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J. G. A. . . J. G. ALGER. 

T. A. A. . . T. A. ARCHER. 






G-. T. B. . . G. T. BETTANY. 

A. C. B. . . A. C. BICKLEY. 
W. G. B. . W. G. BLACK. 

B. H. B. . . THE REV. B. H. BLACKER. 


G. C. B. . . G. C. BOASE. 

G. S. B. . . G. S. BOULGER. 

E. T. B. . . Miss BRADLEY. 

A. H. B. . . A. H. BULLEN. 

G. W. B. . G. W. BURNETT. 


E. C-N. . . . EDWIN CANNAN. 


A. M. C. . . Miss A. M. CLERKE. 



W. P. C. . . W. P. COURTNEY. 







C. H. F. . . C. H. FIRTH. 


S. R. G. . . S. R. GARDINER, LL.D. 


J. T. G. . . J. T. GILBERT, F.S.A. 
E. C. K. G. E. C. K. GONNER. 




R. E. G. . . R. E. GRAVES. 

R. P. G. . . THE REV. R. P. GRAVES. 

J. M. G. . . J. M. GRAY. 


J. A. H. . . J. A. HAMILTON. 


T. F. H. . . T. F. HENDERSON. 

B. D. J. . . B. D. JACKSON. 

C. L. K. . . C. L. KlN3SFORD. 



S. L. L. . . SIDNEY LEK. 


List of Writers. 

N. McC. . . 
JE. M. 
J. A. F. M. 
L. M. M... 
C. M 




G. B. S. . . 
L. S 
C. W. S. . . 
J. T 


C. G. M. . . 
N. M 



H. E. T. . . 
T. F. T. .. 


W. E. M. . 


J. V 
R. H. V. . . 


H. P 


A. V 


K. L. P. . . 
B. P 
E. J. E. . . 




M. G. W. . 
F. W-T. . . 

C. W-H. . . 


J. M. E. . . 

J. M. EIGG. 

L. W 


L. C. S. 
J. M. S. . . 


W. W 







GLOVER, BOYER (Jl. 1758-1771), 
Muggletonian, was a watch and clock maker 
in Leadenhall Street, London. He was a 
strong Muggletonian, but the notices of him 
in the records of the sect are very scanty. He 
acted as a peacemaker, and opposed the issue 
of the fourth (1760) edition of Reeve and 
Muggleton's ' Divine Looking-Glass/contain- 
ing political passages omitted in the second 
(1661) and fifth (1846) editions. Glover's 
spiritual songs are more in number, and 
rather better in quality, than those of any 
other Muggletonian writer. His pieces are 
to be found in ' Songs of Gratefull Praise,' 
c., 1794, 12mo (seven by Glover) ; and 
' Divine Songs of the Muggletonians,' &c., 
1829, 16mo (forty-nine by Glover, including 
the previous seven, and one by his wife, 
Elizabeth Glover). Others are in unprinted 
manuscript collections. 

[Manuscript archives of the London Muggle- 
tonians ; works cited above.] A. G. 


(1806-1863), violinist and composer, was born 
in London in February 1806. Glover played 
the violin in the orchestras of Drury Lane 
and Covent Garden theatres, and was ap- 
pointed musical director at the Queen's 
Theatre in 1832. He composed numerous 
songs, duets, pianoforte pieces, and arrange- 
ments. Some of the vocal pieces are semi- 
comic, such as ' Cousin Harry ; ' while ' "Tis 
hard to give the Hand where the Heart can 
never be ' is a specimen of his once popular 
sentimental ballads. Glover died on 23 March 

[Brit. Mus. Catalogues of Music; Grove's Diet, 
i. 600 ; Brown's Biog. Diet. p. 273.] L. M. M. 

GLOVER, EDMUND (1813 P-1860), 
actor and manager, was the eldest son of 
Julia Glover [q. v.] He occupied for a time 
a leading position at the Haymarket Theatre, 
and went to Edinburgh, where, under Mur- 
ray, he played leading business. He appears 
to have joined that company about 1841. He 
was a man of diversified talents, a sound, 
though not a brilliant actor, a good dancer, 
fencer, and pantomimist, and the possessor 
of some skill in painting. A high position was 
accordingly conceded him in Scotland. His 
salary in 1842 was three guineas weekly, the 
parts he played including Richelieu, Stuke- 
ley in the ' Gamester ' to the Beverley of Ed- 
mund Kean, Rob Roy, Claude Melnotte, 
Creon in ' Antigone,' Jonas Chuzzlewit, John 
Peerybingle in the ' Cricket on the Hearth,' 
Othello, Macbeth, Richard III, lago, Shylock, 
Cardinal Wolsey, Robert Macaire, and Don 
Csesar de Bazan. On 16 Jan. 1848 he played 
Falkland in the ' Rivals,' being his first appear- 
ance after a recent severe accident. At this 
period he engaged Jenny Lind[q.v.] to sing in 
Edinburgh, Glasgow, and Perth, and cleared 
3,000/. by the transaction. Emboldened by 
this success he took a large hall in West Nile 
Street, Glasgow, which he opened as the 
Prince's Theatre. In 1852 he undertook the 
management of the Theatre Royal, Glasgow. 
He became lessee also of the Theatres Royal at 
Paisley and Dunfermline, and in 1859 opened 
a new theatre at Greenock. During this 
period his connection with Edinburgh was 
maintained. On 27 March 1850 he was 
Othello to Macready's lago. He played 
Falkland at Murray's farewell benefit, 22 Oct. 
1851. On 17 March 1856 he began to alter- 
nate with Powrie the parts of Macbeth and 


Macduff, on 24 Feb. 1857 played the brothers 
Dei Franchi to the Baron Giordine of Mr. 
Henry Irving, and on hislast appearance at the 
Edinburgh Theatre Royal, 25 May 1859, was, 
at his own desire, Triplet in ' Masks and Faces.' 
He had been ill for some time, and died on 
23 Oct. 1860 of dropsy, at 3 Gayfield Place, 
Edinburgh, in the house of Mr. Robert Wynd- 
ham, subsequently manager of the Theatre 
Royal in that city. His managerial career 
was successful, much taste being displayed 
by him in mounting pieces. He left behind 
him, in addition to other children, a son, 
William, who is said to inherit his father's 
talents as a painter, a second son, Samuel, 
a Scotch comedian, who died abroad, and a 
daughter who married Thomas Powrie, a 
Scotch tragedian. 

[Dibdin's Annals of the Edinburgh Stage, 
1888; Era Almanack ; Era newspaper, 27 March 
1860; private information.] J. K. 

GLOVER, GEORGE (fi. 1625-1650), 
one of the earliest English engravers, worked 
somewhat in the manner of John Payne, 
whose pupil he may have been. He used his 
graver in a bold and effective style. His 
heads are usually well rendered, but the ac- 
cessories are weak. Some of his engravings 
are of great interest and rarity. Among them 
were portraits of Charles I, Henrietta Maria, 
Charles II, Catherine of Braganza, James, 
duke of York ; Mary, princess of Orange ; 
Robert Devereux, earl of Essex (on horse- 
back) ; Algernon Percy, earl of Northumber- 
land ; Sir Edward Bering, bart. (twice en- 
graved, one a reduced copy) ; Sir William 
Brereton (on horseback) ; Yaurar Ben Ab- 
dalla, ambassador from Morocco; James 
Ussher, archbishop of Armagh ; John Lil- 
burne (an oval portrait, engraved first in 1641, 
and altered in 1646 by placing prison bars 
across the portrait); John Pym, M.P., Sir 
George Strode, Sir Thomas Urquhart, Dr. 
John Preston, Lord Finch, Sir William Wal- 
ler, and many others. Several of these and 
other portraits were engraved for the book- 
sellers as frontispieces to books ; Glover also 
engraved numerous title-pages. A remark- 
able broadside engraved by him gives the por- 
traits and biographies of William Evans, the 
giant porter, Jeffery Hudson, the dwarf, and 
Thomas Parr, the very old man. Some of 
Glover's portraits, such as those of Sir Thomas 
Urquhart and Innocent Nath. Witt, an idiot, 
were engraved from the life. His earliest 
works bear the address of William Peake 
[q. v.], for whom most of the early English 
engravers worked. Glover's own portrait 
was engraved by R. Grave, jun., from a draw- 
ing formerly in Oldys's possession. 


[Dodd's MS. Hist, of English Engravers, Brit. 
Mus.Addit. MS. 33401; Bryan's Diet, of Painters 
and Engravers; Catalogue of the Sutherland 
Collection.] L. C. 

GLOVER, JEAN (1758-1801), Scotch 
poetess, was born at Kilmarnock, Ayrshire, 
31 Oct. 1758, her father being a hand-loom 
weaver. While very young she j oined a band 
of strolling players and married their leader. 
Burns describes her in unqualified terms as 
a person with no character to lose, but other 
contemporaries, who long survived her, say 
that she was merely 'a roughly hardened 
tramp, a wilful, regardless woman.' Her 
husband's Christian name or surname was 
Richard. Burns summarily disposes of him as 
' a sleight-of-hand blackguard.' Jean Glover 
had the reputation of being the best singer and 
actor in the company, and in gaudy attire she 
used to play on a tambourine in the street 
to attract customers to her husband 'juggling 
in a room down a close.' In her player's 
finery she struck one ingenuous observer as 
'the brawest woman that had ever been seen 
to step in leather shoon.' Her bright, me- 
lodious lyric ' Ower the muir among the 
Heather ' is a genuine addition to Scottish 
pastoral poetry. She may have composed 
others, but they are not preserved ; this one, 
happily, was written down by Burns from 
the singing of Jean Glover herself. Stewart 
Lewis used the same air for a ballad of his, 
with which it is important not to confound 
this typical Scottish song. Jean Glover died 
at Letterkenny, co. Donegal, in 1801. 

[Johnson's Musical Museum ; Ayrshire Con- 
temporaries of Burns ; Chambers's Life and 
Works of Burns, iv. 291 ; Tytler and Watson's 
Songstresses of Scotland, vol. i.] T. B. 

GLOVER, JOHN (1714-1774), preacher, 
born in 1714, on leaving school in his four- 
teenth year was apprenticed to business, when 
he was soon moved by religious impulses. In 
1748 he was much influenced by the teaching 
of the methodists at Norwich. His published 
memoirs are entirely devoted to religious re- 
flection. In 1761, his health failed, and he re- 
tired from business. The latter portion of his 
life seems to have been spent in preaching and 
in writing religious pamphlets. He died at 
Norwich 9 May 1774. 

He published : 1 . ' Some Scriptural Di- 
rections and Advice to assist the Faith and 
Practice of true Believers. . . . The second 
edition . . . much enlarged. To which is 
added, Two consolatory letters, written by an 
eminent Christian ... to one who seemed 
to be near his Dissolution,' Norwich, 1770, 
12mo. A third edition appeared in 1791. 
2. ' Some Memoirs of the Life of J. G. . . . 



Written by himself. To which is added, a 
sermon [on Psalm xii. 1] (by .1. Carter) 
preached on the occasion of his death,' '2 pts. 
London, 1774, 12mo. 3. ' The Hidden and 
Happy Life of a Christian . . . exemplified 
in an extract from the diary of Mr. J. G.,' 
London [1775 ?], 12mo. 

[Memoirs written by himself.] W. F. W. S. 

GLOVER, JOHN (1767-1849), land- 
scape-painter, son of a small farmer, was born 
at Houghton-on-the-Hill, Leicestershire, on 
18 Feb. 1767. He profited so well by plain 
education as to be appointed master (one ac- 
count says writing-master) of the free school 
at Appleby in 1786. From a boy he had been 
fond of drawing, and in 1794 he removed to 
Lichfield, and set up as an artist and draw- ; 
ing-master. He is said to have been entirely 
self-taught, and he soon began to paint in 
oils and to etch. He quickly attracted admi- 
ration, and in 1805 was one of the original | 
members of the (now Royal) Society of 
Painters in Water-colours. In this year he \ 
came to London, when he took up his re- 
sidence at 61 Montagu Square. From 1805 
to 1813 he contributed 182 works to the ex- 
hibitions of the society, and ultimately be- i 
came one of the most fashionable drawing- ; 
masters of the day. Though his method was 
based on that of William Payne [q. v.], the | 
style of his execution was entirely his own. | 
A critic writing in 1824 states that it ' ex- 
cited increasing curiosity and a desire of 
imitation in a thousand admirers. The ap- 
parently careless scumbling of black and 
grey, the absence of defined forms, the dis- 
tinct unbroken patches of yellow, orange, 
green, red, brown, &c., which upon close 
inspection made up the foreground, middle- 
grounds, and off-skip in his compositions, 
seemed entirely to preclude all necessity for 
the labour of previous study.' One of his 
most dexterous devices was the twisting of 
camel-hair brushes together and spreading 
their hairs so as to produce rapid imitation 
of foliage. He was very clever also in his 
aerial perspective and in eifects of sunbeams 
striking through clouds and trees. He went 
to Paris in 1814, and while there painted in 
the Louvre a large landscape composition, 
which attracted the attention of Louis XVIII 
at the Paris exhibition of that year. This 
picture, for which the king granted him a 
gold medal, was exhibited at the Water- 
colour Society's exhibition in 1817, under 
the title of ' Landscape Composition.' 

In 1815 Glover was elected president of 
the Water-colour Society, but was not re- 
elected in the following year. He went to 
Paris again in 1 815, and afterwards to Switzer- 

land and Italy, bringing home portfolios 
full of sketches, from which he painted some 
large pictures in oil. Owing, it is said, to his 
advocacy, the Society of Water-colours for a 
few years (1816-20) admitted oil-pictures 
to their exhibitions. Several of Glover's 
works in oil brought large prices. Lord Dur- 
ham gave 500/. for his view of ' Durham 
Cathedral,' which is now at Lambton Castle. 
Though his art was generally confined to 
landscape, with an occasional sea picture, he 
sent to the society's exhibition in 1817 a com- 
position of cattle with a life-size bull, a pic- 
ture of goats, and two pieces of sculpture, one 
of a cow and the other of an ass and foal, 
modelled from nature. In 1818 he withdrew 
from the society in order to be a candidate for 
the honours of the Royal Academy. Hitherto 
he had rarely contributed to the exhibitions 
of the Academy, but he now sent seven pic- 
tures, all of scenery in England and Wales, 
and in the next year five, four of which were 
Italian in subject. But his hopes were dis- 
appointed, and the year after (1820) he did 
not send anything to the Academy, but held 
an exhibition in Old Bond Street of his works 
in oil and water-colour. In 1824 he was one 
of the founders of the Society of British 
Artists. To the exhibitions of this society 
he contributed till 1830, and he remained a 
member of it till his death. 

It had been his intention to retire to Ulls- 
water, where he had purchased a house and 
some land, but in 1831 he emigrated to the 
Swan River settlement (now Western Aus- 
tralia). He sent home'some pictures of colo- 
nial scenery, but they did not attract pur- 
chasers. He died at Launceston, Tasmania, 
on 9 Dec. 1849, aged 82, having spent his later 
years in reading, chiefly religious works. 

Glover was an artist of considerable skill 
and originality, especially in the rendering of 
transparent aerial effects, and although his 
style became mannered, he deserves to be 
honourably remembered among the founders 
of the English school of water-colours and 
the modern school of landscape. His skill 
in oil-painting was also considerable, and the 
National Gallery has recently acquired an 
excellent example of his work in this medium 
by the bequest of Mrs. Elizabeth Vaughan 
('Landscape with Cattle,' No. 1186 in the 
catalogue). Examples of his skill are also 
to be seen at the British and South Kensing- 
ton Museums. 

[Redgrave's Diet, of Artists, 1878; Redgraves' 
Century of Painters ; Somerset House Gazette, i. 
132 ; Annals of the Fine Arts, 1817, p. 81 ; Mag. 
of the Fine Arts, i. 312, &c. ; Portfolio, August 
1888; Bryan's Diet, of Painters (Graves); Cat. of 
National Gallery, British School, 1888]. C. M. 



1885), captain in the navy, administrator of 
Lagos, and governor of Newfoundland, son 
of the Rev. John Glover, English chaplain 
at Cologne, entered the navy in 1841 on board 
the Queen, flagship of Sir Edward Owen in 
the Mediterranean, and, after eight years' 
junior service, passed his examination in April 
1849. On 24 Oct. 1851, while serving on 
board the Penelope on the west coast of 
Africa, he was promoted to be lieutenant, and j 
in May 1852 was appointed to the Royalist j 
in the East Indies. From her he was moved i 
to the Sphinx, and, in command of her boats, i 
took part in the disastrous affair at Dona- ' 
bew in Burmah on 4 Feb. 1853 [see LOCH, i 
GRANTILLE GOWER], where he was severely j 
wounded, a ball entering under the right eye i 
and passing out at the ear. In the summer he | 
returned to England, and in October was . 
appointed to the Royal George, from which j 
he was moved in February 1854 to be first 
lieutenant of the Rosamond paddle-sloop in 
the Baltic. From 1855 to 1857 he had com- 
mand of the Otter, a small steamer, and then 
joined the expedition to the Niger, with Dr. 
William Balfour Baikie [q.v.] In 1861 he 
returned to England and was appointed to 
the Aboukir, but was almost immediately 
moved into the Arrogant, going out as flag- 
ship on the west coast, where for the next 
year he commanded the Arrogant's tender 
Handy, a small gunboat. On 24 Nov. 1862 
he was advanced to commander's rank, and 
his service at sea came to an end. 

On 21 April 1863 he was appointed ad- 
ministrator of the government of Lagos ; in 
May 1864 became colonial secretary in the 
same place ; and was from February 1866 
till 1872 again administrator. While hold- 
ing that office, especially in 1870, he was 
actively engaged in suppressing the maraud- 
ing incursions of the Ashantees in the neigh- 
bourhood of the river Volta. W 7 hen, in 1873, 
war with Ashantee became imminent, Glover, 
who was at the time in England, volunteered 
for special service, representing that his in- 
fluence with the natives would probably be 
useful. He was sent out with vague in- 
structions to raise a native army among the 
tribes to the east of the British territory and 
to act as seemed best, subject to the general 
control of Sir Garnet (now Lord) Wolseley, 
who went out as commander-in-chief and go- 
vernor of the Gold Coast. He arrived at Cape 
Coast in the early days of September, and, 
taking thence some three hundred Houssas, 
already trained to arms, pushed on to Accra, 
where, in the course of a few weeks, he 
gathered together a native force of from six- 
teen to twenty thousand men. He soon found, 

however, that they were almost useless. They 
stood in terror of the Ashantees, and refused 
to advance. Glover proposed to employ them 
in the first instance in some desultory raids, 
till, flushed with victory, their unwilling- 
ness would be overcome ; but Wolseley di- 
rected him to advance into the Ashantee 
country, simultaneously with the main attack, 
and with such force as he could command. 
On 15 Jan. 1874, with not more than eight 
hundred Houssas, Glover crossed the Prah r 
threatened the left flank of the Ashantees, 
and thus eased the work of the main force 
under Wolseley. He was never seriously 
engaged, though there was occasional skir- 
mishing, but the villages in his line of march 
were captured or burnt, and he overcame 
with remarkable skill the great difficulty of 
transporting his guns and ammunition. His 
success encouraged the unwilling tribes to- 
come up, and he eventually approached Coo- 
massie with a force of something like five 
thousand men. 

Peace was concluded on 14 Feb. 1874, and 
Glover's distinguished and difficult service 
was rewarded by the thanks of both houses 
of parliament, by his being nominated (8 May) 
a G.C.M.G., and appointed in the following 
year governor of Newfoundland. In 1877 
he was put on the retired list of the navy 
with the rank of captain, but continued at 
Newfoundland till 1881, when he was trans- 
ferred to the governorship of the Leeward 
Islands. In 1883 he was moved back ta 
Newfoundland. He died in London on 30 Sept. 
1885. He married in 1 876 Elizabeth Rosetta, 
eldest daughter of Mr. J. Butler Scott of 
Anne's Grove Abbey, Mountrath, Queen's 

[Times, 2 Oct. 1885; Annual Eegister, 1885, 
p. 181 ; Illustrated London News, 25 April, 1874, 
with a very indifferent portrait; Times bulletin, 
1853 ; Brackenbury's Ashanti War ; Royal Navy 
List.l J. K. L. 

GLOVER, MRS. JULIA (1779-1850), 
actress, was born in Newry 8 Jan. 1779. Her 
father, an actor named Betterton or Butterton, 
is said to have claimed descent from Thomas 
Betterton [q. v.] About 1789 she joined 
with her father the York circuit, and ap- 
peared under Tate Wilkinson as the Page in 
the 'Orphan.' She is said, like Mrs. Davison 
[q.v.], to have played the Duke of York to the 
Richard III of George Frederick Cooke [q.v.] 
She also acted Tom Thumb to the Glumdalca 
of the same actor. After accompanying her 
father on country tours, she made her first 
appearance at Bath, 3 Oct. 1795, as Miss Bet- 
terton from Liverpool, playing Marianne in 
the ' Dramatist ' by Reynolds. In the course 




of this and the following season she enacted 
Desdemona to the Othello of II. Siddons, 
Lady Macbeth, Lady Amaranth in ' Wild 
Oats/ and many other important characters 
in tragedy and comedy. On 12 Oct. 1797 
she appeared at Covent Garden as Elwina in 
Hannah More's ' Percy.' Her engagement 
was for five years, at terms then considered 
high, rising from 15. to '201. a week, her 
father being also engaged. Mrs. Abington, 
to whom she bore a marked resemblance, Mrs. 
Crawford, and Mrs. Pope were opposed to 
her. Her second appearance as Charlotte 
Rusport in the ' West Indian ' pleased the 
author (Cumberland) so much that he gave 
her the part of the heroine, Emily Fitzallan, 
in his new play, 'False Impressions,' 23 Nov. 
1797. She was the original Maria in T. Dib- 
din's 'Five Thousand a Year,' 16 March 1799, 
and was the heroine of other plays. She then 
played Lydia Languish, Lady Amaranth, and 
other comic parts. Under pressure from the 
management, which preferred Mrs. II. John- 
stone in her parts, she took serious charac- 
ters, such as Lady Randolph, the Queen in 
' Richard III/ &c., for which she was less 
suited. She contracted an affection for James 
Biggs, an actor at Drury Lane, whom she 
had met at Bath. After his death (December 
1798) her father, who took her salary and 
treated her with exceptional brutality, sold 
her for a consideration, never paid, of 1,000/. 
to Samuel Glover, the supposed heir to a 
large fortune. She was married 20 March 
1800, and on the 27th played Letitia Hardy 
as ' the late Miss Betterton.' On 10 May she 
was announced as Mrs. Glover, late Miss 
Betterton. Towards the end of the season 
1800-1 she reappeared, though she did not 
often perform. On 21 Oct. 1802, as Mrs. 
Oakly in the ' Jealous Wife/ she made her 
first appearance at Drury Lane. Next season 
she was again at Covent Garden, where she 
remained for four years. On 28 Sept. 1810 
she appeared for the first time at the Lyceum, 
playing with the Drury Lane company, 
driven from their home by fire. With them 
she returned (1812-13) to the newly erected 
house in Drury Lane. She was, 23 Jan. 
1813, the original Alhadra in Coleridge's 
* Remorse.' On 12 Feb. 1814 she was the 
Queen in ' Richard III ' to Kean's Richard, 
and on 5 May Emilia to his Othello. On 
16 Sept. 1816, on the first appearance of 
Macready at Covent Garden, she played 
Andromache her first appearance there for 
ten years to Macready's Orestes. She then 
played with Thomas Dibdin [q. v.] at the 
Surrey in 1822, and again returned to Drury 
Lane. When, 27 Oct. 1829, at Drury Lane, 
she played Mrs. Subtle in ' Paul Pry/ it was 

announced as her first appearance there for 
five years. The last chronicle of Genest 
concerning her is her original performance, 
13 Sept. 1830, at the Haymarket, of Ariette 
Delorme in 'Ambition, or Marie Mignot.' 
Her Mrs. Simpson, in ' Simpson & Co./ 
4 Jan. 1823, was one of the most successful 
of her original parts ; Estifania, Mrs. Mala- 
prop, Mrs. Candour, Mrs. Heidelberg, and 
Mrs. Subtle were also characters in which 
her admirable vein of comedy and her joyous 
laugh won high recognition. After seceding 
from Webster's management of the Hay- 
market, she engaged with James Ander- 
son in his direction of Drury Lane. Subse- 
quently she joined William Farren [q. v.] at 
the Strand, where she went through a round 
of her best characters, including Widow 
Green in the ' Love Chase ' of Sheridan 
Knowles, of which, at the Haymarket in 
1837, she was the original exponent. What 
was called a professional farewell took place 
at her benefit at Drury Lane, Friday, 12 July 
1850, when she played for the last time as 
Mrs. Malaprop. She had been ill for weeks, 
and was scarcely able to speak. On the fol- 
lowing Tuesday she died. On Friday the 
19th she was buried near her father in the 
churchyard of St. George the Martyr, in 
Queen Square, Bloomsbury. She had in 1837 
two sons and two daughters living. Her sons, 
Edmund and William Howard, are separately 
noticed. On 29 April 1822 a daughter made 
her first appearance at Drury Lane as Juliet to 
the Romeo of Kean, when Mrs. Glover was 
the Nurse. A writer in the ' New Monthly 
Magazine ' (probably Talfourd) says ' that 
sometimes her mother, in her anxiety, forgot 
a disguise extremely difficult for her rich and 
hearty humour to assume ' (vi. 250). Mrs. 
Glover was very unhappy in her domestic 
relations. Her father preyed upon her until 
he died, aged over eighty. Her husband did 
the same for a time, but failed in a dishonour- 
ing proceeding he brought against her. Mrs. 
Glover was plump in figure, and in the end 
corpulent. Leslie, in his ' Autobiography/ 
speaks of her as ' monstrously fat.' She was 
fair in complexion, and of middle height. 
She was the first comic actress of the period 
of her middle life, and had a wonderful me- 
mory. Benjamin Webster speaks of her re- 
citing scene after scene verbatim from Han- 
nah More's ' Percy ' after it had been with- 
drawn from the stage thirty years. ' The 
Stage ' (1814-15, i. 162) says*: ' Mrs. Glover 
is indeed a violent actress ; it is too much to 
say that she is a coarse one.' She is gene- 
rally credited, however, with refinement and 
distinction, and in her closing days was 
called the ' Mother of the Stage.' Boaden. 



in 1833, declared her the ablest actress in 
existence. She once, according to Walter 
Donaldson, played in 1822 at the Lyceum 
Hamlet for her benefit (Recollections of an 
Actor, p. 137). The same authority (p. 138) 
says her brother, John Betterton, was a good 
actor and dancer. 

[Works cited ; biography by Benjamin Web- 
ster, prefixed to his edition of the Country Squire 
of Dance; Genest's Account of the English 
Stage ; Oxberry's Dramatic Biog. ; Era news- 
paper, 21 July 1850 ; Actors by Daylight.] 

J. K. 

GLOVER, MOSES QZ. 1620-1640), 
painter and architect, is principally known 
from the large survey by him, drawn on 
vellum in 1635, of Syon House and the hun- 
dred of Isleworth, which is preserved at 
Syon House. A plan for rebuilding Pet- 
worth House, dated 1615, and preserved 
there, has also been attributed to him, and 
it has been conjectured that he had a share in 
building the Charing Cross front of North- 
umberland House, which was completed in 
1605. On 30 Sept. 1622 a license was issued 
from the Bishop of London's office for Moses 
Glover of Isleworth, Middlesex, painter- 
stainer, and Juliana Gulliver of the same, 
widow of Richard Gulliver, painter, to marry 
at St. Botolph's, Aldersgate, London. He 
was probably employed principally at Syon 

[Diet, of Architecture ; Walpole's Anecdotes 
of Painting (notes by Dallaway) ; Aungier's 
History of Syon Monastery, &c. ; Marriage Li- 
cences, Bishop of London (Harl. Soc. Publica- 
tions).] L. C. 

GLOVER, RICHARD (171 2-1785), poet, 
born in St. Martin's Lane, Cannon Street, in 
1712, was the son of Richard Glover, a Ham- 
burg merchant in London. He was educated 
at Cheam in Surrey. In 1728 a poem upon 
Sir Isaac Newton, written by him in his 
sixteenth year, was prefixed to ' A View of 
Newton's Philosophy,' by Henry Pernberton, 
M.D. Glover entered his father's business, 
but continued his poetical efforts, and be- 
came, according to Warton, a good Greek 
scholar. In 1737 he published ' Leonidas,' an 
epic poem in blank verse and in nine books. It 
went through four editions, was praised by 
Lord Lyttelton in a periodical paper called 
' Common Sense,' and by Fielding in the 
' Champion.' Pemberton extolled its merits 
in a pamphlet called ' Observations on Poetry, 
especially epic, occasioned by ... Leonidas,' 
1738. Glover republished it, enlarged to 
twelve books, in 1770. Two later editions 
appeared in 1798 and 1804 ; and it has been 
translated into French (1738) and German 

(1766). It was taken as a poetical manifesto 
in the interests of Walpole's antagonists. In 
1739 Glover published ' London, or the Pro- 
gress of Commerce,' also in blank verse ; and 
his one still readable ballad, ' Hosier's Ghost/ 
referring to the unfortunate expedition of 
Admiral Hosier in 1726. It was spirited 
enough to survive the immediate interest due 
to the 'Jenkins's ear' excitement, and was 
republished in Percy's ' Reliques.' Glover 
opposed the nomination of a partisan of Wai- 
pole as lord mayor, and in 1742 took part 
! in one of the assaults upon the falling minis- 
ter. The lord mayor, Sir Robert Godschall, 
presented a petition signed by three hun- 
dred merchants, and drawn up by Glover 
(20 Jan.), complaining of the inadequate pro- 
tection of British commerce, and Glover af- 
terwards attended to sum up their evidence 
before the House of Commons. His fame 
as a patriot was recognised in the Duchess of 
Marlborough's will. She died in 1744, leaA-- 
ing 500A apiece to Glover and Mallet to write 
the duke's life. He refused to undertake the 
task, although he is said to have been in diffi- 
culties. He was a proprietor at this time of 
the Temple Mills, near Marlow. Although 
intimate with Lyttelton, Cobham, and others, 
he got nothing by their political victory. In 
1751 he was an unsuccessful candidate for the 
office of chamberlain of the city of London. 
He lost a patron by the death of Frederick, 
prince of Wales, who is said to have sent him 
' a complete set of all classics, elegantly 
bound,' and at another time 5001. The money 
left, however, is denied by Duppa. He now 
tried the stage, and wrote ' Boadicea,' per- 
formed at Drury Lane for nine nights in 
December 1753, and praised in a pamphlet 
; by his old admirer, Pemberton. In 1761 he 
published ' Medea,' a tragedy on the Greek 
model, not intended for the stage, but thrice 
acted for Mrs. Yates's benefit (1767, 1768, and 
! 1776). He also presented to Mrs. Yates a 
I continuation called ' Jason,' which was never 
l acted, but published in 1799. Glover's affairs 
improved, and in 1761 he was returned to 
! parliament for Weymouth, doubtless through 
| the interest of his friend, Bubb Dodington, 
l who enlisted him in support of Bute. His 
! only recorded speech was on 13 May 1762, 
j when he opposed a subsidy to Portugal, and 
j was answered by Pitt. He is said to have 
supported George Grenville, but did not sit 
after the dissolution of 1768. He took a 
prominent part in arranging the affairs of 
Douglas, Heron, & Co., whose failure in 1762 
made a great sensation ; and appeared twice 
before committees of the House of Commons 
to sum up evidence as to commercial griev- 
ances (1774 and 1775). His statements were 



published, and on the last occasion he received 
a piece of plate worth 300Z. from the West 
India merchants in acknowledgment of his 
services. He died at his house in Albemarle 
Street, 25 Nov. 1785. His will mentions 
property in the city of London, in South 
Carolina, and in Kent, where he was lord of 
the manor of Down. He married Hannah 
Nunn, a lady of property, 21 May 1737, and 
had two sons by her, but was divorced in 
1756. A second wife survived him. A son, 
Richard Glover, was M.P. for Penryn, and 
presented to the Inner Temple Hall a por- 
trait of Richard West, lord chancellor of Ire- 
land, who was the elder Glover's maternal 
uncle, and father of Gray's friend. 

His ponderous ' Athenaid,' an epic poem in 
thirty books, was published in 1787 by his 
daughter, Mrs. Halsey. It is much longer 
and so far worse than ' Leonidas,' but no one 
has been able to read either for a century. 

A diary called ' Memoirs by a Distinguished 
Literary and Political Character [Glover] from 
the resignation of Sir Robert Walpole in 1742 
to the establishment of Lord Chatham's se- 
cond administration in 1757 ' was published in 

1813 (by R. Duppa [q. v.]) It was followed in 

1814 by ' An Inquiry concerning the Author 
of the Letters of Junius,' also by Duppa, who 
convinced himself but nobody else that Junius 
was Glover. The ' Memoirs ' are of little 
value, though they contribute something to 
our knowledge of the political intrigues of the 

[European Magazine for January 1786 (by 
Isaac Keed), with a ' character' by Dr. Brock- 
lesby from the Gent. Mag., is the only life, and is 
reproduced by Anderson and Chalmers in their 
Collections of English Poets. See also Inquiry, 
as above ; Dodington's Diary ; Horace Walpole's 
Letters (Cunningham), i. 31, 117, 136; Parl. 
Hist. xv. 1222; Genest's Hist, of the Stage, iv. 
381, v. 123.] L. S. 

GLOVER, ROBERT (d. 1555), protestant 
martyr, came of a family of some wealth 
and position in Warwickshire, is described 
as gentleman, and resided at Mancetter. He 
was elected from Eton to King's College, 
Cambridge, in 1533, and proceeded B.A. 
1538 and M.A. 1541. In common with his 
eldest brother, John of Bexterley, and an- 
other brother named William, he embraced 
protestant tenets. In 1555 the Bishop of 
Lichfield (Ralph Bayne) sent a commission 
to the mayor of Coventry and the sheriff to 
arrest either John or all three brothers, being 
especially anxious to take John. The mayor, 
who was friendly with the Glovers, gave 
them timely notice, and John and William 
fled, but Robert, who was sick, was taken in 
his bed, though the mayor tried to prevent 

the officer from making the arrest. He appears 
to have been a man of tall stature and reso- 
lute will, and though when he was first taken 
the mayor pressed him to give bail, he refused 
to do so. He was examined by the bishop 
at Coventry and at Lichfield, where he was 
lodged in a dungeon, and was finally handed 
over to the sheriffto be executed. On 20 Sept. 
he was burnt at Coventry along with Cor- 
nelius Bungey, a capper. Shortly before his 
execution he was attended and comforted by 
Augustine Bernher [q. v.] About 1842 tablets 
were erected in Mancetter Church to the me- 
mory of Glover and Mistress Joyce Lewis, 
another martyr. Glover left a wife named 
Mary, and children. Letters from him to his 
wife and to the ' mayor and bench 'of Coventry 
are printed by Foxe. In an inquisition taken 
after his death he is described as late of New- 
house Grange, Leicestershire. 

[Foxe's Acts and Monuments, vi. 63o, vii. 389- 
399, viii. 776, ed. Townsend ; Philpot's Exami- 
nations (p. 243) contains a letter from Philpot to 
R. G., Original Letters, Zurich, iii. 360, and 
Eidley, p. 383 (all Parker Soc.) ; Strype's Memo- 
rials, in. i. 228, from Foxe ; Ritchings's Narra- 
tive of Persecution of R. G., also mainly from 
Foxe ; Cooper's Athenae Cantab, i. 129.] W. H. 

GLOVER, ROBERT (1544 - 1588), 
Somerset herald, son of Thomas Glover of 
Ashford, Kent, and Mildred his wife, was 
born there in 1544. His grandfather, Thomas 
Glover, was one of the barons of the Cinque 
ports at the coronation of Henry VIII. He 
entered the College of Arms at an early age, 
was appointed Portcullis pursuivant in 1567, 
and created Somerset herald in 157 1 . Several 
of the provincial kings-at-arms availed them- 
selves of his rare skill as a herald and gene- 
alogist, and employed him to visit many of 
the counties within their jurisdictions. In 
company with William Flower [q. v.], Norroy, 
he made the heraldic visitation of Durham in 
1575, and of Cheshire in 1580. In 1582 he 
attended Lord Willoughby when that noble- 
man bore the insignia of the Garter to 
Frederick II of Denmark [see BERTIE, PE- 
REGRINE], and in 1584 he, with Robert Cooke, 
Clarenceux, accompanied the Earl of Derby 
on a similar mission to the king of France. In 
1584 and 1585 he was engaged in the heraldic 
visitation of Yorkshire. He died in London 
on 10 April 1588, and was buried in the church 
of St. Giles Without, Cripplegate. Over his 
grave there was placed a comely monument, 
m the south wall of the choir, with an in- 
scription, which is printed in Weever's 'Fune- 
rall Monuments.' 

He married Elizabeth, daughter of William 
Flower, Norroy king-of-arms, and left three 
sons, one of whom, Thomas, was born in 1576, 



and two daughters, Elizabeth, bom in 1573, 
and Ann, born in 1575. 

Glover was certainly one of the most ac- 
complished heralds and genealogists that this 
country has produced. No work of his was 
printed in his lifetime, but he left an enor- 
mous quantity of manuscript collections, 
which have been utilised, often with scanty 
or no acknowledgment, by subsequent writers, 
who have thus gained credit properly due to 
him. Dugdale declared that Camden and 
Glover were the two greatest ornaments of 
their profession. Many suppose that Glover 
collected the valuable materials afterwards 
arranged and published by Dugdale in the 
' Baronage ' which bears his name (GotTGH, 
British Topography, ii. 406). Some of Glover's 
collections were purchased by his friend the 
lord-treasurer Burghley, who deposited them 
in the College of Arms, but there yet remain 
scattered in different libraries throughout the 
kingdom scores of volumes which, though un- 
known as his, have afforded matter for nearly 
all the topographical surveys which have been 
written since his time (ib.) He assisted Cam- 
den in his pedigrees for the 'Britannia,' com- 
municated to Dr. David Powell a copy of the 
' History of Cambria ' translated by H. Lloyd, 
made a collection of the inscriptions upon the 
funeral monuments in Kent, and in 1584 drew 
up a most curious survey of Herewood Castle, 
Yorkshire. His ' Catalogue of Northern Gen- 
try whose surnames ended in son ' was for- 
merly in the possession of Thoresby. The 
' Defence of the Title of Queen Elizabeth to 
the English Crown' against the book by John 
Lesley, bishop of Ross, in 1584, in favour of 
Mary Stuart, queen of Scots, was considered 
by Dugdale to be one of Glover's best perfor- 
mances. It has never been published. A work 
entitled ' Nobilitas Politica et Civilis,' Lon- 
don, 1608, fol., was edited from Glover's manu- 
scripts, with many additions, by his nephew 
Thomas Milles, who afterwards inserted a 
translation of it in the ' Catalogue of Honor.' 
Glover's manuscript genealogies of the no- 
bility in Latin were reduced to method by 
Milles, with the assistance of Sir Robert 
Cotton, Robert Beale, clerk to the council, 
William Camden, Clarenceux king-of-arms, 
Nicholas Charles, Lancaster herald, Michael 
Heneage, keeper of the records in the Tower, 
Thomas Talbot, and Matthew Pateson. They 
appeared under the title of ' The Catalogue 
of Honor, or Treasury of true Nobility, pe- 
culiar and proper to the Isle of Great Britaine,' 
London, 1610, fol. Milles explains that his 
intention in bringing out this work was to 
revive the name and memory of his uncle, 
' whose private studies for the public good 
deserved a remembrance beyond forgetful 

time.' The ' Catalogue of the Chancellors of 
England,' edited by John Philipot in 1636, 
was principally based on Glover's collections. 
This was also the case with Arthur Collins's 
' Proceedings, Precedents, and Arguments on 
Claims and Controversies concerning Baronies 
by Writ and other Honours,' 1735. Glover's 
famous ' Ordinary of Arms ' is printed in an 
augmented and improved form in vol. i. of 
Edmondson's ' Complete Body of Heraldry,' 
1780. His and Flower's ' Heraldic Visita- 
tione of y e Countye Palatyne of Durham in 
1575 ' was published at Newcastle in 1820, 
fol., under the editorship of N. J. Philipson ; 
their 'Visitation of Cheshire in 1580' forms 
vol. xviii. of the publications of the Harleian 
Society, London, 1882, 8vo ; and Glover's 
' Visitation of Yorkshire, made in 1584-5,' 
edited by Joseph Foster, was privately printed 
in London in 1875. 8vo. a 

[Addit. MSS. 12453, 86800 ff. Ib. 32, 30323 

f. 2 ; Dallaway's Inquiry, p. 243 ; Gent. Mag. 

j 1820, i. 596 ; Hari. MSS. 245 art. 1, 374 art. 6, 

' 1160 art. 1 et seq. 1388, 6165 art. 30; Hasted's 

j Kent (1790) iii. 262 ; Kennett's MS. 48, f. 108; 

Lansd. MSS. 58 art. 4", 205 art. 3, 843 art. 8, 

872 ; Moule's Bibl. Heraldica, pp. 30, 66, 67, 

'119; Noble's College of Arms, pp. 180, 186; 

Calendars of State Papers, Dom. 1547-80 p. 458, 

1581-90 pp. 360, 448, 636, Addend. 1566-79 

p. 475, 1580-1625 p. 199 ; Stow's Survey, 1720, 

| bk. iii. p. 83 ; Weever's Funerall Monuments, 

pp. 676, 682.] T. C. 

GLOVER,, STEPHEN (d. 1869), author 
and antiquary, compiled the ' Peak Guide,' 
Derby, 1830, and assisted Bateman in his 

j ; Antiquities of Derbyshire,' 1848. Glover's 
best known work is the ' History and Gazet- 
teer of the County of Derby, illustrated. The 
materials collected by the publisher, Stephen 

: Glover; edited by Thos. Noble, Esq., Derby, 

I 4to.' Vol. i. pt. i. was published in 1831 ; 

! vol. ii. pt. i. in 1833. These volumes had 
been delayed some time owing to the disputes 
between the compiler and the engravers, and 
the work was never completed. It contained 
a mass of valuable but ill-arranged informa- 
tion, and is frequently quoted as an authority. 
Glover died on 26 Dec. 1869, and was buried 

; at Moreton, Cheshire. 

[Glover's works mentioned above ; information 
kindly given by Mr. W. P. Edwards of the Derby 
: Mercury.] L. M. M. 

GLOVER, STEPHEN (1812-1870), com- 
poser and teacher, brother to Charles Wil- 
liam Glover [q. v.j, was born in London in 
1812, and became a popular composer of songs, 
ballads, and duets. The ' Monks of Old,' 
I 1842, ' What are the Wild Waves saying,' 
1850, ' Excelsior,' and ' Songs from the Holy 

Glover < 

Scriptures/ illustrate the range and taste of 
the fourteen or fifteen hundred compositions 
Glover presented to the public from 1847 till 
his death, on 7 Dec. 1870, at the age of 58. 

[Appendix to Grove's Diet. p. 648 ; Brown's 
Biog. Diet. p. 273.] L. M. M. 


{1819/1875), musical composer and writer, 
was Ime second son of Mrs. Julia Glover, the 
actress [q. v.], and said to be descended from 
Bettertons. He was born at Kilburn, 
Dndon, on 6 June 1819 ; entered the Lyceum 
Opera orchestra, conducted by his master, 
/ Wagstaff, as violinist when fifteen ; con- 
tinued his studies on the continent, and was 
soon afterwards employed as accompanist and 
solo violinist in London and the provinces. 
He founded, in conjunction with his mother, 
the Musical and Dramatic Academy in Soho 
Square, and was encouraged by its success 
to open a season of opera at Manchester, his 
pupils forming the nucleus of the company. 
Glover was joined in this or similar enter- 
prises by his elder brother Edmund [q. v.] 
and Miss Romer. Returning to London he 
gave annual monster concerts at St. James's 
Hall and Drury Lane Theatre. His pupils 
Miss Emily Soldene, Miss Palmer, and many 
first-rate artists appeared, the length of the 
entertainments inspiring more than one 
foreign critic with philosophic reflections 
upon the English amateur's capacity of en- 
durance. To Glover belongs the credit of 
initiating the performance of Beethoven's 
* Pastoral Symphony ' with pictorial and cho- 
regraphic illustrations in 1863 ; and 'Israel 
in Egypt ' with scenery, dresses, and poses, 
in 1865. His cantata, ' Tarn o' Shanter,' for 
tenor solo, chorus, and orchestra, was pro- 
duced at the New Philharmonic, Berlioz con- 
ducting, on 4 July 1 855, and pleased so greatly 
by its pleasant melodies, local colouring, and 
lively effects, that it was given at the follow- 
ing Birmingham festival, 30 Aug. ' Ruy 
Bias,' opera,written and composed by Glover, 
was produced on 24 Oct. 1861 at Covent Gar- 
den, and was successful enough for frequent 
repetition and a revival two years later ; the 
comic opera, ' Once too Often,' was first per- 
formed at Drury Lane on 20 Jan. 1862, 'The 
Coquette ' in the provinces, ' Aminta ' at the 
Haymarket, and 'Palomita' in New York. 
The overtures ' Manfred ' and ' Comala,' the 
songs, ' Old Woman of Berkeley,' ' Love's 
Philosophy,' ' The Wind's a Bird,' are only a 
few of his compositions, many of which were 
published in America. From about 1849 to 
1865 Glover undertook the musical criticisms 
for the 'Morning Post;' in 1868 he settled 
in New York as professor and conductor of 


Niblo's orchestra, and he died there on 28 Oct. 

[Musical World, 1855 to 1875; Grove's Diet, 
i. 600; Brown's Biog. Diet. p. 275.] L. M. M. 

BARON WOLVERTON (1824-1887), eldest son 
of George Carr Glyn, banker (1797-1873), 
created baron Wolverton 14 Dec. 1 869, was 
born on 1 Feb. 1 824. Sir Richard Carr Glyn 
[q.v.] was his grandfather. He was educated at 
Rugby and University College, Oxford, where 
he matriculated 26 May 1842. On coming 
of age he became a partner in the metropo- 
litan banking firm of Glyn, Mills, Currie, & 
Co., and continued in the business until his 
death. He was some time chairman of the 
Railway Clearing House, and a lieutenant of 
the city of London. Glyn sat as M.P. for 
Shaftesbury in the liberal interest from 1857 
to 1873, when he succeeded his father in the 
peerage. He was joint secretary to the trea- 
sury from 1868 to 1873, during which period 
he officiated as a most energetic whip. He 
was then sworn of the privy council. In the 
liberal ministry of 1880 to 1885 he was pay- 
master-general, and his zealous adherence to 
Mr. Gladstone after the promulgation of his 
scheme of home rule for Ireland was rewarded 
by the appointment of postmaster-general 
(February to July 1886). A personal friend 
of Mr. Gladstone, Wolverton during the re- 
mainder of his life gave valuable support, both 
oratorical and pecuniary, to the home rule 
cause. On 2 Oct. 1887 he presided at a great 
' anti-coercion ' demonstration at Temple- 
combe, Dorsetshire, when he was presented 
with an address from eight parliamentary dis- 
tricts. He died suddenly at Brighton on 
6 Nov. 1887. His personal estate amounted 
to more than 1,820,000*. 

AVolverton was a model landlord and a 
staunch supporter of fox-hunting in Dorset- 
shire. At Iwerne Minster in that county, 
where was one of his country seats, he and 
Lady Wolverton supported two orphanages 
in connection with the Home Boy Brigade 
originated by her. He gave his salary as 
postmaster-general to secure beds in a con- 
valescent home for sick London postmen. 
He married, 22 June 1848, Georgiana Maria, 
daughter of the Rev.George Frederick Tuftnell 
of Uffington, Berkshire ; had no issue, and 
was succeeded as third baron by his nephew, 
Henry Richard, eldest son of Vice-admiral 
Hon. Henry Carr Glyn, C.B., C.S.I, (d. 1884). 
The third baron died on 2 July 1888, and his 
brother Frederick succeeded him. 

[Debrett's Peerage for 1887 ; Times and Daily 
News, 7 Nov. 1887; Foster's Peerage; Foster's 
Alumni Oxon.] L. C. S. 




1889), actress, was born in Edinburgh on 
22 May 1823. Her father, Mr. Gearns, a strong 
presbyterian, was an architect with a turn for 
preaching. After taking part in London in 
amateur theatricals, she went with her first 
husband, Edward Wills, to Paris, where she 
studied acting. Returning to England in 1846, 
she received lessons from Charles Kemble,and 
on 8 Nov. 1847, under her mother's maiden 
name of Glyn, made at the Theatre Royal, 
Manchester, her appearance as Constance in 
' King John.' Lady Macbeth and Hermione 
followed. On 26 Jan. 1848 she appeared at 
the Olympic in ' Lady Macbeth,' and on 
16 Feb. as Juliana in the ' Honeymoon.' At 
the invitation of Pritchard she went on the 
York circuit, playing many Shakespearean 
parts. On 27 Sept. 1848, after the retirement 
of Mrs. Warner, Miss Glyn appeared at 
Sadler's Wells as Volumnia in ' Coriolanus.' 
At this house she remained until 1851, ob- 
taining practice and winning recognition in 
characters such as Cleopatra and the Duchess 
of Malfi, and playing the heroines of some 
new dramas, among which may be counted 
Garcia in the ' Noble Error' by F. G. Tomlins. 
In 1851 she undertook a country tour, and 
in September gave the first of her Shake- 
searean readings. On 26 Dec. 1851, as 

Bianca in 'Fazio,' she made her first ap- 
pearance at Drury Lane. This was followed, 
16 Jan. 1852, by Julia in the ' Hunchback.' 
At the St. James's Theatre, 2 Oct. 1854, she 
was the original Miss Stewart in the ' King's 
Rival ' of Tom Taylor and Charles Reade. 
After performing at the Standard she reap- 
peared in 1859 at Sadler's Wells, and in May 
1867 played Cleopatra at the Princess's. 
From this time her appearances on the stage 
were infrequent, and her time was principally 
occupied with theatrical tuition and with 
Shakespearean readings or 'recitals.' In 1870 
she gave ' recitals ' with much success in 
Boston, U.S.A., and in 1878 and 1879 de- 
livered at Steinway Hall and the St. James's 
Hall a series of readings from Shakespeare, 
which elicited very favourable crit icism. Dur- 
ing her later years her earnings diminished. 
She died, after long suffering from cancer, 
on 18 May 1889, at her residence, 13 Mount 
Street, Grosvenor Square. A subscription 
for her benefit was opened just before her 
death. Miss Glyn married in Edinburgh, 
according to Scottish law, in December 
1853, Eneas Sweetland Dallas [q. v.J On 
12 July 1855 the pair were again married at 
St. George's, Hanover Square. They were 
divorced on Mrs. Dallas's petition, 10 May 
1874. Mrs. Dallas was buried 22 May 1889 
at Kensal Green Cemetery. She had a fine 

figure, in the end a little inclined to portli- 
ness. Her complexion was dark, her features 
were strong and expressive, and her voice 
was powerful and well modulated. Short 
of inspiration, she had most gifts of the tra- 
gedian of the Kemble school, of which she 
was one of the very latest adherents. Her ges- 
tures were large, and she had the power in a 
reading of marking the different characters. 
Her success was most distinct in characters 
in which her commanding figure was of ad- 
vantage. A vein of comedy which in her 
early life she exhibited was less evident in 
later years. In character she was generous, 
good-hearted, frank, and impetuous. Self- 
confidence and a tendency to be exacting 
were professional rather than individual de- 

[Phelps and Eobertson's Life of Phelps ; Stir- 
ling's Old Drury Lane ; Tallis's Dramatic Mag. ; 
Pascoe'sDramaticList, 1879; Athenaeum, various 
years; St. James's Gazette, 20 May 1889; Era, 
25 May 1889; private knowledge and informa- 
tion.] J. K. 

1838), lord mayor of London, eldest son, by 
his second marriage, of Sir Richard Glyn, bart., 
lord mayor in 1759, was born 2 Feb. 1755. 
His mother was Elizabeth, daughter and co- 
heiress of Robert Carr, brother of Sir Robert 
Carr, bart., of Etall in Northumberland. He 
and his brother Thomas were educated at 
Westminster School. On the death of his 
father in 1773, Glyn succeeded him as part- 
ner in the banking firm of Hallifax, Mills, 
Glyn, & Mitton, of 18 Birchin Lane, and 
afterwards of Lombard Street, a firm which 
has the reputation of having a larger business 
than any other private banking house in the 
city of London (F. G. HILTON PRICE, Hand- 
book of London Bankers, 1876, pp. 55-6). 

Glyn was elected alderman of Bishopsgate 
ward in September 1790, and on Midsummer 
day in the same year sheriff of London and 
Middlesex. He was knighted at St. James's 
24 Nov. following. At the general election 
of 1796 he was returned to parliament for the 
borough of St. Ives, Cornwall, for which he 
sat until the dissolution in 1802. In politics 
he was a firm supporter of Pitt's administra- 
tion. He served the office of lord mayor in 
1798-9, and in 1798 was elected president of 
Bridewell and Bethlehem hospitals. His por- 
trait in full length by Hoppner is preserved 
in the hall of Bridewell. He was created a 
baronet by patent dated 22 Nov. 1800. On 
the death of Alderman Sir William Curtis 
in 1829 he removed to the ward of Bridge 
Without, and became the father of the corpora- 
tion, but resigned his gown in 1835. He died 
at his house in Arlington Street on 27 April 



1838. Glyn married, 2 July 1 785, Mary, only 
daughter of John Plumptre of Nottingham 
and of Fredville in Kent, by whom he had 
five sons and a daughter. His wife died in 
1832. He was succeeded in the baronetcy by 
his eldest son, Sir Richard Plumptre Glyn. 
His fourth son, George Carr (1797-1873), 
was created Baron Wolverton 14 Dec. 1869. 

[Gent. Mag. 1838, pt. ii. pp. 211-12; City 
Biography, 1800, pp. 47-8 ; London and Middle- 
sex Archaeological Soc. Trans, ii. 73; Foster's 
Baronetage. Particulars concerning his sons will 
be found in Joseph Welch's Alumni Westmonast. 
1852, pp. 467-8, 484.] C. W-H. 

GLYN, WILLIAM (1504P-1558), bishop 
of Bangor, was born about 1504 in Hen- 
eglwys parish in Anglesey. Foxe, however, 
says that he was forty-one years old in 1551 
(Acts and Monuments, vi. 242, ed. Townsend). 
His father's name is said to have been John 
Glyn, rector of Heneglwys, while that of his 
mother was Joan, daughter of Maredudd ab 
Gwilym. The church's rule of celibacy was 
but little regarded among the Welsh parochial 
clergy. He had several brothers, one of whom, 
Dr. Jeffry Glyn, was a distinguished advocate 
at Doctors' Commons, and founded the Friars' 
School, Bangor ( WILLIS, Survey of Hangar, 
p. 47). Another brother, John Glyn, was 
dean of Bangor between 1508 and 1534, and 
on his death in the latter year made William 
his executor and heir. 

Glyn was educated at Queens' College, 
Cambridge. He became a fellow of his col- 
lege in 1530, junior bursar in 1533, senior 
bursar in 1534, and dean in 1540. He pro- 
ceeded B.A. in 1527, M.A. in 1530, B.D. in 
1538, and D.D. in 1544. In 1544 he vacated 
his fellowship and became Lady Margaret's 
professor of theology, ' being,' as Sir John 
Wynne says, ' a great scholar and a great 
hebrician,' though Hebrew was ' rare at that 
time.' He was one of the original fellows 
of Trinity College, named in the charter of 
foundation (19 Dec. 1546), and he became 
the first vice-master of the new college. He 
was opposed to the protestant innovations of 
Edward VI's reign, and being inhibited from 
lecturing resigned his professorship in June 
1549. He was oneof thedisputantswho main- 
tained the doctrinesof transubstantiation and 
the eucharistic sacrifice before the royal com- 
missioners for the visitation of Cambridge in 
the June of that year. The voluminous argu- 
ments at the three disputations are all given 
by Foxe (Acts and Monuments, vi. 306 sq., 
319 sq., 332 sq., ed. Townsend). 

Glyn's institution on 7 March 1550 to the 
rectory of St. Martin's, Ludgate, on the pre- 
sentation of Bishop Thirlby, whose chaplain 

he became in 1551, and his appointment to 
his father's living of Heneglwys on 13 Feb. 
1552 (WILLIS, Bangor, p. 104), show that 
he must have conformed to the new services. 
After Mary's accession, however, in December 
1553, he was made president of Queens', his 
old college, where the spirit of Erasmus was 
more powerful than anywhere at Cambridge, 
except St. John's (MULLINGER, ii. 45). In 
April 1554 he was one of the six delegates 
sent to Oxford to dispute with Cranmer, 
Latimer, and Ridley. He arrived at Oxford 
on 13 April and lodged at the Cross Inn 
(FoxE, vi. 439). He was now incorporated 
D.D. of Oxford. In 1554 Glyn became vice- 
chancellor of Cambridge, but before the end 
of the year he was called away by state busi- 
ness and was succeeded by Cuthbert Scott, 
the master of Christ's College. In 1555 he 
was sent with Thirlby and others on a mission 
to Rome, to obtain a confirmation of Pole's 
acts as legate. He arrived there on 24 May, 
and returned to London on 24 Aug. (MACHYN, 
Diary, p. 93, Camel. Soc.) He was already 
destined for the bishopric of Bangor, the conge 
d'elire for his election being issued as early 
as 4 March 1555 (Fadera, xv. 415). His 
election duly followed, but his final appoint- 
ment was due to papal provision (ib. xv. 426 ; 
BRADY, Episcopal Succession, i. 83). He was 
consecrated on 8 Sept. 1555 at London House 
by Bonner (STTJBBS, Reg. Sacrum Anglicanum, 
p. 81 ; MACHYN, Diary, says at St. Paul's, 
p. 94). He assisted at the consecration of 
Pole. He held several diocesan synods, which 
he compelled his clergy to attend, as a means 
of enforcing his doctrines upon them. He 
deprived the married clergy of their livings. 
He only resigned his headship of Queens' Col- 
lege, Cambridge, in the latter part of 1557. 

Glyn died on 21 May 1558, and was buried 
in his cathedral on the north side of the choir, 
where a brass plate commemorates his powers 
of preaching, and his great knowledge of his 
own, the Welsh tongue. Sir John Wynne 
describes him as ' a good and religious man 
after the manner of that time ' ( Gwydir 
Family, p. 94). ' He was,' says Fuller, ' an 
excellent scholar, and none of the papists 
pressed their arguments with more strength 
and less passion. Though constant to his 
own he was not cruel to opposite judgments, 
as appeareth by there being no persecution 
in his diocese ' ( Worthies of England, ii. 571, 
ed. Nichols). It is said that the house of 
Treveiler, which belonged to his ancestors, 
remained in his family till 1775 (ib. note). 
He must be distinguished from his senior 
contemporary, Dr. William Glyn, archdeacon 
of Anglesey, who belonged to a different 

Glynn i; 

[Sir John Wynne's Hist, of the Gwydir Family, ' 
d. 1878, p. 94 ; Wood's Athenae Oxon. ii. 765, ! 
ed. Bliss ; Le Neve's Fasti Ecclesise Anglicanae, i. j 
104, iii. 604, 654, 685 ; Eymer's Fcedera, xv. 
415, 426 ; Machyn's Diary, pp. 93-4 (Camd. Soc.); 
Baker's Hist, of St. John's Coll., Cambridge 
(Mayor), i. 126 ; Mullinger's Hist, of the Univ. 
ofCambridge, 1535-1625,pp. 45,84, 114; Willis's 
Survey of Bangor, pp. 30, 47, 104-5; Wood's 
Athenae Oxon. ii. 764-6, ed. Bliss ; Williams's 
Diet, of Eminent Welshmen, p. 173 ; Foxe's Acts 
and Monuments, vol. vi. ed. Townsend. Most of j 
the facts of his life are collected in Cooper's 
Athenae Cantabr. i. 175 ; the Eev. W. G. Searle 
gives a full account of his life and an exhaustive 
account of his acts as president of Queens' in his 
Hist, of Queens' Coll. Cambridge, pt. i. pp. 245- 
263, in Nos. ix. and x. of the publications of the 
Cambridge Antiquarian Soc.] T. F. T. 

GLYNN, JOHN (1722-1779), politician 
and lawyer, second son of William Glynu of 
Glynn in Cardinham, Cornwall, who mar- 
ried Rose, daughter of John Prideaux of 
Prideaux Place, Padstow, was baptised at 
Cardinham on 3 Aug. 1722. He matricu- j 
lated at Exeter College, Oxford, on 17 May i 
1738, but did not proceed to a degree. He j 
was called to the bar at the Middle Temple 
in 1748. His elder brother died in June j 
1744, leaving an only son of w r eak intellect, 
against whom his uncle took out a commis- 
sion in lunacy, and was appointed receiver 
of the family estates. The youth's mother 
was so much incensed that she left all her 
own property to distant connections. The 
lunatic died in December 1762, whereupon 
Glynn came into the possession of his nephew's 
property. On 24 Jan. 1763 he was created 
a serjeant-at-law, but, through his ardent 
opinions in opposition to the court, he was 
never promoted to the rank of king's ser- 
jeant. In 1764 he was appointed recorder 
of Exeter. His powers of pleading and his 
knowledge of legal practice cannot be ques- 
tioned. Nicholls records that when he first 
attended Westminster Hall as a law student 
Glynn stood first for legal knowledge, and, 
according to Serjeant Hill, knew ' a great 
deal more ' than Dunning, though Dunning's ' 
knowledge was invariably accurate. His posi- 
tion at the bar and his liberal opinions entitled 
'Glynn to take the lead in the cases connected 
with Wilkes. They were in close consultation 
throughout the summer of 1763, and Glynn's 
arguments in his friend's legal action increased 
' a very great stock of reputation.' He acted 
for Wilkes in his application for a writ of 
habeas corpus in May 1763 ; in the action 
against Dunk, lord Halifax [q. v.] ; and in 
the trial which took place in 1764 on there- 
publication of the 'North Briton' in volumes. 
He was the advocate of John Almon in 1765 ; 


he pleaded in the king's bench against the 
outlawry of Wilkes in 1768 ; and he was 
counsel for Alderman Townsend in his action 
in June 1772 against the collector of land 
tax, which the alderman had refused to pay, 
urging the nullity of parliament through the 
irregularity of the Middlesex election. In 
many smaller actions of the same nature 
Glynn often rendered gratuitous assistance. 
He also enjoyed a large share of general busi- 
ness. His advocacy secured the acquittal 
of Miss Butterfield, accused of poisoning 
William Scawen. On a by-vacancy in the 
representation of Middlesex in 1768 he was 
named by Wilkes, at the request of the ma- 
jority of its freeholders, as the candidate in 
the 'Wilkes and liberty' interest; Home 
Tooke was active in raising subscriptions to 
defray the election expenses. The ministerial 
candidate was Sir William Beauchamp Proc- 
tor, who had been ousted from the repre- 
sentation by Wilkes in March 1768. On the 
first day of polling (8 Dec.) ' a desperate set of 
armed ruffians with " Liberty " and ' ' Proctor " 
in their hats ' stormed the polling-booth at 
Brentford, when one man was killed. This 
affair created intense indignation, and was 
the subject of numerous popular engravings. 
After six days' polling Glynn won by 1,542 
votes to 1 ,278. Boundless rejoicings followed, 
the ribbons supplied for his 'favours' cost- 
ing over 400/. When 1,565 freeholders of 
Middlesex addressed George III against the 
illegal act of the majority in the House of 
Commons, Glynn presented their petition, 
and in three cartoons at least he is repre- 
sented on his knees presenting their address 
to the monarch (24 May 1769). At the dis- 
solution in 1774 he was re-elected without 
opposition,when Governor Hutchinson enters 
a note in his diary (i. 267) : 'A vast train of 
carriages and horses attend Wilkes to Brent- 
ford, where Glynn and he are elected for 
Middlesex without opposition. In the even- 
ing were illuminations in many parts of Lon- 
don and Westminster.' In the winter of 
1770 Glynn, ' tutored by Shelburne, who in 
his turn had been inspired by Chatham,' 
moved for a committee to inquire into the 
administration of justice in cases relating to 
the press, and to settle the power of juries, 
and, in conjunction with Dunning and Wed- 
derburne, argued the question ' with much 
dignity and great abilities.' About the same 
time he was associated with Fox, Sir William 
Meredith, and others, in a committee on the 
modification of the criminal laws. They de- 
liberated for two years, and on their report 
a bill was introduced for the repeal of eight 
or ten statutes, but it was thrown out in the 
lords. He was one of the leading members 



of the Society of the Bill of Eights, which 
at the end of 1770 addressed a letter to the 
American colonies almost inciting them to 
rebellion, and there was some talk in April ! 
1771 among the wilder courtiers of com- 
mitting Glynn and Lee ' for pleading before 
Lord Justice de Grey against the privileges 
of the house.' His speeches in parliament 
have been warmly praised for their candour 
and elevated tone, and Horace Walpole as- 
serts that he ' was applauded by both sides 
. . . and defended himself with a modesty 
that conciliated much favour.' On 27 Sept. > 
1770, after the recorder, Eyre, had refused 
to attend the lord mayor in presenting the j 
city remonstrance to the king, it was re- | 
solved, at a meeting in the Guildhall, by 106 I 
votes to 58, that Glynn should in all their 
legal affairs be ' advised with, retained, and 
employed.' In 1772 Eyre was raised to the ! 
bench as a baron of the exchequer, and on 
17 Nov., when every alderman was present, ' 
Glynn was elected recorder in his place, the 
votes being Glynn, 13 ; Bearcroft, a king's 
counsel, and afterwards chief justice of Ches- 
ter, 12 : and Hyde, the senior city counsel, 1 ; 
and on 24 Nov. he was sworn in. The salary 
of the post was at the same time raised from 
600/. to 1,000/. per annum. Chatham was j 
delighted, and calls Glynn ' a most ingenious, 
solid, pleasing man, and the spirit of the con- 
stitution itself.' He suffered greatly from 
gout, and had to be carried into the house in 
April 1769 to vote against the motion for 
seating Luttrell for Middlesex. In 1778 a 
deputy was allowed on account of his illness 
to act for him as recorder. On 16 Sept. 1779 
he died, and was buried at Cardinham on 
23 Sept. He married, on 21 July 1763, Su- 
sanna Margaret, third daughter of Sir John 
Oglander of Nunwell in the Isle of Wight ; 
she was born 1 Sept. 1744, and died at 
Catherine Place, Bath, 20 May 1816. They 
had issue three sons and one daughter. 

Glynn's character was beyond suspicion, 
and his abilities and his political sincerity 
were unquestioned. It was of him that 
Wilkes remarked to George III, ' Sir, he was 
a Wilkite, which I never was.' The por- 
traits of these two politicians with Home 
Tooke were painted and engraved by Richard 
Houston, and published by Sayer on 6 Feb. 
1769. A print of Glynn alone is prefixed to 
vol. iv. of the ' North Briton,' 1772. Several 
letters and papers relating to him are noticed 
in the 'Bibliotheca Cornubiensis,' vol. iii. 
He edited in 1775-6 eight numbers of ' The 
Whole Proceedings on the King's Commis- 
sion of the Peace for the City of London.' 

[Cavendish's Debates, vols. i. and ii. : Horace 
Walpole's George III, vols. iii. and iv. ; Walpole's 

Last Journals (1771-83). i. 117-18, 124-6, 189, 
197, 301 ; Chatham Corresp. iii. 474-5, 481-3, 
iv. 35, 48, 144, 234; Trevelyan's Fox, pp. 185, 
188, 212, 277, 335-6; Twiss's Eldon, ii. 356; 
Grenville Papers, ii. 61-5, 71-3, 430, ii . 46-8, 
iv. 2, 291 ; Almon's Biog. Aneed. i. 236-8, 244 ; 
Nicholls's Recollections (1822), i. 342; Oldfield's 
Parl. Hist. iv. 176-9 ; Grego's Parl. Elections, 
178, &c. ; Noorthouck's London, pp. 448-509; 
Merivale's Sir P. Francis, i. 87-9 ; satirical prints 
at Brit.Mus. iv. 465-77, 528-30, 640-1 ; Srephens's 
Home Tooke, i. 102-14, 182-5, ii. 279-80; J. 
Chaloner Smith's Portraits, ii. 661-2 ; Hansard, 
xxxix.781 (1819); Gent. Mag. 1772 p. 540, 1779 
p. 471; Woolrych's Serjeants, ii. 572-604; 
Maclean's Trigg Minor, ii. 61-2, 70; Boase and 
Courtney's Bibl. Corrnib.] W. P. C. 

(1719-1800), physician, eldest and only sur- 
viving son of Robert Glynn of Erodes in 
Helland parish, near Bodmin, Cornwall, who 
married Lucy, daughter of John Clobery of 
Bradstone, Devonshire, was born at Erodes 
on 5 Aug. and baptised at Helland Church 
on 16 Sept. 1719. After some teaching from 
a curate named Whiston, he was placed on 
the foundation at Eton. In 1737 he was 
elected scholar of King's College, Cambridge, 
where he took the degrees of B.A. 1741 ; M.A. 
1745, and M.D. 1752, and became a fellow. 
His medical tutor at Cambridge was the elder 
William Heberden of St. John's College. 
Glynn himself announced in March 1751 a 
course of lectures at King's College on the 
medical institutes, and next year gave a 
second course on anatomy. For a short time 
he practised at Richmond, Surrey, but soon 
returned to Cambridge, and never again left 
the university. In 1757 he competed success- 
fully for the Seatonian prize out of dislike for 
one Bally, who gained the same prize in 1756 
and 1758. He did not attempt poetry again, 
and it was unfairly insinuated that he was 
not the author of his own poem. On 5 April 
1762 he was admitted a candidate, and on 
28 March 1763 became a fellow, of the Col- 
lege of Physicians at London. He accepted 
no further distinctions, though the second 
William Pitt (whom he had attended in the 
autumn of 1773, when Lord Chatham wrote 
a letter of congratulation on the patient's re- 
covery from sickness, with the hope that he 
was ' enjoying the happy advantage of Dr. 
Glynn's acquaintance, as one of the cheerful 
and witty sons of Apollo, in his poetic not his 
medical attributes ') offered him in 1793 the 
professorial chair of medicine at Cambridge. 
He was at the close of his life the acknow- 
ledged head of his profession in that town, 
and his medical services were in great repute 
at Ely, where he regularly attended every 


week. Late in life Glynn inherited a con- 
siderable property from a maternal uncle, and 
with it took the name of Clobery, though 
still called Glynn by others. He died at his 
rooms in King s College, Cambridge, on 6 Feb. 
1800, and, according to his own direction, 
was buried in the vault of the college chapel 
by torchlight, between the hours of ten and 
eleven at night on 13 Feb., in the presence of 
members of the college only. A tablet to his 
memory was placed in the chapel, in a little 
oratory on the right hand after entering its 
south door. Though he was in good practice 
and lived economically as a fellow, he was 
too generous to be rich. He left his lands in 
Helland to the Rev. John Henry Jacob, some- 
time a fellow of King's College, and son of 
John Jacob of Salisbury, M.D., a particular 
friend. The college received a legacy of 
5,883/. 6s. 8d. stock. It was chiefly ex- 
pended on some buildings erected under super- 
intendence of Wilkins the architect about 
the years 1825-30; but a prize of '201. a year, 
annually divided between two scholars ' for 
learning and regularity 0f conduct,' was also 
provided. To the Rev. Thomas Kerrich 
of Magdalene College, Cambridge, his friend 
and executor, he bequeathed the sum of 
5,000/. His portrait, an extremely good 
likeness, was drawn by Kerrich. An en- 
graving, now scarce, was executed by J. G. 
and G. S. Facius in 1783. Glynn was eccen- 
tric in manner and dress. Professor Pryme de- 
scribes him as usually wearing ' a scarlet cloak 
and three-cornered hat ; he carried a gold- 
headed cane. He also used pattens in rainy 
weather.' Another contemporary, Sir Egerton 
Brydges, records the doctor's pride ' on saying 
whatever came uppermost into his mind.' His 
tea parties were famous, and frequented by 
many undergraduates. As a physician he 
showed judgment and attention, but with 
characteristic eccentricity he almost invari- 
ably ordered a blister, ' emplasma vesicatorium ! 
amplum et acre.' He resolutely refrained 
from prescribing opium, cathartics, or bleed- ! 
ing. He recommended and practised an open- j 
air life. He was very friendly with Mason 
and attended Gray in his last illness. Bishop 
Watson was one of his patients in 1781, when 
he unfortunately gave his opinion that re- 
covery was hopeless. He gave advice gratis 
to patients from the Fens, and would take ' 
no fee from a Cornishman or an Etonian. 
His kindness to one of his poor patients was j 
celebrated by a younger son of Dr. Plumptre, 
president of Queens' College, in verses called 
' Benevolus and the Magpie.' An anecdote 
imputing inhumanity to him in Parr's 
' Works,' i. 41, doubtless arises from a mis- j 
apprehension. His poem of ' The Day of Judg- 


ment' was printed at Cambridge in 1757, 2nd 
edit. 1757,3rd edit. 1758, and again in 1800. It 
was included in the various impressions of the 
' Musae Seatonianae,' Davenport's ' Poets,' vol. 
| Iviii., Park's ' Poets,' vol. xxxiii., and in many 
similar publications. Some stanzas by him 
beginning ' Tease me no more ' appeared in 
the ' General Evening Post,' 23 April 1789, 
and have been reprinted in the ' Poetical 
Register' for 1802, p. 233, and H. J. Wale's 
' My Grandfather's Pocket-Book,' pp.299-300. 
He believed in the authenticity of the Rowley 
poems, and his faith was confirmed by a visit 
to Bristol in 1778. The Latin letter intro- 
duced by William Barrett [q. v.] into his 
history of Bristol (preface p. v) is said to 
have been written by him, and on Barrett's 
death the original forgeries by Chatterton 
were presented to Glynn, who bequeathed 
them to the British Museum, where they are 
now known as Addit. MSS. 5766, A, B, and 
C. He had a bitter quarrel with George 
Steevens over these manuscripts; the particu- 
lars of an interview which took place between 
them at Cambridge in 1785 are given in a 
letter from Mansel to Mat-bias, printed in 
' Notes and Queries,' 2nd ser. x. 283-4. The 
essay of Mathias in the Chatterton contro- 
versy is said to have been augmented by the 
learning of Glynn, who is referred to more 
than once with profound respect in the 
' Pursuits of Literature,' particularly in dia- 
logue iv. 599-600. Gilbert Wakefield used 
to say (according to Samuel Rogers) that 
' Rennell and Glynn assisted Mathias ' in this 
satire, and Rogers was accustomed to add 
that ' Wakefield was well acquainted with 
all three' (Table Talk of Rogers, p. 135). 
Three letters from Glynn to Hardinge are in 
Nichols's ' Illustrations of Literature,' iii. 
221-3. W T add in his 'Nugse Chirurgicae' 
quotes a poetical jeu d'esprit on Glynn as a 
physician. Horace Walpole called him in 
1792 ' an old doting physician and Chatter- 
tonian at Cambridge,' and professed to believe 
that some falsehoods current about himself 
had been invented or disseminated by Glynn 
(Letters, ix. 380-3). His library was sold in 
1800, and many of the books were said to 
abound ' with MS. notes by the late learned 

[Nichols's Lit, Anecd.viii. 211-15, 520, 632, ix. 
687-8 ; Nichols's Illustr. of Lit. viii. 555 ; Munk's 
Coll. of Phys. (1878), ii. 247-50; Boase and 
Courtney's Bibl. Cornub. vols. i. and iii. ; Gray's 
Works, ed. Gosse, iii. 296 ; Gosse's Gray, p. 
205 ; Bishop Watson's A utobiog. i. 142 ; Pryme's 
Autobiog. p. 46; Gent. Mag. 1800 pp. 276-8, 
1814 pt. ii. 323; Jesse's Etonians, ii. 86-8; 
Notes and Queries, 2nd ser. xii. 221, 5th ser. 
ix. 321-2; Gunning's Reminiscences, ii. 96-103 ; 

Glynne i 

Carlyon's Early Years, ii. 1-49; Jeaffreson's 
Doctors, i. 197, ii. 179; Maclean's Trigg Minor, ii. 
32, 66-7, 74; Wordsworth's ScholaeAcad. pp.1 73-7; 
Autobiog. of Sir E. Brydges, i. 64 ; Chatham 
Corresp. iv. 309 ; Harwood's Alumni Eton. p. 326 ; 
European Mag. 1800, pp. 355-7.] W. P. C. 

GLYNNE, SIR JOHN (1603-1 666),judge, 
eldest son of Sir William Glynne, by Jane, 
daughter of John Griffith of Carnarvon, was 
born in 1603 at Glynllifon, Carnarvonshire, 
where his ancestors had been settled from very 
ancient times, and was educated at West- 
minster School and Hart Hall, Oxford, since 
merged in New College, which he entered at 
Michaelmas 1621, and where he resided three 
years. He seems to have been early designed 
for the legal profession, if, as is most proba- 
ble, he is to be identified with the John 
Glynne for whom Sir Julius Caesar solicited 
from the Lord Mayor the reversion of an 
attorney or clerk sitter's place in the sheriff's 
court in 1615 (Remembrancia, 302). He 
was admitted a member of Lincoln's Inn as 
arly as 27 Jan. 1620, but he was not called 
to the bar until 24 June 1628. He argued 
his first reported case in Hilary term 1633 
(CROKE, Sep. Car. I, p. 297). It was proba- 
bly soon after this, certainly before 1639, that 
he was appointed steward of Westminster 
{Cal. State Papers, Dom. 1638-9, p. 351). 
On 7 Aug. 1638 he obtained the reversion of 
the office of keeper of the writs and rolls in the 
common pleas (RYMER, Fcedera, Sanderson, 
xx. 305). He was returned to parliament 
both for Westminster and for the borough of 
Carnarvon in March 1639-40, and it is not 
clear for which constituency he sat. He was 
re-elected for Westminster in Oct. 1640. 

Glynne's abilities were early recognised 
by the presbyterian party, with which he 
uniformly acted during the Long parliament. 
In November 1640 he was placed on a com- 
mittee of inquiry into the conduct of Sir 
Henry Spiller, a justice of the peace, suspected 
of showing undue leniency towards popish 
priests, and from that date forward he is 
frequently mentioned in Nalson and Rush- 
worth as sitting on, or reading reports from, 
committees charged with business of more 
or less importance, such as ship money ; the 
course of procedure in the exchequer ; the 
administration of the laws against recu- 
sants ; misdemeanors of lieutenants, deputy- 
lieutenants, and other county officials ; the 
practice of issuing and executing warrants 
of commitment signed only by officers of 
state ; the ' new canons ' recently framed by 
convocation, and which the commons had 
voted to be contrary to the fundamental 
laws of the realm, and the part played by 
Archbishop Laud in connection with them ; 


the proceedings taken against Sir John Eliot 
and other members who had been subjected 
to fine and imprisonment for resisting the 
adjournment of the house by the speaker on 
25 Feb. 1628-9. On 23 Jan. 1640-1 he was 
appointed to manage a conference with the 
lords on the case of Thomas Goodman, a 
Jesuit, who had been found guilty of high 
treason, but had been reprieved by the king. 
He was also one of the managers of the im- 
peachment of Strafford, but took little part 
in the proceedings until the third article was 
concluded. He then had the conduct of the 
case as far as the ninth article, and also spoke 
on most of the subsequent articles. On 
13 April he replied to Strafford's defence in 
a long and closely reasoned speech, the gist 
of which was that, though none of the acts 
alleged might amount to treason per se, 
yet taken together they were evidence of 
a treasonable intent, and that the essence of 
treason was intention not perpetration. He 
signed the protestation of 3 May in defence 
of the protestant religion, the power and 
privileges of parliament, and the rights and 
liberties of the subject. On 22 July he was 
added to the committee which was investi- 
gating the conspiracy commonly known as 
' the army plot,' and he was one of a com- 
mittee appointed in September to act during 
the recess with large executive powers. He 
took part in the debate on the remonstrance 
(22 Nov.), was a member of the committee 
on Irish affairs (29 Dec.), and on the com- 
mons resolving to impeach the bishops he 
was chosen to denounce their lordships at 
the bar of the House of Lords (30 Dec.) He 
was also one of the committee which sat at 
Guildhall and Grocers' Hall in January 
1641-2 to consider the attempt to arrest 
the five members, and spoke at length and 
with much energy in vindication of the 
privileges of the house. On the 29th he 
opened the case against the Duke of Rich- 
mond in a conference with the House of 
Lords (NALSON, Impartial Collection, i. 330, 
569, 571 ; RUSIIWORTH, Hist. Coll. iv. 54, 
63, 68, 98, 142, 153, 229, 244, 387, 466-7,viii. 

10, 21, 40, 45, 47, 76,706-33 ; Comm. Journ. 

11. 41, 52, iv. 497; VERNEY, Notes of Long 
Parliament, Camd. Soc. 60, 84, 110, 125; 
COBBETT, State Trials, iii. 1421, 1428, 1431, 
1468, iv. 112; Parl. Hist. ii. 1023, 1062). 
After the militia ordinance in May 1642, he 
accepted the office of deputy-lieutenant of 
one of the counties, probably Carnarvonshire, 
and in the following June he engaged to con- 
tribute 100/. and maintain a horse for the 
defence of the parliament (Notes and Queries, 
1st ser. xii. 358). In May 1643 he was ap- 
pointed recorder of the city of London, and 




in that capacity was busily occupied for some 
weeks in unravelling a plot to deliver the 
city into the hands of the king which had 
recently come to the knowledge of parlia- 
ment, and the principal agents in which, 
Tompkins and Chaloner [q. v.], were executed 
on 5 July (RusHWORTH, Hist. Coll. v. 322- 
326). He subscribed the solemn league and 
covenant on 22 Sept. (ib. p. 480). In the 
following November he did good service by 
a speech deprecating the consideration of the 
question whether presbyterianism was jure 
divino, which had been forced on the con- 
sideration of the House of Commons by the 
assembly of divines. Glynne spoke for an 
hour, ' during which,' says Whitelocke, who 
followed him, ' the house filled apace.' In 
the end the question was shelved (WHITE- 
LOCKE, Mem. pp. 110-11). Clarendon (Re- 
bellion, v. 89) says that he was opposed to 
the self-denying ordinance, but it does not 
appear that he spoke on the question. On 
14 March 1645 he was appointed protho- 
notary and clerk of the crown for the counties 
of Flint, Denbigh, and Montgomery (Comm. 
Journ. iv. 474). He became in 1647 very 
suspicious of the army, and was one of a 
junto of eleven members who were most 
active in attempting to disband it. In order 
to destroy their influence, Fairfax, on 15 June, 
presented to the House of Commons a ' re- 
monstrance,' praying that the house might 
be speedily purged of delinquents, which he 
followed up on the 24th by charging the 
eleven with designing * the abuse and dis- 
honour of the parliament, the insufferable 
injury of the army,' and so forth. Much de- 
bate followed, but the house on 12 July 
passed a resolution which excluded the 
eleven members. Soon afterwards much 
offence was occasioned in the city of London 
by an ordinance vesting the command of 
the city militia in a new committee, and on 
26 July a rabble of apprentices and ' rude 
boys ' entered the house and compelled the 
rescission of the ordinance. The house ad- 
journed in confusion till the 30th, and on its 
reassembling the speaker did not attend. 
Pelham of Lincoln's Inn was chosen speaker 
for the occasion, the eleven were readmitted, 
and a committee of safety was appointed, of 
which Glynne and others of the eleven were 
members. This gave rise to a suspicion that 
the tumult of the 20th was the work of the 
eleven, and on 4 Sept. Glynne was charged 
with having been accessory to it, and ordered 
to attend at the bar of the house. He at- 
tended the next day, and made ' a large 
defence in a very well composed and devised 
speech,' which occasioned a prolonged de- 
bate. On the 7th, however, the house voted 

his expulsion, and committed him to the 
Tower. A resolution to impeach him of high 
crimes and misdemeanors was passed on the 
16th. No active steps, however, were taken 

t to carry this into effect. On 29 Jan. the house 
requested the Earl of Pembroke to deprive 
him of his office of steward of Westminster ; 
but it is not clear whether this was actually 

; done. On 23 May 1648 he was released, and 

j all proceedings in the impeachment were 
stayed. On 7 June he was readmitted on 

j the petition of the electors of Westminster 
to the House of Commons ; in September he 
was nominated one of the commissioners to 
treat with the king in the Isle of Wight ; 
on 12 Oct. he was created serjeant-at-law. 
When, however, the independent party re- 
gained its ascendency, the order readmitting- 
him to the house was rescinded (12 Dec.) 
(Comm. Journ. v. 305, 570, 588; WHITE- 
LOCKE, Mem. 248, 253, 258, 334; RTJSH- 
AVORTH, Hist. Coll. vi. 634, 640, 646, 652, 
viii. 800 ; Parl. Hist. iii. 1247 ; Comm. Journ. 
v. 294, 450; Hist, MSS. Comm. 7th Rep. 
App. 6 a, 6b, lob, 224). This was imme- 
diately before Colonel Pride applied his purge, 
and accounts for the fact that Glynne's name 
is not to be found in the lists of the secluded 
and imprisoned members. 

An attempt was made in January 1647-8 
to compel or induce him to resign his recorder- 
ship (Comm. Journ. v. 450) in favour of the 
independent William Steele [q. v.] Glynne, 
however, stuck tenaciously to his place until 
July 1649, when he retired, receiving 300/. 
from the corporation as a small douceur 
(WHITELOCKE, Mem. p. 412). In the parlia- 
ment of 1654 he sat for Carnarvonshire. In 
June of this year he was engaged as counsel 
for the Commonwealth in the prosecution of 
the conspirators against the life of the pro- 
tector, John Gerard [q. v.], Vowell, and 
Somerset Fox. About the same time he was 
appointed serjeant to the Protector, and com- 
missioned as justice of assize for the Oxford 
circuit. He sat at Exeter in April 1655 with 
Recorder Steele to try Colonel Penruddock 
for his part in the late rebellion, and passed 
sentence upon him as for treason. He was 
rewarded on 15 June by the place of chief 
justice of the upper bench, vacant by the re- 
tirement of Rolle (THURLOE, State Papers, 
iii. 332, iv. 171 ; COBBETT, State Trials, v. 
767; STYLE, .Re;). 450; Hut. MSS. Comm. 
5th Rep. App. 173). In November he was 
placed on the committee of trade, and also 
added to that appointed to consider the pro- 
posals of Manasseh ben Israel concerning the 
Jews. He was also a member of the com- 
mittee for collecting funds for the relief of 
the persecuted protestants of Piedmont in 


January 1655-6 (C'al. State Papers, Dom. 
1655, p. 90, 1655-6, pp. 1, 23, 100). At the 
general election in October he was returned 
to parliament for both Flint and Carnar- 
vonshire, electing to sit for Flint. In 
February 1655-6 he tried Miles ^jnder- 
combe, a plotter against the life of tKe Pro- 
tector, who was found guilty and sentenced 
to a traitor's death, but anticipated justice 
by poisoning himself in the Tower (CoBBETT, 
State Trials, v. 842). Glynne appears to 
have shared Hobbes's belief in the necessity 
of monarchy, while caring little for the 
hereditary principle. He accordingly sup- 
ported Alderman Packe's ' petition and ad- 
vice ' that Cromwell should assume the title 
of king, and was one of the committee ap- 
pointed on 9 April to receive his ' doubts and 
scruples ' in regard to that matter and en- 
deavour to remove them, to which end, on 
21 April, he made a long address to the Pro- 
tector, which he printed on the Restoration 
as evidence that he had always been at heart 
a monarchist. He was continued in office 
by Richard Cromwell, and presided in the 
upper bench until Trinity term 1659, when, 
in view of the approaching revolution, he re- 
signed. He sat for Carnarvonshire in the 
Convention parliament which met on 25 April 
1660, was created serjeant-at-law on 1 June, 
and on 8 Nov. king's Serjeant, in which cha- 
racter he acted for the crown in the prosecu- 
tion of Sir Henry Vane for high treason in 
June 1662 (Hist. MSS. Comm. 5th Rep. App. 
63, 153, 154, 168, 196; WYNNE, Miscellany, 
p. 295; SIDERFIN, Rep.-pt.ii. 161-2; BURTON, 
Diary, \\i. 175, 182). On 16 Nov. 1660 he was 
knighted by the title of Sir John Glynne of 
Henley Park, in Surrey, of which manor he 
was lord. 

He rode in the coronation procession of 
23 April 1661, and was thrown from his horse 
and all but killed by the animal falling upon 
him. Pepys, regarding him as a rogue and a 
turncoat, saw the hand of God in this event. 
Of Glynne's immense ability as an advocate 
there has never been any question, nor could 
have been after Ms speech on the impeachment 
of Strafford. He was equally distinguished as 
a judge, his judgments being much admired 
for their lucidity and method, which, says 
Siderfin ( ii. 189) brought an intricate 
case down to the apprehension of every stu- 
dent. His reputation for political honesty 
suffered severely at the hands of Anthony a 
Wood, who bore him a special grudge for 
his part in the suppression of Penruddock's 
rising. His accuracy, however, may be 
gauged by the fact that, quoting, as from the 
1074 edition of ' Hudibras,' the following 
couplet : 



Did not the learned Glynne and Maynard 
To make good subjects traitors strain hard ? 
he says that it was written by Butler on the 
occasion of Penruddock's trial, but not al- 
lowed to stand in the 1663 edition, because 
Glynne and Maynard were then living. In 
fact, however, Maynard had nothing to do 
with Penruddock's trial, and was living in 
1674. Moreover, the couplet is not to be 
found in the edition of 1674, or in any sub- 
sequent edition, or in the list of various read- 
ings appended to Gilfillan's edition. That it 
was not written by Wood is clear, for it 
plainly refers to the impeachment of Straf- 
ford, which Glynne and Maynard practically 
managed between them. That Glynne was not 
particularly scrupulous either as an advocate 
or as a politician is probable, but neither was 
he a mere time-server. Only prej udice would 
doubt his honesty so long as he acted with 
the presbyterian party. He appears to have 
been equally opposed to arbitrary govern- 
ment and to anarchy, and to have seen in the 
monarchical principle, duly limited, the only 
hope of reconciling stable and strong govern- 
ment with individual liberty. Thus he was 
equally consistent in urging the crown upon 
Cromwell and in taking office under Charles II. 
' He and Maynard,' says Foss, l divided the 
shame of appearing against Sir Harry Vane, 
their old coadj utor and friend.' In fact, how- 
ever, Vane, as the head of the independent 
party, can hardly be described as a coadjutor 
of Glynne, though he may have been a per- 
sonal friend ; and, in any case, Glynne in ap- 
pearing on the prosecution was merely dis- 
charging his professional duty as king's ser- 
jeant, nor does he appear to have taken more 
than a formal part in the proceedings. Glynne 
died on 15 Nov. 1666 ( Cal. State Papers, Dom. 
1666-7, p. 263). He married first, Frances, 
daughter of Arthur Squib (subsequently 
through Glynne's influence, Clarenceux he- 
rald and teller of the exchequer) ; secondly, 
Anne, daughter of John Manning of Cralle, 
Sussex, and relict of Sir Thomas Lawley, bart., 
by both of whom he had issue. His eldest son, 
William, was created a baronet in 1661. 

Besides the speeches delivered on the 
impeachment of Strafford, printed in Rush- 
worth's eighth volume, Glynne published : 
1 . ' Speech on the presenting of the Sheriffs 
of London, in Oct. 1644.' 2. ' A Speech 
to the point of Jus Divinum and the Pres- 
byterian Governments.' 3. 'Monarchy as- 
serted to be the best, most ancient, and 
legal Form of Government, in a Conference 
at Whitehall with Oliver, Lord Protector, 
and a Committee of Parliament, in April, 
1658, and made good by several arguments.' 
London, 1660, 8vo. 




[Lists of Members of Parliament (Official Re- 
turn of); Wotton's Baronetage, iii. pt. i. 290; 
Wood's Athenae Oxon. (Bliss), iii. 752; Foss's 
Lives of the Judges.] J. M. R. 

(1807-1874), M.P. and antiquary, was eldest 
son of Sir Stephen Richard Glynne, eighth 
baronet, of Hawarden Castle, Flintshire, who 
was createdD.C.L. at Oxfordo July 1810,and 
died at Nice, 5 March 1815. His mother 
was Mary, daughter of Richard Neville, 
second Lord Braybrooke. The father was 
descended in direct line from the judge under 
the commonwealth, Sir John Glynne [q. v.], 
whose son William (d. 1690) was created a 
baronet 20 May 1661. Sir Stephen, born in 
1807, succeeded as ninth baronet in 1815, 
and was educated at Eton and Christ Church, 
Oxford (B.A. 1828, M.A. 1831). From 1832 
to 1837 he sat as a liberal in the House of 
Commons as M.P. for Flint Burghs, and from 
1837 to 1847 as M.P. for Flintshire. He was 
for many years lord-lieutenant of the same 
county, where the family estates lay. He 
died suddenly in London, 17 June 1874. He 
was not married, and on his death the 
baronetcy became extinct. His elder sister, 
Catherine, was married (25 July 1839) to 
Mr. (afterwards the Right Hon.) W. E. 
Gladstone, and the Hawarden estate with 
the castle is now owned by their eldest son, 
Mr. W. H. Gladstone. 

Mr. W. E. Gladstone, Glynne's brother- 
in-law, describes him as ' a man of singular 
refinement and of remarkable modesty.' ' His 
memory,' Mr. Gladstone adds, ' was on the 
whole decidedly the most remarkable known 
to me of the generation and country.' He 
was a learned antiquary and interested him- 
self especially in the architectural history 
of churches, ' of which,' writes Mr. Glad- 
stone, ' his knowledge was such as to be 
probably without example for extent and 
accuracy.' In the course of his life he per- 
sonally surveyed and made notes on the archi- 
tectural details of 5,530 English churches. 
His manuscripts are still extant at Hawar- 
den Castle. His nephew and successor, Mr. 
~W. H. Gladstone, published in 1877 his notes 
concerning Kent, which dealt with nearly 
three hundred churches. 

[Letter to the writer from the Right Hon. 
W.E.Gladstone; Foster's Alumni Oxon.; Burke's 
Baronetage, 1874 ; Glynne's Churches of Kent, 
with preface by Mr. W. H. Gladstone, 1877.] 

S. L. L. 

GOAD, GEORGE (d. 1671), master at 
Eton College, a native of Windsor, Berk- j 
shire, was younger brother of Thomas Goad 
(d. 1666) [q. v.j After passing through Eton 

he was admitted into King's College, Cam- 
bridge, in 1620, proceeded M.A. in 1627, and 
returned to his old school as a master. In 
1637 he was chosen senior university proctor 
(LE NEVE, Fasti, ed. Hardy, iii. 623). His 
college presented him in 1646 to the rectories 
of Horstead and Coltishall, Norfolk. On 
18 Oct. 1648 he was appointed fellow of 
Eton by the parliamentarians in the place of 
John Cleaver, who had been ejected. He 
died on 10 or 16 Oct. 1671. In his will, dated 
20 Aug. 1669 (registered in P. C. C. 132, 
Duke), he mentions his property in Bray and 
Eton. He left three sons, George, Thomas, 
and Christopher, and a daughter, Jane. His 
wife, Jane, had died before him in 1657, at 
the age of thirty-four. Goad continued the 
catalogues of the members of the foundation 
of Eton College from those of Thomas Hatcher 
and John Scott to 1646, of which Fuller and 
Wood made considerable use, and which Cole 
transcribed (cf. Addit. MSS. 5814-17, 5955). 
He has Latin elegiacs ' in felicem Natalem 
illustrissimi Principis Ducis Eboracensis' at 
pp. 40-1 of ' Ducis Eboracensis Fasciae.' 

[Harwood's Alumni Eton. pp. 72, 73, 220 ; 
Smyth's Obituary (Camd. Soc.), p. 93.] G. G. 

GOAD, JOHN (1616-1689), head-master 
of Merchant Taylors' School, son of John 
Goad of Bishopsgate Street, London, was born 
in St. Helen's parish there on 15 Feb. 1615-16. 
After a preliminary training in Merchant 
Taylors' School he was admitted to St. John's 
College, Oxford, in 1632, of which he became 
a fellow (B.A. 1636, M.A. 1640, B.D. 1647). 
In 1643 he was presented by his college to 
the vicarage of St. Giles, Oxford, and during 
the siege performed divine service under fire 
of the parliamentary cannon ( WOOD, Athena 
Oxon., ed. Bliss, iv. 267). On 23 June 1646 
he was presented by the university to the 
vicarage of Yarnton, Oxfordshire, which ' with 
much ado ' he contrived to retain until the 
Restoration. Wood's brother Christopher 
went daily to school to Goad while vicar of 
Yarnton in 1649, and Wood himself received 
instruction from him, and found him ' an ex- 
ceedingly loving and tender man ' (Autobio- 
graphy, ed. Bliss, pp. xvi, xvii). 

In 1660 he accepted the head-mastership 
of Tunbridge school, Kent, but was appointed 
head-master of Merchant Taylors' School on 
12 July 1661. He was very successful in this 
position until the agitation at the time of the 
' popish plot.' He was charged in March 
1680-1 with certain passages that ' savoured 
strongly of popery ' in a ' Comment on the 
Church of England Catechism,' written for 
the use of his scholars. The grand jury of 
London presented a complaint to the Mer- 



chant Taylors' Company respecting the re- 
ligious doctrines taught in their school. His 
principal opponent was Dr. John Owen, who 
succeeded in obtaining Goad's place for his 
nephew, John Hartcliffe. After hearing 
Goad's defence the company decided on 
13 April 1681 that he was ' popishly and er- 
roneously affected.' He was dismissed, but in 
recognition of his past services they voted him 
4 701. as a gratuity, including the IQl. by him 
paid for taxes, trophies, and chimney money' 
( WILSON, Hist, of Merchant Taylors' School, 
ii. 379-81). Goad's friends protested against 
his dismissal as the work of a factious party. 
Full particulars are given in the postscript 
to ' Contrivances of the Fanatical Conspira- 
tors in carrying on the Treasons under Um- 
brage of the Popish Plot laid open, with 
Depositions,' London, 1683, fol., written by 
William Smith, a schoolmaster of Islington, 
who describes Goad as a person of unequalled 
qualifications for the post. 

He now took a house in Piccadilly, and ; 
opened a private school, which was resorted to 
by many of the ' genteeler sort ' of his previous 
scholars. This school he continued until j 
shortly before his death. In the beginning of 
1686 he openly declared himself a Roman ca- j 
tholic, in accordance with convictions formed j 
many years previously. Indeed Wood states j 
that he had been reconciled to the Roman ! 
communion as early as December 1660 in 
Somerset House by a priest in the household 
of Queen Henrietta Maria, then lately re- 
turned from France. Mr. Gillow argues that 
the sermons which he published after this ' 
date are inconsistent with this story {Diet, 
of English Catholics, ii. 501). Goad died on , 
28 Oct. 1689, and was buried near the graves 
of his relations in the church of Great St. 
Helen's in Bishopsgate Street- 
Wood says he ' had much of primitive 
Christianity in him, and was endowed with 
most admirable morals.' His works are : 
1. Several printed sermons, some of which 
were preached at St. Paul's. 2. ' A Treatise 
concerning Plagues, their Natures, Numbers, 
Kinds, &c.,' which was destroyed in the press 
during the great fire of London in 1666. 
3. ' Genealogicon Latinum. A previous 
Method of Dictionary of all Latin Words 
. . . &c., for the use of the Neophyte in 
Merchant Taylors' School,' 2nd edition, Lon- 
don, 1676. 4. ' Comment on the Church 
of England Catechism.' 5. ' Declamation, 
whether Monarchy be the best form of Go- 
vernment.' Printed at the end of ' The Eng- 
lish Orator or Rhetorical Descants by way of 
Declamation,' by William Richards of Trinity 
College, Oxford ;London,1680,8vo. 6,'Astro- 
Meteorologia : or Aphorisms and Discourses 

of the Bodies Coelestial, their Natures and 
Influences, Discovered from the Variety of 
the Alterations of the Air, temperate or in- 
temperate, as to Heat or Cold, Frost, Snow, 
Hail, Fog, Rain, Wind, Storm, Lightnings, 
Thunder, Blasting, Hurricane, &c. Collected 
from the Observation . . . of thirty years,'Lon- 
don, 1686, fol. This work gained him great 
reputation. The subject of it is a kind of 
astrology, founded for the most part on sacred 
authority, reason, and experiment. 7. ' Diary 
of the Weather at London from July 1, 1677, 
to the last of October 1679,' Bodl. Libr. 
Ashmol. MS. 367. 8. ' Astro-Meteorologia 
sana; sive Principia Physico-Mathematica, 
quibus Mutationum Aeris, Morborum Epide- 
micorum, Cometarum, Terrse Motuum, alio- 
rumqueinsigniorum Naturae Effectuum Ratio 
reddi possit. Opus multorum annorum ex- 
perientia comprobatum,' London, 1690, 4to. 
Anonymously edited after Goad's death by 
Edward Waple, archdeacon of Taunton and 
vicar of St. Sepulchre's, London ; with por- 
trait of the author, engraved by R. White, 
prefixed. 8. ' Autodidactica : or a Practical 
Vocabulary, being the best and easiest Method 
yet extant for young Beginners to attain to 
the Knowledge of the Latin Tongue,' London, 
1690, 8vo. 

[Wood's Athenae Oxon. (Bliss), iv. 711, Fasti 
ii. 362 ; Dodd's Church Hist. iii. 461 ; Robinson's 
Register of Merchant Taylors' School, i., hist, 
sketch p. xiv and p. 116; Kennett's Register, 
p. 837; Granger's Biog. Hist, of England, 1824, 
v. 53; Catholic Miscellany, v. 153.] T. C. 

GOAD, ROGER, D.D. (1538-1610), pro- 
vost of King's College, Cambridge, born at 
Horton, Buckinghamshire, in 1538, was edu- 
cated at Eton, and elected thence to King's 
College, Cambridge, of which he was admitted 
a scholar 1 Sept. 1555, and a fellow 2 Sept. 
1558. He went out B.A. in 1559, and com- 
menced M.A. in 1563. On 19 Jan. 1565-6 
he was enjoined to study theology, and he pro- 
ceeded B.D. in 1569. At this period he was 
master of the free grammar school at Guild- 
ford, where one of his pupils was George Abbot 
[q. v.], ultimately archbishop of Canterbury. 
On the deprivation of Dr. Philip Baker, Goad 
was recommended as his successor in the 
office of provost of King's College, Cam- 
bridge, by Bishop Grindal, Walter Haddon, 
and Henry Knollys. On 28 Feb. 1569-70 the 
vice-provost and fellows addressed a letter to 
the queen asking for a free election, and an- 
other to Sir William Cecil recommending 
Goad, who was nominated by the queen in a 
letter dated Hampton Court, 4 March follow- 
ing. He was accordingly elected, being pre- 
sented to the visitor on the 10th of the same 




month, and admitted on the 19th. On 3 Nov. 
1572 he was elected Lady Margaret's preacher, 
which office he held till 1 57 7. He was created 
D.D. in 1573, and was vice-chancellor of the 
university for the year commencing November 
1576. On 6 March 1576-7 he became chan- 
cellor of the church of Wells. He was also 
chaplain to Ambrose Dudley, earl of War- 
wick, and held the rectory of Milton, Cam- 
bridgeshire. In October 1580 he was, with 
Dr. Bridgwater and Dr. Fulke, engaged in 
examining some of the Family of Love who 
were confined in Wisbech Castle, and in 
September 1581 he and Dr. Fulke had con- 
ferences in the Tower of London with Ed- 
mund Campion, the Jesuit, of which an ac- 
count appeared in Nowell and Day's ' True 
Eeport,' 1583. In 1595 and in 1607 he was 
vice-chancellor for a second and third time. 
He died on 24 April 1610, and was buried 
in a chantry on the north side of King's Col- 
lege Chapel. 

He married Katharine, daughter of Richard 
Hill of London. Six sons were elected from 
Eton to King's, viz. Matthew, Thomas [q.v.], 
Robert, Roger, Christopher, and Richard. 
Although his government of the college is 
commended, he met much opposition from the 
] unior members. He re-established the col- 
lege library, and by his will was a benefactor to 
the society (COOPER, Aihence Cantabr. iii. 20). 

He was author of: 1. 'To Sir Wylliam 
More,' a poem. Manuscript in the Cambridge 
University Library, Ff. v. 4 f. 81. 2. An 
answer to articles exhibited against him by 
four of the younger company of King's Col- 
lege, 1576. Manuscript in the State Paper 
Office ; Lansd. MS. 23, art. 38 ; Baker MS. 
iv. 9. 3. Letters principally on the affairs of 
the university and his college. Several have 
been printed. 

[Baker's MSS. iv. 9-20, 28, 188, 206, xx. 90, 
113 ; Blomefield's Collectanea Cantabr. pp. 136, 
172; Carlisle's Grammar Schools, ii. 572; Bishop 
Fisher's Sermon for Lady Margaret (Hymers), 
p. 98 ; Fuller's Worthies (Bucks) ; Harwood's 
Alumni Eton. pp. 43, 171, 198, 201, 205, 212; 
Heywood and Wright's Univ. Transactions; 
Ledger Coll. Regal, ii. 189; Le Neve's Fasti 
(Hardy), i. 176. iii. 605, 683; Lib. Protocoll. 
Coll. Eegal. i. 176. 197, 228, 243; Pigofs Had- 
leigh, 166-8, 175, 176 ; Manning and Bray's Sur- 
rey, i. 79; Smith's Cat. of Caius Coll. MSS. 
p. 19; Cat. of MSS. in Cambridge Univ. Library, 
ii. 483 ; Strype's Works (general index) ; Willett's 
Sacra Emblemata, p. 20 ; Wright's Elizabeth, 
i. 464.1 T. C. 

GOAD, THOMAS, D.D. (1576-1638), 
rector of Hadleigh, Suffolk, born at Cambridge 
in August 1676, was the second of the ten sons 
of Roger Goad (1538-1610) [q. v.], by his 

wife, Katharine, eldest daughter of Richard 
Hill, citizen of London (BRA.MSTON, Auto- 
biography, Camd. Soc. p. 12). He was edu- 
cated at Eton, and thence elected to a scholar- 
ship at King's College, Cambridge, on 1 Sept. 
1592; on 1 Sept. 1595 he became fellow, 
B.A. in 1596, and lecturer in 1598. At col- 
lege he distinguished himself by his skill in 
writing verses, and contributed to the collec- 
tions on the death of Dr. Whitaker, 1597 ; 
on the accession of James I, 1603 ; on the 
death of Henry, prince of Wales, 1612 ; on 
the return of Prince Charles from Spain, 
1623 ; and on the king's return from Scotland 
in 1633. In 1600 he proceeded M.A., and 
was incorporated on the same degree at Ox- 
ford on 16 July of that year (Reg. of Univ. 
of O.rf. Oxf. Hist. Soc. vol. ii. pt. i. p. 
355). Wood wrongly identifies him with 
the Thomas Goad who was incorporated on 
15 July 1617; the latter was probably a 
cousin, Thomas Goad,LL.D. (d. 1666) [q. v.] 
(Fasti Oxon. ed. Bliss, i. 374). At Christmas 
1606 he was ordained priest, and commenced 
B. D, in 1 607 . In 1 609 he was bursar of King's ; 
in 1610 he succeeded his father in the family 
living of Milton, near Cambridge, which he 
held together with his fellowship ; in 1611 
he was appointed dean of divinity, and very 
shortly afterwards he quitted Cambridge to 
reside at Lambeth as domestic chaplain to 
Abbot, archbishop of Canterbury, his father's 
old pupil at Guildford Free School. In 1615 he 
took the degree of D.D. ; on 16 Feb. 1617-18 
he was made precentor of St. Paul's Cathedral 
(LE NEVE, Fasti, ed. Hardy, ii. 351); and in 
161 8 he was presented by Abbot to the rectory 
of Hadleigh, Suffolk. He also held the rectory 
of Black Notley, Essex (NEWCOTTRT, Reper- 
torium, ii. 443), and probably that of Merst- 
ham, Surrey. In 1619 the king, at the in- 
stance, it is said, of Abbot, sent him out to 
supply Joseph Hall's place at the synod of 
Dort. Hall spoke highly of the qualifications 
of his successor (FULLER, Church Hist. ed. 
Brewer, v. 467-9). At Dort Goad, previously 
a Calvinist, went over to the Arminians (ib. v. 
475 n.) He is supposed to have lost in con- 
sequence a share in the high ecclesiastical 
preferments which were granted to his col- 
leagues by James, and his name was omitted, 
accidentally perhaps, in the ' acts ' of the 
synod. He and his colleagues received the 
acknowledgments of the States-General, 2001. 
for their travelling expenses home, and a gold 
medal apiece weighing three quarters of a 
pound in weight. Goad returned to his 
chaplaincy (ib. v.476). He became on 25 Aug. 
1621 prebendary of the tenth stall in Win- 
chester Cathedral (LE NEVE, iii. 41). In 
1623 he was engaged as assistant to Daniel 




Featley [q. v.] in various disputations which 
were held with the Jesuits, Muskett (with 
whom he had previously disputed), John 
Fisher [q. v.], and others. He distinguished 
himself in the discussion which charged the 
Jesuits with a wilful misrepresentation of 
Featley's arguments (FBATLET, The Romish 
Fisher caught and held in his owne Net, 4to, 
1624, pt. i. pp. 37-8, 42). About 1624 Prynne 
showed Goad a portion of his' Histriomastix,' 
but failed to convince him of the soundness 
of his arguments (GARDINER, Hist. England, 
vii. 327-8). Goad was twice proctor in con- 
vocation for Cambridge, and was prolocu- 
tor of the lower house in the convocation 
which was held at Oxford in 1625, acting 
in the stead of Dr. Bowles, who absented 
himself through fear of the plague. About 
1627 he became a constant resident at Had- 
leigh, the most important and pleasantest of 
his preferments, and wrote ' A Disputation,' 
posthumously published. He wrote the in- 
scription upon Casaubon's tomb in West- 
minster Abbey. He had an odd fancy for em- 
bellishing Hadleigh church and rectory with 
paintings and quaint inscriptions. These 
pictures, of which traces remain, were mostly 
executed, after Goad's own design, by one 
Benjamin Coleman, a Hadleigh artist. It is 
said that he intended to turn the so-called 
' south chapel ' of Hadleigh Church into a 
public theological library, and many shelves 
(but no books) were extant in 1727. On 
22 Oct. 1633 he was made dean of Bocking, 
Essex, jointly with Dr. John Barkham [q. v.] 
(NEWCOURT, ii. 68), and on 17 Dec. of the 
same year was appointed an ecclesiastical 
commissioner for England and Wales (Cal. 
State Papers, Dom. 1633-4, p. 327). He 
died on 8 Aug. 1638, and was buried in the 
chancel of Hadleigh Church next day. ' Till 
the day of his death,' says Fuller, ' he de- 
lighted in making of verses ' ( Worthies, ed. 
1662, ' Cambridgeshire,' p. 159). He left land 
at Milton and his Dort medal (stolen in the 
present century) to King's College, the rent 
of the land to be applied in the purchase of 
divinity books for the library. According 
to Fuller ( Worthies, loc. cit.) Goad ' had 
a commanding presence, an uncontrolable 
spirit, impatient to be opposed, and loving 
to steere the discourse (being a good Pilot to 
that purpose) of all the Company he came in.' 
He wrote a painfully interesting tract en- 
titled 'The Dolefvll Euen-Song, or a trve 
. . . Narration of that fearefull and sudden 
calamity,which befell the Preacher Mr. Drvry, 
a lesuite [see DRURY, ROBERT, 1587-1623], 
... by the down ef all of the floore at an as- 
sembly in the Black-Friers on Sunday the 
26. of Octob. last, in the after noone . . .,' 4to, 

London, 1623. During the same year he is 
believed to have edited a collection of filthy 
stories by an apostate catholic, entitled ' The 
Friers Chronicle : or the trve Legend of 
Priests and Monkes Lives,' 4to, London, 1623. 
The epistle dedicatory to the Countess of 
Devonshire is signed T. G. Appended to 
Bishop Lawrence Womack's anonymous trea- 
tise on ' The Result of False Principles,' 4to, 
London, 1661, is a tract by Goad, ' Stimvlvs 
Orthodoxvs ; sive Goadus redivivus. A Dis- 
putation . . . concerning the Necessity and 
Contingency of Events in the World, in re- 
spect of God's Eternal Decree ' (republished 
in ' A Collection of Tracts concerning Pre- 
destination and Providence,' 8vo, Cambridge, 
1719). An ' approbation ' by Goad appeared 
in the 1724 edition of Elizabeth Jocelin's 
' The Mother's Legacy to her unborn Child,' 
1st edition, 1624. 

[Pigot's Hadleigh, pp. 166-76, and elsewhere ; 
Pigot's Guide to Hadleigh, p. 9, and elsewhere ; 
Harwood's Alumni Eton. p. 198 ; Addit. MS. 
19088,ff. 156, 167, 1716, 1726, 175-6; Walker's 
Sufferings of the Clergy, pt. ii. p. 256 ; New- 
court's Repertorium, i. 101 ; Wood's Fasti Oxon. 
(Bliss), i. 374 ; Rymer's Fcedera (Sanderson, 
1726), xviii. 660.] ' G. G. 

GOAD, THOMAS (d. 1666), regius pro- 
fessor of laws at Cambridge, elder brother of 
George Goad (d. 1671) [q. v.], was elected 
from Eton to King's College, Cambridge, in 
1611, and proceeded M.A. and LL.D. In 
1613 he became a member of Gray's Inn 
(Harl. MS. 1912). On 15 July 1617 he 
was incorporated master of arts at Oxford 
(WooD, Fasti Oxon., ed. Bliss, i. 374, where 
he is confounded with his cousin, Thomas 
Goad, D.D. (1576-1638) [q. v.]) He was 
appointed reader of logic in the university in 
1620, pro-proctor in 1621, poser in 1623, and 
senior proctor in 1629 (Ls NEVE, Fasti, ed. 
Hardy, iii. 622). In 1635 he was elected to 
the regius professorship of laws. He died in 
1666 possessed of property in New and Old 
Windsor and elsewhere in Berkshire. His 
will, dated 16 April 1666, was proved at 
London on the following 6 July (registered 
in P. C. C. 117, Mico). By his wife Mary 
he had two daughters : Grace, married to John 
Byng, and Mary, married to John Clenche. 
He contributed Latin elegiacs to ' Ducis 
Eboracensis Fasciae ' (p. 8), and was probably 
the author of ' Eclogae et Musse Virgiferse ac 
Juridicfe,' 8vo, Cambridge, 1634, which is 
attributed to Thomas Goad, D.D., by Thomas 
Baker, who professes to quote from the epi- 
taph at Hadleigh (WoOD,-Fa$i O.row.,loc. cit.) 

[Harwood's Alumni Eton. p. 213 ; Le Neve's 
Fasti, ed. Hardy, iii. 657.] G. G. 

Goad by 



GOADBY, ROBERT (1721-1778), printer 
and compiler, of Sherborne, Dorsetshire, was 
born in 1721. He was an indefatigable book- 
maker. His greatest production was the ' Il- 
lustration of the Holy Scriptures,' in three 
large folio volumes (1759). Goadby also 
compiled and printed a popular book entitled 
'The Christian's Instructor and Pocket Com- 
panion, extracted from the Holy Scriptures,' 
which was approved by Bishop Sherlock. 
' Apology for the Life of Bamfylde Moore 
Carew ' [see CAREW, BAMFYLDE MOORE] was 
printed by Goadby in 1749, and has often 
been reprinted. Goadby and his wife have 
both been claimed as the author. Nichols says 
that Goadby was a man of modesty and in- 
tegrity. His publishing business was large for 
a small provincial centre, and his ' Sherborne 
Mercury' was an influential journal in the 
south-west of England. Goadby was a strong 
whig, and made many enemies as well as 
friends by his plain speaking, though per- 
sonally he was much respected. He was a 
great lover of botany and natural history, and 
bequeathed an endowment providing for the 
preaching of a sermon on the first Sunday of 
May in every year in Sherborne Church on 
the beauties of nature. As the endowment 
became too valuable for its purposes, pro vision 
for the poor was made with the surplus. He 
was a deeply religious man. Every morning 
before breakfast he walked from his house to 
the spot he had chosen for his grave, so that he 
might ' keep mindful of his latter end.' He 
died of atrophy after a long and painful ill- 
ness on 12 Aug. 1778. Other works published 
by Goadby, besides those mentioned already, 
were ' The Universe Displayed,' ' A Rational 
Catechism on the Principles of Religion drawn 
from the Mind itself/ and ' Goadby's British 
Biography.' Goadby was at one time con- 
nected with ' The Western Flying Post.' 

[Nichols's Lit. Anecd. iii. 723-6 ; Dr. Beard's 
art. in Unitarian Herald, July 1873, where there 
is much biographical and bibliographical infor- 
mation.] J. B-Y. 

GOBBAN SAER, or the Artificer (fl. 
7th century), a prominent figure in Irish 
tradition, is said by Petrie in his ' Essay on 
the Round Towers of Ireland,' upon the au- 
thority of the Dinnsenchus preserved in the 
books of Lecan and Ballymote, to have been 
the son of a skilful artisan in wood named 
Tuirbi, from whom Turvey in the barony of 
Nethercross, co. Dublin, is named, and to have 
flourished (according to O'Flaherty's chrono- 
logy) A.M. 2764. But O'Curry has shown that 
this is an error due to a mistranslation fur- 
nished to Dr. Petrie. O'Curry is probably 
right in saying 'there is little doubt that 
Gobban was a descendant of Tadg,son of Cian, 

son of Olioll Olum, who settled in Meath in 
the third century.' 

Gobban is first mentioned in an Irish poem 
attributed to a lunatic protected by St. Moi- 
ling, preserved in a manuscript belonging to 
the monastery of St. Paul in Carinthia, and 
assigned by Herr Mone to the eighth century. 
It speaks of a fort made by Gobban in Tuaim 
Inbir (West Meath). In the life of St. Aedh 
or Maedhog of Ferns (d. 032) Gobban is said 
to have been employed by the saint in build- 
ing a church (basilica, said by Petrie to imply 
a stone building), and Aedh's successor, Mo- 
chua of Luachair (d. 652), is said to have 
employed him upon a wooden church. But 
the saint whose life contains most informa- 
tion about Gobban is St. Daircell or Moiling 
[q. v.], who lived to the age of eighty-four, 
| and died 690. After the fall of a famous 
j yew tree named the Eo Rossa, celebrated in a 
' poem in the ' Book of Leinster ' as ' noblest of 
trees, the glory of Leinster,' some of the wood 
was presented to Gobban by St. Molaisse, and 
Gobban was engaged to make an oratory out 
of it. The first chip which Gobban cut struck 
Daircell in the eye, and a passage in the 
Brehon laws implies that the injury was in- 
tentional. Gobban's wife urged him to de- 
mand as payment for the work as much rye 
as the oratory would contain. Daircell as- 
sented ; but being unable to get rye enough 
filled it instead with nuts and apples, which he 
made to appear like rye, but which changed to 
worms when Gobban took them home. There 
is also a mention of his having constructed 
a building for St. Abban, who died in the 
seventh century. Gobban is said to have 
been blind at the time, and to have received a 
temporary gift of his sight from Abban until 
the completion of the work. The ecclesiastics 
who employed Gobban complained that bis 
charges were too high, and it was generally 
believed that his blindness was a visitation 
due to their anger. Among the buildings 
traditionally ascribed to him are the tower 
of Antrim, the tower and church of Kil- 
macduagh, and, according to Dr. Petrie, the 
tower and church of Glendalough. His work 
was confined chiefly to the north and east of 
Ireland, and there is no tradition that he ever 
visited or was employed south-west of Gal way 
or Tipperary. In the north-east of Antrim in 
the parish of Ramoan is a building described on 
the ordnance map as ' Gobbin's Heir's Castle/ 
The first two words, as BishopReeves observes, 
are evidently a corruption of Gobban Saer, 
but the term castle is a complete perversion. 
The cave near, also connected with him, has 
a large cross carved on the roof stones over 
the entrance of the ante-chamber. It is a 
Latin cross, formed by double incised lines 



carved on a sandstone slab very regular, 
and extremely well executed. There is also 
a smaller cross with equal arms. 

The traditions respecting him all refer to 
the seventh century, when he must have lived, 
lie employed workmen, and erected duns or 
fortresses, churches, oratories, and towers, the 
existing buildings attributed to him giving 
evidence of his skill. According to the tra- 
dition of the neighbourhood he was buried 
at Derrynavlan, parish of Graystown, barony 
of Slieveardagh, county of Tipperary. 

[Petrie's Round Towers of Ireland, pp. 345, 
383, 401, 402 ; Brehon Laws, iii. 226 n. Betha 
Moiling, Brussels, 48 o-51 a ; Reeves's Eccles. 
Antiq. p. 285 ; Codex Salmanticensis, pp. 483, 
532 ; O'Curry's Manners and Customs, iii. 45, 46 ; 
Annals of the Four Masters, i. 404 n. ; Goidelica, 
p. 177 ; Book of Leinster (facsimile), p. 199, b. 
51.] T. 0. 

GODBOLT, JOHN (d. 1648), judge, was 
of a family settled at Toddington, Suffolk. 
He was admitted a member of Barnard's Inn 
on 2 May, and of Gray's Inn 16 Nov., 1604, 
and was called to the bar by the latter inn 
in 1611, and was reader there in the autumn 
of 1627. He soon obtained a good practice, 
and is frequently mentioned in Croke's re- 
ports. In 1636 he became a serjeant, and 
was promoted to the bench of the common 
pleas by vote of both houses of parliament 
on 30 April 1647, and was also in the com- 
mission to hear chancery causes. He died at 
his house in High Holborn on 3 Aug. 1648. 
A volume of reports of cases in the reigns of 
Elizabeth, James I, and Charles I revised by 
him was published in 1653. 

[Foss's Lives of the Judges ; Whitelocke's 
Memorials, folio ed. p. 245 ; Parliamentary Jour- 
nals ; Barnard's Inn Book ; Dugdale's Origines, 
p. 296.J J. A. H. 

GODBY, JAMES (Jt. 1790-1815), stipple- 
engraver, worked in London. His earliest 
known engraving is a portrait of Edward 
Snape, farrier to George III, engraved in 
1791, after a portrait by VVhitby. He en- 
graved two large plates after H. Singleton, 
representing ' Adam bearing the Wounded 
Body of Abel' and ' The Departure of Cain,' 
published in 1799 and 1800 respectively. In 
1810 he engraved a full-length portrait of 
'Edward Wyatt, Esq.,' after Sir Thomas 
Lawrence. Godby was then residing at 
25 Norfolk Street, near the Middlesex Hos- 
pital. Later in life he engraved several plates 
after Friedrich Rehberg, including portraits 
of Madame de Stael and Sir John Herschel, 
and a fancy group entitled ' Bacchus's and 
Cupid's Vintage.' lie also engraved plates 

for the ' Literary Magazine ' and ' The Fine 
Arts of the English School.' He engraved 
exclusively in the stipple manner, often with 
pleasing and delicate effect. 

[Redgrave's Diet, of Artists; Dodd's MS. 
Hist, of English Engravers (Brit. Mus. Addit. 
MS. 33401).] L. C. 


(d. 1358), Franciscan, was born towards the 
end of the thirteenth century, and attended 
Ockham's lectures on the ' Sentences ' of Peter 
Lombard at Oxford, where he was presum- 
ably a member of the Franciscan convent. 
His studies under Ockham must have ended 
in the first years of the fourteenth century, 
when his master went to Paris, and Goddam, 
who became a doctor of divinity, resorted to 
the theological teaching of Walter Catton 
[q. v.], the minorite of Norwich. It may be 
confidently conjectured that Goddam entered 
the Franciscan convent of that city, and it 
is supposed that he spent most of his life 
there, though the reference made by John 
Major to his residence in the king's palace 
in London suggests that his services were 
for a time employed by the court. He is 
said by Pits to have died in 1358, and to 
have been buried at ' Babwell,' near Bury. 

His only published work is a commentary 
' Super IV libros Sententiarum,' printed at 
Paris in 1512, and extending to 152 leaves. 
An earlier edition, cited by Sbaralea as printed 
by Henry Stephanus in 1510, is not mentioned 
by Panzer ; and the book in question is pro- 
bably the commentary on the first book of 
the ' Sentences,' which was published by 
Stephanus in that year, and is the work of 
the Scottish doctor of the Sorbonne, John 
Major, who edited Goddam's book in 1512. 
But the latter work itself, though published 
under Goddam's name, is avowedly not the 
actual commentary which he wrote, but an 
abridgment of it made by Hendrik van Oyta, 
a divine who taught at Vienna in the latter 
part of the fourteenth century and died in 
1397 (see concerning him ASCHBACH, Ge- 
schichte der Wiener Universitdt, i. 402-7, 
1865). The commentary enjoyed a very high 
reputation, and John Major, its editor, in his 
work ' De Gestis Scotorum ' (Hist. Maj. Brit. 
p. 188, ed. Edinburgh, 1740), judged the 
author to be ' vir modestus, sed non inferioris 
doctrinse aut ingenii quam Ockam.' Other 
works assigned to him by Bale are a com- 
mentary on the canticles (mentioned also 
by LBLAND, Collectanea, iii. 50), 'Postilla 
in Ecclesiasticum,' ' De foro poenitentiario 
fratrum,' ' Contra Ricardum Wethersete ' (a 
younger contemporary divine, probably at 
Cambridge), 'Sententise Oxoniensis Concilii,' 



and ' Determinationes XI.' To these Sbaralea 
adds a ' Collatio ' and ' Postilla de Sacramento 

A confusion between Goddam and ' Adam 
Anglicus,' who wrote against the doctrine 
of the immaculate conception, has been dis- 
cussed in the latter article, supra. Another 
identification with ' Adam Hibernicus ' pro- 
posed by Ware lacks evidence or probability. 

The name ' Goddam ' is that offered by the 
printed edition of his commentary on the 
' Sentences,' but it is a manifest ' classical ' 
adaptation of Wodeham or Woodham, de- 
rived from one of the five places of that name 
in England. Pits's suggestion that the Wode- 
ham in question is in Hampshire rests evi- 
dently upon a mistake. 

[John Major's Vita, prefixed to Goddam's 
commentary Super Sententias ; Leland's Comm. 
de Scriptt. Brit. pp. 269, 377 ; Bale's Scriptt. 
Brit. Catal. v. 98, p. 447 (cf. xii. 19, pt. 2, 82 f.); 
Ware, De Scriptoribus Hiberniae, p. 66 (1639); 
Pits, De Angl. Scriptt. p. 482; Wadding's 
Scriptt. 0. M. p. 1, ed. Rome, 1806 ; Wharton's 
App. to Cave's Hist. Liter. 30 f., ed. 1743; 
Quetif and Echard's Soriptt. 0. P. i. 739 b, Paris, 
1719; Tanner's Bibl. Brit. p. 329; Sbaralea's 
Suppl. to Wadding's Scriptt. 0. M. 2 f.] 

R. L. P. 


(1832-1886), animal painter, was born at 
Salisbury, 25 Dec. 1832. At ten his draw- 
ings were in demand as the productions of 
youthful genius, yet he received no artistic 
training, and it was in the face of much oppo- 
sition that he adopted art as a profession. 
He came to London in 1849, and spent up- 
wards of two years in making studies of 
animal life in the Zoological Gardens. During 
this time he supported himself mainly by 
drawing on wood sporting subjects for 'Punch ' 
and other illustrated periodicals. He then 
returned to Salisbury, where he received 
many commissions, but finding his sphere of 
work too limited, he settled in London in 
1857. He began to exhibit at the Royal 
Academy in 1856, sending a painting of 
' Hunters.' To this and other works suc- 
ceeded 'The Casuals' in 1866; 'Home to 
die : an afternoon fox with the Cots wolds,' 
in 1868 ; ' The Tournament,' his first work 
of note, in 1870; and 'Sale of New Forest 
Ponies at Lyndhurst' in 1872. In 1875 
he exhibited a large picture, fourteen feet 
long, representing ' Lord Wolverton's Blood- 
hounds,' which was highly praised in Whyte- 
Melville's ' Riding Recollections.' This was 
followed in 1876 by ' Colt-hunting in the 
New Forest;' in 1877 by 'The Fall of Man,' 
from Milton's ' Paradise Lost,' and in 1879 
by 'The Struggle for Existence,' now in the 

Walker Fine Art Gallery in Liverpool. In 
1881 he sent to the Royal Academy ' Rescued ' ; 
in 1883 'Love and War: in the Abbot sbury 
Swannery,' and in 1885 'Cowed!' Goddard 
was a lover of all field sports, and at home 
equally in the covert and the hunting-field. 
He died at his residence at Brook Green, 
Hammersmith, London, on 6 March 1886, 
after a very short illness, from a chill caught 
during a visit to his dying father, whom he 
survived only by a few hours. 

[Times, 18 and 29 March 1886 ; Art Journal, 
1886, p. 158; Royal Academy Exhibition Cata- 
logues, 1856-86.] R. E. G. 

GODDARD, JOHN (Jl. 1645-1671), en- 
graver, one of the earliest English engravers, 
is known for a few portraits and book illus- 
trations of no great proficiency. He en- 
graved a portrait of Martin Billingsley, the 
writing master, in 1651, Dr. Bastwick, and one 
of Dr. Alexander Ross, chaplain to Charles I, 
in 1654, as frontispiece to Ross's continuation 
of Raleigh's ' History of the World.' He en- 
graved the title-page to W. Austin's trans- 
lation of Cicero's treatise, 'Cato Major,' 
published in 1671. For Fuller's 'Pisgah- 
sight of Palestine,' published in 1645, God- 
dard engraved the sheet of armorial bearings 
at the beginning, and some of the maps, in- 
cluding a ground plan of the Temple of 
Solomon. A few other plates by him are 
known, including a rare set of ' The Seven 
Deadly Sins' in the Print Room at the 
British Museum. 

[Strutt's Diet, of Engravers ; Dodd's MS. His- 
tory of English Engravers (Brit. Mus. Addit. 
MS. 33401).] L. C. 


1675), Gresham professor of physic, son of 
Henry Goddard, shipbuilder, of Deptford, 
was born at Greenwich about 1617. In 1632, 
at the age of fifteen, he entered at Magdalen 
Hall, Oxford, where he remained three or 
four years, leaving without a degree. An- 
thony a Wood, who was at Merton College 
when Goddard was warden, says that on 
leaving Oxford he ' went, as I presume, be- 
yond the seas,' which later biographers have 
changed into the definite statement that he 
studied medicine abroad. In 1638 he gradu- 
ated M.B. at Cambridge (Christ's College), 
and in 1643 M.D. (Catharine Hall). In 1640 
he had bound himself to observe the rules of 
the College of Physicians in his London prac- 
tice, in 1643 he joined the college, and in 
1646 was made a fellow. At that time he 
had lodgings in Wood Street, where Wilkins, 
Ent, Glisson, Wallis, and others used to 
meet to discuss the new philosophy. On his 



election to the fellowship of the College of 
Physicians in November 1646, he was ap- 
pointed to read the anatomy lectures before 
the college on 4 March of 'the ensuing year' 
(' Gulstonian lecturer in 1648,' MUNK). 
These lectures were the beginning of his 
public reputation ; from the account in the 
' Biographia Britannica ' they would ap- 
pear to have been largely teleological, or 
illustrative of the wisdom and goodness of 
God in the structure of the human frame. 
About this time he came under the notice of 
Cromwell, ' with whom he went as his great 
confidant ' (Wooa) on the Irish campaign of 
1649 and the Scotch campaign of 1650-1, 
his public rank being physician in chief to 
the army of the parliament. On his return 
to London with the lord general after Wor- 
cester (September 1651), he was made by the 
parliament warden of Merton College, Ox- 
ford, on the resignation of Sir Nathaniel 
Brent. In 1653 he was among the 140 sum- 
moned by the lord general to constitute the 
Little parliament, and was chosen a member 
of the council of state (one of the new fif- 
teen balloted for on 1 Nov. 1653). In the 
parliament of 1654 he was replaced (as repre- 
sentative of Oxford University) by the Rev. 
Dr. Owen. The same year he was named by 
the Protector one of a board of five to dis- 
charge his duties as chancellor of the univer- 
sity. In November 1655 he was appointed 
professor of physic at Gresham College ; for 
that, also, he may have been indebted to 
Cromwell, who is known to have interposed 
in the choice of the geometry professor by a 
letter of 9 May 1656 (Letters and Speeches, iii. 
146). He continued to be warden of Merton 
(and probably resided at Oxford) until 3 July 
1660, when Charles II, ignoring Goddard's 
nine years' tenure, appointed his chaplain 
Reynolds to fill the vacancy created by the 
resignation of Brent in 1651. Goddard now 
took up his residence permanently at Gres- 
ham College, where he remained until his 
death (except during the years when the col- 
lege was given up to business purposes owing | 
to the destruction of the Royal Exchange and 
other buildings by the great fire). His re- j 
turn to Gresham College in 1660 coincides 
with the formation of the society there which, 
in 1663, received a charter of incorporation 
as the Royal Society. Goddard used his 
laboratory to make numerous experiments for 
the society (' when any curious experiment 
was to be done, they made him their drudge 
till they could obtain to the bottom of it,' 
WOOD) ; various communications by him, from 
1660 onwards, are entered in its register. He 
was named one of the first council in the 
charter of 1663. He used his laboratory also 

for the compounding of his own arcana, or 
. secret remedies. The chief of these was' God- 
I dard's drops,' or 'guttae Anglicanae,' a pre- 
paration of spirit of hartshorn (ammonia) 
with a few irrelevancies added, such as skull 
of a person hanged, dried viper, and the like 
(Biog. Brit.} The drops were used in faint- 
ings, apoplexies, lethargies, or other sudden 
and alarming onsets. Sydenham preferred 
them to other volatile spirits ; but in refer- 
ring to them in 1675, after Goddard's death, 
he says that the medicine known by the 
name of Dr. Goddard's drops is prepared by 
Dr. Goodall, a most learned and expert man 
(Obs. Med., pref. to 3rd ed.) Goddard was 
currently believed to have communicated the 
secret of the drops to Charles II for a con- 
sideration of 5,0001. (WADD says 6,000/., 
but does not name the purchaser, Mems., 
Maxims, fyc., p. 150). Dr. Martin Lister 
says that the king showed him the receipt, 
and that the drops were nothing more than 
the volatile spirit of raw silk rectified with 
oil of cinnamon, and no better than ordinary 
spirit of hartshorn and sal ammoniac. This 
traffic in arcana was not thought improper at 
that period ; Goddard was a censor of the 
College of Physicians for some years down 
to 1672, and, as such, a stickler for profes- 
sional etiquette. Long after his death a 
collection of ' arcana Goddardiana ' (said by 
Wood to have been written out by Goddard) 
was published as an appendix to the second 
edition of Bate's 'Pharmacopoeia' (1691). 
His communications to the Royal Society 
numbered at least fourteen. Two of them 
were published after his death in the ' Philo- 
sophical Transactions ' (' Observations on a 
Cameleon,' xii. 930, and ' Experiments of 
Refining Gold with Antimony,' xii. 953). 
Another is reproduced from the manuscript 
archives in Sprat's ' History of the Royal 
Society ' (1667) as a striking instance of the 
utility of that body's labours; it is a proposal 
to make wine from the sugar-cane, and inci- 
dentally to give a fillip to the languishing 
prosperity of the British plantations in Bar- 
badoes. To illustrate the marvels of science 
in another direction, Sprat prints from the 
archives another paper by Goddard on a 
pebble called ' oculus mundi,' which, being or- 
dinarily opaque, becomes translucent in water. 
Evelyn gave a place in his ' Silva' to a paper 
of Goddard's ' on the texture and similar parts 
of the body of a tree ; ' and Wallis rescued 
still another from the Royal Society's archives 
('Experiments of Weighing Glass Canes with 
the Cylinders of Quicksilver in them ') by 
printing it in his ' Mechanica.' Eight other 
communications have not been published; 
they include an enumeration of tea things 



whereby a stale egg may be known from a 
fresh one, and a demonstration that a muscle 
loses in volume when it contracts. Besides 
the writings enumerated, he published two 
essays, 'Discourse concerning Physick,' 
London, 1668, and ' Discourse on the Un- 
happy Condition of the Practice of Physick/ 
London, 1670 ; both are directed against the 
pretensions of the apothecary class, and one 
of them recommends that physicians should 
compound their own prescriptions. Anthony 
a Wood observes : ' He is said to have written 
of this matter more warily and with greater 
prudence than Christ. Merret.' Besides these 
writings, he is stated (by Wood) to have left 
two quarto volumes of manuscript ready for 
the press, containing lectures read in Sur- 
geons' Hall and other matters. Seth Ward, 
afterwards bishop of Salisbury, who knew 
him when warden of Merton, in dedicating an 
astronomical book to him, takes occasion to 
credit him with many accomplishments and 
virtues, and with having been the first Eng- 
lishman to make telescopes. He died in a fit 
of apoplexy at the corner of Wood Street at 
eleven of the evening of 24 March 1674-5, on 
his way home from a club of virtuosi who 
were wont to meet at the Crown in Blooms- 
bury. He is buried in the middle of the 
chancel of Great St. Helen's Church. 

[Wood's Athense Oxon. iii. 1024 ; Ward's Lives 
of the Gresham Professors, p. 270 ; Biog. Brit. ; 
Sprat's Hist, of Royal Society; Weld's Hist, 
of Royal Society.] C. C. 

GODDARD, THOMAS (d. 1783), Indian 
general, born probably not later than 1740, 
is said by Jefferies (Memoir of the Goddards 
of North Wilts) to have been of the family 
of that name at Hartham Park in Wiltshire, 
and grandson of Thomas Goddard, a canon 
of Windsor. In 1759 he became a lieutenant 
in the 84th regiment of infantry, then raised 
for service in India, at the request of the 
court of directors of the East India Com- 
pany, and placed under the command of Lieu- 
tenant-colonel Coote [see COOTE, SIB EYRE, 
1726-1783]. This regiment arrived at Madras 
on 27 Oct. 1759. Though destined for Ben- 
gal it was detained for service in the Madras 
presidency, and took a principal part in the 
campaign against the French which ended 
with the surrender of Pondicherry on 16 Jan. 
1761. In the same year Goddard accom- 
panied the 84th to Bengal, and took part in 
the campaign of 1763, at the end of which 
the regiment was disbanded, permission being 
given to the officers and men to enter the 
company's service. Goddard took advantage 
of this permission, and went in as captain in 
October 1763. Early in the following year 

he raised at Moorshedabad a battalion of 
sepoys, called subsequently the 1st battalion 
7th regiment Bengal native infantry, which 
was long known as Goddard's battalion. Be- 
fore Goddard's battalion could be armed it 
was ordered, in April 1764, to join the force 
marching to quell the mutiny at Patna, and 
in the following year it was sent, together 
with another native battalion, to Monghyr. 
In May 1766 Goddard was promoted to the 
rank of major, and in September 1768 to that 
of lieutenant-colonel. He took part with his 
battalion in 1770 at the capture of Burrareah, 
and was employed in 1772 in expelling the 
Mahrattas from Rohilcund. In September 
1774 he succeeded to the command of the 
troops stationed at Barhampore in Bengal. 
Goddard's extant correspondence with War- 
ren Hastings commences at this period, and 
continues until his departure from India. 
The governor-general placed the utmost con- 
fidence in his ability and tact. Goddard was 
in command of the troops at Chunar from 
January 1776 till the following June, when 
he was appointed chief of the contingent 
stationed with the nawab vizier of Oude at 

When the supreme council determined in 
1778 to despatch a force from Bengal to 
assist the Bombay army against the Mahrat- 
tas, Goddard was appointed second in com- 
mand under Colonel Leslie. The expedition 
started from Calpee in May, and was delayed 
by the rains in the neighbourhood of Chatter- 
pore, the capital of Bundelcund, from 3 July 
to 12 Oct. In that interval a detachment 
under the command of Goddard took the 
fortress of Mhow by storm. The supreme 
council, dissatisfied with Leslie's conduct of 
the expedition, decided to entrust the chief 
command to Goddard, but Leslie's death 
assured him this promotion (3 Oct.) before 
the orders arrived. Goddard energetically 
continued the march, and on 1 Dec. reached 
the banks of the Nerbudda, where he awaited 
instructions. He had already been employed 
by the governor-general in a semi-political 
capacity, and he was now invested with 
diplomatic powers to secure if possible an 
alliance with Mudaji Bhonsla, the regent 
of Berar. The negotiations proved futile, 
and on 16 Jan. 1779 he resumed his march. 
The conduct of the expedition increased in 
difficulty. The control, originally vested in 
the Bombay authorities, had been resumed 
by the supreme council, but Goddard's course 
was necessarily influenced by the fortunes of 
the Bombay army. For a long time he was 
left entirely without information from Bom- 
bay, and at length received two contradictory 
despatches, one advising his retreat and the 



other urging him to proceed. In this dilemma | 
he waited at Burhanpur, on the banks of the 
Tapti, from 30 Jan. to 6 Feb., when, hearing 
from other quarters of the defeat of the Bom- 
bay army, he hastened to Surat, 223 miles 
from Burhanpur and 785 from Calpee, where 
he arrived on 25 Feb. 

The Bombay council requested Goddard's 
assistance at its deliberations, and recom- 
mended him for the post of commander-in- 
chief on the next vacancy. Shortly after- 
wards he received from the supreme council 
of Bengal full powers to negotiate a peace 
with the Mahratta government of Poonah 
on the basis of the treaty of 1776, and which 
overruled the recent convention entered into 
by the Bombay council. Negotiations went 
on for some months, but the Mahratta govern- 
ment made impossible demands for the re- 
storation of Salsette and the surrender of 
Ragoba, who had escaped from the custody of 
Scindia and taken refuge in Goddard's camp. 
Goddard recommenced hostilities in January 
1780, and after some minor successes captured 
Ahmedabad on 15 Feb. He then marched 
against Holkar and Scindia, and routed the 
forces of the latter on 3 April. In Novem- 
ber of the same year he attacked Bassein, 
which surrendered on 11 Dec. 

The war had severely taxed the resources 
of the government, and Goddard received 
instructions from Bengal to use every means 
of bringing the Mahrattas to terms. He 
therefore determined to threaten Poonah 
itself. With this object he marched from 
Bassein in January 1781, and took posses- i 
sion of the Bhore Ghaut, which he held till ! 
April. His scheme was frustrated by the 
Mahrattas, who determined to burn Poonah 
and cut off a great portion of his supplies. 
Goddard retreated with great difficulty and 
loss. In August of the same year overtures 
on the part of Scindia led to a treaty on 13 Oct. 

Goddard was subsequently promoted to 
the brevet rank of a brigadier-general, and 
remained in India until failing health obliged 
him to go home. He died on 7 July 1783, 
just as the ship reached the Land's End. His 
body was embalmed, landed at Pendennis 
Castle, Falmouth, and buried at Eltham in 

[Brit. Mus. Addit. MSS. 29119, 29135-93; 
Philippart's East India Register ; Mill's, Orme's, ' 
Thornton's, and Wilks's Histories of India; 
Broome's Bengal Army ; Williams's Bengal Na- 
tive Infantry ; Dodwell and Miles's East India 
Military Calendar.] E. J. K. 

GODDARD, WILLIAM (fl. 1615), sati- 
rist, probably belonged to the Middle Temple. 
He lived at the beginning of the seventeenth 
century in Holland, where he seems to have 

been employed in a civil capacity. In July 1634 
one William Goddard, ' doctor of physic ot 
Padua,' was incorporated in the same degree 
at Oxford, but his identity with the satirist 
seems doubtful. Goddard's volumes are very 
rare. His satire is gross, and is chiefly di- 
rected against women. The British Museum 
Library possesses only one of his volumes, 
that entitled ' A Satyricall Dialogue, or a 
shaplye invective conference between Allex- 
ander the Great and that truelye woman- 
hater Diogynes. . . . Imprinted in the Low 
countryes for all such gentlewomen as are 
not altogeather Idle nor yet well occupyed ' 
[Dort? 1615?]. Some lines seem to refer to 
the burning of Marston's satires. Mr. Collier 
suggested that this volume might be identical 
with ' The batynge of Dyogenes,' licensed for 
printingto Henry Chettle 27 Sept. I591(Notes 
and Queries, 3rd ser. i. 141). In the library 
of Worcester College, Oxford, and at Bridg- 
water House, are copies of Goddard's ' A 
Neaste of Waspes latelie found out and dis- 
covered in the Law [Low] Countreys yeald- 
ing as sweete hony as some of our English 
bees. At Dort . . . 1615.' A third work, 
from which Dr. Bliss prints extracts in his 
edition of Wood's ' Fasti ' (i. 476-8), is ' A 
Mastif Whelp, with other ruff-Island-lik 
Currs fetcht from amongst the Antipedes. 
Which bite and barke at the fantasticall 
humorists and abusers of the time. . . . Im- 
printed amongst the Antipedes, and are to 
bee sould where they are to be bought,' 4to, 
n.d. This was published after 1598, for 
Bastard's ' Chrestoleros,' 1598, is one of the 
books specially abused. A copy is in the Bod- 
leian Library. Bibliographers have wrongly 
assumed that ' Dogs from the Antipodes ' 
the sub-title of the ' Mastif Whelp ' is the 
title of another of Goddard's volumes. Dr. 
Furnivall printed in 1878 Goddard's three 
known books, with a view to republishing 
them, but they have not yet been issued. 

[Wood's Fasti Oxon. ed. Bliss, i. 476; Collier's 
Bibl. Cat. i. 313 ; Hazlitt's Handbook.] 

S. L. L. 

D.D. (1757-1845), head-master of Winches- 
ter College, son of John Goddard, a merchant, 
was born at Stepney on 9 Oct. 1757. He was 
educated at Winchester, first as a chorister, 
afterwards as a scholar under Dr. Warton 
(1771-6), and then went as a commoner to 
Merton (B.A. degree 1781, M.A. 1783, D.D. 
1795). In 1784 he was appointed hostiarius 
or second master of Winchester, and appears 
to have done what he could to counteract the 
lax discipline of Dr. Warton, which resulted 
in the famous ' rebellion ' of 1 793, during which 
Goddard's house was broken into. Sydney 



Smith, who was under Goddard, described his 
life at Winchester as one of misery (LADY 
HOLLAND, Memoir of Sydney Smith, i. 7, 4th 
ed.) ; but his experience seems to have been 
an exceptional one (see the evidence collected 
by the Rev. H. C. ADAMS in Wykehamica at 
p. 160). In 1796 Goddard succeeded Dr. 
Warton as head-master, and retained the 
appointment until 1809, when he retired. 
He was one of the best head-masters Win- 
chester has ever had. Within three years he 
had raised the numbers of the school from 
60 to 144, and its scholarship showed imme- 
diate improvement. Among his pupils were 
Bishops Lipscombe and Shuttleworth, Lords 
Cranworth and Eversley, Sir Robert Inglis, 
Augustus Hare, and Dr. Arnold, and it is 
probable that many of the educational prin- 
ciples which Dr. Arnold is supposed to have 
invented, especially that of governing by re- 
liance on boys' sense of honour, were really 
derived by him from Goddard. He was an 
able teacher, a firm disciplinarian, and the only 
outbreak under his rule, that of 1808, was of a 
mild character (AUGUSTUS HAKE, Memorials 
of a Quiet Life, vol. i. ch. iv. ; STANLEY, Life 
of Dr. Arnold, i. 2). 

After his resignation of the head-master- 
ship Goddard was made a prebendary of St. 
Paul's in January 1814, and canon of Salis- 
bury in October 1829 ; he was also presented 
to the living of Bapton in Sussex, and for 
several years held that of Wherwell, near 
Andover, in commendam. His last years 
were spent partly in Cadogan Place, Chelsea, 
London, partly at Andover, where, besides 
numerous benefactions, he rebuilt Foxcote 
Church, at the cost of some 30,000/. To Win- 
chester College he presented 25,000, to pro- 
vide for the annual salaries of the masters, 
which had previously been charged in the 
accounts of the boys' parents. In grateful 
memory of him a scholarship of the value of 
251. a year, and tenable for four years, was 
founded at Winchester in 1846. Goddard's 
literary remains consist of a Latin elegy on 
Dr. Warton (WooL, Life of Warton, i. 191) 
and some sermons, one of which was preached 
on the occasion of the consecration of his old 
schoolfellow, Dr. Howley, as bishop of Lon- 
don (1813). 

[' Wykehamica,' by the Eev. H. C. Adams, men- 
tioned above; Gent. Mag. 1845, xxiv. 642-4.1 

L. C. S. 


(1624-1688), controversialist, son of Wil- 
liam Tylden, gentleman, of Dartford, Kent, 
was born at Addington in that county in 
1624, and educated at a private school kept 
by Mr. Gill in Holborn. He was entered as 

a commoner of Queen's College, Oxford, on 
3 July 1638, his tutor being Randall Sander- 
son, fellow of that society. Removing to 
Cambridge, he was on 3 July 1639 admitted 
a pensioner of St. John's College in that uni- 
versity. He was admitted as a Billingsley 
scholar of St. John's on 4 Nov. 1640, on the 
recommendation of John Williams, bishop of 
Lincoln, and he graduated B.A. in 1641-2. 
During his residence at Cambridge he formed 
an acquaintance with John Sergeant [q. v.], 
who became a convert to Catholicism, and con- 
verted Godden. They both proceeded to the 
English College at Lisbon, where they arrived 
on 4 Nov. 1643. After eight months spent 
in devotional exercises, they were on 20 June 
1644 admitted alumni. In due course God- 
den was ordained priest, and he lectured 
on philosophy in the college from 1650 till 
January 1652-3. After having been succes- 
sively professor of theology, prefect of studies, 
and vice-president, he was on 29 June 1655 
appointed president of the college, in suc- 
cession to Dr. Clayton. In April 1660 he 
was created D.D. He became renowned for 
his eloquence as a preacher in the Portuguese 

In 1661 he was appointed chaplain and pre- 
ceptor to the Princess Catharine of Braganza, 
the destined consort of Charles II, and the 
year following he accompanied her to Eng- 
land, and had apartments assigned to him in 
the palace of Somerset House. In 1671 he 
was engaged in a controversy with Stilling- 
fleet, upon the question whether salvation 
was attainable by converts from protest- 
antism, as well as by persons bred in the 
catholic religion. In 1678 Godden was ac- 
cused of complicity in the murder of Sir Ed- 
mund Berry Godfrey [q.v]. His lodgings in 
Somerset House were searched, and his ser- 
vant, Lawrence Hill, was executed as an ac- 
complice in the crime on the false testimony 
of Miles Prance, who swore that the corpse 
was concealed in Godden's apartment. God- 
den escaped to the continent, and retired to 
Paris. In the reign of James II he was re- 
instated in Somerset House, where he was 
almoner to the queen dowager and chaplain 
as before. On 30 Nov. 1686 he and Dr. Bona- 
venture Giffard [q. v.] attended a conference 
held before the king and the Earl of Rochester 
concerning the real presence, and defended 
the catholic doctrine in opposition to Dr. 
William Jane, dean of Gloucester, and Dr. 
Simon Patrick, who appeared on the pro- 
testant side (MACAULAY, Hist, of England, 
ed. 1858, ii. 149). He died in November 
1688, while the nation was in the throes of 
the revolution, and was buried on 1 Dec. in 
the vaults under the royal chapel in Somerset 

Godel 2 

House (LtTTTRELL, Hist. Relation of State 
Affairs, i. 482). Dodd says that he was equal 
m learning to his Anglican opponents, ' but 
much superior to them in his modest be- 
haviour, which gained him great applause, 
even from those of the adverse party ' ( Church 
Hist. iii. 470). 

He was author of : 1. ' Catholicks no Ido- 
laters ; or a full Refutation of Dr. Stilling- 
fleet's Unjust Charge of Idolatry against the 
Church of Rome,' London, 1671 and 1672, 
8vo. This was in reply to ' A Discourse of 
the Idolatry practis'd in the Church of Rome,' 
1671, by Stillingfleet. 2. ' A Just Discharge 
to Dr. Stillingfleet's Unjust Charge of Ido- 
latry against the Church of Rome. With a 
Discovery of the Vanity of his late Defence. 
. . . By way of Dialogue between Eunomius, a 
Conformist, and Catharinus, a Non-conform- 
ist,' 3 pts., Paris, 1677, 12mo. Stillingfleet 
replied with ' Several Conferences between a 
Romish Priest, a Fanatic Chaplain, and a 
Divine of the Church of England, . . .'1679. 
3. A Treatise concerning the Oath of Su- 
premacy. Manuscript (Memoirs of Gregorio 
Panzani, p. 326). 4. ' A Sermon of St. Peter, 
preached before the Queen Dowager ... on 
29 June 1686,' London, 1686, 4to, reprinted 
in ' Catholick Sermons,' 1741. The publica- 
tion of this sermon gave rise to a controversy 
on the questions of St. Peter's residence at 
Rome and the pope's supremacy. 5. ' A 
Sermon of the Nativity of our Lord, preached 
before the Queen Dowager ... at Somerset 
House,' London, 1686, 8vo. 

[Addit. MS. 5870, f. 99 ; Baker's Hist, of St. 
John's (Mayor), i. 525. 526 ; Cath. Mag. v. 621, 
vi. 59; Cooke's Preacher's Assistant, ii. 141; 
Dodd's Certamen Utriusque Ecclesise, p. 16 ; 
Billow's Bibl. Diet. ii. 503, iii. 307 ; Jones's 
Popery Tracts, pp. 126, 127, 257, 423, 453, 466, 
483; Luttrell's Hist. Relation of State Affairs, 
i. 391; Mayor's Admissions to St. John's Coll. 
p. 48 ; Panzani's Memoirs, p. 338 ; Tablet, 16 Feb. 
1889, p. 257 ; Wood's Athense Oxon. (Bliss), iv. 
93, 674.] T. C. 

GODEL, WILLIAM (fi. 1173), historian, 
is only known from the allusions in his chro- 
nicle, in which he never mentions himself by 
name. Under the year 1145 he says : ' This 
year I, who compiled this work from various 
histories, entered a monastery; in age a youth, 
and by race an Englishman/ But at the end 
of the manuscript (Bibliotheque Nationals, 
4893, sec. xiii) there is a note in a hand of the 
fourteenth century, stating that the author 
was William Godel, a monk of St. Martial at 
Limoges. The writer, however, never men- 
tions St. Martial, nor even the town of Li- 
moges. Probably he was a Cistercian of 
some monastery in the diocese of Sens, or of 


Bourges ; for at the date of the foundation of 
Citeaux he gives very exactly the succession of 
its abbots, and under the year 1145 he reports 
the death of Henri Sanglier, archbishop of 
Sens, who was succeeded byllugues of Touci, 
from whom he received all the orders except 
the priesthood. He was ordained priest of 
Leuroux by Pierre de la Chatre, archbishop of 
Bourges, who died in 1171. Godel seems to 
have been fond of travel, and so perhaps often 
changed his monastery till, dying at St. Mar- 
tial, he left his chronicle there. The chroni- 
cle is a history from the creation to 1173 A.D., 
with some additions by a later writer down to 
1320. It must have been written before 1 180, 
for under date 1137 he speaks of Louis VII 
as ' qui nunc rex pius superest,' and later he 
refers to Philip Augustus as ' qui nunc regni 
coronam expectat.' The chronicle is very 
brief till 1066, then rather fuller on English 
affairs, but contains little that is new or im- 
portant, and has some gross errors. Godel 
used as his English authorities Geoffrey of 
Monmouth, Bede, William of Malmesbury, 
Henry of Huntingdon (from whose work to 
the accession of Henry I he had made extracts 
in a monastery in England), and Florence of 
Worcester. This chronicle closely resembles 
the anonymous continuation from 1124 to 
1184 of the Chronicle of S. Pierre de Sens ' 
by Clarius, with which it is in many places 
literally identical. The writers of the ' His- 
toire Litteraire' hold that it was the conti- 
nuator who had borrowed, while the editors 
of the 'Recueil' incline to the belief that 
Godel was himself the continuator. This is 
additional reason for believing that Godel's 
original monastery was in the diocese of Sens. 
Almost all Godel's chronicle from the tenth 
century to 1173 is printed in the ' Recueil dea 
Historiens de la France,' x. 259-63, xi. 282- 
285, and xiii. 671-7, where also extracts from 
the continuation of Clarius will be found, 
xii. 283-5. 

[Histoire LitteVaire de la France, xiii. 508 ; 
Hardy's Cat. of Brit. Hist. ii. 402-3 ; notes in 
Recueil as above, and pref. to vol. xiii. p. lxviii.1 

C. L. K 


is supposed author of a chronicle in the 
British Museum (MS. Cott. Vesp. D. iv. 73). 
Bishop Tanner erroneously identified this 
writer with Godfrey, abbot of Malmesbury 
in the eleventh century. Godfrey the abbot 
was a native of Jumieges, who accompanied 
his townsman, Theode win, when he was made 
abbot of Ely in 1071. Two years and a 




half later Theodewin died, and Godfrey be" 
came procurator, a position which he filled 
with ability for seven years. He is said to 
have obtained from William I an inquiry 
into the property of his abbey, and a con- 
firmation of its customs (Anglia Sacra, i. 610, 
and Monasticon, v. 460, 476, where the do- 
cuments are given). In 1081 William ap- 
pointed him abbot of Malmesbury, where he 
adorned the church, and laid the foundations 
of a library; in the latter work he was as- 
sisted by William of Malmesbury, who de- 
scribes him as a man of courteous manner and 
temperate life, whose abbacy was sullied only 
by his stripping the treasures of the monastery 
to pay the tax imposed by William II on the 
occasion of the mortgage of Normandy by 
Duke Robert. Godfrey must have died about 
1107, in which year Edulf became abbot. 
Despite his literary tastes, he cannot have 
been the author of the chronicle, which, ac- 
cording to Sir T. Hardy, is almost entirely 
based on Geoffrey of Monmouth. Tanner says 
that it is nothing else than part of the annals 
of Alfred of Beverley (fl. 1143), and conjec- 
tures that the name ' Godfridus De Malves- 
bury ' on the manuscript is that of an owner, 
not of the writer. Perhaps this is correct ; 
in any case the chronicler is a different person 
from the abbot. Baptista Fulgosus, an Italian 
writer of the fifteenth century, cites among 
his authorities Gotfredus Anglus Historicus, 
who is perhaps our chronicler. The chro- 
nicle, which extends from the coming of the 
Saxons to 1129, is merely a compilation and 
without historical value. It is quoted by 
Selden, ' Titles of Honour,' pt. ii. chap. v. 

[William of Malmesbury, Gesta Pontificum, 
v. sects. 271-4; Mabillon, Annales Benedictini, 
vol. v. ; Tanner, p. 329 ; Hardy's Cat. of Brit. 
Hist. i. 667.] C. L. K. 

Latin poet, was a native of Cambrai, and was 
appointed prior of St. Swithin's, Winchester, 
by Bishop Walkelin in 1081 (Ann. Wint.] 
William of Malmesbury (Gest. Reg. v. 444, 
and Gest. Pont. ii. 877) says that be was dis- 
tinguished for his piety and literary ability, 
which was shown by his epistles written in 
a pleasant and familiar style, as also by his 
epigrams ; but that, despite his store of learn- 
ing, he was a man of great humility. The 
monastery profited by Godfrey's liberality, 
and under his rule it acquired its high reputa- 
tion for hospitality and piety. He was bed- 
ridden for many years before his death, which 
took place on 27 Dec. 1107 (Ann. Wint. and 
his epitaph in Eodl. MS. 535, f. 37 b, printed 
by Tanner). Godfrey was the author of a 
large number of epigrams, in which he imi- 
tated Martial with some success ; they are 

divided by Pits into disticha,tetrasticha,&c. ; 
the collection is entitled in Bodl. MS. Digby 
112, ' Liber Proverbiorum,' in Cott. MS. Vit. 
A. xii. ' De moribus et vita instituenda,' and 
no doubt is the same as the ' De diversis ho- 
minum moribus' given by Pits. These two 
manuscripts also contain nineteen short poems 
'De Primatum Anglise Laudibus' (or 'Epi- 
grammata Historica '), as for instance on Cnut, 
Edward the Confessor, and Queen Matilda. 
These epigrams and poems are printed in 'Latin 
Satirical Poets of the Twelfth Century,' Rolls 
Series, edited by Mr. T. Wright. In MS. Digby 
65 there are also sixteen other short pieces 
ascribed to Godfrey, and including an ' Epita- 
phium Petri Abelardi,' which of course is not 
by him. Clearly there has been some confusion, 
and even of the nineteen ' Epigrammata His- 
torica ' printed by Mr. Wright, ten are also 
ascribed to Serlo of Bayeux. In the same 
manuscript (Digby 65) there is a ' Carmen de 
Nummo,' which is there ascribed to Godfrey, 
and probably correctly, though Twine (in 
C. C. C. MS. 255) claimed it for Hildebert, 
bishop of Mans. In Digby 112 three short 
poems, one beginning ' Res odiosa nimis,' 
printed by Mr. Wright (ii. 161), 'Versus de 
historiis Veteris Testamenti,' and ' Versus de 
historia Romana,' are inserted between the 
' Liber Proverbiorum ' and ' Epigrammata 
Historica,' and the whole ends ' Explicit Li- 
bell us Domini Godfridi ; ' they may therefore 
be his compositions. Pits also names an ' Epi- 
thalamium Beatae Marise Virginis,' and the 
prologue of such a poem ascribed to Godfrey 
is given by Twine (MS. C. C. C. Oxford, 
255) ; but this is only the prose prologue of 
the Epithalamium in Digby 65, which is 
probably by John Garland [q. v.] Godfrey's 
epistles seem to have perished. 

[Pits, p. 192 ; Tanner, p. 328 ; Anglia Sacra, 
vol. i.; Hardy's Cat. of Brit, Hist. ii. 100; 
Wright's Prefaces to Latin Satirical Poems, and 
Literature and Superstition of England ; War- 
ton's Hist, of English Poetry, i. 240, ed. 1871 ; 
Hist. Litt. de la France, ix. 352-8.] C. L. K. 

WITZ, AMBROSE (d. 1741), chemist, was 
employed for many years as operator in the 
laboratory of Robert Boyle (Addit. MS. 
25095, f. *103). He was indebted to Boyle, 
whom he mentions with gratitude, for the 
first hints of ' better -perfecting that wonder- 
ful preparation, the phosphorus glacialis ' 
(Introduction to Account, &c., 1724, pp. 
x, xi). His laboratory was in Southamp- 
ton Street, Covent Garden. In 1719 he ex- 
amined and analysed the water of the medi- 
cinal spring at Nottington, near Weymouth, 
Dorsetshire, and made a report of the result of 
his inquiry to the Royal Society (H 

Godfrey 2 

Dorsetshire, 2nd edit., ii. 107). On 22 Jan. 
1729-30 he was elected F.R.S. (THOMSON, 
Hist, of Hoy. Soc., Appendix iv.) His two 
contributions to the ' Philosophical Transac- 
tions ' are ' An Account of some Experiments 
upon the Phosphorus Urinse' (xxxviii. 58- 
70), and 'An Examination of Westashton 
Well-waters' (vol. xli. pt. ii. pp. 828-30). 
He invented and patented a machine for ex- 
tinguishing fires ' by explosion and suffoca- 
tion,' an exhibition of which he announced 
to take place at Belsize. To his 'Account of 
the New Method,' 8vo, 1724, he appended a 
* short narrative ' of the dishonourable be- 
haviour of Charles Povey of Hampstead ' in 
relation to this useful invention, by which it 
will appear that the said Mr. Povey's pre- 
tended Watch Engine is at best a precarious 
and often dangerous remedy imperfectly stolen 
from Ambrose Godfrey's Method.' A second 
edition of this pamphlet, without the narra- 
tive, appeared in 1743. Godfrey's method 
was tried in a house erected for the purpose 
by the Society of Arts in Marylebone Fields 
19 May 1761, when it seems to have proved 
entirely successful (Gent. Mag. xxxi. 235). 
He died 15 Jan. 1741, and on the same day 
his will, dated5 May 1732, was proved at Lon- 
don (registered in P. C. C. 12, Spurway). His 
wife Mary, widow of Joseph Pitt, apothecary 
to Queen Anne and Prince George of Den- 
mark (LYSONS, Parishes in Middlesex,^. 163), 
died in 1754 (will registered in P. C. C. 106, 
Pinfold). His three sons, Boyle, Ambrose, 
and John, all able chemists, are noticed 
below. His letters to Sir Hans Sloane, 1721- 
1733, are in the British Museum, Addit. MS. 
4045, ff. 299-314 ; one to Dr. J. Woodward, 
1724, is Addit. MS. 25095, f. 103. A portrait 
of Godfrey, painted by R. Schmutz, was en- 
graved by G. Vertue in 1718 (NOBLE, Con- 
tinuation of Granger, iii. 289). He used his 
first surname only, but in formal docu- 
ments the name always appears as ' Godfrey- 

BOYLE GODFREY (eZ.1756 ?) developed, much 
to his father's annoyance, an unmistakable 
passion for alchemy, and ruined himself in the 
prosecution of costly futile experiments. The 
importunities of his creditors obliged him to 
retire to Rotterdam in 1731, where he at- 
tempted to practise medicine without having 
taken a degree. In December 1734 he was 
in Paris endeavouring to bring to the king's 
notice some wonderful remedy ' contra pro- 
fluvia sanguinis.' By December 1735, while 
still in Paris, he had received from a foreign 
university the diploma of M.D. The follow- 
ing year he ventured to return to his home 
in Tavistock Street, Covent Garden, only to 
lead a miserable existence in consequence of 


his debts. Sir Hans Sloane did what he could 
to help him (cf. his letters to Sloane, 1733- 
1742, Addit. MS. 4045, ff. 317-49). In the 
hope of obtaining practice he published about 
1735 ' Miscellanea vere Utilia ; or, Miscellane- 
ous Experiments and Observations on various 
subjects.' A second edition, ' with additions,' 
came out in 1737. By his will his father, 
from whom he had had ' many thousand 
pounds,' which he ' squander'd away in a very 
profuse manner,' bequeathed him the sum of 
ten shillings a week ' that he might not want 
bread,' besides making a separate provision 
for his wife and children. Boyle ultimately 
sought a refuge in Dublin, from which he 
addressed a letter to Thomas Birch, dated 
13 Jan. 1752-3, enclosing a few of his in- 
numerable ' observations ' for the edification 
of the Royal Society (id. 4308, ff. 122-3). 
He died (presumably in 1766), aged seventy. 
A witty epitaph on him, made up of a long 
and appropriate striiJg of chemical definitions, 
scientifically arranged, and forming a very 
curious specimen of the terminology of che- 
mistry, written by Charles Smith, M.D. [q.v.], 
was read at a meeting of the Dublin Medico- 
Philosophical Society on 1 July 1756, and in- 
serted in the minutes on the 15th of the same 
month. (An accurate copy is given in Notes 
and Queries, 5th ser. xi. 213 ; cf. HACKETT, Col- 
lection of Epitaphs, ii. 191-2). He married 
Elizabeth, sister of Towers Ashcroft, rector 
of Meppershall, Bedfordshire, by whom he 
left a son, Ambrose, and a daughter, Mary 
(Notes and Queries, 5th ser. xi. 128, 177, 
197, 234). 

AMBROSE the younger (d. 1756) and JOHN 
GODFREY (Jl. 1747) carried on their father's 
laboratory in Southampton Street, but were 
declared bankrupts in 1746 (Gent. Mag. xvi. 
45, 108). In 1747 they published ' A Curious 
Research into the Element of Water, con- 
taining many . . . experiments on that fluid 
body. . . . Being the conjunctive trials of 
Ambrose and John Godfrey, chymists, from 
their late Father's Observations,' 4to, Lon- 
don, 1747. Ambrose, who died in Decem- 
ber 1756 (will registered in P. C. C. 338, 
Glazier), took into partnership his nephew 
Ambrose, son of Boyle. The name survives 
in the firm of Godfrey & Cooke, a partnership 
created in 1797 under the will of Ambrose 
Godfrey, the nephew, but it is believed that 
the latter's descendants are extinct. 

[Authorities as above.] G. G. 



(1621-1678), justice of the peace for West- sre . 
minster, born 23 Dec. 1621, probably at Sel- at b 


3 2 


linge, Kent, was eighth son of Thomas God- 
frey, esq., by his second wife Sarah, daugh- 
ter of Thomas Isles, esq., of Hammersmith. 
The father, born 3 Jan. 1585-6, belonged to 
an old Kentish family, and lived at different 
times at Winchelsea, Haling, and Selling, all 
in Kent, and at St. Giles's, Cripplegate, Lon- 
don. He had twenty children by his two 
wives. He was M.P. for Winchelsea in 1614, 
and sat for New Romney in Charles I's 
third parliament (1628-9), and in the Short 
parliament of 1640. He died 10 Oct. 1664, 
and was buried beneath an elaborate monu- ' 
ment in Sellinge Church. His domestic 
diary (1608-55), preserved in Brit. Mus. 
Lansd. MS. 235, was printed by Mr. J. G. Ni- 
chols in the ' Topographer and Genealogist,' 

11. 450-67. Peter, the eldest son by his se- i 
cond wife, inherited the estate of Hodiford, 
Kent (BERRY, Kentish Genealogies). Ed- j 
ward, another son, died in June 1640, aged j 

12, just after his election to a king's scholar- 
ship at Westminster School, and was buried ! 
in the east cloister of Westminster Abbey. 
The ninth son, Michael, a London merchant \ 
(1624-1691), was foreman of the jury at the 
trial of Fitzharris in 1681, and had two sons, ' 
(1) Michael [q. v.], first deputy governor of 
the Bank of England, and (2) Peter, M.P. for 
London from 1715 till his death in November 

Edmund was ' christened the 13 January ' 
[1621-2].' 'His godfathers,' writes his 
father in his diary, ' were my cousin, John 
Berrie, esq., captain of the foot company of ] 
. . . Lidd ... his other godfather was 
Edmund Harrison, the king's embroiderer i 
. . . They named my son Edmund Berrie, j 
the one's name and the other's Christian 
name.' Macaulay, J. R. Green, and others, 
have fallen into the error of giving Godfrey's 
Christian name as * Edmundsbury ' or ' Ed- 
mundbury.' Edmund was educated at West- 
minster School, but was not on the founda- 
tion. He matriculated at Oxford as a com- 
moner of Christ Church 23 Nov. 1638, tra- 
velled abroad, entered Gray's Inn 3 Dec. 1640, 
and retired to the country in consequence of 
' a defect in his hearing' (Extract from Christ 
Church Reg.] FOSTER, Gray's Inn Reg. ; TUKE, 
Memoires). His father's family was too large 
for him to give Edmund, one of his youngest 
sons, a competency. Edmund accordingly 
returned to London to take up the trade of a 
wood-monger. Together with a friend and 
partner named Harrison he acquired a wharf 
at Dowgate. The business prospered, and 
before 1658 he set up a wharf on his own 
account at ' Hartshorn Lane, near Charing 
Cross,' now Northumberland Street, Strand. 
He resided in an adjoining house described at 

the time as in ' Green's Lane in the Strand, 
near to Hungerford Market.' His prosperity 
and public spirit led to his appointment a 
justice of the peace for Westminster, and he 
took an active part in the affairs of his own 
parish of St. Martin's-in-the-Fields. He re- 
mained in London throughout the plague of 
1665, and his strenuous efforts to maintain 
order and relieve distress were rewarded by 
knighthood (September 1666). The king at 
the same time presented him with a silver 
tankard. Godfrey showed much belief in and 
many attentions to Valentine Greatrakes, the 
Irish 'stroker' [q. v.], on his visit to London 
in 1666 (GREATRAKES, Account, ed. 1723, 
pp. 36, 45). In 1669 he came into collision 
with the court. A customer, Sir Alexander 
Fraizer [q. v.], the king's physician, was ar- 
rested at his suit for 30/. due for firewood. 
The bailiffs were soundly whipped by the 
king's order ; Godfrey, who was committed 
to the porter's lodge at Whitehall, narrowly 
escaped the like indignity, ' to such an un- 
usual degree,' writes his friend Pepys,' was the 
king moved therein.' Godfrey asserted that 
the law was on his side, and that he ' would 
suffer in the cause of the people ' (PEPTS). 
For a time he refused nutriment. He was- 
released after six days' imprisonment (TTJKE). 

Godfrey moved in good society. He knew 
Danby, who became lord treasurer in 1673. 
His friends Burnet and William Lloyd, vicar 
of St. Martin's-in-the-Fields, both affirm 
that ' he was esteemed the best justice of the 
peace in England.' His civility and courtesy 
were always conspicuous. He spent much 
in private charity. Some thought him 'vain 
and apt to take too much upon him,' but 
Burnet disputes this view. He was a zealous 
protestant, but ' had kind thoughts of the 
nonconformists, and consequently did not 
strictly enforce the penal laws against either 
them or the Roman catholics.' ' Few men/ 
says Burnet, ' lived on better terms with the 
papists than he did.' In 1678 ' he was en- 
tering upon a great design of taking up all 
beggars and putting them to work,' but gave 
at the same time 100/. for the relief of the 
necessitous poor of the parish of St. Martin's- 
in-the-Fields ( True and Perfect Narrative). 

Godfrey went to Montpellier for his health 
early in 1678, and returned, after much travel 
in France, greatly benefited. Soon after his 
return Titus Gates brought his narrative of 
his 'Popish plot 'to Godfrey (6 Sept. 1678), 
and made his first depositions on oath in sup- 
port of his charges. Three weeks later he 
signed further depositions in Godfrey's pre- 
sence, and on 28 Sept. laid his informations 
before the privy council. Oates swore that 
Godfrey complained to him on 30 Sept. of 




affronts offered him by both parties in the 
council some condemning his officiousness 
and others his remissness in not disclosing his 
interviews with Gates earlier. Threats, adds 
Gates, were held out that his conduct would 
form a subject for inquiry when parliament 
met on 21 Oct. As the panic occasioned by 
Oates's revelations increased, Godfrey, accord- 
ing to Burnet, became ' apprehensive and re- 
served ; ' ' he believed he himself should be 
knocked on the head.' ' Upon my conscience,' 
he told a friend, 'I shall be the first martyr; 
but I do not fear them if they come fairly : 
I shall not part with my life tamely' (TuKE). 
But he declined the advice of his friends to 
go about with a servant. 

On Saturday morning, 12 Oct. 1678, God- 
frey left home at nine o'clock, was seen soon 
afterwards at Marylebone, called about paro- 
chial business on one of the churchwardens 
of St. Martin's-in-the-Fields at noon, and ac- 
cording to somewhat doubtful evidence was 
met late in the day between St. Clement's 
Church in the Strand and Somerset House. 
He did not return home that night. His 
servants, knowing his regular habits, grew 
alarmed. On the following Thursday even- 
ing (17 Oct.) his dead body was found in a 
ditch on the south side of Primrose Hill, near 
Hampstead. He lay face downwards, trans- 
fixed by his own sword. Much money and 
jewellery were found untouched in his 
pockets ; his pocket-book and a lace cravat 
were alone missing. Next day an inquest 
was held at the White House, Primrose Hill. 
Two surgeons swore that there were marks 
about the neck which showed that Godfrey 
died of suffocation, and was stabbed after 
death. Other witnesses showed that the 
body was not in the ditch on the preceding 
Tuesday, and that it must have been placed 
there when dead. An open verdict of wilful 
murder was returned. The body was carried 
to Godfrey's house. Burnet saw it, and 
noticed on the clothes ' drops of white wax 
lights,' such as Roman catholic priests use, 
but no mention was made of this circum- 
stance at the inquest. The funeral was de- 
layed till 31 Oct. On that day the body was 
borne to Old Bridewell, and publicly lay in 
state. A solemn procession afterwards ac- 
companied it through Fleet Street and the 
Strand to the church of St. Martin's-in-the- 
Fields, where it was buried, and a sermon 
preached by William Lloyd, the vicar. Two 
proclamations, offering a reward of 5001. for 
the discovery of the murderers, were issued 
respectively on 20 and 24 Oct. 

Godfrey was undoubtedly murdered. The 
public, panic-stricken by Oates's desperate 
allegations, promptly laid the crime at the 


door of Roman catholic priests, and popular 
indignation against the papists was roused to 
fever heat. Medal-portraits of Godfrey were 
struck, in which the pope was represented as 
directing the murder. Ballads and illus- 
trated broadsides expressed similar senti- 
ments. ' An Hasty Poem,' entitled ' Pro- 
clamation promoted ; or an Hue and Cry and 
inquisition after treason and blood,' appeared 
as early as 1 Nov. 1678 (LEMON, Cat. Broad- 
sides in possession of Soc. Antiq. Lond. 134). 
Sober persons who mistrusted Oates from the 
first, and were convinced of the aimlessness 
from a catholic point of view of Godfrey's 
murder, suggested that ' being of a melan- 
choly and hypochondriacal disposition ' God- 
frey might have committed suicide. It was 
also rumoured that he was pursuing some 
secret amours, and was in heavy debt to the 
parish of St. Martin's-in-the-Fields. But these 
allegations were unsupported by evidence, and 
the theory of suicide is quite untenable. 

A parliamentary committee under the pre- 
sidency of Shaftesbury sat to investigate 
Oates's statements and Godfrey's murder. 
On 10 Nov. Bedloe, one of Oates's chief allies, 
informed the committee that the murderers 
were two of Lord Belasyse's servants. The 
king disbelieved the allegation. Danby, 
lord high treasurer, who discredited the testi- 
mony of Oates and his gang, was himself 
charged in a paper signed ' J. B.' and sent to 
members of parliament with being privy to a 
plot to take Godfrey's life. Danby's secretary, 
Edward Christian, deemed it wise to rebut 
in a pamphlet the absurd charge, which was 
repeated by Fitzharris in 1680 (cf. Reflec- 
tions upon a Paper entitled Reflections upon 
the Earl of Danby in relation to Sir Edmund 
Barry Godfrey's murder, 1679; Vindication 
of the Duke of Leeds, 1711). At length on 
21 Dec. 1678, Miles Prance, a Roman ca- 
tholic silversmith, who sometimes worked in 
the queen's chapel at Somerset House, was 
arrested on the false testimony of a default- 
ing debtor as a catholic conspirator. Much tor- 
ture and repeated cross-examinations elicited 
from him a confession of complicity in God- 
frey's murder, 24Dec. Certain catholic priests, 
according to Prance, decided on Godfrey's 
murder because he was a zealous protestant 
and a powerful abettor of Oates, and they 
and their associates dogged his steps for 
many days. On 12 Oct. he was enticed into 
the courtyard of Somerset House, where the 
queen lived, on the pretext that two of her 
servants were fighting there. The murderers 
were awaiting him. He was straightway 
strangled in the presence of three priests, 
Vernatti, Gerald, and Kelley, by Robert 
Green, cushionman in the queen's chapel, 





Lawrence Hill, servant to Dr. Thomas God- 
den [q. v.], treasurer of the chapel, and Henry 
Berry, porter of Somerset House. Meanwhile 
Prance watched one of the gates to prevent 
interruption. The body was kept at Somerset 
House till the following Wednesday night, 
when it was carried by easy stages in a sedan 
chair to Primrose Hill, and left as it was 
found. Prance said that he afterwards at- 
tended a meeting of Jesuits and priests at Bow 
to celebrate the deed. Green, Hill, and Berry j 
were arrested. Before the trial Prance re- 
canted his story, but a few days later reas- 
serted its truth. On 5 Feb. 1678-9 he swore , 
in court to his original declaration. Bedloe 
appeared to corroborate it, and deposed to 
offers of money being made to him by Lefaire, 
Pritchard, and other priests early in October j 
to join in the crime. But his allegation did ! 
not agree in detail with Prance's statement. ' 
One of Godfrey's servants swore that Hill' 
and Green had called with messages at her 
master's house on or before the fatal Satur- 
day. The prisoners strenuously denied their j 
guilt, and called witnesses to prove an alibi. 
They were, however, convicted. Green and 
Hill, both Roman catholics, were hanged at 
Tyburn on 21 Feb., and Berry, in considera- 
tion of his being a protestant, a week later. 
On 8 Feb. Samuel Atkins, a servant of Pepys, 
was tried as an accessory before the fact on 
Bedloe's evidence. But Bedloe's story was 
so flimsy that Atkins was acquitted. 

The populace was satisfied. Primrose Hill, 
which had been known at an earlier period 
as Greenberry Hill, was rechristened by that 
name in reference to the three alleged mur- 
derers. Somerset House was nicknamed God- 
frey Hall. Illustrated broadsides set forth 
all the details of the alleged murder there. 
But Prance was at once suspected by sober 
critics of having concocted the whole story, 
which Bedloe alone had ventured to corrobo- 
rate. He was soon engaged in a paper war- 
fare with Sir Roger L'Estrange and other 
pamphleteers who doubted his evidence. 'A 
Letter to Miles Prance,' signed Trueman 
(1680), was answered by Prance in 'Sir 
E. B. G.'s Ghost,' which in its turn was an- 
swered by ' A second Letter to Miles Prance ' 
(13 March 1681-2). The ' Loyal Protestant 
Intelligencer' on 7 and 11 March 1681-2 
severely denounced the trial of Green, Berry, j 
and Hill as judicial murder. Immediately j 
afterwardsthe theory of Godfrey's suicide was 
revived. On 20 June 1682 Nathaniel Thomp- 
son, William Pain, and John Farwell were 
found guilty at Westminster of having cir- 
culated pamphlets discrediting the justice of 
the trial of Green, Berry, and Hill, and with 
having asserted that Godfrey killed himself. 

They were sentenced to fines of 100/. each, 
while Thompson and Farwell had in addition 
to stand in the pillory in Old Palace Yard. 
Some new evidence was adduced at their trial 
to show that Godfrey was undoubtedly mur- 
dered, but no clue to the perpetrators was 
discovered. Prance's story was finally de- 
molished when on 15 June 1686 he pleaded 
guilty to perjury in having concocted all his 
evidence. He was fined 100/., and was or- 
dered to stand in the pillory, and to be 
whipped from Newgate to Tyburn. 

The mystery remains unsolved. The most 
probable theory is that Gates and his despe- 
rate associates caused Godfrey to be murdered 
to give colour to their false allegations, and 
to excite popular opinion in favour of their 

A portrait of Godfrey hangs in the vestry- 
room of the parish of St. Martin's-in-the- 
Fields. An engraving by Van Houe is pre- 
fixed to Tuke's ' Memoires,' 1682. In 1696 
Godfrey's brotherBenjamin repaired the tablet 
above the grave of their younger brother 
(1628^tO) in the east cloister of Westminster, 
and added a Latin inscription giving the date 
of Sir Edmund's murder. A silver tankard, 
now belonging to the borough of Sudbury, 
Suffolk, bears Godfrey's arms and an inscrip- 
tion recounting his services at the plague and 
fire of London. It is apparently a copy, made 
for Godfrey for presentation to a friend, of the 
tankard presented to him by Charles II in 1666. 
An engraving is in the ' Gentleman's Maga- 
zine,' 1848, pt. ii. p. 483. Seven medallion-por- 
traits of Godfrey are in the British Museum. 
(For engravings of these see PINKEKTON, Me- 
dallions relating to History of England, plate 

[Tuke's Memoires of the Life and Death of Sir 
Edmondbury Godfrey, Lond. 1682, dedicated to 
Charles II, with two poems on the murder ap- 
pended, ' Bacchanalia ' and ' The Proclamation 
Promoted ; ' Nichols's Topographer and Genealo- 
gist, 1852, ii. 459 et seq. ; W. Lloyd's Funeral 
Sermon, 1678; Howell's State Trials, vi. 1410 et 
seq., vii. 159 et seq., viii. 1378-80; Aubrey's Lives 
in Letters from the Bodleian Library, ii. 359 ; 
Pepys's Diary ; Luttrell's Brief Relation ; Reres- 
by's Memoirs, ed. Cartwright ; Burnet's History 
of his Own Time: Gent. Mag. 1848, ii. 483-90; 
Cat. of Prints and Drawings in the British Mu- 
seum (Satirical), i. ; Thornbury and Walford's 
Old and New London; Macaulay's History; Hal- 
lam's History. The True and Perfect Narrative, 
1678, supplies an impartial account of the.finding 
of the body and the inquest. Prance's True 
Narrative and Discovery, 1679; his Additional 
Narrative, 1679; his Lestrange a Papist, 1681 ; 
his Solemn Protestation against Lestrange, 1 682, 
and A Succinct Narrative with Prance's story 
repeated, 1683, give Prance's allegations. The 




Letters to Prance and the Anti-Protestant, or 
Miles against Prance, 1682, contain the chief con- 
temporary criticism of his testimony. England's 
Grand Memorial, 1679 (with Godfrey's character); 
The Solemn Mock Procession of Pope, Cardinals, 
&C..1679 and 1680; London Drollery, 1680; The 
Popish Damnable Plot, 1680; the Dreadful Appari- 
tion the Pope Haunted, 1680 ; A True Narrative 
of the . . . Plot, 1680, give broadside illustrations 
of the murder and recapitulate Prance's story. 
For other ballads see Bagford Ballads, ed. Ebs- 
worth, ii. 662-85, and Roxburghe Ballads, ed. 
Ebsworth, iv.] S. L. L. 

GODFREY, MICHAEL (d. 1695), finan- 
cier, was the eldest son of Michael God- 
frey (1624-1689), merchant, of London, and 
Woodford, Essex, eleventh son of Thomas 
Godfrey of Hodiford, Kent, by his wife, 
Anne Mary Chambrelan. His father was 
brother of Sir Edmund Berry Godfrey [q. v.], 
and foreman of the grand jury who found a 
true bill against Edward Fitzharris [q. v.] 
for high treason. The younger Godfrey and 
his brother Peter were merchants, and their 
father predicted that their speculations would 
speedily ' bring into hotchpott ' the whole 
of their ample fortunes. Godfrey supported 
William Paterson in the establishment of 
the Bank of England in 1694. He was re- 
warded by being elected the first deputy- 
governor of the bank. Soon afterwards he 
published an able pamphlet entitled, ' A Short 
Account of the Bank of England,' which was 
reissued after his death, and has also been 
included in both editions of the ' Somera 
Tracts.' On 15 Aug. 1694 Godfrey was 
chosen one of fifteen persons to prepare by- 
laws for the new bank (LUTTRELL, Historical 
Relation of State Affairs, 1857, iii. 357). At 
a general court held on 16 May 1695, at 
which Peter Godfrey was elected a director, 
the bank resolved to establish a branch at 
Antwerp, in order to coin money to pay the 
troops in Flanders. Deputy-governors Sir 
James Houblon, Sir William Scawen, and 
Michael Godfrey were therefore appointed to 
go thither 'to methodise the same, his ma- 
jesty and the elector of Bavaria having agreed 
theretoo ' (ib. iii. 473). On their arrival at 
Namur, then besieged by William, the king 
invited them to dinner in his tent. They 
went out of curiosity into the trenches, where 
a cannon-ball from the works of the besieged 
killed Godfrey as he stood near the king, 
17 July 1695. ' Being an eminent merchant,' 
writes Luttrell, ' he is much lamented ; this 
news has abated the actions of the bank 21. 
per cent.' (iii. 503). He was buried near his 
father in the church of St. Swithin, Wai- 
brook, where his mother erected a tablet to 
his memory (Slow, Survey, ed. Strype, bk. ii. 

E. 193). He was a bachelor. A Michael God- 
:ey was surveyor-accountant of St. Paul's 
school in 1682-3 (Admission Registers, ed. 
Gardiner, p. 394). 

[Wills of the elder and younger Michael God- 
frey registered in P. C. C. 175, Ent, and 130, 
Irby ; Luttrell's Historical Kelation of State 
Affairs, 1857 ; Francis's Hist, of Bank of Eng- 
land, 3rd ed. ; Macaulay's Hist, of England, 
chaps, xx. xxi.; Will of Peter Godfrey, No- 
vember 1 724, P. C. C. 245, Bolton.] G. G. 


(b. 1728), engraver, born in London in 1728, 
is principally known as an engraver of views 
and antiquities. Many of these were done 
from his own drawings, and, if of little ar- 
tistic value, have considerable archaeological 
interest. Most of them were executed for 
Grose's ' Antiquarian Repertory ' in 1775, a 
work which Godfrey appears to have had 
some share in editing. Others appeared in 
Grose's ' Antiquities of England and Wales.' 
Godfrey also engraved some portraits, in- 
cluding J. G. Holman, the actor, after De 
Wilde ; Samuel Foote, the actor, after Col- 
son ; and the Rev. William Gostling, author 
of a ' Walk about Canterbury ' in 1777. God- 
frey exhibited some sea pieces, after Brook- 
ing, and other engravings at the Society of 
Artists from 1765 to 1770. He also en- 
graved plates for Bell's ' British Theatre.' 

[Dodd's MS. Hist, of English Engravers (Brit. 
Mus. Addit. MS. 33410); Redgrave's Diet, of 
Artists ; Catalogues of the Society of Artists.] 

L. C. 

GODFREY, THOMAS (1736-1763),poet 
and dramatist, born in Philadelphia on 4 Dec. 
1736, was the son of Thomas Godfrey (1704- 
1749), glazier and mathematician, who con- 
structed an improved quadrant at about the 
same time as John Hadley [q. v.] He re- 
ceived an ordinary education, and was ap- 
prenticed to a watchmaker, though he wished, 
it is said, to become a painter. In 1758 he 
obtained a lieutenant's commission in the pro- 
vincial forces raised for an expedition against 
Fort Duquesne. On the disbanding of the 
troops in the spring of 1759 he went to North 
Carolina, and found employment as a factor. 
Here he composed a tragedy called ' The 
Prince of Parthia,' which was offered to a 
company performing in Philadelphia in 1759. 
This piece, which was printed in 1765, is con- 
sidered tobe the first play written in America. 
After remaining in North Carolina for three 
years Godfrey was obliged by the death of 
his employer to return to Philadelphia. He 
subsequently went as supercargo to New Pro- 
vidence. In his homeward journey through 
North Carolina he caught a fever, from which, 




he died near Wilmington on 3 Aug. 1763. 
Besides contributing verses to the 'American 
Magazine/ a Philadelphian periodical, God- 
frey published in 1763 ' The Court of Fancy,' 
a poem modelled in part on the pseudo- 
Chaucer's ' House of Fame.' A volume of his 
poems, with a biographical sketch by his 
friend Nathaniel Evans, appeared in 1767. 

[Baker's Biographia Dramatica (Reed and 
Jones), i. 279-80, iii. 180; Appleton's Cyclopaed. 
of Amer. Biog. ii. 669.] G. G. 

GODHAM, ADAM (d. 1358). [See 

GODIVA or GODGIFU (ft. 1040-1080), 
benefactress, was sister to Thorold of Buck- 
nail, sheriff of Lincolnshire. Her name is 
presented in seventeen different forms ; God- 

fife is in the Stow charter, Godiva in the 
palding charter (both printed by Kemble, 
but probably spurious) ; the Domesday spell- 
ing is Godeva. Freeman gives Godgifu. 
Some time before 1040 she married Leofric, 
earl of Chester [q. v.] In the ' Liber Eliensis ' 
(end of twelfth century) there is mention of a 
Godiva, widow of an earl, 'regnante Canute' 
(1017-1035). She, in prospect of death, wrote 
to yElfric the bishop (of Elmham and Dun- 
wich, 1028-32), and Leofric the abbot (of Ely, 
1022-29), giving to Ely monastery the estate 
of Berchinges (Barking, Suffolk), which was 
hers 'parentum hsereditate.' By will she 
added to the gift the lands of ^Estre or Plassiz 
(High Easter, Good Easter, and Pleshey, Suf- 
folk), Fanbrege (North and South Fambridge, 
Essex) and Terlinges (Terling, Essex). If 
this was our Godiva, it would follow that 
she recovered from her illness of 1028-9, and 
that her union with Earl Leofric was a second 
marriage. In the Spalding charter, as in the 
Domesday survey, she bears the title ' comi- 
tissa ; ' it does not appear that the title of 

* lady ' belonged to her degree in the usage 
of her time; in the Stow charter she is 
simply ' Sees eorles pif.' She is described as 
a person of great beauty and a devoted lover 
of the Virgin Mary. About 1040 she inte- 
rested herself in the erection of the monastery 
at Stow, Lincolnshire, and made considerable 
benefactions to it, both jointly with her hus- 
band and on her own part. 

At Coventry, Warwickshire, which was a 

* villa ' belonging to her husband, there had 
"been a convent, of which St. Osburg was 
abbess ; it was burned when Eadric [see 
EDEIC or EADEIC STREONA] ravaged the dis- 
trict in 1016. Godiva induced her husband 
to found here, in 1043, a Benedictine monas- 
tery for an abbot and twenty-four monks. 
The church was dedicated to St. Mary, St. 
Peter, St. Osburg, and All Saints on 4 Oct. 

by Eadsige [q. v.], archbishop of Canterbury. 
Besides joining her husband in rich gifts of 
land, including a moiety of Coventry, Godiva 
from time to time made the church of this 
monastery resplendent with gold and gems 
to a degree unequalled in England at that 
date. William of Malmesbury says that the 
very walls seemed too narrow for the re- 
ceptacles of treasures. It abounded also in 
relics, the most precious being the arm of 
St. Augustine of Hippo, enclosed in a silver 
case, bearing an inscription to the effect that 
Ethelnoth [q. v.], archbishop of Canterbury, 
had bought it at Pavia for a hundred talents 
of silver and a talent of gold. Unless the 
inception of the Coventry monastery was 
much earlier than the dedication of the church, 
this relic cannot have been given to Coventry 
by Ethelnoth {d. 1038); it may have been given 
byEadsige. In 1051 Godiva's mark is appended 
to the charter of her brother Thorold, found- 
ing the Benedictine monastery at Spalding, 
Lincolnshire, with the words : ' + Ego Godiva 
Comitissa diu istud desideravi.' She is com- 
memorated also as a benefactress to the monas- 
teries of Leominster, Herefordshire, Wen- 
lock, Shropshire, St. Werburg, Chester, Wor- 
cester, and Evesham, Worcestershire. Leofric, 
at her instigation, granted to monasteries 
sundry lands which had been alienated from 
church uses. A petition from Godiva to Pope 
Victor (1055-7) is given by Kemble, who 
marks it doubtful, and assigns it to 1060-6. 
Her fame as a religious foundress has been 
eclipsed by the story of her Coventry ride, 
around which legend has freely grown. Ob- 
jection has-been taken to the whole story on 
the ground that in Godiva's time there was 
no ' city ' of Coventry. The simplest and 
apparently the oldest form of the narrative is 
given by Roger of Wendover, whose ' Flores ' 
come down to within two years of his death 
(6 May 1237), but who is dependent up to 
1154 (or perhaps 1188) on the work of an 
unknown earlier writer. Roger represents 
Godiva as begging the release of the ' villa ' 
of Coventry from a heavy bondage of toll. 
Leofric replied, ' Mount your horse naked, 
and pass through the market of the villa, 
from one end to the other, when the people 
are assembled, and on your return you shall 
obtain what you ask.' Accordingly Godiva, 
attended by two soldiers, rode through the 
market-place, her long hair down, so that no 
one saw her, ' apparentibus cruribus tamen 
candidissimis.' Leofric, struck with admi- 
ration, granted the release by charter. The 
chronicle ascribed to John Brompton [q. v.] 
of the late fourteenth century gives a briefer 
account, omits the escort and the market, and 
asserts without qualification that no one saw 




her. Matthew of Westminster, whose annals 
extend to 1307, combines the language of these 
two accounts, but still omits the escort, and 
makes a miracle of Godiva's invisibility. He 
first speaks of a charter granted by Leofric to 
the ' city.' Ralph Higden (d.1363), followed by 
Henry of Knighton, gives to the story a single 
sentence, of which the natural meaning is that 
Leofric, in consequence of the ride, freed his 
city of Coventry from all toll except that on 
horses. It is possible that an erroneous in- 
terpretation has suggested the ballad in the 
'Percy Folio' (about 1 650), according to which 
Coventry was already free except from horse 
toll. This ballad first mentions Godiva's 
order that all persons should keep within 
doors and shut their windows, and affirms 
that ' no person did her see.' That one per- 
son disobeyed the order seems to be first 
stated by Rapin (1732). Jago, in ' Edge 
Hill' (1767, bk. ii.), speaks of 'one prying 
slave,' and hints at his punishment by loss 
of sight; Pennant (1782) calls him 'a certain 
taylor.' The name ' peeping Tom,' which, as 
Freeman observes, could only have belonged 
to 'one of king Ead ward's Frenchmen,' oc- 
curs in the city accounts on 11 June 1773, 
when a new wig and fresh paint were supplied 
for his effigy. Poole quotes from the ' Gen- 
tleman's Magazine,' ' at nearly the close of 
the last century,' a letter from Canon Seward, 
which makes the peeper ' a groom of the 
countess,' named Action (? Actaeon). 

The rationalistic interpretation by Water- 
ton and others, referring to Godiva's 'strip- 
ping herself to benefit the church, is out of 
place, for the church gained nothing by the 
ride. As the story is older than the sacred 
plays of Coventry, it is unnecessary to discuss 
Conway's suggestion that ' Godeva ' has got 
mixed up with ' good Eve.' In its first form 
the tale may contain a kernel of truth. The 
monastery would attract a market ; it is cre- 
dible that Godiva, under religious impulse, 
accepted a condition, meant to be impossible, 
in order to relieve ' poor traders resorting to 
the villa ' (BROMPTON). Drayton's fine lines 
(Poly-Olbion, 1613, xiii.) give the spirit of the 
episode. The argument from the silence of 
the Saxon chronicler (who does not mention 
her at all), Ordericus Vitalis, William of 
Malmesbury, Henry of Huntingdon, the Mel- 
rose chronicler, and other writers of the 
twelfth century like Simeon of Durham, Flo- 
rence of Worcester, and Roger of Hoveden, 
who are practically identical, may be met by 
considering that the incident was purely local, 
and the same fastidiousness which softened 
some of its circumstances by the aid of mi- 
racle may have contributed to its omission. 
Hales sees a reference to the story, earlier 

than any direct narrative, in the fact that 
Queen Maud 'received the sobriquet of Godiva' 
from her English sympathies ; by a further 
confusion Walter Bower (d. 1449) [q. v.] 
tells the story of Matilda, queen of Henry II. 
Painters commit the anachronism of seating 
Godiva on her horse in the modern way, in- 
troduced by Anne of Bohemia [q.v.] Peacham 
says (1641) that 'her picture so riding is set 
up in glasse in a window in St. Michael's 
church in the same city.' Dugdale (1656) 
says the pictures of both Leofric and Godiva 
were placed about the time of Richard II in 
a south window of Trinity Church, Leofric 
holding a charter with the legend 

I Luriche for the love of thee 
Doe make Coventre Tol-free. 

Burgess gives, from Dr. Stukeley's notebook, 
a drawing of these window-portraits (of which 
no trace remains) with a slightly different 
legend ; Luriche is Leuricus, for Levricus. 
The ' Godiva procession ' at Coventry, first 
annual, then triennial (last procession 1887), 
is no survival of a mediaeval pageant. The 
manuscript city annals show that it was insti- 
tuted on 31 May 1678, during the mayoralty 
of Michael Earle, as ' a new Show on the Sum- 
mer or Great Fair ; ' on that occasion ' James 
Swinnerton's son represented Lady Godina.' 
This form of the name, obviously originating 
from a misreading, is mentioned by Dugdale, 
and is found in Evans and in a Canterbury 
broadsheet. The original procession was 
official, the mediaeval adjuncts (except Bishop 
Blaise, patron of the woolcombers) were in- 
troduced when the reformed corporation 
ceased to take part in it. The oaken figure 
of a man in armour, now known as 'peeping 
Tom,' was probably an image of St. George ; 
it was removed from Grey Friars Lane, and 
placed in its present position at the north- 
west corner of Hertford Street, on the forma- 
tion of that street in 1812. Of recent years 
a rival figure has adorned the south-west 

Leofric died on 31 Aug. 1057. How long 
Godiva survived him is not known. It 
seems probable that she died a few years be- 
fore the Domesday survey (1085-6). Part 
only of her lands are included in the Domes- 
day Book. A rosary of gems, worth one 
hundred marks of silver, she left to be placed 
round the neck of the image of the Virgin in 
the abbey church at Coventry. In one of its 
two porches she was buried, her husband lying 
in the other. She was the mother of ^Elfgar 


[Ordericus Vitalis, in Duchesne's Historise 
Normannorum Scriptores Antiqui, 1619, p. 511, 
and in Migne's Patrologise Cursus, clxxxviii. ; 

Godkin 3 

William of Malmesbury, Gesta Regum (Rolls 
Ser.), i. 123-4, and Gesta Pontificum (Rolls 
Ser.), 309-11; Roger of Hoveden (Rolls Ser.), 
ed. Stubbs, i. 103 ; Roger of Wendover's Flores 
Historiarum, ed. Coxe, 1841 (Engl. Hist, Soc.), 
i. 497 ; John of Brompton in Twysdeu's Hist. 
Anglic. Scriptt. Decem. 1652, p. 949; Matthew 
of Westminster, ed. 1601, p. 216 sq., ed. 1570, 
p. 423 sq. ; Ralph Higden (Rolls Ser.), ed. 1879, 
vii. 198; Henry of Knighton (Rolls iSer.), i. 43- 
44 ; John of Peterborough, ed. Giles, 1845, p. 49 ; 
John of Tynemouth, in Percy Folio, 1868, p. 544 ; 
Walter of Coventry (Rolls Ser.), ed. Stubbs, 1872, 
i. 72; Kemble's Codex Diplomaticus, 1846 (Engl. 
Hist. Soc.), iv. 128, 168 ; Hist. Eccles. Eliensis, in 
Gale, 1691, iii. 503, cf. Liber Eliensis, ed. Stewart, 
1848; RyhenPameach (Henry Peacham, jun.), 
Dialogue between the Crosse in Cheap and Charing 
Crosse, 1641; Dugdale's Warwickshire, 1656, p. 
86 sq., ed. Thomas, 1730, p. 135 sq. ; Dugdale's 
Baronage, 1675, i. 9 sq. ; Dugdale's Monasticon, 
ed. Caley, Ellis, and Bandinel, 1821, iii. 1 sq., 
177sq.; Evans's Old Ballads, 1726,ii.34; Rapin's 
Hist, of England, 1732, i. 135 ; How Coventry 
was made free by Godina, Countess of Chester 
(broadsheet ballad, from Evans, Canterbury 
[1780], British Museum C. 20, c. 41 (16); Pen- 
nant's Journey from Chester to London, 1782, 
p. 139 ; M. D.'Conway in Harper's Monthly Mag. 
1866, xxxiii. 625 sq.; Percy Folio, ed. Hales and 
Furnivall, 1868, iii. 473 sq.; Freeman's Hist. 
Norman Conquest, 1868, ii. 1871, iv. ; Poole's 
Coventry, its Hist, and Antiq. 1870 ; Burgess's 
Historic Warwickshire [1875], p. 75 sq. ; King 
Eadward's Charter to Coventry Monastery, ed. 
Birch, 1889; collections relating to LadyGodiva, 
in Free Public Library, Coventry ; extracts from 
manuscript city annals, Coventry, per W. G. 
Fretton, F.S.A; extracts from the manuscript 
Liber Eliensis in the cathedral library, Ely, per 
the Rev. J. H. Crosby.] A. G. 

GODKIN, JAMES (1806-1879), writer 
on Ireland, was born at Gorey, co. Wexford, 
in 1806. Ordained pastor of a dissenting 
congregation at Armagh in 1834, he after- 
wards became a general missionary to Roman 
catholics, in connection with the Irish Evan- 
gelical Society, and in 1836 issued ' A Guide 
from the Church of Rome to the Church of 
Christ.' In 1842 he published ' The Touch- 
stone of Orthodoxy ' and ' Apostolic Christi- 
anity, or the People's Antidote against Pusey- 
ism and Romanism.' Having written a prize 
essay on federalism in 1845 (' The Rights of 
Ireland'), Godkin's connection with the Irish 
Evangelical Society ceased, and he turned his 
attention to journalism. Proceeding to London 
inl847,hebecamealeaderwriterfor provincial 
journals, Irish and Scotch, and a contributor 
to reviews and magazines. He published in 
1848 ' The Church Principles of the NewTesta- 
ment.' Returning to Ireland in 1849, Godkin 
established in Belfast the ' Christian Patriot.' 


He afterwards became editor of the ' Deny 
Standard,' and then, removing to Dublin, he 
for several years held the chief editorial post 
on the ' Daily Express.' While engaged on 
this paper he acted as Dublin correspondent 
for the London ' Times.' For thirty years 
Godkin was a close student of every phase 
of the Irish question. In 1850 he was an 
active member of the Irish Tenant League. 

Some of Godkin's writings on ecclesias- 
tical and land questions had a large influ- 
ence. Before the introduction of Mr. Glad- 
stone's Irish legislative measures in the House 
of Commons Godkin published an elaborate 
treatise on 'Ireland and her Churches' (1867), 
advocating church equality and tenant secu- 
rity for the Irish people. In 1869 God- 
kin, as special commissioner of the ' Irish 
Times,' traversed the greater part of Ulster 
and portions of the south of Ireland in order 
to ascertain the feelings of the farmers and 
the working classes on the land question. 
The result of these investigations appeared in 
his work, ' The Land War in Ireland ' (1870). 

In 1871 Godkin wrote, in conjunction with 
John A. Walker, ' The New Handbook of 
Ireland,' and in 1873 he published his ' Reli- 
gious History of Ireland ; Primitive, Papal, 
and Protestant.' He was also the author of 
' Religion and Education in India.' and an 
' Illustrated History of England from 1820 
to the Death of the Prince Consort.' On the 
recommendation of Mr. Gladstone the queen 
conferred a'pension on Godkin in 1873 for his 
literary merit and services. He died in 1879. 

[Read's Cabinet of Irish Literature ; Ward's 
Men of the Reign ; Godkin's Works.] 

G. B. S. 

GODLEY, JOHN ROBERT (1814-1861), 
politician, eldest son of John Godley of Kil- 
legar, co. Leitrim, was born in 1814. He was 
educated at Harrow, and at Christ Church, 
Oxford, where he proceeded B.A. 27 Oct.1836. 
He was afterwards called to the English bar, 
but practised little, if at all. He travelled a 
good deal. ' Letters from America ' (2 vols. 
1844) described the impressions produced on 
him by a visit to that country. He early 
turned his attention to colonisation, propos- 
ing to partially relieve the distress which 
the impending Irish famine was soon to bring 
on, by the emigration of one million of the 
population to Canada. The means were to be 
provided by Ireland. The ministry rejected 
the plan. Godley acted as magistrate, grand 
juror, and poor law guardian in his native 
county, for which he stood in the tory inte- 
rest, but unsuccessfully, in 1847. Godley 
now became intimate with Edward Gibbon 
Wakefi eld, in whose ' Theory of Colonisation ' 




he cordially concurred. This intimacy led to 
the founding of Canterbury, New Zealand, on 
a plan elaborated by Godley, ' which required 
that ample funds should be provided out of 
the proceeds of the land sales for the religious 
and educational wants of the community 
about to be established.' 

In December 1849, the state of his health 
forcing him to leave England, he went to 
New Zealand, where he at once became in- 
terested in colonial politics and in the by 
no means flourishing affairs of Canterbury. 
Amidst many difficulties, but with clear hope 
for the future, he guided for some years its 
* infant fortunes.' His view of colonial ma- 
nagement he stated thus briefly and empha- 
tically : ' I would rather be governed by a 
Nero on the spot than by a board of angels 
in London, because we could, if the worst 
came to the worst, cut off Nero's head, but 
we could not get at the board in London 
at all ' (Memoir, p. 18). He left for England 
22 Dec. 1852. On his return he was ap- 
pointed to a commissionership of income tax 
in Ireland. Thence he went to the war office, 
and was assistant under-secretary at war under 
"the secretaryships of Lord Panmure, General 
Peel, and Lord Herbert. He died at Glou- 
cester Place, Portman Square, 17 Nov. 1861. 
He married Charlotte, daughter of C. G. 
Nynne, esq., of Vodas, Denbighshire. His 
eldest son, John Arthur Godley, became per- 
manent under-secretary of state for India in 

Besides the work mentioned Godley wrote : 
"* Observations on an Irish Poor Law ' (Dub- 
lin, 1847). A selection from his writings 
and speeches, with a portrait and memoir, 
edited by J. E. Fitzgerald, was published at 
Christchurch, New Zealand, in 1863. 

[Memoir above referred to; Cat. of Oxford 
Graduates, 1659-1856, p. 262 ; Gent. Mag. De- 
cember 1861, p. 698; Brit. Mus. Cat.] F. W-T. 

dramatist, was the son of Isaac Godmond 
(d. 1809), one of the vicars of Ripon Cathe- 
dral. He lived at various times in Ripon, 
London, Lee in Kent, and Teignmouth in 
Devonshire. On 9 Aug. 1804 he married 
Mary, eldest daughter of John Collinson of 
Gravel Lane, Southwark, and by this lady, 
who died on 13 Feb. 1815, had a daughter 
{ Gent. May. vol. Ixxiv. pt. ii. p. 783, vol. Ixxxv. 
pt. i. p. 279). He was elected F.S.A. on 
50 Nov. 1837 (ib. new ser. ix. 79), but was 
declared a defaulter on 19 April 1849. He 
was author of: 1. 'Memoir of Therrouanne, 
the ancient capital of the Morini in Gaul . . . 
also a discourse on the Portus Itius of Caesar, 
with . . . notes,' 8vo, London, 1836. 2. <The 

Campaign of 1346, ending with the battle of 
Crecy ; an historical drama, in five acts [and 
in verse], with notes and memoirs of some 
of the . . . characters of the drama,' 8vo, Lon- 
don, 1836. 3. ' Vincenzo, Prince of Mantua ; 
or, the Death of Crichton, a tragic drama, in 
five acts. Also the battle of Crecy, an his- 
torical drama in five acts ; with a memoir of 
the Campaigns of Edward the Third in the 
years 1345, 1346, and 1347, and a defence of 
his conduct to Eustace St. Pierre on the sur- 
render of Calais,' 3 pts., 8vo, printed for the 
author, London, 1840-36-40. 

[Proceedings of Society of Antiquaries, 1849 ; 
Gent. Mag. vol. Ixxix. pt. ii. p. 990.] G. G. 

OF GODOLPHIN (1678-1766), only child of 
Sidney Godolphin, first earl of Godolphin 
[q. v.J, was born in Whitehall, London, on 
3 Sept. 1678, and baptised the same day. His 
mother, Margaret [q.v.], dying on 9 Sept., John 
Evelyn, who had been her most intimate ac- 
quaintance, transferred his friendship to her 
infant son, took charge of the general super- 
intendence of his education, and continued to 
take an interest in his welfare after he had 
grown to man's estate. Francis Godolphin 
was educated at Eton, and at King's College, 
Cambridge, where he took his M.A. degree 
in 1705. His first public appointment was 
that of joint registrar of the court of chancery 
on 29 June 1698, which he held to 20 Jan. 
1727, holding also the place of one of the 
tellers of the exchequer from 1699 to 1704. 
He was chosen representative for East Looe 
in Cornwall on 1 Dec. 1701, but on 4 Feb. 
1701-2 elected to serve for Helston, and sat 
for that constituency till 21 Sept. 1710. As 
cofferer of the household he was in office 
from 1704 to 1711, and acted as lord warden 
of the stannaries, high steward of the duchy 
of Cornwall, and rider and master forester of 
Dartmoor from 1705 to 1708. He was known 
under the courtesy title of Viscount Rialton 
from 29 Dec. 1706 till 1712. He sat for the 
county of Oxford from 1708 to 1710, and 
forTregony in Cornwall from the latter date 
until he was elevated to the upper house as 
second Earl of Godolphin on the death of 
his father on 15 Sept. 1712. He was again 
cofferer of the household 1714-23, lord- 
lieutenant of the county of Oxford 1715- 
1735, lord of the bedchamber to George I 
1716, high steward of Banbury 1718, and a 
privy councillor 26 May 1723. To George II 
he was groom of the stole, and first lord of 
the bedchamber 1727-35. He was named 
high steward of Woodstock 18 March 1728, 
and the same day appointed governor of the 
Scilly Islands. On 23 Jan. 1735 he was 

Godolphin A 

created Baron Godolphin of Helston in Corn- 
wall, with special remainder, in default of his 
own issue, to the heirs male of his deceased 
uncle, Dr. Henry Godolphin [q. v.], dean of 
St. Paul's. During the king's absence from 
Great Britain in 1723, 1725, and 1727 he acted 
as one of the lords j ustices of the United King- 
dom. Finally, as lord privy seal, he was in 
office from 14 May 1735 to 25 April 1740. The 
pocket borough of Helston, not far from his 
ancestral home, Godolphin House, was under 
his patronage for many years, and sent his 
nominees to parliament. In return for this 
complaisance he rebuilt Helston Church in 
1763, at an expense of 6,000, and it was also 
his custom to pay the rates and taxes for all the 
electors in the borough. It is said that he only 
read two works, Burnet's 'History of his own 
Time' and Colley Gibber's ' Apology.' W'hen 
he had perused them throughout he began 
them again. He died on 17 Jan. 1766, and 
was buried in Kensington Church on 25 Jan., 
when the earldom of Godolphin, viscounty 
of Rialton, and barony of Godolphin of Rial- 
ton became extinct; but the barony of Godol- 
phin of Helston devolved upon his cousin 
Francis Godolphin, who became the second 
Baron Godolphin of Helston. 

Godolphin married, in March 1698, Lady 
Henrietta, eldest daughter of John Churchill, 
the first duke of Marlborough. She was born 
20 July, and baptised at St. Martin's-in-the- 
Fields, London, 29 July 1681 . On the death of 
her father, 16 June 1722, she became Duchess 
of Marlborough, and dying 24 Oct. 1733 was 
buried in Westminster Abbey on 9 Nov. She 
acquired much notoriety by her attachment 
to William Congreve, the dramatist [q. v.] 

[Evelyn's Diary (1852), ii. 123, 124, 126,225, 
230, 350, 369 ; Granger's Biog. Hist. (Noble's 
continuation), iii. 42 ; Doyle's Baronage (1886), 
ii. 33-4, -with portrait; John Taylor's Kecords 
of my Life (1832), i. 75-7 ; Lyte's Eton College 
(1875), pp. 325, 356; Boaseand Courtney's Bibl. 
Cornub. pp. 177, 1199, 1411.] G. C. B. 

GODOLPHIN, HENRY (1648-1733), 
provost of Eton and dean of St. Paul's, 
fourth son of Sir Francis Godolphin, and 
younger brother of Sidney, first earl of 
Godolphin [q. v.], by Dorothy, second daugh- 
ter of Sir Henry Berkeley of Yarlington, 
Somersetshire, was born at Godolphin House, 
Cornwall, on 15 Aug. 1648, baptised at Breage 
20 Aug., and admitted at Eton 8 Oct. 1665. 
He matriculated from Wadham College, Ox- 
ford, 30 Aug. 1664, and took his B.A. in 1668. 
In the same year he was elected a fellow of 
All Souls,whence he proceeded M . A. 1 672, and 
B.D. and D.D. 11 July 1685. He was made 
a fellow of Eton College 14 April 1677, and 

> Godolphin 

in obedience to a royal mandate was nominated 
provost of the college 16 Oct. 1695, and insti- 
tuted 30 Oct. At Eton he was a considerable 
benefactor to the school, contributing in 1700 
1.0002. towards the expense of altering the 
chapel, and erecting at his own cost a copper 
statue of the founder, Henry VI, in the 
schoolyard. He was nominated Sneating pre- 
bendary of St. Paul's, London, 13 Nov. 1683, 
holding the prebend till his decease. After 
the death of Dr. William Sherlock he was 
elected dean of St. Paul's, 14 July 1707, 
and installed on 18 July, but resigning the 
deanery in October 1726, he returned to the 
duties of the provostship of Eton, a position 
much better suited to his abilities and tem- 
perament. During his tenure of office at St. 
Paul's he had greatly thwarted Sir Chris- 
topher Wren in his efforts to erect a suitable 
cathedral. In 1720 he gave to the city of 
Salisbury certain moneys, then vested in 
foreign funds, to be applied to the education of 
eight young gentlewomen whose parents be- 
longed to the church of England. This money, 
after some delay, was remitted to England, 
but the business was thrown into chancery, 
and it was not until 1788 that the charity 
could be established (HoAKE, Wiltshire, 1843, 
vi. 516, 533, 536, 830). Mr. Willymott, 
vice-provost of King's College, Cambridge, in 
1722 brought out a new translation of ' Imi- 
tation of Christ, by Thomas a Kempis, four 
books, together with his three tabernacles of 
Poverty, Humility, and Patience.' This work 
was originally dedicated to ' Dr. Godolphin, 
provost of Eton,' but when Willymott recol- 
lected that Godolphin had abused the fellows 
of that college, the dedication was cancelled, 
and it was ' dedicated to the sufferers by the 
South Sea scheme.' Godolphin died at Wind- 
sor, 29 Jan. 1732-3, and was buried in Eton 
Chapel, leaving by will many valuable books 
to the college. Some letters from him to 
members of his family are in Brit. Mus. 
Addit, MS. 28052, ff. 17-25. 

He married Mary, daughter of Colonel 
Sidney, son of John Godolphin [q. v.] ; she 
died 30 June 1743. His son, Sir Francis Go- 
dolphin, succeeded his cousin Francis [q. v.] 
as second Baron Godolphin of Helston in 1766, 
but dying in 1785 the title became extinct. 
His daughter Mary married William Owen, 
esq., of Porkington. 

[Evelyn's Diary (1852), ii. 135, 195, 276, 341; 
Nichols's Literary Anecdotes, i. 237, 681, 706, iv. 
601, v.98,viii.391 ; Milman's Annals of St. Paul's 
(1869), pp. 436, 458 ; Creasy s Memoirs of Eto- 
nians (1876), pp. 233-5; Lyte's Eton College 
(1875), pp. 270, 284, 287; Boase and Courtney's 
Bibliotheca Cornubiensis, pp. 178, 1199; Boase's 
Collectanea Cornubiensia, p. 283.] G. C. B. 



GODOLPHIN, JOHN (1617-1678), ci- 
vilian, second son (by Judith Meredith) of 
John Godolphin, who was younger brother 
of Sir William Godolphin (d. 1613), was 
born at Scilly, 29 Nov. 1617. He became a 
commoner of Gloucester Hall (afterwards 
Worcester College), Oxford, in the Michael- 
mas term of 1632 ; distinguished himself in 
the study of philosophy, logic, and the civil 
law; graduated as B.C.L. in 1636 and D.C.L. 
in 1643. He took the puritan side, and on 
30 July 1653 was appointed judge of the 
admiralty, with William Clarke and Charles 
George Cock. After Clarke's death Godolphin 
and Cock were reappointed in July 1659 to 
hold the same office until 10 Dec. following. 
Upon the Restoration he became one of the 
king's advocates, though his name does not 
appear on the register. He died ' in or near 
Fleet Street,' 4 April 1678, and was buried 
in Clerkenwell Church. He was four times 
married, and had by his first wife a son, Sidney, 
who was governor of Scilly, and whose daugh- 
ter Mary married Henry Godolphin, provost 
of Eton [q. v.] 

Godolphin wrote the following books upon 
law and divinity, which are dry, though ap- 
parently learned abstracts : 1. ' The Holy 
Limbec, or an Extraction of the Spirit from 
the Letter of certain eminent places in the 
~toly Scripture,' 1650. ' The Holy Limbeck, 
fa a Semi-Century of Spiritual Extraction,' 
/&c., is the same book with title altered. 

2. ' The Holy Arbor, containing a Body of 
Divinity. . . . Collected from many Ortho- 
dox Laborers in the Lord's Vineyard,' 1651. 

3. ' Svj/fjyopos daXda-trio s, a view of the Admi- 
ral Jurisdiction . . .' 1661 and 1685 (appendix 
has a list of lord high admirals after Spel- 
man, and an extract from the ancient laws 
of Oleron, translated from Garsias alias Fer- 
rand). 4. ' The Orphan's Legacy, or a Tes- 
tamentary Abridgement ' (in three parts, on 
wills, executors, and legacies), 1674, 1677, 
1685, 1701. 5. ' Repertorium Canonicum, 
or an Abridgement of the Ecclesiastical Laws 
of this Realm consistent with the Temporal,' 
1678, 1680, 1687. ' Laws, Ordinances, and 
Institutions of the Admiralty of Great Bri- 
tain,' 1746 and 1747, is not, as stated by 
Watt (Bibl. Brit.), a reprint of No. 3. 

[Wood's Athenae (Bliss), iii. 1152-3; Coote's 
English Civilians, p. 81 ; Echard's Hist, of Eng- 
land (1718), iii. 500; Boase and Courtney's 
Bibl. Cornub.] 


(1652-1678), friend of Evelyn, born 2 Aug. 
1652, was daughter of Thomas Blagge of 
Horningsheath, Suffolk (a royalist colonel, 
and governor of Wallingford, who on the Re- 

storation became governor of Yarmouth and 
Landguard Fort), by Mary, daughter of Sir 
Roger North of Mildenhall. Her father died 
14Nov. 1660. He had accompanied the second 
Duke of Buckingham in his escape after the 
battle of Worcester. Margaret Blagge was 
entrusted when very young to Buckingham's 
sister, wife of the third Duke of Richmond, 
then in France, who transferred her to the 
care of Buckingham's first cousin, Elizabeth, 
countess of Guilford. The countess, though 
a ' bygott proselitesse,' could not persuade 
the child to go to mass. On the Restoration 
she returned to her mother in England, and 
about 1666 became maid of honour to the 
Duchess of York (Anne Hyde). She attended 
the duchess in her last illness, and upon her 
death (31 March 167 1 ) became maid of honour 
to the queen. One of her companions, Anne 
Howard, granddaughter of the first Earl Berk- 
shire (afterwards Lady Sylvius), introduced 
her to John Evelyn. She became strongly 
attached to him, gave him a declaration of" 
'inviolable friendship' in writing (signed 
16 Oct. 1672), and ever afterwards considered 
herself as his adopted daughter. She resolved 
soon afterwards to leave the court, and went 
to live with Lady Berkeley, wife of John, 
lord Berkeley of Stratton. Lord Berkeley's 
brother, afterwards second Viscount Fitz- 
hardinge, had married the aunt of Sidney 
Godolphin, afterwards first earl [q. v.] Go- 
dolphin had long been Margaret's lover, al- 
though there were difficulties in the way of 
their marriage, chiefly, according to her ac- 
count, from his absorption in business, which 
made the retired life which she (and he, as 
she says) desired impossible. She wished at 
one time to go to Hereford, to live under the 
direction of the dean, her ' spiritual father.' 
On 15 Dec. 1674 she was induced to appear at 
court to act in Crowne's ' Calisto.' She was 
'Diana, goddess of chastity,' other parts being^ 

Ejrformed by the Princesses Mary and Anne, 
ady Wentworth, and Sarah Jennings, after- 
wards Duchess of Marlborough. She was 
covered with jewels worth 20,000/., and ' per- 
formed the principal part to admiration.' 

After much hesitation she was privately 
married to Godolphin 16 May 1675 by Dr. 
Lake. She still lived with the Berkeleys, 
and accompanied them on Lord Berkeley's 
embassy to Paris at the end of the year. 
She returned in the following April, when 
her marriage was acknowledged, and in the 
autumn she settled with her husband in 
Scotland Yard, Whitehall. On 3 Sept. 1678 she 
gave birth to a son, Francis [q. v.], afterwards 
second earl Godolphin, took a fever, and died 
9 Sept. following. She was buried at Breage,. 
Cornwall, on the 16th following. Evelyn 


soon afterwards addressed an account of her 
life to their common friend, Lady Sylvius. 
He quotes many of her papers, and describes 
her beauty, talents, and virtues, her deep reli- 
gious convictions, her charity to the poor, her 
methodical employment of her time, and her 
observance of all her duties. Although some 
allowance should perhaps be made for his 
pious enthusiasm, there can be no doubt that 
her nobility and purity of life form a striking 
contrast to the characteristics of the courtiers 
generally known by the memoirs of Gram- 

[Evelyn's manuscript came into the hands of 
his great-great-grandson, E. V. Harcourt, arch- 
bishop of York, by whom it was entrusted for 
publication to Samuel Wilberforee, bishop of 
Oxford. It was first published by him in 1847, 
with useful notes by John Holmes of the British 
Museum. See also Evelyn's Diary.] L. S. 

GODOLPHIN, SIDNEY (1610-1643), 
poet, second son of Sir William Godolphin 
(d. 1613) of Godolphin, Cornwall, by his 
wife, Thomasin Sidney, was baptised 15 Jan. 
1609-10 (BOASE and COURTNEY). He was ad- 
mitted a commoner of Exeter College, Oxford, 
25 June 1624, aged 18, remained there for 
three years, and afterwards entered one of 
the inns of court, and travelled abroad. He 
was elected member for Helston in 1628: 
-again to the Short parliament in March 1640, 
and to the Long parliament in October 1640. 
He was known as an adherent of Strafford, 
and was one of the last royalist members to 
leave the house. Upon the breaking out of 
the civil war he made^a final speech of warn- 
ing {Somers Tracts, vi. 574), and left to raise 
a force in Cornwall. He joined the army 
commanded by Sir Ralph Hopton, which 
crossed the Tamar and advanced into Devon- 
shire. Their declaration signed by Godol- 
phin is in 'Lismore Papers' (2nd ser. v. 116). 
Godolphin, whose advice, according to Claren- 
don, was highly valued by the commanders 
in spite of his want of military experience, 
was shot in a skirmish at Chagford, a village 
which, as Clarendon unkindly and erroneously 
observes, would otherwise have remained un- 
known. He was buried in the chancel of 
Okehampton Church 10 Feb. 1642-3. Go- 
dolphin was a young man of remarkable pro- 
mise, intimate with Falkland and Clarendon, 
and is commended by Hobbes in the dedica- 
tion of the 'Leviathan' to his brother, Fran- 
cis Godolphin, and also in the ' Review ' and 
conclusion of the same work (HoBBES, Eng- 
lish Works (Molesworth), iii. 703). His will, 
dated 23 June 1642, containing a bequest of 
2001. to Hobbes, is now in Mr. Morrison's 
collection. Clarendon, in his ' Brief View ' of 

5 Godolphin 

the ' Leviathan,' contrives to accept Hobbes's 
eulogy and insult the eulogist in the same 
sentence, remarking that no two men could 
be ' more unlike in modesty of nature and 
integrity of manners.' Clarendon, in his own 
life (i. 51-3), describes Godolphin as a very 
small man, shy, sensitive, and melancholy, 
though universally admired. In Suckling's 
' Session of the Poets ' he is called ' Little 
Sid.' He left several poems, which were never 
collected in a separate volume. ' The Passion 
of Dido for ^Eneas, as it is incomparably ex- 
pressed in the fourth book of Virgil,' finished 
by Edmund Waller, was published in 1658 
and 1679, and is in the fourth volume of Dry- 
den's ' MisceUany Poems' (1716, iv. 134-53). 
He was one of certain persons of quality' 
whose translation of Corneille's 'Pompee' 
was published in 1664. A song is in Ellis's 
'Specimens' (1811, iii. 229), and one in the 
'Tixall Poetry' (1813, pp. 216-18). Other 
poems in manuscript are in the Harleian MSS. 
(6917) and the Malone MSS. in the Bod- 
leian Library. Commendatory verses by him 
are prefixed to Sandys's 'Paraphrase' (1638), 
and an ' epitaph upon the Lady Rich ' is in 
Gauden's 'Funerals made Cordials' (1658). 
He gave some plate to Exeter College, Oxford. 

[Collins's Peerage, 1779, vii. 297; Clarendon's 
Rebellion, iii. 429, iv. 99 ; Boase and Courtney's 
Bibl. Cornub. ; Boase's Reg. Exeter Coll. pp. 
Ixi, 248; Nugent's Life of Hampden, ii. 373; 
Elliot's Godolphin (1888), pp. 28-33.] L. S. 

GODOLPHIN (1645-1712), baptised 15 June 
1645, was third son of Sir Francis Godolphin 
(1605-1667), by his wife Dorothy, daughter 
of Sir Henry Berkeley of Yarlington, Somer- 
setshire. The Godolphins were an ancient 
family, long settled at Godolphin or Godol- 
ghan (a name of doubtful origin, see Notes 
and Queries, 3rd ser. iii. 448, iv. 56) in Breage, 
Cornwall. A Sir Francis, known in the time 
of Elizabeth for his enterprise in tin mines 
and a defence of Penzance against a Spanish 
landing in 1595, had three sons. John, the 
second son, was father of John Godolphin 
[q. v.] and grandfather of Sir William Godol- 
phin (d. 1696) [q. v.] Sir William (d. 1613), 
elder son of Sir Francis, was father of a se- 
cond Sir Francis (1605-1667), who was go- 
vernor of Scilly during the civil war, surren- 
dered to the parliament on honourable condi- 
tions 16 Sept. 1646, compounded for his 
estates on 5 Jan. 1646-7 (WHITELOCKE, Me- 
morials, p. 233), and was created knight of 
the Bath at the coronation of Charles II ; of 
Sidney Godolphin (1610-1643) [q. v.], and 
of a William Godolphin, who died in 1636 
and is buried at Bruton, Somersetshire. The 




second Sir Francis had six sons, of whom 
William, the eldest, was made a baronet 
29 April 1661 ; Henry, the fourth, became 
provost of Eton [see GODOLPHIN, HENRY] ; 
and Charles, the fifth, who died in 1720, was 
buried in Westminster Abbey. The two last 
married descendants of John, the younger 
brother of Sir William (d. 1613). Sidney, 
the third son, was at an early age placed in 
the household of Charles II. The statement 
(COLLINS, Peerage, vii. 301) that Charles, 
when visiting Cornwall as Prince of Wales 
(i.e. in 1646), took 'particular notice' of Go- 
dolphin is hardly probable, as Godolphin was 
then under two years of age. He became page 
of honour to the king 29 Sept. 1662, was 
groom of the bedchamber 1672-8, and mas- 
ter of the robes 1678. He held a commission 
in the army for a short time in 1667. He 
represented Helston in the House of Com- 
mons from 1668 to 1679, and St. Mawes from 
1679 to 1681. He was sent to Holland in 
1678 (Danby's 'Letters' (1710), pp. 346- 
364, gives his instructions and some letters ; 
see also TEMPLE, Works, i. 352) to take part 
in some of the negotiations preceding the 
peace of Nimeguen. On 26 March 1679 he 
was appointed a lord of the treasury. Lau- 
rence Hyde, afterwards Lord Rochester, be- 
came first lord in the following November. 
Hyde, Sunderland, and Godolphin were 
thought to be deepest in the king's confidence 
(ib. p. 440), and were known as ' the Chits ' 
(see CHRISTIE, Shaftesbury, ii. 353). In the 
obscure intrigues of the following period Go- 
dolphin allied himself with Sunderland, de- 
serting James and favouring concession to 
Shaftesbury and the exclusion party. The 
Duchess of Portsmouth was in alliance with 
them. James regarded Godolphin as one of 
his worst opponents (see Clarendon Corre- 
spondence, i. 68) ; and Barillon reported him 
to be in the interest of the Prince of Orange, 
with whom he corresponded at this time 
(DALRYMPLE, Memoirs, i. 362, and App. to 
pt. i. bk. i. p. 70). He succeeded, however, 
in retaining favour after the fall of Shaftes- 
bury. On 14 April 1684 he succeeded Sir 
Leoline Jenkins as secretary of state. When 
Rochester was ' kicked up stairs,' in the lan- 
guage of his rival, Halifax, into the office of 
lord president, Godolphin succeeded him at 
the head of the treasury. Immediately after- 
wards (28 Sept.) he was created Baron Godol- 
phin of Rialton. Charles II praised Godolphin 
as a man who was ' never in the way and 
never out of the way,' and probably found 
him a useful servant with no troublesome 
opinions of his own. On the death of Charles, 
Rochester became lord high treasurer, and 
Godolphin was appointed chamberlain to the 

queen (Mary of Modena). He was among 
the most trusted of James's ministers at the 
beginning of the reign. He took part in 
the disgraceful secret negotiations with 
Louis XIV, and did not scruple to attend 
mass with the king. He had, it was com- 
monly said, a romantic attachment to the 
queen (see SWIFT, Four Last Years ; Dart- 
mouth's note to BURNET, Own Time, i. 621 ; 
Addit. MS. 4222, f. 62), who was guided by 
the Jesuits. On the fall of Rochester in Ja- 
nuary 1687, which marked the triumph of 
the extreme catholic party, the treasury was 
again put in commission, and Godolphin be- 
came one of the commissioners under Lord 
Bellasyse. On 14 July 1688 he was made 
keeper of Cranborne Chase in Windsor Forest. 
His house there is described by Evelyn. About 
the end of William's reign he sold it to Anne 
and settled in Godolphin House, on the site 
of Stafford House, St. James's Park. He 
adhered to James till the last ; he was one of 
the council of five appointed to remain in 
London when James advanced to Salisbury, 
and he was sent with Halifax and Notting- 
ham to treat with the Prince of Orange at 
Hungerford in December. 

Godolphin, like the other tories, voted for 
a regency in the debates which followed the 
revolution. In William's first ministry he 
was again named (8 April 1689) one of the 
commissioners of the treasury. Two strong 
whigs, Mordaunt and Delamere, were placed 
above him ; but Godolphin's experience in 
business made him the most important mem- 
ber of the board. He retired for some un- 
explained reason in March 1690, but was 
placed at the head of the commission 15 Nov. 
1690, and continued in that position for the 
next six years. In 1691 he was one of the 
first statesmen to whom the Jacobite agents 
applied, and after some coyness he began a 
correspondence with the court of St. Ger- 
main (CLARKE, James II, ii. 444). In 1693 
he was one of the chief persons whom Charles 
Middleton, earl of Middleton [q. v.], consulted 
on behalf of James. In May 1694 he sent in- 
telligence to James of the intended expedition 
to Brest, and his message was received a day 
before the similar message from Marlborough 
(MACPHERSON, Original Papers, i. 457, 483. 
Mr. Elliot disputes the truth of Godolphin's 
Jacobite dealings at this time because he could 
not have given ' good advice ' to both William 
and James. Godolphin probably wished to be 
on both sides). Godolphin continued to main- 
tain a correspondence with the exiled family 
to the end of his career, and was supposed to be 
more sincere than Marlborough. Although the 
ministry was now composed chiefly of whigs, 
Godolphin's official knowledge caused him to 




be retained at the treasury. He was the only 
tory of the seven lords j ustices appointed when 
William left England in 1695. He held the 
same office in 1696. In that year he was im- 
plicated, along with Marlborough, Shrews- 
bury, and Russell, in the confession of Sir 
John Fenwick [q. v.] Fenwick's accusation 
was awkwardly near the truth ; and it was 
found convenient to hang him and discredit 
his story. Godolphin, however, was obnoxious 
to the majority as the last tory in office. It 
was resolved to take the occasion for getting 
rid of him ; and perhaps, as Macaulay sug- 
gests, it was felt that when he was thrown 
over there would be less motive for accepting 
the truth of Fenwick's narrative. By some 
manoeuvre of Sunderland he was induced to 
resign in October before the debates on Fen- 
wick's case. He afterwards complained that 
he had been tricked (Shrewsbury Papers, pp. 
414, 420, 429). Apparently he had been 
frightened by an erroneous impression as to 
the mode in which Fenwick's statement was 
to be received. In the House of Lords he 
absolutely denied (1 Dec. 1696) that he had 
had the dealings with James described by 
Fenwick ; but, unlike Marlborough, he voted 
against the bill of attainder. 

Godolphin's only son, Francis, was married 
in the spring of 1698 to Henrietta Churchill, 
daughter of Marlborough, and the close alii- ! 
ance between the parents was thus cemented. 
When the tories returned to power at the 
end of William's reign, Godolphin again be- 
came head of the treasury (9 Dec. 1700). 
When William once more returned to the 
whigs, Godolphin wrote a letter to Marl- 
borough, to be laid before the king, in which 
he professed the readiness of the tories to 
prosecute a war with France. He was, how- ! 
ever, compelled to resign 30 Dec. 1701. On 
the accession of Anne, he shared Marl- 
borough's fortune and became lord treasurer 
6 May 1702. Godolphin was the head of the j 
home government during the next eight j 
years. He was on the most intimate terms ! 
with Marlborough, and corresponded con- 
fidentially upon every detail of policy [see 
under ANNE (1665-1714), and CHURCHILL, 
statesmen in so conspicuous a position have 
left so feeble a personal impression upon poli- 
tics. Godolphin's talents fitted him to be an 
admirable head clerk, while circumstances 
compelled him to act as a first minister. He 
played, however, a considerable part in the 
field of action in which Marlborough was 
less conspicuous, especially in the Portuguese 
and Spanish affairs (see Addit. MSS. 28056, 
28057, for Methuen correspondence). He 
was anxious for the invasion of France with 

the help of the Camisards, and supported the 
expedition against Toulon. At home he was 
the centre of the constant party struggles. 
He was timid, cold, and easily disheartened. 
In Marlborough's absence he was the imme- 
diate recipient of the dictatorial interference 
of Marlborough's wife, who seems to have 
had more power over him than over her hus- 
band. He was forced to join in the series 
of intrigues by which the ministry, origi- 
nally composed of tories, gradually came to- 
rest upon the support of the whig junto. 
The initiative, however, was generally taken 
by stronger natures. Godolphin was en- 
gaged in negotiating, trying to pacify allies 
or opponents, and holding together the dis- 
tracting forces as long as he could. He was- 
frequently driven to propose retirement, and 
was often irritable though seldom resolute. 

The quarrel with the tories began in the 
first parliament. In June 1703 Godolphin 
with Marlborough contrived to get rid of 
Rochester, by procuring an order from the 
queen for his return to his duties as lord- 
lieutenant in Ireland. In May 1704 he per- 
suaded the queen to accept the resignation 
of Nottingham, and induced Harley to take 
the secretaryship of state in his place. These 
changes implied the alienation of the high- 
church and tory party. In 1702 Godolphin 
with Marlborough had supported the Occa- 
sional Conformity Bill, the favourite mea- 
sure of that party ; they both voted for 
it again in 1703, and signed the protest 
against its rejection; but they were sus- 
pected of indirectly opposing it, and in 1704 
they both silently voted against it. He was 
persuaded in 1705 by the Duchess of Marl- 
borough to beg an appointment for her son- 
in-law, Sunderland, to the vexation of the 
queen, though with the reluctant consent of 
Marlborough. In the same year his financial 
scruples caused him to make many difficul- 
ties in the way of a loan to the emperor. 
He wrote an irritating despatch which hin- 
dered the negotiation; but Marlborough 
finally succeeded in extorting his acquiescence 
(CoxE, i. 479). In the parliament of 1705-8, 
Godolphin was driven to closer alliance with 
the whigs. He again offended the queen by 
urging the removal of Sir Nathan Wright, 
the lord-keeper, who was finally succeeded 
by Cowper on 11 Oct. 1705. In the follow- 
ing session he parried an insidious proposal 
of the tories for inviting the Electress Sophia 
to England by carrying a bill for securing 
the protestant succession by appointing a 
commission of regency. He and Marlborough 
were now attacked by the tory writers as 
traitors to the church. A dinner was ar- 
ranged at the house of Harley at the begin- 




ning of 1706, when the great whig leaders 
met Godolphin and Marlborough, and drank 
to ' everlasting union ' (ib. i. 523 ; COWPEK, 
Diary}. Godolphin had taken an active 
share in promoting the union with Scotland 
.(see correspondence in Addit. MS. 28055). 
By his advice Anne refused her assent in 
1703 to the Act of Security, providing for a 
separation of the crowns at her death unless 
England would concede certain Scottish 
claims. He yielded, however, in 1704, when 
it was ' tacked ' to the bill for supplies, think- 
ing possibly that it would render the treaty 
for union more imperative. On 10 April 
1706 he was appointed a commissioner for 
settling the terms of this treaty. In the next 
year he was summoned from the country to 
resist an attempt of Harley's to make a dif- 
ficulty about some commercial regulations 
consequent on the union ; a circumstance 
which precipitated the quarrel between the 
two (CUNNTKGHAM, Great Britain, ii. 70). In 
the autumn of 1706 he was brought to threats 
of retirement by his difficulty in persuading 
the queen to make Sunderland secretary of 
state in room of Sir Charles Hedges [q. v.] 
He declares (CoxE, i. 138) that he has worn 
out his health and almost his life in the ser- 
vice of the crown. After many remonstrances 
the queen yielded in November 1706, and 
other changes in favour of the whigs followed. 
Godolphin at this period still trusted in Har- 
ley in spite of insinuations from the duchess. 
Harley's defection became manifest in the 
following year, and he was forced to resign 
on 11 Feb. 1708, Godolphin and Marlborough 
having absented themselves from a council 
meeting (9 Feb.) The whigs were now tri- 
umphant; Godolphin obtained credit in the 
spring for his efforts to meet the danger of 
the threatened Jacobite invasion, and to sup- 
port the credit of the Bank of England. He 
had now to overcome the queen's reluctance 
to the appointment of Somers, which was not 
finally granted till November 1708. 

The demands of the whigs and the growing 
alienation of the queen combined to make 
Godolphin's life miserable. He declares 
(10 Jan. 1709) that the ' life of a slave in 
the galleys is a paradise in comparison of 
mine.' Another of the whig junto, Halifax, 
was beginning to insist upon a recognition 
of his claims to office. The negotiations for 
peace were perplexing, and Godolphin, ac- 
cording to Coxe, insisted more strongly than 
Marlborough upon the demands ultimately 
rejected by Louis. Although disgusted with 
the Dutch, Godolphin, in obedience to the 
whig leaders, insisted upon the barrier treaty, 
and finally, when Marlborough declined to 
sign, ordered Townshend to sign it alone. 

Godolphin was next bullied by the whigs 
and the Duchess of Marlborough to extort the 
appointment of LordOrford to the admiralty. 
The sermon of Sacheverell which led to the 
famous impeachment attacked Godolphin 
under the name of Volpone. Godolphin was 
greatly irritated, and insisted on the impeach- 
ment, in spite of the advice of Somers that the 
question should be left to the ordinary courts 
(Decemberl709). The general reaction against 
the war, combined with the church feeling, 
now gathered strength, and Harley took ad- 
vantage of it to detach some of the whigs, and 
to encourage the queen to subject Godolphin 
and Marlborough to successive slights. Go- 
dolphin appears to have shown little spirit. 
He persuaded Marlborough to withdraw his 
threat of resignation upon the appointment 
of Colonel Hill. He remonstrated with the 
queen on the appointment of the Duke of 
Somerset as chamberlain, but had not reso- 
lution enough to carry out his threat of re- 
signation. In June 1710 he joined with his 
colleagues in appealing to Marlborough to 
submit to the dismissal of Sunderland. He 
submitted to a neglect of his wishes in the 
case of other appointments, and long refused 
to believe that the queen would venture on 
a dissolution of parliament. On hearing in 
July that this measure was decided upon, he 
remonstrated with her, but still did not resign. 
A violent dispute took place in a cabinet 
council between Godolphin and Shrewsbury, 
who in April had been appointed chamberlain 
without his ad vice and was allied with Harley. 
On 7 Aug. 1710 he had two audiences from 
the queen, who ended by telling him that she 
wished him to remain in office. Next morn- 
ing she sent him a note, ordering him to break 
his staff of office, but promising a pension of 
4,000/, a year. Godolphin's fall was followed 
by the dismissal of his son from the office of 
cofferer of the household (June 1711). He 
had the credit of retiring in poverty, as it was 
said that he would require Marlborough's as- 
sistance to support himself. Godolphin was 
devoted to gambling, and especially interested 
in horse-racing, which may partly account for 
his poverty. By the death of his elder brother, 
Sir William Godolphin, on 17 Aug. 1710, 
his son inherited an estate of 4,000/. a year. 
After his fall there were rumours of dis- 
honesty, but they seem to have been suffi- 
ciently answered by Walpole in a pamphlet 
called 'The thirty-five millions accounted 
for' (CoxE, iii. 465). His health was already 
broken, and he died aged 67, according to his 
monument, on 15 Sept. 1712, at Marlborough 
House at St. Albans, after long sufferings 
from the stone. 

Godolphin married Margaret Blagge [see 


4 6 


GODOLPHIN, MARGARET] on 16 May 1675. 
After her death, in 1678, he never married 
again. A reference in a letter from Lord 
Sydney to William (3 Feb. 1691) seems to 
imply a second marriage, of which there are 
no other traces (DALRYMPLE, App. pt. ii. bk. 
vii. p. 249). Their only child, Francis [q. y/j, 
succeeded to his father's earldom. Francis's 
wife became Duchess of Marlborough in her 
own right, but by the death of their son Wil- 
liam the title passed to Charles Spencer, lifth 
earl of Sunderland. Their daughter Henrietta 
married Thomas Pelham, duke of Newcastle, 
in 1715, and died in 1776 without issue; the 
other, Mary, married the fourth Duke of Leeds 
in 1740, and was ancestress of the present 
duke, who owns the Godolphin estates. Three 
fables in verse by Godolphin were printed by 
Archdeacon Coxe in 1817-18 from the Blen- 
heim MSS. 

[Collins's Peerage ; Boase and Courtney's Bibl. 
Cornub. ; Maclean's Trigg Minor, ii. 522 (for 
genealogy); Evelyn's Diary, 1879, ii. 322, 467, 
iii. 119, 132, and elsewhere; Clarke's Life of 
James II ; Macpherson's Hist, of Great Britain, 
i. 311, ii. 5, 63, 303, 337, 377, and elsewhere; 
Swift's Works, 1814, iii. 227, 233, iv. 425, v. 174, 
194, 260, 264, and elsewhere; Treasury Papers, 
1701-8; Sidney's Diary, 1843, i. 92, 209, 271, 
ii. 209 ; Clarendon Correspondence ; Burnet's 
Own Time ; Coxe's Life of Marlborough (letters 
from the Blenheim collection give full details of 
Godolphin's career) North's Lives of the Norths, 
1826, ii. 58, &c.,- J. P. Hore's Hist, of New- 
market, 1886, gives frequent notices of Godol- 
phin as a patron of horse-racing. Some family 
letters are in Addit. MS. 28052, and in Mr. Mor- 
rison's collection, and political correspondence in 
Addit. MSS. 28055-7. Some letters from Wil- 
liam III are in Addit. MS. 24905, and from 
Anne in Addit. MS. 28070 ; see also Nottingham 
MSS. &c. 29598-9. A life by the Hon. H. Elliot 
(1888) takes a more favourable view of Godol- 
phin's conduct in some matters than is given 
above.] L. S. 

1696), ambassador, was second son of Sir Wil- 
liam Godolphin, the eldest son (by Judith 
Meredith) of John Godolphin, the younger 
brother of Sir William Godolphin (d. 1613). 
His elder brother was Francis Godolphin of 
Coulston, Wiltshire, who seems to have ap- 
peared as a royalist at the time of the battle 
of Worcester (WHITELOCKE, Memorials, p. 
476). He was baptised 2 Feb. 1634 (MAC- 
LEAN, Trigg Minor, ii. 522) ; he was educated 
at Westminster, and elected in 1651 to a stu- 
dentship at Christ Church, Oxford, where he 
remained until the Restoration, although not 
in sympathy with the dominant party. He 
graduated M.A. in January 1660-1. He 
afterwards became attached to Henry Bennet 

[q. v.], earl of Arlington, and on 28 Sept.. 
1663 the degree of D.C.L. was conferred upon 
him at Oxford, Bennet being created D.C.L. 
on the same day. Godolphin on 27 Oct. 1665 
was elected M.P. for Camelford, Cornwall. 
In 1667 he was employed under Sandwich 
in the negotiations at Madrid which led to 
a commercial treaty with Spain. He then 
returned to England, and was knighted by 
Charles II 28 Aug. 1668. Pepys, who met him 
5 and 8 Feb. 1668, calls him a ' very pretty 
and able person, a man of very fine parts,' 
and says that Sandwich had sent over the 
highest commendations of his abilities and 
trustworthiness (this has been erroneously 
applied to Sidney, lord Godolphin). In the 
spring of 1669 he returned to Spain as envoy 
extraordinary, Lord Sunderland being ' am- 
bassador extraordinary,' and in 1671 he be- 
came ambassador. Immediately afterwards 
he applied, during a dangerous illness, for ad- 
mission to the Roman catholic church. An 
order, dated 1671, by the officials of the In- 
quisition that he is to receive the sacrament 
publicly is in Egerton MSS. (1509, f. 281). 
He possibly changed his mind on recovering. 
He made his public entry into Madrid 18 Jan. 
1672. He complains that he can hardly live 
upon his salary of 1,200/. a year. In 1674 he 
defends himself against the scandalous impu- 
tation that he had been converted to Catho- 
licism, in a letter which Arlington laid before 
Charles. In 1678 he again defends himself 
against the charge of employing too many 
papists in his household. In Titus Oates's 
' Narrative ' it was declared that Godolphin 
was in correspondence with the ' popish plot ' 
conspirators, and intended to hold the privy 
seal in the ministry to be appointed by them 
(State Trials, vi. 1460, 1468). The House 
of Commons voted an address for his recall 
(12 Nov. 1678), and the king replied that 
letters of revocation had already been ordered. 
Godolphin preferred, however, to stay in 
Spain, and now openly professed Catholicism- 
His secretary, Edward Meredith (Woor, 
Athence (Bliss), iv. 653), probably his rela- 
tion, also became a catholic, and wrote some 
pamphlets in defence of James II. Godol- 
phin died at Madrid 11 July 1696. On 
30 March previous he had consented to a 
' notarial act,' by which he made his soul his 
heir, and empowered certain persons, includ- 
ing the procurator-general of the Jesuits, to 
make his will after his death. Just before 
his death, however, he made another declara- 
tion, leaving sums to his nephew, Francis 
Godolphin, son of Francis Godolphin of Coul- 
ston, and his niece Elizabeth, daughter of the 
same Francis, and wife of Charles Godolphin, 
younger brother of Sidney, first lord Godol- 




phin. An act of parliament was passed in 
1698, declaring null and void the power to 
make a posthumous will, and enabling his 
relations to carry out the later disposition. 
They were also to pay a sum of 3,OOOA, which 
he had left for charitable purposes in Corn- 
wall on becoming ambassador. A printed 
copy of the act, with many documents re- 
lating to the business, is in the British 
Museum. His fortune, valued at 80,000/., 
was in Spain, Rome, Venice, and Amsterdam 
(Addit. MS. 28,942, ff. 250-4), and the heirs, 
with Lord Godolphin's help, appear to have j 
recovered the money in the two latter places : 
(CUNNINGHAM, Great Britain, i. 208). 

Many of Godolphin's official letters (in- 
cluding those above mentioned) are published 
in ' Hispania Illustrata,' 1703. This is identi- ' 
cal with the second volume of ' Original i 
Letters of Sir R. Fanshawe . . . and Sir W. 
Godolphin,' 1724. The first volume is iden- 
tical with a volume bearing the same title, 
' Original Letters,' &c., published in 1702. A 
few letters are also in Temple's ' Memoirs.' 
He contributed a poem to the Oxford com- 
plimentary collection of verses on Cromwell > 
in 1654, and an answer to Waller's ' Storm ' I 
upon Cromwell's death. The last is in Ni- ; 
chols's 'Select Collection/ 1780, i. 116-19, 
where it is erroneously ascribed to Lord Go- 
dolphin, the treasurer. He was elected fellow 
of the Royal Society 23 Nov. 1663. He must : 
not be confounded with Sir William Godol- j 
phin (d. 1710), elder brother of Sidney, lord 

[Wood's Fasti (Bliss), iv. 229, 275 ; Welch's 
Alumni Westmon. pp. 136-8; Pepys's Diary, 
1877, v. 174, 179, 183, 226, 367,447; Birch's 
Royal Society, ii. 297,331 ; Boaseand Courtney's 
Bibl. Cornub. i. 182, 183 ; Echard's Hist, of Eng- 
land, 1718, iii. 231, 478; Collins's Peerage, 1779, 
vii. 295.] L. S. 

GODRIC (1065P-1170), the founder of 
Finchale, was born ' in villula Hanapol,' or, j 
according to another account, at Walpole in I 
Norfolk (Reg. c. 2 ; CAPGRAVE, fol. 167, b 2). 
His father's name was Ailward, his mother's 
^Edwin ; and Godric, their first-born son, I 
was called after his godfather. After a boy- 
hood spent at home, Godric began to peddle 
small wares in the neighbouring shires (Reg. 
c. 2). Later, as his gains increased, he took to i 
frequenting castles and the town and city I 
markets. A narrow escape from drowning ! 
while he was attempting to capture a stranded 
' dolphin ' or porpoise near the mouth of the 
Welland (c. 1082) seems to have given a 
serious turn to his thoughts (ib. c. 3; GAL- 
FRID, c. 1). Four years later, after a pre- 
liminary visit to St. Andrews and Rome, he 
took to the sea (c. 1086), and for several j 

years sailed as a merchant or shipowner 
between England, Scotland, Denmark, and 
Flanders. He owned the half of one vessel, 
and was partner in the cargo of a second. 
So great was his nautical skill that his fel- 
lows made him their steersman, and his quick- 
ness in forecasting weather changes not un- 
frequently saved his ship from damage (Reg. 
c. 4 ; cf. CAPGRAVE, fol. 168, a 1). 

After sixteen years of seafaring life he de- 
termined to visit Jerusalem (Reg. c. 6), which 
had just been won by the first crusaders; and, 
when we consider the close relationship that 
in those days existed between piracy and com- 
merce, there is no need to doubt his identity 
with the ' Gudericus, pirata de regno Anglise,' 
with whom Baldwin I of Jerusalem, after 
his great defeat in the plains of Ramlah, 
sailed from Arsuf to Jaffa on 29 May 1102 
(ib. c. 6 ; GALPRID, c. 1 ; cf. ALBERT OF Aix, ix. 
ii. c. 20 ; for the exact date see Chron. Malleac. 
p. 217). On his return he visited St. James 
of Compostella, and then, after a stay in hi& 
native village, became ' dispensator ' to a rich 
fellow-countryman. Shocked at having un- 
wittingly partaken of stolen banquets with 
his fellow-servants, he threw up his post and 
went on a second pilgrimage to Rome and 
St. Gilles in Provence (Reg. c. 6 ; GALFRID, c. 
1). On his return he stayed a while with his 
father and mother, after which the latter ac- 
companied him to Rome. Near London the 
travellers were joined by an unknown wo- 
man ' of wondrous beauty.' Every evening, 
as Godric himself told Reginald, the stranger 
would wash the travellers' feet ; nor did she 
leave them till they neared London on the 
way back (Reg. c. 8 ; GALFRID, c. 1). 

While a sailor Godric had made offerings 
at St. Andrews, had constantly prayed at 
St. Cuthbert's Island of Fame (Reg. c. 5), 
and ' had worn a monkish heart beneath a 
layman's clothes' (ib.) He now settled at 
Carlisle (c. 1104), where he seems to have 
had some kinsmen, one of whom gave him 
a copy of Jerome's psalter, a book which he 
constantly read till the end of his life (ib. 
c. 9 ; cf. cc. 92, 100). To avoid his friends 
he withdrew to the neighbouring woods, hav- 
ing taken John the Baptist for the model of 
his wandering life. At Wolsingham (ten 
miles north-west of Bishop Auckland) an 
aged hermit, ^Elrice, allowed him to share 
his dwelling. Some two years later, when 
^Elrice was dead, a vision bade Godric visit 
Jerusalem a second time (c. 1106) : on his 
return St. Cuthbert would find him another 
hermitage, Finchale, in the woods round 
Durham (ib. cc. 11-13). Not till he had 
worshipped in the holy sepulchre and bathed 


4 8 


in the Jordan did Godric take his rotten shoes 
from his ulcerated feet. Then he spent a few 
months at Jerusalem, waiting upon other 
pilgrims in the hospital of St. John, before 
returning to wander over England with his 
wares in search of the Finchale of his dream. 
Tired of his life, he settled in Eskedale-Side, 
near Whitby, whence he passed to Durham. 
At Durham he became doorkeeper and bell- 
ringer to St. Giles, outside the city, and later 
transferred himself to the cathedral church 
of St. Mary. Here he would take his place, 
listening to the boys as they repeated their 
psalms and hymns. A chance conversation re- 
vealed the vicinity of Finchale on the Wear 
near Durham (c. 1110). The land belonged 
to Rannulf Flambard, whose son and nephew, 
both named Radulf or Rannulf, took the her- 
. mit under their protection (ib. cc. 13, 20; cf. 
c. 170). From this day Godric never left Fin- 
chale except three times : once when Bishop 
Rannulf sent for him, and twice for a Christ- 
mas service or Easter communion (ib. c.'213). 
At Finchale Godric built a wooden chapel, 
and dedicated it to the Virgin Mary. Later he 
erected a stone church ' in honour of the Holy 
Sepulchre and St. John the Baptist,' under 
whose special care he believed himself to be 
(ib. cc. 29, 67). In spiritual matters he. sub- 
mitted himself to the priors of Durham (ib. 
c. 58), and without their permission he would 
speak to no visitor. He invented a language 
of signs for his servants (ib. c. 58). At first he 
had but one attendant, his little nephew, who 
in later years gave Reginald much informa- 
tion as to his uncle's way of living (ib. c. 51). 
Afterwards he kept more servants, and before 
his death seems to have had a priest living 
with him (ib. cc. 58, 75). The stories of his 
austerities and his visions are told at length 
by his biographers, who, however, have pre- 
served very few distinct details of his solitary 
.life. When King David invaded England 
(1138?) his soldiers broke into Godric's 
church, slew the old man's heifer, and bound 
the saint himself, in the hope of finding out 
where he had hidden his treasure (ib. c. 49). 
The flooded Wear left his cell an island in sur- 
rounding waters (1133-c. Easter 1141) {Reg. 
. 45 ; for date, cf. ROGER HOVEDEN, i. 205, 
JOHN opHEXHAM,ii. 309, and Preface, i.xliv). 
Even in extreme old age he took an interest 
in the outside world, and eagerly asked a 
visitor from Westminster about the newly 
elected (c. 1163) archbishop of Canterbury, 
Thomas Becket, ' whom he had seen in dreams, 
and would be able to recognise in a crowd.' 
He begged for Becket's blessing, and Becket, 
who asked for Godric's prayers in return, con- 
fessed in later years (1170) that Godric's 
predictions had been fulfilled {Reg. c. 116). 

He had a special admiration for King Mal- 
colm (d. 9 Dec. 1165), and was in friendly 
communication with Bishop Christian of Gal- 
loway, Abbot JSthelred of Rievaulx (d. 1166), 
William de Sta. Barbara, bishop of Durham, 
whose death he foretold, and other men of 
note (ib. cc. 69, 105, 116 ; cf. GALFRID^ c. 3). 
For the last eight years of his life he was con- 
fined to bed, and in this condition seems to 
have become clairvoyant. He would inter- 
rupt his conversation to utter prayers for the 
storm-tossed vessels of his dreams, while to 
others he would describe the glories of the 
new Jerusalem as she now appeared under 
her Angevin kings {Reg. cc. 56, 163). Almost 
his last recorded words, in which he told his 
knightly visitor that he was soon ' to pass 
the borders of the Great Sea,' showed that 
his thoughts were wandering back to the 
pilgrimages of his early life (ib. c. 167). He 
died, according to the inscription on his tomb, 
the Thursday before W T hitsuntide, 21 May 
1170, after 'having led a hermit's life for 
sixty years ' (ib. c. 170). In the first days 
of his retreat his relations came to join him. 
His brother was drowned in the Wear (be- 
tween 1136 and 1147) ; Burchwene, after 
remaining with her brother for some time, 
was transferred to Durham, where she died 
and was buried ; but his mother seems to 
have died at Finchale (ib. cc. 60, 64, 61, 
63 ; GALFRID, c. 4). 

Godric was of moderate stature {Reg. c. 
well-set, sinewy frame, and flowing beard. 
In old age his black hair turned to an ' an- 
gelic whiteness.' He was almost illiterate ; 
but must have been able to read the Latin 
psalter, and perhaps he understood something 
of conversational Latin or French, though his 
biographers turn these accomplishments into 
miracles (Reg. cc. 38, 94, 79 ; cf. De Mirac. 
c. 12 ; CAPGEAVE, fol. 168, a 1). He composed 
an English hymn to the Virgin Mary, to 
which, though ' omnino ignarus musicse,' he 
seems to have fitted an air {Reg. c. 50 ; cf. 
cc. 11, 47, 158, 161). The few rude English 
rhymes attributed to Godric are printed from 
British Museum manuscripts by Ritson (pp. 
1-4). These poems are addressed to the Vir- 
gin. Another, addressed to St. Nicholas, is 
among the manuscripts of the Royal Library 
(5, F. vii.), and is accompanied by the music 
to which it was to be sung (RITSON, p. 4). 

Godric had unique influence over animals. 
i His heifer, the hare that was nibbling at his 
garden herbs, the frozen birds, the stag pur- 
sued by huntsmen, all found a friend in him ; 
for, to use his words, when the fugitive stag, 
chased by Bishop Flambard's huntsmen, took 
refuge in his cottage, ' proditor hospitis noluit 




esse ' (ib. cc. 39, 40, 148 ; GA.LFRID, c. 2 ; De 
Mirac. c. 21 ; cf. GALFRID, c. 2). 

Godric's life was written by three con- 
temporaries : his confessor, Prior German of 
Durham (1163-88), by Reginald of Durham, 
and by Galfrid, who dedicated his life to 
Thomas, prior of Finchale. Galfrid's life, 
which is almost entirely composed of extracts 
from German and Reginald, is printed in the 
4 Acta Sanctorum.' Galfrid, however, had 
when a little boy seen the aged Godric, and 
has left us a detailed description of the saint's 
personal appearance. German's account of 
Godric, except for the above selections, seems 
lost. Reginald was commissioned by Prior 
Thomas of Durham (c. 1158-63) and sEthel- 
red of Rievaulx (d. 1166) to visit the old 
man with a view to writing a life. At first 
Godric refused to countenance a biography, 
but he gradually yielded, and blessed the 
completed work when Reginald presented 
it to him a few weeks before his death (Beg. 
cc. 140, 166). Some incidents Reginald picked 
up from Godric's nephew and others of his 
attendants (cc. 48, 51). Raine recognises 
three recensions of Reginald's works : (l)Har- 
leian MS. 322 (its short and earliest form) ; 
(2) Harleian MS. 153; (3) Bodley MS. Laud. 

The dates of Godric's active life are mainly 
conjectural, being based (1) upon the state- 
ment that he was sixty years at Finchale, 
and (2) upon his identity with Albert of Aix's 
' Gudric the English Pirate.' This throws 
back the sixteen years of his seafaring life 
to 1086-1102; and, if he was from twenty 
to twenty-five when he gave up his ped- 
lar's pack, he must have been born between 
1060 and 1065. He was ' mediocris aetatis,' 
i.e. about thirty-five, when with .Elrice at 
Wolsingham (ib. c. 11 ; cf. DANTE, Inf. i. 1). 
The chronology, however, would be much 
simplified if, taking the sixty years as a round 
number, we could put his settlement at 
Finchale a few years later, c. 1115. 

[Libellus de Vita S. Godrici, ed. Raine (Sur- 
tees Society), 1845; Acta Sanctorum (Bollan- 
dus), 21 May, pp. 68,85, where Galfrid's Life is 
printed ; Capgrave's Nova Legenda Anglise, ed. 
1516, foil. 157, b 2-166, b 2; Historia Dun- 
elmensis Scriptores Tres, ed. Raine (SurteesSoc.), 
1837 ; Albert of Aix, ed. Migne, vol. clxvi. ; 
Fulcher of Chartres, ed. Migne, vol. clr. ; Chron. 
Malleacenseap Labbe'sBibliothecaNova,vol. ii.; 
Simeon of Durham, vols. i. ii. (Rolls Ser.), ed. 
Arnold; Roger of Weudover, ii. 340-59, &c., iii. 
10, ed. Coxe (Engl. Hist. Soc.) ; Walter Map, 
De Nug. Curial. ed. Wright (Camden Soo. 1850), 
William of Newburgh (Rolls Ser.), eJ. Howlett, 
i. 49-50; Albau Butler's Lives of the Saints, ed. 
1847, v. 289-91; Baring-Gould's Lives of the 
Saints, ed. 1872, v. 322-31 ; Kingsley's Hermits, 


i ed. 1875, pp. 308-28 ; Harpsfeld's Hist. Eccles. 

Anglic, ed. 1622, pp. 407-12; Orderic Vitalis, 
I ed. Prevost (Soc. de 1'Hist. de France) ; Casley's 

Manuscripts of the King's Library, pp. 89-98 ; 

Ritson's Biblio.>raphica Poetica, pp. 1-4 ; Morley 's 

English Writers, ed. 1864, pp. 469-70; Englische 
! Studien, xi. (1887-8), 401-32.] T. A. A. 

GODSALVE, EDWARD (d. 1568 ?), 
catholic divine, was nominated by Henry VIII 
one of the original fellows of Trinity College, 
Cambridge, 19 Dec. 1546 (RYMEK, Fcedera, 
xv. 107). He was a great friend of John 
Christopherson, bishop of Chichester, and in 
Mary's reign he was appointed to a stall in 
that cathedral. On 28 April 1554 he was 
admitted to the rectory of Fulbourn St. 
Vigors, Cambridgeshire, and in the same year 
he proceeded B.D. He signed the Roman 
catholic articles 26 July 1555, and during the 
visitation of the university by Cardinal Pole's 
delegates in February 1556-7 he, Dr. Sedg- 
wick, Thomas Parker, and Richard Rudde 
were deputed to peruse books, and to deter- 
mine which were heretical. He refused to 
comply with the changes in religion made 
after the accession of Elizabeth. In February 
1559-60 William Barlow, bishop of Chiches- 
ter, wrote to one of the queen's ministers, 
probably Cecil, announcing his intention to 
deprive Godsalve of his prebend (Cal. State 
Papers, Dom. 1547-80, p. 150). Soon after 
this Godsalve was deprived of all his prefer- 
ments and obliged to retire to Antwerp. 
There he was elected professor of divinity in 
the monastery of St. Michael. He was living 
in 1568, but when he died is unknown. 

His works are: 1. ' Historiae Ecclesiastic* 
pars prima, qua continetur Eusebii Pamphili 
lib. 10, &,' Louvain, 1569, 8vo. This Latin 
translation by John Christopherson, bishop of 
Exeter, was edited by Godsalve, who trans- 
lated Pars tertia, ' Hist. Eccles. Scriptores 
Graeci,' &c., Cologne, 15\0, fol., with God- 
salve's original dedication and two of his 
letters prefixed. Other editions appeared at 
Cologne in 1581 and 1612. 2. ' Elucidationes 
quorundam textuum Sacrse Script urae,' manu- 

[Pits, De Anglise Scriptoribus, p. 737 ; Tan- 
ner's Bibl. Brit. p. 330 ; Dodd's Church Hist. i. 
510 ; Addit. MS. 5870, f. 68 ; Cooper's Athense 
Cantabr. i. 275 ; Gillow's Bibl. Diet. ; Lamb's 
Documents illustrative of the Hist, of the Univ. 
of Cambridge, pp. 175, 193, 216.] T. C. 

GODSALVE, SIR JOHN (d. 1556), clerk 
of the signet, and comptroller of the mint, 
was the son and heir of Thomas Godsalve 
(d. 1542), registrar of the consistory court 
at Norwich and an owner of landed propertv 
in Norfolk, by his first wife Joan, who was 





buried with her husband in St. Stephen's, 
Norwich. John Godsalve was clerk of the 
signet (appointed before January 1531) to 
Henry VIII. He was present at the opera- 
tions at Boulogne in 1544. In November 
1532 a grant in survivorship of the office of 
common meter of all cloths of gold and silver 
tissue, &c. in the city of London was given 
to him and William Blakenhall. In 1547 
(Edward VI) he was created knight of the 
Carpet, and was appointed one of the crown 
visitors to inquire how far the bishops had 
obeyed the orders of Henry VIII. During 
the third year of Edward VI he was comp- 
troller of the mint (RuoiNG, i. 37). In 
1555 he is mentioned as belonging to the 
St. George's Company at Norwich. He died 
on 20 Nov. 1556, seised of the Norfolk manors 
of Loddon, Inglose (in Loddon), Hocking- 
ham, Minyet's in Sething, Cautley, Thurton, 
Langhale, Sething, Hasingham, and Boken- 
ham Ferry. He married (before 1531) Eliza- 
beth Widmerpole. They had two sons. The 
eldest son William died without issue ; their 
second son Thomas (d. 1587) had a son and 
heir Roger. 

A miniature representing Sir John God- 
salve armed with spear and shield, and in- 
scribed, ' Captum in castris ad Boloniam ' 
[1544 ?], at one time belonged to Christopher 
Godsalve, clerk to the victualling office under 
Charles I, and is now in the Bodleian Library. 
Blomefield (Norfolk, vii. 214) mentions a por- 
trait of John Godsalve as being ' in the closet ' 
at Kensington Palace. 

[Blomefield's Norfolk, v. 268, 426, vii. 213, 
214, &c. ; Froude's Hist, of Engl., iv. chap. xxiv. ; 
Ruding's Annals of the Coinage, i. 37; Norfolk 
Tour, i. 3 ; Letters and Papers of Henry VIII 
(Brewer and Gairdner), vol. iv. pt. iii. p. 3048, 
vol. v. Nos. 302 (ii), 348, 514, 641. 743, 1118, 
1245, g. 364(33), 1598(12). and p. 753; vol. vi. 
No. 299 (ii) and No. 576.] W. W. 

GODWIN or GOD WINE (d. 1053), earl 
of the West-Saxons, was the son of Wulfnoth, 
and may probably be identified with the God- 
wine, son of Wulfnoth, to whom the setheling 
/Ethelstan [d. 1016? see under EDMUND IRON- 
SIDE] left certain land which his father Wulf- 
noth had held (Codex Dipl. iii. 363). Who 
this Wulfnoth was is uncertain. Florence (i. 
160, an. 1007) makes Godwine the son of a 
Wulfnoth who was the son of ^Ethelmaer, the 
brother of Eadric Streona [q. v.] This seems 
almost impossible for chronological reasons. 
Another account (Canterbury Chronicle, an. 
1008) represents Godwine as the son of 
Wulfnoth, child of the South-Saxons, who 
plundered the south coast in 1009. It is pos- 
sible that Compton, the estate which ^Ethel- 
etan left to Godwine, Wulfnoth's son, may 

have been confiscated after this treason ; it 
appears to have remained the property of 
Godwine the earl or of his son Harold (FREE- 
MAN, Norman Conquest, i. 641). Some late 
but independent traditions make Godwine 
the son of a man of churlish condition, and 
the 'Kyntlinga Saga' (Antiqq. Celto-Scandicce, 
p. 131) says that he was the son of a wealthy 
farmer living near Sherstone in Wiltshire, 
and that after the battle there earl Ulf met 
with him, stayed a night and a day at his 
father's house, and then took him to Cnut's 
fleet, gave him his sister in marriage, and 
obtained for him the rank of earl. The 
widespread story of his low birth is curious, 
but seems to be of no historical value ; it is 
in flat contradiction to the words of Wil- 
liam of Jumieges (vii. 9). On the whole the 
safest theory is that Godwine was the son of 
Wulfnoth, the South-Saxon child {Norman 
Conquest, i. note F, 636-46; ROBERTSON, 
Essays, p. 188). He had a brother named 
Alwy (./Elfwine), who was made abbot of 
Newminster in 1063, and fell in the battle 
of Hastings (Liber de Hyda, Introd. xxxvii ; 
Monasticon, ii. 428). Early in Cnut's reign 
he appears as a man of high position, for he 
is described as ' dux,' or earl, in 1018 (Codex 
Dipl. iv. 3, his name comes last of six earls). 
It has been supposed (ROBERTSON, u. s.) that 
he is the Godwine who is said by a charter 
given before 1020 to have been married to a 
daughter of Byrhtric, identified apparently 
with the brother of Eadric Streona. The 
marriage took place before Cnut and Arch- 
bishop Lyfing (Codex Dipl. iv. 10). The 
Godwine of the charter was apparently a 
man of high position in Kent and Sussex, 
but does not seem to have been an earl. If, 
therefore, the charter refers to the son of 
Wulfnoth, the marriage must be referred to 
a date between 1016 and 1018. William 
of Malmesbury, though making an obvious 
blunder about God wine's marriages, probably 
had some authority for his statement that 
he was twice married ( Gesta Regum, i. 342). 
A marriage with a niece of Eadric might 
account for the statement of Florence that 
Godwine was connected with Eadric by blood; 
the nature of the connection might easily be 
confused. If the charter refers to Godwine, 
son of Wulfnoth, and to the niece of Eadric, 
the marriage may be considered a political 
one, Cnut thus placing ' the heiress of the 
house of Eadric and Byrhtric in the hands 
of his firmest supporter in the south of Eng- 
land ' (ROBERTSON). It cannot, however, be 
said to be at all certain that the charter in 
question refers to the future earl of the West- 
Saxons; the name Godwine was very common 
at this period. Early in Cnut's reign God- 



wine stood high in the king's favour. He 
accompanied Cnut on his visit to Denmark 
in 1019, is said to have commanded a body 
of English during theking's expedition against 
the Wends, and to have distinguished him- 
self in the war [see under CANUTE]. Cnut 
made him his chief adviser and admitted him 
to his confidence. He married him to Gytha, 
the sister of earl Ulf, who was the husband 
of his own sister, Estrith, and the most power- 
ful of the Danish earls (FLORENCE, i. 202 ; 
ADAM OP BREMEN, ii. c. 52 ; SAXO, p. 196. 
Gytha is erroneously called the sister of Cnut, 
Vita Eadwardi, p. 392), and probably on his 
return to England appointed him earl of 
the West-Saxons (Norman Conquest, i. 469). 
Although God wine was an earl already, there 
is nothing to show what jurisdiction he had 
hitherto held, for the title of Earl of Kent 
which is sometimes given him does not rest 
on any ancient authority (ib. p. 451). Wessex, 
the 'home of English royalty,' had never 
before been placed under the government of 
a subject, the king ruled there in person. 
This arrangement had been maintained by 
Cnut ; while the rest of the kingdom was 
divided into great earldoms, he kept Wessex 
in his own hands (ib. p. 448). He may have 
found that his plans of northern conquest 
made it desirable that he should place a 
viceroy over the wealthiest and most impor- 
tant part of his new kingdom, and the new 
earl of the West-Saxons became his repre- 
sentative there, and in his absence from Eng- 
and seems, in some measure, to have acted 
is governor of the realm ( Vita, p. 392). God- 
vine was thus the most powerful man in the 
:ingdom after the king himself, and from 
bout 1020 his name is almost always written 
i charters before the names of all other lay 
obles, whether English or Danish. He 
ained vast wealth, and held lands in almost 
rery shire of southern and central England 
TREEN). Prudent in counsel and strenuous 
war he had gained Cnut's favour, and the 
ng took delight in his society. With an 
icommon capacity for work he combined a 
eerful temper and a general courtesy. He 
is not puffed up by his rapid rise ; was al- 
lys gentle in his manners, and unwearyingly 
liging to his equals and his inferiors ( Vita). 
s was an eloquent speaker, and his oratory 
ms to have been of considerable assistance 
lim. Norman writers describe him asfierce, 
ining, and greedy ( WILLIAM OF POITIERS, 
79; WILLIAM OF JUMIKGES, vii. c. ii.), and 
nry of Huntingdon (p. 758) takes the same 
i ; William of Malmesburv notes the dif- 
1 nt estimates formed by English and by 
man writers ( Gesta Reyum, i. 335). God- 
e appears to have been a remarkably able 

man, ambitious, unscrupulous, and eager for 
the aggrandisement of his house. His mar- 
riage with Gytha, and the benefits which he re- 
ceived from Cnut, naturally gave him Danish 
sympathies, his two elder sons Swegen, or 
Swend, and Harold were called by Danish 
names, and though he lived to represent Eng- 
lish national feeling, it is not unlikely that at 
this period ' he must have seemed to English- 
men more Dane than Englishman ' (GREEN, 
Conquest of England, p. 479). 

On the death of Cnut in 1035 Godwine sup- 
ported the claim of Harthacnut, the son of 
Cnut by Emma. In this he was endeavouring 
to carry out the plan of Cnut, and to secure a 
continuance of the connection between Eng- 
land and Denmark. While he and the men 
of his earldom were in favour of Harthacnut, 
earls Siward and Leofric and the people 
north of the Thames and the Londoners de- 
clared for Harold. A meeting of the witan 
was held at Oxford; Godwine and the chief 
men of Wessex persisted as long as they 
could, and at last yielded to a proposal that 
the kingdom should be divided [see under 
HAROLD I]. In Harthacnut's absence God- 
wine acted as the chief minister of Emma, 
who ruled Wessex for her son, and he thus 
had the king's housecarls or guard under 
his command. The division of the kingdom 
must have materially lessened his power, 
which was now confined to Wessex. Hartha- 
cnut remained in Denmark, and his pro- 
longed absence strengthened Harold. In 
1036 the sons of Emma by her first husband, 
^thelred the Unready [see under ALFRED 
the setheling and EDWARD THE CONFES- 
SOR], came over to England. The death of 
yElfred and the cruelties practised on him 
and his men are attributed to Godwine by 
name in the Abingdon version of the Chroni- 
cle and by Florence of Worcester. In the 
Worcester version they are put down to 
Harold; in the ' Encomium Emmse' Godwine 
decoys the setheling, while the actual attack 
is made by partisans of Harold. The bio- 
grapher of Eadward the Confessor, writing 
a panegyric on Godwine and his house for 
Godwine's daughter, asserts that the earl 
was innocent. William of Poitiers, of course, 
asserts his guilt. William of Malmesbury 
did not find the story of yElfred's death in 
the versions of the Chronicle with which he 
was acquainted, and accordingly tells it 
merely as a matter of common report which 
ascribed the deed to the setheling's fellow- 
countrymen and chiefly to Godwine. Henry 
of Huntingdon's account, which is more or 
less a romance, simply shows that in his time 
there was a strong tradition of Godwine's 
guilt. A large number of the earl's con- 

E 2 



temporaries believed, or at least declared, 
that he caused the setheling to be put to 
death. The evidence against him appears 
conclusive [for the contrary view see FREE- 
MAN, Norman Conquest, i. 543-59]. It is 
probable that Godwine, dissatisfied with his 
own position, and finding that Harold would 
before long become master of the whole king- 
dom, was anxious to make himself accept- 
able to the winning side ; and that he set on 
the setheling in order to gain Harold's favour, 
and very likely at his instigation. The next 
year he openly changed sides, for the West- 
Saxons forsook Harthacnut, and accepted 
Harold as their king. It is evident that 
Godwine was at once admitted to favour 
with Harold, for Bishop Lyfing, one of the 
chief men of his party, received ecclesiastical 
promotion (ib. p. 563). 

When Harthacnut came to the throne in 
1040 he sent God wine with other great officers 
to disinter and dishonour the body of Harold 
(FLORENCE). The earl was regarded with 
suspicion by the king. His enemies accused 
him and Bishop Lyfing of the murder of 
./Elfred, who was the king's uterine brother. 
Lyfing lost his bishopric for a time, and God- 
wine was compelled to clear himself of the 
charge by oath. A large number of earls 
and thegns joined with him in swearing that 
it was by no counsel or wish of his that 
the setheling was blinded, and that what 
he did was done by order of King Harold 
(ib.) If these words are a fair representa- 
tion of the oath, they go far to prove that 
the earl was a principal agent in the attack 
on the setheling. He purchased peace of 
the king by presenting him with a ship with 
a gilded beak, manned with eighty warriors 
splendidly equipped. In 1401 he was sent 
by the king, along with Earls Leofric and 
Siward and other nobles, to quell an insur- 
rection in Worcestershire, and punish the 
rebels. The earls burnt Worcester on 12 Nov. 
and harried the neighbouring country, but 
evidently took care not to slay or make cap- 
tive many of the people, for the insurrection 
was not unprovoked. 

When Harthacnut died in 1042 Godwine 
appears to have at once proposed, at an as- 
sembly held in London, that Eadward should 
be chosen as king, and he probably with others 
crossed over to Normandy and persuaded him 
to accept the crown. He came back to Eng- 
land with Eadward, and urged his right at a 
meeting of the witan held at Gillingham. It | 
is evident that he met with some opposition, 
and it is not unlikely that this proceeded from 
a party in favour of Swend Estrithson, his 
wife's nephew, and the nephew of his old 
master Cnut. Godwine, however, used all his 

influence and his power of eloquent speech on 
the side of the representative of the old Eng- 
lish line. Men looked on him as a father as 
he thus pleaded the cause of the setheling of 
their race ( Vita, p. 394), and followed his 
counsel. It may be that he saw that the 
election of Swend would have been bitterly 
opposed, and would have entailed a war. This 
would have been grievous to him, for there is 
no reason to doubt that, selfish as he was, the 
lives of his countrymen were dear to him. It 
is also reasonable to suppose that he saw that 
the election of Eadward was likely to lead 
to a perpetuation of his own power; for it is 
said that he bargained with Eadward that 
he and his sons should be secured in their 
offices and possessions, and that the king 
should marry his daughter ( Gesta Regum, 
i. 332). From this time forward he was the 
head of the national party in the kingdom. 
He had to contend with the prejudices of the 
! king and with the foreigners whom Eadward 
promoted to offices in church and state, as 
well as with the jealousy of the Earls Leofric 
and Siward and the great men of middle 
I and northern England. Yet he was not un- 
equal to the conflict. His earldom was by 
far the wealthiest and most important part 
of the kingdom ; it was also the part which 
was especially under the king's control, and 
for some years his influence with the king 
was supreme. Already immensely wealthy, 
he had now abundant opportunities of add- 
ing to his possessions. He appears to have 
been grasping, and is accused, not without 
some reason, of enriching himself at the ex- 
pense of ecclesiastical bodies (Norman Con- 
guest, ii. 543-8); he neither founded nor en- 
riched monasteries or churches. During the 
early years of Eadward's reign, not only was 
Wessex under his government, but his eldest 
son, Swegen, was earl of the Mercian shires 
of Hereford, Gloucester, and Oxford ; his 
second son, Harold, held the earldom of 
East Anglia ; and his wife's nephew, Beorn, 
an earldom which included Hertfordshire 
and Buckinghamshire. His daughter Eadgyth 
[see EDITH or EADGYTH, d. 1075] was mar- 
ried to the king in 1045. Godwine was also 
strong in the affection of the men of his 
own earldom, for he kept good order and 
enforced a respect for law. Indeed, as he 
became identified with the national cause of 
resistance to the government of foreigners he 
gained the love of the nation at large. At 
Eadward's coronation in 1048 he is said to 
have presented the king with a magnificent 
ship (Vita, p. 397; this, Mr. Luard suggests, 
is probably a confusion with the ship which 
he undoubtedly gave to Harthacnut). He 
was sent by Eadward along with Earls Si- 




ward and Leofric to Winchester on 16 Nov. 
to confiscate the possessions of Emma, the 
king's mother. In 1044 he joined Eadward 
in a plan for securing Archbishop Eadsige 

r ybj 
The appointment of Robert, abbot of Ju- 

i a p 

[q. v.J in the see of Canterbury by allowing 
him to appoint a coadjutor bishop. 

mieges, to the see of London in this year was 
the first step towards the overthrow of the 
earl's power. Robert had unbounded influence 
over the king, and never ceased whispering 
accusations against Godwine and his sons, 
urging especially that the earl was guilty of 
the death of .Elfred. It may fairly be as- 
sumed that the appointment of certain Lo- 
tharingian clergy to English sees and abbeys 
Avas due to Godwine's desire to keep out the 
Frenchmen, whom the king would naturally 
have preferred (Norman Conquest, ii. 79-85). 
His position must have been weakened by the 
disgrace of his eldest son, Swegen, who after" 
seducing the abbess of Leominster left Eng- 
land in 1046, and was outlawed. The next 
year a request for help from Swend Estrith- 
son, the king of the Danes, the nephew of 
Gytha the earl's wife, was laid before the 
witan. He had lost nearly all his kingdom, 
and asked for an English fleet to act against 
his enemy, Magnus of Norway. Godwine 
proposed that fifty ships should be sent to 
his succour, but Leofric objected, and his 
arguments prevailed with the assembly ( Wor- 
cester Chronicle, sub an. 1048 ; FLORENCE, i. 
200). In 1048 Swend, who had meanwhile 
got possession of his kingdom, again asked 
for help. Again, unless the story is a repeti- 
tion of the events of the previous year, did 
Godwine plead his cause, and again he was 
unsuccessful (FLORENCE). The earl's influ- 
ence seems to have been on the wane, but it 
was still strong enough to prevent Swegen's 
earldom from passing from his family ; it 
was divided between Harold and Beorn. 
Later in the year, while he was with the 
fleet which he and the king had gathered for 
the defence of the coast of Wessex against 
the attacks of some northern pirates, his son 
Swegen returned to England and slew his 
cousin Beorn [q. v.] The crime excited general 
indignation, and can scarcely have failed to 
injure Godwine's position. He soon, how- 
ever, gained a conspicuous advantage. Swegen 
found shelter in Flanders. About this time 
some hostile measures were taken by Eadward 
in alliance with the emperor against Bald- 
win V. The amicable relations which fol- 
lowed were almost certainly brought about 
by Godwine. He probably desired to secure 
the friendship of the Count of Flanders as 
a counterpoise to the power and influence of 
William of Normandy, who was already seek- 

ing to marry the count's daughter, Matilda. 
Before long Godwine arranged a marriage 
between his third son Tostig and Judith the 
sister ( Vita, p. 404) or daughter (FLORENCE) 
of Baldwin. The alliance with Baldwin was 
connected with the return of Swegen, whose 
outlawry was reversed. His reinstatement 
was a triumph for his father, but it was an im- 
politic measure, for, as later events showed, 
it outraged public feeling (GREEN, Conquest 
of England, p. 524). On the death of Arch- 
bishop Eadsige in 1050 Godwine sustained a 
serious defeat from the French party, which 
was now becoming all-powerful at the court ; 
the claim of his kinsman ^Elfric [q. v.], for 
whom he had tried to obtain the see of Can- 
terbury, was rejected by the king, who gave 
the archbishopric to the earl's enemy Robert 
of Jumieges. The new archbishop used every 
means in his power to destroy the earl's in- 
fluence, and his hatred was increased by the 
fact that the lands of the earl and of the 
convent of Christ Church, Canterbury, lay 
side by side. Disputes arose about their 
respective rights, and Robert declared that 
Godwine had taken into his own possession 
lands which belonged to his church (Vita, 
p. 400). The earl is said by his panegyrist 
to have tried to keep the peace, and to have 
restrained his men from retaliating on the 
archbishop. Eadward listened willingly to 
the archbishop's complaints against Godwine, 
and above all to the accusation, which seems 
to have been renewed at this time, that he had 
slain the setheling. 

When, early in September 1051, Godwine 
was celebrating the marriage of his son Tostig, 
he received orders from the king to harry the 
town of Dover, which lay within his earldom 
refused to inflict misery on his own people 
for the sake of the king's foreign favourites. 
If they had just cause of complaint they 
should, he urged, proceed against the men of 
Dover in a legal court ; if the Dover people 
could prove their innocence, they had a right 
to go free, and if not they should be punished 
in a lawful manner (Gesta Regum, i. 337). 
Then he went his way, taking little heed of 
the king's rage, which he believed would soon 
pass away. Robert, however, seized the op- 
portunity of stirring up the king against him, 
and Eadward summoned the witan to meet at 
Gloucester, to receive and decide on all the 
charges which might be brought against him. 
Godwine and his party had a further grievance 
against the king's foreign favourites, for one of 
them had built a castle in Swegen's earldom, 
and was doing much mischief. Godwine and 
his sons gathered their forces together at 
Beverstone in Gloucestershire, though ' it 




was hatetul to them to fight against their 
lord the king ' (Peterborough C'hron. an. i 
1048), and Godwine sent to the king, who 
was then at Gloucester with the witan and 
the forces of Mercia and Northumberland, 
to demand a hearing, offering to clear him- 
self by compurgation. When this wasrefused, 
he demanded that the Frenchmen who had { 
caused the troubles at Dover and in Swegen's 
earldom should be given up. This was re- 
fused, and the earl and his sons marched on 
Gloucester. War was averted by mediation, 
and the witan was ordered to meet again in 
London at Michaelmas. When the witan 
met, Godwine was at his own house in South- 
wark (Vita, p. 402), and many men of his 
earldom were with him. Eadward had now 
a strong army at his back, and it was soon 
evident that the earl's case was prejudged. 
Swegen's outlawry was renewed, and had 
probably been reimposed at Gloucester, but 
the earl seems to have disregarded the sen- 
tence and kept his son with him. lie was 
summoned to attend the assembly, and de- 
manded hostages and a safe-conduct. The 
king bade him attend with not more than 
twelve companions, and appears to have 
ordered those of his thegns who were with 
the earl to come over and join his army. God- 
wine let them go, and his forces dwindled 
gradually. Stigand, bishop of Winchester, 
one of his friends, did what he could to delay 
the final decision in the hope that the king 
would be better advised, but he was at last 
forced to bring the earl a message that he was 
to expect no peace from the king until he gave 
him back his brother and his brother's men safe 
and sound. The bishop wept as he gave the 
message. When the earl heard it he pushed 
over the table which stood by him, mounted 
his horse, and rode hard seawards to Bosham. 
Next morning the king and his host declared 
him and his sons outlaws, and gave them five 
days to get out of the land. He and his wife, 
and his son Swegen, Tostig and his bride, 
and Gyrth and his younger children em- 
barked with all the treasure which they had 
at hand, and sailed to Flanders. They were 
made welcome by Baldwin, and abode there 
that winter. 

Godwine's fall ' seemed wonderful to 
every man that was in England,' his power 
had been so great, his sons were ' earls and 
the king's darlings,' and his daughter the 
king's wife. Before long men sent him mes- 
sages, and some went over to him in person, 
assuring him that if he would come back they 
would fight for him, and people said that it 
would be better to be with him in exile than 
to be in England without him. He sent to 
the king asking that he might come before 

him and purge himself loyally of all charges. 
Moreover Henry, the French king, and the 
Count of Flanders urged his recall. But it 
was of no avail, for the king's evil coun- 
sellors kept him from hearkening. At last 
in June 1052 the earl determined to resort 
to force ; he gathered his ships together in 
the Yser and set sail on the 22nd, intending 
to fall in with his sons Harold and Leofwine, 
who were making a descent on the west coast 
with ships from Ireland. When he was oft' 
Dungeness he found that the coast there was 
well defended, and so sailed to Pevensey, 
pursued by the king's ships from Sandwich. 
A storm arose which separated the pursuers 
and the pursued, and the earl returned again 
to Flanders. Then the king's fleet dispersed, 
and in the beginning of September Godwine 
sailed to the Isle of Wight, where he landed 
and harried the island until the people paid 
him what he demanded. Thence he went 
to Portland, and there did all the mischief 
he could. On returning to Wight he was 
joined by his son Harold with nine ships. 
All the men of Kent, Surrey, and Sussex 
rose in his behalf, and especially the seamen 
of Hastings and the other ports, declaring 
that they ' would live and die ' with Earl 
Godwine. The earl sailed round the coast 
by Hythe, Dover, and Sandwich, taking all 
the ships he needed, and receiving hostages 
and provisions. He sailed up the Thames 
with a large fleet, some of his ships passing 
inside Sheppey, where the crews did much 
harm, and burnt King's Middleton. He lay 
off Southwark on 14 Sept., and while he 
waited for the tide held communication with 
the Londoners, who were almost to a man 
in his favour. Then he sailed up the river, 
keeping by the southern shore, which was 
thickly lined with the local forces gathered 
to support him. Eadward's ships were on 
the northern side of the river and his land 
forces on the shore. While the king delayed 
to reply to the earl's demand for restoration, 
Godwine addressed his men, declaring that 
he would sooner die than do any wrong to 
the king, and urging them to restrain their 
wrath. It was agreed that matters should 
be deferred until the morrow, and Godwine 
and Harold and some of their men landed 
and stayed on shore. At the great assembly 
which was held outside London on the next 
day, Godwine declared his innocence of all 
that was laid to his charge. His enemies, 
the Frenchmen, had already fled, and the 
king restored to him, his wife, his sons, and 
his daughter all that had been taken from 
them. The earl returned with the king to the 
palace, and there Eadward gave him the kiss 
of peace (for other particulars see under ED- 





and for an exhaustive examination of autho- 
rities FREEMAN, Norman Conquest, ii. 598- 
602). Soon after his restoration the earl 
fell sick. At Easter the next year (1053) he 
was with the king at Winchester, and on 
11 April, while he and his sons Harold, 
Tostig, and Gyrth sat at meat with the king, 
he fell from his seat speechless and powerless. 
His sons bore him into the king's chamber, 
where he lay in the same state until he died 
on Thursday the 14th. He was buried in 
the Old Minster. This is the simple account 
given of his death by the chronicle writers 
and Florence of Worcester. An illness of 
some months evidently ended in a fit of 
apoplexy. Florence, indeed, adds that after 
his seizure he suffered miserably, which seems 
unlikely. His death became the subject of 
legends, the earliest of which relate how while 
God wine sat at meat with the king they talked 
of the death of Alfred ( Gesta Regum, i. 335) 
or of past treason against the king (HENRY 
OF HUNTINGDON, p.760) ; Godwine prayed that 
if he was guilty the next morsel he ate might 
choke him, and he was accordingly choked 
and fell dead. Of about the same date is the 
well-known embellishment of the cupbearer 
who slipped, and remarked as he recovered 
his footing ' So brother helps brother ' ( AILRED 
OF RIEVATJLX, col. 395). The tale is repeated 
and developed by later writers (for an exami- 
nation of the growth of the legend see Norman 
Conquest, ii. 608, and Fortnightly Review, 
May 1866). 

Godwine seems to have had seven sons 
by Gytha : Swegen d. on pilgrimage 1052, 
Harold d. 1066, Tostig d. 1066, Gyrth d. 1066, 
Leofwine d. 1066, Wulfnoth living in 1087 
(FLORENCE, ii. 20), and probably yElfgar, a 
monk at Rheiins (ORDERIC, p. 502), and three 
daughters, Eadgyth, the queen of the Con- 
fessor [see EDITH], Gunhild d. at Bruges in 
1087, and perhaps J^lfgifu {Norman Conquest, 
ii. 552-5, iii. 221, 228, iv. 159, 705). 

[Freeman's Norman Conquest, vols. i. and ii. 
contains a full account of Earl Godwine, to which 
all later accounts must necessarily be indebted ; 
his view of the earl is perhaps too favourable. 
Green's Conquest of England, which contains 
some valuable remarks, especially on the earl's 
political aims, takes the opposite view. Kemble's 
Codex Dipl. iv. and v. ; Anglo-Saxon Chron. 
and Vita Eadwardi, cited as Vita, in Lives of 
Eadward the Confessor (both Rolls Ser.) ; Flo- 
rence of Worcester and William of Malmesbury, 
Gesta Regum (both Engl. Hist. Soc.) ; William 
of Jumieges, William of Poitiers, and Orderic, 
in Hist. Normann. Scriptt., Duchesne ; Henry of 
Huntingdon, Mon. Hist. Brit. ; Saxo, Hist. Daniea, 
ed. 1644; Encomium Emmse, in Pertz, Monu- 
menta Hist. Germ.] W. H. 


(1798-1845), poetess, younger daughter of 
Thomas Garnett, M.D. [q. v.], was born at 
Glasgow 25 Dec. 1798. Her mother died at her 
birth, and after the premature death of her 
fatherin 1802 she, with her sister, was brought 
up by her mother's intimate friend, Miss Wor- 
boys. They resided at Barbon, near Kirkby 
Lonsdale in Westmoreland, where Catherine 
continued to live after her marriage in 1824 to 
Thomas Godwin, formerly of the East India 
Company's service. She had already published 
' The Night before the Bridal, and other 
poems,' to which ' The Wanderer's Legacy ' 
succeeded in 1829. This volume attracted 
the favourable notice of Wordsworth, who 
honoured the authoress with exceptional at- 
tention and praise. His letter to her, printed 
by her biographer, conveys his opinion of 
the Spenserian stanza in Byron's hands, and 
of what he considered the corruption of the 
English language from the popularity of 
Scott's poems and novels. Mrs. Godwin's 
poems will hardly be thought to justify his 
high opinion. They indicate a highly re- 
fined and sensitive nature, but have more 
fluency than force, and in general merely 
reflect the style of Byron, of Wordsworth, 
or of Mrs. Hemans. After the death of her 
sister in 1 832 Mrs. Godwin's health declined, 
and she wrote little more, except fugitive 
poems in albums and stories for the young. 
A volume of letters from the continent was 
published after her death, which took place 
in May 1845, after long suffering from spinal 
irritation. Her poetical works were col- 
lected and published in a handsome illus- 
trated volume in 1854, with a memoir by 
A. Cleveland Wigan. She is described as 
persevering, discriminating, and endowed 
with a keen sense of the ludicrous. She had 
acquired considerable proficiency in paint- 
ing ; the portrait prefixed to her poems is 
from a miniature by herself. 

[Memoir, by A. Cleveland Wigan, prefixed to 
the Poetical Works of Catherine Grace Godwin, 
1854.] R. G. 


(1833-1886), architect, was born in Old 
Market Street, Bristol, on 20 May 1833. 
From his father, who was in business as a 
decorator, he inherited a taste for architec- 
tural and archaeological studies, and before 
leaving school mastered Bloxam's ' Gothic 
Architecture.' He received his professional 
training in the office of Mr. W. Armstrong, 
architect, of Bristol, and afterwards practised 
for some years in that city, at first alone, and 
subsequently in partnership with Mr. Henry 
Crisp. The firm had an office in London, and 



Godwin, after the death without family of his 
first wife, removed to London about 1862. 
His earlier w r orks, among which may be 
mentioned the town halls of Northampton 
and Congleton in the Decorated style, and 
the restorations of Dromore Castle for the 
Earl of Limerick and Castle Ashby in North- 
amptonshire, and many churches, schools, 
and houses in and near Bristol, exhibited 
much promise. In London he enjoyed the 
esteem and friendship of Scott, Street, Bur- 
gess, and other great architects. He assisted 
Burgess in the preparation of his designs 
for the new law courts. He also assisted 
Mr. R. W. Edis, F.S.A., in his design for 
the houses of parliament in Berlin. But 
his removal to London proved a mistake 
from a professional point of view. His chief 
works there were the premises of the Fine 
Art Society in Bond Street and a studio for 
Princess Louise at Kensington Palace. But 
he has left no building there really worthy of 
his capabilities. As an architect he worked 
chiefly in the Gothic style ; his works are 
characterised by taste in design and the ac- 
curacy of his knowledge of detail. But he 
failed to fulfil his early promise. A facile 
sketcher, a good draughtsman, with a quick 
eye for proportion and harmonious groupings, 
a clear writer, an antiquarian well versed in 
the architecture, furniture, and costume of 
all periods, a well-informed Shakespearean 
scholar, and an excellent lecturer, he found 
too wide a field for his many talents, and 
turned from the exercise of his profession to 
literature and the designing of art furniture. 
Latterly his time was almost exclusively oc- 
cupied in the designing of theatrical costumes 
and scenery, among the plays which he as- 
sisted in setting being ' Hamlet,' ' Claudian,' 
' Helena inTroas,' and 'Bachelors,' which last 
was brought out at the Opera Comique, Lon- 
don, only a couple of months before his death. ] 
In the last years of his life he suffered from 
a painful disease; the operation of lithotomy | 
ultimately became necessary, and he died in 
his rooms, 6 Great College Street, West- '. 
minster, on 6 Oct. 1886. His second wife, a ! 
daughter of Phillips the sculptor, to whom j 
he was married in 1876, survived him, and 
he also left one son. 

Godwin contributed largely both articles 
and sketches to the professional journals. To 
the ' British Architect ' he was for long a 
frequent contributor, and his book, entitled 
'Temple Bar Illustrated,' London, 1877, was 
reprinted from its columns. He also pub- 
lished : 1. Designs for the work in ' Art 
Furniture ' by William Watt, London, 1877. 
2. 'Artistic Conservatories and other Horti- j 
cultural Buildings designed to be constructed j 

on the patent system of Messrs. Messenger & 
Co.,' London, 1880. 3. 'A few Notes on the 
Architecture and Costume of the Period of 
the Play of " Claudian," A.D. 360-460,' pub- 
lished in the form of a letter to Mr. Wilson 
Barrett, London, 1883. 4. The article on 
' Dress and its Relation to Health and Cli- 
mate,' London, 1884, in the 'Handbook' to 
the International Health Exhibition of 1884. 
5. ' The " Faithfull Shepherdesse " by John 
Fletcher adapted and arranged in three acts 
for the open air,' London, 1885. 6. A sub- 
scription work for the Art Costume Society, 
of which only a few parts were published at 
the time of his death. 

[Architect, 15 Oct. 1886, xxxvi. 217; Build- 
ing News, 15 Oct. 1886, 1. 589 (list of designs 
contributed to the paper); Builder, 16 Oct. 1886, 
1. 572 ; British Architect, 15 Oct. 1886 (list of 
articles, with portrait); American Architect and 
Building News, 30 Oct. 1886.] G. W. B. 

GODWIN, FRANCIS, D.D. (1562-1633), 
bishop successively of Llandaft' and Hereford, 
born in 1562 at Hannington in Orlingbury 
hundred, Northamptonshire, was son of the 
Rev. Thomas Godwin [q. v.], afterwards bi- 
shop of Bath and Wells, by his wife Isabella, 
daughter of Nicholas Purefoy of Shalstone, 
Buckinghamshire (BRIDGES, Northampton- 
shire, ii. 98). In his sixteenth year he was 
sent to the university of Oxford, and in 1578 
he was elected j unior student of Christ Church. 
He studied with great reputation, and was 
admitted B.A. 23 Jan. 1580-1, being of the 
same standing as the famous Henry Cuff 
[q. v.] He commenced M.A. in 1584, at which 
time he was ' accounted one of the most in- 
genious persons as well as assiduous students 
in the university.' In 1586 he held the pre- 
bend of St. Decuinans in the cathedral church 
of Wells (LE NEVE, Fasti, ed. Hardy, i. 196), 
and on 11 June 1587 he was collated to the 
subdeanery of Exeter. In 1590 he accom- 
panied his old friend, the learned Camden, 
into Wales in search of antiquities. He wa 
admitted to the degree of B.D. on 11 Feb. 
1593-4 (CLARK, Register of Univ. of Oxford, 
ii. 92). On 30 Jan. 1595-6 he took the de- 
gree of D.D., being then rector of Sampford 
Dorcas, Somersetshire, canon residentiary of 
Wells, rector of Bishops Lydiard, by the 
resignation of the vicarage of Weston-in- 
Zoyland, all in the same county, and sub- 
dean of Exeter. 

In 1601 he published his ' Catalogue of the 
Bishops of England,' which was so generally 
approved that Queen Elizabeth immediately 
appointed him bishop of Llandaff in succes- 
sion to Dr. William Morgan, who was trans- 
lated to St. Asaph. He was nominated by 




the queen on 5 Oct. 1G01, elected on the 14th, 
confirmed on 20 Nov., and consecrated on the 
22nd in Henry VII's chapel at Westminster 
(STTJBBS, liegistrum Sacrum Anglicanum, p. 
88 ; LE NEVE, ii. 252). Wood observes that 
the reward, though royal, consisted rather of 
title than substance, as the bishopric did not 
then produce more than l~)0l. a year. There- 
fore he had liberty to retain one of his former 
dignities, which seems to have been the sub- 
deanery of Exeter, and also to take the rec- 
tory of Kingston Seymour, in the diocese of 
Bath and Wells. On 26 July 1603 he was 
presented by Lord-keeper Egerton to the rec- 
tory of Shere Newton, Monmouthshire. On 
14 Oct. 1607 he wrote from Malvern to Sir 
Thomas Lake begging his interest to procure 
him the archdeaconry of Gloucester, vacant 
by the preferment of the Bishop of Glouces- 
ter to the see of London. He said the arch- 
deaconry was worth 801. a year, and he offered 
Sir Thomas SQL for his interest (Cal. State 
Papers, Dom. 1603-10, p. 354). 

During his sixteen years' tenure of the see 
of Llandaff he employed his leisure in im- 
proving his ' Catalogue of Bishops,' and in 
collecting materials for the civil and ecclesi- 
astical history of England. In 1615 he pub- 
lished an improved edition of his ' Catalogue,' 
with a dedication to James I, and annals of 
the reigns of Henry VIII, Edward VI, and 
Mary, in elegant Latin. As a reward for 
these labours he was by the king's desire 
translated to the see of Hereford, in succes- 
sion to Dr. Robert Bennet, on 10 Nov. 1617. 
He was elected on the 13th, and received 
the royal assent on the 24th, and the arch- 
bishop's confirmation on the 28th of the same 
month, the temporalities being restored to 
him on 20 Dec. (LE NEVE, i. 470). Dr. 
Thomas Ryves, king's advocate, an unsuc- 
cessful candidate for the chancellorship of 
Hereford diocese, complained in a petition, 
22 Nov. 1625, to Charles I that the bishop had 
conferred the chancellorship of his diocese 
upon one of his sons, a divine inexperienced 
in the civil law (Cal. of State Papers, Dom. 
1625-6, p. 155). On 9 April 1627 Godwin 
wrote to informLord-keeper Coventry that the 
privy council's letter of 9 Aug., for apprehend- 
ing George Bering-ton and one Haumer, two 
Romish priests, was delivered to one of the 
bishop's people ' upon the way, and that 
opened,' seven weeks after date. The bishop 
added that he presently took his horse, and 
used all the means he could, but without 
effect (ib. 1627-8, p. 133). In the latter part 
of his life he ' fell into a low and languishing 
disease.' He died in April 1633, and was 
buried on the 29th of that month in the 
chancel of his church at Whitbourne, which, 

with the manor, belongs to the bishops of 

He married, when a young man, the daugh- 
ter of Dr. John Wolton, bishop of Exeter, 
by whom he had many children, including 
(1) Thomas Godwin, D.D., vicar of Newland, 
Gloucestershire, and chancellor of the diocese 
of Hereford, who died in 1644 ; (2) Morgan 
Godwin, D.C.L., archdeacon of Salop, who 
died in 1645; (3) Charles Godwin, who was 
beneficed at Monmouth ; and (4) a daughter, 
who was married to Dr. John Hughes, arch- 
deacon of Hereford. 

Wood describes him as ' a good man, a 
grave divine, skilful mathematician, excellent 
philosopher, pure Latinist, and incomparable 
historian, being no less critical in histories 
than the learned Selden' (Athente Oxon. ed. 
Bliss, ii. 555) ; but Browne Willis remarks 
that ' notwithstanding the freedom he takes 
with other bishops' reputations, he was cer- 
tainly a very great Symoniack, [and] omitted 
no opportunity in disposing of his prefer- 
ments, in order to provide for his children ' 
(Survey of Cathedrals, ' Hereford,' p. 525). 

His works are : 1. ' Catalogue Episcoporum 
Bathoniensium et Wellensium,' manuscript 
in Trinity College, Cambridge, dated 15 Dec. 
1594; cf. Baker's MS. 33, ff. 391-5. It is 
larger, more elegant, and in some things 
more accurate, than the article on the bishops 
of Bath and Wells, even in the last edition 
of his elaborate printed work. It was pub- 
lished in part by Hearne in his edition of 
John de Whethamstede's ' Chronicon,' 1732, 
p. 635. Hearne had previously printed a 
portion of it in John de Trokelowe's ' Annales 
Edwardi II,' p. 381. 2. 'Concio Lat. in Luc. 
5, 3,' 1601, 4to. 3. 'A Catalogue of the- 
Bishops of England since the first planting 
of Christian Religion in this Island; together 
with a brief History of theirLives andMemor- 
able Actions, so near as can be gathered 
out of Antiquity,' London, 1601, 4to, in black 
letter, dedicated to Thomas Sackville, lord 
Buckhurst, lord high treasurer, to whom lie 
was chaplain. A second edition appeared in 
1615 with many additions, and (a) 'Discourse 
concerning the first Conversion of our Britain 
unto Christian Religion,' and (b) ' Discourse 
concerning such Englishmen as have either 
been, or in our Histories reputed, Cardinals 
of the Church of Rome.' He translated the 
whole work into Latin under the title of 'De 
Prsesvlibvs Anglise Commentarius : Omnivm 
Episcoporvm,necnon et Cardinalivm eivsdem 
gentis, nomina, tempora, seriem, atqve Ac- 
tiones maxime memorabiles ab vltima anti- 
quitate repetita complexus,' London, 1616,. 
4to. A splendid edition of this work, with 
annotations and a continuation by William 



Richardson, master of Emmanuel College, 
Cambridge, was printed in 2 vols., Cambridge, 
1743, fol. Of the early editions there are 
several copies, with manuscript notes, among 
the collections of Rawlinson and Gough in the 
Bodleian Library. Wood says that Godwin 
endeavoured ' out of a puritanical pique ' to 
bring a scandal on the catholic bishops, and 
to advance the credit of those prelates who, 
like himself, were married after the Reforma- 
tion period. After the appearance of the first 
edition of the ' Catalogue ' Sir John Harington 
[q. v.] of Kelston wrote for Prince Henry's 
private use a continuation of the ' Catalogue ' 
under the title 'A brief View of the State of the 
Church of England as it stood in Queen Eliza- 
beth's and King James's reign, to the yearl608' 
(published 1653). 4. ' Rerum Anglicarum 
Henrico VIII, Edwardo VI, et Maria reg- 
nantibus, Annales,' London, 1616-28, 4to, 
1630, fol. An English translation by his son 
Morgan Godwin, dedicated to Lord Scuda- 
more, has been several times printed. In 
1675 it was printed with Bacon's ' History of 
Henry VII.' The work was translated into 
French by Le sieur De Loigny, Paris, 1647, 
4to. The ' Life of Queen Mary,' newly trans- 
lated into English by J. Hughes from the 
bishop's Latin, is printed in vol. ii. of ' A 
Complete History of England,' 1706, fol. 
5. ' Statement of a Project for Conveying 
Intelligence into Besieged Towns and Fort- 
resses, and receiving Answers therefrom 
under conditions specified,' dated 7 March 
1620-1, and signed by the bishop and his son 
Thomas ; manuscript in State Paper Office, 
Dom. James I, vol. cxx. art. 11. 6. 'Appendix 
ad Commentarium de Prsesulibus Anglise,' 
London, 1621-2, 4to. 7.'Nunciusinanimatus,' 
1 Utopias,' 1629, and 1657, 8vo. Translated 
into English by Dr. Thomas Smith of Mag- 
dalen College, Oxford, who entitled it ' The 
Mysterious Messenger, unlocking the Secrets 
of Men's Hearts,' printed with ' The Man in 
the Moone,' London, 1657, 8vo. This and the 
following work were written when Godwin 
was a student at Oxford. 8. ' The Man in 
the Moone, or a Discourse of a Voyage thither 
by Domingo Gonsales,the Speedy Messenger,' 
London, 1638, 1657, and 1768, 8vo. It was 
published after the author's death by 'E. M.' 
of Christ Church. The work shows that 
Godwin had some imagination and was well 
acquainted with the Copernican system. It 
was translated into French by J. Baudoin, 
Paris, 1648, 8vo ; La Haye, 1651, 12mo, and 
1671. It is generally supposed that from this 
work Dr. Wilkins, bishop of Chester, derived 
several hints for his ' Discovery of a New 
World in the Moon,' and that Cyrano de 
Bergerac also borrowed from it in the ' Voyage 

to the Moon.' Swift is usually credited with 
having derived from De Bergerac some ideas 
for f Gulliver's Travels,' particularly in the 
voyage to Laputa, but there is no reason why 
he should not have taken them directly from 

Vertue engraved a portrait of Godwin in 
1742 for Richardson's edition of ' De Prsesuli- 

[Wood's Athenae Oxon. (Bliss), ii. 555, 882 ; 
Godwin, De Prsesulibus (Eichardson), pp. 496, 
613; Dr. Campbell in Biog. Brit.; Le Neve's 
Fasti (Hardy), i. 196, 390, 470, ii. 252 ; Wood's 
Hist, et Antiquitates Oxon. p. 262; Kymer's 
Fcedera, xvii. 28, 451 ; Granger's Biog. Hist, 
of England, 5th edit. ii. 54 ; Hallam's Lit. of 
Europe (1854), iii. 168; Willis's Survey of the 
Cathedral of Llandaff(1719), p. 67; Eawlinson's 
Hereford, p. 21 2 ; Kennett MS. 50, f. 134 ; Notes 
and Queries, 5th ser. ii. 209 ; Calendars of State 
Papers, Dom. (161 1-18) pp. 368,497,499,(1619- 
1623), pp. 232, 233, 398, 401, 480, (1623-5) pp. 
128, 152, 379, (1625-6) pp. 155, 176, 540, 562, 
(1629-31) p. 486, (1631-3) p. 445, (1633-4) 
pp. 40, 323, 471.] T. C. 

GODWIN, GEORGE (1815-1 888), archi- 
tect, son of an architect at Brompton, was 
born there 28 Jan. 1815. At the age of thir- 
teen he entered his father's office. He quickly 
developed a taste for literature and the scien- 
tific aspects of art . For some time he acted as 
joint-editor of a magazine called the ' Literary 
Union.' In 1835 Godwin obtained the first 
medal awarded by the Royal Institute of 
British Architects for his essay on ' Con- 
crete.' This treatise was almost immediately 
translated into several languages, and it still 
remains a standard work on the subject. 
In 1836-7 Godwin took an active part in 
originating the Art Union of London, and 
for a long period was its lion, secretary. It 
was one of the great objects of his life to 
educate the public taste in matters of art. 
The Art Union obtained a charter, and its 
annual income soon reached many thousands 
of pounds. During the early days of railway 
enterprise Godwin issued* An Appeal to the 
Public on the Subject of Railways,' 1837, in 
answer to conservative objections to their 
multiplication. In 1838 he published ' The 
Churches of London,' in two volumes, with 
illustrations from drawings by Mackenzie and 
Billings. Godwin now contributed papers 
to the meetings of the Institute of British 
Architects and other societies, and was one 
of the principal writers on the ' Art Journal,' 
the ' Architectural Magazine,' and the ' Civil 
Engineer and Architect's Journal.' The So- 
ciety of Antiquaries printed his essay on 
' Masons' Marks' in its ' Archseologia,' 1843. 
Among his more important writings may be 




-cited ' The Means employed for Raising Obe- 
lisks '(having special reference to the elevation 
of the Luxor obelisk at Paris), ' The Institu- 
tion of Freemasonry/ ' The State of Archi- 
tecture in the Provinces,' ' Present State of 
-Cologne Cathedral,' ' Ancient Architectural 
Remains in Lower Normandy,' and ' Present 
State of the Art of Glass-painting in England 
and France.' Godwin wrote a farce called 
' The Last Day,' which was played at the | 
Olympic Theatre in October 1840, and he [ 
subsequently wrote a number of dramas, 
which have not been published. With Lewis 
Pocock he edited the ' Pilgrim's Progress ' in 
1844, also supplying a memoir of Bunyan ; 
and the same year he issued a volume en- 
titled ' Facts and Fancies.' 

In 1844 Godwin became editor of the 
* Builder,' a journal founded two years before 
by Joseph Aloysius Hansom [q. v.], and gave 
to the paper its recognised position. Godwin I 
published m 1848 his ' Buildings and Monu- j 
ments, Modern and Mediaeval,' and in 1853 i 
appeared his ' History in Ruins,' a series of 
letters intended as a popular outline of archi- 
tectural history. 

Godwin laboured zealously to improve the ' 
sanitary conditions of the dwellings of the \ 
poor in town and country. He thoroughly ' 
examined many of the dilapidated London 
houses. Prince Albert afterwards took an 
interest in the question, and in 1851 erected 
a model dwelling in Hyde Park. Under the 
title of ' London Shadows ' Godwin published 
in 1854 a work embodying the results of an 
inquiry into the condition of the poor, under- 
taken in the preceding year. This was suc- 
ceeded by ' Town Swamps and Social Bridges.' 
In ' Another Blow for Life,' a volume issued 
in 1864, he again called attention to sanitary j 
and social defects. 

Godwin took an active part in the work 
of the Royal Literary Fund, of which he was a 
treasurer, and in the Newspaper Press Fund. 
He was elected a fellow of the Royal Society 
and of the Society of Antiquaries, and in 1881 
he received the gold medal of the Royal In- I 
stitute of British Architects, of which he had 
been a vice-president. Godwin founded a j 
scholarship in connection with the institute, ! 
known as the ' Godwin Bursary,' the holder 
of which was to study and report upon the ' 
architectural work and professional practice 
of other countries. He also supported the ' 
Hellenic Society, and assisted in the founda- 
tion of the new school at Athens to promote 
the study of Greek antiquities. He further 
took a keen interest in the contemporary 
stage, and his drawings were consulted by 
Charles Kean. He published a book on ' The 
Desirability of obtaining a National Theatre,' 

in which he advocated one national theatre 
for the metropolis, to be supported either by 
government subsidies or by private subscrip- 

Godwin was a successful architect. He 
was awarded a premium in 1847 for his se- 
lected design for the Colney Hatch Lunatic 
Asylum. The chief works carried out under 
his sole responsibility were the following : 
the Brompton parochial national schools ; 
Fulham Church tower (restored) ; St. Mary's 
Church, Ware (restored) ; St. Mary Redcliffe, 
Bristol (restored) ; St. Mary's Church, West 
Brompton ; Redcliffe infant school and resi- 
dence, Bristol ; residence at Wall's Court, 
near Bristol ; and buildings at Stanley Farm, 
near Bristol. In conjunction with his brother 
Henry he carried out the following works : 
Standon Church, near Ware(restored); ' Rock-- 
hurst,' West Hoathley, Sussex ; ' Elmdale,' 
Clifton Downs, Bristol ; Little Munden 
Church, Hertfordshire (restored) ; St. Jude's 
Church, Earl's Court ; drinking fountain, Clif- 
ton Downs ; and the Redcliffe Mansions, 
South Kensington. 

In 1884 Godwin was appointed a member 
of the royal commission on the housing of 
the working classes, and laboured actively in 
this his latest public work. He died at his 
residence in Cromwell Place, South Kensing- 
ton, 27 Jan. 1888. Godwin had been a noted 
collector of ancient chairs and relics formerly 
belonging to celebrated persons, which were 
sold after his death. A chair supposed to have 
been Shakespeare's was sold for 120 guineas. 
Other chairs had belonged to Mrs. Siddons, 
Mrs. Browning, the poet Gay, Anne Boleyn, 
Alexander Pope, Sir Walter Raleigh, Lord 
Byron, Landor, Napoleon Bonaparte, Thacke- 
ray, Anthony Trollope, George Cruikshank, 
and Nathaniel Hawthorne. 

As an editor Godwin was careful and ex- 
acting. He was an effective and fluent public 
speaker and an entertaining companion in 
private. He was a good narrator of stories, 
good-humouredly cynical. 

[Builder, 4 Feb. 1888; Times, 30 Jan. 1888 ; 
Daily News, 19 April 1888; Godwin's cited 
works.] G. B. S. 


(1784-1853), major-general, commanding the 
troops in the second Burmese war, entered the 
army in December 1799 as ensign 9th foot, in 
which he became lieutenant in 1803, and cap- 
tain in 1808. He served with the regiment at 
Ferrol in 1800, in the expedition to Hanover in 
1805, when he was adjutant of his battalion, 
and in Portugal in 1808. In 1809 he was pre- 
sent in the operations on theDouro and the ad- 
vance to Oporto, and afterwards accompanied 




his battalion to Gibraltar. He marched with ! 
the light company, as part of a provisional 
light battalion, from Gibraltar to Tarifa, and 
took part in the first defence. He was a vo- 
lunteer under Lord Blayney in the attempt | 
on Fuengarola, near Malaga. He commanded 
a detachment of two flank companies of his 
battalion at Cadiz, at the second defence of 
Tarifa, and at the battle of Barossa, where he 
was severely wounded. For his Peninsular ! 
services he was made brevet-major and C.B. 
In May 1814 he was appointed major in the i 
old 5th West India regiment, and in Novem- ' 
ber 1815 lieutenant-colonel of the 41st foot. 
Godwin took that regiment out to India in 
1822, accompanied it to Burmah in 1824, and 
was present in every action in the first Bur- 
mese war, from the capture of Rangoon until 
peace was signed in sight of Ummeerapoora 
in February 1826, except during the latter 
part of 1824, when he was employed with a 
detached force in reducing the Burmese pro- 
vince of Martaban. Godwin twice received 
the thanks of the governor-general in council 
for his services. He exchanged to half-pay 
in 1827, became colonel in 1837, and major- 
general in 1846. In 1850 he was appointed to 
a divisional command in Bengal, and in 1852 
was selected for the command of the Bengal 
division of the Burmese expeditionary force, 
of which he took the command in chief. The 
second Burmese war began with the bom- 
bardment of Martaban on 5 April 1852. In 
November Godwin recaptured Pegu, and in 
December the annexation of the province of 
Pegu to India was proclaimed by Lord Dal- 
housie. Further operations folio wed at Prome 
and in the Rangoon river, and on 1 July 1853 
the expeditionary force, known officially as 
tlie ' army of Ava,' was broken up, and God- 
win returned to India. His personal activity, 
in spite of his years, had been remarked 
throughout, and he was a great favourite 
with the troops ; but the protracted character 
of the later operations had drawn upon him 
much undeserved abuse from certain portions 
of the English and Indian press. He appears 
to have acted throughout in accordance with 
the instructions of Lord Dalhousie, by whom 
his conduct was fully approved. On Godwin's 
return to India, he was appointed to com- 
mand the Sirhind division of the Bengal army. 
He died at Simla, at the residence of the com- 
rnander-in-chief, Sir William Gomm, who 
had been his brother subaltern in the 9th foot, 
on 26 Oct. 1853, at the age of sixty-nine, from 
the results of exposure and over-exertion in 
Burmah. Notification of his appointments 
as K.C.B. and colonel 20th foot was received 
in India after his death. His only daughter 
married Robert A. C. Godwin-Austen [q. v.] 

[Hart's Army Lists ; London Gazettes ; Gent. 
Mag. new ser. xli. 529. A useful epitome of the 
history of the first and second Burmese wars 
will be found in Low's Hist. Indian Navy.] 

H. M. C. 

CRAFT (1759-1797), miscellaneous writer, 
born 27 April 1759, was granddaughter of a 
rich Spitalfields manufacturer of Irish ex- 
traction. Her father, Edward John Woll- 
stonecraft, spent the fortune which he had 
inherited, tried farming, took to drinking, 
bullied his wife, and rambled to various 
places, sinking lower at each move. By his 
wife, Elizabeth Dixon, an Irishwoman (d. 
1780), he had six children. Edward, the 
eldest, was an attorney in the city of London. 
There were three daughters, Mary, Everina, 
and Eliza ; and two other sons. Mary and 
Eliza had much talent, though little educa- 
tion. Mary in 1778 became companion to a 
Mrs. Dawson. In 1780 her mother died, 
and the sisters, finding their father's house 
intolerable, resolved to become teachers. 
Mary went to live with a friend, Fanny 
Blood, whose father was as great a scamp 
as Wollstonecraft, and who helped to sup- 
port her family by painting. Her mother, 
Mrs. Blood, took in needlework, in which 
Mary Wollstonecraft helped her. Everina 
Wollstonecraft kept house for her brother 
Edward ; and Eliza, although still very 
young, accepted a Mr. Bishop, in order to 
escape misery at home. Bishop's brutality 
made her wretched. Her life is described 
in her sister's ' Wrongs of Women.' Mrs. 
Bishop went into hiding till a legal separa- 
tion was arranged, when about 1783 she set 
up a school at Newington Green with Mary 
Wollstonecraft. It lingered for two years. 
During this period she acquired some friends,, 
and was kindly received, shortly before his 
death, by Dr. Johnson. Fanny Blood, who 
lived with the sisters for a time, married 
Hugh Skeys, a merchant, and settled in 
Lisbon. She died in childbed soon after- 
wards (29 Nov. 1785). Mary went out to 
nurse her, but arrived too late. After her re- 
turn she wrote a pamphlet called 'Thoughts 
on the Education of Daughters,' for which 
Johnson, the publisher in St. Paul's Church- 
yard, gave her 101. 10s. She then became 
governess (October 1787) in the family of 
Lord Kingsborough, afterwards Earl of 
Kingston. She thought him a coarse squire 
and his wife a mere fine lady. Lady Kings- 
borough was jealous of the children's affec- 
tion for their governess, and dismissed her 
after a year. She then settled in London, 
showed a story called ' Mary ' to Johnson, 
and was employed by him as reader and in 




translating from the French. She worked 
for five years, liberally helped her sisters and 
brothers, sending Everina to France, and 
saw some literary society. Here, in November 

1791, she met William Godwin [q. v.] for 
the first time, when he disliked her because 
her fluent talk silenced the taciturn Thomas 
Paine, who was of the company. She pub- 
lished her ' Vindication of the Rights of 
Women ' in 1792. It had some success, was 
translated into French, and scandalised her 
sisters. She proposed to visit France in 
company with Johnson and Mr. and Mrs. 
Fuseli. Knowles fin his ' Life of Fuseli ') 
says that Mary Wollstonecraft had fallen in 
love with Fuseli, who was already married ; 
that she got rid of her previously slovenly 
habits of dress in order to please him, and 
that she proposed to stay in his house in 
order to be near him. Mrs. Fuseli hereupon, 
he adds, forbade her the house, and she went 
to Paris to break off the attachment. Mr. 
Paul (Mary Wollstonecraft, p. xxxi) denies 
the story, chiefly on the ground that she re- 
mained a ' close friend ' of Mrs. Fuseli. 
Knowles quotes some phrases from her letters 
to Fuseli, Avhich are certainly significant, 
but he does not give them in full. She went 
to Paris alone in December 1792. Here she 
met Gilbert Imlay, who had been a captain 
in the American army during the war of 
independence, had written letters descriptive 
of the north-west territory (published in 

1792, 2nd edit. 1797), and was now engaged 
in commercial speculations. She agreed to 
live with him as his wife a legal marriage 
for an Englishwoman being probably difficult 
at the time, and not a matter of importance 
according to her views (Letters to Imlay, p. 
xxxix). She joined him at Havre at the end 
of 1793, and on 14 May 1794 gave birth to a 
child, called Fanny. She published an ' His- 
torical View of the French Revolution 'soon 
afterwards. Imlay's speculations separated 
him from her for long periods, and her letters 
soon show doubts of his affection and sus- 
picions of his fidelity. She followed him to 
England in 1795, and in June sailed to Nor- 
way to make arrangements for some of his 
commercial speculations. Passages of her 
letters to him, descriptive of the country, 
were published in 1796. Returning to Eng- 
land m the autumn she found that he de- 
sired a separation, and was carrying on an 
intrigue with another woman. She tried to 
drown herself by leaping from Putney Bridge, 
but was taken out insensible by a passing 
boat. According to Godwin, she still lis'-' 
tened to some proposals from Imlay, and 
was even willing to return to him upon de- 
grading terms. She finally broke with him 

in March 1796. She refused to take money 
from him, but accepted a bond for the benefit 
of her daughter. Neither principal nor in- 
terest was ever paid. She returned to writ- 
ing, resumed her friendship with Johnson, 
and went into literary society. She soon 
became intimate with Godwin, who had 
been favourably impressed by the 'Letters 
from Sweden.' Though both of them dis- 
approved of marriage, they formed a connec- 
tion about September 1796. The expectation 
of a child made a legal union desirable ; and 
they were married 29 March 1797 [see GOD- 
WIN, WILLIAM], Their relation, in spite of 
some trifling disagreements due to Godwin's 
peculiarities, was happy. The birth of her 
child Mary was fatal to her, and she died 
10 Sept. 1797. She was buried at Old St. 
Pancras churchyard, and her remains were 
moved in 1791 to Bournemouth. She is de- 
scribed as Marguerite in her husband's 'St. 

Mrs. Godwin was an impulsive and en- 
thusiastic woman, with great charms of per- 
son and manner. A portrait, painted by Opie 
during her marriage and engraved by Heath in 
1 798,was in the possession of the late Sir Percy 
Shelley. Another, also by Opie, was engraved 
by Ridley for the 'Monthly Mirror' in 1796, 
and is now in the possession of Mr. William 
Russell. Engravings of both are in Mr. Paul's 
' Mary AVollstonecraft .' Her books show some 
genuine eloquence, though occasionally in- 
jured by the stilted sentimentalism of the 
time. The letters are pathetic from the melan- 
choly story which they reveal. Her faults 
were such as might be expected from a fol- 
lower of Rousseau, and were consistent with 
much unselfishness and nobility of sentiment, 
though one could wish that her love-affairs 
had been more delicate. 

Her works are: 1. 'Thoughts on the Edu- 
cation of Daughters,' 1787. 2. 'Original 
Stories from Real Life, with considerations 
calculated to regulate the affections,' 1788, 
1791, and edition illustrated by Blake, 1796. 
3. ' Vindication of the Rights of Men,' a letter 
to Edmund Burke, 1790. 4. ' Vindication 
of the Rights of Women,' 1792, vol. i. (all 
published). 5. 'Historical and Moral View of 
. . . the French Revolution,' vol. i. 1 794 (all 
published). 6. ' Letters written in Norway, 
Sweden, and Denmark,' 1796. 7. ' Pos- 
thumous Works,' 1798 (vols. i. and ii. 'The 
Wrongs of Women, or Maria ' (fragment of 
a novel); iii. and iv. 'Letters and Miscel- 
laneous Pieces '). 8. ' Letters to Imlay,' 
with prefatory memoir by C. K. Paul, 1879. 
She also translated Salzmann's ' Moralisches 
Elementarbuch ' ('Elements of Morality') in 
1790, illustrated by Blake, who adapted forty- 

Godwin < 

nine out of the fifty-one German illustra- 
tions (Notes and Queries, 6th ser. i. 493). 

[Memoirs of the Author of a Vindication of 
the Rights of Women, by William Godwin, 
1798 ; A Defence of the Character and Conduct 
of the late Mary Wollstonecraft Godwin ... in 
a series of letters to a lady (author unknown), 
1803; William Godwin, his Friends and Con- 
temporaries, by C. Kegan Paul, 1876, i. 163- 
291 ; Mary Wollstonecraft, with prefatory me- 
moir by C. Kegan Paul, 1879; Knowles's Life of 
Fuseli, i. 159-69.] L. S. 

GODWIN, MORGAN (fl. 1685), minis- 
ter in Virginia, baptised at Bicknor, Glouces- 
tershire, on 2 Dec. 1640, was the second son 
of Morgan Godwin, LL.D., rector of that place 
and canon of Hereford(rf. 1645), by his wife 
Elizabeth, and the grandson of Francis God- 
win, D.D., bishop of Hereford [q. v.] He 
became a commoner of Brasenose College, 
Oxford, in Midsummer term 1661, but pro- 
ceeded B.A. on 16 March 1664 as a student 
of Christ Church (WooD, Fasti O.i-on. ed. 
Bliss, ii. 277). Then, taking orders, he be- 
came a minister in Virginia, under the go- 
vernment of Sir William Berkeley [q. v.], 
and continued there ' in good liking ' for 
several years. On his return home he became 
beneficed, says Wood, ' near London, where 
he finished his course' (Athence O.von. ed. 
Bliss, iv. 180-1). He is author of: 1. ' The 
Negro's and Indian's Advocate suing for 
their Admission into the Church ; or a Per- 
suasive to the instructing and baptising of 
the Negros and Indians in our Plantations ; 
shewing that as the Compliance therewith 
can prejudice no Mans just Interest, so the 
wilful neglecting and opposing of it is no less 
than a manifest Apostacy from the Christian 
Faith. To which is added, A brief Account 
of Religion in Virginia,' 4to, London, 1680. 
2. 'A Supplement to the Negro's and In- 
dian's Advocate ; or Some further Considera- 
tions and Proposals for the effectual and 
speedy carrying on of the Negro's Chris- 
tianity in our Plantations . . . without any 
prejudice to their owners. By M. G., a Pres- 
byter of the Church of England,' 4to, Lon- 
don, 1681. 3. ' Trade preferr'd before Reli- 
gion, and Christ made to give place to 
Mammon ; represented in a Sermon relating 
to the Plantations,' 4to, London, 1685. It 
was first preached, according to Wood, at 
Westminster Abbey, and afterwards ' in 
divers churches in London.' 

[Authorities as above.] G. G. 

GODWIN, THOMAS (1517-1590),bishop 
of Bath and Wells, was born in 1517 at Oak- 
ingham, Berkshire, of poor parents, and sent 
to the free school. Dr. Layton [q. v.], arch- 

2 Godwin 

deacon of Buckinghamshire, adopted Godwin,. 
gave him a classical education, and about 
1538 sent him at his own cost to Oxford. God- 
win seems to have found other friends on his 
patron's death (1545), by whose help he was 
enabled to remain at the university. In 1544 
he graduated as B.A., and was elected a pro- 
bationer of Magdalen College, becoming a 
full fellow in 1545, and proceeding 31. A. in 
1547-8 (WooD, Athence, ed. Bliss, ii. 827 ; 
Oxf. Univ. Reg. Oxf. Hist, Soc. i. 205). God- 
win shared the principles of his early patron, 
a 'zealous reformer,' and, according to Wood, 
was obliged to leave Oxford and resign his 
fellowship between July 1549 and July 1550, 
on account of disputes between himself and 
1 certain papists ' at his college (see Ad- 
mission Register, quoted by Mr. Wodhams in 
Northamptonshire Notes and Queries, vol. iii. 
pt. xix. pp. 65, 66). He was, however, 
appointed head-master of Brackley school, 
just founded by Magdalen. He probably 
went thither in 1549, and was the first master 
(6.) He remained at Brackley till the end 
of the reign of Edward VI, but under Mary 
was forced, on account of his religious prin- 
ciples, to leave the school, and, having mar- 
ried in the meantime Isabel, daughter of 
Nicholas Purefoy of Shalstone, Buckingham- 
shire, studied physic to support his wife and 
family. He was licensed to practise medicine 
17 June 1555 ( Univ. Reg.) He turned to 
divinity after Elizabeth's accession, and was 
ordained (about 1560) by Nicholas Bulling- 
ham [q. v.], bishop of Lincoln. He was Bul- 
lingham's chaplain, and a member of the 
lower house of convocation, subscribing to 
the articles of 1562, and also signing the pe- 
tition for discipline (STRTPE, Annals, vol. i. 
pt. i. pp. 489, 504, 512). Godwin rapidly 
became a popular preacher. Elizabeth was 
so pleased with his ' good parts' and 'goodly 
person,' that in 1565 she appointed him one 
of her Lent preachers, a post which he 
held for eighteen years. In June 1565 he 
was made dean of Christ Church, and pro- 
ceeded B.D. and D.D. on 17 Dec. at Ox- 
ford. In the same month he was installed 
prebendary of Milton in Lincoln Cathedral 
(Lansdowne MS. v. 982, f. 152), whence in 
1574-5 he was transferred to the prebend of 
Leighton Buzzard, which he resigned in 1584 
(WILLIS, Cath. Survey, iii. 205, 221). When 
Elizabeth visited Oxford in August 1566, God- 
win was one of the four divines appointed 
to hold theological disputations before her ; 
lodgings were prepared for her at Christ 
Church, and the dean went out to Wolvercote 
to receive her (Elizabethan O.rford, Oxf. Hist. 
Soc. pp. 198-203). Among the Parker MSS. 
(Corpus Christi College, Cambridge) is a ser- 



mon preached by him before the queen at I 
Greenwich during this year (1566). The i 
winter after her visit to Oxford, Elizabeth < 
promoted Godwin to the deanery of Canter- ' 
bury. He was sent on a commission to visit 
the diocese of Norwich, and preached the first 
of a series of sermons, endowed by Arch- ! 
bishop Parker, in the ' Greenyard ' at Nor- 
wich (June 1567). At Canterbury Godwin 
had to deal with a turbulent set of canons. 
Constant complaints were made by them 
against him to the archbishop, while the dean 
was at one time obliged to appeal to the jus- 
tices of the peace, one canon having threat- 
ened ' to nail him to the wall with his sword ' 
(SiRYPE, Parker, i. 493, 545, 564). He prac- 
tically rebuilt the deanery after a fire in 
1568 (RYHER, Fondera, xvi. 186). In 1573 
Parker accused Godwin of breaking the sta- 
tutes and consuming the cathedral's goods. 
The dean strenuously denied the charge, and 
in October 1573 he received the living of Ruck- 
inge in the Canterbury diocese, probably as a 
proof of the archbishop's forgiveness (STRYPE, 
Parker, i. 564). In 1576 he became one of the 
ecclesiastical commissioners. In September 
1584 he was made bishop of Bath and Wells, 
a see which had been void for three years ; 
Godwin was the second protestant bishop 
consecrated (Lansdowne MSS. vol. 982, ff. 125, 
126). He had been a widower for several 
years, but was misguided enough to marry a 
second time, when ' aged, diseased, and lame 
of the gout.' Raleigh had been scheming to 
get the manor of Banwell from the bishopric 
on a hundred years' lease. He now told the 
queen that Godwin had married a girl of 
twenty for her money. The Earl of Bedford 
warmly defended Godwin by stating that the 
bishop's wife was a widow and had a son over 
forty. Cole gives her name as Margaret, 
daughter of William Brennan of Wells, first 
married to the bishop, then to William Mar- 
tin of Totnes, but Cassan believes him to 
have purposely transposed the marriages, and 
Harrington (State of the Church of England, 
London, 1653, p. 110) calls her a widow, 
and says the bishop was entrapped into the 
marriage. The queen, however, took Raleigh's 
part, and, after sundry sharp messages from 
her, Godwin, to save Banwell, had to part 
with another manor ; ' he neither gave Wils- 
combe for love nor solely for money, but 
left it for fear ' (ib.) Disgraced, and broken in 
health, suffering from a quartan ague, the 
bishop retired to his native air of Oakingham, 
where he died, aged 73, on 19 Nov. 1590. He 
was buried in the chancel of Oakingham 
Church, with an inscription to his memory 
by his son Francis [q. v.], sub-dean of Exe- 
ter, the historian. In person he was 'tall 

and comely ; ' though he published nothing, 
he was an eminent scholar; and he was hos- 
pitable, mild, and judicious. 

[Cassan's Hist, of the Bishops of Bath and 
Wells, pt. ii. p. 4 ; Welch's Alumni Westm. p. 8 ; 
Godwin's Cat. p. 385, and De Praes. Angl. p. 389 , 
Ep. Bath and Wells, p. 144 ; Gutch's Hist, and 
Antiq. of Oxford, vol. ii. pt. i. pp. 156, 157, iii. 
438; Hasted'sKent, iv. 59T); Lysons's Berkshire, 
p. 442 ; Fuller's Worthies, i. 128-9 ; Le Neve's 
Fasti, i. 145.] E. T. B. 

GODWIN, THOMAS, D.D. (d. 1642), 
schoolmaster, was the second son of Anthony 
Godwin of Wookey in Somersetshire. After 
a grammar school education he entered Mag- 
dalen Hall,'0xford, in 1602, at the early age of 
fifteen. He proceeded to his degree of B.A. in 
1606, and to that of M. A. in 1609. On leaving 
the university he was appointed chief master 
of Abingdon school in Berkshire, where he 
remained for several years. In 1616 he tcok 
his degree of B.D., and at this time, as well 
as some years previously, he is mentioned as 
chaplain to James Montague [q. v.], bishop of 
Bath and Wells. He then resigned his scho- 
lastic work,with which he was exhausted, and 
obtained from Dr. Montague the rectory of 
Brightwell in Berkshire. While at Bright- 
well he further proceeded to his degree of 
D.D. in 1606. Godwin died on 20 March 
1642, and was buried within the chancel of 
his church, where a monument was erected to 
his memory by his wife, Philippa Teesdale. 
His published works consist of: 1. 'Romanse 
Historife Anthologia. An English Exposi- 
tion of the Roman Antiquities, wherein many 
Roman and English Offices are parallelled, and 
diverse obscure Phrases explained,' Oxford, 
1614, 4t o. This work Avas published for the use 
of his school at Abingdon. The second edition 
appeared in 1623 with considerable additions. 
The sixteenth and last edition was printed at 
London in 1696. 2. ' Florilegium Phrasicon, 
or a Survey of the Latin Tongue.' The date 
of this work is unknown. 3. ' Synopsis An- 
tiquitatum Hebraicarum ad explicationem 
utriusque Testamenti valde necessaria,' Ox- 
ford, 1616, 4to. Dedicated to James Mont- 
ague, bishop of Bath and Wells, and dean of 
his majesty's chapel. 4. ' Moses and Aaron. 
Civil and Ecclesiastical Rites used by the an- 
cient Hebrews observed, and at large opened 
for the clearing of many obscure Texts 
throughout the whole Scripture,' London, 
1625, 4to. The twelfth edition of this work 
was published in 1685. It attracted the 
attention of several distinguished commen- 
tators, among whom may be mentioned Dr. 
David Jennings and the learned Hottinger. 
5. ' Three Arguments to prove Election upon 


6 4 


Foresight of Faith.' This work while in manu- 
script fell into the hands of Dr. William 
Twiss of Newbury in Berkshire, who promptly 
challenged the writings of Godwin. A warm 
dispute ensued between the two, in which, 
according to Samuel Clarke, 'Dr. Twiss 
promptly whipped the old schoolmaster.' 

[Wood's Athense Oxon. ed. Bliss, iii. 51 ; 
Wood's Fasti, i. 316. 334, 366, 398, 489, ii. 18, 
57 ; Dodd's Church Hist. ; Dr. Samuel Clarke's 
Lives of Eminent Persotfs; Jennings's Jewish 
Antiquities, &c.] W. F. W. S. 

GODWIN, WILLIAM, the younger 
(1803-1832), reporter, only son of William 
Godwin the elder, by his second wife, was 
born 28 March 1803. He was sent as a day 
boy to the Charterhouse at the age of eight; 
then (1814) to the school of the younger Dr. 
Burney at Greenwich; in 1818 to a commer- 
cial school at Woodford, Essex; and in 1819 
to a mathematical school under Peter Nichol- 
son. In 1820 his father tried to introduce 
him into Maudslay's engineering establish- 
ment at Lambeth, and afterwards to appren- 
tice him to Nash the architect. The boy 
was wayward and restless, but in 1823 sur- 
prised his father by producing some literary 
essays, which were printed in the ' Weekly 
Examiner;' and in the same year became 
reporter to the ' Morning Chronicle,' a posi- 
tion which he retained till his death. He 
wrote occasional articles, one of which, ' The 
Executioner,' was published in ' Blackwood's 
Magazine,' and he founded a weekly Shake- 
speare club called ' The Mulberries.' He died 
of cholera 8 Sept. 1832, leaving a widow but 
no children. He left a novel, ' Transfusion,' 
somewhat in the vein of his father's ' Caleb 
Williams.' It was published in 3 vols. in 
1835, with a memoir prefixed by his father. 

[Memoir as above ; C. K. Paul's William 
Godwin, ii. 90, 257, 276, 295, 321.] L. S. 

GODWIN, WILLIAM, the elder (1756- 
1836), author of 'PoliticalJustice,' son of John 
Godwin, was born 3 March 1756 at Wisbeach, 
Cambridgeshire, where his father, born 1723, 
was a dissenting minister. His mother's 
maiden name was Hull. He was the seventh 
of thirteen children (Notes and Queries, 3rd 
ser. i. 503, gives a few particulars about the 
family). He was physically puny, but in- 
tellectually precocious, and was brought up 
upon strict puritanical principles. His father 
moved in 1758 to Debenham, Suffolk. An 
Arian minority in his congregation opposed 
him, and about 1760 he settled finally at 
Guestwick in Norfolk ; he never received 
above 601. a year. William was sent to a 
dame school at Guestwick, and in 1764 to a 

school kept by Robert Akers at Hindolves- 
ton, in the neighbourhood. He used to steal 
secretly into the meeting-house to preach to 
a fellow-pupil, and became a promising stu- 
dent. In 1767 he was sent as a pupil to 
Samuel Newton, an independent minister at 
Norwich, of whose severity he afterwards 
complained. He had an attack of small- 
pox m 1768, having refused, from religious 
scruples, to be inoculated. He read Rollin's 
' Ancient History,' and was influenced by his 
tutor's Wilkite politics and Sandemanian 
theology. In 1771 he became usher in his 
old school under Akers. His father died 
12 Nov. 1772. In April 1773 he went to 
London with his mother, and, after being re- 
fused admission to Homerton Academy on 
suspicion of Sandemanian tendencies, entered 
the Hoxton Academy in 1773. Here he was 
under Kippis, who became a useful friend. 
He was ; famous for calm and dispassionate 
discussion ; ' he rose at five and went to bed 
at twelve, in order to have time for meta- 
physical inquiries, and, though a Calvinist 
in theology, formed the philosophical opinions 
as to materialism and necessity to which he 
adhered through life. He had arguments 
with Dr. Rees of the ' Cyclopaedia,' then the 
head of the college. In 1777 he preached at 
Yarmouth and Lowestoft in the summer 
season, and in 1778, after an unsuccessful 
application at Christchurch, Hampshire, be- 
came minister at Ware in Hertfordshire. 
Here he came under the influence of Joseph 
Fawcet, a follower of Jonathan Edwards and 
a strong republican. In August 1779 God- 
win moved to London, and in 1780 became 
minister at Stowmarket, Suffolk, where his 
faith in Christianity was shaken by a study 
of French philosophers, though he was for a 
time reconverted by Priestley's ' Institutes.' 
He fell out with his congregation in 1782, 
went to London, and began to try his hand 
at authorship. For the first half of 1783 he 
was again on trial as a minister at Beacons- 
field, but finally settled to the profession of 
literature in the autumn. His ' Life of Chat- 
ham ' was published in the spring of 1783, 
and he afterwards wrote pamphlets, articles, 
and novels. Murray employed him on the 
' English Review,' and in translating Simon, 
lord Lovat's memoirs ; but he had often to 
pawn his watch or books to procure a dinner. 
In 1785 he was appointed, through Kippis's 
introduction, to write the historical article in 
the ' New Annual Register.' He now dropped 
the title of ' reverend,' and henceforth- saw 
little of his family, though to the end of her 
life his mother, a shrewd old lady, wrote oc- 
casional letters of bad spelling and grammar, 
full of religious advice and maternal affection. 



She lived near her eldest son, a farmer at 
Wood Dalling, Norfolk, and died 13 Aug. 
1809. Godwin did his best to help his brothers 
in later life (PAUL, Godwin, ii. 58, 122). God- 
win's politics brought him into contact with 
Sheridan and other whig politicians, but he 
was ' not venal enough ' to accept offers of 
support as a party writer. He was known to 
the more extreme party, and became espe- 
cially intimate with Thomas Holcroft [q. v.] 
He took a pupil or two at intervals, to one 
of whom, Thomas Cooper, a distant relation, 
and afterwards an unsuccessful actor, he 
showed much kindness through life. Godwin 
was among the ardent sympathisers with the 
French revolution, and frequented the house 
of Helen Maria Williams. He read Paine's 
' Rights of Man ' in manuscript, having made 
the author's acquaintance at the house of 
Brand Hollis [q. v.] In 1792 he became ac- 
quainted with Home Tooke. He now settled 
at a small house in Chalton Street, Somers 
Town, where he lived with great economy 
and seclusion. He had no regular servant, 
an old woman coming in to clean his rooms 
and cook his mutton-chop. He went a good 
deal into society and formed friendships with 
distinguished men, such as Thomas Wedg- 
wood, Person, and Ritson. He also became 
intimate with Mrs. Inchbald and with Mrs. 
Reveley, afterwards Maria Gisborne [q. v.] 
Godwin's ' Political Justice ' appeared in Fe- 
bruary 1793. He received seven hundred 
guineas for the copyright, and three hundred 
guineas more after a sale of three thousand 
copies. It was profitable to the publisher, 
and made Godwin known as the philoso- 
phical representative of English radicalism. 
It is a curious instance of extreme prin- 
ciples advocated dispassionately with the 
calmness of one-sided logic. It was modi- 
fied in later editions, and in the preface to 
St. Leon (1799) he announces that he can 
find a place in his system for the domestic 
virtues previously omitted. It escaped pro- 
secution, it is said, because the government 
supposed that little harm could be done by a 
three-guinea publication. The impression 
made by it upon young men is curiously il- 
lustrated in Crabb Robinson's ' Diary (i. 32- 
52), where there is a correspondence between 
Robinson and Robert Hall. ' Political Jus- 
tice ' was followed in May 1794 by the re- 
markable novel ' Caleb Williams,' suggested 
partly by some of his views as to the falseness 
of the common code of morality, but preserved 
by the striking situation and considerable 
. merits of style. It was dramatised by Col- 
man the younger [q. v.], who showed little 
regard for the author's feelings (ROGERS, 
Table Talk, pp. 252, 253), as ' The Iron Chest.' 


In 1794 Godwin was profoundly interested by 
the trials of Joseph Gerrald [q. v.] in Scot- 
land, and afterwards of Home Tooke, Hol- 
croft, and others in London. He wrote a 
pamphlet in answer to the charge of Chief- 
justice Eyre in the latter case, and he became 
acquainted with many of the leading whigs, 
whom he met at the house of Lord Lauder- 

Godwin had talked about marriage in a 
philosophic calmness soon after coming to 
London ; but a match proposed by his sister 
came to nothing. He had some tenderness 
for Amelia Alderson, afterwards Mrs. Opie, 
and for Mrs. Inchbald. In 1796 he formed 
an attachment to Mary Wollstonecraft [see 
GODWIN, MARY], who was now living as Mrs. 
Imlay in the literary circle frequented by 
Godwin. Although he objected to marriage 
on principle, he admitted that it had advan- 
tages when he expected to become a father, 
and he appears to have been as sincerely in 
love as his nature admitted. The marriage 
took place at Old St. Pancras Church 29 March 
1797. It was kept private for a short time, 
and Ge^in took a separate apartment in the 
Polygon, *. mers Town, twenty doors from 
his own house, in conformity with his theory 
that too close an intimacy was provocative 
of mutual weariness. Mrs. Inchbald was 
deeply aggrieved by the marriage (PAUL, 
Mary Wollstonecraft, p. Ix). Mrs. Reveley 
wept, but was reconciled. Mrs. Godwin gave 
birth to a daughter, Mary, afterwards Mrs. 
Shelley, 30 Aug. 1797, caught a fever, and 
died 10 Sept. following. Godwin was sin- 
cerely affected, though the story is told that 
when his wife exclaimed that she was ' in 
heaven,' he replied, ' You mean, my dear, that 
your physical sensations are somewhat easier.' 
A painful correspondence with Mrs. Inch- 
bald, whom he accused of using her ill, im- 
mediately followed. They were never quite 
reconciled, though at intervals they had a 
correspondence, and it was mutually irri- 
tating. He saw a few friends and set about 
compiling a memoir of his wife, which ap- 
peared in the following year. 

Godwin returned to his studies and to 
society in 1798. He was left in charge of 
his infant daughter and of Fanny Godwin 
(as she was called), Mary Wollstonecraft's 
daughter by Imlay. A Miss Jones who took 
care of the children had apparently some 
wish to be their stepmother. Godwin thought 
that a second wife might be desirable, but 
had no fancy for Miss Jones. He visited 
Bath in March 1798, and made acquaintance 
with Sophia and Harriet Lee [q. v.], writers 
of the ' Canterbury Tales.' He made an offer to 
Harriet soon afterwards and reasoned at great 




length against her religious scruples, saying 
that she acted in the style of the eleventh and 
twelfth centuries. His philosophy, however, 
was thrown away. When Mrs. Reveley be- 
came a widow in 1799, Godwin endeavoured 
to persuade her to marry him, with the same 
want of success. In December 1801 he was 
at last married bj Mrs. Clairmont, a widow 
with a son, Charles, and a daughter, Clara 
Mary Jane Clairmont [q. v.] Mrs. Clair- 
mont had come to live in the next house to 
him in the Polygon, and introduced herself 
by ' Is it possible that I behold the immortal 
Godwin ? ' She was ' a querulous ' wife and 
a harsh stepmother, and the marriage was far 
from happy. She ruled her husband severely 
and was not favourable to his friendships. 
Godwin was meanwhile becoming embar- 
rassed. In 1799 he wrote ' St. Leon,' a novel 
which succeeded, though not so well as 

* Caleb Williams,' and a tragedy which has 
vanished. He had some literary quarrels, 
especially with Mackintosh,who had attacked 
the moral theories of the ' Political Justice ' 
in his lectures at Lincoln's Inn, and after- 
wards admitted that he had been too harsh 
(Life, i. 134), and with Dr. Parr, who had 
been his political ally, but had criticised the 

* Political Justice ' in a ' Spital Sermon ' 
(15 April 1800). The friendship was extin- 
guished by an exchange of bitter reproaches. 
A pamphlet called ' Thoughts on Dr. Parr's 
Spital Sermon ' replies with much vigour to 
Parr, Mackintosh, and Malthus, and shows 
that at this time Godwin considered Napo- 
leon to be a saviour of society. A copy in 
the British Museum has some admiring an- 
notations by Coleridge. 

He was now becoming known to Words- 
worth, Lamb, and Coleridge. To Coleridge's 
influence he attributes a return to a suffi- 
ciently vague theism, having been, he says, 
converted to unbelief by his conversations 
with Holcroft about 1787, and having become 
an atheist about 1792, that is during the 
composition of the ' Political Justice.' He 
now too expanded his course of reading and 
took to history and the English dramatists. | 
A result of this was his ' Tragedy of Antonio,' 
which was carefully criticised by Lamb, re- 
fused by Colman for the Haymarket, but 
produced by Kemble at Drury Lane 13 Dec. 
1800 and hopelessly damned. Lamb de- 
scribed the catastrophe with his usual humour 
in ' The Old Actors ' (London Magazine, April 
1822, reprinted in Essays of Elia as ' Artifi- 
cial Comedy of the Last Century). In Sep- 
tember 1801 Godwin finished another tragedy 
called ' Abbas, King of Persia,' but could not I 
persuade Kemble to make a fresh experiment. 
The failures were serious for Godwin, whose 

difficulties were not diminished by his mar- 
riage, and who still helped his brother. 

Two volumes of his first antiquarian work, 
| the ' Life of Chaucer,' upon which he had 
been employed for two or three years, ap- 
! peared in October 1803, bringing him 300/., 
' and he received the same sum for the two 
i concluding volumes. He then completed 
I 'Fleetwood,'anovel, published in 1805, which 
was a falling off from its predecessors, and 
' ' Faulkener,' a play, which after some dis- 
appointments was acted at Drury Lane in 
December 1807 and ran for some nights. 
Godwin's want of success had forced him to 
become a borrower. Thomas Wedgwood, a 
previous benefactor, lent him 100/. in 1804. 
He had now five children to support (the 
two Clairmonts, Mary Wollstonecraft's two 
children, and his son William by his second 
wife, born 1804), and though his wife had 
worked at translations, their position was 
! precarious. He now (1805) took a small 
house in Hanway Street, in which Mrs. God- 
win carried on a publishing business. He 
wrote for it some fables and histories for 
children, under the name of Baldwin, his 
own having an odour of heterodoxy. They 
had much success. Mrs. Godwin translated 
some children's books from the French, and 
the Lambs gave them some books, especially 
| the ' Tales from Shakespeare.' The business 
struggled on with many difficulties. God- 
win had also undertaken a history of England. 
In 1807 the business had improved, and a 
larger shop was taken in Skinner Street, 
Holborn, with a dwelling-house, to which 
the family moved. A subscription was 
I started, to which Godwin's political friends 
contributed handsomely in order to improve 
his chances. Godwin's health was suffering 
from frequent fainting fits, though not so as 
to diminish his industry. In 1809 he pro- 
duced the lives of Edward and John Philips. 
Embarrassments still increased, and he had 
difficulties with his wife. In January 1811 
he was addressed by Shelley. From his early 
life Godwin had many disciples among young 
men of promise attracted by his philosophical 
reputation. His correspondence with them 
is creditable to his good feeling, and shows 
that he could administer judicious advice 
with real kindness (see notices of Arnot, 
Cooke, Patrickson, and Rosser in PAUL'S 
Godwin). Shelley's is the only case still 
memorable. Godwin endeavoured to calm 
his impetuosity during the Irish tour of 
1812, and in the autumn went to visit his 
disciple at Lynmouth, only to find that the 
Shelleys had" gone to Wales. In October 
they met him in London. In the follow- 
ing July Shelley eloped with Mary God 


6 7 


-win. Godwin's character appears in its 
worst aspect in the letters published by 
Mr. Dowden in his life of Shelley. He tried 
to maintain his philosophic dignity while 
treating Shelley as a seducer for acting on 
the principles of the ' Political Justice.' He 
refused to communicate with Shelley except 
through his solicitors, and forbade Fanny 
Godwin to speak to her sister. At the same 
time, he was not above taking 1,0001. from 
Shelley, and begging for more. He returns 
a cheque with an affectation of dignity, but 
asks that it may be made payable in another 
name. Upon Shelley's marriage, December 
1816, he was reconciled, and the poet's vene- 
ration for the philosopher disappeared on 
the discovery that Godwin was fully sensible 
of the advantages of a connection with the 
heir to a good estate. Godwin, constantly 
sinking into deeper embarrassment, tried to 
extort money from his son-in-law until Shel- 
ley's death, and Shelley did his best to supply 
the venerable horseleech. Mrs. Godwin's 
antipathy to her stepdaughter, Mrs. Shelley, 
her bad temper, and general spitefulness made 
things worse, and Godwin had much difficulty 
in keeping up any pretence of self-respect 
(DoWDEN, Shelley, i. 417, 463, 488, 521, 538, 
ii. 72, 114, 321, &c.) H. C. Robinson says 
that he once introduced Godwin to a certain 
Rough. Next morning he received separate 
calls from the pair. Each expressed his ad- 
miration for the other, and then asked whether 
his new friend would be likely to advance 
5(W. (Diary, i. 372). 

In October 1816 Fanny Godwin, who ap- 
pears to have been an attractive girl, went 
to Wales to visit her mother's sisters. She 
poisoned herself, 11 Oct., at Swansea, for no 
assignable cause. 

Godwin continued to work in spite of dis- 
tractions. His novel ' Mandeville ' was pub- 
lished in 1817, and an answer to Malthus was 
begun in 1818. At the end of that yearhe had a 
slight stroke of paralysis. The answer to Mal- 
thus, on which he spent much labour, appeared 
in 1 820. It had little success. It is ably criti- 
cised in Bonar's ' Malthus,' 1885, pp. 360-70. 
Towards the end of 1819 the publishing 
business showed ominous symptoms. They 
deepened in the following years, and Godwin's 
title to his house in Skinner Street was success- 
fully disputed in 1822. Godwin became bank- 
rupt in that year. His friends again came for- 
ward to raise the arrears of rent now claimed, 
and to enable him to make a fresh start. His 
old opponent Mackintosh and his new friend 
Lady Caroline Lamb joined with others to 
help him, but they failed to set him on his 
legs again. He lived in the Strand, working 
industriously, and between 1824 and 1828 

produced his ' History of the Commonwealth.' 
He was the first writer to make a thorough 
use of the pamphlets in the Museum and 
other original documents. His thoroughness 
and accuracy made his book superior to ita 
predecessors, and it is useful, though in 
some directions superseded by later informa- 
tion. His ' Thoughts on Man ' in 1830 con- 
sisted chiefly of old essays. In that year he 
made the acquaintance of Bulwer, to whom 
he gave some collections upon Eugene Aram 
[see ARAM, EUGENE]. In 1832 he lost his 
son, William Godwin [q. v.] In 1833 Lord 
Grey, to whom Mackintosh and others had 
applied, made him yeoman usher of the ex- 
chequer. He had a residence in New Palace 
Yard, and no duties. The office was soon 
abolished as a sinecure, but Godwin was 
allowed to retain it during his life. His ca- 
reer as a writer ceased with the ' Lives of the 
Necromancers,' but he afterwards finished 
some essays, published in 1873. He gradually 
failed, and died 7 April 1 836. He was buried 
in Old St. Pancras churchyard. The church- 
yard was destroyed by a railway, and in 1851 
his remains and those of his first wife were 
removed to Bournemouth, where they are 
buried in the same grave as their daughter, 
Mrs. Shelley. His second wife died 17 June 
1841 (Gent, Mag. 1841, pt. ii. p. 216). 

The best account of Godwin's appearance 
is in Talfourd's ' Final Memorials of Charles 
Lamb' (LAMB, Works, 1855, ii. 347-55), and 
there is a good account of his philosophical 
reputation in Hazlitt's ' Spirit of the Age ' 
(pp. 1-58). Godwin's philosophy was taken 
seriously by his friends till the end of his life, 
and produced some effect at the time as an 
exposition of the revolutionary creed. His 
first novels are curious examples of impres- 
sive fiction constructed rather from logic than 
poetic imagination ; and in his later years he 
did some good work as an antiquary. Affect- 
ing the virtues of calmness and impartiality, 
he was yet irritable under criticism, and his 
friendships were interrupted by a series of 
quarrels. His self-respect was destroyed in 
later life under the pressure of debt and an un- 
fortunate marriage ; but, though his character 
wanted in strength and elevation, and inca- 
pable of the loftier passion?, he seems to have 
been mildly affectionate, and, in many cases, 
a judicious friend to more impulsive people. 

His portrait, by Northcote, formerly in the 
possession of the late Sir Percy Shelley, is 
printed by Hazlit t. An engraving is prefixed 
to Mr. Paul's ' Life.' 

His works are : 1. ' Life of Chatham,' 1783 
(anon.) 2. ' Sketches of History, in Six Ser- 
mons,' 1784. 3. ' Enquiry concerning Poli- 
tical Justice and its Influence on Morals and 





Happiness,' 1793, 1796, 1798. 4. ' Things as 
they are ; or the Adventures of Caleb Wil- 
liams,' 1794 (often republished). 5. 'Cur- 
sory Strictures on the Charge of Chief- Justice 
Eyre,' 1794. 6. ' The Enquirer ... a series 
of Essays,' 1797 (new edition, 1823). 7. ' Me- 
moirs of the Author of a Vindication of the 
Rights of Women,' 1798. 8. ' St. Leon, a 
Tale of the 16th Century,' 1799. 9. ' An- 
tonio, a Tragedy in five acts in verse,' 1800. 
10. ' Thoughts occasioned by ... Dr. Parr's 
Spital Sermon,' 1801. 11. ' Life of Geoffrey 
Chaucer . . . with Sketches of the Manners 
... of England,' 2 vols. 4to, 1803 ; 4 vols. 
8vo, 1804 ; a German translation, 1812. 

12. ' Faulkener, a Tragedy in prose,' 1807. 

13. ' Essay on Sepulchres,' 1809. 14. ' Lives 
of Edward and John Philips, Nephews and 
Pupils of Milton ' (with appendices), 1815. 
15. 'MandevUle, a Tale of the 17th Cen- 
tury,' 1817. 16. ' Of Population ... in an- 
swer to Mr. Malthus,' 1820. 17. ' History 
of the Commonwealth of England ... to the 
Restoration of Charles II,' 4 vols. 8vo, 18248. 
18. ' Cloudesley, a Tale,' 1830. 19. ' Thoughts 
on Man ; his Nature, Productions, and Disco- 
veries,' 1831. 20.'Deloraine,'1833. 21. 'Lives 
of the Necromancers,' 1834. 22. 'Essays' 
never before published, 1873. Godwin pub- 
lished some children's books, ' Fables ' (1805 
and eleven later editions), a ' Pantheon,' and 
histories of Greece, Rome, and England, under 
the pseudonym Edward Baldwin. ' The Look- 
ing-glass, a true History of the Early Years 
of an Artist ... by Theophilus Marcliffe' 
(1805), is also attributed to him by Mr. F. G. 
Stephens, who edited a facsimile edition in 
1885. Mr. Stephens shows that it was pro- 
bably an account of the life of William Mul- 
read'y (1786-1863) [q. v.] 

[C. Kegan Paul's William Godwin, his Friends 
and Contemporaries, 2 vols. 8ro, 1876 ; Dowden's 
Life of Shelley ; Talfourd's Final Memorials of 
Charles Lamb ; Hazlitt's Spirit of the Ae ; 
Gent. Mag. 1836, i. 666-70 ; H. Crabb Robin- 
son's Diary, 1869 ; Mrs. Julian Marshall's Mary 
Wollstonecraft Shelley, 1890.] L. S. 

FRED CLOYNE (1808-1884), geologist, 
eldest son of Sir Henry Edmund Austen of 
Shalford House, Guildford, Surrey, who died 
1 Dec. 1871, by Anne Amelia, only daughter 
of Robert Spearman Bate of the H.E.I. Co.'s 
service, was born at Shalford House on 
17 March 1808, and sent to a school at Mid- 
hurst in Sussex, whence he was removed to a 
semi-military college in France. He matri- 
culated from Oriel College, Oxford, 8 June 
1 826 ; in 1830 graduated B. A. and was elected 
fellow of Oriel. At Oxford he was, like Lyell, 
a pupil of Buckland, and from him imbibed a 

passion for geological study. In 1830 he be- 
came a student of Lincoln's Inn. 

At this time he met Lyell, Leonard Horner, 
and Murchison, and, introduced by these 
three friends, was admitted a fellow of the 
Geological Society 19 March 1830. On 
23 July 1833 he married Maria Elizabeth, 
only child, and afterwards heiress, of Major- 
general Sir Henry Thomas Godwin, [q. v.] 
On the death of this gentleman, in October 
1854, Austen, by royal license, took the addi- 
tional surname of Godwin. In the year after 
his marriage he went to reside at Ogwell 
House, near Newton Abbot, Devonshire, 
where he made a study of the fossiliferous 
Devonian limestones,the outliers of cretaceous 
strata, and the tertiary deposits of Bovey 
Tracey. De la Beche entrusted to him the 
construction of portions of the Devonshire 
map, and Phillips found in the collection at 
Ogwell House many of the specimens figured 
in his 'Palaeozoic Fossils.' Between 1834 
and 1840 Austen read before the Geological 
Society a number of papers dealing with the 
district in which he resided. Returning to 
his native county in 1838, after a brief resi- 
dence at Shalford House, he went to live at 
Gosden House, and subsequently at Merrow 
House, both situated near Guildford. At a 
later date, 1846, he removed to Chil worth 
Manor in the same county. Between 1841 
and 1876 he was frequently a member of the 
council of the Geological Society, in 1843-4 
and again in 1853-4 he was secretary, and 
between 1865 and 1867 he acted as foreign 
secretary of the society. On 7 June 1849 he 
was elected a fellow of the Royal Society. 
He next commenced a series of researches on 
the geology of the south-east of England, the 
results of which were laid before the Geo- 
logical Society, 1843-53, and did much to ex- 
tend the knowledge of the wealden, the neoco- 
mian, and the cretaceous systems. During 
this decade he spent much time in yachting, 
and made observations on the valley of the 
English Channel and the drifts of its shores, 
on the geology of the Channel Islands, the 
Bourbonnais, and other parts of France. On 
the death of his friend Edward Forbes [q. v.], 
on 18 Nov. 1854, Godwin-Austen, acting as 
his literary executor, completed his two un- 
finished works, 'TheTertiary-Fluvio-Marine 
formation of the Isle of Wight,' 1856, and 
' Outlines of the Natural History of Europe, 
the Natural History of the European Seas/ 
1859. He also completed Forbes's ' Essay on 
the Distribution of Marine Forms of Life.' In 
1840 he read a paper on the zoological posi- 
tion of the extinct forms of cephalopoda, and 
also threw out the suggestion that the old 
red sandstone and the poikilitic strata are of 


6 9 


lacustrine origin. His essays on the occur- 
rence of blocks of granite and coal embedded 
in the midst of the chalk exhibit the same 
prevailing tendency of his speculations. By 
his famous essay in 1854 ' On the Possible 
Extension of the Coal-measures beneath the 
South-Eastern part of England,' it was mani- 
fest that geology was now entitled to take 
its place in the family of sciences. In the 
following year a deep boring at Kentish Town 
demonstrated the accuracy of his reasonings 
and established the truth of his conclusions. 
During his later years, although in ill-health, 
his devotion to science was unabated. Al- 
most every season he accompanied geological 
friends on some continental tour, and several 
of these excursions gave rise to thoughtful 
essays. In 1862 he received from the Geo- 
logical Society the Wollaston medal. He 
completed the revision of the south-eastern 
portion of the ' Greenough Geological Map 
of England and Wales' for the second edition, 
which was published in 1865. In 1868 at 
Norwich he filled the chair at the geological 
section of the British Association, dealing in 
a characteristic address with the geological 
history of the basin of the North Sea. At 
the Brighton meeting in 1872 he occupied a 
similar position, and discoursed upon the his- 
tory and relations of the wealden deposits. 
In 1872, after the death of his father, he 
went to reside at Shalford House. In spite 
of his infirmity he took part in the prepara- 
tion of the report of the coal commission, 
and in the movement which resulted in the 
experimental sub-wealden boring at Battle. 
An extensive collection of palaeozoic fossils 
which he had made in Cornwall he presented 
to the Jermyn Street museum, London. He 
was the writer of very numerous papers in 
the scientific journals. A list of upwards of 
forty of them will be found in the ' Geological 
Magazine ' for January 1885, pp. 1-10, with 
a biographical notice written by Horace B. 
"Woodward. Godwin-Austen died at Shal- 
ford House on 25 Nov. 1884. His eldest 
son, Lieut.-col. Henry Haversham Godwin- 
Austen, F.R.S., is well known by his writings 
on the geology and /oology of India. 

[Proceedings Royal Soc. of London (1885), 
xxxviii. pp. ix-xiii ; Quart. Journ. Geol. Soc. of 
London (1885), xli. 37-9; Cat. of Scientific 
Papers (1867), i. 122-3.] G. C. B. 

GOETZ, JOHN DANIEL (1592-1672), 
divine. [See GETSITTS.] 

GOFFE. [See also GOTTGH.] 

GOFFE or GOUGH, JOHN, D.D. (1610 ?- 
1661), divine, was the son of Stephen Goffe 
or Gough, rector of Stanmer in Sussex, ' a 
severe puritan.' In 1624 he matriculated at 

Merton College, Oxford, and in 1627-8 was 
made a demy of St. Mary Magdalen College, 
when, Wood (Athena Oxon. ed. Bliss, iii. 
524) says, he was ' aged 17 or more.' In 1628 
he obtained the degree of B.A., and in 1629 
was made a probationary and in 1630 a per- 
petual fellow. In 1631 he proceeded M.A., 
and taking orders preached in the neighbour- 
hood of the university. On 26 Aug. 1634 he 
was accused before Sir Unton Crooke, deputy- 
steward of the university, of having killed 
Joseph Boyse, a member of Magdalen College, 
but wasacquitted (\VHARTON, iawrf, p. 71). In 
1642 he was presented to the living of Hack- 
ington or St. Stephen's, near Canterbury, 
from which he was ejected in the following 
year for refusing to take the covenant, and 
was thrown into the county prison at Can- 
terbury. In 1652, by the influence of his 
brother, William Gough [q. v.J, a regicide 
and one of Cromwell's House of Lords, he was 
inducted into the living of Norton, near Sit- 
tingbourne, Kent, which he held till 1660, 
when he was again legally preferred to this, 
and restored to the vicarage of Hackington, 
and in the same year took the degree of D.D. 
His name appears among the clergy who at- 
tended convocation in 1661, and on 20 Nov. 
of this year he died, and six days later was 
buried in the chancel of St. Alphege's Church, 
Canterbury. Wood describes him as having 
been a ' zealous son of the church of Eng- 
land ; ' he was certainly an able scholar and 
a thoughtful writer. His only known works 
are: 1. The Latin preface to Simson's ' Chro- 
nicum Catholicum,' 1652. 2. ' Ecclesiae An- 
glicanse 9PHNQ AI'A, in qua perturbatissimus 
Kegni & Ecclesiae Status sub Anabaptistica 
Tyrannide lugetur,' London, 1661. 

[Wood's Athenae Oxon. ed. Bliss, iii. 524 ; 
Hasted's Kent, ed. 1790, ii. 745, iii. 601 ; Hors- 
field's Lewes, ii. 219 ; Walker's Sufferings, pt. ii. 
p. 252; Bloxam's Reg. Magd. Coll. ii. cxxiii, iii. 
163 ; Watt's Bibl. Brit.] A. C. B. 


(1605-1681), royalist agent and catholic 
divine, born at Stanmer, Sussex, in 1605, see 
was son of Stephen Goffe, the puritanical . /** 
minister of that parish. He received his edu- J 
cation at Merton College, Oxford, where he 
graduated B.A. in 1623, and M.A. in 1627. 
Afterwards he migrated to St. Alban Hall. 
He then became chaplain to the regiment of 
Colonel Horace Vere in the Low Countries. 
On his return he was, by the interest of Henry 
Jermyn (afterwards Earl of St. Albans), ap- 
pointed one of Charles I's chaplains, by which 
title he was created D.D. in 1636. Subse- 
quently he was employed by the court party 
as an agent in France, Flanders, Holland, 
and other countries. A ktter written in 





1648 from the Hague mentions that he had 
1,000/. a year for being supervisor to Sir 
William Boswell. Goffe was one of those 
who attempted to free the king from his con- 
finement at Hampton Court. He was seized 
upon suspicion and committed to prison, but 
found means to escape. The king when at 
Carisbrooke Castle employed him to persuade 
the Scottish commissioners to recede from 
their demand that he should confirm the 

Wood says that when Goffe saw the church 
of England ruined and the monarchy declin- 
ing he changed his religion for that of Rome, 
and entered the congregation of the French 
Oratory in a seminary at Notre-Dame des 
Vertus, not far from Paris. Clarendon alleges 
that out of the money sent from Moscow for 
Charles II Goffe received 800/. for services 
he had performed, and within a few days 
after the receipt of it changed his religion 
and became one of the fathers of the Oratory 
(Hist, of the Rebellion, ed. 1849, v. 255). It 
is stated by Le Quien that he was admitted 
into the congregation of the Oratory on 14 Jan. 
1651-2, and afterwards received at Paris all 
the orders of the catholic church according to 
the Roman pontifical. On the testimony of 
Obadiah Walker, ' an eminent papist,' Dr. 
Humphrey Prideaux, dean of Norwich, as- 
serted that after joining the Roman com- 
munion Goffe celebrated mass at Paris by 
virtue of his having been ordained priest 
in the church of England, and that the 
doctors of the Sorbonne, after fully discuss- 
ing the matter, declared their opinion that 
the Anglican orders were good, but the pope 
determined otherwise, and ordered the Arch- 
bishop of Paris to re-ordain him ( Validity of 
the Orders of the Church of England, edit. 
1716, p. 78). Dodd, the ecclesiastical his- 
torian, and other catholic writers, strenuously 
deny, however, that the doctors of the Sor- 
bonne ever made such a declaration (GiLLOW, 
Diet, of the English Catholics, ii. 508). 

Goffe rose to be superior of the community, 
an office which he held in 1655. At that 
time he provided plentifully for fourteen 
English clergymen in the house under his 
direction, and was a common father to the 
English exiles, both catholic and protestant, 
during the Commonwealth. He gave freely 
from his private resources, and his interest 
with Queen Henrietta Maria, whose chaplain 
he was, enabled him to assist innumerable 
gentlemen in distress. It was on his recom- 
mendation that Henry, lord Jermyn (after- 
wards Earl of St. Albans), took Cowley under 
his protection. By the queen-mother's orders 
Gough was appointed tutor to Charles II's 
natural son, James Crofts (afterwards Duke 

of Monmouth), and took charge of him till 
he was ten years of age, when he committed 
him to the care of Thomas Ross, librarian to 
Charles II. He died in the house of the 
fathers of the Oratory in the Rue Saint- 
Honore,Paris, on Christmas day (O.S.) 1681. 

He was, says Wood, ' esteemed by some a 
learned man and well read in the Fathers, 
and therefore respected by Gerard John 
Vossius and others.' He was the brother of 
John Goffe, D.D. [q. v.], and of Colonel Wil- 
liam Goffe [q. v.], the regicide. 

Nine of his Latin epistles to Vossius are 
printed in ' G. J. Vossii et clarorum Virorum 
ad eum Epistolse, collectore P. Colomesio, r 
London, 1690, fol. ; and two others are in 
'Prsestantium ac Eruditorum Virorum Epi- 
stolse Ecclesiastic* et Theologicse,' Amster- 
dam, 1704, fol. His letters (1632-7) to Sir 
William Boswell, [q. v.], English resident at 
the Hague, on the subject of the reading 
of the Anglican liturgy in the English regi- 
ments in the Dutch service, are preserved in 
the Addit. MS. 6394. Some parliamentary 
scribblers published a scandalous work en- 
titled ' The Lord George Digby's Cabinet and 
Dr. Goff 's Negotiations ; together with his 
Majesties, the Queen's, and the Lord Jermin's, 
and other Letters taken at the Battle of Sher- 
born, about the!5th Oct. last,' London, 1646, 

[Addit. MS. 6394, f. 173* ; Baker's MS. xxxv. 
106; Clarendon's Hist, of the Rebellion, 1849, 
iv. 371, 373; Clarendon State Papers, 1786, iii. 
418; Calendar of the Clarendon State Papers, 
i. 549, ii. 489 ; Cosin's Works, iv. 464 ; Dodd's 
Church Hist. iii. 305 ; Estcourt's Question of 
Anglican Orders discussed, p. 142; Evelyn's Me- 
moirs, i. 12, 360, ii. 134-7; Gardiner's Hist, of 
England, vii. 316; Gillow's Bibl. Diet. ; Laud's 
Works, vi. 347, 529 ; Lee's Validity of Anglican 
Orders, p. 293; Legenda Lignea, 1653, pp. 144- 
154; Le Quien, Nullite des Ordinations Angli- 
canes, ii. 316 ; Lingard's Hist, of England, 1849, 
viii. 191 ; Notes and Queries, 2ndser. ix. 246, 4th 
ser. xii. 408, 5th ser. vi. 296 ; Wood's Athens- 
Oxon. (Bliss), iii. 525, 905, 1103, iv. 131, Fasti, 
i. 414, 431, 494, ii. 136, 210.] T. C. 

1629), divine and poet, son of a clergyman, 
was born in Essex in 1591. He went as a 
queen's scholar to Westminster School, whence 
he was elected at the age of eighteen to a 
scholarship at Christ Church, Oxford, 3 Nov. 
1609. He proceeded B.A. 17 June 1613; 
M.A. 20 June 1616 ; and B.D. 3 July 1623; 
being also incorporated M.A. at Cambridge 
in 1617. He afterwards entered the church,, 
and in 1620 received the living of East 
Clandon, Surrey (MANNING, Surrey, iii. 50). 
Meantime Goffe had won reputation as an 



orator, and publicly delivered two Latin ora- 
tions of his own composition, one at the 
funeral of William Goodwin [~q. v.], dean of 
Christ Church, in the cathedral in 1620, and 
another, in the Theological School at Oxford, 
on the death in 1622 of Sir Henry Savile. 
Both were published (Oxford, 1620 and 1622, 
4to). Besides these Gofte published some 
verses on the death of Queen Anne of Denmark 
in 1619. He wrote plays, not published till 
after his death, but his three principal trage- 
dies were acted after 1616, while he was still 
at the university, by the students of Christ 
Church. Besides his tragedies, which are 
absurdly bombastic, he wrote a tragi-comedy, 
' The Careless Shepherdess.' It was acted 
with great applause before the king and queen 
at Salisbury, but not published undertheabove 
title till 1656 (London, 4to). At the end it 
contains an alphabetical catalogue, which is, 
however, very incorrect, of ' all such plays as 
ever were printed.' At the end of his life Goffe, 
who was ' a quaint preacher and a person of 
excellent language and expression, took to 
sermon writing, but only one, entitled ' De- 
liverance from the Grave,' which he preached 
at St. Mary Spittle, London, 28 March 1627, 
seems to have been published (London, 1627, 
4to). He was a woman-hater and a bachelor, 
until finally inveigled into marrying a lady at 
East Clandon, who pretended to have fallen in 
love with his preaching. She was the widow 
of his predecessor, and she and her children 
by her first husband so persecuted poor Goffe 
that he died shortly after his marriage, and 
was buried, 27 July 1629, in the middle of 
the chancel of East Clandon Church. Ac- 
cording to Aubrey, one of his Oxford friends, 
Thomas Thimble, had predicted the result of 
his marriage, and when he died the last 
words he uttered were : ' Oracle, oracle, Tom 
Thimble !' (AUBREY, Hist, of Surrey, iii. 259). 
Goffe left various plays in manuscript. 
Three were afterwards published, viz. ' The 
Raging Turk, or Bajazet the Second,' London, 
1631 , 4to ; ' The Couragious Turk, or Amureth 
the First, a Tragedie,' in five acts and in verse, 
London, 1632, 4to j ' The Tragedie of Orestes,' 
in five acts and in verse, London, 1633, 4to. 
In 1656 one Richard Meighen, a friend of the 
deceased poet, collected these plays in one 
volume, under the title of ' Three excellent 
Tragedies,' 2nd edit., London, 1656, 8vo. 
' The Bastard,' another tragedy published 
under Goffe's name in 1652, seems to have 
been by Cosmo Manuche. Two other plays 
have been wrongly ascribed to Goffe : ' Cupid's 
Whirligig,' a comedy by E. S., and 'The Em- 
peror Selimus,' a tragedy published in 1594, 
when Goffe was a child of two. On the title- 
page of one of the copies of his only extant 

sermon, in the Bodleian Library, a manuscript 
note states that Goffe became a Roman ca- 
tholic before his death, but the source quoted 
for this statement, the ' Legenda Lignea ' (in 
the Bodleian Library), refers to Stephen Goffe 
[q. v.] 

[Authorities above cited; Gent. Mag. xlviii. 
558 ; Baker's Biog. Dram. ; Langbaine's Dra- 
matick Poets, p. 233 ; Brayley's Hist, of Surrey, 
ii. 51, &c. ; Oxf. UDIV. Keg. (Oxf. Hist. Soc.) ; 
Welch's Alumni Westmonast. 79; Wood's Athense 
(Bliss), ii. 463 ; Wood's Fasti, i.] E. T. B. 

1679?), regicide, was the son of Stephen Goffe, 
rector of Stanmer in Sussex. He was appren- fe e~ 
ticed to a London salter named Vaughan, 
and in 1642 was imprisoned by the royalist 
lord mayor for promoting a petition in sup- 
port of the parliament's claim to the militia 
(Old Parliamentary History, xi. 330; Har- 
leian Miscellany, ed. Park, iii. 483 ; WOOD, 
Athence, ed. Bliss, vol. iii.) In 1645 Goffe's 
name appears in the list of the new model 
as a captain in Colonel Harley's regiment 
(PEACOCK, Army Lists, p. 103). It is also 
attached to the vindication of the officers of 
the army (27 April 1647), and he was one of 
the deputation which presented the charge 
against the eleven members (6 July 1647) 
(RusHWORTH, vi. 471, 607). Goffe was a pro- 
minent figure in the prayer meetingof the offi- 
cers at Windsor in 1648, when it was decided 
to bring the king to a trial (ALLEN, A Faith- 
ful Memorial of that Remarkable Meeting at 
Windsor, Somers Tracts, ed. Scott, vi. 501). 
He was named in the following December 
one of the king's judges, sat frequently during 
the trial, and signed the death-warrant (NAL- 
SON, Trial of Charles I, p. 93). Goffe com- 
manded Cromwell's own regiment at the 
battle of Dunbar, ' and at the push of pike did 
repel the stoutest regiment the enemy had 
there ' (CA.RLYLE, Cromwell, Letter cxl.) He 
also commanded a regiment at Worcester 
(Cromwelliana, p. 114). After the expulsion 
of the Long parliament he continued to be a 
staunch supporter of Cromwell, and in Decem- 
ber 1653 aided Colonel White to turn out 
the recalcitrant remnant of the Barebones 
j parliament (THTTRLOE, i. 637). In July 1654 
; he represented Yarmouth, in the following 
March was active in attempting to suppress 
Penruddock's rising, and was in December 
1655 appointed major-general for Berkshire, 
Sussex, and Hampshire (ib. iii. 237, 701, iv. 
117 ; Official Return of Members of Parlia- 
ment, i. 501). A large amount of his corre- 
spondence as major-general is printed in the 
fourth and fifth volumes of the Thurloc 
Papers, and proves that while active on be- 
half of the government, he was less arbitrary 



than many of his colleagues. In the parlia- 
ment of 1656 he sat for Hampshire, supported 
the proposal to offer the crown to Cromwell, 
and was appointed one of the Protector's 
House of Lords (THURLOE, vi. 341-668). Sir 
Gilbert Pickering describes a speech made by 
Goffe on the thanksgiving for Blake's victory 
at Santa Cruz as ' a long preachment seriously 
inviting the house to a firm and a kind of 
corporal union with his Highness. Something 
was expressed as to hanging about his neck 
like pearls from a text out of Canticles ' (BuR- 
TON, Diary, i. 362). The ' Second Narrative 
of the late Parliament,' 1658, describes Goffe 
as being ' in so great esteem and favour at 
court that he is judged the only fit man to 
have Major-general Lambert's place and com- 
mand, as major-general of the army ; and 
having so far advanced, is in a fair way 
to the Protectorship hereafter if he be not 
served as Lambert was ' (Harleian Miscel- 
lany, ed. Park, iii. 483). He is officially 
described in April 1658 as major-general of 
the foot, but does not seem ever to have be- 
come a member of the Protector's privy coun- 
cil (Cal. State Papers, Dom. 1657-8, p. 373). 
Nevertheless he was one of the members of 
the important committee of nine persons ap- 
pointed in June 1658 to consider what should 
be done in the next parliament (THURLOE, vii. 
192). As being a member of that body Goffe 
was one of the persons summoned by Crom- 
well during his last illness to receive his de- 
claration appointing his son Richard as his 
successor, attested Cromwell's appointment 
on oath before the council, and subscribed 
the proclamation declaring Richard Crom- 
well protector (BAKER, Chronicle,ed. Phillips, 
pp. 653-4). On 15 Nov. 1658 the new Pro- 
tector granted Goffe Irish lands to the value 
of 5001. a year, in fulfilment of his father's 
intentions (THURLOE, vii. 504). Ludlow 
describes Goffe as a creature of Richard 
Cromwell, and he is said to have urged the 
Protector to resort to arms to maintain him- 
self (LUDLOW, Memoirs, ed. 1751, p. 241 ; 
Cal. State Papers, Dom. 1658-9. p. 335). 
The fall of the Cromwell dynasty greatly 
diminished Goffe's importance. In Novem- 
ber 1659 Goffe and three other persons were 
sent by the council of the army to Scotland 
to give an account to Monck of the reasons 
for the late interruption of parliament, and 
mediate with him for the prevention of a new 
civil war (Mercurius Politicus, 27 Oct.-3 Nov. 
1659; BAKER, Chronicle,^. 693). Before the 
Restoration actually took place (16 April 
1660) a warrant was issued for Goffe's arrest, 
probably on suspicion that he was concerned 
in Lambert's intended rising. He succeeded, 
however, in escaping, and was except ed from 

the Act of Indemnity, and a proclamation 
issued on 22 Sept. 1660 offered a reward of 
1001. for his arrest (KENNETT, Register, p. 
264). In company with his father-in-law, 
Lieutenant-general Whalley, Goffe landed at 
Boston, Mass., in July 1660 under the name 
of Stephenson, but making no other attempt 
to conceal his identity. It was deposed by a 
certain John Crowne that the governor, John 
Endicott, embraced them and bade them 
welcome to New England, and wished more 
such good men would come over. They 
stayed for a time at Cambridge, ' where they 
were held in exceedingly great esteem for 
their piety and parts,' and ' held meetings 
where they preached and prayed, and were 
looked upon as men dropped down from 
heaven' (Cal. State Papers, Col. 1661-8, p. 
54). In February following Goffe and 
Whalley moved to Newhaven, which they 
reached 7 March 1661. Meanwhile orders 
had arrived from England for their appre- 
hension, and Endicott issued warrants for 
their arrest, and simulated great zeal (ib. pp. 
15, 27). Nevertheless Kirke and Kellond, 
the persons who undertook the task of catch- 
ing them, found, in spite of large promises, 
much disinclination to assist them (ib. p. 33 ; 
Hutchinson Papers, ii. 52, 63, Prince Soc. 
1865). John Davenport, the minister of 
Newhaven, who had sheltered them in his 
own house, wrote protesting that they only 
stayed two days in the colony, and went 
away before they could be apprehended, ' no 
man knowing when or whither ' (Cal. State 
Papers, Col. 1661-8, p. 53). They hid them- 
selves for a time in a cave in the woods near 
Newhaven, at a place which they called 
Providence Hill, and for about three years 
lived in strict concealment till the heat of the 
pursuit had abated. In October 1664 they 
removed to Hadley in Massachusetts, and 
took up their abode in the house of the Rev. 
John Russell. In 1675 Hadley was attacked 
by Indians, and tradition describes Goffe as 
suddenly appearing from his hiding-place 
rallying the panic-stricken settlers, and by his 
leadership saving them from destruction. The 
tradition was first printed by Hutchinson in 
his ' History of Massachusetts,' 1764, and was, 
according to him, ' handed down in Governor 
Leveret's family ' (History of Massachusetts, 
ed. 1795, i.201). Scott makes Major Bridg- 
north tell the story in ' Peveril of the Peak,' 
and Fenimore Cooper makes use of it in ' The 
Borderers.' Goffe seems to have died in 1679 ; 
his last letter is dated 2 April in that year. 
He was buried with Whalley, who had pre- 
deceased him, at Hadley, and no stone was 
erected to mark their grave. According to 
Savage his remains were discovered ' in our 




own day ' near the foundations of Mr. Rus- 
sell's house (SAVAGE, Genealogical Dictionary 
of New England, ii. 268). Stiles mistakes the 
grave of Deputy-governor Matthew Gilbert at 
Newhaven for that of Goffe (ib.) 

Goffe left behind him in England his wife, 
Frances, daughter of Major-general Whalley, 
and his three daughters Anne, Elizabeth, 
and Frances. His correspondence with his 
wife, conducted generally under the pseudo- 
nyms of Frances and Walter Goldsmith, 
shows him to have been a man of deep and 
enthusiastic religious feeling, and explains 
his political action. Letters are printed in 
Hutchinson's ' History of Massachusetts,' ed. 
1795,i.532; 'Hutchinson Papers,' ed. Prince 
Society, 1865, ii. 161, 184 ; ' Massachusetts 
Historical Society Collections,' 3rd ser. i. 60 ; 
4th ser. viii. 122-225. 

[Noble's House of Cromwell, i. 424 ; Noble's 
Lives of the Regicides, i. 255 ; Stiles's Hist, of 
Three of the Judges of King Charles I, 1794 ; 
Polyanthea, 1804, vol. ii. ; Palfrey's Hist, of 
New England, ii. 495-508, ed. 1861 ; and the 
authorities above cited.] G. H. F. 

GOLDAR, JOHN (1729-1795), engraver, 
born at Oxford in 1729, is best known by his 
engravings of the pictures painted by John 
Collet [q. v.], in imitation of Hogarth. 
Four of these, published by Boy dell in 1782, 
represent a series entitled ' Modern Love,' 
and among others were ' The Recruiting Ser- 
geant,' ' The Female Bruisers,' ' The Sacri- 
fice,' 'The Country Choristers,' 'The Re- 
fusal,' &c. Goldar also engraved some por- 
traits, including those of the Rev. William 
Jay, James Lackington, the bookseller, Peter 
Clare, surgeon, and others. Goldar resided 
in Charlotte Street, Blackfriars Road, and on 
16 Aug. 1795 he died suddenly of apoplexy 
while walking with his daughter through 
Hyde Park. In 1771 he exhibited an un- 
finished proof of an engraving after Mor- 
timer at the exhibition of the Incorporated 
Society of Artists. 

[Redgrave's Diet, of Artists ; Dodd's MS. Hist, 
of Engl. Engravers (Brit. Mus. Addit. MS. 33401 ); 
Oent. Mag. Ixv. (1795), 709.] L. C. 

1618), legal reporter, descended from a family 
living at Goldsborough, West Riding of York- 
shire, was born 18 Oct. 1568. He studied at 
Oxford (1584), entered the Middle Temple, 
and was called to the bar by that society. 
He enjoyed a good reputation as a lawyer, 
and was made one of the prothonotaries of 
the common pleas. He died 9 Oct. 1618, and 
was buried near the high altar in the Temple 
Church. After his death there were pub- 

lished: 1. 'Reports of Divers Choice Cases 
in Law taken by those late and most Judi- 
cious Prothonotaries of the Common Pleas, 
Richard Brownlow and John Goldesborough, 
Esquires, with directions how to proceed in 
many intricate actions,' &c., 1651; 3rd edit., 
2 parts, 1675. 2. ' Reports of that Learned 
and Judicious Clerk, J. Gouldsborough, Esq., 
sometimes one of the Protonotaries of the 
Court of Common Pleas, or his collection of 
choice cases and matters agitated in all the 
Courts at Westminster in the latter yeares of 
the Reign of Queen Elizabeth, with learned 
arguments at the Bar and on the Bench, and 
the grave Resolutions and Judgments there- 
upon of the Chief Justices, Anderson and 
Popham, and the rest of the Judges of those 
times. Never before published, and now 
printed by his original copy ... by M. S. 
(M. A. Shepperd) of the Inner Temple, Esq.,' 
1653 (a copy in the British Museum has ma- 
nuscript notes by Francis Hargrave). The 
prefaces to these works describe the attainr 
ments of Goldesburg in high terms ; on the 
other hand, North says (Discourse on the Study 
of the Laws) : ' Godbolt, Gouldsborough, and 
March, mean reporters, but not to be ne- 

[Addit. MS. 25232, ff. 59, 97 ; Wood's Athenae 
Oxon. ed. Bliss, ii. 234; Wallace's The Re- 
porters Arranged and Characterised (Boston, 
1882) ; Brit. Mus. Cat.] F. W-T. 

GOLDICUTT, JOHN (1793-1 842), archi- 
tect, born in 1793, was the son of Hugh Goldi- 
cutt (d. 1823). On 25 Jan. 1803 he entered 
the bank of Messrs. Herries,Farquhar, & Co., 
where his father was chief cashier and con- 
fidential clerk, but left on 30 June of the 
following year and was placed with J. Hake- 
will the architect. He also studied at the 
Royal Academy and displayed some skill in 
drawing, and a happy disposition for colour. 
Early in life he joined the Architectural 
Students' Society, where he gained practice 
in making sketches from given subjects. He 
competed twice for the Royal Academy silver 
medal, in 1813 sending in drawings and 
measurements of the facade of the India 
House, and in 1814 of the Mansion House. 
The latter was successful. He then went to 
Paris and entered the school of A. Leclere. 
Afterwards he travelled in Italy and Sicily 
for three or four years. While in Rome in 
1817-18 he made a careful coloured draw- 
ing from actual measurements of the trans- 
verse section of St. Peter's. For this he re- 
ceived a large gold medallion from the pope. 
The drawing now hangs on the staircase of 
the Royal Institute of British Architects in 
Conduit Street. On his return to England 




in 1818 Goldicutt obtained a considerable 
private practice, and also occupied himself 
with public competitions. In 1820 he ob- 
tained third premium in the competition for 
the Post Office, and in 1829 a premium for the 
design for the Middlesex Lunatic Asylum. 
Between 1810 and 1842 he exhibited thirty- 
five architectural drawings in the Royal 
Academy exhibitions, among them being 
the following executed abroad: in 1818, 
' View of the Ruins of the Temple of Peace, 
Rome ' (1817), afterwards engraved; in 1820, 
' Ruins of the Great Hypsethral Temple, 
Salinuntum, Sicily,' etched by Pinelli for 
Goldicutt's ' Antiquities of Sicily ' ; in 1834, 
' Ruins of the Ancient Theatre, Taormina ' 
(1818), etched by Pinelli: and in 1837,' View 
of the Temple of Concord, Ancient Agri- 
gentum,' etched by himself. Of designs for 
works on which he was professionally engaged , 
he exhibited: in 1828, 'Marine Villa,' for S. 
Halliday, esq., at West Cowes ; in 1830, 
'The Dell Villa, Windsor,' for the Hon. 
H. R. Westenra, M.P. ; in 1842, 'St. James's 
Church, Paddington,' which was unfinished 
at Goldicutt's death, and was completed under 
the direction of G. Gutch. In the rooms of 
the Royal Institute of British Architects 
are : ' Plan of the Observatory at Capo del 
Monte,' drawn by him to illustrate a ses- 
sional paper in 1840, and a lithograph by 
him of the Regent's Bridge, Edinburgh. In 
the print room of the British Museum is a 
' Veduta del Tempio d'Ercole a Cora,' drawn 
and etched by him in 1818. Three of his 
drawings and two plans, by Goldicutt and 
Hakewill, were engraved in T. L. Donald- 
son's work on Pompeii in 1827. Goldicutt 
was one of the first honorary secretaries of 
the Royal Institute (1834-6) ; he origi- 
nated and helped to carry out the presenta- 
tion of a testimonial to Sir John Soane in 
1835. He was a member of the Academy 
of St. Luke in Rome, and of the Academy of 
the Fine Arts in Naples. He was surveyor 
for the district of St. Clement Danes with 
St. Mary-le-Strand, and one of the justices 
and commissioners of sewers for Westminster 
and Middlesex. He made various alterations 
at White's Club House, St. James's Street. 
He died at his house, 39 Clarges Street 
(where his mother had died before him in 
1813), on 3 Oct. 1842, aged 49, and was 
buried in Kensal Green cemetery. He left 
a widow and five sons. 

He published : 1. 'Antiquities of Sicily,' 
with plates etched by Pinelli of Rome, 1819. 
2. ' Specimens of Ancient Decorations from 
Pompeii,' 1825. 3. ' Heriot's Hospital, Edin- 
burgh,' the greater number of the illustra- 
tions lithographed by himself, 1826. 4. ' An- 

cient Wells and Reservoirs, with Observa- 
tions upon their Decorative Character,' in 
' Institute Sessional Paper,' 1836. 5. ' The 
Competition for the Erection of the Nelson 
Monument critically examined,' 1841. He 
read several communications at meetings of 
the institute, and in its library are preserved 
manuscripts of: (1) 'Address read at the 
General Meeting, 3 Feb.,' 1835 ; (2) ' Testi- 
monial to Sir John Soane,' 1835; (3) Extract 
from a paper ' On the Art of Fresco-Paint- 
ing,' 11 June 1838. 

[Redgrave's Diet, of Artists ; Civil Engineer, 
1842, pp. 372-3 ; Diet, of Architecture; Graves's 
Diet, of Artists; Nagler's Kiinstler-Lexikon ; 
Gent. Mag. 1813 p. 286, 1835 p. 76; T. L. 
Donaldson's Pompeii, 1827. i. 2, 48, plate 84, ii. 
12, 30 ; Royal Academy Exhibition Catalogues ; 
Cat. of -the Drawings, &c., in the Royal Institute 
of British Architects ; Univ. Cat. of Books on 
Art ; Cat. of Library of Royal Institute of Brit. 
Architects ; information from Messrs. Herries, 
Farquhar, & Co.] B. P. 

1809), essayist, was born in 1717 at Craigmill, 
in the parish of Galston, Ayr, on the premises 
where his forefathers had been millers for 
nearly four hundred years. He had little or 
no schooling, but after his mother had taught 
him to read he soon learnt writing, and early 
displayed much taste for mechanics. Before 
he was fifteen he constructed a miniature 
mill, which would grind a boll of peas in the 
day. Then he began business as a cabinet 
maker at Kilmarnock, and made a beautifully 
engraved clock case of mahogany, which was 
purchased by the Duke of Hamilton, and was 
placed in Hamilton Palace. He soon made 
enough money to buy a large wine and spirit 
shop in the same town, where he carried on 
a thriving trade. He eagerly studied Euclid 
and astronomy at the same time, and learnt 
to calculate mentally in a surprisingly short 
time the most difficult arithmetical problems. 
Goldie had heen brought up in the strictest 
Calvinistic principles, but his views grew 
moderate and he became almost a deist. He 
took part in the theological dispute between 
the adherents of 'the new and auld licht.' 
Burns wrote an ' epistle ' to him which 

Goudie, terror of the Whigs, 

Dread of black coats and reverend wigs, 

and tells that enthusiasm and orthodoxy are 
now at their last gasp, adding 

"Tis you and Taylor are the chief, 
Wha are to blame for this mischief. 

While condemned by the orthodox, Goldie 
made many friends in consequence of his ster- 
ling honesty and good sense. He was on in- 




timate terms with most of the clergy of the 
district, and would often argue with them. 
When Burns was about to emigrate to the 
West Indies, Goldie, to whom he read some 
poems in manuscript, encouraged him to stay, 
and introduced him to several friends, who, 
with Goldie, became sureties toWilson for the 
printingof Burns's first volume(1786). Burns 
was now almost a daily visitor at Goldie's 
house, where he corrected the proof-sheets 
and wrote many letters. After this Goldie 
engaged largely in coal speculations, by which 
he lost heavily, and was cheated by his part- 
ner. He patriotically set on foot a scheme for 
connecting Kilmarnock with Troon by a canal, 
and even made a survey of the line ; but the 
expense proved insuperable. Late in life he 
was abstracted in manner, and known as ' the 
philosopher.' In 1809 he caught cold by 
sleeping in a damp bed at Glasgow, and died 
three weeks afterwards at the age of ninety- 
two, upholding his own opinions and retain- 
ing his faculties to the last. He left many 
manuscripts and letters from Burns, Lord 
Kames, and other celebrated men ; but they 
were unfortunately destroyed during his son's 
absence at sea. Sillar and Turnbull followed 
the example of Burns in writing poems on 
him. Goldie was a small but well-made man. 
His portrait, with a globe behind him, was 
painted by Whitehead. It is said to have 
been an admirable likeness, and may be seen 
engraved in the ' Contemporaries of Burns.' 
Goldie became famous by his ' Essay on 
Various Important Subjects, Moral and Di- 
vine. Being an attempt to distinguish True 
from False Religion,' 1779. This was an- 
nounced as being in three volumes, but appa- 
rently one only was published. The style of 
all Goldie's works is prolix and laboured, but 
the essay achieved great popularity as a re- 
action from the stern Calvinism then reigning 
in Scotch pulpits. It was known as ' Goudie's 
Bible,' and is now extremely scarce. His 
criticism is destructive and leads to pure the- 
ism ; he denounces priestcraft, and is not al- 
ways free from profanity. On the appearance 
of the second edition in 1785 Burns wrote his 
congratulatory epistle. He next wrote ' The 
Gospel recovered from its Captive State and 
restored to its Original Purity,' G vols., Lon- 
don, 1784. These essays treat of prophecy, 
the resurrection, dialogues between a Jesuit 
and a gentile Christian on the gospel, and the 
like. His last work was ' A Treatise upon 
the Evidences of a Deity ' (1809). For the 
last forty years of his life he devoted himself 
to astronomy, and prepared a work which 
was almost ready for the press at his death, 
in which he is said to have corrected prevail- 
ing misnpprehensions. 

[Goldie's Works; Gent. Mag. vol. Ixxix. pt. i. 
1809; Notes and Queries, 3rd ser. iii. 208, 336 ; 
Paterson's Contemporaries of Burns, 1840, Ap- 
pendix, p. 3 ; A.M'Kay's History of Kilmarnock, 
3rd ed. 1864, pp. 161, 165-8.] M. G. W. 

GOLDING, ARTHUR (1536 P-1605P), 
translator, born probably in London about 
1536, was younger son of John Golding, esq., 
of Belchamp St. Paul and Halsted, Essex, by 
his second wife, Ursula, daughter of William 
Merston of Horton, Surrey. His father was 
one of the auditors of the exchequer, and died 
28 Nov. 1547. Margaret, his half-sister, mar- 
ried John de Vere, sixteenth earl of Oxford. 
Golding is said to have been educated at 
Queens' College, Cambridge, but his name 
is not to be found in the college register. He 
took no degree, and on his title-pages de- 
scribes himself as ' gentleman.' In 1549 he 
was in the service of Protector Somerset, 
who wrote, 5 Oct., requesting him to solicit 
the aid of the Earl of Oxford's servants in 
repressing rebellion (NICHOLS, Edward VI, 
ii. 236). In 1563 he was receiver for his 
I nephew, Edward de Vere, seventeenth earl of 
Oxford, with whom he seems to have resided 
for a time in Sir William Cecil's house in 
the Strand. On 12 Oct. 1565 he dedicated 
his translation of Caesar's 'Commentaries' 
to Cecil from Belchamp St. Paul, and com- 
pleted at the same place his translation of 
Beza's ' Tragedie of Abraham's Sacrifice ' in 
1575. He spent some time in 1567 at Ber- 
wick, and there finished his chief work, his 
translation of Ovid's ' Metamorphoses,' on 
20 April 1567. In a later year (1576) he 
was living at Clare, Suffolk. He dates the 
dedication to Sir Christopher Hatton of his 
translation of Seneca's ' De Beneficiis ' (' the 
work of ... Seneca concerning Benefyting ') 
from his house in the parish of All-Hallows- 
on-the-Wall, London (17 March 1577-8). 
In London he moved in good society, al- 
though he showed strong puritan predilec- 
tions, and occupied himself largely with trans- 
lations from Calvin and Theodore Beza. His 
patrons included, besides Cecil, Hatton, and 
Leicester, the Earl of Essex, Sir William 
Mildmay, Lord Cobham, and the Earl of 
Huntingdon. When dedicating a translation 
from the French to Cobham in 1595 (No. 21 
below), he acknowledges the help he received 
from him in his troubles. He was a member, 
like the chief literary men of the age, of the 
Elizabethan Society of Antiquaries, founded 
by Archbishop Parker in 1572 (Notes and 
Queries, 1st ser. ii 363) . Sir Philip Sidjiey was 5'. 3 t y 
one of his friends, and when Sidney left for 
the Low Countries on his fatal expedition, 
he entrusted Golding with the fragment of 
his translation of De Mornay's French trea- 


7 6 


tise on the truth of Christianity, and bade 
him complete and publish it with a dedica- 
tion to Leicester. This Golding did in 1587 
after Sidney's death, entitling the book ' A 
woorke concerning the trewnesse of the Chris- 
tian Religion begunne to be translated . . . 
by Sir Philip Sidney, knight, and at his re- 
quest finished by Arthur Golding,' London, 
1589. Other editions are dated 1592, 1604 
(revised and corrected by Thomas Wilcocks), 
and 1617 (with further corrections) (cf. Fox 
BOURNE, Sir Philip Sidney, pp. 407-11). 
Golding also knew Dr. Dee, who seems to 
have arranged to cure him of fistula on 
30 Sept. 1597 (Diary, Camd. Soc. p. 60). On 
25 July 1605 an order was issued to the 
Archbishop of Canterbury and the attorney- 
general to draw up a grant giving Golding 
the sole right of printing such of his works 
as they held to be beneficial to the church 
and commonwealth. Golding married the 
widow of George Forster. Nashe, writing in 
1589, speaks of him as ' aged Arthur Golding,' 
and of his ' industrious toyle in Englishing 
Ovid's " Metamorphosis," besides many other 
exquisite editions of divinitie turned by him 
out of the French tongue into our owne ' 
(preface to GBEENE'S Menaphon, 1589). The 
date of his death is not known. 

Golding came into much landed property. 
On 6 Dec. 1576 the death of his brother 
Henry made him lord of the manor of Eas- 
thorp, Essex, besides giving him other pro- 
perty, all of which he alienated (by license) 
20 Nov. 1577. On 7 March 1579-80 another 
brother, George, with his wife, Mary, gave 
Golding the estate of Netherhall, Gesting- 
thorpe, Essex, and this he sold in 1585. George 
Golding died 20 Nov. 1584, and his brother 
then secured other lands in Essex, but he 
sold nearly all his property in 1595. 

With the exception of some English verses 
prefixed to Baret's 'Alvearie,' 1580, Gold- 
ing's sole original publication was a prose 
' Discourse upon the Earthquake that hapned 
throughe this realme of England and other 
places of Christendom, the first of April 1580 
. . . ,' London (by Henry Binneman). Here 
Golding seeks to show that the earthquake 
was a judgment of God to punish the wicked- 
ness of the age. He denounces with puritan 
warmth the desecration of the Sabbath by 
the public performance of stage plays on 
Sundays. Shakespeare refers to the same 
earthquake in ' Romeo and Juliet,' i. 3. It 
is as the translator of Ovid's ' Metamorphoses ' 
that Golding deserves to be best known. He 
published ' the fyrst fower bookes,' with a 
dedication to Leicester (London, by Wyl- 
lyam Seres), in 1565 ; and the reception this 
work met with was so favourable that in 

1567 he issued ' the xv. bookes ' (London, by 
Wyllyam Seres). Later editions are dated 
1575, 1576, 1584, 1587, 1593, 1003, 1612, and 
1676. The dedication, in verse, describes in 
succession the subject of each of the fifteen 
books (reprinted in Brydges's ' Restituta,' ii. 
376-411). The translation is in ballad metre, 
eachline having usually fourteen syllables. It 
is full of life throughout, and at times reaches 
a high poetic level. After his first volume 
was issued in 1565, Thomas Peend published 
the fable of ' Salmacis and Hermaphroditus,' 
likewise from the ' Metamorphoses.' In the pre- 
face Peend says that he had translated nearly 
the whole work, but abandoned his design 
because another, meaning Golding, was en- 

faged upon it. ' T. B.,' in lines prefixed to 
ohn Studley's translation of Seneca's ' Aga- 
memnon,' 1566, speaks of the renown of 
Golding, ' which Ovid did translate,' and of 
'the thondryng of his verse.' Puttenham, 
in his ' Arte of Poesie,' associates Golding 
more than once with Phaer, the celebrated 
translator of Virgil, whose work is far inferior 
to Golding's in literary merit. Webbe and 
Meres also enumerate Golding's ' Metamor- 
phoses ' among the best translations of their 
age. Until Sandys's ' Ovid' appeared in 1632, 
Golding's version held the field unchallenged. 
It is quite certain that Shakespeare was well 
acquainted with his work. Golding's trans- 
lation of Caesar's ' Commentaries,' dedicated 
in 1565 to Cecil, is also an interesting ven- 
ture. Another edition appeared in 1590. 
Golding was the second translator of Caesar, 
the first having been Tiptoft, earl of Wor- 

The bibliography of Golding's other trans- 
lations presents many difficulties. Several 
religious books bearing his initials have been 
assigned to him, but are undoubtedly by An- 
thony Gilby [q. v.] This is certainly the case 
with the translation of Calvin's ' Commentary 
on Daniel,' London, 1570, and 'The Testa- 
mentes of the Twelue Patriarches ' from the 
Latin of Robert Grosseteste, London, 1581. 
The following, besides those already men- 
tioned, may be assigned to Golding: 1. 'A 
Briefe Treatise concerning the Burninge of 
Bucer and Phagius,' from the Latin, London, 
1562. 2. ' The Historie of Leonard Aretine 
(i.e. L. Bruni Aretino) concerning theWarres 
betweene the Imperialls & the' Gothes for the 
possession of Italy,' 1563 ; dedicated to Cecil. 
3. ' Thabridgemente of the Histories of Trogus 
Pompeius, collected and wrytten in the Latin 
Tongue ... by the famous Historiographer 
Justine ' (May 1564), by Thomas Marsh, dedi- 
cated to Edward de Vere, earl of Oxford ; 
' newlie corrected' 1570, 1578. 4. ' John Cal- 
A'in, his Treatise concerning Offences,' Lon- 




don, 1567. 5. ' A Postill or Expositions of 
the Gospels read in the Churches of God on 
Sundayes and Feast Days of Saincts, written 
by Nicholas Heminge,' London, 1569, 1674, 
1577, 1579 ; dedicated to Sir Walter Mildmay. 
6. ' A Postil or Orderly Disposing of certeine 
Epistles usually red in the Church of God 
uppon the Sundayes and Holy dayes . . . 
by David Chytraeus,' London, 1570, 1577, 
dedicated to Sir Walter Mildmay. 7. ' The 
Psalmes of David and others, with M. John 
Calvin's Commentaries,' London, 1571, 1576; 
dedicated to the Earl of Oxford. 8. ' A Booke 
of Christian Questions and Answers' (by 
Theodore Beza), London, 1572, 1577, 1578 ; 
dedicated to the Earl of Huntingdon. 9. ' A 
Confutation of the Popes Bull . . . against 
Elizabeth, from the Latin of Henry Bullinger 
the elder,' London, 1572. 10. ' Sermons of 
M. John Caluine vpon the Epistle of Saincte 
Paule to the Galatians,' London, 1574, and 
n.d. ; dedicated to Cecil, lord Burghley. 
11. 'Sermons of M. John Caluin vpon the 
Booke of Job,' London, fol. 1574, 1580, 1584; 
dedicated to Robert, earl of Essex. 12. ' A 
Catholike Exposition vpon the Reuelation of 
Sainct John, collected by M. Augustine Mar- 
lorat out of divers notable writers,' London, 
1574; dedicated to Sir Walter Mildmay. 
13. 'A Justification or Clearing of the Prince 
of Orange,' London, 1 575. 14. ' The Warfare 
of Christians,' London, 1576; dedicated to Sir 
William Drewrie. 15. ' The Lyfe of ... Jasper 
Colignie . . . sometyme greate Admirall of 
Fraunce,' from the Latin, London, 1576. 
16. ' An Edict or Proclamation set forthe by 
the French Kinge upon the Pacifying of the 
Troubles in Fraunce, with the Articles of the 
same Pacification read and published .... 
13 May 1576,' London, 1576. 17.' The Sermons 
of M. John Caluine vpon the Ei)istle of S. Paule 
to the Ephesians,' London, 1577 ; dedicated 
to Edmund Grindal, archbishop of Canter- 
bury. 18. ' The Sermons of M. lohn Caluin 
vpon . . . Deuteronomie,' London, 1583 ; 
dedicated to Sir Thomas Bromley. 19. ' The 
Worke of Pomponius Mela the Cosmographer 
concerning the Situation of the World,' Lon- 
don, 1585. In the dedication to Burghley 
(6 Feb. 1584-5), Golding says he has sent to 
press the 'Polyhistor ' of Julius Solinus and 
the ' Travels of Andrew Theuet.' 20. ' The 
Excellent and Pleasant Worke of lulius So- 
linus Polyhistor,' London, 1587; reissued 
with ' Pomponius Mela ' in 1590. 21. ' Poli- 
ticke, Moral, and M^tial Discourses,' from 
the French of Jacques Hurault, London, 
1595; dedicated to William, lord Cobham. 
22. ' A Godly and Fruteful Prayer, with an 
Epistle to ... John [Aylmer] bishop of Lon- 
don,' from the Latin of Abraham Fleming 

[c[. v.J, London, n.d. ' The Benefit that Chris- 
tians receyue by lesus Christ Crucified,' Lon- 
don , 1 573, from a French version of the Italian 
book of AonioPaleario[see under COURTENAY, 
EDWARD], is doubtfully ascribed to Golding. 
In Harl. MS. 425, ff. 73-4, is a verse trans- 
lation by Golding of Haddon's ' Exhortation 
to England to repent made ... in the great 
sweate, 1551.' It was first printed in 
Dr. Furnivall's ' Ballads from Manuscripts ' 
(Ballad Soc. 1871), pt. ii. pp. 325-30. In 
the Harl. MS. 357, art. 5, is a translation 
(attributed to Golding) of Sleidan's Latin 
' Abridgment of the Chronicle of Sir John 
Frossard.' It was printed in 1608, but the 
translator's name is given on the title-page 
both as P. and as Per. (i.e. Percival) Golding. 
A Percival Golding is author of a pedigree 
of the family of the Veres, earls of Oxford, 
among the Harleian MSS. 

[Cooper's Athenae Cantabr. ii. 431-4, 555 ; 
Phillips's Theatrum Poetarum, ed. Brydges, p. 
110; Hunter's MS. Chorus Vatum, in MS. Addit. 
24488, ff. 435 et seq.; Collier's JReg.of Stationers' 
Company (Shakespeare Soc.), ii. 118, 220; Ames's 
Typogr. Antiq. ed. Herbert ; Morant's Essex ; 
Warton's English Poetry; Wood's Athenae Oxon. 
ed. Bliss, i. 522, 692, ii. 323 ; Collier's Bibliog. 
Cat. ; Corser's Collectanea.] S. L. L. 

1863), physician, born in 1793 in Essex, was 
entered as a student of St. Thomas's Hospital, 
London, in 1813. He was a doctor of medi- 
cine of St. Andrews in 1823, and a licentiate 
of the College of Physicians in 1825. He was 
elected physician at the West London In- 
firmary, which, mainly by his energy and in- 
fluence, was extended into the Charing Cross 
Hospital. The new building was erected 
in 1831, and he is justly regarded as its 
founder. In the medical school and the in- 
ternal arrangements of the hospital Golding 
took an active interest, and he remained a 
director of the hospital till 1862, when fail- 
ing health compelled him to resign. He died 
on 21 June 1863. Golding was the author of: 

1. ' An historical account of St. Thomas's 
Hospital, Southwark,' London, 1819, 12mo. 

2. ' The origin, plan, and operations of the 
Charing Cross Hospital, London,' edited by 
G. B. Golding, London, 1867, 8vo. 

[Lancet, 25 July 1863; Munk's Coll. of Phys. 
iii. 309.] W. F. W. S. 

GOLDING, RICHARD (1785-1865), 
line-engraver, was born in London of humble 
parentage on 15 Aug. 1785. He was ap- 
prenticed in 1799 to an engraver named Pass, 
but at the end of five years his indentures 
were transferred to James Parker, who died 
in 1805, leaving some unfinished plates, which 


7 8 


were completed by his pupil. Golding was 
afterwards introduced to Benjamin West, 
who employed him to engrave his ' Death of 
Nelson.' He then executed a number of ad- 
mirable book-plates, the best known of which 
are those after the designs of Robert Smirke 
for editions of ' Don Quixote ' and ' Gil Bias,' 
and he also assisted William Sharp. In 1818 
he completed a fine plate of the Princess 
Charlotte of Wales, after the painting by Sir 
Thomas Lawrence, who is said to have 
touched the engraver's proofs no less than 
thirty times. The reputation which he gained 
by this plate led to the offer of numerous com- 
missions, and among the portraits which he 
subsequently engraved were those of Sir Wil- 
liam Grant, master of the rolls, a full-length 
after Lawrence, General Sir Harry Calvert, 
bart., after Phillips, and Thorn as Hammersley 
the banker, after Hugh Douglas Hamilton, as 
well as aportrait of Queen Victoria when prin- 
cess, in her ninth year, after Richard Westall, 
and another in 1830, after William Fowler. 
He likewise engraved a large plate of 'St. 
Ambrose refusing the Emperor Theodosius 
Admission into the Church/ after the picture 
by Rubens in the Vienna gallery. In 1842, 
after having been without work for several 
years, he undertook to engrave for the Art 
Union of Dublin a plate after Maclise's picture 
of 'A Peep into Futurity;' but he had fallen 
into a state of desponding indolence, and at 
the end of ten years it was still unfinished. 
His powers and eyesight gradually failed, 
and he withdrew from all social intercourse, 
finding recreation only in angling. Although 
unmarried, and not without means, he died 
from bronchitis in neglected and dirty lodg- 
ings in Stebbington Street, St. Pancras, Lon- 
don, on 28 Dec. 1865. He was buried in 
Highgate cemetery; but owing to allegations 
that he had been poisoned by his medical 
attendant, who became possessed of the bulk 
of his property, his body was exhumed in 
the following September and an inquest held, 
which, however, terminated in a verdict of 
' Death from natural causes.' 

[Redgrave's Diet, of Artists of the English 
School, 1878 ; Bryan's Diet, of Painters and En- 
gravers, ed. Graves, 1886, i. 581 ; Times, 14 and 
21 Sept. 1866.] R. E. G. 


GOLDNEY, PHILIP (1802-1857), sol- 
dier, second son of Thomas Goldney, esq., of 
Goldney House, Clifton, was born in London 
21 Nov. 1802. He was educated at a pri- 
vate school, and in 1821 went out to Bengal 
as a cadet of the East India Company's army. 
He received a commission as ensign or second 

lieutenant in the 14th native infantry 1 1 June 
of that year ; was promoted lieutenant 30 Jsin. 
1824, and brevet captain 11 June 1836. For 
some years he was engaged in subduing pre- 
datory tribes, and in learning the native lan- 
guages and Persian. He translated various 
parts of the Bible into the vernaculars ; and, 
when the office of interpreter and quarter- 
master in his regiment fell vacant, he was 
elected to the post. 

In 1844 Goldney, then captain of the 4th 
native infantry, was ordered to Sind, which 
had recently been annexed. His regiment 
was one of four which mutinied in con- 
sequence of the withdrawal of the extra 
allowance previously given to sepoys when 
on foreign duty. Goldney personally at- 
tacked one of the ringleaders, and order was 
eventually restored. He was soon afterwards 
appointed to the civil office of collector and 
magistrate in Sind. At his own request, 
he was allowed by Sir Charles Napier to take 
part in the expedition to the Truckee Hills. 
His mastery of the Persian language led to 
his being ordered to accompany the force 
under the Ameer Ali Morad, whose fidelity 
was doubted by Napier. The expedition was 
successful, and he returned to Sind, where 
a wild district of Beloochistan formed part 
of the district in his charge. His influence 
over the ferocious inhabitants of this dis- 
trict was remarkable ; he organised a system 
of police in which he enrolled many desperate 
characters, and gave employment to the 
population by cutting canals. In this way 
he greatly increased the area of cultivation 
in Sind, which is entirely dependent on the 
waters of the Indus. 

On attaining the rank of lieutenant-colonel 
he was appointed to the command of the 
25th native infantry stationed at Delhi. 
Shortly afterwards he was appointed to the 
command of a brigade sent to annex and 
subjugate the kingdom of Oudh. He was 
made one of thefive commissioners appointed 
to govern the country, and placed in charge 
of Fyzabad, the eastern division. When the 
great mutiny broke out in 1857, Goldney 
' appreciated more than anyone else the sig- 
nificance of the outbreak at Meerut' on 
10 May (KATE, Hist, of the Sepoy War). 
He saw that the extension of the mutiny to 
Oudh was only a matter of time, and applied 
to Sir Henry Lawrence for a small number 
of European troops. The request was not 
granted, and Goldney removed from his re- 
sidence at Sultanpoor to Fyzabad, (in his own 
words) ' the most important and most dan- 
gerous position.' Here he began to store 
provisions and to fortify a walled place, and 
to organise, as far as possible, the pensioned 




sepoys and the friendly zemindars of the 
district. Goldney's personal influence with 
his native troops delayed open mutiny ; but 
when, on 8 June, the mutineers from Azim- 
garh approached within a march of Fyzabad, 
the sepoys rose and seized the public trea- 
sure. On the following morning they al- 
lowed their officers to leave in four boats. 
At the same time one of the chief zemindars 
of the district, Rajah Maun Singh, sent a 
strong force to protect Goldney and convey 
him to a place of safety : but, as the officer 
in charge of the escort was forbidden to 
rescue anyone else, Goldney declined the 
offer, and proceeded with the other officers 
down the river Gograh. The two foremost 
boats proceeded as far as Begumjee, a dis- 
tance of thirty miles, when they were fired 
on by another body of mutineers. Goldney 
ordered the boats to be pulled to an island in 
the river, and directed his officers to cross to 
the other side and escape across the country. 
He himself declined to leave the island, and 
either remained under fire till he fell, or was 
seized by the mutineers and shot. 

Goldney married, in 1833, Mary Louisa, 
eldest daughter of Colonel Holbrow. His 
wife and three of his children left Fyzabad 
before the outbreak. Two sons and three 
daughters in all survived him. 

[Information from the Rev. A. Goldney; 
Oubbins's Account of the Mutinies in Oudh ; 
Kaye's Sepoy War ; Malleson's Indian Mutiny ; 
Dodwell and Miles's Indian Army List.] 

E. J. R. 

{1548-1604), bishop of Gloucester, was born 
in 1648 in the town of Cambridge. He was 
matriculated as a pensioner of Trinity Col- 
lege, Cambridge, of which, in December 1560, 
he became a scholar. In 1565-6 he proceeded 
B. A. Strype's statement that John Whitgift, 
afterwards archbishop of Canterbury, was his 
tutor, is no doubt erroneous. On 8 Sept. 1567 
he was admitted a minor fellow, and on 
27 March 1569 a major fellow, of his college 
(Addit. MS. 5870, f. 86). In the latter year 
he commenced M.A. He was one of the sub- 
scribers against the new statutes of the univer- 
sity in May 1572 (HEYWOOD and WEIGHT, 
Cambridge University Transactions, i. 62). He 
proceeded to the degree of B.D. in 1577. On 
14 July 1 579 he was incorporated in that degree 
at Oxford, and on the following day he was 
collated to the archdeaconry of Worcester. On 
23 Feb. 1579-80 he was collated to the pre- 
bend of Gorwall in the church of Hereford. 
On 1 Sept. 1581 he was installed a canon of 
Worcester, and on 13 Dec. following pre- 
bendary of Caddington Minor in the church 

of St. Paul, London. He was created D.D. at 
Cambridge in 1583. On 30 Dec. 1585 he was 
installed in the prebend called Episcopi sive 
Poenitentiarii, or the golden prebend in the 
church of Hereford, for which he exchanged 
the prebend of Gorwall. In or before 1589 
he became archdeacon of Salop in the diocese 
of Lichfield. He also held the rectory of 
Stockton probably the benefice of that name 
in Shropshire. 

On 28 Aug. 1598 he was elected bishop of 
Gloucester, and he was consecrated at Lam- 
beth on 12 Nov. (STTIBBS, Registrum Sacrum 
Anglicanum, p. 88). The queen licensed him to 
hold his canonry at Worcester incommendam. 
During his episcopate he rarely resided in his 
diocese, and it is said that his palace was 
much dilapidated. He died on 26 May 1604, 
and was buried in a small chapel within the 
lady chapel of the cathedral at Gloucester, 
where there is a handsome altar-tomb, with 
his recumbent effigy attired in a scarlet 
rochet, and a Latin inscription. Helen, his 
widow, who appears to have had two hus- 
bands before she married him, died in 1622, 
aged 79. He left behind him two sons, John 
and Godfrey, and perhaps other children. He 
had a brother named John. 

[Bedford's Blazon of Episcopacy, p. 48 ; 
Chambers's Biog. Illustrations of Worcestershire, 
p. 82 ; Cooper's Annals of Cambridge, iii. 4 ; 
Cooper's Athenae Cantabr. ii. 388 ; Fosbrooke's 
City of Gloucester, 1819, pp. 94, 127, 133; 
Fuller's Worthies (Cambridgeshire); Godwin's 
Cat. of Bishops, 1615, p. 496; Godwin, De 
Prsesulibus (Richardson); Hackett's Select and 
Remarkable Epitaphs, i. 51 ; Harington's Nugse 
Antiquae, p. 37 ; Le Neve's Fasti (Hardy) ; New- 
court's Repertorium, i. 131 ; Rudder's Glou- 
cestershire, p. 157; Rymer's Fcedera, xvi. 351 ; 
Cal. of State Papers (Com. 1598-1601), pp. 100, 
132; Strype's Whitgift, pp. 77, 496, 525; 
Willis's Survey of Cathedrals, i. 571, 573, 664, 
671, 707, 722; Wood's Athenae Oxon. (Blis-s), 
ii. 843, 850, Fasti, i. 155, 214, 255.] T. C. 

sea-captain in the East India Company's ser- 
vice, was probably a native of Suffolk, in which 
county he possessed an estate. He was in 
command of the Antelope when that ship was 
taken by a Dutch fleet, between Masulipatam 
and Madras, on 22 Aug. 1673. His account of 
the engagement is in the Bodleian Library 
(Pepys Papers, vol. xvi. f. 386). He com- 
manded the ship Falcon in 1673-4, and in 
1676-7, 1683, and 1686 the Bengal Merchant. 
After the death of Sir John Child on 4 Feb. 
1689-90, no officer of the company succeeded 
to his position of supreme control ; but after 
prolonged dissensions at Fort St. George be- 
tween the governor, Elihu Yale, and his 



council, the court re-established this control, 
which they gave to Goldsborough on 2 Oct. 
1691. In his first commission, dated 10 Feb. 
1691-2, he is named their ' supervisor-com- 
missary-general and chief governor,' and a 
year later their 'captain-general and com- 
mander-in-chief.' Just before the date of his 
first commission he was knighted, 8 Feb. 
1691-2. He sailed in March, and arrived at 
Fort St. George on 23 Nov. 1692, where he 
investigated the quarrel between the late go- 
vernor, Elihu Yale, and his council. In June 
he went to Fort St. David, and after some 
stay there returned by land to Madras on 

11 July 1693. On the 29th he embarked for 
the Bay of Bengal, leaving his wife at the fort. 
He reached Chatanati (now Calcutta) on 

12 Aug., and reported very unfavourably of 
the late agent in Bengal, Job Charnock [q. v.], 
and the company's servants. On his recom- 
mendation Francis Ellis, who had succeeded 
Charnock as agent, was afterwards remanded 
to Fort St. George, and Charles (later Sir 
Charles) Eyre or Eyres appointed to the post. 
While staying at Chatanati Goldsborough was 
struck down by fever and died 'within some 
few days after ' 28 Nov. 1693. Before leaving 
London he made a will, dated 7 March 1691, 
wherein he described himself as ' of Betknall 
Green, in the county of Middlesex, knight, 
being bound on a voyage to the East India 
beyond the seas in the shipp Berkly Castle ' 
(registered in P. C. C. 12, Bond). Not long 
after his death his widow Mary married 
Roger Braddyll, the troublesome member of 
Governor Pitt's council at Fort St. George. 
She died in India some time previously to 
4 Nov. 1702, on which day her husband ad- 
ministered to her estate at London (Ad- 
ministration Act ook,P. C. C., 1702, f. 211 6). 
Goldsborough's papers give the impression 
that he was an honest, sensible man. 

[Diary of William Hedges, esq , ed. Colonel 
Yule (Hakluyt Soc.), ii. xc, xci-xciv, clv-clx, 
ccxcix ; Coxe's Cat. Codicum JVISS. Bibl. Bodl.. 
pars v. fasc. i.] G. Gr. 

1886), colonial wool trader, was born at 
Shipley, near Bradford, Yorkshire, in 1821. 
He was apprenticed as a boy to a Bradford 
woolstapling firm, and at twenty-one years 
of age started as a merchant in a small way 
in the same town, purchasing the clips of 
graziers in the neighbourhood, and sorting 
the wool for the manufacturers. He became 
interested in Australia, from its capacity of 
producing wool, and at length determined to 
emigrate. He first went to Adelaide, and 
finally settled in Melbourne in 1847. In 
1848 he commenced business in a small 

weather-board building. He succeeded ra- 
pidly, and ultimately erected the large stores 
' by the Market Square in Melbourne. While 
building his operations were much disturbed 
by the excitement which followed the gold 
discoveries. In 1853 he went into partner- 
ship with Edward Row and George Kirk, 
and the new firm transacted a large and lucra- 
tive business in buying and selling stations 
and stock, as well as immensely expanding 
Goldsborough's wool operations. From 1857 r 
however, he concentrated all his energies 
upon wool. In 1862 he erected buildings at 
the corner of Bourke and AVilliam Streets, 
Melbourne, having a floor space of over five 
acres. Under the j oint m anagement of Golds- 
borough and Hugh Parker, his brother-in-law, 
the business continued to develope rapidly, 
and in 1881 the house was amalgamated with 
the Australian Agency and Banking Corpora- 
tion, when the consolidated concern became a 
limited liability company, with Goldsborough 
as chairman of directors. The company began 
with a capital of three millions, and pros- 
pered exceedingly. The Sydney business of 
Goldsborough & Co. became scarcely less ex- 
tensive than that of the Melbourne house. 

Goldsborough found the entire wool export 
of Melbourne in 1848 some thirty thousand 
bales, and in the last twelve months of his 
life his own firm sold more than twice that 
amount in Melbourne alone. His company 
had also worked up a great connection in the 
grain trade, and carried on immense opera- 
tions in skins, hides, tallow, and other station 
produce. Their periodical property sales be- 
came an important Australasian feature. 

Goldsborough always refused to have any 
hand in political matters, but subscribed libe- 
rally to institutions and charities. It was 
said that he would have been as little likely 
to make a bad bargain as attempt a platform 
speech ; but he was held in high esteem 
throughout the colonies as well as in York- 
shire, which he several times revisited. He 
was a great encourager of horse-racing in 
Australia, being a steward of the racing club 
from its foundation. He died in Melbourne 
on 8 April 1886. 

[Memoirs in Australian papers; article on the 
Australian Wool Trade in Bradford Observer, 
May 1 884 ; Heaton's Australian Diet, of Dates.] 

J. B-Y. 

1887), vocalist. [See LIND.] 

GOLDSMLD, ABRAHAM(1756?-1810), 
Jewish financier, was born in Holland about 
1756. His father, Aaron Goldsmid, a merchant 
by profession, married Catherine, daughter of 
Abraham de Vries, M.D., of Amsterdam, 




6 March 1740, settled in England about 1763, 
and died 3 June 1782. Goldsmid and his elder 
brother, BENJAMIN (1753 P-1808), started in 
business as bill brokers about 1777. Their 
financial connections were gradually extended, 
and after 1792 their wealth rapidly increased 
through their dealings with the British go- 
vernment. It was regarded as an important 
event upon the Stock Exchange that men, 
till then nearly unknown, managed to wrest 
the floating of government loans from the 
hands of the banking clique. The brothers 
Goldsmid during the last fifteen years of 
their lives were somewhat prominent figures 
in English social life. Benjamin had a fine 
country-house at lloehampton. They not 
only came to exercise a kind of monopoly of 
influence upon the Stock Exchange, but their 
wide and genial benevolence secured them 
general respect. Benjamin Goldsmid was, 
according to his biographer, the real founder 
of the Royal Naval Asylum some years before 
the institution was taken over by government 
and established at Paddington Green, London. 
He married Jessie Solomons, the daughter of a 
wealthy East India merchant, and had many 
children. Four sons, John Louis, Henry, 
Albert, and Lionel Prager, survived. His 
grandson (son of Lionel Prager) is the well- 
known orientalist and traveller, Sir Frederic 
John Goldsmid, K.C. S.I. Benjamin Goldsmid 
was subject in the latter years of his life to 
fits of melancholia, and committed suicide on 
11 April 1808. 

Abraham Goldsmid was a joint contrac- 
tor, together with the firm of Baring, for 
the ministerial loan of fourteen millions in 
1810. The death of Sir Francis Baring on 
11 Sept. added greatly to the heavy burden 
upon his shoulders. Goldsmid's commanding 
and exceptional position upon the Stock Ex- 
change had secured him many enemies and 
rivals. The scrip of the new loan kept gra- 
dually falling, and Goldsmid's difficulties 
were still further increased owing to the 
failure of certain transactions relating to ex- 
chequer bills which he had to negotiate for 
the East India Company. When it became 
clear that he could not meet his liabilities, 
Goldsmid's courage failed him and he com- 
mitted suicide. This was on 28 Sept. 1810. 
The news of his death caused consols to fall 
the same day from 65 to 63, and they left 
off at 64. Scrip or ' omnium,' which began 
on 29 Sept. at 7 discount, fell to 10 and 
closed at 9. ' We question,' said the ' Courier' 
and the ' Morning Post ' of that date, ' whether 
peace or war suddenly made ever created 
such a bustle as the death of Mr. Goldsmid.' 
The newspapers contained many panegyrics 
of Goldsmid's benevolence, of which a large 


number of curious stories have been pre- 
served. It is said that I O U's to the amount 
of 100,000/. were found in his drawers after 
his death and torn up as waste paper ; they 
had doubtless been given and received as a 
mere form to veil the fact that the loans 
were really gifts. The somewhat effusive 
praises of the newspapers provoked the anger 
of Cobbett, who devoted a number of his 
' Weekly Political Register ' to an attack 
upon Goldsmid. Goldsmid's firm made great 
efforts to discharge their liabilities. By 1810 
they had paid a full 15s. in the pound, and 
in 1820 parliament, on the petition of the 
creditors (another Is. 6d. in the pound having 
been paid), annulled the remaining portion 
of the debts, whether due to government or 
to private individuals. Goldsmid married 
Ann Eliason, of Amsterdam. His daughter 
Isabel married her cousin, Isaac Lyon Gold- 
smid [q. v.] 

[Gent. Mag. 1808, i. 373, 457, 1810, ii. 381 ; 
European Mug. 1810, Iviii. 244 (with portrait of 
Abraham Goldsmid) ; Cobbett's Weekly Political 
Eegister, 3 Oct. 1810, vol. xviii. No. 16, p. 313 ; 
Times, 12 and 13 April 1808 ; Independent Whig 
(a hostile notice of Benjamin Goldsmid), 17 April 
1808 ; Morning Post, 29 Sept., 1, 2, 3, 10, and 
18 Oct. 1810; Courier, 28 and 29 Sept., 3 and 
4 Oct. 1810 ; Morning Chronicle, 29 Sept. and 
1, 2, and 3 Oct. 1810; Times, 29 Sept. 1810; 
House of Commons' Journals, 1820 ; Memoirs of 
the Life of the late Benjamin Goldsmid of Koe- 
hampton, by Levy Alexander (a curious speci- 
men of gossiping and eulogistic biography) ; 
Francis' Chronicles and Characters of the Stock 
Exchange, 1855, new ed. pp. 180-6; Thorn- 
bury's Old and New London, i. 485 ; James 
Picciotto's Sketches of Anglo-Jewish History.] 

C. G. M. 


(1808-1878), lawyer and politician, of Jewish 
race and religion, was born in London on 1 May 
1808. His father was Sir Isaac Lyon Gold- 
smid [q. v.] Goldsmid received a very careful 
private education, and became a proficient 
classical scholar. While still quite a young 
man he was associated with his father in his 
labours for the removal of Jewish disabilities, 
and he wrote a number of pamphlets upon 
this question. They are written in clear and 
weighty English, and attracted considerable 
attention. He chose the bar for his profession, 
'for the purpose principally,' as he afterwards 
said, ' of opening a new career to his coreligion- 
ists.' In January 1833 he was admitted to 
Lincoln's Inn, being thus the first Jewish bar- 
rister, as he was also the first Jewish queen's 
counsel (1858). He married in 1839 Louisa, 
daughter of Moses Goldsmid, his father's 
brother. After the Jewish Disabilities Bill 



was passed in 1859, Goldsmid (who upon 
the death of his father in the same year had 
succeeded to the baronetcy) was at length 
enabled to begin a parliamentary career, and 
he was elected in 1860 member for Reading, 
which borough he continued to represent till 
his death. In politics Goldsmid was a tempe- 
rate liberal. He was the recognised spokes- 
man of the Jewish community in parliament, 
and in many telling speeches called attention 
to the persecutions of the Jews in Eastern 
Europe and elsewhere. On general subjects 
Goldsmid was not a frequent speaker, but his 
opinion was respected upon both sides of the 
house, and he was well known as a patient 
and impartial chairman of committees. Like 
his father, Goldsmid took a deep interest in 
University College and the University College 
Hospital. He was treasurer of the hospital 
from 1857 till 1868, and a ward was named 
after him in 1870 in recognition of his ser- 
vices to the institution. Among his own reli- 
gious community Goldsmid was very promi- 
nent. He took the leading part in the foun- 
dation of the Reform Synagogue in 1841 
(now situated in Upper Berkeley Street), and 
he was the practical founder of the Anglo- 
Jewish Association in 1871. In 1841 he es- 
tablished the Jews' Infant School, one of the 
earliest schools of its kind, and now the largest 
infant school in England. He died through 
an accident at Waterloo station on 2 May 
1878. His nephew Julian, son of his brother 
Frederick David (1812-1866), succeeded as 
third baronet. 

Goldsmid's writings include : 1. ' Remarks 
on the Civil Disabilities of British Jews,' 1830. 
2. 'Two Letters in Answer to the Objections 
urged against Mr. Grant's Bill for the Relief 
of the Jews,' 1830. 3. 'The Arguments ad- 
vanced against the Enfranchisement of the 
Jews considered in a Series of Letters,' 1831 ; 
2nd edition, 1833. 4. 'A Few Words respect- 
ing the Enfranchisement of British Jews ad- 
dressed to the New Parliament,' 1833. 5. 'A 
Scheme of Peerage Reform, with Reasons for 
the Scheme, by the youngest of the Tomkinses,' 
1835. 6. ' Reply to the Arguments advanced 
against the Removal of the remaining Dis- 
abilities of the Jews,' 1848. 

[Memoir of Sir F. H. Goldsmid, by the Rev. 
Professor Marks and the Rev. Albert Lowy, 2nd 
enlarged ed. 1882; Times, 4 May 1878.] 

C. G. M. 


(1812-1855), Indian civil servant, born on 
9 May 1812, was son of Edward Goldsmid 
of Upper Harley Street, London. He was 
educated privately, and in 1829, on nomina- 
tion to a writership by Robert Campbell, one 

of the directors of the East India Company, 
went to Haileybury College, where he twice 
obtained the Persian prize, and also distin- 
! guished himself in Hindustani and law. Pro- 
ceeding to the Bombay presidency in 1832, 
he served in the districts of Ahmednagar 
and Tanna till he became, in 1835, assistant 
' to the revenue commissioner, Mr. William- 
1 son. While in this post he devised the re- 
! venue survey and assessment system. He 
' was employed in its organisation in thePoona, 
Ahmednagar, and Nasik districts, and the 
Southern Mahratta country, from 1835 till 
1 845, when he visited England on furlough. 
He there married Jessy Sarah Goldsmid, 
daughter of Lionel Prager Goldsmid, and 
sister of Major-general Sir F. J. Goldsmid, 
I K.C.S.I., C.B., by whom he had four sons 
and a daughter. Returning to India in 1847 
as private secretary to Sir George Clerk, the 
governor of Bombay, he became in the fol- 
j lowing year secretary to the Bombay govern- 
i ment in the revenue and financial depart- 
ments, and chief secretary in 1854. His 
health broke down under his unsparing labours 
in the public service, and he died at Cairo 
on 3 Jan. 1855. 

The tenure of Western India generally is 
ryotwari, that is, the state is universal land- 
lord, and the peasantry hold under it direct. 
But, owing to the obsoleteness of the assess- 
ments and system of former native govern- 
ments, and a general fall of prices, the rents 
had become exorbitant, even in favourable 
i seasons. Annual remissions, determined on 
annual crop inspections made by ill-paid native 
officials, had thus become the rule. Arrears 
nevertheless accumulated, corruption, extor- 
tion, and even torture, were fostered, the 
rates fixed on the better soils were gradually 
lowered, while those on the poorer became 
enhanced, and these rates were chargeable 
on areas which, through corruption or loss 
of record, were generally incorrect. Agri- 
cultural stock and capital were thus de- 
pleted, thousands emigrated, the residue were 
poverty-stricken and despairing, while the 
revenue barely covered the cost of collection. 
Goldsmid's insight and energy introduced a 
system the details of which were perfected 
by the able young men whom he drew round 
him, including Lieutenant (afterwards Sir 
George) Wingate, Bartle Frere [q. v.l, Lieu- 
tenants (now Generals) Davidson, Francis, 
and Anderson. The ' survey ' comprised all the 
lands in every village, which were divided 
into separate ' fields ' of a size to be tilled 
by one pair of bullocks, defined by boundary 
marks, which it was made penal to remove, 
and clearly indicated upon readily obtainable 
maps. Each field was then classified accord- 



ing to the intrinsic capabilities of its various 
portions, and placed in one of nine or more j 
classes, the whole work being carried out by 
a trained native staff under strict European 
test and supervision. The final ' assessment ' j 
was the personal work of Goldsmid, Wingate, 
or some other of the 'superintendents' whom 
they instituted. Individual villages were not 
separately dealt with, but, after careful ap- 
praisement of climate, agricultural skill, dis- 
tance of markets, means of communication, 
and past range of prices, a maximum rate was 
fixed for groups of villages, from which the 
rent for each field could be deduced by means 
of the classification. The assessment was then j 
guaranteed against enhancement for thirty 
years, and all improvements effected during I 
the term were secured to the holder, lie 
could relinquish or increase his holding, and j 
had a right to continue his tenure at the end 
of the term upon accepting the revised assess- 
ment to be then imposed. 

This system, formulated in ' Joint Reports' 
by Goldsmid and Wingate in 1840, and by 
them and Davidson in 1847, was firmly esta- 
blished by acts of the Bombay legislature in 
1865-8 and incorporated in the Bombay reve- 
nue code of 1879. It has long since been ap- 
plied to the whole of the lands in the Bombay 
presidency which pay assessment to govern- 
ment, and has been extended to innumerable 
' exempted ' landholders and chiefs at their 
own request. The Berars and the native state 
of Mysore have also adopted it. Everywhere 
the rents have been made less burdensome, 
cultivation has extended, the revenue has 
improved, and content has been diffused 
among the people. 

In 1865 Sir Bartle Frere inaugurated a 
memorial rest-house, erected by subscription, 
at Decksal, near where Goldsmid's survey 
had been begun. He spoke emphatically of | 
Goldsmid's nobility of character, ' playful > 
fancy,' and ' inexhaustible wit,' and asserted 
that neither Sir James Outram nor General | 
John Jacob had a more absolute control over 
the affections of the natives. With reference 
to the survey and asssessment, he said ' the 
name of Mr. Goldsmid will live, in connec- 
tion with that great work, in the grateful re- 
collections of the simple cultivators of these 
districts long after the most costly monument 
we could erect to his memory would have 

[Official correspondence on the Revenue Ser- 
vice and Assessment of the Bombay Presidency, 
1850 ; Survey and Settlement Manual, compiled 
by order of the Government, Bombay, 1882; 
Land Assessments of India, Bombay Quarterly 
Review, July 1855; The Deccan Ryots, by H. 
Oreen, 1852; Bombay Times, 20 Feb. 1855; 

Speech by Sir Bartle Frere, Governor of Bombay, 
4 Oct. 1864 ; personal knowledge.] T. C. H. * 

1859), financier and philanthropist, of Jewish 
race and religion, was born in London on 
13 Jan. 1778. His father, Asher Goldsmid, 
a bullion broker, was brother of Abraham 
Goldsmid [q. v.] Isaac Goldsmid, after a 
careful education, entered the firm of Mo- 
catta & Goldsmid, bullion brokers to the 
Bank of England and to the East India 
Company. As bullion broker he was then, 
ipso facto, a member of the Stock Exchange, 
where up till 1828 only twelve Jewish brokers 
were admitted. He married, on 29 April 
1804, Isabel, daughter of Abraham Goldsmid, 
his father's brother. As a financier Goldsmid 
gradually rose to considerable eminence and 
ultimately amassed a large fortune. His most 
extensive financial operations were connected 
with Portugal, Brazil, and Turkey, and for 
his services in settling an intricate monetary 
dispute between Portugal and Brazil he was 
created by the Portuguese government Baron 
da Palmeira in 1846. Goldsmid was, however, 
much more than a mere financier. The main 
effort of his life was spent in the cause of Jewish 
emancipation ; he was also a prom inent worker 
for unsectarian education and social reforms, 
' He was closely allied,' says Mr. Hyde Clarke, 
' with the utilitarian and, at that time, radical 
school.' He took a prominent part in the 
foundation, in 1825, of University College, 
then called the University of London. While 
success was still doubtful, Goldsmid gave the 
necessary impetus by a prompt acquisition of 
the desired site in Gower Street ' at his own 
risk and that of two colleagues, Mr. John 
Smith and Mr. Benjamin Shaw, whom he 
persuaded to join in the responsibility ' ( Uni- 
versity College Report for 1859). In 1834 he 
gave energetic help in the establishment of 
the University College or North London Hos- 
pital, and served as its treasurer from 1839 
till 1857. With Mrs. Elizabeth Fry and 
Peter Bedford, Goldsmid was a zealous fellow- 
worker for the reform of the penal code and the 
improvement of prisons. Robert Owen, the 
socialist, in his autobiography, speaks of his 
long intimacy with Goldsmid and the inte- 
rest he displayed in the system of New Lanark 
(Life of Robert Owen, 1857, i. 150). 

The cause of Jewish emancipation had 
Goldsmid's entire devotion. Through his un- 
flagging energy the Jewish Disabilities Bill 
was introduced by Sir(then Mr.) Robert Grant 
[q. v.l in 1830. The bill was thrown out in 
the House of Commons on its second reading, 
but was reintroduced in the reformed parlia- 
ment in 1833, when it was passed by large ma- 

G 2 



jorities. For many subsequent years the bill 
was rejected in the upper house. Neverthe- 
less it was Goldsmid's exertions in the early 
years of the struggle, whereby many promi- 
nent liberal members of both houses and a 
few conservatives were induced to take a 
warm interest in the question, that ultimately 
secured its success. In 1833 the bill was 
so closely connected with his name that Sir 
Robert Inglis declared that ' the title of the 
bill ought to be " a bill to enable an hon. 
gentleman to come from the lobby into the 
body of the house " ' (HANSARD, Par/. Debates, 
July 1833, p. 1079). Goldsmid's public ser- 
vices and his labours for the Jews Disabilities 
Bill brought him into relations with several 
liberal statesmen. Besides the original mover 
of the bill, Sir R. Grant, there was no more 
zealous friend of Goldsmid and his cause than 
the third Lord Holland. When, in 1841, 
Goldsmid's name was included among the 
baronets created by Lord Melbourne's out- 

foing ministry, the distinction, then for the 
rst time conferred upon a Jew, was greatly 
due to the well-known wish of Lord Holland, 
who had died in the previous year. Gold- 
smid died on 27 April 1859. His son Francis 
Henry [q. v.] succeeded to the baronetcy. 
His eldest daughter, ANNA MARIA GOLDSMID 
(1805-1889), philanthropist, was educated 
under Thomas Campbell, the poet ; was the 
friend of Lord Brougham, Robert Owen, 
Mendelssohn, and Sir Moses Montefiore; 
gave large sums to charity, and was deeply 
interested in educational questions. She 
died 8 Feb. 1889, aged 84, leaving some of 
Campbell's manuscripts to the British Mu- 
seum. She published the following transla- 
tions : 1. ' Twelve Sermons,' by Salomon 
Gotthold (1839). 2. Developments of the 
Religious Idea in Judaism,' by Philippsohn 
(1855). 3. ' The Deicides. Analysis of the 
Life of Jesus by J. Cohen of Marseilles ' 
(1872). 4. ' Educational Code of Prussia,' 
1872 (Times, 19 Feb. 1889; Brit. Mus. Cat.) 

[Memoir of Sir Isaac Goldsmid, by Mr. Hyde 
Clarke, in Banker's Mag. June 1859, pp. 375-82, 
July 1859, pp. 449-57, April 1860, pp. 220-4 ; 
Jewish Chronicle, 6 May and 17 June 1859 ; 
private information.] C. G. M. 

GOLDSMITH, FRANCIS (1613-1655), 
translator of Grotius, son and heir of Fran- 
cis Goldsmith of St. Giles's-in-the-Fields, 
Middlesex, and grandson of Sir Francis Gold- 
smith of Crayford, Kent, was born on 25 March 
1613, and entered the Merchant Taylors' 
school in September 1627, during the master- 
ship of Dr. Nicholas Gray. He became a 
gentleman-commoner of Pembroke College, 
Oxford, in 1629, but migrated to St. John's 

College, where he t ook his degree . On leaving- 
Oxford he entered at Gray's Inn and studied 
law for some years, but finally retreated to 
his estate at Ashton in Northamptonshire. 
He married Mary, the daughter of Richard 
Scott of Little Lees, Essex, and by her had 
two sons and one daughter, Catherine. He 
died on 29 Aug. 1655, and is buried with his 
wife and daughter in Ashton Church. G. 
Baker (Hist, of Northamptonshire, ii. 127) 
gives the inscriptions on their graves. Gold- 
smith occupied his leisure by translating por- 
tions of the works of Hugo Grotius. In 1647 
there appeared in London ' Hugonis Grotii 
Baptizatorum Puerorum Institutio, Alternis 
Interrogationibus et Responsionibus,' with a 
Greek translation by Christopher Wase of 
King's College, Cambridge, and an English 
translation by Goldsmith. The book, which 
was to be used at Eton, has a Latin dedica- 
tion by Nicholas Gray to John Hales, and 
an epistle in English, also by Gray, 'to 
his loving and beloved scholars,' Goldsmith 
and Wase. The fourth edition in 1655 con- 
tained portraits of Grotius and Goldsmith. 
There were editions in 1662 and 1668. In 
1652 Goldsmith published ' Hugo Grotius his 
Sophompaneas, or Joseph. A Tragedy, with 
Annotations. By Francis Goldsmith, Esq.,' 
8vo, n. d. At the end of the tragedy, which 
takes up forty-two pages, come more than 
fifty pages of annotations, ' gleaned out of 
the rich crops of Grotius and Vossius them- 
selves,' added ' for the satisfaction of the 
Printer ... to increase the bulk.' The notes 
close with a translation of the poem, ' Som- 
nium Dramaticum Synesii Jumoris, Cogno- 
mento Chirosophi.' Then follows a new title, 
' Hugo Grotius, his Consolatory Oration to 
his Father. Translated out of the Latine 
Verse and Prose. With Epitaphs, &c. By 
F. G.' The epitaphs indicate that the author 
lost two sons. An elaborate description of 
the whole volume, with a specimen of the 
verse of the translation, is given in Corser's 
' Collectanea Anglo-Poetica,' vii. 17. 

[Besides the authorities cited see C. J. Robin- 
son's Register of Merchant Taylors' School, i. 122 ; 
Hasted's Kent, i. 208 (where the date of birth 
is given as 1612); Wood s Athense Oxon. ed. Bliss, 
iii. 400, 505.] R. B. 

1841), lieutenant in the navy, son of Henry, 
son of the eldest brother of Oliver Goldsmith 
the author [q. v.] A brother, Charles Gold- 
smith, was a commander in the navy (1795- 
1854). Hugh was born at St. Andrews, 
New Brunswick, on 2 April 1789, and having 
served his time as a midshipman in the navy 
was promoted to the rank of lieutenant on 
27 Jan. 1809. After the peace he seems to 



have been employed chiefly in the preventive 
service, and in 1824 commanded the Nimble 
revenue cutter on the coast of Cornwall. 
On 8 April, landing near the headland called 
Trereen Castle in search of some smuggled 
goods, he went up to look at the Logan 
Rock, a rocking stone which weighs about 
eighty tons ; and being told that ' it was 
not in the power of man to remove it,' he 
took it into his head to try. Accordingly, 
when his boat had finished dragging for the 
suspected goods, he called his men up and 
tried to move the stone with three hand- 
spikes. These were of no avail ; they were 
therefore laid aside, and the nine men, taking 
hold of the rock by the edge, without great 
difficulty set it in a rocking motion, which 
became so great that to try to stop it seemed 
dangerous, lest it should fall back on the 
men. So it presently rocked itself off its 
pivot, falling away about thirty-nine inches, 
and lying inclined on the adjacent rocks. 
According to Goldsmith's positive statement, 
in a letter to his mother written a few days 
afterwards (Household Words, 1852, vi. 234), 
he had no intention or thought of doing mis- 
chief. He did not know of the value placed 
on the rock by the neighbourhood, and was 
thunderstruck when he found the uproar that 
his deed occasioned. As soon, however, as 
he realised the way in which his exploit was 
regarded, he determined to do what he could 
to replace the stone. The admiralty lent 
him tackles, sheers, capstans, and men. The 
work began on 29 Oct., and on Tuesday, 
2 Nov., the stone was again in its place, rock- 
ing as before, though whether better or worse 
is disputed. Lithographed views of the pro- 
cess of replacing the stone were published at 
Penzance in 1824. Many common state- 
ments about the matter are authoritatively 
denied. Goldsmith was never promoted, and 
as lieutenant commanding the Megaera died 
at sea off St. Thomas in the West Indies on 
8 Oct. 1841. 

[Gent. Mag. 1824, vol. xciv. pt. i. pp. 363, 
430; Boase and Courtney's Bibl. Cornub. i. 184; 
Household Words, vi. 234 ; Stockdale's Excursion 
(small edition), p. 184; The Golden Chersonese, 
or the Logan Rock Restored, by an Officer of the 
Royal Navy (Penzance, 1824, 12mo), is a detailed 
and somewhat technical account of the restora- 
tion.] J. K. L. 

GOLDSMITH, LEWIS (1763 P-1846), 
political writer and journalist, was of Portu- 
guese-Jewish extraction, and was probably 
born at Richmond, Surrey. He is said to 
have been educated at Merchant Taylors' 
School. Though trained for the legal pro- 
fession in a solicitor's office in London, he 
never practised in England. An ardent sym- 

pathiser with the French revolution, and a 
freemason initiated into the mysteries of the 
Illuminati, he was in Germany in 1792, wit- 
nessed the recapture of Frankfort by the Hes- 
sians, and was denounced, as he says, by the 
British ambassador for arrest, but, having 
received timely warning, repaired to Ham- 
burg, and thence to Poland. He was a spec- 
tator of the struggle of 1793, was commis- 
sioned by Kosciusko to write to Lord Stan- 
i hope and to a Mr. S. (Sheridan ?) soliciting 
1 British intervention, and on the suppression 
of the Polish rising went to Holland. He 
is said to have been connected with the ' Al- 
bion,' a newspaper friendly to France, started 
in 1799, but his name does not appear in it. 
In 1801 he published ' The Crimes of Cabinets, 
or a Review of the Plans and Aggressions 
for Annihilating the Liberties of France, and 
the Dismemberment of her Territories.' Ap- 
prehensive of a prosecution for this attack 
upon the war with France, he went to Paris 
in the summer of 1802, intending to start an 
English magazine, and returned to London 
to confer with booksellers, but was asked by 
Otto, with whom he was on intimate terms, 
to go back to Paris and dissuade the govern- 
ment from demanding the muzzling of the 
English press. Talleyrand there introduced 
him to Napoleon, by arrangement with whom 
he established ' The Argus, or London re- 
viewed in Paris.' The title was evidently 
borrowed from his friend Sampson Perry's 
' Argus,' which Perry, on retiring to France 
in 1792, contemplated continuing at Paris. 
It appeared three times a week, and aimed 
at circulation in England. Goldsmith states 
that in February 1803, on refusing to insert 
articles vilifying the English royal family 
and government, he was arrested, was incar- 
cerated for forty-eight hours in a loathsome 
cell, was then taken to Dieppe in the hope 
that Peltier would be given up in exchange 
for him, and had just cleared the harbour 
when counter orders arrived, whereupon he 
was taken back to Paris, and was invited to 
resume the editorship. This he declined, 
but he accepted a mission to bribe German 
statesmen, and to obtain from the future 
Louis XVIII a renunciation of claims on 
France in return for the throne of Poland. 
On Louis's refusal, Goldsmith says he re- 
ceived fresh instructions to kidnap him, and 
to kill him if he resisted, which instructions 
he disobeyed, but remained some months at 
Warsaw, and conveyed a warning to Louis 
that his life was not safe, whereupon the 
prince quitted the town. Goldsmith, though 
reproached by Napoleon for not executing 
this ' mission of blood,' was still employed 
by him, was once entrusted with two million 




francs to be employed in bribery, and was 
compelled to follow Napoleon to Boulogne, 
in order that Austria might be deluded by 
the pretended expedition against England. 
He was present at the battle of Eylau, and 
his occasional missions lasted from February 
1803 to June 1807. During this period he 
was interpreter to the Paris tribunals, and 
in 1805 he prepared a French translation 
of Blackstone, which, though inadvertently 
commended by the ' Moniteur,' was angrily 
suppressed by Napoleon. Long anxious to 
leave France, he was allowed in 1809 to em- 
bark at Dunkirk in a vessel bound for Ame- 
rica, which, however, landed him at Dover. 
In England he ' suffered some temporary in- 
convenience and restraint [imprisonment in 
Tothill Fields], but had reason to be satisfied 
with the treatment of the English govern- 
ment, and to thank God that he was born 
within the pale of the English constitution.' 
By this time he had become effectually cured 
of his sympathies with republicanism, and had 
formed a rooted antipathy to Napoleon and 
his plans. He became a notary in London, pub- 
lished in 1809 an ' Exposition of the Conduct 
of France towards America,' and in January 
1811 established a Sunday newspaper, 'The 
Anti-Gallican Monitor and Anti-Corsican 
Chronicle,' which, with altered titles ('Anti- 
Corsican Monitor ' in 1814, and ' British Moni- 
tor ' in 1818), was continued till 1825. Gold- 
smith's denunciations, not only of the French 
revolution, but of English sympathisers, pro- 
voked fierce recriminations. He had cross 
actions for libel with Perry, who, he says, 
was suborned by Napoleon to give garbled 
extracts from his correspondence during his 
missions. Perry, being shown to be the 
aggressor, was awarded a farthing damages, 
whereupon Goldsmith dropped his own suit. 
His proposal in 1811 for a subscription for set- 
ting a price on Napoleon's head was brought 
before the House of Lords by Earl Grey, was 
reprobated by the government, who promised 
if possible to bring the author to condign 
punishment, and was consequently aban- 
doned. Goldsmith, however, subsequently 
issued an appeal to the Germans in favour of 
tyrannicide. In 1 81 1 he published the ' Secret 
History of the Cabinet of Bonaparte,' and 
' Recueil des Manifestos, or a Collection of 
the Decrees, &c., of Napoleon Bonaparte,' 
and in 1812 the ' Secret History of Bona- 
part's Diplomacy.' The charges of debauchery 
and unscrupulousness brought by him against 
Napoleon have found at least partial credence 
with recent writers. Napoleon certainly 
winced under these attacks, and, according 
to Goldsmith, offered him 200,OOOA in 1812 
to discontinue them. About 1813 Goldsmith 

was introduced to Louis XVIII, whose re- 
storation he warmly advocated. In 1814 he 
translated Carnot's ' Memorial,' and in 1815 
he published ' An Appeal to the Govern- 
ments of Europe on the necessity of bringing 
Napoleon Bonaparte to a public trial.' After 
Waterloo he advocated an alliance with 
France as England's natural ally, and de- 
clared that the three Eastern powers, the par- 
titioners of Poland, had in a great degree de- 
served his early strictures. He visited Paris 
in May 1818, and again in November 1819, 
when a French paper denounced him as 
having calumniated the army in his ' Cabi- 
net of Bonaparte.' Goldsmith repudiated the 
French translation of that book as contain- 
ing interpolations and blunders, but found it 
necessary to recross the Channel. His news- 
paper, latterly a warm supporter of Robert 
Owen, having been given up 3 April 1825, 
Goldsmith returned to Paris, where, his dis- 
claimer of the translation being accepted, or 
resentments having died out, he suffered no 
molestation. He was interpreter to the Tri- 
bunal of Commerce till 1831, founded the 
short-lived Paris ' Monitor,' and published in 
1832 ' Statistics of France,' so good a digest 
that a French translation appeared the follow- 
ing year. In 1837 his only child, Georgiana, 
married Lord Lyndhurst [see COPLEY, JOHN 
SINGLETON, the younger]. A sketch of Barere, 
with whom he was intimate in 1802-9, which 
appeared in the' Times ' of 1841, is attributed 
to Goldsmith by Barere's biographer, Carnot. 
He died of paralysis at Paris on 6 Jan. 1846. 
The ' Times ' stated that he was seventy-three 
or seventy-four, but contemporaries describe 
him as in extreme old age. He had latterly 
been solicitor to the British embassy, and had 
charge of the letters and packages for English 
residents, which in those days of high postage 
were franked to the embassy. 

[Biographical matter scattered over his news- 
paper and pamphlets ; Parl. Hist. 24 June 1811 ; 
Biog. des Homines Vivants, 1817.] J. OK A. 

GOLDSMITH, OLIVER (1728-1774), 
poet, second son and fifth child of Charles 
Goldsmith, by his wife, Ann, daughter of the 
Rev. Oliver Jones, master of the diocesan 
school at Elphin, was born at Pallas, near 
Ballymahon, Longford, 10 Nov. 1728 (PRIOR, 
i. 14). Charles Goldsmith, married in 1718,. 
was at this time curate to the rector of Kil- 
kenny West. He also farmed a few fields. 
His other children were Margaret (b. 1719) ; 
Catherine, bom 13 Jan. 1721 (Mrs. Hodson); 
Henry, born 9 Feb. 1722 or 1723, died in May 
1768 ; Jane, born before Oliver ; Maurice, 
born 7 July 1736; Charles, born 16 Aug. 
1737 ; and John, born 1740. In 1730 Charles 



Goldsmith became rector of Kilkenny West 
and settled at Lissoy. Oliver learnt his 
letters from a Mrs. Delap, who thought him 
' impenetrably stupid.' When six years old 
he was sent to the village school kept by an 
old soldier, Thomas Byrne, described in the 
' Deserted Village.' Goldsmith, though bad 
at his lessons, read chapbooks, listened to 
the ballads of the peasantry, and made his 
first attempts at rhyme. His sister, Mrs. 
Hodson, says that he was always scribbling 
verses before he could write legibly {Percy 
Memoir, p. 4). A bad attack of small-pox, 
which left a permanent disfigurement, inter- 
rupted his schooling, and he was afterwards 
placed under a Mr. Griffin at Elphin school, 
where he began to be noticed for his clever- 
ness. His father's means were strained by 
the cost of keeping the eldest son Henry at 
a classical school. Relations now came for- 
ward and enabled Oliver to be placed about 
1739 at a school in Athlone ; whence, two 
years later, he was moved to the school of 
Patrick Hughes in Edgeworthstown, Long- 
ford. The local poets, O'Carolan and Law- 
rence Whyte, whose songs were popular in 
the country, are supposed to have interested 
Goldsmith, who was now showing decided 
promise. When finally going home he was 
sent (as his sister says) by a Tony Lumpkin 
of the district to a gentleman's house on pre- 
tence that it was an inn. The incident sug- 
gested, if it is not derived from, the plot of 
' She stoops to conquer ' (PRIOR, i. 47; cf. Gent. 
Mag. 1820, p. 620). His brother Henry had 
married early, after obtaining a scholarship at 
Trinity College, Dublin, and set up a school 
near his father. One of Henry's pupils, the 
son of a rich neighbour, Daniel Hodson, pri- 
vately married his sister Catherine. The elder 
Goldsmith, to show that he had not been in- 
triguing for a rich son-in-law, engaged to 
pay a marriage portion of 400/. to his daugh- 
ter. The sum, which was double the annual 
income of the rectory, made economy ne- 
cessary. It was therefore decided that Oliver 
should go to Trinity as a sizar, his brother 
having been a pensioner. He was only in- 
duced to submit by the persuasion of Thomas 
Contarine, husband of his father's sister, who 
had already helped to educate him and was 
a friend through life. Goldsmith was entered 
at Trinity College 11 June 1744. He was a 
contemporary, but probably not an acquaint- 
ance, of Edmund Burke. His tutor was the 
Rev. Theaker Wilder, an able mathematician 
and a man of some good qualities, but always 
harsh, and at times brutal. Goldsmith felt 
the humiliations of a sizar's position, and dis- 
liked the mathematical and logical studies. 
His father died early in 1747. By the help 

of Contarine and other relations he was al"J^ 
to struggle on, but he had often to pawn hi J 
books, and occasionally earned a little b *{* 
writing street-ballads which he sold for 5t 
apiece. In May 1747 he was admonished 
for abetting a riot, in which some bailiff'' 
were ducked in the college cistern, the fou ^ 
ringleaders being expelled. In June 1747 IN*" 
tried for a scholarship, and though he failec fl 
obtained a Smyth exhibition of about 30s. a' 
year. He gave a supper and a dance to cele- 
brate his success, when his tutor entered the 
room in a rage and administered ' personal 
chastisement. Goldsmith sold his books and* 
ran away to Cork, but want of funds com-' 
pelled him to return to his brother Henry, ' 
who patched up a reconciliation with the' 

His later career, though not distinguished, 
was so far successful that he obtained the 
B.A. degree 27 Feb. 1749. A pane of glass 
on which he had scrawled his name is now 
preserved in the manuscript room of Trinity 
College. His brother was still living at 
Pallas ; his mother was in a small house at 
Ballymahon ; and his sister, Mrs. Hodson, 
with her husband at Lissoy. His mother 
died in 1770, blind and poor. Prior (ii. 299) 
sufficiently refutes a story told by Northcote 
{Life of Reynolds, i. 211) which suggests a 
want of feeling in her son's conduct. Gold- 
smith for some time led an unsettled life, 
occasionally helping in his brother's school, 
or joining in sport with his brother-in-law. 
He declined to take orders, or, according to 
one story, the bishop to whom he presented 
himself had heard of college pranks < r 
was shocked by his ' scarlet breeches.' He 
haunted the inn at Ballymahon, told stories, 
played the flute, and threw the hammer at\ 
village sports. His uncle Contarine got him \ 
a tutorship with a Mr. Flinn. Tired of this, 
he started, provided with a horse and 301. ; 
sold the horse at Cork to pay for a passage 
to America. Then he missed his ship, and 
after various adventures got home without a 
penny, and with a wretched hack in place 
of his horse. Prior (i. 119) gives a letter 
from Goldsmith containing this story, which, 
howeA r er, reads suspiciously like the fragment, 
of a novel. Contarine next supplied Gold- 
smith with 50/. to start as a lawyer in Lon- 
don; and Goldsmith returned after losing 
the money at a Dublin gaming-house. At 
last, by the help of his uncle, brother, and 
sister, he was enabled to start for Edinburgh 
to study medicine. He arrived there in the 
autumn of 1752. On 13 Jan. 1753 he became 
a member of a students' club called 'The 
Medical Society.' He sang Irish songs, told 
good stories, made many friends, and wrote 




f ers which already show his characteristic 

le. He made a trip to the highlands in 

.e spring of 1753, but the Scots and their 

mntry were not very congenial to his tastes. 

.e speaks with respect of Alexander Monro, 

;e professor of anatomy, but soon decided to 

lish his studies on the continent. At the 

id of 1753 he started, intending to go to 

aris and Leyden. He was released by two 

iends, Sleigh and Lauchlan Macleane [q. v.], 

omadebt incurred on behalf of a friend, and 

iiled for Bordeaux. The ship was driven into 

Newcastle, where Goldsmith went ashore 

vith some companions, and the whole party 

vas arrested on suspicion of having been en- 

isting for the French service in Scotland. 

joldsmith was in prison for a fortnight, 

luring which the ship sailed and was lost 

with all the crew. He found another ship 

sailing for Rotterdam, took a passage and 

went to Leyden. Here he was befriended by 

a fellow-countryman named Ellis. He soon 

set off on a fresh journey, stimulated perhaps 

by the precedent of Baron Holberg (1684- 

1754), whose travels he describes in his 

' Polite Learning ' (ch. v.) Ellis lent him a 

small sum, which he spent upon some bulbs 

for his uncle Contarine. He started with 

' one clean shirt ' and next to no money. 

The accounts given of his travels are of 
doubtful authenticity. They have been con- 
structed from the story of George Primrose 
in the ' Vicar of Wakefield,' assumed to be 
autobiographical from occasional hints in 
his books, and from reports of his conversa- 
tion and missing letters. Goldsmith pro- 
bably amused himself with travellers' tales, 
taken too seriously by his friends. He started 
ahout February 1755 ; his biographers trace 
Jiim to Louvain, to Paris, Strasburg, Ger- 
many, and Switzerland; thence to Italy, 
where he is supposed to have visited Venice, 
and to have studied at Padua for ' six months ' 
( Works, 1812, i. 36), to Carinthia (mentioned 
in the ' Traveller '), and back through France 
to England, landing at Dover 1 Feb. 1756. 
He is said to have acted as tutor to a stingy 
pupil, either from Paris to Switzerland, or 
from Geneva to Marseilles ; but he travelled 
chiefly on foot, paying for the hospitality of 
peasants by playing on his flute. In Italy, 
where every peasant played better than him- 
self, he supported himself by disputing at 
universities or convents. It seems very 
improbable that Goldsmith could have dis- 
puted to any purpose, or that disputation was 
then at all profitable. Perhaps the anecdote 
was suggested by ' the Admirable Crichton.' 
He is reported to have taken the M.B. degree 
at Louvain (GLOVER), or again at Padua 
(M'Donnell in PRIOR, ii. 346). He says in 

his ' Polite .Learning ' (ch. viii.) and 'Percy' 
that he had heard chemical lectures in Paris, 
and in No. 2 of the ' Bee ' he describes the 
acting of Mile. Clairon. In the ' Animated 
Nature ' (v. 207) he speaks of walks round 
Paris, of havingflushed woodcocks on the Jura 
in June and July, and of having seen theRhine 
frozen at SchafFhausen. He speaks of hearing 
Voltaire talk in 'his house at Monrion,' near 
Lausanne, and in his ' Life of Voltaire ' gives 
a detailed account of a conversation at Paris 
between Voltaire, Diderot, and Fontenelle. 
Voltaire was certainly in Switzerland during 
the whole of 1755, and Goldsmith may have 
seen him at Monrion ; but Diderot was cer- 
tainly at Paris ; Fontenelle, then aged 98, 
could not possibly have taken the part de- 
scribed by Goldsmith ; and the conversation, 
for which Goldsmith vouches, must be set 
down as pure fiction. He was no doubt in 
Switzerland, Padua, and Paris ; but all details 
are doubtful. 

He reached London in great destitution. 
Stories are told that he tried acting (pro- 
bably an inference from his ' Adventures of a 
Strolling Player ' in the ' British Magazine '), 
and that he was usher in a country school 
(T. CAMPBELL, Historical Survey of South of 
Ireland, pp. 286-9). He became assistant to 
a chemist named Jacob on Fish Street Hill. 
After a time he met his friend Dr. Sleigh, 
who received him kindly, and he managed to 
set up as a physician in Bankside, Southwark. 
He told a friend (PRIOR, i. 215) that he ' was 
doing very well ; ' but his dress was tarnished 
and his shirt a fortnight old. Reynolds (t'A.) 
repeated an anecdote of the pains which he 
took to carry his hat so as to conceal a patch 
in his coat. From the statement of an old 
Edinburgh friend (Dr. Farr) it appears that 
he had written a tragedy, which he had 
shown to Richardson, and that he had a 
scheme for travelling to Mount Sinai, to de- 
cipher the ' written mountains.' A salary of 
300/. per annum had been left for the purpose. 
Boswell says that he had been a corrector of 
the press, possibly to Richardson. About the 
end of 1 756 he became usher in a school at 
Peckham kept by Dr. Milner, a dissenting 
minister, whose daughter and one of whose 
pupils, Samuel Bishop, preserved a few tradi- 
tions of his flute-playing, his fun with the 
boys, and his pecuniary imbecility. Milner's 
son had known Goldsmith at Edinburgh, and 
Dr. Milner wanted an assistant, on account of 
an illness which proved fatal not long after 
(Percy Memoir, p. 45). At Milner's house he 
met a bookseller named Griffiths, proprietor of 
the ' Monthly Review,' one of the chief perio- 
dicals of the day. Early in 1757 he agreed to 
lodge with Griffiths, and work for the review 



at an ' adequate salary.' He contributed many 
miscellaneous articles from April to Septem- 
ber 1757, the last being a review of Gray's 
' Odes ' in September 1757. He also reviewed 
Home's ' Douglas,' Burke's ' On the Sublime 
and Beautiful,' Smollett's ' History,' and 
AVilkie's 'Epigoniad.' Both Griffiths and 
his wife edited his papers remorselessly, and 
Goldsmith became disgusted. He probably 
contributed to other papers, and was engaged 
in a translation of the 'Memoirs of Jean 
Marteilhe' of Bergerac, which was published 
by Griffiths and Dilly in February 1758. After 
leaving Griffiths he returned for a time to Dr. 
Milner. A letter to his brother-in-law, Hod- 
son, of December 1757 says that he was making 
a shift to live by a ' very little practice as a 
physician, and a very little reputation as a 
poet.' Hisyounger brother Charles was paying 
him a visit, prompted by an erroneous impres- 
sion of his prosperity, which soon terminated. 
Three letters, written in August 1 758 to friends 
in Ireland, show that he was trying to get sub- 
scribers for his essay ' On the Present State 
of Taste and Literature in Europe,' which 
was then going through the press. He was 
still hoping to obtain an appointment as phy- 
sician and surgeon to a factory on the coast 
of Coromandel. The appointment was ob- 
tained through Milner. He would have a 
salary of 100/. a year, and the practice was 
worth 1,000/. His book was to pay for his 
passage. On 21 Dec. 1758 he was examined 
at Surgeoiis' Hall for a certificate as ' hospital 
mate ' and found ' not qualified.' Although 
his hoFes of the Indian appointment survived 
for a/time (PRIOK, i. 297), he was henceforth 
doojned to be a literary hack. 

Joldsmith had borrowed a suit of clothes 
rom Griffiths in order to appear decem-ly be- 
fore his examiners. He contributed in return 
four articles to the December number of the 
' Monthly Review ' to show his gratitude. 
Goldsmith was driven to pawn these clothes, 
and Griffiths suspected him of having also 
disposed of some books which (as Goldsmith 
declared) were not pawned, but were ' in the 
custody of a friend from whom he had bor- 
rowed some money.' A letter to Griffiths pro- 
mising repayment (PRIOR, i. 286) in January 
1759 appears to have led to some reconcilia- 
tion. Goldsmith wrote a catchpenny ' Life 
of Voltaire,' for which Griffiths paid 201., \ 
and which was advertised for publication in 
February. It ultimately came out in the i 
4 Lady's Magazine ' (edited by Goldsmith) in 
1761. An attack upon Goldsmith, however, 
appeared in the ' Monthly Review ' on the , 
appearance of his ' Polite Literature,' written | 
by Kenrick, who had succeeded him as writer ! 
of -all work for Griffiths. Although some 

apology was afterwards made, cordiality w no 
never restored. 

Goldsmith had now taken a lodging n 
12 Green Arbour Court, between the 0* 
Bailey and Fleet ^ Market, a small yard aJ 
proached by ' Breakneck Steps.' A print '" 
it is in the ' European Magazine ' for J anua:7 
1803 (partially reproduced in FORSTER, 187*~ 
i. 154). The court was destroyed by tl a 
London, Chatham, and Dover Railway (for > 
description see Notes and Quei-ies, 3rd ser. vi> 
233). Here he used to collect the childre' 
to dance to his flute, and made friends with ; 
clever watchmaker . He was beginning to wii 
some reputation as a writer. The ' Enquirj 
into the Present State of Polite Learning ii 
E urope' appeared in AprUJl759. The infor- 
mation is. of course, acquired for the nonce. 
I The book snows pessimistic views as to the 
state of literature, wnicli is naturally attri- 
buted to the inadequate remuneration of 
, authors. It attracted some notice, and some 
useful visitors came to Green Arbour Court. 
Among them was Thomas Percy [q. v.], after- 
wards bishop of Dromore, who had been intro- 
duced to Goldsmith by James Grainger [q.v.J, 
a contributor to the 'Monthly Review.' Percy 
was collecting materials for the ' Reliques,' 
, and Goldsmith shared his love of old ballads. 
Percy found only one chair in Goldsmith's 
room, and a neighbour sent a child during 
his visit to borrow ' a chamberpot full of 
coals.' Smollett, another acquaintance, was 
at this time connected with the ' Critical 
Review,' to which Goldsmith contributed 
a few articles in 1757-9, and in 1760 starte^ 
the ' British Magazine,' for which Goldsmit 8 
also wrote. He was employed on thre e 
periodicals started in this year, the ' Lady*! 
Magazine,' the ' Bee,' and the ' Busybody,' 
of which the first numbers appeared on 1, 
6, and 9 Oct. 1759 respectively. The 'Bee' 
only lasted through eight weekly numoers,' 
of which lioldsmith was the principal if not 
the sole author. His contributions to the 
' British Magazine ' in 1760 are said to have 
included ' The History of Mrs. Stanton,' which 
has been regarded as the germ of the ' Vicar 
of Wakefield.' Mr. Austin Dobson, with 
apparent reason, doubts the authorship. He 
left the ' British Magazine ' for a time to 
edit the ' Lady's Magazine,' but appears to 
have afterwards contributed a series of ar- 
ticles on the ' Belles-Lettres, which began 
in July 1761, and continued with intervals 
until 1763. Another periodical to which 
he contributed was Dodd's ' Christian Maga- 

Goldsmith had formed a more important 
connection with John Newbery, bookseller, 
in St. Paul's Churchyard. He is mentioned 



the ' Vicar of Wakefield' (ch. xviii.) as the 

hilanthropic bookseller ' who has ' written 

many little books for children.' Newbery 

arted the ' Public Ledger,' a newspaper of 

hich the first number appeared 12 Jan. 

'60. He engaged Goldsmith for 100J. a 

?ar to contribute papers twice a week. 

ohnson was at the same time writing the 

Idler ' for another paper of Newbery's, the 

Universal Chronicle.' The first of Gold- 

tnith's papers, called the ' Chinese Letters,' 

ppeared on 24 Jan. They continued during 

;he year, in which ninety-eight letters ap- 

jeared in all. He afterwards used some of 

;hem, together with his ' Life of Voltaire,' in 

;he ' Lady's Magazine,' which occupied much 

rf his time in 1761. 

The ' Chinese Letters,' which were printed 
in 2 vols. 12mo in 1762 as ' The Citizen of 
the World,' raised Goldsmith's reputation. 
He inserted some of his other anonymous 
essays. Th^y ""ntain m".y descriptions of 
character, which, if piirpag'gpH hy 

weresurpassed by no other writer of, the 
time. His position improved as his reputa- 
tion rose, and he moved in 1760 to superior 
lodgings at No. 6 Wine Office Court, Fleet 
Street, where he lodged with one of Newbery's 
connections. He had paid a compliment to 
Johnson in the fifth number of the ' Bee,' and 
on 31 May 1761 Johnson came to a supper at 
Goldsmith's lodgings, dressed with scrupu- 
lous neatness, because, as he told Percy, he 
had heard that he had been quoted by Gold- 
k.mith as a precedent for slovenly habits. 
frJoldsmith was generally more inclined to 
k*ivishness in the matter of tailors' bills. 
H bout this time, on the accession of Bute 
*'o office (PRIOR, i. 383), Goldsmith is said 
to have memorialised him, asking to be sent 
to the East to make scientific inquiries. He 
also applied to Garrick to recommend him for 
the secretaryship of the Society of Arts,which 
was vacant in 1760. Garrick refused in con- 
sequence of passages by Goldsmith in 'Polite 
Literature' reflecting upon his theatrical 
management (ib. p. 379). 

During 1762 Goldsmith did various pieces 
of hackwork for Newbery. He wrote a pam- 
phlet on the Cock Lane ghost for 31. 3s. ; a 
' History of Mecklenburgh,' the country of 
the new queen, Charlotte ; and he began a 
'Compendium of Biography,' based upon 
Plutarch's ' Lives.' Seven volumes appeared 
during the year, the last two volumes of 
which were probably compiled by a hack 
named Collyer. Goldsmith's health jtvas 
weak at this period, and be visited- Bath. 
aving for his exppnses r it. is t.n ha hoped. 

aF Nash (published 14 Oct. 1762), 
for which he received fourteen guineas. Prior 

estimates his whole income for 1762 at under 

At the end of 1762 he moved to Islington. 
Newbery occupied a room in the old tower 
of Canonbury House in that parish (descrip- 
tion and engraving in WELSH, A Bookseller of 
the last Century,}). 46); and Goldsmith lodged 
with a Mrs. Elizabeth Fleming, paying 50/. 
a year for his board and lodging. He worked 
for Newbery at a variety of odd jobs, writing 
prefaces, correcting the press, and so forth, 
though Newbery's advances during the year 
previous to October 1763 exceeded the amount 
due for ' Copy of different kinds,' namely, 
63/.,by 487. \s. Qd., for which Goldsmith gave 
a promissory note dated 11 Oct. 1763. On 
17 Dec. he borrowed twenty-five guineas from 
Newbery. According to one story he needed 
the money for an excursion to Yorkshire, in 
the course of which the ' Vicar of Wakefield ' 
was suggested by some incident. He was 
absent from Islington, as his bills show, 
during the first quarter of 1764. ' A History 
of England in a Series of Letters from a 
Nobleman to his Son,' in 2 vols. 12mo, for 
which Goldsmith received some 507. (PRIOR, 
i. 498), appeared in June 1764 anonymously, 
and was attributed to many eminent writers. 
About this time be hpp.fl.mft nne of the ori- 
ginal nine members nf .Inhngnn'g fammis r.liih . 
which met during his life at, t* p TnrV'g Head, 
Gerrard Street, Soho. Hawkins, an original 
memberpsays that we ' considered him ' as 
a mere literary drudge.' The election was 

no doubt due to Johnson's gnnrl opining who 

told Boswell in June 1763 that Goldsmith 
was ' one of the first men we now have as 
an author.' The opinion, then esoteric, be- 
came general on the publication of the ' Tra- 
veller,' 19 Dec. 1764, inscribed to his brother 
Henry, to whom he had sent some portions 
from Switzerland. Four editions appeared 
during 1765, a fifth in 1768, a sixth (the last 
revised by the author) in 1770, and a ninth 
in 1774. He received twenty guineas for it 
on publication, and probably an additional 
twenty guineas on its success. Johnson de- 
clared in the ' Critical Review ' that it would 
not be easy to find its equal since the death 
of Pope. He also contributed a few lines 
(' nine,' as he told Boswell), and was there- 
fore supposed to have written more. The 
' Traveller' owes something to Johnson's own 
didactic poems, and something to Addison's 
' Letter from Italy.' But Johnson's eulogy 
is fully deserved, and the ' Traveller ' is still 
. among the most perfect examples of its style. 
The ' Traveller ' brought him the acquaint- 
ance of Robert Nugent (afterwards Viscount 
Clare), and it seems that Nugent introduced 
him to the Earl of Northumberland, lord- 


9 1 


lieutenant of Ireland from April 1763 till 
April 1765. Hawkins (Johnson, p. 419) states 
that Northumberland offered to help Gold- 
smith in Ireland, and that this ' idiot in the 
affairs of the world ' only recommended his 
brother Henry, and preferred for himself to 
depend upon the booksellers. His lamentable 
indifference, says this stern censor, confined 
him to one patron (Lord Clare), whom he 
occasionally visited. Northumberland (to 
whom Goldsmith's friend Percy was chap- 
lain) did not return to Ireland, and there- 
fore, perhaps, did nothing for Goldsmith. 
Percy (p. 66) says that Goldsmith was con- 
fused on this or some other occasion by mis- 
taking the groom of the chambers for the 
nobleman. In any case, Goldsmith continued 
to be on friendly terms with him, and sent his 
ballad ' Edwin and Angelina' to the Countess 
of Northumberland, for whose amusement 
it was privately printed. A spiteful charge 
made against him in 1767 by Kenrick of 
stealing from Percy's ' Friar of Orders Grey ' 
was disposed of by Goldsmith's statement, 
confirmed by Percy, that ' Edwin and Ange- 
lina ' was the first written. In 1797 Gold- 
smith's ballad was asserted to have teen 
taken from a French poem, really a translation 
from Goldsmith (PRIOK, ii. 89). The ballad 
was first published in the ' Vicar of Wake- 

A collection of Goldsmith's essays in 1765 
proYed~tlie growth of his fame, and he tried 

to take Advantage of it by setting up as a 
physician. The cost of ' purple silk small 
clothes^and a ' scarlet roquelaure ' probably 
exceeded all that he made by fees. One of his 
patients preferring the advice of an apothe- 
cary to that of her physician, Goldsmith 
declared that he would prescribe no more 
(ib. ii. 105). 

The ' Vicar of Wakefield ' was published 
on 27 March 1766 (first editions described 
in Notes and Queries, 6th ser. ix. 68, xi. 268, 
371). It had been kept back until the suc- 
cess of the ' Traveller ' had raised the author's 
reputation. Boswell (Johnson (Birkbeck 
Hill), i. 415) tells the story that Johnson 
was one morning called in by Goldsmith, 
whose landlady had arrested him for his rent. 
Johnson found that Goldsmith had a novel 
ready for press, took it to a publisher, sold 
it for 60/. (or guineas, ib. iii. 321), and 
brought back the sum, which enabled Gold- 
smith to pay his rent and rate his landlady. 
The story is told with variations and obvious 
inaccuracies in Mrs. Piozzi's ' Anecdotes,' p. 
119, in Hawkins's ' Life of Johnson,' p. 420, 
and in Cumberland's ' Memoirs,' i. 372. Cooke, 
in the ' European Magazine,' gives a rather 
different version. Boswell's account, care- 

fully taken from Johnson's statement, is no 
doubt substantially accurate. Some difficulty 
has arisen from the discovery of Mr. Welsh 
that Goldsmith sold a third share in the book 
to Collins, a Salisbury printer, for twenty 
guineas on 28 Oct. 1762. It seems, how- 
ever, that the statements may be sufficiently 
harmonised if we suppose the incident de- 
scribed by Johnson to have taken place in 
Wine Office Court before the sale to Collins, 
and that Johnson obtained, not the full price, 
but an advance on account of an unfinished 
story. Several minute circumstances show 
that the book was partly written in 1762, 
but not completed until a later period (see 
AUSTIN DOBSON, pp. 110-17). The success 
of this masterpiece was marked and imme- 
diate, though its popularity is now greater 
than it was at first. (An ingenious attempt 
to identify the scenery with the district in 
Yorkshire visited by Goldsmith (see above) 
has been made by Mr. Ford's article in the 
< National Review,' May 1883.) 

Goldsmith's reputation was now esta- 
blished, and his circumstances improved 
correspondingly. Upon leaving Islington, he 
had taken chambers in the Temple ; first 
at Garden Court, afterwards in the King's 
Bench Walk, and finally on the second floor 
at 2 Brick Court, where he remained till his 
death. At different times he took lodgings 
in the country to work without interruption. 
In the summer of 1767 he again lodged at 
Islington, this time in the turret of Canon- 
bury House, and attended convivial meet- 
ings at the Crown tavern. At a later period 
he took lodgings at a farm near Hyde, on the 
Edgware road, where in 1771-4 he wrote 
' She stoops to conquer,' and worked at the 
' Animated Is'ature. In London his love of 
society, of masquerades, and probably of 
gaming, distracted mm trom regular work^~ 
GoT5gmitb_ laboured industriously at tasks 
which brought in regular pay, though not 

which brought in regular pay, though not 
conducive to permanent fame. He appears 
to Ttavirfulnlled his engagements with book- 
sellersjwith a punctuality hardly to be anti- 

from his gpnprnl Tin.hira. In Decem- 

ber 1766 appeared a selection of ' Poems for 
Young Ladies,' for which he received ten 
guineas ; and in April 1767 he had probably 
501. (PKIOE, ii. 130) for two volumes of ' The 
Beauties of English Poesy,' which gave offence 
by the inclusion of two indelicate poems of 
Prior. In 1767 he engaged to write a Roman 
history, for which Davies offered him 250 
guineas. It appeared in May 1769, and its 
pleasant style gave it a popularity not earned 
by any severe research. His lives of Parnell 
and Bolingbroke were published in 1770. In 
February 1709 he agreed to write a book for 



Griffin upon natural history, in eight volumes, 
for which he was to receive a hundred guineas 
a volume ; and in the following June he wrote 
an English history (for Davies) for which he 
was to have five hundred guineas. The Eng- 
lish history (chiefly derived from Hume) ap- 
peared in August 1771, and he afterwards 
wrote a small schoolbook on the same sub- 
ject, which was posthumously published. He I 
wrote a Greek history, for which Griffin paid 
him 2501. in June 1773, though it was not 
published till two months after his death. 
The payments for the 'Animated Nature' 
(the ultimate title of his book on natural 
history) were completed in June 1772. This, 
like the two preceding, was posthumously 

The hackwork had moro than tho ueual 
merit from the invariable charm of Gold- 
g r > vt'k Jc f sty 10 Happily, however, he found 
time for more permanent work. Early in 
1767 he offered his ' Good-natured Man ' to 
Garrick for Drury Lane. Garrick probably 
retained some resentment against Goldsmith, 
and doubted the success of the play. A pro- 
posal to refer the matter to William White- 
head only led to a quarrel. Goldsmith then 
offered his play to Colman for Covent Gar- 
den (July 1 767). It was accepted for Christ- 
mas. Garrick in competition brought out 
Hugh Kelly's sentimental comedy, ' False 
Deficacy,' and Colman, who meanwhile was 
reconciled to Garrick, postponed Goldsmith's 
play till 29 Jan. 1768 (Kelly's being acted a 
week earlier). The reception was not en- 
tirely favourable. The scene with the bailiffs 
was hissed, and Goldsmith going to the club 
with Johnson professed to be in high spirits, 
but when left alone with his friend burst 
into tears and swore that he would never 
write again (Piozzi, pp. 244-6). The ob- 
noxious scene being retrenched the play went 
better, and ran for ten nights. The omitted 
scene was replaced ' by particular desire ' at 
Covent Garden, 3 March 1773 (GENEST, v. 
372). Goldsmith made 3001. or 4001. be- 
sides another KXM. for the copyright. The 
popularity of the ' sentimental comedy ' seems 
to have hindered a full appreciation of Gold- 
smith's fun. 

The next triumph of Goldsmith's genius 
was the ' Deserted Village,' published 26 May 
1770, and begun two years previously. It 
went through five editions at once (for first 
editions see Notes and Queries, 5th ser. xi. 
491) ; and the only critical question since 
raised has been whether it is a little better 
than the ' Traveller ' or not quite so good. 
Both poems are elegant versions of the pnpu- 
lar declamation 01 the _ time p.gfl.ipfjtTuxury 
and^depopulation! Auburn in some degree 

represents Lissoy, and the story of an old 
eviction by a General Napier was probably 
in Goldsmith's mind. Some of the characters 
are obviously his old friendsi 

is intended to apply to England ; and the 
attempt to turn poems into a gazetteer is 
generally illusory. The statement by Glover 
that he received a hundred guineas and re- 
turned it as too much is hardly probable. 

'She stoops to conquer' had been written 
in 1771 at Hyde. It was offered to Colman 
in 1772. He hesitated till January 1773, 
when he yielded to the pressure applied by 
Johnson. Column's doubts were shared by 
the actors, some of whom threw up their 
parts. It was at last performed at Covent 
Garden 15 March 1773. Johnson led a body 
of friends, including Burke and Reynolds, to 
the first night. Cumberland, whose inaccu- 
racies make all his statements doubtful, says 
that he was of the party, and minutely de- 
scribes the result (Memoirs, i. 367). In any 
case the success wa.R ^nrlftniahlp It an- 

swered, as Johnson said, the ' grgat end of 
comedy, making an audience merry? \Vhen 
Goldsmith heard from Northcote (then a 
pupil of Reynolds) that he had laughed ' ex- 
ceedingly,' ' That,' he replied, ' is all that I 
require.' The adherents of the sentimental 
comedy had forgotten the advantages of 
laughter ; and the success of Goldsmith's 
play led to their discomfiture. It ran for 
twelve nights, producing 400J. or 5001. for 
the author, and was published with a dedica- 
tion to his staunch supporter, Johnson. 

During his later years Goldsmith was 
widely known and beloved. His most inti- 
mate friends appear to have been the Hor- 
necks, who were Devonshire people, and 
known through Reynolds. The family con- 
sisted of a widowed mother, a son Charles, 
who was in the guards, and two daughters, 
Catherine, ' Little Comedy,' married in 1771 
to Henry William Bunbury [q. v.], and Mary, 
' the Jessamy Bride,' who became Mrs. Gwyn, 
gave recollections to Prior, and died in 1840. 
In 1770 he took a trip to Paris with Mrs. 
Horneck and her daughters. In 1771 his old 
enemy, Kenrick (probably), wrote an insult- 
ing letter to the ' London Packet ' (24 March), 
signed ' Tom Tickle,' abusing Goldsmith as an 
author, and alluding insultingly to his pas- 
sion for 'the lovely H k.' Goldsmith 

went to the shop of the publisher, Evans, and 
struck him with a cane. Evans returned the 
blow; a scuffle followed, a broken lamp 
covered the combatants with oil, and Gold- 
smith was sent home in a coach. An action 
was threatened, which Goldsmith compro- 
mised by paying 50Z. to a Welsh charity, while 
he relieved his feelings by writing a dignified 




letter to the papers about the 'licentiousness' 
of the press. Goldsmith's friendship with 
Lord Clare is shown by a recorded visit to 
Clare at Bath in the winter of 1770-1, and 
by the admirable ' Haunch of Venison,' pro- 
bably written in the same spring. The most 

viyjj rUgr-riptinna pf ftnldsmith in SOCJetV 

are, however, to be found i^ fWwpll That 
Boswell had some prejudice against Gold- 
smith, partly dueto jealousy ot his intimacy 
with Johnson, talks of him with an absurd 
affectation of superiority, kfld dwells" too 
much on his foibles, is no doubt true. The 
portrait may be slightly caricatured ; but the 
substantial likeness is not doubtful. It would 
be as ill-judged to dispute Goldsmith's foibles 
as to assert that Uncle Toby was above a 
weakness for his hobby. 

doubt, often blundered in conversation ; went 
on without knowing- how he should come off 
(Johnson in BOSWELL, ii. 196), and displayed 
ignorance when trying to ' get in and shine.' 
Reynolds admitted the fact by explaining it 
as intended to diminish the awe which isolates 
an author (NORTHCOTE, i. 328). On such a 
question there can be no appeal from the unani- 
mous judgment of contemporaries. But all 
this is perfectly compatible with his having 
frequently made the excellent hits reported 
by Boswell. The statements that he was 
jealous of the admiration excited by pretty 
women (cf. BOSWELL, Johnson (Hill), i. 414 ; 
NORTHCOTE, Life of Reynolds; PRIOR, ii. 290; 
FORSTER, ii. 217) or puppet-shows (see CRA- 
DOCK:, i. 232, iv. 280) are probably exag- 
gerations or misunderstandings of humorous 
remarks. But he was clearly vain, acutely 
sensitive to neglect, and hostile to criticism ; 
fond of splendid garments, as appears from 
the testimony ot his tailorsMnjIs, printed by 
Prior] and occasionally jealous, so far as 
jealousy can coexist with absolute guileless- 
ness and freedom from the slightest tinge jjf 
malice^ His cnarity seems tp^ have been 
piished beyond the limits of prudence, ancT 
all who knew nun testify to the singular 
kindliness of his nature. According to Cra- 
dock (i. 232) he indulged in gambling. He 
was certainly not retentive of money ; but 
his extravagance went naturally with an ex- 
pansive and sympathetic character open to 
all social impulses. 

In 1773 Goldsmith was much interested in 
a proposed ' Dictionary of Arts and Sciences.' 
He drew up a prospectus and had promises 
of contributions from Johnson, Burke, Rey- 
nolds, and others. Burney had actually 
written the article ' Museum.' The book- 
sellers, however, showed a coolness which 
caused the scheme to drop, and depressed 
Goldsmith's spirits. Goldsmith was mean- 

while anxious, and Cradock noticed that his 
gaiety was forced. He was in debt and had 
spent the sum received for his works in ad- 
vance. His last poem, ' ^^"Jinf ''"",' was 
probably written in February 1774. It was 
an answer to some mock-epitaphs composed 
at a dinner of some of his friends at the 
St. James's Coffee-house the exact circum- 
stances being differently stated by Cradock 
(i. 228) and Cumberland (i. 370), both of 
whom profess to have been present. Passages 
of Goldsmith's poem were shown to a few of 
his friends, but it was not published till after 
his death. He had gone to Hyde, where he 
felt ill, returned to London, and on 25 March 
sent for an apothecary, William Hawes, who 
afterwards wrote an account of his illness. In 
spite of Hawes's advice, he doctored himself 
with James's powder. Hawes called in Dr. 
Fordyce and Dr. Turton. Turton, thinking 
that his pulse was worse than it should be, 
asked whether his mind was at ease. Gold- 
smith replied ' It is not.' He was, however, 
calm and sometimes cheerful ; but grew weaker 
and died 4 April 1774. Burke burst into 
tears at the news, and Reynolds, his most 
beloved friend, gave up painting for the day. 
Johnson thought that the fever had been in- 
creased by the pressure of debt, and reports 
that, according to Reynolds, he ' owed not 
less than 2,000/.' 

A public funeral was abandoned, and he 
was_buriedin the Tempte A wuuuwent, 
witna medallion b_y Nollekens and the well- 
known epitaph by Johnson, was erected in 
Westminster Abbey at the expense of the 
club. The benchers of the Temple placed a 
tablet in their church, now removed to the 
triforium. A stone on the north side of the 
Temple Church is supposed to mark his burial- 
place, which is not, however, certainly known. 
A statue by Foley was erected in 1864 in 
front of Trinity College, Dublin. 

The best portrait of Goldsmith, by Rey- 
nolds, is now at Knole Park, Kent. Another, 
painted by Reynolds for Thrale's gallery at 
Streatham, was bought by the Duke of Bed- 
ford. A copy is in the National Portrait Gal- 
lery. A caricature by his friend Bunbury 
was prefixed to the ' Haunch of Venison.' 
Another portrait is prefixed to the ' Poetical 
and Dramatic Works' (1780). A portrait 
attributed to Hogarth, engraved in Forster's 
' Life ' (ii. 11), was in the possession of Mr. 
Studley Martin of Liverpool in 1877. 

Of Goldsmith's brothers and sisters (1) 
Catherine (Mrs. Hodson) survived to give 
information for the ' Percy Memoir; ' her son, 
Oliver Goldsmith Hodson, came to London 
about 1770, and lived partly upon his uncle 
and partly as an apothecary, finally settling 




on his father's estate near Athlone; (2) Henry 
died at Athlone in May 1768; his widow 
became matron of the Meath infirmary ; a 
daughter, Catherine, died in Dublin about 
1803 ; one son Henry was in the army, settled 
in Nova Scotia, died at St. John's, New Bruns- 
wick, and was father of Hugh Colvill Gold- 
smith [q. v.] ; another son, Oliver, wrote the 
' Rising Village,' in imitation of his uncle ; 
(3) Jane married a Mr. Johnstone and died 
poor in Athlone ; (4) Maurice became a cabi- 
net-maker, administered to his brother's will, 
obtained a small office in 1787 (NICHOLS, Illus- 
trations, viii. 238), and died in 1792, leaving 
a widow but no children ; (5) Charles went 
to the West Indies after the visit to his bro- 
ther in 1757, and returned to England thirty- 
four years later ; he settled in Somers Town, 
went to France at the peace of Amiens, re- 
turned ' very poor,' and died soon afterwards ; 
he left a widow and two sons, who returned 
to the West Indies, and a daughter, married 
in France. Goldsmith's sister Catherine and 
his brother John probably died young. Percy 
hoped to get something for the family by 
publishing the ' Life and Works,' but after 
long disputes with publishers nothing, or 
next to nothing, came of it (FoRSTEE, Life, 
app. to vol. ii.) 

Goldsmith's works are: 1. ' Enquiry into 
the Present State of Polite Learning in Eu- 
rope,' 1759, 8vo. 2. 'The Bee; being essays 
on the most interesting subjects,' 1759 (eight 
weekly essays, 6 Oct. to 24 Nov.), 12mo. 
3. 'History of Mecklenburgh,' 1762. 4. 'The 
Mystery Revealed, containing a series of 
transactions and authentic testimonials re- 
specting the supposed Cock Lane Ghost,' 1742 
[1762], 8vo. 5. ' The Citizen of the World ; or 
Letters from a Chinese Philosopher residing 
in London to his Friends in the East,' 2 vols. 
12mo, 1762 (from 'Public Ledger,' &c.) 
6. ' Life of Richard Nash, of Bath, Esquire,' 
1762, 8vo. 7. ' A History of England in a 
series of Letters from a Nobleman to his 
Son,' 1764, 2 vols. 12mo. 8. ' The Traveller,' 
1765, 4to. 9. ' Essays ' (collected from 
'The Bee,' &c.), 1765, 8vo. 10. 'The 
Vicar of Wakefield ; a Tale, supposed to be 
written by himself,' 2 vols. 12mo, 1766 ; a 
list of ninety-six editions down to 1886 is ' 
given in Mr. Anderson's bibliography appen- 
ded to Mr. Austin Dobson's 'Goldsmith.' 
Thirty appeared from 1863 to 1886. 11.' The 
Good-natured Man,' a comedy, 1768. 12. 'The 
Roman History from the Foundation of the 
City of Rome to the Destruction of the Ro- 
man Empire,' 1769, 2 vols. 8vo (abridgment 
by himself 1772). 13. ' The Deserted Vil- 
lage,' 1770, 4to. 14. ' The Life of Thomas 
Parnell, compiled from original papers and 

memoirs,' 1770, 8vo (also prefixed to Parnell's 
' Poems,' 1770). 15. ' Life of Henry St. John, 
Lord Viscount Bolingbroke,' 1770 (also pre- 
fixed to Bolingbroke's ' Dissertation on Par- 
ties,' 1770). 16. ' The History of England 
from the Earliest Times to the Death of 
George II,' 1771, 4 vols. 8vo (abridgment in 
1774). 17. ' Threnodia Augustalis ' (on 
death of Princess Dowager of Wales), 1772, 
4to. 18. ' She stoops to conquer, or the 
Mistakes of a Night,' 1774. 19. ' Retaliation, 
a Poem ; including epitaphs on the most dis- 
tinguished wits of this metropolis,' 1774, 4to 
j (fifth ed., with the Whitefoord ' Postscript,' 
same year). 20. ' The Grecian History from 
: the Earliest State to the Death of Alexander 
the Great,' 1774, 2 vols. 8vo. 21. 'An History 
of the Earth and Animated Nature,' 1774, 
[ 8 vols. 8vo. 22. 'The Haunch of Venison, a 
i Poetical EpistletoLord Clare/1776 (with por- 
trait by Bunbury) ; later edition of same year 
with alterations from author's manuscript. 
23. ' A Survey of Experimental Philosophy 
considered in its Present State of Improve- 
ment,' 1776, 2 vols. 8vo, written in 1765 (see 
PRIOR, ii. 102, 123). 24. 'The Captivity, 
an Oratorio,' 1836 (written and sold to Dods- 
ley in 1764 ; see PRIOR, ii. 9-12). A one-act 
comedy called 'The Grumbler,' adapted by 
Goldsmith from Sedley's version of Brueys's 
three-act comedy ' Le Grondeur,' was per- 
formed at Covent Garden on 8 May 1773, but 
never published. A scene is printed in vol. iv. 
of ' Miscellaneous Works ' by Prior (1837). 
Prior published from Goldsmith's manuscript 
' A History of the Seven Years' War,' 1761, 
part of which had appeared in the ' Literary 
Magazine ' of 1757-8 ; as a ' History of our 
own Times ' Goldsmith also wrote a preface 
to the ' Martial Review, or a General History 
of the late War,' 1763, which appeared in 
the ' Reading Mercury.' He edited and 
annotated ' Poems for Young Ladies ' and 
'Beauties of English Poesy' in 1767. An 
' Art of Poetry ' (1762), by Newbery, was 
only revised by Goldsmith. Some of New- 
bery's children's books, especially the ' His- 
tory of Little Goody Two Shoes ' (3rd edit. 
1766), have been attributed to him. He 
translated ' Memoirs of a Protestant con- 
demned to the Galleys' ('Jean Marteilhe' of 
Bergerac), 1758; Formey's 'Concise History 
of Philosophy,' 1766 ; and Scarron's ' Comic 
Romance' (1776). With Joseph Collyer he 
abridged Plutarch's ' Lives,' 7 vols. 1762. In 
1763 he engaged with Dodsley fora series of 
lives of ' Eminent Persons of Great Britain 
and Ireland,' which was never completed. Pre- 
faces and revisions of many other books are 
mentioned in Newbery's accounts. The ' His- 
toire de Francis Wills, par 1'auteur du " Mi- 




nistre de Wakefield " ' (1773), of which an 
English version was published in Sweden in 
1799, is spurious. An edition of ' Poems and 
Plays ' appeared at Dublin in 1777, and his 
' Poetical and Dramatic Works ' in 1780. 
The best editions of his ' Poetical Works ' 
are the Aldine edition by J. Mitford (1831) 
and the edition by Bolton Corney (1846). 
His ' Miscellaneous Works,' with the ' Percy 
Memoir,' were first published in 1801 (also in 
1806, 1812, 1820) ; Prior's edition, in 4vols. 
8vo, in 1837 ; Peter Cunningham's, in 4 vols. 
8vo, in 1855. The last and fullest collection, 
edited by J. W. M. Gibbs, is Bell's edition, 
in 5 vols. 1884-6. For many other editions 
see the bibliography, by J. P. Anderson, in 
Mr. Austin Dobson's ' Goldsmith ' in ' Great 
Writers Series,' 1888. 

[Johnson undertook to write Goldsmith's life 
for an edition of his works ; the plan fell through 
from disputes among the booksellers concerned. 
After Johnson's death Percy, to whom Goldsmith 
had given some materials, offered to prefix a life 
to an edition of the poems to be published for 
the benefit of Goldsmith's relations. He after- 
wards handed over the task to Thomas Campbell 
(1733-1795) [q. v.], who drew up a short memoir 
(with Percy's help) about 1791. Percy added 
further notes, which were incorporated in the 
text by his chaplain, Henry Boyd [q. v.] A 
dispute with the booksellers induced Percy to 
hand over the completion of the task to Samuel 
Rose, the friend of Cowper. This memoir, for 
which Malone also gave hints, was first published 
with the Miscellaneous Works in 1801 and again 
in 1806, 1812, 1820. It is generally described 
as the ' Percy Memoir,' and cited above from the 
edition prefixed to the works in 1812 (for further 
statements see preface to Prior's Life, appendix 
to Forster's Life, vol. ii., and Percy Correspon- 
dence in Nichols's Illustrations, vii. 31, 759-95, 
viii. 82, 237-9). James Prior published a life in 
2 vols. 8vo in 1837, which contained a good deal 
of information carefully collected from surviving 
relations and others. It was heavily written 
and has been superseded by John Forster's well- 
known Life (1st edit. 1848 ; 6th, 1877). Forster 
could add little, and replied with some acrimony 
to Prior's not unnatural complaints on being sup- 
planted; but Forster s book is the more readable. 
Other authorities are anonymous Life printed 
for Swan, 1774; Annual Register for 1774, 
pp. 29-34 (anecdotes by G[lover], an Irish 
friend); European Magazine, xxiv. 91, 170, 
258 (anecdotes by W. Cooke), liii. 373-5 (anec- 
dotes by John Evans on the Milner school), 
Iv. 443; Gent. Mag. (1817), i. 277, (1820), ii. 
6 1 8-22 ; Edward Mangin's Essay on Light Read- 
ing (1808), pp. 136-50 (letter from Dr. Strean) ; 
Mrs. Piozzi's Anecdotes (1786), pp. 31, 119, 179, 
244 ; Northcote's Life of Reynolds (1818), i. 21 1, 
215, 249, 285-8, 300, 324-33; Hawkins's Life 
of Johnson, pp. 416-19; Davies's Life of Gar- 
rick, vol. H. chap. xli. ; (T. Campbell's) Historical 

Survey, pp. 286-9 ; Shaw Mason's Statistical 
Account of South of Ireland, iii. 356-66 ; Cra- 
dock's Memoirs, i. 33, 224-36, iv. 279-88, 336 ; 
Cumberland's Memoirs; Boswell's Johnson (pas- 
sim) ; Genest's History of the Stage, v. 189,365, 
372; Colman's Random Records, i. 110-13; 
Leslie and Taylor's Life of Reynolds ; Charles 
Welsh's A Bookseller of the Last Century, 1885, 
chap. iii. ; Washington Irving's Life is founded 
upon Prior and Forster. See also Macaulay's 
Life in Miscellaneous Works (for Encycl. Brit.); 
W. Black's Life in Men of Letters Series ; and 
Mr. Austin Dobson in Great Writers Series, 
1888.] L. S. 

1872), orientalist, was born of Jewish parents 
at Konigsberg, Prussia, on 18 Jan. 1821. 
His earlier instruction (1829-36) was re- 
ceived at the Altstadtisches Gymnasium of 
his native town, where in 1836 he also com- 
menced his university course, attending with 
especial profit the lectures of Rosenkranz, the 
Hegelian philosopher, and of Peter von Boh- 
len in Sanskrit. In 1838 he removed to the 
university of Bonn, continuing his oriental 
studies under the well-known Sanskritists 
A. W. von Schlegel and Lassen, and attend- 
ing the Arabi c classes of Frey tag. Return ing 
to Konigsberg, he graduated as doctor in 1840. 
He appears about this time to have developed 
advanced political views. A request for per- 
mission to act as a privat-docent in the uni- 
versity, addressed to the department of public 
instruction, was refused, though itwas backed 
by Rosenkranz. In 1842 he published anony- 
mously a translation of the Sanskrit play, 
' Prabodha-candrodaya,' with an introduc- 
tion by Professor Rosenkranz. In the same 
year he went to live in Paris, and remained 
there for three years. While in Paris he as- 
sisted Burnouf in his great work ' Introduction 
a 1'histoire du Bouddhisme indien.' About 
1844 he paid his first visit to this country, 
and examined the great oriental collections in 
the Bodleian Library and at the East India 
House. At the India House he made the ac- 
quaintance of Professor II. H. Wilson, a criti- 
cal event in his career. From 1845 to 1847 he 
was again at Konigsberg. In the latter year 
he went to Berlin, where he met Alexander 
von Humboldt, then engaged on his ' Kosmos,' 
in which Goldstuecker gave some assistance. 
One long note on Indian matters is entirely 
from his pen. In 1850 Goldstuecker was 
ordered to leave Berlin on account of his 
political opinions. Six weeks afterwards the 
order was rescinded ; Goldstuecker had retired 
no further than Potsdam, but, recognising his 
insecurity, and doubtless disgusted at the 
intolerance and want of appreciation mani- 
fested by his countrymen, he readily accepted 


9 6 

Gold well 

in 1850 the invitation of Professor Wilson to 
come to England and assist in a new edition 
of his 'Sanskrit Dictionary.' In May 1852 
he was appointed professor of Sanskrit in 
University College, London, an appointment 
then as now more honourable than lucrative. 
Goldstuecker appears to have lectured to less 
than the prescribed minimum of students, and 
to have given gratuitous help to such students 
as needed it. 

He was a prominent member of the Royal 
Asiatic and the Philological Societies, and 
other learned bodies. But though he read 
numerous papers at their meetings, he rarely 
allowed them to be published. The papers 
he explained ' were mere offshoots from his 
own particular method of Sanskritic and com- 
parative inquiry, as opposed to that of other 
scholars ; they could not be rightly under- 
stood before he had dealt with the science of 
Comparative Philology as a whole. . . .' Like 
many other of Goldstuecker's great projects, 
few of which he carried beyond the ground 
plan, this project of a systematic exposition 
of philology never saw the light. The Sans- 
krit Text Society was founded in 1866 mainly 
by his exertions, and announced a series : 
'Auctores Sanscriti, edited . . . under the 
supervision of Th. Goldstuecker.' Gold- 
stuecker began to edit for the society the 
' Jaiminiya-nyaya-mala-vistara,' by the great 
Indian commentator Sayana, a learned and 
valuable though somewhat tedious philoso- 
phical treatise. A small portion appeared as 
the society's first issue in 1872, the year of 
the editor's death. Four-fifths of it remained 
unpublished, nor had Goldstuecker left any 
notes. Happily the edition was completed 
by Professor E. B. Cowell, and finally ap- 
peared in 1878. Four other works were after- 
wards issued by the Sanskrit Text Society. 
But its practical failure, when compared with 
the success of the less ambitious Pali Text 
Society, proves Goldstuecker's defective man- 
agement. The history of Goldstuecker's other 
great unpublished work, his ' Dictionary,' is 
hardly more satisfactory. He began in 1856 
to re-edit Wilson's ' Dictionary,' a work be- 
longing to a rather rudimentary stage of 
lexicography. The first part contained a notice 
that ten sheets were to be issued every two 
or three months. Instead of this only six 
parts appeared in eight years, and then the 
publication ceased before a twentieth part of 
the work had been completed. Yet even in 
this space the design of the work was prac- 
tically revolutionised, for already at pt. 3 we 
find not only references (which were at first 
eschewed), but such a ponderous system of 
quotations, fitting only for an encyclopaedia 
or thesaurus, as would have absorbed all 

the energies of the author, even if he had lived 
to the end of the century. For the elucida- 
tion of technical terms, especially those of 
philosophy, this remarkable fragment, treat- 
ing only a part of the letter a, is still of con- 
siderable value. 

Goldstuecker was a violent controversialist. 
In his chief controversial work, ' Panini and 
his Place in Sanskrit Literature,' 1861, he 
savagely attacked the two greatest oriental 
lexicographers of our time, Bohtlingk and 
Roth. The severity of his controversial tone 
is utterly disproportionate to the importance 
of the point at issue . On subj ects of acknow- 
ledged intricacy like Sanskrit grammar, which 
the ordinary learned reader would have little 
means of verifying, he expressed himself with 
a confidence which did injustice to his ad- 
versaries. And he himself was by no means 
infallible. The best living authority, Profes- 
sor Kielhorn, effectually disposes of his views 
on Katyayana as the result of a prolonged 
study of Goldstuecker's own favourite ar- 
moury of offensive weapons, the ' Mahabha- 
shya.' Similarly Dr. Eggeling, in his preface 
to the ' Ganaratnamahodadhi,' published by 
the Sanskrit Text Society, shows that Gold- 
stuecker's attack on Bohtlingk with respect 
to the grammarian Vardhamana was quite 
unjustifiable. Goldstuecker also impugned 
in the same volume Professor Weber's ' Vedic 
Criticism,' to which Weber replied in his ' In- 
dische Studien,' Bd. 5. Goldstuecker wrote a 
number of essays and reviews on Indian sub- 
jects in the ' Athenaeum,' the ' Westminster 
Review,' Chambers's ' Cyclopaedia,' and else- 
where. They are full of learning and eccen- 
tricity, missing that true balance of judgment 
that marks the best scholarship. The chief 
of them, including some useful contributions 
to the study of Indian law, were collected 
in two volumes of ' Literary Remains ' in 
1879. Goldstuecker took a practical interest 
in modern India, and a pleasant account of 
his relations with many natives appears in 
the ' Biographical Sketch 'prefixed to the ' Re- 
mains.' He died at his residence, St. George's 
Square, Primrose Hill, London, on 6 March 

[Report of Royal Asiatic Society for 1872 j 
biog. sketch prefixed to Goldstuecker's Literary 
Remains, 1879.] C. B. 

GOLDWELL, JAMES (d. 1499), bishop 
of Norwich, son of William and Avice Gold- 
well, was born at Great Chart, Kent, on the 
manor which had belonged to his family 
since the days of Sir John Gold well, a soldier 
in the reign of King John (HASTED, Sent, 
iii. 246; LE NEVE, Fasti, iii. 539). He was 
educated at All Souls' College, Oxford, ad- 




mitted B.C.L. 3 July 1449, D.C.L. March 
1452 (Oaf. Univ. Reg. Oxf. Hist. Soc. i. 4), 
in which year he was made president of 
St. George's Hall (WooD, Hist, of Oxford, 
ed. Gutch, ii. 754). During his long life 
Goldwell received constant preferment in the 
church, and was employed on political mis- 
sions by Edward IV. He was admitted rector 
of St. John the Evangelist's, London, 20 May 
1455, but resigned this living the same year 
on being transferred to Rivenhall, Essex. 
He also became a prebendary of St. Paul's 
Cathedral, receiving the prebends of Wild- 
land (28 Oct. 1457), Sneating (1458), and 
Isledon successively (NEWCOTJRT, Reperto- 
rium, i. 71), besides a Windsor canonry in 
1458 (LB NEVE, Fasti, iii. 387). That he 
held the living of Cliffe-at-Hoo, Kent, to- 

g ether with these other benefices, is shown by 
is resignation of that rectory when, in 1461, 
he was promoted to the archdeaconry of 
Essex, and also received a canonry at Hereford 
Cathedral (NEWCOURT, ii. 495 ; WILLIS, Hist, 
of Cathedrals, p. 604). Two years after Gold- 
well became dean of Salisbury. In 1460 
he was registrar of the order of the Garter 
(LE NEVE, ibid.), afterwards master of the 
requests, and finally principal secretary of 
state to Edward IV. In June 1465 his 
name occurs among the commissioners sent 
to make peace with Denmark ; three years 
after he was the king's agent at Rome ; and 
in September 1471 was given power to treat 
of peace with France (Syllabus of Rymer, 
ii. 695-6, 702-9). In the following autumn 
he was sent on a mission from Edward to 
Pope Sixtus IV, filling the office of king's 
proctor at the Roman court. The pope raised 
Goldwell to the vacant see of Norwich, and 
he was consecrated at Rome 4 Oct. 1472, the 
temporalities being restored on his return 
(25 Feb. 1473). Although a ' pluralist ' Gold- 
well was liberal. According to a manuscript in 
the Cai us College Library, quoted byBlome- 
field, he had at one time been the rector of 
his own parish church, Great Chart, and when 
he became bishop he ' repaired, if not wholly 
rebuilt, Chart Church,' and founded a chantry 
chapel for himself and his family on the south 
side. Weever speaks of a figure of the bishop 
in the east window, with the date 1477, pro- 
bably that of the restorations. Before leaving 
Rome he had obtained an indulgence from 
the pope to restore Chart, which had been 
damaged by fire, and, in order to meet the 
expense, a pardon of twelve years and forty 
days was to be granted to all who came twice 
a year and gave their offerings to the church 
(BLOMEFIELD). So great was Goldwell's 
bounty to the abbey of Leeds in Kent in the 
reign of Henry VII, after he was bishop, 


that the monks acknowledged him ' in some 
measure ' their founder, and in token of grati- 
tude appointed a canon in 1487 to pray for 
his soul (HASTED, ii. 479). After the death 
of Edward IV Goldwell seems wholly to 
have retired from political life, and his re- 
maining years were spent in pious works. At 
Norwich he not only adorned his own palace, 
but completed the tower of the cathedral, 
fitted up the choir and chapels, covered the 
vaulting with lead, and had the arms of the 
benefactors painted on the walls and win- 
dows (BLOMEFIELD). By his will, dated 
10 June 1497, he left 1467. 13*. 4rf. for the 
foundation of a chantry in the chapel of All 
Souls' College, Oxford, besides having given 
money to the college during his lifetime 
(GuTCH, ed. 1786, p. 262). He died 15 Fe- 
bruary 1498-9. Thomas Goldwell [q.v.], 
bishop of St. Asaph, was his great-great- 

[Authorities cited above ; Blomefield's History 
of Norfolk, iii. 539, iv. 6 ; Jessopp's Dioc. Hist, 
of Norwich, p. 153.] E. T. B. 

GOLDWELL, THOMAS (d. 1585), 
bishop of St. Asaph, was a member of a 
family living long before his time at the 
manor of Goldwell in the parish of Great 
Chart in Kent (HASTED, Kent, iii. 246), where 
he was probably born (FULLER, Worthies, \. 
495, ed. Nichols). His father's name seems 
to have been William Goldwell. His mother 
was still alive in 1532. He had a brother 
named John, who in 1559 lived at Goldwell 
(Cal. State Papers, Dom. 1547-80, p. 132). 
He had another brother named Stephen, also 
alive in the same year (ib.) He must be 
distinguished from his namesake, probably 
his kinsman, Thomas Goldwell, who became 
a D.D. in 1507, and was the last prior of 
Canterbury. James Goldwell [q. v.], bishop 
of Norwich between 1472 and 1499, was his 

Goldwell was educated at Oxford, where 
he proceeded B.A. in 1528, M.A. in 1531, and 

; B.D. in 1534 (BoASE, Register of the Uni- 
versity of Oxford, i. 149, Oxford Historical 
Soc.) So late as 1555 he had attained no 
higher degree. He was a member of All 
Souls' College, of which his kinsman, Bishop 

I Goldwell of Norwich, had been a benefactor 

: (WooD, Colleges and Halls, p. 262, ed. Gutch). 
According to Wood, he was ' more eminent 
in mathematics and astronomy than in di- 
vinity.' This is probably an inference from 

I Harrison's libel that ' Goldwell was more 
conversant in the black art than skilful in the 

j scriptures ' (Description of England, bk. ii. 

| ch.ii.,NewShakspereSoc.) In 1531 a Thomas 
Goldwell was admitted to the living of Cheri- 


9 8 


ton, near Folkestone, in the diocese of Can- 
terbury. This is probably the same person, 
but in 1532 Thomas seems to have been study- 
ing at Padua when William Goldwell urged 
him to write to the Archbishop of Canterbury 
a Greek letter of thanks (GAIRDNER, Letters 
and Papers of the Reign of Henry VIII, iv. 

Goldwell never seems to have accepted 
Henry VIII's religious changes, and he early 
attached himself to Reginald Pole, whose 
chaplain he became, and with whom he re- 
mained in exile as long as the papal power 
was unrecognised in England. In 1535 Ni- 
cholas Hobbes had succeeded him as vicar of 
Cheriton ( Valor Ecclesiasticus, ii. 146), and 
in 1539 he was attainted with Pole. Accom- 
panying Pole to Rome, he was in 1538 ap- 
pointed 'camerarius' of the English hospital 
of the Holy Trinity in the Via di Monserrato 
in that city, under Pole as ' custos.' Before 
1541 he had himself become ' custos,' while 
Pole was now called 'protector.' But in No- 
vember 1547 Goldwell entered as a novice 
the Theatine house of St. Paul at Naples. He 
was specially allowed to return to Rome to 
attend Pole as his servant during the conclave 
which lasted from 29 Nov. 1549 to 7 Feb. 
1550, and which resulted in the election of 
Julius III. He then returned to Naples, and 
in October 1550 made his solemn profession 
as a member of the Theatine order of regular 
priests. When, after Mary's accession. Pole 
was appointed papal legate to England, Gold- 
well was allowed to accompany him. In 
September 1553 he joined his master at 
Maguzzano on the lake of Garda. When Pole 
was detained by political complications, he 
sent Goldwell on from Brussels to London to 
urge on the queen to greater haste (COLLIER, 
Church Hist. vi. 63, 8vo ed., summarises his 
instructions from Cotton. MS. Titus B. 11). 
At the end of November 1553 Goldwell 
reached Calais (Cal. State Papers, For. 1553- 
1558, p. 34). In the spring of 1555 he was 
selected as bishop of St. Asaph, and, having 
on 12 May received the custody of his tem- 
poralities (Fcedera, xv. 422), was sent, when 
still bishop elect or designate, on 2 July by 
Pole to Rome to give information upon Eng- 
lish affairs to Paul IV. Pole warmly com- 
mended Goldwell as an old Theatine to the 
Theatine pope (POLE, Epp. v. 14-15). Gold- 
well came back from Rome at the end of the 
year (Cal. State Papers, Venetian, 1555-6, 
pp. 288, 293), and on 7 Jan. 1556 received 
full restitution of his temporalities (Fcedera, 
xv. 427). His consecration was probably 
effected during his sojourn at Rome, where 
he was formally reappointed to his bishopric 
by papal provision (tb.) On 22 March 1556 

Goldwell was one of the consecrators of his 
patron Pole. He had already served as an 
examiner of the heretic John Philpot (FoxE, 
Acts and Monuments, vii. 620, ed. Towns- 
end). He is chiefly remembered at St. Asaph 
for reviving the habit of pilgrimage to St. 
Winifred's Well at Holywell in Flintshire, 
and as confirming the injunctions of his pre- 
decessor, Bishop Llewelyn ab Ynyr (1296) 
as to the constitution of the cathedral chap- 
ter (WiLLis, Survey, vol. ii. App. 134-6). 
In 1556 Goldwell issued a series of injunc- 
tions to his clergy, which prohibited mar- 
ried priests from celebrating mass, and for- 
bade the schools which had begun to be 
held in churches for the benefit of the poor 
(WILKINS, Concilia, iv. 145). It was now 
proposed to make Goldwell ambassador at 
Rome, and to translate him to Oxford. On 
31 Oct. letters of credence to the pope were 
made out, and on 5 Nov. 1558 he received the 
custody of the temporalities of his new see 
(Cal. State Papers, Dom. 1547-80, p. Ill ; 
Fcedera, xv. 492), while on 5 Nov. Thomas 
Wood, already nominated to St. Asaph, was 
entrusted with the custody of the scanty tem- 
poralities of Goldwell's former bishopric (LB 
NEVE, i. 74). The death of the queen pre- 
vented either scheme from being carried out. 
At the time of Mary's death (17 Nov.) Gold- 
well was attending the deathbed of Cardinal 
Pole, to whom he administered extreme unc- 
tion. He gave an account of the archbishop's 
last days to Beccatelli ( Calendar State Papers, 
Venetian, 1557-8, p. 1556 ; cf. BECCATELLI, 
Life of Cardinal Pole, translated by Pye, p. 

Goldwell was uncompromisingly hostile 
to the restoration of protestantism. In De- 
cember he wrote a letter to Cecil, in which, 
though expressing his desire to be absent 
from the parliament, he complained that the 
writ was not sent to him, as he still con- 
sidered himself bishop of St. Asaph (Cal. 
State Papers, Dom. 1547-80, p. 118). On 
15 May 1559 he was summoned with the 
other bishops before the queen, when Arch- 
bishop Heath's ' incompliant declaration ' 
showed Elizabeth that she had nothing to 
hope from their support. Goldwell was also 
300/. in debt to the queen for the subsidy. On 
26 June he wrote from St. Albans to his brother 
Stephen, asking him to go down to Wales 
and sell his goods there. He disappeared so 
quietly that his alarmed servants went to 
Stephen Goldwell's house to know what had 
become of their master (ib. p. 132). In vain 
Sir Nicholas Bacon ordered that the ports 
should be watched. He succeeded in gaining 
the continent in safety. The circumstances 
of his flight sufficiently refute the rumour 




that he carried off with him the registers 
and records of his see. 

For the rest of his life Goldwell was one 
of the most active of the exiled English 
catholics. He started at once for Rome, but 
he fell sick on the way, and spent the winter 
at Louvain. Early in March 1560 he was 
seen at Antwerp purchasing the necessaries 
for the voyage. He had to borrow money for 
his journey (ib. For. 1559-60, p. 439). It was 
believed that he would be made a cardinal on 
his arrival, but he refused Italian bishoprics 
to devote himself to a ' regular ' life, and to 
the winning back of England to his church. 
Perhaps the description of him contained in 
the mendacious account of his career which 
Cecil spread on the continent, that he was a 
' very simple and fond man,' had some grain 
of truth in it (ib. For. 1561-2, p. 563). But 
on his arrival in Italy he went back to his old 
Theatine convent of St. Paul at Naples, and 
in January 1561 was made its superior. He 
was about the same time restored to his old 
office of warden of the English hospital at 
Rome. But he was sent almost at once to 
attend the council of Trent (1562). He was 
the only English bishop present at the council 
(ib. p. 555), and the marked respect paid to 
him there annoyed Elizabeth and Cecil very 
much. He was employed there in correcting 
the breviary, and urged Elizabeth's excom- 
munication on the council. In the same year 
(1562) he was in correspondence with Arthur 
Pole and the other kinsfolk of his old master, 
who were now conspiring to effect the restora- 
tion of Catholicism in England, and he shared 
their attainder (STRYPE, Annals, i. i. 556). 
In December 1563 Goldwell was made vicar- 
general to Carlo Borromeo, the famous arch- 
bishop of Milan. Soon after he was sent on an 
unsuccessful mission to Flanders, whence he 
found it impossible to cross over to England. 
He returned, therefore, to Italy, and in 1565 
began to reside at the Theatine convent of 
St. Sylvester on Monte Cavallo. On three 
occasions, in 1566, 1567, and 1572. he pre- 
sided over several chapters of the Theatine 
order. In 1567 he was made vicar of the car- 
dinal archpriest in the Lateran Church. In 
1574 he became vicegerent for Cardinal Sa- 
velli, the cardinal vicar, an office which in- 
volved his acting for the pope as diocesan 
bishop of Rome. In 1568 Arthur Hall, an 
English traveller, wrote to Cecil that he found 
Goldwell at Rome, and that he alone ' used 
him courteously,' while the rest of the catholic 
exiles from England denounced him as a 
heretic (Cal. State Papers, For. 1566-8, 
p. 514). In 1580 he is mentioned as receiv- 
ing a pension from the king of Spain (ib. Dom. 
1547-80, p. 694), and on 13 April of that year 

is mentioned as having left Rome for Venice 
(ib. p. 651). He was really gone on the pro- 
posed English mission [see CAMPION, ED- 
MUND], sent to win back England to the pope. 
It was proposed that he should act as bishop 
in charge of the catholic missionaries in Eng- 
land. But he was too old for such work. He 
was taken ill at Rheims, where he had arrived 
in May 1580. On his recovery he was sent 
for to Rome by Pope Gregory XIII, and left 
Rheims on 8 Aug. He was again in Rome 
in April 1581 (Hist. MSS. Comm. 5th Rep. 
p. 468). In 1582 he acted on the congregation 
for revising the Roman martyrology. He 
died on 3 April 1585, and was buried in the 
Theatine convent. He i s reputed to have been 
eighty-four years old, and must anyhow have 
been over seventy. Addison on his travels saw 
a portrait of Goldwell at Ravenna ( Travels, 
p. 79). There is another in the English 
College at Rome. He was the last survivor 
of the old English hierarchy of the Roman 

[Archdeacon Thomas's Hist, of the Diocese of 
St. Asaph, pp. 84, 201, 225; Browne Willis's 
Survey of St. Asaph, ed. Edwards ; Wood's 
Athenae Oxon. ii. 822-3, ed. Bliss; Wilkins's 
Concilia, vol. iv. ; Cal. of State Papers, For. 
and Dom.; Eymer's Fcedera; Strype's Ecclesi- 
astical Memorials and Annals of the Reforma- 
tion, 8vo editions ; Beccatelli's Life of Pole. A 
complete biography of Goldwell, by T. F. K. (Dr. 
Knox, of the London Oratory), entitled Thomas 
Goldwell, the Last Survivor of the Ancient Eng- 
lish Hierarchy, was reprinted separately from the 
Month of 1876, and in Knox and Bridgett's True 
Story of the Catholic Hierarchy, 1 889. It prints 
letters of Goldwell from the Record Office, and 
gives a detailed account of his Italian life, relying 
chiefly upon Del Tufo's Historia della religione 
de' cherici regolari (1609) ; Castaldo's Vita di 
Paolo IV (1615), and Vita del Beato Giovanni 
Marinoni (1616) ; and Silo's Hist. Clericorum 
Regularium (1650). Knox's account is sum- 
marised in Gillow's Bibl. Diet, of English Ca- 
tholics, ii. 513-22.] T. F. T. 

1719), organist and composer, probably be- 
longed to the Buckinghamshire family of 
Goldwins. His name occurs with those of 
other Windsor choristers 'assessed at Is.' in 
1690. He had been trained by Dr. William 
Child, and succeeded him as organist of St. 
George's Chapel, Windsor, on 12 April 1697, 
was master of the choristers in 1703, and died 
on 7 Nov. 1719. Manuscript music by Gold- 
win includes twenty-one anthems, service in 
F, and motet in Christ Church Library, Ox- 
ford, four anthems in Fitzwilliam Museum, 
Cambridge, seven anthems in Tudway's col- 
lection, British Museum (Harl. 7341-2), and 





others at Ely Cathedral. The favourite 
anthem, ' I will set God always before me,' 
six voices, was published in Boyce's ' Cathe- 
dral Music,' vol. ii. ; 'I will sing' and ' O 
praise God in His holiness' in Page's 'Har- 
monia Sacra,' i. 206, ii. 227 ; ' Behold thy 
servant' and service in F major in Arnold's 
' Cathedral Music,' vol. i. Burney quotes 
with approval Boyce's opinion that Goldwin's 
music has a singularity in its modulation 
uncommon and agreeable, and adds : ' When 
we consider the time of his death, it seems, 
by the small number of his works that have 
come to my knowledge, as if this composer 
had anticipated many combinations and pas- 
sages of a much later period.' 

[Chamberlayne's State of England, 1692 ; 
Sloane MS. 4847, fol. 86; Boyce's Cathedral 
Music, ii. 15, 501 ; catalogues of musical libraries 
communicated by Mr. W. B. Squire ; Burney, iii. 
602 ; Grove, i. 608.] L. M. M. 

TALES (1807-1885), Anglican clergyman, 
born on 23 May 1807, was second son of Wil- 
liam Golightly of Ham, Surrey, gentleman, 
by his wife, Frances Dodd. His mother's 
mother, Aldegunda, was granddaughter of 
Charles de Pourtales, ' a distinguished mem- 
ber of an ancient and honourable Huguenot 
family.' He was educated at Eton. In his 
youth he travelled in Europe, visited Rome, 
seeing there ' a good deal of certain cardinals, 
and entering into their characters and their 
politics.' He matriculated 4 March 1824 at 
Oriel College, Oxford, where he proceeded as 
B. A. in 1828, M. A. in 1830. His attainments 
would have justified his election to a fellow- 
ship, but as his private property was thought 
to be a disqualification he took curacies at 
Penshurst in Kent, and afterwards at Godal- 
ming in Surrey. In 1836, when the chapel of 
Littlemore, near Oxford, was almost finished, 
it was suggested that Golightly's means would 
enable him to take it without an endowment. 
Golightly entered into the scheme with en- 
thusiasm, and bought one of the curious old 
houses in Holywell Street, Oxford. A single 
sermon led, however, to a disagreement with 
Cardinal Newman, the then vicar of St. 
Mary's, Oxford, to which Littlemore had 
been an adjunct, and their official connection, 
though they had been acquaintances from 
early youth, at once ceased. In this house 
he remained for the rest of his life, keenly 
interested in church matters, and struggling 
against the spread of what he deemed Ro- 
manism. For some time he was curate of 
Headington ; he held the miserably endowed 
vicarage of Baldon Toot, and he occasionally 
officiated in the church of St. Peter in the 

East, Oxford, for Hamilton, afterwards bishop 
of Salisbury. He was a thorough student 
of theology and history. His religious views 
were those of Hooker, and he gloried in the 
traditions of the old high church party, but 
his hatred of Romanism, deepened by his 
Huguenot descent, made him a fierce oppo- 
nent of ritualism. Even opponents admitted 
his deep religious feelings and his frank fear- 
lessness. He was friendly with men of every 
division of thought, and his charity was un- 
bounded and unostentatious. He was full 
of anecdote, heightened by much dryness 
of wit, and was always accessible. For the 
last three years of his life he was haunted 
by painful illusions, and his death was a re- 
lease from pain. He died on Christmas day 
1885, and was buried in Holywell cemetery, 
near Magdalen College, Oxford. The Very 
Rev. E. M. Goulburn, dean of Norwich, re- 
printed, ' with additions and a preface, from 
the " Guardian " of 13 Jan. 1886 ' his remi- 
niscences of Golightly. An auction cata- 
logue of his furniture and library was issued 
in February 1886. 

All his publications were controversial. 
They comprise : 1. ' Look at Home, or a 
Short and Easy Method with the Roman 
Catholics,' 1837. 2. ' Letter to the Bishop 
of Oxford, containing Strictures upon certain 

I parts of Dr. Pusey's Letter to his Lordship. 

' By a Clergyman of the Diocese,' &c., 1840. 

j 3. ' New and Strange Doctrines extracted 
from the Writings of Mr. Newman and his 
Friends, in a Letter to the Rev. W. F. Hook, 
D.D. By one of the original Subscribers to 
the " Tracts for the Times," ' 2nd edition, 
1 841 . 4. ' Strictures on No. 90 of the " Tracts 
for the Times," by a Member of the Univer- 
sity of Oxford,' 1841, which reappeared as 
' Brief Remarks upon No. 90, second edi- 
tion, and some subsequent Publications in 
defence of it, by Rev. C. P. Golightly,' 1841. 
5. l Correspondence illustrative of the actual 
state of Oxford with reference to Tracta- 
rianism,' 1842. 6. ' Facts and Documents 
showing the alarming state of the Diocese 
of Oxford, by a Senior Clergyman of the 
Diocese,' 1859. This publication had its ori- 
gin in an article in the ' Quarterly Review ' 
for January 1858, in which the practices at 
Cuddesdon College were severely criticised, 
and to which he drew attention in a circular 
letter addressed to the clergy and laity of the 
diocese. At a meeting in the Sheldonian 
Theatre, Oxford, on 22 Nov. 1861, an anony- 
mous handbill, written by Golightly in con- 
demnation of the teaching in the middle class 
schools connected with St. Nicholas College, 
Lancing, was gratuitously distributed. Some 
severe reflections were then made upon it by 




Dr. Jeune, the vice-chancellor, and this pro- 
voked : 7. ' A Letter to the Rev. Dr. Jeune, 
in vindication of the Handbill by Rev. C. P. 
Golightly,' 1861. A second letter to Dr. 
Jeune, 1861. Still undaunted, he wrote : 
8. ' The position of Bishop Wilberforce in 
reference to Ritualism, together with a Pre- 
fatory Account of the Romeward Movement 
in the Church of England in the days of 
Archbishop Laud. By a Senior Resident 
Member of the University,' 1867. He re- 
turned to the subject with : 9. ' A Solemn 
Warning against Cuddesdon College,' 1878, 
in connection with which should be read 
' An Address respecting Cuddesdon College 
by Rev. E. A. Knox ' (1878), the Address 
of the Old Students of the College to the 
Bishop of Oxford,' and the ' Report for the 
five years ending Trinity Term 1878, by Rev. 
C. W. Furse, Principal.' In the same year 
Golightly reissued in separate form, and with 
his name, his ' Brief Account of Romeward 
Movement in Days of Laud.' The attack on 
Cuddesdon College was the subject of pp. 
358-66, 415-18, vol. ii. of the < Life of Bishop 
Wilberforce,' and Golightly retorted with 
' A Letter to the Very Reverend the Dean 
of Ripon, containing Strictures on the Life 
of Bishop Wilberforce,' 1881. 

[Mozley's Keminiscences, ii. 108-14; Burgon's 
Twelve Good Men, i. xxiv-viii, ii. 79-87 ; Stapyl- 
ton's Eton Lists, 2nd ed. pp. 108 a, 113 a; Foster's 
Alumni Oxon.; Churchman, 1886, xiv. 70-6, by 
the Rev. R. S. Mylne ; Guardian, 6 Jan. 1886, 
p. 26.] W. P. C. 

GOMERSALL, ROBERT (1602-1646?), | 
dramatist and divine, was born in London in 
1602. He matriculated at Christ Church, 
Oxford, 19 April 1616 (Wood's date 1614 is 
wrong), proceeded B.A. 19 Dec. 1618, M.A. j 
14 June 1621, and B.D. 11 Nov. 1628 (Reg. \ 
Univ. Oxon. vol. ii. pt. i. p. 369, pt. ii. p. 348). i 
Having taken holy orders he ' became a very 
florid preacher in the university' (Wooo). : 
In 1628 he published ' The Tragedie of Lodo- | 
vick Sforza, Duke of Millan,' 8vo, a somewhat l 
stiffly written play, which may have been 
privately acted at Oxford by students, but 
does not appear to have been put on the stage 
by any regular company. It was dedicated 
to Francis Hide of Christ Church. In the 
same year appeared a poem, ' The Levites 
Revenge : containing Poeticall Meditations 
upon the 19 and 20 Chapters of Judges,' 8vo, 
dedicated to Dr. Barten Holiday. Both 
volumes contain curious engraved fronti- j 
spieces. The two pieces were reprinted to- 
gether in ' Poems,' 1633, 8vo, with the addi- 
tion of a small collection of miscellaneous 
verses. Some of the poetical epistles are 
dated 1625 from Flower in Northampton- | 

' shire. John Marriot the publisher, in an ad- 
dress to the reader, writes : ' from hence for- 

i ward you must expect nothing from him 
[Gomersall] but what shall relish of a bearded 
and austere Devotion. And this, I trust, will 
be no small incitement to thy approbatio of 
the worke since it is the last.' In Harl. MS. 
6931 a short poem of Gomersall is preserved. 
His last work was a collection of ' Sermons 
on 1 Pet. cap. ii. vv. 13, 14, 15, 16,' London, 
1634, 4to, dedicated to Sir John Strangwayes 
of Melbury, Dorsetshire. In 1639[-40] he pre- 
fixed to Fuller's ' History of the Holy Warre ' 
a copy of commendatory verses signed ' Ro- 
bert Gomersall, Vicar of Thorncombe in 
Devon.' Wood notices that ' one Rob. Go- 
mersall, who seems to be a Devonian born, 
died 1646, leaving then by his will 1,0001. to 
his son Robert.' 

[Wood's Athenae, ed. Bliss, ii. 590 ; Addit. MS. 
24489, fol. 91 (Hunter's Chorus Vatum); Lang- 
baine's Dram. Poets ; Corser's Collectanea.] 

A. H. B. 


(1784- 1875), field marshal, G.C.B., eldest son 
of Lieutenant-colonel William Gomm of the 
55th regiment, and Mary Alleyne, daughter 
of Joseph Maynard, esq., of Barbadoes, was 
born in Barbadoes, West Indies, in 1784. His 
father was killed at the storming of Pointe 
a Petre in the island of Guadeloupe, West 
Indies, in 1794. His mother died at Pen- 
zance two years after, leaving three sons and 
a daughter. One son died in childhood, the 
other three children were brought up by their 
aunt, Miss Jane Gomm, and her friend Miss 
M. C. Goldsworthy, who had both been 
governesses to the daughters of George III. 
William Maynard Gomm was gazetted an 
ensign in the 9th regiment on 24 May and 
a lieutenant on 16 Nov. 1794, before he was 
ten years of age, in recognition of his father's 
services. He remained at Woolwich prose- 
cuting his studies till the summer of 1799, 
when he joined his regiment and embarked 
for Holland with the expedition under the 
Duke of York. At the early age of fifteen he 
took part in the operations on the Helder, and 
in the engagements of Bergen, Alkmar, and 
Egmont, and, on the termination of the short 
campaign in October, he returned to England 
and remained with his regiment at Norwich 
until August 1800, when he embarked with 
it for foreign service under Sir James Pul- 
teney. Proceeding to the Spanish coast, an 
unsuccessful attempt was made on Ferrol, and, 
after a visit to Gibraltar and Lisbon, the ex- 
pedition returned to England at the com- 
mencement of 1801. Gomm was now ap- 
pointed aide-de-camp to General Benson at 



Liverpool. In the following year he rejoined 
his regiment and was quartered at Chatham 
and Plymouth. On 25 June 1803 he was pro- 
moted captain, and went with his regiment 
to Ireland. In 1804 he obtained leave to join 
the military college at High Wy combe, where 
he studied under Colonel (afterwards Sir) 
Howard Douglas [q. v.] for the staff, until the 
end of 1805, when he embarked with his regi- 
ment for Hanover. The expedition was soon 
over, and he returned to his studies at High 
"Wycombe, receiving at the end of 1806 a 
very satisfactory certificate of his qualifica- 
tions for the general staff of the army. In 
1807 he took part as assistant quartermaster- 

Sgneral in the expedition to Stralsund and 
openhagen, under Admiral Gambier and 
Lord Cathcart. On his return he rejoined his 
regiment at Mallow in Ireland, and the follow- 
ing year (July 1808) embarked with it for the 
Peninsula in the expedition under Sir Arthur 
Wellesley. Before sailing, however, he was 
appointed to the staff of the expedition as 
assistant quartermaster-general. He was pre- 
sent at the battles of Ro^a and Vimiera, and, 
after the convention of Cintra (30 Aug. 1808), 
was appointed to the staff of Sir John Moore ; 
took part in the retreat on Corunna, and was 
one of the last to embark after his regiment, 
the 9th foot, had carried Sir John's body to its 
hasty burial. On his return to England he 
was quartered with his regiment at Canter- 
bury until July 1809, when he was appointed 
to the staff of the expedition to Walcheren. 
He was present at the siege and surrender of 
Flushing, and when Lord Chatham's army 
retired into the fever-stricken swamps of Wal- 
cheren, he contracted a fever from which he 
suffered for some years after. On the return of 
the expedition to England his regiment was 
again quartered at Canterbury until March 
1810, when he once more embarked with it 
for the Peninsula. In September he was 
appointed a deputy-assistant quartermaster- 
general and was attached to General Leith's 
column. He was present at the battle of 
Busaco, where he had a horse shot under him, 
and at Fuentes d' Onoro (5 May 1811). He 
was promoted major 10 Oct. 1811 ; was at the 
storming and capture of Ciudad Rodrigo, 
20 Jan. 1812 ; at the siege and storming of 
Badajos, 6 April 1812, where he was slightly 
wounded ; at the battle of Salamanca, 22 July 
1812, where he particularly distinguished 
himself, and for which on 17 Aug. he was 
promoted lieutenant-colonel, and at the entry 
into Madrid, 12 Aug. 1812. He was present at 
the siege of Burgos, which Lord Wellington 
was obliged to raise after five unsuccessful 
assaults. He led his division of the army in 
the disastrous retreat to the Portuguese fron- 

tier, and again in the masterly advance to the 
Ebro, through the wild districts of Tras-os- 
Montes, of which he had previously made 
reconnaissances. He took part in the battle 
of Vittoria, 21 June 1813, in the siege and 
capture of St. Sebastian, and in the hard fight- 
ing in the south of France in December 1813, 
when he was again slightly wounded. After 
the conclusion of peace he went to Paris and 
landed in England early in September 1814. 
For his services in the Peninsula Gomm was 
transferred from the 9th foot into the Cold- 
stream guards, and was made a K.C.B. He 
received the gold cross with a clasp and the 
silver war medal with six clasps. On the re- 
turn of Napoleon from Elba, Gomm went 
with the Coldstreams to Brussels and was 
again appointed to the staff. He took part 
with the fifth division in the battles of Quatre 
Bras and Waterloo. No better estimate of 
the fine character of Gomm can be formed 
than that gathered from the modest and cul- 
tivated letters to his aunt and sister, written 
from the stirring scenes of the Peninsula. 
These letters, edited by Mr. Francis C. Carr- 
Gomm, were published in 1881. 

In 1816 Sir William lost his brother 
Henry, who had been his comrade in the 
Peninsula, and who had been severely 
wounded in July 1813. The following year 
he lost his dearly loved sister and corre- 
spondent, and in 1822 his aunt, Miss Gomm, 
on whose death he succeeded to her property 
and became lord of the manor of Rother- 
hithe. The years between 1817 and 1839 
were spent in home service. During this 
period he married first, Sophia, granddaugh- 
ter of William Penn of Pennsylvania, who 
died in 1827, and secondly, in 1830, Eliza- 
beth, eldest daughter of Lord Robert Kerr. 
He had no issue by either of these marriages. 
He was made a full colonel on 16 May 1829, 
and a major-general on 10 Jan. 1837. He 
devoted much of his spare time to travel and 
to the study of literature. In 1839 he was 
appointed to the command of the troops in 
Jamaica, where he founded a sanatorium for 
the white troops at Newcastle in the moun- 
tains. On his return to England in the spring 
of 1842 he was given the command of the 
northern district, which he did not long re- 
tain, for in the autumn he was appointed 
governor of Mauritius in succession to Sir 
Lionel Smith, bart. He was promoted to the 
rank of lieutenant-general 9 Nov. 1846. He 
held the government of Mauritius for seven 
years. From Mauritius he went to Calcutta, 
having received an intimation from the Horse 
Guards of his appointment as commander- 
in-chief in India. To his bitter disappoint- 
ment, on arriving in the Hooghly he found 




that, owing to the panic at home after the 
second Sikh war and to the jealousy of the 
court of directors of the direct patronage of 
the crown, his appointment had been can- 
celled, and Sir Charles Napier had just ar- 
rived at Calcutta as commander-in-chief and 
proceeded to the Punjab. Ample explana- 
tions from the Duke of Wellington and Lord 
Fitzroy Somerset awaited him at Calcutta, 
and the manner in which he bore his disap- 
pointment did him the greatest credit. He 
returned home with Lady Gomm, visiting 
Oeylon on their way, and arrived in England 
in January 1850. In the following August 
he was appointed commander-in-chief of 
Bombay, but on the eve of starting, Sir 
Charles Napier suddenly resigned, and Gomm 
was appointed commander-in-chief in India. 
The five years he held the chief command were 
comparatively uneventful. He was extremely 
popular, and his popularity was promoted by 
the social accomplishments of his wife. 

He was promoted to be full general on 
20 June 1854. He returned home in 1855 to 
enjoy twenty years of dignified and honoured 
old age. In 1846 he had been appointed 
honorary colonel of the 13th foot, and in Au- 
gust 1863 was transferred to the colonelcy of 
the Coldstream guards, in succession to Lord 
Clyde. On 1 Jan. 1868 he received his baton 
as field-marshal, and on the death of Sir George 
Pollock (October 1782) was appointed con- 
stable of the Tower. The emperor of Russia 
when visiting England in 1874 sent him the 
order of St. Vladimir ; he was already a knight 
of the second class of the order of St. Anne of 
Russia. He had been made a grand cross of 
the Bath, and the universities of Oxford and 
Cambridge had conferred upon him the hono- 
rary degree of D.C.L. (13 June 1834) and 
LL.D. respectively. He died on 15 March 
1875, in his ninety-first year. 

Five ' Field-Marshal Gomm ' scholarships 
have since been founded at Keble College, 

[Letters and Journals of Field-Marshal Sir 
W. M. Gomm, by F. C. Carr-Gomm, 1881 ; 
Wellington Despatches.] E. H. V. 

1685), military engineer, a Dutchman, was 
born at Lille in 1620. In his youth he served 
in the campaigns of Frederick Henry, prince 
of Orange. He afterwards accompanied Prince 
Rupert to England, and was knighted by 
Charles I. He served with conspicuous 
ability in the royalist army as engineer and 
quartermaster-general from June 1642 to 
May 1646 (Oil. State Papers, Dom. 1660-1, 
p. 448). His plan of the fortifications and 
castle of Liverpool, dated 1644, is preserved 

in the British Museum, Sloane MS. 5027, A. 
art. 63. The original of his plan of the battle 
of Naseby, drawn up by Prince Rupert's 
orders, was sold with the collections of Ru- 
pert and Fairfax's papers at Sotheby's in 
June 1852 (lot 1443). The British Museum 
contains a more elaborate drawing of this 
plan, and also coloured military plans by 
Gomme of the battle of Marston Moor (2 July 
1644) and the second fight at Newbury (27 Oct. 
1644), all 48 by 20 inches. They with others 
are in Addit. MSS. 16370 and 16371. On 
15 June 1649 Gomme received a commission 
from Charles II, then at Breda, to be quar- 
termaster-general of all forces to be raised in 
England and Wales (ib. 1649-50, p. 188). 
At the Restoration he petitioned for a pen- 
sion and employment as engineer and quar- 
termaster-general ; he also produced a patent 
for the place of surveyor-general of fortifica- 
tions, dated 30 June 1645, and confirmed by 
the king at Breda on 15 June 1649 (ib. 1660- 
1661, p. 204). The engineers' places were 
filled, and the surveyor-generalship was not a 
permanent appointment ; but Gomme received 
a life pension of 30QI. a year (ib. 1665-6, p. 
421). In March 1661 he was made engineer- 
in-chief of all the king's castles and fortifica- 
tions in England and Wales, with a fee of 
13a. 4d. a day, and an allowance of 20s. a day 
for ' riding charges ' when employed on the 
king's immediate service (ib. 1660-1 p. 558, 
1661-2 pp. 155, 281). Among his first tasks 
were the repairs of Dover pier, the erection of 
fortifications at Dunkirk, and the surveying 
of Tilbury Fort. On 10 Jan. 1664-5 the 
treasury were recommended to make regular 
payment of his pension, ' as the king had 
immediate occasion for him at Tangier ' (ib. 
1664-5, pp. 167-8). In August 1665 instruc- 
tions were given for making the fortifications 
at Portsmouth according to the plans prepared 
by Gomme (ib. 1664-5, p. 510). His esti- 
mates and plans for the works are in Addit. 
MSS. 16370 and 28088, f. 26. On 14 Nov. 
of the same year the king directed him to 
give his assistance to commissioners for 
making the Cam navigable, and establishing 
a communication with the Thames. Three 
days later he received a commission to build 
a new citadel on the Hoe of Plymouth (ib. 
1665-6, pp. 57, 61). On 15 Nov. 1666 the 
officers of ordnance were authorised to make 
a bridge after a model prepared for Gomme 
for the safer bringing in of explosives (ib. 
1666-7 p. 261, 1667 p. 52). In March 1667 
he accompanied the Duke of York to Har- 
wich, which it was proposed to entrench 
completely all round (ib. 1666-7 p. 577, 1667 
pp. 70, 77). On returning to London he was 
summoned to give advice for fortifying the 




Medway and Portsmouth, as well as Har- 
wich (PEPYS, Diary, ed. 1854, iii. 90). In 
May 1667 he was employed at Plymouth 
(Cal. State Papers, Dom. 1667, pp. 128, 136, 
187). In 1673 and 1675 he was making sur- 
veys about Dublin. An interesting document 
was exhibited at the Royal Irish Academy 
in 1861, and privately printed by Charles 
Haliday of Dublin, entitled 'Observations 
explanatory of a plan and estimate for a 
citadel at Dublin, designed by Sir Bernard 
de Gomme, Engineer-General in the year 
1673, with his Map,' &c. A reference to 
Gomme's ' design of building a fort-royal on 
the strand near Ringsend,' in the neighbour- 
hood of Dublin, occurs in the report of the 
elder Sir Jonas Moore, surveyor-general of 
ordnance, drawn up in 1675 and printed in 
' Letters written by Arthur Capel, Earl of 
Essex, Lord-Lieutenant of Ireland,' &c., 4to, 
London, 1770 (p. 167). On the death of Sir 
Jonas Moore the younger in July 1682, Gomme 
was appointed surveyor-general of ordnance 
(CHAMBEKLAYNE, Anglice Notitia, ed. 1684, 
pt. ii. p. 219). He died on 23 Nov. 1685, 
and was buried on the 30th of that month in 
the chapel of the Tower of London (Notes 
and Queries, 2nd ser. ix. 252). By his will 
dated 4 and proved at London on 27 Nov. 
1685 (P. C. C. 134, Cann) he left liberal 
legacies to the Dutch Church in London and 
to Christ's Hospital. He mentions his manor 
of Wadnall, or Waddenhall, in Waltham 
and Petham in Kent. He married, first, 
Katherine van Deniza, widow of Adrian (?) 
Beverland, by whom he had a daughter, 
Anna, married to John Riches. Their daugh- 
ter was Catherine Bovey [q. v.j The son ' 
of Gomme mentioned as living in December 
1665 (Cal. State Papers, Dom. 1665-6, p. 
95) was probably his stepson, Adrian Bever- 
land, to whom he bequeathed 2,000/. Gomme 
married secondly, by license dated 15 Oct. 
1667, Catherine Lucas of Bevis Marks, a 
widow of fifty (CHESTER, London Marriage 
Licences, ed. Foster, col. 562), who died a few 
weeks before him, and was buried in the 
Tower chapel 19 Oct. 1685. A miniature 
portrait in oil of Gomme is prefixed to a col- 
lection of plans (executed probably for him) 
illustrating the campaigns of the Prince of 
Orange between 1625 and 1645, preserved at 
the British Museum in George Ill's library, 
No. cii. 21. 

[Cal. State Papers, Dom. 1660-7; Notes and 
Queries, 2nd ser. ix. 221-2, 252, 3rd ser. iv. 338- 
339, 6th ser. v. 246-7, 332-3, 391.] G. G. 

GOMPERTZ, BENJAMIN (1779-1865), 
mathematician and actuary, descended from 
the distinguished Jewish family of Gompertz 

of Emmerich, was born on 5 March 1779, in 
London, where his father and grandfather 
had been successful diamond merchants. De- 
barred, as a Jew, from a university educa- 
tion, he studied without guidance from an 
early age, and when a mere lad was familiar 
with the writings of Newton, Maclaurin, 
j and Emerson. As early as 1798 he was a 
prominent contributor to the ' Gentleman's 
! Mathematical Companion,' and for a long 
j period carried ofl 7 the annual prizes of that ma- 
j gazine for the best solutions of prize problems. 
In compliance with his father s wish, he en- 
tered the Stock Exchange, but continued his 
private studies. He became a member of the 
Old Mathematical Society of Spitalfields, and 
served as its president when it was merged in 
the Astronomical Society. From 1806 he was 
a frequent contributor to the ' Transactions ' 
j of the Royal Society ; but his early tracts on 
imaginary quantities andporisms (1817-18), 
which first established his reputation as a 
mathematician, were declined by the society, 
and were printed and published at his own 
expense. In 1819 he was elected a F.R.S., 
and in 1832 became a member of the council. 
The foundation of the Astronomical Society 
in 1820 opened to Gompertz a fresh field of 
activity. He was elected a member of the 
council in 1821, and for ten years actively 
participated in its work, contributing valu- 
able papers on the theory of astronomical in- 
struments, the aberration of light, the diffe- 
rential sextant, the convertible pendulum, 
and other subjects. With Francis Baily 
[q. v.] he began in 1822 the construction of 
tables for the mean places of the fixed stars ; 
the work was left uncompleted, because, in 
the midst of their calculations, Baily and 
Gompertz found themselves anticipated by 
the publication of the ' Fundamenta Astro- 
nomiae' of Bessel. Their labours, however, 
resulted in the complete catalogue of stars 
of the Royal Astronomical Society. Gom- 
pertz may be regarded as the last of the old 
English school of mathematicians. So great 
was his reverence for Newton that he ad- 
hered to the almost obsolete language of 
fluxions throughout his life, and ably de- 
fended the fluxional against what he called 
'the furtive' notation (Phil. Trans. 1862, 
pt. i. p. 513). 

It was as an actuary that Gompertz's most 
lasting work was performed. On the death 
of an only son he retired from the Stock Ex- 
change, and absorbed himself in mathematics. 
When the Guardian Insurance Office was esta- 
blished in 1821, he was a candidate for the 
actuaryship, but the directors objected to 
him on the score of his religion. His brother- 
in-law, Sir Moses Montefiore he married 




Abigail Montefiore in 1810 in conjunction 
with his relative Nathan Rothschild, there- 
upon founded the Alliance Assurance Com- 
pany (1824), and Gompertz was appointed 
actuary under the deed of settlement (MAR- 
TIN, Hist, of Lloyd's, p. 292). Some years 
previously he had worked out a new series 
of tables of mortality for the Royal Society, 
and these suggested to him in 1825 his well- 
known law of human mortality, which he first 
expounded in a letter to Francis Baily. The 
law rests on the a priori assumption that a 
person's resistance to death decreases as his 
years increase, in such a manner that at the 
end of equally infinitely small intervals of 
time he loses equally infinitely small propor- 
tions of his remaining power to oppose de- 
struction. ' Had this principle been pro- 
pounded in the days of Newton,' says Pro- 
fessor De Morgan, ' vitality would have been 
made a thing of, like attraction.' His manage- 
ment of the Alliance Company was very suc- 
cessful. He was frequently consulted by go- 
vernment, and made elaborate computations 
for the army medical board. In 1848 he re- 
tired from active work and returned to his 
scientific labours. He was a member of nu- 
merous learned societies besides those already 
mentioned, and was also one of the promo- 
ters of the Society for the Diffusion of Useful 
Knowledge. Of the leading Jewish charities 
he was a prominent member, and he worked out 
a plan of poor relief (Jewish Chronicle, 6 Oct. 
1845), which was afterwards adopted by the 
Jewish board of guardians. Gompertz died 
from a paralytic seizure on 14 July 1865. 

[Memoir in the Assurance Magazine, xiii. 
1-20, by M. N. Adler; Monthly Notices of Astr. 
Soc. xxvi. 104-9; Athenaeum, 22 July 1865, by 
Professor De Morgan ; List of Works in Notes 
and Queries, 2nd ser. x. 163.] L. W. 

GOMPERTZ, LEWIS (d. 1861), lover 
of animals and inventor, was the youngest 
brother of Benjamin Gompertz [q. v. J, mathe- 
matician and actuary. His life was mainly 
devoted to preaching and enforcing kindness 
to animals. He held that it was not only 
unlawful to kill an animal, but to turn it to 
any use not directly beneficial to the animal 
itself. Accordingly he abstained from all 
animal food, including milk and eggs, and 
would never ride in a coach. In 1824 he 
expounded his views in ' Moral Enquiries on 
the situation of Men and Brutes.' The work, 
although eccentric and even extravagant, en- 
couraged the movement in favour of the pro- 
tection of animals. On 24 June of the same 
year a public meeting was held at the Old 
Slaughter Coffee House, St. Martin's Lane, 
under the auspices of Richard Martin, M.P., 

which resulted in the foundation of the So- 
ciety for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals. 
At first the society was not successful, but 
in 1826 Gompertz undertook the management 
and honorary secretaryship, and prosecuted 
its work with enthusiasm and energy. In 
1832 religious differences broke out between 
Gompertz and his committee. One of the 
subscribers, a clergyman, imagined that he 
detected Pythagorean doctrines in the ' Moral 
Enquiries,' and denounced it to the commit- 
tee as hostile to Christianity. The committee 
resolved that the society should be exclu- 
sively Christian, and Gompertz, while pro- 
testing his innocence of the alleged Pytha- 
goreanism, resigned his connection with the 
society on the grounds that its work had 
nothing to do with religious sectarianism, 
and that, as a Jew, he was practically ex- 
cluded from the society by the terms of its 
resolution. Supported by many subscribers, 
he proceeded to found a new society, which 
he called the Animals' Friend Society, and 
which he managed with such zeal and acti- 
vity that it speedily outstripped the parent 
institution in the extent of its public work. 
In connection with this society Gompertz 
edited ' The Animals' Friend, or the Progress 
of Humanity;' but in 1846, owing to ill- 
health, he was obliged to retire from public 
work, and as a consequence the society lan- 
guished and ultimately died. Gompertz also 
possessed remarkable aptitude for mechanical 
science. His inventions were very numerous, 
but the majority were ingenious rather than 
practical. A list of them, thirty-eight in 
number, were privately printed in 1837 (Index 
to Inventions of Lewis Gompertz). Among 
them are shot-proof ships, fortifications for 
reflecting the balls to the places fired from, 
and a mechanical cure for apoplexy. His most 
valuable contribution to mechanical engineer- 
ing was the expanding chuck, which is now 
found in almost every workshop, and attached 
to every lathe, although it is doubtful whether 
its inventor ever derived any pecuniary bene- 
fit from it. Many of Gompertz's inventions 
were designed to render the lives of animals 
easy and comfortable. He was author of 
' Mechanical Inventions and Suggestions on 
Land and Water Locomotion,' 1850 ; and 
' Fragments in Defence of Animals,' 1852. 
His portrait appears as a frontispiece to the 
latter work. He died 2 Dec. 1861. 

[Animals' Friend, ]833; Reports of the Ani- 
mals' Friend Society ; private information.] 

L. W. 

MAS (Jl. 1484), prior of Carlisle the only 
episcopal chapter belonging to the order of St.- 


1 06 


Austin in England was prior (the twenty- ! 
eighth) from 1484 to 1507. During that time 
he made considerable additions to the monas- 
tery, erecting the refectory and other mo- ] 
nastic buildings, only the foundations of 
which now remain, and was perhaps the most 
skilled architect ever in the priory. In the i 
cathedral proofs of his great skill are still to : 
be seen in the screen of St. Catherine's chapel, | 
where his initials are on the scroll work. 
The screen which separated the choir from 
the aisles before 1764 was also his work. On 
an old chest in the vestry is the following 
Latin verse : ' En domus haec floruit Gou- 
diboursubtegmineThomse.' He and Castell, 
prior of Durham from 1494 to 1519, ' are i 
thoroughly identified with the use of an ele- 
gant and peculiar school of art,' but it is 
impossible to say which of them had the 
priority (meeting of Society of Antiquaries 
-at Newcastle-on-Tyne, 1863; Gent. Mag. 
1864, i. 213). 

[Dugdale, vi. 141 ; Burn and Nicolson's Hist, 
of Westmoreland and Cumberland, ii. 303 ; E.W. 
Billing's Hist, of Carlisle Cathedral, pp. 4, 27.] 

E. T. B. 

GONELL, WILLIAM (d. 1546?), scholar 
and correspondent of Erasmus, a native of 
Landbeach, Cambridgeshire, proceeded B.A. 
at Cambridge 1484-5, and M.A. 1488, and 
probably maintained himself by teaching at 
the university, for Pits speaks of him as a 
' public professor.' He became an intimate 
friend of Erasmus, who probably recom- 
mended him to Sir Thomas More, in whose 
household he succeeded Dr. Clement as tutor. 
He is said to have been attached at one time 
to Wolsey's household. In 1517 West, bishop 
of Ely, collated him to the rectory of Coning- 
ton, Cambridgeshire. Gonell announces the 
fact in an extant letter to his friend Henry 
Gold of St. Neots, inquiring if Gold can hire 
a preacher of simple faith and honesty, and 
endeavouring to borrow Cicero's ' Letters ' 
for More's use (BREWER, Letters and Papers 
of the Reign of Henry VIII, ii. 2, App. 17). 
Six short letters from Erasmus to Gonell are 
extant, which indicate a close intimacy be- 
tween the two. The earliest was written 
in 1511, the latest in 1518. Erasmus was in 
the habit of lending his horse to Gonell. Dr. 
Knight (Life of Erasmus, pp. 176-8) touches 
upon the chief points of interest in the let- 
ters, and summaries of them will be found in 
Brewer's ' Letters and Papers of Henry VIII's 
Reign.' According to Tanner, Gonell was 
the author of ' Ad Erasmum Roterodamensen 
Epistolarum Liber,' which Dodd may allude 
to when he speaks of Erasmus's ' letters to 
him extant ' (Church History, i. 205). Dodd 
calls him ' an universal and polite writer.' 

There are forty-four lines addressed to him 
in Leland's ' Encomia ' (1589, p. 28), entitled 
' Ad Gonellum ut urbem relinquat.' In Cole 
MS. ix. 50 the will of Gonell names among 
the executors ' my brother Master William 
Gonell, Pryest,' this is dated ' Ult. Jan. 37 
H. 8.' The exact date of his death is not 

[Brewer's Letters and Papers of the Eeign 
of Henry VIII, ii. 1, 106, 115, 203, ii. 2, 1270, 
1528, App. 17; the index to Erasmus's Letters 
in the Leyden edition of his works, under Gonel- 
lus;' Cooper's Athenae Cantabr. i. 94, 537, where 
a list of references is given; Pits, De Rebus 
Anglicis, App. 1619, p. 854.] R. B. 

GONVILE, EDMUND (d. 1351), founder 
of Gonville Hall, Cambridge, and of Rush- 
worth College, Norfolk, is described in the 
commemoration service of Gonville and Caius 
College as a son of Sir Nicholas Gonvile, but 
Dr. Bennet has given very strong grounds for 
regarding the latter as his elder brother, and 
for holding that he was a son of William de 
Gonvile, an alien, ' natus de potestate reg' 
Francia commorans in Anglia,' who obtained 
the manor of Lerling, Norfolk, in or about 
1295. Edmund Gonvile first appears as rector 
of Thelnetham, Suffolk, in 1320, being about 
the same time steward of William, earl War- 
ren, and of the Earl of Lancaster, who both 
held large property in that neighbourhood. 
He was rector of Rush worth in 1326, rector of 
Terrington St. John in 1 342, and commissioner 
of the marshlands of Norfolk. 

His first foundation was at Rushworth in 
1342. This was a collegiate church with an 
endowment (i.e. the rectory and manor of 
Rushworth) for a master and four fellows. 
' He provides for five priests to be continu- 
ally resident in one house, to one of whom, as 
master, he commits the general oversight of 
his foundation, and also, specially and person- 
ally, the spiritual care of the town. . . . There 
is no hint of any educational purpose in the 
original foundation. It was a purely reli- 
gious foundation' (BEXXET, who gives in 
extenso the original deed of foundation, in 
which the statutes are incorporated : this 
appears to be the earliest complete example 
of statutes framed for these rural colleges). 
This college, after having been somewhat 
altered and largely added to by subsequent 
benefactions, shared the fate of other religious 
houses by being suppressed in 1541. It may 
be remarked that Blomefield mentions (Norf. 
i i. 427) an earlier foundation than this, but 
assigns no authorities. According to him 
Gonvile was co-founder, with Earl Warren 
and the Earl of Lancaster, of the Friars 
Preachers' House at Thetford. 

It is, of course, by his Cambridge founda- 




tion, now known as Gonville and Caius Col- 
lege, that Gonvile is most celebrated. In 
1348 he obtained from Edward III permission 
to establish a college in Lurteburgh Lane, 
now known as Freeschool Lane, on the site 
afterwards occupied by Corpus Christi Col- 
lege. It was officially called the Hall of the 
Annunciation of the Blessed Virgin, but was 
commonly and more familiarly known as Gon- 
ville or Gunnell Hall. The statutes which he 
provided for his foundation are still extant. 
According to this design his college was to 
represent the usual course of study included 
in the ' Trivium ' and ' Quadrivium,' as the 
basis of an almost exclusively theological 
training. Each of the fellows was required 
to have studied, read, and lectured in logic, 
but on the completion of his course in arts 
theology was to form the main subject, his 
studies being also directed with a view to 
enabling him to keep his acts and dispute 
with ability in the schools. The unanimous 
consent of the master and fellows was neces- 
sary before he could apply himself to any 
other faculty. That is, as Mr. Mullinger 
shows from whom this statement is taken 
Gonvile's first thought was for theology 
and the training of a learned priesthood. 
This falls in with what little we can other- 
wise infer of his character as a pious country 
clergyman. If this was his intention, how- 
ever, it was not altogether adhered to. Gon- 
vile died before his foundation could be carried 
out, and left his work in the hands of "William 
Bateman, bishop of Norwich. It does not, of 
course, lie within the scope of this notice to 
trace the fortunes of the college, but it may 
be remarked that Bateman, besides changing 
the locality of the college from Freeschool 
Lane to its present site, made considerable al- 
terations in the statutes, and conformed them 
more closely to those of his own foundation, 
Trinity Hall. The alteration was mainly 
shown in the comparatively greater impor- 
tance assigned to the study of the civil and 
canon law as against that of theology. The 
college retained popularly the name of Gon- 
ville Hall until the new charter for the en- 
larged foundation of Dr. John Caius (1510- 
1573) [q. v.], granted in 1558. The original 
patent granted to Gonvile, dated West- 
minster, 28 Jan. 22 Edward III, is printed 
in ' Documents relating to the University 
and Colleges of Cambridge,' 1852 ; as are 
also the earliest statutes granted to the col- 
lege by William Bateman [q. v.] bishop of 

The exact date of Gonvile's death is not 
known, but it must have been some time in 
1351. The last actual mention of him is on 
20 March 1350-1, and his successor at Ter- 

rington was instituted 18 Oct. 1351. The 
family became extinct in the male line in 
the third generation following. 

[Mullinger's Hist, of the Univ. of Cambr. ; 
E. K. Bennet's Rush worth College; Proc.of Norf. 
Archseol. Soc., vol. x. ; Willis and Clark's Hist, 
of the Univ. of Cambr.] J. V. 

GOOCH, BENJAMIN (Jl. 1775), surgeon, 
was probably the son of Benjamin Gooch 
(d. 1728), rector of Ashwellthorpe, Norfolk, 
and his wife Anne Phyllis (d. 1701). He 
practised chiefly at Shottisham in Norfolk. 
He was appointed surgeon to the infirmary 
there by the founder, William Fellowes. In 
1758 he published a volume of ' Cases and 
Practical Remarks in Surgery,' 8vo, London, 
of which an enlarged edition was issued 
under the title of ' A Practical Treatise on 
Wounds and other Chirurgical Subjects ; to 
which is prefixed a short Historical Account 
of ... Surgery and Anatomy,' 2 vols. 8vo, 
Norwich, 1767. He afterwards added an 
appendix called ' Medical and Chirurgical 
Observations,' 8vo, London, 1773. A collec- 
tive edition of his works appeared in three 
volumes, 8vo, London, 1792. On 9 Oct. 1771 
Gooch was chosen consulting surgeon to the 
Norfolk and Norwich Hospital. At the re- 
quest of Hayter, bishop of Norwich, he visited 
before 1759 all the great hospitals in London 
in order to observe their working, and his 
reports were of the greatest service to the 
committee for the Norfolk Hospital. Some 
surgical cases communicated by him to the 
Royal Society were printed in the 'Philo- 
sophical Transactions ' (vols. lix. Ixv.) 

[Prefaces to works cited above.] G. G. 

GOOCH, SIR DANIEL (1816-1889), 
railway pioneer and inventor, born 24 Aug. 
1816, was third son of John Gooch (1783- 
1833) of Bedlington, Northumberland, by 
his wife Anna, daughter of Thomas Long- 
ridge of Newcastle-on-Tyne. At Birkin- 
shaw's ironworks in his native village of 
Bedlington, Gooch acquired as a child his 
first knowledge of enigneering. He there 
met George Stephenson, who was well ac- 
quainted with Birkinshaw. His apprentice- 
ship as a practical engineer was served in the 
Forth Street works of Stephenson and Pease 
in Newcastle. In 1837, when aged twenty- 
one, he was appointed locomotive superin- 
tendent of the Great Western Railway, on the 
recommendation of Marc Isambard Brunei 
[q. v.], the engineer. He held this post for 
twenty-seven years. Gooch took advantage 
of the space allowed by the broad gauge, 
adopted by Brunei, to design locomotives on 
boldly original lines. His engines attained a 
speed and safety not previously deemed pos- 




sible, and not exceeded since. His ' North Star' 
engine, ' a marvel of symmetry and compact- 
ness,' constructed about 1839, is still at Swin- 
don. His engine called the ' North Briton,' 
constructed in 1846, is the pattern from which 
all engines for broad-gauged express trains 
were afterwards designed. In 1843 he in- 
vented ' the suspended link motion with the 
shifting radius link,' first fitted to the en- 

fine called ' Great Britain.' He, with Mr. 
IcNaught, also constructed the earliest indi- 
cator used on locomotives. His experiments 
on atmospheric resistance of trains and in- 
ternal and rolling friction fully exhibited his 
inventive genius. For the purpose of his 
researches he constructed a dynamometer 
carriage, 'in which all the results were regis- 
tered (automatically) upon a large scale, op- 
posite each other on the same roll of paper.' 
He read an account of these experiments 
before the Institution of Civil Engineers on 

18 April 1848, and a full report was printed 
in the ' Morning Herald ' of the next day. 
Gooch, as a champion of the broad gauge, 
was severely criticised by the advocates of 
the narrow gauge, but the results of his ex- 
periments proved true. 

In 1864 Gooch resigned his post as loco- 
motive superintendent to inaugurate tele- 
graphic communication between England 
and America. His efforts were successful, 
and he despatched the first cable message 
across the Atlantic in 1866. For his energy 
in conducting this enterprise he was made a 
baronet on 15 Nov. 1866. Until the end of his 
life he was chairman of the Telegraph Con- 
struction and Maintenance Company, and 
was long a director of the Anglo-American 
Company. In 1865 the Great Western Rail- 
way was in a critical situation. Its stock stood 
at 38, and bankruptcy seemed imminent. 
Gooch re-entered its service as chairman of 
the board of directors, and his activity and 
financial skill rapidly placed the railway on 
a sound footing. He was deeply interested 
in the construction of the Severn Tunnel, 
which was opened in 1887. He remained 
chairman of the railway till his death, when 
Great Western stock was quoted at over 
160. Gooch also supported the building of 
the Great Eastern steamship, and was one of 
her owners when she was purchased for lay- 
ing the Atlantic cable. 

Gooch was M.P. for Cricklade from 1865 
to 1885, was a D.L. for Wiltshire, a J.P. for 
Berkshire, and a prominent freemason, being 
grand sword-bearer of England, and pro- 
vincial grand-master of Berkshire and Buck- 
inghamshire. He died at his residence, Clewer 
Park, Berkshire, 15 Oct. 1889, and was buried, 

19 Oct., in Clewer churchyard. He married, 

first, on 22 March 1838, Margaret, daughter 
of Henry Tanner, esq., of Bishopwearmouth, 
Durham ; she died on 22 May 1868 ; and 
secondly, on 17 Sept. 1870, Emily, youngest 
daughter of John Burder, esq., of Norwood, 
Surrey. By his first wife he had four sons 
and two daughters, the eldest son, Henry 
Daniel, succeeding as second baronet. A 
portrait is in the board room of the Great 
Western Railway, Paddington, and a bust in 
the shareholders' meeting-room. 

[Times, 16 and 21 Oct. 1889; Foster's Baro- 
netage ; Men of the Time, 1887 ; Engineering, 
20 Oct. 1889.] 

GOOCH, ROBERT, M.D. (1784-1830), 
physician, born at Yarmouth, Norfolk, in June 
1784, was son of Robert Gooch, a sea captain 
who was grandson of Sir Thomas Gooch 
[q. v.] He was educated at a private day 
school, and when fifteen was apprenticed to 
Giles Borrett, surgeon-apothecary at Yar- 
mouth, who had a great practice, and had 
shown ability in published observations on 
hernia. Gooch used to visit a blind Mr. 
Harley, who gave him a taste for literature 
and philosophy, which he felt grateful lor 
throughout life, and acknowledged by a be- 
quest large in^proportion to his means. When 
Nelson came to visit the wounded of the 
battle of Copenhagen, Gooch went round the 
Yarmouth Hospital with him, and was de- 
lighted with the kind words which the ad- 
miral addressed to every wounded man. In 
1804 he went to the university of Edinburgh, 
where among his chief friends were Henry 
Southey [q.v.] and William Knighton [q. v.] 
In his vacations he studied German at Nor- 
wich with William Taylor [q.v.], and became 
engaged to marry Miss Bolingbroke. He 
graduated M.D.June 1807, his inaugural dis- 
sertation being on rickets. After a tour in 
the highlands, and some further holiday in 
Norfolk, he came to London, worked under 
Astley Cooper, and in 1808 began general 
practice at Croydon, Surrey. He also wrote 
in the ' London Medical Record,' and married 
the lady to whom he had been engaged for 
four years. She died in January 1811, and 
her child in July of the same year. He left 
Croydon, took a house in Aldermanbury, and 
after a tour, in which he became intimate with 
the poet Southey at Keswick, was admitted 
a licentiate of the College of Physicians 
6 March 1812 (Muarx, Coll. of Phys. iii. 102), 
and was soon after elected lecturer on mid- 
wifery at St. Bartholomew's Hospital. In 
January 1814 he married the sister of Ben- 
jamin Travers [q. v.], the surgeon, and in 
1816 went to live in Berners Street, where 
his practice in midwifery and the diseases of 
women soon became large. His health was 




feeble, and often obliged him to suspend his 
work. During one of his journeys abroad 
for health he wrote the letters on ' Beguines 
and Nursing,' printed in the appendix to 
Southey's ' Colloquies on Society,' and in 
December 1825 he wrote an article on the 
plague in the ' Quarterly Review.' In Ja- 
nuary 1826 he had haemoptysis, and in April 
of that year, in view of the probable neces- 
sity of his retirement from practice, his friend 
Sir William Knighton procured for him the 
post of librarian to the king. He grew more 
and more emaciated, but still worked hard, 
and in 1829 finished at Brighton the < Ac- 
count of some of the most Important Diseases 
peculiar to Women,' which is his chief work, 
and is still read. In January 1830 he wrote 
an article in the ' Quarterly Review ' on the 
Anatomy Act, and at last, confined to bed by 
consumption, died 16 Feb. 1830, leaving two 
sons and a daughter. His scattered papers 
have been published, with a new edition of 
his treatise on the diseases of women, by Dr. 
Robert Ferguson, London, 1859. Gooch had 
a power of clear description, and besides 
showing careful clinical observation his writ- 
ings are readable. His account of a night- 
mare which he had in boyhood (Lives of 
British Physicians, p. 306) is a model of a de- 
scription which owes its power to the per- 
fect truth and simplicity of the narration. 
Many similar examples of precise forcible de- 
scription are to De iound in his medical writ- 
ings. He certainly deserved the high repu- 
tation which he had among his contempora- 
ries. He was a small man, with large dark 
eyes, and his hands were always cold ; ' the 
cold hand of a dyspeptic,' he once said (for 
he was unwilling to admit that the coldness 
was due to the consumption obvious in his 
face), 'is an advantage in the examination of 
the abdomen ; the old physicians used for the 
purpose to plunge one hand into cold water.' 
His portrait by R. J. Lane, given by his 
daughter, is at the College of Physicians of 

[Dr. MacMichael's Lives of British Physicians, 
p. 305. This life is based upon personal know- 
ledge and information given by Gooch's friend, 
Dr. H. H. Southey; Munk's Coll. of Phys. iii. 
100; Memoir of the late Giles Borrett, Yar- 
mouth, 1842 ; MS. Minutes St. Bartholomew's 
Hospital ; information from the late Dr. Patrick 
Black.] N. M. 

1754), bishop of Ely, was the son of Thomas 
Gooch of Yarmouth, by Frances, daughter of 
Thomas Lone of Worlingham, Suffolk, where 
he was born 9 Jan. 1674. He entered Caius 
College, Cambridge, in 1691, and graduated 
B.A. in 1694, and M.A. in 1698. He was 

elected to a fellowship 9 July 1698, and seems 
to have resided and held various lectureships 
and college offices for some years. His first 
step of ecclesiastical promotion was his ap- 
pointment as domestic chaplain to Henry 
Compton [q. v.], bishop of London, whose 
funeral sermon he preached at St. Paul's 
(1713). He was then successively chaplain 
in ordinary to Queen Anne ; rector of St. Cle- 
ment's, Eastcheap, and St. Martin Orgar's ; 
archdeacon of Essex (1714-37); canon resi- 
dentiary of Chichester (1719) ; lecturer at 
Gray's Inn ; canon of Canterbury (1730-8) ; 
master of Caius College (from 29 Nov. 1716 
to his death) ; vice-chancellor in 1717, when, 
owing partly to his exertions, the senate 
house was built ; bishop of Bristol (12 June 
1737), ' where he stayed so short a time as 
never to have visited his diocese ' (COLE) ; 
bishop of Norwich (17 Oct. 1738), ' where 
he repaired and beautified the palace at a very 
great expense ; ' bishop of Ely (January 1747- 
1748) to his death (14 Feb. 1753-4). 

He succeeded to the baronetcy at the death 
of his brother William, governor of Virginia, 
in 1751 ; ' although the bishop was the elder 
brother (it being most probably thought of 
by him), yet he was also put into the patent 
to succeed to the title in case the governor 
[i.e. his brother] should die without male 
issue ' (COLE). 

He was three times married : first to Mary, 
daughter of Dr. William Sherlock, dean of St. 
Paul's, afterwards bishop of Salisbury; by her 
he had one son, Sir Thomas Gooch (1720- 
1781) of Benacre, Suffolk, who inherited a 
very large fortune from his maternal grand- 
father ; secondly to Hannah, daughter of Sir 
John Miller of Lavant, Sussex, bart., by whom 
he had also one son, John; thirdly, when in 
his seventy-fifth year, to Mary, daughter of 
Hatton Compton, esq., great-granddaughter 
of Spencer Compton, second earl of Northamp- 
ton [q. v.], and great-niece of Henry Compton, 
bishop of London [q. v.] 

He was in many ways a typical bishop of 
the last century : courteous, dignified, and 
charitable in his conduct; attentive to the 
official work of his diocese, as well as to his 
parliamentary duties to his party. Cole 
(whose narrative must of course be received 
with caution) has a number of amusing anec- 
dotes illustrative of Gooch's adroitness in his 
own personal advancement, and pertinacity 
in securing abundant preferment 1 for his 
younger son. These characteristics are not 
borne out by his extant correspondence. It 
may also be remarked that a certain story, 
still repeated in combination rooms, of the 
device by which the master of Caius allowed 
a college living to lapse to the Bishop of Nor- 



wich(at a time when he held both offices), the 
result being the appointment of John Gooch, 
is not true. Cole sums up his character as 
follows : ' He was of a kind and generous 
disposition ... as I have hinted that he was 
a man of as great art, craft, and cunning as 
any in the age he lived in, so I must bear my 
testimony that he was as much of a gentle- 
man in his outward appearance, carriage, and 

He died at Ely House, Hoi born, 14 Feb. 
1753^4, but was buried at Cambridge in the 
college chapel, where there is a monument to 
him. There are portraits in the college lodge, 
in the university library. A third, by Heins, 
is at Benacre Hall, and a fourth, by Bard- 
well, is in the possession of Mr. A. Hartshorne. 
He is only known as an author by the publica- 
tion of three sermons. 

[Cole's MSS., Brit. Mus. : College Keeords ; 
notes kindly supplied by Albert Hartshorne, esq., 
from Gooch's manuscripts in his possession.] 

GOOD, JOHN MASON (1764-1 827),phy- 
sician and miscellaneous writer, the second 
son of the Rev. Peter Good, a congregational 
minister at Epping, was born at Epping on 
25 May 1764. His mother, a Miss Peyto, 
the favourite niece of the Rev. John Mason 
[q. v.], author of ' Self- Knowledge,' died in 
1766. Good was well taught in a school kept 
by his father at Romsey, near the New Forest, 
and the latter's system of commonplace books 
was of great use to the son in after life. While 
at school he mastered Greek, Latin, and 
French, and showed unusual devotion to 
study. At fifteen he was apprenticed to a 
medical practitioner at Gosport, and during 
his apprenticeship he mastered Italian, read- 
ing Ariosto, Tasso, and Dante. In 1783-4 he 
went to London for medical study, attended 
the lectures of Dr. George Fordyce and others, 
and became an active member of the Physical 
Society of Guy's Hospital. In the summer 
of 1784, when only twenty, he settled in Sud- 
bury, in partnership with a Mr. Decks, who 
very shortly retired. Here Good married in 
1785 a Miss Godfrey, who only survived six 
months, and in 1788 a Miss Fenn, who bore 
him six children, and survived him. In 1792 
he lost a considerable sum of money by be- 
coming surety for friends, and although re- 
lieved by his father-in-law, he determined to 
free himself from difficulty by literary work. 
He wrote plays, translations, poems, essays, 
&c., but failed for some time to sell anything. 
At last he gained a footing on ' The World,' 
and one of the London reviews. In 1793 he 
removed to London, entering into partnership 
with a medical man, and on 7 Nov. was ad- 
mitted a member of the College of Surgeons. 

I His new partner was jealous of him, and soon 
caused the business to fail. While struggling 
to surmount his difficulties, Good in February 
1795 won a prize of twenty guineas offered 
: by Dr. Lettsom for an essay on the ' Diseases 
1 frequent in Workhouses, their Cure and 
Prevention.' In 1794 he became an active 
member of the ' General Pharmaceutic As- 
sociation,' designed to improve the education 
1 of druggists, who were then notorious for 
; their frequent illiteracy and mistakes. At 
' the request of some members of this society 
Good wrote his ' History of Medicine, so far 
as it relates to the Profession of the Apo- 
thecary,' 1795. He now gained considerable 
practice, and contributed to several leading 
I periodicals, including the ' Analytical ' and 
the ' Critical ' Reviews. The latter he edited 
for some time. In 1797 he began to trans- 
late Lucretius into blank verse. In order to 
search for parallel passages, he studied suc- 
cessively Spanish, Portuguese, Arabic, and 
Persian; he was already acquainted with 
Hebrew ; later he extended his acquirements 
to Russian, Sanscrit, Chinese, and other lan- 
guages. Much of his literary work was done 
while he walked the streets on his rounds ; 
even his translation of Lucretius was thus 
composed, a page or two at a time being ela- 
borated, until it was ready for being written 
down. This work occupied the intervals of 
nearly six years till 1805. The notes still 
have considerable value from their parallel 
passages and quotations. From 1804 to 1812 
he was much occupied, with his friend and 
biographer. Olinthus Gregory [q. v.], in the 
preparation of ' Pantologia,' a cyclopaedia in 
twelve volumes, to which he furnished a great 
variety of articles, often supplying by return of 
post articles requiring much research. IniOOS 
he was elected F.R.S. In 1811-12 he gave 
three courses of lectures at the Surrey Insti- 
tution, which were afterwards published in 
three volumes, under the title ' The Book of 
Nature.' In 1820 he devoted himself to prac- 
tice exclusively as a physician, and obtained 
the diploma of M.D. from Marischal College, 
Aberdeen, and in 1822 he became a licentiate 
of the Royal College of Physicians. In this 
year he published his ' Study of Medicine ' in 
four volumes,which was well received and sold 
rapidly, but proved of no permanent value. 
In it he endeavoured to unite physiology with 
pathology and therapeutics, an attempt which 
was bound to fail owing to the defective state 
of those sciences. His enormous labours at 
length told on his constitution, and for some 
years before his death his health was bad. 
He died of inflammation of the bladder on 
2 Jan. 1827, in his sixty-third year, at the 
house of his widowed daughter, Mrs. Neale, 



at Shepperton, Middlesex. Only one other 
child, a daughter, survived him. His son-in- 
law, the Rev. Cornelius Neale, senior wrangler 
in 1812, died in 1823. His grandson was Dr. 
J. M. Neale [q. v.] 

No man could be more conscientious or 
industrious than Good. He had a striking 
power of acquiring knowledge and of ar- 
ranging it in an orderly fashion. But he was 
without creative ability, and hence his works, 
while full of erudition, pleasingly though not 
brilliantly imparted, are not of permanent 
value. He was always active in works of 
benevolence, and had strong religious feel- 
ings. During the latter part of his residence 
atSudbury he became aSocinian or Unitarian, 
and from the time of his settling in London to 
1807 he was a member of a Unitarian church. 
In that year he withdrew, in consequence 
of what he considered recommendations of 
scepticism delivered from the pulpit, and he 
afterwards became a member of the esta- 
blished church, attaching himself to the evan- 
gelicals. In his later years he was an active 
supporter of the Church Missionary Society, 
giving the missionaries instruction in useful 
medical knowledge. 

Good wrote : 1. ' Maria, an Elegiac Ode,' 
1786, 4to. 2. ' Dissertation on the Diseases 
of Prisons and Poorhouses,' 1795. 3. 'History 
of Medicine, so far as it relates to the Pro- 
fession of the Apothecary,' 1795, 2nd edit. 
1796, with an answer to a tract entitled 
' Murepsologia,' criticising the first edition. 

4. ' Dissertation on the best Means of em- 
ployingthe Poor in Parish Workhouses,' 1798. 

5. 'The Song of Songs, or Sacred Idyls, trans- 
lated from the Hebrew, with notes critical 
and explanatory, 1803 ; two translations, one 
literal, the other metrical, are given, and the 
book is regarded as a collection of love-songs. 

6. ' The Triumph of Britain,' an ode, 1803. 

7. ' Memoirs of theLife and Writings of Alex- 
ander Geddes, LL.D.' [q. v.], 1803. 8. < The 
Nature of Things ; translated from Lucretius, 
with the original Text and Notes, Philological 
and Explanatory,' 2 vols. 4to, 1805-7. Jeffrey, 
in the ' Edinburgh Review,' x. 217-34, wrote : 
' These vast volumes are more like the work 
of a learned German professor than of an 
ungraduated Englishman. They display ex- 
tensive erudition, considerable judgment, and 
some taste ; yet they are extremely dull and 
uninteresting.' This translation has since 
been published in Bohn's Classical Library. 
9. ' Oration before the Medical Society of 
London on the Structure and Physiology 
of Plants,' 1808. 10. 'Essay on Medical 
Technology,' 1810 ('Trans. Medical Society,' 
1808). This essay gained the Fothergillian 
medal. 11. 'The Book of Job, literally 

translated, with Notes and an Introductory 
Dissertation,' 1812, 8vo. 12. ' Memoir of 
Rev. John Mason, prefixed to a new edition 
of his "Treatise on Self-Knowledge,"' 1812. 
13. ' Pantologia,' in conjunction with Olin- 
thus Gregory and Newton Bosworth, 12 vols. 
1802-13. Good wrote most of the medical 
and scientific articles, with some on philo- 
logical subjects. 14. 'A Physiological System 
of Nosology,' 1817. 15. ' The Study of Medi- 
cine,' 4 vols. 1822 ; 2nd edit. 1825 ; two edi- 
tions were afterwards edited bySamuel Cooper 
(1780-1848) [q. v.], 1832 and 1834. Six 
American editions of this work had been 
published up to 1835. 16. 'The Book of 
Nature,' 3 vols. 1826. This reached a third 
edition in England, and there were several 
American editions. 17. 'Thoughts on Select 
Texts of Scripture,' 1828. 18. 'Historical 
Outline of the Book of Psalms,' edited by 
the Rev. J. M. Neale, 1842. 19. 'The Book 
of Psalms, a new Translation, with Notes/ 
1854. 20. ' Thoughts for aU Seasons,' 1860. 
Good also wrote much in periodicals, besides 
those mentioned, contributed largely for some 
years to Dodsley's ' New Annual Register/ 
and was one of the editors and principal 
writers of ' The Gallery of Nature and Art,' 
1821 (see Life, pp. 88, 108). He contri- 
buted the introduction and notes to Wood- 
fall's edition of ' Junius,' 1812. Many of his 
occasional poems are contained in his ' Life/ 
and several in his ' Thoughts for all Seasons.' 
He left in manuscript, in addition to work* 
that have been published since his death, a 
new translation of the ' Book of Proverbs.' 

[Memoirs of the Life, Writings, and Character 
of John Mason Good, by Olinthus Gregory, 1828 ; 
Funeral Sermon, -with Notes and Appendix, by 
C. Jerram, 1827; Gent. Mag. (1827), xcvii. pt. i. 
276-8.] G-. T. B. 

GOOD, JOSEPH HENRY (1775-1857), 
architect, was a son of the rector of Sambrook, 
Shropshire, where he was born on 18 Nov. 
1775. He received his professional training 
from Sir John Soane, to whom he was ar- 
ticled from 1795 to 1799, and early in his 
career he gained a number of premiums for 
designs for public buildings. His most note- 
worthy works for private clients were Apps' 
Court Park, Surrey, and the mansion of 
Horndean, Hampshire, and other buildings, 
designed for Sir William Knighton. In 1814 
he was appointed surveyor to the trustees of 
the Thavies estate, Holborn, and some years 
later to the parish of St. Andrew's, Holborn, 
in which latter capacity he designed and 
carried out in 1825 the vestry hall, in 1830 
the national school, and in 1831 the work- 
house, Shoe Lane. He also in 1818 designed 




the interior decoration, &c., of St. Andrew's 
Church. In 1840 he erected the new hall in 
Coleman Street for the Armourers' Company, 
to which in 1819 he had been appointed sur- 
veyor. About 1822 he was appointed archi- 
tect to the Royal Pavilion at Brighton, and 
from 1830 to 1837 erected several new build- 
ings there, including the north and south 
lodges and entrances,additional stables,coach- 
houses, dormitory, &c. From 1826 to the 
dissolution of the commission he was archi- 
tect to the commissioners for building new 
churches, from which he subsequently enjoyed 
a pension. In 1830 he was appointed, under 
the office of works and public buildings, clerk 
of works to the Tower, Royal Mint, Fleet 
and King's Bench prisons, &c., and on 4 Jan. 
1831 succeeded, as clerk of works to Kensing- 
ton Palace, to the official residence at Palace 
Green, which, in spite of the abolition of the 
office, he occupied by permission of the sove- 
reign during the remainder of his life. He 
died there on 20 Nov. 1857, and was buried 
in Kensal Green cemetery. One of the ori- 
ginal fellows of the Royal Institute of British 
Architects, he took a lively interest in the 
study and progress of architecture. Among 
his many pupils were Robert Wallace, Henry 
Ashton, and Alfred Bartholomew. 

[Diet, of Architecture, Architectural Publica- 
tions Soc. 1848.] G. W. B. 

GOOD, THOMAS (1609-1678), master 
of Balliol College, born in 1609. was a native 
of Worcestershire or Shropshire. He was ad- 
mitted scholar at Balliol College in 1624, and 
took the degree of B. A. in 1628. Next year he 
was elected probationer-fellow, and in 1630 
fellow of his college. He proceeded M. A. in 
1631, and B.D. in 1639. He became vicar of 
St. Alkmund's in Shrewsbury, probably in 
1642. From this living he seems to have 
been ejected by the parliament (WALKER, 
Sufferings of the Clergy, pt. ii. pp. 253, 254 ; 
BLAKEWAY, Shrewsbury, ii. 280, 281) ; but he 
continued to hold the rectory of Coreley in 
Shropshire, to which he had been instituted 
before 1647, throughout the interregnum, 
and he submitted to the parliamentary visi- 
tors for Oxford. He was even appointed one 
of the visitors' delegates on 30 Sept. 1647. 
With Dr. Warmestry he met Baxter and 
other ministers of the Worcestershire Asso- 
ciation in September 1653 at Cleobury Mor- 
timer, in order to discuss the question of the 
Shropshire clergy joining the association, and 
signed a paper expressing unqualified ap- 
proval of the articles of agreement. He 
obtained leave of absence from Balliol Col- 
lege for a large part of the years from 1647 
to 1658, and then resigned his fellowship. 

At the Restoration he was created doctor of 
divinity as a sufferer for the king's cause. He 
was also appointed prebendary of Hereford 
on 29 Aug. 1660, and about the same time he 
was presented to the rectory of Wistanstow 
in Herefordshire. In 1672 he was unani- 
mously elected master of Balliol College. He 
died at Hereford 9 April 1678. 

His published works were : 1. 'Firmianus 
and Dubitantius, certain dialogues concerning 
Atheism, Infidelity, Popery, and other Here- 
sies and Schismes that trouble the peace of 
the Church and are destructive of primitive 
piety,' 8vo, Oxford, 1674. Reflections on the 
nonconformists contained in this work moved 
Baxter to write the author a letter of strong 
remonstrance, which is printed in ' Reliquiae 
Baxterianse,' pt. iii. pp. 148-51. 2. A folio 
sheet addressed to the ' Lords, Gentlemen, 
and Clergy of the Diocese and County of Wor- 
cester,' ' the humble proposal of a native of 
that county in behalf of ingenious young 
scholars.' This states that Worcestershire 
has no ' considerable encouragement ' for such 
scholars, and suggests the endowment of two 
or more fellowships in Balliol College, which 
(it is said) is ' commonlv known by the name 
of the Worcester College.' 3. 'A Brief Eng- 
lish Tract of Logick,' 12mo, 1677. In the 
British Museum (Addit. MS. 15857, f. 254) 
there is a letter from Good to Evelyn, thank- 
ing him for offering to present two of his 
books to Balliol College Library. 

[Wood's Athenae Oxon. (Bliss), iii. 1154; Re- 
liquiie Baxterianae, ii. 149, iii. 148 ; Register of 
the Visitors of the University of Oxford, 1 647-58 
(Camden Soc.) ; Kennett's Register and Chronicle, 
p. 333 ; Balliol College MS. Register; Bodleian 
Library Cat. of Printed Books.] E. C-N. 

GOOD, THOMAS SWORD (1789-1872), 
painter, was born at Berwick-upon-Tweed, 
4 Dec. 1789, the birth-year of David Wilkie. 
He was brought up as an ordinary house- 
painter, but in course of time began to exe- 
cute portraits at a cheap rate. From this he 
passed to genre painting, and between 1820 
and 1834 exhibited at the principal London 
exhibitions. To the Royal Academy he sent 
in 1820 'A Scotch Shepherd;' 'in 1821 
' Music ' and ' A Man with a Hare : ' in 1822 
(the year in which Wilkie's ' Chelsea Pen- 
sioners ' was exhibited) ' Two Old Men (still 
living) who fought at the Battle of Minden/ 
a charming little picture, now (1890) in the 
possession of Mr. F. Locker-Lampson. To 
the same year belongs 'An Old Northumbrian 
Piper.' In 1823 he exhibited 'Practice' (pro- 
bably the barber's apprentice shaving a sheep's 
head, engraved in mezzotint by W. Morrison) ; 
1824, ' Rummaging an Old Wardrobe ; ' 1825, 



' Girl and Boy ' and ' Smugglers Resting ; ' 
1826, ' A Study of Figures;' 1827, ' Fisher- 
men ; ' 1828, ' Interior, with Figures ; ' 1829, 
'Coast Scene, with Fishermen 'and 'Idlers;' 

1830, ' The Truant ' and ' Merry Cottagers ; ' 

1831, 'Medicine:' 1832, ' Coast Scene, with a 
Fisherman ' (now in the National Gallery) ; 
and 1833, ' The Industrious Mother.' Besides 
these, he sent forty-three pictures to the 
British Institution and two to the Suffolk 
Street Gallery, making a total of sixty-four 
works up to 1834. About this date, from some 
obscure cause, he relinquished his brush, and 
never resumed it professionally. He died in 
his house on the Quay Walls of his native 
town, 15 April 1872. Little is known of 
his life. He visited London and Wilkie, 
to whose school he belongs, though his con- 
nection with the ' Goldsmith of art ' would 
appear to be rather instinctive than direct. 

Besides the picture in the National Gal- 
lery mentioned above, there are in the same 
collection three specimens of Good's work, 
' The Newspaper,' which has been more than 
once reproduced, and two others ('No News ' 
and ' Study of a Boy '), both bequeathed in 
1874 by the painter's widow, Mary Evans 
Good, to whom he had been married in 1839. 
There are also several examples of Good's art 
in the Fitzwilliam Museum at Cambridge, 
and there is an admirable portrait of the 
artist's friend, the wood-engraver, Thomas 
Bewick, in the Museum of the Newcastle 
Natural History Society. But by far the 
largest collection of his works is that owned 
by Mr. J. W. Barnes of Durham, which be- 
sides oils, e.g. the above-mentioned ' Smug- 
glers Resting ' and ' Merry Cottagers,' water- 
colours, drawings, and etchings, includes a 
characteristic portrait of the artist by him- 
self. Good's subjects are simple, ingeniously 
lighted, and cleanly and dexterously painted. 
They are generally on panel. In boys, fisher- 
men, and smugglers he excelled, and he some- 
times exhibits considerable humour. W. 
Morrison, who engraved ' Practice,' also en- 
graved ' Music.' 

[Communications from Mr. J. W. Barnes ; 
Ward's English Art in the Public Galleries of 
London, pp. 118-20; Portfolio, 1889, xx. 111- 
113.] A. D. 

GOOD, WILLIAM (1527-1586), Jesuit, 
born at Glastonbury, Somersetshire, in 1527, 
was educated there, and admitted at Corpus 
Christi College, Oxford, 26 Feb. 1545-6, 
elected a fellow of that society 15 June 1548, 
and commenced M.A. 18 July 1552, being 
about that time humanity reader in the col- 
lege (BoASE, Registrum Univ. O.von. i. 218). 
He was one of the clerks of the market in 


1652. In Queen Mary's reign he obtained 
the benefice of Middle Chinnock, Somerset- 
shire, the prebend of Comba Octava in the 
church of Wells, and the head-mastership of 
the grammar school at Wells. Soon after 
the accession of Elizabeth he withdrew to 
Tournay, where in 1562 he was admitted into 
the Society of Jesus by Father Mercurianus, 
the provincial (afterwards general of the so- 
ciety). After he had passed his novitiate he 
was sent into Ireland with Dr. Richard Creagh 
j [l- v> ]> archbishop of Armagh, and laboured 
as a missionary in that country for several 
years. Then he went to Louvain, where he 
became acquainted with Robert Parsons, 
whom he persuaded to join the Jesuit order. 
In 1577 he was professed of the four vows at 
Rome. Subsequently he visited Sweden and 
Poland in company with Anthony Possevin 
in order to settle certain affairs relating to 
the order. While living in Poland he was 
elected by the provincial meeting as procura- 
tor to the fourth general congregation, and 
by his vote he assisted in the election of Father 
Claudius Aquaviva as general of the Jesuits 
(1581). After the congregation was over he 
remained in Rome as confessor to the Eng- 
lish College then recently established. His 
! appointment gave special satisfaction to Dr. 
\ Allen, as appears by his letter to Father 
I Agazzari, 1 June 1581. In 1582 Agazzari 
I appealed to him to clear him from the charge 
of enticing the students of the college into 
the Society of Jesus (Kyox.,'Letters and Me- 
morials of Cardinal Allen, p. 153). Good 
j died at Naples on 5 July (N. S.) 1586, and 
was buried in the college of the Jesuits in that 

His works are : 1. An abstract of the lives 
of the British saints, digested, says Wood, 
according to the years of Christ and kings 
of Great Britain. Manuscript formerly in 
the English College, Rome. 2. ' Ecclesiae 
Anglicanse Trophsea, sive sanctorum Mar- 
tyrum, qui pro Christo Catholicseque Fidei 
veritate asserenda, antiquorecentiorique Per- 
secutionum tempore, mortem in Anglia subie- 
runt, Passiones. Romse in Collegio Anglico 
per Nicolaum Circinianum depictse ; nuper 
autem per Jo. Bap. de Cavalleriis seneis typis 
repraesentatse,' Rome, 1584, fol., containing 
thirty-six plates, inclusive of the title-page, 
engraved on copper. These curious pictures, 
which formerly covered the walls of the 
church attached to the English College at 
Rome, were presented to that institution by 
George Gilbert [q. v.l Good superintended 
the work and supplied the artist with the 
subjects. A reproduction of the engravings, 
under the editorial supervision of the Rev. 
John Morris, appeared in 1888. 




[Wood's Athenae Oxon. (Bliss), i. 516 ; Tan- 
ner's Bibl. Brif. p. 332 ; Oliver's Jesuit Collec- 
tions, p. 105 ; Dodd's Church Hist. ii. 145 ; Re- 
cords of English Catholics, i. 328, 334, ii. 466 ; 
More's Hist. Missionis Anglic. Soc. Jesu, p. 13 ; 
Tanner's Societas Jesu Apostolorum Imitatrix, 
p. 210; Foley's Records, iv. 477, vii. 307; South- 
well's Bibl. Scriptt. Soc. Jesu, p. 314.] T. C. 

GOODACRE, HUGH (d. 1553), primate 
of Ireland, was vicar of Shalfleet, Isle of 
Wight, and chaplain to Bishop Poynet of 
Winchester. Strype supposes him to have 
been at first chaplain to Princess Elizabeth, 
who about 1548 or 1549 procured him a license 
to preach from the Protector, saying in a letter 
to Cecil that he had been ' long time known 
unto her to be as well of honest conversation 
and sober living as of sufficient learning and 
judgment in the Scriptures to preach the 
"Word of God.' When Archbishop George 
Dowdall, who was opposed to the Reforma- 
tion, retired from Armagh in 1552, Cranmer 
recommended Goodacre to Edward VI for 
the vacant see as ' a wise and well learned 
man/ and he was appointed by a letter 
under the privy seal dated 28 Oct. 1552. 
On 2 Feb. 1552-3 he was consecrated in 
Christ Church Cathedral, Dublin. He died 
in Dublin on 1 May of the same year, not 
without suspicion of having been poisoned I 
by priests ' for preaching God's verity and j 
rebuking their common vices ' (BALE, Voca- \ 
cyon, p. 343; see also BTJRNET, Reformation, 
iii. 325). He is said to have been 'famed 
for his preaching' (STRYPE). None of his 
writings were published. 

[Ware's Bishops of Ireland ; Strype's Me- 
morials of Archbishop Cranmer; Cotton's Fasti ; 
Mant's Hist, of Church of Ireland.] T. H. 

GOODAL, WALTER (1706 P-1766), 

Scottish antiquary. [See GOODALL.] 

1712), physician, was born in Suffolk in 1642, 
studied medicine at Leyden, and graduated 
M.D. at Cambridge 26 Nov. 1670. He then 
went to reside in London, attended some of 
the anatomical lectures of Dr. Walter Need- 
ham [q. v.] (The Colledge of Physicians vin- 
dicated, p. 66), and was admitted a candidate, 
a grade corresponding to the present degree 
of member, at the College of Physicians on 
26 June 1676. Earlier in the same year he 
had published ' The Colledge of Physicians 
vindicated, and the True State of Physick in 
this Nation faithfully represented.' This 
work is a reply to an attack on the college 
by Adrian Hyberts, and proves three points : 
that the College of Physicians was legally 
established, that it exercised its rights justly, 

and that it had advanced medical learning 
in England. The illustrations in support of 
the last show Goodall to have been well read 
in the science of his time. On 5 April 1680 
he was elected a fellow of the College of 
Physicians, delivered the Gulstonian lectures 
there in 1685, and the Harveian oration in 
1694 and 1709. He was censor in 1697, 1703, 
1705, and 1706, and president from 1708 till 
his death. In 1684 he published ' The Royal 
College of Physicians of London founded and 
established by law,' and 'An Historical 
Account of the College's Proceedings against 
Empirics, &c., in every prince's reign from 
their first Incorporation to the Murther of 
the Royal Martyr, King Charles the First.' 
These treatises are usually bound in one vo- 
lume. The first gives an account of all the 
acts of parliament, royal charters, and judicial 
decisions establishing the privileges of the 
College of Physicians. The second, after an 
epistle dedicatory, which contains excelleat 
brief biographies of the most distinguished 
fellows of the college of past times, gives de- 
tails of all the prosecutions of empirics, or 
uneducated practisers of physic, extracted 
from the college records, and is of great his- 
torical interest. On 28 April 1691 Goodall 
succeeded Needham as physician to the Char- 
terhouse, and for the rest of his life resided 
there with occasional visits to a house which 
he owned at Kensington. He enjoyed the 
friendship of Sydenham [q. v.], of Sydenham's 
son, of Sir Hans Sloane, and of most of the 
physicians of his time. He was warmly at- 
tached to the College of Physicians, and the 
manuscript annals bear testimony to his con- 
stant attendance at its meetings. He pre- 
sented the portraits of Henry VHI and of 
Wolsey which now hang in the censor's 
room. Sydenham dedicated his ' Schedula 
Monitoria ' to Goodall, and speaks with re- 
spect of his medical skill and with warm ad- 
miration of his character. A letter from 
Goodall making an appointment to meet 
Sloane in consultation at the Three Tuns in 
Newgate Street, London, is in the British 
Museum (Sloane MS. 4046), and in the same 
volume are six other autograph letters of his, 
all written in a hand of beautiful clearness. 
One dated 1 Sept. 1709 is from Leatherhead, 
the others from Charterhouse. On 26 Oct. 
] 698 he asks to borrow some books, on 28 Jan. 
1697 he asks Sloane about two Arabian mea- 
sures, ' Zasang' and 'Rhoxates,' and wishes 
to borrow ' Agricola, de ponderibus.' In an- 
other he proposes an edition of ' Sydenham,' 
and 9 Jan. 1699 wishes to consult Sloane as 
to his own health. He married thrice, died 
at Kensington 23 Aug. 1712, and is buried in 
the church of that parish. His widow gave 



his portrait to the College of Physicians in 
1713. His combat as Stentor, champion of 
the College of Physicians, with a champion 
of the Apothecaries, is one of the incidents 
of the fifth canto of Garth's ' Dispensary.' 

CHAELES GOODALL, the younger (1671- 
1689), poet, son of the foregoing, was edu- 
cated at Eton, and Merton College, Oxford, 
where he became post-master in 1688. He 
died 11 May 1689, and was buried in Mer- 
ton College chapel. He was, says Wood, ' a 
most ingenious young man.' He is author 
of an easily written volume of poems, entitled 
'Poems and translations written upon several 
occasions and to several persons by a late 
scholar of Eaton,' London, 1689. There are 
two dedications, one to the Countess of Claren- 
don, and the other to ' Mr. Roderick, Upper 
Master of Eaton School ' (WOOD, Athence, ed. 
Bliss, iv. 256). 

[Munk's Coll. of Phys. i. 403 ; Garth's Dis- 
pensary, 6th ed. 1706, p. 91; Works; Sloane 
MSS. in British Museum.] N. M. 

1813), actress, was the daughter of Stanton, 
manager of what was called a ' sharing com- 
pany ' in Staffordshire. From an early age 
she played in her father's company. She 
made so successful a debut at Bath as Rosa- 
lind, 17 April 1784, that John Palmer [q. v.] 
engaged her for his theatre. In Bath or 
Bristol she played Lady Teazle, Lydia Lan- 
guish, Miss Hardcastle, Mrs. Page, and many 
other characters, including Juliet and Des- 
demona. On 6 Oct. 1787, still in Bath as 
Mrs. Goodall, late Miss Stanton, she played 
Miranda in the ' Busybody.' On 2 Oct. 1788 
she made her d6but in London, at DruryLane, 
as Rosalind. She supported Miss Farren [q.v.] 
and Mrs. Jordan [q. v.] in other characters, 
and played also Charlotte Rusport in ' West 
Indian,' Angelica in ' Love for Love,' Milla- 
mant in ' Way of the World,' and Viola in 
' Twelfth Night.' Her refusal to play Lady 
Anne in ' King Richard III ' led to a quarrel 
with Kemble and to a keen newspaper con- 
troversy On 30 July 1789, expressly en- 
gaged by Colman the younger for ' breeches 
parts,' she appeared at the Haymarket as Sir 
Harry Wildair in the ' Constant Couple.' At 
one or other house she played many original 
characters in plays of secondary importance 
now forgotten. With the Drury Lane com- 
pany she migrated in 1791-2 to the King's 
Theatre in the Haymarket, where she played, 
30 Nov. 1791, Katharine to the Petruchio of 
Palmer, returning in 1794 with the company 
to Drury Lane. Two or three years later she 
ceased to belong to the summer company at 
the Haymarket, and in 1798-9 her name disap- 

pears from the Drury Lane bills. Sheplayed at 
the Haymarket for a short time in 1803. On 
19 July 1813 an action was brought by her 
husband, Thomas Goodall [q. v.], a merchant- 
captain in Bristol, who took the title of Admi- 
ral of Hayti, against William Fletcher, an at- 
torney, for criminal conversation. A verdict 
for the plaintiff, with 5,000/. damages,was then 
given. In the evidence it is stated that Mrs. 
Goodall was originally an actress, and had a 
family of eight children. From this point 
traces of Mrs. Goodall disappear. She had 
a symmetrical figure, and in this respect was 
pitted against Mrs. Jordan, whom she sur- 
passed in height. Her voice was melodious, 
but her articulation not quite clear. Her 
character is said to have been amiable. A 
portrait by De Wilde [q. v.], representing her 
as Sir Harry Wildair, is in the Mathews 
Collection at the Garrick Club. In the 
' Druriad,' a satire, 1798, 4to, she is described 
as possessing a neat figure and 

a pretty, lifeless face ; and it is said 
Nor joy, nor grief, affect (sic) her lifeless frame, 
Inanimate and gentle, mild and tame. 

A note says she conveys the idea of ' a well- 
constructed automaton.' 

[Genest's Account of theEnglish Stage; Hazle- 
wood's Secret History of the Green Eoom, 1795 ; 
Gilliland's Dramatic Mirror, 1808 ; Keport of 
Trial, Goodall v. Fletcher, 8vo, n. d. (1813) ; 
works cited.] J. K. 

GOODALL, EDWARD (1795-1870), 
line-engraver, was born at Leeds on 17 Sept. 
1795. He was entirely self-taught, and owed 
his proficiency solely to his own ability and 
perseverance. From the age of sixteen he 
practised both engraving and painting ; but 
having attracted the attention of Turner by 
one of his pictures exhibited at the Royal 
Academy in 1822 or 1823, the latter offered 
him as many plates to engrave from his 
paintings as he would undertake. This de- 
cided his future course as a landscape en- 
graver, and his principal plates were from 
the works of the great landscape painter. 
These included ' Cologne,' ' Tivoli, with the 
Temple of the Sybil,' ' Caligula's Bridge ' 
a commission from the artist which was never 
published ' Old London Bridge,' and several 
plates for the ' England and Wales ' series, 
and the ' Southern Coast.' To these must 
be added the exquisite little vignettes for 
Rogers's ' Italy ' and ' Poems,' and the illus- 
trations to Campbell's ' Poems.' He engraved 
also ' A Seaport at Sunset ' and ' The Mar- 
riage Festival of Isaac and Rebecca ' after 
Claude Lorrain, a ' Landscape, with Cattle 
and Figures,' after Cuyp, and ' The Market 
Cart ' after Gainsborough, all for the series 





of ' Engravings from the Pictures in the 
National Gallery/ published by the Asso- 
ciated Engravers ; ' The Ferry Boat,' after 
F. R. Lee, for Finden's 'Royal Gallery of 
British Art; ' and 'The Castle of Ischia,' after 
Clarkson Stanfield, for the Art Union of Lon- 
don. Although landscape engraving was his 
speciality, he also executed several figure sub- 
jects, more especially after the paintings of his 
son, Frederick Goodall, R.A. Among these 
were ' The Angel's Whisper ' and ' The Soldier's 
Dream,' 'The Piper' (engraved for the Art 
Union of London), 'Cranmer at the Traitor's 
Gate,' and ' The Happy Days of Charles the 
First,' all after Frederick Goodall; and 'The 
Chalk Waggoner ' after Rosa Bonheur. He 
also engraved some plates for the ' Amulet ' 
and for the ' Art Journal,' the latter com- 
prising ' Raising the Maypole,' ' A Summer 
Holiday,' ' The Swing,' ' Felice Ballarin re- 
citing Tasso/ ' Hunt the Slipper,' ' Arrest of 
a Peasant Royalist, Brittany, 1793,' ' The 
Post-boy, 'and 'The School of Sultan Hassan,' 
all after Frederick Goodall ; ' The Bridge 
of Toledo ' after David Roberts ; ' Amalfi, 
Gulf of Salerno/ after George E. Hering; 
' Manchester from Kersal Moor/ after W. 
Wyld ; ' Evening in Italy/ after T. M. Ri- 
chardson ; ' The Monastery/ after 0. Achen- 
bach ; and ' Dido building Carthage/ ' Cali- 
gula's Palace and Bridge, Bay of Baise/ and 
' Ulysses deriding Polyphemus/ after Turner. 
Goodall's fame rests mainly upon his plates 
after Turner, which are executed with great 
delicacy and beauty. He died at Hampstead 
Road, London, on 11 April 1870, leaving 
three sons, Frederick Goodall, R.A., Ed- 
ward A. Goodall, and Walter Goodall [q. v.], 
members of the Royal Society of Painters in 
Water-Colours, and a daughter, Eliza Goodall, 
afterwards Mrs. Wild, who exhibited some 
domestic subjects at the Royal Academy and 
British Institution between 1846 and 1855. 

[Art Journal, 1870, p. 182; Bryan's Diet, of 
Painters and Engravers, ed. Graves, 1886, i. 
584.] R. E. G. 

VELYAN (1848-1871), painter, son of 
Frederick Goodall, R.A., was a student at 
the Royal Academy. In 1868 and 1869 he 
exhibited some studies there, and in 1869 
was successful in obtaining the gold medal 
of the Academy for an original picture, ' The 
Return of Ulysses.' He went to Italy, and 
seemed on the threshold of a successful 
career, when he lost his life by an accident 
at Capri on 11 April 1871. He was twenty- 
three years of age. 

[Redgrave's Diet, of Artists ; Graves's Diet, of 
Artists, 1760-1880.] L. C. 

GOODALL, HOWARD (1850-1874), 
painter, son of Frederick Goodall, R.A., 
showed early promise as a painter. He ex- 
hibited at the Royal Academy in 1870 'Nydia 
in the House of Glaucus/ and in 1873 ' Capri 
Girls winnowing.' He died at Cairo on 17 Jan. 
1874, aged 24. 

[Redgrave's Diet, of Artists ; Graves's Diet, of 
Artists, 1760-1880.] L. C. 

GOODALL, JOSEPH (1760-1840), pro- 
vost of Eton, was born 2 March 1760. He 
was elected to King's College, Cambridge, 
from Eton in 1778. He gained Browne's 
medals in 1781 and 1782, and the Craven 
scholarship in 1782. He graduated B.A. in 
1783 and M.A. in 1786. In 1783 he became a 
fellow of his college and assistant-master at 
Eton. In 1801 he was appointed head-mas- 
ter of the school, which preserved its num- 
bers and reputation under him. In 1808 he 
became canon of Windsor on the recommen- 
dation of his friend and schoolfellow, the 
Marquis Wellesley. In 1809 he succeeded 
Jonathan Davies [q. v.] as provost of Eton. 
In 1827 he accepted the rectory of West Ils- 
ley, Berkshire, from the chapter of Windsor. 
Goodall had the virtues of the ideal head- 
master of an English public school ; he wrote 
Latin verses, of which specimens are in the 
' Muste Etonenses ' (1817, i. 146, ii. 24, 58,. 
87). The second volume is dedicated to him. 
His discipline was mild, and he was courteous, 
witty, hospitable, and generous. He was a 
staunch conservative, and during his life was 
supposed to be an insuperable obstacle to any 
threatened innovations. William IV once 
said in his presence, ' When Goodall goes I'll 
make you [Keate] provost ; ' to which he re- 
plied, ' I could not think of " going " before 
your majesty.' He kept his word, and died 
25 March 1840. He was buried in the col- 
lege chapel 2 April following. A statue in 
the college chapel was raised to his memory 
by a subscription of 2,000^., headed by the 
queen dowager. He founded a scholarship 
of 50/. a year, to be held at Oxford or Cam- 
bridge. A mezzotint from a portait by H. E. 
Dawe was published. 

[Gent. Mag. 1840, pp. 545, 670 ; Harwood's 
Alumni Etonenses, p. 354 ; Maxwell Lyte's Eton 
(1875), pp. 355, 371,401-3.] L. S. 


(d. 1801), admiral, was promoted to the 
rank of lieutenant in the navy in 1756, and 
on 2 June 1760 to the command of the 
Hazard sloop, in which he captured a French 
privateer, the Due d'Ayen, at anchor on the 
coast of Norway near Egersund an alleged 
breach of Denmark's neutrality, which gave 




rise to a long and curious correspondence, 
Goodall defending his action on the grounds 
that the French ship had made prizes within 
a league of the shore ; that ' the place was a 
piratical nest for French rovers, to the ob- 
struction of commerce by the meanest of 
vessels ; ' and that as the king of Denmark 
had no forts or ensigns there, and exercised 
no control or protection, the privateer be- 
came a just subject of forfeiture. On 13 Jan. 
1762, Goodall was posted to the command 
of the Mercury of 24 guns, in which 
he joined the flag of Sir George Pocock 
[q. v.] in the West Indies, and took part in 
the reduction of Havana. He was after- 
wards employed in the protection of trade 
on the coast of Georgia, and returned home 
in the spring of 1764. In 1769 he com- 
missioned the Winchelsea for service in the 
Mediterranean, and in the summer of 1770 
was sent to protect British interests at 
Smyrna, where the Turks, by reason of the 
war with Russia and the recent destruction 
of their fleet in Chesme Bay [see ELPHIN- 
STON, JOHN], were in a state of great excite- 
ment and exasperation. In 1778 he com- 
manded the Defiance of 64 guns, in the 
action off" Ushant on 27 July; and being 
afterwards moved into the Valiant, served 
in the Channel fleet through the three fol- 
lowing years, and at the relief of Gibraltar 
in 1781. He afterwards went out with 
Rodney to the West Indies, and took an 
honourable part in the actions off Dominica 
on 9 and 12 April 1782. The Valiant was 
one of the ships then detached with Sir 
Samuel Hood to intercept the flying enemy 
in the Mona passage, and being, by her 
better sailing, ahead of her consorts, it was 
to her that both the Caton and Jason struck 
their flags on 19 April. She returned to 
England on the peace, and was paid off. 
For a short time in the summer of 1790 
Goodall commanded the Gibraltar ; and on 
21 Sept. 1790 he was advanced to the rank 
of rear-admiral. In 1792 he was commander- 
in-chief in Newfoundland, but returned 
home in the winter, and in April 1793, with 
his flag in the Princess Royal, took one of 
the divisions of the fleet out to the Medi- 
terranean, where, during the occupation of 
Toulon, he acted as governor of the city. 
On 12 April 1794 he became a vice-admiral, 
and after the recall of Lord Hood com- 
manded in the second post under Admiral 
Hotham, in the actions of 13 March and 
13 July 1795, but without any opportunity 
of special distinction. Towards the close 
of the year he applied for leave to strike 
his flag, being disappointed, it was said, at 
not succeeding to the command of the fleet. 

He had no further service, but was advanced 
to the rank of admiral on 14 Feb. 1799. He 
died at Teignmouth in 1801. 

[Charnock's Biog. Nav. vi. 458; Ralfe's Naval 
Biog. i. 335 ; Official Letters in the Public Ee- 
cord Office. There are also some interesting 
notices in Nicolas's Nelson Despatches (see 
Index).] J. K. L. 

GOODALL, THOMAS (1767-1832?), 
admiral of Hayti, was born at Bristol in 
1767, and was intended by his father to be 
brought up as a lawyer ; but at the age of 
thirteen he ran away from school, and 
shipped on board a privateer bound for the 
West Indies, which was cast away on St. 
Kitts in the hurricane of Oct. 1780. He was 
so fortunate as to fall into the hands of a 
merchant there who was acquainted with his 
father, and passed him on to an uncle in 
Montserrat. He was now entered on board 
the Triton frigate, in which he was rated as 
midshipman, and was present at the action 
off Dominica on 12 April 1782. In October 
1782 he was transferred to the Thetis for a 
passage home ; after which he returned to 
the merchant service for a voyage to the 
Levant, and afterwards to China. In 1787 
he married Miss Stanton, a young actress 
[see GOODALL, CHARLOTTE], described as a 
very beautiful woman, whom he saw play ing 
at the Bath Theatre. During the Spanish 
armament in 1790, Goodall was borne as 
master's mate on board the Nemesis, com- 
manded by Captain A. J. Ball ; but on that 
dispute being arranged, having no prospects 
in the navy, he obtained command of a 
merchant ship bound to the West Indies. 
During his absence the war with France 
began, and on his homeward voyage he was 
captured by a French privateer and carried 
into L'Orient. He was, however, fortunate 
enough to win the good will of his captor, 
who found an opportunity to let him escape 
on board a Dutch timber ship then in the 
port. On his return to England, he is said 
to have been appointed to the Diadem frigate ; 
but he does not seem to have joined her ; he 
was certainly not entered on the ship's books 
[Pay-Book of the Diadem]. He accepted the 
command of a small privateer, and continued 
in her till the peace of 1801, ' during which 
time he is said to have made more voyages, 
fought more actions, and captured more prizes 
than ever before were effected in the same 
time by any private ship.' When the war 
broke out again, Goodall fitted out a small 
privateer of 10 guns and forty men, in which, 
on 25 July 1803, he fell in with, and after a 
stubborn defence was captured by, La Caro- 
line, a large privateer, and again carried into 




L'Orient. He and his men were sent on to 
Rennes, and thence to Espinal ; from which 
place he made his escape, in company with one 
of his officers. After many hardships and ad- 
ventures they reached the Rhine, succeeded 
in crossing it, and so making their way to 
Berlin, whence they were sent on to Eng- 

On the beginning of the war with Spain 
Goodall again obtained command of a pri- 
vateer, and in her captured a treasure-ship 
from Vera Cruz. He afterwards touched 
at St. Domingo, and having made some ac- 
quaintance with Christophe, one of two 
rival black presidents, he was induced to 
put his ship and his own services at the 
disposal of Christophe in the civil war that 
was raging between the two. His assist- 
ance seems to have turned the scale definitely 
in Christophe's favour; but Goodall was 
considered by the governor of Jamaica to 
have acted improperly, and was therefore 
sent home in 1808. On his arrival he was 
released, and shortly after returned to Hayti ; 
coming home again in 1810 and again in 1812. 
He is said to have remitted to his agent in 
England an attorney named Fletcher 
very large sums of money, to the amount of 
120,000/. The amount was probably exag- 
gerated, but that he had remitted consider- 
able sums seems established. He now, 
however, found himself a bankrupt by the 
chicanery of Fletcher, who had not only 
robbed him of his fortune but also of his 
wife, who, although the mother of eight 
children by Goodall, six of whom were living, 
had become Fletcher's mistress. It was de- 
posed on the trial that during her husband's 
imprisonment and absence from home Mrs. 
Goodall had supported her family by her 
theatrical profession ; but there was no 
whisper of any misconduct or even levity on 
her part, till she yielded to the seductions 
of Fletcher ; and the jury before whom the 
case was tried, taking this view of the 
matter, awarded the injured husband 5,000/. 

Of Goodall, nothing further is known ; 
but as his name does not occur in the later 
history of Hayti (LiMONADE, Relation des 
evenements, &c.), it would seem probable 
that he lived in privacy till his death, which 
is said to have taken place in 1832 (EvANS, 
Catalogue of Engraved Portraits, 1836). 

[European Mag. (May 1808), liii. 323. This 
biographical sketch would appear to have been 
furnished by Goodall himself, and is therefore 
liable to suspicion of exaggerating a romantic 
career : so far as they go, it is corroborated by 
the pay-books of the Triton and the Nemesis, 
now in the Public Record Office. General 

Evening Post, 23 April, 14 May 1808 ; Report 
of the Trial between Thomas Goodall (Plaintiff) 
and William Fletcher (Defendant), 1813, 8vo.] 

J. K. L. 

GOODALL, WALTER (1706 P-1766), 
apologist of Mary Queen of Scots, was the 
eldest son of John Goodall, a farmer in Banff- 
shire. He was educated at King's College, 
Old Aberdeen, which he entered in 1723, but 
left without taking a degree. In 1730 he 
obtained employment in the Advocates' Li- 
brary, Edinburgh, and in 1735 became sub- 
librarian. He aided the principal librarian, 
Thomas Ruddiman, in the compilation of the 
catalogue of the library, printed in 1742, 
which has now been entirely superseded. In 
1753 Goodall edited a new issue of the 
garbled ' Memoirs of the Affairs of Scotland/ 
originally published by David Crawford [q. v.] 
His interest in the ' Memoirs ' arose from the 
favourable representation they contained of 
the career of Queen Mary. Goodall at this 
time purposed to write a life of Queen Mary, 
and as a preliminary published in 1754, in 
two volumes, an ' Examination of the Letters 
said to be written by Mary Queen of Scots 
to James, Earl of Bothwell.' The work may 
be regarded as the inauguration of the apolo- 
gist epoch of the literature relating to the 
unhappy queen. It shows acuteness and dili- 
gence, and many of his arguments are still 
made to do service in vindication of Mary, 
although others have been discarded, and his 
researches have been supplemented by means 
of a more thorough examination, especially of 
the internal evidence bearing on the genuine- 
ness of the letters. In 1764 he also pub- 
lished an edition, with emendations, of Scot 
of Scotstarvet's ' Staggering State of Scots 
Statesmen,' and an edition of Sir James Bal- 
four's ' Practicks,' with preface and life. He 
assisted Bishop Keith in the preparation of 
his ' New Catalogue of Scottish Bishops,' for 
which he supplied the preliminary account 
of the Culdees. The historical value of this 
dissertation is impaired by Goodall's violent 
national prejudices. Not content with en- 
deavouring to deny that the Scotia of the 
early writers was Ireland, not Scotland, and 
that those first termed Scoti were really 
emigrants from Ireland, he affirmed that Ire- 
land's other ancient name, lerne, belonged also 
to Scotland. The ' glacialis lerne,' which,, 
according to Claudian, wept for her slain 
Scots, was in his opinion the brilliant and 
exquisite valley of Strathearn, the seat of an 
ancient Celtic earldom. Goodall published 
in 1759 an edition of Fordun's ' Scotichroni- 
con,' with a Latin introduction on the anti- 
quities of Scotland, and a dissertation on the 
marriage of Robert III. An English trans- 




lationof the introduction appeared separately 
in 1769. Goodall died in poverty 28 July 

[Scots Mag. xxviii. 390 ; Anderson's Scottish 
Nation ; Brit. Mus. Cat.] T. F. H. 

GOODALL, WALTER (1830-1889), 
water-colour painter, born on 6 Nov. 1830, 
was youngest son of Edward Goodall [q. v.l, 
the engraver, and brother of Frederick 
Goodall, R.A. He studied in the school of 
design at Somerset House and at the Royal 
Academy. In 1852 he exhibited three draw- 
ings at the Royal Academy. In 1853 he 
became an associate of the old Society of 
Painters in Water-colours, and continued to 
be a frequent exhibitor in Pall Mall from 
that date. In 1862 he became a full member 
of that society. His drawings were very 
much esteemed. He was a constant exhi- 
bitor at the Royal Manchester Institution 
and all the principal water-colour exhibitions. 
Some of his best work was shown at the 
exhibition of water-colour paintings at Man- 
chester in 1861. His 'Lottery Ticket' was 
exhibited at the Philadelphia Centennial Ex- 
hibition in 1876. Goodall usually painted 
small subject-pictures, such as ' The Day- 
dream,' ' The Cradle Song,' ' Waiting for the 
Ferry-boat,' and ' The Tired Lace-maker.' A 
number of these were lithographed in a series 
entitled ' Walter Goodall's Rustic Sketches.' 
Goodall also made many drawings from pic- 
tures in the Vernon Gallery for engravings 
published in the ' Art Journal.' About four- 
teen years before his death he had a paralytic 
seizure, from which he never quite recovered, 
and during the last few years of his life was 
unable to practise his art. He died on 14 May 
1889, in his sixtieth year, leaving a widow 
and three children. 

[Athenaeum, 1 June 1889; Manchester Guar- 
dian, 28 May 1889.] L. C. 

GOODCOLE, HENRY (1586-1641), di- 
vine, baptised at St. James's, Clerkenwell, 
MiddleseXj on 23 May 1586, was the son of 
James Goodcole of that parish, by his wife 
Joan Duncombe (Parish Registers, Harl. 
Soc. i. 17, iii. 4). He does not appear to have 
graduated at a university, nor to have ob- 
tained church preferment until late in life. 
A scandal connected with his marriage may 
have been the cause of his non-advancement. 
His ministrations seem to have proved ac- 
ceptable to the condemned prisoners in New- 
gate, whom he attended by leave of the 
ordinary, and whose dying confessions he 
occasionally published. Such are : 1 . ' A True 
Declaration of the happy Conuersion, con- 
trition, and Christian preparation of Francis 
Robinson, Gentleman. Who for covnter- 

fetting the Great Scale of England, was 
drawen, Hang'd, and quartered at Charing 
Crosse, on Friday last, being the Thirteenth 
day of Nouember, 1618,' 4to, London, 1618. 
2. ' The Wonderful Discovery of Elizabeth 
Sawyer, a Witch, late of Edmonton, her 
Conviction, Condemnation, and Death ; to- 
getherwith the Relation of the Devil'sAccess 
to her, and their Conference together,' 4to, 
London, 1621. 3. ' The Adultresses Funerall 
Day : in flaming, scorching, and consuming 
fire : or the burning downe to ashes of Alice 
Clarke late of Vxbridge in the County of 
Middlesex, in West-smithfield, on Wensday 
the 20. of May, 1635, for the unnatural! 
poisoning of Fortune Clarke her Husband. A 
breviary of whose Confession taken from her 
owne mouth is here unto annexed : As also 
what she sayd at the place of her Execution,' 
4to, London, 1635. In 1637 Goodcole appears 
as curate of St. James's, Clerkenwell, in which 
cure he was succeeded by James Sibbald, D.D., 
on 19 Nov. 1641 (NEWCOFRT, Repertorium, i. 
657). He married, at St. James's, Clerken- 
well, on 24 Aug. 1606, Anne Tryme, by 
whom he had, rather too soon, a daughter 
Joan, baptised on 25 Feb. 1606-7, and two 
sons, Andrew and Humphry (Parish Regis- 
ters, Harl. Soc. i. 49, 54, 60, iii. 31). 
[Robinson's Edmonton, p. 118.] G. G. 

GOODE, FRANCIS (1797 P-1842), di- 
vine, born in 1797 or 1798, was the son of 
William Goode, the elder [q. v.], by his 
wife Rebecca, daughter of Abraham Coles, 
silk manufacturer, of London and St. Albans, 
Hertfordshire. On 3 May 1809 he was ad- 
mitted to St. Paul's School, London, was 
captain during 1815-16, and proceeded as 
Campden exhibitioner to Trinity College, 
Cambridge, where he was elected to a Perry 
exhibition in 1818, and held it until 1823. 
In 1817 he gained a Bell university scholar- 
ship, and went out B.A. in 1820 as seventh 
wrangler, becoming subsequently fellow of 
his college (Admission Registers of St Paul's 
School, ed. Gardiner, p. 237). He proceeded 
M.A. in 1823. Soon after his ordination he 
went to India in the service of the Church 
Missionary Society. On his return home he 
was chosen evening lecturer of Clapham, 
Surrey, and in 1834 morning preacher at 
the Female Orphan Asylum, London. He 
died at Clapham on 19 Nov. 1842. He pub- 
lished many sermons. A collected volume, 
'The Better Covenant,' reached a fifth edition 
in 1848. 

[Gent. Mag. new ser. xix. 215-16; Cam-' 
bridge University Calendar; Funeral Sermons 
by C. Bradley, W. Dealtry, and W. Borrows in 
The Pulpit, xlii. 387-99, 417-22.] G. G. 




GOODE, WILLIAM, the elder (1762- 
1816), divine, born 2 April 1762 at Bucking- 
ham, was the son of William Goode (d. 1780) 
of that town. At ten years of age he was placed 
at a private school in Buckingham, and in 
January 1776 at the Rev. T. Bull's academy at 
Newport Pagnell, Buckinghamshire, where he 
remained until Christmas 1777. In the sum- 
mer of 1778, after making trial of his father's 
business, he went as a private pupil to the 
Rev. Thomas Clarke at Chesham Bois, Buck- 
inghamshire. He matriculated at Magdalen 
Hall, Oxford, on 2 May 1780, commenced re- 
sidence on the following 1 July, graduating 
B.A. 20 Feb. 1784,M.A.10 July 1787 (FOSTER, 
Alumni Oxon. 1715-1886, p. 537 ; Oxford 
Graduates, 1851, p. 264). On 19 Dec. 1784 
he was ordained deacon by Thurlow, bishop 
of Lincoln. He took the curacy of Abbots 
Langley in Hertfordshire, to which he added 
next year the curacy of King's Langley. At 
the end of March 1786 he became curate to 
William Romaine, then rector of the united 
parishes of St. Andrew by the Wardrobe 
and St. Anne, Blackfriars, at a salary of 40/. 
a year. On 11 June of the same year he 
was ordained priest by Bishop Thurlow. In 
February 1789 he obtained the Sunday after- 
noon lectureship at Blackfriars, and in De- 
cember 1793 the Lady Camden Tuesday even- 
ing lectureship at St. Lawrence Jewry. At 
the former lecture he delivered between No- 
vember 1793 and September 1795 a course 
of sermons on the Epistle to the Ephesians. 
The second edition of Brown's ' Self-inter- 
preting Bible,' published in 1791, was super- 
intended by him. Not long after he under- 
took for a while the ' typographic revisal ' 
of Bowyer's edition of Hume's ' History of 
England,' issued in 1806, but found his eye- 
sight unable to bear the strain. On 2 July 
1795 he was chosen secretary to the Society 
for the Relief of poor pious Clergymen of the 
Established Church residing in the Country. 
He had supported the society from its institu- 
tion in 1788, and held the office till his death. 
He declined a salary, voted by the com- 
mittee in 1803, preferring to accept an occa- 
sional present of money. In August 1 795 he 
succeeded, on the death of William Romaine, 
to the rectory of St. Andrew by the Ward- 
robe and St. Anne, Blackfriars; and in Decem- 
ber 1796 he resigned the Sunday afternoon 
lectureship at Blackfriars on his appoint- 
ment to a similar lectureship at St. John's, 
Wapping, which he retained until his death. 
He was elected to the triennial Sunday 
evening lectureship at Christ Church, Spital- 
fields, in 1807, and in July 1810 to the 
Wednesday morning lectureship at Black- 
friars. He thus preached never less than 

five sermons every week. In 1811 he pub- 
lished in two octavo volumes ' An Entire 
New Version of the Book of Psalms.' which 
reached a second edition in 1813 and a third 
in 1816. He was elected president of Sion 
College in the spring of 1813 and delivered 
the customary ' Concio ad Clerum.' In the 
autumn of 1814 Goode visited some of the 
principal towns in the north-western counties, 
and in 1815 Norwich and Ipswich, as the 
advocate of the Church Missionary Society. 
He died after a lingering illness at StockweU, 
Surrey, on 15 April 1816, and was buried 
in the rector's vault in St. Anne's, Black- 
friars, near the remains of William Romaine, 
as he had requested. By his marriage on 
7 Nov. 1786 to Rebecca, daughter of Abraham 
Coles, silk manufacturer, of London and St. 
Albans, Hertfordshire, he had, with twelve 
other children, two sons, Francis (1797-1842) 
[q. v.] and William, the younger [q. v.] In 
the June before his death Goode completed 
a series of 156 essays on the Bible names of 
Christ, on which he had been engaged above 
thirteen years, besides delivering them as 
lectures on Tuesday mornings at Blackfriars. 
Of these eleven appeared in the ' Christian 
Guardian' between July 1813 and May 1816 
and in September 1820. They were published 
in a collected form as ' Essay son all the Scrip- 
tural Names and Titles of Christ, or the Eco- 
nomy of the Gospel Dispensation as exhibited 
in the Person, Character, and Offices of the Re- 
deemer ... To which is prefixed a memoir 
of the Author' [by his son William], 6 vols. 
8vo, London, 1822. The 'Memoir' was 
issued separately in 1828, with an appendix of 
letters. Goode also published several sermons. 
His portrait by S. Joseph was engraved by 
W. Bond. 

[Memoir referred to ; Evans's Cat. of Engraved 
Portraits, ii. 170.] G. G. 

GOODE, WILLIAM, D.D., the younger 
(1801-1868), divine, son of the Rev. William 
Goode, the elder [q. v.], was born 10 Nov. 
1801, and educated at St. Paul's School, Lon- 
don, and Trinity College, Cambridge. He was 
first in classics in 1822, graduated in 1825, and 
was ordained deacon and priest in 1825, be- 
coming curate to his father's friend, Crowther, 
incumbent of Christ Church, Newgate Street. 
In 1835 he was appointed rector of St. An- 
tholin, Watling Street, which he held till 
1849, when the Archbishop of Canterbury 
presented him to the rectory of Allhallows 
the Great, Thames Street. In 1856 the lord 
chancellor presented him to the rectory of 
St. Margaret, Lothbury, which he held till 
1860, when Lord Palmerston advanced him 
to the deanery of Ripon. He was Warbur- 




tonian lecturer from 1853 to 1857. He died 
very suddenly 13 Aug. 1868. For some years 
Goode was editor of the ' Christian Observer,' 
and became the recognised champion of the 
so-called evangelical party in the Anglican 
church. He was the author of a large number 
of tracts, pamphlets, letters, and speeches upon 
the church-rate question, the Gorham case, 
and the whole tractarian movement. 

His chief works are : 1. ' Memoir of the 
Rev. W. Goode, M.A.,' 2nd edition, 1828, 
8vo. 2. ' The Modern Claims to the Posses- 
sion of the extraordinary Gifts of the Spirit, 
stated and examined,' &c., 2nd edition, 1834, 
8vo. 3. 'A Brief History of Church Rates, 
proving the Liability of a Parish to them to 
be a Common-Law Liability,' &c., 2nd edi- 
tion, 1838, 8vo. 4. ' The Divine Rule of 
Faith and Practice,' 2 vols. 1842, 8vo, and 
again revised and enlarged in 3 vols. 1853, 
8vo. This is an ' expansion of Chillingworth's 
doctrine that the Bible alone is the religion 
of protestants,' supported by a systematic col- 
lection of church authorities, and is perhaps 
the most learned exposition of distinctively 
evangelical theology. 5. 'Tract XC. histori- 
cally refuted ; or a Reply to a Work by the 
Rev. F. Oakeley, entituled " The subject of 
Tract XC. historically examined," ' 1845, 8vo, 
2nd edition, 1866. 6. ' The Doctrine of the 
Church of England as to the effects of Bap- 
tism in the case of Infants. With an Ap- 
pendix containing the Baptismal Services 
of Luther and the Nuremberg and Cologne 
Liturgies,' 1849, 8vo ; 2nd edition, 1850. 
7. ' A Vindication of the Doctrine of the 
Church of England on the Validity of the 
Orders of the Scotch and Foreign Non-Epi- 
scopal Churches,' in three pamphlets, &c., 
1852, 8vo. 8. ' The Nature of Christ's Pre- 
sence in the Eucharist, or the Doctrine of the 
Real Presence vindicated in opposition to the 
fictitious Real Presence asserted by Arch- 
deacon Denison, Mr. (late Archdeacon) Wil- 
berforce, and Dr. Pusey,' 2 vols., 1856, 8vo. 
A supplement to this appeared in 1858. 
9. 'Fulfilled Prophecy. A Proof of the 
Truth of Revealed Religion, being the War- 
burtonian Lectures for 1854-8,' 1863, 8vo. 

[Men of the Time, 1865; Record, 14 Aug. 
1868; Guardian, 19 Aug. 1868; obituary re- 
printed from Clerical Journal, 1883. See Brit. 
Mus. Cat. and Crockford's Directory for his 
works.] R. B. 

GOODEN, JAMES (1670-1730), Jesuit, 
born in Denbighshire in 1670, was educated 
in the college at St. Omer, entered the no- 
vitiate at Watten in 1689, and was professed 
of the four vows 2 Feb. 1706-7. For several 
years he taught philosophy and mathematics 

at Liege, and he filled the office of rector of 
the college of St. Omer from 14 March 1721- 
1722 till 15 April 1728, when he became su- 
perior of the house of probation at Ghent. 
He died at St. Omer on 11 Oct. 1730. 

His works are: 1. ' Anathemata Poetica 
serenissimo Walliae Principi Jacobi regis . . . 
filio recens nato sacra, offerebant ad ejusdem 
Principis pedes prostratae musse Audoma- 
renses,' St. Omer, 1688, 4to (composed by 
Gooden and G. Killick). 2. ' Trigonometria 
plana et sphserica, cum selectis ex astronomia 
Problematis,' Liege, 1704, 12mo. 

[Oliver's Jesuit Collections, p. 105; Paquot's 
Memoires ; x Foley's Records, vii. 307 ; De Backer's 
Bibl. des Ecrivains de la Compagnie de Jesus, 
1869, i. 2206.] T. C. 

GOODEN, PETER (d. 1695), controver- 
sialist, probably a son of Peter Gooden of 
New Hall, Pendleton, near Manchester, was 
educated in the English College at Lisbon, 
and after being ordained priest was sent back 
to England upon the mission, in company 
with Edward Barlow, alias Booth [q. v.] 
He appears first to have been chaplain to the 
Middletons at Leighton Hall, near Lancaster. 
About 1680 he removed to Aldcliffe Hall, the 
seat of the seven daughters of Robert Dalton, 
esq. In this mansion Gooden ' kept a sort 
of academy or little seminary for educating 
of youth, who were afterwards sent to popish 
colleges abroad to be trained as priests.' 
After the accession of James II, he was ap- 
pointed chaplain to the Duke of Berwick's 
regiment, and during that reign he had fre- 
quent conferences with Stillingfleet, William 
Clagett [q. v.], and other learned divines of 
the church of England. ' No man,' says Dodd, 
' was better qualified to come off with reputa- 
tion in a personal conference,' as ' he was 
naturally bold and intrepid, had a strong 
voice, a ready utterance, and generally made 
choice of such topics as afforded him matter 
to display his eloquence.' The revolution of 
1688 obliged him to retire to his old abode 
at Aldcliffe Hall, where he died on 29 Dec. 

He published: 1. 'The Controversial Let- 
ters on the Grand Controversy, concerning 
the pretended temporal authority of the Popes 
over the whole earth; and the true Sove- 
reignty of kings within their own respective 
kingdoms ; between two English Gentlemen, 
the one of the Church of England, and the 
other of the Church of Rome,' 2nd edit. 1674, 
8vo. This was against Thomas Birch, who 
was vicar of Preston, Lancashire, from 1682 
till his death in 1700. 2. ' The Sum of the 
Conference had between two Divines of the 
Church of England and two Catholic Lay- 




Gentlemen. At the request and for the satis- 
faction of three Persons of Quality, Aug. 8, 
1671,' London, 1687, 4to. An earlier edition 
was published, sine loco [1684], 4to. 

His conference with Stillingfleet gave rise 
to the publication of several controversial 
pamphlets, and ' The Summ of a Conference 
on Feb. 21, 1686, between Dr. Clagett and 
Father Gooden, about the point of Transub- 
stantiation,' was published in 1689-90 by 
William Wake, D.D., afterwards archbishop 
of Canterbury. It is reprinted in 'Seven- 
teen Sermons,' &c. by William Clagett, D.D., 
3rd edit., London, 1699, 8vo, vol. i. 

[Gillow's Bibl. Diet.; Dodd's Church Hist, 
ii. 481 ; Palatine Note-book (January 1582), 
ii. 9; Catholic Mag. yi. 108.] T. C. 

1845), dean of Wells, youngest son of Samuel 
'Goodenough [q. v.], bishop of Carlisle, by his 
wife, Elizabeth, eldest daughter of Dr. James 
Ford, physician extraordinary to Queen Char- 
lotte, was born at Baling, Middlesex, on 3 April 
1785. At an early age he was sent to West- 
minster School, where in 1797, when only 
twelve years old, he was elected into college. 
In 1801 he obtained his election to Christ 
Church, Oxford, where he took honours in 
Easter term 1804, and graduated B.A. 1805, 
M.A. 1807, B.D. 1819, and D.D. 1820. Hav- 
ing taken orders, Goodenough became tutor 
and censor of Christ Church, and in 1810 was 
appointed curate of Cowley, Oxford. In 1811 
he was chosen by the university as one of the 
mathematical examiners, and in 1816 filled 
the office of proctor. In Michaelmas term 
1817 he was appointed select preacher to the 
university, and in the following year was in- 
stituted vicar of Warkworth, Northumber- 
land. In 1819 Goodenough was appointed 
head-master of Westminster School and sub- 
almoner to the king, in succession to Dr. 
Page. On 23 June 1824 he was made a pre- 
bendary of York, on 22 April 1826 a pre- 
bendary of Carlisle, and on 1 June 1827 a 
prebendary of Westminster. In 1828 he re- 
tired from the head-mastership, and was suc- 
ceeded by Dr. Williamson. Towards the end 
of Goodenough's rule the numbers of the 
school steadily declined. On 6 Sept. 1831 he 
was nominated dean of Wells, in the place 
of the Hon. Henry Ryder, bishop of Lichfield, 
who succeeded to Goodenough's stall at West- 
minster. Goodenough was prolocutor of the 
lower house of convocation for a short time. He 
died suddenly at Wells, while walking in the 
fields near his house, on 2 May 1845, aged 59, 
and was buried in the Lady Chapel of Wells 
Cathedral, where there is a brass to his me- 
mory. He married, on 31 May 1821, Frances, 

daughter of Samuel Pepys Cockerell of West- 
bourne House, Paddington, by whom he had 
James Graham Goodenough [q. v.] and many 
other children. His widow, dying of cholera 
at Malaga on 5 Aug. 1855, was buried there. 
A portrait of Goodenough hangs in the din- 
ing-room of the head-master of Westminster 
School. Goodenough was an excellent scho- 
lar, and a man of much general culture. He 
was elected on the council of the Royal So- 
ciety in 1828. He published the three fol- 
lowing sermons: 1. 'A Sermon [on 1 Cor. 
xiv. 33] preached at ... Lambeth [12 Nov. 
1820], at the Consecration of ... W. Carey, 
. . . Bishop of Exeter,' London, 1821, 4to. 

2. 'A Sermon [on Deut. xxxiii. 9] preached 
... [13 May 1830] at the Festival of the 
Sons of the Clergy,' &c., London, 1830, 4to. 

3. ' A Sermon [on Luke xii. 47 and part of 48] 
preached in the Abbey Church, Bath [24 Jan. 
1832] at the Anniversary Meeting of the 
Bath Diocesan Association of the Society for 
the Propagation of the Gospel,' &c., London, 
1832, 8vo. 

[Alumni Westmon. (1852), pp. 36, 375-6, 447, 
455-6; Nichols's Lit. Illustr. (1831), vi. 254; 
Annual Eegister (1845), app. to chron. p. 273; 
Gent. Mag. (1821), vol. xci. pt. i. p. 562, (1846) 
new ser. xxv. lul-2, (1855) xliv. 334 ; Somerset 
County Herald, 10 and 17 May 18io ; Le Neve's 
Fasti (1854), i. 155, iii. 222, 253, 369, 503 ; 
Chester's Westminster Abbey Registers (1876), 
p. 95; Catalogue of Oxford Graduates (1851), 
pp. 264, 793 ; Honours Eegister of the Univ. 
of Oxford (1883), pp. 26, 132, 193, 198-9; Brit. 
Mus. Cat.] G. F. R. B. 

(1830-1875), commodore, son of Edmund 
Goodenough [q. v.], dean of Wells, and 
grandson of Samuel Goodenough [q. v.], 
bishop of Carlisle, was born on 3 Dec. 1830, 
at Stoke Hill, near Guildford, Surrey. The 
close connection of his godfather, Sir James 
Graham, with the admiralty had fixed his 
profession from the beginning, and after 
three years at school at Westminster, he en- 
tered the navy in May 1844 on board the 
Collingwood, commanded by Captain Robert 
Smart, and carrying the flag of Rear-admiral 
Sir George Francis Seymour [q. v.] as com- 
mander-in-chief in the Pacific. On the Col- 
lingwood's paying off, in the summer of 1848, 
Goodenough was appointed to the Cyclops on 
the coast of Africa, from which, towards the 
end of 1849, he was permitted to return 
home in order to pass his examination and 
compete for the lieutenant's commission in a 
special course at the college at Portsmouth. 
This commission he obtained in July 1861, 
and in September was appointed to the Cen- 
taur, carrying Rear-admiral Henderson's flag 




on the east coast of South America. On 
the near prospect of war with Russia the 
Centaur was recalled to England in February 

1854, and Goodenough, after a few months in 
the Calcutta guardship at Plymouth, was ap- 
pointed to the Royal William, which took a 
body of fifteen hundred French soldiers up 
the Baltic for the siege of Bomarsund, and 
after the reduction of the fortress returned 
to England with twelve hundred Russian 
prisoners. After a few weeks on board the 
Excellent, Goodenough was next appointed 
gunnery lieutenant of the Hastings, in which 
he served through the Baltic campaign of 

1855, and was present at the bombardment 
of Sveaborg on 20 Aug. During the early 
part of 1856 he commanded the Goshawk 
gunboat, one of the flotilla reviewed at Spit- 
head on 23 April, and on 4 Aug. was ap- 
pointed first lieutenant of the Raleigh, a 
50-gun frigate, commissioned for the broad 
pennant of Commodore the Hon. Henry 
Keppel, as second in command on the China 
station. After an extraordinarily rapid pas- 
sage, on 15 March 1857 the Raleigh, when 
within a hundred miles of Hongkong, struck 
on a rock till then vinknown, stove in her bows, 
and was run ashore near Macao as the only ; 
chance of saving her. The men and most of 
the stores were got safely ashore, but the ! 
ship, sinking gradually in the fetid mud, was ; 
lost. The Raleigh's crew was kept together 
for some months, during which time Good- ! 
enough commanded the hired steamer Hong- 
kong, and in her took part in the engage- j 
ment in Fatchan Creek on 1 June. He was 
afterwards appointed to the Calcutta, the 
flagship of Sir Michael Seymour (1802-1887) i 
[q. v.], and commanded her field-pieces at I 
the capture of Canton on 28-9 Dec. 1857. | 
He was immediately afterwards promoted to 
be commander of the Calcutta, in which ca- 
pacity he took part in the capture of the 
Taku forts on 20 May 1858. The Calcutta 
was paid off at Plymouth early in August 
1859, and a few weeks later, on the news of 
Sir James Hope's [q. v.] bloody repulse from 
the Taku forts, Goodenough was again sent out 
to China in command of the Renard sloop. In 
her he took part in the second capture of the 
Taku forts in June 1860, and in the following 
operations in the Peiho, his ship being kept 
at Tien-tsin till November. He was after- 
wards senior officer at Shanghai and in the 
Yang-tse-kiang, till, in November 1861, his 
health having suffered from his long service 
in China, he obtained leave to return to 

In July 1862, at the request of Rear-admiral 
Smart, then in command of the Channel 
fleet, Goodenough was appointed commander 

of his flagship, the Revenge, in which in the 
following spring Smart went out to assume 
command of the Mediterranean station. On 
9 May Goodenough was promoted to the rank 
of captain, and returning to England was 
within a few months sent out to North 
America on a special mission, ' to obtain 
what information he could with regard to the 
ships and guns there in use.' It was known 
that the civil war was causing a marked de- 
velopment of naval armaments, and Good- 
enough's reputation as a scientific gunnery 
officer stood high. He returned to England 
in May 1864, and was shortly afterwards ap- 
pointed to the Victoria, fitting for the flag of 
Admiral Smart in the Mediterranean. In 
May 1866 Smart, and with him his flag-cap- 
tain, were relieved, but shortly afterwards 
Goodenough was invited by Rear-admiral 
Warden to go as his flag-captain in the Mino- 
taur in the Channel squadron. From 1867 
to 1870, first with Warden and then with 
Sir Thomas Symonds, Goodenough continued 
in the Minotaur, and on his being relieved 
from the command in October 1870, he offered 
his services on the French Peasant Relief 
Fund, which had been started by the ' Daily 
News.' After working for a month in the 
neighbourhood of Sedan, he was afterwards, 
in February 1871, sent to Dieppe to superin- 
tend the transmission to Paris of a quantity 
of relief stores. He was at this time also 
appointed a member of the admiralty com- 
mittee on designs for ships of war, on which 
he served till July, and in August he was 
appointed naval attach^ to the several em- 
bassies in Europe, on which duty he continued 
for a twelvemonth, his brother, Colonel Good- 
enough of the Royal Artillery, being at the 
same time military attache at Vienna. In 
May 1873 he was appointed commodore of 
the Australian station and captain of the 
Pearl, which sailed from Spithead in the 
following month. After a busy two years, 
visiting many of the islands on his wide ex- 
tended station, he was on 12 Aug. 1875 at 
Santa Cruz, where, going on shore with a 
few men, and engaged in what seemed friendly 
intercourse with the natives, he was trea- 
cherously shot in the side by an arrow. A 
flight of arrows followed : six men in all were 
wounded. They hastily got into the boats 
and pulled off to the ship, and understand- 
ing that, with the possibility of the arrows 
having been poisoned, it was advisable to get 
into a cooler climate, Goodenough gave orders 
to shape a course for Sydney. The wounds 
in themselves were slight, but in a few days 
Goodenough and two of the other men showed 
symptoms of tetanus, which in all three cases 
proved fatal. Goodenough died on the even- 




ing of 20 Aug., about five hundred miles 
from Sydney, where he was buried on the 
24th. He left a widow and two sons, one of 
whom is now a lieutenant in the navy. A 
subscription bust, an excellent likeness, by 
Prince Victor of Hohenlohe, himself a former 
messmate of Goodenough in the Raleigh, 
has been placed in the Painted Hall at 

Goodenough, in his rare moments of leisure, 
acquired varied accomplishments. He was a 
skilful and elegant swordsman ; he could read 
and enjoy the Latin poets ; and his knowledge 
of modern languages was remarkable. He is 
said to have been able to converse fluently in 
seven. All the theoretical parts of his pro- 
fession were familiar to him. Reserved and 
grave in manner, even as a young man, he 
inspired all with whom he served with con- 
fidence and esteem. 

[Journal (1873-5), edited, with a memoir, by 
his widow ; In Memoriam James Graham Good- 
enough, by the Hon. and Rev. Algernon Stanley ; 
personal knowledge.] J. K. L. 

GOpDENOUGH, RICHARD (fi. 1686), 
conspirator, was an attorney of bad repute, 
who contrived nevertheless to obtain the 
under-sherifidom of London, which he held 
in turn with his brother Francis for some 
years. The whig party long relied upon 
him for questionable services, especially in 
the selection of jurymen. In July 1682 the 
justices of the peace fined him IQQl. because 
he refused to alter the panel as they pleased 
at the sessions at Hicks's Hall (LTTTTRELL, 
Historical Relation, i. 205). In the following 
September,' upon complaint against Mr. Good- 
enough, the under-sheriff, for not provideing 
a dinner for their worships, the justices 
committed him to prison, denyeing bail' (ib. 
i. 216). Along with Alderman Henry Cornish 
[q. v.] and several others hewas tried, 16Feb. 
1683, for a pretended riot and assault on the 
lord mayor, Sir John Moore, at the election of 
sheriffs for the city of London at the Guildhall 
on midsummer day 1682. Although it was 
shown that he was not at the Guildhall until 
some three hours after the supposed disturb- 
ance, Chief-justice Saunders in his summing- 
up singled him out, in company with Forde, 
lord Grey of Werke [q. v. ] , for especial cast iga- 
tion, insinuating that they were the promoters 
of the fictitious riot. He was found guilty 
and fined five hundred marks on 1 5 June, when 
he failed to appear (COBBETT, State Trials, 
ix. 187-293). He had been deeply implicated 
in the Rye House plot (1683), and had sought 
an asylum in the Low Countries. On 23 June 
a reward of 100/. was offered for his capture ; 
on 12 July the grand jury found a true bill 

against him and his brother Francis for high 
treason, and both were outlawed (LTJTTRELL, 
i. 262, 263, 267, 273). He remained abroad 
until Monmouth's rebellion. Monmouth ap- 
pointed him his 'secretary of state' (ib. i. 349). 
After the battle of Sedgemoor (5 July 1685) 
he fled with Nathaniel Wade and Robert Fer- 
guson and reached the coast in safety, only to 
find a frigate cruising near the spot where they 
had hoped to embark. They then separated. 
Goodenough and Wade were soon discovered 
and brought up to London, 20 July 1685 
(ib. i. 354). He was suffered to live because 
he had it in his power to give useful in- 
formation to the king. He had a private 
grudge against Henry Cornish [q. v.], who 
when sheriff in 1680 had declined to employ 
him. Goodenough now consented to swear 
with Colonel John Rumsey, a fellow-con- 
spirator, that Cornish was concerned with 
them in the Rye House plot. To qualify him 
for this task a patent was passed for his pardon 
(ib. i. 360, 365). On 9 Dec. he helped to swear 
away the life of Charles Bateman the surgeon, 
who was tried for high treason in conspiring 
the death of Charles II (HowELL, State Trials, 
xi. 472); and on 14 Jan. 1686 was produced 
with Grey and Wade at the trial of Henry 
Booth, lord Delamere [q. v.], but could only 
repeat what he had heard said by Monmouth 
and by Wildman's emissaries (ib. xi. 542). 
He was to have appeared along with Grey on 
7 May 1689 as a witness against John Charl- 
ton, also charged with high treason against 
Charles II, but both had the good sense to 
keep away (LTTTTKEIL, i. 531). According to 
Swift (note in BURNET, Own Time, Oxford 
edit. iii. 61), Goodenough went to Ireland, 
practised his profession, and died there. 

[Macaulay's Hist, of England, ch. v. vi. ; 
(Thomas Sprat's) A True Account ... of the 
horrid Conspiracy against the late King (Copies 
of the Informations, &c.), 2nd edit. fol. 1685.1 

G. G. 

1827), bishop of Carlisle, born at Kimpton, 
near Weyhill, Hampshire, on 29 April 1743 
(O.S.), was the third son of the Rev. William 
Goodenough, rector of Broughton Poggs, Ox- 
fordshire. In 1750 the family returned to 
Broughton, and Samuel was sent to school 
at Witney, under the Rev. B. Gutteridge ; 
five years later he was sent to Westminster 
School, where Dr. Markham, afterwards arch- 
bishop of York, was head-master. He became 
king's scholar, and in 1760 was elected to a 
studentship at Christ Church, Oxford, took his 
B.A. degree 9 May 1764, and proceeded M.A. 
25 June 1767 and D.C.L. 11 July 1772. In 
1766 Goodenough returned to Westminster as 


irnder-master for four years, when he quitted 
that post for the church, having inherited 
from his father the advowson of Broughton 
Poggs, and received from his college the 
vicarage of Brize-Norton, Oxfordshire. He 
married on 17 April 1770 Elizabeth, eldest 
daughter of Dr. James Ford, formerly physi- 
cian to the Middlesex Hospital. Two years 
subsequently he established a school at Ealing, 
and carried it on for twenty-six years, during 
which time he had the charge of the sons of 
many noblemen and gentlemen of position. 
Goodenough's reputation as a classical tutor 
ranked high. But his strongest bent was 
towards botany, and when the Linnean So- 
ciety was established in 1787 he was one of 
the framers of its constitution and treasurer 
during its first year. He contributed a clas- 
sical memoir on the genus Carex to the second 
and third volumes of the ' Transactions ' of 
that body. In addition to being one of the 
vice-presidents of the Linnean, Sir J. E. Smith 
being president, he was for some time a vice- 
president of the Royal Society (of which he 
became a fellow in 1789) while Sir Joseph 
Banks was the presiding officer, and he also 
shared in the conduct of the Society of Anti- j 
quaries. In 1797 he was presented to the 
vicarage of Cropredybythe Bishop of Oxford, 
in the following year he was advanced to the 
canonry of Windsor, and in 1802 promoted 
to the deanery of Rochester. In this pre- 
ferment he was aided by the warm friendship 
of the third Duke of Portland, all of whose 
sons had been his pupils. As a final proof 
of the duke's favour Goodenough in 1808 was 
elevated to the episcopal bench as bishop of 
Carlisle. He died at Worthing on 12 Aug. 
1827, surviving the loss of his wifeonly eleven 
weeks, and was buried on the 18th of that 
month in the north cloister of Westminster 
Abbey. He left three sons, all clergymen 
(Samuel James, Robert Philip, and Edmund, 
afterwards dean of Wells [q. v.]), and four 

The bishop was a sound and elegant scholar. 
Sir J. E. Smith consulted him on points of 
latinity when engaged on the splendid ' Flora 
Graeca,' the 'Flora Britannica,' and lesser 
works. Besides the Carex paper, and another 
on British Fuci, and two others on natural 
history, also in the Linnean Society's 'Trans- 
actions,' Goodenough published three sermons 
and began a'Botanica Metrica,' which should 
have included all botanical names, with their 
derivations, but the work was never finished. 
The genus Goodenia was dedicated to him by 
his friend Sir J. E. Smith. It was a sermon 
preached by Goodenough before the House 
of Lords in 1809 that gave birth to the well- 
known epigram : 

125 Goodere 

'T is well enough that Goodenough 
Before the Lords should preach ; 

But, sure enough, full bad enough 
Are those he has to teach. 

He is eulogised in Mathias's ' Pursuits of 
Literature.' His portrait is in the hall at 
Christ Church. 

[Nichols's Lit. Illustr. vi. 245-56; Welch's 
Alumni Westmonast. pp. 374-5.] B. D. J. 

GOODERE, SAMUEL (1687-1741), cap- 
tain in the navy, was third and youngest son 
of Sir Edward Goodere, bart., of Burhope 
in Herefordshire, by his wife, daughter and 
heiress of Sir Edward Dineley, bart., of Charle- 
ton in Worcestershire, and on the mother's 
side granddaughter of Lewis Watson, first 
lord Rockingham. The eldest son having 
been killed in a duel, the second son, John 
Dineley, who had been brought up at sea in 
the merchant service, and had served as a 
volunteer on board the Diamond in 1708, 
quitted his profession by desire of Sir Edward 
Dineley, who acknowledged him as his heir. 
Samuel entered the navy in 1705 as a volun- 
teer on board the Ipswich, with Captain 
Kirktowne ; served in a subordinate rank and 
afterwards as a lieutenant through the war 
of the Spanish succession, and on 12 Jan. 
1718-19 was appointed first lieutenant of 
the Preston with Captain Robert Johnson, 
whom, on 28 Feb., he accompanied to the 
Weymouth, in which he served during the 
summer, in the operations on the north coast 
of Spain ; and on 6 Nov. 1719 was, with 
Johnson and the greater part of the officers, 
turned over to the Deptford. A few weeks 
later, however, Johnson preferred against 
him a charge of misconduct at St. Sebastian's 
on 23 June, the attack having, it was alleged, 
failed in consequence. On this charge Goodere 
was tried by court-martial on 24 Dec. 1719, 
was found guilty of ' having been very much 
wanting in the performance of his duty,' and 
was dismissed his ship {Minutes of the Court- 
Martial), which, in the reign of comparative 
peace then beginning, was almost equivalent 
to being dismissed the service. It is very 
doubtful whether he served again at sea till 
November 1733, when, consequent apparently 
on some electioneering job, he was posted to 
the Antelope of 50 guns. It was, however, 
for rank only, and he was superseded in a 
fortnight. So far as conflicting accounts en- 
able us to judge, he lived at this time with 
his father, now a very old man and at vari- 
ance with his elder son, the heir to the 
baronetcy, who is spoken of as rough, un- 
couth, and of no education. It would seem 
that Samuel, taking the father's side, was 
already on bad terms with his brother ; and 



Good ford 

these became worse when John, having quar- 
relled with his wife, found that she too was 
supported against him by Samuel. Sir Ed- 
ward died on 29 March 1739, leaving more 
to Samuel than John (his successor in the 
baronetcy) thought was a second son's share, 
but less than Samuel had expected. An angry 
quarrel was the result. John, joining with 
his son who was of age, cut off the entail, 
and, on his son's death shortly after, announced 
his intention of leaving the property to one 
of the sons of his sister Eleanor, wife of Mr. 
Samuel Foote of Truro and mother of Samuel 
Foote the comedian [q. v.] Goodere's rage was 
excessive, and for some months the brothers 
held no communication. In November 1740 
Samuel was appointed to the command of 
the Ruby, then lying in King's Road, Bristol, 
and she was still there on Sunday, 18 Jan., 
when Samuel, being on shore, learned that 
his brother, Sir John, was dining with a 
Mr. Smith, an attorney of the city. On this 
Samuel sent a note to Smith, saying that, 
having heard his brother was there, he would 
be glad to meet him if Smith would allow 
him to come in. Accordingly in the evening 
he went to Smith's house, and the two 
brothers smoked and drank together, and to 
all appearance made up their quarrel. But, 
as John was walking towards his lodgings, 
he was seized by Samuel's orders, carried 
down to the boat, taken on board the Ruby, 
and confined in a spare cabin, the captain 
telling the men on deck not to mind his cries, 
as he was out of his mind, and would have 
to be watched to prevent his attempting his 
own life. Three men were chosen to attend 
the prisoner, and these three men, after being 
well primed with brandy, and on the promise 
of large rewards, went into the cabin early 
next morning (19 Jan. 1741), put a rope round 
Sir John's neck, and strangled him, Samuel 
meanwhile standing sentry at the door with 
a drawn sword to prevent any interference. 
He had apparently intended to put to sea at 
once, but Smith, having had information the 
previous night that a gentleman resembling 
his guest had been taken a prisoner on board 
the Ruby, applied to the mayor for an in- 
vestigation. This was made at once. Goodere 
and his vile tools were apprehended on a charge 
of wilful murder, were tried on 26 March, 
found guilty, and sentenced to death. They 
were all four hanged on 15 April 1741. 

Goodere married Miss Elizabeth Watts of 
Monmouthshire, and by her left issue three 
daughters and two sons. Of the daughters 
two died unmarried ; the third, Anne, mar- 
ried John Willyams, a commander in the 
navy, and was the mother of the Rev. 
Cooper "Willyams [q. v.] Of the two sons, 

twins, born in 1729, the elder, Edward 
Dineley, died a lunatic in 1761 ; the other, 
John Dineley [see DIJTELEY-GOODERE, SIR 
JOHN], died a poor knight of Windsor in 
1809. Samuel, on the death of his brother 
John, should have succeeded to the baro- 
netcy. He appears, however, to have been 
indicted as Samuel Goodere, esq., and Ralph 
Bigland, in his manuscript collections in the 
Heralds' College (information supplied by 
Mr. A. Scott Gatty, York Herald), speaks of 
his sons Edward Dineley-Goodere and John 
Dineley-Goodere as successive baronets, fol- 
lowing their murdered uncle. But Burke 
thinks that the baronetcy descended in due 
course to Samuel and to his sons after him. 
Collins (Baronetage, 1741) speaks of the baro- 
netcy as extinct ; so also does Wotton (Baro- 
netage,zdi. 1771), specifying' attainted.' Nash 
(Hist, of Worcestershire, i. 272) says that 
Sir Edward Dineley-Goodere succeeded his 
grandfather, which is certainly wrong, and 
was succeeded by his brother, Sir John Dine- 
ley-Goodere (so also Gent. Mag. 1809, pt. ii. 
p. 1084). It is probable that Collins and 
Wotton are right ; that the baronetcy became 
extinct in 1741, on the sentence of Samuel 
Goodere, though the twins may have been 
allowed the title by courtesy. 

[The Genuine Memoirs of Sir John Dineley- 
Goodere, Bart. , . . together with the Life, His- 
tory, Trial, and last Dying Words of his Brother, 
Captain Samuel Goodere ... by S. Foote, 1741 ; 
The Genuine Trial of Samuel Goodere, Esq. . . . 
taken in Shorthand by Order and Direction of 
S. Foot, 1741 ; Gent. Mag. (1825), vol. xcv. pt. ii. 
p. 136 ; letters and other documents in the Public 
Kecord Office. The memoir in Charnock's Biog. 
Nav. iv. 241, is exceedingly inaccurate in the 
details of Goodere's early life and service.] 

J. K. L. 

1884), provost of Eton, second son of John 
Goodford of Chilton-Cantelo, Somersetshire, 
who died in 1835, by Charlotte, fourth 
daughter of Montague Cholmeley of Easton, 
Lincolnshire, was born at Chilton-Cantelo 
15 July 1812, and entered at Eton in 1826. 
He proceeded to King's College, Cambridge, 
in 1830, whence he took his B.A. 1836, 
M.A. 1839, and D.D. 1853. He was elected 
a fellow of his college, but did not long re- 
tain his fellowship, as on 28 March 1844 he 
married Katharine Lucia, third daughter of 
George Law of Lincoln's Inn. While still 
an undergraduate he returned to Eton and 
became an assistant-master in 1835. It was 
not long before he succeeded his former tutor, 
John Wilder, in charge of a large and im- 
portant schoolhouse, in which a number of 
the resident boys were from his own and the 





adjacent counties. As a house-master he was 
liberal and kind, but his management was not 
equal to his good intentions. In 1853 he 
succeeded Edward Craven Hawtrey, D.D., as 
head-master at Eton. His rule on the whole 
was beneficial to the college. He aimed at 
a very complete reconstruction of the system 
of teaching; he made discipline a reality, 
while he abolished many vexatious rules 
which had needlessly restricted liberty, and 
would have done more but for the veto of the 
provost. In 1854 he edited ' P. Terentii Afri 
Comoedise,' a work which he printed chiefly 
to present as a leaving book to his sixth-form 
boys. On the death of Dr. Hawtrey, Lord 
Palmerston, in ignorance of the needs of Eton, 
and much against Goodford's own wishes, 
appointed him provost of Eton, a position 
which he held from 27 Jan. 1862 to his death. 
Under the Cambridge University commission 
of 1 860, and more particularly under the royal 
commission of 1865, great changes and im- 
provements were made in the college. Good- 
ford held the small family living of Chilton- 
Cantelo from 1848 to his death. He died 
at The Lodge, Eton, 9 May 1884, and was 
buried in the Eton cemetery 14 May. 

[Lyte's Eton College, 1875, pp. 475-8, 517, 
519;"Times, 10 May 1884, p. 7, 12 May p. 9, 
and 15 May p. 5; Academy, 17 May 1884, pp. 
349-50; Graphic, 7 June 1884, pp. 546, 549, 
with portrait ; Illustrated London News, 17 May 
1884, pp. 465, 475, with portrait] G. C. B. 

GOODGROOME, JOHN (1630 P-1704 ?), 
composer, lutenist, singer, and teacher, was 
one of a family of musicians, born at Windsor, 
and bred up a chorister. He was present at 
the coronations of Charles II, James II, and 
William and Mary, as one of the gentlemen 
of the Chapel Royal. In 1666 Goodgroome 
succeeded Notario and Henry Purcell the 
elder as musician in ordinary for the lute 
and voice and lute and violl, at the fee of 
40, and 161. 2s. 6d. yearly for livery, while 
his post in the chapel choir was worth from 
70/. to 73/. According to Wood, Goodgroome 
was a ' rare songster, and taught some persons 
to sing.' Four airs by Goodgroome, with bass 
for theorbo lute, or bass violl, were published 
in J. PlayfordV Select Airs,' and subsequently 
in the ' Treasury ' of March 1669, and three of 
these, arranged for two and three voices, in 
the 'Musical Companion,' 1673; other music 
is in the Lambeth Palace Library, and two 
manuscript songs in the Fitzwilliam collec- 
tion. Pepys records the visits of Theodore 
Goodgroome ashis or his wife's singing-master 
from 1 July 1661 occasionally until 31 Aug. 
1667. A John Goodgroome, organist of St. 
Peter's, Cornhill, 1725, may have been the 
son of John or Theodore Goodgroome, or of 

William Goodgroome, who is in the register 
of St. Dionys Backchurch, 1701, as music- 
master. The date of John Goodgroome's death 
is given in the Old Cheque-book, 15 May 1704. 

[Wood's MSS., Bodl. Lib.; Rimbault's Old 
Cheque-book of the Chapel Royal ; State Papers 
communicated by Mr. W. B. Squire ; Chamber- 
layne's Angliae Notitia, 1692, p. 171, and follow- 
ing years ; Pepys's Diary, i. 249 et seq. ; Har- 
leian Society's Registers, iii. 140.] L. M. M. 


compiler, born about 1799, was for some time 
a bookseller at 155 Oxford Street. In order 
to render himself a competent bibliographer he 
acquired a knowledge of many of the oriental 
and most of the modern languages. He dis- 
tinguished himself by his learned criticisms 
on John Bellamy's translation of the Bible in 
the ' Quarterly Review ' for April 1818 and 
July 1820. In 1840 he issued proposals for 
a society to be called the ' Dugdale Society,' 
for the elucidation of British family antiquity 
by the publication of inedited documents 
and by systematic reference to those already 
printed, but the project was not encouraged. 
He died at Chelsea on 23 May 1842. aged 43, 
leaving a son and a daughter. During the 
three years preceding his death he had been 
engaged in the compilation of a bible cyclo- 
paedia, but he only lived to prepare the work 
down to the letter ' r.' It appeared in two 
folio volumes. He also published : 1. ' The 
Gate to the French, Italian, and Spanish Un- 
locked' (anon.), 12mo,London,1827. 2. 'The 
Gate to the Hebrew, Arabic, and Syriac Un- 
locked by a new and easy method of acquir- 
ing the accidence ' (anon.), 8vo, London, 
1827. 3. ' The English Gentleman's Library 
Manual, or a Guide to the Formation of a 
Library of Select Literature,' 8vo, London, 
1827. 4. ' Motives to the Study of Biblical 
Literature in a course of introductory lec- 
tures,' 8vo, London, 1838 ; another edition, 
without Goodhugh's name, was issued in 

[Gent. Mag. new ser. xviii. 215; Allibone's 
Diet, of Engl. Lit. i. 699.] a. G. 

GOODINGE, THOMAS (1746-1816), 
divine, born in 1746, son of Thomas Goodinge, 
barrister-at-law, was educated at Gloucester, 
and entered Trinity College, Oxford, 14 Jan. 
1762 (B.A. 1766, and in 1778 both M.A. at 
Cambridge and D.C.L. at Oxford). In 1765 he 
was engaged for a few months as an assistant 
in the college school at Salisbury, and after- 
wards became principal of the college school of 
Worcester. In 1769 he was ordained deacon, 
and in 1771 was presented to the living of 
Bredicot in Worcestershire. In December 




1773 he married Maria Hale, daughter of 
Robert Hale of Marylebone, London. In 
1775 he opened a private school at Bevere. 
He was head-master of the grammar school 
at Leeds in 1779, became rector of Hutton in 
Somersetshire in 1788, and in 1789 rector of 
Cound in Shropshire. Here he lost his wife 
in September 1810, and during his remaining 
years he resided in Shrewsbury. He died 
17 July 1816. 

Goodinge was a sound scholar, a powerful 
preacher, and a successful schoolmaster. He 
commenced a translation of Lycophron, but 
relinquished it on the appearance of Meen's 
translations in 1800. He was a good botanist, 

[Gent. Mag. vol. Ixxxvi. pt. ii. p. 94, vol. 
Ixxxvii. pt. ii. p. 182 ; Chambers's Biog. Illustr. 
of Worcestershire.] W. F. W. S. 

NELL (1649P-1699), actor and adventurer, 
was son of a clergyman of the same names at 
one time settled in Shaftesbury, Dorsetshire, 
and on 18 March 1651 removed from the 
benefice of Freshwater, Isle of Wight, by 
order of the council of state ( Cal. State Papers, 
Dom., 1651). The son went to St. John's 
College, Cambridge, and proceeded B.A. in 
1670. According to his own admissions, as 
related by Gibber, he was expelled from the 
university ' for being one of the hot-headed 
sparks who were concerned in the cutting 
and defacing the Duke of Monmouth's pic- 
ture, then chancellor of that place.' Soon 
after he appeared in London, and became one 
of the pages of the back-staircase to Charles II, 
but after five years' service he was dismissed 
for negligence. Two years previous to his 
dismissal he inherited 2,OOOZ. by his father's 
death, which he rapidly squandered among 
the rakes of the town. He then attached 
himself to the king's company at Drury Lane 
Theatre, and made what was probably his 
first appearance as Polysperchon in the ' Rival 
Queens, "or Alexander the Great,' 4to, 1677. 
Here, according to Gibber, he made rapid ad- 
vances in reputation, and he is mentioned by 
Downes as taking the parts of Alexas in Dry- 
den's 'All for Love,' Pharnaces in 'Mithri- 
dates, king of Pontus,' by Lee, acted in 1678, 
and Valentinian in the tragedy of ' Valen- 
tinian,' adapted by the Earl of Rochester from 
Beaumont and Fletcher's play, and performed 
at Drury Lane in 1685. The characters in 
which he won his chief success were Julius 
Csesar and Alexander the Great, Cibber men- 
tions with some warmth the generous praise 
he bestowed upon Goodman when he was 
playing the part of the chaplain in Otway's 
' Orphan,' and how confidently he predicted 
his future success. In 1682, when a fusion 

took place between the duke's and the king's 
company, he supported Mohun in opposing 
the united actors, although he joined them 
about three years later. According to Cibber 
the highest salary paid to hired actors at that 
period was 6s. 3d. per diem, which he pleads 
as some excuse for Goodman's excesses. As 
a proof of his poverty Cibber relates that Cap- 
tain Griffin and ' Scum ' Goodman ' as he was 
styled by his enemies' were driven to share 
the same bed and the same shirt, and that a 
duel was fought on Goodman's appropriating 
the common clothing out of his turn. His 
scanty livelihood also led him to commit a 
highway robbery. He was condemned, but 
speedily pardoned by James II, and 'his Ma- 
jesty's servant returned to the stage a hero.' 
His latter years were rendered more affluent 
by his becoming the paramour of the Duchess 
of Cleveland, but he was shortly detected in 
an attempt to poison two of her children, 
brought to trial for a ' misdemeanour,' and 
fined heavily. In 1688 he withdrew from the 
stage, and became a gamester, a profession in 
which he soon proved an expert, especially at 
ombre. Out of gratitude to King James for 
sparing his life, Goodman became a Jacobite, 
and on the death of Queen Mary was con- 
nected with the Fenwick and Charnock plot 
to kill William III (1696-7). When the 
scheme was discovered, Goodman, who was 
committed to the Gatehouse, was offered a 
free pardon if he would inform against his 
more illustrious accomplice, Sir John Fenwick 
[q. v.], a condition he would have been quite 
disposed to accept had not Fenwick's friends 
sought him at the ' Fleece ' in Co vent Garden,, 
and at the ' Dog ' in Drury Lane, where he 
eventually agreed to accept 500/. a year with 
a residence abroad. He escaped to France, 
and died there of a fever in 1699, aged about 

[Luttrell's Rel. of State Affairs ; Doran's Annals 
of the Engl. Stage ; Colley Gibber's Apology, ed. 
Robert Lowe ; Downe's Roscius Anglicanus ; 
Theophilus Lucas's Memoirs of the most famous 
Gamesters.] W. F. W. S. 

1603), puritan divine, member of an old 
Cheshire family, was probably born (1520) 
in Chester. When about eighteen he entered 
Brasenose College, Oxford, graduating as 
B.A. 4 Feb. 1541, and M.A. 13 June 1544. 
In 1547 he became a senior student at Christ 
Church, and was proctor in 1549 (Oxf. Univ. 
Reg., Oxf. Hist. Soc., i. 217). He proceeded 
B.D. in 1551, and is said to have become Lady 
Margaret professor of divinity about 1548 (Le 
NEVE, Fasti, iii. 518 ; WOOD, Athena, ed. 
Bliss, i. 721 ; WOOD, Fasti, i. 120, 132 ; Oxf. 




Univ. Reg. i. 199, 217). At Oxford Goodman 
made friends with Bartlet Green [q. v.], who 
had sought him out ' for his learning and godly 
and sober behaviour' (Foxs, Acts andMonu- 
ments, ed. Townsend, vii. 732-4, 738). Good- 
man left England in 1554, and on 23 Nov. his 
name appears among the signatures to a letter 
from the exiles at Strasburg. He afterwards 
joined the schism among the reformers at 
Frankfort, and withdrew with "VVhittingham 
[q. v.] and other leading exiles to Geneva, 
whence they united in writing a letter to the 
Frankfort congregation to defend their de- 
parture. The brethren at Geneva chose Knox 
and Goodman in September 1555 for their 
pastors, and the two formed a lifelong friend- ! 
ship. During his exile Goodman took part 
in Coverdale's translation of the Bible, helped 
Knox in the ' book of common order,' and | 
wrote some very acrimonious tracts. The : 
most famous was entitled ' How superior j 
Powers ought to be obeyed of their subjects, 
and wherein they may lawfully be by God's 
word disobeyed and resisted . . .' Geneva, 
1558. The book, in favour of Wyatt's re- 
bellion, bitterly attacked Mary and the go- 
vernment of women in general, a fact which 
afterwards drew down Elizabeth's displea- 
sure upon the author. Knox's 'First Blast 
of the Trumpet ' was published in the same 
year, and the tracts were secretly circulated 
in England. Their violence was generally 
disapproved, even by their own party. Good- 
man also published while abroad a ' Com- 
mentary upon Amos,' in which he likens Mary 
to Proserpine, queen of Hades. So bitter 
was the feeling about his book that Good- 
man did not dare to return to England on 
Elizabeth's accession. In June 1559 Knox 
earnestly begged Goodman, ' whose presence 
I thirst for more than she that is my own 
flesh,' to join him at Edinburgh, and after 
repeated entreaties Goodman went to Scot- 
land early in September, acting as escort to 
Knox's wife and family from Geneva. In 
October he was made one of the council ap- 
pointed by the lords of the congregation to 
treat of religion, he and Knox preaching daily 
in ' the Scots camp ' (Zurich Letters, Parker 
Soc. 1558-79, p. 60, 1 Dec. 1559). In No- 
vember he became minister of Ayr. In the 
following July Goodman was appointed to 
St. Andrews. He also went about Scot- 
land preaching, and in August 1560 spent 
ten days in the Isle of Man, where he 
preached twice (State Papers, Scotch Ser. ' 
1509-1603, p. 161, and For. Ser. 1560-1, p. | 
259). Two years later he and Knox went 
together to visit some of the reformed 
churches in Scotland. Intercessions were 
meanwhile made for his return to England, 


though Calvin exhorted him to finish his 
work in Scotland. Cecil, to whom he wrote 
with indiscreet zeal, told Sadler in 1559 that, 
next to Knox, Goodman's name was the most 
odious of his party to Elizabeth. The Earl of 
Mar favoured his views, and in 1562 asked 
leave to bring him in his train to a projected 
meeting between Elizabeth and Mary. War- 
wick from Havre begged (in December) 
Dudley and Cecil to give ' so worthy an 
instrument' employment with his army in 
Normandy. At last by Randolph's advice 
he ventured into England in the winter of 
1565. He went to Ireland (January 1566) 
as chaplain to Sir Henry Sidney, the new lord 
deputy, who in the spring of 1567 recom- 
mended him to be bishop of Dublin, and 
promised him the deanery of St. Patrick's 
(State Papers, Ireland, Elizabeth, 1556-7, 
pp. 325, 327). Goodman, however, received 
neither of these offices. It was probably 
when Sidney returned to England in 1570 
that he was appointed to the living of Alford, 
near Chester, and made archdeacon of Rich- 
mond. In the next year he was deprived by 
Bishop Vaughan for nonconformity, and in 
April 1571 brought before the ecclesiastical 
commissioners at Lambeth. He was obliged 
to make a full recantation of his published 
opinions, and a protest in writing of his duti- 
ful obedience to the queen's person and her 
lawful government (see STRYPE, Annals, n. i. 
140). In June he was again examined before 
Archbishop Parker, ' beaten with three rods/ 
and forbidden to preach. He complained 
(26 July) to Leicester of his hard treatment 
(Addit. MS. 32091, f. 246). In August he 
returned to Chester. On 21 Nov. 1580 Ran- 
dolph writes to Leicester, soliciting leave for 
Goodman to revisit Scotland (LEMON, CaJ. 
State Papers, 1547-80, p. 688). In 1584 
Goodman refused to subscribe to the articles 
and the service book, and Archbishop Whit- 
gift complained of his perversity to the lord 
treasurer. Having no living he was not 
however again examined, but allowed to 
spend the rest of his days peacefully at 
Chester. When Ussher came to England to 
collect books for the Dublin Library, he visited 
Goodman (4 June 1603), then ' very ancient,' 
and lying on his deathbed. In after days the 
archbishop would often repeat the ' grave 
wise speeches ' he heard from the old man, 
who must have died shortly after his visit 
(UssHER, Life, ed. Elrington, i. 23). Good- 
man was buried at Chester, in St. Bride's 
Church. Wood gives a Latin epigram 
written upon him by his ' sometime friend/ 
John Parkhurst, containing a play upon his 
name, ' Gudmane.' He is said by Wood to 
have written a commentary on Amos. 




[State Papers, Scotch Ser. 1509-1603 pp. 
119, 181, 183, 226; Foreign Ser. 1558-9 p. 
335, 1559-60 pp. 49, 52, 73, 125, 1562 pp. 51, 
*233, 273, 562, 602, 1565 pp. 514, 534; Wood's 
Athense (Bliss), i. 721 ; Strype's Memorials, ed. 
1822, vol. iii. pt. ii. pp. 131, 187 ; Annals, vol. i. 
pt. i. pp. 152, 182, 187, 343, &c., vol. ii. pt. i. p. 
140 ; Life of Parker, ii. 66 ; Troubles at Frank- 
fort (Phenix), ii. 44; Original Letters (Parker 
Soc.) 2nd ser., Goodman to Peter Martyr ; Sadler, 
i. 510; McCrie's Life of Knox, i. 284, 300, 328, 
510, 532, 561, ii. 138, 270, 328, 384, 442 ; Mait- 
land's Essays on the Reformation, pp. 103, 112, 
116, 126, 171, 177. 196; Heylyn's Hist, of the 
Reformation, ii. 182, 297; Ormerod's Cheshire, 
ii. 727 ; Fuller's Church Hist. bk. ix. p. 77.] 

E. T. B. 

GOODMAN, GABRIEL (1529 P-1601), 
dean of Westminster, born at Ruthin, Den- 
bighshire, about 1529, was second son of 
Edward Goodman (d. 1620), merchant and 
hurgess of Ruthin, by his wife Cecily, daugh- 
ter of Edward Thelwall of Plas-y-ward. He 
proceeded B.A. from Christ's College, Cam- 
bridge, in 1549-50, and was fellow of Jesus 
College till 28 Sept. 1555, graduating M.A. 
in 1553, and acting for a long time as chap- 
lain to Sir William Cecil, with whom he 
was always on intimate terms. He was 
created D.D. in 1564 as a member of St. 
.John's College. He became rector of South 
Luffenham, Rutlandshire, 30 Sept. 1558 ; 
rector of the first portion of the church of 
Waddesdon, Buckinghamshire, 1559, and 
of the second portion 25 Nov. 1569 ; canon 
of Westminster 21 June 1560, and was in 
April 1561 a prebendary of St. Paul's Cathe- 
dral. On 23 Sept. 1561 he was appointed 
dean of Westminster, but continued to hold 
much other preferment. He preached at 
court 13 Feb. 1561-2, and was a Lent preacher 
at court 1565-6. He subscribed the Thirty- 
nine Articles in the convocation of 1562-3, 
and voted against suggested changes in the 
ceremonies and liturgy of the church. In 
1563 John Feckenham, the late abbot of 
Westminster, was placed in his custody. 
In August 1564 he was at Cambridge pre- 
paring for the queen's visit to the university. 
In 1570 a suggestion that Goodman should 
succeed Grindal as bishop of London was 
opposed by Archbishop Parker on the ground 
that although ' a sad, grave man,' Goodman 
was in Parker's private judgment 'too severe.' 
Neither Parker's recommendation that Good- 
man should be made bishop of Norwich in 
1575, nor Aylmer's request that he should 
be appointed to the see of Rochester in 
November 1581, nor Whitgift's proposal that 
the bishopric either of Rochester or Chiches- 
ter should be conferred on him in 1584, pro- 
duced any result. Goodman was repeatedly 

nominated a commissioner for causes eccle- 
siastical in the court of high commission ; 
was a commissioner for visiting the Savoy 
Hospital in 1570 ; assisted in the condemna- 
tion of the Dutch anabaptists in 1575; aided 
Lord Burghley to settle a dispute respecting 
the validity of certain graces granted at 
Cambridge in 1580 ; was a commissioner to 
represent the primate at the convocation of 
1586, and a royal commissioner for the 
settlement of Jesus College, Oxford, in 1589. 
Goodman acted as an executor of Lord Burgh- 
ley's will in 1598. He died on 17 June 1601, 
and was buried in St. Benedict's Chapel, 
Westminster Abbey. A monument with a 
bust in a gown was erected in St. Peter's 
Church, Ruthin. 

Goodman showed himself much interested 
in educational and charitable schemes. In 
1570 he provided for the erection at Chis- 
wick of a home for sick Westminster scholars. 
Two scholarships were founded in his name 
at St. John's College, Cambridge, by a deed 
dated 20 Feb. 1578-9, the endowment being 
the gift of Mildred, Lord Burghley's wife. 
As overseer of the will of Frances, countess 
of Sussex, he took part in the inauguration 
of Sidney Sussex College, Cambridge. In 
1590 he founded Christ's Hospital at his 
native town of Ruthin, for a president, war- 
den, and twelve poor inmates, and in 1595 
added to the foundation a grammar school. 
Camden was always an intimate friend. 
Goodman assisted him in his ' Britannia,' to 
which he prefixed Latin verses in 1586, and 
bequeathed to him a gold ring with a turquoise 
stone. By his will, dated 2 March 1600-1, 
Goodman left bequests to almost all the 
officials of Westminster Abbey, to the town 
of Ruthin, to the parishes in which he 
had lived, and to various members of the 
Cecil family. His household stuff was be- 
queathed to his hospital at Ruthin, and many 
rare books and manuscripts, chiefly bibles, 
together with legacies to poor scholars, were 
left to Christ's College, Cambridge (with a 
portrait of Lady Margaret Beaufort, the 
foundress), to Sidney Sussex College (with 
a portrait of the foundress), to St. John's 
College, Cambridge, to Jesus College, Cam- 
bridge, and to Jesus College, Oxford. A 
Chaldean Lexicon was left to Sir Thomas 
Bodley for his library. 

Goodman translated in 1568 the first epistle 
to the Corinthians for the Bishops' Bible 
(PARKER, Correspondence, p. 336). He helped, 
both with literary aid and money, Dr. Wil- 
liam Morgan in his Welsh translation of the 
Bible. A continuation by him of Dr. Bill's 
' Order of the Government of the Colledge of 
Westminster' appears, with a letter to Lord 



Burghley (15 Nov. 1577), in Strype's ' An- 
nals.' His statutes for the hospital at Ruthin 
are in ' Charity Reports,' xxxii. (3) 93-5, and 
for his grammar school in Newcome's 'Me- 
moir.' Some of his letters are at Hatfield. 

A portrait in the hospital at Ruthin was 
engraved by Robert Graves from a sketch 
by G. P. Harding for Newcome's ' Memoir.' 

[Richard Newcome's Memoir (Ruthin), 1825; 
Cooper's Athense Cantabr. ii. 317; Parker's Cor- 
resp. ; Wood's Fasti Oxon. (Bliss), i. 214, 219, 
294 ; Le Neve's Fasti ; Stanley's Westminster 
Abbey ; Hist. MSS. Comm. 4th Rep. pp. 179 et 
seq. (Westminster Abbey Archives) contains a 
few unimportant references.] S. L. L. 

GOODMAN, GODFREY (1583-1656), 
bishop of Gloucester, born at Ruthin, Den- 
bighshire, 28 Feb. 1582-3, was second son of 
Godfrey Goodman, by his second wife, Jane 
Cruxton or Croxton. His father, a man of 
property, purchased the estates of Sir Thomas 
Exmew, lord mayor of London, and Gabriel 
Goodman, dean of Westminster [q. v.], was 
his uncle. In 1592 he went to Westmin- 
ster School, where the head-master, Camden, 
an intimate friend both of his father and 
uncle, took much interest in him. From a 
chorister he rose to be a scholar, and in 1599 
was elected to a scholarship at Trinity Col- 
lege, Cambridge. He proceeded to the de- 
grees of B.A. (1603-4), M.A., and B.D., and j 
in 1603 was ordained at Bangor. From 1606 
to 1620 he was vicar of Stapleford Abbots, 
Essex, and there elaborated one of his ser- 
mons into his well-known treatise on man's 
decadence. On 10 May 1607 he was in- i 
stalled a prebendary of Westminster, and on j 
11 July 1615 was incorporated B.D. at Ox- 
ford. On 5 Sept. 1616 he wrote to the vice- 
chancellor at Cambridge urging the establish- 
ment of a public library in the university with 
the same privileges as the Bodleian. He be- 
came about 1616 rector of West Ilsley (for- 
merly Ildesley), Berkshire, and afterwards j 
purchased the advowson of Kemerton rec- j 
tory, Gloucestershire, to which he presented j 
himself. He also held the sinecure livings of j 
Llandyssil, Montgomeryshire (from 28 Sept. 
1607), and of Llanarmon (from 21 July 1621 
to 8 June 1 626) . He boasted that the parishes 
under his active control were invariably free 
from alehouses, beggars, serious crime, violent 
deaths, or loss of property by fire (cf. his own 
manuscript note in his copy of Pontificals 
Romanum, 1627, in Trin. Coll. Libr. Cambr. ; 
NBWCOME, Memoir, App. T). 

Goodman's sermons, strongly Anglican in 
tone, quickly attracted attention, and Bi- 
shops Andrewes, Vaughan, and Williams 
befriended him. Before 1616 he was chaplain 
to the queen. On 20 Dec. 1617 he became 

a canon of Windsor, always his favourite 
place of residence ; on 4 Jan. 1620-1 dean of 
Rochester ; and in 1625 bishop of Gloucester. 
He resigned his Westminster prebend in 1623. 
With his bishopric he was allowed to hold in 
commendam the Windsor canonry, the Ilsley 
rectory, and other benefices below 200/. a year. 
Troubles began almost as soon as Good- 
man was consecrated (6 March 1624-5). He 
offended the king by declining to take a hint 
from his secretary in the choice of a chan- 
cellor ( Gal. State Papers, Dom. 11 Jan. 1625), 
and a lavish expenditure, partly devoted to 
charity, entailed monetary difficulties. In 
Lent 1626 he preached at court. His remarks 
on the real presence were ' supposed to trench 
too near the borders of popery' (HEYLYN, 
Cypr. Angl. p. 153). On 29 March convo- 
cation, at the request of the king, discussed 
the sermon, referred its consideration to a 
committee, and Goodman was mildly repri- 
manded (12 April). He was subsequently 
directed to explain his meaning in another 
sermon at court, but failed to satisfy the 
king. In 1628 Burton, Bastwick, and Prynne 
drew up a petition to Charles accusing Good- 
man of having ' re-edified and repaired ' the 
high cross at Windsor, and with having set 
upon it two coloured pictures one of Christ 
upon the cross, and the other of Christ rising 
out of the sepulchre. He was also charged 
with having introduced into Gloucester Ca- 
thedral altar-cloths and the like with cruci- 
fixes embroidered on them, and with having 
suspended one Ridler, ' minister of Little 
Deane,' on the ground that -he had preached 
that 'an obstinate papist, dying a papist, 
could not be saved, and if we be saved, the 
papists were not ' (KENNETT). In 1633 the 
bishopric of Hereford fell vacant. Juxon, 
who was first chosen to fill it, was before 
consecration translated to London to take 
the place of Laud, who had just become arch- 
bishop of Canterbury. Goodman, apparently 
from a desire of higher emolument, sought to 
succeed Juxon. By bribing court officials he 
secured his election at the hands of the Here- 
ford chapter. But Laud, resolving to suppress 
current corruptions in the church, induced 
the king to revoke his assent to Goodman's 
translation. It was reported that Goodman 
had requested to hold both bishoprics toge- 
ther (Court of Charles I, ii. 229). On 18 Dec. 
1633 Goodman formally renounced his claims 
to Hereford, and entreated Laud to grant him 
leave of absence from Gloucester, and appoint 
a coadjutor (HEYLYN, Cypr. p. 263 ; Cal. State 
Papers, Dom. 1633-5, pp. 323, 435). Laud 
brusquely ordered him to return to Glouces- 
ter, and added that if, as Goodman threatened, 
he offered to resign, his resignation would be 




immediately accepted (LATJD, Works, v. 62). 
Goodman set out for his diocese, and in 1636 
arbitrated, by order of the privy council, be- 
tween the city and county of Gloucester as to 
their liability to ship-money. In 1633, 1636, 
and 1637, Laud complained that Goodman 
failed to send in any report as to the state 
of his diocese. 

Goodman's religious views gradually 
brought him into very close sympathy with 
the Roman church, and he soon gave grounds 
for the suspicion that he had secretly joined 
that communion. Panzani, the papal agent 
in England, wrote in January 1635-6 that 
' the bishop said divine offices in private out 
of the Roman breviary, and had asked per- 
mission to keep an Italian priest to say mass 
secretly in his house ' (GARDINER, Hist. viii. 
140). Early in 1638 similar allegations were 
openly made in Rome, and Sir William 
Hamilton, the English agent there, wrote to 
Secretary Windebank that Goodman had 
been converted about 1635 or 1636 by one 
William Hanmer, who went by the name of 
John Challoner. On 13 July 1638 Edmund 
Atwood, vicar of Hartbury, Gloucestershire, 
gave Windebank an account of Goodman's 
intimate relations with Hanmer and with the 
provincial of the Jesuits, who were both re- 
peatedly the bishop's guests at Gloucester 
(Clarendon State Papers in NEWCOME, Me- 
moirs, App. O.) To escape the threatened 
storm, Goodman made a fruitless application 
to Laud for permission to visit Spa on the 
specious ground of ill-health. On 27 Aug. 
1638 he petitioned in vain for a private inter- 
view with the king. Laud, in letters to Win- 
debank and Strafford, dwelt on the king's 
wrath, and wrote with biting sarcasm of 
Goodman's dejection and cowardice (Cal. 
Clarendon State Papers, ii. 17-18; Strafford 
Papers, ii. 158). Finally Goodman appears to 
have given an assurance of future conformity. 
He was summoned in the same year (1638) 
before the high commission court on the charge 
of having allowed the justices of Tewkesbury 
to hold quarter-sessions in the church there. 
In 1639 he showed some vigour in examining 
residents in his diocese who had graduated 
at Scottish universities, and were suspected 
by the privy council of active sympathy with 
the Scottish rebellion (Cal. State Papers, 
Dom. 1639, pp. 266-7, 319). On 18 Jan. 
1639-40 the king sent him a peremptory 
order to return to Gloucester from Windsor, 
where he preferred to live. But worse diffi- 
culties were in store. In May 1640 Goodman 
with the other bishops was requested to sign 
adhesion to the new canons, which upheld pas- 
sive obedience and the divine right of kings, 
while sternly denouncing Romish practices. 

Goodman privately informed Laud that he 
should withhold his signature at all hazards. 
He argued that convocation had no right to 
sit, now that parliament was dissolved. Laud 
plainly told him that his refusal could only be 
ascribed to his being a papist, Socinian, or sec- 
tary, and charged him with popish predilec- 
tions. But Goodman was obstinate in his re- 
sistance when convocation met (29 May), and 
the two houses passed upon him a decree of de- 
privation a beneficio et officio (HEYLYN,p. 446 j 
LATTD, Works, iii. 236 ; Cal. State Papers, Dom. 
1640, pp. 233-4). Laud at once informed the 
king of the situation, and orders were sent 
down for Goodman's committal to the Gate- 
house. He petitioned for a fair trial (31 May) r 
and begged Vane to restore his papers which 
had been seized, and which he declared were 
chiefly literary notes made in early life 
(2 June). He gave a bond of 10,000/. not 
to leave the kingdom. On 10 July he made 
his submission, signed the canons, was released 
from prison, and was restored to his see. On 
28 Aug. he wrote to Laud expressing a desire 
to resign his bishopric as soon as his debts 
were paid and live on ' his commendam.' 

Goodman's equivocal position was very 
prejudicial to the cause of his fellow-church- 
men. In February 1640-1, when the con- 
dition of the church was under debate in 
parliament, Falkland ascribed the disrepute 
into which it had fallen to the dishonesty of 
men like Goodman, ' who found a way to 
reconcile the opinions of Rome to the pre- 
ferments of England, and to be so absolutely, 
directly, and cordially papists, that it is all 
that 1,500/. a year can do to keep them from 
confessing it.' On the other hand, the enemies 
of Laud found an additional weapon to em- 
ploy against him and his brother-bishops in 
the severe treatment to which Goodman had 
been subjected in convocation. The canons 
which Goodman had resisted were naturally 
obnoxious to the parliament. A proposal was 
made in 1641 to bring 'within apraemunire' 
all who had voted for Goodman's suspen- 
sion, and the ninth additional article in 
Laud's impeachment (1644) charged him 
with having advised Goodman's imprison- 
ment, and with having forced him to sign 
the obnoxious canons. But Goodman did 
not escape the persecution to which his order 
was exposed. In August 1641 it was resolved 
by the House of Commons to impeach him 
along with Laud and the other bishops who 
had signed the canons. In December Good- 
man and eleven other bishops signed the letter 
sent to the king, in which they complained 
of intimidation while making their way to 
the House of Lords, and protested against 
the transaction of business in their absence. 




The letter included an assurance that the 
signatories ' do abominate all actions or opi- 
nions tending to popery and the maintenance 
thereof,' a sentiment which 'Jesuitical equi- 
vocation ' can alone have enabled Goodman to 
adopt. As soon as the protest was pub- 
lished, Goodman and the other signatories 
were committed to the Tower on a charge 
of high treason. When brought to the bar 
of the House of Lords in February, his com- 
panions declined to plead, but Goodman 
pleaded not guilty. After eighteen weeks' 
imprisonment he was released on bail and or- 
dered to return to his diocese (House of Lords 1 
Journals, v. 64-5). On 30 Aug. 1642 he wrote 
an angry letter to Laud, complaining bitterly 
of the wrongs he had suffered at his hands, 
and of Laud's refusal to speak with him while I 
both were prisoners in the Tower ( Col. State 
Papers, Dom. 1641-3, p. 381). Inl643Good- | 
man's palace at Gloucester was sacked by 
the parliamentary soldiers ; nearly all his 
books and papers were dispersed, and in deep 
distress he retired to Carnarvon, where he ' 
possessed a small estate. On 18 July 1643 \ 
he entered into a bond of 10,000/. to appear 
before a committee of the House of Commons j 
when required. In 1646 the committee of 
sequestration directed the tithes due to him 
from West Ilsley to be paid to them. On ! 
31 Aug. 1649 he presented a humble petition I 
to parliament for relief, and declared he had | 
never interfered in ' matters of war.' Ap- 
pended to the petition was an address in the 
same sense from the mayor and other autho- j 
rities of Carnarvon, besides an appeal to Lent- ! 
hall from the gentry, citizens, and burgesses 
of Gloucester diocese (printed together in 
folio sheet, London, 1649 ; Brit. Mus. Cat. 
190, g. 12, No. 15). Further particulars con- 
cerning his pecuniary relations with the city | 
of Gloucester are given in a letter to the 
mayor of that city, 23 Nov. 1649 (Fairfax 
Corresp. iv. 111). 'His losses,' says Wood, 
'were so extraordinary and excessive great 
that he was ashamed to confess them, lest they 
might seem incredible, and lest others might 
condemn him of folly and improvidency.' 

About 1650 Goodman seems to have settled 
in London, first in Chelsea and afterwards in I 
the parish of St. Margaret's, Westminster. I 
The attentions of his Westminster landlady, j 
Mrs. Sibilla Aglionby, and the friendship of | 
Christopher Davenport [q. v.], formerly chap- 
lain to Queen Henrietta Maria, appear to 
have consoled his declining days. He spent 
much time in Sir Thomas Cotton's library. 
In 1653 he dedicated to Cromwell ' A large 
Discourse concerning the Trinity and Incar- 
nation,' in which he recapitulated his griev- 
ances. He had had five houses in England, 

' all of which were plundered and his writings 
in them miscarried.' Finally he demanded a 
hearing of his case. In a second dedication 
to the master, fellows, and scholars of Trinity 
College, Cambridge, he declared that he was 
destitute. Another petition to Cromwell was 
presented in 1655. Goodman died 19 Jan. 
1655-6, and was buried 4 Feb. in St. Mar- 
garet's Church, Westminster. His tomb was 
simply inscribed ' Godfrey Goodman.' 

His will, dated 17 Jan. 1655-6, and proved 
16 Feb., opens with the profession that he 
died as he had lived 'most constant in 
all the doctrine of God's holy and apostolic 
church, whereof I do acknowledge the church 
of Rome to be the mother church. And I 
do verily believe that no other church hath 
any salvation in it but only so far as it concurs 
with the faith of the church of Rome.' This 
and other portions of his will were published 
in ' Mercurius Politicus ' for March 1655-6, 
Nos. 299, 300. He left his Welsh property 
to the town of Ruthin, his birthplace, of 
which he had been presented with the free- 
dom, and to which he had in his lifetime given 
a silver cup. There were small legacies to poor 
sequestered clergymen, to his landlady, Mrs. 
Aglionby, and to his kinsman and execu- 
tor, Gabriel Goodman. His manuscripts were 
to be published if any scholar deemed them 
of sufficient value. His advowson of Kener- 
tonhe bequeathed to the hospital of Ruthin, 
unless a kinsman was qualified to take the 
living within three months. His hooks, ori- 
ginally designed for Chelsea College, went 
to Trinity College, Cambridge. Wood writes 
of Goodman as a harmless man, hurtful to 
none but himself, and as hospitable and cha- 
ritable. But his career shows great want of 
moral courage. Kennett says that a daughter 
of Goodman ' was reduced to begging at his 
doors ' (Compl. Hist. iii. 215). Goodman was 
unmarried, and this story is not corroborated. 

Goodman's works, written in readable 
English, and showing much original thought, 
were : 1. 'The Fall of Man, or the Corrup- 
tion of Nature proved by the Light of his 
Naturall Reason,' London, 1616, dedicated 
to Queen Anne. The celebrated reply by 
George Hakewill [q. v.], ' An Apologie . . . 
of the Power and Providence of God,' ap- 
peared in 1627 in four books, and in the third 
edition an additional book the fifth con- 
sisted of animadversions by Goodman on 
Hakewill's argument with Hakewill's re- 
plies. The disputants wrote of each other in 
terms of deep respect. R. P. republished ' The 
Fall of Man,' London, 1629, under the title 
' The Fall of Adam from Paradise proved by 
Natural Reason and the grounds of Philo- 
sophy,' and prefixed a letter by Goodman in 




which he deprecated the republication of a 
work of his early days. Southey quotes ad- 
miringly from this work in his ' Commonplace 
Book/ 1st ser. pp. 137-65. 2. ' The Creatures 
Praysing God, or the Religion of Dumbe Crea- j 
tures. An Example and Argument for the j 
stirring up of our Devotion and for the Con- j 
fusion of Atheism,' London, 1622 (by Felix j 
Kyngston), without author's name (cf. Notes \ 
and Queries, 4th ser. v. 400). A French I 
translation by V. F., with a dedication to the \ 
author, appeared at Paris (12mo) in 1644 as 
' Les Devoirs des creatures inferieures a 
1'homme reconnaissant & louant incessam- ! 
ment leur Createur . . . par le sieur Geoffroy 
Bon-homme de Ruthin.' 3. ' A Large Dis- 
course concerning the Trinity and Wonder- 
full Incarnation of our Saviour,' London, j 
1653, 4to, dedicated to Cromwell. Goodman 
regarded this work as an appendix to his first 
book. 4. 'The Court of King James the First,' 
first printed by the Rev. J. S. Brewer (London, j 
1839), from the manuscript in the Bodleian 
Library, together with a second volume of 
letters illustrative of the period, collected by 
the editor from various sources. The manu- 
script, which opens with the death of Eliza- 
beth and concludes with James I's death, 
bears no author's name, but a memorandum 
inserted in it by Bishop Barlow and the in- 
ternal evidence leave no doubt as to Good- 
man's authorship. It is a temperate defence 
of James I in reply to Anthony Weldon's 
' Traditional! Memoirs,' first issued in 1650, 
and is a valuable authority for the reign. 
Wood also credits Goodman with ' An Ac- 
count of his Sufferings,' 'which is only a little 
pamphlet printed 1650.' He sent a copy to 
Ussher with a letter 1 July 1650 (NEW- 
CGME,pp. 76-7), but no copy seems now known. 
In the dedication to No. 3 Goodman notes 
that he had completed before the civil war 
began ' an ecclesiastical history more particu- 
larly relating to our own nations, which from 
the year 1517 was very large and distinct, 
making a good volume.' Nothing is known of 
this manuscript. 

[Newcome's Memoir appended to that of 
Gabriel Goodman, Ruthin, 1825; Wood's Athense 
Oxon. ii. 863-9; Wood's Fasti, i. 363; art. by 
Prof. J. E. B. Mayor in Camb. Antiq. Soc. Com- 
munications, ii. 113; Hist. MSS. Comm. 2nd 
Rep. p. 106 ; Walker's Sufferings, ii. 32 ; Com- 
mons' Journals, vol. ii. ; Lords' Journals, vols. 
iv. v. ; Cal. State Papers, Dom. 1625-55 passim ; 
Welch's Alumni Westmonast. p. 68 ; Laud's 
Works ; Le Neve's Fasti ; Fuller's Worthies ; 
Evelyn's Memoir ; Gardiner's Hist.] S. L. L. 


(d. 1844), major-general, entered the army in 
October 1794 as ensign of the 48th foot, in 

which he became lieutenant in 1795 and cap- 
tain in 1803. He served with his regiment 
in Minorca, with the force sent to Leghorn in 
1800, under Lieutenant-general Sir Charles 
Steuart, to co-operate with the Austrians, 
and at the reduction of Malta. He accom- 
panied his regiment to the Peninsula in 1809, 
and commanded the light companies of Stew- 
art's brigade of Hill's division at the battle 
of Talavera. In 1810 he was appointed de- 
puty judge-advocate, with the rank of as- 
sistant adj utant-general in Lord Wellington's 
army. He was present at the capture of 
Badajoz, and was placed in charge of the 
French governor Phillipon, whom he was 
ordered to conduct to Elvas. At the capture 
of Madrid and at the siege of Burgos, and 
in the subsequent retreat, Goodman acted for 
the adjutant-general of the army (Waters), 
absent through illness. In 1814 Goodman 
was appointed deputy j udge-advocate of the 
troops proceeding to America, but exchanged 
to a like post in the British force left in Hol- 
land under the Prince of Orange. He was 
deputy judge-advocate of the Duke of Wel- 
lington's army in the Waterloo campaign, and 
at the occupation of Paris. His supersession 
was dictated by the duke's belief in the im- 
perative need of having a professional lawyer 
at the head of that department of the army 
(see Wellington Suppl. Desp. xi. 43). Good- 
man retired on half-pay of his regimental 
rank at the peace, afterwards attaining major- 
general's rank, and was made C.B. and K.H. 
In 1819 he was appointed colonial secretary 
of Berbice, to which in 1821 was added the 
then lucrative appointment of vendue-master 
in Berbice and Essequibo. His colonial ser- 
vices extended over a period of twenty-four 
years, during which he was in charge of the 
government of the colony from May 1835 to 
October 1836. During the negro insurrec- 
tion of 1823 he was deputed by Governor 
Murray to organise a militia, and held the 
office of major-general and inspector-general 
of militia in the colony up to his death. He 
died on 2 Jan. 1844, leaving a widow and 
eleven children. 

[Philippart's Royal Mil. Cal. 1 820 ; Gent. Mag. 
new ser. xxi. 539.] H. M. C. 

ecclesiastical commissioner, a native of York- 
shire, was nephew of Thomas Goodrich, bi- 
shop of Ely. He was educated at Jesus Col- 
lege, Cambridge, but does not appear to have 
graduated. On leaving the university he be- 
came a member of Gray's Inn in 1532, and 
was admitted ancient 5 July 1542 (HarL 
MS. 1912). As early as 1535 he was at- 
torney of the court of augmentations. In 




1545 he had a grant from the crown of lands 
which had belonged to the monasteries of 
Newnham, Bedfordshire, and Butley, Suf- 
folk. He was appointed attorney of the 
second court of augmentation on its forma- 
tion, 2 Jan. 1546-7. He also held the office 
of attorney of the court of wards and liveries. 
He represented Great Grimsby, Lincolnshire, 
in the parliament which began 8 Nov. 1547. 
Throughout the reign of Edward VI he was 
almost constantly employed in the service of 
the crown. He was one of the ecclesiastical 
commissioners, and was also in the several 
commissions for the codification of the ecclesi- 
astical laws, the suppression of heresy, the 
sale of chantry lands, and the deprivation of 
bishops Gardiner, Day, Heath, and Tunstal. 
In 1551 the king granted him an annuity of 
1001. At Elizabeth's accession he was in a 
commisson, 23 Dec.*1558, to arrange matters 
for the consideration of the ensuing parlia- 
ment, and also in the ecclesiastical commis- 
sion, and in that issued to administer the 
oaths to the clergy. He died at Whitefriars, 
London, in May 1 562, and was buried on the 
25th at St. Andrew's, Holborn. His funeral 
was attended by the Archbishop of Canter- 
bury (Parker), the lord keeper (Sir N. Bacon), 
the lord chief justice of the queen's bench 
(Sir R. Catlyn), the bishop of London (Grin- 
dal), the bishop of Ely (Cox), many worship- 
ful men, and two hundred gentlemen of the 
Inns of Court. The sermon was preached by 
Alexander Nowell, dean of St. Paul's. When 
Goodrich was a young man, Leland compli- 
mented him for his promising virtues and 
abilities (Lelandi Encomia, p. 108). He was 
one of the executors of Sir Thomas Pope, 
the founder of Trinity College, Oxford. Sir 
Nicholas Throckmorton, in a letter written 
at Paris, in allusion to the death of Goodrich, 
terms him a rare man, both for his gifts and 
honesty. His will, dated 14 Nov. 1556, was 
proved on 8 June 1562 (P. C. C. 15, Streat). 
By his wife, Dorothy, widow of Sir George 
Blage, he had a son Richard, and a daughter 

[Cooper's Athense Cantabr. i. 214-15, 553; 
Cal. State Papers, Dom. 1547-80, For. 1562.] 

Gr. G. 

MAS, D.D. (d. 1554), bishop of Ely and lord 
high chancellor of England, was a younger 
son of Edward Goodrich of East Kirkby, Lin- 
colnshire, by his third wife, Jane, sole daugh- 
ter and heiress of Mr. Williamson of Boston. 
The name was pronounced and often spelt 
Goodricke, in spite of the epigram 
Et bonus, et dives, bene junctus et optimus ordo ; 

Prsecedit bonitas, pone sequuntur opes. 

Thomas is said to have been a member of 
King's College, Cambridge, but was not on 
the foundation, and it seems certain that he 
was of Corpus Christ! College, where he re- 
sided with his elder brother John, when he 
took his degree of B.A. in 1510, in which 
year he was appointed a fellow of Jesus Col- 
lege (MASTERS, Hist. C.C.C.C. p. 293). He 
commenced M.A. in 1514, and was one of the 
proctors of the university in 1515. He was 
admitted to the rectory of St. Peter Cheap, 
London, 16 Nov. 1529, on the presentation 
of Cardinal Wolsey, as commendatory of the 
abbey of St. Alban (NEWCOTTRT, Repertorium 
Ecclesiasticum, i. 521). He was one of the 
divines consulted by the convocation as to 
the legality of the king's marriage with Cathe- 
rine of Arragon, and also one of the syndics 
appointed by the university of Cambridge to 
determine that question in February 1529-30. 
At this time he was a doctor of divinity. 
Soon afterwards he occurs as one of the chap- 
lains to Henry VIII, and canon of St. Ste- 
phen's, Westminster. On 5 April 1533 he 
was present as one of the divines in the con- 
vocation held in St. Paul's chapter-house, 
London. In the same year he was sent to 
France on an embassy. He was a commis- 
sioner for reforming the ecclesiastical laws 
in the reigns of Henry VIII and Edward VI. 
About a year after the death of Bishop West 
the king promoted him to the see of Ely, and 
he was consecrated at Croydon by the Arch- 
bishop of Canterbury on 19 April 1534 (LE 
NEVE, Fasti, ed. Hardy, i. 341). 

His zeal for the Reformation was mani- 
fested in 1535 by his enjoining masters and 
fellows of colleges in the university of Cam- 
bridge to preach in the parish churches, and 
there to set forth to the people the king's 
style of supreme head of the church of Eng- 
land, and to renounce the pope (SiRYPE, JEccl. 
Memorials, i. 186, folio ). In 1537 he was one 
of the compilers of what was called the 
' Bishops' Book,' which was published under 
the title of ' The Godly and Pious Institution 
of a Christian Man; ' and soon afterwards he 
was entrusted with the Gospel of St. John in 
the revision of the New Testament. In De- 
cember 1540 he seems to have been suspected 
of encouraging the translation by Thomas 
Walpole and others of an epistle of Melan- 
chthon, and the privy council directed his 
study to be searched (NICOLAS, Proceedings of 
the Privy Council, vii. 98). 

On the accession of Edward VI he was 
sworn of the privy council, and in November 
1548 was appointed one of the royal com- 
missioners for the visitation of the university 
of Cambridge. He assisted in compiling the 
first Book of Common Prayer, which he 




encouraged Francis Philippe, one of his de- 
pendents, to translate into French for use 
in the Channel Islands and elsewhere. On 
15 March 1548-9 Goodrich was sent to pre- 
pare Lord Seymour of Sudeley for death, 
after the warrant had heen signed for his 
execution by his brother the Duke of Somer- 
set. The duke's harsh conduct induced the 
bishop to join the malcontents in the privy 
council who sought the overthrow of the 
protector. In 1549 and 1550 he was one of 
the commissioners assigned to inquire ' super 
hseretica pravitate.' Hooper, writing to Bui- 
linger on 27 Dec. 1549, refers to Goodrich 
as one of six or seven bishops who compre- 
hended the reformed doctrine relating to 
the Lord's Supper with as much clearness 
and piety as one could desire ; and says it 
was only the fear for their property that pre- 
vented them from reforming their churches 
according to the rule of God's word (Rosiisr- 
SOK, Letters relative to the English Reforma- 
tion, i. 72, 76). In 1550 he was one of the 
bishops who tried to obtain a recantation 
from Joan Bocher [q. v.] (NICHOLS, Lit. Re- 
mains of Edward VI, ii. 264). He objected to 
Cranmer's making any concessions toHooper's 
puritanical scruples as to the ceremony of 
consecration. In November 1550 Goodrich 
was appointed one of the commissioners 
for the trial of Gardiner, bishop of Win- 
chester(STRYPE,Oamer,p.223,folio). Soon 
afterwards he and Cranmer were ordered by 
the council to dispute with George Day [q. v.], 
bishop of Chichester, who was deprived and 
committed to Goodrich in ' Christian charity.' 
In May 1551 Goodrich was appointed a com- 
missioner to invest Henry II, king of France, 
with the order of the Garter, and to treat of 
the marriage of his daughter Elizabeth with 
Edward VI (BRYDGES, Restituta, iii. 234). 

On 22 Dec. 1551 the great seal, on the 
sudden retirement of Lord-chancellor Rich, 
was given into the bishop's hands as keeper. 
Upon the discovery that Rich's illness was 
pretended, Goodrich received the full title 
of lord chancellor on 19 Jan. 1551-2 (Foss, 
Judges of England, v. 302). In the parlia- 
ment which met the next day the new liturgy 
was made the law of the land. Another 
was held in March 1552-3, being the last in 
Edward's reign ; and, on account of the king's 
illness, was opened in the great chamber of 
the palace, where Goodrich as chancellor de- 
clared the causes of the meeting. He was 
apparently not consulted upon Edward's 
settlement of the succession, but was in- 
duced by the Duke of Northumberland to 
put the great seal to the instrument in which 
it was declared. With the rest of the coun- 
cil he subscribed the undertaking to support 

the royal testament, and he acted on the 
council during the nine days of the Lady 
Jane's reign, signing as chancellor several 
letters issued by them on her behalf {Chronicle 
of Queen Jane, pp. 91, 100). He was accord- 
ingly one of the prisoners named for trial as 
traitors on the accession of Queen Mary ; and 
it was perhaps on account of his having 
joined in the order sent by the council on 
20 July, commanding the Duke of Northum- 
berland to disarm, that the queen struck his 
name out of the list. The great seal was of 
course taken from him. He did homage to 
Queen Mary on the day of her coronation, 
and he was permitted to retain his bishopric 
until his death, which took place at Somers- 
ham, Huntingdonshire, on 10 May 1554. He 
was buried in Ely Cathedral, where there is a 
brass representing him in his episcopal robes 
as he wore them after the Reformation, with 
a Bible in one hand and the great seal in the 
other. He repaired and adorned the episcopal 
palace at Ely, but alienated some of the pro- 
perty of the see. His portrait is in Holbein's 
picture of the grant of the charter to Bridewell 
Hospital (GRANGER, Biog. Hist, of England. 
5th edit. i. 170). 

Burnet says ' he was a busy secular spirited 
man, and had given himself up wholly to 
factions and intrigues of State; so that, 
though his opinion had always leaned to the 
Reformation, it is no wonder if a man so 
tempered would prefer the keeping of his 
bishopric before the discharge of his con- 
science ' (Hist, of the Reformation, ed. Po- 
cock, ii. 442). 

[Authorities cited above; also Addit. MSS. 
5802 f. 146, 5860 p. 321, 5870 ; Bentham's Ely, 
p. 189 ; Boutell's Monumental Brasses of Eng- 
land, pp. 17-19 ; Cambridge Camden Society's 
Monumental Brasses, p. 13; Campbell's Lives 
of the Lord Chancellors, 1845, ii. 28 ; Cooper's 
Athenae Cantabr. i. 117, 545; Fuller's Church 
Hist.; Fuller's Worthies ; Godwin, De Praesuli- 
bus (Kichardson) ; Parker Society's Publications 
(general index) ; Eymer's Fcedera, xiv. 485, 486, 
487, 527 ; Smith's Autographs ; State Papers of 
Henry VIII ; Strype's Works (general index) ; 
Wharton's Anglia Sacra, i. 676 ; Wood's Athenae 
Oxon. (Bliss), ii. 707.] T. C. 

1705), diplomatist, eldest son of Sir John 
Goodricke (created baronet by Charles I, for 
whom he suffered severely in estate during 
the civil wars), by his first wife Cathe- 
rine Norcliffe, was born 24 Oct. 1642. He 
was returned to parliament for Borough- 
bridge, Yorkshire, on 7 Nov. 1673 and again 
on 14 March 1678-9. He first served in the 
army, and obtained the command of a regi- 
ment of foot, which was disbanded in 1679. 




He was appointed, 28 Nov. 1678, envoy ex- 
traordinary to the court of Madrid. His in- 
structions are printed in Goodricke's ' History 
of the Goodricke Family,' p. 25. In June 1682 
he made, on behalf of Charles II, an offer of 
mediation in the war between France and 
Spain. He was, however, soon afterwards 
expelled from Madrid, in consequence of the 
anger of the Spanish court at the policy of 
Charles II, and lodged in a neighbouring 
convent of Hieronymites. He returned to 
England in the following February. He 
was actively concerned in securing York for 
the Prince of Orange (19-22 Nov. 1688; 
Memoirs of Sir John JReresby, p. 412), and 
was rewarded (26 April 1689) by the post of 
lieutenant-general of the ordnance, which he 
held until 29 June 1702. On 13 Feb. 1689-90 
he was sworn of the privy council. On 1 1 July 
1690 he was placed on a commission appointed 
to investigate the behaviour of the fleet, and 
particularly of Admiral Torrington, who was 
accused of supineness in a recent engagement 
with the French off Beachy Head. He re- 
presented Boroughbridge in parliament from 
1688-9 until his death. His speeches in the 
House of Commons were not very frequent, 
but were usually brief, pithy, and to the pur- 
pose. He died on 8 March 1704-5, and was 
buried in the family vault at Ribston, York- 
shire. Goodricke married, in 1668, Mary, 
daughter of Colonel William Legg, and sister 
to George, lord Dartmouth, by whom he had 
no issue. 

[Wotton's Baronetage, ii. 260; Hist. MSS. 
Comm. 3rd Eep. App. 289 a, 6th Eep. App. 321 b, 
7th Eep. App. 277, 282, 283 a, 3616, 382 a, 
391 a, 420 6, 495 a, 9th Eep. App. 378, 1 1th Eep. 
App. (pt. ii.) 80 ; Luttrell's Eelation of State 
Affairs, i. 530, ii. 15, 74, v. 528; Beatson's Polit. 
Index ; Parl. Hist. vols. iv. v. ; C. A. Goodricke's 
Hist, of the Goodricke Family, 1885 ; Memoirs 
of Sir John Eeresby, ed. Cartwright.] J. M. E. 

GOODRICKE, JOHN (1764-1786), as- 
tronomer, born at Groningen on 17 Sept. 
1764, was the eldest child of Henry Good- 
ricke of York, by his wife, Levina Benjamina, 
daughter of Peter Sessler of Namur ; and on 
his father's death, 9 July 1784, became heir 
to his grandfather, Sir John Goodricke of 
Ribston Hall in Yorkshire, who, however, 
survived him. Goodricke earned lasting dis- 
tinction by his investigations of variable 
stars. At the age of eighteen he discovered 
the period and law of Algol's changes. He 
first saw the star lose light on 12 Nov. 1782, 
and observed it at York every fine night 
from 28 Dec. to 12 May. The results were 
communicated to the Royal Society in a paper 
entitled ' A Series of Observations on and a 
Discovery of the Period of the Variations of 

the Light of the Bright Star in the Head of 
Medusa, called Algol ' (Phil. Trans. Ixxiii. 
484) ; and in a supplement, ' On the Periods 
of the Changes of Light in the Star Algol ' 
(ib. Ixxiv. 287). His suggested explanation 
of the phenomenon by the interposition of a 
large dark satellite still finds favour. The 
merit of the research was recognised by the 
bestowal of the Copley medal in 1783. 

His discoveries of the variability respec- 
tively of /3 Lyrse and of 8 Cephei dated 
from 10 Sept. and 19 Oct. 1784 (ib. Ixxv. 153, 
Ixxvi. 48). He perceived the double perio- 
dicity of the former star in 12 d 19 h , a deter- 
mination regarded by him as merely provi- 
sional (Schonfeld's period is nearly three 
hours longer), and accounted for the observed 
changes by the rotation on an axis consider- 
ably inclined to the earth's orbit of a bright 
body mottled with several large dark spots. 
For 8 Cephei he gave a period of 5 d 8 h 37i m 
(10 m too short), remarking that such inqui- 
ries ' may probably lead to some better know- 
ledge of the fixed stars, especially of their 
constitution and the cause of their remark- 
able changes.' Goodricke died at York, in 
his twenty-second year, on 20 April 1786, 
and was buried in a new family vault at 
Hunsingore, Yorkshire. A portrait of him 
exists at Gilling Castle in the same county. 
He was unmarried, and was elected a fellow 
of the Royal Society fourteen days before his 

[C. A. Goodricke's History of the Goodricke 
Family, p. 38 ; Gent. Mag. vol. Ivi. pt. i. p. 353 ; 
Poggendorff's Biog. Lit. Handworterbuch ; La- 
lande's Bibl. Astr. p. 587 ; Watt's Bibl. Brit.] 

A. M. C. 

GOODSIR, JOHN (1814-1867), F.R.S. 
and professor of anatomy in the university of 
Edinburgh, was born at Anstruther, Fifeshire, 
on 20 March 1814. His father was Dr. John 
Goodsir of that town, and his grandfather Dr. 
John Goodsir of Largo, a man of marked in- 
dividuality, who carried on a large country 
practice, and during the last twenty years of 
his life officiated as preacher to the Largo bap- 
tists (for his biography and portrait see the 
Evangelical Mag. and Theol. Rev., June 1821). 
The family had been settled on the east coast 
of Fife for several generations, and were said 
to have come from Germany; the name was 
locally pronounced Gutcher. Goodsir's mother 
was Elizabeth Taylor, great-granddaughter of 
Grizzel Forbes, the sister of Duncan Forbes, 
president of the court of session. From the 
Anstruther schools he was sent at the age of 
twelve to college at St. Andrews. He went 
through the four years' course of arts, but did 
not take a degree ; ' at this early period of 




his life he was fond of the study of meta- 
physics, and imbibed the doctrines of Cole- 
ridge, which gave a colour to the whole of 
his subsequent thoughts and speculations' 
(Obituary in Proc. Roy. Soc. vol. xvi. p. xiv). 
In November 1830 his father, to save a sur- 
geon's premium, apprenticed him to Nasmyth, 
an Edinburgh surgeon-dentist ; the inden- 
ture was cancelled at Goodsir's request before 
the legal term, but he continued to assist 
Nasmyth and took charge of the practice in 
his absence in 1835. At the same time 
he attended Knox's classes in anatomy and 
some of the university medical classes. He 
learned practical surgery from Syme and 
practical medicine from Macintosh, both of 
the ' extra-mural ' school. His decided turn 
for dissection and for making preparations, 
casts, &c., attracted notice. In 1835 he ob- 
tained the license of the Edinburgh College 
of Surgeons (he did not take the M.D. de- 
gree), and joined his father in practice at 
Anstruther, where he spent the next five 
years. His first piece of scientific work, and 
one of his best, grew out of his dental prac- 
tice ; it was a careful and elaborate memoir 
' On the Origin and Development of the 
Pulps and Sacs of the Human Teeth,' pub- 
lished, with figures, in the ' Edinburgh Medi- 
cal and Surgical Journal,' January 1839, but 
read in abstract at the British Association in 
the previous autumn. It gave him an assured 
place among the rising men of science, for it 
furnished a consecutive account of the process 
of human dentition. His five years' practice 
at Anstruther was varied by researches in 
marine zoology, geology, and archaeology, by 
lecturing now and then at St. Andrews and 
Cupar, by keeping up with the newer writings 
in anatomy and physiology, and by making 
a considerable collection of pathological spe- 
cimens. In May 1840 he went to Edinburgh, 
and established himself, along with one (or 
two) of his brothers, with Edward Forbes 
[q. v.], and with G. E. Day, in a half-flat at 
the top of the house 21 Lothian Street, which 
became well known as ' the barracks,' and cost 
17Z. a year. It was the chief meeting-place 
of a coterie known as ' The Universal Brother- 
hood of the Friends of Truth,' to which be- 
longed Samuel Brown, George Wilson, John 
Hughes Bennett, and others, as well as the 
inmates proper ; the club had been started 
by Edward Forbes some years before on the 
model of a German students' club (rose and 
black ribbon across the breast), but had to be 
reconstituted on a more select and less con- 
vivial footing. After about a year of un- 
attached work Goodsir was appointed (in 
April 1841) curator of the museum of the 
College of Surgeons, in which capacity he 

gave courses of lectures upon the specimens,, 
illustrated by his own microscopic researches. 
The original studies were afterwards com- 
municated to the Royal Society of Edin- 
burgh and other societies. In May 1843 he 
transferred his services to the university as 
curator of part of the museum, to which office 
he added that of demonstrator of anatomy 
in 1844, and the care of the rest of the 
museum in 1845. On the death of Monro 
tertius in 1846 he became a candidate for the 
valuable chair of anatomy, declaring that he 
would yield his claims to no one in Britain 
except Owen ; he was elected by vote of the 
town council (22 to 11). With his appoint- 
ment to the professorship Goodsir became less- 
active as a writer of scientific memoirs. Be- 
ginning with his researches on the growth of 
the teeth (1838), and ending with his embryo- 
logical paper on the suprarenals, thyroid, and 
thymus sent to the Royal Society and printed 
in the ' Philosophical Transactions,' 1846, he 
brought out thirty papers, most of them short, 
dealing with original points in development, 
in zoology, and in microscopic physiology and 
pathology. The more important of these were 
collected into a small volume (' Anatomical 
and Pathological Observations,' Edinburgh, 
1845). The volume contained also two or 
three papers by his brother Harry Goodsir, 
who sailed the same year with Franklin's 
expedition and perished with it. This small 
collection was all that Goodsir ever pub- 
lished in book form, and it was mainly on it 
that his reputation for original research rested 
at home and abroad. The paper on ' Centres 
of Nutrition ' has affinities to a certain part 
of the cell-doctrine afterwards worked out 
by Virchow, who dedicated the first edition 
of his ' Cellular-Pathologie' (1859) to Good- 
sir ' as one of the earliest and most acute 
observers of cell-life both physiological and 
pathological.' The memoir on ' Secreting 
Structures ' was also important, and remains 
of interest still, although his conclusion ' that 
secretion is exactly the same function as nu- 
trition' is too much in the transcendental 
manner. Other noteworthy papers are those 
on the placenta, on the structure, growth, 
and repair of bone, and on the amphioxus. 
A subordinate discovery, that of the sarcina 
ventriculi, or vegetable spores in the human 
stomach, brought him more credit with the 
profession at large than his researches did. 
His writings subsequent to 1846 were mostly 
on the morphology of the skeleton and the 
mechanism of the joints ; his various plans 
for some great and comprehensive work were 
never carried out. 

On entering upon his duties as professor of 
anatomy his enthusiasm for his subject soon. 




raised the department from the state into 
which it had fallen in the incompetent hands 
of Monro tertius. He took great pleasure in 
dissection, especially in displaying the mus- 
cular system. He worked much for the uni- 
versity museum, making preparations mostly 
of the invertebrata. He dissected the horse 
twice, and left written descriptions of the 
anatomy, which were brought out after his 
death by Strange ways (1870). Electric fishes 
were also a favourite subject with him. Up- 
wards of a thousand specimens prepared by 
himself and his assistants are striking evi- 
dence of the reality of his work. He gave 
for several years a course of summer lec- 
tures on the invertebrata, the first in 1847. 
He was consulted on questions of piscicul- 
ture and agriculture, and took part in the 
examination of veterinary students. In his 
proper anatomy lecture he was heard with 
interest, not for his good speaking, but on 
account of the numerous ideas, suggestions, 
and comparisons that he threw out. He 
would often expound at great length, and 
with more of enthusiasm than when lectur- 
ing, to a few pupils who stayed behind to 
put questions. At the outset of his career 
as professor he intended to join private and 
hospital surgical practice to his other work. 
With that end he took a house in George 
Square, and in 1848 applied for the vacant 
post of assistant-surgeon to the infirmary. 
He was greatly disappointed at not being 
elected, and told the managers that he had 
been unfairly treated. After this his do- 
mestic life became careless. He removed to 
a smaller house in the New Town, then to 
Trinity on the shore of the Firth, then back 
to Edinburgh for a year and a half, and finally 
to Edward Forbes's old cottage at "Wardie 
(also on the Firth), where he spent the last ten 
years of his life. He saw no company, slept 
on a sofa in the midst of his papers and pre- 
parations, took his meals irregularly, and did 
nearly everything for himself. In his later 
years his sister kept house for him. The 
long illness of which he died (wasting of 
the spinal cord) began in 1853. His health 
was completely shattered by the gratuitous 
labour which he took upon himself in lec- 
turing for the invalid professor of natural 
history in the summer of 1853 ; instead of 
reading the old lectures he gave an original 
and brilliant course, remembered long after, 
which prostrated him so much that he re- 
quired a year's leave of absence abroad. He 
came back greatly set up, but fell into his 
old careless way of living. From that time 
he had to delegate much of his work to 
assistants, and at last spent most of the 
day in the museum, except the lecture 

hour. When on visits to Vienna, Berlin, 

and Paris in the vacations he spent nearly all 

his time in the anatomical collections and in 

j seeking out new pieces of ' philosophical ' or 

j physiological apparatus. Of the latter he 

j brought home the first collection that came 

I to this country, which was acquired after his 

I death for the use of the physiological labo- 

| ratory. The favourite speculation of his later 

| years was that the triangle was the ground- 

I plan of all organic forms ; in this way he 

i sought to bring living organisms into the 

| same view with crystals, man being a tetra- 

! hedron. His various papers ' On the Dignity 

j of the Human Body ' and other morphological 

I subjects were collected, together with his 

| scientific memoirs of an earlier period, in two 

1 posthumous volumes, Edinburgh, 1868. In 

1850 he issued the first part of the ' Annals 

of Anatomy,' consisting of original papers by 

pupils and others ; but the serial stopped at 

the third number. The progressive disease 

from which he suffered doubtless prevented 

him from leaving more work (apart from his 

museum work) in a finished state. He began 

the winter session as usual in 1866, but broke 

down exhausted, and died on 6 March 1867. 

He was buried in the Dean cemetery, next 

to the grave of his early friend Edward Forbes. 

[Biography by H. Lonsdale, M.D., prefixed to 

Goodsir's Anatom. Memoirs, 2 vols., Edinb., 1868; 

Proc. Eoy. Soc. vol. xvi. ; Edinb. Med. Journ. 

1867.] C. C. 

GOODSON, RICHARD, the elder (d. 
1718), organist, was organist of New Col- 
lege and of Christchurch, Oxford ; proceeded 
Mus. Bac. ; and became in 1682 professor of 
music to the university. Goodson died on 
13 Jan. 1718, and was buried in the chapel 
adjoining the choir of Christchurch. His- 
will, signed 1714, made provision for his 
widow, Mary, a daughter, Ann Hobson, and 
two sons, Richard and William, and directed 
that 10/. should be spent upon his funeral. 

RICHARD GOODSON the younger (d. 1741) f 
proceeded Mus. Bac. from Christchurch, Ox- 
ford, 1 March 1716 ; was organist at Christ- 
church and New College, and succeeded his- 
father as professor of music in 1718. He 
was also the first organist of Newbury. Good- 
son died in January 1741, and was buried 
near his father. He bequeathed to Christ- 
church library some of his own and his father's- 
manuscripts, comprising a service, four an- 
thems, and some chants, together with his 
collection of music, except some few articles 
left to the Music School. 

[Hawkins, p. 788 ; Burney, iii. 66 ; Oxford 
Graduates, p. 265 ; P. C. C. Registers of Wills, 
Tenison, 176; Cat. of Music, Christchurch Li- 
brary.] L. M. M. 




>t GOODSONN, WILLIAM (fi. 1634- 
1662), vice-admiral in the state's navy, and 
formerly shipowner, seems to have been ori- 
ginally of Yarmouth (Cal. State Papers, 
Dom. 6 Oct. 1654), where others of the name 
and of the same business were settled (ib. 
28 Jan. 1631-2). About 1634, he says in a 
letter to Thurloe (24 Jan. 1655-6 ; THURLOE, 
iv. 451), he lived for some time at Cartagena, 
on the Spanish Main, not, however, long 
enough to acquire a perfect knowledge of the 
language (ib. v. 151). It may possibly have 
been then, or in other voyages, that he gained 
the familiarity, which he certainly had in 
later life, with the Spanish settlements, both 
in the islands and on the mainland. He de- 
scribes himself as having entered the service 
of the state in 1649 (ib. iv. 458), but it is 
doubtful in what capacity. In 1650 he en- 
tered into a contract with the government 
for the hire of his ship, the Hopeful Luke of 
London, and in October 1651 was petitioning 
for a license to transport shoes to Barbadoes 
(Cal. State Papers, Dom. pp. 500, 504). His 
first direct connection with the navy seems 
to have been on 25 Jan. 1652-3, when he was 
appointed captain of the Entrance, in which 
he took part in the great fight off Portland | 
on 18 Feb. On 24 March he was moved into j 
the Rainbow, in which he served as rear- 
admiral of the blue squadron in the battles 
of 2-3 June and 29-31 July, for which, with 
the other flag-officers, he received a gold chain 
and medal. He is spoken of [see BLAKE, 
ROBERT] during the winter as commanding 
the Unicorn ( Cal. State Papers, Dom. 12 Nov.) 
and afterwards the George (ib. 18 Nov.), under 
Monck, and during the summer of 1654 as 
vice-admiral of the blue squadron under Penn 
(ib. 3, 19 July), combining with that em- 
ployment the more lucrative business of con- 
tractor for the supply of clothes to the seamen 
(ib. 1 Oct. 1654). Towards the end of the 
year he was appointed to the Paragon, as 
vice-admiral of the squadron to be sent to the 
West Indies under the command of General 
Penn [see PENN, SIR WILLIAM], and by order 
of 7 Dec. was associated with him as com- 
missioner, so that in case of Penn's death he 
might be capable of acting fully as com- 
mander-in-chief (THURLOE, iii. 11). While 
at Barbadoes, on 19 March 1654-5, Penn or- 
dered the formation of ' a regiment of seamen,' 
or, as it would now be called, a naval brigade, 
for service on shore, with Goodsonn as its ' 
colonel, and Benjamin Blake, Robert Blake's j 
brother, as lieutenant-colonel (PENN, ii. 74). 
On 13 April Goodsonn and his ' sea-regiment ' 
were landed on Hispaniola with the rest of 
the army [see VENABLES, ROBERT], and, on 
the failure of the attempt to reduce that 

island, were re-embarked on 3 May. The 
expedition went on to Jamaica, where Good- 
sonn was again landed on 11 May. On the 
17th the capitulation was signed ; and it 
being determined that Penn with the larger 
ships should return to England, Goodsonn 
was constituted admiral and commander-in- 
chief of the squadron left behind (21 June), 
with orders to 'wear the jack-flag at the 
main-top-mast head.' The Paragon being one 
of the ships selected to go home with Penn, 
Goodsonn hoisted his flag on board the Tor- 
rington, and on 31 July put to sea with the 
squadron, and, standing over to the main- 
land, took, sacked, and burned Santa Marta 
(THURLOE, iv. 159) ; but, finding his force in- 
sufficient to attempt Cartagena, returned to 
Jamaica by the beginning of November ' to 
refit and consider of some other design.' 
During the winter both the army on shore 
and the ships' companies suffered much from 
sickness (ib. iv. 451). By April, however, 
he was able to sail for another cruise, and, 
making almost exactly the same round as 
before, sacked and burned the town at the 
Rio de la Hacha, watered at Santa Marta, 
again anchored for a day off Cartagena, and 
so returned to Jamaica by the end of May. 
It was then that, for mutinous and irregular 
conduct, he had determined to bring Captain 
Benjamin Blake to a court-martial; but, on 
Blake desiring to lay down his commission, 
Goodsonn permitted him to do so, ' partly,' 
as he wrote to Thurloe, ' in my respect to 
the general his brother, and also to testify 
the integrity of my heart in being free from 
passion.' The charges against Blake he sent 
home sealed, with instructions that they were 
not to be opened till they were delivered to 
Thurloe, and requested that then they might 
not be produced, unless ' he appear maliciously 
active in vindicating himself to deprave our 
proceeding' (ib. v. 154; cf. BLAKE, ROBERT). 
In August several of the ships, including the 
Torrington, were found not fit to remain out 
any longer, and were sent home, Goodsonn 
hoisting his flag in the Marston Moor, from 
which in the following January he moved 
into the Mathias and sailed for England, 
where he arrived on 18 April 1657, being 
then in very bad health. During the summer 
and autumn of 1657 Goodsonn commanded 
a squadron in the Downs or off Mardyk, and 
in 1658 off Dunkirk, co-operating with the 
besieging army. In the autumn, with his 
flag in the Swiftsure, he was vice-admiral 
in the fleet under Sir George Ayscue [q. v.], 
which attempted to pass the Sound, but, 
being unable to do so by reason of the late- 
ness of the season and foul weather, he re- 
turned with the fleet, Ayscue remaining in 


article needs revision. See Sir Charles 
T^iri-Vi in Tha Jl/fs,~.i~,,~.*. JI/T: _ - 




Sweden. In the following year he was again 
in the fleet ordered to the Sound under 
General Mountagu [see MOUNTAGU, EDWARD, 
first EARL OP SANDWICH], and seems to have 
continued with Mountagu till the scheme for 
the restoration of the monarchy began to 
take form. From that time nothing more is 
heard of him in a public capacity, though 
mention is made of him nearly three years 
afterwards as suspected, on no apparent 
grounds, of complicity in a plot to kill the 
king (Cal. State Papers, Dom. 15 Dec. 1662). 
By a reference to him in a brother puritan's 
will he seems to have been still alive in 1680 
(Notes and Queries, 3rd ser. ix. 138). From 
the connection with Penn it appears not im- 
probable that the John Goodson (APPLETON, 
Cyclopedia of American Biography), 'the first 
English physician that came to Pennsylvania 
under Penn's charter, and among the first that 
bought lands in the province of the " Free 
Society of Traders," ' may have been William 
Goodsonn's son ; but we know nothing cer- 
tainly of Goodsonn's family or private life, 
except that his wife's name was Mary, and 
that advances on her husband's pay were 
made to her during his absence at Jamaica 
(Cal. State Papers, Dom. 15 Oct. 1655, 
17 June, 21 Aug. 1656; THURLOE, iv. 458). 

[Cal. State Papers, Dom. 1650-2; Thurloe's 
State Papers ; Lediard's Naval History ; Gran- 
ville Penn's Memorials of Sir William Penn.] 

J. K. L. 

GOODWIN, ARTHUR (1693 P-1643), 
friend of John Hampden, born in 1593 or 
1594, was the only surviving son of Sir 
Francis Goodwin, knt. (1564-1634), of Upper 
Winchendon, Buckinghamshire, by his wife, 
Elizabeth (d. 1630), daughter of Lord Grey 
de Wilton (Pedigree in LANGLEY, Hundred 
of Desborough, p. 442 ; will of Sir F. Good- 
win, P. C. C. 72, Seager). With Hampden 
he studied at Magdalen College, Oxford, and 
with his friend contributed Latin verses to 
the college collection on the death of Henry 
prince of Wales, entitled 'LuctusPosthumus,' 
4to, Oxford, 1612, p. 52. On 10 Feb. 1613- 
1614 he was admitted B.A. (Reg. of Univ. of 
Oxf. Oxf. Hist. Soc. vol. ii. pt. iii. p. 325). 
He became with Hampden a member of the 
Inner Temple in November 1613 (Members 
admitted to Inner Temple, 1547-1660, p. 204). 
He sat for Chipping Wycombe, Buckingham- 
shire, in the parliaments of 1620-1 and 1623- 
1624, for Aylesbury in the same county in 
that of 1625-6, and on 14 Oct. 1640 was re- 
turned for Buckinghamshire with Hampden 
as his colleague (Lists of Members of Par- 
liament, Official Return, pt. i.) During the 
civil war Goodwin, like Hampden, held a 

command under the Earl of Essex, and raised 
a regiment of cavalry in Buckinghamshire, 
of which he was appointed colonel. While 
he was quartered at Coventry, Warwickshire, 
with Hampden and Lord Brooke, they de- 
feated, 29 Aug. 1642, the Earl of Northamp- 
ton in an attempt to force his way into 
Daventry, Northamptonshire. Northampton 
himself was seized by Goodwin's troops in 
the rear (A True Relation of the Manner of 
Taking of the Earl of Northampton, &c. 
1642). On 6 Dec. of the same year the Earl 
of Essex gave instructions to Colonels Good- 
win and Hurry, then in camp near Newbury, 
Berkshire, to march with all speed to the re- 
lief of Marlborough, Wiltshire. When they 
reached Marlborough the royalists had retired 
with their plunder, leaving a party which was 
forced to abandon the place. Goodwin and 
Hurry afterwards compelled three regiments 
under Lord Digby to abandon Wantage with 
some loss of men and ammunition. Good- 
win visited Andover, Hampshire, where Lord 
Grandison was reported to be with three thou- 
sand horse and dragoons (cf. his very inte- 
resting letter of 12 Dec. 1642, printed in 
MONET, Battles of Newbury, 2nd edit. pp. 
30-1). Essex appointed him commander-in- 
chief of the forces of Buckinghamshire 3 Jan. 
| 1643 (Carte MS. ciii. f. 106), when he made 
Aylesbury his headquarters. At daybreak on 
27 Jan. he attempted to storm Brill, Bucking- 
hamshire, but after two hours' hard fighting 
he was forced to fall back on Aylesbury (The 
Latest Intelligence of Prince Ruperfs Proceed- 
ing in Northamptonshire, &c. 2 Feb. 1642-3 ; 
Mercurius Aulicus, 27 and 29 Jan. 1643). In 
April he took part in the siege of Reading. 
' Your regiment,' writes Hampden, 'is of very 
great reputation amongst us.' When Hamp- 
den received his fatal wound; Goodwin took 
him to Thame and soothed his last moments. 
(His letter to his daughter Jane, lady Whar- 
ton, upon Hampden's death is among his 
correspondence in vol. ciii. of the Carte MSS. 
in the Bodleian Library, and has been printed 
at p. 109 of MONEY'S Battles of Newbury, 2nd 
edit.) Goodwin died in the same year, 1643, 
and was buried at Wooburn, Buckingham- 
shire (LANGLEY, p. 466). His will, dated 
6 Feb. 1638, with a codicil dated 30 Aug. 
1642, was proved at London on 11 Nov. 1644 
(registered in P. C. C. 1, Rivers). He had 
bequeathed to Hampden ' twentie poundes 
as a smale token of my love to my faithfull 
freind.' By his marriage with Jane, third 
daughter of Sir Richard Wenman, knt., of 
Thame Park, Oxfordshire, he had an only 
child, Jane (1618-1658), who on 7 Sept. 
1637 became the second wife of Philip, fourth 
lord Wharton (1613-1695). 




He left particular directions for the foun- 
dation of six almshouses at Waddesdon, 
Buckinghamshire, which the troubles had 
prevented him from erecting in his lifetime. 
His portrait, by Vandyck, has been engraved 
by Gunst. 

[Notes and Queries, 6th ser. i. 255, 383, 466; 
Evans's Cat. of Engraved Portraits, i. 142 ; 
Lodge's Peerage of Ireland (Archdall), iv. 282 ; 
Nugent's Memorials of Hampden.] G-. G-. 


{1817-1878), Egyptologist, was born in 1817 
at King's Lynn, where his father was a so- 
licitor in large practice. He was the eldest 
of four sons, the second of whom, Harvey, 
is now bishop of Carlisle. He received his 
early education at High Wycombe, Bucking- 
hamshire, and when a schoolboy of nine or so 
was led to take a lively interest in Egyptology 
by reading an article on ' Hieroglyphics ' in 
the ' Edinburgh Review ' for December 1826 
(erroneously identified by the Bishop of Car- 
lisle with an article in the ' Quarterly '). 
Egyptology became the favourite study of his 
life, and during his school holidays he wrote 
essays on the early history of Egypt. He was 
also in early life a fair Hebraist, botanist, and 
geologist, an accomplished Anglo-Saxon and 
a good German scholar. In 1834 he was en- 
tered at St. Catharine's Hall, Cambridge, 
taking his B.A. degree with high classical 
honours in 1838, proceeding M.A. in 1842, 
and being afterwards elected a fellow of 
his college Goodwin had intended to take 
orders, but his views undergoing a change 
he resigned his fellowship, which was only 
tenable by a clergyman. In 1848 he was 
called to the bar at Lincoln's Inn, and de- 
voted himself to the uncongenial study of the 
law. In the same year he published ' The 
Anglo-Saxon Version of the Life of St. Guth- 
lac, hermit of Crowland. Originally writ- 
ten in Latin by Felix (commonly called of 
Crowland). Now first printed from a MS. 
in the Cottonian Library. With a transla- 
tion and notes,' chiefly grammatical and phi- 
lological. He had for years contributed to 
the publications of the Cambridge Antiquarian 
Society, when in 1851 he edited for it ' The 
Anglo-Saxon Legends of St. Andrew and St. 
Veronica . . . with an English translation.' 
For the ' Cambridge Essays ' for 1858 he wrote 
the valuable disquisition on ' Hieratic Pa- 
pyri,' his first noticeable contribution to Egyp- 
tology. This was followed in 1859 by the 
anonymous republication from the ' Law Ma- 
gazine ' of his ' Curiosities of Law,' consisting 
of translated extracts from deeds of grant of 
various kinds in favour of a monastery near 
Thebes in Egypt, written in Coptic, of which 

Goodwin was a diligent student. In 1860 
he acquired a wider reputation by his paper, 
' The Mosaic Cosmogony,' in ' Essays and Re- 
views,' to which he was the only lay contri- 
butor. This plain-spoken essay produced five 
or six specific replies, one of them by Pro- 
fessor Young of Belfast, to none of which 
does Goodwin seem to have made any re- 
joinder. According to the catalogue of the 
British Museum library he succeeded Mr. 
John Morley as the last editor of the second 
series of the ' Literary Gazette.' He certainly 
edited the two volumes of the ' Parthenon,' 
1862-3, with which the ' Literary Gazette ' 
was incorporated, giving prominence in it to 
Egyptological subjects. In May 1862 at a 
meeting of the Society of Antiquaries, to 
which Goodwin sent several communications 
on those subjects, he replied to Sir George 
Cornewall Lewis's scepticism, expressed in 
person, as to the possibility of interpreting 
the ancient Egyptian by arguing that Coptic 
was in some degree a continuation of that 
language. Various contributions of Good- 
win's, chiefly Egyptological, appeared in the 
second series of Chabas' ' Melanges Egyp- 
tologiques,' 1864. 

In March 1865 Goodwin was appointed as- 
sistant judge in the newly created supreme 
court for China and Japan. A paper which 
he contributed to ' Eraser's Magazine ' for 
| February of that year was in 1866, after 
his departure to the East, separately issued 
(Mr. Le Page Renouf correcting the proofs) as 
' The Story of Saneha, an Egyptian Tale of 
Four Thousand Years ago, translated from the 
Hieratic Text.' It was prefaced by an admira- 
ble summary of the history and chronology of 
ancient Egypt in connection with the previous 
development of its varied civilisation. Good- 
win executed his translation from the fac- 
simile of the original papyrus printed in 1860 
in Lepsius's ' Denkmaler Aegyptens.' His ver- 
sion was read before the Society of Antiqua- 
ries in December 1863, the month follow- 
ing the publication of another version by 
M. Chabas, both of them executed simul- 
taneously, but without concert, and, though 
not identical, agreeing in all essential points. 
For the ' Records of the Past ' Goodwin re- 
vised his version of the ' Story of Saneha ' 
and others of his translations of hieratic texts. 
In 1866 also appeared ' Voyage d'un Egyp- 
tien en Phenicie, en Palestine, &c., au XIV e 
siecle avant notre ere, d'un papyrus du Mu- 
see Britannique, comprenant le facsimile du 
texte hieratique et sa transcription complete 
en hieroglyphes et en lettres coptes. Par 
F. Chabas, avec la collaboration de C. W. 
Goodwin.' In his essay on ' Hieratic Papyri ' 
Goodwin had translated the first eight pages 




of this work. Chabas speaks enthusiastically 
of Goodwin's labours in hieratic as having 
effected ' a genuine revolution in the science.' 
During his residence in the East he worked 
assiduously at Egyptology, continuing fre- 
quently from 1866 to 1876 the contributions 
to Lepsius and Brugsch's ' Zeitschrift fur 
agyptische Sprache,' which he had begun 
before leaving England. Communications 
from him were utilised and acknowledged by 
Canon Cook in his disquisition ' On Egyptian 
Words in the Pentateuch ' in vol. i. pt. I. of 
the ' Speaker's Commentary on the Bible,' 

After being several years at Shanghai 
Goodwin was transferred to Yokohama, where 
he spent three years as acting judge of the 
supreme court. He retained this position in 
1876 when he returned to Shanghai, and he re- 
mained there, a visit to England intervening, 
until his death, after a long illness, in Janu- 
ary 1878. The event caused the deepest re- 
gret among the British residents at Shanghai 
and Yokohama. Goodwin had endeared him- 
self to all his friends as a delightful com- 
panion, cheerful and unaffected, his great 
acquirements being unaccompanied by the 
slightest trace of pedantry or pretension. He 
was fond of music, of which he had studied 
the theory, playing on more than one instru- 
ment. He is understood to have been for 
years the musical critic of the ' Guardian,' 
. to have contributed to the 'Saturday 

view.' He was the author of at least two 

w books : 1. ' The Succession Duty Act ' 
16 and 17 Viet. cap. 51), with introduction, 
notes, and an appendix, containing the Le- 
gacy Duty Acts 1853. 2. ' The Practice of 
Probate and Administration under 20 and 
21 Viet. cap. 77, together with the statute 
and appendix,' 1858. 

[Biographical Notes on Goodwin by the Bishop 
of Carlisle in Athenaeum for 23 March 1878 ; 
Obituary Notices in Academy for 16 March 1878, 
and in the Shanghai and Yokohama papers of 
January 1878; Foreign Office List for 1878; 
personal knowledge.] F. E. 

poet, was author of ' The Chaunce of the 
Dolorous Lover,' London, by Wynkyn de 
Worde, 1520, 4to, ' a lamentable story with- 
out pathos,' writes Warton. A more in- 
teresting production is ' The maydens dreme. 
Compyled and made by Chrystofer Goodwyn. 
In the yere of our Lorde, Mcccccxlij.,' Lon- 
don,' by me Robert Wyer for Richard Bankes.' 
The only copy known belonged to Heber. 
It is in seven-line stanzas ; in the concluding 
stanza the four words ' Chryst,' ' offre,' ' good,' 
and 'wyn' (forming together the author's 
name) are introduced into different lines en- 

closed in brackets. Warton describes the 
second piece as ' a vision without imagina- 
tion.' A young lady is supposed to listen 
in a dream to ' a dispute between Amour 
and Shamefacedness for and against love.' 

In 1572 Christopher Goodwin or Goodwyn 
and John Johnson proposed to Queen Eliza- 
beth's ministers to convert Ipswich into 'a 
mart town,' in order to draw thither the whole 
trade from Antwerp. Much of the promoters' 
notes and correspondence with Lord Burgh- 
ley, Sir Thomas Smith, and others is in the 
Record Office (Cal. State Papers, 1547-80, pp. 
447-8) ; and among Lord Calthorpe's manu- 
scripts is ' a device ' on the same subject by 
the same authors (Hist. MSS. Comm. 2nd 
Rep. p. 40) . It is doubtful whether this Chris- 
topher Goodwin is identical with the poet, but 
the identity of name suggests kinship, and,like 
the poet, the Ipswich projector usually spells 
his name ' Goodwyn.' 

[Warton's History, p. 681 ; Collier's Bibl. Cat. 
i. 318 ; Heber's Cat. ed. Collier,' p. Ill ; Eitson's 
Bibliographia Poetica ; Tanner's Bibl. Brit. ; 
Ames's Typogr. Antiq. ; Hazlitt's Bibliographical 
Collections.] S. L. L. 

FRANCIS (1784-1835), 
architect, was born 23 May 1784, at King's 
Lynn, Norfolk, and became a pupil of J. 
Coxedge of Kensington. He exhibited in 
the Royal Academy in 1806 an ' Internal 
View of St. Nicholas' Chapel, Lynn,' after 
which he appears to have devoted himself to 
the study of his profession, and from 1822 to 
1834 exhibited twenty-three drawings made 
for competition or for his executed works, 
which were chiefly in the pointed style. In 
1821 he built the church at West Bromwich, 
which was his first completed structure of 
the kind, and in the same year a chapel of 
ease at Portsea, Hampshire, a new church at 
Ashton-under-Lyne, and rebuilt the parish 
church at Walsall, with the exception of the 
spire and chancel. He was occupied from 
1821 to 1824 with a church at Kidderminster; 
in 1822, added the steeple to St. Peter's, Man- 
chester ; in 1823, the tower and spire to St. 
Paul's, Birmingham, and completed Trinity 
Church, Bordesley, Birmingham, a view of 
which was published in the ' Gentleman's 
Magazine ' for 1827. In 1824 he built Holy 
Trinity Church, Burton-on-Trent ; in 1825, 
St. James's, Oldham, Lancashire ; and in 
1826, St. Paul's Chapel, Walsall, of which 
plans and sections were published in Tress's 
' Modern Churches,' 1841. From 1826 to 1827 
he was erecting St. John's, Derby; from 1826 
to 1828, St. George's, Hulme, near Manches- 
ter; and in 1830 he completed St. Mary's, 
Bilston. He also rebuilt the old church at 




Bilston, and a portion of St. Michael's, South- 
ampton. He designed the town hall and as- 
sembly rooms, Manchester, built between 1822 
and 1825, the interior of which was regarded 
as his chef d'ceuvre, and was engraved as a 
frontispiece to vol. ii. of his ' Rural Archi- 
tecture.' Since the erection (1869-77) of the 
New Town Hall, by Mr. A. Waterhouse, 
R. A., Goodwin's building in King Street has 
been used as the Free Reference Library. 
Within the last few years the removal of 
the steps from the street to the portico (ren- 
dered advisable by the increased traffic) has 
rather disfigured the approach to the build- 
ing. The town hall and assembly rooms at 
Macclesfield were erected under his direction 
between 1823 and 1824, and in 1823 he com- 
menced the county gaol at Derby, one of the 
best and most commodious prisons in the king- 
dom at the time. He erected the market at 
Leeds, 1824-7, and that at Salford, Manches- 
ter, 1825. The exchange at Bradford was 
built from his designs, 1829. Among his 
private works were Lissadell, co. Sligo, for Sir 
R. Gore Booth, bart., views of which are en- 
graved in his ' Rural Architecture ; ' an Italian 
villa for Henry Gore Booth, esq., Cullamore, 
near Lissadell ; a lodge for G. Dodwell, esq., 
Sligo ; some works for E. J. Cooper, esq., M.P., 
at Markree, co. Sligo; lodge, Deinstall Hall, 
Staffordshire, for H. Hordern, esq. ; and a par- 
sonage in the Grecian style for the Rev. W. 
Leigh at Bilston. In almost every competi- 
tion for a building of any importance, drawings 
were sent in by Goodwin, in the preparation 
of which he spared no expense. He designed 
a scheme for an extensive cemetery in the j 
vicinity of the metropolis, with buildings 
from the best examples in Athens, and ex- | 
hibited his drawings gratuitously in an office 
taken for the purpose in Parliament Street. 
In 1833 his plans for the new House of 
Commons were pronounced the best of those : 
sent in, and were ordered by the committee j 
to be printed, and in 1824 a design for an 
' Intended Suspension Bridge at Horseferry I 
Road, projected by Capt. S. Browne, R.N., j 
and F. Goodwin, Architect and Engineer,' 
was approved by the provisional committee. 
In 1834 he was at Belfast preparing designs 
for additions to the college, including a mu- 
seum, and also for baths in Dublin, but these 
were never executed. He died suddenly of 
apoplexy on 30 Aug. 1835 at his residence, 
21 King Street, Portman Square, while en- 
gaged on a set of designs for the new houses 
of parliament, and was buried in Kensal 
Green cemetery. 

He published : 1. 'Plans, &c., of the New 
House of Commons,' 1833. 2. 'Domes- 
tic Architecture,' 1st ser., 1833; 2nd ser., 

1834. A second edition of the work appeared 
in 1835 under the title of ' Rural Architec- 
ture,' with supplements to each series en- 
titled ' Cottage Architecture.' 

[Redgrave's Diet, of Artists ; Diet, of Archi- 
; tecture ; Graves's Diet, of Artists ; Goodwin's 

Rural Architecture ; Gent. Mag. 1827 pt. ii. pp. 

201-2, 1835 p. 659 ; Architectural Magazine, 

1834 p. 136, 1835 p. 479 ; Glew's Walsall, p. 
j 20 ; Butterworth's Stockport, pp. 39, 40 ; Axon's 

Annals of Manchester, pp. 166, 172 ; Cornish's 
| Manchester, pp. 17, 48, 49; Cornish's Birming- 
1 ham, p. 37 ; Jewitt's Derby, pp. 38, 51 ; Parson's 

Leeds, i. 229 ; Reeves's West Bromwich, pp. 14, 
| 15; Baines's Lancaster, 1836, ii. 576; Royal 

Academy Exhibition Catalogues ; Univ. Cat. of 
I Books on Art ; Brit. Mus. Cat. of Printed Books.] 

B. P. 

GOODWIN, GEORGE (ft. 1620), Latin, 
verse writer, was the author of ' Melissa reli- 
gionis pontificse ejusdemque apotrope; elegiis 
decem.' Lond. 1620, 4to, dedicated to Sir 
Robert Naunton. An English translation, 
by John Vicars, appeared under the title 
of 'Babel's Balme, or the Honeycombe of 
Rome's Religion, with a neat Draining and 
Straining out of the Rammish Honey thereof : 
sung in Tenne most elegant Elegies in Latine 
by that most worthy Christian Satyrist, 
Master George Goodwinne, and translated 
into ten English Satyres by the Muses' most 
unworthy eccho John Vicars,' Lond. 1624, 
4to. Goodwin was also author of another set 
of verses, which exist only in the form of 
a translation by Joshua Sylvester, entitled 
' Automachia, or the Self-conflict of a Chris- 
tian, from the Latin of Mr. George Goodwin ' 

[Brit. Mus. Libr. and Bodl. Libr. Catalogues.] 

A. V. 


(1603 P-1667), Jesuit, born in Somersetshire 
in or about 1603, after making his humanity 
course at St. Omer, was sent in 1621 for his 
higher course to the English College of the 
Jesuits at Valladolid. He was professed of 
the four vows 25 March 1645. For twenty 
years (1631-51) he served the missions in 
the ' residence of St. Stanislas,' which included 
Devonshire and Cornwall, and subsequently he 
was appointed professor of moral theology 
and controversy at Liege. Returning to this 
country he died in London on 26 Nov. 1667. 
He wrote : 1. ' Lapis Lydius Controver- 
siarum modernarum Catholicos inter et Aca- 
tholicos,' Liege, 1656, 24mo, pp. 466. 2. ' Pia 
Exercitatio Divini Amoris,' Liege, 1656, 

[Foley's Records, v. 972, vii. 306 ; Oliver's 
Jesuit Collections, p. 105; Oliver's Catholic 




Keligion in Corn-wall, p. 313; Southwell's Bibl. 
Scriptorum Soc. Jesu, p. 395 ; De Backer's Bibl. 
des Ecrivains de la Compagnie de Jesus, i. 2206.] 

T. C. 

, JOHN (1594 P-1665), re- 
publican divine, was born in Norfolk about 
1594. He was educated at Queens' College, 
Cambridge, graduating M.A. and obtaining a 
fellowship on 10 Nov. 1617. Leaving the 
university in consequence of his marriage, he 
took orders, and became popular as a preacher 
in his native county at Raynham, Lynn, 
Yarmouth, and Norwich. For a time he 
seems to have officiated at St. Mary's, Dover. 
In 1632 he came to London, and on 18 Dec. 
1633 was instituted to the vicarage of St. 
Stephen's, Coleman Street, vacated by the 
nonconformist secession of John Davenport 
[q. v.] He sided with the puritans, and as 
early as 1633 inclined to independency under 
the influence of John Cotton (1585-1682). 
In 1 635 he was convened for breach of canons, 
but on his promise of amendment Bishop 
Juxon took no further proceedings. In 1638 
Goodwin broached from the pulpit of St. 
Stephen's his opinions on justification (which 
had given offence at Dover), taking a view 
which was already regarded as practically 
Arminian, though he always maintained his 
independence of the system of Arminius, 
and cited Calvin as bearing him out on some 
points. A warm pulpit controversy with 
other city ministers on this topic was stayed 
by Juxon's interference, all parties agreeing 
to desist. Next year (1639) Goodwin an- 
gered his opponents anew by insisting on the 
need of a learned ministry. Juxon reported 
to Laud that he did not despair of a good 
issue. Goodwin had a hand in drafting the 
London clerical petition against the new 
canons of 30 June 1640. Alderman Isaac 
Pennington (afterwards closely connected 
with the quakers) was one of his parishioners, 
and joined his congregational society. 

In 1639 Goodwin wrote a preface to the 
posthumous sermons of Henry Ramsden. 
During the next two years he published 
several sermons, and an exegetical tract 

(1641) criticising the positions of George 
Walker, B.D., of St. John's, Watling Street. 
Walker retorted upon Goodwin and others 
with a charge of Socinianism in the article 
of justification. Goodwin defended himself 

(1642) in ' Christ set forth,' and in a treatise 
on justification. 

On the appeal of the parliament to arms 
Goodwin was one of the earliest clerical sup- 
porters of the democratic puritans. His* Anti- 
Cavalierisme ' (1642) proclaims on its very 
title-page the need of war to suppress th 
party ' now hammering England to make an 


[reland of it.' The loyalist doctrine of the 
divine right of kings he assailed in his ' Os 
Dssorianum, or a Bone for a Bishop,' i.e. 
~ riffith Williams, bishop of Ossory (1643). 
With equal vigour he attacked the presby- 
erians as a persecuting party in his ' 0eo- 
a\ia, or the grand imprudence of ... fight- 
ng against God ' (1644, 2 editions). In May 
.645 he was ejected from his living for re- 
Busing to administer indiscriminately in his 
>arish the baptism and the Lord's Supper. 
Nothing daunted, Goodwin immediately set 
up an independent church in Coleman Street, 
which had a large following. William Taylor, 
lis appointed successor at St. Stephen's, was 
n his turn ejected in 1649, to be restored in 
.657. In the interim Goodwin obtained the 
ise of the church, but with a diminished 
e venue ; he estimates his loss in 1654 at 
.,000/. Among his hearers at this period 
was Thomas Firmin [q. v.], who took down 
lis sermons in shorthand. 

The ' Gangrama ' (16 Feb. 1646) of Thomas 
Edwards (1599-1647) [q.v.] included Good- 
win among the subjects of attack; in the 
second and third parts, published in the same 
rear, Edwards was provoked into yet more 
savage onslaughts by Goodwin's anonymous 
reply, bearing the stinging title ' Cretensis.' 
Goodwin is ' a monstrous sectary, a compound 
of Socinianism, Arminianism,antinomianism, 
ndependency, popery, yea and of scepticism.' 
He and several of his church ' go to bowls 
and other sports on days of public thanks- 
riving.' Goodwin, by his ' Hagiomastix, or 
;he Scourge of the Saints' (1646; i.e. January 
1647), came into collision with William 
Jenkyn, vicar of Christ Church, Newgate, 
whose 'Testimony' was endorsed (14 Dec. 
1647) by fifty-eight presbyterian divines at 
Sion College. Sixteen members of Good- 
win's church issued (1647) an ' Apologetical 
Account ' of their reasons for standing by 
him. In answer (1648) to Jenkyn's com- 
plaint that presbyterians were put ' under 
the cross ' by the existence of sectaries, Good- 
win asks, ' Is not the whole English element 
of church livings offered up by the state to 
their service ? ' Jenkyn was aided by John 
Vicars, usher in Christ Church Hospital, who 
published (1648) an amusing description of 
' Coleman-street-conclave ' and its minister, 
' this most huge Garagantua,' the ' schismatics 
cheater in chief.' This contains a likeness of 
Goodwin (engraved by W. Richardson) sur- 
mounted by a windmill and weathercock, 
' pride' and 'error' supplyingthe breeze. Good- 
win's career is, however, remarkable for con- 
sistency. He translated and printed (March 
1648) a part of the ' Stratagemata Satanse ' 
of Acontius [q. v.], under the title ' Satan's 





Stratagems ; or the Devil's Cabinet-Councel 
discovered,' with recommendatory epistles by 
himself and John Durie (1596-1680) [q. v.] 
Acontius, whose broad tolerance recom- 
mended him to the earlier puritans (see 
AMES, preface to Puritanismus Anglicanus, 
1610), was now stigmatised by such writers 
as Francis Cheynell [q. v.] as a ' sneaking ; 
Socinian.' Cheynell sought in vain in the 
Westminster Assembly to obtain a con- 
demnation of Goodwin's book, but printed 
(1650) his thoughts about it by request. 
There was a fresh sale for the translation, 
which was reissued with a new title, ' Dark- 
ness Discovered ; or the Devil's secret Strata- 
gems laid open ' (1651). 

Goodwin defended the most extreme 
measures of the army leaders. In his ' Might 
and Right Well Met ' (1648), which was an- 
swered by John Geree [q. v.], he applauded 
the purging of the parliament. He was one 
of the puritan divines who, in the interval 
between the sentence and execution of the 
king, proffered to him their spiritual services. 
Goodwin tells us in his ''Y/3/3i<rTo8ucat. The 
Obstrvctovrs of Justice,' pp. 96-7 (30 May 
1649), that he had an ' houres discourse or 
more with ' Charles, but was not impressed by 
his visit. He firmly contended in the same 
tract for the sovereign rights of the people, 
quoted approvingly Milton's ' Tenure of Kings 
and Magistrates ' (13 Feb. 1649), and main- 
tained that the proceedings against Charles 
followed the spirit of the law if not the letter. 
The pamphlet was cast into the shade by 
the splendour of Milton's ' EiVoi'OKAaonjs ' 
(October 1649). < Two Hyms or Spiritual 
Songs ' (1651) from his pen, sung in his con- 
gregation on 24 Oct. 1651, the thanksgiving 
day for the victory at Worcester, further illus- 
trate his republican zeal. 

Meanwhile he pursued his theological con- 
troversies. His magnum opus in defence of 
general redemption, ' 'ATroAvrpoxrts cmo\v- 
rpaxretas, or Redemption Redeemed,' appeared 
in 1651 (reprinted 1 840) ; his ' Water-Dipping 
no Firm Footing' (1653) and ' Cata-Baptism ' 
(1655) were polemics against baptists. The 
circumstance that Cromwell's ' Triers ' were 
mostly independents did not reconcile him 
to the new ecclesiastical despotism ; he ar- 
raigned it in his ' Bao-ai/urrat. Or the Triers 
[or Tormenters] Tried' (1657). 

Calamy remarks that Goodwin ' was a man 
by himself, was against every man, and had 
every man against him.' Goodwin speaks of 
himself as having ' to contend in a manner 
with the whole earth ' (dedication to Cata- 
Baptism). His ideas were often ahead of his 
day. In his ' Divine Authority of the Scrip- 
tures Assorted ' (1648), which won the com- 

mendation of Baxter, he maintains, antici- 
pating Fox and Barclay, that the word of 
God ; was extant in the world, nay in the 
hearts and consciences of men, before there 
was any copy of the word extant in writing.' 
Inhis'PagansDebtandDowry^ieSl ; 1671, 
a reply to Barlow), which led to a contro- 
versy with Obadiah Howe [q. v.], he argues 
that without the letter of the gospel heathens 
may be saved. His rational temper made 
him the opponent of seekers and quakers, 
and gave him some affinity with the Cam- 
bridge Platonists. He rej ected the distinction 
allowed by Acontius, between tolerance of 
error in fundamentals and in other points. 
Error in fundamentals may be innocent. 
Toleration he bases on the difficulty of ar- 
riving at truth. He would have men ' call 
more for light and less for fire from heaven ' 
(epistle in Satan's Stratagems, 1648). Even 
the denial of the Holy Trinity he will not 
treat as a ' damnable heresy,' for orthodoxy 
is a doctrine of inference. Thomas Barlow 
[q. v.], afterwards bishop of Lincoln, wrote 
to him (September 1651), ' I always find in 
the prosecution of your arguments that per- 
spicuity and acuteness, which I often seek 
and seldom find in the writings of others.' 

At the Restoration Goodwin, with Milton, 
was ordered into custody on 16 June 1660. 
He kept out of the way, and at length was 
placed in the indemnity, among eighteen 
persons perpetually incapacitated for any 
public trust. His ' 'Y/Spto-rofiiVat ' was burned 
(27 Aug.) by the hangman at the Old Bailey. 
According to Burnet his comparative im- 
munity was due to his Anninian repute. He 
soon returned to his Coleman Street congre- 
gation, though not to the emoluments of St. 
Stephen's, of which he was deprived and 
Theophilus Alford admitted as his successor, 
on 29 May 1661. He wrote strenuously 
against the Fifth-monarchy enthusiasts in 
1654 and 1655 (see passages collected in JACK- 
SON, p. 210 sq.) But Venner's meeting house, 
whence the insurrection of 1661 proceeded, 
was in Swan Alley, Coleman Street, and here 
also, in 1653, was Goodwin's study (dedica- 
tion to Exposition of Romans'). Hence, doubt- 
less, arose Burnet's fable that Goodwin was 
one of these enthusiasts. Immediately on 
Venner's rising, Goodwin's church issued a 
' Declaration ' (1660, i.e. January 1661) dis- 
claiming all sympathy with this or any 
attempt ' to propagate religion by the sword/ 

Jackson ascribes to Goodwin an anony- 
mous publication (which he wrongly de- 
scribes) entitled ' Prelatique Preachers None 
of Christ's Teachers,' 1663 ; internal evidence 
is strongly against his authorship. He died 
in the plague year, 1665. From the burial 




register of St. Stephen's, Jackson gives the 
following entry as possibly referring to him : 
' John Goodwin Jn whites Alley, vitler was 
buried the 3rd of September 1665.' By his 
early marriage he had seven children, two of 
whom died in 1645. His portrait, engraved 
in 1641, ' setat 47,' by George Glovw; [q. v.], 
represents a man of fine features, wearing 
beard and moustache, his scanty hair almost 
hidden by an embroidered skull-cap. 

Goodwin published besides the works 
already mentioned: 1. ' The Saints' Interest 
in God,' &c., 1640, 12mo. 2. ' God a Good 
Master,' &c., 1641, 12mo (dedicated to Eliza- 
bethHampden, mother of the patriot). 3. 'The 
Return of Mercies,' &c., 1641, 12mo. 4. 'The 
Christian's Engagement,' &c., 1641, 12mo. 
5. ' Impedit ira animum, or Animadversions 
vpon . . . George Walker,' &c., 1641, 4to 
(Walker's ' Defence,' to which this is a reply, 
was published by Goodwin). 6. 'Impvtatio 
Fidei, or a Treatise of Justification,' &c., 1642, 
4to. 7. ' The Butcher's Blessing, or the 
Bloody Intentions of Romish Cavaliers,' &c., 
1642 (Jackson). 8. ' Innocencies Triumph, 
or an Answer to ... William Prynne,' &c., 
1644, 4to (two editions same year, defends 
his ' QfOjMx^Y- 9. 'Innocency and Truth 
Triumphing,' &c., 1645, 4to (continuation of 
No. 8). 10. ' Calumny Arraign'd,' &c., 1645, 
4to (answer to Prynne's reply). 11. ' A Vin- 
dication of Free Grace,' &c., 1645, 4to (ed. by 
Samuel Lane, contains sermon 28 April 1644 
by Goodwin, taken in shorthand by Thomas 
Rudyard). 12. 'Twelve . . . Serious Cautions,' 
&c., 1646, 4to. 13. ' Some Modest and Humble 
Queries,' &c., 1646 (Jackson). 14. 'An- 
apologesia Tes Antapologias, or The Inex- | 
cusablenesse of ... Antapologia,' &c., 1646, 
4to (first and only part ; against Edwards). 
15. 'A Candle to see the Sunne,' &c., 1647, 
4to (appendix to 'Hagiomastix'). 16. 'A 
Postscript ... to ... Hagiomastix,' &c., 
1647, 4to. 17. 'Sion CoUege Visited, or 
Animadversions on a Pamphlet of W. Jen- 
kyns,' &c., 1647 (i.e. January 1648), 4to. 
18. ' Nfo(pvTOTrprj3vT(pos, or The Youngling 
Elder ... for the instruction of W. Jenkyn,' 
&c., 1648, 4to. 19. ' The Unrighteous Judge,' 
&c., 1648 (i.e. 18 Jan. 1649), 4to (reply to 
Sir Francis Nethersole). 20. ' Truth's Con- 
flict with Error,' &c., 1650, 4to (from short- 
hand report by John Weeks of disputations 
on universal redemption by Goodwin against 
Vavasor, Powell, and John Simpson). 21. 'The 
Remedy of Unreasonableness,' &c., 1650 
(Jackson). 22. ' Moses made Angry ; a 
Letter ... to Dr. Hill,' &c., 1651 (Jackson). 

23. ' Confidence Dismounted, or a Letter to 
Mr. Richard Resbury,' &c., 1651 (Jackson). 

24. ' ElpijvofjLaxia, The Agreement and Dis- 

tance of Brethren,' &c., 1652, 4to ; 1671, 8vo. 
25. ' A Paraphrase,' &c., 1652, 4to ; second 
edition with title ' An Exposition of the 
Nineth Chapter of the Epistle to the Romans,' 
&c., 1653, 4to (dedicated to the Lord Mayor, 
John Fowke [q. v.]). 26. Philadelphia, or 
XL Queries,' &c., 1653, 4to (on baptism). 

27. 'Thirty Queries,' &c., 1653 (Jackson; 
on the magistrate's authority in religion). 

28. ' The Apologist Condemned,' &c., 1653 
(Jackson, a vindication of No. 27). 29. ' Dis- 
satisfaction Satisfied in Seventeen . . . Queries,' 
&c., 1654 (Jackson). 30. ' Peace Protected,' 
&c., 1654, 4to (amplification of No. 29 ; con- 
tains a warning against the ' fift monarchic ' 
men). 31. ' A Fresh Discovery of the High- 
Presbyterian Spirit,' &c., 1654, 4to (curious 
controversy with six ^London booksellers, 
Thomas Underbill, Samuel Gellibrand, John 
Rothwell, Luke Fawne, Joshua Kirton, and 
Nathaniel Webb, who petitioned for the re- 
straint of the press). 32. ' The Six Book- 
sellers Proctor Non-suited,' &c., 1655, 4to. 

33. ' Mercy in her Exaltation,' &c., 1655, 4to 
(funeral sermon, 20 April, for Daniel Taylor). 

34. ' The Foot out of the Snare,' &c., 1656, 
4to (by John Toldervy, who had been a 
quaker ; part by Goodwin). 35. ' Triumviri, 
or the Genius ... of ... Richard Resbury, 
John Pawson, and George Kendall,' &c., 1658, 
4to. Calamy mentions his 'Catechism,' which 
has not been identified. Posthumous was 
36. ' H\t)pa>pa TO HvtvpaTiKov, or a Being 
Filled with the Spirit,' &c., 1670, 4to, with 
recommendatory epistle by Ralph Venning ; 
it is included in Nichols' series of standard 
divines. Goodwin edited Fenner's ' Divine 
Message,' 1645. Jackson (p. 57) quotes. 
Goodwin ('Innocencies Triumph,' p. 4) as 
claiming the authorship of the ' Plea for 
Liberty of Conscience ' which forms part of 
a reply to Adam Steuart, originally issued 
with the title ' MS. to A. S.' 1644, and again 
with the title 'A Reply of Two of the 
Brethren,' &c., 1644. But Jackson has mis- 
read his reference. Goodwin distinctly as- 
signs the piece to another pen ' ingaged in 
the same warfare.' The error has misled 
Underbill and Masson. 

[Life by Jackson, 1822 ; Wood's Athenae Oxon. 
1692, ii. 65, 85, 168, 219, 288 (mentions his 
having been a preacher at St. Mary's, Dover), 
334; Barlow's Genuine Kemains, 1693, pp. 122 
sq. ; Calamy's Account, 1713, p. 53; Calamy 's 
Continuation, 1727, i. 78 ; Palmer's Nonconf. 
Memorial, 1802, i. 196; Burnet's Own Time, 
1724, i. 67, 163; Neal's Hist, of the Puritans, 
1822, ii. 238, 305, iii. 230,461, iv. 227 ; Collier's 
Eccl. Hist. ed. Barbara, 1841, viii. 107, 177 ; 
CheynelPs Rise of Socinianisme, 1643, p. 56 ; 
Cheynell's Divine Trinunity, 1650, pp. 441 sq. ; 





Wallace's Antitrin. Biog. 1850, i. 101, 139 ; Wil- 
son's Diss. Churches of London, 1808 ii. 403 sq., 
1814 iv. 136; Granger's Biog. Hist, of Engl. 
1824, iii. 332; Underbill's edition of Williams's 
Bloudy Tenent, 1848, xxxiv. ; Maidment's Scot- 
tish Ballads, 1868, ii. 274 sq. (reprints the 
second of Goodwin's ' hyms ') ; Hunt's Keligious 
Thought in Engl. 1870, i. 253, 259 sq., 356; 
Masson's Life of Milton, 1871 ii. 582, 1873 iii. 
113, 1877 iv. 95, 106, 1880 vi. 174, &c. ; Kit- 
ton's Catalogus Librorum in Bibliotheca Norvi- 
censi, 1883.] A. G. 

GOODWIN, PHILIP (d. 1699), divine, 
a native of Suffolk, was educated at St. John's 
College, Cambridge, and proceeded M.A. 
During the civil war he sided with the par- 
liament, and was appointed one of the ' triers ' 
for Hertfordshire. By an ordinance of the 
lords and commons, dated 23 April 1645, he 
became vicar of Watford in that county, in 
succession to Dr. Cornelius Burgess (Com- 
mons' Journals, iii. 580), but was ejected for 
nonconformity in June 1661 (NEWCOTTRT, 
Hepertorium, i. 960). He afterwards con- 
formed, and on 4 Oct. 1673 was presented to 
the rectory of Liston, Essex, by William 
Clopton, whose daughter Lucy he had mar- 
ried (ib. ii. 393). He died in 1699. His 
will, dated 29 Sept. 1697 (registered in 
P. C. C. 93, Pett), mentions property at 
Broome and Aldham in Suffolk. His chil- 
dren were Robert (who succeeded to his fa- 
ther's living), Thomas, Margaret, and Lucy. 
While resident at Watford he published : 

1. ' The Evangelical! Communicant in the 
Eucharisticall Sacrament, or a Treatise de- 
claring who are to receive the Supper of the 
Lord,' &c., 8vo, London, 1649; second im- 
pression enlarged, &c., 8vo, London, 1657. 

2. ' Dies Dominicus redivivus, or the Lord's 
Day enlivened, or a treatise ... to discover 
the practical part of the evangelical Sabbath,' 
&c., 8vo, London, 1654. 3. ' Religio domes- 
tica rediviva, or family religion revived,' &c., 
8vo, London, 1655. 4. ' The Mystery of 
Dreames, historically discoursed; or a trea- 
tise wherein is clearly discovered the secret 
yet certain good or evil ... of mens differ- 
ing dreames ; their distinguishing characters,' 
&c., 8vo, London, 1658. 

[Calamy's Nonconf. Memorial (Palmer, 1802- 
1803), ii. 314.] G. G. 

1680), independent divine, was born at 
Rollesby, Norfolk, on 5 Oct. 1600. He en- 
tered Christ's College, Cambridge, on 25 Aug. 
1613, and graduated B.A. in 1616. He was 
a hearer of Richard Sibbs, D.D., John Pres- 
ton, D.D., and other puritans, and had pre- 
pared himself to receive the communion, but 

his tutor sent him back as too young and 
' little of his age.' This temporarily alienated 
him from the puritans. In 1619 he removed 
to Catherine Hall, and graduated M.A. in 
1620. On 16 Nov. 1620 a funeral sermon by 
Thomas Bainbrigg (d. 1646) [q. v.] renewed 
his puritan zeal. He was chosen fellow ; 
commenced B.D. ; in 1628 was elected lec- 
turer at Trinity Church, Cambridge, in spite 
of the opposition of John Buckeridge, bishop 
of Ely; and in 1632 became vicar of Trinity 
Church. Becoming dissatisfied with the terms 
of conformity, he conferred in June 1633 with 
John Cotton, then in London on his way to 
New England. Cotton made him an inde- 
pendent. He resigned his vicarage in 1634 
in favour of Sibbs, and left the university. 

Between 1634 and 1639 he was probably 
a separatist preacher in London. He mar- 
ried there in 1638. In 1639 the vigilance of 
Laud made his position untenable ; he crossed 
to Holland, and became pastor of the Eng- 
lish church at Arnheim. At the beginning 
of the Long parliament (3 Nov. 1640) he 
returned to London, and gathered an in- 
dependent congregation in the parish of St. 
Dunstan's-in-the-East. In 1643 he was ap- 
pointed a member of the Westminster As- 
sembly, and took the covenant. He was one 
of the sub-committee of five nominated on 
16 Dec. 1643 to meet the Scottish commis- 
sioners, and draw up a directory for wor- 
ship ; his co-operation was not at first very 
hearty. On 9 Dec. 1644, when Burroughs, 
Nye, Carter, Simpson, and Bridge (after- 
wards known as the ' dissenting brethren '), 
entered their dissent from the propositions 
on church government adopted by the ma- 
jority, Goodwin was absent from the as- 
sembly through illness, but he added his 
name next day. Goodwin conceived that the 
use of synods was ' to frame up the spirits of 
men to a way of peace.' If the power of 
excommunication had been withheld from 
the superior judicatories, he would have been 
satisfied. Himself a Calvinist he was not 
prepared to excommunicate Arminian con- 
gregations. After 1646 he took little or no 
part in the proceedings of the assembly. He 
was invited to New England by Cotton in 
1647, and prepared to go, but was dissuaded 
by his friends. When the ' dissenting brethren ' 
drew up their ' Reasons ' in detail (printed 
1648), Goodwin was their leader and editor. 
On 2 Nov. 1649 he was appointed a chaplain 
to the council of state with 200/. a year, and 
lodgings in Whitehall. On 8 Jan. 1650 by 
order of parliament he was made president of 
Magdalen College, Oxford, with the privilege 
of nominating fellows and demies in case of 
vacancy, or of refusal to take the engagement. 




He constantly preached at St. Mary's, wearing 
a ' velvet cassock,' and held a weekly meeting 
at his lodgings, on the plan of an independent 
church meeting, of which Stephen Charnock 
[q. v.] and Theophilus Gate [q. v.] were mem- 
bers. John Howe (1630-1705) [q. v.], then 
a student at Magdalen, being of presbyterian 
sentiments, ' did not offer to join ' this meet- 
ing; Goodwin invited and admitted him 
' upon catholic terms.' In the ' Spectator,' 
No. 494, 26 Sept. 1712, Addison gives an ac- 
count of the examination of a student (either 
Anthony Henley [q. v.] or, according to 
Granger, Thomas Bradbury, not the divine) 
in grace rather than in grammar, by ' a very 
famous independent minister, who was head 
of a college in those times.' The reference 
is evidently to Goodwin ; the ' half a dozen 
nightcaps upon his head ' allude to the two 
double skull-caps shown in his portrait. On 
14 Aug. 1650 Goodwin was appointed on a 
commission (including Milton) to make an 
inventory of the records of the Westminster 
Assembly. In 1653 he was made a commis- 
sioner for the approbation of public preachers ; 
and on 16 Dec. 1653 he was made D.D. of 
Oxford, being described in the register as ' in 
scriptis in re theologica quamplurimis orbi 
notus.' In 1654 he was one of the assist- 
ants to the commissioners of Oxfordshire for 
removing scandalous ministers. 

In 1658 Goodwin and his friends petitioned 
Cromwell for liberty to hold a synod and draw 
up a confession of faith. Cromwell gave an un- 
willing consent, but died (3 Sept.) before the 
time fixed for the opening of the assembly. 
Goodwin attended him on his deathbed. A 
few minutes before he expired Goodwin ' pre- 
tended to assure them in a prayer that he 
was not to die ' (BTJKNET). A week later a 
fast-day was held at Whitehall ; Tillotson, 
who was present, assured Burnet that in 
Goodwin's prayer the expression occurred, 
' Thou hast deceived us, and we were de- 
ceived.' Burnet does not notice that this is 
a quotation (Jer. xx. 7). 

Goodwin and his friends met at the Savoy 
for eleven or twelve days from 12 Oct. Repre- 
sentatives, mostly laymen, of over a hundred 
independent churches were present. Good- 
win and John Owen were the leaders in a 
committee of six divines appointed to draw 
up a confession. They adopted, with a few 
verbal alterations, the doctrinal definitions 
of the Westminster confession, reconstruct- 
ing only the part relating to church govern- 
ment. The main effect of the declaration 
of the Savoy assembly was to confirm the 
Westminster theology. 

On 18 May 1660 Goodwin was deprived 
by the convention parliament of his office as 

president of Magdalen. He took to London 
several members of his Oxford church, and 
founded an independent congregation, since 
removed to Fetter Lane. His later years 
were spent in study. In the great fire of 
1666 more than half his library, to the 
value of 500/., was burned; his divinity 
books were saved. He died of fever, after a 
short illness, on 23 Feb. 1680, and was buried 
in Bunhill Fields. The Latin epitaph for 
his tomb, written by Thomas Gilbert, B.D. 
[q.v.], was ' notsuffer'dtobeengrav'd 'in full ; 
it specifies his great knowledge of ecclesias- 
tical antiquities. His portrait was engraved 
by R. White (1680) ; for Palmer's first edi- 
tion it was engraved from the original paint- 
ing by James Caldwall [q. v.] ; for the second 
edition it was re-engraved by the elder Wil- 
liam Holl [q. v.] His face, with its strong 
hooked nose and curling locks, has a Jewish 
cast. He married first, in 1638, Elizabeth, 
daughter of Alderman Prescott, by whom he 
had a daughter, married to John Mason of 
London ; secondly, in 1649, Mary Hammond, 
then in her seventeenth year, by whom he had 
two sons, Thomas (see below) and Richard, 
who died on a voyage to the East Indies 
as one of the company's factors; and two 
daughters, who died in infancy. 

Goodwin's sermons have much unction ; 
his expositions are minute and diffuse ; great 
historical value attaches to the defences of 
independency in which he was concerned. 
He began to publish sermons in 1636, and 
brought out a collection of them in 1645, 
4to. To the seventh piece in this collection, 
'The Heart of Christ in Heaven towards 
Sinners on Earth' (1643), a writer in the 
'Edinburgh Review' (January 1874) has 
endeavoured, following Lemontey and Wen- 
zelburger, to trace the suggestion of the 
modern Roman catholic devotion to the 
sacred heart ; the supposed link with Good- 
win being pere Claude dela Colombiere. Isaac 
Watts ( Glory of Christ, 1747) had previously 
drawn attention to the unusual language of 
Goodwin ' in describing the glories due to the 
human nature ' of our Lord. Of his writings 
the larger number were not printed in his 
lifetime, though prepared for the press. Five 
folio volumes of his works were edited by 
Thankful Owen, Thomas Baron, and Thomas 
Goodwin the younger, in 1682, 1683, 1692, 
1697, and 1704; reprinted, 1861, 6 vols. 
8vo ; condensed by Babb, 1847-50, 4 vols. 
8vo. Not included in the works are the fol- 
lowing, in which he had a chief hand : 1 . ' An 
Apologeticall Narration hvmbly svbmitted to 
the honourablb [sic] Houses of Parliament,' 
&c., 1643, 4to. 2. 'The Reasons presented 
by the Dissenting Brethren,' &c., 1648, 4to 




(issued by the assembly). 3. ' The Grand 
Debate concerning Presbytery and Indepen- 
dency,' &c., 1652, 4to (issued by the inde- 

THOMAS GOODWIN the younger (1650?- 
1716?), son of the above, born about 1650, 
was educated in England and Holland, and 
began his nonconformist ministry in 1678, 
when he joined with three others, including 
Theophilus Dorrington [q. v.], in an evening 
lecture held at a coffee-house in Exchange 
Alley. In 1683 he made the tour of Europe 
with a party of friends, returning in July | 
1684, when he became colleague to Stephen j 
Lobb at Fetter Lane. He left Fetter Lane 
on Lobb's death (3 June 1699), and became 
pastor of an independent congregation at 
Pinner, Middlesex, where he had an estate. 
He kept here an academy for training minis- 
ters. He published a sermon in 1716, and 
probably died soon after. Besides funeral 
sermons for Lobb and others, and a thanks- 
giving sermon, he published : 1. 'A Dis- 
course on the True Nature of the Gospel,' 
&c., 1695, 4to (a piece in the Crispian con- 
troversy, of antinomian tendency). 2. ' An 
History of the Reign of Henry V,' &c., 1704, 
fol. (dedicated to John, lord Cutts). 

[Notices by Owen and Baron, with autobio- 
graphical particulars, edited by T. Goodwin, jun., 
in Works, vols. i. and v. ; Wood's Atheuse Oxon. 
1692, ii. 783; Calamy's Account, 1713, pp. 60 
sq. ; Calamy's Continuation, 1727, i. 90 sq. ; 
Life of Howe, 1720, pp. 10 sq. ; Walker's Suffer- 
ings, 1714, ii. 122; Burnefs Own Time, 1724, i. 
82 sq.; Palmer's Nonconf. Memorial, 1775 i. I 
183 sq., 1802 i. 236 sq. ; Wilson's Dissenting j 
Churches of London, 1808 i. 214 sq., 1810 iii. 
420, 429sq.,446sq.; Brook's Lives of the Puritans, 
1813, iii. 156; Neal's Hist, of the Puritans, 1822, 
iv. 172 sq., 455 sq. ; Granger's Biog. Hist, of Eng- 
land, 1824, v. 58 ; Lemontey's (Euvres, 1831, vii. ! 
443; Edinburgh Keview, January 1874, p. 252 ; 
sq. (quotes Theodore Wenzelburger in Unsere 
Zeit, 15 Nov. 1873, for an early German transla- ' 
tion of Goodwin's Heart of Christ) ; Mitchell and 
Struthers's Minutes of Westminster Assembly, 
1874, pp. 17, 18,30, 58; Masson's Life of j 
Milton, 1877, iv. 149, 228 ; Mitchell's West- 
minster Assembly, 1883, p. 214.] A. IT. 


(1670?-1729), archbishop of Cashel, was 
born at Norwich, probably about 1670. He 
began his education at the nonconformist 
academy of Samuel Cradock, B.D. [q. v.], at 
Geesings, Suffolk. Here he was a classmate ! 
in philosophy with Edmund Calamy, D.D. 
[q. v.], who entered in 1686 at the age of i 
fifteen. Goodwin and Calamy were about 
the same age, and read Greek together in i 
private, Goodwin being ' a good Grecian.' j 
At this time he was intended for the medi- 

cal profession ; on leaving Geesings he went 
to London and lodged with Edward Hulse, 
M.D. [q. v.], in Aldermanbury. Turning his 
thoughts to divinity he entered at St. Ed- 
mund's Hall, Oxford, where he graduated 
M.A. on 22 Jan. 1697. He was domestic 
chaplain to Charles, duke of Shrewsbury, 
who took him abroad and gave him the rec- 
tory of Heythorpe, Oxfordshire. On 1 Aug. 
1704 he was collated to the archdeaconry of 
Oxford. He accompanied Shrewsbury to 
Ireland in October 1713, on his appointment 
to the lord-lieutenancy. On 16 Jan. 1714 
he was made bishop of Kilmore and Ardagh. 
He rebuilt the episcopal residence at Kil- 
more, and made other improvements, two- 
thirds of his outlay being reimbursed by his 
successor, Josiah Hort or Horte [q. v.] ,who 
also had begun life as a nonconformist. On 
3 June 1727 Goodwin was translated to the 
archbishopric of Cashel, in succession to 
William Nicholson, author of the ' Historical 
Library.' He did not long enjoy this last pre- 
ferment ; dying at Dublin on 13 Dec. 1729. 
He published two separate sermons in 1716, 
4to, and a third in 1724, 4to. Ware calls him 
Godwin, Cotton calls him Godwyn, and it is 
possible that he varied the spelling of his name. 

[Ware's Works (Harris), 1764, i. 245, 488; 
Cotton's Fasti Eccles. Hibern. i. 18, iii. 168; 
Norfolk Tour, 1829, ii. 1320; Calamy's Own 
Life, 1830, i. 134.] A. G. 

GOODWIN, WILLIAM, D.D. (d. 1620), 
dean of Christ Church, wasa scholar of West- 
minster School, whence he was elected in 
1573 to Christ Church, Oxford. In 1590 
he is mentioned as sub-almoner to Queen 
Elizabeth, and prebendary of York. He 
accumulated the degrees of B.D. and D.D. 
1602, and on resigning his prebend in 1605 he 
was appointed chancellor of York, an office 
which he retained with many other good 
Yorkshire benefices until 1611, when he was 
promoted to the deanery of Christ Church. 
In 1616 he became archdeacon of Middlesex 
and rector of Great Allhallows, London ; 
from the latter, however, he withdrew in 
1617 on being presented to the living of Chal- 
grove, Oxfordshire. In 1616 he likewise re- 
ceived from the Lord-chancellor Egerton the 
living of Stanton St. John, Oxfordshire. 
He was vice-chancellor of Oxford in 1614, 
1615, 1617, 1618, and died 11 June 1620, in his 
sixty-fifth year. His remains were interred 
in Christ Church Cathedral, where a monu- 
ment was erected to his memory. 

Goodwin, in his capacity of chaplain to 
James I, preached before the king at Wood- 
stock 28 Aug. 1614. This sermon was pub- 
lished at Oxford. He is also mentioned as 

Goodwyn i 

having delivered sermons in memory of Prince 
Henry, 1612 ; of Sir Thomas Bodley, 1613 ; 
and of Anne, wife of James I, 1618, at the 
chapel of St. Mary's, Oxford. Thomas Goffe 
[q. v.] preached his funeral sermon in Latin, 
published at Oxford in 1620. 

[Welch's Alumni Westmon. pp. 17, 50; Wood's 
Fasti, i. 296-8; Wood's Hist, and Antiq. ii. 312, 
314, 332, iii. 439, 496, and Appendix, pp. 120-1 ; 
Willis's Cath. Surr. i. 80, 120, ii. 240; New- 
court's Rep. i. 82, 249 ; Le Neve's Fasti, ii. 331, 
iii. 165, 175, 477, 569.] W. F. W. S. 

1829), medical writer, son of Edmund Good- 
wyn, surgeon, of Framlingham, Suffolk, was 
born in that place and baptised there on 2 Dec. 
1756. Having graduated M.D. he practised 
as a medical man in London, but retired to 
Framlingham some years before his death, 
which took place on 8 Aug. 1829. He pub- 
lished: 1. 'Dissertatio Medica de morte Sub- 
mersorum,' Edinburgh, 1786, 8vo. 2. ' The 
Connexion of Life with Respiration ; or an 
Experimental Inquiry into the Effects of 
Submersion, Strangulation, and several kinds 
of Noxious Airs on Living Animals . . . and 
the most effectual means of cure,' London, 
1788, 8vo (a translation of No. 1). 

[Gent. Mag. 1829, ii. 186; Davy's Athense 
Suffolc. (Add. MS. 19,168) iii. 179.] J. M. R. 

GOODYEAR, JOSEPH (1799-1839), 
engraver, born at Birmingham in 1799, was 
first apprenticed to an engraver on plate in 
that town named Tye. He also studied draw- 
ing under G. V. Burkes at Birmingham. 
He came to London, and was employed at 
first by Mr. Allen on engraving devices for 
shop bills and the like. In 1822 Goodyear 
placed himself under Charles Heath (1785- 
1848) [q. v.], the well-known engraver, for 
three years. Subsequently he was extensively 
employed on the minute illustrations and vig- 
nettes which adorned the elegant ' Annuals ' 
so much in vogue at that date. He did not 
execute any large plate until he was employed 
by the Findens to engrave Eastlake's picture 
of 'The Greek Fugitives' for their Gallery of 
British Art. This he completed, and the en- 
graving was much admired, but the mental 
strain and prolonged exertion which was re- 
quired for so carefully finished an engraving 
broke down his health. He endured a linger- 
ing illness for a year, and died at his house in 
Kentish Town on 1 Oct. 1839, in his forty-first 

gsar. He was buried in Highgate cemetery, 
e was much esteemed both in private and 
professional life. In 1830 he exhibited two 
engravings at the Suffolk Street Exhibition. 

[Art Union, 1839, p. 154 ; Redgrave's Diet, of 
Artists.] L. C. 

i Googe 

GOOGE, BARNABE (1540-1594), poet, 
son of Robert Googe, recorder of Lincoln, by 
his wife Margaret, daughter of Sir Walter 
Mantell, was born at Alvingham in Lincoln- 
shire on St. Barnaby's day 1540. He studied 
at Christ's College, Cambridge, and at New 
College, Oxford, but does not appear to have 
taken a degree. On leaving the university 
he removed to Staple Inn, and became a re- 
tainer to his kinsman, Sir William Cecil. In 
1560 he published ' The First thre Bokes of 
the 'most Christian poet, Marcellus Palin- 
genius [Pierre Angelo Manzoli], called the 
Zodyake of Lyfe,' 8vo, with a dedication to 
his grandmother, Lady Hales, and to Wil- 
liam Cromer, Thomas Honywood, and Ralph 
Heimund, esquires. The second edition, con- 
taining the first six books, appeared in 1561, 
with a dedication to Cecil ; and a complete 
translation of the twelve books was issued in 
1565, revised editions following in 1576 and 
1588. In the winter of 1561 Googe went 
abroad, leaving a copy of his manuscript 
' Eclogues ' in the hands of his friend Blun- 
derstone. On his return to England at the 
end of 1562, or early in 1563, he was sur- 
prised to learn that his poems had been sent 
to press. After some persuasion from Blun- 
derstonehe allowed the publication, and they 
appeared under the title ' Eglogs, Epytaphes, 
and Sonnetes,' 1563, 12mo, with a dedication 
to William Lovelace, reader of Gray's Inn. 
Copies are preserved in the Huth, Capell, and 
Britwell libraries. The collection comprises 
eight eclogues, four epitaphs (on Thomas 
Phaer, Nicholas Grimaold, and others), and 
numerous so-called sonnets (addressed to 
Alexander Nowell, Bishop Bale, Richard 
Edwards, &c.) There were two separate 

In 1563 Googe was appointed one of the 
queen's gentlemen-pensioners. He betrothed 
himself in the summer of that year to Mary, 
daughter of Thomas Darrell of the manor- 
house, Scotney, in Lamberhurst parish, Kent. 
Her parents declared that she was under a 
previous contract to marry Sampson Lennard, 
eldest son of a rich landed proprietor, John 
Lennard of Chevening, near Tunbridge Wells. 
Cecil interested himself in the matter, and 
engaged Archbishop Parker's influence in 
Googe's favour, with the result that the mar- 
riage took place 5 Feb. 1563-4. Some inte- 
resting correspondence on the subject of 
Googe s betrothal and the alleged pre-contract 
was printed in Brydges's ' Restituta,' iv. 307- 
311. In 1570 appeared ' The Popish King- 
dome, or Reigne of Antichrist, written in 
Latin verse by Thomas Naogeorgus [Kirch- 
mayer], and englyshed by Barnabe Googe,' 
4to, of which only one perfect copy, preserved 


in the University Library, Cambridge, is 
known to bibliographers. It consists of four 
books, with a preface and a dedicatory epistle 
to Cecil. The fourth book is particularly 
valuable for its curious notices of popular 
customs and superstitions, sports, and pas- 
times. A translation of ' The Spirituall Hus- 
bandrie of Thomas Naogeorgus,' with a de- 
dication to Queen Elizabeth, was appended. 
In 1574 Googe was sent by Cecil on service 
to Ireland, and in 1582 he was appointed 
provost marshal of the presidency court of 
Connaught. Some of his letters to Cecil 
from Ireland are preserved among the state 
papers, and have been printed in ' Notes and 
Queries,' 3rd ser. vol. iii. He resigned his 
post and returned from Ireland in 1585. 
' Foure Bookes of Husbandrie, collected by 
Conradus Heresbachius. . . . Newely Eng- 
lished, and increased by Barnabe Googe, Es- 
quire,' 4to, appeared in 1577, with a dedica- 
tion dated from Kingston (Ireland), 1 Feb. 
1577, to Sir William Fitzwilliam, knight; 
reprinted in 1578, 1586, 1594, &c. Googe 
apologises for any faults in his translation on 
the ground that he ' neither had leysure nor 
quietnesse at the dooing of it, neither after 
the dooing had euer any tyme to ouerlooke 
it.' In 1578 he prefixed a prose-epistle to 
Barnabe Riche's ' Allarme to England,' and 
in 1579 published a translation of ' The Pro- 
verbes of the noble & woorthy Souldier 
Sir James Lopes de Mendoza, marques of 
.Santillana, with the Paraphrase of D. Peter 
Diaz of Toledo,' 8vo. He died in February 
1593-4 (and was buried in Cokering Church), 
leaving a widow and eight children. One of 
his sons, Robert, was fellow of All Souls' 
College, Oxford, and another, Barnabe, be- 
came master of Magdalene College, Cam- 

A reprint of the ' Popish Kingdome ' was 
edited by Mr. Robert Charles Hope in 1880 ; 
the ' Eglogs ' are included in Mr. Edward 
Arber's ' English Reprints ' (1871). Googe 
was highly esteemed by his contemporaries. 
Turberville has laudatory notices of him ; 
Robinson, in the ' Reward of Wickednesse,' 
1574, places him on Helicon with Lydgate, 
Skelton, and others ; he is commended in the 
metrical preface before Jasper Heywood's 
translation of Seneca's ' Thyestes,' 1560, and 
again in T. B.'s Verses to the Reader before 
Studley's translation of Seneca's ' Agamem- 
non.' Webbe aptly describes him as ' a pain- 
full furtherer of learning,' specially commend- 
ing the translations (in the ' Foure Bookes of 
Husbandry ') from Virgil's ' Eclogues.' The 
charming pastoral verses, ' Phyllida was a fair 
maid,' printed in ' Tottell's Miscellany,' and 
reprinted in ' England's Helicon,' have been 

sz Gookin 

ascribed to Googe ; they are of far higher 
merit than any of his authentic ' Eglogs.' 
Ritson attributes to Googe 'A Newyeares 
Gifte, dedicated to the Pope's Holiness . . . 
! by B. G., Citizen of London,' 1579, 4to ; but 
this belongs to Bernard Garter [q. v.] ' A 
, Newe Booke called the Shippe of Safegarde 
! written by G. B. anno 1569,' 8vo, and ' The 
] Overthrow of the Goute . . . translated by 
j B. G.,' 1577, 8vo, have also been doubtfully 
assigned to Googe. Warton (following Coxe- 
ter) mentions among Googe's works a trans- 
lation, ' Aristotle's Tables of the Ten Cate- 
\ gories.' In 1672 appeared ' A Prophecie 
lately transcribed from an Old Manuscript 
of Doctor Barnaby Googe that lived in the 
Reign of Qu. Elizabeth, predicting the Rising, 
Meridian, and Falling Condition of the States 
of the United Provinces. . . . Now published 
and explained,' 4to. 

[Warton's Hist, of English Poetry, ed. Hazlitt, 
iv. 323-31 ; Brydges's Eestituta, iv. 307-11, 
359-65; Hunter's Chorus Vatum, Addit. MS. 
24487, fol. 347-53 ; Cooper's Athense Cantabr. 
ii. 39-40 ; Notes and Queries, 3rd ser. vol. iii. ; 
Arber's Introd. to Googe's Eglogs (English Ee- 
printe), 1871 ; Hope's Introd. to the Popish 
Kingdome, 1880.] A. H. B. 

GOOKIN, DANIEL (1612?-1687),writer 
on the American Indians, born about 1612, 
was the third son of Daniel Gookin by his wife 
Marian or Mary, daughter of Richard Birde, 
D.D., prebendary of Canterbury, Kent, and 
nephew of Sir Vincent Gookin [q. v.] In the 
autumn of 1621the elder Gookin, accompanied 
by his son, sailed from Ireland to Virginia, 
' with fifty men of his owne and thirty pas- 
sengers,' and fixed himself at Newport News 
(SMITH, Generall Historic of Virginia, 1819, 
ii. 60). During the Indian massacre of March 
1622 he, with barely thirty-five men, held his 
plantation against the natives. In the spring 
or summer of the same year hereturnedhome, 
and by November was in possession of the 
castle and lands of Carrigaline, in the county 
of Cork. Daniel acted as agent for his father 
in Virginia in February 1630. On 29 Dec. 
1637 he obtained a grant of 2,500 acres in 
the upper county of New Norfolk, upon the 
north-west of Nansemond river. Two years 
later he was in England. On 4 Nov. 1642 
' Capt. Daniell Gookin ' had a grant of fourteen 
hundred acres upon Rappahannock river. In 
1643 he was so deeply impressed by the 
preaching of a puritan missionary named 
Thompson (MATHER, Magnolia, ed. 1820, i. 
398) that he left Virginia, and was admitted 
into the First Church of Boston on 26 May 
1644. He was made freeman only three days 
after his admission to the church, an indica- 




tion of unusual respect. Having first settled 
in Boston, he was of Roxbury in 1645-6, 
where he founded the public school, removed 
to Cambridge in 1648, and was appointed 
captain of the military company in Cam- 
bridge (JOHNSON, Wonder- Working Provi- 
dence, ed. Poole, p. 192). In 1649 and 1651 
he was elected a representative of Cambridge, 
and in the last year was chosen speaker of 
the house. In 1652 he was elected an as- 
sistant, and re-elected continuously to 1686, 
except at the May election of 1676, when he 
was defeated for his noble care of the friendly 
Indians in the war then raging (SAVAGE, 
Geneal. Diet, of First Settlers in New England, 
ii. 279). On 6 April 1648 he assigned to Cap- 
tain Thomas Burbage the fourteen hundred 
acres of land granted to him in 1642. He 
made several visits to England. An order of 
the council of state dated 24 July 1650 autho- 
rises him to export ammunition to New Eng- 
land (Cal. State Papers, Col. Ser. 1574-1660, 
p. 341). Upon the capture of Jamaica Gookin 
was sent thither by Cromwell as commis- 
sioner for settling the new colony from New 
England, and sailed towards the end of 1655 
(ib. Dom. 1655, p. 608, and 1655-6, pp. 64, 
551). His instructions are printed inGran- 
ville Penn's ' Memorials of Sir William Penn' 
(ii. 585-9) from the books of the council of 
state. Gookin's mission met with no suc- 
cess, as may be seen from his letters to Secre- 
tary Thurloe ( Thurloe State Papers, iv. 440, 
v. 6-7, vi. 362. Copies of the papers on 
this subject, issued by the council held at 
Boston 7 March 1655, are in the Bodleian 
Library, Rawlinson MS. A. xxxviii. ff. 263- 
270). Gookin was in England in 1657 (cf. 
Cal. State Papers, Dom. 1659-60, p. 185), 
and on 10 March 1658-9 was commissioned 
by the council of state to receive the duties 
at Dunkirk (ib. Dom. 1658-9, p. 302). The 
committee for Dunkirk recommended him, 
on 30 Aug. 1659, for the post of deputy 
treasurer at war, to reside in Dunkirk and 
superintend all the financial arrangements (ib. 
Dom. 1659-60, p. 161). At the Restoration 
he returned to America, in company with the 
regicides Edward Whalley and William Goffe 
[q. v.], who resided under his protection at 
Cambridge until they were sent to NewHaven. 
The king's commissioners reported that he 
declined to deliver up some cattle supposed to 
belong to them (see A Collection of Original 
Papers relative to . . . . Massachusetts Bay, 
Boston, 1769, p. 420 ; also Cal. State Papers, 
Col. &c. 1661-8, p. 345). In 1656 he had 
been appointed by the general court superin- 
tendent of all the Indians who had submitted 
to the government of Massachusetts. He 
was reinstated in 1661, and continued to 

hold the office until his death, although his 
protection of the natives made him unpopu- 
lar. His work suggested his ' Historical 
Collections of the Indians in New England,'' 
completed in 1674, first published in vol. i. 
of the Massachusetts Historical Society in 
1792. Prefixed are epistles to Charles II as 
a 'nursing father' to the church, and to 
Robert Boyle as governor of the corporation 
for propagating the gospel in America. In 
1677 he completed an ' Historical Account of 
the Doings and Sufferings of the Christian 
Indians in New England in the years 1675, 
1676, 1677,' after King Philip's war, first 
published in the ' Archaeologia Americana/ 
ii. 423-534. Gookin was the only magistrate 
who joined John Eliot [q.v.] in opposing the 
: harsh measures enacted against the Natick 
and other Indians, and consequently subjected 
himself to reproaches from his fellow-magis- 
trates and insult in the public streets. In 
1662 Gookin and a minister named Mit- 
chell were appointed the first licensers of the 
printing-press at Cambridge. The first move- 
ment towards a purchase of the province of 
Maine by Massachusetts is in a letter written 
with consummate skill by Gookin to Ferdi- 
nando Gorges, dated 25 June 1663, and 
printed in the ' New England Historical and 
Genealogical Register,' xiii. 347-50. A post- 
script to his ' Historical Collections ' informs 
us that Gookin as early as 1674 had half 
finished a ' History of New England, espe- 
cially of the Colony of Massachusetts, in 
eight books.' He took an active part against 
the measures which ultimately led to the 
withdrawal of the colonial charter in 1686. 
He was with others charged with misde- 
meanor by Edward Randolph in February 
1681 before the lords of the council. Gookin 
requested that a paper in defence of his opi- 
nion, which he drew up as his dying testi- 
mony, might be lodged with the court (first 
published in the ' New England Historical 
and Genealogical Register,' ii. 168-71). In 
1681 Gookin was appointed major-general of 
the colony of Massachusetts. He died on 
19 March 1686-7, and was buried at Cam- 
bridge, where his epitaph may still be read. 
He was married three times. The license 
for his second marriage, to Mary Dolling, 
granted by the Bishop of London 11 Nov. 
1639, describes him as a widower, aged about 
twenty-seven (CHESTER, London Marriage 
Licences, 1521-1869, ed. Foster, col. 567). 
His third marriage (between 1675 and 1685) 
was to Hannah, daughter of Edward Tyng, 
and widow (in 1669) of Habijah Savage (cf. 
New England Hist, and Geneal. Register t 
ii. 172). She survived him. All his seven 
children are believed to have been by his 




second marriage. He died so poor that John 
Eliot solicited from Robert Boyle a gift of i 
10/. for his widow. 

[Salisbury's Family Memorials, pt. ii. ; Cal. 
of State Papers, Col. Ser., America and the West : 
Indies. 1622-68; Winthrop's Hist, of New Eng- 
land (Savage, 1853), ii. 432.] G. G. 

GOOKIN, SIR VINCENT (1590 P-1638), 
writer against the Irish nation, youngest son 
of John Gookin, esq., of Ripple Court in 
Kent, and Catherine, daughter of William 
Dene, esq., of Bursted in the same county, 
appears to have settled in Ireland early in 
the seventeenth century as tenant in fee- 
simple, under Henry Beecher (and subse- 
quently under Sir Richard Boyle, first earl 
of Cork, who purchased Beecher's grant), of 
the manor of Castle Mahon in the barony of 
Kinalmeaky, co. Cork, part of the ' seignory ' 
granted by letters patent (30 Sept. 1588) to ; 
Phane Beecher and Hugh Worth as ' under- 
takers ' for the plantation of Munster (Notes 
find Queries, 1st ser. iv. 104 ; English Hist. 
Review, iii. 267). Sir Vincent (when and 
for what reason knighted is not known) was 
a man of considerable enterprise, and was 
soon remarked as one of the wealthiest men 
in the south of Ireland, possessing property 
in England and Ireland, and deriving a large 
income from his fishery at Courtmacsherry, j 
and from his wool flocks (SALISBURY, Family j 
Memorials, pp. 393-6). In spite of his posi- 
tion he bitterly hated Irishmen, and in 1634 
he created considerable disturbance in Mun- 
ster by publishing and circulating, under the 
form of a letter addressed to the lord deputy, 
what was described by Wentworth as ' a most I 
bitter invective against the whole nation, 
natives, old English, new English, Papist, I 
Protestant, Captains, Soldiers, and all, which \ 
, . . did so incense, I may say enrage, all j 
sorts of people against him, as it was evi- 
dent they would have hanged him if they 
could.' The matter was taken up by parlia- 
ment, and so ' wondrous foul and scandalous ' 
was the libel, that Wentworth clearly per- 
ceived that, unless prompt measures were 
taken by the crown to punish the offender, 
the question of the judicature of parliament 
' wherein,' he added naively, ' I disbelieve 
His Majesty was not so fully resolved in the , 
convenience and fitness thereof by any effect 
it hath produced, since it was restored to the 
House of Parliament in England ' would 
be raised in a most obnoxious fashion. A 
pursuivant with a warrant for his arrest 
was immediately despatched into Munster ,but 
two days before his arrival Gookin had fled 
with his wife into England. The constitu- 
tional question of the judicature thus raised 

still remained. Wentworth boldly asserted 
that in questions of judicature, as in matters 
of legislature, nothing, according to Poynings' 
law, could be determined by the parliament 
that had not first been transmitted as good 
and expedient by the deputy and council. 
He nevertheless recognised the necessity of 
appeasing their wrath by inflicting a severe 
punishment on Gookin. The offence, he de- 
clared, would bear a ' deep fine,' and Gookin, 
being ' a very rich man,' was well able to 
undergo it. Order was accordingly given by 
the king and council 'to find out and transmit 
this audacious knight ' to be censured in the 
council chamber (STRAFFORD, Letters, i. 348- 
349, 393). What his punishment was or 
whether he managed to evade it does not 
appear; but it is probable that he never 
again revisited Ireland. He died at his 
residence at Highfield in Gloucestershire on 
5 Feb. 1638, and was buried in the parish 
church of Bitton. He married, first, Mary, 
daughter of Mr. Wood of Waldron, by whom 
he had two sons, Vincent and Robert, besides 
other children who died young; secondly, 
Judith, daughter of Sir Thomas Crooke of 
Baltimore, co. Cork, by whom he had two 
sons, Thomas and Charles, and five daugh- 
ters, and several other children who died 
young. The bulk of his property in England 
and Ireland passed to his eldest son, Vincent 

[Edward E. Salisbury's Family Memorials, 
2 pts. privately printed, New Haven, Conn. 
1885; New England Historical and Genealogical 
Register; Notes and Queries; Strafford's Let- 
ters ; Ware's Writers of Ireland ; Hasted's Kent ; 
Berry's Kentish Pedigrees ; Ireland's History of 
Kent ; Sim's Index; Prendergast's Cromwellian 
Settlement of Ireland.] K. D. 

GOOKIN, VINCENT (1616P-1659), sur- 
veyor-general of Ireland, eldest son of Sir 
Vincent Gookin [q. v.], appears shortly after 
the death of his father to have disposed of 
his Gloucestershire property to a Dr. Samuel 
Bave, and to have migrated to Ireland, where 
he continued to reside during the remainder 
of his life (Notes and Queries, 1st ser. i. 492). 
Although a firm believer in the ' plantation 
policy' as a means of reducing Ireland to 
' civility and good government,' he was one 
of the few colonists who really seem to have 
had the interest of Ireland at heart. He is 
chiefly known to us as the author of the 
remarkable pamphlet, ' The Great Case of 
Transplantation discussed; or certain Con- 
siderations, wherein the many great incon- 
veniences in Transplanting the Natives of 
Ireland generally out of the three Provinces 
of Leinster, Ulster, and Munster into the 




Province of Connaught are shown, humbly 
tendered to every individual Member of Par- 
liament by a Well-wisher to the good of the 
Commonwealth of England,' 4to, London, 
for J. C., 1655. In this pamphlet Gookin 
endeavoured to prove that if not indeed im- 
possible, it was certainly contrary to ' reli- 
gion, profit, and safety,' to strictly enforce 
the orders and instructions for the removal 
of all the Irish natives into Connaught, based 
upon the act for the satisfaction of the ad- 
venturers of 26 Sept. 1653. This pamphlet 
is evidently very rare. It is not mentioned 
by Ware in his ' Writers of Ireland.' There 
is a copy (perhaps unique) in the Haliday 
collection in the Royal Irish Academy. Mr. 
J. P. Prendergast, who first called attention 
to it, gives a fairly complete abstract of it in j 
his ' Cromwellian Settlement.' Though ex- | 
ceedingly temperate in its tone, it immediately j 
elicited a sharp rej oinder from Colonel Richard i 
Lawrence, a prominent member of the com- 
mittee of transplantation. Gookin replied in , 
* The Author and Case of Transplanting the i 
Irish into Connaught vindicated from the | 
unjust aspersions of Col. R. Lawrence,' 4to, ! 
London, 1655. He had been charged with ; 
being a degenerate Englishman, and with 
having been corrupted by the Irish. He 
denies the charge indignantly, and says that 
he was elected by the English of Kinsale and 
Bandon to the last (Barebones) parliament, 
and his constituents had shown their regard for 
him by offering to pay his expenses to England. 
The controversy forms an episode in the great 
struggle, culminating in the appointment of 
Henry Cromwell as chief governor of Ireland 
in September 1655, for the substitution of a 
settled civil government in place of the rule 
of a clique of officers. For Henry Cromwell, 
even perhaps more than for Oliver, Gookin 
felt a profound admiration, and seems to have 
been the author of the ' Ancient Protestants' 
Petition ' in defence of the former against the 
attacks of the military clique. There is an j 
interesting account of the presentation of this i 
petition to Cromwell, in a letter by Gookin ; 
to Henry Cromwell, in Lansdowne MS. [ 
No. 822, f. 26-7, dated 21 Oct. 1656. The 
gist of the petition, which, for prudential 
reasons, was not published, may be gathered 
from a subsequent letter by Gookin to the i 
Protector on 22 Nov. 1656 (THTTRLOE, State 
Papers, v. 646-9). Gookin's views on this 
and other topics of historical importance are 
interesting and intelligent. Speaking in 1657 
of the Decimating Bill at that time before 
parliament, he says : ' In my opinion those that 
speak against the bill have much to say in 
point of moral justice and prudence; but that j 
which makes me fear the passing of the bill 

is that thereby his highness ' government will 
be more founded in force and more removed 
from that natural foundation which the 
people in parliament are desirous to give 
him ' (ib. vi. 20, 37). On 7 July 1656 he 
was appointed, along with Dr. Petty and 
Miles Symner, to apportion to the soldiers 
the lands allotted to them in payment of their 
arrears (Down Survey, p. 185). It appears 
from a letter to Henry Cromwell on 14 April 
1657, petitioning for an abatement of rent 
on lands granted him in 1650 ' for favour ' 
(Carte MSS. vol. xliv. f. 360), that he did not 
turn any of his offices to his own personal 
advantage (Lansdowne MS. No. 822, f. 30). 
He represented Kinsale and Bandon under 
the Commonwealth, except in 1659, when, 
for party purposes, he surrendered his seat 
to Dr. Petty, and successfully contested Cork 
and Youghal against Lord Broghill (ib. f. 23). 
He died the same year intestate, letters of 
administration being granted on 17 Jan. 1660 
to his wife, Mary Salmon of Dublin, by whom 
he had two sons and a daughter (SALISBURY, 
Family Memorials). As tolerant as he was 
enlightened, he was a man of strong religious 
convictions, and an ardent republican: 

His younger brother, Captain ROBERT 
GOOKIN (d. 1667), of Courtmacsherry, served 
in Ireland during the civil war, taking a pro- 
minent part in the defection of the Munster 
forces in 1648, and being actively engaged 
in the surrender of Bandon in the following 
year. In 1652, in pursuance of an agreement 
with the commissioners of the parliament, he 
fortified the abbey of Ross Carberry, co. Cork, 
for which he afterwards claimed and received 
compensation. Under the Commonwealth 
he received considerable grants of forfeited 
land, which, in order to secure at the ap- 
proach of the Restoration, he conveyed to 
Roger Boyle, earl of Orrery, taking a lease 
of them for one hundred years. He died in 
1666-7 (ib.) 

[Salisbury's Family Memorials ; Notes and 
Queries; Prendergast's Cromwellian Settlement; 
Thurloe State Papers, vols. v. vi. ; Somers Tracts, 
vi. 250, 345 ; Addit. MS. 18986 f. 204, 22546 
ff. 168, 172 ; Lansdowne MS. No. 822, ff. 23-30 ; 
Petty's Hist, of the Down Survey, ed. General 
Larcom for the Irish Arch. Society, 1851.] 

K. D. 

GOOLD, THOMAS (1766 P-1846), a mas- 
ter of the court of chancery in Ireland, was 
born of a wealthy protestant family in Cork. 
Coming to Dublin about 1789 he proceeded 
to squander his patrimony, some 10,000, in 
rioting and entertainments, at which Grattan, 
Saurin, Bushe, Plunkett, and others, are said 
to have been present. Having come to the 




end of his resources, lie applied himself 
zealously to practice at the bar, to which he 
had been called in 1791. A pamphlet in 
defence of Burke's ' Reflections on the French 
Revolution/ 'against all his opponents,' 
gained him the honour of an invitation to 
Beaconsfield, and an introduction to Lord 
Fitzwilliam, made useless by the viceroy's 
prompt recall. In 1799 Goold wrote an 'Ad- 
dress to the People of Ireland on the subject 
of the projected Union,' and sat in the last 
session of the Irish parliament as a member of 
the opposition. In 1818 he gave evidence at 
the bar of the House of Commons upon the 
inquiry into the conduct of Windham Quin. 
Meanwhile his practice had been rapidly in- 
creasing. In 1824 W. H. Curran calls him one 
of the most prominent members of the Irish 
bar, and he had been appointed third serjeant 
in the previous year. Indeed it has been said 
that he was the best nisi prius lawyer who 
ever held a brief at the Irish bar. In 1830 he 
was appointed king's serjeant, and a master 
in chancery in 1832. He died at Lissadell, 
co. Sligo, the seat of his son-in-law, Sir R. G. 
Booth, bart., on 16 July 1846. 

[Ann. Reg. 1846; W. H. Curran's Sketches of 
the Irish Bar, i. 183-207.] L. C. S. 

GORANUS, GABHRAN (538-560?), 
king of Scotland, was the son of Domgardus 
(Domangart), son of Fergus Mor MacEarc, 
and is reckoned as the forty-fifth king of Scot- 
land according to the fictitious chronology of 
Fordun and Buchanan, but, according to the 
rectified chronology of Father Innes and Mr. 
Skene, was fourth king of the kingdom of 
Dalriada, founded by his grandfather Fergus 
in 503. He succeeded his brother Con- 
gallus I [q. v.] in 538 (Tigernach), and is 
called, as his father and brother also are, Ri 
Albain, which may imply, as Skene suggests, 
that during their reigns the Dalriad kingdom 
had extended beyond its original bounds in 
Argyle and the isles. Buchanan gives, fol- 
lowing Fordoun, a full but unreliable account 
of the events of the reign of Goranus, whom 
he makes the ally of Loth, king of the Picts, 
the eponymus of Lothian and the contem- 
porary of Arthur. But almost all we really 
know of it is the brief notice of Tigernach 
in the year 560, when he records the death 
of Gabhran, king of Alban, and the flight of 
the men of Alban before Brude MacMailchon, 
king of the Cruithnigh (Picts). He was 
succeeded in Dalriada by Conall son of Con- 
gallus, his brother, who reigned till 574, when 
Aidan, Gabhran's younger son, was inaugu- 
rated king at lona by St. Columba, in pre- 
ference to his elder brother Eoganan, and 
through the influence of Columba obtained 

the recognition at the Council of Drumceat 
(51 5) of the independence of Scottish Dalriada 
from tribute formerly exacted by Irish Dal- 
riada, although the Scots were to continue 
to assist the parent stock in war. From this 
king the Cinal (or tribe) Gabhran, one of the 
three powerfuls, i.e. powerful tribes, of Dal- 
riada who occupied Kintyre, Cowall, and 
several islands on the coast of Argyle, derived 
its name. The other two were the Cinal 
Loarn in Lorn, and the Cinal Angus in Isla. 

[Innes's Critical Essay on the Ancient In- 
habitants of Scotland ; Skene's Chronicles of 
Picts and Scots, and Celtic Scotland, vol. i. ; 
Reeves's Adamnan.] M. M. 

GORDON, SIE ADAM DE (d. 1305), 
warrior. [See GUKDON.] 

GORDON, SIK ADAM DE (d. 1333), 
lord of Gordon, -statesman and warrior, was 
the son and heir of Adam de Gordon in Ber- 
wickshire. His great-grandfather, likewise 
Adam de Gordon, was younger son of an 
Anglo-Norman nobleman who came to Scot- 
land in the time of David I, and settled on a 
tract of land called Gorden, within sight of 
the English border. The second Sir Adam, 
grandfather of the fourth Sir Adam, married 
Alicia, only child and heiress of Thomas de 
Gordon, who represented the elder branch 
of the family, and by this alliance the whole 
estates were united into one property. His 
son William de Gordon was one of the Scot- 
tish nobles who in 1268 joined Louis IX of 
France in his crusade for the recovery of the 
holy sepulchre, and died during the expedi- 
tion. He was succeeded by his brother, the 
third Sir Adam, who died on 3 Sept. 1296, 
and was succeeded by his son, the fourth Sir 
Adam. An historian of the Gordon family 
says that this last Sir Adam joined Sir Wil- 
liam Wallace in 1297, and the statement is 
accepted by Lord Hailes as correct. It is 
probably true, as the English estates were 
forfeited at that time, but were recovered by 
Marjory, mother of Gordon, who submitted 
to the English rule and brought to her son 
a great inheritance on both sides of the border. 
The year 1303 was spent by Edward I in Scot- 
land. On his return to England he carried with 
him certain sons of the nobles as hostages, and 
Gordon followed as a deputy with power to 
arrange for the pacification of the country. 

About 1300 Gordon confirmed several 
charters granted by his predecessors to the 
abbey of Kelso. The earliest of these was 
granted by Richard de Gordon, elder son of 
the founder of the family, previous to 1180. 
In 1308 there was a formally dated agree- 
ment between the monks of Kelso and Sir 
Adam Gordon, knight, regarding some lands. 




In the village of Gordon, given to them by 
Andrew Fraser about 1280. 

After the coronation of Robert Bruce and 
the accession of Edward II to the English 
throne, certain Scottish noblemen continued 
' deeply engaged in the English interest,' 
among whom Abercrombie mentions with 
.sorrow ' the formerly brave and honest Sir 
Adam Gordon.' And till 1314 Gordon was 
well disposed toward the English king, from 
whom he received various marks of favour. 
In 1308, when William Lambert, archbishop 
of St. Andrews, who had been imprisoned 
by Edward I, was liberated by his successor, 
Gordon with others became surety for his j 
compliance with the conditions of his release 
(Cal. of Documents relating to Scotland, iii. I 
44). In 1310 he was appointed justiciar of 
Scotland (ib. iii. 222). In January 1312 Ed- ; 
ward II was at York, on his way to invade 
Scotland, but resolved to treat for peace, and j 
for that purpose appointed David, earl of 
Atholl, Gordon, and others his plenipoten- 
tiaries, but without any good result. In Oc- 
tober 1313 Gordon, along with Patrick, earl 
of March, was deputed by such of the Scots 
as still remained faithful to the English in- 
terest to lay before Edward their miserable 
condition (ib. iii. 337). The king received 
them graciously, and on 28 Nov. formally 
replied, announcing his intention to lead an 
army to their relief next midsummer (Foedera, 
ii. 247). In a letter dated 1 April the same 
year Edward warmly commended to the pope 
John and Thomas, sons of ' a nobleman and 
our faithful Adam Gordon,' who seem to have 
been about to visit Italy. After the battle 
of Bannockburn in 1314, Gordon no longer 
hesitated to acknowledge Bruce as king. He 
was cordially welcomed, and was speedily 
numbered with the king's most trusted 
friends. From Thomas Randolph, earl of 
Moray, he obtained the barony of Stitchel 
in Roxburghshire, which was confirmed to 
him and his son William by Robert I on 
28 Jan. 1315. In 1320 Gordon, along with 
Sir Edward Mabinson, was sent on a special 
mission to the pope at Avignon. They were 
bearers of the memorable letter asserting 
the independence of the kingdom, dated at 
Aberbrothock on 6 April 1320, and were 
charged with the twofold duty of effecting a 
reconciliation between King Robert and the 
pope and paving the way for a peace with 
England. As a reward for faithful service, 
including help rendered in subduing the re- 
bellious house of Comyn in the north-eastern 
counties, Bruce granted to him and his heirs 
the lordship of Strathbogie in Aberdeenshire, 
"which had belonged to David, earl of Atholl. 
Gordon bestowed on that lordship the name 

of Huntly, from a village on his Berwick- 
shire estate. His fidelity to King Robert was 
continued to his son and successor, David II ; 
and he was killed on 12 July 1333, fighting 
in the van of the Scottish army at the battle 
of Halidon Hill. By Abercrombie he is num- 
bered among the most trusted friends of 
Bruce, ' all great personages and the glorious 
ancestors of many in all respects as great as 
themselves.' From Gordon descended nearly 
all the eminent men of that name in Scotland. 

[Douglas's Peerage, pp. 295-6, 642; Crawford's 
Peerage of Scotland; Chalmers's Caledonia, ii. 
387, 544 ; Liber de Kelso, pp. 85-97 ; Rymer's 
Foedera, pp. 81, 82, 94, 222 , 481, 848; Abercrom- 
bie's Martial Achievements of the Scottish Nation, 
i. 583, 591-3; History of the Antient, Noble, 
and Illustrious House of Gordon, i. 7-9 ; Con- 
cise History of the Antient and Illustrious House 
of Gordon, pp. 19-23 ; Gordon of Gordonstone's 
Genealogy of the Earls of Sutherland, pp. 34, 38, 
45.] J. T. 

GORDON, SIE ADAM DE (d. 1402), war- 
rior, was son and heir of Sir John de Gordon, 
a knight distinguished in border warfare. In 
the ' raid of Roxburgh' (1377), when the Earl 
of March massacred all the English who had 
come to the annual fair, Gordon was a princi- 
pal assistant, in revenge for which a band of 
English raiders broke in upon his lands and 
carried off his cattle. Gordon invaded the Eng- 
lish side of the border and was bringing home 
a large booty with many prisoners when he 
was intercepted by Sir John Lilburn and his 
brother, with whom a battle was fought 
near Carham, Northumberland. Gordon was 
wounded, but victory was gained and the two 
brothers made prisoners. He was also in the 
division of the Scottish army which, under the 
young Earl of Douglas, invaded Northumber- 
land in 1388, ending with the battle of Otter- 
burn on 19 Aug., where Douglas with many 
other Scottish noblemen was killed. On 
18 June the same year Robert II granted him 
a charter confirming to him and to his heirs 
the lands of Strathbogie given to Sir Adam de 
Gordon (d. 1333) [q. v.] by King Robert 
Bruce. Gordon was included in the grand 
army with which, in 1402, the Earl of Douglas 
invaded England. Though watched by the 
Earl of Northumberland and his son Hotspur, 
the Scots penetrated without hindrance to the 
gates of Newcastle. They had reached Wooler 
on their homeward journey when the approach 
of an English army forced them to take up a 
position upon Homildon Hill. They became 
impatient under the discharge of the English 
arrows. Sir John de Swynton, with whom 
Gordon had been at feud, called impatiently 
for a charge. Gordon fell on his knees, begged 
Swynton's forgiveness, and was knighted on 




the spot by his reconciled enemy. They 
charged the English at the head of a hundred 
horsemen, and inflicted much slaughter, but 
were overpowered and slain. Gordon left two 
daughters, one of whom died early ; the other, 
Elizabeth de Gordon, married Alexander, son 
of William Seton of Seton, Edinburgh. On 
28 July 1408 the Duke of Albany, regent of 
the kingdom, granted a charter confirming 
to Alexander Seton and Elizabeth Gordon, 
heiress of Gordon, the barony of Gordon and 
Huntly, Berwickshire, with other lands which 
had formerly belonged to Gordon there and in 
Aberdeenshire. From this couple descended 
the earls of Huntly, the dukes of Gordon, the 
dukes of Sutherland, and other noble families. 
[Douglas's Peerage of Scotland, pp. 295-6 ; 
Gordon's History of the Family of Gordon ; 
Gordon of Gordonstone's Genealogy of the Earls 
of Sutherland; Eeg. Mag. Sig., printed 1814, 
p. 235 ; Wyntoun's Cronykil, book ix. c. ii. p. 
xxvi ; Fordun's Scotichronicon, ed. Goodall, 
ii. 384, 434 ; Tytler's History of Scotland, iii. 
15, 131.1 J. T. 

GORDON, LORD ADAM (1726 P-1801), 
general, colonel of the 1st royal regiment of 
foot, governor of Edinburgh Castle, fourth son 
of Alexander, second duke of Gordon [q. v.], by 
his wife Lady Henrietta Mordaunt, daughter 
of the famous Earl of Peterborough, was born 
about 1726, and entered the army as ensign 
in the 18th royal Irish foot, in Scotland, soon 
after Culloden. In 1753 he became lieutenant 
and captain 3rd foot guards, and was returned 
to parliament as member for Aberdeenshire 
the next year. He sat for that constituency 
till 1768, and afterwards represented Kincar- 
dineshire from 1774 to 1788, when he vacated 
his seat. In 1758 he served with his company 
of the guards in the expedition to the French 
coast under General Bligh. In 1762 he became 
colonel 66th foot, and took that regiment out 
to Jamaica. Returning home in 1766 he was 
entrusted by the Florida (?) colonists with a 
memorial of grievances to lay before the secre- 
tary of state. He was made colonel of the 
Cameronians in 1775, governor of Tynemouth 
in 1778, and colonel first royal regiment of 
foot in 1782. The same year he was appointed 
commander of the forces in Scotland (North 
Britain), when he took up his residence at 
Holyrood Palace, which he repaired exten- 
sively. In 1796 he became a full general and 
governor of Edinburgh Castle. In 1798 he 
vacated the command of the forces in Scot- 
land, in which he was succeeded by Sir Ralph 
Abercrombie, and died at his seat, The Barn, 
Kincardineshire, on 13 Aug. 1801. 

Gordon married Jane, daughter of John 
Drummond of Megginch, Perthshire, and 
widow of James Murray, second duke of 

Athole, by whom he left no issue. She is said 
to have been the heroine of Dr. Austen's song 
' For lack o' gold she left me, 0.' 

[Anderson's Scottish Nation, ii. 319; Foster's 
Members of Parliament, Scotland. 150; Cannon's 
Hist. Record 1st Royal Regiment of Foot.] 

H. M. C. 

1870), Australian poet, son of Captain Adam 
Gordon, was born in 1833 at Fayal in the 
Azores. He was educated at Cheltenham 
College, where his father was for some time 
professor of Hindustani, and after passing on 
to another school was for a short time at 
Woolwich, and afterwards kept some terms 
at Merton College, Oxford. After a some- 
what stormy youth he left England on 7 Aug. 
1853 for South Australia, where he joined 
the mounted police as a trooper. Leaving the 
police he became a horsebreaker, and in 1862 
married a Miss Park. In 1864 he received 
some 7,000/. on his father's death, and in 1865 
was elected to the colonial House of Assembly 
as a member for the district of Victoria. He 
was an occasional speaker in the house, but 
did not retain his seat long. In 1867 he 
migrated to Victoria and opened a livery 
stable at Ballarat. During this period of his 
life he was noted as an adventurous steeple- 
chaser. In 1869 he went to Melbourne, 
and, with the desire of getting free from the 
associations of the turf, determined to settle 
at New Brighton. His first volume of poems, 
published in 1867, had achieved a consider- 
able reputation, and there was every prospect 
that his succeeding years would be spent 
happily, when an unfortunate attempt to se- 
cure the reversion of the estate of Esselmont, 
in Scotland, ended in failure, and induced 
a return of his former morbid restlessness. 
In 1870 his second volume of poems was pub- 
lished, but, despite their success, on 24 June 
of the same year he committed suicide. 

His chief works were the following: 1. ' Sea 
Spray and Smoke Drift,' 1867. 2. 'Bush 
Ballads and Galloping Rhymes,' 1 870. 3.' Ash- 
taroth : a Dramatic Lyric.' A collected edi- 
tion of his poems was published in 1880 under 
the editorship of Marcus Clarke. Some addi- 
tional poems, prose sketches, and his political 
speeches are printed in a memoir by Mr. J. H. 
Ross, entitled ' Laureate of the Centaurs/ 
As a poet he was vigorous and musical, but 
exhibited little true poetic originality. 

[The Laureate of the Centaurs, a Memoir of 
Adam Lindsay Gordon, by J. Hewlett Ross, 1888 ; 
Clarke's preface to his poems.] E. C. K. G. 

OF HtnsTLY (d. 1524), was the eldest son 
of George, second earl [q. v.], by the Prin- 




cess Annabella, daughter of James I. As 
his parents were divorced on account of their 
relationship being within the forbidden de- 
grees of affinity, he could only be legitimated 
on the ground of their ignorantia and bona 
fides (see RIDDELL'S Inquiry into the Laws 
and Practice of Scottish Peerages, p. 528) ; 
but perhaps the actual reason why he suc- 
ceeded to the earldom on the death of his 
father was that the king so willed it. He 
is styled earl in a grant, 30 Jan. 1502-3, to 
him by the king of certain lands (Reg. Mag. 
Siff. i. 2689X The historian of the ' House 
of Gordon erroneously states that he also 
succeeded his father as lord high chancellor. 
The most important achievement of the third 
earl was the assistance he rendered in the 
subjugation of the western isles. In 1504 
he co-operated with the king and the Scottish 
fleet by attacking them from the north. The 
following year he stormed the castle of 
Stornoway, held by Torquil Macleod, one of 
the principal western chiefs, and compelled 
Donald Dhu, who claimed the lordship of 
the isles, to take refuge in Ireland. From 
this time the independent lordship of the isles 
ceased to exist (GREGORY, Western High- 
lands, ed. 1881, pp. 96-120). For his great 
services the king, on 13 Jan. 1505-6, con- 
firmed to him certain lands and baronies, 
incorporating them into a free barony and ! 
earldom, to be called the barony and earldom j 
of Huntly, the principal messuage of the 
same,formerly called Strathbogie,to be hence- 
forth called the castle of Huntly (Reg. Mag. 
'Siff. i. 2909). In 1509 he was one of the 
guarantors of a treaty of peace with Eng- 
land. On 24 Oct. of this year he was ap- 
pointed sheriff and keeper of the castle of 
Inverness. A grant of lands was given him 
for the support of a garrison, with power to 
add to the fortifications. He was in addition 
bound to build at his own expense on the 
castle hill of Inverness a large hall of stone 
and lime upon vaults, with a kitchen and 
chapel (ib. entry 3286). He was also re- 
quired to build a fortress at Inverlochy (ib.^) 
His jurisdiction was made to embrace the 
counties of Inverness, Ross and Caithness, 
power being given him to appoint deputies 
for specified divisions of his sheriffdom. It 
was thus principally by the achievements of 
the third earl that the house of Huntly be- 
came supreme over all the northern regions. 
Huntly with Lord Home led the vanguard 
of the Scots at the battle of Flodden on 
9 Sept. 1513, and by a furious charge threw 
the English right, under Sir Thomas Edmund 
Howard, into confusion, but Huntly's division 
was in turn driven back with great slaughter 
by the charge of a reserve of English horse led 

by Lord Dacre. He was one of the few Scot- 
tish earls who escaped the succeeding carnage, 
and, the king being among the slain, was, at 
a parliament held at Perth in the ensuing 
October, appointed, along with the Earl of 
Angus and the Archbishop of Glasgow, a 
council to aid the queen mother in the 
government. He supported her and Angus 
against the Earl of Arran's attempts to as- 
sume the regency, but afterwards sided with 
the Duke of Albany against Angus. During 
the absence of Albany in France in 1517 he 
was appointed one of a council of regency. 
On 26 Feb. 1517-18 he was made lieutenant 
over all Scotland, with the exception of 
Argyll's territory. He supported Albany 
on his arrival from France in 1520 (LESLIE, 
History, p. 116). On the plea of a ' sore 
leg' he, however, excused himself from join- 
ing the force called by Albany to assemble 
on 17 Oct. 1523 for an invasion of England 
(Cal. State Papers, Henry VIII, iii. 3434), 
and for a similar reason he declined to at- 
tend the parliament held at Edinburgh on 
23 Nov. after Albany's retreat (ib. 3551). 
He was again appointed one of the council 
of regency when Albany shortly afterwards 
left for France, but he died 21 Jan. 1523-4. 
He was buried in the choir of the Dominican 
Church, Perth (Hist. MSS. Comm. 6th Rep. 
p. 714 b) ; and on 25 June 1525 his widow, 
Elizabeth Gray, made a grant of certain lands 
to the Dominicans for the weal of her soul 
and that of her husband (ib. 714 a). He 
was twice married : first to Lady Johanna 
Stewart, eldest daughter of John, earl of 
Atholl, brother uterine of James II, by 
whom he had two daughters and four sons 
(George, who died young; John, father of 
George, fourth earl [q. v.], and of Alexander 
Gordon,bishop of Galloway[q.v.]; Alexander, 
ancestor of the Gordons of Cluny ; and Wil- 
liam, bishop of Aberdeen [q. v.]); and se- 
condly, to Elizabeth, daughter of Andrew, 
lord Gray, relict of John, sixth lord Glammis, 
by whom he had no issue, and who subse- 
quently married George, earl Rothes. 

[Douglas's Scottish Peerage (Wood), i. 645-6 ; 
William Gordon's House of Gordon, i. 98-126 ; 
Bishop Leslie's Hist, of Scotland; Register of 
the Great Seal of Scotland, vols. i. and ii. ; Cal. 
State Papers, Henry VIII ; Donald Gregory's 
Hist, of the Western Highlands.] T. F. H. 

GORDON, ALEXANDER (1516 P-1575), 
bishop-elect of Galloway, and titular arch- 
bishop of Athens, was the younger son of John, 
master of Huntly (d. 5 Dec. 1517), by Jane 
Drummond, natural daughter of James IV. 
He was born some time between 1515 and 
1518, as his elder brother, George [q. v.], was 




in his tenth year when he succeeded as fourth 
Earl of Huntly on 16 Jan. 1524. He and 
his brother were brought up as companions 
to the young king, James V (6. 5 April 1511). 
He probably received his education from the 
king's tutors, and seems to have had no pro- 
fessional training. He was a favourite at 
court till the king's death (1542), and his 
high connections opened to him a career of 
ecclesiastical preferment. About 1544hewas 
administrator of the diocese of Caithness, j 
at the time when the bishop-elect, Robert 
Stewart, was in England, under forfeiture for 
treason. Had Stewart not been restored, 
Gordon would have been his successor. On j 
the death of Gavin Dunbar (d. 1547) [q. v.], 
Gordon was elected archbishop by the chapter 
of Glasgow ; but the election was disputed , 
by the regent Arran, and in 1551 Pope ' 
Julius III appointed James Beaton (1517- 
1603) [q. v.] Gordon was propitiated with 
the titular archbishopric of Athens, and a I 
promise of the next vacant bishopric in Scot- 
land. Roderick Maclean, bishop of the Isles, 
died in 1553, and Gordon was appointed to 
that see. According to Hew Scott he was 
consecrated on 26 Nov. Grub finds no evi- 
dence that he was ever consecrated. A diffi- 
culty would be created by the fact of his 
marriage, which took place not later than 
1543. With the see of the Isles he held in 
commendamihe abbacies of Inchaffray, Perth- 
shire, and Icolmkill, Argyllshire. On the 
death of Andrew Durie [q. v.], a prelate of 
the old school, in September 1558, Gordon 
was elected to the see of Galloway, retaining 
Inchaffray, and having also the abbacy of 
Tongland, Kirkcudbrightshire, in commen- 
dam. He took part (March 1559) in the last 
provincial-general council of the Scottish 
church, held in the Blackfriars, Edinburgh, 
which rejected proposals for innovation in 
doctrine, and for the use of the vulgar tongue 
in public prayers, but agreed to some reforma- 
tions of discipline ; and he was one of six 
dignitaries who were appointed advisers to 
the two archbishops. He joined in ratifying 
the convention of Berwick (27 Feb. 1560), 
which established the English alliance as 
against France, and soon followed Winram 
and Greyson, his coadjutors among the six 
advisers, into the ranks of the reformers, 
joining on 27 April 1560 the contract 'to 
defend the liberty of the evangel!.' At the 
parliament of August 1560 he voted for the 
acts which sanctioned the new confession of 
faith, renounced the jurisdiction of the pope, 
and prohibited the mass. On 17 January 1561 
he subscribed the first book of discipline, sub- 
stituting superintendents for the hierarchy ; 
but with a proviso to the subscription that ex- 

isting prelates should enjoy their revenues for 
life, on condition of embracing the Reforma- 
tion, and making provision for the ministry 
within their dioceses. Knox and Wodrow 
make him the one prelate, Hew Scott says 
' perhaps the only consecrated bishop ' who 
joined the reformers [cf. GORDON, WILLIAM, 
d. 1577, bishop of Aberdeen ; STEWART, RO- 
BERT, bishop-elect of Caithness ; BOTHWELL, 
ADAM, bishop of Orkney]. 

Gordon's adhesion to the reformed church 
was dictated by motives of policy. He threw 
himself into the movement with an evident 
expectation of securing a prominent position 
in it. But this hope was not realised, and 
the remainder of his career is a series of 
struggles to maintain his former dignity. The 
book of discipline had included his diocese 
under the superintendency of Dumfries, but 
he claimed the superintendence of Galloway. 
The general assembly, however, on 30 June 
1562, refused to recognise him as a superin- 
tendent till ' the kirks of Galloway craved 
him.' On 29 Dec. an election was ordered ; 
it seems not to have taken place, for Gordon 
was recognised only as the assembly's com- 
missioner for Galloway, and his action, or 
rather inaction, in that capacity made him 
the subject of almost constant complaints in 
the assembly. At an^ interview with Knox 
in May 1563, Mary described the bishop of 
' Cathenis ' (M'Crie would correct this to 
' Athenis ') as 'a dangerous man,' and un- 
trustworthy. He was sworn of the privy 
council, and on 26 Nov. 1565 was made an 
extraordinary lord of session, whereupon he 
resumed his episcopal title, and ' would no 
more,' says Knox, 'be called overlooker or 
overseer of Galloway, but bishop.' He suc- 
cessfully exerted himself in 1566 to secure 
from the wreck of church revenues a provi- 
sion for the ministry of the thirds of their 
benefices. As a member of the privy council, 
he signed (10 Feb. 1567) the letter to the 
queen-regent of France, giving an account of 
the murder of Darnley. He was present at 
the meeting of the privy council (28 March) 
which ordered the trial of Bothwell. But 
he was warmly attached to the cause of the 
queen, from whom he had received many per- 
sonal favours. On 20 April he signed the 
bond acquitting Bothwell, and recommend- 
ing him, though already married to his niece, 
as a suitable husband for the queen. On the 
appointment of Moray as regent (22 Aug.) 
he temporised, and took his place in the par- 
liament of December which confirmed Mary's 
abdication. The assembly, which immediately 
followed, accused him of haunting the court,' 
neglecting his charge for three years, taking 
legal preferment 'which cannot agree with 




the office of pastor or bishop,' and resigning 
the abbacy of Inchaff'ray in favour of ' a young 
child ' (James Drummond). In accord with 
his usual tactics he made his submission, but 
resigned (4 Jan. 1568) his see with its tem- 
poralities into the king's hands, in favour of 
his son John, retaining, however, the super- 
vision which he derived from the assembly. 
On Mary's escape from Lochleven he signed 
the bond (8 May 1568) for her restoration. 
The assembly in July bade him choose between 
courts and kirks, and in the following year 
inhibited him from ' any function in the kirk.' 
He continued to pray for the queen in public ; 
acted as one of her commissioners in England 
on 20 May 1570, and again on 10 April l.">71 ; 
and on 17 June 1571 preached in Knox's pulpit 
at Edinburgh before the adherents of Kirk- 
caldy of Grange, who were holding a parlia- 
ment in the queen's name, which he attended. 
The assembly in August 1572 charged him 
with intruding into the ministry in Edin- 
burgh and acknowledging the queen's au- 
thority. The case stood over till next year, 
when he was ordered (6 Aug.) to do public 
penance in sackcloth on three successive Sun- 
days, a judgment commuted (March 1574) to 
one day's penance without sackcloth. 

Gordon attended the assembly which 
opened on 6 Aug. 1575. This was the as- 
sembly in which for the first time objections 
were raised (but not sustained) to the law- 
fulness of any form of episcopacy. He died 
at Clary House, Penninghame, Wigtonshire, 
on 11 Nov. 1575. He married (about 1543) 
Barbara Logie, daughter of the laird of Logie, 
who survived him. The number and order 
of his children have been variously stated ; 
according to Hew Scott they were, (1) John, 
dean of Salisbury [q. v.] ; (2) Alexander, 
probably died young; (3) Lawrence, com- 
mendator of Glenluce, in whose favour the 
temporalities of that abbey were erected into 
a barony by James VI in 1602 ; he died early 
in 1611 ; the Historical Manuscripts Com- j 
mission's 2nd Rep. 178 mentions ' certane 
instructions anent ane testament to be maid j 
by Lawrence, commendator of Glenluce,' j 
dated at ' the chappell in Tongland ye fyft of 
February 1620' [1610 ?] ; (4) George, who on 
his father's death obtained the revenues of 
the see of Galloway, and was its bishop-desig- ! 
nate; he died before 1605, when Gavin Hamil- 
ton was appointed ; (5) Robert, in the service 
of Queen Margaret of France, killed in a 
duel ; (6) Barbara, married to Anthony 
Stewart, rector of Penninghame ; her father 
left her the lands of Clary in that parish. 

[Hew Scott's Fasti Eccles. Scotic. ; Gordon's 
Hist. Fam. of Gordon, 1727, vol. i. ; Knox's Hist, 
of the Reformation, 1790, pp. 345, 499, 531 ; 

Noble's Hist. Genealogy of the Stuarts, 1795, 
pp. 177, 179; Laing's Hist, of Scotland, 1804, i. 
76, ii. 94, 162; Gordon's Geneal. Hist, of the 
Earldom of Suther and, 1813, p. 289 sq. ; Strype's 
Annals, 1824, vol. i. pt. ii. p. 384, vol. ii. pt. i. p. 
115. Peterkin's Abridgment of Acts of Assembly, 
1831 ; Lewis's Topogr. Diet, of Scotland, 1851, 
ii. 354; M'Crie's Life of Knox, 1855, p. 202; 
Grub's Eccl. Hist, of Scotland, 1861, vol. ii. ; Bur- 
ton's Hist, of Scotland, 1867, vols. iv. v. ; Gordon's 
Scotichronicon, 1867, ii. 526 ; Walcott's Scotimo- 
nasticon, 1874, pp. 168, 226, 309.] A. G. 

GORDON, ALEXANDER (1587-1654), 
of Earlston, covenanter, was the eldest son 
of John Gordon of Airds and Earlston, and 
Mary, daughter of James Chalmers of Gad- 
girth in Ayrshire. His parents were married 
in 1585. The Gordons of Earlston in Kirk- 
cudbrightshire were a cadet branch of the 
Gordons of Lochinvar. Gordon's great-grand- 
father, Alexander Gordon of Airds (1479- 
1580), was one of the first to introduce the 
principles of the reformation into Galloway. 
He read Wycliffe's New Testament to his 
tenants and others in the wood of Airds. 
He had a family, it is said, of eleven sons 
and nine daughters. He yoked ten of his sons 
to the plough on Christmas day, made the 
youngest his driver, and himself guided the 
share, by which means he avoided the confis- 
cation of his cattle for profaning the feast. 

Gordon was served heir to his father in 
the lands of Earlston and others on 23 Oct. 
1628 (Setours Kirkcudbright, No. 175), and 
to his grandmother, Elizabeth Gordon of 
Blaiket, Dumfriesshire, one of the eleven 
daughters and heirs portioners of John Gor- 
don of Blaiket, on 29 July 1634 (ib. No. 207). 
In 1623 he was indicted before the justiciary 
court for usurping the king's authority by ap- 
prehending and detaining a man in his private 
prison for three hours. The prosecutor, John 
Glendoning of Drumrashe, considerately re- 
frained from pressing the charge, but the 
judge, on behalf of the crown, obliged Gor- 
don to find caution to appear on fifteen days' 
warning for sentence if required (PiTCAiEN, 
Criminal Trials, iii. 552). 

Gordon married in 1612 Elizabeth, daugh- 
ter of John Gordon of Murefad, afterwards 
of Pennynghame, and he, his wife, and their 
eldest son were all esteemed correspondents 
of Samuel Rutherford during his confine- 
ment at Aberdeen in 1636 and 1637. Several 
letters to them are printed in ' Rutherford's 
Letters.' Gordon was required by the Bishop 
of Galloway to present an episcopalian curate 
to the parish of which he was patron, but 
declined to do so, and for his refusal \vas 
cited before the court of commission, fined 
five hundred merks, and ordered to ward 




himself at Montrose. Gordon was chosen 
by the barons of Galloway their represen- 
tative in parliament, and was member of 
that body from 1641 to 1649. He was also 
as an elder a member of the general as- 
sembly of the church of Scotland in 1641, 
and was a prominent member of the com- 
mittees of war, and for raising forces and 
taxes in the stewartry of Kirkcudbright. 
In 1641 he was appointed on a parliamentary 
commission for the further examination of 
the Marquis of Montrose and others on trial 
with Montrose, the screening of whom from 
certain charges he warmly opposed. He 
stoutly repudiated the claims of Charles I to 
ecclesiastical supremacy. In conversing about 
Gordon with the Earl of Galloway, Charles 
jocularly dubbed him ' Earl of Earlston,' and 
Gordon was sometimes popularly so styled. 
The king wished him to become one of the 
Nova Scotia baronets, but Gordon declined to 
purchase such an honour with money. 

He was also appointed on parliamentary 
commissions for the plantation of churches 
and raising of taxes, but on both of these, by 
an ordinance of parliament in July 1644, he 
was replaced by James McDowell of Garth- 
land, because ' that Alexander Gordonne of 
Erlestoun is so infirme that he cannot attend 
the service.' He was stricken with palsy for 
some time before he died, which greatly dis- 
abled him, but he continued in parliament 
until 1649, and in that year was nominated 
for a military command in connection with 
the operations then intended against the Com- 
monwealth of England. As one of the in- 
terested heritors he took an active part in the 
erection of the parish of Carsphairn, Kirk- 
cudbrightshire, in 1644. 

Gordon died in 1654, and a contemporary. 
John Livingstone, who knew him well, says 
he was ' a man of great spirit, but much 
subdued by inward exercise, and who at- 
tained the most rare experiences of down- 
casting and uplifting ' (' Memorable Charac- 
teristics ' printed in Select Biographies, Wod- 
row Soc., i. 343). Of his marriage there was 
issue three sons and one daughter. The eldest 
son, John, predeceased him on 29 Oct. 1645, 
and the second son, William (1614-1679) 
[q. v.], whose son Alexander, also a cove- 
nanter, is noticed in the next article, suc- 
ceeded as Laird of Earlston. The third son 
was Robert, a merchant, and the daughter, \ 
Margaret, in 1638 became the wife of a neigh- I 
bouring proprietor, Francis Hay of Arioland. i 

[Acts of the Parliaments of Scotland, vols. v. 
vi. ; McKerlie's History of Lands and their ' 
Owners in Galloway, iii. 414, 415, iv. 73-6 ; 
Simpson's Traditions of the Covenanters, ed. 
1846, pp. 348-50.] H. P. 

1726), of Earlston, covenanter, eldest son of 
William Gordon (1614-1679) [q.v.] of Earls- 
ton, and Mary, daughter of Sir John Hope of 
Craighall, Fifeshire, was born in 1650. His 
grandfather was Alexander Gordon (1587- 
1654) [q. v.] Like his father he became a 
zealous presbyterian. He was present at the 
battle of Both well Bridge . One of his tenants 
saved him during his flight by dressing him 
in woman's clothes and setting him to rock a 
cradle. Within a few days he was proclaimed 
a rebel and cited to appear as such before the 
justiciary court at Edinburgh on 8 Feb. 
1680. In his absence he was condemned to 
death and his estates were forfeited. For a 
time he lurked in the neighbourhood of his 
own estates, and had many narrow escapes. 
On one occasion, in the dress of a servant, he 
helped the dragoons in searching the house 
for himself. 

On 11 Oct. 1681 Earlston was appointed by 
the privy council a military garrison. Gordon 
escaped to Holland along with his wife, Janet, 
daughter of Sir Thomas Hamilton of Preston, 
whom he had married on 30 Nov. 1676. He 
returned to Scotland early in 1682, and on 
15 March of that year was with one John 
Nisbet commissioned by the ' societies ' to 
proceed to the Netherlands (Faithful Con- 
tendings, pp. 18-66). Nisbet and Gordon 
travelled together to London, but Gordon 
alone crossed to Holland. He returned and 
met with his constituents at Edinburgh on 
8 May 1683, when they renewed his commis- 
sion, and. that same night he set out for New- 
castle. He embarked there for Holland with 
a person named Edward Aitken, and both 
were seized by some customs officers. They 
were sent for trial to Edinburgh, where, on 
10 July 1683, Aitken was condemned to death 
on the simple charge of harbouring Gordon. 

A trial was thought superfluous, but Gor- 
don was several times examined in reference 
to his knowledge of the Rye House plot. 
His depositions on these occasions, viz. 
30 June, 5 July, and 25 Sept. 1683, with 
Nisbet 's letter, and his own commission from 
the ' societies ' in Scotland, are printed at 
length by Spratt in his ' True Account of 
the Horrid Conspiracy against the late King,' 
published 1685, pp. 74-7,91-109. On 16 Aug. 
he had been brought to the bar of the justi- 
ciary court, and the sentence of death and 
forfeiture formerly passed upon him having 
been read to him, 28 Sept. was fixed as 
the date of his execution. The king ordered 
the Scottish privy council to put Gordon to 
the torture of the boots in order to extort 
from him the names of his accomplices. The 
council replied that it was irregular to tor- 




ture malefactors after they had been con- 
demned to death, but the king responded by 
sending Gordon on 11 Sept. a reprieve till 
the second Friday of November. Gordon 
about this time made an ineffectual effort to 
escape. On 3 Nov. Charles extended the 
reprieve for a month, and a fortnight later 
again wrote ordering Gordon to be examined 
by torture. This command was immediately 
obeyed, but Gordon on being brought to the 
council chamber, 23 Nov., either ' through 
fear or distraction, roared out like a bull, and 
cried and struck about him so that the hang- 
man and his man durst scarce lay hands on 
him,' and at last fell down in a swoon. On 
recovering he named several of the royalists 
as among the plotters, as some thought from 
madness or out of design. The Earl of Aber- 
deen, then chancellor, however, befriended 
him, and he was remitted to the care of the 
physicians. For greater quietness they sent 
him to the castle of Edinburgh. On 13 Dec. 
his case was again before the council, when, 
as it was thought that the execution of a man 
in a state of insanity would endanger his 
soul, he was reprieved until the last Friday 
of January 1684. His execution was once 
more deferred, and on 8 Aug. 1684 the privy 
council sent him to the Bass Rock, but brou ght 
him back to Edinburgh on the 22nd to con- 
front him with Spence, and a resolution was 
taken by the council on this occasion ' not to 
admit of his madness for an excuse, which 
they esteemed simulated.' On the 30th he 
was caught in the act of making another 
attempt to escape from the Tolbooth of Edin- 
burgh. The council debated whether on ac- 
count of this aggravation of his crime the 
day fixed for his execution, 4 Nov., should 
not be anticipated. But it being found that 
the breaking of prison was not an offence 
punishable by death, this could not legally 
be done ; so on 20 Sept. they ordered him 
to be removed to the castle of Blackness. 

Gordon's imprisonment in Blackness was 
voluntarily shared by his wife, and some of 
their children were born there. It continued 
until 5 June 1689, though on 16 Aug. 1687 
he was recommended to the king for a re- 
mission by the Scottish council. His em- 
ployment during his confinement consisted 
in wood-carving and the study of heraldry. 
Some of the carvings were illustrations of 
events of his own times and family history. 

The Earlston estates were restored to Gor- 
don after the revolution, and he and his 
family returned thither on leaving the castle 
of Blackness. But his losses were such 
that the estate had to be sold or heavily 
mortgaged. In February 1696 Gordon's wife 
died. Three covenant engagements into which 

she entered during her sojourn in Blackness 
Castle and her later life were printed after 
her death, entitled ' Lady Earlston's Solilo- 
quies.' They have been reprinted by the Wod- 
row Society at the end of the first volume 
of ' Select Biographies.' She and her hus- 
band both corresponded with the covenant- 
ing preachers Renwick, Cargill, and Cameron, 
nine letters to them by the ministers named 
being printed in a collection of Renwick's 
Letters.' Gordon married in 1697, as his 
second wife, Marion, daughter of Alexander, 
viscount Kenmure. 

In 1718 Gordon lost his younger brother, 
Sir William Gordon of Afton, who had dis- 
tinguished himself in the Prussian army, had 
aided Monmouth, and had been made a Nova 
Scotia baronet, 29 July 1706, for his services 
to William III at the revolution. Sir Wil- 
liam Gordon seems to have redeemed Earls- 
ton from a family who had purchased it, as 
he obtained personal sasine in these lands 
in 1712. He died without issue, and both 
his title and his estates of Afton passed to 
his elder brother. 

Gordon died at Airds 11 Nov. 1726, and 
was buried in the churchyard of Dairy. By 
his first wife he had issue thirteen children, 
and by the second two. His son Sir Thomas 
succeeded, and the family still nourishes in 

[Lord FountainhalFs Historical Notices of Scot- 
tish Affairs, 1661-8 (Bannatyne Club), i. 333- 
453, ii. 458-817 ; Decisions, pp. 238-300 ; 
McKerlie's Hist, of the Lands and their Owners 
in Galloway, iii. 423-30, iv. 77-] H. P. 

OF GORDON (1678 P-1728), son of George, first 
duke of Gordon [q. v.], and Lady Elizabeth 
Howard, eldest surviving daughter of the sixth 
Duke of Norfolk, was born about 1678. He 
was educated in the catholic faith and re- 
tained the family attachment to the Stuarts. 
On 31 Aug. 1715, on the eve of the rebellion, 
while he was yet Marquis of Huntly, an 'Act 
for encouraging loyalty in Scotland ' received 
the royal assent. The design was to obtain 
security for the good behaviour of suspected 
persons, and summonses were issued toHuntly 
and others to repair to Edinburgh and give 
bail for their allegiance to the government, 
under pain of a year's imprisonment and other 
penalties. Huntly failed to appear, and pro- 
claimed the Chevalier St. George at Gordon 
Castle. On 6 Oct., with three hundred horse- 
men and two thousand foot, he joined the 
Pretender's standard at Perth, and was at 
the battle of Sheriffmuir, after which he re- 
turned to his home at Gordon Castle. The 
Earl of Sutherland was employed during the 
winter in suppressing the rebellion in the 





northern districts. On 12 Feb. 1716 a com- 
pany of his men took possession of Gordon 
Castle, and to him Huntly capitulated. He 
was brought to Edinburgh in April and im- 
prisoned in the castle, but no further proceed- 
ings were taken against him, and he, with 
some others, obtained pardon ' in regard of 
having quitted the rebels in time.' 

During his father's lifetime Huntly went 
abroad and visited several European courts, 
where he was cordially welcomed. He 
formed a special friendship with the king 
of Prussia and the Grand Duke of Tuscany. 
He married Lady Henrietta Mordaunt, se- 
cond daughter of Charles, earl of Peterbo- 
rough and Monmouth, and his eldest son was 
named Cosmo in honour of the grand duke. 
At the death of his father, George Gordon, 
first duke [q. v.], in 1716, the marquis be- 
came second Duke of Gordon, and afterwards 
took up his permanent residence at Gordon 
Castle. He continued to correspond with 
the king of Prussia and the Grand Duke of 
Tuscany. The king sent him a full-length 
portrait of himself in the Prussian dress. The 
grand duke sent his bust in white marble, 
and a silver font for the christening of his 
godson, the young Marquis of Huntly, to- 
gether with a fine suit of steel armour gilt. 
Pope Clement XII sent his portrait, with 
other valuable presents. Gordon had also 
been honourably treated at the court of the 
Prince of Anspach, father of Queen Caroline, 
and for him the queen always had a great re- 
gard. The duke lived chiefly at home, main- 
taining a princely style. He was handsome 
in appearance, kindly in disposition, liberal 
to his tenants, and generous to the poor. He 
died on 28 Nov. 1728. The duchess died at 
Prestonhall, near Edinburgh, 11 Oct. 1760. 
Her family of four sons and seven daughters 
were trained by her in the protestant faith, 
for which in 1735 she had a pension of 1,0001. 
from the government. General Lord Adam 
Gordon, fourth son, is separately noticed. 

[Douglas's Peerage, p. 654 ; Gordon's Hist, of 
the Family of Gordon, ii. 265 ; Gordon's Concise 
Hist, of the House of Gordon ; Eae's Hist, of the 
Rebellion; Pennant's Tour in Scotland, pp. 142 
143.] J. T. 

1754 ?), antiquary, is supposed to have been 
born at Aberdeen not later than 1692. After 
taking the degree of M.A. at the university of 
Aberdeen, where he distinguished himself by 
his classical attainments, he resided for a time 
in the city, eking out a living as a teacher of 
languages and music. He also painted por- 
traits in oil. He afterwards visited the con- 
tinent, at first probably as a tutor, and re- 

turned home an excellent French and Italian 
scholar, and with a good knowledge of art and 
antiquities. He told Stukeley that when at 
Capua with Sir George Byng (afterwards 
i Viscount Torrington) 'they sav'd the fine 
amphitheatre there, the 3rd in the world, 
which the Germans were going to pull down 
to repair the fortifications, by speaking to the 
governor & vice roy at Naples ' (STTJKELEY,. 
Diaries,^ Jan. 1722-3, Surtees Soc., i. 68-9). 
| He studied music in Italy, and when in Lon- 
don he occasionally sang in opera, and among 
J his countrymen was known as ' Singing 
Sandie ' (cf. STUKELEY, loc. cit. ; MITCHELL, 
' Ode on the Power of Music,' pp. xi-xii, pre- 
fixed to ALEXANDER MALCOLM'S Treatise of 
| Musick, 1721 ; Notes and Queries, 2nd ser. 
, viii. 279). At one time he appears to have 
been an itinerant teacher of music, more 
| especially while collecting the materials for 
his ' Itinerarium,' some time before 1720. In 
i that year Stukeley, in his ' Account of a Ro- 
man Temple [Arthur's Oon] and other anti- 
quities near Graham's Dike in Scotland,' ex- 
pressed his wonder that no Scotsman had 
hitherto investigated the Roman antiquities 
of the country. ' This,' says Gordon, ' was 
sufficient excitement for me to proceed still 
more vigorously in collecting what I had 
begun.' During three successive years he 
visited different parts of Scotland and Nor- 
thumberland, exploring, drawing, and mea- 
suring ancient remains, at much cost and 
some hardship. Liberal patrons, however, 
were not wanting, such as the Duke of 
Queensberry, to whom the work was subse- 
quently dedicated, the Earls of Pembroke, of 
Findlater, and of Hertford, and Viscount 
Bateman. whose cabinets he was often en- 
abled to enrich during his travels at home 
and abroad, Edward Chandler, then bishop 
of Lichfield, and Duncan Forbes of Culloden, 
at that time lord advocate. His great patron 
was Sir John Clerk [q. v.] of Penicuick, Edin- 
burghshire. He was a frequent guest at Old 
Penicuick House, where he had access to a 
splendid museum of antiquities, and was ac- 
companied by Clerk in his Northumbrian 
explorations, as well as in others nearer home. 
The work, which had been largely subscribed 
for, appeared as 'Itinerarium Septentrionale; 
or, a Journey thro' most of the Counties of 
Scotland, and those in the North of England. 
. . . Part 1. Containing an Account of all 
the Monuments of Roman Antiquity. . . . 
Part 2. An Account of the Danish Invasions 
on Scotland . . . With sixty-six copper- 
plates ' [and an appendix], 2 pts. fol., Lon- 
don, 1726 (with a new title-page 1727). In 
this laborious work Gordon proved himself 
an honest, painstaking antiquary. Though 




his theories have long since been exploded, 
he has preserved records of earthworks, in- 
scriptions, and relics of various kinds, of 
which hut for him all knowledge would have 
been lost. The appendix derived its chief 
value from a learned correspondence concern- 
ing ancient sepulchral rites in Britain be- 
tween Sir John Clerk and Roger Gale [q. v.], 
which Gordon here made public, greatly to 
their annoyance (cf. ' Reliquiae Galeanae,' in 
NICHOLS'S Bibliotheca, no. ii. pt. ii. ; also 
STUKELEY, Diaries and Letters, Surtees Soc., 
which contain frequent notices of Gordon). 
He apologises for the inelegant illustra- 
tions of his ' Itinerarium.' On page 188 
of the ' Itinerarium ' Gordon announced 
his intention of issuing in a few days pro- 
posals for engraving by subscription ' A 
Compleat View of the Roman Walls in 
Britain.' It is much to be regretted that for 
want of the necessary funds this survey, with 
drawings of all the inscriptions and altars 
discovered, should not have appeared. Gor- 
don now attempted to give practical effect to 
a project for cutting a navigable canal be- 
tween the Firths of Clyde and Forth (Letter 
of Sir John Clerk to Roger Gale, 29 Aug. 
1726, in 'Reliquiae Galeanae'). The scheme, 
however, was not new to the government, 
who considered that the profits would not 
answer the charge. Gordon's circumstances, 
always narrow, were not improved by the 
prosecution of projects which never re- 
paid him. According to John Whiston, the 
London bookseller, he was for some time in 
partnership with John Wilcox, a bookseller 
in the Strand, ' but his education, temper, and 
manners did not suit him for a trade. . . . 
Poverty tempted him to dishonesty ' (NICHOLS, 
Lit. Anecd. v. 699, or, perhaps, want of busi- 
ness habits may have rendered him careless 
in regard to money transactions. His next 
publication was 'The Lives of Pope Alex- 
ander VI and his son Caesar Borgia ; com- 
prehending the Wars in the Reigns of 
Charles VIII and Lewis XII, Kings of 
France, and the chief Transactions and Re- 
volutions in Italy from . . . 1492 to ... 1506. 
W r ith an Appendix of original Pieces referred 
to in the book,' 2 pts. fol., London, 1729. The 
volume contains portraits of Alexander VI 
and of Caesar Borgia, the former probably 
etched by the author. In 1751 a French 
version appeared at Amsterdam in two duo- 
decimo volumes. A solitary dramatic attempt, 
' Lupone, or the Inquisitor : a comedy,' 8vo, 
London, 1731, was deemed by the managers 
to be too classical for representation (BAKER, 
Biog. Dramatica, ed. 1812, i. 292, ii. 401). 
He was more successful with a translation 
of the ' De Amphitheatre ' of the Marquis 

Francesco Scipione Matt'ei, published as ' A 
Compleat History of the Ancient Amphi- 
theatres, more peculiarly regarding the Archi- 
tecture of these Buildings, and in particular 
that of Verona. . . . Adorned with Sculp- 
tures [25 plates] ; also, some Account of this 
learned Work,' 8vo, London, 1730 (2nd edit, 
enlarged, 8vo, London [1735 ?] ). In 1731- 
1732 Gordon had made some additions to his 
' Itinerarium Septentrionale,' of which a Latin 
edition was being prepared in Holland. This 
never appeared, but Gordon printed the sup- 
plement he had prepared for it in a separate 
form, entitled ' Additions and Corrections by 
way of Supplement to the Itinerarium Sep- 
tentrionale, containing several dissertations 
on, and descriptions of, Roman Antiquities 
discovered in Scotland since the publishing 
the said Itinerary. Together with Obser- 
vations on other Ancient Monuments found 
in the North of England. Never before pub- 
lish'd,' fol., London, 1732, 30 pp. and 4 plates 
(Ixvi-lxix). In 1736 Gordon was appointed 
secretary to the Society for the Encourage- 
ment of Learning, with an annual salary of 
50/. In the same year he succeeded Stukeley 
as secretary to the Society of Antiquaries, of 
which he had been elected a fellow 17 Feb. 
1725 ( [GOTJGH], Chronological List of Soc. 
Antiq., pp. 4, 8). It was probably through 
Stukeley's influence that he also obtained the 
secretaryship of the Egyptian Society ,of which 
Stukeley was one of the founders, and thus 
had a new bent given to his researches. 
Gordon published two very learned treatises 
wherein he undertook to solve the mysteries 
of hieroglyphics and to illustrate ' all the 
Egyptian mummies in England.' Their titles 
are ' An Essay towards explaining the Hiero- 
glyphical Figures on the Coffin of the An- 
cient Mummy belonging to Capt. William 
Lethieullier. (An Essay towards explaining 
the antient Hieroglyphical Figures on the 
Egyptian Mummy in the Museum of Doctor 
Mead),' 2 pts., fol., London, 1737, with 25 
copperplates engraved from drawings by 
himself. The letterpress is explanatory of 
three only of the twenty-five plates, and the 
remainder never appeared. The manuscript, 
along with the drawings, was apparently in 
the sale of Sir Charles Frederick's library in 
July 1786, lot 1257 (Catalogue, p. 42). In the 
second essay the author mentions another 
work, as ' nearly ready,' ' An Essay towards 
illustrating the History, Chronology, and My- 
thology of the Ancient Egyptians, from the 
earliest ages on record, till the Dissolution of 
their Empire, near the Times of Alexander.' 
It was not, however, completed until 6 July 
1741. By that time Gordon had resigned his 
secretaryships. He was married, and no doubt 




found his income insufficient. Whiston says 
that Gordon having been found deficient in 
his accounts was dismissed from the Society 
for the Encouragement of Learning, and his 
effects seized on. However this may be, he 
sailed for South Carolina in August 1741, as 
secretary to James Glen, F.S.A., the newly 
appointed governor of that province. There 
he eventually prospered. From the recorded 
copy of a deed still extant at Charleston it 
appears that one Hamerton, the registrar of 
the province, farmed out his office to Gordon, 
and by this deed appointed him his attorney 
to transact all the business and receive all the 
fees of the office. There is also among the 
recorded conveyances one of a large lot of 
land in Charleston to him, dated 28 March 
1746 ; and in his will he devised to his son 
and daughter a lot of land in Ausonborough, 
South Carolina, and all the houses erected 
thereon. He still kept up a desultory cor- 
respondence with Sir John Clerk (SiTTKELEY, 
i. 439, iii. 434), to whom he confessed himself 
' vastly weary ' of colonial life. To the Royal 
Society he sent an elaborate description of 
the natural history of South Carolina, which 
was not read until 25 May 1758 (ib. iii. 
476). Nor was it printed in the ' Philo- 
sophical Transactions.' On 22 Aug. 1754 
Gordon, ' being sick and weak of body,' made 
his will at Charleston. To his son, Alexander, 
an attorney of Charleston, he bequeathed his 
own portrait, painted by himself, together 
with other of his paintings. He also strictly 
enjoined him to publish his manuscript ' Essay 
towards illustrating the History of ... the 
Ancient Egyptians.' The essay was never 
printed, and is preserved in the British Mu- 
seum, Addit. MS. 8834. having been pur- 
chased in March 1831. Gordon's wife is no1 
mentioned in his will. He died before 23 July 
1755, when the devisees under his will ex- 
ecuted a conveyance of land in South Carolina 
His daughter, Frances Charlotte Gordon, ap- 
pears to have been married, on 30 May 1763 
to John Troup, a Charleston attorney. None 
of his descendants are now known to survive 
in South Carolina. The traditions of the 
Penicuick family represent Gordon as a grave 
man, of formal habits, tall, lean, and usually 
taciturn. Beaupre Bell [q. v.] made a bust 
of him after an original given by Gordon to 
Sir Andrew Fountaine's niece (NICHOLS, Lit. 
Anecd. v. 280). 

The ' Itinerarium,' the vade mecum of all 
Roman antiquaries of that day, was a fa- 
vourite with Sir Walter Scott, who has im- 
mortalised it in 'The Antiquary' as that 
prized folio which Jonathan Oldbuck undid 
from its brown paper wrapper in the Hawes 
fly or Queensferry diligence. 

[Wilson and Laing's Papers in Proceedings of 
Society of Antiquaries of Scotland, x. 363-82 ; 
Wilson's Alexander Gordon, the Antiquary ; 
Chalmers's Biog. Diet., xvi. 104-5; Notes and 
Queries, 2nd ser. vii. 514, viii. 279 ; Addit. MSS., 
4308, 4046, 6190, 6211, f. 51.] G. G. 

L815), lieutenant-colonel, was third son of 
eorge Gordon, lord Haddo, and grandson 
of George Gordon, third earl of Aberdeen. 
His mother was Charlotte, youngest daugh- 
ter of William Baird of Newbyth, and sister 
of Sir David Baird. He was brother of 
George Hamilton Gordon, fourth earl of Aber- 
deen [q. v.], of the Right Hon. Sir Robert 
Gordon, diplomatist [q. v.], and of Lieu- 
tenant-colonel the Hon. Sir Charles Gordon, 
42nd highlanders, who died at Geneva 30 Sept. 
1835 (see Gent. Mag. new ser. iv. 667). He 
was born in 1786, educated at Eton, and in 
1803 was appointed ensign in the 3rd foot 
guards (now Scots guards), in which he 
became captain and lieutenant- colonel on 
23 Aug. 1813. He served as aide-de-camp 
to his maternal uncle, General Sir David 
Baird [q. v.], at the recapture of the Cape of 
Good Hope in 1806, and to General Beres- 
ford with the force sent from the Cape to the 
VISCOUNT]. He was employed by Beresford 
to treat with the Spanish authorities at 
Buenos Ayres. Afterwards he was again 
aide-de-camp to Baird at the capture of 
Copenhagen in 1807, and in Spain in 1808-9, 
including the battle of Corunna. In 1810 
he was appointed aide-de-camp to Lord Wel- 
lington, in which capacity his brother Charles, 
then likewise a subaltern in the 3rd foot 
guards, also was employed for a time. Gordon 
served throughout the Peninsular campaigns. 
He brought home the despatches announcing 
the fall of Ciudad Rodrigo, and was frequently 
mentioned in the despatches on other occa- 
sions (see GTTRWOOD, vols. iii. iv. and v.) He 
received ten medals for general actions, and 
was made K.C.B. He was aide-de-camp to 
the Duke of Wellington in Belgium, and 
received a mortal wound (thigh shattered) 
while rallying a battalion of Brunswickers, 
near La Have Sainte, on 18 June 1815. He 
died a few hours after. Wellington alludes 
to him as an officer of great promise and a 
serious loss to the army (ib. \\\\. 154). Gordon 
appears to have been a great favourite in 
Brussels, and the principal residents in the 
city desired to bear the cost of the column 
erected to his memory on the field of Water- 
loo by his surviving sister and brothers. 

[Foster's Peerage, under 'Aberdeen;' Gur- 
wood's Wellington Desp. iii. 536, 538, 578, iv. 




527, 555, v. 298, 447, 496, viii. 150, 154; Inscrip- 
tions sur les Monuments a Waterloo (Brussels, 
1838).] H. M. C. 

OF GOKDON (1745 P-1827), was the eldest son 
of Cosmo George Gordon, third duke (who 
was made K.T. for his loyalty in 1746), by 
his wife and kinswoman, the Lady Catherine 
Gordon, only daughter of the second Earl of 
Aberdeen. He was born about 1745, and 
succeeded to the dukedom on the death of 
his father in 1752. The widowed duchess, 
of whom Horace Walpole tells a ridiculous 
story (Letters, ii. 383), remarried Major 
(afterwards General) Staates Long Morris. 
When the elder Pitt added numerous high- 
land regiments to the army in 1757-00, Morris 
raised on the Gordon estates a corps known 
as the 89th Gordon Highlanders, which went 
to India under Major (afterwards Sir) Hector 
Monro, and did good service in various wars 
there until 1765, when it was sent home and 
disbanded. The youthful duke, then at Eton, 
was appointed captain in the regiment, but 
remained behind and made the ' grand tour.' 
In 1761 he was elected one of the sixteen re- 
presentative peers of Scotland, and in 1767 
married his first wife, Jane Maxwell [see 
GOKDON, JANE, DUCHESS], who bore him two 
sons and five daughters. At the time of his 
first marriage the duke was reputed one of the 
handsomest young men of his day, and was 
described by Lord Kaimes as the greatest sub- 
ject in Britain in regard not only of the ex- 
tent of his rent-roll, but of the number of per- 
sons depending on his rule and protection. 
He caused Gordon Castle to be rebuilt from 
the plans of Baxter of Edinburgh. In 1784, 
in consideration of his descent from Henry 
Howard, last earl of Norfolk, the English 
titles of Earl of Norfolk and Lord Gordon of 
Huntley, Gloucestershire, were revived in his 
person. He was made K.T., lord keeper of 
the great seal of Scotland, and lord-lieutenant 
of Aberdeenshire. He raised two regiments 
of fencible infantry at his own cost, the Nor- 
thern fencibles, raised during the American 
war and disbanded at its close, and the Nor- 
thern or Gordon fencibles, raised in 1793 and 
disbanded in 1799. The latter corps when 
stationed in Kent was reviewed by George III 
in Hyde Park, being the first highland regi- 
ment seen in London since the review of the 
Black Watch in 1743. 

In 1812 the duchess Jane, who for years 
had been bitterly estranged from her husband, 
died in London. In 1820 the duke married 
Mrs. Jane Christie of Fochabers, by whom he 
had previously had a large family. She died 
without further issue in 1824. The duke died 
on 17 June 1827, and was succeeded by his 

son George, fifth and last duke [q. v.] The 
fourth duke was a supporter of the Pitt ad- 
ministration, and voted with the ministers on 
the regency question. He appears to have 
been an easy-going man, caring chiefly for 
rural pursuits and field-sports. He intro- 
duced semaphores on his estates to give notice 
of the movements of the deer. lie was one 
of the last in Scotland to keep hawks. He 
was noted for his breeds of deerhounds and 
setters. He was the writer of the comic song 
' There is Cauld Kail in Aberdeen,' and he 
encouraged the musical genius of his butler, 
Marshall, called by Burns ' the first composer 
of strathspeys of the age.' 

[Anderson's Scottish Nation, vol. ii. ; Gent. 
Mag. bcxxii. pt. i. 490. Particulars of the 89th 
Highlanders and of the Gordon fencible regi- 
ments will be found in D. Stewart's Scottish 
Highlanders, ii. 80-5, 258-60, 347, 366-7, and 
of the Gordon estates in the Ordnance Gazetteer 
of Scotland under ' Gordon Castle.'] H. M. C. 

GORDON, ANDREW (1712-1751), 
natural philosopher, a descendant of the an- 
cient house of the Dukes of Gordon, born at 
Cofforach, Angusshire, on 15 June 1712, was 
educated at Ratisbon, and afterwards tra- 
velled in Austria, Italy, and France. On his 
return to Ratisbon he took the habit of the 
order of St. Benedict in the Scotch monas- 
tery there, and in due course he was ordained 
priest. He subsequently studied law at Salz- 
burg, and in 1737 he was appointed professor 
of philosophy in the university of Erfurt. 
His zeal in the cause of modern science 
aroused against him the enmity of many ad- 
herents of the old school, whom he attacked 
in a number of learned dissertations. He 
gained for himself a European reputation by 
his experiments in electricity. He was the 
first electrician who used a cylinder instead 
of a globe. His cylinders were eight inches 
long and four inches in diameter. They were 
made to turn with a bow, and the whole in- 
strument was portable. Instead of using a 
cake of rosin, he insulated by means of a 
frame furnished with a network of silk. He 
was enabled to excite the electricity of a cat 
so strongly that the force, communicated by 
iron chains to spirit of wine, set it on fire. In 
recognition of his scientific acquirements he 
was elected a correspondent of the Academy 

j of Sciences of Paris. He died on 22 Aug. 1751. 
His most remarkable works are : 1. 'Pro- 
gramma de studii Philosophici Dignitate et 

j Utilitate,' Erfurt, 1737, 4to. 2. ' De Concor- 
dandis Mensuris,' Erfurt, 1742, 4to. 3. ' Phae- 
nomena Electricitatis exposita,' Erfurt, 1744, 
8vo ; also published in German. 4. ' Philo- 
sophia Utilis et Jucunda,' Ratisbon, 1745 




3 vols. 8vo. 5. ' Unpartheyische Nachricht 
von dem Ursprunge des jetzigen Krieges in 
Grosbritannien, in einem Briefe vorgetragen,' 
Strasburg, 1745, 4to. 6. ' Dissertatio de Spec- 
tris,' Erfurt, 1746, 4to. 7. ' Varia ad Philo- 
sophise Mutationem spectantia,' Erfurt, 1749, 
4to. 8. ' Physicse Experimentalis Elementa,' 
Erfurt, 1751-2, 2 vols. 8vo. 

[Adelung'sGelehrten-Lexikon,ii.l527; Priest- 
ley's Hist, of Electricity, 1775, i. 88, 159.] 

T. C. 

1886), inspector-general of hospitals, studied 
medicine at Edinburgh, where he graduated 
M.D. in 1834. He entered the army as 
assistant-surgeon in 1836, served with the 
53rd regiment in the Sutlej campaign of 
1846, and in the Punjaub campaign of 1848-9 
with the 24th regiment. He became surgeon 
in 1848, and surgeon-major in 1854. In the 
Crimea he was principal medical officer of 
the 2nd division throughout the siege of 
Sebastopol, and was made deputy-inspector- j 
general of hospitals (1856), C.B., and a knight | 
of the Legion of Honour. In 1857 he served j 
as principal medical officer with the expedi- j 
tionary force to China, and in the Oudh cam- I 
paign of 1858-9. He became inspector-gene- 
ral in 1867, and retired in 1870. He was also 
honorary surgeon to the queen. He died at 
West Hoathley, Sussex, on 3 Aug. 1886. 

[Hart's Army List ; Brit. Med. Journ.] 

C. C. 

ABOYNE (d. 1681), was fourth son of George, 
second marquis of Huntly [q. v.] He was little 
more than a child when his father and eldest 
brother were carried prisoners to Edinburgh 
in 1639, and still young when his father was 
executed ten years afterwards. The eldest 
son of the family had been killed in 1645 by a 
random shot when pursuing the defeated cove- 
nanters at the battle of Alford. The second 
son escaped to France, where he died of grief 
on hearing that Charles I had been executed. 
Lewis, the third son, called ' the plague of 
Moray,' from the predatory habits of his fol- 
lowers, represented the family, but did not 
inherit the estates, which were occupied for 
the parliamentary party by the Earl of Argyll. 
In 1650 Charles II landed at Spey mouth and 
passed a night in Gordon Castle, which he 
found uninhabited. The estates were all in 
a neglected condition. Charles was crowned 
at Scone on 1 Jan. 1651, and in a parlia- 
ment held at Perth on 5 March issued a 
proclamation restoring Lewis Gordon, third 
marquis of Huntly, to his honour and estates. 
The defeat at Worcester made this procla- 

mation unavailing, and the family still con- 
tinued to be in a distressed condition. Lewis 
lingered in exile on the continent and died 
in 1653, after which only a thousand crowns 
yearly were allowed to his widow for the 
support of herself and her children. After 
the Restoration in 1660 George Gordon, son 
of Lewis, obtained his title and estates as 
Marquis of Huntly, and on 10 Sept. 1660 
his uncle, Lord Charles, received a peerage 
with the title of Lord Gordon of Strathavon 
and Glenlivat and Earl of Aboyne, by patent 
to him and the heirs male of his body. In 
1661 he had a charter under the great seal 
of the whole lands and lordship of Aboyne, 
Aberdeenshire. As a catholic he was excluded 
from public life, and his time was occupied in 
the improvement of his estate, including the 
erection of Aboyne Castle, which occupied six 
years in building. He married Elizabeth Lyon, 
daughter of John, second earl of Kinghorn, 
and, leaving a family, died in March 1681. 

[Douglas's Peerage, pp. 24-5 ; Gordon's Hist, 
of the Antient, Noble, and Illustrious Family of 
Gordon, ii. 257, 277; A Concise Hist, of the 
Antient and Illustrious House of Gordon, pp. 198, 
199, 249, 257, 261, 262, 265 ; Shaw's Hist, of 
the Province of Moray, i. 56-9 ; Collections for 
a Hist, of the Shires of Aberdeen and Banff 
(Spalding Club), p. 587.] J. T. 

ABOYNE (d. 1702), succeeded his father, 
Charles Gordon [q. v.], as second Earl of 
Aboyne in 1681, but for many years lived in 
seclusion. On 27 July 1698 he offered to take 
his place in the Scottish parliament, when an 
objection was raised that he had been bred and 
continued to be a professed papist. Aboyne 
publicly declared in parliament that he had 
embraced the protestant religion. This state- 
ment was corroborated by the president of 
parliament and by other members. The earl 
was allowed accordingly to take his seat. He 
married his cousin, Elizabeth Lyon, second 
daughter of Patrick, third earl of Strathmore 
and Kinghorn, and, leaving one son and three 
daughters, died in April 1702. 

[Douglas's Peerage, pp. 24, 25 ; Hist, of the 
Family of Gordon ; Concise Hist, of the House 
of Gordon.] J. T. 

GORDON, SIR CHARLES (1756-1835), 
governor of St. Lucia, third son of Charles 
Gordon of Abergeldie, Perthshire, by his wife 
Alison, daughter of David Hunter of Barside, 
and widow of one Paterson, was born in 1756. 
He assisted in raising men for the 71st Eraser 
highlanders, formed at Glasgow during the 
early part of the American war, by Lieute- 
nant-general Simon Eraser, master of Lovat 
[q. v.J He was appointed to a lieutenancy 




in the regiment in April 1776, accompanied 
it to America, and on 8 Jan. 1778 was pro- 
moted to a company in the 26th Cameronians. 
That regiment arrived in England from New 
York, in a skeleton state, in February 1780. 
Gordon became regimental major, and ob- 
tained a brevet lieutenant-colonelcy on 
17 April 1783. 

In 1787 French intrigues in Holland led 
to an invasion, without declaration of war, 
of a Prussian army, under the Duke of Bruns- 
wick, which entered that country on 13 Sept. 
1787, and occupied Amsterdam on behalf of 
the stadtholder on 10 Oct. From two letters, 
now in the British Museum, addressed by 
him to the Marquis of Carmarthen, the first 
of which is dated Brunswick, 4 Jan. 1788 
(Add. MS. 28063, fol. 7), Gordon appears to 
have accompanied the Duke of Brunswick, 
who, he says, was mortified ' at my return to 
him unrewarded after my services in the late 
campaign.' Gordon appears to have been re- 
called, as in the second letter, dated 28 Nov. 
1788 (ib. fol. 322), he complains of his in- 
ability to obtain an interview with the mar- 
quis, on the faith of whose assurances ' I gave 
up my continental connection and thoughts 
of entering a foreign service, and accepted 
what you were pleased to offer me, the lieu- 
tenant-colonelcy of the 41st foot.' The 41st 
foot, originally a corps of invalids, had been 
reformed as an ordinary line regiment on 
25 Dec. 1 787, the date of Gordon's appoint- 
ment to it as lieutenant-colonel. A third 
letter from Gordon to Carmarthen, by that 
time (fifth) duke of Leeds, dated Dresden, 
3 April 1790 (ib. 28065, fol. 255), contains 
an application for leave to attend the Duke 
of Brunswick in the forthcoming campaign. 
The duke wished to have him as aide-de- 
camp, and ' was good enough to say that I 
was in some degree planner and conductor 
of the capture of Amstelveen.' Amstelveen 
was regarded as the key of the defences of 
Amsterdam, and had been seized through the 
activity of Gordon in the campaign of 1787. 
Gordon appears to have accompanied the 
Duke of Brunswick as British military com- 
missioner in the campaigns of 1791-2. The 
' London Gazette' of October 1790 notified 
his appointment, in recognition of his ser- 
vices ' under the Duke of Brunswick in the 
late campaign in Holland,' as knight of the 
Prussian order of Military Merit, which, like 
other foreign orders of chivalry previous to 
1814, carried knightly rank in England as 
well as in other countries. Towards the end 
of 1793 a large expedition was despatched 
against the French West Indies possessions, 
under command of General Sir Charles Grey 
{GKEY, CHAKLES, first earl Grey [q. v.]), and 

Admiral Jervis. The brigadiers were Pres- 
cott, Francis Dundas [q. v.], and Gordon, still 
lieutenant-colonel 41st foot, who was placed 
in temporary command of a brigade, pending 
the arrival of the Duke of Kent from Canada. 
Gordon commanded the attack on Cas de Na- 
vire, at the capture of Martinique, and was 
thanked in general orders. He was employed 
at the capture of St. Lucia, and was appointed 
governor of that island, and received the rank 
of brigadier-general. Difficulties and disputes 
as to prize-rights in property in the captured is- 
lands led to the most unfounded charges of con- 
fiscation and extortion against the sea and land 
commanders of the expedition (see COOPER 
WILLYAMS'S Account}. Against Gordon like 
accusations proved either better founded or 
more successful. Formal complaints were 
made against him, in his capacity of governor 
of St. Lucia, of extortion, and of taking bribes 
from disaffected persons to allow them to 
remain in the island, and afterwards breaking 
faith with them. A general court-martial, 
under the presidency of General Prescott, was 
ordered to assemble on 25 July 1794 for the 
investigation of these charges. The fever 
that wrought so much havoc among the troops 
was then raging, and 'the court-martial was 
twice dissolved by the deaths of the majority 
of the members. By the expedient of detail- 
ing eighteen members in place of twelve, the 
legal quorum, the proceedings were at last 
brought to a conclusion. Gordon was found 
guilty, and sentenced to refund the money 
and to be cashiered. In consequence of his 
past services and circumstances, disclosed on 
the court-martial, he was allowed to receive 
the value of his commissions (ib. Appendix). 
Gordon survived his dismissal more than forty 
years. He appears to have been in Holland, 
and in communication with the British mi- 
nistry, just after the peace of Amiens (see 
BRENTON, Life of Earl St. Vincent, ii. 146). 
He died at Ely Place, London, 26 March 1835, 
at the age of seventy-nine. 

[Burke's Landed Gentry; Stewart's Sketches 
of Scottish Highlanders, with a Hist, of the High- 
land Regiments, vol. ii. ; Pierre De Witt's Une 
Invasion Prussienne en Hollande en 1787 (Paris, 
1886, 8vo), wherein Gordon is wrongly described 
as in the Scots Brigade in the service of Hol- 
land ; Malmesbury Correspondence ; the Rev. J. 
Cooper Willyams's (chaplain to H.M.S. Boyue) 
Account of the Campaign in the West Indies in 
1794 (London, 1795, fol.); Gent. Mag. Ix. (ii.) 
961, new ser. iii. 575.] H. M. C. 

as CHINESE GORDON (1833-1885), major- 
general, C.B., royal engineers, fourth son of 
Lieutenant-general Henry "William Gordon, 
royal artillery, and Elizabeth, daughter of 




Samuel Enderby of Groom's Hill, Blackheath, 
was born at Woolwich on 28 Jan. 1833. He 
was sent to school at Taunton in 1843, 
and entered the Royal Military Academy 
at Woolwich in 1848. He obtained a com- 
mission in the royal engineers on 23 June 
1852, and, after the usual course of study at 
Chatham, was quartered for a short time at 
Pembroke Dock. In December 1854 he re- 
ceived his orders for the Crimea, and reached 
Balaklava on 1 Jan. 1855. As a young engi- 
neer subaltern serving in the trenches, his 
daring was conspicuous, while his special j 
aptitude for obtaining a personal knowledge 
of the movements of the enemy was a matter 
of common observation among his brother 
officers. He was wounded on 6 June 1855, 
and was present at the attack of the Redan 
on 18 June. On the surrender of Sebastopol 
Gordon accompanied the expedition to Kin- 
burn, and on his return was employed on the 
demolition of the Sebastopol docks. For 
his services in the Crimea Gordon received 
the British war medal and clasp, the Turkish 
war medal, and the French Legion of Honour. 
In May 1856, in company with Lieutenant 
(now Major-general) E. R. James, R.E., he 
joined Colonel (now General Sir) E. Stan- 
ton, R.E., in Bessarabia, as assistant com- 
missioner for the delimitation of the new 
frontier line. This duty was completed in 
April 1857, and he was then sent with Lieu- 
tenant James in a similar capacity to Erze- 
roum, where Colonel (now General Sir) Lin- 
torn Simmons was the English commissioner 
for the Asiatic frontier boundary. The work 
was accomplished by the following October, 
when Gordon returned to England. 

In the spring of 1858 he and Lieutenant 
James were sent as commissioners to the 
Armenian frontier to superintend the erec- 
tion of the boundary posts of the line they 
had previously surveyed. This was finished 
in November, and 'Gordon returned home, 
having acquired an intimate knowledge of 
the people of the districts visited. 

On 1 April 1859 Gordon was promoted 
captain, and about the same time appointed 
second adjutant of the corps at Chatham, a 
post he held for little more than a year, for, in 
the summer of 1860, he joined the forces of Sir 
James Hope Grant operating with the French 
against China. He overtook the allied army 
at Tientsin, and was present in October at 
the capture of Pekin and the pillage and de- 
struction of the emperor's summer palace. 
For his services in this campaign he received 
the British war medal with clasp for Pekin 
and a brevet majority in December 1862. 
Gordon commanded the royal engineers at 
Tientsin, when the British forces remained 

there under Sir Charles Staveley, and, while 
thus employed, made several expeditions into 
the interior, in one of which he explored a 
considerable section of the great wall of China. 
In April 1862 he was summoned to Shanghai 
to assist in the operations consequent upon 
the determination of Sir Charles Staveley to 
keep a radius of thirty miles round the city 
clear of the rebel Taipings. Gordon took part 
as commanding royal engineer in the storm- 
ing of Sing-poo and several other fortified 
towns, and in clearing the rebels out of 
Kah-ding. He was afterwards employed in 
surveying the country round Shanghai. 

The Taiping rebellion was of so barbarous 
a nature that its suppression had become 
necessary in the interests of civilisation. A 
force, raised at the expense of the Shanghai 
merchants, and supported by the Chinese 
government, had been for some years strug- 
gling against its progress. This force, known 
as the ' Ever Victorious Army,' was com- 
manded at first by Ward, an American, and, 
on his death, by Burgevine, also an Ameri- 
can, who was summarily dismissed ; for a 
short time the command was held by Hol- 
land, an English marine officer, but he was 
defeated at Taitsan 22 Feb. 1863. 

Li Hung Chang, governor-general of the 
Kiang provinces, then applied to the British 
commander-in-chief for the services of an 
English officer, and Gordon was authorised 
to accept the command. He arrived at Sung- 
Kiong and entered on his new duties as a 
mandarin and lieutenant-colonel in the 
Chinese service on 24 March 1863. His force 
was composed of some three to four thousand 
Chinese officered by 150 Europeans of almost 
every nationality and often of doubtful cha- 
racter. By the indomitable will of its com- 
mander this heterogeneous body was moulded 
into a little army whose high-sounding title 
of ' ever victorious ' became a reality, and in 
less than two years, after thirty-three engage- 
ments, the power of the Taipings was com- 
pletely broken and the rebellion stamped out. 
The theatre of operations was the district of 
Kiangsoo, lying between the Yang-tze-Kiang 
river in the north and the bay of Hang-chow 
in the south. When Gordon assumed com- 
i mand the rebels were besieging Chanzu. He 
at once advanced on Fushan, and after bom- 
bardment carried the town by assault, creat- 
ing a panic among the rebels which led them 
j to abandon the siege of Chanzu. He next 
| captured Taitsan on 1 May, garrisoned by ten 
j thousand men, after a severe fight of two days. 
I He replenished his army by enlisting the cap- 
! tured rebels, and to fill the vacancies caused 
i by the dismissal of some of his officers for mis- 
i conduct he was able to secure the services of 




some non-commissioned officers of the British 
force quartered at Shanghai. At the end of 
May he attacked Quinsan,t he Taiping arsenal, 
and, by a bold strategic movement, cut the line 
of its communication with the great city of 
Soo-chow, and captured it, taking eight hun- 
dred prisoners. A large number of rebels were 
killed, and many fugitives were slain by the 
exasperated country people. Gordon then 
established his headquarters at Quinsan, as 
being further away from the demoralising 
influences of Shanghai. The maintenance of 
discipline was a perpetual struggle, and the 
change of headquarters caused a mutiny which 
was only quelled by shooting the ringleader 
on the spot. Before the summer of 1863 was 
over, Gordon captured Kahpoo, Wokong, and 
Patachiaow, on the south of Soo-chow, and, 
sweeping round to the north, secured Leeku, 
Wanti, and Fusaiqwan, so that by October 
Soo-chow was completely invested. On 
29 Nov. the outworks were captured by as- 
sault, and the city surrendered on 6 Dec. j 
Gordon was always in front in all these j 
storming parties, carrying no other weapon 
than a little cane. His men called it his 
' magic wand,' regarding it as a charm that j 
protected his life and led them on to victory, i 

When Sco-chow fell Gordon had stipulated i 
with the Governor-general Li for the lives of j 
the Wangs (rebel leaders). They were trea- 
cherously murdered by Li's orders. Indig- 
nant at this perfidy, Gordon refused to serve 
any longer with Governor Li, and when on 
1 Jan. 1864 money and rewards were heaped 
upon him by the emperor declined them all, 
saying tha,t he received the approbation of 
the emperor with every gratification, but re- 
gretted most sincerely that, ' owing to the cir- 
cumstances which occurred since the capture 
of Soo-chow, he was unable to receive any 
mark of his majesty the emperor's recognition.' 
The imperial decree conferring on Gordon an 
order of the first rank and a gift of 10,000 taels 
of silver in considerat ion of his services at Soo- 
chow was presented to the British Museum 
in 1886 by Gordon's brother, Sir Henry Wil- 
liam Gordon, and is now on exhibition in the 
manuscript department, together with a map 
of the districts round Soo-chow, drawn by 
Gordon, and marked with the dates of his 
successful engagements. 

After some months of inaction it became 
evident that if Gordon did not again take the 
field the Taipings would regain the rescued 
country. On the urgent representations of 
the British envoy at Pekin, Governor Li was 
compelled to issue a proclamation exonerat- 
ing Gordon from all complicity in the mur- 
der of the Wangs. Gordon then reluctantly 
consented to continue his services, on the 

distinct understanding that in any future 
capitulation he should not be interfered with. 
In December 1863 a fresh campaign was 
commenced, and during the following months 
no fewer than seven towns were captured or 
surrendered. Li February 1864 Yesing and 
Liyang were taken, but at Kintang Gordon 
met wit ha re verse and was himself wounded 
for the first time. He nevertheless continued 
to give his orders until he had to be carried 
to his boat. After some other mishaps he 
carried Chan-chu-fu by assault on 27 April. 
The garrison consisted of twenty thousand 
men, of whom fifteen hundred were killed. 
This victory not only ended the campaign but 
completely destroyed the rebellion, and the 
Chinese regular forces were enabled to occupy 
! Nankin in the July following. The large 
money present offered to Gordon by the em- 
peror was again declined, although he had 
spent his pay in promoting the efficiency of his 
force, so that he wrote home : ' I shall leave 
China as poor as when I entered it.' The em- 
peror, however, bestowed upon him the yellow 
jacket and peacock's feather of a mandarin 
of the first class, with the title of Ti-Tu, the 
highest military rank in China, and a gold 
medal of distinction of the first class. The 
merchants of Shanghai presented him with 
an address expressing their admiration of his 
conduct of the war. 

On his return home in the beginning of 
1865 he was made a C.B., having previously 
received his brevet as lieutenant-colonel in 
February 1864. In September 1865 he was 
appointed commanding royal engineer at 
Gravesend, and for the next six years carried 
out the ordinary duties of the corps, superin- 
tending the construction of the forts for the 
defence of the Thames. During this quiet and 
uneventful period of routine work he devoted 
his spare time to the poor and sick of the neigh- 
bourhood, stinting himself that he might have 
larger means wherewith" to relieve others. 
He took special interest in the infirmary and 
the ragged schools. He took many of the boys 
from the schools into his own house, starting 
them in life by sending them to sea, and he 
continued to watch the future progress of his 
' kings,' as he called them, with never-failing 

In October 1871 Gordon was appointed 
British member of the international commis- 
sion at Galatz for the improvement of the 
navigation of the Sulina mouth of the Danube 
in accordance with the treaty of Paris. During 
his tenure of this office he accompanied Gene- 
ral Sir John Adye to the Crimea to report on 
the British cemeteries there. On his way 
back to Galatz in November 1872 he met 
Nubar Pasha at Constantinople, who sounded 




him as to his succeeding Sir Samuel Baker in 
the Soudan. The following year Gordon 
visited Cairo on his way home, and on the 
resignation of Sir Samuel Baker was ap- 
pointed governor of the equatorial provinces 
of Central Africa, with a salary of 10,000/. 
a year. He declined to receive more than 

Gordon went to Egypt in the beginning of 
1874, and left Cairo in February for Gondo- 
koro, the seat of his government, travelling 
by the Suez-Suakin-Berber route. He reached 
Khartoum on 13 March, stopped only a few 
days to issue a proclamation and make ar- 
rangements for men and supplies, then, con- 
tinuing his journey, arrived at Gondokoro 
on 16 April. The garrison of Gondokoro at 
this time did not dare to move out of the 
place except in armed bands; but, in the 
course of a year, the confidence of the natives 
had been gained, the country made safe, eight 
stations formed and garrisoned, the govern- 
ment monopoly of ivory enforced, and suffi- 
cient money sent to Cairo to pay all the ex- 
penses of the expedition. At the close of the 
year, having already lost by sickness eight 
members of his small European staff, Gordon 
transferred the seat of government from the 
unhealthy station, Gondokoro, to Laido. By 
the end of 1875 Gondokoro and Duffli had 
been joined by a chain of fortified posts, a 
day's journey apart, the slave dealers had 
been dispersed, and a letter post organised 
to travel regularly between Cairo and the 
verge of the Albert Nyanza, over two thou- 
sand miles as the crow flies. 

Gordon had also visited Magungo, Mur- 
chison Falls, and Chibero, with a view to a 
further line of fortified posts, and he esta- 
blished, for the first time, by personal obser- 
vation the course of the Victoria Nile into 
Lake Albert. Although he had accomplished 
a great work since his arrival, his efforts to 
put down the slave trade were thwarted by 
Ismail Pasha Yacoub, governor-general of the 
Soudan, and were likely to prove abortive so 
long as the Soudan remained a distinct go- 
vernment from that of the equatorial pro- 
vinces. He therefore at the end of 1876 re- 
signed his appointment and returned to Eng- 
land. Strong pressure was put upon him by 
the khedive to return, and on 31 Jan. 1877 
he left for Cairo, where he received the com- 
bined appointment of governor-general of the 
Soudan, Darfour, the equatorial provinces, 
,nd the Red Sea littoral, on the understand- 
ing that his efforts were to be directed to the 
improvement of the means of communica- 
tion, and the absolute suppression of the slave 
trade. Gordon first visited Abyssinia, where 
Walad el Michael was giving a great deal of 

trouble on the Egyptian frontier. He settled 
the difficulty for a time, and travelled across 
country to Khartoum, where he was installed 
as governor-general 5 May. After a short stay 
there he hastened to Darfour, which was in 
revolt ; with a small force and rapid move- 
ments he quelled the rising, and, by the 
humane consideration he showed for the suf- 
fering people, won their confidence and pa- 
cified the province. Before this work was 
completely accomplished his attention was 
called away by the slave dealers, who, headed 
by Suleiman, son of the notorious Zebehr, 
with six thousand armed men, had moved on 
Dara from their stronghold Shaka. Gordon 
left Fascher on 31 Aug. 1877 with a small 
escort, which he soon outstripped, and in a 
day and a half, having covered eighty-five 
miles on a camel, entered Dara alone, to the 
surprise of its small garrison. The following 
morning, attended by a small escort, be rode 
into the rebel camp, upbraided Suleiman 
with his disloyalty, and announced his in- 
tention to disarm the band and break them up. 
Gordon's fearless bearing and strong will se- 
cured his object, and Suleiman returned with 
his men to Shaka. The rapidity of Gordon's 
movements, together with the extraordinary 
energy which he displayed in this sultry cli- 
mate, had a most beneficial effect upon the 
local chiefs of the vast territory over which 
he reigned, and the laziest officials were 
stirred to action when they heard the ' pasha 
was coming.' 

Returning to Khartoum in October, he 
left almost immediately for Berber and Don- 
gola, but at the latter place, hearing of an 
expected Abyssinian invasion, he at once 
rode back to Khartoum in five and a half 
days, and started via Kasala, for Senheit, 
where an interview with Walad el Michael 
was so unsatisfactory that he went on to Mas- 
sowah and endeavoured to communicate with 
King John,who was then campaigning against 
Menelek, king of Shoa. Having waited at 
Massowah some time in vain, Gordon left 
in June 1878 for Khartoum, via Suakin and 
! Berber, but was stopped on the way by a 
i telegram from the khedive summoning him 
to Cairo to take part in a financial enquiry. 
He reached Cairo in a fortnight, and was 
received with every mark of honour by the 
khedive, who, however, soon discovered that 
Gordon was not the man to further his finan- 
cial projects. A fortnight afterwards Gor- 
don was on his way back to his government 
by way of the Red Sea. At Zeila he made 
an eight days journey on horseback inland 
to Harrar, where he Dismissed the governor 
Raouf Pasha (who afterwards succeeded Gor- 
don as governor-general of the Soudan !) for 




tyranny, and made Yuseuf Ahmed governor 
in his stead. Returning after another ' ter- 
rible march of eight days,' he reached Zeila 
on 9 May, and at once pushed on by Masso- 
wah, Suakin, and Berber to Khartoum. Here 
his first trouble was the refusal of Osman 
Pasha, his second in command, to go to 
Darfour, so he was sent off to Cairo to be 
dealt with by the authorities there. Then, 
in July, came news of a renewed revolt of 
Suleiman and the slavers in the south, and 
of the seizure by them of the country of the 
Bahr Gazelle. Gordon despatched his trusty 
captain, the Italian, Romulus Gessi, with a 
force to the south to put down the revolt, 
while he proceeded himself to suppress risings 
in the western parts of Darfour, dealing out 
destruction to the slave traffic, and releasing 
thousands of slaves. Gessi, after a year's 
marching and fighting, succeeded in captur- 
ing Suleiman and some of the chief slave 
dealers with him. They were tried as rebels 
and shot. The suppression of the slave trade 
had thus been practically accomplished when 
on 1 July news arrived of the deposition of 
Ismail and the succession of Tewfik, which 
determined Gordon to resign his appointment. 
On- arriving at Cairo the khedive induced 
him first to undertake a mission to Abyssinia 
to prevent, if possible, an impending war 
with that country. Gordon went, saw King 
John at Debra Tabor, but could arrive at no 
satisfactory understanding with him, and was 
abruptly dismissed. On his way to Kassala 
he was made prisoner by King John's men 
and carried to Garramudhiri, where he was 
left to find his way with his little party over 
the snowy mountains to the Red Sea. He 
reached Massowah on 8 Dec. 1879, and on 
his return to Cairo the khedive accepted his 
resignation. He arrived in England early in 
January 1880. During his service under the 
khedive Gordon received both the second and 
first class of the order of the Medjidieh. 

His constitution was so much impaired by 
his sojournings in so deadly a climate that 
his medical advisers sent him to Switzerland 
to recruit. While there the Cape government 
offered him the post of commandant of the 
colonial forces, at a salary of 1,500. a year; 
but he at once declined it. He returned to 
England in April 1880, and the following 
month accompanied the Marquis of Ripon, 
the new viceroy of India, to that country as 
his private secretary. The world had hardly 
ceased wondering at the incongruity of the 
appointment when it was startled by Gordon's 
sudden resignation of it. He had accepted 
it with some misgiving, and finding himself 
unsuited to it and likely to do harm to the 
viceroy by retaining it he at once resigned, 

maintaining nevertheless his friendly rela- 
tions with Lord Ripon intact. 

Two days after his resignation he received 
a telegram from Sir Robert Hart, commis- 
sioner of customs at Pekin, inviting him to 
China to advise the Chinese government in 
connection with their ,then strained relations 
with Russia. Gordon accepted at once, and 
although difficulties were raised by the home 
authorities he reached Hongkong on 2 July, 
and went on by Shanghai and Chefoo to 
Tientsin to meet his old friend, Li Hung 
Chang, who, with Prince Kung, headed the 
peace party, while Tso and Prince Chun led 
the warlike majority. From Tientsin Gordon 
went to Pekin, and his wise and disinterested 
counsels in favour of peace at length carried 
the day. His mission satisfactorily accom- 
plished he returned to England in October 
1880, and went to Ireland during the winter 
months to ascertain for himself the merits of 
the Irish question. ' Tired of doing nothing ' 
and observing the difficulties that had arisen 
in Basutoland, Gordon telegraphed on 7 April 
1881 to offer his services to the Cape govern- 
ment for two years at 700/. a year, ' to assist in 
terminating war and in administering Basuto- 
land.' To this offer he received no reply. 
About this time Gordon volunteered to go as 
commanding royal engineer to Mauritius in 
order to prevent the retirement of Colonel 
Sir Howard Elphinstone, who had been or- 
dered thither, and was unable for private rea- 
sons to go. Gordon would accept no pecu- 
niary consideration for the exchange. He 
reached Mauritius in July 1881, and paid a 
short visit to the Seychelles to report on their 
defence in connection with that of Mauritius 
and the general scheme for the coaling sta- 
tions. On 2 Jan. 1882, on the departure of 
Major-general Murray from Mauritius, Gor- 
don, as senior officer, assumed the command of 
the troops, and was promoted major-general 
on 24 March. 

In the previous month the Cape govern- 
ment had applied to the colonial office for 
Gordon's services in almost the identical terms 
of his unanswered telegram of the year before, 
viz. ' to assist in terminating the war and in 
administering Basutoland.' The government 
telegraphed to Gordon permission to accept. 
On 2 April the Cape government telegraphed 
to him to come at once, as the position of 
matters in Basutoland was grave. On ar- 
riving at Cape Town on 3 May 1882 the only 
post offered to him was that of commandant 
of the colonial forces, which he had unhesita- 
tingly declined two years before. A reluc- 
tance to take the unpopular step of removing 
Mr. Orpen, administrator of Basutoland, in 
whom they had no confidence, prevented the 




Cape government from utilising Gordon's abandonment by the Khedive. To do this it 
services as had been intended. Gordon put i was necessary to bring away the garrisons 
on one side his own inclinations, accepted the scattered all over the country, and such of 
appointment of commandant of the colonial the Egyptian population as might object to re- 
forces, took pains to make himself acquainted main. At the interview with Lord Wolseley 
with the native question, made various re- the subject of Gordon's going to Khartoum to 
ports, upon which no action, however, was j carry out this policy was discussed, but with 
taken, and eventually, at the request of Mr. no definite result, and Gordon left next morn- 
Sauer, the secretary for native affairs, accom- j ing (16th) for Brussels, en route for the Congo, 
panied that minister to Basutoland. In Sep- i On the 17th he was summoned to London by 
tember Gordon had an interview with the 'telegram. The king of the Belgians, to whom 
chief Letsea, who was friendly to the go- he had imparted the proposals of the govern- 
vernment and antagonistic to the chief Ma- ment, while expressing great disappointment 
supha, and then, at Mr. Sauer's request, he j at the loss of his services, gave him permission 
went to see and negotiate with Masupha. He ' to go. On the 18th Gordon saw the British 
went unarmed, and was completely in the I cabinet, and the same evening left with 
chiefs power. While engaged in discussing ! Colonel Stewart for the Soudan, 
matters with Gordon, Masupha was attacked Gordon's mission was to effect the with- 
by Letsea at the direct instigation of Mr. drawal of the garrisons and to evacuate the 
Sauer. Fortunately Gordon had so far ma- j Soudan. At Cairo his functions were con- 
naged to win the confidence of Masupha that siderably extended. He was appointed, with 
the chief acquitted him of complicity in the the consent of the British government, go- 
perfidy, and allowed him to depart without vernor-general of the Soudan, and was in- 
molestation. Burning with indignation, Gor- j structed, not only to effect the evacuation of 
don hurried to King William's Town, and the country, but to take steps to leave behind 
telegraphed his resignation to the Cape go- j an organised independent government. At 
vernment. It was formally accepted by the I Khartoum, where he arrived on 18 Feb. 1884, 
premier, who seized the opportunity to record i Gordon was received with a perfect ovation, 

his conviction that Gordon's continuance in 
the post he occupied would not be conducive 
to the public interest ! Gordon left the Cape 
on 14 Oct. 1882, and on his arrival in Eng- 
land the following month found himself a 
major-general unemployed. 

The king of the Belgians, who was anxious 
to secure Gordon's services for the new Congo 
state, now wrote to him on the subject, and 
Gordon at once expressed his readiness to 
enter his majesty's service whenever the king 
might require him. As this was not likely 
to be immediately, he carried out in the mean- 
time a long-cherished desire to visit Palestine. 
He arrived at Jaffa on 16 Jan. 1883 on his 
way to Jerusalem, and spent the greater part 
of a year in the Holy Land, investigating and 
theorising on the biblical sites and holy places. 
In October he was summoned to fulfil his 
promise to the king of the Belgians, and 
reached Brussels on 1 Jan. 1884, only to learn 
that the war department refused to sanction 
his employment. He was arranging to re- 
nounce his well-earned pension and to resign 
his commission, trusting to the generosity of 
the king of the Belgians, when he was sum- 
moned to the war office on 15 Jan. by Lord 
Wolseley. The success of the Mahdi in the 
Soudan and the catastrophe to Hicks Pasha 
in November 1883 had induced the British 
government not only to decline any military 

He now kept his mind directed to the accom- 
plishment of his one object, the execution of 
his instructions. Some things that he proposed 
and some that he did evoked at the time a hos- 
tile criticism, which they would not have done 
had they been regarded solely with reference 
to this object. He proclaimed the indepen- 
denceof the Soudan; he allowed the retention 
of slaves ; he asked that Zebehr might be sent 
to him from Cairo as the only influence that 
could compete with that of the Mahdi ; he 
demanded that Turkish troops should be des- 
patched to his assistance : he represented 
the necessity of keeping open the communi- 
cation between Suakin and Berber; he sug- 
gested that Indian Moslem troops should be 
sent to Wady Haifa ; he asked permission to 
confer personally with the Mahdi, and he de- 
sired to be allowed, in case he thought it 
necessary, to take action south of Khartoum. 
None of these requests were granted, and 
when Sir Gerald Graham, after the victories 
of the first Suakin expedition, proposed to 
reach a hand to Gordon via Berber this also 
was refused. 

By the month of March, having succeeded 
in sending some two thousand five hundred 
people down the Nile into safety, Gordon 
found himself getting hemmed in by the 
Mahdi and no assistance coming from with- 
out. On 16 April 1884 his last telegram be- 

assistance to enable the Egyptian government j fore the wires were cut complained bitterly 
to hold the Soudan, but to insist upon its I of the neglect of the government. The attack 




of Khartoum began on 12 March, and from 
that time to its fall Gordon carried on the 
defence with consummate skill. His resources 
were small, his troops few, and his European 
assistants could be counted on the fingers of 
one hand, yet he managed to convert his 
river steamers into ironclads, to build new 
ones, to make and lay down land mines, to 
place wire entanglements, and to execute fre- 
quent sorties, while he kept up the spirits and 
courage of his followers by striking medals 
in honour of their bravery, and baffled a fa- 
natic and determined foe for over ten months, 
during the latter part of which the people 
who trusted him were perishing from disease 
and famine, and the grip of the enemy was 

In April the necessity of a relief expedition 
was pressed upon the government at home, but 
without avail. In May popular feeling found 
vent not only in public meetings but in the 
House of Commons, where a vote of censure 
on the government was lost by only twenty- 
eight votes. Eventually proposals were made 
to send a relief expedition from Cairo in the 
autumn, and on 5 Aug. a vote of credit for 
300,000/. was taken for ' operations for the 
relief of General Gordon should it become 
necessary, and to make certain preparations 
in respect thereof.' Even when it was de- 
cided that Lord Wolseley should take com- 
mand of a relief expedition up the Nile, hesi- 
tation continued to mark the proceedings of 
the government, and time, so valuable on 
account of the rising of the Nile, was lost. 
It was 1 Sept. before Lord Wolseley was 
able to leave England. Then everything was 
done that could be done, but the delay had 
been fatal. 

In September 1884, having driven the re- 
bels out of Berber, Gordon authorised his com- 
panions, Colonel Stewart and Frank Power 
(' Times ' correspondent), to go down the river 
in the steamer Abbas to open communication 
with Dongola. The steamer struck on a rock, 
and they were both treacherously murdered. 
Gordon was now the only Englishman in Khar- 
toum. On 30 Dec. Lord Wolseley launched 
Sir Herbert Stewart's expedition from Korti 
across the desert to Metemmeh, where, after 
two severe engagements, it arrived on 20 Jan. 
1885 under command of Sir Charles Wilson, 
Stewart having been mortally wounded. In 
order to succour the advancing force, Gordon 
had deprived himself for three months of five 
out of his seven steamers. These five steamers, 
fully armed, equipped, and provisioned, were 
in waiting, and in them were his diaries and 
letters up to 14 Dec. On that date he wrote 
to Major Watson, R.E., at Cairo, that he 
thought the game was up, and a catastrophe 

might be expected in ten days' time, and sent 
his adieux to all. On the same day he wrote 
to his sister : ' I am quite happy, thank God, 
and, like Lawrence, I have tried to do my 
duty.' His diary ended on the same day 
with : ' I have done the best for the honour 
of my country. Good-bye.' It was necessary 
for the safety of his troops that Wilson should 
first make a reconnaissance down the river 
towards Berber before going to Khartoum, 
and when he started up the river on the 24th 
the difficulties of navigation were so great 
that it was midday on the 28th before the 
goal was reached, and then only to find it in 
the hands of the Mahdi, Khartoum having 
fallen early on the 26th, after a siege of 317 

From the most accurate information since 
obtained it appears that the garrison early 
in January had been reduced to great straits 
for want of food, and great numbers of the 
inhabitants had availed themselves of Gor- 
don's permission to join the Mahdi. Omdur- 
man, opposite to Khartoum on the west bank 
of the river, fell about 13 Jan., and about 
the 18th a sortie was made, in which some 
serious fighting took place. The state of the 
garrison then grew desperate. Gordon con- 
tinually visited the posts by night as well 
as day, and encouraged the famished garri- 
son. The news of Sir Herbert Stewart's 
expedition, and the successful engagements 
it had fought on the way to Metemmeh, de- 
termined the Mahdi to storm Khartoum be- 
fore reinforcements could arrive for its relief. 
The attack was made on the south front 
at 3.30 A.M. on Monday 26 Jan. 1885. The 
defence was half-hearted, treachery was at 
work, and Gordon received no tidings of the 
assault. The rebels made good their entrance, 
and then a general massacre ensued. The 
accounts of Gordon's death are confused and 
conflicting, but they all agree in stating that 
he was killed near the gate of the palace, 
and his head carried to the Mahdi's camp. 

Intelligence of the catastrophe reached 
England on Thursday, 5 Feb. The outburst 
of popular grief, not only in this country and 
her colonies, but also among foreign nations, 
has hardly been paralleled. It was univer- 
sally acknowledged that the world had lost 
I a hero. Friday, 13 March, was observed as 
! a day of national mourning, and special ser- 
vices were held in the cathedrals and in many 
churches of the land, those at Westminster 
1 Abbey and St. Paul's being attended by the 
1 royal family, members of both houses of par- 
liament, and representatives of the naval and 
military services. Parliament voted a national 
j monument to be placed in Trafalgar Square 
i (executed by Mr. Hamo Thornycroft, R.A., 




before the fall of Kartoum,' 1885. 10. Gor- 
don's ' Diary of the Taiping Rebellion.' ed. 
A. E. Hake, 1890. 

and unveiled 15 Oct. 1888) and a sum of 
20,000/. to his relatives. A recumbent effigy 
of Gordon in bronze by Mr. Boehm, R. A., has 

been placed by the family in St. Paul's Cathe- [Corps Records; Gordon's own letters and 
dral. The corps of royal engineers erected journals as above ; A. Wilson's ' Ever Victorious 
a bronze statue of him mounted on a camel, Army,' 1868 ; Dr. Birkbeck Hill's Colonel Gor- 
by Mr. Onslow Ford, A.R. A., in their barrack don in Central Africa, 1881; Hake's Story of 
square at Chatham, and a portrait by Mr. Chinese Gordon; Col. SirW. F. Butler's Memoir 
Val Prinsep is in the Chatham mess. Me- of Gordon in Men of Action Series, 1889; C. C. 
morials are also projected in Westminster Chesney's Essays in Modern Military Biography, 
Abbey and Rochester Cathedral. More gene- I, 874 Archibald Forbes's Chinese Gordon, 1884 ; 

Colonel Sir Charles Wilson's From Korti to 
Khartoum ; Rev. R. H. Barnes's Charles George 
Gordon : a Sketch, 1885 ; Boulger's Hist, of 
China, vol. iii. 1881, &c. ; Lieutenant-general Sir 
G. Graham's Last Words with Gordon, 1887; 
H. W. Gordon's Events in the Life of Charles 
George Gordon, 1886.] R. H. V. 

ral expression was given to the people's ad- 
miration of Gordon's character by the insti- 
tution of the ' Gordon Boys' Home ' for home- 
less and destitute boys. Gordon's sister pre- 
sented to the town of Southampton her 
brother's library in March 1889. 

Gordon's character was unique. Simple- 
minded, modest, and almost morbidly retir- 
ing, he was fearless and outspoken when 

GORDON, DUKE (1739-1800), librarian, 
son of William Gordon, a weaver in the Pot- 
occasion required. Strong in will and prompt terrow, Edinburgh, was born on 20 May 1739. 
in action, with a naturally hot temper, he His father gave him his baptismal name from 
was yet forgiving to a fault. Somewhat , a clannish feeling for the Duke of Gordon, 
brusque in manner, his disposition was sin- He was educated at a school in the Cow- 
gularly sympathetic and attractive, winning gate, under Andrew Waddel, translator of 

_n i i . -ITT _ l i IYV ' T>.,~1 '_ _ 1 - il__ T*i 

all hearts. Weakness and suffering at once 
enlisted his interest. Caring nothing for 
what was said of him, he was indifferent to 
praise or reward, and had a supreme con- 

tempt for money. His whole being was 
dominated by a Christian faith at once so 

Buchanan's paraphrase of the Psalms. On 
13 March 1753 he entered the Greek class 
in the Edinburgh University under Robert 
Hunter, and became a good scholar. During 

1754 he was substitute teacher of the parish 
school of Tranent, Haddingtonshire, return- 
real and so earnest that, although his reli- I ing to the university on 4 March 1755. After 
gious views were tinged with mysticism, the j completing his course he was tutor in the 
object of his life was the entire surrender of { families of Captain John Dalrymple [q. v.J, 

himself to work out whatever he believed to 
be the will of God. 

The following epitaph has been written 
by Lord Tennyson : 
Warrior of God, man's friend, not here below, 

But somewhere dead far in the waste Soudan, 
Thou livest in all hearts, for all men know 

This earth hath borne no simpler, nobler man. 

afterwards fifth earl of Stair, and of Alexan- 
der Boswell, lord Auchinleck [q. v.] James 
Robertson, D.D., professor of oriental lan- 
guages, on being made university librarian 
(12 Jan. 1763), appointed Gordon his assist- 
ant. This office he retained under Andrew 
Dalzel [q. v.], Robertson's successor. His 
salary till 1783 was only 15/., and never ex- 

The following letters and journals of Gor- I ceeded 35/. ; he supported himself mainly 
don have been published: 1. 'Publications ! by tuition. According to his biographer, he 

of the Egyptian General Staff. Provinces of 
the Equator. Summary of letters and reports 
from the governor-general,' Cairo, 1877. 
2. 'Reflections in Palestine,' 1883. 3. 'Let- 
ters from the Crimea, the Danube, and Ar- 
menia . . . 1854 to ... 1858,' ed. D. C. 
Boulger, 1884. 4. ' General Gordon's Private 
Diary of his Exploits in China,' amplified by 
S. Mossman, 1885. 5. ' Gordon, a woman's 

was a patient, sensitive scholar, not without 
sarcastic humour. He detected three of the 
six errors in the ' immaculate ' Horace of 1744 
[see FOTTLIS, ROBERT]. On his retirement 
from duty he received (12 April 1800) the 
degree of M.A. He died unmarried on 30 Dec. 
1800, and was buried in St. Cuthbert's church- 
yard, where a monument to his memory bears 
a long Latin inscription by Dalzel. He left 

memories of him, and his letters to her from [ 500/. to the Edinburgh Infirmary, and the 

the Holy Land,' 1885. 6. 'Letters to his 
Sister, M. A. Gordon,' 1885. 7. 'Letters to 
the Rev. R. H. Barnes,' 1885. 8. ' The Jour- 
nals of ... Gordon at Kartoum,' ed. A. E. 
Hake, 1885. 9. ' General Gordon's last Jour- 
nal. A facsimile of the last of the six volumes 
of journals despatched by General Gordon, 

reversion of house property of nearly the same 
value to the poor of St. Cuthbert's. 

[Memoir by Dalzel in New Annual Register 
(for 1801), 1802, p. 47; also in Scots Magazine, 
1802 (contains valuable particulars of Scottish 
university training) ; Cat. of Edinburgh Gra- 
duates, 1858, p. 215.] A. G. 

' The Journals and other 
original MSS. connertpH with Cl^rJ < 





BARON GORDON (1814-1879), lord of appeal, 
eldest son of John Gordon, major of the 2nd 
regiment, by Catherine, daughter of Alex- 
ander Smith, was born at Inverness 10 April 
1814, and educated at the royal academy in 
that town, and at the university of Edin- 
burgh, and took his LL.B. from both the 
Glasgow and Edinburgh universities. He 
was called to the bar of Scotland in 1835, 
became a Q.C. 12 Nov. 1868, was ap- 
pointed an advocate-depute, and served as 
sheriff of Perthshire from 26 July 1858 to 
12 July 1866. He was senior counsel for 
Major Yelverton in the famous and long-con- 
tested Yelverton marriage case in July 1862. 
As solicitor-general for Scotland he was in 
office from July 1866 to 28 Feb. 1867, when 
he became lord-advocate of Scotland, which 
place he held to December 1868, and after- 
wards, on the return of his party to power 
again, from 26 Feb. 1874 to October 1876. 
Between these dates he held the office of 
dean of faculty, to which he was elected by 
the unanimous voice of his brethren of the 
bar in 1868, and resigned it in 1874. As a 
conservative he sat for Thetford, Norfolk, 
from 2 Dec. 1867 until that borough was dis- 
franchised on 11 Nov. in the following year. 
He contested the seat for the Glasgow and 
Aberdeen universities with the Right Hon. 
James Moncreiff in 1868, receiving 2,020 
votes against 2,067 given for his liberal op- 
ponent, and in the following year, on Mon- 
creiff becoming a lord of session, Gordon was 
elected to fill the vacancy. On 17 March 
1874 he was gazetted a privy councillor. On 
6 Oct. 1876 he was created, under the Appel- 
late Jurisdiction Act, a lord of appeal in or- 
dinary, with the style and title of Baron 
Gordon of Drumearn in the county of Stir- 
ling, and a salary of 6,0001. a year, thus being 
among the earliest to hold a life-peerage. He 
was a careful and accurate, if not a brilliant 
lawyer. His health did not permit him to 
give full scope to his powers in the House 
of Lords, but the judgments which he did 
give there were invariably sound and care- 
fully considered. For several years from 
1859 he was a captain of the advocates' volun- 
teer company, and was afterwards colonel of 
the 1st Edinburgh battalion. He sat in his 
pla'ce in the House of Lords until the end of 
July 1879, when, acting on the advice of his 
medical advisers, he set out for Homburg for 
the benefit of his health, but only reached as 
far as Brussels, where he died 21 Aug. 1879. 
He married in 1845 Agnes, only child of 
James Maclnnes of Auchenreoch, Stirling- 
shire, with whom he received a large for- 


[Journal of Jurisprudence, 1879, xxiii. 541-2 ; 
Times, 23 Aug. 1879, p. 11 ; Law Times, 6 Sept. 
1879, p. 340; Scotsman, 23 Aug 1879, p. 7.] 

a. c. B. 

SUTHERLAND (1765-1839). [See LEVESON- 

GORDON (1794-1864), was born in London on 
20 June 1794. Her father, Alexander Brodie, 
was a younger son of Brodie of Brodie in the 
north of Scotland. Carefully educated, the 
heiress of great wealth, and possessed of a 
handsome figure and a bright, joyous disposi- 
tion, she married on 11 Dec. 1813 George 
Gordon, marquis of Huntly, afterwards fifth 
duke of Gordon [q. v.] The marquis was 
twenty-five years older than herself. Her 
position gave her access to the best society, 
but revelations of unblushing vice in high 
quarters distressed her, and led her to study 
the Bible for solace under her grief. She 
became a most earnest believer, and after 
a time made a complete renunciation of the 
world. Becoming Duchess of Gordon in 1827, 
at the age of thirty-three, she deliberately 
began a life of earnest devotion. She became 
interested in schools, chapels, and other Chris- 
tian undertakings among her own people, and 
when in 1836 the death of her husband, with 
whom she had lived in much affection, made 
her independent, her devotion became more in- 
tense than ever. Huntly Lodge, her residence, 
was situated in Strathbogie, one of the chief 
fields of the well-known conflict between the 
church and the civil courts previous to 1843, 
when the disruption of the church of Scotland 
occurred. The duchess was an episcopalian, 
but her sympathies were with those who were 
in conflict with the civil courts, though she 
was not disposed to identify herself with their 
movement. But in 1846 her view changed. 
Believing that the church of England was 
not constituted in accordance with the mind 
of the Lord, because it had no discipline, she 
left it after a long mental conflict, and joined 
the Free church of Scotland. The leaders 
of the Free church were her personal friends, 
and often visited her house and held religious 
meetings under her roof. She came to occupy 
among evangelical Christians in Scotland the 
position that in former years had been held 
by the Countess of Leven and Viscountess 
Glenorchy. Her death took place somewhat 
suddenly at Huntly Lodge on 31 Jan. 1864, 
in her seventieth year. 

[Burke's Peerage ; Life and Letters of Elisa- 
beth, last Duchess of Gordon, by the Rev. A. 
Moody Stuart, 2nd edit. London, 1865.] 

W. G. B. 




HTTNTLY (d. 1502 ?), lord high chancellor of 
Scotland, was the eldest son of Alexander 
de Seton, lord of Gordon, and first earl of 
Huntly, by his third wife, Elizabeth, eldest 
daughter of William, lord Crichton, lord 
high chancellor of Scotland. The father, 
after receiving a grant of Strathbogie and 
other lands, and being in 1449 created Earl 
of Huntly, defeated the Earl of Crawford at 
Brechin, 18 May 1452. By his second mar- 
riage he had a son, Sir Alexander, ancestor 
of the Setons of Touch, but the succession 
to the earldom of Huntly was settled by 
charter on the issue of the third marriage, 
who took the surname of Gordon. George, 
the eldest son by this marriage, succeeded to 
the earldom and the bulk of the estates on 
the death of his father, 13 July 1470. In 
1484 he was one of the commissioners for a 
treaty of peace with England. Along with 
the Earls of Atholl and Crawford he mustered 
a strong force in 1487, and joined the standard 
of James III against the insurgent nobles. 
In the following year he and the Earl of 
Crawford were appointed lords justiciary 
north of the Forth. He suggested the con- 
ference with the nobles at Blackness, but his 
attempts at a reconciliation failed, and, not 
approving of the king's obstinacy, he retired 
to his estates. Tytler represents Huntly as 
leading, along with Atholl, the advance divi- 
sion of the royal army at the battle of Sau- 
chieburn, but he was only on the march 
southward when the battle took place. The 
probability, moreover, is that he intended 
to assist not the father, but the son, for on 
the accession of James IV immediately after- 
wards he was sworn a privy councillor, and 
empowered to exercise justice in the north 
and suppress all disorders. On 13 May 1491 
he was appointed king's lieutenant north of 
the Esk, until the king should reach the age 
of twenty-five. In connection with a scheme 
for bringing the highland regions more di- 
rectly under legal control, Huntly was ap- 
pointed in 1492 with other commissioners to 
drive out ' broken men ' from forfeited estates, 
and let them for five years to ' true men.' 
On 4 March 1498 he was appointed lord high 
chancellor (Reg. Mag. Sig. i. 2389). He was 
superseded in this office in 1501 by George, 
duke of Orkney. Apparently on this account 
he is represented by the historian of the house 
of Gordon, who states that he was buried in 
the chancel of the abbey church of Cambus- 
kenneth, as dying on 8 June 1501, but he was 
aliveon 11 July 1502 (ib. 2656), and died some 
time between that date and 30 Jan. 1502-3 
(ib. 2689). Although the fact is omitted in 
the usual books of reference, Huntly was 

married to Elizabeth Dunbar, countess of 
Moray, but was divorced from her judicio 
ecclesie (RiDDELL, Law of Scottish Peerages, 
i. 527). By this marriage he had no issue. 
On 10 March 1459 he was married to the 
Princess Annabella, daughter of James I, who 
was not the widow of the Earl of Angus as 
stated in the peerages, but had been rejected 
by Louis, count of Geneva, afterwards Duke 
of Savoy, after, in 1455, she had gone as his 
betrothed wife to France (RIDDELL, Tracts, 
Legal and Historical, p. 82). The Princess 
Annabella was on 24 July 1471 divorced from 
Huntly, on the ground that he had been 
previously married to Elizabeth Dunbar, and 
was therefore within the forbidden degrees 
of affinity, through the descent of his first 
wife from Marjory, countess of Moray, sister 
of Robert III (RIDDELL, Law of Scottish 
Peerages, i. 527). A marriage was fixed to 
take place between Huntly and Lady Eliza- 
beth Hay, daughter of William, earl of Erroll, 
on the 18th of the following August, but it 
was not solemnised till 12 May 1476. By this 
marriage he is stated to have had no issue, 
but by his marriage with the Princess Anna- 
bella to have had four sons and six daughters. 
The eldest son, Alexander [q. v.], succeeded 
to the peerage ; the second son, Adam, lord 
of Aboyne, married Elizabeth, countess of 
Sutherland, and in her right became Earl of 
Sutherland; from the third son, Sir William, 
ancestor of the Gordons of Gight, the mother 
of Lord Byron was descended ; and the fourth 
son, James Gordon of Letterfourie, was ad- 
miral of the fleet in 1513. The eldest daugh- 
ter, Katherine, married Perkin Warbeck, and, 
after residing at the court of England, where 
she was styled the ' White Rose,' married 
Sir Matthew Cradock, ancestor of the earls 
of Pembroke. 

[Crawfurd's Officers of State, pp. 55-8 ; Dou- 
glas's Scottish Peerage (Wood), i. 644-5 ; Wil- 
liam Gordon's House of Gordon ; Register of the 
Great Seal of Scotland ; John Riddell's Legal 
Tracts ; John RidJell's Inquiry into the Law and 
Practice of Scottish Peerages; Donald Gregory's 
Western Highlands.] T. F. H. 

HUNTLY (1514-1562), was the eldest son of 
John, master of Huntly (second son of Alex- 
ander, third earl of Huntly [q.v.]), by his wife 
Margaret, natural daughter of James IV and 
Margaret Drummond. He lost his father 
in his fourth year, and succeeded to the earl- 
dom on the death of his grandfather in 1524. 
From childhood he was, under the guardian- 
ship of the Earl of Angus, brought up along 
with James V, who was nearly of the same 
age. On the fall of Angus in 1528, Huntly, 
by the king's desire, was placed under the 




direction of the ablest masters. In 1535 he 
was sworn a member of the privy council. 
When the king in the following year left 
suddenly for France, Huntly was one of those 
whom he informed of the destination and 
purpose of his journey, and whom he appointed 
a council of regency until his return with his 
bride, the Princess Madeline, in May 1537. 
In the following July the Master of Forbes 
was, on the accusation of Huntly, condemned 
and executed for conspiring some years pre- 
viously to shoot the king as he passed through 
Aberdeen. Buchanan asserts that the charge 
was concocted by Huntly, and the jury cor- 
rupted by him, but there is no extant evi- 
dence bearing on the subject. About this 
time Huntly received the important appoint- 
ment of lieutenant of the north, and in 1540 
he accompanied the king in his journey to the 
western isles. In 1542 he was appointed 
captain-general of a force raised to oppose Sir 
Robert Bowes [q.v.], captain of Norham, who 
with a force of three thousand, including the 
Earl of Angus and other Scottish rebels, had 
penetrated into Teviotdale. With the assist- 
ance of Lord Home, Huntly totally defeated 
the English force at Hadden Rig on 24 Aug., 
taking Bowes and other persons of note pri- 
soners. When the Duke of Norfolk, with an 
army of thirty thousand, advanced to revenge 
the defeat, Huntly with less than ten thou- 
sand kept him at bay, not permitting him to 
advance more than two miles on the Scottish 
side of the Tweed. Being thus occupied, he 
was not present at the disaster of Solway 
Moss, the news of which had a fatal effect on 
the king. Huntly was one of the four persons 
named as regents in the king's will produced 
by Cardinal Beaton (KNOX, i. 93 ; KEITH, 
i. 64), but asserted by the Earl of Arran to 
have been forged. When the cardinal was 
arrested, 20 Jan. 1542-3, Huntly with others 
offered themselves as his surety, and de- 
manded that he should be set at liberty. 
Huntly also held a meeting at Perth to con- 
cert measures for this purpose (Angus to Lord 
Lisle, 16 March 1542-3), but finding resist- 
ance to the regent vain, he was one of the 
first of the discontented nobles to give in 
his adherence. After the escape of Bea- 
ton, he organised with him the conspiracy 
by which the infant queen and her mother 
were seized at Linlithgow and carried to 
Stirling. On a reconciliation taking place 
between Arran and Beaton, Huntly attended 
the coronation of the infant princess at Stir- 
ling on 9 Sept. He was also appointed lieu- 
tenant-general of the north and of Orkney 
and Shetland, of which position he took ad- 
vantage so as greatly to increase the power 
and wealth of his house. In 1544 he raised 

a large force, with which he crushed an in- 
surrection of the Camerons and Macdonalds 
of Clanranald ; and after the bloody conflict 
at Loch Lochy, in which the clan Fraser 
were nearly annihilated by the Macdonalds, 
he advanced into Lochaber, and inflicted 
severe punishment on the Macdonalds and 
other unruly clans. 

Afterthe murder of Cardinal Beaton, Huntly 
was, on 5 June 1546, chosen to succeed him as 
lord high chancellor (Reg. Privy Council, i. 24), 
and was also appointed a privy councillor. 
On the invasion of England by the Duke of 
Somerset in September 1547, he was one of 
the chief commanders of the forces raised to 
oppose him. To ' avoid the effusion of Christian 
blood,' he offered to ' encounter him twenty 
to twenty, ten to ten, or even man to man,' 
but Somerset declined the challenge. In 
the battle of Pinkie which followed, Huntly 
was in the command of the rear, who, accord- 
ing to Herries, ' fled at the first charge, and 
were the occasion of the ruin of the whole 
army' (Memoirs, p. 20). Huntly was one of 
those taken prisoner, and was conveyed to 
London, but in 1548 returned to Scotland. 
Knox alludes to a current rumour that he 
obtained his freedom by ' using policy with 
England ' ( Works, i. 213), and in this instance 
rumour was correct. He obtained license 
from the Duke of Somerset to depart to Scot- 
land, on promising to return in two and a 
half months (Covenant between the Duke of 
Somerset and the Earl of Huntly in ' Gordon 
Papers,' Spalding Club Miscellany, iv. 144-6) ; 
but the license was merely to cover his pro- 
ceedings in furthering the views of England, 
and he was not bound to return (Indenture, 
6 Dec. 1547-8, ib. pp. 146-8). He did not, how- 
ever, long persist in supporting the English 
policy, and at the parliament held in the 
abbey of Haddington on 1 July 1548 (Acta 
Parl. Scot. ii. 481 ) voted for the marriage of 
thePrincess Mary with the dauphin of France. 
Shortly afterwards he was made a knight of 
the Cockle (order of St. Michael) by the 
French king. Previous to this he had, on 
13 Feb. 1548-9, received a grant of the earl- 
dom of Moray, and on 26 May a charter of 
hereditary baliary of all the lands in the 
bishopric of Aberdeen. He was present at 
the trial of Adam Wallace at Edinburgh for 
heresy in 1550, and is represented by Knox 
(Works, i. 238-40) as taking a prominent 
part in the proceedings. In September of the 
same year he accompanied the queen dowager 
on a visit to her daughter in France (ib. p. 24 1 ) . 
Shortly after the queen dowager assumed 
the regency, in 1554, he fell into disgrace, 
ostensibly for remissness in quelling a re- 
bellion of the Clanranalde. After suffering 

w 2 




imprisonment in the castle of Edinburgh from 
October to March, he was forced to pay a 
heavy fine, was deprived of the governorship 
of Orkney, and, though allowed to retain the 
office of chancellor, had to deliver up the seal 
to De Roubay, a Frenchman, who was ap- 
pointed to act as vice-chancellor. The se- 
verity of the punishment inflicted on him 
can only be accounted for by jealousy of the 
extraordinary power wielded by him in the 
north. His rule there was much more for- 
midable than that of Argyll in the west, for 
it embraced a rich tract of lowland territory, 
including the city of Aberdeen, from which 
he obtained a large revenue ; and he appears 
to have made special efforts to render himself 
within his own territory practically indepen- 
dent of the crown. 

As a special friend of James V and of Car- 
dinal Beaton, Huntly was naturally biassed 
towards Catholicism ; but the severity of the 
queen regent induced him to abandon it for 
a short period at the very moment when its 
fate in Scotland was trembling in the balance. 
He kept always a watchful eye on the queen 
regent's attempts to render herself indepen- 
dent of the nobles, and build up a monarchical 
power on the model of that of France. When 
she proposed to levy a yearly taxation for the 
maintenance of a standing army, he persuaded 
the nobility to resent it, as tending to dimi- 
nish their authority and ' drawe the whole 
government of the realm to the French.' In 
the conflict with the lords of the congrega- 
tion he therefore did not take so prominent 
a part as, from his catholic sympathies, he 
would otherwise have done. When the lords 
in June 1559 were preparing to besiege the 
city of Perth, he headed a deputation to induce 
them to delay the assault ; but, as his remon- 
strances were unheeded, he left the city before 
the assault took place. Subsequently he 
headed a deputation from the queen regent to 
confer with the lords at Prestonpans. When 
the lords on 24 July signed the articles agree- 
ing to vacate Edinburgh on certain condi- 
tions, Huntly and James Hamilton, duke of 
Chatelherault, agreed to undertake to join the 
lords if the queen regent ' broke any one joyt 
of the appointment then made' (ib. p. 379). 
While the queen regent's party held Edin- 
burgh, he endeavoured to persuade the re- 
formers to permit mass to be said before and 
after their sermons, but, finding that they 
would not agree, promised that they should 
be in noway molested (ib. p. 391). Ultimately 
the reformers appear to have worked success- 
fully on his jealousy of the queen regent's 
ambition ; for in January 1559-60 he sent the 
Earl of Sutherland to promise them in his 
name all assistance (SADLER, State Papers, 

i. 685), and on the ground that the introduc- 
tion of French soldiers by her was dangerous- 
to the independence of Scotland, he with the 
Duke of Chatelherault subscribed the treaty 
of Berwick between the lords and Queen 
Elizabeth (Kirox, ii. 53). On 25 April 1560 
he joined the camp of the congregation at 
Leith (Randolph to Norfolk, 25 April, Cal. 
State Papers, Scott. Ser. i. 144), and on the 
27th signed a bond for the defence of the 
reformed doctrines and the expulsion of the 
French. He had, however, taken good care 
to stipulate that he should be continued in 
supreme authority in the north as heretofore, 
and that none of the escheated ecclesiastical 
lands within the shires of Aberdeen, Banff, 
Moray, Nairn, and Inverness should be dis- 
posed of without his consent and advice ('The 
Requests of the Earl of Huntly to the Lords/ 
printed in TYTLER'S History). The defection 
of Huntly broke the power of the queen re- 
gent, and inflicted a blow on the catholic 
cause from which it never recovered. The 
queen regent, at her deathbed interview with 
Argyll and others, asserted that but for 
Huntly she would have come sooner to an 
agreement with the lords ; but such a state- 
ment is opposed to all other evidence, and 
only indicates how deeply she was offended 
at Huntly's desertion. 

Huntly's support of the reformers was 
merely a temporary expedient to secure his 
independent authority in the north of Scot- 
land. Throckmorton, writing to Cecil 4 May 
1561, refers to his ' doubleness and covetous- 
ness : ' and while seeming to ' approve ' of the 
mission of Lord James Stuart to the north for 
the destruction of the ' monuments of idolatry ' 
(KNOX, Works, ii. 168), it was afterwards 
proved that he had preserved at his mansion- 
house at Strathbogie the utensils of Aber- 
deen Cathedral, that they might be restored 
when Catholicism was again established. On 
the death of Francis II of France, Mary's hus- 
band, Huntly sent Leslie, afterwards bishop 
of Ross, to France, to induce Mary on her 
return to Scotland to land at Aberdeen, where 
he promised to have twenty thousand men 
at her disposal to convey her to Edinburgh 
(LESLIE, p. 294; CALDERWOOD,ii.l21). During 
the absence of Lord James Stuart in France 
Huntly also formed a plot for the seizure of 
the castle of Edinburgh ; but news of his in- 
tentions reaching the protestants, it was pre- 
vented (Ktfox, ii. 156). On the arrival of 
Mary he was chosen a lord of the privy council 
( Reg. Privy Council Scotl. i. 157), but what- 
ever encouragement he may have privately 
received from Mary and the Guises, no special 
marks of favour were publicly bestowed on 
him. Apparently Mary had meanwhile re- 




solved to place herself so entirely under the 
guidance of her brother, Lord James Stuart, 
as to demonstrate that the schemes of Huntly 
would receive from her no countenance. 
When the question in regard to the public 
celebration of the mass in Holyrood was before 
the council, Huntly expressed his willingness, 
if the queen said the word, to set up the mass 
in three shires (Randolph to Cecil, 24 Sept. 
1561, in KEITH, ii. 86) ; but so far from encou- 
raging his proposal, she agreed that in future 
the services in her chapel at Holyrood should 
be private. In addition to this a blow was 
struck at the power of Huntly, when, on Lord 
Erskine objecting to Lord James Stuart being 
created Earl of Mar, the earldom of Moray, 
which Huntly had for some time held infor- 
mally under the crown, was secretly bestowed 
on Lord James. The motives which actuated 
Mary in her policy towards Huntly have been 
the subject of much dispute, the question 
being as to how far she was merely acting a 
part, and as to how far Huntly was aware 
that she was doing so. There can be no 
doubt that the Guises, whether to punish 
him or not, had been playing on Huntly's 
ambition, and had encouraged him to oppose 
Moray and the reformers, in the hope that a 
match might be made between Mary and his 
son, Sir John Gordon. The infatuation which 
characterised the son's conduct he himself 
attributed to the madness of his love, but 
there is no evidence to show whether or not 
Mary had given him direct personal encou- 
ragement. In June 1562 Sir John had been im- 
prisoned for severely wounding Lord Ogilvy 
in the streets of Edinburgh, but had made 
his escape and fled to the north. Mary, ac- 
companied by Lord James Stuart, set out on 
her northern progress in the following August. 
Though Lord James had previously to setting 
out received a patent of the earldom of Moray, 
he did not assume it till he was in Huntly's 
dominions. Beyond entering on possession of 
the earldom of Moray, there is no proof that 
he desired further to interfere with Huntly. 
At Aberdeen Mary was met by the Countess 
of Huntly, who exerted her utmost skill to 
win Mary's favour, and begged her to pardon 
her son's indiscretion in making his escape 
from prison ; but Mary was peremptory in in- 
sisting that before this could be granted he 
must show his contrition by returning to 
ward in Stirling. Sir John allowed himself 
to be placed under arrest, but shortly after- 
wards, making his escape from his guards, 
gathered a force of one thousand horse, with 
which he hovered on the track of Mary, with 
the purpose, as he afterwards admitted, of 
carrying her off, should the opportunity pre- 
sent itself. On account of Sir John's flagrant 

defiance of her authority, Mary declined the 
invitation of the Earl of Huntly to visit him 
at Strathbogie, and passed onwards to Inver- 
ness. It WHS afterwards stated and there is 
no reason to doubt the truth of the story 
that Huntly intended to have cut off Moray, 
Maitland, and Morton at Strathbogie, had his 
invitation been accepted. The light in which 
the royal progress was regarded by Huntly's 
followers was also evidenced by the fact that 
Alexander Gordon, the keeper of the castle 
of Inverness, refused to permit the queen to 
enter it until he next day received the special 
command of the Earl of Huntly to do so. 
For his contumacy he was by Moray's orders 
hanged over the battlements. On the return 
journey from Inverness an attempt was made 
to surprise some of the queen's followers at 
Cullen. Huntly was therefore summoned to 
appear before the council within six days, and 
failing to do so was denounced a rebel. When 
the queen approached Aberdeen, Huntly 
marched towards it with about eight hundred 
men. His forces were much inferior to those 
with which Moray marched to meet him, but 
Huntly had reason to suppose that the bulk 
of Moray's forces would prove treacherous. 
Without the least hesitation he therefore 
made a stand at the hill of Corrichie, about 
fifteen miles from the city. The skirmish on 
5 Nov. which followed can scarcely be termed 
a battle, for Huntlj's followers, hopelessly 
outnumbered, were at once overpowered. 
Huntly was either crushed to death, or died 
suddenly from excitement. According to 
Herries, ' being a corpulent man, he died upon 
horseback in the throng' (Memoirs, p. 66) ; but 
Randolph, who accompanied the expedition, 
states that ' without blow or stroke, being set 
on horseback before him that was his taker, 
he suddenly fell from his horse stark dead ' 
(Randolph to Cecil, 28 Oct. 1562). His son, 
Sir John, was taken prisoner, and executed 
in Aberdeen next day. Mary, on the advice 
of Moray, and to silence the rumours that 
she had countenanced Sir John in his folly, 
attended the execution. Sir John stated that 
her presence was a solace to him, as he was 
about to suffer for loving her, and Mary, on 
witnessing the execution, fainted, and had 
to be carried in utter prostration to her bed- 
chamber. While Knox admits his ignorance 
as to whether there had been ' any secret fac- 
tion and confederacy between the queen and 
the Earl of Huntly ' ( Works, ii. 346), he states 
that when the Earl of Moray sent her word 
of the victory at Corrichie, she 'glowmed' 
at the messenger, and for many days ' she 
bore no better countenance' (ib. p. 358). Sir 
Robert Gordon also asserts that the true 
occasion of the conflict at Corrichie, and of 




the troubles which happened to the Gordons, 
' was the sincere and loyal affection that they 
had to the queen's preservation; and it is most 
certain that the Earl of Huntly gathered these 
forces, at her majesty's own desire, to free her 
from the Earl of Moray's power' (Earldom 
of Sutherland, p. 142). Knox states that the 
body of Huntly, ' becaus it was laitt,' was 
' cassen overthorte a pair of crealles, and so 
was caryed to Abirdene, and was laid in the 
Tolbuyth' ( Works, ii. 357). According to 
the same authority, this was in fulfilment of 
a prophecy of the earl's wife's witches, ' whay 
all affirmed that that same nycht should he 
be in the Tolbuyth of Abirdene, without any 
wound upoun his body' (6.) When, there- 
fore, the countess blamed her principal witch, 
called Janet, for having deceived her, ' sche 
stoutly defended hir self (as the devill can 
ever do), and affirmed that sche geve a trew 
answer, albeit sche spack nott all the treuth ; 
for sche knew that he should be thair dead' 
(z'A.) The body of the earl, after being dis- 
embowelled at Aberdeen and filled with 
spices by physicians (account of expense, ma- 
nuscript in Register House, quoted in preface 
to Inventaires de la Hoyne Descosse, Banna- 
tyne Club, 1863, p. xxii), was sent to Edin- 
burgh by a ship which in company with 
another carried the furniture taken by Mary 
from his castle of Strathbogie (for list, see ib. 
pp. 49-56). The body was kept at Holyrood 
till the meeting of parliament on 28 May 1563, 
when, after it had been brought to the bar, 
an act of forfeiture and attainder was passed, 
declaring his ' dignity, name, and memory to 
be extinct,' and his posterity ' unable to enjoy 
any office, honour, or rank within the realm' 
(quoted in CRAWFTTED, Officers of State, pp. 
87-8, but not elsewhere preserved). The 
body, after being deposited in a vault of the 
chapel royal, Holyrood, was removed to the 
Blackfriars Monastery, Edinburgh, where it 
layunburied till April 1566, when it was per- 
mitted to be carried north to the tomb of the 
Gordons in Elgin Cathedral (Acta Parl. Scot. 
ii. 572-6). By his wife, Elizabeth, eldest 
daughter of Robert, lord Keith, son and heir 
apparent of William, third earl Marischal, he 
had nine sons and three daughters. The sons 
were : Alexander, lord Gordon, who married 
Lady Margaret Hamilton, second daughter 
of the Duke of Chatelherault, but died with- 
out issue about 1553 ; George, fifth earl [q. v.] ; 
Sir John, executed, as above stated ; William, 
who was educated for the church, and died 
in the college of Bons Enfans, Paris, before 
1567 ; James [q. v.], a Jesuit, who died at 
Paris in 1620 ; Sir Adam of Auchindoun, who 
was taken prisoner at Corrichie, but was par- 
doned on account of his youth, burnt down 

the old castle of the Forbeses at Corgarff in 
1551 or 1571 (as described in the old ballad 
' Edom O'Gordon '), took up arms in the 
queen's cause after her imprisonment at 
Lochleven, and died in 1580; Sir Patrick of 
Auchindoun and Gartly, killed at the battle 
of Glenlivet in 1594 ; Robert and Thomas. 
The daughters were : Elizabeth, married to 
John Stewart, earl of Atholl ; Jean or Jane, 
who married (1) on 22 Feb. 1566 James, 
fourth earl of Bothwell (who got the mar- 
riage annulled to enable him to marry Queen 
Mary), (2) Alexander Gordon, eleventh or 
twelfth earl of Sutherland [see under GOR- 
DON, JOHN, 1526 P-1567], and (3) Alexander 
Ogilvy of Boyne ; and Margaret, married to 
John, eighth lord Forbes. 

[Crawfurd's Officers of State, pp. 82-9 ; Wil- 
liam Gordon's House of Gordon, i. 126-241 ; 
Gordon's Earldom of Sutherland, 98-241 ; Dou- 
glas's Scottish Peerage (Wood), i. 647-8 ; Gordon 
Papers, Spalding Club Miscellany, vol. iv. ; Reg. 
Privy Council Scotland, vol. i. ; Acta Parl. Scot, 
vol. ii. ; Cal. State Papers, Scott. Ser. vol. i. ; Gal. 
State Papers, For. Ser., Edward VI and Eliza- 
beth ; Sadler State Papers ; Lord Herries's Me- 
moirs of the Reign of Mary (Abbotsford Club) : 
Diurnal of Occurrents in Scotland (Bannatyne 
Club) ; Histories of Knox, Buchanan, Leslie, Cal- 
derwood, Spotiswood, Keith, Tytler, Burton, and 
Froude.] T. F. H. 

HUNTLY (d. 1576), lord high chancellor of 
Scotland under Queen Mary, was the second 
son of George, fourth earl of Huntly [q.v.], by 
his wife, Elizabeth, eldest daughter of Robert, 
lord Keith. He was carefully educated with 
the view of his entering Ae church, but be- 
came prospective heir of the earldom on the 
death without issue of his elder brother, Alex- 
ander, lord Gordon, 7 Aug. 1553. The elder 
brother had been married to Margaret Hamil- 
ton, second daughter of the Duke of Chatel- 
herault, and to continue the advantages of 
this alliance, George, lord Gordon, was now 
married to Anne, the third daughter. On 
7 Aug. 1556 he was appointed sheriff of the 
county of Inverness and keeper of Inverness 
Castle. After the battle of Corrichie in 
1562, at which he does not seem to have been 
present, he fled for protection to his father- 
in-law, who, having been warned to deliver 
him up, brought him to Edinburgh on 26 Nov. 
(Diurnal of Occurrents, p. 74 ; KNOX, Works T 
ii. 360). On Saturday the 28th he was com- 
mitted to the castle of Edinburgh, where he 
remained till 8 Feb., when, without any in- 
dictment until the day he was brought to- 
the bar, he was convicted of treason and sen- 
tenced to be executed, drawn, and quartered, 
' at our soverains plesor.' Queen Mary exer- 




cised her prerogative in deferring the execu- 
tion, and on 11 Feb. 1562-3 he was transferred 
to Dunbar. Knox states that Moray ' laboured 
at the quenis hand for the saiftye of his lyeff 
which hardly was granted' (ib.), and the 
fact that when in Edinburgh the Duke of Cha- 
telherault supped with Knox on a Sunday, 
and ' promised to be a professor of Chrystes 
word ' (ib. vi. 145), would seem to indicate 
that the duke wished Knox to use his influ- 
ence with Moray on his son-in-law's behalf. 
On the other hand, Crawfurd (Officers of 
State, p. 91) states, on the authority of Gor- 
don of Straloch, that while Huntly was in 
prison at Dunbar an attempt was made to 
have him executed on a false warrant, which, 
however, the governor, much to Queen Mary's 
satisfaction, refused to carry out. When the 
body of the fourth Earl of Huntly was on 
28 May 1563 brought to the bar of parliament, 
the son was also made to attend, and as the 
sentence of forfeiture embraced him, he was 
' decernit to pass to Dunbar again ' (Diurnal 
of Occurrents, p. 76). There he remained till 
the marriage of Mary with Darnley, 29 July 

1565, and the consequent rebellion of Moray, 
when to ' strengthen her faction she took him 
out of prison' (HERKIES, Memoirs,^. 69). On 
3 Aug. cautioners were accepted for his enter- 
ing into ward ; on the 28th he was restored 
by proclamation at the market cross of Edin- 
burgh to the lordship of Gordon (Diurnal of 
Occurrents, p. 81), and on 8 Oct. he was re- 
stored by similar proclamation to the earldom 
of Huntly and all the lands and dignities that 
formerly belonged to his father (ib. p. 84 ; 
KNOX, ii. 512). So far, however, as posses- 
sion of his lands was concerned, his restora- 
tion was merely nominal until the wishes of 
the queen should be ratified by parliament. 
Though Huntly was now high in favour with 
the queen, he professed the reformed faith, 
and declined to attend mass in her chapel 
(KNOX, ii. 514). In this he probably followed 
the advice of Bothwell, with whom he at 
this time cemented an alliance against their 
common enemy Moray, by the marriage with 
Bothwell of his sister, Lady Jane Gordon. 

On the night of Rizzio's murder, 9 March 

1566, Huntly and Bothwell had apartments 
in the palace of Holyrood, and came suddenly 
into the inner court with the view of making 
a rescue, but Morton ' commanded them to 
pass to their chamber or else they should do 
worse '(KNOX, ii. 521 ; Diurnal of Occurrents, 
p. 90). They immediately obeyed, but escaped 
by a back window, and, fearing to enter Edin- 
burgh, travelled on foot to Edmonstone, and 
thence went to Bothwell's castle at Crichton. 
From this time Huntly became Bothwell's 
closest associate and counsellor. The two 

had planned that Mary should make her 
escape from Holyrood ' over the walls in the 
night upon towes and chairs which they had 
in readiness to that effect ' (letter of Mary 
in KEITH, History, ii. 420, and LABANOFF, 
Lettres de Marie Stuart, i. 346), but Mary 
did not find it necessary to avail herself of 
their help. After her midnight ride with 
Darnley from Holyrood, Huntly and Both- 
well joined her at Dunbar, and on the at- 
tainder of Morton for the murder of Rizzio, 
Huntly succeeded to the office of lord high 
chancellor, which his father had previously 
held. About the end of April a reconcilia- 
tion took place between the lords with the 
queen and the Earls of Moray and Argyll 
(Diurnal of Occurrents, p. 99), the event 
being celebrated by a feast in the castle. It 
marked the beginning of a close league in the 
queen's interest between Huntly and Argyll, 
but so far as Huntly and Moray were con- 
cerned the arrangement was privately re- 
garded on both sides as a mere temporary 
truce. As it was to Moray that Huntly owed 
the death of his father and the ruin of his house, 
both revenge and worldly interest impelled 
him to do his utmost against Moray. Accord- 
ing to Sir James Melville, Huntly, a little 
before the birth of the prince, seconded Both- 
well in endeavouring to persuade the queen 
to imprison Moray until she was delivered, 
on the plea that he might during her illness 
usurp her authority and bring in the banished 
lords (Memoirs, p. 164) ; and afterwards with 
Bothwell he contrived a plot for the murder 
of Moray while he was with the queen at 
Jedburgh (ib. p. 173). The narrative given 
by Huntly and Argyll of the conference at 
Craigmillar in December, when a scheme was 
proposed for ridding Mary of Darnley ' with- 
out prejudice to her son ' (printed in KEITH, 
History, app. No. xvi.), cannot, on account 
of the peculiar relation of Huntly to Moray, 
as well as the criminal character of the whole 
I proceedings, be regarded as trustworthy in 
| all its details ; but in it Huntly does not 
scruple to state that he was induced to take 
part in the scheme by the promise of restora- 
tion to his estates, it being stipulated on the 
other side that Morton and the other banished 
j lords should be recalled. As a matter of 
i course Huntly signed the subsequent bond 
i at Craigmillar for Darnley's murder, although 
he represents the confederates as demanding 
1 nothing more of him than of the Earl of 
Moray : that he should ' behald the matter 
1 and not be offendit thairat.' As before 
i Huntly continued in close company with 
Bothwell. The two are said to have accom- 
panied the queen to Callendar House, when 
i she set out for Glasgow to visit Darnley 




(' Diary ' handed in by Moray at Westmin- 
ster, printed in ANDERSON, Collections, ii. I 
271). On the evening previous to the mur- 
der they with Mary paid a visit to Darnley ; 
and shortly after the explosion at Kirk 
o'Field, Huntly called on Bothwell in his 
apartments, whence they went in the morn- I 
ing together to inform the queen of the oc- j 
currence (Deposition of Walter Powrie in j 
ANDERSON, Collections, ii. 170, and of John \ 
Hepburn, ib. p. 187). The secrets of that 
interview, whatever they may have been, 
were therefore known to Huntly. He was 
also frequently seen in the company of Mary 
and Bothwell at Seton, whither soon after 
the funeral of Darnley she had gone for a 
change of air. According to a statement of 
Drury, Mary and Bothwell shot at the butts 
against Huntly and Seton for a dinner at 
Tranent, which the latter had to pay (Drury 
to Cecil, 28 Feb. 1566-7). In the next step 
towards the attainment of his high hopes 
Bothwell was completely dependent on 
Huntly's assistance. Their alliance had been 
cemented by the marriage of Bothwell to 
Huntly's sister, but he now was asked by 
Bothwell to aid him in escaping from these 
bonds of wedlock. The condition was re- 
storation to his estates, and Huntly did not 
scruple. He not only allowed, but requested 
and urged, his sister, Lady Jane Gordon, to 
present a petition for divorce from Bothwell 
on account of his adultery (De Silva to 
Philip II, quoted in FROUDE, History, cab. 
ed. viii. 112). The scheme was in progress 
even before Bothwell's trial. Huntly, though 
Bothwell's constant companion, was one of 
the commissioners for the trial ; and after his 
acquittal an act of parliament was passed on 
19 April 1567 restoring Huntly to his estates. 
The second contract for marriage between 
Mary and Bothwell, dated Seton, 5 April 
(one of the ' Casket ' documents, and asserted 
by the defenders of Mary to be a forgery), 
was stated to be in Huntly's handwriting, 
and bore his signature as a witness. Being 
written in Scotch, it was probably the docu- 
ment shown (if any was shown) to the lords 
in Ainslie's tavern to induce them to sign 
the band for the marriage. The divorce be- 
tween Huntly's sister and Bothwell was not 
then completed, but this mattered as little 
to Huntly as to the other lords, and he signed 
the band. In the further stages of Both- 
well's wooing, Huntly appears as his prin- 
cipal confidant and associate. He was in 
attendance on the queen in her journeys to 
and from Stirling when she went to visit the 
prince, and, there cannot be any doubt (what- 
ever may have been the case with Mary), was 
fully aAvare of Bothwell's intention to carry 

her off, and arranged with Bothwell the de- 
tails. The ' Casket ' letters represent him as 
having, however, great doubts of the success 
of the project, and therefore at first advising 
Bothwell against it. With Maitland of Leth- 
ington and Sir James Melville he was taken 
in custody by Bothwell when the queen was 
captured, and was brought to Dunbar (Sir 
JA.MES MELVILLE, Memoirs, p. 177). After 
they reached Dunbar, Huntly and Bothwell 
turned in fury upon Maitland for having pre- 
viously spoken disrespectfully of Bothwell's 
aspirations to the queen's hand, and he was 
only saved from instant death by the queen 
thrusting herself between him and their 
sword-points, and swearing that if ' a hair of 
Lethington's head did perish ' she would make 
Huntly both forfeit his estates and lose his 
life (Drury to Cecil, 6 May, according to in- 
formation given him by Maitland). Huntly 
and Melville were released next morning, but 
Maitland was retained a prisoner. Huntly ac- 
companied Bothwell and Mary on their en- 
trance into Edinburgh from Dunbar on 6 May 
1567, three days after sentence of divorce had 
been pronounced between Bothwell and Lady 
Jane Gordon on the ground of Bothwell's adul- 
tery (Diurnal of Occur rents, p. 110). Until 
the marriage he was frequently in Bothwell's 
company (see curious description of a scene 
at supper on the night previous to the cere- 
mony in SIR JAMES MELVILLE, Memoirs, p. 
178), was one of the few noblemen present 
at the ceremony on 16 May, and signed his 
name as a witness. 

The scandal caused by the marriage may 

Sossibly have led Huntly to enter imme- 
iately afterwards into communication with 
Morton and the confederate lords (Drury to 
Cecil, 20 May 1567), if he did open up commu- 
nication with them. In any case his commu- 
cations had no practical result. When the 
confederate lords were approaching Edin- 
burgh, after the flight of the queen and Both- 
well from Borthwick to Dunbar, Huntly and 
others offered to assist the citizens in defence 
of the town, but, finding that the citizens 
would not avail themselves of the offer, they 
took refuge in the castle under the protec- 
tion of Sir James Balfour (Diurnal of Occur- 
rents, p. 113 ; HERRIES, Memoirs, p. 92). 
Balfour was himself already in correspond- 
ence with the confederate lords, and as soon 
as conditions were arranged he let Huntly 
and the ' rest of the queen's friends that were 
within out at the postern gate safe' (HERRIES, 
ib.) Huntly hastened north to collect his 
followers, and it was because they did not 
arrive in time that Mary entered into parley 
with the confederates at Carberry Hill. After 
Mary was sent to Lochleven, Huntly joined 




the party of nobles who met on 29 June at 
Dumbarton to plan measures for her deliver- 
ance. Shortly afterwards he proclaimed a 
commission of lieutenandry in the north, 
commanding all persons to place themselves 
under arms in readiness to meet him, but on 
the day succeeding the king's coronation at 
Stirling the commission was in the king's 
name declared discharged. After Moray ac- 
cepted the regency Huntly, through his uncle 
the Bishop of Galloway, asked the interces- 
sion of Atholl and Maitland with Moray, and 
promised to ' desist from making any trouble ' 
if he only had ' the Earl of Moray his assured 
friend ' (Throckmorton to Elizabeth, 20 Aug. 
1567, in KEITH, History, ii. 741). An agree- 
ment having been come to with Moray in 
the beginning of September, Huntly bore the 
sceptre at the opening of parliament in De- 
cember, and was chosen one of the lords of 
the articles. Nevertheless he entered into the 
conspiracy for the deliverance of Mary from 
Lochleven, and after her escape (2 May 1568) 
assembled with other lords at Hamilton to 
concert measures for her restoration to the 
throne. He then hastened north to muster 
a force on her behalf, but was again unable 
to render any service, for on his arrival near 
Perth with 2,600 men he found all the passes 
along the Tay strongly guarded, and had to 
return home (HEBRIES, p. 105). On the 
flight of Mary to England Huntly, with other 
lords, held a convention on 28 July at Largs, 
Ayrshire, at which, besides resolving to let 
loose the borderers on England, they wrote to 
the Duke of Alva earnestly beseeching assist- 
ance (Drury to Cecil, 3 Aug. 1568). Huntly 
and Argyll held possession of the whole north 
and west of Scotland, and not improbably, 
with the help of the Hamiltons and the 
borderers, they would have crushed Moray 
before he had assembled a parliament had 
they not on their march southward been met 
by an order from Mary commanding them 
to disperse their followers, on the ground 
that Elizabeth had sent a similar request to 
Moray. Moray had either not received such 
an order or else disobeyed it, and the time 
he gained by the disbanding of the queen's 
forces was fatal to the queen's cause. On 
Moray's return from the Westminster con- 
ference a commission was appointed at Stir- 
ling 10 Feb. 1568-9 for Huntly's pursuit 
(Reg. Privy Council Scotl. i. 645), and though 
for a time he adopted a defiant attitude and 
refused to attend the conference at Edin- 
burgh on 10 April, he ultimately, on 18 May, 
gave in his submission to the regent (Diurnal 
of Occurrents, p. 144). Huntly had no con- 
nection with the plot for the murder of 
Moray in January 1569-70. Along with 

Atholl and others he came to the convention 
at Edinburgh in the following March to con- 
fer with Morton and Mar on the condition 
of affairs, but left the city next morning on 
finding that no encouragement was given to 
their proposals for the queen's recall (CAL- 
DERWOOD, ii. 544 ; BANNATYNE, Memorials, p. 
20). Towards the end of the month they sent 
a letter to Elizabeth urging her to come to 
an agreement with the Queen of Scots (letter 
in CALDERWOOD, ii. 547-50). On the advance 
of the Duke of Sussex to the assistance of 
the king's lords, Huntly, who had been ap- 
pointed by Queen Mary lieutenant-governor 
(Sussex to Cecil, 15 July 1568), concentrated 
his forces at Aberdeen, and in August marched 
southwards to the relief of Brechin, but did 
not arrive in time to prevent the castle fall- 
ing into the hands of the regent Lennox 
(Diurnal of Occurrents, p. 183). Huntly ar- 
rived at Edinburgh, but without any fol- 
lowers, about the beginning of April, and, 
gaining admission to the castle, took part in 
various raids against the regent's forces. He 
presided at the parliaments held in the queen's 
1 name at which acts of forfeiture were passed 
against the rival lords. It was he who com- 
manded the expedition to Stirling, when the 
regent Lennox was captured and afterwards 
mortally wounded. Morton, on being chosen 
regent, made use of Argyll to enter into 
communication with Huntly and the Hamil- 
tons for a reconciliation, on the understand- 
ing that no further inquiry should be made 
into the murder of the late king, and that 
pardon should be extended to all persons ac- 
cessory to the murder of the regent Lennox. 
At a convention held at Perth, where Huntly 
and the Lord of Arbroath acted as the repre- 
sentatives of those with whom the treaty was 
made, articles of pacification were finally 
agreed upon on 3 Feb. 1572 (Treaty of Perth, 
in Reg. Privy Council Scotl. ii. 193-200). The 
secession of Huntly and the Hamiltons from 
the queen's cause led to the surrender of the 
castle of Edinburgh, and virtually ended the 
civil war. From this time Huntly lived chiefly 
in his own dominions, scarcely taking any fur- 
ther part in public aflairs. He died very sud- 
denly in May 1576, while apparently in the 
enjoyment of vigorous health. The historian 
of the ' House of Gordon ' ascribes the death 
to apoplexy, but Bannatyne recites details to 
convey the impression that it was a special 
judgment for Darnley's murder. He states 
that in the morning he had been out hunting 
and had killed three hares and a fox. In the 
afternoon he went to play football, and after 
he had given the ball a second kick turned 
suddenly faint. Subsequently he vomited a 
large quantity of blood, ' black like soot,' and 




died at six or seven the same evening (the 
manner of the Earl of Huntly's death in 
BANNATYUE, Memorials, pp. 333-8). By his 
wife, the daughter of the Duke of Chatel- 
herault, he left one son, George, sixth earl of 
Huntly [q. v.], and a daughter Lady Jean, 
countess of Caithness. 

[Crawford's Officers of State, pp. 89-94; Wil- 
liam Gordon's House of Gordon, i. 242-380 ; 
Sir Robert Gordon's Earldom of Sutherland, pp. 
141-71 ; Douglas's Scottish Peerage (Wood), i. 
649-50 ; Gordon Papers in Spalding Club Mis- 
cellany, vol. iv. ; Reg. Privy Council Scotl. vols. i. 
ii. ; Acta Parl. Scott, vols. ii. iii.; Cnl. State 
Papers, Scott. Ser. ; Cal. State Papers, For. Ser., 
during the reign of Elizabeth ; Herries's Me- 
moirs of the Reign of Mary (Abbotsford Club) ; 
History of James the Sext (Bannatyne Club) ; 
Bannatyne's Memorials (Bannatyne Club) ; Sir 
James Melville's Memoirs (Bannatyne Club); 
Diurnal of Occurrents (Bannatyne Club) ; His- 
tories of Knox, Buchanan, Calderwood, Spotis- 
wood, Keith, Tytler, Burton, and Froude ] 

T. F. H. 

first MARQUIS OF HTJNTLY (1562-1 636), only 
son of George, fifth earl [q. v.], by his wife, 
Lady Anne, daughter of James Hamilton, earl 
of Arran, duke of Chatelherault, was born in 
1562. On the death of his father in May 
1576 he was placed under the care of his 
uncle, Sir Adam Gordon, who sent him for 
his education to France. As a catholic 
.Huntly was closely associated in the schemes 
of the Duke of Lennox against Morton, and 
at the first parliament after Morton's execu- 
tion, held in October 1581, he bore the sceptre 
(CALDERWOOD, iii. 592). He was one of the 
chief leaders of the counter-revolution by 
which, 27 June 1583, the king, after his with- 
drawal from Falkland to St. Andrews, was 
' delivered from the custody of the nobles who 
had overthrown the power of the Duke of 
Lennox by the raid of Ruthven (Bowes to 
Walsingham, 3 July 1583, in BOWES, Cor- 
respondence, pp. 477-83 ; SIR JAMES MEL- 
VILLE, Memoirs, p. 283 ; CALDERWOOD, iii.715). 
After the banishment of the Master of Gray 
in May 1587, the abbacy of Dunfermline, 
which the master had held, was bestowed 
on Huntly (MELVILLE, p. 361 ; CALDERWOOD, 
iv. 613), a proceeding which led the assembly 
of the kirk to express to the king their ' greefe 
that sindrie papists of great calling are pro- 
moted to offices and benefices ' (ib. p. 632). 
From this time Huntly, who throughout his 
life was secretly regarded by the catholics 
as their chief political leader, was exposed 
to a constant persecution by the kirk, from 
the results of which he was only saved by 
the interposition of the king, and by frequent 

subscriptions of the confession of faith, which, 
were violated almost as soon as made. 

On 21 July 1588 Huntly was married 
within the chapel of Holyrood by the Bishop 
of St. Andrews to Lady Henrietta Stuart, 
eldest daughter of Esme, duke of Lennox, five 
thousand marks having been voted him by 
the council to bring her from France {Reg. 
Priv. Counc. Scotl. iv. 103). For celebrating 
the marriage before Huntly had subscribed the 
confession, the bishop was summoned before 
the presbytery of Edinburgh (CALDERWOOD, 
iv. 686). Shortly afterwards Huntly signed 
the confession, but, as he ingenuously ex- 
plained to the Duke of Parma, he did so ' en- 
tirely against his wish' (Letter, Cal. State 
Papers, Scott. Ser. i. 554), and was all the 
while carrying on correspondence with the 
Spaniards for an invasion of Scotland on be- 
half of the catholic cause [see under HAMIL- 
1588 Huntly succeeded Lord Glamis as cap- 
tain of the guard, after which he stayed all 
the winter with the king in Holyrood Abbey 
(CALDERWOOD, iv. 696). While there a letter 
of his to the king of Spain and other incri- 
minating communications were discovered 
(ib. v. 14-36), and having been brought be- 
fore the council he was warded in the castle. 
The king showed his confidence in Huntly 
by dining with him in the castle, and on 
7 March 1589 he was set at liberty (Asheby 
to Walsingham, Cal. State Papers, Scott. 
Ser. i. 555). Driven from Edinburgh by 
the hostile attitude of the citizens, he went 
to the north, and along with the Earls of 
Erroll and Crawford raised the standard of 
rebellion. He gave out that he had a com- 
mission from the king to levy forces, but the 
king marched northwards against him, and 
threatened to demolish his castle unless he 
gave himself up (CALDERWOOD, v. 55). Having 
I submitted unconditionally to the king, he 
was not put to an assize, and after some 
months' captivity in Borthwick Castle he se- 
cured his liberty. He now retired for a time 
to the north, where he erected a castle at 
Ruthven in Badenoch, in the neighbourhood 
of his hunting forests. This the Mackintoshes 
resented as dangerous to their independence, 
and when Huntly became involved in a dis- 
pute with the Grants, and captured the house 
of Grant of Ballindalloch for alleged out- 
rages committed b