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J. G. A. . . 
A. J. A. . . 

T. A. A. . 
H. W. B. 
G. F. E. B 

J. G-. ALGER. 


. T. A. ARCHER. 
. H. W. BALL. 

. G. C. BOASE. 
. Miss BRADLEY. 
. Miss E. M. BRADLEY. 
. A. H. BULLEN. 
E. C-N. . . . EDWIN CANNAN. 
E. M. C. . . Miss E. M. CLERKS. 

T. B 

W, B-E. . 

C B 

G. T. B. . 

A. C. B. . 

B. H. B. . 
W. G. B. . 
G. C. B. . 
G. S. B. . 
E. T. B. . 
E. M. B. . 
A. E. B. . 
A. H. B. . 
G. W. B. 
J. B-Y. . . 

C. H. C. . . C. H. COOTE. 
W. P. C. . . W. P. COURTNEY. 





J. W. E. . . THE EEV. J. W. BBS-WORTH, F.S.A. 


L. F Louis FAGAN. 

C. H. F. . . C. H. FIRTH. 


G. K. F. . . G. K. FORTESCUE. 



of Corpus Christ! College, Oxford. 




J. T. G. . . J. T. GILBERT, F.S.A. 
E. C. K. G. E. C. K. GONNER. 



E. E. G. . . E. E. GRAVES. 

W. A. G. . W. A. GREENHILL, M.D. 

J. A. H. . . J. A. HAMILTON. 





List of Writers. 

T. F. H. . . 

R. H-B. . . 
W. H. . . . 

B. D. J. . . 
R. J. J 

C. K 

C. L. K. . . 

J. K 

J. K. L. . . 
S. L. L. .. 
H. R. L. . . 
G. P. M. . . 
J. A. F. M. 

D. S. M. . . 
C. T. M. . 
L. M. M.. . 

C. M 

N. M 

J. B. M. . . 

A. N 


H. P. . 






8. L. LEE. 




J. F. P. . . J. F. PAYNE, M.D. 




E. J. R. . . E. J. RAPSON. 

J. M. R. . . J. M. RIGG. 

C. J. R. . . THE REV. C. J. ROBINSON. 

L. C. S. . . L. C. SANDERS. 



C. W. S. . . C. W. BUTTON. 


H. R. T. . . H. R. TEDDER. 

T. F. T. . . PROFESSOR T. F. Tour. 







W. W. . . . WARWICK WROTH, F.S.A. 






FORREST, ARTHUR (d. 1770), com- 
modore, served as lieutenant in the expedition 
against Carthagena in 1741 ; is said to have 
specially distinguished himself under Bos- 
cawen in the attack on the Baradera battery ; 
and on 25 May 1741 was promoted by Ver- 
non to the command of the Alderney bomb. 
In November 1742 he was appointed to the 
Hawk sloop, in which, and afterwards in the 
Success, he was employed on the home station 
and in convoy service to America. In 1745 
he was posted to the command of the Wager, 
in which he took out a large convoy to New- 
foundland. In November he was at Boston, 
where, by pressing some seamen contrary to 
colonial custom, he got into a troublesome 
dispute, ending in a serious fray, in which 
two men were killed. The boatswain of the 
Wager was arrested on a charge of murder, 
was convicted, and sentenced to death ; the 
sentence, however, does not appear to have 
been carried out. Forrest afterwards went 
to the West Indies, where, in the following 
year, he captured a Spanish privateer of 
much superior force. In 1755 he commanded 
the Rye, in which he was again sent to the 
West Indies, and in 1757 was moved into 
+he Augusta of 60 guns. In October he 
was detached, with two other ships Dread- 
nought and Edinburgh under his command, 
to cruise off Cape Francois ; and on the 21st 
fell in with a powerful French squadron of 
four ships of the line and three heavy frigates 
accompanying the large convoy for which he 
was on the look-out. After a short confer- 
ence with his colleagues said to have lasted 
just half a minute Forrest determined on 
attempting to carry out his orders, and bore 
down on the enemy. It was gallantly done, 
but the odds against him were too great to 
permit him to achieve any success ; and after 
a sharp combat for upwards of two hours, the 
two squadrons parted, each disabled. The 


French returned to the Cape, where they re- 
fitted and then proceeded on their voyage, 
while Forrest went back to Jamaica. On 
24 Dec., being detached singly offPetit Guave, 
he cleverly bagged the whole of a fleet of eight 
merchant ships, capturing in the night the 
sloop of war which was escorting them, and 
using her as a tender against her own con- 
voy. In August 1759 he took the Augusta 
to England, and on paying her off, in April 
1760, commissioned the Centaur, one of the 
ships taken by Boscawen off Lagos in the 
preceding year. After a few months with 
the grand fleet in the Bay of Biscay, he went 
out to Jamaica, where, by the death of Rear- 
admiral Holmes in November 1761, he was 
left senior officer. On this he moved into 
the Cambridge, hoisted a broad pennant, and 
took on himself both the duties and privi- 
leges of commander-in-chief, till Sir James 
Douglas [q. v.], coming from the Leeward 
Islands in April 1762, summarily dispossessed 
him. He returned to England, passenger in 
a merchant ship, when, on reporting himself 
to the admiralty, he was told that his con- 
duct in constituting himself commodore was 
' most irregular and unjustifiable ; ' and that 
the officers whom he had promoted would 
not be confirmed. This led to a long cor- 
respondence, in which the admiralty so far 
yielded as to order him to be reimbursed for 
the expenses he had incurred, though with- 
out sanctioning the higher rate of pay. In 

1769, however, he was sent out to the same 
station as commander-in-chief, with his broad 
pennant in the Dunkirk. He enjoyed the 
appointment but a short time, dying at Ja- 
maica within the twelvemonth, on 26 May 

1770. He married a daughter of Colonel 
Lynch of Jamaica, by whom he had a large 
family. Mrs. Forrest survived her husband 
many years, and died in 1804 at the age of 



[Naval Chronicle, xxv. 441 (with a portrait) ; 
Charnock's Biog. Navalis, v. 380 ; Beateon's Nav. 
and Mil. Memoirs ; official letters and other docu- 
ments in the Public Kecord Office.] J. K. L. 

FOKREST, EBENEZER (/. 1774), at- 
torney, resided at George Street, York Build- 
ings, London, and was intimate with Hogarth 
and John Rich, proprietor of the Lincoln's 
Inn Theatre. He was the father of Theo- 
dosius Forrest [q. v.] His opera entitled 
' Momus turn'd Fabulist, or Vulcan's Wed- 
ding,' was performed at the Lincoln's Inn 
Theatre on 3 Dec. 1729 and some subsequent 
nights. He also wrote ' An Account of what 
seemed most remarkable in the five days' 
peregrination of the five following persons, 
viz. Messrs. Tothall, Scott, Hogarth, Thorn- 
hill, and F. Begun on Saturday, 27 May 
1732, and finished on the 31st of the same 
month,' London, 1782 (illustrated with plates 
by Hogarth) : reprinted with W. Gostling's 
Hudibrastic version, London, 1872, 4to. 

[Gent. Mag. 1824, i. 410, 581-2; Brit. Mus. 
Cat.] J- M. E. 

1533?), Scottish, martyr, is referred to by 
Knox as ' of Linlithgow,' and Foxe describes 
him as a ' young man born in Linlithgow.' 
David Laing, in his edition of Knox's ' Works,' 
conjectures that he may have been the son 
of 'Thomas Forrest of Linlithgow' men- 
tioned in the treasurer's accounts as receiving 
various sums for the ' bigging of the dyke 
about the paliss of Linlithgow.' He also 
states that the name ' Henricus Forrus ' occurs 
in the list of students who became bachelors 
of arts at the university of Glasgow in 1518, 
but supposes with more likelihood that he 
was identical with the ' Henriccus Forrest ' 
who was a determinant in St. Leonards Col- 
lege, St. Andrews, in 1526, which would 
account for his special interest in the fate of 
Patrick Hamilton. Forrest was a friar of 
the order of Benedictines. Knox states that 
Forrest suffered martyrdom for no other crime 
than having in his possession a New Testa- 
ment in English ; but Foxe gives as the chief 
reason that he had ' affirmed and said that 
Mr. Patrick Hamilton died a martyr, and 
that his articles were true.' Before being 
brought to trial Forrest, according to Knox, 
underwent ' a long imprisonment in the sea 
tower of St. Andrews.' Foxe and Spotiswood 
both state that the evidence against him was 
insufficient until a friar, Walter Laing, was 
sent on purpose to confess him, when he un- 
suspiciously revealed his sentiments in regard 
to Patrick Hamilton. According to Foxe 
he was first degraded before the ' clergy in 
a green place,' described, with apparently a 

somewhat mistaken knowledge of localities, 
as 'being between the castle of St. Andrews 
and another place called Monimail.' He was 
then condemned as a heretic and burned at 
the north church stile of the abbey church of 
St. Andrews, ' to the intent that all the people 
of Anguishe ' (Angus or Forfar, on the north 
side of the Firth of Tay) ' might see the fire, 
and so might be the more feared from falling 
into the like doctrine.' When brought to the 
place of execution he is said to have exclaimed, 
' Fie on falsehood ! fie on false friars, revealers 
of confession ! ' Calderwood supposes the mar- 
tyrdom to have occurred in 1529 or the year 
following, but as Foxe places it within five 
years after Hamilton's martyrdom, and Knox 
refers to Forrest's ' long imprisonment,' it in 
all probability took place in 1532 or 1533. 

[Foxe's Acts and Monuments ; Calderwood's 
History of the Church of Scotland, i. 96-7; 
Knox's Works, ed. Laing, i. 52-3, 516-18 ; 
Spotiswood's History of the Church of Scotland, 
i. 129-30.] T. F. H. 

FORREST, JOHN (1474 P-1538), martyr. 
[See FOBEST.] 

FORREST, ROBERT (1789 P-1852), 

sculptor, was born in 1788 or 1789 at Car- 
luke, Lanarkshire. He was an entirely self- 
taught artist, and was brought up as a stone- 
mason in the quarries of Clydesdale. His first 
public work was the statue of the ' Wallace 
wight ' which occupies a niche in the steeple 
of Lanark parish church, and was erected in 
1817. He was subsequently employed to 
cut the colossal figure of the first Viscount 
Melville which surmounts the pillar in the 
centre of St. Andrew Square, Edinburgh, 
and he was also the sculptor of the statue of 
John Knox in the necropolis of Glasgow. 
One of his best works is the statue of Mr. 
Ferguson of Raith at Haddington ; it was 
erected in 1843. In 1832 Forrest opened 
his public exhibition of statuary on the Cal- 
ton Hill with four equestrian statues, under 
the patronage of the Royal Association of 
Contributors to the National Monuments. 
In progress of time the gallery was extended 
to about thirty groups, all executed by For- 
rest. He died at Edinburgh, after an illness 
of about six weeks' duration, 29 Dec. 1852. 

[Eedgrave's Diet, of Artists; Builder, 1853, 
p. 32.] L. F. 

author and lawyer, son of Ebenezer Forrest 
[q. v.l, a solicitor, author of ' Momus turn'd 
Fabulist,' and a friend of Rich and Hogarth, 
was born in London in 1728. He studied draw- 
ing under Lambert, one of the first landscape- 
painters of his time, and until a year or two 


before his death annually (1762-81) ex- 
hibited at the Royal Academy. He then 
entered his father's business ; and became a 
steady solicitor, retaining, however, his artis- 
tic tastes. He had a passion for music, and 
could catch and reproduce an air with sur- 
prising quickness. He was a member of the 
Beefsteak Club, and his society was prized 
by Garrick and Colman. As solicitor to 
Covent Garden Theatre, Forrest was thrown 
.into close relations with the dramatic pro- 
fession, and he composed a musical entertain- 
ment. ' The Weathercock,' produced at Covent 
Garden 17 Oct. 1775, said by Genest to be 
' poor stuff.' As a writer of songs, however, 
Forrest was more successful. He is said to 
have been exceedingly generous, a man of 
strict integrity, a good judge in matters of art, 
and an agreeable and entertaining companion. 
He earned considerable reputation for the 
rendering of his own ballads. Towards the 
close of his life Forrest was afflicted with a 
painful nervous disorder, attended with a 
black jaundice. He was thrown into a con- 
dition of deep melancholy, and on 5 Nov. 
1784 killed himself at his chambers in George 
Street, York Buildings, London. Forrest had 
a plentiful income, and was very charitable. 
A portrait of Forrest, with Francis Grose 
the antiquary [q. v.] and Hone, was painted 
by Dance and engraved by Bartolozzi. 

[Baker's Biographia Dramatica, 1812 ; Gent. 
Mag. 1784, p. 877 (article by Thomas Tyers), 
and 1824, i. 582 ; Nichols's Lit. Anecd. iii. 659 ; 
Genest's Hist, of the Stage, v. 512 ; Graves's 
Diet, of Artists.] G. B. S. 

FORREST, THOMAS (d. 1540), Scottish 
martyr. [See FOKKET.] 

FORREST, THOMAS (fl. 1580), was 
author of ' A Perfite Looking Glasse for all 
Estates : most excellently and eloquently set 
forth by the famous and learned Oratour 
Isocrates, as contained in three Orations of 
Morall Instructions, written in the Greeke 
tongue, of late yeeres: Translated into Latine 
by ... Hieronimus Wolfius. And nowe 
Englished . . . with sundrie examples of 
pithy sentences, both of Princes and Philo- 
sophers, gathered and collected out of divers 
writers, Coted in the margent, approbating 
the Author's intent. . . . Imprinted in New- 
gate Market, within the new Rents, at the 
Signe of the Lucrece, 1580.' The volume is 
a quarto of forty-six leaves, and is dedicated 
by the translator, Tho. Forrest, to Sir Thomas 
Bromley. There are also prefixed ' An 
Epistle to the Reader;' 'The Author's En- 
chomion upon Sir Thomas Bromley ; ' ' J. D. 
in Commendation of the Author ; "In Praise 

of the Author, S. Norreis;' 'The Booke to 
the Reader.' The volume is probably ' cer- 
ten orations of Isocrates ' found in the Sta- 
tioners' Register under date 4 Jan. 1580. 
Ritson puts Forrest among the English 
poets because of the ' Enchomion ' above 

[Ames's Typogr. Antiq. (Herbert), p. 997; 
Kitson's Bibl. Poet. p. 209 ; Arber's Stationers' 
Registers, ii. 165; Hunter's Chorus Vatum, iii. 
296 (Addit. MS. Brit. Mus. 24489).] K. B. 

FORREST, THOMAS (1729 P-1802 ?), 
navigator, appears to have served for some 
time in the royal navy, and to have been a 
midshipman in 1745. It was probably after 
the peace in 1748 that he entered the service 
of the East India Company, and different 
passages in his own writings show that he 
was employed in Indian seas from 1753 
almost continuously, though he implies that 
during part of the seven years' war he was 
on board the Elizabeth, a 64-gun ship, in 
the squadron under Admiral Steevens. His 
name, however, does not appear in the Eliza- 
beth's pay-book. In 1762 he had command 
of a company's ship, from which he seems 
to date his experience when, writing in 1782, 
he spoke of himself as having above twenty 
years' practice in 'the country trade;' as 
having made fifteen voyages from Hindostan 
to the East, and four voyages from England 
to India, and thus being permitted to claim 
some knowledge of the winds, weather, and 
sailing routes of the station, adding, however, 
that of the Persian and Red Sea Gulfs he 
knew little, never having been there. With 
this accumulation of practical learning he 
published at Calcutta ' A Treatise on the Mon- 
soons in East India' (sm. 4to, 1782), a 2nd 
edition of which was published in London 
(12mo, 1783), a little book of interesting ex- 
periences and exploded theories. In 1770 he 
was engaged in forming the new settlement 
at Balambangan, which had been recom- 
mended by Alexander Dalrymple [q. v.], and 
in 1774, when the council, in accordance with 
their instructions, and with a view to deve- 
loping new sources of trade, were desirous of 
sending an exploring party in the direction 
of New Guinea, Forrest offered his services, 
which were readily accepted. He sailed on 
9 Dec. in the Tartar, a native boat of about 
ten tons burden, with two English officers 
and a crew of eighteen Malays. In this, ac- 
companied during part of the time by two 
small boats, he pushed his explorations as far 
as Geelvink Bay in New Guinea, examin- 
ing the Sulu Archipelago, the south coast 
of Mindanao, Mandiolo, Batchian, and more 
especially Waygiou, which he first laid down 




on the chart with some approach to accuracy, 
and returned to Achin in March 1776. The 
voyage was one of examination and inquiry 
rather than of discovery, and the additions 
made to geographical knowledge were cor- 
rections of detail rather than startling no- 
velties ; but the tact with which Forrest had 
conducted his intercourse with the natives, 
and the amount of work done in a crazy boat 
of ten tons, deservedly won him credit as a 
navigator. He published a detailed account 
of the voyage, under the title, 'A Voyage to 
New Guinea and the Moluccas from Balam- 
bangan . . . during the years 1774-5-6 '(4to, 
1779), with a portrait. In December 1782 
Forrest was employed by the governor-ge- 
neral, Warren Hastings, to gain intelligence 
of the French fleet, which had left the coast 
of India, and evaded the observation of Sir 
Edward Hughes [q.v.], the English com- 
mander-in-chief. It was believed that it had 
gone to Mauritius. Forrest found it at Achi n, 
and bringing back the information to Vizaga- 
patam, just before the return of the French, 
saved many country vessels from falling into 
their hands. In the following June he sailed 
again to survey the Andaman Islands, but 
falling to leeward of them, passed through 
the Preparis Channel to the Tenasserim coast, 
which he examined southwards as far as 
Quedah ; the account of the voyage, under 
the title, 'A Journal of the Esther Brig, Capt. 
Thomas Forrest, from Bengal to Quedah, in 
1783,' was afterwards edited by Dalrymple, 
and published at the charge of the East 
India Company (4to, 1789). In 1790 he 
made a fuller examination of the same coast 
and of the islands lying off it, in, as he dis- 
covered, a long row, leaving a sheltered pas- 
sage 125 miles long between them and the 
main land, to which he gave the name of 
Forrest Strait, by which it is still known. 
The results of this voyage were published as 
' A Voyage from Calcutta to the Mergui Ar- 
chipelago' (4to, 1792), with which were in- 
cluded some minor essays and descriptive 
accounts, as well as a reprint of the ' Treatise 
on the Monsoons.' This volume is dedicated 
to William Aldersey, president of the board 
of trade in Bengal, by his ' most affectionate 
cousin,' with which solitary exception we 
have no information as to his family. Forrest 
is said to have died in India about 1802. 

[Forrest's own writings, as enumerated above, 
seem the only foundation of the several memoirs 
that have been written, the best of which is that 
in the Biographic Universelle (Supplement). 
Some letters to Warren Hastings in 1784-5 in 
Addit. MSS. 29164 f. 171, 29166 f. 135, 29169 
f. 118, show that before 1790 he had already 
examined the Mergui Islands.] J. K. L. 

catholic priest and poet, is stated by Wood 
to have been a relative of John Forest [q.v.], 
the Franciscan friar. He received his edu- 
cation at Christ Church, Oxford, and he was 
present at the discussions held at Oxford in 
1530, when Henry VIII desired to procure 
the judgment of the university in the matter 
of the divorce. He appears to have attended 
the funeral of Queen Catherine of Arragon 
at Peterborough in 1536. He was an eye- 
witness of the erection of Wolsey's college 
upon the site of the priory of St. Frideswide, 
and there can be no doubt that he was ap- 
pointed to some post in the college as re- 
founded by the King, as his name occurs 
among the pensioned members after its disso- 
lution as the recipient of an annual allowance 
of 6/. in 1553 and 1556. In 1548 he had 
dedicated his version of the treatise 'De re- 
gimine Principum' to the Duke of Somerset, 
as also in 1551 his paraphrase of some of the 
psalms. This continued choice of patron, 
coupled with the character of the latter work, 
affords some ground for Warton's suspicion 
that Forrest ' could accommodate his faith to 
the reigning powers.' In 1553, however, he 
came forward with warm congratulations on 
the accession of Mary, and, being in priest's 
orders, he was soon afterwards nominated 
one of the queen's chaplains. Among Browne 
Willis's manuscript collections for Bucking- 
hamshire, preserved in the Bodleian Library, 
double entries are found of the presentation 
of William Forest by Anthony Lamson on 
1 July 1556 to the vicarage of Bledlow in 
that county ; but in Lipscomb's 'Bucking- 
hamshire' the name of the presentee is given 
as William Fortescue, and the discrepancy 
has not yet been cleared up. In 1558 Forrest 
presented to Queen Mary his poem of ' The 
Second Gresyld.' Of his career after the 
death of his royal mistress nothing certain 
is known. He was probably protected by 
Thomas Howard, duke of Norfolk, to whom 
he dedicated his 'History of Joseph' shortly 
before the duke's execution in 1572. Forrest 
remained in the same faith to the last. This 
is shown by the fact that the two dates 
'27 Oct. 1572, per me Guil. Forrestum,' and 
< 1581 ' occur in a volume (Harl. MS. 1703) 
containing a poem which in a devout tone 
treats of the life of the Blessed Virgin and of 
the Immaculate Conception. But, although 
a Roman catholic, he was not papal, and in 
one of his poems he speaks strongly of the 
right of each national branch of the church to 
enjoy self-government. He was well skilled 
in music, and had a collection of the choicest 
compositions then in vogue. These manu- 
scripts came into the hands of Dr. Heather, 



founder of the musical praxis and professorship 
at Oxford, and are preserved in the archives 
belonging to that institution. Forrest was 
on terms of friendship with Alexander Bar- 
clay [q. v.], the translator of Brant's ' Ship of 
Pools, of whom he gives some interesting 
particulars. There is a portrait of him in the 
Royal MS. 17 D. iii. He is represented as a 
young man in a priest's gown, and with long 
flowing hair not tonsured (NICHOLS, Literary 
Jlemains of Edward VI, i. p. cccxxxv). 

His poetical works are: 1. 'The History 
of Joseph the Chaiste composed in balladde 
royall crudely ; largely derived from the 
Testaments of the Twelve Patriarchs. In 
two parts.' Dedicated to Thomas Howard, 
duke of Norfolk, and dated as having been 
finished 11 April 1569, but said by the au- 
thor to have been originally written twenty- 
four years before. The first part, written on 
vellum, is in the library of University Col- 
lege, Oxford, and the second part is in the 
Royal Library, British Museum, 18 C. xiii. 
A copy of both parts in one folio volume of 
286 pages, written on paper, is in the posses- 
sion of the Rev. J. E. A. Fenwick, at Thirle- 
stane House, Cheltenham, being in the col- 
lection of Sir Thomas Phillipps, which that 
gentleman inherited. 2. ' A Notable Warke 
called the pleasant Poesie of princelie Prac- 
tise, composed of late by the simple and un- 
learned sir William Forrest, priest, much 
part collected out of a booke entitled the 
" Governance of Noblemen," which booke the 
wyse philosopher Aristotle wrote to his dis- 
ciple Alexander the Great,' Royal MS. in 
British Museum, 17 D. iii. This work, written 
in 1548, and dedicated to the Duke of Somer- 
set, was intended, when sanctioned by him, 
for the use of Edward VI. A long extract 
from it is printed in ' England in the Reign 
of Henry VIII. Starkey's Life and Letters ' 
(Early English Text Society), 1878, pt. i. 
p. Ixxix seq. The treatise referred to in the 
title, 'De regimine Principum,' was written, 
not by Aristotle, but by ^Cgidius Romanus. 
3. A metrical version of some of the Psalms, 
written in 1551, and also dedicated to the 
Duke of Somerset. In the Royal Library, 
British Museum, 17 A. xxi. 4. ' A New Bal- 
lade of the Marigolde. Imprinted at London 
in Aldersgate Street by Richard Lant ' [1553]. 
Verses on the accession of Queen Mary. A 
copy of the original broadside is in the library 
of the Society of Antiquaries (LEMON, Cata- 
logue of Broadsides, p. 12). The ballad was 
reprinted bv Park in the second edition of 
the < Harleian Miscellany ' (1813), x. 253. 
5. Pater Noster and Te Deum, versified as a 
prayer and a thanksgiving for Queen Mary. 
In the first edition of Foxe's ' Acts and Monu- 

ments ' (1563), pp. 1139-40. 6. ' A true and 
most notable History of a right noble and 
famous Lady, produced in Spain, entitled 
The Second Gresyld, practised not long out 
of this time, in much part Tragedious, as 
delectable both to Hearers and Readers,' 
folio. In the manuscripts of Anthony a 
"Wood in the Bodleian Library No. 2, being 
the copy presented by the author to Queen 
Mary. It was given to Wood by Ralph 
Sheldon of Weston Park, Warwickshire. 
The work, which was finished 25 June 1558, 
is a narrative in verse of the divorce of 
Queen Catherine of Arragon. Wood extracted 
some passages for his English 'Annals of the 
University of Oxford.' These are printed in 
Gutch's edition of the 'Annals' (1796), ii. 
47, 115. The whole of the ninth chapter was 
contributed by Dr. Bliss in 1814 to Sir S. E. 
Brydges's ' British Bibliographer,' iv. 200. 
The entire poem has since been printed by 
the Roxburghe Club, with the title of ' The 
History of Grisild the Second,' London, 1875, 
4to, under the editorial supervision of the 
Rev. W. D. Macray, rector of Ducklington, 
Oxfordshire, who remarks that Forrest's 
poems, ' however prosaic under the form of 
verse, are all of them full of interest, alike 
as illustrations of the history and manners 
of his times, and as illustrations of language.' 
7. 'An Oration consolatorye to Queen Marye.' 
At the end of the preceding work. 8. Life 
of the Blessed Virgin Mary, being a poem in 
praise of her and in honour of the Immacu- 
late Conception, followed by miscellaneous, 
moral, and religious verses, dated from 1572 
to 1581. In Harl. MS. 1703. This appears 
to be the volume described by Wood as having 
been in the possession of the Earl of Ayles- 

[Memoir by Macray ; Wood's Athense Ox on. 
(Bliss), i. 297; Warton's English Poetry (1840), 
iii. 257 ; Dodd's Church Hist. i. 515 ; Tanner's 
Bibl. Brit. p. 292 ; Addit. MS. 24490, f. 192 b ; 
Foxe's Acts and Monuments, ed. Townsend, vii. 
124; Kitson's Bibl. Poetica, p. 209; Cal. State 
Papers, Dom. Eliz. 1591-4, p. 297.] T. C. 

tist, best known under the name of ALFEED 
CROWQTJILL (1804-1872), younger brother of 
Charles Robert Forrester [q. v.], was born 
in London on 10 Sept. 1804, and educated 
at a private school in Islington. Although 
connected with his brother in business for 
many years, he was never a sworn notary, 
and in 1839 took the earliest opportunity of 
retiring from his connection with the city. 
In 1822 he wrote for the ' Hive ' and in 1823 
for the ' Mirror,' which was then under the 
editorship of John Timbs. He next applied 



himself to the study of drawing and model- 
ling, as well as to wood and steel engraving. 
The two brothers were always on the most 
intimate and friendly terms, and the elder's 
novel, ' Castle Baynard,' published in 1824, 
bore the following inscription, ' To Alfred, 
this little volume is dedicated by his affec- 
tionate brother, the author.' A. H. Forrester 
furnished the illustrations to his brother's 
' Absurdities ' in 1827, and to his contribu- 
tions to Bentley's ' Miscellany ' in 1840-1, 
when the pseudonym of Alfred Crowquill 
was conjointly used by the writer and the 
artist. The best of A. H. Forrester's illustra- 
tive work, mostly designs on wood, were exe- 
cuted for Bentley, and afterwards reappeared 
in the ' Phantasmagoria of Fun.' He was 
also the writer of burlesques, drew panto- 
mimic extravaganzas for the pictorial papers, 
and exhibited pen-and-ink sketches in the 
miniature room of the Roval Academy in 
184_5 and 1846. About 1843 C. R. Forrester 
retired from literary life, and from that time 
onward the other brother used the name Al- 
fred Crowquill as sole representative of the 
previous partnership, and owing to his more 
numerous works and to his much longer life 
came at last to be considered as the only 
Alfred Crowquill, his elder brother being 
almost completely forgotten. For a time he 
contributed sketches to ' Punch,' where his 
work will be found in vols. ii. iii. and iv., 
and then went over to the ' Illustrated Lon- 
don News ' as a member of the literary and 
pictorial staff. As a writer and as an illus- 
trator of his own writings he was very popu- 
lar ; upwards of twenty works came from 
his pen, many of them being children's books. 
For some years the London pantomimes were 
indebted to him for designs, devices, and 
effects. He supplied some of the woodcuts 
to Chambers's ' Book of Days,' he was one of 
the illustrators of Miss Louisa H. Sheridan's 
'Comic Offering,' 1831, &c., and he was the 
designer in 1839 of the cover for 'Hood's 
Own.' In 1851 he modelled a statuette of 
the Duke of Wellington, which he produced 
a fortnight before the duke's death and pre- 
sented to Queen Victoria and the allied so- 
vereigns. At the time when he originally 
started as an artist there was not much com- 
petition, and he consequently found constant 
work. He was inferior in many respects to 
Kenny Meadows, although a useful and in- 
genious man, and many of his works have 
enjoyed a considerable amount of popularity. 
He died at 3 Portland Place North, Clap- 
ham Road, London, 26 May 1872, and was 
buried in Norwood cemetery on 31 May. 
The works mentioned below were written by 
Forrester and contain illustrations bv him- 

self: 1. A. Crowquill's 'Guide to Watering- 
Places,' 1839. 2. ' Sketches of Pumps, 
bandied by R. Cruikshank, with some Tem- 
perate Spouting by A. Crowquill,' 1846. 3. ' A 
good Natural Hint about California,' 1849. 
4. ' A Missile for Papists, a few Remarks on 
the Papacy, by the Ghost of Harry the Eighth's 
Fool,' 1850. 5. ' Gold, a Legendary Rhyme,' 
1850. 6. ' A Bundle of Crowquills, dropped 
by A. Crowquill in his Eccentric Flights over 
the Fields of Literature,' 1854. 7. ' Fun,' 
1854. 8. ' Picture Fables,' 1854. 9. ' Gruf- 
fel Swillendrinken, or the Reproof of the 
Brutes,' 1856. 10. 'The Little Pilgrim,' 
1856. 11. ' Tales of Magic and Meaning,' 
1856. 12. 'Fairy Tales,' 1857. 13. ' A New 
Story Book, comprising the Good Boy and 
Simon and his Great Acquaintance,' 1858. 
14. 'Honesty and Cunning/1859. 15. 'Kind- 
ness and Cruelty, or the Grateful Ogre,' 1859. 
16. 'The Red Cap,' 1859. 17. 'The Two 
Sparrows,' 1859. 18. ' What Uncle told us,' 
1861. 19. ' Fairy Footsteps, or Lessons from 
Legends,' 1861 (with Kenny -Meadows). 
20. 'Tales for Children,' 1863. 21. 'Sey- 
mour's Humorous Sketches, illustrated in 
Prose and Verse,' 1866. 22. ' The Two Pup- 
pies,' 1870. 23. ' The Boys and the Giants,' 
1870. 24. 'The Cunning Fox,' 1870. 25. 'Dick 
Do-little, the Idle Sparrow,' 1870. 26. 'The 
Pictorial Grammar,' 1875. 

In the following list the works were illus- 
trated by A. Crowquill, sometimes in con- 
junction with other artists: 27. 'Ups and 
Downs,' 1823. 28. ' Der Freischiitz Tra- 
vestied,' 1824. 29. 'Paternal Pride,' 1825. 
30. ' Despondency and Jealousy,' 1825 (with 
G. Cruikshank and others). 31. ' Eccentric 
Tales, by W r . F. von Kosewitz ' (i.e. C. R. 
Forrester), 1827. 32. ' Absurdities, in Prose 
and Verse,' by C. R. Forrester, 1827. 

33. ' Faust, a Serio-comic Poem,' 1834. 

34. ' Leaves from my Memorandum Book,' 
1834. 35. 'The Tour of Dr. Syntax,' 1838. 
30. ' Comic Latin Grammar,' 1840 (with J. 
Leech). 37. ' The Vauxhall Papers,' edited 
by Alfred Bunn," a periodical, 1841, 1 vol. 

38. ' The Sea Pie,' a periodical, 1842, 1 vol. 

39. ' Phantasmagoria of Fun,' by C. R. For- 
rester ; edited and illustrated by A. Crow- 
quill, 1843, 2 vols. 40. 'Beauty and the 
Beast,' by Albert R. Smith, 1843. 41. ' A 
Comic Arithmetic,' 1844. 42. 'Woman's 
Love,' by G. H. Rodwell, 1846. 43. ' The 
Wanderings of a Pen and Pencil,' by F. P. 
Palmer, 1840, eight numbers. 44. ' The Fx- 
citement, a Tale of our Time,' 1 849. 45. ' The 
Book of Ballads,' by Bon Gaultier, 1849 
(with Doyle and Leech). 46. ' The Sisters,' 
by H. Cockton, 1851. 47. ' Little Plays for 
Little Actors,' by Miss J. Corner, 1856. 



48. 'Aunt Mayor's Nursery Tales,' 1856. 

49. ' Merry Pictures/ by the comic hands of 
H. K. Browne, Crowquill, and others, 1857. 

50. ' Fairy Tales,' by Cuthbert Bede, 1858. 

51. 'Paul Prendergast'(i.e. P. Lee), 1859. 

52. 'The Travels of Baron Munchausen,' 

1859. 53. ' The Marvellous Adventures of 
Master Tyll Owlglass,' by T. Eulenspiegel, 

1860. 54. ' Strange surprising Adventures 
of Gooroo Simple,' by C. J. Beschius, 1861. 
55. ' Pickwick Abroad,' by G. W. McArthur 
Reynolds, 1864 (with K. Meadows and On- 
whyn). 56. ' Little Tiny's Picture Book,' 
1871. 57. ' Nelson's Picture Books for the 
Nursery,' 1873, &c. 58. ' Illustrated Musical 
Annual ' (with H. K. Browne and K. Mea- 
dows). 59. ' Six Plates of Pickwickian 
Sketches.' 60. There are many plates by 
A. Crowquill in ' A Collection of Caricatures,' 
1734-1844, press mark Tab. 524 in the Bri- 
tish Museum. 

[Illustrated Keview, 15 June 1872, pp. 737- 
742, with portrait; Men of the Time, 1872, p. 
376; Bentley's Miscellany, 1846, xix. 87, 99, 
with portrait ; Gent. Mag. May 1850, p. 545 ; 
Everitt's English Caricaturists, 1886, pp. 194, 
368-71, 410; Allibone, i. 455.] G. C. B. 

(1803-1850), miscellaneous writer, son of 
Robert Forrester of 5 North Gate, Royal Ex- 
change, London, public notary, was born in 
London in 1803, and succeeded his father as 
a notary, having his place of business at 
5 North Piazza, Royal Exchange ; he after- 
wards removed to 28 Royal Exchange, where 
he remained till his death. His profession af- 
forded him abundant means, and he employed 
his money and his leisure in the pursuit of 
literature. Adopting the pseudonym of ' Hal 
Willis, student at law,' he brought out in 
1824 ' Castle Baynard, or the Days of John,' 
and in 1827 a second novel entitled ' Sir Ro- 
land, a Romance of the Twelfth Century,' 
4 vols. In 1826-7 he contributed to ' The 
Stanley Tales, Original and Select, chiefly Col- 
lected by Ambrose Marten,' 5 vols. ' Absur- 
dities in Prose and Verse, written and illus- 
trated by Alfred Crowquill,' appeared in 1827, 
the illustrations being by Alfred Henry For- 
rester [q. v.], so that in this instance, as well 
as on succeeding occasions, the two brothers 
were conjointly using the same name. C. R. 
Forrester also wrote for ' The Ladies' Mu- 
seum,' his first article in it being ' The Ladye 
of the Sun,' in the issue for April 1830, pp. 
187-92. ' The Old Man's Plaint, by the author 
of " Absurdities," ' in Miss L. H. Sheridan's 
' Comic Offering,' 1832, p. 70, was his first 
appearance in that annual. Under the editor- 
ship of Theodore Hook he was on the staff 

of the ' New Monthly Magazine ' in 1837 
and 1838, where he used the name of Alfred 
Crowquill, and inserted his first contribu- 
tion, ' Achates Digby/ in xlix. 93-8. At 
the close of 1839 he became connected with 
' Bentley's Miscellany/ in which magazine his 
writings are sometimes signed A. Crowquill 
and at other times Hal Willis, the former 
being illustrated by his brother. ' Mr. Cro- 
codile/ in viii. 49-53 (1840), was the first of 
his long series of papers. In 1843 a selection 
of his articles in those two magazines was 
brought out in 2 vols. under the title of 
' Phantasmagoria of Fun.' He was also the 
author of 'Eccentric Tales, by W. F. von 
Kosewitz/ 1827, ' The Battle of the Annuals, 
a Fragment/ 1835, and ' The Lord Mayor's 
Fool/ 1840, the last two of which were anony- 
mous. He no doubt wrote other works, but 
his name is not found in the ' British Museum 
Catalogue ' nor in any of the ordinary books 
on English bibliography. He was a good 
English classic and well acquainted with the 
Latin, French, German, and Dutch languages. 
His writings, like his conversation, have a 
spontaneous flow of wit. He died from heart 
disease, at his residence, Beaumont Square, 
Mile End, London, 15 Jan. 1850, and left a 
widow and four children. 

[Gent. Mag. May 1850, p. 545; collected in- 
formation.] G. C. B. 

FORRESTER, DAVID (1588-1633), 
Scotch divine, appears to have been descended 
from a Stirlingshire family. His grandfather, 
William Forrester, was a burgess of Stirling, 
and he himself possessed the lands of Blair- 
fachane and Wester Mye in that county. 
Born in 1588, he studied at the university of 
St. Andrews, where he graduated as M.A. 
on 22 July 1608. Alexander, earl of Lin- 
lithgow, presented him to the church of 
Denny, and he was ordained to the pastorate 
of that parish on 3 April 1610. Three years 
afterwards he was translated to North Leith, 
his induction taking place on 16 Dec. 1613. 
He strenuously opposed the imposition of 
the five articles of Perth, and so rendered 
himself obnoxious to King James VI and 
some of the bishops. The Archbishop of St. 
Andrews, in whose diocese he served, ob- 
tained an order from court to have Forrester 
cited before the high court of commission, 
and deposed if he refused compliance ; but the 
Bishop of Glasgow, on whom the archbishop 
threw the execution of the order, declined 
the business, and Forrester gained a short 
respite. Shortly afterwards a conference took 
place between the bishops and a number of 
the nonconforming ministers, at the conclu- 
sion of which the case of Forrester was 




resumed. The archbishop informed him that 
the king desired to know if he would conform, 
but he declined to give a promise. Hereupon 
the archbishop told him he had a charge to 
depose him. But Patrick Forbes [q. v.], 
bisnop of Aberdeen, interposed, offering to 
take Forrester's deposition into his own hands. 
' For this,' said he, ' I must needs say that 
though he be not yet fully resolved, yet he 
is somewhat more tractable than when he 
came to us, and though he stand on his own 
conscience, as every good Christian should 
do, yet is he as modest, and subject to hear 
reason, as the youngest scholar in Scot- 

Forrester was thus obliged to betake him- 
self north to Aberdeen, where Bishop Forbes 
placed him in the church of Rathven, to 
which he was admitted on 20 April 1620. 
Here, however, he signalised himself by his 
energetic measures against the papists, and 
James VI again gave orders for a process 
being laid against him. Through the influ- 
ence of his wife's cousin, Sir William Alex- 
ander [q. v.] of Menstrie, afterwards first earl 
of Stirling, this was averted, and he was re- 
stored to his former charge as ' minister of 
the word of God at the north side of the 
bridge of the town of Leith,' on 20 Sept. 
1627. He died there in June 1633, in the 
forty-fifth year of his age and twenty-fourth 
of his ministry. He was twice married : first, 
on 30 Jan. 1614, to Margaret Paterson of 
Stirling, by whom he had three sons, Duncan, 
John, and George ; secondly, to Margaret, 
daughter of Robert Hamilton, brother of the 
Laird of Preston. Duncan, Forrester's eldest 
son, was one of the regents in the university 
of Edinburgh, and was served heir to his 
father on 13 Nov. 1633. 

[Caldervrood's Hist. vii. 379, 380, 407, 627 ; 
Row's Hist, pp 323, 350; Scott's Fasti Ecclesiae 
Scoticanae, i. 93, 94, iv. 698 ; Abbreviate of the 
Retours of Stirling, Nos. 125, 138, 145, &c ] 


DE FORRESTER in Portugal (1809-1861), 
merchant and wine shipper, born at Hull 
27 May 1809 of Scotch parentage, went to 
Oporto in 1831 to join his uncle, James For- 
rester, partner in the house of Offley, For- 
rester, & Webber. He early devoted himself 
to the interests of his adopted country, and 
a laborious survey of the Douro, with a view 
to the improvement of its navigation, was 
one of the principal occupations of the first 
twelve years of his residence. The result was 
the publication in 1848 of a remarkable map 
of the river from Vilvestre on the Spanish 
frontier to its mouth at St. Joao da Foz on 

a scale of 4 inches to the Portuguese league. 
Its merit was universally recognised, com- 
mendatory resolutions were voted by the 
Municipal Chamber of Oporto, the Agricul- 
tural Society of the Douro, and other public 
bodies, while its adoption as a national work 
by the Portuguese government gave it the 
stamp of official approbation. It was supple- 
mented by a geological survey and by a 
separate map of the port wine districts, re- 
printed in England in 1852 by order of a 
select committee of the House of Commons. 

In 1844 Forrester published anonymously 
a pamphlet on the wine trade, entitled ' A 
Word or two on Port Wine,' of which eight 
editions were rapidly exhausted. This was 
the first step in his endeavours to obtain a 
reform of the abuses practised in Portugal in 
the making and treatment of port wine, and 
the remodelling of the peculiar legislation by 
which the trade was regulated. To these 
abuses and to the restrictions enforced by the 
Douro Wine Company in right of a mono- 
poly created in 1756 he attributed the de- 
pression in the port wine trade. The taxation 
on export imposed by this body was exceed- 
ingly heavy, while an artificial scarcity was 
created by the arbitrary limitation of both 
the quantity and quality allowed to be ex- 
ported. The author of the pamphlet -was 
easily identified and bitterly attacked by 
the persons interested. The inhabitants of 
the wine country, however, supported him 
warmly, and he received addresses of thanks 
from 102 parishes of the Upper Douro. 

The prize of 50/. offered by Mr. Oliveira, 
M.P.,in 1851 for the best essay on Portugal 
and its commercial capabilities was awarded 
to Baron de Forrester for an admirable trea- 
tise, which went through several editions 
and is still a standard work. In 1852 he 
gave valuable evidence before the select 
committee of the House of Commons on 
the wine duties, detailing at greater length 
all the abuses summarised in his pamphlet. 
He continued to write on this and other 
practical subjects, publishing tracts on the 
vine disease, improved manufacture of olive 
oil, &c., and was awarded by the commis- 
sioners of the Universal Exhibition in Paris 
in 1855 the silver medal of the first class 
and five diplomas of honourable mention for 
the collection of publications and products 
he there exhibited. 

On 12 May 1861 the boat in which he was 
descending the Douro was swamped in one 
of the rapids, and he was drowned. The body 
was never found. The ships in Lisbon and 
Oporto hoisted their colours half-mast high 
on receipt of the news, and all public build- 
ings showed similar signs of mourning. In 



the wine country he is still remembered as 
the ' protector of the Douro.' 

An interesting sketch of his home in Oporto 
is contained in ' Les Arts en Portugal,' by 
Count Raczynski, who records a visit paid 
to him in August 1844. He left six children, 
but had been a widower for many years be- 
fore his death. There is an excellent por- 
trait of him, a large print in lithography, by 
Baugniet of London, 1848. 

He was created Baron de Forrester for life 
by the crown of Portugal, made knight com- 
mander of the orders of Christ and Isabella 
la Catolica, and received the cross of cheva- 
lier of various orders of his adopted country. 
He was member of the Royal Academies of 
Lisbon and Oporto, of the Royal Academy 
of Sciences of Turin, of the English Society 
of Antiquaries, of the Royal Geographical 
Societies of London, Paris, and Berlin, and 
received the highest gold medals reserved 
for learned foreigners by the pope and by 
the emperors of Russia, Austria, and France. 
Charles Albert, king of Piedmont, during 
his residence in Oporto, not long before his 
death, detached from his own breast the cross 
of SS. Maurice and Lazarus, worn by him 
throughout his campaigns, in order to affix 
it to the coat of Baron de Forrester. 

[Annual Kegister, 1861, ciii. 438; Gent. Mag. 
3rd ser. July 1861, ii. 88 ; private information 
from W. Offley Forrester, esq.] E. M. C. 

FORRESTER, THOMAS (1588 P-1642), 
satirist and divine, graduated A.M. at St. An- 
drews University 22 July 1608. On 10 March 
1623 the Archbishop of Glasgow recom- 
mended him for the ministry of Ayr, but the 
session reported ' that he was not a meet 
man.' Thereupon James I presented him to 
the post (10 April). About 1632 he gave 
201. to the fund for building the library at 
Glasgow University. He succeeded John 
Knox, a nephew of the reformer, as minister 
of Melrose in 1627. As an enthusiastic epi- 
scopalian, he took delight in uttering words 
and performing acts fitted to shock the feel- 
ings of presbyterians. At the assembly of 
1638 he was accused of popery, Arminianism, 
&c., and was deposed 11 Dec. 1638. He took 
his revenge in satire. A mock litany threw 
ridicule on the leading covenanters and the 
most solemn of their doings. This was pub- 
lished as ' A Satire in two parts, relating to 
public affairs, 1638-9,' in Maidment's ' Book 
of Scottish Pasquils,' 1828. An epitaph on 
Strafford, attributed to Forrester, is printed 
in Cleveland's poems. Forrester died in 1642, 
aged 54. He married Margaret Kennitie, 
who died 19 Jan. 1665-6, and had a daugh- 
ter, Marjory, who married a tailor of Canon- 

gate, Edinburgh, named James Alison. She 
obtained a pension of 201. from Charles II 
14 March 1678-9. 

[Scott's Fasti, pt. ii. p. 559 ; Chambers's Emi- 
nent Scotsmen ; A Book of Scottish Pasquils, 
1828.] W. G. B. 

FORRESTER, THOMAS (1635 P-1706), 
Scotch theologian, brother of David Forres- 
ter, a merchant and burgess of Stirling, was 
born at Stirling about 1635, and admitted 
minister of Alva in Stirling under the bishop 
in 1664. The perusal of John Brown's (1610 ?- 
1679) [q. v.] ' Apologetical Relation' led him 
to renounce episcopacy, and he became a field 
preacher. He was imprisoned in Edinburgh, 
but liberated by the indemnity of March 
1674, and was deposed on the 29th of the 
j same month. He was proclaimed a fugitive 
5 May 1684, and settled at Killearn. After 
the revolution he became in succession minis- 
ter of Killearn (1688) and of St. Andrews 
(May 1692). He refused calls to Glasgow 
and other places, and was appointed princi- 
pal of the new college at St. Andrews on 
26 Jan. 1698 (St. Mary's), in which office 
he died in November 1706. He is well 
known as one of the ablest advocates of pres- 
byterianism of his day. His principal work 
is ' The Hierarchical Bishop's Claim to a 
Divine Right tried at the Scripture Bar,' 
1699. Here he controverts Dr. Scott, in the 
second part of his ' Christian Life,' Principal 
Monro's ' Inquiry,' and Mr. Honey man's' Sur- 
vey of Naphtali.' Other works bore the 
titles of ' Rectius Instruendum,' 1684; 'A 
Vindication and Assertion of Calvin and 
Beza's Presbyterian Judgment and Prin- 
ciples,' 1692; ' Causa Episcopatus Hierarchici 
Lucifuga,' 1706. 

[Scott's Fasti, ii. 356, 391, 691 ; Wodrow's 
Hist. ; Wodrow's Analecta.] W. G. B. 

FORRET, THOMAS (d. 1540), vicar 
of Dollar, Clackmannanshire, and Scottish 
martyr, was descended from an old family 
which possessed the estate of Forret in the 
parish of Logic, Fifeshire, from the reign of 
William the Lion till the seventeenth cen- 
tury. The name is sometimes erroneously 
given as Forrest. His father had been master 
stabler to James IV. The catholic priest, Sir 
John Forret, for permitting whom to adminis- 
ter the sacrament of baptism at Swinton in 
1573 the Bishop of St. Andrews was com- 
plained against (CALDERWOOD, History, iii. 
272), was probably a near relative. After ob- 
taining a good preliminary education, Forret 
was, through the ' help of a rich lady/ sent to 
study at Cologne. On his return he became 
a canon regular in the monastery of ' Sanct 




Colmes Inche' (Inchcolm in the Firth of 
Forth). The canons having, it is said, begun 
to manifest their discontent at their daily 
allowance, the abbot, in order to divert their 
attention from their personal grievances, gave 
them the works of Augustine to study in- 
stead of the book of their foundation. Its pe- 
rusal effected a radical change in the thoughts 
of many of the recluses. ' happy and 
blessed,' afterwards said Forret, ' was that 
book by which I came to the knowledge of 
the truth!' The abbot to whom he made 
known his change of opinions advised him 
to keep his mind to himself; but Forret con- 
verted the younger canons, although 'the 
old bottels,' he said, ' would not receive the 
new wine.' Afterwards he became vicar of 
Dollar, Clackmannanshire, where he preached 
every Sunday to his parishioners on the Epis- 
tles and Gospels. As at that time in Scot- 
land no one except a black friar or grey 
friar was in the habit of preaching, the friars, 
offended at the innovation, denounced him to 
the Bishop of Dunkeld as a heretic, and one 
that ' shewed the mysteries of the Scriptures 
to the vulgar people in English.' The bishop, 
who had no interest whatever in ecclesias- 
tical controversies, remonstrated with Forret 
not only for preaching ' every Sunday,' but 
for the more serious offence of not taking the 
usual due from the parishioners when any 
one died, of ' the cow and the uppermost 
cloth,' remarking that the people would ex- 
pect others to do as he did. He advised 
Forret, therefore, if he was determined to 
preach, to preach only on ' one good Epistle 
or one good Gospell that setteth forth the 
libertie of the holie church.' On Forret ex- 
plaining that he had never found any evil 
epistle or gospel in the New or Old Testa- 
ment, then ' spake my lord stoutlie and said, 
" I thank God that I never knew what the 
Old and the New Testament was."' This 
innocent instance of devout gratitude on the 
part of the bishop gave rise to a proverb in 
Scotland : ' Ye are like the Bishop of Dun- 
keld that knew neither the new law nor 
the old law.' Forret systematically warned 
his parishioners against the sellers of indul- 
gences. He also took care specially to teach 
them the ten commandments, and composed 
a short catechism for their instruction on 
points of prime importance in Christian be- 
lief. He was in the habit of carrying bread 
and cheese in his gown sleeve to any poor 
person who was ill. He studied from six in 
the morning till twelve, and again from dinner 
till supper ; and, in order the better to hold 
his own against disputants, committed three 
chapters in Latin of the New Testament to 
memory every day, making his servant, An- 

drew Kirkie, hear him repeat them at night. 
Though several times summoned before the 
Bishop of Dunkeld to answer for his novel 
methods of discharging the duties of vicar, 
he succeeded always in giving such expla- 
nations as to escapelfurther interference until 
David Beaton succeeded to the archbishopric 
of St. Andrews in 1539. In February 1539- 
1540 he and four others were summoned be- 
fore Beaton, the bishop of Glasgow, and the 
Bishop of Dunblane as ' chief heretics and 
teachers of heresy,' and especially for being 
present at the marriage of the vicar of Tul- 
libodie, and for eating flesh in Lent at the 
marriage. For this they were on the last 
day of February burned on the Castle Hill 
of Edinburgh. 

[Foxe's Acts and Monuments ; Calderwood's 
History of the Church of Scotland, i. 124-8, 
containing the substance of the account in John 
Davidson's Catalogue of Scottish Martyrs, which 
has been lost; Lindsay's (of Pitscottie) Chro- 
nicles of Scotland.] T. F. H. 

FORSETT, EDWARD (d. 1630 ?), poli- 
tical writer, obtained from Elizabeth in 1583 
a twenty-one years' lease of the manor of 
Tyburn, Middlesex, at the annual rent of 
16/. 11s. 8d. As ajustice of peace he showed 
himself very active in the examination of 
those concerned in the Gunpowder plot, and 
he occasionally took charge of the Tower 
during the absence of the lieutenant, Sir 
William Waad. He also held a surveyor's 
place in the office of works, and in May 1609 
was commissioned to repair Oatlands Park 
(Cal. State Papers, Dom. Ser. Addenda, 
1580-1625, p. 516). On 8 June 1611 James I 
granted him the manor of Tyburn, with all 
its appurtenances, excepting the park, for the 
sum of 829/. 3s. 4cZ. (ib. 1611-18, p. 40). It 
continued in his family for several years, and 
then passed into that of Austen by the inter- 
marriage of Arabella Forsett, a grand-daugh- 
ter, with Thomas Austen (LTSOUS, Environs, 
iii. 244-5). Forsett died in 1629 or 1630, 
probably at his chamber in Charing Cross 
House. His will (P. C. C. 46, Scroope), 
dated 13 Oct. 1629, was proved 25 May 1630 
by his son, Robert Forsett, and his daughter 
Frances (d. 1668), wife of Mr. (afterwards 
Sir) Matthew Howland of Holborn and 
Streatham, Surrey, one of the king's gentle- 
men pensioners. Therein he describes him- 
self as ' of Maribone in the countie of Mid- 
dlesex esquier,' and desires to be buried in 
Marylebone Church ' in the valt there which 
I made in the chauncell for the buryinge of 
myselfe, my wife, and other such as I may 
terme or reckon to be mine.' He is the au- 
thor of two ably written pamphlets: 1. 'A 



Comparative Discovrse of the Bodies Natvral 
and Politiqve. Wherein ... is set forth the 
true forme of a Commonweale, with the dutie 
of Subiects, and the right of the Soueraigne,' 
4to, London, 1606. At page 51 he makes 
interesting allusion to the Gunpowder plot ; 
he also argues strongly for union with Scot- 
land (p. 58). 2. A Defence of the Right of 
Kings ; wherein the power of the papacie ouer 
princes is refuted, and the oath of allegeance 
iustified. (An examination of a position pub- 
lished by P. R. [i.e. Robert Parsons] in the 
preface of his treatise . . . concerning the law- 
fullnesse of the Popes power ouer princes),' 
4to, London, 1624, dedicated to James I. It 
had been written ten or twelve years pre- 
viously, and was at length published by a 
friend who signs himself ' F. B.' Wood 
confounds the above Edward Forsett with 
another of the same names, whom he de- 
scribes as ' a gentleman's son of Lincolnshire, 
and of the same family with the Forsets of 
Billesby in that county ' (Athencs Oxon. ed. 
Bliss, ii. 5). In 1590, ' or thereabouts, he be- 
came a commoner of Lincoln College, Oxford, 
aged eighteen ; but leaving that house with- 
out the honour of a degree, retired at length 
to his patrimony.' An Edward Forsett ' of 
Billesby, co. Lincoln, gent.,' was examined 
before Popham and Coke in April and May 

1600, when he was charged with being a 
papist and with denying the queen's title to 
the crown (Cal. State Papers, Dom. 1598- 

1601, pp. 423-5, 430, 434). 

j'Lysons's Environs, iii. 219, 254; Lysons's 
Middlesex Parishes, p. 2 ; Neweourt's Reper- 
torium, i. 695 ; Cal. State Papers, Dom. Ser. ; 
Overall's Remembrancia, pp. 555-6 ; Chester's 
London Marriage Licenses (Foster), col. 501 ; 
Administration Act re Ann Forsett, granted May 
1 645 (P. C. C.) ; Will of Robert Forsett, proved by 
decree, January 1 688 (P. C. C. 1 25, Exton) ; Admi- 
nistration Act re Edward Forsett. granted April 
1674 (P. C. C.) ; Will of Anne Forsett, proved 
May 1690 (P. C. C. 69, Dyke); Administration 
Act re Edward Forsett, granted October 1693 
(P. C. C.)] G. G. 

FORSHALL, JOSIAH (1795-1863), 
librarian, born at Witney in Oxfordshire on 
29 March 1795, was the eldest son of 
Samuel Forshall. He received some of his 
education at the grammar schools of Exeter 
and Chester, and in 1814 entered Exeter 
College, Oxford. He graduated B.A. in 1818, 
taking a first class in mathematics and a 
second in litt. hum. He became M.A. in 
1821, and was elected fellow and tutor of his 
college. He was appointed an assistant 
librarian in the manuscript department of 
the British Museum in 1824, and became 
keeper of that department in 1827. In 1828 

he was elected a fellow of the Royal Society. 
He edited the catalogue of the manuscripts in 
the British Museum (new series) : pt. i. the 
Arundel MSS. ; pt. ii. the Burney MSS.; 
pt. iii. index, 1834, &c. fol., and also the 
' Catalogus Codicum Manuscriptorum Ori- 
entalium [in the Brit. Mus.] : Pars Prima 
Codices Syriacos et Carshunicos amplectens,' 
1838, &c. fol. He also edited the ' Descrip- 
tion of the Greek Papyri ' in the Brit. Mus., 
pt. i. 1839, 8vo. In 1828 he had been ap- 
pointed secretary to the museum, and in 
1837 resigned his keepership in order to de- 
vote himself exclusively to his secretarial 
duties. He was examined before the select 
committee appointed to inquire into the 
museum in 1835-6, and made some curious 
revelations on the subject of patronage. As 
secretary he had much influence with the 
trustees. He was greatly opposed to any 
attempts to ' popularise ' the museum. In 
1850 he published a pamphlet entitled ' Mis- 
representations of H.M. Commissioners [who 
inquired into the British Museum in 1848-9] 
exposed,' and about that time retired from 
the museum on account of ill-health. After 
his resignation Forshall lived in retirement, 
spending much of his time, till his death, at 
the Foundling Hospital, of which he had 
been appointed chaplain in 1829. He died 
at his house in Woburn Place, London, on 
18 Dec. 1863, after undergoing a surgical 
operation. Forshall was a man of ability, 
and of a kindly disposition. Besides the 
catalogues already mentioned he published, 
in conjunction with Sir F. Madden, the well- 
known edition of ' The Holy Bible ... in 
the earliest English Versions made by John 
Wycliffe and his followers,' 1850, 4 vols. 4to. 
To this work he had given up much time 
during twenty-two years. He also published 
editions of the Gospels of St. Mark (1862, 
8vo), St. Luke (1860, 8vo), and St. John 
(1859, 8vo), arranged in parts and sections, 
and some sermons. His works ' The Lord's 
Prayer with various readings and critical 
notes ' (1864), 8vo, and ' The First Twelve 
Chapters of ... St. Matthew' in the re- 
ceived Greek text, with various readings 
and notes, 1864, 8vo, were published pos- 

[Gent. Mag. 1864, 3rd ser. xvi. 128 ; Statutes 
and Rules of the Brit. Mus. (1871); CowtanV 
Memories of the Brit. Mus. 6, 66, 69, 365-76; 
Brit. Mus. Cat.] W. W. 

FORSTER, BENJAMIN (1736-1805), 
antiquary, was born in Walbrook, London, 
7 Aug. 1736, being the third son of Thomas 
Forster, a descendant of the Forsters of 
Etherston and Bamborough, and his wife 




Dorothy, granddaughter of Benjamin Furly 
[q.v.],the friend and correspondent of Locke. 
He was educated at Hertford school and at 
Corpus Christ i College, Cambridge, where 
he had as friends and fellow-students the 
antiquarians Richard Gough and Michael 
Tyson. He graduated as B.A. in 1757, be- 
coming M.A. and fellow of his college in 
1760, and B.D. 1768. Having taken orders, 
* though he was never very orthodox,' he be- 
came in succession curate of Wanstead and 
of Broomfield and Chignal Smeely in Essex 
(1760), Lady Camden lecturer at Wakefield 
(1766), and rector of Boconnoc, Broadoak, 
and Cherichayes in Cornwall (1770). He 
died at Boconnoc parsonage on 2 Dec. 1805, 
his tomb being, by his orders, merely in- 
scribed ' Fui.' He was somewhat eccentric, 
surrounding himself with multifarious pet 
animals, to whom he was much attached; 
but his letters show him to have been a man 
of taste and learning, and a skilful antiquary. , 
These letters are preserved in Nichols's ' Lite- ; 
rary Anecdotes,' ix. 648-50, and ' Literary j 
Illustrations,' v. 280-90, while many of ; 
Gough's letters to him are in a volume pri- 
vately printed at Bruges (1845-50) by his j 
great-nephew, Thomas Ignatius Maria | 
Forster [q. v.], entitled ' Epistolarium Fors- I 
terianum. Among his other friends were 
the poets Mason and Gray. 

[Gent. Mag. 1849, xxxii. 431 ; Nichols's Il- 
lustrations, viii. 554 ; Boase and Courtney's Bibl. , 
Cornub.] G. S. B. 

(1764-1829), man of science, second son of 
Edward Forster the elder [q. v.] and his wife 
Susanna, was born in Walbrook, London, 
16 Jan. 1764. He was educated with his 
brothers at Walthamstow, and became a 
member of the firm of Edward Forster & 
Sons, Russia merchants, but attended very 
little to business. During his whole life he 
was attached to the study of science, especi- 
ally botany and electricity. He executed 
many fine drawings of fungi, communicated 
various species to Sowerby, and in 1820 pub- 
lished, with initials only, ' An Introduction 
to the Knowledge of Fungusses,' 12mo, pp. 
20, with two plates. He contributed numer- 
ous articles to the ' Gentleman's Magazine ' 
under various signatures and on various sub- 
jects, and is credited with eight scientific con- 
tributions to the 'Philosophical Magazine ' in 
the Royal Society's Catalogue. They deal 
with fungi, the electric column, and atmo- 
spheric phenomena. He invented the sliding 
portfolio, the atmospherical electroscope, and 
an orrery of perpetual motion, the last being 
a failure. Ceaseless in his exertions in the 

cause of humanity, he was one of the earliest 
advocates of emancipation, and one of the first 
members of the committee of 1788 against 
the slave trade. He also joined the societies 
for the suppression of climbing chimney- 
sweepers, for diffusing knowledge respecting 
capital punishments, for affording refuge to 
the destitute, and for repressing cruelty to 
animals, he being conscientiously opposed to 
field sports. He also framed the child-steal- 
ing act. He never married, living with his 
father and mother till their death, when he 
took a cottage called Scotts, at Hale End, 
Walthamstow, where he died 8 March 1829. 

[Gent. Mag. (1829), xcix. 279 ; Nichols's Il- 
lustrations, viii. 553 ; Epistolarium Forsteria- 
num, vol. ii. pp. xiii-xv.] G. S. B. 

FORSTER, ED WARD, the elder (1730- 
1812), banker and antiquary, the son of Tho- 
mas and brother of Benjamin Forster [q. v.], 
was born 11 Feb. 1730, and was educated at 
Felstead school. He then went to Holland 
to his relative Benjamin Furly, from whom 
he received the original letters of Locke, after- 
wards published by his grandson. He married 
Susanna Furney, a member of an old Somerset 
family, by whom he left three sons, Thomas 
Furly [q. v.], Benjamin Meggot [q. v.], and Ed- 
ward (1765-1 849) [q. v.], and a daughter Su- 
sanna Dorothy (1757-1822), who married the 
Rev. J. Dixon, rector of Bincombe, Dorset- 
shire. In 1764 he settled at Walthamstow, 
where his leisure was employed in riding in 
search of scenery and antiquities, in sketch- 
ing, etching, and writing of occasional verses. 
In 1774 he published the speeches made by 
him at the bar of the House of Commons on 
the linen and Russia trades, his only other 
publication being ' Occasional Amusements,' 
12mo, 1809, pp. 87, a volume of verse. He 
was a member of the Mercers' Company, a 
director of the London Docks, governor of 
the Royal Exchange, and, for nearly thirty 
years, of the Russia Company, in which ca- 
pacity he gave an annual ministerial dinner. 
When consulted by Pitt as to a forced paper 
currency he was offered a baronetcy. He 
died at Hoe Street, Walthamstow, 20 April 
1812. Though neither a sportsman nor a 
practical naturalist, he was very fond of 
horses and dogs, and was an ardent lover of 
nature. Addison, Swift, and Rousseau were 
his favourite authors, and Gray, Gough, and 
Tyson were among his personal friends. One 
of his letters (Epistolarium Forsterianum, 
i. 205-26) contains a reference to Gray's 
' Elegy' as early as 1751. Edward Forster 
is stated (NICHOLS, Anecdotes, viii. 596) to 
have been the introducer of bearded wheat 
from Smyrna. His portrait was painted 

Forster 13 


by Shee for the Mercers' Company in 1812, 
and by Hoppner for the Royal Exchange, 
the latter having been privately engraved in 

[Nichols's Anecdotes, vi. 331-3, 616, viii. 1, 
596, ix. 720; Gent. Mag. 1849, xxxii. 431; 
Epistolarium Forsterianum, 1845, i. 205-26, 
Bruges, privately printed.] G. S. B. 

FORSTER, EDWARD (1769-1828), mis- 
cellaneous writer, born at Colchester, Essex, 
on 11 June 1769, was the only son of Na- 
thaniel Forster, D.D. (1726P-1790) [q. v.], 
rector of All Saints in that town. After re- 
ceiving some instruction at home, he was 
placed at Norwich grammar school, then 
presided over by his father's intimate friend, 
Samuel Parr. On 5 May 1788 he matricu- 
lated at Balliol College, Oxford, where he 
divided his time in desultory study of medicine 
and law. Towards the end of 1790 he married 
Elizabeth, widow of Captain Addison, and 
youngest daughter of Philip Bedingfeld of 
Ditchingham Hall, Norfolk (BURKE, Landed 
Gentry, 4th edit. p. 80). In order to renew 
his acquaintanceship with Parr, Forster took 
a house at Hatton, Warwickshire, where he 
resided for some time ; but his wife, by whom 
he had no children, lived only four years after 
their union. He ultimately became a member 
of St. Mary Hall, Oxford, where he graduated 
B.A. on 21 Feb. 1792, and entered himself at 
Lincoln's Inn on 15 June of the same year 
(FOSTER, Alumni Oxon. p. 478). Deciding, 
however, to become a clergyman, he was or- 
dained priest by Porteus, bishop of London, 
in 1796. He proceeded M.A. on 16 Feb. 1797 
( Oxford Graduates, 1851, p. 237). On 3 Aug. 
1799, being then resident at Weston, Oxford- 
shire, he married as his second wife Lavinia, 
only daughter of Thomas Banks, R.A. [q. v.], 
the sculptor ( Gent. Mag. Ixix. pt. ii. 716). He 
now entered into an engagement with a book- 
seller, William Miller of Old Bond Street, 
subsequently of Albemarle Street, to issue 
tastefully printed editions of the works of 
standard authors, illustrated by the best 
artists of the day. His first venture was an 
edition of Jarvis's translation of ' Don Quix- 
ote,' 4 vols. 8vo, 1801, ' with a new transla- 
tion of the Spanish poetry, a new life of Cer- 
vantes, and new engravings.' Having been 
successful in this, he published some works 
of less importance, while he was preparing for 
the press a new translation, from the French 
of Antoine Galland, of the ' Arabian Nights,' 
5 vols. 4to, London, 1802, with twenty-four 
engravings from pictures by R. Smirke, R.A. 
During the same year he brought out in quarto 
an edition of ' Anacreon,' for which Bulmer 
furnished a peculiarly fine Greek type ; the 

title-plates and vignettes were from the pencil 
of Mrs. Forster. Various editions of dramatic 
authors, under the titles of ' British Drama/ 
' New British Theatre,' ' English Drama,' some 
of them illustrated with engravings from de- 
signs by the first artists, successively employed 
his time. 

In 1803 he was presented to the rectory of 
Somerville Aston, Gloucestershire, by an old 
friend, Lord Somerville, who had procured 
for him the appointment of chaplain to the 
Duke of Newcastle in 1796 ; but there being 
no parsonage-house on the living residence 
was dispensed with, and he settled in London, 
where his pulpit oratory was in demand. He 
was from 1800 to 1814 successively morning 
preacher at Berkeley and Grosvenor chapels ; 
and at Park Street and King Street chapels, 
in which he divided the duty alternately with 
Sydney Smith, Stanier Clarke, T. F. Dibdin, 
and other admired preachers. In 1805 Forster 
entered into a correspondence with Scott on 
the subject of a projected edition of Dryden, 
subsequently abandoned. Forster had at a 
later period intended publishing an ' Essay 
on Punctuation,' which he had made his espe- 
cial study, and on which his views were ap- 
proved by Scott. An elegant quarto edition 
of ' Rasselas,' with engravings by A. Raim- 
bach, from pictures painted for the purpose 
by Smirke, was issued by Forster in 1805 ; 
it was followed in 1809 by a small privately 
printed volume of verse, entitled ' Occasional 
Amusements,' which appeared without his 
name. But his chief publication was the 
splendid work in folio entitled ' The British 
Gallery of Engravings,' consisting of highly 
finished prints in the line manner from paint- 
ings by the old masters ' in the possession of 
the king and several noblemen and gentle- 
men of the United Kingdom.' Descriptions 
in English and French accompany each en- 
graving. The first number of this work ap- 
peared in 1807, and in 1813 the first volume 
only was completed, when, the expenses con- 
siderably exceeding the profits, it was found 
necessary to abandon its further publication 
altogether. After the peace of 1815 Forster 
removed with his family to Paris, his finances 
having suffered by his publications. He was 
then engaged in publishing a ' Plautus,' and 
three volumes were already completed, when 
it was stopped by the sudden death of the 
printer. About a year after he had settled 
in Paris Forster began to preach in the French 
protestant church of the Oratoire, and even- 
tually obtained a grant from the consistory 
for the use of the church when it was not re- 
quired for French service. Here he officiated 
until the autumn of 1827, when ill-health 
compelled him to resign. In 1818 he was 



appointed to the post, founded at his sug- 
gestion, of chaplain to the British embassy, 
which he continued to hold until his death. 
In 1824 the Earl of Bridgewater made him 
his chaplain. Forster died at Paris on 18 Feb. 
1828, after a lingering illness, and was buried 
in the cemetery of Pere la Chaise in that city. 
He left a widow and three daughters, for whose 
benefit were published ' Sermons preached at 
the Chapel of the British Embassy, and at 
the Protestant Church of the Oratoire, in 
Paris, by Edward Forster, with a short Ac- 
count of his Life ' [edited by Lavinia Forster], 
2 vols. 8vo, Paris, 1828. Forster had been 
elected F.R.S. on 10 Dec. 1801, and F.S.A. 
previously. He was also an active supporter 
of the Royal Institution from its commence- 
ment, was appointed honorary librarian by 
the directors, and was engaged to deliver lec- 
tures there during three following seasons. 
[Gent. Mag. i. 566.] G. G. 

FORSTER, EDWARD, the younger 
(1765-1849), botanist, was born at "Wood 
Street, Walthamstow, 12 Oct. 1765, being 
the third and youngest son of Edward the 
elder [q. v.] and Susanna Forster. He re- 
ceived his commercial education in Holland, 
and entered the banking-house of Forster, 
Lubbocks, Forster, & Clarke. He began the 
study of botany in Epping Forest at fifteen, 
and in conjunction with his two brothers he 
afterwards cultivated in his father's garden 
almost all the herbaceous plants then grown, 
and contributed the county lists of plants 
to Gough's edition of Camden (1789). In 
1796 he married Mary Jane, only daughter of 
Abraham Greenwood, who died in 1846 with- 
out surviving issue. Forster was one of the 
early fellows of theLinnean Society, founded 
in 1788, was elected treasurer in 1816, and 
vice-president in 1828. With his brothers 
he was one of the chief founders of the Re- 
fuge for the Destitute in Hackney Road. 
He died of cholera, 23 Feb. 1849, two days 
after inspecting the refuge on the occasion 
of an outbreak of that disease. He was 
buried in the family vault at Walthamstow. 
He was exceedingly temperate and methodi- 
cal, shy, taciturn, and exclusive, rising early 
to work among his extensive collections of 
obscure British plants before banking hours, 
and devoting his evenings to reading and to 
his large herbarium, collected in many parts 
of England. He resided chiefly at Hale End, 
Walthamstow, but at the time of his death 
at the Ivy House, Woodford, Essex. In 
817 he had printed a catalogue of British 
birds (Catalogue avium in insulis Britannicis 
habitantium euro, et studio Eduardi Forsteri 
jun., London, 1817, 8vo, pp. 48), but seems 

subsequently to have devoted his attention 
to plants exclusively. He printed various 
papers on critical species of British plants in 
the 'Transactions' of the Linnean Society, 
the ' Annals and Magazine of Natural His- 
tory,' and the ' Phytologist,' and collected 
material towards a flora of Essex. His know- 
ledge of British plants was critically exact, 
several species being described by him in the 
' Supplement to English Botany ' (1834). At 
his death his library and herbarium were sold, 
the latter being purchased by Robert Brown 
and presented to the British Museum. There 
is an oil painting of Forster by Eddis at the 
Linnean Society, and a lithograph by T. H. 
Maguire, published in the year of his death. 

[Gent. Mag. 1849, xxxii. 432 ; Nichols's Illus- 
trations, viii. 554; Proc.Linn. Soc. ii.39; Episto- 
larium Forsterianum, 1850, vol. ii. p. xv, Bruges, 
privately printed; Gibson's Flora of Essex, 1862, 
p. 448.] G. S. B. 

FORSTER, GEORGE (d. 1792), traveller, 
a civil servant of the East India Company 
on the Madras establishment, undertook and 
safely accomplished in 1782 the then remark- 
able feat of travelling from Calcutta overland 
into Russia. His journey took him through 
Cashmere, Afghanistan, Herat, Khorassan, 
and Mazanderan to the Caspian Sea, which 
he crossed. While in England he prepared 
for the press ' Sketches of the Mythology and 
Customs of the Hindoos ' (8vo, 84 pp., 1785), 
and on his return to India he wrote an ac- 
count of his journey, the first volume of 
which was published at Calcutta in 1790. 
In 1792 he was sent on an embassy to the 
Mahrattas, and died at Nagpore. The narra- 
tive of his journey was completed from his 
papers, and published in London by an un- 
known editor as ' A Journey from Bengal to 
England through the Northern part of India, 
Kashmire, Afghanistan, and Persia, and into 
Russia by the Caspian Sea ' (2 vols. 4to, 1798). 
He is often confused with Johann Georg Adam 
Forster [q. v.], as, for example, in ' Monthly 
Review/December 1798 (xxvii.361n. ), where, 
in a review of the journey, he is described as 
the son of Johann Reinhold Forster. 

[Authorities in text.] 

J. K. L. 

1815), orientalist, entered the Bengal service 
of the East India Company 7 Aug. 1783 (we 
may thus place his birth in or about 1766), 
became collector of Tipperah in 1793, and 
registrar of Diwani Adalat of the twenty- 
four Pargannas in 1794. To Forster belongs 
the credit of publishing the first English work 
of lexicography for the Bengali language. 
The first part of this book, the ' English and 


Bengalee Vocabulary,' appeared at Calcutta 
in 1799. It is evident, from the lengthy 
preface to this work, that it was undertaken 
on political and practical, as well as on 
literary, grounds. Bengali at this time was, 
officially at least, an unrecognised vernacu- 
lar, and Forster rightly insists on the ab- 
surdity and inconvenience of continuing to 
use Persian in courts of law. It was thus 
due to the efforts of Forster, seconded among 
Europeans by Carey, Marshman, and the other 
Serampur missionaries, and among the natives 
by Ramamohan Ray and his friends, that Ben- 
gali not only has become the official language 
of the presidency, but now ranks as the most 
prolific literary language of India. The second 
volume appeared in 1802. Mean while Forster 
was also directing his attention to Sanskrit. 
We find from the advertisement of the 'Ben- 
gali Vocabulary,' appearing in the ' Calcutta 
Gazette' 26 Aug. 1802, that he had then 
finished, and proposed to publish by subscrip- 
tion, an ' Essay on the Principles of Sanskrit 
Grammar,' and as a sequel the text and 
translation of a native grammar, the ' Mug- 
dhabodha' of Vopadeva. The latter work 
seems not to have been published ; no trace of 
it, at all events, is to be found in the ordinary 
bibliographical works on the subject. The 
essay finally appeared in 1810, and from its 
preface we learn that it was submitted in 
manuscript to the ' College Council ' in 1804, 
at which time ' none of the elaborate works 
on Sanskrit by Mr. Colebrooke, Mr. Carey, 
or Mr. Wilkins had made their appearance.' 
It is a laborious work, not, indeed, calculated 
to attract students to the pursuit of oriental 
learning, but abounding in tabular and statis- 
tical information, founded on the intricate and 
often merely theoretical lucubrations of the 
ancient native schools of grammar. Inl803-4 
Forster was employed at the Calcutta Mint, 
of which he rose to be master. In 1815 he 
was ' nominated to sign stamp paper.' He 
died in India 10 Sept. of the same year. 

[Dodwell and Miles's Bengal Civil Servants ; 
Calcutta Gazette, as above.] C. B. 


(1754-1794), commonly known as GEORGE, 
naturalist, descended from a Yorkshire family 
which left England on the death of Charles I 
and settled in Polish Prussia, eldest son of 
Johann Reinhold Forster, also known as a 
traveller, naturalist, and writer, and a minis- 
ter of the reformed church, was born in his 
father's parish of Nassenhuben, near Dan- 
zig, on 27 Nov. 1754. Reinhold Forster, who 
had become a minister at the desire of his 
father, was by inclination a student and a 
naturalist, and under his teaching George's 

talents were early developed in the same 
direction. In 1765 Reinhold accepted an in- 
vitation to Russia, and from that time, throw- 
ing off his clerical capacity, devoted himself 
entirely to scientific and literary pursuits. 
George was placed at a school in St. Peters- 
burg, where he acquired a knowledge of Rus- 
sian, and again accompanied his father when 
he went to England towards the end of 1766. 
Here Reinhold was for some years teacher 
of French, German, and natural history in a 
school in Warrington, and George, pursuing 
his general studies, was also acquiring a re- 
markable mastery of English. In 1770 the 
family removed to London, on a proposal 
from Alexander Dalrymple [q. v.J to employ 
Reinhold in the service of the East India 
Company. The plan fell through, and for 
the next two years the father supported his 
family by translating, in which work he 
was assisted by George, and especially, it is 
said, in the translation into English of Bou- 
gainville's voyage, published under the father's 
name in 1772. Reinhold Forster accompanied 
Cook in his second voyage as naturalist [see 
COOK, JAMES], taking George with him as 
his assistant. On their return in 1775 the 
two in concert published ' Characteres Gene- 
rum Plantarum quas in Itinere ad Insulas 
Maris Australis collegerunt, descripserunt, 
delinearunt, annis MDCCLXXH-MDCCLXXV, Jo- 
hannes Reinhold Forster et Georgius For- 
ster ' (fol. 1775). A second edition, really 
the same with a new title-page, was issued 
in 1776. The publication obtained for George 
his election as fellow of the Royal Society, 
an honour which had been conferred on 
the father before the voyage. The Forsters, 
however, were in want of money ; Reinhold 
was always in difficulties, and of the 4,000^. 
which had been paid him for the services 
of himself and son during the three years' 
voyage, much had been swallowed up in ne- 
cessary expenses. He had expected to have 
to write the narrative of the voyage, and to 
reap a large profit ; but Cook determined to 
write it himself, and as Reinhold would not 
submit to any compromise he was ordered by 
the admiralty not to write at all. He complied 
with the letter of the order, but set George to do 
it instead, and a few weeks before the publica- 
tion of Cook's narrative George Forster's was 
published under the title, ' A Voyage round 
the World in his Britannic Majesty's sloop 
Resolution, commanded by Captain James 
Cook, during the years 1772-5 ' (2 vols. 4to, 
1777). A translation into German was pub- 
lished in 1779. The circumstances of this 
publication naturally drew down on the For- 
sters the ill-will of the admiralty on the one 
hand and of Cook's friends on the other ; 




and Wales, the astronomer of the expedition 
published as a pamphlet, ' Remarks on Mr. 
Forster's Account of Captain Cook's last 
Voyage . . .' (8vo, 1778), in which Forster 
and his father and his book were criticised 
with more ill-nature than good judgment. 
Forster answered in much better taste with 
a Reply to Mr. Wales's Remarks ' (4to, 1778), 
and a few months later published ' A Letter 
to the Right Honourable the Earl of Sand- 
wich, First Lord Commissioner of the Ad- 
miralty ' (4to, 1778), in which he accused 
his lordship of going back from his agree- 
ment, of forfeiting his plighted word, and of 
persecuting his father in order to gratify the 
spite and malice of Miss Ray [see MONTAGU, 
statement, however, was unsupported by proof, 
and Sandwich was too well accustomed to 
such charges to take them to heart. Rein- 
hold Forster had meantime been imprisoned 
for debt, and George, who in October 1777 
had gone to Paris for a short time, apparently 
in the hope of getting some assistance, now, 
in October 1778, crossed over to Germany, 
where he found influential friends. This was 
the end of his connection with England. He 
obtained a post as teacher in the gymnasium 
of Cassel, and was afterwards professor of 
natural history in the university of Wilna, 
an appointment which he relinquished on the 
invitation of the empress of Russia to take 
part in a Russian voyage of discovery. The 
outbreak of the war with Turkey put an end 
to the plan, and Forster became librarian at 
Mainz, where he continued from 1788 to 1792. 
During this time, in 1790, he accompanied 
Alexander von Humboldt on a three months' 
tour down the Rhine, and through Belgium 
and Holland, the account of which he after- 
wards published as ' Ansichten vom Nieder- 
rhein u. s. w.,' perhaps the most popular of his 
many writings. Forster had married in 1783 
Therese, the daughter of Heyne, the cele- 
brated critic and philologist. The marriage 
seems to have been one of mutual attach- 
ment ; but in the course of years love grew 
cold, and Therese, who is described as having 
imbibed the communistic views of the mar- 
riage tie, did not feel herself bound to a 
husband for whom she no longer felt a pas- 
sion. Forster, though he still loved her ar- 
dently, seems to have been willing to take 
measures for a divorce. He entered with 
enthusiasm into the schemes for a democracy 
and a republic, and early in March 1793 was 
sent by the citizens of Mainz as their repre- 
sentative and deputy to the national conven- 
tion of Paris. He was still there when, on 
10 Jan. 1794, he died of a scorbutic fever. 
He left one child, a daughter, who in 1843 | 

published a collected edition of his works in 
nine volumes. These, however, are but a 
small part of what he wrote, for his transla- 
tions, on which he laboured almost inces- 
santly, have no place among them, except, 
indeed, the German version of the ' Voyage 
round the World.' The style of his English 
writings, which have been already named, is 
uncommonly pure and good, and Germans 
speak most highly of the charm and polish 
of his writings in his mother-tongue (KNIGGE, 
Briefe auf einer Reise . . . ffeschrieben,1793, 
p. 58). He is. spoken, of as a man capable of 
inspiring feelings of warm affection, and loved 
by all who knew him (Monthly Review, 1794, 
xiii. 544). But his life was a continual hard 
struggle with penury, and the breakdown of 
his domestic happiness seems to have unhinged 
his mind during the last two years of his life. 
His English works bear on the title-page 
the name of George Forster, as, indeed, do 
most of his German publications. In conse- 
quence of this he is frequently confused with 
his namesake, George Forster [q. v.], who died 
in 1792, the confusion being sometimes most 
insidious and puzzling ; as, for instance, in 
Chalmers's ' Biographical Dictionary,' where 
he is said to have been, about 1790, studying 
the oriental languages with a view to travel- 
ling in Thibet and India. His linguistic at- 
tainments were remarkable, but it does not 
appear that they included any of the languages 
of Asia. 

[Allgemeine deutsche Biographic, art. by 
Alfred Dore.] J. K. L. 

FORSTER, JOHN (1812-1876), his- 
torian and biographer, was born at Newcastle 
on 2 April 1812. He was the eldest of the 
four children of Robert Forster and Mary 
his wife, daughter of the keeper of a dairy- 
farm in Gallowgate. Robert Forster and 
his elder brother, John, were grandsons by 
a younger son of John Forster, landowner, 
of Corsenside in Northumberland. Having 
nothing to inherit from the family property, 
the brothers became cattle-dealers in New- 
castle ; and Robert's children were chiefly 
indebted for their education to their uncle 
John, whose especial favourite from the first 
was his nephew and namesake. John Forster 
was placed by him at an early age in the 
grammar school of Newcastle. There he 
became the favourite pupil of the head- 
master, the Rev. Edward Moises. Eventu- 
ally he became captain of the school, as 
Lord Eldon and Lord Collingwood had been 
before him. A tale written by him when 
be was fresh from the nursery appeared in 
print. While yet a mere child he took de- 
light in going to the theatre. In answer to 



remonstrances he wrote a singularly clever 
and elaborate paper, in June 1827, entitled 
'A Few Thoughts in Vindication of the 
Stage.' On 2 May 1828 a play of his in 
two acts, called ' Charles at Tunbridge, or 
the Cavalier of Wildinghurst,' was performed 
at the Newcastle Theatre, written ' expressly,' 
as 'by a gentleman of Newcastle,' for the bene- 
fit of Mr. Thomas Stuart. Forster's success 
at school induced his uncle John to send him 
to Cambridge in October 1828, but within 
a month he decided to move on to London. 
By his uncle's help he was at once sent 
to the newly founded University College, 
and entered as a law student at the Inner 
Temple on 10 Nov. 1828. His instructor in 
English law at University College was Pro- 
fessor Andrew Amos [q. v.] Among his fel- 
low-students and fast friends for life were 
James Emerson Tennent [q. v.] and James 
Whiteside [q. v.] In the January number of 
the ' Newcastle Magazine ' for 1829 a paper 
of Forster's appeared (his earliest contribu- 
tion to the periodicals) entitled ' Remarks 
on two of the Annuals.' In that year he 
first made the acquaintance of Leigh Hunt, 
of whom he afterwards wrote : ' He influenced 
*11 my modes of thought at the outset of my 
life.' As early as March 1830 he projected 
a life of Cromwell. He was already studying 
in the chambers of Thomas Chitty [q. v.] In 
1832 Forster became the dramatic critic on 
the ' True Sun.' In the December of that 
year Charles Lamb died ; in 1831 Lamb had 
written to him : ' If you have lost a little 
portion of my good will, it is that you do not 
come and see me oftener.' In December 1832 
hoth Lamb and Leigh Hunt were contribut- 
ing to a series of weekly essays which Moxon 
had just then commenced under Forster's 
direction, called ' The Reflector,' of which a 
few numbers only were published. In 1833 
Forster was writing busily on the ' True Sun,' 
the ' Courier,' the ' Athenaeum,' and the ' Ex- 
aminer.' Albany Fonblanque [q. v.], who had 
just become editor, appointed Forster the chief 
critic on the ' Examiner,' both of literature 
and the drama. In 1834, being then twenty- 
two years of age, he moved into his thence- 
forth well-known chambers at 58 Lincoln's 
Inn Fields. In 1836 he published in ' Lardner's 
Cyclopaedia ' the first of the five volumes of 
his ' Lives of the Statesmen of the Common- 
wealth,' including those of Sir John Eliot 
and Thomas Wentworth, earl of Strafford. 
Vol. ii., containing those of Pym and Hamp- 
<len, appeared in 1837 ; vol. iii., giving those 
of Vane and Marten, in 1838 ; vols. iv. and v., 
completing the work in 1839, being devoted 
to the life of Oliver Cromwell. While en- 
gaged in the composition of this work he 


was betrothed to the then popular poetess, 
L. E. L[andon]. An estrangement, however, 
took place between them, and in 1838 Miss 
Landon married George Maclean. Forster for 
two years, 1842 and 1843, edited the 'Foreign 
Quarterly Review,' where his papers on the 
Greek philosophers bore evidence of scholar- 
ship. On 27 Jan. 1843 he was called to the 
bar at the Inner Temple. Besides writing 
in Douglas Jerrold's ' Shilling Magazine ' ' A 
History for Young England,' Forster in 1845 
contributed to the ' Edinburgh Review ' two 
masterly articles on ' Charles Churchill ' and 
' Daniel Defoe.' His intimate personal friends 
by that time included some of the most intel- 
lectually distinguished of his contemporaries, 
and on 20 Sept. 1845 Forster, in association 
with several of these, began to take part in 
a series of amateur theatricals, which for ten 
years enjoyed a certain celebrity. As Ford 
in the ' Merry Wives of Windsor,' as Kitely 
in ' Every Man in his Humour,' as Ernani 
in Victor Hugo's drama so entitled, he took 
part in the ' splendid strolling ' which, under 
the lead of Dickens and Lytton, was in- 
tended to promote, among other objects, the 
establishment of the Guild of Literature and 
Art. On 9 Feb. 1846 Forster was installed 
editor of the ' Daily News,' in succession to 
Dickens, but resigned the post in October. 
In 1847 he assumed the editorship of the 
' Examiner,' succeeding Albany Fonblanque, 
and held the post for nine years. He was 
now rewriting, for the twelfth time, his unpub- 
lished life of Goldsmith. In 1848 it appeared 
in one volume, as ' The Life and Adventures 
of Oliver Goldsmith.' Daintily illustrated by 
his friends Maclise, Stanfield, Leech, Doyle, 
and Hamerton, it won instant popularity. Six 
years afterwards Forster expanded the work 
into two volumes, with the enlarged title of 
the ' Life and Times ' of Goldsmith. In this, 
as in more than one later instance, he marred 
the original outline by his greater elaboration, 
overcrowding his canvas with Goldsmith's 
contemporaries. When the first draft of the 
work was in preparation, Dickens humor- 
ously said of him that ' nobody could bribe 
Forster ' unless it was with a ' new fact ' for 
his life of Goldsmith. He contributed to 
the ' Quarterly Review,' in September 1854, 
a brilliant paper on Samuel Foote, and in 
March 1855 a sympathetic monograph on 
Sir Richard Steele. At the end of 1855 he 
was appointed secretary to the commissioners 
of lunacy, with an income of 800/. a year. 
He withdrew at once from the editorial chair 
of the ' Examiner,' for which he never after- 
wards wrote a line, devoting his leisure from 
that time forward exclusively to literature. 
On the appearance of Guizot's ' History of the 


English Commonwealth,' Forster, in January 
1856, wrote a criticism of it in the ' Edin- 
burgh Review,' entitled 'The Civil Wars 
and Oliver Cromwell.' On 24 Sept, 1856 
he married Eliza Ann, daughter of Captain 
Robert Crosbie, R.N., and widow of Henry 
Colburn, the well-known publisher. He 
began his happy home life at 46 Montagu 
Square, where he remained until his removal 
to Palace Gate House, which in 1862 he built 
for himself at Kensington. In 1858 he col- 
lected his 'Historical and Biographical Es- 
says ' in two volumes, among which there ap- 
peared for the first time his two important 
papers headed respectively ' The Debates on 
the Grand Remonstrance ' and ' The Plan- 
tagenets and Tudors, a Sketch of Constitu- 
tional History.' In 1860 he published his 
next work, ' The Arrest of the Five Members 
by Charles I, a chapter of History Rewritten,' 
and in the same year he brought out, in a 
greatly enlarged form, ' The Debates on the 
Grand Remonstrance, November and Decem- 
ber 1641, with an Introductory Essay on Eng- 
lish Freedom under Plantagenet and Tudor 
Sovereigns.' In November 1861 Forster re- 
signed his secretaryship to the lunacy com- 
mission on his appointment as a commis- 
sioner of lunacy, with a salary of 1,5001. a 
year. In 1864 he expanded his ' Life of Sir 
John Eliot ' into two large volumes, and ap- 
parently intended to elaborate in the same 
way his other memoirs of the statesmen of 
the Commonwealth. The deaths, within six 
years of each other, of three of his intimate 
friends gave him, however, other occupation. 
Landor dying on 17 Sept. 1864, Forster saw 
through the press a complete edition of his 
'Imaginary Conversations,' and in 1869 pub- 
lished his ' Life of Landor ' in 2 vols. Upon 
the. death of Alexander Dyce in 1869, Forster 
corrected and published his friend's third 
edition of Shakespeare, and prefixed a me- 
moir to the official catalogue of the library 
bequeathed by Dyce to the nation. Dickens's 
death, on 9 June 1870, led to his last finished 
biography. His ' Life of Dickens ' was pub- 
lished, the first volume in 1872, the second 
in 1873, and the third in 1874. His failing 
health had induced him, in 1872, to resign 
his office of lunacy commissioner. He sur- 
vived all his relations, and felt deeply each 
successive death. His father died in 1836 ; 
his younger brother, Christopher, in 1844 ; 
his mother, who is described as ' a gem of a 
woman,' in 1852 ; his sister Jane in 1853 ; 
and his sister Elizabeth in 1868. Forster 
had long meditated another work, for which 
he had collected abundant materials. This 
was the ' Life of Jonathan Swift.' The pre- 
face to it was dated June 1875, but the first 

8 Forster 

and only finished volume was not published 
until the beginning of 1876. The hand of 
death was already upon him while he was 
correcting the last sheets of vol. i. for the 
press. He died on 2 Feb. 1876, almost upon 
the morrow of the book's publication. He 
\vas followed to his grave at Kensal Green, 
on 6 Feb., by a group of attached friends, 
his remains being buried there beside those of 
his favourite sister Elizabeth. 

Those who knew Forster intimately were 
alone qualified to appreciate at their true 
worth his many noble and generous pecu- 
liarities. Regarded by strangers, his loud 
voice, his decisive manner, his features, which 
in any serious mood were rather stern and 
authoritative, would probably have appeared 
anything but prepossessing. Beneath his 
unflinching firmness and honesty of purpose 
were, however, the truest gentleness and sym- 
pathy. Outsiders might think him obstinate 
and overbearing, but in reality he was one of 
the tenderest and most generous of men. A. 
staunch and faithful friend, he was always 
actively zealous as the peacemaker. While he 
had the heartiest enjoyment of society he had 
a curious impatience of little troubles, and 
yet the largest indulgence for the weakness 
of others. It was regarded as significant that 
Dickens allotted to him, in Lord Lytton's 
comedy of 'Not so bad as we seem,' the charac- 
ter of Mr. Hardman, who, with a severe and 
peremptory manner, is the readiest to say a 
kindly word for the small poet and hack pam- 
phleteer. By his will, dated 26 Feb. 1874, he 
bequeathed to the nation ' The Forster Col- 
lection,' now at South Kensington. The li- 
brary of eighteen thousand books includes the 
first folio of Shakespeare, the first edition of 
' Gulliver's Travels,' 1726, with Swift's cor- 
rections in his own handwriting, and other 
interesting books. The manuscripts in the 
collection embrace nearly the whole of the 
original manuscripts of the world-famous 
novels of Charles Dickens. These, with forty- 
eight oil-paintings and an immense number 
of the choicest drawings, engravings, and 
curiosities, were left by Forster to his widow 
during her life, and afterwards, for the use 
of the public, to the Department of Science 
and Art at South Kensington. Mrs. Forster 
at once, however, surrendered her own right, 
to secure without delay the complete fulfil- 
ment of her husband's intention. 

[The two principal sources of information in 
regard to the subject of this memoir, apart from 
the writer's own personal knowledge, are Pro- 
fessor Henry Morley's Sketch of John Forster, 
prefixed to the Handbook of the Forster and 
Dyce Collections, pp. 1-21, 1877, and the Rev. 
Whttwell El win's Monograph on John Forster, 

Forster i 

prefixed to the Catalogue of the Forster Library, 
pp. i-xxii, 1888. Reference may also be made 
to the Times of 2 and 7 Feb. 1876 ; Athenaeum, 
5 Feb. 1876 ; Alderman Harle's sketch of John 
Forster in Newcastle Daily Chronicle of 15 Feb. 
1876, reprinted, in February 1888, in Monthly- 
Chronicle of North-Country Lore and Legend, ii. 
49-54; Men of the Time, 9th edit. p. 41 3; Annual 
Register for 1876, p. 134.] C. K. 

1886), surgeon, was born on 13 Nov. 1823 in 
Mount Street, Lambeth, his father and grand- 
father having been medical practitioners 
there. After being at King's College School 
Forster entered at Guy's Hospital in 1841, 
became M.R.C.S. in 1844, M.B. London in 
1847, gaining a gold medal in surgery, and 
F.R.C.S. in 1849. In 1850 he was appointed 
demonstrator of anatomy at Guy's, in 1855 
assistant surgeon, and in 1870 full surgeon. 
In 1880, when senior surgeon, he resigned his 
appointment, at the same time that Dr. Ha- 
bershon resigned the senior physiciancy, as a 
mark of disapproval of the conduct of the 
governors and treasurer of the hospital in dis- 
regarding the opinions of the medical staff on 
questions relating to the nursing staff. After 
their resignation over four hundred Guy's 
men subscribed to a testimonial and presen- 
tation of silver plate to both. After being 
long a member of the council of the College 
of Surgeons and examiner in surgery he was in 
1884-5 president of the college, and did much 
to facilitate the starting of the combined ex- 
amination scheme of the colleges of physicians 
and surgeons. On the termination of his year 
of office he retired from practice, having long 
ceased to extend it owing to his large private 
means. After a stay at Cannes and Nice in 
January and February following he returned 
home prostrated by the cold of travelling, and 
died of an obscure disease on 2 March 1886 
(see Mr. Jonathan Hutchinson's remarks on 
the case, British Medical Journal, 13 March 

Forster was a good practical surgeon, 
prompt and decisive in the wards, and by no 
means lacking in boldness as an operator. He 
was the first to perform gastrostomy in Eng- 
land in 1858, and went to Aberdeen to study 
Pirrie's procedure of acupressure in 1867, and 
in various papers in the Pathological and 
Clinical Society's ' Transactions,' and by his 
reports of surgical cases in ' Guy's Hospital 
Reports,' showed enlarged views and keen 
observation. His clinical lectures were terse, 
emphatic, and full of common sense. His 
only published volume was on ' The Surgical 
Diseases of Children,' 1860. There is no 
doubt that Forster would have done more as 
a surgeon but for his easy circumstances. He 

9 Forster 

was a good practical horticulturist, a very 
skilful oarsman, having a very wide and com- 
plete knowledge of English waterways, and a 
devoted fly-fisher ; he was also noted for his 
cheery and well-planned hospitality. 

[Guy's Hospital Reports, vol. xliv. 1887, Me- 
morial Notice by W. H. A. Jacobson.] G. T. B. 

1757), classical and biblical scholar, was born 
on 3 Feb. 1717-18 at Stadscombe, in the 
parish of Plymstock, Devonshire, of which 
his father, Robert Forster, was then minister. 
His mother was Elizabeth, daughter of the 
Rev. John Tindal, vicar of Cornwood in the 
same county. She was sister of the Rev. 
Nicholas Tindal, translator of Rapin's ' His- 
tory of England,' and niece of Dr. Matthew 
Tindal, author of ' Christianity as Old as the 
Creation ' (see Tindal pedigree in NICHOLS, 
Lit. Anecd. ix. 303). He received the rudi- 
ments of education at Plymouth, where his 
father had removed on being appointed lec- 
turer of St. Andrew's Church. After a course 
of instruction in the grammar school of that 
town under the Rev. John Bedford, he was 
removed in 1731-2 to Eton, being at the 
same time entered at Pembroke College, Ox- 
ford, in order to entitle him to the benefit of 
an exhibition of 401. a year. He spent about 
sixteen months at Eton, and then repaired to 
his college at Oxford, where he became a 
pupil of Dr. Radcliff. On 13 June 1733 he 
was admitted scholar of Corpus Christi Col- 
lege, Oxford. He proceeded B.A. in 1735, 
and M.A. 10 Feb. 1738-9, was elected a 
fellow of Corpus in 1739, and graduated B.D. 
in 1746 and D.D. in 1750 (FOSTER, Alumni 
Oxon. ii. 479). 

In 1749 he was presented by the Lord- 
chancellor Hardwicke, on the recommenda- 
tion of Bishop Seeker, to the small rectory of 
Hethe, Oxfordshire. In 1750 he became do- 
mestic chaplain to Dr. Butler, on that prelate 
being translated from Bristol to Durham. 
The bishop bequeathed to him a legacy of 
2001., appointed him executor of his will, and 
died in his arms at Bath [see BUTLER, JOSE PH] . 
Forster, overwhelmed with grief at the loss of 
his friend, returned to his college for a short 
time, and in July 1752 was appointed one of 
the chaplains to Dr. Herring, archbishop of 
Canterbury. In the autumn of 1754 the 
archbishop gave him the valuable vicarage of 
Rochdale, Lancashire. Although a scholar 
and a preacher of the highest order, he 
was little understood and not very popular 
at Rochdale, where he did not long reside. 
The many letters addressed to him by Dr. 
Herring show that the primate's regard for 
him was most cordial and sincere. The lord 





chancellor promoted him on 1 Feb. 1754-5 
to a prebendal stall in the church of Bristol 
(LE NEVE, Fasti, ed. Hardy, i. 231). 

On 1 May 1755 he was elected a fellow of 
the Royal Society (THOMSON, List of the Fel- 
lows, p. xlviii), and on 12 May 1756 lie was 
sworn one of the chaplains to George II. In 
the summer of 1757 he was, through the 
interest of Lord Royston, appointed by Sir 
Thomas Clarke to succeed Dr. Terrick as 
preacher at the Rolls Chapel. In August the 
same year he married Susan, widow of John 
Balls of Norwich, a lady possessed of con- 
siderable fortune. Forster took a house in 
Craig's Court, Charing Cross, about two 
months before his death, which took place on 
20 Oct. 1757, in consequence of excessive 
study. He was buried in St. Martin's Church, 
Westminster. His widow (who afterwards 
married Philip Bedingfeld, esq., of Ditching- 
ham, Norfolk) erected a monument to his 
memory in Bristol Cathedral. It is inscribed 
with an elegant Latin epitaph, composed by 
Dr. Hayter, then bishop of Norwich. 

Forster, who was an accomplished scholar, 
and thoroughly conversant with the Greek, 
Latin, and Hebrew languages, published : 
1. 'Reflections on the Natural Foundation of 
the high Antiquity of Government, Arts, and 
Sciences in Egypt,' Oxford, 1743, 8vo. 2. ' Pla- 
tonis Dialogi quinque. Recensuit, notisque il- 
lustravit Nathan. Forster,' Oxford, 1745, 8vo, 
reprinted 1765. 3. ' Appendix Liviana ; conti- 
nens, (I.) Selectas codicum MSS. et editionum 
antiquarum lectiones, praecipuas variorum 
Emendationes, et supplementa lacunarum in 
iisT.Livii, quisupersuntlibris. (II.)LFreins- 
hemii supplementorum libros X in locum 
decadis secundse Livianae deperditae,' Oxford, 
1746. 4. ' Popery destructive of the Evidence 
of Christianity,' a sermon on Mark vii. 13, 
preached before the university of Oxford on 
6 Nov. 1746, Oxford, 8vo ; reprinted in 'The 
Churchman Armed,' vol. ii. (1814). 5. 'A 
Dissertation upon the Account supposed to 
have been given of Jesus Christ by Jose- 
phus. Being an attempt to show that this 
celebrated passage, some slight corruptions 
only excepted, may be esteemed genuine,' 
1749, 8vo. 6. ' Biblia Hebraica sine punc- 
tis,' Oxford, 1750, 4to. 7. 'Remarks on the 
Rev. Dr. Stebbing's "Dissertation on the 
Power of States to deny Civil Protection 
to the Marriages of Minors," &c.,' London, 

[Nichols's Lit. Anecd. ix. 289 ; Gent. Mag. 
ttxxvi. (i.) 537; Darling's Cyclopaedia Biblio^ 
graphica, p. 1166; Cat of Oxford Graduates 
1851, p. 238; Watt's Bibl. Brit ; Lowndes's 
Bibliographer's Manual (Bohn), p. 82 1 ; Bodleian 
Cat -] T. C. 

1790), writer on political economy, son of 
the Rev. Nathaniel Forster of Crewkerne, So- 
merset, and cousin of Nathaniel Forster, D.D., 
the editor of Plato [q. v.], was born in 1726 or 
1727. He matriculated at Oxford, as a mem- 
ber of Balliol College, 12 Feb. 1741-2, but mi- 
grated to Magdalen College (where he was 
elected a demy in 1744), and graduated B.A. 
in 1745, and M.A. in 1748. He resigned his 
demyship in 1754 (BLOXAM, Magdalen College 
Register, vi. 264). Returning to Balliol Col- 
lege on being elected a fellow of that society, 
he took the degrees of B.D. and D.D. by cu- 
mulation in 1778. He became rector of All 
Saints Church, Colchester, and chaplain to 
the Countess Dowager of Northington. When 
Dr. Samuel Parr left Stanmore in 1777 to 
become master of the school at Colchester, 
he was received by Forster with open arms, 
and was offered by him the curacies of Trinity 
Church and St. Leonard's in addition to the 
school. The conversation of Forster was pecu- 
liarly interesting to Parr, who never mentions 
him in his correspondence without some term 
of admiration. Forster was instituted to the 
rectorv of Tolleshunt Knights, Essex, in 1 764. 
He died on 12 April 1790,aged 63. He left an 
only son, Edward (1769-1828) [q. v.] 

Besides four single sermons, which are cha- 
racterised by Parr as very excellent, he pub- 
lished the following political treatises: 1. 'An 
Answer to a pamphlet entitled " The Ques- 
tion Stated, whether the Freeholders of Mid- 
dlesex forfeited their right by voting for Mr. 
Wilkes at the last Election." ' London, 1749, 
4to (anon.) 2. ' An Enquiry into the Causes 
of the present High Price of Provisions,' 
London, 1767, 8vo (anon.) M'Culloch re- 
marks that ' this is perhaps the ablest of the 
many treatises published about this period on 
the rise of prices. It contains, indeed, not a 
few principles and conclusions that are quite 
untenable ; but the comprehensiveness of the 
author's views and the liberal and philoso- 
phical spirit by which the work is pervaded 
make it both valuable and interesting' (Lite- 
rature of Political Economy, p. 193). 3. ' A 
Letter to Junius, by the author of the Answer 
to "The Question Stated,"' London, 1769, 
4to. 4. ' An Answer to Sir John Dalrymple's 
pamphlet on the Exportation of Wool,' Col- 
chester, 1782, 8vo. He also compiled the 
' General Index to the twelfth-seventeenth 
volumes of the Journals of the House of 
Commons,' printed by order of the house, 
London, 1778, fol. 

[Foster's Alumni Oxon. ii. 479 ; Darling's Cy- , 
clop. Bibl. i. 1167; Gent. Mag. lx.376, 473, 1145; 
Cat. of Oxford Graduates, 1851, p. 238; Parr's 
Works, ed. Johnstone, i. 94.] T. C. 




1616), physician, son of Laurence Forster, 
was born at Coventry about 1546, and was 
educated at All Souls' College, Oxford. He 
graduated at Oxford, M.B. and M.D., both 
in 1573. He became a fellow of the College 
of Physicians of London about 1575, but his 
admission is not mentioned in the ' Annals.' 
In 1583 he was elected one of the censors, in 
1600 treasurer, andLumleian lecturer in 1602. 
He was president of the college from 1601 to 
1604, and was again elected in 1615 and held 
office till his death on 27 March 1616. He 
had considerable medical practice, and was 
also esteemed as a mathematician. Camden, 
when recording his death, describes him as 
1 Medicines doctor et nobilis Mathematicus.' 
Clowes, the surgeon, praises him, and in 1591 
(Prooved Practice, p. 46) speaks of him as 'a 
worthie reader of the surgerie lector in the 
Phisition's college,' showing that he gave lec- 
tures before the Lumleian lectures were form- 
ally instituted in 1602. Forster had been in- 
troduced to Robert, earl of Leicester, by Sir 
Henry Sidney, and dedicated to the earl in 
1575 his only published work, a thin oblong 
quarto, entitled 'Ephemerides Meteorologicse 
Richardi Fosteri artium ac medicinae doctoris 
ad annum 1575 et positum finitoris Londini 
emporii totius Anglise nobilissimi diligenter 
examinatae.' Besides the prose dedication, 
in which astronomy is said to be the hand- 
maid of medicine, twenty lines of Latin verse 
on Leicester's cognisance, the bear, precede 
the tables of which the book is made up. 

[Munk's Coll. of Phys. i. 74 ; Wood's Fasti 
Oxon. vol. i. ; Preface to Forster's Ephemericles ; 
Clowes's Surgical Works.] N. M. 

FORSTER, SIR ROBERT (1589-1663), 
lord chief justice. [See FOSTER.] 

FORSTER, THOMAS (fl. 1695-1712), 
limner, is known from a number of small por- 
traits, drawn with exquisite care and feeling, 
in pencil on vellum. The majority of these 
were no doubt intended for engraving as 
frontispieces to books, and the following were 
so engraved by Michael Vander Gucht and 
others : J. Savage, Sir Thomas Littleton, the 
speaker, William Lloyd, bishop of St. Asaph, 
Dr. Humphry Hody, Rev. John Newte, and 
others. Unlike David Loggan [q. v.], Robert 
"White [q. v.], and John Faber, sen. [q. v.], 
who drew portraits ' ad vivum ' in the same 
style, Forster does not appear to have been an 
engraver himself. A number of his drawings 
were exhibited at the special Exhibition of 
Portrait Miniatures at the South Kensington 
Museum in 1865; they included Robert, lord 
Lucas, Archbishop Ussher, Sir Thomas Pope 

Blount, bart., LadyBlount, John, lord Somers, 
and Admiral Sir George Rooke. A drawing of 
Margaret Harcourt is in the print room at 
the British Museum. His portraits are highly 

[Kedgrave's Diet, of Artists; Cat. of Special 
Exhibition of Miniatures, South Kensington 
Museum, 1865; Bromley's Cat. of Engraved 
British Portraits.] L. C. 

FORSTER, THOMAS (1675 P-1738), 
the Pretender's general, was a high-church 
tory squire of Ederstone or Etherston, North- 
umberland, who at the outbreak of the re- 
bellion in Scotland in 1715 represented his 
county in parliament (first elected 27 May 
1708, expelled 10 Jan. 1715-16). He was a 
man of influence, and was mentioned as one 
of the disaffected to parliament in 1715, 
when an order for his arrest was issued with 
the consent of the house. Timely notice was 
given him, and at the head of a body of servants 
and a few friends he at once joined some of 
the north-country gentry. They failed in an 
attempt to seize Newcastle, and after pro- 
claiming James III at various places in 
Northumberland and Durham, and avoiding 
an encounter with General Carpenter, they 
succeeded in joining the south-country Scots 
on 19 Oct. at Rothbury, and the following 
day a body of highlanders under Mackintosh 
at Kelso. On account of his social position, 
and to propitiate the protest ants, the Pre- 
tender appointed Forster to the command of 
this little army. He had no experience or 
capacity. When once face to face with the 
king's forces at Preston he seems to have lost 
heart. He at once surrendered at discretion, 
in spite of the entreaties of his officers. He 
was among the prisoners of the better class 
who were sent to be tried in London, and was 
led with a halter on his horse's head. At 
Barnet he and others were pinioned, to add 
to their abject appearance rather than for se- 
curity, and from Highgate they were escorted 
into the city by a strong detachment of the 
guards, horse and foot, amidst the enthusi- 
astic cheers of a vast concourse of people. 
He was lying in Newgate 10 April 1716, 
three days before his intended trial. His 
servant had, by a cunning device, got the 
head-keeper's servant locked in the cellar, and 
Forster, who had induced Pitts the governor 
and another friend to have wine with him, 
left the room. A few minutes later Pitts 
tried to follow, and found that he was locked 
in. Forster and his servant had been pro- 
vided with keys, by which they not only se- 
cured their liberty, but delayed pursuit ; and 
notwithstanding the offer of l.OOO/. reward, 
they made good their escape by a small 




vessel from Rocliford in Essex, and landed in 
France. lie is said to have spent some time 
in Rome. He died, however, at Boulogne, 
France, ' of an asthma,' on 3 Nov. 1738 ( Gent. 
Mag. 1738, p. 604). There is a small en- 
graved portrait of Forster hy Wedgwood 
after a miniature by Rosalba. 

[R. Patten's Hist. Rebellion in 1715, 3rd ed. 
1745 ; A Full and Authentick Narrative of the 
Intended and Horrid Conspiracy, &c., 1715; 
Penrice's Account of Charles Ratcliffe, 1747; 
Hibbert-Ware's Lancashire during Rebellion of 
1715 (Chetham Soc.), 1845; Commons' Journals, 
xviii. 325, 336, 449; Hist. MSS. Cornm. llth 
Rep. App. pt. iv. pp. 168-71; Evans's Cat. of 
Portraits, i. 127-] A. N. 

1825), botanist, was born in Bond Street, Wai- 
brook, 5 Sept. .1761, being the eldest son of 
Edward Forster the elder [q. v.l and Susanna 
his wife. His father retired to Walthamstow 
in 1764, and, being a great admirer of Rous- 
seau, brought up his son on his principles. 
From his uncle Benjamin [q. v.] Forster early 
acquired a taste for antiquities, coins, prints, 
and plants. He was introduced to the Linnean 
system of classification, to which he always 
remained a firm adherent, by the Rev. John 
Dixon, and was further .encouraged in his 
studies by Joseph Cockfield of Upton, Michael 
Tyson, Sir John Cullum, and Richard Warner, 
author of the ' PlantseWoodfordienses '(1771). 
Between 1775 and 1782 he made many draw- 
ings of plants, studying exotic species in the 
garden of Mr. Thomas Sikes at Tryon's Place, 
Hackney. In 1784 was printed a list of ad- 
ditions to Warner's ' Plantse Woodfordienses,' 
attributed by Dryander to Thomas Forster. 
In 1788 Forster married Susanna, daughter 
of Thomas Williams of West Ham, and niece 
of Mr. Sikes. He was one of the first fellows 
of the Linnean Society, founded in that year, 
and he visited Tunbridge Wells in that and 
almost every succeeding year of his life. In 
conjunction with his brothers he drew up the 
county lists of plants in Gough's 'Camden' 
(1789), and communicated various plants to 
the ' Botanical Magazine ' and to ' English 
Botany.' From 1796 to 1823 he mainly re- 
sided at Clapton, and, as he had grown hardy 
plants in his home at Walthamstow, then de- 
voted himself to greenhouse exotics, giving 
much assistance to the Messrs. Loddiges in 
establishing their nursery at Hackney. A 
list of the rare plants of Tunbridge Wells, 
pp. 14, 12mo, belonging probably to 1800, is 
attributed to him by Dryander; and in 1816 
he published a 'Flora Tonbrigensis,' pp. 216, 
8vo, dedicated to Sir J. E. Smith, which 
was reissued by his son in 1842. His fond- 
ness for animals made him refuse to prepare 

an account of the fauna. In 1823 he moved 
to Walthamstow on the death of his mother, 
and died there 28 Oct. 1825, leaving two sons 
and three daughters. He contributed two 
papers to the Linnean Society's ' Transac- 
tions,' and left an extensive hortus siccus of 
algae, as well as of flowering plants, together 
with collections of fossils, music, &c., and 
more than a thousand drawings of churches 
and other ancient buildings, executed by him- 
self. His natural history journals of weather 
prognostics, &c., were published by his son 
in 1827 as ' The Pocket Encyclopaedia of 
Natural Phenomena,' pp. xlviii and440,12mo. 
He was a member of many scientific and phi- 
lanthropic societies, and among his friends 
were Porson and Gough, as well as the bo- 
tanists, Sir J. E. Smith, Sir Joseph Banks, 
Dryander, Dickson, Robert Brown, and 
Afzelius of TJpsala. 

[Gent. Mag. 1849, xxxii. 431 ; Nichols's 
Illustrations of Literary History, viii. 553 ; Flora 
Tonbrigensis, 2nd ed. 1842 ; Epistolarium Fors- 
terianum, i. 33-41.] G. S. B. 

MARIA, M.D. (1789-1860), naturalist and 
astronomer, eldest son of Thomas Furly For- 
ster [q.v.], was born in London on 9 Nov. 1789. 
He was brought up mainly at Walthamstow, 
and, both his father and grandfather being 
followers of Rousseau, his literary education 
was neglected. During his life, however, he 
acquired familiarity with the Latin, Greek, 
French, German, Italian, Spanish, and Welsh 
languages, while from his uncle Benjamin 
Meggot [q. v.] he obtained his first notions 
of astronomy, mechanics, and aerostatics. In 
1805 he compiled a 'Journal of the Weather' 
and a ' Liber Rerum Naturalium,' and in the 
following year, being attracted by the writings 
of Gall, he began to study that branch of psy- 
chology to which he afterwards gave the name 
of ' phrenology.' In 1808, under the signature 
' Philochelidon,' he published ' Observations 
on the Brumal Retreat of the Swallow,' of 
which the sixth edition appeared, with a cata- 
logue of British birds annexed, in 1817. In 
1809 he took up for a time the study of the 
violin, to which he returned forty years later ; 
and in 1810, having been ill, his attention 
was first directed to the influence of air 
upon health, upon which subject he wrote 
in the ' Philosophical Magazine.' The great 
comet of 1811 directed his attention to astro- 
nomy; and in 1812, having been, from his 
study of Pythagorean and Hindu philosophy 
and an inherited dislike of cruelty to ani- 
mals, for some years a vegetarian, he pub- 
lished ' Reflections on Spirituous Liquors,' 
denying man to be by birth a carnivor. This 



work made him acquainted with Abernethy. 
In the same year appeared his ' Researches 
about Atmospheric Phenomena/ of which a 
third edition was published in 1823 ; and, 
having been already elected a fellow of the 
Linnean Society, his father permitted him to 
enter Corpus Christi College, Cambridge, to 
study law. This study, however, he soon aban- 
doned, graduating as M.B. in 1819. In 1815 
he issued an annotated edition of the ' Dio- 
semeia ' of Aratus, which he partially sup- 

settling at Bruges ; but he reissued his father's 
' Flora Tonbrigensis,' with a memoir of the 
author, at Tunbridge "Wells in 1842, and his 
works were issued at Frankfort, Aix, or Brus- 
sels as often as at Bruges. Many of his later 
writings are poetical, and he composed various 
pieces for the violin, having formed a valuable 
collection of specimens of that instrument. 
In 1836 he was engaged in a controversy with 
Arago as to the influence of comets, and he 
also had some difficulty in demonstrating 

pressed, and a volume of songs in German, j the orthodoxy of his Pythagorean doctrine 
'Lieder der Deutschen.' Making the per- of ' Sati,' or universal immortality, including 
sonal acquaintance of Spurzheim, he studied il " i ~* ~ 
with him the anatomy and physiology of the 
brain, and accompanied him to Edinburgh, 
where he communicated a paper on the com- 
parative anatomy of the brain to the Wer- 
nerian Society. On his return to London 
he published a sketch of Gall and Spurzheim's 

system, which, like many of his writings, ap- 
peared in the ' Pamphleteer,' together with 
an essay on the application of the organology 
of the brain to education. He became a fre- 
quenter of Sir Joseph Banks's Sunday gather- 
ings in Soho Square. He declined the fellow- 
ship of the Royal Society from dislike of some 
of itsrules. In 1817 he married Julia, daughter 
of Colonel Beaufoy,F.R.S., and settled at Spa 
Lodge, Tunbridge Wells, where in the same 
year he wrote his ' Observations on the . . . In- 
fluence of . . . the Atmosphere on . . . Diseases, 
particularly Insanity.' In the following year 
Ids only daughter, Selena, was born, and he 
moved to Hartwell in Sussex. This year he 
published an edition of Catullus, and on 3 July 
1819 he discovered a comet. The next three 
years he spent mainly abroad, and in 1824 
issued his ' Perennial Calendar,' containing 
numerous essays by himself, though variously 
signed, during the preparation of which work 
he seems to have been converted to Roman 
Catholicism. Having become a fellow of the 
Royal Astronomical Society, he, in conjunc- 
tion with Sir Richard Phillips, founded a 
short-lived Meteorological Society. After his 
father's death he took (1827) a house at 
Boreham, near Chelmsford, so as to be near 
New Hall Convent, where his daughter was 
at school, and while there published various 
essays on the atmospheric origin of diseases 
and especially of cholera, in connection with 
which subject he made a balloon ascent in 
April 1831, with Green, ascending six thou- 
sand feet. In 1830 he published the original 
letters of Locke, Shaftesbury, and Algernon 
Sydney, which he had inherited from his an- 
cestor Benjamin Furly, with a metaphysical 
preface, partly inspired by his recent acquaint- 
ance with Lady Mary Shepherd. After 1833 
he appears to have lived mainly abroad, finally 

that of animals. In conjunction with his 
friend Gompertz he founded the Animals' 
Friend Society. The autobiographical ' Re- 
cueil de ma Yie ' (Frankfort-on-Main, 1835), 
and still more the two volumes, ' Epistola- 
rium Forsterianum,' which he printed pri- 
vately at Bruges in 1845 and 1850, contain 
much information about himself and other 
members of his family. Besides the works 
already mentioned and those enumerated 
below, he contributed largely to the ' Gentle- 
man's Magazine,' and is credited with thirty- 
five scientific papers in the Royal Society's 
' Catalogue,' several dealing with colours, 
their names, and classification. He died at 
Brussels on 2 Feb. 1860, though Hoefer had 
killed him (Biographic Universelle,vol. xviii.) 
ten years previously. Among his personal 
friends this remarkable man numbered, be- 
sides those already mentioned, Gray, Porson, 
Shelley, Peacock, Herschel, and Whewell. 

He published: 1. ' Observations sur la 
variete dans le pouvoir dispersif de 1' Atmos- 
phere/ in 'Phil. Mag.,' 1824. 2. 'On the 
Colours of the Stars ' (#.) 3. ' Pocket En- 
cyclopaedia of Natural Phenomena,' 1826. 
4. ' Memoir of George Canning,' 1827. 5. ' The 
Circle of the Seasons,' 1828. 6. ' Medicina 
Simplex,' 1829. 7. ' Beobachtungen iiber den 
Einfluss des Luftdruckes auf das Gehor/ 
1835. 8. ' Onthophilos/ 1836. 9. ' Florile- 
gium, Poeticse Aspirationes, or Cambridge 
Nugae/ 1836. 10. ' Observations sur 1'influ- 
ence des Cometes/ 1836. 11. 'Philozoia/ 
1839. 12. ' Elogio e Vita di Boecce,' 1839. 
13. ' Pan, a Pastoral,' 1840. 14. 'Essay on 
Abnormal Affections of the Organs of Sense,' 
1842. 15. 'Philosophia Musarum,' 1842. 
16. ' Discours preliminaire a 1'etude de 1'His- 
toire Naturelle,' 1843. 17. 'Harmonia Mu- 
sarum,' 1843. 18. ' Sati,' 1843. 19. ' 'H rS>v 
TraiSwi/ 0700777,' 1844. 20. 'Piper's Wallet/ 
1845. 21. ' Annales d'un Physicien Voya- 
geur/ 1848. 22. ' L'Age d'Or/ 1848. 

[Hoefer, xviii. cols. 206-8; Annual Keg. cii. 
440 ; Eoy. Soe. Cat. ii. 670-1 ; GilloVsBibl.Dict. 
of Engl. Catholics; Eecueildema Vie, 1835; Epi- 
stolarium Forsterianum, 1845-50.] G. S. B. 



FORSTER, WILLIAM (/. 1632), ma- 
thematician, was a pupil of William Ough- 
tred [q. v.], and afterwards taught mathe- 
matics 'at the Red bull over against St. 
Clements churchyard with out Temple bar.' 
While staying with Oughtred at Albury, 
Surrey, during the long vacation of 1630, the 
latter showed him a horizontal instrument 
for delineating dials upon any kind of plane, 
and for working most questions which could 
be performed by the globe. This invention 
Oughtred had contrived for his private use 
thirty years before. Forster persuaded him 
to make it public, and was ultimately allowed 
to translate and publish his master's treatise 
on the subject as ' The Circles of Proportion 
and the Horizontal! Instrvment. Both in- 
vented, and the vses of both written in Latine 
by Mr. William] O[ughtred]. Translated 
into Englisli and set forth for the publique 
benefit by William Forster,' 4to, London, 
1632 (another edition, 1639), which he dedi- 
cated to Sir Kenelm Digby. A revised 
edition of this book was published by Arthur 
Haughton, another disciple of Oughtred, 8vo, 
Oxford, 1660. Forster had his name affixed 
to an ' Arithmetick, explaining the grounds 
and principles of that Art, both in whole 
numbers and fractions,' 12mo, London, 1673 
(new edition, by Henry Coley, 12mo, Lon- 
don, 1686). The former edition is adorned 
by a supposed portrait of Forster, which is 
really that of John Weever, the antiquary. 

[Ward's Lives of the Gresham Professors, i. 
88 ; Chalmers's Biographical Dictionary, xxiii. 
428 ; Granger's Biographical History of England 
(2nd edit), ii. 328.] G. G. 

FORSTER, WILLIAM (1739-1808), the 
founder of a family of eminent musical in- 
strument makers and publishers, known in 
the trade as ' Old Forster,' was the son of a 
maker of spinning-wheels and repairer and 
maker of violins in Cumberland. William 
made his way southwards as a cattle-drover, 
and reached London in 1759. At home he 
had been carefully taught music and the 
making of instruments, and the violins with 
which he supplied the shops were accepted 
and sold without difficulty. His talent ob- 
tained him permanent employment from Beck, 
a music- seller of Tower Hill, until Forster 
started a business of his own in Duke's Court, 
St. Martin's Lane, whence he removed about 
1785 to No. 348 Strand. The tone of his 
violins is penetrating; great attention was 
paid to their varnish and finish, and even now 
the earlier ' Forsters,' especially the violon- 
cellos and double basses, are considered oJ 
some value. As a publisher Forster became 
honourably known through his connection 

with Haydn. Orchestral and chamber music 
was not at that time popular in England, 
and the enterprise which introduced more 
than one hundred of Haydn's important 
works to this country deserved the success, 
it ultimately gained. Among letters pub- 
lished in 'The History of the Violin' are- 
several of interest from Haydn, referring 
to the purchase of his compositions by the 
Forsters between 1781 and 1788. WILLIAM 
FOESTER (1764-1824), son of the above Wil- 
liam Forster, made instruments of a fair 
quality. Music-seller to the Prince of Wales 
and the Duke of Cumberland, he was dis- 
tinguished as 'Royal' Forster, although his 
father had enjoyed similar court, favours. 
WILLIAM FORSTER (1788-1824), eldest son 
of the second William Forster, made no more 
than twelve or fifteen violins, &c., but occu- 
pied himself as violoncellist in theatre or- 
chestras. SIMON ANDREW FORSTER (1801- 
1870), the fourth son of the second William 
Forster, carried out the instructions of his 
father and his brother in Frith Street, and 
later in Macclesfield Street, Soho. He was 
part author of the ' History of the Violin r 
(1864), from which some of the details in this 
article have been taken. 

[Grove's Diet, of Music, i. 555 ; Brown's Biog. 
Diet. p. 252 ; Sandys and Forster's Hist, of the 
Violin, 1864, p. 290, &c.] L. M. M. 

FORSTER, WILLIAM (1784-1854), 
minister of theSociety of Friends, was born at 
Tottenham, near London, 23 March 1784. His 
father, who was a land agent and surveyor, 
and his mother were pious members of the So- 
ciety of Friends, and they took much pains in 
bringing up their children. From his earliest 
years William, their second son, manifested a 
profoundly spiritual disposition, and in after 
years would say that ' in looking back on his 
earliest religious experience he could not re- 
member a time when he was not sensible of 
the work of the Holy Spirit in his heart.' 
After his education was completed he de- 
clined to follow his father's profession, and, 
having taken part in quaker meetings for two 
years, was recognised as a minister in 1805, 
in his twenty-second year. For several years 
he was an itinerant minister, and visited many 
parts of England and Scotland. For a time 
he settled at Tottenham. In October 1816 
he married, at Shaftesbury, Anna Buxton, a 
daughter of Mr. Buxton of Earlham, Norfolk, 
and sister of Elizabeth Fry [q. v.] and Joseph 
John Gurney [q. v.] Anna Buxton, whose 
family were residing at Weymouth, was a 
handsome girl of fascinating manners. She 
had attracted the interest of George III, to 
whom Weymouth was a favourite resort, and 



was on intimate terms with the royal family. 
Shortly before her marriage she had come 
under deep religious impressions. Forster 
had been a helper of Mrs. Fry in her philan- 
thropical efforts. 

After his marriage Forster resided at Brad- 
pole, Dorsetshire, where their only son, Wil- 
liam Edward Forster [q. v.], was born in 
1818. He afterwards removed to Norwich. 
In 1820 Forster was induced to undertake a 
mission to the United States on behalf of the 
society there. This visit was unexpectedly 
protracted to five years. A tendency had 
appeared towards unitarianism, which ulti- 
mately caused a great separation in the body, 
much to Forster's distress. Though unable to 
avert the separation, his friends believed that 
he did good service in preventing the spread of 
Unitarian views. His eminently calm and 
peaceful tone suited him for conciliatory work. 
In the course of his life he paid two other 
visits to America. One was occasioned by 
a threatened secession among the Friends in 
the state of Indiana, arising from a difference 
of view on the slavery question. The efforts 
of the deputation of which Forster was a 
member (in 1845) were highly successful, and 
furnished an illustration of the right method 
of dealing with brethren in reference to such 
differences. On another occasion Forster 
undertook a mission to Normandy for the 
purpose of fostering religious earnestness. A 
longer series of visits to the continent was paid 
in 1849-52, at the instance of the society, 
whose deputies sought interviews with all 
persons of influence to whom they could find 
access, for the purpose of promoting the anti- 
slavery movement. Still another continental 
visit was paid by him to the Vaudois churches 
in Piedmont. The reception he met with from 
the Vaudois pastors was most satisfactory. 
Dr. Lantaret, as moderator of the 'Table,' 
assured them that the sight of such an aged, 
venerable ambassador of Christ among them 
brought to their minds the passage ' How 
beautiful upon the mountains.' 

Before the last two of these continental 
missions Forster had performed an important 
service in Ireland. With the Society of 
Friends generally he was deeply concerned for 
the famine caused by the failure of the potato 
crop in 1846. Before any general committee 
of relief was formed he conferred with his 
friends on the subject, and at their request 
he set out on a journey to the distressed dis- 
tricts. In this journey he was accompanied 
by his son. He spent the time from 30 Nov. 
1846 to 14 April 1847 investigating the con- 
dition of the people. 

These public labours were added to those 
of the ministry which he continued to carry 

on. His health failed in his later years. 
Nevertheless he was induced, at the request 
of his brethren and at the impulse of his 
own heart, to engage in an additional enter- 
prise. This was to present an anti-slavery 
address to the president of the United States, 
and to the governors of the states and other 
persons of influence to whom they might find 
access. He left home in considerable bodily 
weakness in 1853. On 1 Oct. he and his 
fellow-deputies had an interview with Presi- 
dent Pierce. He gave them little encourage- 
ment to believe that slavery would soon come 
to an end. The prosecution of their mission 
among other men of mark occupied the rest 
of the year. In January 1854 he was seized 
with severe illness while stay ing with Samuel 
Low near the Holston River, East Tennessee, 
North America, and after a few weeks of 
suffering he died on the morning of the 27th, 
aged 70. He was buried in the Friends' bury- 
ing-ground at Friendsville. One is reminded 
of Howard dying at his post in the far east, 
as Forster now did in the west. His son said 
with much truth: 'It is impossible not to feel 
that he was allowed to fall a martyr to his 
devotion to that great and holy cause of the 
abolition of negro slavery, in the earnest and 
untiring advocacy of which so large a portion 
of his life had from time to time been spent.' 
All through his life Forster bore a most 
consistent and devoted testimony to his creed. 
His ministry was emphatically evangelical. 
The news of his death caused an extraordinary 
sensation both in America and Great Britain. 
Warm testimonies to his worth appeared in 
the newspapers, and tokens of love and esteem 
were issued both by his own monthly and 
quarterly meetings and by the monthly meet- 
ing of the Friends in Tennessee. He pub- 
lished ' A Christian Exhortation to Sailors,' 
1813, often reprinted, and translated into 
French ; ' Recent Intelligence from Van Die- 
men's Land,' 1831 ; ' A Salutation of Chris- 
tian Love,' issued by Forster's brother Josiah 
in 1860. Joseph Crosfield, James H. Tuke, 
and William Dillwyn published accounts of 
Forster's visit to Ireland in 1846. 

[Memoirs of the Life of William Forster, ed. 
Benjamin Seebohm, 2 vols. 1865 ; Brief Memoir 
by Robert Charleton, 1867 ; Smith's Friends' 
Books.] W. G. B. 


(1818-1886), statesman, born at Bradpole, 
Dorsetshire, on 11 July 1818, was the only son 
of William Forster (1784-1854) [q.v.] and of 
Anna, sister of the first Sir Thomas Fowell 
Buxton [q. v.] He was thus not a Yorkshire- 
man by descent, though often taken for a typi- 
cal Yorkshireman. He was brought up in the 



discipline of the quaker body, and being the 
only child of parents who had passed their 
first youth, he early showed signs of a serious 
habit of mind. ' The simplicity of the quaker 
style of living,' says his biographer, 'was at all 
times characteristic of the ways of the little 
household,' and the boy acquired a ' certain 
quaint formalism of manner and speech,' and 
talked politics with his parents before he had 
learnt to play with children of his own age. 
His father's long absences on missionary ex- 
peditions threw him very much into the 
society of his mother, whose ' bright and vi- 
vacious temperament' acted as some correc- 
tive to the severity of a quaker education. 
In August 1831 he was sent to school at 
Fishponds House, Bristol, and after a year to 
Mr. Binns's school, at Grove House, Tot- 
tenham, both kept by Friends. Here he re- 
mained until the close of 1835, receiving 
what must be considered a very fair educa- 
tion, and not only studying English and other 
history independently, but ' setting himself 
for his leisure time in the evening, two even- 
ings for themes, two for mathematics, one for 
Latin verse, and one for Greek Testament 
and sundries' (letter to his father dated 8th 
month, 31 day, 1834). Other letters written 
about the same time show his interest in poli- 
tical movements, especially those with which 
his uncle Buxton was associated. 

While capable of quick and firm resolution 
in matters of religious duty, the elder William 
Forster was curiously unsettled about his son's 
career. He was oppressed by ' a leaden- 
weighted lethargy.' Aloreover, when the de- 
cision had been given in favour of a business 
career, as that which would most certainly 
tend to worldly prosperity, he discouraged by 
every means in his power his son's attempts to 
change this for an opening offered into public 
life. Finally, through his Norfolk connections, 
a place was found for Forster in the manu- 
factory of Mr. Robberds at Norwich, where 
handloom camlets were made for export to 
China. Here he remained for two years, and 
in July 1838 he left Norwich for Darlington 
to learn other branches of the wool business 
with the Peases of that town. He worked for 
twelve hours a day in the woollen mill, and 
for several hours in the evening he studied 
mathematics and politics. At the same time 
he began to take some part in public life. 
His uncle offered to take him as private 
secretary, and after his father had put a veto 
on this plan, he himself offered to join the 
Niger expedition. But neither project came 
to anything, and in 1841 he entered the 
woollen business at Bradford. In 1842 he 
became the partner of Mr. William Fison, 
woollen manufacturer, and this partnership 

continued to the end of Forster's life. They 
began on borrowed capital, and had to meet, 
during many years, innumerable difficulties, 
but in due time took a place among the most 
prosperous houses of the district. Forster 
joined various committees, took a share in the 
battle of free trade, and formed a number of 
acquaintances of all sorts, not excluding such 
extreme men as Robert Owen, the socialist, 
and Thomas Cooper, the chartist. He also 
became acquainted with Frederick Denison 
Maurice, John Sterling, and, above all, with 
the Carlyles, with whom for several years he 
kept up an intimate acquaintance. 

Forster paid two visits to the famine- 
stricken districts of Connemara in 1846 and 

1847. He, with his father, was distributor 
of the relief fund collected by the Friends, 
and of the second of these visits he wrote an 
account, which was printed at the time. His 
descriptions, besides being vivid and truthful 
pictures of terrible scenes, show that extra- 
ordinary kindliness which in him always 
underlay the somewhat rough exterior. He 
was much occupied by the revolutions of 

1848, especially that in France, with its 
echoes among the chartists of this country. 
A strong liberal, he was for meeting the 
chartists halfway, and his efforts in Brad- 
ford are believed to have had no little effect 
in preventing the extreme men among the 
chartists of that town from resorting to vio- 
lence. He even attended a great meeting of 
chartists at Bradford, and, in his own words, 
'roared from the top of a wagon to six or 
eight thousand people for nearly three quar- 
ters of an hour, and pushed a strong moral 
force resolution down their throats, at the 
cost of much physical force exertion' on his 
own part. In May 1848 he visited Paris. In 
the autumn of the same year he made a great 
impression in Bradford by a course of lectures 
on ' Pauperism and its proposed Remedies.' 
Next year his quakerism was roused by 
Macaulay's attacks on the character of Wil- 
liam Penn, and he published a new edition 
of Clarkson's ' Life of Penn,' prefacing it by 
a long and able defence against the historian's 
charges. In the next year (1850) he left the 
Society of Friends, on his marriage with Jane 
Martha, eldest daughter of Dr. Arnold. For 
eighteen months they lived at Rawdon, and 
after that time moved to Burley-in-Wharfe- 

| dale, where he and his partner had bought 

! an old cotton mill, which they intended to 

convert into a worsted manufactory. Here, 

I overlooking the beautiful river, he built a 

house, Wharfeside, which he always regarded 

as his home till the end of his life. In the ten 

following years Forster frequently appeared 

on platforms at Leeds and Bradford, discuss- 



ing the interests of the working classes, 
parliamentary reform, or American slavery. 
After the dissolution in 1859 he was invited 
by the liberals of Leeds to come forward with 
Mr. Baines. Forster, though afterwards re- 
garded as par excellence the conservative type 
of liberal, was chosen as the candidate of the 
advanced party. The numbers at the poll 
were: Baines, 2,343; Beecroft (conservative), 
2,303 ; Forster, 2,280. A little later a va- 
cancy occurred in the representation of Brad- 
ford, and, in spite of the distrust of moderate 
liberals and the leading dissenters, he was 
chosen by a large majority of liberal electors 
as their candidate, and was returned with- 
out opposition (Monday, 11 Feb. 1861). He 
continued to represent Bradford until the 
end of his life. He was returned without 
opposition at the general election of 1865. 
In 1868 he was at the head of the poll, after 
a contest in which all the three candidates, 
himself, Mr. Ripley, and Edward Miall, were 
liberals. In 1874 he was again returned at 
the head of the poll, although the dissenters, 
who felt bitterly towards him on account of 
the Education Act, strongly opposed him. 
Again in 1880 he was returned, also at the 
head of the poll, and finally, in the election 
of November 1885, he was returned for the 
central division of Bradford by a majority of 
over fifteen hundred. 

Forster at once made his mark in the house, 
and quickly came to be recognised as one of 
the chief representatives of the advanced 
liberal party. He took every opportunity of 
speaking upon reform, which was then ex- 
citing little interest, and made effective utter- 
ances upon the American civil war. During 
its course he may be said to have been se- 
cond only to Bright and Cobden in opposing 
all attempts to recognise the south or to put 
obstacles in the way of the union. Espe- 
cially did he in 1863 denounce the impru- 
dence of permitting Alabamas to be built in 
English dockyards ; but at the same time 
he was ready enough to defend England 
against such attacks as the celebrated one 
delivered by Mr. Charles Sumner. When in 
1865 Lord Palmerston died, the government 
was reconstructed under Lord Russell, and 
Forster was invited to take office as under- 
secretary for the colonies. He was at the 
colonial office eight months under Mr. Card- 
well, and among the difficult problems in the 
solution of which he had to take part was 
the Jamaica question. Two days after his 
entry into the colonial office (27 Nov.) he 
noted in his diary, ' Very bad news from 
Jamaica of slaughter by the troops, and under 
martial law.' Had he been out of office he 
would have been one of the most active mem- 

bers of Mr. Mill's and Mr. Charles Buxton's 
Jamaica committee ; but he probably did still 
more effective work by urging the despatch 
of a commission of inquiry to the island, 
and by influencing the action of the govern- 
ment. To the varied experience gained during 
these eight months Forster used to attribute 
much of his deep and lifelong interest in all 
colonial questions. In the session of 1866 he 
took an effective part in the great debates on 
reform. He had made it a condition of his 
entry into the government that the question 
should be dealt with immediately. His speech 
in the great eight nights' debate on the second 
reading of the bill was of great weight, for 
the house recognised in him a man who had 
lived in the midst of a great working popula- 
tion, and who was entitled from his own ex- 
perience to give utterance to the wishes of 
the north of England. In the session of 1867 
he contributed not a little to the liberalising 
of Mr. Disraeli's Reform Bill, and he rejoiced 
as much as any one when that measure passed 
into law as an act for conferring household 
suffrage in the boroughs. 

In 1867 he made his first visit to the East ; 
he saw Constantinople, Smyrna, Athens, and 
Corfu, and formed opinions to which he gave 
utterance when the Eastern question once 
more became acute. After the general elec- 
tion of November 1868 Mr. Gladstone became 
prime minister, and Forster was appointed 
a privy councillor and vice-president of the 
council. This imposed upon him the main 
responsibility for carrying the measure for 
establishing a national system of education, 
which formed a principal part of the govern- 
ment programme. Before parliament met he 
successfully defended his seat against a peti- 
tion, to the great satisfaction of his consti- 
tuents. In the session of 1869 he took no 
great part in the debates on the disestablish- 
ment of the Irish church, but he gave much 
time and attention to the successful conduct 
of the Endowed Schools Bill through the 
House of Commons. This was a bill which 
raised no great parliamentary issues, but its 
importance may be shown from the fact that 
it dealt with three thousand schools with a 
gross income of 592,000/. He had also to 
conduct the preparation of measures against 
the cattle plague. He was meanwhile care- 
fully considering the measure for providing 
a national system of elementary education. 
Various bodies throughout the country con- 
centrated themselves .into two, the National 
Education Union and the League, which met 
at Birmingham. The Union ostensibly ad- 
vocated the spread of the voluntary school 
system, and the League the provision of 
schools at the cost and under the control of 



the public authorities. In reality, however, 
the desire of the Union was to guard the 
interests of certain dominant religious bodies, 
especially that of the church of England, 
and the desire of the League was to secure 
a fair field for the dissenters. Forster en- 
deavoured to steer an even course between 
these two opposing theories, adopting a plan 
which he traced originally to Mr. Lowe. 
Places where additional school accommoda- 
tion was required were to be discovered and 
the accommodation supplied through the 
agency of a newly constituted public au- 

In the third week of February 1870 Forster 
introduced his Elementary Education Bill. 
His speech, long and full of detail, was at 
the same time very careful in form, well ar- 
ranged, abounding in evidence of a thorough 
study of the question, conciliatory, and 
warmed by enthusiasm for the cause of edu- 
cation. He pointed out the great deficiencies 
of the existing schools, and declined to adopt 
either the continental method of state educa- 
tion or the opposite policy of increasing the 
bonus upon voluntary schools. He therefore 
proposed to create an entirely new local au- 
thority called the School Board. The board 
was to have the power of providing necessary 
school accommodation, and of directing its 
own schools, subject to the ultimate control 
of the education department. At first Forster 
proposed that school boards should be chosen 
by popular election in London, and elsewhere 
by town councils and vestries, but he soon 
adopted direct popular election in all cases. 
Thus far all parties were ready to accept 
Forster's proposals ; but the jealousy between 
the church and dissenters soon produced dis- 
cord. The Birmingham League settled down 
upon the religious shortcomings of the mea- 
sure, and around these there speedily arose a 
controversy which, by the time of the debate 
on the second reading, 14 March, had assumec 
the most threateningproportions. An amend- 
ment was moved to the second reading by 
Mr. George Dixon, liberal member for Bir- 
mingham and chairman of the Education 
League, to the effect ' that no measure fo 
the education of the people could afford i 
permanent satisfactory settlement which lef 
the important question of religious instruc 
tion to be determined by the local author! 
ties.' In the end the amendment was with 
drawn, and three months later the governmen 
accepted the amendment of Mr. Cowper 
Temple, the effect of which would be ' to ex 
elude from all rate-aided schools every cate 
chism and formulary distinctive of denomi 
national creed, and to sever altogether th 
connection between the local school board 

nd the denominational schools, leaving the 
atter to look wholly to the central grant for 
elp.' As a consequence of this, the share 
f the total cost of education payable by the 
entral department the grant as distinct 
rom the education rate which had been 
riginally fixed at one third, was raised to 
ne half, and on this basis the question was 
ettled. The bill passed without much further 
ifficulty, although not without having to 
indergo much invective both from extreme 
hurchmen and from the nonconformists and 
heir allies. The principle of compulsion was 
not as yet admitted. Forster struggled hard 
n 1873 to carry a compulsory act, sufficient 
chool accommodation having in his opinion 
)een provided for an effectual application of 
the principle ; but though he at first won the 
struggle within the cabinet, the compulsory 
:lauses of the amending bill had afterwards 
o be withdrawn. For some years after 1870 
a fierce controversy raged round the twenty- 
ifth clause, which enabled the local authori- 
;ies to pay the fees of needy children at 
denominational schools. This clause was 
;hought by the nonconformists to give an 
unfair advantage to the church schools in 
places where board schools did not exist, and 
especially in the rural districts. It was se- 
riously maintained that Forster, instead of 
Pounding a national system of education, had 
really hindered its establishment. 

Forster, while president of the council, had 
the conduct of the Ballot Bill, which passed 
the House of Commons in 1871, was lost inc 
the House of Lords, and finally carried in the 
session of 1872. In 1872 Forster took the 
keenest interest in the Geneva arbitration, as 
tending to remove the estrangement between 
this country and the United States. 

After the dissolution of 1874, and the 
accession of Mr. Disraeli to power, Forster 
carried out his long-cherished wish of visit- 
ing the United States, and immediately on 
his return he was proposed as the successor 
to Mr. Gladstone, who had resigned the 
leadership of the liberal party. The proposal 
shows how little he had been injured by the 
denunciation of his educational policy. It is 
a curious fact that at the preliminary meet- 
ing of the prominent liberal members all the 
aristocratic whigs present voted for Forster, 
and all the radical manufacturers and men of 
business voted for Lord Hartington. Forster, 
in a letter which was universally thought to 
have done him great honour, withdrew in 
Lord Hartington's favour. On 5 Nov. 1875 
he delivered an address on ' Our Colonial 
Empire ' at the Philosophical Institution at 
Edinburgh, which is interesting as contain- 
ing the views which afterwards took shape 



in the programme of the Imperial Federation 
League ; and about the same time he was 
elected lord rector of Aberdeen University. 

During the bitter party disputes which 
marked the years 1876-8, between the out- 
break of the revolt in Herzegovina and the 
signature of the Berlin treaty, Forster held a 
somewhat middle position, and was blamed 
by both extremes. In the autumn of 1876 
he paid a visit to Servia and Turkey, and on 
his return he made an important speech to 
his constituents. While denouncing Turkish 
maladministration, he insisted upon the ob- 
jections to English interference. His positive 
proposal was that the concert of Europe should 
be used to obtain from the sultan a consti- 
tution similar to that of Crete for the Chris- 
tian provinces of Turkey. Then the Russo- 
Turkish war broke out, and from that time 
to the conclusion of the Berlin treaty Forster's 
unceasing efforts were devoted to keeping 
England from any part in such a war. 

At this time the extreme liberals were 
beginning to organise the so-called Caucus. 
The old dispute between Forster and Bir- 
mingham broke out again. He declined to 
submit his political destiny to the judgment 
of a committee of the party in Bradford, and 
declared that he should offer himself to the 
constituency at the next election whether the 
association chose him or not. After some 
display of feeling the association accepted 
him. On the formation of Mr. Gladstone's 
ministry in 1880 he would have preferred to 
be secretary of state for the colonies, but, in 
the extremely threatening state of the Irish 
question, felt bound to consent to the prime 
minister's request that he should become 
chief secretary, with Lord Cowper as lord- 
lieutenant. The winter had been marked 
by something approaching to a famine in the 
west of Ireland, and the Land League agita- 
tion, headed by Mr. Parnell, had grown to 
formidable dimensions. The question imme- 
diately arose whether the government should 
attempt to prolong the existing Coercion 
Act, which was to expire in a very few 
weeks. The cabinet, however, determined 
to attempt the government of the country 
under the ordinary law. In June Forster 
persuaded Mr. Gladstone to allow the intro- 
duction of a temporary bill providing com- 
pensation for evicted tenants, and to appoint 
a strong commission to inquire into the work- 
ing of the Land Act of 1870. The new bill, 
known as the Compensation for Disturbance 
Bill, was carried in the House of Commons 
in spite of the vigorous opposition of the con- 
servatives, but on 2 Aug. 1880 it was rejected 
in theHouse of Lords by an immense majority. 
Forster was indignant and dismayed by this, 

as he thought, desperate act of the landlord 
party, which immensely increased the diffi- 
culty of his task in governing Ireland. The 
Irish party instantly proceeded to identify 
the lords who had rejected the Compensa- 
tion for Disturbance Bill with the govern- 
ment which had brought it in, and to stir up 
popular feeling throughout Ireland against 
the whole English connection. The autumn 
and winter were marked by one continuous 
struggle between Forster and the Land 
League on the one hand, and Forster and 
the more ' advanced ' section of his colleagues 
in the government on the other. The ma- 
chinery of the ordinary law was strained to 
the uttermost, and to no purpose, as was 
shown by a number of abortive trials of per- 
sons believed to be guilty of outrages, and, 
above all, by the equally abortive state trial 
in Dublin, in which fourteen leading mem- 
bers of the league, Mr. Parnell, Mr. Dillon, 
Mr. P. J. Sheridan, and others, were prose- 
cuted for conspiracy to prevent the payment 
of rent and other illegal acts. Forster wished 
to summon parliament in the autumn, but this 
was refused, and only when it met on 7 Jan. 
1881 was it announced that the government 
had decided to ask for fresh powers. Long 
and angry debates followed, and, after un- 
precedented scenes, caused by the obstructive 
action of the Irish members, the bill was 
passed. Forster said in introducing it : ' I 
never expected it, and if I had thought that 
this duty would have devolved on me, I cer- 
tainly should not have been Irish secretary. 
Indeed, I think I may go further, and say 
that if I had foreseen that this would have 
been the result of twenty years of parlia- 
mentary life, I think I should have left par- 
liamentary life alone. But I never was more 
clear in my life as to the necessity of a duty.' 
The essence of the bill was the clause which 
enabled the Irish government to imprison 
men without trial ' on reasonable suspicion ' 
of crime, outrage, or conspiracy. In conse- 
quence of this clause within a short time 
some nine hundred men were imprisoned, 
most of them of the class whom Forster had 
described as ' village ruffians,' who were 
really well known to be guilty of crime or 
planning crime, but whom no jury of their 
neighbours dared to convict. With them 
were imprisoned a certain number of men of 
a superior class, who were believed, on evi- 
dence sufficient to convince the government, 
to be guilty of incitement to murder and of 
organising intimidation. In Ireland Forster 
had to face the performance of what he be- 
lieved to be a duty, but of the most distressing 
kind. He had to hurry backwards and for- 
wards between London and Dublin, and 




within a few hours of giving his instructions 
in Dublin Castle to face the fire of hostile 
' questions' in the House of Commons. His 
health suffered under the strain. Moreover 
he had to follow and take part in the intricate 
debates on Mr. Gladstone's Land Bill of 1881, 
and especially to -watch the interests of the 
labourers. AVhen parliament rose there was 
no rest for him, for the headquarters of the 
agitation -were transferred from Westminster 
to the rural districts of Ireland, and incen- 
diary speeches followed by outrages came in 
constant succession. On 13 Oct. 1881, at the 
Guildhall, Mr. Gladstone announced the ar- 
rest of Mr. Parnell, and this was followed 
by the suppression of the Land League as 
an illegal and treasonable association. Mean- 
time plots began to be formed against Forster's 
life, and during the winter of 1881-2 several 
attempts were made upon him, his escape 
under the circumstances, subsequently made 
public, appearing little less than miraculous. 
In March 1882 he took the bold step of per- 
sonally visiting some of the worst districts, 
and at Tullamore he addressed a crowd from 
a window of the hotel, impressing even the 
hostile peasantry who heard him with ad- 
miration for his pluck and character. Two 
months later he and Lord Cowper had re- 
signed, the occasion being his refusal to coun- 
tenance the celebrated Kilmainham 'treaty' 
by which Mr. Parnell and his colleagues were 
to be released from prison after they had pri- 
vately and, as Forster thought, far too vaguely 
promised to support the government. On 
Thursday, 4 May, Forster made a memorable 
speech in the House of Commons, explaining 
the reasons of his resignation. Stated shortly 
they were to the effect that one of the following 
three conditions was, in his view, indispens- 
able to the release of the prisoners : ' A public 
promise on their part, Ireland quiet, or the 
acquisition of fresh powers by the govern- 
ment.' As none of these three conditions was, 
in his opinion, satisfied, Forster resigned with 
Lord Cowper, and their places were taken by 
Lord Spencer as lord-lieutenant, and Lord 
Frederick Cavendish as chief secretary. On 
the following Saturday (6 May 1882) Lord 
Frederick Cavendish and Mr. Burke were 
murdered in Phoenix Park. Forster at once 
offered to take up his old post, and 'temporarily 
to fill the vacancy which had been caused by 
the loss of Mr. Burke, the man who, next to 
himself, was the most intimately acquainted 
with the existing condition of things in Ire- 
land.' The offer was not accepted, and he 
did not again return to Ireland. It was not 
till the following winter, when the informer, 
James Carey [q.v.] gave evidence at the 
trial of the Phrenix Park assassins, that the 

country learned how imminent had been the 
personal danger to which for many months 
Forster had been exposed. But he himself 
knew it well, though he never allowed him- 
self to be influenced by it. 

Forster took comparatively little part in 
Irish debates during the remaining years of 
his life, but one notable exception to this 
was during the debate on the address at 
the beginning of 1883, when he charged Mr. 
Parnell and other members of parliament 
connected with the league with conniving 
at crime. Meantime he devoted his public 
efforts to the furthering of other causes, espe- 
cially to the interests of the colonies and to 
the settlement of Egyptian difficulties. He 
was the chairman of the newly formed Im- 
perial Federation League, which hoped to 
carry out his old idea of bringing the colonies 
into closer and more formal connection with 
the mother-country. He followed with pro- 
found interest the course of events in South 
Africa, and strongly supported such measures 
as the appointment of Mr. Mackenzie as resi- 
dent in Bechuanaland and the despatch of 
Sir Charles Warren's expedition. He was a 
severe and unsparing critic of the blunders 
of the government in relation to Egypt up 
to the time of the fall of Khartoum, declar- 
ing that the battle of Tel-el-Kebir ought 
not to have been fought unless we were 
prepared to accept its logical consequences. 
| Only once, however, did he actually vote 
j against the government, on 27 Feb. 1885 in 
! the debate on Sir Stafford Northcote's mo- 
j tion censuring the government for the death 
of General Gordon, when the ministry was 
only saved by fourteen votes. He cordially 
supported the County Franchise Bill, and was 
present at the great open-air meeting at Leeds 
on 6 Oct. 1884, called to condemn the action 
of the House of Lords in rejecting the bill. 
During the last half of the session of 1885 a 
very arduous piece of work was imposed upon 
him when he was asked to be chairman of the 
small committee that had to decide the fate 
of the Manchester Ship Canal Bill. This 
was the determining cause of his last illness. 
The session over, feeling weary and ill, he 
went to Baden-Baden, but even there he 
could not rest, and some imprudent over- 
exertion brought on the illness from which, 
on 5 April 1886, at 80 Eccleston Square, 
London, he died. His death was greatly 
mourned, and even at a time of bitter poli- 
tical antagonism, when old ties were being 
broken in all directions, and when many of 
those who had once worked with him re- 
garded him as their most formidable political 
opponent, it was admitted on all sides that 
a man of lofty character had passed away. 

Fors} 7 th 


The funeral service was read over his remains 
in Westminster Abbey, and the body was 
then transported to Burley-in-Wharfedale, 
and buried there. 

[Life of the Right Hon. William Edward For- 
ster, by T. Wemyss Reid, 1888 ; personal recol- 
lections; Hansard's Debates ; obituary notice in 
the Times, 6 April 1886.] T. H. W. 

LL.D. (1769-1843), inventor, son of James 
Forsyth, minister of Belhelvie in Aberdeen- 
shire, by Isabella, youngest daughter of Wal- 
ter Syme, minister of Tullynessle, was born 
on 28 Dec. 1769 in his father's manse. He 
graduated at King's College, Aberdeen, in 
1786, and in 1791 was licensed as a preacher. 
His father died suddenly (1 Dec. 1790) at the 
presbytery meeting which granted the son's 
license, and John Alexander was chosen his 
successor. He devoted to chemistry and me- 
chanics the time which he could spare from 
his duties as minister. One of his favourite 
amusements was to make knives from iron- 
stone. He was fond of wild-fowl shooting, 
and as the birds often escaped by diving at 
the flash of his flint-locked fowling-piece, he 
constructed a hood over the lock of his gun, 
with a sight along the barrel. He took an 
interest in inventions, especially those con- 
nected with steam and electricity. His want 
of thorough training was shown in some 
crude notions about galvanism and magne- 
tism, which he believed to be capable of gene- 
rating a new sense. His ingenuity found a 
more appropriate sphere in developing fire- 
arms. The French were unsuccessfully at- 
tempting to substitute chloride of potash for 
nitrate in gunpowder ; Forsyth began experi- 
ments on the known detonating compounds. 
He hit upon various methods of obtaining 
increased inflammability and strength, but 
the mixtures were too dangerous for use. 
His next attempt was to improve the inflam- 
mability of the priming in flint-locks, and he 
found that the least spark of a flint ignited 
detonating mercury or powder made in chlo- 
ride of potash. But it frequently happened 
that the inflammation from the pan was not 
carried through the touchhole to the charge 
of gunpowder in the barrel, and that, even 
when gunpowder was mixed in the pan with 
detonating powder, this compound was in- 
flamed without acting on the gunpowder. 
He at last hit upon the employment of a 
cylindrical piece of iron with a touchhole 
just able to admit a cambric needle struck 
by a small hammer, and a pan to hold deto- 
nating powder on the outer end of the touch- 
hole. The loose gunpowder placed in the 
tube was not regularly ignited, but this dif- 

| ficulty was surmounted by wadding. He 
| then constructed a suitable lock, and during 
i the season of 1805 shot with a fowling-piece 
| made on his plan. In the spring of 1806 he 
took it to London and showed it to some 
| sporting friends. Lord Moira, then master- 
general of ordnance, saw the gun and in- 
vited Forsyth to make some experiments at 
the Tower. Here he remained for some 
time, Moira providing for the discharge of 
j his pastoral duties meanwhile, and after 
; patient effort a lock that answered all re- 
quirements was produced. He had to under- 
take the dangerous task of preparing the 
detonating powder for himself, the workmen 
being ignorant and unwilling. The new 
principle was then applied to a carbine, and 
to a 3-pounder, which were approved by 
the master-general of ordnance. Forsyth 
then returned home, Moira proposing that he 
should receive as remuneration an amount 
equivalent to the saving of gunpowder ef- 
fected. When Lord Chatham soon afterwards 
succeeded Lord Moira as master-general of 
ordnance, he intimated to Forsyth that ' his 
services were no longer required,' and asked 
him to send in an account of expenses in- 
curred. The board of ordnance ordered him 
to deliver up all possessions of the depart- 
ment then in his use and to remove from 
the Tower the ' rubbish ' he had left. The 
' rubbish ' consisted of ingenious applications 
of the percussion principle afterwards gene- 
rally adopted. Forsyth lived on quietly and 
cheerfully, apportioning his time, as before, 
among his various pursuits. After many 
years, some of his friends, learning that the 
government were actually introducing the 
percussion lock into the army, persuaded him 
to draw up a statement of claim for recom- 
pense. Lord Brougham, to whom he was re- 
lated, took up the case, and a small pension 
was ultimately awarded him. On the morn- 
ing that the first instalment of the long-de- 
layed pension arrived (11 June 1843), Forsyth 
was found dead in his study chair. Napoleon 
offered the inventor 20,000^. to divulge the se- 
cret of his discovery, but the offer was patrio- 
tically declined. Forsyth was unmarried. 
Glasgow University created him LL.D. 

[Dr. Forsyth's Statement, hitherto unpub- 
lished ; Hew Scott's Fasti Eccles. Scoticanae, pt. 
vi. pp. 495-6 ; local newspapers.] J. B-T. 

FORSYTH, JAMES (1838-1871), In- 
dian traveller, was born in 1838. After re- 
ceiving a university education in England, 
and taking his degree of M.A., he entered the 
civil service, and went out to India as assis- 
tant conservator and acting conservator of 
forests. In a short time he was appointed 



settlement officer and deputy-commissioner 
of Nimar, and served with distinction un- 
der Sir Richard Temple, chief commissioner 
of the Central Provinces. Forsyth acquired 
wide reputation as a hunter. He was a true 
sportsman, and spoke severely of ' poaching 
proclivities ' and ' unsportsmanlike conduct.' 
In 1862 he published a comprehensive trea- 
tise on the ' Sporting Rifle and its Projec- 
tiles.' Forsyth, who was attached to the 
Bengal staff corps, made a complete tour of 
the Central Provinces of India in 1862-4, 
penetrating to Ar mar-Kant ak, near the 
sources of the Nerbudda, the Mahanuddy, 
and the Sone. He thence proceeded across the 
rich plain of Chutteesgurh to the sal forests 
in the far east. In 1870 he prepared an ac- 
count of his explorations, with which he pro- 
ceeded to England towards the close of that 
year. Arrangements were made for the pub- 
lication of the work, but the author died 
while the sheets were passing through the 
press. The work appeared posthumously 
(November 1871), under the title of ' The 
Highlands of Central India ; Notes on their 
Forests and Wild Tribes, Natural History, 
and Sports.' This narrative contained much 
valuable information respecting the wild 
hill tribes, some graphic descriptions of 
scenery, an interesting account of the forests 
and the system of conservancy, and full de- 
tails of the sporting capabilities of the Cen- 
tral Provinces. It was a complete guide and 
exposition of the central highlands of India. 
Forsyth died in London 1 May 1871. 

[Athenaeum, 25 Nov. 1871 ; Forsyth's Works.] 

G. B. S. 

FORSYTH, JOSEPH (1763-1815), wri- 
ter on Italy, born at Elgin, Scotland, on 
18 Feb. 1763, was the son, by his second 
marriage, of Alexander Forsyth, merchant in 
Elgin, a man of intelligence and piety, and 
a friend of Isaac Watts. His mother, Ann 
Harrold, was the daughter of a farmer who 
fought for Prince Charles at Culloden, was 
taken prisoner, and died on board ship while 
"being carried for trial to England. From 
the grammar school of his native town For- 
syth passed at the age of twelve to King's 
College, Aberdeen, where he graduated M. A. 
In 1779. His parents intended him for the 
church, but his diffidence induced him to de- 
cline. He went to London and became as- 
sistant to the master of an academy at New- 
ington Butts ; was soon able to purchase 
the establishment, and carried it on success- 
fully for thirteen years. Then, his health 
failing, he gave up the school and returned 
to Elgin. He had now the leisure and the 
means to give effect to what had been the 

great desire of his life, a visit to Italy. The 
peace of Amiens was known in Elgin on 
7 Oct. 1801. On the 12th Forsyth was already 
on his way south, and on Christmas day he 
arrived at Nice. The next eighteen months 
he spent in the more famous cities of Italy, 
where he had access to the literary circles, 
and saw everything with the eyes of a man 
well read in the poets and historians of the 
country, both ancient and modern, a con- 
noisseur in architecture and a keen observer 
of thought and life. He was at Turin on his 
way home when the war was renewed, and 
on 25 May 1803 he was seized by the police 
and carried prisoner to Nismes. The restraint 
there was not severe, but Forsyth was caught 
in an attempt to escape, and was thereupon 
marched in midwinter six hundred miles to 
Fort de Bitche, where his confinement was at 
first intolerably strict. It was, however, gradu- 
ally relaxed ; after two years he was removed 
to Verdun, where he remained five years. 
Through the influence of a lady in the suite 
of the king of Holland he was in 1811 per- 
mitted to reside in Paris ; but four months after 
the English in the capital were ordered back 
to their places of detention, and the utmost 
relaxation Forsyth's literary friends could 
obtain for him was the permission to go to 
Valenciennes instead of to Verdun. Forsyth 
had solaced his captivity by further study of 
Italian literature and art. Napoleon at that 
time affected the part of a patron of both ; 
and Forsyth was induced by the hope of ob- 
taining his release to appear in the character 
of an author. His ' Remarks on Antiqui- 
ties, Arts, and Letters, during an Excursion 
in Italy in the years 1802 and 1803,' were 
published in London in 1813, and copies 
were forwarded to Paris with many solicita- 
tions in his favour ; but the effort failed, and 
it was not till the allies entered Paris in 
March 1814 that he regained his liberty. 
After a year in London he returned to Elgin, 
intending to settle there ; but his constitu- 
tion, never robust, had been undermined by 
his thirteen years of exile. He died on 20 S 3pt. 
1815, and was buried in his parents' tomb in 
the Elgin Cathedral churchyard, where his 
epitaph may still be read. A second edition 
of his ' Italy ' appeared in 1816, with a me- 
moir of the author by his brother Isaac, who 
survived till 1859, and it has gone through 
several later editions, one (1820) issued at 
Geneva. Forsyth himself says in his ' ad- 
vertisement ' that when he went to Italy he 
had no intention of writing a book. He wrote 
nothing else, and his brother informs us that 
he never to his dying day ceased to regret 
the publication ; but the work, notwithstand- 
ing its limits, has proved of permanent value, 




and both for style and matter it is still one 
of the best books on Italy in our language. 

[Memoir prefixed to second edition of Re- 
marks ; Young's Annals of Elgin ; local infor- 
mation.] J. C. 

FORSYTH, ROBERT (1706-1846), mis- 
cellaneous writer, son of Robert Forsyth and 
Marion Pairman of Biggar, Lanarkshire, was 
born in 1766. His parents were poor, but 
gave him a good education, with a view to 
' making him a minister.' When only four- 
teen he entered G lasgo w College. He says of 
himself that he ' had slow talents, but great 
fits of application.' After the usual course of 
study he obtained license as a probationer 
of the church of Scotland. As he spoke 
without notes ('the paper'), and was some- 
what vehement and rhetorical in his style, 
he gained considerable popularity. But 
having no influence he grew tired of waiting 
for a parish. He then turned his attention 
to the law, but the fact that he was a licen- 
tiate of the church was held as an objection 
to his being admitted to the bar. Refused 
by the Faculty of Advocates, he petitioned 
the court of session for redress. The court 
ruled that he must resign his office of licen- 
tiate. This he did. Still the faculty resisted. 
There were vexatious delays, but at last, in 
consequence of a judgment of Lord-president 
Campbell, the faculty gave way, and in 1792 
Forsyth was admitted an advocate. Dis- 
appointment again awaited him. He had 
fraternised with the ' friends of the people,' 
and was looked on with suspicion as a ' re- 
volutionist,' and this marred his prospects. 
He turned to literature, and managed to 
make a living by writing for the booksellers. 
He contributed to the ' Encyclopaedia Bri- 
tannica ' ' Agriculture,' 'Asia,' ' Britain,' and 
other articles ( 1 802-3) . He al so tried poetry, 
politics, and philosophy, but with little suc- 
cess. Eventually he obtained a fair practice 
at the bar, where he was noted for his dogged 
industry, blunt honesty, and pawky humour. 
His chief works are ' Principles and Practice 
of Agriculture' (2 vols. 1804), 'The Princi- 
ples of Moral Science ' (vol. i. 1805), ' Poli- 
tical Fragments' (1830), 'Observations on 
the Book of Genesis ' (1846). But the work 
by which he is best known is ' The Beauties 
of Scotland' (5 vols. 1805-8), which is still 
held in some repute, not only for its valu- 
able information, but for the many engrav- 
ings which it contains of towns and places 
of interest. Forsyth, who had always ad- 
hered loyally to his church, published in 1843, 
when seventy-six years old, 'Remarks on the 
Church of Scotland,' &c. This brought him 
under the lash of Hugh Miller, then editor 


of the ' Witness,' who not only reviewed the 
pamphlet (14 Jan. 1843) with merciless se- 
verity, but also recalled some of Forsyth's 
speculations in philosophy, which he covered 
with ridicule and scorn. It is curious that 
in two of these speculations he seems to 
have had an inkling of opinions largely cur- 
rent in the present time. ' Whatever has 
no tendency to improvement will gradually 
pass away and disappear for ever.' This 
hints at the ' survival of the fittest.' ' Let 
it never be forgotten then for whom immor- 
tality is reserved. It is appointed as the 
portion of those who are worthy of it, and 
they shall enjoy it as a natural consequence 
of their worth.' This seems the doctrine 
of ' conditional immortality ' now held by 
many Christians. Hugh Miller says ironi- 
cally of these views : ' It was reserved for 
this man of high philosophic intellect to 
discover, early in the present century, that, 
though there are some souls that live for 
ever, the great bulk of souls are as mortal as 
the bodies to which they are united, and 
perish immediately after, like the souls of 
brutes.' He died in 1846. 

[Autobiographical Sketch, 1846.] W. F. 


(1827-1886), Anglo-Indian, born at Birken- 
head on 7 Oct. 1827, was the tenth child of 
Thomas Forsyth, a Liverpool merchant. He 
was educated at Sherborne and Rugby, and 
under private tuition until he entered the 
East India Company's College at Haileybury, 
where he remained until December 1847. 
After a distinguished course he embarked for 
India in January 1848, and arrived at Cal- 
cutta in the following March. Here he gained 
honours in Persian, Hindustani, and Hindi 
at the company's college, and in September of 
the same year was appointed to a post under 
Edward Thornton at Saharunpore. On the 
annexation of the Punjaub after the second 
Sikh war in March 1849, he was appointed 
to take part in the administration of the new 
province, and was sent by Sir Henry Law- 
rence, together with Colonel Marsden, as 
deputy-commissioner over him, to Pakput- 
tun. He was shortly afterwards appointed 
by Lord Dalhousie to the post of assistant- 
commissioner at Simla. While holding this 
post he married in 1850 Alice Mary, daugh- 
ter of Thomas Plumer, esq., of Canons Park, 
Edgware. He was next stationed at Kangra, 
where he remained till 1854, when an attack of 
brain fever obliged him to return for a time 
to England. On going back to India he spent 
a short time as deputy-commissioner, first 
at Gurdaspur and subsequently at Rawal 
Pindee, whence he was transferred in 1855 





to Umballa. He was here at the outbreak 
of the mutiny of 1857, and did good service 
by his vigilance in detecting the first signs 
of disaffection, and his promptitude in re- 
porting them. After the capture of Delhi 
he was one of the special commissioners ap- 
pointed to hunt up the rebels, and in this 
capacity was principally engaged in exa- 
mining the papers of the nana of Cawnpore. 
He arrived at Lucknow in time to see the 
city evacuated by the rebels, and after this 
event acted as secretary successively to 
Outram, Montgomery, and Wingfield, until> 
in 1860, he was appointed commissioner to 
the Punjaub. For his services during the 
mutiny he received the order of companion 
of the Bath. In 1867 he visited Leh, the 
capital of Ladakh, with the object of obtain- 
ing from the Cashmere officials a removal of 
the restrictions which prevented the trade 
between Eastern Turkestan and the Pun- 
jaub. On his return he instituted an annual 
fair at Palumpore, in the Kangra valley, to 
which he invited traders from Turkestan. 
The experiences which he gained in this way 
encouraged him in the idea of promoting 
amicable relations between the Indian govern- 
ment and the Central Asiatics and Russians. 
Lord Mayo approved and authorised him to 
proceed to England, and thence, if possible, 
to St. Petersburg, with the object of arranging 
with the Russian government a definition 
of the territories of the amir of Cabul. In 
this mission he succeeded in proving that 
the disputed districts belonged to the amir, 
and obtained from the Russian government 
an acknowledgment to that effect. Forsyth 
returned to India in 1869. At this time 
the amir of Yarkand and Kashgar, being 
desirous of establishing relations between 
his country and India, had sent an envoy to 
the viceroy with the request that a British 
officer might be deputed to visit him. For- 
syth was accordingly instructed to return 
with the envoy, without political capacity, 
for the purpose of acquiring information 
about the people and country. The journey 
from Lahore to Yarkand and back, a distance 
of two thousand miles, was accomplished in 
six months, but the expedition failed to pro- 
duce all the results expected from it, owing 
to the absence of the amir from his capital 
on its arrival. 

In 1872 a serious outbreak of the Kooka 
sect, the leader of which was a religious en- 
thusiast named Ram Singh, occurred at Ma- 
lair Kotla. Troops were at once ordered to 
the disaffected districts, and Forsyth was 
entrusted with the duty of suppressing the 
insurrection. His powers on this occasion 
seem not to have been sufficiently defined, 

and Cowan, the then commissioner of Loo- 
diana, had anticipated his arrival by executing 
many of the rebels, a course of action which, 
though contrary to instructions, Forsyth felt 
himself bound to support. When the in- 
surrection was put down, an inquiry in- 
stituted into the conduct of Forsyth and 
Cowan resulted in the removal of both from 
their appointments. Forsyth appealed against 
this decision to Lord Northbrook, who had 
recently come out as viceroy, and, though 
no reversal of the verdict was possible, he 
was compensated by being appointed in 1873 
envoy on a mission to Kashgar. The object 
of this mission was to conclude a commer- 
cial treaty with the amir, and it resulted in 
the removal of all hindrances to trade between 
the two countries, and gave reason for the 
hope that, in spite of physical difficulties, 
such a trade would eventually be of con- 
siderable importance. On his return Forsyth 
received the order of knight commander of 
the Star of India. 

In 1875 Forsyth was sent as envoy to the 
king of Burma to obtain a settlement of the 
question which had arisen between the British 
and Burmese governments as to the relation 
of the Karenee States, a question which was 
settled by an agreement, proposed by the 
king of Burma, that these states should be 
acknowledged as independent. 

Forsyth left India on furlough in 1876. 
In the following year he resigned, and occu- 
pied himself during the remaining years of 
his life in the direction of Indian railway 
companies. In 1879 he formed a company 
for the purpose of connecting Marmagao, in 
Portuguese India, with the Southern Mah- 
ratta and Deccan countries ; and in 1883 he 
was deputed by the board of directors to 
visit India and report upon the progress of 
the works. He died on 17 Dec. 1886 at 

[Autobiography and Eeminiscences of Sir 
Douglas Forsyth, edited by his daughter, Ethel 
Forsyth, London, 1887.] E. J. K. 

FORSYTH, WILLIAM (1722-1800), 
merchant, was born in 1722 at Cromarty, 
where his father, a native of Morayshire, 
had settled as a shopkeeper. He made good 
progress at the town school, then taught by 
David Macculloch, not only in the ordinary 
branches, but in the classics. Forsyth spent 
some time in a London counting-house, but, 
his father dying suddenly, he was called 
home, and had to take the place of head of 
the family at the early age of seventeen. 
Cromarty was then in a low state. The 
herring had deserted the coast, and there 
was no trade. Forsyth, however, saw that 


the old town had some special advantages. 
There was a fine harbour, and ready access 
to the surrounding districts, not only by the 
roads, but by the firths of Dornoch, Ding- 
wall, and Inverness. He therefore formed 
the bold and original idea of making it a 
depot of supplies for all the country round, 
and this plan he carried out with energy 
and success for many years. He brought 
flax and other commodities from Holland. 
He traded with Leith and London, and was 
the first to introduce coal (about 1770), called 
by the country people 'black stones.' On 
the suggestion of his old schoolfellow, Dr. 
Hossack of Greenwich, he started the manu- 
facture of kelp. He also employed many of 
the people in their own homes in spinning 
and weaving in connection with the British 
Linen Company, of which he was the first 
agent in the north, and encouraged fishing 
and farming industries. For more than 
thirty years he was the only magistrate in 
the place, and such was the confidence in 
his judgment and integrity that during all 
that time no appeal was taken against any 
of his decisions. The general respect of the 
neighbourhood was shown by his popular 
title as ' the maister.' Forsyth not only 
did much to revive the old glory of the 
town, but helped many young men to make 
their way in the world ; one of these was 
the well-known Charles Grant, chairman of 
the East India Company, and M.P. for In- 
verness. Forsyth died at Cromarty 30 Jan. 
1800. He was twice married, first to Mar- 
garet Russell, who died within a year in child- 
bed, and next, after eleven years, to Elizabeth 
Grant, daughter of the Rev. Patrick Grant 
of Nigg, Ross-shire. He had nine children, 
three only surviving him. He and his family 
were large benefactors to Cromarty. Hugh 
Miller, himself a native of Cromarty, says: 
f He was one of nature's noblemen ; and the 
sincere homage of the better feelings is an 
honour reserved exclusively to the order to 
which he belonged.' He also says of the 
inscription on his gravestone in Cromarty 
churchyard, that its ' rare merit is to be at 
once highly eulogistic and strictly true.' 

[Memoir by Hugh Miller, 1839.] W. F. 

FORSYTH, WILLIAM (1737-1804), 
gardener, was born at Old Meldrum, Aber- 
deenshire, in 1737. In 1763 he came to Lon- 
don, and was employed in the Apothecaries' 
Garden at Chelsea under Philip Miller, whom 
he succeeded in 1771. Thirteen years later 
lie was appointed superintendent of the royal 
gardens of St. James and Kensington. Soon 
after coming to London he gave much atten- 
tion to the growth of trees, and brought out a 



plaister, the application of which he asserted 
would cause new growth in place of previ- 
ously diseased or perished wood. For this 
he was accorded a vote of thanks in both 
houses of parliament and a pecuniary reward ; 
but the efficacy of the plaister was disputed 
by Thomas Andrew Knight and others, its 
composition differing but slightly from simi- 
lar preparations commonly in use in nurseries 
and plantations. Several letters on this topic 
will be found in the volumes of the ' Gentle- 
man's Magazine ' cited below. 

In 1791 he published his ' Observations on 
the Diseases, Defects, and Injuries of Fruit 
and Forest Trees,' and in 1802 his ' Treatise 
on the Culture and Management of Fruit 
Trees,' which reached a seventh edition in 
1824. He also contributed a paper on gather- 
ing apples and pears to Hunter's ' Georgical 
Essays,' and a ' Botanical Nomenclature ' in 
1794, 8vo. He was a fellow of the Linnean 
and Antiquaries Societies. He died 25 July 

1804, at his official residence, Kensington. 
The plant named Forsythia after Forsyth in 
Thomas Walter's ' Flora Caroliniana,' 1788, 
p. 153, is now designated Decumaria (cf. 
BEXTHAM and HOOKER, Genera Plantarum, 
i. 642). 

[Gent. Mag. 1804, vol. Ixxiv. pt. ii. p. 787, 

1805, vol. Ixv. pt. i. pp.431 (typ. err. 341), 432; 
Nouv. Biog. Gen. xviii. 210 ; Field's Mem. Bot. 
Gard. Chelsea, 58-90 (not continuous) ; John- 
son's Hist. Eng. Gard. 250.] B. D. J. 

FORSYTH, WILLIAM (1818-1879), 
Scottish poet and journalist, son of Morris 
Forsyth and Jane Brands, was born at Turriff, 
Aberdeenshire, 24 Oct. 1818. He was edu- 
cated at Fordyce Academy and the uni- 
versities of Aberdeen and Edinburgh. For 
some years he studied medicine, becoming 
assistant to a country doctor, and twice 
acting as surgeon to a Greenland whaler, but 
he never took a medical degree, and ulti- 
mately abandoned medicine forliterature. His 
first engagement was as sub-editor of the ' In- 
verness Courier ' (1842) under Dr. Robert Car- 
ruthers [q. v.], and while with him he largely 
assisted in the preparation of ' Chambers's En- 
cyclopaedia of English Literature,' a work of 
high value. In 1843 he became sub-editor of 
the ' Aberdeen Herald,' then conducted by Mr. 
Adam, and he contributed in prose and verse 
for several years. In 1848 he joined the staff 
of the ' Aberdeen Journal,' one of the oldest 
and most influential of Scottish newspapers, 
and eventually was appointed editor, an office 
which he held with much honour for about 
thirty years. Forsyth was in politics a liberal- 
conservative. He gave his ardent support to 
all measures tending to the elevation of the 




people. He was much trusted by his political 
friends, but he always asserted a certain in- 
dependence in his action. During the Ameri- 
can civil war he stood almost alone among 
Scottish journalists in advocating the cause 
of the north. In the famous controversy of 
Kingsley v. Newman he wrote with much 
force in support of the former, and received 
from him a special letter of thanks. In 
church questions his articles were held in 
high repute, and Bishop Wordsworth of St. 
Andrews and Alexander Ewing[q. v.], bishop 
of Argyle, corresponded with him privately. 
Forsyth also wrote two pamphlets on Scot- 
tish church questions, entitled ' A Letter on 
Lay Patronage in the Church of Scotland ' 
(1867) and 'The Day of Open Questions' 
(1868). In the first of these he indicated the 
lines on which a true reform of the church 
might be carried out, and may be said to 
have paved the way for the legislation which 
followed soon after in the Act for the Aboli- 
tion of Church Patronage (1874). 

Forsyth rendered valuable services to 
Aberdeen. The establishment of the As- 
sociation for Improving the Condition of 
the Poor was mainly due to him, and he not 
only laboured hard as an active member of 
the managing committee, but for six years 
gratuitously discharged the duties of secre- 
tary. Much of the results of his obser- 
vation and experience may be found in a 
paper read by him to the Social Science Con- 
gress in 1877, on ' The Province and "Work 
of Voluntary Charitable Agencies in the Man- 
agement of the Poor.' Forsyth was elected 
a member of the first Aberdeen school board, 
and did much good work of a general kind, 
besides serving as convener of a committee 
that had to deal with certain delicate and 
difficult questions affecting the grammar 
school and town council. From the first 
Forsyth took a warm interest in the volun- 
teer movement, and was chosen captain of 
the citizens' battery. This appointment he 
held for eighteen years, retiring with the 
rank of major. Some of his martial songs 
obtained a wide popularity. He also took 
much interest in everything connected with 
the service, and made some valuable sugges- 
tions to the war office as to practical gun- 
nery and the use of armed railway carriages 
in warfare, a device which was turned to 
good account in the operations in Egypt. 
Forsyth's principal literary works were ' The 
Martyrdom of Kelavane' (1861) and 'Idylls 
and Lyrics' (1872). The latter volume con- 
tains a thoughtful poem entitled ' The Old 
Kirk Bell,' and several other pieces published 
for the first time, but it is mainly made up of 
reprints from magazines. The most finished 

of these is ' The River,' which came out in the 
' Cornhill Magazine ' in Thackeray's time. The 
most moving is that entitled ' The Piobrach 
o' Kinreen,' the old piper's lament for the 
clearance of Glentannar, which first appeared 
in 'Punch.' During the last ten years of his 
life Forsyth suffered from an affection of the 
tongue, which ultimately took the form of ma- 
lignant cancer. After a long illness, borne- 
with characteristic quietness and fortitude, h& 
died on 21 June 1879. Forsyth was married 
in 1854 to Miss Eliza Fyfe, who survived 
him. Since his death certain ' Selections 'from 
his unpublished writings, with a ' Memoir/ 
have been edited by his friend Mr. Alexander 
Walker, Aberdeen. This volume is chiefly 
remarkable as reproducing ' The Midnicht 
Meetin',' a vigorous satire on the promoters 
of the union of the Aberdeen and Marischal 
colleges, originally printed for private cir^ 
culation. The book shows Forsyth's love- 
of animals and his devoted attachment to- 
Aberdeen, where, at Bonnymuir, Maryville, 
Friendville, Gordondale, and Richmondhill r 
his successive homes, he had spent more- 
than thirty years of his life. He was buried 
in the beautiful cemetery of Allenvale on 
the Dee. 

[Memoir by Alex. Walker, 1882.] W. F. 


1539), knight of St. John, was the second 1 
son of Sir John Fortescue of Punsborne r 
Hertfordshire, and grandson of Sir Richard, 
younger brother of Sir John, the famous chief 
justice [q. v.] His mother was the daughter 
of Sir Geoffrey Boleyn, and was great-aunt 
to Queen Anne Boleyn. Sir Adrian served 
in 1513 in the campaign against the French 
which ended in the battle of the Spurs. He 
attended on Queen Catherine at the Field of 
the Cloth of Gold in 1520 (RTMER, Fcedera, 
xiii. 712), served in the short and uneventful 
French war of 1522, and was knighted ia 
February 1528 (METCA.LFE, Book of Knights r 
p. 40). His connection with Anne Boleyn 
probably brought him for a time into con- 
siderable favour at the court of Henry VIII. 
His name appears in the list of those wh* 
received grants of lands from Wolsey's pos- 
sessions after the cardinal's fall in July 1530. 
He was present at all the festivities which 
took place on the king's second marriage, and 1 
received the exceptional honour of being- 
informed by a special messenger of the birth 
of the Princess Elizabeth. 

In 1532, two years before the dissolution 
of the order, he was admitted as a knight of 
St. John, though, as he was a married man, 
he could only have held the more or less 
honorary rank of a ' knight of devotion ' (M?. 



Winthrop, in Notes and Queries, 27 Aug. 
1853). Nor does it appear from his diaries 
and note-books, published in Lord Clermont's 
' History,' that he ever resided in any of the 
houses, or took any active part in the business 
of the order. In February 1 539 Fortescue was 
arrested and sent to the Tower {Calendars, 
Henry VIII, viii. 91). In May of the same 
year he was included in the act of attainder 
which condemned the Marchioness of Exeter, 
the Countess of Salisbury, Cardinal Pole, 
Sir Thomas Pole, Sir Thomas Dingley, and 
others. The story of this memorable act of 
attainder remains to a great extent a mys- 
tery. No historian has been able to explain 
its apparent want of motive, or the hurried 
manner in which it was pressed through both 
houses. The clause of the act relating to 
Fortescue states that he had 'not onelie 
most trayterouslie refused his duety of alle- 

fiance which he ought to beare unto your 
ighnesse, but also hathe comytted diverse 
and sundrie detestable and abhomynable 
treasons, and to put sedition in your realme ' 
(Roll of Parl. Henry VIII, 147, m. 15). It 
is difficult to conjecture what were the 
* sundry treasons.' His crime may have con- 
sisted of his near relationship to Queen Anne 
Boleyn ; or he may have been on too intimate 
terms with the Countess of Salisbury, whose 
granddaughter his son Sir Anthony [q. v.] 
married eighteen years later; and his con- 
nection with the Poles may have led to his 
inclusion in an act aimed to a great extent 
against that family ; or his execution may 
have been due to the marriage of his daugh- 
ter Frances to the tenth Earl of Kildare, be- 
headed for high treason in February 1537. 
This is, however, the less likely to have been 
the case, since Lady Kildare had returned to 
her father's roof before her husband broke into 
open rebellion (MA.KQTJTS OF KILDARE, Earls 
of Kildare, i. 170). 

The exact date of Fortescue's execution is 
uncertain. The ' English Martyrology ' gives 
it as 8 July 1539; Dodd (Church History, 
p. 200), Stow (Chronicle, ed. 1615, p. 576), 
and a manuscript list of persons executed in 
the reign of Henry VIII (Brit. Mus. Addit. 
MS. 27402, fol. 47),concur in naming 10 July, 
while the ' Chronicle of the Grey Friars ' 
(p. 43) reads : ' The ninth day of July was 
be-heddyd at Toure-Hyll Master Foskeu and 
Master Dyngle, knyghttes.' His fellow-suf- 
ferer was Sir Thomas Dingley, knight of St. 
John, who was condemned by the same act 
of attainder, on the more definite charge of 
travelling to foreign courts in the interests 
of the king's enemies. 

Fortescue has long been regarded by the 
order to which he belonged as a martyr, 

and according to Mr. Winthrop (Notes and 
Queries, viii. 191) his death was commemo- 
rated on 8 July. The first step towards his 
canonisation has been recently taken by his 
inclusion in the list of 261 persons executed 
during the reigns of Henry VIII, Elizabeth, 
and James I, on whom the title of venerable 
has been bestowed by the pope. He was twice 
married : first to Anne, daughter of Sir "Wil- 
liam Stonor, who died in 1518 ; and secondly 
to Anne, daughter of Sir William Rede, who 
survived her husband, and afterwards mar- 
ried Sir Thomas Parry, comptroller of Queen 
Elizabeth's household. By his first wife 
Fortescue had two daughters, Margaret, mar- 
ried to Thomas, first lord Wentworth, and 
Frances, married to Thomas, tenth earl of 
Kildare ; by his second wife he had three sons, 
Sir John, chancellor of the exchequer [q. v.], 
Thomas, and Sir Anthony [q. v.J, and two 
daughters, Elizabeth, married to Sir Thomas 
Bromley [q. v.], lord chancellor of England, 
and Mary. There are three known pictures 
of Fortescue two in the church of St. John 
at Valetta, and a third, which is probably a 
portrait, in the Collegio di San Paolo at 
Rabato, Malta. There is an engraving of 
the last of these in Lord Clermont's ' History.' 

[Lord Clermont's History of the Family of For- 
tescue, 1880 ; two articles by the Rev. J. Morris 
in the Month, June and July 1887.] G. K. F. 

1535 ?), conspirator, third and youngest son 
of Sir Adrian Fortescue [q. v.], was educated 
at Winchester. Unlike his elder brother Sir 
John, chancellor of the exchequer [q. v.], 
Sir Anthony adhered to the Roman catholic 
church. During the reign of Queen Mary he 
married Katharine Pole, granddaughter of 
Margaret, countess of Salisbury, and received 
the appointment of comptroller of the house- 
hold of his wife's uncle, Cardinal Pole. After 
the accession of Elizabeth, Sir Anthony and 
his brothers-in-law Arthur and Edward Pole 
plotted against the new sovereign. 

In November 1558 Fortescue was taken 
into custody along with several persons whom 
he was accused of causing to cast the horo- 
scope of Elizabeth and to calculate the length 
of her life and the chances of the duration of 
her government ; he was, however, released 
on bail on 25 Nov., and no further action seems 
to have been taken in the matter (SiRYPE, 
Annals, ed. 1825, vol. i. pt. i. pp. 9-10). Three 
years later, in October 1561, Arthur and Ed- 
ward Pole and Fortescue were arrested as 
they were on the point of sailing to Flanders ; 
they were kept in prison until February of 
the next year, when they were tried upon a 
charge of high treason at Westminster Hall. 



There is unfortunately no complete record of 

Wright' ... 

their design seems to have been singularly 
wild and foolish. They proposed as soon as 
they arrived in Flanders to proclaim Arthur 
Pole, the elder of the brothers, Duke of Cla- 
rence ; to persuade Mary Queen of Scots to 
marry Edmund Pole the younger brother, 
Arthur being already married to a daughter 
of the Earl of Northumberland ; to obtain 
from the Due de Guise a force of five or six 
thousand men, with whom they hoped to re- 
turn to Wales, proclaim Queen Mary, over- 
throw the existing government, and restore 
the ancient religion. 

Before setting out on this remarkable ex- 
pedition they had consulted two conjurers, 
by name John Prestall and Edward Cosyn, 
who, with two servants of Lord Hastings 
and a person named Barwick, were arrested 
and included in the indictment. These con- 
jurers had succeeded in raising a ' wicked 
spryte' who prophesied that all would go 
well with their designs, and that Queen Eliza- 
beth would die a natural death before the 
next summer. A more serious clause of the 
accusation charged Fortescue with obtaining 
countenance and help from the French and 
Spanish ambassadors. All the accused were 
convicted and condemned to death, but their 
lives were spared by the queen, and their 
sentences commuted to imprisonment in the 
Tower. There, between 1565 and 1578, both 
the Poles died, while Fortescue, at what 
date is unknown, was released or allowed 
to escape. He probably owed his freedom to 
the influence of his brother Sir John, who 
was highly esteemed by Elizabeth. Of the 
remainder of his career nothing is known ; he 
is spoken of as living, probably abroad, in his 
brother Thomas Fortescue's will, dated Mav 

Sir Anthony left three sons, Anthony, 
John, and George ; his grandson Anthony, 
son of his eldest son, was appointed by Charles, 
duke of Lorraine, his resident at the English 
court, and was expelled from the countrv by a 
resolution of the House of Commons, 16 Oct. 
1644 (Commons' Journals, iii. 667). 

[Lord Clermont's Hist, of the Family of 
Fortescue.] G_ j j? 

1647), royalist commander, was born in 1610 
at his father's seat of Fallapit, South Devon. 
In 1642 he was appointed high sheriff of the 
county of Devon. It was an object of con- 
siderable importance to the king to secure 
as sheriffs trustworthy men of local influ- 

ence, and the selection of so young a man 
as Fortescue, whose father was still living, 
implies that he had already secured himself 
a reputation for courage or ability. 

In the beginning of December 1642 For- 
tescue summoned the posse comitatus of the 
county to meet him at Modbury, in order 
to join Sir Ralph Hopton, who was then 
marching from Cornwall to besiege Plymouth. 
About two thousand men answered the sum- 
mons and assembled on 6 Dec., intending on 
the next day to join the main army, whose 
headquarters were at Plympton, only three 
miles distant. During the night Colonel 
Ruthven, commanding the parliamentary 
forces at Plymouth, organised a sortie from 
that town of some five hundred dragoons, who, 
avoiding the village of Plympton, fell upon 
Fortescue's train-bands at Modbury. These 
raw recruits dispersed at the first alarm, and 
the troopers at once occupied the village. 
They then proceeded to Modbury Castle, a 
seat of the Champernoune family, fired the 
house, broke in and took prisoners Fortescue 
himself and his brother Peter, Sir Edward 
Seymour and his eldest son, M.P. for Devon- 
shire, Arthur Basset, ' a notable malignant/ 
and a number of other gentlemen. The vic- 
torious cavalry then marched to Dartmouth, 
whence they despatched their prisoners by sea 
to London (Remarkable Passages newly re- 
ceived of the great Overthrow of Sir Ralph 
Hopton, at Mudburie. With the taking of 
the High Sheriffe, &c. 1642). On his arrival 
in London, Fortescue was sent to Windsor 
Castle : an inscription on the wall of a small 
chamber, close to the Round Tower, consist- 
ing of his name with a rude cut of his coat 
of arms and the words ' Pour le Roy C./ 
serves to identify the room in which he 
was imprisoned. He was afterwards trans- 
ferred to Winchester House, and before the 
end of 1643 was exchanged or released. On 
9 Dec. 1643 Fortescue received a commis- 
sion from Prince Maurice to repair ' the 
Old Bull-worke near Salcombe, now utterly 
ruined and decayed,' and to hold it for the 
king. The fort of Salcombe or Fort Charles, 
as it was renamed by Fortescue, stands on a 
rock at the entrance of Salcombe harbour 
near Kingsbridge, approachable from the land 
at low tide, but completely surrounded by the 
sea at high water. An interesting manuscript 
account of the details of the rebuilding, forti- 
fying, and victualling the place is printed in 
Lord Clermont's ' History.' The inventories 
of provisions given in this account show that 
nothing necessary for the support of the gar- 
rison during a prolonged siege was neglected : 
more than thirty hogsheads of meat, ten hogs- 
heads of punch, ten tuns of cider, two thou- 




sand 'poor jacks,' six thousand dried whiting, 
and six hundredweight of tobacco, are among 
the items of the provisions supplied, while 
such entries as ' twenty pots with sweet- 
meats, and a good box of all sorts of especi- 
ally good dry preserves/ one butt of sack, and 
'two cases of bottles filled with rare and 
good strong waters,' show that Fortescue did 
not forget to provide for the table of the 
officers' mess. The garrison consisted of eleven 
officers, Sir Charles Luckner being second in 
command, and two of Fortescue's brothers 
serving under him, a chaplain, a surgeon, 
two laundresses, and forty-three non-commis- 
sioned officers and men. Of these one was 
killed during the siege, three were wounded, 
and two deserted. The fort was occupied in 
November or December 1644, and in January 
1645-6 a force was sent from Plymouth who 
erected a battery of three guns in a command- 
ing position on the mainland, exactly oppo- 
site and slightly above the small promontory 
on which the fort is situated. The siege lasted 
until May 1646, when Fortescue capitulated 
to Colonel Ralph Weldon, then in command 
of Plymouth. He obtained very favourable 
terms for the garrison, the articles of sur- 
render stipulating that the whole force should 
be allowed to march out with all the honours 
of war and proceed in safety to their own 
homes ; Fortescue himself and the other 
officers obtaining permission to remain at 
home unmolested for three months, at the 
end of which time they were free either to 
make their peace with the parliament or to 
go abroad from any port they should select 
(Articles agreed one betweene Sir Edmond 
Fortescue, Governor off Fort Charles and 
Major Pearce, &c. 7 May 1646). Fortescue 
carried away with him the key of Fort Charles, 
which still remains in the possession of his 
descendant. Unwilling or unable to come 
to terms with the parliament, Fortescue 
made his way to Delft, where he lived during 
the brief remainder of his life. 

In the ' Propositions of the Lords and 
Commons for a peace sent to His Majesty at 
Newcastle ' in July 1646, he is included in a 
list of persons who are to be removed from 
' his majesty's councils and to be restrained 
from coming within the verge of the court, 
bearing any public office or having any em- 
ployment concerning the state ' (RTTSHWORTH, 
Collections, pt. iv. vol. i. p. 309). Fortescue 
died in January or February 1647, at the 
early age of thirty-seven, and was buried in 
the 'New Church' of Delft. He married 
Jane Southcott of Mohun's Ottery, and had 
a son Edmund, created a baronet in 1664, 
and three daughters. There is a portrait of 
Fortescue at Fallapit House, and a Dutch en- 

graving, a facsimile of which is given by Lord 

[Lord Clermont's Hist, of the Family of For- 
tescue ; Kingsbridge and Salcombe historically 
and topographically described.] G. K. F. 

1666), royalist commander, was second son 
of William Fortescue of Buckland Filleigh, 
Devon, and the descendant in the fifth gene- 
ration of Sir John Fortescue, lord chief jus- 
tice [q. v.] 

In 1598 Fortescue's maternal uncle, Sir 
Arthur (afterwards Lord) Chichester [q. v.], 
went to Ireland in command of a regiment 
of infantry, and took with him Faithful For- 
tescue. In a brief memoir of his uncle, com- 
piled after his death, printed by Lord Cler- 
mont, Fortescue says : ' With the first Lord 
Chichester I had, from coming young from 
school, my education, and by him the foun- 
dation of my advancement and fortune I 
acquired in Ireland.' In 1604 Sir Arthur 
Chichester was appointed lord deputy, an 
office which he held until 1616. During 
these memorable years the settlement of 
Ulster was carried through, and Fortescue 
acquired his share both of offices and of lands 
in the north of Ireland. In 1606 he received 
a patent for life of the post of constable of 
Carrickfergus, otherwise known as Knock- 
fergus Castle, one of the most important forti- 
fied places in the north of Ireland (M'SsjM- 
MIN, History of Carrickfergus, p. 56). 

A few years later he obtained a grant from 
the crown erecting into the manor of Fortes- 
cue an extensive range of territory in Antrim, 
which had formerly belonged to an Irish 
chieftain named Rory Oige MacQuillane. 
A part of this land he sold in 1624 ; the re- 
mainder, together with the property of Dro- 
miskin in Louth, still remains in possession 
of his descendants. In the parliament of 
1613 every effort was made to swamp the 
native Irish vote by means of creating a 
number of borough and county franchises 
among the new English and Scotch settle- 
ments in Ulster. Fortescue was elected to 
this parliament as member for Charlemont 
in the county of Armagh ; in the subsequent 
parliaments of 1634 and 1639 he sat as mem- 
ber for the county of Armagh, while his 
eldest son succeeded him as representative 
of Charlemont. 

In 1624 he obtained the command of a 
company in the force raised in England to 
serve in the Netherlands under Count Mans- 
feld, but through the interest of Lord Chi- 
chester he was permitted to exchange into 
a regiment then being enlisted in Cumber- 
and and other northern counties of England 



for service in Ireland (Calendar of State 
Papers, Dom. 1623-5, pp. 334, 371, 375, 
380, 501). 

Lord Wentworth, appointed lord deputy 
in July 1633, some months before his arrival 
in Ireland, commissioned Fortescue to raise 
for him a troop of horse, of which he was to 
have the command. The commission brought 
with it nothing but heavy expenditure and 
a long series of personal differences with Lord 
Stratford, of which Fortescue gives a pathetic 
account in a ' Relation of Passages of the 
Earle of Stratford ' (LORD CLERMONT, His- 
tory, pp. 179-82). His troubles began as 
soon as Lord Wentworth landed in Ireland, 
when he immediately dismissed, without any 
pay, forty of the newly enrolled troopers, to 
make room for the gentlemen and servants 
he had brought with him ; difficulties about 
payments followed, then refusals to promote 
Fortescue and his sons, then scandals about 
his lordship's visits to a ' noble lady,' then a 
personal quarrel in which Fortescue ' could 
not hold from passionately speaking' his 
mind ; the whole ending in a letter from Lord 
Strafford, after he had left Ireland and was 
imprisoned in the Tower, ordering his steward 
to discharge Fortescue from the command of 
his troop, as if, Fortescue says, ' I had beene 
his mercinary servant or scullion of his kitchin 
(and not the king's officer), to bee throwne 
owt by the tounge of his steward.' 

In 1640 or 1641 Fortescue petitioned the 
House of Commons for promotion to the 
rank of lieutenant-colonel on the Irish esta- 
blishment. On 27 Jan. 1641-2 this petition 
came before the house ; on that day a report 
was received from Pym, on behalf of the 
committee for Irish affairs, to the effect that 
the king had commanded the lord-lieutenant, 
the Earl of Leicester, to recommend seven 
officers to the house for commands in Ireland. 
The committee ' earnestly recommended ' 
Fortescue, the house ' being very well satis- 
fied that he is a man of honour and expe- 
rience and worthy of such an employment ' 
(House of Commons' Journals, ii. 398, 407). 

Fortescue received the appointment of 
governor of Drogheda during the summer of 
1641. In October of that year the rebellion 
in Ulster broke out. The insurgents were 
able, without resistance, to seize at once 
upon Newry, Carrick, Charlemont, and other 
places, and threatened Drogheda, the only 
fortified town between them and Dublin. 
The place was entirely ungarrisoned, and the 
only troops Fortescue was able to obtain 
consisted of sixty-six horse and three com- 
panies of foot, raised hurriedly by his brother- 
in-law, Viscount Moore. Finding this small 
body of men totally inadequate to the defence 

of the place, and receiving no reply to his 
appeals to the lords justices, Fortescue threw 
up his commission and passed to England 
to endeavour to raise troops to serve against 
the rebels. Dean Bernard, who was in Dro- 
gheda during the siege which followed, says 
of Fortescue on this occasion that, ' though 
willing to hazard his life for us, yet he was 
loath to lose his reputation also.' Although 
he abandoned his post, Fortescue left behind 
him his eldest son, Chichester, who was in 
command ol a company in Lord Moore's 
regiment, and who died during the siege, and 
his second son, John, who was slain by the 
rebels. Shortly after his departure Sir Henry 
Tichbourne was appointed by the lords jus- 
tices governor of the place, and brought to 
its relief a force of a thousand foot and a 
hundred horse (BERNARD, Whole Proceed- 
ings of the Siege of Drogheda ; D' ALTON, Hist, 
of Drogheda, vol. ii.) 

The commissioners of parliament appointed 
to raise a force for the suppression of the Irish 
rebellion selected Fortescue in June 1642 for 
the command of the third troop of horse to 
serve under Lord Wharton, lord-general of 
Ireland. In addition to this body of cavalry, 
Fortescue also raised for service in Ireland 
a company of infantry, which was attached 
to the Earl of Peterborough's regiment, and 
was compelled to serve with the parliamen- 
tary army in England during the civil war 
(List of the Field Officers chosen for the Irish 
Expedition, &c., pp. 18, 28). 

While waiting at Bristol to cross to Ire- 
land, Fortescue's troop was placed under the 
command of the Earl of Essex, and marched 
to the midlands to take part in the campaign 
on the side of the parliament. There can 
be no question that this action on the part 
of the parliamentary leaders constituted a 
distinct breach of faith. Charles issued a 
protest against the proceedings of the parlia- 
ment on this occasion, in which he says ' that 
many soldiers raised under pretence of being 
sent to Ireland were, contrary to their ex- 
pectation and engagement, forced to serve 
under the Earl of Essex,' and names especially 
Fortescue and his troop of horse (CLAREN- 
DON, History, Oxford ed., 1704, ii. 120-1). 
On the eve of the battle of Edgehill, Fortes- 
cue, who was acting as major in Lord Whar- 
ton's regiment of horse, is said to have en- 
tered into negotiations with Prince Rupert, 
and to have promised to desert the army with 
which he had been against his will compelled 
to serve on the first opportunity (MAY, Hist, 
of the Parliament, Oxford ed., 1854, p. 256). 

On the next day, when Prince Rupert 
charged the left wing of the parliamentary 
army, Fortescue with his troop drew off from 



the rest of Lord Wharton's regiment and 
rode over to the royal horse. His action had 
no small effect upon the fate of the battle. 
Unfortunately many of Fortescue's troopers 
forgot in their haste to throw away the 
orange scarfs worn as the Earl- of 'Essex's 
colours, and not less than eighteen out of 
the sixty men of the troop (Army Lists of 
Cavaliers, &c., pp. 44-53) were slain or 
wounded by the cavalry whom they had joined 
(CLARENDON, ii. 36-8; GARDINER, Hist, of the 
Civil War, i. 52, 53). 

Soon after the battle of Edgehill, Fortes- 
cue was appointed to the command of the 
10th regiment of the royal infantry, and 
served with the army whose headquarters 
were at Oxford during the remainder of the 
civil war (PEACOCK, Army Lists, p. 18 ; Harl. 
MS. 986, fol. 88). In 1647 he accompanied 
the Marquis of Ormonde during his Irish 
campaign, and remained with him until the 
retreat of the royal army from Dublin to 
Drogheda, when he made his way to the 
Isle of Man, and thence crossed to Wales. 
At Beaumaris he was arrested and impri- 
soned by order of the House of Commons, 
first at Denbigh Castle, and afterwards at 
Carnarvon Castle (Commons' 1 Journals, v. 
280, 657). No order for his release is to be 
found in the ' Commons' Journals,' but his 
imprisonment cannot have been of long dura- 
tion, since he was able to join Charles II at 
Stirling in the spring of 1651 (NicoLL, Diary, 
Bannatyne Club, p. 52), and took part in the 
campaign which ended in the decisive battle 
of Worcester. After this action Fortescue 
retired to the continent, where he remained, 
at first in France, and afterwards in the 
Netherlands, until the Restoration. By royal 
warrant of 21 Aug. 1660 he was restored to 
the post of constable of Carrickfergus Castle, 
an office which he was permitted to transfer 
a few months later to his eldest surviving 
son, Sir Thomas (Carte MSS. xli. 29, xlii. 
219), and was created a gentleman of the 
privy chamber. This office attached him to 
the court, and he remained chiefly in London 
until he was driven to the Isle of Wight by 
the outbreak of the plague in 1665. He died 
in the manor-house of Bowcombe, near Caris- 
brooke, in May 1666, being more than eighty- 
five years of age, and was buried at Caris- 
brooke. Fortescue was twice married, first 
to Anne, daughter of the first Viscount 
Moore, by whom he had a numerous family, 
and secondly to Eleanor, daughter of Sir M. 
Whitechurch, by whom he had no issue. 
His two elder sons died during the siege of 
Drogheda ; his third son, Sir Thomas, who 
held a commission in the royal army during 
the civil war, succeeded his father in his es- 

tates, and was the ancestor of the late Lord 
Clermont, and of his brother, Lord Carling- 

[Lord Clennont's Hist, of the Family of For- 
tescue.] G. K. F. 

FORTESCUE, GEORGE (1578P-1659), 
essayist and poet, born in London in or about 
1578, was the only son of John Fortescue, by 
Ellen, daughter of Ralph Henslow of Barrald, 
Kent. His father was the second son of Sir 
Anthony Fortescue [q. v.] (third son of Sir 
Adrian [q. v.]), by Katharine, daughter of 
Sir Geoffrey Pole. His father resided for many 
years in London, but in his old age he retired 
to St. Omer to avoid persecution as a catholic. 
George probably received part of his educa- 
tion in the English College of Douay, was in 
October 1609 admitted as a boarder in the 
English College at Rome, and was recalled 
by his parents to Flanders 30 April 1614. 
He was in London secretary to his cousin An- 
thony Fortescue 1 , the resident for the Duke of 
Lorraine at the time of his dismissal by the 
houses of parliament in 1647. He was ar- 
rested, and, after an imprisonment of sixteen 
weeks, was ordered to quit the kingdom with 
his principal. His reputation for learning 
was so great that Edmund Bolton [q. v.J 
placed his name in the original list of the 
members of the projected royal academy, or 
senate of honour. He died in 1659, his will 
being dated on 17 July in that year. 

His principal work is entitled ' Ferise Aca- 
demicse, auctore Georgio de Forti Scuto 
Nobili Anglo,' Douay, 1630, 12mo, pp. 347. 
A full description of this curious volume of 
Latin essays was contributed by the Rev. 
John Mitford to the ' Gentleman's Magazine ' 
in 1847 (new ser. xxviii. 382). Lord Cler- 
mont states that Fortescue was also the 
author of the scarce anonymous poem entitled 
' The Sovles Pilgrimage to heavenly Hieru- 
salem. In three severall Dayes Journeyes : 
by three severall Wayes : purgative, illumi- 
native, unitive. Expressed in the Life and 
Death of Saint Mary Magdalen,' 1650, 4to 
(Bibl. Anglo-Poetica, p. 669 ; LOWNDES, Sibl. 
Man. ed. Bohn, p. 2456). Fortescue wrote 
commendatory verses prefixed to (a) the 
Poems of Sir John Beaumont, his brother-in- 
law ; (b) Sir Thomas Hawkins's translation 
of the ' Odes of Horace,' 1625 ; (c) Rivers's 
' Devout Rhapsodies,' 1628 ; (d) ' The Tongues 
Virtuis.' Several of his Latin letters to 
eminent men, with their replies, are preserved 
in manuscript by the Roman catholic dean 
and chapter of the midland district. Among 
his correspondents were Galileo Galilei, Car- 
dinal Francesco Barberini, nephew of Ur- 
ban VIII, Famiano Strada, the historian of 



the Spanish wars in Flanders, Thomas Far- 
naby [q. v.], the critic and grammarian, and 
Gregono Panzani, who was sent byUrbanVIII 
on a mission to the English catholics. 

[Addit. MS. 24489, f. 15 ; Archaeologia, xxxii. 
144; Lord Clermont's Hist, of the Fortescue 
Family, 2nd edit. pp. 436-44 ; Foley's Records, 
v. 961, vi. 255 ; Notes and Queries, 3rd ser. iii. 
174; Nichols's Leicestershire, vol. iii. pt. ii. 
p. 656 ; Lowndes's Bibl. Man. (Bonn), p. 822 ; 
Duthillceul, Bibliographie Douaisienne (1842), 
p. 382.] T. C. 

lord chief justice of the common pleas in 
Ireland, was the eldest son of Sir John For- 
tescue, governor of Meaux, and brother to 
Sir John, lord chief justice of England [q. v.] 
It is probable that he was a student 01 Lin- 
coln's Inn, and almost certain that he was 
elected member of parliament for Devon on 
11 Nov. 1421 (Return of Members of the 
House of Commons, 1878, pt, i. p. 299). His 
appointment as chief justice of the common 
pleas in Ireland is dated 25 June 1426, and 
lor a short period his name occurs several 
times in the ' Calendar of the Irish Chancery 
Rolls.' From these entries, which contain 
all that is known of his career, it appears 
that a salary was assigned to him of forty 
pounds per annum, which was soon after- 
wards altered to forty pence per diem, in ad- 
dition to the custody of certain manors. For- 
tescue held his appointment only for seventeen 
months, and was ' relieved ' from it by the 
king's writ on 8 Nov. 1427. Almost imme- 
diately afterwards he was commissioned by 
the Irish parliament to accompany Sir James 
Alleyn on a mission to England, to lay be- 
fore the king the grievances of his Irish sub- 
jects. Again, in 1428, he was sent with Sir 
Thomas Strange by the lords and commons 
assembled in Dublin, with the concurrence 
of Sir John Sutton, the lord-lieutenant, with 
a number of articles of complaint to be laid 
again before the king. One of the grievances 
which he was instructed to represent related 
to the insults and assaults made upon him- 
self and Sir James Alleyn during their for- 
mer mission, from which it may be concluded 
that their first visit to the court had not met 
with much success. The other griefs for 
which the parliament prayed redress related 
to the frequent changes of governors and 
justices, to the debts left behind them by 
each successive lord-lieutenant, to the exclu- 
sion of Irish law students from the English 
inns of court, and to the treatment of Irish- 
men travelling in England. There is no fur- 
ther mention of Fortescue in the 'Patent 
Rolls,' nor is anything known as to his after 
life, beyond the record of an action brought 

against him to recover certain lands in Ne- 
thercombe, Devonshire. He was twice mar- 
ried, each time to an heiress, the first being 
Joan, daughter of Edmund Boyun and heiress 
of the estate of Wood, South Devonshire ; 
and the second the daughter and heiress of 
Nicholas de Fallapit. He left sons by each 
wife, who each inherited their respective 
mothers' properties, and founded two branches 
of the Devonshire family of Fortescue. 

[Lord Clermont's Hist, of the Family of For- 
tescue; Rotulorum Patentium et Clausorum 
Cancellarise Hib. Calendarium, pp. 241, 243, 
244 b, 246, 248, 248 b, 249.] G. K. F. 

1777), poetical writer, born in 1716, was son 
of George Fortescue, ' gentleman,' of Milton 
Abbot, Devonshire. He matriculated at Ox- 
ford as a member of Exeter College, 9 Feb. 
1732-3, proceeded B.A. in 1736, was elected 
a fellow of his college, and commenced M. A. 
in 1739. He was chaplain at Merton Col- 
lege in 1738, 1743, and 1746. In 1748 he 
was senior proctor of the university. He 
graduated B.D. in 1749, and was created D.D. 
on 20 Jan. 1750-1. Being appointed in 1764 
to the rectory of Wootton, Northamptonshire, 
a benefice in the gift of Exeter College, he 
resigned his fellowship in the following year. 
He held the rectory till his death in 1777. 

He published the following works in verse : 
1. ' A View of Life in its several Passions, 
with a preliminary Discourse on Moral Writ- 
ing,' London, 1749, 8vo. 2. ' Science,' an 
epistle, Oxford, 1750, 8vo. 3. 'Science,' a 
poem, Oxford, 1751, 8vo. 4. ' Essays, Moral 
and Miscellaneous,' including the preceding 
works, and some other poetical pieces, pt. i. 
second edit., London, 1752, 8vo ; pt. ii. Ox- 
ford, 1754, 8vo. An extended edition of the 
' Essays,' including ' Pomery-Hill,' appeared 
in 2 vols. 1759. 5. ' An Essay on Sacred Har- 
mony,' London, 1753, 8vo. 6. ' Essay the 
Second : on Sacred Harmony,' London, 1754, 
8vo. 7. ' Pomery-Hill, a Poem, with other 
Poems, English and Latin,' London, 1754, 
8vo (anon.) 

[Notes and Queries, 3rd ser. v. 354, by C. H. 
Cooper ; Foster's Alumni Oxon. ii. 480 ; Lord 
Clermont's Hist, of the Fortescue Family, 2nd 
edit. p. 151 ; Gough's Brit. Topography, i. 321; 
Cat. of Gough's Collection in the Bodleian, p. 
106; Davidson's Bibl. Devoniensis, Suppl. p. 25 ; 
Monthly Review, xxi. 291 ; Gent. Mag. xlvii. 507 ; 
List of Oxford Graduates ; Wood's Colleges and 
Halls (Gutch), Suppl. p. 170 ; Watt's Bibl. Brit.] 

T. C. 

1476?), chief justice of the king's bench and 
legal writer, was the second of the three 
sons of Sir John Fortescue, whom Henry V 




made governor of Meaux, the eldest being 
Sir Henry Fortescue [q. v.], sometime chief 
j ustice of the common pleas in Ireland, and the 
third Sir Richard Fortescue, who Avas killed 
at the battle of St. Albans in 1455 (see the 
family pedigree in CLERMONT'S supplement 
to Family History). The date of his birth 
cannot be precisely stated, but it was cer- 
tainly before the beginning of the fifteenth 
century. He is said to have been educated 
at Exeter College, Oxford ; he was a ' guber- 
nator ' of Lincoln's Inn in 1425, 1426, and 
1429 (DUGDALE, Orig. Jud. p. 257: in the 
first two years he is called ' Fortescue junior '). 
and in 1429 or 1430 he received the degree 
of serjeant-at-law. No one, he says in the 
' De Laudibus,' chap. 1., had received this 
degree who had not spent at least sixteen 
years in the general study of the law, which 
enables one to form a guess as to the date of 
his birth (but cf. De Natura Legis Natures, 
ii. 10, and PLTJMMER, p. 40). Thenceforth 
his name appears with increasing frequency 
in the year-books. About 1436 he mar- 
ried the daughter of John Jamyss of Philips 
Norton in Somersetshire. In an exchequer 
record of 20 Hen. VI he is mentioned as a 
justice of assize (Kal. Exch. iii. 381). In 

1442 he was made chief justice of the king's 
bench, and was soon afterwards knighted. 
Frequent references to him occur in the privy 
council records for the following years. In 

1443 he sat on a commission of inquiry 
into certain disturbances in Norwich caused 
by ecclesiastical exactions, and received the 
thanks of the council for ' his grete laboures' 
in the matter ; and later in the year he was 
member of another commission to inquire 
into similar disturbances in Yorkshire. From 
1445 to 1455 he was appointed by each par- 
liament one of the triers of petitions. In a 
grant of 1447 admitting Fortescue and his 
wife to the fraternity of the convent of 
Christchurch, Canterbury, we find him thus 
described in the reasons for his admission : 
' Vir equidem Justus, quern omnes diserti jus- 
tum discernunt, obsequuntur, venerantur, et 
diligunt, cum et omnibus velit prodesse sed 
obesse nulli, nemini nocens sed nocentes pro- 
hibens ' (PLTJMMER, p. 48), and this agrees 
with the character which tradition has given 
to him. A few years afterwards, however, 
he appears as an object of popular displeasure. 
In Cade's proclamation (1450), in which an 
inquiry by some true justice is demanded, it 
is said : ' Item, to syt upon this enqwerye 
we refuse no juge except iij chefe juges, the 
which ben fals to beleve ' ( Three Fifteenth 
Century Chronicles, Camd. Soc. p. 98, see 
also p. 102 ; and WRIGHT, Political Poems 
and Songs, ii. Iviin.) : and Sir John Fastolfs 

servant writing in 1451 says : ' The Chief Yis- 
tice hath waited to ben assauted all this 
sevenyght nyghtly in hes hous, but nothing 
come as yett, the more pite' (GAIRDNER, 
Paston Letters, i. 185). Probably the only 
reason for his unpopularity was that he was 
known to belong to the court party ; for as 
judge there is every reason to believe that 
he was distinguished for his impartiality. 
Among the cases with which he had to deal 
as chief justice may be mentioned that of 
Thomas Kerver, a prisoner in Wallingford 
Castle, whom he refused to release on the 
simple command of the king (CLERMONT, 
Life, p. 10) ; and Thorpe's case (31 Hen. VI), 
in which he and Prisot, chief judge of the 
common pleas, expressed the opinion of all 
the judges that they ought not to answer 
the question put to them by the lords whether 
the speaker, who had been arrested during 
the recess, should be set at liberty, ' for it 
hath not been used aforetime, that the judges 
should in any wise determine the privilege 
of this high court of parliament ' (13 Rep. 
p. 64; HATSELL, i. 29; STTJBBS, Const. Hist. 
iii. 491). The cases in the year-books (21 
Hen. VI-38 Hen. VI) in which Fortescue 
took part as chief justice are reprinted, with 
a translation, in the appendix to Lord Cler- 
mont's edition of his works. After the 
battle of Northampton in 1460 the fortunes' 
of Fortescue followed those of the house of 
Lancaster, to which he remained faithful as 
long as any hope remained. Whether he 
was among the judges who declined to advise 
on the Duke of York's claim to the crown or 
had accompanied the queen to Wales does 
not appear. But he was present at the battle 
of Towton in 1461 (Collections of a London 
Citizen, Camd. Soc. p. 217, where he is called 
' the Lord Foschewe '), and was included in the 
act of attainder passed against those who had 
taken part against the new king, Edward IV. 
At the time of his attainder he was a man. 
of considerable landed property, acquired 
through his wife and by his own purchases 
(see PLUMMER, pp. 42-4). He spent the next 
two years in Scotland with the deposed fa- 
mily, and wrote several treatises in favour 
of the title of the house of Lancaster, in- 
cluding the ' De Natura Legis Naturae.' The 
question has been discussed whether For- 
tescue was ever Henry VI's chancellor, as 
he describes himself in the ' De Laudibus ; * 
the better opinion is that he was only chan- 
cellor ' in partibus ' (CAMPBELL, Lord Chan- 
cellors, i. 367; Foss, iv. 312; PLTTMMER, 
p. 57 ; CLERMONT, pp. 15-17). In 1463 he 
followed Queen Margaret to Flanders, and 
remained abroad, living in poverty, with her 
and the Prince of Wales till 1471, first at 




Bruges and afterwards at St. Mighel in Bar- 
rois. The ' De Laudibus,' written towards 
the end of her exile, suggests that he devoted 
himself to the education of the prince ; while 
he seems to have spared no effort to pro- 
cure assistance from Louis XI < and others 
in order to bring about a restoration. After 
the Earl of Warwick's defection from Ed- 
ward IV, Fortescue was particularly active. 
He took great pains in forwarding the mar- 
riage between Prince Edward and Warwick's 
daughter, and would seem to have been in 
frequent communication with the French 
king (his papers to Louis XI are not pre- 
served : Lord Clermont prints a memorandum 
of them, dated 1470, which is in the Siblio- 
theque Nationale : p. 34 of Life). By War- 
wick's aid the Lancastrian restoration was 
accomplished in the autumn of 1470 ; but it 
was not until April 1471 that the queen, 
Prince Edward, and Fortescue landed in 
England, and then only to find that on the 
day of their landing King Henry had been 
defeated at Barnet. Fortescue joined the 
Lancastrian army, and was taken prisoner 
at the battle of Tewkesbury, at which Prince 
Edward was killed. Frankly acknowledging 
that nothing remained for which to struggle, 
he recognised King Edward, received his 
pardon (1471), and was admitted to the 
council ( Works, p. 533). It was evidently 
made a condition of his restoration to his 
estates that he should formally retract and 
refute his own arguments in favour of the 
Lancastrian, which he did in his ' Declaracion 
upon certayn wrytinges sent oute of Scotte- 
land.' Thereupon he petitioned for a re- 
versal of his attainder, alleging among other 
things that he had so clearly disproved all 
the arguments that had been made against 
King Edward's right and title 'that nowe 
there remayneth no colour or matere of ar- 
gument to the hurt or infamye of the same 
right or title, by reason of any such writyng; ' 
and his prayer was granted by parliament 
(1473: CLERMOITT, Life, pp. 41-3). He 
himself feared that his change of front would 
lay him open to the charge of doubleness. 
But whether it was a purely conscientious 
change of opinion or not (see Coke's vindi- 
cation, pref. to 10th Rep.), it must be re- 
membered that Fortescue had given the best 
proof of his honesty by the extraordinary 
sacrifices which he had made for the lost 
cause. On the reversal of his attainder, he 
went to live at Ebrington, where he died, 
and m the parish church of which he was 
buried. The date of his death is unknown, 
the last mention of him being in 1476 (Kal. 
Exch. lii. 8). According to local tradition,' 
says Lord Clermont, ' which the present oc- 

cupant of the manorhouse repeated to me, 
he lived to be ninety years old (Life, p. 44). 
He left one son, Martin, who died in 1471, 
and two daughters. The present Earl For- 
tescue is descended from Martin's elder son, 
Lord Clermont from the younger. 

Fortescue's fame has rested almost entirely 
on the dialogue ' De Laudibus.' Coke, speak- 
ing with the exaggeration which he used in 
referring to Fortescue's contemporary, Little- 
ton, described it as worthy, 'si vel gravi- 
tatem vel excellentiam spectemus,' of being 
written in letters of gold (Pref. to 8th Rep.), 
and Sir W. Jones, following him, called it 
' aureolum hunc dialogum ' (AMOS, p. x). 
In the history of law it is still a work of 
importance. The editor of his less known 
treatise, ' On the Governance of England,' 
however, has good reason for his opinion that 
the historical interest of the latter is far 
higher. It is less loaded with barren specu- 
lations, and it shows a real insight into the 
failure of the Lancastrian experiment of 
government; while it is invaluable as the 
earliest of English constitutional treatises 
(on Fortescue's constitutional theories, see 
STTTBBS, iii. 240). Except for the minute 
student his other writings have no interest. 

The following are Fortescue's works : 
1. Tracts on the title to the crown. For 
Henry VI, (1) 'De Titulo Edwardi Comitis 
Marchise' (in Clermont, with translation 
by Stubbs, pp. 63*-90) ; (2) ' Of the Title 
of the House of York ' (a fragment, Cler- 
mont, pp. 499-502 ; Plummer prints what 
was probably the beginning of the tract 
' Governance,' p. 355) ; (3) ' Defensio juris 
Domus Lancastriae' (Clermont, with trans- 
lation, pp. 505-16); (4) a short argument 
on the illegitimacy of Philippa, daughter of 
Lionel, duke of Clarence (Clermont, pp. 
517-18; more fully in Plummer, p. 353). 
For Edward IV, ' The Declaracion made by 
John Fortescu, knyght, upon certayn wry- 
tinges sent oute of Scotteland agenst the 
Kinges Title to the Roialme of England ' 
(Clermont, pp. 523-41 ; in the form of a 
dialogue between Fortescue and ' a lernid 
man in the lawe of this lande,' written 1471- 
1473). 2. ' De Natura Legis Naturae, et de 
ejus censura in successione regnorum su- 
prema.' The treatise written in support of 
the claim of the house of Lancaster consists 
of an argument on this abstract case : ' A 
king, acknowledging no superior in things 
temporal, has a daughter and a brother. The 
daughter bears a son ; the king dies without 
sons. The question is, whether the king- 
dom of the king so deceased descends to the 
daughter, the daughter's son, or the brother 
of the king.' The first part is devoted to a 




consideration of the law of nature, by which 
the question is to be decided ; in the second 
part, Justice, sitting as judge, hears the ar- 
guments of the rival claimants, the daughter, 
the grandson, and the brother, and decides 
in favour of the last. The treatise was one 
of Fortescue's ' writings sent out of Scotland,' 
and therefore written between 1461 and 
1463. First printed by Lord Olermont, with 
translation and notes by Mr. Chichester For- 
tescue (Lord Carlingford). 3. 'De Laudibus 
Legum Anglise.' Written for the instruction 
of Edward, prince of Wales, while he was 
in exile in Berry, with his mother, Queen 
Margaret : date about 1470, It is in the 
form of a conversation between Fortescue 
and the prince, who is encouraged to acquaint 
himself with the laws of England. First 
printed in 1537. Subsequent editions : (a) 
containing translation by Robert Mulcaster, 
1573, 1575, 1578, 1599, 1609, 1616 (with pre- 
face and notes by Selden, but without his 
name, and containing also the ' Summae ' of 
Hengham), 1660 (reprint of 1616), 1672 
(with Selden's name, said to be a faulty edi- 
tion) ; (b) translation by Francis Gregor, 
1737, 1741, 1775, 1825 (with notes by 
A. Amos), 1869 (Lord Clermont). Also 
'Fortescutus illustratus; or a commentary 
on that nervous treatise, " De Laudibus 
Legum Angliee," ' &c., by Edward Water- 
house, 1663. The work still waits a compe- 
tent and careful editor. It is said to have 
suffered from interpolations ; in particular, 
chapter xlix., on the inns of court, &c., has 
been questioned (see PULLING, Order of the 
Coif, pp. 153-4). 4. A treatise on the mon- 
archy of England, variously entitled ' The 
Difference between an Absolute and Limited 
Monarchy,' ' On the Governance of the King- 
dom of England,' 'De Dominio Regali et 
Politico,' probably written after Fortescue's 
return to England in 1471 (see PLUMMBR, 
pp. 94-6). Having repeated the distinction 
which he draws in the ' De Natura ' and the 
' De Laudibus ' between ' dominum regale,' or 
absolute monarchy, and ' dominum politicum 
et regale,' or constitutional monarchy, he 
discusses the means of strengthening the 
monarchy in England, taking many illus- 
trations, by way of contrast, from his expe- 
rience in France ; the increase of the king's 
revenues, for ' ther may no realme prospere, 
or be worshipful and noble, under a poer 
kyng ; ' the perils that arise when subjects 
grow over-mighty; that the safeguard against 
rebellion is the wellbeing of the commons ; 
a scheme for the reconstitution of the king's 
council ; and the bestowal by the king of 
offices and rewards. The treatise is referred 
to in Selden's preface to the ' De Laudibus ; ' 

it was first published in 1714 by Lord For- 
tescue of Credan (another edition in 1719), 
and the same text was printed in Lord Cler- 
mont's collection. In 1885 a revised text 
was published by Mr. Charles Plummer with 
an historical and biographical introduction 
and elaborate notes. Mr. Plummer's work 
is a mine of information concerning not only 
Fortescue himself, but also the history of 
his time, and every historical and constitu- 
tional question suggested by his treatise. 
5. ' A Dialogue between Understanding and 
Faith,' wherein Faith seeks to resolve the 
doubts raised by Understanding as to the 
Divine justice which permits the affliction of 
righteous men (first printed in Lord Cler- 
mont's collection, date unknown). 

Lord Clermont prints several other short 
pieces, including one on ' The Comodytes of 
England ' and a rhymed ' legal advice to 
purchasers of land,' but the evidence of For- 
tescue's authorship is not strong (see PLUM- 
MER, pp. 80-1). 

[Plummer's Introduction to The G-overnance 
of England; Life of Fortescue in Lord Cler- 
mont's edition of Fortescue's works ; Foss's 
Judges, vol. iv. ; Biog. Brit. ; Gairdner's Paston 
Letters.] G-. P. M. 

FORTESCUE, SIR JOHN (1531 P-1607), 
chancellor of the exchequer, was the eldest 
of the three sons of Sir Adrian [q. v.], by his 
second wife, Anne, daughter of Sir W. Rede. 
He was eight years old at the date of his 
father's execution, and was brought up under 
his mother's care. He is said by Lodge 
(Peerage of Ireland, 1789, iii. 346) to have- 
been educated at Oxford, and afterwards en- 
tered at one of the inns of court, but there 
is no further evidence of his having been at 
either. In 1551 an act of parliament was 
passed for his ' restitution in blood ' (Statutes- 
at Large, v. p. xiv), which removed the effect 
of his father s attainder and gave him posses- 
sion of his property at Shirburn in Oxford- 
shire. On the accession of Mary, his mother, 
who had married Sir Thomas Parry, comp- 
troller of the royal household, was taken into 
the queen's service, and received various grants 
of lands in Gloucestershire, which were, after 
her death, inherited by her eldest son. About 
the same time Fortescue was appointed to 
superintend the studies of Queen Elizabeth 
(CAMDETT, Annales, 1625, ii. 27), while his 
youngest brother, Anthony, received the ap- 
pointment of comptroller of the household of 
Cardinal Pole, whose niece, Katherine Pole, 
he had recently married. Fortescue owed 
his place no doubt in part to the reputation 
which he enjoyed throughout his life as a 
Greek and Latin scholar, but perhaps still 


more to the fact that he was second cousin 
once removed to Elizabeth, through the mar- 
riage of his grandfather, Sir John Fortescue 
of Punsborne, to Alice, daughter of Sir Geof- 
frey Boleyn and great-aunt of Anne Boleyn. 
The same marriage brought Fortescue into 
kinship one degree more distant with Robert 
Devereux, earl of Essex, who in his letters in- 
variably addresses him as his ' loving cosen.' 
In one of these letters (Add. MSS. Brit. Mus. 
4119), undated, but no doubt written in 1596, 
the Earl of Essex asks Fortescue's interest on 
behalf of the appointment of Francis Bacon 
to the mastership of the rolls. 

On the accession of Queen Elizabeth, For- 
tescue was appointed keeper of the great 
wardrobe (Patent Rolls, 1 Eliz. pt, vii. m. 10). 
The great or standing wardrobe was situated 
in Blackfriars, near Carter Lane. It con- 
tained, in addition to a collection of armour 
and royal costumes, a large number of state 
documents and papers, as well as a house in 
which Fortescue, when in London, resided 
during the whole reign of Elizabeth (Siow, 
Survey, vol. i. bk. iii. p. 224). Here, in ad- 
dition to his ordinary guests, he had, like 
other statesmen of the period, to act on occa- 
sion as host or gaoler to state prisoners, a 
duty which he seems to have found pecu- 
liarly burdensome, as he complains several 
times in his letters to Burghley of the unfit- 
ness of his house for such a purpose. Fortescue 
entered parliament for the first time in 1572, 
when he was returned for the borough of 
Wallingford. He sat in every subsequent 
parliament during the reign of Elizabeth as 
member first for the borough and afterwards 
for the county of Buckingham, until the par- 
liament of 1601, when he was returned for 
Middlesex (Return of Members of Parlia- 
ment, pt. i.) His name hardly occurs as a 
speaker in D'Ewes's 'Journal' until 1589, 
after which date he seems to have spoken 
frequently in the House of Commons, chiefly, 
however, in his capacity of chancellor of the 
exchequer, in proposing subsidies, suggesting 
means of taxation, or expressing the wishes 
or commands of the queen. In the midst 
of graver matters he appears once as an ad- 
vocate of parliamentary propriety, when, on 
27 Oct. 1597, three days after the meeting 
of parliament, he ' moved and admonished 
that hereafter no member of the house should 
come into the house with their spurs on, for 
offending of others ' (D'EwES, Journal, ed. 
1693, p. 550). On the death of Sir Walter 
Mildmay in 1589, Fortescue succeeded him in 
the office of chancellor of the exchequer and 
under-treasurer, and was sworn a member 
of the privy council (CAMDEN, Annales, ii. 
27). The office of chancellor of the ex- 

s Fortescue 

chequer was an exceedingly lucrative one. 
A curious account of his sources of official 
income exists in a paper drawn up after his 
death, endorsed ' Sir John Fortescue's meanes 
of gaine, by Sir Richard Thekstin, told me, 
26 Nov. 1608' (Add. MS. Brit. Mus. 12497, 
f. 143). It appears from this paper that 
Fortescue received from the queen a num- 
ber of grants of land in several counties, 
leases in reversion of great value, and sine- 
cure places, and from Burghley ' many advan- 
tageous imployments in the custom-house,' 
and other means of enriching himself. After 
afew years of office he grew to be a remarkably 
wealthy man, bought large estates in Buck- 
inghamshire and Oxfordshire, maintained a 
retinue of sixty or seventy servants, and lived 
in much state. He built on his estate of Sal- 
den a house of great size and beauty at an 
expense of some 33,000/., equal to not less 
than 120,000/. at the present day. He also 
bought or hired the manorhouse of Hendon, 
where he principally resided during the sit- 
ting of parliament, and he possessed a house 
in Westminster in addition to his official re- 
sidence in Blackfriars. In November 1601 
he was appointed chancellor of the duchy of 
Lancaster, so that he held during the re- 
mainder of the queen's lifetime three offices 
of importance at the same time. He also 
served upon a number of commissions, no- 
tably upon all those which concerned Jesuits 
or seminary priests, and sat as a member of 
the Star-chamber, and as an ecclesiastical 
commissioner (RTMER, vol. vii.) After the 
death of Elizabeth, Osborne( Works, ed. 1701, 
p. 379) relates that Fortescue, with Lord 
Cobham, Sir Walter Raleigh, and other mem- 
bers of the privy council, made some efforts 
to impose conditions upon James VI, appa- 
rently with a view to prevent his appoint- 
ing an unlimited number of Scotchmen to 
office in England. The story is to a cer- 
tain extent confirmed by Bishop Goodman, 
who says : ' I have heard it by credible per- 
sons that Sir John Fortescue did then very 
moderately and mildly ask whether any con- 
ditions should be proposed to the king ' ( Court 
of King James, 1839, p. 14). According to 
Osborne, Lord Cobham and the others were 
' all frowned upon after by the king,' but in 
Fortescue's case no very serious results fol- 
lowed. He was, it is true, deprived of the 
most important of his offices, the chancellor- 
ship of the exchequer, which was bestowed 
upon Sir George Home, created Earl of Dun- 
bar ; but he received on 20 May 1603 a new 
patent for life of the chancellorship of the 
duchy of Lancaster, and was continued in 
his office of master of the great wardrobe by 
patent of 24 May 1603 (RTMER, vol. vii. 




pt. ii. p. 65 ; NAPIER, Swyncombe, p. 401). 
In the same year he twice entertained King 
Jaines ; in May at Hendon, and in June, 
with Queen Anne and Prince Henry, at Sal- 
den (NICHOLS, Progresses of James I, i. 165 ; 
NAPIER, p. 402). 

The election for Buckinghamshire in Janu- 
ary 1604 gave rise to a serious constitutional 
struggle between the crown and the House 
of Commons. Fortescue was defeated in his 
candidature by Sir Francis Goodwin. When 
the writs were ret urned, the court of chancery 
at once declared that the election was void, 
on the ground that a judgment of outlawry 
had been passed against Goodwin, and on a 
second election Fortescue was returned, and 
took his seat in the parliament which met 
19 March 1604. The question of this elec- 
tion was raised immediately after the meet- 
ing of the House of Commons, and after 
hearing Sir F. Goodwin the house decided 
in his favour. The lords then demanded 
a conference with the commons on the sub- 
je*, declaring that they did so by the king's 
orders. The commons thereupon sent a de- 
putation to wait upon the king, who as- 
serted the right of the court of chancery to 
decide upon disputed returns ; the commons, 
on the other hand, maintained their exclu- 
sive right to judge of the election of their 
own members, and after several interviews 
with the king, and a conference with the 
judges, James suggested a compromise, which 
was accepted by the House of Commons, that 
both Goodwin and Fortescue should be set 
aside and a new writ issued (Commons' Jour- 
nal, i. 149-69). In February of the next 
year, 1605-6, Fortescue was returned for the 
county of Middlesex, for which he sat for the 
brief remainder of his life. He died in his 
seventy-fifth year, on 23 Dec. 1607, and was 
buried in Mursley Church, Oxfordshire. 

Few men have more narrowly missed such 
fame as history can bestow than Fortescue. 
He held a considerable place in the govern- 
ment during one of the most eventful periods 
of English history. Although the greater 
part of his correspondence, preserved in the 
Record Office and at Hatfield, deals with 
official matters, there are a sufficient number 
of private letters to show that he counted 
among his friends such men as Burghley, 
Francis and Anthony Bacon, Raleigh and 
Essex, and that his assistance and good offices 
with the queen were constantly asked by per- 
sons of note and importance in the state. 
That he enjoyed in a high degree the confi- 
dence of Elizabeth is clearly evident from 
these letters, which serve to confirm the 
words which Lloyd attributes to her : ' Two 
men, Queen Elizabeth would say, outdid her 

expectation, Fortescue for integrity, and Wal- 
singham for subtlety and officious services ' 
(State Worthies, ed. 1670, p. 556). He had 
a considerable reputation for scholarship ; 
Camden calls him ' an excellent man and a 
good Grecian' (Annales, ii.27); while Lloyd 
speaks of him as ' a great master of Greek 
and Latin.' Among his friends was Sir 
Thomas Bodley, to whose newly founded li- 
brary at Oxford he presented a number of 
books and several manuscripts. 

Fortescue was twice married: first, to 
Cecily, daughter of Sir Edmund Ashfield; 
and secondly, to Alice, daughter of Christo- 
pher Smyth. By his first wife he had two 
sons, Sir Francis, K.B., and Sir William, and 
one daughter. The eldest son of Sir Francis 
was created a baronet of Nova Scotia in 1636. 
The direct male line of the house ceased with 
the death of Sir John, the third baronet, in 
1717. The only portrait of Fortescue known 
to exist was, after long search, discovered by 
the late Lord Clermont. A copy of this picture 
was presented by him to the Bodleian Library, 
and two engravings of it are given in his 
family history. 

[Lord Clermont's Hist, of the Family of For- 
tescue; Napier's Hist. Notices of the parishes of 
Swyncombe and Ewelme.] G. K. F. 

FORTESCUE, LORD (1670-1746). [See 

(1575 P-1633), chamberlain of the exchequer, 
was the eldest son of William Fortescue of 
Cookhill, and grandson of Sir Nicholas For- 
tescue, groom porter to Henry VIII, to whom 
the Cistercian nunnery of Cookhill, on the 
borders of Worcestershire and Warwickshire, 
was granted in 1542. Fortescue, who was 
throughout his life a zealous Roman catholic, 
for several years harboured at Cookhill the 
Benedictine monk, David Baker [q. v.] In 
1605, after the Gunpowder plot and the rising 
of the Roman catholics of Warwickshire, 
Fortescue underwent several examinations, 
and fell under some suspicion on account of 
a large quantity of armour found in his house. 
His name appears twice in the ' Calendar of 
j State Papers ' in connection with the plot. 
j A letter from Chief-justice Anderson and 
I Sheriff" Warburton to the privy council states 
that Fortescue of Warwickshire, though sum- 
moned to appear before them, had not come 
forward to be examined. A declaration by 
himself says that the armour in question has 
been in his house for five years, and adds that 
he has not seen Winter, the conspirator, for 
eight years, and was not summoned to join 
the rising in Warwickshire (Cal. State Pa- 
pers, 1603-10, pp. 253, 304). He succeeded 


4 8 


in clearing himself from these suspicions and 
lived at Cookhill unmolested until about 
1610, when he was appointed a commissioner 
of James's household and of the navy ; he was 
knighted in 1618, and in the same year, on 
the death of Sir John Points, he obtained the 
lucrative and honourable post of chamberlain 
of the exchequer, which he held until May 
1625, when he resigned it (Askmole MS. 
1144, ix.; Cal. State Papers, 1625-6, p. 109). 
During 1622 and 1623 his name appears as 
serving on royal commissions, to inquire into 
the state of the plantations of Virginia and of 
Ireland, into the depredations committed by 
pirates on the high seas, and on royal grants of 
lands (RTMEK, Foedera, vol. vii. pt. iii. p. 247, 
pt. iv. pp. 46, 63). 

Fortescue died at his house in Fetter Lane 
on 2 Nov. 1633, and was buried in the pri- 
vate chapel of Cookhill, where his tomb may 
still be seen. lie married Prudence, daugh- 
ter of William Wheteley of Holkham, Nor- 
folk, by whom he had five sons, William, 
Francis, Edmund, Nicholas, John, and two 

[Lord Clermont's Hist, of the Family of For- 
tescue.] G. K. F. 


younger (1605 P-1644), knight of St. John, 
was the fourth son of Sir Nicholas Fortescue, 
chamberlain of the exchequer [q. v.] His 
father was throughout his life a member of 
the Roman catholic church, and his sons 
were brought up in that religion. It is pro- 
bable that the memory of Sir Adrian For- 
tescue [q. v.], who had late in his life become a 
member of the order of St. John, was cherished 
among his kinsmen, who adhered to the faith 
for the sake of which they believed him to 
have died a martyr, and it may be assumed 
that this feeling inspired Nicholas with the 
ambition to resuscitate the order, which had 
completely died out in England. In 1637 he 
went to Malta, furnished, if we are to believe 
Pozzo, the historian of the order, with a di- 
rect commission from Queen Henrietta Maria, 
who, ' in her zeal for the restoration of the 
true religion ' in her adopted country, desired 
to revive the English langue of the order. 
Fortescue was received as a knight of Malta 
in 1638, and his project was favourably re- 
ported upon to the grand master, the pope, 
and Cardinal Barbarino, protector of the or- 
der, by a commission appointed to investigate 
the matter. The chief difficulty, which proved 
insuperable, was to procure the sum of twelve 
thousand scudi, to be expended in buildings, 
fees, and other expenses necessary to the re- 
foundation of the order in England. The 
negotiations extended over some years, during 

which time Fortescue travelled to and from 
England several times. During one of his 
journeys he was a guest at the English College 
at Rome, where, as the strangers' book of 
the college shows, he dined with John Milton, 
like himself travelling abroad. In 1642 the 
scheme was finally abandoned, owing, says 
Pozzo, to the ' impious turbulence of the Eng- 
lish people, which overthrew alike the cause 
of holy religion and of its royal patroness.' 
Sir Nicholas, with his brothers William and 
Edmund, joined the royal army. According 
to the ' Loyal Martyrology (sect. 38, p. 68) 
he was slain in a skirmish in Lancashire while 
advancing with Prince Rupert's army to the 
relief of York ; but it is more probable that 
he was killed at the battle of Marston Moor, 
since he was buried at Skipton on 5 July 

The following character of Sir Nicholas is 
given in Lloyd's ' Memoirs : ' ' Sir Nicholas 
Fortescue, a knight of Malta, slain in Lan- 
cashire, whose worth is the more to be re- 
garded by others, the less he took notice of 
himself; a person of so dextrous an address 
that when he came into notice he came into 
favour ; when he entered the court he had 
the chamber, yea the closet of a prince ; a 
gentleman that did much in his person, and, 
as he would say, let reputation do the rest ; 
he and Sir Edmund Fortescue were always 
observed so wary as to have all their enemies 
before them and leave none behind them' 
(LLOYD, Memoirs, p. 669). The allusion to 
Sir Edmund may refer to Sir Edmund For- 
tescue of Fallapit [q. v.] ; but it seems more 
probable that it relates to Edmund, brother 
of Sir Nicholas, who held a post at court as- 
sewer to the queen. 

[Lord Clermont's Hist, of the Family of For- 
tescue ; Pozzo's Hist, della Eel. Milit. di S. Gio- 
vanni Geros. torn, ii.l G. K. F. 

FORTESCUE, THOMAS (1784-1872), 
Anglo-Indian civilian, son of Gerald For- 
tescue, by Elizabeth, daughter of John Tew, 
was born in 1784, acted as secretary to his- 
cousin, Henry Wellesley (afterwards Lord 
Cowley), lieutenant-governor of the recently 
ceded province of Oude, 1801-3, and on the 
capture of Delhi, October 1803, was appointed 
civil commissioner there. He married on 
19 March 1859 Louisa Margaret, second 
daughter of Thomas Russell, esq., and died 
on 7 Sept. 1872. Part of his official corre- 
spondence is preserved at the British Museum 
in Addit. MSS. 13560, 13562, 13563, 13565, 
13568, 13570, 13572, 13574. 

[Lord Clermont's Hist, of the Family of For- 
tescue, p. 206.] J. M. B. 




FORTESCUE, WILLIAM (1687-1749), 
master of the rolls and friend of Pope and Gay, 
the only son of Henry Fortescue of Buckland 
Filleigh in Devonshire (1659-1691), who mar- 
ried Agnes, daughter of Nicholas Dennis of 
Barnstaple, was born at Buckland, and Avas 
baptised there on 26 June 1687. His mother, 
after his father's death, married Dr. Gilbert 
Budgell, who, by his first wife, was father of 
the ill-fated Eustace Budgell [q. v.], and by 
this connection Fortescue became acquainted 
with a third well-known man of letters. He 
did not proceed to the university, but dwelt as 
n country squire on the estate which he had 
inherited when but four years old. His for- 
tune was enhanced by his marriage at East 
Allington, Devonshire, on 7 July 1709, to his 
distant kinswoman, Mary, eldest daughter 
and coheiress of Edward Fortescue of Crust 
and Fallapit. Much to his grief she died at 
the age of twenty-one on 1 Aug. 1710, and 
-was buried at East Allington on 4 Aug., 
leaving him with an only child, Mary, who 
was born at Buckland Filleigh on 16 July in 
that year. Fortescue thereupon determined 
upon adopting a more active life, and chose 
the law as his profession. His name was 
entered at the Middle Temple in September 
1710, but he removed to the Inner Temple 
in November 1714, and was called by it in 
.July 1715. Gay had ' contracted an intimate 
friendship ' with him when they were school- 
boys together at Barnstaple grammar school, 
which lasted during their lives, and the two 
i'amilies were nearly related by marriage. It 
Tvas no doubt through Gay's agency that 
Fortescue was admitted soon after his settle- 
ment in London to the acquaintance of Pope. 
When Sir Robert Walpole was appointed 
chancellor of the exchequer in 1715 he se- 
lected Fortescue as his private secretary. 
Horace Walpole, in his 'Letters' (Cunning- 
ham's ed. i. 246), mentions his presence at 
* a family dinner ' at the official residence of 
the master of the rolls many years later, and 
explains the term by a note that Fortescue 
was ' a relation of Margaret Lady Walpole.' 
The connection was remote, and, as Lady 
Walpole was not married until 1724. the choice 
of the private secretary must have been due 
to other causes, and may be assigned to his 
influence in the west of England, where 
pocket boroughs abounded. At the general 
election in 1727 he was returned for the 
borough of Newport in the Isle of Wight, a 
constituency which he continued to represent 
until 1736, and rendered, unlike most of 
Pope's friends, a warm support to the ministry 
of Walpole. At the bar Fortescue's progress 
was steady, as befitted a sound, but not a 
brilliant lawyer. In 1730 he was appointed 


king's counsel and attorney-general to the 
Prince of Wales ; on 9 Feb. 1736 he was 
raised to the judicial bench as a baron of the 
exchequer, and on 7 July 1738 he was trans- 
ferred to the court of common pleas. His 
final advancement was to the mastership of 
the rolls (5 Nov. 1741), when he was called 
to the privy council (19 Nov.), and he sat in 
that court until his death. He died on Sa- 
turday morning, 16 Dec. 1749, about one 
o'clock, and was buried in the Rolls Chapel, 
' on one side of and close to the communion- 
table on the north side,' on 26 Dec., in a 
grave ' sufficient only to hold his coffin, a 
very wide one,' and on the adjoining wall is 
an inscription to his memory. His sister, 
Grace Fortescue, ' an exceeding good woman,' 
died in 1743, and the master of the rolls was 
' very much afflicted at her loss.' His only 
daughter married about 1733 John Spooner 
of Beachworth, and died on 24 July 1752, 
having had issue one daughter, Mary, who 
died an infant. 

Jervas wrote of Fortescue as ' ridens For- 
tescuvius,' and a letter from him to Mrs. 
Howard, afterwards Lady Suffolk, in the 
' Suffolk Letters,' i. 202-4, bears witness to 
his position among her friends. Gay, in the 
second book of the ' Trivia,' appeals to him 
as ' sincere, experienced friend,' with whom 
he desires to stray ' the long Strand together,' 
for ' with thee conversing I forget the way.' 
It is, however, as a friend of Pope that Fortes- 
cue lives in mem ory. He was cons ulted by the 
poet on all pecuniary matters, and on all the 
business in which Martha Blount [q. v.] was 
concerned, and, as Pope acknowledges, ' with- 
out a fee.' The first of Pope's satires (' The 
First Satire of the Second Book of Horace 
Imitated ') is addressed to Fortescue ; it was 
originally published in 1733 in folio, under 
the title of ' Dialogue between Alexander 
Pope of Twickenham in com. Midd. on the 
one part, and the learned counsel on the 
other.' He was the legal adviser of the 
Scriblerus Club, and when Pope joined with 
Swift in publishing three volumes of ' Mis- 
cellanies ' (1727), which contained the hu- 
morous report of ' Stradling versus Stiles,' on 
the question whether ' Sir John Swale of 
Swale Hall in Swaledale, fast by the river 
Swale, knight,' in bequeathing all his black 
and white horses, when he possessed six 
black, six white, and six pied, meant to in- 
clude the pied horses in the bequest, the 
legal terms were supplied by Fortescue. The 
letters which Pope addressed to him were 
originally published as regards one part in 
Polwhele's ' Devonshire,' i. 320-5, and as re- 
gards the other part in Rebecca Warner's 
' Collection of Original Letters ' (1817). Both 




sets were afterwards incorporated m Ros- 
coe's edition of Pope, ix. 359, &c., and 
in Elwin and Courthope's edition (Letters, 
iv.), ix. 96-146. They are the simple and 
unaffected effusions of the poet's friendship. 
In most editions of Pope's works appears a 
letter purporting to be sent by Gay to For- 
tescue (9 Aug. 1718) on the death of the two 
lovers by lightning at Stanton Harcourt, but 
it was in reality written to Miss Blount by 
Pope. Through the latter's advice the woods 
at Buckland were much improved by their 
owner. A letter from Fortescue to Lord 
Macclesfield belonged to Lord Ashburnham 
(Hist. MSS. Comm. 8th Rep. App. pt. iii. 12). 
His portrait was painted by Hudson, and 
engraved by Faber in 1741. 

[Lord Clermont's Fortescue Family, pedigree 
at p. 148 and pp. 152-67 ; Gent. Mag. 1749, p. 
572; Roscoe's Pope, vi. 95, vii. 215-21 ; Foss's 
Judges; Gay's Chair, 1820, p. 16; Edinb. Rev. 
1877, cxlv. 317-19; Johnson's Poets (Cunning- 
ham), iii. 51 ; Nichols's Illustrations of Lit. iv. 
394; Carruthers's Pope, 1858, ii. 339-41 ; "Worthy's 
Devon Parishes, i. 252-3 ; J. Chaloner Smith's 
Portraits, i. 351.] W. P. C. 

PATRICK, 1572-1651.] 

FORTREY, SAMUEL (1622-1681), au- 
thor of 'England's Interest and Improve- 
ment, consisting in the increase of the Store 
and Trade of this Kingdom,' Cambridge, 1663, 
is described on the title-page of that work as 
' one of the gentlemen of his majesties most 
honourable privy chamber.' In all probability 
he may be identified with Samuel Fortrey 
of Richmond and Byall Fen, Isle of Ely, 
clerk of the deliveries of the ordnance in the 
Tower of London, and one of the bailiffs in 
the corporation of the Great Level. This 
Samuel Fortrey, born 11 June 1622, was the 
eldest son of Samuel Forterie, a merchant 
of Walbrooke Ward, London, who was the 
grandson of John de la Forterye, a refugee 
from Lille, and owned a house at Kew, 
which was eventually bought by Queen 
Charlotte. Fortrey married, on 23 Feb. 1647, 
Theodora Josceline, the child for whom Eliza- 
beth Josceline wrote ' The Mother's Legacie 
to her Unborn Childe.' He died in Febru- 
ary 1681. His third son, James, was groom 
of the bedchamber to James II, and married 
Lady Bellasyse. ' England's Interest and 
Improvement,' though it was reprinted in 
1673, 1713, and 1744, and again in Whit- 
worth's ' Early English Tracts on Commerce' 
in 1856, is a weak and rambling tract, writ- 
ten apparently without any very definite aim. 
Its most specific advice is that immigration 
and enclosure should be encouraged, and that 

the king should set a good example by pre- 
ferring fabrics of home manufacture. It was 
for many years frequently referred to by 
financial writers in consequence of a very 
circumstantial statement contained in it to 
the effect that the value of the English im- 
ports from France was 2,600,000, and the 
value of the exports to France 1,000,000/., 
' by which it appears that our trade with 
France is at least sixteen hundred thousand 
pounds a year clear lost to this kingdom.' 

[Extracts from Sir Henry St. George's Visita- 
tion of Cambridgeshire in the Genealogist, iii. 
298 ; extracts from the same visitation in Nichols's 
Leicestershire, ii. *446 ; Visitation of London by 
Sir Henry St. George in 1634 (Harleian Soc. xv. 
284); genealogical table in Brit. Mus. Addit. 
MS. 5520, f. 125; Manning and Bray's Surrey, 
i. 447 ; Brit. Mus. and Bodleian Library Cata- 
logues of Printed Books.] E. C-N. 

FORTUNE, ROBERT (1813-1880), tra- 
veller and botanist, was born at Kelloe in 
the parish of Edrom, Berwickshire, 16 Sept. 
1813. After education in the parish school 
and apprenticeship in local gardens, he en- 
tered the Edinburgh Botanical Garden, and 
became subsequently superintendent of the 
indoor-plant department in the Royal Hor- 
ticultural Society's garden at Chiswick. In 
1842 he was sent as collector to the so- 
ciety to China. He visited Java on his way 
out in 1843 and Manilla in 1845, returning 
to England in 1846 after many adventures 
from shipwreck, pirates, hostile natives, and 
fever. He entered the city of Loo-chow, then 
closed to Europeans, disguised as a China- 
man. Among the many beautiful and inte- 
resting plants which he then sent home were 
the double yellow rose and the fan-palm 
(Ckamcerops Fortunei) that bear his name, 
the Japanese anemone, many varieties of the 
tree-peonies, long cultivated in North China, 
thekumquat (Citrus japonica), Weigela rosea, 
and Dicentra spectabilis, besides various aza- 
leas and chrysanthemums. He was appointed 
curator of the Chelsea Botanical Garden, but 
had to resign in 1848 on his return to China 
to collect plants and seeds of the tea-shrub 
on behalf of the East India Company. In 
1847 he published * Three Years' Wanderings 
in the Northern Provinces of China, including 
a Visit to the Tea, Silk, and Cotton Coun- 
tries, with an Account of the Agriculture and 
Horticulture of the Chinese.' In 1851 he 
successfully introduced two thousand plants 
and seventeen thousand sprouting seeds of 
the tea into the north-west provinces of India, 
as described in his 'Report upon the Tea 
Plantations in the North-west Provinces/ 
London, 1851, 8vo ; 'A Journey to the Tea 
Countries of China,' London, 1852, 8vo ; and 



' Two Visits to the Tea Countries of China 
and the British Plantations in the Hima- 
layas,' London, 1853, 2 vols. 8vo. In 1853 
he visited Formosa and described the manu- 
facture of rice-paper carried on there, and 
about the same time paid several visits to 
Japan, whence he introduced the variegated 
China-rose {Kerria japonica), Aucuba japo- 
nica, Lilium auratum, and the golden larch 
(Larix Kcempferi), with many other species 
now widely known in our gardens. In 1857 
he published ' A Residence among the Chi- 
nese,' describing the culture of the silkworm, 
and in the same year was commissioned to 
collect tea-shrubs and other plants in China 
and Japan on behalf of the United States 
government. The story of this journey was 
told in his last work, ' Yeddo and Peking,' 
London, 1863, 8vo, written after his retire- 
ment, when he engaged for a time in farming 
in Scotland. He died at Gilston Road, South 
Kensington, 13 April 1880. 

[Gardener's Chronicle, 1880, i. 487; Garden, 
1880, xvii. 356 ; Cottage Gardener, xix. 192.] 

G. S. B. 

(1770-1842), antiquary, born 27 May 1770, 
was the only son of William Fosbroke by 
his second wife, Hesther, daughter of Thomas 
Lashbroke of Southwark, and was a descend- 
ant of a family first settled at Forsbrook in 
Staffordshire (for the family history see 
FOSBROKE, Brit. Monachism, 3rd ed. pp. 14- 
23). When nine years old he was sent to 
St. Paul's School, London, and in 1785 was 
elected to a Teasdale scholarship at Pem- 
broke College, Oxford. He graduated B.A. 
1789, M.A. 1792 (Catal. Oxf. Graduates). 
He was ordained in 1792, and was curate of 
Horsley in Gloucestershire from 1792 to 
1810. From 1810 to 1830 he was curate of 
Walford, near Ross, Herefordshire, and from 
1830 till his death was vicar of the parish. 
He died at Walford vicarage on 1 Jan. 1842. 
He married, in 1796, Miss Howell of Horsley, 
and had four sons and six daughters. His 
wife and seven of his children (see Gent. 
Mag. 1842, new ser. xvii. 216) survived 
him. There is a portrait of him prefixed to 
his ' British Monachism ' (3rd edit.) 

Fosbroke was elected a fellow of the So- 
ciety of Antiquaries in 1799, and from about 
that time devoted himself to archaeology and 
Anglo-Saxon literature, studying eight or 
nine hours a day. His ' British Monachism ' 
was published in 1802 (London, 2 vols. 8vo), 
and was well received (also 1817, 4to ; 1843, 
8vo). His other chief work, the ' Encyclo- 
paedia of Antiquities,' a treatise on the ele- 
ments of classical and mediaeval archaeology, 

was published in 1825 (London, 2 vols. 4to ; 
also London, 1840, 1 vol. 8vo). He con- 
tributed many reviews to the ' Gentleman's 
Magazine,' and among his other publications 
are : 1. ' Abstracts of Records and MSS. 
respecting the County of Gloucester,' Glou- 
cester, 1807, 2 vols. 4to. 2. 'Key to the Tes- 
tament ; or Whitby's Commentary abridged,' 
1815, 8vo. 3. ' History of the City of Glou- 
cester,' London, 1819, fol. 4. 'Berkeley 
Manuscripts ' (pedigrees of the Berkeleys ; 
history of parish of Berkeley, &c.), London, 
1821, 4to. 5. ' Companion to the Wye Tour : 
Ariconensia ' (on Ross and Archenfield), 
Ross, 1821, 12mo. He also made additions 
toGilpin's ' Wye Tour' (see Brit. Mm. Cat.) 
6. ' The Tourist's Grammar ' (on scenery, 
antiquities, &c.), London, 1826, 12mo. 7. ' Ac- 
count of Cheltenham,' Cheltenham, 1826, 
12mo. 8. ' Foreign Topography ' (an account 
of ancient remains in Africa, Asia, and 
Europe), London, 1828, 4to. 9. ' A Treatise 
on the Arts, Manufactures, Manners, and 
Institutions of the Greeks and Romans ' (in 
Lardner's ' Cabinet Cyclopaedia '), 1833, 8vo. 

[Gent. Mag. 1842, new ser. xvii. 214-16 ; 
Fosbroke's Works ; Brit. Mus. Cat.] W. W. 

eldest son of Edward Smith Foss, solicitor, of 
36 Essex Street, Strand, London, by Anne, 
his wife, daughter of Dr. William Rose of 
Chiswick, was born in Gough Square, Fleet 
Street, 16 Oct. 1787. He was educated un- 
der Dr. Charles Burney [q. v.], his mother's 
brother-in-law, at Greenwich, and remained 
there until he was articled in 1804 to his 
father, whose partner he became in 1811. 
In 1822 he became a member of the Inner 
Temple, but never proceeded further towards 
a call to the bar. Upon his father's death, in 
1830, he removed to Essex Street, and carried 
on the practice alone until 1840, when he 
retired. During his professional career he 
had, owing to his literary tastes and connec- 
tions, been specially concerned with ques- 
tions relating to publishers and literary men. 
In 1827-8 he served the office of under- 
sheriff of London. He was connected with 
the Law Life Assurance Society from its 
foundation in 1823, first as auditor and after- 
wards as director, and was active in founding 
the Incorporated Law Society, of which he 
was president in 1842 and 1843. In 1844 he 
removed from Streatham to Canterbury, 
where he proved himself a useful chairman 
of the magistrates' bench, in 1859 to Dover, 
and in 1865 to Addiscombe. From an early 
age he had made various essays in writing. 
He contributed, while still a very young 
man, to the 'Monthly Review,' 'Aikin's 




Athenaeum,' the 'London Magazine,' the 
' Gentleman's Magazine,' and the ' Morning 
Chronicle.' In 1817 he published 'The 
Beauties of Massinger,' and in 1820 an abridg- 
ment of Blackstone's ' Commentaries,' begun 
by John Giffard and published under his 
name, which has since been translated into 
German. On retiring from professional prac- 
tice he devoted himself to collecting materials 
for the history of the legal profession, which 
he lent to Lord Campbell for his ' Lives of 
the Chancellors.' He published in 1843 
' The Grandeur of the Law,' and in 1848 the 
first two volumes of the ' Judges of Eng- 
land ' appeared. The work was at first un- 
successful, owing to the obscurity and un- 
popularity of the subject judges of the 
Norman period ; but as it progressed it rose 
in favour, until it is now established as the 
standard authority in its particular field. In 
recognition of his labours Lord Langdale, 
to whom the first two volumes were dedi- 
cated, procured for him a grant of the entire 
series of publications of the Record Commis- 
sion. The third and fourth volumes appeared 
in 1851, fifth and sixth in 1857, and seventh, 
eighth, and ninth in 1864. In 1865 he pub- 
lished ' Tabulae Curiales,' and the printing of 
his ' Biographia Juridica ' an abbreviation of 
his ' Judges of England ' was far advanced 
when he died of an apoplexy, 27 July 1870. 
He also contributed to the ' Standard.' He 
was an original member of the Archaeological 
Institute, and contributed a paper on West- 
minster Hall to its publication, ' Old London,' 
1867. He contributed to ' Archaeologia ' 
papers ' On the Lord Chancellors under King 
John,' ' On the Relationship of Bishop Fitz- 
James and Lord Chief Justice Fitzjames,' ' On 
the Lineage of Sir Thomas More,' and ' On 
the Office and Title of Cursitor Baron of the 
Exchequer.' For the Kent Archaeological 
Association, which he helped to found, he 
wrote a paper ' On the Collar of S.S.' (Ar- 
chaol. Cantiana, vol. i. 1858), and a pri- 
vately printed volume of poems, ' A Century 
of Inventions,' appeared in 1863. He was 
elected a fellow of the Society of Antiquaries 
in 1822, was a member of the council of the 
Camden Society from 1850 to 1853, and from 
1865 to 1870, a member of the Royal Society 
of Literature from 1837, and on the council 
of the Royal Literary Fund, and until 1839 
secretary to the Society of Guardians of Trade. 
He was a magistrate and deputy-lieutenant 
for Kent. He married in 1814 Catherine, 
eldest daughter of Peter Martineau, by whom 
he had one son, who died in infancy, and in 
1844 Maria Elizabeth, eldest daughter of 
William Hut-chins, by whom he had six sons 
(of whom the eldest, Edward, a barrister, 

assisted in the preparation of the ' Biographia 
Juridica ') and three daughters. 

[Memoir by J. C. Robertson, prefixed to Bio- 
graphia Juridica ; Law Times, 24 Sept. 1870 ; 
Notes and Queries, 4th ser. vi. 126.] J. A. H. 

1 848), diplomatist, second son of John Thomas 
Foster, M.P. for Ennis in the Irish House of 
Commons (nephew of Anthony Foster, lord 
chief baron of Ireland, and first cousin of John 
Foster, lord Oriel [q. v.]), by Lady Elizabeth 
Hervey, daughter of Frederick Augustus, earl 
of Bristol and bishop of Derry, was born on 
1 Dec. 1780, and through the influence of 
his mother, who had remarried William, fifth 
duke of Devonshire, he was appointed secre- 
tary to the legation of the Right Hon. Hugh 
Elliot [q. v.] at Naples. In August 1811 he 
was nominated minister plenipotentiary to 
the United States of America. His manners 
were not conciliatory, and he did nothing to 
stave off" the war which broke out in 1812. 
In that year he returned to England, and was 
elected M.P. for Cockermouth, and in Mav 
1814 he was nominated minister plenipoten- 
tiary at Copenhagen. He remained in Den- 
mark for ten years, during which nothing 
of importance happened, and in 1815 he 
married Albinia Jane, daughter of the Hon. 
George Vere Hobart, who received a patent 
of precedency as an earl's daughter when her 
brother succeeded to the earldom of Bucking- 
hamshire in 1832. In 1822 Foster was sworn 
of the privy council, and in 1824 he was 
transferred to the court of Turin, and was 
knighted and made a G.C.H. in the follow- 
ing year. He was further created a baronet 
' of Glyde Court, county Louth,' on 30 Sept. 
1831, and he remained at Turin for no less 
than sixteen years, until 1840, during which 
period no event happened to bring his name 
into notice. In that year he retired from 
the diplomatic service. On 1 Aug. 1848 he 
committed suicide by cutting his throat, 
in a fit of temporary insanity, at Branksea 
Castle, near Poole, Dorsetshire. 

[Foster's Baronetage ; Gent. Mag. September 
1848.] H. M. S. 

FOSTER, HENRY (1796-1831), naviga- 
tor, born in August 1796, was the eldest son 
of Henry Foster, incumbent of Wood Plump- 
ton, near Preston, Lancashire, and was edu- 
cated under Mr. Saul at Green Row, Cum- 
berland. It was his father's wish that he 
should take orders, but in 1812 he entered the 
navy as a volunteer under Captain Morton 
in the York, and was appointed sub-lieu- 
tenant 13 June 1815. In 1815 he served in 
the Vengeur with Captain Alexander, and in 




1817 in the Eridanus with Captain King in 
the North Sea and Channel fleets. In 1817 
he joined Captain Hickey in the Blossom 
with whom he served until 1819. When the 
Blossom visited the Columbia River with 
the commissioners to establish the boundary 
line between Great Britain and the United 
States, he surveyed the river's mouth. When 
in the Creole with Commodore Bowles in 
1819 he made a useful survey of the north 
shore of the river La Plata. In 1820 he ac- 
companied Captain Basil Hall in the Con- 
way in his voyage to South America, and 
assisted him greatly in his pendulum and 
other observations. His next appointment, 
in 1823, was to the Griper, Captain Claver- 
ing, on her voyage with Captain Sabine to 
the coasts of Greenland and Norway, and on 
the return of this ship in 1824 he received 
full lieutenant's rank, being also elected F.R.S. 
on 6 May. As astronomer to the expedition 
Foster sailed with Sir Edward Parry on his 
third voyage of north-western discovery, M ay 
1824 to October 1825, and again accompanied 
him, April-September 1827, in his attempt 
to reach the north pole. At Port Bowen 
and other stations within the Arctic circle 
he made, with the assistance of Parry and 
others, an extensive series of observations 
upon the diurnal variation, diurnal intensity 
of the magnetic needle, and upon other sub- 
jects connected with terrestrial magnetism 
and astronomical refractions, which formed 
an entire fourth part of the ' Philosophical 
Transactions ' for 1826, and was printed at 
the expense of the board of longitude. For 
these papers he received the Copley medal of 
the Royal Society, 30 Nov. 1827, and in half 
an hour afterwards the rank of commander. 
Another valuable paper contributed by him 
to the same serial was ' A Comparison of the 
Changes of Magnetic Intensity throughout 
the Day in the Dipping and Horizontal 
Needles atTreurenburgh Bay in Spitzbergen' 
(Phil. Trans, cxviii. 303-11). On 12 Dec. 
1827 he was appointed to the command of 
the Chanticleer, a sloop sent out by the govern- 
ment to the South Seas at the suggestion of 
the Royal Society, in order to determine the 
specific ellipticity of the earth by a series of 
pendulum experiments at various places, and 
to make observations on magnetism, meteo- 
rology, and the direction of the principal 
ocean currents. Foster sailed from Spithead 
27 April 1828. He commenced the pendu- 
lum experiments on Rat Island, Montevideo. 
He rounded Cape Horn on 27 Dec., and on 
5 Jan. 1829 observed Smith's Island, one of 
the New South Shetland group. Two days 
later he touched at Trinity Island, which he 
christened ' Clarence Land/ and of which he 

took possession in the name of Great Britain, 
not being aware of its previous discovery in 
1599 by Dirck Gherritz, and of its position 
in most of the old charts by the name of 
' Gherritz Land.' From 9 Jan. to 4 March 
he remained at an island on these coasts, to 
which he gave the name of ' Deception Island,' 
busied with astronomical and geodesic obser- 
vations, then returned to Cape Horn 25 March, 
and anchored in St. Martin's Cove. Here he 
was joined on ] 7 April by Captain King in 
the Adventure, employed on a survey of the 
islands adjacent. Leaving Cape Horn on 
24 May I oster bore away for the Cape of 
Good Hope, which he reached by 16 July, 
and where he stayed until 13 Dec. He then 
visited St. Helena, and afterwards various 
South American ports, arriving at Porto Bello 
on 22 Dec. 1830. Here he wished to measure 
the difference of longitude across the isthmus 
of Panama by means of rockets. After various 
preparations and onefailure, he left for Panama 
on 28 Jan. 1831, to make the final experi- 
ment. It proved successful, and the meridian 
distance between Panama and Chagres having 
been thus measured, Foster, in high spirits, 
embarked in a canoe at Cruces on 5 Feb. to 
return down the river Chagres. In the even- 
ing he was sitting upon the awning when it 
gave way, and he fell into the river and was 
drowned. His remains were recovered on 
8 Feb. and buried on the river bank, nearly 
halfway between Palamatio Viejo and Pa- 
lamatio Nueva. A monument marks the 
spot. A simple tablet was also raised to 
his memory by the officers of the Chanti- 
cleer in the port of San Lorenzo at Chagres ; 
another monument to him is in the north 
aisle of Wood Plumpton Church. 'There 
were few officers in the service whose minds 
could have been more highly cultivated than 
Foster's,' writes one of his comrades in the 
Arctic expedition ( United Service Journal, 
1835, pt. ii. pp. 83-4). Foster's notebook, 
containing all his observations since leaving 
Porto Bello, was stolen from his body by the 
canoe-men, but he left an immense mass of 
observations of various kinds, which the ad- 
miralty confided partly to the Royal Society 
and partly to the Astronomical Society. A 
report on the pendulum experiments of Fos- 
:er was drawn up by Francis Baily, the pre- 
sident of the Astronomical Society, and in- 
serted in vol. vii. of their ' Memoirs ; ' it was 
also printed by the admiralty. The prepara- 
tion of the report on his chronometrical ob- 
servations was entrusted to Dr. J. L. Tiarks, 
F.R.S. These, with other valuable papers, 
form the appendix to the 'Narrative of a 
Voyage to the Southern Atlantic Ocean, in 
he years 1828, 29, 30, performed in H.M. 




Sloop Chanticleer, under the command of the 
late Captain Henry Foster, F.R.S., &c. By 
order of the Lords Commissioners of the 
Admiralty. From the Private Journal of 
W. H. B. Webster, surgeon of the Sloop,' 
2 vols. 8vo, London, 1834. A French trans- 
lation by A. de Lacaze appeared in 1849. 

[Webster's Narrative, i. preface, ii. 190-208 ; 
United Service Journal, 1831, pt. ii. pp. 286, 
489-96; Gent. Mag. vol. ci. pt. i. p. 643, pt. ii. 
pp. 64-5, vol. cii. pt. i. pp. 87-8 ; Navy Lists.] 

G. G. 

FOSTER, JAMES (1697-1753), divine, 
was born at Exeter on 16 Sept. 1697. His 
father, a fuller at Exeter, had become a dis- 
senter, although he was the son of a clergy- 
man of Kettenng, Northamptonshire. Foster 
was educated at the free school of Exeter, 
and afterwards at an academy in that town 
kept by Joseph Hallet, sen. He began to 
preach in 1718. At this time the dissenters 
in the west were inclining to Arianism. The 
proposal that they should make a declaration 
of orthodoxy led to the Salters' Hall confe- 
rence, and to the expulsion of James Peirce 
and Joseph Hallet, jun., both friends of Fos- 
ter's, from their congregations at Exeter. 
Foster took the side of the non-subscribers. 
His opinions gave offence to the majority of 
the dissenters in Exeter, and he accepted an 
invitation from a congregation at Milborne 
Port in Somersetshire. Milborne Port was 
also too orthodox for him, and he left it to 
live in the house of Nicholas Billingsley (son 
of Nicholas Billingsley [q. v.]) at Ashwick, 
under the Mendip Hills. An inscription, after- 
wards placed in a summer-house where he 
wrote and studied, is given in Collinson's ' His- 
tory of Somersetshire' (ii. 449). He preached 
to two small congregations at Colesford and 
"Wokey, near Wells, his salary from both 
amounting to only 15/. a year. He next 
moved to Trowbridge, Wiltshire, where he 
boarded with a glover, and had a congrega- 
tion of from fifteen to twenty persons. In 
1720 he published a sermon, 'The Resurrec- 
tion of Christ proved,' preached at Trow- 
bridge ; and afterwards in the same year an 
' Essay on Fundamentals,' arguing that the 
doctrine of the Trinity should not be regarded 
as essential. An appendix seems to imply 
that his own views were Arian. He was 
converted by the writings of John Gale [q. v.] 
against infant baptism. He was baptised by 
Gale in London. Although his congregation 
did not object, they were only able to give 
him so small a salary that he thought of en- 
tering his landlord's trade as a glover. A 
Mr. Robert Houlton, however, took him as a 
domestic chaplain. In 1724 he was chosen 

as the colleague of Joseph Burroughs [q. v.] 
at the chapel in the Barbican, a position pre- 
viously occupied by Gale. In 1728 he was 
also appointed to give the Sunday evening 
lecture at the Old Jewry. Foster became 
known as an eloquent preacher, and took part 
in many controversies. In 1731 he wrote 
one of the best-known replies to Tindal's 
' Christianity as Old as the Creation ' (the 
' Usefulness, Truth, and Excellency of the 
Christian Religion defended against ...'), 
and Tindal is said to have spoken with great 
regard (CALEB FLEMING) of an answer which, 
in fact, implies a very close approximation 
of opinion. In 1735 he had a controversy 
with Henry Stebbing [q. v.] upon heresy, in 
which his main point was the innocency of 
intellectual error. Foster made replies to 
two ' Letters ' by Stebbing, and to a ' True 
State of the Controversy,' in which Stebbing 
answered the second letter; and Stebbing 
again answered the last reply (1735-6-7). 
In 1744 he became pastor of the independent 
church at Pinners' Hall. In 1746 he visited 
Lord Kilmarnock in the Tower, administered 
the sacrament to him, and was present at his 
execution (18 Aug.) He published an account 
of Kilmarnock's behaviour (partly printed in 
HOWELL, State Trials, xviii. 503-14), which 
was attacked in various pamphlets. It was 
insinuated that the dissenters were willing to 
accept the Pretender in order to get rid of 
the Test Act, as some had been willing to 
submit to James II. The attack was appa- 
rently very unfair. Foster seems to have 
shown good feeling, and it is said that his 
health declined from this time on account of 
the shock to his nerves (FLEMING and HAW- 
KINS, Anecdotes, p. 164). 

Foster published four volumes of sermons 
(1744, &c.), besides separate sermons. The 
first volume produced ' A Vindication of 
some Truths of Natural and Revealed Reli- 
gion, in answer to the false teaching of James 
Foster,' by J. Brine (1746). His great repu- 
tation is indicated by Pope's familiar lines 
(Epilogue to the Satires, i. 132-3) : 

Let modest Foster, if he will, excel 
Ten Metropolitans in preaching well ; 

though Johnson explained the remark to 
Beauclerk by saying, ' Sir, he [Pope] hoped 
that it would vex somebody ' (Langton's 
' Collectanea,' in BOSWELL). Hawkins, in his 
' History of Music,' said that it had become 
a proverbial phrase that ' those who had not 
heard Farinelli sing and Foster preach were 
not qualified to appear in genteel company.' 
A contemporary eulogist gives the less con- 
clusive proof that the sermons were attended 
by numbers of the fair sex. His published 




sermons went through five editions. Two 
volumes of ' Discourses on all the Principal 
Branches of Natural Religion and Social 
Virtue,' published in 1749 and 1752, had 
two thousand subscribers. Foster's health 
was declining. He had a paralytic stroke in 
April 1750, and a second in July 1753. He 
died on 5 Nov. 1753. 

Foster received the D.D. degree by diploma 
from the Marischal College, Aberdeen, in De- 
cember 1748. He had a tine voice and grace- 
ful action. He was a man of generous cha- 
racter, so liberal that he would have died 
without a penny but for the subscription to 
his ' Discourses.' He is said to have declined 
many offers of preferment in the Irish church 
from Bishop Rundle. As a thinker Foster 
represents the drift of the dissenters of his 
time towards rationalism. Though he argued 
against Tindal and supported the historical 
evidences of Christianity, he substantially 
agrees in philosophy with the deists. In his 
sermons (volume of 1733, i. 175) occurs a 
characteristic phrase quoted by Bolingbroke 
and Savage (Gent. Mag. v. 213): 'Where 
mystery begins, religion ends.' He was sharply 
attacked by John Brine [q. v.] in a ' Vindi- 
cation of some Truths of Natural and Re- 
vealed Religion . . . ,' 1746, for his free- 
thinking tendencies. The eloquence of his 
preaching is not very perceptible in his pub- 
lished works, but he shows some ability and 
much good feeling. 

Miss Hawkins says (Anecdotes, p. 164) that 
the portrait by Wilkes, supposed to represent 
Foster, was really taken by mistake from a 
Mr. Morris, who was preaching for him. 

[Funeral Sermon by Caleb Fleming, 5 Nov. 
1753 ; Gent. Mag. 1753, p. 569; Murch's Pres- 
byterian Churches of the West of England, 
pp. 158, 159 ; Ivimey's English Baptists, iii. 215, 
399-404 ; Wilson's Dissenting Churches, ii. 270- 
285; Hawkins's Hist, of Music, 1776, v. 321; 
Life by Jared Sparks in Collection of Essays, 
&c., v. 171-85 (followed by selections from wri- 
tings) ; Protestant Dissenters' Mag. iii. 309.] 

JJ. S. 

FOSTER, JOHN (1731-1774), upper 
master of Eton School, born at Windsor, 
Berkshire, in 1731, was the son of a tradesman 
and alderman of that borough. At an early 
age he entered Eton School under the care of 
the Rev. Septimius Plumptre, then one of the 
assistant-masters. From Eton, where he ex- 
hibited remarkable attainments as a classical 
scholar, he proceeded in 1748 to King's Col- 
lege, Cambridge, of which he became a fellow. 
In 1750 he was elected to one of the Craven 
university scholarships. The following year 
he contributed to the Cambridge ' Luctus ' 

on the death of Frederick, prince of Wales, 
an excellent copy of Latin hexameters. Two 
more of his college exercises were printed,as 
' Oratio habita Cantabrigise in Collegio Re- 
gali IV. non. Februarias die fundatoris me- 
moriae sacro. Accedit etiam, ab eodem scrip- 
turn, Carmen Comitiale,' 4to, Cambridge, 

1752. He took the degrees in arts, B.A. in 

1753, M.A. in 1756, and was created D.D. 
per literas regias in 1766. In 1754 he 
gained one of the members' prize disserta- 
tions for middle bachelors. It was entitled 
' Enarratio et Comparatio Doctrinarum mo- 
ralium Epicuri et Stoicorum Dissertatio,' 4to, 
London, 1758. Shortly afterwards he re- 
turned to Eton as an assistant-master, at the 
personal request of Dr. Edward Barnard, 
then the head-master. On Barnard being 
elected provost, 21 Oct. 1765, he made inte- 
rest for Foster to succeed him in the master- 
ship, and carried his point. Foster was not 
successful in his administration of the school, 
' his government was defective, his authority 
insufficient.' In March 1772 he accepted a 
canonry at Windsor (Ls NEVE, Fasti, ed. 
Hardy, iii. 410), and in July of the following 
year resigned the mastership of Eton. In 
the hope of recruiting his health, which had 
been sadly shattered by his efforts to cope 
with the difficulties of his headship, he visited 
the ' German Spa,' but died there in the sum- 
mer of 1774 (Gent. Mag. xliv. 390). His 
remains were afterwards removed to Windsor, 
and deposited near those of his father, in the 
parish churchyard, with a Latin inscription 
written by himself, which is accurately 
printed in Lysons's ' Magna Britannia/ vol. i. 
pt. ii. p. 472 (Berkshire). His will, the codi- 
cil of which is dated 6 June 1774, was proved 
at London on the following 30 Aug. (regis- 
tered in P. C. C. 301, Bargrave). By his 
wife Mary (? Prior), who survived him, he 
left a daughter, Mary. Foster also published 
' An Essay on the different Nature of Accent 
and Quantity, with their use and application 
in the pronunciation of the English, Latin, 
and Greek languages : containing an account 
. . . of the ancient tones, and a defence of 
the present system of Greek accentual 
marks, against the objections of J. Vossius, 
Henninius, Sarpedonius, Dr. G[ally], and 
others. (Marci Musuri Cretensis ad Leo- 
nem X. Carmen . . . Recensuit et Latine 
. . . vertit Johannes Foster.' Gr. and Lat.) 
2 pts. 8vo, Eton, 1762. The second edition 
(8vo, Eton, 1763) contains ' some additions 
from the papers of Dr. Taylor and Mr. Mark- 
land ; with a reply to Dr. G[ally]'s second 
Dissertation in answer to the Essay.' A 
third edition, ' containing Dr. G[allyj's two 
Dissertations against pronouncing the Greek 



language according to accents,' was issued at 
London in 1820. * 

[Harwood's Alumni Eton. pp. 336-7; Gent. 
Mag. vol. liii. pt. ii. pp. 1005-6, vol. liv. pfc. i. 
pp. 180-2, vol. Ix. pt. ii. p. 875 ; Nichols's Lit. 
Anecd. ii., iii. 24-5, i*. 342-3, viii. 424, ix. 639; 
Brit. Mus. Cat.] G. G. 

1828), last speaker of the Irish House of 
Commons, eldest son of Anthony Foster of 
Collon, Louth, lord chief baron of the ex- 
chequer in Ireland, by his first wife, Eliza- 
beth, younger daughter of William Burgh 
of Dublin, was born in September 1740, the 
date of his baptism being 28 Sept., and was 
educated at Trinity College, Dublin. In 1761 
he was returned to the Irish parliament for 
the borough of Dunleer, and in Michaelmas 
term 1766 was called to the Irish bar. In 
1769, being returned for the county of Louth 
as well as for the boroughs of Navan and 
Dunleer, Foster elected to sit for the county, 
which thenceforth he continued to represent 
until his elevation to the peerage in 1821. 
In parliament he devoted his attention more 
particularly to the financial and commercial 
affairs of the country. He became the chair- 
man of the committee of supply and of the 
committee of ways and means, and was ad- 
mitted a member of the Irish privy council. 
In a letter to Lord Sidney, dated 20 Feb. 
1784, Lord Northampton, the retiring lord- 
lieutenant, while recommending Foster for 
the office of chancellor of the exchequer, 
stated that 'Mr. Foster has for several ses- 
sions of parliament conducted the business 
of government in matters of finance with dis- 
tinguished ability ; his knowledge in that 
branch and in commercial subjects is univer- 
sally admitted ; he is a strong friend to his 
majesty's government, and his character is 
highly respectable ' (GRATTAN, Life, iii. 187). 
Shortly afterwards William Gerard Hamilton 
resigned, and Foster was appointed chancellor 
of the exchequer in Ireland on 23 April 1784. 
In this year his memorable corn law, ' grant- 
ing large bounties on the exportation of corn 
and imposing heavy duties on its importa- 
tion,' was passed. ' This law is one of the 
capital facts in Irish history. In a few years 
it changed the face of the land and made 
Ireland to a great extent an arable instead 
of a pasture country' (LECKY, History of 
England, vi. 354). Foster did not, however, 
long retain the office of chancellor of the ex- 
chequer, for on 15 Aug. 1785 he was unani- 
mously elected speaker of the House of Com- 
mons in the place of Edward Sexten Pery 
(Journals of the Irish House of Commons 
vol. xi. pt. i. pp. 478-9), and on 6 Sept. in 

he following year was sworn a member of 
the English privy council. On 2 July 1790 
le was again chosen speaker, though not 
without opposition, William Brabazon Pon- 
sonby being proposed by Conolly, but Foster 
was elected by 145 votes to 105 (ib. xiv. 9). 
On 27 Feb. 1793 Foster, in committee on the 
Roman Catholic Bill, warmly opposed the 
measure, being of opinion that ' the overthrow 
of the protestant establishment, the dethrone- 
ment of the House of Hanover, and a total 
separation from Great Britain ' would be the 
inevitable consequences of passing the bill. 
He was for the third time elected speaker on 
9 Jan. 1798 (ib.vol. xvii. pt. i. p. 191). Hitherto 
Foster had invariably supported the English 
government in their measures, but no sooner 
were the intentions of the ministry known 
on the question of the union than he imme- 
diately put himself at the head of the anti- 
unionists. On 11 April 1799 Foster, during- 
committee on the Regency Bill, delivered a 
very able speech against the union, lasting" 
three hours. He replied to the answers 
which Pitt had made to his own speeches 
on the commercial propositions in 1785, 
and, going minutely into the history of the 
trade and commerce of Ireland, showed the 
rapid progress which the country had made 
since 1782. He maintained the finality of 
the settlement of 1782, and declared that 
though he looked upon Pitt as the greatest 
finance minister that ever lived, ' in this fatal 
project of a union I do not scruple to say 
he is the worst minister Ireland ever met.' 
When Burrowes proposed that the principal 
Roman catholics should meet the leaders of 
the parliamentary opposition in order that 
they might act in concert against the union, 
Foster, unable to sink his religious prejudices, 
refused to join them, and the negotiations- 
had to be broken off. When too late he 
seems to have changed his mind on the point, 
and to have said, in a conversation with 
Plunket, 'if the crisis demanded it, he would 
even go the length of calling in the aid of 
the catholics ' (GRATTAN, v. 69). On 17 Feb. 
1800, while the house was in committee on 
the lord-lieutenant's message respecting the 
union, Foster once more spoke strongly against 
the proposal, and on 19 March following he 
again opposed the bill, declaring that the 
' noble lord's union will not amend anything- 
but will make everything worse.' On 7 June 
he had the mortification of putting the final 
question from the chair on the third reading 
of the bill and of declaring that the ayes had 1 
it. The house met for the last time on 2 Aug. 
1800. Foster refused to surrender the mace, 
declaring that ' until the body that entrusted 
it to his keeping demanded it, he would pre- 




serve it for them.' It is preserved by his 
descendants, together with the speaker's 
chair, at Antrim Castle. Foster was one of 
the few anti-unionists who obtained seats in 
the united parliament. He appears to have 
taken part in the debates of the house for 
the first time on 16 March 1802 (Parl. Hist. 
xxxvi. 362-3). On 7 May following he sup- 
ported Nicholls's motion for an address, thank- 
ing the king for the removal of Pitt, and 
broadly asserted that the union had been car- 
ried by corrupt means (ib. p. 652). Foster, 
however, subsequently became reconciled to 
Pitt, and in July 1804 was appointed chan- 
cellor of the Irish exchequer in the place of 
Isaac Corry. Though not officially appointed, 
Foster had brought in the Irish budget in 
the preceding month, and had acted on se- 
veral other occasions in the house as if he 
had been formally installed in office. A de- 
bate was raised by Francis upon the infor- 
mality of these proceedings (Parl. Debates, 
ii. 1001-10), and Foster, having subsequently 
vacated his seat for the county of Louth on 
his appointment, was duly re-elected in the 
month of August. On 14 May 1805 he made 
a vigorous speech against Fox's motion for a 
committee on the Roman catholic petition 
(ib. iv. 999-1006). In consequence of some 
differences of opinion which had arisen among 
the ministry during this session on his Irish 
financial measures, Foster proffered his resig- 
nation, but Pitt refused to accept it. Upon the 
formation of the ministry of All the Talents 
in 1806, Foster was succeeded by Sir John 
Newport, but on 30 April 1807 he was re- 
appointed to his old office, which he con- 
tinued thenceforth to hold until 1811, when 
he was succeeded by William Wellesley Pole, 
afterwards Lord Maryborough. It is asserted 
by the author of Grattan's ' Life ' (v. 422) 
that in the debate on the Irish Tobacco Du- 
ties Bill in May 1811, Foster, roused by an 
assertion of Bankes that Ireland was becom- 
ing a burden to England, exclaimed with 
great indignation, ' Take back your union ! 
take back your union ! ' The debate is, how- 
ever, differently reported in 'Hansard' (Parl. 
Debates, xx. 311). After his retirement from 
office Foster rarely spoke in the House of 
Commons, and on 17 July 1821 he was created 
a peer of the United Kingdom by the title 
of Baron Oriel of Ferrard in the county of 
Louth. He does not seem to have taken 
any part in the debates in the House of Lords. 
He died at his seat at Collon in the county 
of Louth on 23 Aug. 1828, in his eighty- 
eighth year. 

Foster married, on 14 Dec. 1764, Margaret, 
the eldest daughter of Thomas Burgh of Bert 
in the county of Kildare. She was created 

Baroness Oriel of Collon; county Louth, in 
the peerage of Ireland, on 3 June 1790, and 
Viscountess Ferrard, in the same peerage, 
on 7 Nov. 1797, with remainder to her male- 
issue, and died on 20 Jan. 1824. Their 
younger son, Thomas Henry Foster, who suc- 
ceeded to the two Irish titles on the death of 
his mother and to the English barony of Oriel 
on the death of his father, assumed, by royal 
license, dated 8 Jan. 1817, the surname and 
arms of Skeffington only, having previously 
married Lady Harriet Skeffington, in her own 
right Viscountess Massereene and Baroness- 
Loughneagh. The present Viscount Masse- 
reeue and Ferrard is the great-grandson of the 
last speaker of the Irish House of Commons. 
Though not an eloquent speaker Foster had 
a clear and forcible delivery. His four 
speeches in the Irish House of Commons pre- 
viously referred to were all published, and 
had a wide circulation. ' Memory ' Wood- 
fall described him as ' one of the readiest and 
most clear-headed men of business ' he had 
ever met with (Correspondence of William, 
Lord Auckland, 1861, i. 80), while his unim- 
peachable character and wide financial know- 
ledge were everywhere recognised. Foster 
was admitted a student of the Middle Temple, 
but was never called to the English bar. He 
was elected a bencher of the King's Inns, 
Dublin, on 22 May 1784, and twice served 
as a lord justice in the absence of the lord- 
lieutenant, viz. in 1787 and 1789. A mezzo- 
tint engraving, by C. H. Hodges, of a por- 
trait of Foster, by C. G. Stuart, was pub- 
lished in 1792. 

[Plowden's Historical Eeview of the State of 
Ireland, 1803 ; Plowden's History of Ireland, 
1801-10 (1811); Memoirs of Henry Grattan, 
1839-46, vols. iii. iv. v. ; Lecky's History of 
England, vi. 353-8, 360, 373-4, 444 ; Gent. Mag. 
1828, vol. xcviii. pt. ii. pp. 271-2, 290; Ann. 
Reg. 1828, App. to Chron. pp. 255-7; Biog. 
Diet, of Living Authors, 1816, p. 119; Foster's 
Peerage, 1883, pp. 474-5; Haydn's Book of Dig- 
nities, 1851, pp. 135-6, 444, 451-2; Notes and 
Queries, 6th ser. v. 86, 132, 7th ser. iv. 169, 278, 
356, 455 ; Official Eeturn of Lists of Members of 
Parliament, pt. ii. pp. 214, 228, 240, 256, 271, 
283, 298, 666, 670, 671, 675, 680, 684, 689; 
Brit. Mus. Cat.] G. F. E. B. 

FOSTER, JOHN (1770-1843), essayist, 
eldest son of John Foster, a small farmer and 
weaver, living at Wadsworth Lane in the 
parish of Halifax, Yorkshire, who found time 
for a good deal of theological read ing and took 
a leading part in the baptist congregation in 
his neighbourhood, was born 17 Sept. 1770, 
and at a very early age displayed what he 
afterwards called ' an awkward but entire 
individuality.' At twelve he had the sedate- 



ness of an old man. Nervous, gloomy, and 
sensitive, his intensest pleasures were reading 
and the study of nature. He received but 
little schooling, being set, when a mere child, 
to assist his parents in spinning and weaving 
wool. He had far greater delight in shutting 
himself up alone in the barn with ' Young's 
Night Thoughts.' At seventeen he became a 
member of the baptist congregation at Heb- 
den Bridge, and soon after was 'set apart' as 
minister by a special religious service, and 
went to reside at Brearley Hall with John 
Fawcett, D.D. [q. v.], who at that time di- 
rected the studies of a few baptist students. 
After three years here he entered the Baptist 
College, Bristol, in September 1791, remain- 
ing there till May 1792, and then entering 
on the regular work of a preacher. He first 
took charge of a small baptist society at New- 
castle-on-Tyne for three months in 1792. In 
the beginning of 1793 he went to Dublin to 
minister at a meeting-house in Swift's Alley. 
'The congregation/ he tells us, 'was very 
small when I commenced, and almost nothing 
when I voluntarily closed.' This was the 
usual history, to the end of his life, of all con- 
gregations of which he had the care. After 
living little more than a year in Ireland, he 
went home, but returned to Dublin in 1795 
to take charge of a classical and mathematical 
school, which after eight or nine months he 
gave up as a failure. His intimacy with some 
of the violent Dublin democrats exposed him 
to the imminent danger of imprisonment. 
In February 1796 he returned once more to 
Wadsworth Lane, and remained there until 
early in 1797 he became minister of a general j 
baptist congregation at Chichester. About I 
midsummer 1799 he removed to the house 
of an early friend, the Rev. Joseph Hughes, 
at Battersea, where he spent several months 
in preaching, and teaching twenty black boys 
whom Zachary Macaulay was training for mis- 
sion work. In 1800 he took charge of a small 
congregation at Downend, near Bristol, and 
in February 1804 of one at Sheppard's Bar- 
ton, Frome. During his residence here his 
' Essays ' were published in 1805. They ori- 
ginated in conversations with Miss Maria 
Snooke, whom he had first met at Battersea, 
and who afterwards became his wife, and were 
addressed to her. An introductory letter, 
dated ' Near Bristol, 30 Aug. 1804,' mentions, 
among his reasons for writing them, the relief 
of ' the coldness and languor incident to soli- 
tary speculations,' and the desire to save his 
mind from aimless wandering. The book con- 
tained four essays, viz. 'On a Man's Writing 
Memoirs of Himself,' ' On Decision of Cha- 
racter,' ' On the Application of the Epithet 
Romantic,' and ' On Some of the Causes by 

which Evangelical Religion has been ren- 
dered less acceptable to Persons of Culti- 
vated Taste.' In about four months a second 
edition was called for, and a third was pub- 
lished in 1806. In the summer of that year 
he resigned the charge of the Sheppard's Bar- 
ton congregation, an affection of the thyroid 
gland rendering preaching painful, and gave 
himself up entirely to literature. He now 
became a regular contributor to the ' Eclectic 
Review,' his first article, a review of Carr's 
' Stranger in Ireland,' appearing in November 
1806, and he continued to write for it till 
1839, his last paper being published in July 
of that year. Altogether he contributed to 
it 184 articles, a number of which have been 
republished in his ' Contributions, Biogra- 
phical, Literary, and Philosophical, to the 
" Eclectic Review " ' (2 vols. 8vo, London, 
1844). In May 1808 he married Miss Snooke, 
and went to reside at Bourton, a village in 
Gloucestershire. He has left a vivid descrip- 
tion of ' the long garret ' in his house here, 
' crowded and loaded with papers and books,' 
with a gangway between them in which 
he walked while composing. About a year 
after his marriage his throat so far recovered 
as to allow him to resume occasional preach- 
ing, and towards the end of 1817 he again 
took charge of the congregation at Downend. 
In 1821 he gave it up and went to live at 
Stapleton, Gloucestershire. In 1818, while 
at Downend, he had published his ' Discourse 
on Missions.' In 1822 he began to lecture fort- 
nightly in Broadmead Chapel, Bristol, ' to a 
congregation quite miscellaneous, and, in the 
most perfect sense of the word, voluntary ' 
(letter, 3 July 1822). At the end of two years 
bad health forced him to make the lectures 
monthly, and in 1825, on Robert Hall's com- 
mencing his ministry in Bristol, he felt him- 
self eclipsed, and ceased them altogether. 
Two volumes of these lectures were pub- 
lished. Meanwhile, in 1820, he had published 
his essay ' On the Evils of Popular Igno- 
rance,' the germ of which was a sermon 
preached on behalf of the British and Foreign 
School Society in 1818. It speedily went 
into a second edition, being revised with 
merciless particularity. In 1825 he com- 
pleted his introductory essay to Doddridge's 
' Rise and Progress of Religion' for the series 
of ' Select Christian Authors ' published by 
William Collins of Glasgow. 

His only son died, after a lingering illness, 
in 1826. His wife fell into consumption, 
and after years of declining health died in 
1832. Then he became involved in a contro- 
versy between the Serampore missionaries, 
Carey, Marshman, and Ward, and the com- 
mittee of the Baptist Missionary Society, 




strongly siding with the missionaries. In 
consequence of these distractions he gave 
nothing to the press for about nine years, 
with the exception of ' Introductory Obser- 
vations to Dr. Marshman's Statement' (Lon- 
don, 1828), a ninth edition of the ' Essays,' 
a paper entitled ' Observations on Mr. Hall 
as a Preacher,' prefixed to an edition of Hall's 
' Works ' (London, 1832), two letters on ' The 
Church and the Voluntary Principle,' which 
appeared in the ' Morning Chronicle ' in 
1834, and five letters on ' The Ballot,' which 
were published in the same journal in 1835. A 
number of letters to friends and half a dozen 
more articles for the ' Eclectic ' sum up all 
that he wrote from this time till his death. 
In 1836 his usually fine health began to give 
way. For fifty years he had not lain a day 
in bed. Now his lungs became diseased. On 
24 Sept. 1843 he took to his room, and on 
Sunday morning, 15 Oct., he was found dead 
in bed. He was buried in the burial-ground 
attached to the Downend baptist chapel. 

Foster held not a few peculiar opinions. 
He believed that ' churches are useless and 
mischievous institutions, and the sooner they 
are dissolved the better,' his wish being that 
'religion might be set free as a grand spiritual 
and moral element, no longer clogged, per- 
verted, and prostituted by corporation forms 
and principles' (letter, 10 Sept. 1828). Ordi- 
nation he regarded as a lingering supersti- 
tion. Though a baptist minister, he never 
once administered baptism, and was believed 
to entertain doubts regarding its perpetuity. 
Politically, he was a republican in early life, 
but though he ' never ceased to regard royalty 
and all its gaudy paraphernalia as a sad satire 
on human nature ' (letter, 22 Feb. 1842), 
his attachment to republicanism became less 
ardent in his later years. 

[Foster's Life and Correspondence, edited by 
J. E. Kyland, 1846, London, 2 vols. 8vo.] 

T. H. 

FOSTER, JOHN (1787 P-1846), architect, 
son of a builder and surveyor to the corpora- 
tion of Liverpool, was born at Liverpool about 
1787. He received his early professional 
training in the office of his father, which was 
followed by some years' study in the office of 
the eminent London architect, Wyatt. He 
assisted Charles Robert Cockerel! [q. v.] in 
his investigations into the remains of ancient 
architecture in Greece, and while in that 
country discovered the sculptures of the pedi- 
ment of the temple of Athene at ^Egina. 
In 1814 he returned to Liverpool, and for a 
short time carried on along with his brother 
their father's private practice in that city. 
He was soon, however, called to his father's 

post of architect and surveyor to the corpo- 
ration, which he held until the passing of the 
Municipal Reform Act in 1832, when he re- 
tired into private life, and died on 21 Aug. 
1846. He was the designer of many of the 
handsomest public buildings of his native city, 
particularly the custom house, which has been 
extolled, perhaps extravagantly, by the Ger- 
man traveller Kohl as ' unquestionably one of 
the most magnificent pieces of architecture of 
our age ; ' the school for the blind, the railway 
station in Lime Street, the St. John's market, 
and the churches of St. Michael and St. Luke. 
[Imperial Diet, of Biography.] G. W. B. 

Irish judge, was the eldest son of William 
Foster, bishop of Clogher, who died in 1797, 
by Catherine, daughter of Henry Leslie, 
D.D., and grandson of Anthony Foster, lord 
chief baron of Ireland. He was admitted to 
Trinity College, Dublin, 1 March 1797, and 
graduated B.A. in 1800, LL.B. in 1805, and 
LL.D. in 1810 (Cat. of Graduates in Univ. of 
Dublin, 1591-1868, p. 205). He was called to 
the bar in Ireland in Michaelmas term 1803, 
but was for some time a member of Lincoln's 
Inn. In 1804 he published an 'Essay on 
the Principles of Commercial Exchanges, par- 
ticularly between England and Ireland,' 8vo, 
London. He was afterwards appointed a com- 
missioner for improving the bogs of Ireland. 
In 1806 he unsuccessfully contested Dublin 
University as a tory against the Hon. George 
Knox, LL.D., also a tory, but was returned 
the following year, and retained his seat until 
the general election of 1812. In March 1816 
he again entered parliament as member for 
Yarmouth, Isle of Wight, was chosen advo- 
cate-general in Ireland in June of that year, 
and counsel to the commissioners of revenue 
in Ireland in April 1818. At the general 
election of 1818 he was returned for both 
Armagh and Lisburn, when he elected to 
serve for Armagh, and continued member 
until 1820. He was returned for the county 
of Louth at a by-election on 21 Feb. 1824, 
and again at the general election in 1826 
(Lists of Members of Parliament, Official 
Keturn, pt. ii. 255, 264, 282, 298, 314). His 
two speeches in the House of Commons of 
24 April 1812 and 9 May 1817, on Grattan's 
motion respecting the penal laws against the 
Roman catholics of Ireland, were published 
separately. On 4 Feb. 1819 he was elected 
F.R.S., being then member of the Royal Irish 
Academy and vice-president of the Dublin 
Society for the Improvement of Useful Arts. 
He was also king's counsel, and commissioner 
of the board of education in Ireland, and of 
the Irish fisheries. In 1825 he gave evidence 

Foster 6 

before the select committee of the House of 
Lords appointed to inquire into the state of 
Ireland. He was appointed a baron of the 
court of exchequer in Ireland by patent dated 
13 July 1830 (Gent. Mag. vol. c. pt. ii. p. 76), 
and was transferred to the court of common 
pleas a few months before his death, which 
took place at Cavan 10 July 1842, when on 
circuit (ib. new ser. xviii. 424). He married, 
19 Aug. 1814, Letitia, youngest daughter of 
the Right Hon. James Fitzgerald [q. v.] (ib. 
vol. Ixxxiv. pt. ii. p. 288), and by that lady, 
who survived him, he left issue. 

[Biog. Diet, of Living Authors, 1816, pp. 
119-20; Smith's Parliaments of England, iii. 
186, 187, 211 ; Hansard's Parliamentary Debates, 
xxii. col. 910, xxxvi. col. 304; Smyth's Chronicle 
of Law Officers of Ireland ; Lists of Koyal So- 
ciety.] G. G. 

FOSTER, SIR MICHAEL (1689-1763), 
judge, son of Michael Foster, an attorney, was 
born at Marlborough, Wiltshire, on 16 Dec. 
1689, and, after attending the free school of 
his native town, matriculated at Exeter Col- 
lege, Oxford,7 May 1705. He does not appear 
to have taken any degree. He was admitted a 
student of the Middle Temple on 23 May 1707, 
andwascalledtothebarinMayl713. Meeting 
with little success in London, he retired to 
Marlborough, whence he afterwards removed 
to Bristol, where as a local counsel he gained 
a great reputation. In August 1735 he was 
chosen recorder of Bristol, and in Easter term 
1736 became a serjeant-at-law. He held the 
post of recorder for many years, and upon his 
resignation in 1764 was succeeded by Daines 
Barrington [q. v.] During Foster's tenure of 
office several important cases came before him. 
In the case of Captain Samuel Goodere [q. v.] 
who was tried for the murder of his brother, 
Sir John Dinely Goodere, in 1741 (HowELL, 
State Trials, 1813, xvii. 1003-80), the right 
of the city of Bristol to try capital offences 
committed within its jurisdiction was fully 
established. When Alexander Broadfoot was 
indicted for the murder of Cornelius Calahan, 
a sailor in the king's service, who boarded 
the merchantman to which Broadfoot be- 
longed, and was killed in an attempt to press 
the prisoner for the navy (ib. xviii. 1323-62), 
Foster delivered an elaborate judgment in 
support of the legality of impressment, being 
convinced that ' the right of impressing ma- 
riners for the publick service is a prerogative 
inherent in the crown, grounded upon com- 
mon law,' and recognised by many acts of 
parliament ' (Life, pp. 10-12). He, however, 
directed the jury to find Broadfoot guilty of 
manslaughter only, as Calahan had acted 
without legal warrant. Upon the recom- 

> Foster 

mendation of Lord-chancellor Hardwicke r 
Foster was appointed a puisne judge of the 
king's bench in succession to Sir William 
Chappie. He was knighted on 21 April, and 
took his seat in court for the first time on 
1 May 1745 (1 BARROW'S Reports, 1812, i. 1). 
During the eighteen years he sat in the king's 
bench he maintained a high character for his 
learning as well as for his integrity and in- 
dependence of judgment. Lord-chief-justice 
De Grey, in Brass Crosby's case, declared 
that Foster might 'be truly called the Magna 
Charta of liberty of persons as well as for- 
tunes ' (HowELL, State Trials, xix. 1 152), 
while Sir William Blackstone pronounced 
him to be ' a very great master of the crown 
law ' (Commentaries, 1770, bk. iv. ch. i.) 
Thurlow, in a letter dated 11 April 1758, 
alluded in high terms to Foster's indepen- 
dent conduct in the trial of an indictment for 
a nuisance in obstructing a common footway 
through Richmond Park, of which Princess 
Amelia was then the ranger (Life, pp. 85-8), 
and Churchill in the ' Rosciad' (9th edit. p. 13) 
sums up his character in one word 

Each judge was true and steady to his trust, 
As Mansfield wise, and as old Foster just. 

Foster died on 7 Nov. 1763, in the seventy- 
fourth year of his age, and was buried in the 
parish church of Stanton Drew in Somerset- 
shire, where a monument was erected to his 
memory. In 1725 he married Martha, the 
eldest daughter of James Lyde of Stanton- 
wick, Somersetshire. She died on 15 May 
1758. There were no children of the mar- 
riage. An engraving by James Basire, from 
an original picture of Foster, then in the 
possession of Mrs. Dodson, forms the fronti- 
spiece to his ' Life.' 

He was the author of the following works : 
1. ' A Letter of Advice to Protestant Dis- 
senters,' 1720. 2. ' An Examination of the 
Scheme of Church Power laid down in the 
Codex Juris Ecclesiastic! Anglicani,' &c., 
anon., London, 1735, 8vo ; the second edi- 
tion, corrected, London, 1735, 8vo ; the third 
edition, corrected, London, 1736, 8vo ; the 
fifth edition, corrected, Dublin, 1763, 8vo. A 
reprint of the third edition was published in 
No. vii. of ' Tracts for the People, designed 
to vindicate Religious and Christian Liberty,' 
London, 1840, 8vo. 3. The Case of the King 
against Alexander Broadfoot . . . 30th of 
August, 1743,' Oxford, 1758, 4to. 4. ' A Re- 
port of some Proceedings on the Commission 
of Oyer and Terminer and Gaol Delivery for 
the Trial of the Rebels in the year 1746 in 
the County of Surry, and of other Crown 
Cases. To which are added Discourses upon 
a few Branches of the Crown Law,' Oxford, 




1762, fol. ; a pirated edition, Dublin, 1767, 
8vo ; the second edition, corrected, with ad- 
ditional notes and references by his nephew, 
Michael Dodson, esq., of the Middle Temple, 
London, 1776, 8vo ; the third edition, with 
an appendix, containing new cases, with ad- 
ditional notes and references by his nephew, 
Michael Dodson, esq., barrister-at-law, Lon- 
don, 1792, 8vo. 

[Dodson's Life of Sir Michael Foster, 1811 ; 
Foss's Judges of England, 1864, viii. 285-7; 
Chalmers's Biog. Diet. xiv. 508-10; The Georgian 
Era, 1833, ii. 535; Townsend's Catalogue of 
Knights, 1833, p. 28; Barrett's Bristol, p. 116; 
Watt's Bibl. Brit.; British Museum Cata- 
logue.] G. F. E. B. 

1879), secretary to the Society of Arts, born 
17 Aug. 1809, was the son of Peter le Neve 
Foster of Lenwade, Norfolk. He was edu- 
cated under Dr. Valpy at Norwich grammar 
school, whence he went to Trinity Hall, Cam- 
bridge, graduating in the mathematical tripos 
in 1830. He was elected to a fellowship at 
his college as thirty-eighth wrangler. In 1836 
he was called to the bar, and for fifteen or six- 
teen years he practised as a conveyancer. In 
1853 an association of some years with the 
Society of Arts led to his being appointed 
secretary to the society on the retirement of 
George Grove, and this post he held till his 
death. In association with Sir Henry Cole 
[q. v.], Sir Charles Wentworth Dilke [q. v.], 
and others, he had much to do with the 
organisation of the first Great Exhibition 
of 1851 and its successor in 1862, though 
his share of the work was not recognised 
by any of the honours or rewards which fell 
to the lot of many of his companions. He 
was also connected in various capacities with 
several of the earlier foreign exhibitions. He 
was one of the first to practise, as a scien- 
tific amateur, the art of photography, and 
was one of the founders of the Photographic 
Society. He served for thirteen years as secre- 
tary of the mechanical science section of the 
British Association, and was for a still longer 
time a regular attendant at its meetings. 
He was a constnnt contributor to several of 
the scientific and technical journals. In the 
journal of his own society he wrote a good 
deal, generally anonymously. He read two 
papers before the Society of Arts, one on 
' Aluminium' (in 1859), and the other on the 
' Electric Loom ' (in 1860). As secretary 
to the Society of Arts, he took part in many 
public movements originated by the society, 
but being a man of simple tastes, and singu- 
larly devoid of personal ambition, he was 
never anxious to obtain recognition for his 

labours or to dispute with others the credit 
which was often justly his due. He died at 
Wandsworth, Surrey, 21 Feb. 1879. 

[Personal knowledge ; fuller notices (by the 
present writer) will be found in Journ. Soc. Arts, 
1879, xxvii. 316; and Nature, xix. 385. Also 
see Athenaeum, 1879, i. 282 ; Engineering, xxix. 
178; Engineer, xlvii. 160, &c.] H. T. W. 

FOSTER, SIE ROBERT (1589-1663), 
lord chief justice, youngest son of Sir Thomas 
Foster, a judge of the common pleas in the 
time of James I, was born in 1589, admitted 
a member of the Inner Temple 1604, and 
called to the bar in January 1610. He was 
reader in the autumn of 1631, and with ten 
others received the degree of serjeant on 
30 May 1636. On 27 Jan. 1640 he succeeded 
Sir George Vernon as a justice of the common 
pleas and was knighted. He was an ardent 
royalist, is supposed to have defended ship- 
money and billeting of troops, and joined the 
king at Oxford on his retreat thither, but he 
was one of those judges for whose continu- 
ance in office the House of Commons peti- 
tioned in 1643 (CLARENDON, Rebellion, ed. 
1826, iii. 407). At Oxford he attempted 
without success to hold a court of common 
pleas. On 31 Jan. 1643 he received the degree 
of D.C.L. He was one of the judges who tried 
and condemned Captain Turpin in 1644, and 
although the House of Commons ordered Ser- 
jeant Glanville, his colleague in that case, to 
be impeached for high treason, Foster was 
only removed, and with the four other judges 
of the common pleas disabled from his office 
' as if dead,' for adherence to the king. He 
compounded for his estates by paying a large 
fine. After the king's death he lived in retire- 
ment, and, being a deep black-letter lawyer, 
practised in the Temple as a chamber counsel 
and conveyancer. He had received on 14 Oct. 
1656 a license from the Protector and council 
to come to London on private business and stay 
there, notwithstanding the late proclamation. 
At the Restoration he was at once restored to 
the bench, 31 May 1660, and, having shown 
zeal on the trials of the regicides, was pre- 
sently (21 Oct. 1660) appointed to the chief- 
justiceship of the king's bench, which had 
remained vacant for want of a suitable person 
to fill it. He dealt sternly with political 
prisoners. Many Fifth-monarchy men and 
the quakers, Crook, Grey, Bolton, and Tonge, 
accused of a plot against the king's life, were 
tried by him, and in the case of Sir Harry 
Vane he not only browbeat the prisoner on 
the trial, but induced the king to sanction the 
execution against his inclination and word 
and the petition of both houses of parliament. 
On 1 July 1663 he tried Sir Charles Sedley 



for indecent behaviour, and 'rebuked him 
severely.' He died on circuit, 4 Oct. 1663, 
and was buried under a tomb bearing a bust 
of him in robes, at Egham, Surrey. He left 
a son Thomas, afterwards a knight, to whom 
his house, Great Foster House, Egham, 

[Foss's Judges of England ; Campbell's Chief | 
Justices of England; Wood's Athenae, ii. 44; 
Kymer, xx. 20, 380; Whiteloeke's Memorials, 
pp. 96, 181 ; Pepys's Diary; 1 Siderfin's Reports, 
p. 153; State Trials, ii. 119-274; Wotton's 
Baronetage, ii. 310; Green's Domestic Calendar, 
1649-63; Echard, p. 812 a; Peck's Desiderata 
Curiosa, ii. 543 ; Manning and Bray's Surrey, 
p. 245.] J. A. H. 

FOSTER, SAMUEL (d. 1652), mathe- 
matician, a native of Northamptonshire, was 
admitted a sizar at Emmanuel College, Cam- 
bridge, 23 April 1616, as a member of which 
he proceeded B.A. in 1619, and M.A. in 1623. 
Upon the death of Henry Gellibrand, pro- 
fessor of astronomy at Gresham College, he 
was elected to the post 2 March 1636, but 
resigned on the following 25 Nov., being suc- 
ceeded by Mungo Murray. In 1641, Murray 
having vacated the professorship by his 
marriage, Foster was re-elected on 26 May. 
During the civil war and Commonwealth 
he was one of the society of gentlemen 
who met in London for cultivating the 
'new philosophy,' from which eventually 
arose the Royal Society. In 1646 Wallis 
received from Foster a theorem ' De trian- 
gulo sphserico,' which he afterwards pub- 
lished in his ' Mechanica,' fol. edit. cap. v. 
prop. 24, p. 869. Foster died at Gresham 
College in May (not in July, as Ward has it) 
1652, and was buried in the church of St. 
Peter the Poor in Broad Street. From his 
will (P. C. C. Ill, Bowyer), dated 7, and 
proved 18, May 1652, he seems to have been 
a zealous nonconformist. Dr. John Twysden 
gives him the character of ' a learned, indus- 
trious, and most skilful mathematician ' (Pre- 
face to FOSTER'S Miscellanies), ' the truth of 
which,' adds John Ward, ' he has abundantly 
shewn by bis works. Nor did he only excell 
in his own faculty, but was likewise well 
versed in the antient languages ; as appears 
by his revising and correcting the " Lem- 
mata " of Archimedes, which had been trans- 
lated into Latin from an Arabic manuscript, 
but not published, by Mr. John Greaves' 
(SMITH, Vita J. Gravii, p. 28). He made 
several curious observations of eclipses, both 
of the sun and moon, as well at Gresham Col- 
lege as in other distant places (Miscellanies}. 
And he was particularly famous for inventing 
and improving many planetary instruments 
(SHERBURN, Appendix to Manilius, p. 97). 

He published little himself, but many trea- 
tises written by him were printed after his 
death (WARD, "Lives of Gresham Professors, 

1. 86), though John Twysden and Edmund 
Wingate, his editors, state his long infirmities 
caused them to be left very imperfect (Pre- 
face to FOSTER'S Four Treatises of Dialling}, 
and Twysden complains that some people had 
taken advantage of his liberality by publish- 
ing his works as their own (Preface to FOS- 
TER'S Miscellanies). In the following list of 
his works the first two only were published 
by himself: 1. 'The Use of the Quadrant/ 
4to, London, 1624. An octavo edition was 
published soon after the author's death in 
1652 by A. Thompson, who says in his pre- 
face that the additional lines were invented, 
and the uses written, for an ' appendix ' to 
Gunter's ' Quadrant ; ' only some few copies 
were printed alone for the satisfaction of 
Foster's friends. Other editions appear among 
Gunter's ' Works,' 4to, 1653, 1662, and 1673. 

2. ' The Art of Dialling ; by a new, easie, 
and most speedy way,' 4to, London, 1638. 
An edition published in 1675, 4to, has several 
additions and variations taken from the au- 
thor's own manuscript ; as also a ' Supple- 
ment ' by the editor, William Leybourn. John 
Collins also published in 1659 ' Geometrical! 
Dyalling, being a full explication of divers 
difficulties in the works of learned Mr. Samuel 
Foster,' 4to. 3. ' Posthuma Forsteri, the de- 
scription of a ruler, upon which is inscribed 
divers scales and the uses thereof. Invented 
and written by Mr. Samuel Forster ' [edited 
by Edmund Wingate], 4to, London, 1652. 
4. ' Ellipticalor AzimuthalHorologiography, 
comprehending severall wayes of describing 
dials upon all kindes of superficies, either 
plain or curved ; and unto upright stiles in 
whatsoever position they shall be placed. 
Invented and demonstrated by Samuel Fos- 
ter ' [edited by John Twysden and Edmund 
Wingate], 4 pts. 4to, London, 1654. 5. ' Mis- 
cellanea: siue lucubrationes mathematics. 
Miscellanies : or Mathematical lucubrations 
of Mr. Samuel Foster, published, and many 
of them translated into English, by ... John 
Twysden. . . . Whereunto he hath annexed 
some things of his own. (Epitome Aris- 
tarchi Samii de magnitudinibus et distantiis 
. . . solis, lunae, et terrae. Lemmata Archi- 
medis ... e ... codice MS. Arabico a Jo- 
hanne Gravio traducta. A short treatise of 
fortifications, by J. T. [i.e. J. Twysden?]. 
Extract of a letter [on dialling] by Im. Hal- 
ton. ^Equations arising from a quantity 
divided into two unequal parts : and the se- 
cond book of Euclides Elements, demon- 
strated by species by John Leeke).' Latin and 
English, 19 pts. fol. London, 1659. 6. ' The 

Foster < 

Sector altered, and other scales added, with 
the description and use thereof,' an improve- 
ment of Gunter's sector, and printed in the 
fourth and fifth editions of his ' AVorks,' 4to, 
1662 and 1673, by AVilliam Leybourn, who 
in the latter edition corrected some mistakes 
which had appeared in the former from Fos- 
ter's own manuscript. 7. ' The Description 
and Use of the Nocturnal ; with the Addition 
of a Ruler, shewing the Measures of Inches 
and other Parts of most Countries, compared 
with our English ones,'4to [London? 1685?]. 
Foster left numerous manuscript treatises in 
addition to those printed by his friends. Of 
these two were in the possession of William 
Jones, F.R.S., in the middle of the last cen- 
tury : 1. ' The Uses of a General Quadrant,' 
fol. 2. ' Select Uses of the Quadrant,' 8vo, 
dated 1649. 

[Ward's Lives of the Gresham Professors, with 
manuscript notes by the author, in Brit. Mus. 
i. 85-7 ; Brit. Mus. Cat., under ' Forster ' and 
' Foster; ' Wood's Athense Oxon. (Bliss), ii. 405- 
406, iii. 327.] G. G. 

' FOSTER, THOMAS (1798-1826), pain- 
ter, a native of Ireland, came to England at 
the age of fifteen or sixteen, and in 1818 
became a student of the Royal Academy at 
Somerset House. He was patronised by the 
Right Hon. John Wilson Croker [q. v.], and 
painted numerous portraits of his family. In 
1819 he exhibited at the Royal Academy 
' Portraits of Miss and Master Croker and a 
favourite dog.' In 1820 he exhibited a por- 
trait of the French general Dumouriez in his 
eighty-second year. Foster was a frequent 
visitor at the studio of J. Nollekens, R.A. 
[q. v.], the sculptor, where he used to model 
from antique heads, and was also on intimate 
terms with Sir Thomas Lawrence, several 
of whose portraits he copied for Croker. 
He painted portraits of H. R. Bishop [q. v.], 
the musician, which was engraved, and of 
Colonel Phillips (who was with Captain Cook 
at the time of his death), and showed rapid 
advancement in the art. In 1822 he exhibited 
' Mazeppa,' a picture which showed consider- 
able genius ; in 1823, ' Domestic Quarrels ;' and 
in 1825 'Paul and Virginia previous to their 
separation,' all of which, besides portraits, he 
exhibited at the Royal Academy. Foster 
was considered by his friends to be a rising 
painter; he was good-looking, well connected, 
and popular in society, which occupied a 
good deal of his time. Croker gave him a 
commission to paint the scene at Carlton 
House when Louis XVIII received the order 
of the Garter, and for this ambitious subject 
he made numerous studies. In March 1826 
he died by his own hand at an hotel in Pic- 

3 Foster 

cadilly, leaving a letter stating that his friends 
had deserted him, and that he was tired of 
life. It is uncertain whether this act was 
prompted by the want of interest he felt in 
the subject of his picture, or by a hopeless at- 
tachment to a young lady whose portrait he 
was painting. He was in his twenty-ninth 
year. Foster painted numerous portraits of 
himself, and sat to Northcote for one of the 
murderers in his ' Burial of the Princes in 
the Tower.' According to Northcote, Foster 
was good-looking, good-natured, and a wit, 
all qualities which would have prevented him 
from becoming a great artist. 

[Kedgrave's Diet, of Artists ; Arnold's Library 
of the Fine Arts, ii. 207; Hazlitt's Conversations 
of James Northcote ; Koyal Academy Catalogues.! 

L. C. 

1882), legal writer, son of John Foster of 
Leeds, born in 1813, was called to the bar at 
the Middle Temple in 1846, and went the 
northern and afterwards the north-eastern 
circuit. He stood as a liberal-conservative for 
Sheffield in 1867, but was unsuccessful. In 
1868 he was appointed revising barrister for 
the West Riding boroughs. He resigned this 
appointment in 1875,upon being made queen's 
counsel and bencher of his inn. He was made 
recorder of Warwick in 1874. He was lead- 
ing counsel for the crown at the trial of the 
murderer Charles Peace at Leeds. Foster was 
in bad health for a considerable time before 
his death, which took place at Orsett Ter- 
race, Hyde Park, 1 July 1882. Foster wrote : 
1. ' Plain Instructions for the Attainment of 
an Improved, Complete, and Practical Sys- 
tem of Shorthand,' 1838. 2. 'Letters on the 
Condition of the People of Ireland. Re- 
printed, with additions, from the " Times," ' 
1846. 3. 'A Review of the Law relating to 
Marriages within the Prohibited Degrees of 
Affinity, and of the Canons and Social Con- 
siderations by which that Law is supposed 
to be Justified,' 1847. 4. 'A Treatise on the 
Writ of Scire Facias,' 1851. 5. ' Reports 
of Cases decided at Nisi Prius and at the 
Crown Side on Circuit, and Select Decisions 
at Chambers ' (with N. F. Finlason), 1858- 

[Times, 3 July 1882, p. 6; Brit. Mus. Cat.] 

F. W-T. 

FOSTER, AV ALTER (fi. 1652), mathe- 
matician, elder brother of Samuel Foster 
[q. v.], was educated at Emmanuel College, 
Cambridge, of which he became a fellow. 
He took the two degrees in arts, B.A. in 
1617, M.A. in 1621, and commenced B.D. 
in 1628. Dr. Samuel Ward, in a letter 


6 4 


to Archbishop Ussher, dated from Sidney 
Sussex College, Cambridge, 25 May 1630, 
says that Foster had taken some pains upon 
the Latin copy of Ignatius's ' Epistles ' in 
Caius College Library, and adds that as he 
was < shortly to depart from the coUedg by 
his time there allotted, finding in himself 
some impediment in his utterance, he could 
wish to be employed by your lordship in such 
like business. He is a good scholar, and an 
honest man ' (UssHER, Letters, p. 437). De- 
spite the impediment in his speech he was 
afterwards rector of Allerton in Somerset- 
shire. Twysden commends him for his skill 
in mathematics, and says that he communi- 
cated to him his brother's papers, which are 
published in his ' Miscellanies ' (Preface to 
the same). There is a tetrastich of his writ- 
ing among the ' Epigrammata in Radulphi 
Wintertoni Metaphrasin ' published at the 
end of ' Hippocratis Aphorismi soluti et me- 
trici,' 8vo, Cambridge, 1633. In 1652 he 
was living at Sherborne, Dorsetshire, and in 
the May of that year his brother bequeathed 
him 'fourescore pounds and his library in 
Gresham Colledge.' 

[Ward's Lives of the Gresham Professors, i. 
87-8.] G - G - 

FOSTER, WILLIAM (1591-1643), di- 
vine, son of William Foster of London, bar- 
ber-surgeon, was born in November 1591 
(School Register). He entered Merchant 
Taylors' School in July 1607 ($.), and two 
years later (8 Dec. 1609) was admitted of 
St. John's College, Oxford, whence he gra- 
duated. Having taken holy orders he be- i 
came chaplain (1628) to the Earl of Carnar- j 
von, and soon afterwards rector of Hedgerley, ' 
Buckinghamshire. In 1629 he published a 
little treatise against the use of weapon-salve. ! 
The book is entitled ' Hoplo-Crisma Spongus, ' 
or a Sponge to wipe away the Weapon-Salve, 
wherein is proved that the Cure taken up 
among us by applying the Salve to the Weapon 
is magical and unlawful,' 4to, 1629 and 1641. 
It attracted some attention through the 
answer made to it on behalf of the Rosicru- 
cians by Dr. Robert Fludd [q. v.] in 1631. 
Francis Osborne also attacked it in an essay 
' On such as condemn all they understand not 
a reason for' (1659). Wood says that Foster 
was helped in his work (which displays con- 
siderable learning) by Dr. John Roberts, a 
Jesuit, who, ' because some Protestants prac- 
tised this and characterical cures (which, 
notwithstanding, are more frequent among 
Roman Catholics), he therefore called them 
llagi, Calvinists, Characterists, &c.' Sir 
Kenelm Digby [q. v.] claimed to be the first 
to introduce the ' weapon-salve ' into England. 

Foster was killed in 1643 (LiPSCOMB), but 
under what circumstances we know not. 

[Robinson's Reg. of Merchant Taylors' School ; 
Wood's Athense Oxon. (Bliss), ii. 573 ; Lipscomb's 
Buckinghamshire, iv. 508.] C. J. R. 

FOTHERBY, MARTIN (1549 P-1619), 
bishop of Salisbury, son of Maurice Fotherby, 
a resident at Grimsby, Lincolnshire, was born 
about 1549. He entered at Cambridge, and 
eventually became a fellow of Trinity. He 
became prebendary and archdeacon of Can- 
terbury in 1596, and in 1615 was presented 
to the deanery. He had married some years 
before his first promotion; for on 9 Sept. 1609 
Lady Cooke wrote to Lord Salisbury asking 
him to promote the marriage of her eldest 
daughter with the archdeacon's eldest son, to 
which Fotherby objected, and in the follow- 
ing year, after the marriage had taken place, 
begged for a knighthood at the creation of the 
Prince of Wales for her son-in-law, because 
her daughter's worth and birth had been 
much disgraced by the match. Three years 
afterwards, being chaplain to James I, he 
was appointed to the bishopric of Salisbury. 
He was consecrated by Abbot, assisted by the 
bishops of London, Coventry, and Lincoln, 
19 April 1618, and protested at his consecra- 
tion that he had given nothing for his pro- 
motion. He died 29 March 1619, aged 70, and 
was buried in Allhallows Church, Lombard 
Street. In the epitaph on his tomb he is de- 
scribed in very high-flown terms of praise. He 
left an imperfect work against atheism, which 
was published after his death in 1622 in folio, 
under the title ' Atheomastix : clearing foure 
Truthes against Atheists and Infidels. Four 
sermons were published together in 1608 in 
quarto, having been written in 1604. Copies 
of both these works are in the British Museum. 

[Wood's Athense (Bliss), ii. 859 ; Godwin, De 
Prsesulibus ; Le Neve's Fasti ; Stubbs's Re- 
gistrum ; Domestic State Papers.] N. P. 

1761), theological writer, was the youngest 
son of Thomas Fothergill of Brownber, Ra ven- 
stonedale, Westmoreland. Like his fore- 
fathers and descendants for many generations 
he owned Brownber, and lived and died there. 
Though he is said to have had no 'liberal 
education,' he published several theological 
works, the largest of which is entitled 
' Wicked Christians Practical Atheists ; or 
Free Thoughts of a Plain Man on the Doc- 
trines and Duties of Religion in general, and 
of Christianity in particular ; compared and 
contrasted with the Faith and Practice of 
Protestants of every Denomination so far as 
either have come under the observation or 



to the knowledge of the Author: By Anthony 
Fothergill, a husbandman in the county of 
Westmoreland/ 8vo, 1754. The description 
' husbandman ' is no doubt an attempt at a 
translation of the Lake country 'statesman.' 
This work was followed by two pamphlets : 
' A Modest Inquiry how far the Thirty-nine 
Articles of the Church of England and the 
Creed ascribed to St. Athanasius are con- 
sistent with and supported by one another ; 
and how far they are also consistent with 
the Declarations of Jesus Christ and the 
Doctrines of His Apostles,' 1755 ; and ' The 
Fall of Man: an Enquiry into the Nature of 
that Event and how far the Posterity of Adam 
are involved in the guilt of his Transgression, 
addressed to all, but particularly preachers 
who embrace the doctrine of original sin,' 
1756. It is stated that he also wrote some 
things in verse, and contributed to the 
' Monthly Review.' He seems to have acted 
as the parish lawyer. The parishioners put 
up in Ravenstonedale church a brass plate to 
his memory, bearing an inscription, which 
concludes : ' his integrity of heart, social dis- 
position, and uncommon abilities gained him 
general esteem. He departed this (his che- 
quered) life, June 13, 1761, aged 75.' 

[Newspaper cutting signed ' J. W. F.' in the 
possession of Miss Carter Squire ; Gent. Mag. vol. ii. p. 1186 ; Nicolson and Burn's Hist, and 
Antiq. of Cumberland and Westmoreland, i. 518, 
528; Monthly Review, xiii. 57 (July 1755), xiv. 8 
(January 1756), xv. 677, 678 (App. to 1756) ; 
Brit. Mus. Cat, of Printed Books.] E. C-N. 


1813), physician, was born in 1732, or, ac- 
cording to other accounts, 1735, at Sedbergh, 
Yorkshire. He studied medicine at the uni- 
versity of Edinburgh, where he graduated 
M.D. October 1763 with a dissertation ' De 
Febre Intermittent e,' and afterwards con- 
tinued his studies at Leyden and Paris. By 
the advice of the eminent Dr. John Fother- 
gill [q.v.] (who was an intimate friend, but not 
a relative of Anthony), he settled as a physi- 
cian at Northampton, where, after some pre- 
liminary difficulties, he was successful in 
practice, and was in 1774 appointed physician 
to the Northampton Infirmary. He was ad- 
mitted licentiate of the College of Physicians 
30 Sept. 1779, and F.R.S. in 1778. On the 
death of John Fothergill, in 1780, Anthony 
removed to London, and established himself 
in the house in Harpur Street, Red Lion 
Square, formerly occupied by his namesake, 
in the hope of succeeding to his profes- 
sional business. But in this he was disap- 
pointed, and not prospering in London he 
removed in 1784 to Bath, where he acquired 


a large and lucrative practice. In 1803 he 
retired from active life, and went to Phila- 
delphia, where he lived for some years, and 
where he apparently intended to pass the rest 
of his days, but was recalled to England by 
the prospect of war in 1812, and died in 
London 11 May 1813. By his will he left a 
considerable part of his large fortune to 
charitable institutions in London, Bath, and 
Philadelphia, and appropriated 1,000^. to 
publishing his works. The editing and selec- 
t ion he desired to be undertaken by his friend 
Dr. Lettsom, to whom he bequeathed other 
legacies. But Dr. Lettsom died two years 
afterwards, having, it is said, through legal 
delays, not benefited by the legacies left to 
him. In consequence, no selection from the 
manuscripts, which were contained in twelve 
thick folio volumes, was ever made for publi- 

Fothergill seems to have been a skilful 
doctor, who succeeded in obtaining the con- 
fidence of the public. He was also possessed 
of scientific attainments, especially in che- 
mistry, which he made use of in analysing 
mineral waters. But he was best known for 
his researches and publications on the methods 
of restoring persons apparently dead from 
drowning or similar casualties. For his essay 
on this subject he received, in 1794, a gold 
medal from the Royal Humane Society, an 
institution which he actively supported. His 
other medical books have mostly some refer- 
ence to health or diet, and he published a num- 
ber of memoirs in medical transactions, chiefly 
records of remarkable cases. Though all were 
sound and creditable, none of his publications 
can be said to rise above mediocrity. He 
was highly respected for his integrity and his 
philanthropic efforts. He wrote (all in 8vo) : 
1. ' Hints for Restoring Animation, and for 
Preserving Mankind against Noxious Va- 
pours,' Lond. 1783 (MtJNK), 3rd edit. 2. 'Ex- 
perimental Enquiry into Nature of the Chel- 
tenham Water,' Bath, 1785, 1788, &c. 
3. ' Cautions to the Heads of Families con- 
cerning the Poison of Lead and Copper,' 
Lond. and Bath, 1790. 4. ' A New Enquiry 
into the Suspension of Vital Action in Cases 
of Drowning and Suffocation,' Lond. 1795, 
Bath, 1795, &c. (prize essay). 5. ' Essay 
on the Abuse of Spirituous Liquors,' Bath, 
1796. 6. ' A Preservative Plan, or Hints for 
Preservation of Persons Exposed to Acci- 
dents which Suspend Vital Action,' Lond. 
1798. 7. ' On the Nature of the Disease 
produced by Bite of a Mad Dog,' Bath, 1799. 
8. ' On Preservation of Shipwrecked Mari- 
ners,' in answer to prize questions of Royal 
Humane Society, Lond. 1799. Some of 
these books are virtually repetitions of earlier 




ones ; 4 and 6 were translated into German. 
In 'Philosophical Transactions' he wrote 
' On a Cure of St. Vitus's Dance by Electri- 
city ' (vol. Ixix.), and one other paper. He 
contributed seven papers to ' Memoirs of Me- 
dical Society of London,' of which may be 
mentioned ' On the Epidemic Catarrh, or In- 
fluenza, at Northampton in 1775 ' (vol. iii.) ; 
' On Arteriotomy in Epilepsy ' (vol. v.), &c. 
Also memoirs in ' Medical Observations and 
Enquiries ' (vol. iii. 1767), and in ' Medical 
Commentaries' (vol. ii.) In 'Gentleman's 
Magazine ' (vol. Ixxxi. pt. i. p. 367) he pub- 
lished a poem on the ' Triumvirate of Worthies, 
Howard, Hawes, and Berchtold.' 

[Nichols's Lit. Anecd. ix. 213, from materials 
furnished by Dr. J. C. Lettsom (the original 
authority) ; Munk's Coll. of Phys. 1878, ii. 322 ; 
"Watt's Bibl. Brit.; Brit. Mus. Cat.; Georgian 
Era, ii. App.] J. F. P. 

1760), principal of St. Edmund Hall, Ox- 
ford, eldest son of Henry Fothergill of Lock- 
holme in Ravenstonedale, Westmoreland, 
and Elizabeth, daughter of Richard Fawcett 
of Rottenmoor, Warcop, was born at Lock- 
holme on 20 Dec. 1705. After attending the 
free school in Ravenstonedale, which had 
been founded in 1668 by Thomas Fothergill, 
master of St. John's College, Cambridge, he 
was sent to Kendal school. On 16 June 
1722 he entered Queen's College as batteler. 
He took the degree of B.A. in 1726, M.A. in 
1730, B.D. in 1744, and D.D. in 1749. He 
became chaplain of Queen's in 1730, and was 
elected to the fellowship which should next 
fall vacant in 1734. In 1751 the fellows of 
Queen's appointed him principal of St. Ed- 
mund Hall and vicar of Bramley. When Dr. 
Joseph Smith, provost of Queen's, died on 
23 Nov. 1756, the fourteen votes of the fel- 
lows were equally divided between Fother- 
gill and Dr. Joseph Browne. As the votes 
remained equal for ten days, it was put to 
the question whether either candidate had 
a majority of seniors on his side, and as the 
number of seniors had apparently never been 
authoritatively determined, ' the electors 
unanimously agreed upon six as the properest 
number of seniors, and it appearing that this 
number was equally divided between the two 
candidates, and Dr. Browne being the senior 
candidate, he was (as the statute directs) 
declared duly elected provost, to which the 
electors unanimously agreed.' Fothergill died 
5 Oct. 1760, and was buried in St. Edmund 

_ He published at Oxford during his life- 
time the following sermons, some of which 
reached second and third editions : 1. ' Im- 

portance of Religion to Civil Societies' 
(preached at the assizes), 1735. 2. ' Danger 
of Excesses in the Pursuit of Liberty' (before 
the university, 31 Jan.), 1737. 3. ' Unsuc- 
cessfulness of Repeated Fasts ' (before the 
university), 1745. 4. ' Duty of giving thanks 
for National Deliverances,' 1747. 5. ' Rea- 
sons and Necessity of Public Worship ' (at the 
assizes), 1753. 6. ' Proper Improvement of 
Divine Judgments ' (after the Lisbon earth- 
quake), 1756. 7. ' Condition of Man's Life 
a constant Call to Industry ' (before the uni- 
versity), 1757. 8. ' Violence of Man sub- 
servient to the Goodness of God' (before the 
university on occasion of the war against 
France), 1758. 9. ' Duty, Objects, and Offices 
of the Love of our Country' (before the House 
of Commons on Restoration-day), 1758. 
After his death his brother, Thomas Fother- 
gill, provost of Queen's from 1767 to 1796, 
published a volume entitled ' Sermons on 
several Subjects and Occasions by George 
Fothergill, D.D.,' Oxford, 1761. In 1765 this 
volume reappeared, with the same title, as 
' vol. ii. 2nd ed.,' the nine sermons mentioned 
above being collected together and printed 
as vol. i. 

[A New and Gen. Biog. Diet. 1784 ; Queen's 
College MS. Entrance Book and Registers ; manu- 
scripts in the possession of Miss Carter Squire ; 
Oxford Cat. of Grad. ; Oxford Honours Register ; 
Bodleian Library Cat. of Printed Books.] 


1780), physician, born on 8 March 1712 at 
Carr End, Wensleydale, Yorkshire, was the 
second son of John Fothergill, a quaker. His 
school education was chiefly at the Sedbergh 
grammar school, and in his sixteenth year he 
was apprenticed to Benjamin Bartlett, an 
apothecary at Bradford, Yorkshire. Subse- 
quently he became a medical student in the 
university of Edinburgh, where his abilities 
attracted the special notice of Alexander 
Monro, primus, the eminent professor of ana- 
tomy, who afterwards employed Fothergill in 
revising his work on osteology. After gra- 
duating on 14 Aug. 1736, with a dissertation 
'De Emeticorum usu,' he came to London, 
and attended for two years the medical prac- 
tice of St. Thomas's Hospital under Sir Ed- 
ward Willmott. After a short tour on the 
continent he commenced practice as a phy- 
sician in the city of London in 1740, and was 
admitted licentiate of the College of Phy- 
sicians on 1 Oct. 1744, being the first gra- 
duate of Edinburgh thus admitted. He was 
elected fellow of the college in Edinburgh on 
6 Aug. 1754, in 1763 F.R.S., and in 1776 
fellow of the Royal Society of Medicine at 


Fothergill's success in his profession was 
rapid and assured, especially after the pub- 
lication of his ' Account of the Sore Throat/ 
-which greatly advanced his reputation, and 
before many years he had one of the largest 
and most lucrative practices in the city. But 
outside professional pursuits he took a keen 
and persistent interest in science and philan- 
thropy, and holding no public appointments 
was able to give to these objects all his spare 
time. His chief scientific interest was in 
botany, especially in the collection and cul- 
tivation of rare plants. For this purpose he 
acquired an estate at Upton, near Stratford, 
where he laid out and kept up a magnificent 
botanical garden. In the words of an un- 
questionable authority, Sir Joseph Banks, ' at 
an expense seldom undertaken by an indi- 
vidual, Dr. Fothergill procured from all parts 
of the world a great number of the rarest 
plants, and protected them in the amplest 
buildings which this or any other country has 
seen.' He liberally paid those who brought 
plants which might be ornamental or useful to 
this country or her colonies. In richness his 
collection was, in Banks's opinion, equalled 
only by that in the royal gardens at Kew, 
while no other garden in Europe, even royal, 
had nearly so many scarce and valuable plants. 
To preserve a permanent record of these ra- 
rities, Fothergill kept several artists at work 
making figures of the new species. A list of 
the plants growing under glass was afterwards 
published by Dr. Lettsom, with the title ' Hor- 
tus Uptonensis ' ( Works, vol. iii.) But Fother- 
gill's zeal was not merely the acquisitiveness 
of the collector. He was among the first to 
see the advantage of exchanging the vegetable 
products of different countries, and spent much 
energy and moneyin attempting to naturalise 
such plants as coffee, tea, and bamboo in Ame- 
rica. His collections of shells and insects 
were also large and valuable ; they mostly 
passed into the museum of Dr. William Hun- 
ter. A series of twelve hundred natural history 
drawings, done by the best artists, was bought 
after his death for a large sum by the empress 
of Russia. 

Fothergill's philanthropic efforts were partly 
connected with the public benevolence of the 
Society of Friends. He took an active part 
in the foundation of the school for quaker 
children at Ackworth, to which he liberally 
contributed ; he was interested in the funds 
raised for the relief of Spanish prisoners, and 
in numerous plans for improving the health, 
cleanliness, and prosperity of the working 
classes. But his private benevolence was also 
unceasing, and in some instances, such as that 
of Dr.Knight, librarian to the British Museum, 
whom he cleared from some embarrassments 

' Fothergill 

by a present of a thousand guineas, it was 
munificent. He assisted the production of 
important scientific works, such as those of 
Drury and Edwards, and he incurred the 
whole expense of printing a new translation 
of the Bible by Anthony Purver, a quaker. 
Fothergill took no part in current politics ; 
but when troubles began to arise between 
England and the North American colonies, 
he made patriotic efforts to produce a better 
state of feeling. Having family connections 
with America and numerous correspondents 
there, he was better able than most persons 
to foresee the disastrous consequences of a 
mistaken policy, and in 1765 he wrote a pam- 
phlet entitled ' Considerations relative to the 
North American Colonies,' in which he ad- 
vocated the repeal of the Stamp Act. Even 
as late as 1774 he co-operated with Benjamin 
Franklin in drawing up a scheme of recon- 
ciliation, designed to be submitted to impor- 
tant persons on both sides, but perhaps never 
seriously considered by those in power. 

The only weakness which was recognised 
in Fothergill's character, a certain obstinacy, 
may be credited with having led to his pain- 
ful quarrel with Dr. Leeds. Fothergill was 
thought to have spoken ill of Leeds, who was 
also a quaker, and the matter being referred 
to arbitration, heavy damages were awarded 
to the latter. Fothergill refused to pay, and 
appealed to the court of king's bench. The 
court supported him, and the decision of a 
meeting of the Society of Friends was given 
in his favour (An Appeal to the People called 
Quakers on the Difference between S. Fother- 
gill and S. Leeds, London, 1773). Fothergill's 
abstemious and regular habits assured him 
many years of good health. But in 1778 he 
began to suffer from a urinary disorder, which 
terminated his life on 26 Dec. 1780, and he 
was buried in the Friends' cemetery at Winch- 
more Hill 5 Dec. 1781. He was not married. 
His portrait by Hogarth is at the College of 
Physicians, and a head byR. Livesey, engraved 
by Bartolozzi, appears in the ' Works.' A bust 
and a medallion modelled by Flaxman were 
reproduced in Wedgwood ware. A life-sized 
bust was also taken of him in earlier life. 

Fothergill's writings consisted chiefly of 
memoirs in the transactions of societies and 
a few separate tracts. They were all col- 
lected and reprinted in his ' Works,' edited 
by J. C. Lettsom, three vols. 4to and 8vo, 
1783-4 ; also translated into German (Alten- 
burg, 1785, two vols.) The most important 
is the ' Account of the Sore Throat attended 
with Ulcers ' (first edit. 1748, sixth edit. 1777), 
which was translated into several European 
languages. It describes an epidemic of 
malignant sore throat or diphtheria which 




occurred in London, 1747-8, and gives an his- 
torical account of the same disease in other 
countries. It was the first clear recognition 
of the disease in this country, and is a model 
of clinical description, though the writer did 
not, and perhaps could not, distinguish the 
disease from malignant cases of scarlatina. 
By advocating a supporting instead of a de- 
pletory treatment, he achieved great success 
and increase of reputation. The ' Philoso- 
phical Transactions' contain six papers by 
Fothergill, of which one in 1744. ' On the 
Origin of Amber,' was the first. He also con- 
tributed to the ' Medical Observations and In- 
quiries by a Society of Physicians in London' 
twenty-two papers,and four more were printed 
after his death. The most notable is that 
' Of a Painful Affection of the Face,' 1773, in 
which he describes the affection now known 
as facial neuralgia, or ' tic-douloureux.' The 
paper 'On the Sick Headache' (vol. vi.) 
should also be mentioned, and that in the 
same volume ' On the Epidemic Disease of 
1775' (influenza), which is enriched by the 
reports of numerous correspondents. Fother- 
gill also wrote ' Essays on the Weather and 
Diseases of London ' in the ' Gentleman's 
Magazine,' 1751-4. In observations of this 
kind he was following the precedent of Sy den- 
ham, to whom, for his powers of observation 
and practical sagacity, Fothergill may well be 
compared. A spurious compilation, ' Rules 
for the Preservation of Health,' was to Fo- 
thergill's great annoyance published during 
his lifetime, with his name generally misspelt 
on the title-page, and reached a fourteenth 
edition. His works procured him a wide- 
spread reputation on the continent and in 
America, as well as at home, and he will 
always remain an important representative 
of the naturalistic and anti-scholastic ten- 
dencies of English medicine in the latter half 
of the eighteenth century. His character 
might be summed up in Franklin's words, ' I 
can hardly conceive that a better man has 
ever existed.' 

[J. C. Lettsom's Memoirs of John Fothergill, 
M.D., 4th edit., London, 1786, 8vo; also in the 
Works ; William Hird's An Affectionate Tribute 
to the Memory of Dr. Fothergill, 4to, 1781 ; G. 
Thompson's Memoirs of the late Dr. John Fother- 
gill, 8vo, 1782; Munk's Coll. of Phys. 1878, ii 
154; Hist, of Coll. Phys. Edinb., 1882 ; Lives of 
Bnt. Phys., 1830 ; Sketch of Life by Dr. J. Hack 
Tuke, 1879.] J j. F . P . 


(1841-1888), medical writer, son of a surgeon, 
was born at Morland, Westmoreland, on 
11 April 1841, studied at the university of 
Edinburgh, and there graduated M.D. 1865. 
He afterwards studied at Vienna and Berlin, 

and began professional work as a general 
practitioner at Morland, whence he soon 
after moved to Leeds, and in 1872 came to 
London, was admitted a member of the 
College of Physicians, and endeavoured to 
get into practice as a physician. He ob- 
tained appointments at two small hospi- 
tals, the City of London Hospital for Dis- 
eases of the Chest and the West London 
Hospital ; but when asked some years later 
how he throve, replied, ' The private patient 
seems to me to be an extinct animal.' He 
worked, however, with untiring energy, and 
wrote ' The Heart and its Diseases,' ' The 
Practitioner's Handbook of Treatment,' 'The 
Physical Factor in Diagnosis,' 'Vaso renal 
Change versus Bright's Disease.' In his writ- 
ings his expressions about those with whom 
he did not agree are violent, and he often 
makes positive general assertions without 
sufficient grounds for them ; but he some- 
times admitted his errors, and struggled hard 
with numerous difficulties in life. He was 
a man of enormous weight, with a large head 
and very thick neck, and so continued till he 
died of diabetes, from which and from gout he 
had long suffered. He resided in Henrietta 
Street, Cavendish Square, London, and there 
died on 28 June 1888. A distinguished lec- 
turer on materia medica has expressed the 
opinion that the most valuable of Fothergill's 
writings are 'An Essay on the Action of 
Digitalis,' written in his early life, and ' The 
Antagonism of Therapeutic Agents, and what 
it teaches,' published in 1878. 

[Lancet, 14 July 1888; Works; information 
from Dr. Lauder Brunton.] N. M. 

FOTHERGILL, SAMUEL (1715-1772), 
quaker, second son of John and Margaret 
Fothergill, well-to-do quakers of considerable 
means at Carr End, Wensleydale, Yorkshire, 
was born in November 1715. When three years 
old his mother died. He was educated at a 
school at Briggflats, near Sedbergh, and after- 
wards at a school at Sutton in Cheshire, kept 
by his uncle, Thomas Hough. When seven- 
teen he was apprenticed to a quaker shop- 
keeper at Stockport. He was clever, bright, 
and popular. For some time he led a dissi- 
pated life, but became steady before he was 
of age. As soon as his apprenticeship was 
over he went to live at Sutton with his 
uncle, and united himself with the Society 
of Friends. For some years he seems to 
have passed through much mental trouble, 
and it was not till 1736 that he was accepted 
as a quaker minister. No certificate to travel 
appears to have been issued to him till 1739_ 
Some seven months previously he married 
Susanna Croudson of Warrington, also a 


6 9 


quaker minister. In this year he pastorally 
visited the Friends in Wales and the west of 
England, and in the following year those in 
Yorkshire and Durham. Early in 1744 he 
visited Ireland. His letters to his wife show 
that quakerism there was declining, and that 
he made great efforts to revive it. In 1745 
his ministerial journeys were much inter- 
rupted by the rebellion, and from that time 
till 1750, when he was present at the yearly 
meeting of the Irish quakers, he chiefly 
laboured near his residence. In 1754 he 
obtained a certificate enabling him to pursue 
his work abroad, and immediately visited 
North America, where he remained till 1756, 
visiting nearly all the quakers' meetings in 
the northern and many in the southern 
colonies. He rode 180 miles to visit one 
isolated family, and, from poverty, had occa- 
sionally to go without food himself to pro- 
vide for his horse. He laboured to reconcile 
the colonists and the Indians. On his re- 
turn to England he organised a subscription 
for the relief of the poverty occasioned by 
the scarcity of employment round Warring- 
ton during the winter of 1756, and resumed 
his ministerial work until his incessant la- 
bours caused a severe illness. He never com- 
pletely recovered, and was afterwards mainly 
occupied in attending to his business as a tea 
merchant and American merchant, and in 
some literary work which he never com- 
pleted. In 1760 he was appointed one of a 
committee to visit all the quarterly and other 
meetings in the kingdom, and in 1762 he 
visited most of the quaker' meetings in 
Ireland. A similar service in Scotland two 
years later led largely to the revival of 
quakerism in that country. From this time 
till his death he was unable to take any 
active part in the affairs of the Society of 
Triends, and his later years were passed in 
great suffering. He died at Warrington in 
June 1772, and was buried in the Friends' 
burial-ground at Penketh, Lancashire. 

Fothergill was well read in books, and a 
keen student of men and manners ; he is 
described as having been dignified, courteous, 
.grave, and yet affable. His writings were 
chiefly tracts or brief addresses, but the 
number of times they have been reprinted 
proves them to have been highly valued by 
the quakers. 

[Jepson's Just Character of the late S. Fother- 
gill, 1774; Letchworth's Brief Account of the 
late Samuel Fothergill, 1774; Crosfield's Me- 
moirs of the Life, &c., of S. Fothergill, 1843.] 

A. C. B. 

FOULIS, ANDREW (1712-1775). [See 

FOULIS, SIB DAVID (d. 1642), politi- 
cian, was third son of James Foulis, by Agnes 
Heriot of Lumphoy, and great-grandson of 
Sir James Foulis of Colinton (d. 1549) [q. v.] 
From 1594 onwards he was actively engaged 
in politics, and many of his letters are calen- 
dared in Thorpe's ' Scottish State Papers.' He 
came to England with James I in 1603; was 
knighted 13 May of that year ; was created 
honorary M.A. at Oxford 30 Aug. 1605 (Oaf. 
Univ. Reg. vol. ii. pt. i. p. 237, Oxf. Hist. 
Soc.) ; was naturalised by act of parliament 
in April 1606; obtained with Lord Sheffield 
and others in 1607 a patent for making alum 
inYorkshire(CAKTWKiGHT, Chapters in York- 
shire History, p. 195) ; purchased the manor 
of Ingleby, Yorkshire, from Ralph, lord Eure, 
in 1609 ; and was made a baronet of England 
6 Feb. 1619-20. He acted as cofferer to both 
Prince Henry and Prince Charles. Sir David, 
high in thefavourof JamesI, was the recipient 
in 1614 of the famous letter of advice to the 
king sent from Italy by Sir Robert Dudley, 
titular duke of Northumberland [q. v.] In 
1629 Foulis gave evidence respecting the docu- 
ment, after it had been discovered in the library 
of Sir Robert Bruce Cotton [q. v.] As member 
of the council of the north he chafed against 
Wentworth's despotic exercise of the presi- 
dent's authority, and in July 1632 not only 
denied that the council existed by parlia- 
mentary authority, but charged Wentworth 
with malversation of the public funds. Went- 
worth indignantly repudiated the accusation, 
and Foulis appealed in vain to Charles I 
for protection from Wentworth's vengeance 
while offering to bring the gentry of Yorkshire 
to a better temper. He was dismissed from 
the council, was summoned before the Star- 
chamber, was ordered to pay 5,000/. to the 
crown and 3,000/. to W r entworth, and was 
sent to the Fleet in default (1633). There 
he remained till the Long parliament released 
him, 16 March 1640-1 (Lords' Journals, iv. 
1 55 a ; GAEDINEK, History, \n. 139-40, 232-7). 
Foulis appeared as a witness against Strafford 
at the trial in 1641 (RUSHWOETH, Trial, 
pp. 149-54). He died at Ingleby in 1642. 
By his wife Cordelia, daughter of William 
Fleetwood of Great Missenden, Buckingham- 
shire she died in August 1631 and was buried 
at Ingleby he was father of five sons and 
two daughters. Foulis was the author of 'A 
Declaration of the Diet and Particular Fare of 
King Charles I when Duke of York,' printed 
in 1802 by Mr. Edmund Turnor in 'Archseo- 
logia,' xv. 1-12 (NICHOLS, Illustrations, vi. 

The eldest son and second baronet, Sir 
Henry, was fined 5001. by the Star-chamber 
when his father was punished in 1633 ; was 



lieutenant-general of horse under Sir Thomas 
Fairfax in 1643; married Mary, eldest daugh- 
ter of Sir T. Layton, knight, of Sexhowe, and 
was father of Henry Foulis [q. v.] A second 
son, Robert, was a colonel in the parliamentary 
army. The baronetcy became extinct on the 
death of the eighth baronet, the Rev. Sir Henry 
Foulis, on 7 Oct. 1876. 

[Ord's Hist, of Cleveland, pp. 432-3; Thorpe's 
Cal. Scottish State Papers, vol. ii. passim; Com- 
mons' Journals, i. 298-301 ; Lords' Journals, ii. 
399 a et seq., iv. 1296, I486, 155a, 186 a, 2.37 a, 
'272 a; Nichols's Progresses of James I ; Foster's 
Baronetage ; Rushworth's Collections, iii. App. 
p. 65; Cal. State Papers, Dom. 1631-3, p. xxiv ; 
Strafford Papers, i. 56, 145.] S. L. L. 

FOULIS, HENRY (1638-1669), author,' 
was second son of Sir Henry Foulis, second 
baronet, of Ingleby, Yorkshire, and was grand- 
son of Sir David Foulis [q. v.] Born at Ingleby 
in 1638, he was educated by a presbyterian 
master at York,became a commoner of Queen's 
College, Oxford, 6 June 1654, proceeded B.A. 
3 Feb. 1656, and M.A. on 25 June 1659, was 
incorporated B.A. of Cambridge in 1658, and 
on 31 Jan. 1659-60 was elected fellow of Lin- 
coln College. He studied divinity; took the 
degree of B.D. on 7 Nov. 1667, and became 
sub-rector of his college. He was warmly 
attached to the church of England, and at- 
tacked with equal venom the presbyterians 
and papists. His death, ' occasioned,' says 
Wood, ' by a generous and good-natured in- 
temperance,' took place on 24 Dec. 1669, and 
he was buried in the chancel of St. Michael's 
Church, Oxford. His works are: 1. 'The 
History of the Wicked Plots and Conspiracies 
of our pretended Saints, the Presbyterians,' 
fol. London, 1662 ; Oxford, 1674. 2. The 
History of the Romish Treasons and Usur- 
pations, with an Account of many gross Cor- 
ruptions and Impostures of the Church of 
Rome,' fol. London, 1671, 1681. The former 
work, dedicated to his elder brother, Sir David 
(1633-1694), and his brother's wife, Cathe- 
rine (d. 1717), proved so acceptable to the 
royalists, with many of whose views Foulis 
had little sympathy, that it was ' chained to 
desks in public places and in some churches 
to be read by the vulgar.' The delay in the 
publication of the second book, which ap- 
peared after the author's death, was caused 
by ' a knavish bookseller.' Notes for other 
works were burnt by Foulis on his deathbed. 
An account, drawn up by Foulis, of all the 
sermons preached before parliament between 
1640 and 1648 is among the Ashmolean MSS. 
in the Bodleian Library. Anthony a Wood 
was an intimate friend, and made a catalogue 
of Foulis's library. 

[Wood's Athense Oxon. (Bliss), iii. 881-2; 
Wood's Fasti, ii. 192, 219, 299; Ord's Hist, of 
Cleveland, p. 432; Wood's Autobiography, ed. 
Bliss, pp. 140, 168.] S. L. L. 

FOULIS, SIR JAMES (d. 1549), judge, 
was son and heir of James de Foulis, skin- 
ner, of Edinburgh, by his wife Margaret, 
daughter of Sir James Henderson of Fordell, 
Fifeshire, advocate to James IV. In 1519 he 
acquired from the Master of Glencairn the 
lands of Colinton, from which his family after- 
wards took its description. He was chosen 
a lord of session 12 Nov. 1526, being then, 
member of parliament for Edinburgh, and 
when the College of Senators was instituted 
was admitted a member of it 27 May 1532, 
having since 1527 been king's advocate con- 
jointly with but subordinate to Sir Adam 
Otterburn. In 1529 he had been private 
secretary to James V. From the first he was 
clerk register of the college, and as such was 
present in parliament in most years from 1535 
to 1546. As such officer he was charged by 
license of parliament to cause the acts of the 
parliament to be printed by any person he 
should choose. From 1532 to 1546 he was 
a commissioner for holding parliament, and 
was a member of the secret council in 1542. 
In 1543 he was a commissioner to negotiate 
a marriage between Mary and Prince Ed- 
ward. He was knighted in 1539, was suc- 
ceeded by Thomas Marjoribanks of Ratho, 
8 Feb. 1548, and died before 4 Feb. 1549. 
By his wife, Catherine Brown, he was father 
of Henry Foulis, depute-marishal, whose son 
James was grandfather of Sir James Foulis, 
lord Colinton [q. v.] 

[Acts Scots Parl. ; Acts of Sederunt ; Brun- 
ton and Haig's Senators ; Omond's Lord Advo- 
cates, i. 12; Nisbet's Heraldry, Append. 28; 
Douglas's Baronage; Nichols's Lit. Illustr. iv. 
238 ; Burke's Baronetage.] J. A. H. 

(d. 1688), judge, was only son of Alexander 
Foulis, by Elizabeth, daughter of Robert 
Hepburn, esq., of Ford, and widow of Sir 
John Stuart, sheriff of Bute. His father was 
created a baronet of Nova Scotia 7 June 1634. 
James was knighted by Charles I 14 Nov. 
1641, and represented Edinburgh in parlia- 
ment in 1645-8 and in 1651. He was a 
commissioner to enforce the acts against run- 
aways and deficients in 1644, and a mem- 
ber of the committee of estates in 1646-7. 
He warmly adopted the royalist cause, was 
taken prisoner at Alyth by a detachment of 
Monck's force, then besieging Dundee, 28 Sept. 
1651, and long imprisoned for his royalist 
opinions. After the Restoration he became 
an ordinary lord of session (14 Feb.), and a 



commissioner of excise in 1661. He was 
commissioner to parliament for Edinburgh- 
shire from 1661 to 1681, and a lord of the 
articles in each parliament from the Restora- 
tion. When the court of justiciary was con- 
stituted in February 1671 he became a lord 
commissioner, and took his seat in parlia- 
ment and the oaths in 1672, having the title 
of Lord Colintou. He was sworn of the privy 
council in 1674, and was a commissioner for 
the plantation of kirks in 1678. On 12 Dec. 
1681, upon the trial of Argyll, he voted, old 
cavalier though he was, against the relevancy 
of the indictment, and it was only carried by 
Lord Nairn's casting vote. On 22 Feb. 1684 
he was appointed lord justice clerk in succes- 
sion to Sir Richard Maitland, and died at Edin- 1 
burgh 19 Jan. 1688. He was twice married, : 
secondly to Margaret, daughter of Sir George 
Erskine of Innertail, and had a son James 
(1645 P-1711) [q. v.], who succeeded to the 
title, and was a member of parliament, and a 
daughter, who married James Livingstone. 

[Acts Scots Parl. ; Douglas's Peerage of Scot- 
laud; Brunton and Haig's Senators; Burke's 
Baronetage.] J. A. H. 

(1645 P-1711), Scotch judge, eldest son of Sir 
James Foulis, lord Colinton [q. v.], whom he 
succeeded as third baronet in 1688, was born 
about 1645. His father ' bestowed liberally ' 
upon his education. He studied at Leyden 
(PEACOCK, Index to Leyden Students, p. 37), 
and was admitted advocate 8 June 1669. He 
was appointed lord of session November 1674, 
when he took the courtesy title of Lord 
Reidfurd. His father then sat on the bench 
as Lord Colinton. Foulis was elected com- 
missioner for Edinburghshire on 20 Jan. 1685, 
was a supporter of the extreme measures of 
the government, but continued to sit after 
the revolution, ' until his seat was declared 
vacant, 25 April 1693, because he had not 
taken the oath of allegiance and signed the 
assurance' (FOSTER, Parliamentary Returns). 
After the death of William III he was made 
colonel of the Midlothian militia, and sworn 
of the privy council (1703). He opposed the 
union. Foulis married Margaret, daughter 
of John Boyd, dean of guild, Edinburgh, 
by whom he had several children. On his 
death, in 1711, he was succeeded in the 
baronetcy by his eldest son James, with 
whom he is sometimes confounded e.g. by 
Anderson. Foulis was engaged in a somewhat 
complicated lawsuit with Dame Margaret 
Erskine, Lady Castlehaven, his stepmother, as 
to her interest in his father's estates. The chief 
papers were published, with notes by him, or 
compiled under his direction, and exhibit 

some details as to Scotch aristocratic life and 
customs of the period (' An Exact and Faith- 
ful relation of the Process pursued by Dame 
Margaret Areskine, Lady Castlehaven, against 
Sir J ames Foulis, now of Collingtoun,' Edin- 
burgh, 1690). Among the Lauderdale MSS. 
are various official reports and addresses to 
Charles II and the Duke of Lauderdale, to 
which the signature of Foulis is appended. 

[Brunton and Haig's Senators of the College 
of Justice, p. 404 ; Anderson's Scottish Nation, 
ii. 256 ; Foster's Collectanea Genealogica Mem- 
bers of Parliament, Scotland, p. 143 ; Add. MSS. 
23137 f. 97, 23138 ff. 5, 7, 43, 23244 ff. 37, 39.1 

F. W-T. 

FOULIS, SIR JAMES (1714-1791), fifth 
baronet of Colinton, eldest son of Henry 
Foulis, third son of the third baronet, was 
born in 1714. He succeeded his uncle, the 
fourth baronet, in July 1742. In his youth 
he was an officer in the army, but he retired 
from the service early, and devoted himself 
to the pursuits of a country gentleman and 
to literature. He dedicated much of his 
leisure to recondite researches, and in 1781 
contributed to the ' Transactions of the Anti- 
quarian Society of Scotland ' a dissertation 
on the origin of the Scots, in which his 
proofs and conjectures were founded upon 
an intimate acquaintance with the ancient 
Celtic language. He also left among his 
papers for posthumous publication memo- 
randa of a series of investigations into the 
origin of the ancient names of places in Scot- 
land. Foulis died at Colinton, near Edinburgh, 
3 Jan. 1791. 

[Anderson's Scottish Nation; Gent. Mag. 1791.] 

G. B. S. 

FOULIS, SIR JAMES (1770-1842), of 
Woodhall, seventh baronet of Colinton, born 
9 Sept. 1770, was the great-grandson of Wil- 
liam Foulis of Woodhall, second son of Sir 
John Foulis, first baronet of Ravelston, by 
Margaret, daughter of Sir Archibald Prim- 
rose of Carrington. Foulis had a fine taste 
for the arts, and was both a painter and a 
sculptor. In the council-room of Gillespie's 
Hospital, Edinburgh, is a striking portrait 
of the founder by Sir James. He married 
in 1810 Agnes, daughter of John Grier of 
Edinburgh, by whom he had two sons and 
two daughters. Foulis died in April 1842, 
and was succeeded by his elder son, Sir 
William Listen Foulis, who became eighth 
baronet, and the representative of the three 
houses of Colinton, Woodhall, and Ravel- 
ston. He married first a daughter of Captain 
Ramage Liston, R.N., and grandniece and 
heiress of the Right Hon. Sir Robert Liston, 
G.C.B., ambassador to Turkey. By this lady 



he had two sons and one daughter. He mar- 
ried, secondly, the eldest daughter of Robert 
Cadell. The eighth baronet died in 1858, 
and was succeeded by his elder son, Sir James, 
born in 1847. 

[Anderson's Scottish Nation ; Gent. Mag. 1842.] 

G. B. S. 

FOULIS, ROBERT (1707-1776), printer, 
the eldest son of Andrew Faulls, maltman, 
of Glasgow, and of Marion Patterson, was 
born in Glasgow, 20 April 1707. Besides 
Andrew the elder [see end of this article], 
there were two younger sons, James, a clergy- 
man, and John, a barber, who all owed their 
early education to their mother. Robert 
changed his name from Faulls to Foulis (pro- 
nounced Fowls), the surname of an old and 
distinguished county family. Robert was first 
apprenticed to a barber, and while practising 
on his own account attended the lectures of 
Francis Hutcheson [q. v.], who urged him to 
become a printer and bookseller. In 1738 he 
and his brother Andrew visited Oxford, and 
returned to Glasgow after a few months' ab- 
sence in England and on the continent. They 
went to France in 1739, and were introduced 
through the Chevalier Ramsay into the public 
libraries. They collected specimens of the 
best editions of the classics and rare books, 
for which they found a ready sale in London. 
In 1741 Robert began bookselling in Glas- 
gow. For a short time Robert Urie printed 
books for him. He then set up a press, and 
in the same year produced two editions of 
' The Temper, Character, and Duty of a 
Minister of the Gospel,' of Dr. William 
Leechman, a Cicero, a Phsedrus, and a couple 
of other works. 

Foulis was appointed printer to the uni- 
versity of Glasgow 31 March 1743, and in 
that year produced the first Greek book 

5 rinted in the city, 'Demetrius Phalerus 
e Elocutione, Gr. et Lat.,' sin. 8vo. Special 
type after a Stephens model was cast for 
him. His press-correctors were George Ross, 
professor of humanity in the university, and 
James Moor, whose sister he married, pro- 
fessor of Greek. Dr. Alexander Wilson, who 
had established a typefoundry at Camlachie, 
near Glasgow, was of great help to him. He 
made another journey to France in order to 
show his examples of typography, and to 
collect manuscripts and good editions of the 
classics. In 1744 the well-known 'immacu- 
late ' Horace, sm. 8vo (with six errors), ap- 
peared. The proof-sheets of this book were 
hung up in college and a reward ofiered for 
each inaccuracy discovered. Three editions 
of Horace of no value subsequently came from 
the_Foulis press. About this time was issued 

' A Catalogue of Books, lately imported 
from France, containing the scarcest and 
most elegant editions of the Greek and 
Roman Classics.' By 1746 there had been 
produced twenty-three classical editions, and 
in 1747 the fine Greek Iliad,' 2 vols. 4to, 
' very beautiful . . . and more correct than the 
small one in 12mo printed at the same place 
after Dr. Clarke's edition ' (HAKWOOD, View of 
the Editions of the Classics, 1 782, p. 4) . Among 
the publications of 1748 were ' The Philoso- 
phical Principles,' 2 vols. 4to, of the Cheva- 
lier Ramsay, an edition of ' Hardyknute,' 
and specimens of Scottish verse, many of 
which subsequently came from the Foulis 
press. The following year was marked by the 
Cicero, 20 vols. sm. 8vo. after Olivet's text, in 
a type preferred by Renouard to that of the 
Elzevir edition (Catalogue de la Bibliotheque 
d'un Amateur, 1819, ii. 75), and a Lucretius in 
sm. 8vo, which is still sought after. Foulis 
also circulated proposals for printing by sub- 
scription the works of Plato in Greek, which 
produced a promise from John Wilkes to ob- 
tain a hundred subscribers to the undertaking 
(see an interesting letter, ap. DTJXCAX, No- 
tices and Documents, pp. 54-5). In 1750 
upwards of thirty works, many in polite 
literature, were printed, the largest num- 
ber the Glasgow press had yet given forth 
in a single year. In an undated letter (ib. 
p. 18) Foulis states that in 1751 he made 
a fourth journey, lasting near two years, 
abroad with a brother. During his absence 
the printing office under the direction of his 
partner Andrew issued twenty-nine works 
in 1752 and eighteen in 1753. In 1752 was 
commenced the publication of the series of 
single plays of Shakespeare. 

Having sent home his brother (not An- 
drew) with a painter, an engraver, and a 
copperplate printer, Foulis returned to Scot- 
land in 1753, and soon afterwards instituted 
his academy for painting, engraving, mould- 
ing, modelling, and drawing. The idea had 
been suggested on the first visit to Paris 
(1738) by observations of the ' influence of 
invention in drawing and modelling on many 
manufactures.' The use of several rooms for 
| the students and of a large apartment (af- 
1 terwards the Faculty Hall) for an exhibition 
was granted by the university. He received 
! practical help from three Glasgow merchants, 
j Mr. Campbell of Clathic, Mr. Glasford of 
Dougalston, and Mr. Archibald Ingram, who 
afterwards became partners in the under- 
taking ; while Charles Townshend, the Earl 
of Northumberland, and others threw cold 
water upon it. 

A literary society, to which Adam Smith, 
Dr. Robert Simson, Dr. Reid, Dr. Black, and 




others belonged, was founded in Glasgow Col- 
lege 10 Jan. 1752, and Foulis was admitted the 
next year. It was the duty of each member 
in turn to read a paper, and he delivered 
fifteen discourses, chiefly on philosophical 
subjects (see list in DUNCAN, op. cit. pp. 134- 
135). He is said to have anticipated some 
of Beccaria's views. 

In 1755 the Select Society of Edinburgh 
ofl'ered a silver medal for the best printed and 
most correct book of at least ten sheets (Scots 
Mag. 1755, pp. 126-30), which was awarded 
the following year to the Foulises for their 
sm. folio Callimachus, 1755 (ib. 1756, p. 195). 
This is one of their masterpieces, and is much 
sought after ; it contains some rather com- 
monplace plates, designed by pupils of the 
academy. The Horace (3rd edition, 1756) 
also received a medal. An edition of the 
'Nubes' of Aristophanes in Greek (1755) 
and a translation of Hierocles (1756) are 
prized by collectors. The ' Anacreon,' 8vo 
(1757), and Virgil, 8vo (1758), are com- 
mended by Harwood for their beauty and 
correctness. Medals were bestowed by the 
Select Society for the ' Iliad '(1756)andforthe 
' Odyssey' (1758), the famous Greek Homer 
in four stately folio volumes, which for accu- 
racy and splendour is the finest monument of 
the Foulis press. Flaxman's designs were 
executed for this book. ' As the eye is the 
organ of fancy,' says Gibbon, ' I read Homer 
with more pleasure in the Glasgow folio ; 
through that fine medium the poet's sense ap- 
pears more beautiful and transparent ' (Mis- 
cellaneous Works, 1814, v. 583). In Har- 
wood's opinion a Thucydides of 1759 is ' by 
far the most correct of all the Greek classics 
published at Glasgow ' ( View, p. 29). 

During this time Foulis had struggled with 
great difficulty in his academy. Proper 
teachers were scarce, and the public seemed 
unwilling to patronise native artists. Some 
promising students were sent abroad to study ' 
at the expense of the academy. One of these 
was William Cochrane, another was Archi- 
bald Maclauchlane, who married a daughter 
of Foulis. It should not be forgotten that 
David Allan and James Tassie were also 
pupils. Foulis advertised proposals (Scots 
Mag. 1759, p. 47) for gentlemen to subscribe 
to the academy with the right of choosing 
prints, designs, paintings, models, or casts to 
the value of their subscriptions. The objects 
were shown at Edinburgh in the shop of Ro- 
bert Fleming, as well as at the gallery in Glas- 
gow. An Herodotus (1761,9 vols. sm. 8vo) 
' is beautifully printed and reflects distin- 
guished honour on the university of Glasgow,' 
says Harwood ( View, p. 23). On the occa- 
sion of the coronation of George III the inner 

court of the college was decorated with paint- 
ings from the academy, shown in a print after 
a picture by D. Allan (reproduced in MA.C- 
GEORGE'S ' Old Glasgow,' 1880, pp. 134-5). 
The academy pictures were exhibited on the 
king's birthday in subsequent years down to 
abo ut 1 7 75. In January 1 763 Foulis states that 
' the academy is now coming into a state of 
tolerable maturity. . . . Modelling, engraving, 
original history-painting, and portrait-paint- 
ing ' were ' all in a reputable degree of per- 
fection ' (Letter ap. DUNCAN, p. 86). About 
this time there was printed ' for the use of 
subscribers ' a folio priced list showing the 
great variety of the productions, ' Catalogue 
of Pictures, Drawings, Prints, Statues, and 
Busts in Plaister of Paris, done at the Aca- 
demy,' including ' a Collection of Prints, the 
plates of which are the property of R. and A. 
Foulis.' It is reprinted by Duncan (op. cit. 
pp. 91-115). 

Towards the end of 1767 Foulis obtained 
permission from Gray, through Dr. Beattie, 
to publish an edition of his poems, which 
were then being issued in London by James 
Dodsley. In a letter to Beattie (1 Feb. 1768) 
Gray says : ' I rejoice to be in the hands of 
Mr. Foulis, who has the laudable ambition 
of surpassing his predecessors, the Etiennes 
and the Elzevirs, as well in literature as in 
the proper art of his profession '( Works,1836, 
iv. 102). The book accordingly appeared in 
the middle of 1768, a handsome quarto, whose 
special features are explained by Beattie in 
a letter to Arbuthnot (Letters, 1820, i. 47- 
49). Beattie also had a share in the literary 
direction of the folio ' Paradise Lost ' (1770), 
which he calls ' wonderfully fine ' (Letter to 
Foulis, 20 June 1770, ap. DUNCAN, pp. 35- 

Archibald Ingram, one of the partners in 
the academy, died 23 July 1770. Theacademy 
was dissolved. Never pecuniarily successful, 
it was now eclipsed by the new RoyalAcademy 
in London. The printing office was continued, 
but with lessened activity. A series of plates 
after the cartoons of Raphael, issued in 1773, 
may be considered to belong rather to the 
work of the academy than to the press. They 
printed down to the death of Andrew in 
1775. This blow quite crushed Robert, for 
the two brothers were deeply attached. The 
increased commercial responsibility was too 
much for him, and he decided to send the 
pictures, which had been used as models in 
the academy, to London, where he arrived in 
April 1776 with Robert Dewar from the 
printing office, who married his daughter. 
The season was late, and the sale proceeded 
against the advice of Christie, the auctioneer. 
The collection is described in ' A Catalogue 



of Pictures, composed and painted chiefly by 
the most admired masters, in which many of 
the most capital are illustrated by descrip- 
tions and critical remarks by Robert Foulis,' 
London, 1776, 3 vols. 12mo. The net result 
of the three nights' sale was very disappoint- 
ing, for which some cause may be discovered 
in the absence of any evidence of genuineness 
in the printed descriptions. Foulis was 
deeply mortified, and on his way home died 
suddenly at Edinburgh 2 June 1776, aged 69. 

' A Catalogue of Books, being the entire 
stock in quires of the late Messrs. R. and A. 
Foulis,' announces the sale by auction at 
Glasgow 1 Oct. 1777. Their affairs were 
finally wound up in 1781 by Robert Chap- 
man, printer, and James Duncan, bookseller. 
The debts amounted to over 6,500/. ; nearly 
the whole of the stock was purchased by 
James Spottiswood of Edinburgh. The 
printing house in Shuttle Street was adver- 
tised for sale 31 Oct. 1782. 

In the course of thirty-six years Robert 
and Andrew Foulis produced over 554 works, 
the number (known to be incomplete) in the 
list given by Duncan (Notices and Documents, 
pp. 49-78, 147-9); 461, being one of the 
most extensive collections extant, are in the 
Mitchell Library, Glasgow. Most of the books 
are reprints of standard authors ; few are ori- 
ginal. When published their chief merits were 
careful editing, convenient size, good paper, 
artistic appearance, and cheapness. They are 
now much sought after as admirable specimens 
of typography, and are noticeable for their se- 
verely plain elegance. ' Nothing has ever 
been done [in Glasgow] to rival the results 
attained by the Foulis press,' says Professor 
Ferguson. 'The works produced by it are 
quite entitled to rank with the Aldines, El- 
zevirs, Bodonis, Baskervilles, which are all 
justly renowned for the varied excellencies 
they possess, but no provincial, and certainly 
no metropolitan, press in this country has 
ever surpassed that of the two brothers ' ( The 
Library, March 1889, p. 95). 

There is a medallion portrait of Foulis by 
Tassie, of which an engraving is given by 
Duncan (op. cit.) and by Dibdin (Sibl. Tour, 
ii. 765). A print of an engraving of the 
academy in the fore-hall, Glasgow College, 
after a drawing by D. Allan, is in Mac- 
George's < Old Glasgow ' (p. 302). 

Robert was of short stature, robust, well- 
proportioned, amiable, and sociable. During 
the winter the brothers sold books by auc- 
tion. Andrew usually acted as auctioneer, 
for Robert was not a businesslike salesman. 
On one occasion he refused to sell ' Tom 
Jones,' as ' improper for the perusal of young 
persons.' He was twice married : first, in 

September 1742, to Elizabeth, daughter of 
James Moor ; she died in 1750, having had 
five daughters. His second wife was a daugh- 
ter of William Boutcher, seedsman, of Edin- 
burgh ; she also died before her husband, who 
survived several of his daughters. His son, 
ANDREW the younger, carried on the printing 
in the same style, and many of his books 
are not inferior to those of the older firm, 
whose name he used. A Virgil, 2 vols. folio 
(1778), a ' Cicero de Officiis,' 12mo (1784), 
and a Virgil, 12mo (1784), deserve mention. 
He died in 1829 in great poverty. Alexander 
Tilloch entered into partnership with Foulis 
in 1782, in order to cany on his reinvention 
of stereotyping. 

ANDKEW FOULIS the elder (1712-1775), 
born at Glasgow 23 Nov. 1712, was origi- 
nally intended for the church, and received 
a more regular education than his elder 
brother Robert. For some time he taught 
Greek, Latin, French, and philosophy in 
Glasgow. From 1738 to his last moments 
the life of Andrew cannot be dissociated from 
that of his partner Robert. Of the two 
brothers Andrew was more strictly the man 
of business; after the foundation of the 
academy the responsibility of the printing, 
bookselling, and binding departments fell 
mainly on him. Between 1764 and 1770 he 
read eleven papers (see list in DUNCAN, p. 
135) before the Literary Society of Glasgow, 
to which he was elected in 1756. He died 
suddenly of apoplexy 18 Sept. 1775, at the 
age of sixty-three (Scots Mag. 1775, p. 526). 

[Information obligingly contributed by Dr. 
David Murray from his forthcoming work, An 
Account of the Foulis Academy and of the Pro- 
gress of Literature, Art, and Science in Glasgow. 
Many facts are given in Notices and Documents 
illustrative of the Literary History of Glasgow 
(by William James Duncan), Maitland Club, 
1831, 4to, reprinted with additions, Glasgow, 
1886 ; see also an interesting article by Professor 
John Ferguson on the Brothers Foulis and early 
Glasgow Printers in The Library, March 1889 ; 
T. Mason's Public and Private Libraries of Glas- 
gow, 1885; T. B. Eeed's Old English Letter 
Foundries, 1887 ; J. Strang's Glasgow and its 
Clubs, 2nd ed. 1857 ; Dibdin's Bibl. Tour in 
Northern Counties and Scotland, 1838, vol. ii. ; 
Nichols's Lit. Anecd. iii. 217, 691, viii. 475, 569, 
and Illustrations, ii. 167.] H. K. T. 

FOULKES, PETER, D.D. (1676-1747), 
scholar and divine, was the third son of 
Robert Foulkes of Llechryd, Denbighshire, 
deputy baron of the court of exchequer of 
Chester, by Jane Ameredith of Landulph, 
Cornwall. He was admitted king's scholar 
at Westminster in 1690, and was elected 
thence to a Westminster studentship at Christ 




Church in 1694. While an undergraduate he 
published, in conjunction with John Freind 
and under Aldrich's auspices, an edition of 
' JSschines against Ctesiphon and Demo- 
sthenes on the Crown,' with a Latin transla- 
tion (Oxford, 1696). He took the degrees of 
B.A. in 1698, M.A. in 1701. He was chosen 
censor at Christ Church in 1703, in prefer- 
ence to Edmund Smith, the poet, and was 
junior proctor for 1705. His cousin, Dr. "Wil- 
liam Jane, regius professor of divinity, who 
died in 1707, left him residuary legatee and 
devisee of his property, which included land in 
Liskeard and Bodmin, and was supposed to be 
worth ten or twelve thousand pounds ; conse- 
quently he was a grand compounder for the de- 
grees of B.D. and D.D. in 1710. He was ap- 
pointed canon of Exeter in 1704, and became 
sub-dean in 1723, chancellor in May 1724, and 
precentor in 1731. Of Christ Church he was 
made canon in November 1724, and was sub- 
dean from 1725 to 1733. He was instituted 
rector of Cheriton Bishop,Devonshire, in 1714, 
and vicar of Thorverton in 1710. Andrew 
Davy of Medland, Cheriton Bishop, who died 
in 1722, left him the manor of Medland and 
other lands in trust for his second son, Wil- 
liam Foulkes. He married first in 1707 Eliza- 
beth Bidgood of Rockbeare, Devonshire, who 
died in 1737 ; and secondly, on 26 Dec. 1738, 
Anne, widow of William Hoi well, and daugh- 
ter of Offspring Blackall, bishop of Exeter. 
He died 30 April 1747, and was buried in 
Exeter Cathedral. 

Besides the work already mentioned he 
published a Latin poem in ' Pietas Universi- 
tatisOxoniensisinobitum augustissimse et de- 
sideratissimte Reginse Marise,' Oxford, 1695 ; 
another on the east window in Christ Church 
in ' Musarum Anglicanarum Analecta,' Ox- 
ford, 1699, ii. 180; another (No. 15) in ' Pietas 
Universitatis Oxoniensis in obitum serenis- 
simi Regis Georgii I et gratulatio in augus- 
tissimi Regis Georgii II inaugurationem,' 
Oxford, 1727 ; ' A Sermon preached in the 
Cathedral Church of Exeter, Jan. 30, 1723, 
being the day of the martyrdom of King 
Charles I,' Exeter, 1723. 

[Manuscript records and genealogical table in 
the possession of Mrs. Peter Davy Foulkes; 
Chester Eecog. Koll, 16 Car. ii. No. 326; Be- 
gister of St. Mary's, Chester ; List of Queen's 
Scholars of Westminster ; Polwhele's Devonshire, 
vol. ii. Dioc. of Exeter, p. 41 and p. 62 ; Hearne's 
Collections, ed. Doble, i. 68, 334, 338, 339 ; Wood's 
Hist, and Antiq. iii. 515; Gent. Mag. ix. 46; 
Dr. Jane's -will; Johnson's Lives of the Poets, 
' Edmund Smith ;' Cat. of Oxford Grad. ; Oxford 
Honours Eegister ; Le Neve's Fasti Eccl. Angl. 
(Hardy); Christ Church MS. Eegisters; Diocesan 
Eeg. Exon. ; Provincial Eegister of Canterbury; 
Bodl. Libr. Cat. of Printed Books.] E. C-N. 

FOULKES, ROBERT (d. 1679), mur- 
derer, ' became,' says Wood, ' a servitor of 
Christ Church College, Oxford, in Michael- 
mas term 1651, where he continued more 
than four years, under the tuition and go- 
vernment of presbyterians and independents. 
Afterwards entering into the sacred function 
he became a preacher, and at length vicar of 
Stanton Lacy in his own county of Shrop- 
shire, and took to him a wife ' (Athence Oxon. 
ed. Bliss, iii. 1195). He seduced a young 
lady who resided with him, took a lodging 
for her in York Buildings in the Strand, and 
there made away with the child that was 
born. The next morning he went down into 
Shropshire. His companion eventually made 
a full confession. Foulkes was tried and 
convicted at the Old Bailey sessions, 16 Jan. 
1678-9. After receiving sentence he mani- 
fested great penitence, and was visited by 
several eminent, divines, among whom was 
Burnet. William Lloyd, dean of Bangor, 
who came to him the very evening after his 
condemnation, managed to obtain for him, 
through Compton, bishop of London, a few 
days' reprieve, which he employed in writing 
forty pages of cant, entitled ' An Alarme for 
Sinners : containing the Confession, Prayers, 
Letters, and Last Words of Robert Foulkes, 
. . . with an Account of his Life. Published 
from the Original, Written with his own 
hand, . . . and sent by him at his Death 
to Doctor Lloyd,' 4to, London, 1679. He 
speaks of his unfortunate companion with 
ill-concealed malignity. On the morning of 
31 Jan. 1678-9 he was executed at Tyburn, 
' not with other common felons, but by him- 
self/ and was buried by night at St. Giles- 

[A True and Perfect Eelation of the Tryal,&c. 
of Mr. Eobert Foulks, 1679.] G. G. 


1753), virtuoso, born in 1676, was the eldest 
son of Andrew Fountaine, M.P.. of Narford, 
Norfolk, by his wife Sarah, daughter of Sir 
Thomas Chicheley, master of the ordnance, 
and belonged to an old Norfolk family (see 
BURKE, Landed Gentry, 1886, i. 673; BLOME- 
FIELD, Norfolk, vi. 233 f.) He was educated 
at Christ Church, Oxford, under Dr. Aldrich, 
proceeding B.A. 1696 and M.A. 1700, and 
studied Anglo-Saxon under Dr. Hickes, in 
whose 'Thesaurus' he published 'Numismata 
Anglo-Saxonica et Anglo-Danica illustrata/ 
Oxford, 1705, folio. Fountaine was knighted 
by William III at Hampton Court on 30 Dec. 
1699, and succeeded to the estate at Narford 
on his father's death, 7 Feb. 1706. In 1701 
he went with Lord Macclesfield on a mission 
to the elector of Hanover. He then passed 


7 6 


through Munich, and travelled in Italy, buy- 
ing antiquities and curiosities. In 1714 he 
stayed for a long time in Paris, and again 
visited Italy, staying nearly three years at 
Rome and Florence. In 1725 he was made 
vice-chamberlain to Princess Caroline, and he 
held the same office when she became queen. 
He was also tutor to Prince William, and 
was installed for him (as proxy) knight of 
the Bath, and had on that occasion a patent 
granted him (14 Jan. 1725) for adding sup- 
porters to his arms. On 14 July 1727 he 
succeeded Sir Isaac Newton as warden of the 
mint (RuDiiro, Annals, i. 29), and held the 
office until his death, which took place on 
4 Sept. 1753 at Narford, where from 1732 he 
had chiefly lived surrounded by his collec- 
tions. He was buried at Narford. 

Fountaine was not married. His sister, 
Elizabeth, became the wife of Colonel Edward 
Clent. Their grandson, Mr. Brigg Price of 
Narford, assumed the name of Fountaine 
and has descendants. There are two busts 
of Fountaine, by Roubiliac and Hoare of 
Bath, in Wilton House (MiCHAELis, Ancient 
Marbles, p. 46), and at least three portraits 
(one a miniature) are, or were, preserved at 
Narford. A well-known portrait at Holland 
House, assumed to represent Addison, has 
been identified as a portrait of Fountaine [see 
under ADDISON, JOSEPH] . There is a portrait- 
medal of Fountaine, made in 1744 by J. A. 
Dassier, in the British Museum (HAWKINS, 
Medallic Illustrations, ii. 590), and a rarer 
portrait-medal (specimen in Brit. Mus.) 
made at Florence in 1715 by Antonio Selvi. 
On the reverse is Pallas standing amidst 
ruins, works of art, coins, &c. (ib. ii. 433 : cf. 
p. 434). 

Fountaine was distinguished as a connois- 
seur, and his advice was much sought by 
English collectors of classical antiquities. He 
formed collections of china, pictures, coins, 
books, and other objects. When laying out 
money on his seat at Narford he sold his coins 
to the Earl of Pembroke, the Duke of Devon- 
shire, and the Venetian ambassador, Cornaro. 
He lost many of his miniatures, &c., in a fire 
*t White's Chocolate-house, in St. James's 
Street, London, where he had hired two 
rooms for his collections before removing 
them to Narford. The remarkably fine Foun- 
taine collection of Palissy ware, Limoges 
enamels, Henri Deux ware, and majolica 
sold at Christie's for a large sum 16-19 June 
1884 owed its origin to Fountaine. His 
descendant, Mr. Andrew Fountaine (d. 1873), 
had, however, added many choice specimens, 
especially of majolica (see the Fountaine Sale 
Catalogue ; and the Academy, 1884, pp. 446, 
464). Fountaine incurred the displeasure of 

Pope, who unfairly attacks him as the anti- 
quary Annius (according to the seemingly 
correct identification of Wart on) inthe ' Dun- 
ciad ' (iv. 1. 347 ff. ; see ELWIN and COURT- 
HOPE, Pope, iv. 361 ; A. W. WARD, Pope, 
Globe ed. 1876, p. 415) : 

But Annius, crafty Seer, -with ebon wand, 
And well-dissembled em'rald on his hand, 
False as his Gems, and cancer'd as his Coins, 
Came, cramm'd with capon, from where Pollio 

The ' ebon wand ' is his vice-chamberlain's 
black rod. The ' emerald ' a genuine stone 
was said some time ago to be in existence 
at Narford (for other references in Pope and 
Young to Fountaine as a virtuoso, see ELWIN 
and COURTHOPE, Pope, iii. 171-2). 

Fountaine was a friend and correspondent 
of Leibnitz, who says in a letter that his wit 
and good looks made much noise at court 
when he was abroad. He became intimate 
at Florence with Cosmo III, grand duke of 
Tuscany, and their correspondence has been 
preserved. When in Ireland in 1707 with 
Pembroke, the lord-lieutenant, Fountaine be- 
came acquainted with Swift (cf. H. CRAIK, 
Life of Swift, pp. 136, 143). Swift and 
Fountaine were very intimate when in Lon- 
don from 1710 to 1712. Swift speaks, in his 
' Journal to Stella,' of ' sauntering at china- 
shops and booksellers' with Fountaine, of 
playing ombre and ' punning scurvily ' with 
him. They often visited the Vanhomrighs' 
house together at this time. When Foun- 
taine was seriously ill in December 1710, 
Swift visited him and foretold his recovery, 
though the doctors had given him up. Foun- 
taine seems to have corrected the original 
designs for Swift's Tale of a Tub.' 

[Nichols's Lit. Anecd. i. 18, ii. 4, 250, 258, 
581, v. 263-4 (memoir), 330, 697, viii. 511, ix. 
415, 416, 419, 603 ; Nichols's Lit. Illustr. i. 804, 
819, iv. 441, vi. 612 ; Sale Catalogue of the Foun- 
taine Collection (with memoir), 1884 ; Joseph Ad- 
dison and Sir Andrew Fountaine, London, 1858; 
Notes and Queries, 2nd ser. v. 389 ; Burke's 
Hist, of the Commoners, 1837, i- 225, and his 
Landed Gentry, editions of 1868 and 1886, s. v. 
'Fountaine;' Swift's Journal to Stella for the 
years 1710-12; Gent. Mag. 1753, xxiii. 445; 
Michaelis's Ancient Marbles in Great Britain 
pp. 46, 57, 522 ; Burke's Visitations of Seats and 
Arms, 2nd ser.i. 194 ; Hawkins's Medallic Illus- 
trations, ed. Franks and Grueber; authorities 
cited above.] W. W. 

judge, son of Arthur Fountaine of Dalling, 
Norfolk, by Anne, daughter of JohnStanhow, 
was admitted a member of Lincoln's Inn on 
30 Oct. 1622, and called to the bar on 21 June 




1629. Wood is certainly wrong in identifying 
him with the John Fountaine who graduated 
B. A. at Oxford in 1634, and proceeded M. A. in 
1637, who is much more likely to be the John 
Fountaine, M. A., who was rector of Woolston 
in Buckinghamshire in 1649 (BLOMEFIELD, 
Norfolk, iii. 522 ; WOOD, Fasti Oxon. i. 473; 
LIPSCOMB, Buckinghamshire, iv. 425). Foun- 
taine distinguished himself in 1642 by refusing 
to pay the war tax levied by the parliament, 
and accordingly, pursuant to a resolution of 
the House of Commons, he was ' secured and 
disarmed,' and on 12 Oct. lodged in the Gate- 
house. The death of his wife, which occurred 
about the same time, procured him four days' 
liberty. He was also on his own petition 
granted liberty (2 Nov.) to attend service in 
St. Margaret's Church, from which it is pro- 
bable that he was a member of parliament. 
His name, however, is given neither by 
Browne Willis nor in the official list. He 
was still at the Gatehouse on 20 Dec. 1642, 
when his petition to be allowed bail was re- 
fused. He emerges into history again at Ox- 
ford in 1645, Here he was associated with Sir 
John Stawel in a scheme for uniting the free- 
holders of the western counties on the side 
of the king. The Prince of Wales was ap- 
pointed general of the association, and went 
to Bristol to take command of the forces 
which the association were to raise. The 
scheme, however, came to nothing. Foun- 
taine seems shortly afterwards to have per- 
ceived that the royalist cause was lost. On 
11 April 1646 Colonel Rainsford, in command 
at Woodstock, reported to the parliament that 
' Mr. Fountaine, the lawyer, was come in to 
him,' and was then at Aylesbury. The letter 
was read to the house on 25 April, and the 
house then resolved that Fountaine should 
be sent prisoner to Bristol. While at Ayles- 
bury Fountaine had written to Dr. Samuel 
Turner a letter on the situation. It is a docu- 
ment of considerable interest, being marked 
by much sagacity. He begins by pointing 
out that the moderates were then in the as- 
cendant while the king's cause was desperate, 
and ad vises the acceptance of 'such conditions 
of peace as may be had ; ' he then proceeds to 
argue at some length that episcopacy is not 
jure divino, and that the alienation of church 
lands by parliament is legally within the 
powers of parliament. The letter elicited a 
reply by Dr. Richard Stewart, entitled ' An 
Answer to a Letter written at Oxford [sic], 
and superscribed to Dr. Samuel Turner con- 
cerning the church and the revenue thereof ' 
(for both letter and answer see Brit. Mus. 
Cat., ' Turner, Samuel '). On 17 Jan. 1651-2 he 
was elected, though not without opposition, 
into the parliamentary committee for ' con- 

sidering of the inconveniencies ' of the law 
and how to remove them. On 17 March fol- 
lowing he was formally pardoned his delin- 
quency and restored to full status as a citizen 
( WHITELOCKB, Mem. 63, 202, 520 ; Commons' 
Journal, ii. 804, 832, 896, iv. 523, vii. 74, 
268; CLARENDON, Rebellion, v. 85-7, 141). 
He paid a composition of 480/. for his estates 
(DKING, Catalogue). He was placed on a 
commission appointed by the council of state 
on 29 April 1653 to investigate the condition 
of the prison of the upper bench, and suggest 
regulations for its better management, and on 
a similar commission of 13 June following to 
' consider about the inspecting and impnmng 
of the public offices.' On 27 Nov. 1658 he 
was called to the degree of serjeant-at-law, 
and on 3 June 1659 he was made joint com- 
missioner with Bradshaw and Tyrell of the 
' broad seal ' for the term of five months. On 
1 Nov. following the lord president, Bradshaw, 
delivered the seal to Whitelocke by order of 
the committee of public safety. It was, how- 
ever, again put in commission, Fountaine 
being one of the commissioners on 17 Jan. 
1659-60, and so continued until the Resto- 
ration. On that event Fountaine was con- 
firmed in his statusof serjeant-at-law (27 June 
1660), but he never again held judicial office 
(Cal. State Papers, Dom. 1652-3, pp. 300, 
405 ; ib. 1653-4, p. 61 ; NOBLE, Cromwell, i. 
438 ; WHITELOCKE, Mem. pp. 680, 686, 693 ; 
LUDLOW, Mem. p. 282 ; SIDEEFIN, Rep. i. 3). 
Fountaine survived until 1671, when he died 
on 14 June, after a year's illness. His cham- 
bers are said to have been at Boswell Court, 
Carey Street. He was buried in the parish 
church of Salle, Norfolk, the original seat of 
his family. Fountaine is called a turncoat by 
Anthony a Wood, and Foss follows suit ; per- 
haps, however, it would be nearer the truth 
to describe him as a moderate and practical 
royalist. Burnet states that he was in favour 
of Cromwell's assuming the royal dignity on 
the ground that ' no government could be 
settled legally but by a king' (Own Time, 
fol. i. 68). After the death of his first wife 
Fountaine married Theodosia, daughter of 
Sir Edward Harrington of Ridlington, Nor- 
folk, by whom he had issue John Fountayne 
of Lincoln's Inn, and Melton, Yorkshire (d. 
1680), and Thomas Fountayne, who succeeded 
his brother at Melton, and died in 1709. John 
Fountayne, the elder son, had two daughters, 
of whom the second, Theodosia, married Ro- 
bert Monckton, and was the mother of the 
first Viscount Galway. The grandson of the- 
younger son, Thomas, was the Rev. John 
Fountayne, D.D. [q. v.], dean of York. The 
family is now represented in the direct 
line by Andrew Montagu of Melton Park, 



Yorkshire, and Papplewick, Nottingham- 

[Foss's Lives of the Judges ; Hunter's South 
Yorkshire, i. 367 ; Burke's Landed Gentry.] 

J. M. E. 

FOUNTAINHALL, LORD (1646-1722). 

1802), dean of York, horn in 1714, second son 
of John Fountayne of Melton in South York- 
shire, by Elizabeth, daughter of Francis Carew 
of Beddington, Surrey, was great-grandson of 
John Fountaine, the judge [q. v.] He gra- 
duated B.A. at St. Catharine's Hall, Cam- 
bridge, in 1735, proceeded M. A. in 1739, being 
installed prebendary of Salisbury on 16 April 
of the same year. He was appointed by patent 
of 3 Jan. 1740-1 to a canonry of Windsor, 
which he resigned in 1748, having the previous 
year been appointed dean of York. He took 
the degree of D.D. in 1751. On the death 
of his elder brother in 1739 he succeeded to 
the manor of Melton. He closed a long and 
uneventful life at the deanery on 14 Feb. 
1802. Fountayne married first, in 1744, Ann, 
daughter of William Bromley, speaker of the 
House of Commons ; secondly, Frances Maria, 
daughter of Thomas Whichcote of Harpswell, 
Lincolnshire ; and thirdly, in 1754, Ann, only 
daughter of Charles Montagu of Papplewick, 
Nottinghamshire. By his first wife he had no 
issue ; by his second, who died on 22 Aug. 
1750, he had one daughter only, viz. Frances 
Maria, who'married, on 27 Feb. 1773, William 
Tatton of Withenshaw, Cheshire, who took 
the name of Egerton ; by his third wife he 
had two sons, both of whom died unmarried, 
and three daughters, of whom the eldest and 
youngest died unmarried, and the second 
married Richard Wilson, second son of Dr. 
Christopher Wilson, bishop of Bristol. Foun- 
tayne published : 1. A sermon on the Lis- 
bon earthquake in 1755. 2. A fast sermon 
in 1756. 

[Hunter's South Yorkshire, i. 367 ; Le Neve's 
Fasti Eecl. Angl. ii. 670, iii. 408 ; Grad. Cant. ; 
Gent. Mag. 1802, pt. i. p. 190; Britton's York 
Cathedral, p. 86 ; Ormerod's Cheshire, ed. 
Helsby, iii. 610.] J. M. E. 

FOURDRINIER, HENRY (1766-1854), 
inventor, was born on 11 Feb. 1766, in Lom- 
bard Street, London. His father was a paper- 
maker and wholesale stationer, and was in 
all probability grandson of Paul Fourdrinier 
fsee under FOURDRINIER, PETER]. Henry 
Fourdrinier succeeded his father as a paper 
manufacturer. In conj unction with his brother 
Sealy he devoted himself for many years to 
the invention and improvement of paper- , 

making machinery. Their first patent was 
taken out in 1801. In 1807 they perfected 
their machine for making continuous paper. 
This machine imitated with some improve- 
ments the processes used in paper by hand. 
Its chief advantages were that it produced 
paper of any size, and with greatly increased 
rapidity. The experiments were very costly, 
and much litigation was required to protect 
the patent. When the invention was com- 
pleted they had expended 60,000/., and be- 
came bankrupt. Parliament extended the 
Fourdriniers' letters patent for fourteen years, 
and the new system of paper-making was 
widely adopted, but the brothers were greatly 
hampered by the defective state of the law of 
patents. In 1814 the Emperor Alexander, 
while visiting England, was interested in 
Fourdriniers' machine. An agreement was 
made that the Fourdriniers should receive 
700/. annually for the use of two machines 
for ten years. The machines were erected 
at Peterhoff under the superintendence of 
Henry Fourdrinier's son, but no portion of 
the stipulated yearly sum was ever paid. 
Henry Fourdrinier repeatedly asserted his 
claim, and at the age of seventy-two, at- 
tended by his daughter, made a journey to 
St. Petersburg, and placed his petition per- 
sonally in the hands of the Emperor Nicho- 
las. No result followed. Meanwhile the 
Fourdriniers had petitioned parliament for 
compensation for the losses sustained by them. 
On 25 April 1839 a motion was brought for- 
ward in the House of Commons, when the 
chancellor of the exchequer promised to go 
into the merits of the case. On 8 May 1840 
7,000/. was voted to the Fourdriniers. Many 
persons thought this inadequate, and a few 
years later a subscription, raised by firms in 
the paper trade, enabled annuities to be pur- 
chased for Henry Fourdrinier, the then sur- 
viving patentee, and his two daughters, in- 
suring a comfortable income during their 
respective lives. Henry Fourdrinier died 
on 3 Sept. 1854, in his eighty-ninth year, at 
Mavesyn Ridware, near Rugeley, where he 
spent the last years of his life in humble but 
cheerful retirement. 

His brother, SEALY FOURDRIXIER, partici- 
pated in the parliamentary compensation, 
but died in 1847 before the subscription had 
been applied. 

[Hansard, vols. xlvii. liii., 3rd ser. ; Illus- 
trated London News, 9 Sept. 1854; British and 
Colonial Printer and Stationer, September 1888.] 

J. B-Y. 

1750), engraver, a member of a French re- 
fugee family which fled from Caen to Hoi- 




land, was a pupil of Bernard Picart at Am- 
sterdam for six years, and came to England 
in 1720. He was employed in engraving 
portraits and book illustrations ; among the 
former were the portraits of Cardinal Wolsey 
and Bishop Tonstall in Fiddes's ' Life of 
Wolsey,' John Radcliffe, M.D., after Kneller, 
William Pattison, poet, after J. Saunders, 
William Conolly, speaker of the House of 
Commons in Ireland, after Jervas, Jonathan 
Swift, after Jervas, Dr. John Freind, after 
M. Dahl, and Thomas Wright, after G. Allen. 
He was more frequently employed on archi- 
tectural works, to which his mechanical style 
of engraving was well suited. He engraved 
plates for Cashel's ' Villas of the Ancients/ 
Ware's ' Views and Elevations of Houghton 
House, Norfolk,' Sir W. Chambers's ' Civil 
Architecture,' Wood's ' Ruins of Palmyra,' 
and others from the designs of Inigo Jones, 
W. Kent, and other architects. He also en- 
graved ' The Four Ages of Man/ after Lan- 
cret, one of Lempriere's views of Belem, near 
Lisbon, before the earthquake, and the illus- 
trations to Spenser's ' Calendarium Pastorale ' 
(London, 1732, 8vo). He is perhaps identical 
with Pierre Fourdrinier, who married at Am- 
sterdam in 1689Marthe Theroude, and came 
to England. Other authorities mention a 
PAUL FOTJKDRINIER as engraver of some of 
the works mentioned, and he has been iden- 
tified with Paul Fourdrinier who was of the 
parish of St. Martin's-in-the-Fields, and died 
in January or February 1758, leaving by his 
wife Susanna Grolleau a son Henry, whose 
daughter Jemima was tho mother of Cardinal 
John Henry Newman. The engravings are 
in all cases signed ' P. Fourdrinier/ but the 
title-page of Chambers's ' Civil Architecture' 
says that the plates were engraved by ' Old 
Rooker, Old Fourdrinier, and others/ which 
points to there having probably been two en- 
gravers of the name. 

[Redgrave's Diet, of Artists; Vertue's MSS. 
(Addit. MS. Brit. Mus. 23079) ; Dodd's manu- 
script History of English Engravers ; Bromley's 
Engraved British Portraits; Lowndes's Bibl. 
Man. ; information from H. Wagner, F.S.A.] 

L. C. 

FOURNIER, DANIEL (d. 1766 ?), en- 
graver and draughtsman, was probably a 
member of a French refugee family, and ori- 
ginally educated as a chaser. He also prac- 
tised the varying professions of 'a-la-mocle 
beef-seller, shoemaker, and engraver/ accord- 
ing to the inscription on a small portrait of 
him etched by himself. He likewise dealt 
in butter and eggs, modelled in wax, and 
taught drawing. In 1761, at about the age 
of fifty, he wrote and published ' A Treatise 
of the Theory and Practice of Perspective, 

wherein the Principles of that most Useful 
Art are Laid Down by Dr. Brook Taylor, are 
fully and clearly Explained by Means of 
Moveable Schemes properly Adapted for the 
Purpose/ &c. It is said that at the time he 
was writing it he used to draw the diagrams 
on the alehouse tables with chalk, and was 
known by the name of the ' Mad Geometer.' 
He was a good etcher, and etched a survey 
of the Leeward Islands. He also engraved 
in mezzotint a portrait of Cuthbert Mayne, 
a priest executed for heresy in 1579. In ad- 
dition to these accomplishments he is said 
to have made a fiddle, and taught himself to 
play upon it. He died in Wild Court, Wild 
Street, about 1766. 

[Redgrave's Diet, of Artists ; Dodd's manu- 
script History of English Engravers ; Grose's 
Olio ; Chaloner Smith's British Mezzotinto Por- 
traits.] L. C. 

FOWKE, FRANCIS (1823-1865), cap- 
tain royal engineers, architect and engineer 
of the Science and Art Department, South 
Kensington, was born at Belfast in July 1823 ; 
was educated at Dungannon College, and at 
a military tutor's at Woolwich ; entered the 
Royal Military Academy, Woolwich, in 1839, 
and passed out sixth in a batch of sixteen in 
1841. His proficiency in drawing secured 
his appointment to the royal engineers, in 
which he was commissioned as second lieute- 
nant 18 June 1842. He married, 22 May 
1845, Charlotte Louisa, daughter of the Rev. 
R. Rede Rede of Ashmans, Suffolk (Gent. 
Mag. new ser. xxiii. 538). He became first 
lieutenant 1 April 1846, and second captain 
17 Feb. 1854. After serving some years at 
Bermuda, Fowke was employed at Devon- 
port, where he prepared the working draw- 
ings for the new Raglan barracks, and is 
credited with originating the many sanitary 
improvements introduced there. About the 
period of the Russian war he brought under 
notice of the government numerous sugges- 
tions regarding the use of elongated projec- 
tiles for rifled ordnance, and later, a design 
for a collapsing canvas pontoon described in 
' Professional Papers, Corps of Royal Engi- 
neers/ new ser. vii. 81, and ' Journal United 
Service Institution/ iv. (1860), none of which 
led to any results. In 1854 he was sent to 
Paris in charge of the machinery for the 
Paris Exhibition, and when the late Colonel 
H. Cunliffe Owen, royal engineers, was or- 
dered to the Crimea, he was appointed secre- 
tary to the British commission in that officer's 
place. He carried out a series of valuable 
experiments on the strength of colonial woods, 
the results of which were published in the 
' Parliamentary Reports of the Paris Exhibi- 



tion.' and afterwards as a separate pamphlet, 
and are said, in Jamaica alone, to have raised 
the annual exports of lancewood spars four- 
fold, and of mahogany over eightfold (Proc. 
Inst. Civil Engineers, xxx. 469). He prepared 
the reports on ' Construction ' and ' Naval Con- 
struction ' in the exhibition reports. He was 
made a chevalier of the Legion of Honour, 
but was debarred by the rules of the British 
service from wearing the decoration, it not 
having been given for service in the field. A 
paper by him on ' Coast Defence Batteries ' 
appeared in the ' Papers, Corps of Royal En- 
gineers/ vol. v. (1856). 

Fowke remained in Paris until 1857, and 
on his return was made an inspector of the 
Science and Art Department. On the re- 
moval of the department from Marlborough 
House to South Kensington, he was entrusted 
with the adaptation of the iron buildings ori- 
ginally erected by Sir William Cubitt, and 
popularly known as the ' Brompton Boilers,' 
and a nest of old residences adjoining, work 
which he executed with economy and des- 
patch. In the midst of it he was called upon to 
build a picture-gallery for the Sheepshanks 
gift of pictures, one of the conditions of the be- 
quest being that a suitable apartment should 
be provided by the nation within twelve 
months. In this work Fowke was associated 
with Mr. Redgrave, R.A., who had discovered 
a formula for a top-light gallery. The object 
sought that the pictures should be seen 
without glare or reflection was in most re- 
spects satisfactorily accomplished, and Fowke 
further devised arrangements for lighting 
them by gas, together with an ingenious con- 
trivance, now in use, for lighting many hun- 
dred gas-burners at once. Before the work 
was finished the Yernon and Turner galleries 
were required, which Fowke erected with 
fireproof floors at very small cost, not ex- 
ceeding, it is said, fourpence per cubic foot. 
In 1858 Fowke was again sent to Paris. The 
international technical commission on the im- 
provement of the Danube navigation which 
was then sitting there had come to a dead- 
lock ; the whole of the papers had been sub- 
mitted by the British officers present to Sir 
John Fox Burgoyne [q. v.], then inspector- 
general of fortifications, and Fowke was sent 
to Paris as the exponent of Burgoyne's views 
(see WROTTESLET, Life of Fields-Marshal Sir 
John Fox Burgoyne, ii. 366-9). From Sir 
Henry Cole's account it would seem that 
Fowke made an independent report to Lord 
Cowley, the British ambassador, which was 
privately printed (memoir in Professional 
Papers Royal Engineers'). 

As architect and engineer of the Science 
and Art Department, Fowke designed the 

new Museum of Science and Art, Edin- 
burgh, and the improvements and enlarge- 
ment of the Dublin National Gallery. He 
designed and erected the Officers' Library, 
Aldershot, which was executed at the pri- 
vate cost of the prince consort, and erected 
the drill shed for the 1st Middlesex volun- 
teer engineers (the first engineer volunteer 
: corps formed), which Sir Joseph Paxton pro- 
nounced to be the cheapest structure he had 
ever seen. He planned the buildings for the 
International Exhibition of 1862, in which 
the main feature was originally a noble hall, 
which was omitted altogether owing to want 
of funds. The lighting, ventilation, and gene- 
ral arrangement of the buildings were allowed 
to be a success : for their artistic shortcom- 
ings Fowke was not responsible. Two years 
later, in an open competition of designs for 
permanent buildings to be erected on the 
site of the 1862 exhibition, the judges, Lord 
Elcho (now Earl Wemyss), Messrs. Tite, 
M.P., Pennethorne, and D. Roberts, R.A., 
unanimously awarded him the first prize. He 
was engaged in the erection of the present 
South Kensington Museum at the time of his 
death. Fowke, who had been in delicate 
health, died from rupture of a blood-vessel 
at his official residence, South Kensington,. 
4 Dec. 1865, and was buried at Brompton 
cemetery. A bust of him, by Woolner, has 
been placed in the South Kensington Mu- 

Besides the reports and papers above named, 
Fowke was author of ' A Description of the 
Buildings at South Kensington for the Re- 
ception of the Sheepshanks Pictures,' Lon- 
don, 1858, 8vo, and ' Some Account of the 
Buildings designed for the International Ex- 
hibition of 1862,' London, 1861, 8vo. He 
likewise contributed to the ' Cornhill Maga- 
zine ' a paper entitled the ' National Gallery 
Difficulty Solved,' which appeared in March 
1860, and another on ' London, the Strong- 
hold of England,' which appeared in July 
1860, both of which, especially the latter, at- 
tracted much attention at the time. Fowke 
! was the inventor of a military fire-engine, 
! made to limber up like a field gun, which is 
! now in use in the service, and an improved 
photographic camera, which he patented, to- 
gether with one or two other minor inven- 
tions. He was a man of pliant and original 
mind, quick at viewing things in novel and 
unconventional lights, and it is claimed for 
him, by his friend Sir Henry Cole [q. v.], 
that he was on the point of solving the pro- 
blem of the decorative use of iron for struc- 
tural purposes. 

[Memoir by Sir H. Cole in Papers on Pro- 
fessional Subjects, Corps of Eoyal Engineers, 


8 1 


xv. 9 ; Proceedings Inst. Civil Engineers (Lon- 
don), xxx. 468-70; Athenaeum, 1865, ii. 808.] 

H. M. C. 

FOWKE, JOHN (d. 1662), lord mayor, 
third son of William Fowke of Tewkesbury, 
Gloucestershire, by his wife, Alice Carr of 
Newcastle-under-Lyme, Staffordshire ( Visi- 
tation of London, 1633-5, Harl. Soc. i. 288 ; 
STOW, Survey, ed. Strype, bk. v. p. 145), came 
to London, and eventually rose to be one 
of its leading merchants. He was a mem- 
ber of the Haberdashers' Company, and an 
alderman (ORRIDGE, Citizens of London and 
their Rulers, p. 236). In 1627 Fowke, in 
obedience to the vote and declaration of the 
commons against paying tonnage and pound- 
age, persistently refused to pay, although ' a 
man of great trading at that time.' Accord- 
ingly he had ' currans, muscadels, grograms, 
mohairs, raw-silk, and other goods, seized to 
his prejudice of 5,827/.' In August 1627 and 
January 1628, for attempting to obtain legal 
redress, he was imprisoned and lost more 
merchandise. In the following February he 
was prosecuted by the Star-chamber for ' pre- 
tended riot and seditious words ' used by 
him to the officers sent to execute the reple- 
vin. About the same time Charles openly 
expressed his displeasure against him at the 
council table, and shortly afterwards named 
him in a declaration printed and published 
in March 1628. In October 1629, on Fowke 
again refusing to pay the impost, an infor- 
mation was laid against him at the council, 
and ' great endeavours used to take away his 
life and estate upon false pretences of clip- 
ping of money and piracies.' After witnesses 
had been examined he was committed to the 
Fleet, ' without any cause expressed,' and his 
ship and cargo, with a prize of sugar, seized. 
All his endeavours to regain his liberty proved 
ineffectual, and, after spending a large sum 
on law costs, he was forced ' to give 40,000/. 
bail in the admiralty about the said prize.' 
In June 1641 he petitioned the commons for 
relief, as he had previously done in 1628, 
setting forth that he had then lost 20,000/. 
The house, by an order of 30 June 1645, no- 
minated a committee to consider how he 
might have reparation out of delinquent's 
estates (Command Journals, vols. iv. vi. vii.) 
Fowke served the office of sheriff in 1643. 
He had naturally become a bitter opponent 
of the court party. Charles, in his answer 
to the city petition of 4 Jan. 1642-3, speaks 
of Fowke as one of the leaders of the parlia- 
mentary party in the city, and a person ' no- 
toriously guilty of schism and high treason ' 
(cf. also the King's Letter and Declaration 
to the City, 17 Jan. 1642-3, and the Speech 
of Pym, 13 Jan. 1642-3, in reply to Charles's 


Answer to the City Petition). In the ordi- 
nance of 29 March 1642-3 for assessing such 
as had not contributed according to the pro- 
positions of the parliament for raising money, 
Fowke was one of the persons empowered to 
nominate collectors in each ward. Having 
afterwards been appointed a commissioner of 
the customs, and refusing to deliver up an 
account upon oath of what money he had 
received, he was fined for this contempt 1001. 
by the committee of accompts, 18 April 1645, 
and in the end sent to the Fleet. There- 
upon a deputation from the common council, 
headed by his friend William Gibbs, gold- 
smith, then sheriff, petitioned the commons 
on 23 July for his release on bail, praying 
besides that the house would appoint a com- 
mittee to hear his cause ; ' he being com- 
mitted not upon the matter of his accompt, 
but upon the manner of his accompting.' 
After a ' serious and long ' debate on 4 Aug. 
it was resolved that Fowke ought to ' ac- 
compt jointly with the rest of the late com- 
missioners and collectors of the customs ; ' 
it was further ordered that he 'do accompt 
for the three hundred pounds and such other 
monies and goods for which he is accompt- 
able ' {Commons' Journals, vol. iv.) Despite 
these irregularities he appears to have re- 
tained his commissionership, for so late as 
July 1658 he was reported to have in his 
keeping 1,500/. of public money, which he 
refused to deliver up (cf. Cal. State Papers, 
Dom. 1658-9, pp. 58, 102). He was in fact 
treated by all factions, until the Restoration, 
with the greatest deference. By virtue of 
two decrees made by Lord-keeper Coventry, 
on 21 Nov. 1631 and 9 June 1635, the East 
India Company had detained Fowke's ' ad- 
ventures in their hands, by him alleged to 
be sixteen hundred pounds in their second 
joint stock, and twenty-one hundred pounds 
more in three of their voyages.' Fowke 
therefore petitioned the lords, 8 July 1646, 
to have these decrees reversed. On 6 May 
1647 judgment w r as given in his favour. He 
obtained full restitution, with interest, and 
100/. costs (Lords' Journals, vols. viii. ix.) 
At a meeting of the common council for 
nominating a new committee for the militia 
of London, 27 April 1647, Fowke's name was 
ordered to be omitted from the list to be pre- 
sented to parliament. However, on the fol- 
lowing 12 June, upon a rumour of the army's 
near approach to London, he was asked to 
head a deputation to parliament to desire its 
approbation of the city's answer to Fairfax, 
and early next morning he set out along with 
his fellow-commissioners to carry it to the 
general at St. Albans. He was restored to 
the militia committee by an ordinance of 

Fowke * 

both houses dated 23 July and 2 Sept. 1647. 
On 12 July 1648 Fowke presented to both 
houses a ' petition for peace in the name of 
divers well-affected magistrates, ministers, 
and other inhabitants in the city of London, 
and parts adjacent,' and delivered himself of 
a short speech. The petition, which with the 
speech was published, expressed a hope that 
the parliament might take a course to secure 
peace. When, a few weeks later, the army 
returned to London, ' some false brothers in 
the city,' says Lord Holies, ' as Alderman 
Foulks and Alderman Gibbs, bewitcht the 
city and lull'd it into a security ' (Memoirs, 
1699, pp. 110, 160). At the sale of bishops' 
lands Fowke acquired, 28 Sept. 1648, the 
Gloucestershire manors of Maysmore, Preston, 
Longford, and Ashleworth, the property of the 
sees of Gloucester and Bristol, for 3,819. 14s. 
(Collectanea Topographica ct Genealogica, i. 
124). He was named one of the king's judges, 
but refused to attend. On 27 Feb. 1651 a 
parliamentary committee reported that com- 
pensation to the extent of 27,615/. ought to be 
awarded him (Commons' Journals, vii. 99- 
100). The matter was referred to a com- 
mittee of the council of state, 9 Sept. 1652 
(ib. vii. 177), who suggested, 25 Oct., that 
state lands inWaltham Forest, Essex, worth 
500J. a year should be settled on him and his 
heirs for ever, ' according to his own propo- 
sitions given into council' ( Cal. State Papers, 
Dom. 1651-2, p. 455). This proposal, al- 
though backed up by innumerable petitions 
from Fowke, did not receive the assent of 
the council until 9 May 1654 (ib. 1654, p. 
162). Elated by his success, Fowke now 
besought them to take his ' sufferings ' into 
consideration. Finally, it was enacted, 4 Aug. 
1654, that 5,000/. be assigned him from the 
fines set by the Act of Grace for Scotland, 
' and if any part remained unpaid, it should 
be provided for some other way' (ib. 1654, 
p. 287). During 1652-3 Fowke served the 
office of lord mayor. In January 1653 he 
was acting as a commissioner for the sale of 
the king's goods (Cal. of Clarendon State 
Papers, ii. 171). Along with four other 
commissioners he was appointed, 10 March 
1653-4, to consider ' how the business of the 
forests might be best improved for the benefit 
of the state,' and to draw up a report thereon 
(Cal.State Papers, Dom. 1654,pp.l9,97). He 
was one of the committee chosen by the city to 
confer with Fleetwood, 9 Dec. 1659 (Mercu- 
rius Politicus, 8-15 Dec. 1659, p. 945). Three 
weeks later he laid before the court of common 
council a report which was printed on the ' im- 
minent and extraordinary danger of the City.' 
When the city corporation agreed to send their 
thanks to Monck for his services, Fowke was 

* Fowke 

one of the three commissioners appointed for 
that purpose, 19 Jan. 1659-60 (ib. 19-26 Jan. 
1660, p. 1043). On 30 Jan. he reported to 
the lord mayor, in the name -of the other 
commissioners, the effect of their journey 
(ib. 26 Jan. to 2 Feb. 1650, p. 1068). In 
March he appears as a commissioner for the 
City of London militia (ib. 8-15 March 1660, 
p. 1170). When the Restoration seemed in- 
evitable, Fowke hastened to clear himself of 
all complicity in the king's death by issuing 
an advertisement (ib. 22-9 March 1660, p. 
1199), denying that he was 'one of those 
persons that did actually sit as judges upon 
the tryal,' to which he appended a certificate 
to the like effect from Henry Scobell, clerk 
of the parliament, dated 28 March 1660. For 
a while he appears to have lived in retirement 
at his country seat at Clayberry, situated in 
the north-east side of Barking, near Woodford 
Bridge, Essex. He was, however, elected M.P. 
for the city of London on 19 March 1660-1, 
when he headed the poll (Lists of Members 
of Parliament, Official Return, pt. i. p. 525), 
and was chosen in the same year president of 
Christ's Hospital (TKOLLOPE, Hist, of Christ's 
Hospital, p. 310), to which and to Bethlehem 
Hospital he proved a liberal benefactor. He 
bequeathed to the former institution certain 
estates in Essex for the maintenance of eight 
boys, of whom two were to be of the parish 
of Barking and two of Woodford (Lyso^s, 
Environs, iv. 104, 286 ; TROLLOPE, p. 117, 
note). Under this bequest Clayberry was 
sold by his trustees in 1693 (LTSONS, iv. 85). 
Fowke's portrait, dated 1691, is at Christ's 
Hospital (TROLLOPE, p. 344). He died of 
apoplexy on 22 April 1662 (SMYTH, Obituary, 
Caniden Soc., p. 55). By his wife Catherine, 
daughter of Richard Briggs of London, he 
had two sons, John and Bartholomew, and a 
daughter, Elizabeth. 

[Wood's Athense Oxon. (Bliss), iii. 683 ; 
Noble's Lives of the English Eegicides, i. 237- 
242 ; Eushworth's Historical Collections, pt. iv. 
vol. i. pp. 472, 558, 634, pt. iv. vol. ii. p. 797.] 

G. G. 

FOWKE, PHINEAS, M.D. (1638-1710), 
physician, son of Walter Fowke, M.D., was 
born at Bishop Burton, Yorkshire, and there 
baptised on 7 Jan. 1639. His mother was 
sister of Sir John Micklethwaite [q. v.], 
physician to Charles II and to St. Bartholo- 
mew's Hospital. He was admitted at Queens' 
College, Cambridge, 21 April 1654, and gra- 
duated B.A. 1658, and on 26 March in the 
same year was admitted a fellow of the col- 
lege. His family connections directed him 
to the profession of medicine, and he gra- 
duated M.D. at Cambridge 1668. He prac- 


tised in London, residing in Little Britain, 
end was admitted a fellow of the College of 
Physicians 12 Nov. 1680. In 1684 he mar- 
ried Sarah, daughter of Sir Vincent Corbet, 
foart., at Shrewsbury. She died 6 Dec. 1686. 
He retired to his paternal estate in Shrop- 
shire, and there died at Little Worley Hall 
21 Jan. 1710. He was buried in the neigh- 
bouring church of Brewood, and his death is 
recorded on his wife's monument in St. Chad's 
Church, Shrewsbury. He was learned in 
theology as well as in medicine, and was an 
admirer of Dr. Seth Ward, bishop of Sarum, 
whose views on passive obedience he warmly 
supported. In some manuscript notes on a 
sermon of Ward's, on the text 'And they that 
resist shall receive to themselves damnation,' 
Fowke expresses his contempt of the conduct 
of the university of Oxford in 1688, saying, 
' These great pretenders to loyalty invited ye 
Prince of Orange. They had no patience 
when King James bore upon their privi- 
ledges in Oxford, but exclamed bitterly 
against ye king and joyned with the wiggs 
and dissenters to bring in ye Prince of Orange.' 
Among the Sloane manuscripts in the British 
Museum there is a private letter of Fowkes. 

[Munk's Coll. of Phys. i. 417; Original Lists 
Ooll. of Phys. of London; 'Seven Sermons, by Seth 
Ward, Bishop of Sarum, 1674, annotated in 
manuscript by Ph. Fowke, M.D., C.E.C.S.] 

N. M. 

FOWLER, ABRAHAM (fl, 1577), poet, 
was a queen's scholar at Westminster, whence 
te was elected to Christ Church, Oxford, in 
1568. His name does not appear on the uni- 
versity register. He contributed a poem in al- 
ternate rhymes to' A Philosophicall discussion 
entituled The Anatomie of the Minde newlie 
made and set forth by T[homas] R[ogers],' 
London, 1576. Rogers [q. v.] was a student 
of Christ Church. Fowler's verse is followed 
by a poem by Camden. 

[Welch's Alumni Westmonast. p. 47 ; "Wood's 
Athense Oxon. (Bliss), ii. 163 ; Brydges's Censura 
Literaria, vi. 33.] S. L. L. 


1678), ejected minister, son of John Fowler, 
was born at Marlborough, Wiltshire, about 
1610. He entered Magdalen College, Ox- 
ford, as a servitor in 1627, and graduated 
B.A. on 9 Feb. 1632. Removing to St. Ed- 
mund Hall, he graduated M.A. on 29 Oct. 
1634. To John Prideaux, regius professor of 
divinity, he owed his strong attachment to the 
Calvinistic theology. He took holy orders, 
and was a puritan preacher in and about Ox- 
ford till he obtained a settlement at West 
Woodhay, Berkshire, before 1641. On the 

surrender of Reading (26 April 1643), Thomas 
Bunbury, vicar of St. Mary's, joined the king 
at Oxford; his living was sequestered and 
given to Fowler. He took the covenant (1643), 
and distinguished himself by his zeal for the 
presbyterian cause. Thinking himself unsafe 
in the neighbourhood of the royalist troops 
at the manor-house of Donnington, Berkshire, 
garrisoned for the king at the time of the 
second battle of Newbury (27 Oct. 1644), 
Fowler went up to London. Here his fanatical 
preaching attracted a crowd of hearers. Wood 
suggests that he was at this time preacher at 
St. Margaret's, Lothbury ; it seems, however, 
that he obtained an appointment at Albourn, 
Sussex (Funeral Sermon) ; the engagement 
at St. Margaret's belongs to a later date; his 
name first occurs in the registers in 1652. In 
1649 Fowler refused to take the ' engagement ' 
to be faithful to the Commonwealth without 
king or House of Lords. Notwithstanding 
this disqualification, he was subsequently 
made fellow of Eton College. 

Fowler was an assistant to the commis- 
sioners for Berkshire, appointed under the or- 
dinance of 28 Aug. 1654, for ejecting scanda- 
lous ministers. In this capacity he was mixed 
up with the proceedings against a noted 
mystic and astrologer, John Pordage [q. v.], 
formerly of St. Lawrence's, Reading, whom 
the commissioners ejected (by order 8 Dec. 
1654, to take effect 2 Feb. 1655) from the 
rectory of Bradfield, Berkshire. Fowler wrote 
an account and defence of this business, in 
which he and John Tickel, presbyterian 
minister at Abingdon, Berkshire, had taken 
a leading part. Somewhat later he entered 
the lists against the quakers. In conjunction 
with Simon Ford [q. v.], vicar of St. Law- 
rence's, Reading, he published (1656) an 
answer to the ' quaking doctrines ' of Thomas 
Speed of Bristol, and he engaged in a contro- 
versy (1659) with Edward Burrough [q. v.] 

On the restoration of the monarchy Fowler 
lost his fellowship at Eton, but retained the 
Reading vicarage till he was ejected by the 
Uniformity Act of 1662. He then moved to 
London, had his abode successively at Ken- 
nington and Southwark, and exercised his 
ministry in private. He had a turn for the 
explication of prophecy, wherein he displayed 
' a singular gift in chronology.' According to 
Wood, he was 'esteemed a little better than 
crazed or distracted for some time before his 
death.' It is possible that his powers failed, 
but of his general ability a high estimate is 
given by William Cooper [q. v.], no mean 
judge. A warrant was out for his apprehen- 
sion as a conventicle preacher at the time of 
his death. He died in Southwark on [15 ?] 
January 1678, and was buried within the 


Fowler I 

precincts of St. John the Baptist, Dowgate 
Hill. Cooper preached his funeral sermon. 

Hepublished: 1. 'DaemoniumMeridianum,' 
&c., 1655, 4to (an account of the proceedings 
against Pordage, who had already published 
his own account, 1654, 4to ; with appendix 
in reply to Pordage's ' Innocency Appearing,' 
1655, fol.) 2. 'Dsemonium Meridianum. 
The Second Part,'&c., 1656, 4to (in reply to 
Pordage's ' Truth Appearing,' 1655, 4to, and 
a tract entitled ' The Case of Reading,' 1656, 
4to ; appendices on infant baptism in answer 
to John Pendarves, and on the Reading 
case addressed to the municipal authorities). 
3. 'A Sober Answer to an angry Epistle . . . 
by Thomas Speed,' &c., 1656, 4to (by Fowler 
and Ford ; Speed replied to these and another 
adversary in ' The Guilty-Covered Clergy- 
man,' &c., 1657, 4to). 4. ' A True Charge 
in Ten Particulars against the people called 
Quakers ' [1659] (does not seem to have been 
separately printed ; it is handled in ' A Dis- 
covery,' &c., 1659, 4to, by Edward Burrough, 
and is reprinted in Burrough's ' Works,' 1672, 
fol. 5. 'Sermon on John xix. 42,' 1666, 4to 
(this is mentioned by Wood, but not seen by 
him ; the date seems to show that Fowler was 
one of those nonconformists who resumed their 
ministry after the great fire in defiance of the 
law, and it may give some colour to the con- 
jecture that he founded the presbyterian con- 
gregation which met in a wooden structure at 
Unicorn Yard, Tooley Street). Also a sermon 
in the 'Morning Exercise at Cripplegate,' 
1674-6, 4to, and another in the ' Morning 
Exercise against Popery preached in South- 
wark,' 1675, 4to. 

[Funeral Sermon by Cooper, 1677 (i.e. 1678) ; 
Wood's Athense Oxon. 1691 i. 870, 1692 ii. 449 
sq., 728; Calamy's Account, 1713, p. 97 sq. ; Pal- 
mer's Nonconf. Memorial, 1802, i. 294 sq. (mis- 
prints the date of death, 1676, an error -which 
has been folio-wed by later -writers) ; Chalmers's 
Gen. Biog. Diet. 1814, xv. 14 sq. ; Wilson's Diss. 
Churches, 1814, iv. 228; Smith's Biblioth. Anti- 
Quak., 1873, p. 189 sq.; Fowler's Daemonium ] 

A. G. 

FOWLER,EDWARD, D.D.(1632-1714), 
bishop of Gloucester, was born in 1632 at 
Westerleigh, Gloucestershire. His father, 
Richard Fowler, whom Calamy describes as 
a man of great ability, was ejected as a non- 
conformist in 1662 from the perpetual curacy 
of Westerleigh. At the same time the 
bishop's elder brother, Stephen Fowler, B. A., 
was ejected from a fellowship at St. John's, 
Cambridge, and from the rectory of Crick, 
Northamptonshire. He became presbyterian 
minister at Newbury, Berkshire, in 1684, and 
died soon after. Edward Fowler was edu- 
cated at the college school in Gloucester 

i Fowler 

under William Russell, who had married his 
sister. At the beginning of 1650 he waa 
admitted a clerk of Corpus Christ! College, 
Oxford, and became a chaplain on 14 Dec. 
1653, having a gift of extemporary prayer. 
He graduated B.A. on 23 Dec. 1653. After 
this he became a member of Trinity College, 
Cambridge, and graduated M.A. about 1655. 
Returning to Oxford, he was incorporated 
M.A. on 5 July 1656. 

Fowler's first post on leaving the university 
was that of presbyterian chaplain to Amabella, 
dowager countess of Kent. Through the in- 
fluence of his patroness he obtained in 1656 
the rectory of Norhill, Bedfordshire, a dona* 
tive in the gift of the Grocers' Company. On 
the passing of the Uniformity Act (1662), he 
was inclined to cast in his lot with his father 
and brother ; he appears to have been non- 
resident till after 1664, though this was 
contrary to the terms of the donative ; sub- 
sequently he conformed, and retained his 
rectory. He did not forfeit the respect of 
nonconformists ; Calamy speaks of him as 
'a very worthy man.' His theology wa% 
of the Baxterian type, a mean between Cal- 
vinism and Arminianism. He accepted the 
articles in Ussher's sense, as 'instruments 
of peace,' and deplored the combative zeal 
alike of the high churchman and the puritan. 
In 1670 he presented his views, without 
giving his name, in a ' Free Discourse,' an 
animated, if somewhat rambling dialogue 
between Philalethes and Theophilus. This 
piece is avowedly a defence of thelatitudina 1 - 
rian divines, though Fowler never belonged 
to the inner circle of the Cambridge men of 
that school. It was followed next year by 
his 'Design of Christianity,' dedicated to 
Sheldon, in which the authorship of the 
' Free Discourse ' is admitted, and stress is> 
laid on the moral purpose of Revelation. 
Baxter criticised the argument (' How fay- 
Holiness is the Design of Christianity,' 1671, 
4to) ; while Bunyan vehemently assailed the 
author from Bedford gaol (' Defence of the 
Doctrine of Justification by Faith,'1672, 4to)(. 
An undignified retort (' Dirt Wip'd Off'') is 
with too much reason connected with Fow- 
ler, nor is the matter mended by the sugges- 
tion that for some of his vocabulary of abuse- 
he may have been indebted to his curate. 
Bunyan described the ' Design ' as a mixture- 
of ' popery, socinianism, and quakerism ; r 
on the other hand Joseph Smith includes the- 
book in his 'Bibliotheca Anti-Quakeriana,' 
though he admits that the reference to Friend* 
is ' very slight.' 

Fowler's ' Discourse ' and ' Design ' com- 
mended him to Sheldon, who brought him to 
London as rector of Allhallows, Bread Street. 

Fowler < 

He was collated to the living on 25 Aug. 
1673 ; whether he then resigned Norhill is 
not certain. As a London preacher he became 
intimate with Thomas Firmin [q.v.], who sub- 
sequently circulated among his workers large 
editions of a ' Scripture Catechism/ which 
is believed to have been drawn up by Fowler. 
He was installed in the fourth prebend in 
Gloucester Cathedral on 29 Feb. 1676. In 
1680 he published his ' Libertas Evangelica/ 
a sequel to his ' Design.' Next year, resign- 
ing other cure of souls, he was instituted 
(31 March) to the vicarage of St. Giles, Crip- 
plegate. On 10 June 1681 he accumulated 
the degrees of B.D. and D.D. at Oxford. Two 
years later he began to write against popery 
(already attacked with some vigour in his 
* Design '), pursuing the topic with so much 
eagerness as to give offence in high quarters 
under James II. At the instance of some 
parishioners, who considered him ' guilty of 
whigism,' he was prosecuted in the court of 
arches for uncanonical practices, such as ad- 
mitting excommunicated persons without ab- 
solution, and was suspended on 9 Dec. 1685. 
When the London clergy met to consider 
whether they should read James's declaration 
for liberty of conscience (11 April 1687), 
Fowler delivered a manly speech, described 
by Macaulay, which converted the whole 
meeting to the views of a small but resolute 
minority. Patrick was the first and Fowler 
the second to subscribe a general pledge 
against reading the declaration. Upon the 
revolution of 1688-9, Fowler thought the 
time come for the consolidation of the pro- 
testant interest by a comprehension of the 
dissenters. As a member of the royal com- 
mission of thirty divines (appointed 13 Sept. 
1689) for revising the prayer-book, Fowler 
proposed that the use of the Athanasian 
Creed be left optional. The whole scheme was 
dropped lest any change should strengthen 
the cause of the nonjuring schism. After the 
execution (28 Jan. 1691) of John Ashton 
[q. v.], the Jacobite conspirator, a ' Paper ' 
which he had produced at the gallows was 
published, and made a great impression. 
Fowler immediately prepared and printed 
(though without his name) an ' Answer ' to 
its political argument. His reward was his 
elevation to the bishopric of Gloucester. On 
1 Feb. 1691 Robert Frampton [q. v.] was 
deprived as a nonjuror; Fowler was nomi- 
nated on 23 April, elected 2 July, and con- 
secrated 5 July 1691. He still held in com- 
mendam his London vicarage, and continued 
to preach at St. Giles's till age incapacitated 
him. It seems that for twenty-five years, 
from 1683, he provided a lecturer at his own 
cost, and in consideration of this the vestry 

5 Fowler 

in 1701 repaired the chancel. In 1708, 
when he ' could no longer preach in a morn- 
ing/ the vestry at his request, he ' having a 
large family and but small profits from the 
vicarage/ undertook to provide a lecturer. His 
episcopate was a quiet one ; the non-jurors 
in his diocese were few, and Frampton did 
nothing to encourage a schism. Fowler took 
little part as a bishop in public affairs. After 
the attack on nonconformist academies as 
political seminaries (made in the dedications 
to the second and third volumes of Clarendon's 
' History/ 1703-4), he and Williams, bishop 
of Chichester, endeavoured to get the dis- 
senters to put forth a declaration disclaim- 
ing antimonarchical principles. On the ad- 
vice of Lord Somers the suggestion was not 

Fowler's speculations on the Trinity belong 
to the later period of his life, and may be 
traced to his desire to satisfy the objections 
of Firmin. In his 'Twenty-eight Proposi- 
tions ' he to some extent anticipated Clarke, 
attempting, with the aid of patristic autho- 
rity, to strike a line between the errors of 
Arianism and the later developments of dog- 
matic orthodoxy. His patristic learning was 
not deep ; and the Socinians, who felt them- 

| selves challenged, admitted his reasonable- 
ness, but thought his argument halted. Heat- 

j tended Firmin on his deathbed, receiving from 
him a confession of faith which he accepted as 
adequate. Fowler had little tincture of the 

: platonism characteristic of the Cambridge 
men whom he admired. He kept up a corre- 
spondence with Henry More, supplying him 
between 1678 and 1681 with ghost stories, 
as the empirical basis of a spiritual philo- 
sophy. From More he borrowed a doctrine 
of the pre-existence of our Lord's human 
soul, urging it with some vehemence in a 
special ' Discourse ' (1706). The opinion was 
' examined ' by William Sherlock, ' vindi- 
cated ' by Thomas Emlyn [q. v.], and espoused 
at a later date by Watts and Doddridge. 

Fowler survived Frampton over six years, 
dying at Chelsea on 26 Aug. 1714. He was 
buried in the churchyard of Hendon, Middle- 
sex; in 1717 his remains were removed to a 
vault in the same churchyard ; a monument 
to his memory is erected in the chancel of 
the church. He married, first, Ann (d. 19 Dec. 
1696), daughter of Arthur Barnardiston, mas- 
ter in chancery ; and secondly, Elizabeth (d. 
2 April 1732), daughter of Ralph Trevor, a 
London merchant, and widow of Hezekiah 
Burton, D.D. [q. v.] By his first wife he 
had three sons and five daughters, of whom 
Edward and Richard and three daughters 
survived him. 

He published : 1. ' The Principles and 



Practices of certain Moderate Divines . . . 
called Latitudinarians ... in a Free Dis- 
course,' &c., 1670, 8vo (anon.); 1671, 8vo; 
1679, 8vo. 2. The Design of Christianity,' 
&c., 1671, 8vo ; 1676, 8vo ; 1699, 8vo ; 1760, 
8vo (reprinted in vol. vi. of Bishop Watson's 
' Collection of Theological Tracts,' Cambr. 
1785, 8vo). 3. ' Dirt Wip'd Off: or, a Mani- 
fest Discovery of the . . . Wicked Spirit of 
one John Bunyan,' &c., 1672, 4to. 4. ' Liber- 
tas Evangelica ... a further pursuance of 
The Design of Christianity,' &c., 1680, 8vo. 
5. ' The Resolution of this Case of Conscience, 
whether the Church of England, symbolising 
. . . with . . . Rome, makes it lawful to 
hold Communion with the Church of Eng- 
land,' &c., 1683, 4to. 6. ' A Defence of the 
Resolution ... in answer to A Modest Exa- 
mination,' &c., 1684, 4to. 7. ' The Great 
Wickedness ... of Slandering,' &c., 1685, 
4to (sermon at St. Giles's, 15 Nov., with vin- 
dicatory preface and appendix). 8. ' An 
Examination of Cardinal Bellarmine's Fourth 
Note of the Church,' &c., 1687, 4to. 9. ' The 
Texts which Papists cite . . . for the proof 
of ... the obscurity of the Holy Scriptures,' 
&c., 1687, 4to; 1688, 4to (Nos. 8 and 9 are 
reprinted in Bishop Gibson's 'Preservative 
against Popery,' 1089, 3 vols. fol., several 
times reprinted, the latest edition being 1848- 
1849, 18 vols. 8vo). 10. 'An Answer to 
the Paper delivered by Mr. Ashton at his 
Execution,' 1690 [i.e. 1691], 4to (anon.) 
11. ' Twenty-eight Propositions, by which 
the Doctrine of the Trinity is endeavoured 
to be explained,' 1693, 4to (anon.) (WAL- 
LACE). 12. ' Certain Propositions, by which 
the Doctrin of the H. Trinity is so explain'd,' 
&c., 1694, 4to (anon. ; a reissue of No. 11, 
with a ' Defence ' against ' Considerations,' 
1694, 4to, probably by Stephen Nye); 1719, 
8vo. 13. 'A Second Defence of the Pro- 
positions . . . with a Third Defence,' &c., 
1695, 4to (the ' Second Defence' is in reply to 
' a Socinian MS.,' which seems to have been 
submitted to Fowler by Firmin ; the ' Third 
Defence ' is in reply to ' A Letter to the Reve- 
rend the Clergy,' 1694, 4to ; [see FRANKLAND, 
RICHARD]). 14. 'A Discourse of the Descent 
of the Man, Christ Jesus, from Heaven,' &c., 
1706, 8vo. 15. ' Reflections upon the late 
Examination of the Discourse of the Descent,' 
&c., 1706, 8vo. Also fourteen separate ser- 
mons (1681-1707) and a charge (1710). 

[Calamy's Account, 171 3, pp. 90,95, 330,494; 
Continuation, 1727, pp. 128, 50ri, 639; Own 
Life, 1830, i. 63, ii. 305; Wood's Athene Oxon. 
1692, ii. 780, 790, 888 ; Wood's Athene Oxon. 
(Tanner), 1721, ii. 1029; Biog. Brit. 1750, iii. 
2012 (article by C., i.e. Philip Morant) ; Glan- 
vil's Saducismus Triumphatus, 1681, ii. 230 sq.; 

Barrington's Letter of Advice to Protestant 
Dissenters, 1720, p. 18; Emlyn's Works, 1746, i. 
361 sq.; Birch's Life of Tillotson, 1753, p. 294 ; 
Watt's Bibliotheca Britannica, 1824; Chalmers's. 
Gen. Biog. Diet. 1814,xv. 16 sq.; Cardwell's Hist, 
of Conferences, 1841, p. 411 sq.; Lathbury's Hist, 
of Nonjurors, 1845, p. 78 sq. ; Macaulay's Hist, 
of Engl. 1848, ii. 349; Wallace's Antitrinitarian 
Biog. 1850, i. 280 sq., 323 sq. ; Hunt'sEel. Thought 
in Engl. 1871, ii. 38, &c. ; Tulloch's Eational 
Theol. 1872, ii. 35 sq., 437 sq. ; Smith's Biblio- 
theca Anti-Quakeriana, 1873, p. 190; Evans's 
Life of Bishop Frampton, 1876, p. 219; informa- 
tion from the Rev. F. Pott, rector of Norhill.] 

A. G. 

FOWLER, HENRY (1779-1838), hymn- 
writer, was born at Yealmpton, Devonshire, 
11 Dec. 1779. In early life he followed some 
trade, but occasionally preached in indepen- 
dent meeting-houses in Devonshire and at 
Bristol. At length, in October 1813, he 
' received a call ' to Birmingham, where he 
continued until the end of 1819. Ultimately 
he settled in London, becoming in July 1820 
minister of Gower Street Chapel. He died 
16 Dec. 1838, and was buried on Christmas- 
day morning at the New Bunhill Fields bury- 
ing-ground at Islington. As ' a close, search- 
ing preacher,' Fowler had for some years an 
excellent congregation, and a tolerable one 
to the close of his life. ' His discourses were 
delivered chiefly in short, pithy sentences.' 
It has been said that his own frame of mind 
seemed, in general, rather gloomy ; certainly 
his autobiography, which he called ' Travels 
in the Wilderness,' 8vo, London, 1839, is not 
cheerful reading. In addition to this and 
numerous religious tracts and biographies, he 
wrote ' Original Hymns, Doctrinal, Practical, 
and Experimental, with prose reflections/ 
2 vols. 18mo, Birmingham, London, 1818 
1824, and edited 'A Selection of Hymns, by 
various authors,' 18mo, London, 1836. His 
portrait has been engraved by R. Cooper. 

[Fowler's Autobiography; John Dixon's Auto- 
biography, pp. 9-10.] G. G. 

FOWLER, JOHN (1537-1579), catholic 
printer and scholar, born at Bristol in 1537, 
was admitted in 1551 to Winchester School, 
whence he proceeded to Oxford, and was a 
fellow of New College in that university 
from 4 Oct. 1553 to 1559. He was admitted 
B.A. 23 Feb. 1556-7, and took the degree of 
M.A. in 1560, though he did not complete ifc 
by standing in the comitia. Dr. George Ac- 
worth [q. v.], in his reply to Sanders, asserts 
that Fowler, in the first year of Elizabeth's 
reign, took the oath renouncing the pope's 
supremacy, in order that he might retain the 
valuable living of .Wonston, Hampshire, to 



which he had been instituted (De visibili 
Romanarchid, pp. 33, 34). However this 
may be, he left England in consequence of 
the changes of religion soon after the queen's 
accession and retired to Louvain, where he 
set up a printing press, which he afterwards 
removed to Antwerp, and finally to Dotiay. 
He printed and published several important 
works written by the exiled clergy, in support 
of the catholic cause. Henry Simpson, in 
his examination at York on 11 Oct. 1571, 
stated that Fowler printed all the English 
books at Louvain, written by Harding or 
others, and that the Duke of Alva's printer 
in Brussels produced all the Latin works 
which were written against the doings in 
England. He added that William Smith, a 
"Welshman, servant to Dr. Harding, commonly 
brought the books to the press (Cal. of State 
Papers, Dom. Eliz. 1566-79, p. 365). Wood 
says ' he was well skill'd in the Greek and 
Latin tongues, a tolerable poet and orator, 
and a theologist not to be contemn'd. So 
learned he was also in criticisms, and other 
polite learning, that he might have passed 
for another Robert or Henry Stephens ' 
(Athena Oxon. ed. Bliss, i. 441). Dr. (after- 
wards Cardinal) Allen calls him ' catholi- 
cissimus et doctissimus librorum impressor,' 
in a letter addressed from Rheims in 1583 
to Father Alphonsus Agazzari, rector of the 
English seminary at Rome, asking his interest 
in favour of Fowler's brother Henry, then in 
necessitous circumstances in that city (Re- 
cords of the English Catholics, ii.216). Fowler 
married Alice, daughter of John Harris, for- 
merly secretary to Sir Thomas More, and 
died at Namur on 13 Feb. 1578-9, being 
buried near the body of his father-in-law, 
in the church of St. John the Evangelist 
(Pixs, De Angliai Scriptoribus, p. 772). His 
widow lived afterwards at Douay, where she 
entertained several of the English exiles as 
boarders (DoDD, Church Hist. i. 532). 

His works are : 1. ' An Oration against the 
unlawfull Insurrections of the Protestantes of 
our Time under pretence to reforme Religion,' 
translated from the Latin of Peter Frarinus, 
Antwerp, 1566, 8vo. A reply by Dr. William 
Fulke appeared under the title of 'An 
apologie of the professors of the Gospel in 
Fraunce against the railing declamation of 
Peter Frarine, a Louvanian, turned into Eng- 
lish by John Fowler,' was afterwards printed 
with William Clarke's ' Treatise against the 
Defense of the Censure,' Cambridge, 1586, 
8vo. 2. ' Ex Universa Summa . . . S. Thomoe 
Aquinatis desumptse Conclusiones,' Louvain, 
1570, 8vo.; Venice, 1572, 8vo, dedicated to 
Goldwell, the exiled bishop of St. Asaph. 
3. ' M. Maruli Dictorum factorumque memo- 

rabilium libri sex,' edited with numerous cor- 
rections by Fowler, Antwerp, 1577, 8vo ; 
Paris, 1586, 8vo. 4. Additiones in Chronica 
Geuebrandi, 1578. 5. ' A Psalter for Catho- 
lics,' a controversial work, which elicited from 
Thomas Sampson, dean of Christ Church, ' A 
Warning to take heed of Fowler's Psalter,' 
Lond. 1578, 8vo (SiRYPE, Annals, i. 476, 
Append, p. 159, fol.) 6. Epigrams and other 

He also edited Sir Thomas More's ' Dialogue 
of Comfort against Tribulation,' Antwerp, 
1573, 8vo. Wood ascribes to him the Eng- 
lish version of the ; Epistle of Orosius ' (Ant- 
werp, 1565), but the title-page shows that 
the translation was really made by Richard 

[Ames's Typogr. Antiq. (Herbert), iii. 1617, 
1618, 1619, 1620, 1622, 1626, 1635, 1836; 
Tanner's Bibl. Brit. p. 294; Gillow's Bibl. Diet. ; 
Boase's Eegister of the Univ. of Oxford, i. 354 ; 
Kirby's Winchester Scholars, p. 130; Lansd.MS. 
96, art. 51 ; Fulke's Defence of the Translations 
of the Scriptures (Hartshorne), p. x ; Fulke's 
Stapleton's Fortress Overthrown (Gibbings),pp. 
3, 215.] T. C. 

FOWLER, JOHN (1826-1864), inventor 
of the steam plough, was born at Melksham, 
Wiltshire, 11 July 1826. He was at first 
engaged in the corn trade, but in 1847 entered 
the works of Gilke, Wilson, & Co. at Middles- 
borough. While in Ireland in 1849 he 
became impressed by the necessity of drain- 
ing waste lands, and conceived the idea of a 
mechanical system. In 1850 he conducted 
experiments with Albert Fry at Bristol, which 
resulted in the completion of the drain plough, 
which was first worked by horses. He then 
undertook a contract for the drainage of 
Hainault Forest, Essex, and there introduced 
his patent drainage plough. Finding, how- 
ever, that the application of steam to the 
cultivation of the soil was yet a desideratum, 
he henceforth applied all his energies to sup- 
ply that want. Some of his experimental 
appliances were made by Ransome & Sims 
at Ipswich in 1856, others by George and 
Robert Stephenson at Newcastle. He was 
afterwards introduced by his father-in-law 
to Jeremiah Head, and working with that 
gentleman, they succeeded in producing at 
Stephenson's works a plough which fulfilled 
all the conditions laid down by the Royal 
Agricultural Society, and received at the 
Chester show in 1858 the prize of 500/. offered 
' for a steam cultivator that shall, in the most 
efficient manner, turn over the soil and be an 
economic substitute for the plough or the 
spade.' In this invention, discarding the idea 
of using a locomotive digger, a stationary 
engine was employed, which moved the plough 




up and down the field by means of ropes 
attached to a drum. By its use a great saving 
was effected in the cost of labour, and the soil 
was left in a better state for all purposes of 
husbandry. In 1800 Fowler made further 
improvements by bringing out his double 
engine tackle, the invention of which has 
given a great impetus to steam cultivation 
not only in Great Britain but also on the con- 
tinent, and in the cotton districts of Egypt. 
The cost of one of these machines being up- 
wards of 2,000/., their use could not become 
general, but by a system of lending the ploughs 
and charging so much a week for the loan, 
they at last came into greater demand. In 
1860, in conjunction with Mr. Kitson and 
Mr. Hewitson, he established extensive ma- 
nufacturing works at Hunslet, Leeds, where 
in 1864 nine hundred hands were employed. 
Between 1850 and 1864 he took out himself, 
and in partnership with other persons, thirty- 
two patents for ploughs and ploughing appa- 
ratus, reaping machines, seed drills, horse- 
shoes, traction engines, slide valves, laying 
electric telegraph cables, and making bricks 
and tiles. The mental strain to which Fowler 
had been subject had wrought his brain into 
a state of undue activity, and he now retired 
to Ackworth, Yorkshire, for repose. Being 
recommended active exercise, he began to 
hunt, and in November 1864 fractured his 
arm by falling from his horse ; tetanus ensued, 
from the effect of which he died at Ackworth 
4 Dec. 1864. He married, 30 July 1857, 
Elizabeth Lucy, ninth child of Joseph Pease, 
M.P. for South Durham, by whom he left five 

[Leeds Mercury, 6, 9, and 1 6 July, and 7 Dec. 
1864 ; Taylor's Biographia Leodiensis, 1865, pp. 
525-8, 672; Practical Mag. 1875, v. 257-62, 
with portrait ; Gent. Mag. January 1865, p. 123 ; 
Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical En- 
gineers, 1865. p. 14; Journal of Eoyal Agricul- 
tural Soc. 1854-63, vols. xv-xxiv. ; Transactions 
of the Soc. of Engineers for 1868, pp. 299-318.] 

G. C. B. 

FOWLER, RICHARD (1765-1863),phy- 
sician, was born in London 28 Nov. 1765, 
and, though he lived to a greater age than 
any other member of the College of Physi- 
cians, was of feeble health when a child. He 
was educated at Edinburgh and studied me- 
dicine there, but while a student visited 
Paris in the times before the revolution. 
Returning to Edinburgh in 1790 he continued 
his medical studies, and graduated M.D. 
12 Sept. 1793 with a dissertation 'De In- 
flammatione.' He was also a member of the 
celebrated ' Speculative Society,' to which he 
contributed essays. He was admitted licen- 
tiate of the College of Physicians of London 

21 March 1796, and settled in practice at 
Salisbury, where he passed the remainder of 
his life. He was at once elected physician to 
the Salisbury Infirmarv, and held the office 
till 1847. He was elected F.R.S. in 1802, and 
often took part in the meetings of the British 
Association, to attend which and to read a 
paper there he made the journey from Salis- 
bury to Aberdeen in 1859, when close upon 
ninety-four years of age. He was successful 
in practice, and occupied a leading position in 
Salisbury for many years. He died 13 April 
1863 at Milford, near Salisbury, in his ninety- 
eighth year, an age reached by very few per- 
sons in the annals of medicine. 

Fowler always kept up an interest in 
science, without producing any notable origi- 
nal work. When a student in Edinburgh, 
after his return from Paris, he was interested 
in the recent discoveries of Galvani on the 
form of electricity called by his name, and 
made numerous experiments on the subject, 
which were published in a small volume en- 
titled ' Experiments and Observations on the 
Influence lately discovered by M. Galvani, 
and commonly called Animal Electricity,' 
8vo, Edinburgh, 1793. It contains, also, ob- 
servations on the action of opium on nerves 
and muscles. Many years after Fowler pub- 
lished two small books on the psychology 
of persons in whom the senses are defective, 
viz. ' Observations on the Mental State of 
the Blind and Deaf and Dumb,' 12mo, Salis- 
bury, 1843; 2nd edit. 1860; and 'The Physio- 
logical Processes of Thinking, especially in 
Persons whose Organs of Sense are Defective,' 
12mo, Salisbury, 1849 ; 2nd edit, 1852. These 
works show some reading, and contain in- 
teresting observations, but are wanting in 
lucidity and in philosophical method. He 
also wrote ' On Literary and Scientific Pur- 
suits as conducive to Longevity,' Salisbury, 
1855, 12mo. Fowler appears to have written 
nothing on purely medical subjects, but con- 
tributed memoirs to the ' Proceedings of the 
British Association,' some of which were 
published separately. 

[Salisbury and Winchester Journal, 18 April 
1863 (original memoir) ; Lancet, 25 April 1863 ; 
Munk's Coll. of Phys. 1878, ii. 447.] J. F. P. 

FOWLER, ROBERT (1726 P-1801), 
archbishop of Dublin and chancellor of the 
order of St. Patrick, third son of George 
Fowler of Skendleby Thorpe, Lincolnshire, 
by Mary, daughter and coheiress of Robert 
Hurst, was a king's scholar at Westminster 
School in 1744. Thence he went to Trinity 
College, Cambridge, and graduated B.A. 
1747, M.A. 1751, and D.D. 1764. In 1756 
he was appointed chaplain to George II, and 


8 9 


in January 1765 became prebendary of West- 
minster. He was promoted from his prebend 
to the bishopric of Killaloe and Kilfenora j 
by patent dated 29 June 1771, and on 8 Jan. ' 
1779 was translated to the archbishopric of 
Dublin, with a seat in the Irish privy council. 
While he held the bishopric of Killaloe he 
caused the present see-house to be erected. 
Philip Skelton [q. v.] has spoken of him in 
terms of high respect for his great regard for 
religion, as well as for his kindness and affa- 
bility, not, however, unattended by warmth 
of temper an ordinary 'concomitant of good 
nature ; ' and he has noticed as unrivalled his 
solemnity of manner in reading the services 
of the church (BuEDY, Life of Skelton, 1792, 
p. 183). John Wesley makes a similar re- 
mark (Journal, xx. 14). In 1782, as a mem- 
ber of the Irish House of Lords, Fowler was 
one of twelve spiritual peers who protested 
against the bill for the relief of dissenters, 
as likely to promote clandestine and impro- 
vident marriages. In 1789 he concurred 
with fourteen other peers in protestingagainst 
the memorable address to the Prince of 
Wales (Lords' Journals, vi. 243). He also 
joined in protesting against the resolution 
condemning the answer of the lord-lieutenant 
refusing to transmit the address. He mar- 
ried, in 1766, Mildred, eldest daughter of 
William Dealtry of Gainsborough, Lincoln- 
shire, and coheiress of her brother, William 
Dealtry of Ashby in the same county, and 
had an only son, Robert, who was promoted 
to the bishopric of Ossory in 1813, and two 
daughters, Mary, countess of Kilkenny, and 
Frances, who married the Hon. and Rev. 
Richard Bourke (subsequently bishop of 
Waterford and Lismore), and was mother 
of Robert, fifth earl of Mayo. Fowler died 
suddenly at Bassingbourne Hall, near Dun- 
mow, Essex, where he had resided during 
two years for the benefit of his health, on 
10 Oct. 1801. 

[Graduati Cantabrigiensrs; Cotton's Fasti 
Ecclesiae Hibernicse, i. 471, ii. 27 ; Mant's Hist, 
of the Church of Ireland, ii. 648, 660 ; Cooke's 
Diocesan Hist, of Killaloe, &c. p. 62 ; D'Alton's 
Memoirs of the Archbishops of Dublin, p. 347 ; 
Gent. Mag. 1801, Ixxi. pt. ii. 965, 1049 ; Annual 
Eegister, 1801, xliii. Chron. 74 ; Burke's Landed 
Gentry, 3rd edit. p. 409.] B. H. B. 

FOWLER, WILLIAM (/. 1G03), Scot- 
tish poet, has been doubtfully described as at 
one time pastor of Hawick, a living formerly 
held by Gavin Douglas. lie was in France 
before 1581, whence, he wrote, he was driven 
by the Jesuits. In 1581 he published, with 
Robert Lekprewick, at Edinburgh, ' An An- 
swer to the Calumnious Letter and erroneous 
propositiouns of an apostat named M. Jo. 

Hammiltoun.' The dedication, dated from 
Edinburgh 2 June 1581, is addressed to 
Francis, earl Bothwell. Fowler sets forth 
what he alleges to be the errors of Roman 
Catholicism, and claims acquaintance inci- 
dentally with the Earl of Crawford, Sir James 
Balfour, and other distinguished Scottish 
statesmen. He was subsequently prominent 
as a burgess of Edinburgh, and about 1590 
became secretary to James VI's wife, Queen 
Anne. He was engaged in political nego- 
tiations with England, and in 1597 wrote an 
epitaph on his friend, Robert Bowes [q. v.], 
the English agent at Berwick. In 1603 he 
accompanied his royal mistress to England, 
and was reappointed not only her secretary 
but her master of requests. His leisure was 
always devoted to poetry, and soon after his 
arrival in London he enclosed two sonnets 
addressed to Arabella Stuart in a letter to the 
Earl and Countess of Shrewsbury ; they are 
printed in Nichols's ' Progresses of James I,' 
i. 250, 260-1. In September 1009 a grant was 
made him of two thousand acres in Ulster. 

Fowler's sister married John Drummond, 
first laird of Hawthornden, and was mother 
of William Drummond, the poet [q. v.J Fowler 
seems to have left the chief part of his poetry, 
none of which has been published, to his 
nephewWilliam. This consists of two volumes, 
entitled ' The Tarantula of Love ' and ' The 
Triumphs of Petrarch.' The former is com- 
posed of seventy-two sonnets in the manner 
of the Italian sonneteers, and the latter is a 
somewhat diffuse translation from Petrarch. 
These manuscripts were presented by Drum- 
mond of Hawthornden to the university of 
Edinburgh in 1627. The esteem in which 
Fowler was held by his contemporaries is il- 
lustrated by the commendatory sonnets, in- 
cluding one by the king himself, preBxed to 
his poems. His style is marked by the verbal 
and sentimental affectation of the period, but 
it is not seldom scholarly and graceful. 

[Masson's Life of William Drummond of 
Hawthornden, pp. 7-8 ; Kegister of Privy Council 
of Scotland, iv. 383, v. 423, vii. Ixxxix, 330; 
Nichols's Progresses of James I, i. passim ; 
Manuscripts of Fowler's poems in Edinburgh 
University Library ; Scottish Descriptive Poems, 
edited by J. Leyden ; Irving's Hist, of Scottish 

FOWLER, WILLIAM (1761-1832), ar- 
tist, was born at W T interton, Lincolnshire, 
12 March 1761, not, as is wrongly stated in 
the parish register, 13 March 1760. He be- 
came an architect and builder at Winterton, 
and about 1796 made drawings of Roman 
pavements discovered there. These were so 
much admired that he took them to London 
to be engraved. He there studied the pro- 



cess of copper-plate engraving, and in April 
1799 brought out a fine coloured engrav- 
ing of a Roman pavement at Roxby. From 
that time to 30 Jan. 1829, the date of his 
latest engraving, he published three volumes, 
containing coloured engravings of twenty- 
five pavements, thirty-nine subjects from 
painted glass, five brasses and incised slabs, 
four fonts, and eight miscellaneous subjects. 
He also executed at least twenty-nine en- 
gravings, mostly of objects of antiquity, which 
were never published. Many of the published 
plates are accompanied by printed broadsides. 
Most of the lettering on the plates was done 
by professed engravers. Those which he did 
himself are much more characteristic and in- 
teresting. He became acquainted with Sir 
Joseph Banks, Sir Walter Scott, and other 
celebrities, and was once at least presented 
to the royal family at Windsor. 

Fowler, though an earnest member of the 
church of England, was at the same time a 
' class-leader ' among the methodists. Some 
of his neighbours used to say that they ' did 
not know whether he was more of a metho- 
dist or a catholic.' He died 22 Sept. 1832, 
and was buried at Winterton under a cruci- 
form slab, in accordance with his own desire. 
Sir Joseph Banks once said : ' Others have 
shown us what they thought these remains 
ought to have been, but Fowler has shown 
us what they are, and that is what we want.' 
His works are distinguished by a strict fide- 
lity especially remarkable at the time. When- 
ever it was possible he worked from tracings, 
rubbings, &c., reducing the scale by means of 
the pantograph. It is said that he was the 
first to introduce the lead-lines in represen- 
tations of painted glass. There is a charac- 
teristic portrait of him by W. Bond, from 
a painting by G. F. Joseph, A.R.A.. dated 
4 June 1810. 

[Notes on "William Fowler and his "Works, by 
H. W. Ball of Barton-on-Humber, reprinted 
from the North Lincolnshire Monthly Illustrated 
Journal, April 1869; Bibliotheca Lindesiana ; 
Collections and Notes, No. 2 ; Fowler's Mosaic 
Pavements, &c., by Ludovic, earl of Crawford 
and Balcarres, London, 1883 ; information from 
the Eev. J. T. Fowler.] H. W. B. 

FOWNES, GEORGE (1815-1849), 
chemist, born on 14 May 1815, was educated 
first at Enfield in Middlesex, and afterwards 
at Bourbourg, near Gravelines, in France. 
He was intended for commerce, but at an 
early age he resolved to adopt chemistry as a 
profession. When seventeen years old he 
attended a philosophical class at the Western 
Literary Institution, a London society. In 
January 1837 he became a pupil of Professor 
Thomas Everitt at Middlesex Hospital, and 

afterwards studied at Giessen in Germany, 
where he became Ph.D. 

Fownes was assistant to Professor Graham 
in the laboratory of University College, a 
post which he resigned about 1840 to become 
lecturer on chemistry at Charing Cross Hospi- 
tal. In 1842 he became professor of chemistry 
to the Pharmaceutical Society, and in the same 
year he resigned his post at Charing Cross 
to succeed Professor Everitt as chemical lec- 
turer at Middlesex Hospital. In 1844 Fownes 
delivered an able course of lectures at the 
London Institution. Symptoms of pulmo- 
mary disease compelled him to resign his 
post at Middlesex Hospital in 1845, and at 
the Pharmaceutical Society in 1846. But 
in 1846 he accepted the professorship of prac- 
tical chemistry in the Birkbeck laboratory at 
University College, a post which he held till 
his death. He visited Barbadoes in search 
of health in the spring of 1847, but caught 
cold on his return in 1848, and died at his 
father's house in Brompton on 31 Jan. 1849. 

Fownes was an excellent public lecturer, 
and at the time of his death was secretary 
of the Chemical Society, in whose journal 
many of his papers appeared. He also wrote a 
capital general text-book of chemistry, which 
was published in 1844, and which, under the 
careful editorship of Mr. Henry Watts, has 
since passed through twelve editions. He 
won the prize offered by the Royal Agricul- 
tural Society in 1842 for an essay on the 
' Food of Plants,' and the Actonian prize of 
one hundred guineas for an 'Essay on Che- 
mistry, as exemplifying the Wisdom and 
Beneficence of God.' He published eighteen 
papers in various scientific periodicals. The 
first of these, ' On the Equivalent of Carbon/ 
appeared in the ' Philosophical Magazine' for 
1839 ; and the last, ' On the Equivalent or 
Combining Volumes of Solid Bodies/ in the 
' Pharmaceutical Journal ' for 1849. Of the 
others we may name those on the ' Direct 
Formation of Cyanogen from its Elements ' 
('British Association Report/ 1841) ; 'Arti- 
ficial Yeast/ 'Action of Oil of Vitriol on 
Ferrocyanide of Potassium,' ' Hippuric Acid/ 
' Phosphoric Acid in Felspar of Jersey ' (all 
in the ' Proceedings of the Chemical Society'). 
Organic chemistry was his special study. He 
succeeded ' for the first time in the artificial 
production of a vegeto-alkali or organic salt- 
base (furfurine), and was also the discoverer 
of benzoline.' For his researches on these 
substances (see Philosophical Transactions, 
1845) Fownes was awarded a royal medal 
by the Royal Society. 

[Journal of the Chemical Society for 1850, 
ii. 184; Royal Society's Catalogue of Scientific 
Papers, 1868.] \V. J. H. 



FOWNS, RICHARD (1660P-1625), di- 
vine, ' a minister's son and Worcestershire 
man born,' was elected student of Christ 
Church, Oxford, in 1577, at the age of seven- 
teen, and graduated B.A. 30 Jan. 1581, M.A. 
3 April 1585 (Wool), Fasti Oxon. ed. Bliss, i. 
217, 230). He took the degrees of B.D. and 
D.D. by accumulation, 16 May 1605 (ib. i. 
306, 307). He became chaplain to Prince 
Henry, and in 1602 was rector of Stoke 
Severn, Worcestershire, in the church of 
which he was buried 25 Nov. 1625. His monu- 
ment was ' miserably defaced ' during the civil 
war. He was the author of: 1. ' Concio [on 
2 Thess. ii. 3, 4] ad Clerum celeberrimse floren- 
tissimseq; Academise Oxou. habitalulij deci- 
mo, Anno Domini 1606,' 4to, London, 1606, 
dedicated to Henry, prince of Wales. 2. ' Tri- 
sagion, or the three Holy Offices of lesvs 
Christ, the Sonne of God, priestly, propheti- 
call, and regall ; how they ought of all his 
Church to be receiued. With a Declaration 
of the violence and injuries offered vnto the 
same by the Spirituall and Romish Babylon,' 
London, 1619, a stout quarto of 782 pages, 
inscribed to Prince Charles. 

[Wood's Athense Oxon. (Bliss), ii. 388-9; 
Nash's Worcestershire, ii. 347-] G-. G. 

FOX, CAROLINE (1819-1871), diarist, 
born at Falmouth on 24 May 1819, was second 
daughter of Robert Were Fox of Penjerrick. 
From her earliest years she displayed great 
intelligence and refinement of mind. In 
1835 she began to keep the journal which has 
rendered her celebrated, not so much from its 
considerable literary merits, as from its as- 
sociation with distinguished persons. Most 
of these were men of science, attracted by 
Robert Were Fox's scientific reputation, and 
his especial knowledge of Cornish minera- 
logy ; but the most remarkable were thinkers 
and men of letters brought to her remote 
nook of Cornwall by their own delicacy of 
constitution or that of their friends. At the 
beginning of 1840 John Sterling was staying 
at Falmouth, partly on account of his own 
health, partly in attendance on his sick friend, 
Dr. Calvert ; Stuart Mill's mother, with her 
daughters Clara and Harriet, was nursing her 
youngest son Henry in a hopeless illness, and 
was soon joined by Mill himself. Sterling 
and Mill soon became exceedingly intimate 
with the Fox family, especially with Caroline 
and her brother Barclay, to whom Mill wrote 
several letters published in the second edition 
of Caroline's journal. Caroline's account of 
their conversations is exceedingly interest- 
ing, and adds considerably to our knowledge 
of both, especially of Mill, who has not else- 
where found a Boswell. The intimacy was 

the means of introducing her to Carlyle and 
other remarkable persons, few of whom are- 
mentioned without some bright touch of ap- 
preciative portraiture. Her tendency was 
always to admiration and sympathy, recog- 
nising what seemed to her excellent, ignoring 
or minimising points of difference ; it would 
not be possible to point out a cavil or an ill- 
natured expression from one end of the record 
to the other. The intimacy with Mill gra- 
dually diminished, while that with Sterling- 
increased in warmth, and his death in 1844 
may not have been unconnected with the de- 
pression into which Caroline fell in that year, 
and which left its traces on all her subse- 
quent life. From this time her diary becomes 
less copious and interesting, partly from the 
comparative infrequency of remarkable ac- 
quaintances, partly from the interruptions oc- 
casioned by ill-health, but partly also from a. 
loss of buoyancy and a comparative limita- 
tion and timidity of thought. Every line 
nevertheless indicates the gentle, spiritual,, 
and at the same time intellectual and accom- 
plished woman, and it will always be valued 
as a highly important illustration of the most 
characteristic thought of the Victorian era. 
Caroline died on 12 Jan. 1871, having never 
married, or quitted her home except for occa- 
sional visits to the continent. With her sister,, 
Anna Maria Fox, she translated into Italian 
several English religious works, of which, 
the latest, ' II Mozzo Bertino,' was published' 
at Florence in 1867. 

[Memories of Old Friends, being extracts from, 
the Journals and Letters of Caroline Fox, edited 
by Horace N. Pym (London, 1882) ; Boase and 
Courtney's Bibliotheca Cornubiensis, pp. 160, 
1189.] R. G. 

FOX, CHARLES (1749-1809), Persian 
scholar, was, according to one account, son 
of Joseph Fox, quaker and grocer at Fal- 
mouth, and Avas born there in 1749 ; but he 
may possibly be identified with Charles Fox, 
who was the eldest son of John Fox by hi* 
wife, Rebecca Steevens of High Wycombe 
(FOSTER, Fox Family, p. 15). He kept a, 
bookseller's shop in his native town, and is. 
the person mentioned in Southey's ' Espriella' 
(i. 6), who, when his house was on fire and 
he realised that nothing could be saved, 
' went upon the nearest hill and made a 
drawing of the conflagration -an admirable 
instance of English phlegm.' Polwhele, who 
refers to this incident, adds that ' his friend 
Wolcot saved the horses in the stable by 
mufliing up their heads in blankets.' After 
this loss, which does not seem to have in- 
volved him in pecuniary difficulties, Fox fol- 
lowed the bent of his inclination in landscape 



and portrait painting. He accompanied his 
brother, the master of a merchant vessel, 
on a voyage to the Baltic, and then made a 
tour, on foot and alone, through Sweden, 
Norway, and part of Russia, drawing hun- 
dreds of views on the way. On his return 
he stopped for a short time in London, but 
soon fixed his abode permanently in Bristol. 
He was facile in acquiring languages, and 
made a special study of oriental literature, 
collecting numerous Persian manuscripts. In 
1797 Joseph Cottle published for him a 
volume of ' Poems, containing the Plaints, 
Consolations, and Delights of Achmed Ar- 
debeili, a Persian Exile, with notes historical 
and explanatory.' The verses are said to 
have evinced much vigour of thought and 
beauty of expression, and the notes have 
been lauded for their illustration of Eastern 
subjects ; but their value in a monetary sense 
may be judged from the fact that Cottle, 
after selling his copyrights to Longmans, 
found that Fox's 'Achmed 'and Wordsworth's 
* Lyrical Ballads ' had been ' reckoned as 
nothing.' As both authors were his personal 
friends, Cottle begged them back again, and, 
the request being readily granted, returned 
to the former his receipt for twenty guineas, 
and to Coleridge, for Wordsworth, his receipt 
for thirty guineas. Fox's nominal profession 
made slight demand upon his time, and for 
many years before his death it w r as abandoned 
altogether for poetry. About 1803 he had 
prepared for the press two volumes of poems 
from the Persian, but growing weakness of 
health hindered their publication, though he 
still continued versifying. He died at Villa 
Place, Bathwick, Bath, on 1 March 1809. 
From the description in Hone's ' Table Book ' 
(i. 762), he was ' a great natural genius, which 
employed itself upon trivial and not generally 
interesting matters. He was self-taught, and 
had patience and perseverance for anything.' 
His eccentricity is acknowledged, but he is 
credited with ' the quickest reasoning power, 
and consequently the greatest coolness, of 
any man of his day who was able to reason.' 
He married, in 1792, Miss Feniers, the 
daughter of a Dutch merchant, who survived 
him. They were hospitable people, and to 
young persons with literary tastes their house 
and conversation were ever open. Southey 
says : ' I knew him well, and met Adam Clarke 
at his house. I have profiles of him, his 
wife, and the parrot, &c.' Claudius James 
Rich, author of a memoir on the ruins of 
Babylon and other works, was attracted to 
the study of the oriental languages when 
a boy by accidentally seeing some Arabic 
manuscripts in Fox's library, and by con- 
stant access to these books, and the loan of 

an Arabic grammar and lexicon, he soon made 
himself master of the language. From him 
William Isaac Roberts, a young Bristol poet 
whose poems and letters were issued in 1811, 
'experienced continual kindness and encour- 
agement in his literary pursuits.' It was 
during Dr. Adam Clarke's second residence 
in Bristol, beginning in 1798, that he obtained 
much aid from Fox in his study of Persian ; 
and he is said to have repaid these services 
by turning his friend into a ' devout believer.' 
Many of Fox's manuscripts, including the 
illustrated narrative of his travels, passed 
into the doctor's hands. They are described 
in J. B. B. Clarke's catalogue of the ' Euro- 
pean and Asiatic Manuscripts of the late Dr. 
Adam Clarke ' (1835), and the particulars are 
copied into the ' Bibliotheca Cornubiensis,' 
iii. 1186. Proofs of Fox's ' humour and ac- 
curate observation of character ' are found in 
his Cornish dialogues printed by Polwhele 
and other authors. 

[Gent. Mag. 1809, pt. i. 385; Corresp. of 
Southey and Caroline Bowles, p. 281 ; Polwhele's 
Reminiscences, ii. 182 ; Polwhele's Biog. Sketches 
in Cornwall, ii. 62-9 ; Annual Register, 1809, 
pp. 658-9; Monthly Mag. April 1809, pp. 311- 
312; Cottle's Early Recollections, ii. 26-7; 
Etheridge's Adam Clarke, pp. 265, 384 ; Memoir 
of Rich in Residence in Koordistan ; Boase and 
Courtney's Bibl. Cornub.] W. P. C. 

FOX, CHARLES (1794-1849), line-en- 
graver, born on 17 March 1794, was the son 
of the steward to Lord Stafford at Cossey 
Hall, Norfolk, where he was brought up in 
the gardens, spending his early years in agri- 
cultural and horticultural occupations. An 
accidental visit from William Camden Ed- 
wards [q. v.], the engraver, led to young Fox 
being placed by his father as a pupil with 
Edwards at Bungay in Suffolk. He had al- 
ready received some instruction in drawing 
from Charles Hodgson at Norwich. On 
the completion of his engagement with Ed- 
wards, Fox came to London, and became an 
inmate of the studio of John Burnet [q. v.], 
the engraver, who w T as then engaged on his 
large plates after Sir David Wilkie's pictures, 
in which Fox assisted him. Fox's most im- 
portant plates, of his own execution, were 
from pictures by Wilkie, viz. ' Village Poli- 
ticians' and ' Queen Victoria's First Council.' 
He also engraved some illustrations by Wilkie 
for Cadell's edition of Sir Walter Scott's 
novels. He was employed on the annuals, 
then so much in vogue, Stark's ' Rivers of 
Norfolk,' and other works. Among other en- 
gravings by him w r ere the full-length portrait 
of Sir George Murray, after Pickersgill, in 
which his best work was shown, ' ACauchaise 
Girl,' after G. S. Newton, &c. He also 




painted in water-colours, mostly portraits of 
his friends. During his whole life Fox never 
ceased to take interest in floriculture, and was 
considered one of the best judges of flowers. 
When Dr. John Lindley [q. v.] was appointed 
superintendent of the Horticultural Society, 
Fox was chosen as judge and arbitrator, in 
which capacity he gained universal esteem. 
He superintended the illustrations of the j 
' Florist.' While on a visit to a friend at 
Leyton in Essex, Fox died from an affec- 
tion of the heart on 28 Feb. 1849. He was 
engaged on an engraving of Mulready's 
' The Fight Interrupted,' which remained un- 
finished at his death. A portrait of Fox was 
etched from a drawing by W. Carpenter, jun. 
for publication in the ' Florist.' 

[Redgrave's Diet, of Artists ; Oltley's Diet, of 
Recent and Living Painters ; Cunningham's Life 
of Sir David Wilkie ; Gent. Mag. (1849), new ser. 
xxxi. 434 ; Florist, 1849 ; other obituary notices.] 

L. C. 

FOX, SIR CHARLES (1810-1874), en- 
gineer, youngest of four sons of Francis Fox, 
M.D., was born at Derby 11 March 1810. He 
was originally destined for his father's profes- 
sion, but abandoned this intention as his taste 
for mechanics developed. He was deeply inte- 
rested in the projected scheme for the Liver- 
pool and Manchester railway, and at the age of 
nineteen he was articled to Captain Ericsson. 
With Ericsson he was engaged in designing 
and constructing the ' Novelty ' engine, one 
of the three which competed at Rainhill in 
October 1829. He was also employed with 
Ericsson in experimenting with rotary en- 
gines. His mechanical talents having at- 
tracted the attention of Robert Stephenson, 
he was appointed by him one of the construct- 
ing engineers of the London and Birmingham 
railway. He designed the tunnel at Wat- 
ford, and afterwards carried out the exten- 
sion of the line from Camden Town to Euston 
Square. These works were wholly constructed 
within a covered way and retaining Avails, 
thus realising for the first time the idea of 
a metropolitan railway. While engaged on 
this line Fox read a paper before the Royal 
Institution upon the correct principles of 
skew arches, which he had carried out in the 
works. The new mechanical departure was 
the development of these arches, not from 
the intrados or the extrados, but from a line 
midway between the two. Fox now entered 
into partnership with the contractor Bramah, 
and upon the retirement of the senior part- 
ner the firm assumed the title of Fox, Hen- 
derson, & Co. of London, Smethwick, and Ren- 
frew. This firm was the first to carry out the 

complete and systematic plan. Great improve- 
ments were effected in bridges, roofs, cranes, 
tanks, and railway wheels. Fox was the in- 
ventor of the system of four feet plates for 
tanks, combined with a very simple formula for 
calculating weight and contents. He also 
introduced the switch into railway practice, 
thus superseding the old sliding rail. Many 
improvements in iron structures were due to 
him, and in connection with his experiments 
upon links he read a paper before the Royal 
Society (March 1865) 'On the Size of Pins 
for connecting Flat Links in the Chains of 
Suspension Bridges.' From 1857 Fox prac- 
tised in London as a civil and consulting- 
engineer, with his two eldest sons, the firm 
still being known under the style of Sir 
Charles Fox & Sons. 

During the forty-five years of his profes- 
sional life Fox was engaged in works of 
magnitude in all parts of the world. His 
chief undertaking was the building in Hyde 
Park for the Great Exhibition of 1851, de- 
signed by Paxton. This work was begun 
towards the end of September 1850, and 
finished before the close of April 1851, Fox 
having been engaged exclusively upon it for 
eighteen hours a day during a period of seven 
weeks. Together with Cubitt and Paxton he 
received the honour of knighthood (22 Oct. 
1851) in connection with the exhibition.. 
Fox's firm afterwards removed the building 
from Hyde Park and re-erected it, with many 
alterations and improvements, at Sydenham 
for the Crystal Palace Company. Fox was 
a consistent advocate for economy in railway 
construction, and it was through his exer- 
tions that the ' light railway ' clauses were 
inserted in the Railway Facilities Act. In 
conjunction with G. Berkley he constructed 
the first narrow-gauge line in India. He- 
made a special study of the narrow-gauge 
system, and eventually constructed lines upon 
this principle in various parts of the world. 
While strenuously advocating the narrow- 
gauge system, however, Fox was strongly op- 
posed to break of gauge, except under special 
circumstances. His main principle was ' to 
retain the gauge of the country, and to reduce 
the weight on the engine wheels to the same 
as that on the wheels of the stock, to limit 
the speed, and then to reduce the weight of 
the permanent way and other works.' He- 
was also in favour of vertical rails and cylin- 
drical tyres. 

The works executed by Fox as a manufac- 
turer and contractor include the bridge over 
the Medway at Rochester ; three bridges 
over the Thames, at Barnes, Richmond, and 
Staines ; the swing bridge over the Shannon ; 

manufacture of railway plant and stock upon a a bridge over the Saone at Lyons ; and the 



Great Western railway bridges. In roofs he 
executed those at the Paddington station, at 
the Waterloo station, and at the New Street 
station, Birmingham, and slip roofs for seve- 
ral of the royal dockyards. The railways 
upon which he was engaged included the Cork 
and Bandon, the Thames and Medway, the 
Portadown and Dungannon, the East Kent, 
the Lyons and Geneva (eastern section), the 
Macon and Geneva (eastern section), and 
the Wiesbaden and the Zealand (Denmark). 
He was also one of the constructors of the 
Berlin waterworks. Fox was engineer to 
the Queensland railways, the Cape Town 
railways, the Wynberg railway (Cape of 
Good Hope), the Toronto narrow-gauge rail- 
way, and (with Berkley) the Indian Tram- 
way Company. Fox & Sons were engineers 
to the comprehensive scheme of high-level 
lines at Battersea for theLondon and Brighton, 
Chatham and Dover, and London and South- 
western companies, with the approach to 
the Victoria station, Pimlico, including the 
widening of the Victoria railway bridge over 
the Thames. Fox was a member of the In- 
stitute of Civil Engineers, and for many years 
a member of the council of the Institution of 
Mechanical Engineers. He was an original 
life member of the British Association, a 
member of the Society of Arts, and a fellow 
of the Royal Asiatic and Royal Geogra- 
phical Societies. Early in his career he took 
an active part in the affairs of the Society of 
Arts, and, in conjunction with his elder 
brother Douglas, who was well known as 
a medical practitioner at Derby, he elabo- 
rated the process of casting in elastic moulds, 
for which the society's silver medal was 

Fox married in 1830 Mary, second daugh- 
ter of Joseph Brookhouse, by whom he had 
three sons and one daughter. The two elder 
sons, Charles and Francis Fox, constitute the 
firm of Sir Charles Fox & Sons, civil and con- 
sulting engineers. Fox was of a most urbane 
and generous disposition. He died at Black- 
.heath 14 June 1874. 

[Engineering, 17 July 18'4; Ann. Eeg. 1874.] 

G. B. S. 

FOX, CHARLES (1797-1878), scientific 
writer, seventh son of Robert Were Fox, by 
Elizabeth, daughter of Joseph Tregelles o'f 
Falmouth, and younger brother of Robert 
Were Fox, F.R.S. [q. v.], was born at Fal- 
mouth 22 Dec. 1797, and educated at home. 
He became a partner in the firm of G. C. and 
R. \\ . Fox & Co., merchants and shipping 
agents at Falmouth, and was also a partner 
in the Perran Foundry Company at Perran- 
arworthal, Cornwall, where from 1824 to 

1847 he was the manager of the foundry and 
the engine manufactory. 

He was one of the projectors and founders 
of the Royal Cornwall Polytechnic Society 
at Falmouth in 1833, and, in conjunction with 
Sir Charles Lemon, led the way to a move- 
ment whichresulted in the offer of a premium 
of 600/. for the introduction of a man-engine 
into Cornish mines, the result of which was 
the erection of the first man-engine at Tresa- 
vean mine in 1842. This machine was a great 
success, and its invention has been the means 
of saving much unnecessary labour to the tin 
and copper miners in ascending and descend- 
ing the mine shafts. He was president of 
the Polytechnic Society for 1871 and 1872, 
in connection with which institution he 
founded in 1841 the Lander prizes for maps 
and essays on geographical districts. He was 
president of the Royal Geological Society of 
Cornwall from 1864 to 1867, and president 
of the Miners' Association of Cornwall and 
Devon from 1861 to 1863. He interested 
himself particularly in such discoveries, phi- 
lological and antiquarian, as tended to throw 
light on Bible history, and with this object 
in view he visited Palestine, Egypt, and Al- 
giers. In all branches of natural history he 
was deeply read, making collections and ex- 
amining with the microscope the specimens 
illustrative of each department. 

On the introduction of boring machines 
into mines he was one of the first to recognise 
their use, and as early as 1867 he wrote 
papers on this subject. He made many com- 
munications to the three Cornish societies, as 
well as to the ' Mining Journal ' and ' Hard- 
wicke's Science Gossip.' ' Extracts from 
the Spiritual Diary of John Rutty, M.D.,' 
was edited by Fox in 1840, and in 1870 he 
wrote a small work, ' On the Ministry of 
Women.' He was largely interested in Cor- 
nish mines throughout his life, and latterly 
was much impoverished by the failure of the 
greater number of these undertakings. For 
the last twenty-five years of his life he re- 
sided at Trebah, near Falmouth, and died 
there 18 April 1878, and was buried in the 
Friends' cemetery at Budock 23 April. He 
married, 20 Dec. 1825, Sarah, only daughter 
of William Hustler. She was born at Apple 
Hall, Bradford, Yorkshire, 8 Aug. 1800, and 
died at Trebah 19 Feb. 1882. Her writings 
were : ' A Metrical Version of the Book of 
Job,' 1852-4 ; ' Poems, Original and Trans- 
lated,' 1863 ; ' Catch who can, or Hide and 
Seek, Original Double Acrostics,' 1869 : and 
' The Matterhorn Sacrifice, a Poem,' in ' Mac- 
millan's Magazine,' 1865. 

[Records from Papers and Letters respecting 
C. Fox, Falmouth, 1878; Journal of the Eoyal 



people.' J n O f Cornwall, November 1878, pp. 2-3 ; 
the compd Courtney's Bibliothoca Cornubieusis, 
cognise( 165, 1186, 1189; Joseph Foster's De- 
thehoihts of Francis Fox. 1872, p. 11; Weekly 
i. 5). /me, April 1879, pp. 215-16, with portrait.] 
1771/ G. C. B. 

:, CHARLES JAMES (1749-1806), 
third son of Henry Fox [q. v.], 
[erwards Baron Holland of Foxley, and 
Lady Caroline Georgina, daughter of Charles 
^ennox, second duke of Richmond, grandson 
of Charles II, was born in Conduit Street on 
24 Jan. 1749; Holland House, which was 
then rented by his father, being under repair. 
He was a clever, lively child, and a great 
favourite with his father. When his mother 
grieved over his passionate temper, Henry 
"Fox said that he was a ' sensible little fellow,' 
and would soon cure himself; nothing was 
to be done 'to breajr his spirit' (WRAXALL, 
Memoirs, ii. 2). At his own request he was 
in 1756 sent to a school at Wandsworth, kept 
by a M. Parnpellone, where there were many 
boys of high rank, and in the autumn of 1758 
he went to Eton, where Dr. Philip Francis 
[q. v.] was his private tutor. At Eton he 
was studious and popular. Unfortunately 
in 1763 his father, then Lord Holland, who 
' brought up his children without the least 
regard to morality,' interrupted his school life 
by taking him with him to Paris and to Spa. 
During this excursion, which lasted for four 
months, Lord Holland encouraged the boy 
to indulge in vice, and at Spa sent him to 
the gaming-table Avell supplied with money 
(Life and Times, i. 4). Fox returned to Eton, 
and the tone of the school is said to haA r e 
suffered from the ' extraA'agant, vulgar indul- 
gence' with which his father treated him and 
his brother (Early Life, p. 52) ; he learnt to 
write creditable Latin A'erses, had a good ac- 
quaintance with French, took a prominent 
part in the school debates and recitations, and 
was looked upon by his schoolfellows as cer- 
tain to become famous as an orator. In Oc- 
tober 1764 he entered at Hertford College, 
Oxford, then much frequented by young men 
of family. Unlike his companions, Fox stu- 
died diligently, giving much time to mathe- 

. matics, which he liked ' A'astly,' and professed 
to consider 'entertaining' (Memorials,}.. 19). 
He visited Paris in the spring of the next 
year, returned to Oxford in July, and spent 
the greater part of the long \-acation in study. 
He left the university in the spring of 1766, 
liaving spent his time there to good purpose ; 

. for he read much of the early English dra- 
matists, and acquired the pOAver of enjoying 
Vn oyViVa. n d Greek literature, Avhich proved an 

^/II \J P6Q. Ii -.,,,. , ,(. T , i i , 

iehad som, ml pleasure to him in later 

TOL. xx P T autumn he J hiefl ui s father and 

mother at Lyons, and spent the winter with 
them at Naples. When they returned to 
England in the spring, he remained in Italy 
with two friends of his own age. He joined 
Lord and Lady Holland in the autumn at 
Paris, and spent the winter with them at 
Nice, for he was a good and affectionate son. 
In the ^spring of 1768 he returned to Italy 
with his cousin, Lord Carlisle, and visited 
Bologna, Florence, and Rome. On his home- 
ward journey he called on Voltaire at Ferney, 
and was received graciously. His birth and 
connections secured him a welcome at foreign 
courts, and his father's great wealth enabled 
him to travel magnificently, and indulge every 
whim, however extravagant. At the same 
time he did not give himself up to frivolity. 
He visited picture galleries with appreciation, 
perfected himself in French, learnt Italian, 
and studied Italian literature. He returned 
to England on 2 Aug., and soon afterwards 
made a short tour with his elder brother 
Stephen and his wife in the Austrian Nether- 
lands and Holland. 

As a young man Fox was strongly built ; 
his frame was large, and he had a handsome 
face, bright eyes, high colour, and black hair. 
He soon became very stout, and his enemies 
considered that in manhood his swarthy coun- 
tenance had a ' saturnine ' aspect, but his smile 
was always pleasant (WRAXALL, Memoirs, 
ii. 3). From childhood he was courted for 
his gaiety, originality, and genius. He was 
perfectly good-natured, eager, warm-hearted, 
and unselfish. With great natural abilities, 
a singular quickness of apprehension, and 
a retentive memory, he combined the habit 
of doing all things with his might. He 
was, as he said, a ' very painstaking man,' 
and even when secretary of state wrote copies 
for a writing-master to improve his hand- 
writing (ROGERS, Table-talk, p. 85). He 
delighted in literature and art, his critical 
faculty was acute, and his taste cultivated. 
Poetry was to him ' the best thing after all,' 
and he declared that he loved ' all the poets.' 
He had already acquired a considerable store 
of learning, and the works of his favourite 
authors, Greek, Latin, English, French, Ita- 
lian, and in his later years Spanish, never 
failed to afford him refreshment and, when 
he needed it, consolation. He was fond of 
exercise, and even after he had become very 
fat retained his activity ; he played cricket 
and tennis well, loved hunting, racing, and 
shooting, and was a good walker and swim- 
mer. During his long tour he constantly 
referred in his letters to acting plays; he 
took pains to excel as an amateur actor, and 
retained his love for this amusement for 
some few years. Unfortunately his father's 










a i 








[teaching was not thrown away, and he early 
^acquired extravagant and dissolute habits. In 
'his younger days he was an outrageous fop, 
and led the fashion among the ' macaronis.' 
After his visit to Italy he and his cousin 
posted from Paris to Lyons simply in order 
to choose patterns for their waistcoats (ib. 
p. 74) ; he appeared in London in red-heeled 
shoes and blue hair-powder, and up to the 
age of twenty-five, sometimes at least, wore 
a hat and feather in the House of Commons. 
In later life he became careless both as to 
dress and cleanliness. He drank, though per- 
haps not so hard as many men in his posi- 
tion, and was much addicted to gambling. 
When a mere boy he became a member of 
Almick's [see ALJIACK, WILLIAM] gaming 
club, which was the scene of the most reck- 
less play, and night after night lost sums that 
soon reached a ruinous amount. 

In March 1768, when Fox was in his twen- 
tieth year, he was returned for the borough 
|of Midhurst in Sussex, which his father and 
uncle, Lord Ilchester, had bought for their 
sons. He took his seat in the following No- 
vember, and, influenced by the wishes and re- 
sentments of his father, joined the supporters 
of the Duke of Grafton's administration. His 
first speech was probably made on 9 March 
1769, on a point of order. He took an active 

Eirt in promoting the candidature of Colonel 
uttrell for Middlesex, in opposition to 
Wilkes. On 14 April he spoke with some 
insolence in support of the motion that Lut- 
trell ought to have been returned, and in the 
debate on the Middlesex petition on 8 May 
answered Wedderburn and Burke in a speech 
which, in spite of some boyishness, delighted 
his friends, and was praised even by the op- 
position (ib. p.53 ; CAVENDISH, Debates, i. 406). 
This speech won him a place among the fore- 
most members of the house. On 9 Oct. he 
went to Paris with his father and mother, and 
while there lost heavily at play (Lettres de 
la Marquise du Deffand, i. 355, 356). He re- 
turned to England early in January 1770, and 
won great applause by two speeches on the 
Middlesex election. On 24 Feb., when just 
past twenty-one, he entered Lord North's ad- 
ministration as one of the Vardsjjf the admi- 
ralty. Fox delivered his speeches without 
/ previous preparation, and their power lay not 
in rhetorical adornments, but in the vigour 
of the speaker's thoughts, the extent of his 
knowledge, the quickness with which he 
grasped the significance of each point in de- 
bate, the clearness of his conceptions, and the 
remarkable plainness with which he laid them 
before his audience. Even in his longest 
speeches he never strayed from the matter in 
hand ; he never rose above the level of his 

hearers' understanding, was never 
and never bored the house. Every j, 
that he took up he defended with a 
number of shrewd arguments, plainly t 
and well ordered. The training in eloci 
that he had received at Eton and his prat 
as an amateur actor gave him confidence \ 
ease, while the accuracy and readines* of , 
memory supplied him with a store of quotv 
tions, and rendered him never at a loss for 
word. At the same time he does not appear t 
have been particularly fluent until he became 1 
warmed with his subject ; then he spoke with 
a stormy eloquence which carried his hearers 
with him. His voice was naturally poor, and 
though he generally modulated it skilfully, he 
was apt when excited to speak with shrillness. 
His action was ungraceful. His attempts ? f - 
pathos generally failed ; he was prone to in-f , 
vective, and is said to have been the wittiest) \ 
speaker of his time. Although some of hi* 
speeches introducing subjects to the house are- 
magnificent, he especially excelled in reply ; for 
great as he was as an orator, he was certainly 
greater in debate. During the first period of: 
his political career, when he was generally 
contemptuous of popular rights, he spoke with 
too much flippancy; but 'in his best days,* 
when he was attacking North's administra- 
tion during the American war, he was in 
Grattan's opinion the best speaker he had* 
ever heard (Last Journals, i. 85, with a com-/ 
parison between Fox, Burke, and Townshend ; 
ERSKINE, Preface to Speeches; BROUGHAM, 
Statesmen, i. 236 ; Quarterly Review, art. by 
Frere, October 1810 ; Early Life, p. 331). 

In June Fox was in Paris with his father ; 
in November he was supping with Lauzun 
at the Clob a 1'Anglaise, and he returned to 
England about the middle of January 1J71 
Much as he loved Paris, he was no favourite 
with Mme. du Defiand, who described him 
as ' hard, bold, and ready ; ' he did not, she- 
complained, put his mind to hers, and cared" 
only for play and politics (Lettre, 13 Jan. 1771, 
ii. 139. See also a somewhat similar cha- 
racter of him by Mme. Neckar, who in 1777 
spoke of him as knowing everything 1 , and as 
cold and cynical, GIBBON, Miscell. Works, if. 
194). Of the two she preferred Richard Fitz- 
patrick [q. v.], Fox's connection by marriage, 
and his constant companion, who at this time- 
shared the lodgings in Piccadilly where Fox: 
lived when hisfatherwas absent from Holland' 
House. After joining the administration Fox 
took a prominent part in several unpopular^ 
measures, and especially in the attaaipt to 
strain the press. When on 6 Dec. a commit 
on the press laws was moved for r K, 
the motion, and jeered the oppose Eoyal 
declaration that they wished < 




people.' Where, he asked, was he to look for 
the complaints of the people ? he refused to re- 
cognise the people apart from the majority of 
the house,their legal representatives(^peec^e5, 
i. 5). He took the same line on 25 March 
1771, when urging the committal of Alderman 
Oliver for discharging the printers appre- 
hended by the officers of the house. His 
*"3tion in this affair rendered him exceedingly 
apopular, and on the 27th he and his brother 
ere attacked by a mob as they drove down 
the house, and he was rolled in the mud. 
3alous for privilege of every kind, he gave 
uch satisfaction to his party ' by the great 
I lents he exerted ' in opposing the Nullum 
vnpus Bill. Junius had hitherto virtually 
? t him alone, but his opposition to the popu- 
cause of the Duke of Portland called forth 
sharp rebuke in the 'Public Advertiser' 
4 March, signed ' Ulysses.' Fox wished 
challenge the writer, but was unable to 
ntify him (Life of Sir P. Francis, i. 255). 
etter of Junius in October provoked an 
wer signed 'An Old Correspondent,' which 
3 attributed to Fox. A reply appeared 
aed 'Anti-Fox/ in which the writer warns 
y pretty black boy ' that if provoked Junius 
*ht cease to spare Lord Holland and his 
oily (Letters of Junius, ii. 384). His con- 
mpt for the wishes of the people provoked a 
Caricature entitled 'The Death of the Foxes' 
in the ' Oxford Magazine' of February 1770. 
In this he appears with his father and brother, 
and his corpulence is ridiculed. Another 
caricature in the same magazine in December 
1773 represents him as picking his father's 
pocket, in reference to his gambling debts 

On 6 Feb. 17? Fox spoke against the cle- 
rical petition for relief from subscription to 
the articles, though he condemned the custom 
of requiring subscription from lads at the uni- 
versities. He prepared himself for his defence 
of the church ' by passing twenty-two hours 
in the pious exercise of hazard,' losing during 
that time 11,000/. (GIBBON, Miscellaneous 
Works, ii. 74). A twelvemonth later he sup- 
ported a motion for a committee on the subject 
of subscription, and further showed that, in 
spite of his zeal for privilege, he was not to 
be reckoned among those who were content 
to forward the king's wishes on all points, for 
he acted as teller for a bill for the relief of 
protestant dissenters ; the king declared that 
* his conduct could not be attributed to con- 
science, but to his aversion to all restraints' 
(Speeches, i. 17 ; George III, Letters to Lord 
North, i. 89; this letter, dated 1772, seems to 
belong to 1773 ; comp. Parl. Hist. xvii. 758). 
On 20 Feb. 1772 he resigned office. Although 
he had some private grounds of dissatisfaction 


with North (Memorials, i. 73 ; Last Journals, 
i. 23), the chief cause of his resignation was 
that he intended to oppose the RoyjaLMftr- 
riageBill. The circumstances of his parents' 
marriage rendered him jealous of all needless 
restrictions on marriage ; he had already ob- 
tained leave to bring in a bill to amend the 
marriage act, and he chose to sacrifice office 
rather than assent to the restrictions that the] 
king was bent on placing on the marriages 1 
of his house. North was terrified by the re- 
port of his intended resignation, and with- 
drew one of the most objectionable clauses 
of the bill. Fox joined Conway and Burke 
in opposing the bill, and was ' universally 
allowed to have seized the just point of ar- 
gument throughout with amazing rapidity 
and clearness ' (ib. p. 59). At least as early as 
1766 he had become acquainted with Burke, 
and had learnt to respect his opinion (Memo- 
rials, i. 26), and this temporary co-operation 
with him can scarcely have been without 
some effect on his later career. Fox intro- 
duced his own marriage bill on 7 April, having 
that morning, after a night spent in drinking, 
returned from Newmarket, where he had lost 
heavily; he spoke with effect, but took no 
more trouble about the bill, which was thrown 
out at a later stage. In .December he re-en- 
tered the administration as a junior lord of 
the treasury. Although Olive had been ab- 
solved by parliament, Fox took the oppor- 
tunity of a debate on the affairs of India in 
June 1 773 to attack him with unsparing ve- 
hemence. He recommenced his assaults on 
the press. In a debate he had raised on this 
subject on 16 Feb. 1774 he rebuked T. Towns- 
hend for coupling the name of Johnson with 
that of Shebbeare (Speeches, i. 25). Johnson 
never forgot his warm defence (BoswELL, Life, 
iv. 315). Fox had lately been elected amember 
of the club ; he was generally silent when 
Johnson was present (ib. 179). He was na- 
turally shy, but when in the society of those 
with whom he felt at ease would ' talk on for 
ever with all the openness and simplicity of 
a child ' (ROGERS, Table-talk, p. 75) ; his con- 
versation was always easy and full of anec- 
dote. Office exercised no restraint upon him. 
He forced North against his will to persist 
in a proposal that the printer Woodfall should 
be committed to the Gatehouse for printing aj 
letter containing charges against the speaker. 
The minister was defeated, and the king, who 
already disliked Fox for the part he had taken 
against the Royal Marriage Bill, and in sup- 
port of the relief bill of the year before, was 
furious at his presumption. 'ThaJL_yj3ung 
magjl he wrote, ' has so thoroughly cast off 
every principle of common honour and ho- 
nesty that he must soon become as con- 


Fox f 

temptible as he is odious ' ( George III, Letters 
to North, i. 170). North was reluctantly com- 
pelled to inform him on the 24th that the 
king had dismissed him from office. Mean- 
while his money difficulties had come to a 
crisis. For four years he had played con- 
stantly and for high stakes, and his losses 
were very heavy. Although his horses were 
generally beaten on the turf, his bets were 
judicious, and in 1772 he won 16,000/. on a 
'single race. Nor was he a loser in games 
that required skill, such as whist and picquet. 
He was ruined by his losses at hazard, and 
it seems tolerably certain that the ' immode- 
rate, constant, and unparalleled advantages' 
jgained over him at the gaming-table were 
the result of unfair play (Memorials, i. 91). 
In order to pay his gambling debts he had 
recourse to Jewish money-lenders, and, always 
light-hearted, used to call the room where 
these men waited for him his 'Jerusalem 
chamber.' Friends, and especially Lord Car- 
lisle/paid large annuities on his behalf. In 
the summer of 1773 his difficulties induced 
him to put faith in an adventuress who pro- 
mised to procure him a wife with 80,OOOZ. 
In that year the wife of his elder brother bore 
a son, and the money-lenders refused to give 
him further credit. ' My brother Ste's son,' 
he said, ' is a second Messiah, born for the 
destruction of the Jews ' (GIBBON, Miscell. 
Works, ii. 132). He thought of reading for 
the bar, in the hope of retrieving his for- 
tune by professional industry. Lord Hol- 
lland paid his debts in the winter of 1773-4, 
! 'at a cost of 140,000^. He did not give up 
* the habit of gambling (Last Journals, i. 7, 
283 ; WBAXALL, Memoirs, ii. 9 ; Early Life, 
pp. 478-92). In the course of 1774 Fox lost 
his father, mother, and elder brother. He re- 
ceived King's Gate, near Margate, from his 
father, and on his brother's death succeeded 
to the Irish clerkship of the pells, which was 
worth 2,0001. a year for life ; he shortly after- 
wards sold both the house and the clerkship 
'WRAXALL, Memoirs, ii. 8). 

At the time of Fox's dismissal the dispute 
with the American colonies had reached a 
critical stage ; the tea riot in Boston took 
place in December 1773, and Gage landed in 
May 1774 to put in force the Boston Port 
.Bill. Fox now began to act with the Rock- 
/ ingham party ; he carried on a constant op- 
! position to the war, and his speeches, hitherto 
occasional and for the most part misdirected, 
were during this period the most effective 
expositions of the policy of the Rockingham 
whigs. His jealousy for the rights of parlia- 
ment, hitherto exhibited in unworthy mea- 
sures against the liberty of the press, now took 
a nobler turn, and on 24 March he declared 

5 Fox 

that the quarrel with Massachusetts was 
with the parliament not with the crown, and 
that it therefore belonged to parliament to 
decide on the rest oration of the port of Boston 
(Speeches, i. 27). On 19 April he voted for the' 
repeal of the tea duty, declaring that the tax 
was a mere assertion of a right which would 
force the colonists ' into open rebellion ' (t'6. 
p. 28). It is said that in December an attempt 
was made t o negotiatebetween Fox and North, 
but that Fox's demands were too high (Last 
Journals, i. 437). Fox upheld Burke, on 
23 Jan. 1775, in complaining of the disregard 
shownto the merchants' petition, and pointed 
out that Gage's troops were in a ridiculous 
position. He made a violent attack on North 
on the 27th, and when the minister com- 
plained that Fox and Burke were threaten- 
ing him, declared that he would join Burke 
in bringing him to answer for his conduct. 
In moving an amendment to a ministerial 
address on 2 Feb. ' he entered intothe whole 
history and argument of the dispute, and 
' made the greatest figure he had yet done in 
a speech of an hour and twenty minutes ' 
(ib. p. 455) ; ' taking the vast compass of the 
question ' he ' discovered power for regular 
debate which neither his friends hoped, nor 
his enemies dreaded ' (GiBBOX, Miscell. Works, 
ii. 132). On the 20th he exposed the hollow- 
ness of North's plan of conciliation, as, ac- 
cording to his ideas, ' carrying two faces on 
its very first appearance ' (Speeches, i. 37). 
The affair at Lexington took place in April. 
When parliament met on 26 Oct. Fox sup- 
ported the amendment to the address, cen- 
suring the ministers for increasing the dis- 
content in America. The ministers, he said, 
' have reason to triumph. Lord Chatham, the! 
king of Prussia, nay, Alexander the GreatJ 
never gained more in one campaign than thd 
noble lord has lost he has lost a whole conti-l 
nent.' The colonists, he admitted, had gone too 
far, though he denied that they were aiming 
at independence, they were aiming at free- 
dom, and he urged that they should be placed 
in the same position as in 1763 (ib. i. 49). 
On 20 Feb. 1776 he moved for a committee 
on the war, contending that the ministers 
lacked wisdom and integrity, parliament pub- 
lic spirit, and the commanders either mili- 
tary skill or liberty to carry out what they 
were sent to do. The motion was lost by 
240 to 104. Speaking in support of the 
amendment to the address on 31 Oct. he 
denied that it was 'not for the interest of 
Spain and France to have America inde- 
pendent;' injury to the trade of this free 
country must be advantageous to old cor- 
rupted governments. If, however, the ques- 
tion lay between conquering and abandoning 




America, he was for abandoning it ; for our 
advantages from America arose from trade 
and from relationships with a people of the 
same ideas and sentiments. They would be 
cut off by war ; while the army in America 
would oppress the people there, and would 
be dangerous to liberty at home (ib. p. 61). 
kFox was at this time the animating spirit of 
the Rockingham party, though he had not as 
yet avowedly joined it ; he brought recruits 
to it, declared himself ' far from being dis- 
mayed by the terrible news from Long Island,' 
urged perseverance, and tried to dissuade the 
marquis from secession (Memoirs of Rocking- 
ham, ii. 297). The king recognised his power ; 
for he wrote to North, saying that he heard 
that Fox was about to leave for Paris on 
16 Nov., and that the minister would do well 
to press on business in his absence (Letters to 
North, ii. 40). While, however, Fox, accord- 
ing to Gibbon, ' in the conduct of a party ' 
thus ' approved himself equal to the conduct 
\ of an empire ' (Miscell. Works, i. 222), he 
\ did not abandon his gaming or rakish life, 
and was seldom in bed before 5 A.M,, or up 
before 2 P.M. (Last Journals, ii. 4). He went 
to Paris with Fitzpatrick, played high there, 
,and returned to England about the middle 
I* x)f January 1777 (MME. DU DEFFAND, iii. 207, 

When the Rockingham party seceded from 
parliament, Fox still continued to attend, and 
on 10 Feb. opposed the suspension of the 
Habgaa^orpusAct. In the summer he made 
a tour inlreland with Lord John Townshend, 
met Grattan at Lord Charlemont's, and 
formed a friendship with him, and was much 
feted at Dublin (Memorials, i. 156). While 
in Ireland he received a letter from Burke, 
exhorting him to lay his ' foundations deep 
in public opinion,' and expressing the writer s 
wish that he would avowedly join the Rock- 
ingham party (BuKKE, Works, ix. 148). On 
the meeting of parliament in November he 
delivered a ' bitter philippic on Lord George 
Germaine,' describing him as ' that inauspi- 
cious and ill-omened character, whose arro- 
gance and presumption, whose ignorance and 
inability,' had damaged the country. ' Charles,' 
Lord North said, for in spite of political dif- 
ferences they were on friendly terms, ' I am 
glad you did not fall on me to-day, for you 
was in full feather' (Memorials, i. 159). 
When Germaine confirmed the news of the 
disaster at Saratoga, Fox renewed his attack 
with great vehemence, and expressed his hope 
of seeing Germaine ' brought to a second trial' 
(Last Journals, ii. 170). In moving for papers 
with reference to the surrender at Saratoga, 
Fox, in January 1778, compared the reign to 
that of James II. Luttrell said that he was 

talking treason, which he denied. The ' Morn- 
ing Post,' the paper of the court party, taunted 
him with not challenging Luttrell. Its tone 
gave rise to a suspicion that there was a scheme 
to get rid of Fox by provoking a duel. Lut- 
trell complained of the tone of the paper, said 
he had been misrepresented, and threatened 
to have the gallery cleared. Fox, so greatly 
had he changed his ground as regards press 
matters, asserted that the ' public had a right 
to know what passed in parliament ' (Speeches, 
i. 101). On 2 Feb. he made a motion on the 
state of the nation, and reviewed the whole 
conduct of the ministers in a speech of two 
hours and forty minutes. His speech was not 
answered, and the motion was rejected by 
259 to 165, which was considered a very good 
division for the opposition (ib. pp. 102-11). 
P"he treaty between France and the revolted 
colonies was signed 6 Feb., and on the 17th 
Fox, while in the main approving North's 
new scheme for conciliation, asked 'what 
punishment would be sufficient for those who 
adjourned parliament in order to make a pro- 
position of concession, and then had neglected 
to do it until France had concluded a treaty 
with the independent states of America ' (ib. 
p. 117). Negotiations were opened in March 
to induce Fox to join the administration. Fox \ 
is reported to have said ' that except with 1 
Lord G. Germaine he could act with the 
present ministers; but he disavowed every 
possibility of accepting singly and alone.' 
This report has been discredited (Memorials, 
i. 181, note by Lord Russell). He had not 
yet made ' engagements to any set of men,' 
but felt bound in honour to the Rockingham 
party (ib. p. 170). As, however, he seems on 
31 May to have thought that a ' compromise 
ought to be made ' (Memoirs of Rockingham, 
ii. 354), the report does not seem incredible. 
Fox evidently thought it possible that the 
king would sanction a change of policy, and 
a considerable change in the administration ; 
while the king only contemplated reinforcing 
the existing administration by the admission 
of two or three men of ability (LEWIS, Ad- 
ministrations, p. 14 ; STANHOPE, History, vi. 
222-6). Soon after this Fox definitely at- 
tflp.hftfl_ himself to the Rockingham party. 
He still thought a coalition possible, and on 
24 Jan. 1779 urged it on Rockingham as an 
opportunity of restoring the whig party to 
power. His uncle, the Duke of Richmond, 
pointed out his mistake, insisted that the ne- 
gotiations then afoot meant simply ' an offer 
of places without power,' and exhorted him to 
be patient and steadfast (Memoirs of Rock- 
ingham, ii. 371 ; Memorials, i. 213). He fol- 
lowed this advice. Meanwhile he had not 
abated the vehemence of his opposition. In 

H 2 




the debate on the address in November 1778 he 
criticised the naval arrangements, and advo- 
cated the withdrawal of troops from America 
and the prosecution of the war against France. 
' America,' he said, ' must be conquered in 
France ; France can never be conquered in 
America,' and he declared that the war of 
the Americans was a ' war of passion,' the 
war of France a ' war of interest ' (Speeches, 
i. 131-8). After Christmas he attacked 
the admiralty, which was wretchedly mis- 
managed by Lord Sandwich, and on 3 March 
moved a vote of censure on the ground that 
when Keppel had been sent to prevent a junc- 
tion of two French squadrons the previous 
June he had only twenty ships, though there 
were twenty-seven ships of the line in the 
Brest waters, and five more nearly ready for 
sea. The motion was lost by 204 to 170, an 
unusually large minority (ib. pp. 140-60). He 
warmly espoused the cause of Keppel against 
Palliser and Sandwich with reference to the 
engagement off Ushant. When the news of 
Keppel's acquittal reached London at 3 A.M. 
on 11 Feb., he and some of his friends were 
drinking at Almack's ; they sallied out into the 
streets, and one of the party is said to have 
incited the mob to break Lord G. Germaine's 
windows (Last Journals, ii. 343). J^ 

By this time it had become abundantly 
evident that the king's determination to carry 
on the war was at the bottom of the resistance 
offered by North and the majority of the com- 
mons to the policy of the opposition. Accord- 
ingly, on 25 Nov., at the opening of the ses- 
sion, Fox referred to the unconstitutional cha- 
Iracter of the doctrine that the king might 
flbe his own minister, spoke of the punish- 
ments that befell Charles I and James II, 
and compared the king and his reign to | 
Henry VI and the period of his losses in 
France. He also made a violent attack on , 
Adam. This led to a duel on the 29th, in j 
which Fox was slightly wounded [see under j 
ADAM, WILLIAM]. He was now the 'idoLof j 
the people.' On 2 Feb. llSUhe took the 
chair at a great meeting in Westminster 
Hall, where a petition was adopted praying 
the commons to reform abuses in the public 
expenditure. At this meeting he was received 
as candidate for the city of Westminster at ; 
the approaching election. At another meet- 
ing of the same sort on 5 April he declared 
for yearly parliaments and an additional hun- 
dred knights of the shire, and when a motion ! 
was brought forward on 8 May for triennial 
parliaments upheld it on the ground that it j 
would lessen the influence of the crown, to 
which he traced all the misfortunes of the 
country (Speeches, i. 276). He took a pro- 
minent part in the debates on economical 

_ [see under BURKE, EDMUND] ; on 
8 March combated Rigby's theory that the 
house was not competent to disturb the exist- 
ing arrangement with the crown, declaring 
that if this was so there ' was an end of the 
constitution,' and he would never enter the 
house again, and insisting that the only way 
to narrow influence was by the reduction of 
the civil list (ib. p. 224). During the Gordon 
riots in the first week of June Fox joined a 
party of young men who kept guard over 
the Marquis of Rockingham's house in 
Grosvenor Square, and on the 20th made a 
fine speech of three hours in favour of relief 
of the Rnmnn qftthnlici, declaring himself a 
' friend to universal toleration. In July 
fresh negotiations were set on foot between 
North and the leaders of the opposition. 
Rockingham proposed that Fox should be 
' considered.' The king objected to Fox on 
the ground that he advocated shortening the 
duration of parliaments, but added, ' As to 
Mr. Fox, if any lucrative, not ministerial, 
office can be pointed out for him, provided 
he will support the ministry, I shall have no 
objection. He never had any principle, and 
can therefore act as his interest may guide 
him ' (Memorials, i. 252). The negotiations 
failed. While the king's opinion of Fox 
was harsh, some of the circumstances of his 
early career, his insubordination in office, and 
his rapid change from toryism to ' virulent 
and unqualified opposition to his former 
chief,' even though he had never defended 
the quarrel with the American colonies, and' 
though American questions had not become 
urgent until the time of his secession, cer- 
tainly gave his enemies some excuse for speak- 
ing ill of him, while his dissipated life de- 
prived him of the weight that attaches to cha- 
racter (LECKT, History, iii. 528). This was 
the period of his greatest pecuniary embar- 
rassments. In January 1779 he is said to 
have jestingly asked for a place on the council 
for India as a means of gaining a livelihood 
(Life of Sir P. Francis, ii. 172). Two years 
later he won 70,000/., at least so it is said, in 
partnership with others at hazard, lost it all 
at Newmarket, and was 30,000/. 'worse than 
nothing ' (Auckland Correspondence, i. 320). 
Although he was then lodging in St. James's 
Street, near the gambling club, where he 
spent nearly all his spare time, he was often 
in need of the smallest sums, and on 20 June 
1781 his books were sold under a writ of exe- 
cution (Memorials, i. 265). He bore his losses/ 
with great equanimity. Immediately after a] 
run of ill-luck that left him penniless he was! 
found quietly reading Herodotus; at other 1 
times he would at once fall sound asleep. By ) 
1781 his dissipation is said to have brought 




on internal pains, but he used each year to 
lay in a fresh store of health by spending 
some weeks in shooting in Norfolk (WRAX- 
ALL, Memoirs, ii. 15, 23 ; WALPOLE, Letters, 
viii. 41 ; but as regards Fox's health compare 
Memorials, i. 264 n.~) His embarrassments 
rendered his faithfulness to his party espe- 
cially praiseworthy; his opposition to the 
American war was sincere, and the emolu- 
ments of office could not tempt him to be 
false to his principles. 

In October 1780 Rodney and Fmr were 
returned for Westminster, the ministerial 
defeated by a large majority 

During the canvass the whig electors adopted 
a resolution to defend Fox's safety, as he 
would probably be made the ' object of such 
attacks as he had already experienced, and 
to which every unprincipled partisan of 
power is invited by the certainty of a re- 
ward.' Fox at this time adopted the blue 
frock-coat and buff waistcoat which are said 
to have given the whigs their party colours, 
still commemorated on the cover of the ' Edin- 
burgh Review ' ( WRAXALL, Memoirs, ii. 27 ; 
the connection is doubtful, and rests on Wrax- 
all's assertion, which, however, is perhaps cor- 
roborated by the phrase ' pur buff and blue 
chief,' Auckland Correspondence, ii. 369). The 
appointment of Palliser as governor of Green- 
wich Hospital provoked Fox to renew his 
attacks upon him, and on 1 Feb. he spoke se- 
verely of the exercise of the royal influence in 
driving Keppel from the borough of Windsor. 
This greatly annoyed the king (Speeches, i. 
295 ; Letters to North, ii. 357). On 7 March he 
attacked North on finance, pointing out that 
the minister's proposal to raise twelve millions 
by annuities and 480,000/. by lottery showed 
utter disregard of the public interest, and 
that the profit on the loan would be 900,000/., 
which North would have the power of dis- 
tributing among his supporters, and which 
would thus become a means of maintaining 
a majority; the lottery scheme he considered 
as injurious to the morals of the people. 
"When pursuing this subject on 30 May he 
made a violent attack on North, personating 
the minister at his levee as inducing members 
to vote for the continuance of the war by 
representing that he had 900,00(W. to distri- 
bute (Speeches, i. 316, 364 ; WRAXALL, Me- 
moirs, i. 98). On 15 June he carried the 
commitment of a bill to amend the marriage 
act, making a speech of remarkable power, 
in which he compared the results of lawful 
and unlawful union (Speeches, i. 413). When 
parliament met on 27 Nov. news had been 
received of the surrender of Yorktown. Fox 
moved an amendment to the address, and, 
angered by a remark that the house had heard 

with impatience the narratives of the Ame- 
rican disasters, declared that the ministers 
' must by the aroused indignation and ven- 
geance of an injured and undone people hear \ 
of them at the tribunal of justice and expiate 1 
them on the public scaffold;' he exposed the I 
wretched condition of the navy, and appealed 
to the house not to go on with the war. His 
amendment was lost by 218 to 129 (ib. pp. 
427, 436). During January and February 

continued his attacks on the mal- 
administration of the navy, and the majority 
rapidly decreased. On 8 March Adam taunted 
him with looking outside the house for the 
wishes of the people, especially as regards 
the duration of parliaments. In reply Fox\ 
made a sort of confession of the principles : 
he would follow if the ministry was over- 
thrown ; he spoke of the corrupt state of the ' 
house, and declared that it ought to be made 
to represent the people, but that it would be 
of little use to shorten parliaments unless 
the influence of the crown was abated ; hel 
desired an administration formed on the . 
broadest basis (ib. ii. 40 ; Parl. Hist. xxii. / 
1136 ; WRAXALL, Memoirs, ii. 222). North 
resigned on the 20th. 

On the 25th Fox took office as foreign 
secretaryin Lord Rockingham's administra- 
jion7 His appointment was immensely 
popular (he appears in the caricature ' The 
Captive Prince ' as the ruler of the mob). 
As minister he was ' indefatigable,' and for 
the time wholly gave up play (WALPOLE, 
Letters, viii. 217 ; Memorials, i. 320 n.) 
He was not satisfied with the composition 
of the ministry ; it consisted, he said, ' of 
two parts, one belonging to the king, the 
other to the public ; ' the king's part was led 
by Shelburne, the other secretary, and it soon 
became evident that he and Fox regarded each 
other with the distrust and jealousy natural 
to men who are forced by circumstances to 
act together while they are rivals and enemies 
at heart, as well as with an intense personal 
dislike' (ib. pp. 314, 316; LECKT, History, iv. 
216). On 17 May Fox brought in the bill 
for the repeal of the declaratory act of 
George I and for other concessions to Ireland. 
He had already, on 6 Dec. 1779, expressed 
in parliament his approval of the Irish asso- 
ciation, and of ' the determination that in 
the dernier ressort flew to arms to obtain 
deliverance' (Speeches, i. 221). He now 
said that he ' would rather see Ireland totally g 
separated from the crown of England than I 
kept in obedience by mere force.' In acceding I 
to the four demands of the Irish he was anxious 
' to meet Ireland on her owniterms,' and 
contemplated a formal treaty which should 
regulate the relationship between the two 




kingdoms. Finally, he praised the moderation 
of the volunteers (ib. ii. 64). He supported 
Pitt's motion for parliamentary reform on the 
ground that it gave power to those who had a 
stake in the country (ib. p. 67). In his special 
department he desired to counterbalance the 
power of France by alliances with Russia and 
Prussia, and in order to satisfy Russia made 
offers to Holland on the basis of the ' armed 
neutrality' (MALMESBURY, Diaries, i. 497- 
517 ; Memorials, iii. 300 ; Life, i. 299). The 
discord between the two secretaries increased 
(Graf ton MSS., quoted LECKY, History, iv. 
224), and came to a crisis about the negotia- 
tions for peace. Fox desired that the inde- 
pendence of America should be acknow- 
ledged unconditionally, and not as part of 
the joint treaty with America and France. 
Shelburne preferred to receive the acknow- 
ledgment for the joint treaty, and use it as 
a set-off to claims for territory. The treaty 
with France belonged to Fox's department, 
negotiations with the American colonies to 
Shelburne's. A merchant named Oswald 
was employed, first informally by Shelburne, 
and then by the cabinet, to negotiate with 
Franklin at Paris. Oswald was unfit for 
bis work, and encouraged Franklin to ex- 
pect large concessions, embodied in a paper 
which Shelburne concealed from Fox. On 
23 May the cabinet came round to Fox's ideas, 
and authorised Grenville, Fox's envoy to 
Vergennes, ' to propose the independency of 
America in the first instance ' (Memorials, i. 
357). Fox contended that, as America was 
thus recognised as independent, negotiations 
belonged for the future to him as foreign 
minister, while Shelburne claimed them as 
secretary for the colonies (ib. p. 439). The 
king agreed with Shelburne, for he desired 
that Oswald might be a 'check' on Fox 
(Life of Shelburne, iii. 184). Fox was out- 
voted in the cabinet, and Oswald was sent 
back to Paris. When Oswald returned, 
Grenville, who had been negotiating with 
Franklin, found that Franklin became re- 
served ; he complained to Fox and told him 
of the private paper, for Oswald informed 
him of it. Fox was indignant at Shelburne's 
duplicity, and demanded Oswald's recall. 
The majority of the cabinet, however, decided 
to grant him full powers. On 30 June Fox 
desired that the independence of America 
should be unconditionally acknowledged, 
which would have put the whole negotiations 
into his hands. Shelburne declared that the 
instructions of 23 May only indicated a re- 
cognition that might be withdrawn in case 
other negotiations failed ; he was supported 
by the majority of the cabinet, and Fox an- 
nounced his intention of resigning (ib. p. 218 ; 

Memorials, i. 434-9 ; FKA^KLIN, Works, ix. 
335 ; LEWIS, Administrations, pp. 31-50 ; 
LECKT, History, iv. 223-35, where this in- 
tricate subject is admirably elucidated). 

Fox's resignation was delayed, for Rock- 
ingham was on his deathbed, and died the 
next day. Fox advised the king to send for 
one of the Rockingham party, and wished 
for the appointment of the Duke of Portland. 
The king preferred Shelburne, and Fox, Lord 
John Cavendish, 'with Burke, Sheridan, and 
some others not in the cabinet, resigned.' 
Fox's resignation broke up the Rockingham I 
party. He has been much blamed for it i 
(Memorials, i. 472) ; but the king knew that ( 
it would be impossible for him to work with 
Shelburne (Life of Shelburne, iii. 220), Burke 
advised him not to try it (Memorials, i. 457), 
and Elliot thought resignation necessary to 
his credit (Life of Sir G. Elliot, i. 80). He 
defended his resignation on the grounds that 
he felt general want of confidence, that 
Rockingham's 'system' had been abandoned, 
and that, while he maintained that the ac- 
knowledgment of American independence 
should be unconditional, Shelburne wished 
to make it the price of peace (Speeches, ii. 
73, 97). Considering the differences between 
him and Shelburne on this subject, and, in- 
deed, on other matters, and the fact that if 
he had remained in office he would always 
have been in a minority in the cabinet, his 
resignation appears justified. His loss of 
office was made the subject of three famous 
caricatures, one by James Sayer entitled 
' Paradise Lost,' the other two by J. Gillray, 
who represents him in one as in the envious 
mood of Milton's Satan, and in the other, 
' Guy Vaux and Judas Iscariot,' as wrangling 
with Shelburne (WEIGHT). His party could 
now count on ninety votes, and he held the .' 
balance between the supporters of the mi- 1 
nority and the party of North. A design 
was at once formed to bring about a coalition 
between Fj2x_ajkd_Nqrth (Auckland Corre- 
spondence, i. 9, 28). Political sympathy dic- 
tated a union between the Foxites and the 
ministerial party; personal dislike prevented 
it. In February an attempt was made to 
induce Fox to come to terms with the Shel- 
burne whigs. He refused to enter any ad- 
ministration of which Shelburne was the 
head. On the 17th his coalition with North > 
became patent, and on the 21st the two 
combined parties defeated the ministry on a 
motion concerning the peace. The coalition 
with North forcibly illustrates Fox's levity 
and indiscretion ; he defended it on the pleal 
that quarrels should be short, friendships! 
abiding; but his differences with North were! 
not personal, they were matters of political' 




[principle. He declared that the cause of 
(quarrel, the American war, had passed, and 
that there was therefore no reason why he 
should not act with North. But his late 
censures on North had not been confined to 
the minister's persistence in the war, he had 
attacked North's character as a statesman, 
had maintained that he was a bad and cor- 
rupt minister, and had threatened him with 
impeachment. Besides, North was, and re- 
i mained, a tory, while Fox had embraced the 
I principles of the Rockingham whigs. Fox 
1 himself declared that nothing could justify 
(the junction but success; he hoped that it 
would lead to the establishment of a strong 
administration which would be able to resist 
the intrigues of the crown ; the king was to 
be treated with respect, but was to have 
only the semblance of power, and there was 
to be no government by departments (Me- 
morials, ii. 38, iv. 40, 102). The coalition 
ruined the whigs, disgusted the nation, 
and was overthrown by the king. George 
struggled hard against it ; he hated Fox not 
merely for political reasons, but because he 
believed that he encouraged the Prince of 
Wales in evil courses, and in unfilial conduct 
(ib. i. 269) . The prince was intimate with Fox, 
and upheld him as a politician, greatly to his 
father's annoyance. Although the king used 
every effort to exclude Fox from the adminis- 
tration ( Courts and Cabinets, i. 169, 172, 213), 
he was beaten by the coalition, and on 2 April 
Fox took office as foreign secretary with 
North and under the headship of the Duke 
of Portland. He was re-elected for West- 
minster on the 7th without opposition, though 
amid some hissing. 

The coalition was violently disapproved 
1 by the nation ; it offended the democratic 
party equally with the court, and was held 
up to public ridicule both in print and in 
caricatures (e.g. by Sayer in the ' Medal ' and 
the 'Mask,' in the 'Drivers of the State- 
coach ' and ' Razor's Levee,' and by Gillray 
in his double picture, ' The Astonishing Coa- 
lition '). As minister Fox was respectful to 
the king, but he could get no more in return 
than bare civility, for George smarted under 
his defeat, and was determined to get rid of 
his new ministers. In foreign politics Fox 
tried to follow the line which has already 
been noticed in the account of his official 
work during the Rockingham administration ; 
he describes the formation of ' a continental 
alliance as a balance to the house of Bour- 
bon' as his guiding principle. He was 
thwarted by the indifference of the king and 
the unwillingness of Frederic of Prussia. In 
| May he supported Pitt's resolutions for re- 
form of parliament (Speeches, ii. 172), while 

North opposed them. By his persuasion the 
ministers pledged themselves to obtain a 
grant of 100,000/. a year for the prince. The 
king proposed 50,0001. a year to be taken 
from his own civil list. * On 17 June it 
seemed likely that the matter would end in 
the dismissal of the ministers, but it was 
arranged by the prince himself. Fox acted 
in this affair rather as a friend to the prince 
than as a minister of the crown (WRAXALL, 
Memoirs, iii. 111). With respect to Ireland 
he exhorted the lord-lieutenant, Lord North- 
ington, ' not to be swayed in the slightest 
degree by the armed volunteers' associations ; ' 
he considered that the concessions of 1782 
' closed the account,' and would have nothing 
yielded to threats (Memorials, ii. 163). The 
condition of Indian finance, the abuses of the 
administration, and the conduct of the court 
of proprietors in retaining Warren Hastings 
as governor-general of Bengal rendered it 
necessary to reform the government of India, 
and on 18 Nov. Fox brought in a bill for 
that purpose; the conception and the particu-| 
lars of the bill must be ascribed to Burke, but\ 
Fox made the measure his own and recom- 
mended it with uncommon power (NICHOLLS, ' 
Recollections, i. 65). Although he was con^ 
scious that by bringing in this India bill before 1 
the ministry was firmly established he was: 
risking his power, he did not hesitate to incur, 
that danger ' when the happiness of so many 
millions was at stake ' (ib. p. 219). He erposed 
the deplorable condition of the company, de- 
fended the recall of Hastings, and, as illustra- 
tions of the bad government of which he was 
the principal agent, dwelt on the iniquities of 
the transactions with Cheyt Sing and the be- 
gums of Oude and the Rohilla war. In order 
to remedy abuses he proposed to constitute 
a supreme council in England, consisting of 
seven commissioners, to be named by the legis- 
lature, who should hold office for four years 
and have complete control over government, 
patronage, and commerce. At the end of 
their period of office the right of nomination 
was to vest in the crown. A board of as- 
sistant-directors chosen from the largest pro- 
prietors was to manage commercial details ; 
these assistants were to be appointed in the 
first instance for four years by parliament, 
and vacancies were to be filled up by the 
proprietors. Provision was made in a second 
bill for giving security to landowners and for 
certain other matters (Speeches, ii. 194). The 
first bill was carried in the commons, but 
the opposition raised a strong feeling against 
it by representing that it struck at chartered 
rights and at royal prerogative. All public 
companies were said to be endangered ; the 
bill was declared to provide opportunities 




for corruption, and, above all, the tories re- 
presented that it gave the whig majority in 
the commons the virtual sovereignty of India. 
Fox was said to be attempting to make him- 
self ' king of Bengal,' and Sayer's fine cari- 
cature, ' Carlo Khan's Triumphal Entry into 
Leadenhall Street,' gave, so he declared, the i 
severest blow to his bill in the public estima- '< 
tion (WRIGHT). The king was easily in- ! 
duced to believe that his prerogative was j 
attacked. As the right of nomination only 
belonged to the parliament for four years, 
and the nominees were liable to be removed 
by the king on address by either house of 
parliament, the declaration that the bill was 
an attempt to deprive the sovereign of his 
rights was certainly exaggerated and was 
due to party considerations. The king used 
y his personal influence through Lord Temple 
^ to secure the rejection of the bill and the 
xx defeat of his ministers in the House of Lords 
\ Ion 17 Dec., and the next day Fox and his 
(colleagues were dismissed. 

Foxs large majority in the commons made 
it probable that the king would dissolve the 
house in order to gain a majority in favour 
of the new ministry which was formed by 
Pitt. Fox determined to prevent a dissolu- 
tion and an appeal to the nation, and was 
confident that he should be able to force the 
king to recall the late ministry. The king 
could not dissolve until the Land Tax Bill 
had been passed, and the house deferred the 
third reading and presented an address against 
dissolution. On 12 Jan. 1784 Fox moved for 
a committee on the stateoT the nation, en- 
deavouring to make a dissolution impossible, 
and declaring that ' it would render gentlemen 
in some degree accomplices in the guilt of a 
dissolution without cause, if they suffered the 
land bill to go out of their hands without 
taking measures to guard against the evils 
which might be expected from a dissolution' 
(Speeches, ii. 305). The motion was carried 
by a majority of thirty-nine. On the 23rd 
.he spoke against, and procured the rejection 
ipf, Pitt's East India Bill. He endeavoured 
jto force Pitt to resign by a series of votes 
(of censure and addresses to the crown, and 
took his stand on the principle that a minis- 
ter who persisted in retaining office against 
the wishes of a majority in the commons was 
guilty of contempt of the opinion of the 
house. In this long attack on the ministry 
he committed some grave mistakes ; he at- 
tempted to restrain the crown from exercis- 
ing its undoubted right, and he showed that 
he was unwilling to submit his cause to the 
judgment of the country. As a matter of 
tactics he foolishly gave'Pitt time to gain a 
hold upon the constituencies, and he showed 

a want of political knowledge in staking his 
success on the stability of his majority in the 
house. On the 20th the section styled the 
' country gentlemen ' called for a coalition, 
and the attempt was renewed on 2 Feb. Fox, 
while professing that he was not averse to the 
idea, declared that a junction was impossible, 
as it could not be founded on principle (t'6. 
p. 353). The king and Pitt remained firm, 
but Fox's majority gradually dwindled. On 
20 Feb. an address to the crown was carried 
by twenty-one; on 1 March Fox moved 
another address and had a majority of twelve, 
this sank to nine on a motion to delay the 
Mutiny Bill on the 5th, and on the 8th a 
representation on public affairs was only 
carried by 191 to 190. On the 10th the 
Mutiny Bill was passed without a division, 
and on the 25th parliament was dissolved. 
Thus ended the struggle in which Dr. John- 
son said 'Fox divided the kingdom with 
Caesar ; so that it was a doubt whether the 
nation should be ruled by the sceptre of 
George III or the tongue of Fox' (BoswELi, 
Life of Johnson, iv. 315). Fox's defeat was 
caricatured by Sayer in the ' Fall of Phaeton* 

His popularity had been ruined by the coali- 
tion, the India bill, and his attempt to prevents 
an appeal to the country, and in the general]! 
election upwards of 160 members lost theinl f 
seats, almost all of whom were ' friends OM 
the late administration ' (Annual Register,. 
1784-5, xxv. 147). Fox was opposed at 
Westminster by Sir Cecil Wray. The poll 
was opened on 1 April and closed on 17 May, 
when the numbers were Lord Hood, 6,694; 
Fox, 6,234; Wray, 5,998. During the whole 
period the city was a scene of riot. By far 
the most efficient canvasser for Fox was- 
Georgina, duchess of Devonshire, who was 
aided by other whig ladies, and was shame- 
fully libelled in the 'Morning Post' and 
'Advertiser.' He also received much help 
from the songs of Captain Morris. No other 
occasion probably has called forth such a pro- 
fusion of lampoons and caricatures (WRIGHT, 
Caricature History, p. 387 ; for squibs and 
history of the election see under authorities. 
The most noteworthy caricatures are on 
Fox's side those attributed to Rowlandson 
to be found in the ' History of the Election ' 
and elsewhere, the 'Champion of the People/ 
the 'State Auction,' and the 'Hanoverian 
Horse and the British Lion,' and against him 
GiJlray's ' Returning from Brooks's '). At the 
clse of the poll the high bailiff granted Wray 
a scrutiny, and on the meeting of parliament 
the next day simply reported the numbers, 
making no return to the writ on pretence of 
not having finished the scrutiny (Annual Re- 




fftster, xxv. 279). Fox, however, was enabled 
to take his seat, as he was returned for Kirk- 
wall. On 8 June he spoke on the subject 01 
the scrutiny, arguing that by Grenville's act 
such questions should not be decided by 
votes of the house, and that the bailiff had 
acted on insufficient evidence and had no 
right to grant a scrutiny to be continued 
after the writ became returnable (Speeches, 
ii. 451). A struggle on this matter was 
kept up during two sessions. At last it be- 
came evident that there was no chance of 
unseating Fox, and on 3 March 1785 the 
high bailiff was ordered to make his return, 
and Hood and Fox were declared duly 
elected. All the expenses of the election 
were paid by Fox's political friends. He 
was in great difficulties ; all his effects were 
seized, and he was forced to leave his lodg- 
ings in St. James's. Shortly before this time 
he had formed a connection with 'Elizabeth 
Bridget Cane, otherwise Armistead or Arm- 
stead, a woman of good manners and some 
education, who is said to have begun life as 
waiting-woman to Mrs. Abington [q. v.] 
(Early Life of Samuel Rogers, p. 264). She 
took him to St. Anne's Hill, a house beauti- 
fully situated, with about thirty acres of land, 
near Chertsey in Surrey. Mrs. Armistead, 
to give her the title invariably used by Fox, 
appears to have bought this property about 
1778 (BRAYLEY, History of Surrey, i'i. 238). 
There Fox indulged his tastes for gardening 
and literature, and thoroughly enjoyed a 
country life in company with a woman to 
whom he was sincerely attached, and who 
devoted herself to promoting his happiness. 
For some years he stayed in London during 
the sessions of parliament, and actively though 
vainly led the opposition. When Pitt brought 
forward his resolutions regulating the condi- 
tions of commerce between Great Britain 
and Ireland, he condemned them on the 
grounds that they would injure the mercan- 
tile interests of England, and would place 
Ireland in a position of dependence by im- 
posing uncertain restraints ' at the arbitrary 
demand of another state ' (Speeches, iii. 57 
sq.) As one of the champions of English 
commercial interests he received a warm 
welcome at Manchester in September ; this 
greatly pleased him, for he loved popularity 
(Memorials, ii. 270). In the previous April 
he expressed his approval of the principle of 
Pitt's motion for parliamentary reform, but 
objected to the proposal for buying up the 
borough seats, contending that the franchise 
was not a property but a trust. The attack 
on Hastings was begun the next year, and 
in May appeared Gillray's caricature, ' Poli- 
tical banditti assaulting the Saviour of India,' 

in which Fox appears attacking Hastings 
with a dagger. On 2 June Fox made an 
effective reply to Grenville's defence of Hast- 
ings against the charges brought against him 
by Burke with reference to the Rohilla war,, 
and on the 13th laid before the committee 
the Benares charge, accusing Hastings of 
plundering Chey t Sing, of causing the women 
taken at Bidgigur to be ill-treated, and of 
acting tyrannically at Benares; he concluded 
with a motion of impeachment. Pitt un- 
expectedly declared that he would vote for 
the motion, which was carried. Early in 
1787 he took part in the debate on the Oude 
charge. He served on the committee ap- 
pointed to draw up articles of impeachment, 
was one of the managers, and urged that 
Francis should be added to the number. 
During the progress of the trial, in 1788, he 
argued on the course of proceedings, opened 
the first part of the Benares charge in a 
speech which lasted five hours, and on 23 Dec. 
1789 spoke with much force against the 
abatement of the impeachment by reason of 
the dissolution of parliament (Speeches, iv. 

In February 1787 Fox assailed the com- 
mercial treaty with France, though it cer- 
tainly promised to be of great advantage to 
England. His opposition was based on poli- 
tical grounds. France, he said, was ' the 
natural political enemy of Great Britain ; ' 
she was endeavouring to draw England into 
' her scale of the balance of power,' and to 
prevent it from forming alliances with other 
states. He advocated the claims of the dis- 
senters to be exempt from disabilities on the 
score of religion, as he had advocated the 
cause of the Roman catholics seven years 
before. On 28 March he supported a motion 
for the repeal of the Test and Corporation 
Acts, and when the motion was renewed, on 
1 May 1,789, expressed his conviction that 
every country ought to have an established 
church, and that that church ought to be 
the church of the majority. He did not think 
it probable that the church of England would 
lose that position, but if the majority of the 
people should ever be for its abolition ' in, 
such a case the abolition ought immediately 
to follow.' On 2 March following he moved 
the repeal himself. But the French revolu- 
tion, and the writings of Priestley and Price, 
had convinced the house that it was possible 
that the church might be overthrown in 
England as it had been overthrown in France ; 
Burke opposed his motion, and it was lost 
by nearly three to one (ib. iii. 315, iv. 1, 55). 
During 1785 the Prince of Wales often 
visited St. Anne's Hill in order to rave to- 
Fox and his mistress about his passion for 




Mrs. Fitzherbert. In the December of that 
year Fox, believing that he contemplated 
marrying that lady, wrote him an able letter 
pointing out the serious dangers that would 
arise from such a step. The prince replied 
that the world would soon see that there 
never existed any grounds for the reports to 
which Fox referred, and ten days later, with- , 
out Fox's knowledge, married Mrs. Fitzher- j 
bert privately. On 20 April 1787 a reference 
was made in a debate to the alleged mar- 
riage, and Fox took an early opportunity of 
denying the report in the strongest terms, 
adding that he did so ' from direct authority.' 
His truthfulness is beyond question. A few 
days later he found out the deceit that had 
been practised upon him, and for about a 
year avoided meeting the prince (Par/. Hist. 
xxvi. 1064, 1070; Memoirs of the Whig 
Party, ii. 120-42 ; Life of Mrs. Fitzherbert, \ 
i. 28 sq. ; Life, ii. 177 sq. ; Memorials, ii. 
289 .) In August Fox had some hope of j 
being enabled, by his friends' help, to extri- 
cate himself from his money difficulties, and 
wrote to Fitzpatrick that Coutts was willing 
to lend him 6,000/. (Memorials, ii. 290). He 
was deeply impressed with the evils of the 1 
slave trade, and when Pitt brought forward \ 
ja resolution on the subject in May 1788, de- j 
dared that the trade should not be regulated i 
but destroyed (Speeches, iii. 388). He often 
' urged the abolition of the trade in later 

In the summer Fox and Mrs. Armistead 
went abroad. Gibbon, with whom he spent 
two days at Lausanne in September, writes 
I that 'his powers were blended with the soft- 
\ ness and simplicity of a child' (Miscell. i. 252, 
253, 282). It was rumoured in England at 
this time that he was about to marry Miss 
Pulteney, afterwards created Baroness Bath, 
who married Sir James Murray, and who was 
in Italy while Fox was there (Auckland Cor- 
respondence, ii. 212). Fox stayed in Italy 
longer than he intended, for Mrs. Armistead 
sprained her ankle (Life of Sir G. Elliot, i. 
225). During his whole tour he never opened 
a newspaper except once to see how his bets 
had been decided at Newmarket, and as he 
had left no address had no news from England 
(ib. p. 236). In November a messenger from 
the Duke of Portland found him at Bologna. 
His party were anxious for his presence, for 
the king had become insane. After travelling 
incessantly night and day for nine days he 
arrived in London on the 24th, suffering in 
health from his hurried journey (ib. p. 240). 
It at once became evident that the prince, if 
constituted regent, would dismiss his father's 
ministers and ' form a Foxite administration' 
(LEWIS). Whatever anger Fox may have 

felt at the deceit the prince had practised on 
him, he put it aside and entered into close 
relations with him, but found to his annoy- 
ance that during his absence Sheridan had 
become prime favourite (Auckland Corre- 
spondence, ii. 267, 279). Although the prince 
was distrusted and disliked, and the change 
of ministers would have been extremely un- 
popular, Fox, in spite of his whig theories, 
determined to assert his right to the regency 
as independent of the will of parliament, 
and when on 10 Dec. Pitt proposed a com- 
mittee to search for precedents, on the prin- 
ciple that the appointment of a regent was 
within the right of parliament, he opposed 
the motion, declaring that ' the Prince of 
Wales had as clear, as express a right to as- 
sume the reins of government ' as in the case 
of the king's ' natural and perfect demise ' 
(Speeches, iii. 401). As Pitt listened to this 
speech he slapped his thigh and said to a 
friend : ' I'll unwhig the gentleman for the 
rest of his life' (Life of Sheridan, ii. 38). 
He made the most of the difference between 
them. Fox explained that he did not intend 
to annul the authority of parliament, but 
held that the royal authority belonged to , 
the prince from the moment of the king's 
incapacity. Constitutionally, his contention 
was that as a limited hereditary monarchy 
had been established as the form of govern- 
ment best suited to the wants of the nation, 
it would be dangerous to disturb that settle- 
ment by vesting the executive in a regent 
elected by the two houses ; and that as par- 
liament had no legislative power apart from 
the sanction of the crown, it was not compe- 
tent to elect a regent or impose restrictions 
on the exercise of the royal power (LECKT, 
History, v. 103-20), for the question really 
at issue was not a matter of abstract right, 
i but concerned the imposition of restrictions 
j (LEWIS). Whatever may be thought of his 
reasoning, there can be no doubt as to his in- 
discretion. The ministerial party rejoiced 
greatly over his errors (Courts and Cabinets, 
ii. 49-54). On the 15th he believed that he 
and his party would be in power ' in about 
a fortnight' (Memorials, ii. 299). But after 
much debating Pitt's resolutions were agreed 
to. During the latter part of the discussions 
Fox was seriously unwell, and was forced to 
be at Bath to recruit his health (Auckland 
Correspondence, ii. 261, 267). On 21 Jan. 
1789 he made out a list of the intended 
administration, placing the Duke of Port- 
land at the head, and taking for himself the 
foreign department and the chairmanship of 
the India board (Memorials, iv. 284), and on 
17 Feb. wrote of the regency as about to 
commence at once, for the bill had been car- 




ried in the commons four days before. Two 
days later the king was pronounced conva- 
lescent. >\ 

After hearing of the taking of the Bastille, 
Fox wrote to Fitzpatrick on 30 July 1789 : 
* How much the greatest event it is that ever 

/ happened in the world ! and how much the 
best ! ' and bade him tell the Duke of Or- 
leans that, if the revolution had the conse- 
quences he expected, his dislike of French 
connections for this country would be at an 
end (ib. ii. 361). During the succeeding 
period he advocated the revolutionary cause 
in the same spirit of vehement partisanship 
that he had exhibited during the American 
:war ; indeed ' there was no end to his indis- 
cretions' (Auckland Correspondence, ii. 387). 
When opposing the army estimates on 5 Feb. 
following, he praised the French army for 
taking part against the crown, and for showing 
that ' in becoming soldiers they did not cease 

v to be citizens.' In replying to Burke on the 
9th he protested that he was no friend to de- 
mocracy ; he upheld a mixed form of govern- 
ment, but he applauded the French soldiers 
for disobeying their leaders and joining the 

nle in a struggle for liberty, and, while he 
ored bloodshed , considered that the severe 
tyranny of the old regime should cause the 
excesses of the revolutionists to be regarded 
with compassion [see under BURKE, EDMUND]. 
He opposed the foreign policy of Pitt during 
the war between Russia and the Porte, argu- 
ing in March 1791 that the Turks were in 
fault, and were, he suspected, set on by Great 
Britain, that Catherine's terms were mode- 
rate, and that it was mistaken to strive to 
compel her to restore Oczakoff and accept 
conditions of the status quo ante ; for the 
advance of Russia in the south could never 
be prejudicial to English interests. The 
czarina affected a romantic attachment for 
Fox, and sent to England for his bust, in 
order to place it between the busts of De- 
mosthenes and Cicero (Malmesbury Corre- 
spondence, i. 325 n. ; COLCHESTER, Diary, i. 
18). His conduct as regards the visit of Sir 
Robert Adair [q. v.] to Russia was declared 
by Burke to have ' frustrated the king's 
minister ' (BURKE, Works, vii. 227). While 
Burke's accusation was untrue, Fox certainly 
\appears to have treated foreign politics at 
[this period mainly as an instrument of party. 
iWhen Oczakoff was yielded to Russia by the 
treaty of Jassy (January 1792), he taunted 
Pitt in a sarcastic and witty speech for having 
lowered his tone. He opposed the Quebec 
Government Bill, objecting to the provisions 
for the duration of the Canadian parliaments, 
the reserves for the clergy, and the institution 
of an hereditary nobility to sit in the council. 

The references he made to French politics 
in the course of the debates on this subject 
widened the breach between him and Burke, 
and on 6 May their old friendship and their poli- 1| 
tical alliance was finally broken by public de- I 
claration in the commons [see under BURKE]. \ 
On the 20th Fox brought forward his Libel 
Bill, which was carried in the commons 
without opposition, and became law the next 
year. This act, which is declaratory, main- 
tained the rights of juries, and secured to the 
subject a fair trial by his peers (MAT, Const. 
Hist. ii. 263). During the summer of 1792 
some of the fpllowers of Fox who disapproved 
of his sympathy with the revolution, and 
feared the total break-up of their party, en- 
gaged in a scheme with the Duke of Port- 
land for a coalition with Pitt. Fox declared 
himself ' a friend to coalition,' and Pitt pro-l 
fessed to be favourable to the idea. As, I 
however, Fox objected to serve under Pitt, \ 
though it is possible that he might have been ' 
brought to do so, and as Pitt held that after 
Fox's declarations relative to the revolution 
it would be impossible for him to go ' at once ' 
into the foreign department, the negotiations, 
which lasted about seven weeks, virtually 
ended by 30 July (MAXMESBURY, ii. 453-72 ; 
Life of Sir G. Elliot, ii. 43, 53). Fox found 
some excuse for the revolutionary outbreak 
of 10 Aug., but not a shadow for the massacre 
of September (Memorials, ii. 368, 371) ; he 
was indignant at the Duke of Brunswick's 
proclamation and the invasion of France, and 
declared that no ' public event, not except- 
ing Saratoga and Yorktown,' had so pleased 
him as the retreat of the Germans (ib. p. 372). 
He was now rapidly losing the confidence of 
a large section of his party, who took the I 
Duke of Portland as their head. In the I 
course of the winter Portland, Lord Fitzwil- 
liam, Windham, Sir G. EUiot, T. GrenviUe, 
and many others separated themselves from 
him and gave their support to Pitt. He felt 
their secession deeply. Nor was he in full 
sympathy with Grey and others who joined 
the Association of the Friends of the People, 
for he considered it an inopportune time 
for pressing parliamentary reform, and was 
indeed never especially eager in the cause 
(MALMESBTJRT, ii. 482 sq. ; Life of Elliot, ii. 
82 ; Memorials, iii. 20, iv. 292). On 13 Dec. he 
moved an amendment to the address, mocking 
at the reason given in the king's speech for 
embodying the militia, which was declared to 
be rendered necessary by the spirit of disorder 
shown in acts of insurrection ; instead of 
trying to suppress opinion it would, he said, 
be better to redress grievances. He was in 
a minority of 50 against 290 ; the larger 
number of his party had left him, and he was 




a ' head forsaken and alone ' {Auckland Cor- 
respondence, ii. 498). 

On 1 Feb. 1793 Fox opposed Pitt's address 
to the crown, pledging the house to resist the 
aggrandisement of France. The position that 
he took with regard to the war then immi- 
nent was that it was an unjustifiable at- 
tempt to interfere with the internal affairs 
- of another nation, that the ministers were 
taking advantage of the opening of the 
Scheldt to press on the war, that they should 
f have asked for reparation for the decree of 
19 Nov., and that their demand that the 
French troops should be withdrawn from the 
Austrian Netherlands was insolent ; in short 
that they were seizing on excesses to begin 
what would be a ' war of opinion ' (Speeches, 
v. 16). After war was declared, he moved 
on the 18th a series of resolutions condemn- 
ing the policy of the ministers, and was de- 
feated by 44 to 270. His conduct brought 
him much unpopularity, and he was attacked 
by Gillray in some bitter caricatures : in 1791 
he was represented in the ' Hopes of the Party' 
as beheading the king ; he is learning to fire 
in ' Patriots amusing themselves,' 1792, and 
is in sans-culotte dress in a drawing of 1793. 
To Grey's motion for reform he gave on 
7 May a general support, and in the course 
of his speech said some things that, consider- 
ing the special needs of the time, were vio- 
lent and unstatesmanlike (ib. p. 115). Some 
trials and sentences for sedition deeply moved 
his indignation. He was in a small minority 
in moving an amendment to the address re- 
commending peace in January 1794. Before 
the opening of parliament the more impor- 
tant of his former allies formally signified 
their intention of supporting the ministers. 
He wrote to his nephew, Lord Holland, on 
9 March that if he could have done it with 
honour he should best have liked to retire 
from politics altogether (Memorials, iii. 65). 
Pitt's plan of subsidising Prussia to prevent 
its threatened defection drew forth an able 
and sarcastic speech from him on 30 April 
(Speeches, v. 261), and a month later he made 
another attack on the policy of the ministers, 
both as regards the grounds of the war and 
the mode in which it was 'prosecuted (ib. p. 
307). Although separated from his former 
allies, unpopular with a large part of the 
. nation, and in a hopeless minority in par- 
I liament, Fox was cheerful and unsoured. 
I There was nothing small in his nature, and 
I he felt no envy ; he understood the delight 
V of literary leisure, and enjoyed it thoroughly 
as far he could get it. During this period 
his letters to his nephew, whom he loved as 
a son, and who was then abroad, are full of 
the pleasure he derived from the society of 

Mrs. Armistead, the fine weather, and the 
beauties of St. Anne's Hill, of the pictures 
that pleased him most in Italy, and of his 
reading. He would have Lord Holland take 
note in the Pitti of Titian's ' Paul III, the 
finest portrait in the world.' Titian's mas- 
terpiece he holds to be his ' Peter Martyr ' 
at Venice, and he speaks of his delight in the 
pictures of Guercino at Cento, and so on. 
Besides reading the 'Iliad' and -the 'Odys- 
sey,' as he did constantly, he was studying 
Spanish literature. He was at last fairly at 
ease about money, for in 1793 his friends 
subscribed 70,000/. to pay his debts and buy 
him an annuity (Memorials, iii. 40 ; Life of 
P. Francis, ii. 443). On 28 Sept. 1795 he 
married his mistress at Wytton, Huntingdon- 
shire, but kept the fact of his marriage secret 
until 1802 (Life, iii. 78 ; BEAYLET, History 
of Surrey, ii. 240). He continued his oppo- 
sition to the war in 1795, and, regarding the 
Treason and Sedition Bills brought forward 
in November as a deathblow to the constitu- 
tion, declared in the house that if such bills 
were vigorously enforced, he should advise 
the people ' that their obedience was no longer 
a question of moral obligation and duty, but 
of precedence ' (Speeches, vi. 31). This re- 
mark was severely reprobated. In moving 
an address on the conduct of the war on. 
10 May 1796, he maintained that Austria and 
Prussia would not have moved in 1792 against 
the will of England, and that after the treaty 
of Pilnitz England should have taken a neu- 
tral position and become the moderator of 
peace ; that the war had been conducted with- 
out any fixed aim, it was neither wholly for 
the restoration of the French monarchy nor 
wholly for English interests, and that it had 
caused the country to leave Poland to its 
fate. He was in a minority of 42 to 206. 
In May 1797 he censured the measures 
adopted to put an end to the mutiny at Spit- 
head ; his censure has been pronounced just 
(RUSSELL), but it is impossible to agree with 
this opinion ; indeed the line he took on this 
occasion, and his attack on the government 
the next month with reference to the mutiny 
at the Nore, seem to prove that he regarded 
the difficulties of the country mainly as op- 
portunities for attempting to win a party 
triumph. To this year belongs Isaac Cruik- 
shank's [q. v.] caricature of Fox as the 
' Watchman of the State.' On 26 May he 
supported Grey's motion for reform, declaring 
himself in favour of household suffrage in 
boroughs (Speeches, vi. 339). On the close 
of the session he and several of his friends, 
without pledging themselves to a systematic 
secession, ceased to attend parliament. 
For more than five years Fox seldom ap- 




peered in parliament. During this period he 
led a quiet and regular life, spending much 
of his time in reading. He carried on a cor- 
respondence (1796-1801) with the famous 
Greek scholar, Gilbert Wakefield, and his 
letters show that he not only loved classical 
literature, but took a deep interest in the 
niceties of scholarship. The masterpieces of 
the greatest Latin, Greek, French, Italian, 
and Spanish authors were his constant com- 
panions. The four finest compositions of the 
century were, he said, the ' Isacco ' of Meta- 
stasio, Pope's ' Eloisa,' Voltaire's ' Zaire,' and 
Gray's 'Elegy.' Burnet he held to be a 
master of historical style; he delighted in 
Dryden's works, and thought of editing them ; 
Milton's prose he could not endure, and he 
did not admire Wordsworth. He read Homer 
through every year, enjoying the ' Odyssey ' 
more than the ' Iliad,' though admitting that 
it was not so fine a work. Euripides he pre- 
ferred to Sophocles. ' I should never finish,' 
he wrote, ' if I let myself go upon Euripides.' 
The ' ^Eneid ' he read over and over again, 
dwelling with special pleasure on the pathetic 
passages (Memorials, iii. passim ; Table-talk of 
S. Rogers, pp. 89-93). He began his ' History 
of the Revolution of 1688 ' in 1797 ; he made 
yery slow progress with it, writing, Sydney 
Smith said, ' drop by drop.' A dinner of the 
Whig Club was held at the Crown and Anchor 
tavern on 24 Jan. 1798 to celebrate his birth- 
day. At this dinner the Duke of Norfolk 
gave as a toast ' Our sovereign, the people,' 
and was in consequence dismissed from his 
lord-lieutenancy. Fox repeated the toast at 
la dinner held early in May, and on the 9th 
Ihis name was erased from the privy council 
\LifeofPitt, iii. 128; MALMESBURY, iv. 303). 
He disliked the proposed Irish union, and 
- thought that a scheme of federation would 
be preferable (19 Jan. 1799, Memorials, iii. 
150, 295 ; COLCHESTER, Diary, ii. 39) ; the 
ministerial proposal was, he declared, ' an at- 
tempt to establish the principles as well as 
the practice of despotism ' (Life of Grattan, 
iv. 435), but ' nothing would induce him to 
attend the union debates.' In September 1799 
he was severely injured in the hand by the 
bursting of a g in while he was out shooting. 
He was indignant at Lord Grenville's reply 
to the overtures in the First Consul's letter of 
25 Dec., and in deference to the wishes of his 
friends attended the debate on it on 3 Feb. 
1800. His speech, except at the end, is rather an 
indictment of the ministers for entering on the 
war than a condemnation of Grenville's letter 
(Speeches, vi. 420). He was indignant at the 
sentences passed on Lord Thanet and Wake- 
field ; wrote bitterly of the ministers, declar- 
ing that, with them in office, invasion would 

mean slavery ; condemned their Irish policy, 
disapproved of their proposal to compensate 
Irish borough-holders, and held that they 
were wrong in their pretensions as regards 
the right of searching neutral ships (Memo- 
rials, iii. 284, 292, 306, 326). 

When Addington succeeded Pitt, in Fe- 
bruary 1801, Fox determined to test the feel- 
ing of the house by joining in the debate on 
Grey's motion on the state of the nation on 
25 March. He spoke with much ability on 
the dispute with the northern powers, the 
ill-success of the war, and the rights of catho- 
lics, warmly vindicated the character of the 
Irish people, and made a sarcastic reference 
to the new chancellor of the exchequer 
(Speeches, vi. 423). The motion was rejected, 
and he declared that he should not attend 
again that session except to uphold Tooke's 
claim. The House of Commons, he thought, 
' had ceased, and would cease, to be a place 
of much importance.' He approved of the 
peace of Amiens, and on 10 Oct., at a dinner 
at the Shakespeare tavern, exulted in the 
thought that the peace was glorious to France. 
' Ought not glory,' he said, ' to be the reward 
of such a glorious struggle ? ' (Life of Pitt, 
iii. 357). On 3 Nov. he criticised the terms 
of the peace in parliament. He was re- 
elected for Westminster after a contest in 
July 1802, and on the 29th set out for a tour 
in the Netherlands, Holland, and France. 
While at Paris he had several interviews with 
Bonaparte. They did not raise his opinion 
of the First Consul, whom he pronounced to 
be a 'young man considerably intoxicated 
with success ' (TROTTER, Memoirs, p. 36 ; LAS 
CASES, Journal de FEmpereur, iv. 171). Much 
of his time was spent in working at the ar- 
chives, getting materials for his history. He 
paid a short visit to Lafayette, and returned 
to England on 17 Nov. On his return he 
expressed his conviction that Bonaparte 
wished for peace, and would do everything in 
his power to maintain it (Memorials, iii. 381, 
384). Nevertheless, on 8 March 1803, he 
found himself forced to support a warlike 
address. On 24 May, after the declaration of 
war, he made a speech of three hours' dura- 
tion in favour of an attempt to restore peace. 
This speech is universally praised. ' It was 
calm, subtle, argumentative pleasantry ' (Me- 
moirs of Horner, i. 221 ; MALMESBTTRY, iv. 
257 ; Life of Sidmouth, ii. 182). He con- 
demned the retention of Malta, but blamed 
the conduct of France with respect to Swit- 
zerland and Holland. Piedmont, he declared, 
was a part of France ; we had no right to 
complain of France there. In the matter of 
insults, as distinguished from injuries, he 
scorned the idea of checking the freedom of 




the press, or expelling refugees to please a 
foreign power. While he allowed that a 
check should be put on the designs of Bona- 
parte, he condemned the war as undertaken 
for British interests, for the retention ot 
Malta (Speeches, vi. 485). For Addington he 
had an unmitigated contempt. Grenville, 
the leader of the ' new opposition,' wished a 
union between himself, Fox, and Pitt to turn 
Addington out, and, as Pitt held aloof, pro- 
posed in January 1804 that Fox, the leader 
of the old opposition, should join with him 
' for the purpose of removing the ministry, 
and forming one on the broadest possible 
basis ' (Memorials, iii. 449). Fox agreed, and 
resumed regular attendance in parliament. 
After the Easter recess Pitt, without pledging 
himself to Fox, let him know that in case of 
a change of ministers he would use earnest 
endeavours to induce the king to receive him 
and Grenville (Courts and Cabinets, iii. 349) ; 
Pitt entered into opposition, and on 30 April 
Addington was forced to resign. 

Pitt submitted a plan of an administration 
to the king which included the principal men 
of both the oppositions, and in which Fox 
was proposed as foreign secretary. The king 
1 positively proscribed Fox and no one else ' 
(MALMESBTTRY, iv. 300), and wished it to be 
known that Fox was ' excluded by his ex- 
press command ' (Life of Sidmouth, ii. 288). 
Meanwhile Fox, who thought it not impro- 
bable that the king would take this course, 
informed both his own friends and the Gren- 
villes that he hoped that his exclusion would 
not prevent them from taking office. Both 
sections declined entering an administration 
from which he was shut out (MA.LMESBFRY, 
iv. 321). In the summer he went to Chelten- 
ham for the benefit of his health. He had 
announced his marriage before going abroad 
in 1802, and his wife was now received at 
the houses at which he visited. Mrs. Fox 
had grown plain and fat, but her ' manners 
were pleasing and gentlewomanlike.' Fox 
read much to her, and never wearied of her 
society. He was extremely anxious that 
every one should do her honour, and it was 
said that considerations of this sort weighed 
too much with him. He enjoyed shopping 
with her ; and Sir Gilbert Elliot marvelled 
to see them setting off together to buy cheap 
china, and notes that they were both very 
economical (Life of Elliot, 1805, iii. 361-2 ; 
Life of Sir P. Francis, ii. 352). On 13 May 
1805 Fox made a remarkable speech in intro- 
ducing a motion founded on the Roman catho- 
lic petition, but was defeated by 330 to 124 
(Speeches, vi. 587). In July, and again in 
September, Pitt endeavoured to persuade the 
king to allow him to offer Fox office, but was 

unsuccessful [see under GEORGE HI]. Fox's 
accession would have secured the adhesion of 
Lord Grenville. According to his own account 
he hoped that the scheme would be defeated, 
for he declared that he would not enter a 
cabinet of which Pitt was the head. If he 
was to take office the administration must 
be changed (Memorials, iv. 90-114). When 
Pitt lay dying, on 21 Jan. 1806, a political 
meeting was held at Fox's house, but Fox re- 
fused to proceed to business. He could not 
do so, he said, at such a time, adding ' men- 
tern mortalia tangunt ' (Life of Homer, i. 
328). He opposed the motion for public 
honours to Pitt on the ground that he had 
not been an ' excellent statesman/ but agreed 
cheerfully to the payment of his debts. 

On Pitt's death the king sent for Lord 
Grenville, who at once said that the first 
person he should consult on the formation of 
an administration would be Fox; the king 
readily assented (ib. p. 331). By the end of 
the month Fox took office as foreign_secre- 
taryin Grenville's administration, called 'ATI 
the Talents' or the 'Broad-bottomed,' and was 
caricatured by Gillray in ' Making Decent,' 
and as a led bear, for he was supposed to be 
under Grenville's influence. His union with 
Grenville was not like his coalition with. 
North ; there was no difference of principle, 
for he now recognised the necessity of check-f 
ing Bonaparte's aggressions, and he had no 
cause to think ill of his colleague. At the] 
same time he gave way to his old partiality; 
for coalition by bringing into the cabinet 
Sidmouth, whom he despised, and who was 
wholly opposed to his principles (Life of 
Sidmouth, ii. 412). Nor was he justified in 
the part he took in involving the chief cri- 
minal judge in partypolitics by giving cabinet 
office to Lord Ellenborough, the chief justice, 
a course which he defended by laying down 
the maxim that the cabinet is not a body re- 
cognised by the constitution (Parl. Debates, 
vi. 308 ; this maxim was ridiculed by Can- 
ning). He agreed to submit any plan for 
withdrawing the army from the control of 
the crown, through the commander-in-chief, 
to the king's approval (Life of Sidmouth, ii. 
415), and, in deference to the king's known 
desire, abstained from attempting to forward 
the claims of the catholics, for which the 
state of the king's health is some excuse (ib. 
p. 435). George received him graciously, 
and was turned from his old dislike of him 
by his minister's respectful and conciliatory 
manners. On 20 Feb. Fox informed Talley- 
rand of the offer of a Frenchman to assassi- 
nate Napoleon. This led to a correspondence 
which gave some hope of a treaty between 
Great Britain and France. Negotiations were 



begun but failed. Fox was convinced that 
the French were ' playing a false game ; ' 
lie 'insisted that Russia should be made a 
party to the treaty,' and was stedfastly re- 
solved to do nothing that could alienate our 
allies (Life, iii. 371-7 ; Memorials, iv. 136). 
Towards the end of May Fox's health became 
much impaired, but, in spite of increasing 
weakness, he moved for the abolition of the 
slave trade on 10 June, declaring that after 
forty years of political life he should feel that 
he could retire with contentment if he carried 
his motion (Speeches, vi. 658). A few days 
later he was forced to give up attendance in 
parliament. At the end of June his friends 
suggested that he should accept a peerage. 
' I will not,' he said, ' close my politics in 
that foolish way, as so many have done before 
me ' (Memoirs of the Whiff Party, i. 249). 
His disease was found to be dropsy. He was 
moved from London to the Duke of Devon- 
shire's house at Chiswick, and hoped to go 
on to St. Anne's, but was unable to do so. 
During his illness he listened with pleasure 
to Virgil, Dryden, Johnson's ' Lives of the 
Poets,' and Crabbe's ' Parish Register.' He 
was ' no believer in religion ; ' to content 
Mrs. Fox he consented to have prayers read, 
but ' paid little attention to the ceremony ' 
(Lord Holland's account of his death in 
Greville Memoirs, iv. 159, ed. 1888). He 
died peacefully in the evening of 13 Sept., 
in his fifty-eighth year, and was buried in 
Westminster Abbey, close by the grave of 

Although Fox's private character was de- 
formed by indulgence in vicious pleasures, it 
was in the eyes of his contemporaries largely 
redeemed by the sweetness of his disposition, 
the buoyancy of his spirits, and the unselfish- 
ness of his conduct. As a politician he had 
liberal sentiments, and hated oppression and 
religious intolerance. He constantly opposed 
the influence of the crown, and, although 
he committed many mistakes, and had in 
; George III an opponent of considerable know- 
; ledge of kingcraft and immense resources, the 
' struggle between him and the king, as far as 
the two men were concerned, was after all a 
drawn game. While his change of politics in 
1772-4fthough coincident with private pique, 
must not, considering his age, be held as a 
proof of irritability, the coalition of 1783 shows 
that he failed to appreciate the importance 
of political principles and was ignorant of 
political science. An immediate access of 
numerical strength always seemed to him a 
sure means of attaining a strong and stable 
government. Although his speeches are full 
of common sense, he made serious mistakes 
on some critical occasions, such as were the 

struggle of 1783-4, and the dispute about the 
regency in 1788. The line that he took with 
reference to the war with France, his idea 
that the Treason and Sedition bills were de- 
structive of the constitution, and his opinion 
in 1801 that the House of Commons would! 
soon cease to be of any weight, are instances/ 
of his want of political insight. The violence/ 
of his language constantly stood in his way j 
in the earlier period of his career it gave him 
a character for levity ; later on it made his 
coalition with North appear especially re-, 
prehensible, and in his latter years afforded 
fair cause for the bitterness of his opponents. 
The circumstances of his private life helped 
to weaken his position in public estimation. 
He twice brought his followers to the brink 
of ruin and utterly broke up the whig party. 
He constantly shocked the feelings of his 
countrymen, and 'failed signally during a 
long public life in winning the confidence of 
the nation ' (LECKT, Hist. iii. 465 sq.) With 
the exception of the Libel Bill of 1792, the 
credit of which must be shared with others, 
he left comparatively little mark on the his- 
tory of national progress. Great as his talents 
were in debate, he was deficient in states- 
manship and in some of the qualities most 
essential to a good party leader. He occa- 
sionally wrote verses, and some lines of his 
are preserved in his memoirs (Life, iii. 191). 
His ' History of the Early Part of the Reign 
of James II, with an Introductory Chapter/ 
4to, was published by Lord Holland in 1808. 
It ends with the death of the Duke of Mon- 
mouth. It is written in a cold, uninteresting 
style, and represents the chief aim of James 
to be the establishment of civil despotism 
rather than the overthrow of the church of 
England. The appendix contains the tran- 
scripts of Barillon's correspondence made 
during Fox's visit to Paris in 1802. Mrs. 
Fox continued to reside at St. Anne's Hill 
after her husband's death, and died there at 
the age of ninety-two on 8 July 1842 (Annual 
Register, pp. 84, 276). Fox had an illegiti- 
mate son, who was deaf and dumb, and died 
at the age of fifteen; he treated him with 
much affection (Table-talk of S. Rogers, 
p. 81). 

[Earl Eussell's Memorials and Correspondence 
of C. J. Fox, 1853-7, full of information, but 
awkwardly arranged, and the same writer's Life 
and Times of C. J. Fox, 1859-66, valuable but dull 
and with'strongwhig leanings, cited as Life; Sir 
G. 0. Trevelyan's Early History of C. J. Fox, 
1880, interesting though discursive, with some 
new facts about Fox's gaming, ends at 1774; 
Fell's Memoirs of Public Life, 1808, poor and now 
useless ; Trotter's Memoirs of the Later Years of 
C. J. Fox, 1811, by Fox's private secretary, the 




first-hand authority for many details of private 
life from 1802 to 18 06, according to S. Rogers ' in- 
accurate though pleasing,' both epithets seem dis- 
putable ; a spiteful criticism of Fox's character by 
Francis in Parkes and Merivale's Life of Sir P. 
Francis,1867 ; Brougham's estimate in his Histori- 
cal Sketches of Statesmen, I., Knight's Weekly, 
1845, is worthy of attention; Leeky^Hist. of 
England in Eighteenth Cent.vols. iii-vTTr882-7 ; 
Lewis's ^Administrations, 1864; May's Constitu- 
tional History, 1875; Speechesofjl J\Fox, 1815; 
Walpole's Memoirs of the Reign_of Geo. Ill, 
1859, Last Journals, 1859, and Letters, ed. Cun- 
ningham, 1880; Wraxall's Historical and Posthu- 
mous Memoirs, 1884 ; Lettres de la Marquise du 
Deffand, 1810; Letters of Junius, ed. Woodfall, 
1878 ; Donne's Correspondence of Geo. Ill with 
Lord North, 1867 ; Boswell's Life of Johnson, 
1807 ; Gibbon's Miscellaneous Works, ed. Lord 
Sheffield, 1814; Lord Albemarle's Memoirs of the 
Marquis of Rockingham, 1852 ; Duke of Buck- 
ingham's Courts and Cabinets of Geo. Ill, 1853 ; 
Fitzmaurice'sLifeofShelburne, 1875; Franklin's 
Works, ed. Sparks, vol. ix. 1840 ; Nicholas's Re- 
collections of the Reign of Geo. Ill, 1820. For 
the Westminster election of 1784 : History of the 
Westminster Election, 1784 ; Book of the Wars 
of Westminster, 1784; Oriental Chronicles, 1785 ; 
Collection of Squibs in the British Museum, 1784. 
For caricatures of Fox: Wright's History of 
Caricature, 1865 ; and Caricature History of 
the Georges, 1868. Lord Holland's Memoirs of 
the Whig Party, 1852 ; Moore's Life of Sheridan, 
1825; Lord Malmesbury's Diaries, 1844; Prior's 
Life of Burke, 1853 ; Grattan's Life of Grattan, 
1836; Stanhope's Life of Pitt, 1862; Lord Auck- 
land's Journal and Correspondence,! 862 ; Homer's 
Memoirs of F. Homer, 1853 ; Rose's Diaries, 
1865 ; Pellew's Life of Lord Sidmouth, 1847 ; 
Lord Colchester's Diary and Correspondence, 
1861 ; Lady Minto's Life of Sir G. Elliot, 1874 ; 
Maltby's Samuel Rogers's Table-talk, ed. Dyce, 
1887 ; Clayden's Early Life of S. Rogers, 1887 ; 
Princess Liechtenstein's Holland House, 1874, 
contains, among other matters, notices of the 
portraits and statues of Fox.] W. H. 

1873), numismatist, was the son of Henry 
Richard Vassall Fox [q. v.], third lord Hol- 
land, by Elizabeth, daughter of Richard Vas- 
sall, formerly wife of Sir Godfrey Webster, 
born (in 1796) before their marriage. He 
served in the navy from 1809 to 1813, and 
was present at the sieges of Cadiz (1810) and 
Tarragona (1813). He left the navy and 
entered the grenadier guards in June 1815. 
He became colonel in 1837 and general in 1863. 
He represented Calne and Tavistock in par- 
liament, and was elected for Stroud in 1831. 
In November 1832 he was appointed sur- 
veyor-general of the ordnance, and was after- 
wards secretary to the master-general of the 
ordnance. He became equerry to Queen 

Adelaide in July 1830, and aide-de-camp to 
William IV in May 1832. He was elected 
a member of the Dilettanti Society in 1837. 
At the time of his death he was receiver- 
general of the duchy of Lancaster, having 
held the appointment some time. 

Fox began coin-collecting early in life, and 
a journey to Greece and Asia Minor in 1820 
stimulated his taste. He obtained many coins 
from the peasants, and at Priene found several 
specimens in dry watercourses. In 1851 he 
acquired one of the collections of Whittall of 
Smyrna. He also bought at the Pembroke, 
Thomas, Devonshire, and other sales. In 
1840 Burnes gave him the whole of his Bac- 
trian coins. In 1862 his collection consisted 
of more than ten thousand Greek coins. He 
published a description of part of it entitled 
' Engravings of Unedited or Rare Greek 
Coins,' with descriptions and plates. Part I. 
('Europe') London, 1856, 4to. Part II. 
(' Asia and Africa '), London, 1862, 4to. The 
collection was purchased (after his death) in 
1873 by the Royal Museum at Berlin. Dr. 
J. Friedlaender, who published a notice of it 
in the ' Archaologische Zeitung' for 1873 
(pp. 99-103 ; ' Die Fox'sche Miinzsammlung '), 
declares that this acquisition for the first 

! time enabled the Berlin coin-cabinet to aspire 
to the rank of the national collections of Eng- 
land and France. The Fox collection con- 
sisted of 11,500 Greek coins, among which 

I were 330 in gold, and more than 4,000 in silver. 
It was remarkable for the rarity of the speci- 
mens (not a few being unique), and for the 
admirable state of preservation throughout 
konigliche Miinzkabinet, 1877, pp. 43-5). 
Fox died at his house in Addison Road on 
13 April 1873, after a long illness. He mar- 
ried, first, on 19 June 1824, Lady Mary Fitz- 
clarence, second daughter of the Duke of 
Clarence and Mrs. Jordan, a woman of great 
social ability, who was raised to the rank 
of a marquis's daughter in May 1831, was 
for many years state housekeeper of Wind- 
sor Castle, and died in 1864 ; and secondly, in 
August 1865, Katherine, second daughter of 
John Maberly,M.P.,who survives him. There 
was no issue of the marriages. Fox's portrait 
when a midshipman was painted by Sir Mar- 
tin Archer Shee, and a portrait of him in his 
sixty-sixth year is prefixed to part i. of his 
' Engravings of Unedited Coins. Fox had a 
remarkable memory and, though not a savant, 
much facility in acquiring knowledge. He 
was a man of great amiability, and a wit 
without cynicism. He endeavoured to make 
his house a literary centre, especially of some 
of the younger archaeologists. In politics he 
called himself ' a movement whig.' 



[Times, 16 April 1873, p. 7, col. 6; Michaelis's 
Ancient Marbles in Great Britain, pp. 64, 165 ; 
Fox'sEngravings,&c.;informationfrom Reginald 
Stuart Poole, LL.D.] W. W. 

FOX, EBENEZER (d. 1886), journalist, 
was born in England, and practised his pro- 
fession in the north until he had nearly at- 
tained middle age. For several years he 
was chief reporter on the ' Manchester Guar- 
dian.' His account of the great floods at 
Holmfirth in 1852 was widely quoted. Deli- 
cate health induced Fox to emigrate to Aus- 
tralia. In 1862 he wentto*Dunedin and joined 
the staff of the ' Otago Daily Times,' being 
associated with Sir Julius Vogel and B. L. 
Farjeon, the novelist. When Vogel esta- 
blished the ' Sun,' Fox assisted him. The two 
friends moved to Auckland, and soon after 
Vogel joined William Fox's ministry in 1869 
as colonial treasurer, Fox became his private 
secretary. In 1870 he was appointed confi- 
dential clerk and secretary to the treasury, 
which position he held up to his death. For 
sixteen years he was implicitly trusted by suc- 
cessive ministries. In the columns of the 
' New Zealand Times ' Fox wrote a series of 
articles on the denudation of the forests, which 
attracted much attention. Fox, who was 
kindly but eccentric in character, died of mus- 
cular atrophy at Wellington in January 1886. 

[New Zealand Times, 9 Jan. 1886; Phonetic 
Journal, 20 March 1886.] G. B. S. 

FOX, EDWARD (1496 P-1538), bishop 
of Hereford, was born at Dursley in Glouces- 
tershire. He was educated at Eton, whence 
he proceeded to King's College, Cambridge, 
the date of his admission being 27 March 
1512. According to Lloyd, he was ' wild ' 
in his youth, but his brilliant talents after- 
wards made him the 'wonder of the uni- 
versity.' The same writer implies that Fox 
was partly indebted for his advancement as 
a scholar to his relationship to Richard Foxe 
[q. v.], bishop of Winchester ; but these are 
statements with respect to which we have 
no confirmatory evidence. His whole career 
gives us the impression that he possessed not 
only great abilities, but also a readiness, tact, 
and indomitable energy which rendered him 
especially adapted for difficult negotiations. 
His early success must, however, be to a 
great extent attributed to the fact that he 
obtained the appointment of secretary to 
Wolsey. At what time this occurred does 
not appear, but his admission as prebendary 
of Osbaldwicke in the county of York, which 
took place 8 Nov. 1527, was probably one of 
the earliest proofs of the archbishop's favour. 

In the early part of 1528 he was sent with 
Gardiner by Wolsey to Rome, for the pur- 


pose of overcoming Clement VII's scruples 
as to granting a commission and a dispensa- 
tion with respect to King Henry's marriage 
with Catherine. They were enjoined espe- 
cially to represent the dangers that would 
ensue from a disputed succession, and the 
likelihood in that event of England declin- 
ing from obedience to the holy see (Letters 
and Papers, Hen. VIII, ed. Brewer, IT. ii. 
passim). In a letter (12 May) written to 
Gardiner on his return, Fox gives a detailed 
account of his reception at court, together 
with the report of their mission, which he 
gave to the king and council, and of the 
manner in which it was received (PocoCK, 
Records of the Reformation, pp. 141-55). 
On 22 Sept, 1528, being D.D., he was elected 
provost of King's College, on the recommen- 
dation of the king and Wolsey. On the arri- 
val of Campeggio in England in the same 
year, and his first audience with the king 
(22 Oct.), Fox made an 'elegant reply' to 
the address of Florian, the legate's spokes- 
man. It was in the following August (1529) 
that, being at Waltham in attendance on 
the king, he held with Cranmer [see CRAM- 
MER, THOMAS] their historic conversation re- 
specting the legality of the royal marriage. 
It was Fox who reported Cranmer's observa- 
tion to Henry, and thus became the means of 
introducing him to the king, and of bringing 
about his rapid rise in the royal favour. In 
October Fox was sent on an embassy to Paris, 
and in December he was presented to the 
hospital of Sherburn in the county of Dur- 
ham. In the following January (1529-30) 
he appears as intervening at Cambridge for 
the purpose of putting an end to a contro- 
versy which had there arisen between Lati- 
mer and the Romanist party, his influence 
evidently inclining in favour of the former, 
mainly, it would seem, because Latimer was 
known to have pronounced in favour of the 
royal divorce. Fox, however, admits in his 
letter that Latimer is perhaps ' more vehe- 
ment than becomes the very evangelist of 
Christ, and purposely speaks paradoxes to 
offend and slander people.' In the ensuing 
month he visited the university along with 
Stephen Gardiner, in order to wring from 
the academic body a formal expression of 
opinion in favour of the divorce. Their ob- 
ject was not accomplished without difficulty, 
and the means by which it was ultimately 
brought about cast a slur on the chief agents 
in the matter. In the following April Fox 
was sent on a similar errand to Oxford, along 
with John Longland, bishop of Lincoln, and 
John Bell, afterwards bishop of Worcester 
[q. v.] His account of theirproceedings, trans- 
mitted to the king, is still extant in his own 





handwriting (PocoCK, Records, pp. 291-3). 
He next went with the same object to Paris ; 
and Reginald Pole, writing to Henry (7 July) 
and giving some account of the circumstances 
under which the conclusion of the university 
there was arrived at, states that the adverse 
party had used every effort to prevent its being 
carried, but that Fox (who appears to have 
been the bearer of his letter) had ' used great 
prudence and diligence in withstanding them.' 
In May 1531 he again proceeded to France 
on the same business. Chapuys, in a letter 
to the emperor, describes him as an ' habile 
galant, and one of the boutefeus in this matter 
of the divorce.' On 26 Sept. the same writer 
states that Fox has again been sent to Paris, 
and adds that, in order ' to enable him to do it 
better, the lady ' (Anne Boleyn) ' has given 
him benefices and the office of almoner.' In 
December Fox returned to England ; and on 
New Year's day we find the queen present- 
ing him with a piece of arras. 

The tact and ability which he showed in 
these difficult and delicate negotiations led 
to his frequent employment in other political 
business. In 1532 he appears as one of the 
signatories to the treaty with France ; and 
when, at the celebration of high mass, the 
treaty received the signature of Henry and 
the French ambassador, Fox, according to 
Chapuys, made a speech in praise of the alli- 
ance, describing it as ' inviolable and eternal' 
and ' the best means of resisting the Turk.' 
In April 1533 he was appointed on the com- 
mission to conclude a yet stricter ' league 
and amity ' with Francis I, and in 1534 dis- 
charged a like function in arranging terms of 
peace with Scotland. The whole conduct of 
the divorce transactions appears to have now 
been mainly in his hands, and Sir George 
Casale refers to him as the best informed 
among English statesmen with respect to 
the negotiations on the subject which had 
been going on in Italy. In April 1533, when 
the lawfulness of Henry's first marriage was 
under discussion by convocation, he presided 
in the place of the prolocutor. In the follow- 
ing May, on the occasion of an official con- 
ference with Chapuys at "Westminster, he 
was appointed to reply to Chapuys, to whom 
he represented that ' the king, by his great 
learning, moved by the Divine Spirit, had 
found that he could not keep the queen as 
his wife, and, like a catholic prince, he had 
separated from her, and that there was no 
occasion to discuss the matter further' (Rolls 
Series, 25 Hen. VIII, No. 465). He took a 
leading part in the attempts made to induce 
Catherine to give her assent to the statute 
respecting the succession, and in 1534 he 
published his treatise ' De vera Differentia 

Regise Potestatis et Ecclesiae.' It was printed 
by Berthelet, and a second edition was pub- 
lished in 1538. Fox, by this time, had defi- 
nitely taken his stand as a reformer, and 
Chapuys describes him as, along with Cran- 
mer and Cromwell, ' among the most perfect 
Lutherans in the world.' 

In the meantime honours and preferments 
had been showered liberally upon him. On 
3 Jan. 1528 he was presented to the rectory 
of Combemartin in the diocese of Exeter. In 
1531 he was appointed archdeacon of Leices- 
ter, and continued to hold that office until 
his election as bishop of Hereford. In Janu- 
ary 1532 he received a grant, in augmenta- 
tion of the royal alms, of all goods and chat- 
tels of deodands and suicides in England. In 
1533 he was promoted to the deanery of 
Salisbury and the archdeaconry of Dorset. 
In May 1535 he was presented to a canonry 
and prebend in the collegiate church of SS. 
Mary and George in Windsor Castle. In 
the following August he was elected to the 
bishopric of Hereford, the royal assent being- 
given on 2 Sept. During the former month 
he appears to have been much with Cran- 
mer at Lambeth, occupied probably in dis- 
cussing with the primate the various points 
on which he would have to confer with the 
Lutheran divines in Germany, to whom it 
was proposed he should go as a delegate for 
the purpose of winning them over to Henry's 
side. On the 31st he received his credentials 
from the king at Bromham in Wiltshire, and 
in October he set out with Dr. Nicolas Heath, 
archdeacon of Stafford, for Germany. They 
were instructed to proceed first to the elec- 
tor of Saxony, and afterwards to the other 
German princes. On their arrival at Witten- 
berg they had an interview with Luther, 
who, although he could not conceal his 
amazement at their apparent confidence in 
the justice of their cause, expressed himself 
willing to listen to their arguments. He, 
however, became wearied by their pertina- 
city and prolonged stay , which was protracted 
to April, Fox, in that month, even going so 
far as to follow the doctors of the university 
to the diet at Frankfort. At length he and 
his colleagues were dismissed, taking back to 
England as the reply of the protestant di- 
vines of Germany, that, although the king 
had doubtless been moved by very weighty 
reasons, and it was impossible to deny that 
his marriage was against natural and moral 
law, they could not persuade themselves that 
he had acted rightly in the matter of the 

In 1536 Fox was sent on a similar errand 
to France. In the same year his growing- 
sympathy with Lutheran doctrine was shown 



by the support which he gave to Alexander 
Alane [see ALESIUS], on the occasion when 
the young reformer pleaded his own cause 
before convocation. The whole of Fox's re- 
markable speech is printed in the 8th book of 
Foxe's ' Acts and Monuments ; ' it contains, 
among other noteworthy utterances, an ex- 
plicit declaration, that ' the lay people do now 
know the Holy Scriptures better than most 
of us.' In the same year Martin Bucer dedi- 
cated to him the edition of his ' Commentaries 
on the Gospels ' printed at Basle. 

Fox died in London 8 May 1538, and was 
buried in the church of St. Mary Mount- 
haw there. His will, dated on the day of 
his death, was proved 20 March 1538-9. 
Some of his sayings have become proverbial. 
' The surest way to peace is a constant pre- 
paredness for war.' ' Oft was this saying in 
our bishop's mouth,' says Lloyd, ' before ever 
it was in Philip the Second's " Time and I 
will challenge any two in the world " ' (State 
Worthies, ed. 1670, pp. 88-9). 

Fox's chief work was the ' De vera Diffe- 
rentia' above mentioned, which his warm 
friend and admirer, Henry Stafford, only son 
of Edward, duke of Buckingham, translated 
into English (8vo, 1548). He appears to have 
been the joint author, along with Stokesley, 
bishop of London, and Dr. Nicolas, of a 
volume ' afterwards translated into English, 
with additions and changes, by my lord of 
Canterbury,' entitled ' The Determinations 
of the most famous and mooste excellent 
universities of Italy and Fraunce, that it is so 
unleful for a man to marie his brothers wyfe, 
that the pope hath no power to dispence 
therewith,' London, 8vo, 1531. 

[Letters and Papers of the Eeign of Hen. VIII, 
ed. Brewer and Gairdner ; Cooper's Athense Can- 
tabrigienses, vol. i. ; manuscript notes to Baker's 
copy of the De vera Differentia in St. John's Col- 
lege Library, A. 3, 36 ; Pocock's Records of the 
Reformation ; Lloyd's State Worthies ; Lelandi 
Encomia.] J. B. M. 

HOLLAND (1770-1845), daughter of Richard 
Vassall of Jamaica, was born in 1770, and 
was married on 27 June 1786 to Sir Godfrey 
Webster, bart., of Battle Abbey, Sussex. The 
marriage was dissolved on 3 July 1797 on the 
ground of adultery committed by her with 
Henry Richard [q. v.], third baron Holland, 
to whom she was married at Rickmansworth 
three days afterwards. Lord Holland had 
just restored Holland House, and there he 
gathered round him that brilliant circle of 
statesmen, wits, men of letters, and other 
people of distinction, which gave the house a 
European celebrity. Lady Holland possessed 
a remarkable power of making her guests 

display themselves to the best advantage. 
Traits in her character that were by no means 
attractive rendered her power of fascination 
the more extraordinary. Cyrus Redding says 
of her : ' Polite, cold, haughty to those she met 
first in social intercourse, she was offensive 
to those to whom she took a dislike,' adding, 
as an instance, that Campbell having jestingly 
taken her to task for using the expression ' take 
a drive,' she treated him ' with an hauteur to 
which he would not again expose himself' 
(Fifty Tears' Recollections, iii. 176-8). ' Elle 
est toute assertion,' said Talleyrand, ' mais 
quand on demande la preuve, c'est la, son 
secret' (RAIKES, Journal, i. 300). Moore 
tells how on one occasion she asked him how 
he could write those ' vulgar verses ' about 
Hunt, and on another occasion attacked his 
' Life of Sheridan ' as ' quite a romance ' show- 
ing a 'want of taste andjudgment.' To 'Lalla 
Rookh ' she objected, ' in the first place because 
it was eastern, and in the second place because 
it was in quarto.' * Poets,' says Moore, ' in- 
clined to a plethora of vanity would find a 
dose of Lady Holland now and then very 
good for their complaint.' To Lord Porches- 
ter she once said : ' I am sorry to hear you 
are going to publish a poem. Can't you sup- 
press it ? ' ' Your poetry,' she said to Rogers, 
' is bad enough, so pray be sparing of your 
prose.' To Matthew Gregory (better known 
as Monk) JLewis, complaining that in ' Re- 
jected Addresses' he was made to write 
burlesque, which he never did, she replied, 
' You don't know your own talent ' (MooRE, 
Diary, Russell, ii. 328, v. 262, vi. 41 ; Quar- 
terly Review, cxxv. 427). Byron, supposing 
that she had prompted the article on ' Hours 
of Idleness ' in the ' Edinburgh Review,' sa- 
tirised her in 'English Bards and Scotch 
Reviewers,' but afterwards made reparation 
by dedicating the ' Bride of Abydos ' to her 
husband. In Ticknor, the historian of Spanish 
literature, she met her match. Referring to 
New England she told him that she understood 
the colony had originally been a convict settle- 
ment, to which Ticknor answered that he was 
not aware of the fact, but that in the King's 
Chapel, Boston, was a monument to one of the 
Vassalls, some of whom had been among the 
early settlers of Massachusetts (Life of Tick- 
nor, i. 264 .) She kept a tight rein on her 
guests when they seemed inclined to mono- 
polise the conversation. Macaulay once des- 
canting at large on Sir Thomas Munro, she told 
him brusquely she had had enough of the sub- 
ject and would have no more. The conver- 
sation then turned on the Christian Fathers, 
and Macaulay was copious on Chrysostom 
and Athanasius till Lady Holland abruptly 
turned to him with, ' Pray, Macaulay, what 





was the origin of a doll ? when were dolls 
first mentioned in history ? ' This elicited a 
disquisition on the Roman doll, which in its 
turn was cut short by Lady Holland (GRE- 
VILLE, Memoirs, 1837-52, i. 367-8). On 
another occasion she sent a page to ask him 
to cease talking, as she wished to listen to 
Lord Aberdeen. She would also issue her 
orders to her more intimate friends with very 
little ceremony. 'Ring the bell, Sydney,' she 
said once to Sydney Smith, to which he re- 
plied, 'Oh yes! and shall I sweep the room?' 
She dined at the unfashionably early hour 
of six or half-past six, merely, according to 
Talleyrand, ' pour gener tout le monde,' and 
often overcrowded her table. 'Make room,' 
she said to Henry Luttrell [q. v.] on one of , 
these occasions. ' It must certainly be made? \ 
he observed, ' for it does not exist.' Lord 
Dudley declined her invitations, because 'he i 
did not choose to be tyrannised over while \ 
he was eating his dinner.' Lord Melbourne, 
being required to change his place, got up 

with ' I'll be d d if I dine with you at 

all/ and walked out of the house. Neverthe- 
less her beauty, vivacity, and the unrivalled 
skill with which she managed the conversa- 
tion so that there should never be either too . 
much or too little of any one topic, atoned for j 
everything. Her house was neutral ground 
on which men of the most opposite schools of ' 
thought met and conversed freely and with 
mutual forbearance and respect. Though , 
herself a sceptic she never encouraged an ! 
irreverent treatment of religion ; and though, j 
like her husband, a staunch whig, she im- I 
pressed a temperate tone on the discussion of 
all political questions. 

In 1800 she became entitled, under the will 
of her grandfather, Florentius Vassall, to some 
estates in Jamaica, on condition that she as- 
sumed the name of Vassall only after her 
Christian name. She did this by royal license 
18 June 1800 (in Heralds' College, I. 36, 20). 
She aspired to exert an influence on politics. 
* Lady Holland,' writes Lord Hobart, under 
date 16 Sept. 1802, ' is deep in political in- 
trigue, and means for the preservation of 
peace to make it necessary that Fox should 
be in power' (Journal of William, first lord 
Auckland, iv. 163). By degrees Holland 
House came to be the headquarters of the 
opposition, where the leaders of the party 
were accustomed to hold council every Sun- 
day (BUCKINGHAM, Memoirs of the Court of 
the Regency, i. 169-70). On the collapse of 
Lord Goderich's coalition ministry (1828) 
Lady Holland was ambitious of high office 
for her husband. 'Why should not Lord 
Holland be secretary for foreign affairs,' she 
asked, 'why not, as well as Lord Lansdowne 

for the home department ? ' Lord John Rus- 
sell is said to have quietly replied, ' Why, 
they say, ma'am, that you open all Lord 
Holland's letters, and the foreign ministers 
might not like that' (CROKER, Corresp. i. 
400). During the progress of the Reform 
Bill, some of the cabinet ministers often dined 
with her, and freely discussed the political 
situation. Brougham accuses her of pursuing 
him with bitter spite on account of an affront 
put on her by his mother (Memoirs, ii. 102), 
but much importance cannot be attached to 
such a charge emanating from Brougham. He 
and Lady Holland were, however, at feud for 
a great many years ; she made an advance in 
the direction of a reconciliation by sending 
him an invitation to dinner in 1839, which 
he declined (GREVILLE, Memoirs, 1837-52, 
i. 245-6). She was an ardent admirer of 
Napoleon, to whom she was introduced at 
Malmaison in 1802, and sent him a message 
of respect and sympathy at Elba in 1814, 
and parcels of books and Neapolitan sweet- 
meats at St. Helena. He bequeathed to her a 
gold snuff-box ornamented with a fine cameo, 
the gift of Pius VI after the signature of the 
treaty of Tolentino, 1797, and she procured 
and preserved as relics a ring and cross of the 
Legion of Honour which had belonged to him, 
a sock which he had worn at his death, and a 
copy of the ' Edinburgh Review ' (October- 
December, 1816) containing pencil marks in 
his handwriting. Dr. John Allen lived in 
her house, and Macaulay says she treated him 
like a negro slave [see ALLEX, JOHN^, 1771- 
1843]. By the death of Lord Holland in 1840 
the gaiety of her house suffered a brief eclipse. 
But three months afterwards Greville was pre- 
sent at one of her most brilliant dinner parties 
(ib. 1837-52, i. 367). These, however, were 
now for the most part given at her house in 
South Street,Grosvenor Square, and to a some- 
what smaller company. Thiers and Palmerston 
were both present at the last she ever gave 
(October 1845). Her own death, the approach 
of which seemed to cause her neither fear nor 
concern, took place at her house in South 
Street, Grosvenor Square, at two o'clock on 
the morning of 16 Nov. 1845. She was buried 
at Ampthill Park, Bedfordshire. Her will 
was unnatural, her children being almost 
entirely excluded. She was a kind mistress 
to her servants, and a warm, sympathetic, and 
faithful friend . Greville says that ' she dreaded 
solitude above everything.' A portrait of 
her, painted by Gauffier at Florence in 1795, 
and another by Fagan are at Holland House. 
Lady Holland had issue by her first husband 
two sons (Godfrey Vassall, who succeeded his 
father in title and estates, represented Sussex 
in parliament, and died in 1836 ; and Henry, 




who entered the army, and rose to the rank 
of colonel) and one daughter, Harriet, who 
married in 1816 the Hon. Sir Fleetwood 
Pellew, captain R.N. and C.B. She also had 
a son by Lord Holland before her marriage 
with that nobleman, viz. Charles Richard 
Fox [q. v.], who entered the army, and mar- 
ried in 1824 Lady Mary Fitzclarence, second 
daughter of William IV by Mrs. Jordan. 

[Lords' Journals, xli. 333, 348, 379; Gent. 
Mag. 1797 pt. ii. 614, 1846 pt. i. 89; Burke's 
Extinct Peerage ; Lord Holland's Foreign Re- 
miniscences, pp. 188-205 ; Trevelyan's Life of 
Macaulay, i. 207, 211, 230, 234, 266, 339, 352; 
Quarterly Review, cliii. 116, cliv. 110; Princess 
Liechtenstein's Holland House ; Addit. MSS. 
20117 f. 17, 20125 f. 259, 20140 f. 54, 20158 
ff. 12 b, 13; Greville's Mem. (Geo. IV-Wm. IV), 
ii. 130, 245, iii. 316; Sir Henry Holland's Recol- 
lections of Past Life (2nd ed.), 228 et seq. ; Hay- 
ward's Biographical and Critical Essays, new ser. 
ii. 262-3.] J. M. R. 

FOX, FRANCIS (1675-1738), divine, son 
of Francis Fox, was born at Brentford in 
1675. He entered St. Edmund Hall, Oxford, 
as a commoner in April 1698, after having, 
according to Hearne, served six and a half 
years of his time as apprentice to a glover in 
London. He took the degree of B.A. in 1701, 
and that of M.A. in 1704. In 1705 he was 
chaplain to the lord mayor, Sir Owen Buck- 
ingham, and apparently about this time was 
' commonly known as Father Fox.' Bishop 
Burnet appointed him rector of Boscombe, 
Wiltshire, in 1708, and promoted him thence 
to the vicarage of Potterne, a better living, 
in 1711. He was chaplain to Lord Cadogan, 
and, from 1713 till his death, prebendary of 
Salisbury. In 1726 the lord chancellor pre- 
sented him to the vicarage of St. Mary's in 
Reading, a living worth 3001. a year. There 
he died in July 1738. 

He was, at any rate for most of his life, a 
strong whig, and in 1727 he preached at what 
was called the Reading lecture a sermon which 
gave great offence to a number of the clergy 
who formed the audience. After being re- 
peated as an assize sermon at Abingdon, it 
was published under the title of ' Judgment, 
Mercy, and Fidelity, the Weightier Matters 
or Duties of the Law ' (Matt, xxiii. 23). It 
was considered to undervalue the efficacy of 
the sacraments, and to depreciate unduly the 
usefulness of preaching against dissenters. 
Angry letters about it were exchanged be- 
tween Fox and the Rev. Joseph Slade of St. 
Laurence's, Reading, who eventually pub- 
lished a sermon in reply to it, with the letters 
prefixed. This in its turn was attacked by 
the Rev. Lancelot Carleton in ' A Letter to 
the Rev. Jos. Slade.' 

Besides the sermon, 'Judgment, Mercy, 
and Fidelity,' Fox published : 1. ' The Super- 
intendency of Divine Providence over Human 
Affairs,' a sermon preached in St. Paul's 
before the lord mayor on Restoration-day, 
1705. 2. An anonymously printed folio 
sheet entitled 'The Obligations Christians are 
under to shun Vice and Immorality and to 
practise Piety and Virtue shown from the 
express words of Holy Scripture,' about 1707. 
3. ' The Lawfulness of Oaths and the Sin of 
Perjury and Profane Swearing,' an assize ser- 
mon at Salisbury, 1710. 4. ' The Duty of 
Public Worship proved, with directions for 
a devout behaviour therein,' 1713 (19th ed. 
S.P.C.K., 1818). 5. ' A Sermon on the Sun- 
day next after 5 Nov.' (Num. xxiii. 23), 1715. 
6. ' The New Testament, with references and 
notes,' 1722. 7. 'An Introduction to Spelling 
and Reading, containing lessons for children,' 
7th ed. 1754 (17th ed. S.P.C.K., 1805). 

[Coates's Hist, of Reading, pp. 1 1 6, 1 1 7, and ex- 
tract from Rawlinson MS. J., 4to, iii. 286, in the 
supplement; Hearne's Collections, ed. Doble, 
i. 34, ii. 6, 75, 107 ; Hearne's MS. Diary, Ixxxvi. 
11, cxi. 115; Hoare's Modern Wiltshire, Under- 
ditch, p. 164, Ambresbury, p. 116; Hutchins's 
Hist, of Dorset (3rd ed.), ii. 572 ; Political State, 
July 1738, Ivi. 93; Oxford Cat. of Grad.; Brit. 
Mus. and Bodleian Catalogues of Printed Books.] 

E. C-N. 

FOX, GEORGE (1624-1691), founder y 
of the Society of Friends, son of Christopher 
Fox (' righteous Christer '), a puritan weaver 
in good circumstances, was born at Fenny 
Drayton (otherwise Drayton-in-the-Clay), 
Leicestershire, in July 1624. Fox mentions 
that his mother, Mary Lago, was ' of the 
stock of the martyrs,' in allusion probably 
to the family of Glover of Mancetter (see 
RICHIKGS, The Mancetter Martyrs, 1860). 
Penn describes her as ' a woman accomplished 
above most of her degree.' Whether Fox 
had any schooling (CROESE) is doubtful ; his 
spelling was always uncouth, but his illi- 
teracy has been somewhat exaggerated. The 
accounts of his early seriousness are chiefly 
remarkable for bringing to the front the ethi- 
cal element in the puritan character and train- 
ing. His parents intended George for the 
ministry of the church of England ; he speaks 
of no objection on his own part, ' but others 
persuaded to the contrary.' Accordingly he 
was apprenticed to a shoemaker (at Notting- 
ham, according to Croese). His master did 
business as a grazier and wool dealer, and 
employed George as a trusted agent, whose 
' verily ' was accepted as a final word in a 

Early in the summer of 1643 (before July) 
an incident at a fair determined Fox's future. 

** For an 
article written by the author of the D.N.B. 
life of Fox, in which he corrects and sup- 
plements his original article, see Journal 




His cousin Bradford, with another puritan 
youth, -would have initiated him into the 
practice of drinking healths. He paid his 
shot, but left the company ; spent a night in 
religious exercises, and felt a divine call to 
forsake all his existing associations. This 
call he obeyed on 9 Sept. 1643. Turning his 
face southward, he disappeared for nine 
months, dividing his time between Lutter- 
worth, Northampton, and Newport Pagnel, 
shunning society and declining religious fel- 
lowship. In June 1644 he moved on to 
Barnet ; here he doubted whether he had 
done right in leaving home, and his religious 
melancholy deepened towards despair. After 
a stay at Barnet, he took a lodging in London, 
and visited his uncle Pickering, a baptist. 
Hearing that his relatives were troubled at 
his absence, he at length returned to Dray- 

From that return he dates {Epistles, p. 2) 
the beginning of his religious community 
(1644). This, however, is a retrospective 
judgment. His course was still far from 
clear. His relatives wished him to marry. 
Others proposed his joining the ' auxiliary 
band ' among the parliamentary forces ; this 
he refused, being ' tender,' a word which in 
his phraseology means religiously affected. 
He was attracted to Coventry, a puritan 
stronghold, and found sympathisers there. 
Returning to Drayton in 1645, he spent 
something like a year in fruitless resorts to 
neighbouring clergy. The curate of Drayton, 
Nathaniel Stephens (rector from 1659), a 
studious and kindly man, paid much atten- 
tion to him, but Fox disliked his bringing 
the subjects of their conversations into 
the pulpit. He describes Stephens as sub- 
sequently his ' great persecutor,' an unwar- 
ranted expression. The old vicar of Man- 
cetter, Richard Abell, advised him to ' take 
tobacco, and sing psalms.' John Machin, lec- 
turer at Atherstone, prescribed physic and 
bleeding, and the bleeding was tried without 
success. He got more satisfaction from his 
visits of charity among the poor ; he had some 
independent means, whence derived he does 
not say ; he reports without comment the re- 
mark of his relatives, ' When hee went from 
us hee had a greate deale of gould and sillver 
about him ' (original manuscript of Journal, 
p. 17). 

During a Sunday morning's walk, early in 
1646, the new idea presented itself to him 
that a minister must be more than a scholar. 
Henceforward he gave up attendance at 
church; going rather to the orchard or the 
fields, with his Bible. For more than a year 
he wandered about in the midland counties, 
mixing with separatists of all sorts, but ' never 

i joined in profession of religion with any.' 
j The rumour of a ' fasting woman ' drew him 
to Lancashire, but his curiosity was soon 
j satisfied. On his way back he visited Dukin- 
j field, a Cheshire village, where, according to 
Edwards (Gangrcena, iii. 164), the earliest 
| independent church in England was organ- 
j ised. Among its members, who had lately 
(1646) been troubled by a supernatural drum, 
Fox in 1647 ' declared truth.' Sewel marks 
this as ' the first beginning of George Fox's 
preaching.' It was continued at Manchester, 
and consisted of ' few, but powerful and pierc- 
ing words.' A conference of baptists and 
others at Broughton, Leicestershire (probably 
Broughton-Astley), gave him an opportunity 
of addressing a large concourse of people. 
From this time he was much sought after ; 
' one Brown ' prophesied great things of him ; 
and when Brown died, Fox lay in a trance, 
which was a fourteen days' wonder. He at- 
tended the religious meetings and discussions 
which then abounded, usually taking some 
part. The first mention of his speaking in a 
' steeple-house ' is at a great disputation in 
Leicester (1648), when ' presbyterians, inde- 
pendents, baptists, and common-prayer-men' 
all took part ; the debate came to an abrupt 
conclusion, but was resumed at an inn. In 
the same year he first mentions ' a meeting of 
Friends,' at Little Eaton, near Derby. 

At this period the mysticism of Fox was 
not confined to matters of spiritual insight. 
He claimed to have received direct know- 
ledge of the occult qualities of nature, so that 
he was ' at a stand' in his mind, whether he 
should 'practise physick for the good of 
mankind.' In this respect, as in some others, 
he reminds us of Jacob Boehme, whose writ- 
ings, a contemporary affirms, were 'the chief 
books ' bought by Fox's followers (MUGGLE- 
TON, Looking Glass for G. Fox, 2nd ed. 1756, 
p. 10). But this phase passed away, and he 
devoted himself to a spiritual reform. Fox's 
idealism was not that of the A'isionary ; his 
mind was strongly set on realities. It was 
a sore trial to him to reach by degrees the 
conclusion that the religious disputes of his 
day, even that between protestant and papist, 
turned upon trivial matters. With much 
modesty of conviction, but a daring thorough- 
ness of sincerity, he strove to get at the core 
of things. Unconventional ways, which he 
now adopted, his retention of the hat, and 
disuse of complimentary phrases, were dic- 
tated by a manly simplicity. Too much has 
been made of his peculiarities of dress. He 
rejected ornaments. His ' leathern breeches ' 
are first mentioned by him in his journal 
under date 1651. Croese makes his whole 
dress of leather, and Sewel appears to cor- 




roborate this, denying, however, that it had 
any connection with ' his former leather- 
work.' For Carlyle's rhapsody (Sartor Re- 
sartus, iii. 1) on the leathern suit stitched by 
Pox's own hands there is no foundation. 

His first incarceration was at Nottingham 
in 1649, for the offence of brawling in church, 
lie was described in the charge-sheet as 'a 
youth,' though now in his twenty-fifth year. 
Though he complains of the foulness of his cell, 
the action of the authorities was gentle as 
compared with the fury of the villagers of 
Mansfield Woodhouse on a similar occasion 
shortly after. By this time Fox had fairly en- 
terjsd upon a course of aggressive action as an 
itinerant preacher. He sought an interview 
(1649) with Samuel Gates and other general 
baptist preachers, at Barrow-upon-Soar, Lei- 
cestershire. Barclay is probably right in in- 
ferring (Inner Life, p. 256) that there was 
enough in common between his objects and 
their free methods and Arminian views to 
make him think an approximation possible ; 
but 'their baptism in water' stopped the way. 
It does not appear that Fox's society was re- 
cruited from the baptists more largely than 
from other sects, though it exhibits the in- 
fluence of baptist ideas. The earliest documen- 
tary name for the new society is 'Children of 
Light,' which Barclay traces to a baptist source 
(ib. p. 262). It was soon, however, super- 
seded by the happy designation of ' Truth's 
Friends,' or ' Friends of Truth,' abbreviated 
into ' Friends.' Their popular nickname was 
given to them at Derby on 30 Oct. 1650 by the 
wit of Gervase Bennet, a hard-headed oracle 
of the local bench (MIJGGLETON, Acts of the 
Witnesses, 1699, p. 94 sq.) Fox had bidden 
the magistrates ' tremble at the word of the 
Lord,' whereupon Bennet retorted upon Fox 
and Fretwell the name of ' quakers.' The 
term got into the House of Commons' jour- 
nals as early as 1654. 

The rise of this body synchronises with 
the parliamentary attempt to regulate the 
affairs of the church of England on the Scot- 
tish model ; the new society was a collective 
protest against the presbyterian system, as 
inefficient for purposes of evangelisation. 
Fox's earliest recorded convert was a middle- 
aged widow at Nottingham, Elizabeth Hooton 
[q. v.] (mentioned 1647), who became the first 
woman preacher in the society. His adherents 
were soon numbered by thousands. They came 
for the most part from the lower middle class, 
drawn not merely from the puritan folds, but 
from the fringes of all the sects, from ranters, 
shakers, seekers, and visionaries of all sorts, 
who brought with them an exuberant emo- 
tional piety tending to pantheism, and a mar- 
vellous unrestraint of speech. The commu- 

nity exhibited all the signs, mental and physi- 
cal, of strong religious enthusiasm. Their 
symbolic acts, grotesque and sometimes gross, 
were regarded as fanaticism gone mad. With 
the early characteristics of his society Fox 
has been often reproached. It is more to the 
point to observe how by degrees his calmer 
spirit prevailed over those whom his fer- 
vour had attracted, while his genius for or- 
ganisation reduced to order an otherwise un- 
manageable mass. His discipline of religious 
silence had a sobering influence, and the 
growth of a systematic network of meetings, 
dependent on each other, induced a sense of 
corporate responsibility. Barclay notices 
(Inner Life, p. 11) that, with all its freedom, 
the society from the first was not ' indepen- 
dent ' but ' connexional ' in its character. 
There is shrewdness in Baxter's remark that 
the quakers were ' the ranters revers'd,' turned 
from wild extravagances to ' extream auste- 
rity' (CALAMY, Abridgement, 1713, p. 102). 
Baxter ascribes the change to Penn. But 
the ranter spirit reached its climax and its 
fall in the Bristol ride (1656) of James Nay- 
ler [q. v.], who died in 1660, many years 
before the adhesion of either Robert Barclay 
(1667) or William Penn (1668). By this 
time the Perrot schism (1661-3) had re- 
moved the remaining elements of insubor- 
dination, and Fox had given final shape to 
his rules for the management of ' meetings for 
discipline ' (printed as ' Friends Fellowship/ 
&c., 1668 ; reprinted, but not by a quaker, 
as ' Canons and Institutions,' &c., 1669 ; given 
in Beck and Ball). The system was com- 
pleted by the institution of the yearly meet- 
ing, first held on 6 Jan. 1669. 

In the organisation of his mission Fox had 
the valuable help of a remarkable woman, 
whom he afterwards married, Margaret Fell 
[q. v.], named by Barclay ' the Lady Hunt- 
ingdon of the new society ' (Inner Life, p. 259). 
She had been carried away by the teaching 
of William Lampett, who then held the per- 
petual curacy of Ulverston ; he is explicitly 
described by Fox as' a ranter' (original manu- 
script of Journal, p. 61). It was by degrees 
that Fox's teaching exerted a regulative in- 
fluence over her mind. Her first letter to him 
in 1652 (facsimile in WILKINSON, Quakerism 
Examined, 1836) has the ranter swell which 
inflates the well-known letter of John Aud- 
land, printed by Leslie (Snake in the Grass, 
1698, p. 369). Her husband's residence, 
Swarthmoor Hall, Lancashire, became the 
headquarters of the movement, the travelling 
preachers, of whom Fox had thirty in 1653, 
sixty in the following year (they usually went 
out in pairs), sending in their reports to her. 
At his own expense Fox built and endowed 




the meeting-house at Swarthmoor, which 
bears the inscription ' Ex Dono : G : F. 1688 ; ' 
his ' tryacle ' bible (1541) is here preserved. 

The quaker organisation was thus gaining 
in cohesion and stability during a period of 
repressive legislation which was fatal to the 
continuity of corporate life in the other non- 
conformist sects. Fox waited for no indul- 
gence, and regarded no conventicle act. ' Now 
is the time,' said Fox, ' for you to stand . . . 
go into your meeting-houses as at other 
times.' Throughout the interval between 
the restoration of 1660 and the toleration of 
1689 the Friends kept up regular meetings, 
and their numbers increased. When the 
preachers were carried to prison, the people 
met in silence ; the lawyers were puzzled to 
prove such meetings illegal. The meeting- 
places were nailed up or demolished ; they 
assembled outside or amid the ruins. At 
Reading (1664) and Bristol (1682) nearly all 
the adult members were thrown into gaol ; 
the meetings were punctually kept by the 
children. Equal firmness was shown in the 
matter of oaths and marriages. Fox's admi- 
rable system for the registration of births, 
marriages, and burials began in 1652, and 
was probably suggested by the practice of 
the baptist churches. There was no indis- 
criminate almsgiving, but a constant effort to 
improve the condition of the poorer members. 

The persistent fidelity of Fox's personal 
labours can hardly be exaggerated. On his 
missionary journeys, continued from year to 
year until his death, he visited nearly every 
corner in England and Wales. He travelled 
to Scotland in 1657, to Ireland in 1669, to 
the West Indies and North America in 1671- 
1672, to Holland in 1677, and again in 1684. 
Eight times he suffered imprisonment, the 
longest period of his incarceration being at 
Lancaster and Scarborough (1663-6), and 
the latest at Worcester for nearly fourteen 
months (16734). Among the many public 
services rendered by the early Friends, that of 
compelling attention to the hideous condition 
of the common gaols must not be forgotten. 
In addition to his work as a preacher Fox 
found time for a constant stream of publica- 
tions, sometimes all his own, sometimes pro- 
duced in conjunction with others. He early 
perceived (or, as seems probable, Margaret 
Fell perceived for him) the power of the 
press as a missionary agency. On 18 Feb. 
1653 Margaret writes to her husband begging 
him to see after the printing of tracts by Fox, 
Nayler, and John Lawson, which she encloses 
(WEBB, Fells, 2nd edit., 1867, p. 41). In 
an age of pamphlet-writers the quakers were 
the most prolific, and in some respects the 
most virulent, in others the most impressive 

of pamphleteers. Admitting no weapon but 
the tongue, they used it unsparingly. In 
Fox's own pamphlets, though his emotion 
sometimes renders him inarticulate, there is 
often a surprising elevation of thought, and 
an unstudied dignity of expression. 

Fox died at the house of Henry Gouldney,, 
in White Hart Court, Gracechurch Street, 
on Tuesday, 13 Jan. 1691. He was interred 
on 16 Jan. in Whitecross Street (or Chequer 
Alley) burying-ground (present entrance in 
Roscoe Street), near Bunhill Row (BECK 
and BALL, London Friends' Meetings, 1869 r 
p. 329). Eleven Friends took part in the 
funeral service at the meeting-house ; four 
delivered testimonies at the graveside, amid 
a concourse of four thousand people. A head- 
stone was placed over the grave, but this 
was removed about 1757, when the body 
was reinterred in order to facilitate the en- 
largement of the burial-ground. A stone 
about six inches square, bearing the initials 
' G. F.,' was then built into the wall. This 
also became displaced, and was knocked to> 
pieces as ' nehushtan ' by Robert Howard 
(d. January 1812) (ib. p. 331 ; WEBB, Fells, 
p. 322). When the old graveyard was laid 
out as a garden (1881) an inscribed headstone, 
about two feet high, was placed on the sup- 
posed site of Fox's grave. In 1872 a small 
obelisk, with an incorrect inscription, was 
erected at Drayton, by C. H. Bracebridge of 
Atherstone Hall. 

Fox had no issue of his marriage on 18 Oct. 
1669 to Margaret Fell ; she was ten years his 
senior, and had been eleven years a widow. 
Her ' testimony ' to him draws a vivid pic- 
ture of his character. Fox's will (dated 
October 1688, proved 30 Dec. 1697) disposes 
of little more than papers and keepsakes. This 
'will' consists of three distinct autograph 
papers of direction ; in the Spence collection 
are other signed papers, giving orders for the 
disposal not only of a thousand acres in Penn- 
sylvania, assigned to Fox by William Penn, 
but of 'land and sheep' (to his brother Joint 
Fox of Polesworth), and of money laid out 
' in ships and trade.' In 1767 his heirs-at- 
law were the descendants, in Pennsylvania,, 
of his brother John (WEBB, Fells, p. 321). 
Of his ' bulky person,' his abstemious ways 
and little need of sleep, his manners, ' civil 
beyond all forms of breeding,' his ' awful, 
living, reverent frame ' in prayer, we have 
glimpses in Penn's preface to the ' Journal/ 
Leslie speaks of his ' long, straight hair, 
like rats' tails' (Theol. Works, 1721, ii. 
357). A painting ascribed to William Hon- 
thorst, 1654 (engraved by Holmes), is said 
to represent Fox at the age of thirty ; the face 
is too young for that age (yet compare the 




Nottingham description in 1649), the hair 
curls, and it seems a fancy picture. When 
lent to the National Portraits Exhibition in 
1866, it was in the possession of Mrs. Wat- 
kins. A small and rude woodcut without 
date (reissued by Joseph Smith) is probably 
an authentic contemporary likeness of Fox in 
middle age ; the visage is homely, massive and 
dignified. It is evidently the source of later 
portraits, such as the neat engraving pub- 
lished by W. Barton (1822), of which there 
is an enlarged reproduction in lithography 
by Thomas Fairland [q. v.] about 1835. An 
engraving by Samuel Allen, from a painting 
by S. Chinn, was published in 1838 {Notes 
and Queries, 1st ser. vi. 156). 

The bibliography of Fox's writings fills 
fifty-three pages of Smith's ' Catalogue. Most 
modern readers will be contented with 1. ' A 
Journal, or Historical Account of the Life 
... of ... George Fox,' &c., 1694, fpl., a 
work of the highest interest. A shorter jour- 
nal, preserved among the manuscripts at 
Devonshire Square, is described by Barclay 
(Inner Life, p. 277 sq.) The published jour- 
nal was revised by a committee, under the 
superintendence of Penn, and transcribed for 
the press by Thomas Ell wood [q. v.] Fox 
had himself (in a paper dated 24 June 1685) 
named a committee for thispurpose, including 
Ell wood ; he says, ' And ye great jornall of 
my Life, Sufferings, Travills, and imprison- 
ments, they may bee put together, they Lye 
in papers : and ye Little Jornall Books, they 
may bee printed together in a Book ' (auto- 
graph in Spence Collection). The original 
manuscript (wanting sixteen folios at the be- 
ginning) is in the possession of Robert Spence, 
esq., North Shields ; it is not in autograph, 
but has been dictated to successive ama- 
nuenses. After publication, a further re- 
vision (24 Sept. 1694) substituted a new leaf 
for pp. 309-10 (story of Justice Clark); copies 
with the uncancelled leaf are very scarce. 
Wilson Armistead's edition, 1852, 2 yols. 8vo, 
with notes, and divided into chapters, is handy 
for reference ; but it has ' improvements ' 
(some of them from Phipps's ' third edition,' 
1765, fol.) which sometimes miss the sense. 
An abridgment, by Henry Stanley Newman, 
'Autobiography of George Fox,' &c. (n.d., 
preface dated Buckfield, Leominster, 1886), 
is rather a partisan selection. 2. 'A Collec- 
tion of ... Epistles,' &c., 1698, fol. (called 
' the second volume,' the 'Journal ' being con- 
sidered the first). 3. ' Gospel-Truth ... a 
Collection of Doctrinal Books,' &c., 1706, 
fol. This forms a third volume, though it is 
not so designated. In this and the preceding 
Fox's principal works will be found, the most 
important omission being 4. ' The Great Mis- 

tery,' &c., 1659, fol. There is no complete 
collection of Fox's writings, the fullest being 
the Philadelphia edition of the ' Works,' 1831, 
8 vols. 8vo. 

Macaulay's epigram on Fox, as ' too much 
disordered for liberty, and not sufficiently 
disordered for Bedlam,' is well known. De 
Morgan admits (Budget of Paradoxes) that, 
though not a ' rational,' Fox was certainly a 
' national ' man. Marsden has done more- 
justice to the intellectual merit of Fox's doc- 
trine of the inner light, which ' rested upon, 
one idea, the greatest that can penetrate the 
mind of man : God is a spirit, and they that 
worship him must worship him in spirit and 
truth ' (Hist, of the Later Puritans, 1872, 
p. 240). There can be no question of the 
healthiness and strength of his moral fibre. 
It is remarkable that Wesley, who was ac- 
quainted with Barclay's ' Apology,' never 
mentions Fox. Yet the early quakerisni 
anticipated methodism in many important 
points, as well as in the curious detail of 
conducting the business of meetings by means 
of answers to queries. The literary skill of 
the ' Apology ' has drawn readers to it rather 
than to Fox's amorphous writings ; but for 
pure quakerism, not yet fixed (1676) in scho- 
lastic forms, it is necessary to go to Fox ; and 
the student will be rewarded, as Professor 
Huxley has recently observed (Nineteenth 
Century, April 1889), by passages of great 
beauty and power. 

GEORGE Fox, called for distinction 'the 
younger,' not in years, but ' the younger in 
the truth,' was of Charsfield, Suffolk. He 
reached independently (about 1651) similar 
views to those of his namesake, and joined 
his society, in which he was a preacher. He 
began to write in 1656. He died at Hurst, 
Sussex, on 7 July 1661, and was buried at 
Twineham. His works wer"e collected in a 
small volume, 1662, 8vo ; 2nd edition, en- 
larged, 1665, 8vo. 

[For the facts of Fox's life the great authority 
is the Journal. Gerard Croese's Historia Qua- 
keriana, 1695; 2nd edit. 1696; English transla- 
tion, 1696, is based on materials supplied by 
William Sewel. Sewel's own History, 1722, 
embodies some few fresh particulars from a paper 
by Fox, ' in his lifetime drawn up by his order, 
at my request, and sent to me.' Besse's Collec- 
tion of the Sufferings, 1753; Gough's History, 
1789. Among the numerous biographies may 
be mentioned those of Henry Tuke (1813), Wil- 
liam and Thomas Evans (1837), Josiah Marsh 
(1847) from an Anglican point of view, Samuel 
M. Janney (1853) a Hicksite friend, John Selby 
Watson (1860), and A. C. Bickley (1884), with 
a facsimile letter (2 Oct. 1680) from Fox to Bar- 
clay. The Swarthmoor MSS. werefirst employed 
by Maria Webb in The Fells of Swarthmoor 




Hall, 1865, with plates and facsimiles. An able 
essay on George Fox : his Character, Doctrine, 
and Work, 1 873, by a member of the Society of 
'Friends [Edward Ash, M.D.], deals with the 
limitations of Fox's mind ; a reply, Immediate 
Hevelation True, 1873, "was published by George 
Pitt. In the Inner Lifeof the Religious Societies 
of the Common-wealth, 1876, by Kobert Barclay 
(1833-1876) [q.v.], much new light was thrown 
on Fox's aims and methods, and the genesis of 
his movement ; the writer somewhat over-esti- 
mates the direct influence of the ideas of the 
Mennonite baptists. Joseph Smith's Descriptive 
Catalogue of Friends' Books, 1867, 2 vols. ; Bio- 
graphical Catalogue, 1888, by Beck, Wells, and 
Chalkley. Articles by the present writer : Theo- 
logical Eeview, January 1874, July 1877. The 
exact date of Fox's birth is not recoverable : the 
early registers of Fenny Drayton are lost, and 
there is no transcript for 1624 in the records of 
the archdeaconry; the first entry relating to the 
family is the baptism of Fox's sister Dorothy on 
9 April 1626. Use has been made of the Swarth- 
moor MSS., of the original manuscript of the 
printed Journal, and of a large number of manu- 
scripts from Swarthmoor in the Spence collec- 
tion ; also of Southey's manuscript Life of Fox 
(unfinished) in the same collection ; and of a con- 
temporary manuscript account of Fox's funeral 
per C. Elcock ; works cited above.] A. G. 

FOX, GEORGE (1802?-! 871), topogra- 
pher, a native of Pontefract, Yorkshire, car- 
ried on the business of a bookseller and sta- 
tioner, in partnership with his father, John 
Fox, in Market Place in that town, and was 
for some years a member of the corporation. 
He died at his residence, Friar Wood House, 
on 23 Aug. 1871, aged 69. He compiled an 
excellent and now scarce ' History of Ponte- 
fract,' 8vo, Pontefract, 1827, illustrated with 
plates from his own drawings. 

[Pontefract Advertiser, 26 Aug. 1871 ; Ponte- 
fract Telegraph, 26 Aug. 1871; Boyne's York- 
shire Library, pp. 147-8 ; Pigot's Directories.] 

G. G. 

(1705-1774), younger son of Sir Stephen Fox 
[q.v.], by his second wife, Christian, daughter 
of the Rev. Francis Hopes, rector of Haceby, 
and afterwards of Aswarby, Lincolnshire, 
was born at Chiswick on 28 Sept. 1705, and 
was educated at Eton, where he was the con- 
temporary of Pitt, Fielding, and Sir Charles 
Hanbury Williams. It has been generally 
asserted that Fox went up to Oxford Univer- 
sity, but there is no record of his matricu- 
lation in 'Alumni Oxonienses 1715-1886.' 
Indulging recklessly in gambling and other 
extravagances, he soon squandered the greater 
part of his private fortune, and went abroad 
to extricate himself from his pecuniary em- 
barrassments. Upon his return to England 

Fox was elected to parliament for the borough 
of Hindon in Wiltshire in February 1735. 
Being by profession a whig he attached 
himself to Sir Robert Walpole, whom he 
served with unswerving fidelity, and was 
quickly rewarded for his services with the 
post of surveyor-general of works, to which 
he was appointed on 17 June 1737. At the 
general election in 1741 Fox was returned 
for the borough of Windsor, for which he 
continued to sit until the dissolution in 
March 1761. Upon the fall of Walpole in 
1742 Fox resigned office, but was appointed 
a lord of the treasury in the Pelham ad- 
ministration on 25 Aug. 1743. After hold- 
ing this post nearly three years he was 
appointed secretary at war in May 1746, and 
was admitted a member of the privy council 
on 23 July following. During the debate 
on the Regency Bill in 1751, Fox repelled 
with great warmth an attack made on his 
patron, the Duke of Cumberland, by Pitt. 
So incensed was Fox with his colleague's 
speech that he left the house without voting. 
When Pelham, remonstrating with him after- 
wards, told him that he had not spoken like, 
himself, Fox spiritedly replied, ' Had I in- 
deed spoken like myself I should have said 
ten times more against the bill.' In 1753 
he attacked Lord Hardwicke, whom he had 
never forgiven for deserting Sir Robert Wal- 

S)le. When the lord chancellor's Marriage 
ill appeared in the commons, Fox vehe- 
mently opposed it, and neither spared the 
bill nor the author of it (Par/. Hist. xv. 
67-74). Upon the death of Pelham in 
March 1754, the Duke of Newcastle opened 
negotiations with Fox, through the Marquis 
of Hartington. It was proposed that Fox 
should be secretary of state with the lead of 
the House of Commons, but that the dis- 
posal of the secret service money should be 
left in the hands of the first lord of the 
treasury, who should keep Fox informed of 
the way in which the fund was employed. 
In his interview with Fox, however, the 
duke declared that he should not disclose to 
any one how he employed the secret service 
money. Fox refused to accept these altered 
terms, but promised to remain in the ad- 
ministration as secretary at war. But though 
Fox continued in office it can hardly be said 
that he continued to support the ministry. 
Reconciled by a common enmity, Fox and 
Pitt combined in seizing every opportunity 
which arose during the debate for the pur- 
pose of making Sir Thomas Robinson, the 
newly appointed secretary of state, ridicu- 
lous. The covert sarcasms of Fox and the 
open denunciations of Pitt quickly rendered 
Newcastle's position intolerable, and in 




January 1755 fresh negotiations were opened 
with Fox, which this time proved successful, 
though the terms offered him were not so 
favourable as on the last occasion. Fox, 
having consented in future to act under 
Robinson, and to give the king's measures 
his active support in the House of Commons, 
was admitted to the cabinet, and his tempo- 
rary alliance with Pitt was thereupon dis- 
solved. Though Fox suffered in reputation 
by his desertion of Pitt and his subservience 
to Newcastle, he speedily gained his object, 
and before the year was out was leader of 
the House of Commons. Robinson, receiv- 
ing a pension, was reappointed master of the 
great wardrobe, and Fox was appointed in 
his place secretary of state on 25 Nov. 1755. 
Thinking himself ill-used both by the king 
and Newcastle, and suspecting that the latter 
was intriguing to cast the loss of Minorca 
upon his shoulders, Fox obtained the king's 
permission to resign in October 1756. New- 
castle's resignation soon followed. The king 
then sent for Fox and directed him to form 
an administration with Pitt, but the latter 
refused to act with him ; and the Duke of 
Devonshire thereupon formed an administra- 
tion with Pitt's help and without Fox. 
During the ministerial interregnum in 1757 
Fox, at the request of the king, who was in- 
censed at Newcastle's refusal to act with 
Pitt, consented to become chancellor of the 
exchequer, with Lord Waldegrave as first 
lord of the treasury. At the last moment, 
however, the king yielded to Newcastle, and 
Fox accepted the subordinate post of pay- 
master-general without a seat in the cabinet. 
In this office, which during the continuance 
of the war was probably the most lucrative 
one in the government, Fox contented him- 
self with amassing a large fortune, and took 
but little part in the debates. Upon Gren- 
ville's resignation of the seals of secretary of 
state in October 1762, Fox, with consider- 
able reluctance, once more accepted the 
leadership of the House of Commons. Re- 
fusing to become secretary of state on the 
ground of bad health, he was admitted to 
Bute's cabinet, and while retaining the post 
of paymaster-general accepted the sinecure 
office of writer of the tallies and clerk of 
the pells in Ireland. Fox had assured the 
king that parliament should approve of the 
peace by large majorities, and by the em- 
ployment of the grossest bribery and intimi- 
dation he kept his word. Having broken 
with all his old political friends, he turned 
upon them with relentless fury. ' Strip the 
Duke of Newcastle of his three lieutenancies 
immediately,' wrote Fox to Bute, in Novem- 
ber 1762; ' I'll answer for the good effect of 

it, and then go on to the general rout, but 
let this beginning be made immediately.' 
In the following month he wrote again to 
Bute in the same strain : ' The impertinence 
of our conquered enemies last night was 
great, but will not continue so if his majesty 
shows no lenity. But, my lord, with regard 
to their numerous dependents in crown em- 
ployments, it behoves your lordship in par- 
ticular to leave none of them. . . . And I 
don't care how much I am hated if I can say 
to myself, I did his majesty such honest and 
essential service ' (Life of the Earl of Shel- 
burne, i. 179-80). The peace of Paris was 
signed in 1763, and Fox having accomplished 
his task took but little further trouble about 
the business of the ministry in the House of 
Commons. Ill supported by his colleagues 
and hated on all sides, Fox became anxious 
to retire from the house, and, claiming his 
reward for his apostasy, was created Baron 
Holland of Foxley, Wiltshire, on 16 April 
1763. After a long altercation with Bute 
and Shelburne, which is fully recorded in 
the 'Life' of the latter (i. 199-229), Fox 
managed to retain the post of paymaster. 
Shelburne, who had acted as Bute's agent in 
the negotiations with Fox in the previous 
year, was denounced by him as ' a perfidious 
and infamous liar.' But the familiar tradi- 
tion that Bute attempted to justify Shel- 
burne's conduct by telling Fox that the 
whole affair was a ' pious fraud,' and that 
Fox replied, 'I can see the fraud plainly 
enough, but where is the piety ? ' is stated 
by Lord Edmond Fitzmaurice to be ' value- 
less for the purposes of history ' (ib. p. 228). 
On leaving the House of Commons Fox prac- 
tically retired from public life, and it does 
not appear that he took any part in the de- 
bates of the upper house. In May 1765 he 
was forced to resign the post of paymaster- 
general, which was conferred upon Charles 
Townshend (Cal. of Home Office Papers, 
1760-5, p. 553). On Grenville's fall he made 
some advances towards a reconciliation with 
his old friends, which were scornfully rejected 
by Rockingham. In 1769 the lord mayor 
presented the king with a petition from the 
livery of the city of London against his 
ministers, in which Fox was referred to as 
' the public defaulter of unaccounted millions ' 
(Annual Reg. 1769, p. 202). Proceedings 
against Fox had been actually commenced 
in the court of exchequer, but had been 
stayed by a warrant from the crown. After 
some correspondence with Beckford, Fox 
published a statement clearly proving that 
the delay which had occurred in making up 
the accounts of his office was neither illegal 
nor unusual in those days. It has, however, 




been asserted that the interest on the balances 
which were outstanding when he left the 
office brought him no less than a quarter of 
a million pounds. He tried several times to 
obtain an earldom, but isolated from all 
parties in the state, and out of favour at 
court, he asked for it in vain. Disappointed 
in ambition and broken down in health, he 
divided most of his time in travelling on the 
continent, and in constructing at Kingsgate, 
near the North Foreland, a fantastic habita- 
tion purporting 'to represent Tully'sFormian 
Villa.' He died at Holland House, near 
Kensington, on 1 July 1774, in the sixty- 
ninth year of his age, and was buried at 
Farley in Wiltshire. During Fox's last 
illness George Selwyn called at Holland 
House and left his card. Glancing at it, 
and remembering his old friend's peculiar 
taste, Fox humorously said : ' If Mr. Selwyn 
calls again show him up : if I am alive I shall 
be delighted to see him ; and if I am dead 
he would like to see me.' Fox married, on 
2 May 1744, Lady Georgiana Caroline Len- 
nox, eldest daughter of Charles, second duke 
of Richmond. The marriage was secretly 
solemnised at the house of Sir Charles Han- 
bury Williams, the lady's parents having 
refused their consent. The stir which this 
wedding made in the town is amusingly 
recorded in 'Walpole's Letters' (i. 303), 
and it was not until after some years that 
the duke and duchess became reconciled to 
their daughter. The match was a peculiarly 
happy one, and the correspondence between 
Fox and his wife is a remarkable record of 
conjugal felicity. Lady Caroline was created 
Baroness Holland of Holland, Lincolnshire, 
in the peerage of Great Britain, on 6 May 
1762. She survived her husband only a few 
weeks, and died on 24 July 1774. They had 
four sons, viz. Stephen, Henry, Charles James 
[q. v.], and Henry Edward [q. v.] Stephen 
succeeded to the two baronies of Holland, 
and died 26 Nov. 1774. Henry died an 
infant. The present Lady Holland is the 
widow of Henry Fox's great grandson, Henry 
Edward, fourth baron Holland, upon whose 
death in 1859 the titles became extinct. Fox 
was a man of many talents, of indomitable 
courage and extraordinary activity. Gifted 
with great sagacity and shrewdness, he was 
confident in manner and decisive in action. 
Though not a great orator, he was a formid- 
able debater. ' His best speeches,' says Lord 
Waldegrave, ' are neither long nor premedi- 
tated ; quick and concise replication is his 
peculiar excellence ' (Memoirs, p. 25). De- 
void of principle, and regardless of the good 
opinion of his fellow-men, he cared more for 
money than for power. Chesterfield declares 

that ' he had not the least notion of, or re- 
gard for, the public good or the constitution, 
but despised those cares as the objects of 
narrow minds, or the pretences of interested 
ones ' (Letters, ii. 467). Though at one time 
the rival of Pitt, Fox never rose above the 
rank of a political adventurer. His jovial 
manners and many social qualities gave him 
much influence in society, but his unscrupu- 
lous conduct during the five months which 
he spent in Bute's cabinet made him the 
best hated minister in the country. Churchill 
in his ' Epistle to William Hogarth,' Gray 
in his ' Stanzas suggested by a View of the 
Seat and Ruins at Kingsgate in Kent, 1766/ 
Mason in his ' Heroic Epistle,' as well as the 
political writers of the day, all bear witness 
to his great unpopularity. In appearance he 
was unprepossessing, his figure was heavy, 
and his countenance dark and lowering. 
Portraits of him by Hogarth and Reynolds, 
are preserved at Holland House, where there 
are also several portraits of his wife, and a 
small collection of his poems. The author- 
ship of a short-lived periodical entitled ' The 
Spendthrift,' which commenced on 29 March 
1766, and lasted through twenty weekly 
numbers, has been attributed to him. On 
the first page of the copy of ' The Spend- 
thrift ' in the British Museum is the following 
manuscript note : ' These papers are sup- 
posed to have been written by Lord Holland. 
Mr. Nichols, who printed them, informs me 
that the copy always came from that noble- 
man's house. Ic. Reed.' Holland House 
was bought by Fox in 1767, having previ- 
ously rented it since 1749. 

[Coxe's Memoirs of Horatio, Lord Walpole 
(1802) ; Coxe's Memoirs of the Pelham Adminis- 
tration (1829); The Grenville Papers (1852); 
Diary of the late George Bubb Dodington (1 784); 
Chatham's Correspondence (1838-40); Corre- 
spondence of John, fourth Duke of Bedford 
(1842-6); Memoirs from 1754 to 1758, by 
James, Earl Waldegrave (1821) ; Wai pole's 
Memoirs of the Reign of George II (1847) ; 
Walpole's Memoirs of the Reign of George III 
(1845) ; Walpole's Letters (ed. Cunningham) ; 
Fitzmaurice's Life, of the arl of Shelburne 
(1875), vol. i. ; Lecky'sHist. of England, vols.i. 
ii. iii. ; Lord Mahon's Hist, of England (1858), 
vols. iii.iv. v. ; Trevelyan's Early Life of Charles 
James Fox (1881); Macaulay's Essajs (1885), 
pp. 301-6, 309, 762-4, 767; Jesse's George 
Selwyn and his Contemporaries (1844); Sir 
Edward Creasy's Memoirs of Eminent Etonians- 
(1876), 308-11 ; The Fox Unkennelled, or the 
Paymaster's Accounts Laid Open (1769) ; Prin- 
cess Mary Liechtenstein's HollandHouse(1874) ; 
Chester's Westminster Abbey Registers (1876), 
pp. 262, 473; Collins's Peerage (1812), iv. 
538, vii. 308-10; Foster's Peerage (1883), p. 




383; Gent. Mag. 1774, xliv. 333-4, 335, 543 ; 
Annual Eegister 1777, pp. 16-18; Haydn's Book 
of Dignities (1851); Official Keturn of Lists of 
Members of Parliament, pt. ii. pp. 80, 85, 98, 
109, 131 ; Brit. Mus. Cat.] G. F. E. B. 

FOX, HENRY EDWARD (1755-1811), 
general, was the third son who reached man- 
hood of Henry Fox, first lord Holland [q. v.], 
by Lady Georgiana Caroline Lennox, eldest 
daughter of the second Duke of Richmond, 
and younger brother of the celebrated orator 
and statesman, Charles James Fox [q. v.] He 
was born on 4 March 1755, and a curious quota- 
tion from one of his father's letters in 1764, 
when the boy was but nine years old, shows 
what his disposition then was. ' Harry,' he 
writes, ' has a little horse to ride, and the 
whole stable full to look after. He lives with 
the horse, stinks, talks, and thinks of nothing 
but the stable, and is not a very good com- 
panion ' (TKEVELTAK, Early Life of Charles 
James Fox, p. 276). After a short time at 
Westminster School, Fox was gazetted to a 
cornetcy in the 1st or king's dragoon guards in 
1770, from which he was promoted lieutenant 
into the 38th regiment in 1773. This regiment 
was then quartered at Boston in America, 
and Henry Fox served all through the war 
of American independence. On 14 Feb. 1774 
he was promoted captain ; in 1775 he served 
at Concord and at the battle of Bunker's Hill ; 
in 1776 he was present at the battles on Long 
Island and of White Plains ; in 1777 he was 
at the battle of Brandywine and in the ad- 
vance on Philadelphia, and on 12 July 1777 
he was promoted major into the 49th regi- 
ment. This regiment was placed under orders 
for the West Indies, but before it started 
Fox was promoted lieutenant-colonel of the 
38th regiment on 12 Oct. 1778. He con- 
tinued to serve until the end of the American 
war of independence, and it is curious to 
notice that while Charles James Fox was 
inveighing against the war with the Ameri- 
cans, his brother Henry was constantly em- 
ployed in it. On his return to England he 
was received, perhaps for this reason, with 
the greatest favour by the king, who made 
him one of his aides-de-camp with the rank 
of colonel on 12 March 1783. In 1786 he mar- 
ried Marianne, daughter of William Clayton, 
and sister of the Baroness Howard de Wai- 
den. On 20 Dec. 1793 he was promoted 
major-general, and soon after offered a com- 
mand in the army under the Duke of York 
in Flanders. He joined this army during 
the retreat through Belgium, and was posted 
to the command of the brigade formerly com- 
manded by Major-general Ralph Abercromby, 
consisting of the 14th, 37th, and 53rd regi- 
ments. With this brigade he served at the 

battles of Roubaix and Mouveaux, and on 
23 May 1794 he performed his greatest feat 
of arms, the repulse of the whole French 
army at Pont-a-Chin. He was upon the 
extreme right of the retreating army, when 
he was isolated and attacked in force, and 
his gallant stand and the successful extrica- 
tion of his brigade is the brightest feature in 
the history of the whole war in Flanders from 
1793 to 1795. On 28 June 1795 Fox was ap- 
pointed colonel of the 10th regiment, and on 
26 June 1799 he was promoted lieutenant- 
general. On 25 July 1801 he was appointed 
a local general in the Mediterranean, with his 
headquarters at Minorca, where he remained 
until the signature of the peace of Amiens, 
and in 1803 he was appointed commander-in- 
chief of the forces in Ireland. His tenure of 
office there was signalised by the outbreak 
and the suppression of the rebellion of Robert 
Emmet, when Fox was seized with the panic 
which assailed all the Castle authorities, and 
made elaborate preparations for dispersing the 
wretched pikemen, who were easily defeated 
by the ordinary night guard before the troops 
had begun to concentrate. In 1804 Fox was 
appointed lieutenant-governor of Gibraltar, 
which, as the titular governor, the Duke of 
Kent, did not reside there, practically meant 
governor of that important fortress. From 
this office he was removed, after his brother's 
accession to office in 1806, to the command of 
the army in Sicily, and he was also appointed 
ambassador to the court of Naples, then re- 
siding at Palermo. Sir John Moore was his 
second in command, and as Fox was in very 
bad health, Moore really undertook the entire 
management of both military and diplomatic 
matters. When Fox assumed the command, 
Major-general John Stuart had just won the 
victory of Maida, and the queen of Naples 
pressed his successor to undertake a similar 
expedition on a larger scale, and thus drive 
the French from Naples. But Fox knew 
that Stuart's success was very much due to 
chance, and that it would be ridiculous for the 
English to leave the island of Sicily for the 
mainland,where Murat could soon outnumber 
them. He was the more determined to refuse, 
since by the directions of his government he 
had materially weakened his army by send- 
ing five thousand men, under Major-general 
Mackenzie Fraser, to Egypt. This conflict 
with the Neapolitan court continued until 
10 July 1807, when the new English ministry 
recalled Fox, and after a time replaced him 
in the supreme military and civil command 
by Lord William Bentinck. Soon after his 
return to England Fox was promoted general 
on 25 July 1808, and made governor of Ports- 
mouth, where he died on 18 July 1811. He 




left one son, Henry Stephen Fox [q. v.], 
diplomatist, and two daughters, the elder 
married to General Sir Henry Bunbury, 
bart., and the younger to General Sir Wil- 
liam Napier, K.C.B. 

[Army Lists; Historical Eecord of the 10th 
Foot; Hamilton's History of the Grenadier 
Guards ; Jones's Historical Journal of the cam- 
paign on the continent in 1794 ; and for his com- 
mand in Sicily Bunbury's Narrative of some 
Passages in the Great War with France.] 

H. M. S. 

Holland in the county of Lincoln, and BARON 
HOLLAND of Foxley in the county of Wilts 
(1773-1840), only son of Stephen, second lord 
Holland, by Lady Mary Fitzpatrick, daughter 
of John, earl of Upper Ossory, was born at 
W T interslow House, Wiltshire, on 21 Nov. 
1773. He was saved by his mother at the 
risk of her own life in a fire which destroyed 
the house on 9 Jan. 1774. His father died 
on 26 Dec. 1774, his mother in 1778, and he 
was brought up by his maternal grandfather 
and his uncle, Charles James Fox [q. v.] He 
was educated at Eton, whence he proceeded, 
19 Oct. 1790, to Christ Church, Oxford, 
where he was created M. A. on 20 June 1792. 
Among his friends at school and college were 
Lord Carlisle, Canning, Hookham Frere, 
and Robert ('Bobus') Smith. During the 
long vacation of 1791 he visited Paris, was 
introduced to Lafayette and Talleyrand, and 
returned to England in 1792 after visiting 
Denmark and Prussia. His guardians, to 
quench a premature interest in politics, sent 
him abroad in March 1793. He travelled in 
Spain and in Italy, where he met Nelson (at 
Leghorn), and settled at Florence in the 
autumn of 1794. In the spring of 1796 he 
returned to England, through Germany, with 
Lady Godfrey Webster [see Fox, ELIZABETH 
VASSALL]. She continued to reside with 
him in England, and then gave birth to a 
son, whom he acknowledged for his own. 
Sir Godfrey Webster obtained a decree for 
a separation in February 1797 (Ann. Keg. 
1797, Chron. p. 12) Lord Holland took his 
seat in the house of peers on 5 Oct. 1796, 
where, on 9 Jan. 1798, he made his maiden 
speech in the debate on the Assessed Taxes 
Bill. In spite of an ungraceful action and 
hesitating delivery he showed himself a use- 
ful recruit to the whig party. A clear and 
terse protest against the bill, which he en- 
tered on the journals of the house, was the 
first of a long series of similar documents 
afterwards collected and published under the 
title of ' Opinions of Lord Holland.' He at 
once became the recognised exponent in the 

House of Lords of his uncle's policy, resisting 
in the most determined manner suspensions 
of the Habeas Corpus Act, openly counte- 
nancing the United Irishmen, denouncing 
the union with Ireland as both unjust and 
impolitic, and afterwards endeavouring to 
insert a clause for the admission of Roman 
catholics to seats in parliament. In 1800 a 
royal license was granted to Lord and Lady 
Holland jointly (18 June) to take 'the name 
of Vassall only after their own respective 
Christian names' (Heralds Coll. I. 36, 20) 
[see Fox, ELIZABETH VASSALL]. In 1807- 
they adopted the signature Vassall Holland, 
although Vassall was no part of the title. 
In the summer of 1800 Lord Holland paid a 
short visit to North Germany, returning to 
England, under a passport obtained through 
Talleyrand, by way of the Netherlands and 
France in the autumn. On the conclusion- 
of the peace of Amiens in 1802 the Hollands 
went to Paris, and were presented to the 
first consul. From Paris they travelled to 
Spain, where they remained, chiefly at Ma- 
drid, until the spring of 1805. They returned 
to England in time to permit of Lord Hol- 
land's speaking in support of Lord Grenville's 
motion for a committee to consider the peti- 
tion of the Irish Roman catholics for the re- 
moval of their disabilities (10 May 1805). 
The United States having sent commissioners 
to England to complain of various alleged 
infringements of their rights as a neutral 
power committed by English naval com- 
manders, Lord Holland was appointed 
(20 Aug. 1806) with Lord Auckland to ne- 
gotiate with Messrs. Monroe and Pinckney, 
the American plenipotentiaries, an adjust- 
ment of the dispute. A treaty was concluded 
on 31 Dec., making some concessions, but 
as the question of impressment was left un- 
settled, President Jefferson refused to submit 
it to the senate for ratification, and it accord- 
ingly lapsed (LORD HOLLAND, Memoirs of 
the Whig Party in my Time, ii. 98-103; 
TUCKER, Life of Je/erson,ii. 247). Though 
in right of his wife the owner of extensive 
plantations in Jamaica, Lord Holland was a 
consistent advocate of the emancipation of 
the slaves in the West Indies, and through- 
out life supported all measures against the 
slave trade. On 27 Aug. 1806 he was sworn 
of the privy council, and on 15 Oct. he en- 
tered the cabinet of All the Talents as lord 
privy seal, and was dismissed with his col- 
leagues in March 1807. Lord Holland ac- 
companied Sir David Baird to Corunna in 
September 1808, thence he passed into Spain, 
where he made a prolonged tour, returning' 
in the autumn of 1809. On his return he- 
moved (30 May) the second reading of the 




bill for the abolition of capital punishment 
in cases of stealing, took part in the debate 
on the state of the nation and the king's ill- 
ness (27 Dec.), and led the opposition to the 
proposal to establish the regency by legisla- 
tion (4 Jan. 1811). He moved for a return of all 
informations issued ex officio by the attorney- 
general between 1 Jan. 1801 and 31 Dec. 
1810. The motion was negatived after a 
prolonged debate. On 21 May he energeti- 
cally opposed Sidmouth's measure for li- 
censing dissenting ministers. In the debate 
on the orders in council (28 Feb. 1812) he 
urged the expediency of an immediate rescis- 
sion of the order of November 1807 prohibit- 
ing the trade with France to all the world ; 
later on he supported the catholic claims, 
proposed to regulate the law of ex-officio in- 
formation, and was in favour of treating with 
Napoleon as emperor. He vehemently at- 
tacked the treaty with Sweden (2 April 1813), 
by which England agreed, in consideration 
of some commercial concessions, to abet the 
Swedish designs on Norway. He visited 
Murat at Naples in 1814. On 8 April 1816 
he vigorously opposed the bill for the deten- 
tion of Napoleon as a prisoner of war, arguing 
that the detention must be j ustified by the 
law of nations or not at all. In 1817 he moved 
for papers relating to Napoleon's treatment 
at St. Helena. After the insurrection in 
Barbadoes, he moved (28 June 1816) for an 
inquiry into the condition of the negroes. 
He energetically opposed the various repres- 
sive measures which were carried out by 
Lord Sidmouth in 1817 and 181 8. He also op- 
posed the Foreign Enlistment Bill, introduced 
in order to prevent persons being enlisted on 
British soil for the service of the insurgent 
Spanish colonies. Lord Holland took com- 
paratively little public action in the case of 
Queen Caroline beyond expressing emphati- 
cally (7 June 1820) his disapproval of the 
ministerial plan of investigation by a secret 
committee, and supporting a regular legal 
procedure. During the following period he 
consistently supported the whig policy in re- 
gard to domestic and foreign affairs. He 
supported the cause of the Greeks, proposed 
forcible intervention in favour of Donna 
Maria on the usurpation of the Portuguese 
throne by Dom Miguel in 1828, and strongly 
condemned ministers in 1830 for preventing 
her adherents who had sailed from Plymouth 
from landing at Terceira. When at last the 
whigs were restored to power by the reform 
agitation, Lord Holland became chancellor 
of the duchy of Lancaster (25 Nov.) in Lord 
Grey's administration. He held tie place, 
with the exception of the brief interregnum 
in 1832 between Lord Grey's resignation 

(10 May) and his recall (18 May), until the 
dismissal of Lord Melbourne's administration 
(14 Nov. 1834). He accepted the same place 
on Lord Melbourne's second administration 
(23 April 1835), and held it until he died, 
after a short illness at Holland House, on 
22 Oct. 1840. He was buried on 28 Oct. in 
Millbrook Church, near Ampthill, Bedford- 
shire (the family seat). The following lines 
were found in his handwriting on his dress-' 
ing-table after his death : 

Nephew of Fox, and friend of Grey, 

Enough my meed of fame 
If those who deigned to observe me say 

I injured neither name. 

A portrait of him (half-length) by Leslie 
is at Holland House, and another, by the 
same artist (full-length, with Lady Holland 
and John Allen), is in the possession of Earl 
Grey. At Holland House also are his portrait 
by Fabre and his bust by Nollekens ; his statue 
by Watts is in the grounds. Greville, who 
knew him well, speaks of his ' imperturbable 
temper, unflagging vivacity and spirit, his in- 
exhaustible fund of anecdote, extensive infor- 
mation, sprightly wit,' and ' universal tolera- 
tion and urbanity' (Mem. 1837-52, i. 341). 
Brougham is equally complimentary to his 
engaging social qualities as well as to his 
high statesmanship and political magnani- 
mity (Statesmen of the Time of George III, 
1843, iii. 329, 340 ; Memoirs, iii. 446). Sydney 
Smith declares that ' there never existed in 
any human being a better heart, or one more 
purified from all the bad passions, more 
abounding in charity and compassion, and 
which seemed to be so created as a refuge to 
the helpless and the oppressed.' In his pre- 
meditated speeches, though closely reasoned 
and occasionally witty, he never escaped 
from his early defects ; he was, however, more 
effective in his replies (BROUGHAM, Statesmen 
of the Time of George III, 1843, iii. 329, 332, 
340 ; Memoirs, iii. 446 ; MACATJLAY, Essays, 7th 
ed., iii. 213 ; LADY HOLLAND, Memoir of the 
Rev. Sydney Smith, i. 282). Lord Holland 
had lawful issue by Lady Holland, two sons, 
viz. Stephen, who died in 1800, and Henry 
Edward, who succeeded to the title and es- 
tate ; and two daughters, viz. Mary Eliza- 
beth, who married in 1830 Thomas Atherton, 
third baron Lilford, and Georgiana Anne, 
who died in her tenth year. Lord Holland 
appears to have had rather more than the 
ordinary dilettante's appreciation of art, but 
no ear whatever for music. He was an ac- 
complished scholar not only in the classical 
but in the modern languages, and made some 
trifling contributions to literature. These are : 
1. 'Observations on the Tendency of a Pam- 




phlet entitled " Sound Argument Dictated by 
Common Sense," ' London, 1795, 8vo, anon., 
showing that Home's arguments against the 
pseudo-prophet Brothers were much of a 
kind with those of freethinkers against the 
Hebrew prophets. 2. ' Secession ' and ' The 
Yeoman,' 1 798-9. Two satires in imitation of 
Juvenal, suggested by the course of events 
in Ireland, apparently printed for private 
circulation only. Lord Holland says that he 
infused into them, if little of the poetry and 
force, at least much of the bitterness of the 
original (Memoirs of the Whig Party in my 
Time, i. 134). 3. Chapter ix. of the ' Annual 
Register' for 1806, dealing with the abortive 
negotiations with France. 4. ' Some Account 
of the Lives and Writings of Lope Felix de 
Vega Carpio,' London, 1806, 8vo, anon, (re- 
published with Lord Holland's name, together 
with the 'Life of Guillen de Castro,' London, 
1817, 8vo). 5. ' Three Comedies from the 
Spanish,' London, 1807, 8vo (two from Cal- 
deron, one from Antonio de Solis). 6. ' A 
Dream,' London, 1818 (printed for private 
circulation, a dialogue between George III, 
Sir Thomas More, Bacon, Locke, Berkeley, 
and other eminent personages on education 
and the encouragement of letters by the 
state). 7. ' Sketch of a Constitution for the 
Kingdom of Naples, suggested in 1815 to the 
Duca di Gallo,' London, 1818,8vo, reprinted in 
1848, 8vo. 8. ' Letter to the Rev. Dr. Shuttle- 
worth, warden of New College, Oxford,' 
London, 1827, 8vo (on the Roman catholic 
question). 9. 'Parliamentary Talk, or the 
Objections to the late Irish Church Bill, con- 
sidered in a Letter to a Friend abroad, by a 
Disciple of Selden,' 3rd ed., with additions, 
London, 1836, 8vo (this elicited a reply en- 
titled ' Irish Church, by a Pupil of Canning,' 
London, 1836, 8vo). 10. Two translations 
from Ariosto, printed in vol. v. of W. S. Rose's 
translation of the ' Orlando Furioso. ' He wrote 
introductions and prefaces to Fox's' James II,' 
Townshend's ' Dissertation on the Poor Laws,' 
'Dobledo's Letters on Spain '(Blanco White), 
and edited Waldegrave's ' Memoirs ' and 
Horace Walpole's 'George II.' A brief 
epistle in verse, ascribed to Lord Holland, 
is printed in the article on him in Jerdan's 
' National Portrait Gallery,' 1833,and a sonnet 
by him on the Greek question, written in 
1827, will be found in ' Notes and Queries,' 
4th ser. viii. 414. 

After his death the protests entered by 
Lord Holland in the journals of the House 
of Lords were collected and edited by Dr. 
Moylan of Lincoln's Inn, barrister-at-law, 
under the title of ' The Opinions of Lord Hol- 
land as recorded in the Journals of the House 
of Lords from 1797 to 1841,' Lond. 1841, 

8vo (see MACATTLAT'S review of this work, 
Essays, iii. 205). ' Foreign Reminiscences,' 
a miscellaneous collection of anecdote and 
gossip, often piquant, sometimes scandalous, 
concerning various persons of distinction 
whom Lord Holland had met in his travels 
abroad, accepted apparently without any 
very careful scrutiny, and thrown together 
in a loose and desultory way, was edited by 
his son Henry Edward, lord Holland, London, 
1850, 8vo, and translated into French. It 
was highly praised in the ' Edinburgh Re- 
view' (January 1851), and savagely de- 
nounced by Croker in the ' Quarterly Review ' 
in the following March as little less than a 
! scandalous libel. The bulk of the anecdotes 
I seem to be fairly authentic, but Lord Holland 
was misled, by his lively sympathy with the 
revolutionary movement of his time, to give 
undue credit to stories disparaging some of 
the prominent actors on the other side. It 
was followed by a more serious contribution 
to the history of that eventful period, viz. 
Lord Holland's ' Memoirs of the Whig Party 
during my Time' (also edited by his son), 
London, 1852, 2 vols. 8vo. This work covers 
the period from Lord Holland's first entrance 
into public life to 1809. It is written with 
commendable precision, lucidity, and con- 
ciseness, and, its author having been during 
that period rather the whig party itself in 
j the House of Lords than its leader, consti- 
tutes a first-hand historical authority of great 
value. Lord Holland also spent much of his 
leisure time in collecting materials for a life 
of Fox, which were subsequently edited by 
Lord John Russell, and published under the 
title of 'Memorials and Correspondence of 
Charles James Fox,' Lond. 1853, 3 vols. 8vo. 
[The principal authorities are the Memoirs and 
the Reminiscences referred to above, with the 
Parliamentary History and Debates; Jerdan's 
National Portrait Gallery, 1833; Gent. Mag. 
(1840), pt. ii. p. 653. The English Cyclopaedia 
Biog. vol. iii., and the Encyclopaedia Eritannica 
also contain more or less elaborate articles. See 
supra, art. Fox, ELIZABETH VASSALL.] J. M. R. 

^ FOX, HENRY STEPHEN (1791-1846), 
diplomatist, only son of General Henry Ed- 
ward Fox [q. v.], by Marianne Clayton, sister 
of Lady Howard de Walden, was born on 
22 Sept. 1791. He was educated at Eton 
and matriculated at Christ Church, Oxford, 
26 Jan. 1809, but soon sought a diplomatic 
and political career. Deprived by the tory 
supremacy of any chance of preferment, and 
inheriting little from his father, Fox spent 
his time in the fashionable world, where he 
made himself popular by his wit and charm- 
ing manners. He was a friend of all the 
whigs and well known in the clubs. After 

^^ t 

'IN * or 

of , 




the peace of 1 815 he travelled on the continent 
with Lord Alvanley and Thomas Raikes, and 
at Rome had a bad attack of fever. When 
Grey's reform ministry was formed in 1830, 
Lord Holland pressed the claims of his cousin, 
who was appointed the first minister plenipo- 
tentiary and envoy extraordinary at Buenos 
Ayres. He was moved to Rio de Janeiro in 
1832 and thence to Washington in 1835. The 
relations between England and the United 
States were then disturbed by much ill-feel- 
ing, and Fox's tact and courteous manners did 
much to improve them. When Sir Robert 
Peel came into office in 1841 , he sent Lord Ash- 
burton to settle outstanding difficulties, and 
the success of the Ashburton treaty was in 
great measure due to Fox, whose services 
were cordially acknowledged by Ashburton. 
In December 1843 Fox was superseded, but 
he continued to reside in Washington, where 
he died in October 1846. 

[Gent. Mag. 1847, i. 82; Eaikes's Journal, Hi., 
iv. ; Foster's Alumni Oxon.] H. M. S. 

FOX, HENRY WATSON (1817-1848), 
Indian missionary, son of George Townshend 
Fox of Durham, was born at Westoe in 1817. 
He was sent to Durham grammar school, and 
thence to Rugby, where he was in the house of 
Bonamy Price. A lecture delivered by Price 
in 1833 and the weekly sermons of Arnold 
strengthened his early religious impressions. 
In 1836 he gained one of the university ex- 
hibitions, and commenced residence at Wad- 
ham College, Oxford, in October of that 
year. Proceeding B.A. in December 1839, 
he was ordained deacon in December 1840, 
and shortly afterwards married Elizabeth, 
daughter of G. H. James, esq., of Wolver- 
hampton. Early in 1841 the Church Mis- 
sionary Society appointed him a missionary 
to the Telugu people, inhabiting the north- 
eastern districts of the Madras presidency. He 
reached Madras in July 1841 with his col- 
league, the Rev. R. T. Noble [q. v.] Noble 
managed a school at Masulipatam for natives 
of the higher classes, while Fox, as soon as 
he had mastered the language, preached to 
the people in Masulipatam and the adjoin- 
ing district. Ill-health compelled him to 
reside on the Nilgiri hills from 1843 to Octo- 
ber 1844, with the exception of some time 
spent on a tour among the mission stations 
of Travancore and Tinnivelly. The illness 
of his wife, who died a few hours after em- 
barking at Madras, compelled him to visit 
England in the latter part of 1845. In 1848 
he was obliged by his own health finally to re- 
turn to England. He was able a few months 
later to accept the appointment of assistant- 
secretary to the Church Missionary Society, 


but on 14 Oct. 1848, after a severe attack of 
the malady which had driven him from India, 
he died in his mother's house at Durham. 

Fox's short and interrupted career was 
made remarkable by his single-minded and 
intelligent devotion. His last illness was 
brought on by his exertions in working and 
preaching for the society when his strength 
was unequal to the task. His letters and 
journals show that his work and the spread of 
missions were with him all-engrossing topics. 
In 1846 he wrote a little book entitled ' Chap- 
ters on Missions in South India,' published a 
few months before his death, giving a popular 
account of mission life in India, and of his 
observations of Hindu religion and manners. 

Shortly after Fox's death subscriptions 
were raised by his friends at Rugby and 
elsewhere, which resulted in the endowment 
of a Rugby Fox mastership in the Church 
Mission School, now called the Noble Col- 
lege, at Masulipatam. It was at the same 
time arranged that an annual sermon should 
be preached in the school chapel at Rugby 
in aid of the funds of the endowment. In 
1872 the preacher was Fox's son, the Rev. 
H. E. Fox. 

[Memoir of the Rev. Henry Watson Fox, by 
the Rev. George Townshend Fox of Durham, 
with a preface by the Rev. H. V. Elliott, 1 850 ; 
Chapters on Missions in South India, by the Rev. 
H. W. Fox, 1848; A Sermon preached at Hamp- 
stead, 7 Aug., on the death of the Rev. H. W. 
Fox, by the Rev. J. Tucker, B.D., 1849 ; Posthu- 
mous Fragment by the Rev. H. W. Fox, with a 
notice of the extent of his influence, 1852.] 

A. J. A. 

FOX, JOHN (1516-1587), martyrologist. 
[See FOXE.] 

FOX, JOHN (/. 1676), nonconformist 
divine, took the degree of B.A. at Cambridge, 
as a member of Clare Hall, in 1624 (Notes and 
Queries, 2nd ser. v. 438). During the Com- 
monwealth he held the vicarage of Puckle- 
church, Gloucestershire. After his ejectment 
in 1662 he became pastor of a congregation 
at Nailsworth in the same county. He is 
the author of two treatises of considerable 
merit, entitled: 1. 'Time, and the End of 
Time. Or Two Discourses : The first about 
Redemption of Time, the second about Con- 
sideration of our latter End,' 12mo, London, 
1670 (many subsequent editions). It was 
translated into Welsh by S. Williams, 8vo, 
yng Ngwrecsam, 1784. 2. ' The Door of 
Heaven opened and shut. . . . Or, A Dis- 
course [on Matt. xxv. 10] concerning the 
Absolute Necessity of a timely Preparation 
for a Happy Eternity,' 12mo, London, 1676 
(and again in 1701). He has been fre- 





quently confounded with John Foxe [q. v.] 
the ' martyr-maker.' 

[Calamy's Nonconf. Memorial (Palmer, 1802), 
li. 253 ; Wood's Athenae Oxon. (Bliss), i. 533.] 

G. G. 

FOX, JOHN (1693-1763),biographer, was 
born at Plymouth on 10 Mayl693. His father, 
a zealous presbyterian, ' devoted ' him ' to the 
ministry, from an infant.' His mother was 
the daughter of a Plymouth tradesman named 
Brett. After an education at Tavistock gram- 
mar school, and under ' old Mr. Bedford ' at 
Plymouth, he read the Greek Testament and 
Virgil for a few months with Nicodemus 
Harding, son of Nathaniel Harding, indepen- 
dent minister at Plymouth. The two young 
men were preparing for entrance at the Exeter 
academy, under Joseph Hallet (d. 1722) 
[q. v.] 'in May 1708 he entered the academy, 
where he soon quarrelled with Harding, 
and formed an intimacy with his tutor's son, 
Joseph Hallet (d. 1744) [q. v.], who put 
doubts into his mind respecting the Trinity. 

When he left the academy in 1711 he had 
' no great disposition of being a minister.' 
His reluctance to comply with the Toleration 
Act, by subscribing the doctrinal articles, 
produced a coolness with his father. After 
some months, Isaac Gilling, minister at New- 
ton Abbot, Devonshire, came to Plymouth 
in disguise ; a process was out against him 
for illegally keeping a Latin school. He was 
a first cousin of the elder Fox, who allowed 
his son to accompany Gilling on his flight from 
Devonshire, on a promise that Gilling would 
do all in his power to remove young Fox's 
aversion to the ministry. At Salisbury Fox 
was introduced to Sir Peter King, then re- 
corder of London, an old friend of Gilling. 
Arrived in London, he slipped out of Gilling's 
hands, and stayed with another relative. He 
was not favourably impressed with John 
Shower, the only London minister he met, 
and spent his time in getting glimpses of 
great people and visiting the theatres. At 
the end of a fortnight in town, Gilling was 
able to return to Newton Abbot, and took Fox 
with him. The accidental sight of a letter 
from his father to Gilling ' determined [him] 
to be a minister at all events.' With this 
view he remained with Gilling three-quarters 
of a year (1712-13), the pleasantest part of 
his life. Gilling directed his studies, and he 
fell in love with Gilling's daughter. In May 
1713 Edmund Calamy, D.D. [q. v.], visited 
the west of England, and, hearing of Fox's 
scruples, made him easy by telling him confi- 
dentially that he himself had never subscribed , 
and that if Fox ' kept himself to himself' the 
omission would never be suspected. 

In October 1714 Fox went to London, 
where he remained till April 1716. He 
lodged with four young ministers in Austin 
Friars ; it is probable that he attended the 
classes of John Eames [q. v.] He became 
intimate with Seeker and Samuel Chandler 
[q. v.] (who lived in Calamy's house) ; to 
both of whom, and especially to Seeker (who 
kept up a correspondence with him till 1718), 
he ascribes his progress in freedom of opinion. 
His father wished him to be licensed as a 
preacher before he returned to Plymouth. 
This implied an examination, from which he 
shrank. After interviews with Williams and 
Calamy, he abandoned the idea of passing his 
trials in London. His friend Jeremy Bur- 
roughs (a young minister who afterwards 
became collector of the customs at Bristol) 
came to his relief, by advising him simply to 
take the oath of allegiance, as if he had been 
licensed. He chose a time when, in conse- 
quence of the rebellion of 1745, all ministers 
were ordered to take the oath afresh. As 
he was signing his name in the court of ex- 
chequer with the rest, Calamy ' looked very 
hard at ' his rather advanced pupil. 

Returning to Plymouth it occurred to Fox 
that he was not yet a communicant. Hard- 
ing admitted him without question, but at 
once guessed that he had not been licensed. 
He preached his first sermon at Chumleigh, 
Devonshire, whereupon there was ' a whisper- 
ing and grumbling among the ministers,' who 
suspected him of being an intruder. He 
preached elsewhere, but soon found that 
without a license the Exeter assembly would 
not recognise him. Accordingly he applied 
for leave to choose his own examiners. After 
some manoeuvring between parties in the 
assembly, he got what he wanted, dealt 
cleverly with the test questions, and was 
licensed on 17 Oct. 1717. In the assembly 
of May 1719 he threw in his lot with Peirce, 
the leader of the heterodox party, and the 
result was that he got no preaching engage- 
ments except to ' the poor remains of a few 
broken congregations.' It does not appear 
that he was ever ordained. 

On 12 May 1723 his father died, and Fox 
at once abandoned the ministry. He was now 
master of ' a humble competence,' which en- 
abled him to marry (23 Dec. 1723) Miss Gil- 
ling (b. 11 Dec. 1695) ; and henceforth he 
lived in obscure comfort, ' between the sun- 
shine of life and the clouds and darkness of 
it.' His health was good, and he took plea- 
sure in his books and the society of a few 
friends. In 1736 he writes to Seeker that for 
some years past he had conformed ' out of 
regard to public peace and . . . respect to the 
public.' The ailments of his wife, to whom he 




was strongly attached, were his only trouble. 
On her death, 19 Dec. 1762, he lost heart. 
He died on 25 Oct. (according to Hazlitt 
22 Oct.) 1763, aged 70. A daughter, Mary 
(6. 26 Dec. 1725), married John Cleather, 
3 Sept, 1747. 

It was some time after 1744 that Fox 
penned his own very entertaining ' Memoirs ' 
and the ' Characters ' of some of his contem- 
poraries. They throw much light on dis- 
senting history. Fox writes with great free- 
dom and pungency, and his estimates of men 
are valuable, though sometimes hasty, and 
always coloured by his dislikes, and by his 
contempt for thesurroundingsof his early life. 
In 1 814 some use was made of the ' Characters ' 
by Toulmin, to whom the manuscript had been 
lent by Fox's grandson, George Cleather of 
Stonehouse, near Plymouth ; Toulmin had 
evidently not seen the ' Memoirs.' In 1821 
the 'Memoirs' and nine 'Characters' were 
published in the ' Monthly Repository,' with 
nine letters from Seeker to Fox, one from 
Fox to Seeker, and two from Chandler to Fox. 
Notes were added by John Towill Rutt. The 
editor, Robert Aspland [q. v.], speaks of the 
onanuscripts as having come into his posses- 
sion through a descendant of Fox. Aspland 
thought of reprinting the papers, and promised 
to deposit the originals in Dr. Williams's 
Library ; unfortunately neither intention was 
carried out. In 1822 an additional letter from 
Fox to Seeker was supplied by Clifford, of the 
Theatre Royal, Norwich, who reported that 
lie possessed other memoirs by Fox. North- 
fcote's transcript of Fox's papers (containing 
some addition to the ' Memoirs ') is now in 
the public library at Plymouth. 

[Monthly Repository, 1821, p. 128 sq., 1822, 
p. 2 1 9 sq. ; Toulmin's Hist. View, 1 8 1 4, p. 568 sq.; 
Worth's Hist. Nonconf. in Plymouth, 1876, p. 
16; Northcote's Conversations (Hazlitt), 1881, 
p. 287 sq. ; MS. Minutes of Exeter Assembly, 
1691-1717, in Dr. Williams's Library; North- 
cote's MS. Worthies of Devon in Plymouth Libr.] 

A. G. 

FOX, LUKE (1586-1635), navigator, son 
Of Richard Fox, seaman and assistant of the 
Trinity House at Kingston-upon-Hull, was 
born at Hull 20 Oct. 1586. ' Having been 
sea-bred from his boystime,' he acquired his 
knowledge of seamanship in voyages south- 
Ward to France, Spain, and the Mediterra- 
nean, and northward to the Baltic, Denmark, 
and Norway, varied by ' imployments along 
the coasts 'of England and crossing the North 
Sea. In 1 606 he offered his services as mate 
to John Knight in that able seaman's last 
and fatal voyage to Greenland, but was re- 
jected by the promoters on account of his 
youth. Henceforth the whole of his thoughts 

were devoted to Arctic exploration, but more 
particularly to the north-west passage. He 
writes : ' At the returnes home of all ships 
from thence I enquired of the masters, mates, 
and others that were that way imployed, 
whereby I gathered from reports and dis- 
course and manuscripts how farre they had 
proceeded.' If we except Captain Hawk- 
ridge's abortive voyage of 1619, Fox was the 
true successor of Bylot and Baffin (1615) in 
Arctic exploration. Earlier voyages had been 
made by Sir Thomas Button [q. v.] in 1612, 
by Henry Hudson [q. v.] in Uiffl by Captain 
Weymouth in 1601, and by John Davis [q. v.] 
in 1585-7. 

Fox's earliest patron was the famous ma- 
thematician, Henry Briggs [q. v.], also a 
Yorkshireman, and professor of geometry at 
Oxford. He, with the assistance of his friend, 
Sir J. Brooke, was the first to direct the 
royal attention to Fox's voyage. The pro- 
ject first took shape in 1629, in a 'Petition 
of Luke Fox to the king for a small supply 
of money towards the discovery of a passage 
by the north-west to the South Sea, Hudson 
and Sir Thomas Button having discovered a 
great way, and given great hopes of opening 
the rest ' (State Papers, p. 105). In reply to 
this a pinnace of the royal navy of seventy 
tons was placed at the disposal of the adven- 
turers, but the setting forth was deferred 
until the following year. In the interval 
Briggs died; half the adventurers having 
fallen away, the voyage would have been 
abandoned but for the news that the Bristol 
merchants had projected a similar voyage 
from their port. Their rival scheme was 
the well-known voyage of Captain Thomas 
James [q.v.], which left Bristol 3 May 1631. 
This news caused a spirit of emulation among 
the London merchants, which, with the as- 
sistance of Sir T. Roe and Sir J. Wolsten- 
holme, resulted in the setting forth of Fox 
in the Charles pinnace with a crew of twenty 
men and two boys victualled for eighteen, 
months. Fox sailed from the Pool below 
London Bridge 30 April 1631 {MS. Journal, 
f. 23). He anchored off Whitby, where he 
landed, and reached Kirkwall in the Orkneys 
19 May. Sailing thence due west on the 
sixty parallel he made land 20 June on the 
north side of Frobisher Bay ; two days later 
he sighted Cape Chidley, off the south shore 
of Hudson's Strait, six leagues distant. Pass- 
ing Resolution Island two leagues south on 
23 June, his crew saw in the harbour on the 
west side the smoke of the camp-fire of Captain 
James, who had put in there for repairs. From 
this date until 11 July Fox worked his way 
along the north shore of Hudson's Strait until 
he reached a position between Mill and ^alis- 




bury Islands. Thence he proceeded to the 
south of Coates Island until 19 July, when 
he commenced his search for the undiscovered 
passage by the north-west. On 27 July he 
reached the furthest point of Button, on ' Sir 
T. Roe's Welcome ' Island, where he found 
traces of native sepulture, which he carefully 
examined. Being prohibited by his instruc- 
tions from proceeding to a higher latitude 
than 63 N. in this direction, he turned 
southward along the west shore of Hudson's 
Bay until 27 Aug., when he entered the 
mouth of the Nelson River, where he found 
the remaining half of an inscribed board 
erected by Button, which he replaced by a 
new one of his own. Hence he sailed E.S.E. 
sixty-one leagues until 30 Aug., when he 
met his rival, Captain James, in the Maria 
of Bristol, with whom, after some trouble in 
getting on board, he dined and spent seven- 
teen hours. Fox bluntly tells us that he 
found his host ' no seaman.' After adieux, 
Fox proceeded on his course down to 55 14', 
or Wolstenholme's ultima vale, now known 
as Cape Henrietta Maria, at the head of 
James Bay. On 3 Sept. he turned the head 
of his ship northward until he reached Cape 
Pembroke on Coates Island five days later. 
From 15 to 20 Sept. Fox was employed in 
making the remarkable series of observations 
on the channel that bears his name on the 
west shore of what is now known as Baffin 
Land. On 22 Sept., after reaching ' Fox his 
farthest,' Fox turned the head of his ship home- 
ward, continuing his observations among the 
numerous islands and sounds off the north 
shore of Hudson's Strait, which have never 
been marked in our admiralty charts. On 
28 Sept. Fox found himself, with nearly half 
his crew worn out with cold and fatigue, 
once more off Resolution Island, at the en- 
trance to the strait. On 5 Oct. he made 
Cape Chidley ; two days later he writes that 
they were ' revived by warmth in open sea, 
most of us ready to fall down with the rest 
who were down already.' On account of the 
absence of the moon he directed his course 
homeward south-east to the English Channel 
instead of the shorter, but more dangerous 
one by way of the North Sea. On 31 Oct. 
he concludes : ' Came into the Downs with 
all my men recovered and sound, not having 
lost one man or boy, nor any manner of 
tackling, having been forth neere six months.' 
Fox is best known by the following work, 
which contains the results of his voyage: 
' North-west Fox, or Fox from the North- 
west Passage . . . with briefe Abstracts of the 
Voyages of Cabot, Frobisher, Davis, Wey- 
mouth, Knight, Hudson, Button, Gibbons, 
Bylot, Baffin, Hawkridge . . . Mr. James 

Hall's three Voyages to Groynland . . . with 
the Author his owne Voyage, being the xvi ll 
. . . T. Fawcett and B. Alsop, imp. London,' 
1635, 4to. This curious book was entered 
for the Stationers' Company 15 Dec. 1634 
(ARBEK, iv. 331). It was accompanied by 
a large folded map of the Arctic regions, now 
rarely found in the book, but which is one 
of the most interesting and important docu- 
ments in the history of Arctic exploration. 
References to two otherjournals of the voyage- 
will be found below. It would appear that 
Fox was allowed to pass the closing years of 
his life in neglect. Towards the end of hi* 
book he says that he had ' wash't the Black- 
more these five yeares, having yet received 
neither sallery, wages, or reward, except what 
some few gentlemen hath, I know not whether 
in curtesse or charity, bestowed upon me, 
having before had my meanes taken from me 
in the time of warres, betwixt France, Spain, 
and us ' (p. 268). Fox, who was a younger 
brother of the Trinity House, died at Whitby 
in July 1635. 

[Arber's Reg. Stat, Company, iv. 331-2 ; Charl- 
ton's Hist, of Whitby. 1779, p. 315 ; Corlass's 
Hull Authors, 1879 (Captain Luke Fox (N. W. 
Fox), London, 1635, &c.) ; Eundell's Voyage* 
toward the North- West, 1849 (Hakluyt Soc.) ; 
Sheahan's Hist, of Hull, 1864 ; Sainsbury's State- 
Papers, Col. Ser., America and West Indies, 
1574-1660, 8vo, p. 105; Brit. Hus. Addit. MS, 
19302 (two Journals, one by Captain Luke Fox, 
the other by the masterof the Charles, eighteenth- 
century copies, more or less perfect).] C. H. C. 

FOX, RICHARD (1448 P-1528), bishop 
of Winchester. [See FOXE.] 

FOX, ROBERT (1798P-1843), antiquary, 
was admitted a member of the Royal College 
of Surgeons, 5 March 1819, and practised irr 
Huntingdon and the neighbourhood. He 
was the founder of the Literary and Scien- 
tific Institution of Huntingdon in 1841, and 
was himself an able lecturer on subjects con- 
nected with antiquities, geology, natural his- 
tory, and philosophy. His only publication, 
' The History of Godmanchester, in the county 
of Huntingdon,' 8vo, London, 1831, one of 
the best of its class, gained him admission to 
the Society of Antiquaries. He was also a 
member of the Numismatic Society. In 1826' 
and 1831 he served as a bailiff of Godman- 
chester, and died there on 8 June 1843, aged 
forty-five, greatly esteemed for his benevo- 
lence. He left a small but choice collection 
of coins and antiquities, mostly local 'finds.'' 
This, together with his philosophical appa- 
ratus, was purchased by subscription after 
his death, and placed in the Huntingdon 
Literary and Scientific Institution as a testi- 
monial to his memorv. 




[Gent. Mag. new ser. xx. 99 ; Lists of Members 
of Koyal Coll. of Surgeons ; Lists of Soc. of An- 
tiq. ; Kelly's Directory of Bedfordshire, Hunt- 
ingdonshire, &c. (1885), pp. 207-8.] G. GK 

FOX, ROBERT WERE (1789-1877), 
scientific writer, born at Falmouth in Corn- 
wall on 26 April 1789, belonged to a quaker 
family. His father, a shipping agent, was 
Also named Robert Were Fox ; his mother 
was Elizabeth, daughter of Joseph Tregelles 
of Falmouth. He was privately educated, 
.and showed a special taste for mathematics. 
His mother taught him to study natural phe- 
nomena. He married in 1814 Maria, fourth 
daughter of Robert Barclay of Bury Hill, 
Surrey, and during his wedding trip, taken 
that year on the continent, he formed lasting 
friendships with Humboldt and other foreign 
.savants. In 1848 Fox was elected a fellow 
of the Royal Society. He was one of the 
founders of the Royal Cornwall Polytechnic 
Society in 1833, and was several times vice- 
president. Fox died at his house, Penjer- 
rick, near Falmouth, on 25 July 1877, in the 
eighty-eighth year of his age. He was buried 
in the Friends' burial-ground at Budock. His 
wife, who was born in 1780, died 4 June 1858. 

Fox's original scientific researches were 
commenced in 1812, when he made, in con- 
junction with Joel Lean, a series of costly 
experiments on the elasticity of high-pressure 
steam, hoping to improve Watt's engines 
employed in pumping the Cornish mines. 
Fox aided Trevithick in several of his me- 
chanical inventions. In 1815 Fox commenced 
an important series of researches upon the 
internal temperature of the earth, which he 
continued to prosecute more or less through- 
out his life. His lifelong connection with 
the Cornish mines gave him great facilities 
for this work ; and, commencing in the 
' Crenver ' mine, the temperature was tested 
regularly at intervals of a few feet, by means 
of thermometers embedded in the rocks, down 
to the greatest depths attainable in the Dol- 
coath and other deep mines in Cornwall. Fox 
was the first to prove definitively that the heat 
increased with the depth ; he also showed 
that this increase was in a diminishing ratio 
as the depth increased. The results are con- 
tained in a series of papers, of which we may 
mention those ' On the Temperature of Mines,' 
in Thomson's 'Annals of Philosophy ' for 1822 ; 
4 Some Facts which appear to be at Variance 
with the Igneous Hypothesis of Geologists,' 
* Philosophical Magazine ' for 1832 ; ' Report 
on some Observations on Subterranean Tem- 
perature,' ' British Association Report,' 1840 ; 
and ' Some Remarks on the High Tempera- 
ture in the United Mines,' ' Edinburgh New 
Philosophical Journal ' for 1847. Fox con- 

tributed fifty-two papers to various scientific 
periodicals. The first of these is on the 
' Alloys of Platinum,' and was published in 
Thomson's ' Annals of Philosophy ' for 1819. 
A very important discovery made by Fox 
was the ' Electro-Magnetic Properties of Me- 
talliferous Veins in the Mines of Cornwall ' 
(' Philosophical Transactions ' for 1830). Con- 
tinuing this work Fox published in the ' Edin- 
burgh New Philosophical Journal ' for 1838 
a paper on the ' Lamination of Clay by Elec- 
tricity,' showing that miniature mineral veins 
could be formed in clay by the long-con- 
tinued passage of an electric current. 

Fox devoted much time to the study of 
magnetic phenomena, especially those be- 
longing to the earth's magnetism. In 1831 
and 1832 he read papers before the Royal 
Society on the ' Variable Magnetic Intensity 
of the Earth,' and on the ' Influence of the 
Aurora on the Compass Needle.' To aid in 
the study of these subjects Fox constructed 
a new dipping-needle of great delicacy and 
accuracy. This instrument was afterwards 
employed by Sir James Clarke Ross in his 
voyage to the Antarctic Ocean in 1837, and 
by Captain Nares in the last expedition to 
the North Pole in 1875-7. 

[Athenaeum, 4 Aug. 1877; Royal Society's 
Catalogue of Scientific Papers, 1868 ; Koyal 
Cornwall Polytechnic Society's Eeport for 1877 ; 
J. H. Collins's Catalogue of the Works of K. W. 
Fox, F.K.S., 1878 ; Boase and Courtney's Biblio- 
theca Cornubiensis, i. 162-5, iii. 1188-9, -where 
a full list of Fox's scientific papers is given.] 

W. J. H. 

FOX, SAMUEL (1560-1630), diarist. 
[See FOXE.] 

FOX, SIMEON, M.D. (1568-1642). [See 

FOX, SIR STEPHEN (1627-1716), 
statesman, born on 27 March 1627, was the 
youngest son of William Fox of Farley, 
Wiltshire, by his wife Elizabeth, daughter 
of Thomas Pavey of Plaitford, in the same 
county. As a boy he is said to have been 
in the choir of Salisbury Cathedral. He also 
received a thorough and early drilling in the 
art of bookkeeping. At the age of fifteen 
his ' beauty of person and towardliness of 
disposition,' aided, it is probable, by a letter 
from an early patron, Brian Duppa [q. v.j, re- 
commended him to the notice of the Earl 
of Northumberland, high admiral of Eng- 
land. Some five years later he passed into 
the household of the earl's brother, Lord 
Percy, under whom he had the supervision 
of the ordnance board during the campaign 
which ended with the battle of Worcester, 
3 Sept. 1651. He then took an active part 




in assisting the escape of Charles to Nor- ! 
mandy. When the prince \vas obliged to 
leave France in 1654, Clarendon persuaded 
him to entrust the management of his house- 
hold affairs unreservedly to Fox, ' a young 
man bred under the severe discipline of the 
Lord Peircy, . . . very well qualified with 
languages, and all other parts of clerkship, 
honesty, and discretion, that were necessary j 
for the discharge of such a trust' (Hist, of , 
the Rebellion, Oxf. edit. bk. xiv. par. 89). 
Under Fox's discreet stewardship the prince, j 
wherever he might choose to fix his court, j 
was never without the means of living in 
comfort. ' Mr. Fox,' writes Ormonde to 
Charles from Breda, 9 Aug. 1658, ' knows to 
a stiver what money you can depend upon ' 
(Cal. State Papers, Dom. 1658-9, p. 104). 
At Spa he won the favour of the king s sister, 
the widowed Princess of Orange, and was 
employed subsequently in several important 
missions to her, as well as to other great 

Sersons in Holland. He was able to procure 
equent and regular supplies of money for the 
royal household. Charles intended reward- 
ing him by a grant of the place of cofferer of 
the household, but finding William Ashburn- 
ham held already the reversion, he granted 
Fox, by a special instrument dated at Brus- 
sels 23 Nov. 1658, an honourable augmenta- 
tion to his arms out of the royal ensigns and 
devices, to wit, ' in a canton Azure, n Fleur 
de Lis, Or ' (Addit. MS. 15856, f. 89 6). Fox 
was the first to bring his master the news of 
Cromwell's death, and to salute him as the 
real king of Great Britain. The king after- 
wards employed Fox on various secret mis- 
sions to England, as one the royalists could 
thoroughly rely on. With Sir Edward 
Walker, Garter king at arms, he was sent to 
the Hague in May 1660 to adjust the cere- 
monies for the king's public reception there. 
After the Restoration Fox's fortunes rose 
rapidly. Ormonde, then lord high steward, 
nominated him first clerk of the board of 
green cloth. In October 1660 he received a 
grant of the remainder of the lease of part 
of the manor of East Meon. Hampshire, to 
the value of 400/. a year, which had been 
forfeited by the treason of Francis Allen, 
goldsmith and alderman of London (ib. 1660- 
1661, p. 337, 1661-2, p. 1 31). In March 1661 
he became receiver and paymaster of two 
regiments of guards appointed for the king's 
safety upon the outbreak of Venner's plot in 
the preceding January (ib. 1660-1, p. 556). 
During the same year he was constituted 
paymaster-general, an enormously lucrative 
office. He deigned, however, to accept the 
receivership of the garrison at Portsmouth, 
20 Feb. 1662, with the nominal fee of 100/. 

a year {ib. 1661-2, p. 279). The people of 
Salisbury, ' for the love they bore to a gentle- 
man who did them the honour of owing his 
birth to their neighbourhood,' chose him as 
their member, 30 Nov. 1661, in succession to 
Francis S wanton, deceased. He was knighted 
1 July 1665. Despite his position at court 
he contrived to maintain his independence. 
He strenuously asserted the integrity of 
Clarendon, and voted against his impeach- 
ment, 12 Nov. 1667, ' although he was in a 
manner commanded by the king to act in a 
contrary part.' On 27 Feb. 1678-9 he was 
elected for Westminster. In November 1679 
he became one of the lords commissioners of 
the treasury, and his name appeared in every 
subsequent commission except that of July 
1684, when Laurence, earl of Rochester, was 
lord treasurer. He was, however, reinstated 
in the following September. In December 
1680, having been gazetted first commissioner 
of horse, he resigned his office of paymaster- 
general, but contrived that his eldest son, 
Charles Fox, should share it along with Ni- 
cholas Johnson. On Johnson's death in A pril 
1682 Fox made interest to have it solely 
conferred on his son, who three years after- 
wards was independent enough to vote with 
the opposition against granting money to 
James II until grievances had been redressed. 
On 18 Feb. 1684 Fox was made sole commis- 
sioner of horse. 

Fox's places brought him enormous profits. 
In 1680 his friend Evelyn computed him to 
be worth at least 200,000/., ' honestly got and 
unenvied, which is next to a miracle.' Evelyn 
himself tells how Fox contrived to escape 
the jealousy of his colleagues. At the height 
of his prosperity he continued 'as humble 
and ready to do a courtesy as ever he was ' 
(Diary, ed. 1850-2, ii. 147-8). He made 
an intelligible use of his riches. He showed 
his regard to his birthplace, Farley, by build- 
ing a church, and in 1678 a set of almshouses 
and a charity school, there. ' In the North 
Part of Wilts he built a Chancel intirely 
new.' He built almshouses at Broome, Suf- 
folk, and at Ashby, Northamptonshire. He 
also erected the church of Culford in Suffolk. 
At Redlinch in Somersetshire he founded a 
charity school, in addition to repairing the 
church. Canon Richard Eyre, who preached 
his funeral sermon, tells us that ' he pew'd 
the body of the cathedral church of Sarum 
in a very neat manner, suitable to the neat- 
ness of that church, to which he was many 
other ways a great benefactor ' (p. 18 w.) After 
twenty years at the pay office he thought of 
a magnificent device for restoring to the army 
some part of the fortune which he had got 
by it. He inspired Charles in 1681 with that 




idea of founding an asylum at Chelsea for 
disabled soldiers, the credit of which is gene- 
rally ascribed to Nell Gwyn. In furthering 
the enterprise through all its stages he de- 
rived assistance from Evelyn {Diary, ii. 159, 
163). His contribution to the building and 
maintenance fund was above 13,000/. (EYRE, 
Funeral Sermon, p. 8 n.) 

On James coming to the throne a peerage 
was offered to Fox on the condition of his 
turning Roman catholic. He adhered, how- 
ever, manfully to his religion. The priests 
then intrigued to have him removed from the 
commission of the treasury, but the king had 
sense enough to insist on keeping Fox and 
Godolphin as members of an otherwise inex- 
perienced board. He was also suffered to re- 
tain his clerkship of the green cloth. On 
26 March 1685 he was returned once more 
for Salisbury. Greatly to James's anger he 
opposed the bill for a standing army, though 
he otherwise endeavoured to serve him faith- 
fully. When the Prince of Orange landed, 
Compton, bishop of London, attempted to 
tamper with the fidelity of Fox. Fox re- 
fused to take an active part against his old 
master. His anonymous biographer, however, 
can only say that ' he never appeared at his 
highness's court to make his compliments 
there till the king had left the country.' 
William, who had dined with him when on a 
visit to England, 23 July 1681, soon won 
him over to his side. In February 1689- 
1690 Luttrell heard that Fox ' hath lately 
kist his majesties hand, and is received into 
favour ' (Historical Relation of State Affairs, 
1857, ii. 16). The next month he took his 
seat once more at his accustomed boards. 
Thenceforward whatever changes might oc- 
cur at the treasury Fox's name was always 
on the new commission. On 9 Nov. 1691 
he succeeded, on the death of Sir William 
Pulteney, in being returned a second time 
for Westminster, and he was re-elected by 
the same constituency on 29 Oct. 1695. In 
May 1692, James, having arrived at La Hogue, 
excepted Fox by name in his declaration pro- 
mising pardon to all who returned to their 
allegiance. In 1696-7 Fox was a rival with 
Montague for the place of first commissioner, 
but at length withdrew from the competition, 
though not with a very good grace. He 
wished it to be notified in the ' London 
Gazette ' that the place had been offered to 
him and declined by him. This would have 
been an affront to Montague. But from 
tenderness to Fox the promotion of his rival 
was not announced in the ' London Gazette ' 
(MACAULAY, Hist, of Engl. ch. xxi.) Ac- 
cording to Luttrell (iv. 191) Fox in March 
1696-7 succeeded Henry Frederick Thynne in 

the office of treasurer and receiver-general 
to the queen dowager, ' Sir Christopher Mus- 
grave haveing refused it ; ' it is certain that 
Charles Fox was acting as such by 1700 
(CHAMBERLAYNE, Angtice Notitia, ed. 1700, 
pt. iii. p. 515). On 26 Jan. 1698-9 Fox was 
chosen member for Cricklade, Wiltshire, in 
place of Charles Fox, who elected to serve 
for Salisbury, and was returned again 7 Jan. 
1700-1. Upon Anne's accession he wished 
to retire into private life, but by the queen's 
express desire he led the commons in pro- 
cession at her coronation, 23 April 1702, and 
also acted for a time as first commissioner 
of horse. He consented to be chosen for 
Salisbury, 15 March 1713-14, in succes- 
sion to his son, who had died in the preced- 
ing September. In 1685 he had purchased 
a copyhold estate at Chiswick, Middlesex, on 
which he built a villa, which excited the ad- 
miration of William III, but not that of 
Evelyn (LYSONS, Environs, ii. 209 ; EVELYN, 
ii. 169, 175). There he died, 28 Oct. 1716, and 
was buried at Farley (the date, ' 23 Sept.,' is 
wrongly given on his monument). Ninety 
years later his grandson, Charles James Fox 
[q.v.], died in the same place. About 1654 
he married Elizabeth, daughter of William 
Whittle of Lancashire, and sister of Sackvill 
Whittle, chief surgeon to Charles II, by whom 
he had seven sons and three daughters. 
Charles, the eldest son, who was named after 
his godfather, Charles II, died childless in 
September 1713, and was buried at Farley 
(RICHARD EYRE, Funeral Sermon on C. Fox, 
Esq.) Five other sons, who died young, were 
buried in Westminster Abbey (CHESTER, 
Westminster Abbey Registers). Of the two 
surviving daughters, Elizabeth, the elder, 
married, 27 Dec. 1673, Charles, third lord 
Cornwallis, a disreputable gambler. Evelyn 
(ii. 156-7) gives an amusing sketch of the 
' grave and dexterous courtesy ' with which 
Fox foiled Lady Sunderland's attempt to se- 
cure his younger daughter Jane for her son, 
Lord Spencer. Jane Fox was married in 1686 
to George, fourth earl of Northampton. Lady 
Fox died 11 Aug. 1696, ' much lamented by 
the poor for her charity ' (LFTTRELL, iv. 96), 
and was buried at Farley. In his seventy- 
seventh year, Fox, ' unwilling that so plenti- 
ful an estate should go out of the name, and 
being of a vegete and hale constitution,' mar- 
ried as his second wife, 11 July 1703, Christian, 
daughter and coheiress of Francis Hopes, rec- 
tor, first of Haceby and afterwards of Aswar- 
by, both in Lincolnshire (CHESTER, p. 262, n. 
3). By this lady, who was then in her twenty- 
sixth year, Fox became the father of four 
more children: Stephen (ft. 1704), afterwards 
Earl of Ilchester; Henry (b. 1705), first Lord 




Holland [q. v.] ; a daughter, Christian, twin 
with Henry (d. 1708) ; and another daughter, 
Charlotte, married in July 1729 to Edward, 
third son of William, fifth lord Digby. The 
second Lady Fox dying atBath, 17 Feb. 1718- 
1719, was buried at Farley. In the picture at 
Holland House Sir Godfrey Kneller endows 
her ' with small and pretty features, and hair 
and complexion as dark as her grandson's.' 

Fox's reputation for courtesy, kindliness 
of disposition, and generosity has been amply 
confirmed by Evelyn. Pepys, too, has much 
to say in commendation of the paymaster, 
who confided to him the secrets whereby he 
was enabled to make such large profits (Diary, 
ed. Bright, iv. 206). He does not forget to 
celebrate the ' very genteel ' dinners of his 
host, while Lady Fox and her seven children 
noted for their comeliness received unstinted 
praise, ' a family governed so nobly and neatly 
as do me good to see it ' (ib. v. 335). Fox's por- 
trait by Lely has been engraved by Scriven ; 
of that by J. Baker there are engravings by 
Simon, Earlom,and Harding (EvA^s, Cat. of 
Engraved Portraits, ii. 158). A large mass 
of his official papers and correspondence is 
preserved in the Additional Manuscripts in 
the British Museum. 

[Memoirs of the Life of Sir Stephen Fox. kt. 
8vo, London, 1717 (reprinted fol. London, 1807, 
and 8vo, London, 1811); Richard Eyre's Sermon 
preach'd at the Funeral of Sir Stephen Fox, kt. 
8vo, London, 1716; Richard Eyre's Sermon 
preach'd at the Funeral of Charles Fox, esq., 
4to, Oxford, 1713 ; Historical Register, 1716, i. 
546-7 ; Trevelyan's Early Hist, ot C. J. 
i. ; Collins's Peerage (Brydges), iii. 260, iv. 529, 
v. 382 ; Le Neve's Pedigrees of the Knights 
(Harl. Soc.), p. 107; Cal. State Papers (Dom. 
Ser.) ; Evelyn's Diary (1850-2) ; Pepys's Diary 
(Bright); Luttrell's Relation of State Affairs 
(1857) ; Noble's Continuation of Granger's Biog. 
Hist. i. 150-1 ; Chester's London Marriage 
Licences (Foster), col. 508 ; Chester's West- 
minster Abbey Registers ; Lysons's Environs, ii. 
155, 208-10; Hoare's Wiltshire, Hundred of 
Alderbury, sub ' Farley ;' Notes and Queries, 1st 
ser. ix. 271, xi. 325, 395, 2nd ser. i. 301, 410, 
ix.419, 5th ser. iii. 416, iv. 114; Memorials and 
Correspondence of C. J. Fox (Russell), vol. i. bk. 
i. ; Earl Russell's Life and Times of C. J. Fox, 
vol.i. ch. i. ; Will of Sir Stephen Fox ( P. C. C. 133, 
Fox); Will of Sackvill Whittle (P. C. C. 52, 
North); Cal. Clarendon State Papers; Cal. State 
Papers, Treas , 1692-1719.] G. G. 

FOX, TIMOTHY (1628-1710), noncon- 
formist divine, was born in 1628, and educated 
at Birmingham, whence he proceeded to 
Christ's College, Cambridge. He was admitted 
by the commissioners of the great seal to the 
rectory of Drayton, Staffordshire, but on being 
ejected by the Bartholomew act of 1662 he 

settled for a while in a neighbouring town, 
where he made a shrift to live by his pen and 
the help of relations, till the Oxford act forced 
him to remove, and rent a farm in Derby- 
shire. Afterwards, in May 1684, he was 
committed to Derby gaol upon that act, not 
for any exercise of religion, but merely for 
coming to see his son, then an apprentice in 
that town, and remained a prisoner until the 
following November. He again suffered im- 
prisonment when Monmouth was in the west, 
on this occasion in Chester gaol. No cause 
whatever was assigned for his detention. 
After enduring a month's confinement he 
was released on finding ample security for 
his good behaviour. From the time of his 
ejectment he preached in private as he had 
opportunity, and after public liberty was 
granted, he opened a meeting in his own 
house at Caldwell, Derbyshire, where he 
preached twice a day and catechised. He 
died in May 1710. 

[Calamy's Nonconf. Memorial, ed. Palmer, 
1802, iii. 232-3.] G. G. 

FOX, WILLIAM (1736-1826), founder 
of the Sunday School Society, son of J. Fox, 
renter of the Clapton Manor estate, Glouces- 
tershire, was born at Clapton 14 Feb. 1736. 
The youngest of a large family he was left 
fatherless in early childhood. He had ex- 
traordinary resolution, and at the age of ten 
formed business plans which were afterwards 
completely realised. He ultimately became 
lord of the manor of Clapton. Fox was ap- 
prenticed to a draper and mercer at Oxford 
in 1752, and before the expiration of his in- 
dentures his master gave up to him his house 
and shop and stock of goods, valued at 
about 4,000/. Fox married in 1761 the eldest 
daughter of Jonathan Tabor, a Colchester 
merchant. Three years later he removed to 
London, and entered upon a large business 
in Leadenhall Street. Impressed with the 
degradation of the poorer classes of the popu- 
lation, he endeavoured unsuccessfully, by the 
aid of members of both houses of parliament, 
to move the government in their behalf. 
About 1784, when he became the proprietor 
of Clapton, he began his humanitarian work 
unaided, not only clothing all the poor of 
the parish men, women, and children 
but founding a free day school. Waiting to 
Robert Raikes in 1785 he stated that long be- 
fore the establishment of Sunday schools he 
had designed a system of universal education, 
but had met with little support from the 
clergy and laity, who were alarmed by the 
magnitude of the undertaking. A meeting 
was held at Fox's instance in the Poultry, 
London, on 16 Aug. 1785, when it was 




resolved to issue a circular recommending the 
formation of a society for the establishment 
and support of Sunday schools throughout the 
kingdom of Great Britain. Fox was cordially 
supported by Raikes, Jonas Hanway, and 
other friends of education, and the result was 
tie foundation of the Sunday School Society, 
with a body of officers and governors, and a 
committee of twenty-four persons, chosen 
equally from the church of England and 
the various bodies of protestant dissenters. 
The Earl of Salisbury was elected president. 
Before eight months had elapsed from the 
first meeting in the Poultry, thirty schools 
had been established, containing 1,110 scho- 
lars, and by the following January (1787) 
these had been increased to 147 schools with 
7,242 children. In 1797 the Baptist Home 
Missionary Society was formed, with Fox as 
treasurer. Five years later Fox left London 
and went to reside at Lechlade House, Glou- 
cestershire. He remained here till 1823, 
when he moved to Cirencester, where he lost 
his wife, a lineal descendant of Sir Harbottle 
Grimstone [q. v.] Fox died at Cirencester 
en 1 April 1826, and was buried at Lechlade 
beside his wife and daughter. Among the 
friends and supporters of Fox were Granville 
Sharp and William Wilberforce. 

[Ivimey's Memoir of Fox, 1831.] G. B. S. 

1864), preacher, politician, and man of let- 
ters, was born at Uggeshall Farm, Wrent- 
ham, in the north of Suffolk, 1 March 1786. 
From his father, a sturdy peasant-farmer, 
who had once got into trouble as a poacher, 
he inherited, he says in a fragmentary auto- 
biography, ' sluggish tenacity of brain ; ' from 
his mother, a woman of sweet and liberal 
nature, ' nervous irritability.' Both parents 
were strict Calvinistic independents. When 
Fox was only three years of age his father 
gave up farming, and barely supported him- 
self in several callings at Norwich. Fox was 
sent to a chapel school, became a weaver's 
boy, an errand-boy, and in 1799 clerk in a 
bank. Here he found leisure for self-im- 
provement, worked hard at mathematics, and, 
like Leigh Hunt, Peacock, and De Quincey, 
won prizes offered by the ' Monthly Precep- 
tor,' and planned a course of study which 
would have occupied him for seven years. 
He first studied Latin and Greek with a view 
to progress in mathematics, and improved 
his knowledge of them with a view to divi- 
nity. He appreciated, however, the melody 
of Greek versification, and the shrewd philo- 
sophy of Horace, ' though much of it used to 
elbow and jostle my morality.' He took to 
authorship, competed for essay prizes, and 

wrote occasionally for a local newspaper; 
until at length it was suggested that the 
pulpit was his proper destination. In Sep- 
tember 1806 he entered the Independent Col- 
lege at Homerton under Dr. Pye Smith. He 
found there a considerable tendency to free 
inquiry, 'which gradually subsided as the 
time came for the student to exchange his 
sure and safe retreat for the fiery ordeal of 
the deacon and the pew.' Early in 1810 he 
took charge of a congregation at Fareham. 
He studied the Unitarian controversy, reading 
books treating upon it for hours in bed. By 
March 1812 he had entirely broken with ortho- 
doxy, and had become minister of the Unitarian 
chapel at Chichester, after a brief and unsuc- 
cessful experience as pastor of a small seceding 
congregation at Fareham. At Chichester he 
studied hard, and formed an ill-advised en- 
gagement to his future wife, Eliza, daughter 
of James Florance, barrister. In 1817 he 
became minister of Parliament Court Chapel, 
London. He had now, by dint of assiduous 
practice, made himself a consummate rheto- 
rician. His celebrity was enhanced by several 
published sermons, one of which, ' On the 
Duties of Christians towards Deists,' occa- 
sioned by the trial of Carlile, excited warm 
controversy. In 1820 he married, and the 
next few years of his life were marked by a 
severe illness, a visit to Scotland, his first 
regular contributions to a newspaper, the 
' Norwich Mercury,' the removal of his con- 
gregation from Parliament Court to a chapel 
built especially for him in South Place, Fins- 
bury (1824), a controversy with Dr. Blom- 
field on the gospel of St. John, and increas- 
ing connection with literature and politics. 
He began to be celebrated for his taste as a 
dramatic critic ; he wrote on Nathaniel Lee, 
' Sethos,' and other subjects for the ' Retro- 
spective Review ; ' and, on the establishment 
of the ' Westminster Review,' he wrote the 
first article, entitled ' Men and Things in 
1824.' He had already become editor, with 
Robert Aspland (1782-1845) [q. v.], of the 
' Monthly Repository,' the leading organ of the 
Unitarian denomination, which he conducted 
as a theological periodical until 1831 , when he 
purchased the copyright from the Unitarian 
Association, and made it an organ of political 
and social reform, combined with literary 
criticism. Fox's quick recognition of youthful 
genius was especially shown in his welcome 
of Browning's ' Pauline,' which occasioned a 
lifelong friendship with the poet. Mill contri- 
buted philosophical papers under the signature 
' Antiquus ; ' and in Fox's periodical appeared 
Crabb Robinson's remarkable series of papers 
on ' Goethe ; ' Harriet Martineau's poems and 
Eliza Flower's musical contribu- 



tions ; Browning's poems ; and W. Bridges 
Adams's essays on social subjects, signed 
' Junius Redivivus,' whose freedom of tone 
gave offence in Unitarian circles. Hazlitt 
pronounced Fox superior to Irving as a 
preacher, and his celebrity was extended be- 
yond metropolitan limits by the publication 
of two collections of sermons, ' Christ and 
Christianity' and 'Christian Morality.' He 
was, however, drifting further and further 
away from theology ; and during the agita- 
tion for reform he took a prominent part as 
a popular leader, daily addressing open-air 
meetings in Lincoln's Inn Fields. ' He was,' 
says Francis Place, ' the bravest of us all.' 
In 1834 his domestic difficulties came to the 
knowledge of leading members of his con- 
gregation. He resented their consequent 
interference : the majority of his congrega- 
tion stood by him ; and the controversy was 
closed by the secession of the minority in 
September 1834. No tangible imputation 
rested upon his personal conduct, but the 
confidence of many of his most influential 
supporters had been undermined by the ad- 
vocacy in the ' Repository ' of the dissolu- 
bility of marriage, and his evident alienation 
from theology. A separation on account of 
incompatibility of temper was arranged be- 
tween him and Mrs. Fox. 

Fox was disowned by his brother Unitarian 
ministers, and resigned his office as a trustee 
of the Williams Library. His freedom from 
restraint, already irksome, gave him a more 
independent position in the pulpit. The ser- 
vice, under Eliza Flower's direction, became 
musical, Fox himself contributingsomehighly 
poetical hymns ; his addresses ranged widely 
over the fields of morals and politics, and at- 
tracted a very intellectual auditory, includ- 
ing many members of parliament. Twenty- 
six of these discourses, published between 
1835 and 1840 under the title of ' Finsbury 
Lectures,' represent the general topics and 
tone of his teaching. Discourses on such 
themes as ' Morality illustrated by the various 
Classes into which Society is divided ' alter- 
nate with secular subjects, as the coronation, 
the corn laws, and national education. The 
tone, however, is invariably lofty. They 
were usually delivered after a few'days' me- 
ditation, with slight assistance from a short- 
hand abstract, but published entirely from 
the reporter's notes. They gained greatly 
in delivery from the impressive intonation 
of the speaker. Rapturous descriptions of 
Fox's oratory will be found in John Saun- 
ders's sketch in the ' People's Journal ' and 
in Evans's ' Authors and Orators of Lanca- 
shire.' Their testimony is confirmed by James 
Grant (1802-1879) [q. v.], writing in 1840, 

who infers, however, from his statue-like 
absence of gesture, that he would fail with a 
popular audience. In 1843 Fox was thrilling- 
enthusiastic popular assemblages. To meet 
heavy expenses he wrote more than ever, 
especially upon politics. Bulwer, Talfourd, 
Macready, and Forster were now among his 
most intimate friends, and his relations with 
Mill led Carlyle to believe that he was to be 
offered the editorship of the ' London and 
Westminster Review.' He transferred the 
proprietorship and editorship of the unprofit- 
able ' Repository' to R. H. Home in 1836, 
and for a time chiefly devoted himself to 
journalism. Daniel Whittle Harvey [q. v.] 
enlisted him in the ' Sunday Times,' and when 
Harvey became proprietor of the ' True Sun ' 
(1835) Fox's contributions raised the circu- 
lation from two thousand to fifteen thousand 
copies. He laboured at the office regularly 
for five days a week until the end of 1837, 
when Harvey's sudden relinquishment of his 
journal terminated the engagement. Fox 
joined the ' Morning Chronicle,' where his 
politics were much more under restraint. 
He devoted especial attention to the perform- 
ances of Macready, of whom he was an in- 
tense admirer. 

When, in 1840, an address from the Anti- 
Cornlaw League to the nation was required, 
Cobden drew up a paper of memoranda, and 
entrusted the composition to Fox as the 
person most competent 1 o administer ' a 
blister to the aristocracy and the House of 
Commons.' The address was followed by a 
long series of most effective letters to leading 
public characters published in the ' League ' 
newspaper, under the signature of 'A Norwich 
Weaver Boy.' Fox became a leading orator 
of the league, speaking especially at Drury 
Lane and Covent Garden. ' The speech read 
well,' says Prentice, ' but the reader could 
have no conception of the effect as delivered 
with a beauty of elocution which Macready 
on the same boards might have envied.' His 
connection with the ' Morning Chronicle ' 
ceased about this time, and was followed by 
an engagement with the 'Daily News/ to- 
which, as to the ' Chronicle,' he contributed 
four leaders weekly. When Forster retired 
in September 1846, Fox followed his example. 
He further undertook a course of Sunday 
evening lectures to the working classes at 
the National Hall in Holborn, commenced 
in 1844, and continued until 1 846 ; which, 
after being published first in ' The Appren- 
tice,' and afterwards in the ' People's Jour- 
nal,' were collected into four volumes in 1849. 
They showed the author to be oneof the wisest 
as well as the warmest friends of the working 
classes. This character, even more than the; 


eloquence of his Anti-Cornlaw League ora- 
tions, gained Fox an invitation to stand for 
the working-class constituency of Oldham, 
for which he was returned after a keen con- 
test in July 1847. His congregation had 
already found it necessary to provide an assis- 
tant minister. He was relieved from em- 
barrassment by the munificence of Samuel 
Courtauld of Braintree, who settled upon 
him an annuity of 400J. His last address 
to his congregation was given in February 
1852. He had previously summed up his 
conclusions in his lectures of the ' Religious 
Ideas ' (published in 1849), in which these 
ideas are treated as the natural production 
of the human mind in the course of its deve- 
lopment, corresponding to external realities, 
as yet but dimly surmised. 

Fox's later exertions were mainly confined 
to parliament and the composition of the 
' Publicola ' letters for the ' Weekly Dispatch/ 
which he continued until 1861. His success 
in parliament was limited by his age and 
the didacticism acquired in the pulpit. Re- 
garded at first as ' a sort of heterodox metho- 
dist parson,' he soon gained general respect by 
his tact, discretion, and moderation. His most 
remarkable speeches were that delivered on 
seconding Mr. Hume's motion for an exten- 
sion of the franchise in 1849, and that on the 
introduction of his own bill for establishing 
compulsory secular education in 1850. He 
made the subject of education in large measure 
his own, and always regretted that Lord John 
Russell had taken it out of his hands. He 
usually acted with the politicians of the 
Manchester school, but differed from them 
on the Crimean war, and declared his dissent 
in a great speech to his constituents in the 
winter of 1855. His success at Oldham had 
involved the rejection of John Fielden [q. v.], 
who had thrown in his lot with Mr. J. M. 
Cobbett. Fox thus excited the fiercest an- 
tagonism in a section of the liberal party. 
He was defeated in 1852, regained his seat 
in the autumn of the same year, after tumults 
described as ' sacrificial games dedicated to 
the manes of the late Mr. John Fielden,' was 
again ejected in 1857, and re-elected in the 
same year upon another unexpected vacancy. 
He then held the seat without opposition 
until his retirement in 1863, though taking 
little part in public business. He died after 
a short illness on 3 June 1864, and was buried 
in Brompton cemetery. His memory was 
celebrated in the most fitting manner by a 
memorial edition of his complete writings. 

Fox's master passion was philanthropy, and 
he had adopted the philosophy of Bentham 
as that apparently most conducive to human 
welfare. But his temperament was that of 

a poet, his tastes were literary, dramatic,, 
musical. His utilitarianism was pervaded 
with imagination, and he was far more effec- 
tive as a man of letters than as a thinker, 
and a speaker than as a reasoner. The orator 
in him was rather made than born, his seem- 
ing gift of improvisation was the acquisition 
of long and careful practice. The construction 
of his speeches was in the highest degree rheto- 
rical, and they owed much of their effect to> 
his marvellous elocution. They are, however, 
admirable for powerful diction, manly sense, 
and abound in fancy, humour, and sarcasm - r 
nor were his innumerable contributions to- 
the press less excellent in their way. No one 
could better popularise a truth or embody an 
abstraction. The great aim of his life was to 
benefit the classes from which he had sprung. 
No one has counselled those classes more 
freely, or on the whole more wisely. His 
nature, though not exempt from angularities, 
was genial and affectionate; he said of himself 
that he could never learn to say ' No ' till he 
had attained middle life, and then but im- 
perfectly. He craved for sympathy, and when 
disappointed of obtaining it, took refuge in a 
reserve which, combined with the phlegm of 
his physical constitution, sometimes made 
him appear inert and inanimate, when in 
reality his mind was actively at work. 

[About 1835 Fox began to dictate an auto- 
biography, which he only brought down to his 
settlement at Fareham, with many gaps and 
omissions. He began another in 1858, but made- 
still less progress. These documents, with many 
other unpublished papers, have been placed at the 
writer's disposal by Fox's daughter, Mrs. Bridell 
Fox. See also the memoir in vol. xii. of his col- 
lected writings ; Memoirs of Eliza Fox ; James 
Grant's Public Characters; Evans's Lancashire 
Authors and Orators ; Prentice's History of the 
Anti-Cornlaw League ; Sir John Bowring in the 
Theological Eeview for 1864; John Saunders in 
the People's Journal for 1848.] E. G. 


1879), physician, son of Luther Owen Fox, 
M.D., of Broughton, Winchester, was born 
in 1836, and entered the medical school of 
University College, London, in 1853. In 
1857 he obtained the scholarship and gold 
medal in medicine at the M.B. examination 
of the university of London, and graduated 
M.D. in 1858. After a short period of general 
practice at Bayswater, he selected midwifery 
as a specialty, and was appointed physician- 
accoucheur to the Farringdon General Dis- 
pensary. At this period he wrote some good 
papers on obstetrical subjects, published in 
the 'Transactions ' of the Obstetrical Society. 
Becoming interested in the study of micro- 
scopic fungi attacking the skin and hair, he 



wrote a book on the subject, and gradually 
(became a specialist on dermatology. In 1864 
he travelled in the East with the Earl of 
Hopetoun, but returned much enfeebled in 
health. The experience gained abroad was 
utilised in several works mentioned below. 
Settling in Sackville Street, Piccadilly, Fox 
soon acquired a large practice in dermatology. 
In 1866 he became physician to the skin de- 
partment of Charing Cross Hospital, and not 
long after succeeded Dr. Hillier as physician 
to the same department of University College 
Hospital, where he established an excellent 
system of baths. He proved a good teacher 
and attracted many foreigners to his clinique. 
His book on ' Skin Diseases,' enlarged and more 
copiously illustrated in successive editions, 
made his name widely known, and his 'Atlas' 
finally established his reputation. He did not 
seek to revolutionise the treatment of his sub- 
ject, but based his classification on Willan and 
Bateman's, while insisting on the value of 
general medical knowledge and insight to the 
dermatologist. Thus he had worthily gained 
a position second to few if any specialists, 
when his life was threatened by aortic disease, 
with frequent angina. He was taking a brief 
holiday in Paris, and preparing for the pre- 
sidency of the Dermatological subsection of 
the British Medical Association at Cork, 
when an attack of angina carried him off on 
7 June 1879. He was buried at Willesden 
cemetery, 14 June 1879. 

For many years and up to the time of his 
death Fox was a prominent member of the 
editorial staff of the ' Lancet.' His intense 
energy was always at work promoting the 
interests of dermatology as a branch of me- 
dical practice. His genial manners and con- 
scientiousness made him very popular with 

Fox's principal writings are the following : 

1. ' Skin Diseases of Parasitic Origin,' 1863. 

2. ' Skin Diseases, their Description, Patho- 
logy, Diagnosis, and Treatment,' 1864 ; 3rd 
edit., rewritten and enlarged, 1873. 3. 'The 
Classification of Skin Diseases,' 1864. 4. 'Cho- 
lera Prospects,' 1865. 5. ' The Action of 
Fungi in the Production of Disease,' 1866. 
6. ' Leprosy, Ancient and Modern ; with 
notes taken during recent travel in the East,' 
1866. 7. ' Eczema, its Nature and Treat- 
ment,' 'Lettsomian Lectures,' 1870. 8. 'Pru- 
rigo and Pediculosis,' 1870. 9. ' Scheme for 
obtaining a better knowledge of Endemic 
Skin Diseases of India ' (with Dr. T. Far- 
quhar) ; prepared for the India Office, 1872. 
10. 'Key to Skin Diseases,' 1875. 11. 'Atlas 
of Skin Diseases ' (based on Willan's) ; 4to, 
with plates, 1875-7. 12. 'On certain En- 
demic Skin and other Diseases of India and 

Hot Climates generally ' (with Dr. T. Far- 
quhar), 1876. 13. ' Epitome of Skin Dis- 
eases ' (with T. Colcott Fox), 1877, 2nd 
edit. 14. ' On Ringworm and its Manage- 
ment,' 1878. Fox edited and revised editions 
of Tanner's ' Manual of Clinical Medicine/ 
published in 1869 and 1876. He also con- 
tributed numerous papers on skin diseases to 
the medical societies and journals. 

[Lancet, Medical Times, and British Medical 
Journal, 14 June 1879.] G. T. B. 

FOX, WILSON (1831-1887), physician, 
son of a manufacturer belonging to a well- 
known quaker family in the west of England, 
was born at Wellington, Somersetshire, on 
2 Nov. 1831. He was educated at Bruce 
Castle, Tottenham, and University College, 
London, graduating B.A. in 1850, M.B. in 
1854, and M.D. in 1855, at London Univer- 
sity. After a year spent as house physician 
at the Edinburgh Royal Infirmary, he passed 
several years in Paris, Vienna, and Berlin, 
being for two years in the last city a pupil of 
the great pathologist Virchow. Here he made 
important observations on the degeneration 
of the gastric glands (see Fox's ' Contribu- 
tions to the Pathology of the Glandular 
Structures of the Stomach,' Med.-Chir. 
Transactions, xli. 1858). In 1859 he married 
Miss Emily Doyle, and settled at Newcastle- 
under-Lyme, where he became physician to 
the North Staffordshire Infirmary. In 1861, 
supported by Virchow's strong recommen- 
dation, he was appointed professor of patho- 
logical anatomy at University College, Lon- 
don, and soon afterwards assistant physician 
to University College Hospital. In 1866 he 
became fellow of the Royal College of Phy- 
sicians, and in 1867 full physician to his 
hospital and Holme professor of clinical 
medicine. In 1870 he was appointed phy- 
sician extraordinary to the queen, and was 
elected F.R.S. He afterwards became phy- 
sician in ordinary, and frequently attended 
the queen while in Scotland. He acquired 
a large practice, and was an active member 
of the leading medical societies and of the 
College of Physicians. In April 1887 he 
was suddenly summoned to the deathbed of 
his eldest brother at Wellington. Thence he 
went northwards towards his seat at Rydal 
Mount for a rest, but was seized with pneu- 
monia on the way and died on 3 May at Pres- 
ton in Lancashire. He was buried at Taunton 
on 6 May 1887. A bust in the Shire Hall, 
Taunton, was unveiled 25 Oct. 1888 (Times, 
26 Oct. 1888, p. 8). His first wife died in 
1870; by her he left three sons and three 
daughters. In 1874 he married Evelyn, daugh- 
ter of Sir Baldwin W. Walker, bart., and 



widow of Captain Burgoyne, lost in his ship 
the Captain [see BUKGOYNE, HUGH TALBOTJ. 

In personal appearance Fox was tall, spare, 
and erect, with a refined expression. Although 
he was somewhat reserved in manner, his sin- 
cerity and earnestness gave him a strong hold 
on those with whom he came in contact. 
He was a man of great benevolence, and was 
in the habit of placing his house at Rydal at 
the disposal of the Bishop of Bedford during 
the summer months for the use of invalided 
East-end clergymen and their families. 

Equally as a teacher and as an investiga- 
tor and writer Fox ranked high. His cases 
were thoroughly studied, with special atten- 
tion to the mental and emotional state of his 
patients, in whom he inspired great confi- 
dence. He was the first physician to save 
life in cases of rheumatic fever where the 
temperature was excessively high, by placing 
the patient in baths of iced water. His lec- 
tures were highly valued by the students, and 
the characteristic of his teaching was the 
ability with which the facts of pathology were 
made the basis of practical diagnosis and treat- 
ment. All his writings manifested great re- 
search and labour, and are encyclopaedic on 
their subjects. Besides the works enumerated 
below, he had been for many years preparing 
a treatise on diseases of the lungs and an atlas 
of their pathological anatomy, works that 
were nearly complete at his death. 

Fox's principal writings were : 1. ' On the 
Origin, Structure, and Mode of Development 
of Cystic Tumours of the Ovary,' ' Med.-Chir. 
Trans.,' 1864, xlvii. 227-86. 2. 'On the 
Artificial Production of Tubercle in the 
Lower Animals,' a lecture before the Royal 
College of Physicians, 1864. 3. 'On the 
Development of Striated Muscular Fibre,' 
' Phil. Trans.' clvi. 1866. 4. ' On the Dia- 
gnosis and Treatment of the Varieties of Dys- 
pepsia,' 1867 ; 3rd edition, enlarged, 1872, 
under the title 'The Diseases of the Stomach,' 
substantially a reproduction of his articles in 
Reynolds's ' System of Medicine,' vol. ii. 1868. 
6. Articles on ' Pneumonia,' &c., in Reynolds's 
'System,' iii. 1871. 6. 'On the Treatment of 
Hyperpyrexia by means of the External Ap- 
plication of Cold/ 1871. 

[Lancet, 7 and 14 May 1887 ; British Medical 
Journal, 7 May 1887.] G-. T. B. 

FOXE, JOHN (1516-1587), martyrolo- 
gist, was born at Boston, Lincolnshire, in 
1516. The date is supplied by a grant of 
arms made to his family on 21 Dec. 1598 
(MAITLAND, Notes, pt. i. 8-10). He is there 
said to be lineally connected with Richard 
Foxe [q. v.], bishop of Winchester, but this 
relationship is improbable. The father, of 

whom nothing is known, died while his sons 
were very young. Foxe had at least one- 
brother. The mother married a second hus- 
band, Richard Melton, to whom Foxe dedi- 
cated an early work, ' An Instruccyon of 
.Christen Fayth,' with every mark of affection. 
He was a studious youth, and attracted the 
notice of one Randall, a citizen of Coventry, 
and of John Harding or Hawarden, fellow of 
Brasenose College, Oxford. His stepfather'* 
means were small, and these friends sent him 
to Oxford about 1532, when he was sixteen 
years old. According to the untrustworthy- 
biography of 1641, attributed to Foxe's son 
Samuel, Foxe entered at Brasenose College, 
where his patron Hawarden was tutor. He- 
is not mentioned in the college books. It 
must, however, be admitted that Foxe, when 
dedicating his ' Syllogisticon ' (1563) to Ha- 
warden, writes of him as if he had been his 
tutor ; and that Alexander No well, afterwards- 
dean of St. Paul's (stated in the biography of 
1641 to have been Foxe's chamber-fellow at 
Oxford), was a member of Brasenose, and 
was one of Foxe's lifelong friends. Foxe also 
refers to Brasenose thrice in his ' Actes and 
Monuments,' but the absence of any com- 
ment indicating personal association with the 
place does not give this circumstance any 
weight. If he resided at Brasenose at all, it 
was probably for a brief period as Hawarden's 
private pupil. He must undoubtedly have- 
attended Magdalen College School at the same 
time. A close connection with both Magda- 
len School and College is beyond question. 
The matriculation register for the years during- 
which Foxe would have been ' in statu pupil- 
lari ' is unfortunately lost. But he became- 
probationer fellow of Magdalen in July 1538, 
and full fellow 25 July 1539, being joint lec- 
turer in logic with Baldwin Norton in 1539- 
1540, and proceeding B.A. 17 July 1537 and 
M.A.inJulyl543(O.r/. Univ. Reg., Oxf.Hist. 
Soc., i. 188). Foxe repeatedly identifies him- 
self with Magdalen in his works and private 
letters. ' For which foundation,' he writes in 
the ' Actes,' iii. 716, 'as there have been and* 
be yet many students bound to yield grateful 
thanks unto God, so I must needs confess to- 
be one, except 1 will be unkind.' About 
1564, when one West (formerly of Magdalen) 
was charged in the court of high commission 
with making rebellious speeches, Foxe used* 
his influence to procure the offender's pardon, 
on the sole ground that he had belonged to- 
the same school and college at Oxford as 
himself. As fellow of Magdalen Foxe hadl 
his difficulties. His intimate friends and 
correspondents at Oxford included, besides 
Nowell, Richard Bertie [q. v.], John Cheke 
of Cambridge [q. v.], Hugh Latimer, and! 



"William Tindal, and like them he strongly fa- 
voured extreme forms of protestantism. His 
colleagues at Magdalen were divided on doc- 
trinal questions, and the majority inclined 
to the old forms of religious belief. He was 
bound by the statutes to attend the college 
chapel with regularity, and to proceed to 
holy orders within seven years of his election 
to his fellowship. He declined to conform 
to either rule. Complaint was made to the 
president, Dr. Owen Oglethorp, and Foxe 
defended himself in a long letter (Lansd. MS. 
388). He expressly objected to the enforce- 
ment of celibacy on the fellows. Finally, in 
July 1545, he and five of his colleagues re- 
signed their fellowships. There was no ex- 
pulsion, as Foxe's biographer of 1641 and 
most of his successors have asserted. The 
college register records that ' ex honesta causa 
recesserunt sponte a collegio,' and Foxe's 
future references to his college prove that he 
bore it no ill-will. 

Before leaving Oxford, Foxe mentioned in 
a letter to Tindal that he had derived much 
satisfaction from a visit to the Lucy family 
at Charlecote, Warwickshire. Thither he 
now directed his steps. William Lucy seems 
to have given him temporary employment as 
tutor to his son Thomas. On 3 Feb. 1546-7 
Foxe married, at Charlecote Church, Agnes 
Randall, daughter of his old friend of Co- 
ventry a lady who seems to have been in 
the service of the Lucys. He thereupon came 
up to London to seek a livelihood. The bio- 
grapher of 1641 draws a dreary picture of his 
disappointments and destitution, and relates 
how an unknown and anonymous benefactor 
put a purse of gold into his hand, while in a 
half-dying condition in St. Paul's Cathedral, 
and how he received soon afterwards an invi- 
tation to visit Mary Fitzroy [q. v.], duchess of 
Richmond, at her residence, Mountjoy House, 
Knight rider Street. The latter statement is 
well founded. It is undoubted that Foxe and 
his friend Bale, whose acquaintance he first 
made at Oxford, were both, early in 1548, 
entertained by the duchess, who was at one 
with them on religious questions (Actes, iii. 
705). Through the joint recommendation of 
his hostess and of Bale, Foxe was moreover 
appointed before the end of the year tutor to 
the orphan children of Henry Howard, earl 
of Surrey, who had been executed 19 Jan. 
1546-7. The duchess was the earl's sister, 
and Bale was intimate with Lord Went- 
worth, who had been the children's guardian 
since their father's death. There were two 
tx>ys, Thomas, afterwards duke of Norfolk 
(6. 1536), and Henry Howard, afterwards 
earl of Northampton (b. 1539), together with 
three girls. Foxe joined his pupils at the 

castle of Reigate, a manor belonging to their 
grandfather, the Duke of Norfolk. He re- 
mained there for five years. 

In that interval Foxe published his earliest 
theological tracts. All advocated advanced 
reforming views. Their titles are : ' De non 
plectendis morte adulteris consultatio loannis 
Foxi,' London, per Hugonem Syngletonum, 
1548, dedicated to Thomas Picton ; ' A Sar- 
mon of Jhon Oecolampadius to Yong Men 
and Maydens,' dedicated to ' Master Segrave,' 
London ? 1550 ? ; ' An Instruccyon of Christen 
Fay th,' London, Hugh Syngleton, 1550 ? dedi- 
cated to Melton, his stepfather, a translation 
from Urbanus Regius ; and ' De Censura, sive 
Excommunicatione Ecclesiastica, Interpel- 
latio ad archiepiscopum Cantabr.,' London, 
Stephen Mierdmannus, 1551. The first work 
was reissued in 1549 under the new title ' De 
lapsis in Ecclesiam recipiendis consultatio,' 
with a ' Prsefaciuncula ad lectorem ' substi- 
tuted for the dedication to Picton (MAITLAN D, 
Early Hooks in Lambeth Librai-y, pp. 223-4). 
Furthermore, he prepared a school book, 
'Tables of Grammar,' London, 1552. Ac- 
cording to Wood, eight lords of the privy 
council subscribed to print this work, but its 
brevity disappointed its patrons. Meanwhile 
Foxe was reading much in church history with 
a view to an elaborate defence of theprotestant 
position. On 24 June 1550 he was ordained 
deacon by Ridley, bishop of London, in St. 
Paul's Cathedral. He stayed for the purpose 
in Barbican, at the house of the Duchess- 
dowager of Suffolk, who became the wife of 
; his friend, Richard Bertie [see BERTIE, 
i CATHARINE]. Subsequently he preached as 
a volunteer at Reigate, being the first to 
preach protestantism there. 

The accession of Mary in July 1553 proved 

of serious import to Foxe. One of the queen's 

I earliest acts was to release from prison the 

old Duke of Norfolk (d. 1554), the grandfather 

| of Foxe's pupils. The duke was a catholic, 

j and promptly dismissed Foxe from his tutor- 

ship. It is probable that Foxe thereupon 

took up his residence at Stepney, whence he 

i dates the dedication of ' A Fruitfull Sermon 

| of the moost Euangelicall wryter, M. Luther, 

made of the Angelles ' (London, by Hugh 

Syngleton, 1554?). The elder lad, Thomas, 

had formed a strong affection for his teacher, 

and when he was sent from Reigate to 

be under the care of Bishop Gardiner at 

Winchester House, he contrived that Foxe 

should pay him secret visits. Foxe was soon 

alarmed by the obvious signs of a catholic 

revival. A rumour that parliament was 

about to re-enact the six articles of 1539 

drew from him a well-written Latin petition 

denouncing any change in the religious esta- 




blishment. It is reported by the biographer 
of 1641 that early in 1554 Foxe was visiting 
Ms pupil at Gardiner's house, when the bishop 
.entered the room, and was told that Foxe 
was the lad's physician. Gardiner paid Foxe 
an equivocal compliment, which raised his 
suspicions. The majority of his friends had 
already left England for the continent at the 
first outbreak of persecution, and he deter- 
mined to follow them. With his wife, who 
was expecting her confinement, he hurried 
to Ipswich, and arrived at Nieuport after a 
very stormy passage. He travelled to Stras- 
burg by easy stages, and met his friend Ed- 
mund Grindal there in July. He had brought 
with him in manuscript the first part of a Latin 
treatise on the persecutions of reformers in 
Europe from the time of Wycliffe to his own 
day. A Strasburgprinter,WendelinRichelius, 
hurriedly put it into type in time for the great 
Frankfort fair. The volume, a small octavo of 
212 leaves, is now of great rarity. It forms the 
earliest draft of the ' Actes and Monuments ;' 
but only comes down to 1 500, and deals mainly 
with the lives of WyclifFe and Huss. Some 
notes of Bishop Pecock are added, together 
with an address to the university of Oxford, 
deploring the recent revival there of the doc- 
trine of transubstantiation. The dedication, 
dated from StrasburgSl Aug. 1554, was ad- 
dressed to Christopher, duke of Wiirtemberg, 
and is said to have displeased the duke, a 
well-known patron of protestants. The title 
usually runs : ' Commentarii rerum in ec- 
lesia gestarum maximarumque per totam 
Europam persecutionum a Vuicleui tempo- 
ribus ad hanc usque setatem descriptio. Liber 
primus. . . . Anno MDLIIII.' But copies are 
met with with a title-page beginning ' Chro- 
nicon Ecclesise continens historiam rerum,' 
&c., where the date is given as MDLXIIII, and 
the printer's name as Josias instead of Wen- 
delinus Richelius. Dr. Maitland suggested 
that this date was an error due to the hasty 
production, but it seems more probable that 
the second title belongs to a later reprint. 

By the end of 1554 Foxe had joined thepro- 
testant refugees at Frankfort, and was lodging 
with a well-known puritan, Anthony Gilby 
fq. v.] Foxe found a heated controversy as to 
forms of worship raging among his country- 
men at Frankfort. Some wished to adhere to 
Edward VI's second prayer-book, others de- 
sired a severer liturgy, and denounced the 
surplice and viva-voce responses. The civic 
authorities had meanwhile directed the adop- 
tion of the service-book of the French pro- 
testants. Various modifications were sug- 
gested, but all failed to pacify the contending 
factions. Knox had lately been summoned 
from Geneva by a portion of the English at 

Frankfort to act as their minister. He pro- 
posed that the dispute should be referred to 
Calvin. Foxe, who at once took a prominent 
place among Knox's supporters, encouraged 
this course. Calvin recommended a compro- 
mise between the Anglican and Genevan 
forms of prayer. Foxe offered, in conjunction 
with Knox and others, to give the sugges- 
tion practical effect. The offer was rejected, 
but a temporary settlement was effected 
by Knox without Foxe's aid. In the middle 
of 1555 the quarrel broke out anew. Dr. 
Richard Cox [q. v.] reached Frankfort, and 
at once headed the party in favour of an un- 
diluted anglican ritual. Knox attacked Cox 
from his pulpit. But Cox and his friends 
had influence with the civic authorities ; 
serious charges were brought against Knox, 
and he was directed to quit the town. The 
controversy was not ended. Foxe suggested 
arbitration, but he was overruled. On 1 Sept. 
1555 he and Whittingham, now the leaders of 
the Genevan party, announced their intention 
of abandoning Frankfort. They gave Knox's 
expulsion as their chief reason for this step. 
Whittingham straightway left for Geneva. 
Foxe remained behind, reluctant to part with 
Nowell and other friends. As a final attempt 
at reconciling the rival parties he wrote 
(12 Oct.) entreating Peter Martyr, whom he 
had met at Strasburg, to come and lecture 
on divinity to the English at Frankfort. 
Despite the controversy, he spoke of the kind 
reception with which he had met there. But 
Martyr declined the invitation, and in the 
middle of November Foxe removed to Basle. 
Foxe suffered acutely from poverty while 
at Basle. He wrote to Grindal soon after his 
arrival that he was reduced to his last penny, 
and was thankful for a gift of two crowns. 
He begged his pupil, now Duke of Norfolk, 
and his new patron, the Duke of Wiirtem- 
berg, to help him. But his destitution did 
not blunt his energies. He found employ- 
ment as a reader of the press in the printing- 
office of Johann Herbst or Oporinus, an en- 
thusiastic protestant and publisher of pro- 
testant books. Foxe was henceforth closely 
connected with the trade of printing. Ac- 
cording to the ' Stationers' Register ' (ed. 
Arber, i. 33), one John Foxe took up the free- 
dom of the Stationers' Company on 5 March 
1554-5, and paid Ss. 4<2. for his breakfast on 
the occasion. His intimate association in 
later years with the London printer, John 
Day (1522-1584) [q. v.], makes it almost cer- 
tain that this entry referstothemartyrologist. 
Oporinus and Foxe lived on the best of terms; 
they corresponded after Foxe had left the 
continent, and Oporinus allowed Foxe, while 
in his employ, adequate leisure for his own 




books. Before leaving Frankfort he had 
begun to translate into Latin Cranmer's trea- 
tise on the Eucharist in answer to Gardiner 
(London, 1551). He found the task difficult. 
Grindal and others begged him to persevere. 
"When he heard of Cranmer's death in 1556 he 
at once negotiated with Christopher Frosch- 
over of Zurich for its publication, but the 
negotiation dragged on till 1559, and the 
work, although partly utilised by Foxe else- 
where, still remains in manuscript (Harleian 
MS. 418). In 1556 Oporinus published Foxe's 
' Christus Triumphans,' an apocalyptic drama 
after German models, in five acts of Latin 
verse, concluding with a ' panegyricon ' on 
Christ in Latin prose. The original manu- 
script is in Lansdowne MS. 1073. Tanner 
says that an edition was issued in London in 
1551 , a statement of doubtful authority. The 
work is a crude and tedious mystery play, but 
achieved such success as to be published in 
a French translation by Jean Bienvenu at 
Geneva in 1562, a form in which it is now of 
the utmost rarity. An English translation 
by Richard Day [q. v.] appeared in 1578, 1599, 
and 1607, and reprints of the original, pre- 
pared by Thomas Comber for use in schools, 
' ob insignem styli elegantiam ' an unde- 
served compliment are dated 1672 and 1677 
(cf. HERFORD, Studies in the Lit. Relations 
of England and Germany, pp. 138-48). After 
Ridley, Latimer, and Cranmer had fallen at 
the stake, Foxe drew up an admirable expos- 
tulation and plea for toleration, addressed to 
the nobility of England (8 Feb. 1555-6). It 
was first printed by Oporinus at Basle in 1557 
tinder the title ' Ad inclytos ac praepotentes 
Anglise proceres . . . supplicatio. Autore 
loanne Foxo Anglo.' In the same year he 
brought out an ingenious series of rules for 
aiding the memory, entitled ' Locorum com- 
munium logicalium tituli et ordines^lSO, ad 
seriem praedicamentorum decem descripti,' 
Basle, which was reissued in London as 'Pan- 
dectse locorum communium ' in 1585. In 1557 
and 1558 Foxe remonstrated in a friendly way 
withKnox on account of the strong language 
used in 'The First Blast of the Trumpet ; ' 
and on Elizabeth's accession he wrote a con- 
gratulatory address, which Oporinus printed. 
Meanwhile Foxe was receiving through 
Grindal reports of the protestant persecutions 
in England. Bradford's case was one of the 
earliest he received. When reports of Cran- 
mer's examinations arrived Foxe prepared 
them for publication, and Grindal seems to 
have proposed that these and the reports of 
proceedings against other martyrs should be 
issued separately in two forms, one in Latin 
and the other in English. Foxe was to be 
responsible for the Latin form. The English 

form was to be prepared and distributed in 
England. Only in the case of the story of 
Philpot's martyrdom was this plan carried out. 
Strype preserves the title of Foxe's pamphlet, 
printed at Basle, detailing Philpot's sufferings^ 
'Miraet eleganscum primis historia vel tra- 
gcedia potius de tota ratione examinationis et 
condemnationis J.Philpotti . . . nuncinLati- 
num versa, interpreteJ. F.,'but no copy is now 
known. On 10 June 1557 Grindal urged Fox 
to complete at once his account of the per- 
secution of reformers in England as far as 
the end of Henry VIII's reign (GRIITDAL, 
Remaines, Parker Soc., p. 223 et seq.) He- 
worked steadily, and in 1559 had brought his 
story of persecution down to nearly the end 
of Mary's reign. Nicolaus Brylinger with 
Oporinus sent the work, which was all in 
Latin, to press, and it appeared in folio- 
under the title ' Rerum in ecclesia gestarum, 
quae postremis et periculosis his temporibus 
evenerunt, maximarumque per Europam Per- 
secutionum ac Sanctorum Dei Martyrum si 
quae insignioris exempli sunt, digesti per 
Regna et Nationes commentarii. Pars prima, 
in qua primum de rebus per Angliam efr 
Scotiam gestis atque in primis de horrenda 
sub Maria nuper regina persecutione narratio* 
continetur. Autore Joanne Foxo, Anglo/ 
A second part, giving the history of the perse- 
cutions of the reformers on the continent, wa* 
announced to follow, but Foxe abandoned it r 
and that part of the work was undertaken by- 
Henry Pantaleone of Zurich. This great 
volume of 732 numbered pages is in six 
books, of which the first embodies the little- 
volume of ' Commentarii.' The expostula- 
tion addressed to the nobility is reprinted 
(pp. 239-61). Bishop Hooper's treatise on 
the Eucharist, forwarded to Bullinger, and 
written while in prison, appears with dis- 
sertations on the same subject by Ridley, 
Latimer, and Cranmer. The whole was de- 
dicated to Foxe's pupil, the Duke of Norfolk 
(1 Sept. 1559). At the same time as the- 
book was issued the pope (Paul IV) an- 
nounced that he had prohibited Oporinus 
from publishing any further books. 

Foxe left for England in October, a month 
after his great book had been published. He- 
wrote announcing his arrival to the Duke of 
Norfolk, who offered him lodgings in his 
house at Christchurch, Aldgate, and after- 
wards invited him to one of his country 
houses. On 25 Jan. 1559-60 Grindal, now" 
bishop of London, ordained him priest, and 
in September 1560 Parkhurst, another friend r 
who had just become bishop of Norwich, pro- 
mised to use his influence to obtain a pre- 
bendal stall at Norwich for him. Foxe is 
often represented as having lived for some time 



withParkhurst, and as having 1 preached in his 
diocese. The bishop invited him to Norwich 
(29 Jan. 1563-4), but there is no evidence of 
an earlier visit. From the autumn of 1561 
Foxe was chiefly engaged in translating his 
latest volume into English and in elaborating 
its information. The papers of Ralph Morice, 
Cranmer's secretary, had fallen into his hands, 
together with much new and, as Foxe believed, 
authentic material. Most of his time was 
clearly spent in London at the Duke of Nor- 
folk's house in Aldgate, but every Monday 
lie worked at the printing-office of John Day 
in Aldersgate Street, who had undertaken 
the publication. 

In 1564, after the death of the Duchess 
of Norfolk, Foxe removed from the duke's 
iouse to Day's house in Aldersgate Street, 
and took a prominent part in Day's business. 
He petitioned Cecil (6 July 1568) to relax in 
Day's behalf the law prohibiting a printer 
from employing more than four foreign work- 
men. Day's close connection with Foxe's 
great undertaking is commemorated in the 
lines on Day's tombstone in the church of 
Little Bradley, Suffolk : 
He set a Fox to wright how martyrs runne 
5y death to lyfe : Fox ventured paynes and health 
To give them light : Daye spent in print his 


(Notes and Queries, 6th ser. yiii. 246.) 
But Foxe's stay in Day's house was probably 
only temporary. In 1565 he spent some time 
at Waltham. The register states that two of 
Ms children, Rafe and Mary, were baptised 
there on 29 Jan. 1565-6. Fuller in ' The In- 
fant's Advocate,' 1653, not only credits Walt- 
ham with being Foxe's home when he was 
preparing 'his large and learned works,' but 
says that he left his posterity a considerable 
estate in the parish. The biographer of 1641 
writes that Foxe was on very good terms with 
Anne, the wife of Sir Thomas Heneage [q. v.], 
who was a large landowner in the neighbour- 
hood of Waltham. On 24 July 1749 the 
antiquary Dr. Stukeley made a pilgrimage to 
the house associated with Foxe at Waltham, 
and it then seems to have been a popular 
show-place (Memoirs, ii. 211). About 1570 
Foxe removed to Grub Street, where he pro- 
bably lived till his death. 

On 20 March 1562-3 Foxe's 'Actes and 
Monuments ' issued from Day's press, on the 
very same day as Oporinus published at Basle 
the second part of the Latin original contain- 
ing Pantaleone's account of the persecutions 
on the continent. The title of the ' Actes and 
Monuments ' seems to have been borrowed 
from a book called ' Actiones et Monimenta 
Martyrum, 'printed by Jean Crespin at Geneva 
in 1560. Grindal had written of Foxe's pro- 


jectedwork as 'Historia Martyrum,' 19 Dec. 
1558. From the date of its publication it was 
popularly known as the ' Book of Martyrs,' and 
even in official documents as ' Monumenta 
Martyrum.' The first edition has four dedi- 
catory epistles : to Jesus Christ, the queen, 
ad doctum lectorem (alone in Latin), and to 
the persecutors of God's truth. A preface 
' on the utility of the story' is a translation 
from the Basle volume of 1559. Foxe for- 
warded a copy to Magdalen College, with a 
letter explaining that the work was written 
in English ' for the good of the country and the 
information of the multitude,' and received in 
payment 6/. 135. 4<#. The success of the under- 
taking was immediate, and at the suggestion 
of Jewell, bishop of Salisbury, the author 
received his first reward in the shape of a 
prebend in Salisbury Cathedral, together with 
the lease of the vicarage of Shipton (11 May 
1563). Before the yearwas out he had brought 
out an elaborate treatise on the Eucharist, 
entitled ' Syllogisticon,' with a dedication to 
his old friend Hawarden, now principal of 
Brasenose, and in 1564 he published a Latin 
translation of Grindal's funeral sermon in 
memory of the Emperor Ferdinand I. But he . 
also spent much time in helping the plague- 
stricken, and made a powerful appeal to the 
citizens for help for the afflicted (1564). His 
poverty did not cease. His clothes were still 
shabby ; the pension which the Duke of Nor- 
folk gave him was very small, and when he 
bestowed the vicarage of Shipton on William 
Master he appealed to the queen (August 1564) 
to remit the payment of first-fruits, on the 
ground that neither of them had a farthing. 
He also informed her, in very complimentary 
terms, that he contemplated writing her life. 
At Salisbury he declined to conform or to 
attend to his duties regularly. He had con- 
scientious objections to the surplice. He was 
absent from Jewell's visitation in June 1568, 
and in the following December was declared 
contumacious on refusing to devote a tithe 
of his income to the repair of the cathedral. 
On the Good Friday after the publication 
of the papal bull excommunicating the queen 
(1570), Foxe, at Grindal's bidding, preached 
a powerful sermon at St. Paul's Cross, and 
renewed his attacks on the catholics. The 
sermon, entitled 'A Sermon of Christ Cruci- 
fied,' was published by Day immediately, 
with a prayer and ' a postscript to the papists,' 
and was reissued, ' newly recognised by the 
authour,'in 1575, 1577, and 1585. A very rare 
edition was printed for the Stationers' Com- 
pany in 1609. On 1 Oct. 1571 Foxe trans- 
lated it into Latin, and Day issued it under the 
title ' De Christo Crucifixo Concio.' In this 
shape it was published at Frankfort in 1575. 




Foxe's correspondence "was rapidly in- 
creasing, and his position in ecclesiastical 
circles grew influential. Parkhurst (29 Jan. 
1563-4) solicited his aid in behalf of Conrad 
Gesner, who was writing on the early Chris- 
tian writers. Lawrence Humphrey, president 
of Magdalen, appealed to him to procure for 
him an exemption from the regulations affect- 
ing clerical dress, but Humphrey afterwards 
conformed. On 20 Nov. 1573 one Torporley 
begged him to obtain for him a studentship at 
Christ Church. Strangers consulted him re- 
peatedly about their religious difficulties. 
Francis Baxter (4 Jan. 1572) inquired his 
opinion respecting the lawfulness of sponsors, 
and another correspondent asked how he was 
to cure himself of the habit of blaspheming. 
About the same time Foxe corresponded with 
Lord-chief-justice Monson respecting the ap- 
pointment of a schoolmaster at Ipswich, and 
recommended a lady to marry one of his in- 
timate friends. 

Much of his correspondence also dealt with 
the credibility of his monumental work. The 
catholics had been greatly angered by its pub- 
lication. They nicknamed it ' Foxe's Golden 
Legend,' and expressed special disgust at the 
calendar prefixed to the book, in which the 
protestant martyrs took the place of the old 
saints (STRYPE, Annals, i. 375-80). Foxe's 
accuracy was first seriously impugned in the 
1 Dialog! Sex,' published in 1566 under the 
name of Alan Cope [q. v.] , although the author 
was without doubt Nicholas Harpsfield. Foxe 
showed some sensitiveness to such attacks. 
He instituted inquiries with a view to correc- 
tions or corroborations for a second edition, 
which the puritan party deemed it desirable 
to issue before the meeting of parliament in 
April 1571. This edition (1570) was in two 
volumes, the first of 934 pages, and the second 
of 1378. New engravings were added; there 
was a new dedication to the queen, in which 
Foxe declared that he only republished the 
book to confute the attacks of evil-disposed 
persons, who had made it appear that his work 
was as ' full of lies as lines.' The address to 
the persecutors of God's truth was omitted ; a 
protestation to the true and faithful congrega- 
tion of Christ's universal church, and four 
questions addressed to the church of Rome 
were added. Magdalen College paid 6/. 8s. 
for a copy of this new edition, and another 
copy belonging to Nowell was bequeathed 
by him to Brasenose, where it still is. Con- 
vocation meeting at Canterbury on 3 April 
resolved that copies of this edition, which 
was called in the canon ' Monumenta Marty- 
rum,' should be placed in cathedral churches 
and in the houses of archbishops, bishops, 
deacons, and archdeacons. Although this 

canon was never confirmed by parliament, it 
was very widely adopted in the country. 

About the same time Foxe prepared, from 
manuscripts chiefly supplied by Archbishop 
Parker, a collection of the regulations adopted 
by the reformed English church, which was- 
entitled ' Reformatio Legum.' A proposal in 
parliament to accept this collection as the 
official code of ecclesiastical law met with no- 
success, owing to the queen's intervention and 
her promise never fulfilled that her minis- 
ters should undertake a like task. But it 
was printed by Day in 1571, and held by the 
puritans in high esteem. It was reissued in 
1640, and again by Edward Card well in 1850. 
In the same year (1571) Foxe performed for 
Parker a more important task. He produced, 
with a dedication to the queen, an edition of 
j the Anglo-Saxon text of the Gospels. This 
i was similarly printed by Day, and is now a 
: rare book. Two years later he collected the 
works of Tindal, Frith, and Barnes, giving- 
extracts from his own account of the writers 
in his ' Actes.' 

On 2 June 1572 Foxe's pupil and patron, 
the Duke of Norfolk, was executed, at the 
age of thirty-six, for conspiring with Mary 
Queen of Scots and the catholic nobility 
against Elizabeth. Foxe attended him to 
the scaffold. Some time before he had heard 
the rumours of Norfolk's contemplated mar- 
riage with the Queen of Scots, and had writ- 
ten a strong protest against it. Foxe's bio- 
graphers have exaggerated the influence which 
his early training exerted on the duke and 
on his brother, Henry Howard, afterwards 
earl of Northampton. It is obvious that 
they assimilated few of their tutor's religious 
i principles. On the scaffold the duke denied 
that he was a catholic ; but he, like his 
brother in after years, had shown unmistak- 
able leanings to Catholicism. It is to the 
credit of both Foxe and the duke that their 
affection for each other never waned. The 
duke directed his heirs to allow Foxe an an- 
nuity of 20/. On 14 Oct. of the same year 
Bishop Pilkington installed Foxe in a pre- 
bendal stall at Durham Cathedral ; but Foxe 
was still obstinately opposed to the sur- 
plice, and within the year he resigned the 
office. Tanner asserts that he was at one 
time vicar of St. Giles's, Cripplegate. Foxe's 
friend, Robert Crowley [q. v.], held this 
benefice for a long period ; but he was sus- 
pended between 1569 and 1578, when Foxe 
may have assisted in the work of the parish. 
In 1575 Foxe energetically sought to obtain 
the remission of the capital sentence in the 
case of two Dutch anabaptists condemned 
to the stake for their opinions. He wrote to 
the queen, Lord Burghley, and Lord-chief- 




justice Monson, pointing out the dispropor- 
tion between the offence and the punishment, 
and deprecating the penalty of death in cases 
of heresy. He also appealed to one of the 
prisoners to acknowledge the errors of his 
opinion, with which he had no sympathy. 
A respite of a month was allowed, but both 
prisoners were burnt at the stake 22 July. 
In 1576 and 1583 the third and fourth edi- 
tions of the 'Actes' were issued. On 1 April 
1577 Foxe preached a Latiu sermon at the 
baptism of a Jew, Nathaniel, in Allhallows 
Church, Lombard Street (cf. ' Elizabethan 
England and the Jews,' by the present writer, 
in New Shakspere Soc. Trans. 1888). The 
title of the original ran : ' De Oliva Evan- 
gelica. Concio in baptismo ludsei habita. 
Londini, primo mens. April.' London, by 
Christopher Barker, 1577, dedicated to Sir 
Francis Walsingham. At the close is a prose 
' Appendicula de Christo Triumphante,' dedi- 
cated to Sir Thomas Heneage. A translation 
by James Bell appeared in 1578, with the 
Jew's confession of faith. In 1580 the same 
translator issued a tract entitled ' The Pope 
Confuted,' which professed to be another 
translation from Foxe, although the original 
is not identified. Tanner assigns 'A New 
Years Gift touching the deliverance of cer- 
tain Christians from the Turkish gallies ' to 
1579, and says it was published in London. 
Foxe completed Haddon's second reply to 
Osorius in his ' Contra Hieron. Osorium . . . 
Responsio Apologetica,' dedicated to Sebas- 
tian, king of Portugal (Latin version 1577, 
English translation 1581). In 1583 he con- 
tested Osorius's view of 'Justification by 
Faith ' in a new treatise on the subject, ' De 
Christo gratis iustificante. Contra Osorianam 
iustitiam.Lond., by Thomas Purfoot, impensis 
Geor. Byshop,' 1583. Tanner mentions an 
English translation dated 1598. 'Disputatio 
loannis Foxij Angli contra lesuitas ' appeared 
in 1585 at Rochelle, in the third volume of 
'Doctrinse lesuiticse Prsecipua Capita.' Ac- 
cording to Tanner, Foxe also edited in the 
same year Bishop Pilkington's ' Latin Com- 
mentary on Nehemiah.' 

Foxe's health in 1586 was rapidly breaking. 
An attempt in June of that year on the part 
of Bishop Piers of Salisbury to deprive him of 
the lease of Shipton much annoyed him ; but 
the bishop did not press his point when he 
learned that he might by forbearance ' pleasure 
that good man Mr. Foxe.' Foxe died after 
much suffering in April 1587, and was buried 
in St. Giles's Church, Cripplegate, where a 
monument, with an inscription by his son 
Samuel, is still extant. His final work, 
' Eicasmi seu Meditationes in Sacram Apoca- 
lypsin,' was printed posthumously in 1587 by 

George Bishop, and dedicated by Foxe's son 
Samuel to Archbishop Whitgift. Foxe was 
charitable to the poor, although he never was 
well-to-do, and would seem to have been of 
a cheerful temperament, despite his fervent 
piety. A letter to him from Bishop Park- 
hurst shows that he was a lover and a judge 
of dogs. His wife, who possessed all the 
womanly virtues, died 22 April 1605. Two 
sons, Samuel and Simeon, are separately no- 
ticed. A daughter, born in Flanders in 1555, 
and the two children Rafe and Mary, bap- 
tised at Waltham Abbey early in 1566, seem 
to have completed his family. 

Of Foxe's great work, the 'Actes and 
Monuments,' four editions were published in 
his lifetime, viz. in 1563, 1570, 1576, and 
1583. Five later editions are dated respec- 
tively 1596, 1610, 1632, 1641, and 1684. 
All are in folio. The first edition was in one 
volume, the next four in two volumes, and 
the last four named in three. The fifth edition 
(1596) consisted of twelve hundred copies. 
The edition of 1641 includes for the first 
time the memoir of the'author, the authen- 
ticity of which is much contested. All have 
woodcuts, probably by German artists, in- 
serted in the printed page. The first eight 
editions are all rare ; the first two excessively 
rare. No quite perfect copy of the 1563 
edition is extant. Slightly imperfect copies 
are at the British Museum, the Bodleian, the 
Cambridge University Library, Magdalen and 
Christ Church, Oxford. In the Huth Library 
a good copy has been constructed out of two 
imperfect ones. Early in the seventeenth 
century the first edition had become scarce, 
and Archbishop Spotiswood, writing before 
1639, denied its existence. The corrected 
edition of 1570, which convocation directed 
to be placed in all cathedral churches, is more 
frequently met with. Many Oxford colleges 
possess perfect copies, but as early as 1725 
Hearne wrote that this edition also was ex- 
cessively rare. The British Museum pos- 
sesses a complete set of the nine early editions. 

Foxe's ' Actes ' is often met with in libraries 
attached to parish churches. This was not 
strictly in obedience to the order of convo- 
cation of 1571, which only mentioned cathe- 
dral churches ; but many clergymen deemed 
it desirable to give the order a liberal inter- 
pretation, and to recommend the purchase 
of the book for their churches. According to 
the vestry minutes of St. Michael, Cornhill, 
it was agreed, 11 Jan. 1571-2, 'that the booke 
of Martyrs of Mr. Foxe and the paraphrases 
of Erasmus shalbe bowght for the church 
and tyed with a chayne to the Egle bras.' 
Foxe's volumes cost the parish 21. 2s. 6d. 
At the church of St. John the Baptist, Glas- 





tonbury, the 1570 edition is also known to 
have been bought at the same time. Various 
editions mostly mutilated but still chained 
are known to exist or have very recently 
existed in the parish churches of Apethorpe 
(Northamptonshire), Arreton (Isle of Wight), 
Chelsea, Enstone (Oxfordshire), Kinver 
(Staffordshire), Lessingham (Norfolk), St. 
Nicholas (Newcastle-on-Tyne), North wold 
(Norfolk), Stratford-on-Avon, Waltham, St. 
Cuthbert (Wells). 

Of modern editions that edited by S. R. 
Cattley, with introduction by Canon Towns- 
end, in eight volumes (1837-41), is the best 
known. It professed to be based on the 1583 
edition, with careful collation of other early 
editions. But Dr. Maitland proved these 
pretensions to be false, and showed that the 
eliting was perfunctorily and ignorantly per- 
formed. Slight improvements were made in 
a reissue (1844-9). In 1877 Dr. Stoughton 
professed to edit the book again in eight 
volumes, but his text and notes are not very 
scholarly. The earliest abridgment was pre- 
pared by Timothy Bright and issued, with a 
dedication to Sir Francis Walsingham, in 1589. 
Another, by the Rev. Thomas Mason of Odi- 
ham, appeared, under the title of ' Christ's Vic- 
torie over Sathans Tyrannic,' in 1615. Slighter 
epitomes are Leigh's ' Memorable Collections,' 
1651 ; ' A brief Historical Relation of the 
most material passages and persecutions of 
the Church of Christ . . . collected by Jacob 
Bauthumley,' London, 1676 ; and ' MAP- 
T.C.C., London, 1677. A modern abridg- 
ment, by John Milner (1837), was reissued 
in 1848 and 1863, with an introduction 
by Ingram Cobbin [q. v.] Numerous extracts 
have been published separately, mainly as re- 
ligious tracts. John Stockwood appended to 
his 'Treasure of Trueth,' 1576, 'Notes apper- 
tayning to the matter of Election gathered 
by the Godly and learned father, I. Foxe.' 
Hakluyt appropriated Foxe's account of 
Richard I's voyage to Palestine (Voyages, 
1598, vol. ii.) Foxe's accounts of the martyrs 
of Sussex, Suffolk, and other counties have 
been collected and issued in separate volumes. 
With the puritan clergy, and in almost all 
English households where puritanism pre- 
vailed, Foxe's ' Actes ' was long the sole au- 
thority for church history, and an armoury of 
arguments in defence of protestantism against 
Catholicism. Even Nicholas Ferrar, in his 
community of Little Gidding, Huntingdon- 
shire, directed that a chapter of it should be 
read every Sunday evening along with the 
Bible, and clergymen repeatedly made its 
stories of martyrdom the subject of their 
sermons. But as early as 1563, when Nicholas 

Harpsfield wrote his ' Sex Dialogi,' which his 
friend, Alan Cope, published under his own 
name, Foxe's veracity has been powerfully at- 
tacked. Robert Parsons the Jesuit condemned 
the work as a carefully concocted series of 
lies in his ' Treatise of the Three Conversions 
of England,' 1603. Archbishop Laud in 1638 
refused to license a new edition for the press 
(RusHWOBTH, ii. 450), and was charged at his 
trial with having ordered the book to be 
withdrawnfrom some parish churches (LAT7D, 
Works, iv. 405). Peter Heylyn denied that 
Foxe was an authority on matters of doctrine 
affecting the church of England. Jeremy 
Collier contested his accuracy in his ' Eccle- 
siastical History,' 1702-14. Dr. John Milner, 
the Roman catholic bishop of Castabala (d. 
1826), and George Leo Haydock, in ' A Key 
to the Roman Catholic Office,' 1823, are the 
best modern representatives of catholic critics. 
William Eusebius Andrews's ' Examination 
of Foxe's Calendar,' 3 vols. 1826, is an in- 
temperate attack from the same point of view. 
But the most learned indictment of Foxe's 
honesty and accuracy was Dr. S. R. Mait- 
land [q. v.], who in a series of pamphlets and 
letters issued between 1837 and 1842 sub- 
jected portions of his great work to a rigorous 

The enormous size of Foxe's work has pre- 
vented a critical examination of the whole. 
But it is plain from such examination as the 
work has undergone that Foxe was too zealous 
a partisan to write with historical precision. 
He is a passionate advocate, ready to accept 
any primd facie evidence. His style has the 
vigour that conies of deep conviction, and 
there is a pathetic picturesqueness in the 
forcible simplicity with which he presents his 
readers with the details of his heroes' suffer- 
ings. His popularity is thus amply accounted 
for. But the coarse ribaldry with which he be- 
labours his opponents exceeds all literary li- 
cense. His account of the protestant martyrs 
of the sixteenth century is mainly based on 
statements made by the martyrs themselves 
or b v t heir friends, and they thus form a unique 
collection of documents usually inaccessible 
elsewhere and always illustrative of the social 
habits and tone of thought of the English pro- 
testants of his day. ' A Compendious Regis- 
ter ' (Lond. 1559) of the Marian martyrs by 
Thomas Brice [q. v.] doubtless supplied some 
hints. Foxe's mistakes sometimes arise from 
faulty and hasty copying of original docu- 
ments, but are more often the result of wilful 
exaggeration. A very friendly critic, John 
Deighton, showed that Foxe's account of the 
martyrdom of ' Jhon Home and a woman' at 
Newent on 25 Sept. 1556 is an amplification 
of the suffering at the stake of Edward Home 




on 25 Sept. 1558 (NICHOLS, p. 69). No woman 
suffered at all. The errors in date and Chris- 
tian name in the case of the man are very 
typical. Foxe moreover undoubtedly included 
among his martyrs persons executed for ordi- 
nary secular offences. He acknowledged his 
error in the case of John Marbeck, a Windsor 
'martyr' of 1543 whom he represented, in his 
text of 1563 to have been burnt, whereas the 
man was condemned, but pardoned. But 
Foxe was often less ingenuous. He wrote that 
one Greenwood or Grimwood of Hitcham, 
near Ipswich, Suffolk, having obtained the 
conviction of a ' martyr' John Cooper, on con- 
cocted evidence, died miserably soon after- 
wards. Foxe was informed that Greenwood 
was alive and that the story of his death was 
a fiction. He went to Ipswich to t examine 
witnesses, but never made any alteration in 
his account of the matter. At a later date 
(according to an obiter dictum of Coke) a 
clergyman named Prick recited Foxe's story 
about Greenwood from the pulpit of Hitcham 
church. Greenwood was present and pro- 
ceeded against Prick for libel, but the courts 
held that no malicious defamation was in- 
tended (see CKOKE, Reports, ed. Leach, ii. 91). 
Foxe confessed that his story of Bishop Gar- 
diner's death is derived from hearsay, but it 
is full of preposterous errors, some of which 
Foxe's personal knowledge must have enabled 
him to correct. With regard to the sketch of 
early church history which precedes his story 
of the martyrs, he undoubtedly had recourse 
to some early documents, especially to bishops' 
registers, but he depends largely on printed 
works like Crespin's ' Actiones et Monimenta 
Martyrum,' Geneva, 1560, or Illyricus's ' Ca- 
talogus Testium Veritatis,' Basle, 1556. It 
has been conclusively shown that his chapter 
on the Waldenses is directly translated from 
the ' Catalogus ' of lllyricus, although Illy- 
ricus is not mentioned by Foxe among the 
authorities whom he acknowledges to have 
consulted. Foxe claims to have consulted 
' parchment documents ' on the subject, 
whereas he only knew them in the text of Il- 
lyricus's book. This indicates a loose notion 
of literary morality which justifies some of 
the harshest judgments passed on Foxe. In 
answering Alan Cope's ' Sex Dialogi ' in the 
edition of 1570 he acknowledges small errors, 
but confesses characteristically, ' I heare what 
you will saie; I should have taken more leisure- 
and done it better. -I. graunt and confesse 
my fault : such is my vice. Ljcannot sit all 
the daie (M. Cope) fining and minsing my 
letters and combing my head and smoothing 
myself all the daie at the glasse of Cicero. 
Yet notwithstanding, doing what I can and 
doing my good will, me thinkes I should not 

be reprehended.' He was a compiler on a 
gigantic scale, neither scrupulous nor scho- 
larly, but appallingly industrious, and a useful 
witness to the temper of his age. 

Dr. Maitland insisted that Foxe's name 
should be spelt without the final e. He him- 
self spelt it indifferently Fox and Foxe, and 
latinised it sometimes as Foxus, sometimes 
as Foxius. His contemporaries usually write 
of him as Foxe. 

Foxe's papers, which include many state- 
ments sent to him by correspondents in cor- 
roboration or in contradiction of his history, 
but never used by him, descended through 
his eldest son Samuel to his grandson, Thomas 
Foxe, and through Thomas to Thomas's 
daughter and sole heiress, Alice. Alice mar- 
ried Sir Richard Willys, created a baronet in 
1646, and their son, Sir Thomas Fox Willys, 
died a lunatic in 1701. Strype obtained the 
papers shortly before that date, and when 
Strype died in 1737, they were purchased by 
Edward Harley, earl of Oxford. The majority 
of them now form volumes 416 to 426 and 
volume 590 in the Harleian collection of 
manuscripts at the British Museum. A few 
other papers are now among the Lansdowne 
MSS. 335, 388, 389, 819, and 1045. Strype 
has worked up many of these papers in his 
' Ecclesiastical Memorials,' ' Life of Cranmer,' 
and elsewhere. An interesting selection is 
printed by J. G. Nichols in ' Narratives of 
the Reformation' (Camden Society, 1859). 

A portrait by Glover has been often en- 
graved. A painting by an unknown artist is 
in the National Portrait Gallery, and is in- 
scribed ' An. Dom. 1587. ^Etatis suas 70.' 
There is also an engraving in Holland's 
' Herwologia,' p. 200. 

[The earliest life of Foxe, "which forms the 
basis of the many popular lives that have been 
issued for religious purposes by Foxe's admirers, 
is that prefixed in both English and Latin to the 
second volume ef the 1641 edition of the Actes 
and Monuments, and has been generally attri- 
buted to his son Samuel, who died in 1629. The 
authorship is very doubtful. Samuel died twelve 
years before it was issued. The writer says in 
a brief introductory address that his memoir was 
written thirty years before^publication, and there 
is no sign that it was regarded as a posthumous 
production. .The handwriting of the original in 
Lansd. MS. 388 is not like that of Samuel Foxe's 
fcnown manuscripts, and the manuscript has been 
elaborately corrected by a second pen. Samuel's 
claim is practically overthrown, and the sugges- 
tion that Simeon, Foxe's second son, who died in 
1641, was the author, is not of greater value, 
when the writer's ignorance of Foxe's real history 
is properly appreciated. The dates are very few 
and self-contradictory. The writer, who refers to 
Foxe as ' Foxius noster ' or ' ssepe audivi Foxium 



narrantem,' gives no hint outside the prefatory 
address to the reader that the subject of the bio- 
graphy was his father, and confesses ignorance on 
points about which a son could not have been with- 
out direct knowledge. Its value as an original au- 
thority is very small, and its attribution to Foxe 
of the power of prophecy and other miraculous 
gifts shows that it was chiefly written for pur- 
poses of religious edification. In 1579 Kichard 
Day, John Day's son, edited and translated Foxe's 
Christus Triumphans, and his preface supplies 
some good biographical notes. Strype, who in- 
tended writing a full life, is the best authority, 
although his references to Foxe are widely scat- 
tered through his works. The Annals, i. i. 375 
et seq., give a good account of the publication of 
the Actes. The careless memoir by Canon Town- 
send prefixed to the 1841 edition of the Actes and 
Monuments has been deservedly censured by Dr. 
Maitland. In 1870 it was rewritten by the Kev. 
Josiah Pratt, who took some advantage of the 
adverse criticism lavished on Townsend's work, 
and produced an improved memoir, forming the 
first volume of the Eeformation series of Church 
Historians of England. Wood's Athense Oxon. ; 
Fuller's Worthies and Church History; Tanner's 
Bibl. Brit. ; the Troubles at Frankfort ; Nichols's 
Narratives of the Keformation ; Dr. Haitland's 
pamphlets ; Notes and Queries, 2nd ser. ; and 
W. Winter's Biographical Notes on John Foxe, 
1876, are all useful.] S. L. L. 

FOXE or FOX, RICHARD (1448?- 
1528), bishop of Winchester, lord privy seal 
to Henry VII and Henry VIII, and founder 
of Corpus Christ! College, Oxford, was born 
at Ropesley, near Grantham, Lincolnshire, 
about 1447 or 1448. In his examination touch- 
ing the marriage of Henry VIII and Queen 
Catherine before Dr. Wolman on 5 and 6 April 
1527 he speaks of himself as seventy-nine 
years old. The house in which he was born, 
part of which is still standing, seems to have 
been known as Pullock's Manor. His parents, 
Thomas and Helena Foxe, probably belonged 
to the class of respectable yeomen, for, though 
it became afterwards common to speak of his 
mean extraction, his earliest biographer, 
Thomas Greneway (president of Corpus 
Christi College 1562-8), describes him as 
' honesto apud suos loco natus.' According 
to Wood, he was ' trained up in grammar at 
Boston, till such time that he might prove 
capable of the university.' According to 
another account, he received his school edu- 
cation at Winchester, but there is no early 
or documentary evidence of either statement. 
From Greneway onwards, his biographers 
agree that he was a student of Magdalen Col- 
lege, Oxford, though the careful antiquary, 
Fulman (1632-1688), adds ' most probably; ' 
but the explicit statement of Greneway, writ- 
ing in 1566, appears to derive striking confir- 

mation from the large number of Magdalen 
men who were imported by Foxe into his new 
college of Corpus Christi. From Oxford he is 
said to have been driven by the plague to Cam- 
bridge, with which university he was subse- 
quently connected as chancellor, and, at a 
still later period, as master of Pembroke. 
He did not, however, remain long in either 
of the English seats of learning. ' Long 
continuance in those places,' says William 
Harrison in his ' Description of England ' (2nd 
ed., 1586), 'is either a sign of lack of friends 
or of learning, or of good and upright life, as 
Bishop Fox sometime noted, who thought it 
sacrilege for a man to tarry any longer at 
Oxford than he had a desire to profit.' Im- 
pelled mainly, perhaps, by the love of learn- 
ing (GEENEWAT), and partly, perhaps, by 
the desire of adventure and advancement, 
Foxe repaired to Paris. 

'During his abode there,' according to 
Fulman, Henry, earl of Richmond, was in 
Paris soliciting help from the French king, 
Charles VIII, ' in his enterprise upon the 
English crown.' He took Foxe, then a priest 
and doctor of the canon law, ' into special 
favour and familiarity,' and, upon his de- 
parture for Rouen, ' made choice of Doctor 
Foxe to stay behind and pursue his negotia- 
tions in the French court, which he performed 
with such dexterity and success as gave great 
satisfaction to the earl.' 

The first definite notice we have of Foxe 
is in a letter of Richard III, dated 22 Jan. 
1484-5 (preserved in STOW, London and 
Westminster, sub. ' Stepney,' a reference due 
to Mr. Chisholm Batten), in which the king 
intervenes to prevent his institution to the 
vicarage of Stepney, on the ground that he 
is with the ' great rebel, Henry ap Tuddor.' 
The king's nominee, however, was never in- 
stituted, and Foxe (who is described in the 
register as L.B.) obtained possession of the 
living, 30 Oct. 1485. 

After the victory of Bosworth Field (22 Aug. 
1485) the Earl of Richmond, now Henry VII, 
constituted a council in which were included 
the two friends and fellow-fugitives, Morton, 
bishop of Ely, and Richard Foxe, ' vigilant 
men and secret,' says Bacon, 'and such as 
kept watch with him almost upon all men 
else.' On Foxe were conferred in rapid suc- 
cession, besides various minor posts, the offices 
of principal secretary of state, lord privy seal, 
and bishop of Exeter. The temporalities of 
the see of Exeter were restored on 2 April 
1487, and he at once appointed a suffragan 
bishop, evidently reserving himself for affairs 
of state. ' In conferring orders,' says Fulman, 
' and such like episcopal administrations, he 
made use of Thomas [Cornish, afterwards pro- 



vost of Oriel and precentor of Wells], titular 
bishop of Tine, as his suffragan ; himself, for 
the most part, as it seems, being detained by 
3iis public employments about the court.' On 
.28 Nov. of this same year was signed at 
Edinburgh a treaty between Henry VII and 
James III, which had been negotiated, on the 
part of England, by Foxe and Sir Richard 
Edgcombe, controller of the king's household. 
This treaty provided for a truce and also for 
certain intermarriages, including that of the 
king of Scots to Queen Elizabeth, widow of 
Edward IV, but the negotiations were after- 
wards broken oft', in consequence, it is said, 
of Henry's unwillingness to cede Berwick. 
In the summer of 1491 Foxe was honoured 
by being asked to baptise the king's second 
on, Prince Henry, afterwards Henry VIII. 
.[In Foxe's examination before Wolman he is 
reported as having distinctly stated that he 
baptised (baptizavit) Prince Henry. This 
statement is fully confirmed by a document 
in the College of Arms, of which a copy may 
be found in the Ashmolean MSS. vol. mcxv. 
fol. 92. The statement of Harpsfield (Hist. 
Angl. Eccl.} and others that Foxe was god- 
father is founded, probably, on a perverted 
tradition of the baptism.] Shortly after- 
wards (by papal bull dated 8 Feb. 1491-2) 
he was translated to the see of Bath and 
Wells, the episcopal work being, as at Exeter, 
delegated to the titular bishop of Tine, who 
already combined the duties of suffragan of 
this diocese with those of the diocese of 
Exeter. In the treaty of Estaples (3 Nov. 
1492), which terminated the siege of Bou- 
logne and the war recently commenced with 
Charles VIII of France, Foxe is mentioned 
iirst of the English ambassadors, Giles, lord 
Daubeney, being second, and others follow- 
ing. In 1494 (the temporalities were restored 
on 8 Dec.) Foxe was translated to Durham, 
probably not merely for the sake of advance- 
ment, but because his diplomatic talents were 
likely to be useful to the king on the Scottish 
border. In this diocese he seems to have been 
resident, and he left a permanent memorial 
of himself in the alterations which he made 
in the banqueting hall of the castle. It may 
be noticed that the woodwork in these altera- 
tions, which bears the date of 1499, already 
exhibits Foxe's device of the pelican in her 
piety, with his usual motto, ' Est Deo gracia.' 
In April 1496 Foxe acted as first commis- 
sioner in settling the important treaty called 
' Intercursus Magnus' (see BACON, Henry VII) 
with Philip, archduke of Austria, regulating 
divers matters concerning commerce, fishing, 
and the treatment of rebels, as between 
England and Flanders. In the summer of 
1497, during the troubles connected with 

Perkin Warbeck, James IV of Scotland in- 
vaded England, and besieged the castle of 
Norham. 'But,' says Bacon, 'Foxe, bishop 
of Duresme, a wise man, and one that could 
see through the present to the future, doubt- 
ing as much before, had caused his castle of 
Norham to be strongly fortified, and furnished 
with all kind of munition, and had manned 
it likewise with a very great number of tall 
soldiers more than for the proportion of the 
castle, reckoning rather upon a sharp assault 
than a long siege. And for the country, 
likewise, he had caused the people to with- 
draw their cattle and goods into fast places, 
that were not of easy approach ; and sent in 
post to the Earl of Surrey (who was not far 
off in Yorkshire) to come in diligence to the 
succour. So as the Scottish king both failed 
of doing good upon the castle, and his men 
had but a catching harvest of their spoils. 
And when he understood that the Earl of 
Surrey was coming on with great forces, he 
returned back into Scotland.' This fruitless 
siege was followed by certain negotiations 
with the king of Scots carried on by Foxe with 
the assistance of D'Ayala, the Spanish envoy 
of Ferdinand and Isabella, who had been inte- 
rested by Henry in his affairs. The result 
was that, though James refused to surrender 
Perkin Warbeck to the king of England, he 
contrived to facilitate his withdrawal to Ire- 
land, and in December 1497 a long truce was 
concluded between the two kingdoms. In 
the following year (probably in November 
1498) the peace thus established was in great 
danger of being again broken through the 
rough treatment which some Scottish strag- 
glers had received at the hands of the English 
soldiery quartered in Norham Castle. James 
was highly indignant at this outrage, but Foxe 
being appointed by Henry to mediate, and ob- 
taining an interview with the Scottish king 
at Melrose Abbey, skilfully brought about a 
reconciliation. The Scottish king appears 
to have taken advantage of the occasion to 
propose, or rather revive (for as early as 
1496 a commission to treat in this matter 
had been issued to Foxe and others), a pro- 
ject for a closer connexion between the two 
kingdoms by means of his own marriage with 
the Princess Margaret, eldest daughter of 
Henry VII. The offer was readily, if not 
greedily, accepted by Henry, though, on 
Foxe's advice, he determined to move in the 
matter slowly. It was not till 11 Sept. 
1499 that the second, and more effective, 
commission was issued to Foxe, empower- 
ing him to arrange the preliminaries of this 
marriage with the Scottish court. The mar- 
riage itself, which resulted in the permanent 
union of the English and Scottish crowns 




under James VI, did not take place till 
August 1503. Another marriage, almost 
equally important in its consequences, that 
between Prince Arthur, the king's eldest son, 
and Catherine of Arragon, subsequently the 
divorced wife of Henry VIII, had been 
solemnised on 14 Nov. 1501. The ceremo- 
nial was regulated by Foxe, who, says Bacon, 
' was not only a grave counsellor for war or 
peace, but also a good surveyor of works, 
and a good master of ceremonies, and any 
thing else that was fit for the active part 
belonging to the service of court or state of 
a great king.' Shortly before this event 
Foxe had been translated from Durham to 
Winchester, the temporalities of which see 
were restored to him on 17 Oct. 1501. It is 
probable that, besides his desire to reward 
Foxe still further (for Winchester is said to 
have been then the richest see in England), 
the king was anxious to have him nearer the 
court, especially as the differences with Scot- 
land might now seem to have been perma- 
nently settled. In 1500 Foxe also held the 
dignity of chancellor of the university of 

It is probably to 1504 that we may refer 
the story told of Foxe by Erasmus \Eccle- 
siastes, bk. ii. ed. Klein, ch. 150 ; cp. HOLINS- 
HED, Chronicles), and communicated to him, 
as he says, by Sir Thomas More. Foxe had 
been appointed chief commissioner for the 
purpose of raising a loan from the clergy. 
Some came in splendid apparel and pleaded 
that their expensesleft them nothingto spare ; 
others came meanly clad, as evidence of their 
poverty. The bishop retorted on the first 
class that their dress showed their ability 
to pay ; on the second that, if they dressed 
so meanly, they must be hoarding money, 
and therefore have something to spare for 
the king's service. A similar story is told of 
Morton, as having occurred at an earlier 
date, by Bacon {Hist. Henry VII), and the 
dilemma is usually known as Morton's fork 
or Morton's crutch. It is possible that it 
may be true of both prelates, but the authority 
ascribing it to Foxe appears to be the earlier 
of the two. It is curious that Bacon speaks 
only of ' a tradition ' of Morton's dilemma, 
whereas Erasmus professes to have heard the 
story of Foxe directly from Sir Thomas More, 
while still a young man, and, therefore, a 
junior contemporary of Foxe. 

The imputation cast on Morton and Foxe 
by Tyndale (The Practice of Prelates, Par- 
ker Soc. ed. p. 305), that they revealed to 
Henry VII ' the confessions of as many lords 
as his grace lusted,' is one which it is now 
impossible to examine, but it may be due 
merely to the ill-natured gossip of the enemies 

of these prelates, or of the catholic clergy 
generally. It is equally impossible, with the 
materials at our disposal, to estimate the jus- 
tice of the aspersion put in the mouth of 
Whitford, Foxe's chaplain, while attempting; 
to dissuade Sir Thomas More from following- 
the bishop's counsel (RopEK, Life of More, 
ad init.), that ' my lord, to serve the king's- 
turn, will not stick to agree to his own. 
father's death.' 

The year before the king's death (1508) 
Foxe with other commissioners succeeded in 
completing at Calais a treaty of marriage 
between the king's younger daughter, the 
Princess Mary, and Charles, prince of Castile 
and archduke of Austria, subsequently the 
emperor Charles V. Though the marriage 
itself never took place, the child-prince waa. 
betrothed, by proxy, to the child-princess at 
Richmond on 17 Dec. of this year (see RYMER, 
Fcedera, xiii. 236-9), and the immediate ob- 
jects of the alliance were thus secured. 

On 22 April 1509 Henry VII died. Foxe 
was one of his executors, Fisher, bishop of 
Rochester, whose preferment had been given, 
to him solely on Foxe's recommendation, being 
another. It is said by Harpsfield that Henry- 
had specially commended his son to Foxe'* 
care, and it is certain that he was continued 
in all the places of trust which he had occu- 
pied in the previous reign. According to> 
Archbishop Parker (De Antiquitate Britan- 
nicce Ecclesice}, Warham and Foxe, the two 
i first named on the new king's council, took 
different sides on the first question of import- 
ance which was discussed within it. War>- 
ham was averse to, while Foxe advised th 
marriage with Catherine, who had remained 
in England ever since the death of her first 
husband, Prince Arthur. The marriage was 
solemnised almost immediately afterwards by 
the archbishop himself, and the new king and 
queen were crowned together at Westminster 
within a few weeks of the marriage. It i 
insinuated by Parker that Foxe's advice was 
dictated solely by reasons of state, Warham 
by religious scruples. Foxe had been present, 
on 27 June 1505, when Henry, instigated, or 
at least not opposed, by his father (see RANKE, 
History of England, bk. ii. ch. 2), had solemnly 
protested, on the ground of his youth, against 
the validity of the engagement with Cathe- 
rine ; but this conduct does not necessarily 
prove inconsistency, as the object of Henry 
and his father may have been merely to keep 
the question open, and subsequent events may 
have persuaded Foxe of the desirability of 
the marriage, while he probably never doubted 
its legitimacy. 

The king's coronation was speedily fol- 
lowed by the death of his grandmother, the 




' Lady Margaret,' as she is usually called, 
countess of Richmond and Derby [see BEAU- 
FORT, MARGARET]. This pious lady named 
Foxe, in whom she appears to have reposed 
great confidence, together with Fisher and 
others, as one of her executors. He was thus 
concerned in what was probably the conge- 
nial employment of settling the incomplete 
foundation of St. John's College, Cambridge 
(that of Christ's had been completed before 
the Lady Margaret's death), though the prin- 
cipal merit of this work must be assigned to 
Fisher. In 1507 Foxe had been elected master 
of Pembroke College or Hall, in the same uni- 
versity, and continued to hold the office till 
1519. Richard Parker (LELAND, Collectanea, 
vol. v.), writing in 1622, describes him as ; a 
former fellow of Pembroke, and Doctor of 
Law of Paris. 

According to Polydore Vergil, the chief 
authority in Henry's council soon fell into 
the hands of Foxe and Thomas Howard, earl 
of Surrey. And according to the same writer 
(in whom, however, as Lord Herbert of Cher- 
bury remarks, ' I have observed not a little 
malignity '), mutual jealousies and differences 
soon sprang up between these two power- 
ful counsellors. One cause at least assigned 
for these differences seems highly probable, 
namely, the propensity of Surrey to squander 
the wealth which, under the previous reign, 
Foxe and his master had so diligently col- 
lected and so carefully husbanded. 

The altercation between Warham and Foxe 
(1510-13) as to the prerogatives of the Arch- 
bishop of Canterbury with regard to the pro- 
bate of wills and the administration of the 
estates of intestates, is narrated at length by 
Archbishop Parker in the work above cited, 
and is confirmed by documentary evidence. 
Foxe, supported by Bishops Fitzjames, Smith, 
and Oldham, appealed to Rome, but, as the 
cause was unduly spun out in the papal court, 
they finally procured its reference to the king, 
who decided the points mainly in their favour. 
In 1510 Foxe was employed, in common with 
Ruthall, bishop of Durham, and the Earl of 
Surrey, to conclude a treaty of peace with 
Louis XII of France. But this peace was 
not destined to last long, and the war with 
France, which broke out in 1513, brought 
another and a younger counsellor to the front. 
' Wolsey's vast influence with the king,' says 
J. S. Brewer (Reign of Henri/ VIII}, ' dates 
from this event. Though holding no higher 
rank than that of almoner, it is clear that the 
management of the war, in all its multifa- 
rious details, has fallen into his hands. . . . 
Well may Fox say, " I pray God send us with 
speed, and soon deliver you out of your out- 
rageous charge and labour, else ye shall have 

a cold stomach, little sleep, pale visage, and 
a thin belly, cum pari egestione"' Wolsey,, 
Foxe, and Ruthall all attended the army 
which invaded France, the former with two 
hundred, the two latter with one hundred 
men each ; but it does not follow that these 
ecclesiastics were present at any engagement. 
On 7 Aug. 1514 a treaty of peace and also a 
treaty of marriage between Louis XII and 
the Princess Mary were concluded at London, 
Foxe being one of the commissioners. At 
this time J. S. Brewer regards him as still 
powerful in the council, though his influence 
was inferior to that of Wolsey, of Surrey (now 
Duke of Norfolk), and of Charles Brandon, 
duke of Suffolk. ' Foxe was,' says Giustinian, 
the Venetian ambassador, ' a lord of extreme 
authority and goodness.' But advancing yearsy 
combined probably with weariness of political 
life, with a certain disinclination to the foreign 
policy, favourable to the empire and antago- 
nistic to France, which now prevailed, and, 
there can be no doubt from his extant letters, 
with genuine compunction for the prolonged 
neglect of his spiritual duties, made him 
anxious to retire from affairs of state. At 
the beginning of 1516 he resigned the cus- 
tody of the privy seal, which was committed 
to Ruthall, and henceforth he seldom ap- 
peared at the council. 

The traditional story of "Wolsey's ingra- 
titude to Foxe, of the growing alienation 
between them, and of Foxe being ultimately 
driven from the council board through the in- 
trigues of Wolsey, 'owes its parentage,' as 
Brewer says, ' to the spite of Polydore Vergil, 
whom Wolsey had committed to prison. The 
historian would have us believe that Wolsey 
paved the way for his own advancement by 
supplanting Fox, and driving him from the 
council. . . . The insinuation is at variance 
with the correspondence of the two ministers. 
We see in their letters not only the cordial 
friendship which existed between them, but 
also the rooted disinclination of Fox to a life 
of diplomacy. It is only with the strongest 
arguments that Wolsey can prevail on him 
to give his attendance at the court and oc- 
cupy his seat at the council table. He was 
always anxious to get away. He felt it in- 
consistent with his duties as a bishop to be 
immersed in politics, and he laments it to- 
Wolsey in terms the sincerity of which cannot 
be mistaken. . . . So far from driving Fox from 
the court, it is the utmost that Wolsey can 
do to bring him there, and when he succeeds 
it is evidently more out of compassion for 
Wolsey's incredible labours than his own 
inclination.' In a letter to Wolsey, dated 
23 April 1516 (Letters and Papers of the 
Reign of Henry VIII, ii. pt. i. 515), Foxe pro- 




tests that he never had greater will to serve 
the king's father than the king himself, espe- 
cially since Wolsey's great charge, ' perceiving 
better, straighter, and speedier ways of jus- 
tice, and more diligence and labour for the 
king's right, duties, and profits to be in you 
than ever I see in times past in any other, 
and that I myself had more ease in attend- 
ance upon you in the said matters than ever 
I had before.' Had he not good impediment 
and the king's license to be occupied in his 
cure, to make satisfaction for twenty-eight 
years' negligence, he would be very blameable 
and unkind not to accept the invitation to 
court, considering Wolsey's goodness to him in 
times past. In a letter to Wolsey, written at a 
later date, 30 April 1522, Foxe speaks with 
still greater compunction of his former neglect 
of his spiritual duties, and with a still more 
fixed determination to take no further part in 
the affairs of state, to which Wolsey was en- 
deavouring to recall his attention : ' Truly, my 
singular good lord, since the king's grace li- 
censed me to remain in my church and there- 
abouts upon my cure, wherein I have been 
almost by the space of thirty years so negli- 
gent, that of four several cathedral churches 
that I have successively had, there be two, 
scilicet, " Excestre and Welly s," that I never 
see ; and " innumerable sawles whereof I never 
see the bodyes ; " and specially since by his 
licence I left the keeping of his privy seal, and 
most specially since my last departing from 
your good lordship and the council, I have de- 
termined, and, betwixt God and me, utterly re- 
nounced the meddling with worldly matters ; 
specially concerning the war [with France] 
or anything to it appertaining (whereof for 
the many intolerable enormities that I have 
seen ensue by the said war in time past, I 
have no little remorse in my conscience), 
thinking that if I did continual penance for 
it all the days of my life, though I shall live 
twenty years longer than I may do, I could 
not yet make sufficient recompence therefor.' 
The tone of this letter, though the bishop's de- 
termination is firm,is throughout most friendly 
to Wolsey. Foxe's aversion to the French 
war had, it is plain from the passage quoted, 
as well as from subsequent parts of the letter, 
something to do with his disinclination to 
quit his pastoral charge, even for ever so brief 
a period, for the secular business of the court. 
In fact, of the two parties into which the 
council and the country were divided, the 
French and the German party, Foxe, as comes 
out plainly in the despatches of Giustinian, 
favoured the former. 

The closing years of Foxe's life were spent 
in the quiet discharge of his episcopal duties, 
in devotional exercises, and the acts of libe- 

rality and munificence through which his 
memory now mainly survives. He was not, 
however, without trouble in his diocese. Wri- 
ting to Wolsey, 2 Jan. 1520-1, he expresses 
satisfaction at Wolsey's proposed reformation 
of the clergy, the day of which he had de- 
sired to see, as Simeon desired to see the 
Messiah. As for himself, though, within his 
own small jurisdiction, he had given nearly 
all his study to this work for nearly three 
years, yet, whenever he had to correct and 
punish, he found the clergy, and particularly 
(what he did not at first suspect) the monks, 
so depraved, so licentious and corrupt, that 
he despaired of any proper reformation till 
the work was undertaken on a more general 
scale, and with a stronger arm. Once more 
we hear of him in a public capacity in 1523. 
The enormous subsidy of that year was ener- 
getically opposed in convocation, according 
to Polydore Vergil, by Foxe and Fisher, 
though of course without success. The charge 
on Foxe himself amounted to 2,000/., on the 
Archbishop of Canterbury to 1,000/., on Wol- 
sey to 4,000/. The largeness of the revenues 
of the great sees at this time is strikingly 
illustrated by the fact that Foxe's newly 
founded college of Corpus was rated only at 
133/. 6s. 8d., and the two richest colleges in 

; Oxford, Magdalen and New Colleges, only at 

; 333/. 6s. 8d. each. 

The story that shortly before his death 
Wolsey proposed to Foxe that he should retire 
from his bishopric on a pension, and that Foxe 
tartly replied that though he could no longer 

! distinguish white from black, yet he could 

i well discern the malice of an ungrateful 
man, and bade him attend closer to the king's 
business, leaving Winchester to the care of 
her bishop, rests solely on the authority of 
Archbishop Parker. It is inconsistent with 
what we know otherwise of Foxe's relations 
with Wolsey, and has an apocryphal flavour. 
Foxe, who appears to have been totally 
blind for ten years before bis death, died, pro- 
bably at his castle of Wolvesey in Winches- 
ter, on 5 Oct. 1528. According to a document 
found in his coffin, from which this date is 
taken, he was buried on the very same day, 
the place of sepulture being the splendid 
Gothic chapel in Winchester Cathedral, 
which he had previously constructed. The 
ecclesiastical historian, Harpsfield, says that, 
being then a boy at Winchester School, he was 
present at the funeral. This devout and gentle 
prelate passed away at an opportune moment, 
when the troubles connected with the divorce 
were only in their initial stage. He was suc- 
ceeded by Wolsey, who held the see of Win- 
chester as perpetual Administrator. 

The most permanent memorial of Foxe is 




his college of Corpus Christ! at Oxford, the 
foundation and settlement of which attracted 
great attention at the time (1515-16). Its 
most distinctive characteristic was the re- 
cognition of the new learning, a public lec- 
turer in Greek being one of its principal 
officers. The foundation of this lectureship 
appears to have been the first official recogni- 
tion of the Greek language in either university. 
Innovations almost equally startling were his 
bringing over the distinguished humanist, 
Ludovicus Vives, from the south of Italy to 
be reader of Latin, and his provision that the 
reader in theology should, in his interpreta- 
tions of scripture, follow the Greek and Latin 
fathers rather than the scholastic commen- 
tators. The reader in Latin was carefully to 
extirpate all ' barbarism ' from ' our bee-hive,' 
the name by which Foxe was accustomed 
fondly to designate his college. Indeed,Corpus 
and the subsequent foundations of Christ 
Church at Oxford and Trinity at Cambridge 
were emphatically the colleges of the Re- 
naissance. Among the early fellows was Re- 
ginald Pole (afterwards cardinal), who with 
several others was transferred from Magda- 
len to his new college by the founder him- 
self. Erasmus, writing in 1519 to John 
Claymond [q.v.], the first president, who had 
previously been president of Magdalen (JZp. 
lib. iv.), speaks of the great interest which had 
been taken in Foxe's foundation by Wolsey, 
Campeggio, and Henry VIII himself, and pre- 
dicts that the college will be ranked ' inter 
praecipua decora Britannise,' and that its ' tri- 
linguis bibliotheca ' will attract more scholars 
to Oxford than were formerly attracted to 
Rome. It had been Foxe's original intention 
to establish a house in Oxford, after the fashion 
of Durham and Canterbury Colleges, for the 
reception of young monks of St. Swithin's 
monastery at Winchester while pursuing 
academical studies ; but he was persuaded by 
Bishop Oldham of Exeter (himself a great 
benefactor to the college) to change his foun- 
dation into the more common form of one 
for the secular clergy. ' What, my lord,' 
Oldham is represented as saying by John 
Hooker, alias Vowell, in Holinshed, ' shall 
we build houses and provide livelihoods for a 
company of bussing monks, whose end and 
fall we ourselves may live to see ; no, no, it 
is more meet a great deal that we should 
have care to provide for the increase of learn- 
ing, and for such as who by their learning 
shall do good in the church and common- 
wealth.' The college (which it may be noted 
was founded out of the private revenues of 
Foxe and his friends, and not, as was the case 
with some other foundations, out of ecclesias- 
tical spoils) still possesses the crosier, the gold 

chalice and patin, with many other relics of 
its founder. In addition to this notable foun- 
dation Foxe also built and endowed schools 
at Taunton and Grantham (the school of Sir 
Isaac Newton), besides making extensive ad- 
ditions and alterations in Winchester Cathe- 
dral, Farnham Castle, and the hospital of St. 
Cross. His alterations in Durham Castle 
and his fortifications at Norham have been 
already noticed. He was a benefactor also 
to the abbeys of Glastonbury and Netley, to 
Magdalen College, Oxford, and Pembroke 
College, Cambridge, and seems to have con- 
tributed largely to what we should now call 
the 'restoration' of St. Mary's Church, Ox- 
ford, as well as to the reduction of the floods 
in Oxford in the year of pestilence, 1517 
(WooD, Annals, sub ann.) He is also said 
to have been concerned in the building of 
Henry VII's Chapel at Westminster, the 
architecture of which, though on a much 
larger scale, resembles that of his own chapel 
in Winchester Cathedral. Notwithstanding 
these numerous benefactions, his household 
appointments seem to have been on a magni- 
ficent scale. Harpsfield tells us that he had 
no less than 220 serving-men. 

In 1499 a little book, entitled ' Contem- 
placyon of Synners,' was printed by Wynken 
de Worde, ' compyled and fynyshed at the 
devoute and dylygent request of the ryght 
reverende fader in God the lorde Rycharde 
bysshop of Dureham,' &c. It is possible that 
Foxe himself may have had a hand in this 
work. He also edited the 'Processional,' 
according to the use of Sarum, which was 
printed at Rouen, in 1508. At a later period 
he translated the Rule of St. Benedict for the 
benefit of the ' devout, religious women ' of 
his diocese. The book was beautifully printed 
byPynson on 22 Jan. 1516-17. From a letter 
to Wolsey, written on 18 Jan. 1527-28, it 
would appear that Foxe had at a subsequent 
time much trouble with some of his nuns. 

There are several portraits of Foxe at Cor- 
pus Christi College, the principal of which 
is the one in the hall by ' Joannes Corvus, 
Flandrus ' [see CORVUS], which represents 
him as blind. Some of these portraits are 
independent, and apparently independent of 
them all are one at Lambeth Palace, and one, 
taken in 1522, at Sudeley Castle, Gloucester- 
shire. Among the engraved portraits are one 
by Vertue, 1723, and one by Faber, circa 
1713 ; the former of the picture by Corvus, 
the latter of a picture, also in the possession 
of the college, representing the bishop while 
still having his sight. 

[Greneway's MS. Life of Foxe, and Fulman 
MSS.vol.ix. in C. C. C. Library; Anthony a Wood 
in Hist, and Antiquities of the Colleges and Halls 




of Oxford; Cooper's Athenae Cantab.; Holins- 
hed's Chronicles; Polydore Vergil; Parker's 
Antiquitates Britannicae ; Harpsfield's Hist. An- 
glicana Ecclesiastica ; Harrison's Description of 
England ; Godwin, De Praesulibus Angliae ; 
Kymer's Fcedera ; Bacon's Henry VII ; Brewer's 
Henry VIII ; Letters and Papers of the Eeigns 
of Henry VII and Henry VIII; Giustinian's 
Despatches ; Ellis's Original Letters, 2nd ser. ; 
Surtees's Hist, of Durham ; William de Chambre 
in the Historise Dunelmensis Scriptores tres, pub- 
lished by the Surtees Soc. ; Cassan's Lives of 
the Bishops of Winchester and of the Bishops of 
Bath and Wells, &c., besides valuable informa- 
tion received from Mr. Chisholm Batten and the 
Eev. F. A. Gasquet, O.S.B.] T. F. 

FOXE, SAMUEL (1560-1630), diarist, 
eldest son of John Foxe, the martyrologist 
[q. v.], was born at Norwich on 31 Dec. 
1560 (Diary), and admitted into Merchant 
Taylors' School, London, on 20 Oct. 1572 
(School Register). In 1574 he went to Ox- 
ford, where he was elected demy of Magdalen 
College. In 1576 he left for France without 
permission of his tutors or knowledge of his 
father. He was, however, readmitted to the 
college, although he is said to have acquired 
a fondness for dress, which displeased his 
father. In 1579 he was elected probationer, 
and in 1580 fellow of his college. In 1581 
he was expelled on religious grounds. He 
seems to have quarrelled with some of his 
colleagues who adopted the extremer forms 
ofpuritanism. His father temperately pleaded 
for his restoration, and wrote to a bishop, pro- 
bably Horn of Winchester, soliciting his help 
in the matter. Meanwhile Samuel spent more 
than three years in foreign travel, visiting the 
universities of Leipzig, Padua, and Basle. He 
returned to England in 1585, and was restored 
to his fellowship. His father gave him a lease 
of Shipton, "Wiltshire, attached to the pre- 
bend which the elder Foxe held in Salisbury 
Cathedral. In 1587 he was admitted into the 
service of Sir Thomas Heneage of Copt Hall, 
Essex, and became custodian of Havering- 
atte-Bower and clerk of Epping. On 15 April 
1589 he married Anne Leveson, a kinswoman 
of Sir Thomas Heneage. He was chosen 
burgess for the university of Oxford in 1590. 
The parliament in which he sat was of very 
brief duration, but it passed probably with 
Foxe's aid a valuable and much needed act 
directed against abuses in the election to 
fellowships, scholarships, and similar posi- 
tions. About 1594 he settled at Warlies, near 
Waltham Abbey, and died there in January 
1629-30. He was buried at Waltham Abbey 
16 Jan. His will was dated 22 June 1629 
(see MS. Lansd. 819, f. 32). A treatise on the 
Apocalypse, dedicated to Archbishop Whit- 

gift, is said to have been written by him. The 
' Life ' of his father, prefixed to the second 
volume of the ' Actes and Monuments ' in the 
edition of 1641, has been repeatedly ascribed 
to him. But internal evidence is much op- 
posed to this theory of authorship [see FOXE, 
JOHN, ad Jin.~\ His ' Diary,' very brief and 
extending over only a portion of his life, will bo 
found in the appendix to Strype's ' Annals.' 
The original is in 'MS. Lansd."' 679. A letter 
to his brother Simeon is in ' MS. Harl.' 416, 
f. 222, and a continuation of his travels in 
'MS. Lansd.' 679. The latter pieces are 
printed in W. Winter's ' Biographical Notes 
on Foxe the Martyrologist,' 1876. 

By his wife Anne, who was buried by her 
husband 18 May 1630, Foxe had three sons, 
Thomas, John, and Robert. THOMAS FOXE, 
M.D. (1591-1652), born at Havering Palace 
14 Feb. 1591; matriculated from Magdalen 
Hall, Oxford, 19 June 1607; was demy of Mag- 
dalen College 1608-13, and fellow 1613-30 
(BLOXAM, v. 30), proceeding B.A. 1611 and" 
M.A. 1614. He was bursar of his college in 
1622, and junior proctor of the university 
1620-1. He afterwards studied medicine, 
proceeding M.D. at Oxford, and was a candi- 
date of the London College of Physicians 

25 June 1623. A letter describing Ben Jon- 
son's reception at Oxford, written by Thomas 
Foxe to his father, is preserved in ' MS. Harl.' 
416, f. 226, and has been printed by Mr. 

| Winters. On 8 May 1634 James Hay, earl of 
Carlisle, applied to him for aloan of 500A He 
seems to have acquired much property, and to 
have been friendly with men eminent in litera- 
ture and society. He died at Warlies 20 Nov. 
1662, and was buried in Waltham Abbey 

26 Nov. He married Anne, daughter of 
Richard Honeywood of Charing, Kent, and 
Marleshall, Essex, and grand-daughter of Mrs. 
Mary Honeywood, the pious friend of his- 
grandfather, the martyrologist. By her he 

I left a daughter Alice, who married Sir 
Richard AVillys, bart. Robert, Samuel's 
youngest son, was a captain in the navy, and 
died in 1646. He wrote to his elder brother 
an interesting letter descriptive of the trial 
of the Earl and Countess of Somerset. 

[Wood's Athenae Oxon. ed. Bliss, i. 533 ; 
Bloxam's Reg. of Magd. Coll. iv. 190-9 ; Strype's 
Annals, bk. ii. No. xlviii.; Winters's Biographical 
Notes, 1876.] C. J. E. 

FOXE, SIMEON, M.D. (156&-1 642), pre- 
sident of the College of Physicians, born in 
1568 ' in the house of the Duke of Norfolk,' 
was the youngest son of John Foxe, the 
martyrologist [q. v.]. He was educated at 
Eton, and on 24 Aug. 1583 was elected a 
scholar of King's College, Cambridge, where- 




le proceeded B.A. in 1587, having become a 
fellow 24 Aug. 1586. He graduated M.A. in 
1591. Bishop Piers promised him a prebend, 
but he preferred to study medicine. After 
leaving college he resided for some time with 
Archbishop Whitgift, then visited Italy, and 
took the degree of M.D. at Padua. On his 
return home he engaged in military service, 
and was with Sir John Norris and the Earl 
of Southampton in Ireland and the Nether- 
lands. In the Low Countries he is said to 
have been taken prisoner and detained for 
a time at Dunkirk. He reached London in 
1603, and shortly afterwards commenced to 
practise, attaining to the highest eminence 
in his profession. He was admitted a can- 
didate of the College of Physicians on 30 
Sept. 1605, and a fellow on 25 June 1608. 
He was censor in 1614, 1620, 1621, 1623, 
1624, 1625, 1631, and 1632; registrar on 
20 Nov. 1627, on the death of Dr. Matthew 
Gwinne ; treasurer on 3 Dec. 1629, on Har- 
vey's resignation of that office ; anatomy 
reader, 1630 ; elect, 22 Dec. 1630, in place 
of Dr. Thomas Moundeford, deceased ; presi- 
dent from 1634 to 1640 ; consiliarius in 1641. 
He died at the college house at Amen Corner, 
Paternoster Row, on 20 April 1642. In his 
will, dated 21 Oct. 1641, proved by his ne- 
phew, Thomas Fox, he describes himself as 
of the parish of St. Martin's, Ludgate, Lon- 
don, and desires ' to be buried in Christian 
buriall within the Cathedrall Church of St. 
Paule in London, as neere to the monument 
of Doctor Lynacer as conveniently may be,' 
bequeathing the sum of 201. ' towards the re- 
payring of the same Cathedrall' (registered 
in P. C. C. 51, Cambell). He was buried ac- 
cording to his directions on 24 April. He 
also bequeathed to the college 40/., to which 
his nephew added another 60Z. ' On 22 Dec. 
1656 the college, on the proposition of Dr. 
Baldwin Hamey, unanimously voted the erec- 
tion of a marble bust to his memory in the 
Harveian Museum ; ' the statue was destroyed 
in the great fire of 1666, as was his monu- 
inent in St. Paul's erected by his nephew. 
His portrait in the college was one of two 
pictures rescued from the fire, but has dis- 
appeared. He attended John Donne, dean 
of St. Paul's, and contributed liberally to- 
wards the erection of a monument to his 
memory. In Harleian MS. 416 (if. 203b, 
210, 214) are three Latin letters of Fox, two 
of which are addressed to his father and 
brother Samuel respectively. The life of his 
father prefixed to the second volume of the 
1641 edition of the ' Actes and Monuments,' 
long attributed to his brother Samuel, has 
lately been assigned, on very feeble grounds, 
to Simeon himself. He was certainly alive 

at the date of its publication, when Samuel 
had been dead twelve years. But internal 
evidence does not justify Simeon's claim to 
the memoir [see FOXE, JOHN, adfin.~\ 

[Munk's Coll. of Phys.(1878),i. 147-8; Har- 
wood's Alumni Eton. p. 193 ; Winters's Biogra- 
phical Notes on John Foxe, pp. 33, 36-38.] 

G. Gr. 

TOY, NATHANIEL, D.D. (d. 1707), 
bishop of Waterford and Lismore, son of 
John Foy, M.D., was born at York, and edu- 
cated at Trinity College, Dublin, of which he 
became a senior fellow (M.A. 1671, B.D. and 
D.D. 1684). He was ordained priest in 1670, 
and in the same year was installed as a canon 
of Kildare. On 20 Dec. 1678 he was ap- 
pointed minister of the parish of St. Bride, 
Dublin. In the reign of James II he stood 
up boldly in defence of the established church. 
Crowds assembled at St. Bride's every alter- 
nate Sunday to hear his replies to the ser- 
mons delivered at Christ Church on the pre- 
ceding Sundays by a doctor of the Sorbonne 
in the presence of the king. This task he 
accomplished by means of abstracts of his 
antagonist's arguments supplied to him by 
gentlemen who wrote shorthand. He was 
prevented from preaching on several occa- 
sions by the menaces of some of the king's 
guard, and his firmness in supporting the 
protestant faith led to his being imprisoned, 
together with Dr. King and other clergymen. 

After the battle of the Boyne his con- 
stancy was rewarded by William III, who 
promoted him to the united sees of Water- 
ford and Lismore by letters patent 13 July 
1691. In September 1695 he was imprisoned 
in Dublin Castle for three days by order of 
the House of Lords, because he had spoken 
disrespectfully of that assembly in a protest 
against the rejection of a bill for union and 
division of parishes. He died in Dublin on 
31 Dec. 1707, and was buried at the west 
end of Waterford Cathedral, in St. Saviour's 

During his lifetime he expended 80QL on 
the improvement of the palace at Waterford, 
and by his will he established and endowed 
the free school at Grantstown. His only 
publication is ' A Sermon preached in Christ's 
Church, Dublin, on 23 Oct. 1698, being the 
anniversary thanksgiving for putting an end 
to the Irish Rebellion, which broke out on 
that day 164] . Before the House of Lords,' 
Dublin 1698, 4to. 

[Ware's Bishops (Harris), p. 543 ; Cotton's 
Fasti, i. 130, ii. 250,v. 29, 273 ; Taylor's Univ. of 
Dublin, p. 416 ; Todd's Cat. of Dublin Graduates, 
p. 207; Killen's Eccl. Hist, of Ireland, ii. 184; 
Luttrell's Hist. Kelation of State Affairs, ii. 213, 




vi. 265; Smith's Waterford (1774), p. 188 ; Mant's 
Hist, of the Church of Ireland, ii. 12, 23, 63, 92, 
195, 196.] T. C. 

1865), historical painter, -was born at Lille 
in 1778, studied in Paris, and afterwards in 
Italy. He settled in London in 1816, and 
sent to the Royal Academy in the following 
year ' Milton dictating Paradise Lost to his 
Daughter.' He then resided at No. 4 Nassau 
Street, Middlesex Hospital. He also con- 
tributed thirty-six pictures to the British 
Institution, and two in Suffolk Street, be- 
tween 1817 and 1854. In this latter year 
his address was 5 Brecknock Crescent, Cam- 
den New Town, where he painted the por- 
trait of the son of W. T. Barnes of Rowley 
Lodge, Shenley, Hertfordshire. This was ex- 
hibited at the Royal Academy. The fol- 
lowing rank among his best works : ' The 
Escape of Mary Queen of Scots from Loch- 
leven Castle,' engraved by H. Dawe ; ' The 
Earl of Leicester's Visit to Amy Robsart at 
Canmore Place,' engraved by Charles Turner 
in 1826; 'Queen Elizabeth and Lady Paget,' 
engraved by William Say in 1828 ; ' Mary 
Queen of Scots and her Secretary, Chastelard,' 
' Rebecca and Ivanhoe,' ' Belinda at her 
Toilet,' and ' Lady Jane Grey,' most of which 
are in the collections at Pet worth, Munich, 
Holland House, &c. The original drawing, 
dated 1824, in black chalk, of the picture 
representing the Earl of Leicester's visit to 
Amy Robsart is in the department of prints 
and drawings, British Museum. He died 
14 March 1865. 

[Redgrave's Diet, of Artists.] L. F. 


1788), Greek professor at Cambridge, was the 
son of John Fraigneau, of Huguenot extrac- 
tion. He was born in London in 1717, and 
became a queen's scholar at Westminster 
School in 1731. He proceeded to Trinity 
College, Cambridge, in 1736. Graduating 
B.A. 1739 and M.A. 1743, he took holy 
orders, and was elected a fellow. In 1743 
he was appointed professor of Greek to the 
university, and held that position till 1750, 
when he resigned it. He then accepted the 
post of tutor to the family of Frederick, 
lord Bolingbroke, and in March 1758 was by 
him presented to the living of Battersea. 
Three years later the same patron gave him 
the living of Beckenham, Kent, and in 1765 
a dispensation passed to enable Fraigneau to 
hold the two livings conjointly. He retained 
both appointments till his death, which took 
place at Brighton 12 Sept. 1788. He is de- 
scribed by Cole (Athence Cantab. F. p. 109) 
as ' a little man of great life and vivacity.' 

[Le Neve's Fasti Eccl. Angl. ; Hasted's Kent, 
i. 88; Manning and Bray's Surrey, iii. 341 ; 
Gen. Even. Post, 15 Sept. 1788 ; Nichols's Lit. 
Anecd. iv. 278 ; Welch's Alumni Westmonast. 
303, 313, 314.] A. V. 

1681), physician, was born in Scotland about 
1610, and graduated M.D. at Montpelier on 
1 Oct. 1635. He was incorporated at Cam- 
bridge 9 March 1637, and was elected a fellow 
of the College of Physicians of London on 
23 Nov. 1641. He was a faithful royalist, 
followed Charles II abroad, and became his 
physician. The king placed confidence in 
him, and he was in turn courted and abused 
by the violent rival factions which grew up 
among the English exiles on the continent. 
He was once friendly with Hyde, and at 
another time avoided communication with 
him. He was declared by the king to be ex- 
cellent as a physician, and was employed in 
court affairs. There was probably some resem- 
blance of character which sustained the con- 
fidential relation ; but the conclusion stated 
by some contemporary writers, that the phy- 
sician was as unprincipled as his royal pa- 
tient, is unsupported by evidence, and no- 
weight attaches to the abuse of Sir John 
Denham and of Pepys. Denham's attacks are 
founded on personal enmity, of which the 
cause is not now known. Pepys's informant 
was Pierce, a groom of the privy chamber, 
who repeated backstairs' gossip. The respect 
with which Fraizer is mentioned by Dr. Ed- 
ward Browne {Travels, ed. 1685, p. 115), and 
the fact that on 26 July 1666 he was chosen 
an elect at the College of Physicians, a dis- 
tinction which his being king's physician 
would not have obtained for him had his pro- 
fessional character been low, are evidences 
of his general uprightness. Sir Edmund- 
bury Godfrey, who dealt in wood, arrested 
Fraizer for a wood bill of about 301. The 
bailiffs were beaten by the king's order, but 
this was not due to any misconduct on the- 
physician's part, but to royal indignation at 
a supposed breach of a prerogative. Few- 
records of Fraizer's practice remain ; he at- 
tended the princess royal in the attack of 
small-pox which ended fatally on Christmas 
eve, 1660, and the young Dukes of Cambridge- 
and Kendal in the illness which killed both 
in 1667, and he superintended the successful 
trepanning of Prince Rupert's skull on Sun- 
day, 3 Feb. 1666. At Cologne Mr. Elburg 
was his apothecary. Soon after the Restora- 
tion he was knighted, and his wife made a 
dresser to the queen. He died 3 May 1681.. 
He had a son, Charles, who became a fellow 
of Trinity College, Cambridge, was physician 






in ordinary to Charles II, and was elected a 
fellow of the College of Physicians in 1684. 

[Hunk's Coll. of Phys. i. 233 ; Pepys's Diary, 
6th ed. i. 134, ii. 168, iii. 55, 118, iv. 179.] 

N. M. 

FRAMPTON, JOHN (/. 1577-1596), 
merchant, was resident for many years in 
Spain, and on his retirement about 1576 to 
his native country employed his leisure in 
translating from Spanish into English the 
following : Escalante's ' A Discourse of the 
Navigation which the Portugales doe Make,' 
dedicated to Edward Dyer, 1579, 4to ; Mo- 
nardes's ' Joyfull Newes ovt of the Newe 
Founde Worlde,' dedicated to Edward Dyer, 
1577, 1580 (with three other tracts by Mo- 
nardes), 1596, 4to; Marco Polo's 'Travels,' 
1579, 4to ; ' An Account of the Empire of 
China in 1579 ' (in ' Harleian Collection of 
Voyages,' 1745, vol. ii.) 

[Joyfull Newes, 1st ed. pref. ; Tanner's Bibl. 
Brit. p. 297; Brit. Mus. Cat. of Books before 
1640.] B. D. J. 

FRAMPTON, MARY(1773-1846),writer 
of a journal, was the daughter of James 
Frampton of Moreton, Dorsetshire, by his 
second wife Phillis, who had been previously 
married to Dr. Charlton Wollaston. Framp- 
ton died in 1784, but his widow survived until 
1829, when she had reached her ninety-second 
year. She was evidently an accomplished 
person, with a wide circle of well-connected 
relations and friends. Mary Frampton during 
the earlier part of her life went with her 
parents to London once every two years, and 
was present at the Gordon riots, the Warren 
Hastings trial, and the thanksgiving service 
for the recovery of George IIIinl789. About 
two years after her father's death she and her 
mother settled at Dorchester, and formed a 
centre for the society of the county. Miss 
Frampton is said by all who have any recol- 
lection of her to have been a most agreeable 
person. Her views were evidently those 
of a strong tory. She died, unmarried, on 
12 Nov. 1846. 

Miss Frampton's ' Journal from the year 
1779 until the year 1846, edited with notes 
by her niece, Harriot Georgina Mundy,' was 
published in 1885. It begins in 1803, pre- 
faced by reminiscences from 1779, and incor- 
porating a large correspondence from friends 
and , acquaintances, together with much ad- 
ditional information supplied by the editor, 
Mrs. Mundy, who died in January 1886. 
The whole forms an interesting picture of 
the times, and gives, in particular, a good 
deal of information about the court. The 
Framptons became acquainted with the family 

of George III during his frequent visits to 
Weymouth, and their correspondents sup- 
plied them with many stories about the 
prince regent and his relations with Mrs. 
Fitzherbert, Lady Jersey, and Caroline of 
Brunswick; also about the Princess Char- 
lotte, whose governess, Mrs. Campbell, was 
a great friend of the Framptons. The book 
deals with public affairs and society talk, 
giving anecdotes about Mrs. Montagu, ' Mary 
of Buttermere,' Archbishop Sumner, Miss 
Edgeworth, Napoleon and his widow, the 
Empress Maria Louisa, Charles X of France, 
and Baron Stockmar, and touching upon 
events like the outbreak of the French re- 
volution, the French invasion of Wales in 
1797, the visit of the allied sovereigns to 
London in 1814, and the riots and Swing 
fires of 1830. 

[Mary Frampton's Journal mentioned above ; 
information from the Mundy family. For reviews 
of the Journal see the Athenaeum, Academy, and 
Saturday Review, 7 Nov. 1885, and the Spectator, 
10 April 1886.] L. C. S. 

FRAMPTON, ROBERT (1622-1708), 
bishop of Gloucester, was born at Pimperne, 
near Blandford in Dorsetshire, 26 Feb. 1622. 
He was the youngest of eight children, his 
father being a respectable farmer. He was 
educated at the Blandford grammar school, 
whence he went to Oxford as an exhibitioner 
at Corpus Christ! College. Here he was much 
neglected by his tutor, and by the aid of some 
influential friends was transferred to Christ 
Church, where he was placed under the tui- 
tion of Mr. Zouch. He took his degree with 
credit, and soon afterwards set up a private 
school at Farnham, Dorsetshire. He then 
obtained the appointment of head-master of 
the school of Gillingham in the same county, 
where he had a hundred boys under him. 
During the period of the war between the 
king and parliament, Frampton, professing 
high loyal principles, was involved in a 
quarrel with one Gage, a parliamentary 
officer in the neighbourhood. It appears that 
on more than one occasion they came to 
blows. Frampton and his brothers were en- 
gaged on the king's side in the battle of Ham- 
bledon Hill. He now determined in spite 
of the difficulties of the time to take orders, 
and was privately ordained by Skinner, bishop 
of Oxford. He then became domestic chap- 
lain to the Earl of Elgin, but was also a fre- 
quent preacher in London and elsewhere, and 
was much admired for his oratorical powers. 
By the influence of Mr. Harvey, a well- 
known Levant merchant, Frampton obtained 
about 1651 the appointment of chaplain to 
the English factory at Aleppo(30 Aug. 1655). 




Here he spent, with some short intervals of 
absence, twelve years, and by his abilities as a 
linguist and his straightforward character ob- 
tained great influence. He became a proficient 
in Arabic and in Italian, and lived on friendly 
terms with the chief men among the Mussul- 
mans at Aleppo. He enjoyed the fullest confi- 
dence of the Europeans at Aleppo, who en- 
trusted him with an important mission to the 
Porte, in which he succeeded, against all the 
influence of the pasha of Aleppo, in obtaining 
the redress of certain grievances under which 
foreigners were made to suffer in Syria. After 
many years spent at Aleppo, Frampton re- 
turned to England, where in 1667 he married 
Miss Mary Canning. Hearing, however, that 
the plague had broken out at Aleppo, he gal- 
lantly determined to return thither almost 
immediately after his marriage. He remained 
at Aleppo actively ministering to the sufferers 
till 1670, having himself escaped the disease. 
In this year he finally returned to England, 
where his reputation stood high. In two 
months' time he was appointed preacher at the 
Rolls, living in the house of Sir Harbottle 
Grimston. He was also made chaplain to the 
lord keeper, Sir Orlando Bridgeman [q. v.] 
Any amount of preferment was now within his 
reach, and he was confessedly one of the first 
preachers of the day. Pepys, writing in 1667, 
says : ' All the church crammed, and, to my 
great joy, find Mr. Frampton in the pulpit, 
and I think the best sermon for goodness and 
oratory, without affectation or study, that 
I ever heard in my life. The truth is he 
preaches the most like an apostle that ever I 
Tieard man, and it was much the best time that 
I ever spent in my life at church.' In 1671 
Frampton was made prebendary of Glouces- 
ter, and shortly afterwards of Salisbury. In 
1673, on the death of Dr. Vines, he was made 
dean of Gloucester. At this time he preached 
a sermon at court against the encouragement 
of infidelity, to which the king objected as 
personal, and the dean apologised. Frampton 
obtained the livings of Fontmell, Dorsetshire, 
and Oakford Fitzpaine, Devonshire, which he 
held with his deanery. In 1680 he was ap- 
pointed bishop of Gloucester, in succession to 
Dr. John Pritchard. He was consecrated by 
Archbishop Sancroft in the chapel of All 
Souls' College, Oxford, 27 March 1681. At 
Urst he held his livings in commendam, but 
at Sancroft's desire he resigned them, being 
afterwards appointed to the living of Standish , 
Gloucestershire, the emoluments of which 
-were very small, while his parsonage house 
Tvas in ruins. Frampton proved himself a 
great builder and restorer. He did much both 
at the deanery and the episcopal palace of 
Gloucester, and rebuilt the house at Standish. 

He was a frequent preacher at Whitehall, 
and in the administration of his diocese was 
tolerant towards dissenters, and universally 
popular. After the accession of James II 
the king complained to the archbishop that 
Frampton was in the habit of denouncing 
popery. When the famous declaration of in- 
dulgence was published, and ordered to be read 
in churches, the bishop went strongly with 
those of his brethren who opposed it. When 
the petition of the bishops was drawn up, he 
authorised the appending of his signature, but 
he was not present with the seven at its pre- 
sentation. He sent a direction to his clergy 
bidding them not to read the declaration, and 
when the seven were committed to the Tower 
he spent most of his time there with his 
brethren. But, though thus strongly opposed 
to the illegal proceedings of James, he would 
not transfer his allegiance to the new dy- 
nasty. On his refusal to take the oath his 
diocese was greatly moved. The gentry of 
the county offered to have the sessions' de- 
ferred that he might have more time for de- 
liberation. The grand jury petitioned for 
him. But neither side would yield, and the 
bishop was deprived of his see as a nonjuror 
some time in the autumn of 1690. He was 
allowed, however, by connivance, to hold the 
small benefice of Standish, where he resided. 
Here his life was not altogether tranquil. 
Frequent accusations were made against him 
of favouring popery, and he was actually ar- 
rested and imprisoned on suspicion of being 
concerned in a plot for murdering the king. 
The only definite act which could be proved 
against Frampton was his having sent round 
circular letters to the nonjuring clergy. But 
he was able to show that this was only done 
by way of raising some funds for the relief 
of those of them who were greatly in need. 
At the archbishop's request Frampton was 
accordingly liberated. In the Tower the de- 
prived bishop had the opportunity of visit- 
ing Judge Jeffreys, whom he found in a very 
sad and melancholy state, and to whom he 
ministered Christian consolation. At Stan- 
dish it was Frampton's habit to attend the 
church services, and to take part in them, 
omitting the names of the royal family, and 
preaching from his pew. So greatly was he 
respected in the diocese that those who were 
instituted to livings by the legal bishop did 
not consider their institution complete until 
they had obtained the ratification, secretly 
given, of the deprived nonjuror. Frampton 
had no wish to continue the nonjuring 
schism, and consequently incurred the ill- 
will of the more violent members of the 
party. His views about the schisin corre- 
sponded with those of Henry Dodwell in the 




' Case in View ' (1705). He regarded it al- 
together as a personal matter, and, though he 
could not himself feel justified in taking the 
oaths, he did not condemn others who might 
do so. He agreed in this to a great degree 
with Bishop Ken [q. v.] At the accession of 
Queen Anne the position of the nonjurors 
appeared to alter, and many of them returned 
to allegiance. The queen took particular 
notice of Frampton, and went so far as to 
offer him the see of Hereford, which was to 
be regarded as a ' translation,' thus recognis- 
ing the position he still claimed as bishop of 
Gloucester. But Frampton, who was now 
a very aged man, declined this delicate offer. 
He died at Standish 25 May 1708, at the age 
of eighty-six, and was buried in the church 
there, his grave being marked by a black 
marble slab with the inscription, ' Robertus 
Frampton, Episcopus Glocestrensis Cetera 
quis nescit ? ' 

A portrait of Frampton hangs in the epi- 
scopal palace at Gloucester, and has been re- 
produced in the anonymous contemporary 
memoir first published in 1876, which cor- 
rects some of the mistakes made by Wood 
and others, and was unknown to Lathbury, 
author of the 'History of the Non-jurors.' 

[Memoir of Kobert Frampton, Bishop of Glou- 
cester, edited by Bev. T. S. Evans, London, 1876; 
Lathbury's Hist, of the Nonjurors, London, 1845 ; 
Wood's Athense, ed. Bliss, vol. iv. ; Diary and 
Correspondence of Samuel Pepys, vol. iii. London, 
1 858 ; Dodwell's A Case in View Considered, 
London, 1705 ; J. B. Pearson's Chaplains of the 
Levant Company, 1883, pp. 21, 56, 57.] 

G. G. P. 

1727), ' the father of the turf,' born in 1641 
at Moreton in Dorsetshire, was the fifth son 
of William Frampton, lord of the manor of 
Moreton, by his wife, Katharine Tregonwell of 
Milton Abbas. He probably passed his youth 
at home in the country, and there acquired a 
taste for field sports. He is described by Chafin 
(Anecdotes of Cranbourne Chase, p. 47) as 
being in 1670 the most active pursuer of hawk- 
ing in the west of England. He was at the 
same period a regular attendant at race meet- 
ings, kept horses in training, and owned a 
house at Newmarket, thoughhe passed the 
greater part of the year in Dorsetshire. At the 
former place he speedily acquired a reputation 
for bold and successful gambling. Coventry, 
in a despatch dated March 1675, mentions a 
horse-racing match ' wherein Mr. Frampton, 
a gentleman of some 1201. rent, is engaged 
900Z. deep.' He adds: 'I hope the world will 
see we have men who dare venture as well as 
M. de Turehne.' Frampton won his money, 
and in the racing records of the time his name 


appears far more frequently as a winner than 
a loser, the amounts at stake being consider- 
ably greater than was usual. In April 1676, 
for example, he had two matches in the same 
week, the one at Newmarket and the other 
at Salisbury, each for 1 ,000/. A well-known 
incident belongs to this period. The com- 
monly accepted tradition is that embodied 
by Hawkesworth in an essay on instances of 
cruelty to animals (Adventurer, No. 37). This 
story is that Frampton's horse Dragon beat 
a certain mare, winning a stake of 10,OOOZ. 
On the conclusion of the match the owner 
of the mare instantly offered to run her on 
the following day for double the sum against 
any gelding in the world, and Frampton ac- 
cepted the challenge. He then castrated 
Dragon, who was brought out the next 
day, and again beat the mare, but fell down 
at the post and died almost immediately. 
Hawkesworth declares that he remembers 
the facts as thus stated to be true, but he 
could have had no personal knowledge of 
them. Lord Conway, in a letter dated 
7 Oct. 1682, says : ' His majesty's horse Dra- 
gon, which carried seven stone, was beaten 
yesterday by a little horse called Post Boy, 
carrying four stone, and the masters of that 
art conclude this top horse of England is 
spoiled for ever.' This last sentence would 
seem to imply that some such operation as 
Hawkesworth alleges had been performed on 
a horse called Dragon ; but it also contradicts 
his statement that the horse died at the post, 
and there is not the remotest evidence for 
supposing that Frampton had any connection 
with the racing establishment of Charles II. 
On the other hand Lawrence (Philosophical 
and Practical Treatise on Horses} quotes a 
letter from a Mr. Sandern of Newmarket : 
' The abominable story which is told of Mr. 
Frampton ... is entirely without founda- 
tion, for I had an uncle who was well ac- 
quainted with Mr. F., and who frequently 
assured me that no such circumstance ever 
happened. . . . Cruelty was no part of the 
old gentleman's character.' A letter written 
by the Duke of York to the Prince of Orange 
eighteen months after the date of Framp- 
ton's alleged cruelty mentions a forthcoming 
match between the ' famous horses Dragon 
and Why Not.' Frampton, though probably 
not guilty of this atrocity, was by no means 
always scrupulous. On one occasion he had 
made a match with Sir William Strickland, 
a Yorkshire baronet. Frampton managed to 
arrange a private trial, and secretly put 71bs. 
overweight upon his horse, which was just 
beaten. The greatest interest was excited 
by the match, which was looked upon as a 
struggle between the north and south, and it 




has been said that the bets arising from it 
were far in excess of anything that had been 
previously known. Several estates changed 
hands after the event, and so many gentle- 
men were completely ruined that, if Whyte 
(Hist, of British Turf, i. 397) may be be- 
lieved, it was in consequence of the vast sums 
lost that the act (9 Anne c. 14, s. 3) was 
passed, forbidding the recovery of any sum 
due through bets above 101. Frampton's horse 
was again beaten, and his losses must have 
been considerable. He had before known 
what it was to be in want of money, for in 
a letter dated September 1690 he says he 
' shall be for a fortnight tumbling up and 
down in Dorset and Wiltshire till I have got 
up some money to make up part of my en- 
gagements ; but I doubt shan't all,' and it 
may have been at this defeat of his horse by 
Merlin that he made over the family estate, 
to which he had succeeded on the death of 
his brother William in 1689, to his cousin 
Giles Frampton, the next heir, in considera- 
tion of 5,000/. down. But the dates of both 
the match and the transfer of property are 
unknown, though the latter took place some 
time prior to 1702. 

It was probably in 1695 that Frampton 
first assumed the duties of the position as- 
cribed to him on his tombstone of ' keeper of 
the running horses to their sacred majesties 
William III, Queen Anne, George I and 
George II.' In October of that year he won 
with the king's horse the town plate at New- 
market, and in the accounts of the master of 
the horse for the same year there is mention 
of apaymenttohim 'for settling the establish- 
ment of racehorses at the Green Cloth and 
Avery, and for a plate at Newmarket.' In 
1700 his name first appears in ' Anglia No- 
titia' (pt. iv. p. 506) as receiving 1,0001. per 
annum as supervisor of the racehorses at New- 
market, for the maintenance of ten boys, their 
lodgings, &c., and for provisions of hay, oats, 
bread, and all other necessaries for ten race- 
horses. From that date till his death he re- 
gularly received a salary, which sometimes, 
however, dropped as low as 600^., the amount 
apparently being reckoned at 1001. for every 
horse in training. It is not now possible to 
ascertain the precise nature of Frampton's 
duties. He certainly trained the royal horses, 
and made matches for them, and they gene- 
rally ran in his name. He continued to breed 
horses on his own account, some of which he 
used to dispose of at high prices to the master 
of the horse, and he remained a steady and 
persistent gambler. That part of his time 
which was not given up to horses was de- 
voted to hawking, coursing, and cock-fighting. 
He was particularly successful with his cocks, 

and his taste was largely shared by his royal 
master, William III, who, during his visits to 
Newmarket, spent many of his afternoons in 
watching his trainer's cocks do battle. Framp- 
ton kept his post till his last day, which was 
12 March 1727. He was buried in the church 
of All Saints, Newmarket, where on the south 
side of the altar is a mural monument of black 
and white marble inscribed to his memory. 

Notwithstanding the comparative humi- 
lity of Frampton's position there were few 
men of his time who enjoyed more wide- 
spread notoriety through the country. The 
author of ' Newmarket, or an Essay on the 
Turf,' London, 1771 (attributed by Cole to 
Mr. Anstey of Trumpington), thus describes 
him (p. 171 n.) : ' I cannot here omit to in- 
stance the famous song which begins 
Four and twenty Yorkshire knights 
Came out of the north countree, 
And they came down to Newmarket 
Mr. Frampton's horses to see. 
At the same time I take this opportunity of 
paying my respects to the memory of old 
Frampton. This gentleman (whose picture 
may be seen in many a house in Newmarket) 
was as great an oddity as perhaps ever was 
heard of. He was a known woman hater, 
passionately fond of horse-racing, cocking, 
and coursing ; remarkable for a peculiar uni- 
formity in his dress, the fashion of which he 
never changed, and in which, regardless of 
its uncouth appearance, he would not unfre- 
quently go to court and enquire in the most 
familiar manner for his master or mistress, 
the king or queen. Queen Anne used to call 
him Governor Frampton.' Another writer 
quoted by Whyte (British Turf, i. 398), in 
an account of Newmarket in the reign of 
Anne, remarks : ' There was Mr. Frampton, 
I the oldest, and, as they say, the cunningest 
jockey in England; one day he lost 1,000 
j guineas, the next he won 2,000, and so alter- 
nately. He made as light of throwing away 
500/. or 1,000/. at a time as other men do of 
their pocket-money, and was perfectly calm, 
cheerful, and unconcerned when he had lost a 
thousand pounds as when he won it.' Noble 
(additions to GEAXGEK, ii. 387) gives further 
testimony to his qualities. It has been said 
of this man that he was ' a thorough good 
groom only, yet would have made a good 
minister of state if he had been trained for it 
. . . Frampton was supposed to be better ac- 
quainted with the genealogy of the most 
celebrated horses than any man of his time. 
. . . Not a splint or sprain, or bad eye, or 
old broken knee, or pinched foot, or low heel, 
escaped in the choice of a horse.' On the 
other hand he is tersely dismissed as a mere 
tout by Sir George Etherege in the couplet : 

Framyngham 163 


I call a spade a spade, Eaton a bully, 
Frampton a. pimp, and brother John a cully. 

The time when Frampton was first given the 
title ' father of the turf ' is uncertain. It may 
tave been towards the close of his long life ; 
but he does not appear to have been so de- 
scribed in print till the publication of an en- 
graving of his portrait by Wooton in 1791, 
which bears his name and the descriptive 
title. On another portrait, also by Wooton 
and engraved by Faber, he is called ' royal 
stud-keeper at Newmarket,' which is not ac- 
curate, the keeper of the stud holding a dis- 
tinct office. Frampton's portrait has since 
frequently served as a frontispiece to books 
on racing, and occupies that position in Taun- 
ton's ' Portraits of Celebrated Racehorses ' 
(London, 1886 and 1887). 

[Hutchins's Dorsetshire, 3rd ed. 1861, i. 398 
and 400; Addit. MS. 5807, fol. 132; Here's 
History of Newmarket, 1886, vols. ii. and iii. 
passim ; Chafin's Anecdotes of Cranbourne Chase, 
p. 47 et seq. ; Anglia Notitia, 1700-27; J. C. 
Whyte's History of the British Turf, i. 389-99 ; 
State Papers, Dom. unpublished; Luttrell's 
Diary, iii. 540 ; Smith's Currant Intelligence ; 
the Postman and Post Boy, &c. passim.] 

A. V. 

1537), author, was born in February 1512 at 
Norwich, and educated at the grammar school, 
where he was contemporary with Dr. John 
Caius. From Norwich he went to Cambridge, 
and was at first at Pembroke Hall and after- 
wards at Queen's College, ' in aula Pembro- 
kiana per adolescentiam educatus, per juven- 
tutem in Collegium reginale ascitus.' He 
proceeded B.A. 1530, M.A. 1533, and was 
scholar of Queen's College from 1530 till his 
death, and bursar for three years from 1534. 
He died 25 Sept. 1537. He left all his books 
to his friend and schoolfellow Dr. John Caius, 
who tells us that along with Framyngham 
he wrote ' Scholia ' and notes upon them, but 
could never recover them from those in whose 
care he left them when he went to Italy. 
Long afterwards, in 1570, Edmund, bishop 
of Rochester, professed to know of them, but 
Caius apparently did not follow up the clue. 
Dr. Caius describes his friend as ' homo tena- 
cissimse memorise, foecundi ingenii, infinitse 
lectionis, indefatigati laboris atque diligen- 
tia3,' and gives the following list of his works : 
1. ' De Continentia lib. ii.' (prose). 2. 'De 
Consolatione ad ^Emilianum caecum lib. i.' 
(verse ; suggested by the author's blindness, 
brought on by immoderate study). 3. ' D. 
Laurentii Martyrium' (verse). 4. 'EKTTV- 
paxris, sive Incendium Sodomorum ' (verse). 
5. ' Idololatria ' (verse). 6. ' 'ApV^, sive in 

laudem virtutis ' (verse). 7. ' Epigramma- 
tum lib. ii.' 

[J. Caius de libris propriis, 1570, p. 2; N. 
Carlisle's Endowed Grammar Schools, ii. 186; 
Tanner's Bibliotheca, p. 297 ; Cooper's Athenae 
Cantab, i. 63, 531.] E. B k 

(1805-1876), cook, born in London in 1805, 
was of Italian extraction, and was educated 
in France. He studied the culinary art under 
Careme, and advanced it to unprecedented 
perfection in this country. He became suc- 
cessively chef de cuisine to the Earl of 
Chesterfield, the Earl of Dudley, Lord Kia- 
naird, &c. Afterwards he managed the well- 
known Crockford's, or the St. James's Club, 
whence he removed to the royal household, 
becoming maitre d'hotel and chief cook in 
ordinary to the queen. He next farmed the 
once flourishing Coventry House Club, and 
for seven years was chef de cuisine to the 
Reform Club. He afterwards managed the 
St. James's Hotel, Berkeley Street, Piccadilly, 
and finally the Freemasons' Tavern,which post 
he held until within a short period of his death. 
Francatelli was very successful as an author. 
In 1845 he published the ' Modern Cook,' 
which ran through twelve editions. This 
was succeeded in 1861 by 'The Cook's Guide 
and Butler's Assistant.' The same year he 
issued his ' Plain Cookery Book for the Work- 
ing Classes,' and in 1862 the 'Royal English 
and Foreign Confectionery Book.' In the 
latter work he discussed the art of confec- 
tionery in all its branches as practised in 
England and in all the leading European 
countries. While able to dress the costliest 
banquets, Francatelli was likewise a culinary 
economist. On one occasion he characteris- 
tically remarked that he could feed every 
day a thousand families on the food that was 
wasted in London. His cookery book for the 
working classes contained information of 
practical value to the poor. Francatelli died 
at Eastbourne on 10 Aug. 1876. 

[Men of the Time, 8th edit.; Ann. Keg. 1876; 
Illustr. Lond. News, 19 Aug. 1876.] G. B. S. 

FRANCE, ABRAHAM (^.1587-1633), 

poet. [See FRATJSTCE.] 

MAS (1772-1839), water-colour painter, was 
born at Calais 21 Dec. 1772, and was brought 
early in life to London by his father, a re- 
fugee. He was for some time employed as an 
assistant of a drawing-master named Barrow, 
who was the master of John Varley [q. v.] 
He commenced to exhibit at the Royal Aca- 




demy in 1795, and contributed from that year 
to 1821 (inclusive) eighty-five works in all 
to its exhibitions. He was one of the sketch- 
ing society formed by Thomas Girtin [q. v.] 
about 1799, and there is a moonlight composi- 
tion in the South Kensington Museum dated 
in that year. He was a member of the (now 
Royal) Society of Painters in Water-Colours, 
and for some time its secretary, but he re- 
signed his membership, and became in 1816 
an unsuccessful candidate for the associate- 
ship of the Royal Academy. The next year 
he retired to Calais, where he resided till his 
death on 6 Feb. 1839. Here he gave instruc- 
tion to R. P. Bonington [q. v.], whose coast 
scenes bear much resemblance to the later 
works of Francia. Francia's earlier drawings 
are broad and simple in execution, rich, but 
sombre in colour, like those of Girtin ; but 
his later work, while still retaining its breadth 
and harmony, is brighter and lighter in tone, 
and more subtle in handling. Though he 
painted landscape of different kinds, his fa- 
vourite subjects were shore scenes, which he 
executed with great truth and beauty of aerial 
effect. He was an excellent draughtsman of 
boats and shipping, and some of his drawings 
were engraved to illustrate a book of sketches 
of shipping by E. W. Cooke [q. v.] He was 
one of the earliest and most accomplished of 
English water-colourists, and his works are 
distinguished by their fine colour and poetical 
feeling. There are several of his drawings at 
the South Kensington Museum, and a few at 
the British Museum. In 1810 he published 
' Studies of Landscapes by T. Gainsborough, 
J. Hoppner, R.A., T. Girtin, &c., imitated 
from the originals by L. F.' 

[Redgrave's Diet, of Artists ; Graves's Diet, of 
Artists ; Bryan's Diet. (Graves) ; English Ency- 
clopaedia ; private information.] C. M. 

FRANCILLON, JAMES (1802-1866), 
legal writer, sixth son of Francis Francillon 
of Harwich, Essex, descended from a Hu- 
guenot family settled in this country since 
1685, was born 21 Nov. 1802, educated at the 
king's school, Rochester, ' served his articles ' 
and was admitted an attorney, thereafter 
entered a student at Gray's Inn, and was 
called to the bar by that society in 1833. 
He went the Oxford circuit, enjoyed a fair 
practice, but was chiefly employed in cham- 
ber work. In 1847, when the modern county 
courts were constituted, he was appointed 
judge for the Gloucestershire district. He 
was also a magistrate for Gloucestershire 
and Wiltshire, and deputy-chairman of the 
Gloucestershire quarter sessions. Francillon, 
who was married and had issue, died at 
Lausanne of cholera 3 Sept. 1866. He wrote 

1 Lectures, Elementary and Familiar, on 
English Law,' first and second series, 1860-1. 
This work, written in a popular style, had 
some reputation. 

[County Court Chronicle and Bankruptcy Ga- 
zette, 1 Oct. 1866, p. 227; Gent. Mag. October 
1866, p. 559.] F. W-T. 

FRANCIS, ALBAN (d. 1715), Benedic- 
tine monk, a native of Middlesex, became a 
professed monk on 9 May 1670, in the abbey 
of St. Adrian and St. Denis at Lansperg or 
Lambspring in the kingdom of Hanover 
(WELDON, Chronicle, App. p. 24). He as- 
sumed in religion the name of Placid. He 
was sent to the mission in Cambridgeshire. 
On 7 Feb. 1686-7 James II addressed a 
mandatory letter under his signet manual to 
Dr. John Peachell, master of Magdalene Col- 
lege, and vice-chancellor of Cambridge, com- 
manding him to admit Francis to the degree 
as master of arts 'without administering unto 
him any oath or oaths whatsoever, or ten- 
dering any subscription to be made by him. r 
This letter was laid before a congregation of 
the university on 21 Feb., and the senate 
advised that the king should be petitioned* 
to revoke his mandate. The esquire-bedels 
and the registrars were sent to inform Fran- 
cis that the senate were ready to admit him. 
to the degree provided that he would swear 
as the law appointed, but he refused to do 
so, insisting upon the royal dispensation. On. 
the same afternoon the heads met in the 
consistory, and agreed to send a letter to the 
Duke of Albemarle and another to the Earl 
of Sunderland, secretary of state, througk 
whose hands the mandate had passed. A 
second letter from the king dated 24 Feb. 
was read in the senate on 1 1 March. The 
I senate, confirmed by the approval of several 
j eminent lawyers, persisted in its refusal to 
! comply with the royal letters. Consequently 
I the vice-chancellor and the senate (by its. 
deputies) were cited to appear before the 
ecclesiastical commissioners at Whitehall. 
, The lord chancellor (Jeffreys) pronounced 
the decision of the commissioners on 7 May 
1687. Peachell was deprived of the office of 
; vice-chancellor and was suspended, ab officio 
et beneficio, of his mastership during his 
majesty's pleasure. At a subsequent sitting- 
(12 May) the lord chancellor reprimanded 
; the deputies of the senate. Another vice- 
chancellor was elected, Dr. Balderston, mas- 
I ter of Emmanuel College, but Francis never 
got his degree. 

At the revolution Francis withdrew to 
Lambspring, whence he removed in 1699 to 
the English Benedictine college of St. Gre- 
gory at Douay. He was again sent to the 




mission in the south province of England, 
where he died on 27 July 1715 (SNOW, Ne- 
crology, p. 87). 

[Howell's State Trials, xi. 1319-37 ; Cooper's 
Annals of Cambridge, iii. 614; Dodd's Church 
Hist, iii. 424, 489 ; Macaulay's Hist, of England; 
Addit. MSS. 5869, f. 71, 32095, f. 238 ; Corrie's 
Notices of the Interference of the Crown with 
the Affairs of the English Universities, p. 62 ; 
Burnet's Hist, of his own Time (1838), p. 443 ; 
Echard's Hist, of England ; Pepys's Memoirs, 
v. 117.] T. C. 

FRANCIS, ANNE (1738-1800), au- 
thoress, daughter of the Rev. Daniel Gittins, 
rector of South Stoke, near Arundel, Sussex, 
was educated by her father in the classics and 
Hebrew, and became a competent scholar. 
She married the Rev. Robert Bransby Francis, 
rector of Edgefield, near Holt, Norfolk. She 
died on 7 Nov. 1800. She published: 1. 'A 
Poetical Translation of the Song of Solomon 
from the original Hebrew, with a preliminary 
Discourse and Notes, historical and explana- 
tory,' 1781, 4to. 2. 'The Obsequies of Deme- 
trius Poliorcetes: a Poem,' 1785, 4to. 3. 'A 
Poetical Epistle from Charlotte to Werther,' 
1788, 4to. 4. ' Miscellaneous Poems,' 1790, 

[Dallaway's Western Sussex, ii. 193.] 

.T. M. E. 

FRANCIS, ENOCH (1688-1740), Welsh 
"baptist, was born in 1688 at Pantyllaethdy, 
on the banks of the Tivy, and began to preach 
'in 1707. He was settled first at Capel lago, 
Llanbyther, but removed in 1730 to New- 
castle Emlyn, Carmarthenshire. He became 
one of the most popular and successful mini- 
sters of his denomination. He was mode- 
rator of the baptist association at Hengoed, 
Glamorganshire, in 1730, ' but the meeting,' 
says Thomas, ' was uncomfortable. There were 
very warm debates upon general redemption 
and other articles connected with it. Mr. E. 
Francis had work enough to moderate some 
tempers.' The disturbing element at Hengoed 
was Charles Winter. Francis's publications 
were: 1. 'The Work and Reward of the 
Faithful Minister of the Gospel,' 1729. 2. ' A 
Word in Season,' 1733. He was also the author 
of some of the association letters ; that of 
1734 is specially mentioned. He died 4 Feb. 
1739-40. Mary, his wife, died 23 Aug. 1739, 
Aged 49, and the inscription on the tomb tells 
us 'Enoch walked with God;' 'Mary has 
chosen the better part.' The historian of the 
"baptists concludes his memoir with an elegy 
T>y Jenkin Thomas, Drewen. 

[Thomas's Hist. Baptist Association ; Thomas's 
Hanes y Bedyddwyr; Eees's Hist, of Noncon- 
formity in Wales.] B. J. J. 

FRANCIS, FRANCIS (1822-1886), 
writer on angling, born in 1822 at Seaton, 
Devonshire, was son of Captain Morgan, 
R.N., his mother being the only daughter of 
Mr. Hartley, who founded the Hartley In- 
stitution at Southampton. He changed his 
name on coming of age and inheriting pro- 
perty. After being educated at various private 
schools, and with several tutors, he adopted 
the profession of a civil engineer, but on com- 
pleting his articles abandoned it for sport and 
sporting literature. In 1851 he married Mary 
Cole of Oxford, and henceforth, happy in his 
domestic life, enthusiastically devoted him- 
self to angling and all connected with it. No 
kind of fishing, from gudgeon to salmon, came 
amiss to him, and he speedily made himself 
familiar with every mode of catching fish. 
His ardour never flagged; a lifetime of fishing 
found him, when he reeled up his last line 
at Houghton, Hampshire, as enthusiastic as 
when in his boyhood he caught his first fish. 
He was angling editor of the ' Field ' for more 
than a quarter of a century, and frequently 
wrote his experiences as an angler, together 
with reminiscences of angling literature, and 
papers on cognate subjects in the columns of 
that newspaper. He found time also to make 
himself a fair classical scholar, and to obtain 
a knowledge of the masterpieces of the English 
language. The collection of a good angling 
library formed a congenial entertainment to 
him. Francis established the Thames Rights 
Defence Association, throughout life advo- 
cated the cause of fish culture, and suggested 
the plan of ' The National Fish-Culture As- 
sociation,' which has since been carried out. 
He had a large share, too, in introducing the 
ova of English trout to the New Zealand and 
Tasmanian streams. Thus he occupied him- 
self with his rod and pen during many happy 
years until he was seized with a severe stroke 
of paralysis in 1883. Though he eventually 
recovered from this, he grew thinner month 
by month, and an old cancerous affection, 
for which he had previously undergone two 
operations, recurring, he died in his chair on 
24 Dec. 1886. He had long lived at Twicken- 
ham and was buried there. 

Francis was a member of the commission 
on oyster culture from 1868 to 1870, and 
was always enthusiastic about the improve- 
ment of English streams. As naturalist di- 
rector for some years of the Brighton Aqua- 
rium he had special opportunities of observ- 
ing fish and making experiments on their 
culture. He was of fine stature, active in 
mind and body, quick with his pen, and 
never unemployed ; cheerful, bright, sympa- 
thetic, and independent, his courage was ex- 
traordinary, and was well exhibited in the 




indomitable fortitude with which he bore the 
pains and necessary operations of the attempts 
to cure the cancer in his tongue. Scrupu- 
lously fair in word and thought, his nervous 
temperament made him no respecter of per- 
sons, and at times caused him to be hasty 
both in temper and judgment, but he was 
always ready to own himself mistaken, and 
was quick to forgive as well as to forget. On 
the Test and Itchen, and among the Scotch 
lochs and rivers, which he loved to frequent, 
his name will long be remembered. ' His 
memory is the memory of a man who spent 
his life not merely in selfish amusement, but 
in contributing largely to the amusement of 
others ' (Memoir in Book of Angling). More 
perhaps than any other he instructed and 
delighted the enormous number of anglers 
who have sprung into existence during the 
last thirty years by his writings, his geniality, 
and his prowess as a fisherman. 

Besides ' The Diplomatic History of the 
Greek War ' (1878) which he wrote in early 
life, Francis was the author of: 1. ' Pickacki- 
fax,' a novel in rhyme, 1854. 2. ' The Real 
Salt,' a yachting story, 1854. 3. 'The Angler's 
Register,' 1858, 1860, 1861, from which sprang 
the ' Angler's Diary.' 4. ' Newton Dogvane,' 
a novel, 3 vols., illustrated by Leech, 1859. 
6. 'Fish Culture,' 1863. 6. 'A Book on 
Angling,' 1867, his best work, which has 
often been enlarged and reissued in subse- 
quent years. 7. ' Sidney Bellew,' a sporting 
novel, 2 vols., 1870. 8. ' Reports on Salmon 
Ladders,' 1870. 9. ' By Lake and River/ 
rambles in the north of England and in Scot- 
land. 10. 'Angling' (often reissued), 1877. 

11. 'Sporting Sketches with Pen and Pencil,' 
1878 ( in conjunction with Mr. A. W. Cooper). 

12. 'Miscellaneous Papers from the "Field,"' 
1880. 13. 'The Practical Management of 
Fisheries,' 1883. 14. 'Angling Reminiscences,' 
a posthumous work, 1887, containing almost 
his last contributions to the ' Field ' paper. 
Besides these he wrote the articles on angling 
in ' Chambers's Encyclopaedia,' and contri- 
buted a number of scattered papers to other 
magazines and journals. 

[Fishing Gazette; Field and Academy for 
1 Jan. 1887 ; Westwood and Satchell's Biblio- 
theca Piscatoria; Memoir prefixed to the sixth 
edition of his Book on Angling; private infor- 
mation.] M. G. W. 

1882), Welsh antiquary, eldest son of John 
Francis of Swansea, Glamorganshire, by his 
wife, Mary Grant, was born in that town in 
January 1814, and educated at the high 
school there. Until within a few years of his 
death Francis took a very prominent part in 

every question affecting the interest of his 
native town. ' It mattered little,' writes one 
who knew him well, ' whether the subject was 
one of antiquarian research, ... or a question 
of modern improvement and progress, such, 
as railways, docks, or tramways. Whatever 
his hand found to do he did it with a might 
which certainly deserved success, though it 
by no means uniformly commanded it. ... 
As with many other men of a similar tem- 
perament, his enthusiasm ran away with 
him.' His numerous schemes for local im- 
provements were, in fact, somewhat in ad- 
vance of his time, and being always finan- 1 
cially weak, met with an imperfect apprecia- 
tion. In 1835 he helped to found the Royal 
Institution of South Wales, and presented it 
with his large collections of local fossils, an- 
tiquities, coins, and seals, together with one 
of the best libraries of works relating to 
Wales extant, of which he compiled and 
printed a catalogue, afterwards adding a. 
supplementary volume. He also shared in 
the formation of the Cambrian Archaeological 
Association in 1846, and frequently contri-< 
buted to its journal, the ' Archaeologia Cam- 
brensis.' To the volume for 1848 he sent for 
insertion the original contract of affiance be- 
tween Edward of Carnarvon, prince of 
Wales, and Isabella, daughter of Philip the 
Fair, king of France, dated at Paris 20 May 
1303, which he had discovered in Swansea, 
Castle. It was printed separately the same 
year. He was active in restoring to public 
use the ancient grammar school of Bishop 
Gore, of which he was many years chairman 
and one of the trustees. His connection 
with it enabled him to collect materials for 
his book, ' The Free Grammar School, Swan- 
sea ; with brief Memoirs of its Founders and 
Masters, and copies of original deeds,' 8vo, 
Swansea, 1849. By the town council he was 
entrusted with the restoration and arrange- 
ment of their neglected and scattered muni- 
ments, which task he performed so admirably 
as to call forth a warm eulogium from Lord 
Campbell in the court of queen's bench. He 
afterwards privately printed one hundred 
copies of ' Charters granted to Swansea. . . . 
Translated, illustrated, and edited by G. G. 
The preservation and restoration of Oyster- 
mouth Castle, near Swansea one of the 
many ancient ruins pertaining to the house 
of Beaufort, lords of Gower and Kilvey 
were also owing to his exertions, for which 
he was presented with a piece of plate. In 
1851 Francis was selected to represent the 
Swansea district as local commissioner at the 
Great Exhibition. During the same year the 
British Association appointed him secretary 




to its department of ethnology when holding 
its meeting at Swansea. He was mayor of 
the borough in 1853-4, and was also colonel 
of the 1st Glamorgan artillery volunteers, a 
corps raised by his exertions in 1859. In 
1867 Francis communicated to the Swansea 
newspaper, ' The Cambrian,' ' as the earliest 
organ of the copper trade,' some curious 
papers which he had discovered in theliecord 
Office on the metallurgy of the district. 
These papers excited considerable attention, 
and the author consented to gather them to- 
gether and print fifty copies for presents as 
'The Smelting of Copper in the Swansea 
District, from the Time of Elizabeth to the 
Present Day,' 8vo, Swansea, 1867. So nu- 
merous, however, were the inquiries for this 
book that he published it in 1881 as a quarto 
volume, illustrated with autotype portraits 
of men connected with the copper trade, and 
sketches of places historically interesting 
from their connection with copper smelting. 
From a large mass of original documents ex- 
tant among the Gnoll papers at Neath, Fran- 
cis was able to add to this second edition 
many new and important facts; while he 
personally examined each of the copper- 
smelting works described in the book. 

Francis died at his town house, 9 Upper 
Phillimore Place, Kensington, 21 April 1882, 
and was buried on the 26th in Swansea ce- 
metery. By his marriage in 1840 to Sarah, 
eldest daughter of John Richardson of Swan- 
sea, and of "Whitby Lodge, Northumberland, 
he left issue three sons. He was electedF.S.A. 
16 Jan. 1845, was its honorary secretary for 
South Wales, and was also a corresponding 
member of the Society of Antiquaries of Scot- 
land and of the Welsh Manuscripts Society. 
In addition to those already named Francis 
wrote many other monographs on Welsh 
history and topography, of which we may 
mention : 1. ' Original Charters and Mate- 
rials for a History of Neath and its Abbey, 
with illustrations, now first collected,' 8vo, 
Swansea, 1845 (fifty copies privately printed). 
2. ' The Value of Holdings in Glamorgan 
and Swansea in 1545 and 1717, shown by 
rentals of the Herbert Family. Edited from 
the originals,' fol., Swansea, 1869 (twenty-five 
copies printed). 3. ' Notes on a Gold Chain 
of Office presented to the Corporation of 
Swansea in ... 1875, . . . together with a 
list of [mayors] from 1835 to 1875,' 4to, 
Swansea, London (printed), 1876. He also 
assisted L. W. Dillwyn in the latter's ' Con- 
tributions towards a History of Swansea,' 
8vo, Swansea, 1840, joined the Rev. Thomas 
Bliss in writing ' Some Account of Sir Hugh 
Johnys, Deputy Knight Marshal of England, 
temp. Henry VI and Edward IV, and of his 

Monumental Brass in St. Mary's Church, 
Swansea,' 8vo, Swansea, 1845, and readily 
gave Dr. Thomas Nicholas the benefit of hia 
varied knowledge in the compilation of the 
' Annals of Counties and County Families of 
Wales,' 1872, 1875. 

[Swansea and Glamorgan Herald, 26 April and 
3Mayl882; Nicholas's Annals, ii. 628; Thomas's 
Handbook to the Public Kecords, Introd. p. xviii ; 
Lists of Soc. Antiq. ; Brit. Mus. Cat. ; Athenaeum, 
22 April 1882, pp. 510-11.] G-. G. 

1865), botanical writer, was born in London 
in 1800. Besides the works enumerated 
below, he edited the first five volumes of 
the ' Magazine of Science and School of Arts,' 
1840-5. His family increasing he emigrated 
to Australia, arriving in the colony by the 
Louisa Baillie 2 Sept. 1849. Shortly after 
his arrival he took the old botanical garden, 
north of the Torrens river, as a yearly tenant, 
and was subsequently appointed director of 
the Adelaide botanic garden. This position 
he held until his death, after a long illness, 
of dropsy on 9 Aug. 1865 ; he was buried 
the next day. He left a widow and ten 

He published: 1. 'Catalogue of British 
Plants and Ferns,' 1835 ; 5th edition, 1840. 
2. ' Analysis of British Ferns/ 1837 ; 6th 
edition, 1855. 3. ' Little English Flora,' 1 839. 
4. ' Grammar of Botany,' 1840. 5. ' Chemi- 
cal Experiments,' 1842, abridged by W. White, 
1851, and republished as ' Chemistry for Stu- 
dents.' 6. ' Favourites of the Flower Garden,' 
1844. 7. 'Manual of Practical Levelling for 
Railways and Canals,' 1846. 8. ' Art of Mo- 
delling Wax Flowers,' 1849. 9. ' Electrical 
Experiments,' 8th edition, 1855. 10. 'Diet. 
Practical Receipts,' new edition, 1857. 11. 'Ac- 
climatisation of Animals and Plants,' Royal 
Society, South Australia, 1862. 

[South Australian Register, 10 Aug. 1865.] 

B. D. J. 

1884), Australian statesman, was born in 
London in 1819. In 1834 he arrived in Tas- 
mania. He obtained employment in the firm 
of Boys & Pointer at Hobart. In 1847 the 
business was transferred to himself together 
with a partner named Macpherson. In 1853 
the firm, Francis & Macpherson, opened a 
branch establishment in Victoria. Francis be- 
came managing partner there and took up his 
permanent residence in Melbourne. His posi- 
tion rapidly grew in influence. He became 
director of the bank of New South Wales in 
1855, vice-president of the chamber of com- 
merce in 1856, and president in 1857. In 




October 1859 he was elected to the Victorian 
Legislative Assembly (the Lower House) for 
Richmond, and he sat in the house for the 
same constituency till his retirement fifteen 
years later. He entered the cabinet of Wil- 
liam Nicholson on 25 Nov. 1859 as vice-presi- 
dent of the Board of Lands and Works and 
commissioner of public works. He held the 
office till 3 Sept. 1860. When James M'Cul- 
loch formed a ministry on 27 June 1863, 
Francis became commissioner of trade and 
customs, and retired with his chief 6 May 
1868. M'Culloch held office for a third time, 
9 April 1870-19 June 1871, when Francis 
joined him as treasurer. Francis supported 
the protectionist revision of the tariff, 1865-6, 
and was always a protectionist, although he 
deemed five and ten per cent, duties adequate 
to protect native industries. After the fall 
of Charles Gavan Duffy's administration in 
June 1872, Francis was entrusted by "Vis- 
count Canterbury, the governor, with the 
formation of a ministry. He retired on 3 July 
1874, having passed a free education act and 
other important measures, including railway 
bills involving an expenditure of 2,250,000/. 
A dangerous attack of pleurisy was the chief 
cause of his resignation. On recovery he paid 
a long visit to England. In 1878 he reentered 
political life, and was returned to the Vic- 
toria Assembly as member for Warrnam- 
bool. On the retirement of Sir James M'Cul- 
loch he took office once again under James 
Service, but a painful illness compelled him 
to retire into private life in 1882. Francis 
frequently declined the honour of knighthood, 
and business reasons prevented his accept- 
ance of the post of agent-general for the colony 
in London, when offered him by Sir Bryan 
O'Loghlan. Francis was not a polished 
speaker, but his integrity gave him enormous 
influence in the assembly. As premier he 
avoided constitutional strife or sensational 
appeals to the people. His practical good 
sense was widely appreciated. He died at 
Queenscliff, Victoria, on 25 Jan. 1884, and 
was buried privately, according to the wishes 
of his family, on 28 Jan. 

[Private information ; Heaton's Australian 
Diet. pp. 72-3, 160-2 ; Times, 29 Jan. 1884.] 

FRANCIS, JOHN (1780-1861), sculptor, 
was born in Lincolnshire 3 Sept. 1780, and 
brought up to farming, but showing some 
talent for the arts, he was advised by a few 
friends to settle in London, where he became 
a pupil of Chantrey. He first exhibited at the 
Royal Academy in 1820 a bust of T. W. Coke, 
esq., and another of Captain Sir W. Bolton, 
R.N. At this period his residence was at 
Thornham, Norfolk. In 1822, when he sent 

to the same institution a bust of Miss Horatia 
Nelson, he was living at 2 New Norfolk 
Street, Park Lane. In 1844 he executed by 
command of her majesty in marble a bust of 
his Royal Highness Prince Albert, and a few 
years earlier a bust of Queen Victoria, now 
in the hall of the Reform Club. About this 
period Francis removed to 56 Albany Street, 
Regent's Park. Among his other works may 
be mentioned the following: Busts of the 
Duke and Duchess of Norfolk (1844) ; bust in 
bronze of the Duke of Sussex (1847) ; marble 
bust of Lord John Russell, now in the Na- 
tional Portrait Gallery (1848) ; a bronze medal 
of Eos, a favourite greyhound of Prince Al- 
bert (1848) ; marble bust of the Hon. Edward 
Petre (1848) ; four busts, in marble, of various 
members of the Eaton family (1851) ; pos- 
thumous bust of the Earl of Carlisle (1852) ; 
bust of the Duke of Wellington, now in the 
National Portrait Gallery (1852) ; posthu- 
mous bust of the Hon. and Rev. James Norton 
(1854); bust of Vice-admiral Sir Charles 
Napier (1855) ; cabinet bust of the Right 
Hon. Earl of Aberdeen (1856). Francis died 
in Albany Street, 30 Aug. 1861. 

[Redgrave's Diet, of Artists.] L. F. 

FRANCIS, JOHN (1811-1 882). publisher 
of the ' Athenaeum,' was born in Bermondsey 
on 18 July 1811. His father, James Parker 
Francis of Saffron W r alden, Essex, married 
Elizabeth, daughter of Thomas Perkins of 
W r are, and came to London to carry on the 
business of a leather-dresser. For twenty- 
five years he was honorary secretary of the 
Leather-dressers' Trades Union, and died 
24 Aug. 1850, aged 73. John received his 
earliest education from F. Painter, in Long 
Lane, Bermondsey. He afterwards attended 
a nonconformist school in Unicorn Yard, 
Tooley Street, Southwark, the master of 
which helped him in 1823 to apprentice him- 
self to E. Marlborough, the well-known news- 
paper agent, 4 Ave Maria Lane. Having 
served his full time, in September 1831 he 
entered the office of the ' Athenaeum ' as a 
junior clerk, but he showed such ability that 
he became business manager and publisher of 
the journal on 4 Oct. At fourteen years of 
age he taught in the Sunday school of Dr. 
John Rippon's chapel, Carter Lane, South- 
wark, and was superintendent when Dr. Rip- 
pon removed to New Park Street in 1833. In 
1849 Francis joined the new Bloomsbury 
Chapel under the pastorate of Dr. William 
Brock, and did good service as a district 
visitor in St. Giles's. At an early period of 
his business career his attention was drawn to 
the heavy fiscal restrictions on the newspaper 
press, and he took an active and prominent 




part in trying to remove them. While Milner 
Gibson fought the battle in parliament, Fran- 
eis did more than any man out of doors to- 
wards bringing about the repeal of the adver- 
tisement duty of Is. 6d. on each advertisement, 
of the stamp duty of Id. on each newspaper, 
and lastly of the paper duty of I$d. per pound, 
which charges were successively repealed in 
1853, 1855, and 1861. During the long agi- 
tation on this question he was constantly en- 
gaged in deputations to the leading ministers 
of the day, and was really the founder of the 
Association for the Repeal of the Paper Duty, 
on behalf of which he visited Edinburgh and 
Dublin in company with John Cassell [q. v.] 
and Henry Vizetelly. In 1863 his services 
were rewarded by the presentation, at 47 Pa- 
ternoster Row, of a testimonial from gentle- 
men representing the press and the Associa- 
tion for the Repeal of the Taxes on Knowledge. 

* The Bookseller ' of 26 April 1861 (pp. 215- 
216) contains a paper by him on * The Pro- 
gress of Periodical Literature from 1830 to 
I860,' and on 7 Jan. 1870 he contributed to 
the ' Athenaeum ' an essay on ' The Literature 
of the People.' He undertook the charge of 
the commercial affairs of ' Notes and Queries ' 
in 1872, in addition to his other work, and in 
October 1881 he celebrated the fiftieth anni- 
versary of his becoming publisher of the 

* Athenaeum.' For many years he resided at 
2 Catherine Street and then at 20 Welling- 
ton Street, in connection with his publishing 
offices. Later on he lived at 11 Burghley 
Road, Highgate Road ; but he returned in 
1881 to 20 Wellington Street, Strand, Lon- 
don, where he died on 6 April 1882, and was 
buried in Highgate cemetery on 18 April, 
near the grave of Faraday, in the presence of 
many literary men. In his memory two John 
Francis pensions were founded in connection 
with the Newsvendors' Benevolent Institu- 
tion. His wife, Charlotte Collins, died 7 Dec. 
1879, aged 71. 

Francis's elder son, John Collins Francis, 
succeeded him as publisher of the 'Athe- 
naeum,' and his younger son, Edward James 
Francis, was manager of the 'Weekly Dis- 
patch' from 1875 till his death. 14 June 

[J. C. Francis's John Francis, publisher of the 
Athenaeum, 1888, i. 1-19, 45-7, 226, ii. 173 et 
seq., 545-50, with portrait; Times, 11 April 
1882, p. 5, 12 April, p. 1, 19 April, p. 12 ; Athe- 
naeum, 15 April 1882, p. 476, and 27 Dec. 1884, 
p. 826 ; Sunday School Chronicle, 21 April 1882, 
p. 205 ; Grant's Newspaper Press (1871), ii. 299, 
313, 320; Henry J. Nicoll's Great Movements, 
1881, 269-339; Bookseller, 3 May 1882, and 
5 March 1883 and 1885.] G. C. B. 

FRANCIS, PHILIP (1708P-1773), mis- 
cellaneous writer, son of Dr. John Francis, rec- 
tor of St. Mary's, Dublin (from which living 
he was for a time ejected for political reasons), 
and dean of Lismore, was born about 1708. 
He was sent to Trinity College, Dublin, tak- 
ing the degree of B.A. in 1728, and was or- 
dained, according to his father's wish, in the 
Irish branch of the English church. He 
held for some time the curacy of St. Peter's 
parish, Dublin, and while resident in that city 
published his translation of Horace, besides 
writing in the interests of ' the Castle.' Soon 
after the death of his wife, Elizabeth Rowe, 
whom he married in 1739, he crossed to Eng-' 
land, and in 1744 obtained the rectory of 
Skeyton in Norfolk. If he ever took up his 
abode on this living he soon abandoned it for 
literature and society in London. In January 
1752, when Gibbon became an inmate of his 
house, Francis was keeping or supposed to 
be keeping a school at Esher ; but the boy's 
friends quickly found that the nominal in- 
structor ' preferred the pleasures of London to 
the instruction of his pupils,' and in a-month 
or two Gibbon was removed. To maintain 
himself in the social life of London, Francis 
tried many expedients, but most of them were 
failures. Twice was a play of his composition 
produced on the stage, and each time without 
success. He tried translation, but, except in 
his rendering of the works of Horace, he was 
beaten out of the field by abler writers. . His 
fortune was made when he secured, through 
the kindness of Miss Bellamy, who. pitied him 
for his ill-success in play-writing and recom- 
mended him to Fox, the post of private chap- 
lain to Lady Caroline Fox, and became do- 
mesticated in her family, where he taught 
Lady Sarah Lennox to declaim and Charles 
James Fox to read. At the end of 1757 Fox 
was sent to Eton, and Francis accompanied 
him to assist the boy in his studies. The father, 
Henry Fox, best known as Lord Holland, 
found the Irish tutor a useful ally. It has 
sometimes been said that he was the chief 
writer in the paper called ' The Con-test,' 
which lived from November 1756 to August 
1757, but the accuracy of this statement is 
more than doubtful. He is also said to have 
contributed to the ' Gazette ' daily newspaper 
on behalf of the court interest. When Pitt 
resigned, in 1761, Francis wrote a libel against 
him under the title of 'Mr. Pitt's Letter 
Versified,' the notes to which, according to 
Horace Walpole, were supplied by Lord Hol- 
land, and he followed this with ' A Letter 
from the Anonymous Author of " Mr. Pitt's 
Letter Versified," ' in which he reflected on 
Pitt's indifference to the truculent language 
of Colonel Barre. Even so late as 1764 he 




attacked Pitt and "Wilkes with great bitter- 
ness in the ' Political Theatre.' On 22 June 
1761 he was inducted to the vicarage of Chil- 
ham in Kent, but resigned in the summer of 
1762, and through Lord Holland's influence 
he held from May 1764 to 1768 the chaplaincy 
at Chelsea Hospital, and the rectory of Bar- 
row in Suffolk, to which he was instituted on 
26 Feb. 1762, and which he retained until his 
death. These preferments did not exhaust the 
whole of the wages which he received for 
political services. He was recommended in 
January 1764 by George Grenville for a crown 
pension of 300/. a year, and his letters of thanks 
for these and other favours are printed in the 
' Grenville Papers,' ii. 250-5, when he an- 
nounced, as is common with the recipients of 
pensions, that he used to ' love and revere the 
constitution.' The editor quotes from a list of 
pensioners on the Irish establishment for 1770 
the entry, 'John Stear, esq., assignee of Philip 
Francis, esq., 600/. for 31 years from Sept. 16, 
1762.' Francis was still unsatisfied. He 
quarrelled with Lord Holland because he had 
not been made an Irish bishop, and threatened 
to expose his patron's villainy. Walpole re- 
lates that on Churchill's death a collection of 
letters from Holland to Francis, which had 
been supplied by him, were found among the 
poet's papers, and that, to stop any future 
exposure, the peer paid 500/. and obtained 
Francis's nomination to the chaplaincy at 
Chelsea. It should be noticed, however, that 
the appointment of Francis to that position 
preceded the date of Churchill's death, and 
that Churchill attacked him in the poem of 
the ' Author ' as ' the atheist chaplain of an 
atheist lord,' and in the ' Candidate ' sneered 
at his endeavours to translate. He was ' very 
feeble and languid in October 1766,' and next 
year he was ' struck with palsy from head to 
foot.' In June 1771 he was seized by a para- 
lytic stroke, and after lingering for some years 
died at Bath 5 March 1773. He was fond of 
his son Sir Philip Francis [q. v.], and numer- 
ous letters to and from him are in the son's 
memoir ; but he resented his son's marriage, 
and they were consequently at variance, but ' 
were afterwards reconciled. His first start in i 
life was obtained through his rendering of 
Horace, of which Dr. Johnson said : ' The 
lyrical part of Horace never can be perfectly i 
translated. Francis has done it the best. I'll j 
take his five out of six against them all.' The ; 
first part, consisting of the ' Odes, Epodes, 
and Carmen Seculare of Horace in Latin and '' 
English,' in which he was assisted by Dr. ! 
Dunkin, is said to have been issued at Dublin 
in two volumes in 1742. It was republished 
in London in the next year, and in 1746 
two more volumes, containing the ' Satires, 

Epistles, and Art of Poetry,' appeared with 
a dedication in prose to Lord Newport, lord 
chancellorof Ireland, who had encouraged the 
translation. The whole version was reissued 
in 1747, on this occasion with a poetical dedi- 
cation to Lord Newport, and it ran into many 
subsequent editions, that edited by Edward 
Dubois being the best. It was also included 
in the set of poets edited by Chalmers, the 
' British Poets,' vols. xcvii-viii.,and in Whit- 
tingham's* Greek and Roman Poets,' vol. xii. 
Francis was at work, as appears from a letter 
of Lord Chesterfield to Madame du Boccage, 
in 1751 on his play of ' Eugenia,' an adapta- 
tion of the French tragedy of ' Cenie,' and it 
was acted at Drury Lane Theatre on 17 Feb. 
1752, but ' verged towards dullness/ and was 
naturally unsuccessful, when Chesterfield at- 
tributed its failure to the fact that pit and 
gallery did not like a tragedy without blood- 
shed. A similar failure attended his play of 
' Constantine,' which was produced at Covent 
Garden on 23 Feb. 1754, and expired on the 
fourth night. Genest styles it ' a cold and un- 
interesting play, the plot avowedly taken in 
part from a French piece.' Both pieces were 
printed, the former being dedicated to the 
Countess of Lincoln, and the latter to Lord 
Chesterfield. For eight years he was em- 
ployed in studying the ' Orations ' of Demo- 
sthenes, and his translation appeared in two 
volumes in 1757-8, but it was deemed inferior 
to that by Leland, and Francis was much de- 
pressed by his disappointment. 

An anonymous volume, which was written 
by John Taylor, and was that writer's first 
publication on the subject, was printed in 
1813 with the title of '' A Discovery of the 
Author of the " Letters of Junius," "founded 
on Evidence and Illustrations.' It attributed 
the authorship to Francis and his son, Sir 
Philip Francis, and claimed that all the 
peculiarities of language in the writings of 
the elder Francis are discernible in some 
parts of Junius. The doctor's connection 
with the ' Letters of Junius ' may at once be 
dismissed from consideration. It is wholly 
without foundation. 

[Gent. Mag. 1773, p. 155, 1785, pt. i. 245; 
Hill's Boswell, iii. 356 ; Notes and Queries, 2nd 
ser. ii. 156, 6th ser. ix. 355, x. 97; Gage's Suf- 
folk, p. 18; Blomefield's Norfolk (1807 ed.), vi. 
364 ; Chesterfield's Works (Stanhope's ed.), iii. 
445, iv. 8 ; Faulkner's Chelsea, p. 198 ; Walpole's 
Memoirs of George III, i. 123, ii. 36; Webb's 
Irish Biography ; Trerelyan's Fox, p. 48 ; Gib- 
bon's Miscell. Works (1814), i. 40; Churchill's 
Works (1804), i. 314, 329, ii. 281 ; Genest's Hist, 
of English Stage, iv. 345-7, 39.7-8; Hasted's 
Kent, iii. 144 ; Merivale's Sir P. Francis, vol. i.] 

W. P. C. 




FRANCIS, SIR PHILIP (1740-1818), 
reputed author of ' Junius's Letters,' only 
child of the Rev. Philip Francis [q. v.], by 
his wife, Elizabeth Rowe, was born in Dub- 
lin, 22 Oct. 1740. His mother died about 
1744-5, and his father soon after removed to 
England, leaving the son at a school kept by 
a Mr. Roe in Dublin. About 1751-2 Francis 
came to England to be educated by his father. 
Among his fellow-pupils was the historian 
Gibbon. On 17 March 1753 Francis was 
entered at St. Paul's School, then flourishing 
under an able head-master,GeorgeThicknesse. 
He became a good classical scholar. Henry 
Sampson Woodfall [q. v.], afterwards the pub- 
lisher of 'Junius,' was a schoolfellow. Fran- 
cis was captain of the school in 1756, and left 
it in the same year to take a junior clerkship 
in the secretary of state's office. The appoint- 
ment came from his father's patron, Henry 
Fox, afterwards the first Lord Holland. John 
Calcraft (1726-1772) [q.v.] was intimateboth 
with Fox and the elder Francis, and Francis 
had many opportunities of seeing the leading 
statesmen of the day. He continued to edu- 
cate himself, spent his savings on books, and 
became favourably known to Robert Wood, 
secretary of the treasury, a man of classical 
parts and a trusted subordinate of Pitt in the 
seven years' war. Through Wood's influence 
Francis was appointed secretary to General 
Edward Bligh [q. v.], whom he accompanied 
in the expedition to Cherbourg and St. Cas in 
1758. In January 1760 he was appointed, 
again on Wood's recommendation, secretary 
of Lord Kinnoul's embassy to Portugal. He 
found time to learn French, Portuguese, and 
Spanish, and to compile elaborate note-books 
containing many diplomatic documents, be- 
sides discharging his official duties. Upon 
the conclusion of Kinnoul's mission in No- 
vember 1760, Francis returned to his clerk- 
ship and his studies. His note-books show 
careful study both of classical and modern 
authors. He compiled careful financial and 
statistical tables, and made elaborate notes 
upon English constitutional questions. Wood 
recommended him to Pitt, to whom he acted 
as amanuensis between January 1761 and 
May 1762, writing despatches occasionally in 
French and Latin. Pitt, according to Lady 
Francis, was struck by the youth's talents, but 
no preferment resulted. In October 1761 Lord 
Egremont succeeded Pitt as secretary of state. 
Francis, who was in his department, tried, 
without success, to obtain the secretaryship to 
Hans Stanley's mission to Paris in 1761. He 
was acquainted with the course of later nego- 
tiations, and copied part of the correspondence 
between Egremont and the Duke of Bedford 
during the final negotiations for peace in the 

autumn of 1762. A remarkable reference is 
made to the relations between Egremont and 
Bedford at this time in the Junius letter of 
29 Sept. 1769. Francis referred to his own 
employment on this occasion in a speech of 
29 Feb. 1792. In 1761 he fell in love with 
Elizabeth Macrabie, then living with her 
parents at Fulham. She was an accomplished 
musician, and an attractive and sensible girl. 
She had no fortune, and the connection was 
disapproved by both families. They were 
both of age, however, and married at St. 
Martin's-in-the-Fields, 27 Feb. 1762. A cool- 
ness resulted between Francis and his father^ 
till in 1766 the father's illness brought about 
a reconciliation. 

At the end of 1762 Welbore Ellis suc- 
ceeded Charles Townshend as secretary-at- 
war. He appointed Francis, upon Wood's re- 
commendation, first clerk at the war office, and 
directly afterwards appointed as his deputy 
Christopher d'Oyly, who became Francis's 
most intimate friend. From 1765 the secre- 
tary-at-warwas Lord Barrington. Both Bar- 
rington and D'Oyly left the greatest part of 
the official correspondence to be drafted by 
Francis. From this point Francis's career 
involves disputed questions. His biographer^ 
Joseph Parkes, attributes to him many anony- 
mous writings upon evidence of varying co- 
gency. Francis told his second wife that he 
' scarcely remembered when he did not write/ 
He was only treading in his father's steps, 
although his official position made a public 
acknowledgment of his writings inexpedient* 
A letter signed 'One of the People' in the 
'Public Ledger 'of 2 March 1763, dealing 1 - 
with a theatrical ' 0. P.' riot, is claimed in 
his papers (PARKES, i. 69). In May 1766 
Francis sent a long letter to the Duke of 
Richmond, then secretary of state, upon Eng- 
lish trade with Portugal. The duke did not 
return it till 2 Aug., when he was leaving- 
office. A strong hint had been given in a 
letter signed ' Tantum ' in the ' Public Ad- 
vertiser ' of 1 Aug., which may therefore be 
plausibly attributed to Francis. His interest 
in Portuguese questions may also justify 
Parkes's opinion that he wrote letters signed 
' Lusitanicus ' and one signed ' Ulisippo ' in 
the same paper for 2 and 13 Jan. and 3 March 
1767 (ib. i. 132, 136). The statement is rele- 
vant only as showing that Francis was writ- 
ing in the papers. Parkes also attributes to- 
Francis two pamphlets in 1764. The first 
was published by John Almon [q. v.] in 
September as 'A Letter to the "Public Ad- 
vertiser." ' Part of it had appeared in that paper 
on 2 Aug. under the signature ' Candor,' but 
Woodfall declined to publish the rest without 
having the author's name. On 29 Nov. 




Almon published a longer ' Enquiry into the j 
doctrine . . . concerning Libels, Warrants, | 
and the Seizure of Papers . . .in a Letter. . . 
from the Fatherof Candor.' These pamphlets, 
dealing with the Wilkes controversy, made 
some impression, went through several edi- 
tions, and have been attributed to Dunning, 
Lord Temple, and others. Parkes attributes 
them to Francis upon internal evidence of 
little cogency, and also upon the evidence of 
a letter from 'Candor' to Woodfall, with a 
list of corrections, which is said to be ' un- 
questionably ' in the handwriting of Francis 
(not the feigned hand of ' Junius '). The ori- 
ginal, of which a facsimile is given by Parkes 
and Merivale, is in Addit. MS. 27777. It 
may be added that ' Candor' (2nd edit. p. 27) 
and the ' Father of Candor' (2nd edit. p. 37) 
speak pointedly of the practice in the se- 
cretary of state's office (see PARKES, i. 75-81, 
85-96, 99-101). AVoodfall addresses his cor- 
respondent as ' C.,' the signature afterwards 
used by Junius. Parkes also attributes to 
Francis a pamphlet called ' Irenarch' (1774), 
which he considers to be a continuation of 
the ' Candor' pamphlets. It was really writ- 
ten by R. Heathcote, in whose name it was 
afterwards published {Notes and Queries, 3rd 
series, xii. 456). Besides this Parkes iden- 
tifies Francis with ' Anti-Sejanus,'the writer 
of letters to the ' Public Advertiser ' in January 
1765 and later, who is probably the ' Anti- 
Sejanus Junior' identified with Junius as 
author of one of the 'Miscellaneous Letters' 
in Woodfall's (1812) edition. ' Anti-Seja- 
nus ' was certainly James Scott, a clergyman 
patronised by Lord Sandwich, as was stated 
by a correspondent of the ' Public Advertiser' 
of 1 6 April 1 770 (see also NICHOLS, Lit. Anecd. 
ix. 125 ; Chatham Corr. iv. 66). Parkes again 
attributes to Francis a letter signed ' A Friend 
to Public Credit ' in the ' Public Advertiser ' of 
28 June 1768, of which he found a copy among 
Francis's papers. He failed to observe that 
this is one of a series by the same writer, and 
that a later letter of 11 Oct. 1768 is sharply 
attacked by 'Brutus,' and (19 Oct.) 'Atticus' 
{two of the letters assigned both by Parkes 
and Woodfall to Junius). If Francis wrote 
it, he was not Junius. But it is as inconsistent 
with Francis's views at the time as with the 
views of Junius. The 'Atticus' letter in 
which it is assailed was specially praised by 
Calcraft, with whom Francis was then acting, 
in aletter to the elder Francis (PARKES, i. 216). 
A copy of the letter of 28 June was no doubt 
tept by Francis, because it professes to give 
details of an operation upon the funds con- 
templated by the government. These pal- 
pable blunders go far to destroy the authority 
of Parkes's identifications. The following 

period of Francis's career is remarkably il- 
lustrated by the autobiographical fragment, 
written not later than 1776, and published by 
Parkes and Merivale (i. 355-70). His great 
patron was Calcraft. Francis says that he 
' concurred heartily ' in Calcraft's schemes, 
which offered his only ' hope of advancement.' 
Calcraft had been in close connection both 
with Chatham and with Chatham's brothers- 
in-law, Lord Temple and George Grenville, 
and kept upon terms with all these after the 
quarrel which separated them upon Chatham's 
acceptance of office in 1766. From the spring 
of 1767 Chatham's illness had caused his 
retirement from active participation in the 
government, and he finally resigned in Oc- 
tober 1768. Calcraft's plan was to discredit 
the rump of Chatham's administration, to re- 
concile Chatham to the Grenville party, and 
to attack ministers by a combination, in- 
cluding the Rockinghams as well as the Gren- 
villes. This political combination succeeded 
so well that in the beginning of 1770, as 
Francis observes, victory seemed assured. 
The great support of the opposition was the 
agitation on behalf of Wilkes, who returned 
to England at the beginning of 1768. His 
election for Middlesex, his expulsions and re- 
election, final exclusion, and other disputes 
arising out of these questions were the main 
topics of controversy from 1768 till 1772. 
Junius was undoubtedly the close (even if 
unknown) ally of the clique to which Cal- 
craft and Francis belonged throughout the 
whole movement. The very questionable 
authenticity of the ' Miscellaneous Letters ' 
makes it impossible to speak confidently of 
the earlier attitude of Junius. We know, 
however, that on 2 Jan. 1768 he wrote pri- 
vately to Chatham (Chatham Corr. iii. 302), 
warning him, with expressions of ' respect and 
veneration,' of treachery on the part of his 
colleagues. Chatham soon discovered, says 
Francis (PARKES, i. 361), ' that he had been 
cajoled and deceived.' During 1768 Junius 
also wrote three remarkable private letters to 
George Grenville ( Grenville[Corr. iv. 254, 355, 
379). They claim the authorship of a letter 
called ' the Grand Council,' of the ' Atticus' 
of 19 Oct. 1768, of letters signed ' Lucius,' of 
others in defence of Grenville and criticising 
the commission of trade, and of ' almost every- 
thing that for two years past has attracted 
the attention of the public.' The author, who 
signs himself ' C.,' expects to make himself 
known to Grenville when Grenville becomes 
a minister, and will then not be ' a needy and 
troublesome dependent.' During 1768 Junius 
(assuming him to have written the ' Miscel- 
laneous Letters,' some of which are thus 
claimed) bitterly attacked the government, 




and especially the Duke of Grafton. If ' C.' 
be always his signature, he also attacked 
Wilkes at his first appearance, apparently 
because he first thought that ministers could 
be best assailed for want of energy, though 
he afterwards assails them for their arbitrary 
measures. He alludes disrespectfully to 
Chatham ('Lucius' 29 Aug. and 'Atticus' 
19 Oct.), for Chatham's fame was still of use 
to ministers. He especially insists at length 
upon the dismissal of Amherst, which was 
regarded as a personal slight to Chatham, 
and therefore served to detach him from office. 

The signature 'Junius' first appeared on 
21 Nov. 1768, when Grafton and Camden 
were attacked for their behaviour to Wilkes. 
The first Junius of the collected edition ap- 
peared 21 Jan. 1769. It led to the sharp 
controversy with Sir William Draper [q.v.J, 
which made the letters famous. The signa- 
ture was afterwards used by Junius for his 
most careful writings, though he used many 
others. Junius now appeared as the advo- 
cate of Wilkes during the contest produced 
by his expulsions, and assailed the Duke of 
Bedford, whose influence was now on the 
government side, with singular ferocity. He 
culminated with the famous letter to the 
king on 19 Dec. 1769, which produced more 
sensation than any other letter. 

At the beginning of 1770 Chatham came 
to the front with restored health. His friends 
Camden and Granby retired ; Yorke com- 
mitted suicide from remorse after taking 
Camden's place ; Grafton himself resigned 
in January, and was succeeded by North. 
While Junius carried on the attack in his 
letters, Francis endeavoured to get Chatham's 
speeches diffused through the press. He 
claimed long afterwards, in a private note in 
Belsham's ' History' (ed. 1805), to have re- 
ported the speeches of Mansfield and Chatham 
on 9 Jan. 1770, and ' all Chatham's speeches 
on the Middlesex election,' &c., in this year 
(Chatham Con: iv. 194). On the publication 
in the ' Parliamentary History ' in 1813 he 
claimed to have reported Chatham's speeches 
of 9 and 22 Jan. and of 22 Nov., the only 
fully reported speeches of this period (Part. 
Hist. xvi. 647, 741, 1091, and preface to vol. 
xxxiv.) He stated in pamphlets of 1811 that he 
had heard Chatham's speeches of January ( see 
Junius Identified, 1816, pp. 289, 325). The 
speeches of January had appeared, as given 
for the first time by a ' gentleman of strong 
memory,' in Almon's ' Anecdotes of Chatham,' 
1792, to which Francis made other contri- 
butions (PARKES, i. 160 ; TAYLOR'S Appendix, 
p. 28). Notes taken from a speech of Chat- 
ham's on 2 Feb. 1770 are given from Fran- 
cis's papers in Parkes and Merivale (i. 390- 

393). Francis's claim has at least a prime? 
facie justification. Taylor in his ' Junius 
Identified ' pointed out a number of coinci- 
dences, some of them very remarkable, be- 
tween the reports of the January speeches, 
the writings of Junius both before and after, 
and some of Francis's own writings. Dilke 
(Papers of a Critic, vol. ii.) endeavoured to- 
meet this by stating that extracts from the 
speech of 9 Jan. had appeared at the time 
in the papers. The document to which Dilke 
apparently refers contains only a few brief 
fragments, in different language and without 
the specific phrases. He could find no report 
of the speech of 22 Jan. which contains, be- 
sides other coincidences, a sentence, quoted 
verbatim by Junius, in a private letter to 
Wilkes (7 Sept. 1771). This proves that 
Junius had seen the report, which, so far as 
we know, was still in Francis's desk. The 
nature of the brief and disguised reports of 
the time makes it highly improbable that any 
other report than that mentioned was pub- 
lished, and Almon's statement that he was 
the first publisher seems to be justified. 

When parliament met in November 1770, 
the opposition dwelt chiefly upon the Falk- 
land Islands difficulty, and upon the conduct 
of Mansfield in the trials of Woodfall and 
others for publishing Junius's letter to the 
king. On 22 Nov. Chatham delivered a great 
speech upon the Falkland Islands difficulty. 
Francis says in his autobiography (PARKES, 
i. 363) that he took it down from memory 
and had it published 'in a few days.' It 
appeared accordingly (Papers of a Critic) as 
an extra ' North Briton ' on 1 Dec. ; it was 
reprinted in the ' Middlesex Journal,' again in 
the ' Museum ' and Almon, and was claimed 
by Francis in 1813. 

A debate upon Mansfield followed on 
5 Dec. A report was published at the time 
in several papers. On 10 Dec. Junius and 
Francis come into remarkable conjunction. 
On 21 Nov. Junius had written privately to 
Woodfall, hoping for information to be used 
against Mansfield, whom he is resolved to 1 
' destroy.' On 1 Dec. Francis wrote a letter 
to Calcraft to be laid before Chatham, sug- 
gesting that Mansfield should be assailed by 
other methods, but not formally attacked in 
the house, where he was certain of a majority. 
Francis next got a hint of an argument 
against Mansfield from a friend at a tavern, 
reduced it to form, and sent it through Cal- 
craft to Chatham. The paper, dated 9 Dec., 
is printed in the l Chatham Correspondence ' 
(iv. 48-9). Three days later Francis was; 
flattered by hearing Chatham adopt his very 
words, and next day the speech ' flamed in 
the newspapers and ran through the kingdom." 




Chatham spoke on 10 Dec., and the ' London 
Evening Post ' of the llth reported that he 
had condemned Mansfield's conduct as ' ir- 
regular, extrajudicial and unprecedented,' the 
words used in Francis's private letter. Chat- 
ham's argument, however, was not given, and 
' Nerva' in the ' Public Advertiser ' of 14 Dec. 
showed that he had missed the point. On 
17 Dec. 'Nerva' was answered by 'Phalaris,' 
who restates Francis's argument with such 
verbal closeness that there can be no doubt that 
te was Francis, or had read Francis's confi- 
dential communication to Chatham (see Her- 
man Merivale in Fortnightly Review, March 
1868). This letter, by omitting the three itali- 
cised words in ' I affirm with Lord Chatham, 
became Chatham's speech in the report of the 

* Museum ' for January. In 1772 Junius cited 
this report in a note to the preface of the 
collected edition of his letters, and added ' it 
is exactly taken.' The ' Phalaris' letter, which 
was almost certainly by Francis, is included 
in the ' Miscellaneous Letters ' of Junius ; 
and the probability that Junius was the author 
is increased by his guarantee of its accuracy, 
and by the fact that he was keenly anxious 
to attack Chatham ; that he was writing the 
letter of 'Domitian' at least, and private 
letters to "Woodfall, and that, if he was ^not 

* Phalaris,' he made no direct attempt to sup- 
port Chatham's assault upon the common 
enemy. A violent scene took place later in 
the debate of 10 Dec., at which Francis states 
that he was present, and it is described in 
the ' Museum,' obviously by an eye-witness. 
It ended in the expulsion of all strangers. 
Junius's private letter to Woodfall of 31 Jan. 
1771 shows his extreme anxiety that the 
doors of the House of Lords might not be 
closed in the coming session. Francis, who 
attributes the closing to his publication of 
the 22 Nov. speech, declares that the closure 
was fatal to the opposition. 

Francis and Junius were equally interested 
in the Falkland Islands quarrel. Francis 
thought that a war would necessarily place 
Chatham in power, and in that case he says 
'I might have commanded anything.' He 
speculated in the funds, and by the peaceful 
settlement of the dispute in 1771 lost 500J. 
Calcraft told Chatham on 14 Jan. 1771 that 
war ' is more and more certain.' Junius told 
Woodfall, 16 Jan. 1771, that ' every man in 
the administration looks upon war as inevit- 
able.' The 'Domitian' letter of 17 Jan. argues 
the same point, and on 30 Jan. Junius argues 
the case in a letter to which Johnson made 
a well-known reply. The remarks in this 
letter are curiously coincident with remarks 
from an unnamed correspondent, communi- 
cated to Chatham by Calcraft on 20 Jan. 

The settlement of this question strength- 
ened the ministry ; and the opposition gra- 
dually declined and fell into discordant fac- 
tions. Junius supported the city in the 
quarrel with the House of Commons. In the 
summer he again attacked Grafton, who in 
May 1771 accepted the privy seal ; and was 
diverted by a sharp encounter with Home, 
who was now quarrelling with Wilkes. 
He afterwards corresponded privately with 
Wilkes, suggesting means for pacifying the 
conflicting factions. The opposition grew 
daily weaker. At the end of 1771 Junius 
made his last assault upon Mansfield for 
bailing Eyre. The letter, composed with great 
labour, is said by Campbell and Charles But- 
ler to prove that Junius was not a lawyer. 
Like the attack made by Francis, however, 
it turns upon a technical point, and Junius, 
like Francis, sent the proof-sheets of his letter 
to Chatham, asking him to co-operate in the 
House of Lords. The letter, which appeared 
21 Jan. 1772, with another to Lord Camden, 
was a complete failure, and Junius, under 
that name, wrote no more. 

On 21 Jan. 1772 D'Oyly, Francis's inti- 
mate friend, resigned his post at the war 
office. Harrington appointed Anthony Cha- 
mier [q. v.] in his place. Francis himself 
resigned in March. On 25 Jan. Junius 
told Woodfall of Chamier's appointment, 
and announced his intention of ' torturing ' 
Barrington, requesting Woodfall at the same 
time to be careful to keep it secret that 
Junius was the torturer. The intention 
was fulfilled in the letters under various 
signatures, presumably intended to suggest 
different authors, which appeared on 28 Jan. 
and in the following months. They show 
Junius in his cruellest mood, and are in 
a vein of brutal pleasantry which, though 
it occurs in some of the other unacknow- 
ledged letters, is so unlike the more digni- 
fied style of Junius as to evade recognition. 
If Francis wrote them, they gave vent to the 
accumulated bile of an ambitious and arro- 
gant subordinate against a dull and super- 
cilious superior, whose politics he despised, 
who had turned out his dearest friend, and 
who had not yet had his fair share of abuse 
in Junius. 

It is, however, remarkable that the facts, 
very partially known to us, do not fully ex- 
plain Francis's wrath. The memoir in the 
' Mirror' (1811), probably inspired by Francis, 
states that he resigned ' in consequence of a 
difference with Viscount Barrington, by 
whom he thought himself injured.' Yet in a 
private letter of 24 Jan. 1772 Francis says 
that Barrington had offered D'Oyly's place to 
him (PAKKES and MEBIVALE, i. 275), which 




he refused for 'solid reasons.' Barrington also 
wrote politely to Francis on 26 Feb. request- 
ing him to make his own statement of the 
cause of his resignation, and desiring to use 
Francis's own words. The matter ' cannot re- 
main a secret,' he says. In fact, however, the 
secret has been kept ; no explanation is given 
by Francis himself or elsewhere. Francis's 
sixth child was born in this year ; his father, 
who had long been hopelessly infirm, seems 
to have been partly dependent upon him. In 
losing his office, therefore, Francis would ap- 
pear to have lost his chief means of support, 
while there were heavy claims upon him. 
He probably had some expectations through 
Calcraft's influence. He had been for some 
time thinking of an Indian appointment (ib. 
I. 260). He left England for a tour on the 
continent 7 July 1772, Calcraft promising to 
join him at Naples. Calcraft died 23 Aug. He 
had left 1,000/. to Francis by a codicil dated 
on the day of Francis's resignation, and an 
annuity of 200/. payable to Mrs. Francis if 
she should survive her husband and be left 
without due provision. Francis was also to 
be elected for his borough, Wareham. In his 
autobiography Francis leaves a spiteful cha- 
racter of Calcraft (ib. i. 359), curiously re- 
sembling a reference in Junius's letter of 
6 Oct. 1771. Francis returned to England 
14 Dec. 1772, anxious and only comforted by 
the friendship of D'Oyly. He was summoned 
to Bath, where his father was rapidly sink- 
ing, and returned to London on 12 or 13 Jan. 
The last letter from Junius to Woodfall had 
been dated 10 May 1772. A private note from 
Junius, taking a final leave of his publisher, 
is dated 19 Jan. 1773. 

The evidence for the identity of Francis 
and Junius may be now briefly summarised. 
(1) Junius was especially acquainted with the 
affairs of the war office, and, in a less degree, 
of the state office. (2) Junius's fury at the 
dismissal of D'Oyly and Francis, coupled with 
his anxiety to conceal the fact that he was 
the author of these letters (private letter of 
25 Jan. 1772), undoubtedly suggests some 
close personal interest. The publication of 
these letters in 1812, which first revealed the 
fact that they were written by Junius, sug- 
gested Francis to Taylor. (3) The facts 
above stated show that Junius throughout 
his career was acting, consciously or not, in 
the closest co-operation with Francis. Fran- 
cis almost certainly wrote one of the ' Mis- 
cellaneous Letters ' which fits into the Junius 
series. Junius guarantees the accuracy of a 
report by Francis of a speech in which Fran- 
cis took a peculiar interest ; and reports, pro- 
bably due to Francis, make use of letters by 
Junius. Some presumptive proofs that Junius 

had information known to Francis will be 
found in the ' Grenville Correspondence ' 
(ii. cxiv seq.), where they are adduced to 
support the hypothesis that 'Junius was 
Lord Temple. (4) The papers of Francis 
show that his absences from London cor- 
respond with the silence of Junius. Home 
on 16 Aug. 1771 taunts Junius for delaying 
till 13 Aug. to answer a previous letter of 
31 July. Francis had left London at the 
end of July, and returned on 11, or possibly 
12 Aug. Almost every letter assigned to 
Junius was delivered when Francis was pro- 
bably in London. The chief exception is that 
Francis was at Margate when ' Q in the Corner ' 
and ' A Labourer in the same Cause ' Vere 
acknowledged in the ' Public Advertiser ' of 
6 July 1770. But the ' Labourer in the same 
Cause ' is probably spurious, and the other 
may probably have been sent before Francis's 
departure (see Notes and Queries, 4th ser. xi. 
130, 178, 202, 387, 425, for discussions of this 
point). (5) The evidence from handwriting 
is apparently very strong. In 1871 Mr. 
Twisleton published a careful examination 
by the expert Charles Chabot [q. v.], who 
gives in detail reasons which can be easily 
tested, and are apparently conclusive for iden- 
tifying the handwriting of Junius and Fran- 
cis. In the same book will be found a curious 
account of a poem sent in all probability by 
Francis about Christmas 1771 to a Miss 
Giles, in the handwriting of his cousin, Tilgh- 
man, and enclosed in an anonymous letter, 
which is identified by another expert, Mr. 
Netherclift, as in the handwriting of Junius. 
In one correction of the press, and probably 
in some corrections afterwards erased, Junius 
forgot to use his disguise, and writes a date 
in a hand indistinguishable from Francis's. 
This, however, has been disputed. (6) Some 
minor coincidences have been alleged. ' Bi- 
frons ' in the ' Miscellaneous Letters ' says 
that he saw the books of the Jesuits burnt 
in Paris. This probably refers to August 
1761, when Englishmen were excluded by 
the war. But Francis wished to accom- 
pany, and possibly may have been sent with 
despatches to, Hans Stanley, who was then 
engaged in negotiations in Paris, and who 
described the scene in a despatch which 
Francis, if in England, must have seen. On 
the other hand, it is doubtful whether Junius 
wrote 'Bifrons' (see PAKKES, i. 192, 196). 
The alleged kindness to Fox is of little or no 
importance, because the elder Francis and 
Calcraft had bitterly quarrelled with Fox, 
and Francis was as likely to have attacked 
as to have spared him. (7) Francis clearly 
belonged to the same political school as Ju- 
nius, and was, like him, a whig doctrinaire. 




There is & close general coincidence of 
opinion, with such slight divergences as are 
naturally explained by the changes of Fran- 
cis's position in later life. Francis never 
wrote anything equal to Junius, though oc- 
casional passages suggest the same author- 
ship. Upon this head, however, it is only safe 
to say that the identification presents no great 
difficulty, though the resemblance by itself 
affords scarcely any presumption. (8) Fran- 
cis's conduct when challenged is on the whole 
confirmative. He seems (see afterwards) 
to have desired that the claim should be ac- 
cepted, but to have been unwilling to make 
it himself. He appears to have denied the 
fact at times, though some alleged denials 
read like equivocations. To have claimed 
the authorship openly would have been to 
admit that he had been guilty of libelling his 
patron, Barrington, whose brother, the Bishop 
of Durham, was still alive, to say nothing of 
other admissions. Had he been conscious of 
innocence, an explicit denial would certainly 
have been called for. His actual course may 
be explained by such motives struggling with 
vanity, and confirmed by long habits of secre- 
tiveness and a probably exaggerated view of 
the importance of the facts. But other ex- 
planations are of course possible. (9) The 
moral resemblance is undoubtedly so close 
that it would be impossible to describe the 
character of Junius except in terms strikingly 
applicable to Francis. The chief arguments 
against Francis are that his authorship would 
imply an underhand malignity, which is not 
improbable in the author of Junius, whoever 
he may have been, and only too probable in 
Francis, whether he was or was not the 
author of Junius. It is also said that Wood- 
fall, the printer of the letters, and Pitt stated 
that they knew Francis not to be the author. 
Both Pitt and Woodfall died, however, before 
the authorship had been publicly, if at all, 
attributed to Francis ; and such second-hand 
reports are of little value (see, on the other 
side, Mr. Fraser Rae in the ' Athenaeum,' 1888, 
ii. 192). On the whole, it may be said that 
Taylor established &prima facie presumption, 
which has been considerably strengthened by 
the publication of Francis's papers, and which 
is turned into something like proof, unless the 
coincidences of handwriting stated by Chabot 
and Netherclift can be upset. Nor is there 
any real difficulty in the assumption. The 
personal indications thrown out by Junius in 
his private letters to Woodfall and Wilkes are 
so indefinite and so probably mere blinds, that 
no inference can be drawn from them. 

Francis made a short journey to the Hague 
two months after his father's death (5 March 
1772). He there obtained permission from 

a M. de Pinto to translate his ' Essay on Cir- 
culation.' The translation was published 
under the name of his cousin, Stephen Baggs. 
Lord North had just passed his ' Regulating- 
Act ' for India, under which the governor of 
Bengal was to become governor-general of 
India, and to be controlled by a council of 
four. Francis had been thinking of retiring 
to Pennsylvania, where he had purchased a; 
thousand acres through his brother-in-law, 
Alexander Macrabie. Hearing that one of 
the places in the council was not filled, Francis 
applied to Barrington, who recommended him 
to North in 'the handsomest and strongest 
letter imaginable,' and on North's advice was- 
approved by the king and named in the bill, 
his colleagues being Warren Hastings, the 
new governor-general, Clavering, Monson, 
and Barwell. The appointment of a retired 
clerk to a place of 10,000/. a year has sug- 
gested the hypothesis that he was receiving 
hush-money as Junius. The post had already 
been refused by Burke and Cholwell at least,. 
and was apparently going begging (PARKES 
and MBRIVAT.E, i. 327). For obvious reasons 
the Junius hypothesis is improbable, though 
no further explanation can be given. The 
vague gossip reported by Lady Francis and 
the family, and given in Wade's ' Junius,' is 
inconsistent and incredible. After this Francis- 
was on friendly terms with Barrington (ib. 
p. 329). He visited Olive, with whose son 
and widow he kept up an intimacy. After 
various difficulties with the court of direc- 
tors, whose instructions to the new council 
were offensive to Francis, he finally sailed 1 
from Portsmouth 31 March 1774, leaving, it 
seems, a liberal allowance for his wife and 
her family. 

Francis reached Calcutta 19 Oct. 1774. He 
came, according to Merivale (ii. 9, 239), 
strongly prejudiced against Hastings, al- 
though in 1787 he declared in the House of 
Commons that he and his colleagues had left 
England with the '' highest opinion ' of Has- 
tings. In any case Francis soon came to- 
regard Hastings with sentiments resembling 
strongly the sentiments expressed towards 
Mansfield by Junius. In his earliest letters 
he denounced with great bitterness the cor- 
ruption and rapacity which, as he declared,, 
pervaded the whole Indian administration. 
Francis, Clavering, and Monson were the 
majority of the council, opposed by Hastings 
and Barwell. They re versed Hastings'spolicy- 
and recalled his agents [see under HASTINGS, 
WARREN]. Francis was singularly ener- 
getic. He had four secretaries, his private 
secretary being his brother-in-law, Macrabie,, 
and sometimes dictated to them all at 
once. He kept up a large correspondence, 




and preserved his papers in the most business- 
like method (MERIVALE, ii. 3, 24). 

His quarrel with Hastings was soon em- 
bittered by the part which Francis took in 
the famous case of Nuncomar. On 11 March 
1774 Francis received a visit from Nuncomar, 
who brought him a letter. Francis laid this 
before the council, declaring himself to be 
ignorant of its contents. It charged Has- 
tings with corruption. In the interval 
between the committal and the execution 
of Xuncomar, Francis and his colleagues 
had some conflicts with the supreme court 
on questions arising out of the proceed- 
ings. On 31 July Nuncomar wrote a letter 
to Francis, entreating him to intercede for a 
respite. On 1 Aug. Nuncomar's counsel, 
Farrer, proposed to Francis that the council 
should send to the court a letter covering a 
petition from Nuncomar and supporting his 
prayer for a respite. Francis approved, but 
as Clavering and Monson declined, the matter 
dropped, and Nuncomar's last chance disap- 
peared. He was hanged 5 Aug. On the 14th 
Clavering presented to the council a petition 
received from Nuncomar on the 4th. This 
petition suggested that he wasjudicially mur- 
dered on account of his attack upon Hastings. 
Hastings proposed that the letter should be 
sent to the judges, upon whose character it 
reflected. Francis, however, stated that he 
considered it as * libellous ' and ' wholly un- 
supported,' and carried a motion that it should 
be burnt by the common hangman and the 
copy of it expunged from the proceedings of 
the council. He tried upon the impeachment 
of Impey to explain his conduct in suppress- 
ing this document as libellous, although he 
and his colleagues made similar insinuations 
both before and after the event in the minutes 
of the council. He asserted that if he had 
acted weakly it was from a desire to save 
Clavering from the vengeance of Hastings ; 
while it has been argued (STEPHEN, Nun- 
comar and Impey, ii. 108) that his real mo- 
tive was to keep the charge against Hastings 
secret until it could be used to more effect. 
Francis's letters at the time seem to imply a 
very cautious reticence (MERIVALE, ii. 35). 
The question is discussed in two pamphlets 
published in 1788, ' Answer of Philip Francis 
to the charge brought ... by Sir E. Impey ' 
(by Francis), and ' A Kefutation of ... the 
Answer ' (by Impey). Francis had before 
long quarrelled with Clavering. His position 
became uncomfortable, and upon the death 
of Monson (25 Sept. 1776) he was reduced to 
impotence, Hastings having the casting vote. 
He had meanwhile won 20,000/. at whist 
from Barwell, a sum reduced to 12,000/. by 
subsequent losses. He then gave up play and 
VOL. xx. 

invested his winnings. Although powerless 
in the council, he had hopes that Hastings 
would be superseded, and that he would be 
appointed to the vacant place. In June 1777 
these hopes were dispelled upon Hastings's 
repudiation of his previous resignation and 
the decision of the supreme court in his favour. 
Clavering died 30 Aug. 1777. In the next 
month Francis wrote an elaborate letter to 
Lord North upon Indian affairs, separately 
printed in 1793. Wheler, sent out to succeed 
Hastings, arrived in Calcutta in November 
1777, and generally acted with Francis as a 
member of council. They agreed in the fol- 
lowing February to oppose ' the pernicious 
measures ' of Hastings. 

In 1778 Francis had an intrigue with the 
lovely wife, aged 16, of a Swiss merchant, 
named Grand. In November Grand sur- 
prised Francis, who had entered Mme. Grand's 
room. An action was brought by Grand 
against Francis, who was sentenced to pay 
fifty thousand rupees damages by Impey 
(6 March 1779). Mme. Grand afterwards 
threw herself upon Francis's protection. She 
left India before him, and afterwards be- 
came the mistress, and in 1801 the wife, of 

In March 1779 Sir Eyre Coote succeeded 
Clavering as member of council and in com- 
mand of the forces. Francis afterwards ac- 
cused Hastings of buying Coote's support by 
large allowances, and says of Coote in No- 
vember, in language suggesting Junius upon 
Barrington, ' I never heard of so abandoned 
a scoundrel.' The military difficulties now 
led to a truce with Hastings, in which Major 
Scott acted as negotiator. The political dif- 
ferences were compromised. Two of Francis's 
prot6g6s were to be restored to the posts from 
which Hastings had removed them, and Fran- 
cis undertook not to oppose Hastings in the 
management of the Mahratta war. Francis 
also joined with Hastings in opposing the 
pretensions of the supreme court under Im- 
pey. Francis and his new colleague Wheler 
were still on bad terms with Hastings. At 
last, in July 1780, Hastings accused Francis 
of breaking their agreement, and stated in an 
official minute that he had found Francis's 
private conduct to be 'void of truth and 
honour.' Francis's account was that his 
agreement referred only to the operations 
already begun and not to new movements in- 
tended by Hastings. A duel followed (17 Aug. 
1779), in which Francis was severely woun- 
ded. He recovered in a few days, but took 
little active part in business afterwards, find- 
ing that Wheler was not hearty in supporting 
him. He left India at the end of 1780, and, 
after a long delay at St. Helena, reached 




Dover on 19 Oct. 1781. Francis is said to 
have made judicious suggestions for the go- 
vernment of India, and to have proposed the 
permanent settlement of Bengal, afterwards 
carried out by Lord Cornwallis ; but is re- 
membered almost solely by his antagonism 
to Hastings. 

Francis had realised a fortune amounting 
to over 3,000/.a year (MERIVALE, ii. 211). He 
had been accused of parsimony, and, as part 
of this fortune was due to his gambling, his 
salary of 10,OOOJ. a year would enable him 
to make the rest without using the corrup- 
tion imputed to many contemporary ' nabobs.' 
It has been suggested, but apparently without 
authority, that his appointment was clogged 
by the condition that he should pay part of 
his salary to a ' rider' (Calcutta Review}, He 
was so unpopular on his arrival in England 
that no one, it is said (MERIVALE, ii. 204), 
except the king and Lord North, would speak 
to him when he first appeared at court. He 
seems (ib.) to have contributed many anony- 
mous papers to the press. Attacks upon the 
Indian administration in the ' Intrepid Maga- 
zine ' and ' A State of the British Authority 
in Bengal' (1781) are attributed to him. He 
was also supposed to have inspired a book 
called ' Travels in Europe, Asia, and America,' 
&c., published under the name of Macintosh. 
Francis solemnly denied the authorship ; but 
he is shown to have paid Macintosh a sum 
of 1,OOOJ. at this time, besides ' large ad- 
vances ' to his cousin, Major Baggs, although 
he equally denied that Baggs was his agent 
(ib. pp. 205, 206). An edition of Junius, 
without the name of printer or publisher, 
appeared in 1783, and has been attributed to 
Francis by Parkes (Notes and Queries, 17 Feb. 

In April 1784 Francis was returned to 
parliament for Yarmouth, Isle of Wight. He 
failed as a speaker, although he prepared and 
reported his speeches with great care. Wynd- 
ham and Dr. Parr praised them highly ; but 
he was pompous, didactic, and wanting in 
fluency (NICHOLL, Recollections and Reflec- 
tions, 1822; WRAXALL, Memoirs, ii. 200), 
He was a keen whig, and became intimate 
with all the assailants of Hastings. He had 
made Burke's acquaintance before sailing for 
India, and during his stay here they had had 
some correspondence. Francis gave Burke in- 
formation and advice in preparing the charges 
against Hastings, and in April 1787 he was 
proposed as one of the managers of the im- 
peachment, but rejected after some sharp de- 
bates. The managers, however, asked him 
in very complimentary terms to assist them, 
and he was most eager and regular in his 
attendance at the trial. His own statement 

of his share in preparing the impeachment 
and suggesting Burke's arguments is given, 
by Merivale (ii. 287, 288). 

In 1790 Francis was returned for Bletch- 

ingley. When Burke was alienated from the 

whigs by his views of the French revolution, 

Francis remonstrated with him, criticising his 

| sentimental defence of Marie Antoinette with 

j great severity, while Burke treated his dis- 

j sent with special respect. Their correspon- 

j dence, however, seems to have dropped, though 

I Francis always spoke respectfully of his old 

I friend. 

Francis was an early reformer, and one of 
the founders of the ' Society of the Friends 
of the People,' of whose original programme 
(1793) he was in great part the author. He 
also was a strong opponent of the slave trade. 
In 1798 he was defeated in an election for 
Tewkesbury, but continued his intimacy with 
the whigs, and protested against Fox's seces- 
sion. He became very intimate with Lord 
Thanet [see TUFTOK, SACKVILLE], a radical 
reformer of the time, and was returned for 
Appleby in November 1802 by Thanet's in- 
fluence. He had at this time many family 
losses, his daughter Harriet dying at Nice 
in the spring of 1803, another daughter, 
Elizabeth, on 14 July 1804, and his wife on. 
5 April 1806. 

One of his last performances was an elabo- 
rate speech upon India, 5 April 1805. He 
hoped for the governor-generalship upon the 
death of Cornwallis (5 Oct. 1805). In March 
1806 he quarrelled with Fox for declining to 
promise him the appointment. The death of 
Pitt seemed to open the way, and at this 
period Francis was for some years on terms 
of close intimacy with the prince regent. 
Various accounts have been given of the ne- 
gotiations which took place (see BROUGHAM, 
Statesmen of the Time of George III] and 
Lady Francis in MERIVALE, ii. 351-4). The 
governor-generalship was clearly out of the 
question, and Francis is said to have declined 
the government of the Cape. He had finally 
to content himself with the honour of adding- 
K.C.B. to his name. Francis was re-elected 
for Appleby in December 1806, but on the 
election of 1807 he retired from parliamen- 
tary life. 

The intimacy with the prince regent gra- 
dually declined as the prince dropped the 
whigs. Francis adhered to his rigid whig- 
gism. At the end of 1814 he married his 
second wife, Miss Emma Watkins, daughter 
of a Yorkshire clergyman, born, as she states, 
ten years after the last Junius letter, or in 
1782. He had corresponded with her from 
1806, and seems to have been an affectionate 
husband. His amanuensis in later years was 




Edward Dubois [q. v.], who published a life 
of Francis in the ' Monthly Mirror ' for 1811. 
The publication of Taylor's ' Discovery of 
Junius ' in 1813 (in which Junius is sup- 
posed to be the elder Francis, assisted by his 
son), and of ' Junius Identified ' in 1816, put 
Francis in a difficult position. When the 
first was published, Francis wrote to the editor 
of the ' Monthly Magazine,' who wrote to him 
on the subject : ' Whether you will assist in 
giving currency to a silly, malignant false- 
hood is a question for your own considera- 
tion. To me it is a matter of perfect indiffer- 
ence.' After the appearance of the second, 
lie behaved equivocally. His first present 
to his wife on their marriage was a copy of 
' Junius's Letters,' and he left sealed up for her 
at his death a copy of 'Junius Identified.' 
She states that he never claimed to be Ju- 
nius, but gives statements on his authority 
as to the circumstances of writing the letters, 
which could hardly have been made without 
expressly claiming the authorship. He with- 
drew from Brooks's Club in order, as she 
thought, to avoid awkward questions, and re- 
pelled direct inquiries with his usual severity. 
The anecdotes of Lady Francis (see MERIVALE, 
ii. 386-400) seem to establish this, although 
little reliance can be placed upon details. 

Francis lived during his later years in St. 
James's Square, a place endeared to him, ac- 
cording to Lady Francis, because he had 
there acted as Chatham's amanuensis. He 
was known in society for his caustic humour, 
his intolerance of bores and long stories (which 
once led him to snub the prince regent), his 
real or affected penuriousness, and his old- 
fashioned gallantry to ladies. He suffered at 
the end from a painful disease, but retained 
his faculties to the last, and died quietly in 
his sleep 23 Dec. 1818. 

A portrait of Francis by Hoppner is en- 
graved in the first volume of Parkes and Meri- 
vale, and a caricature in the second. Francis 
had six children by his first wife : Sarah (b. 
1763, died unmarried), Elizabeth (b. 1764, 
died unmarried 14 July 1804), Harriet (b. 
1766, died unmarried 2 Jan. 1803), Philip 
(b. 1768, married Eliza Jane, daughter of 
Godshall Johnson of Putney, and left issue), 
Mary (b. 1770, married 1792 Godshall John- 
son of Putney, who died 1800), and Cathe- 
rine (b. 1772, married George James Cholmon- 

Francis, whether Junius or not, was a man 
of great ability and unflagging industry ; ar- 
rogant and vindictive in the extreme ; un- 
scrupulous in gratify ing his enmities by covert 
insinuations and false assertions, yet coura- 
geous in attacking great men ; rigid and even 
pedantic in his adherence to a set of princi- 

ples which had their generous side ; really 
scornful of meanness and corruption in others ; 
and certainly doing much to vindicate the 
power of public opinion, although from mo- 
tives which were not free from selfishness 
and the narrowest personal ambition. There 
may have been two such men, whose careers 
closely coincided during Francis's most vigo- 
rous period ; but it seems more probable that 
there was only one. 

Early collections of the letters of Junius 
were published by Newbery as the ' Political 
Convert,' 1769 (containing the Draper con- 
troversy) ; by Almon, ' Collection of Letters 
of Atticus, Lucius, Junius, and Others,' 1769 ; 
by A. Thomson, ' A Complete Collection of 
Junius's Letters ' (reissued with additions). 
For a list of early editions see ' Notes and 
Queries,' 6th ser. v. 282, 342. Wheble printed 
collections 1770, 1771, 1772, 1775, the first 
without printer's name. The author's edition 
appeared in 1772. In 1783 appeared the new 
edition mentioned above. An edition by 
Robert Heron (for whom see Notes and 
Queries, 1st ser. vi. 445) appeared in 1802, 
another (with additions) in 1804, and Almon's 
edition appeared in 1806. The edition by 
George Woodfall, son of Henry Sampson 
Woodfall, 3 vols. 8vo, 1812, was edited with 
an anonymous introduction by J. Mason Good 
[q. v.] This edition included for the first 
time the private letters of Junius to H. S. 
Woodfall and to Wilkes. It also included 
a number of letters under different signa- 
tures not previously attributed to Junius. 
The publisher and editor had no private 
means of identifying Junius's letters; and 
some are almost certainly spurious. Others are 
identified by references in the private letters, 
or by the use of the letter ' C.' as a signature, 
or in notices to correspondents referring to 
letters. It is not certain that the same sig- 
nature may not have been occasionally used 
by other correspondents. The identification 
is confirmed in a few cases by the letters to 
George Grenville (see above), which were not 
published till 1853. The original manuscripts 
of the letters to Woodfall and of a few of the 
later letters are now in the Woodfall MSS. 
in the British Museum, Addit, MSS. 27774- 
27788, where various other documents left 
by Woodfall are also preserved. Later edi- 
tions of Junius are innumerable. The most 
convenient is Bonn's edition (1850 and later), 
edited by John Wade, which is a reprint of 
Woodfall's (1812) edition, with additional 
notes, taken in great part from Heron. 

Francis printed separately many of his 
speeches in parliament, and the following 
pamphlets: 'Letter to Lord North,' 1793, 
and 'Letter to Lord Howick,' 1807, upon 



1 80 


India ; ' Plan of Reform adopted by the So- 
ciety of the Friends of the People in 1795,' re- 
printed in 1813 ; ' Proceedings in the House 
of Commons on the Slave Trade,' 1796 ; ' The 
Question as it stood in March 1798,' 1798 ; 
' Reflections on the Abundance of Paper 
Money,' 1810 ; ' Letter to Lord Grey,' 1814 
(upon the blockade of Norway), and ' Letter 
to Lord Holland,' 1816 (upon Irish policy) ; 
' Historical Questions Exhibited,' in the 
' Morning Chronicle 'for January 181 8 (upon 
the legitimacy of several royal families). 

[The main authority for Francis's life is Me- 
moirs of Sir Philip Francis, commenced by the 
late Joseph Parkes, completed and edited by 
Herman Merivale, 2 vols. 8vo, 1867 (founded on 
researches by Parkes, who had access to Francis's 
papers, but was very uncritical, and hastily put 
together by Merivale). See also the Memoirs 
by Dubois in the Mirror of 1811, reprinted in 
Taylor's Junius Identified ; an article in the 
Gent. Mag. for January 1819, and one in the 
Annual Obituary for 1820, pp. 189-233. For 
the Indian career see Mr. Justice Stephen's 
Nuncomar and Impey, 1885 ; H. Beveridge's 
Trial of Maharaja Nanda Kumar, Calcutta, 1886 ; 
Calcutta Review, January 1815, pp. 561-608; 
Macaulay's Warren Hastings and the usual 
histories ; H. E. Busteed's Echoes of Old Cal- 
cutta, 1882, pp. 72-165. Various anecdotes by 
Lady Francis are given in a letter printed in the 
notes to Campbell's Lord Loughborough in 
Lives of the Chancellors, 1847, vi. 344-7, in 
Wade's Junius, and in Parkes and Merivale ; they 
are utterly untrustworthy. For remarks upon 
Francis's supposed authorship of Junius see Dis- 
covery of the Author of Junius (by John Taylor), 
1813; the Identity of Junius with a Distin- 
guished Living Character (by the same), 1816, 
and Supplement, 1817. For Taylor's statement 
that the book was exclusively by him, see Notes 
and Queries, 1st ser. iii. 258 ; Butler's Reminis- 
cences, 1824. i. 73-107, ii. 120-6; E.H. Barker's 
Claims of Sir Philip Francis Disproved (pri- 
vately printed 1827), 1828; Wraxall's Posthu- 
mous Memoirs, 1836, iii. 125-38; Dilke's Papers 
of a Critic, vol. ii. ; A. Hayward's More about 
Junius, in Historical and Critical Essays; The 
Handwriting of Junius Investigated by'Charles 
Chabot, with preface by Hon. E.Twisleton, 1871 ; 
Mahon's History, chap, xlvii. ; Lecky's History, 
iii. 235-54; art. ' Chatham. Francis, and Junius,' 
by present writer, English Historical Review, 
April 1888; Mr. FraserRae, in Athenaeum forl 888, 
ii. 192, 258, 319. A list of over fifty suggested 
authors is given in Halkett and Lane's Dictionary 
of Anonymous Literature and Cushing's Initials 
and Pseudonyms. Lists of books on the subject are 
in Lowndes's Manual, and Notes and Queries, 6th 
ser. v. 463. The following may be mentioned : In 
favour of BARRE, ISAAC: John Britton's Author- 
ship of Junius Elucidated, 1841 ; of Born, HUOH 
fq.v.]: George Chalmers's Authorship of Junius 
Ascertained, with appendix to Supplemental 

Apology, 1819; also Almon's Anecdotes, ii. 16, 
and Almon's Juuius ; of BURKE, WILLIAM: J.C. 
Symons's William Burke the Author of Junius, 
1859; of CHATHAM: B. Waterhouse's Essay on 
Junius, 1841, John Swinden's Junius Lord Chat- 
ham, 1833, and William Dowe's Junius Lord 
Chatham, 1857 ; of CHESTERFIELD: W. Cramp's 
The Author of Junius Discovered in ... Lord 
Chesterfield, 1821, and other books in 1823 and 
1851 ; of DE LOLME: T. Busby's Arguments and 
Facts Demonstrating ... 1816; of LAUGHLIN 
Quarterly Review, vol. xc. (by David Trevena 
Coulton); of GOVERNOR POWNALL: Fred. Griffin's 
Junius Discovered, 1854 ; of LORD GEORGE SACK- 
VILLE: G. Coventry's Critical Enquiry, 1825, and 
John Jaques's History of Junius, 1843 ; of LORD 
TEMPLE: Isaac Newhall's Letters on Junius, 1831, 
and W. J. Smith in Grenville Papers, iii. pp. 
xiii-ccxxviii ; of JOHN HORNE TOOKE : John A. 
Graham's Memoirs of J. H. Tooke, 1829, and 
[J. Bellows] Posthumous Works of Junius, 1829 ; 
of D. WILMOT : Olivia Serres Wilmot's Junius: 
Sir Philip Francis denied; of DANIEL WRAY: 
James Falconer's The Secret Revealed, 1830. The 
'Anecdotes of Junius, 1788, were reprinted from 
'Anecdotes' prefixed to the so-called 'Piccadilly' 
edition of 1771, assuming E. Burke to be the 
author. The opinion was common at the time, 
from Burke's unique combination of literary and 
political fume, but was solemnly denied by him, 
and is intrinsically incredible. In 1841 Mr. N.W. 
Simons reprinted 'A Letter to an Honourable 
Brigadier-General' (1760), which he ascribed to 
Junius on (worthless) internal evidence.] L. S. 

FRANCIS, THOMAS, M.D. (d. 1574), 
president of the College of Physicians, a native 
of Chester, was educated at Christ Church, 
Oxford, as a member of which he was ad- 
mitted B.A. 19 June 1540, and M.A. 7 July 
1544. 'After he had taken the degree of 
M. of A.,' says Wood, ' he applyed his studies 
to the theological faculty, but the encourage- 
ment thereof being in these days but little, 
he transfer'd himself to the school of phy- 
sicians, and, with the consent and approba- 
tion of Dr. Wryght, the vice-chancellor, was 
entred on the physic line, 4 [7] Aug. 1550. 
In the year after, I find him supplying the 
place and office of the king's professor of 
physic, being, I presume, only deputy for 
Dr. John Warner ' (Fasti O.ron. ed. Bliss, i. 
143-4). He received the degree of M.B. 
and license to practise 9 March 1554-5, and 
commenced M.D. on the following 29 July 
(Reg. of Univ. of Oxford, Oxf. Hist. Soc. i. 
198, 299). In the beginning of 1554-5 he 
succeeded Warner in the regius professor- 
ship, which he resigned in 1561 to become 
provost of Queen's College. The appoint- 
ment was not a popular one, and ' serious dis- 
turbances ' took place at his inauguration 
(Letter of Francis, Calfhill, and others to 




Cecil, dated from Oxford, 11 May 1561 in 
Cal. State Papers, Dom. 1547-80, p. 175). He 
retired from the provostship in 1563. He 
was admitted a fellow of the College of Phy- 
sicians, 21 Oct. 1560, at the comitia specially 
convened for that purpose. He was censor 
in 1561 and the three following years ; was 
provisionally named elect 30 Sept. 1562 in 
place of Dr. John Clement, ' a second time 
gone abroad,' and was definitely appointed 
to that office 12 May 1564. He was presi- 
dent of the college in 1568, and consiliarius 
in 1571. Francis was physician in ordinary 
to Queen Elizabeth, and, according to Wood, 
much respected by her. While president he 
had some trouble with the quack Eliseus 
Bomelius [q. v.], whom he was obliged to 
prosecute for practising physic without a 
license from the college. Bomelius in his 
letters to Cecil offered to expose the igno- 
rance of Francis in Latin and astronomy, but 
at the prospect of his enlargement apologised 
for having circulated such false statements 
(jib. pp. 292, 304). Francis lived in Silver 
Street, in the parish of St. Olave, London. 
He died in 1574. By his will, dated 8 April 
and proved 9 Nov. 1574, though he left his 
wife Anne comfortably provided for, he was 
more solicitous for the welfare of one ' Ed- 
warde Marbecke alias ffraunces, a yonge 
childe, nowe or late withe me in house dwel- 
linge.' He names as his executors Roger 
Marbeck and John Riche (will registered in 
P. C. C. 41, Martyn). 

[Munk's Coll. of Phys. (1878), i. 61-2.] 

G. a. 


FRANCK, RICHARD (1624 P-1708), 
captain in the parliamentary service, was 
born and educated at Cambridge, but pro- 
bably was not a member of the university, 
unless it be thought (with Sir W. Scott) 
that ' some degree of learning was necessary 
to have formed so very uncommon and pe- 
dantic a style ' {Memoir, p. 1). When the 
civil war broke out he left Cambridge to ' seek 
umbrage in the city of London,' and became 
a Cromwellian trooper, when he probably ob- 
tained the rank of captain, for he is addressed 
in one of the recommendatory poems pre- 
fixed to his Scotch travels as ' my honoured 
friend, Captain Richard Franck.' He has 
indeed been thought to have served in the 
royalist army, but his panegyric on the Pro- 
tector, his enumeration of the six great pa- 
triots of the English nation, Ireton, Vane, 
Nevill, Martin, Marvell, and Cromwell, to- 
gether with his flouting of the cavalier angler, 
Izaak Walton, forbids the supposition. Nor 

does his name appear among the army lists 
of the king. In the uncertainty and reli- 
gious confusions which ensued upon the rise 
of Cromwell to power, Franck left England 
for a tour in Scotland. This must have been 
about 1656 or 1657, and his love of travel led 
him to the extreme north of the kingdom, 
' when,' he says, ' to admiration I inspected 
that little artick world and every angle of 
it.' He returned to Nottingham, where he 
seems to have lived many years. About 
1690 he went to America, where his second 
book was written, and in 1694 was in Lon- 
don at the Barbican. It may be gathered 
that he had a wife, whom in his ' Northern 
Memoirs ' he calls Constantia. He wrote to 
her during his journey north. Of his death 
nothing can be learnt. 

The book which has made Franck famous 
is an excellent specimen of euphuistic lite- 
rature. Its title runs ' Northern Memoirs, 
calculated for the Meridian of Scotland. 
Wherein most or all of the Cities, Citadels, 
Sea-ports, Castles, Forts, Fortresses, Rivers, 
and Rivulets are compendiously described. 
Together with choice Collections of various 
Discoveries, Remarkable Observations, Theo- 
logical Notions, Political Axioms, National 
Intrigues, Polemick Inferences, Contempla- 
tions, Speculations, and several curious and 
industrious Inspections, lineally drawn from. 
Antiquaries and other noted and intelligible 
Persons of Honour and Eminency. To which 
is added the Contemplative and Practical 
Angler by way of Diversion,' with more of 
the same character. ' By Richard Franck, 
Philanthropus. Plures necat Gula quam Gla- 
dius, 1694.' The rest of the work is equally 
cumbrous. No less than four dedications 
must be confronted, a preface, an address in 
rhyme to his book, four recommendatory 
poems by as many writers, and then another 
poem ' to the poet ' by the author, before the 
book itself is reached. It is in the form of 
a dialogue between Theophanes, Agrippa (a 
servant), Aquila (a friend), and himself, 
under the name Arnoldus, and the style is 
bombastic, stilted, and pedantic to a degree, 
' drawn from the rough draught of a martial 
pen,' as Franck himself describes it. The 
author was evidently a mystic, deeply tinged 
with Bohm's tenets, and not improbably de- 
ranged on certain subjects. Sir W. Scott 
compares his style with that of Sir Thomas 
Urquhart's translation of ' Rabelais,' but in 
verbosity and affectation Franck exceeds Ur- 
quhart. ' Northern Memoirs ' was written 
in 1658, put together in 1685, and not pub- 
lished till 1694. Its main interest centres 
in the places which Franck visited in Scot- 
land, and the account of them which he gives. 




His route was by Carlisle and Dumfries to 
Glasgow ; thence to Stirling, Perth, Forfar, 
and Loch Ness ; Sutherlandshire and Caith- 
ness, Cromarty, Aberdeen, Dundee, St. An- 
drews, Edinburgh, and Berwick, were next 
seen, and he made his way home by Morpeth. 
For anglers the book possesses great attrac- 
tion. Franck is the first to describe salmon- 
fishing in Scotland, and both in that and 
trout-fishing with artificial fly he proves 
himself an excellent practical angler. His 
rules for fly-fishing, and especially for salmon- 
fishing, cannot be improved at present. In- 
ternal evidence shows that he had read the 
' Compleat Angler ; ' indeed he tells us that 
he had argued with Walton at Stafford on 
the fact related by the latter of pickerel 
weed breeding pike, and that Walton laid it 
on Gesner and then ' huffed away.' Franck 
loses no opportunity of scoffing at him. He 
incidentally mentions Nottingham as being 
even in his time the nursery of many good 
anglers, describes their famous ' pith bait ' 
and the breeding of salmon, and commends 
the dressing of a fly which could not be im- 
proved upon at the present day. He is the 
first angler to name that curious fish of the 
Trent, the burbot, and highly commends the 
salmon of the Thames, especially those caught 
below bridge. The rudiments of angling he 
learnt in the Cam, but perfected himself in 
the Trent. His puritanism frequently breaks 
out while discoursing of angling. He says 
of religion after the Restoration, 'It is worn 
so threadbare that nothing save the name is 
left to cover it.' It is plain that he read 
Shirley's poems. 

Franck's second book is entitled ' A Philo- 
sophical Treatise of the Original and Produc- 
tion of Things. Writ in America in a time of 
solitude,' London, 1687. The running head 
title of the work is 'Rabbi Moses.' It is 
written in the same high-flown language as 
' Northern Memoirs,' but is devoid of in- 
terest. Franck also probably wrote ' The 
Admirable and Indefatigable Adventures of 
the Nine Pious Pilgrims ... to the New 
Jerusalem. Written in America in a time 
of Solitude and Divine Contemplation. By 
a Zealous Lover of Truth . . .' London (Mor- 
phew), 1708. The introductory matter is 
signed ' Philanthropes ' as in Franck's other 
books. The style supports the ascription. 

[Memoir by Sir W. Scott, prefixed to an edi- 
tion of the Northern Memoirs, 1821, see Lock- 
hart's Life, v. 134, ed. 1837; Westwood and 
Satchell's Bibliotheca Piscatoria, p. 100; Retro- 
spective Eeview, viii. 1 70 ; Censura Literaria, vi. 
1 1 ; West-wood's Chronicle of the Compleat Angler, 
1864, p. 13 ; Notes and Queries, 5th ser. vi. 27.] 

M. G. W. " 

FRANCKLIN, THOMAS (1721-1784), 
miscellaneous writer, son of Richard Franck- 
lin, bookseller near the Piazza in Covent Gar- 
den, London, who printed Pulteney's paper, 
' The Craftsman,' was born in 1721, and ad- 
mitted into Westminster School in 1735. In 
1739 he was elected second from the school 
to Trinity College, Cambridge, where he 
was admitted on 21 June 1739, and took the 
degrees of B.A. in 1742, M.A. 1746, and D.D. 
in 1770. In 1745 he was elected to a minor 
fellowship, was promoted in the next year to 
be ' socius major,' and resided in college until 
the end of 1758. On the advice and encou- 
ragement of Pulteney he was educated for 
the church, but that statesman forgot his 
promises, and rendered Francklin no assist- 
ance in life. He was for some time an usher 
in his old school, and on 27 June 1750 was 
elected to the honourable, if not profitable, 
post of Greek professor at Cambridge. Later 
in the same year he was involved in a dispute 
with the heads of the university. Forty- 
six old boys of Westminster met between 
eight and nine o'clock on 17 Nov. at the Tuns 
Tavern to commemorate, as was their cus- 
tom, the accession of Queen Elizabeth, and 
Francklin was in the chair. The party was 
just about to separate at eleven o'clock, when 
the senior proctor appeared and somewhat 
rudely called upon them to disperse. Many of 
the graduates present resented the summons, 
and hot words ensued. Several pamphlets were 
afterwards published, and among them was 
one from Francklin entitled ' An Authentic 
Narrative of the late Extraordinary Proceed- 
ings at Cambridge against the W . . . r 
Club,' 1751. Further particulars concerning 
the disturbance and the subsequent proceed- 
ings in the vice-chancellor's court will be 
found in Wordsworth's ' Social Life at the 
English Universities in the Eighteenth Cen- 
tury,' pp. 70-5. He resigned his professorship 
in 1759, and on 2 Jan. of that year was in- 
stituted, on presentation of his college, to the 
vicarage of Ware in Hertfordshire, which he 
held in conjunction with the lectureship of 
St. Paul's, Covent Garden, and a proprietary 
chapel in Queen Street, London. As a popu- 
lar preacher his services were often in requi- 
sition. He was appointed king's chaplain in 
November 1767, and was selected to preach 
the commencement sermon at St. Mary's, 
Cambridge, on the installation of the Duke 
of Grafton as chancellor of the university in 
1770. Through the favour of Archbishop 
Cornwallis he was appointed in 1777 to the 
rectory of Brasted in Kent, whereupon he 
vacated the living of Ware. For the greater 
part of his life Francklin was compelled, by 
want of lucrative preferment, to write for 




the press and for the stage. His plays were 
more numerous than original, but two of 
them met, through the excellence of the 
acting, with considerable success. Hehrought 
out in 1757 a periodical paper of his own 
composition entitled ' The Centinel,' and he 
was one of the contributors to Smollett's 

* Critical Review.' Dr. Johnson and Sir 
Joshua Reynolds were among his friends, 
and through their influence he was exalted 
to the place of chaplain to the Royal Aca- 
demy on its foundation, when he addressed 
the associates ' in good old lyric common- 
places,' and on Goldsmith's death in 1774 
succeeded to the professorship of ancient his- 
tory. It has been generally assumed that 
lie was the ' Tho. Franklin ' who signed the 
round-robin to Johnson on the Latin epi- 
taph to Goldsmith ; but Dr. Hill says, on ac- 
count of the omission of the letter c in the 
name, and the difference in the handwriting 
from his acknowledged signature, ' he cer- 
tainly was not,' but no other bearer of the 
name was sufficiently prominent among their 
friends to justify such a conspicuous honour. 
"With the generality of literary men he was 
unpopular. One of his victims in the ' Criti- 
cal Review' was Arthur Murphy, who 
solaced his feelings of indignation in 'A 
Poetical Epistle to Samuel Johnson, A.M.,' 
whereupon it is said that Francklin ' had re- 
course to the law for protection, and swore 
the peace ' against Murphy (Biog. Dramatica, 
1812 ed., i. 253-6). Churchill, in the 

* Rosciad,' sneeringly says that ' he sicken'd 
at all triumphs but his own,' and in the poem 
of ' The Journey,' exclaims, with less reason, 

Francklin, proud of some small Greek, 
Make Sophocles, disguis'd in English, speak. 
After a laborious life Francklin died in Great 
Queen Street, London, 15 March 1784. He 
married, on 20 Jan. 1759, Miss Venables, the 
daughter of a wine merchant ; she died in 
Great Queen Street, 24 May 1790. 

Francklin's mostprofitable works consisted 
of translations and tragedies. His first ven- 
ture was an anonymous rendering of Cicero's 
treatise, ' Of the Nature of the Gods,' which 
appeared in 1741, was reissued in 1775, and, 
after revision by C. D. Yonge, formed a part 
of one of the volumes in Bonn's ' Classical 
Library.' In 1749 he published ' The Epistles 
of Phalaris translated from the Greek ; to 
which are added some select epistles of the 
most eminent Greek writers.' His transla- 
tion of the tragedies of Sophocles was long 
considered the best in the English language. 
It came out in 1759, and was reprinted in 
1809 and 1832, large selections from it were 
included in Sanford's ' British Poets,' vol. 1., 

and it has recently been included in Profes- 
sor Henry Morley's ' Universal Library ' 
(vol. xliv.), while a separate impression of the 
' (Edipus Tyrannus ' was struck off in 1806. 
Equal popularity attended his version of 
' The Works of Lucian from the Greek,' 
which was produced in 1780 in two volumes, 
and appeared in a second edition in 1781. 
The whole work was dedicated to Rigby, the 
politician, and parts were inscribed to other 
eminent men, the most famous of whom were 
Bishop Douglas, Dr. Johnson, ' the Demonax 
of the present age,' Sir Joshua Reynolds, and 
Edmund Burke. His translation of Lucian's 
' Trips to the Moon ' forms vol. Ixxi. of Cas- 
sell's ' National Library,' edited by Profes- 
sor Henry Morley. Francklin's plays are : 
1. 'The Earl of Warwick,' which was pro- 
duced at Drury Lane Theatre on 13 Dec. 
1766, and was often represented. On its first 
appearance Mrs. Yates created a great im- 
pression in the part of Margaret of Anjou, 
and Mrs. Siddons in later years made that 
character equally successful. The whole play, 
which is said to have been taken without 
any acknowledgment from the French of La 
Harpe,was printed in 1766 and 1767, and was 
included in the collections of Bell, Mrs. Inch- 
bald, Dibdin, and many others. 2. ' Matilda,' 
first presented at Drury Lane on 21 Jan. 1775, 
was also profitable to the author, as is shown 
in the balance-sheet in G arrick's ' Correspond- 
ence,' ii, 44. It appeared in print in 1775, and 
was also included in several theatrical collec- 
tions. 3. ' The Contract,' brought out at the 
Haymarket on 12 June 1776,and printed in the 
same year, was a failure, although it deserved 
a better fate. The chief characters were two 
persons who had made a contract of marriage, 
parted, and on meeting again after many years, 
wished the engagement broken off. 4. ' Mary 
Queen of Scots,' which was several times an- 
nounced but was never acted, and remained 
in manuscript until 1837, when it was edited 
by the author's eldest son, Lieutenant-colonel 
William Francklin [q. v.], once of the Hon. 
East India Company's service. 

Francklin's other literary productions were 
very numerous. Their titles were : 1. 'Trans- 
lation,' a poem, 1753, which condemned 
many previous attempts at translation, and 
appealed to abler men to undertake the task, 
ending with the preliminary puft' of his pro- 
posal to print by subscription a version of 
Sophocles. 2. ' Enquiry into the Astronomy 
and Anatomy of the Ancients,' 1749, and 
said to have been reprinted in 1775. 
3. ' Truth and Falsehood, a Tale,' 1755, 
issued anonymously, and panegyrising the 
then Duchess of Bedford. 4. ' The Centinel,' 
1757 fol., 1758 12mo, a periodical paper, one 




of the numberless imitations of the ' Tatler ' 
and ' Spectator.' 5. ' A Dissertation on An- 
cient Tragedy,' 1760, given gratis to the sub- 
scribers to his translation of Sophocles. 
6. ' A Letter to a Bishop concerning Lecture- 
ships,' ' a piece of humour ' on the manner of 
election to such posts, and the miserable pay 
attaching thereto. Between 1748 and 1779 
Francklin printed nine single sermons 
preached on charitable and special occasions, 
the most important of which was that deli- 
vered at St. George's, Bloomsbury, in May 
1756, on the death of the Rev. John Sturges, 
from which it appears that he had hoped to 
succeed him in that position. An entire 
volume of his sermons on ' The Relative 
Duties ' was published in 1765, and passed 
into a fourth edition in 1788. He died 
without leaving adequate provision for his 
family, and in 1785 there appeared for his 
widow's relief two volumes of ' Sermons on 
Various Subjects,' followed by a third in 
1787. Francklin lent his name, in conjunc- 
tion with Smollett, to a translation of Vol- 
taire's works and letters, but the ' Orestes ' 
(produced at Covent Garden Theatre 13 March 
1769 for the benefit of Mrs. Yates) and the 
' Electra ' (brought out at Drury Lane 15 Oct. 
1774) are believed to have been his sole share 
in the publication. Some of his fugitive 
pieces were embodied in the ' Miscellaneous 
Pieces ' brought together by Tom Davies, and 
there are many of his letters in the ' Garrick 

[Welch's Westm. School (1852 ed.), pp. 311, 
321, 326; Forshall's Westminster, pp. 108-9, 
229-30 ; Hill's Boswell, i. 355, iii. 83, iv. 34 ; 
Cussans's Hertfordshire, vol. i. pt. i. p. 1 54 ; 
Taylor's Sir Joshua Reynolds, i. 261-2, 310, 317, 
ii. 73, 162; Gent. Mag. 1759, p. 45, 1784, pt. i. 
pp. 238-9, 1796, pt. i. p. 446; Genest, v. 119- 
120, 242-6, 441-7, 528-9; Churchill's Works 
(1804), i. 7-8, 82, ii. 367 ; Nichols's Lit. Anecd. 
ii. 594, vi. 425; Hasted's Kent, i. 381 ; Records 
of Trin. Coll. Cambr.] W. P. C. 

FR.ANCKLIN, WILLIAM (1763-1839), 
orientalist, born in 1763, was the eldest son 
of Thomas Francklin (1721-1784) [q. v.], by 
his wife Miss Venables. He was admitted 
on the foundation at Westminster in 1777, 
whence he was elected to Trinity College, 
Cambridge, in 1781. Preferring to engage in 
the profession of arms, he was admitted a 
cadet in the service of the East India Com- 
pany in 1782, appointed ensign of the 19th 
regiment of Bengal native infantry 31 Jan. 
1783, lieutenant 20 Oct. 1789, captain in the 
army 7 June 1796, captain in his regiment 
30 Sept. 1803, major in the army 25 April 
1808, major in his regiment 29 March 1810, 
lieutenant-colonel in the army 4 June 1814, 

and in his regiment on 16 Dec. of the same 
year. On being invalided, 1 Oct. 1815, he 
was made regulating officer at Bhaugulpore. 
He retired in India in December 1825, and 
died 12 April 1839, aged 76. A distinguished 
officer, Francklin also enjoyed considerable 
reputation as an oriental scholar. In 1786 
he made a tour in Persia, in the course of 
which he resided for eight months at Shiraz 
as an inmate of a Persian family, and was 
thus enabled to communicate a fuller account 
of the manners of the people than had before 
appeared. His journal was published as ' Ob- 
servations made on a Tour from Bengal to> 
Persia in ... 1786-7 ; with a short account 
of the remains of the . . . Palace of Perse- 
polis,' 4to, Calcutta, 1788 (reprinted in vol. 
ix. of J. Pinkerton's 'General Collection of 
Voyages,' 4to, 1808, &c.) A French version, 
' Voyage du Bengal a Chyraz,' was published 
in vols. ii. and iii. of ' Collection portative de- 
voyages traduits de differentes langues orien- 
tales,' 12mo, Paris [1797, &c.] His next 
work, ' The History of the Reign of Shah- 
Aulum, the present Emperor of Hindostan. 
I ... With an Appendix,' 4to, London, 1798, 
serves as an important continuation of the 
' Seir ul Mutakherin, or History of Modern 
Times.' Francklin also published : 1. ' The- 
Loves of Camariipa and Camalata, an ancient 
Indian Tale . . . translated from the Persian r 
[version by Na'amat Allah?], 12mo, London, 
1793. 2. ' Remarks and Observations on the 
Plain of Troy, made during an Excursion in 
June 1799,' 4to, London, 1800. 3. ' Military 
Memoirs of Mr. George Thomas, who . . . 
rose ... to the rank of a General in the ser- 
vice of the native powers in ... India. . . . 
Compiled and arranged from Mr. Thomas's 
original documents (Appendix),' 4to, Cal- 
cutta, 1803 ; 8vo, London, 1805. 4. ' Tracts, 
Political, Geographical, and Commercial ; on 
the dominions of Ava, and the Is orth- Western 
parts of Hindostaun,' 8vo, London, 1811. 
5. ' Miscellaneous Remarks, in two parts r 
1st. On Vincent's Geography of Susiana. 
2nd. Supplementary Note on the Site of the 
ancient City of Palibothra,' 4to, Calcutta, 
1813. 6. ' Inquiry concerning the Site of 
ancient Palibothra,' &c. 4 pts. 4to, London, 
1815-22. 7. ' Researches on the Tenets and 
Doctrines of the Jeynes and Boodhists ; con- 
jectured to be the Brachmanes of ancient 
India. In which is introduced a discussion 
on the worship of the serpent in various 
countries of the world,' 4to, London, 1827. 
To vol. iv. of ' Asiatick Researches ' (1795), 
pp. 419-32, he contributed ' An Account of 
the present State of Delhi ; ' while to vol. ii. 
of Miscellaneous Translations from Oriental 
Languages,' published in 1834 by the Oriental 




Translation Fund, he furnished an ' Account 
of the Grand Festival held by the Amir Timiir 
. . . A. H. 803. Translated . . . from the 
Mulfuzat Timuri, or Life of Timur, written 
by himself.' In 1837 he published his father's 
historical play, ' Mary Queen of Scots.' He 
maintained a learned correspondence with 
Dean Vincent, who was second master dur- 
ing the time he was at Westminster ; and 
Francklin was one of the few persons to whom 
the dean acknowledged obligations in the 
preface to the ' Periplus,' 1800-5. Francklin 
was a member, and during the later years of 
his life librarian and member of the council, 
of the Royal Asiatic Society. He was also 
member of the Calcutta Asiatic Society. 

[Preface to Thomas Francklin's Mary Queen 
of Scots ; Welch's Alumni Westmon. (1852), pp. 
407, 414-15 ; Dodwell and Miles's List of Officers 
of Indian Army, pp. 102-3 ; East India Eegisters; 
Journal of Royal Asiatic Society, vol. v. Annual 
Report, 11 May 1839, pp. ii-iii ; Asiatic Journal, 
new ser. vol. xxix. pt. ii. p. 80.] G. G-. 

FRANK, MARK,D.D. (1613-1664), theo- 
logian, born at Brickhill, Buckinghamshire, in 
1613, was admitted pensioner of Pembroke 
College, Cambridge, 4 July 1627. He was 
elected to a scholarship in 1630, and to a 
fellowship 8 Oct. 1634, having become M.A. 
the same year. In 1641 he became B.D., 
and was chosen junior treasurer of his col- 
lege, and senior treasurer in 1642. Two years 
later he was ejected as a malignant by the 
parliamentary visitors, on his refusal to take 
the covenant, and ordered to leave Cambridge. 
We are told that he bore his long period of 
deprivation ' with patience and constancy.' 
Before his ejection he had attracted the fa- 
vourable notice of Charles I by a sermon 
he preached at Paul's Cross before the lord 
mayor and aldermen in 1641 on Jeremiah 
xxxv. 18-19, which the king commanded to 
be printed. In this sermon he propounds the 
Rechabites as an example of obedience ' never 
more needful' than then, and gives a strongly 
drawn picture of the troubles of the time, 
describing the insults to the monarch, the 
bishops, and the clergy. ' It is a usual thing 
nowadays,' he says, ' to direct our governours 
what to do, what to read, what to command ; 
then, forsooth, we will obey them.' At the 
Restoration Frank was re-established in his 
fellowship 10 Aug. 1660, and his learning 
and loyalty were rewarded by a long series 
of well-deserved ecclesiastical promotions. 
He was made D.D. by royal mandate in 
1661, and was chosen master of his college 
23 Aug. 1662, in succession to Dr. Laney, 
elevated to the see of Peterborough. Arch- 
bishop Juxon appointed him one of his chap- 

lains, and he held the office of domestic 
chaplain and ex-officio licenser of theological 
works to Juxon's successor, Archbishop Shel- 
don, by whom he was presented to the arch- 
deaconry of St. Albans, and to the treasurer- 
ship of St. Paul's 19 Dec. 1660, and 22 April 
1662 collated to the prebendal stall of Isling- 
ton in the same cathedral. He was also pre- 
sented to the rectory of Barley, Hertfordshire, 
2 Feb. 1663-4, by Bishop Wren, a preferment 
he enjoyed but a short time, his death taking 
place the following year, at the age of fifty- 
one. He was buried in St. Paul's Cathedral, 
near the entrance of the north door. By his 
will he bequeathed 100J. and 360 volumes of 
books to St. Paul's Cathedral. Frank is 
chiefly known by a ' Course of Sermons for 
all the Sundays and Festivals throughout 
the Year,' originally published after his death, 
with a portrait, in 1672, and republished, in 
two volumes, in the ' Library of Anglo-Catho- 
lic Theology.' The series includes several 
sermons for the chief days of the Christian 
year, there being nine for Christmas day, three 
for the Epiphany, five for Easter day, &c. The 
sermon on the Rechabites already mentioned, 
preached at Paul's Cross, is added, and one 
preached in St. Paul's Cathedral. These ser- 
mons deserve notice as the productions of a 
sound but not extreme churchman plain, 
sensible, and evangelical discourses. In their 
scholarly character and shrewd incisiveness 
they recall the sermons of Bishop Andrewes, 
which they resemble also in their divisions 
and subdivisions, according to the fashion of 
the age. The divisions, however, are natural, 
not artificial, and are calculated to bring out 
and elucidate the real meaning of the text, 
and the lessons it was intended to convey. 

[Attwood's Manuscript List of Masters of Pem- 
broke; Kennel's Biographical Notices Lansd. 
MS. 986, No. 21, p. 54; Baker's MSS. vi. 297; 
biographical notice prefixed to sermons in Li- 
brary A.-C. T.I E. V. 

(1531-1587), philanthropist, the daughter of 
Robert Trappes, a citizen and goldsmith of 
London, by his wife Joan, was born in Lon- 
don in 1531. She married, first Henry Saxey, 
a ' merchant venturer,' and afterwards Wil- 
liam (?) Frankland of Rye House, Hertford- 
shire, whom also she outlived. By her first 
husband she had an only son, William Saxey, 
a student of Gray's Inn, to whom she wa& 
greatly attached, and who died at Rye House 
22 Aug. 1581, aged 23. Conjointly with him 
she had founded junior fellowships and 
scholarships at Caius and Emmanuel Col- 
leges, Cambridge, and after his death and 
that of her second husband, who was per- 


1 86 


Laps unsympathetic, she determined to de- 
vote her wealth to educational endowments, 
as the most congenial tribute to the memory 
of her son. At Newport Ponds, Essex, she 
founded a free school. To Lincoln College, 
Oxford, she gave 3/. a year in augmentation 
of four scholarships founded by her mother, 
Joan Trappes, and to Brasenose College she 
left by her wiU, dated 20 Feb. 1586, both 
land and houses for the increase of the 
emoluments of the principal and fellows, and 
for the foundation of an additional fellow- 
ship, the holder of which was to be by pre- 
ference a member of either the Trappes or 
Sdxey families. She also provided mainte- 
nance for four scholars and a yearly stipend 
for an under-reader in logic and for a bible- 
clerk. In recognition of Jocosa Frankland's 
generosity her name was included in the 
.grace after meat repeated daily in the college 
hall ; and after her death, which occurred at 
Aldermanbury, London, 1587, the principals 
and fellows of Brasenose erected a monu- 
ment to her memory in the church of St. 
Leonard's, Foster Lane, where she was buried. 
In the same church, which was destroyed in 
the fire of London, her father's tomb bore the 
too depreciatory epitaph : 

"When the bells be merely [merrily] rung 
And the Masse devoutly sung 
And the meate merely eaten, 
Then shall Robert Trappis, his "wyfie, and his 
children be forgotten. 

In the hall of Brasenose College is a portrait 
of Jocosa Frankland with some Latin verses 
inscribed, commencing : 

Traps! nata fui, Saxy sponsata marito, 

Gulielmo mater visa beata meo. 
Mors matura patrem, sors abstulit atra maritum ; 

Filius heu rapida morte peremptus obit. 

The existence of the husband Frankland is 
throughout ignored. The portrait was en- 
graved by Fittler. Another portrait is in the 
master's gallery in the Combination Room at 
Caius College, Cambridge. 

[Wood's Hist, and Antiq. of Oxford, ed. G-utch, 
pp.240, 358,360,369; Newcourt's Kep.Eccl.Lond., 
i. 393 ; Stow's Survey of London and Westm. ed. 
1633, p. 325 ; Clutterbuck's Hist, of Hertford- 
shire, iii. 247 ; Cole MSS. v. 34, Ivi. 350; Evans's 
Cat. of Portraits.] A. V. 

1698), nonconformist tutor, son of John 
IFrankland, was born on 1 Nov. 1630, at Rath- 
mell, a hamlet in the parish of Giggleswick, 
Yorkshire. The Franklands of Thirkleby, 
Yorkshire (baronets from 1660), with whom 
John Frankland was connected, were ori- 
ginally from Giggleswick (Surtees Society, 

vol. xxxviii.) Frankland was educated (1640- 
1648) at Giggleswick grammar school, and