. The highest 
latitude attained was 80 34', and both ves- 
sels returned to England disabled before the 
close of the year; but Fisher had made a series 
of pendulum experiments at Spitsbergen, from 
which he deduced the value -3 for the ellip- 
ticity of the earth. The results of his obser- 
vations on the ships' chronometers were em- 
bodied in a paper read before the Royal Society 
on 8 June 1820, entitled ' On the Errors in 
Longitude as determined by Chronometers 
at Sea, arising from the Action of the Iron 
in the Ships upon the Chronometers ' {Phil. 
Trans, ex. 196). 

Fisher soon afterwards took orders, and 
qualified himself by formally entering the 
navy to act as chaplain as well as astronomer 
to Parry's expedition for exploring the north- 
west passage in 1821-3. A ' portable' obser- 
vatory, embarked on board the Fury, was set 
up first at Winter Island, later at Igloolik, 
and Captain Parry testified to the ' unabated 
zeal and perseverance ' with which Fishei 
Dursued his scientific inquiries. He devotee 
much care to the preparation of the results 
for the press, and they formed part of a/Vo- 
lume, published at government expense in 
1825, as an appendix to Parry's ' Journal of a 
Second Voyage for the Discovery of o/N"orth- 
West Passage.' Astronomical, cbronome- 
trical, and magnetic observations/were ac- 
companied by details of experiments on the 
velocity of sound, and on the liquefaction of 
chlorine and other gases at very low tempe- 
ratures, as well as by an important discussion 




of nearly four thousand observations on as- 
tronomical refraction in an arctic climate. 

Fisher was elected a fellow of the Roya! 
Society in 1825, and of the Astronomical So- 
ciety in 1827, acted several times as vice-pre- 
sident of the latter body, and was a member o: 
the council from 1835 until 1863. Appointed 
in 1828 chaplain to H.M. ships Spartiate 
and Asia he carried on magnetic observations 
in various parts of the Mediterranean, and on 
24 Jan. 1833 laid a paper on the subject be- 
fore the Royal Society, entitled ' Magnetical 
Experiments made principally in the South 
part of Europe and in Asia Minor during the 
years 1827 to 1832 ' (ib. cxxiii. 237 ; Proc. 
JR. Soc. iii. 163). His theory of ' The Nature 
and Origin of the Aurora Borealis ' was com- 
municated to the Royal Society on 19 June 
1834 (ib. p. 295), and to the British Associa- 
tion at Cambridge in 1845 (Report, pt. ii. p. 
22). Founded on a close study of the phe- 
nomenon in arctic regions, it included the 
ideas, since confirmed, of its being the polar 
equivalent of lightning, and of its origin in a 
zone surrounding at some distance each pole. 
Auroras were thus regarded as a means of 
restoring electrical equilibrium between the 
upper and lower strata of the atmosphere, 
disturbed by the development of positive 
electricity through rapid congelation. 

Fisher accepted in 1834 the post of head- 
master of Greenwich Hospital School, and 
greatly improved the efficiency of the insti- 
tution. He erected an astronomical obser- 
vatory in connection with it, which he su- 
perintended during thirteen years, observing 
there the solar eclipse of 18 July lSQQ(Monthly 
Notices, xxi. 19). At the request of Lord 
Herbert in 1845, he wrote text-books of alge- 
bra and geometry for use in the school, of 
which he became principal in 1860. His re- 
tirement followed in 1863, and after ten years 
of well-earned repose he died without suffer- 
ing on 14 May 1873. 

Besides the papers already mentioned 
Fisher presented to the Royal Society ac- 
counts of magnetic experiments made in 
the West Indies and North America by Mr. 
James Napier (Proc. R. Soc. iii. 253), and 
on the west coast of Africa by Commander 
Edward Belcher (Phil. Trans, cxxii. 493), 
and reduced those made on the coasts of 
Brazil and North America from 1834 to 1837 
by Sir Everard Home (ib. cxxviii. 343). He 
contributed to the * Quarterly Journal of Sci- 
ence ' essays ' On the Figure of the Earth, as 
deduced from the Measurements of Arcs of 
the Meridian, and Observations on Pendu- 
lums ' (vii. 299, 1819) ; < On the Variation of 
the Compass, observed in the late Voyage of 
Discovery to the North Pole ' (ix. 81) ; and 

' On Refractions observed in High Latitudes^ 
(xxi. 348, 1826). 

[Monthly Notices, xxxiv. 140 ; Weld's Hist, 
of Koyal Society, ii. 280; Royal Society's Cata- 
logue of Scientific Papers.] A. M. C. 

FISHER, JAMES (1697-1775), one of 
the founders of the Scottish secession church, 
was born on 23 Jan. 1697 at Barr in Ayr- 
shire, where his father, Thomas, was minister, 
studied at Glasgow University, and was or- 
dained minister of Kinclaven, Perthshire, in 
1725. In 1727 he married the daughter of 
the Rev. Ebenezer Erskine [q. v.] of Port- 
moak, Kinross-shire, with whom he was after- 
wards associated as a founder of the secession 
body. Fisher concurred with Erskine and 
other likeminded ministers in their views both 
as to patronage and doctrine, and in opposi- 
tion to the majority of the general assembly, 
by whom their representations were wholly 
disregarded. In 1732 Erskine preached a 
sermon at the opening of the synod of Perth, 
in which he boldly denounced the policy 
of the church as unfaithful to its Lord and 
Master. For this he was rebuked by the 
general assembly; but against the sentence 
he protested, and was joined by three minis- 
ters, of whom Fisher was one. The protest 
was declared to be insulting, and the minis- 
ters who signed it were thrust out of the 
church, and ultimately formed the associate 
presbytery. The people of Kinclaven adhered 
almost without exception to their minister, 
and the congregation increased by accessions 
from neighbouring parishes. Fisher was 
subsequently translated to Glasgow (8 Oct. 
1741), but was deposed by the associate anti- 
burgher synod 4 Aug. 1748. In 1749 the 
associate burgher synod gave him the office 
of professor of divinity. His name is asso- 
ciated with a catechism designed to explain 
the ' Shorter Catechism of the Westminster 
Assembly.' What is known as Fisher's ' Cate- 
chism' (2 parts, Glasgow, 1753, 1760) was in 
reality the result of contributions by many 
ministers of the body, which were made use 
of by three of the leading men, Ebenezer and 
Ralph Erskine and Fisher. Fisher survived 
the other two ; and as the duty of giving a 
final form to the work, as well as executing 
lis own share, devolved on him, it is usually 
spoken of as his. It is a work of great 
care, learning, and ability ; it has passed 
;hrough many editions ; it was long the manual 
"or catechetical instruction in the secession 
jhurch ; and it was a favourite with evan- 
gelical men outside the secession like Dr. 
^olquhoun of Leith and Robert Haldane 
q. v.] Fisher was the author of various 
ither works, chiefly bearing on matters of 
ontroversy at the time, and illustrative of 



Erskine's work. Though not so attractive 
a preacher as the Erskines, nor so able an 
apologist as Wilson, yet by the weight of his 
character and his public position he exerted 
a very powerful influence on the secession, and 
contributed very materially to its progress 
and stability. He died 28 Sept. 1775, in the 
seventy-eighth year of his age. 

[Scott's Fasti, pt. iv. 802 ; Memorials of the 
Rev. James Fisher, by John Brown, D.D. (United 
Presbyterian Fathers), 1849 ; M'Kerrow's Hist. 
of the Secession ; Life and Diary of the Rev. 
E. Erskine, A.M., by Donald Fraser; Walker's 
Theology and Theologians of Scotland ; McCrie's 
Story of the Scottish Church.] W. G. B. 

FISHER, JASPER (fi. 1639), divine 
and dramatist, born in 1591, was the son of 
William Fisher of Carleton, Bedfordshire, 
deputy-auditor for the county of York (de- 
scended from a Warwickshire family), by 
Alice Roane of Wellingborough ( Visitation 
of Bedfordshire, Harl. Soc. 1884, xix. 107). 
Fisher matriculated at Magdalen Hall, Ox- 
ford, 13 Nov. 1607; he was admitted B.A. 
28 Jan. 1610-11, M.A. 27 Jan. 1613-14, 
B.D. and D.D. 1639 (CLAKK, Register, ii. 
300). About 1631 (according to Wood) 
he became rector of Wilsden, Bedfordshire, 
and in 1633 published his one considerable 
work, a play, entitled ' Fuimus Troes, the 
True Trojans, being a story of the Britaines 
valour at the Romanes first invasion. Pub- 
lickly presented by the gentlemen students 
of Magdalen College in Oxford,' London, 
1633, 4to. The drama is written in blank 
verse, interspersed with lyrics ; Druids, poets, 
and a harper are introduced, and it ends with 
a masque and chorus. Fisher held at Mag- 
dalen College the post of divinity or philo- 
sophy reader (WOOD). He also published 
some sermons, one on Malachi ii. 7, 1636, 
8vo, and ' The Priest's Duty and Dignity 

all 18 Aug. 1635, by J. F., presbyter and 
rector of Wilsden in Bedfordshire, and pub- 
lished by command,' London, 1636, 12mo. 
The exact date of Fisher's death is uncertain ; 
it is only known that he was alive in 1639, 
when he proceeded D.D. According to Oldys's 
manuscript notes to Langbaine he became 
blind, whether from old age or an accident 
is not known. Wood calls him ' an ingenious 
man, as those that knew him have divers 
times informed me' (Athence, ii. 636, ed. 
Bliss). He married Elizabeth, daughter of 
the Rev. William Sams of Burstead, Essex. 
Gideon Fisher, who went to Oxford in 1634 
and succeeded to the estate at Carleton, was 
the son, not of Jasper, but of Jasper's elder 
brother Gideon (Visitation of Bedfordshire, 
1634, Harl. Soc. 107). 

[Brit. Mus. Cat. of Printed Books; Langbaine's 
English Dramatic Poets, 1691, p. 533; Baker's 
Biographia Dramatica, 1812.] E. T. B. 

FISHER, JOHN (1459P-1535), bishop 
of Rochester, eldest son of Robert Fisher, 
mercer, and Agnes, his wife, was born at 
Beverley in Yorkshire, and probably received 
liis earliest education in the school attached 
to the collegiate church in that city. Con- 
siderable discrepancy exists in the statements 
respecting the year of Fisher's birth (see 
Life by Lewis, i. 1-2). His portrait by Hol- 
bein bears the words, ' A Aetatis 74.' As 
this could scarcely have been painted after 
his imprisonment in the Tower, it would 
seem that Fisher must have been at least 
seventy-five at the time of his execution. 
This, however, requires us to conclude that 
he was over twenty-six at the time of his 
admission to the B.A. degree, an unusual 
age, especially in those days. When only 
thirteen years old he lost his father; the lat- 
ter would seem to have been a man of con- 
siderable substance, and, judging from his 
numerous bequests to different monastic and 
other foundations, religious after the fashion 
of his age. Fisher was subsequently entered 
at Michaelhouse, Cambridge, under William 
de Melton, fellow, and afterwards master of 
the college. In 1487 he proceeded to his 
degree of bachelor of arts ; was soon after 
elected fellow of Michaelhouse, proceeded to 
his degree of M.A. in 1491, filled the office 
of senior proctor in the university in 1494, 
and became master of his college in 1497. 
The duties of the proctorial office necessi- 
tated, at that time, occasional attendance at 
court ; and Fisher on his appearance in this 
capacity at Greenwich attracted the notice 
of the king's mother, Margaret, countess of 
Richmond, who in 1497 appointed him her 

In 1501 he was elected vice-chancellor 
of the university. We learn from his own 
statements, as well as from other sources, 
that the whole academic community was at 
that time in a singularly lifeless and im- 
poverished state. To rescue it from this 
condition, by infusing new life into its 
studies and gaining for it the help of the 
wealthy, was one of the chief services which 
Fisher rendered to his age. In 1503 he was 
appointed by the Countess of Richmond to 
fill the newly founded chair of divinity, 
which she had instituted for the purpose of 
providing gratuitous theological instruction 
in the university ; and it appears to have 
been mainly by his advice that about the 
same time the countess also founded the 
Lady Margaret preachership, designed for 
supplying evangelical instruction of the laity 




in the surrounding county and elsewhere. 
The preaching was to be in the vernacular, 
which had at that period almost fallen into 
disuse in the pulpit. 

A succession of appointments now indi- 
cated the growing and widespread sense of 
his services. In 1504 he was elected to the 
chancellorship of the university, an office to 
which he was re-elected annually for ten 
years, and eventually for life. A papal bull 
(14 Oct. 1504) ratified his election to the 
see of Rochester, but for this preferment he 
was indebted solely to King Henry's favour 
and sense of his ' grete and singular virtue ' 
(Funeral Sermon, ed. Hymers, p. 163). On 
12 April 1505 Fisher was elected to the pre- 
sidency of Queens' College, but held the office 
only for three years. His appointment to 
the post, it has been conjectured, was mainly 
with the design of providing him with a 
suitable residence during the time that he 
was superintending the erection of Christ's 
College, which was founded by the Lady 
Margaret under his auspices in 1505. On 
the death of Henry VII, Fisher preached the 
funeral sermon at St. Paul's, and his dis- 
course was subsequently printed at the re- 
quest of the king's mother. Three months 
later it devolved upon him to pay a like 
tribute to the memory of his august bene- 
factress, a discourse which forms a memor- 
able record of her virtues and good works. 
By a scheme drawn up during her lifetime 
it was proposed to dissolve an ancient hos- 
pital at Cambridge, that of the Brethren of 
St. John, and to found a college in its place. 
Fisher was shortly after nominated to attend 
theLateran council in Rome (19 April 1512), 
and a sum of 500Z. had been assigned for his 
expenses during 160 days ; but at the last 
moment it was decided that he should not 
be sent. This happened fortunately for the 
carrying out of the Lady Margaret's designs, 
for Fisher, by remaining in England, was 
enabled to defeat in some measure the efforts 
that were made to set aside her bequest ; and 
it was mainly through his strenuous exer- 
tions that St. John's College was eventually 
founded, its charter being given 9 April 
1511. In connection with the college he 
himself subsequently founded four fellow- 
ships and two scholarships, besides lecture- 
ships in Greek and Hebrew. In 1513, on 
Wolsey's promotion to the see of Lincoln, 
Fisher, in the belief that one who stood so high 
in the royal favour would be better able to fur- 
ther the interests of the university, proposed 
to retire from the office of chancellor, advising 
that Wolsey should be elected in his place. 
The university acted upon his advice ; but 
Wolsey having declined the proffered honour, 

. - overburdened 

with affairs of state, Fisher was once more 
appointed. Notwithstanding the deference 
which he showed to "Wolsey on this occasion, 
there existed between him and the all-power- 
ful minister a strongly antagonistic feeling, 
of which the true solution is probably indi- 
cated by Burnet when he says that Fisher 
being ' a man of strict life ' ' hated him [Wol- 
sey] for his vices ' (Hist, of the Reformation, 
ed. Pocock, i. 52). At a council of the clergy 
held at Westminster in 1517, Fisher gave 
satisfactory proof that he was actuated by 
no spirit of adulation ; and in a remarkable 
speech, wherein he severely censured the 
greed for gain and the love of display and 
of court life which characterised many of the 
higher ecclesiastics of the realm, he was gene- 
rally supposed to have glanced at the cardinal 
himself. In 1523 he opposed with no less 
courage, by a speech in convocation, Wolsey's 
great scheme for a subsidy in aid of the war 
with Flanders (HALL, p. 72). 

Fisher's genuine attachment to learning is 
shown by the sympathy which he evinced 
with the new spirit of biblical criticism which 
had accompanied the Renaissance. It was 
mainly through his influence that Erasmus 
was induced to visit Cambridge, and the 
latter expressly attributes it to his powerful 
protection that the study of Greek was al- 
lowed to go on in the university without ac- 
tive molestation of the kind which it had to 
encounter at Oxford (Epist. vi. 2). Notwith- 
standing his advanced years, Fisher himself 
aspired to become a Greek scholar, and ap- 
pears to have made some attainments in the 
language. On the other hand, his attach- 
ment to the papal cause remained unshaken, 
while his hostility to Luther and the Refor- 
mation was beyond question. He preached 
in the vernacular, before Wolsey and War- 
ham, at Paul's. Cross, on the occasion of 
the burning of the reformer's writings in 
the churchyard (12 May 1521), a discourse 
which was severely handled by William Tyn- 
dale (LEWIS, Life, i. 181-3). He replied to 
Luther's book against the papal bull in a 
treatise entitled 'A Confutation of the Lu- 
theran Assertion ' (1523), and was supposed, 
although without foundation, to have been 
the real writer of the royal treatise against 
Luther, entitled ' Assertio septem Sacramen- 
torum,' published in 1521. He again replied 
to Luther in his ' Defence of the Christian 
Priesthood' (1524), and again, for the third 
time, in his ' Defence ' of Henry's treatise, 
in reply to the reformer's attack (1525). He 
also wrote against (Ecolampadius and Ve- 

With advancing years his conservative 



instincts would appear, indeed, sometimes to 
have prevailed over his better judgment. To 
the notable scheme of church reform brought 
forward in the House of Commons in 1529 he 
offered strenuous resistance, and his language 
was such that it was construed into a dis- 
respectful reflection on that assembly, and 
the speaker was directed to make it a matter 
of formal complaint to the king. Fisher was 
summoned into the royal presence, and was 
fain to have recourse to a somewhat evasive 
explanation, which seems scarcely in harmony 
with his habitual moral courage and con- 
scientiousness. The statutes which he drew 
up about this time, to be the codes of Christ's 
College and St. John's College, are also charac- 
terised by a kind of timorous mistrust, and, 
while embodying a wise innovation on the 
existing scheme of study, exhibit a pusillani- 
mous anxiety to guard against all subsequent 
innovations whatever. In the revised sta- 
tutes which he gave to St. John's College in 
1524 and 1530 this tendency is especially 
apparent : but it is to be observed that some 
of the new provisions in the latter code were 
taken from that given by Wolsey to Cardinal 
College (afterwards Christ Church), Oxford. 
In 1528 the high estimation in which his 
services were held by St. John's College was 
shown by the enactment of a statute for the 
annual celebration of his exequies. 

The unflinching firmness with which he 
opposed the doctrine of the royal supremacy 
did honour to his consistency. When con- 
vocation was called upon to give its assent, 
he asserted that the acceptance of such a 
principle would cause the clergy of England 
' to be hissed out of the society of God's holy 
catholic church ' (BAILY, p. 110) ; and his 
opposition so far prevailed that the form in 
which the assent of convocation was ulti- 
mately recorded was modified by the memor- 
able saving clause, ' quantum per legem Dei 
licet ' (11 Feb. 1531). 

His opposition to the royal divorce was 
not less honourable and consistent, and he 
stood alone among the bishops of the realm 
in his refusal to recognise the validity of the 
measure. As Queen Catherine's confessor 
he naturally became her chief confidant. 
Brewer goes so far as to say that he was 
' the only adviser on whose sincerity and 
honesty she could rely.' From the evidence 
of the State Papers it would seem, however, 
that Wolsey, in his desire to further Henry's 
wishes, did succeed for a time in alienating 
Fisher from the queen, by skilfully instilling 
into the bishop's mind a complete misappre- 
hension as to the king's real design in in- 
quiring into the validity of his marriage. 
But he could not succeed in inducing Fisher 

to regard the papal dispensation for Cathe- 
rine's marriage as invalid, and in 1528 the 
latter was appointed one of her counsellors. 
On 28 June 1529 he appeared in the legate's 
court and made his memorable declaration 
that ' to avoid the damnation of his soul,' 
and f to show himself not unfaithful to the 
king,' he had come before their lordships * to 
assert and demonstrate with cogent reasons 
that this marriage of the king and queen 
could not be dissolved by any power, divine 
or human ' (BREWER, Reign of Henry VIII, 
ii. 346). Henry betrayed how deeply he 
was offended by drawing up a reply (in the 
form of a speech) in which he attacked both 
Fisher's character and motives with great 
acrimony and violence. The copy sent to 
Fisher is preserved in the Record Office, and 
contains brief comments in his own hand- 
writing on the royal assertions and misre- 
presentations. In the following year, one 
Richard Rouse having poisoned a vessel of 
yeast which was placed in the bishop's kitchen 
' in Lambith Marsh,' several members of the 
episcopal household died in consequence. 
By Sanders (De Schismate, p. 72) this event 
was represented as an attempt on the bishop's 
life by Anne Boleyn, dictated by resentment 
at his opposition to the divorce. 

The weaker side of Fisher's character 
was shown in the credence and countenance 
which he gave to the impostures of the Nun 
of Kent [see BARTON, ELIZABETH] ; while 
the manner in which the professedly inspired 
maid denounced the projected marriage of 
Henry and Anne Boleyn brought the bishop 
himself under the suspicion of collusion.. 
This suspicion was deepened by the fact that 
the nun, when interrogated before the Star- 
chamber, named him as one of her confede- 
rates. He was summoned to appear before 
parliament to answer the charges preferred 
against him. On 28 Jan. 1533-4 he wrote 
to Cromwell describing himself as in a piti- 
able state of health, and begging to be ex- 
cused from appearing as commanded. In 
another letter, written three days later, he 
speaks as though wearied out by Cromwell's 
importunity and frequent missives. Crom- 
well in replying broadly denounces his ex- 
cuses as ' mere craft and cunning/ and ad- 
vises him to throw himself on the royal 
mercy. Chapuys, the imperial ambassador, 
writing 25 March to Charles V, says that 
Fisher, whom he characterises as ' the para- 
gon of Christian prelates both for learning' 
and holiness,' has been condemned to ' confis- 
cation of body and goods,' and attributes it 
to the support which he had given to the 
cause of Catherine. Fisher was sentenced, 
along with Adyson, his chaplain, to be at- 




tainted of misprision, to be imprisoned at the 
king's will, and to forfeit all his goods (Let- 
ters and Papers Henry VIII, vol. ii. No. 70). 
He was, however, ultimately permitted to 
compound for his offence by a payment of 

On 13 April he was summoned to Lam- 
beth to take the oath of compliance with the 
Act of Succession. He expressed his willing- 
ness, as did Sir Thomas More, to take that 
portion of the oath which fixed the succession 
in the offspring of the king and Anne Boleyn, 
but, like More, he declined the oath in its 
entirety. Their objection is sufficiently in- 
telligible when we consider that while one 
clause declared the offspring of Catherine il- 
legitimate, another forbade ' faith, truth, and 
obedience ' to any { foreign authority or po- 
tentate.' The commissioners were evidently 
unwilling to proceed to extremities, and 
Cranmer advised that both Fisher and More 
should be held to have yielded sufficiently 
for the requirements of the case. Both, 
however, were ultimately committed to the 
Tower (Fisher on 16 April), and their fate 
now began to be regarded as sealed. On the 
27th an inventory of the bishop's goods at 
Rochester was taken, which has recently 
been printed in ' Letters and Papers' (u. s. 
pp. 221-2). His library, which he had de- 
stined for St. John's College, and, according 
to Baily, the finest in Christendom, was 
seized at the same time. In his confinement, 
Fisher's advanced age and feeble health pro- 
cured for him no relaxation of the rigorous 
treatment ordinarily extended to political 
offenders, and Lee, the bishop of Coventry 
and Lichfield, who visited him, described 
him as ( nigh gone,' and his body as unable 
' to bear the clothes on the back.' He was 
deprived of his books, and allowed only in- 
sufficient food, for which he was dependent 
on his brother Robert. It is to the credit of 
the society of St. John's College that they 
ventured under the circumstances to address 
to him a letter of condolence. 

With the passing of the Act of Supremacy 
(November 1554) Fishers experiences as a 
political offender entered upon a third phase. 
Under the penalties attaching to two spe- 
cial clauses both Fisher and More were 
again attainted of misprision of treason, 
and the see of Rochester was declared va- 
cant from 2 Jan. 1534-5. The bishop was 
thus deprived of all privileges attaching to 
his ecclesiastical dignity. On 7 May 1535 
he was visited by Mr. Secretary Cromwell 
and others of the king's council. Cromwell 
read aloud to him the act, and Fisher inti- 
mated his inability to recognise the king as 
"supreme head' of the church. A second 

act, whereby it was made high treason to 
deny the king's right to that title, was then 
read to him : and Fisher's previous denial, 
extracted from him when uninformed as to 
the exact penalties attaching thereto, would 
appear to have constituted the sole evidence 
on which he was found guilty at his trial. 
It is probable, however, that Henry would 
still have hesitated to put Fisher to death 
had it not been for the step taken by the 
new Roman pontiff, Paul III, who on 20 May 
convened a consistory and created Fisher 
presbyter cardinal of St. Vitalis. Paul was 
at that time aiming at bringing about a re- 
formation of the Roman church, and with 
this view was raising various ecclesiastics of 
admitted merit and character to the cardi- 
nalate. According to his own express state- 
ment, volunteered after Fisher's execution, 
he was ignorant of the extremely strained 
relations existing between the latter and the 
English monarch. His act, however, roused 
Henry to almost ungovernable fury. A mes- 
senger was forthwith despatched to Calais 
to forbid the bearer of the cardinal's hat from 
Rome from proceeding further, and Fisher's 
death was now resolved upon. With the 
design, apparently, of entrapping him into 
admissions which might afford a further jus- 
tification of such a measure, two clerks of the 
council, Thomas Bedyl and Leighton, were 
sent to the Tower for the purpose of putting 
to Fisher thirty distinct questions in the 
presence of Walsingham, the lieutenant, and 
other witnesses. Fisher's replies, subscribed 
with his own hand, are still extant. He had 
already, in an informal manner, been apprised 
of the honour designed for him by Paul, and 
among other interrogatories he was now 
asked simply to repeat what he had said when 
he first received the intelligence. He re- 
plied that he had said, in the presence of two 
witnesses (whom he named), that *yf the 
cardinal's hat were layed at his feete he 
wolde not stoupe to take it up, he did set so 
little by it ' (LEWIS, Life, ii. 412). Accord- 
ing to the account preserved in Baily, how- 
ever, Cromwell was the interrogator on this 
occasion, and the question was put hypo- 
thetical ly ; whereupon Fisher replied : ' If 
any such thing should happen, assure your- 
self I should improve that favour to the best 
advantage that I could, in assisting the holy 
catholic church of Christ, and in that re- 
spect I would receive it upon my knees ' 
(p. 171). A third account is given by Sanders 
(see LEWIS, Life, i. xv, ii. 178) ; but amid 
such conflicting statements it seems reason- 
able to attach the greatest weight to Fisher's 
own account upon oath. It is certain that 
his replies, if they did not further incul- 



pate him, in no way served to soften Henry's 
resentment, and he was forthwith brought 
to trial on the charge that he did, ' 7 May 
27 Hen. VIII, openly declare in English, 
"The king our sovereign lord is not supreme 
head in earth of the church of England " ' 
(Letters and Papers Henry VIII, vol. viii. 
No. 886). The jury found one bill against 
Fisher, and presented another, and were then 
discharged. On 17 June he was brought to 
the bar at Westminster, pronounced guilty, 
and sentenced to die a traitor's death at Ty- 
burn. But on the 21st Walsingham received 
a writ in which the sentence was changed 
to one of beheading (instead of the ordinary 
hanging, disembowelling, and quartering), 
and Tower Hill was assigned as the place 
of execution, instead of Tyburn. The ac- 
counts of Fisher's execution, which took place 
22 June 1535, and of the incidents which 
immediately preceded and succeeded that tra- 
gical event, are conflicting, and it seems that 
on certain points there was a confusion in 
the traditions preserved of the details with 
those which belonged to More's execution, 
which took place just a fortnight later. (The 
incidents recorded by Baily are partly taken 
from the account by Maurice Channey ; see 
authorities at end of art.) All the narra- 
tives, however, agree in representing Fisher 
as meeting death with a calmness, dignity, 
and pious resignation which greatly im- 
pressed the beholders. His head was ex- 
posed on London Bridge ; his body left on 
the scaffold until the evening, and then con- 
veyed to the churchyard of Allhallows Bark- 
ing, where it was interred without ceremony. 
A fortnight later it was removed to the church 
of St. Peter ad Vincula in the Tower, and 
there laid by the side of the body of his friend 
Sir Thomas More, who, but a short time be- 
fore his own career was similarly terminated, 
had left it on record as his deliberate con- 
viction that there was ' in this realm no one 
man in wisdom, learning, and long approved 
vertue together, mete to be matched and 
compared with him ' (MoEE, English Works, 
p. 1437). 

The intelligence of Fisher's fate was re- 
ceived with feelings approaching to conster- 
nation not only by the nation but by Europe 
. at large. Paul III declared that he would 
sooner have had his two grandsons slain, and 
in a letter (26 July) to Francis I says that 
he ' is compelled, at the unanimous sollici- 
tation of the cardinals, to declare Henry 
deprived of his kingdom and of the royal 
dignity' (Letters and Papers Henry VIII, 
vol. viii. No. 1117). 

As a theologian Fisher was to some ex- 
tent an eclectic; and, according to Volusenus 

(De Tranquillitate Animi, ed. 1751, p. 280), 
inclined, on the already agitated question of 
election and free will, to something like a 
Calvinistic theory. The same writer tells us 
(ib. p. 250) that he also frequently expressed 
his high admiration of the expositions of 
some of the Lutheran divines, and only won- 
dered how they could proceed from heretics. 
Professor John E. B. Mayor observes : * If 
bonus textuarius is indeed bonus theologus, 
Bishop Fisher may rank high among divines. 
He is at home in every part of scripture, no 
less than among the fathers. If the matter 
of his teaching is now for the most part trite, 
the form is always individual and life-like. 
Much of it is in the best sense catholic, and 
might be illustrated by parallel passages from 
Luther and our own reformers' (pref. to Eng- 
lish Works, p. xxii). 

The best portrait of Fisher is the drawing 
by Hans Holbein in the possession of the 
queen. Another, by the same artist, also of 
considerable merit, is in the hall of the master's 
lodge at St. John's College. A third (sup- 
posed to have been taken shortly before his 
execution) is in the college hall. There are 
others at Queens', Christ's, and Trinity Col- 
leges. In the combination room of St. John's 
there are also three different engravings. 

A collected edition of Fisher's Latin works, 
one volume folio, was printed at Wiirzburg 
in 1597 by Fleischmann. This contains : 
1. ' The Assertio septem Sacramentorum ' of 
Henry VIII against Luther, which finds a 
place in the collection as being ' Eoffensis 
tamen hortatu et studio edita.' 2. Fisher's 
' Defence ' of the ' Assertio,' 1523. 3. His 
treatise in reply to Luther, ' De Babylonica 
Captivitate,' 1523. 4. His ' Confutatio As- 
sertionis Lutheranae,' first printed at Ant- 
werp, 1523. 5. * De Eucharistia contra Joan. 
QEcolampadium libri quinque,' first printed 
1527. 6. ' Sacri Sacerdotii Defensio contra 
Lutherum.' 7. l Convulsio calumniarum 
Vlrichi Veleni Minhoniensis, quibus Petrum 
nunquam Romse fuisse cauillatus est,' 1525. 

8. * Concio Londini habita vernacule, quando 
Lutheri scripta publice igni tradebantur/ 
translated by Kichard Pace into Latin, 1521. 

9. ' De unica Magdalena libri tres,' 1519. 
Also the following, which the editor states 
are printed for the first time : 10. ' Commen- 
tarii in vii. Psalmos poenitentiales, interprete 
Joanne Fen a monte acuto.' 11. Two ser- 
mons : (a) ( De Passione Domini,' (b) ' De 
Justitia Pharisaeorum/ 12. f Methodus per- 
veniendi ad summam Christianas religionis 
perfectionem/ 13. 'Epistola ad Herman- 
num Lsetmatium Goudanum de Charitate 
Christiana.' At the end (whether printed 
before or not does not appear) are 14. ' De 



Necessitate Orandi.' 15. 'Psalmi vel pre- 

An edition of his English, works has been 
undertaken for the Early English Text So- 
ciety by Professor John E. B. Mayor, of 
which the first volume (1876) only has as 
yet appeared. This contains the originals 
of 8, 10, 11 a, and 12; the two sermons of 
the funerals of Henry VII and his mother ; 
and ' A Spiritual Consolation,' addressed to 
Fisher's sister, Elizabeth, during his confine- 
ment in the Tower. Of these, the two 
funeral discourses and the originals of 8 
and 10 are reprinted from early editions by 
Wynkyn de Worde. An ' Advertisement ' 
to this edition gives a valuable criticism 
by the editor on Fisher's theology, English 
style, vocabulary, &c. The second volume, 
containing the ' Letters ' and the ' Life ' by 
Hall, is announced, under the editorship of 
the Rev. Ronald Bayne. 

A volume in the Rolls Office (27 Hen. VIII, 
No. 887) contains the following in Fisher's 
hand: 1, prayers in English; 2, fragment 
of a ' Commentary on the Salutation of the 
Virgin Mary;' 3, theological commonplace 
book, in Latin ; 4, draft treatises on di- 
vinity ; 5 and 6, treatises on the rights 
and dignity of the clergy ; 7, observations 
on the history of the Septuagint Version 
(this annotated and corrected only by Fisher). 
He also wrote a * History of the Divorce,' 
which, if printed, was rigidly suppressed ; the 
manuscript, however, is preserved in the Uni- 
versity Library, Cambridge. 

[Fisher's Life, professedly written by Thomas 
Baily, a royalist divine, was first published in 
1665, and was really written by Richard Hall, 
of Christ's College, Cambridge, who died in 1604 
[see art. BAYLY, THOMAS] ; a manuscript in Uni- 
versity Library, Cambridge, No. 1266, contains 
Maurice Channey's account of the martyrdoms 
of More and Fisher; a considerable amount of 
original matter is also given in the appendices 
to the Life by the Kev. John Lewis (a pos- 
thumous publication), ed. T. Hudson Turner, 
2 vols. 1855. The following may also be con- 
sulted: The Funeral Sermon of Margaret, Coun 
tess of Richmond, with Baker's Preface, ed. 
Hymers, 1840 ; Baker's Hist, of St. John's Col- 
lege, ed. Mayor, 2 vols. 1869 ; Cooper's Memoir 
of Margaret, Countess of Richmond and Derby, 
1874 ; Early Statutes of the College of St. John 
the Evangelist, ed. Mayor, 1859; Mullinger's 
Hist, of the University of Cambridge, vol. i. 1873 ; 
a paper by Mr. Bruce in Archseologia, vol. xxv. ; 
Letters and Papers of the Reign of Henry VIII, 
vols. iv. to viii., with Brewer's and Gairdner's 
Prefaces ; Brewer's Reign of Henry VIII, 2 vols., 
1 884 ; T. E. Bridgett's Life of Blessed John 
Fisher, Bishop of Rochester, Cardinal of the Holy 
Roman Church, and Martyr under Henry VIII, 
London and New York, 1888.] J. B. M. 

FISHER, JOHN (1569-1641), Jesuit, 
whose real name was PEECY, son of John 
Percy, yeoman, and his wife, Cecilia Lawson, 
was born at Holmside, co. Durham, on 27 Sept. 
1569. At fourteen years of age he was re- 
ceived into the family of a catholic lady, and 
soon afterwards joined the Roman church. 
He then proceeded to the English College at 
Rheims, where he studied classics and rhetoric 
for three years. On 22 Sept. 1589 he en- 
tered the English College at Rome for his 
higher studies. He was ordained priest on 
13 March 1592-3, by papal dispensation,before 
the full canonical age, in consequence of the 
want of priests for the mission. After publicly 
defending universal theology at the Roman 
college, he was admitted into the Society of 
Jesus by Father Aquaviva, and began his no- 
viceship at Tournay on 14 May 1594. In the 
second yearof hisnoviceshiphe was orderedto 
England for the sake of his health, which had 
been impaired by over-application to study. 
On his way through Holland he was seized 
at Flushing by some English soldiers on sus- 
picion of being a priest, and cruelly treated. 
Immediately after his arrival in London he 
was arrested and committed to Bridewell,from 
which prison, after about seven months' con- 
finement, he succeeded in making his escape 
through the roof, together with two other 
priests and seven laymen. In 1596 he was 
sent by Father Henry Garnet t to the north 
of England, where he laboured till 1598, when 
he was appointed companion to Father John 
Gerard in Northamptonshire. In that locality 
he exercised his priestly functions, and he oc- 
casionally visited Oxford, where he became ac- 
quainted with William Chillingworth [q. v.], 
whom he persuaded to renounce the pro- 
testant faith (WooD, Athence Oxon. ed. Bliss, 
iii. 87). He was professed of the four vows 
in 1603. For some time he and Gerard re- 
sided first at Stoke Poges, and subsequently 
at Harrowden, in the house of Mrs. Elizabeth 
Vaux, widow of William, second son of Lord 
Vaux of Harrowden. Fisher was afterwards 
chaplain to Sir Everard Digby_ [q. v.] In 
August 1605 he went on a pilgrimage to St. 
Winifred's well with Sir Everard Digby's 
wife, Mrs. Vaux, and others. He was arrested 
in November 1610, with Father Nicholas 
Hart, at Harrowden,was conveyed to London, 
and committed to the Gatehouse prison, and 
after upwards of a year's confinement was 
released at the instance of the Spanish am- 
bassador, and with Father Hart sent into 
banishment. Both of them had been tried 
and condemned to death, and had received 
several notices to prepare for execution. 

After landing in Belgium, Fisher dis- 
charged the duties at Brussels of vice-prefect 


6 4 


of the English Jesuit mission, in the absence 
of Father Anthony Hoskins. He was nex 
professor of holy scripture at St. John's 
Louvain. At length he returned to Eng- 
land, but was at once seized and confined in 
the new prison on the banks of the Thames 
He appears, however, to have been allowec 
considerable freedom of action, and it is saic 
that during his three years' confinement there 
he reconciled 150 protestants to the Roman 
church. He was famous for his dialectic 
skill, and held several controversial confer- 
ences with eminent protestant theologians 
When James I desired a series of disputations 
to be held before the Countess of Bucking- 
ham (who was leaning to Catholicism), Fisher 
defended the catholic side against Francis 
"White, afterwards bishop of Ely. The king 
and his favourite (Buckingham, the countess's 
son) attended the conferences, the third and 
last of which was held on 24 May 1622, when 
Laud, bishop of St. David's and afterward 
archbishop of Canterbury, replaced White. 
The countess was converted by the Jesuit, 
whose arguments, however, failed to convince 
her son and the king. James himself proposed 
to Fisher nine points in writing upon the 
most prominent topics of the controversy, in 
a document headed ' Certain Leading Points 
which hinder my Union with the Church of 
Rome until she reforms herself, or is able to 
satisfy me.' Fisher's replies to these ques- 
tions were revised by Father John Floyd 
[q. v.] The relation of the conference between 
Laud and Fisher forms the second volume of 
Laud's works (Oxford 1849). On 27 June 
1623 another religious disputation was held 
in the house of Sir Humphry Lynde, between 
Dr. White, then dean of Carlisle, Dr. Daniel 
Featley, and the Jesuits Fisher and John 

When the king of France gave his daugh- 
ter in marriage to Prince Charles (afterwards 
Charles I) in 1625, the French ambassador 
obtained a free pardon for twenty priests, in- 
eluding Fisher, who apparently enjoyed some 
ten years of liberty under the royal letters 
of pardon. In December 1634, however, he 
was arrested, brought before the privy coun- 
cil at Whitehall, and ordered to depart from 
the realm, after giving bail never to return. 
As he refused to find sureties, he was impri- 
soned in the Gatehouse till August 1635, 
when he was released at the urgent interces- 
sion of the queen. During the last two years 
of life he suffered severely from cancer. He 
died in London on 3 Dec. 1641. 

His works are: 1. 'A Treatise of Faith; 
wherein is briefly and plainly shown a Direct 
Way by which every Man may resolve and 
settle his Mind in all Doubts, Questions, and 

Controversies concerning Matters of Faith,' 
London, 1600, St. Omer, 1614, 8vo. 2. 'A 
Reply made unto Mr. Anthony Wotton and 
Mr. John White, Ministers, wherein it is 
showed that they have not sufficiently an- 
swered the Treatise of Faith, and wherein 
also the Chief Points of the said Treatise are 
more clearly declared and more strongly con- 
firmed,' St. Omer, 1612, 4to. 3. ' A Challenge 
to Protestants, requiring a Catalogue to be 
made of some Professors of their Faith in all 
Ages since Christ.' At the end of the pre- 
ceding work. 4. An account of the confer- 
ence in 1622, under the initials A. C. Laud 
answered this in a reply to the * Exceptions 
of A. C.,' which is printed with his own ac- 
count of the conference. 5. ' An Answer to 
a Pamphlet, intitvled : " The Fisher catched 
in his owne Net. ... By A. C.,"' s.l. 1623, 4to. 
The pamphlet by Daniel Featley, to which this 
is areply, appeared in 1623, and contains' The 
Occasion and Issue of the late Conference 
had between Dr. White, Deane of Carleil, and 
Dr. Featley, with Mr. Fisher and Mr. Sweet, 
Jesuites.' 6. ' An Answere vnto the Nine 
Points of Controuersy proposed by our late 
Soveraygne (of Famous Memory) vnto M. 
Fisher. . . . And the Rejoinder vnto the Re- 
ply of D. Francis White, Minister. With 
the Picture of the sayd Minister, or Censure 
of his Writings prefixed ' [St. Omer], 1625- 
1626, 8vo. 

Among the protestant writers who entered 
into controversy with Fisher were G. Walker, 
G. Webb, and Henry Rogers. 

[De Backer's Bibl. des Ecrivains de la Com- 
pagnie de Jesus (1869), i. 1870 ; Dodd's Church 
Hist. ii. 394; Foley's Eecords, i. 521, vi. 180, 
212, 526, vii. 585, 1028, 1032,1098; Gardiner's 
History of England, iv. 279, 281 ; Heylyn's Cyp- 
prianus Anglicus, p. 95 ; Lawson's Life of Laud, 
i. 217-19, ii. 533 ; Le Bas' Life of Laud, p. 55 ; 
More's Hist. Missionis Anglic. Soc. Jesu, p. 378 ; 
Morris's Condition of Catholics under James I ; 
Oliver's Jesuit Collections, p. 91 ; Southwell's 
Bibl. Scriptorum Soc. Jesu, p. 487 ; Calendar of 
State Papers ; Tanner's Societas Jesu Aposto- 
orum Imitatrix, p. 707; Wood's Athense Oxon. 
Bliss), iv. 971.] T. C. 

FISHER, JOHN, D.D. (1748-1825), 
3ishop of Salisbury, the eldest of the nine 
sons of the Rev. John Fisher, successively 
sdcar of Hampton, Middlesex, vicar of Peter- 
borough, rector of Calbourne, Isle of Wight, 
and prebendary of Preston in the cathedral 
f Salisbury, was born at Hampton in 1748. 
rlis father became chaplain to Bishop Thomas, 
he preceptor of George III, on his appoint- 
ment to the see of Peterborough in 1747, and 
was by him presented to the incumbency of 
St. John the Baptist in that city. The son 



received his early education at the free school 
at Peterborough, whence at the age of four- 
teen he was removed to St. Paul's School, of 
which Dr. Thicknesse was then head-master. 
In 1766 he passed to Peterhouse, Cambridge, 
on a Pauline exhibition. Dr. Edmund Law, 
afterwards bishop of Carlisle, was then head 
of the college, and Fisher became the inti- 
mate friend of his two distinguished sons, 
afterwards respectively Lord -chief-justice 
Ellenborough and Bishop of Elphin. He 
took his degree of B.A. in 1770, appearing 
as tenth wrangler, and being also eminent 
for his classical attainments. In 1773 he 
became M.A., and in the same year was ap- 
pointed to a Northamptonshire fellowship at 
St. John's, of which college he was chosen 
tutor, the duties of which office, we are told, 
1 he fulfilled to the great advantage of his 
pupils, being distinguished not only for his 
various talents, but for the suavity of his 
manners and the peculiarly felicitous manner 
in which he conveyed instruction.' Fisher 
then became private tutor to Prince Zarto- 
rinski Poniatowski, and to the son of Arch- 
bishop George of Dublin, and spent some 
time with Sir J. Cradock, governor of the 
Cape, but * deriving no great benefit from 
these connections,' he undertook parochial 
work, as curate of his native parish of Hamp- 
ton. In 1780 he became B.D., and on the 
recommendation of Bishop Hurd he was ap- 
pointed preceptor to Prince Edward, after- 
wards Duke of Kent, father of Queen Vic- 
toria, and became royal chaplain and deputy 
derk of the closet. This appointment he 
eld five years, until in 1785 his royal pupil 
vent to the university of Gottingen. On 
-his Fisher visited Italy, where he became 
mown to Mrs. Piozzi, who describes him in 
me of her letters as ' a charming creature, gene- 
ally known in society as " the King's Fisher " ' 
' WH ALLEY, Correspondence, ii. 367). The fol- 
" owing year, 14 July, he was recalled from 
Naples by his nomination by the king to a 
ianonry at Windsor, where he took up his 
residence, and in September of the next year 
he married Dorothea, the only daughter of 
J. F. Scrivener, esq., of Sibton Park, Suffolk, 
by whom he had one son and two daughters. 
The refined simplicity and courteousness of 
his manners and the amenity of his temper 
rendered Fisher a favourite with George III, 
whose esteem he also gained by his unaffected 
piety and his unswerving fidelity to him. 
The king, we are told, treated him rather as 
a friend than as a subject, and reposed in 
him almost unlimited confidence. In 1789 
he took the degree of D.D. From 1793 to 
1797 he held the vicarage of Stowey, in the 
gift of the chapter of Windsor. When the 


bishopric of Exeter became vacant by the 
death of Bishop Courtenay, Fisher was chosen 
by the king to be his successor, and was con- 
secrated in Lambeth Chapel, 16 July 1803. 
In 1805 George III appointed him to super- 
intend the education of the Princess Char- 
lotte of Wales. He fulfilled the duty, we 
are told, 'with exemplary propriety and 
credit.' The autobiography of Miss C. Knight 
and other contemporary memoirs give some 
glimpse of the difficulties of this post, which 
he would have thrown up but for his respect 
for his sovereign. His union of gentleness, 
firmness, and patience carried him through. 
His chief concern, we are told, was to train 
the princess in the self-command naturally 
foreign to her. At the outset of his charge 
a correspondence sprang up between him and 
Hannah More, who had published anony- 
mously 'Hints towards Forming the Cha- 
racter of a Princess.' An interview took 
place, and Hannah More records that ' the 
bishop appeared to have a very proper notion 
of managing his royal pupil, and of casting 
down all high imaginations ' (H. MOKE, Cor- 
respondence, ed. Roberts, iii. 230). Fisher 
was no favourite with Miss C. Knight, who 
narrates that he used to come three or four 
times a week to l do the important ; ' his great 
point being to arm the princess against popery 
and whiggism, * two evils which he seemed 
to think equally great ; ' she adds, what is 
contradicted by all other estimates of his 
character, that ' his temper was hasty, and 
his vanity easily alarmed.' His ' best ac- 
complishment,' in this lady's opinion, was ' a 
taste for drawing, and a love of the fine arts ' 
(Miss C. KNIGHT, Autobiography, i. 232 sq.) 
Dr. Parr gives the following estimate of his 
character : 

Unsoiled by courts and unseduced by zeal, 
Fisher endangers not the common weal. 

In 1804 he accepted the office of vice- 
president of the British and Foreign Bible 
Society. In 1807, on the death of Bishop 
Douglas, Fisher was translated from Exeter 
to Salisbury, where he won general respect 
and affection by his faithful and unobtrusive 
performance of his episcopal duties. His 
mode of life was dignified, but unostentatious. 
He was very liberal in works of charity, de- 
voting a large portion of his episcopal re- 
venues to pious and beneficent uses, leaving 
his bishopric no richer than he came to it, 
his personal estate amounting at his death to 
no more than 20,000/. In 1818 Fisher, under 
a commission from Bishop North, visited 
the Channel Islands for the purpose of hold- 
ing confirmations and consecrating a church, 
being the first time, since the islands were 




placed under the jurisdiction of the see 
Winchester, that they had enjoyed episcopal 
visitation (Ann. Reg. Ix. 92, 104). He died 
in Seymour Street, London, after long pro- 
tracted sufferings borne with exemplary pa- 
tience, 8 May 1825, aged 76, and was buried 
at Windsor. He published nothing beyond 
his primary charge as bishop of Exeter, and 
two or three occasional sermons, which were 
given to the world under pressure. In his 
charge he declared himself against intolerant 
treatment of Roman catholics, but expressed 
his opinion that bare toleration was all that 
peaceable and conscientious dissenters from 
the established church had any claim to. In 
the same charge he repudiated the alleged 
Calvinism of the church of England, which 
he said was flatly contradicted by the articles 
of the church. Fisher was a generous patron 
both of authors and of artists, whom he is 
recorded to have treated with liberality and 
unaffected kindness. A portrait of him hangs 
in the dining-room of the palace at Salisbury. 
Fisher's only published works are : 1. l Charge 
at the Primary Visitation of the Diocese of 
Exeter,' Exeter, 1805, 4to. 2. < Sermon at the 
Meeting of the Charity Children in St. Paul's, 
3 June 1806,' London, 1806, 4to. 3. Sermon 

? reached before the House of Lords, 25 Feb. 
807, on the occasion of a General Fast, on 
Is. xl. 31,' London, 1807, 4to. 4. 'Sermon in 
behalf of the S. P. G. on Is. Ix. 5,' London, 
1809, 4to. 5. ' Sermon preached at the Con- 
secration of St. James's Church, Guernsey, on 
Col. i. 24,' Guernsey, 1818. 

[Baker's St. John's College, ed. Mayor, p. 731 ; 
Annual Eegister, 1825, also Ivi. 218, Ix. 92-104 ; 
Imperial Mag. August 1825 ; Gent. Mag. 1825, 
ii. 82; Sandford's Thomas Poole, pp. 65, 170, 
241.] E. V. 

1806), violinist, son of Richard Fisher, was 
born at Dunstable in 1744. He was brought 
up in Lord Tyrawley's house, learning the 
violin from Pinto, and his appearance at the 
King's Theatre (1763), where he played a con- 
certo, was ' by permission ' of his patron. The 
following year Fisher was enrolled in the 
Royal Society of Musicians. He matricu- 
lated at Magdalen College, Oxford, 26 June 
1777 (FOSTEK, Alumni Oxon. ii. 465). His 
indefatigable industry obtained him the de- 
grees of Bac. and Doc. Mus. on 5 July 1777, 
his oratorio 'Providence ' being performed at 
the Sheldonian Theatre two days previously. 
The work was afterwards heard several times 
in London ; but Fisher's name as a composer 
is more closely connected with theatrical than 
with sacred music. He became entitled to a 
sixteenth share of Covent Garden Theatre by 
his marriage about 1770 with Miss Powell, 

daughter of a proprietor. He devoted his 
musical talent and business energy to the 
theatre. When his wife died Fisher sold his 
share in the theatre, and made a professional 
tour on the continent, visiting France, Ger- 
many, and Russia, and reaching Vienna in 
1784. The Tonkiinstler-Societat employed 
three languages in a memorandum ' Mon- 
sieur Fischer, ein Engellander und virtuoso 
di Violino' which probably refers to the 
stranger's performance at a concert of the 
society. Fisher won favour also at court, 
and became as widely known for his eccen- 
tricities as for his ingenious performances. 
It was not long before he drew odium upon 
himself through his marriage with, and sub- 
sequent ill-treatment of, Anna Storace, the 
prima donna. The wedding had taken place 
with a certain amount of eclat, but when the 
virtuoso bullied and even struck his bride, 
the scandal soon became public, and a separa- 
tion followed. The emperor (Joseph) ordered 
Fisher to quit his dominion. Leaving his 
young wife he sought refuge in Ireland. The 
cordiality with which his old friend Owen- 
son welcomed him to Dublin, his personal 
appearance, and introduction into the family 
circle, have been amusingly described by Lady 
Morgan, one of Owenson's daughters. Fisher 
gave concerts at the Rotunda, and occupied 
himself as a teacher. He died in May or June 
1806. As an executant Fisher pleased by his 
skill and fiery energy. In his youth he appears 
to have revelled in his command of the instru- 
ment, and in his maturer years he offended the 
critics by a showiness that bordered on char- 
latanism. Among Fisher's compositions, his 
' Six Easy Solos for aViolin ' and i Six Duettos ' 
were useful to amateurs of the time ; while 
his ' Vauxhall and Marybone Songs,' in three 
books, were made popular by the singing of 
Mrs. Weichsel, Vernon, and Bellamy. An- 
other favourite book was a collection of airs 
forming ( A comparative View of the English, 
French, and Italian Schools,' which, how- 
ever, contains no critical remarks. The songs 
In vain I seek to calm to rest ' and ' See 
with rosy beam ' deserve mention. The ' Six 
Symphonies ' were played at Vauxhall and 
the theatres ; the pantomime, with music, 
Master of the Woods,' was produced at Sad- 
ler's Wells ; the l Harlequin Jubilee ' at Co- 
vent Garden, and, with the t Sylphs ' and 
the ' Sirens,' gave evidence of the professor's 
facility in manufacturing musicianly serio- 
comic measures. The 'Norwood Gipsies/ 
1 Prometheus,' 'Macbeth,' and lastly *Zo- 
beide/ point to a more serious vein, though 
belonging equally to Fisher's theatrical period, 
about 1770-80 ; but the well-written anthem, 
Seek ye the Lord,' sung at Bedford Chapel 


6 7 


and Lincoln Cathedral, is of later date. Three 
violin concertos were published at Berlin 


[Grove's Diet. i. 530; Brown's Biog. Diet, 
p. 247 ; A. B. C. Dario, p. 20 ; Pohl's Mozart and 
Haydn in London, i. 42, &c. ; Royal Society of 
Musicians, entry 2 Sept. 1764; Oxford Gradu- 
ates, p. 231 ; Kelly's Reminiscences, i. 231 ; Mu- 
sical World, 1840, p. 276; Hanslick's Geschichte 
des Coucertwesens in Wien, p. 108 ; Mount-Edg- 
cumbe's Reminiscences, 1834, p. 59; Clayton's 
Queens of Song, i. 215 ; Lady Morgan's Memoirs, 
1863, p. 80 ; Gent. Mag. vol. Ixxvi. pt. i. p. 
587; Gerber's Tonkiinstler-Lexikon, 1770,i.418; 
Fisher's music in Brit. Mus. Library.] L. M. M. 

1876), surgeon, son of Peter Fisher of Perth, 
by Mary, daughter of James Kennay of York, 
was born in London 30 Jan. 1788, and ap- 
prenticed to John Andrews, a surgeon en- 
joying a large practice. After studying at 
St. George's and Westminster Hospitals, he 
was admitted member of the Royal College 
of Surgeons in 1809, became a fellow in 1836, 
and was a member of the council in 1843. 
The university of Erlangen, Bavaria, con- 
ferred on him the degree of M.D. in 1841. 
He was appointed surgeon to the Bow Street 
patrol in 1821 by Lord Sidmouth, and pro- 
moted to the post of surgeon-in-chief to the 
metropolitan police force at the time of its 
formation in 1829, which position he held un- 
til his retirement on a pension in 1865. He 
was knighted by the queen at Osborne on 
2 Sept. 1858. He was a good practitioner, 
honourable, hospitable, and steadfast in duty. 
He died at 33 Park Lane, London, 22 March 
1876, and was buried in Kensal Green ceme- 
tery on 29 March, when six of his oldest 
medical friends were the pallbearers. His 
will was proved on 22 April, the personalty 
being sworn under 50,000/. He married, 
first, 18 April 1829, Louisa Catherine, eldest 
daughter of William Haymes of Kibworth 
Harcourt, Leicestershire, she died in London, 
5 Oct. 1860; and secondly, 18 June 1862, 
Lilias Stuart, second daughter of Colonel 
Alexander Mackenzie of Grinnard, Ross- 

[Proceedings of Royal Medical and Chirurgi- 
cal Soc. (1880), viii. 173-4 ; Illustrated London 
News, 1 April 1876, p. 335, and 27 May, p. 527 ; 
Lancet, 1 April 1876, p. 515.] G. C. B. 

FISHER, JONATHAN (d. 1812), land- 
scape-painter, was a native of Dublin, and 
originally a draper in that city. Having a 
taste for art, he studied it by himself, and 
eventually succeeded in obtaining the pa- 
tronage of the nobility. He produced some 
landscapes which were clever attempts to re- 

produce nature, but were too mechanical and 
cold in colour to be popular. They were, 
however, very well suited for engraving, and 
a set of views of Carlingford Harbour and 
its neighbourhood were finely engraved by 
Thomas Vivares, James Mason, and other 
eminent landscape engravers of the day. In 
1792 Fisher published a folio volume called 
< A Picturesque Tour of Killarney, consist- 
ing of 20 views engraved in aquatinta, with 
a map, some general observations, &c.' He 
also published other illustrations of scenery 
in Ireland. Fisher did not find art profitable, 
but was fortunate enough to obtain a situa- 
tion in the Stamp Office, Dublin, which he 
continued to hold up to his death in 1812. 
There is a landscape by Fisher in the South 
Kensington Museum, ' A View of Lyming- 
ton River, with the Isle of Wight in the 
distance.' A painting by him of ' The Schom- 
berg Obelisk in the Boyne ' was in the Irish 
Exhibition at London in 1888. 

[Redgrave's Diet, of Artists; Catalogues of the 
South Kensington Museum and the Irish Exhi- 
bition, 1888 ; Lowndes's Bibl. Man. ; engravings 
in Print Room, Brit. Mus.] L. C. 

FISHER, JOSEPH (rf.1705), archdeacon 
of Carlisle, was born at Whitbridge, Cum- 
berland, and matriculated at Queen's College, 
Oxford, in Michaelmas term 1674 : took his 
B.A. degree 8 May 1679, his M.A. 6 July 
1682, was fellow of that college, and on the 
death of Christopher Harrison, 1695, was pre- 
sented to the rectory of Brough or Burgh- 
under-Stanmore, Westmoreland. Before that 
time he had filled the office of lecturer or 
curate, living in a merchant's house in Broad 
Street, London, to be near his work. At this 
place he wrote, 1695, the dedicatory epistle 
to his former pupil Thomas Lambard, pre- 
facing his printed sermon, preached 27 Jan. 
1694 at Sevenoaks, Kent, on ' The Honour 
of Marriage,' from Heb. xiii. 4. This is his 
only literary production, although we are 
told that he was well skilled in Hebrew and 
the oriental languages. On the promotion of 
William Nicolson [q. v.] to the see of Carlisle, 
the archdeaconry was accepted by Fisher 
9 July 1702, and his installation took place 
14 July. To the archdeaconry was attached 
the living of St. Cuthbert, Great Salkeld, 
which he held in conjunction with Brough 
till his death, which took place early in 1705. 
He was succeeded in office by George Fleming 
[q. v.], afterwards Sir George Fleming, bishop 
of Carlisle, 28 March 1705. He was buried 
at Brough. 

[Wood's Athense Oxon. ed. Bliss, i. 539; 
Nicolson's and Burn's Hist, of Westmoreland 
and Cumberland, i. 569 ; Le Neve's Fasti Eccles. 





Angl. ; Watt's Bibl. Brit. 1824 ; Willis's Survey 
of Cathedrals, i. 307 ; Jefferson's Antiquities of 
Cumberland, i. 266.] E. C. S. 

FISHER, MARY (/. 1652-1697), 
quakeress, was born in a village near York 
about 1623. She joined the Friends before 
1652, in which year'she was admitted a quaker 
minister. Shortly afterwards she was im- 
prisoned in York Castle for having addressed 
a congregation at Selby at the close of public 
worship. This imprisonment lasted for sixteen 
months, during which she wrote with four 
fellow-prisoners a tract called 'False Pro- 
phets and Teachers Described.' Immediately 
after her release she proceeded on a mis- 
sionary journey to the south and east of Eng- 
land, in company with Elizabeth Williams, 
a quaker minister. At the close of 1653 they 
visited Cambridge, and, preaching in front of 
Sidney Sussex College, were stoned by the 
' scholars/ whom Mary Fisher irritated by 
terming the college a cage of unclean birds. 
The Friends were apprehended as disorderly 
persons by the mayor of Cambridge, who 
ordered them to be whipped at the mar- 
ket cross 'until the blood ran down their 
"bodies.' The sentence was executed with 
much barbarity. This is the first instance of 
quakers being publicly flogged. Shortly after- 
wards Mary Fisher ' felt called to declare the 
truth in the steeple-house at Pontefract,' and 
for so doing was imprisoned for six months 
in York Castle, at the completion of which 
term she was imprisoned for another period 
of three months, at the request of the mayor 
of Pontefract, for being unrepentant and re- 
fusing to give securities for good behaviour. 
In 1655, while travelling in the ministry in 
Buckinghamshire, she was also imprisoned 
for several months for l giving Christian ex- 
hortation ' to a congregation. Later in this 
year she t felt moved ' to visit the West Indies 
and New England. On her arrival, accom- 
panied by Ann Austin, at Boston the autho- 
rities refused to allow them to land, and 
searched their "baggage for books and papers, 
confiscating more than a hundred volumes, 
which were destroyed. The quakeresses then 
disembarked and were kept in close confine- 
ment in the common gaol, the master of the 
ship which brought them being compelled to 
pay for their support and to give a bond that 
he would remove them. During their impri- 
sonment they were deprived of writing mate- 
rials, and their beds and bibles were confis- 
cated by the gaoler for his fees. They were 
stripped naked to see if they had witch-marks 
on their persons, and would have been starved 
if some inhabitants had not bribed the gaoler 
to be allowed to feed them. Mary Fisher 
returned to England in 1657, visiting the 

West Indies again at the end of that year. 
In 1660 she deemed it her duty to attempt 
to convert Mahomet IV, and for that purpose- 
made a long and hazardous journey, largely 
on foot, to Smyrna, where she was ordered 
to return home by the English representative-- 
She retraced her steps to Venice, and at length- 
succeeded in reaching Adrianople, where the- 
sultan lay encamped with his army. The- 
grand vizier, hearing that an Englishwoman 
had arrived with a message from the ' Great 
God to the sultan/ kindly offered to procure- 
her an interview with the sultan, which he- 
did. Mary spoke through an interpreter, 
whom the sultan heard with much patience- 
and gravity, and when she had concluded 
acknowledged the truth of what she said and! 
offered her an escort of soldiers to Constan- 
tinople, which she declined. He then asked 
her what she thought of Mahomet, ' a pitfall 
she avoided by declaring that she knew hint 
not.' She afterwards journeyed on foot to- 
Constantinople, where she obtained passage- 
in a ship to England. In 1662 she married 
William Bayley of Poole, a quaker minister 
and master mariner, who was drowned at sea 
in 1675, and by whom she is believed to have- 
had issue. During his lifetime she appears 
to have chiefly exercised her ministry in Dor- 
setshire and the adjacent counties. Her ' tes- 
timony concerning her deceased husband r 
appears at the end of Bayley's collected writ- 
ings in 1676. In 1678 she married John 
Cross, a quaker of London, in which town 
she resided until when uncertain they emi- 
grated to America. In 1697 she was living at 
Charlestown, South Carolina, where she en- 
tertained Richard Barrow, a quaker, after he 
had been shipwrecked, and from a letter of 
Barrow's it appears she was for a second time- 
a widow. No later particulars of her life are* 
known. Mary Fisher was a devoted, untiring, 
and successful minister, and Croese describes; 
her as having considerable intellectual fa- 
culties, which were greatly adorned by the- 
gravity of her deportment. 

[Croese's Hist, of the Quakers, ii. 1 24 ; Besse's 
Sufferings, &c. i. 85, ii. 85, &c. ; Manuscript 
Sufferings of the Friends ; Manuscript Testimony 
of the Yearly Meeting (London) ; Neal's Hist, of 
New England, i. 292 ; Minutes of the Two Weeks' 
Meeting (London) ; Bowden's Hist, of the Friends 
in America, i. 35 ; Smith's Friends' Books, i. 22O, 
612 ; Sewel's Hist, of the Society of Friends, ed. 
1853, i. 440, ii. 225 ; Bishop's New England 
Judged.] A. C. B. 

FISHER, PAYNE (1616-1693), poet r 
son of Payne Fisher, one of the captains in 
the royal life guard while Charles I was in 
Oxfordshire, and grandson of Sir William 
Fisher, knight, was born at Warnford, Dor- 


6 9 


.setshire, in the house of his maternal grand- 
father, Sir Thomas Neale. He matriculated 
at Hart Hall, Oxford, in Michaelmas term, 
1634 ; three years after he removed to Magda- 
lene College, Cambridge. While at Cambridge 
he first developed ( a rambling head ' and a 
turn for verse-making (WooD, Athencs^liss, 
iv. 377). He quitted the university very 
speedily, about 1638, and entered the army in 
the Netherlands. There he fought in the de- 
fence of Boduc, but, returning to England 
before long, enlisted as an ensign in the army 
raised (1639) by Charles I against the Scots, 
and during this campaign made acquaintance 
with the cavalier poet, Lovelace. Subse- 
quently Fisher took service in Ireland, where 
he rose to the rank of captain, and, returning 
about 1644, was made, by Lord Chichester's 
influence, sergeant-major of a foot regiment 
in the royalist army. By Rupert's command 
3ie marched at the head of three hundred men 
to relieve York, and was present at Marston 
Moor, but, finding himself on the losing side, 
Tie deserted the royalist cause after the battle, 
.and retired to London, where he lived as best 
he could by his pen. 

Fisher's first poem, published in 1650, cele- 
brating the parliamentary victory of Mars- 
ton Moor, was entitled ' Marston Moor, 
Eboracense carmen; cum quibusdam mis- 
cellaneis opera studioque Pagani Piscatoris, 
. .' London, 1650, 4to. He always wrote 
under the above sobriquet, or that of Fitz- 
paganus Fisher. By his turn for Latin 
r/erse and his adulatory arts, or, as Wood 
termed it, by his ability ' to shark money 
from those who delighted to see their names 
in print,' Fisher soon became the fashion- 
able poet of his day. He was made poet- 
laureate, or in his own words after the Re- 
storation, * scribbler ' to Oliver Cromwell, 
and his pen was busily employed in the ser- 
vice of his new master. He wrote not only 
Latin panegyrics and congratulatory odes on 
the Protector, dedicating his works to Brad- 
shaw and the most important of the parlia- 
mentary magnates, but also composed a con- 
stant succession of elegies and epitaphs on 
the deaths of their generals. Thus the ' Ire- 
nodia Gratulatoria, sive illus. amplissimique 
Oliveri Cromwellii . . . Epinicion,' London, 
1652, was dedicated to the president (Brad- 
shaw) and the council of state, and concluded 
with odes on the funerals of Ludlow and 
Popham (London, 1652). To another, ' Veni 
vidi, vici, the Triumphs of the most Excel- 
lent and Illustrious Oliver Cromwell . . . 
set forth in a panegyric, written in Latin, 
and faithfully done into English verse by T. 
Manly ' (London, 1652, 8vo), was added an 
elegy upon the death of Ireton, lord deputy of 

Ireland. The ' Inauguratio Oliveriana, with 
other poems' (Lond. 1654, 4to), was followed 
the next year by ' Oratio Anniversaria in die 
Inaugurations . . . Olivari . . .' (London, 
1655, fol.), and again other panegyrics on the 
second anniversary of < his highness's ' inau- 
guration (the ' Oratio . . .' and ' Paean Trium- 
phalis,' both London, 1657). To the 'Paean' 
was added an epitaph on Admiral Blake, 
which, like most of Fisher's odes and elegies, 
was also published separately as a ' broad- 
sheet ' (see list in WOOD, ed. Bliss, Athence 
Oxon. iv. 377, &c.) He celebrated the vic- 
tory of Dunkirk in an ' Epinicion vel elo- 
gium . . . Ludovici XIIII . . . pro nuperis 
victoriis in Flandria, praecipue pro desidera- 
tissima reductione Dunkirkae captaa . . . sub 
confcederatis auspiciis Franco-Britannorum ' 
(London ? 1655 ?). The book has a portrait 
of the French king in the beginning, and 
French verses in praise of the author at the 
end. Fisher afterwards presented Pepys with 
a copy of this work * with his arms, and de- 
dicated to me very handsome ' (PEPYS, Diary \ 
ed. 1849, i. 118, 121, 122). It was a usual 
habit of the poet's to put different dedica- 
tions to such of his works as might court 
the favour of the rich and powerful. His 
'vain, conceited humour' was so notorious 
that when he once attempted to recite a 
Latin elegy on Archbishop Ussher in Christ 
Church Hall, Oxford (17 April 1656), the 
undergraduates made such a tumult that he 
never attempted another recitation at the 
university. He printed ' what he had done ' 
in the ' Mercurius Politicus ' (1658), which 
called forth some satire doggerel from Samuel 
Woodford in ' Naps upon Parnassus ' (1658) 
(see WOOD). It was not till 1681 that the 
elegy on Ussher was separately issued, and 
then an epitaph on the Earl of Ossory was 
printed with it. With the return of the 
Stuarts the time-server turned his coat, and 
his verses were now as extravagant in praise 
of the king as they had been of the Protec- 
tor. His most despicable performance was a 
pamphlet entitled * The Speeches of Oliver 
Cromwell, Henry Ireton, and John Bradshaw, 
intended to have been spoken at their exe- 
cution at Tyburne 30 June 1660, but for 
many weightie reasons omitted, published by 
Marchiament Needham and Pagan Fisher, 
servants, poets, and pamphleteers to his In- 
fernal Highness,' 1660, 4to (Bodl.) Fisher's 
character was too notorious for him to gain 
favour by his palpable flatteries, and he lived 
poor and out of favour after the Restoration. 
He spent several years in the Fleet prison, 
whence he published two works on the monu- 
ments in the city churches, written before 
or just after the great fire, and therefore of 



some value. The first of these compilations 
is ' A Catalogue of most of the Memorable 
Tombs, &c., in the Demolisht or yet extant 
Churches of London from St. Katherine's be- 
yond the Tower to Temple Barre,' written 
1666, published 1668, ' two years after the 
great fire,' London, 4to. The second is ' The 
Tombs, Monuments, and Sepulchral Inscrip- 
tions lately visible in St. Paul's Cathedral . . . 
by Major P. F., student in antiquity, grand- 
child to the late Sir William Fisher and that 
most memorable knight, Sir Thomas Neale, by 
his wife, Elizabeth, sister to that so publick- 
spirited patriot, the late Sir Thomas Freke ' 
of Shroton, Dorsetshire ; from the Fleet, with 
dedication to Charles II, after the fire, Lon- 
don, 1684, 4to. Several editions were pub- 
lished of both these catalogues ; the latest 
is that revised and edited by G. B. Morgan, 
entitled 'Catalogue of the Tombs in the 
Churches of the City of London,' 1885. Fisher 
died in great poverty in a coffee-house in 
the Old Bailey 2 April 1693, and was buried 
6 April in a yard belonging to the church of 
St. Sepulchre's. 

Besides the works above enumerated, and 
a quantity of other odes and epitaphs (see 
list in WOOD and Brit. Mus. Cat.), Fisher 
edited poems on several choice and various 
subjects, occasionally imparted by an eminent 
author [i. e. James Howell, q. v.] ; collected 
and published by Sergeant-major P. F., Lon- 
don, 1663; the second edition, giving the 
author's name, is entitled * Mr. Howel's 
Poems upon divers emergent occasions,' and 
dedicated to Dr. Henry King, bishop of Chi- 
chester, with a preface by Fisher about 
Howell, whom he describes as having ' as- 
serted the royal rights in divers learned 
tracts,' London, 1664, 8vo. Fisher also pub- 
lished : 1. ' Deus et Ilex, Rex et Episcopus,' 
London, 1675, 4to. 2. l Elogia Sepulchralia,' 
London, 1675, a collection of some of Fisher's 
many elegies. 3. ' A Book of Heraldry,' Lon- 
don, 1682, 8vo. 4. ' The Anniversary of his 
Sacred Majesty's Inauguration, in Latin and 
English ; from the Fleet, under the generous 
jurisdiction of R. Manlove, warden thereof,' 
London, 1685. 

Winstanley sums up Fisher's character in 
the following words : ' A notable undertaker 
in Latin verse, and had well deserved of his 
country, had not lucre of gain and private 
ambition overswayed his pen to favour suc- 
cessful rebellion.' Winstanley adds that 
he had intended to ' commit to memory the 
monuments in the churches in London and 
Westminster, but death hindered him' (Lives 
of the Poets, pp. 192, 193). 

[Chalmers's Biog. Diet. p. 433 ; Cat. of Printed 
Books in Brit. Mus.; Bodleian Cat.] E. T. B. 

FISHER, SAMUEL (1605-1665), 
quaker, son of John Fisher, a hatter in North- 
ampton, was born in Northampton in 1605. 
After attending a local school he matricu- 
lated at Trinity College, Oxford, in 1623, and 
graduated B.A. in 1627. Being puritanic- 
ally inclined he removed to New Inn Hall, 
whence he proceeded M.A. in 1630. Creese- 
(Gen. Hist, of Quakers, p. 63, ed. 1696) says 
he was chaplain to a nobleman for a short 
time, and became a confirmed puritan. In 
1632 he was presented to the lectureship of 
Lydd, Kent, a position variously estimated 
as being worth from two to five hundred 
pounds a year. Wood (Athence Oxon. iii. 700, 
ed. 1813) says he was presented to the vicar- 
age of Lydd, but the register shows this to 
be incorrect. He rapidly obtained the cha- 
racter of a powerful preacher, and was a 
leader among the puritans of the district. In 
his ' Baby-Baptism ' (p. 12) Fisher states that 
he was made a priest (? presbyter) by certain* 
presby terian divines after episcopacy was laid 
aside. While at Lydd Fisher took a warm 
part in favour of some anabaptists, attend- 
ing their meetings and offering them the use 
of his pulpit, in which he was stopped by the 
churchwardens. About 1643 he returned 
his license to the bishop and joined the bap- 
tists, with whom he had for some time con- 
sorted, supporting himself by farming. He 
was rebaptised, and after taking an active* 
part in the baptist community became minis- 
ter to a congregation at Ashford, Kent, some 
time previous to 1649, in which year he was 
engaged in a controversy on infant baptism 
with several ministers in the presence of over 
two thousand people. He also disputed with 
Dr. Channel at Petworth, Sussex, in 1651, and 
was engaged in at least eight other disputes 
within three years, and is said to have been 
considered a ' great honour to the baptist 
cause' (CROSBY, Hist, of the Baptists, i. 363). 
He wrote several tractates in defence of his 
principles, and 'Baby-Baptism meer Babism/ 
In 1654 William Coton and John Stubbs, 
while on a visit to Lydd, stayed at Fisher's 
house, and convinced him of the truth of 
quakerism. Shortly afterwards he joined 
the Friends, among whom he subsequently 
became a minister, probably before his meet- 
ing with George Fox at Romney in 1655. 
On 17 Sept. 1656 Fisher attended the meet- 
ing of parliament, and when the Protector 
stated that to his knowledge no man in Eng- 
land had suffered imprisonment unjustly at- 
tempted a reply. He was prevented com- 
pleting his speech, which he afterwards pub- 
lished. He subsequently attempted to ad- 
dress the members of parliament at a fast-day 
service in St. Margaret's Church, Westmin- 



ster. He appears to have laboured chiefly in 
Kent, in which county Besse (Sufferings, i. 
289) says he was ' much abused ' in 1658, and 
in 1659 he was pulled out of a meeting at 
Westminster by his hair and severely beaten. 
In May of this year he went to Dunkirk with 
Edward Burrough [q. v.], when the authori- 
ties ordered them to leave the town. They 
declined, and were then directed to be mode- 
rate. After unsuccessfully endeavouring to 
promulgate their doctrines to the monks and 
nuns for a few days they returned to Eng- 
land. During the following year Fisher and 
Stubbs made a journey to Rome, travelling 
over the Alps on foot, where they ' testified 
against popish superstition ' to several of the 
cardinals, and distributed copies of quaker 
literature, nor were they molested or even 
warned. ~Wood(Athence Oxon. iii. 700) states 
that when Fisher returned he had a l very 
genteel equipage,' which, as his means were 
known to be very small, caused him to be 
suspected of being a Jesuit and in receipt of 
a pension from the pope, and Fisher seems 
to have undergone some amount of persecu- 
tion from this cause. Wood also states that 
this journey took place in 1658, and that it 
extended to Constantinople, whither Fisher 
went, hoping to convert the sultan. In 1660 
Fisher held a dispute with Thomas Danson 
at Sandwich, in which he defended the doc- 
trines of the Friends (see Rusticus ad Aca- 
demicos}, and later in this year he was im- 
prisoned in Newgate. The rest of his life 
was chiefly spent in or near London, where 
he was a successful preacher. In 1661 he was 
imprisoned and treated with much severity 
in the Gatehouse at Westminster. In 1662 he 
was arrested and sent to the Bridewell for 
being present at an illegal meeting. He was 
again sent to Newgate for refusing to take 
the oaths, and was detained for upwards of 
a year, during which time he occupied him- 
self in writing ' The Bishop busied beside the 
Business.' During part of this imprisonment 
he was confined with other prisoners in a room 
so small that they were unable to lie down at 
the same time. I Shortly after his discharge he 
was again arrested at Charlwood, Surrey, and 
committed to the White Lion Prison, South- 
wark, where he was confined for about two 
years. During the great plague he was tem- 
porarily released, and retired to the house of 
Ann Travers, a quakeress at Dalston, near 
London, where he died of the plague on 
31 Aug. 1665. His place of burial is uncer- 
tain. Fisher's works show him to have been a 
man of considerable erudition and some lite- 
rary skill, but they are disfigured by violence 
and coarseness. They were, however, quaker 
text-books for more than a century. He was 

skilful in argument, had no little logical 
acumen, and great controversial powers. 
Sewel asserts that he was ' dextrous and 
well skilled in the ancient poets and Hebrew/ 
His private life appears to have been above 
reproach, and the ' testimonies ' of the Friends 
unite in giving him a high personal charac- 
ter. William Penn, who was intimately ac- 
quainted with him, praises his sweetness and 
evenness of temper, his self-denial and hu- 
mility, and Besse declares that he excelled 
in < natural parts and acquired abilities,' and 
that he ' incessantly laboured by word and 
writing.' His more important works are: 
1. ' Baby-Baptism meerBabism, or an Answer 
to Nobody in Five Words, to Everybody who 
finds himself concerned in it. (1) Anti- 
Diabolism, or a True Account of a Dispute at 
Ashford proved a True Counterfeit ; (2) An- 
ti-Babism, or the Babish Disputings of the 
Priests for Baby-Baptism Disproved; (3) An- 
ti-Rantism, or Christ'ndome Unchrist'nd; 
(4) Anti-Ranterism, or Christ'ndome New 
Christ'nd; (5) Anti-Sacerdotism the deep 
dotage of the D.D. Divines Discovered, or 
the Antichristian C.C. Clergy cleared to be 
that themselves which they have ever charged 
Christ's Clergy to be,' &c., 1653. 2. < Chris- 
tianismus Redivivus, Christ'ndom both un- 
christ'ned and new-christ'ned,' &c., 1655. 
3. < The Scorned Quaker's True and Honest 
Account, both why and what he should have 
spoken (as to the sum and substance thereof) 
by commission from God, but that he had 
not permission from Men,' &c., 1656. 4. 'The 
Burden of the Word of the Lord, as it was 
declared in part, and as it lay upon me from 
the Lord on the 19th day of the 4th mo. 
1656, to declare it more fully,' &c., 1656. 
5. ' Rusticus ad Academicos in Exercita- 
tionibus Expostulatoriis, Apologeticis Qua- 
tuor. The Rusticks Alarm to the Rabbies, 
or the Country correcting the University and 
Clergy/ &c., 1660. 6. ' An Additional Ap- 
pendix to the book entitled " Rusticus ad 
Academicos," ' 1660. 7. i Lux Christi emer- 
gens, oriens, eft'ulgens, ac seipsam expandens 
per universum,' &c., 1660. 8. l One Antidote 
more against that provoking Sin of Swearing,' 
&C., 1661. 9. ' 'AiroKpVTTTa aTro/mXvTrra, Ve- 
lata Qusedam Revelata,' &c., 1661. 10. ' 'ETTI- 
O-KOTTOS d-rroa-KOTTos ; the Bishop Busied beside 
the Businesse,' &c., 1662. The foregoing 
works with many less important were re- 
printed in 1679 under the title of ' The Tes- 
timony of Truth Exalted,' &c., folio. 

[Wood's Athenae Oxon. iii. 700 ; Fasti, i. 430, 
ed. 1813; Croese's General Hist, of the Quakers, 
p. 63, ed. 1696 ; Sewel's Hist, of the Quakers, 
vols. i. ii. and iii. 1833 ; (rough's Hist, of the 
Quakers, i. 253 ; Besse's Sufferings, i. 289, 366 ; 



"Wood's Hist, of the General Baptists ; Crosby's 
Hist, of the Baptists, i. 359 ; Britton and Bray- 
ley's Description of the County of Northampton ; 
Tuke's Biographical Notices of ... Friends, ii. 
221, ed. 1815; W. and T. Evans's Friends' Li- 
brary, vol. ii. ; Hasted's Kent, ii. 517; Fox's 
Autobiography, p. 139, ed. 1765; Smith's Cata- 
logue of Friends' Book ; Swarthmore MSS.] 

A. C. B. 

FISHER, SAMUEL (ft. 1692), puritan, 
son of Thomas Fisher of Stratford-on-Avon, 
was born in 1617, and educated at the uni- 
versity of Oxford, matriculating at Queen's 
College in 1634, and graduating at Magdalen 
College B.A. 15 Dec. 1636, M.A. 18 June 
1640. He took holy orders, and officiated at 
St. Bride's, London, at Withington, Shrop- 
shire, and at Shrewsbury, where he was 
curate to Thomas Blake [q. v.] He afterwards 
held the rectory of Thornton-in-the-Moors, 
Cheshire, from which he was ejected at the 
Restoration. He spent the rest of his life 
at Birmingham, where he died, ' leaving 
the character of an ancient divine, an able 
preacher, and a godly life.' He published : 
1. 'An Antidote against the Fear of Death; 
being meditations in a time and place of great 
mortality ' (the time, Wood informs us, being 
July and August 1650, the place Shrews- 
bury). 2. ' A Love Token for Mourners, 
teaching spiritual dumbness and submission 
under God's smarting rod,' in two funeral 
sermons, London, 1655. 3. A Fast sermon, 
preached 30 Jan. 1692-3. 

[Wood's AthenseOxon. (Bliss), iv. 587; Orme- 
rod's Cheshire, ed. Helsby, ii. 21 ; Calamy's 
Abridgment, i. 124.] J. M. E. 

(d. 1577), M.P. for Warwick, was of ob- 
scure origin and usually known by the name 
of Fisher, because his father was ' by pro- 
fession one that sold fish by retail at the 
mercate crosse in Warwick.' The quick- 
ness of his parts recommended him to the 
notice of John Dudley, duke of Northumber- 
land, then Viscount Lisle, who received him 
into his service, and on 4 May, 34 Hen. VIII, 
constituted him high steward and bailiff of 
his manor of Kibworth Beauchamp, Leicester- 
shire. For his exercise of that office during 
life Fisher had an annuity of 61. 13s. 6d. 
granted to him, which was 'confirmed in the 
reign of Mary. He contrived to accumulate 
avast estate in monastery and church lands, 
of which a lengthv list is given by Dugdale 
(Warwickshire, edit. 1656, p. 365). In 
38 Hen. VIII he obtained the site of St. 
Sepulchre's Priory, Warwick, with the lands 
adjacent, and proceeded to pull the monas- 
tery to the ground, raising in the place of 
it ' a very fair house as is yet to be seen, 

which being finished about the 8 year of 
Queen Eliz. reign, he made his principal 
seat.' He gave it a new name ' somewhat 
alluding to his own, viz. Hawkyns-nest, or 
Hawks-nest, by reason of its situation, 
having a pleasant grove of loftie elmes al- 
most environing it ' (ib. ) However, its old 
designation of the ' Priory' was soon revived 
and finally prevailed. In 1 Edward VI, 
Bishop's Itchington, Warwickshire, being 
alienated to him from the see of Coventry 
and Lichfield, he made an ' absolute depopu- 
lation ' of that part called Nether Itchington, 
and even demolished the church for the pur- 
pose of building a large manor-house on its 
site. He also changed the name of the 
village to Fisher's Itchington, in an attempt 
to perpetuate his own memory. Fisher, who 
was now the chief citizen of Warwick, next 
appears as secretary to the Duke of Somer- 
set, protector of England. There is a tra- 
dition that he was colonel of a regiment in 
the English army under the command of 
Somerset, when the Scots were defeated at 
the battle of Pinkie, near Musselburgh, 
10 Sept. 1547, * where he, taking the colours 
of some eminent person in which a griftbn 
was depicted, had a grant by the said duke 
that he should thenceforth, in memory of 
that notable exploit, bear the same in his 
armes within a border verrey, which the 
duke added thereto in relation to one of 
the quarterings of his own coat [viz. Beau- 
champ of Hatch] as an honourable lodge for 
that service.' Towards the end of June 
1548 he was commissioned by Somerset to 
repair with all diligence into the north to 
the Earl of Shrewsbury and Lord Grey, with 
instructions for the defence of Haddington, 
and for the other necessary movements of 
the king's army and his officers in Scotland. 
He was also to repair to Sir John Luttrell 
at Broughty, and to commune with him and 
Lord Gray of Scotland, to devise with them 
some means of communicating with the Earl 
of Argyll, and to treat with the earl accord- 
ing to certain articles proposed (Cal. State 
Papers, Scottish Ser. 1509-89, i. 89, 92). In 
March 1549 he was appointed along with 
Sir John Luttrell to confer with Argyll and 
other Scotch nobles for the return of the 
queen from France and ' accomplishment of 
the godly purpose of marriage ' (ib. p. 97). 
Under the strain of such duties his health 
gave way, and in a melancholy letter to 
Secretary Cecil, dated from the ' Camp at 
Enderwick,' 17 Sept. 1549, he declares that 
he ' would give three parts of his living to 
be away ; and wishes to be spared like ser- 
vice in future ' (ib. p. 98). In 6 Edward VI 
he had a grant of the bailiwick of Banbury, 




Oxfordshire, being made collector of the 
king's revenue within that borough and hun- 
dred, as also governor of the castle, with a 
fee of 66s. 7d. a year for exercising the office 
of steward and keeping the king's court 
within that manor. It was generally be- 
lieved that the Duke of Northumberland, 
anticipating want of money to pay the forces 
which would be required in the event of his 
daughter-in-law Lady Jane Grey being pro- 
claimed queen, ' privately conveyed a vast 

tomb, which bore the recumbent effigies of 

T^! ? nd his first wif e Winifred, daughter 
of William Holt, probably perished in the 
great fire of 1694; it has been engraved 
by Hollar (DUGDALE, p. 350). His son and 
heir , EDWAED FISHEE, was thirty years old 
at the time of his father's death. His in- 
heritance, Dugdale informs us, was then 
worth. 3,000/. a year, but he soon squan- 
dered it, and hastened his ruin by making a 
fraudulent conveyance to deceive Serjeant 

represented Warwick in the second parlia- 
ment of Mary, 1554, and in the first (1554), 
second (1555), and third (1557-8) of Philip 
and Mary (Lists of Members of Parliament, 
Official Return, pt. i. pp. 387, 391, 395, 3" " 
In 1571, when Robert Dudley, earl of 
Leicester, celebrated the order of St. Michael 
in the collegiate church of Warwick, the 

A* d en ^ by h m . in , Bisho ? s Itchin ^ ton p L ^ iWrf iSSSfiTSSS 

After, the attainder and execution of the commenced a prosecution against him ?n the 
duke in 1553, Fisher was questioned about j Star-chamber, and had not Leicester inter- 
the money by orders from the queen, but he posed, his fine would have been very severe 
sturdily refused to deliver it up, and even He ultimately consented that an act of pa?! 
suffered his fingers to be pulled out of joint j liament should be made to confirm / 
rack rather than discover it. Fisher tate to Puckering, but being encumbered 

with debts he was committed prisoner to 
the Fleet, where he spent the rest of his 
life. He married Katherine, daughter of 
Sir Richard Longe, by whom he had issue, 
Thomas, John, Dorothy, and Katherine. 

Fisher is sometimes mistaken for the John 
Fisher who compiled the < Black Book of 

,.-,.. , ' Warwick.' The latter was in all probability 

baihft and burgesses of the borough were John Fisher, bailiff of Warwick, in 1565 ' 
invited to attend the earl from the Priory, 
where he was Fisher's guest for six or seven 
days, and thence went in grand procession 
to the church. Immediately on the conclu- 
sion of the ceremony, at which he had been 
present, William Parr, marquis of North- 
ampton, brother of Queen Catherine Parr, 

J* 1 J T i _ _ j_ ji -r rm n -n 

[Dugdale's Warwickshire (1656), pp. 364-5, 
and passim; Colvile's Worthies of Warwick- 
shire, pp. 287-91 ; Cal. State Papers, Dom. 
1547-80, Addenda, 1547-65 ; Visitation of War- 
wickshire, 1619, Harl. Soc. 20.] Gr. G. 

FISHER, THOMAS (1781 ?-1836),anti- 

died suddenly at the Priory. The following quary, born at Rochester in or about 1781, 

was the younger of the two sons of Thomas 

-. .. Fisher, printer, bookseller, and alderman of 

Kenil worth, on Saturday night, 17 Aug., that city. His father, who died on 29 Aug. 
having dined with Fisher's son, Edward, at 1786, was author of the < Kentish Traveller's 
his house at Itchington on the Monday pre- 
viously. After supping with Mrs. Fisher 
and her company, her majesty withdrew for 
the kind purpose of visiting 'the good man 
of the house . . . who at that time was 
grevously vexid with the gowt/ but with 
most gracious words she so ' comfortid him 

T) n 77" ff \ 

To rl aniTT 

Ol, VI f 

n iinnfiil littln 


r^l \ 

1*1 1 * 1 T7 

pllU J\ 

ivn Q08 flQ'i 

v-ol Ivii i^r 

p. 606X In 

86 Fisher entered the India House as an 
extra clerk, but in April 1816 was appointed 

that forgetting, or rather counterfeyting, his searcher of records, a post for which his 

TinVTIO 1~ * T^crilTrorl ^ in TVr\t*i Tioo-f-o +Via-n rrr\/-\r\ lr-r\r\T/I c\A rff\ o -r\ A 1 i-t-/^-trT-rr r -f-fr* i -*-* r\ -*\-t-n -*vr/\ll 

payne,' he resolved ' in more haste than good knowledge and literary attainments well 
spede to be on horseback the next tyme of fitted him. From this situation he retired 

on a pension in June 1834, after having 
spent in different offices under the company 

her going abrode.' Though his resolution 
was put to the proof as soon as the following 

Monday, he actually accomplished it, at- altogether forty-six years. He died unmar- 
tending the queen on her return to Kenil- 
worth and riding in company with the Lord- 
treasurer Burghley, to whom, it would seem, 
he talked with more freedom than discretion 
(NICHOLS, Progresses of Queen Elizabeth, i. 
310, 318-19). Fisher died 12 Jan. 1576-7, 
and was buried at the upper end of the north 
aisle in St. Mary's Church, "Warwick. His 

ried on 20 July 1836, in his sixty-fifth year, 
at his lodgings in Church Street, Stoke New- 
ington, and was buried on the 26th in Bun- 
tiill Fields. From the time of his coming to 
London he had resided at Gloucester Terrace, 
Hoxton, in the parish of Shoreditch. 

Before he left Rochester Fisher's talents < 
as a draughtsman attracted the attention of ; and w 

originator and publisher of " The history ai 
antiquities of Rochester and its environs 
1772 (new eds., 1817 and 1833) ; the prii 




Isaac Taylor, the engraver. He was besides 
eminent as an antiquary. Some plates in 
the ' Custumale Roffense,' published by John 
Thorpe in 1788, are from drawings by Fisher ; 
while it appears from the same work (pp. 155, 
234, 262) that he had helped Samuel JJenne, 
one of the promoters of the undertaking, in 
examining the architecture and monuments 
of Rochester Cathedral. His first literary 
effort, a description of the Crown inn at Ro- 
chester and its curious cellars, was printed 
with a view and plan in the ' Gentleman's 
Magazine ' for 1789, under the pseudonym of 
' Antiquitatis Conservator' (vol. lix. pt. ii. 
p. 1185). He had previously contributed 
drawings for one or two plates. In 1795 
Denne communicated to the Society of An- 
tiquaries a letter on the subject of water- 
marks in paper, enclosing drawings by Fisher 
of sixty-four specimens, together with copies 
of several autographs and some curious docu- 
ments discovered by him in a room over the 
town hall at Rochester. The letter, accom- 
panied by the drawings, is printed in ' Ar- 
chseologia,' xii. 114-31. By Fisher's care the 
records were afterwards placed in proper cus- 
tody. His next publications were ' An En- 
Saving of a fragment of Jasper found near 
illah, bearing part of an inscription in the 
cuneiform character,' s. sh. 4to, London, 1802, 
and ' An Inscription [in cuneiform characters] 
of the size of the original, copied from a stone 
lately found among the ruins of ancient 
Babylon,' s. sh. fol., London, 1803. In 1806 
and 1807 Fisher was the means of preserving 
two beautiful specimens of Roman mosaic 
discovered in the city of London ; the one 
before the East India House in Leadenhall 
Street, and the other, which was presented 
to the British Museum, in digging founda- 
tions for the enlargement of the Bank of 
England. These he caused to be engraved 
from drawings made by himself, and he pub- 
lished a description of them in the ' Gentle- 
man's Magazine,' vol. Ixxvii. pt. i. p. 415. 

In the summer of 1804 Fisher discovered 
some legendary paintings on the roof and 
walls of the chapel belonging to the ancient 
Guild of Holy Cross in Stratford-on-Avon. A 
work founded upon this and muniments lent 
to him by the corporation appeared in 1807 as 
' A Series of antient Allegorical, Historical, 
and Legendary Paintings . . . discovered . . . 
on the walls of the Chapel of the Trinity at 
Stratford-upon-Avon . . . also Views and Sec- 
tions illustrative of the Architecture of the 
Chapel/parts i-iv. (Appendix, No. l,pp. 1-4), 
fol. (London), 1807. His account of the 
guild, with copious extracts from the ledger- 
book, appeared in the ' Gentleman's Maga- 
zine,' new ser. iii. 162, 375. 

Between 1812 and 1816 Fisher published 
ninety-five plates from his drawings of monu- 
mental and other remains in Bedfordshire, 
under the title of ' Collections Historical, 
Genealogical, and Topographical for Bedford- 1 
shire,' 4to, London, 1812-16. A second part, 
consisting of 114 folio plates, appeared only 
a few weeks before his death in 1836. He 
gave up his intention of adding letterpress 
descriptions on account of the tax of eleven 
copies imposed by the Copyright Act. He 
published numerous remonstrances in peti- 
tions to parliament, in pamphlets, and in es- 
says in periodicals. See his essay in the 
'Gentleman's Magazine 'for 181 3, vol. Ixxxiii. 
pt. ii. pp. 513-28, and his petition in 1814, 
printed in the ' Gentleman's Magazine,' vol. 
Ixxxvii. pt. i. p. 490. In 1838 John Gough 
Nichols added descriptions to a new edition. 

Meanwhile Fisher had printed at the litho- 
graphic press of D. J. Redman thirty-seven 
drawings of ' Monumental Remains and An- 
tiquities in the county of Bedford,' of which 
fifty copies were issued in 1828. Fisher was 
one of the first to welcome lithography in 
this country. As early as 1808 he published 
an account of it, under the title of ' Polyan- 
tography,' with a portrait of Philip H. Andre, 
its first introducer into England, in the 
' Gentleman's Magazine,' vol. Ixxviii. pt. i. 
p. 193. In 1807 he published in four litho- 
graphic plates: 1. 'A Collection of all the 
Characters . . . which appear in the Inscrip- 
tion on a Stone found among the Ruins of 
ancient Babylon . . . now deposited in the 
East Indian Company's Library at Leaden- 
hall Street.' 2. 'A Pedestal, and Fragment 
of a Statue of Hercules . . . dug out of the 
Foundations of the Wall of the City of Lon- 
don.' 3. ' Ichnography, with Architectural 
Illustrations of the old Church of St. Peter 
le Poor in Broad Street, London.' 4. ( Sir 
W. Pickering, from his Tomb in St. Helen's 
Church, London.' Shortly afterwards he is- 
sued several plates of monumental brasses to 
illustrate Hasted's l Kent' and Lysons's ' En- 
virons of London.' In order to encourage a 
deserving artist, Hilkiah Burgess, Fisher had 
ten plates etched of ' Sepulchral Monuments 
in Oxford.' These were issued in 1836. 

Fisher was in 1821 elected F.S.A. of Perth, 
and on 5 May 1836 F.S.A. of London, an 
honour from which he had been hitherto 
debarred, as being both artist and dissenter. 
Many of the more valuable biographies of 
distinguished Anglo-Indians in the ' Gentle- 
man's Magazine' were contributed by Fisher. 
That of Charles Grant, father of Lord Glenelg- 
{Gent. Mag. vol. xciii. pt. ii. p. 561), was 
afterwards enlarged and printed for private 
circulation, 8vo, London, 1833. He was like- 




wise a contributor to the ' European Maga- 
zine/ the ' Asiatic Journal,' and to several 
religious periodicals. He was one of the 
projectors of the ' Congregational Magazine,' 
and from 1818 to 1823 conducted the sta- 
tistical department of that serial. "When 
elected a guardian of Shoreditch, in which 
parish he resided, he assisted John Ware, 
the vestry clerk, in the compilation of a vo- 
lume entitled ' An Account of the several 
Charities and Estates held in trust for the 
use of the Poor of the Parish of St. Leonard, 
Shoreditch, Middlesex, and of Benefactors 
to the same,' 8vo, London, 1836. He was 
also zealous in the cause of anti-slavery. 
In 1825 he published * The Negro's Memo- 
rial, or Abolitionist's Catechism. By an 
Abolitionist,' 8vo, London. He was a mem- 
ber, too, of various bible and missionary 
societies. A few of his letters to Thomas 
Orlebar Marsh, vicar of Steventon, Bedford- 
shire, are in the British Museum, Addit. MS. 
23205. His collections of topographical draw- 
ings and prints, portraits and miscellaneous 
prints, books, and manuscripts, were sold by 
Evans on 30 May 1837 and two following 

[Gent. Mag. new ser. vi. 220, 434-8 ; Notes 
and Queries, 5th ser. xi. 228, 339 ; Cat. of Library 
of London Institution, iii. 350.] Of. Or. 

FISHER, WILLIAM (1780-1852), rear- 
admiral, second son of John Fisher of Yar- 
mouth, Norfolk, was born on 18 Nov. 1780, 
and entered the navy in 1795. After serv- 
ing in the North Sea, at the Cape of Good 
Hope, and in the Mediterranean, and as 
acting lieutenant of the Foudroyant on the 
coast of Egypt, he was confirmed in the 
rank on 3 Sept. 1801. In 1805 he was lieu- 
tenant of the Superb during the chase of Ville- 
neuve to the West Indies ; and in 1806 was 
promoted to be commander. In 1808 he 
commanded the Racehorse of 18 guns in the 
Channel, and in the same ship, in 1809-10, 
was employed in surveying in the Mozam- 
bique. In March 1811 he was promoted to 
post-rank, and in 1816-17 commanded in suc- 
cession the Bann and Cherub, each of 20 guns, 
on the coast of Guinea, in both of which 
he captured several slavers and pirates, some 
of them after a desperate resistance. From 
March 1836 to May 1841 he commanded the 
Asia in the Mediterranean, and in 1840, during 
the operations on the coast of Syria [see STOP- 
TOED, SIR ROBERT], was employed as senior 
officer of the detached squadron off Alexan- 
dria, with the task of keeping open the mail 
communication through Egypt. For this 
service he received the Turkish gold medal 
and diamond decoration. He had no further 

service afloat, but became, in due course, a 
rear-admiral in 1847. During his retirement 
he wrote two novels : < The Petrel, or Love 
on the Ocean ' (1850), which passed through 
three editions, and < Ralph Rutherford, a 
Nautical Romance ' (1851). He died in Lon- 
don, on 30 Sept. 1852. A man who had 
been so long in the navy during a very stir- 
ring period, who had surveyed the Mozam- 
bique, and captured slavers and pirates, had 
necessarily plenty of adventures at command, 
which scarcely needed the complications of 
improbable love stories to make them inte- 
resting ; but the author had neither the con- 
structive skill nor the literary talent necessary 
for writing a good novel, and his language 
throughout is exaggerated and stilted to the 
point of absurdity. 

Fisher married, in 1810, Elizabeth, sister 
of Sir James Rivett Carnac, bart., governor 
of Bombay, by whom he had two children, a 
daughter and a son. 

[O'Byrne's Nav. Biog. Diet. ; Gent. Mag. 1852, 
new ser. xxxviii. 634.] J. K. L. 


(1798 P-1874), Downing professor of medi- 
cine at Cambridge, a native of Westmore- 
land, was born in or about 1798. He studied 
in the first instance at Montpellier, where 
he took the degree of M.D. in 1825 (D.M. I. 
'De 1'inflammation considered sous le rap- 
port de ses indications,' 4to, Montpellier, 
1825). Two years later he was entered at 
Trinity College, Cambridge, of which his 
brother, the Rev. John Hutton Fisher, was 
then fellow and assistant-tutor. Subse- 
quently he removed to Downing College, 
where he graduated as M.B. in 1834. Shortly 
afterwards he succeeded to a fellowship, but 
the Downing professorship of medicine fall- 
ing vacant in 1841, Fisher was elected and 
resigned his fellowship. He, however, held 
some of the college offices. In 1841 he pro- 
ceeded M.D. His lectures were well at- 
tended. He acted for many years as one 
of the university examiners of students in 
medicine, and was an ex officio member of 
the university board of medical studies. In- 
addition to fulfilling the duties of his pro- 
fessorship, Fisher had a large practice as a 
physician at Cambridge. He was formerly 
one of the physicians to Addenbrooke's Hos-- 
pital, and on his resignation was appointed 
consulting physician to that institution. Al- 
though for some time he had relinquished 
the practice of his profession, he regularly 
delivered courses of lectures until 1868, since 
which time they were read by a deputy, 
P. W. Latham, M.D., late fellow of Down- 
ing. Fisher was a fellow of the Cambridge 


7 6 


Philosophical Society, and a contributor to 
its l Transactions.' He was highly esteemed 
in the university for his professional attain- 
jnents and his conversational powers. He 
died at his lodge in Downing College, 4 Oct. 
1874, in his seventy-sixth year. 

[Brit. Med. Journ. 10 Oct. 1874, p. 481 ; Med. 
Times and Gaz. 10 Oct. 1874, p. 434, 17 Oct. 
1874, p. 461 ; Lancet, 10 Oct. 1874, p. 533.] 

Gr. G. 

FISK, WILLIAM (1796-1872), painter, 
foorn in 1796 at Thorpe-le-Soken, Essex, was 
the son of a yeoman farmer at Can Hall in 
that county, of a family which boasted of some 
antiquity, dating back to the days of Henry IV. 
Drawing very early became Fisk's favourite 
occupation, but his inclination to art was 
discouraged by his father, who sent him to 
school at Colchester, and at nineteen years 
of age placed him in a mercantile house in 
London. In this uncongenial profession Fisk 
remained for ten years, though he never ne- 
glected his artistic powers, and in 1818 sent 
to the Royal Academy a portrait of Mr. G. 
Fisk, and in 1819 a portrait of a l Child and 
Favourite Dog.' He married about 1826, 
and after the birth of his eldest son he de- 
voted himself seriously to art as a profession. 
In 1829 he sent to the Royal Academy a 
portrait of William Redmore Bigg, R. A., and 
continued to exhibit portraits there for a few 
years. At the British Institution he ex- 
hibited in 1830 ' The Widow,' and in 1832 
'Puck.' About 1834 he took to painting 
large historical compositions, by which he is 
best known. These compositions, though a 
failure from an artistic point of view, pos- 
sessed value from the care Fisk took to ob- 
tain contemporary portraits and authorities 
for costume, which he faithfully reproduced 
on his canvas. Some of them were engraved, 
and the popularity of the engravings led to 
his painting more. They comprised ' Lady 
Jane Grey, when in confinement in the Tower, 
visited by Feckenham ' (British Institution, 
1834) ; ' The Coronation of Robert Bruce ' 
(Royal Academy, 1836) ; ' La Journee des 
Dupes ' (Royal Academy, 1837) ; ' Leonardo 
da Vinci expiring in the arms of Francis I ' 
(Royal Academy, 1838) ; * The Chancellor 
Wriothesley approaching to apprehend Ka- 
therine Parr on a charge of heresy,' and 
4 Mary, widow of Louis XII of France, re- 
ceiving Charles Brandon, Duke of Suffolk, 
ambassador from Henry VIII ' (British In- 
stitution, 1838) ; ' The Queen Mother, Marie 
de Medici, demanding the dismissal of Car- 
dinal Richelieu ' (British Institution, 1839) ; 
* The Conspiracy of the Pazzi, or the attempt 
to assassinate Lorenzo de Medici' (Royal 
Academy, 1839) ; the last-named picture was 

in 1840 awarded the gold medal of the Man- 
chester Institution for the best historical 
picture exhibited in their gallery. About 
1840 Fisk commenced a series of pictures con- 
nected with the reign of Charles I, namely, 
* Cromwell's Family interceding for the life 
of Charles I ' (Royal Academy, 1840) ; < The 
Trial of the Earl of Strafford ' (never exhi- 
bited, engraved by James Scott in 1841, and 
now in the Walker Art Gallery, Liverpool) ; 
' The Trial of Charles I in Westminster Hall ' 
(Royal Academy, 1842) ; l Charles I passing 
through the banqueting-house, Whitehall, to 
the Scaffold ' (Royal Academy, 1843) ; ' The 
last interview of Charles I with his Children ' 
(British Institution, 1844). After these his 
productions were of a less ambitious nature, 
and he eventually retired from active life to 
some property at Danbury in Essex, where 
he died on 8 Nov. 1872. He was also a fre- 
quent contributor to the Suffolk Street exhi- 

[Art Journal, 1873, p. 6; Redgrave's Diet, of 
Artists; Graves's Diet, of Artists, 1760-1880; 
Catalogues of the Royal Academy and British 
Institution.] L. C. 

FISK, WILLIAM HENRY (1827-1884), 
painter and drawing-master, son of William 
Fisk [q. v.], was a pupil of his father, and 
also a student of the Royal Academy. He 
was a skilled draughtsman, and as such was 
appointed anatomical draughtsman to the 
Royal College of Surgeons. In painting he 
was a landscape-painter, and exhibited for 
the first time in 1846. In 1850 he exhibited 
at the Royal Academy, subsequently being 
an occasional exhibitor at the other London 
exhibitions and also in Paris. He was teacher 
of drawing and painting to University Col- 
lege School, London, and in that capacity 
was very successful and of high repute. A 
series of drawings of trees which he produced 
for the queen were much esteemed. He was 
a clear and logical lecturer on the practical 
aspect of art, and succeeded in attracting 
large audiences in London and the provinces. 
He also occasionally contributed articles on 
painting to the public press. He died on 
13 Nov. 1884, in his fifty-eighth year. 

[Athenaeum, 22 Nov. 1884 ; Graves's Diet, of 
Artists, 1760-1880; Catalogues of the Royal 
Academy, &c.] L. C. 

FISKEN, WILLIAM (d. 1883), presby- 
terian minister, the son of a farmer, was born 
on Gelleyburn farm, near Crieff, Perthshire. 
After attending school at the neighbouring 
village of Muthill, he was sent to St. An- 
drews College to study for the ministry under 
Professor Duncan. Subsequently he removed 
to the university of Glasgow, and thence to 




the Divinity Hall of the Secession church. 
"While there he taught a school at Alyth, near 
his birthplace. Upon receiving license in 
the presbytery of Dundee, he commenced his 
career as a preacher in the Secession church. 
He visited various places throughout the 
country, including the Orkney Islands, where 
he would have received a call had he cared 
to accept it. He was next sent to the pres- 
bytery at Newcastle-upon-Tyne, and preached 
as a probationer at the adjoining village of 
Stamfordham, where in 1847 he received a call, 
and was duly ordained. He there laboured 
zealously until his death. In the double ca- 
pacity of governor and secretary he did much 
towards promoting the success of the scheme 
of the endowed schools at Stamfordham. 
Fisken and his brothers Thomas (a school- 
master at Stockton-upon-Tees) and David 
studied mechanics. Thomas and he invented 
the steam plough. A suit took place between 
the Fiskens and the Messrs. Fowler, the well- 
known implement makers at Leeds, and the 
finding of the jury was that the former were 
the original discoverers. The appliance which 
perfected the plan of the brothers occurred to 
them both independently and almost simul- 
taneously. William Chartres of Newcastle- 
upon-Tyne, the solicitor employed by the 
Fiskens, used to tell how the two brothers 
wrote to him on the same day about the final 
discovery, but that he receivedWilliam'sletter 
first. Fisken also invented a potato-sowing 
machine, a safety steam boiler, a propeller, 
an apparatus for heating churches, which 
worked excellently, and the 'steam tackle' 
which, patented in July 1855, helped to render 
the steam plough of practical use. This 
system of haulage, which obtained second 
prize at the royal show at Wolverhampton, 
has undergone great modifications since its 
early appearance in Scotland in 1852, its ex- 
hibition at Carlisle in 1855, and at the show 
of the Royal Agricultural Society of Eng- 
land in 1863 (Journal of Royal Agricultural 
Society, xx. 193, xxiv. 368). Fisken worked 
on the fly-rope system. An endless rope set 
into motion direct by the fly-wheel of the 
engine drove windlasses of an extremely in- 
genious type, by which the plough or other 
implement was put in motion. A great deal 
of excellent work was done on this system, 
especially with tackle made by Messrs. Bar- 
ford & Perkins of Peterborough, but for 
some reason the system never quite took with 
farmers, and very few sets of Fisken's tackle 
are now in use (Engineer, 11 Jan. 1884, 
p. 37). Fisken was the author of a pamphlet 
on ' The Cheapest System of Steam Cultiva- 
tion and Steam Cartage,' and of another ' On 
the Comparative Methods of Steam Tackle/ 

which gained the prize of the Bath and West? 
of England Society. A man of liberal views, 
?reat generosity of character, and wide read- 
ing, he made friends wherever he went. He 
died at his manse, Stamfordham, on 28 Dec. 
1883, aged upwards of seventy. 

[Times, 4 and 8 Jan. 1884; Newcastle Courant, 
4 Jan. 1884.] G. G. 

FITCH, RALPH (Jl. 1583-1606), tra- 
veller in India, was among the first English- 
men known to have made the overland route 
down the Euphrates Valley towards India. 
He left London on 12 Feb. 1583 with other 
merchants of the Levant Company, among" 
whom were J. Newberry, J. Eldred, W. 
Leedes, jeweller, and J. Story, a painter. 
He writes : f I did ship myself in a ship of 
London, called the Tiger, wherein we went 
for Tripolis in Syria, and from thence we 
took the way for Aleppo ' (HAKLTJTT, ii. 250). 
Fitch and his companions arrived at Tripolis 
on 1 May, thence they made their way to- 
Aleppo in seven days with the caravan. Set- 
ting out again on 31 May for a three days' 
journey on camels to Bir (Biredjik) on the 
Euphrates, there they bought a large boat, 
and agreed with a master and crew to de- 
scend the river, noticing on their way the 
primitive boat-building near the bituminous 
fountains at Hit (cf. CHESNEY, ii. 636). On 
29 June Fitch and his company reached 
Felujah, where they landed. After a week's 
delay, for want of camels, they crossed the 
great plain during the night, on account of 
the heat, to Babylon (i.e. Bagdad) on the- 
Tigris. On 22 July they departed hence in 
flat-bottomed boats down this river to Bus- 
sorah at the head of the Persian Gulf, where 
they left Eldred for trade. 

On 4 Sept. Fitch and his three companions 
arrived at Ormuz, where within a week 
they were all imprisoned by the Portuguese 
governor at the instance of the Venetians, 
who dreaded them as their rivals in trade. On 
11 Oct. the Englishmen were shipped for Goa 
in the East Indies unto the viceroy, where, 
upon their arrival at the end of November, as; 
Fitch puts it, 'for our better entertainment, 
we were presently put into a fair strong prison, 
where we continued until 22 Dec. ' (HAKLUTT-, 
vol. ii. pt.i. 250). Story having turned monk, 
Fitch, Newberry, and Leedes were soon after- 
wards set at liberty by two sureties procured 
for them by two Jesuit fathers, one of whom 
was Thomas Stevens, sometime of New Col- 
lege, Oxford, who was the first Englishman 
known to have reached India by the Cape of 
Good Hope, four years before, i.e. 1579 (cf. 
HAKLUYT, vol. ii. pt. i. 249). After < employing^ 
the remains of their money in precious stones, 



on Whitsunday, 5 April 1584, Fitch, and his 
two companions, Newberry and Leedes, es- 
caped across the river from Goa, and made 
the best of their way across the Deccan to Bi- 
japur and Golconda, near Haiderabad, thence 
northwards to the court of Akbar, the Great 
Mogore (i.e. Mogul, Persian corruption for 
Mongol), whom they found either at Agra or 
his newly built town of Fatepore (Fatehpur 
.Sikri), twelve miles south from it. They 
stayed here until 28 Sept. 1585, when New- 
berry proceeded north to Lahore, with a view 
to returning through Persia to Aleppo or 
Constantinople ; as Newberry was never 
heard of afterwards it is supposed he was 
murdered in the Punjab. Story remained at 
Goa, where he soon threw off the monk's habit 
and married a native woman, and Leedes, 
the jeweller, accepted service under the Em- 
peror Akbar. From Agra Fitch took boat 
with a fleet of 180 others down the Jumna 
to Prage (Allahabad), thence he proceeded 
down the Ganges, calling at Benares and 
Patna, to ' Tanda in Gouren/ formerly one 
of the old capitals of Bengal, the very site of 
which is now unknown. From this point 
Fitch journeyed northward twenty days to 
Couch (Kuch Behar), afterwards returning 
south to Hiigli, the Porto Piqueno of the 
Portuguese, one league from Satigam. His 
next journey was eastward to the country 
of Tippara, and thence south to Chatigam, 
the Porto Grande of the Portuguese, now 
known as Chittagong. Here he embarked 
for a short voyage up one of the many mouths 
of the Ganges to Bacola (Barisol) and Se- 
rampore, thence to Sinnergan, identified by 
Cunningham (xv. 127) as Sunargaon, an 
ancient city formerly the centre of a cloth- 
making district, the best to be found in India 
at this period. On 28 Nov. 1586 he re-em- 
barked at Serampore in a small Portuguese 
vessel for Burma. As far as can be learned 
from this obscure part of his narrative, Fitch, 
after sailing southwards to Negrais Point, 
ascended the western arm of the Irawadi to 
Cosmin (Kau-smin, the old Taking name 
for Bassein), thence by the inland naviga- 
tion of the Delta, across to Cirion (Syriam, 
now known as Than-lyeng, near Rangoon), 
calling at Macao (Men-Kay of Williams's 
map), and so on to Pegu. Fitch's sketches 
of Burmese life and manners as seen in and 
near Pegu deserve perusal upon their own 
merits, apart from the fact of their having 
been drawn by the first Englishman to enter 
Burma. With a keen eye to the prospects 
of trade, he also proved himself to be a per- 
sistent questioner upon state affairs. In de- 
scribing the king of Pegu's dress and splen- 
dour of his court retinue, he adds : l He [the 

king] hath also houses full of gold and silver, 
and bringen in often, but spendeth very little' 
(HAKLTTYT, ii. 260). From Pegu Fitch went 
a twenty-five days' journey north-east to 
Tamahey (Zimme) in the Shan States of 
Siam ; this must have been towards the end 
of 1587, for on 10 Jan. 1588 he sailed from 
Pegu for Malacca, where he arrived 8 Feb., 
soon after its relief by P. de Lima Pereira for 
the Portuguese (cf. LINSCHOTEN, p. 153). 
On 29 March Fitch set out on his homeward 
journey from Malacca to Martaban, and on 
to Pegu, where he remained a second time. 
On 17 Sept. he went once more to Cosmin 
(Bassein), and there took shipping for Ben- 
gal, where he arrived in November. On 
3 Feb. 1589 he shipped for Cochin on the 
Malabar coast, where he was detained for 
want of a passage nearly eight months. On 
2 Nov. he sailed for Goa, where he remained 
for three days, probably in disguise. Hence 
he went up the coast to Chaul, where after 
another delay of twenty-three days in making 
provision for the shipping of his goods, he 
left India for Ormus, where he stayed for 
fifty days for a passage to Bussorah. On his 
return journey Fitch ascended the Tigris as 
far as Mosul, journeying hence to Mirdui 
and Urfah, he went to Bir, and so passed 
the Euphrates. He concludes the account 
of his travels thus : ' From Bir I went to 
Aleppo, where I stayed certain months for 
company, and then I went to Tripolis, where, 
finding English shipping, I came with a pro- 
sperous voyage to London, where, by God's 
assistance, I safely arrived the 29th April 
1591, having been eight years out of my 
native country ' (HAKLUYT, vol. ii. pt. i. 265). 
How far Fitch's travels and experience in 
the East may have contributed to the esta- 
blishment of the East India Company, and 
won their first charter from Elizabeth, 31 Dec. 
1601, will be best gleaned from one or two 
entries in their court minutes, which con- 
tain the latest traces that can be found of 
him. Under date 2 Oct. 1600 we read: 
' Orderidthat Captein Lancaster (and others), 
together with Mr. Eldred and Mr. flitch, 
shall in the meetinge to-morrow morning 
conferre of the merchaundize fitt to be pro- 
vided for the (first) voyage' (STEVENS, p. 26). 
Again, 29 Jan. 1600-1: l Order is given to . . . 
Mr. Hacklett, the histriographer of the viages 
of the East Indies, beinge here before the 
Comitties, and having read vnto them out 
of his notes and bookes . . . was required to 
sette downe in wryting a note of the prin- 
cipal places in the East Indies where trade 
was to be had, to th' end the same may be 
used for the better instruction of o r factors in 
the said voyage ' (id. p. 123). Again court 




minutes, 31 Dec. 1606 : ' Letters to be ob- 
tained from K. James to the king of Cam- 
baya, gouernors of Aden, etc. . . . their titles 
to be inquired of Ralph Fitch' (SAINSBURY, 
State Papers, No. 36). This is the latest 
mention of Fitch known to us. 

In 1606 was produced Shakespeare's 'Mac- 
beth ; ' there we read (act i. 3) l Her husband's 
to Aleppo gone, master of the Tiger.' This 
line, when compared with the opening passage 
of Fitch's narrative, is too striking to be re- 
garded as a mere coincidence, and is also one 
of the clearest pieces of evidence known to 
us of Shakespeare's use of the text of Hak- 

[Chesney's Survey of the Euphrates and Tigris, 
1850 ; Cunningham's India; Archaeological Sur- 
vey Keports, vol. xv., Calcutta, 1882; Hak- 
luyt's Navigations, 1599, vol. ii. ; Linschoten's 
Voyages, London, 1598; Stevens and Bird- 
wood's Court Kecords of the East India Com- 
pany, 1599-1603, London, 1886 ; Sainsbury's 
State Papers, East Indies, &c., 1513-1616, 
London, 1862.] C. H. C. 

FITCH, THOMAS (A 1517). [SeeFicn.] 

FITCH, WILLIAM (1563-1611). [See 

(1793-1859), antiquary, born in 1793, was 
for more than twenty-one years postmaster 
of Ipswich, but devoted his leisure to study- 
ing the antiquities of Suffolk. He made full 
coTlections for a history of that county. Most 
of them appear to have been dispersed by 
auction after his death, though the West 
Suffolk Archaeological Association, of which 
he was a founder, purchased the drawings 
and engravings, arranged in more than thirty 
quarto volumes, and they were deposited in 
the museum of the society at Bury St. Ed- 
munds. Fitch published : 1. ' A Catalogue 
of Suffolk Memorial Registers, Royal Grants/ 
&c. (in his possession), Great Yarmouth, 1843, 
8vo. 2. ' Ipswich and its Early Mints ' (Ips- 
wich), 1848, 4to. He contributed notices of 
coins and antiquities found in Suffolk to the 
1 Journal of the British Archaeological Asso- 
ciation ' (vols. i. ii. iii. xxi.), and contributed 
to the < Proceedings of the East Suffolk Ar- 
chaeological Society.' Fitch died 17 July 
1859, leaving a widow, a daughter, and two 

[C. K. Smith's Collect. Antiqua, vi. 323-4; 
C. K. Smith's Ketrospections, i. 245-8; Gent. 
Mag. 1859, 3rd ser. vii. 202 ; Index to Journ. 
Brit. Arch. Assoc. vols. i-xxx.] W. W. 

FITCHETT, JOHN (1776-1838), poet, 
the son of a wine merchant at Liverpool, was 
born on 21 Sept. 1776, and having lost his 
parents before he attained the age of ten, was 

removed to Warrington by his testamentary 
guardian, Mr. Kerfoot, and placed at the War- 
rington grammar school under the Rev. Ed- 
ward Owen. In 1793 he was articled to his 
guardian, and in due time, having been ad- 
mitted an attorney, was taken into partner- 
ship with him, subsequently attaining a high 
place in his profession. His first published 
work, < Bewsey, a Poem' (Warrington, 1796, 
4to), written at the age of eighteen, had con- 
siderable success. He afterwards wrote many 
fugitive pieces, which were collected and 
printed at Warrington in 1836, under the 
title of ' Minor Poems, composed at various 
Times ' (8vo, pp. ii, 416). The great work of his 
life was one which occupied his leisure hours 
for forty years, and in the composition of 
which he bestowed unwearied industry and 
acute research. It was printed at Warrington 
for private circulation at intervals between 
1808 and 1834, in five quarto volumes. It 
was cast in the form of a romantic epic poem, 
the subject being the life and times of King 
Alfred, including, in addition to a biography 
of Alfred, an epitome of the antiquities, to- 
pography, religion, and civil and religious 
condition of the country. He rewrote part 
of the work, but did not live to finish it. He 
left money for printing a new edition, and the 
work of supervising it was undertaken by his 
pupil, clerk, and friend, Robert Roscoe [q. v.] 
(son of William Roscoe of Liverpool), who 
completed the task by adding 2,585 lines, the 
entire work containing more than 131,000 
lines, and forming probably the longest poem 
in any language. This prodigious monument 
of misapplied learning and mental energy 
was published by Pickering in 1841-2, in six 
volumes, 8vo, with the title of l Bang Alfred, 
a Poem.' 

Fitchett died unmarried at Warrington on 
20 Oct. 1838, and was buried at Winwick 
Church. His large and choice library was 
left to his nephew, John Fitchett Marsh, and 
was sold, with that gentleman's augmenta- 
tions, at Sotheby's rooms in May 1882. 

[Marsh's Lit. Hist, of "Warrington in War- 
rington Mechanics' Inst. Lectures (1859), p. 85; 
Palatine Note-book, ii. 168, 175; Kendrick's 
Profiles of Warrington Worthies; Notes and 
Queries, 1st ser. x. 215,334; Manchester City 
News Notes and Queries, iii. 89, 98 ; Lane, and 
Cheshire Hist, and G-eneal. Notes, iii. 35, 55.] 

C. W. S. 

FITTLER, JAMES (1758-1835), en- 
graver, was born in London in 1758, and 
became a student at the Royal Academy in 
1778. Besides book illustrations, he distin- 
guished himself by numerous works after 
English and foreign masters, chiefly portraits. 
He engraved also landscapes, marine subjects, 



and topographical views, and was appointed 
marine engraver to George III. He was 
elected an associate of the Royal Academy in 
1800; died at Turnham Green 2 Dec. 1835, and 
was buried in Chiswick churchyard. Fittler 
exhibited at the Royal Academy between 
1776 and 1824. In 1788 he resided at No. 62 
Upper Charlotte Street, Rathbone Place. 
Among his most important works are : two 
views of Windsor Castle, after George Ro- 
bertson ; a view of Christ Church Great 
Gate, Oxford, after William Delamotte ; 
* The Cutting of the Corvette la Chevrette 
from the Bay of Camaret, on the night of 
21 July 1801,' ' Lord Howe's Victory,' and 
< The Battle of the Nile,' after P. J. de Lou- 
therbourg; several naval fights, after Captain 
Mark Oates, Thomas Luny, and D. Serres ; 
a classical landscape, with a temple on the 
left, after Claude Lorraine ; the celebrated 
portrait known by the name of ' Titian's 
Schoolmaster,' after Moroni ; portrait of Lord 
Grenville, after T. Phillips ; portrait of Dr. 
Hodson, after T. Phillips; Pope Innocent X, 
after Velasquez : he also executed the plates 
for Forster's t British Gallery,' many of those 
for Bell's { British Theatre,' and all the illus- 
trations in Dibdin's ' ^Edes Althorpianae,' 
published in 1822, after which time he under- 
took no important work. His prints, books, 
and copper-plates were sold at Sotheby's 
14 July 1825, and two following days. 
[Redgrave's Dictionary of Artists.] L. F. 

lord chancellor of Ireland, was the younger 
son of William Fitton of Awrice, co. Lime- 
rick, by Eva, daughter of Sir Edward Trevor, 
knt., of Brynkinallt, Denbighshire (Harl. 
MS. 2153, f. 36). This William Fitton was 
next male kinsman to Sir Edward Fitton, 
bart., the possessor of Gawsworth, Cheshire, 
who resolved in 1641 to restore the old entail 
of his estates, and settled them by indenture, 
which he was said to have confirmed by deed- 
poll, on the above William Fitton, with re- 
mainder to his two sons. Sir Edward died 
in August 1643, shortly after the taking of 
Bristol, and ' his heart, his brain, and soft 
entrails ' were buried in a fragile urn in the 
church of St. Peter in that city (Gloucester- 
shire Notes and Queries, iii. 353). On the 
death of Felicia, lady Fitton, in January 
1654-5, William Fitton became possessed of 
Gawsworth. His son Alexander was ad- 
mitted a law student of the Inner Temple in 
1655, and was called to the bar on 12 May 
1662. He married, about 1655, Anne, elder 
daughter of Thomas Jolliife (or Jollie) of 
Cofton, Worcestershire, with whom he pro- 
bably received a fortune, for shortly after 

the mortgages on the family estates were- 
paid off; and his elder brother, Edward, hav- 
ing died without issue, he became, on his 
father's death, the possessor of the whole. 
His wife died 7 Oct. 1687, and was buried 
in St. Patrick's Cathedral, Dublin, under the- 
monument of her husband's ancestor, Sir Ed- 
ward Fitton [q.v.] Their issue was Anne> 
an only child. 

In 1661 Charles, lord Gerard of Brandon, 
laid claim to Fitton's estates in right of his 
mother, who was sister to Sir Edward, and 
a will was produced, nineteen years after Sir 
Edward's death, giving the estates to Lord 
Gerard. A litigation took place, in the course 
of which it was alleged by Lord Gerard's 
solicitor that the deed-poll executed by Sir Ed- 
ward Fitton, upon which Fitton relied, was, 
forged by one Abraham Granger. An issue 
was then directed by the court of chancery to 
try the genuineness of the document, and the 
jury finally found against it. Then Granger 
withdrew a previous confession, and stated 
that the deed was duly signed (ORMEKOD, 
Cheshire, iii. 259). The House of Lords on 
hearing of this ordered that Fitton should be 
fined 5QQL and committed to the king's bench 
prison until he should produce Granger, and 
find sureties for good behaviour during life. 
Having lost his money in the fruitless prose- 
cution of his case, Fitton remained in gaol 
until taken out by James II to be made 
chancellor of Ireland, when he was knighted. 

On 12 Feb. 1686-7 he received the ap- 
pointment of lord chancellor of Ireland, and 
on 1 April 1689 was raised to the peerage- 
as Baron Fitton of Gawsworth, but this title,, 
granted by James after his abdication, was- 
not allowed. Little is known of Fitton's. 
qualifications for his office beyond his long^ 
experience of litigation. The absence of any 
complaints from the bar or bench is so far in 
his favour. Archbishop King has asserted 
that Fitton ' could not understand the merit 
of a cause of any difficulty, and therefore 
never failed to give sentence according to his 
inclination, having no other rule to lead him r 
(State of the Protestants of Ireland under 
King James, 1691, p. 59). A recent biographer 
says : ' I have looked carefully through those 
[decrees] made while Lord [Fitton of] Gaws- 
worth held the seals, but could observe no- 
thing to mark ignorance of his duty, or in- 
capacity to perform it. He confirms reports, 
dismisses bills, decrees in favour of awards, 
grants injunctions, with the confidence of 
an experienced equity judge' (O'FLASTAGAH , 
Lives of the Lord Chancellors of Ireland, 
1870, i. 487). 

After the flight of James II from Ireland, 
Fitton, Chief Baron Rice, and Plowden as- 




sumed the office of lords justices of Ireland. 
In 1690 Sir Charles Porter was appointed 
lord chancellor in succession to Fitton, who 
was attainted ; fled to France ; and died at 
St. Germains in November 1698 (LTJTTRELL, 
Relation, iv. 586). The husbands of the two 
coheiresses of the Fitton estates, Lord Mohun 
and the Duke of Hamilton, killed each other 
(1712) in the famous duel arising from a 
dispute as to the partition, * and Gawsworth 
itself passed into an unlineal hand by a series 
of alienations complicated beyond example ' 
{Cheshire, iii. 295). 

[Authorities cited above ; Burke's Extinct Baro- 
netcies (1844), p. 199 ; Earwaker's East Cheshire, 
ii. 555, 560-3, 591 ; Nash's Worcestershire, i. 
250 ; Smyth's Law Officers of Ireland, p. 36.1 

B. H. B. 

FITTON, SIR EDWARD, the elder (1527- 
1579), lord president of Connaught and vice- 
treasurer of Ireland, was the eldest son of Sir 
Edward Fitton of Gawsworth, Cheshire, and 
Mary, daughter and coheiress of Guicciard 
Harbottle, esq., of Northumberland (ORME- 
KOD, Cheshire, iii. 292). He was knighted by 
Sir Henry Sidney in 1566 (Cal. Carew MSS. 
ii. 149), and on the establishment of provincial 
governments in Connaught and Munster he 
was in 1569 appointed first lord president of 
Connaught and Thomond (patent, 1 June 
1569 ; Liber Hibernia, ii. 189). Arrived in 
Ireland on Ascension day he was established 
in his office by Sir H. Sidney in July. On 
15 April 1570 he wrote to Cecil : ' We began 
our government in this province at Michael- 
mas, from thence till Christmas we passed 
smoothly . . . but after Christmas, taking a 
journey into Thomond, all fell upside down ' 
(State Papers, Eliz. xxx. 43). Ere long he 
found himself so closely besieged in Gal way 
by the Earl of Thomond and the sons of the 
Earl of Clanricarde that Sidney was obliged 
to send a detachment to extricate him from 
his position. With their assistance and that 
of the Earl of Clanricarde, ' and such others 
as made profess ion of their loyalty,' he made 
a dash at Shrule Castle, a place of strategical 
importance, which he captured. An attack 
on his camp by the Burkes was successfully 
averted ; but during the conflict he was un- 
horsed and severely wounded in the face. 
His conduct was approved by the deputy, 
who wrote that ' he in all his doings, both 
formerly since these troubles began, and other- 
wise in following the same, hath shewed 
great worthiness, as well in device as in at- 
tempt, and of good counsel according to the 
success and state of things ' (ib. xxx. 56). 
The short period of calm that followed served 
only as the prelude to a fresh storm. O'Conor 
~)on, whom he held in Athlone Castle as se- 


cunty for the good conduct of his sept, having- 
escaped one night he next morning marched 
against his castle of Ballintober, which he 
speedily captured. But the Burkes were up 
in arms and were vigorously supported by a 
large body of Scots. Notwithstanding all 
his exertions he gradually lost ground during 
1571-2, and believing that the Earl of Clan- 
ricarde was secretly instigating his rebellious 
sons he arrested him and clapped him in 
Dublin Castle. His conduct in the matter 
led to a quarrel with Sir William Fitzwil- 
liam [q. v.], who had succeeded Sidney as 
deputy. Fitzwilliam complained that Fit- 
ton had imprisoned Clanricarde, and refused 
to reveal the nature of his offence, either to 
the council or to himself as in duty bound, 
which, he declared, ' implieth an accusation 
of me.' When called upon to explain, Fitton 
could only say that the proofs of the earl's 
guilt, though satisfactory to himself, were not 
likely to weigh much with the council. After 
six months' imprisonment Clanricarde was 
allowed to return home, when he endeavoured 
to signalise his loyalty by hanging his own 
son, his brother's son,hiscousin-german's son, 
and one of the captains of his own galloglasses, 
besides fifty of his followers that bore armour 
and weapons ; but he never forgave Fitton 
the injury he had done him. Meanwhile the 
lord president, cooped up within Athlone, 
prayed earnestly that fresh reinforcements 
might be sent him, or that he might be re- 
lieved of his government. In midsummer 
1572 the rebels burnt Athlone to the ground, 
and his position becoming one of extreme 
peril he was shortly afterwards recalled, and 
the office of president allowed to sink for the 
nonce into abeyance. 

In October he retired to England, and 
seems to have spent his time chiefly at Gaws- 
worth. In December, however, he was ap- 
pointed vice-treasurer and treasurer at wars 
(queen to Fitzwilliam, Ham. Cal. i. 491). 
On 25 March 1573 he returned to Dublin in 
charge of Gerald, fifteenth earl of Desmond, 
and on 1 April entered upon his duties as 
treasurer. Shortly afterwards a fresh quarrel 
broke out between him and Fitzwilliam. It 
arose out of a brawl between his servant Ro- 
den and one Burnell, a friend of Captain 
Harrington, the lord deputy's nephew. It 
appears that Roden, having broken Burnell's 
head with a dagger, was himself a day or two 
after run through the body by Harrington's 
servant, Meade. Meade was acquitted by the 
coroner's jury, but found guilty of manslaugh- 
ter by the queen's bench. Thereupon the 
deputy stepped in with a general pardon, 
which coming into the possession of Fitton 
he refused to surrender it, and was forthwith 



committed to gaol for contempt. Next day, 
regretting his hasty action, the deputy sum- 
moned him to take his place at the council 
board ; but he, declining to be thus thrust 
out of gaol privily, complained to the queen, 
who, evidently without due consideration of 
the merits of the case, sharply reprimanded 
the deputy, praised Fitton for his loyalty, and 
then bade them become friends again. No 
doubt Fitzwilliam lost his temper, but the 
treasurer's conduct was exasperating to the 
last degree (BAGWELL, Ireland, ii. 256). On 
18 June he was commissioned, along with the 
Earl of Clanricarde, the archbishop of Tuam, 
and others, to hold assizes in Connaught. On 
his return he accompanied the deputy to Kil- 
kenny ; but when it was proposed that he 
should proceed into Munster and endeavour 
to prevent the disturbances likely to arise 
there owing to the escape of the Earl of 
Desmond, he flatly refused to play the part 
of ' a harrow without pynnes/ protesting to 
Burghley that ' if I must neuely be throwen 
upon all desperate reckes (I meane not for life 
but for honesty and credit) I may say my 
hap is hard ' (State Papers, Eliz. xlvi. 46). 

In May 1575 he escorted the Earl of Kil- 
dare and his two sons, suspected of treason, 
into England, but returned in September with 
Sir H. Sidney, Fitzwilliam's successor, whom 
he attended on his northern journey. In 
April 1578 he was the cause of another 
' scene ' at the council board owing to his re- 
fusal, apparently on good grounds, to affirm 
with the rest of the council that there had 
been an increase in the revenue. The only 
governor with whom he seems to have cor- 
dially co-operated was Sir "William Drury. 
With him he was indefatigable in his prepa- 
rations to meet the threatened invasion of 
James Fitzmaurice. He died on 3 July 1579 
'from the disease of the country,' caught 
during an expedition into Longford. ' I 
know/ wrote Drury, ' he was, in many men's 
opinions, over careful of his posterity, and was 
not without enemies that sought to interpret 
that to his discredit ; but I wish in his suc- 
cessor that temperance, judgment, and ability 
to speak in her majesty's causes that was 
found in him. And for my own part, if I 
should (as of right I ought) measure my liking 
of him by his good affection to me, truly my 
particular loss is also very great ' (ib. Ixvii. 25). 

He was buried on 21 Sept. in St. Patrick's 
Cathedral beside the ' wyef of his youth, Anne, 
the second daughter of S r Peter Warburton, 
of Areley in the county of Chester, knight, 
who were borne both in one yere, viz. he y e 
last of Marche 1527, and she the first of 
Maye in the same yeare, and were maried on 
Sonday next after Hillaries daye 1539, being 

y e 19 daye of Januarie, in the 12 yere of their 
age, and lyved together in true and lawfull 
matrymonie iuste 34 yeres, for y e same Son- 
day of the yeare wherein they 'were maried 
y e same Sondaie 34 yeres following was she 
buried, though she faithfully depted this lyef 
9 daies before, viz. on Saturdaie y e 9 daie of 
Januarie 1573, in w ch tyme God gave theim 
15 children, viz. 9 sonnes and 6 daughters ' 
(from a brass in St. Patrick's, of which there 
is a rubbing in Brit. Mus. Add. MS. 32485, 


SIR EDWARD FITTON the younger (1548 ?- 
1606), son and heir of the above, being disap- 
pointed in his expectation of succeeding his 
father as vice-treasurer, retired to England 
shortly after having been knighted by Sir 
William Pelham (Ham. Cal. ii. 175 ; cf. Do- 
mestic Cal. Add. p. 25). His interest in Ireland 
revived when it was proposed to colonise Mun- 
ster with Englishmen, and he was one of the 
first to solicit a slice of the forfeited estates 
of the Earl of Desmond. On 3 Sept. 1587 
he passed his patent for 11,515 acres in the 
counties of Limerick, Tipperary, and Water- 
ford ; but the speculation proved to be not 
so profitable as he had anticipated, and on 
19 Dec. 1588 he wrote to Burghley that he 
was 1,500J. out of pocket through it, and 
begged that his rent might be remitted on 
account of his father's twenty years' service 
and his own (Ham. Cal. iv. 87). He was 
most energetic in his proposals for the extir- 
pation of the Irish, but seems to have taken 
little care to fulfil the conditions of the grant, 
and was soon remarked as an absentee. He 
married Alice, daughter and sole heiress of 
Sir John Holcroft of Holcroft, Lancashire, 
who survived him till 5 Feb. 1626, and who, 
after his death in 1606, erected a tablet to 
his memory in Gawsworth Church, the latter 
portion of which appears to have been vio- 
lently defaced (ORMEROD, Cheshire, iii. 295). 
His daughter Mary is noticed below. 

[Authorities as in the text ; J. P. Earwaker's 
East Cheshire.] E. D. 

FITTON, MARY (fl. 1600), maid of 
honour to Queen Elizabeth, and alleged to be 
' the dark lady ' mentioned in Shakespeare's 
sonnets, was the fourth child and second 
daughter of Sir Edward Fitton the younger 
[see above], by his wife, Alice, daughter of 
Sir John Holcroft. She was baptised at 
Gawsworth Church, Cheshire, 24 June 1578. 
In 1595 Mary was one of the maids of 
honour to the queen. In 1600 Queen Eliza- 
beth attended the festivities which celebrated 
the marriage of Anne Russell, another of her 
maids of honour, and Lord Herbert, son of 
the Earl of Worcester. Mary Fitton took p 



prominent part in the masque performed then 
by ladies of the court, and she led the dances 
(Sidney Papers, ii. 201, 203). Her vivacity 
made her popular with the young men at court, 
and she became the mistress of William Her- 
bert (1580-1630) [q. v.], the young earl of 
Pembroke. l During the time that the Earl 
of Pembroke favoured her she would put off 
her head-tire, and tuck up her clothes, and 
take a large white cloak and march as though 
she had been a man to meet the said earl out 
of the court ' (State Papers, Dom. Add. vol. 
xxxiv.) Early in 1601 she was ' proved with 
child ' ( Cal. Carew MSS. 1601-3, p. 20) . Pem- 
broke admitted his responsibility, and both 
were threatened with imprisonment. The earl 
' utterly renounced all marriage/ and was sent 
to the Fleet in March, but his mistress, who 
was delivered of a son, seems to have escaped 
punishment. The child died soon after birth. 
According to Sir Peter Leicester (1614-1678) 
Mary Fitton also bore two illegitimate daugh- 
ters to Sir Kichard Leveson, knight (SHAKE- 
SPEARE, Sonnets, ed. Tyler, xxii. ; Academy 
for 15 Dec. 1888, p. 388). There seems no 
doubt that she married Captain William 
Polwhele in 1607. But there is some likeli- 
hood of his having been her second husband, 
for as early as 1599 her father corresponded 
with Sir Eobert Cecil about her marriage 
portion. In Sir Peter Leycester's manuscripts 
the name of Captain Lougher appears beside 
that of Captain Polwhele as one of her hus- 
bands. Recent examination of Leycester's 
manuscripts (in the possession of Lord de 
Tabley) seems to show that Mary Fitton 
married Polwhele before Lougher. Hence 
it would seem either that the marriage con- 
jecturally assigned to 1599 did not take place, 
and that, when mistress of Pembroke and 
Leveson, Mary Fitton was unmarried ; or that 
her first husband's name is lost, and that 
Lougher was a third husband. On the ela- 
borate tomb erected by her mother over her 
father's grave in 1606 in Gaws worth Church, 
kneeling figures of herself, her brothers, her 
sister, and her mother still remain. 

An attempt has been made to identify Mary 
Fitton with the ' mistress ' with eyes of ' raven 
black ' to whom Shakespeare appears to make 
suit in his sonnets (cxxvii-clvii.) There 
seems little doubt that the earlier sonnets 
celebrate Shakespeare's friendship with Wil- 
liam Herbert, earl of Pembroke, while it has 
been assumed that the later sonnets describe 
how Shakespeare supplanted his friend in 
the affections of a dark-complexioned beauty 
of the court. This beauty, it is now suggested, 
was Mary Fitton. But there is very little 
beyond the fact that Mary Fitton was at one 
time Herbert's mistress to confirm the iden- 

tification, and it is possible that the later son- 
nets deal with a fictitious situation. The 
natural objection raised to the circumstance 
that a lady moving in high society should have 
entered into a liaison with a man of the low 
social position of an actor and playwright has 
been met by the discovery of the fact that Wil- 
liam Kemp, the actor, dedicated to Mistress 
Anne Fitton, whom he calls maid of honour to 
the queen, his ' Nine Daies Wonder,' 1600, in 
terms approaching familiarity. Mistress An ne 
Fitton was Mary Fitton's elder sister, and 
there is no good reason for supposing (as has 
been suggested) that Kemp intended Mary 
when he wrote Anne. Anne Fitton, bap- 
tised 6 Oct. 1574, married about 1595 Sir 
John Newdegate of Erbury, Warwickshire. 
Kemp's employment of her maiden name 
alone in his dedication is in accordance with 
a common contemporary practice of address- 
ing married women. The whole theory of Mary 
Fitton's identification with Shakespeare's 
' dark lady ' is ingenious, but the present 
state of the evidence does not admit of its 
definite acceptance. 

[Shakespeare's Sonnets the first quarto, 1609 
a facsimile in photo-lithography, edited by 
Thomas Tyler, London, 1886, contains almost all 
that can be said in favour of the theory of Mary 
Fitton's identification with the 'dark lady ' of the 
sonnets. Mr. Tyler has supplemented this infor- 
mation by a letter in the Academy, 15 Dec. 1888, 
which is to be incorporated in a volume on Shake- 
speare's sonnets. See also J. P. Earwaker's East 
Cheshire, ii. 566; Ormerod's Cheshire ; Nichols's 
Progresses of Queen Elizabeth ; Gerald Massey's 
Secret Drama of Shakespeare's sonnets (1888), 
adverse to the Fitton theory.] S. L. L. 

FITTON", MICHAEL (1766-1852), lieu- 
tenant in the navy, was born in 1766 at 
Gawsworth in Cheshire, the ancient seat of 
his family. He entered the navy in June 1780, 
on board the Vestal, with Captain George 
Keppel. On 10 Sept. the Vestal gave chase to 
and captured the Mercury packet, having on 
board Mr. Laurens, late president of congress, 
on his way to Holland as ambassador of the 
revolted colonies. During the chase young 
Fitton, being on the foretop-gallant yard, 
hailed the deck to say that there was a man 
overboard from the enemy. The Vestal sent 
a boat to pick him up, when the object was 
found to be a bag of papers, which, being in- 
sufficiently weighted, was recovered. On 
examination these papers were found to com- 
promise the Dutch government, and led to a 
declaration of war against Holland a few 
months afterwards. Fitton continued with 
Captain Keppel during the war in different 
ships, and as midshipman of the Fortitude 
was present at the relief of Gibraltar in 1782. 


8 4 


In 1793 he was again with Captain Keppel 
in the Defiance of 74 guns, as master's mate. 
In 1796 he was appointed purser of the 
Stork in the West Indies, and in 1799 was 
acting lieutenant of the Abergavenny of 54 
guns, from which he was almost immediately 
detached in command of one of her tenders. 
One of his first services was, in the Ferret 
schooner, to cruise in the Mona Passage, in 
company with the Sparrow cutter, com- 
manded by Mr. Whylie. The two accident- 
ally separated for a few days. On rejoining, 
Fitton invited Whylie by signal to come to 
breakfast, and while waiting caught a large 
shark that was under the stern. In its stomach 
was found a packet of papers relating to an 
American brig Nancy. When Whylie came 
on board, he mentioned that he had detained 
an American brig called the Nancy. Fitton 
then said that he had her papers. l Papers ? ' 
answered Whylie ; ' why, I sealed up her 
papers and sent them in with her.' < Just 
so, replied Fitton; 'those were her false 
papers ; here are her real ones.' And so it 
proved. The papers were lodged in the ad- 
miralty court at Port Royal, and by them 
the brig was condemned. The shark's jaws 
were set up on shore, with the inscription, 
' Lieut. Fitton recommends these jaws for a 
collar for neutrals to swear through.' The 
papers are still preserved in the museum of 
the Royal United Service Institution. 

Fitton's whole service during the three 
years in which he commanded the Aberga- 
venny's tenders was marked by daring and 
good fortune (JAMES, Nav. Hist. 1860, ii. 
398, iii. 38). Several privateers of superior 
force he captured or beat off. One, which he 
drove ashore, he boarded by swimming, him- 
self and the greater part of his men plunging 
into the sea with their swords in their mouths 
(O'BYENE ; a friend of the present writer has 
often heard Fitton tell the story). When the 
war was renewed in 1803, Fitton was again 
sent out to the West Indian flagship, and ap- 
pointed to command her tender, the Gipsy 
schooner. At the attack on Curacao in 1804, 
being the only officer in the squadron who 
was acquainted with the island, he piloted the 
ships in, and had virtually the direction of 
the landing. On the failure of the expedition 
the Gipsy was sent to the admiral with des- 
patches, and Fitton, in accordance with the 
senior officer's recommendation, was at last 
promoted to be lieutenant, thus receiving, as 
' the bearer of despatches announcing a de- 
feat, what years of active employment and 
of hard and responsible service, what more 
than one successful case of acknowledged 
skill and gallantry as a commanding officer 
had failed to procure him ' (JAMES, iii. 296). 

His promotion, however, made no difference 
in his employment. In the Gipsy and after- 
wards in the Pitt, a similar schooner, he con- 
tinued to wage a dashing and successful war 
on the enemy's privateers, and on 26 Oct. 
1806, after a weary chase of sixty-seven 
hours, drove on shore and captured the Su- 
perbe, a French ship of superior force, which 
had long been the scourge of English trade, 
and on board of which a list of captures 
made showed a value of 147,000/. The cap- 
tain of the .Superbe afterwards equipped a 
brig which he named La Revanche de la 
Superbe, and sent an invitation to Fitton to 
meet him at a place named ; but before the 
message arrived Fitton had been superseded 
by a friend of the admiral, Sir Alexander 
Cochrane, l not to be promoted to the rank 
of commander, but to be turned adrift as an 
unemployed lieutenant ' (ib. iv. 184). All 
that he seems to have got for capturing or 
destroying near forty of the enemy's ships, 
many of them privateers, was the thanks of 
the admiralty, a sword valued at 50/. from 
the Patriotic Society, and his share of the 
prize-money, which, from his being in com- 
mand of a tender, was only counted to him 
as one of the officers of the flagship. He 
was left unemployed till 1811, when he was 
appointed to the command of a brig for ser- 
vice in the North Sea and Baltic, and which 
was paid out of commission in 1815. In 1831 
he was appointed a lieutenant of the ordinary 
at Plymouth, and in 1835 was admitted into 
Greenwich Hospital, where he continued till 
his death, which took place at Peckham on 
31 Dec. 1852. 

It is now impossible to say what was the 
cause of Fitton's being so grievously ne- 
glected. The record of his services is bril- 
liant beyond that of any officer of his stand- 
ing ; and the story of his career is in marked 
and painful contrast with that of Sir Thomas 
Cochrane, whose rapid promotion by the ad- 
miral who superseded Fitton has been already 

[O'Byrne's Nav. Biog. Diet. ; Gent. Mag. 1853, 
new ser. xl. 312; United Service Journal, 1835, 
pt. i. p. 276 ; Allen's Battles of the British Navy 
(see index). Allen was an intimate friend of 
Fitton in the days of his retirement at Green- 
wich, and his notices of Fitton's achievements 
may be considered as practically related by 
Fitton himself.] J. K. L. 


(1780-1861), geologist, born in Dublin in 
January 1780, was a descendant of an an- 
cient family, originally of Gawsworth in 
Cheshire, but long settled in Ireland. Fitton 
went to school in Dublin with Moore (the 
poet) and Robert Emmett. He carried off 



the senior classical scholarship at Trinity 
College, Dublin, in 1798, and took his B.A. 
degree there in 1799. He was destined for the 
church, but his bent towards natural science 
induced him to adopt the medical profession. 

Before 1807 he had determined barometri- 
cally the heights of the principal mountains 
of Ireland, had made excursions to Wales 
and to Cornwall to study their minerals and 
rocks, and had been arrested on suspicion as 
a rebel while engaged in collecting fossils 
in the neighbourhood of Dublin. In 1808 
Fitton went to the university of Edinburgh, 
where he attended the lectures of Professor 
Jameson, through whose influence many able 
men were led to the study of geology. In 
1809 Fitton removed to London, where he 
continued to study medicine and chemistry, 
and in 1812 he established himself in North- 
ampton, assured of a good reception there as 
a physician by the introduction of Lord and 
Lady Spencer, and with the anticipation also 
of succeeding to the practice of Dr. Kerr, the 
father of Lady Davy. 

At Northampton Fitton's mother and 
three sisters kept house for him, till in 1820 
he married Miss James, a lady of ample 
fortune, by whom he had five sons and three 
daughters. In 1816 Fitton was made M.D. 
of Cambridge University, but after his mar- 
riage he gave up the active practice of his 
profession, removed to London, and devoted 
himself entirely to scientific researches, 
mainly geological. After acting for several 
years as secretary of the Geological Society, 
Fitton was made president in 1828. He esta- 
blished the ' Proceedings ' of the society. 

Fitton was a man of very independent 
spirit. He strongly supported Herschel in 
opposition to the Duke of Sussex for the chair 
of the Eoyal Society. His house was a 
hospitable meeting-place for scientific per- 
sons, and while president of the Geological 
Society he held a regular conversazione on 
Sundays. Fitton was elected a fellow of the 
Eoyal Society in 1815; he also belonged to 
the Linnean, Astronomical, and Geographical 
Societies. He was awarded the Wollaston 
medal by the Geological Society in 1 852. He 
died at his house in London on 13 May 1861. 

Fitton's scientific work began in 1811 with 
his paper, < Notice respecting the Geological 
structure of the vicinity of Dublin (' Trans. 
Geological Society,' 1811). Between 1817 
and 1841 he contributed a series of papers 
to the ' Edinburgh Review ' upon contempo- 
raneous geological topics, such as ' William 
Smith's Geological Map of England,' ' Lyell's 
Geology,' the ' Silurian System,' &c. But 
Fitton's best work was done between 1824 
and 1836, when he laid down the proper suc- 

cession of the strata between the oolite and 
the chalk ; dividing the ' greensand ' into an 
upper and a lower division, separated by a 
bed of clay, the gault. This work forms a 
distinct landmark in the history of geology. 
His principal papers descriptive of the green- 
sand are contained in the ' Proceedings ' and 
in the ' Transactions' of the Geological So- 
ciety for 1834-5, and in the Journal' of the 
same society, 1845-6. It was Fitton's de- 
light to instruct others in practical geology, 
and many travellers, including Sir John 
Franklin, Sir George Back, and Sir John 
Richardson, received valuable assistance from 

Fitton's last paper (he published twenty- 
one altogether) was { On the Structure of 
North-West Australia ' in the * Proceedings 
of the Geographical Society ' for 1857. 

[Quart. Journ. Geological Society, president's 
address, 1862, p. xxx ; Royal Society's Cata- 
logue of Scientific Papers.] W. J. H. 

first mayor of London, is of doubtful origin. 
Dr. Stubbs holds that he ' may have been an 
hereditary baron of London' (Const. Hist. 
i. 631). Mr. Loftie confidently asserts that 
he was a grandson of Leofstan, portreeve 
of London before the Conquest (London, pp. 
22, 36, 129). The present writer has shown 
(Antiquary, xv. 107-8) that this is a fallacy, 
partly based on the confusion of three or four 
Leofstans, who are similarly confused by 
Mr. Freeman (Norman Conquest, v. 469). It 
is just possible that the clue may be found 
in an entry in the 'Pipe Roll' of 1165 (Sot. 
Pip. 11 Hen. II, p. 18), where a Henry Fitz- 
ailwin Fitzleofstan, with Alan his brother, 
pay for succeeding apparently to lands in 
Essex or Hertfordshire, since we learn that 
our Henry Fitzailwin held lands at Watton 
and Stone in Hertfordshire by tenure of ser- 
jeanty (Testa de Nevill, p. 270 d), which de- 
scended to his heirs (ib. pp. 276 b, 266 b). In 
that case his grandfather was a Leofstan, but 
as yet unidentified. It has been urged by the 
writer (Academy, 12 Nov. 1887) that Henry's 
career should be divided into two periods : the 
first, in which he is styled Henry Fitzailwin 
(i.e. JEthelwine), and the second, in which he 
figures as mayor of London. He appears as 
a witness under the former style in a docu- 
ment printed by Palgrave (Rot. Cur. Hey. 
cvii), in a duchy of Lancaster charter (Box 
A. No. 163), and in two of the St. Paul's 
muniments (9th Rep. i. 25, 26). A grant of 
his also is printed by Palgrave (Rot. Cur. 
Reg. cv). As mayor he occurs far more fre- 
quently, namely five times, in the St. Paul's 
muniments (9th Rep. i. 8, 10, 20, 22, 27), 




twice in the ' Rot. Cur. Reg.' (pp. 171, 432), 
viz. in 1198 and 1199, and once in an Essex 
charter of 1197 (Harl Cart. 83 A, 18). His 
last dated appearance in the first capacity is 
30 Nov. 1191, and he first appears as mayor 
in April 1193 (HovEDE^, iii. 212). He pro- 
bably therefore became mayor between these 
dates. This is fatal to the well-known as- 
sertion in the ' Cronica Maiorum et Vice- 
comitumLondonise' (Liber de Ant. Leg.} that 
' Henricus filius Eylwini de London-stane ' 
was made mayor in '1188' or 1189, and is 
even at variance with Mr. Coote's hypothesis 
that the mayoralty originated in the grant of 
a communa 10 Oct. 1191 (vide infra). Dr. 
Stubbs, however, leans to this date as the com- 
mencement of Henry's mayoralty (Sel. Chart. 
p. 300; Const. Hist. i. 630). Though he con- 
tinued mayor, as far as can be ascertained, 
uninterruptedly till his death, the only re- 
corded event of his mayoralty is his famous 
' assize ' (Liber de Ant. Leg. p. 206 ; Liber 
Aldus, p. 319). And even this is only tra- 
ditionally associated with his name. In 1203 
he is found holding two knight's fees of the 
honour of ' Peverel of London ' (Rot. Cane. 
3 John). He derived his description as ' de 
London-stane' from his house, which stood 
on the north side of St. Swithin's Church 
in Candlewick (now Cannon) Street, over 
against London Stone. He also held pro- 
perty at Hoo in Kent, Warlingham and 
Burnham in Surrey, and Edmonton in Middle- 
sex. He is found presiding over a meet- 
ing of the citizens, 24 July 1212, consequent 
on the great fire of the previous week (Liber 
Custumarum, p. 88). The earliest notice of 
his death is a writ of 5 Oct. 1212, ordering 
his lands to be taken into the king's hands 
(Rot. Pat. 14 John). It is often erroneously 
placed in 1213. His wife, Margaret, sur- 
vived him (Rot. Glaus. 14 John), as did his 
three younger sons, Alan, Thomas, and Ri- 
chard (ib. 15 John), but his eldest son, Peter, 
who had married Isabel, daughter and heir 
of Bartholomew de Cheyne, had died before 
him, leaving two daughters, of whom the 
survivor was in 1212 Henry Fitzail win's heir. 

[Patent Rolls (Record Commission) ; Close 
Rolls (ib.); Testa de Nevill (ib.); Palgrave's 
Rotuli Curise Regis (ib.) ; Rot. Cane, (ib.) ; Pipe 
Roll Society's works; Duchy Charters (Public 
Record Office) ; Boger Hoveden (Rolls Series) ; 
Riley's Munimenta Gildhalle Londoniensis (ib.) ; 
Reports on Historical MSS. ; Stapleton's Liber 
de Antiquis Legibus (Camd. Soc.) ; Stubbs's Se- 
lect Charters and Constitutional Hist. ; Freeman's 
Norman Conquest; Antiquary, 1887; Academy, 
1887 ; Coote's A Lost Charter (London and 
Middlesex Arch. Trans, vol. A'.); Loftie's London 
(Historic Towns).] J. H. R. 

FITZALAN, BERTRAM (d. 1424), Car- 
melite, said to have been a member of the great 
family of the Fitzalans, entered the Carmelite 
fraternity at Lincoln, and studied at Oxford, 
presumably in the house of his order, where 
William Quaplod, also a Carmelite, who be- 
came bishop of Derry (not of Kildare, as Bale 
has it) in 1419, was his friend and patron. 
Fitzalan, after proceeding to the degree of, 
master, seems to have returned to Lincoln, 
and to have there founded a library, in which 
Bale saw the following works of his : l Super 
quarto Sententiarum liber i.,' ' Qusestiones 
Theologiae,' and ' Ad plebem Conciones.' Pits 
also assigns to him a volume of ' Excerpta 
qusedam ex aliis auctoribus,' which he men- 
tions as existing in the library of Balliol Col- 
lege, Oxford. The book has, however, either 
been lost, or else Pits was misled by a codex 
there (clxv. B) of miscellaneous contents, 
some of which are by Cardinal Peter Bertrand. 
Fitzalan died on 17 May 1424. 

[Leland, Comm, de Scriptt. Brit.dxxviii. p. 436 
(ed. A. Hall, 1709); Bale, Scriptt. Brit. Cat. 
vii. 64, p. 558 ; Pits, De Angl. Scriptt. p. 610 et 
seq. ; Tanner's Bibl. Brit. 282.] R. L. P. 

(d. 1306), was descended from a younger 
branch of the Counts of Brittany and Earls 
of Richmond. His father, Brian Fitzalan, an 
itinerant justice (Foss, Judges, ii. 326), and 
sheriff of Northumberland between 1227 and 
1235 and of Yorkshire between 1236 and 1239 
( Thirty-first Report of Deputy-Keeper of Re- 
cords, pp. 321, 364), was grandson of Brian, a 
younger son of Alan of Brittany, and brother, 
therefore, of Count Conan, the father of Con- 
stance, wife of Geoffrey of Anjou (DFGDALE, 
Baronage, i. 53 ; cf. Harl. MS. 1052, f. 9). 
He was summoned to the Welsh war of 
1282, and in 1287 to the armed council at 
Gloucester. In 1290 he was appointed by 
Edward warden of the castles of Forfar, 
Dundee, Roxburgh, and Jedburgh. They re- 
mained in his custody till 1292 (STEVENSON, 
Doc. illustrative of Scott, Hist. i. 207-8, 350). 
In 1292 he was made by Edward one of the 
guardians of Scotland during the vacancy of 
the throne (Fcedera, i. 761 ; cf. RISHASTGEK, 
p. 250, Rolls Ser.) He took a leading share 
in the judicial proceedings which resulted in 
John Baliol being declared by Edward king 
of Scotland, and after witnessing the new 
king's homage to Edward surrendered his 
rolls and official documents to the new king 
(Focdera, i. 782, 785). In 1294 he was sum- 
moned to repress the Welsh revolt. In 1295 
he received a summons to the famous parlia- 
ment of that year. Henceforth he was regu- 
larly summoned, but always as * Brian Fitz- 





alan,' though in 1301 he subscribed the letter 
of the magnates sent from the Lincoln par- 
liament to the pope as ' Lord of Bedale.' In 
1296 and the succeeding years he was almost 
constantly occupied in Scotland. On 10 July 
1296 he was present at Brechin when John 
Baliol submitted to Edward (STEVENSON, ii. 
61). Though summoned on 7 July 1297 to 
serve in person beyond sea, he was on 12 July 
appointed captain of all garrisons and fort- 
resses in Northumberland. On 14 Aug. 1297 
he was appointed guardian of Scotland in 
succession to Earl Warenne (_Fcedera,i. 874). 
An interesting letter is preserved, in which 
he remonstrates with the king for appointing 
one of so small ability and power as himself to 
sogreat apost. He was only worth 1,000/., and 
feared that the salary of his office, inadequate 
for so great a noble ashispredecessor,would be 
still more insufficient for himself (STEVENSON, 
ii. 222-4). But on 24 Sept. he was ordered to 
go at once to Scotland and act with Warenne 
fr. ii. 232). On 28 Sept. the musters from 
ottinghamshire and Derbyshire were or- 
dered to assemble under his command, and in 
October he was made captain of the marches 
adjoining Northumberland. In 1298 Earl 
Warenne was again the royal representative 
(HEMINGBURGH, ii. 155). In 1299, 1300, and 
lastly in 1303, Fitzalan was again summoned 
against the Scots. His last parliamentary 
summonses were for 1305 to Westminster, 
and for May 1306, for the occasion of making 
Edward, the king's son, a knight. He died, 
however, before June 1306 (see note in ParL 
Writs, i. 598 ; cf. Calendarium Genealogicum, 
p. 619). He was buried in Bedale Church, 
* where he hath a noble monument, with his 
effigies in armour cross-leg'd thereon ' (DuG- 
DALE). He left by his wife Matilda two 
daughters, Matilda, aged 8, and Catharine, 
aged 6, who were his coheiresses ( Cal. Geneal. 
p. 619). His possessions were partly in 
Yorkshire and partly in Lincolnshire. 

[Parl. Writs, i. 598-9 ; Kymer's Fcedera, vol. 
i. ; Stevenson's Documents illustr. of Hist, of 
Scotland; Calendarium Genealogicum; Dugdale's 
Baronage, i. 53.] T. F. T. 

ARUNDEL (1285-1326), son of Richard I 
Eitzalan, earl of Arundel [q. v.], and his 
Italian wife Alisona, was born on 1 May 
1285 (Cal. Genealogicum, ii. 622). In 1302 
he succeeded to his father's titles and estates. 
On Whitsunday (22 May) 1306 he was 
knighted by Edward I, on the occasion of the 
knighting of Edward the king's son and many 
others, and was at the same time married to 
Alice, sister and ultimately heiress of John, 
earl Warenne (Ann. Worcester in Ann. Mon. 

iv. 558 ; LANGTOFT, ii. 368). He then served 
in the campaign against the Scots, and was 
still in the north when Edward I died. At 
Edward H's coronation he was a bearer of 
the royal robes (Fcedera, ii. 36). On 2 Dec. 
1307 he was beaten at the Wallingford tour- 
nament by Gaveston,and straightway became 
a mortal enemy of the favourite (MALMES- 
BURY, in STUBBS'S Chron. Ed. I and Ed. II, 
Rolls Series, ii. 156). In 1309 he joined 
Lancaster in refusing to attend a council 
at York on 18 Oct. (HEMINGBURGH, ii. 
275), and in 1310 was appointed one of the 
lords ordainers (Rot. ParL i. 443 b). In 
1312 he was one of the five earls who formed 
a league against Gaveston (MALMESBTJRY, p. 
175), and he warmly approved of the capture 
of the favourite at Scarborough. Even after 
Gaveston's murder Arundel adhered to the 
confederate barons and was with Lancaster 
one of the last to be reconciled to the king. 
In 1314 he was one of the earls who refused 
to accompany Edward to the relief of Stir- 
ling, and thus caused the disaster of Ban- 
nockburn (ib. p. 201). In 1316 he was ap- 
pointed captain-general of the country north 
of the Trent, and in 1318, after being one 
of the mediators of a fresh pacification, was 
made a member of the permanent council 
then established to watch the king. In 
1319 he served against the Scots. 

The Despensers now ruled Edward, and 
the marriage of Arundel's eldest son to the 
daughter of the younger Hugh was either 
the cause or the result of an entire change 
in his political attitude. He consented in- 
deed to their banishment in 1321, but after- 
wards pleaded the coercion of the magnates. 
When Edward's subsequent attempt to re- 
store them began, Arundel still seemed to 
waver in his allegiance. Finally in October 

1321 he joined Edward at the siege of Leeds 
Castle, and henceforth supported consistently 
the royal cause ($.p.263, 'propteraffinitatem 
Hugonis Despenser,' a phrase suggesting that 
the marriage had already been arranged). In 

1322 he persuaded the Mortimers to surrender 
to the king at Shrewsbury (Ann. Paul in 
STUBBS'S Chron. Ed. I and Ed. II, i. 301), acted 
as one of the judges of Thomas of Lancaster 
at Pontefract (ib. p. 302), and received large 
grants from the forfeited estates of Badlesmere 
and the Mortimers. The great office of jus- 
tice of Wales was transferred from Mortimer 
to him (Abbrev.Eot. Orig. i. %SS),*ndm 
that capacity he received the writs directing 
the attendance of Welsh members to the 
parliament at York (Rot. Parl. i. 456). His 
importance in Wales had been ^also largely 
increased by his acquisitions of Kerry, Chirk, 
and Cydewain. In 1325 he also became 




warden of the Welsh marches (Par I. Writs, 
II. iii. 854), and in 1326 he still was justice 
of Wales (jRwfcro, ii. 641). In 1326 he and 
his brother-in-law Earl Warenne were the 
only earls who adhered to the king after the 
invasion of Mortimer and Isabella. He was 
appointed in May chief captain of the army 
to be raised in Wales and the west ; but he 
does not seem to have been able to make 
effectual head against the enemy even in his 
own district. He was captured in Shrop- 
shire by John Charlton, first lord Charlton 
of Powys [q. v.], and led to the queen at 
Hereford, where on 17 Nov. he was executed 
without more than the form of a trial, to 
gratify the rancorous hostility of Mortimer 
to a rival border chieftain (Ann. Paul. p. 321, 
says beheaded, but KNIGHTON, c. 2546, says 
' distractus et suspensus '). His estates were 
forfeited, and the London mob plundered 
his treasures. 

By his wife Alice, sister of John, earl 
Warenne, Arundel had a fairly numerous 
family. His eldest son, Richard' II Fitzalan 
[q. v.], ultimately succeeded to his title and 
estates. He had one other son, Edmund, 
who seems to have embraced the ecclesiasti- 
cal profession, and to have afterwards aban- 
doned it. Of his daughters, Aleyne married 
Roger L'Estrange, and was still alive in 1375 
(NICOLAS, Testamenta Vetusta, p. 94), and 
Alice became the wife of John Bohun, earl 
of Hereford. A third daughter, Jane, is said 
to have been married to Lord Lisle (compare 
the genealogies in EYTON, Shropshire, vii. 
229, and in YEATMAN. House of Arundel, 
p. 324). 

[Rymer's Fcedera, vol. i. ; Eolls of Parliament, 
vol. ii. ; Parl. Writs, vol. ii. ; Stubbs's Chronicles 
of Edward I and Edward II (Rolls Series) ; 
Knighton in Twysden, Decem Scriptores ; Wal- 
ter of Hemingburgh (Engl.Hist. Soc.) ; Dugdale's 
Baronage, i. 316-17; Doyle's Official Baronage, 
i. 70 ; Tierney's Hist, of Arundel, 212-24 ; Vin- 
cent's Discoverie of Errours in Brooke's Cata- 
logue of Nobility, p. 26.] T. F. T. 

ARTTNDEL (1511 P-1580), born about 1511, 
was the only son of William Fitzalan, eleventh 
earl of Arundel, K.G., by his second wife, 
Lady Anne Percy, daughter of Henry Percy, 
fourth earl of Northumberland. He was 
named after Henry VIII, who personally 
stood godfather at his baptism (Life, King's 
MS. xvii. A. ix. f. 5). Upon entering his 
fifteenth year his father proposed to place 
him in the household of Cardinal Wolsey, 
but he preferred the service of the king, who 
received him with affection (ib. if. 3-7). He 
was in the train of Henry at the Calais in- 
terview of September 1532 (GAIRDNEE, Let- 

ters and Papers of Reign of Henry VIII, 
vol. v. App. No. 33). In February 1533 he 
was summoned to parliament by the title of 
Lord Maltravers (ib. vol. vi. No. 123). In 
July 1534 he was one of the peers summoned 
to attend the trial of William, lord Dacre of 
Gillesland (ib. vol. vii. No. 962). In May 
1536 he was present at the trial of Anno- 
Boleyn and Lord Rochford (ib. vol. x. No. 
876). In 1540 he succeeded Arthur Planta- 
genet, viscount Lisle, in the office of deputy 
of Calais. During a successful administra- 
tion of three years he devoted himself to the- 
improvement of military discipline and to 
the strengthening of the town. At his own 
expense the fortifications were extended or 
repaired, and large bodies of serviceable re- 
cruits were raised. The death of his father 
in January 1543-4 recalled him home. On 
24 April of that year he was elected K.G. 
(Harl. MS. 4840, f. 729 ; BELTZ, Memorials, 
p. clxxv), and during the two following 
months appears to have lived at Arundel 
Place. On war being declared with France 
Arundel and the Duke of Suifolk embarked 
in July 1544 with a numerous body of troops 
for the French coast ; Henry himself followed 
in a few days, and on 26 July the whole force 
of the English, amounting to thirty thousand 
men, encamped before the walls of Boulogne. 
Arundel on being created ' marshal of the 
field' began elaborate preparations for in- 
vesting the town. The besieged made a most 
determined resistance. In the night, how- 
ever, of 11 Sept. a mine was successfully 
sprung. He immediately ordered a sharp 
cannonade, and at the head of a chosen body 
of troops marched to the intrenchments, and 
when the artillery had effected a breach by 
firing over his head, successfully stormed the 
town. On his return to England Arundel 
was rewarded with the office of lord cham- 
berlain, which he continued to fill during 
the remainder of Henry's reign. ' The boke 
of Henrie, Earle of Arundel, Lorde Chamber- 
leyn to Kyng Henrie th' Eighte,' containing 
thirty-two folio leaves and consisting of in- 
structions to the king's servants in the duties 
j of their several places, is preserved in Harl. 
i MS. 4107, and printed from another copy in 
j Jeffery's edition of the ' Antiquarian Reper- 
tory,' 4to, 1807, ii. 184-209. In his will the 
king bequeathed him 200/. At Henry's fune- 
ral Arundel was present as one of the twelve 
assistant mourners, and at the offering brought 
up, together with the Earl of Oxford, ' the 
king's broidered coat of armes ' (STRTPE, Me- 
morials, 8vo ed. vol. ii. App. pp. 4, 15). 

On the accession of Edward VI, in 1547, 
Arundel was retained in the post of lord 
chamberlain and chosen to act as high con- 


8 9 


?xable at the coronation. He had also been 
"named, in the will of Henry VIII, as a mem- 
ber of the council of twelve, intended to as- 
sist the executors in cases of difficulty; but 
his influence was destroyed when Somerset 
became protector. Somerset soon disgusted 
the other members of the cabinet, and Arun- 
del was among the first to urge his dismissal 
in favour of the Earl of Warwick. At 
length, in 1549, Somerset was sent to the 
Tower, while Arundel, Warwick, and four 
other lords were appointed to take charge of 
the king. Warwick quickly grew jealous 
of Arundel's influence. When the bill for 
the infliction of penalties on Somerset was 
brought before parliament in 1550 Arun- 
del was still in office ; but a series of ridicu- 
lous charges had been collected against him 
from the last twelve years of his life, and 
when the late protector obtained his release 
the earl had been dismissed from his employ- 
ments. It was asserted that he had abused 
his privileges as lord chamberlain to enrich 
himself and his friends, that he had removed 
the locks and bolts from the royal stores 
at Westminster, had distributed ' the king's 
stuff' among his acquaintance, and had been 
guilty of various other acts of embezzle- 
ment. The proof of these charges was 
never exhibited, and Edward himself in his 
* Diary ' terms the offences only ' crimes of 
suspicion against him ; ' but the ' suspicion ' 
was sufficient for the purposes of Warwick. 
Arundel was removed from the council, was 
ordered to confine himself to his house, and 
was mulcted in the sum of 12,000/., to be 
paid in equal annual instalments of 1,000/. 
each. His confinement, however, was of 
short duration, and the injustice of the ac- 
cusations having been ascertained, 8,000/. of 
the fine was remitted. Arundel had been sent 
into Sussex to allay the insurrection of 1549. 
By his influence tranquillity was perfectly re- 
stored throughout Sussex ( CaL State Papers, 
Dom. 1547-80, p. 19). When renewed symp- 
toms of uneasiness appeared shortly after his 
release, the council made a second request 
for his assistance in repressing the disturb- 
ance. Arundel returned a severely dignified 
refusal. His late punishment, he said, for 
oifences which he had never committed had 
injured him both in his fortune arid his health, 
and he did not understand why his services, 
which had formerly been so ill requited, were 
again demanded. The council, after attempt- 
ing to frighten him into submission, were 
glad to despatch the Duke of Somerset in his 

His opposition to Warwick and the ruling 
party at court subjected him to much perse- 
cution. Finding the necessity of offering a 

united resistance to the aggressions of War- 
wick, he formed a friendship with his old 
enemy the Duke of Somerset. On 16 Oct. 
1551 Somerset was a second time committed 
to the Tower on charges of felony and treason. 
In the original depositions no mention was 
made of Arundel as an accomplice, but in a 
few days the evidence of one of the accused, 
named Crane, began to implicate him ; by 
degrees Crane's recollections became more 
vivid, and on 8 Nov. Arundel was arrested 
and conveyed to the Tower ('King Ed- 
ward's Diary ' in Cotton MS. Titus, B. ii.) 
It was said that he had listened to overtures 
from Somerset, and that he was privy to 
the intended massacre of Northumberland, 
Northampton, and Pembroke, at the house 
of Lord Paget. These accusations rest en- 
tirely on the doubtful testimony of Crane 
(Cal. State Papers, Dom. 1547-80, p. 36). 
During more than twelve months that Arun- 
del was confined to the Tower, Northumber- 
land, although he plotted unceasingly against 
the life of his prisoner, never ventured to 
bring him to his trial ; Arundel's subsequent 
confession was exacted as the condition of 
his pardon, and on a subsequent occasion he 
publicly asserted his innocence in the pre- 
sence, and with the assent, of Pembroke him- 
self. On 3 Dec. 1552 he was called before 
the privy council, required to sign a sub- 
mission and confession, and fined in the sum 
of six thousand marks, to be paid in equal 
portions of one thousand marks annually ; 
he was bound in a recognisance of ten thou- 
sand marks to be punctual in his payment of 
the fine, and was at length dismissed with 
an admonition (STEYPE, Memorials, ii. 383, 
from the Council Book). The declining 
health of the king suggested to Northumber- 
land the expediency of conciliating the no- 
bility. Arundel was first restored to his place 
at the council board, and four days before 
Edward's death was discharged entirely of 
his fine. In June 1553 he strongly protested 
against Edward's ' device ' for the succession, 
by which the king's sisters were declared 
illegitimate. He ultimately signed the letters 
patent, but not the bond appended, with a 

| deliberate intention of deserting Northum- 
berland whenever a chance should present 
itself. On the death of the king, 6 July 1553, 
Arundel entered with apparent ardour into 
the designs of the duke. But on the very 
same evening, while the council were still dis- 

1 cussing the measures necessary to be adopted 
before they proclaimed the Lady Jane, he 
contrived to forward a letter to Mary, in 
which he informed her of her brother's death; 
assured her that Northumberland's motive in 
conceding it was ' to entrap her before she 



knew of it ; ' and concluded by urging her to 
retire to a position of safety. Mary followed 
his advice ; while Arundel continued during 
more than ten days to concur in Northumber- 
land's schemes with a view to his betrayal. 
He attended the meetings of the council, he 
signed the letter to Mary denouncing her as 
illegitimate, and asserted the title of her 
rival ; he accompanied Northumberland and 
others when they informed Jane of her ac- 
cession to the crown, and attended her on 
the progress from Sion House to the Tower 
preparatory to her coronation. Arundel and 
the other secret partisans of Mary persuaded 
Northumberland to take the command in 
person of the force raised to attack Mary, 
and assured him of their sympathy when 
-he started. His speeches strongly betrayed 
his distrust of Arundel (Sxow, Annales, ed. 
Howes, 1615, pp. 610, 611 ; HOLINSHED, 
Chronicles, ed. Hooker, 1587, iii. 1086). 

Arundel lost no time in endeavouring to 
sound the dispositions of the councillors. They 
were still under the eyes of the Tower gar- 
rison. Their first meeting to form their plans 
was within the Tower walls, and Arundel 
said ' he liked not the air.' On 19 July 1553 
they managed to pass the gates under pre- 
tence, says Bishop Godwin, of conference with 
the French ambassador, Lavall (Annals of 
Queen Mary, pp. 107, 108), and made their 
way to Pembroke's house at Baynard's 
Castle, above London Bridge, when they sent 
for the mayor, the aldermen, and other city 
magnates. Arundel opened the proceedings 
in a vehement speech. He denounced the 
ambition and violence of Northumberland, 
asserted the right of the two daughters of 
Henry VIII to the throne, and concluded 
by calling on the assembly to unite with him 
in vindicating the claim of the Lady Mary. 
Pembroke pledged himself to die in the cause, 
amid general applause. The same evening 
Mary was proclaimed queen at the cross at 
Cheapside, and at St. Paul's. Pembroke took 
possession of the Tower, and Arundel, with 
Lord Paget, galloped off with the great seal 
and a letter from the council, which he de- 
livered to Mary at Framlingham Castle in 
Suffolk (tjie draft of this letter is printed in 
Sir Henry Ellis's 2nd series of ' Original 
Letters,' ii. 243, from Lansdowne MS. 3). 
He then hastened to Cambridge to secure 
Northumberland. Their meeting is described 
by Stow (p. 612) and by Holinshed (iii. 
1088). In Harl. MS. 787, f. 61, is a copy of 
the piteous letter which Northumberland 
addressed to Arundel the night before his 
execution (cf. Hist. MSS. Comm. 5th Rep. p. 

In reward of his exertions Mary bestowed 

on Arundel the office of lord steward of the 
household ; to this were added a seat at the 
council board, a license for two hundred 
retainers beyond his ordinary attendants 
(STRYPE, Memorials, iii. 480), and a variety 
of local privileges connected with his posses- 
sions in Sussex. He was also appointed to 
act as lord high constable at the coronation, 
and was deputed to confer on any number 
of persons not exceeding sixty the dignity 
of knighthood (HARDY, Syllabus of Rymer's 
Fcedera, ii. 792). Though favoured by the 
queen he deemed it politic to make some 
show of resenting her derogatory treatment 
of Elizabeth. In September 1553 he was 
a commissioner for Bishop Bonner's restitu- 
tion (STRYPE, Memorials, iii. 23). On 1 Jan. 
1553-4 he was nominated a commissioner 
to treat of the queen's marriage, and on 17 
Feb. 1554 he was lord high steward on the 
trial of the Duke of Suffolk. He bore, too, 
a part in checking the progress of Wyatt's 
shortlived rebellion. On Philip's landing at 
Southampton, 20 July 1554, Arundel re- 
ceived him and immediately presented him 
with the George and Garter (SPEED, Historic 
of Great Britaine, ed. 1632, p. 1121). Along 
with William, marquis of Winchester and 
others, he received from Philip and Mary, 
6 Feb. 1555, a grant of a charter of incor- 
poration by the name of Merchant Adven- 
turers of England for the discovery of un- 
known lands (Cal. State Papers, Dom. Ad- 
denda, 1547-65, p. 437 ; the grant is printed 
in HAKLIJYT, i. 298-304). In May 1555 he 
was selected with Cardinal Pole, Gardiner, 
and Lord Paget to urge the mediatorial offices 
of the queen at the congress of Marque, and 
to effect, if possible, a renewal of amity be- 
tween the imperial and French crowns. He 
accompanied Philip to Brussels in the fol- 
lowing September. In the same year (1555) 
he was elected high steward of the university 
of Oxford. When the troubles with France 
commenced, the queen appointed Arundel, 
26 July 1557, lieutenant-general and captain 
of the forces for defence of the kingdom 
(Cal. State Papers, Dom. 1547-80, p. 93). 
The following year he was deputed with 
Thirlby, bishop of Ely, and Dr. Nicholas 
Wotton to the conferences held by England, 
France, and Spain, in the abbey of Cercamp, 
and was actually engaged in arranging the 
preliminaries of a general peace, when the 
death of Mary, in November 1558, caused 
him to abruptly return home in December 
(cf. MS. Life, f. 53; also the letter addressed 
by Arundel and Wotton to their colleague, 
the Bishop of Ely, which is printed, from 
the original preserved at Norfolk House, 
in Tierney's 'Hist, of Arundel/ pp. 335-7. 



It is dated ' Ffrom Arras, the xvth of No- 
vembre, 1558,' and relates to a proposed 
meeting at that town. Other letters and 
despatches will be found in Cal. State Papers. 
For. 1558). 

By Elizabeth, Arundel was retained in all 
the employments which he had held in the 
preceding reign, although he was trusted by 
no one (FROUDE, ch. xxxvi.), chiefly because 
she could not afford to alienate so powerful a 
subject. A commission, dated 21 Nov. 1558, 
empowers Arundel, William, lord Howard 
of Effingham, Thirlby, and Wotton to treat 
with Scotland ; it was made out on 27 Sept. 
in the last year of Mary, and the alterations 
are in the handwriting of .Sir William Cecil 
(Cal. State Papers, , Scottish Ser. i. 107). Dis- 
gusted by the ' sinister worldnge of some 
meane persons of her counsaile,' Arundel had 
surrendered the staff of lord steward shortly 
before the death of Mary (MS. Life, ff. 49- 
51). Elizabeth on her accession replaced it 
in his hands ; she called him to a seat in the 
council, and added to his other honours the 
appointments of high constable for the day 
before, and high steward for the day of her 
coronation, on which occasion he received a 
commission to create thirty knights (HARDY, 
Syllabus of Rymer's Fcedera, ii. 798, 799). In 
January 1559 he was elected chancellor of 
the university of Oxford, but resigned the 
office, probably from religious motives, in 
little more than four months (WooD, Fasti 
Oxon. ed. Bliss, i. 86, 87). In August 1559 
Elizabeth visited him at Nonsuch in Cheam, 
Surrey, where for five days she was sump- 
tuously entertained with banquets, masques, 
and music (Cal. State Papers, Dom. 1547-80, 
p. 136). At her departure she accepted i a 
cupboard of plate ' (NICHOLS, Progresses of 
Queen Elizabeth, i. 74), as she had before re- 
ceived the perquisites obtained by the earl at 
her coronation. The queen paid several sub- 
sequent visits to Nonsuch (LYSONS, Environs, 
i. 154-5). In August 1560 he was one of the 
commissioners appointed to arrange a com- 
mercial treaty with the Hanse Towns. Dur- 
ing the same year Arundel, in the queen's 
presence, sharply rebuked Edward, lord Clin- 
ton, who advocated the prosecution of the 
war with Scotland for the arrest of English 
subjects found attending mass at the Span- 
ish or French chapels, and Elizabeth herself 
could scarcely prevent them from coming to 
blows. 'Those,' Arundel exclaimed, 'who 
had advised the war with Scotland were 
traitors to their country ' (FROTJDE, ch. 
xxxviii.) Being a widower Arundel was 
named among those who might aspire to the 
queen's hand, a fact which led to a violent 
quarrel with Leicester in 1561 (ib. ch. xl.) 

Upon the queen's dangerous illness in Oc- 
tober 1562 a meeting was held at the house 
of Arundel in November to reconsider the 
succession. The Duke of Norfolk, Arun- 
del's son-in-law, was present. The object 
was to further the claims of Lady Catherine 
Grey, to whose son Norfolk's infant daughter 
was to be betrothed. The discussion ended 
at two in the morning without result. 
When the queen heard of it she sent for 
Arundel to reproach him, and Arundel, it 
is said, replied that if she intended to govern 
England with her caprices and fancies the 
nobility would be forced to interfere (ib. ch. 
xl.) In 1564 he resigned the staff of lord 
steward 'with sundry speeches of offence' 
(STRYPE, Annals, i. 413), and Elizabeth, to 
resent the affront, restrained him to his 

Though released within a month from his 
confinement, Arundel felt deeply the humilia- 
tion of his suit. Early in 1566 a smart at- 
tack of gout afforded him a pretext for visit- 
ing the baths at Padua. He returned in 
March 1567. On his arrival at Canterbury 
he was met by a body of more than six hun- 
dred gentlemen from Kent, Sussex, and Sur- 
rey ; at Blackheath the cavalcade was joined 
by the recorder, the aldermen, and many of 
the chief merchants of London, and as it drew 
near to the metropolis the lord chancellor, 
the earls of Pembroke, Huntingdon, Sussex, 
Warwick, and Leicester, with others, to the 
number of two thousand horsemen, came out 
to meet him. He passed in procession through 
the city, and having paid his respects to the 
queen at Westminster went by water to his 
house in the Strand. 

It has often been asserted, but quite erro- 
neously, that on this occasion Arundel ap- 
peared in the first coach, and presented to 
Elizabeth the first pair of silk stockings ever 
seen in England. The subject has been fully 
discussed by J. G. Nichols in the ' Gentle- 
man's Magazine ' for 1833 (vol. ciii. pt. ii. p. 
212, n. 12). That he sent the queen some 
valuable presents appears from her letter 
to him, dated at Westminster, 16 March 
1567 (Cal. State Papers, Dom. 1547-80, p. 

Arundel was now partially restored to fa- 
vour, so that when the conferences relative 
to the accusations brought by the Earl of 
Murray against the Queen of Scots were re- 
moved in November 1568 from Yorkto West- 
minster, he was joined in the commission (ib. 
Scottish Ser. ii. 864). His hopes of gaining 
Elizabeth in marriage had long been buried. 
As the leader of the old nobility and the ca- 
tholic party he now resolved that the Queen 
of Scots should marry Norfolk ; Cecil and 



Bacon were to be overthrown, Elizabeth de- 
posed, and the catholic religion restored. He 
became intimate with Leslie, bishop of Ross, 
and with Don Gueran, the Spanish ambassa- 
dor. In 1569 he undertook to carry Leslie's 
letter to Elizabeth, wherein it was falsely as- 
serted that the king of Spain had directed 
the Duke of Alva and Don Gueran * to treat 
and conclude with the Queen of Scots for her 
marriage in three several ways,' and thus 
alarm the queen by the prospect of a possible 
league between France and Spain and the 
papacy. He followed up the blow by lay- 
ing in writing before her his own objections 
to extreme measures against Mary Stuart 
(FROTJDE, ch. li.) When at length the dis- 
covery of the proposed marriage determined 
Elizabeth to commit the Duke of Norfolk to 
the Tower, Arundel was also placed under 
arrest, and restrained to his house in the 
Strand in September 1569 (Cal. State Papers, 
Scottish Ser. ii. 880). The northern insur- 
rection which broke out a few weeks later 
added to the length and rigour of his confine- 
ment. From Arundel House he was removed 
to Eton College, and thence to Nonsuch (ib. 
Dom. Addenda, 1566-79, pp. 269, 279, 284, 
286), where a close imprisonment brought on 
a return of the gout, and by withdrawing 
him from his concerns contributed to involve 
Mm in many pecuniary difficulties, which, 
however, his son-in-law, Lord Lumley, did 
much to alleviate. Though his name appeared 
conspicuously in the depositions of the pri- 
soners examined after the northern rebellion, 
lie had been too prudent to commit himself 
to open treason. * He was able to represent 
his share of the conspiracy as part of an honest 
policy conceived in Elizabeth's interests, and 
Elizabeth dared not openly break with the 
still powerful party among the nobles to 
which Arundel belonged.' Leicester, desiring 
to injure Cecil, had little difficulty in inducing 
the queen to recall Arundel to the council 
board during the following year. "With 
Arundel was recalled also Lord Lumley, and 
both of them renewed their treasonable com- 
munications with Don Gueran and La Mothe 
F6nelon. He violently opposed himself to 
Elizabeth's matrimonial treaty with the Duke 
of Alencon. He strongly remonstrated 
against the Earl of Lennox being sent with 
Sir William Drury's army to Scotland as the 
representative of James. At length the dis- 
covery of the Ridolfi conspiracy, to which he 
was privy, in September 1571, afforded in- 
dubitable evidence that he had been for years 
conspiring for a religious revolution and 
Elizabeth's overthrow (FROTJDR, ch. Ivi.) 
He was again placed under a guard at his 
own house, and did not regain his liberty 

until December 1572 (Cal. State Papers, 
Dom. Addenda, 1566-79, p. 454). 

Arundel passed the remainder of his day 
in seclusion. He died 24 Feb. 1579-80 at 
Arundel House in the Strand, and on 
22 March was buried, in accordance with his 
desire, in the collegiate chapel at Arundel, 
where his monument, with a long biogra- 
phical inscription from the pen of Lord Lum- 
ley, may still be seen (TIERNEY, Hist, of 
Arundel, pp. 628-9, and ; College Chapel at 
Arundel,' Sussex Archaol. Coll iii. 84-7). The 
programme of his funeral is printed in the 
* Sussex Archaeological Collections,' xii. 261- 
262. In his will, dated 30 Dec. 1579, and 
proved 27 Feb. 1579-80, he appointed Lum- 
ley his sole executor and residuary legatee 
(registered in P. C. C. 1, Arundell). In person 
Arundel appears to have been of the middle 
size, well proportioned in limb, ' stronge of 
bone, furnished with cleane and firme fleshe, 
voide of fogines and fatnes.' His counte- 
nance was regular and expressive, his voice 
powerful and pleasing ; but the rapidity of 
his utterance often made his meaning ' some- 
what harde to the unskilfull' (MS. Life. ff. 
63, 68). His dislike of l new-fangled and 
curious tearmes ' was not more remarkable 
than his aversion to the use of foreign lan- 
guages, although he could speak French 
(PTJTTENHAM, Arte of English Poesie, 1589, 
p. 227). According to his anonymous bio- 
grapher he was ' not unlearned,' and with the 
counsel of Humphrey Lhuyd [q. v.], who 
lived with him, he formed a library, described 
by the same authority as ' righte worthye of 
remembrance.' His collection merged in that 
of Lord Lumley [q. v.] With Lumley and 
Lhuyd he became a member of the Eliza- 
bethan Society of Antiquaries enumerated in 
the introduction to vol. i. of the * Archteo- 
logia,' p. xix. 

Arundel was twice married. His first wife, 
whom he had married before November 1532 
(GAIRDNER, vol. v. No. 1557), wasKatherine, 
second daughter of Thomas Grey, marquis of 
Dorset, K.G., by whom he had one son, Henry, 
lord Maltravers, born in 1538, who died at 
Brussels, 30 June 1556, and two daughters, 
Jane and Mary. Jane was married before 
March 1552 to John, lord Lumley, but had 
no issue, and nursed her father after the 
death of his second wife, and died in 1576-7. 
Mary, born about 1541, became the wife (be- 
tween 1552 and 1554) of Thomas Howard, 
duke of Norfolk, and the mother of Philip 
Howard, who inherited the earldom of Arun- 
del. She died 25 Aug. 1557, and was buried 
at St. Clement Danes. Both these ladies 
were eminent for their classical attainments. 
Their learned exercises are preserved in the 




British Museum among the Royal MSS., 
having been handed down with Lord Lum- 
ley's library (Gent. Mag. vol. ciii. pt. ii. pp. 
494-500). Arundel married secondly Mary, 
daughter of Sir John Arundell of Lanherne, 
Cornwall, and widow of Robert Ratcliffe, 
first earl of Sussex of that family, and K.G. 
She had no children by Arundel, and dying 
21 Oct. 1557 at Arundel House, was buried 
1 Sept. in the neighbouring church of St. 
Clement Danes, but was afterwards rein- 
terred at Arundel (Sussex Archceol. Coll. iii. 
81-2). A curious account of her funeral is 
contained in a contemporary diary, Cotton 
MS. Vitellius, F. v. Arundel thus died the 
last earl of his family. 

His portrait was painted by Sir Anthony 
More ; another by Hans Holbein, now in the 
collection of the Marquis of Bath, has sup- 
plied one of the best illustrations of Lodge's 
1 Portraits.' A third portrait, dated 1556, is 
at Parham House, Sussex. There is also an 
engraved likeness of him in armour, half- 
length, with a round cap and ruff, the work 
of an unknown artist. 

[The chief authority is The Life of Henrye 
Fitzallen, last Earle of Arundell of that name, 
supposed to have been written by his chaplain in 
the interval between the earl's death in February 
1580 and the following April, and now pre- 
served among the King's MSS. xvii. A. ix. in 
the British Museum. It has been largely drawn 
on by Tierney (Hist, of Arundel, pp. 319-50), 
and printed by J. Gr. Nichols in Gent. Mag. 
for 1833 (vol. ciii. pt. ii. pp. 11, 118, 210, 490), 
accompanied by notes and extracts from other 
writers, and is also cursorily noticed in Dalla- 
way's History of the Rape of Arundel. The Life 
in Lodge's Portraits is both inadequate and in- 
accurate. Other authorities are Dugdale's Baron- 
age, i. 324 ; Chronicle of Queen Jane (Camd. 
Soc.) ; Fronde's Hist, of England ; Tytler's Eng- 
land under Edward VI and Mary ; Sussex Archseol 
Coll. ; Gal. State Papers, For. 1547-69, Venetian, 
1554-8; Nicolas's Historic Peerage (Courthope) 
p. 30 ; Nichols's Literary Remains of Edward VI 
(Roxb. Club), 1857.] ' G. G-. 

TRY, CLTJN, VXD ARUNDEL (1223-1267), was 
the son of John I Fitzalan, one of the barons 
confederated against King John, and of his 
first wife Isabella, sister and finally one o1 
the four coheiresses of Hugh of Albini, last 
earl of Arundel of that house. In his father's 
lifetime he was married to Matilda, daughter 
of Theobald le Butiler and Rohese de Ver- 
dun. In 1240 his father's death put him in 
possession of the great Shropshire estates o 
his house, of which the lordship of Oswestry 
had been in its possession since the days o:' 
Henry I, and that of Clun since the reign o 
Henry II. Until 1244, when he attained 

his majority, the estates remained in the 
ustody of John L'Estrange, sheriff of Shrop- 
hire, while in 1242 his father's executors 
were quarrelling with Rohese de Verdun, 
apparently about his wife's portion (Rot. 
Finium, i. 387). In 1243 he received his 
mother's share of one-fourth of the inherit- 
ance of the Albinis, including the town and 
castle of Arundel. In 1244 he entered into 
actual possession of all his estates. 

In general politics Fitzalan's attitude was 
rather inconsistent. He was no friend of 
breigners. In 1258 he quarrelled with 
Archbishop Boniface about the right of hunt- 
ng in Arundel Forest, and in 1263 carried 
on a sharp feud with Peter of Aquablanca, 
;he Poitevin bishop of Hereford. In the 
course of this he seized and plundered the 
jishop's stronghold of Bishop's Castle (WEBB, 
Introduction to Expenses Roll of Bishop 
Swinfield, I. xxi-xxii. Camd. Soc.) In 1258 
he seems to have adhered to the baronial 
party against Henry III, and so late as De- 
cember 1261 was among those still unrecon- 
ciled to the king. Yet in 1258 and 1260 he 
tiad acted as chief captain of the English 
troops against Llewelyn of Wales, who was 
on the baronial side. Finally he seems to 
have adopted the middle policy of his patron 
Edward, the king's son, whom in 1263 he 
attended in Wales, acting in the same year 
as conservator of the peace in Shropshire and 
Staffordshire. He joined Edward and other 
magnates in the agreement to refer all dis- 
putes to the arbitration of St. Louis (Fce- 
dera, i. 433). In April 1264 he was actively 
on the king's side, and besieged with Earl 
Warenne in Rochester Castle (LELAND, Col- 
lectanea, i. 321). After the king had re- 
lieved the siege, Fitzalan joined the royal 
army and was taken prisoner at the battle 
of Lewes (14 May). Next year Montfort's 
government required him to surrender either 
his son or Arundel Castle as a pledge of his 
faithfulness (Fcedera, i. 454). He died in 
November 1267, having in October made his 
will, in which he ordered that his body should 
be buried in the family foundation of Haugh- 
mond, Shropshire. He was succeeded (Co- 
lend. Geneal. i. 132) by his son John III 
Fitzalan (1246-1272), who in his turn was 
succeeded by his son Richard I Fitzalan 

" John Fitzalan is loosely described by Ri- 
shanger (p. 28, Rolls Ser. ; cf. p. 25 Chron. de 
Bello, Camd. Soc.) as Earl of Arundel, but m 
all writs and official documents he is simply 
spoken of as John Fitzalan, and he never 
described himself in higher terms than lord 
of Arundel. His history does not, then, bear 
out the notion that the possession of the 




castle of Arundel conferred an earl's dignity 
on its holders (but cf. TIEENEY, Hist. Arun- 
del, who holds the contrary view). His son 
John also is never spoken of by contemporaries 
as Earl of Arundel. 

[Kymer's Fcedera, i. 399, 412, 420, 434, 454 ; 
Eot. Finium, i. 387, 411, 417; Eyton's Shrop- 
shire, vii. 253-6 ; Dugdale's Baronage, i. 314-15 ; 
Doyle's Official Baronage, i. 68-9; Lords' Ke- 
porton the Dignityof a Peer, pp. 411-15 (1819) ; 
Yeatman's Genealogical Hist, of the House of 
Arundel, pp. 334-5 ; Tierney's Hist, of Arundel, 
193-200.] T. F. T. 

AEUNDEL (1408-1435), born in 1408, was the 
son of John Fitzalan, lord Maltravers, and 
of his wife, Eleanor, daughter of Sir John 
Berkeley of Beverston. His father, the grand- 
son of Sir John Arundel, marshal of England, 
and of Eleanor, heiress of the house of Mal- 
travers, inherited, in accordance with an 
entail made by Earl Kichard II [see FITZ- 
ALAN, RICHARD II], the castle and earldom of 
Arundel after the decease, without heirs male, 
of Earl Thomas [see FITZALAN, THOMAS], and 
was in 1416 summoned to parliament as Earl 
of Arundel. But Thomas Mowbray, duke 
of Norfolk, the husband of Earl Thomas's 
eldest sister, contested his claim both to the 
estate and title, and he received no further 
summons as earl. On his death, in 1421, the 
question was still unsettled, and the long 
minority both of his son and of John, duke 
of Norfolk, his rival, still further put off the 

The younger John, called Lord Maltravers, 
was knighted in 1426, at the same time as 
Henry VI at Leicester (Fcedera, x. 357). 
On attaining his majority he was summoned 
to parliament as a baron (12 July 1429). 
But he still claimed the earldom, and official 
documents describe him as ' John, calling 
himself Earl of Arundel ' (NICOLAS, Proceed- 
ings and Ord. of Privy Council, iv. 28). At 
last, in November 1433, on his renewed 
petition, it was decided in parliament that 
his claims were good, and ' John, now Earl 
of Arundel, was admitted to the place and 
seat anciently belonging to the earls of 
Arundel in parliament and council' (Rot. 
Parl. iv. 441-3 ; cf. Lords' Report on the 
Dignity of a Peer, p. 405 sq. ; and TIEENEY, 
Hist, of Arundel, pp. 107-39, for very diffe- 
rent comments on the whole case). 

Arundel's petition had been sent from the 
field in France, where his distinguished ser- 
vices had warmly enlisted the regent Bed- 
ford in his favour, and possibly hastened the 
favourable decision. In February 1430 he 
had entered into indentures to serve Henry 
in the French wars, and on 23 April was 

among the magnates that disembarked with 
the young king at Calais (WAUBIN, Chro- 
niques, 1422-31, p. 360). In June he joined 
Bedford at Compiegne, and brilliantly dis- 
tinguished himself in the siege of that place 
(SAiNT-REMY,ii. 181-4). He was thence sent 
by Bedford to co-operate with a Burgundian 
force in saving Champagne, from the vic- 
torious course of the French governor, Bar- 
basan. He compelled Barbasan to raise the 
siege of Anglure, a place situated between 
Troyes and Chalons, but he could not force 
an engagement, and was constrained to re- 
treat, leaving Anglure a ruin to save it from 
falling into the enemies' hands (WAUEIN, 
pp. 395, 396; cf. MAETIN, Hist, de France, 
vi. 245). In the summer of 1431 he was called 
with Talbot from the siege of Louviers to de- 
fend the Beauvaisis from invasion, and took 
part in the action in which Saintrailles was 
captured (SAINT-REMY, ii. 263). On 17 Dec. 
he was at Henry VI's coronation at Paris, 
and next day shared with the bastard of St. 
Pol ' the applause of the ladies for being the 
best tilters ' at a tournament (MONSTEELET, 
liv. ii. ch. 110). 

In February 1432 Arundel was made cap- 
tain of the castle of Rouen, and on the night 
of 3 March was surprised in his bed by Ri- 
carville and 120 picked soldiers, admitted by 
the treachery of a B6arnais soldier. Arundel 
had only time to escape from capture ; but 
the gallant attack was unsupported by a larger 
force, and Arundel managed to confine the 
assailants to the castle, where twelve days 
later they were forced to surrender (CHEETTEL, 
Rouen sur les Anglais, p. 113 ; cf. Pieces Jus- 
tificatives,^.^; MONSTEELET, liv. ii. ch. 113). 
Soon, after he was despatched by Bedford 
with twelve hundred men to reconquer some 
French fortresses in the Isle de France. He 
captured several, but was checked at Lagny- 
sur-Marne, where, after partial successes, the 
greater part of his troops deserted. Not 
even the arrival of Bedford could secure the 
capture of Lagny. In November Arundel 
returned to Rouen as captain of the town, 
castle, and bridge (LuCE, Chronique de Mont 
Saint-Michel, ii. 14). In 1433 he was at 
the head of a separate army, which operated 
mostly upon the southern Norman frontier, 
where his troops held Vernon on the Seine 
and Verneuil in Perche (STEVENSON, Wars 
of English in France, ii. 256, 542, 543) ; while 
be was engaged on countless skirmishes, fo- 
rays, and sieges (POLYDOEE VEEGIL, p. 482, 
ed. 1570). With such success were his 
dashing attacks attended that he was able 
to carry his arms beyond Normandy into 
Anjou and Maine (ib.) He is described as 
lieutenant of the king and regent in the 




lower marches of Normandy ' (LtrcE, ii. 20). 
His cruelty, no less than his success, made 
him exceptionally odious to French patriots 
(BLONDEL, Reductio Normannice, pp. 190-6, 
is very eloquent on this subject ; cf. MON- 
STKELET, liv. ii. ch. 158). In the summer 
of 1534 he was despatched with Lord Wil- 
loughby to put down a popular revolt among 
the peasants of Lower Normandy. This gave 
them little difficulty, though in January 1435 
Arundel was still engaged on the task (LuCE, 
ii. 53). The clemency with which he sought 
to spare the peasants and punish the leaders 
only was so little seconded by his troops that 
it might well have seemed to the French a 
new act of cruelty (PoL. VEKG. p. 483). In 
February 1435 his approach led Alencon 
to abandon with precipitation the siege of 
Avranches (LucE, ii. 54). 

In May 1435 Arundel was despatched by 
Bedford to stay the progress of the French, 
arms on the Lower Somme ; but on his arrival 
at Gournay he found that the enemy had re- 
paired the old fortress of Gerberoy in the 
Beauvaisis, whence they were devastating all 
the Vexin. He accordingly marched by night 
from Gournay to Gerberoy, and arrived at 
eight in the morning before the latter place. 
But La Hire and Saintrailles had secretly 
collected a large force outside the walls, and 
simultaneous attacks on the English van from 
the castle and from the outside soon put it in 
confusion, while the main body was driven 
back in panic retreat to Gournay. Arundel 
and the small remainder of the van took up 
a strong position in the corner of a field, pro- 
tected in the rear by a hedge, and in front by 
pointed stakes ; but cannon were brought from 
the castle, and the second shot from a culverin 
shattered Arundel's ankle. On the return 
of La Hire from the pursuit the whole body 
was slain or captured (MONSTRELET, liv. ii. 
ch. 172). Arundel was taken to Beauvais, 
where the injured limb was amputated. He 
was so disgusted at his defeat that he rejected 
the aid of medicine (BASisr, i. Ill), and on 
12 June he died. His body was first deposited 
in the church of the Cordeliers of that town. 
A faithful Shropshire squire, Fulk Eyton, 
bought the remains from the French, and his 
executors sold them to his brother William, 
the next earl but one, who deposited them in 
the noble tomb in the collegiate chapel at 
Arundel, which Earl John had himself de- 
signed for his interment (TiEKNET in Sussex 
Arch. Collections, xii. 232-9). His remains 
show that he was over six feet in height. The 
French regarded the death of the ' English 
Achilles ' with great satisfaction. ' He was 
a valiant knight,' says Berry king-at-arms, 
t and if he had lived he would have wrought 

great mischief to France' (GODEFROY, p. 389). 
'He was,' says Polydore Vergil, < a man of 
singular valour, constancy, and gravity.' But 
his exploits were those of a knight and partisan 
rather than those of a real general. He had 
just before his death been created Duke of 
Touraine, and in 1432 had been made a knight 
of the Garter. 

Arundel had been twice married. His- 
first wife was Constance, daughter of Lord 
Fanhope ; his second Maud, daughter of 
Robert Lovell, and widow of Sir R. Stafford. 
By the latter he left a son, Humphrey (1429- 
1438), who succeeded him in the earldom. 
On Humphrey's early death, his uncle, Wil- 
liam IV Fitzalan (1417-1487), the younger 
son of John V, became Earl of Arundel. He 
was succeeded by his son, Thomas II Fitz- 
alan (1450-1524), whose successor was Wil- 
liam V Fitzalan (1483-1544), the father of 
Henry Fitzalan [q. v.] 

[Monstrelet's Chronique, ed. Douet d'Arcq (Soc. 
de 1'Histoire de France) ; Waurin's Chroniques, 
1422-31 (Rolls Series); Jean le Fevre, Seigneur 
de Saint-Remy, Chroniques (Soc. de 1'Histoire de 
France) ; Thomas Basin's Histoire de Charles VII, 
vol. i. (Soc. de 1'Histoire de France) ; Godefroy's 
Histoire de Charles VII, par Jean Chartier, 
Jacques leBonvier,&c. (Paris, 1661) ; Stevenson's 
"Wars of English in France (Rolls Series) ; Blon- 
del's De Reductione Normannise (Rolls Series) ; 
Hall's Chronicle, ed. 1809 ; Polydore Vergil's Hist. 
Angl. ed. 1570; Rolls of ParL, vol. iv. ; Luce's 
Chron. de Mont Saint-Michel, vol. ii. (Soc. des 
Anciens Textes Fra^ais) ; Doyle's Official Baron- 
age, i. 76; Tierney's Hist, of Arundel, pp. 106-27, 
292-303, and 625, corrected in Sussex Arch. Coll. 
xii. 232-9 ; Lords' Rep. on Dignity of a Peer; 
Martin's Hist, de France, vol. vi.] T. F. T. 

ARU^DEL (1267-1302), was the son of 
John III Fitzalan, lord of Arundel, by his 
wife Isabella, daughter of Roger Mortimer 
of Wigmore, and was therefore the grandson 
of John II Fitzalan [q.v.] He was pro- 
bably born on 3 Feb. 1267 (ElTON, vii. 258, 
but cf. Calendarium Genealogicum, i. 347, 
which makes him a little older). His father 
died when he was five years old, and his 
estates were scandalously wasted by his 
grandmother Matilda, and her second hus- 
band, Richard de Amundeville (EYTOtf, iv. 
122). He was himself, however, under the 
wardship of his grandfather, Mortimer, though 
several custodians, among whom was his 
mother (1280), successively held his castle 
of Arundel. In 1287 he received his first 
writ of summons against the rebel Rhys ap 
Maredudd, and was enjoined to reside on his 
Shropshire estates until the revolt was put 
down (ParL Writs, i. 599). He is there 


9 6 


described as Richard Fitzalan, but in 1292 
he is called Earl of Arundel in his pleas, in 
answer to writs of quo warranto (Placita de 
quo warranto, pp. 681, 687). It is said, with- 
out much evidence, that he had been created 
earl in 1289 (VINCENT, Discovery, p. 25), 
when he was knighted by Edward I. But the 
title was loosely and occasionally assigned 
to his father and grandfather also, though 
certainly without any formal warranty, for 
the doctrine of the act of 11 Henry VI, that 
all who possessed the castle of Arundel be- 
came earls without other title, was certainly 
not law in the thirteenth century (Lords' He- 
port on the Dignity of a Peer, but cf . DTJGDALE, 
Baronage, i. 315). In 1292 his zeal to join 
the army was the excuse for a humiliating 
submission to Bishop Gilbert of Chichester, 
after a quarrel about his right of hunting 
in Houghton forest (TiERNEY, pp. 203-7, 
from Bishop Rede's Register). In 1294 he 
was again spoken of as earl in his appoint- 
ment to command the forces sent to relieve 
Bere Castle, threatened by the Welsh in- 
surgent Madoc (Parl. Writs, i. 599). In 
all subsequent writs he equally enjoys that 
title, though his absence in Gascony pre- 
vented his being summoned to the model 
parliament of 1295. In 1297 he again served 
in Gascony. In 1298, 1299, and 1300 he 
held command in Scotland, and in the latter 
year appeared, a 'beau chevalier et bien 
ame ' and ' richement arm6,' at the siege of 
Carlaverock (NICOLAS, Siege of Carlaverock, 
p. 50). His last attendance in parliament 
was in 1301 at Lincoln, where he was one 
of the signatories of the famous letter to the 
pope. His last military summons was to Car- 
lisle for 24 June 1301. He died on 9 March 
1302 (DOYLE, i. 70). 

Fi tzalan married Alice or Alisona, daughter 
of Thomas I, marquis of Saluzzo (MtTLETTi, 
Memorie Storico-diplomatiche di Saluzzo, ii. 
508), an alliance which is thought to point 
to a lengthened sojourn in Italy in his youth. 
By her he left two sons, of whom the elder, 
Edmund Fitzalan [q. v.], succeeded him, 
while the younger, John, was still alive in 
1375 (NICOLAS, Testamenta Vetusta, p. 94). 
Of their two daughters, one, Maud, married 
Philip, lord Burnell, and the other, Margaret, 
married William Botiler of Wem (DFGDALE, 
i. 315). 

[Parliamentary Writs, i. 599-600; Calenda- 
Tinm G-enealogicum, ii. 622 ; Nicolas's Le Siege 
de Carlaverock, pp. 50, 283-5 ; Doyle's Official 
Baronage, i. 69-70 ; Dugdale's Baronage, i. 315; 
Eyton's Shropshire, iv. 122, 123, vii. 260-1 ; 
Lords' Report on the Dignity of a Peer, pp. 420, 
421 ; Tierney's Hist, of Arundel, pp. 201-12.] 

T. F. T. 

ARFNDEL AND WAEENNE (1307P-1376), son 
of Edmund Fitzalan, earl of Arundel [q. v.], 
and his wife, Alice Warenne, was born not 
before 1307. About 1321 his marriage to Isa- 
bella, daughter of the younger Hugh le De- 
spenser, cemented the alliance between his 
father and the favourites of Edward II. In 
1326, however, his father's execution deprived 
him of the succession both to title and estates. 
In 1330, after the fall of Mortimer, he peti- 
tioned to be reinstated, and, after some delay, 
was restored in blood and to the greater part 
of Earl Edmund's possessions (Rot. Parl. ii. 
50). He was, however, forbidden to con- 
tinue his efforts to avenge his father by 
private war against John Charlton, first lord 
Charlton of Powys [q. v.] (ib. ii. 60). In 
1331 he obtained the castle of Arundel from 
the heirs of Edmund, earl of Kent. These 
grants were subsequently more than once 
confirmed (ib. ii. 226, 256). In 1334 Arun- 
del received Mortimer's castle of Chirk, 
and was made justice of North Wales, his 
large estates in that region giving him con- 
siderable local influence. The justiceship 
was afterwards confirmed for life. He was 
also made life-sheriff of Carnarvonshire and 
governor of Carnarvon Castle. Arundel took 
a conspicuous part in nearly every impor- 
tant war of Edward Ill's long reign. After 
surrendering in 1336 his 'hereditary right ' 
to the stewardship of Scotland to Edward for 
a thousand marks (Fc&dera, ii. 952), he was 
made in 1337 joint commander of the Eng- 
lish army in the north. Early in 1338 he 
and his colleague Salisbury incurred no small 
opprobrium by their signal failure to capture 
Dunbar (KNIGHTON, c. 2570 ; cf. Liber Plus- 
cardensis, i. 284, ed. Skene). On 25 April 
he was elevated to the sole command, with 
full powers to treat with the Scots for truce 
or peace (Fcedera, ii. 1029, 1031), of which 
he availed himself to conclude a truce, as his 
duty now compelled him to follow the king to 
Brabant (Chron. de Melsa, ii. 385), where 
he landed at Antwerp on 13 Dec. (FROISSART, 
i. 417, ed. Luce). In the January parlia- 
ment of 1340 he was nominated admiral of 
the ships at Portsmouth and the west that 
were to assemble at Mid Lent (Rot. Parl. ii. 
108). On 24 June he comported himself 
' loyally and nobly ' at the battle of Sluys, 
and was one of the commissioners sent by 
Edward from Bruges in July to acquaint 
parliament with the news and to explain 
to it the king's financial necessities (ib. ii. 
118 b). Later in the same year he took 
part in the great siege of Tournay (LuCE, 
Chronique des Quatre Premiers Valois, p. 4, 
ed. Soc. de THistoire de France). In 1342 




he was at the great feast given by Edward III 
in honour of the Countess of Salisbury (FROIS- 
SART, iii. 3). His next active employment 
was in the same year as warden of the Scot- 
tish marches in conjunction with the Earl of 
Huntingdon. In October of the same year 
he accompanied Edward on his expedition to 
Brittany (ib. iii. 225), and was left by the 
king to besiege Vannes (ib. iii. 227) while the 
bulk of the army advanced to Kennes. In 
January 1343 the truce put an end to the 
siege, and in July Arundel was sent on a 
mission to Avignon. In 1344 he was ap- 
pointed, with Henry, earl of Derby, lieu- 
tenant of Aquitaine, where the French war 
had again broken out ; and at the same time 
was commissioned to treat with Castile, Por- 
tugal, and Aragon (Fcedera, iii. 8, 9). In 
1345 he repudiated his wife, Isabella, on the 
ground that he had never consented to the 
marriage, and, having obtained papal recog- 
nition of the nullity of the union, married 
Eleanor, widow of Lord Beaumont, and 
daughter of Henry, third earl of Lancas- 
ter. This business may have prevented him 
sharing in the warlike exploits of his new 
brother-in-law, Derby, in Aquitaine. He 
was, however, reappointed admiral of the 
west in February 1345, and retained that 
post until 1347 (NICOLAS, Hist, of Royal 
Navy, ii. 95). In 1346 he accompanied Ed- 
ward on his great expedition to northern 
France (FROISSART, iii. 130), and commanded 
the second of the three divisions into which 
the English host was divided at Crecy (ib. 
iii. 169, makes him joint commander with 
Northampton, but MURIMUTH, p. 166, in- 
cludes the latter among the leaders of the 
first line). He was afterwards with Edward 
at the siege of Calais (Rot. Parl. ii. 163 b}. 
In 1348 and 1350 Arundel was on commis- 
sions to treat with the pope at Avignon 
(Fcedera, iii. 165, 201). In 1350, however, 
he took part in the famous naval battle with 
the Spaniards off Winchelsea (FROISSART, 
iv. 89). In 1351 he was employed in Scot- 
land to arrange for a final peace and the 
ransom of King David (Foedera, iii. 225). 
In 1354 he was one of the negotiators of a 
proposed truce with France, at a conference 
held under papal mediation at Guines (ib. iii. 
253), but on the envoys proceeding to Avig- 
non (ib. iii. 283), to obtain the papal ratifi- 
cation, it was found that no real settlement 
had been arrived at, and Innocent VI was 
loudly accused of treachery (Cont. MFRI- 
MUTH, p. 184). In 1355 Arundel was one of 
the regents during the king's absence from 
England (Fcedera, iii. 305). In 1357 he was 
again negotiating in Scotland, and in 1358 
was at the head of an embassy to Wenzel, 


* iii. 392). In August 
IdbO he was joint commissioner in complet- 
ing the ratifications of the treaty of Bretigny. 
In 1362 he was one of the commissioners to 
prolong the truce with Charles of Blois (ib. 
in. 662). In 1364 he was again engaged in 
diplomacy (ib. iii. 747). 

The declining years of Arundel's life were 
spent in comparative seclusion from public 
affairs. In 1365 he was maliciously cited to 
the papal court by "William de Lenne, the 
foreign bishop of Chichester, with whom he 
was on bad terms. He was supported by 
Edward in his resistance to the bishop, whose 
temporalities were ultimately seized by the 
crown. He now perhaps enlarged the castle 
of Arundel (TIERNEY, Hist, of Arundel, p. 
239). His last military exploit was perhaps 
his share in the expedition for the relief of 
Thouars in 1372. 

Arundel was possessed of vast wealth, espe- 
cially after 1353, when he succeeded, by right 
of his mother, to the earldom of Warenne or 
Surrey. He frequently aided Edward III in 
his financial difficulties by large advances, so 
that in 1370 Edward was more than twenty 
thousand pounds in his debt. Yet at his 
death Arundel left behind over ninety thou- 
sand marks in ready money, nearly half of 
which was stored up in bags in the high tower 
of Arundel (Harl. MS. 4840, f. 393, where is 
a curious inventory of all his personal pro- 
perty at his death). 

One of Arundel's last acts was to become, 
with Bishop William of Wykeham, a gene- 
ral attorney for John of Gaunt during his 
journey to Spain (Fcedera, iii. 1026). He 
died on 24 Jan. 1376. By his will, dated 
5 Dec. 1375, he directed that his body should 
be buried without pomp in the chapter-house 
of Lewes priory, by the side of his second 
wife, and founded a perpetual chantry in the 
chapel of St. George's within Arundel Castle 
(NICOLAS, Testamenta Fewsta,pp.94-6). By 
his first marriage his only issue was one 
daughter. By his second he had three sons, 
of whom Richard, the eldest [see FITZALAN, 
RICHARD III], was his successor to the earl- 
dom. John, the next, became marshal of Eng- 
land, and perished at sea in 1379. According 
to the settlement made by Earl Richard in 
1347 (Rot. Parl. iv. 442), the title ultimately 
reverted to the marshal's grandson, John VI 
Fitzalan. The youngest, Thomas [see ARITN- 
DEL, THOMAS], became archbishop of Canter- 
bury. Of his four daughters by Eleanor, two 
are mentioned in his will, namely Joan, mar- 
ried to Humphrey Bohun, earl of Hereford, 
and Alice, the wife of Thomas Holland, earl 
of Kent. His other daughters, Mary and 
Eleanor, died before him. 


9 8 


[Rymer's Fcedera, vol. iii. Record edit. ; Rolls 
of Parl.vol. ii.; Dugdale's Baronage, i. 316-18 ; 
Doj'le's Official Baronage, i. 71-2 ; Froissart's 
Chroniques, vols. i-iv. ed. Luce (Socie"t6 de 
1'Histoire de France) ; Murimuth and his Cont. 
(Engl. Hist. Soc.) ; Knighton in Twysden, Decem 
Scriptores; Tierney's Hist, of Arundel, pp. 225- 
240.] T. F. T. 

ARFNDEL AND SURREY (1346-1397), born in 
1346, was the son of Richard II Fitzalan, earl 
of Arundel [q. v.], and his second wife, Elea- 
nor, daughter of Henry, third earl of Lan- 
caster. He served on the expedition to the 
Pays de Caux under Lancaster (NICOLAS, 
Scrope andGrosvenor Roll, i. 220). In January 
1376 he succeeded to his father's estates and 
titles. Though the petitions of the Good 
parliament contain complaints of the men of 
Surrey and Sussex against the illegal juris- 
diction exercised by his novel l shire-court ' 
at Arundel over the rapes of Chichester and 
Arundel (Rot. Parl. ii. 348), he was ap- 
pointed one of the standing council esta- 
blished in that parliament to restrain the 
dotage of Edward III (Chron. Any lice, 1328- 
1388, p. Ixviii, Rolls Ser.) At Richard II's 
coronation he acted as chief butler (Rot. 
Parl. iii. 131). He was placed on the council 
of regency (ib. iii. 386), and in 1380 put on a 
commission to regulate the royal household. 
In 1377 he was appointed admiral of the 
west. His earlier naval exploits were but 
little glorious, yet French authorities credit 
him with the merit of having saved South- 
ampton from their assault (LtrcE, Chronique 
des Quatre Premiers Valois, p. 263, ed. Soc. 
de 1'Histoire de France). About Whitsun- 
tide 1378 he attacked Harfleur, but was sub- 
sequently driven to sea (ib. p. 273). In the 
same year he and the Earl of Salisbury were 
defeated by a Spanish fleet, though they 
afterwards compelled Cherbourg to surrender 
(WALSINGHAM, i. 371). He next accompanied 
John of Gaunt on his expedition to St. Malo, 
where his negligence on the watch gave the 
French an opportunity to destroy a mine and 
so compel the raising of the siege (FROISSART, 
liv. ii. ch. xxxvi. ed. Buchon). Arundel 
barely escaped with his life (Chronique des 
Quatre Premiers Valois, p. 275). The earl 
showed an equal sluggishness in defending 
even his own tenants when the French ra- 
vaged the coasts of Sussex (WALS. i. 439 ; 
cf. Chron. Anglice, p. 168). In 1381 he and 
Michael de la Pole were approved in parlia- 
ment as councillors in constant attendance 
upon the young king and as governors of his 
person (WALS. ii. 156; Rot. Parl. iii. 1046). 
In 1383 he was proposed as lieutenant of 
Bishop Spencer of Norwich's crusading army, 

but the bishop refused to accept him (ib. iii. 
155 a). In 1385 he took part in the expedi- 
tion to Scotland. 

Arundel definitely joined the baronial op- 
position that had now reformed under Glou- 
cester, the king's uncle. He took a promi- 
nent part in the attack on the royal favourites 
in 1386, acted as one of the judges of M. de 
la Pole (WALS. ii. 152), and was put on the 
commission appointed in parliament to reform 
and govern the realm and the royal household 
(Rot. Parl. iii. 221). His appointment as ad- 
miral was now renewed with a wider com- 
mission, rendered necessary by the projected 
great invasion of England, which brought 
Charles VI to Sluys (FROISSART, iii. 47 ; cf. 
WALLON, Rich. II, liv. v. ch. iii.) In the spring 
of 1387 he and Nottingham prepared an expe- 
dition against the French, which, on 24 March, 
defeated a great fleet of Flemish, French, and 
Spanish ships off Margate, and captured 
nearly a hundred vessels laden with wine 
(WALS. ii. 154-6 ; Monk of Evesham, p. 78 ; 
FROISSART, iii. 53. The different accounts 
vary hopelessly ; see NICOLAS, Hist, of Royal 
Navy, ii. 317-24). This brilliant victory 
won Arundel an extraordinary popularity, 
which was largely increased by the libe- 
rality with which he refused to turn the rich 
booty to his own advantage. For the whole 
year wine was cheap in England and dear in 
Netherlands (FROISSART, iii. 54). Imme- 
diately after he sailed to Brest and relieved 
and revictualled the town, which was still 
held for the English, and destroyed two forts 
erected by the French besiegers over against 
it (KNIGHTON, c. 2692). He then returned 
in triumph to England, plundering the coun- 
try round Sluys and capturing ships there 
on his way. All danger of French invasion 
was at an end. 

In 1387 Richard II obtained from the 
judges a declaration of the illegality of the 
commission of which Arundel was a member. 
His rash attempt to arrest the earl produced 
the final conflict. Northumberland was sent 
to seize Arundel at Reigate, but, fearing the 
number of his retainers, retired without ac- 
complishing his mission (Monk of Evesham, 
p. 90). Warned of this treachery, Arundel 
escaped by night and joined Gloucester and 
Warwick at Harringhay, where they took 
arms (November 1387). At Waltham Cross 
on 15 Nov. they first appealed of treason the 
evil councillors of the king, and on 17 Nov. 
forced Richard to accept their charges at 
Westminster Hall. When the favourites 
attempted resistance, another meeting of the 
confederates was held on 12 Dec. at Hunt- 
ingdon, where Arundel strongly urged the 
capture and deposition of the king. But the 




reluctance of the new associates, Derby and 
Nottingham, caused this violent plan to be 
rejected (Rot. Parl iii. 376). But Arundel 
continued the fiercest of the king's enemies. 
In the parliament of February 1388 he was 
one of the five lords who solemnly renewed 
the appeal (ib. iii. 229; KNIGHTON, cc. 2713- 
2726). He specially pressed for the execu- 
tion of Burley, though Derby wished to save 
Mm, and for three hours the queen inter- 
ceded on her knees for his life (Chronique de 
la Traison, p. 133). 

In May 1388 Arundel again went to sea, 
still acting as admiral, and now also as cap- 
tain of Brest and lieutenant of the king in 
Brittany. Failing to do anything great in 
that country, he sailed southward, conquered 
Oleron and other small islands off the coast, 
and finally landed off La Rochelle, and took 
thence great pillage (FROISSART, iii. 112, 113, 
129) . Next year, however, he was superseded 
as admiral by Huntingdon (KNIGHTOX, c. 
2735), and in May was, with the other lords 
appellant, removed from the council. He 
was, however, restored in December, when 
Richard and his old masters finally came to 
terms (NICOLAS, Proceedings of Privy Council. 
i. 17). 

For the next few years peace prevailed at 
home and abroad. The party of the appel- 
lants began to show signs of breaking up, 
though Arundel still remained faithful to his 
old policy. In 1392 he was fined four hun- 
dred marks for marrying Philippa, daughter 
of the Earl of March and widow of John 
Hastings, earl of Pembroke (Rot. Pat. 15 
Rich. II, in DALLAWAY'S Western Sussex, 
II. i. 134, new edit.) A personal quarrel of 
Arundel with John of Gaunt marks the be- 
ginning of the catastrophe of Richard IFs 
reign. The new Countess of Arundel was 
rude to Catharine Swynford (FnoissART, iv. 
50). Henry Beaufort [see BEAIJFOET, HENRY, 
bishop of "Winchester], if report were true, 
seduced Alice, Arundel's daughter (PowEL, 
Hist, of Cambria, p. 138, from a pedigree 
of the Stradlings, whose then representative 
married the daughter born of the connection; 
cf. CLARK, LimbusPatrumMorffanice et Glan- 
morganice, p. 435). In 1393, when Arundel 
was residing at his castle of Holt, a revolt 
against John of Gaunt broke out in Cheshire, 
and Arundel showed such inactivity in assist- 
ing in the restoration of peace that the duke 
publicly accused him in parliament of conniv- 
ing at the rising (WALS. ii. 214 ; Ann. Ric. II, 
ed. Riley, p. 161). Arundel answered by a 
long series of complaints against Lancaster 
(Rot. Parl. iii. 313). Some of these so nearly 
touched the king as to make him very angry, 
and Arundel was compelled to apologise for 

what he had said. The actual English words 
that he uttered in his recantation are pre- 
served in the Rolls of Parliament. A short 
retirement from court now seems to have 
ensued (Ann. Ric. II, p. 166), but Arundel 
soon returned, only to give Richard fresh 
offence by coming late to the queen's funeral 
and yet asking leave to retire at once from 
the ceremony (ib. p. 169; WALS. ii. 215). 
The king struck Arundel with a cane with 
such force as to shed blood and therefore to 
pollute the precincts of Westminster Abbey. 
On 3 Aug. Arundel was sent to the Tower 
(I'cedera, vii. 784), but was released on 
10 Aug. (ib. vii. 785), when he re-entered the 
council. The appointment of his brother 
Thomas as archbishop of Canterbury may 
mark the final reconciliation. 

After the stormy parliament of February 
1397, Arundeland Gloucester withdrew from 
court, after reproaching the king with the 
loss of Brest and Cherbourg. It was pro- 
bably after this, if ever, that Arundel enter- 
tained Gloucester, Warwick, and his brother 
the archbishop at Arundel Castle, when they 
entered into a solemn conspiracy against 
Richard (Chronique de la Traison, pp. 5-6, 
though the date there given, 23 July 1396, 
must be wrong, and 28 July 1397, the edi- 
tor's conjecture, is too late, one manuscript 
says 8 Feb. ; Chronique du Reliyieux de Saint- 
Denys, ii. 476-8, in Collection de Documents 
Inedits, cf. FROISSART, iv. 56. The statement 
is in no English authority, and has been much 
questioned, cf. WALLON, ii. 161, 452). Not- 
tingham, who, though Arundel's son-in-law 
and one of the appellants, had now deserted 
his old party, informed Richard of the plot. 
The king invited the three chief conspirators 
to a banquet on 10 July (Ann. Ric. II, p. 201). 
From this Arundel absented himself without 
so much as an excuse, but the arrest of War- 
wick, who ventured to attend, was his justi- 
fication. He was, however, in a hopeless 
position. His brother pressed him to sur- 
render, and persuaded him that the king had 
given satisfactory promises of his safety (ib. 
202-3 ; WALS. ii. 223). He left accordingly 
his stronghold at Reigate, and accompanied 
the archbishop to the palace. Richard at 
once handed him over into custody, while 
Thomas returned sorrowfully to Lambeth 
(Eulog. Hist. iii. 371). This was on 15 July. 
Arundel was hurried off to Carisbrooke and 
thence after an interval removed to the 
Tower. On 17 Sept. a royalist parliament 
assembled. The pardons of the appellants 
were revoked (Rot. Parl. iii. 350, 351). On 
20 Sept. Archbishop Arundel was impeached. 
Next day the new appellants laid their 
charges against the Earl of Arundel before the 




lords. He was brought before them, arrayed 
in scarlet. With much passion he protested 
that he was no traitor, and that the charges 
against him were barred by the pardons he had 
received. A long and angry altercation broke 
out between him and John of Gaunt and 
Henry of Derby, his old associate. He refused 
to answer the charges, denounced his accusers 
as liars, and when the speaker declared that 
the pardon on which he relied had been re- 
voked by the faithful commons, exclaimed, 
' The faithful commons are not here ' (Monk 
of Evesham, pp. 136-8 ; Rot. Parl. iii. 377 ; 
Ann. Ric. pp. 214-19). He was, of course, 
condemned, though Richard commuted the 
barbarous penalty of treason into simple de- 
capitation. The execution immediately fol- 
lowed. He was hurried through the streets 
of London to Tower Hill, amidst the lamen- 
tations of a sympathising multitude. Bru- 
tally illtreated by the bands of Cheshiremen 
who had been collected to overawe the Lon- 
doners, he displayed extraordinary firmness 
and resolution, ' no more shrinking or chang- 
ing colour than if he were going to a ban- 
quet' (WALS. ii. 225-6; cf. Religieux de 
Saint-Deny s, ii. 552). He rebuked with much 
dignity his treacherous kinsfolk (Nottingham 
was not present, though Walsingham and 
Froissart, iv. 61, say that he was), and ex- 
horted the hangman to sharpen well his axe. 
Slain by a single stroke, he was buried in the 
church of the Augustinian friars. The people 
reverenced him as a martyr, and went on pil- 
grimage to his tomb. At last Richard, con- 
science-stricken though he was at his death, 
avoided a great political danger by ordering all 
traces of the place of his burial to be removed. 
But after the fall of Richard the pilgrimages 
were renewed, and the next generation did 
not doubt that his merits had won for him 
a place in the company of the saints (ADAM 
OP USE:, p. 14, ed. Thompson). Arundel was 
very religious and a bountiful patron of the 
church. So early as 1380 he was admitted into 
the brotherhood of the abbey of Tichfield. 
In the same year he founded the hospital of 
the Holy Trinity at Arundel for a warden 
and twenty poor men (DUGDALE, Monasticon, 
ed. Caley, &c. vi. 736-7). Between 1380 
and 1387 he enlarged the chantry projected 
by his father into the college of the Holy 
Trinity, also at Arundel. This establishment 
now included a master and twelve secu- 
lar canons, and superseded the confiscated 
alien priory of St. Nicholas (ib. vi. 1377- 
1379; TIERNEY, Arundel, pp. 594-613). In 
his will he left liberal legacies to several 

By his first wife, Elizabeth (d. 1385), 
daughter of William de Bohun, earl of North- 

ampton, Arundel had three sons and four 
daughters. The second son, Thomas [see 
FITZALAN, THOMAS], ultimately became earl 
of Arundel. Of his daughter Elizabeth's 
four husbands, the second was Thomas Mow- 
bray, earl of Nottingham [q. v.] Another 
daughter, Joan, married William, lord Ber- 
gavenny. A third, Alice, married John, lord 
Charlton of Powys. By Philippa Mortimer 
Arundel had no children. 

[Walsingham's Chronicle of Bichard II, ed. 
Riley ; Eulogium Historiarum ; Wright's Poli- 
tical Poems and Songs ; Chronicon Anglise, 1328- 
1388 (all in Kolls Series) ; Chronique de la Trai- 
son etMort de Richard (Engl.Hist. Soc.) ; French 
Metrical History of the Deposition of Richard II, 
in Archseologia, vol. xx. ; Monk of Evesham's 
Hist. Rich. II, ed. Hearne, 1729; Knighton in. 
Twysden, Decem Scriptores; Chronique du Re- 
ligieux de Saint-Denys, vol. i. (Documents In- 
edits sur 1'Histoire de France) ; Froissart, vols. 
iii. and iv. ed. Buchon, is often wrong in details ; 
Rolls of Parliament, vols. ii. and iii. ; Rymer's 
Foedera, vol. vii. ; Dugdale's Baronage, i. 318- 
320; Doyle's Official Baronage, i. 73-4; Sir 
N. H. Nicolas 's History of the Royal Navy, vol. 
ii. ; Wallon's Richard II, with good notes on 
the authorities, is, with Stubbs's Constitutional 
History of England, vol. ii., the fullest modern' 
account; Dallaway's Western Sussex, n. i. 130-7, 
new edit. ; Tierney's History of Arundel, pp. 240- 
276 ; Nichols's Collection of Royal Wills, pp. 120- 
143, contains in full Arundel's long and curious 
testament, written in French and dated 1392; 
it is taken from the Register of Archbishop 
Arundel.] T. F. T. 

MAS (1353-1414), archbishop of Canterbury. 

ARUNDEL AND SURREY (1381-1415), the 
second and only surviving son of Richard III 
Fitzalan, earl of Arundel [q. v.], and his first 
wife, Elizabeth Bohun, was born on 13 Oct. 
1381. He was only sixteen when his father 
was executed. Deprived by his father's sen- 
tence of the succession to the family titles- 
and estates, he was handed over by King 
Richard II to the custody of his half-brother, 
John Holland, duke of Exeter, who also re- 
ceived a large portion of the Arundel estates. 
In after years Fitzalan retained a bitter re- 
membrance of the indignities he and his sister 
had experienced at Exeter's hands ; how he 
drudged for him like a slave, and how many 
a time he had taken off and blacked his boots 
for him (Chronique de la Traison, p. 97). He 
was no better off when confined in his father's 
old castle of Reigate, under the custody of 
Sir John Shelley, the steward of the Duke- 
of Exeter, who also compelled him to sub- 




mit to great humiliations {Ann. Ric. II, 
ed. Riley, p. 241 ; LELAND, Collectanea, i. 
483). At last Fitzalan managed to effect his 
escape, and with the assistance of a mercer 
named William Scot arrived safely on the 
continent, either at Calais or at Sluys. He 
joined his uncle, the deposed Archbishop 
Arundel, at Utrecht, but was so poor that he 
would have starved but for the assistance of 
iris powerful kinsfolk abroad. The conjec- 
ture, based on a slight correction of Froissart's 
story of Archbishop Arundel's commission 
from the Londoners to Henry of Derby, that 
Fitzalan bore a special message from, the 
London citizens to Henry, that he should 
overthrow Richard and obtain the English 
crown, seems neither necessary nor probable. 
Froissart's whole account of the movements 
of the exiled Henry is too inaccurate to 
make it necessary to explain away his gross 
blunders. However, Archbishop Arundel 
left his German exile and joined Henry at 
Paris, and his nephew doubtless accompanied 
him, both on this journey and on the further 
travels of Henry and the archbishop to Bou- 
logne. Fitzalan embarked with Henry on 
his voyage to England, and landed with him 
at Ravenspur early in July 1399. There is 
no foundation for the story of the French anti- 
Lancastrian writers that when Richard II fell 
into Henry's hands the latter entrusted Fitz- 
alan and the son of Thomas of Woodstock 
{who was already dead) with the custody 
of the captive prince, with an injunction to 
guard closely the king who had put both 
their fathers to death unjustly, and that 
they conveyed Richard to London ' as strictly 
.guarded as a thief or a murderer ' (Chronique 
de la Traison, p. 210; Religieux de Saint- 
Denys, ii. 717 ; cf. Archaologia, xx. 173). On 
11 Oct. Fitzalan was one of those knighted 
by Henry in the great hall of the Tower of 
London on the occasion when the order of the 
Bath is generally considered to have been 
instituted. Next day he marched, with the 
other newly-made knights, in Henry's train 
to Westminster, all dressed alike and ' look- 
ing like priests.' At Henry's coronation, on 
Monday 13 Oct., he officiated as butler 
(ADAM OP USE, p. 33, ed. Thompson). The 
new king even anticipated the commons' 
petition in his favour by restoring him to his 
father's titles and estates (Rot. Parl. iii. 
435-6 ; Cal. Rot. Pat. p. 238 b ; Cont. Eulog. 
Hist. iii. 385). Though still under age he 
,t once took his seat as Earl of Arundel, and 
on 23 Oct. was one of the magnates who ad- 
vised the king to put Richard II under ' safe 
.and secret guard' (Rot. Parl. iii. 426-7). 
Early in 1400 Arundel took the field against 
the Hollands and the other insurgent nobles. 

On the capture of John Holland, now again 
only Earl of Huntingdon, by the followers of 
:he Countess of Hereford, in Essex, Arundel, 
if we can believe the French authorities, 
hastened to join his aunt in wreaking an un- 
worthy revenge on his former captor (Chro- 
nique de la Traison, p. 97 sq.) After taunt- 
ing Huntingdon with his former ill-treatment 
of him, Arundel procured his immediate 
execution, despite the sympathies of the by- 
standers and the royal order that he should 
be committed to the Tower (Fcedera, viii. 
121). He then marched through London 
streets in triumph with Huntingdon's head 
on a pole, and ultimately bore it to the king 
(Religieux de Saint-Deny s, ii. 742). 

Arundel's great possessions in North Wales 
were now endangered by the revolt of Owain 
of Glyndyfrdwy [see GLENDOWER, OWEN], 
who had begun life as an esquire of Earl 
Richard. Earl Thomas was much employed 
against the Welsh chieftain during the next 
few years. In 1401 he fought with Hotspur 
against the rebels near Cader Idris. In August 
1402 he commanded that division of the three- 
fold expedition against the Welsh which as- 
sembled at Hereford. Within a month all 
three armies were compelled by unseasonable 
storms to retreat to England. In 1403 he was 
again ordered to assemble an army at Shrews- 
bury. After attending, in October 1404, the 
parliament at Coventry, where he was one of 
the triers of petitions for Gascony, he entered 
into an agreement with the king, in accord- 
ance with the ordinance of that parliament, to 
remain for eight weeks with a small force at 
his castle of Oswestry ; but in February 1405 
he confessed that he was able to do nothing 
against the insurgents (Rot. Parl. iii. 545-7 ; 
NICOLAS, Proceedings of Privy Council, i. 

In the early summer of 1405 the revolt of 
Archbishop Scrope and the earl marshal 
brought Arundel to the north. After the 
capture of the two leaders Arundel joined 
Thomas Beaufort in persuading Henry to 
disregard his uncle, Archbishop Arundel's, 
advice to respect the person of the captive 
archbishop. On 8 June, while Archbishop 
Arundel was delayed at breakfast with King 
Henry, his nephew was placed at the head 
of a commission which hastily condemned 
both Scrope and Mowbray, and ordered their 
immediate execution (Ann. Hen. IV, p. 409 ; 
RAYNALDI, Ann. Eccl. viii. 143 ; but cf. 
Maidstone, in RAINE, Historians of the Church 
of York, ii. 306 sq., Rolls Ser., for a different 
account). This violence seems to have caused 
a breach between Arundel and his uncle. 
Henceforth the earl inclined to the policy of 
the Beauforts and the Prince of Wales against 




the policy of the archbishop. Arundel next 
accompanied Henry in August into Wales, 
where he is said to have successfully defended 
Haverfordwest against Owain and his French 
allies under Montmorency (HALL, p. 25, ed. 
1809). But in the autumn he was engaged 
in negotiating a marriage with Beatrix, bas- 
tard daughter of John I, king of Portugal, 
by Agnes Perez, and sister therefore of the 
Duke of Braganza. John's^wife was a half- 
sister of Henry IV, and English assistance 
had enabled him to secure his country's free- 
dom against Castile. The projected marriage 
was but part of the close alliance between 
the two countries, and Henry IV actively in- 
terested himself in its success. A s Arundel's 
means were much straitened by the devasta- 
tion of his Welsh estates, the king advanced 
the large sums necessary to bring the bride 
' with magnificence and glory ' to England. 
On 26 Nov. the marriage was celebrated at 
London in the presence of the king and 
queen (Ann. Hen. IV, p. 417; WALSING- 
HAM, ii. 272 ; Collectanea Topog. et Geneal. 
i. 80-90). 

In 1406 Arundel was present at the famous 
parliament of that year, and supported the 
act of succession then passed (Rot. Parl. iii. 
576, 582). In May 1409 he was again or- 
dered to remain on his North Welsh estates 
to encounter Owen (Fcedera, viii. 588), and 
in November was ordered to continue the 
war, notwithstanding the truce made by his 
officers, which the Welsh persisted in not 
observing (ib. viii. 611). 

In 1410 Arundel's ally, Thomas Beaufort, 
became chancellor, and the frequency of the 
appearance of his name in the proceedings of 
the council shows that he took, in conse- 
quence, a more active part in affairs of state. 
The old differences with his uncle, now driven 
from power, continued, and in one letter 
Arundel complained to the archbishop that 
he had been misrepresented (Proceedings of 
Privy Council, ii. 117-18). The triumph of 
the Beauforts involved England in a Bur- 
gundian foreign policy, and when in 1411 an 
English expedition was sent to help Philip 
of Burgundy against the Armagnacs, Arun- 
del, the Earl of Kyme, and Sir J. Oldcastle 
were appointed its commanders. He was 
one of the commissioners appointed to 
negotiate the marriage of the Prince of 
Wales with a sister of the Duke of Bur- 
gundy (ib. ii. 20). He was well received by 
Burgundy, whom he accompanied on his 
march to Paris, arriving there on 23 Oct. 
On 9 Nov. he fought a sharp and successful 
engagement with the Orleanists, which re- 
sulted in the capture of St. Cloud (WALSING- 
HAM, ii. 286 ; JEAN LE FKVRE, Chroniquc, i. 

36-43 ; PIERRE DE FENIN, Memoires, pp. 22- 
23, both in Soc. de 1'Histoire de France ; cf. 
MARTIN, Histoire de France, v. 521). The 
result was the retirement of the Armagnacs. 
beyond the Loire. The English, having been 
bought out of their scruples against selling: 
their prisoners to be tortured to death by 
their allies, returned home with large rewards- 
soon afterwards. The fall of the Beauforts 
and the return of Archbishop Arundel to> 
power kept Earl Thomas in retirement until 
Henry IV's death. Before this date he had 
become a knight of the Garter (ASHMOLE^ 
Order of the Garter, p. 710). 

The day after his accession Henry V turned 
Archbishop Arundel out of the chancery and 
made the Earl of Arundel treasurer in place 
of Lord le Scrope. Arundel was also ap- 
pointed on the same day constable of Dover 
Castle and warden of the Cinque ports. In 
1415 the commons petitioned against his 
aggressions and violence in Sussex (Rot. 
Parl. iv. 78), and an Italian merchant com- 
plained of his unjust imprisonment and the 
seizure of his effects by him (ib. iv. 90). He 
was also engaged in a quarrel with Lord 
Furnival about some rights of common in 
Shropshire, which ultimately necessitated the 
king's intervention (Gesta Hen. V, pref. p. 
xxviii, Engl. Hist. Soc.) From such petty 
difficulties he was removed by his summons- 
to accompany Henry on his great invasion, 
of France. He took a leading part in the 
siege of Harfleur, but was one of the many 
who were compelled to return home sick of 
the dysentery and fever that devastated the 
victorious army. On 10 Oct. he made his- 
will ; on 13 Oct. he died. He was buried in a 
magnificent tomb in the midst of the choir 
of the collegiate chapel that his father had 
founded at Arundel. There is a vignette of 
the tomb in Tierney, p. 622. 

Earl Thomas was in character hot, impul- 
sive, and brave. He was a good soldier, and 
faithful to his friends ; but he showed a vin- 
dictive thirst for revenge on the enemies of 
his house, and a recklessness which subordi- 
nated personal to political aims. He left no 
children, so that the bulk of his estates was 
divided among his three surviving sisters, 
while the castle and lordship of Arundel 
passed to his second cousin, John V Fitzalan 
(1387-1421), grandson of Sir John Arundel, 
marshal of England, and of his wife, Eleanor 
Maltravers [see JOHN VI FITZALAN, EARL OF 
ARUNDEL]. The earldom of Surrey fell into 
abeyance on Thomas's death. 

[Annales Ric. II et Hen. IV, ed. Riley (Rolls 
Ser.) ; Eulogium Historiarum (Rolls Ser.) ; Wals- 
inghatn's Hist. Angl. and Ypodigma Neustriaa 
(Rolls Ser.); Otterbourne's Chronicle, ed.Hearne; 




Monk of Evesham, Hist. Ric. II, ed. Hearne ; 
Chronique de la Traison et Mort de Richart II 
(Engl. Hist. Soc.) ; French Metrical History of 
the Deposition of Richard II in Archgeologia, 
vol. xx. ; Henrici V Gesta (Engl. Hist. Soc.) ; 
Froissart's Chronique, ed. Buchon ; Chroniques 
du Religieux de Saint-Denys (Documents Inedits 
sur 1'Histoire de France) ; Waurin's Chroniques 
(Rolls Ser.); Hall's Chronicle, ed. 1809; Nico- 
las's Proceedings and Ordinances of the Privy 
Council, vols. i. ii. ; Rymer's Fcedera, vols. viii. 
ix., original edition ; Rolls of Parliament, vols. 
iii. iv. ; Calendarium Rotulorum Patentium, Re- 
cord Commission ; Stubbs's Constitutional His- 
tory of England, iii. ; Doyle's Official Baronage, 
i. 74 ; Wylie's History of Henry IV, 1399-1404 ; 
Biography in Tierney's History of Arundel, pp. 
277-87.] T. F. T. 

FITZALAN, WILLIAM (d. 1160),rebel, 
was the son and heir of Alan Fitzflaald, by 
Aveline or Adeline, sister of Ernulf de Hes- 
ding (EYTON, Shropshire, vii. 222-3). His 
younger brother, Walter Fitzalan (d. 1177), 
was 'the undoubted ancestor of the royal 
house of Stuart ' (ib.) His father had received 
from Henry I, about the beginning of his 
reign, extensive fiefs in Shropshire and Nor- 
folk. William was born about 1105 and suc- 
ceeded his father about 1114 (ib. pp. 222, 
232). His first appearance is as a witness 
to Stephen's charter to Shrewsbury Abbey 
(Monasticon, iii. 519) in 1136. He is found 
acting as castellan of Shrewsbury and sheriff 
of Shropshire in 1138, when he joined in the 
revolt against Stephen, being married to a 
niece of the Earl of Gloucester (ORD. VIT. 
v. 112-13). After resisting the king's attack 
for a month, he fled with his family (August 
1138), leaving the castle to be defended by 
his uncle Ernulf, who, on his surrender, was 
hanged by the king (ib. ; Cont. FLOR. WIG. 
ii. 110). He is next found with the empress 
at Oxford in the summer of 1141 (EYTOIST, 
vii. 287), and shortly after at the siege of 
Winchester (Gesta, p. 80). He again ap- 
pears in attendance on her at Devizes, wit- 
nessing the charter addressed to himself by 
which she grants Aston to Shrewsbury Abbey 
(EYTON, ix. 58). It was probably between 
1130 and 1138 that he founded Haughmond 
Abbey (ib. 286-7). In June 1153 he is found 
with Henry, then duke of Normandy, at Lei- 
cester (ib. p. 288). With the accession of 
Henry as king he regained his paternal fief 
on the fall of Hugh de Mortimer in July 1155. 
He is found at Bridgnorth with the king at 
that time, and on 25 July received from his 
feudal tenants a renewal of their homage (ib. 
i. 250-1, vii. 236-7, 288). His first wife, 
Christiana, being now dead, he received from 
Henry the hand of Isabel de Say, heiress of 
the barony of Clun (ib. vii. 237), together 

with the shrievalty of Shropshire, which he re- 
tamed till his death (Pipe Rolls, 2-6 Hen. II) 
which took place in 1160, about Easter (ib. 
6 Hen. II, p. 27). Among his benefactions 
he granted Wroxeter Church to Haughmond 
in 1155 (EYTON, vii. 311-12), and, though 
not the founder of Wombridge Priory, sanc- 
tioned its foundation (ib. p. 363). He was 
succeeded by William Fitzalan the second, 
his son and heir by his second wife. By his 
first he left a daughter, Christiana, wife of 
Hugh Pantulf. 

[Ordericus Vitalis (Societe de 1'Histoire de 
France) ; Gesta Stephani (Rolls Ser.) ; Florence 
of Worcester (Engl. Hist Soc.); Monasticon An- 
glicanum, new ed. ; Pipe Rolls (Record Com- 
mission and Pipe Roll Soc.) ; Ey ton's Hist, of 
Shropshire.] J. H. R. 

1198), steward of Henry II and governor of 
Ireland, is described as the son of Aldhelm, 
the son of William of Mortain (DTJGDALE, 
Baronage, i. 693; 'if our best genealogists are 
not mistaken,' as he cautiously adds), whose 
father, Robert of Mortain, earl of Cornwall, 
was half-brother of the conqueror, but after 
Tenchebrai was deprived of his earldom, im- 
prisoned for over thirty years, and only ex- 
changed his dungeon for the habit of aCluniac 
monk at Bermondsey . A brother of Aldhelm 
is said to have been the father of Hubert de 
Burgh [q. v.] But there seems no early 
authority for this rather improbable genea- 
logy, and the absence of contemporary refer- 
ences to his family makes it probable that his 
descent was obscure. Fitzaldhelm first appears 
as king's steward (dapifer) as witnessing two 
charters of Henry II to the merchants of 
Cologne and their London house, which appa- 
rently belong to July 1157 (LAPPENBERG, Ur- 
kundliche Geschichte des hansischen Stahlhofes 
zu London, Urkunden, pp. 4-5, ' aus dem 
Coiner Copialbuche von 1326 '). He appears 
as an officer of the crown in the Pipe Roll of 
1159-60, 1160-1, and 1161-2 (Pipe Roll So- 
ciety's publications, passim). In 1163 he 
attested a charter which fixed the services of 
certain vassals of the Count of Flanders to 
Henry II (Fcedera, i. 23). He again appears 
in the Pipe Rolls of 1163, 1165, and 1170, and 
about 1165 is described as one of the king's 
marshals and acted as a royal justice (HEARNE, 
Liber Niger, i. 73,74; EYTON, pp. 80,85, 139). 
In October 1170 he was one of the two justices 
consulted by Becket's agents prior to their 
appearance before the younger king at West- 
minster (Memorials of Becket, vii. 389). In 
July 1171 he was with Henry in Normandy 
and witnessed at Bur-le-Roy a charter in 
favour of Newstead Priory (DUGDALE, Monas- 




ticon, vi. 966 ; EYTON, p. 159). Almost im- 
mediately afterwards Henry was at Valognes, 
whence he despatched Fitzaldhelm to Ireland 
to act as the royal representative until Henry 
obtained leisure to settle the affairs of the 
island in person (Fcedera, i. 36, dated by the 
Record commissioners' editors in 1181, but 
assigned to this date with more probability 
by ETTON, Itinerary, p. 159 ; GILBERT, 
Viceroys, p. 41, gives the date 1176-7). In 
the letter of appointment he is described as 
the king's steward. It cost 27s. 6d. to con- 
vey him and his associates, with their armour, 
to Ireland (Calendar of Documents, Ireland, 
1171-1251, No. 40). On 18 Oct. he, with 
his followers, was at Waterford to meet the 
king, who had landed close by on the pre- 
vious day (BENEDICTUS ABBAS, i. 25; RE- 
GAN'S statement that he accompanied Henry, 
p. 124, is of less authority). He remained 
in Ireland with Henry, witnessing among 
other acts the charter which gave Dublin to 
the men of Bristol (GILBERT, Historical and 
Municipal Documents of Ireland, p. 1). He 
was sent by Henry with Hugh de Lacy on 
a mission to Roderick O'Conor, king of Con- 
naught, to receive his homage (GiRALDtrs 
CAMBRENSIS in Opera, v. 279, Rolls Ser.) 
He also made a recognition of the lands given 
to the monks of St. Mary's Abbey, Dublin, 
before his arrival in Ireland (Chartulary of 
St. Mary's, i. 138, Rolls Ser.) Giraldus also 
says that when Henry went home he left 
Fitzaldhelm behind as joint-governor of Wex- 
ford (ib. p. 286), but this may be a confusion 
with a later appointment (REGAN, p. 39, says 
that Strongbow was governor of Wexford in 
1174). Fitzaldhelm was also sent in 1174 
or 1175 with the prior of Wallingford to 

Produce the bull of Pope Adrian, granting 
reland to Henry, and a confirmatory bull 
of Alexander III to a synod of bishops at 
Waterford (Exp. Hib. p. 315). He soon left 
Ireland, for he appears as a witness of the 
treaty of Falaise in October \V7 ^(Fcedera, i. 
30 ; BEKED. ABBAS, i. 99), and in 1175 and 
1176 he was constantly in attendance at court 
in discharge of his duties as steward or sene- 
schal (ETTON, pp. 191, 194, 195, 198, from 
Pipe Rolls ; LAPPENBERG, Stahlhof, p. 5). 

On 5 April 1176 Strongbow, conqueror 
and justiciar of Ireland, died (DiCETO, i. 407), 
and Henry sent Fitzaldhelm to Ireland to 
take his place (BENED. ABBAS, i. 125; HOVE- 
DEN, ii. 100) and to seize all the fortresses 
which his predecessor had held. With him 
were associated several other rulers, very 
different lists of which are given by Giraldus 
(Exp. Hib. p. 334) and 'Benedict of Peter- 
borough ' (BENED. ABBAS, i. 161). It was 
at this time that Wexford and its elaborately 

defined dependencies were assigned to Fitz- 
aldhelm (ib. i. 163). It is remarkable that 
he is never called 'justice' of Ireland, like 
most viceroys of the period, but generally 
1 dapifer regis ' (e.g. Hist. MSS. Comm. 10th 
Rep. pt. v. p. 211). Giraldus calls him 'pro- 
curator' (Exp. Hib. p. 334). Fitzaldhelm 
had no easy task before him. John de Courci 

&}. v.], one of his colleagues, almost at once 
efied his prohibition, and, under the pretext 
of disgust at his inactivity, set forth on his 
famous expedition to Ulster (BENED. ABBAS, 
i. 137). He also had a difference with Car- 
dinal Vivian, the papal legate, which led to 
Vivian's withdrawal to Scotland (WlLL. 
NEWBURGH, i. 239, Rolls Ser.) But his most 
formidable opponents were the ring of Welsh 
adventurers who resented the intrusion of a 
royal emissary to reap the fruits of their pri- 
vate exploits. Their literary representative, 
Giraldus, draws the blackest picture of Fitz- 
aldhelm, which, though suspicious, cannot be 
checked from other contemporary sources. 
Fitzaldhelm was fat, greedy, profligate, and 
gluttonous. Plausible and insinuating, he 
was thoroughly deceitful. He was only brave 
against the weak, and shirked the duties of 
his office. His inactivity drove De Courci 
and the choicer spirits into Ulster. From 
the day on which Raymond, the acting go- 
vernor, came to meet him at Waterford he 
envied the bravery, the devotion, and the 
success of the Geraldines, and vowed to 
humble their pride. When Maurice Fitzgerald 
died he cheated his sons of their stronghold 
of Wicklow, though compelled ultimately to 
give them Ferns as an inadequate compensa- 
tion. He refused to restore Offaly to Fitz- 
stephen, and deprived Raymond of his lands 
in the valley of the Liffey. His nephew, 
Walter the German, was suborned by Irish 
chieftains to procure the destruction of Ferns. 
He went on progress through the secure coast 
towns, but feared to penetrate into the moun- 
tainous haunts of the natives. He had little 
share in Miles de Cogan's dashing raid into 
Connaught. The only good thing that he 
did was to transfer the wonder-working staff 
of Jesus from Armagh to Dublin. Giraldus 
forgets that Fitzaldhelm was also the founder 
of the monastery of St. Thomas of Canterbury 
at Donore in the western suburbs of Dublin 
(charter of foundation printed in LELAND, 
Hist, of Ireland, i. 127 ; cf. Monasticon, vi. 
1140). It was also during his tenure of office 
that John became lord of Ireland. At last 
Henry listened to the complaints which a 
deputation from Ireland laid before him at 
Windsor just after Christmas 1178 (BENED. 
ABBAS, i. 221), and removed Fitzaldhelm and 
his colleagues from office, and for a long time 



withheld all marks of favour from him (ib. 
Exp. Hib. ccxv-xx, 334-47, for the whole 
history of Fitzaldhelm's government, but it 
should be checked by the less rhetorical and 
more impartial account of BENED. ABBAS, 
with which it is often in direct conflict). 
This makes it probable that Fitzaldhelm 
was not quite equal to the difficulties of his 
position. Substantially his fall was a great 
triumph for the Geraldines. 

Fitzaldhelm now resumed his duties as 
1 dapifer ' at the English court. From 1181 
onwards he was sufficiently in favour for his 
name to appear again in the records (e.g. 
EYTON, pp. 245, 267). In 1188 he became 
sheriff of Cumberland, and in 1189 acted 
also as justice in Yorkshire, Northumberland, 
and his own county (ib. pp. 298, 336). He 
remained sheriff of Cumberland until 1198 
(Thirty-first Report of Deputy-Keeper of 
Records, p. 276). In 1189 he witnessed a 
charter of Christ Church, Canterbury (GEK- 
VASE, Op. Hist. i. 503). In 1194 he attested 
a grant of lands to the cook of Queen Elea- 
nor (Foedera, i. 63). These are the last ap- 
pearances of his name in the records. He is 
said to have married Juliana, daughter of Ro- 
bert Doisnell (HEAKNE, ii'fer Niger Scaccarii, 
i. 73). 

Fitzaldhelm has been generally identified 
with a WILLIAM DE BUEGH (d. 1204), who 
occupies a very prominent position in the 
first years of John's reign in Ireland. A 
William de Burgh appears with his wife 
Eleanor in the < Pipe Roll ' of 1 Richard I 
(p. 176), but he is undoubtedly different from 
Fitzaldhelm, as the latter appears by his re- 
gular name in the same roll. In 1199 Wil- 
liam de Burgh received from John large 
grants of land and castles in Ireland (Rot. 
Chart, pp. 19 b, 71 b, 84 b, 107 b ; the earliest 
grants of John to him were before the latter 
became king, Hist. MSS. Comm. 3rd Rep. 
p. 231). Of these Limerick was the most 
important. In 1200 he became the terror 
of the Irish of Connaught. He supported 
the pretender, Cathal Carrach,in his attempts 
to dispossess Cathal Crobhderg, the head of 
the O'Conors, from the throne of Connaught. 
* There was no church from the Shannon 
westwards to the sea that they did not pillage 
or destroy, and they used to strip the priests 
in the churches and carry off the women 
without regard to saint or sanctuary or to any 
power upon earth' (Annals of Loch Ce, i. 213). 
Cathal Crobhderg was expelled and took re- 
fuge with John de Courci. But in 1202 he 
made terms with William de Burgh, and a 
fresh expedition from Munster again devas- 
tated Connaught (the Four Masters, iii. 129, 
put this expedition in 1 201 ). Cathal Carrach 

was slain, but the treacherous Cathal Crobh- 
derg contrived a plot to assassinate in detail 
the followers of De Burgh. Nine hundred 
or more were murdered, but the remainder 
rallied and the erection of the strong castle 
of Meelick secured some sort of conquest 
of Connaught for the invaders. A quarrel 
between De Burgh and the king's justice, 
Meiler Fitzhenry [q. v.], fora time favoured 
the Irish. In 1203, while De Burgh was in 
Connaught, Meiler invaded his Munster es- 
tates (Ann. Loch Ce, i. 229-31). This brought 
William back to Limerick, but Meiler had 
already seized his castles. The result was 
an appeal to King John. William appeared 
before John in Normandy (Rot. de Libe- 
rate, 5 John, p. 67, summarised in Cal. Doc. 
Ireland, 1171-1251, No. 187), leaving his 
sons as hostages in the justiciar's hands. In 
March 1204 a commission, at the head of 
which was Walter de Lacy, was appointed 
to hear the complaints against De Burgh 
(Pat. 5 John, m. 2 ; Cal. Doc. Ireland, No. 
209). The result was the restoration of his 
Munster estates, though Connaught, ' whereof 
he was disseised by reason of certain ap- 
peals and the dissension between the justi- 
ciary and himself/ was retained in the king's 
hands ' until the king knows how he shall 
have discharged himself (Pat. 6 John, m. 8 ; 
Cal. Doc. Ireland, No. 230). Connaught, 
however, had not been restored when soon 
after William de Burgh died, ' the destroyer 
of all Erinn, of nobility and chieftainship ' 
(Ann. Loch Ce, i. 235). The Irish believed 
that ' God and the saints took vengeance on 
him, for he died of a singular disease too 
shameful to be described ' (Four Masters, iii. 
143). He was the uncle of Hubert de Burgh 
[q. v.] He was the father of Richard de 
Burgh [q. v.] (Rot. Glaus, p. 551), who in 
1222-3 received a fresh grant of Connaught 
and became the founder of the great house 
of the De Burghs. He founded the abbey 
of Athassell for Austin canons (AKCHDALL, 
Monast. Hiber. p. 640), and is said to have 
been buried there. 

[For Fitzaldhelm : G-iraldus Cambrensis, Ex- 
pugnatio Hibernica, in Opera, vol. v. ed. Dimock 
(Bolls Ser.); Benedictus Abbas, ed. Stubbs (Eolls 
Ser.); Eymer's Foedera, vol. i. (Kecord ed.); 
Eyton's Itinerary, &c. of Henry II ; Pipe Koll, 
1 Richard I (Record ed.), and the French poem 
on the conquest of Ireland, ed. Michel. For 
De Burgh : Annals of Loch Ce, i. 211-35 (Eolls 
Ser.) ; Annals of the Four Masters ; Eotuli 
Chartarum, Eotuli Literarum Patentium, Eotuli 
de Oblatis, Eotuli de Liberate. For both : Sweet- 
man's Calendar of Documents relating to Ireland, 
1171-1251; Book of Howth; Gilbert's Viceroys 
of Ireland; Dugdale's Baronage ; Lodge's Peerage 
of Ireland (Archdall).] T. F. T. 






PLYMOUTH (1657 P-1680), born in or about 
1657, was the illegitimate son of Charles II, 
by Catherine, daughter of Thomas Pegge of 
Yeldersley, Derbyshire. ' In the time of his 
youth/ writes the courtly Dugdale, ' giving 
much testimony of his singular accomplish- 
ments,' he was elevated to the peerage, 28 July 
1675, as Baron of Dartmouth, Viscount Tot- 
ness, and Earl of Plymouth, ' to the end he 
might be the more encouraged to persist in 
the paths of virtue, and thereby be the better 
fitted for the managery of great affairs when 
he should attain to riper years' (Baronage, 
iii. 487). He married on 19 Sept. 1678 at 
Wimbledon, Surrey, Lady Bridget Osborne, 
third daughter of Thomas, first duke of Leeds, 
but died without issue at Tangier on 17 Oct. 
1680, aged 23, and was buried on 18 Jan. 
1680-1 in Westminster Abbey (CHESTER, Re- 
gisters of Westminster Abbey, p. 201). His 
wife remarried, about August 1706, Philip 
Bisse, bishop of Hereford, and died on 9 May 
1718 (Hist. Reg. 1718, Chron. Diary, p. 21 ; 
Political State, xv. 553). According to Wood 
(Fasti Oxon. ed. Bliss, ii. 270) he was com- 
monly called ' Don Carlos.' 

[Authorities as above.] Gr. G-. 

(1802-1856), rear-admiral, an illegitimate 
son of William IV, by Mrs. Jordan, entered 
the navy in 1814, on board the Impregnable, 
bearing the flag of his father, then Duke of 
Clarence. Afterwards he served in the Medi- 
terranean, on the North American station, 
or the coast of Portugal, and was promoted 
to be lieutenant in April 1821. In May 1823 
he was made commander, and captain in 
December 1824. In 1826 he commanded the 
Ariadne in the Mediterranean, in 1827 the 
Challenger, in 1828 the Pallas, and in July 
1830 was appointed to the command of the 
royal yacht, which he retained till promoted 
to flag rank, 17 Sept. 1853. He died 17 May 
1856. On his father's accession to the throne 
he was granted, 24 May 1831, the title and 
precedency of the younger son of a mar- 

Siis, and 24 Feb. 1832 was nominated a 

[O'Byrne's Naval Biog. Diet.; Foster's Peerage, 
s.n. ' Munster.'] J. K. L. 

(1794-1842), major-general, president of the 
Royal Asiatic Society of London, the eldest 
of the numerous children of the Duke of 

Clarence, afterwards William IV, by Mrs. 
Jordan (1762 P-1816) [q. v.], was born in 
1794. He was sent to a private school at 
Sunbury, and afterwards to the Royal Mili- 
tary College at Marlow, and on 5 Feb. 1807, 
before he was fourteen, was appointed cornet 
in the 10th hussars. He went with his 
regiment to Spain next year, and was aide- 
de-camp to General Slade at Corunna. He 
returned to the Peninsula the year after as 
galloper to Sir Charles Stewart, afterwards 
second marquis of Londonderry, then Lord 
Wellington's adjutant-general, and made the 
campaigns of 1 809-1 1 . He was wounded and 
taken prisoner at Fuentes d'Onoro, but effected 
his escape in the melee. He was promoted 
to a troop in the 10th hussars at home soon 
after. He accompanied his regiment to 
Spain in 1813, and made the campaigns of 
1813-14 in Spain and the south of France, 
first as a deputy assistant adjutant-general 
(GURWOOD, Wellington Despatches, vi. 452), 
and afterwards with his regiment, while 
leading a squadron of which he was severely 
wounded at Toulouse. On the return of the 
regiment to England he was one of the chief 
witnesses against the commanding officer, 
Colonel Quentin, who was tried by a general 
court-martial at Whitehall, in October 1814, 
on charges of incapacity and misconduct in 
the field. The charges were partly proved ; 
but as the officers were believed to have 
combined against their colonel, the whole of 
them were removed to other regiments, ' as 
a warning in support of subordination,' a 
proceeding which acquired for them the 
name of the 'elegant extracts.' Fitzcla- 
rence and his younger brother Henry, who 
died in India, were thus transferred to the 
since disbanded 24th light dragoons, then 
in India, where George became aide-de-camp 
to the Marquis of Hastings, governor-gene- 
ral and commander-in-chief, in which ca- 
pacity he made the campaigns of 1816-17 
against the Mahrattas. When peace was 
arranged with the Maharajah Scindiah the 
event was considered of sufficient importance 
to send the despatches in duplicate, and 
Fitzclarence was entrusted with the dupli- 
cates sent by overland route. He started 
from the western frontier of Bundelkund, 
the furthest point reached by the grand 
army, 7 Dec. 1817, and travelling through 
districts infested by the Pindarrees, witnessed 
the defeat of the latter by General Doveton 
at Jubbulpore, reached Bombay, and quitted 
it in the H.E.I.C. cruiser Mercury for Kosseir 
7 Feb. 1818, crossed the desert, explored the 
pyramids with Salt and Belzoni, descended 
the Nile, and reached London, via Alexandria 
and Malta, 16 June 1818. He subsequently 




published an account of his travels, entitlec 
' Journal of a Route across India and through 
Egypt to England in 1817-18,' London, 1819 
4to, a work exhibiting much observation 
and containing some curious plates of Indian 
military costumes of the day from sketches 
by the author. 

Fitzclarence became a brevet lieutenant- 
colonel in 1819, and the same year marriec 
a natural daughter of the Earl of Eglinton 
and sister of his old brother officer, Colonel 
Wyndham, M.P., by whom he had a nume- 
rous family. He subsequently obtained a 
troop in the 14th light dragoons, commanded 
the 6th carabiniers for a short time as regi- 
mental major in Ireland, and served as 
captain and lieutenant-colonel Coldstream 
guards from July 1825 to December 1828, 
afterwards retiring as lieutenant-colonel on 
half-pay unattached. In May 1830 he was 
raised to the peerage, under the titles of the 
Earl of Munster (one of the titles of the Duke 
of Clarence) and Baron Tewkesbury in the 
United Kingdom, his younger brothers and 
sisters at the same time being given the pre- 
cedence of the younger children of a marquis. 
For a short time he was adj utant-general at the 
Horse Guards, a post which he resigned. The 
Duke of Wellington appointed him lieutenant 
of the Tower and colonel 1st Tower Hamlets 
militia, but refers to him ( Wellington Cor- 
respondence, vii. 195, 498) as having done a 
good deal of mischief by meddling with Mrs. 
Fitzherbert's affairs. He appears to have 
busied himself a good deal with politics be- 
fore the passing of the Reform Bill (ib. viii. 
260, 274, 306, 326), and after the resignation 
of the whig cabinet in 1832 became very un- 
popular, on the supposition that he had at- 
tempted to influence the king against reform, 
a charge he emphatically denied (Parl. De- 
bates, 3rd ser. xiii. 179-80). At the brevet 
on the birth of the Prince of Wales he be- 
came a major-general, and was soon after 
appointed to command the Plymouth district. 
His health had been for some time impaired 
by suppressed gout, which appears to have 
unhinged his mind. He committed suicide 
by shooting himself, at his residence in Upper 
Belgraye Street, 20 March 1842. He was 
buried in the parish church at Hampton. 

Munster was a privy councillor, governor 
and captain of Windsor Castle, a fellow of 
the Royal Society, and of the Royal Geo- 
graphical, Antiquarian, Astronomical, and 
Geological societies of London. He became 
a member of the Royal Asiatic Society on its 
first formation in 1824, was elected a member 
of the council in March 1825, in 1826 was 
one of the committee commissioned to draw 
up a plan for a committee of correspondence, 

was many years vice-president, and was 
chosen president the year before his death. 
On 4 Oct. 1827 he was nominated by 
the society member of a committee to pre- 
pare a plan for publishing translations of 
oriental works, and was subsequently ap- 
pointed deputy-chairman and vice-president 
of the Oriental Translation Fund, which was 
largely indebted to his activity in obtaining 
subscriptions and making the necessary ar- 
rangements, and particularly in securing the 
co-operation of the Propaganda Fide and 
other learned bodies in Rome (OrientalTransl. 
Fund, 3rd Rep., 1830). He was also presi- 
dent of the Society for the Publication of 
Oriental Texts. He communicated to the 
SocietS Asiatique of Paris a paper on the 
employment of Mohammedan mercenaries 
in Christian armies, which appeared in the 
1 Journal Asiatique,' 56 cahier (February 
1827), and was translated in the 'Naval and 
Military Magazine ' (ii. 33, iii. 113-520), a 
magazine of which four volumes only ap- 
peared. With the aid of his secretary and 
amanuensis, Dr. Aloys Sprenger (the German 
orientalist, afterwards principal of Delhi 
College), Munster had collected an immense 
mass of information from the great continental 
libraries and other sources for a ' History of 
the Art of War among Eastern Nations' (see 
Ann. Rep. p. v, Journal Royal Asiatic Society, 
vol. vii.) With this object he sent out, two 
years before his death, an Arabic circular, 
Kitab-i-fibrist al Kutub,' &c. (or 'A List 
of Desiderata in Books in Arabic, Persian, 
Turkish, and Hindustani on the Art of War 
among Mohammedans'), compiled, under the 
order of Munster, by Aloys Sprenger, London, 
1840. Munster was likewise the author of 
'An Account of the British Campaign in Spain 
and Portugal in 1809,' London, 1831, which 
originally appeared in Colburn's ' United Ser- 
vice Magazine.' 

Munster is described as having been a 
most amiable man in private life, and much 
beloved by his old comrades of the 10th 

[Burke's Peerage, under ' Munster ; ' Jerdan's 
Nat. Portraits, vol. iii., with portrait after At- 
kinson ; Proceedings of Court-martial on Colonel 
Quentin, printed from the shorthand writer's 
notes (1814); Fitzclarence's Account of a Journey 
across India, &c. (1819); Wellington Corre- 
spondence, vols. vii. and viii. ; Greville Corre- 
spondence, 1st ser. ii. 10, 43, 168; Koyal Asiatic 
Society, London, Comm. of Correspondence (Lon- 
don, 1829) ; Annual Report in Journal Royal 
Asiatic Society, London, vol. vii. (1843); Gent. 
VTag. new ser. xvii. 358, xviii. 677 (will) ; a 
etter from Lord Munster to the Duke of Mont- 
rose in 1830 is in Egerton MS. 29300, f. 119.] 

H. M. C. 




FITZCOUNT, BRIAN (f. 1125-1142), 
warrior and author, was the son of Count 
Alan 'Fergan' (Anglo-Saxon Chron. 1127) 
of Brittany (d. 1119), but apparently ille- 
gitimate. From a most interesting letter 
addressed to him by Gilbert Foliot (vide 
infra), we learn that Henry I reared him 
from his youth up, knighted him, and pro- 
vided for him in life. A chief means by 
which he was provided for was his marriage 
with ' Matilda de Wallingford,' as she was 
styled, who brought him the lands of Miles 
Crispin ( Testa de Nevill, p. 115), whose widow 
(ib.) or daughter she was. He was further 
made firmarius of Wallingford (but not, as 
asserted, given it for himself), then an im- 
portant town with a strong fortress. This 
3>ost he held at least as early as 1127 (Pipe 
Roll, 31 Hen. I, p. 139). He was despatched 
in that year (1 127) with the Earl of Gloucester 
to escort the Empress Maud to Normandy 
(Anglo-Saxon Chronicle}, and was engaged 
with him shortly afterwards in auditing the 
national accounts at the treasury at "Win- 
chester (Pipe Roll, 31 Hen. I, pp. 130-1). He 
also purchased for himself the office and part 
of the land of Nigel de Oilli (ib. p. 139), 
and held land by 1130 in at least twelve 
counties (ib. passim). From the evidence of 
charters it is clear that he was constantly 
at court for the last ten years of the reign. 
Though a devoted adherent of the Empress 
Maud, he witnessed as a ' constable' Ste- 
phen's charter of liberties (1136), as did the 
Earl of Gloucester. On her landing (1139), 
however, he at once declared for her ( Gesta, 
p. 57), met the Earl of Gloucester as he 
marched from Arundel to Bristol, and con- 
certed with him their plans (WiLL. MALM. 
ii. 725). Stephen promptly besieged Wal- 
lingford, but failing to take it, retired, leaving 
a blockading force ( Gesta, pp. 57-8). But the 
blockade was raised, and Brian relieved by 
a dashing attack from Gloucester (ib. p. 59). 
Thenceforth Wallingford, throughout the 
war, was a thorn in Stephen's side, and Brian 
was one of the three chief supporters of the 
empress, the other five being her brother 
Robert and Miles of Gloucester [q. v.] These 
three attended her on her first visit to Win- 
chester (March 1141), and were sureties for 
her to the legate (WILL. MALM. ii. 743). 
Charters prove that Brian accompanied her 
to London (June 1141), and that at Oxford 
lie was with her again (25 July 1141). 
Thence he marched with her to Winchester 
(Gesta, p. 80), and on her defeat fled with 
her to Devizes, ' showing that as before they 
had loved one another, so now neither ad- 
versity nor danger could sever them' (ib. 
p. 83). 

A Brien de Walingofort 

Commanda a mener la dame 

E dist, sor la peril de s'alme, 

Qu'en mil lieu ne s'aresteiisent. (MEYER) 

He is again found with her at Bristol towards 
the close of the year (Monasticon, vi. 137), 
and at Oxford in the spring of 1142. And 
when escaping from Oxford in December 
following, it was to Brian's castle that the 
empress fled (HEN. HUNT. p. 276). 

It was at some time after the landing of 
the empress (1139) that Gilbert Foliot wrote 
to Brian that long and instructive letter, 
from which we learn that this fighting baron 
had apparently composed an eloquent treatise 
in defence of the rights of the empress (ed. 
Giles, ep. Ixxix.) Another ecclesiastic, the 
Bishop of Winchester, endeavoured in vain 
to shake his allegiance on behalf of the king, 
his brother. Their correspondence is still 
extant in the ' Liber Epistolaris ' of Richard 
de Bury (Hist. MSS. Comm. 4th Rep. p. 390 b). 
Brian must therefore have received, for these 
days, an unusually good education, probably 
at the court of Henry * Beauclerc.' 

His later history is very obscure. On the 
capture of William Martel at Wilton in 1143 
he was sent prisoner to Brian, who placed 
him in a special dungeon, which he named 
'cloere Brien' (MATT. PARIS, ii. 174). In 
1146 he was again besieged by Stephen, who 
was joined by the Earl of Chester (HEN. 
HUNT. p. 279), but he surprised and captured 
shortly after a castle of the Bishop of Win- 
chester (Gesta, p. 133). In 1152 Stephen 
besieged him a third time, and he found him- 
self hard pressed; but in 1153 he was bril- 
liantly relieved by Henry (HEN. HUNT. pp. 
284, 287). Thus the t clever Breton,' as Ger- 
vase (i. 153) terms him, held his fortress to 
the end. At this point he disappears from 

The story that he went on crusade comes 
from the utterly untrustworthy account of 
him in the * Abergavenny Chronicle' (Mon. 
Angl.iv.QIS). An authentic charter of 1141-2 
(Pipe Roll Soc.) proves that he held Aber- 
gavenny, but, like everything else, in right of 
his wife. She, who died without issue (Note- 
book, iii. 536), founded Oakburn Priory, 
Wiltshire, circa 1151 (Mon. Angl. vi. 1016). 

[Anglo-Saxon Chronicle (Rolls Series) ; Gesta 
Stephani(ib.) ; Henry of Huntingdon (ib.) ; Matt. 
Paris's Chronica Major (ib.) ; Gervase of Can- 
terbury (ib.) ; Pipe Roll of 31 Hen. I (Record 
Commission) ; Testa de Nevill (ib.) ; William of 
Malmesbury (Engl. Hist. Soc.); Monasticon An- 
glicanum (new edit.); Round's Charters (Pipe 
Roll Soc.); Maitland's Bracton's Note-book; 
Meyer's L'histoire de Guillaume le Marechal (Ro- 
mania, vol. xi.); Hist. MSS. Comm. 4th Rep.; 




Giles's Letters of Foliot (Patres Ecclesiae Angli- 
canse); Athenaeum, 22 Oct. 1887; the Rev. A. D. 
Crake's Brian Fitzcount (1888) is an historical 
romance, founded on Brian's legendary career.] 

J. H. R. 

1638), poet and divine, son of Alexander 
Fitzgeffrey, a clergyman who had migrated 
from Bedfordshire, was born at Fowey in 
Cornwall about 1575. He was entered in 
1590 at Broadgates Hall, Oxford, proceeded 
B.A. 31 Jan. ] 596-7, and M.A. 4 July 1600. 
In 1596 he published at Oxford a spirited 
poem entitled ' Sir Francis Drake, his Hono- 
rable Lifes Commendation and his Tragical 
Deathes Lamentation/ 8vo. It was dedi- 
cated to Queen Elizabeth, and commendatory 
verses were prefixed by Richard Rous, Francis 
Rous, 'D.W.,' and Thomas Mychelbourne. 
A second edition, with a revised text and 
additional commendatory verses, was pub- 
lished in the same year. Meres, in ' Palladis 
Tamia,' 1598, has a complimentary notice of 
* yong Charles Fitz-Ieffrey, that high touring 
Falcon ; ' and several quotations from the 
poem occur in ' England's Parnassus,' 1600. 
In 1601 Fitzgeffrey published an interest- 
ing volume of Latin epigrams and epitaphs : 
1 Caroli Fitzgeofridi Affaniae ; sive Epigram- 
matum libri tres; Ejusdem Cenotaphia,' 8vo. 
Epigrams are addressed to Drayton, Daniel, 
Sir John Harington, William Percy, and 
Thomas Campion ; and there are epitaphs on 
Spenser, Tarlton, and Nashe. Fitzgeffrey's 
most intimate friends were the brothers Ed- 
ward, Laurence, and Thomas Mychelbourne, 
who are so frequently mentioned in Cam- 
pion's Latin epigrams. There is an epigram 
1 To my deare freind Mr. Charles Fitz-Ieffrey' 
among the poems ' To Worthy Persons ' ap- 
pended to John Davies of Hereford's 'Scourge 
of Folly,' n. d., 1610-11. It appears from 
the epigram (* To thee that now dost mind 
but Holy Writ,' &c.) that Fitzgeffrey was 
then in orders. By his friend Sir Anthony 
Rous he was presented to the living of 
St. Dominic, Eastwellshire. In 1620 he pub- 
lished l Death's Sermon unto the Living,' 4to, 
2nd ed. 1622, a funeral sermon on the wife 
of Sir Anthony Rous ; in 1622 < Elisha, his 
Lamentation for his Owne,'4to, a funeral ser- 
mon on Sir Anthony; in 1631 'The Curse of 
Corne-horders : with the Blessing of season- 
able Selling. In three sermons,' 4to, dedicated 
to Sir Reginald Mohune, reprinted in 1648 
under the title ' God's Blessing upon the 
Providers of Corne,' &c. ; in 1634 a devotional 
poem, ' The Blessed Birth-Day celebrated in 
some Pious Meditations on the Angels An- 
them,' 4to, reprinted in 1636 and 1651 ; and 
in 1637/ Compassion to wards Captives, chiefly 

towards our Brethren and Country-men who 
are in miserable bondage in Barbaric: urged 
and pressed in three sermons . . . preached 
in Plymouth in October 1636,' 4to, with a 
dedication to John Cause, mayor of Plymouth. 
Fitzgeffrey died 24 Feb. 1637-8, and was- 
buned under the communion-table of his- 
church. Robert Chamberlain has some verses 
to his memory in ' Nocturnall Lucubrations r 

Fitzgeffrey prefixed commendatory verses 
to Storer's ' Life and Death of Thomas, Earl of 
Cromwell,' 1599 (two copies of Latin verse and 
two English sonnets), Davies of Hereford's- 
'Microcosmus,'1603, Sylvester's 'Bartas, his. 
Devine Weekes and Workes,' 1605, and Wil- 
liam Vaughan's ' Golden Grove,' 1608. He was 
among the contributors to ' Oxoniensis Aca- 
demies funebre officium in Memoriam Eliza- 
bethee,' 1603, 4to, and ' Academise Oxoniensis 
Pietas erga Jacobum,' 1603, 4to. There is an 
epigram to him in John Dunbar's 'Epigram- 
maton Centuries Sex,' 1616; Campion ad- 
dressed two epigrams to him, and Robert 
Hay man in ' Quodlibets,' 1620, has an epi- 
gram to him, from which it appears that he 
was blind of one eye. A letter of Fitzgef- 
frey, dated from Fowey, March 1633, giving 
an account of a thunderstorm, is preserved at 
Kimbolton Castle. ' Sir Francis Drake ' and 
' The Blessed Birth-Day ' have been reprinted 
in Dr. Grosart's ' Occasional Issues.' 

[Wood's Athense, ed. Bliss, ii. 607-9 ; Dr. Gro- 
sart's Memorial Introduction to Fitzgeffrey's 
Poems; Boase and Courtney's Bibliotheca Cornu- 
biensis; Hunter's Chorus Vatum.] A. H. B. 

writer of satires and epigrams, is commonly 
assumed to have been a son of Charles Fitz- 
geffrey [q. v.], but no evidence in support of 
the conjecture has been adduced. A Henry 
Fitz-Jeffrey, who is on the list of Westmin- 
ster scholars elected to Cambridge in 1611 
(WELCH, Alumni Westmonast. p. 81), may, 
or may not, be the satirist. In 1617 ap- 
peared * Certain Elegies, done by Sundrie 
excellent Wits. With Satyres and Epi- 
grames,' 8vo ; 2nd edition, 1618 ; 3rd edition, 
1620; 4th edition, undated. The elegies- 
are by Ffrancis] Bfeaumont], N[athaniel ?] 
H[ooke?J, and Mpchael] D[rayton]. They 
are followed by ' The Author in Praise of 
his own Booke,' four lines ; and ' Of his deare 
Friend the Author H. F.,' eight lines, signed 
<Nath. Gvrlyn,' to which is appended 'The 
Author's Answer.' In the first satire there 
are some curious notices of popular fugitive* 
tracts. After the second satire is a cojpy of 
commendatory verses by J. Stephens. Then- 
follows 'The Second Booke: of SatyricalL 




Epigram's/ with a dedication ' To his True 
Friend Tho : Fletcher of Lincoln's Inn, Gent. ; ' 
and at the end of the epigrams is another copy 
of commendatory verses by Stephens. 'The 
Third Booke of Humours: Intituled Notes 
from Black-Fryers,' opens with an epigram 
* To his Lou : Chamber-Fellow and nearest 
Friend Nat. Gvrlin of Lincolnes-Inn, Gent.' 
The notes are followed by some more verses 
of Stephens, the epilogue ' The Author for 
Himselfe/ and finally a verse 'Post-script 
to his Book-binder/ Twelve copies of the 
little volume were reprinted, from the edi- 
tion of 1620, for E. V. Utterson at the Bel- 
dornie Press in 1843. 

[Corser's Collectanea Anglo-Poetica, pt. yi. 
pp. 356-60 : Wood's Athense Oxon. ed. Bliss, ii. 
608.] A. H. B. 

FITZGERALD, DAVID (U1176), bishop 
of St. David's. [See DAVID the Second.] 

1798), Irish rebel, was one of the seventeen 
children of James Fitzgerald, viscount and 
first duke of Leinster [q. v.], by Emilia Mary, 
daughter of Charles, duke of Richmond. His 
father died in 1773, and his mother married 
William Ogilvie. The Duke of Richmond 
lent his house at Aubigny in France to the 
family, who resided there till 1779 ; Ogilvie 
undertook Edward's education, which had 
been commenced by a tutor named Lynch. 
The boy had a marked military bent, and on 
returning to England joined the Sussex mi- 
litia, of which his uncle, the Duke of Rich- 
mond, was colonel. He next entered the 96th 
infantry as lieutenant, served with it in Ire- 
land, exchanged into the 19th in order to 
get foreign service, and in 1781 went out to 
Charleston. His skill in covering a retreat 
got him the post of aide-de-camp to Lord 
Rawdon, on whose retirement he rejoined his 
regiment. At the engagement of Eutaw 
Springs, August 1781, he was wounded in 
the thigh, was left senseless on the field, and 
might have succumbed had not a negro, Tony, 
carried him to his hut and nursed him. Tony 
was thenceforth, to the end of Fitzgerald's 
life, his devoted servant or slave. After his 
recovery Fitzgerald was on O'Hara's staff at 
St. Lucia, but soon returned to Ireland, where 
his eldest brother had him elected M.P. for 
Athy. He voted in the Dublin parliament 
in the small minority with Grattan and Cur- 
ran. After a course of professional study at 
Woolwich a disappointment in love drove 
him to New Brunswick to join his regiment, 
the 54th, of which he was now major. Cob- 
bett was the sergeant-major, and was grateful 
to Fitzgerald for procuring him his discharge, 

describing him to Pitt in 1800 as the only 
really honest officer he had ever known. In- 
fected by the fashionable Rousseau admiration 
for savage life, Fitzgerald made his way by 
compass through the woods from Frederick- 
ton to Quebec, was formally admitted at De- 
troit into the Bear tribe, and went down the 
Mississippi to New Orleans, but was refused 
the expected permission to visit the Mexican 
mines. On returning home he found himself 
M.P. for Kildare, became intimate with the 
whig leaders in London, joined in April 1792 
their Society of the Friends of the People, 
shared their enthusiasm for the French revo- 
lution, and in October 1792 visited Paris. 
He stayed at the same hotel as Paine, took 
his meals with him, and at a British dinner 
to celebrate French victories joined in Sir 
Robert Smith's toast to the abolition of all 
hereditary titles. Cashiered from the army 
for attendance at this revolutionary banquet, 
he was not, however, so immersed in politics 
as to neglect the theatres. Hence his brief 
courtship and his marriage, 27 Dec. 1792 [see 
FITZGEKALD, PAMELA]. He tookhis bride over 
to Ireland, and six days after his arrival at 
Dublin caused a scene in parliament by de- 
scribing the lord-lieutenant and the majority 
as ' the worst subjects the king has.' He was 
ordered into custody, but refused to make any 
serious apology. When not attending parlia- 
ment he enjoyed the society of his wife and 
child and of his flowers at Kildare. His dis- 
missal from the army and the political reaction 
consequent on the atrocities in France con- 
verted the light-hearted young nobleman into 
a stern conspirator. Early in 1796 he joined 
the United Irishmen, who now avowedly 
aimed at an independent Irish republic, and in 
May he went with Arthur O'Connor to Bale to 
confer with Hoche on a French invasion ; but 
the Directory, apprehensive of accusations of 
Orleanism, on account of Pamela's supposed 
kinship with the Orleans family, declined to 
negotiate with Fitzgerald, who rejoined his 
wife at Hamburg, leaving O'Connor to treat 
with Hoche. Returning to Ireland he visited 
Belfast with O'Connor, then a candidate for 
Antrim, but in July 1797 he declined to solicit 
re-election, telling the Kildare voters that 
under martial law free elections were impos- 
sible, but that he hoped hereafter to represent 
them in a free parliament. In the following 
autumn the United Irishmen became a mili- 
tary organisation, 280,000 men, according to 
a list given by Fitzgerald to Thomas Rey- 
nolds, being prepared with arms, and a mili- 
tary committee, headed by Fitzgerald, was 
deputed to prepare a scheme of co-operation 
with the French, or of a rising if their arrival 
could not be awaited. Fitzgerald was him- 

I tzgerald 


self colonel of the so-called Kildare regiment, 
but induced Reynolds to take his place. The 
latter alleges that three months after his ap- 
pointment he learned the intention of the 
conspirators to begin the rising by murdering 
eighty leading noblemen and dignitaries, and 
that to save their lives he gave the authori- 
ties information which led to the arrest, on 
12 March 1798, at Oliver Bond's house, of the 
Leinster provincial committee. He does not 
state whether Fitzgerald was cognisant of the 
intended murders, but anxious for his escape 
he had on the llth given him a vague warn- 
ing and urged flight, whereupon Fitzgerald 
expressed a desire to go to France that he 
might induce Talleyrand to hasten the inva- 
sion. Owing perhaps to Reynolds's warning, 
Fitzgerald was not at Bond's meeting ; but 
being told there was no warrant against him- 
self was about to enter his own house, then 
being searched by the police, when Tony, on 
the look-out, gave him timely notice. So far 
from distrusting Reynolds, Fitzgerald, while 
in concealment, sent for him on the 14th and 
15th, the first time to propose taking refuge 
in Kilkee Castle, the property of the Duke of 
Leinster, then occupied by Reynolds. Rey- 
nolds objected to the plan as unsafe, and next 
day took him fifty guineas and a case of 
pocket pistols. Reynolds clearly gave no in- 
formation of these interviews, and Lord-chan- 
cellor Clare, if not other members of the Irish 
government, was also desirous of an escape. 
Fitzgerald, however, remained in or near Dub- 
lin, paid two secret visits, once in female at- 
tire, to his wife, who had prudently removed 
from Leinster House, walked along the canal 
at night, and actively continued preparations 
for a rising fixed for 23 May. The authori- 
ties were therefore obliged in self-defence to 
take more serious steps for his apprehension, 
and on 11 May they offered a reward of 1,00(V. 
Madden gives reasons for thinking that the 
F. H. or J. H. (the first initial was indis- 
tinctly written in the original document from 
which he copied the entry) to whom on 
20 June the sum was paid, was John Hughes, 
a Belfast bookseller, one of Fitzgerald's so- 
called body-guard. However; this may be, 
the authorities knew that on the 19th he 
would be at Murphy's, a feather dealer. Fitz- 
gerald, having dined, was lying with his coat 
off on a bed upstairs, and Murphy was asking 
him to come down to tea, when Major Swan 
and Ryan mounted the stairs and entered the 
room. After a desperate struggle, in which 
Ryan was mortally wounded, Fitzgerald was 
captured. Shot in the right arm by Major 
Sirr, who had also entered the room, his 
wound was pronounced free from danger, 
whereupon he said, ' I am sorry for it.' He 

was taken first to the castle and then to 
Newgate. Inflammation set in ; his brother 
Henry and his aunt (Lady Louisa Conolly) 
were allowed to see him in his last moments, 
and on 4 June he expired. His remains were 
interred in St. Werburgh Church, Dublin, 
and Sirr, forty-three years later, was buried 
a few paces off in the churchyard. A bill of 
attainder was passed against Fitzgerald, but 
the government allowed his Kilrush estate, 
worth about 700/. a year, to be bought by 
Ogilvie at the price of the mortgage, 10,400/., 
and in 1819 the attainder was repealed. Fitz- 
gerald was of small stature (Reynolds says 
5 feet 5 inches, Murphy 5 feet 7 inches), and 
Moore, who once saw him in 1797, speaks of 
his peculiar dress, elastic gait, healthy com- 
plexion, and the soft expression given to his 
eyes by long dark eyelashes. He left three 
children : Edward Fox (1794-1863), an offi- 
cer in the army ; Pamela, wife of General 
Sir Guy Campbell ; and Lucy Louisa, wife 
of Captain G. F. Lyon, R.N. 

[Moore's Life of Lord E. Fitzgerald ; Life of 
Thomas Reynolds ; Madden's United Irishmen ; 
Teeling's Personal Narrative of the Irish Rebel- 
lion.] J. G-. A. 

1807), Irish insurgent leader, born at New- 
park, co. Wexford, about 1770, was a country 
gentleman of considerable means. At the 
breaking out of the insurrection in 1798 he 
was confined in Wexford gaol on suspicion, 
but on being released by the populace, com- 
manded in some of the engagements that 
took place in different parts of the county 
during the occupation of the town, exhibit- 
ing, it is said, far better generalship than 
the commander-in-chief,Bagenal Beauchamp 
Harvey [q. v.] Madden commends his hu- 
manity to the prisoners that fell into his 
hands at Gorey. At the battle of Arklow 
he commanded the Shemalier gunsmen. He 
afterwards joined in the expedition against 
Hacketstown, and surrendered upon terms 
to General Wilford in the middle of July. 
With Garrett, Byrne, and others he was de- 
tained in custody in Dublin until the ensu- 
ing year, when he was permitted to reside in 
England. He was, however, re-arrested on 
25 March 1800, imprisoned for a while, and 
then allowed to retire to Hamburg, where he 
died in 1807. In person Fitzgerald is de- 
scribed as a ' handsome, finely formed man ; ' 
he was besides a speaker of great eloquence. 

[Madden's United Irishmen; Webb's Com- 
pendium of Irish Biog. pp. 194-5.] 

1883), poet and translator, born at Bredfield 
House, nearWoodbridge, Suffolk, on 31 March 




1809, was the third son of John Purcell, who, 
on the death of his wife's father in 1818, took 
the name and arms of Fitzgerald. In 1821 
Fitzgerald was sent to King Edward the 
Sixth's Grammar School at Bury St. Ed- 
munds, under the charge of Dr. Malkin. In 
1826 he entered at Trinity College, Cambridge, 
and took his degree in 1830. He made life- 
long friendships with his schoolfellows, James 
Spedding and W. B. Donne [q. v.T, and with 
his college contemporaries, W. M. Thackeray, 
"W. H. Thompson, afterwards master of 
Trinity, and John Allen, afterwards arch- 
deacon of Salop. The three brothers Tenny- 
son were also at Cambridge at the same 
time, but he did not know them till a later 
period. With Frederic, the eldest, he kept 
up a correspondence for several years, and 
the laureate dedicated to him his poem ' Ti- 
resias,' but, as Fitzgerald died just before it 
was published, their long friendship is fur- 
ther commemorated in the touching epi- 
logue. Carlyle was a friend of a later date, 
but firm and true to the last. Fitzgerald 
spent the greater part of his life in Suffolk. 
His youth was passed at Bredfield, where he 
was born, and where he lived, with the ex- 
ception of a short sojourn in France, till 
about 1825. His home was then for some 
time at Wherstead Lodge, near Ipswich, till 
1835, when the family removed to Boulge 
Hall in the adjoining parish to Bredfield, 
and for several years Fitzgerald occupied a 
small cottage close by the park gates. Here 
his chief friends were George Crabbe, the 
son of the poet and vicar of Bredfield, and 
Bernard Barton, the quaker poet of Wood- 
bridge, whose daughter he afterwards mar- 
ried. He had no liking for the conventional 
usages of society, and was therefore some- 
what of a recluse. But he was by no means 
unsocial, and to those whom he admitted to 
his intimacy he was the most delightful of 
companions. His habits were extremely 
simple ; his charity large and generous, but 
always discriminating ; his nature tender and 
affectionate. He lived at Boulge till about 
the end of 1853, and then settled for a time 
at Farlingay Hall, an old farmhouse just 
outside Woodbridge, where Carlyle visited 
him in 1855. About the end of 1860 he 
went to live in Woodbridge itself, taking 
lodgings on the Market Hill, and there he re- 
mained till, at the beginning of 1874, he re- 
moved to his own house, Little Grange, which 
he had enlarged some years before, and where 
he continued till his death. His chief out- 
door amusement was boating, and the great 
part of each summer was spent in his yacht, 
in which he cruised about the neighbouring 
coast. But he gradually withdrew from the 

sea, and after the death of his old boatman 
in 1877, the river had no longer any pleasure 
for him, and he was driven to console him- 
self with his garden. On 14 June 1883 he 
died suddenly while on a visit at Merton Rec- 
tory, Norfolk, and was buried at Boulge. 

Beyond occasional contributions to peri- 
odical literature Fitzgerald does not appear 
to have published anything till he wrote a 
short memoir of Bernard Barton, prefixed to 
a collection of his letters and poems, which 
was made after the poet's death in 1849. In 
1851 was issued ' Euphranor, a Dialogue on 
Youth,' which contains some beautiful Eng- 
lish prose. In 1852 appeared < Polonius : a 
Collection of Wise Saws and Modern In- 
stances,' with a preface on proverbs and apho- 
risms. Both these were anonymous. In 
1853 he brought out the only book to which 
he ever attached his name, ' Six Dramas of 
Calderon, freely translated by Edward Fitz- 
Gerald,' but the reception it met with at the 
hands of reviewers, who did not take the 
trouble to understand his object, did not en- 
courage him to repeat the experiment. He 
consequently never issued, except to his per- 
sonal friends, the translations or adaptations 
of ' La Vida es Sueno ' and < El Magico Pro- 
digioso.' These translations never professed 
to be close renderings of their originals. They 
were rather intended to produce, in one who 
could not read the language from which 
they were rendered, something of the same 
effect as is conveyed by the original to- 
those familiar with it. On this principle he 
translated the l Agamemnon ' of ^schylus, 
which was first issued privately without 
date, and was afterwards published anony- 
mously in 1876. A year or two before his 
death he completed on the same lines a trans- 
lation of the f QEdipus Tyrannus ' and the 
' (Edipus Coloneus ' of Sophocles. But the 
work on which his fame will mainly rest is 
his marvellous rendering of the 'Quatrains' 
of Omar Khayyam, the astronomer poet of 
Persia, which he has made to live in a way 
that no translation ever lived before. In his 
hands the ' Quatrains ' became a new poem, 
and their popularity is attested by the four 
editions which appeared in his lifetime. But 
when they were first published in 1859 they 
fell upon an unregarding public, as heedless 
of their merits as the editor of a magazine in 
whose hands they had been for two years 
previously. His Persian studies, which wer& 
begun at the suggestion of his friend, Pro- 
fessor Cowell, first led him in 1856 to- 
translate the ' Salaman and Absal ' of Jami. 
After this he was attracted to Attar's 'Man- 
tik-ut-tair,' and by 1859 he had made a 
kind of abridged translation of it, which he- 



called the l Bird Parliament ; ' but it remained 
in manuscript till his death. 

Fitzgerald was a great admirer of Crabbe's 
poetry, and, in order to rescue it from the 
disregard into which it had fallen, he con- 
densed the ' Tales of the Hall ' by liberal 
omission and the introduction of prose in 
place of the more diffuse narrative in verse. 
The preface to these * Readings in Crabbe,' 
in which he pleaded for more attention to a 
neglected poet, was the last work on which 
ke employed his pen. 

An edition of his collected writings, with 
selections from his correspondence, is now 
(1889) in the press, under the editorship of 
the writer of this article. 

[Fitzgerald's Collected Works, ed. W. Aldis 
Wright, LL.D.] W. A. W. 


called the FAIR GERALDINE (1528 P-1589), 
was youngest daughter of Gerald Fitzgerald, 
ninth earl of Kildare [q.v.],byhis second wife, 
Lady Elizabeth, fourth daughter of Thomas 
Grey, marquis of Dorset. Born apparently 
about 1528 at her father's castle at May- 
nooth, she was brought to England by her 
mother in 1533, when her father was involved 
in his son's treasonable practices. Her father 
was executed in 1534, and she lived with her 
mother at Beaumanoir, Leicestershire, the 
liouse of her uncle, Lord Leonard Grey. In 
1538 she entered the household of the Prin- 
cess Mary at Hunsdon, and when that esta- 
blishment was broken up in 1540, she trans- 
ferred her services to Queen Catherine 
Howard at Hampton Court. At Hunsdon 
Henry Howard, earl of Surrey [q. v.], first 
saw her. He renewed his acquaintance with 
her at Hampton, and began about 1540 the 
series of songs and sonnets, first printed in 
Tottel's ' Miscellany ' (1557), in'which he ex- 
tolled her beauty and declared his love for her. 
One sonnet, in which he refers to the Floren- 
tine origin ascribed to the Geraldine family and 
to the Lady Elizabeth's education, is entitled 
* Description and Praise of his love Geraldine.' 
Although many others describe the course of 
his passion, the lady is only mentioned by 
name in this one poem. Surrey at the time 
of composing these sonnets was a married 
man, his wife being Lady Frances, daughter 
of John Vere, fifteenth earl of Oxford. This 
marriage took place in 1534, and a first child 
was born in 1536. Surrey's relationship with 
Lady Elizabeth would seem to have been 
wholly Platonic, and an imitation of Petrarch's 
association with Laura. According to Nashe's 
romance, called ' The Unfortunate Traveller, 
or the Life of Jack Wilton ' (1594), Surrey 
while in Venice consulted Cornelius Agrippa 


as to the welfare of his ladylove, and saw her 
image in a magic mirror. When he arrived 
in Florence he challenged to combat all who 
disputed his mistress's loveliness. Drayton 
utilised these stories in his beantiful poetical 
epistle of ' The Lady Geraldine to the Earl 
of Surrey,' first published in his Heroicall 
Epistle,' 1578. Sir Walter Scott has also 
introduced the first episode into his ' Lay of 
the Last Minstrel ' (canto vi. stanzas xvi- 
xx.) Although these reports were widely 
disseminated in the seventeenth century, 
there seems no foundation for them. They 
are to all appearance the outcome of Nashe's 

In 1543 Lady Elizabeth, who was then 
no more than fifteen, married Sir Anthony 
Browne (d. 1548) [q. v.], a widower aged 
sixty. The poverty-stricken condition of 
her family perhaps explains this union, which 
Surrey has been assumed to deplore in his 
later verse. The wedding was attended by 
Henry VIII and his daughter Mary, and a 
sermon was preached by Ridley. Surrey was 
executed in 1547, and Lady Elizabeth's hus- 
band died in 1548. About 1552 she became 
the third wife of Edward Fiennes de Clinton, 
earl of Lincoln (1512-1585) [q. v.] She 
would seem to have been greatly in her 
second husband's confidence, and the fac- 
simile of a letter (dated 14 Sept. 1558), 
written partly by her, acting as her husband's 
secretary, and partly by himself, is printed 
by the Rev. James Graves in the t Journal 
of the Archaeological and Historical Asso- 
ciation of Ireland' (1873). Clinton died in 
1585, and made his wife executrix of his 
will, but she appears to have been on bad 
terms with the children of her husband's 
second marriage. She died in March 1589, 
leaving no issue, and was buried by her se- 
cond husband in St. George's Chapel, Wind- 
sor, where she had already erected an elabo- 
rate monument to his memory. Her sister 
Margaret was chief mourner, and sixty-one 
old women, numbering the years of her life, 
followed her to the grave. A fine portrait by 
C. Ketel, showing a lady with auburn hair, 
of very attractive appearance, is at Woburn 
Abbey. A copy belonging to the Duke of 
Leinster is at Carton, Maynooth. An en- 
graving by Scriven was published in 1809, 
and Mr. Graves gives a photograph from the 
original painting in the journal noticed above. 

[Rev. James Graves in Archaeological and His- 
torical Association of Ireland, 1873, pp. 560 
etseq. publ. Kilkenny Archseolog. Soc.; Tottel's 
Miscellany, 1557, reprinted by Arber ; Poems of 
Surrey and Wyatt, ed. Dr. Nott, 1815 ; Nashe's 
works, ed. G-rosart, vol. v. ; Duke of Leinster's 
Earls of Kildare, 1858, pp. 126-9.] S. L. L. 




FITZGERALD, GEORGE, sixteenth j 
EARL OF KILDARE (1611-1660), was son of j 
Thomas, second son of William Fitzgerald, | 
thirteenth earl of Kildare, by Frances, daugh- 
ter of Thomas Randolph, postmaster-general 
in England under Queen Elizabeth. George 
Fitzgerald was in his ninth year when, in 
1620, he inherited the Kildare peerage, on 
the death of Gerald, the fifteenth earl, at 
the age of eight years and ten months. Earl 
George was given in wardship by the king 
to the Duke of Lennox. On the decease of 
the latter his widow transferred the ward- 
ship of the minor and his estates to Richard 
Boyle, earl of Cork, for 6,600/. Kildare 
studied for a time at Christ Church, Oxford, 
and in his eighteenth year married Joan, 
fourth daughter of Lord Cork. He appears 
to have been much under the influence of that 
astute adventurer ; but occasional differences 
occurred between them, for the settlement 
of which the intervention of the lord deputy, 
Wentworth, was obtained. A portrait of 
Kildare, painted in 1632, in which he is re- 
presented as of diminutive stature, is extant ' 
at Carton, the residence of the Duke of Lein- 
ster. There is also preserved at Carton a 
transcript, made in 1633 for Kildare, of an 
ancient volume known as the f Red Book of 
the Earls of Kildare.' Kildare sat for the 
first time in the House of Peers, Ireland, in 
1634, and was appointed colonel of a foot 
regiment in the English army in Ireland. 
With pecuniary advances from Lord Cork 
Kildare rebuilt the decayed castle of his an- 
cestors at Maynooth in the county of Kildare. 
James Shirley, the dramatist, during his visit 
to Dublin in 1637-8, was befriended by Kil- 
dare, and dedicated to him his tragi-comedy 
entitled ' The Royal Master/ acted at the 
castle and the theatre, Dublin, in 1638. Kil- 
dare was about that time committed to prison 
for having disobeyed an order made by the 
lord deputy for the delivery of documents 
connected with a suit at law with Lord Digby. 
In 1641 Kildare was appointed governor of 
the county of Kildare, and subsequently took 
part with the leaders of the protestant party 
in Ireland in opposing the movements of the 
Irish catholics to obtain from Charles I re- 
dress of their grievances. Correspondence 
between Kildare and the viceroy, Ormonde, 
in 1644 appears in the third and fourth vo- 
lumes of the l History of the Irish Confedera- 
tion and War.' In January 1645-6 Kildare 
and the Marquis of Clanricarde became sure- 
ties to the extent of 10,000/. each for the 
Earl of Glamorgan, on the occasion of his 
liberation from prison at Dublin. Kildare 
acted as governor of Dublin under the par- 
liamentarian colonel, Michael Jones, in 1647, 

and in 1649 he received a pension of 46s. 
weekly from the government. In a subse- 
quent petition to the chief justice of Munster 
Kildare stated that during eleven years he 
and his family had been driven to great ex- 
tremities and endured much hardship in 
England and Ireland through his constant 
adherence and faithful affection to the par- 
liament of England ; that he was then, for 
debt, under restraint in London, and had 
despatched his wife and some of his servants 
to Ireland in hopes to raise a considerable 
sum out of his estate for his enlargement 
and subsistence. By his wife, who died in 
1656, he had three sons and six daughters. 
Kildare died early in 1660. He was buried 
at Kildare. His second son, Wentworth 
Fitzgerald, succeeded him as seventeenth earl 
of Kildare. 

[Archives of the Duke of Leinster ; Ormonde 
Archives (Kilkenny Castle) ; Diaries of the Earl 
of Cork ; Carte Papers (Bodleian Library), vol. 
xvi. ; History of the Irish Confederation and 
War, 1643-6 (Dublin, 1885-9) ; Works of James 
Shirley, 1-833 ; History of the City of Dublin, 
1854; Hist. MSS. Comm. 9th Rep. 1884; The 
Earls of Kildare, by the Marquis of Kildare, 
1858-62.] J. T. G. 


(1748 P-1786), known as < Fighting Fitz- 
gerald,' was a descendant of the Desmond 
branch of the great Geraldine family, an- 
ciently settled in Waterford, but removed in 
the time of Cromwell to county Mayo. He 
was the eldest son of George Fitzgerald, who 
was for some time an officer in the Austrian 
service, by Lady Mary Hervey, formerly maid 
of honour to the Princess Amelia, and sister 
to the Earl of Bristol, bishop of Deny. He 
was educated at Eton, which he left to join 
the army, his first quarters being at Gal way. 
He soon became noted for his gallantry, his 
recklessness, and his duels. Having at Dublin 
made the acquaintance of the sister of the 
Right Hon. Thomas Conolly of Castletown, 
cousin of the Duke of Leinster, he married 
her against the wishes of her parents, re- 
ceiving with her a fortune of 10,000/. Soon 
afterwards he went to the continent, where 
his wife died, leaving an only daughter. In 
1773 he gained celebrity in connection with 
a fracas at Vauxhall relating to an actress, 
Mrs. Hartley. A clergyman, the Rev. Henry 
Bate [see DUDLEY, SIR HENRY BATE], who 
protected the actress against the familiarities 
of Fitzgerald and his friends, had, however, 
much the best of the quarrel (see The Vaux- 
hall Dispute, or the Macaronies Defeated; 
being a compilation of all the Letters, Squibs, 
4*c., on both sides of the Dispute, 1773). Fitz- 
gerald married a second time the only daugh- 



ter and heiress of Mr. Vaughan of Carrow- 
more, Mayo. He now began to take an 
active interest in politics. He was a strong 
supporter of the legislative independence of 
Ireland, and assisted in the formation of the 
volunteer companies. On his estate in county 
Mayo he boasted with truth that he had in- 
troduced numerous improvements, much at- 
tention being devoted by him to the growth 
of wheat. His serious occupations were re- 
lieved by wild adventures, including a habit 
introduced by him of hunting at night. For 
a sum of 8,OOOZ. per annum paid down his 
father granted him a rent-charge of 1,000^. 
per annum, and agreed to settle his whole 
estates on him and his issue male. As, how- 
ever, it now seemed unlikely that young 
Fitzgerald would ever have any issue male, 
he became jealous of his younger brother, 
whose issue would ultimately inherit the 
property. The father having fallen in arrears 
in the payment of the rent-charge to the 
amount of 12,000/., young Fitzgerald, by an 
order of the court of exchequer, got posses- 
sion of the property, his father being allowed 
a comparatively small annuity. This an- 
nuity the son neglected to pay, and carried 
off his younger brother to his house at Tur- 
lough. Thereupon his brother brought an 
action against him for forcible abduction, 
and being found guilty he was sentenced to 
three years' imprisonment and a fine of 1,000/. 
The sentence proved for a time a dead-letter. 
He retreated to Sligo with his father, and, 
being closely followed, embarked with him 
in a boat for a small island in Sligo Bay. 
Here his father proposed to him that if he 
would pay him 3,000/. to clear his debts, 
and give him a small yearly stipend, he 
would convey to him the reversion in the 
estate and exonerate him of all blame in the 
forcible abduction. To this he agreed, and, 
proceeding by unfrequented roads, the two 
together reached Dublin. No sooner had 
they reached it than the father set him at 
defiance. A reward of 3,0001. having pre- 
viously been offered for his capture, it was 
not long before he was arrested. He endea- 
voured to move for a new trial, but with- 
out effect, and he was sent to prison, where 
he remained till a serious illness induced the 
authorities to liberate him. Soon afterwards 
one Patrick Randal McDonnell, who had been 
in league against him, was shot at and 
wounded in the leg. One Murphy, a re- 
tainer of Fitzgerald, was arrested on sus- 
picion, but would reveal nothing. Fitzgerald 
now procured a warrant for the arrest of 
M'Donnell and others for false imprisonment 
of Murphy, but it could not be immediately 
executed on account of McDonnell's illness 

from the wound in his leg. Knowing, how- 
ever, that McDonnell would on a certain day 
proceed from Castlebar to Chancery Hall, 
they beset him on his return and took him 
prisoner. In the scuffle one of the escort was 
shot. The volunteers coming up, the tables 
were, however, turned against Fitzgerald, 
who was captured and lodged in gaol. While 
there he was in some inexplicable way at- 
tacked by a mob of men, who left him in a 
very weak condition on the supposition that 
he was dead ; but he survived to stand his 
trial for murder, and being found guilty was 
executed at Castlebar in the evening of Mon- 
day, 12 June 1786. He was interred at mid- 
night in the family tomb in a chapel which, 
now in ruins, adjoins a round tower. 

[Memoirs of G. E. Fitzgerald, 1786 ; Life, in 
Dublin University Magazine, xvi. 1-21, 179- 
197, 304-24, reprinted in 1852 ; Appeal to the 
Jockey Club, &c., 1 775 ; Case of G. E. Fitzgerald, 
1786 ; Gent. Mag. vol. Ivi. pt. i. 346-7, 434, 
518-20 ; Sir Jonah Barrington's Memoirs.] 

T. F. H. 

OFPALY (d. 1204), was the son of Maurice 
Fitzgerald (d. 1176) [q. v.], the invader of 
Ireland. Though the Geraldines had already 
become a well-known family, Gerald is more 
often called Fitzmaurice than Fitzgerald. Ac- 
companying his father from Wales to Ireland, 
he and his brother Alexander showed great 
valour in the battle against Roderick O'Conor, 
outside the walls of Dublin in 1171 (Exp. 
Hib. in GIRALDTJS, Opera, v. 268, Rolls Ser.) 
After his father's death, William Fitzaldhelm 
[q. v.] deprived him and his brothers of their 
stronghold of Wicklow, though after a time 
compelled to give them Ferns in exchange 
(ib. p. 337). He had already received from 
Strongbow, Naas and other districts in Kil- 
dare, and had erected Maynooth Castle (GiL- 
BEET, Viceroys of Ireland, p. 93). In 1199, 
though receiving King John's letters of pro- 
tection, he was ordered to do right to Maurice 
Fitzphilip for the lands of ' Gessil and Lega' 
(? Leix), whereof he had already deforced 
Maurice {Chart. 1 John, m. 6, p. i. ; Oblate 
1 John, m. 12; Cal. Doc. Ireland, Nos. 101, 
102). But on his death, Gerald was still in 
possession of those estates {Cal. Doc. Ireland, 
No. 195). He is often described as ' Baron 
Offaly,' the middle cantred of which had been 
among his father's possessions. He died be- 
fore 15 Jan. 1204 (ib. No. 195), though gene- 
rally said to have died in 1205 (Book of 
Howth, p. 118, which describes him erro- 
neously as justice of Ireland). He married 
Catherine, daughter of Hamon of Valognes, 
justiciar of Ireland between 1197 and 1199 
(GILBERT, Viceroys, pp. 57, 93). He left by 




her two sons (LODGE, Peerage of Ireland, i. 
59). one of whom, his successor, was Maurice 
Fitzgerald, lord of Offaly (1194 P-1257) [q. v.] 
Gerald is described by his cousin, Giraldus 
Cambrensis, as small in stature, but distin- 
guished for prudence and honesty (Exp. Hib. 
p. 354). He was the ancestor of the earls of 

[Authorities referred to in text.] T. F. T. 

OF DESMOND (d. 1398), justiciar of Ireland, 
was the son of Maurice Fitzthomas, the first 
earl of Desmond [q. v.], by his second wife, 
Evelina or Eleanor Fitzmaurice, and was 
generally styled Gerald Fitzmaurice. He 
was in 1356 taken prisoner by the Irish, but 
released on a truce being made ( Cal. Rot. Pat. 
et Claus. Hib. p. 59). His father's death in the 
same year was soon followed by that of his 
elder brother, Maurice, the second earl. This 
produced great disturbances in Munster. To 
appease them Edward III granted to Gerald 
the lands of his brother Maurice, together with 
the custody of his idiot brother, Nicholas, who 
seems to have been regarded as incompetent 
to succeed (id. p. 72). This was on 3 July 
1359. On 20 July the king renewed the grant 
on condition of Gerald's marrying Eleanor, the 
daughter of James Butler, earl of Ormonde, 
then justiciar of Ireland (Feeder a, iii. 433). 
The peerage writers describe Gerald as the 
fourth earl, on the assumption that either 
Nicholas or another brother, John, previously 
bore the title (LODGE, Peerage of Ireland, i. 
65 ; cf. l Pedigree of the Desmonds,' in GRAVES, 
Unpublished Geraldine Documents, pt. ii.) 
But the authorities only know of Maurice 
and his father as his predecessors in the title. 
The ' Book of Howth ' (p. 118) describes him 
rightly as third earl. 

In 1367 Desmond succeeded Lionel, duke 
of Clarence, as justiciar of Ireland (GRACE, 
Annals, p. 154). The appointment was a 
confession of weakness of the home govern- 
ment, for Gerald carried on even further than 
his father that policy of amalgamation with 
the native Irish which it had been Lionel's 
main object to prevent. The period of his 
rule was almost exceptionally turbulent. A 
great meeting was held at Kilkenny to in- 
duce the Birminghams to live in peace with 
the government, and the king's officials peti- 
tioned for the removal of the exchequer from 
Carlow, where it was exposed to the Irish 
attacks. In 1368 the Irish parliament peti- 
tioned that all who held land in Irelanc 
should be compelled to defend their estates 
in person or by sufficient deputies. In 1369 
Desmond was superseded by Sir William de 
Windsor. In the same vear Desmond was 

lefeated near Nenagh and taken prisoner by 
3rien O'Brien, king of Thomond, whose vic- 
orious army now plundered and destroyed 
" imerick (Annals of Loch Ce, ii. 43 ; Annals 
if the Four Masters, iii. 649). It was one of 
he greatest victories ever won by the Irish 
if Munster. In 1370 Windsor led an ex- 
jedition to effect Desmond's release, but in 
.372 O'Brien was again in arms and threaten- 
ng Limerick (Cal. Rot. Pat. et Claus. Hib. 
p. 846). 

In 1377 Desmond was at war with Richard 
de Burgh (ib. p. 103 b\ In 1381 he was ap- 
pointed to t repress the malice of the rebels ; 
n Munster, where no justiciar ventured to 
show his face after the death of the Earl of 
March (ib. pp. 114, 115). In 1386 he again 
acted as deputy of the justiciar in Munster 
[ib. p. 127 6). In 1393 he obtained from the 
council an order compelling the town of Cork 
;o pay him a rent already granted ' consider- 
ng the great expenses which he continually 
sustains in the king's wars in Munster ' (King's 
Council in Ireland, 16 Richard II, p. 126, 
Rolls Ser.) During the latter part of his life 
tie was constantly at war with his hereditary 
foes, the Butlers (ib. p. 261 ; cf. Cal. Rot. Pat. 
et Claus. Hib. pp. 121, 122 6). 

Desmond is generally described in the re- 
cords as the chief upholder of the king's cause 
in Munster. Yet his policy was to set the law 
at defiance and adopt Irish customs and sym- 
pathies. He obtained in 1388 a royal license 
to allow his son James to be fostered among 
his old enemies, the O'Briens, notwithstanding 
the statute of Kilkenny (Cal. Rot. Pat. et 
Claus. Hib. p. 139). The Irish annalists are 
enthusiastic in his praises. The ' Four Masters ' 
describe him as ' a cheerful and courteous 
man, who excelled all the English and many 
of the Irish in the knowledge of the Irish 
language, poetry, and history ' (iv. 761, cf. 
note on p. 760). He was a man of some cul- 
ture and refinement. He was called ' Gerald 
the poet,' and some short French verses attri- 
buted to him still survive in the ' Book of 
Ross or Waterford,' in Harl. MS. 913, f. 15 b, 
with the title ' Proverbia Comitis Desmond/ 
' The point of these is not very evident beyond 
an ingenious play on words ' (CROKER, Popular 
Songs of Ireland, p. 287). He is also de- 
scribed as a mathematician and magician. 
He died in 1398, but the Munster peasantry 
long believed that he had only disappeared 
beneath the waters of Lough Air, near Lime- 
rick, and that every seven years he revisited 
its castle. 

By his wife, Eleanor Butler, who died in 
1392, and is described as a ' charitable and 
bountiful woman ' (Annals of Loch Ce, ii. 75), 
Desmond left several children. The eldest 




son, John, the fifth earl, according to the ordi- 
nary reckoning, was drowned in the river 
Suir, within a few months of his father's death 
{Four Masters, iv. 761). The next son, Mau- 
rice, died without male issue in 1410. The 
third son, James, the O'Brien's foster-son, 
usurped the earldom from his nephew Tho- 
mas, the sixth earl, son of John. James was 
the father of Thomas Fitzgerald, eighth earl 
of Desmond [q. v.] Two daughters of Gerald 
and Eleanor are also mentioned (' Pedigree 
of the Desmonds,' in GRAVES, Unpublished 
Geraldine Documents, pt. ii.) 

[Chartularies, &c., of St. Mary's Abbey, Dub- 
lin ; Annals of Loch Ce, both in Eolls 'Series; 
Calendar of the Patent and Close Eolls of Ireland, 
Eecord Coram.; Annals of the Four Masters; 
Clyn's Annals and Grace's Annals (Irish Archaeo- 
logical Soc.) ; Lodge's Peerage of Ireland, vol. i. 
(Archdall) ; Graves's Unpublished Geraldine 
Documents, first printed in Journal of Kilkenny 
Archaeological Society, and then separately ; Gil- 
bert's Viceroys of Ireland ; and the other autho- 
rities referred to in the text.] T. F. T. 

OF KILDARE (d. 1513), was son of Thomas 
Fitzgerald, seventh earl of Kildare [q. v.], 
by his wife Joan, daughter of James, earl of 
Desmond. Gerald became Earl of Kildare 
on the death of his father in 1477, and was 
elected by the council at Dublin to succeed 
him as deputy-governor in Ireland. Ed- 
ward IV, however, nominated Henry, lord 
Grey, to that office. In connection with the 
appointment serious complications arose. Kil- 
dare and Grey respectively asserted rights 
as governors, and presided over rival parlia- 
ments of the English settlement in Ireland. 
After the termination of the contest Kildare 
was, in 1481, appointed as deputy in Ireland 
for the viceroy, Richard, duke of York, and 
during the closing years of Edward IV 
advanced much in wealth and influence. 
He married Alison, daughter of Sir Row- 
land Fitzeustace, baron of Portlester, and 
formed alliances with the most important 
Irish and Anglo-Irish families. Richard III, 
on his accession, laboured to secure the in- 
terest of Kildare, and appointed him deputy- 
governor in Ireland for his son, Prince Ed- 
ward. Kildare identified himself prominently 
with the Yorkist movement in Ireland, which 
led to the battle at Stoke. In 1488, through 
the medium of Sir Richard Edgecombe, Kil- 
dare was taken into favour by Henry VII, and 
received pardon under the great seal. As 
lord deputy he acted energetically against 
some of the hostile Irish, but was subse- 
quently suspected of favouring the claims 
of Perkin Warbeck. Kildare deferred com- 
pliance with a royal mandate for his appear- 

ance in England. His messengers, sent with 
despatches to the king, were imprisoned at 
London, for which no explanation was ac- 
corded to him. In a letter to the Earl of 
Ormonde Kildare complained of this treat- 
ment, and mentioned that he understood that 
he had been falsely accused of having favoured 
Perkin Warbeck. He declared that he had 
never aided or supported him, and that his 
loyalty had been certified to the king by the 
principal lords of Ireland. At the same time 
the Earl of Desmond, and other chief per- 
sonages in Ireland, by letter entreated the 
king not to require Kildare to attend on him 
in England, as they alleged that the English 
interest in Ireland would be severely preju- 
diced by his absence, and they assured the 
king that he was a true and faithful subject. 
Kildare was attainted in a parliament con- 
vened by Sir Edward Poynings at Drogheda 
in November 1494, and sent as prisoner to 
the Tower of London. After a detention 
there for two years the earl was pardoned, 
and appointed lord deputy in 1496. In that 
year he married, as his second wife, Eliza- 
beth St. John, first cousin to Henry VII. 
In 1498 Kildare presided at the first parlia- 
ment held in Ireland under Poynings' law. 
The statutes enacted on that occasion were 
afterwards officially declared to have been 
lost, but they have been brought to light and 
published by the writer of the present notice. 
Of Kildare's military operations the most 
important was that in 1504 at Cnoctuagh, 
near Galway, in which he obtained a victory 
over forces commanded by some of the chief 
nobles of Connacht and Munster. He was 
installed as a knight of the Garter in May 
1505, and continued as deputy in Ireland in 
the early years of the reign of Henry VIII. 
Kildare died in September 1513 of a wound 
which he received in an engagement with a 
sept of Leinster. He was interred in a 
chapel which he had erected in the convent 
of the Holy Trinity, now known as Christ 
Church, Dublin. Contemporary chroniclers 
styled him ' the great earl,' and described him 
as l a mighty made man, full of honour and 
courage, soon hot and soon cold, somewhat 
headlong and unruly towards the nobles 
whom he fancied not.' His son Gerald suc- 
ceeded as ninth earl [q. v.] A covenant in 
the Irish language, executed about 1510, be- 
tween Kildare and the sept of MacGeoghegan, 
extant in the British Museum, has been re- 
produced in the third part of ' Facsimiles of 
National MSS. of Ireland/ London, 1879. 

[Archives of the Duke of Leinster; Unpub- 
lished Statute Eolls of Ireland ; Patent Eolls, 
Henry VII ; State Papers, Public Eecord Office, 
London; Harleian MS. 433; Holinshed's Chro- 




nicies, 1586 ; Obits of Christ Church, Dublin, 
1844; Papers of Richard in, 1861 ; Earls of 
Kildare, 1862; Hist, of Viceroys of Ireland, 
1865 ; Eeport of Hist. MSS. Commission, 1883.] 

J. T. G. 

or KILDARE (1487-1534), son of Gerald Fitz- 
gerald, eighth earl [q. v.], by his first wife, 
Alison Eustace, daughter and coheiress of 
Rowland, baron of Portlester, was born in 
1487. Sent into England in 1493 as a pledge 
of his father's loyalty, his youth was spent 
at court, where he was treated as befitted his 
rank. In 1 503 he married Elizabeth, daughter 
of Sir John Zouche of Codnor in Derbyshire, 
* a woman of rare probity of mind and every 
way commendable.' Shortly after his mar- 
riage he was allowed to return to Ireland, 
and on 28 Feb. 1504 was appointed lord high 
treasurer. In the same year he accompanied 
his father, the lord deputy, on an expedition 
against Mac William of Clanricarde and 
(JBrien of Thomond. In the battle of Knock- 
doe on 19 Aug. he commanded the reserve, 
but ' seeing the battle joining, could not stand 
still to wait his time as was appointed/ and 
by his indiscreet valour allowed the Irish 
horse to capture the baggage train, together 
with a number of English gentlemen (An- 
nals of the Four Masters, ed. O'Donovan, v. 
1277 ; Book of Howth, p. 185 ; HARDIM AN, 
Galway, p. 76). The account in the ' Book of 
Howth ' must be received with caution ; Ware 
prudently remarks regarding Mac William and 
O'Brien : ' De particulari eorum machinatione 
non possum aliquid pro certo affirmare' (An- 
nales, p. 71). In May 1508 he was again in 
England, but for what purpose is not clear 
(BERN AUDI ANDREW Annales, p. 115). On 
9 Nov. 1610 he obtained from Henry VIII a 
grant during pleasure, afterwards confirmed 
in tail male, of the manor of Ardmolghan, co. 
Meath. His father dying on 30 Sept. 1513, 
he was elected lord justice by the council 
pending his appointment as lord deputy. In 
the following year he undertook an expedi- 
tion against the O'Moores and O'Reillies, and 
having slain Hugh O'Reilly he returned to 
Dublin laden with plunder. For this and 
other services done against the ' wild Irish ' 
he was rewarded with the customs and dues 
of the ports of Strangford and Ardglass. 
As yet nothing had happened to mar the 
friendly relations between him and his bro- 
ther-in-law, Piers Butler. In 1514 he pre- 
sented Sir Piers with a chief horse, a grey 
hackney, and a haubergeon, and about the 
same time united with him to frame regula- 
tions for the government of the counties of 
Kilkenny and Tipperary. In June 1515 he 
crossed over into England to confer with the 

king about the affairs of the kingdom, and in 
October he was authorised to summon a par- 
liament, which met in January 1516. At 
the same time (October 1515) he was, by 
license of the king, permitted to carry into 
execution a scheme, originated by his father, 
for the foundation and endowment of a col- 
lege in honour of the Virgin at Maynooth, 
co. Kildare, which, however, was shortly 
afterwards suppressed with other religious 
houses in 1538. In 1516 he conducted an 
expedition against the O'Tooles, who by 
their constant depredations considerably an- 
noyed the citizens of Dublin. Marching west 
he next invaded Ely O'Carroll, where he was 
joined by several noblemen of Munster and 
Leinster, including Piers, earl of Ormonde, 
and James, eldest son of the Earl of Desmond. 
Having captured and razed the castle of 
Lemyvannan (Leim-Ui-Bhanain, i.e. O'Ba- 
nan's leap) he marched rapidly on Clonmel, 
which having surrendered on conditions he 
returned to Dublin in December ' laden with 
booty, hostages, and honour.' In March 1517 
he held a parliament at Dublin, after which 
he invaded Lecale, where he stormed and re- 
captured the castle of Dundrum. Thence he 
marched against Phelim Magennis, whom he 
defeated and took prisoner, and having cap- 
tured the castle of Dungannon and laid waste 
Tyrone, l he reduced Ireland to a quiet condi- 
tion.' Shortly after his return, in October, 
his wife, whom he dearly loved, died at Lucan, 
and was by him buried with great pomp near 
his mother in the monastery of the Friars 
Observant at Kilcullen, co. Kildare. Hitherto 
there had been no question made of his loyalty. 
In 1515, however, Sir Piers Butler [q. v.] 
succeeded to the earldom of Ormonde, and 
shortly afterwards the old hereditary feud 
between the two houses broke out with re- 
doubled violence. (There is a judicious account 
of this quarrel in the ' History of St. Canice's 
Cathedral.' Mr. Froude's narrative is dis- 
torted by his extreme partiality for Ormonde. 
On the other hand, the story in Stanihurst, 
manifestly derived from Geraldine sources, 
must be received with caution. One notice- 
able feature is the vehement animosity of the 
Countess of Ormonde towards her brother.) 
At the instigation of Ormonde a charge of 
maladministration was preferred against him 
in 1518, and early in the following year he 
sailed for England. The investigation of the 
charges against him was committed to Wol- 
sey, but Wolsey, either from policy or pres- 
sure of other business, continually postponed 
the inquiry. In 1520 Kildare married the 
Lady Elizabeth Grey, fourth daughter of 
Thomas, marquis of Dorset, granddaughter 
of Elizabeth Woodville, queen of Edward IV 




and first cousin of Henry VIII. The same 
year he was removed from office and the Earl 
of Surrey appointed lord-lieutenant. Poly- 
dore Vergil was perhaps not an unprejudiced 
observer, but he undoubtedly expressed the 
general feeling when he remarked that in 
making this change Wolsey was actuated 
rather by hatred of Kildare than by any love 
for Surrey (Historia Anglica, lib. xxvii.) In 
June Kildare accompanied Henry to the 
Field of the Cloth of Gold, where he was dis- 
tinguished for his gallant bearing. Fretting, 
however, under his detention, he seems to 
have entered into treasonable negotiations 
with the wild Irish to invade the Pale, but 
the charge was never brought home to him, 
and it ought to be noted that the chief wit- 
ness against him, O'Carroll, was a kinsman 
of Ormonde's. He was placed under restraint, 
and though shortly afterwards released, it 
was not till July 1523 that he was allowed 
to return to Ireland. In 1521 Ormonde had 
been appointed deputy to the Earl of Surrey. 
For a brief period peace prevailed between 
the two rivals, but in October the feud broke 
out afresh. In November they consented to 
a treaty of peace ' for one year only.' But 
the murder of Robert Talbot, a retainer of 
Ormonde's, suspected of spying upon Kildare, 
by James Fitzgerald, in December, at once 
led to further acts of hostility on both sides. 
A new charge of treason was preferred against 
Mm, but by the influence of the Marquis of 
Dorset the commission of investigation was 
appointed to sit in Ireland, with the result 
that in August 1524 Ormonde was removed 
from office and Kildare established in his 
stead. Immediately afterwards he was or- 
dered to arrest the Earl of Desmond, believed 
to be engaged in treasonable negotiations 
with Francis I, ' but whether willingly or 
wittingly he omitted the opportunity, as being 
loath to be the minister of his cousin Des- 
mond's ruin, or that it lay not in his power 
and hands to do him hurt or harm, he missed 
the mark at which he aimed ' (RussEL, Nar- 
rative). On his return he advanced into 
Ulster to the assistance of his son-in-law, Con 
O'Neill, assailed on one side by O'Donnell 
and on the other by his rival, Hugh O'Neill. 
In May 1525 he held a parliament at Dublin, 
and shortly afterwards * crucified ' Maurice 
Kavanagh, archdeacon of Leighlin, for the 
murder of his kinsman, Maurice Doran, bishop 
of Leighlin (DowLiNG, Annals'). The same 
year the charge of treasonable practices was 
renewed against him by the Earl of Ossory 
{he had recently resigned the earldom of Or- 
monde to Sir Thomas Boleyn [q. v.]) on the 
ground that he had wilfully neglected to ar- 
rest the Earl of Desmond and that he had 

connected himself by marriage with the 'Irish 
enemy.' Accordingly, in compliance with a 
summons from Henry he passed over next 
year into England, and was immediately 
clapped in the Tower. As to the story told 
by Stanihurst of his trial before the council 
and of Wolsey 's abortive attempt to have him 
secretly executed, it can only be said that 
there is perhaps a grain of truth in it. But 
that Wolsey's hatred should have led him to 
commit such an egregious piece of folly is 
incredible, if indeed it is not absolutely dis- 
proved by state documents (State Papers, 
Hen. VIII, ii. 138). However this may have 
been, he was shortly liberated on bail and 
went to reside at Newington in Middlesex, 
a seat of the Duke of Norfolk's. His deten- 
tion proving irksome, he, in July 1528, sent 
his daughter Alice, lady Slane, to instigate 
his Irish allies to invade the Pale ; but his 
intrigues being suspected he was again con- 
fined to the Tower, and the office of deputy 
transferred to Ossory. In 1530, on the ap- 
pointment of Sir W. Skeffington, he was 
allowed to return to Ireland, and in 1531 ac- 
companied him on an expedition against 
O'Donnell. But he regarded the appointment 
with unconcealed dislike, and Ossory, ever 
ready to strike a blow at him, combined with 
the deputy. Once again was he compelled 
to appear in England, but this time he ac- 
quitted himself so successfully as to obtain 
Skeffington's removal and his own appoint- 
ment. On his return in August 1532 he re- 
ceived an ovation from the populace of Dub- 
lin and forthwith proceeded with little cere- 
mony to remove his enemies from office. In 
May 1533 he held a parliament at Dublin, 
and afterwards went to the assistance of his 
son-in-law, O'Carroll (son of Mulrony), whose 
position was challenged by the sons of John 
O'Carroll ; but during the siege of Birr Castle 
he received a bullet wound in his side, which 
partially deprived him of the use of his limbs 
and speech (Cox's assertion that he was 
wounded in the head is without foundation 
in fact). Meanwhile Ossory, Archbishop 
Allen, and Robert Cowley were busily com- 
plaining of his conduct to the king, and in 
consequence of their representations he was 
again summoned to England. Suffering 
acutely from his wound he, on 3 Oct., sent 
his wife to make his excuses, but the king 
was resolved on his coming, and gave him 
permission to appoint a vice-deputy. Ac- 
cordingly, having held a council at Drogheda 
in February 1534, at which he delivered up 
the sword of state to his son and heir, Tho- 
mas, lord Oflaly [q. v.], he shortly afterwards 
set sail on his last and fatal voyage (his 
speech before the council recorded by Stani- 




hurst, has every appearance of being apocry- 
phal). On his arrival in April he was ex- 
amined before the council, and his reply being 
deemed unsatisfactory, he was committed to 
the Tower, though so ill both in brain and 
body, according to Chapuys, that he could 
do nothing either good or evil. He would 
have been put there immediately on his 
arrival, says the imperial ambassador, * had 
it not been that the king always hoped to 
bring over and entrap his son.' On being in- 
formed of Lord Thomas's rebellion he did not 
care to blame him, but showed himself very 
glad of it, ' only wishing his son a little more 
age and experience.' About the beginning of 
September he was allowed somewhat greater 
liberty, his wife being permitted to visit him 
freely, there being some proposal when he 
got a little better to send him into Ireland 
to influence his son ; but he died before the 
month expired, and was buried in St. Peter's 
Church in the Tower. Valiant even to rash- 
ness, beloved by his friends and dependents, 
a faithful husband, a lover of hospitality, he 
was by no means a match for his rival in 
diplomacy, and whatever of treason there 
may have been in his actions it was due rather 
to imprudence than to premeditated dis- 
loyalty. The office of deputy he regarded as 
the prerogative of his house. By the admis- 
sion of his enemies he was ' the greatest im- 
prover of his lands ' in Ireland. Methodical 
in his habits he in 1518 commenced an im- 
port ant book called 'Kildare's Rental' (edited 
by H. Hore in ' Kilkenny Arch. Soc. Journal,' 
1859, 62,66),which affords us a curious glimpse 
of the peculiar relations existing between 
landlords and their tenantry at this period. 
His picture, painted in 1530 by Holbein, is 
preserved in the library at Carton, Maynooth, 
co. Kildare. 

[There is a serviceable but rather uncritical 
life in The Earls of Kildare, by C. W. Fitzgerald, 
late Duke of Leinster. The chief authorities are 
the State Papers (printed), Henry VIII, vol. ii., 
supplemented by Mr. Gairdner's admirable ca- 
lendars ; Sir James Ware's Annals ; Annals of 
the Four Masters ; Annals of Loch Ce ; Lodge's 
Peerage (Archdall).] E. D. 

EARL OF DESMOND (d. 1583), was the son 
of James, fourteenth earl [q. v.], whom he 
succeeded in 1558, doing homage before the 
lord deputy, Sussex, at Waterford (28 Nov.) 
Shortly afterwards, attended by ' one hundred 
prime gentlemen,' he crossed over into Eng- 
land, where he was graciously received by 
Elizabeth, and confirmed by her (22 June 
1559) in all the lands, jurisdictions, seignories, 
and privileges that were held in times past 
by his predecessors. Already, during the life- 

time of his father, he had become notorious 
for his turbulent disposition, and for his prone- 
ness to private war. In 1560 a dispute arose^ 
between him and Thomas Butler, tenth earl 
of Ormonde [q. v.], about the prize wine 
of Youghal and Kinsale, which the latter 
claimed, and certain debatable lands on th& 
river Suir, into which Desmond swore Or- 
monde had entered by force . The dispute, con- 
ducted in the usual Irish fashion, obliged the 
government to intervene, and the two earls- 
were accordingly summoned to submit their 
claims in person to Elizabeth. Ormonde alone- 
showed any willingness to obey ; but at last, 
after alleging many frivolous pretexts for his. 
non-compliance, Desmond appeared at court 
about the beginning of May 1562, attended b j 
a numerous retinue. Being charged before- 
the council with openly defying the law ia 
Ireland, he answered contumaciously, and re- 
fusing to apologise was forthwith committed 
into the custody of the lord treasurer, st, 
slight confinement, as the queen wrote to his- 
countess, which would do him no harm, and 
which Sir William Fitzwilliam hoped would 
have the effect of bringing him to such senses 
as he had. Though soon released, he was not 
allowed to return to Ireland till the begin- 
ning of 1564, after he had consented to such 
stipulations as were deemed essential to the* 
public peace (MoKRiN, Patent Rolls, i. 485). 
Almost immediately after his return he in- 
volved himself in a quarrel between the- 
Earl of Thomond and his rival Sir Don- 
nell O'Brien. In October he and Ormonde- 
were again on evil terms with one another, 
and in November the latter complained to* 
Cecil that he was continually invading his 
territories, killing the queen's subjects, and 
carrying off his cattle, and that in self-de- 
fence he must retaliate. The death of the- 
Countess Joan, the wife of Desmond, and 
the mother of Ormonde, early in 1565, re- 
moved the last restraint on his conduct, and 
on 1 Feb. he entered the territories of Sir Mau- 
rice Fitzgerald, viscount Decies, and baron of 
Dromana, with a considerable body of men in 
order to enforce his claim to certain disputed 
arrears of rents and services. The Baron of Dro- 
mana, however, being anxious to liberate him- 
self from his feudal superior, had meanwhile- 
enlisted the support of the Earl of Ormonde^ 
who, nothing loth, under this plausible pretext 
of maintaining the peace to revenge himself on 
his rival, immediately assembled his men and? 
marched southwards. The two armies met 
at the ford of Affane on the Blackwater ; a 
bloody skirmish followed, in which Desmond 
was wounded in the thigh with a bullet and' 
taken prisoner. The queen, enraged at thi 
fresh outbreak, summoned both earls to ap- 




pear before her. On Easter Tuesday Desmond 
arrived at Liverpool in custody of Captain 
Nicholas Heron, having suffered much from 
sea-sickness. Ormonde was already at court. 
Charges and counter-charges of high treason 
followed. Eventually the two earls sub- 
mitted, and consented to enter into recogni- 
sances of 20,000/. each to stand to such order 
for their controversies as her majesty should 
think good. On 7 Jan. 1566 the lord deputy 
was informed that the earls were reconciled 
and licensed to depart into Ireland, but Des- 
mond was not to leave Dublin until he had 
paid what debts he had incurred. The ori- 
ginal controversy between them, however, 
remained, and seemed likely to remain, un- 
decided. ' I will never,' wrote Sir H. Sidney 
to Cecil on 27 April, ' unpressed, upon my 
allegiance, deal in the great matters of my 
lord of Ormonde, until another chancellor 
come, or some other commissioner out of 
England, to be joined with me for hearing 
and determining of that cause ; for how in- 
differently soever I shall deal, I know it will 
not be thought favourably enough on my lord 
of Ormonde's side.' He protested that he was 
not prejudiced against Ormonde, only the 
case had been ' forejudged.' On 12 Dec. he 
renewed his request, and soon afterwards 
(27 Jan. 1567) began a tour of inspection 
through Munster, in consequence of which 
he was most unfavourably impressed with 
Desmond's character. At Youghal he entered 
into an examination of the controversy be- 
tween the earls, and having found that the 
disputed lands were in the possession of Or- 
monde ' at the time of the fray-making,' he 
gave judgment accordingly, < whereat the Earl 
of Desmond did not a little stir, and fell into 
some disallowable heats and passions.' 'From 
this time forward, nor never since,' he wrote 
to Elizabeth, t found I any willingness in 
him to come to any conformity or good order,' 
but, on the contrary, found him to be ' a man 
void of judgment to govern and will to be 
ruled,' the cause in short of the turbulent 
state of Munster. He therefore arrested him 
at Kilmallock, and, carrying him to Dublin, 
locked him up in the Castle, leaving his bro- 
ther, Sir John of Desmond, of whose capa- 
bilities he seems to have had a higher opinion, 
seneschal or captain of the country. In 
August 1567 Sidney left Ireland, and during 
his absence, as he himself said, Sir John was 
by the lord justices inveigled up to Dublin, 
taken prisoner, sent over to England with 
the earl, and both of them committed to the 
Tower. ' And truly, Mr. Secretary,' said he, 
* this kind of dealing with Sir John of Des- 
mond was the origin of James Fitzmaurice's 
rebellion.' The earl and Sir John landed at 

Graycoite, near Beaumaris, on 14 Dec., and 
on their arrival in London they were con^- 
fined to the Tower, where they remained 
until midwinter 1570, when the state of Sir 
John's health necessitated his removal. They 
were then placed under the supervision of 
Sir Warham St. Leger, at his house at South- 
wark. In August 1571 St. Leger complained 
to the council that the earl had refused to 
accompany him into Kent, and that during 
his absence he had rashly ranged abroad into 
sundry parts of London. Next summer he 
tried to bribe Martin Frobisher, who revealed 
the plot to Burghley, to assist him to escape 
by sea. Meanwhile, on 30 June 1569, the 
question of the prize wines had been settled 
in Ormonde's favour. In the following year 
Eleanor, countess of Desmond (the earl's 
second wife), came to England, where she 
remained with her husband till his release. 
The government was undecided what to do 
with him. Sir John Perrot, then president 
of Munster, strenuously urged that he should 
be detained for another year or two, but that 
Sir John should be allowed to return. How- 
ever, in March 1573, after signing articles 
for his future good conduct {Cal. Carew 
MSS. i. 430), he was permitted to return to 
Ireland, to Perrot's disgust, who marvelled 
much that her majesty should so act in re- 
gard to ' a man rather meet to keep Bedlam 
than to come to a new reformed country/ 
The Irish government thought with Perrot, 
and on his arrival in Dublin on Lady-day 
they rearrested him ; but on 16 Nov. he 
managed to escape, and within a month after- 
wards he had destroyed almost every trace of 
Perrot's government in the province. Eliza- 
beth was now anxious to recapture him, and 
a certain Edward Fitzgerald, brother of the 
Earl of Kildare, and -presumably persona grata, 
was in December commissioned to remonstrate 
with him. The attempt failed, as did also the 
intervention of the Earl of Essex in June 1574. 
Desmond was profuse in his protestations of 
loyalty, but refused to surrender uncondi- 
tionally. Eequired to consent to the aboli- 
tion of coyne and livery, the surrender of 
certain castles and other things embodied in 
the articles of 8 July, he declined, and his 
conduct was approved by his kinsmen, who 
bound themselves by oath (18 July) ' to 
maintain and defend this our advice against 
the lord deputy or any others that will covet 
the earl's inheritance ' (this combination, 
printed in MORRIN'S Patent Rolls, ii. 109, and 
the deed of feoffment that followed, have an 
interesting history. See Wallop to Burghley, 
Ham. Cal. iii. 63). Thereupon he was pro- 
claimed, a price set on his head, and in 
August Fitzwilliam and Ormonde advanced 




into Munster, attacked Derrinlaur Castle, cap- 
tured it, and put the garrison to the sword. 
Convinced of the necessity of temporising, 
Desmond appeared at Cork and humbly sub- 
mitted himself (2 Sept.) ; but on 10 Sept. he 
made over all his lands to Lord Dunboyne, 
Lord Power, and Sir John Fitzedmund Fitz- 
gerald of Cloyne [q. v.], in trust for himself 
and his wife during their joint lives, with 
provision for his daughters and remainder 
to his son James (Carew MSS. i. 481). This 
feoffment, though suspicious, does not neces- 
sarily imply that he had, when he made it, 
any premeditated intention of rebelling. In 
March 1575 James Fitzmaurice [q. v.] left 
Ireland for the express purpose of soliciting 
foreign aid, but whether he did so, as Mac- 
Geoghegan asserts, with the connivance of 
the earl is extremely doubtful. Certain it is 
that during the government of Sir H. Sidney 
(1575-8) he manifested no rebellious inten- 
tions, though occasionally resenting Presi- 
dent Drury s arbitrary conduct, and he even 
revealed to the deputy the nature of Fitz- 
maurice's negotiations on the continent. 
' This and other good shows in the Earl of 
Desmond,' wrote Sidney to the queen/ maketh 
demonstration that his light and loose deal- 
ings (whereunto he runneth many times 
rashly) proceedeth rather of imperfection of 
judgement, than of malicious intendment 
against your majesty/ ' I hold him,' he added, 
' the least dangerous man of four or five of 
those that are next him in right and succes- 
sion . . . being such an impotent and weak 
body, as neither can he get up on horseback, 
but that he is holpen and lift up, neither 
when he is on horseback can of himself alight 
down without help, and therefore, in mine 
opinion, the less to be feared or doubted, if 
he would forget himself, as I hope now he 
will not.' Sidney's is probably the most cor- 
rect, as it is the most charitable, explanation 
of his subsequent foolhardy conduct. On the 
arrival of Fitzmaurice (17 July 1579) Des- 
mond rejected his overtures to join with him 
in re-establishing the old religion, notified the 
fact to Drury, protested his own loyalty, de- 
clared his intention of marching against the 
invader, and did what he could in that direc- 
tion. The death of Fitzmaurice, of whom 
he seems to have been extremely jealous, and 
the representations of Sanders exercised a 
prejudicial effect upon him. His conduct 
aroused the suspicion of Drury, who on 7 Sept. 
' restrained him from liberty ' for two days, 
until he promised to send his son as hostage 
for his conduct to Limerick. Fascinated by 
the rhetoric of Sanders and yet unwilling to 
risk everything by openly rebelling, he En- 
deavoured to temporise. Warned by Malby 

that he was suspected, he refused to take the 
only safe course open to him, and on 1 Nov. 
he was proclaimed a traitor. Compelled to 
act, he marched against Youghal, which he 
sacked, while the Earl of Clancar did the 
same for Kinsale. This did little to add to 
his strength. In March 1580 Pelham cap- 
tured the castle of Carrigafoyl, and in April 
Askeaton and Ballyloughan, his last fort- 
resses, shared the same fate. On 14 June 
he and Sanders narrowly escaped being sur- 
prised by Pelham, and in August he was re- 
duced to such extremities that he sent his 
countess to the lord justice to intercede for 
him. About the same time he applied to 
Admiral Winter, who was cruising in Kin- 
sale waters, to transport him to England to 
beg his pardon personally from the queen. 
After the destruction of the Spaniards in 
Fort-del-Ore the government of Munster was 
entrusted to the Earl of Ormonde, while 
Captain Zouche with 450 men was deputed 
to hunt him down. On 15 June 1581 he 
was surprised in the neighbourhood of Castle- 
mange and obliged to fly in his shirt into the 
woods of Aharlow. During the winter he 
was compelled to keep his Christmas in Kil- 
quegg wood, near Kilmallock, where he was 
nearly captured by the garrison stationed 
there. In September 1582 he was reported 
to have two hundred horse and two thousand 
foot under his command. In January 1583 
he had two remarkable escapes. All attempts 
to capture him seemed useless. The Munster 
officials were at their wits' end. Fenton sug- 
gested that he should be assassinated, while 
St. Leger advised the queen to adopt a policy 
similar to that which her father had found 
useful in the case of ' Silken Thomas.' Mean- 
while Ormonde, by more legitimate means, 
was bringing him to the end of his resources. 
On 5 June his countess left him, and a pro- 
clamation of pardon deprived him of most of 
his followers. Deserted by all except a priest, 
two horsemen, one kerne, and a boy, he wan- 
dered about helplessly from one place to an- 
other. On 19 Sept. he was nearly captured 
on the borders of Slievloghra. On Monday, 
11 Nov., just as day was breaking, he was 
surprised in a cabin in the wood of Glana- 
ginty by five soldiers of the garrison of Castle- 
mange, led on by Owen MacDonnell O'Mo- 
riarty, whose brother-in-law had just been 
plundered by the earl. Fearing a rescue, his 
head was cut off by Daniel O'Kelly and sent 
into England. His body was conveyed, ac- 
cording to tradition, through the byways of 
the hills to the little mountain churchyard 
of Kill-na-n-onaim, or the l Church of the 
Name.' In 1586 an act of parliament de- 
clared his estates forfeited to the crown. 




He married (1) Joan, daughter and heiress 
of James, eleventh earl of Desmond, widow 
of James, ninth earl of Ormonde, and mother 
of his rival, Thomas, tenth earl ; (2) Eleanor, 
daughter of Edmund Butler, lord Dunboyne, 
by whom he had James, called ' the Queen's 
Earl ' [q. v.], Thomas, and five daughters. 

SIK JOHN OF DESMOND, who had imme- 
diately on his landing joined Fitzmaurice, 
signalising his adhesion by the murder of 
Captain Henry Davells at Tralee, became, on 
the death of Fitzmaurice and till the acces- 
sion of the earl, head of the rebel army. 
Sharing with his brother in the vicissitudes 
of the war, he was in December 1581, after 
having been wounded on several occasions, 
entrapped by Captain Zouche in the neigh- 
bourhood of Castlelyons. His body was sent 
to Cork and 'was hanged in chaynes ouer 
the citty gates, where it hanged up for 3 or 
foure yeares togeather as a spectacle to all 
the beholders to looke on, vntill at length 
a greate storme of wynd blew it off, but the 
head was sent to Dublin, and there fastened 
to a pole and set over the castle wall.' 

[The chief authorities are Hamilton's Calen- 
dar of State Papers, vols. i. and ii. ; Collins's Syd- 
ney State Papers, vol. i. ; Calendar of Carew MSS. 
vols. i. and ii. ; O'Daly's Initium, incrementa, et 
exitus familise Geraldinorum ; O'Sullevan's His- 
torise Catholicae Ibernise Compendium; Annals 
of the Four Masters ; Annals of Loch Ce ; Morrin's 
Calendar of Patent Rolls, vols. i. and ii. ; Un- 
published G-eraldine Documents, ed. Hayman 
and Graves; Thomas Churchyard's A Scourge 
for Rebels ; Bishop Carleton's A Thankful Re- 
membrance of God's Mercy ; Kerry Mag. vol. i., 
where, under the title 'Antiquities of Tralee,' 
will be found a most excellent discussion on that 
part of Desmond's life which relates to his re- 
bellion, said to be by the late Archdeacon Rowan ; 
Cox's Hibernica Anglicana, vol. i. ; Bagwell's 
Ireland under the Tudors, vol. ii.] R. D. 

EARL OF KILDAKE (1525-1585), was son of 
Gerald Fitzgerald, ninth earl of Kildare [q. v.], 
by his second wife, Elizabeth, daughter of 
Thomas Grey, marquis of Dorset. In 1537 
Gerald's father was executed for high treason 
and attainted, with forfeiture of title and 
estates. Mainly through the exertions of his 
tutor, Thomas Leverous, subsequently bishop 
of Kildare, Gerald was conveyed to France, 
whence he went to Rome, where he was re- 
ceived by his relative, Cardinal Pole. He 
subsequently took part with knights of Rhodes 
in expeditions against the Moors, and entered 
the service of Cosmo de' Medici at Florence. 
After the death of Henry VIII Gerald came 
to England, and married Mabel, daughter of 
Sir Anthony Browne, knight of the Garter. 

Edward VI, in 1552, restored to him some 
of his paternal estates. In 1554 he served 
against Sir Thomas Wyatt. Queen Mary 
conferred upon Gerald the earldom of Kil- 
dare, with possessions of his father, which, 
under the attainder, had been confiscated. 
The original grant for the re-establishment 
of the earldom is in the possession of the 
Duke of Leinster, now the chief representa- 
tive of the earls of Kildare. The document 
has, with autographs of the eleventh earl, 
been reproduced in the fourth part of ' Fac- 
similes of National MSS. of Ireland.' Gerald 
conformed to the protestant religion early in 
the reign of Elizabeth. He sat in parliament 
in Ireland in 1559. The attainder of his 
family was annulled by statute in 1568. In 
1577 he attended before the privy council in 
England in relation to complaints made con- 
cerning the assessment imposed upon land- 
holders in Ireland. He took an active part 
in the warfare against hostile Irish and the 
Spaniards who had landed in Munster. In 
1582, on suspicion of treason, the earl's es- 
tates were placed under sequestration, and 
he, his son Henry, and his son-in-law Lord 
Delvin, were imprisoned in the Tower of 
London. After examinations before the lord 
chancellor of England and other judges, 
the earl was released from the Tower on 
giving a bond for 2,000/., in June 1583, to 
remain within twenty miles of London and 
not to come within three miles of her ma- 
jesty's court. In the following year the 
queen granted him permission to wait upon 
her, and to return to Ireland, where he sat 
in the parliament at Dublin in April 1585. 
He died in London on 16 Nov. following, and 
was interred at Kildare. He is stated by 
contemporaries to have been an expert horse- 
man, valiant, small of stature, slender of 
person, very courteous, but hard and angry 
at times, a great gatherer of money, and ad- 
dicted to gambling. 

[Archives of the Duke of Leinster; Patent 
and Statute Rolls ; State Papers, Public Record 
Office, London; Carew MSS., Lambeth; Carte 
Papers, Bodleian Library ; The Earls of Kil- 
dare, 1862 ; Report of Hist. MSS. Commission, 
1883.] J. T. G. 

teenth EARL OF DESMOND (d. 1558), second 
son of Sir John Desmond [see FITZGEKALD, 
JAMES Fitzmaurice, thirteenth earl], de facto 
thirteenth earl of Desmond, and More, daugh- 
ter of Donogh O'Brien of Carrigogunnell, co. 
Limerick, lord of Pobble O'Brien, imme- 
diately on the death of his grandfather in 
June 1536 assumed the position and title of 
Earl of Desmond, and in order to support it 




united himself with the head of the discon- 
tented party in Ireland, O'Brien of Thomond. 
Naturally the government, which had just 
suppressed the rebellion of Thomas, earl of 
Kildare, could not brook such insolence, and 
accordingly on 25 July the lord deputy, Grey, 
marched against him, and having come to 
the border of Cashel encamped in the field 
three days expecting his coming, as he had 
promised the chief justice, with the intention 
of separating him from O'Brien, ' so as we 
might have entangled but with one of them 
at once.' Not keeping his appointment, the 
deputy marched forward and took possession 
of his castle in Lough Gur, the doors and 
windows of which had been carried away 
and the roof burnt by the rebels themselves, 
which was then entrusted to Lord James 
Butler, who made it defensible. But Fitz- 
gerald had no intention of imitating his un- 
fortunate kinsman Thomas, earl of Kildare, 
and, although he refused to place his person 
within the power of the deputy, 'he showed 
himself in gesture and communication very 
reasonable,' offering to deliver up his two 
sons as hostages for his loyalty, and to sub- 
mit his claims to the earldom to the decision 
of Lord Grey. Though renewed in Decem- 
ber nothing for the nonce came of the pro- 
posal. ' And as far as ever I could perceive,' 
wrote Grey to Cromwell in February 1537, 
' the stay that keepeth him from inclining 
to the king's grace's pleasure is the fear and 
doubt which he and all the Geraldines in 
Munster have in the Lord James Butler, 
both for the old malice that hath been be- 
twixt their bloods, and principally for that 
he claimeth title by his wife to the earldom of 
Desmond ' (State Papers, Hen. VIII, ii. 404). 
Grey argued in favour of the acknowledgment 
of his claims, and in August Anthony St. 
Leger, who was at the time serving on the 
commission ' for the order and establishment 
to be taken and made touching the whole 
state of Ireland,' was advised by Cromwell 
* to handle the said James in a gentle sort.' 
Accordingly on 15 Sept. he was invited to 
submit his claims to the commissioners at 
Dublin ; but suspecting their intention he de- 
clined to place himself in their power, though 
signing articles of submission and promising 
to deliver up his eldest son as hostage for his 
good faith. The negotiations continued to 
hang fire. In March 1 538 the commissioners 
wrote that ' he hath not only delivered his 
son, according to his first promise, to the 
hands of Mr. William Wyse of Waterford to 
be delivered unto us, but also hath affirmed 
by his secretary and writing all that he afore 
promised ' (ib. p. 550). Nor was he without 
good reason for his cautious conduct. The 

Ormonde faction in the council, violently op- 
posed to Grey and St. Leger, were assidu- 
ously striving to effect his ruin by entangling 
him in rebellious projects. In July 1539 
John Allen related to Cromwell how the 
' pretended Earl of Desmond ' had confede- 
rated with O'Donnell and O'Neill ' to make 
insurrection against the king's majesty and 
his subjects, not only for the utter exile and 
destruction of them, but also for the bringing 
in, setting up, and restoring young Gerald 
(the sole surviving scion of the house of Kil- 
dare) to all the possessions and pre-eminences 
which his father had ; and so finally among 
them to exclude the king from all his re- 
galities within this land ' (ib. iii. 136). In 
April 1540 the council informed the king thai 
' your grace's servant James Fitzmaurice, who 
claimed to be Earl of Desmond, was cruelly 
slain the Friday before Palm Sunday, of un- 
fortunate chance, by Maurice Fitzjohn, bro- 
ther to James Fitzjohn, then usurper of the 
earldom of Desmond. After which murder 
done, the said James Fitzjohn immediately 
resorted to your town of Youghal, where he 
was well received and entertained, and ere 
he departed entered into all such piles and 
garrisons in the county of Cork as your ma- 
jesty's deputy, with the assistance of your 
army and me, the Earl of Ormonde, obtained 
before Christmas last ' (ib. p. 195). Ormonde 
was sent to parley with him, but he refused 
to trust him. On the arrival of St. Leger, as 
deputy, however, he again renewed his offer 
of submission, and promised, upon pledges 
being given for his safety, to meet him at 
Cashel. This he did, and on bended knees 
renounced the supremacy of the pope. ' And 
then,' writes St. Leger, ' considering the great 
variance between the Earl of Ormonde and 
him, concerning the title of the earldom of 
Desmond ... I and my fellows thought it 
not good to leave that cancer remain, but 
so laboured the matter on both sides, that we 
have brought them to a final end of the said 
title.' St. Leger assured the king ' that sith 
my repair into this your land I have not 
heard better counsel of no man for the refor- 
mation of the same than of the said Earl of 
Desmond, who undoubted is a very wise and 
discreet gentleman,' for which reason, he said, 
he had sworn him of the council and given 
him ' gown, jacket, doublet, hose, shirts, caps, 
and a riding coat of velvet, which he took 
very thankfully, and ware the same in Lime- 
rick and in all places where he went with 
me ' (ib. p. 285). By such conciliatory con- 
duct did St. Leger, in the opinion of Justice 
Cusack, win over to obedience the whole pro- 
vince of Munster (Cal. Carew MSS. i. 245). 
In July 1541 he was appointed chief executor 



of the * ordinances for the reformation of Ire- 
land ' in Munster, and in token of the renun- 
ciation of the privilege claimed by his ances- 
tors of not being obliged to attend the great 
councils of the realm, he took his seat in a 
parliament held at Dublin. In June 1542 he 
visited England, where, being admitted to the 
presence of the king, he was by him graci- 
ously received, his title acknowledged, and 
the king himself wrote to the Irish council 
* that the Earl of Desmond hath here sub- 
mitted himself in so honest, lowly, and humble 
a sort towards us, as we have conceived a very 
great hope that he will prove a man of great 
honour, truth, and good service.' Nor did he, 
during the rest of his life, fail to justify this 
opinion. On 9 July 1543 he obtained a grant 
of the crown lease of St. Mary's Abbey, Dub- 
lin, 'for his better supporting at his repair' 
to parliament. By Edward VI he was created 
lord treasurer on the death of the Earl of 
Ormonde (patent 29 March 1547), and on 
15 Oct., when thanking him for his services 
in repressing disorders in Munster, the king 
offered to make a companion of his son. Dur- 
ing the government of Bellingham he was 
suspected of treasonable designs, and having 
refused a peremptory order to appear in Dub- 
lin, the deputy swooped down upon him un- 
expectedly in the dead of winter, 1548, and 
carried him off prisoner. He was soon re- 
leased and continued in office by Mary. In 
the summer of 1558 he was attacked by a 
serious illness, and died at Askeaton on Thurs- 
day 27 Oct. He was buried in the abbey of 
the White Friars, Tralee. < The loss of this 
good man was woful to his country ; for there 
was no need to watch cattle, or close doors 
from Dun-caoin, in Kerry, to the green bor- 
dered meeting of the three waters, on the 
confines of the province of Eochaidh, the son 
of Lachta and Leinster' (Annals of the Four 
Masters). He married four times : first, Joan 
Roche, daughter of Maurice, lord Fermoy, and 
his own grandniece, for which reason she was 
put away, and her son, Thomas Roe (father 
of James Fitzthomas Fitzgerald, the Sugan 
Earl [q. v.]), known as Sir Thomas of Des- 
mond, disinherited ; secondly, More, daughter 
of Sir Maolrony McShane O'Carroll, lord of 
Ely O'Carroll, by whom he had Gerald, his 
heir, also John and four daughters she died 
in 1548 ; thirdly, Catherine, second daughter 
of Piers, earl of Ormonde, and widow of 
Richard, lord Power she died at Askeaton, 
17 March 1553; and fourthly, Ellen, daugh- 
ter of Donald MacCormac, MacCarthy Mor, 
"by whom he had a son, Sir James-Sussex 
Fitzgerald, and a daughter, Elinor. 

[State Papers, Hen. VIII, vols. ii. and iii. ; 
Lodge's Peerage (Archdall); Ware's Annales; 

Stanihurst's Chronicle; Cal. Carew MSS. vol i - 
Hamilton's Cal. vol. i.; Liber Hibernise, ii 41 ' 
O'Clery's Book of Pedigrees, Kilkenny Arch.' Soc! 
Journal, 1881, p. 413-1 E. D. 

thirteenth EARL or DESMOND (d. 1540), was 
the son of Maurice Fitzthomas, only son 
and heir-apparent of Thomas, twelfth earl of 
Desmond, and Joan, daughter of John Fitz- 
gibbon, the White Knight. Immediately on 
the death of his grandfather, Thomas, twelfth 
earl, in 1534, the succession was disputed by 
John Fitzthomas, brother of the twelfth earl, 
and fourth son of Thomas, eighth earl [q. v.l 
on the ground of the invalidity of the marriage 
of Maurice Fitzthomas with the daughter of 
the White Knight. Whether it was so or not 
was never determined, but John Fitzthomas 
having taken forcible possession remained earl 
de facto during his life, and after his death 
in 1536 the earldom was seized by his son 
James, fourteenth earl [q. v.], the title being 
cleared by the ' accidental ' death of James 
Fitzmaurice, thirteenth earl de jure, at the 
hand of Maurice a totane, brother of the 
fourteenth earl. Lodge, who correctly de- 
scribes James Fitzmaurice as thirteenth earl, 
incorrectly states that he was succeeded by 
his uncle, John Fitzthomas, which was im- 
possible, John having died in 1536. This 
alteration makes Lodge's fifteenth and six- 
teenth earls, fourteenth and fifteenth respec- 
tively (cp. Unpublished Geraldine Docu- 
ments, edited by Hayman and Graves, pt. ii. 
pp. 103-17). 

James Fitzmaurice, thirteenth earl, being 
in England at the time of his grandfather's 
death was, at the suggestion of the Irish 
council, who had their own purposes to serve 
(State Papers, Hen. VIII, iii. 106), allowed 
to return home, being ' sufficiently furnished 
with all things fitting and necessary for such 
a journey and enterprise ' by the bounty of 
the king. Landing at Cork, he was proceed- 
ing through the territory of Lord Roche, 
when he was waylaid and slain by Sir' 
Maurice of Desmond on 19 March 1540 (ib. 
p. 195). He married Mary, daughter of his 
great-uncle, Cormoc Og MacCarthy, but had 
no male issue (LODGE, Peerage, Archdall). 
She remarried Daniel O'Sullivan Mor, and 
died in 1548. 

[Authorities cited above.] E. D. 

(d. 1579), 'arch traitor,' was the second 
son of Maurice Fitzjohn a totane, i. e. of the 
burnings, and Julia, second daughter of Der- 
mot O'Mulryan of Sulloghade, co. Tipperary, 
nephew of James, fourteenth, and cousin of 


For some important corrections and 
additions see ' Notes and Queries,' clii. 6 1-2. 




Gerald, fifteenth earl of Desmond Earl 
James had shown his appreciation of the ' ac- 
cident' that had removed his competitor, 
James Fitzmaurice, the so-called thirteenth 
earl [q. v.J, from his path, by rewarding his 
brother, Maurice a totane, with the barony of 
Kerry kurrihy. But the cordial relations thus 
established between the two families came to 
an end with the accession of Gerald, fifteenth 
earl [q. v.], who appears to have regarded his 
uncle with jealousy, and to have treated him 
in a way that was resented by Maurice and 
his sons, who were soon at 'hot wars' with 
him. During the detention of the earl and 
his brother Sir John in England (1565-73), 
Fitzmaurice assumed the position of captain 
of Desmond, in which he was confirmed by 
the warrant of the earl himself, though not 
without protest on the part of Thomas Roe 
Fitzgerald. His conduct gave as little satis- 
faction to the government as had that of the 
earl. In July 1568 he entered Clanmaurice, 
the country of Thomas Fitzmaurice, lord of 
Lixnaw, nominally to distrain for rent, and, 
having captured two hundred head of cattle 
and wasted the country, was returning home- 
wards when he was met by Lord Lixnaw 
himself (29 July), and utterly defeated "by 
him. Hitherto he had lived on fairly good 
terms with the earl his cousin ; but about 
the end of 1568 the earl granted to Sir War- 
ham St. Leger, in return probably for services 
rendered or to be rendered to him during his 
confinement, a lease of the barony of Kerry- 
kurrihy. This he naturally regarded as an 
act of base ingratitude, and from that moment 
he seems to have entered on a line of conduct 
which could only have for its ultimate object 
the usurpation of the earldom of Desmond. 
' James Fitzmaurice,' wrote Sir H. Sidney, 
* understanding that I was arrived, and had 
not brought with me neither the earl nor Sir 
John his brother, which he thought I might 
and would have done, assembling as many of 
the Earl of Desmond's people as he could, 
declared unto them that I could not obtain 
the enlargement either of the earl or of his 
brother John, and that there was no hope or 
expectation of either of them but to be put 
to death or condemned to perpetual prison. 
And therefore (say ing that that country could 
not be without an earl or a captain) willed 
them to make choice of one to be their earl 
or captain, as their ancestors had done. . . 
And according to this his speech, he wrote 
unto me, they forthwith, and as it had been 
with one voice, cried him to be their captain ' 
(Cal. Carew MSS. ii. 342). Eleanor, coun- 
tess of Desmond, was a shrewd woman, and 
she wrote to her husband (26 Nov. 1569) 
that Fitzmaurice had rebelled in order to 

bring him into further displeasure, and to 
usurp all his inheritance ' by the example of 
his father.' In June 1569 he and the Earl 
of Clancarty invaded Kerrykurrihy, spoiled 
all the inhabitants, took the castle-abbey of 
Tracton, hanged the garrison, and vowed 
never to depart from Cork unless Lady St. 
Leger and Lady Grenville were delivered up 
to him. His policy, even now, seems to have 
been to create a strong Roman catholic and 
anti-English sentiment, and to make an al- 
liance with him as the head of the Irish ca- 
tholic party an object of importance to the 
catholic powers of Europe. And here perhaps 
we may trace the finger of Father Wolf, the 
Jesuit. To this end he seduced the brothers 
of the Earl of Ormonde, and entered into a 
bond with the Earl of Thomond and John 
Burke, son of the Earl of Clanricarde. On 
12 July he wrote to the mayor and corpora- 
tion of Cork, ordering them to ' abolish out 
of that city that old heresy newly raised and 
invented.' When Sidney took the field about 
the end of July the rebellion had extended 
as far as Kilkenny, while at Cork Lady St. 
Leger and the English inhabitants were in 
instant danger of being surrendered to the 
enemy. By the end of September the deputy 
had practically broken the back of the re- 
bellion, and, leaving Captain (afterwards 
Sir) Humphrey Gilbert to suppress Fitzmau- 
rice, he returned to Dublin. Gilbert soon 
brought him ' to a very base estate,' compelling 
him to seek safety in the woods of Aharlow. 
No sooner, however, had Gilbert departed 
than he succeeded in collecting a new force, 
with which he spoiled Kilmallock (9 Feb. 
1570). On 1 March a commission was given 
to Ormonde ' to parley, protect, or prosecute ' 
the Earl of Thomond, James Fitzmaurice, 
and others, but without leading to any re- 
sult. On 27 Feb. 1571 Sir John Perrot landed 
at Waterford as lord president, and prepared 
to put him down with a strong hand. But 
tie, we are told, f knowing that the lord presi- 
dent did desire nothing more than the finish- 
ing of those wars,' proposed to terminate 
them by a duel, ' believing that the presi- 
dent's longing for a speedy issue, and his ex- 
pectation thereof, would keep him for a time 
? rom further action.' He had, indeed, no 
.ntention of fighting, ' not so much,' he said, 
' for fear of his life, but because on his life 
did depend the safety of all such as were of 
lis party.' When Perrot at last discovered 
:he artifice he was so enraged that he vowed 
to hunt the fox out of his hole ' without 
delay. This he eventually did, but not with- 
out undergoing enormous fatigue, for his foe 
was a past master in the art of Irish strategy. 
After holding out for more than a year he 




was forced to sue for pardon, l which at 
length the lord president did consent to, and 
James Fitzmaurice came to Kilmallock,where 
in the church the lord president caused him 
to lie prostrate, taking the point of the lord 
president's sword next his heart, in token 
that he had received his life at the queen's 
hands, by submitting himself unto her mercy. 
And so he took a solemn oath to be and 
continue a true subject unto the queen and 
crown of England ' (23 Feb. 1573). He gave 
up one of his sons as hostage, and Perrot 
wrote to Burghley that from his conduct he 
almost expected him to prove ' a second St. 
Paul.' On the return of the Earl of Desmond 
he exerted himself to induce that nobleman 
to assume a position of irreconcilable enmity 
to England, but, finding him more inclined 
to submit to ' reasonable terms,' he deter- 
mined to retire to the continent. His object 
in so doing, he said to some, was to obtain 
pardon from Elizabeth through the media- 
tion of the French court ; to others he de- 
clared that he was compelled to leave Ireland 
by the unkindness of his cousin. One excuse 
was probably as good as another. In March 
1575, accompanied by the White Knight and 
the seneschal of Imokilly, he and his family 
sailed on board La Arganys for France, and 
a few days afterwards landed at St. Halo, 
where they were all cordially received by the 
governor. From St. Halo he proceeded to 
Paris, where he had several interviews with 
Catherine de' Medici. He promised largely, 
we are told, offering in return for assistance 
to make Henry III king of Ireland. During 
1575-6 he remained in the neighbourhood of 
Paris, and received a pension of five thousand 
crowns, which, considering the scarcity of 
money, Dr. Dale shrewdly conjectured was 
not ' pour ses beaux yeux.' But finding that 
he was merely a pawn in the delicate game 
that Elizabeth and Catherine were playing, 
he, early in 1577, left France to try his for- 
tunes at the Spanish court. Here the crown 
of Ireland was offered to Don John ; but 
Philip, with the Netherlands and Portugal 
on his hands, had no inclination to break 
openly with England ; so, leaving his two 
sons Maurice and Gerald under the protection 
of Cardinal Granvelle, who had taken a fancy 
to them, he went on to Italy, where he met 
with a much more satisfactory reception from 
Gregory XIII. At the papal court he fell 
in with Stukely, and a plan was soon on foot 
for the invasion of Ireland, the crown this 
time being promised to the pope's nephew. 
Leaving Stukely to follow with the main 
body of the invading force, Fitzmaurice, ac- 
companied by Dr. Sanders, papal nuncio, and 
Matthew de Oviedo, sailed from Ferrol in 

Galicia on 17 June 1579 with a few troops 
which he had gathered together, having with 
him his own vessel and three Spanish shal- 
lops. In the Channel two English vessels 
were captured, and on 16 July they arrived 
in the port of Dingle in Kerry, where they 
took possession of the Fort del Ore. On the 
18th they cast anchor in Smerwick harbour, 
where on the 25th they were joined by two 
galleys with a hundred soldiers. Four days 
later, however, their ships were captured by 
the English fleet. Fitzmaurice's first concern 
was to despatch an urgent but ineffectual 
exhortation to the Earls of Desmond and 
Kildare, as heads of the Geraldines, to join 
with him in throwing off the yoke of the 
heretic, and then, leaving his soldiers in the 
Fort del Ore to await the arrival of Stukely, 
he went to pay a vow at the monastery of 
the Holy Cross in Tipperary. On his way 
thither he was slain in a skirmish (the merits 
of which are somewhat uncertain) by his 
cousin, Theobald Burke. He married Katha- 
rine, daughter of W. Burke of Muskerry, by 
whom he had two sons, Maurice and Gerald, 
and a daughter. 

[The chief authorities for his life are Hamil- 
ton's Irish Calendar ; Crosby's Foreign Calendar ; 
Geraldine Documents, ed. Hayman and Graves ; 
Rawlinson's Life of Sir John Perrot; Hogan's 
Ibernia Ignatiana; Moran's Catholic Archbishops 
of Dublin ; Calendar of Carew MSS. i. 397 ; 
Kerry Magazine, No. 31 ; O'Daly's Initium, 
incrementa, et exitus familise Geraldinorum ; 
O'Sullevan's Historiae Catholicse Iberniae Com- 
pendium ; Annals of the Four Masters ; Annals 
of Loch Ce; Cox's Hibernia Anglicana; Bagwell's 
Ireland under the Tudors, vol. ii. In the Kil- 
kenny Archaeological Society's Journal, July 
1859, will be found a collection of Irish letters 
by Fitzgerald, translated and edited by Dr. 
O'Donovan.] K. D. 

FITZGERALD, JAMES, commonly called 
DESMOND (1570P-1601), was elder son of 
Gerald Fitzgerald, fifteenth earl of Desmond 
(d. 1583) [q. v.], by his second marriage with 
Eleanor, daughter of Edmund Butler, lord 
Dunboyne. He was born in England about 
1570, and the queen was his godmother. 
When his father renounced his allegiance to 
the English crown in 1579, the child seems 
to have been resident in Ireland. His mother, 
to dissociate him from his father's ill fortune, 
delivered him up to Sir William Drury, an 
acting lord justice, who sent him to Dublin 
Castle. On 28 Aug. 1582 the countess bit- 
terly complained to Lord Burghley that his 
education was utterly neglected, and peti- 
tioned for better treatment (HAYMAN and 
GEAVES,91). On 17 Nov. 1583, and on 9 July 




1584 his gaolers applied to the English autho- 
rities for his removal to the Tower of London. 
Their second petition was successful, and 
before the close of 1584 the lad was carried 
to the Tower, to remain a prisoner there for 
sixteen years. On 17 June 1593 he wrote 
pathetically to Cecil that ' only by being born 
the unfortunate son of a faulty father, [he] 
had never since his infancy breathed out of 
prison.' Between 1588 and 1598 innumer- 
able accounts are extant detailing payment in 
behalf of * James Garolde,' as the prisoner 
was called, for medicines, ointments, pills, 
syrups, and the like, particulars which suggest 
a very feeble state of health. The ' wages ' 
of the youth's schoolmaster appear in the ac- 
counts, and many letters are extant to testify 
to the thoroughness of the teaching as far as 
it went. 

Fitzgerald's condition underwent a great 
change in the autumn of 1600. Tyrone's re- 
bellion was still unchecked. In Munster the 
Geraldine faction was united by Tyrone's in- 
fluence against the English government, in 
the support of James Fitzthomas Fitzgerald, 
the Sugan Earl [q. v.], who, being the heir 
of the disinherited elder son of James, four- 
teenth earl of Desmond, had been put forward 
by the rebel leaders as the only rightful earl 
of Desmond. To break the union between 
the Geraldine faction and the other rebels, 
Sir George Carew, president of Munster, sug- 
gested that the imprisoned James Fitzgerald 
should be sent to the province, and paraded 
as the genuine earl of Desmond. It was con- 
fidently expected that the Geraldine faction 
would at once transfer their allegiance to the 
youthful prisoner. Elizabeth disliked the 
scheme. Cecil doubted its wisdom, but finally 
gave way. Fitzgerald was to assume the title 
of Earl of Desmond, and a patent passed the 
great seal, with the proviso that if the earl 
Lad an heir, the heir should bear the title of 
Baron Inchiquin. The new earl was to have 
none of his father's lands restored to him, 
and was to be in the custody of a governor, 
Captain Price, together with a gentleman 
named Crosbie, and the protestant archbishop 
of Cashel, Miler Magrath. Captain Price 
was ordered to indoctrinate his charge with 
the necessity of supporting the queen, of ad- 
hering to the protestant religion, and of main- 
taining a very frugal household. Cecil di- 
rected Carew to leave Fitzgerald all the ap- 
pearances of liberty, but he was to be closely 
watched and placed under restraint if he 
showed the slightest sign of sympathy with 
the government's enemies. The party left 
Bristol for Cork on 13 Oct. 1600. The earl 
suffered terribly from sea-sickness, and was 
landed at Youghal. The Geraldines wel- 

comed him with enthusiasm, although the 
mayor of Cork was not very courteous. The 
earl travelled quickly to Carew's headquarters 
at Mallow, and thence to the centre of the 
Geraldine district at Kilmallock (18 Oct.), 
where Sir George Thornton, the English com- 
mander, provided him with lodging. The 
people still treated him with favour, and al- 
though he found his position irksome, he faith- 
fully preached to them Elizabeth's clemency 
and the desirability of making peace with 
her. But on Sunday, the 19th, while his fol- 
lowers were expecting him to join them at 
worship in the catholic chapel, he ostenta- 
tiously made his way to the protestant church. 
This act broke the spell, and the people's ac- 
clamations changed to hooting. On 14 Nov., 
however, Thomas Oge, an officer in the ser- 
vice of the Sugan Earl, who held a fortress 
called Castlemang, surrendered it to the new 
earl, and the latter dwelt with pride on the 
victory in a letter to Cecil (18 Dec.) But 
this was Desmond's only success. Cecil saw 
that his presence in Ireland had no effect on 
the rebellious population, and his guardians 
found him difficult to content with the narrow 
means at their command. He resented living 
on 500/. a year, the allowance made him 
by the government, and desired to marry a 
certain widow Norreys, to which Cecil ob- 
jected. Cecil held out hopes that a more 
suitable marriage could be arranged in Eng- 
land. At the end of March 1601 he came to 
London with a letter from Carew highly re- 
commending him for a grant of land and a set- 
tled income in consideration of his loyalty. 
On 31 Aug. 1601 he appealed to Cecil for aid, 
and for some of the lands lately held by the 
Sugan Earl. He described himself as penni- 
less, despised, and without the means to pre- 
sent himself at court. Chamberlain, writing 
to Carleton, 14 Nov. 1601, says that ' the 
young earl of Desmond died here [i.e. Lon- 
don] the last week ' (Letters temp. Eliz., Camd. 
Soc., 122) ; but it was not until 14 Jan. 
1601-2 that the privy council formally an- 
nounced his death, and released the persons 
who had accompanied him to Ireland from the 
charge of attendance upon him. On 17 Jan. 
1601-2 one of these persons, named William 
Power, appealed for pecuniary assistance in 
behalf of the earl's four sisters, who were 
suffering greatly from poverty. Irish writers 
suggest that the earl was poisoned, but there 
is nothing to support the suggestion. 

[Hayman and Graves's Unpublished Geraldine 
Documents, pt. ii. pp. 80 et seq. ; Pacata Hi- 
bernia, 1633, i. cap. 14, p. 800 ; Gent. Mag. 1863 
pt. ii. 414-25, 1864 pt. ii. 28-39 ; Cal. State 
Papers (Domestic), 1601-3, pp. 13, 134; Cal. 
Carew MSS. 1600-1.] S. L. L. 




the SUGAN EARL OF DESMOND (d. 1608), was 
the eldest son of Sir Thomas Fitzgerald, com- 
monly called Thomas Roe or Red Thomas. 
Thomas Roe had been bastardised and disin- 
herited by his father, James Fitzjohn Fitz- 
gerald, fourteenth earl of Desmond [q. v.], and 
though inclined to dispute the claim of his 
younger brother Gerald, fifteenth earl [q. v.], 
to the earldom of Desmond, circumstances 
had proved too strong for him, and he had 
sunk into obscure privacy. By his wife 
Ellice, daughter of Richard, lord Poer, he 
had two sons, James and John, and a daugh- 
ter, who married Donald Pipi MacCarthy 
Reagh. When of an age to understand his 
position James Fitzthomas repaired to court 
to petition Elizabeth for a restoration of his 
rights. His petition was regarded with favour, 
some slight encouragement held out to him, 
and a small yearly allowance promised him. 
Consequently, during the rebellion of his uncle 
Gerald, both he and his father remained 
staunch in their allegiance to the crown, and 
after the death of the earl and the suppres- 
sion of the rebellion in 1583 they naturally 
looked for their restoration to the earldom. 
But their petitions no longer found favour at 
court, for Munster was to be ' planted ' with 
Englishmen, and for ever to be made loyal 
to England. So matters remained until 1598, 
when Munster, in the words of the Irish an- 
nalists, again became ' a trembling sod.' In- 
stigated by his brother John and by Hugh 
O'Neill, earl of Tyrone, James Fitzthomas 
assumed the title of Earl of Desmond, and 
before long found himself at the head of eight 
thousand clansmen. To the expostulations 
of the Earl of Ormonde he replied, on 12 Oct. 
1598, by a statement of his grievances, and 
by an avowal of his intention, seeing he could 
obtain no justice, 'tomaintain his right, trust- 
ing in the Almighty to further the same.' 
The struggle lasted for three years. But in 
October 1600, while withdrawing his forces 
from the open into the woods of Aharlow, 
he was surprised by Captain Greame and the 
garrison of Kilmallock. From that day the 
G'eraldines never rallied again to any pur- 
pose. Dismissing his followers the earl took 
to the woods for safety, where, in May 1601, 
Sir George Carew was informed that he was 
living' in the habit of a priest,' but determined 
* to die rather than to depart the province, re- 
taining still his traitorly hopes to be relieved 
out of Ulster or out of Spain' (Cal. Carew 
MSS. iv. 55). Carew made several attempts 
to procure his capture or death, but without 
success, for ' such is the superstitious folly 
of these people, as for no price he may be 
had, holding the same to be so heinous as no 


priest will give them absolution' (id. iii. 471). 
Eventually, on 29 May 1601, he was captured 
by Edmund Fitzgibbon, the White Knight 
[q. v.], while hiding in 'an obscure cave many 
fathoms underground' in the neighbourhood 
of Mitchelstown. He was placed in irons 
to prevent a rescue, ' so exceedingly beloved 
of all sorts ' was he, and conveyed to Shan- 
don Castle, where he was immediately ar- 
raigned and adjudged guilty of treason. For 
a time Carew hoped to make use of him 
against a still greater rebel, Hugh O'Neill ; 
but finding him to be after all but a l dull- 
spirited traitor,' he on 13 Aug. handed him 
over to Sir Anthony Cooke, who conveyed 
him to England, where, on his arrival, he was 
placed in the Tower. Of his life in prison 
there remains only the following pathetic 
notice : i The demands of Sir John Peyton, 
Lieutenant of Her Majesty's Tower of Lon- 
don, for one quarter of a year, from St. Mi- 
chael's day 1602 till the feast of our Lord God 
next. For James M'Thomas. Sayd tyme at 
31. per week, physicke, sourgeon, and watcher 
with him in his Lunacy.' He is said to have 
died in 1608, and to have been buried in the 
chapel of the Tower. He married Ellen, 
widow of Maurice, elder brother of Edmund, 
the White Knight, but had no issue. 

John Fitzthomas, his brother, who had 
shared with him in the vicissitudes of the 
rebellion, and who indeed seems to have been 
the prime instigator of it, after his brother's 
capture, escaped with his wife, the daughter 
of Richard Comerford of Dangenmore, Kil- 
kenny, into Spain, where he died a few years 
afterwards at Barcelona. His son Gerald, 
known as the Conde de Desmond, entered 
the service of the Emperor Ferdinand II, and 
was killed in 1632. As he left no issue, in him 
ended the heirs male of the four eldest sons 
of Thomas, eighth earl of Desmond [q. v.] 

[The principal references to the life of the 
Sugan Earl will be found collected together in 
the Unpublished G-eraldine Documents, edited 
by Hayman and Graves, pt. ii.] E. D. 

LEINSTEE, (1722-1773), was the second but 
eldest surviving son of Robert, nineteenth 
earl of Kildare, and head of the great family 
of the Geraldines, by Lady Mary O'Brien, 
eldest daughter of William, third earl of In- 
chiquin. He was born on 29 May 1722, and, 
after receiving his preliminary education at 
home, travelled on the continent from Fe- 
bruary 1737 to September 1739. In the fol- 
lowing year he became heir-apparent to the 
earldom of Kildare, on the death of his elder 
brother, and on 17 Oct. 1741 he entered the 
Irish House of Commons as member for Athy, 




with the courtesy title of Lord Offaly. On 
20 Feb. 1744 he succeeded his father as 
twentieth earl of Kildare, and in the rebellion 
of the following year he offered to raise a 
regiment at his own expense to serve against 
the Pretender. He was sworn of the Irish 
privy council in 1746, and on 1 Feb. 1747 he 
received a seat in the English House of Lords 
as Viscount Leinster of Taplow, Buckingham- 
shire, an estate belonging to his uncle, the Earl 
of Inchiquin. This peerage was conferred on 
Kildare on the occasion of his marriage with 
Lady Emily Lennox, second daughter of 
Charles, second duke of Richmond, and sister 
of Lady Holland, Lady Louisa Conolly, and 
Lady Sarah Napier, which took place on 7 Feb. 
1747. Kildare after his marriage took an 
active part in Irish politics ; he built Leinster 
House in Dublin, and exercised a princely hos- 
pitality ; and from his wealth, high birth, and 
influential family connections, soon formed 
a powerful party. This party followed im- 
plicitly all the directions of Kildare, who 
pursued an intermediate policy between the 
radical ideas of Speaker Boyle (afterwards 
Earl of Shannon) [see BOYLE, HENKY, 1682- 
1764] and his friends, and the ministerialists, 
headed by the primate, George Stone, arch- 
bishop of Dublin. Stone was an especial ob- 
ject of hatred to Kildare, who in 1754 sent a 
most violent protest to the king, attacking 
the primate's nomination to be a lord deputy 
during the absence of the lord-lieutenant, and 
declaring the inalienable right of the Irish par- 
liament to dispose of unappropriated sums of 
money when voted in excess of the ministerial 
demands. Stone's chief supporter, the Duke of 
Dorset, was at once recalled j the primate was 
struck out of the Irish privy council; and the 
Marquis of Hartington, a personal friend of 
Kildare's,was appointed lord-lieutenant. The 
Irish people, or perhaps it is more correct to 
say the population of Dublin, were delighted 
at the earl's behaviour ; a medal was struck 
in his honour, and he remained until the day 
of his death one of the most popular noblemen 
in Ireland. He justified the confidence of 
the English ministry by bringing round the 
speaker and Richard Malone, the chancellor 
of the Irish exchequer, to the support of the 
Irish administration, and in 1756 he accepted 
the post of lord deputy. In 1758 he was made 
master-general of the ordnance in Ireland, 
in March 1760 he raised the Royal Irish regi- 
ment of artillery, of which he was appointed 
colonel, and on 3 March 1761 he was created 
Earl of Offaly and Marquis of Kildare in the 
peerage of Ireland. Five years later he re- 
ceived the final step in the peerage. There 
were at that time no Irish dukes, and the 
marquis was eager to maintain his precedence 

over all Irish noblemen. The king promised 
that he should be created a duke whenever 
an English duke was made, and in compliance 
with this promise, when Sir Hugh Smithson- 
Percy, Earl Percy, was promoted to be Duke of 
Northumberland, Kildare was created Duke of 
Leinster in the peerage of Ireland on 16 March 
1766. After this last promotion he began to 
take less part in politics, but in 1771 he drew 
up and signed a protest in the Irish House of 
Lords against the petition of the majority 
of the Irish parliament for the continuance of 
Lord Townshend in the office of lord-lieu- 
tenant. The duke died at Leinster House, 
Dublin, on 19 Nov. 1773, and was buried at 
Christ Church in that city. He left a large 
family, among whom the most notable were 
William Robert [q. v.], who succeeded as 
second duke of Leinster ; Charles James, a 
distinguished naval officer, who was created 
Lord Lecale in the peerage of Ireland ; Lord 
Henry Fitzgerald, who married Charlotte, 
baroness De Ros in her own right ; Lord Ed- 
ward Fitzgerald, the rebel [q. v.] ; and Lord 
Robert Stephen Fitzgerald, a diplomatist of 
some note, who was minister ad interim in 
Paris during the early years of the French 
revolution, and afterwards British representa- 
tive at Berne. 

[The Marquia of Kildare's Earls of Kildare 
and their Ancestors from 1057 to 1773, Dublin, 
1858.] H. M. S. 

FITZGERALD, JAMES (1742-1835), 
Irish politician, descended from the family of 
the White Knight [see FITZGIBBON, EDMUND 
Fitzjohn], was younger son of William Fitz- 
gerald, an attorney of Ennis, and younger 
brother of Maurice Fitzgerald, clerk of the 
crown for Connaught. He was born in 1742, 
and educated at Trinity College, Dublin,where 
he greatly distinguished himself. In 1769 
he was called to the Irish bar, and he soon 
obtained a large practice, and won a great 
reputation both as a sound lawyer and an 
eloquent pleader. In 1772 he entered the 
Irish House of Commons as member for 
Ennis ; in 1776 he was elected both for Kil- 
libegs and Tulsk in Roscommon, and pre- 
ferred to sit for the latter borough ; in 1784 
and 1790 he was re-elected for Tulsk, and 
in 1798 he was chosen to represent the county 
of Kildare in the last Irish parliament. His 
eloquence soon made him as great a reputa- 
tion in the Irish parliament as at the Irish 
bar, and he was recognised as one of the 
leading orators in the days of Grattan and 
Flood. Though an eloquent speaker, Fitz- 
gerald was not much of a statesman ; he, 
however, supported all the motions of the 
radical party, and in 1782 he made his 



most famous speech in proposing a certain 
measure of catholic relief. In that year he 
married Catherine, younger daughter of the 
Rev. Henry Vesey, who was grandson of 
John Vesey, archbishop of Tuam, and cousin 
of Lord Glent worth, ancestor of the Vis- 
counts de Vesci. Fitzgerald never sought 
political office, but he eagerly accepted profes- 
sional appointments, which helped him at the 
bar. He thus became in rapid succession 
third Serjeant in 1 779, second Serjeant in 1784, 
and prime Serjeant in 1787. In all the de- 
bates which preceded the final abolition of 
the independent Irish parliament Fitzgerald 
distinguished himself. He opposed the pro- 
ject of the union with all his might, and 
he was certainly disinterested in his cause, 
for in 1799 he was dismissed from his post 
of prime serjeant to make way for St. George 
Daly, who had been converted to the unionist 
policy. The Irish bar insisted on showing 
their respect for him, and continued to give 
him the precedence in court over the attor- 
ney-general and solicitor-general which he 
had held as prime serjeant. When the union 
was carried Fitzgerald accepted it, and he 
sat in the imperial parliament for Ennis from 
1802 to February 1808, when he resigned the 
seat to his son, William Vesey Fitzgerald. He, 
however, was re-elected in 1812, but again re- 
signed in January 1813, when he finally re- 
tired from politics. His name, like his son's 
1843], was unfortunately mixed up in the 
Mary Anne Clarke scandal with the Duke 
of York. This son, who was thoroughly re- 
conciled to the union, held many important 
political offices, and in recognition of his ser- 
vices his mother was created Baroness Fitz- 
gerald and Vesey on 31 July 1826, when 
James Fitzgerald himself refused a peerage. 
James Fitzgerald died at Booterstown, near 
Dublin, on 20 Jan. 1835, aged 93 ; the baro- 
ness had predeceased him 3 Jan. 1832. His 
was dean of Emly (1818-26), and dean of 
Kilmore from 1826 till his death, on 30 March 
1860. He succeeded his eldest brother as 
third Lord Fitzgerald and Vesey in 1843. 

[Gent. Mag. March 1835; Blue Book of the 
Members of the House of Commons ; Blacker's 
Booterstown, pp. 241-3 ; Sir John Barrington's 
Memoirs of the Union ; Grattan's Life of Henry 
Grattan; Hardy's Life of the Earl of Charle- 
mont.] H. M. S. 



(d. 1589), seneschal of Imokilly, was the son 
of Edmund Fitzmaurice Riskard, seneschal of 

Imokilly and Shylie, daughter of Maolrony" 
O'Carroll. He was a prominent actor in the 
two great rebellions that convulsed Munster 
during 1563 to 1583. In 1569, being ' a prin- 
cipal communicator with James Fitzmaurice/ 
' arch traitor ' [q. v.], he was besieged in his 
castle of Ballymartyr by Sir Henry Sidney ; 
but after a stout defence, in which several of 
the besiegers were wounded, finding the place 
untenable, he ' and his company in the dead 
of night fl.ed out of the house by a bog, which 
joins hard to the wall where no watch could 
have prevented their escape.' He continued 
to hold out with Fitzmaurice in the woods 
of Aharlow till February 1573, when he 
humbly submitted himself before Sir John 
Perrot in the church of Kilmallock, and was 
pardoned. In 1575 he accompanied Fitz- 
maurice to France, but returned to Ireland 
a few weeks afterwards. From that time till 
the date of Fitzmaurice's landing we hear 
nothing of him with the exception that on 
16 Nov. 1576 he complained to the president 
of Munster, Sir William Drury, that the Earl 
of Desmond was coshering sixty horses and 
a hundred horse-boys on Imokilly, an inci- 
dent quite sufficient to show how the wind 
was blowing meanwhile. Instantly on the 
arrival of Fitzmaurice in July 1579 he went 
into rebellion. An adept in all the strata- 
gems of Irish warfare, and personally brave 
in carrying his schemes into execution, he 
became, after the death of the ' arch traitor/ 
the unquestionable, though not nominal, 
head of the rebellion. It was against him, 
and not the Earl of Desmond, that Or- 
monde mainly directed his efforts. More than 
once during that terrible struggle he was re- 
ported to have been slain. He was, indeed, 
once severely wounded and his brother killed, 
but he manifested no intention of submitting. 
In February 1581 he narrowly missed captur- 
ing Sir Walter Raleigh. In May 1583 his aged 
mother was taken and executed by Thomas 
Butler, tenth earl of Ormonde [q. v.] But it 
was not till 14 June, when he was reported 
to have not more than twenty-four swords and 
four horse, that he consented to recognise the 
hopelessness of his cause. His submission 
was accepted conditionally; but Ormonde, 
who greatly respected him for his bravery, 
pleaded earnestly with Burghley for his par- 
don. He was, he declared, a man ' valiant, 
wise, and true of his word.' Ever since his 
submission ' he and his people had been em- 
ployed in order and husbandry.' Ormonde's 
intervention was successful so far as his life 
was concerned ; but as for his lands, that was 
to be left an open question. Thirty-six thou- 
sand acres of good land, which the under- 
takers had come to regard as their property, 




were not to be surrendered by them with- 
out & struggle. He was represented as the 
most dangerous man in the province, as ' hav- 
ing more intelligence from Spain than any 
one else.' Their representations were not 
without their calculated effect on Elizabeth, 
who had at first been inclined to treat him 
leniently. Not suspecting any attack, he was 
in March 1587 arrested by Sir Thomas Nor- 
reys and confined to Dublin Castle, where he 
died in February 1589 (Ham. Cal. iv. 126, but 
cf. p. 253), a few days after it had been finally 
decided that he should enjoy the profit of his 
lands. He married Honora, daughter of 
James Fitzmaurice, by whom he had Ed- 
mund and Richard, seven weeks old in 1589, 
and two daughters, Catherine and Eleanor. 
His son and heir, Edmund, at the time of 
his father's death being a year and a half old, 
was found by inquisition to be heir to Bally- 
martyr and other lands in co. Cork, and was 
granted in wardship to Captain Moyle. He 
obtained livery of his lands on coming of age, 
and in 1647 defended Ballymartyr against 
his nephew, Lord Inchiquin, when the castle 
was burnt and himself outlawed. 

[The principal references to Fitzgerald's life 
contained in the State Papers will be found in the 
Unpublished Geraldine Documents, edited by 
Hayman and Graves, pt. ii. pp. 1 18-36.] K. D. 

(1528-1612), dean of Cloyne, son of Edmund 
Fitzjames,bornin 1528, was a devoted loyalist, 
being almost the only gentleman of note who 
refused to join in the rebellion of James Fitz- 
maurice Fitzgerald [q. v.] in 1569, whereupon 
he was appointed sheriff of the county of Cork, 
and for his good services in that office was 
1 so maliced and hated of the rebels, as they 
not only burned all his towns and villages to 
the utter banishing of th' inhabitants of the 
same, but also robbed and spoiled and con- 
sumed all his goods and cattle, and thereby 
brought him from a gentleman of good ability 
to live to extreme poverty, not able to main- 
tain himself and his people about him in the 
service of her majesty as his heart desired.' 
His petition for compensation was supported 
by Sir Henry Sidney, who declared that he 
well deserved the same both for the losses 
he had sustained as also for his honesty and 
civility. On the outbreak of Desmond's re- 
bellion he again threw in his lot with the 
government, and was again exposed to the 
attacks of the rebels, insomuch that he was 
obliged to take refuge in Cork. In January 
1581 his condition was described to Burghley 
as truly pitiful, and in May 1582 the queen 
gave order that he should receive an annuity 
of one hundred marks and a grant of one 

hundred marks land of the escheats in Mun- 
ster. In 1586 he strenuously opposed the- 
bill for the attainder of the Earl of Desmond, 
and by trying to maintain the legality of the- 
earl's feoffment almost made shipwreck in 
one moment of the reputation gained by a 
long life of loyalty. Being charged with con- 
niving at the marriage of Florence MacCarthy 
(whose godfather he was) and Ellen, daugh- 
ter of the Earl of Clancar, he denied it, de- 
claring to Burghley that on the contrary he- 
had done his best to prevent it ; while, as for 
his action in regard to Desmond's deed of 
feoffment, it was with him a thing of con- 
science and honesty before God and the- 
world, and not a thing desired by him. His- 
loyalty was confirmed by Justice Smythes, 
who wrote that he was a gentleman ' wise- 
and considerate in all his doings, of great 
learning in good arts, and approved loyalty 
in all times of trial, just in his dealings, and 
may serve for a pattern to the most of this-- 
country ' (Ham. Cal. iv. 46). 

During the rebellion of the Sugan Earl 
[see FITZGERALD, JAMES Fitzthomas] he more- 
than once proved himself 'the best subject 
the queen had in Munster,' and in order ' to 
requite his perpetual loyalty to the crown 
of England, as also to encourage others,'' 
Lord Mountjoy, while visiting him at Cloyne 
(7 March 1601), on his way from the siege of 
Kinsale to Dublin, knighted him. The castle- 
of Cloyne had originally been the palace of 
the bishops of Cloyne. The way in which 
it came into the possession of Fitzgerald very 
well illustrates the general laxity in ecclesi- 
astical matters prevailing during Elizabeth's- 
reign. In order to make leases of bishops'" 
lands valid it was necessary to have them 
confirmed by the dean and chapter, the church 
thus having, as it were, double security that 
its estates should not be recklessly given 
away. In order to obviate this difficulty Fitz- 
gerald, though a layman, got himself appointed 
to the deanery of Cloyne, after which he filled, 
the chapter with his dependents. Thereupon 
Matthew Shehan, bishop of Cloyne, in con- 
sideration of a fine of 40/., leased out on 
14 July 1575, at an annual rent of five 
marks for ever, the whole demesne of Cloyne 
to a certain Richard Fitzmaurice, one of Fitz- 
gerald's dependents. The dean and chapter 
confirmed the grant, and Fitzmaurice handed 
over his right and title to his master. Ther 
castle, which stood at the south-east angle of 
the four crossways in the centre of the town of 
Cloyne, was repaired by Fitzgerald, and only 
disappeared in 1797, having been recovered 
for the church in 1700. He married Honor 
O'Brien, niece of the Earl of Thomond, by 
whom he had three sons : Edmund, who 




married the widow of John Fitzedmund Fitz- 
gerald [q. v.], seneschal of Imokilly ; Thomas 
(d. 1628), who married Honor, daughter of 
O'Sullivan Beare; James (o.s.p.), and two 
daughters, Joan and Eleanor. He died on 
15 July 1612, and was buried with his ances- 
tors in the cathedral of Cloyne. Two months 
later he was followed by his eldest son. ' In 
the N.-E. angle of the north transept of the 
cathedral,' says the late Kev. James Graves, 
' was erected, doubtless during his lifetime, 
a very fine monument in the renaissance style, 
originally consisting of an altar-tomb, above 
which was reared a pillared superstructure 
crowned by an ornamented entablature ; 
whilst, from the fragments still remaining, 
it would appear that two kneeling armed 
figures surmounted the first-named part of the 
monument.' According to the epitaph he was 
* hospitio Celebris, doctrina clarus et armis.' 

[The principal references to Fitzgerald's life 
contained in the State Papers have been collected 
together in the Unpublished Geraldine Docu- 
ments, ed. Hayman and Graves, pt. ii. He must 
be carefully distinguished from his relative the 
*eneschal of Imokilly. See also the Life and 
Letters of Florence MacCarthy Keagh, by Daniel 
MacCarthy, bishop of Kerry, and Dr. Brady's 
Clerical and Parochial Kecords of Cork, Cloyne, 
and Eoss, vol. iii.] E. D. 


(1784P-1877), field marshal, colonel 18th 
royal Irish foot, was a younger son of Ed- 
ward Fitzgerald of Carrigoran, co. Clare, who 
sat for that county in the Irish parliament, 
was a colonel of Irish volunteers in 1782, 
and died in 1815, by his second wife, the 
daughter and coheiress of Major Thomas Bur- 
ton, 5th dragoon guards, and granddaughter 
of Right Hon. John Forster, lord chief jus- 
tice of Ireland [q. v.], and consequently was 
younger brother of the first two baronets of 
Carrigoran. The date of his birth is va- 
riously given as 1784 and 1786. On 29 Oct. 
1793 he was appointed ensign in Captain 
Shee's independent company of foot in Ire- 
land, and became lieutenant in January 1794. 
In May 1794 he was given a half-pay com- 
pany in the old 79th (royal Liverpool volun- 
teers) regiment of foot, which had been dis- | 
banded before he was born. After seven 
years as a titular captain on the Irish half- 
pay list, on 31 Oct. 1800 he was brought 
into the 46th foot, and joined that corps, then 
consisting of two strong battalions of short- 
service soldiers, in Ireland. The regiment 
was much reduced by the discharge of the 
latter at the peace of Amiens, and young 
Fitzgerald was again placed on half-pay, but 
the year after was brought on full pay again 
in the newly raised New Brunswick fencibles, 

in which he was senior captain and brevet 
major. In 1809 he was promoted major in 
the 60th royal Americans, afterwards known 
as the 60th rifles, and in 1810 became brevet 
lieutenant-colonel. He joined the 5th or 
Jager battalion, 60th, in the Peninsula, and 
was present at the storming of Badajoz, 
where he was among the regimental com- 
manding officers specially commended by Sir 
Thomas Picton (GrjRwooD, Well. Desp. v. 
379), at Salamanca, Vittoria, the Pyrenees, 
and many minor affairs. Part of the time he 
was in command of a provisional battalion 
of light companies, and in the Pyrenees com- 
manded a brigade and was taken prisoner by 
the French, but exchanged (ib. vii. 237). 
At the end of the war he was made C.B. 
and received the gold cross given to com- 
manding officers of regiments and others of 
higher rank who had been present in four 
or more general actions entitling them to a 
gold medal for each, which medals were re- 
placed by the cross. He accompanied the 
5th battalion, 60th, from the south of France 
to Ireland in 1814, and thence in 1816 to 
the Mediterranean. In 1818 it was brought 
home from Gibraltar and disbanded, Fitz- 
gerald, then senior major, with most of the 
other officers and men, being transferred to 
the 2nd battalion, 60th, at Quebec, which 
then became the 1st battalion and was made 
rifles. Fitzgerald, who became brevet colonel 
in 1819, remained some years in Canada, 
most of the time as commandant of Quebec, 
and afterwards of Montreal. On 5 Feb. 1824 
he exchanged with Lieutenant-colonel Bun- 
bury to the command of the 20th foot in 
Bombay, which he held until promoted to 
major-general in 1830. He was made K.C.B. 
the year after. In 1838 he was appointed 
to a divisional command at Madras, but was 
afterwards transferred to Bombay, and com- 
manded a division of the Bombay army until 
his promotion to lieutenant-general in No- 
vember 1841. He was appointed colonel of 
the 62nd foot in 1843, transferred to the 
colonelcy 18th royal Irish 1850, became a 
general 1854, G.C.B. 1862, and received his 
field marshal's baton 29 May 1875. He re- 
presented Clare county in parliament, in the 
liberal interest, in 1852-7. 

Fitzgerald married first, in New Bruns- 
wick, in 1805, Charlotte, daughter of the 
Hon. Robert Hazen of St. John's, New 
Brunswick, by whom he had a son, John 
Forster Fitzgerald killed as a captain 14th 
light dragoons in the second Sikh war and 
two daughters. He married secondly, in 
1839, Jean, daughter of Hon. Donald Ogilvy 
of Clova, formerly of the Madras army, and 
afterwards colonel Forfarshire militia (see 




DEBRETT, Peerage, under ' Earl of Airlie '), 
and by her had a family. 

Fitzgerald, who some short time before 
had been received into the Roman catholic 
communion, died at Tours on 24 March 1877, 
being at the time the oldest officer in the 
British army. By order of the French minis- 
ter of war, the garrison of Tours paid him 
the funeral honours prescribed for a marshal 
of France. 

[Foster's Baronetage, under 'Fitzgerald of Car- 
rigoran ; ' Debrett's Peerage, under ' Cunningham ' 
and 'Airlie;' Wallace's Chronicle King's Royal 
Rifles (London, 1879); Times, 4 April 1877. 
The records of the old 5th or Jager battalion, 
60th, with which Fitzgerald served in the Penin- 
sula, were arranged by the late Major-general 
Gibbes Rigaud, and have been published in the 
'Maltese Cross,' the regimental newspaper of the 
1st battalion king's royal rifles, in 1886-7.1 

H. M. C. 


1604), the ' old ' COUNTESS OF DESMOND, was 
daughter of Sir John Fitzgerald, lord of 
Decies, and became the second wife of Tho- 
mas Fitzgerald, twelfth earl of Desmond, 
some time after 1505. The first wife of the 
earl was Sheela, daughter of Cormac Mac- 
Carthy. To her (under the equivalent name 
of Gilis ny Cormyk), as ' wife to Sir Thomas 
of Desmond,' on 9 June 20 Henry VII, i.e. 
1505, Gerald (son of Thomas) Fitzgerald, 
eighth earl of Kildare, granted a lease of 
lands for five years, a copy of which is pre- 
served in the rental-book of the ninth earl, 
now in the possession of the Duke of Leins- 
ter. On its first discovery it was supposed by 
some to be dated 20 Henry VIII, i.e. 1528 ; 
but the earlier date is shown to be correct 
not only by a facsimile given in the ' Journal 
of the Kilkenny Archseological Society,' but 
also by the fact (unnoticed by those who 
have commented on the document) that 
the Earl of Kildare who granted it died in 
1513. The Earl of Desmond who was the 
husband of Sheela and Katherine died in 
1534, at the age of eighty. As he left a 
daughter by his second wife, it may safely 
be assumed that 1524 is the latest date at 
which his marriage to her could have taken 
place, while, as we have seen, 1506 is the 
earliest. The tradition, therefore, preserved 
by Sir Walter Raleigh, to which Horace 
Walpole gave its popular currency, that this 
second wife was married in the time of Ed- 
ward IV, is at once disposed of; but it may 
very probably be true of her predecessor. 
In the same way the further tradition of her 
having danced with Richard III may be 
accounted for. Mr. Sainthill, in his ' Inquiry,' 
referred to at the end of this article, endea- 

voured to support these traditions by the 
theory that Thomas of Desmond might have 
divorced his first wife and married his second 
long before 1505, but this was a mere sug- 
gestion, opposed to such evidence as exists. 
That the ' old countess ' was living in 1589, 
1 and many years since,' is asserted by Sir W. 
Raleigh in his ' History of the World ' (bk. i. 
ch. 5, 5) ; and he had good reason for know- 
ing the truth of this, inasmuch as in that year 
and in the year preceding he granted leases 
of lands in Cork at a reduced rent pending the 
life of 'the ladieCattelyn, old countess dowa- 
ger of Desmond,' who had some life-interest in 
them. It appears from the terms of these leases- 
that her life was not supposed to be likely 
to last more than five years from their date. 
That her death occurred in 1604 is stated in a 
manuscript of Sir George Carew's, preserved 
in Lambeth Library (No. 626). From these 
data it follows that, at the lowest computa- 
tion, she can hardly have been less than 104 
years old at the time of her decease ; and it 
has been thought by some that the traditional 
140 may possibly have had its rise in an 
accidental transposition of these figures. It 
is in Fynes Morison's ' Itinerary,' published 
in 1617, that the number 140 is first given. 
He visited Youghal, near which the Castle 
of Inchiquin, in which the countess resided, 
is situated, in 1613, and states that ' in our 
time ' she had lived to the age of ' about ' 
140 years, and was able in her last years to 
go on foot three or four miles weekly to the 
market town, and that only a few years 
before her death all her teeth were renewed. 
From him Bacon appears to have derived 
the notices which he gives in his ' Hist. Vitse 
et Mortis ' and his ' Sylva ; ' and from Bacon 
and Raleigh^ and a Desmond pedigree, Arch- 
bishop Ussher makes mention of the countess 
in his 'Chronologia Sacra/ where he says 
that ' meo tempore ' she was both living and 
lively. A diary kept by the Earl of Leicester 
some thirty years later also records the stories 
which he had heard. One additional and 
original witness has, however, been recently 
found, not known to previous writers on the 
subject, whose evidence corroborates the 
general account. Sir John Harington, who 
was twice for some time in Ireland, for the 
first time soon after 1584, and for the second 
time in 1599, speaking in 1605 of the whole- 
someness of the country, says: 'Where a 
man hath lived above 140 year, a woman, 
and she a countess, above 120, the country is 
like to be helthy.' Of the case of the man 
whom he mentions nothing is known, but 
his allusion to the case of the countess evi- 
dently implies that her story, as well as that 
of the former, was then a familiar one. On 



the whole, it may be concluded that the 
countess reached at least the age of 104, and 
that, until some further evidence, such as 
the date of her marriage, be forthcoming, it 
may further reasonably be conjectured that 
the addition of ten years would very pro- 
bably be a nearer approximation to the truth. 
The stories of her death being caused by a 
fall from an apple, a walnut, or a cherry tree, 
may be dismissed as fictions ; while that of 
her journey to London to beg relief from 
Queen Elizabeth or James I has been shown 
by Mr. Sainthill to belong to the Countess 
Elinor, widow of Gerald, the fifteenth and 
attainted earl of Desmond. Nine or ten 
portraits of the old countess are said to be 
in existence ; but only two of these, respec- 
tively at Muckross Abbey and Dupplin Castle, 
with possibly a third at Chatsworth, are sup- 
posed to represent her, the others being pic- 
tures of other persons by Rembrandt and 
Gerard Douw. 

[Article in the Quarterly Review for March 
1853, pp. 329-54; Archd. A. B. Kowan's Olde 
Countesse of Desmonde, 1860; Richard Saint- 
hill's Old Countess of Desmond, an Inquiry, 2 vols. 
(privately printed), 1861-3; article (by J. Gough 
Nichols) in the Dublin Review, 1862, li. 51-91 ; 
Journal of the Kilkenny Archseol. Soc., new ser. 
iv. Ill, 1864 ; W. J. Thoms's Longevity of Man, 
1879 ; Sir J. Harington's Short View of the State 
of Ireland, 1879, p. 10 ; see also Notes and 
Queries, 2nd ser. vii. 313, 365, 431, 3rd ser. i. 
301, 377, 5th ser. xi. 192, 332.] W. D. M. 

English conqueror of Ireland, was the son 

Nesta, daughter of Rhys the Great, king 
of South Wales (Exp. Hib. p. 229). 'He 
was thus half-brother to Robert Fitzstephen 
[q. v.] and Meiler Fitzhenry [q. v.], and bro- 
ther of David II [q. v.], bishop of St. David's 
(ib. ; GIEALD. Itin. Cambr. p. 130 ; Earls of 
Kildare, p. 3). His father Gerald, according 
to later genealogists, was grandson of Walter 
Fitzother, who figures in ' Domesday ' as a 
tenant at Windsor and elsewhere, and lord 
of manors in Surrey, Hampshire, Berkshire, 
Middlesex, and Buckinghamshire. In the 
early years of the twelfth century his father 
was steward of Pembroke Castle. He was pro- 
bably dead by 1136, in which year the Welsh 
annals show that Nesta's second husband, 
Stephen, and the ' sons of Gerald' were 
fighting against the Welsh prince, Owen 
(Domesday, 30 1, 36 a 1, 61 b 1, 130 a 1, 
151 a 1 ; Ann. Cambr. pp. 30, 34, 40). 

In 1168, when Dermot, king of Leinster, 
was in South Wales seeking for aid to re- 
establish himself in his kingdom, Rhys ap 
Griffith had just released his three-year 
prisoner, Robert Fitzstephen, on condition 


that he should help him against Henry II. 
Robert's half-brother, Maurice Fitzgeraldj 
now petitioned that he might carry his kins- 
man to Ireland instead; for Dermot had 
promised to give the two knights Wexford 
and the two adjoining ' cantreds ' in return 
for their services (Exp. Hib. p. 229 ; Ann. 
Cambr. p. 50). Robert crossed at once (May 
1169), but Maurice did not land till some 
months later, when he reached Wexford with 
140 followers. Here Dermot came to meet 
him, and led him to his royal city of Ferns. 
In the expedition against Dublin, Maurice 
commanded the English contingent, while 
Robert Fitzstephen stayed behind to fortify 
the rock of Carrick, near Wexford (Exp. Hib. 
pp. 229, 233, 245 ; REGAN, p. 56 ; cf. Ann. 
Cambr. p. 52 ; Annals of the Four Masters, 
sub 1169, 1170 ; Annals of Boyle, p. 28). 
Dermot had already fulfilled his promise as 
regards Wexford, and when the Earl of Clare 
did not come according to his engagement, 
he offered his daughter, with the succession 
to the kingdom, to Robert or Maurice, an offer 
which both declined on the plea that they 
were already married (Exp. Hib. p. 246). 
Earl Richard at last landed at Waterford, 
24 Aug. 1170. The town was taken next 
day, Maurice and Robert arriving with Der- 
mot in time to save the lives of the nobler 
captives (ib. p. 255). 

Next year Maurice was present at the great 
siege of Dublin. His anxiety for the safety 
of his half-brother Robert, whom the Irish of 
Wexford were besieging in the turf fort of 
Carrick, led him to propose the famous sally 
from the city, when some ninety Norman 
knights routed King Roderic's army of thirty 
thousand men. Though the English started 
southwards on the day after the victory, they 
were too late to relieve Robert Fitzstephen, 
who had surrendered on receiving false news 
as to the fall of Dublin (ib. p. 266, &c.) 

Henry IPs arrival seems to have brought 
the temporary downfall of the Geraldines. 
The men of Wexford attempted to curry 
favour with the king by giving him their pri- 
soner ; and, though Robert was soon set free, 
he and Maurice were seemingly deprived of 
Wexford and the neighbouring cantreds (ib. p. 
278). Henry kept Wexford in his own hands, 
entrusting it to William Fitzaldhelm before he 
left the country, but now, or a little later, Earl 
Richard gave Maurice 'the middle cantred of 
Ophelan,' i.e. the district about Naas in Kil- 
dare (ib. pp. 286, 314; REGAN, pp. 146-7). 
On leaving Dublin, Henry charged the two 
brothers, at the head of twenty knights, to 
support the new governor of this city, Hugh 
de Lacy; and it must have been shortly after 
this that Maurice, forewarned by his nephew's 




dream, saved his leader's life from the ambush 
set for his destruction at his interview with 
O'Rourke, the 'rex monoculus' of Meath 
(Exp. Hib. pp. 286, 292-4). 

The remainder of Maurice's life is obscure. 
During the great rebellion of the young 
princes (1173-4) Henry had to withdraw the 
greater part of his own retainers from Ire- 
land ; but there seems to be no evidence that 
Maurice accompanied his half-brother Robert 
to the king's assistance in England and Nor- 
mandy. When Earl Richard was restored to 
power, an attempt was made to consolidate 
the English interests by a system of inter- 
marriage. It was now that Maurice's daughter 
Nesta wedded Hervey of Mountmaurice, the 
great enemy of the Irish Geraldines ; while 
Maurice's son took Earl Richard's daughter, 
Alina, to wife. This alliance procured a grant 
of Wicklow Castle and the restoration of Naas, 
which had seemingly been confiscated, but 
which was henceforward held as a fief of 
the earl. The rest of Ophelan in North Kil- 
dare was divided between Maurice's kinsmen, 
Robert Fitzstephen and Meiler Fitzhenry (ib. 
p. 314 ; REGAN, pp. 146-7). 

Some three years later, Maurice Fitz- 
gerald died at Wexford (c. 1 Sept. 1176), 
* not leaving a better man in Ireland.' The 
death of Earl Richard and the appointment 
of William Fitzaldhelm as governor caused 
the momentary downfall of the Geraldines, 
who soon forced Maurice's sons to give up 
Wicklow Castle in exchange for Ferns (Exp. 
Hib. pp. 336-7). 

Giraldus Cambrensis has described Mau- 
rice's personal appearance and his character. 
His face was somewhat highly coloured but 
comely, his height moderate, ' neither too 
short nor too tall,' and his body well propor- 
tioned. In bravery no one surpassed him, 
and as a soldier he struck the happy mean 
between rashness and over-caution. He 
was sober, modest, and chaste, trustworthy, 
staunch, and faithful ; ' a man not, it is true, 
free from every fault, but not guilty of any 
rank offence.' He was little given to talk, 
but when he did speak it was to the point. 
It would seem that when he crossed over to 
Ireland he was fairly advanced in life, since 
the same author applies to him the epithets 
' venerabilis et venerandus ' (ib. p. 297). He 
was buried in the Grey Friars monastery out- 
side Wexford, where, in Hooker's days (1586), 
his ruined monument was still to be seen 
' wanting some good and worthy man to re- 
store so worthy a monument of so worthy a 
knight ' (HOLINSHED, vi. 198). 

Maurice Fitzgerald left several sons and 
a daughter, Nesta. His wife is said to have 
been Alice, granddaughter of Roger de Mont- 

gomery, who led the centre of the Norman 
army at Hastings (Earls of Kildare, p. 10). 
She was living in 1171, as Giraldus tells us 
that she and some of Maurice's children were 
with Fitzstephen when the Irish were lay- 
ing siege to Carrick (Exp. Hib. p. 266). Of 
his sons two, Gerald (d. 1204) [q. v.] and Alex- 
ander, greatly distinguished themselves in the 
sally from Dublin (ib. pp. 268-9). Alexander 
seems to have left no issue (Nat. MSS. of Ire- 
land, pp. 125-6), and Gerald, ' a man small of 
stature, but of no mean valour and integrity/ 
succeeded to his father's estates, and became, 
through his heir, Maurice Fitzgerald II [q. v.], 
the ancestor of the Fitzgeralds of OfFaly and 
Kildare (Exp. Hib. p. 354). Nesta married 
Hervey of Mountmaurice ; William, another 
son, must have died before, or not long after 
his father, as he can hardly be the William 
Fitzmaurice who died about 1247 A.D. (SwEET- 
MAN, i. No. 2903, cf. Nos. 89, 94). The Irish 
genealogists, however, make him succeed his 
father in Naas, but die without a son. They 
also assign Maurice another son, Thomas the 
Great, who, marrying Eleanor, daughter of 
Sir William Morrie, acquired extensive pro- 
perty in Munster, and became the ancestor 
of the earls of Desmond, the White Knight, 
the Knight of Kerry, &c. (Earls of Kildare, 
p. 10). A Thomas Fitzmaurice (d. 1210-1215) 
appears not unfrequently in the Irish rolls 
(SWEETMAX, i. Nos. 406, 529 ; cf. Earls of 
Kildare, p. 10, where his death is assigned to 
1213) [see FITZTHOMAS, MAURICE, first EAEL 

[G-iraldus Cambrensis, Expugnatio Hibernica, 
ed. Dimock (Eolls Series, vol. v.) ; Anglo-Norman 
poem on the Conquest of Ireland, ed. Thomas 
Wright, London, 1841, cited as Regan; Annales 
Cambriae, ed. Williams ab Ithel (Rolls Series) ; 
Annals of the Four Masters, ed. O'Donovan ; The 
Earls of Kildare and their Ancestors, by the 
Marquis of Kildare (Dublin, 1858), represents the 
popular genealogy, &c., of the Geraldine family 
at the time the book was written. See also Sir 
William Bethel's Pedigree of the Fitzgeralds, 
printed in the Journal of the Hist, and Archseolog. 
Society of Ireland for 1868-9 (3rd ser. vol. i.) ; 
Holinshed, ed. 1808; Calendar of Documents re- 
lating to Ireland, ed. Sweetman, vol. i. ; Sweet- 
man's Cal. of Documents, vol. i. ; Annals of Boyle, 
ap O'Conor, vol. ii. ; Nat. MSS. of Ireland, ed. 
Gilbert.] T. A. A. 


OF OFFALY (1194 P-1257), justiciar of Ireland, 
was born about 1194 (SWEETMAN, i. 91, 118). 
His father, Gerald (d. 1204) [q. v.], through 
whom he was grandson of the great Irish ( con- 
quistador,' Maurice Fitzgerald [q. v.], died to- 
wards the end of 1203 (ib. No. 195). His 
mother is said to have been' Catherine, daugh- 




ter of Hamo deValois, lord justice of Ireland 
in 1197 ' (Earls of Kildare, p. 11 ; LODGE, i. 59). 
Though ordered seisin of his father's lands on 
5 July 1215, he had not entered into full pos- 
session on 19 July 1215, by which time he was 
already a knight. In December 1226 he was 
engaged in a lawsuit with the Irish justiciar, 
Geoffry de Mariscis. In 1232 he was himself 
appointed to this office (2 Sept.), in succes- 
sion to Kichard Burke, the head of the great 
house, which for over a century was to be 
the most powerful rival of the Fitzgeralds 
(SWEETMAN, Nos. 793, 1458, 1977). 

These were the days of popular discontent 
against Peter des Roches and the foreign 
favourites. Maurice, though a vassal of the 
great constitutional leader, Richard the Earl 
Marshal, laid waste the earl's Irish lands at 
the instigation of the king or his councillors. 
The earl crossed the Channel, induced, so ran 
the scandal of the day, by forged letters to 
which Maurice had attached the royal seal. 
The justiciar, at a conference held on the 
Curragh of Kildare, offered such terms that 
the earl preferred battle, though he had but 
fifteen knights against a hundred and fifty. 
A desperate attempt on the justiciar's life 
failed. Earl Richard was defeated, and carried 
to his own castle at Kildare, then in Maurice's 
hands (1 April 1234). He died a fortnight 
later of his wounds, aggravated, says Roger 
of Wendover, by a physician hired for this 
purpose by Maurice the justiciar, who was 
summoned to England to defend his honour. 
The Archbishop of Canterbury became surety 
for his safety (24 July), but a reconciliation at 
Marlborough (21 Sept. 1234) with the new 
Earl Gilbert was only apparent. Next year 
the feud was further embittered by the mur- 
der, attributed to Earl Gilbert, of Henry 
Clement, who represented the accused Irish 
nobles in London. The two barons were not 
reconciled till the summer of 1240, when 
Maurice Fitzgerald, hearing that the earl had 
made his peace with the king, came to Lon- 
don offering to prove his innocence by the 
judgment of his peers. At Henry's interces- 
sion, Gilbert Marshal reluctantly accepted 
this declaration. Maurice engaged to found 
a monastery for the soul of the dead man, 
and in acquittance of his vow is said to 
have founded the Dominican abbey at Sligo. 
Matthew Paris's words, when chronicling his 
death, show that his innocence was never be- 
lieved (MATT. PARIS, iii. 265-6, 273-6, 327, 
iv. 56-7, v. 62 : Annals of the Four Masters, 
ii. 272-3 ; Loch Ce, p. 319; SWEETMAN,!. 313, 
317, 374; Earls of Kildare, p. 12; Oseney 
Annals, p. 78 ; WYKES, p. 78 ; Royal Letters, 
i. 448, 470, 480 ; cf. art. BURGH, RICHARD 
DE, d. 1243). 

Roderic O'Conor (d. 1198), king of Con- 
naught, had been succeeded by his brother, 
Catnap Crobdherg (d. 28 May 1224). On 
Cathal's death the succession was disputed 
between the sons of Roderic O'Conor, Tur- 
lough and ^Edh, and those of Cathal, ^Edh, 
and Felim. After various changes of fortune, 
in which Richard de Burgh, made justiciar 
of Ireland 13 Feb. 1228, played a great part, 
^Edh O'Conor was placed on the throne in 
1232. Before the end of 1233 he was dis- 
placed by Felim, who destroyed the castles 
built by Richard de Burgh. In 1235 Maurice 
and Richard led an army to ravage Con- 
naught, but turned aside to attack Donnchadh 
O'Briain, prince of Munster. Felim was 
driven off to O'Domhnaill, while Maurice the 
justiciar was mustering the spoil at Ardcarna, 
launching his fleet on the eastern Atlantic, 
and storming the rock of Loch Ce. The ex- 
pedition closed when Felim made peace with 
the justiciar, and was granted the five ' king's 
cantreds.' Next year Maurice banished Felim 
again, and supplanted him by his cousin, 
Brian O'Conor. A great victory at Druim- 
raithe restored Felim to the throne ; he once 
more received the 'king's cantreds' (1237) 
(Loch Ce, pp. 203-347 ; Annals of Boyle, 
p. 44 ; Ann. Four Masters, sub an.) 

In 1238 Maurice was warring in Ulster. 
With Hugh de Lacy he deposed Domhnall 
MacLochlainn (d. 1241) from his lordship 
over the Cenel Eoghain, and Cenel-Conaill 
in favour of Brian, son of ^Edh O'Neill. 
Domhnall recovered his office next year and 
maintained it, despite the justiciar's efforts, 
till his death in 1241. Meanwhile Felim, who 
had long been suffering from the depreda- 
tions of the De Burghs, appealed to Henry III 
for protection. At London (1240) his request 
was granted, and he returned with orders that 
Maurice should see that he had justice. Next 
year Maurice and Felim forced Maelsechlainn 
O'Domhnaill and the Cenel-Conaill to give 
hostages. In 1246 he was again in Tir-Co- 
naill, half of which he now gave to Cormac 
O'Conor. Maelsechlainn renewed his hos- 
tages for the other half, but on All Saints* 
day took his revenge by burning the town 
near Maurice's castle of Sligo. In 1247 he 
led an army as far as Sligo and Assaroe (on 
the Erne), and his retreat was cut off by 
Maelsechlainn with the Cenel-Conaill and 
Cenel-Eoghain (3 July). Maurice, by a skilful 
manoeuvre, won a great victory, in which 
Maelsechlainn was slain (Loch Ce; Ann. Four 

During the years of his office Maurice had 
been largely occupied in the attempt to sup- 
ply Henry III with funds. His salary as 
justiciar was 500/. a year ; but he seems to 




have left office in debt. In 1233 he was or- 
dered to seize Miloc Castle from Richard de 
Burgh, and distrain for this noble's debts to 
the king (February 1234), and was afterwards 
empowered to take further measures (Royal 
Letters, i. 410-14). In May 1237 he was 
bidden to let the earl's friends buy their par- 
don. The marriage of Henry's sister, Isa- 
bella, to the emperor Frederic II brought 
with it fresh demands, and Maurice was ex- 
pected to wring a scutage of two marks and 
a thirtieth from his Irish subjects. He was 
granted safe-conducts to England in May 
and July 1234, as well as in 1237 and 1242. 
He seems to have actually been in England 
late in 1234 or early in 1235, and perhaps in 
1244. He was ordered to provide men, money, 
provisions, and galleys for the Gascon expe- 
dition of 1242. In January 1245 he was 
bidden to build four wooden towers for the 
expedition against Wales (SwEETMAN,i. 302, 
304, 313, &c. ; GRACE, p. 31). Accompanied 
by Felim he took a part in this war, in which 
he seems to have incurred the king's dis- 
pleasure by putting some of his Irish followers 
to death in Anglesey. In 1237 the king sent 
over a commissioner to audit his accounts, and 
on 4 Nov. 1245 he resigned his office to John 
Fitzgeoffrey, the son of a previous justiciar 
(SWEETMAN, i. 408, 440, &c. ; GRACE, p. 31 ; 
CAMPION, pp.76-7; IlANMER,p.l91,&c.) Mat- 
ters were finally compromised by the infliction 
of a fine of four hundred marks (2 July 1248). 
This fine Maurice was at first permitted to 
pay off by instalments ; later the payments 
were respited (29 April 1250), and finally 
(10 June 1251) in a great measure remitted 
(September 1252). In August 1248 Mau- 
rice had gone to Gascony on the king's ser- 
vice. In December 1253 he was again sum- 
moned to Gascony to take part in the medi- 
tated war with the king of Castile. A later 
brief seems, however, to show that the new 
justiciar crossed the sea (Loch Ce, p. 405), 
leaving Maurice as his deputy in Ireland 
(SWEETMAN, vol. i. Nos. 305-7, 356-7). 

Meanwhile, though no longer justiciar, he 
had been equally active in Ireland. In 1248 
he expelled Roderic O'Canannan from Tir- 
Conaill. Next year he invaded Connaught 
to avenge the death of Gerald Mac Feorais, 
and a little later led an expedition from Mun- 
ster and Connaught to meet another under 
the justiciar at Elphin. The united armies 
deposed Felim O'Conor, setting up his nephew 
Turlough in his place. Felim was restored 
by Brian O'Neill and the Cenel-Eoghain in 
1250. In the same year, probably in return 
for Brian's interference in Connaught, Mau- 
rice invaded the land of the Cenel-Eoghain, 
but failed to reduce its lord. In 1253 he made 

another futile attack upon Brian O'Neill and 
the Cenel-Eoghain, and two years later he 
crossed over ' to meet the king of the Saxons ' 
at about the same time as Felim's envoys. 
The 'Four Masters ' represent him as in 1257 
accompanying the new lord justice against 
Godfrey O'Domhnaill, and distinguished him- 
self in a single combat with Godfrey. Mat- 
thew Paris, however, seems to put Maurice's 
death in the beginning of 1257, whereas the 
'Irish Annals' date Godfrey's death, which 
was due to wounds received in this expedition, 
in 1258. The State Papers show conclusively 
that he was alive on 8 Nov. 1256, but dead 
by Christmas 1257 (Loch Ce ; Ann. Four 
Masters ; MATT. PARIS, v. 642 ; SWEETMAN, 
ii. 524, 563 ; cf. DOWLING, p. 15). 

Fitzgerald had served the king long and 
faithfully. In 1255 Henry wrote to thank 
him for his strenuous defence of the country. 
As justiciar he was vigorously engaged in 
fortifying castles against the Irish ; by 2 Nov. 
1236 he had already fortified three, and was 
bidden to build two more in the coming sum- 
mer. For their construction he was allowed 
to draft workmen from Kent (Royal Letters, 
i. 400 ; SWEETMAN, p. 352, &c.) On Richard 
de Burgh's resignation he was empowered to 
take over all the royal castles, even including 
the great stronghold of Miloc. When the 
same noble died his castles were put in Mau- 
rice's charge (23 Aug. 1243), and ten years 
later (3 Aug. 1253) Richard's son, Walter, 
brought an assize f mort d'ancestor ' against 
the warden. His deposition from the jus- 
ticiarship was due to his remissness on the 
Welsh expedition of 1245; but, adds the 
chronicler, he bore the disgrace patiently, as 
since his son's death he had learned to de- 
spise the honours of earth (SWEETMAN; MATT. 
PARIS, iv. 488). In character Maurice was 
1 miles strenuus et facetus nulli secundus.' 
1 He lived nobly all his life.' His piety may 
be seen from his religious foundations : Sligo 
(Dominican), Ardfert (Franciscan, 1253), 
and Youghal (Franciscan, 1224) (MATT. 
PARIS, v. 642 ; Loch Ce; Ann. Four Masters, 
sub an. ; Earls of Kildare). In 1235, when 
his soldiers were laying Connaught waste^ 
Maurice protected the canons of Trinity on 
the island of Loch Ce. Later he presented 
(1242) the hospital of Sligo to the same 
foundation (Loch Ce, pp. 329, 359), and, ac- 
cording to Clyn (p. 8), he died in the habit 
of a Franciscan. 

Fitzgerald is reckoned the second or third 
baron of Offaly. This barony he held of the 
Earl of Pembroke (to whom on 30 May 1240 
he was ordered to do homage) or of his heirs. 
He appears as Lord of Maynooth and Gallos 
in Decies. According to the later genealogists 




(Earls of Kildare,}). 15) Fitzgerald's wife was 
Juliana, daughter of John de Cogan. His 
eldest son seems to have been Gerald, who 
predeceased him probably in 1243, and had a 
son Maurice, who is noticed below. The justi- 
ciar's eldest surviving son was Maurice Fitz- 
maurice [q. v.] (SWEETMAN, vol. ii. No. 563). 
Another was probably Thomas MacMaurice 
(d. 1271, cf. Loch Ce, p. 469), father of John 
Fitzthomas, the first earl of Kildare [q. v.] 
Robert Fitzmaurice, who figures so frequently 
in the Irish documents of the latter half of the 
thirteenth century, may possibly have been 
another son. 

MATJEICE FITZGEKALD (d. 1268), son of 
Gerald, the eldest son, inherited the barony 
of Offaly (SWEETMAN, vol. ii.) He married 
Agnes, daughter of William de Valence, uncle 
of Edward I, and appears to have been 
drowned in crossing between England and 
Ireland, 28 July 1268 (CLYN, p. 9 ; Annals of 
Ireland, ii. 290, 316 ; Loch Ce, p. 459 ; Ann. 
Four Masters, ii. 404). He must be distin- 
guished from his uncle Maurice Fitzmaurice 
Fitzgerald (d. 1277) [q. v.] He left an infant 
heir, GEKALD FITZMAURICE, aged three and 
a half years (SwEETMAtf, Nos. 1106, 2163, p. 
467, &c. ; Book ofHowth, p. 324 ; DUGDALE, 
i. 776). This child was the" ward of Thomas 
de Clare, brother to the Earl of Gloucester, 
and, by purchase, of William de Valence. 
In 1285 he, as baron of Offaly in succession 
to his father, was attacked by the native 
Irish of the barony. We find this Gerald 
Fitzmaurice coming of age about 1286 
(SWEETMAN, vol. ii. Nos. 866-7, 957, 970, 
1039, &c. ; vol. iii. Nos. 29, 238, 456, p. 75, 
&c.; Abbrev. Plac. pp. 263, 283), and it is 
probably he to whom Clyn refers (p. 10) in 
his crucial passage on the Geraldine succes- 
sion where he says that * Gerald, films Mau- 
ricii, capitaneus Geraldinorum ' died in 1287 
and left his inheritance to his grand-uncle's 
son John Fitzthomas [q. v.] Some genealo- 
gists contend that Gerald Fitzmaurice was son 
of Maurice Fitzmaurice Fitzgerald (d. 1277) 
[q. v.], the justiciar. But he was clearly that 
justiciar's grand-nephew. 

[The principal authorities for the life of 
Maurice Fitzgerald are the English State Docu- 
ments and the contemporary English chroniclers. 
The Irish documents may be found in Sweet- 
man's Calendar of Irish Documents, vols. i. and 
ii. (Rolls Series) ; Rymers Fcedera, ed. 1720, 
vol. i. The chief contemporary English chroni- 
clers are Roger of Wendover, ed. Coxe (Engl. Hist. 
Soc.) ; Matthew Paris, ed. Luard, vols. iii. iv. v. 
(Rolls Series) ; Thomas Wykes, the Oseney An- 
nals, the Dunstable Annals, ap. Riley's Annales 
Monastic! (Rolls Series), vols. iii. iv. Other im- 
portant contemporary documents are to be found 
in the Royal Letters, ed. Shirley, vol. i. (Rolls 

Series); Documents of the Anglo-Normans in 
Ireland, ed.. Gilbert, vol. i. (Rolls Series). The 
chief Irish Annals are the Annals of Loch Ce 
(Rolls Series), vol. i. ed. Hennessy; Annals of 
Boyle ap. O'Conor's Scriptores Rerum Hiberni- 
carum, vol. ii. ; and the collection known as the 
Annals of the Four Masters, ed. O'Donovan, vol. 
ii. Then come the Latin-writing Irish chroni- 
clers : Clyn (fl. 1348) (Irish Archseol. Soc.), ed. 
R. Butler; a fourteenth-century Annales Hiber- 
nise, with its fifteenth-century continuation and 
expansion, both cited above as Annals of Ireland, 
ap. Chartulary of St. Mary's, Dublin, ed. Gilbert, 
vol. ii. (Rolls Series); the Annals of Jas. Grace 
(fl. 1537) (Irish Arch. Soc.), ed. Butler. Han- 
mer's Chronicle of Ireland (c. 1571) and Campion's 
History of Ireland (1633) may be found reprinted 
in the Ancient Irish Histories (Dublin, 1809), 
but are very untrustworthy, as also are Ware's 
Annals (English edition, 1705) ; and Cox's Hi- 
bernia Anglicana (ed. 1 689). The Earls of Kil- 
dare, by the Marquis of Kildare (Dublin, 1857), 
represents the current genealogy of the Fitz- 
geralds, and is a careful compilation of facts. 
See, too, Lodge's Peerage of Ireland, ed. Arch- 
dall, 1789, vol. i. ; Gilbert's Viceroys of Ireland 
(Dublin, 1865); and Archdall's Monasticon Hi- 
bernicum (editions 1786 and 1873). See also the 
Book of Howth, ed. Brewer and Bullen, and 
Hist, and Municipal Documents of Ireland, ed. 
Gilbert (Rolls Series).] T. A. A. 

MATJEICE (1238 P-1277 ?), justiciar of Ire- 
land, was the son and heir of Maurice Fitz- 
gerald (d. 1257) [q. v.], the justiciar (SWEET- 
MAIST, vol. ii. No. 563). His mother is said to 
have been Juliana de Cogan (Earls of Kildare, 
p. 15). Being still a minor at his father's 
death he was claimed as the ward of Margaret 
de Quinci, countess of Lincoln, the widow of 
Walter Marshall, of whom the elder Maurice 
had held the barony of Offaly (SwEETMAtf, 
vol. ii. No. 563 ; DOYLE, ii. 376, iii. 7 ; DUG- 
DALE, i. 102, 607). He had perhaps come of 
age two years later (7 Nov. 1259), when he 
was granted Athlone Castle and the shrievalty 
of Connaught (SWEETMAN, vol. ii. No. 631). 
Next year he was defeated in an expedition 
against Conor O'Brian at Coill-Berrain in 
Munster, but succeeded in plundering the 
O'Donnells, who retaliated on Cairpre (Car- 
bery, co. Sligo) in North Ireland (Loch Ce, 
pp. 435-7 ; Ann. Four Masters, sub an.) 
He led another expedition against Brian 
Ruadh O'Brien in 1272 or 1273. For the 
expenses of this campaign he received a hun- 
dred marks ; and it was perhaps on this oc- 
casion that he borrowed from the Dublin 
citizens the 86/. 19s. which they asked the 
king to repay in June 1275. This expedition 
of 1273 was a success, and, according to the 
Irish annals, Maurice 'took hostages andob- 
! tained sway over the O'Briens ' 




id. 170, No. 1139 ; Loch Ce, p. 473). He is 
aid on this occasion to have been aided 
by Theobald Butler (WAKE, from Earls of 
Kildare, p. 16 ; but cf. WARE, ed. 1705, pp. 

Fitzgerald was summoned to England in 
1262, and in 1264 was ordered to secure for 
the young Earl of Gloucester seisin of his 
Irish lands. The new justiciar, Richard de 
Rochelle (1261-^. May 1265),was at feud with 
the Geraldines, and within a short time the 
island was in arms (DOWLING, p. 16 ; CAM- 
PION, p. 77 ; GRACE, p. 37 ; HANMER, ii. 401- 
402 ; CLYN, p. 8; Earls of Kildare, p. 16). 
The quarrel extended to the De Burghs, and 
in 1264 Maurice took the justiciar Theobald 
Butler and John Cogan prisoners, and in- 
carcerated the former at his castle of Leigh 
(Annals of Ireland, ii. 290 ; GRACE, p. 37 ; 
'Book of Howth, p. 323). With the justiciar 
it is said that Walter de Burgh, earl of Ulster, 
was also taken (Earls of Kildare, p. 16). But 
this statement seems due to a confusion with 
the reported action in 1294 of Fitzgerald's 
nephew, John Fitzthomas, first earl of Kil- 
dare [q. v.] Next year he and his nephew, 
Maurice Fitzgerald [see FITZGERALD, MAU- 
RICE, d. 1257, ad fin.~\, on whose behalf the 
feud with the De Burghs may have originated, 
received royal letters exhorting them to peace ; 
in April 1266 he was twice granted letters of 
protection to England (SWEETMAN, Nos. 727, 
795, 798). About August 1272 he was ap- 
pointed justiciar of Ireland in the place of 
James Audeley. On Henry Ill's death he 
was renewed in the office and received the 
oaths of succession from the Irish nobles to 
the new king. About August 1273 he was 
supplanted by Geoffrey de Geneville (id. vol. 
ii. Nos. 924, 927, &c. ; RYMER, ii. 2). Ac- 
cording to the Earl of Kildare, quoting from 
Ware, in 1273 ' he invaded Offaly, but was 
betrayed by his own people into the hands of 
the O'Conors ' (Earls of Kildare, p. 16, but cf. 
WARE, p. 57). With this may be connected 
a later statement that about 23 Aug. 1273 he 
was deprived of part of the barony of Offaly. 
But this story seems altogether erroneous. 
Fitzmaurice, although often reckoned one of 
the Barons Offaly, never held the barony, 
which passed on his father's death in 1257 to 
his nephew (son of his elder brother Gerald) 
Maurice (d. 1268), and thence to Maurice's 
eon Gerald Fitzmaurice. The latter Gerald 
was attacked by the native Irish in 1285, 
and it is probably this incident which has 
found its way disguisedly into our Fitz- 
maurice's biography [see FITZGERALD, MAU- 
RICE, d. 1257 ? adf,nJ\ An entry in the Irish 
treasury accounts of 1276-7 shows that he led 
an expedition to Glendory (Glenmalure, co. 

Wicklow). On24 July 1276 he was ordered to 
England to do fealty for his wife's inheritance 
(SWEETMAN, ii. 258, Nos. 1249, 1321-2; cf. 
CLYN, p. 9 ; Cox, p. 73). Later in the same 
year (1277) he accompanied his son-in-law 
against Brian Ruadh O'Brien, king of Tho- 
mond. Brian was taken prisoner and be- 
headed ; but a little later the two kinsmen 
were besieged in Slow-Banny, and reduced 
to such straits that they had to give hostages 
for their lives and yield up the castle of Ros- 
common (HANMER, ii. 406 ; WARE, p. 58 ; 
Cox, p. 73 ; Earls of Kildare, pp. 16, 17 ; cf. 
Loch Ce, i. 481 ; Annals of Ireland, p. 318). 
Maurice is said to have died shortly after 
(1277) at Ross (Earls of Kildare, p. 17 ; cf. 
SWEETMAX, vol. ii. No. 1527). 

Maurice Fitzmaurice married Emelina, 
daughter and heiress of Emelina de Riddles- 
ford, the wife of Hugh de Lacy (d. 1242), and 
Stephen Longs word (Abbrev. Plac. p. 227 ; 
SWEETMAN, vol. ii. No. 1249,vol. iii. No. 1028 ; 
DUGDALE, Monast. vi. 443 ; MATT. PARIS, iv. 
232). This Emelina was probably born 

c. 1252 A.D. ( Cal. Gen. i. 236). He is wrongly 
said to have been succeeded by a son Gerald 
Fitzmaurice, an assertion due to a confu- 
sion noted under MAURICE FITZGERALD (d. 
1257 ?) (Earls of Kildare, p. 18 ; SAINTHILL, 
ii. 47 ; cf. CLYN, p. 10). He left two daugh- 
ters : (1) Juliana, who married Thomas de 
Clare (d. 1286), brother of Gilbert de Clare, 
earl of Gloucester, and, secondly, Adam de 
Cretinge (Cal. Gen. i. 448, ii. 431 ; SWEET- 
MAN, vol. ii. No. 2210, vol. iii. Nos. 940, 
1142 ; CLYN, p. 40) ; (2) Amabilia, who 
seems to have died unmarried, and to have 
enfeoffed her cousin, John Fitzthomas [q. v.], 
of part of her estates (SWEETMAN, vol. iii. 
No. 940; Earls of Kildare, p. 17). 

In the complicated genealogy of the Ge- 
raldines, some of the entries ascribed to this 
Maurice Fitzmaurice properly belong to his 
nephew MAURICE FITZGERALD (d. 1268), who 
is noticed under MAURICE FITZGERALD II 
(1194 P-1257). 

[See authorities cited in text. For editions 
and value of the various chroniclers see MAUKICK 


d. 1356.] 

EARL OF KILDARE (1318-1390), justiciar of 
Ireland, born in 1318, was the youngest son 
of Thomas Fitzgerald, the second earl [q. v.], 
and his wife, Joan de Burgh, and was gene- 
rally called Maurice Fitzthomas. He lost his 
father in 1328, and became earl on his brother 
Earl Richard's death in 1331. His lands re- 




mained in the custody of Sir John D' Arcy, his 
mother's second husband. Kildare was in- 
volved in the opposition led by Maurice Fitz- 
thomas, earl of Desmond [q. v.], to the new 
policy which the justiciar, Ralph D'UfFord, 
endeavoured to enforce, of superseding the 
' English born in Ireland ' by ' English born in 
England.' In 1345 Ufford sent a knight named 
William Burton to Kildare with two writs, 
one summoning him to an expedition to Mun- 
ster, the other a secret warrant for his arrest. 
Burton was afraid to carry out the latter in the 
earl's own estates, but enticed him to Dublin, 
where he was suddenly arrested while sitting 
in council at the exchequer (Ann. Hid. Laud 
MS. p. 386). Next year Kildare was released, 
on 23 May, on the surety of twenty-four 
manucaptors (ib. p. 389). He at once in- 
vaded the O'More's country, and compelled 
that chieftain to submit. In 1347 he was 
present with Edward III at the siege and 
capture of Calais (CLYN, Annals, p. 34). He 
was then knighted by the king, and married 
to a daughter of Sir Bartholomew Burghersh 
(GKACE, Annals, p. 143). There are pre- 
served in the archives of the Duke of Leinster 
some interesting indentures of fealty of various 
Irish chieftains to Kildare (Hist. MSS. Comm. 
9th Rep. ii. 270-1). 

On 30 March 1356 Kildare was appointed 
justiciar of Ireland (Fcedera, iii. 326), but he 
was almost at once succeeded by Thomas de 
Rokeby. On 30 Aug. 1357, however, Kildare 
was made locum tenens for Almaric de St. 
Amand, who had been appointed justiciar on 
14 July, until the arrival of the latter in 
Ireland (ib. iii. 361, 368). In 1358 his Lein- 
ster estates were invaded by the De Burghs, 
and in the same year he and his county made 
a liberal grant for the war against the 
'O'Morthes' (Cal. Rot. Pat. et Glaus. Hib. 
pp. 69, 75). In 1359 his mother, the Countess 
Joan, died (Ann. Hib. Laud. MS. p. 393). 

In 1359 Kildare was made locum tenens 
for James Butler, earl of Ormonde, justiciar 
of Ireland, and continued in office in 1360, 
being on 30 March 1361 definitely appointed 
as justiciar (Ann. Hib. Laud. MS. p. 394). 
He resigned, however, on Ormonde's return 
from England. In 1371 Kildare was made 
justiciar, and again in 1376, in succession 
to Sir William de Windsor ; but on neither 
occasion did he hold the post for any time. 
On the latter occasion he was specially in- 
structed to remain in Leinster, while the 
custody of Munster was more particularly 
entrusted to Stephen, bishop of Meath. He 
refused, however (GILBERT, Viceroys, p. 243), 
to take office again in 1378. In 1386 he was 
one of the council of De Vere, the marquis 
of Dublin (ib. p, 551). He died on 25 Aug. 

1390, and was buried in the church of the- 
Holy Trinity, now called Christ Church, in 

By his wife, Elizabeth Burghersh, he left 
four sons, of whom the eldest, Gerald, became* 
the fifth earl, and died in 1410. He was 
succeeded by his son John, the sixth earl 
(d. 1427), the father of Thomas Fitzgerald, 
the seventh earl [q. v.] 

[Chartularies, &c., of St. Mary's Abbey, Dub- 
lin (Rolls Ser.); Rymer's Fcedera ; Clyn's Annals 
and Grace's Annals (Irish Archseol. Soc.) ; Calen- 
dar of the Patent and Close Rolls of Ireland ; 
Gilbert's Viceroys of Ireland ; Kildare's Earls of 
Kildare, pp. 31-5.] T. F. T. 

1849), hereditary Knight of Kerry and Irish 
statesman, was the elder son of Robert Fitz- 
gerald, knight of Kerry, by his third wife, 
Catherine, daughter of Launcelot Sandes of 
Kilcavan, Queen's County. The dignity of 
Knight of Kerry was first borne in the four- 
teenth century by Maurice, son of Maurice 
Fitzgerald of Ennismore and Rahinnane. 
The latter was third son by a second mar- 
riage of John Fitzthomas Fitzgerald (d. 1261) 
DESMOND], stated to be grandson of Maurice 
Fitzgerald (d. 1176) [q. v.], the founder of the 
Geraldine family in Ireland. Maurice Fitz- 
gerald was born 29 Dec. 1774, and entered 
public life almost before he was legally com- 
petent to do so. On the representation of his 
native county suddenly becoming vacant in 
1794, Fitzgerald was elected to fill it. He then 
wanted some months of coming of age, and 
could not take his seat in parliament, but 
when he eventually made his appearance in 
the parliament house at Dublin he gave high 
promise. For thirty-seven years uninter- 
ruptedly he continued to represent Kerry in 
the Irish and imperial parliaments. The 
Knight of Kerry entered public life at the 
same period as two of his personal friends., 
the Duke of Wellington and Lord Castle- 
reagh. Up to the time of the union Fitz- 
gerald sat in the Irish parliament, and he 
voted in favour of that measure. He out- 
lived all his colleagues, and with him ex- 
pired Hhe last commoner of the last Irish 
parliament.' For four years, 1799-1802, 
Fitzgerald acted as a commissioner of excise 
and customs in Ireland. In 1801 he was 
returned for the county of Kerry to the im- 
perial parliament. Soon after he entered 
the House of Commons he was called to a 
seat in the privy council, and at the board" 
of the Irish treasury. The latter office- 
he resigned at the dissolution of the whig- 
ministry in 1806. While he had not much 
general sympathy with the whigs, he agreed 

Fitzgerald 142 


with them on the catholic question. The 
partial fusion of parties in the Canning 
ministry called him to office as lord of the 
English treasury (July 1827). The passing 
of the Catholic Emancipation Act, which 
had always been warmly supported by Fitz- 
gerald, removed the only barrier between 
him and the tories. Feeling himself bound, 
as an emancipationist, to support the Duke 
of Wellington, he again took office in 1830 
as vice-treasurer of Ireland. Shortly after- 
wards his active political career terminated, 
for although he once more held office as a lord 
of the admiralty in Sir Eobert Peel's short- 
lived administration of December 1834, he 
never again recovered his seat in parliament, 
which he lost in the struggle attendant on 
the Reform Bill. He was defeated at the 
Kerry election of 1831, and again in 1835. 
He was frequently invited to seek the suf- 
frages of an English constituency,but declined. 
In 1845 Fitzgerald addressed a * Letter to 
Sir Robert Peel on the Endowment of the 
Roman Catholic Church of Ireland.' The Duke 
of Wellington and the writer were the only 
survivors of those who professed Pitt's poli- 
tics in the Irish parliament, and Fitzgerald's 
letter, while partly explanatory of Pitt's 
views and pledges, also established the fact 
that this great statesman was the originator 
of the ' treasonable and sacrilegious scheme ' 
of Peel. When Pitt left office he drew up 
a paper explaining the causes of his resigna- 
tion, which was delivered by Lord Corn- 
wallis to the Knight of Kerry for circulation 
among the leading Roman catholics. Pitt's 
views were subsequently more fully re- 
vealed in the ' Castlereagh Correspondence.' 
Fitzgerald approved the means by which the 
union was carried, declaring it to be a very 
popular measure among the Munster and 
Connaught population ; and with respect to 
the parliament on College Green, with whose 
inner workings he was intimately acquainted, 
he stated that he was ' thoroughly disgusted 
with its political corruption, its narrow bi- 
gotry, and the exclusive spirit of monopoly 
with which it misgoverned Ireland.' On the 
passing of the Act of Union, Lord Castlereagh 
addressed a confidential letter to Fitzgerald, 
acknowledging the pledges given to the Irish 
catholics, and announcing his intention to 
support the endowment of their church. 

In private Fitzgerald was an excellent friend 
and landlord. He died at Glanleam,Valentia, 
7 March 1849, having married (1), 5 Nov. 1801, 
Maria (d. 1827), daughter of the Right Hon. 
David Digges la Touche of Marlay, Dublin ; 
and (2) Cecilia Maria Knight, a widow, who 
died 15 Oct. 1859. By his first wife he had 
six sons and four daughters. His four eldest 

sons predeceased him, and he was succeeded 
in his ' feudal ' honours by his fifth son, Peter 
George Fitzgerald [q. v.] 

[Gent. Mag. 1849; Cork Southern Reporter 
and Kerry Post, March 1849.] G. B. S. 

1831), wife of Lord Edward Fitzgerald 
[q. v.J, was described in her marriage contract 
of 1792 as Anne Stephanie Caroline Sims, 
daughter of Guillaume de Brixey and Mary 
Sims, as a native of Fogo Island, New- 
foundland, and as about nineteen years of 
age. Though she has generally been regarded 
as the daughter of JVladame de Genlis by the 
Duke of Orleans (Egalite), this statement of 
her Newfoundland birth is confirmed by in- 
formation now obtained from Fogo. Henry 
Sims, a respectable planter who died there in 
1886, at the age of eighty-two, believed Pa- 
mela to have been his cousin. Mr. James 
Fitzgerald, the present magistrate of Fogo, 
on arriving in the island in 1834, made the 
acquaintance of Sims, who informed him that 
his grandfather, an Englishman living at 
Fogo in the latter part of last century, had 
a daughter Mary, that she was delivered of 
a child at Gander Bay, and in the following 
summer sailed with her infant for Bristol, in 
a vessel commanded by a Frenchman named 
Brixey, and that the Simses heard nothing 
more of mother or child until they learned 
from Moore's book that Lord E. Fitzgerald 
married a Nancy Sims from Fogo. New- 
foundland had no parish registers at that 
date, but Henry Sims's story may be true, 
though there is the bare possibility of the 
death of the child in infancy, and of the 
transfer of her pedigree to a second child 
placed under Mary's charge. It may be con- 
jectured that when in 1782 she was sent over 
by Forth, ex-secretary to the British em- 
bassy at Paris, to be brought up with the 
Orleans children, and familiarise them with 
English, the object was to divert attention 
from the arrival a little later of a child known 
as Fortunee Elizabeth Hermine de Compton 
(afterwards Madame Collard), who died in 
1822 at Villers Helon. Hermine, who, un- 
like Pamela, was recognised by the Orleans 
family in after life as a quasi-relative, was in 
all probability Madame de Genlis's daughter 
by Egalite, and was perhaps born at Spa in 
1776. In a scene between Madame de Genlis 
and Pamela, witnessed by the latter's daugh- 
ter, there was moreover a positive disclaimer of 
maternity (Journal of Mary Frampton, letter 
of Lady Louisa Howard to Mrs. Mundy,1876). 
Un veracious, therefore, though the lady was, 
her story may be credited that Forth casually 
saw the child at Christchurch, that he sent 




Orleans ' the handsomest filly and the pret- 
tiest little girl in England,' that, enraptured 
by the girl's beauty and talents, she had her 
conditionally baptised, conferring on her her 
own name, Stephanie, and the pet name, 
Pamela, and that to guard against extortion 
by the mother, she paid the latter in 1786 
twenty-four guineas for a legal renunciation 
of all claims. The belief of the Fitzgerald 
family, in deference to which Moore retracted 
his original acceptance of the Orleans-Genlis 
parentage, and Louis-Philippe's opposite con- 
duct to his two old playmates, strengthen this 
conclusion. Against it must be set Pamela's 
alleged likeness to the Orleans family ; the 
rumour of 1785 (see GRIMM, Correspondence), 
that Monsieur de Genlis had acknowledged 
both Pamela and Hermine as his own chil- 
dren, sent away in infancy to test the differ- 
ence between children brought up with and 
without knowledge of their status ; Egalite's 
settlement on Pamela about 1791 of fifteen 
hundred francs, increased on her marriage to 
six thousand francs ; and Madame de Genlis's 
statement in her memoirs (1825), assigning 
the paternity to a legendary Seymour of good 
family, who married a woman of low birth 
named Sims, took her to Newfoundland, and 
there died, whereupon widow and child re- 
turned to England. Of winning manners, 
though devoid of application or reflection, 
Pamela was applauded by the mob on their 
way to Versailles (Madame de Genlis had 
sent her out, with grooms in Orleans livery, 
to ride through the crowd), was the ornament 
of her adoptive mother's political receptions, 
and went with her to England in 1791, when 
Sheridan is said to have offered her marriage, 
and been accepted, he being struck by her 
resemblance to his late wife. IJo that resem- 
blance is also attributed her conquest of Lord 
Edward Fitzgerald, who, objecting to ' blue 
stockings/ had refused to meet the Genlis 
party in England, but saw Pamela at a Paris 
theatre, was immediately introduced to her, 
was invited to dinner next day, joined the 
party on the road, on their expulsion from 
Paris as 6migrees, accompanied them to 
Tournai, and there married her, 27 Dec. 1792. 
The Tournai register, which, like the marriage 
contract, overstates her age by at least three 
years, gives her father's name as Guillaume 
Berkley, and London as her birthplace, but 
this may be imputed to the carelessness of 
the officiating priest. The future Louis-Phi- 
lippe was present at the ceremony. Arrived 
at Dublin, Pamela indulged her passion for 
dancing, but failed to win popularity. Mean- 
while the Paris revolutionists, misled by a 
report of her travelling in Switzerland with 
her adoptive mother, issued a warrant against 

her. She gave birth to a son in Ireland, and 
in 1796 her second child, Pamela, was born 
at Hamburg. Madame de Genlis, then stay- 
ing there, represents herself as remonstrating 
against Lord Edward's political vehemence, 
and Pamela as replying that she avoided dis- 
cussing politics with him for obvious reasons. 
Their domestic happiness seems to have been 
unalloyed. Her third child was born while 
her husband was in concealment and paying 
her secret visits. On his arrest she was or- 
dered to quit Ireland, and after his death 
repaired to Hamburg, whence she had had 
an invitation from her old companion, Hen- 
riette de Sercey, Madame de Genlis' niece. 
Henriette had married a Hamburg merchant, 
Mathiesson, and Pamela hoped there to be 
able to recover the Orleans annuity. Her 
children seem to have stayed behind. She 
shortly afterwards married Pitcairn, the Ame- 
rican consul at Hamburg, by whom she had 
a daughter (who was married and living at 
New York in 1835), but a separation soon 
ensued. She is next heard of as encounter- 
ing, about 1812, in a Dover hotel, Casimir, 
another of Madame de Genlis's adopted chil- 
dren, and as giving her English creditors the 
slip by accompanying him to Paris. Re- 
suming the name of Fitzgerald, she first lived 
at the Abbaye-aux-Bois, next lodged with 
Auber, the composer's father, and then went 
to Montauban to lodge with the Due de 
la Force, commandant of Tarn-et-Garonne. 
There she is said to have had the freak of 
acting as a shepherdess in the costume of 
Fontenelle's pastoral heroines. She appears 
to have paid at least one visit to Paris about 
1820, when Madame de Genlis forgave her 
abrupt departure from Paris and cessation of 
correspondence. At this period her home 
was at Toulouse. After the revolution of 
1830 she revisited Paris, apparently in the 
hope of royal favour, but received little notice, 
and died eleven months after her adoptive 
mother, in November 1831, in a small hotel 
in the rue Richepance. Though enjoying a 
pension of at least ten thousand francs, she 
is said to have left nothing, so that Louis- 
Philippe had to be applied to probably by 
Talleyrand, who attended it to provide a 
proper funeral at Montmartre. In 1880, a 
legal informality necessitating the removal of 
her remains, they were interred by her grand- 
children at Thames Ditton. 

[Information through Sir Gr. W. Des Vceux 
from Mr. James Fitzgerald, J.P., Fogo ; Me- 
moires de Madame de Genlis ; Tournai register ; 
Moore's Life of Lord E. Fitzgerald ; Madden's 
United Irishmen ; Memoires d'Alexandre Dumas ; 
Parisot's article in Biographic Universelle; 
Times, 25 Aug. 1880.] J. G. A. 




(1808-1880), nineteenth Knight of Kerry, 
eldest surviving son of the Right Hon. Mau- 
rice Fitzgerald [q. v.] of Glanleam, by Maria, 
daughter of the Right Hon. David la Touche 
of Marlay, co. Dublin, was born 15 Sept. 1808. 
He began life in the banking-house of his 
maternal grandfather at Dublin. He subse- 
quently entered the public service, and was 
appointed vice-treasurer of Ireland in the last 
ministry of Sir Robert Peel. Succeeding his 
father in 1849, from that period he resided 
almost constantly on the island of Valentia, de- 
voting himself indefatigably to the duties of an 
Irish landlord, the improvement of his estates, 
and the welfare of his tenantry. He especially 
earned the thanks of the people by the erec- 
tion of substantial homesteads in place of 
the wretched cabins with which the middle- 
man system had covered the west of Ireland. 
Fitzgerald manifested a keen interest in all 
questions which had a practical bearing on 
the progress or prosperity of Ireland ; and in 
able contributions to the ' Times ' he depre- 
cated the censure which at that time and 
since was cast indiscriminately upon all Irish 
landlords. His own admirable personal quali- 
ties, his hatred of abuses, his engaging man- 
ners, and his generous nature, made him a 
great favourite with the Irish peasantry. His 
hospitality at Glanleam was enjoyed by the 
Prince of Wales and other distinguished 
guests. The Atlantic cable had its British 
termination on his estates, and he evinced 
much public spirit and energy in connection 
with the successful laying 1 of the cable. He 
married in 1838 Julia Hussey, daughter of 
Peter Bodkin Hussey of Farranikilla House, 
co. Kerry, a lineal descendant of the Norman 
family of Hoses, which settled on the promon- 
tory of Dingle in the thirteenth century. By 
this lady he had four sons and seven daugh- 
ters. Fitzgerald was a magistrate and de- 
puty-lieutenant for co. Kerry, and was high 
sheriff of Kerry in 1849, and of co. Carlow 
in 1875. On 8 July 1880 the queen conferred 
upon him a baronetcy. Fitzgerald was then, 
however, suffering from a dangerous malady, 
and he died on 6 Aug. following. He was 
succeeded in the title and estates by his eldest 
son, Captain Maurice Fitzgerald, who served 
with distinction in the Ashantee war, being 
present at the battles of Amoaful, Becquah, 
and Ordahau, and at the capture of Coo- 

[Times, 9 Aug. 1880; Guardian, vol. xxxv. ; 
Kerry Evening Post, 11 Aug. 1880.] G-. B. S. 

(LE GROS< 1182), was the son of William, the 
elder brother of Maurice Fitzgerald, d. 1176 

[q. v.], and Robert Fitzstephen [q. v.] (Ex* 
pugnatio Hibernica, pp. 248, 310), who pre- 
ceded him in the invasion of Ireland, whither 
he was sent as Strongbow's representative in 
April 1170 [see CLARE, RICHARD DE, d. 1176], 
He landed at Dundunnolf, near Waterford (c. 
1 May), at the head of ten knights and seventy 
archers, and at once entrenched himself behind 
a turf fortification. Here he was besieged by 
the Ostmen of Waterford in alliance with the 
Irish of Decies and Idrone. A sudden sally 
repelled the assailants with a loss of seventy 
prisoners. Raymond spared their lives against 
the advice of Ilervey de Mountmaurice, who 
had represented Strongbow in Ireland before 
he himself arrived, and a long feud arose from 
this (Exp. Hib. pp. 250-3 ; REGAN, pp. 70-2 ; 
Ann. Four Masters, i. 1177 ; Annals of Inisf. 
p. 114). 

Four months later Earl Strongbow reached 
Ireland, and the fall of Waterford was due 
to Raymond, who, in the words of Giraldus, 
was * totius exercitus dux et tribunus mili- 
tiaeque princeps ' (25 Aug. 1170). After the 
earl's marriage to Dermot's daughter, Ray- 
mond accompanied his lord to Ferns. In the 
Dublin expedition he led the centre of the 
army, having eight hundred ( companions " 
under his orders. There Raymond and Miles 
de Cogan, tired of negotiations, broke into the 
place and drove its ruler Asculf to his shipsy 
21 Sept. 1170 (Exp. Hib. pp. 256-8 ; REGAN, 
pp. 73-82; Ann. Four Masters, p. 1177,- 
Annals of Boyle, p. 28). 

Raymond was soon afterwards sent by the 
earl to place all his conquests at the disposal 
of Henry II. Raymond seems to have met 
Henry in Aquitaine (c. December 1170 to 
January 1171). He led the first or second 
squadron in the famous sally from Dublin 
about July 1171. He probably returned to* 
England with Henry II in April 1172, as he 
was not one of those to whom the king gave 
grants of Irish land on leaving the country. 
A year later, when Strongbow's services in 
Normandy were rewarded by permission to- 
return to Ireland, he insisted upon taking 
Raymond with him (Exp. Hib. pp. 256-98 - r 
REGAN, pp. 73-8). 

During the earl's absence Henry de Mount- 
maurice had apparently occupied his post. 
The Irish had revolted, the earl's soldiers 
were unpaid, and threatened to return to 
England or join the Irish unless Raymond 
became their constable. The earl yielded, 
and Raymond led his old troops on a plun- 
dering expedition against Offaly ; Dermofc 
MacCarthy was routed near Lismore, and 
four thousand head of cattle were driven into 
Waterford. Three or four years before the- 
earl had given the constableship of Leinster 




to Robert de Quenci, along with his sister's 
hand. Robert was soon slain, leaving an 
infant daughter ; and Raymond now wished 
to marry the widow, and thus become the 
.guardian of the baby heiress. When his peti- 
tion was refused Raymond made the death 
-of his father an excuse for crossing over into 
"Wales, and Hervey once more became the 
acting constable. An unfortunate expedition 
into Munster was the signal for a general 
Irish rising. Strongbow was besieged in 
IVaterford (1174) ; Roderic of Connaught 
had burst into Meath, and was laying every- 
thing waste as far as Dublin (Exp. Hib. 
pp. 308-11 ; REGAN, pp. 130-7 ; Ann. Four 
Masters, ii. 15-18 ; Annals of Boyle, p. 29 j 
Annals of Inisf. p. 116). 

The earl now offered his sister's hand to 
Raymond in reward for help. Raymond and 
his cousin Meiler hurried over to Wexford 
just in time to save the town, marched to 
VVaterford, and brought back the earl to 
Wexford. The marriage took place a few 
days later, and on the morrow Raymond 
starred for Meath. Roderic retreated before 
him and peace was restored, though the new 
constable did not leave this province until 
"he had repaired the ruined castles of Trim 
and Duleek (Exp. Hib. pp. 310-14 ; REGAN, 
/ pp. 142-3 ; cf. Ann. Four Masters ; Boyle ; 
Inisfalleri). A short calm followed. Ray- 
mond took part in promoting the alliances 
T)y which the Normans solidified their inte- 
rests. His cousin Nesta married Hervey de 
Mountmaurice, and his influence brought 
about the union of William Fitzgerald and 
Alina, the earl's daughter (Exp. Hib. p. 314). 

In the summer of 1175 Donald O'Brien, 
Idng of Munster, threw off his allegiance to 
Xing Henry, and Raymond was despatched 
with some eight hundred men against Lime- 
rick. There he found the Irish drawn up on 
the opposite bank of the river (Shannon sic) 
in such strength that his soldiers feared to 
cross until Meiler Fitzhenry passed over 
alone, and Raymond, going to his rescue, was 
at last followed by the army. The town was 
taken, provisioned and garrisoned, and the 
constable turned back towards Leinster (ib. 
pp. 320-3; REGAN, pp. 160-4 ; cf. Ann. Four 
Masters, Boyle, and Inisf.} 

Meanwhile Hervey de Mountmaurice had 
accused Raymond before the king of en- 
deavouring to supplant the royal authority 
in Leinster and all Ireland. Henry recalled 
Raymond, who was about to obey, when 
Donald O'Brien again revolted. The earl's 
household refused to march without Ray- 
mond to command them. The king's envoys 
consented, and the constable started for Li- 
merick once more at the head of a mixed 


army of English and Irish. On Easter eve 
(3 April 1176) he forced his way through the 
pass of Cashel, and three days later entered 
Limerick, upon which Donald and Roderic of 
Connaught renewed their fealty to the king 
of England (Exp. Hib. pp. 327-31). From 
Limerick he set out for Cork to aid Dermot 
Macarthy, prince of Desmond, who had been 
expelled by his son Cormac. News of the 
earl's death (c. 1 June 1176) called him back 
to Limerick, which he now determined to 
evacuate in order that he might have larger 
forces for the defence of Connaught in the 
event of a general rebellion among the Irish. 
Donald O'Brien undertook to hold the town 
for the king of England, but fired it as soon 
as it was evacuated (ib. pp. 327-34 ; Ann. 
Four Masters, p. 25 ; Inisf alien, p. 117). 

Raymond now ruled Ireland till the coming 
of William Fitzaldhelm, the new governor, 
to whom he at once handed over the castles 
in his possession. If we may trust Giraldus, 
Fitzaldhelm, unmollified by this conduct, 
set himself to destroy the whole power of 
the Geraldines, who were soon despoiled of 
their lands. Raymond now lost his estates 
near Dublin and Wexford. Next year Hugh 
de Lacy succeeded Fitzaldhelm, and a general 
redistribution of Ireland among the English 
adventurers took place in May 1177. It was 
now that Robert Fitzstephen and Miles de 
Cogan received the kingdom of South Mun- 
ster (i.e. of Desmond or Cork) from Lismore 
west (HovEDEN,ii. 134; cf.7ra's/a//ew,p.ll7). 
A few years later, when Fitzstephen's sons 
had perished (1182 according to the Irish 
Annals) and the Irish seemed on the point of 
winning back their land, Raymond hurried 
from Waterford to the help of his uncle, who 
was closely besieged in Cork. According to 
Giraldus, who himself came to Ireland about 
this time, Raymond succeeded to his uncle's 
estates, became master of Cork, and reduced 
the country to quiet (Exp. Hib. pp. 349-50, 
&c.) The date of his death is not given by 
the contemporary English chroniclers, but 
the ' Irish Annals ' seem to assign it to 1182. 
This is almost certainly a mistake, as the 
latter writers associate his decease with that 
of Fitzstephen's son (Ralph), while the words 
of Giraldus are hardly compatible with such 
a synchronism (Annals of Loch Ce, sub an. 
1182, and the note, with quotations, from 
the Annals of Ulster and Clonmacnoise ; cf. 
Ann. of Boyle, p. 31). Raymond Fitzgerald 
left no legitimate issue (Exp. Hib. pp. 345, 

Raymond Fitzgerald was a man ' big-bodied 
and broad-set/ somewhat above the middle 
height, and inclining to corpulence. His eyes 
were large, full, and grey, his nose rather 





prominent, and his features well-coloured and 
pleasant. He would spend sleepless nights 
in his anxiety for the safety of his troops". 
Careless in the matters of food and drink, 
raiment, or personal comfort, he had the art 
to appear the servant rather than the lord of 
his followers, to whom he showed himself 
liberal and gentle. Though a man of un- 
doubted spirit, he always tempered his valour 
with prudence, and, ' though he had much 
of the knight about him, he had still more of 
the captain. He was specially happy in this, 
that he rarely or never failed in any enter- 
prise he took in hand through rashness or 
imprudence ' (ib. pp. 323-4 ; cf. the quaint 
englishing of this passage in HOLINSHED, 
p. 190; and the Book of Howth, pp. 297-8). 

[It is hardly possible to make G-iraldus's ac- 
count of Raymond's movements harmonise com- 
pletely with that of Began, and the Irish Annals 
give little or no help in settling the details of 
the chronology from 1172 to 1176. Griraldus 
Cambrensis, Expugnatio Hibernica, ed. Dimock 
(Kolls Series), vol. v. ; the Anglo-Norman poet 
cited as Regan, ed. Michel and Wright (London, 
1837) ; Annals of Loch Ce, ed. Hennessy (Rolls 
Series) ; Annals of the Four Masters, ed. O'Dono- 
van; Annals of Inisfallen and Boyle,ap. O'Conor's 
Scriptores Rerum Hibernicarum, vol. ii. ; Hove- 
den, ed. Stubbs (Rolls Series), vol. ii.] 

T. A. A. 

OF KILDARE (d. 1328), twice justiciar of 
Ireland, was the son of John Fitzthomas, the 
first earl, and of his wife Blanche ' de Rupe ' 
DARE], and was therefore generally called 
Thomas Fitzjohn. On 16 Aug. 1312 his 
marriage at Greencastle, on Carlingford Bay, 
with Joan, daughter of Richard de Burgh, 
the ' red earl ' of Ulster, was the symbol of 
the union of the two greatest Norman fami- 
lies in Ireland (Ann. Hib. MS. Laud in 
Chart. St. Mary's, ii. 341). On 8 Sept. 1316 
he succeeded to the new earldom of Kildare 
on his father's death (ib. p. 352). He at 
once gathered a great army to fight against 
Edward Bruce and the Scots, and served 
against them. His free use of the system of 
* bonaght,' or ' coigne and livery/ to support 
these troops afterwards became a very bad 
precedent. In 1317 he was thanked by 
Edward II for his services against Bruce 
(Faedera, ii. 327), and in the same year he 
received from the king the office of heredi- 
tary sheriff for his county of Kildare, which 
involved full jurisdiction and liberties within 
the earldom (ib. ii. 354). In 1319 and again 
in 1320 he served on a commission to inquire 
into the treasons committed during the Bruce 
invasion (ib. ii. 396, 417). In 1320 he was 

made justiciar of Ireland, though he only 
acted as viceroy for a year (Ann. Hib. MS. 
Laud, p. 361). During his tenure of office 
Archbishop Bicknor [q. v.] attempted to found 
a university in Dublin. Kildare received a 
patent empowering him to subject to English 
law such of his Irish tenants as chose to be 
governed by it. In 1322 he was summoned 
to serve against the Scots, but the truce pre- 
vented his services being required (Fcedera, 
ii. 501, 523). In 1324 he was at the Dublin 
parliament, where the magnates of Ireland 
pledged themselves to support the crown ( Rot. 
Glaus. 1Kb. 18 Edw. II, p. 30 b, Record Comm.) 
In 1324 he was accused of being an adherent 
of Roger Mortimer and of corresponding with 
him after his escape from the Tower of Lon- 
don (Parl. Writs,vol. ii. pt. iii. p. 1052). This 
seems probably true, for one of the first acts 
of Mortimer's party after the accession of 
Edward III was to reappoint Kildare justi- 
ciar of Ireland. This was before 13 Feb. 1327 
(Fcedera, ii. 688). He experienced some diffi- 
culty before the partisans of Edward II would 
accept him. In July several great barons, 
including John de Bermingham [q. v.], were 
still refractory (ib. ii. 710). But a local feud 
which involved the Berminghams, the Butlers, 
the Poers, and De Burghs in a private war 
with the Geraldines of Desmond, because 
Arnold le Poer had called Maurice Fitz- 
thomas, first earl of Desmond [q. v.], a rhymer, 
was probably at the bottom of this disobedi- 
ence (Ann. Hib. MS. Laud, p. 365; cf. GIL- 
BERT, Viceroys, pp. 163-4). However, Kil- 
dare compelled the chief offenders to sue 
for pardon at the parliament of Kilkenny. 
During his viceroyalty a native 'king' of 
Leinster ventured to set up his standard 
within two miles of Dublin, but was soon 
subdued. The burning of one of the O'Tooles 
for heresy was another example of Kildare's 
vigour (GRACE, pp. 107-8). In 1327 he 
granted the advowson of Kilcullen to the 
priory of Holy Trinity, Dublin (Hist. M8S. 
Comm. 9th Rep. pt. ii. p. 269). He died, still 
in office, on 9 April 1328 at Maynooth, and 
was buried in the chapel of St. Mary which 
he had built in the Franciscan convent at 
Kildare (ARCHDALL, Monast. Hib. p. 312). 
He is described as wise and prudent (GRACE, 
p. 76). His wife, Joan de Burgh, remarried, 
on 3 July 1329, his successor as justiciar, John 
D'Arcy (Ann. Hib. MS. Laud, p. 371). He 
had by her three sons, of whom John, the 
eldest, died in 1323 or 1324 at the age of nine 
(ib. p. 362), being then in the hands of the 
king as a hostage for his father (CLTN",p. 16). 
The second Richard succeeded his father as 
third earl, but died in July 1331 (Hist. MSS. 
Comm. 9th Rep. pt. ii. p. 268), aged 12. The 




youngest son, Maurice Fitzgerald (1318- 
1390) [q. v.], then became the fourth earl. 

[Chartularies, &c. of St. Mary's Abbey, Dublin 
(Eolls Ser.), especially Annales Hibernise, MS. 
Laud, in vol. ii. ; Grace's Annales Hib. (Irish 
Archseol. Soc.) ; Calendar of Patent and Close 
Eolls, Ireland (Eecord Comm.) ; Book of Howth; 
Eymer's Fcedera, vol. ii., Eecord edit.; Gilbert's 
Viceroys of Ireland ; Lodge's Peerage of Ireland 
(Archdall), vol. i. ; Marquis of Kildare's Earls 
of Kildare ; Hist. MSS. Comm. 9th Eep. pt. ii. 
p. 263 sq.] T. F. T. 

OF DESMOND (1426 P-1468), deputy of Ire- 
land, was the son of James, seventh earl, and 
of his wife Mary, daughter of Ulick Burke 
of Connaught (LODGE, Peerage of Ireland, 
i. 67). In 1462 Thomas succeeded his father 
to the earldom (Annals of Loch Ce, ii. 165, 
says 1463, and speaks of him as 'the chief of 
the foreigners of the south'). In 1463 he 
was made deputy to George, duke of Cla- 
rence, the lord-lieutenant of Ireland. He 
showed great activity. He built border castles 
to protect the Pale, especially in the passes 
of Offaly, the ordinary passage of the O'Conors 
in their invasions ; but the break-up of the 
English power in Ireland was now so com- 
plete that he had to sanction the parliamen- 
tary recognition of the tax exacted by that 
sept on the English of Meath, and to relax 
the prohibition of traffic with the ' Irish 
enemies.' He carried on the hereditary feud 
with the Butlers, whose lands he devastated 
in 1463. He was less successful in an expe- 
dition against Offaly. In 1464 he quarrelled 
with Sherwood, bishop of Meath, and both 
went to England to lay their grievances before 
the king (Ann. Ireland, 1443-68, in Irish 
Archceol. Miscellany, p. 253). The Irish par- 
liament certified that he had 'rendered great 
services at intolerable charges and risks,' had 
' always governed himself by English laws/ 
and had ' brought Ireland to a reasonable 
state of peace.' But a Drogheda merchant 
accused him of extorting ' coigne and livery,' 
and of treasonable relations with the natives. 
In the end Edward restored Desmond to office 
and granted him six manors in Meath as a 
mark of his favour. 

The period of Desmond's government of 
Ireland was one of considerable legislative 
activity. But laws had little effect in re- 
pressing the Irish. Two expeditions of Des- 
mond against the O'Briens did not prevent 
the border septs' attacks on Leinster. The 
Irish of Meath called in a son of the lord of 
Thomond to act as their ' king,' but his death 
of a fever averted this danger. Yet Des- 
mond's rule was so far successful, or his hold 
over Munster so strong, that for the first 

time for many years representatives of the 
county of Cork appeared in the Irish par- 

In 1467 Desmond was superseded as de- 
puty by John Tiptoft, earl of Worcester [q.v.l 
It was believed that he was a strong sup- 
porter of Warwick in his hostility to Ed- 
ward IVs marriage, and had incurred the 
hostility of Queen Elizabeth in consequence. 
Tiptoft convoked a parliament at Drogheda, 
in which, on the petition of the commons, 
Desmond was attainted, along with the Earl 
of Kildare [see FITZGERALD, THOMAS, seventh 
EAEL OF KILDARE] and Edward Plunket. The 
charges brought against them were 'fosterage 
and alliance with the Irish, giving the Irish 
horses, harness, and arms, and supporting 
them against the faithful subjects of the 
king' ( Carew MSS.,' Book of Howth, &c. p. 
483). On these charges Desmond was exe- 
cuted at Drogheda on 14 Feb. 1468, at the 
age of forty-two (CLYN, Annals, p. 46, Irish 
Archaeol. Soc.) William Wyrcester (Annals 
in Wars of English in France, n. ii. 789) 
says that Edward was at first displeased 
with his execution. This suggests that the 
actual charges rather than secret relations 
with English parties were the causes of 
his fall. Desmond was soon looked on as 
a martyr (GRACE, p. 165). It was soon be- 
lieved that Tiptoft, with his usual cruelty, 
had also put to death two infant sons of 
Desmond (HALL, p. 286, ed. 1809 ; cf. Mirrour 
for Magistrates, ii. 203, ed. 1815, and note 
in GILBERT'S Viceroys, pp. 589-91), but there 
is no native or contemporary evidence for 
this. Richard III described Desmond as 
'atrociously slain and murdered by colour 
of the law against all manhood, reason, and 
sound conscience ' (GAIRDNER, Letters, fyc. of 
Richard III and Henry VII, i. 68). The 
Munster Geraldines avenged his death by 
a bloody inroad into the Pale. The Irish 
writers celebrate Desmond for ' his excellent 
good qualities, comely fair person, affability, 
eloquence, hospitality, martial feats, alms- 
deeds, humanity, bountifulness in bestowing 
good gifts to both clergy and laity, and to all 
the learned in Irish, as antiquaries, poets' 
(Annals of Ireland, 1443-68, p. 263 j cf. Four- 
Masters, iv. 1053). He founded a college at 
Youghal for a warden, eight fellows, and 
eight choristers (HAYMA^, Notes of the Re- 
ligious Foundations of Youghal, p. xxxiii), 
and procured an act of parliament allowing 
the corporation to buy and sell of the Irishry 
(HAYMABT, Annals of Youghal, p. 13). He 
was buried at Drogheda, but Sir Henry Sidney 
removed his tomb to Dublin (LODGE, i. 70). 
The ' Four Masters ' (iv. 1053) say that his 
body was afterwards conveyed to the burial- 





He mar- 
ried Elizabeth or Ellice Barry, daughter of 
Lord Buttevant, by whom he had a large 
family. Four of his sons, James, Maurice, 
Thomas, and John, became in succession 
earls of Desmond. 

[Gilbert's Viceroys of Ireland; Annals of 
Loch Ce ; Annals of Ireland in Irish Archaeolo- 
gical Miscellany ; Annals of the Four Masters 
(O'Donovan), with the note on iv. 1050-2 ; Carew 
MSS., Book of Howth, &c. ; Hayman's unpub- 
lished Geraldine Documents, i. 11-13; Lodge's 
Peerage of Ireland (Archdall), vol. i.] T. F. T. 

OF KILDARE (d. 1477), deputy of Ireland, 
was son of John, sixth earl, and his wife, 
Margaret de la Herne (LODGE, i. 82). He suc- 
ceeded to his father in 1427, when he must 
have been quite young. Between 1455 and 
1459 he was deputy for Richard, duke of York, 
the lord-lieutenant. In 1459 he warmly wel- 
comed York on his taking refuge in Ireland. 
The Lancastrian government in vain sought 
to weaken his position by intriguing with 
the native Irish against him. On 30 April 
1461 Kildare was appointed deputy to George, 
duke of Clarence (Cal. Rot. Pat. Hib. 1 Ed- 
ward IV, p. 268) ; and on 5 July the confir- 
mation of a grant of Duke Richard's was Ed- 
ward IV's further reward for his fidelity to 
the Yorkist cause (ib. p. 268 b). Next year 
he was superseded by Sir Roland Fitzeustace, 
but in January 1463 he was made lord chan- 
cellor of Ireland. In 1464 he and his wife 
Joan founded the Franciscan convent at 
Adare in county Limerick (Annals of the 
Four Masters, iv. 1035). In 1467 he incurred, 
with his brother-in-law Desmond [see FITZ- 
the hostility of the new deputy, John Tiptoft, 
earl of Worcester. Both were attainted at 
the parliament of Drogheda, but the reprisals 
which followed the execution of Desmond 
brought out so clearly the weakness of a 
government deprived of the support of the 
Fitzgeralds, that Kildare was respited. The 
Archbishop of Dublin and other grandees be- 
came his sureties, and on his promise of faith- 
ful service the parliament of 1468 repealed 
the attainder and restored him to his estates. 
In the same year he was reappointed deputy, 
but on the fall of Clarence, Tiptoft himself 
became lord-lieutenant, and Edmund Dudley 
his deputy. But on Clarence's reappointment 
Kildare became deputy again, and remained 
in office until 1475. By building a dyke to 
protect the Pale, and by excluding ' disloyal 
Irish ' from garrisons, he sought to uphold 
the English rule. In 1472 eighty archers 
were provided for him as the nucleus of a 
permanent force, but he was expected to de- 

fray half the cost. In 1474 the archers were 
increased to 160, with 63 spearmen ; and in 
1475 a * Brotherhood of St. George ' was es- 
tablished for the defence of the Pale, of which 
Kildare was president, while his son Gerald 
was its first captain. This put a further force 
of 120 mounted archers, 40 men-at-arms, 
and 40 pages in his hands (' Carew MSS.,' 
Book of Howth, &c., p. 403). His govern- 
ment is an epoch of some importance in the 
history of the Irish coinage. In 1475 he was 
superseded by William Sherwood, bishop of 
Meath. He died on 25 March 1477 and was 
buried in the monastery of All Hallows 
in Dublin. By his wife, Joan, daughter of 
James, seventh earl of Desmond, and sister 
of Thomas, the eighth earl [q.v.j, he is said 
to have left four sons and two daughters 
(LODGE, i. 83). He was succeeded by his 
eldest son, Gerald Fitzgerald, the eighth earl 

[Gilbert's Viceroys of Ireland ; Lodge's Peer- 
age of Ireland, vol. i. ; Annals of the Four Mas- 
ters; Carew MSS., Book of Howth, &c.; Marquis 
of Kildare's Earls of Kildare, pp. 38-42.] 

T. F. T. 

FALT, tenth EARL OF KILDARE (1513-1537), 
son of Gerald Fitzgerald, ninth earl [q. v.j, 
by his first wife, Elizabeth, daughter of Sir 
John Zouche of Codnor, Derbyshire, was born 
in 1513. Like his father he spent a consider- 
able portion of his life in England, but it was 
not till 1534 that he began to play an im- 
portant part in history. In February of that 
year he was appointed deputy-governor of 
Ireland on the occasion of his father's last 
and ill-fated j ourney to England. About the 
beginning of June a report obtained currency 
in Ireland, through the machinations of the 
Ormonde faction, that his father had been 
summarily executed in the Tower, and that 
his own death and that of his uncles had been 
determined upon by his government. Full of 
indignation at what he considered an act of 
gross perfidy, he summoned the council to St. 
Mary's Abbey, whither on 11 June he rode 
through the city, accompanied by 140 horse- 
men with silken fringes on their helmets 
(whence his sobriquet ' Silken Thomas '), and 
there, despite the remonstrances of his ad- 
visers and the chancellor Cromer, he publicly 
renounced his allegiance, and formally de- 
clared war on the government. After which 
he returned to Oxmantown, where he placed 
himself at the head of his army. His enemies, 
terrified by his decisive action, took refuge 
in Dublin Castle, whence several of them 
made their way to England. Archbishop 
Allen was not so fortunate. By the aid of 




his servant Bartholomew Fitzgerald, he ob- 
tained a small vessel in which he hoped to 
effect his escape ; but owing either to the 
unskilfulness of the sailors, or the contrari- 
ness of the winds, he was driven ashore near 
Clontarf, whence he hastened to the neigh- 
bouring village of Tartaine (Artane) to the 
house of a Mr. Hothe. On the following 
day, 28 July, a little before dawn, Offaly, 
accompanied by his uncles, John and Oliver 
Fitzgerald, and James Delahide, arrived 
on the spot, when, it is said, he ordered 
the trembling wretch to be brought before 
him, and then commanded him to be led 
away. But his servants, either misunder- 
standing or disobeying him, slew him on the 
spot. Whether Thomas was privy to the 
murder it is impossible to say ; but it is cer- 
tain that he shortly afterwards despatched 
his chaplain to Rome to obtain absolution 
for the crime (v. R. Reyley's Examination, 
State Papers, Hen. VIII, ii. 100, and GAIBD- 
NER, Cal. viii. 278, Dr. Ortez to Charles V). 
Meanwhile he had been endeavouring by 
every means within his power to strengthen 
his position. On 27 July, Dublin Castle, his 
chief object, was besieged, and those of the 
nobility who declined to take an oath to sup- 
port him clapped in the castle of Maynooth. 
His overtures to the Earl of Ossory were re- 
jected with scorn by that astute and prudent 
nobleman, who, shortly after his return from 
England in August, created a diversion by 
invading and devastating Carlow and Kil- 
dare. But an attempt made by his son, 
Lord James Butler, to surprise Offaly re- 
coiled on his own head, and he was only 
rescued from his dilemma by the news that 
the citizens of Dublin had turned on the be- 
siegers of the castle and made prisoners of 
them. Having concluded a short truce with 
him, Offaly marched rapidly on Dublin. An 
assault made by him on the castle was re- 
pulsed with loss, and in a gallant sortie the 
citizens succeeded in completely routing his 
army. He himself narrowly escaped cap- 
ture, being obliged to conceal himself in the 
Abbey of Grey Friars in Francis Street. On 
the same day Sir William Skeffington and an 
English army set sail from Beaumaris ; but 
encountering a storm in the Channel were 
driven to take shelter under Lambay Island. 
Intending himself to sail to Waterford, he 
allowed Sir W. Brereton, with a portion of 
the fleet, to make for Dublin, and shortly 
afterwards landed a small contingent near 
Howth to support him by land. It was, 
however, intercepted by Offaly, who there- 
upon retired to his principal fortress of May- 
nooth. During the winter Skeffington re- 
mained idle, but about the middle of March 

1535 he concentrated his forces about May- 
nooth, which he carried on the 23rd an im- 
portant event from a military point of view 
(FEOUDE, Hist, of England, ii. 317). The 
garrison, including the commandant Parese, 
who was charged by the Irish, but on insuffi- 
cient evidence, with having betrayed the 
place, were with one or two exceptions put 
to the sword. The ' Pardon of Maynooth ' 
practically determined the fate of a rebellion 
which at one time threatened to prove fatal 
to the English authority in Ireland. Offaly, 
or as he was now, since the death of his 
father (though Stanihurst roundly asserts 
that he never obtained recognition of his 
title), Earl of Kildare, who was advancing 
to the relief of the place with seven thousand 
men, saw his army ' melt away from him like 
a snow-drift.' Still he ventured to risk a 
battle with Brereton near the Naas, but was 
utterly defeated, and obliged to seek shelter 
in Thomond, whence he meditated a flight 
into Spain. From this he was dissuaded by 
O'Brien, with whose assistance and that of 
O'Conor Faly he managed for several months 
to keep up a sporadic sort of warfare. He 
had married Frances, youngest daughter of 
Sir Adrian Fortescue, but he now sent her 
into England, declaring that he would have 
nothing to do with English blood. Seeing 
his fate to be certain, his allies submitted 
one by one to the government. On 28 July 
Lord Leonard Grey arrived in Ireland, and 
to him he wrote from O'Conor's Castle, apolo- 
gising for what he had done, desiring pardon 
' for his life and lands,' and begging his kins- 
man to interest himself in his behalf. If 
he could obtain his forgiveness he promised 
to deserve it ; if not he l must shift for him- 
self the best he could.' He was still for- 
midable, and to reject his overtures might 
prolong the war indefinitely. Acting on his 
own responsibility, Grey guaranteed his per- 
sonal safety, persuaded him to submit uncon- 
ditionally to the king's mercy, and a few 
weeks after his arrival had the satisfaction 
of carrying him over into England. For a 
few days he was allowed to remain at liberty, 
but about the beginning of October was sent 
prisoner to the Tower. ' Many,' wrote Cha- 
puys,' doubt of his life, although Lord Leonard, 
who promised him pardon on his surrender, 
says that he will not die. The said Lord 
Leonard, as I hear, has pleaded hard for his 
promise to the said Kildare, but they have 
stopped his mouth, the king giving him a 
great rent and the concubine a fine chain 
with plenty of money. It is quite certain, 
as I wrote last, that the said Kildare, with- 
out being besieged or in danger from his 
enemies, stole away from his men to yield 




himself to Lord Leonard, I know not from 
what motive, inclination or despair ' (GAIKD- 
NEB, Cal. Hen. VIII, ix. 197). The govern- 
ment, though hampered by Grey's promise, 
had no intention of pardoning him. ' Quod 
defertur non aufertur,' said the Duke of Nor- 
folk, when asked his opinion. After suffering 
much from neglect, Earl Thomas and his five 
uncles, whose capture and death reflected the 
utmost discredit on the government, three 
of them being wholly free from participation 
in the rebellion, were on 3 Feb. 1537 executed 
at Tyburn, being drawn, hanged, and quar- 
tered. One member only of the family, his 
half-brother, Gerald Fitzgerald, afterwards 
eleventh Earl of Kildare [q. v.], managed to 
escape. On 1 May 1537, at a parliament held 
at Dublin, Gerald Fitzgerald, earl of Kildare, 
Thomas Fitzgerald, his son and heir, Sir John 
and Oliver Fitzgerald, with other their accom- 
plices, were attainted for high treason. It is 
curious that this act should have been directed 
against Earl Gerald, who had not been con- 
cerned in the rebellion. In the same year an 
English act was passed for the attainder of 
Thomas ' earl of Kildare,' his five uncles and 
their accessories. Thomas is described as a man 
of great natural beauty, ' of stature tall and 
personable; in countenance amiable; a white 
lace, and withal somewhat ruddy, delicately 
in each limb featured, a rolling tongue and 
a rich utterance, of nature flexible and kind, 
very soon carried where he fancied, easily with 
submission appeased, hardly with stubborn- 
ness weighed ; in matters of importance an 
headlong hotspur, yet nathless taken for a 
young man not devoid of wit, were it not as it 
fell out in the end that a fool had the keeping 
thereof.' Among the inscriptions in the Beau- 
champ Tower is that of THOMAS FITZGEKA. 
[The chief authorities for his life are Lodge's 
Peerage(Archdall),rol. i.; State Papers, Hen.VIII, 
vol. ii., supplemented by Mr. Gairdner's Calendar, 
vols. viii. and ix. ; Ware's Annales and Bishops ; 
Stanihurst's Chronicle ; Froude's Hist, of Eng- 
land, chap. viii. There is a useful life by the 
late Duke of Leinster in The Earls of Kildare.l 

E. D. 

1883), bishop of Killaloe, son of Maurice 
Fitzgerald, M.D., by his second wife, Mary, 
daughter of Edward William Burton of Clif- 
den, county Galway, and younger brother of 
Francis Alexander Fitzgerald, third baron of 
the exchequer, was born at Lifford, Limerick, 
3 Dec. 1814. He was first educated at Middle- 
ton, co. Cork, and then entering Trinity Col- 
lege, Dublin, in November 1830, obtained a 
scholarship in 1833, the primate's Hebrew 
prize in 1834, and the Downes's premium for 
composition in 1835 and 1837. He took his 

degree of B.A. 1835, his M. A. 1848, and his 
B.D. and D.D. 1853. He was ordained deacon 
25 April 1838, and priest 23 Aug. 1847, and 
while serving as curate of Lackagh, Kildare, 
made his first essay as an author. Philip 
Bury Duncan of New College, Oxford, hav- 
ing offered a sum of 50/. for an essay on 
' Logomachy, or the Abuse of Words,' Fitz- 
gerald bore off the prize with the special 
commendation of the donor and an additional 
grant of 25/. for the expense of printing the 
essay. After serving the curacy of Clontarf, 
Dublin, from 1846-8 he was collated to the 
vicarage and prebend of Donoghmore, in the 
diocese of Dublin, on 16 Feb. in the latter 
year. From 1847 to 1852 he was professor 
of moral philosophy in Trinity College, Dub- 
lin, and from 1852 to 1857 was professor of 
ecclesiastical history in the same university. 
His next promotion was to the vicarage of St. 
Anne's, Dublin, 18 July 1851, whence he re- 
moved to the perpetual curacy of Monks- 
town, Dublin, on 13 May 1855, being in the 
same year also appointed prebendary of Ti- 
mothan, Dublin, and archdeacon of Kildare. 
On 8 March 1857 he was consecrated bishop 
of Cork, Cloyne, and Ross, and in 1862 was 
translated to Killaloe by letters patent dated 
3 Feb. He was a voluminous author both 
under his own name and as an anonymous 
writer, and was the chief contributor to the 
series of papers called ' The Cautions for the 
Times,' which was edited by Archbishop 
Whately in 1853. His edition of Bishop 
Butler's ' Analogy ' displays such judgment 
and ' learning without pedantry' that it 
superseded all the previous editions. He died 
at Clarisford House, Killaloe, 24 Nov. 1883, 
and was buried at St. Nicholas Church, Cork, 
on 28 Nov. He married, in 1840, Anne, elder 
daughter of George Stoney of Oakley Park, 
Queen's County, and by her, who died 20 Oct. 
1859, he had six children. 

He was the author of the following works, 
some of which were the cause of controversy 
and published replies : 1. l Episcopacy, Tra- 
dition, and the Sacraments considered in 
reference to the Oxford Tracts,' 1839. 2.<Holy 
Scripture the Ultimate Rule of Faith to a 
Christian Man,' 1842. 3. < Practical Sermons,' 
1847. 4. ' A Disputation on Holy Scripture 
against the Papists, by W. Whitaker/ trans- 
lated, Parker Soc., 1849. 5. < The Analogy 
of Religion, by G. Butler, with a Life of 
the Author,' 1849; another ed. 1860. 6. 'A 
Selection from the Nichomachean Ethics of 
Aristotle with Notes,' 1850. 7. ' The Con- 
nection of Morality with Religion,' a ser- 
mon, 1851. 8. ' The Irish Church Journal,' 
vol. ii., ed. by W. Fitzgerald and J. G. 
Abeltshauser, 1854. 9. < National Humilia- 



tion, a step towards Amendment/ a ser- 
mon, 1855. 10. 'Duties of the Parochial 
Clergy,' a charge, 1857. 11. 'The Duty of 
Catechising the Young,' a charge, 1858. 
12. ' A Letter to the Laity of Cork in Com- 
munion with the United Church of England 
and Ireland/ 1860. 13. ' Speech in the House 
of Lords on Lord Wodehouse's Bill for Le- 
galising Marriage with a Deceased Wife's 
Sister/ 1860. 14. 'Thoughts on Present 
Circumstances of the Church in Ireland/ a 
charge, 1860. 15. ' The Revival of Synods 
in the United Church of England and Ire- 
land/ a charge, 1861. 16. ' Some late De- 
cisions of the Privy Council considered/ a 
charge, 1864. 17. ' A Charge to the Clergy 
of Killaloe,' 1867. 18. ' The Significance of 
Christian Baptism/ three sermons, 1871. 
19. ' Remarks on the New Proposed Bap- 
tismal Rubric/ 1873. 20. 'The Order of 
Baptism, Speeches by Bishop of Meath and 
Bishop of Killaloe/' 1873. 21. ' Considera- 
tions upon the Proposed Change in the Form 
of Ordaining Priests/ 1874. 22. ' The Atha- 
nasian Creed, a Letter to the Dioceses of 
Killaloe and Kilfenora, Clonfert, and Kil- 
macduagh/ 1875. 23. ' Lectures on Eccle- 
siastical History, including the Origin and 
Progress of the English Reformation/ 
W. Fitzgerald and J. Quarry, 2 vols. 1882. 

[W. M. Brady's Records of Cork, Cloyne, and 
Ross (1864), iii. 87-8; Dublin University Mag. 
April 1857, pp. 416-26.] GK C. B. 


second DUKE OF LEINSTER (1749-1804), 
second son of James, first duke of Leinster 
[q. v.], by Lady Emily Lennox, was born 
on 2 March 1749. He succeeded his elder 
brother as heir-apparent to his father, and in 
the courtesy title of Earl of OfFaly in 1765, 
and in the following year took the title of 
Marquis of Kildare when his father was 
created Duke of Leinster. He then travelled 
on the continent, and in his absence he was 
elected M.P. for Dublin by his father's inte- 
rest, after an expensive contest with La 
Touche, head of the principal Dublin bank. 
He was elected both for the county of Kil- 
dare and the city of Dublin to the Irish House 
of Commons at the general election of 1769, 
and preferred to sit for Dublin. In 1772 he 
served the office of high sheriff of Kildare. 
On 19 Nov. 1773 he succeeded his father as 
second Duke of Leinster, and soon after he 
married Olivia, only daughter and heiress of 
St. George Ussher, Lord St. George in the 
peerage of Ireland. In the Irish House of 
Commons he had made no mark, and when 
lie succeeded to the dukedom he rather 
eschewed politics, though his high rank and 

influential connections caused his support to 
be sought by all parties. When the move- 
ment of the volunteers was started Leinster 
showed himself a moderate supporter of the 
scheme, and he was elected a general of the 
volunteers, and colonel of the Dublin regi- 
ment. In 1783, when the order of St. Patrick 
was founded for the Irish nobility in imita- 
tion of the Scotch order of the Thistle, Lein- 
ster was nominated first knight, and in 1788 
he was appointed to the lucrative office of 
master of the rolls. In the movement of 1798 
the behaviour of the duke was greatly dis- 
cussed, but though Lord Edward Fitzgerald 
[q. v.] was his brother he himself was never 
even suspected of complicity in the rebellion. 
He made every effort to save his brother's 
life, alleging his own loyalty, and it was no 
secret that the determination of the govern- 
ment to proceed to extremities was highly 
displeasing to him. At the time of the pro- 
posal for the abolition of the independent 
Irish parliament in 1799, he was therefore on 
bad terms with the government, yet as the 
leading Irish nobleman Leinster was one of 
the first persons consulted by Lord Corn- 
wallis. His cordial adhesion to the idea of 
union was not in any way actuated by per- 
sonal motives, for by the abolition of the Irish 
parliament his own position as premier peer 
and most influential person in Ireland was 
entirely destroyed, and his support of the 
scheme influenced many other peers. When 
the Act of Union was passed the duke re- 
ceived 28,800/. as compensation for the loss 
of his borough influence, 15,000/. for the 
borough. of Kildare, and 13,800^. for the 
borough of Athy. He died at Cartons, his 
seat in Kildare, on 20 Oct. 1804, and was 
buried in Kildare Abbey. He left an only 
son, Augustus Frederick Fitzgerald, who 
succeeded him as third duke of Leinster, 
and by his will he appointed a Mr. Henry 
and his cousin, Charles James Fox, to be 
the boy's guardians. In a notice of his death 
it is said of him that ' he was not shining but 
good-tempered ; good-natured and affable ; a 
fond father, an indulgent landlord, and a 
kind master.' 

[The Marquis of Kil dare's Earls of Kildare and 
their Ancestors ; Hardy's Life of Lord Charle- 
mont ; Moore's Life of Lord Edward Fitzgerald; 
Cornwallis Correspondence; Gent. Mag. Novem- 
ber 1804.] H. M. S. 

BERT SEYMOUR VESEY (1818-1885), 
governor of Bombay, son of William, second 
baron Fitzgerald and Vesey, who died in 
1843, was born in 1818. He matriculated 
from Christ Church, Oxford, 21 Feb. 1833, 




and migrated to Oriel, where he was New- 
digate prizeman in 1835, and graduated B. A., 
being placed second class in classics in 
1837, and M.A. in 1844. He was called to 
the bar by the Honourable Society of Lin- 
coln's Inn at Hilary term 1839, and went the 
northern circuit. In 1848 he was returned 
for Horsham, Sussex, in the conservative in- 
terest, but was unseated on petition. He was 
returned again for the same borough in 1852, 
and retained his seat until 1865. He was 
under-secretary of state for foreign affairs 
under the Derby administration, in 'which 
Lord Malmesbury was foreign secretary, from 
February 1858 to June 1859. He was ap- 
pointed governor of Bombay in January 1867, 
and was sworn in a member of the privy 
council, and made knight commander of the 
order of the Star of India the same year, and 
honorary grand cross of the same order in 
1868 ; he was relieved in March 1872. In 
February 1874 Fitzgerald was returned to 
parliament for the third time for the borough 
of Horsham, and sat until November 1875, 
when he was appointed chief commissioner of 
charities in England. Fitzgerald, who was 
an honorary D.C.L. Oxon. (1863), and a 
magistrate and deputy-lieutenant of Sussex, 
died at his residence in Warwick Square, 
London, 28 June 1885. He married in 1846 
Maria Triphena, eldest daughter of the late 
Edward Seymour, M.D., and by her, who 
died in 1865, left issue. 

[Foster's Knightage, 1882 ; Law Times, 4 July 
1885 ; Times, 30 June 1885.] H. M. C. 

(1759 P-1829), versifier, was born in England 
of an Irish father (see preface to his ' Tears 
of Hibernia dispelled by the Union'), and 
claimed connection with the Duke of Lein- 
ster's family. He was educated partly at a 
school in Greenwich and partly in Paris, and 
entered the navy pay office as a clerk in 1782. 
' On all public occasions,' as the ' Annual Re- 
gister ' for 1829 remarks, his ' pen was ever 
ready.' His more notable productions are 
either prologues for plays or appeals to Eng- 
land's loyalty and valour. These latter he 
was in the habit of reciting, year after year, 
at the public dinners of the Literary Fund, of 
which he was one of the vice-presidents. It is 
to this that Byron refers in the first couplet 
of ' English Bards and Scotch Reviewers ' : 
Still must I hear? shall hoarse Fitzgerald bawl 
His creaking couplets in a tavern hall ? 

The 'Annual Register' for 1803 speaks of 
the company at the dinner for that year as 
being roused almost to rapture ' by Fitz- 
gerald's 'Tyrtaean compositions,' and says 
that ' words cannot convey an idea of the 

force and animation ' with which he recitedy 
' or of the enthusiasm with which he was 
encored.' A collection of Fitzgerald's poems 
appeared in 1801 as i Miscellaneous Poems y 
dedicated to the Right Honourable the Earl 
of Moira, by William Thomas Fitzgerald, esq., r 
and they are very bad. Perhaps the one 
which most nearly approaches the famous 
parody in the l Rejected Addresses' is the 
'Address to every Loyal Briton on the 
Threatened Invasion of his Country;' but 
the ' Britons to Arms ! ' of a later date is- 
almost of equal merit. Fitzgerald's ' Nelson's; 
Triumph' appeared in 1798, his ' Tears of Hi- 
bernia dispelled by the Union ' in 1802, and 
his 'Nelson's Tomb' in 1806. In 1814 Fitz- 
gerald issued a collected edition of his verse* 
in denunciation of Napoleon Bonaparte. It 
is, however, unquestionably in the 'Loyal 
Effusion ' of the ' Rejected Addresses,' and 
the opening couplet of ' English Bards and 
Scotch Reviewers' that Fitzgerald will live. 
It is only just to record that this 'small beer 
poet,' as Cobbett called him, bore no malice 
against James and Horace Smith for their 
parody. Meeting one of them, probably the 
latter, at a Literary Fund dinner, he came to* 
him with great good humour, and said, ' I mean 
to recite. . . . You'll have some more of "Gods 
bless the regent and the Duke of York."' Fitz- 
gerald died at Paddington on 9 July 1829. A 
portrait appears in the 'European Magazine-* 
for 1804. 

[Gent. Mag. 1829, ii. 471-3; Annual Register, 
1829; notes to the later editions of Eejected 
Addresses.] F. T. M. 


statesman, was the elder son of the Right 
Hon. James Fitzgerald [q. v.], by his wife 
Catherine Vesey, who was in 1826 created 
Baroness Fitzgerald and Vesey in the peerage- 
of Ireland. He was born in 1783, and spent 
three years at Christ Church, Oxford, where 
he made some reputation as a young man of 
ability, and he entered the united House of 
Commons as member for Ennis, in his father'^ 
room, in 1808. He was greatly involved in 
the famous scandal resulting from the con- 
nection of the Duke of York with Mrs. Mary 
Ann Clarke [q. v.], but rendered services* 
to the government and the court in bring- 
ing facts to light, and secured his appoint- 
ment as a lord of the Irish treasury and 
a privy councillor in Ireland in February 
1810. His motives at this time were im- 
pugned by Mrs. Clarke in a ' Letter ' which 
she published in 1813, but though there pro- 
bably was a grain of truth in her assertions, 
there was not enough to damage Fitzgerald ? fe 




reputation, and the lady was condemned to 
nine months' imprisonment for libel. In 1812 
he was sworn of the English privy council, 
and appointed a lord of the treasury in Eng- 
land, chancellor of the Irish exchequer, and 
first lord of the Irish treasury, and in January 
1813 he again succeeded his father as M.P. 
for Ennis. He held the above offices until 
their abolition in 1816, when the English 
and Irish treasuries were amalgamated, and 
in the same year he assumed his mother's 
name of Vesey in addition to his own, on 
succeeding to some of the Vesey estates. In 
1818 he was elected M.P. for the county of 
Clare. In 1820 he was appointed minister 
plenipotentiary and envoy extraordinary to 
the court of Sweden, where he spent three 
years in fruitless attempts to persuade Berna- 
dotte, who had succeeded to the throne of that 
kingdom, to repay the large sums of money 
advanced to him during the war with Napo- 
leon. His efforts were of no avail, and in 
1823 he was recalled in something like dis- 
grace. Lord Liverpool, however, knew his 
value as a polished speaker and practical 
man of business, and in 1 826 he was appointed 
paymaster-general to the forces. When the 
Duke of Wellington formed his administra- 
tion in 1828, he selected Vesey-Fitzgerald to 
take a seat in his cabinet as president of the 
board of trade, and this nomination made it 
necessary for him to seek re-election for the 
county of Clare. He was opposed by Daniel 
O'Connell, and was beaten at the poll, a defeat 
involving important political consequences. 
A seat was, however, found for Vesey-Fitz- 
gerald at Newport in Cornwall in 1829, and 
in August 1830 he was elected for Lost- 
withiel. In December 1830 he went out of 
office with the Duke of Wellington, and 
resigned his seat in parliament, but in the 
following year he was again elected for Ennis, 
and sat for that borough until his accession 
to his mother's Irish peerage in February 
1832. When Sir Eobert Peel came into 
office with his tory cabinet in 1835, he did 
not forget the services of Vesey-Fitzgerald, 
who was created an English peer, Lord Fitz- 
gerald of Desmond and Clan Gibbon in the 
county of Cork, 10 Jan. 1835. He did not 
form part of Sir Robert Peel's original cabinet 
when he next came into office in 1841, but he 
succeeded Lord Ellenborough as president of 
the board of control on 28 Oct. 1841, and held 
that office until his death in Belgrave Square, 
London, on 11 May 1843. Vesey-Fitzgerald 
was not a great statesman, but he was a 
finished speaker, a good debater, a competent 
official, and had refined literary tastes. At 
the time of his death he was a trustee of the 
British Museum, president of the Institute 

of Irish Architects, and a fellow of the Society 
of Antiquaries. At his death his United 
Kingdom peerage became extinct, but he 
was succeeded in his Irish peerage by his 
brother Henry, dean of Kilmore, at whose 
death in 1860 that also became extinct. 

[Gent. Mag. July 1843 ; Mary Anne Clarke'* 
Letter to the Right Hon. W. Fitzgerald, 1813 1 

H. M. S. 

(1552 P-1608), the White Knight, second son 
of John Oge Fitzgerald, alias Fitzgibbon (d. 
1569), and Ellen, daughter of Patrick Con- 
don, lord of Condons, accompanied James 
Fitzmaurice to France in March 1575, re- 
turning in July. Being by the attainder of 
his father (13 Eliz. c. 3) deprived of his an- 
cestral possessions, he in 1576 obtained a 
lease of a large portion of them {Cat. ofFiants, 
Eliz. 2873), which he surrendered in 1579, 
receiving in return a new one comprising the 
lands contained in the former and others 
which had in the meantime reverted to the 
crown through the death of his mother (ib. 
3583). Charged by his hereditary enemy, 
Lord Roche, viscount Fermoy, with aiding 
and abetting the rebellion of Gerald, earl of 
Desmond, he appears to have trimmed his 
way through the difficulties that beset him 
with considerable skill, but without much 
regard for his honour. The English officials-, 
Sir H. Wallop in particular, were greatly pro 1 - 
voked that the lands forfeited by his father's 
rebellion were not to be allotted among the 
planters, and did their best to blacken his 
character. In 1584 he accompanied Sir John 
Perrot on his expedition against Sorley Boy 
MacDonnell, and being wounded on that oc- 
casion was much commended for his valour 
by the deputy. In April 1587 the government 
thought it advisable to arrest him, though 
it declined to follow St. Leger's advice to 
make him shorter by his head. In 1589, when 
all immediate danger had passed away, he 
was released on heavy recognisances. In the 
following year he paid a visit to England 
and obtained a grant in tail male of all the 
lands he held on lease (MoERiN, Cal. of Pa- 
tent Rolls, ii. 198). He was appointed sheriff 
of the county of Cork in 1596, and appears 
to have fulfilled his duties satisfactorily. But 
he still continued to be regarded with sus- 
picion, and not without reason, for it is almost 
certain that he was implicated in the rebel- 
lion of Hugh O'Neill. He, however, on 
22 May 1600, submitted unconditionally to 
Sir George Thornton, and was ready enougk 
when called upon to blame the folly of his 
son John, who had joined the rebels (Pac. 
Hib. i. 74, 133). Still Cecil was not quite 
satisfied, and advised Sir George Carew to 




take good pledges for him, ' for, it is said, you 
will be cozened by him at last ' (Cal. Ca- 
rew MSS. iii. 462). In May 1601 he again 
fell under suspicion for not attempting to 
capture the Sugan Earl [see FITZGEKALD, 
JAMES Fitzthomas, d. 1608], while passing 
through his territories ; but, ' being earnestly 
spurred on to repair his former errors' by 
Sir George Carew, ' did his best endeavours 
which had the success desired.' His capture 
of the Sugan Earl in the caves near Mitchels- 
town purchased him the general malice of 
the province. Such service could not pass 
unrewarded, and on 12 Dec. 1601 the queen 
declared her intention that an act should pass 
in the next parliament in Ireland for restoring 
him to his ancient blood and lineage. This in- 
tention was confirmed by James I on 7 July 
1604, and the title of Baron of Clangibbon 
conferred on him. But as no parliament as- 
sembled before 1613, and as by that time 
he and his eldest son were both dead, it took 
no effect. In 1606 he again fell under sus- 
picion, and was committed to gaol, but shortly 
afterwards liberated on promising to do ser- 
vice against the rebels. He died at Castle- 
town on Sunday, 23 April 1608, a day after 
the death of his eldest son, Maurice, They 
were buried together in the church of Kil- 
beny, where they lay a week, and were 
then removed to Kilmallock, and there lie in 
their own tomb. He married, first, Joan 
Tobyn, daughter of the Lord of Cumshionagh, 
co. Tipperary, by whom he had two sons, 
Maurice (who married Joan Butler, daughter 
of Lord Dunboyne, by whom he had issue 
Maurice and Margaret), and John, and four 
daughters ; secondly, Joan, daughter of Lord 
Muskerry, having issue Edmund and David, 
who died young. Maurice and John dying, 
Maurice, the grandson, succeeded, but dying 
without issue the property passed to Sir Wil- 
liam Fenton through his wife, Margaret 

[All the references to Fitzgibbon's life contained 
in the State Papers, the Carew MSS., and Pacata 
Hibernia have been collected together in the Un- 
published Geraldine Documents, pt. iv., ed. Hay- 
man and Graves.] Pv. D. 

FITZGIBBON, EDWARD (1803-1857), 
who wrote under the pseudonym ' Ephemera,' 
eon of a land agent, was born at Limerick in 
1803. He was devotedly attached to fishing 
from boyhood. When he was fourteen years 
old his father died, and he came to London. 
At sixteen he was articled to a surgeon in the 
city, but quitted the profession in disgust two 
years later, and became a classical tutor in 
various parts of England for three years, find- 
ing time everywhere to practise his favourite 
sport. He then visited Marseilles, where 

he remained six years, devoting himself to 
politics and the French language and litera- 
ture, and becoming a welcome guest in all 
literary and polite circles. Having taken 
some part in the revolution of 1830, he re- 
turned to England and recommended him- 
self to the notice of Black, the editor of the 
' Morning Chronicle.' Being admitted to the 
staff, he worked with success in the gallery of 
the House of Commons. For a long series of 
years he wrote on angling for * Bell's Life in 
London/ his knowledge of the subject and 
the attractive style in which his articles 
were written giving them great celebrity. 
For twenty-eight years he was a diligent 
worker for the daily press. His ' Lucid In- 
tervals of a Lunatic ' was a paper which at the 
time obtained much attention. He wrote often 
for the 'Observer,' and was a theatrical critic 
of considerable acumen. 

With his fine genius, excellent classical at- 
tainments, and perfect knowledge of French, 
Fitzgibbon would have been more famous but 
for an unfortunate weakness. He had perio- 
dical fits of drinking. Physicians viewed his 
case with much interest, as his weakness 
seemed almost to amount to a kind of mono- 
mania, in the intervals of which his life was 
marked by abstemiousness and refined tastes. 
Fitzgibbon often promised that he would 
write his experiences of intoxication, which 
his friends persuaded themselves would have 
won him fame. But he became a wreck some 
years before his death, on 19 Nov. 1857, after 
a month's illness. He died in the communion 
of the Roman catholic church. He left no 
family, and was buried in Highgate cemetery. 

Fitzgibbon made a great impression upon 
all who knew him by the brilliancy of his 
gifts. He possessed unblemished integrity, 
a kind and liberal disposition, much fire and 
eloquence, and the power of attaching to him 
many friends. From 1830 to the time of his 
death his writings had given a marvellous 
impulse to the art of fishing, had caused a 
great improvement in the manufacture and 
sale of fishing tackle, and largely increased 
the rents received by the owners of rivers and 
proprietors of fishing rights. He once killed 
fifty-two salmon and grilse on the Shin river 
in fifty-five hours of fishing. His ; Handbook 
of Angling' (1847), which reached a third 
edition in 1853, is perhaps the very best of the 
enormous number of manuals on fishing which 
are extant. Besides it Fitzgibbon wrote, in 
conjunction with Shipley of Ashbourne, < A 
True Treatise on the Art of Fly-fishing as 
practised on the Dove and the Principal 
Streams of the Midland Counties,' 1838; and 
' The Book of the Salmon,' together with A. 
Young, who added to it many notes on the 




life-history of this fish, 1850. < Ephemera ' 
regarded this as the acme of his teachings on 
fishing. He also edited and partly re- wrote 
the section on ' Angling' in Elaine's 'Ency- 
clopaedia of Rural Sports ' (1852), and pub- 
lished the best of all the practical editions 
of 'The Compleat Angler' of Walton and 
Cotton in 1853. 

[Bell's Life in London, 22 and 29 Nov. 1857 ; 
Francis's By Lake and River, p. 221 ; Annual 
Register, 1857, p. 347; Quarterly Review, No. 
278, p. 365.] M. G. W. 

FITZGIBBON, GERALD (1793-1882), 
lawyer and author, the fourth son of an Irish 
tenant farmer, was born at Glin, co. Lime- 
rick, on 1 Jan. 1793, and, after receiving such 
education as was to be had at home and 
in the vicinity of his father's farm, obtained 
employment as a clerk in a mercantile house 
in Dublin in 1814. His leisure hours he de- 
voted to the study of the classics, and in 1817 
entered Trinity College, where he graduated 
B.A. in 1825, and proceeded M.A. in 1832, 
having in 1830 been called to the Irish bar. 
During his college course and preparation 
for the bar he had maintained himself by 
teaching. In the choice of a profession he 
was guided by the advice of his tutor, Dr. 
(afterwards Bishop) Sandes. His rise at the 
bar was rapid, his mercantile experience stand- 
ing him in good stead, and in 1841 he took 
silk. In 1844 he unsuccessfully defended 
Dr. (afterwards Sir John) Gray, one of the 
traversers in the celebrated state prosecution 
of that year, by which O'Connell's influence 
with the Irish masses was destroyed. In the 
course of the trial Fitzgibbon used language 
concerning Cusack Smith, the Irish attorney- 
general,which was construed by the latter into 
an imputation of dishonourable motives, and 
so keenly resented by him that he sent Fitz- 
gibbon a challenge. Fitzgibbon returned the 
cartel, and on the attorney-general declining 
to take it back, drew the attention of the 
court to the occurrence. Thereupon the chief 
justice suspended the proceedings, in order 
to afford the parties time for reflection, ob- 
serving that ' the attorney-general is the last 
man in his profession who ought to have al- 
lowed himself to be betrayed into such an 
expression of feeling as has been stated to 
have taken place.' The attorney-general there- 
upon expressed his willingness to withdraw 
the note, in the hope that Fitzgibbon would 
withdraw the words which had elicited it, 
and Fitzgibbon disclaiming any intention to 
impute conduct unworthy of a gentleman to 
the attorney-general, the matter dropped, and 
the trial proceeded (Annual Register, 1844, 
Chron. 323). Fitzgibbon continued in large 

practice until 1860, when he accepted the post 
of receiver-master in chancery. He published 
in 1868 a work entitled ' Ireland in 1868, the 
Battle Field for English Party Strife; its 
Grievances real and fictitious ; Remedies abor- 
tive or mischievous,' 8vo. The book, which 
displays considerable literary ability, dealt 
with the educational, agrarian, religious, and 
other questions of the hour. The last and long- 
est chapter, which was entitled ' The Former 
and Present Condition of the Irish People,' was 
published separately the same year. Its de- 
sign is to show, by the evidence of history and 
tradition, that such measure of prosperity as 
Ireland has enjoyed has been due to the Eng- 
lish connection. A second edition of the ori- 
ginal work also appeared in the course of the 
year, with an additional chapter on the land 
question, in which stress is laid on the duties 
of landowners. This Fitzgibbon followed up 
with a pamphlet entitled ' The Land Difficulty 
of Ireland, with an Effort to Solve it,' 1869, 
8vo. The principal feature of his plan of reform 
was that fixity of tenure should be granted 
to the farmer conditionally upon his execu- 
ting improvements to the satisfaction of a 
public official appointed for the purpose. In 
1871 he published ' Roman Catholic Priests 
and National Schools,' a pamphlet in which 
the kind of religious instruction given by 
Romanist priests, particularly with regard to 
the dogma of eternal punishment, is illus- 
trated from authorised works. A second edi- 
tion with an appendix appeared in 1872. 
Having in 1871 been charged in the House 
of Commons with acting with inhumanity in 
the administration of certain landed property 
belonging to wards of the Irish court of 
chancery, he published in pamphlet form a 
vindication of his conduct, entitled * Refuta- 
tion of a Libel on Gerald Fitzgibbon, Esq., 
Master in Chancery in Ireland,' 1871, 8vo. 
Fitzgibbon also published ' A Banded Minis- 
try and the Upas Tree,' 1873, 8vo. He re- 
signed his post in 1880, and died in September 
1882. As an advocate he enjoyed a high re- 
putation for patient and methodical industry, 
indefatigable energy, and great determina- 
tion, combined with a very delicate sense of 
honour, and only a conscientious aversion to 
engage in the struggles of party politics pre- 
cluded him from aspiring to judicial office. 
Fitzgibbon married in 1835 Ellen, daughter 
of John Patterson, merchant, of Belfast, by 
whom he had two sons, (1) Gerald, now Lord 
Justice Fitzgibbon, (2) Henry, now M.D. and 
vice-president of the Royal College of Sur- 
geons in Ireland. 

[Catalogue of Dublin Graduates ; British Mu- 
seum Catalogue; information from members of 
the family.] J. M. R. 



(1749-1802), lord chancellor of Ireland, the 
second son of John Fitzgibbon of Mount 
Shannon, co. Limerick, a successful Irish 
barrister, was born near Donnybrook in 1749. 
At school and at the university of Dublin he 
gained great distinction. Grattan was his 
great rival at Dublin, and had the superiority 
in the early, while Fitzgibbon succeeded best 
in the later years of the course. In 1765 
Fitzgibbon obtained an optime for a trans- 
lation of the 'Georgics,' 'the very rarest 
honour in our academic course ' (Dublin Uni- 
versity Mag. xxx. 672). He graduated B.A. 
of Trinity College, Dublin, in 1767, and after- 
wards entered Christ Church, Oxford, where 
he graduated M.A. in 1770. In 1772 he was 
called to the Irish bar, and stepped at once 
into a large and growing practice. He re- 
ceived in his first year 3437. 7s., between 
1772 and 1783 (when he became attorney- 
general) 8,9737. 6*. 3d., and between 1783 
and 1789 (when he became lord chancellor) 
36,9397. 3s. lid. (ib. xxx. 675). His father 
is said to have allowed him 6007. a year in 
addition. He conducted a successful elec- 
tion petition in 1778 against the return of 
Hely Hutchinson for the university, suc- 
ceeded to the seat, and, along with Hussey 
Burgh, represented the university till 1783. 
In his early parliamentary days he gave a 
moderate support to the national claims. In 
1780 he opposed Grattan's declaration of the 
legislative rights of Ireland ; but, in conse- 
quence of an appeal from his constituents, 
promised to support it on the next occasion. 
' I have always been of opinion,' he said, 
'that the claim of the British parliament 
to make laws for the country is a daring 
usurpation of the rights of a free people, and 
have uniformly asserted the opinion in public 
and in private.' The total repeal of Poy- 
nings's law, however, seemed to him unde- 
sirable. On the necessity of repealing the 
Perpetual Mutiny Bill and of making the 
judges independent, he entirely agreed with 
his constituents (see his letter in O'FLANA- 
GAN, Lord Chancellors of Ireland, ii. 160). 

He succeeded in keeping on good terms 
both with the government and with the 
nationalists. On several important ques- 
tions he supported the latter, and had his 
reward in 1783, when Grattan, to his own 
subsequent regret, pressed for his appoint- 
ment as attorney-general (GRATTAN, Me- 
moirs, iii. 202). Fitzgibbon was never for- 
tunate enough to find a suitable occasion for 
expressing the national feelings with which 
Grattan credited him. Until the union he 
remained practically the directing head of 
the Irish government, and consistently used 

his great influence to resist every proposal of 
reform and concession. His first conflict was 
over the question of parliamentary reform in 
the House of Commons, where he now repre- 
sented Kilmallock. He opposed Flood's bill 
of 1784 as the mandate of a turbulent mili- 
tary congress; and, when the sheriffs of 
Dublin convened a meeting for the purpose 
of electing delegates to a national congress 
to consider the question, he wrote a letter 
threatening them with prosecution if they 
proceeded. He had the courage to appear at 
the meeting and repeat his threat. Keilly, 
the sheriff who was present, yielded, but was 
nevertheless fined for contempt of the court 
of king's bench in calling an illegal meeting. 
In the House of Commons Fitzgibbon de- 
fended both the legality and the expediency 
of this proceeding, and stated that it had been 
taken by his advice. In 1785 he supported 
the government's commercial policy with 
such power as to produce a special message 
of thanks from the king. In a speech on 
the treaty (15 Aug.) he referred to Curran 
as ' the politically insane gentleman,' whose 
declamation was better calculated for Sad- 
ler's Wells than the House of Commons. 
Curran retorted by saying that if he acted 
like Fitzgibbon he should be glad of the ex- 
cuse of insanity. A duel followed, ' but,' 
says Lord Plunket in narrating the incident, 
1 unluckily they missed each other.' Curran 
is reported to have accused Fitzgibbon of 
determined malignity, shown by taking aim 
for nearly half a minute after his antagonist 
had fired (PHILLIPS, Curran and his Con- 
temporaries, p. 145). Mr. Froude ingeniously 
suggests that Fitzgibbon's deliberate aim was 
' perhaps to make sure of doing him no serious 
harm ' (English in Ireland, ii. 484). The en- 
mity lasted through life ; and Curran freely 
accused Fitzgibbon of purposely seeking op- 
portunities to injure him. 

In the Whiteboy Act of 1787 Fitzgibbon 
may be said to have begun his consistent 
policy of repression. He was presumably 
responsible for a clause, which had to be 
abandoned, giving power to destroy any 
popish chapel in or near which an illegal 
oath had been tendered. In later years he re- 
curred repeatedly to the evil influence of the 
priests. At the same time he saw clearly the 
causes of outrage which repressive measures 
could not remove. In an often-quoted pas- 
sage he gave his experience of Munster : ' If 
landlords would take the trouble to know 
their tenants,' he said, ' and not leave them 
in the hands of rapacious agents and middle- 
men, we should hear no more of discontents. 
The great source of all these miseries arises 
from the neglect of those whose duty and 


I 57 


interest it is to protect them.' On the other 
hand, he steadily opposed a reform of the 
tithe system such as Pitt advised in 1785 
and as Grattan urged in the Irish parliament 
in 1787, 1788, and 1789 (LECKY, Hist, of 
England, vi. 401). 

In the debates on the regency in 1789 the 
duty of advocating the case of the govern- 
ment rested mainly on Fitzgibbon. In his 
speeches, which Mr. Lecky has justly de- 
scribed as ' of admirable subtlety and power,' 
may be found probably the best defence which 
was made of Pitt's proposal. They show, 
however, that the idea of a union with Eng- 
land was already in his mind, though he spoke 
of it as only the least of two evils. Since the 
' only security of your liberty,' he said, * is 
your connection with Great Britain, he would 
prefer a union, however much to be depre- 
cated, to separation.' During the debate on 
the lord-lieutenant's refusal to transmit to 
the Prince of Wales the address of the Irish 
parliament Fitzgibbon unguardedly said he 
recollected how a vote of censure on Lord 
Townshend had been followed by a vote of 
thanks which cost the nation half a million, 
and that therefore he would oppose the pre- 
sent censure, which might lead to an address 
which would cost half a million more (PLOW- 
DEN, Hist, of Ireland, ii. 286 ; GRATTAN, Me- 
moirs, iii. 377. See Fitzgibbon's subsequent 
explanation in a speech of 19 Feb. 1798, re- 
printed after his reply to Lord Moira on the 
same day). 

In 1789 Fitzgibbon succeeded Lord Lif- 
ford as lord chancellor of Ireland, with the 
title of Baron Fitzgibbon of Lower Connello. 
Thurlow for a long time opposed his appoint- 
ment, partly on the ground that the office 
should not be held by an Irishman, and 
partly owing to reports of Fitzgibbon's un- 
popularity, but yielded at last to the pressure 
of Fitzgibbon himself, the Marquis of Buck- 
ingham, and others (BUCKINGHAM, Courts and 
Cabinets of George III, ii. 157; O'FLANAGAN, 
Lord Chancellors of Ireland, ii. 200). In 1793 
he received the title of Viscount Fitzgibbon 
and in 1795 that of Earl of Clare, and in 1799 
he was made a peer of Great Britain as Lord 
Fitzgibbon of Sidbury, Devonshire. 

In his judicial capacity he displayed great 
rapidity of decision, which, though called 
precipitancy and attributed to his despotic 
habits, was rather the simple result of his 
extraordinary power of work and of concen- 
tration. An anonymous biographer says that 
he had heard Peter Burro wes [q. v.], an emi- 
nent counsel and strong political opponent, 
testify to the extraordinary correctness of 
Clare's judgments (Dublin University Mag. 
xxx. 682). With equal energy he devoted 

himself to the task of law reform, and down 
to the day of his death he sought every op- 
portunity to remove legal abuses. 

In politics he maintained an uncompro- 
mising resistance to all popular movements, 
and especially to all attempts to improve the 
position of the Roman catholics. A detailed 
record of his chancellorship would be a his- 
tory of Ireland during the same period. His 
position and opinions can be most conveni- 
ently indicated by a reference to four speeches 
in the Irish House of Lords, published by 
himself or his friends, which are of great his- 
torical importance : 1. A speech on the pro- 
rogation of parliament in 1790, in which he 
angrily attacked the Whig Club for inter- 
fering in a question which had been raised 
concerning the election of the lord mayor (see 
pamphlet entitled Observations on the Vindi- 
cation of the Whig Club; to which are subjoined 
the speech of the Lord Chancellor as it appeared 
in the newspapers, the Vindication of the Whig 
Club, &c., and see also GRATTAN, Miscella- 
neous Works, pp. 266, 270). 2. A speech on 
the second reading of a bill for the relief of 
his majesty's Roman catholic subjects in Ire- 
land, 13 March 1793 (1798; reprinted in 
1813). Reviewing at great length the his- 
tory of the Roman catholic church in Ireland, 
and the claims of the catholic church in 
general, he urged vehemently the impolicy 
and danger of entrusting catholics with power 
in the state, but agreed that after the pro- 
mises which had been made it might be es- 
sential to the momentary peace of the country 
that the bill should pass. His peculiar bit- 
terness on this occasion was partly due to the 
fact that only a few months before he had 
vainly sought to dissuade the viceroy and 
the English government from any conciliatory 
language towards the catholics (LECKY, Hist, 
of England, vi. 528), and that as a member 
of the government he was speaking against 
a government measure. Comparing the 
speech with that of the Bishop of Killala, who 
preceded him, Grattan wrote to Richard 
Burke : ' The bishop who had no law was the 
statesman ; the lawyer who had no religion 
was the bigot ' (Memoirs, v. 557). The at- 
tempt at conciliation which Lord Fitzwilliam 
was allowed to make for a few months in 
1794 and 1795 must have been intensely re- 
pugnant to him. Fitzwilliam had marked 
out the lord chancellor as one of the men who 
had to be got rid of (BUCKINGHAM, Courts and 
Cabinets, p. 312), and the influence of the 
chancellor had doubtless a good deal to do 
with the viceroy's recall. On the day of Lord 
Camden's arrival the Dublin mob attacked 
Clare's house, and he was saved only by the 
skill with which his sister led off the crowd to 




seek him elsewhere. 3. Speech in the House 
of Lords, 19 Feb. 1798, on Lord Moira's motion 
(printed 1798). Lord Moira attacked the 
government for its coercive policy. Clare 
justified that policy in a long reply, contain- 
ing an elaborate account of the progress of 
disaffection, and of the failure of conciliation 
during a period, as he considered it, of rapid 
advance. He excused a case of picketing, on 
the ground that it led to the discovery of two 
hundred pikes within two days, and has been 
therefore denounced as the defender of torture. 
Clare himself, however, was inclined to temper 
a rigorous policy by moderation to indivi- 
duals. Both he and Castlereagh supported 
Cornwallis's proposal of a general amnesty 
after Vinegar Hill, and in the case of Lord 
Edward Fitzgerald he went so far as to warn 
his friends that his doings were fully known 
to the government, and to promise that if he 
would leave the country every port should 
be open to him. This did not affect his de- 
termination to crush out disaffection at any 
cost. (The share of Clare in the govern- 
ment policy cannot be profitably separated 
from the general history, as to which see the 
Cornwallis and Castlereagh Correspondence, 
the Lords' Report of the Committee of Secrecy, 
which is understood to have been carefully 
edited by Clare, and Macneven's Pieces of Irish 
History.} 4. Speech in the House of Lords, 
10 Feb. 1800, on a motion made by him in fa- 
vour of a union (printed 1800). Clare narrated 
the history of the English connection, of the re- 
ligious divisions, and of the land confiscations, 
recalled the circumstances in which the ' final 
adjustment of 1782 ' was made, the designs 
of the revolutionists, and the disorganised 
state of Irish finances, and insisted that union 
was the only alternative to separation and 
bankruptcy. Grattan replied in an indignant 
pamphlet, vindicating the action of himself 
and his friends, and rebuking Clare for the 
insulting language in which he spoke of his 
country. The speech is certainly that of an 
advocate, not of an historian ; but it is im- 
possible not to admire its skilful marshalling 
of facts and the vigour of its language. There 
is little doubt that the passing of the Act 
of Union was due to Clare more than to 
any other man. For the last seven years, he 
said, he had urged its necessity on the king's 
ministers, and this statement is borne out by 
an unpublished letter which he wrote to Lord 
Auckland in 1798. ' As to the subject of the 
union with the British parliament,' he said, 
' I have long been of opinion that nothing 
short of it can save this country. I stated 
this opinion very strongly to Mr. Pitt in the 
year 1793, immediately after that fatal mis- 
take into which he was betrayed by Mr. 

Burke and Mr. Dundas, in receiving ,an ap- 
peal from the Irish parliament by a popish 
democracy.' He states his continued adhe- 
rence to this view, and concludes : ' It makes 
me almost mad when I look back at the mad- 
ness, folly, and corruption in both countries 
which has brought us to the verge of de- 
struction ' (British Museum Additional MS. 
29475, f. 43). Yet in 1793 he told the House 
of Lords that a separation and a union were 
' each to be equally dreaded.' On 16 Oct. 
1798 he wrote to Castlereagh : ' I have seen 
Mr. Pitt, the chancellor, and the Duke of 
Portland, who seem to feel very sensibly the 
critical situation of our damnable country 
(highly complimentary, but it was between 
themselves), and that the union alone can 
save it' (Castlereagh Correspondence,].. 393). 

Clare was equally eager that no attempt 
should be made to change, as a part of the 
union, the existing catholic laws. ' Even 
the chancellor,' wrote Cornwallis to Pitt, 
25 Sept. 1798, l who is the most right-minded 
politician in this country, will not hear of 
the Roman catholics sitting in the united 
parliament' (Cornwallis Correspondence, ii. 
416 ; and see letter of Lord Grenville, 5 Nov* 
1798, in BUCKINGHAM, Courts and Cabinets, 
ii. 411; and CORNWALL LEWIS, Adminis- 
trations of Great Britain, p. 185). 

Clare even ventured to try humour in his 
anxious desire for a union. In 1799 appeared 
a tract entitled ' No Union ! But Unite and 
Fall ! By Paddy Whack, in a loving letter 
to his dear mother, Sheelah, of Dame Street, 
Dublin,' of which he is said to have been the 
author, and in which Paddy Whack advises 
Sheelah to marry 'the rich, and generous, 
and industrious, and kind, and liberal, and 
powerful, and free, honest John Bull.' Its 
humour is somewhat coarse and clumsy. 

After the union Clare appeared several 
times in the House of Lords, but he did not 
increase his reputation. His sharp temper 
brought him into frequent conflict, while the 
studied disrespect with which he referred to 
his countrymen, and his passionate insistence 
on the madness of conceding anything to the 
Roman catholics, excited a feeling of repug- 
nance. ' Good God ! ' Pitt is reported to have 
"aid when listening to him on one occasion, 
did you ever hear in all your life such a 
rascal as that ? ' (GEATTAN, Memoirs, iii. 403). 
He died on 28 Jan. 1802. His funeral was 
:ollowed by a Dublin mob, whose curses vio- 
ently expressed the hate with which a great 
mrt of his fellow-countrymen regarded him 
(account by an eye-witness in Dublin Univ. 
Mag. xxvii. 559 ; CLOS-CUERY, Personal Re- 
collections, p. 146). 

On his deathbed he is said to have sent for 




his wife, and requested her to burn all his 
papers :< should they remain after me, hun- 
dreds may be compromised ' and his wishes 
were observed (Curran and his Contempora- 
ries, p. 154). A report that he repented of 
his action with regard to the union (PLOAVDEN, 
Hist . of Ireland, ii. 558) is based on a sentence 
in an abusive statement of his nephew Jef- 
freys, who had quarrelled with his uncle over 
private matters : ' I afterwards saw Lord Clare 
die, repenting of his conduct on that very 
question' (GRATTAN, Memoirs, iii. 403). 

Clare married in 1786 Anne, eldest daugh- 
ter of R. C. Whaley of Whaley Abbey, co. 
Wicklow, who died in 1844. He left two 
sons, both of whom succeeded to the earldom. 
John, the elder (1792-1851), second earl, edu- 
cated at Christ Church, Oxford, was governor 
of Bombay, 1830-4. Richard Hobart, the 
younger son (1793-1864), third and last earl, 
had an only son, John Charles Henry, viscount 
Fitzgibbon (1829-1854), who fellin the charge 
of the light brigade at Balaklava. 

Clare has been described as the basest of 
men, without one redeeming virtue (see the 
account of him by Grattan's son in GRAT- 
TAN'S Memoirs, iii. 393), and he has been 
represented as an unsullied patriot, think- 
ing only of his country's good (FROUDE, 
English in Ireland, ii. 526). The one picture 
is as false as the other. In Clare's cold and 
unemotional manner there was a good deal 
of affectation, and his friends claimed for him 
that in private life he was kindly and true. 
There is evidence that he was an indulgent 
landlord ' the very best of landlords,' Plow- 
den calls him. It is unreasonable, moreover, 
to question the general sincerity of his poli- 
tical opinions. He had a fixed purpose clearly 
before his mind, and he held firmly to it, un- 
deterred by the abuse and the hate which he 
excited. He was ambitious, not very scru- 
pulous, vain, and intolerably insolent ; but 
whether he used his power for good or evil 
he acted with uniform courage, and in point 
of ability stood head and shoulders above 
all the other Irishmen of his time who sided 
with the government (Curran and his Con- 
temporaries, p. 139 ; Magee's funeral sermon 
in Annual Register, 1802, p. 705 ; BARRING- 
TOIST, Rise and Fall of the Irish Nation). 

[O'Flanagan's Lives of the Lord Chancellors 
of Ireland ; G-rattan's Memoirs; Phillips's Curran 
and his Contemporaries ; Dublin Univ. Mag. 
xxx. 671 ; Metropolitan Mag. xxiv. 337, xxv. 
113; Gent. Mag. Ixxii. 185; Irish Parliamentary 
Debates ; Cornwallis and Castlereagh Correspond- 
ence.] G-. P. M. 

founder of the house of Clare. [See CLARE, 
RICHARD DE, d. 1090 ?] 

[See CLARE, RICHARD DE, d. 1136 ?] 

FITZHAMON, ROBERT (d. 1107), con- 
queror of Glamorgan, belonged to a great 
family whose ancestor, Richard, was either 
the son or nephew of Rollo, and which since 
the tenth century had possessed the lordships 
of Thorigny, Creully, Mezy, and Evrecy in 
Lower Normandy (Roman de Rou, ed. An- 
dresen, 1. 4037 sq.) Richard's son, ' Haim as 
Denz ' (Haimo Dentatus), was one of the 
rebels slain at Val es Dunes in 1047 (ib. 1. 
4057 sq.), and Robert is generally described 
as his son (PEZET, Les Barons de Creully, p. 
50). But William of Malmesbury expressly 
states that Robert was the grandson of this 
Haimo ( Gesta Regum, bk. iii. p. 393, Engl. 
Hist. Soc.) If so, Robert's father must have 
been some other Haimo, probably the * Haimo 
vicecomes ' mentioned in the ( Domesday Book ' 
as holding lands in chief in Kent and Surrey, 
and who presided as sheriff over the great 
suit between Odo and Lanfranc in the Ken- 
tish shire moot (AISTDRESEN, Roman de Rou, 
Anmerkungen, ii. 768 ; cf. LE PREVOST'S note 
to his edition of ORDERICUS VITALIS, iii. 14, 
* grace aux renseignements de M. Stapleton ; ' 
cf. also ANSELM, Epistolce, iv. 57, complaining 
of the outrages of Hamon's followers) . Those 
who regard Haimo Dentatus as the grand- 
father of Robert, the conqueror of Glamorgan, 
suppose that the former had, besides ' Haimo 
vicecomes/ another son called Robert Fitz- 
hamon, to whom the earlier notices of the 
name really refer. In that case, Haimo the 
sheriff was probably the father of Haimo 
Dapifer, a tenant-in-chief in Essex, though 
Mr. Ellis (Introduction to Domesday Book, 
i. 432) identifies the two Haimos. There is, 
however, no direct evidence for this, and it 
is quite certain that ' Hamon the steward r 
was brother, though hardly, as Professor Free- 
man (William Rufus, ii. 82-3) says, elder 
brother, of Robert Fitzhamon (WILLIAM OP 
JuMiEGEsinDuCHESXE, Hist. Norm. Scriptt. 
Ant. 306 c.) Robert held all the family es- 
tates, and Haimo was still alive in!112 (CLARK 
in Arch. Journal, xxxv. 3). It is therefore 
not quite certain whether the earlier notices 
of Robert Fitzhamon refer to the nephew or 
the uncle ; but in any case a Robert Fitzhamon 
is mentioned in Bayeux charters of 1064 and 
1074 (ib. xxxv. 2). Between 1049 and 1066 
the same person assented as lord to the founda- 
tion of the priory of St. Gabriel (DE LA RITE, 
Essais Historiques sur la Ville de Caen, ii. 
409 ; cf. Nouveaux Essais, ii. 39 ; PEZET, p. 23). 
In 1074 he attested a charter of William I 
(Memoires de la Societe des Antiquaires de la 
Normandie, xxx. 702). There is no certain 




mention of him in ' Domesday Book/ despite 
the appearance of the two Hamons, his kins- 

When the feudal party under Odo of Ba- 
yeux revolted in 1088, Robert is mentioned 
among the select band of ' legitimi et maturi 
barones ' who supported the royal cause (ORD. 
VIT. ed. Le Pre>ost, iii. 273). His Kentish 

ances against Odo as earl of Kent, 
ward for his services William assigned him 
great estates, particularly the lands mostly 
in Gloucestershire, but partly in Buckingham- 
shire and Cornwall, which had passed from 
Brictric to Queen Matilda (Cont. WAGE in 
ELLIS, ii. 55, and Chron. Angl. Norm. i. 73, 
which is manifestly wrong in making Wil- 
liam I grantor of Brictric's lands to Fitz- 
hamon ; see FREEMAN, Norman Conquest, iv. 
762-3). These Rufus had for a time allowed 
Jiis brother Henry to possess, but about 1090 
he transferred them to Fitzhamon (ORD. 
VIT. iii. 350). It is possible that the Glou- 
cestershire estates were now erected into an 
honour (DUGDALE, Monasticon, ii. 60). Ro- 
bert's marriage with Sibyl (ORD. VIT. iii. 
118), daughter of Roger of Montgomery and 
sister of Robert of Belleme [q. v.], must have 
still further improved his position on the 
Welsh marches. 

The next few years were marked by the de- 
finitive Norman conquest of South Wales. 
But while authentic history records the set- 
tlements of Bernard of Neufmarche' in Bre- 
cheiniog, and of Arnulf of Montgomery in 
Dyfed and Ceredigion, the history of Fitz- 
hamon's conquest of Glamorgan has to be 
constructed out of its results, and the un- 
trustworthy, though circumstantial, legend 
that cannot be traced further back than to 
fifteenth or sixteenth century pedigree-mon- 
gers. In 1080 the building of Cardiff, sub- 
sequently the chief castle of Fitzhamon's 
lordship, was begun (Brut y Tywysogion, sub 
anno, Rolls Ser.), and this event may mark the 
beginning of Fitzhamon's conquests. If we can 
rely on the authenticity of the charter of 1086 
(Hist. Glouc. i. 334), by which William I con- 
firmed to Abbot Serlo Fitzhamon's grant of 
Llancarvan to the abbey of Gloucester, there 
can be no doubt but that the end of William's 
reign saw the beginning of the conquest. But 
probability suggests that it was not until 
,fter he had obtained the honour of Glou- 
cester that he was able to win so large a ter- 
ritory as Glamorgan. The legend fits in with 
this, for it tells us how about 1088 Eineon 
[q. v.], son of Collwyn, went to London and 
* agreed with Robert Fitzhamon, lord of Cor- 
fceil in France and cousin of the Red King, 
to come to the assistance of lestin, prince 

of Morganwg.' * Twelve other honourable 
knights' were persuaded by Robert to ac- 
company him. Uniting his forces with lestin, 
Robert defeated and slew Rhys ab Tewdwr 
at Hirwaun Wrgan, received from lestin his 
recompense in sterling gold, and returned to- 
wards London. But Eineon, disappointed 
by lestin's treachery of lestin's daughter, be- 
sought them to return. At Mynydd Bychan, 
near Cardiff, lestin was put to flight and de- 
spoiled of his country. f Robert Fitzhamon 
and his men took for themselves the best of 
the vale and the rich lands, and allotted to 
Eineon the uplands.' Robert himself, ' their 
prince/ took the government of all the coun- 
try and the castles of Cardiff, Trevuvered, and 
Kenfig, with the lands belonging to them. 
The rest of the valley between the Taff and 
the Neath he divided among his twelve com- 
panions. Such is the story as told in the so- 
called Gwentian ' Brut y Tywysogion/ the 
manuscript of which is no older than the 
middle of the sixteenth century. The same 
story is repeated, with more detail and with 
long genealogical accounts of the descendants 
of Fitzhamon's twelve followers, in Powel's 
1 History of Cambria/ first published in 1584, 
on the authority of Sir Edward Stradling, 
described as' a skilful and studious gentleman 
of that country/ but whose more than doubt- 
ful pedigree it was a main purpose of the story 
to exalt. There is in some ways a still fuller 
account in Rhys Meyrick's l Book of Glamor- 
ganshire Antiquities ' (1578). The ' Gwentian 
Brut's ' authority is singularly small, and the 
details of the pedigrees in the later versions are 
of no authority at all. Rhys ab Tewdwr was 
really slain by Bernard of Neufmarche and the 
French of Brecheiniog (Brut y Tywysogion, 
sub anno 1091 ; but the date of FLORENCE OP 
WORCESTER (ii. 31), 1093, is better; cf. FREE- 
MAN, William Rufus, ii. 91 ) . But his death was 
followed by the French conquests of Dyved 
and Ceredigion, which must surely have suc- 
ceeded the occupation of Glamorgan. Fitz- 
hamon's grants to English churches and the 
inheritance which his daughter brought to her 
husband equally prove Fitzhamon to have been 
the conqueror of Glamorgan. There is almost 
contemporary proof of the existence of some 
at least of his twelve followers, and for their 
possession of the lordships assigned to them 
in the legend (e.g. Liber Landavensis, p. 27, 
for Pagan of Turberville, Maurice of London, 
and Robert of St. Quentin ; cf. Hist. Glouc. pas- 
sim) . We can gather from the records of the 
next generation that Glamorgan was orga- 
nised into what was afterwards called a lord- 
ship marcher, with institutions and govern- 
ment based on those of an English county 
('Vicecomes Glamorganscirse/ Hist. Glouc. 




i. 347 ; ' Comitatus de Cardiff/ ib. ; Liber 
Landavensis, pp. 27-8, speaks of ' Vicecomes 
de Cardiff ' when Robert of Gloucester was 
still alive). Except perhaps in name, Fitz- 
hamon founded in Wales a county palatine 
as completely organised as the earldom of 

Fitzhamon was a liberal benefactor to the 
church. He so increased the wealth and im- 
portance of Tewkesbury Abbey that he was 
regarded as its second founder. Hitherto 
Tewkesbury had been a cell of Cranborne in 
Dorsetshire, but in the reign of William Ruf us 
(ORD. VIT. iii. 15), or in 1102 (Ann. Theok. in 
Ann. Mon. i. 44), the abbot Giraldus trans- 
ferred himself, with the greater part of the 
fraternity, to the grand new minster that was 
now rising under Robert's fostering care on 
the banks of the Severn. William of Malmes- 
bury can hardly find words to express the 
splendour of the buildings and the charity of 
the monks (Gesta Regum, bk. v. p. 625 ; cf. 
Gesta Pont. p. 295). The major part of the 
endowments was taken from Robert's Welsh 
conquest. Among the churches Fitzhamon 
handed over to Tewkesbury were the parish 
church of St. Mary's, Cardiff, the chapel of Car- 
diff Castle, and the famous British monastery 
at LI ant wit. He also granted the monks of 
Tewkesbury tithes of all his domain revenues 
in Cardiff, and of all the territories of himself 
and his barons throughout Wales (DUGDALE, 
Monasticon, ii. 66, 81). He was only less 
liberal to the great abbey of St. Peter's, Glou- 
cester, to which he granted the church of 
Llancarvan with some adjoining lands, and 
for which he witnessed a grant of Henry I of 
the tithe of venison in the Forest of Dean 
and the lands beyond the Severn (Hist. 
Glouc. i. 93, 122, 223, 334, ii. 50, 51, 177, 
301). Traces of Fitzhamon's concessions 
still remain in the patronage of many Gla- 
morganshire churches belonging to the chap- 
ter of Gloucester. 

Little reference is made to Fitzhamon by 
chroniclers of the time of William Ruf us, 
but he was in the close confidence of the 
king until his death. Before William's fatal 
bunting expedition on 2 Aug. 1100, Fitz- 
hamon, then in attendance at Winchester, 
had reported to him the ominous dream of 
the foreign monk, and his representations at 
least postponed William's hunting until after 
dinner (WILL. MALM. bk. iv. p. 507). When 
William's corpse was discovered Fitzhamon 
was one of the barons who stood around it 
in tears. Fitzhamon's new mantle covered | 
the corpse on its last journey to the cathe- I 
dral at Winchester (GEOFFRY GAIMAR, ed. i 
Wright, 11. 6357-96, Caxton Soc. The 
details are perhaps mythical, some others j 


are certainly false ; the whole account shows 
the impossibility of Pezet's notion that Fitz- 
hamon was away on crusade with Robert). 
But no former differences about the lands 
of Queen Matilda prevented Fitzhamon and 
his brother Hamon the steward from imme- 
diately attaching themselves with an equal 
zeal to Henry I. Both are among the wit- 
nesses of the letter despatched by Henry im- 
ploring Anselm to return from exile (STUBBS, 
Select Charters, p. 103). Fitzhamon was 
among the few magnates who strenuously 
adhered to Henry when the mass of the 
baronage openly or secretly favoured the 
cause of Robert of Normandy (WILL. MALM. 
bk. v. p. 620). When in 1101 Robert landed 
in Hampshire and approached Henry's army 
at Alton, Fitzhamon and other barons who 
held estates both of the king and the duke 
procured by their mediation peace between 
the brothers ( WACE, 1. 10432 sq. ed. Andre- 
sen; cf. ORD. VIT. iv. 199). In March 1103 
he was one of Henry's representatives in 
negotiating an alliance with Robert, count of 
Flanders (Fcedera, i. 7, Record ed.) He also 
witnessed the Christmas charter of Henry, 
which assigned punishment to the false 
managers (ib. i. 12). When war again broke 
out, Fitzhamon still adhered to Henry, and 
busied himself in Normandy in a partisan war- 
fare against the friends of Robert. Early in 
1105 he was surprised by Robert's troops 
from Bayeux and Caen, and forced to take 
refuge in the tower of the church of Secque- 
ville-en-Bessin. The church was set on fire, 
and he was compelled to descend a prisoner. 
For some time he was imprisoned at Bayeux, 
where the governor, Gontier d'Aulnay, pro- 
tected him from the fury of the mob, which 
regarded him as a traitor to the duke (WAGE, 
11. 11125-60, ed. Andresen; cf. Chronique 
de Normandie in BOUQUET, xiii. 250-1). 
This news at once brought Henry to Nor- 
mandy, where he landed at Barfleur just be- 
fore Easter (ORD. VIT. iv. 204), and at once 
besieged Bayeux to rescue his faithful fol- 
lower. Gontier sought to win the king's 
favour by surrendering Fitzhamon (ib. iv. 
219), but valiantly defended the town, which 
Henry finally reduced to ashes, not sparing 
even the cathedral. The guilt of this sacri- 
lege was, it was believed, shared by Henry 
and Fitzhamon (WiLL. MALM. bk. v. p. 625 ; 
WACE, 1. 11161 sq. ; cf. DE TOUSTAIN, Essai 
histonque sur la prise et Vincendie de Bayeux, 
Caen, 1861, who satisfactorily establishes 
the date as May 1105 ; cf. LE PREVOST'S note 
to ORD. VIT. iv. 219). So detested did the 
house of Fitzhamon become in Bayeux, that 
a generation later a long resistance was made 
to the appointment of his son-in-law's bastard 




to the bishopric (HERMANT, Hist, du Diocese 
de Bayeux, pp. 167-9 ; CHIGOUESNEL, Nou- 
velle Histoire de Bayeux, p. 131). Yet Fitz- 
hamon held large estates under Bayeux, and 
was hereditary standard-bearer to the church 
of St. Mary there (Memoires de la Soc. des 
Ant. de la Normandie, viii. 426). 

Soon after Fitzhamon bought from Robert 
of Saint Remi the prisoners taken at Bayeux, 
and intrigued so successfully with those of 
them that came from Caen that they trea- 
cherously procured the surrender of Caen to 
Henry (WAGE, 1. 11259 ; BOUQUET, xiii. 251). 
Fitzhamon next served in the siege of Falaise, 
where he was struck by a lance on the fore- 
head with such severity that his faculties be- 
came deranged ( WILL. MALM. bk. v. p. 625 ; 
cf. Gwentian Brut, p. 93). He survived, how- 
ever, until March 1107. He was buried in the 
chapter-house of Tewkesbury Abbey, whence 
his body was in 1241 transferred to the church 
and placed on the left side of the high altar 
(Ann. Theok. in Ann. Mon. i. 120). In 1397 
the surviving rich chapel of stone was erected 
over the founder's tomb. The ' vast pillars 
and mysterious front of the still surviving 
minster ' (FREEMAN, Will. Rufus, ii. 84) still 
testify to Fitzhamon's munificence. He may 
have built the older parts of the castle of 
Creully (PEZET). 

By his wife, Sibyl of Montgomery, a bene- 
factress of Ramsey (Cart. Ramsey, ii. 274, 
Rolls Ser.), Fitzhamon left no son, and his 
possessions passed, with the hand of his daugh- 
ter Mabel, to Henry I's favourite bastard, 
Robert, under whom Gloucester first became 
an earldom (WiLL. MALM. Hist. Nov. bk. i. ; 
erroneously calls her Sibyl and her mother 
Mabel ; ORD. ViT.,iii. 318, calls her Matilda). 
Mabel was probably Fitzhamon's only daugh- 
ter (WYKES in Ann. Mon. iv. 22), and cer- 
tainly inherited all her father's estates, as 
well as those of Hamon the steward, her uncle 
(ROBERT or THORIGNY, 306 c). The Tewkes- 
bury tradition was, however, that she had 
three younger sisters, of whom Cecily became 
abbess of Shaftesbury, Hawyse abbess of the 
nuns' minster at Winchester, and Amice the 
wife of the ' Count of Brittany ' (DFGDALE, 
Monasticon, ii. 60, 452, 473). 

[Ordericus Vitalis, ed. Le Prevost (Societe de 
1'Histoire de France) ; William of Malmesbury's 
Gesta Kegum and Hist. Novella (Engl. Hist. 
Soc.) ; Wace's Koman de Rou, ed. Andresen ; G-. 
Gaimar's Estorie des Engles (Caxton Soc.) ; His- 
tory and Chartulary of St. Peter's, Gloucester 
(Rolls Ser.) ; Dugdale's Monasticon, vol. ii. ed. 
Caley, Bandinel, and Ellis ; Gwentian Brut, 
pp. 69-77 (Cambrian Archaeological Associa- 
tion) ; Powel's Hist, of Cambria, ed. 1584, pp. 
118-41 ; Merrick's Book of Glamorganshire 

Antiquities, privately printed by Sir T. Phillij 
(1825); Freeman's Norman Conquest, ii. 244, 
iv. 762-4, v. 820 ; Freeman's William Rufus, i. 
62, 197, ii. 79-89, 613-1 5 ; G. T. Clark's Land of 
Morgan, reprinted from Archaeological Journal, 
xxxiv. 11-39, xxxv. 1-4; Pezet's Les Barons de 
Creully, pp. 21-52 (Bayeux, 1854); De Toustain's 
Essai historique sur la prise et 1'incendie de Bayeux, 
1105.1 T. F. T. 

founder of the second house of Berkeley, ap- 
pears to have been the second son of Harding, 
son of Eadnoth [q. v.], the staller ( Gesta Re- 
gum, i. 429 ; ELLIS, Landholders of Glouces- 
tershire, p. 59 ; EYTON, Somerset Domesday, 
i. 58 ; FREEMAN, Norman Conquest, iv. 760). 
Local antiquaries have endeavoured to make 
out that he was the grandson of a Danish 
king or sea-rover (SEYER, i. 315 ; Bristol, 
Past and Present, i. 56), a futile imagination 
which has been traced to John Trevisa (MAC- 
LEAN), and is probably older than his date. 
Robert's eldest brother, Nicolas, inherited his 
father's fief, Meriet in Somerset (ELLIS). 
Robert was provost or reeve of Bristol, and 
was possessed of great wealth ; he upheld the 
cause of Robert, earl of Gloucester, who fought 
for the empress, and purchased several estates 
from the earl, among them the manor of Billes- 
wick on the right bank of the Frome, which 
included the present College Green of Bristol, 
and the manor of Bedminster-with-Redcliff. 
He had other lands, chiefly in Gloucestershire, 
and held of Humphrey de Bohun in Wilt- 
shire, and William, earl of Warwick, in W r ar- 
wickshire (Liber Niger, pp. 109, 206). Before 
Henry II came to the throne he is said to 
have been assisted by Robert, probably by 
loans of money ; when he became king he 
granted him the lordship of Berkeley Hernesse, 
and Robert is held to have been the first of 
the second or present line of the lords of Ber- 
He granted a charter to the tenants of his fee 
near the ' bridge of Bristou.' By his wife 
Eva he had Maurice, who succeeded him, and 
four other sons and three daughters. On his 
estate in Billeswick he built in 1142 the 
priory or abbey of St. Augustine's for black 
canons, the present cathedral, and is said to 
have assumed the monastic habit before his 
death, which occurred on 5 Feb. 1170 (ELLIS). 
He also founded a school in a building, after- 
wards called Chequer Hall, in Wine Street, 
Bristol, for the instruction of Jews and other 
strangers in the Christian faith. His wife 
Eva was the founder of a nunnery on StJ 
Michael's Hill, Bristol. Both Robert and, 
Eva were buried in St. Augustine's ChurchJ 

[Smyth's Lives of the Berkeleys, i. 19-62, edJ 
Maclean ; Ellis's Landholders of Gloucestershire! 




named in Domesday, pp. 59,111, from Bristol and 
Glouc. Archseol. Soc.'s Trans, iv. ; Eyton's Domes- 
day Studies, Somerset, i. 59, 70, 101 ; Notes and 
Queries, 6th ser. i. 20 ; Freeman's Norman Con- 
quest, iv. 757-60 ; Liber Niger de Scaccario, pp. 
95, 109, 171, 206 (Hearne) ; Will. Malm. Gesta 
Eegum, i. 429 (Engl. Hist. Soc.) ; Eobert of Glou- 
cester, p. 4 79 /Hearne) ; Eieart's Kalendar, p. 20 
(Camden Soc.) ; Dugdale's Monasticon, vi. 365 ; 
Baronage, i. 350 ; Tanner's Notitia, p. 480 ; Eng- 
lish Gilds, p. 288 (Early Eng. Text Soc,); Seyer's 
Hist, of Bristol, i. 313; Nicholls and Taylor's 
Bristol, Past and Present, i. 56-8, 91, ii. 46, 125 ; 
Britton's Bristol Cathedral, pp.. 3-7, 57.1 




1681), conspirator, son of Sir Edward Fitz- 
harris, was born in Ireland about 1648, and 
bought up in the Roman catholic faith. 
According to his own relation he left Ireland 
for France in 1662 to learn the language, 
returning home through England in 1665. 
Three years later he went to Prague with 
the intention of entering the service of the 
emperor Leopold I in his operations against 
Hungary, when, finding that the expedition 
had been abandoned, he wandered through 
Flanders to England again. He next ob- 
tained a captain's commission in one of the 
companies raised by Sir George Hamilton in 
Ireland for Louis XIV, but on being dis- 
charged from his command soon after land- 
ing in France, he went to Paris, ' and, having 
but little money, he lived there difficultly 
about a year.' Returning to England in 
October 1672 he received, in the following 
February, the lieutenancy of Captain Syden- 
ham's company in the Duke of Albemarle's 
regiment, which he was forced to resign on 
the passing of the Test Act in 1673. For 
the next eight years he was busily intriguing 
with influential Roman catholics, among 
others with the Duchess of Portsmouth. At 
length in February 1681 he wrote a libel, 
* The True Englishman speaking plain Eng- 
lish in a Letter from a Friend to a Friend ' 
(COBBETT, Parl. Hist. vol. iv., Appendix, No. 
xiii.), in which he advocated the deposition 
of the king and the exclusion of the Duke 
of York. He possibly intended to place this 
in the house of some whig, and then, by dis- 
covering it himself, earn the wages of an in- 
former. He was betrayed by an accomplice, 
Edmond Everard, and sent first to Newgate 
and afterwards to the Tower, where he pre- 
tended he could discover the secret of Sir 
Edmondbury Godfrey's murder. Eventually 
he succeeded in implicating Danby. Fitz- 

harris was impeached by the commons of 
high treason, not to destroy but to serve him 
in opposition to the court. His impeachment 
brought into discussion an important ques- 
tion of constitutional law. The lords having 
voted for a trial at common law, the com- 
mons declared this to be a denial of justice. 
Parliament, however, was suddenly dissolved 
after eight days' session on 28 March, pro- 
bably to avoid a threatened collision between 
the two houses; others, according to Lut- 
trell, thought that the court feared that 
Fitzharris might be driven by the impeach- 
ment to awkward disclosures (Relation of 
State Affairs, 1857, i. 72). He had had, in 
fact, more than one interview with the king 
through the Duchess of Portsmouth (BURNET, 
Own Time, Oxford edition, ii. 280-1). The 
dissolution decided his fate. He was tried 
before the king's bench in Easter term, and 
entered a plea against the jurisdiction of the 
court on the ground that proceedings were 
pending against him before the lords. This 
plea was ruled to be insufficient, and Fitz- 
harris was proceeded against at common law, 
9 June 1681, and convicted. His wife, daugh- 
ter of William Finch, commander in the 
navy, exhibited wonderful courage and re- 
source on his behalf. At his request Burnet 
afterwards visited him, and soon satisfied 
himself that no reliance whatever could be 
placed on his testimony. Francis Hawkins, 
chaplain of the Tower, then took him in 
hand in the interests of the court, and, by 
insinuating that his life might yet be spared, 
persuaded him to draw up a pretended con- 
fession, in which Lord Howard of Escrick, 
who had befriended Fitzharris, was made the 
author of the libel, while Sir Robert Clayton 
[q. v.] and Sir George Treby, before whom 
his preliminary examination had been con- 
ducted, together with the sheriffs, Slingsby 
Bethel [q. v.] and Henry Cornish [q. v.], were 
severally charged with subornation. 'Yet 
at the same time he writ letters to his wife, 
who was not then admitted to him, which I 
saw and read,' says Burnet, ' in which he 
told her how he was practised upon with 
the hopes of life ' (ib. ii. 282). Fitzharris 
was executed on 1 July 1681, the concocted 
confession appeared the very next day, and 
Hawkins was rewarded for his pains with 
the deanery of Chichester. The justices and 
sheriffs in their reply, ' Truth Vindicated,' 
had little difficulty in proving the so-called 
' confession ' to be a tissue of falsehoods. The 
indictment against Lord Howard of Escrick 
was withdrawn, as the grand jury_ refused 
to believe the evidence of the two witnesses, 
Mrs. Fitzharris and her maidservant. The 
court, fearful of further exposures, persuaded 





Mrs. Fitzharris to give up her husband's 
letters under promise of a pension ; ' but so 
many had seen them before that, that this 
base practice turned much to the reproach 
of all their proceedings ' (BURNET, ut supra). 
Jn 1689 Sir John Hawles, solicitor-general 
to William III, published some ' Remarks ' 
on Fitzharris's trial, which he condemns as 
being as illegal as it was odious. During 
the same year the commons recommended 
Mrs. Fitzharris and her three children to the 
bountiful consideration of the king (Com- 
mons' Journals, 15 June 1689). 

[Cobbett's State Trials, viii. 223-446 ; Cobbett's 
Parl. Hist. vol. iv. col. 1314, Appendix No. xiii. ; 
Burnet's Own Time, Oxford edit. ii. 271, 278, 
280; Luttrell's Eolation of State Affairs, 1857, 
vol. i. ; Keresby's Diary; North's Examen ; 
Eachard's Hist, of England, pp. 1010, 1011; 
Hallam's Const. Hist. 8th edit. ii. 446; Macpher- 
son's Hist, of Great Britain, vol. v.pp. 341-3; 
Notes and Queries, 3rd ser. i. 303.] G-. GK 

FITZHENRY, MEILER (d. 1220), jus- 
ticiar of Ireland, was the son of Henry, the 
bastard son of King Henry I, by Nesta, the 
wife of Gerald of Windsor, and the daughter 
of Rhys ab Tewdwr, king of South Wales 
brifs, in Opera, vi. 130, Rolls Ser. ; cf. An- 
nales Cambria, p. 47, and Brut y Tywyso- 
gion, p. 189). He was thus the first cousin of 
Henry II, and related to the noblest Norman 
and native families of South Wales. Robert 
Fitzstephen [q. v.], Maurice Fitzgerald (d. 
1176) [q. v.], and David II [q. v.], bishop 
of St. David's, were his half-brothers. Ray- 
mond le Gros [see FITZGERALD, RAYMOND] and 
Giraldus Cambrensis were among his cousins. 
In 1157 his father Henry was slain during 
Henry II's campaign in Wales, when Robert 
Fitzstephen so narrowly escaped (GIRALDFS, 
Opera, vi. 130). Meiler, then quite young, 
now succeeded to his father's possessions of 
Narberth and Pebidiog, the central and north- 
eastern (ib. i. 59) parts of the modern Pem- 
brokeshire. In 1169 he accompanied his uncle 
Fitzstephen on his first expedition to Ireland. 
He first distinguished himself in the invasion 
of Ossory along with his cousin Robert de 
Barry, brother of Giraldus (GIRALDUS, Ex- 
pugnatio Hibernica, in Opera, v. 234-5). The 
French poet (REG AN, p. 37) fully corroborates 
as regards Meiler. If the partial testimony 
of their kinsman is to be credited, Robert 
and Meiler were always first in every daring 
exploit. In 1173 the return of Strongbow 
to England threw all Ireland into revolt 
Meiler was then in garrison at Waterford,anc 
made a rash sortie against the Irish. He pur- 
sued them into their impenetrable woods anc 
was surrounded. But he cut a way through 

hem with his sword, and arrived safely at 
Waterford with three Irish axes in his horse 
and two on his shield (ib. pp. 309-10). In 1174 
ie returned with Raymond to Wales,but when 
Strongbow brought Raymond back Meiler 
jame with him and received as a reward the- 
more distant cantred of Offaly' (Carbury ba- 
rony, co. Kildare) (ib. p. 314, and Mr. Dimock's 
note). In October 1175 he accompanied Ray- 
mond in his expedition against Limerick, was 
s second to swim over the Shannon, and 
with his cousin David stood the attack of the 1 
whole Irish host until the rest of the army had 
crossed over (cf. Exp. Hib. and REGAN, p. 162 
sq.) He was one of the brilliant band of 
Geraldines who under Raymond met the 
new governor, William Fitzaldhelm [q. v.],, 
at Waterford, and at once incurred his jealous 
iatred (Exp. Hib. p. 335). Hugh de Lacy, 
the next justiciar, took away Meiler's Kildare- 
estate, but gave him Leix in exchange. This 
was in a still wilder, and therefore, as Giral- 
dus thought, a more appropriate district than, 
even the march of Offaly for so thorough 
border chieftain (ib. pp. 355-6). In 1182' 
Lacy again became justice and built a castle 
on Meiler's Leix estate at ' Tahmeho,' and? 
gave him his niece as a wife. It seems pro- 
bable that Meiler had already been mar- 
ried, but he hitherto had no legitimate chil- 
dren (ib. p. 345). This childlessness was 
in Giraldus's opinion God's punishment to 
him for the want of respect to the church. 
Giraldus gives us a vivid picture of his- 
cousin in his youth. He was a dark man r 
with black stern eyes and keen face. In. 
stature he was somewhat short, but he was 
very strong, with a square chest, thin flanks^, 
bony arms and legs, and a sinewy rather 
than fleshy body. He was high-spirited,, 
proud, and brave to rashness. He was al- 
ways anxious to excel, but more anxious to 
seem brave than really to be so. His only- 
serious defect was his want of reverence to 
the church (ib. pp. 235, 324-5). 

In June 1200 Meiler was in attendance on 
King John in Normandy ( Chart. 2 John, m. 29, 
summarised in SWEETMAN, Cal. Doc. Ireland, 
1171-1251, No. 122), and on 28 Oct. of that 
year received a grant of two cantreds in Kerry, 
and one in Cork (Chart. 2 John, m. 22, Cal. 
No. 124). About the same time he was ap- 
pointed to ' the care and custody of all Ireland r 
as chief justiciar, the king reserving to him- 
self pleas touching the crown, the mint, and 
the exchange (Chart. 2 John, m. 28 dors., Cal. 
No. 133). During his six years' government 
Meiler had to contend against very great diffi- 
culties, including the factiousness of the Nor- 
man nobles. John de Courci [q. v.], the con- 
queror of Ulster, was a constant source csff 




trouble to him (Pat. 6 John, m. 9, Cat. No. 
524). The establishment of Hugh de Lacy 
as Earl of Ulster (29 May 1205) was a great 
triumph for Fitzhenry. Before long, however, 
war broke out between Lacy and Fitzhenry 
{Four Masters, iii. 155). Another lawless 
Norman noble was William de Burgh [see 
Hinder FiTZALDHELM,WiLLiAM],who was now 
engaged in the conquest of Connaught. But 
while De Burgh was devastating that region, 
Fitzhenry and his assessor, Walter de Lacy, 
led a host into De Burgh's Munster estates 
(1203, Annals of Loch Ce, i. 229, 231). De 
Burgh lost his estates, though on appeal to 
King John he ultimately recovered them all, 
except those in Connaught (Pat. 6 John, m. 8, 
Cal. No. 230). Fitzhenry had similar troubles 
with Richard Tirel (Pat. 5 John, m. 4, Cal. 
No. 196) and other nobles. Walter de Lacy, 
at one time his chief colleague, quarrelled 
with him in 1206 about the baronies of Lime- 
rick (Pat. 8 John, m. 2, Cal. No. 315). In 
1204 he was directed by the king to build a 
castle in Dublin to serve as a court of justice 
,as well as a means of defence. He was also 
to compel the citizens of Dublin to fortify 
the city itself (Close, 6 John, m. 18, Cal. No. 
.226). Fitzhenry continued to hold the jus- 
ticiarship until 1208. The last writ addressed 
to him in that capacity is dated 19 June 1208 
{Pat. 10 John, m. 5). Mr. Gilbert ( Viceroys, 
p. 59) says that he was superseded between 
1203 and 1205 by Hugh de Lacy, but many 
writs are addressed to him as justiciary during 
these years (Cal. Doc. Ireland, pp. 31-44 
passim). On several occasions assessors or 
counsellors were associated with him in his 
work, and he was directed to do nothing of 
exceptional importance without their advice 
(e.g. Hugh de Lacy in 1205, Close, 5 John, 
m. 22, Cal. No. 268). 

Fitzhenry remained one of the most power- 
ful of Irish barons, even after he ceased to be 
justiciar. About 1212 his name appears im- 
mediately after that of William Marshall in 
the spirited protest of the Irish barons against 
the threatened deposition of John by the pope, 
and the declaration of their willingness to live 
and die for the king (Cal. Doc. Ireland, No. 
448). Several gifts from the king marked 
John's appreciation of his administration of 
Ireland (ib. No. 398). But it was not till 
August 1219 that all the expenses incurred 
during his viceroy alty were defrayed from the 
exchequer (ib. No. 887). He must by that 
date have been a very old man. Already in 
1216 it was thought likely that he would die, 
or at least retire from the world into a mo- 
nastery (ib. No. 691). There is no reference 
to his acts after 1219, and he died in 1220 
(CLYN, Ann. Hib. p. 8). He had long ago 

atoned for his early want of piety by the foun- 
dation in 1202 ('Annals of Ireland' in Chart. 
St. Mary's, ii. 308 ; DFGDALE, Monasticon, 
vi. 1138) of the abbey of Connall in county 
Kildare, which he handed over to the Austin 
canons of Llanthony, near Gloucester. This 
he endowed with large estates, with all the 
churches and benefices in his Irish lands, with 
a tenth of his household expenses, rents, and 
produce (Chart. 7 John, m. 7, Cal. No. 273). 
He was buried in the chapter-house at Con- 
nall (Ann. Ireland, ii. 314). He had by the 
niece of Hugh de Lacy a son named Meiler, 
who in 1206 was old enough to dispossess 
William de Braose of Limerick ( Close, 8 John, 
m. 3, Cal. No. 310), and whose forays into 
Tyrconnell had already spread devastation 
among the Irish (Annals of Loch Ce,\. 231). 
The brother of the elder Meiler, Robert Fitz- 
henry, died about 1180 (Exp. Hib. p. 354). 

[G-iraldus Cambrensis, Expugnatio Hibernica, 
in Opera, vol. v. (Eolls Ser.) ; The Anglo-Norman 
Poem on the Conquest of Ireland, wrongly at- 
tributed to Regan, ed. Michel; the Patent, Close, 
Charter, Liberate, and other Rolls for the reign 
of John, printed by the Record Commissioners, 
and summarised, not always with quite the neces- 
sary precision, in Sweetman's Calendar of Docu- 
ments relating to Ireland, 1171-1251; Chartu- 
laries, &c., of St. Mary's Abbey, Dublin (Rolls 
Ser.) ; Gilbert's Viceroys of Ireland is not in this 
part always quite accurate ; Annals of Loch Ce, 
vol. i. (Rolls Ser.)] T. F. T. 

FITZHENRY, MRS. (d. 1790 ?), actress, 
was the daughter of an Irishman named 
Flanni^an, who kept the old Ferry Boat 
tavern, Abbey Street, Dublin. She contri- 
buted by her needle to the support of her 
father, and married a lodger in his house, a 
Captain Gregory, commander of a vessel en- 
gaged in the trade between Dublin and Bor- 
deaux. After the death, by drowning, of her 
husband, followed by that of her father, she 
proceeded to London in 1753 and appeared 
at Covent Garden 10 Jan. 1754 as Mrs. Gre- 
gory, ' her first appearance upon any stage/ 
playing Hermione in the ' Distressed Mother/ 
Alicia in ' Jane Shore ' followed, 23 March 
1754. Her Irish accent impeded her success, 
and at the end of the season she went, at a 
salary of 300/., soon raised to 400/., to Smock 
Alley Theatre, Dublin, under Sowdon and 
Victor, where she appeared ( ? 3 Jan. 1755) 
as Hermione, and played (14 March 1755) 
Zara in the ' Mourning Bride,' Zaphira in 
* Barbarossa ' (2 Feb. 1756), and Volumnia in 
' Coriolanus.' These representations gained 
her high reputation. On 5 Jan. 1757 she re- 
appeared at Covent Garden as Hermione, and 
added to her repertory Calista in the * Fair 
Penitent/ and for her benefit Lady Macbeth. 




About this time she married Fitzhenry, a 
lawyer, by whom she had a son and a daugh- 
ter. He also predeceased her. She reap- 
peared at Smock Alley in October 1757 as 
Mrs. Fitzhenry in Calista. At one or other 
of the Dublin theatres, between 1759 and 

1764, she played Isabella in 'Measure for 
Measure,' Emilia in ' Othello,' Cleopatra in 
< All for Love,' the Queen in ' Hamlet ' (then 
held to be a character of primary importance), 
Mandane in the ' Orphan of China,' Queen 
Katharine, and other parts. On 15 Oct. 

1765, as Calista, she made her first appear- 
ance at Drury Lane, and added to her cha- 
racters, 9 April 1766, Roxana in the l Rival 
Queens.' Returning to Dublin she played at 
Smock Alley or Crow Street theatres, both 
for a time under the management of Mossop, 
the Countess of Salisbury and Aspasia in 
* Tamerlane.' Her last recorded appearance 
was at Smock Alley 1773-4 as Mrs. Belle- 
ville in the ' School for Wives.' Not long 
after this she retired with a competency and 
lived with her two children. She returned 
to the stage, Genest supposes, on no very 
strong evidence, about 1782-3, and acted suc- 
cessfully many of her old parts. She then 
finally retired, and is said to have died at Bath 
in 1790. The date and place are doubted by 
Genest, a resident in Bath, who thinks there 
is a confusion between her and Mrs. Fitz- 
maurice, who died in Bath about this epoch. 
The monthly obituary of the ' European Maga- 
zine ' for November and December 1790 says : 
'11 Dec. Lately in Ireland, Mrs. Fitzhenry, 
a celebrated actress.' Mrs. Fitzhenry was 
an excellent actress. She lacked, however, 
the personal beauty of Mrs. Yates, to whom 
she was opposed by the Dublin managers, 
and was in consequence treated with much 
discourtesy and cruelty in Dublin. Her 
acting was original, and her character blame- 
less. She was prudent, and it may almost be 
said sharp, in pecuniary affairs. 

[The chief authority for the life of Mrs. Fitz- 
henry is the Thespian Dictionary, a not very 
trustworthy production. Other works from which 
information has been derived are Genest's Ac- 
count of the English Stage ; Hitchcock's View 
of the Irish Stage ; Tate Wilkinson's Memoirs ; 
Notes and Queries, 7th ser. v. 372. A notice in 
Gilliland's Dramatic Mirror is copied from the 
Thespian Dictionary.] J. K. 

ST. HELENS (1753-1839), was fifth and 
youngest son of William Fitzherbert of Tis- 
sington in Derbyshire, who married Mary, 
eldest daughter of Littleton Poyntz Mey- 
nell of Bradley, near Ashbourne, in the same 
county. His father, who was member for the 
borough of Derby and a commissioner of the 

Doard of trade, committed suicide on 2 Jan. 
L772 through pecuniary trouble. He was- 
numbered among the friends of Dr. Johnson, 
who bore witness to his felicity of manner 
and his general popularity, but depreciated 
the extent of his learning. Of his mother 
the same authority is reported to have said 
that she had the best understanding he ever 
met with in any human being.' Alleyne, 
who inherited his baptismal name from his 
maternal grandmother, Judith, daughter of 
Thomas Alleyne of Barbadoes, was born in 
1753, and received his school education at 
Derby and Eton. In July 1770 he matri- 
culated as pensioner at St. John's College, 
Cambridge, his private tutor being the Rev. 
William Arnald, and in the following Octo- 
ber Gray wrote to Mason that ' the little 
Fitzherbert is come as pensioner to St. John's, 
and seems to have all his wits about him/ 
Gray, attended by several of his friends, paid 
a visit to the young undergraduate in his col- 
lege rooms, and as the poet rarely went out- 
side his own college, his presence attracted 
great attention, and the details of the in- 
terview were afterwards communicated to 
Samuel Rogers, and printed by Mitford. Fitz- 
herbert took his degree of B. A. in 1774, being 
second of the senior optimes in the mathe- 
matical tripos, and he was also the senior 
chancellor's medallist. Soon afterwards he 
went on a tour through France and Italy, 
and when abroad was presented to one of the 
university's travelling scholarships. In Febru- 
ary 1777 he began a long course of foreign life 
with the' appointment of minister at Brussels, 
and this necessitated his taking the degree of 
M.A. in that year by proxy. He remained at 
Brussels until August 1782, when he was des- 
patched to Paris by Lord Shelburne as pleni- 
potentiary to negotiate a peace with the crowns 
of France and Spain, and with the States- 
General of the United Provinces ; and on 
20 Jan. 1783 the preliminaries of peace with 
the first two powers were duly signed. The 
peace with the American colonies, which was 
agreed to at about the same date, was not 
brought to a conclusion under Fitzherbert's 
charge, but he claimed to have taken a lead- 
ing share in the previous negotiations which 
rendered it possible. This successful diplo- 
macy led to his promotion in the summer of 
1783 to the post of envoy extraordinary to 
the Empress Catherine of Russia, and he ac- 
companied her in her tour round the Crimea 
in 1787. His conversation was always at- 
tractive, and among his best stories were his 
anecdotes of the empress and her court, some 
of which are preserved in Dyce's * Recollec- 
tions of Samuel Rogers' (pp. 104-5). At 
the close of 1787 he returned to England to 




accompany the Marquis of Buckingham, the 
newly appointed lord-lieutenant of Ireland, 
as his chief secretary, and he was in conse- 
quence sworn a member of the privy council 
(30 Nov.) His health was bad, and the 
first Lord Minto wrote to his wife (9 Dec. 
1787) that Fitzherbert was going to Ire- 
land * with the greatest danger to his life, his 
health being very bad in itself, and such as 
the business and vexation he is going to must 
make much worse.' In spite of these gloomy 
prognostications he continued to hold the 
post until March 1789, when he resigned the 
secretaryship, and was sent to the Hague as 
envoy extraordinary, ' with the pay of am- 
bassador in ordinary, in all about 4,000/.' a 
year. At this time his reputation had reached 
its highest point, and Fox described him as 
* a man of parts and of infinite zeal and in- 
dustry/ but as years went on his powers of 
application for the minor duties of his offices 
seem to have flagged. One hostile critic com- 
plained in 1793 that his letters were left un- 
answered by Fitzherbert, and in the follow- 
ing year he was described by the first Lord 
Malmesbury as ' very friendly, but insouciant 
as to business and not attentive enough for 
his post.' In more important matters he acted 
with promptness and energy. When differ- 
ences broke out between Great Britain and 
Spain respecting the right of British subjects 
to trade at Nootka Sound and to carry on the 
southern whale fishery, he was despatched to 
Madrid (May 1791) as ambassador extraor- 
dinary, and under his care all disputes were 
settled in the succeeding October, for which 
services he was raised to the Irish peerage 
with the title of Baron St. Helens. A treaty 
of alliance between Great Britain. and Spain 
was concluded by him in 1793, but as the 
climate of that country did not agree with 
his health he returned home early in 1794. 
Very shortly after his landing in England 
St. Helens was appointed to the ambassa- 
dorship at the Hague (25 March 1794), 
where he remained until the French con- 
quered the country, when the danger of his 
situation caused much anxiety to his friends. 
A year or two later a great misfortune hap- 
pened to him. On 16 July 1797 his house, 
containing everythinghe possessed, was burnt 
to the ground, and he himself narrowly es- 
caped a premature death. * He has lost,' 
wrote Lord Minto, ' every scrap of paper he 
ever had. Conceive how inconsolable that 
loss must be to one who has lived his life. 
All his books, many fine pictures, prints and 
drawings in great abundance, are all gone.' 
His last foreign mission was to St. Peters- 
burg in April 1801 to congratulate the Em- 
peror Alexander on his accession to the throne, 

and to arrange a treaty between England and 
Russia. The terms of the agreement were 
quickly settled, and on its completion he was 
promoted to the peerage of the United King- 
dom. In the next September he attended the 
coronation of Alexander in Moscow, and ar- 
ranged a convention with the Danish pleni- 
potentiary, which was followed in March 
1802 by a similar settlement with Sweden. 
This completed his services abroad, and on 
5 April 1803 he retired from diplomatic life 
with a pension of 2,300/. a year. When 
Addington was forced to resign the premier- 
ship, St. Helens, who was much attached 
to George III, and was admitted to more 
intimate friendship with that king and his 
wife than any other of the courtiers, was 
created a lord of the bedchamber (May 1804), 
and the appointment is said to have been 
made against Pitt's wishes. He declared 
that he could not live out of London, and he 
therefore dwelt in Grafton Street all the year 
round. His consummate prudence and his 
quiet, polished manners are the theme of 
Wraxali's praise. Rogers and Jeremy Bent- 
ham were included in the list of his friends. 
To Rogers he presented in his last illness 
Pope's own copy of Garth's 'Dispensary,' with 
Pope's manuscript annotations. Bentham 
had been presented to St. Helens by his elder 
brother, sometime member for Derbyshire, 
and many letters to and from him on sub- 
jects of political interest are in Bentham's 
works. Two letters from him to Croker on 
Wraxall's anecdotes are in the ' Croker Papers ' 
(ii. 294-7), and a letter to him from the first 
Lord Malmesbury is printed in the latter's 
diaries. St. Helens died in Grafton Street, 
London, on 19 Feb. 1839, and was buried 
in the Harrow Road cemetery on 26 Feb. 
As he was never married, the title became 
extinct, and his property passed to his nephew, 
Sir Henry Fitzherbert. From 1805 to 1837 
he had been a trustee of the British Museum, 
and at the time of his death he was the senior 
member of the privy council. 

gentleman-usher to George III, born 27 May 
1748, was Lord St. Helens's eldest brother, 
and was educated at St. John's College, Cam- 
bridge, receiving the degree of M.A.j9er literal 
regias in 1770. He was called to the bar and 
became recorder of Derby. After serving as 
gentleman-usher to the king, he was promoted 
to be gentleman-usher in extraordinary, and 
was created a baronet in recognition of his 
services 22 Jan. 1784. He resigned his post 
at court soon afterwards in consequence of a 
personal quarrel with the Marquis of Salis- 
bury (lord chamberlain). He died 30 July 
1791 at his house at Tissington, which he had 




inherited from his father in 1772. He was 
author of ' A Dialogue on the Revenue Laws/ 
and of a collection of moral ' Maxims.' He 
is also credited with an anonymous pamphlet 
'On the Knights made in 1778.' By his wife 
Sarah, daughter of William Perrin, esq., of 
Jamaica, whom he married 14 Oct. 1777, 
he was father of two sons, Anthony (1779- 
1798) and Henry (1783-1858), who were re- 
spectively second and third baronets. 

[Gray's Works (ed. 1884), in. 384-5 ; Hill's 
Boswell, i. 82-3 ; Hutton's Bland-Burges Papers, 
pp. 141-5, 189-90, 243, 250-1 ; Collins's Peer- 
age (Brydges's ed.), ix. 156-7; Lord Minto's 
Life and Letters, i. 175, 295, ii. 413-14, iii. 341 ; 
Wraxall's Posthumous Memoirs (od. 1884), v. 
35; Lord Malmesbury's Diaries, i. 504-5, ii. 
38-9, iii. 98, 199, 223-5 ; Bentham's Works, 
x. 261-2, 305-6, 319-20, 362, 429-31, xi. 118- 
1 20 ; Mary Frampton's Journal, p. 83 ; Gent. Mag. 
1791 pt. ii. 777-8, April 1839 pp. 429-30, De- 
cember 1839 p. 669; Catalogue of Cambridge 
Graduates ; Burke's and Foster's Baronetages.] 

W. P. C. 


(1470-1538), judge, sixth son of Ralph Fitz- 
herbert of Norbury, Derbyshire, by Eliza- 
beth, daughter of John Marshall of Upton, 
Leicestershire, was a member of Gray's Inn. 
Wood states that he * laid a foundation of 
learning ' in Oxford, but gives no authority. 
The date of his entering Gray's Inn and of his 
call to the bar are unknown. His shield, how- 
ever, was emblazoned on the bay window of 
the hall not later than 1580, where it was still 
to be seen in 1671, but from which it has since 
disappeared ; and he is included in a list of 
Gray's Inn readers compiled in the seven- 
teenth century from authentic materials by 
Sir William Segar, Garter king of arms, and 
keeper of Gray's Inn library (DOTJTHWAITE, 
Gray's Inn, p. 46). On 18 Nov. 1510 he was 
called to the degree of serjeant-at-law, and 
on 24 Nov. 1516 he was appointed king's 
Serjeant. About 1521-2 he was raised to 
the bench as a justice of the court of common 
pleas and knighted (DUGDALE, Chron, Ser. 
pp. 79, 80, 81 ; Letters and Papers, For. and 
Dom. of the reign of Henry VIII, vol. iii. 
pt. ii. p. 889). In April 1524 he was com- 
missioned to go to Ireland with Sir Ralph 
Egerton, and Dr. James Denton, dean of Lich- 
field, to attempt the pacification of the coun- 
try. The commissioners arrived about mid- 
summer, and arranged a treaty between the 
deputy, the Earl of Ormonde, and the Earl 
of Kildare (concluded 28 July 1524), where- 
by, after making many professions of amity, 
they agreed to refer all future differences to 
arbitration, the final decision, in the event of 
the arbitrators disagreeing, to rest with the 

lord chancellor of England and the privy 
council, Kildare in the meantime making 
various substantial concessions. The com- 
missioners left Ireland in September. On 
their return they received the hearty thanks 
of the king. During the next few years Fitz- 
herbert's history is all but a blank. There is, 
however, extant a letter from him to Wolsey 
dated at Carlisle, 30 March 1525, describing 
the state of the country as very disturbed, 
and hinting that it was the ' sinister policy ' 
of Lord Dacre to make and keep it so (State 
Papers, ii. 104-8 ; Letters and Papers, For. 
and Dom. of the reign of Henry VIII, vol. 
iv. pt. i. pp. 244, 352, 534; HALL, Chron. 
1809, p. 685). 

On 11 June 1529 Fitzherbert was one of 
the commissioners appointed to hear causes in 
chancery in place of the chancellor, Wolsey 
(RYMER, Feeder a, xiv. 299). On 1 Dec. fol- 
lowing he signed the articles of impeachment 
exhibited against Wolsey, one of them being 
to the effect that l certain bills for extortion 
of ordinaries ' having been found before Fitz- 
herbert, Wolsey had the indictments removed 
into the chancery by certiorari, ' and rebuked 
the same Fitzherbert for the same cause.' 
On 1 June 1533 he was present at the coro- 
nation of Anne Boleyn. In 1534 he was with 
the council at Ludlow (CoBBETT, State Trials, 
i. 377 ; Letters and Papers, For. and Dom. of 
the reign of Henry VIII, vol. iii. p. 272, 
vi. 263, vii. 545, 581). He was one of the 
commission that (29 April 1535) tried the 
Carthusians, Robert Feron, John Hale, and 
others, for high treason under the statute 
25 Hen. VIII, c. 22, the offence consisting in 
having met and conversed too freely about 
the king's marriage. He was also a member 
of the tribunals that tried Fisher and More 
in the following June and July. He appears 
as one of the witnesses to the deed dated 
5 April 1537, by which the abbot of Fur- 
ness surrendered his monastery to the king 
(Letters relating to the Suppression of Monas- 
teries, Camd. Soc. p. 154). He died on 27 May 
1538, and was buried in the parish church of 

Fitzherbert married twice : first, Dorothy, 
daughter of Sir Henry Willoughby of Wol- 
laton, Nottinghamshire; second, Matilda, 
daughter and heir of Richard Cotton of Ham- 
stall Ridware, Staffordshire. He had no chil- 
dren by his first wife, but several by his second 
The manor of Norbury is still in the possession 
of his posterity. The family has been settled 
at Norbury since 1125, when William, prior 
of Tutbury, granted the manor to William 
Fitzherbert. Though he never attained the 
position of chief justice, Fitzherbert possessed 




a profound knowledge of English law com- 
bined with a strong logical faculty and re- 
markable power of lucid exposition His 
earliest and greatest work, ' La Graunde 
Abridgement,' first printed in 1514, is a digest 
of the year-books arranged under appropriate 
titles in alphabetical order ; it is also more 
than this, as some cases are there mentioned 
which are not to be found in the year-books, 
but which have nevertheless been accepted 
as authorities in the courts. Coke (Rep. PL 
pref.) describes it as ' painfully and elaborately 
collected,' and it has always borne a very 
high character for accuracy. It was the prin- 
cipal source from which Sir William Staun- 
forde [q. v.] derived the material for his ' Ex- 
position of the King's Prerogative,' London, 
1557, 4to, and is frequently cited by Richard 
Bellew [q. v.] in * Les Ans du Roy Richard 
le Second.' Besides the first edition, which 
seems to have been printed by Pinson, an 
edition appeared in 1516, of which fine speci- 
mens are preserved in the British Museum 
and Lincoln's Inn. The work is without 
printer's name or any indication of the place 
of publication, but is usually ascribed toWyn- 
kyn de Worde, whose frontispiece is found in 
the second and third volumes. A summary by 
John Rastell, entitled ' Tabula libri magni ab- 
breviamenti librorum legum Anglorum,'was 
published in London in 1517, fol.; reprinted 
under a French title in 1567, 4to. The ori- 
ginal work was reprinted by Tottel in 1565, 
and again in 1573, 1577, and 1786, fol. Though 
not absolutely the earliest work of the kind, 
for Statham's abridgment seems to have had 
slightly the start of it, Fitzherbert's was em- 
phatically the ' grand abridgment,' the first 
serious attempt to reduce the entire law to 
systematic shape. As such it served as a 
model to later writers, such as Sir Robert 
Broke or Brooke [q. v.], whose ' Graunde 
Abridgement ' is indeed merely a revision of 
Fitzherbert's with additional cases, and Henry 
Rolle [q. v.], chief justice of the king's bench 
in 1048, whose ' Abridgement des Plusieurs 
Cases et Resolutions del commun Ley,' pub- 
lished 1668, was designed rather as a supple- 
ment to Fitzherbert and Brooke than as an 
exhaustive work (Preface, 4). Two works 
addressed to the landed interest are also at- 
tributed to Fitzherbert, viz. : (1) ' The Boke 
of Husbandrie,' London (Berthelet), 1523, 
1532, 1534, 1548, 8vo ; (Walle) 1555, 8vo ; 
(Marshe) 1560, 8vo ; (Awdeley) 1562, 16mo ; 
(White) 1598, 4to. (2) ' The Boke of Sur- 
vey inge and Improvements,' London (Berthe- 
let), 1523, 1539, 1546, 1567, 8vo ; (Marshe) 
1587, 16mo. ' The Boke of Husbandrie ' is a 
manual for the farmer of the most practical 
kind. 'The Boke of Surveyinge and Im- 

provements ' is an exposition of the law re- 
lating to manors as regards the relation of 
landlord and tenant, with observations on 
their respective moral rights and duties and 
the best ways of developing an estate. It 
purports to be based on the statute ' Extenta 
Manerii,' now classed as of uncertain date, 
but formerly referred to the fourth year of 
Edward I. This is important, because we 
know that Fitzherbert selected that statute 
as the subject of his reading at Gray's Inn. 
This book is therefore in all probability an 
expansion of the reading. The authenticity 
of the ' Boke of Husbandrie ' has been called 
in question, and Sir Anthony's brother John 
has been suggested as its probable author on 
two grounds : (1) That Fitzherbert's profes- 
sional engagements would not permit of his 
acquiring the forty years' experience of agri- 
culture which the author claims to possess ; 
(2) that the author is described in the printer's 
note, not as Sir Anthony, but as Master Fitz- 
herbarde. The latter argument applies equally 
to the ' Boke of Surveyinge,' which is also 
stated to be the work of Master Fitzherbarde. 
In the prologue to the latter treatise, how- 
ever, the author distinctly claims the ' Boke 
of Husbandrie ' as his own work. He says 
that he has 'of late by experience' 'contrived, 
compiled, and made a treatise ' for the benefit of 
the* poor farmers and tenants and called it the 
book of husbandry.' There seems no reason 
to doubt that this claim was honestly made. 
The argument from the designation ' Master ' 
is of no real weight. A clause in Arch- 
bishop W r arham's will (1530) provides that 
all disputes as to the meaning of any of its 
provisions shall be referred to the decision 
of ' Magistri FitzHerbert unius justiciarii, &c.' 
( Wills from Doctors' Commons, Camd. Soc. 

?. 25), and Cromwell, writing to Norfolk on 
5 July 1535, refers to Fitzherbert as ' Mr. 
FitzHerberd.' Even less substantial, if pos- 
sible, is the argument from the claim of forty 
years' experience put forward by the author. 
Considering how much of the legal year con- 
sists of vacation, and how comparatively light 
the pressure of legal business was until re- 
cent times, there is nothing startling, much 
less incredible, in the supposition that Fitz- 
herbert during forty years found leisure to 
exercise such general supervision over his 
farm-bailiffs as would entitle him to say that 
he had had practical experience of agriculture 
during that period. 

Other works by Fitzherbert are the fol- 
lowing: 1. 'La Novelle Natura Brevium,' 
a manual of procedure described by Coke 
(Reports, pt. x. pref.) as an ' exact work ex- 
quisitely penned,' London, 1534, 1537 ; (Tot- 
tell), 1553 8vo, 1557 16mo, 1567 8vo, 1576 




fol., 1567,1581, 1588,1598,1609, 1660, 8vo; 
another edition in 4to appeared in 1635, an 
English translation in 1652 (reprinted 1666), 
8vo. The translation (with marginalia by Sir 
"Wadham Wyndham, justice, and a commen- 
tary by Sir Matthew Hale, chief justice of the 
king's bench, 1660) was republished in 1635, 
1652, 1718, 1730, 1755, 4to, and 1794, 8vo. 

2. 'L'Office et Auctoritie de Justices de Peace,' 
apparently first published by Tottell in the 
original French in 1583, 8vo, with additions, 
by R. Crompton, republished in 1593, 1606, 
and 1617, 4to. An English translation had, 
however, appeared in 1538, 8vo, which was 
frequently reprinted under the title of l The 
Newe Booke of Justices of Peas made by 
A.F.Judge, lately translated out of Frenche 
into English.' The last edition of the trans- 
lation seems to have appeared in 1594. 

3. 'L'Office de Viconts Bailiffes, Escheators, 
Constables, Coroners,' London, 1538. This 
treatise was translated and published in the 
same volume with the translation of the 
work on justices of the peace, in 1547, 12mo. 
The original was also republished along with 
the original of the latter work, by R. Cromp- 
ton, in 1583. 4 ' A Treatise on the Diver- 
sity of Courts,' a translation of which was 
annexed by W. Hughes to his translation 
of Andrew Home's 'Mirrour of Justices,' 
London, 1646, 12mo. 5. ' The Reading on 
the Stat. Extenta Manerii,' printed by Ber- 
thelet in 1539. 

[Bale's Script. Illustr. Maj. Brit. (Basel, 1557), 
p. 710; Pits, De Rebus Anglicis (Paris, 1619), 
p. 707 ; Fuller's "Worthies (Derbyshire) ; Wood's 
Athenae Oxon. (Bliss), i. 110 ; Biog. Brit. ; Foss's 
Lives of the Judges ; Bridgman's Legal Biblio- 
graphy; Ames's Typogr. Antiq. (Dibdin), ii. 210, 
455, 506-8, iii. 287 ., 305 ., 328, 332, iv. 424, 
431, 437, 446, 451, 534, 566; Marvin's Legal 
Bibliogr. ; Brit. Mus. Cat. ; Nichols's Leicester- 
shire, iv. pt. ii. 853 ; Notes and Queries, 6th ser. 
ii. 392, iii. 196, iv. 467.] J. M. K. 

(1756-1837), wife of George IV, born in 
July 1756, was the youngest daughter of 
Walter Smythe, esq., of Brambridge, Hamp- 
shire, second son of Mr. John Smythe of 
Acton Burnell, Shropshire. Little is known 
of her childhood beyond the fact that she 
visited Paris, and was taken to see Louis XV 
at dinner. When the king pulled a chicken 
to pieces with his fingers she burst out laugh- 
ing, upon which his majesty presented her 
with a box of sugar-plums. She married in 
1775 Edward Weld, esq., of Fulworth Castle, 
Dorsetshire, who died in the same year. In 
1778 his widow married Thomas Fitzherhert 
of Swynnerton in Staffordshire, by whom she 
was left a widow a second time in 1781. 

Mrs. Fitzherbert, with a jointure of 2,000/. a 
year, now took up her abode at Richmond, 
where she soon became the centre of an ad- 
miring circle. In 1785 she first saw the 
Prince of Wales (born 1762). He fell, or 
thought he fell, desperately in love with 
her at first sight, and on one occasion pre- 
tended to stab himself in despair. On this- 
occasion she was induced to visit him at 
Carlton House in company with the Duchess 
of Devonshire, but soon after went abroad 
to escape further solicitations. After re- 
maining sometime in Holland and Germany, 
she received an offer of marriage from the- 
prince, which she is said to have accepted 
with reluctance. They were married on 
21 Dec. 1785 in her own drawing-room, by a 
clergyman of the church of England, and in 
the presence of her brother, Mr. John Smythe, 
and her uncle, Mr. Errington. By the Mar- 
riage Act of 1772 every marriage contracted 
by a member of the royal family under twenty- 
five years of age without the king's consent 
was invalid ; and by the Act of Settlement 
if the heir-apparent married a Roman catho- 
lic he forfeited his right to the crown. It- 
was argued, however, that a man could not 
be said to marry when he merely went through 
a ceremony which he knew to be invalid. 
According to one account, repeated by Lord 
Holland in his ' Memoirs of the Whig Party/ 
Mrs. Fitzherbert took the same view, said the 
marriage was all nonsense, and knew well 
enough that she was about to become the 
prince's mistress. The story is discredited 
by her well-known character, by the footing 
on which she was always received by other 
members of the royal family, and by the fact 
that, even after the marriage of the prince 
regent with Caroline of Brunswick, she was- 
advised by her own church (Roman catholic) 
that she might lawfully live with him. Nobody 
seems to have thought the worse of her ; she 
was received in the best society, and was 
treated by the prince at all events as if she 
was his wife. 

In April 1787, on the occasion of the prince 
applying to parliament for the payment of his 
debts, Fox, in his place in the House of Com- 
mons, formally denied that any marriage had 
taken place. It is unknown to this day what 
authority he had for this statement. Common 
report asserted that 'a slip of paper' had 
passed between the prince and his friend ; and 
Lord Stanhope, in his ' History of England/ 
declares his unhesitating belief that Fox had 
the best reasons for supposing the state- 
ment to be true. The prince himself, how- 
ever, affected to be highly indignant. The 
next time he saw Mrs. Fitzherbert he went 
up to her with the words, ' What do you 




think, Maria ? Charles declared in the House 
of Commons last night that you and I were 
not man and wife.' As the prince was now 
approaching the age at which he could make 
a legal marriage, the curiosity of parliament 
on the subject is perfectly intelligible. But 
after a lame kind of explanation from Sheri- 
dan, who tried to explain away Fox's state- 
ment, without contradicting it, the subject 
dropped, and the prince and the lady seem to 
have lived happily together till the appear- 
ance of the Princess Caroline [see CAROLINE, 
AMELIA ELIZABETH, 1768-1821]. At the 
trial of Warren Hastings in 1788 Mrs. Fitz- 
herbert, then in the full bloom of womanly 
beauty, attracted more attention than the 
queen or the princesses. On the prince's 
marriage (8 April 1795) to Caroline she 
ceased for a time to live with him. But 
being advised by her confessor, who had re- 
ceived his instructions from Eome, that she 
might do so without blame, she returned to 
him ; and oddly enough gave a public break- 
fast to all the fashionable world to celebrate 
the event. She and the prince were in con- 
stant pecuniary difficulties, and once on their 
return from Brighton to London they had not 
money enough to pay for the post-horses, and 
were obliged to borrow of an old servant, yet 
these, she used to say, were the happiest years 
of her life. As years passed on, however, the 
prince appears to have fallen 'under other 
influences ; and at last at a dinner given to 
Louis XVIII at Carlton House, in or about 
1803, she received an affront which she could 
not overlook, and parted from the prince for 
ever. She was told that she had no fixed 
place at the dinner-table, and must sit ' ac- 
cording to her rank,' that is as plain Mrs. 
Fitzherbert. She was not perhaps sorry for 
the excuse to break off a connection which 
the prince's new ties had already made irk- 
some to her ; and resisting all further impor- 
tunities she retired from court on an annuity 
of 6,000/. a year, which, as she had no chil- 
dren, was perhaps a sufficient maintenance. 
She was probably the only woman to whom 
George IV was ever sincerely attached. He 
inquired for her in his last illness, and he 
died with her portrait round his neck. 

Mrs. Fitzherbert survived him seven years, 
dying at Brighton on 29 March 1837. From 
George III and Queen Charlotte, the Duke of 
York, William IV, and Queen Adelaide she 
had always experienced the greatest kind- 
ness and attention, and seems never to have 
been made to feel sensible of her equivocal 
position. The true facts of the case were long 
unknown to the public. 

[In 1833 a box of papers was deposited with 
Messrs. Coutts, under the seals of the Duke of 

Wellington, Lord Albemarle, and a near connec- 
tion of Mrs. Fitzherbert, Lord Stourton. Among 
other documents the box contained the marriage 
certificate, and a memorandum written by Mrs. 
Fitzherbert, attached to a letter written by the 
clergyman by whom the ceremony was per- 
formed, from which, however, she herself had 
torn off the signature, for fear it should com- 
promise him. At her death she left full powers- 
with her executors to use these papers as they 
pleased for the vindication of her own character. 
And on Lord Stourton's death in 1846 he as- 
signed all his interest in and authority over 
them to his brother, the Hon. Charles Langdale, 
with a narrative drawn up by himself, from 
which all that we know of her is derived. On 
the appearance of Lord Holland's Memoirs of 
the Whig Party in 1854, containing statements 
very injurious to Mrs. Fitzherbert's reputation, 
Mr. Langdale was anxious to avail himself of 
the contents of the sealed box. But the surviving 
trustees being unwilling to have the seals broken, 
and thinking it better to let the whole story be 
forgotten, Mr. Langdale made use of the narra- 
tive entrusted to him to compose a Life of Mrs. 
Fitzherbert, which was published in London early 
in 1856, and is so far our only authority for 
the facts above stated. In an article in the 
Quarterly Review in 1854 a hope was expressed 
that the contents of the box will soon be given 
to the public ; but it has not at present been ful- 
filled.] T. E. K 

1612), secretary to Cardinal Allen, second son 
of John Fitzherbert of Padley, Derbyshire, by 
the daughter of Edward Fleetwood of Vache, 
was grandson of Sir Anthony Fitzherbert 
[q. v/j, and first cousin to Thomas Fitzher- 
bert [q. v.], the Jesuit. He became a student 
in Exeter College, Oxford, and was ' exhibited 
to by Sir Will. Petre, about 1568, but what 
continuance he made there,' says Wood, i I 
know not.' His name appears in the matri- 
culation register as a member of Exeter Col- 
lege in 1571 and 1572, he being then the 
senior undergraduate of that college. About 
that time he went abroad in order that he 
might freely profess the catholic religion. 
He matriculated in the university of Douay 
during the rectorship of George Prielius 
(Douay Diaries, p. 275). He studied the 
civil law at Bologna, where he was residing 
in 1580. During his absence from England 
he was attainted of treason, 1 Jan. 1580, on 
account of his zeal for the catholic cause, and 
especially for his activity in raising funds for 
the English College at Rheims. Afterwards 
he settled in Rome, and received from Pope 
Gregory XIII an allowance of ten golden 
scudi a month. When Dr. Allen was raised 
to the purple in 1587, Fitzherbert became his 
secretary, and continued to reside in his house- 




hold till the cardinal's death in 1594. He 
strenuously opposed the policy adopted by 
Father Parsons in reference to English ca- 
tholic affairs. An instance of this is re- 
corded in the diary of Roger Baynes, a for- 
mer secretary to Cardinal Allen : ' Father 
Parsons returned from Naples to Home, 
S Oct. 1598. All the English in Rome came 
to the College to hear his reasons against Mr. 
Nicholas Fitzherbert,' 

He never could be induced to take orders. 
When a proposal was made to the see of 
Rome in 1607 to send a bishop to England, 
Fitzherbert was mentioned by Father Augus- 
tine, prior of the English monks at Douay, 
as a person worthy of a mitre. Fitzherbert, 
however, deemed himself unworthy even of 
the lowest ecclesiastical orders (DoDD, Church 
Hist. ii. 159). While on a journey to Rome 
he was accidentally drowned in an attempt 
to ford a brook called La Pesa, a few miles 
south of Florence, on 6 Nov. 1612. He was 
buried in the Benedictine abbey at Florence. 

His works are: 1. ' loannis Casse Gala- 
thaevs, sive de Moribus, Liber Italicvs. A 
Nicolao Fierberto Anglo-Latine expressvs,' 
Rome, 1595, 8vo. Dedicated to Didacus de 
Campo, chamberlain to Clement VIII. Re- 
printed, together with the original Tuscan 
'Trattato . . . cognominato Galateo ovvero 
de' Costumi, colla Traduzione Latina a fronte 
di Niccolo Fierberto,' Padua, 1728, 8vo. 
2. l Oxoniensis in Anglia Academiae De- 
scriptio,' Rome, 1602, 8vo, dedicated to Ber- 
nardinus Paulinus, datary to Clement VIII. 
Reprinted by Thomas Hearne in vol. ix. of 
Leland's < Itinerary,' 1712. 3. ' De Anti^ui- 
tate & Continuatione Catholicse Religionis in 
Anglia, & de Alani cardinalis vita libellus,' 
Rome, 1608 and 1638, 8vo, dedicated to Pope 
Paul V. The biography was reprinted at 
Antwerp, 1621, 8vo, and in Knox's ' Letters 
and Memorials of Cardinal Allen,' 1882, pp. 

[Biog. Brit. iii. 1941 ; Boase's Eegister of 
Exeter Coll. pp. 185, 208, 223 ; Dodd's Church 
Hist. ii. 158; Foley's Records, ii. 229, 230; 
Knox's Letters and Memorials of Card. Allen, 
pp. 3, 190,201, 375, 465; Oliver's Jesuit Collec- 
tions, p. 93 ; Pits, De Scriptoribus Anglise, p. 814 ; 
Wood's Athense Oxon. (Bliss), vol. ii.] T. C. 

1640), Jesuit, was the eldest son and heir of 
William Fitzherbert, esq., of Swynnerton, 
Staffordshire, by Isabella, second 'daughter 
and coheiress of Humphrey Swynnerton, esq., 
of Swynnerton. He was a grandson of Sir 
Anthony Fitzherbert [q. v.], justice of the 
common pleas. Born at Swynnerton in 1552, 
he was sent either to Exeter or to Lincoln 
College, Oxford, in 1568. Having openly de- 

fended the catholic faith, he was obliged to live 
in concealment for two years, and being at last 
seized in 1572 he was imprisoned for recusancy. 
After his release he found it prudent to remove 
to London, where he was an active member 
of the association of young men founded by 
George Gilbert in 1580 for the assistance of 
the Jesuits Parsons and Campion. In that 
year he married Dorothy, the only daughter 
of Edward East, esq., of Bledlow, Bucking- 
hamshire. He retired with his wife to France 
in 1582. There he was * a zealous solicitor' 
in the cause of Mary Queen of Scots. After 
the death of his wife, in 1588, he went to 
Spain, where, on the recommendation of the 
Duke of Feria, he received a pension from 
the king. His name is repeatedly mentioned 
in the letters and reports preserved among 
our State Papers. When on a visit to Brussels 
in 1595 he was charged before the state of 
Flanders with holding a correspondence with 
the English secretary of state, and with a de- 
sign to set fire to the magazine at Mechlin, 
but was extricated by the Duke of Feria. 
In 1598 Fitzherbert and Father Richard Wai- 
pole were charged with conspiring to poison 
Queen Elizabeth. For this plot Edward Squire 
was condemned and executed. 

After a brief stay at Milan in the service of 
the Duke of Feria, Fitzherbert proceeded to 
Rome, where he was ordained priest 24 March 
1601-2. For twelve years he acted as agent 
at Rome for the English clergy. In 1606 he 
made a private vow to enter the Society of 
Jesus. In 1607, when the court of Rome 
had some thoughts of sending a bishop to 
England, Fitzherbert was on the list, with 
three other candidates. He resigned the 
office of agent for the clergy in consequence 
of the remonstrance of the archpriest George 
Birkhead [q. v.] and the rest of the body, 
who appointed Dr. Richard Smith, bishop of 
Chalcedon, to take his place. Dodd says 
' they were induced to it by a jealousy of 
some long standing. They had discovered 
that Fitzherbert had constantly consulted 
Father Parsons and the Jesuits in all matters 
relating to the clergy, and that, too, contrary 
to the express order lately directed to the 
archpriest from Rome.' 

In 1613 he carried into effect his vow to 
enter the order of Jesuits, and in 1616 was 
appointed superior of the English mission at 
Brussels, an office which he filled for two 
years. In 1618 he succeeded Father Thomas 
Owen as rector of the English College at 
Rome, and governed that establishment till 
March 1639, when he was succeeded by Father 
Thomas Leeds, alias Courtney. He died in 
the college on 7 Aug. (O.S.) 1640, and was 
buried in the chapel. 




Wood says : l He was a person of excellent 
parts, had a great command of his tongue and 
pen, was a noted politician, a singular lover 
of his countrymen, especially those who were 
catholics, and of so graceful behaviour and 
generous spirit that great endeavours were 
used to have him created a cardinal some 
years after Allen's death, and it might have 
been easily effected, had he not stood in his 
own way.' 

His portrait was formerly in the English 
College at Rome, and a copy of it by Munch 
was in the sacristy at Wardour Castle. 

His works are: 1. 'A Defence of the Ca- 
tholycke Cause, contayning a Treatise of 
sundry Untruthes and Slanders published by 
the heretics, . . . by T. F. With an Apology of 
his innocence in a fayned Conspiracy against 
her Majesty's person, for the which one Ed- 
ward Squyre was wrongfully condemned and 
executed in November 1598,' St. Omer, 1602, 
8vo. 2. ' A Treatise concerning Policy and 
Religion, wherein the infirmitie of humane 
wit is amply declared, . . . finally proving 
that the Catholique Roman Religion only doth 
make a happy Commonwealth,' 2 vols. or 
parts, Douay, 1606-10, 4to, and 1615, 4to ; 
3rd edit. London, 1696, 8vo. The work is 
dedicated to the author's son, Edward Fitz- 
herbert, who died on 25 Nov. 1612. Wood 
says that a third part was published at Lon- 
don in 1652, 4to. 3. 'An sit Utilitas in 
Scelere : vel de Infelicitate Principis Mac- 
chiavelliani, contra Macchiavellum et poli- 
ticos ems sectatores,' Rome, 1610 and 1630, 
8vo. This and the preceding work were 
most favourably received both by catholics 
and protestants. 4. A long preface to Father 
Parson's ' Discussion of the Answer of M. 
William Barlow, D.D., to the book entitled 
" The Judgment of a Catholick Englishman 
concerning the Oath of Allegiance," ' 1612. 
6. ' A Supplement to the Discussion of M. D. 
Barlow's Answer to the Judgment of a 
Catholike Englishman,' &c., St. Omer, 1613, 
4to, published under the initials F. T. 6. 'A 
Confutation of certaine Absurdities, Falsi- 
ties, and Follies, uttered by M. D. Andrews 
in his Answer to Cardinall Bellarmine's Apo- 
logy,' St. Omer, 1613, 4to, also published 
under the initials F. T. Samuel Collins, D.D., 
replied to it in ' Epphata, to F. T., or a De- 
fence of the Bishop of Ely [Lancelot An- 
drewes] concerning his Answer to Cardinal 
Bellarmine's Apology against the calumnies 
of a scandalous pamphlet,' Cambridge, 1617, 
4to. 7. < Of the Oath of Fidelity or Allegiance 
against the Theological Disputations of Roger 
Widdrington,' St. Omer, 1614, '4to. Wid- 
drington (vere Thomas Preston) published 
two replies to this work. 8. ' The Obmutesce 

of F. T. to the Epphata of D. Collins ; or, 
the Reply of F. T. to Dr. Collins his Defence- 
of my Lord of Winchester's [Lancelot An- 
drewes] Answere to Cardinal Bellarmine's 
Apology,' St. Omer, 1621, 8vo. 9. < Life of 
St. Francis Xavier,' Paris, 1632, 4to, trans- 
lated from the Latin of Horatius Tursellinus. 

[Addit. MS. 5815, if. 212, 213 b; Dr. John 
Campbell, in Biog. Brit. ; Catholic Spectator 
(1824), i. 171 ; Constable's Specimens of Amend- 
ments to Dodd's Church Hist. pp. 202-12; De 
Backer's Bibl. des ficrivains de la Compagnie 
de Jesus; Dodd's Church Hist, ii. 410,491-6, 
iii. 77 ; Erdeswick's Survey of Staffordshire, 
p. 110; Foley's Eecords, ii. 198-233, vi. 762, 
vii. 258 ; Gage's English- American, p. 208 ; 
Grillow's Bibl. Diet, ; Intrigues of Romish Exiles, 
pp. 31, 35; Morus, Hist. Missionis Anglic. Soc. 
Jesu, p. 235 ; Morris's Condition of Catholics 
under James I, p. ccxlii ; Oliver's Jesuit Collec- 
tions, p. 92 ; Panzani's Memoirs, pp. 82, 83 ; 
Pits, De Anglise Scriptoribus, p. 813 ; Southwell's 
Bibl. Scriptorum Soc. Jesu, p. 762 ; Calendars of 
State Papers ; Wadsworth's English-Spanish 
Pilgrim, p. 65 ; Wood's Athene Oxon. (Bliss), 
ii. 662.] T. C. 

archbishop of York and Saint, is also called 
sometimes William of Thwayt (Chron. de 
Melsa, i. 114, Rolls Ser.) and most commonly 
SAINT WILLIAM OF YOEK. He was of noble 
birth (WILLIAM OF NEWBUKGH, i. 55, Rolls 
Ser.), and brought up in luxury (JOHN OF 
HEXHAM, c. 274, in TWYSDEN), but of his 
father Herbert very little is certainly known. 
John of Hexham calls him Herbert of Win- 
chester, and says that he had been treasurer 
of Henry I. Hugh the Chanter (in RAINE, 
Historians of the Church of York, ii. 223) 
says Herbert was also chamberlain. Thomas 
Stubbs (ib. p. 390) calls him the ' very- 
strenuous Count Herbert,' and says that his 
wife was Emma, the sister of King Stephen. 
But of her nothing else is known (FKEEMAsr,, 
Norman Conquest, v. 315), and her very exist- 
ence depends on the trustworthiness of a 
late authority. John of Hexham mentions 
that William was a kinsman of Roger, king 
of Sicily, but it is suspicious that no con- 
temporary writer, even when speaking i 
some detail of William's dealings with Ste- 
phen and his brother Henry of Winchester, 
says a word of his relationship to the king. 
One nephew of Stephen was almost elected 
archbishop before him. Another nephew of 
Stephen succeeded him as treasurer of York.. 
It is hardly probable that William was a 
nephew of Stephen also. 

Many of William's kinsfolk lived in York- 
shire, and his elder brother Herbert held' 
lands there, to which he apparently suc- 
ceeded about 1140. William himself probably 




became treasurer and canon of York before 
1130, at latest before 1138 (DUGDALE, Man- 
asticon, iv. 323-4, ed. Caley, c.) In that 
capacity lie accompanied Archbishop Thurs- 
tan on his visitation of St. Mary's Abbey, 
and witnessed his charter of foundation of 
Fountains Abbey (WALBRAN, Memorials of 
Fountains, i. 157). He also joined his brother 
Herbert in conferring benefactions on the 
Austin Priory of Nostell (Rot. 6%ar.p.215). 
Stephen made him one of his chaplains, and 
granted him certain churches in the north 
which he had hitherto held of his brother in 
fee (Monasticon, vi. 1196). 

On the death of Archbishop Thurstan (Fe- 
bruary 1140) there were great disputes in the 
chapter as to the choice of his successor. 
"When the election of Henry de Coilli, King 
Stephen's nephew, had been determined upon, 
it was rendered ineffective by his refusal to 
comply with the papal request to resign the 
abbey of Fecamp on accepting the arch- 
bishopric. At last, in January 1142, the 
majority agreed to elect as their archbishop 
"William the treasurer. Their choice was, 
however, hardly unfettered ; for King Ste- 
phen strongly pressed for his election, and 
the presence of William, earl of Albemarle, 
in the chapter-house to promote it doubt- 
less stimulated their zeal ( JOHN OF HEXHAM, 
c. 268 ; cf. GEKVASE, Op. Histor. i. 123, Rolls 
Ser.) A minority persisted in voting for the 
strict Cistercian, Henry Murdac of Fountains 
(HovEDEtf, i. 198, Rolls Ser.), and the whole 
of that famous order believed that bribes of 
the treasurer had supplemented the com- 
mands of the king. The archdeacon of York, 
Osbert, called Walter of London in John of 
Hexham and in the l Additions to Hugh the 
Chanter ' (RAIKE, Historians of York, ii. 
221), and other archdeacons hurried to the 
king to complain of the election. They were 
seized by Albemarle on their way and confined 
in his castle of Bytham, Lincolnshire. Wil- 
liam meanwhile was well received by Stephen 
at Lincoln, and there received the restitution 
of his temporalities. But he was unable to 
obtain consecration from Archbishop Theo- 
bald, and Henry, bishop of Winchester, the 
legate, Stephen's brother, who was his friend, 
could only direct him to go to Rome, where 
Richard, abbot of Fountains, William, abbot 
of Rievaulx, and his other enemies had already 
appealed against his election as tainted by 
simony and royal influence. A strong letter 
of St. Bernard to Innocent II (S. BEKSTAKDI, 
Omnia Opera, i. 316, ed. Mabillon; also 
printed in WALBRAX, pp. 80-1), to the pope 
that he had made, showed that the whole 
influence of the Cistercian order was to be 
directed against William. For a time Inno- 

cent hesitated, but at last, in Lent 1143, he 
decided that William might be consecrated 
if William, dean of York, would swear that 
the chapter received no royal commands from 
Albemarle, and if the archbishop elect would 
clear himself on oath from the charge of 
bribery. These points were to be ascertained 
in England, whither William arrived in Sep- 
tember. The Dean of York, who had in the 
meanwhile been made bishop of Durham, 
was unable to attend in person the council 
at Winchester, where the case was to be 
settled ; but his agents gave the necessary 
assurances, and William's innocence was so 
clearly established that all clamoured for his 
consecration. On 26 Sept. the legate Henry 
himself consecrated William in his own 
cathedral at Winchester (Additions to Hugh 
the Chanter, p. 222). 

William now ruled at York in peace, and 
St. Bernard could only exhort the abbot of 
Rievaulx to bear with equanimity the triumph 
of his foe (Epistolce, cccliii. and ccclx. in 
Opera, i. 556, 561, ed. Migne). Meanwhile 
William busied himself in drawing up con- 
stitutions that prohibited the profane use of 
the trees and grass in churchyards, and pre- 
vented clerks turning the money received for 
dilapidations from the heirs of their prede- 
cessors to their own personal uses (WiLKiNS, 
Concilia, i. 425-6). On a visit to Durham 
William succeeded in reconciling the turbu- 
lent William Comyn with Bishop William 
his old friend. On the same day he en- 
throned the former dean of York as bishop 
in Durham Cathedral, and absolved Comyn 
from his sins against the church (SYMBOL, 
Hist. Eccl. Dunelm. pp. 283-4, 292; also 
Anglia Sacra, i. 717). 

Though popular from his extraordinary 
kindness and gentleness, William was of a 
sluggish temperament. When in 1146 the 
cardinal bishop Hincmar arrived in England 
on a mission from the new pope, Lucius II, 
he brought with him the pallium for the 
new archbishop. Occupied, as was his wont, 
on other matters of less necessity (JOHN OP 
HEXHAM, c. 274),William neglected to obtain 
it from Hincmar at an early opportunity. 
Before long Lucius died. The new pope, 
Eugenius III, was a violent Cistercian and 
the slave of St. Bernard. The enemies of 
William took advantage of his accession 
to renew their complaints against William. 
Hincmar took his pall back again to Rome. 
Bernard plied Eugenius with new letters. 
Henry Murdac, who was now, through Ber- 
nard's influence, abbot of Fountains, led the 
attack. In 1147 William was compelled to 
undertake a fresh journey to Rome to seek 
for the pallium. To pay his expenses he was 



compelled to sell the treasures and privileges 
of the church of York (ib. c. 279), and this 
of course became a new source of complaint 
against him. Yet even now most of the car- 
dinals were in his favour, and Eugenius was 
much distracted between the advice of his 
* senate ' and the commands of the abbot of 
Clairvaux. At last he found a pretext against 
William in the fact that William of Durham 
had not personally taken the pledges required 
by Pope Innocent. Until this was done he 
suspended William from his archiepiscopal 

Disgusted at his condemnation on a second 
trial for offences for which he had been 
already acquitted, William left Rome and 
found a refuge with his kinsman Roger the 
Norman, king of Sicily. He was entertained 
there by Robert of Salisbury (or Selby), the 
English chancellor of King Roger. Mean- 
while his relatives and partisans in Yorkshire 
had revenged his wrongs by burning and 
plundering Fountains Abbey, the centre of 
the Cistercian opposition to him (WALBRAST, 
p. 101). This indiscreet violence added a 
new point to the passionate appeals of Ber- 
nard. In 1147 Murdac and the rest again 
appeared against William at a council held 
by Eugenius at Rheims. There, as the Bishop 
of Durham had omitted to purge the arch- 
bishop on his oath (Chron. de Mailros, s. a. 
Bannatyne Club), Eugenius finally deposed 
him from his see. The chapter were directed 
to proceed within forty days to a new elec- 
tion. As they could not agree on any one 
choice, Eugenius cut the matter short by 
consecrating at Trier Henry Murdac himself 
as archbishop of York (7 Dec. 1147). But 
such was William's popularity that Murdac 
obtained scanty recognition in Yorkshire, 
where king and people continued to maltreat 
his followers (Additions to Hugh the Chanter, 
p. 225). 

William showed great resignation to his 
fate. His staunch friend Henry of Win- 
chester gave him an asylum in his palace, 
and treated him with all the respect due to 
an archbishop. William made no complaints 
of his harsh treatment. He occupied himself 
in prayer and study. He renounced his 
former habits of luxury. As often as he 
could escape from the hospitable entertain- 
ment of Bishop Henry, he spent his days with 
the monks of Winchester, whose sanctity 
specially attracted him to eat and drink at 
their frugal table and sleep with them in 
their common dormitory (Ann. de Winton in 
Ann. Mon. ii. 54). He remained at Winchester 
until the death of Bernard and Eugenius in 
1153 again excited hopes in him of restitu- 
tion. He again hurried to Rome, where, 

without reflecting on the judgment passed 
against him, he besought the new pope, 
Anastasius IV, to show him mercy. His 
friend, if not kinsman, Hugh of Puiset, who 
was also seeking at Rome his recognition as 
bishop of Durham, did his best to support 
William's requests. The famous Cardinal 
Gregory warmly espoused his cause. The 
death of Archbishop Murdac, on 14 Oct. 
1153, made it easy for Anastasius to accede 
to William's prayers. Without questioning 
the legitimacy of Murdac's rule or reopening 
the suits decided against William, Anastasius 
was persuaded to pity his grey hairs and mis- 
fortunes. William was restored to the arch- 
bishopric, and for the first time received the 

William now returned to England. Pass- 
ing through Canterbury he is said to have 
designated the archdeacon Roger as his suc- 
cessor as archbishop. He next proceeded to 
Winchester, and celebrated the Easter feast 
of 1154 in the city where he had resided 
when young, and which had -afforded him a 
refuge in his troubles. Thence he turned 
his course towards his diocese. As he ap- 
proached York the new dean and his old 
enemy, Archdeacon Osbert, endeavoured to 
prevent his entrance into the city by declar- 
ing their intention of appealing against his 
appointment. But William proceeded on his 
way undismayed by their hostility. A great 
procession of clergy and laity welcomed him 
into the town. The wooden bridge over the 
Ouse gave way under the pressure of the 
crowd, and many were precipitated into the 
river ; but the prayers of William saved, as 
men thought, the lives of every one of them. 
In after years a chapel dedicated to William 
was erected on the stone bridge now thrown 
over the river to commemorate so signal a 
miracle. He entered York on 9 May. 

For the next month William ruled his 
church in peace, though the appeal of the 
chapter to Archbishop Theobald was fraught 
with fresh mischief. But William was no 
longer the worldling whose wealth and laxity 
had excited the suspicions of Cistercian zealots. 
With great humility he visited Fountains 
and promised full restitution for the injuries 
his partisans had inflicted upon the abbey. 
The official chroniclers of the abbey had in 
after times nothing to say against one who 
could make so complete a reparation ( WAL- 
BRAN, i. 80). He also visited the new Cis- 
tercian foundation at Meaux, Yorkshire, and 
in its chapter-house solemnly confirmed the 
grants of Archbishop Murdac to the struggling 
community ( Chron. de Melsa, i. 94, 108). On 
Trinity Sunday he was back at York, and 
when celebrating high mass in his cathedral 




I f^o 

on that festival was seized with a sudden 
illness. He struggled through the service 
and even appeared afterwards among the 
guests assembled in his house. But he felt 
that his end was near. Poison was at once 
suspected, and antidotes were administered. 
But he died on 8 June, eight days after 
his seizure, and Bishop Hugh of Durham 
buried his body in York Minster. 

Faction had risen to such a height at York 
that a circumstantial story soon gained cre- 
dence among William's friends that Osbert 
the archdeacon had caused his death by 
poisoning the eucharistic chalice. A clerk 
of William's, named Symphorian, accused 
Osbert of the crime, in the presence of King 
Stephen, and long judicial proceedings ensued. 
Though the matter seems never to have been 
brought to a definite issue, so acute an ob- 
server as John of Salisbury was not satisfied 
of Osbert's innocence (Ep. i. 158, 170, ed. 
Giles). "William of Newburgh (i. 80-1), 
the most critical historian of the time, was, 
however, convinced by the absence of positive 
testimony, and the witness of an old monk 
of Rievaulx, then a canon of York, that 
William died of a fever. Gilbert Foliot 
{Ep. i. 152, ed. Giles) was indignant at the 
baselessness of the accusations against Osbert, 
but the true issue became rather obscured by 
clerical opposition to the desire of Stephen, 
and of the accuser, that the case should be 
tried in the royal court. The two biographers 
of William omit all reference to the story, 
and the writers who mention it generally 

Sualify it as a rumour or gossip. Yet before 
Dng the misfortunes and sufferings of Wil- 
liam brought worshippers to his tomb. He 
began to be reputed a martyr, and miracles 
were worked by him. It was believed that 
when the old minster was almost burnt down 
and the tomb burst open by the falling beam 
the silken robe which enveloped the saint's 
incorruptible body was not consumed (Vita 
S. Will, in RAINE, ii. 279). The canons of 
York, who envied the local saints of Ripon 
and Beverley, were anxious for a saint of their 
own, and a movement was started for the 
canonisation of William. In 1223 holy oil 
exuded from his tomb (MATT. PARIS, Hist. 
Major, iii. 77, Rolls Ser.) A formal petition 
to Honorius III led to the usual investiga- 
tions of his claims to sanctity (WALBEAN, i. 
173-5, from Addit. MS. 15352). These, after 
some doubt, were so well established that in 
1227 Honorius admitted him to the calendar 
of saints. On 9 Jan. 1283 his remains were 
translated into a shrine behind the high altar, 
through the exertions of Bishop Bek of Dur- 
ham, and in the presence of Edward I and 
a distinguished company (details in RAINE, 

pp. 228-9, from York Breviary). But all the 
efforts of the York chapter could not secure 
for St. William more than a local fame ; and 
his shrine, though not unfrequented, was 
never among the great centres of popular 
pilgrimage and worship. His festival was 
on 8 June, while his translation was com- 
memorated on the Sunday next after the 

[The fullest contemporary sources for Wil- 
liam's life are John of Hexham's Continuation 
of Symeon of Durham, printed in Twysden's 
Decem Scriptores, and William of Newburgh' s 
History, edited for the Rolls Series by Mr. 
Hewlett ; his life in the Actus Pontificum Ebora- 
censium, generally attributed to Thomas Stubbs, 
was published originally in Twysden's Decem 
Scriptores, cc. 1721-2, and is now reprinted by 
Canon Raine in his Historians of the Church of 
York, ii. 388-97. There is a manuscript life of 
Fitzherbert in Harl. MS. 2, if. 76-88, written in 
a thirteenth-century hand, which contains little 
special information. It has been printed for the 
first time by Canon Raine in his Historians of 
the Church of York, ii. 270-91, and the Eight 
Miracles, pp. 531-50. This is abridged in the 
short life in Capgrave's Nova Legenda Anglige, 
pp. 310-11. A few additional facts come from 
the Additions to Hugh the Chanter, in Raine' s- 
Hist. Church of York, ii. 220-7. A full life 
is in the Bollandist Acta Sanctorum, tome ii. 
Junii, pp. 136-46. The modern life in Canon 
Raine's Fasti Eboracenses, pp. 220-33, where two 
hymns, addressed to St. William, are printed, 
collects all the principal facts ; Gervase of Can- 
terbury, Hoveden, Annals of Winchester and 
Waverley in Annales Monastici, vol. ii., Chron. 
de Melsa (all in Rolls Series) ; Walbran's Me- 
morials of Fountains, and Raine's Fabric Rolls 
of York Minster, both published by Surtees 
Society ; Chron. of Melrose (Bannatyne Club) ; 
Epistles of St. Bernard, ed. Migne ; John o'f 
Salisbury and Gilbert Foliot, ed. Migne or 
Giles.] T. F. T. 

1791). [See under FITZHEKBERT, ALLEYNE.] 

freebooter, is first mentioned in 1139. His 
origin is not known, but he is spoken of as a 
kinsman of William of Ypres [q. v.], and as 
one of those Flemish mercenaries who had 
flocked to England at Stephen's call. On 
7 Oct. 1139 he surprised by night the castle 
of Malmesbury, which the king had seized 
from the Bishop of Salisbury a few months 
before, and burnt the village. The royal 
garrison of the castle fled for refuge to the 
abbey, but Robert soon pursued them thither, 
and, entering the chapter-house at the head 
of his followers, demanded that the fugitives 
should be handed over. The terrified monks 
with difficulty induced him to be content 




with the surrender of their horses. He was 
already plundering far and wide, when Ste- 
phen, on his way to attack Trowbridge, heard 
of his deeds, and, turning aside, laid siege to 
the castle. At the close of a week William 
of Ypres prevailed on Robert to surrender, 
and within a fortnight of his surprising the 
eastle he had lost it and had set out to join 
the Earl of Gloucester. 

After five months in the earl's service he 
left him secretly, and on the night of 26 March 
(1140) surprised and captured by escalade 
the famous castle of Devizes, then held for 
the king. The keep resisted for four days, 
but then fell into his hands. On the Earl 
of Gloucester sending his son to receive the 
castle from Robert, he scornfully turned him 
way from the gate, exclaiming that he had 
captured the castle for himself. He now 
boasted that he would be master by its means 
of all the country from Winchester to Lon- 
don, and would send for troops from Flanders. 
Rashly inviting John Fitzgilbert [see MAR- 
SHAL, JOHN], castellan of Marlborough, to 
join him in his schemes, he was decoyed by 
him to Marlborough Castle and there en- 
trapped. The Earl of Gloucester, on hearing 
of this, hastened at once to Marlborough, 
and at length by bribes and promises ob- 
tained possession of Robert. The prisoner 
was then taken to Devizes, and the garrison, 
according to the practice of the time, warned 
that he would be hanged unless they sur- 
rendered the castle. They pleaded the oath 
they had sworn to him that they would never 
do so, and declined. Two of his nephews 
were then hanged, and at last Robert him- 
self. The castle was subsequently sold by 
the garrison to the king. 

This episode is dwelt on at some length 
by the chroniclers, who were greatly im- 
pressed by the savage cruelty, the impious 
blasphemy, and the transcendent wickedness 
of this daring adventurer. 

[Cont. of Florence of Worcester ; William of 
Malmesbury ; Gesta Stephani.] J. H. R. 

FITZHUGH, ROBERT (d. 1436), bi- 
ehop of London, the third of the eight sons 
of Henry, lord Fitzhugh (d. 1424), was edu- 
cated at King's Hall, Cambridge, of which 
he became master, 6 July 1424, and in the 
same year was appointed chancellor of the 
university (LE NEVE, Fasti, iii. 599, 697). 
Before this he had enjoyed a considerable 
number of ecclesiastical benefices, which his 
noble birth and the leading position held 
by his father readily secured for him. In 
1401 he was appointed by the prior and con- 
vent of Canterbury to the rectory of St. 
Leonard's, Eastcheap, which in July 1406 he 


exchanged for a canonry in the cathedral 
church of Lismore, and was subsequently in- 
stalled prebendary of Milton Manor in Lin- 
coln Cathedral, though he had not then been 
admitted to any but the minor orders. In 
1417 he was ordained subdeacon by Bishop 
Fordham of Ely at Downham, and deacon in 
1418, and was made canon of York in the 
same year. The next year, 10 July, he ex- 
changed his prebend of Milton Manor for the 
archdeaconry of Northampton, to which was 
added the prebendal stall of Aylesbury on 
4 Aug. As chancellor of Cambridge he de- 
livered a speech in convocation which we are 
told was much admired for the elegance of 
its latinity. He proposed as a remedy for 
the great decrease of students that the richer 
benefices of the English church should for a 
limited period be bestowed solely on gradu- 
ates of either university. This measure was 
carried into effect by Archbishop Chichele in 
the convocation of 1438 (COOPER, Annals of 
Cambridge, i. 166, 187, 194). Fitzhugh went 
on various diplomatic missions to Germany 
and elsewhere. In 1429 he was sent as am- 
bassador to Rome and Venice, and, while 
absent from the realm at the papal court, 
was appointed bishop of London, Bishop Gray 
being translated to Lincoln to make room for 
him. He was consecrated at Foligno on 
16 Sept. 1431. In 1434 he was named one 
of the two episcopal delegates appointed 
with other laymen and clerics to represent 
the sovereign and nation of England at the 
council of Basle. Letters of safe-conduct 
for a year were given him, 8 May, and license 
was granted to take with him vessels, jewels, 
and gold and silve, ^late to the value of 
two thousand markk TJ Eis allowance was to 
be at the rate of five\ andred marks, to be 
paid daily, and he was not bound to remain 
away for the whole year, nor for more than 
a year (RYMER, Fcedera, x. 577, 582, 583 ; 
FULLER, Church Hist. ii. 438-43). During 
his stay at Basle he was elected to the see of 
Ely, vacated by the decease of Bishop Philip 
Morgan (25 Oct. 1435), but died on his way 
home. His will is dated at Dover, but he 
is said to have'died at St. Osyth's in Essex, 
15 Jan. 1435-6. He was buried in his 
cathedral of St. Paul's, in the higher part 
of the choir, near the altar, his grave being 
distinguished by his mitred effigy in brass, 
his left hand bearing the crozier, his right 
hand raised in benediction. His epitaph thus 
records the chief events of his career, and 
testifies to his general popularity : 

Nobilis antistes Robertus Lundoniensis, 
Fili us Hugonis, hie requiescit : honor 

Doctorum, flos Pontificum, quern postulat Ely, 
Romse Basilicse regia facta refert. 




Plangit eum Papa, Rex, grex, sua natio tota, 
Extera gens si quse noveret ulla pium. 

Gemma pudicitiae, spectrum pietatis, honoris 
Famaque justitiae formula juris erat. 

He bequeathed 121. towards the erection 
of the schools at Cambridge, and all his pon- 
tificals to St. Paul's, except a ring given 
him by the Venetians, which he had already 
affixed to St. Erkenwald's shrine. 

[Dugdale's St. Paul's, pp. 45, 219, 402; Mil- 
man's Annals of St. Paul's, p. 91 ; Godwin, De 
Praesulibus, i. 188 ; Rymer's Fcedera, 11. cc ; Dug- 
dale's Baronage, i. 405; Fuller's Church Hist. ii. 
438-43.] E. V. 

WICK (1670-1734), marshal of France, was 
natural son of James, duke of York, after- 
wards James II, by Arabella Churchill [q. v.], 
daughter of Sir Winston Churchill, and elder 
sister of the great Duke of Marlborough. He 
was born at Moulins in the Bourbonnais, on 
21 Aug. 1670, and his father gave him the 
name of James Fitzjames. His handsome 
face curiously combined many of the charac- 
teristics of his grandfather, Charles I, and his 
uncle, Marlborough. He was educated en- 
tirely in France, first under the care of the 
Jesuit Father Go ugh, at the College de Juilly, 
then at the College du Plessis, and finally at 
the Jesuit college of La Fleche. His father 
always showed the greatest affection for him, 
and on his accession to the throne in 1685 he 
sent young Fitzjames to the camp of Charles, 
duke of Lorraine, who was then besieging 
Buda, under the care of a French nobleman, the 
Count de Villevison. Fitzjames soon showed 
his courage, and was distinguished by his 
sobriety in camp as much as by his desperate 
valour in the final assault on Buda. At the 
conclusion of the campaign, he paid a visit to 
England ; and on 19 March 1687 was created 
Duke of Berwick, Earl of Teignmouth, and 
Baron Bosworth in the peerage of England. 
He then returned to Hungary, and served an- 
other campaign under the Duke of Lorraine, 
during which he was present at the great battle 
of Mohacz. He was summoned to England 
by James, who at once made him governor of 
Portsmouth, and on 4 Feb. 1688 appointed 
him colonel of the royal horse guards, the 
Blues, in the place of Aubrey de Vere, earl 
of Oxford. Berwick soon recognised that it 
was impossible for him to hold Portsmouth, 
and he fled to France to join his father. He 
proposed that James should try to reconquer 


vigour in raising troops among the Irish Ro- 
man catholics. He served at the siege of 

Derry, and commanded a detached force 
against the men of Enniskillen. He was 
present at the battle of the Boyne. On the 
departure of Tyrconnel he was appointed 
commander-in-chief of the king's forces in 
Ireland, but on Sarsfield's surrender of Lime- 
rick he returned to France. 

In 1691 Berwick joined the French army 
in the Netherlands as a volunteer, and served 
under Marshal Luxembourg at the siege of 
Mons, and in 1692 in the victory won over 
the English and Dutch under William III 
at Steenkirk. In 1693 Berwick was ap- 
pointed a lieutenant-general in the French 
army, and in his first campaign with this- 
rank he was taken prisoner by the English 
at the battle of Neerwinden. He was soon 
released, and in 1695 he married, against his 
father's wish, the beautiful Lady Honora Sars- 
field, daughter of the Earl of Clanricarde, and 
widow of Patrick Sarsfield, hero of Limerick. 
She died in 1698, and in 1700 he married 
Anne, daughter of the Hon. Henry Bulkeley. 

Berwick served the campaign of 1702 in 
Flanders under Marshal Boufflers, and in 
the following year became a naturalised 
Frenchman, in order to be eligible for the 
rank of marshal of France. In 1704 he was 
sent to Spain in command of a powerful 
French army, to support Philip V, and in 
an admirable campaign he prevented the 
far stronger forces of the allied English and 
Portuguese from invading Spain from the 
west. For his services he was made a knight 
of the order of the Golden Fleece by the king 
of Spain, but complaint was made of his pur- 
suing defensive tactics, and at the close of 
the year he was recalled and made governor 
of the Cevennes. He had then to fight against 
the protestant mountaineers, known as the 
' Camisards,' who were in open rebellion, and, 
after partially subduing them, he swiftly 
crossed the Sardinian frontier and took Nice, 
for which exploit he was made a marshal of 
France in 1706. In the following year Ber- 
wick made his great campaign against the 
Anglo-Portuguese army, which had in 1706 
for a short time occupied Madrid. Philip V 
of Spain begged Louis XIV to send him 
Marshal Berwick, and the newly made mar- 
shal entered Spain at the head of a small 
and well-equipped French army. He at once 
marched to the Portuguese frontier, and after 
a most scientific campaign he drew the allied 
army under Henri de Ruvigny, Lord Galway, 
and the Marquis Das Minas into an unfavour- 
able position, and then utterly defeated it in 
the important battle of Almanza, the only 
battle recorded in which an English general 
at the head of a French army defeated an 
English army commanded by a Frenchman. 




Berwick was made governor of the Limousin 
by the king of France, and the king of Spain 
arranged a marriage between Berwick's only 
son by his first marriage and Donna Cathe- 
rina de Veraguas, the richest heiress in Spain, 
and created the boy Duke of Liria and a 
grandee of the first class. In 1709 the mar- 
shal was recalled from Spain to defend the 
south-eastern frontier of France against the 
Austrians and Sardinians under Prince 
Eugene. This he did in a series of defensive 
campaigns, unmarked by a single important 
battle, which have always been considered 
as models in the art of war. 

After the peace of Utrecht Berwick was 
long unemployed. He refused to co-operate 
in the attempt of his legitimate brother, the 
* Old Pretender,' to regain the throne of Eng- 
land in 1715, and preferred French politics 
to English. He kept clear of party intrigues, 
and his advice on military questions was re- 
ceived with the highest respect. He cor- 
dially supported the English alliance main- 
tained by the Regent Orleans and Fleury, in 
spite of his family relationship to the exiled 
Stuart family. 

In 1733 the war of the Polish succession 
broke out, and Berwick was placed in com- 
mand of the most important French army, 
which was destined to invade Germany from 
Strasbourg, and act against Berwick's old 
adversary, Prince Eugene. He took com- 
mand of his army, and in October 1733 
occupied Kehl, and then went into winter 
quarters. In March 1734 he again joined 
his army at Strasbourg ; on 1 May he crossed 
the Rhine, and carried the lines at Ettlingen, 
and on 13 May he invested Philipsbourg. 
The siege was carried on in the most scien- 
tific manner, and the third parallel had just 
been opened, when on 12 June the marshal 
started on his rounds with his eldest son by 
his second marriage, the Due de Fitzjames. 
He had not proceeded far when his head was 
carried off by a cannon-ball. The news of 
this catastrophe aroused the greatest sorrow 
in France, and the marshal's body was brought 
to France to be interred in the church of the 
Hopital des Invalides at Paris. 

Berwick was a cautious general of the type 
of Turenne and Moreau, whose genius shone 
in sieges and defensive operations. He served 
in twenty-nine campaigns, in fifteen of which 
he commanded in chief, and in six battles, of 
which he only commanded in one, the famous 
victory of Almanza. Montesquieu, in the 
6 loge prefixed to the marshal's memoirs, says 
of him : ' He was brought up to uphold a 
sinking cause, and to utilise in adversity 
every latent resource. Indeed, I have often 
heard him say that all his life he had earnestly 

desired the duty of defending'a first-class fort- 
ress.' Berwick left descendants both in 
France and Spain, who held the highest 
ranks in both those countries, in Spain as 
Dukes of Liria and in France as Dues de 

[The Duke's Memoires were first published by 
his grandson in 1777; they only go down to 
1705, and are generally published with the pre- 
fatory eloge by Montesquieu, into whose hands 
they were placed to be prepared for the press, 
and with a continuation to 1734 by the Abb6 
Hook, who published an English translation in 
1779. They have been many times reprinted, no- 
tably in Michaud and Poujoulat's great collection 
of French memoirs. All French histories of the 
period and all French biographical dictionaries 
contain information about Berwick and his cam- 
paigns, and in English reference may be made 
to James II and the Duke of Berwick, published 
1876, and The Duke of Berwick, published 1883, 
by C. Townshend Wilson.] H. M. S. 

FITZJAMES, SIR JOHN (1470 P-1542 ?), 
judge, son of John Fitzjames of Redlynch, 
Somersetshire, and nephew of Richard, bishop 
of London [q.v.], was a member of the Middle 
Temple, where he was reader in the autumn 
of 1504 and treasurer in 1509 (DUGDALB, 
Orig. pp. 215, 221). He also held the office 
of recorder of Bristol in 1510, a place worth 
19Z. Qs. Sd. per annum, which he does not 
seem to have resigned until 1533, when he was 
succeeded by Thomas Cromwell. In 1511 he 
was one of the commissioners of sewers for 
Middlesex (Letters and Papers of the Reign 
of Henry VIII, Foreign and Domestic, i. 
157, 301, iii. pt. ii. 1458, vi. 263, vii. 557). 
On or about 26 Jan. 1518-19 he was ap- 
pointed attorney-general, and in this capa- 
city seems to have been sworn of the 
council, as his signature is appended to a 
letter dated 13 June 1520 from the council 
to the king, then at Calais, congratulating 
him on his ' prosperous and fortunate late 
passage.' About the same time he was 
appointed, with Sir Edward Belknap and 
William Roper, to assist the master of the 
wards in making out his quarterly reports. 
He was also attorney-general for the duchy 
of Lancaster between 1521 and 1523, and 
probably from a much earlier date ; and he 
seems to be identical with a certain John 
Fitzjames who 'acted as collector of subsi- 
dies for Somersetshire between 1523 and 
1534. As attorney-general he conducted, in 
May 1521, the prosecution of the Duke of 
Buckingham. The same summer he was 
called to the degree of serjeant-at-law, <^n 
6 Feb. 1521-2 he was advanced to a puisne 
judgeship of the king's bench, and two days 
later he was created chief baron of the 




exchequer. About the same time he was 
knighted. In the autumn of 1523 he was en- 
trusted by the king with the delicate task of 
negotiating a marriage between Lord Henry 
Percy, who was supposed to be engaged to 
Anne Boleyn, and Lady Mary Talbot, daugh- 
ter of the Earl of Shrewsbury. Fitzjames's 
diplomacy was crowned with success. On 
23 Jan. 1525-6 he succeeded Sir John Fyneux 
fq. v.] as chief justice of the king's bench. 
He was a trier of petitions in parliament in 
November 1529, and signed the articles of 
impeachment exhibited against Wolsey on 
1 Dec. of the same year. He seems to have 
exerted himself at Wolsey's request to save 
Christchurch from sequestration (ib. iii. pt. i. 
12, 197, pt. ii. 873, 1383, iv. pt. iii. 2690, 
2714, 2928; COBBETT, State Trials, i. 296; 
BREWEK, Reign of Henry VIII, ed. Gairdner, 
ii. 177 ; Proceedings and Ordinances of the 
Priiy Council, vii. 338 ; DUGDALE, Chron. Ser. 
80, 81). Two letters are extant from Fitzjames 
to Cromwell, one dated 29 Oct. 1532, describ- 
ing the state of legal business and the ravages 
of the plague, the other, dated 8 March, and 
apparently written at Redlynch in 1533, in 
which he complains much of illness, and begs 
to be excused attendance in London. He 
was present, however, at the coronation of 
Anne Boleyn on 1 June 1533. His name is 
appended to a proclamation of 7 Nov. 1534, 
fixing the maximum price of French and 
Gascon wines at 41. per tun, pursuant to 
statute 23 Hen. VIII, c. 7. He was a mem- 
ber of the special tribunals that tried in 
April 1535 the Carthusians, Robert Feron, 
John Hale, and others, for high treason under 
statute 25 Hen. VIII, c. 22, the offence con- 
sisting in having conversed too freely about 
the king's marriage. He also helped to try 
Fisher and More in the ensuing June and 
July. It is probable that he secretly sympa- 
thised with the prisoners, as he preserved a 
discreet silence throughout the proceedings, 
broken only when the lord chancellor directly 
appealed to him to say whether the indict- 
ment against More was or was not sufficient 
by the curiously cautious utterance, ' By 
St. Gillian, I must needs confess that if the 
act of parliament be not unlawful, then the 
indictment is not in my conscience invalid.' 
On 2 Sept. 1535 he wrote to Cromwell, in- 
terceding on behalf of the abbot of Glaston- 
bury, who he thought was being somewhat 
harshly dealt with by the visitors of the 
monasteries. In October 1538 he made his 
will, being then ' weak and feeble in body.' 
He retired from the bench in the same year, 
or early in the following year, his successor, 
Sir Edward Montagu, being appointed on 
21 Jan. 1538-9. The exact date of his death 

is uncertain. His will was proved on 1 2 May 
1542. He was buried in the parish church 
of Bruton, Somersetshire (State Papers, i. 
384, 387 ; Trevelyan Papers, Camden Soc. ii. 
55-7 ; Letters and Papers of the Reign of 
Henry VIII, Foreign and Domestic, viii. 
229, 350, 384, ix. 85 ; COBBETT, State Trials, 
i. 393). The reputation of Fitzjames suf- 
fered much at the hands of Lord Campbell, 
whose errors and fabrications were ably ex- 
posed by Foss. It is impossible, with the 
meagre materials at our command, to say 
how far Fitzjames may have allowed sub- 
serviency to the king to pervert justice. His 
complicity in the judicial murders of 1535 
leaves an indelible stain on his memory. On 
the other hand he seems to have been superior 
to bribes. 

[Fuller's "Worthies, Somersetshire ; Lloyd's 
State Worthies, i. 125-9; Collinson's Somerset- 
shire, i. 226; Hutchins's Dorset, ii. 222; Foss's 
Lives of the Judges.] J. M. E. 

FITZJAMES, RICHARD (d. 1522), bi- 
shop of London, son of John and grandson 
of James Fitzjames, who married Eleanor, 
daughter of Simon Draycot, was born at Red- 
lynch, in the parish of Bruton, Somersetshire. 
Nothing is known of him till he became a stu- 
dent at Oxford, which Wood says was about 
1459. He was elected fellow of Merton Col- 
lege in 1465, and had taken his degree of 
M.A. before he was ordained acolyte (XIV 
Kal. Maii, 1471). Fuller speaks of him as 
being of right ancient and worthy parent- 
age ; but Campbell, in his life of his nephew, 
Sir John Fitzjames [q. v.], speaks of him 
as of low origin, though he gives no autho- 
rity for the statement. He served the office 
of proctor in the university of Oxford in 
1473, and in 1477 became prebendary of 
Taunton in the cathedral church of Wells, 
in succession to John Wansford, subdean of 
Wells, resigned. He was afterwards chap- 
lain to Edward IV, and proceeded to his 
degrees in divinity. His name appears as 
principal of St. Alban Hall from Michael- 
mas day 1477 to the same day 1481. In 
1485 he was presented to the rectory of 
Aller and the vicarage of Minehead, both in 
Somersetshire, and in 1495 was incorporated 
M.A. at Cambridge. He held Aller till 1497, 
when he was succeeded by Christopher Bain- 
bridge, afterwards cardinal and archbishop 
of York. He was, says Wood, esteemed a 
frequent preacher, but is said to have read 
and not preached his sermons. On 12 March 
1483 he succeeded John Gygur in the war- 
denship of his college. This post he held 
till 1507, and won golden opinions for his 
liberality and excellent government of the 




college. He considerably enlarged the war- 
den's lodge, and was otherwise so great a 
benefactor to the college as almost to be 
considered its second founder. Among other 
reforms he procured an enactment that no 
one admitted into the society should be or- 
dained till he had completed his regency in 
arts, the object being to remedy the igno- 
rance of candidates for holy orders. In 
1511, being at that time bishop of London, 
he was appointed by the university to inquire 
into its privileges, and the relation in which it 
stood to the town of Oxford. He also contri- 
buted to the completion of St. Mary's Church. 
In 1495 he became almoner to Henry VII, and 
was consecrated bishop of Rochester, 2 Jan. 
1497, at Lambeth by Cardinal Morton, assisted 
by the bishops of Llandaff and Bangor. He 
appears to have been employed at Calais in 
March 1499 in negotiations for a commercial 
treaty with the Low Countries, in conjunction 
with Warham and Sir Richard Hatton, and 
was one of the bishops appointed to be in 
the procession for receiving the Princess 
Catherine of Arragon on her arrival in this 
country in 1501, and to attend on the Arch- 
bishop of Canterbury on his celebration of 
the marriage with Prince Arthur. In January 
1504 he was translated to Chichester, and to 
London on 14 March 1506, soon after which 
he resigned the wardenship of his college. 
During his tenure of this see he did much 
for the restoration and beautifying of St. 
Paul's Cathedral. Bernard Andr6 comme- 
morates his preaching on Sunday 31 Oct. 
1507 at Paul's Cross. He lived on till 1522, 
and was buried in the nave of his own cathe- 
dral, a small chapel being erected over his 
tomb, which was destroyed by fire in 1561. 
In conjunction with his brother John, father 
of the lord chief justice of England [see FITZ- 
JAMES, SIK JOHN], he founded the school of 
Bruton, near the village where he was born. 
The palace at Fulham was also built by him. 

He seems to have been a man of high 
character and greatly respected, in this re- 
spect very unlike his brother the chief justice. 
"While at Oxford he acted as commissary (an 
office which corresponds to that of the vice- 
chancellor of this day) in 1481, under the 
chancellorship of Lionel Woodville, bishop of 
Salisbury, and again served the same office 
in 1491 and 1492, under John Russell, bishop 
of Lincoln ; and in 1502, upon the resigna- 
tion of William Smith, bishop of Lincoln, 
being then warden of Merton and bishop of 
Rochester, became, as Wood says, l cancel- 
larius natus.' 

Fitzjames belonged to the strongly conser- 
vative type of bishop. In a letter from Fitz- 
james to Cardinal Wolsey (printed by Foxe) 

the bishop defended his chancellor, Horsey, 
who had been imprisoned on the charge of mur- 
dering Hunne, a merchant tailor of London 
charged with heresy. Fitzjames asked that 
the cause might be tried before the council, be- 
cause he felt assured that a jury in London 
would condemn any clerk, be he as innocent 
as Abel, as they were so maliciously set ' in 
favorem hsereticse pravitatis.' Horsey was 
condemned and afterwards pardoned. Foxe 
prints a document the authenticity of which 
Mr. Brewer doubts, to the effect that the 
king orders Horsey to recompense Roger 
Whapplot and Margaret his wife, daughter 
of Richard Hunne, for the wasting of his 
goods, which were of no little value. It ap- 
pears from Fitzjames's ' Register ' that there 
were a few other cases of prosecution for 
heresy during his episcopate, all of which 
ended in a recantation and abjuration. Fitz- 
james deprecated Dean Colet's efforts at church 
reform, and from 1511 onwards the dean com- 
plained of the persecution he suffered at his 
bishop's hands [see COLET, JOHN]. 

[Wood's Athena?, ed. Bliss, ii. 720; Wood's His- 
tory and Antiquities, ed. Gutch ; Burnet's Re- 
formation ; Fuller's Worthies; Lupton's Life of 
Colet, 1887 ; Cooper's Athenae Cantabr. i. 25, 26, 
526 ; Stubbs's Registrum Sacrum Anglicanum ; 
Foxe's Acts and Monuments; Le Neve's Fasti; 
Godwin, De Praesulibus; Brewer's Calendar of 
State Papers ; Bernard Andre's Hist, of Henry VII, 
ed. Gairdner ; Gairdner's Letters of Kichard III 
and Henry VII; Fitzjames's Register.] N. P. 

1191), archbishop-elect of Canterbury, son of 
Jocelin de Bohun, bishop of Salisbury, and 
nephew of Richard de Bohun, bishop of 
Coutances (1151-79), of the house of Bohun 
of St. George de Bohun, near Carentan, was 
born about 1 140, for he is said to have been 
thirty-three in 1174 (Anglia Sacra, i. 561), 
and was brought up in Italy, whence he was 
called the Lombard (BosHAM, Materials for 
Life of JSecket, iii. 524). He was made arch- 
deacon of Salisbury by his father, and was 
reckoned a young man of prudence, indus- 
try, high spirit, and ability. Like most of 
the young archdeacons of his time he loved 
pleasure, and was much given to hawking 
(PETEK OF BLOIS, JEp. 61). In early life he 
was one of the friends of Thomas, possibly 
while Thomas was chancellor, and in 1164 
received from Lewis VII the abbey of 
St. Exuperius in Corbeil (Archceologia, 1. 
348). During the progress of the quarrel 
between Henry II and Archbishop Thomas 
the archbishop excommunicated Reginald's 
father, the Bishop of Salisbury. Reginald, 
who had a strong affection for his father, 
wholly withdrew from the archbishop, and 




became one of his most dangerous and out- 
spoken opponents. He was constantly em- 
ployed by the king, who sent him on embas- 
sies to Pope Alexander III in 1167 and 1169, 
and the archbishop complained of his boasting 
of his success at the papal court (Ep. Becket, 
vi. 643). On 15 Aug. 1169 Henry sent him 
to meet the pope's commissioners at Dam- 
front, and shortly afterwards Thomas wrote 
of him in violent terms, declaring that he 
had betrayed him, had spoken disrespectfully 
of the pope and the curia, and had advised 
Henry to apply to the pope to allow some 
bishop to discharge duties that pertained to 
his see (ib. vii. 181). Peter of Blois, who 
was much attached to Reginald, sent a letter 
to the archbishop's friends, defending his con- 
duct, chiefly on the ground that he was act- 
ing in support of his father (ib. p. 195). After 
the murder of the archbishop he was sent 
in 1171 to plead the king's innocence before 
the pope (ib. pp. 471-5 ; HOVEDEN, ii. 25). The 
see of Bath having been vacant for more than 
eight years, the king, in 1173, procured the 
election of Reginald, who, in company with 
Richard, archbishop elect of Canterbury, went 
to procure the pope's confirmation. On 5 May 
1174 he wrote to the king, saying that though 
the pope had consecrated Richard his own 
matter was still undecided. Before long he 
obtained his desire by, it is said, offering the 
pope a purse of money (De Nugis Curialium, 
p. 35). He was consecrated at S. Jean de 
Maurienne by the archbishops of Canterbury 
and Tarentaise on 23 June, after having 
cleared himself by oath of all complicity in 
Thomas's death, and brought forward wit- 
nesses to swear that he had been begotten 
before his father became a priest (DiCETO, i. 
391). His election scandalised Thomas's 
party, and while it was yet unconfirmed Peter 
of Blois wrote a letter, declaring that it was 
unfair to speak of him as one of the arch- 
bishop's persecutors and murderers, that he 
had loved the archbishop, and only turned 
against him for his father's sake (Epistolce, 
JBecket, vii. 554). 

Immediately after his consecration Re- 
ginald went to the Great Chartreuse, and 
persuaded Hugh of Avalon to come over 
to England and take charge of the house 
which the king had built at Witham in So- 
merset (Magna Vita S. Hugonis, p. 55) ; he 
then rejoined the archbishop, early in August 
consecrated the church of St. Thomas the 
Martyr at St. Lo {Somerset Archceol. Proc. 
xix. 11, 94), and on the 8th met the king at 
Barfleur (BENEDICT, i. 74). On 24 Nov. he 
was enthroned by the archbishop (DiCETO, 
i. 398). He enriched the church of Wells, 
added to the canons' common fund, founded 

several new prebends, and, as there is reason 
to believe, built a portion of the nave of 
the church. He appears to have desired 
to strengthen the cathedral organisation by 
bringing the rich abbey of Glastonbury into 
close connection with it, for he made the 
abbot a member of the chapter, set apart a 
prebend for him, and erected the liberty of 
the abbey into an archdeaconry. He granted 
two charters to the town of Wells, creating 
it a free borough. At Bath he founded the 
hospital of St. John in 1180 for the succour 
of the sick poor who came to use the baths 
there. He obtained from Richard I a charter 
granting to him and his successors in the see 
the right of keeping sporting dogs through- 
out all Somerset. He continued to take an 
active share in public affairs. In 1175 he was 
at the council which the archbishop held at 
Westminster in May (BENEDICT, i. 84) ; in 
March 1177 he attended the council called 
by the king which met at London to arbi- 
trate between the kings of Castile and Na- 
varre (ib. pp. 144, 154), and two months later 
attended the councils which Henry held at 
Geddington and Windsor. He was appointed 
one of the commissioners sent in 1178 by the 
kings of England and France to put down the 
heretics of Toulouse, and in company with the 
Viscount of Turenne and Raymond of Cha- 
teauneuf tried and excommunicated the here- 
tical preachers there. Then, in company with 
the abbot of Clairvaux, he visited the diocese 
of Albi, and thence proceeded to the Lateran 
council which was held in the March of the fol- 
lowing year (ib. pp. 199-206, 219 ; HOVEDEN, 
ii. 171). He was on terms of friendship with 
the king's natural son Geoffrey, and in 1181 
persuaded him to resign his claim to the see 
of Lincoln. In 1186 he promoted the election 
of Hugh of Avalon to the bishopric of Lin- 
coln, was present at the council of Eynsham, 
near Oxford, and attended the marriage of 
William the Lion, the Scottish king, at Wood- 
stock (BENEDICT, i. 351). At the coronation 
of Richard I on 3 Sept. 1189 he walked on 
the left hand of the king when he advanced 
to the throne, the Bishop of Durham being 
on his right (ib. ii. 83). He attended the 
council of Pipewell held on the 15th ( HOVE- 
DEN, iii. 15), and was probably the 'Italus r 
who unsuccessfully offered the king 4,OOOJ. 
for the chancellorship (RICHARD OF DEVIZES, 
p. 9). The next year he obtained the lega- 
tine office for the chancellor, Bishop William 
Longchamp (ib. p. 14) ; he seems to have been 
requested to make the application when he 
and others of the king's counsellors crossed 
over in February to meet Richard in Nor- 
mandy. He took the side of Geoffrey against 
the chancellor, and in October 1191 assisted 




in overthrowing Longchamp (BENEDICT, ii. 
218). The monks of Christ Church found in 
him a steady and powerful friend during their 
quarrel with Archbishop Baldwin. In this 
matter he largely employed the help of his 
kinsman, Savaric, archdeacon of Northamp- 
ton, the cousin, as he asserted, of the emperor. 
When the death of Baldwin was known in 
England the monks, on 27 Nov., elected Re- 
ginald to the archbishopric, acting somewhat 
hastily, for they were afraid that the suffragan 
bishops would interfere in the election (GEE- 
VASE, i. 511). The justiciar, Walter of Cou- 
tances, is said to have desired the office, and 
the ministers called in question the validity 
of the election. Reginald went down to his 
old diocese to secure the election of Savaric 
&s his successor, and as he was returning was, 
on 24 Dec., seized with paralysis or apoplexy 
at Dogmersfield in Hampshire, a manor be- 
longing to the see of Bath. On the 25th he 
sent to the prior of Christ Church, bidding 
Jiim hasten to him and bring him the monas- 
tic habit. He died on the 26th, and was 
buried near the high altar of the abbey church 
of Bath on the 29th (Epp. Cantuar. pp. 354, 
355 ; RICHARD OF DEVIZES, pp. 45, 46, where 
an epitaph is given). Peter of Blois notices 
that he who had no small hand in causing 
the demolition of the archbishop's church at 
Hackington, dedicated to St. Stephen and St. 
Thomas the Martyr, died on St. Stephen's 
day, and was buried on the day of St. Thomas 
(Epp. Cantuar. p. 554). 

[Materials for the history of Thomas Becket, 
archbishop, iii, vi, vii (Rolls Ser.) ; Walter Map's 
De Nugis Curialium (Camden Soc.) ; Benedictus 
Abbas, i. and.ii. passim (Rolls Ser.) ; Ralph de 
Diceto, i. and ii. (Rolls Ser.) ; Roger de Hoveden, 
ii. and iii. (Rolls Ser.) ; Magna Vita S. Hugonis 
(Rolls Ser.) ; Memorials of Rich. I, ii, Epp. Can- 
tuar. (Rolls Ser.) ; Gervase, i. (Rolls Ser.) ; Peter 
of Blois, Epistolse, ed. Giles ; Richard of Devizes 
(Engl. Hist. Soc.); Wharton'sAngliaSacra,i.561 ; 
Reginald, bishop of Bath, Archseologia, 1. 295- 
360 ; Reynolds's Wells Cathedral, pref. Ixxsi ; 
Freeman's Cathedral Church of Wells, pp. 70, 
170 ; Somerset Archseol. Soc.'s Journal, xix. ii. 
9-11 ; Dugdale's Monasticon, vi. 773 ; Cassan's 
Bishops of Bath and Wells, p. 105.] W. H. 

FITZJOHN, EUSTACE (d. 1157), judge 
and constable of Chester, was the son of John 
de Burgh, and the nephew and heir of Serlo 
de Burgh, lord of Knaresborough, and the 
founder of its castle (DUGDALE, Monasticon, 
vi. 957-72 ; cf., however, Notes and Queries, 
5th ser. xii. 83-4). Like his brother, Pain 
Fitzjohn [q. v.], he became attached to the 
court of Henry I. He witnessed some charters 
of 1133. In the only extant Pipe Roll of 
-Henry's reign he appears as acting as justice 

itinerant in the north in conjunction with 
Walter Espec. He won Henry's special fa- 
vour (Gesta Stephani, p. 35, Engl. Hist. Soc.), 
received grants that made him very powerful 
in Yorkshire, and was reputed to be a man 
of great wisdom (AiLEED OP RIEVAULX in 
TWYSDEN, Decem Scriptores, c. 343 ; cf. WIL- 
LIAM OF NEWBTIEGH, i. 108, Rolls Ser.) Dug- 
dale gives from manuscript sources a list of 
Henry's donations to Eustace (Baronage, 
i. 91). He was also governor of Bamburgh 
Scriptores, c. 261). He witnessed the charter 
of Archbishop Thurstan toBeverley (Feeder a, 
i. 10). On the death of Henry, Fitzjohn re- 
mained faithful to the cause of Matilda, and 
was in consequence taken into custody and 
deprived of his governorship of Bamburgh 
(JOHN OF HEXHAM). He joined David, king 
of Scots, when that king invaded the north, 
in 1138 (Gesta Stephani, p. 35). He sur- 
rendered Alnwick Castle to David (RiCHAED 
OF HEXHAM in TWYSDEN, c. 319), and held 
out against Stephen in his own castle of 
glorum, p. 261, Rolls Ser.) He was present 
at the Battle of the Standard (AiLEED, c. 
343), where he and his followers fought along- 
side the men of ' Cumberland ' and Teviotdale 
in the second line of King David's host. In 
the latter part of Stephen's reign he lived 
quietly in the north under the government 
of the Scottish king, by whose grants his pos- 
sessions were confirmed. 

Fitzjohn was a lavish patron of the church 
and the special friend of new orders of regu- 
lars. In 1131 he witnessed the charter by 
which his colleague, Walter Espec [q. v.], 
founded llievaulx, the first Cistercian house 
established in Yorkshire (Monasticon, v. 281). 
When the first monks of Fountains were in 
the direst distress and had given away their 
last loaves in charity, Eustace's timely present 
of a load of bread from Knaresborough was 
looked on as little less than a miracle (WAL- 
BBAN, i. 50). He also made two gifts of 
lands to Fountains (ib. i. 55, 57). In 1147 
he founded the abbey of Alnwick for Pre- 
monstratensian canons. This was the first 
house of that order in England, and was 
erected only two years after the order was 
founded (Monasticon, vi. 867-8). Fitzjohn 
was a friend of St. Gilbert of Sempringham 
[q. v.], and established two of the earliest 
nouses for the mixed convents of canons and 
nuns called, after their founder, the Gil- 
bertines. Between 1147 and 1154 Fitzjohn, 
in conjunction with his second wife, Agnes, 
founded a Gilbert ine house at Watt on in 
Yorkshire (ib. vi. 954-7), and another at Old 
Malton in the same county (ib. vi. 970-4). 




A few years later his grants to Malton were 
confirmed ( Thirty-first Report of Deputy- 
Keeper of Records, p. 3). He also made grants 
to the monks of St. Peter's, Gloucester, the 
church of Flamborough, and to the Austin 
canons of Bridlington (Monasticon, vi. 286). 
Fitzjohn made two rich marriages. His 
first wife was Beatrice, daughter and heiress 
of Ivo de Vesci. She brought him Alnwick 
and Malton (ib. vi. 868). She died at the birth 
of his son by her, William (ib. vi. 956), who 
adopted the name of Vescy, and was active in 
the public service during the reign of Henry II 
(EYTON, Court and Itinerary of Henry II, 
passim), and was sheriff of Northumberland 
between the fourth and sixteenth years of 
Henry II (Thirty-first Report of Deputy- 
Keeper of Records, p. 320). He was the 
ancestor of the Barons de Vescy. His son 
Eustace was prominent among the northern 
barons, whose revolt from John led to the 
signing of Magna Charta. Fitzjohn's second 
wife was Agnes, daughter and heiress of Wil- 
liam, baron of Halton and constable of Ches- 
ter (Monast. vi. 955), one of the leading lords 
of that palatinate. He obtained from Earl 
Ranulph II of Chester a grant of his father- 
in-law s estates and titles. He was recog- 
nised in the grant as leading counsellor to the 
earl, ' above all the nobles of that country.' 
In his new capacity he took part in Henry II's 
first disastrous expedition into Wales, and 
was slain (July 1157) in the unequal fight 
when the king's army fell into an ambush at 
Basingwerk. He was then an old man ( WILL. 
NEWBURGH, i. 108). By his second wife he 
left a son, Richard Fitzeustace, the ancestor 
of the Claverings and the Lacies. 

[Besides the chronicles quoted in the article, 
Dugdale's Baronage, i. 90-1, largely 'ex vet. 
Cartulario penes Car. Fairfax de Menstan in Com. 
Ebor.,' which gives a pedigree of the Vescies; 
Dugdale's Monasticon, vol. vi. ; Walbran's Me- 
morials of Fountains (Surtees Soc.) ; Foss's 
Judges of England,}. 115-17; Eyton's Itinerary 
of Henry II; Thirty-first Report of Deputy- 
Keeper of Public Records.] T. F. T. 

FITZJOHN, PAIN (d. 1137), judge, was 
a brother of Eustace Fitzjohn [q. v.] The 
evidence for this is a charter of Henry I 
(1133) to Cirencester Priory, in which Eus- 
tace and William are styled his brothers. 
He belonged to that official class which was 
fostered by Henry I. Mr. Eyton (Shrop- 
shire, i. 246-7, ii. 200) holds (on the autho- 
rity of the ' Shrewsbury Cartulary') that he 
was given the government of Salop about 
1127. In the ' Pipe Roll' of 1130 he is found 
acting as a justice itinerant in Staffordshire, 
Gloucestershire, and Northamptonshire, in 
conjunction with Miles of Gloucester, whose 

son eventually married his daughter. He is 
frequently, during the latter part of the reign, 
found as a witness to royal charters. In 1134 
his castle of Caus on the Welsh border was 
stormed and burnt in his absence by the 
Welsh (ORD. VIT. v. 37). At the succession 
of Stephen he was sheriff of Shropshire and 
Herefordshire. At first he held aloof, but 
was eventually, with Miles of Gloucester, 
persuaded by Stephen to join him (Gesta, 
pp. 15, 16). His name is found among the 
witnesses to Stephen's Charter of Liberties- 
early in 1136 (Sel. Charters, p. 114). In the 
following year, when attacking some Welsh 
rebels, he was slain (10 July 1137), and his 
body being brought to Gloucester, was there 
buried (Gesta, p. 16; Cont. FLOR. WIG. 
ii. 98). By a charter granted shortly after- 
wards (Duchy of Lancaster ; Royal Charters, 
No. 20) Stephen confirmed his whole pos- 
sessions to his daughter Cicily, wife of Roger, 
son of Miles of Gloucester. Dugdale erro- 
neously assigns him Robert Fitzpain as a son.. 

[Pipe'Roll, 31 Hen. I (Record Comm.); Flo- 
rence of Worcester (Engl. Hist. Soc.); Crests 
Stephani (Rolls Series) ; Ordericus Vitalis (Soc. 
de 1'Histoire de France) ; Stubbs's Select Charters ; 
Duchy Charter (Publ. Rec. Office); Cott. MS. 
Calig. A. vi. ; Eyton's Hist, of Shropshire.] 

J. H. R. 

d. 1328.] 


(1780-1863), third MARQUIS OF LANSDOWNE* 

' arch traitor.' [See FITZGERALD, JAMES- 

(1551 P-1600), son and heir of Thomas Fitz- 
maurice, sixteenth lord Kerry [q. v.], was 
sent at an early age into England as a pledge 
of his father's loyalty. When he had attained 
the age of twenty he was allowed by Eliza- 
beth to return to Ireland (LODGE, Peerage 
(Archdall),ii.) In 1580 he joined in the rebel- 
lion of the Earl of Desmond, but shortly after- 
wards with his brother Edmund was surprised 
and confined to the castle of Limerick. In 
August 1581 he managed to escape with the 
connivance, it was suspected, of his gaoler, 
John Sheriff, clerk of the ordnance (State 
Papers, Eliz. Ixxxv. 9, 14). In September 
1582 he was reported to have gone to Spain 
with the catholic bishop of Killaloe (Ham. 
Cal. ii. 399) ; but he was in January 1583 
wounded at the Dingle, and in April 1587 cap- 




tured and committed to Dublin Castle (ib. 
iii. 278 ; Cat. Carew MSS. ii. 442). In 1588 
Sir William Herbert made a laudable effort 
to procure his release, offering to pawn his 
bond to the uttermost value of his land and 
substance for his loyal and dutiful demeanour, 
1 knowing him to be of no turbulent dispo- 
sition ' (Ham. Cal. iii. 502). He was, how- 
ever, opposed by St. Leger and Fitzwilliam, 
and despite a loving attempt on the part of 
his wife to obtain his freedom (ib. iv. 208) he 
remained in prison till 1591-2. During the 
last great rebellion that convulsed Ireland in 
Elizabeth's reign he, perhaps more from com- 
pulsion than free choice, threw in his lot with 
the rebels (Carew Cal. iii, 203, 300) ; but the 
evident ruin that confronted him and the loss 
of his castle of Lixnaw so affected him that 
he died shortly afterwards, August 1600 (Pa- 
cata Hib. ch. xi.) He was buried with his 
uncle Donald, earl of Clancar, in the Grey 
Friary of Irrelaugh in Desmond. He married 
Joan or Jane, daughter of David, lord Fermoy, 
and by her had Thomas, his heir [q. v.], Gerald, 
and Maurice, and two daughters, Joan and 
Eleanor (LODGE (Archdall), vol. ii.) 

[Authorities as in the text.] E. D. 

1590), was the youngest son of Edmund 
Fitzmaurice, tenth lord Kerry, and Una, 
daughter of Teige MacMahon. Made heir 
to the ancestral estates in Clanmaurice by 
the death of his elder brothers and their 
heirs, he owed his knowledge of that event 
to the fidelity of his old nurse, Joan Harman, 
who, together with her daughter, made her 
way from Dingle to Milan, where he was 
serving in the imperial army. On his return 
he found his inheritance contested by a cer- 
tain John Fitzrichard, who, however, sur- 
rendered it in 1552. He was confirmed in 
his estate by Mary, and on 20 Dec. 1589 
executed a deed settling it on his son Patrick 
and heirs male, remainder to his own right 
heirs (LODGE, Peerage (Archdall), vol. ii.) He 
is said to have sat in the parliament of 1556, 
and in March 1567 he was knighted by Sir 
H. Sidney (Cal. Carew MSS. ii. 149). His 
conduct during the rebellion of James Fitz- 
maurice (1569-73) was suspicious, but he 
appears to have regained the confidence of 
the government, being commended by Sidney 
on the occasion of his visit to Munster in 
1576 (Ham. Cal. ii. 90). Like most of the 
would-be independent chiefs in that province, 
he complained bitterly of the aggressions of 
the Earl of Desmond. Charged by Sir W. 
Pelham with conniving at that earl's re- 
bellion, he grounded his denial on the ancient 

and perpetual feud that had existed between 
his house and the head of the Geraldines 
(Cal. Carew MSS. ii. 296, 303). His sons 
Patrick and Edmund, who had openly joined 
the rebels, were surprised and incarcerated 
in Limerick Castle. On 3 Sept. 1581 he and 
the Earl of Clancar presented themselves 
before the deputy at Dublin 'in all their 
bravery. And the best robe or garment they 
wore was a russet Irish mantle worth about 
a crown apiece, and they had each of them 
a hat, a leather jerkin, a pair of hosen which 
they called trews, and a pair of brogues, but 
not all worth a noble that either of them had ' 
(BRADY, State Papers). Two months pre- 
viously (23 July) he had given pledges of 
his loyalty to Captain Zouche, but in May 

1582 we read that after killing Captain 
Acham and some soldiers he went into re- 
bellion, whereupon his pledges were hanged 
by Zouche (Ham. Cal. ii. 365, 369, 376). 
His position indeed was intolerable, what 
with the ' oppressions ' of the rebels and the 
' heavy cesses ' of the government. The Earl 
of Ormonde mediated for him, and in May 

1583 he was pardoned (ib. pp. 430, 431, 439, 
468). He sat in the parliament of 1585-6, 
but he seems to have been regarded with 
suspicion till his death on 16 Dec. 1590 (ib. 
iv. 346, 383). He was buried in the tomb 
of Bishop Philip Stack, in the cathedral of 
Ardfert, Zouche refusing to allow his burial 
in the tomb of his ancestors in the abbey, 
which then served as a military station. He 
married, first, Margaret, * the fair,' second 
daughter of James Fitzjohn, fourteenth earl 
of Desmond (d. 1563), by whom he had 
Patrick, his heir [q. v.J, Edmund, killed at 
Kin sale, Robert, slain m the isles of Arran, 
and one daughter; secondly, Catherine, only 
daughter and heir of Teige MacCarthy Mor 
(o. s. p.); thirdly, Penelope, daughter of Sir 
Donald O'Brien, brother of Conor, third earl 
of Thomond. 

He is said to have been the handsomest 
man of his age, and of such strength that 
within a few months of his death not mor& 
than three men in Kerry could bend his bow. 
1 He was/ says the ' Four Masters,' * the best 
purchaser of wine, horses, and literary works 
of any of his wealth and patrimony in the- 
greater part of Leath-Mogha at that time r 
(LODGE (Archdall) ; Annals of Four Masters, 
s. a. 1590). 

[Authorities as in text.] B. D. 

1630), was son of Patrick, seventeenth lord 
Kerry [q. v.], whom he followed into rebellion 
in 1598. After the death of his father and the 




capture of Listowel Castle by Sir Charles 
AVilmot in November 1600, finding himself 
excluded by name from all pardons offered 
to the rebels (Cal. Carew MSS. iii. 488, 499), 
he repaired into the north, where he was 
soon busily negotiating for aid with Tyrone 
and O'Donnell (ib. iv. 10). Finding that he 
was ' like to save his head a great while,' the 
queen expressed her willingness that he should 
be dealt with for pardon of his life only 
(ib. p. 15). But by that time he had managed 
to raise twelve galleys, and felt no inclination 
to submit (ib. p. 60). After the repulse of the 
northern army from Thomond in November 
1601, he was driven ' to seek safety in every 
bush ' (ib. p. 405). In Februaryl603 an attempt 
was made to entrap him by Captain Boys, 
but without success (RUSSELL and PREN- 
DERGAST, Cal. i. 5-6). On 26 Oct. 1603 Sir 
Robert Boyle, afterwards Earl of Cork, wrote 
that ' none in Munster are in action saving 
MacMorris, whose force is but seven horse 
and twelve foot, and they have fed on garrans' 
flesh these eight days. He is creeping out of 
his den to implore mercy from the lord deputy 
in that he saith he never offended the king ' 
(ib. p. 22). His application was more than 
successful, for he obtained a regrant of all 
the lands possessed by his father (king's 
letter, 26 Oct. 1603 ; ib. p. 98 ; cf. Erck's 
Cal. p. 101). His son and heir, however, 
was taken away from him and brought up 
with the Earl of Thomond as a protestant. 
He sat in the parliament of 1615, when a 
quarrel arose between him and Lords Slane 
and Courcy over a question of precedency 
(ib. v. 25), which was ultimately decided in 
his favour (Cal. Carew MSS. v. 313, 320). 
Between the father, a catholic and an ex- 
rebel, and the son, a protestant and ' a gentle- 
man of very good hope,' there was little sym- 
pathy. The former had promised to assure 
to the latter a competent jointure at his 
marriage, but either from inability or un- 
willingness refused to fulfil his promise. The 
son complained, and the father was arrested 
and clapped in the Fleet (RUSSELL and PREN- 
DERGAST, Cal. v. 289, 361, 392). After a short 
period of restraint he appears to have agreed to 
fulfil his contract, and was allowed to ret urn 
home. Again disdaining to acknowledge the 
bond, and falling under suspicion of treason, 
he was rearrested and conveved to London 
(ib. pp. 530, 535, 547). This" time, we may 
presume, surety for his good faith was taken, 
for he was allowed to return to Ireland, 
dying at Drogheda on 3 June 1630. He was 
buried at Casnel, in the chapel and tomb of St. 
Cormac. He married, first, Honora, daughter 
of Conor, third earl of Thomond, by whom 
he had Patrick, his heir, Gerald, and Joan ; 

secondly, Gyles, daughter of Richard, lord 
Power of Curraghmore, by whom he had five 
sons and three daughters (LODGE (Archdall), 
vol. ii.) 

[Authorities as given in text.] R. D. 

CHARD, otherwise RICHARD OF ELY (d. 
1198), bishop of London (1189-98), was the 
son legitimate, if born before his father 
was in holy orders of Nigel, bishop of Ely, 
treasurer of the kingdom, the nephew of the 
mighty Roger, bishop of Salisbury, chancellor 
and justiciar of Henry I. He