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VOL. Ill 

Neil Young 

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University of Toronto 







VOL. Ill 

Neil Young 



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In the present volume of the Second Supplement, which is designed 
to furnish biographies of noteworthy persons dying between 22 Jan. 
1901 and 31 Dec. 1911, the memoirs reach a total of 557. The contri- 
butors number 177. The caUings of those whose careers are recorded 
may be broadly catalogued under ten general headings thus : 

Administration of Government at home, in India, and the colonies 68 

Army and navy 39 

Art (inchiding architecture, music, and the stage) ... 75 

Commerce and agriculture 17 

Law 26 

Literature (including joumaUsm, pliilology, and philosophy) . 132 

Rehgion 51 

Science (including engineering, medicine, surgery, exploration, and 

economics) 115 

Social Reform (including philanthropy and education) ... 24 

Sport 10 

The names of twenty-eight women appear in this volume on account 
of services rendered in art, Uterature, science, and social or educational 

Articles bear the initials of their writers save in a very few cases 
where material has been furnished to the Editor on an ampler scale 
than the purpose of the undertaking permitted him to use. In such 
instances the Editor and his staff are solely responsible for the shape 
which the article has taken, and no signature is appended. 

*^,* In the lists of authors' publications only the date of issue is appended to the titles 
of works which were pubHshed in London in 8vo. Li other cases the place of issue and 
size are specified in addition. 

Cross references are given thus : to names in the substantive work [q. v.] ; to names 
in the First Supplement [q. v. Suppl. I] ; and to names in the Second and 
present Supplement [q. v. Suppl. II]. 




W. A. . . . Sib Waltbb Armstrong. 

C. A. . . . C. Atchley, C.M.G., I.S.O. 

J. B. A-s. . J. B. Atkins. 

J. B. A. . . J. B. Atlay. 

R. B. ... The Rev. Ronald Bayne. 

T. B. ... Thomas Bayne. 

C. E. A. B. . C. E, A. Bedwell. 

F. L. B. . . Francis L. Bickley. 

W. A. B. . . Professor W. A. Bone, F.R.S. 

T. G. B. . . The Rev. Professor T. G. 


G. S. B. . . G. S. B0TJIX3ER. 

G. C. B. . . Professor G.C.BoTTRNE.D. So. 

C. W- B. . . C W. Boyd, C.M.G. 

E. M. B. . . E. M. Brockbank, M.D. 

F. H. B. . . F, H. Brown. 
H. W. B. . H. W. Bruton. 

A. R. B. . . The Rev. A. R. Buckland. 

J. CO. . . J. C. Cain, D.Sc. 

J. L. C. . . J. L. Caw, F.S.A.Scot. 

H. P. C. . . H. P. Cholmeley, M.D. 

R. F. C. . . R. F. Cholmeley. 

A. C. ... The Rev. Andrew Clark. 

E. C. ... Sir Ernest Clarke, F.S.A. 

S. C Sm Sidney Colvin. 

J. C. ... The Rev. Professor James 
Cooper, D.D. 

P. C. ... Percy Cordeb. 

J. S. C. . . J. S. Cotton. 

H. D. . . . Henry Davey. 

J. D. H. D. . J. D. Hamilton Dickson. 

CD. ... Castpbell Dodgson. 

P. E. D. . . P. E. DowsoN. 

S. R. D. . . The Rev. Canon S. R. Driver, 

W. B. D.. . W. B. DUFFIBLD. 

B. D. . . . Robert Dxtnlop. 

P. E. ... Professor Pelham Edgar. 

E. E. . . . E. Edwards. 

H. S. R. E. . Hugh S. R. Elliot. 

H. A. L. F. . H. A. L. Fisher. 

J. F-K. . . Professor J. Fitzmaurice- 
Kelly, Litt.D. 

W. G. D. F. . The Rev. W. G. D. Fletcher. 

W. H. G. F.. W. H. Grattan Flood, Mus. 

N. F. ... Nevill Fobbes, Ph.D. 

W. H. F. . . The Rev. W. H. Frere. 

D. W. F. . . Douglas W. Freshfield. 

S. E. F. . . S. E. Fryer. 

F. W. G-N. . Frank W. Gibson. 

List of Writers in Volume III. — Supplement II. 

p. G. 

A. G. 

E. G. . . 

E, G-M. . 

C. L. G. . 
R. E. G. . 
W. F. G. . 

F. Ll. G. 
J. C. H. . 

E. S. H. . 
T. H.. . . 

D. H. . . 
M. H. . . 

C. A. H. . 

F. J. H. . 
T. F. H. . 
J. A. H. . 
A. M. H. . 
A. R. H. . 

D. G. H. . 
F. C. H. . 
H. P. H. . 

E. S. H-B. 
J. H. . . 
O. J. R. H. 
T. C. H. . 
W. H. . . 

C. P. I. . 

. Peter Giles, Litt.D., Master 
OF Emmanuel College, 

, The Rev. Alexander Gor- 

. Edmund Gossb, C.B., LL.D. 

E. Graham. 
C. L. Graves. 
R. E. Graves. 
W. Forbes Gray. 

F. Ll. Griffith. 


Miss Elizabeth S. Haldane. 

The Rev. Thomas Hamilton, 
D.D., President of Bel- 
fast University. 

David Hannay. 

Martin Habdie. 

C. Alexander Harris, C.B., 


Professor F. J. Haverfibld. 
T, F. Henderson. 
J. A. Herbert. 
A. M. Hind. 
Arthur R. Hinks. 

D. G. Hogarth. 
F. C. Holland. 
H. p. Hollis. 

Miss Edith S. Hooper. 

James Hooper. 

o. j. r. howarth. 

T. Cann Hughes, F.S.A. 

The Rev. William Hunt, 


Sib Courtenay P. Ilbert, 
G.C.B., K.C.S.I. 

E. iM T. . 

. Sib Everard im Thurn, 

K.C.M.G., C.B. 

R. I. . . 

Roger Ingpen. 

H. M'L. I. 

. H. M'Lbod Innes. 

C. H. I. . 

. The Rev. C. H. Irwin.^ 

A. V. W. J. 

. Professor A. V. Williams 


W. S. J. . 

. W. S. Jackson. 

T. E. J. . 

. T. E. James. 

R. J. . . 

. Richard Jennings. 

C. J. . . 

Claude Johnson. 

F. G. K. . 

. Sir Frederic G. Ken yon. 


D. R. K. . 

Professor D. R. Keys. 

P. G. K. . 


J. L.. . . 

Sir Joseph Larmor, F.R.S., 


J. K. L. . 

Peofessob Sir John Knox 

Laughton, Litt.D. 

L. G. C. L. 

L. G. Carr Laughton. 

W. J. L. . 

W. J. Lawrence, 

E. L. . . 

Miss Elizabeth Lee. 

S. L. . . 

Sib Sidney Lee, LL.D., D.Litt. 

W. L-W. . . 

Sir William Lee-Warner, 


R. C. L. . . 

R. C. Lehmann. 

E. M. L. . . 

Colonel E. M. Lloyd, R.E. 

J. E. L. . . 

Professor J. E. Lloyd. 

B. S. L. . 

B. S. Long. 

S. J. L. . 

Sidney J. Low. 

C. P. L. . 

Sib Charles P. Lucas, K.C.B., 


P. L. . . . 

Pebceval Lucas. 

R. L. . . 

Reginald Lucas. 

J. R. M. . . 

J. Ramsay Macdonald, M.P. 

G. W. M. 

G. W. McNaught. Mus.Doc. 

List of Writers in Volume III. — Supplement II. 

J. G. S. M. . 

F. M. . . . 

J. M. . . . 

D. S. M. . . 

L. M. . . . 

E. M. . . . 

H. A. M. . . 

A. H. M. . . 

J. D. M. . . 

H. C. M. . . 

N. M. . . . 

E. M. . . . 

G. Le G. N. 

C. B. N. . . 

R. B. O'B. . 

D. J. O'D. . 

G. W. T. 0. 


D. J. 0. . . 

W. B. 0.. . 

S. P. . 

J. P. . 

E. H. P. 

T. G. P. 

D'A. P. 

R. S. R. 

G. S. A. R 


C. H. R. 

J. M. R. 

W. R. . 

F. R. . 

H. D. R. . 

Pbofessob J. G. SwTFi Mac- 
kbtt.t^ k.c., m.p. 

Falconer Madan. 

John Masefield. 

D. S. Meldrtjm. 

Lewis MELVHiLB. 


Sir Henry Miers, F.R.S., 

A. H. Millar. 

J. D. Milneb. 


NoKMAN Moore, M.D. 
Edward Moorhouse. 
G. Le Grys Noboate. 
Captain C. B. Norman. 
R. Barry O'Brien. 


G. W. T. Omond. 

The Rt. Rev. John Henry 
Bernard, D.D.. Bishop of 


D. J. Owen. 

W. B. Owen. 

Stephen Paget, F.R.C.S. 

John Pabkeb. 

The Rev. Canon E. H. Peabcb. 

T. G. Pinches, LL.D. 

D'Abcy Power, F.R.C.S. 

R. S. Rait. 

Col. G. S. A. Ranking. 

Sib C. HEBCtTLEs Read, LL.D. 

J. M. RiGG. 

William Roberts. 
Fbedebick Rooebs. 
H. D. Rolleston, M.D. 

R. B. . . . RoBEBT Ross. 

R. J. R. . . R. J. ROWLETTE, M.D. 

A. VV. R. . Sib Abthub Ruckeb, F.R.S. 

M. E. S. . . Michael E. Sadleb, C.B., 

F. S. . 
L. C. S. 
S. . . . 
J. E. S. 

. The Rev. Fbancis Sandebs. 

. Lloyd C. Sandebs. 

. LoBD Sandebson, G.C.B. 

Sib John E. Sandys, Litt.D., 

I J. S. ... John Sabobaunt. 

! i 

T. S. ... Thomas Seocombe. 

E. S. ... Miss Edith Sichel. 

L. P. S. . . L. P. Sidney. 

C. F. S. . . Miss C. Fell Sbhth. 

J. G. S-C. . J. G. Snbad-Cox. 

W. F. S. . . W. F. Spbab. 

H. M. S. . . The Venebable Abchdeacon 
Spooneb, D.D. 

V. H. S. . . The Rev. Pbofessob Stanton, 

R. S. . . 
H. S. . . 

C. W. S. . 
H. T-S. . 
H. R. T. . 

D. Ll. T. 
F. W. T. . 
D'A. W. T. 

S. P. T. . 

J. R. T. . 
T. F. T. . 
R. Y. T. . 

. Robebt Steele. 

. SiB Hebbebt Stephen, Babt. 

. C. W. Sutton. 

. H. Tapley-Sopeb. 

. H. R. Teddeb, F.S.A. 

. D. Lletjfeb Thomas. 

. F. W. Thomas. 

. Pbofessob D'Abcy W. Thomp- 

. Professor Silvantjs P. 
Thompson, F.R.S. 

. J. R. TmmsFiELD. 

. Professor T. F. Tout. 

. Pbofessob R. Y. Tybbell. 

List of Writers in Volume III. — Supplement II. 

R. H. V. . . Colonel R. H. Vetch, R.E., C. W. 

H. M. V, . . COLOXEL H. M. ViBART. 

p. W. W. . Percy W. Wallace. 

R. W. . . . Professor Robert Wallace. 

P. W. . . . Paul Waterhotjsb. 

E. W. W. . The Rev. Canon Watson. 

.T. C. W. . . .Tost AH C. Wedgwood. M.P. 

Charles Welch, F.S.A. 

A. B. W. . 

. Mrs. Blanco White. 

A. W. . . 

. Sir Arthur Naylor Wol- 


G. S. W. . 

. G. S. Woods. 

H. B. W. . 

. H. B. Woodward, F.R.S. 

W. W. . . 

. Warwick Wroth, F.S.A. [Died 

26 September 1911.] 







1901), classical and Oriental scholar, the 
second son of Robert Neil, minister of the 
quoad sacra parish of Glengaim near 
Ballater, Aberdeenshire, by his wife Mary 
Reid, was bom at Glengaim Manse on 
26 Dec. 1852. Both parents were sprung 
from Aberdeenshire famihes which had 
produced many clergymen and medical 
men. Robert, who was always interested 
in books, was educated imder Mr. Coutts, 
the master of the local school, but was 
taught classics by his father. In 1866, while 
still imder fourteen, he entered Aberdeen 
University, havmg obtained a small scholar- 
ship at the annual bursary competition. 
At the end of the session he was first prize- 
man in the class of Prof. (Sir) William 
Geddes [q. v. Suppl. I]. In 1870 he 
graduated at Aberdeen wath first-class 
honours in classics, the Greek prize being 
divided between him and Mr. A. Shewan, 
now well known as an Homeric scholar. 
The following winter Neil acted as an 
assistant in the university library and next 
year studied anatomy and chemistry with 
the intention of graduating in the medical 
faculty. He soon changed his mind and 
was elected a classical scholar of Peterhouse, 
Cambridge. Meantime he had been reading 
omnivorously ; but his early training, in 
which classical composition had played 
but a small part, handicapped him for the 
Cambridge course. Under the tuition, 
however, of Dr. J. S. Reid, of Dr. Verrall for 
a short time, and later of Richard ShiUeto 
[q. v.], he made such rapid progress that 
in 1875 against strong competition he won 


the Craven scholarship and in 1876 
graduated as second classic. Soon after he 
was elected a fellow of Pembroke College, 
where till his death twenty-five years 
later he was a classical lecturer, though 
his public lectures were given for many 
years at his old college, Peterhouse. Soon 
after taking his degree he pubUshed ' Notes 
on LiddeU and Scott ' in the * Journal 
of Philology' (viii. 200 seq.) ; but his 
teaching work left him little leisure for 
writing, which his caution and fastidious 
taste made a somewhat laborious task, 
while his wide range of Uterary interests 
rendered reading more congenial. Almost 
immediately after his degree Neil began 
to read Sanskrit with Prof. Edward Byles 
Cowell [q. V. Suppl. 11]. For the rest of his 
life Neil spent one or two afternoons a week 
in term time working with Cowell. In the 
earUer years they read parts of the ' Rig 
Veda,' of Indian drama, grammar, and 
philosophy, but gradually turned their 
attention more and more to Buddhist 
Uterature. In 1886, under their joint names, 
appeared an edition of the * Divyavadana,' 
a Buddhist work in Sanskrit. The edition 
was founded on the collation of a number 
of MSS. which were suppUed to the editors 
from various Ubraries, including those of 
Paris and St. Petersburg. After the 
pubHcation of this work NeU, though still 
reading the ' Veda ' with Cowell, took up 
seriously the study of PaU, and formed one 
of the Uttle band of scholars who under 
CoweU's superintendence translated the 
* Jataka,' or Birth Stories, into Enghsh 
(6 volumes, Cambridge University Press, 



1895-1907). Neil's own contribution forms j There are several good photographs of 
part of vol. iii. During these years Neil ; him. 

was also busy with much classical work. \ [Obituary notices by personal friends in 
For many years he had in the press an Qambridge Review (Dr. Adam, October 1901); 
edition of Aristophanes' ' Knights,' which British Weekly, 27 Jtme 1901 (Sir W. Robertson 
but for the introduction was completed at \ NicoU, a class mate at Aberdeen); Alma Mater, 
his death and was issued soon afterwards j the Aberdeen University Mag., 20 Nov. 1901 

by the Cambridge University Press. Here 
in brief space is concentrated a great 
amount of sound scholarship and delicate 
observation of Aristophanic Greek. The 
history of Greek comedy, Pindar, and Plato 
were subjects on which Neil frequently 
lectured and on which he accumulated 
great stores of knowledge. He was also 
thoroughly familiar with all work done in 
the comparative philology of the classical 
languages, Sanskrit, and Celtic. His emen- 
dation of a corrupt word, do-ayevovTa, 

in Bacchylides into ao)TfvnvTa was at once 
accepted by Prof. (Sir) Richard Jebb [q. v. 
Suppl. II]. Besides his professional work 
as a classical lecturer and as university 
lecturer on Sanskrit — a post to which ho 
was appointed in 1884 — Neil took much 
interest in architecture both ancient and 
mediaeval, and had a wide and intimate 
knowledge of the cathedrals of the western 
countries of Europe. He was interested in 
women's education, and before his college 
work became very heavy lectured at both 
Girton and Newnham. But his greatest 
influence was manifested in work with in- 
dividual students, where his kindliness, care, 
and quiet humour attracted even the less 
scholarly. He was popular in Cambridge 
society, and amid his multifarious duties 
could always spare time to solve difficulties 
for his friends. He was for long a syndic 
of the University Press, where he helped 
many young scholars with advice and 
oversight of their work as it passed 
through the press. He served for four 
years upon the council of the senate, 
but the work was not congenial to him, 
and he refused to be nominated a second 

In 1891 Aberdeen University conferred 
upon him the honorary degree of LL.D. 
Neil took a keen interest in Scottish history 
and literature, and was for long a member 
of the Franco-Scottish Society. In 1900, 
on the death of Mr. C. H. Prior, he took 
with some hesitation the work of senior 
tutor of Pembroke. He died after a brief 
illness on 19 June 1901, and was buried in 
the churchyard at Bridge of Gaim, not far 
from his birthplace. He was unmarried. 
In appearance Neil was a little over the 
average height and strongly built, with 
brown hair and large expressive eyes. 

(Dr. J. F. White) ; information from the 
family, and personal knowledge for nineteen 
years.] P. G. 

NEIL, SAMUEL (1825-1901), author, 
born at Edinburgh on 4 August 1825, was 
second of three sons of James Neil, an 
Edinburgh bookseller, by his wife Sarah 
Lindsay, a connection of the Lindsays, 
earls of Crawford. On the death of the 
father from cholera in 1832, the family 
went to live at Glasgow. After education 
at the old grammar school at Glasgow, Neil 
entered the university ; while an under- 
graduate he assisted the English mast-er 
in the high school and worked for the 
' Glasgow Argus ' (of which Charles Mackay 
[q. v.] the poet was editor) and other news- 
papers. For a time he was a private tutor 
and then master successively of Falkirk 
charity school in 1850, of Southern Colle- 
giate School, Glasgow, in 1852, and of St. 
Andrew's school, Glasgow, in 1853. Finally 
he was rector of Moffat Academy from 1855 
to 1873. 

With his school work Neil combined 
much literary activity. He promoted in 
1857, and edited during its existence, the 
' Moffat Register and Annandale Observer,' 
the first newspaper published in Moffat, 
and wrote regularly for other Scottish 
periodicals and educational journals. 

In 1850 Neil planned, and from that 
date until 1873 edited, the ' British Con- 
troversialist ' (40 vols, in all), a monthly 
magazine published in London for the dis- 
cussion of literary, social, and philosophic 
questions. He himself contributed numerous 
philosophical articles, many of which he 
subsequently collected in separate volumes. 
Of these his ' Art of Reasoning ' (1853) was 
praised for its clarity and conciseness by 
John Stuart Mill, George Henry Lewes, 
Archbishop Whately, and Alexander Bain. 
Other of his contributions to the ' British 
ControversiaUst ' were published indepen- 
dently, under the titles of ' Elements of 
Rhetoric ' (1856), ' Composition and Elocu- 
tion ' (1857; 2nd edit. 1857, 12mo), 'Public 
Meetings and how to conduct them ' (1867, 

On resigning his rectorship of Moffat 
Academy in 1873 Neil settled in Edinburgh, 
devoting himself to English literature, 
and especially to Shakespeare. He founded 



and was president of the Edinburgh Shake- 
speare Society, and gave the annual lecture 
from 1874 till his death. To the ' British 
Controversialist ' in 1860 he had contributed 
a series of papers which he reLssued in 1861 
as ' Shakespeare : a Critical Biography.' The 
work enjoyed a vogue as a useful epitome 
of the facts, although NeU accepted with- 
out demur the forgeries of John Payne 
CoUier. It was translated into French and 
German. Neil, who was a frequent visitor 
to Warwickshire, issued a guide to Shake- ' 
speare's birthplace at Stratford-on-Avon as 
' Home of Shakspere described ' (Warwick, 
1871, 12mo), and he edited the ' Library 
Shakespeare ' (3 vols.) in 1875, besides 
several separate plaj's for school use. 

Xeil took a leading part in educational 
and philanthropic affairs in Edinburgh, 
where he was on intimate terms with 
Professors John Stuart Blackie, Henry 
Calderwood, John Veitch, and David 
Masson. He helped to foimd the Edu- 
cational Institute of Scotland for grant- 
ing fellowships to teachers. For the 
Craigmillar School for the Blind there, 
which he managed for some years, he 
compiled a book of poems on the blind 
and by the blind, entitled ' Dark Days 

In 1900 his health failed. He died 
on 28 Aug. 1901, while on a visit at 
Sullom Manse, Shetland, and was buried 
in Sullom churchyard. He married on 
7 April 1848 Christina, youngest daughter 
of Archibald Gibson, who served in the 
navy and was with Nelson on the Victory 
at the battle of Trafalgar. She predeceased 
him on 26 Jan. 1901. He had issue three 
sons and five daughters, of whom one 
son and three daughters, all married, 

A painted portrait by George Barclay is 
in possession of his daughter at 53 Craiglea 
Drive, Edinburgh. His head was done in 
white alabaster by a sculptor of Glasgow in 

Other of Neil's works include : 1. 'Cyclo- 
paedia of Universal History,' 1855; 2nd 
edit. 1857 (mth I. McBurney). 2. ' Syn- 
opsis of British History,' 1856, 12mo. 
3. ' Student's Handbook of Modern His- 
tory,' 1857. 4. ' The Young Debater,' 
1863. 5. ' Culture and Self-culture,' 1863. 
6. ' Martin Luther,' 1863, 12mo. 7. ' Epoch 
Men and the Results of their Lives,' 1865, 
12mo. 8. 'The Art of Public Speaking,' 
1867, 12mo. 9. ' The Debater's Handbook 
and ControversiaUst Manual,' 1874, 12mo ; 
new edit. 1880. Neil edited and compiled 
the larger part of ' The Home Teacher, 

a Cyclopaedia of Self -instruction ' (1886, 
6 vols. 4to). 

[James Love's Schools and Schoolmasters 
of Falkirk, 1898, pp. 232-8; Ardrossan and 
Saltcoats Herald, 20 Sept. 1901 (memoir 
by Neil's son-in-law. Rev. Charles Davidson) ; 
Moffat Express, 5 Sept. 1901 ; Educational 
News, 7 Sept. 1901 ; private information ; 
notes from Mr. James Downie.] W. B. O. 

NELSON, ELIZA (1827-1908), actress. 
[See under Craven, Henry Thornton.] 

1906), premier of Queensland, bom at 
Kilmarnock on 31 Dec. 1835, was son of 
the Rev. William Lambie Nelson, LL.D. 
Educated first at Edinburgh High School, 
and then at the tmiversity, where he 
came under the influence of Prof. John 
Wilson (Christopher North), he did not 
graduate, his father having decided in 
1853 to go to Queensland, which was then 
attracting a number of enterprising Scots- 

The father settled in the colony at 
Ipswich, and Nelson entered a merchant's 
oflfice ; but, of fine physique, he soon 
sought open-air work on a farm at Nel- 
son's Ridges, some six miles from Ipswich ; 
thence he went to manage the Eton 
Vale station at Darling Downs. When 
he married in 1870, he settled with good 
results on the London estate in the Dalby 

In 1880 Nelson entered the local public 
Ufe as a member of the Wambo district 
imder a new scheme of divisional boards. 
In 1883, while absent on a visit to Scotland, 
he was elected member of the house of 
assembly for Northern Downs. When in 
1887 this electoral district was spUt up, he 
became member for the portion known as 
MuriUa, which he represented continuously 
for the rest of his public life. 

On 13 March 1888 Nelson for the first time 
took office, as minister for railways, under 
Sir Thomas McHwraith [q. v. Suppl. I], con- 
tinuing when the ministry was reconstituted 
xmder Boyd Dunlop Morehead till 7 August 
1890. Throughout 1891, he was leader of the 
opposition. Although he seems to have been 
a supporter of Sir Samuel Griffith, it was 
not till Griffith's resignation on 27 March 
1893 that he took office, joining Mcll- 
wraith as colonial treasurer. On 27 October 
1893 he became premier and vice-president 
of the executive councU, combining in 
his own hands the offices of chief secre- 
tary and treasurer. The colony was in 
the throes of the anxiety and de- 
pression which followed the bank crisis of 

B 2 


1893 ; in no part of Australia was that 
crisis worse than in Queensland. Thus 
the task before the new premier was no 
hght one ; but his broad grasp of finance, 
coupled with extensive knowledge of the 
circumstances and requirements of the 
people, enabled him to render excellent 
service to Queensland during a most 
critical period of its history (Queensland 
Hansard, 1906, vol. xcvi. pp. 1-16). 

In 1896 Nelson was created K.C.M.G., 
and in 1897 came to England to represent 
his colony at the Diamond Jubilee of Queen 
Victoria. On this occasion he was made a 
privy councillor and received the honorary 
degree of D.C.L. at Oxford. After his 
return he continued his dual office till 
13 April 1898, when he sought a less 
arduous position as president of the legis- 
lative covmcil. On 4 Jan. 1904 he received a 
dormant commission as lieutenant-governor 
of Queensland. 

In 1905 he visited New Guinea, in which 
he was much interested : there he con- 
tracted fever, from which he never really 
recovered (see Queensland Parly. Deb., 1906, 
xcvi. 15), and he died at his residence, 
Gabbinbar, near Toowoomba, on 1 Jan. 
1906. His death was the signal for general 
mourning, and he was accorded a public 
funeral. He was buried at Toowoomba 

Nelson was a strong man, and the 
greatest authority on constitutional ques- 
tions that the colony had had up to that 
time, although he was opposed to the 
federation of the Austrahan states {Daily 
Record, Rockhampton, 1 Jan. 1906). He 
founded the Royal Agricultural Society of 
Toowoomba and the Austral Association. 
He was president of the Royal Geographical 
Society of Queensland. 

Nelson married in 1870 Janet, daughter 
of Duncan Mclntyre, who survived him. 
They had issue two sons and three daughters. 

[Brisbane Courier, 2 Jan. 1906 ; Mennell's 
Diet, of Australas. Biog. ; John's Notable 
Austrahans ; Who's Who, 1905.] C. A. H. 

NERUDA, WILMA. [See HAixi;, Lady 
(183&-1911), violinist.] 

(1841-1902), animal painter and author, born 
at Kettering, Northamptonshire, on 11 Feb. 
1841, was second son of Henry John Nettle- 
ship, solicitor there, and brother of Henry 
[q. v.], of Richard Lewis [q. v.], and of 
Edward, the ophthalmic surgeon. His 
mother was IsabeUa Ann, daughter of James 
Hogg, vicar of Geddington and master of 
Kettering grammar school. Music was 


hereditary in the family, and Nettleship was 
for some time a chorister at New College, 
Oxford. Afterwards he was sent to the 
cathedral school at Durham, where his 
brother Henry had preceded him. Having ■ 
won the English verse prize on * Venice ' 
in 1856, he was taken away comparatively 
yoimg, in order to enter his father's office. 
There he remained for two or three years, 
finishing his articles in London. Though 
admitted a solicitor and in practice for a 
brief period, he now resolved to devote 
himself to art, in which he had shown 
proficiency from childhood. Accordingly 
he entered himself as a student at Heather- 
ley's and at the Slade School in London, 
but to the last he was largely independent 
and self-taught. His first work was in 
black and wliite, not for publication, but 
to satisfy his natural temperament, which 
always led him to the imaginative and the 
grandiose. It is to be regretted that none 
of the designs conceived during this early 
period was ever properly finished. They 
include biblical scenes, such as * Jacob 
wrestling with the Angel ' and ' A Sower 
went forth to sow,' which have been 
deservedly compared with the work of 
William Blake. Nothing was publishe4 
under his own name, except a poor re- 
production of a ' Head of Minos,' in 
the • Yellow Book ' (April 1904). But the 
illustrations to * An Epic of Women ' 
(1870), by his friend, Arthur William 
Edgar O'Shaughnessy [q. v.], are his ; 
and his handiwork may likewise be traced 
in a little volume of ' Emblems ' by 
Mrs. A. Chohnondeley (1875), where his 
name erroneously appears on the title-page 
as 'J. J. Nettleship.' 

These designs reveal one aspect of his 
character, a delight in the manifestations 
of physical vigour. He was himself in his 
youth a model of virility. As a boy he was 
a bold rider in the hunting field. tVhen he 
came to London he took lessons in boxing 
from a famous prize-fighter, and more 
than once walked to Brighton in a day. 
He accompanied a friend, (Sir) Henry 
Cotton, on a mountaineering expedition 
to the Alps, for which they trained together 
bare-footed in the early morning round 
Regent's Park. It was this delight in 
physical prowess and in wild Ufe that now 
induced him to become a painter of animals. 
His studies were made almost daily in the 
Zoological Gardens ; and for twenty-seven 
years (1874-1901) he exhibited spacious oil 
pictures of lions, tigers, etc., at the Royal 
Academy and for most of the period at the 
Grosvenor Gallery. Though always noble 



in conception and often effective in group- 
ing and in colour, these pictures failed 
somewhat in technique and were not simple 
enough for the popular taste. At one time 
more than a dozen of them were exhibited 
together in the Com Exchange at Glou- 
cester ; but a scheme for purchasing the 
collection fell through, and they are 
now dispersed. In 1880 Nettleship was 
invited to India by the Gaekwar of Baroda, 
for whom he painted a cheetah hunt as 
well as an equestrian portrait, and was 
thus enabled to see something of wild 
animals in their native haunts. In his 
later years he took to the medium of pastel, 
and, painting his old subjects on a smaller 
scale, acquired a wider measure of 

Nettleship was far more than a painter. 
His intellectual sympathies were unusually 
wide. In 1868, when only twenty-seven, 
he published a volume of ' Essays on 
Robert Bro^vning's Poetry,' which was 
probably the first serious study of the poet, 
and has passed through three editions with 
considerable enlargements, of which the 
latest is entitled ' Robert Browning : 
Essays and Thoughts ' (1895). The book 
brought about an intimate friendship 
between the poet and his critic. Another 
book that shows both his mature power of 
literary expression and his opinions about 
his own art is ' George Morland and the 
Evolution from him of some Later Painters ' 
(1898). Here there are touches of self- 
portraiture. Among the books illustrated 
by him may be mentioned ' Natural 
History Sketches among the Camivora,' 
by A. Nicols (1885). and ' Iceboimd on 
Kolguev,' by A. B. R. Trevor Battye (1895). 

Aiter a long and painful illness, Nettleship 
died in London on 31 Aug. 1902, and was 
buried at Kensal Green cemetery. He 
married in 1876 Ada, daughter of James 
Hinton [q. v.], the aiural surgeon ; she 
survived; him with three daughters, the 
eldest of whom was married to Augustus 
E. Jolm, and died in Paris in 1909. 

A memorial tablet in bronze, designed 
by Sir George Frampton, with the aid of 
two brother artists, who were bom in the 
same town. Sir Alfred East and Thomas 
Cooper Gotch, has been placed in the 
parish church at Kettering. 

[Personal knowledge; Sir Henry Cotton, 
Indian and Home Memories, 1911; Graves's 
Roj'al Academy Contributors.] J. S. C. 

NEUBAUER, ADOLF (1832-1907), 
orientahst, was bom at Kotteso, in the 
county of Trentsen, in the north of Hun- 

gary, on 7 March 1832. His father, Jacob 
Neubauer, a Jewish merchant, who was 
a good Tahnudic scholar, belonged to a 
family which had received the right of resi- 
dence in the same neighbourhood in 1610 ; 
his mother was AmaUe Langfelder. 

Designed by his father for the rabbinate, 
Neubauer received his first education from 
his cousin, Moses Neubauer, also a good 
Tahnudist. About 1850 he became a 
teacher in the Jewish School at Kottesd. 
Soon afterwards he went to Prague, where 
he attended the lectures of the critical 
rabbinical scholar, S. J. L. Rapoport, 
learnt French, Italian, and Arabic, studied 
mathematics, and finally (15 Dec. 1853) 
matriculated in the university. Between 
1854 and 1856 he studied oriental languages 
at the University of Mimich. In 1857 he 
went to Paris, where he resided till 1868, 
except for visits to libraries to examine 
manuscripts, and a somewhat long sojourn 
in Jerusalem, where he held a post at the 
Austrian consulate. At Paris he was 
attracted by the rich MS. treasures of the 
imperial library, and made the acquaint- 
ance of Salomon Munk, who was engaged in 
the study of the Judaeo-Arabic literature 
of the middle ages, of Joseph Derenbourg, 
of Ernest Renan, and other orientalists. 
The influence of his Paris surroundings led 
Neubauer to adopt as his life's work the 
study, description, and, where circumstances 
permitted, the publication, of mediaeval 
Jewish manuscripts. Thus in 1861-2 he 
published in the ' Journal Asiatique ' (vols. 
18-20) numerous extracts and translations 
from a lexical work of David ben Abraham 
of Fez (10th century), the MS. of which 
he had discovered in a Karaite synagogue 
in Jerusalem ; and in 1866, after a visit 
to St. Petersburg, he published a volume 
' Aus der Petersburger Bibliothek,' consist- 
ing of excerpts from MSS. preserved there, 
relating to the history and literature of the 
Karaites. He did not altogether lay aside 
other studies, and in 1863 won the prize 
offered by the Academie des Inscriptions et 
Belles-Lettres for a critical exposition of 
the geography of Palestine, as set forth in 
the two Talmuds and other post-Biblical 
Jewish writings. His work ' La Geo- 
graphic du Talmud : Memoire couronne 
par I'Academie ' appeared in 1868. Though 
not free from errors, it displayed a remark- 
able thoroughness and mastery of facts ; 
and at once placed its author in the first 
rank of Rabbinical scholars. 

Already in 1866 Neubauer had visited 
Oxford, for the purpose of examining the 
large collection of Hebrew MSS. in the 



Bodleian Library. The printed Hebrew 
books in the library had been catalogued 
shortly before (1852-60) by Moritz Stein- 
schneider ; and in 1868 the curators en- 
trusted to Neubauer the task of cataloguing 
the Hebrew MSS. in the library. Oxford 
became henceforth Neubauer's home till 
1901. The work of cataloguing and properly 
describing the MSS. was long and arduous. 
In the end the catalogue appeared in 1886 — 
a large quarto volume of 1168 columns, 
containing descriptions of 2602 MSS. 
(many consisting of from 20 to 50 distinct 
works), and accompanied by an atlas of 
forty facsimile plates, illustrating the 
Hebrew palaeography of different countries 
and periods. In spite of his engrossing 
labours on the catalogue, Neubauer found 
time for much important literary work 
besides. In 1873 he was appointed sub- 
librarian of the Bodleian Library. His 
knowledge, not merely of Hebrew, but of 
foreign literature generally, was extensive ; 
and while he was sub-librarian both the 
foreign and the Oriental departments of 
the library were maintained with great 
efficiency. The first to recognise, in 1890, 
the value for Jewish literature of the 
' Genizah,' or depository attached to a 
synagogue, in which MSS. no longer in use 
were put away, he obtained for the library, 
in course of time, from the ' Genizah ' 
at Old Cairo, as many as 2675 items, 
consisting frequently of several leaves, 
and including many of considerable interest 
and value. The catalogue of these frag- 
ments, with very detailed descriptions, 
was begun by Neubauer (vol. i. 1886) ; but 
it was completed and published by (Dr.) 
A. E. Cowley, his successor in the library, 
in 1906. 

Neubauer also, during 1875, edited from 
a Bodleian and a Rouen MS. the Arabic 
text of the Hebrew dictionary (the 'Book 
of Hebrew Roots') of Abu-'l-Walid (11th 
century), a work of extreme importance 
in the history of Hebrew lexicography, 
which was known before only from ex- 
cerpts and quotations. In 1876 he 
published, at the instance of Dr. Pusey, 
an interesting catena of more than fifty 
Jewish expositions of Isaiah liii., which was 
followed in 1877 by a volume of transla- 
tions, the joint work of himself and the 
present writer. In the same year (1877) 
there appeared, in vol. xxvii. of ' L'Histoire 
litteraire de la France,' a long section 
(pp. 431-753) entitled ' Les Rabbins 
Frangais du commencement du XIV^ 
si^cle,' which, though its literary form 
was due to Renan, was based throughout 

upon materials collected by Neubauer. 
A continuation of this work, called ' Les 
Ecrivains Juifs fran9ais du XIV^ si^cle ' 
(vol. 31 of * L'Histoire Utteraire,' pp. 351- 
802) based similarly on materials supplied 
by Neubauer, appeared in 1893. These 
two volumes on the French rabbis, stored 
as they are with abundant and minute 
information, drawn from the most varied 
and recondite sources, including not only 
Hebrew and German journals, but unpub- 
lished MSS. in the libraries of Oxford, 
Paris, the south of France, Spain, Italy, and 
other countries, form perhaps the most re- 
markable monument of Neubauer's industry 
and learning. In 1884 he was appointed 
reader in Rabbinic Hebrew in the University 
of Oxford. In 1887 he published (in the 
series called ' Anecdota Oxoniensia ') a 
volume (in Hebrew) of ' Mediaeval Jewish 
Chronicles and Chronological Notes,' which 
was followed in 1895 by a second volume 
bearing the same title. He also issued, in 
1878, a previously unknown Aramaic text 
of the Book of Tobit, from a MS. acquired 
in Constantinople for the Bodleian Library ; 
and in 1897 edited, with much valuable 
illustrative matter, the original Hebrew of 
ten chapters of Ecclesiasticus from some 
manuscript leaves, which had been dis- 
covered in a box of fragments from the 
Cairo Genizah. A constant contributor 
to learned periodicals both at home and 
abroad, he published in the ' Jewish 
Quarterly Review ' (1888-9, vol. i.) four 
able articles entitled ' Where are the Ten 
Tribes ? ' and valuable essays in the Oxford 
' Studia Biblica ' in 1885, 1890, and 1891. 

Neubauer's unremitting labours told 
upon his health. About 1890 his eyesight 
began to fail him. In 1899 he resigned his 
librarianship, and in 1900 his readership. 
He resided in Oxford, in broken health, till 
1901, when he went to live imder the care 
of his nephew. Dr. Adolf Biichler, a dis- 
tinguished Rabbinical scholar, at Vienna. 
When Biichler was appointed vice-president 
of Jews' College, London, in 1906, Neubauer 
returned with him to England, and died 
unmarried at his nephew's house on 
6 April 1907. 

Neubauer was created M.A. of Oxford by 
diploma in 1873, and he was elected an hon. 
fellow of Exeter College in 1890. He was an 
hon. Ph.D. of Heidelberg, an hon. member 
of the Real Academia de la Historia at 
Madrid, and a corresponding member of the 
Academic des Inscriptions et Belles-Lettres 
in Paris. A portrait, painted by L. Campbell 
Taylor in 1900, is in the Bodleian Library. 

Neubauer was nowhere more at home 



than among the manuscripts of a library. 
He quickly discovered what manuscripts of 
value a library contained, and habitually 
excerpted passages of interest. As a 
Hebrew bibliographer, he was second 
only to Steinschneider (1816-1907). At 
Oxford he stimulated and encouraged the 
studies of younger scholars. By example 
and precept he taught the importance of 
independent research. He retained his 
racial shrewdness and his quaint humour 
almost to the last. Though he did not 
practise Jewish observances, he was strongly | 
Jewish in sjonpathy. He wrote an excel- 
lent Hebrew style. I 

[Personal knowledge ; Jewish Chronicle, 
8 March 1901, 12 April 1907; Je^vish 
World, 19 April 1907 ; AUgemeine Zeitung 
des Judentums, 3 and 10 Jan. 1908.] 

S. R. D. 

NEVILLE, HENRY (1837-1910), actor, 
whose full name was Thomas Henry 
Gartside Neville, bom at Manchester 
on 20 June 1837, was son of John Neville 
(1787-1874), manager of the Queen's 
Theatre, Spring Gardens, and of his second 
wife, Marianne, daughter of Capt. Gartside 
of Woodbrow, Saddleworth, Lancashire. 
He was the twentieth child of a twentieth 
child, both being the issue of a second 
marriage. A brother George was also an 

At three he was brought on the stage in 
his father's arms as the child in ' Pizarro ' ; 
but he forfeited all help from his father 
by refusing to join the army like other 
members of the family. In 1857, at Preston, 
he took to the stage as a profession. When 
John Vandenhoff bade leave to the stage 
on 29 Oct. 1858, at the Theatre Royal, 
Liverpool, Neville played Cromwell to the 
tragedian's Cardinal Wolsey in ' King 
Henry VIII,' act iii. After a stem 
novitiate in the north of England and in 
Scotland, he first appeared in London at the 
Lyceum Theatre, under Madame Celeste, 
on 8 Oct. 1860, as Percy Ardent in a 
revival of Boucicault's ' The Irish Heiress.' 
Prof. Henry Morley hailed him as ' a new 
actor of real mark.' After other provincial 
engagements he spent four years at the 
Olympic under Robson and Emden 
(1862-6), and the experience proved the 
turning-point in his career. On 2 May 1863 
he was the original Bob Brierley in Tom 
Taylor's ' The Ticket of Leave Man,' a 
character in which he made the success of 
his life. He played it in all some 2000 
times. In May 1864, while Tom Taylor's 
play was still rurming, Neville also 
appeared as Petruchio in the afterpiece of 

' Catherine and Petruchio,' and was highly 
praised for his speaking of blank verse. 
On 27 Oct. 1866 he was the first pro- 
fessional exponent of Richard Wardour in 
Wilkie Collins' s ' The Frozen Deep,' a 
character originally performed by Charles 

Neville's impassioned and romantic style 
of acting, which gave a character to the 
Olympic productions, contrasted with the 
over-charged, highly coloured style then 
current at the Adelphi. But early in 1867 
he migrated to the Adelphi, where, on 
16 March, he was the original Job Armroyd 
in Watts Phillips's ' Lost in London,' and 
on 1 June the original Farmer Allen in 
Charles Reade's version of Tennyson's 
' Dora.' On 31 Aug., on Miss Kate Terry's 
farewell, he played Romeo to her Juliet, 
and on 26 Dec. he was the original George 
Vendale in Dickens and CoUins's 'No 
Thoroughfare.' On 7 Nov. 1868 'The 
Yellow Passport,' Neville's own version 
of Victor Hugo's ' Les Miserables,' was 
produced at the Olympic \vith himself as 
Jean Valjean. At the Gaiety on 19 July 
1869 he played an important role in 
Gilbert's first comedy, ' An Old Score,' and 
at the Adelphi in June 1870 he originated 
the leading character of the industrious 
Sheffield mechanic in Charles Reade's ' Put 
Yourself in his Place.' 

From 1873 to 1879 Neville was lessee and 
manager of the Olympic Theatre. After 
experiencing failure with Byron's comedy 
' Sour Grapes' (4 Nov. 1873) and Mortimer's 
' The School for Intrigue ' (1 Dec.) he scored 
success through his acting of Lord Clan- 
carty in Tom Taylor's ' Lady Clancarty ' 
(March 1874), and with Oxenford's 'The 
Two Orphans ' (14 Sept.), which enjoyed a 
great vogue and was revived at the end of 
his tenancy. Other of his original parts 
which were popular were the badly drawn 
title-part in Wills's ' Buckingham ' (4 Dec. 
1875), the hunchback in his own version of 
Coppee's ' The VioUn-maker of Cremona ' 
(2 July 1877), Franklin Blake in Wilkie 
CoUins's 'The Moonstone' (22 Sept.), and 
JeffreyRoUestone in Gilbert's ' The Ne'er-do- 
Weel' (2 March 1878). Subsequently he 
played at the Adelphi for two years, opening 
there on 27 Feb. 1879 as Perrinet Leclerc 
in Clement Scott and E. Mavriel's ' The 
Crimson Cross,' and acting to advantage 
on 7 Feb. 1880 St. Cyr in WiUs's new 
drama, ' Ninon.' In a successful revival of 
' The School for Scandal ' at the Vaudeville, 
on 4 Feb. 1882, he proved a popular, if 
somewhat heavy, Charles Surface. A little 
later he was supporting Madame Modjeska 




in the provinces as the Earl of Leicester 
in Wingfield's ' Mary Stuart ' and as Jaques 
in ' As You Like It.' On 25 Oct. 1884 he 
was the original George Kingsmill in Mr. 
Henry Arthur Jones's ' Saints and Sinners ' 
at the Vaudeville. 

Thenceforth Neville chiefly confined 
himself to romantic heroes in melodrama. 
On 12 Sept. 1885 he was the original 
Captain Temple in Pettitt and Harris's 
' Human Nature ' at Drury Lane, and 
after playing in many like pieces he went to 
America in 1890 with Sir Augustus Harris's 
company to sustain that character. He 
opened at the Boston Theatre, Boston, and 
appeared as Captain Temple for 200 
nights, the play then being re-named ' The 
Soudan.' On his return to London he 
appeared at the Princess's on 11 Feb. 1892 
as Jack Holt in ' The Great Metropolis,' a 
nautical melodrama, of which he was part 
author. During the succeeding fourteen 
years he continued with occasional inter- 
ruptions to originate prominent characters 
in the autumn melodramas at Drury Lane. 
His last appearance on the stage was at 
His Majesty's at a matinee on 29 April 
1910, when he played Sir OUver in a scene 
from ' The School for Scandal.' 

Neville's art reflected his buoyant, breezy 
nature and his generous mind. A romantic 
actor of the old flamboyant school, he 
succeeded in prolonging lus popularity by 
an adroit compromise with latter-day con- 
ditions. He believed that the principles 
of acting could be taught, and in 1878 
established a dramatic studio in Oxford 
Street, in whose fortunes he continued for 
many years to take a vivid interest. In 
1875 he published a pamphlet giving the 
substance of a lecture on ' The Stage, 
its Past and Present in Relation to Fine 

Although he lived for the theatre, 
Neville was a man of varied accomplish- 
ments. He painted, carved, and modelled 
with taste, took a keen interest in sport, 
was a volunteer and crack rifle shot, and 
once placed the St. George's Vase to 
the credit of his corps. He was also a 
man of sound business capacity, and 
long conducted the George Hotel at 

Neville died at the Esplanade, Seaford, 
Sussex, on 19 June 1910, from heart failure 
as the result of an accident, and was buried 
at Denshaw, Saddleworth, Lancashire. 
By his marriage with Henrietta Waddell, 
a non-professional, he left four sons, none 
of them on the stage. The gross value 
of his estate was estimated at 18,671/. 

(see his will in Evening Standard of 
23 Nov. 1910). A full-length portrait 
in oils of him as Count Ahnaviva in 
Mortimer's ' The School for Intrigue ' (1874), 
by J. Walton, is in the Garrick Club. 

[Pascoe's Dramatic List ; Prof. Henry 
Morley's Journal of a London Playgoer ; 
R. J. Broadbent's Annals of the Liverpool 
Stage ; The Era Almanack, 1887, p. 36 ; 
Button Cook's Nights at the Play ; Mowbray 
Morris's Essays in Theatrical Criticism ; 
Joseph Knight's Theatrical Notes; The 
Green Room Book^ 1909; Daily Telegraph, 
20 June 1910 ; private information and 
personal research.] W. J. L. 

(1824-1903), divine and author, born at 
Burford, Oxfordshire, on 30 March 1824, 
was second son of George Newmarch, 
sohcitor, of Cirencester, by Mary his wife. 
He traced his descent as far back as the 
Norman Conquest. After education from 
March 1837 at Rugby, whither his elder 
brother, George Frederick, had gone in 1830, 
he spent some time in the merchant shipping 
service and in Eastern travel. Of his East- 
ern experience he gave an account in ' Five 
Years in the East,' published in 1847 under 
the pseudonym of R. N. Hutton, which 
attracted favourable attention. In 1848 
appeared anonymously his interesting ' Re- 
collections of Rugby, by an old Rugbeian ' 
(12mo), and in the same year a novel, 
' Jealousy ' (3 vols.). SettUng in Cirencester, 
Newmarch showed keen interest in the 
antiquities of the neighbourhood, and in 
1850 wrote with Professor James Buckman 
[q. v.] ' Illustrations of the Remains of 
Roman Art in Cirencester ' (4to ; 2nd edit. 
1851). He was chiefly instrumental in 
founding in 1851 the ' Cirencester and Swin- 
don Express,' which was soon amalgamated 
with the ' Wilts and Gloucester Standard.' 
He was joint editor of the paper, and till the 
end of his life was a regular contributor 
under the name of ' Rambler.' He issued 
with his brother in 1868 a brief account of 
the ' Newmarch pedigree.' 

Newmarch matriculated at Corpus 
Christi College, Cambridge, in 1851, 
graduating B.A. in 1855. Taking holy 
orders in 1854, he was from 1856 to 1893 
rector of Wardley-cum-Belton, Rutland, and 
rural dean of the district from 1857 to 1867. 
He was greatly interested in agricultural 
matters, contributing much to ' Bell's Life ' 
on the subject ; he championed the cause 
of the village labourers, who stoutly de- 
fended him against the attacks of Joseph 
Arch, when Arch visited Belton in his tour 
of the village districts in 1872. He took an 



active paxt in church building in Rutland, 
and restored; the chancel of his parish 
church. Increasing deafness led to his retire- 
ment in 1893 to 37;.Upper Grosvenor Road, 
Tunbridge Wells, where he died on 14 June 
1903. ,...1 

Newmarch married on 6 Feb. 1855, at 
Leckhampton, Anne Straford of Cheltenham 
and Charlton Kings, and had issue two sons 
and three daughters. One daughter sur- 
vived him. A tablet to his memory was 
erected in Belton church in 1912. 

[The Times, 20 June 1903; Guardian, 
1 July 1903 ; Rugby School Register, 1901, 
ii. 293 ; information from son-in-law, the Rev. 
J. B. Booth.] W. B. O. 

NEWNES, Sir GEORGE, first baronet 
(1851-1910), newspaper and magazine 
projector, born at Glenorchy House, 
Matlock, on 13 March 1851, was youngest 
son of three sons and three daughters of 
Thomas Mold Newnes {d. 1883), a con- 
gregational minister at Matlock, by his 
wife Sarah {d. 1885), daughter of Daniel 
Urquhart of Dundee. Educated at Sil- 
coates, Yorkshire, and at the City 
of London School, he was apprenticed 
when sixteen to a wholesale firm in 
the City of London. Three years after 
completing his apprenticeship he was 
placed by another London firm of dealers 
in fancy goods in charge of a branch 
business in Manchester, and there suddenly 
conceived the idea of a journal which should 
consist wholly of popularly entertaining 
and interesting anecdotes, or, as he termed, 
them ' tit-bita,' extracted from all available 
sources. This idea proved the foundation 
of his fortune. Within twelve months 
he made plans for producing such a 
periodical. Negotiations in Manchester for 
financial help to the extent of 5001. failed. 
Scraping together all the money he could, 
Newnes accordingly produced with his own 
resources on 2 Oct. 1881 the first number 
of the weekly paper which he christened 
' Tit-Bits.' He engaged the Newsboys' 
Brigade to sell it in the streets. Within 
two hours 5000 copies were sold. 

The paper grew in popularity, and after 
producing it in Manchester for three years 
with increasing success, Newnes transferred 
the publication to London, where he opened 
offices first in Farringdon Street, and later 
in Burleigh Street and Southampton Street. 
Other bold innovations upon a publisher's 
business followed. By instituting the ' Tit- 
Bits ' prize competitions, including the offer 
(on 17 Nov. 1883) of a house, ' Tit-Bits 
Villa,' at Dulwich, of the value of 800/. 

as one of the first prizes, he appealed 
in a new fashion to a widespread popular 
instinct which has since been developed 
to immense profit and in endless ways by 
the proprietors of other publications. 
Equally original and successful was his 
insurance plan, which constituted each 
copy of ' Tit-Bits ' a railway accident 
policy for the purchaser. These expensive 
schemes, which were lavmched by Newnes 
only after most careful consideration, and 
in spite of general predictions of failure, 
gave excellent returns. One of his prizes, 
a situation in the office of ' Tit-Bits,' was 
won in Sept. 1884 by Mr. Cyril Arthur 
Pearson, who rose to be manager of the 
paper, and left in July 1890 to start 
' Pearson's Weekly.' A frequent con- 
tributor to the page ' Answers to Cor- 
respondents ' was Mr. Alfred Harmsworth 
(now Lord NorthcUffe), who as a result 
foimded in 1888 * Answers,' a rival paper 
to Tit-Bits. The popularity of the com- 
petitions became so great that in one day no 
less than two hundred sacks of letters were 
received. The paper meanwhile improved. 
It ceased to be a collection of extracts only 
and included in increasing proportion con- 
tributions by authors of note. 

In 1890 Newnes, at the suggestion of 
his schoolfellow, William Thomas Stead, 
brought out the first number of the 
' Review of Reviews,' with Stead as 
editor ; but after a few months Stead and 
Newnes separated, Stead taking sole charge 
of the ' Review,' while Newnes in 1891 
started the ' Strand Magazine,' combining 
on a large scale popular illustration with 
pop\ilar literary matter at the price of six- 
pence. In January 1893 he made a still 
bolder venture. At the close of 1892 the 
' PaU Mall Gazette,' an evening daily news- 
paper, which was then a hberal journal, 
edited by (Sir) E. T. Cook, suddenly changed 
hands and politics. Newnes promptly en- 
gaged the services of the whole superseded 
literary staff of the ' Pall Mall Gazette ' and 
started on 31 Jan. 1893 the ' Westminster 
Gazette ' as a new organ of the Uberal party. 
Newnes's friends in the party were nervous 
about investing their money, but Newnes 
had full confidence in himself, and succeeded 
in giving the paper financial stability. His 
publishing firm was incorporated in 1891 
as a limited company with a capital of 
400,000/. and reconstructed in 1897, when 
the capital was increased to 1,000,000/. 
Among the new ventures which followed 
from the house of George Newnes, Ltd., 
were : ' Country Life ' (1897), the ' Ladies' 
Field,' the ' Wide Worid Magazine ' (both 




in 1898), and 'C. B. Fry's Magazine' 

Newnes entered Parliament in 1885 as 
member for the Newmarket division of 
Cambridgeshire, which he represented in the 
liberal interest until 1895, when he lost his 
seat, and was rewarded for his services to 
his party by a baronetcy. The prime 
minister, Lord Rosebery, stated that the 
honour was conferred on him as a pioneer 
of clean popular literature. Newnes was 
returned for Swansea Town in 1900, and 
represented that constituency until the 
general election of 1910. 

Newnes applied much of his wealth to 
public purposes. His London residence was 
on Putney Heath, and he took great interest 
in the welfare of Putney. In 1897, the year 
of the diamond jubilee, he presented a new 
and spacious library at a cost of 16,000Z., 
the building being opened by Lord Russell 
of Killowen, the lord chief justice, in May 
1899. In 1898 he fitted out at his own ex- 
pense the South Polar Expedition, under the 
guidance of the Norwegian explorer 0. E. 
Borchgrevinck. His sympathy with suffer- 
ing was always strong. The painful sight 
of horses toiling up the steep ascent from 
Ljoimouth to Lynton in Devon, where he 
acquired a country residence, led him to 
build a cUff railway there. Similarly 
he met the difficulty which was felt by 
invalids in mounting to the heights at his 
birthplace, Matlock, by building a cable 
railway for their use, which he presented to 
the town on 28 March 1893. He died at his 
residence in Lynton on 9 June 1910, and 
was buried at Lynton. 

Newnes married in 1875 Priscilla Jenney, 
daughter of the Rev. James Hillyard of 
Leicester, by whom he had two sons, of 
whom the younger, Arthur, died in child- 
hood. The elder son, Frank Hillyard 
Newnes, his successor in the baronetcy, 
has been since 1906 M.P. for Bassetlaw, 

A memorial tablet in the corridor near 
the entrance to the Putney library was 
unveiled on 23 May 1911 ; it consists of a 
bronze bust of Newnes in relief against a 
white marble background, designed by 
Mr. Oliver Wheatley. A cartoon portrait by 
' Spy ' appeared in ' Vanity Fair ' in 1894. 

[Life of Sir George Newnes, by Hulda 
Friederichs (with portrait), 1911 ; T. H. S. 
Escott, Masters of English Journalism, 1911 ; 
Mitchell's Newspaper Directory, 1911, p. 16 ; 
Putney News-letter, 12 June 1910 ; Tit- 
Bits, 25 June 1910 ; The Times, 10 June 1910; 
Whitaker's Red Book of Commerce ; private 
information.] C. W. 

NEWTON, ALFRED (1829-1907), zoo- 
logist, born at Geneva on 11 June 1829, was 
fifth son of WUUam Newton of Elveden, 
Suffolk, sometime M.P. for Ipswich, and 
EUzabeth, daughter of Richard Slater Milnes 
of Fryston, Yorkshire, and aunt of Richard 
Monckton Milnes first Baron Houghton 
[q. V.]. In 1848 Newton left home for Mag- 
dalene College, Cambridge. He obtained the 
English essay prize there in two successive 
years and graduated B.A. in 1853. From 
1854 until 1863 he held the Drury travelUng 
fellowship, making use of the endowment in 
the study of ornithology, a subject to which 
he had been attached from boyhood. He 
visited Lapland with John WoUey, the orni- 
thologist, in the summer of 1855, and in 1858 
they went together to Iceland and sought 
out the last nesting-place of the great auk. 
Newton stayed in the West Indies in 1857 
and went thence to North America. In 
1864 he paid a visit to Spitzbergen on the 
yacht of Sir Edmund Birkbeck, and he 
made several summer voyages round the 
British Isles with the ornithologist Henry 
Evans of Derby, so that he was acquainted 
with almost all the breeding-places of their 
sea-birds. All these travels he accom- 
plished in spite of lameness due to hip- 
joint disease in childhood, which later in 
life was aggravated by an injury to the 
other leg. Newton made no complaint, 
though he had to use two sticks instead 
of one, and went about his work with un- 
diminished assiduity. He wrote the ' Zoo- 
logy of Ancient Europe ' in 1862 and the 
'Ornithology of Iceland' in 1863. A 
chair of zoology and comparative anatomy 
was founded at Cambridge, and Newton 
was appoinled the first professor in March 
1866 ; he held office till his death. His 
lectures were the least important part of 
his work as professor. The subject was 
almost unknown in the university, whether 
among the undergraduates or the ruUng 
authorities, and the professor had to create 
a general interest in it and to improve the 
museum and other apparatus for its study. 
Newton did his best to make the acquaint- 
ance of every undergraduate who had any 
taste for natural history and to encourage 
him. Every Sunday evening at his rooms 
in the old lodge of Magdalene such under- 
graduates found a cheery welcome and 
pleasant talk, and many of them became 
lifelong friends of the professor and of one 
another. Charles Kingsley was sometimes 
there and talked on the land tortoise and the 
red deer or on the natural history of the New 
Forest. George Robert Crotch, the first cole- 
opterist of his time, was generally present. 




and started fresh paradoxes on every possible 
subject every evening. Newton's own talk, 
which was most often on birds or on the 
countries to which he had travelled, was 
always full, exact, and interesting, and 
exhibited a pleasant sense of humour. 
The rooms in which this circle met con- 
tained a fine ornithological Ubrary, and 
where the walls were vacant a few pictures 
of birds, of which the finest was a drawing 
of gerfalcons by Wolff, the celebrated 
artist of birds. The accuracy which 
Newton encouraged in others he reqiiired 
from himself, and for this reason his works 
often took long to complete. His large 
book ' Ootheca WoUeyana,' an account of 
the collection of birds' eggs made by his 
friend John WoUey, appeared from 1864 
to 1902, and contains an interesting 
biography of the collector. The collection 
of eggs was given to Newton by Wolley's 
father, and Newton presented it, with his 
own large collection, to the University of 
Cambridge. The ' Dictionary of Birds,' 
which appeared 1893-6, is probably his 
greatest work. He had prepared himself 
for such a book by his ' Ornithology of 
Iceland,' pubUshed in Baring Gould's 
' Iceland ' in 1863 ; his ' Aves ' in the 
' Record of Zoological Literature,' vols, i.-vi. ; 
his ' Birds of Greenland,' printed in the 
' Arctic Manual ' ; and by many papers in 
the ' Ibis ' and other scientific journals. , 
He wrote the article on ornithology in the 
ninth edition of the ' Encyclopaedia Britan- 
nica,' and that on GUbert White in this 
Dictionary ; he edited the ' Ibis ' from 1865 
to 1870, the ' Zoological Record ' from 1870 
to 1872, and the fixst two volumes of the 
fourth edition of YarreU's ' British Birds,' ; 
1871-82. He was elected F.R.S. in 1870, and j 
received the royal medal of the society in [ 
1900, and the gold medal of the Liimsean ; 
Society in the same year. He used to attend 
the meetings of the British Association, and 
it was due to its action, stimulated by him, 
that the first three acts of parUament for the 
protection of birds were passed. He was 
for several years chairman of the committee 
for studying the migration of birds 
appointed by that association, and he was 
constantly referred to by the pubUc and 
by individual students as the chief authority 
of his time on ornithology, and always 
promptly endeavoured to answer the 
questions put to him. He was one of the 
founders of the British Ornithologists' 
Union and was a frequent contributor to 
its journal, the ' Ibis.' The dodo and the 
great auk were birds in which he took 
particular interest, and when his brother, 

Edward Newton, brought him from 
Mauritius a fine series of dodo bones 
Newton generously sent some as a gift 
to Professor Schlegel of Leyden, who had 
been one of his chief opponents as regards 
the columbine affinities of the bird. To- 
wards the end of his Ufe he appointed Mr. 
WiUiam Bateson to lecture for him, but 
continued to show active interest in all the 
other work of his professorship, and was 
always a constant resident diiring term- 
time at Cambridge. Throughout his career 
he took a large part in university affairs, 
and conducted with his own hand a very 
heavy pubUc and private correspondence. 
In his last years some of the fellows of 
Magdalene thought him too arbitrary in 
his attachment to simple food and old 
usages, but outside their microcosm the 
Johnsonian force with which he expressed 
his convictions only added to the charm 
of his society. His final illness was a 
cardiac failure, and when the Master of 
Magdalene paid a last visit to him Newton 
said ' God bless all my friends, God bless 
the coUege, and may the study of zoology 
continue to flourish in this university ! ' 
He died unmarried on 7 June 1907. He 
was buried in the Huntingdon Road 
cemetery at Cambridge. 

His portrait, by Lowes Dickinson, is at 
Magdalene College, Cambridge. 

[Proc. Roy. Soc, 80 B., 1908; Trans. 
Norfolk Nat. Soc. viii. 1908; W. H. Hud- 
leston's account in the Ibis, 1907; Newton's 
Memoir of John Wolley, 1902 ; 0. B. Moffat, 
Life and Letters of ' A. G. More, 1898 ; 
F. Darwin, Life and Letters of Charles 
Darwin, 1887 ; H. E. Litchfield, Emma 
Darwin : a Century of Family Letters, 
Cambridge, 1904 (privately printed) ; A. C. 
Benson, Leaves of the Tree, 1911, pp. 132 
seq. ; Field, 15 June 1907 ; Newton's works ; 
personal knowledge.] N. M. 

baronet (1808-1903), chancellor of the 
University of Sydney, New South Wales, 
bom at Bedale, Yorkshu-e, on 23 Nov. 
1808, was only surviving cliild of Charles 
Nicholson of London, by Barbara, young- 
est daughter of John Ascough of Bedale. 
Graduating M.D. at Edinburgh University 
in 1833, he emigrated to AustraUa, and 
settled on some property belonging to his 
uncle near Sydney in May 1834. Here for 
some time he practised as a physician with 
success. A good classical scholar, well read 
in history and science, an able writer and 
lucid speaker, he soon prominently identi- 
fied himself with the social and poUtical 
interests of the colony. In June 1843 he 




was returned to the first legislative council 
of New South Wales as one of the five 
members for the Port PhiUip district (now 
the state of Victoria). In July 1848, and 
again in Sept. 1851, he was elected member 
for the county of Argyle. From 2 May 1844 
to 19 May 1846 he was chairman of com- 
mittees of the legislative council, and on 
20 May 1847, in May 1849, and October 
1851, he was chosen speaker, retaining the 
office until the grant to the colony of re- 
sponsible government in 1855-6, when he 
became for a short time a member of the 
executive council. 

When in 1859 the district of Moreton Bay 
was separated from New South Wales and 
formed into the colony of Queensland, 
Nicholson was nominated on 1 May I860 
a member of the legislative council of the 
new colony, and was president during 
the first session, resigning the office on 
28 Aug. 1860. 

Nicholson was from the first a powerful 
advocate of popular education in New 
South Wales. He was a member of the 
select committee to inquire into the state 
of education in the colony moved for by 
Robert Lowe (afterwards Lord Sherbrooke), 
on whose report the educational systems 
of the Austrahan colonies have in the 
main been based. But his name is more 
intimately associated with the foundation 
of the University of Sydney. He watched 
over its early fortunes with unremitting 
care, was a generous donor to its funds, 
and endowed it with many valuable gifts, 
including the museum of Egyptian, Etrus- 
can, Greek, and Roman antiquities which 
he collected with much personal exertion 
and at considerable cost. He was instru- 
mental in obtaining a grant of arms from 
the Heralds' College in 1857, and the 
royal charter from Queen Victoria in 1858. 
On 3 March 1851 he was unanimously 
elected vice-provost, and dehvered an in- 
augural address at the opening of the 
university on 11 Oct. 1852. He was 
chancellor from 13 March 1854 till 1862, 
when he left Australia permanently for 
England. There he chiefly resided in the 
coimtry near London, actively occupied as 
a magistrate, as chairman of the Liverpool 
and London and Globe Insurance Co., and 
as director of other undertakings, at the 
same time interesting himself in Egyptian 
and classical and Hebrew scholarship. Gar- 
dening was his chief source of recreation. 
Preserving his vigour till the end, he died 
on 8 Nov. 1903 at liis residence. The 
Grange, Totteridge, Hertfordshire, and was 
buried in Totteridge churchyard. 

Nicholson was knighted by patent on 
1 March 1852, and was the first Australian 
to be created a baronet (of Luddenham, 
N.S.W.) (8 April 1859). He was made 
hon. D.C.L. of Oxford in 1857, hon. LL.D. 
of Cambridge in 1868, and hon. LL.D. of 
Edinburgh in 1886. 

Nicholson married on 8 Aug. 1865 Sarah 
EUzabeth, eldest daughter of Archibald 
Keightley, registrar of the Charterhouse, 
London, and had three sons, of whom the 
eldest, Charles, succeeded to the baronetcy. 
A portrait by H. W. Phillips hangs in the 
hall of the university at Sydney ; another 
by H. A. Olivier belongs to his widow. 

[Burke's Colonial Gentry, i. 289 ; The Times, 
10 Nov. 1903 ; Mennell's Dictionary of 
Australasian Biography, 1892 ; Martin's 
Life and Letters of Robert Lowe, Viscount 
Sherbrooke, 1893; Sir G. Bowen's Thirty 
Years of Colonial Government, 1889; Barff's 
Short Historical Account of Sydney University, 
1902 ; Lancet, 21 Nov. 1903 ; Colonial Office 
Records ; information from relatives.] C. A. 

NICHOLSON, GEORGE (1847-1908), 
botanist, born at Ripon, Yorkshire, on 4 Dec. 
1847, was son of a nurseryman, and was 
brought up to his father's calling. After 
spending some time in the gardens of 
Messrs. Fisher Holmes at Sheffield, he went 
for two years to the municipal nurseries of 
La Muette, Paris, and then to those of 
Messrs. Low at Clapton. In 1873 he was 
appointed, after competitive examination, 
clerk to John Smith, the curator at Kew ; 
in 1886 he succeeded Smith as curator. 
He retired owing to ill-health in 1901, 
but continued his botanical researches at 
Kew as far as his strength allowed. 

A fluent speaker in French and Gennan, 
Nicholson paid holiday visits to France and 
Switzerland, and travelled in Germany, 
Northern Italy, and Spain. Impressed 
with the value of a knowledge of foreign 
languages to young gardeners, he devoted 
much of his leisure to teaching some of 
them French. In 1893 he went officially to 
the Chicago Exhibition, as one of the judges 
in the horticultural section ; and he took 
the opportunitv to study the forest trees 
of the United "states. In 1902, the year 
after his retirement, he visited New York 
as delegate of the Royal Horticultural 
Society to the Plant-Breeding Conference. 

Until 1886 Nicholson devoted much 
attention to the critical study of British 
flowering plants. His first published work, 
' Wild Flora of Kew Gardens,' appeared 
in the ' Journal of Botany ' for 1875. In 
the same year he joined the Botanical 
Exchange Club, and to its * Reports ' and to 




the ' Journal of Botany' he contributed notes 
on such segregates as those of Rosa and of 
Cardamine pratensis. The ' Wild Fauna 
and Flora of Kew Gardens,' issued in the 
' Kew Bulletin ' in 1906, which expanded 
his paper of 1875, was largely his work. 
Out of 2000 fungi enumerated, 500 were 
found by Nicholson. His herbarium of 
British plants was presented, towards the 
close of his life, to the University of Aber- 
deen, through his friend James Trail, 
professor of botany there. 

WTien Sir Joseph Hooker [q. v. Suppl. 11] 
was reorganising and extending the arbore- 
tum at Kew, he found an able coadjutor in 
Nicholson, who wTote monographs on the 
genera Acer and Quercus and twenty articles 
on the Kew Arboretum in the ' Gardeners' 
Chronicle,' during 1881-3. A valuable 
herbarium which he formed of trees and 
shrubs was purchased by the trustees of 
the Bentham fimd in 1889 and presented to 
Kew. His ' Hand-list of Trees and Shrubs 
grown at Kew' (anon. 2 pts. 1894-6) 
attested the fulness of his knowledge of this 
class of plants. Nicholson's magnum opus 
was ' The Dictionary of Gardening ' (4 vols. 
1885-9; enlarged edit, in French, by his 
friend M, Mottet, 1892-9 ; two supple- 
mentary vols, to the EngUsh edition, 
1900-1). Tliis standard work of reference, 
most of which was not only edited but 
written by Nicholson, did for the extended 
horticulture of the nineteenth century what 
PhiUp Miller's Dictionary did for that of 
the eighteenth. 

Of gentle, unselfish character, he was 
chosen first president on the foundation 
of the Kew Guild in 1894 Elected an 
associate of the Linn can Societv in 1886, 
Nicholson became a fellow in *1898, and 
he was awarded the Veitchian medal of 
the Royal Horticultural Society in 1894, 
and the Victoria medal in 1897. To him was 
dedicated in 1895 the 48th volume of the 
' Garden,' a paper to which he was a large 
contributor. Dr. Udo Dammer in 1901 
named a Central American palm Neo- 
nicholsonia Georgei. Fond of athletic 
exercises, he brought on, by his devotion 
to mountaineering, heart trouble, of which 
he died at Richmond, on 20 Sept. 1908. His 
remains were cremated. He married in 
1875 Elizabeth Naylor Bell ; but she died 
soon after, leaving a son, James Bell 
Nicholson, now a lieutenant in the navy. 

[Gardeners' Chron. 1908, ii. 239 (with por- 
trait) ; Journal of Botany, 1908, p. 337 (with 
the same portrait) ; Proc. LinneanSoc. 1908-9, 
pp. 48-9 ; Journal of the Kew Guild.] 

G. S. B. 

NICOL, ERSKINE (1825-1904), painter, 
born in Leith on 3 July 1825, was eldest 
son (in a family of five sons and one daughter) 
of James Main Nicol of that city by his wife 
Margaret Alexander. After a brief com- 
mercial education he became a house- 
painter, but quickly turned to art. He was 
an unusually youthful student at the 
Trustees' Academy, Edinbiu-gh, where he 
came under the joint instruction of Sir 
William Allan [q. v.] and Thomas Duncan 
[q. V.]. At fifteen he exhibited a landscape 
at the Royal Scottish Academy, and two 
years later two (one painted in England) and 
a chaJk portrait. For a time he filled the 
post of drawing-master in Leith Academy. 

After a hard struggle at Leith to earn a 
Uving by his pencil, he went to Dublin in 
1846, and for the next four or five years 
taught privately there, and not, as is 
frequently said, under the Science and Art 
Department. At Dublin he discovered the 
humours of Lish peasant life, the unvary- 
ing subject for his brush for a quarter of a 
century. From Ireland, where he had a 
patron in his friend Mr. Armstrong of Rath- 
mines, he sent two examples of this kind 
to the Scottish Academy exhibitions of 
1849-50. In 1850 he settled in^Edinburgh, 
where his reputation was already estabhshed. 
Most of the work he exhibited at the R.S.A. 
was purchased by well-known collectors 
like Mr. John Miller of Liverpool and Mr. 
John Tennant of Glasgow. He was elected 
an associate of the Scottish Academy in 
1851 and a fuU member in 1859. His 
diploma work for the Scottish Academy, 
' The Day after the Fair,' is in the National 
Gallery, Edinburgh. 

In 1862 Nicol left Edinburgh for London, 
at first renting a studio in St. John's 
Wood, and from 1864 tiU the end of his 
painting career residing at 24 Dawson Place, 
Pembridge Square, W. Though he finished 
his canvases in Edinb\irgh or London, 
Nicol for several months of each year 
studied his Irish subjects at first hand in 
CO. Westmeath, where he built himself a 
studio at Clonave, Deravaragh. When 
his health no longer permitted the joiuney 
to Ireland, he abandoned Irish himible life 
for that of Scotland, which he studied at 
Pitlochry, where he fitted up a disused 
church as a studio. 

Nicol contributed to the Royal Academy 
first in 1851, and then in 1857-8 ; from 1861 
to 1879, there was only a break in 1870. 
Elected an associate inJ1866, he joined 
the retired list after an ■ acute illness in 
1885. His portrait of Dr. George Skene 
Keith, which was exhibited at the B.A. 




in 1893, is dated the previous year, but he 
practically ceased to paint in oils in 1885. 
He excelled also in water-colours, and 
occasionally painted in that medium at a 
later date. One of his water-colours, ' Clout 
the auld ' (1886), is in the Ashbee collection 
in the Victoria and Albert Museum. 

Although Nicol's humour was broader 
in his earher than in his later canvases, 
he was always successful as a comic story- 
teller whose first-rate craftsmanship was 
never sacrificed to the pursuit of popularity. 
His mature drawing was generally sound and 
quick, and his colour was pleasing and 
sometimes rich and even subtle. After 
1885 he lived in retirement, dividing his 
time between Crieff, Torduff House, 
Cohnton, Midlothian, and The Dell, 
Feltham, where he died on 8 March 
1904. He was buried in the burial-ground 
of his second wife's family at Rotting- 

The jovial element in Nicol's canvases had 
no place in his life. His disposition was 
grave, shy, and reserved. Nicol was twice 
married: (1) in 1851 to Janet Watson, who 
died in 1863, leaving a son (Mr. John 
Watson Nicol, a painter) and a daughter ; 
(2) in 1865 to Margaret Mary Wood, who 
survived him, and by whom he had two 
sons (the elder, Mr. Erskine Edwin Nicol, 
a painter) and a daughter. 

Nicol's principal works, many of which 
were engraved, were : ' Irish Merry Making ' 
(R.S.A. 1856); ' Donnybrook Fair ' (1859); 
' Renewal of the Lease Refused ' (R.A. 1863), 
•Waiting for the Train' (R.A. 1864); 'A 
Deputation' (R.A. 1865); 'Paying the 
Rent,' 'Missed it,' and 'Both Puzzled' 
(R.A. 1866, the last engraved by 
W. H. Simmons); 'A Country Booking- 
office' (R.A. 1867); 'A China Merchant' 
and 'The Cross-roads' (R.A. 1868); 
'A Disputed Boundary' (R.A. 1869); 
'The Fisher's Knot '(R. A. 1871); 'Steady, 
Johnnie, Steady' (R.A. 1873, engraved 
by Simmons); 'The New Vintage' (R.A. 
1875); 'The Sabbath Day' (R.A. 1875, 
engraved by Simmons) ; ' Looking out for 
a Safe Investment ' (engraved by Simmons) 
and 'A Storm at Sea' (R.A. 1876); 
' UnAvillingly to School ' (R.A. 1877) ; ' The 
Missing Boat ' (R.A. 1878) ; ' Interviewing 
their Member ' (R.A. 1879, engraved by 
C. E. Deblois). 

For the first volume of ' Good Words,' 
1860-1, Nicol did three drawings. He 
is represented in the Glasgow Corporation 
Galleries by an oU painting, ' Beggar my 
Neighbour,' and in the Aberdeen Gallery by 
a water-colour. His oU paintings ' Wayside 

Prayers' (1852) and ' The Emigrants ' (1864) 
in the Tate Gallery are poor examples. 

Nicol's portrait, by Sir WilUam Fettes 
Douglas, exhibited at the R.S.A. in 1862, 
belongs to the Scottish Academy. 

[Private information ; Graves's Royal 
Academy Exhibitors ; James Caw's Scottish 
Painting, Past and Present.] D. S. M. 

'Laurence Hope' (1865-1904), poetess, 
born at Stoke House, Stoke Bishop, 
Gloucestershire, on 9 April 1865, was 

I daughter of Arthur Cory, colonel in the 
Indian army, by his wife Fanny Elizabeth 
Griffin. She was educated at a private 
school in Richmond, and afterwards went to 

: reside with her parents in India. In 1889 
she married Colonel Malcolm Hassels 
Nicolson of the Bengal army [see below] 
and settled at Madras. The name Violet, 
by which her husband called her, was not 
baptismal. Mrs. Nicolson devoted her leisure 
to poetry. Her first volume, in which she 
first adopted the pseudonjon of ' Laurence 
Hope,' 'The Garden of Kama and other 
Love Lyrics from India, arranged in Verse 
by Laurence Hope,' was published in 1901. 
Generally reviewed as the work of a man, 
it attracted considerable attention and was 
reissued as * Songs from the Garden of 
Kama ' in 1908. How far the substance of 
the poems was drawn from Indian originals 
was a matter of doubt. They are marked 
by an oriental luxuriance of passion, but the 
influence of Swinburne and other modem 
Enghsh poets is evident in diction and versi- 
fication. Two other volumes under the same 
pseudonym, 'Stars of the Desert' (1903) 
and ' Indian Love,' pubhshed posthumously 
in 1905, display similar characteristics and 
confirmed without enhancing their author's 
reputation. Some of her shorter poems have 
become popular in musical settings. Mrs. 
Nicolson died by her own hand, of poison- 
ing by perchloride of mercury, on 4 Oct. 
1904, at Dunmore House, Madras. She had 
suffered acute depression since her husband's 
death two months before. She was buried, 
like Greneral Nicolson, in St. Mary's cemetery, 
Madras. She left one son, Malcolm Josceline 

Malcolm Hassels Nicolson (1843- 
1904), general, son of Major Malcolm 
Nicolson of the Bengal army, was 
born on 11 June 1843. He entered 
the army in 1859 as ensign in the 
Bombay infantry, and was promoted 
Ueutenant in 1862. Serving in the Abys- 
sinian campaign of 1867-8, he was present 
at the action at Azogel and at the capture 




of Magdala, and received the Abyssinian 
medal. He attained the rank of captain in 
1869. Dixring the Afghan war of 1878-80 
he saw much active service. He took part 
in the occupation of Kandahar and fought 
at Ahmed Khel and Urzoo. He was 
mentioned in despatches, and in 1879, whUe 
the war was in progress, he was promoted 
major. After the war he received the 
Afghan medal with one clasp, and in March 
1881 the brevet rank of heutenant-colonel. 
He became army colonel in 1885 and sub- 
stantive colonel in 1894. For his services 
in the Zhob Valley campaign of 1890 he was 
again mentioned in despatches, and he was 
made C.B. in 1891. From 1891 to 1894 
he was aide-de-camp to Queen Victoria, 
being promoted major-general in the latter 
year and Ueutenant-general in 1899. A 
good service pension was conferred on him 
in 1893. He died on 7 Aug. 1904 at 
Mackay's Gardens nursing home, Madras, 
and was buried in St. Mary's cemetery. 
General Nicolson was an expert Unguist, 
having passed the interpreter's test in 
Baluchi, Brahui, and Persian, and the higher 
standard in Pushtu. 

[Madras Mail, 5 Oct. 1904; Athenjeum, 
29 Oct. 1904 ; Gent. Mag., N.S. viii. 634 ; 
The Times, 11 Aug. 1904; Army Lists; 
information supplied by friends.] F. L. B. 

1910), reformer of hospital nursing, bom at 
the Villa La Columbaia, Florence, on 12 May 
1820, was named after the city of her 
birth. Her father, William Edward Night- 
ingale (1794r-1874), was son of William 
Shore, long a banker at Sheffield ; he was 
a highly cultured coimtry gentleman of 
ample means, and a great lover of travel. 
When he came of age on 21 Feb. 1815 he 
assumed by royal sign-manual the surname 
of Nightingale on inheriting the Derbyshire 
estates of Lea Hurst and Woodend of his 
mother's uncle, Peter Nightingale {d. un- 
married 1803). On 1 June 1818 he married 
Frances, daughter of William Smith (1756- 
1835) [q. v.], a strong supporter of the 
abolition of slavery. The issue was two 
daughters, of whom Florence was the 
younger. Her elder sister, Frances Par- 
thenope {d. 1890), so called from the classical 
name of Naples, her birthplace, married 
in 1858, as his second wife, Sir Harry 
Vemey [q. v.], second baronet, of Claydon, 

Florence Nightingale's first home was at 
her father's house. Lea Hall, in Derbyshire. 
About 1825 the family moved to Lea Hurst, 
which Nightingale had just built. In 1826 
he also bought Embley Park, in Hampshire, 

serving the office of high sheriff of that 
county in 1828. It became the custom 
of the famUy to spend the summer at Lea 
Hurst and the winter at Embley Park, 
with an occasional visit to London. Miss 
Nightingale enjoyed under her father's 
roof a liberal education, but she chafed 
at the narrow opportunities of activity 
offered to girls of her station in life. She 
engaged in cottage visiting, and developed 
a love of animals. But her chief interest 
lay in tending the sick. Anxious to under- 
take more important responsibilities than 
home offered her she visited hospitals in 
London and the coxuitry with a view to 
finding what scope for activity offered there. 
Nursing was then reckoned in England a 
menial employment needing neither study 
nor inteUigence ; nor was it viewed as a 
work of mercy or philanthropy. Sidney 
Herbert, afterwards Lord Herbert of Lea 
[q. v.], and his wife were Miss Nightingale's 
neighbours at Wilton House, not far 
from Embley Park. A close friendship 
with them stimvdated her philanthropic 
and intellectual instincts. Her horizon was 
widened, too, by intercoiu'se with en- 
lightened members of her mother's family, 
by acquaintance with Madame Mohl and 
her husband, and possibly by a chance 
meeting in girlhood with Mrs. Elizabeth 

Miss Nightingale's hospital visits seem 
to have begun in 1844, and were continued 
at home and abroad for eleven years. She 
spent the winter and spring of 1849-50 
with friends of her family, I^Ir. and Mrs. 
Bracebridge, in a long tour through Egypt. 
On the journey from Paris she met two 
sisters of St. Vincent de Paul, who gave 
her an introduction to the house of their 
order at Alexandria, where she carefully 
inspected their schools and ' Misericorde.' 
She recognised that the Roman Catholic 
sisterhoods in France, with their discipline 
and their organisation, made better nurses 
than she found in her own country (cf. 
Miss Nightingale, Letters from Egypt, 
privately printed). On her way back to 
England she paid a first visit (31 July to 
13 Aug. 1850) to the Institute of Protestant 
Deaconesses at Kaiserswerth on the Rhine 
near Diisseldorf. The institute had been 
foimded on a very humble scale in 1833 
for the care of the destitute by Theodor 
Fliedner, protestant pastor of Kaiserswerth, 
and had since grown into a training school 
for women teachers and for nurses of the 
sick. The institution was nm on the lines 
of poverty, simplicity, and common sense. 
A very brief experience of the Kaiserswerth 




Institute convinced Miss Nightingale of the 
possibilities of making nursing a ' calling ' 
for ladies and no mere desultory occupa- 
tion. Next year she spent some four 
months at Kaiserswerth (July to October), 
and went through a regular course of 
training as a sick nurse. On her return 
to her home at Embley Park she pub- 
lished a short account of Kaiserswerth, 
in which she spoke frankly of the dulness 
of the ordinary home life of English girls. 
Late in life she wrote of her visits to Kaisers- 
werth, ' Never have I met with a higher 
love, a purer devotion, than there. There 
was no neglect. It was the more remark- 
able, because many of the deaconesses had 
been only peasants : none were gentle- 
women when I was there.' There followed 
further visits to London hospitals, and in 
the autvmin of 1852 she inspected those 
of Edinburgh and Dublin. Great part of 
1853 was devoted to various types of 
hospitals at Paris. Late in the same year 
she accepted her first administrative post. 
On 12 Aug. 1853 she became super- 
intendent of the Hospital for Invalid 
Gentlewomen, which was established in 1850 
in Chandos Street by Lady Cannmg. Miss 
Nightingale moved the institution to No. 
1 Upper (now 90) Harley Street. In 1910 it 
was resettled at 19 Lisson Grove, N.W., and 
was then renamed after Miss Nightingale. 
In March 1854 the Crimean war broke 
out, and the reports of the sufferings of the 
sick and wounded in the English camps 
stirred English feeling to its depths. In 
letters to 'The Times' (Sir) William 
Howard Russell [q. v. Suppl. II], the cor- 
respondent, described the terrible neglect of 
the wounded, and the ' disgraceful antithe- 
sis ' between the neglect of our men and 
the careful niirsing of the French wounded. 
' Are there no devoted women among us,' he 
wrote, ' able and willing to go forth to 
minister to the sick and suffering soldiers of 
the East in the hospitals of Scutari ? Are 
none of the daughters of England, at this 
extreme hour of need, ready for such a work 
of mercy ? Must we fall so far below the 
French in self-sacrifice and devotedness ? ' 
(cf. The Times, 15 and 22 Sept. 1854). On 
14 Oct. Miss Nightingale offered her services 
to the War Office ; but before her offer 
reached her friend, Sidney Herbert, then 
secretary of state for war, he himself had 
written to her on the same day, and pro- 
posed that she should go out to the Crimea : 
' I receive numbers of offers from ladies to go 
out ' (he told Miss Nightingale), * but they are 
ladies who have no conception of what a hos- 
pital is, nor of the nature of its duties. . . . 

My question simply is. Would you listen 
to the request to go out and supervise the 
whole thing ? You would, of course, have 
plenary authority over all the nurses, and 
I think I could secure you the fullest assist- 
ance and co-operation from the medical 
staff, and you would also have an unlimited 
power of drawing on the government for 
whatever you think requisite for the success 
of your mission.' Miss Nightingale made 
her plans with extraordinary speed. On 
17 Oct. Lady Canning, who helped her in 
the choice of nurses, wrote of her, ' She 
has such nerve and skill, and is so gentle and 
wise and quiet ; even now she is in no 
bustle or hurry, though so much is on her 
hands, and such numbers of people volunteer 
their services ' (Habe's Story of two Noble 
Lives). On 21 Oct., within a week of re- 
ceiving Herbert's letter, Miss Nightingale 
embarked for the Crimea, with thirty-eight 
nurses (ten Roman Catholic sisters, eight 
sisters of mercy of the Church of England, 
six nurses from St. John's Institute, and 
fourteen from various hospitals) ; her 
friends, Mr. and Mrs. Bracebridge, also went 
with her. Scutari was reached on 4 Nov., 
the eve of the battle of Inkerman. Miss 
Nightingale's official title was ' Superinten- 
dent of the Female Nurses in the Hospitals 
in the East ' ; but she came to be known 
generally as ' The Lady-in-Chief.' 

Her headquarters were in the barrack 
hospital at Scutari, a huge dismal place, 
reeking with dirt and infection. Stores, 
urgently needed, had not got beyond 
Varna, or were lost at sea. ' There were 
no vessels for water or utensils of any kind ; 
no soap, towels, or clothes, no hospital 
clothes ; the men lying in their imiforms, 
stiff with gore and covered with filth to a 
degree and of a kind no one could write 
about ; their persons covered with vermin.' 
One of the nurses, a week after arrival, 
wrote home, ' We have not seen a drop of 
milk, and the bread is extremely sour. 
The butter is most filthy ; it is Irish butter 
in a state of decomposition ; and the meat 
is more like moist leather than food. 
Potatoes we are waiting for, until they 
arrive from France.' Sidney Godolphin 
Osborne went out to visit Scutari soon 
after Miss Nightingale's arrival, and in a 
report on the hospital accommodation 
described the complete absence of ' the 
commonest provision for the exigencies ' 
of the hour (cf. Osboene's Scutari and its 
Hospitals, 1855). Miss Nightingale's diffi- 
culties are incapable of exaggeration. The 
military and medical authorities already 
on the spot viewed her intervention as a 




reflection on themselves. Many of her own 
volunteers were inexperienced, and the 
roughness of the orderlies was offensive to 
women of refinement. But Miss Nightin- 
gale's quiet resolution and dignity, her 
powers of organisation and discipline 
rapidly worked a revolution. 
-^Before the end of the year Miss Nightin- 
gale and her companions had put the 
Scutari barrack hospital in fairly good order. 
The relief fimd organised by ' The Times ' 
newspaper sent out stores, and other volun- 
tary associations at home were helpful. 
In December Mary Stanley, daughter of the 
bishop of Norwich, and sister of Dean 
Stanley, came out with a reinforcement of 
forty-six nurses. Miss Nightingale quickly 
established a vast kitchen and a laundry ; 
she made time to look after the soldiers' 
wives and children, and to provide ordinary 
decencies for them. She ruled, but at 
the same time she slaved : it is said that 
she was on her feet for twenty hours 
daily. Although her nurses were also over- 
worked, she allowed no woman but herself 
to be in the wards after eight at night, 
when the other nurses' places were taken 
by orderlies. She alone bore the weight of 
responsibihty. Among the wounded men 
she naturally moved an ardent devotion. 
They christened her ' The Lady of the 
Lamp.' Longfellow in his poem, ' Santa 
Filomena,' tried to express the veneration 
which her endurance and courage excited. 

But the battle for the reform of the 
war hospitals was not rapidly won. Early 
in 1855, owing to defects of sanitation, 
there was a great increase in the number of 
cases of cholera and of typhus fever among 
Miss Nightingale's patients. Seven of the 
army doctors died, and three of the nurses. 
Frost-bite and dysentery from exposure 
in the trenches before Sevastopol made 
the wards fuller than before. The sick 
and wovmded in the barrack hospital 
numbered 2000. The death-rate rose in 
February 1855 to 42 per cent. At Miss 
Nightingale's persistent entreaties the war 
office at home ordered the sanitary com- 
missioners at Scutari to carry out at 
once sanitary reforms. Then the death- 
rate rapidly declined imtil in June it had 
dropped to 2 per cent. The improved 
conditions at Scutari allowed Miss Nightin- 
gale in May to visit the hospitals at and 
near Balaclava. Her companions on the 
journey included Mr. Bracebridge and the 
French cook, Alexis Benoit Soyer [q. v.], 
who had lately done good service at Scutari. 
The fatigues attending this visit of in- 
spection brought on an attack of Crimean 


fever, and for twelve days she lay danger- 
ously ill in the Balaclava sanatorium. 
Early in June she was able to return to 
Scutari, and resumed her work there. To 
her nursing work she added efforts to 
provide reading and recreation rooms for 
the men and their families. In March 1856, 
when peace was concluded, she returned 
to Balaclava, and she remained there till 
July, when the hospitals were closed. She 
then went back for the last time to Scutari. 
It was not till August 1856 that she came 

A ship of war was offered Miss Nightingale 
for her passage, but she returned privately 
in a French vessel and, crossing to England 
unnoticed, made her way quietly to Lea 
Hurst, her home in Derbysliire, although the 
whole nation was waiting to demonstrate 
their admiration of her. Queen Victoria, 
who abounded in expressions of devotion, 
had in Jan. 1856 sent her an autograph 
letter of thanks with an enamelled and 
jewelled brooch designed by the Prince Con- 
sort {Queen Victoria's Letters, iii. 215), and 
the Sultan of Turkey had given her a dia- 
mond bracelet. In Sept. 1856 she visited 
Queen Victoria at Balmoral. ' She put before 
us,' wrote the Prince Consort, ' all that 
affects our present military hospital sj'^stem 
and the reforms that are needed : we are 
much pleased with her. She is extremely 
modest' (Sib Theodore Maktin, Prince 
Consort, iii. 503). In Nov. 1855, at a 
meeting in London, a Nightingale firnd had 
been maugurated for the purpose of found- 
ing a trauiing school for nurses, the only 
recognition of her services which Miss 
Nightingale would sanction. By 1860 
50,000Z. was collected, and the Nightingale 
School and Home for Nurses was established 
at St. Thomas's Hospital. Although Miss 
Nightingale's health and other occupations 
did not allow her to accept the post of 
superintendent, she watched the progress 
of the new institution with practical 
interest and was indefatigable in coimsel. 
Her annual addresses to the nurses, which 
embody her wisest views, were printed for 
private circulation. The example thus set 
was followed by other great hospitals, to 
the great advantage both of hospital nurses 
and of hospital patients. 

In spite of the strain of work and anxiety 
in the Crimea, which seriously affected her 
health. Miss Nightingale thenceforth pur- 
sued her labours unceasingly, and sought to 
turn to permanent advantage for the world 
at large the authoritative position and ex- 
perience which she had attained in matters 
of nursing and sanitation. She settled in 



London, and, although she lived the retired 
life of an invalid, she was always busy with 
her pen or was offering verbally encourage- 
ment and direction. In 1857, after pub- 
lishing a full report of the voluntary 
contributions which had passed through 
her hands in the Crimea, she issued an 
exhaustive and confidential report on 
the workings of the army medical depart- 
ments in the Crimea. Next year she 
printed ' Notes on Matters affecting the 
Health, Efficiency and Hospital Administra- 
tion of the British Army.' The commission 
appointed in 1857 to inquire into the sanitary 
condition of the army set a high value on her 
interesting evidence. With her approval 
an army medical college was opened in 
1859 at Chatham ; a first military hos- 
pital was established in Woolwich in 1861 ; 
and an army sanitary commission was 
established in permanence in 1862. Every- 
where her expert reputation was paramount. 
During the American civil war of 1862-4 
and the Franco-German war of 1870-1 
her advice was sought by the foreign 
governments concerned. 

In regard to civil hospitals, home nursing, 
care of poor women in childbirth, and 
sanitation, Miss Nightingale's authority 
stood equally high. In 1862, in Liverpool 
Infirmary, a nursing home was founded 
with special reference to district nursing, 
and was placed under the care of Agnes 
Elizabeth Jones (1832-1868), who had 
been trained at Kaiserswerth. In 1867, at 
the request of the poor law board, she 
wrote a paper of ' Suggestions for the 
improvement of the nursing service in 
hospitals and on the methods of training 
nurses for the sick poor.' Miss Nightingale 
had a hand in establishing in 1868 the 
East London Nursing Society, in 1874 the 
Workhouse Nursing Association and the 
National Society for providing Trained 
Nurses for the Poor, and in 1890 the 
Queen's Jubilee Niirsing Institute. 

In 1857, on the outbreak of the Indian 
Mutiny, Miss Nightingale had written from 
Malvern to her friend Lady Canning, wife 
of the governor-general, offering in spite of 
her bad health ' to come out at twenty- 
fovu" hours' notice, if there were anything 
for her to do in her line of business ' 
(Hake, op. cit.). She never went to India. 
But the sanitary condition of the army 
and people there became one of the chief 
interests of her later Ufe. The government 
submitted to her the report of the royal com- 
mission on the sanitary state of the army 
in India in 1863, and she embodied her 
comments in a paper entitled ' How 

People may live and not die in India,' in 
which she urged the initiation of sanitary 
reform. She corresponded actively with 
Sir Bartle Frere, governor of Bombay, and 
in August 1867 was in constant communi- 
cation with Sir Stafford Northcote, then 
secretary of state for India, as to the estab- 
Ushment of a sanitary department of the 
Indian government. With every side of 
Indian social life she made herself 
thoroughly famiUar, exchanging views per- 
sonally or by correspondence with natives, 
viceroys, and secretaries of state, and con- 
stantly writing on native education and 
village sanitation. She wrote to the ' Poona 
Sarvajanik Sabha ' in 1889 : ' There must 
be as it were missionaries and preachers of 
health and cleansing, if any real progress is 
to be made.' In other published papers 
and pamphlets she discussed the causes of 
famine, the need of irrigation, the poverty 
of the peasantry, and the domination of the 
money-lender. She urged native Indians 
to take part in the seventh international 
congress of hygiene and demography held 
in London in 1887, and to the eighth con- 
gress at Buda-Pesth in 1890 she contributed 
a paper on village sanitation in India, a 
subject which, as she wrote in a memoran- 
dvun addressed to Lord Cross, secretary of 
state for India, in 1892, she regarded as 
especially her own. 

Miss Nightingale wrote well, in a direct 
and intimate way, and her papers and 
pamphlets, which covered all the subjects 
of her activity, greatly extended her in- 
fluence. Her most famous book, ' Notes 
on Nursing,' which first appeared in 1860, 
went through many editions in her lifetime. 

Miss Nightingale, in spite of her with- 
drawal from society, was honoured until 
her death. Among the latest distinctions 
which she received was the Order of Merit 
in 1907, which was then for the first time 
bestowed on a woman, and in 1908 she was 
awarded the freedom of the City of London, 
which had hitherto only been bestowed on 
one woman, the Baroness Burdett-Coutts 
[q. V. Suppl. II]. She had abeady received, 
among many similar honoxu-s, the Gterman 
order of the Cross of Merit and the French 
gold medal of Secours aux blesses mihtaires. 
On 10 May 1910 she was presented with 
the badge of honour of the Norwegian Red 
Cross Society. 

She died at her house in South Street, 
Park Lane, London, on 13 Aug. 1910, at the 
age of ninety. An offer of burial in West- 
minster Abbey was in accordance with her 
wishes refused by her relatives. She was 
buried in the burial place of her family at 




East Wellow,'5Hampshire, on 20 August. 
Memorial services took place in St. Paul's 
Cathedral, where the government was 
officially represented, at Liverpool Cathe- 
dral, and many other places of worship. 

Miss Nightingale raised the art of nursing 
in this country from a menial employment 
to an honoured vocation ; she taught 
nurses to be ladies, and she brought ladies 
out of the bondage of idleness to be nurses. 
This, which was the aim of her Ufe, was 
no fruit of her Crimean experience, although 
that experience enabled her to give effect 
to her purpose more readily than were 
otherwise possible. Long before she went 
to the Crimea she felt deeply the ' disgrace- 1 
f\il antithesis ' between Mrs. Gamp and a 
sister of mercy. The picture of her at 
Scutari is of a strong-willed, strong-nerved 
energetic woman, gentle and pitiful to the , 
wounded, but always masterful among 
those with whom she worked. After 
the war she worked with no less zeal 
or resolution, and realised many of her 
early dreams. She was not only the re- 
former of nursing but a leader of women. 

After her death a memorial fund was 
instituted for the purpose of providing 
pensions for disabled or aged nurses and 
for erecting a statue in Waterloo Place. 
Memorial tablets have been fixed on her 
birthplace at Florence as well as in the 
cloisters of Santa Croce there. 

A marble bust executed by Sir John 
Steell in 1862 and presented to Miss Night- 
ingale by the non-commissioned officers and 
men of the British army was bequeathed by 
her to the Royal United Service Museum, 
together with her various presentation 
jewels and orders. A plaster statuette 
by Miss J. H. Bonham-Carter (c. 1856) 
(standing figure with lamp in right hand) 
is at Lea Hurst ; of five repUcas, one is 
at St. Thomas's Hospital, another is at the 
Johns Hopkins Hospital School for Nurses, 
Baltimore, and the others belong to members 
of the family. Of two portraits in oils, one 
by Augustus Leopold Egg, R.A., executed 
about 1836, is in the National Portrait 
Gallery ; another, by Sir William B. Rich- 
mond, R.A., dated about 1886, is at 
Claydon House. A chalk drawing by 
Countess Feodora Gleichen, made in 1908, 
is at Wmdsor Castle among portraits of 
members of the Order of Merit. Several 
water-colour and chalk drawings are either 
at Lea Hurst or at Claydon House : one 
(with ADss Nightingale's mother and sister) 
by A. E. Chalon is dated about 1835 ; another 
is by Lady Eastlake ; a third, dated about 
1850, by her sister, Lady Vemey, was 

lithographed. Others were executed by 
Aliss F. A. de B. Footner in 1907. A 
picture of Miss Nightingale receiving the 
woimded at Scutari hospital in 1856 is by 
Jerry Barrett. 

[M. A. Nutting and L. L. Dock's History of 
Nursing (with bibliography of Miss Nightin- 
gale's writings). New York, 1907, vol. ii., 
chaps. 3-6; .The Times, 14-23 Aug. 1910; 
Burke's Landed Gentry; Soyer's Ciilinary 
Campaign, 1857 ; Lord Stanmore's Lord 
Herbert of Lea, 1906 ; J. B. Atkins, Sir William 
Howard Russell, 1911 ; Martineau's Sir Bartle 
Frere ; Bosworth Smith's Lord Lawrence, 
Trans. Seventh Intemat. Congress on Hy- 
giene and Demography, 1887 ; Journal of the 
Poona Sarvajanik Sabha, 1889 ; private infor- 
mation.] S. P. 

NODAL, JOHN HOWARD (1831-1909), 

journalist and writer on dialect, was son 
of Aaron Nodal (1798-1855), of the Society 
of Friends, a grocer and member of the 
Manchester town council. Bom in Downing 
Street, Ardwick, Manchester, on 19 Sept. 
1831, he was educated at the Quaker 
school at Ackworth, Yorkshire (1841-5). 
At seventeen! he became a clerk of the 
old Electric Telegraph Company, and rose 
to be manager of the news department 
in Manchester. From the age of nineteen 
he also acted as secretary of the Manchester 
Working Men's College, which, formed on the 
lines of the similar institution in London, 
was subsequently absorbed in Owens College. 
Nodal began early to contribute to the 
local press. Dviring the volunteer move- 
ment of 1860-2 he edited the ' Volunteer 
Journal,' and in January 1864 he gave 
himself up to joumahsm on being appointed 
sub-editor of the ' Manchester Courier ' on 
its first appearance as a daily paper. 
From 1867 to 1870 he was engaged on the 
' Manchester Examiner and Times.' Mean- 
while he edited the ' Free Lance,' an able 
Uterary and hxmiorous weekly (1866-8), and 
a similar paper called the ' Sphinx ' ( 1 868-7 1 ). 
For thirty-three years (1871-1904) he was 
editor of the ' Manchester City News.' 
Under his control the ' City News ' besides 
chronicling all local topics was the recognised 
organ of the hterary and scientific societies 
of Lancashire. Many notable series of 
articles were reprinted from it in volimie 
form. Two of these, ' Manchester Notes and 
Queries' (1878-89, 8 vols.) and 'Country 
Notes : a Journal of Natural History and 
Out-Door Observation' (1882-3, 2 vols.), 
developed into independent periodicals. 
Nodal was also a frequent contributor to 
' Notes and Queries,' and from 1875 to 1885 
was on the staff of the ' Saturday Review.' 

c 2 




Two prominent Manchester institutions 
owed much to Nodal's energies ; the Man- 
chester Literary Club, of which he was 
president (1873-9) and whose annual 
volumes of ' Papers ' he started and 
edited for those years, and the Manchester 
Arts Club, which he was mainly instru- 
mental in founding in 1878. For the 
glossary committee of the Literary Club 
he wrote in 1873 a paper on the ' Dialect 
and Archaisms of Lancashire,' and, in 
conjunction with George Milner, compiled 
a ' Glossary of the Lancashire Dialect ' 
(2 parts, 1875-82). When the headquarters 
of the EngKsh Dialect Society were removed 
in 1874 from Cambridge to Manchester, 
Nodal became honorary secretary and 
director. He continued in office to the dis- 
solution of the society in 1896. With Prof. 
W. W. Skeat (1835-1912) he compiled a 
' Bibhographical List of Works illustrative 
of the various Enghsh Dialects,' 1877. His 
other works include : 1. ' Special Collections 
of Books in Lancashire and Cheshire,' pre- 
pared for the Library Association, 1880. 2. 
' Art in Lancashire and Cheshire : a List 
of Deceased Artists,' 1884. 3. ' A Pictorial 
Record of the Eoyal Jubilee Exhibition, 
Manchester,' 1887. 4. ' BibUography of 
Ackworth School,' 1889. 

He died at the Grange, Heaton Moor, 
near Manchester, on 13 Nov. 1909, and was 
interred at the Friends' burial-ground, 
Ashton-on-Mersey. He married (1) Helen, 
daughter of Lawrence Wilkinson, by whom 
he had two sons and three daughters ; 
(2) Edith, daughter of Edmund and Anne 
Robinson of Warrington. 

[Momus, 10 April 1879 ; Journalist, 12 July 
1889 ; Manchester City News, 19 Dec. 1896, 
20 Nov. 1909, and 9 July 1910 ; Papers of 
Manchester Literary Club, 1910 ; Nodal's 
Bibliography of Ackworth School ; personal 
knowledge.] C. W. S. 

NORMAN, CONOLLY (1853-1908), 
ahenist, born at All Saints' Glebe, New- 
town Cunningham, on 12 March 1853, 
was fifth of six sons of Hugh Norman, 
rector of All Saints', Newtown Cunningham, 
and afterwards of Barnhill, both in co. 
Donegal, by his wife Anne, daughter of 
Captain William Ball of Buncrana, co. 
Donegal. Between 1672 and 1733 several 
members of the Norman family served as 
mayors of Derry, and two represented the 
city in parhament. Educated at home 
owing to dehcate health, Norman began at 
seventeen the study of medicine in Dublin, 
working at Trinity College, the Carmichael 
Medical School, and the House of Industry 

Hospitals. In 1874 he received the licences 
of the King's and Queen's College of 
Physicians and the Royal College of 
Surgeons of Ireland, becoming a fellow 
of the latter college in 1878, and of the 
former in 1890. 

Norman's professional hfe was spent in 
the care of the insane. In 1874, on re- 
ceiving his qualifications, he was appointed 
assistant medical officer in the Monaghan 
Asylum, and he remained there tUl 1881. 
After study at the Royal Bethlem Hos- 
pital, London, under (Sir) George Savage 
(1881-2) he was successively medical 
superintendent of Castlebar Asylum, co. 
Mayo (1882-5), and of Monaghan asylum 
(1885-6). From 1886 tiU his death he was 
medical superintendent of the most im- 
portant asylum in Ireland, the Richmond 
Asylum, Dubhn, where he proved his 
capacity for management and reform. 
When he took charge of the Richmond 
Asylum it was insanitary and overcrowded, 
and more like a prison than a hospital. 
He introduced a humane regime, made the 
wards bright and comfortable, and found 
regular occupation for some 75 per cent, of 
the patients. By his advice a large branch 
asylum was buUt a few miles away in the 
country. In 1894, and again in 1896, 1897, 
and 1898, the asylum was visited by beri- 
beri, the outbreak in 1894 being specially 
severe. He wrote a very complete article 
on the clinical features of the disease in 
1899 {Trans. Eoyal Acad, of Medicine in 
Ireland, vol. xvii.). In later years he was 
interested in the problem of the care of 
the insane outside asylums. He studied 
the methods adopted in Gheel in Flanders 
and elsewhere, and advocated in many 
papers the inauguration in the United King- 
dom of a system of boarding out. 

Norman was president of the Medico- 
Psychological Association of Great Britain 
and Ireland in 1894, when the annual 
meeting was held in Dubhn. In 1907 he 
was president of a section of the Medico- 
Psychological Congress at Amsterdam. 
At the time of his death he was vice-presi- 
dent of the Royal College of Physicians of 
Ireland. In 1907 the honorary degree of 
M.D. was conferred on him by the Uni- 
versity of Dublin. He was long an editor 
of the ' Journal of Medical Science,' 
contributed many papers on insanity to 
medical periodicals, and was an occasional 
contributor to this Dictionary. 

Norman had many interests outside 
his speciaUty. He read widely, and col- 
lected books, engravings, and pewter. He 
was an indefatigable letter-writer, and a 




humorous and whimsical conversationa- 

Norman died suddenly on 23 Feb. 1908, 
while out walking in Dublin. He was 
buried in Mount Jerome cemetery, Dublin. 
He married, on 6 June 1882, Mary Emily, 
daugliter of Randal Young Keimy, M.D., 
of Killeshandra, co. Cavan. There were no j 
children of the marriage. On St. Luke's Day, 
18 Oct. 1910, a memorial with medallion 
portrait by Mr. J. M. S. Carre, erected by 
pubhc subscription in the north aisle of 
St. Patrick's Cathedral, was unveUed by 
the lord-lieutenant, the earl of Aberdeen. 
On the same day the subscribers presented 
to the Royal College of Physicians of 
Ireland a portrait in oils by Miss Harrison. 
Neither artist knew Norman, and both 
portraits are faulty. 

[Journal of Mental Science, April 1908 ; 
Medical Press and Circular, 4 March 1908 ; 
Burke's Landed Gentry of Ireland ; private 
sources and personal knowledge.] R. J. R. 

(1830-1901), Ueutenant-general, younger 
brother of Sir Henry Wylie Norman [q. v. 
Suppl. II], was born on 25 April 1830 
in London. He entered Addiscombe, and 
obtained his commission in the Bengal 
army 8 Dec. 1848. On the mutiny of 
his regiment he was attached to the 14th 
(the Ferozepore Sikh) regiment of the 
Bengal infantry, and remained at Feroze- 
pore during subsequent operations. In 
1863 he took part in the second expedition 
against the Yusafzais at Ambela, and was 
present at the storming of the Conical hUl 
and at the destruction of Laloo. He was 
mentioned in despatches, and added the 
frontier medal with clasp to the Mutiny 
medal. In the three following years he 
was engaged during the Bhutan campaign 
in the capture of Dewangiri and of the 
stockades in the Gurugaon Pass, serving 
as assistant quartermaster-general and 
receiving the clasp and brevet majority. 
In 1868 he took part in the Hazara cam- 
paign as second in command of the 24th 
(Punjab) regiment, again receiving the clasp. 
After an interval of ten years the Afghan 
war (1878-80) brought htm fresh opportuni- 
ties of distinction. He commanded the 
24th regiment in the Bazar vaUey and 
the defence of Jagdallak, marching with 
Roberts's force from Kabul to Kandahar 
and taking part in the battle of Kandahar. 
Mentioned in several despatches, he received 
the medal with clasp, the bronze star, a C.B., 
and brevet colonelcy. During the war 
with Burma in 1885-6, he commanded the 

Bengal brigade of the Upper Burma field 
force, assisting in the occupation of Man- 
dalay and Bhamo. He was thanked by the 
government of India and promoted to be 
K.C.B. He attained the rank of major- 
general on 1 Sept. 1889, and left India in 

He died on 25 June 1901 at Dulwich, and 
was b\iried in West Norwood cemetery. 
He was twice married : (1) in 1852 to EUza 
Ellen, daughter of lieutenant Nisbett, 
Bengal army, who died at Rawal Pindi in 
1870; and (2) in March 1892 to Caroline 
Matilda, daughter of the Rev. W. W. 
Cazalet and widow of Major E. F. J. 
Rennick, Bengal staff corps, who survived 
him. He left three sons and three 
daughters, one of the latter, Edith, being 
the wife of Sir Louis W. Dane, G.C.I.E., 
C.S.I., lieutenant-governor of the Punjab. 

[The Times, 27 June 1901 ; Indian army 
lists, and official reports.] W. L-W. 

-1904), field-marshal and administrator, 
was born in London on 2 Dec. 1826. His 
father, James Norman, exchanged an 
adventurous life at sea for business at 
Havana in Cuba, and then married Char- 
lotte WyUe of Dumfries. He subsequently 
moved to Calcutta, carrying on his business 
there until his death in March 1853. His 
widow died at an advanced age at Sandgate 
on 13 Sept. 1902. Heru-y Norman did not 
enter Addiscombe College (as stated in The 
Times, 27 Oct. 1904), but after a very 
imperfect education joined his father in 
Calcutta in 1842 with a strong desire to go 
to sea, meanwhile taking such clerical work 
as offered itself. Even at this age, how- 
ever, he impressed others with the quaUties 
which Earl Roberts regarded as his special 
gifts, ' extraordinary memory ' and ' a 
natural liking and aptitude for work.' The 
' soldierly instincts ' within him were 
kindled by news of Sir Charles Napier's 
campaign in Sind in 1843, and of Sir 
Hugh Gough's victories at Maharajpur and 
GwaUor, and fortune favovired him by 
bringing him a direct appointment as cadet 
in the infantry of the Company's Bengal 
army (1 March 1844). In April he joined 
the 1st Bengal native infantry as ensign, 
devoting his whole heart to his regimental 
duties; and in March 1845 he was trans- 
ferred to the 31st native infantry (after- 
wards 2nd Queen's own Rajput Ught 
infantry), which remained loyal in 1857. 
He thus escaped the cruel fate of his 
brother officers in the 1st native infantry. 
Throughout his active service he seemed to 




possess a charmed life, and was constantly 
unhtirt when men were struck down by his 

His regiment was stationed at Lahore 
after the first Sikh war in 1846, as part of 
the force under Colin Campbell (afterwards 
Lord Clyde) [q. v.]. He became lieutenant 
on 25 Dec. 1847, and was soon made 
adjutant. When Vans Agnew and Ander- 
son were murdered at Multan on 20 April 
1848, Norman was on sick leave at Simla, 
but was at once recalled to his regiment, 
then stationed at Ferozepore. In the ' war 
with a vengeance ' that followed Norman 
shared in every incident and battle. He 
witnessed the opening scene at Ramnagar, 
took part in Thackwell's inconclusive 
operations at Sadulapur on 3 Dec. 1848, 
joined in the confused and bloody melee 
at Chilian wala on 13 Jan. 1849, and 
shared the conspicuous honour won by 
his regiment in the decisive attack on 
Kalra at the crowning victory of Gujarat 
on 21 Feb. 1849. He was present at 
the grand svirrender of the Sikh army at 
Rawalpindi, and helped to chase the 
Afghans back to their hills, finally receiving 
the Sikh war medal and two clasps. In 
December 1849 he was brigade-major at 
Peshawar to Sir Colin Campbell. In 1850 
he accompanied Sir Charles Napier on the 
Kohat pass expedition, and afterwards took 
part in expeditions against the Afridis.'the 
Mohmands, and the Utman Kheyls. While 
he was at Panjpao on 15 April 1852 he was 
specially mentioned in despatches. Be- 
coming deputy assistant adjutant-general 
and A.D.C. to General Sir Abraham Roberts 
[q. v.], he was credited in divisional orders 
(15 Dec. 1853) with 'all the qualifications 
for a good soldier and first-rate staff officer.' 

A brief interlude in Norman's service on 
the staff occurred when the Santals in 1855 
rose against the extortionate money-lenders. 
He at once joined his regiment, taking part 
in the suppression of disturbances. In 
May 1856 he was at headquarters in Cal- 
cutta as assistant adjutant-general, and in 
the following year he reached Simla with 
the commander-in-chief, General George 
Anson [q. v.], a few days before news of 
the outbreak at Meerut and of the arrival 
of the mutineers at Delhi simultaneously 
reached headquarters. General Sir Henry 
Barnard [q. v.] took command of the relief 
force on the death of Anson (27 May 1857), 
united his forces at AUpur with those of Sir 
Archdale Wilson [q. v.] on 7 June, and 
next day defeated the rebels at BadU-ki- 
Serai, establishing himself on the Ridge 
of Delhi in sight of the walled city filled 

with some 10,000 mutineers and soon 
receiving 20,000 more trained sepoys. 
Chester, the adjutant-general, lay dead 
amongst the 183 killed and wounded, and 
upon Norman devolved his duties. From 
8 June to 8 Sept., when the arrival and 
estabhshment in position of the siege guns 
enabled the assault to be delivered, Norman 
was invaluable to the several commanders 
of the Delhi field force: first to Barnard 
until he died of cholera on 5 July, then to 
(Sir) Thomas Reed [q. v.] until he left with 
the sick and wounded on 17 July, and then 
to Archdale Wilson until he estabhshed 
his headquarters in the palace of captured 
Delhi on 21 Sept. Neville Chamberlain 
[q. V. Suppl. II] arrived on 24 June to 
assume the duties of adjutant-general, 
but on 14 July he was severely wounded. 
Notwithstanding the strain and suffer- 
ings of the siege, Norman without any 
hesitation left Delhi with Greathead's 
column, and took part in the fighting 
at Bulandshahr, Aligarh, and Agra. He 
was able early in November to report his 
arrival to Sir Cohn Campbell, commander- 
in-chief, and proceed with him as deputy 
adjutant-general to the relief of Lucknow. 
In the attack on the Shah Nujeef on 16 Nov, 
his horse was shot under him, but he raUied 
and led some soldiers on the point of re- 
treating ; and when the rehef was accom- 
phshed he was present at the battle of Cawn- 
pore and took part in the defeat of the 
GwaUor troops (6 Dec. 1857). Then followed 
the final capture of Lucknow in March 
1858, the RohHkhand campaign (April to 
May), and the battle of Bareilly (5 May), 
at which he received his only wound. 
The cold season campaign in Oudh, 1858-9, 
found him present at the engagements of 
Buxar Ghat, Biu-gudia, Majudia, and on 
the Rapti, and at the close of these oper- 
ations the commander-in-chief brought 
his merits to the notice of the viceroy. Up 
to this time, indeed, he had been mentioned 
twenty-three times in despatches or in 
general orders. But his rewards lagged, 
because his years were fewer than his 
services. Even so late as 2 Dec. 1860 he 
was gazetted as a captain in the new staff 
corps, on the heels of which followed a 
brevet majority, 3 Dec, and then a brevet 
lieutenant-colonelcy on 4 Dec. He became 
C.B. on 16 August 1859, and A.D.C. to 
Queen Victoria on 8 Sept. 1863, an honour 
which he held until 22 March 1869, when 
he was promoted major-general. Worn 
out by all he had endured, he proceeded 
home in December 1859, and was at once 
welcomed by the press and invited to 




Windsor Castle. On 1 Oct. 1860 he was 
made assistant military secretary to the 
Duke of Cambridge, who always enter- 
tained a high regard for him. In the 
following year he was ordered back to 
India to take part in the great scheme of 
army reorganisation. 

From this time his career, which promised 
so much success in the miUtary service, was 
gradually diverted to civil administration. 
As first secretary to the government of 
India in the mihtary department (12 Jan. 
1862-31 May 1870), he had to endure the 
criticism and attacks of many vested 
interests affected by the financial stress 
and the reorganisation schemes of the 
period following the Mutiny. Stricken with 
fever, he was sent home in December 1865. 
Returning to India in 1867, he resumed his 
secretarial duties and became a major- 
general on 23 March 1869. From 1 June 
1870 to 18 March 1877 he was member 
of the council of the governor-general 
of India, and took a prominent part in 
the discussion of Afghan affairs and the 
scientific frontier. He advocated on every 
occasion friendly relations with Russia, 
forbearance towards the Amir, and scru- 
pulous avoidance of any advance beyond 
existing frontiers. He never forgot ' the 
dangers of our position in India,' and 
urged measures of economy and internal 
administration in order to keep our forces 
concentrated and our subjects contented. 
These views were not in harmony with Lord 
L)rtton's forward policy, and he resigned 
his ofiice in March 1877. He had been 
made K.C.B. on 24 May 1873, and was 
promoted lieutenant-general on 1 Oct. 
1877. On 25 Feb. 1878 he was appointed 
member of the council of India, and when 
Lord Hartington [q. v. Suppl. II] became 
secretary of state for India on 28 April 1880 
his strenuous opposition to the retention 
of Kandahar was rewarded with success. 
On 1 April 1882 he became general, and he 
was deputed to Egypt to settle various 
financial questions as to the liabUity of 
Indian and British revenues for the Indian 
contingent. On 30 Nov. 1883 he resigned 
his post at the India office to take up 
a colonial appointment as governor of 
Jamaica, where Lord Derby warned him 
that ' there wiU be a great deal to do ' 
{Letter, 27 Sept. 1883). 

Norman was received coldly on arrival. 
He bore unknown instructions on the 
constitutional crisis which had succeeded 
the [resignation of the non-official mem- 
bers of the legislative council owing to 
the obhgation imposed on the island 

for pajdng damages arising out of the 
seizure of the Florida. Queen Victoria's 
order in council of 19 May 1884 at least 
terminated uncertainty if it failed to 
satisfy hopes. But the introduction of the 
new representative scheme of legislation 
was so firmly and tactfully effected that 
' the people were satisfied with even the 
Uttle they had received ' (speeches of the 
chairman of the standing committee for 
raising funds and others March 1886). 
For his services he received in May 1887 
the G.C.M.G., and the miUtary distinction 
of G.C.B. in the foUowing month. In 1889 
he disinterestedly accepted the governor- 
ship of Queensland in order to relieve the 
home government of a difficulty caused 
by their unpopular appointment of Sir 
Henry Blake. In Queensland quiet times 
succeeded to angry constitutional con- 
troversies. The colony was, however, soon 
involved in financial troubles, and Norman 
showed his pubUc spirit in offering to shaxe 
the reduction of salary to which the 
members of the legislative assembly had to 
submit. The responsible ministers freely 
sought his advice, and when he retired 
after the close of 1895 Mr. Chamberlain 
expressed his high appreciation of the 
governor's long and valuable services. 

Dmring Norman's term of office in 
Queensland Lord Kimberley, secretary of 
state for India, offered him, through Lord 
Ripon, secretary of state for the colonies, 
on 1 Sept. 1893, the post of governor- 
general of India on the resignation of that 
office by Lord Lansdowne. On 3 Sept. 
Norman accepted the office, but in the 
course of the next few days he found that 
the excitement and anxieties so upset him 
at the age of nearly sixty -seven years, 
that he could not expect to endure the 
strain of so arduous an office for five years. 
On 19 Sept. he withdrew his acceptance. 
After his return to England he was 
employed on various duties and com- 
missions of a less onerous but important 
character. In December 1896 he was 
appointed president of a royal commission 
to inquire into the conditions of the sugar- 
growing colonies in West India. This 
involved a cruise roimd the islands and 
gratified his taste for the sea, cmiising and 
voyagiag having been Norman's chief 
recreation during his life. His views in 
favour of countervailing duties on bounty- 
fed sugar imported into the United 
Kingdom were not shared by his col- 
leagues. In 1901 he was made governor 
of Chelsea Hospital, being raised to the rank 
of field-marshal on 26 June 1902. In the 




following year, despite his failing health, 
he took part in ' the South African war 
commission. On 26 Oct. 1904 he died at 
Chelsea Hospital, and was buried with fuU 
miUtary honours at Brompton cemetery. 

Norman was thrice married : (1) in 1853 to 
Selina EUza, daughter of Dr. A. Davidson, 
inspector-general of hospitals ; she died on 
3 Oct. 1862 at Calcutta, having had issue four 
daughters, and one son, Henry Alexander, 
who died at sea in March 1858 ; (2) in 
September 1864 to Jemima Anne {d. 1865), 
daughter of Capt. Knowles and widow of 
Capt. A. B. Temple ; and (3) in March 1870 
to Ahce Claudine, daughter of Teignmouth 
Sandys of the Bengal civil service. By her 
he had two sons, Walter and Claude, who 
both entered the army, and one daughter. 
Mural memorial tablets were erected by 
public subscription in Chelsea Hospital, at 
Delhi, and in the crypt of St. Paul's cathe- 
dral. This last, unveiled on 3 June 1907 
by Lord Roberts, bore the simple legend 
' Soldier and administrator in India, gover- 
nor of Jamaica and Queensland, through life 
a loyal and devoted servant to the state.' 

A portrait in oils, painted by Lowes 
Dickinson for I the city of Calcutta, was 
exhibited at the Royal Academy in 1879. 
A cartoon portrait of Norman by ' Spy ' 
appeared in ' Vanity Fair ' in 1903. 

[W. Lee-Warner, Memoirs of Field-Marshal 
Sir Henry Norman, 1908; Narrative of the 
Campaign in 1857 at Delhi, by Lieut. H. W. 
Norman, 2nd Asst. Adjutant-General; Selec- 
tions from state papers preserved in the Mil. 
Dept. of the Govt, of India, 1857-8, ed. G. W. 
Forrest, 3 vols. 1893-1902 ; Kaye and Malleson's 
History of the Sepoy War in India ; Parlia- 
mentary papers, including Mutiny of Native 
Regiments, 1857-8, Organisation of the 
Indian Army, 1859, Afghan campaign, 1878- 
79 ; G. W. Forrest, Field-Marshal Sir Neville 
Chamberlain, 1909]. W. L-W. 

Francisca (1839-1911), violinist. [See 
HALLt, Lady.] 

NORTHBROOK, first Earl of. [See 
Baring, Thomas George (1826-1904), 
viceroy of India.] 

Baron Northcote of Exeter (1846-1911), 
governor-general of the Australian common- 
wealth, born on 18 Nov. 1846 at 13 Devon- 
shire St., Portland Place, London, was second 
son of Sir Stafford Henry Northcote, first earl 
of Iddesleigh [q.v.] ; his mother was Cecilia 
Frances, daughter of Thomas Farrer, and 
sister of Thomas Farrer, first Lord Farrer. 
He went to Eton in 1858 and Merton 

College, Oxford, in 1865, graduating 
1869 and proceeding M.A. in 1873. On 
leaving Oxford he was appointed to a clerk- 
ship in the foreign office on 18 March 1868. 
In Feb. 1871 he was attached to the joint 
high commission, of which his father was 
one of the members and which sat at Wash- 
ington from Feb. to May 1871, to consider 
the Alabama claims and other outstanding 
questions between Great Britain and the 
United States. The negotiation having 
residted in the Treaty of Washington of 
8 May 1871, he became secretary to the 
British member of the claims commission 
which was constituted under the 12th 
article of that treaty, and assistant to the 
British claims agent in the general business 
of the commission. The commission sat 
at Washington from Sept. 1871 to Sept. 
1873. In Nov. 1876 Northcote became an 
acting third secretary in the diplomatic 
service. When Lord Salisbury went as 
British plenipotentiary to the Constanti- 
nople conference at the end of 1876, North- 
cote accompanied him as private secretary. 
In Feb. 1877 he was made assistant private 
secretary to his father, who was then 
chancellor of the exchequer, and he was 
private secretary from October 1877 to 
15 Mar. 1880. On that date he resigned 
the public service to stand in the conserva- 
tive interest for Exeter, the city near which 
the home of his family lay. He was duly 
elected and represented Exeter in the House 
of Commons from 1880 till 1899. From 
June 1885 till Feb. 1886, in Lord Salisbury's 
short first government, he was financial 
secretary to the war office. In Lord 
Salisbury's second government he held the 
post of surveyor-general of ordnance from 
August 1886 to Dec. 1887, resigning his 
appointment in order to facihtate changes 
at the war office. He had been given the 
C.B. in 1880, and in Nov. 1887, after his 
father's death, he was made a baronet. 
He was a charity commissioner in 1891-2, 
and in 1898 was appointed a royal com- 
missioner for the Paris Exhibition of 1900. 
He was also for a time chairman of the 
Associated Chambers of Commerce, and 
became well known and much trusted in 
business circles. In 1899 he was appointed 
to be governor of Bombay, and in Jan. 1900 
he was raised to the peerage with the title 
of Baron Northcote of the city of Exeter, 
next month being made G.C.I.E. 

On 17 Feb. 1900 Lord Northcote landed 
at Bombay, where he served as governor for 
three and a half years. His tenure of office 
was marked by ' a famine of unprecedented 
severity, incessant plague, an empty ex- 




chequer, and bad business years generally ' 
(Times of India, 5 Sept. 1903). Famine did 
not completely disappear till 1902-3, and 
plague was stUl rife when Northcote left 
India. He faced the situation with self- 
denj'ing energy. Immediately on arrival 
at Bombay he inspected the hospitals, 
including the plague hospitals, and within 
a month of his landing went to Gujarat, 
where the peasantry were in sore straits 
from the effects of the famine. The district 
of Gujarat depended largely upon its fine 
breed of cattle which was in danger of 
dying out from scarcity of fodder, and one 
great result of the governor's visit was the 
estabHshment, largely on his initiative, 
of the cattle farm at Charodi, known as 
the Northcote Gowshala, to preserve and 
improve the breed. His sympathy with 
and interest in the small cultivators of the 
Bombay Presidency were shown by what 
was perhaps the chief legislative measure 
of his government, the passing of the 
Bombay Land Revenue Code Amendment 
Act, which aroused much criticism on its 
introduction in 1901. The object of the act 
was to protect the cultivators in certain 
famine-stricken districts of the Presidency 
against the money-lenders, by \viping out 
the arrears of revenue due from the holder 
on condition of his holding being forfeited 
to the government, and then restored to 
him as occupier on an inalienable tenure. 
He took other steps in the direction of 
land revenue refonn, doing much to bring 
the somewhat rigid traditional policy 
of the Bombay government into harmony 
with the views of the government of 
India. In municipal matters, too, he made 
improvements, though the most important 
mimicipal act passed in his time — the 
District Municipahties Act, by which local 
self-government in the Moffussil was much 
enlarged — was a legacy from his predeces- 
sor, Lord Sandhurst. Northcote travelled 
widely through the Bombay Presidency, and 
he paid a visit to Aden. He was a warm 
supporter of schools and hospitals, but his 
efforts were hampered by the impoverished 
state of the public finances. ' So far as he 
was able. Lord Northcote drew on his privy 
purse for money which the State should have 
furnished, and especially in the administra- 
tion of reHef and in the assistance of 
charitable undertakings was he able to take 
a more personally active part than any of 
his predecessors ' {Bombay Gazette Budget, 
29 Aug. 1903). He was present in 1903 
at the Coronation Durbar which celebrated 
the accession of King Edward "VH. When 
he left India on 5 Sept. 1903 the viceroy. 

Lord Curzon, expressed the general feeling, 
in the message ' Bombay and India are 
losing one of the most sympathetic and 
sagacious governors that they have known.' 
On 29 Aug. 1903 Northcote had been 
appointed Govemor-Greneral of the com- 
monwealth of Australia. On 21 Jan. 1904, 
when he was made a G.C.M.G., he was sworn 
in at Sydney, and he remained in Australia 
for nearly four years and eight months. 
Northcote's task in Australia was no 
easy one. The Commonwealth came into 
existence on 1 Jan. 1901, and Northcote 
had had two predecessors (Lords Hopetoim 
and Tennyson) in three years. He was 
thus the first to hold his office for an 
appreciable length of time, and it fell to 
him largely to establish the position, and 
to create traditions. Federation was in its 
infancy. A national feeling as apart from 
state interests hardly existed, and the 
difficulties of the governor -general consisted 
at the outset in the relations of the states to 
the Commonwealth with resulting friction 
and jealousies, and in the absence of two 
clearly defined parties in Australian politics. 
Mr. Alfred Deakin was prime minister when 
Northcote reached Australia, but in April 
(1904) he was succeeded by the labour prime 
minister of Australia, Mr. John Christian 
Watson. In the following August Mr. (now 
Sir) George Reid became prime minister, 
and in July 1905 Mr. Deakin once more 
came into office and held it for the rest of 
Lord Northcote's term. In India Northcote 
had learnt the difficulty of harmonising the 
views of the government of a province with 
those of the central government, and his 
Indian experience therefore stood him in 
good stead when called upon to reconcile 
the claims of Commonwealth and states in 
Austraha, while his earlier foreign office 
and pohtical training quahfied him to deal 
with pohtical Ufe. In AustraUa, as in 
India, he travelled widely. He was deter- 
mined, as the head of a self-governing 
Commonwealth, to identify himself with 
the people in all parts of Austraha. During 
his term of office he travelled through the 
greater part of every state, visited most 
county towns, every mining centre, the 
great pastoral and agricultural districts ; 
and succeeded in obtaining a grasp of the 
industrial work and Hfe of the people. 
He averaged in traveUing over 10,000 miles 
a year by land and sea. Especially he 
maide a tour in the Northern Territory and 
called pubhc attention to this little known 
and somewhat neglected part of the conti- 
nent. In Sydney and Melbourne he visited 
every factory of importance, while in social 




life, and in the support of institutions and 
movements for the pubhc good, he won 
respect and afifection. He laid stress on 
the importance of defence and of encou- 
raging immigration for the development of 
the land. Thus amid somewhat shifting 
politics, by his sincerity and straightfor- 
wardness, he attached to the office of 
governor-general a high standard of public 
usefulness. His speeches were dignified, 
enlivened by humour, and excellently 
delivered. His ample means enabled him 
to exercise a generous hospitality and a 
wide benevolence. 

After his return from Australia in the 
autumn of 1908 Northcote took a consider- 
able though not a very prominent part in 
public life up to the time of his death. He 
spoke on occasion in the House of Lords, 
and welcomed to his home visitors from 
the dominions beyond the seas. He had 
a singular power of attracting affection, 
and his good judgment, coupled with 
entire absence of self-interest, made him 
a man of many friends. In 1909 he was 
made a privy councillor, and at the Coro- 
nation of King George V he carried the 
banner of Australia. He died at Eastwell 
Park, Ashford, Kent, on 29 Sept. 1911, and 
was buried at Upton Pynes, near Exeter. 
He married on 2 Oct. 1873 Alice, the adopted 
daughter of Lord Mount Stephen. He had 
no issue and the peerage became extinct. 
A portrait of Northcote, painted by A. S. 
Cope, R.A., is in possession of Lady North- 
cote at 25 St. James's Place, London, S.W. 

[The Times, 30 Sept. 1911 ; Foreign Office 
List ; Lovat Fraser, India under Curzon and 
after, 1911; private sources.] C. P. L. 

(1821-1907), president of Oscott CoUege 
and archaeologist, bom at Feniton Court, 
Devonshire, on 26 May 1821, was second 
son of George Barons Northcote of Feni- 
ton Court and of Somerset Court, Somer- 
set, by his wife Maria, daughter and coheir 
of Gabriel Stone of South Brent, Somerset. 
Educated at Tlmington grammar school 
(1830-7), he matriculated in 1837 as a 
scholar from Corpus Christi College, Oxford, 
where he readily yielded to Newman's 
influence. Graduating B.A. in 1841 with 
a first class in the final classical school, 
and marrying next year, he took holy orders 
in 1844, and proceeded M.A. Serving as 
curate in IKracombe, he there became inti- 
mate with Dr. Pusey, and his doubts of the 
Anghcan position increased. 

In 1845 his wife with three of her 
sisters joined the Roman communion. 

Thereupon Northcote resigned his curacy, 
and he followed their example next year. 
He was at once appointed master at Prior 
Park College, Bath, and explained his 
spiritual perplexities in ' The Fourfold 
Difficulty of Anglicanism ' (Derby, 1846 ; 
reprinted 1891 ; French translation by 
J. Gordon, 1847). A three years' stay in 
Italy (1847-50), where Northcote became 
intimate with G. B. de Rossi, the historian 
of the catacombs, developed a warm in- 
terest in the archaeology of Christian Rome. 

The next three years were spent at Clif- 
ton, and were devoted mainly to literary 
work. From June 1852 to September 1854 
he acted as editor of the ' Rambler,' 
to which he had contributed since its 
foundation by his lifelong friend, John 
Moore Capes, in January 1848, and he 
helped to edit the ' Clifton Tracts.' On 
the death of his wife in 1853 Northcote 
studied for the priesthood at the Oratory, 
Birmingham, in 1854 and later at the 
Collegio Pio, Rome, where he pursued his 
study of Christian antiquities. Ordained 
priest on 29 July 1855 at St. Dominic's, 
Stone, near Stafford, he spent the greater 
part of 1856 in theological studies in Rome, 
and on his return to England took charge 
in 1857 of the mission at Stoke-on-Trent. 
In 1860 he was made canon of St. 
Chad's Cathedral Church, canon theologian 
of the diocese of Birmingham in 1862, 
and on 2 March 1884 he was installed 
provost of the cathedral chapter of Bir- 
mingham. In January 1861 he received 
from Pope Pius IX the degree of D.D. 

Meanwhile in January 1860 Northcote 
was appointed vice-president of St. Mary's 
CoUege, Oscott, becoming president in July 
following. Through the early years of his 
presidency Oscott College prospered. Im- 
bued with Oxford culture, and holding wise 
views of education, he remodelled the studies 
and the life on the lines of the chief English 
pubhc schools. A swimming bath was pro- 
vided in 1867, and a gymnasium erected in 
1869 ; and a cricket ground and pavilion 
were added. In July 1863 he entertained 
at Oscott Cardinal Wiseman and Monsignor 
(afterwards Cardinal)Manning at the twenty- 
fifth anniversary of the college. But diffi- 
culties beset the later period of Northcote's 
career at Oscott. The competition of the 
Oratory School, Birmingham (opened in 
May 1859), two epidemics in 1862 and 
1868, and the success of Fitzgerald, a 
dismissed student, in a lawsmt brought 
against Northcote in 1865 for technical 
assault, depressed the fortunes of the col- 
lege. Northcote retired through ill-health 




in 1877, and from 1889 the institution 
was used as an ecclesiastical seminary. 
Northcote went back on leaving Oscott 
to his first mission at Stone, removing in 
1881 to the mission at Stoke-on-Trent. 
After 1887 creeping paralysis withdrew him 
from active work, and he died at the 
Presbytery, Stoke-on-Trent, on 3 March 
1907, being buried at Oscott cemetery, 
which he had opened in 1863. Northcote 
married on 10 Dec. 1842 his cousin Susan- 
nah Spencer {d. June 1853), daughter of 
Joseph Ruscombe Poole, solicitor, of Bridg- 
water, and had issue three sons and three 
daughters, all of whom predeceased him. 

Northcote published much on the early 
Christian antiquities in Rome. Articles on 
the Catacombs in the * Rambler ' (Jan. and 
July 1860) gave rise to much discussion. 
His ' Roma Sotterranea ; or an Account of 
the Roman Catacombs' (1869; 2nd edit. 
1878) (with Bishop William Robert Brown- 
low) was compiled from G. B. de Rossi's 
Italian work ' Roma Sotterranea ; ' it re- 
mains the standard work in EngUsh on the 
subject. It was translated into German 
in 1873 (2nd edit. 1879) and into French. 
Other works by Northcote on the subject 
are : 1. ' The Roman Catacombs,' 1857 ; 
2nd edit. 1859. 2. ' A Visit to the Roman 
Catacombs,' 1877 ; reprinted 1891. 3. 
' Epitaphs of the Catacombs,' 1878. He 
also published : 4. ' A Pilgrimage to La 
Salette,' 1852. 5. ' Mary in the Gospels ' 
(sermons and lectures), 1867 ; 2nd edit. 
1885; new revised edit. 1906. 6. 'Cele- 
brated Sanctuaries of the Madonna,' 1868 
(articles reprinted from the ' Rambler,' 
1850-2). 7. ' Sermons,' 1876. With Charles 
Meynell he pubUshed in 1863 'The 
" Colenso " Controversy from the Catholic 
Standpoint.' A portrait in oils, executed 
by J. R. Herbert, R.A., in 1873, hangs in 
the breakfast parloiu: at Oscott College. 
Northcote is commemorated by the ' North- 
cote Hall ' at Oscott, which he inaugurated 
in 1866. 

[The Times, Birmingham Daily Post, and 
Tablet, 9 March 1907 ; funeral sermon by 
WiUiam Barry, D.X>., entitled The Lord my 
Light, 1907 ; The Oscotian (Northcote num- 
ber), July 1907 ; Report of case Fitzgerald 
V. Northcote, 1866 ; Catholic Encyclopaedia 
(s.vv. Northcote and Oscott) ; Cath. Univ. 
Bulletin, Washington, March-April 1909 ; 
Gasquet's Acton and his Circle, pp. xxi and 
300-1.] W. B. 0. 

NORTON, first Babon. [See Adderley, 
Charles Bowyer (1814-1905), president 
of the board of trade.] 

NORTON, JOHN (1823-1904), architect, 
bom on 28 Sept. 1823 at Bristol, was son 
of John Norton by his wife Sarah Russell. 
After education at Bristol grammar school 
he entered as a pupil in 1846 the office in 
London of Benjamin Ferrey [q. v.] and 
attended classes of Prof. Thomeis Leverton 
Donaldson [q. v.] at the University of 
London, where he received in 1848 the first 
prize from Lord Brougham. 

Norton became an associate of the Royal 
Institute of British Architects in 1850 and 
fellow in 1857 ; he was for a time a member 
of its council, and became president of the 
Architectural Association for the session 
1858-9. He was honorary secretary of the 
Arundel Society (for producing printed 
copies of paintings by old masters) through- 
out its existence (1848-98). 

Norton quickly built up a large and 
lucrative architectural practice in both 
domestic and ecclesiastical buddings. He 
was fortunate in finding many patrons of 
distinction and wealth. For the Maharajah 
Duleep Singh he built Elveden Hall, Suffolk ; 
for William Gibbs he rebvult Tyntesfield, 
Somerset; and for Sir Alexander Acland- 
Hood, first Baron St. Audries, he designed 
a house at St. Audries in the same 
coimty, as well as a chxirch there. Other 
works were Badgemore, Oxfordshire, for 
Richard Ovey ; Femey Hall, Shropshire, for 
W. Hurt-Sitwell ; Horstead Hall, Norfolk, 
for Sir E. Birkbeck; Nutfield, Surrey, for 
H. E. GxuTiey; Monkhams, Essex, for H. 
Ford Barclay ; Euston Hall, Suffolk, for the 
Duke of Grafton ; public works and build- 
ings of the new boulevard, Florence ; 
International College, Isleworth ; Winter 
Gardens, &c., at Great Yarmouth and 
Tynemouth ; Langland Bay Hotel, South 
Wales ; South Western Terminus Hotel, 
Southampton ; Fickle Castle, Esthonia ; 
Framlingham Hall, Norfolk ; Brent Knoll, 
Somerset ; Summers Pleice, Sussex ; Chew 
Magna Manor House, Somerset ; Town Hall 
and Constitutional Club, Neath ; Training 
College for the diocese of Gloucester and 

Among his London designs were the Turf 
Club, Piccadilly ; the Submarine Telegraph 
Co.'s office, Throgmorton Avenue ; the 
Canada Government Buildings and Victoria 
Mansions, Westminster ; residential man- 
sions, Mandeville Place, W., with several 
hotels, business premises, and residential 

Though not working exclusively in the 
Gothic style, Norton designed much eccle- 
siastical work in the Gothic style of the 
mid-nineteenth century. He designed the 




churches of Stapleton, Stoke Bishop, and 
Frampton Cotterell in Gloucestershire ; 
those at Bourton, High Bridge, and 
Congresbury in Somersetshire. At Bristol 
he was responsible for St. Luke's, St. 
Matthias, Emmanuel (Clifton), and the 
parish church of Bedminster ; and in Wales 
and Monmouthshire for those at Ponty- 
pridd, Neath, Rheola, Ebbw Vale, Blaina, 
Abertillery, Ystrad Mynach, Penmaen, 
Llwyn Madoc, Dyffryn, Cwm, and Ysfra. 
Norton designed St. Matthew's, Brighton ; 
Christ Church, Finchley ; St. John's, 
Middlesbrough ; churches at Croxley Green 
(since increased in size) ; Limdy Island ; 
Powerscourt, Wicklow ; Chevington, near 
Howick ; Bagneres de Bigorre ; and 
Bishop Hannington's Memorial Church, 
Frere Town, Africa. The C.M.S. Children's 
Home at Limpsfield, the Royal Normal 
College for the Blind at Norwood,the County 
Courts at Williton, Dunster, and Long 
Ashton in Somerset, and the High Cross at 
Bristol were also Norton's work. 

Norton died on 10 Nov. 1904, and was 
buried at Bournemouth. He married in 
1857 Helen Mary, only daughter of Peter Le 
Neve Aldous Arnold, by whom he had eight 
daughters and two sons. The younger son, 
Mr. C. Harrold Norton, succeeded to his 
father's practice. 

[The BuUder, Ixxxvii. 526; R.LB.A. 
Journal, vol. xii. 3rd series, p. 63 ; informa- 
tion by Mr. C. Harrold Norton.] P. W. 

Countess Gigliucci (1818-1908), ora- 
torio and operatic prima donna, born in 
Oxford Street, London, on 10 Jxme 1818, 
was fourth daughter of Vincent Novello 
[q. v.] by his wife Mary Sabilla Hehl. Mrs. 
Mary Victoria Cowden Clarke [q. v. Suppl. I] 
was her eldest sister. Clara was taken in 
childhood to York, and was placed under 
Miss HiU, the leading singer, and John 
Robinson, organist of the Roman cathoUc 
chapel there. Her talents were at once dis- 
played ; and on Easter Sunday, when 
Miss Hill was suddenly indisposed, Clara 
offered to sing aU her solos from memory, 
and succeeded. In 1829 she became a 
pupil of Choron's academy in Paris. She 
always retained the strongest appreciation 
of her training there ; Pales trina's music 
was much simg, and Clara ascribed her 
perfect sostenuto to having sung in Ms 
motets, and being obhged to hold the sus- 
pensions. The academy declined after the 
revolution of 1830, and Clara, who had had 
unpleasant experiences of the fighting, 
returned to England. On 22 Oct. 1832 she 

made her first public appearance, in a 
concert at Windsor, with full success ; and 
in December she took the soprano part in 
Beethoven's ' Missa Solennis,' a remarkable 
feat for a girl of fourteen. She was soon 
among the first singers of the day, being 
engaged at the whole series of Ancient 
Concerts, at the Philharmonic Concerts, 
and the Three Choirs Festival. She sang in 
a sestet, Grisi leading, at the Handel com- 
memoration in June 1834 ; Lord Mount- 
Edgcumbe {Musical Reminiscences, p. 278) 
describes her as ' a very young girl with 
a clear good voice.' Her father's friend, 
Charles Lamb, though quite unmusical, 
wrote the lines ' To Clara N.' pubUshed in 
the ' Athenaeum,' 26 July 1834. She was 
left without a rival on the retirement of 
Catherine Stephens, afterwards coimtess of 
Essex [q. v.], in 1835, and took the leading 
soprano part at all important English 
concerts. Her voice was a pure clear 
soprano, extending to D in alt, perfectly 
trained, perfectly under control, and used 
with musical science as well as with feeUng 
expression. Handel's music was particu- 
larly adapted to her style. Her appearance 
was attractive ; she had exceptionally 
luxuriant hair, and to lessen the load she 
cut ofiE half a yard. At the Manchester 
Festival in September 1836 she had much 
useful advice from the dying MaUbran. 
Next year Mendelssohn invited her to the 
Gewandhaus Concerts, Leipzig, where she 
appeared on 2 Nov. 1837, and several times 
later. She was well received, and succeeded 
in making German audiences appreciate 
Handel's solos. Schumann declared that 
nothing for years past had given him so 
much pleasure as Miss NoveUo's voice, ' every 
note sharply defined as on the keyboard.' 
{Neue Zeilschrift fiir Musik : Das Musik- 
leben . . , 1837-8). Mendelssohn wTote 
that Clara Novello and Mrs. Shaw (her 
successor next winter) ' are the best concert 
singers we have heard in Germany for a 
long time.' She sang also at Berlin, 
Dresden, Prague (Ktjhe, My Musical 
Recollections, p. 26), Vienna (Schumann, 
Letter to Fischhof), and Munich. Then 
visiting Rossini at Bologna, she was 
advised to study opera for a year ; she 
took lessons of Micheroux at Milan. In 
1839 she once more made a concert tour, 
travelling down the Rhine to Diisseldorf, 
through North Germany to Berlin, and 
thence to St. Petersburg. Her first appear- 
ance on the stage was at Padua in Rossini's 
' Semiramide,' on 6 July 1841. Unqualified 
successes in Rome, Genoa, and other large 
Italian cities followed j Rossini sent 




specially for her to take the soprano part in 
his just completed ' Stabat Mater.' Owing 
to the mismanagement of agents, she was 
announced to sing at two places — at Rome 
and Genoa — during the carnival of 1843 ; 
the Roman authorities refused a permit to 
leave the territory and detained her under 
arrest at Fermo, On her appeahng as a 
British subject to Lord Aberdeen, then 
Enghsh foreign secretary, the matter was 
arranged by arbitration. Count Gighucci, 
the governor of Fermo, feU in love with his 
prisoner ; she agreed to marry him as soon 
as professional engagements permitted. At 
Clara Novello's last appearance in Rome 
she was recalled twenty-nine times ; there 
was some disturbance at Genoa. 

In March she returned to England, and 
appeared in English opera at Drury Lane ; 
also in Handel's ' Acis and Galatea,' and 
at the Sacred Harmonic Society and other 
concerts. On 22 Nov. she was married 
to Coxmt Gigliucci at Paddington parish 
chiirch, and retired with him to Italy. 
Dining the troubles of 1848 their property 
was confiscated, and the countess resolved 
to resume her pubUc appearances. In 1850 
she sang in opera at Rome ; then at Lisbon, 
and on 18 July 1851 re-appeared in London, 
singing in Handel's ' Messiah ' at Exeter Hall. 
Her embellishments brought some disappro- 
bation, though her voice was pronoxinced 
to have gained in strength, and to have 
lost nothing of its beauty. She took the place 
of leading Enghsh concert soprano, appear- 
ing only once again in England in opera, 
in ' I Puritani ' at Drury Lane on 5 July 
1853. At Milan she sang in opera diuing 
the carnivals from 1854-6. In England her 
singing was regarded as the embodiment 
of the best traditions of the Handehan 
style ; like Mara and Catalani before, and 
Lemmens-Sherrington after, she was 
specially distinguished in her rendering of 
' I know that my Redeemer liveth,' and 
she sang the opening phrase in one breath. 
On the opening of the Crystal Palace, on 
10 June 1854, her singing, ' heard to remote 
comers of the building' {AihencBum, 17 June 
1854), seemed grander than ever before ; 
probably the finest revelation of her powers 
was at the Handel Festival there in 
June 1859. She then determined to retire. 
After singing in Handel's ' Messiah ' at the 
Crystal Palace, she made her last appear- 
ance at a benefit concert at St. James's 
HaU on 21 Nov. 1860, the final strain being 
the National Anthem. 

In her retiremjent she lived with her 
husband at Rome and Fermo. He died on 
29 March 1893 ; she died in her ninetieth 

year, on 12 March 1908, at Rome, leaving 
a daughter, ^ Valeria. Her portrait was 
twice painted,! by her brother Edward 
Petre Novello, and by Edward Magnus of 
Berlin. These pictures were reproduced, 
with photographs, in Clayton's ' Queens of 
Song,' the memorial article by ' F. G. E,' in 
' Musical Times, ' April 1908, the Novello 
centenary number, June 1911, and in her 
volume of ' Reminiscences ' (1910). 

[Her posthumous Reminiscences (1910), 
compiled by her daughter Valeria ; works 
and periodicals quoted.] H. D. 

NUNBURNHOLME, first Baron. 
[See Wilson, Chables Henby (1833-1907), 
shipowner and poUtician.] 

1908), colonel, army veterinary service, 
bom on 10 May 1853 at ^Hill Castle, co. 
Wexford, Ireland, was son of Edward W. 
Nunn, J. P., D.L. He was educated at 
Wimbledon school, and served in the 
royal Monmouthshire engineer militia from 
1871 to 1877. In 1874 he entered the Royal 
Veterinary College at Camden Town, and 
was admitted M.R.C.V.S. on 4 Jan. 1877, 
being elected F.R.C.V.S. on 29 April 1886. 
In 1877 he obtained a certificate in cattle 
pathology from the Royal Agricultural 
Society. He was gazetted veterinary surgeon 
on probation in the army veterinary 
service on 21 April 1877 and veterinary 
surgeon to the royal artillery on 24 April 
1877, being the last officer to obtain a com- 
mission under the old regimental system. 

Nunn proceeded to India at the end of 
1877, and from September 1879 to August 
1880 he took part in the Afghan war as the 
veterinary officer in charge of transport on 
the Khyber fine of communication. Later, 
accompanying the expeditionary column in 
the Lughman valley, he was in charge of 
the transport base hospital at Gandamak. 
For these services he gained the war medal. 

He was employed on special duty from 
1880 to 1885 as a civil servant under the 
Punjab government, first in the suppression 
of glanders under the Glanders and Farcy 
Act, afterwards in connection with the 
agricultural department of the Punjab as the 
veterinary inspector. In this capacity he 
travelled widely to collect aU manner of 
information and statistics about cattle, 
including folklore and disease. This he 
embodied in a series of valuable reports : 
'Animal Diseases in Rohtak' (1882) ; 'Dis- 
eases in Sialkote and Hazara' (1883); 
'Diseases in the Montgomery and Shapvir 
Districts ' (1884 and 1885). At the same 
time he lectured to native students at the 




Lahore veterinary college. He left India 
in 1886, and the government of the Punjab 
recognised his valuable services in a special 

Immediately after leaving India he was 
ordered to South Africa to investigate 
' horse sickness,' which was thought to 
be due to anthrax. After taking short 
courses of bacteriology at Cambridge and 
Paris, he reached South Africa in January 
1887 and remained there until October 
1888. He proved that the sickness was 
malarial in type. Engaging meanwhile in 
the campaign against the Zulus in 1888, 
he was at the surrender of the chief Som- 
kali at St. Lucia Lagoon. 

He returned to India in January 1889, 
and was appointed inspecting veterinary 
officer of the Chittagong column during 
the Chin Lushai expedition. He was 
mentioned in despatches and was decorated 
with the Distinguished Service Order, being 
the first member of the army veterinary 
service to receive this distinction. At the 
end of the Chin Lushai campaign he was 
appointed in 1890 principal of the Lahore 
veterinary school, where he laboured for six 
years and laid the f oimdations of the native 
veterinary service, being rewarded with the 
CLE. in 1895. Nunn did much to advance 
the cause of veterinary science in India. 
Of untiring energy, he was personally 
popular with varied classes of his comrades. 

From December 1896 to August 1905 
Nunn was in England, spending part of his 
time in studying law. He was called to 
the bar at Lincoln's Inn in November 1899, 
and was afterwards nominated an advocate 
of the supreme court of the Transvaal. 
Again in England, he was from 1901 to 
1904 deputy director-general of the army 
veterinary department, and was principal 
veterinary officer (eastern command) in 
1904-5. From August 1905 he filled a 
similar position in South Africa, but was 
transferred to India in June 1906 and was 
made a O.B. He served in spite of illness 
till 1907, when he was forced to return to 
England. He died at Oxford on 23 Feb. 
1908. He married in 1907 Gertrude Ann, 
widow of W. Chamberlain and daughter of 
E. Kelhier, CLE. 

Nunn, who was joint editor of the 
'Veterinary Journal' from 1893 to 1906, 
published, in addition to the reports noticed 
above : 1. ' Report on South African Horse 
Sickness,' 1888. 2. Notes on ' Stable Man- 
agement in India,' 1896 ; 2nd edit. 1897. 3. 
' Lectures on Saddlery and Harness,' 1902. 
4. ' Veterinary First Aid in Cases of Accident 
or Sudden Illness,' 1903. 5. ' The Use of 

Molasses as a Feeding Material,' from the 
French of Edouard Curot, 1903. 6. * Dis- 
eases of the Mammary Gland of .the Domestic 
Animals,' from the French of P. Leblanc, 
1904. 7. ' Veterinary Toxicology,' 1907. 

[Veterinary Record, 7 March 1908, p. 649 ; 
Veterinary Journal, March 1908, p, 105 (with 
portrait),] D'A. P. 

1910), publisher, folklorist, and Celtic 
scholar, born in London on 22 Nov. 1856, 
was eldest and only surviving son of David 
Nutt {d. 1863), a foreign bookseller and 
publisher, by his wife Ellen, daughter 
of Robert Carter and grand-daughter of 
Wilham Miller, publisher, of Albemarle 
Street, predecessor of John Murray 11. His 
second name commemorated liis father's 
partnership with Nicholas Triibner [q. v.]. 
He was educated first at University College 
School and afterwards at the College at 
Vitry le Fran9ois in the Mame. Having 
served three y^ears' business apprenticeship 
in Leipzig, Berlin, and Paris, he in 1878 
took his place as head of his father's firm, 
which, founded in 1829 at 58 Fleet Street, 
was moved in 1848 to 270-271 Strand. 
The business, which had been mainly con- 
fined to foreign bookselling, soon benefited by 
young Nutt's energy and enterprise, especi- 
ally in the publishing department, which he 
mainly devoted to folklore and antiquities. 
Among his chief publications were the 
collection of unedited Scottish Gaelic texts 
known as ' Waifs and Strays of Celtic Tra- 
dition,' the ' Northern Library ' of old Norse 
texts, the ' Tudor Library ' of rare sixteenth- 
century works, the Tudor translations 
(in sixteenth -century prose), the * Grimm 
Library,' the ' Bibliotheque de Carabas,' a 
critical edition of ' Don Quixote ' in Spanish, 
'Nutt's Juvenile Library,' the works of 
W. E. Henley, and the collection of English, 
Celtic, and Indian fairy tales. He also 
produced a number of excellent school 
books. The business was carried on at 
57-59 Long Acre, ' At the sign of the 
Phoenix,' from 1890 to 1912, when it was 
removed to Grape St., New Oxford St. 

Besides possessing much business capacity 
Nutt was a lifelong student of folklore 
and of the Celtic languages, and showed 
scholarship and power of original research 
in a number of valuable contributions 
which he made to both studies. His 
name will be 'definitely associated with 
the plea for the msular, Celtic, and popular 
provenance of the Arthurian cycle ' (Folk- 
lore, 1910, p. 513). He founded the ' Folk- 
lore Journal' (afterwards 'Folk-lore'), was 




one of the earliest members of the Folk- 
lore Society (1879), and was elected 
president in 1897 and 1898. Besides pre- 
sidential addresses he contributed many 
valuable articles to the society's journal, 
the ' Folk-lore Eecord,' and in 1892 he 
edited a volume of ' Transactions ' of the 
International Folk-lore Congress (1891). 
In 1886 he helped to establish the 
EngUsh Goethe Society. He was one of the , 
founders of the movement which led in 
1898 to the formation of the Irish Texts 
Society. His most important literary pro- 
ductions were : ' Studies on the Legend of 
the Holy Grail with Special Reference to 
the Hypothesis of its Cfeltic Origin ' (1888, 
Folk-lore Soc. vol. 23), and two essays on 
The Irish Vision of the Happy Otherworld 
and The Celtic Doctrine of Rebirth, ap- 
pended to ' The Voyage of Bran, son of 
Febal, to the Land of the Living, an Old 
Irish Saga now first edited with Translation 
by Kuno Meyer ' {Orimm Library, vols. 4 
and 6, 1895-7). 

On 21 May 1910, while on a holiday at 
Melun on the Seine, he was out driving 
with an invalid son, who fell into the river ; 
Nutt bravely plunged to. the rescue but 
was unfortunately drowned. His wife, 
Mrs. M. L. Nutt, who had been his 
secretary for several years, succeeded him 
as head of the firm. Two sons survived 

Nutt also wrote : l.y TheJAryan Ex- 
pulsion and Return Formvda in the Folk 
and Hero Tales of the Celts ' {Folk-lore 
Record, vol. iv. 1881). 2. 'Mabinogion 
Studies, I. The Mabinogi of Branwen, 
Daughter of Llyr ' {ib. vol. v. 1882). 3. 
' Celtic and Mediaeval Romance,' - 1899 
(Popular Studies, no. 1). 4. ' Ossian and 
Ossianic Literature,' 1899 [ib. no. 3). 5. 
' The Fairy Mythology of Shakespeare,' 
1900 {ib. no. 6). 6. 'Cuchulainn, the Irish 
AchiUes,' 1900 {ib. no. 8). 7. 'The 
Legends of the Holy Grail,' 1902 {ib. no. 
14). He added notes to Douglas Hyde's 
' Beside the Fire, a Collection of Irish 
Gaelic Folk Stories' (1890); introductions 
and notes to several volimies of Lord A. 
Campbell's ' Waifs and Strays of Celtic 
Tradition ' ; a preface to Jeremiah Curtin's 
* Tales of the Fairies and of the Ghost 
World ' ; a chapter on Folk-lore to ' Field 
and Folk-lore,' by H. Lowerison (1899) ; 
introduction, notes, and appendix to 
Matthew Arnold's ' Study of Celtic 
Literature ' (1910), and notes to Lady 
Charlotte Guest's ' Mabinogion ' (1902 ; 
revised and enlarged 1904). 

[Obituary notice by E. Clodd in Folk-lore, 
30 Sept. 1910, pp. 335-7 (with lithograph por- 
trait) and pp. 512-14 ; The Tunes, 24 May 
1910 ; Athenaeum, and Publishers' Circular, 
28 May 1910; Bookseller, 27 May 1910; 
Who's Who, 1910.] H. R. T. 


LEY (1830-1903), musical composer, born 
at Ealing on 22 July 1830, was second son 
of Sir Herbert Oakeley, third baronet [q. v.]. 
Educated at Rugby and at Christ Church, \ 
Oxford, he graduated B.A. in 1853 and pro- 
ceeded M.A. in 1856. Oakeley showed 
an early taste for music, studied har- 
mony with Stephen Elvey while at Oxford, 
and later visited Leipzig, Dresden, and 
Bonn, having organ lessons from Johann 
Schneider, and theory and piano lessons 
from Moscheles, Plaidy, and others. In 
1865 he was elected Reid professor of 
music in Edinburgh University. He did 
much to improve the position of the chair ; 
converted the annual ' Reid concert ' 
into a three days' festival ; engaged the ! 
Halle orchestra to take part in concerts ; 
gave frequent organ recitals in the music 
class room ; and organised and conducted a 
University Musical Society. He was also 
director of music at St. Paul's episcopal 
church, Edinburgh, and in 1876 he directed 

the music at the inauguration of the Scottish 
national monument to the Prince Consort. 
He was then knighted by Queen Victoria 
at Holyrood, and was appointed ' composer 
to the Queen in Scotland.' To Queen 
Victoria, who appreciated his work, he 
dedicated many of his compositions. He 
received numerous honorary degrees, 
Mus.Doc. (Oxford, Dublin, St. An^-ews, 
Edinbvirgh and Adelaide) and LL.D. (Aber- 
deen, Edmburgh, and Glasgow). He retired 
from his professorship in 1891, and died un- 
married at Eastbourne on 26 Oct. 1903. 

Oakeley was an excellent organist, with a 
marked gift for improvisation. He gave fre- 
quent popular lectures on musical subjects, 
was musical critic to the ' Guardian ' 1 858-68, 
and contributed to other journals. He was 
a proUfic composer of vocal and instrumental 
music. Twenty of his songs were pub- 
lished in a ' Jubilee Album ' (1887) dedicated 
to Queen Victoria. He wrote also twelve 
part-songs for mixed choir, choruses for 
male voices and students' songs, and made 




choral arrangements of many Scottish 
national airs. Among his church works 
are a motet, a ' Morning and Evening 
Service,' some dozen anthems, a * Jubilee 
Cantata' (1887), and several hymn tunes. 
It is by two of the latter, ' Edina ' and 
' Abends,' associated respectively with 
the words ' Saviour, blessed Saviour,' and 
' Sun of my Soul, Thou Saviour dear,' that he 
is best known. ' Edina,' composed in 1862, 
appeared first in the Appendix to ' Hymns 
Ancient and Modern,' 1868 ; ' Abends, 
composed in 1871, in the Irish ' Church 
Hymnal,' edited by Sir R. P. Stewart, 
Dubhn, 1874. 

[Life by his brother, Mr. E. M. Oakeley 
(with portrait), 1904; Hole's Quasi Cursores, 
1884 (with portrait) ; Musical Times, Dec. 
1903 ; Brit. Musical Biog. ; Grove's Diet, of 
Music ; Love's Scottish Church Music ; 
personal knowledge.] J. C. H. 

1909), Irish author and social reformer, 
born on 23 Nov. 1845 at Cahirmoyle, 
CO. Limerick, was younger daughter in a 
family of five sons and two daughters 
of WilUam Smith O'Brien [q. v.], Irish 
nationalist, by his wife Lucy Carohne, eldest 
daughter of Joseph Gabbett, of High Park, 
CO. Limerick. On her father's return in 
1854 from the penal settlement in Tasmania, 
Grace rejoined him in Brussels, and stayed 
there until his removal to Cahirmoyle in 
1856. On her mother's death in 1861 she 
removed with her father to Killiney, near 
Dubhn, and was his constant companion 
till his death at Bangor in 1864. From 
1864 she lived at Cahirmoyle with her 
brother Edward, tending his motherless 
children, untU his remarriage in 1880. She 
then went to Uve at Foynes on the Shannon, 
and there devoted herself to htertiry pur- 
suits. She had already pubhshed in 1878 
(2 vols. Edinburgh) her first novel, ' Light 
and Shade,' a tale of the Fenian rising of 
1869, the material for which had been 
gathered from Fenian leaders. ' A Tale of 
Venice,' a drama, and ' Lyrics ' appeared in 

From 1880-1 her interests and pen were 
absorbed in Irish pohtical affairs, in which 
she shared her father's opinions. She contri- 
buted articles to the * Nineteenth Century ' 
on 'The Irish Poor Man' (December 
1880) and 'Eighty Years' (March 1881). 
In the spring of 1881 the attitude of the 
liberal government towards Ireland led her 
to address many fiery letters to the ' Pall 
MaU Gazette,' then edited by Mr. John 
(afterwards Viscount) Morley. Another 

interest, however, soon absorbed ^ her 
activities. The disastrous' harvest in" Ire- 
land in 1879, combined with Irish pohtical 
turmoil, led to much emigration to America. 
At Queenstown, the port of embarkation, 
female emigrants suffered much from 
overcrowded lodgings and robbery (see 
article by Miss O'Brien in Pall MaU 
Gazette, 6 May 1881). Miss O'Brien not 
only induced the board of trade to exercise 
greater vigilance but also founded in 1881 
a large boarding-house at Queenstown 
for the reception and protection of girls 
on the point of emigrating. In order to 
improve the steamship accommodation for 
female emigrants, and to study their 
prospects in America, Miss O'Brien made 
several steerage passages to America 
(see her privately printed letter on The 
separation of the sexes on emigrant vessels, 
addressed to Mr. Joseph Chamberlain, 
president of the board of trade, 1881). She 
also estabhshed in New York a similar 
institution to that in Queenstown for the 
protection of girls. Many experiences 
during this period found expression in her 
' Lyrics ' (Dublin, 1886), a small volume 
of poems, which gives simple pictures of 
the emigrants and contains some stirring 
nationaUst ballads. 

On her retirement from active public 
work in 1886 Miss O'Brien returned to 
Ardanoir, Foyjies, on the bank of the 
Shannon, devoting her leisure to writing 
and to study of plant life ; she contributed 
much on the flora of the Shannon district 
to the ' Irish Naturalist.' She had joined 
the Roman communion in 1887. She 
died on 3 June 1909 at Foynes, and was 
buried at Knockpatrick. ' Selections from 
her Writings and Correspondence' was 
published at Dublin in 1909. Her verses 
have dignity and grace ; her polemical 
essays are vigorous and direct, and her 
essays on nature charm by their simple style. 

[Charlotte Grace O'Brien, selections from 
her writings and correspondence, ed. by her 
nephew, Stephen Gwynn, M.P., 1909 (with 
memoir and portraits) ; The Times, 5 and 26 
June, 1909. Miss O'Brien's works are to be 
distinguished from those written from 1855 
onwards by Mrs. Charlotte O'Brien, which are 
Avrongly attributed in the Brit. Mus. Cat. to 
Charlotte Grace O'Brien.] W. B. O. 

O'BRIEN, CORNELIUS (1843-1906), 
catholic archbishop of Halifax, Nova 
Scotia, bom near New Glasgow, Prince 
Edward Island, on 4 May 1843, was 
seventh of the nine children of Terence 
O'Brien of Munster by his wife Catherine 
O'DriscoU of Cork. After school traimng 




he obtained, as a boy, mercantUe employ- 
ment, but at nineteen entered St. Dmistan's 
College, Charlottetown, to study for the 
priesthood. In 1864 he passed to the 
College of the Propaganda in Rome, and 
concluded his seven years' course in 
1871 by winning the prize for general 
excellence in the whole college. While 
he was in Rome Garibaldi attacked the 
city, the Vatican Coimcil was held, and 
the temporal power fell. O'Brien, who had 
literary ambition and a taste for verse, 
founded on these stirring events an 
historical novel which he published later 
under the title ' After Weary Years ' 
(Baltimore, 1886). On his return to 
Canada he was appointed a professor in 
St. Dunstan's College and rector of the 
cathedral of Charlottetown, but faiUng 
health led to his transfer in 1874 to the 
country parish of Indian River. There he 
devoted his leisxu*e to writing, issuing 
' The Philosophy of the Bible vindicated ' 
(Charlottetown, 1876); 'Early Stages of 
Christianity in England ' (Charlottetown, 
1880) ; and ' Mater Admirabihs,' in praise 
of the Virgm (Montreal, 1882). He 
twice revisited Rome, and in 1882 O'Brien, 
on the death of Archbishop Hannan, 
was appointed his successor in the see of 
HaUfax. O'Brien administered the diocese 
with great energy, building churches and 
schools, foxmding religious and benevolent 
institutions, and taking an active part in 
public affairs whenever he considered the 
good of the community demanded it. His 
hope of seeing a cathoUc university in 
Halifax was not reahsed, but he estabhshed 
a French College for the Acadians at Church 
Point, and foimded a collegiate school, 
St. Mary's College, in Halifax, which was to 
be the germ of the future university. He 
died suddenly in Halifax on 9 March 1906, 
and was buried in the cemetery of the Holy 
Cross. A painted portrait is in the archi- 
episcopal palace in Hahfax. 

O'Brien, who was elected president of 
the Royal Society of Canada in 1896, was a 
representative Irish-Canadian prelate, com- 
bining force of character with depth of 
sentiment and winning the esteem of his 
protestant fellow-subjects while insisting 
on what he believed to be the rights of 
the Roman cathoUc minority. Advocating 
home rule for Ireland, he was at the same 
time a staxmch imperialist and a strong 
Canadian. In addition to the books named 
he wrote ' St. Agnes, Virgin and Martyr ' 
(HaUfax, 1887), his patroness ; ' Aminta,' 
a modem life drama (1890), a metrical novel 
after the model of ' Aurora Leigh ' ; and 

VOL. LXIX. — SUP. n. 

'Memoirs of Edmund Burke (1753-1820), 
the first Bishop of Halifax ' (1894). The 
last work called forth a reply, *M6moires 
sur les Missions de la Nouvelle Ecosse ' 
(Quebec, 1895). 

[Archbishop O'Brien : Man and Churchman, 
by Katharine Hughes (his niece), Ottawa, 
1906 (%vith portraits) ; Morgan, Canadian 
Men and Women of the Time, 1898 ; Toronto 
Globe, 10 March 1906.] D. R. K. 


(1828-1905), Irish poUtician, bom in 
Dungarvan, co. Waterford, Ireland, on 
16 October 1828, was son of Timothy 
O'Brien, a merchant there, who owned some 
vessels which traded between England and 
Ireland and South Wales. His mother, 
Catherine, also belonged to an O'Brien 
family. When Father Mathew, the total 
abstinence missionary, visited Dungar- 
van, O'Brien, then aged eight, took the 
pledge, which he kept till he was twenty- 
one. He was educated successively at a 
private school in Dungarvan and at St. 
John's College, Waterford. In boyhood he 
adopted Irish nationalist principles of an 
advanced type. During the disturbances of 
1848 he took part in the abortive attack of 
James Finton Lalor [q. v.] upon the police 
barrack of Cappoquin. A warrant was 
issued for O'Brien's arrest, but he escaped 
to Wales in one of his father's vessels. On 
his return to Ireland he engaged, at first 
at Lismore and then at Clonmel, in the 
purchase of grain for the export business 
carried on by his father and family. After 
his father's death in 1853 he gave up this 
occupation in order to study medicine. 
In 1854 he gained a scholarship at the 
Queen's College, Gal way, but soon left 
to accompany a poUtical friend, John 
O'Leary [q. v. Suppl. 11], to Paris, where 
he continued his medical studies. He 
attended lectures at the iScole de M6decine, 
and visited hospitals — La Pitie, La Charite, 
Hotel Dieu. Among the acquaintances he 
formed in Paris were the artist James 
MacNeill Whistler [q. v. Suppl. II], John 
Martin [q. v.], and Kevin Izod O'Doherty 
[q. V. Suppl. II], members of the Young 
Ireland party. A failiu-e of health broke 
o£E his medical studies. After retiiming to 
Ireland in 1856 he sailed for New Orleans, 
with the intention of seeking a new ex- 
perience by taking part in William Walker's 
expedition to Nicaragua. Through the 
influence of Pierre Soule, then attorney- 
general for the state of Louisiana, O'Brien 
joined Walker's staff. He sailed with the 
expedition to San Juan and up that river 




to Fort San Carlos, but Walker made 
terms without fighting. Returning to New 
Orleans, O'Brien became a book-keeper 
there. In 1858 he met James Stephens 
[q. V. Suppl. II], one of the founders of the 
Fenian organisation, and Stephens led him 
to join the local branch. On the outbreak 
of the American civil war in 1861 he served 
as assistant-surgeon in a volunteer militia 
regiment, consisting mainly of Irishmen. 

In 1862 he returned to Ireland, and 
joined the Fenian organisation in Cork, and 
here he met Stephens again in 1865. He 
deemed the Fenian rising in 1867 to be 
premature, but on the night of 3 March 
1867 he loyally joined his comrades at the 
rendezvous on Prayer Hill outside Cork, 
and led an attack upon the Balljmockan 
police barracks, which surrendered. The 
party seized the arms there, and marched 
on towards Bottle Hill, but scattered on the 
approach of a body of infantry. O'Brien 
was arrested near Kihnallock, and taken to 
Limerick jail. He was subsequently taken 
to Cork county gaol, and in May tried for 
high treason. He was convicted, and was 
sentenced in accordance with the existing 
law to be hanged, drawn, and quartered. 
The sentence was commuted to penal 
servitude for life. O'Brien is said to 
have been the last survivor of those 
sentenced to the barbarous punishment 
provided by the old law of treason. 
By a new act of 1870, hanging or be- 
heading was appointed to be the sole 
penalty of the extreme kind. From 
Mount joy Prison, Dublin, O'Brien was soon 
taken with some twenty -nine other political 
prisoners, chained together in gangs, to 
Holyhead on a gunboat, whence he was 
removed to Millbank, where he was kept in 
solitary confinement for fourteen months. 
Next he was removed to Portland Avith 
others, chained in sets of six. In Portland 
he worked at stone-dressing. He was 
finally released on 4 March 1869. On 
visiting Waterford, and subsequently Cork, 
he received popular ovations. 

Before his arrest O'Brien was manager 
of a wholesale tea and wine business at 
Cork. He resimied the post on his release, 
and was soon appointed a traveller for his 
firm. Having rejoined the Fenian organi- 
sation (finally becoming a member of the 
supreme council of that body) he com- 
bined throughout Ireland the work of 
Fenian missionary and commercial traveller 
tmtil 1873. Subsequently he carried on the 
business of a tea and wine merchant in 
Dublin, and was at a later period secretary 
to the gas company at Cork. 

Meanwhile he was gradually drawn into 
the parliamentary home rule movement 
under Parnell's leadership. In 1885 he 
became nationalist M.P. for South Mayo, 
and acted as one of the party treasurers till 
his death. In the schism of 1891 he seceded 
from Parnell. Afterwards he became 
general secretary of the United Irish 
League of Great Britain, an office which 
he held for life. He continued member 
for South Mayo till 1895, when he became 
member for Cork City and retained the 
seat till his death. He died at Clapham 
on 28 May 1905, and was buried in 
Glasnevin cemetery, Dublin. He was twice 
married: (1) in 1859 to Mary Louisa 
CuUimore [d. 1866), of Wexford ; and (2) 
in 1870 to Mary Teresa O'Malley. By his 
first wife he had one son ; by his second, 
three daughters and two sons. A portrait 
painted by an artist named Connolly belongs 
to the family. 

[Private information ; John O'Leary's Recol- 
lections, 2 vols. 1896.] R. B. O'B. 

FORD (1839-1909), civil engineer, bom 
on 22 July 1839, was second son of James 
O'Callaghan, J. P., of Drisheen, co. Cork, by 
his wife Agnes, daughter of the Rev. Francis 
Langford. Educated at private schools and 
at Queen's College, Cork, he received prac- 
tical engineering training \mder H. Cony- 
beare between 1859 and 1862, when he was 
employed on railway construction in Ireland 
and in South Wales. He then entered the 
pubUc works department of India by 
competitive examination, and was appointed 
probationary assistant engineer on 13 June 
1862. He became an executive engineer on 
1 April 1866, and reached the first grade of 
that rank in March 1871, becoming super- 
intending engineer, third class, on 1 Jan. 
1880, and first class in March 1886. On 
9,May 1889 he was appointed chief engineer, 
first class, and consulting engineer to the 
government of India for state railways, 
and on 8 Aug. 1892 he was appointed 
secretary to the public works department, 
from which he retired in 1894. 

In the course of his thirty- two years' service 
O'Callaghan was engaged on the Northern 
Road in the Central Provinces (including the 
Kanhan bridge) ; on surveys for the Chanda, 
Nagpur and Raipur, Nagpur and Chhattis- 
garh, Sind-Sagor, and Khwaja-Amran rail- 
ways ; and on the construction of the 
Tirhoot, Punjab Northern (Pindi-Peshawar 
section), Bolan, and Sind-Pishin railways. 
He was thanked by the government of India 
in May 1883 for his work on the Attock 




bridge across the Indus, on the completion 
of which he was made CLE. On four sub- 
sequent occasions the government tendered 
O'Callaghan its thanks, viz. for services con- 
nected with the question of frontier railways 
(Feb. 1886), for the construction of the 
Bolan railway (June 1886), for the erection 
of the Victoria bridge at Chak Nizam on the 
Sind-Sagor railway (special thanks, Jime 
1887), and for the construction of the 
Khojak tunnel and extension of the railway 
to New Chaman. In 1887 he was com- 
mended by the secretary of state for work 
on the Sind-Sagor state railway. Next year, 
for the construction of the railway through 
the Bolan Pass to Quetta, he was made 
C.S.I. His technical abilities were linked 
with tact, judgment, and genial temper. 
On his retirement he returned to England, 
and was appointed in Sept. 1895 by the 
colonial office to be the managing member 
of the Uganda railway committee ; and he 
held the position xmtil the committee was 
dissolved on 30 Sept. 1903. In 1902 he 
received the recognition of K.C.M.G. 
p? O'CaUaghan weis elected an associate 
of the Institution of CivU Engineers on 
12 Jan. 1869, and became a full member 
on 23 April 1872. He was also a fellow 
of the Royal Gfeographical Society. He 
published in 1865 ' Bidder's Earthwork 
Tables, intended and adapted for the 
Use of the Public Works Department in 

He died suddenly at his residence, 
Clonmeen, Epsom Road, Guildford, on 
14 Nov. 1909, and was buried at Holy 
Trinity Church, Guildford. He married, 
on 22 Sept. 1875, Anna Maria Mary {d. 
1911), second daughter of Lieut.-colonel 
Henry Claringbold Powell, of Banlahan, 
CO. Cork, and left an only son, Francis 
Reginald Powell (1880-1910), captain R.E. 

[History of Services of Officers of the Indian 
Public Works Department ; Proc. Inst. Civ. 
Eng., clxxix. 364.] W. F. S. 

(1843-1902), civil engineer, Bon of John 
O'Connor of Ardlonan and Gravelmount, 
CO. Meath, was bom at Gravelmount on 14 
Jan. 1843. He was educated at the Water- 
ford endowed school, was articled at the 
age of seventeen to John Challoner Smith, 
and after three years' experience on rail- 
way work in Ireland emigrated to New 
Zealand in 1865. There he was employed 
as an assistant engineer on the construc- 
tion of the coach road from Christchurch 
to the Hokitika goldfields. Gradually 
promoted, he was appointed in 1870 

engineer of the western portion of the 
province of Canterbury. From 1874 to 
1880 he was district engineer for the com- 
bined Westland and Nelson districts, and 
from 1880 to 1883 inspecting engineer for 
the whole of the Middle Island. In 1883 
he was appointed under secretary for 
public works for New Zealand, and he held 
that position until May 1890, when he was 
made marine engineer for the colony. 

In April 1891 O'Connor was appointed 
engineer-in-chief to the state of Western 
Australia ; the office carried with it the 
acting general managership of the railways, 
but of this he was relieved at his own 
request in December 1896, in order that 
he_;^might devote all his time to engineering 
work. He remained engineer-in-chief until 
his death, and in that capacity was 
responsible for all new railway work. He 
was a strong advocate of constructing rail- 
ways quite cheaply in new countries. 

The discovery of the Coolgardie gold- 
field in 1892 led to an extraordinary and 
rapid development of the state of Western 
Australia, and in that development O'Con- 
nor, as engineer-in-chief, played a part 
probably second only to that of the premier, 
Sir John Forrest. In the short period of 
eleven years he undertook two works of 
the utmost importance to the colony, 
namely Fremantle harboiu: and the Cool- 
gardie water-supply, besides constructing 
all new railways. He also executed a 
large number of smaller works, such as 
bridges, harbours, and jetties, and improve- 
ments in the permanent way, aligmnent, 
and gradients of the railways. 

The Fremantle harbour works, carried out 
from 1892 to 1902, at a cost of 1,459,000Z., 
made Fremantle, instead of Albany, the 
first or last caUing-place in Australia for 
LLners outward or homeward bound. A 
safe and commodious harbour, capable 
of receiving and berthing the largest 
ocean steamships at all states of the tide 
and in aU weather, was formed by con- 
structing north and south moles of lime- 
stone rock and rubble ; while an inner 
harbour with wharves and jetties was 
provided by dredging the mouth of the 
Swan river. The Coolgardie water scheme, 
carried out between 1898 and 1903 at a cost 
of 2,660,000/., was designed to aflFord a 
supply of water to the principal goldfields 
of the colony. The source is the Helena 
river, on which, about twenty-three miles 
from Perth, a reservoir was constructed 
whence five million gallons of water could 
be pumped daily through a steel main 
thirty inches in diameter to Coolgardie, 

D 2 




a distance of 328 miles. O'Connor visited 
England in 1897 on business connected 
with this and other work for the colony, 
and while at home he was made a C.M.G. 

The execution of works of this magni- 
tude threw on O'Connor heavy labour 
and responsibility for which his professional 
ability and high principle well fitted him, 
but conflicting influences in the administra- 
tion and polity of the new colony caused 
him at the same time anxieties and 
worries, which viltimately destroyed his 
mental balance. On 10 March 1902 he 
shot himself through the head on the 
beach at Robb's Jetty, Fremantle. He 
married in 1875 a daughter of William 
Ness of Christchurch, New Zealand. She 
survived him, with seven children. 

O'Connor was elected a member of the 
Institution of Civil Engineers 6 April 1880. 
He wrote numerous reports on engineering 
matters in the colony, among which may 
be mentioned two on the Coolgardie water- 
supply scheme (Perth, 1896) and the pro- 
jected Australian trans- continental railway 
(Perth, 1901). The Fremantle harbour 
works and the Coolgardie water-supply 
were described in the ' Proceedings of the 
Institution of Civil Engineers' (clxxxiv. 
157 and clxii. 50) by O'Connor's successor, 
Mr. C. S. R. Pahner. 

A bronze statue of O'Connor by Pietro 
Porcelli was erected at Fremantle in 1911. 

[Minutes of Proceedings, Inst. Civ. Eng., 
cl. 444; Engineer, 18 April 1902.] W. F. S. 

O'CONNOR, JAMES (1836-1910), Irish 
journalist and politician, was bom on 10 Feb. 
1836 in the Glen of Imaal, co. Wicklow, where 
his father, Patrick O'Connor, was a farmer. 
His mother's maiden surname was Kearney. 
After education at an Irish national school, 
he entered early on a commercial career. 
He was one of the first to join the Fenian 
organisation, and when its organ, the ' Irish 
People,' was established in 1863, he joined the 
stafE as book-keeper. With John O'Leary 
[q. V. Suppl. II], Thomas Clarke Luby [q. v. 
Suppl. 11], O'Donovan Rossa, andC. J. Kick- 
ham [q.v.], and the other officials and contri- 
butors, O'Cormor was arrested on 15 Sept. 
1865 at the time of the seizure and sup- 
pression of the paper. Convicted with lus 
associates, he was sentenced to seven years' 
imprisonment. After five years, spent chiefly 
in MiUbank and Portland prisons, he was re- 
leased, and became sub -editor to the * Irish- 
man ' and the ' Flag of Ireland,' advanced 
nationalist papers conducted by Richard 
Pigott [q. V.]. When Pigott sold these papers 
to Pamell and the Land League in 1880 and 

they were given up, O'Connor was made 
sub-editor of ' United Ireland,' which was 
founded in 1881. In December of that year 
O'Connor was imprisoned with Pamell and 
other poUtical leaders in Kilmainham. 

After the Pamellite spht in 1887, ' United 
Ireland,' which opposed Pamell, was seized 
by the Irish leader and O'Connor left. He 
was shortly after appointed editor of the 
' Weekly National Press,' a journal started 
in the interests of the anti-ParneUites. In 
1892 he became nationahst M.P. for West 
Wicklow, and he retained the seat till his 
death at Kingstown on 12 March 1910. 

Though an active journalist, O'Connor 
pubhshed Uttle independently of his news- 
papers. A pamphlet, ' Recollections of 
Richard Pigott ' (Dublin, 1889), suppUes the 
most authentic account of Pigott's career. 

O'Connor was married twice ; his first wife 
with four children died in 1890 from eat- 
ing poisonous mussels at Monkstown, co. 
DubUn. A pubUc monument was erected 
over their grave in Glasnevin. By his second 
wife, whose maiden name was McBride, 
he had one daughter. 

[Recollections of an Irish National Journa- 
list, by Richard Pigott ; Recollections of 
Pigott, by James O'Connor, 1889 ; New 
Ireland, by A. M. SuUivan, p. 263, 10th 
edition ; Recollections of Fenians and 
Fenianism, by John O'Leary ; Recollections, 
by William O'Brien ; Freeman's Journal, 
Irish Independent, and The Times, 13 March 
1910.] D. J. CD. 

O'Conor Don (1838-1906), Irish pohti- 
cian, born on 7 May 1838 in Dubhn, was 
eldest son of Denis O'Conor of Belanagore 
and ClonaUis, co. Roscommon, by Mary, 
daughter of Major Blake of Towerhill, co. 
Mayo. His family was Roman catholic. 
A younger son, Denis Maurice O'Conor, 
LL.D. (1840-1883), was M.P. in the 
Uberal and home rule interest for Sligo 
county (1868-83). 

Charles Owen, after education at St. 
Gregory's College, Downside, near Bath, 
matriculated at London University in 1855, 
but did not graduate. He early entered 
public life, being elected M.P. for Roscommon 
county as a hberal at a bye-election in 1860. 
He sat for that constituency tiU the general 
election of 1880. In 1874 he was returned 
as a home ruler, but, refusing to take the 
party pledge exacted by Pamell, was oixsted 
by a nationalist in 1880. In 1883 he was 
defeated by Mr. WiUiam Redmond in a 
contest for Wexford. An active member 
of parliament, he was an effective though 
not an eloquent speaker and a leading 




exponent of Roman catholic opinion. He 
frequently spoke on Irish education and 
land tenure. He criticised unfavourably the 
Queen's Colleges established in 1845 and 
the model schools, and advocated separate 
education for Roman cathoUcs. In 1867 
he introduced a measure to extend the 
Industrial Schools Act to Ireland, which 
became law next year. He opposed 
Gladstone's university bill of 1873, and in 
May 1879 brought forward a measure, which 
had the support of almost every section of 
Irish political opinion, for the creation of a 
new examining imiversity, * St. Patrick's,' 
with power to make grants based on the 
results of examination to students of 
denominational colleges affiliated to it. 
This was withdrawn on 23 July on the 
announcement of the government bill 
creating the Royal University of Ireland. 
Of the senate of that body he was for many 
years an active member, and received the 
honorary degree of LL.D. in 1892. He was 
also on the intermediate education board 
established in'j.1878. 

O'Conor steadily lurged a reform of the 
Irish land laws. During the discussion of 
the land bill of 1870 he advocated the 
extension of the Ulster tenant right to the 
other provinces. He sat on the select 
committee appointed in 1877 to inquire 
into the working of the purchase clauses 
of the Land Act of 1890. 

On social and industrial questions he 
also spoke Arith authority. He was a 
member of the royal commissions on the 
Penal Servitude Acts (1863), and on 
factories and workshops (1875) ; and the 
passing of the Irish Sunday Closing Act of 

1879 was principally due to his persevering 
activity. He seconded Lord Claud Hamil- 
ton's motion (29 April 1873) for the pur- 
chase by the state of Irish railways. 

From 1872 onwards O'Conor professed 
his adherence to home rule and supported 
Butt in his motion for inquiry into the 
parliamentary relations of Great Britain 
and Ireland in 1874, though admitting that 
federal home rule would not satisfy nation- 
alist aspirations. He also acted with the 
Irish leader in his endeavours to mitigate 
the severity of coercive legislation, though 
declaring himseK not in all circumstances 
opposed to exceptional laws. 

After his parliamentary career ceased in 

1880 O'Conor was a member of the registra- 
tion of deeds commission of 1880, and took 
an active part in the Bessborough land com- 
mission of the same year (see Ponsonby, 
Frederick George Beabazon). He was a 
member of both the parUamentary com- 

mittee of 1885 and the royal commission of 
1894 on the financial relations between Great 
Britain and Ireland, and became chairman 
of the commission on the death of Hugh 
Culling Eardley Childers [q. v. Suppl. I], in 
1896. O'Conor held that Ireland was unfairly 
treated under the existing arrangements. In 
local government he was also active. He 
had presided over parUamentary committees 
on Insh grand jury laws and land valuation 
in 1868 and 1869, and was elected to the first 
county council of Roscommon in 1898. 
He was lord-Ueutenant of the county from 
1888 till his death. He had been sworn of 
the Irish privy council in 1881. 

O'Conor was much interested in anti- 
quarian studies, and published in 1891 
' The O'Conors of Connaught : an Historical 
Memoir compiled from a MS. of the late 
John O'Donovan, LL.D., with Additions 
from the State Papers and PubUc Records.' 
He was for many years president of the 
Antiquarian Society of Ireland, as well as 
of the Royal Irish Academy. He was 
president of the Irish Language Society, 
and procured the insertion of Irish into the 
curriculum of the intermediate education 

O'Conor died at Clonallis, Castlerea, on 
30 June 1906, and was buried in the new 
cemetery, Castlerea. He married (1) on 21 
April 1868, GeorginaMary {d.lS12), daughter 
of Thomas Aloysiua Perry, of Bitham 
House, Warwickshire ; and (2) in 1879, 
EUen, third daughter of John Lewis More 
O'Ferrall of Lisard, Edgeworthstown, co. 
Longford. He had four sons by the first 

[Burke's Landed Gentry of Ireland ; Wal- 
ford's County Families ; Men of the Time, 
1899 ; Who's ^Vho, 1906 ; The Times, 2 and 5 
July 1906 ; Roscommon Journal, 7 July 
(containing obituaries from Freeman's Jour- 
nal, Irish Times, &c.) ; Hansard's Pari. 
Debates.] G. Le G. N. 

(1843-1908), diplomatist, bom at Dunder- 
mott, CO. Roscommon, on 3 July 1843, was 
youngest of three sons of Patrick A. C 
O'Conor of Dimdermott by his wife Jane, 
second daughter of Christopher Ffrench of 
Frenchlawn, co. Roscommon. Educated 
at Stonyhurst College, and afterwards at 
Mimich under Dr. DSllinger, he entered 
the diplomatic service in 1866, passed 
the necessary examination, and after some 
months of employment in the foreign office 
was appointed attache at Berlin, where 
he attained in 1870 the rank of third 
secretary. After service at Washington 




and Madrid, he returned to Washington on 
promotion to be second secretary in 1874, 
and was transferred in 1875 to Brazil, 
where he was employed on special duty in 
the province of Rio Grande do Sul in 
November 1876. In October 1877 he was 
removed to Paris, where he had the ad- 
vantage of serving for six years luider 
Lord Lyons. In December 1883 he was 
appointed secretary of legation at Peking, 
and on the death of the minister. Sir Harry 
Parkes [q. v.], in March 1885, assumed 
charge of the legation for a period of 
fifteen months. He found himself almost 
immediately involved in somewhat awkward 
discussions with the Chinese and Korean 
governments in regard to the temporary 
occupation of Port Hamilton, a harbour 
formed by three islands at the entrance to 
the Gulf of PechiU, of which the British 
admiral had taken possession as a coahng 
station, in view of the apparent imminence 
of an outbreak of war between Great Britain 
and Russia. The Chinese and Korean 
governments were not unwilling to agree 
to the occupation for a pecuniary con- 
sideration on receiving assurances that no 
permanent acquisition was contemplated, 
but were threatened by Russia with similar 
occupations elsewhere if they gave their 
consent. The question was eventually 
settled, after the apprehension of war with 
Russia had disappeared, by the withdrawal 
of the British occupation in consideration 
of a guarantee by China that no part of 
Korean territory, including Port Hamilton, 
would be occupied by any foreign power. 
The annexation of Upper Burma to the 
British Indian empire, proclaimed by 
Lord Duflerin in 1886, gave rise to an 
equally embarrassing question. The 
Chinese government viewed the annexation 
with great jealousy. The new British 
possession was, along a great portion of 
the eastern frontier, conterminous with 
that of China, while on the north it abutted 
on the vassal state of Tibet. China 
claimed indeterminate and somewhat 
obsolete rights of suzerainty over the 
Burmese, which were still evidenced by a 
decennial mission from Burma charged 
with presents to the Emperor. The 
country contained a considerable and 
influential Chinese population, and China 
could easily create trouble by raids into 
the frontier districts. A friendly arrange- 
ment was almost imperative. After a 
tedious negotiation O'Conor succeeded in 
concluding an agreement on 24 July 1886, 
making provision for the delimitation of 
frontiers by a joint commission, for a 

future convention to settle the conditions 
of frontier trade, and agreeing to the 
continuance of the decennial Burmese 
mission, in return for a waiver of any 
right of interference with British authority 
and rule. Though this agreement was 
only the preliminary to a series of long 
and toilsome negotiations, it placed the 
question in the way of friendly solution. 
On its conclusion O'Conor, who had been 
made C.M.G. in Feb. 1886, was created C.B. 

After a brief tenure of the post of 
secretary of legation at Washington, he in 
Jan. 1887 succeeded '^( Sir) Frank Lascelles 
as agent and consul-general in Bulgaria. 
The principaUty was at the time in a criti- 
cal situation. Prince Alexander, whose 
nerve had been shaken by his forcible 
abduction, having faUed to obtain the 
Czar's approval of his resumption of power, 
had abdicated in September 1886, and 
the government was left in the hands of 
three regents, of whom the principal was 
the former prime minister, Stambuloff. 
For the next few months, in the face of 
manoeuvres on the part of Russia to prolong 
the interregnum or procure the selection 
of a nominee who would be a mere vassal of 
Russia, vigorous endeavoxirs were made 
by the regency to obtain a candidate of 
greater independence, and on 7 July 
1887 Prince Ferdinand of Saxe-Cobiu*g 
was elected, and Stambuloff again became 
prime minister. O'Conor, who united 
great shrewdness with a blunt directness 
of speech, which, although not generally 
regarded as a diplomatic trait, had the 
effect of inspiring confidence, exercised 
a steadjdng influence on the energetic 
premier. Excellent relations were main- 
tained between them in the course of 
five years' residence. Among other results 
was the conclusion in 1889 of a pro- 
visional commercial agreement between 
Great Britain and Bulgaria. 

In April 1892 O'Conor was again ap- 
pointed to Peking, this time in the position 
of envoy to the Emperor of China, and 
to the King of Korea. A notable change 
in the etiquette towards foreign represen- 
tatives was made by the court in his 
reception at Peking; he was formally 
received with the staff of the legation 
at the principal entrance by the court 
officials and conducted to a personal 
audience with the Emperor in the Cheng 
Kuan Tien Palace. In July 1894 the 
disputes between China and Japan as to 
the introduction of reforms in the adminis- 
tration of Korea ledto open war between 
the two countries, and O'Conor's responsi- 




bilities were heavy. The Chinese forces 
were routed by land and sea, and in April 
1895 the veteran statesman Li-Hiing-Chang 
concluded the treaty of Shimonoseki, by 
which the Liao-Ttmg Peninsula, the island 
of Formosa, and the Pescadores group 
were ceded to Japan, China agreeing 
further to pay an indemnity of 200 miUions 
of taels. Popular excitement in China 
ran high during these events. The Chinese 
government provided the foreign legations 
with guards of native soldiers, who, though 
perfectly well behaved, did not inspire 
complete confidence as efficient protectors. 
The British admiral gave the British 
legation the additional safeguard of a 
party of marines. Almost immediately 
after the ratification of the treaty of 
Shimonoseki a fresh complication occvured. 
The French, German, and Russian govern- 
ments presented to Japan a collective note, 
urging the restoration to China of the 
Liao-Tung Peninsula on the ground that 
its possession, with Port Arthur, by a 
foreign power wovdd be a permanent 
menace to the Chinese capital. The 
course pvirsued by the British government 
was not calculated to earn the grati- 
tude of either of the parties principally 
interested. They declined to join in the 
representation of the three European powers, 
but they did not conceal from Japan their 
opinion that she might do wisely to give 
way. Japan with much wisdom assented 
to the retrocession in consideration of an 
additional indemnity of 30 miUions of taels. 
In recognition of 0' Conor's arduous labours 
he received the honour of K.C.B. in May 
1 895 . -Meanwhile the signature of peace was 
followed by anti-foreign outbreaks in several 
provinces of China, in one of which, at Ku- 
cheng, British missionaries were massacred. 
The Chinese government, as usual, while 
ready to pay compensation and to execute 
a number of men arrested as having taken 
part in the riot, interposed every kind of 
obstacle to investigation of the real origin 
of the outbreaks and to the condign punish- 
ment of the officials who secretly instigated 
or cormived at them. In the end, after 
exhausting all other arguments, O'Conor 
plainly intimated to the Tseng-U-Yamen 
that unless his demands were conceded 
within two days the British admiral would 
be compelled to resort to naval measures, 
and a decree was issued censuring and 
degrading the ex -viceroy of Szechuen. 

In Oct. 1895 O'Conor left China to become 
ambassador at St, Petersburg. In the 
following year he attended the coronation 
of the Emperor Nicholas 11, who had 

succeeded to the throne in November 1894. 
He received the grand cross of St. Michael 
and St. George and was sworn a privy 
covmcillor in the same year. He was as 
popular at St. Petersburg as at his previous 
posts, but towards the close of his residence 
our relations with Russia were seriously 
compUcated by the course taken by the 
Russian government in obtaining from 
China a lease of Port Arthur and the Liao- 
Tung Peninsula. The discussions, which 
at one time becg-me somewhat acute, were 
carried on by O'Conor with his usual tact ; 
but a disagreeable question arose between 
him and Coiuit Muravieff, the Russian 
minister for foreign affairs, as to an 
assurance which the latter had given but 
subsequently withdrew that Port Arthur, 
as weU as TaUenwan, should be open to 
the commerce of aU nations. This incident 
and the manner in which Coimt Muravieff 
endeavoured to explain it made it on the 
whole fortunate that in July 1898 an 
opportunity offered for O'Conor's trans- 
ference to Constantinople. He had been 
promoted G.C.B. in 1897. 

O'Conor's last ten years of life, which 
were passed in Constantinople, were very 
laborious. He worked under great difficul- 
ties for the poUcy of administrative reform, 
which was strenuously pressed whenever 
possible by the British government. He 
succeeded, however, in winning to a con- 
siderable extent the personal goodwill 
and confidence of the Sultan and of the 
ministers with whom he had to deal, and 
by persistent efforts cleared off a large 
number of long outstanding claims and 
subordinate questions which had been a 
permanent burden to his predecessors. 
Among more important questions which 
he succeeded in bringing to a settlement 
were those of the Turco-Egyptian boundary 
in the Sinai Peninsula, and of the British 
frontier in the hinterland of Aden. His 
health had never been strong since his 
residence in China, and in 1907 he came 
to England for advice, and imderwent a 
serious operation. The strain of work 
on his retiuTi overtaxed his strength, and 
he died at his post on 19 March 1908. He 
was buried with every mark of affection 
and respect in the cemetery at Haidar 
Pasha, where a monument erected by his 
widow bears with the date the inscription 
' Nicolaus Rodericus O'Conor, Britaimise 
Regis apud Ottomanorum Imperatorem 
Legatus, pie obiit.' O'Conor succeeded in 
May 1897, on the death of his surviving elder 
brother, Patrick Hugh, to the famUy estate 
I of Dundermott. He married on 13 April 




1887 Minna, eldest daughter of James 
Robert Hope-Scott [q. v.], the celebrated 
parliamentary advocate, and of Lady 
Victoria Alexandrina, eldest daughter of 
Henry Granville Howard, 14th duke of 
Norfolk ; by her 0' Conor had three 

[Burke's Landed Gentry ; The Times, 
20 March 1908; Foreign Office List, 1909, 
p. 403 ; Cambridge Modern History, vol. xii. 
p. 509 ; papers laid before Parliament ; 
Annual Register, 1895]. S. 

1905), Irish and Australian politician, bom 
in Gloucester Street, Dublin, on 7 Sept. 
1823, was son of Wilham Izod O'Doherty, 
BoUcitor, by his wife Anne^^McEvoy. After 
a good preliminary education at Dr. Wall's 
school in Hume Street, Dublin, he entered 
the School of Medicine of the Catholic uni- 
versity there in 1843. While pursuing his 
medical studies he identified himself with 
the Young Ireland movement and contri- 
buted to its organ, the ' Nation,' and was 
one of the founders of the Students' and 
Polytechnic Clubs, which opposed the 
constitutional leaders under O'Connell. 
When John Mitchel [q. v.] seceded from 
the ' Nation,' and openly advocated revolu- 
tion, O'Doherty leaned to his views, and 
when Mitchel's paper, the ' Weekly Irish- 
man,' was suppressed and himself arrested, 
O'Doherty helped to carry on Mitchel's 
campaign, chiefly in the ' Irish Tribune,' 
which he started with Richard Dalton 
Williams, the first number appearing on 
10 June 1848. After five weeks the paper 
was seized, and O'Doherty and his 
colleagues were arrested and charged 
with treason-felony. After two juries had 
disagreed as to their verdict, he was con- 
victed by a third jury, and sentenced to 
transportation for ten years to Van Die- 
men's Land. He arrived in that colony 
on the Elphinstone with John Mar- 
tin (1812-1875) [q. v.] in November 

In 1854 O'Doherty received, with the other 
Young Irelanders, a pardon on condition that 
he did not return to the United Kingdom. 
He went to Paris to continue his medical 
studies, but managed to pay a flying visit 
to Ireland in 1855. In 1856 his pardon 
was made unconditional, and having taken 
his medical degrees in the Royal Colleges of 
Surgeons and Physicians of L-eland in 1857 
and in 1859 he practised his profession for 
a while in his native city. In 1862 he 
emigrated to Sydney, New South Wales, soon 
proceeding to the new colony of Queensland, 

and settled in Brisbane. Here he long prac- 
tised as a physician. J He was elected a mem- 
ber of the Queensland Legislative Assembly. 
In 1877 he was made a member of the 
legislative council of the colony, but 
resigned in 1885, and retiuned to Europe. 
He was presented with the freedom of the 
city of Dublin in that year. At ParneU's 
invitation he was elected nationaUst member 
for North Meath in 1885. But he had lost 
touch with home politics and in 1888 went 
back to Brisbane, where he failed to recover 
his extensive professional connection. His 
last years were clouded by pecuniary dis- 
tress. He died on 15 July 1905, leaving 
his widow and daughter unprovided for. 
Four sons had predeceased him. 

His wife, Mary Anne Kelly (1826-1910), 
Irish poetess, daughter of a Galway gentle- 
man farmer named KeUy by his wife, a 
Miss O'Flaherty of Galway, was born at 
Headford in that county in 1826. Early 
in the career of the ' Nation ' newspaper 
she contributed powerful patriotic verses. 
Her earUest poem in the paper appeared 
on 28 Dec. 1844 under her original signature 
' Eionnuala.' Subsequently she adopted the 
signature ' Eva.' Of the three chief poetesses 
of Irish nationality 'Mary' (Ellen Mary 
Patrick Downing), and 'Speranza' (Jane 
Elgee, afterwards Lady Wilde [q. v.]), being 
the other two), ' Eva ' was the most gifted. 
She also wrote much verse, fuU of patrio- 
tism, feeUng, and fancy, for the nationalist 
papers, ' Irish Tribune,' ' Irish Felon,' the 
' Irishman,' and the ' Irish People.' 

Before O'Doherty was convicted in 1849 
he had become engaged to her, and she 
declined his offer to release her. In 1855 
O'Doherty paid a surreptitious visit to 
Ireland and married her in Kingstown. 
After her husband's death in 1905 she 
was supported by a fund raised for her 
relief by Irish people. Mrs. O'Doherty 
died at Brisbane on 21 May 1910, and was 
buried there by the side of her husband. 
A monument was placed by public subscrip- 
tion over their graves. 

'Poems by "Eva" of "The Nation'" 
appeared in San Francisco in 1877. A 
selection of her poems was issued for her 
benefit in Dubhn in 1908, with a preface 
by Seumas MacManus and a memoir by 
Justin McCarthy. 

[Poems by * Eva,' Dublin, 1908 ; Heaton's 
Australian Book of Dates, 1879 ; Duffy's 
Young Ireland, and Four Years of Irish 
History ; Queenslander, 22 July 1905 and 28 
May 1910 ; A. M. Sidlivan's New Ireland ; 
G'Donoghue's Poets of Ireland; Rolleston's 
Treasury of Irish Poetry, 1905, page 163; 




Cameron's Hist, of the Coll. of Surgeons in 
Ireland, 1880, p. 614 ; information kindly sup- 
plied by Mr. P. J. DiUon, formerly of Brisbane ; 
private correspondence of *Eva' with John 
O'Leary, in present writer's possession.] 

D. J. O'D. 

OGLE, JOHN WILLIAM (1824-1905), 
physician, bom at Leeds on 30 July 1824, 
was only child of Samuel Ogle, who was 
engaged in business in that town, and 
Sarah RathmeU. His father, who was first 
cousin to Admiral Thomas Ogle and second 
cousin^to James_ Adey Ogle [q. v.], regius 
professor of m^cine at Oxford was a 
member of an old Staffordshire and Shrop- 
shire family which originally came from 
Northumberland. John was educated at 
Wakefield school, from which he passed in 
1844 to Trinity College, Oxford, where he 
graduated B.A. in 1847, and developed 
sympathy with the tractarian movement. 
He entered the medical school in Kinnerton 
Street attached to St. George's Hospital, 
and became in 1850 a licentiate (equivalent 
of present member) and in 1855 a feUow 
of the Royal College of Physicians. At 
Oxford he proceeded M.A. and B.M. in 
1851 and D.M. in 1857. At St. George's 
Hospital he worked much at morbid 
anatomy, and was for years curator of the 
museum with Henry Grey, after whose 
death in 1861 he became lecturer on 
pathology. In 1857 he was elected assis- 
tant physician, and in 1866 he became full 
physician, but resigned owing to mental 
depression in 1876. Cured shortly after- 
wards by an attack of enteric fever, he 
returned to active practice, but not to his 
work at St. George's Hospital, where, how- 
ever, he was elected consulting physician 
in 1877. 

He was censor (1873, 1874, 1884) and 
vice-president (1886) of the Royal College 
of Physicians, and an associate fellow of 
the College of Physicians of Philadelphia. 
Although he was an all-round scholarly 
physician, his main interest lay in nervous 
diseases. In a lectvire on aphasia, or 
inability to translate thoughts into words, 
he made some interesting historical refer- 
ences to the cases of Dr. Johnson and 
Dean Swift. Always a strong churchman, 
he was on friendly terms with W. E. 
Gladstone, Newman, Church, Liddon, 
Temple, and Benson. He was elected 
F.S.A. on 7 Iklarch 1878. 

After some years of increasing paralytic 
weakness, dating from 1899, he died at 
Highgate vicarage on 8 Aug. 1905, and 
was buried at Shelfanger near Diss in 
Norfolk. He married, on 31 May 1854, 

Elizabeth, daughter of Albert [Smith of 
Ecclesall, near Sheffield, whose family sub- 
sequently took the name of Blakelock. 
He had five sons and one daughter. 

Ogle was i«ctive in medic^ literature. 
Together with Timothy Holmes [q. v. 
Suppl. II] he founded the now extinct 
' St. George's Hospital Reports ' (1866-79) 
and edited seven out of the ten volumes. 
He was also editor of the ' British 
and Foreign Medico-Chirurgical Review.' 
He contributed widely to the medical 
papers and societies, making 160 com- 
mimications to the 'Transactions of the 
Pathological Society of London ' alone. His 
independently pubUshed works were the 
Harveian oration for 1880 at the Royal 
College of Physicians, which contains much 
scholarly information, and a small work 
On the Relief of Excessive and Dangerous 
Tympanites by Puncture of the Abdomen,' 

[Britiflh Medical Journal, 1905, ii. 416; 
private information.] H. D. R. 

O'HANLON, JOHN (1821-1905), Irish 
hagiographer and historical writer, bom in 
Stradbally, Queen's Co., on 30 April 1821, 
was son of Edward and Honor Hanlon 
of that town. Destined by his parents 
for the priesthood, he passed at thirteen 
from a private school at Stradbally to an 
endowed school at Ballyroan, and in 1840 
he entered the ecclesiastical college at 
Carlow. In May 1842 he emigrated with 
some relatives to Quebec, Lower Canada, 
and moved in the following August to the 
state of Missouri, U.S.A. In 1847 he was 
ordained by Peter Richard Kenrick, 
archbishop of St. Louis, and spent the next 
few years as a missionary priest among the 
Irish exiles of Missouri. His experiences in 
America are iuRy described in his ' Life 
and Scenery in 5lissouri' (Dublin, 1890). 
In Sept. 1853, owing to ill-health, he re- 
turned to Ireland. From 1854 to 1859 
he was assistant-chaplain of the South 
Dublin Union, and from 1854 to 1880 curate 
of St. Michael's and St. John's, Dublin. 
On the nomination of Cardinal McCabe 
[q. v.] he became, in May 1880, parish 
priest of St. Mary's, Irishtown, where he 
remained till his death. In 1891 he re- 
visited America in cormection with the 
golden jubUee of Archbishop Kenrick. 
Archbishop Walsh conferred on him the 
rank of canon in 1886. He died at Irish- 
town on 15 May 1905. 

O'Hanlon was devoted to researches in 
Irish ecclesiastical history, and especially 
to the Uves of the Irish saints. While 




still a curate he travelled on the Continent 
in order to pursue his researches, and visited 
nearly aU the important libraries of Eng- 
land and southern Europe. In 1856 he 
began to collect material for his great work, 
' The Lives of the Irish Saints.' The first 
volume appeared in 1875, and before his 
death he issued nine complete volumes and 
portion of a tenth, besides collecting and 
arranging unpublished material. Apart from 
this storehouse of learning, with its wealth 
of notes and illustrations, O'Hanlon wrote 
incessantly in Irish reviews and news- 
papers, and published the following : 1. 
' Abridgment of the History of Ireland 
from its Final Subjection to the Present 
Time,' Boston (Mass.), 1849. 2. ' The Irish 
Emigrant's Guide to the United States,' 
Boston, 1851 ; new edit. Dublin, 1890. 3. 
'The Life of St. Laurence O'Toole, Arch- 
bishop of Dubhn,' Dubhn, 1857. 4. ' The 
Life of St. Malachy O'Morgair, Bishop of 
Down and Connor, Archbishop of Armagh,' 
Dubhn, 1859. 5. ' The Life of St. Dympna, 
Virgin Martyr,' Dublin, 1863. 6. 'Cate- 
chism of Irish History from the Earliest 
Events to the Death of O'Connell,' Dublin, 
1864. 7. 'Catechism of Greek Gram- 
mar,' Dublin, 1865. 8. ' Devotions for 
Confession and Holy Communion,' 1866. 

9. ' The Life and Works of St. Oengus the 
Culdee, Bishop and Abbot,' Dubhn, 1868. 

10. ' The Life of St. David, Archbishop of 
Menevia, Chief Patron of Wales,' Dublin, 
1869. 11. ' Legend Lays of Ireland,' in 
verse (by ' Lageniensis '), Dubhn, 1870. 
12. ' Irish Polk-Lore, Traditions and Super- 
stitions of the Country, with Numerous 
Tales ' (imder the same pseudonym), Glas- 
gow, 1870. 13. 'The Buried Lady, a 
Legend of Kilronan,' by ' Lageniensis,' 
Dubhn, 1877. 14. ' The Life of St. GreUan, 
Patron of the O'Kellys,' Dublin, 1881. 
15. ' Report of the O'Connell Centenary 
Committee,' Dubhn, 1888. 16. 'The Poeti- 
cal Works of Lageniensis,' Dubhn, 1893. 
17. ' Irish-American History of the United 
States,' Dubhn, 1902. 18. 'History of the 
Queen's County,' vol. i. (completed by 
Rev. E. O'Leary), Dublin, 1907. He also 
edited Monck Mason's ' Essay on the 
Antiquity and Constitution of Parhaments 
of Ireland ' (1891), Molyneux's ' Case of 
Ireland . . . stated' (1893), and 'Legends 
and Stories of John Keegan ' (to which 
the present writer prefixed a memoir of 
Keegan), Dublin, 1908. 

[Autobiographical letters to present writer 
and personal knowledge ; O'Donoghue's 
Poets of Ireland, p. 188 ; Freeman's Journal, 
16 May 1906; Brit. Mus. Cat.; Life and 

Scenery in Missouri (as stated in text). Infor- 
mation from Rev. J. Delany, P.P. Stradbally.] 

D. J. O'D. 

OLDHAM, HENRY (1815-1902), obste- 
tric physician, sixth son and ninth child 
of Adam Oldham (1781-1839) of Balham, 
sohcitor, was bom on 31 Jan. 1815. His 
father's family claimed kinship with Hugh 
Oldham [q. v.], bishop of Exeter, the 
foimder of Corpus Christi College, Oxford, 
and of the Manchester grammar school. 
His mother, Ann Lane, was a daughter of 
Wilham^Stubbington Penny, whose father, 
Francis Penny (1714-1759), of a Hampshire 
family, once edited the ' Gentleman's 
Magazine.' Oldham's younger brother, 
James, was a surgeon at Brighton whose 
son, Charles James Oldham (1843-1907), 
also a surgeon in that town, invented a 
refracting ophthalmoscope, and bequeathed 
50,000Z. to pubUc institutions, includ- 
ing the Manchester grammar school. 
Corpus Christi CoUege, Oxford, and the 
vmiversities of both Oxford and Cambridge, 
for the foundation of Charles Oldham 
scholarships and prizes for classical and 
Shakespearean study. 

Oldham, educated at Mr. Balaam's school 
at Clapham and at the London University, 
entered in 1834 the medical school of Guy's 
Hospital. In May 1837 he became M.R.C.S. 
England; in September following a'ficen- 
tiate of the Society of Apothecaries ; in 1843 
a licentiate (corresponding to the present 
member), and in 1857 fellow, of the Royal 
College of Physicians of London. He pro- 
ceeded M.D. at St. Andrews in 1858. In 
1849 he was appointed — with Dr. J. C. W. 
Lever — physician-accoucheur and lecturer 
on midwifery and diseases of women at 
Guy's Hospital. Before this appointment 
he had studied embryology in the develop- 
ing chick by means of coloured injections 
and the microscope. After twenty years' 
service he became consulting obstetric 
physician. He was pre-eminent as a 
lectm-er and made seventeen contributions 
to the * Guy's Hospital Reports,' besides 
writing four papers in the ' Transactions 
of the Obstetrical Society of London,' of 
which he was one of the fomiders, an 
original trustee, and subsequently pre- 
sident (1863-5). He invented the term 
' missed labour,' that is, when the child 
dies in the womb and labour fails to come 
on; but the specimen on which he based 
his view has been differently interpreted. 
His name is also associated with the hypo- 
thesis that menstruation is due to periodic 
excitation of the ovaries. 

Oldham had an extensive and lucrative 




practice in the City of London, first at 
13 Devonshire Square, Bishopsgate Street, 
and then at 25 Finsbury Square ; about 
1870 he moved to 4 Cavendish Place, W., 
and in 1899 retired to Bournemouth, where 
he died on 19 Nov. 1902, being buried 
in the cemetery there. He was a great 
walker, an extremely simple eater, and 
for the last fifteen years of his hfe never 
ate meat, fish, or fowl. 

He married in 1838 Sophia {d. 1885), 
eldest daughter of James Smith of Peck- 
ham, and had six children, four daughters 
and two sons, of whom one died in infancy 
and the other is Colonel Sir Henry Hugh 
Oldham, C.V.O., lieutenant of the honoxu:- 
able corps of gentlemen-at-arms. 

[Obstet. Soc. Trans., 1903, xlv. 71 ; infor- 
mation from Colonel Sir Henry H. Oldham, 
C.V.O., and F. Taylor, M.D., F.R.C.P.] 

H. D. R. 

O'LEARY, JOHN (1830-1907), Fenian 
journalist and leader, bom in Tipperary 
on 23 July 1830, was eldest son of John 
O'Leary, a shopkeeper of that city, by his 
wife Margaret Ryan. His sister EUen is 
separately noticed. He inherited small house 
property in Tipperary. After education at 
the Erasmiis Smith School in his native 
town, he proceeded to Carlow school. At 
seventeen he entered Trinity CoUege, Dub- 
lin, intending to join the legal profession. 
While he was an undergraduate he was 
deeply influenced by the nationahst writings 
of Thomas Davis [q. v.], and he frequently 
attended the meetings of the Irish Con- 
federation. He became acquainted with 
James Finton Lalor [q. v.] and the Rev. 
John Kenyon, two powerful advocates of 
the nationahst movement. He threw him- 
self with ardour into the agitation of 1848, 
and taking part in an attack on the pohce 
known as the ' Wilderness affair,' near 
Clonmel, spent two or three weeks in 
Clonmel gaol. On discovering that he could 
not become a barrister without taking an 
oath of allegiance to the British crown, he 
turned to medicine, and entered Queen's 
CoUege, Cork, in January 1850, as a 
medical student. In 1851 he left Cork and 
went to Queen's College, Galway, where he 
obtained a medical scholarsliip and dis- 
tinguished himself in examinations. While 
he was in Galway he contributed occa- ' 
sionally to the ' Nation,' but he left the city ! 
in 1853 without passing his final examina- | 
tion. He spent the greater part of the 
following two years in Dubhn, and was then 
in Paris for a year (1855-6). 

Meanwhile O'Leary had fully identified 
himself with the advanced Irish section 

under John Mitchel [q. v.]. In Paris he 
made the acquaintance of John Martin 
[q. v.], Kevin ilzod O'Doherty [q. v. 
Suppl. II], and other Irishmen of similar 
\dews. Returning to Dubhn, he came to 
know the Fenian leaders James Stephens 
[q. V. Suppl. II] and Thomas Clarke Luby 
[q. V. Suppl. 11], who formed the Fenian 
organisation called the Irish Republican 
Brotherhood on St. Patrick's Day, 17 March 
1858 {Recollections, i. 82). 

O'Leary was still irregularly studying 
medicine, and although he aided in the 
development of the Fenian movement, and 
was in sympathy with its aims, he was 
never a sworn member of the brotherhood. 
His younger brother Arthur, who died on 
6 Jime 1861, however, took the oath. John 
frequently visited Stephens in France, and 
with some hesitation he went to America 
in 1859 on business of the organisation. 
In New York in April 1859 he met John 
O'Mahony [q. v.] and Colonel Michael 
Corcoran [q. v.], as well as John Mitchel 
and Thomas Francis Meagher [q. v.]. He 
contributed occasional articles to the 
' Phoenix,' a small weekly paper pubUshed 
in New York, the first avowedly Fenian 

In 1860 O'Leary returned to London. 
The Fenian movement rapidly grew, 
although its receipts were, according to 
O'Leary, wildly exaggerated [Recollections, 
p. 135). During its first six years of ex- 
istence (1858-64) only 1500Z. was received; 
from 1864 to 1866, 31,000?. ; and from first 
to last, a sum weU imder 100,000/. O'Leary 
watched the growth of the movement in 
London between 1861 and 1863. 

In 1863 he was summoned to Dublin to 
become editor of the ' Irish People,' the 
newly foimded weekly journal of Fenianism, 
which first appeared on 28 Nov. 1863. 
O'Leary's incisive style gave the paper 
its chief character. The other chief con- 
tributors were Thomas Clarke Luby 
and Charles Joseph Kickham [q. v.]. 
Cardinal CuUen [q. v.] and the catho- 
lic bishops warmly denounced the Fenian 
movement and its organ, and O'Leary and 
his colleagues rephed to the prelates 
defiantly. Bishop Moriarty declared that 
' Hell was not hot enough nor eternity long 
enough ' to pirnish those who led the youth 
of the country astray by such teaching. 
After nearly two years the paper was 
seized on 14 Sept. 1865 by the government. 
O'Leary, Kickham, Luby, O'Donovan Rossa 
(the manager), and other leading Fenians 
were arrested. An informer named Pierce 
Nagle, who had been employed in the office 




of the paper, gave damaging evidence, 
and O'Leary and others were sentenced 
to twenty years' imprisonment. He was 
released after nine years, chiefly spent in 
Portland. A condition of the release was 
banishment from Ireland, and he retired 
to Paris. There he cultivated his literary 
tastes, and became acquainted with Whistler 
and other artists and literary men. In 
1885 the Amnesty Act enabled him to settle 
again in Dublin, where his sister Ellen kept 
house for him till her death in 1889 and 
where his fine presence was very familiar. 
Mainly encouraged by his friends, he devoted 
himself to writing his reminiscences. The 
book was published in 1896 under the title of 
' Recollections of Fenians and Fenianism.' 
The work proved unduly long and was 
a disappointment to his admirers. His 
critical treatment of his associates seemed 
to behttle the Fenian movement. To the 
end of his hfe he pungently criticised 
modem leaders, and especially various 
manifestations of the agrarian movement, 
while retaining his revolutionary sym- 
pathies. In the Irish literary societies of 
Dubhn and London he played a prominent 
part, but chiefly occupied himself tiU his 
death in reading and book collecting. 

He died at Dubhn unmarried on 16 March 
1907, and was buried in Glasnevin cemetery, 
where a Celtic cross has been placed over 
his grave. His books, papers, and pictures 
were bequeathed by him to the National 
Literary Society of Dublin, which trans- 
ferred the first portrait of him by John B. 
Yeats, R.H.A., to the National GaUery 
of that city. He pubhshed, besides his 
' Recollections,' the following pamphlets : 
' Young Ireland, the Old and the New ' 
(Dubhn, 1886), and ' What Irishmen should 
Read, What Irishmen should Feel ' (Dublin, 
1886) ; and he also pubhshed a short 
introduction to ' The Writings of James 
Finton Lalor,' edited by the present writer 
in 1895. The article on John O'Mahony 
in this Dictionary was written by him. 

[Recollections of O'Leary, 1896 ; Ireland 
under Coercion, by Hurlbert, 2 vols. 1888 ; O. 
Elton, Life of F. York PoweU, 1906; Sulhvan's 
New Ireland ; Richard Pigott's Recollections 
of an Irish Journalist, 1882 ; Irish press 
and London Daily Telegraph, 18 March 1907 ; 
personal knowledge and private correspondence 
of O'Leary in present writer's possession;] 

D. J. O'D. 

1907), geographer and antiquary, bom at 
Bovinger, Essex, on 30 Oct. 1838, was 
eldest and only surviving son of William 
Macjanley Oliver, rector of Bovinger, by 

his wife Jane Weldon. He entered Eton 
in 1853, and after passing through the 
Royal Military Academy, Woolwich, he 
received a commission in the royal artillery 
on 1 April 1859. In the following year 
he went out with his battery to China, 
where hostilities had been renewed owing 
to the attempt of the Chinese to prevent 
Sir Frederick Bruce [q. v.], the British 
envoy, from proceeding up the Pei-ho. 
Peace was however signed at Peking soon 
after Oliver's arrival (24 Oct. 1860), and 
his service was confined to garrison duty 
at Canton. On the establishment of a 
British embassy at Peking in 1861 he accom- 
panied General Sir John Michel [q. v.] on a 
visit to the capital, and subsequently made 
a tour through Japan. In the following 
year he was transferred to Mauritius, and 
thence he proceeded with Major-general 
Johnstone on a mission to Madagascar to 
congratulate King Radama II on his 
accession. He spent some months explor- 
ing the island, and witnessed the king's 
coronation at Antananarivo (23 Sept.). A 
second brief visit to the island followed in 
June 1863, when Oliver, on receipt of the 
news of King Radama' s assassination, was 
again despatched to Madagascar on board 
H.M.S. Rapid. The history and ethnology 
of the island interested him, and he devoted 
himself subsequently to a close study of 
them. On his return to Mauritius he 
studied with attention the flora and fauna 
of the Mascarene islands. In 1864 the 
volcanic eruption on the island of Reunion 
gave him the opportunity of recording 
some interesting geological phenomena. 
A curious drawing by Oliver of a stream 
of lava tumbling over a cliff was reproduced 
in Professor John Wesley Judd's ' Volcanoes, 
what they are and what they teach ' 

Oliver returned to England with his bat- 
tery in 1865. But his love of adventure 
would not allow him to settle down to 
routine work. In 1867 he joined Captain 
Pym's exploring expedition to Central 
America. A route was cut and levelled 
across Nicaragua from Monkey Point to 
Port Realejo ; and it was anticipated that 
this route might be more practicable than 
that projected by M. de Lesseps for the 
Panama canal. At a meeting of the British 
Association at Dundee on 5 Sept. 1867 
Oliver read a paper in support of this view 
on ' Two Routes through Nicaragua.' 
His descriptive diary of this journey, 
' Rambles of a Gunner through Nicaragua ' 
(privately printed, 1879), was subsequently 
embodied in a larger volume of vivacious 


reminiscences, entitled ' On and OflE Duty ' 

Archaeology now seriously engaged Oliver's 
attention. From Guernsey, where he was 
appointed adjutant in 1868, he visited 
Brittany, and drew up a valuable report on 
the prehistoric remains at Camac and other 
sites {Proc. Ethnological Sac. 1871). In 
1872 a tour in the Mediterranean resulted 
in some first-hand archaeological obser- 
vations in Asia Minor, Greece, and Sar- 
dinia, published as 'Nuragghi Sardi, and 
other Non-Historic Stone Structiires of 
the Mediterranean ' (Dublin, 1875). Mean- 
while Oliver, who had been promoted 
captain in 1871, was appointed superin- 
tendent of fortifications on the Cornish 
coast in 1873, and there devoted his leisure 
to elucidating the history of two Cornish 
castles, ' Pendennis and St. Mawes ' (Truro, 
1875).' After serving on the staff of the 
intelligence branch of the quartermaster- 
general's department he was sent to St. 
Helena on garrison duty. There he re- 
sumed his botanical studies, and made a 
valuable collection of ferns, which he 
presented to the Royal Gardens, Kew. 
Impatience of professional routine induced 
Oliver to resign his commission in 1878. 
For a time he acted as special artist and 
correspondent of 'The Illustrated London 
News ' in Cyprus and Syria. But his 
health had been seriously affected by his 
travels in malarial countries, and he soon 
settled down to literary pursuits at home, 
first at Gosport and later at Worthing. 
The value of Oliver's work both as explorer 
and as antiquary was generally recognised. 
He was elected F.R.G.S. in 1866, became 
fellow of the Ethnological Society in 1869, 
and F.S.A. in 1874. He died at Worthing 
on 31 July 1907, and was buried at Findon. 
He married on 10 Sept. 1863 at Port Louis, 
Mauritius, Clara Georgina, second daughter 
of Frederic MyUus Dick, by whom he had 
five sons and four daughters. 

Oliver's versatile interests prevented him 
from sichieving eminence in any one subject. 
But his sympathetic volumes descriptive 
of Malagasy life remain the standard Eng- 
lish authority on the subject. In 1866 he 
published ' Madagascar and the Malagasy,' 
a diary of his first visit to the island, which 
he illustrated with some spirited sketches. 
This was followed by an ethnological study 
in French, ' Les Hovas et leg autres tribus 
caracteristiques de Madagascar ' (Guernsey, 
1869). In ' The True Story of the French 
Dispute in Madagascar ' (1885) Oliver 
passed adverse criticisms on the treatment 
of the Malagasy by the French colonial 



officials. Finally his two volumes on 
'Madagascar' (1886), based on authentic 
native and European sources, give a de- 
tailed and comprehensive account of the 
island, its history, and its inhabitants. 

OUver also edited : 1. ' Madagascar, or 
Robert Drury's Journal,' 1890. 2. 'The 
Voyage of Frangois Leguat,' 1891 (Hakluyt 
Society). 3. ' The Memoirs and Travels of 
Mauritius Augustus Coimt de Benyowsky,' 
1893. 4. 'The Voyages made by the 
Sieur Dubois,' 1897 (translation). In ad- 
dition to these works he assisted in the 
preparation of ' The I^ife of Sir Charles 
MacGregor,' pubhshed by his widow in 
1888, and from the notes and documents 
collected by Sir Charles MacGregor he 
compiled the abridged official account of 
'The Second Afghan War, 1878-80' 
(posthumous, 1908). ' The Life of PhiUbert 
Commerson,' which appeared posthumously 
in 1909, was edited with a short memoir 
of Oliver by Mr. G. F. Scott EUiot. To 
this Dictionary he contributed the articles 
on Fran9ois Leguat and Sir Charles 

[Memoir of Capt. Oliver prefixed to the Life 
of Philibert Commerson, 1909 ; S. P. Oliver, 
On and Off Duty, 1881 ; Athenaeum, 17 Aug. 
1907 ; Worthing Gazette, 14 Aug. 1907 ; 
private information from Miss Ofiver.] 

G. S. W. 

1902), general, bom on 8 March 1822 at 
Dartry near Armagh, was son of William 
Olpherts of Dartry House, co. Armagh. 
He was educated at Dungannon School, and 
in 1837 received a nomination to the East 
India Military College at Addiscombe. He 
passed out in the artillery, and joined the 
headquarters of the Bengal artillery at 
Dum Dum in Dec. 1839. On the outbreak 
of disturbances in the Tenasserim pro- 
vince of Burma, Olpherts was detached to 
Moulmein in Oct. 1841 with four guns. 
Returning at the end of nine months, he 
was again ordered on field service to quell 
an insurrection in the neighbourhood of 
Saugor, and was thanked in the despatch 
of the officer commanding the artillery for 
his conduct in action with the insurgents 
at Jhima Ghaut on 12 Nov. 1842. Having 
passed as interpreter in the native lan- 
guages, Olpherts was given the command 
of the 16th Bengal light field battery, and 
joined Sir Hugh Gough's expedition against 
GwaUor. Olpherts's battery was posted on 
the wing of the army commanded by 
General Grey,; Lieutenant (Sir) Henry 
Tombs, V.C. [q. v.], being his subaltern. 
He was heavily engaged at Punniar on 




29 December 1843, and was mentioned in 

For his services in the Gwalior campaign 
Olpherts received the bronze decoration. 
Being specially selected by the governor- 
general, Lord EUenborough, to raise and 
command a battery of horse artillery for 
the Bundelcund legion, he was at once 
detached with the newly raised battery to 
join Sir Charles Napier's army in Sind. 
His march across India, a distance of 
1260 miles, elicited Napier's highest praise. 
In 1846 Olpherts took part in the opera- 
tions at Kot Kangra during the first 
Sikh war, when his conduct attracted 
the attention of (Sir) Henry Lawrence 
[q. v.], and he was appointed to raise a 
battery of artillery from among the dis- 
banded men of the Sikh army. He was 
then hurried off to the Deccan in com- 
mand of a battery of artillery in the service 
of the Nizam of Hyderabad, but was soon 
recalled to a similar post in the Gwalior 
contingent. In 1851 Olpherts applied to be 
posted to a battery at Peshawur, where 
he was under the command of Sir Colin 
Campbell [q. v.] and took part in the expe- 
dition against the frontier tribes. For this 
service he afterwards received the Indian 
general service medal sanctioned in 1869 
for frontier wars. In the following year 
(1852) Olpherts took furlough to England, 
and was appointed an orderly officer at 
the Mihtary College of Addiscombe. 

On the outbreak of the Russian war in 
1854 Olpherts volunteered for service, and 
was selected to join (Sir) William Fenwick 
Williams [q. v.] at Kars. On his way 
thither he visited the Crimea. Crossing 
the Black Sea, he rode over the Zigana 
mountains in the deep snow; but soon 
after reaching Kars he was detached to 
command a Turkish force of 7000 men to 
guard against a possible advance of the 
Russians from Erivan by the Araxes river. 
Olpherts thus escaped being involved in the 
surrender of Kars. Recalled to the Crimea, 
he was nominated to the command of a 
brigade of bashi bazouks in the Turkish 
contingent. On the conclusion of peace 
in 1856 he returned to India, and received 
the command of a horse battery at 

Olpherts served throughout the sup- 
pression of the Indian Mutiny (1857-9). 
He was with Brigadier James Neill [q. v.] 
when he defeated the mutineers at Benares 
on*4 June 1857, and accompanied Havelock 
during the relief of Luclmow. His con- 
duct in the course of that operation was 
highly distmguished. On 25 Sept. 1857, 

after the troops entered the city of Luck- 
now, Olpherts charged on horseback with 
the 90th regiment when ttnder Colonel 
Campbell two guns were captured in the 
face of a heavy fire of grape. Olpherts 
succeeded under a severe fire of musketry 
in bringing up the limbers and horses to 
carry oft" the captured ordnance (extract 
from Field Force Orders by GeneeaIj 
Havelock, 17 Oct. 1857). Olpherts al- 
most surpassed this piece of bravery by 
another two days later. When the main 
body of Havelock's force penetrated to the 
Residency, the rearguard consisting of the 
90th with some guns and ammunition was 
entirely cut off. However, Olpherts, with 
Colonel Robert (afterwards Lord) Napier 
[q. v.], sallied out with a small party, and 
by his cool determination brought in the 
wounded of the rearguard as well as the 
gims. Sir James Outram [q. v.], then in 
command of the Residency at Lucknow, 
wrote : ' My dear heroic Olpherts, bravery 
is a poor and insufficient epithet to 
apply to a valour such as yours.' Colonel 
Napier wrote in his despatch to the same 
effect. From the entry into Lucknow 
of Havelock's force until the relief by 
Sir Colin Campbell on 21 Nov. Olpherts 
acted as brigadier of artillery, and after 
the evacuation of the Residency by Sir 
Colin Campbell he shared in the defence 
of the advanced position at the Alumbagh 
under Sir James Outram. He took part 
in the siege and capture of the city by Sir 
Colin Campbell in March 1858, being again 
mentioned in despatches for conspicuous 
bravery. At the close of the campaign 
Olpherts received the brevets of major and 
lieutenant-colonel, as well as the Victoria 
cross, the Indian Mutiny medal with two 
clasps, and the companionship of the Bath. 
In 1859-60 Olpherts served as a volun- 
teer under Brigadier (Sir) Neville Cham- 
berlain [q. v. Suppl. II] in an expedition 
against the Waziris on the north-west 
frontier of the Punjab, thus completing 
twenty years of continuous active service. 
Olpherts' s dash and daring earned for him 
the sobriquet of ' Hell-fire Jack,' but 
he modestly gave all the credit for any 
action of his to the men vmder him. From 
1861 to 1868 he commanded the artil- 
lery in the frontier stations of Peshawur 
or Rawal Pindi, and in that year he re- 
turned home on furlough, when he was 
presented with a sword of honour by the 
city and comity of Armagh. Returning to 
India in 1872, he commanded successively 
the Gwalior, Ambala, and Lucknow bri- 
gades, but quitted the country in 1875 




on attaining the rank of major-general. 
He was promoted lieutenant-general on 
1 Oct. 1877, general on 31 March 1883, 
and in 1888 became colonel commandant 
of the royal artUlery. Olpherts was raised 
to the dignity of K.C.B. in 1886 and of 
G.C.B. m 1900. 

He died at his residence, Wood House, 
Norwood, on 30 April 1902, and was buried 
at Richmond, Surrey. Olpherts married 
in 1861 Alice, daughter of Major-general 
George Cautley of the Bengal cavalry, by 
whom he had one son, Major Olpherts, late 
of the Royal Scots, and three daughters. 

[The Times, 1 May 1902; Broad Arrow, 
3 May 1902 ; Army and Navy Gazette, 3 May 
1902'; H. M. Vibart, Addiscombe and its 
Heroes, 1894; Lord Roberts, Forty-one Years 
in India, 30th edit. 1898; W. H. Russell, 
My Diary in India ; Sir James Outram's 
Liie ; A. M. Delavoj'e, History of the Nine- 
tieth Light Infantry ; Sir W. Lee -Warner, 
Memoirs of Sir Henry Norman, 1908, p. 90 ; 
J. S. 0. Wilkinson, The Gemini Generals, 
1896; Selections from State Papers in Mih- 
tary Department, 1857-8, ed. G. W. Forrest, 
3 vols. 1902.] C. B. N. 

1904), admiral, born in London on 22 May 
1814, was seventh son, in a family of 
eight sons and three daughters, of Sir 
Francis Molyneux Ommanney, well known 
as a navy agent and for many years M.P. 
for Barnstaple, by his wife Georgiana 
Frances, daughter of Joshua Hawkes. The 
Ommanneys had long distinguished them- 
selves in the navy. Erasmus' grandfather 
was Rear- Admiral Comthwaite Ommanney 
{d. 1801) ; Admiral Sir John Ac worth Om- 
manney [q. v.] and Admiral Henry Manaton 
Ommanney were his tincles, and Major- 
general Edward Lacon Ommanney, R.E., 
was his eldest brother, while Prebendary 
George Druce Wynne Ommanney [q. v. 
Suppl. II] was a yoimger brother. Omman- 
ney entered the navy in August 1826 under 
his uncle John, then captain of the Albion, 
of seventy-four guns, which in December 
convoyed to Lisbon the troops sent to 
protect Portugal against the Spanish 
invasion. The ship then went to the 
Mediterranean, and on 20 Oct. 1827 took 
part in the battle of Navarino [see 
CoDEiNGTON, SiB Edwabd], for which 
Ommanney received the medal. The cap- 
tured flag of the Turkish commander-in- 
chief was handed down by seniority 
among the surviving officers, and came 
eventually into the possession of Ommanney, 
who in 1890, being then the sole survivor, 
presented it to the King of Greece, from 

whom he received in return the grand cross 
of the order of the Saviour. Li 1833 he 
passed his examination, after which he 
served for a short time as mate in the 
Symondite brig Pantaloon [see Symonds, 
Sib William], employed on packet servicej 
On 10 Dec. 1835 he was promoted to 
lieutenant, and in the same month was 
appointed to the Cove, frigate, Captain 
(afterwards Sir James) Clark Ross [q. v.], 
which was ordered to Baffin's Bay to 
release a ntxmber of whalers caught in the 
ice. He received the special commenda- 
tion of the Admiralty for his conduct 
during this dangerous service. In October 
1836 he joined the Pique, frigate. Captain 
Henry John Rous [q. v.], an excellent school 
of seamanship ; and a year later was 
appointed to the Donegal, of seventy-eight 
gims, as flag Ueutenant to his uncle, Sir 
John, commander-in-chief on the Lisbon 
and Mediterranean stations. He was pro- 
moted to commander on 9 Oct. 1840, and 
from August 1841 to the end of 1844 served 
on board the Vesuvius, steam sloop, in the 
Mediterranean, being employed on the coast 
of Morocco for the protection of British 
subjects during the period of French 
hostilities, which included the bombard- 
ment of Tangier by the squadron under 
the Prince de Joinville. He was advanced 
to the rank of captain on 9 Nov. 1846, and 
in 1847-8 was employed under the govern- 
ment commission during the famine in 
Ireland, carrying into effect relief measures 
and the new poor law. 

\Vhen Captain Horatio Austin was 
appointed to the Resolute for the com- 
mand of the Franklin search expedition in 
February 1850 he chose Ommanney, whom 
he had known intimately in the Mediter- 
ranean, to be his second-in-command. The 
Resolute and Ommanney's ship, the Assist- 
ance, each had a steam tender, this being the 
first occasion on which steam was used for 
Arctic navigation. This expedition was 
also the first to organise an extensive 
system of sledge journeys, by means of 
which the coast of Prince of Wales Land was 
laid down. On 25 Aug. 1850 Ommanney 
discovered the first traces of the fate of Sir 
John Franklin; these on investigation 
proved that his ships had wintered at 
Beechey Island. On the return of the 
expedition to England in October 1851 
Ommanney received the Arctic medal, and 
several years later, in 1868, he was elected a 
fellow of the Royal Society in recognition 
of his scientific work in the Arctic. In 
1877 he was knighted for the same service. 
In December 1851 he was appointed deputy 




controller-general of the coast-guard, and 
held this post until 1854, when, on the out- 
break of the Russian war, he commissioned 
the Eurydice as senior officer of a small 
squadron for the White Sea, where he 
blockaded Archangel, stopped the coasting 
traed, and destroyed government property 
at several points. In 1855 he was appointed 
to the Hawke, block ship, for the Baltic, 
and was employed chiefly as senior officer 
in the gulf of Riga, where the service was 
one of rigid blockade, varied by occasional 
skirmishes with the Russian gunboats and 
batteries. In October 1857 he was ap- 
pointed to the Brunswick, of eighty guns, 
going out to the West Indies, and was senior 
officer at Colon when the filibuster William 
Walker attempted to invade Nicaragua. The 
Brunswick afterwards joined the Channel 
fleet, and in 1859 was sent as a reinforce- 
ment to the Mediterranean during the 
Franco -Italian war. Ommanney was not 
again afloat after paying off in 1860, but was 
senior officer at Gibraltar from 1862 until 
promoted to flag rank on 12 Nov. 1864. In 
March 1867 he was awarded the C.B. ; on 
14 July 1871 he was promoted to vice- 
admiral, and accepted the retirement on 
1 Jan. 1875. He was advanced to admiral 
on the retired list on 1 Aug. 1877. To the 
end of his life Ommanney continued to take 
a great interest in geographical work and 
service subjects, being a constant attendant 
at the meetings of the Royal Geographical 
Society, of the Royal United Service 
Institution, of both of which bodies he was 
for many years a councillor, and of the 
British Association. He was also a J.P. 
for Hampshire and a member of the 
Thames conservancy. In Jime 1902 he 
was made K.C.B. 

Ommanney died on 21 Dec. 1904 at his 
son's residence, St. Michael's vicarage, 
Portsmouth, and was buried in Mortlake 
cemetery. He was twice married : (1) on 
27 Feb. 1844 to Emily Mary, daughter of 
Samuel Smith of H.M. dockyard, Malta; 
she died in 1857 ; and (2) in 1862 to Mary, 
daughter of Thomas A. Stone of Curzon 
Street, W. ; she died on 1 Sept. 1906, aged 
eighty-one. His son, Erasmus Austin, 
entered the navy in 1863, retired with the 
rank of commander in 1879, took orders 
in 1883, and was vicar of St. Michael's, 
Portsmouth, from 1892 to 1911. 

A portrait by Stephen Pearce is in the 
National Portrait Gallery. 

[The Times, 22, 28, and 29 Dec. 1904; 
Geog. Journal, Feb. 1905; xxv. 221; Proc. 
Roy. See. Ixxxv. 335 ; 0' Byrne's Naval 
Biography ; R. N. List.] L. G. C. L. 

WYNNE (1819-1902), theologian, born in 
Norfolk Street, Strand, on 12 April 1819, 
was younger brother of Sir Erasmus 
Ommanney [see above]. After education at 
Harrow (1831-8), where in 1838 he won the 
Robert Peel gold medal and the Lyon scholar- 
ship, he matriculated as scholar from Trinity 
College, Cambridge, in 1838 ; graduated B.A. 
as senior optime and second class classic 
in 1842; and proceeded M.A. in 1845. 
Taking holy orders in 1842, he was curate 
of Edwinstone, Nottmghamshire (1843-9); 
of Cameley, Somerset (1849-52); of Old- 
bourne, Wilts (1852-3); of Woodborough, 
Wilts (1853-8); vicar of Queen Charlton, 
near Bristol (1858-62); curate in charge 
of Whitchurch, Somerset (1862-75); and 
vicar of Draycot, Somerset (1875-88). He 
was made prebendary of Whitchurch in 
Wells Cathedral in 1884. He died on 20 
April 1902 at 29 Beaumont Street, Oxford, 
where he had lived in retirement since 1888, 
and was buried at St. Sepulchre's cemetery, 
Oxford. He married EUen Ricketts of 
Brislington, Bristol, and had no issue. 

Ommanney was a voluminous and lucid 
writer on the Athanasian creed, to which 
he devoted a large portion of his later life, 
studying Arabic and visiting the chief 
European libraries for purposes of research. 
He was a vigorous champion of the reten- 
tion of the creed in the church of England 
services. He supported its claims to 
authenticity against the critics who ascribed 
its composition to the eighth and ninth 
centuries. His published works include : 

1. ' The Athanasian Creed : Examination 
of Recent Theories respecting its Date 
and Origin,' 1875; new edit. 1880. 

2. ' Early History of the Athanasian 
Creed,' 1880. 3. 'The S.P.C.K. and the 
Creed of St. Athanasius,' 1884. 4. 
' Critical Dissertation on the Athanasian 
Creed, its Original Language, Date, Author- 
ship, Titles, Text, Reception, and Use,' 

[The Times, 22 April 1902; Guardian, 
23 AprU 1902 ; Crockford's Clerical Directory, 
1902 ; private information.] W. B. O. 


fourth Eael of Onslow (1853-1911), 
governor of New Zealand, born at Bletsoe, 
Bedfordshire, on 7 March 1853, was 
only son of George Augustus Cranley 
Onslow {d. 1855) of Alresford, Hampshire, 
who was great-grandson of George Onslow, 
first earl [q. v.], grandson of Thomas 
Onslow, second earl, and nephew of Arthur 
George Onslow, third earl. His mother was 




Mary Harriet Ann, eldest daughter of 
Lieut. -general William Fraser Bentinck 
Loftus of Kilbride, co. Wicklow, Ireland. 
He succeeded his great-uncle as fourth 
eari in 1870. Educated at Eton, he entered 
Exeter College, Oxford, in Easter term 1871, 
and left after rather more than a year 
without sitting for the university examina- 
tions. A conservative in politics, he was 
a lord-in-waiting to Queen Victoria in Lord 
Beaconsfield's administration at the begin- 
ning of 1880, and he represented the local 
government board in the House of Lords ; 
he was again a lord-in- waiting under Lord 
Salisbury in 1880-7. In February 1887 he 
was appointed by Lord SaUsbury parUa- 
mentary under-secretary of state for the 
colonies, representing the colonial office 
in the House of Lords. Sir Henry Holland 
was then secretary of state for the colonies, 
and when in February 1888 he was raised 
to the House of Lords as Lord Knutsford, 
Lord Onslow was transferred as parUamen- 
tary secretary to the board of trade. While 
he was at the colonial office, in April 1887, the 
first colonial conference took place, of which 
he was a vice-president. He was also a 
delegate to the sugar bounties conference in 
1887-8, and in 1887 he was made K.C.M.G. 

Onslow was not long at the board of trade, 
for on 24 Nov. 1888 he was appointed 
governor of New Zealand, and assumed 
office on 2 May 1889, being made G.C.M.G. 
soon after. He held the office till the end 
of February 1892. He was a successful 
and popular governor, businesslike and 
straightforward ; and the New Zealanders 
appreciated his frankness of character and 
his open-air tastes. He encouraged accli- 
matisation societies, and used his personal 
influence to establish island preserves for 
the native birds of New Zealand. There 
was one change of ministry during his term 
of office, the administration of Sir Harry 
Atkinson [q. v. Suppl. I] being at the be- 
ginning of 1891 succeeded by that of John 
BaUance [q. v. Suppl. I], and some appoint- 
ments to the upper house which the governor 
made on the advice of the outgoing premier 
were the subject of criticism by the opposite 
party (see H. of C. Return, No. 198, May 
1893). Otherwise his government was free 
from friction. In New Zealand his younger 
son was born (13 Nov. 1890), and he paid the 
Maoris the much appreciated compUment 
of giving to the child the Maori name of 
Huia, and presenting him for adoption into 
the Ngatihuia tribe in the North Island in 
September 1891. 

In 1895, when the unionists were returned 
to power, he became parUamentary under- 


secretary of state for India, and remained at 
the India Office till 1900, when he went back 
to the colonial office in the same position, 
Mr. Joseph Chamberlain being secretary 
of state. He took part in the colonial con- 
ference of 1902, and he acted as secretary 
of state diu-ing Mr. Chamberlain's visit to 
South Africa. In 1903 he obtained cabinet 
rank as president of the board of agriculture, 
and was made a privy councillor. As head 
of an office he proved himself to be hard- 
working and shrewd. His appointment 
synchronised with the passing of the Board 
of Agriculture and Fisheries Act, 1903, 
which transferred the control of the 
fishery industry from the board of trade 
to the board of agriculture. Onslow took 
a strong personal interest in the new duties 
which devolved on the board. For the care 
of agricvdture he was well fitted by his own 
private inchnations and pursuits, and he 
paid much attention to the question of rail- 
way rates so far as they affected farmers. 

In 1905 he succeeded Albert Edmund 
Parker, third earl of Morley [q. v. Suppl. II], 
as chairman of committees in the House of 
Lords, and held that post till the Easter 
recess of 1911, when he retired on account of 
failing health. Unlike his immediate pre- 
decessor in the chairmanship he did not 
dissociate himself from party pohtics, but 
his politics were too genial to give offence, 
and in his official room there was no 
poHtical atmosphere. He was rapid yet 
patient in the transaction of business, took 
great care in the selection of members and 
chairmen for committees on bills, and fully 
maintained the reputation of the House of 
Lords committees for justice and integrity. 
Onslow was chairman of the small holdings 
committee appointed by the board of agri- 
culture in 1905 ; he was also chairman of the 
executive committee of the Central Land 
Association, and in 1905-6 he was president 
of the Royal Statistical Society. Onslow 
was an alderman of the London county 
council (1896-9) and for a time leader of 
the moderate party in the coimcil ; he 
was also an alderman of the city of West- 
minster (1900-3), and he had adequate sym- 
pathetic knowledge of municipal questions. 

At Clandon, Surrey, the family home, 
Onslow was a good landlord and neighbour. 
He held the office of high steward of Guild- 
ford. He was a keen sportsman and a good 
whip, being a member of the Coaching and 
the Four in Hand Clubs, and in all respects a 
good representative of the country gentle 
man. He died on 23 Oct. 1911 at his son's 
house at Hampstead, and was buried at 
Merrow near Guildford, a memorial service 




being held at St. Margaret's, Westminster. 
He married on 3 Feb. 1875 Florence Coulston 
Gardner, elder daughter of Alan Legge, 
third Lord Gardner, and had two sons and 
two daughters. 

His portrait, painted by the Hon. John 
Collier, is at 7 Richmond Terrace, and an 
engraving of it at Grill ion's Club. A cartoon 
portrait by *Spy' appeared in 'Vanity 
Fair' in 1883. 

' [The Times, 24 Oct. 1911 ; Gisbome's New 
Zealand Rulers, 1897 (portrait) ; Colonial Office 
List ; Who's Who ; Burke's Peerage ; Walford's 
Coimty Families; private sources.] C. P. L. 

QUILLER (1832-1910), artist, bom in 
Edinburgh on 27 March 1832, was only 
surviving son of Abram Orchardson, tailor, 
by his wife EUzabeth QuiUer. The artist 
traced his father's family to a Highland 
sept named Urquhartson. His mother's 
family of QuiUer was of Austrian origin. 

On 1 Oct. 1845, when thirteen and a half, 
he entered the art school in Edinburgh 
known as the Trustees' Academy on the 
recommendation of John Sobieski Stuart 
[q. V.]. He enrolled himself as an ' artist.' 
The master of the Academy, Alexander 
Christie, A.R.S.A., taught ornament and 
design, and John BaUantyne, R.S.A., 
took the antique, hfe and colour classes. 
They were not inspiring teachers, but 
Orchardson made rapid progress. Erskine 
Nicol, Thomas Faed, James Archer, Robert 
Herdman and Alexander Eraser were 
amongst his fellow students, and gave 
him the stimulus of friendly rivalry. In 
February 1852 Robert Scott Lauder 
[q. v.] succeeded Christie as master, and 
Orchardson, whose name remained without 
a break on the roU until the close of the 
session 1854-5, enjoyed in his final years 
of pupilage the benefits of Lauder's fine 
taste and wide knowledge of art. The 
younger students who gathered about 
Lauder — Chalmers, McTaggart, Cameron, 
Pettie, MacWhirter, Tom and Peter Gra- 
ham — while they influenced Orchardson's 
work, regarded him as their leader. At 
this period Orchardson was neither a very 
regular attendant nor a very hard worker. 
It is said that he seldom finished a life- 
study; but when he did it was masterly 
and complete, and it evoked the applause 
of his fellows. He took an active part in 
the sketch club founded by Lauder's early 
pupils, and formed enduring friendships 
with the members, more especially with 
Tom Graham [q. v. Suppl. II] and John 
Pettie [q. v.]. 
Orchardson began to exhibit at the Royal 

Scottish Academy as early as 1848, and his 
pictures showed great promise 'George 
Wishart's Last Communion ' (exhibited in 
1853) was a wonderful performance for 
a youth of less than twenty-one, yet his 
work failed to impress academicians. His 
temperament combined ambition with a 
certain aloofness ; and after a short trial of 
residence in London, he settled there for 
good in 1862. Within a few months he 
was joined by his friend John Pettie, and 
from 1863 to 1865 these two, with Tom 
Graham who had also gone south, and 
Mr. C. E. Johnston, another Edinburgh 
friend, shared a house, 37 Fitzroy Square. 

For some time the art of Orchardson 
and Pettie, while each possessed quaUties 
of its own, was very similar in character. 
Both found their subjects in past his- 
tory, with its picturesque costumes and 
accessories, and shared the technical 
qualities due to Scott Lauder's training. 
Their work soon attracted the attention 
of connoisseurs, Orchardson's ' Challenged ' 
(1865) being his first popular triumph. 
Orchardson's pictures proved subtler and 
more distinguished than Pettie's, and in 
a greater degree he devoted himself to 
subjects directly suggested by Ut^rature. 
Shakespeare and Scott were favourite 
sources, and amongst his work of this 
kind were ' Hamlet and OpheUa ' (1865), 
'Christopher Sly' (1866), 'Talbot and 
the Coimtess of Auvergne ' (1867), ' Poins, 
Falstafif and Prince Henry' (1868), and 
' Opheha ' (1874). Like most of his early 
associates, Orchardson was no mere illus- 
trator of lus text. His pictures had always 
a true pictorial and aesthetic basis for the 
dramatic situations they embodied. In 
1868 Orchardson was elected A.R.A., and in 
1870 he paid along visit to Venice — his only 
stay abroad of any duration. The result 
was a number of pictures, ' The Market Girl 
from the Lido ' ( 1870), 5' On the Grand Canal ' 
(1871), and 'A Venetian Fruit-SeUer ' 
(1874), of a more realistic kind than any 
of his previous paintings. ' Toilers of the 
Sea ' (1870) and ' Flotsam and Jetsam ' 
(1876) showed a Uke character and sug- 
gested a growing independence of hterary 
suggestion. To the Academy of 1877 he 
sent 'The Queen of the Swords,' which, 
while originating in a description in ' The 
Pirate,' belonged in conception and senti- 
ment to the painter alone. In it his earUer 
style culminated and it inaugurated the 
work on which his reputation finally rested. 
Orchardson was at once made R.A. When 
the pictiire was exhibited in the Paris 
Exhibition next year, together with his 

Orchard son 



'Challenged' (1865), it evoked in the French 
art public an admiration which his later 
work made lasting. 

Every year now added to Orchardson's 
reputation. His drawing, always construc- 
tive and real, attained a more incisive eleg- 
ance ; his sense of design grew thoroughly 
architectonic, especially in the use of blank 
spaces ; his colour lost its tendency to grey- 
ness and became, in M. Chesneau's happy 
phrase, ' as harmonious as the wrong side of 
an old tapestry ' ; and his appreciation of 
character and dramatic situation acquired 
an absolute sureness. His technical equip- 
ment, if Umited in certain directions, was 
eventually weUnigh perfect in its kind. 
Henceforth his subjects were divided 
into incidents in the comedy of manners 
(sometimes gay but more often grave, 
and usually touched with a deUcate irony) 
and incidents from the careers of the great. 
The situation was always an epitomised 
expression of the interplay of character and 
circumstance rather than a rendering of a 
particular event, and the effect was highly 
dramatic. The first of his social pieces, 
'The Social Eddy: Left by the Tide' 
(1878), was followed a year later by the 
intensely dramatic ' Hard Hit,' one of his 
most notable achievements. In 1880 
' Napoleon on board the BeUerophon ' — 
purchased by the Chantrey Trustees — made 
a deep and enduring impression and became 
through engravings perhaps the most 
widely known of his works. Other themes 
from French manners or history were 
' Voltaire ' (1883), ' The Salon of Madame 
Recamier' (1885), 'The Young Duke' 
(1889), and ' St. Helena, 1816 ; Napoleon 
dictating the Account of his Campaigns ' 
(1892). With these may be grouped the 
dramatically conceived and coloured 
' Borgia ' (1902), and some hghter pieces 
such as 'A Tender Chord' (1886), 'If 
Music be the Food of Love ' (1890), and 
' Rivalry ' (1897), in which the actors 
wear the costume of the past. During this 
period the artist also presented with poignant 
feeling domestic drama in modem clothes 
and suiToundings. Notable examples of 
such work are the ' Mariage de Conven- 
ance ' series (1884 and 1886), ' The First 
Cloud ' (1887), ' Her Mother's Voice ' (1888), 
and ' Trouble ' (1898), 

At the same time Orchardson's insight 
into character, sxibtlety of draughtsman- 
ship, and distinction of design made him 
a fascinating portrait painter. The more 
important of his portraits belong to the 
last three decades of his career, and during I 
his latest years he painted Uttle else. I 

The charming portrait of Mrs. Orchardson 
(1875); the 'Master Baby '—the artist's 
wife and child (1886) ; the spirited rendering 
of himself standing before Ms easel, painted 
for the Uffizi in 1890 ; ' Sir Walter Gilbey ' 
(1891); and ' H. B. Ferguson, Esq.' in the 
Dundee Gallery are splendid proofs of his'skiU 
in portraiture. Save ' Master Baby,' these 
were all three-quarter lengths ; but the full 
lengths of ' Sir David Stewart ' (1896), in 
his robes as lord provost of Aberdeen, and 
of 'Lord Peel' (1898), when speaker of the 
House of Commons, are hardly less effective. 
Later portraits like ' Sir Samuel Montagu ' 
(1904) and 'Howard Coles, Esq.' (1905) 
were often only of the head and^ shoulders, 
but if rather weaker and thinner in handling 
than earher efforts they revealed an even 
subtler apprehension of character. 

After his marriage in (1873 Orchardson 
lived successively at Hyndford House, 
Brompton Road, at 1 Lansdowne Road, 
Notting Hill, and at 2 Spencer Street, 
Victoria, and in 1888 or 1889 ^he settled 
finally at 13 Portland Place, where he built 
a splendid studio. For some twenty years 
from 1877 he had also a coxmtry house, 
Ivyside, at Westgate-on-Sea, Kent, where he 
built another studio, in which some of his 
most famous pictures were painted. After 
1897 he occupied Hawley House, Dartford, 

Besides honorary membership of the 
Royal Scottish Academy, which was 
conferred on him in 1871, Orchardson 
received many^ honours from foreign art 
societies. He was made a D.C.L. of Oxford 
in 1890, and in 1907 he was knighted. He 
died at 13 Portland Place, London, on 
13 April 1910. Only a fortnight before he 
had completed, with an effort, the portrait 
of Lord Blyth, which appeared in the 
Academy after his death. He was buried 
at Westgate-on-Sea. 

Orchardson married on 8 April 1873, at St. 
Mary Abbots, Kensington, Ellen, daughter 
of Charles Moxon of London ; she survived 
him with four sons and two daughters, 
and was granted a civil list pension of 
80/. in 1912. The eldest son, Mr. C. M. Q. 
Orchardson, is an artist. 

Of distinguished appearance, if of slight 
physique, Orchardson was very active and 
hthe. In early life he himted, and at 
Westgate he became a devotee of tennis, 
for which he had an open court built. He 
was also a keen angler, especially with the 
dry fly, and latterly took to golf. Indoors he 
played bilMards and talked with penetrating 
insight. Apart from the portrait of himself 
in the Uffizi, there are others by Tom 





Graham (seated half length, in Lady 
Orchardson's possession), by J. H. Lorimer 
(in Scottish National Portrait Gallery), and 
hj his son, as well as a bronze bust by 
E. Onslow Ford [q. v. Suppl. II], wliich 
belongs to Mrs. Joseph. A cartoon portrait 
by ' Spy ' appeared in * Vanity Fair ' in 1898. 
By way of memorial, a reproduction of 
Ford's bust is to be placed by public sub- 
scription in the Tate Gallery and a plaque 
in the crypt of St. Paul's Cathedral. 

Four of Orchardson's best pictures are in 
the Tate Gallery, London, and he is repre- 
sented by characteristic examples in the 
permanent collections in Glasgow, Dundee, 
Aberdeen, and Edinburgh. The ' Voltaire ' 
was included in Mr. Schwabe's gift to 
Hamburg and the larger version of ' The 
First Cloud ' was acquired for the art 
gallery at Melbourne, Victoria. Sixty-eight 
pictures, illustrating every phase of his art, 
except the charcoal drawings and studies in 
which his draughtsmanship was often seen 
at its best, were brought together at the 
winter exhibition of the Royal Academy 
in 191L 

[Private information ; Registers of the 
Trustees' Academy ; Graves's Academy Ex- 
hibitors ; Exhibition Catalogues ; The Art 
of W. Q. Orchardson, by Sir W. Armstrong 
(Portfolio monograph, 1895) ; Art Annual, 
1897, by Stanley Little ; Scottish Painting, 
by J. L. Caw, 1908 ; Martin Hardie's John 
Pettie, 1908 ; The Times, 14 April 1910 ; 
Athenffium, 23 April 1910.] J. L. C. 

ORD, WILLIAM MILLER (1834-1902), 
physician, born on 23 Sept. 1834 at Brixton 
Hill, was elder of the two sons of George 
Ord, F.R.C.S., of an old Border family, 
by his wife Harriet, daughter of Sir James 
Clark, a London merchant. After educa- 
tion at King's College school, where he 
distinguished himself in classics, he entered 
the medical school of St. Thomas's Hospital 
in 1852. There he soon came under the in- 
fluence of (Sir) John Simon [q. v. Suppl. II], 
surgeon at the hospital and afterwards 
professor of pathology. They remained 
professional and personal friends to the 
end of their days. Ord graduated M.B. at 
London University in 1857. After being 
house surgeon, surgical registrar, and 
demonstrator of anatomy at St. Thomas' 
Hospital, he became lecturer on zoology 
and assistant physician and joint lecturer 
on physiology on 8 Sept. 1870 ; he was 
dean of the medical school (1876-87) 
and largely instrumental in its success. 
He was physician from 1877 until 1898, 
when he was elected consulting physician. 

In early Ufe Ord had joined his father 
in general practice, but already in 1869, 
when he became M.R.C.P., had started as 
a consultant. In 1875 he became F.R.C.P., 
and proceeded M.D. of London in 1877. 

Ord's name is intimately connected with 
the elucidation of the disease now known 
as myxcedema. In 1873 Sir William Gull 
[q. v.] described its symptoms in a paper ' on 
a cretinoid state supervening in adult Hie 
in women.' In 1877, in a contribution 'on 
myxcedema, a term proposed to be appUed 
to an essential condition in the " cretinoid " 
affection occasionally observed in middle- 
aged women,' Ord showed that the essential 
cause of the disease was atrophy or fibrosis 
of the thyroid gland. The name myxce- 
dema which has been adopted was based 
on the belief that there was an excess of 
mucin in the tissues ; this, however, has 
been shown not to be constant through- 
out the disease. Ord was subsequently 
chairman of the committee of the CUnical 
Society of London appointed in 1883 to 
investigate the subject of myxcedema 
(report issued 1888), and gave the Bradshaw 
lecture at the Royal College of Physicians 
in 1898 ' On Myxcedema and AlUed Con- 
ditions.' He was a censor of the college 
in 1897-8. 

Ord was a cUnical teacher of the first 
rank, a busy consultant, and extremely 
active in medical life in London. He was 
secretary of the committee which prepared 
the second edition of the official ' Nomen- 
clature of Diseases ' issued by the Royal 
College of Physicians of London in 1880; 
in the following year he was secretary of the 
medical section of the International Medical 
Congress held in London, and in 1885 he 
was president of the Medical Society of 
London. He was also chairman of the 
committee of the Royal Medical and 
Chirurgical Society which drew up the 
' Report on the CUmates and Baths of 
Great Britain ' (vol. i. 1895 ; vol. ii. 1902). 
FaiUng health obhged him to give up 
practice and retire to the village of Hurst- 
bourne Tarrant near Andover in 1900. He 
died at his son's house at Salisbury on 
14 May 1902, and was buried there in the 
Lcmdon Road cemetery. 

Ord married (1) in 1859 Julia, daughter 
of Joseph Rainbow of Norwood ; she died 
in 1864, leaving two daughters and one son ; 
(2) Jane, daughter of Sir James Arndell 
Youl [q. v. Suppl. II]. There were two 
daughters by the second marriage. 

Ord edited the collected works of Dr. 
Francis Sibson [q. v.]. He published ' In- 
fluence of Colloid upon CrystaUine Forms 




and Cohesion ' (1879) and ' On some Dis- 
orders of Nutrition related with Affections 
of the Nervous System' (1885), and made 
many contributions to current medical 
hterature. He also took a keen interest in 
natural history, as may be seen in his 
oration to the Medical Society in 1894, 
entitled ' The Doctor's HoHday.' 

[St. Thomas's Hosp. Rep. 1902, xxxi. 349 ; 
Lancet, 1902, i. 1494; information from 
his son, W. W. Ord, M.D.] H. D. R. 

O'RELL, MAX (pseudonym). [See 
Blouet, Leon Paul (1848-1903), humorous 

1901), economic entomologist, bom at Sed- 
bury Park, West Gloucestershire, on 11 May 
1828, was youngest daughter of George 
Ormerod [q. v.] by his wife Sarah, daughter 
of John Latham, M.D. (1761-1843) [q. v.]. 
Three of her seven brothers, George Ware- 
ing, William Piers, and Edward Latham, 
are noticed separately. Of her two sisters, 
Georgiana enthusiastically co-operated in 
her work till her death on 19 Aug. 1896. 

Eleanor Ormerod was educated at home 
in elementary subjects by her mother, 
who instilled in all her children strong 
religious feeling and artistic tastes. Latin 
and modern languages, in which she became 
an adept, Eleanor studied by herself. 
She early cherished a love of flowers, showed 
unusual powers of observation, and made 
free use of her father's library. With her 
sister Georgiana she studied painting 
under William Hunt, and both became 
efficient artists. 

As a cloild Eleanor aided her brother 
WilUam in his botanical work, and was soon 
expert in preparing specimens. But it 
was not, according to her OAvn account, 
until 12 March 1852, when she obtained 
a copy of Stephens's ' Manual of British 
Beetles,' that she began the study of 
entomology, and laid the foundation for 
her researches into insect life. In 1868 
she actively aided the Royal Horticultural 
Society in forming a collection illustrative of 
economic entomology, and for her services 
received in 1870 the silver Flora medal. 
To the International Polytechnic Exhibi- 
tion at Moscow in 1872 she sent a collection 
of plaster models (prepared by herself) as 
well as electrotypes of plants, fruits, leaves, 
and reptiles, for which she was awarded 
silver medals and also received the gold 
medal of honour from Moscow University. 

After the death of the father, on 9 Oct. 
1873, the Ormerod family was broken up. 

Eleanor and her sister Georgiana lived 
together at Torquay, and then at Dunster 
Lodge, Spring Grove, Isleworth, where 
they were near Kew Gardens and in close 
touch with Sir Joseph and Lady Hooker. 
At Isleworth Miss Ormerod undertook 
a comprehensive series of meteorological 
observations. She was the first woman to 
be elected fellow of the Meteorological 
Society (1878). The sisters finally removed 
to Torrington House, St. Albans, in 
September 1887. 

In the spring of 1877 Miss Ormerod issued 
the pamphlet, ' Notes for Observations of 
Injurious Insects,' which was the first of 
twenty-four ' Annual Reports of Observa- 
tions of Injurious Insects' (1877-1900). 
With a view to the preparation of these 
reports she carried on till her death a 
large correspondence with observers all 
over the country and in foreign lands. 
Her reports, fully illustrated, were 
printed at her own expense and sent free 
to her correspondents and to all public 
bodies at home and abroad that were 
interested in the subject. A ' General 
Index of the Annual Reports ' (1877-1898) 
was compiled by Mr. Robert Newstead, 
subsequently lecturer on medical entomo- 
logy in Liverpool University. At the same 
time Miss Ormerod was generous in advice, 
notably on insect pests, to all correspondents 
who sought her counsel. Many of those 
from abroad she hospitably entertained 
on their visits to this country. She led an 
especially useful crusade against the ox- 
warble fly and the house sparrow or ' avian 
rat,' and she showed how these and other 
farm and forest, garden and orchard pests 
could best be resisted. 

From 1882 to 1892 Miss Ormerod was 
consiilting entomologist to the Roj'^al Agri- 
cultural Society of England. On the day 
of her assvuning the office (June 1882) she 
met with an accident at Waterloo railway 
station which resulted in permanent lame- 
ness. Her first official work was to prepare, 
with her sister, ' six diagrams illustrating 
some common injurious insects, with life 
histories and methods of prevention,' which 
were issued by the society. 

Her work was incessant, and she declined 
the help of a coadjutor. She greatly valued 
the co-operation in her scientific efforts of 
Professor Westwood, Life president of the 
Entomological Society, of Dr. C. V, Riley, 
entomologist of the department of agricul- 
tiure, U.S.A. , and of Professor Huxley. With 
Huxley she sat from 1882 to 1886 on the 
committee of economic entomology ap- 
pointed by the education department, and 




gave important advice as to the improve- 
ment of the collections in the South 
Kensington and Bethnal Green Museums. 

Miss Ormerod also lectured with success. 
From October 1881 to June 1884 she was 
special lecturer on economic entomology at 
the Royal Agricultural College, Cirencester, 
delivering six valuable lectures on insects. 
Ten lectures delivered at South Kensington 
Museum were published as * Guide to the 
Methods of Insect Life' (1884). In 1889 
she lectured at the Farmers' Club, of which 
she was elected an honorary member. 

Miss Ormerod's activities did not lessen 
in her last years, although the death of 
her sister in 1896 greatly depressed her. 
Many honours were awarded her by 
agricultural societies in all parts of the 
world. On 14 April 1900 she was 
made hon. LL.D. of Edinburgh, being 
the first woman to receive the honour, and 
being greeted by the vice-chancellor. Sir 
Ludovic Grant, ' as the protectress of 
agriculture and the fruits of the earth, 
a beneficent Demeter of the nineteenth 
century.' Although so energetic in public 
work. Miss Ormerod had Uttle sympathy 
with the agitation for woman's suffrage. 
She died at Torrington House, St. Albans, 
of malignant disease of the liver, on 19 July 
1901, and was buried at St. Albans. 

In addition to the ' Annual Reports ' and 
' The Cobham Journals,' abstracts and 
summaries of meteorological observations, 
made by Miss Caroline Molesworth, 1825- 
1850 (Stanford, 1880), she published ' A 
Manual of Remedies and Means of 
Prevention for the Attacks of Insects on 
Food Crops, Forest Trees, and Fruit' 
(1881 ; 2nd edit. 1890) ; ' Injurious Fruit 
and Farm Insects of South Africa ' (1889) ; 
' A Text Book of Agricultural Entomology, 
being a Plain Introduction to the Classifi- 
cation of Insects and Methods of Insect Life ' 
(1892) ; ' Hand Book of Insects Injurious 
to Orchard and Bush Fruits' (1898) ; and 
several important papers on ox bot or 
warble fly, all beiag comprised in * Flies 
Injurious to Stock ' (i.e. sheep, horse, and 
ox) (1900) her latest work. 

A lifelike oil painting of Miss Ormerod 
in academic costume (1900) hangs in 
Edinburgh University court room. To the 
university she presented a set of insect 
diagrams, hand-painted by her sister 
Georgiana, and a collection of insect cases 
furnished by herself, besides bequeathing 
unconditionally a sum'of 5000Z. This money 
has been applied to general purposes. An 
offer to the university by her executor of 
her fine working library, on condition that 

her bequest should be devoted to scientific 
objects, was refused. 

[Eleanor Ormerod, LL.D., Economic Ento- 
mologist, Autobiography and Correspondence, 
edited by the present writer, with portrait and 
illustrations, 1904 ; The Times, 20 July 1901 ; 
Canadian Entomologist, vol. 33, Sept. 1901 ; 
Royal Agric. Soc. Journal, vol. 62, 1901 ; Men 
and Women of the Time, 1899.] R. W. 

LAND (1828-1903), biographer of Brown- 
ing, born on 23 Dec. 1828 at St. Peters- 
burg, where her grandfather, (Sir) James 
Boniface Leighton, was com"t physician, 
was second daughter of Frederic Septimus 
Leighton (1800-1892), a doctor of medicine, 
by his Vfiie Augusta Susan, daughter of 
George Augustus Nash of Ediaonton. 
Frederic Leighton, Lord Leighton [q. v. 
Supp]. I], was her only brother. She 
was named Alexandra after her god- 
mother the Empress of Russia. The family 
travelled much in Europe, and Alexandra 
was educated mostly abroad. Her health 
was always dehcate. On account of her 
defective sight, most of her very consider- 
able knowledge was acquired by listening 
to books read aloud to her. She married 
on 7 March 1857 Sutherland George Gordon 
Orr, commandant of the 3rd regiment of 
cavalry, Hyderabad contingent, and accom- 
panied him to India. They were there 
during the Mutiny, and Mrs. Orr had a 
narrow escape from Aurungabad, her ulti- 
mate safety being due to the fidelity of 
Sheikh Baran Biikh. Orr died on 19 June 
1858, worn out by the sufferings and 
privations endured in the Mutiny. He was 
gazetted captain and brevet major and 
C.B. on the day of his death. Mrs. Orr 
then rejoined her father, who, after 
sojourns in Bath and Scarborough, finally 
settled in London in 1869. 

Mrs. Orr's main interests lay in art and 
literature, and in social intercourse with 
artists and men of letters. Already in 
the winter of 1855-6 she had met, in Paris, 
the poet Robert Browning, with whom her 
brother was on intimate terms from early 
manhood. The poet's acquaintance with 
Mrs. Orr was renewed at intervals until 
1869, when, both having fixed their residence 
in London, they became close friends. 
For many years he read books to her twice 
a week. Shortly after its formation in 
1881, Mrs. Orr joined the Browning Society, 
became a member of the committee, 
wrote notes on various difficult points in 
Brownnig's poems, and was generous in 
money donations. The most important 
fruit of the connection was her illuminating 




' Handbook to the Works of Robert Brown- 
ing' (1885 ; 3rd edit. 1887) ; written at the 
request of some members of the society, 
and with the encouragement and help 
of the poet, the book is a kind of 
descriptive index, based partly on the 
historical order and partly on the natural 
classification of the various poems ' (cf. 
Pref. 1885). The scheme of classification 
owed something to the suggestion of John 
Trivett Nettleship [q. v. Suppl. 11]. The 
sixth edition (1892, often reprinted) em- 
bodied Mrs. Orr's final corrections. 

In 1891 Mrs. Orr published her well- 
planned ' Life and Letters of Robert Brown- 
ing,' largely based on material supplied by 
Browning's sister. Since 1891 new letters 
of the poet have come to light, but Mrs. 
Orr's biography retains the value due to 
personal knowledge and judgment. A new 
edition, revised and in part rewritten by (Sir) 
Frederic G. Kenyon, was published in 1908. 
Mrs. Orr's estimate of Browning's religious 
opinions gave rise to discussion, and she 
answered her critics in an article in the 
' Contemporary Review ' (Dec. 1891). To 
that and other periodicals Mrs. Orr con- 
tributed occasional articles on art and 
Uterature, as well as on ' Women's Suf- 
frage,' of which she was a strong opponent. 

After her father's death in 1892 Mrs. 
Orr continued to live in the house which 
he had occupied, 11 Kensington Park 
Gardens, vmtil her death on 23 Aug. 1903. 
She was buried in Locksbrook cemetery, 
Bath, beside her parents. 

Her portrait as a young widow was 
painted by her brother Frederic (Lord) 
Leigh ton in 1860. It was exhibited at the 
Royal Academy in 1861. Leighton wrote 
that it was more admired than anything else. 
It is now at Leighton House, Kensington. 
There is a reproduction in Mrs. Russell 
Barrington'e ' Life and Letters of Frederic 
Leighton,' 1906, vol. ii. Another portrait, 
painted by Leighton about 1889, is in 
the possession of Mrs. Orr's sister, Mrs. 
Augusta Matthews. They are both fine 
pictiu'es of a beautiful woman. 

[The Times, 26 and 31 Aug. 1903 ; ilrs. Russell 
Barrington, Life, Letters and Work of Frederic 
Leighton, 2 vols. 1906 ; private information.] 

E. L. 

(1859-1903), painter, was the son of William 
Osborne, R.H.A., a popular painter of 
animals, by Anne Woods, his wife. He was 
bom in 1859 at 5 Castle wood Avenue, Rath- 
mines, Dublin, which was his home for the 
whole of his Hfe. His general education 
was acquired at Rathmines school, under 

the Rev. C. W. Benson. His first training 
in art was obtained in the schools of the 
Royal Hibernian Academy, where he won 
the Albert prize in 1880 with 'A Glade 
in the Phoenix Park.' In 1881, and 
again in 1882, he won the Taylor scholar- 
ship of 50^. per annum, given by the Royal 
Dublin Society, the chief reward open only 
to art students of Irish birth. With the 
help of this scholarship he proceeded to 
Antwerp, where he studied for two years 
\mder Verlat. On his return home he set 
himself to paint, in water-colour, pastel, 
and oil, the life of the English and Irish 
fields and streets. He spent his summers 
in the rural parts of England, in Sussex, 
Berkshire, Warwickshire, Norfolk, and other 
districts where subjects unspoiled by com- 
merce, and farmhouses ready to accept a 
' paying guest,' were to be foimd. These 
scenes he painted with sincerity, delicacy, 
and truth, and his pictures soon became 
widely popular, especially among artists. 
He painted, too, in Brittany, in the neigh- 
bourhood of Quimper, while his pictures 
of street life in Dublin helped to increase 
his reputation. He was a regular contribu- 
tor to the exhibitions of the Royal Hibernian 
Academy and of the Royal Academy 
(1886-1903), his contributions to the latter 
being chiefly portraits. In 1895 he and the 
writer of this article made a tour in Spain, 
where he found subjects for several 
excellent drawings in water-colour and 
sketches in oil. A year later he travelled 
in Holland with the same companion 
and painted canal scenes in Amsterdam. 
During the last ten years of his Hfe 
he was much sought after as a portrait 
painter, a form of art for which he showed 
a remarkable gift. Among his sitters were 
Lord Houghton, now marquess of Crewe, 
K.G., Lord Ashbourne, Lord Powerscourt, 
K.P., Sir Thomas Moflfett, Serjeant Jellett, 
the duke of Abercom, K.G., Sir Frederick 
Falkiner, Sir Walter Armstrong, and many 
ladies. The portrait of the duke of Aber- 
com, a fuU length in a duke's parliamentary 
robes, was left imfinished at the painter's 
death. It is in the Masonic HaU, Dublin. 
In 1900 Osborne was offered knighthood in 
recognition of his distinction as a painter. 
He was elected an associate of the Royal 
Hibernian Academy in 1883, and a full 
member in 1886. He was deUghtful in every 
relation of life and enjoyed great popularity 
with aU his friends. To his powers as an 
artist he added those which go with a 
vigorous, athletic body, and had fate made 
him a professional cricketer, he would 
probably have acquired fame as a bowler. 




He died at 5 Castlewood Avenue, Rath- 
mines, Dublin, on 24 April 1903, of double 
pneumonia, and was buried in Mount 
Jerome cemetery. He was unmarried, and 
left considerable savings behind him. 

The National Gallery of Ireland owns four 
of his subject pictures in oil : ' The Lustre 
Jug,' a cottage interior with children ; 
' A Gal way Cottage ' ; ' In County DubUn '; 
and ' A Cottage Garden ' ; also two water- 
colour drawings, ' The Dolls' School ' and 
' The House-builders ' ; as well as many 
pencil drawings. * Life in the Streets : 
Hard Times' (R.A. 1902) was bought by the 
Chan trey bequest. His own portrait by him- 
self hangs in the collection of Irish national 
portraits, with his portraits in chalk and 
pencil of Miss Margaret Stokes and Thomas 
Henry Burke [q.v.], the \mder-secretary to 
the lord -lieutenant. 

[Personal knowledge.] 

W. A. 

1905), Irish journaUst, born on 24 June 
1839 at Nenagh, co. Tipperary, was son of 
John O'Shea, a well-known journaUst in the 
south of Ireland, who was long connected 
with the ' Clonmel (afterwards Nenagh) 
Guardian,' and pubUshed a volume of poems 
entitled ' Nenagh Minstrelsy ' (Nenagh, 
1838). After receiving his elementary edu- 
cation in his native town, O'Shea was sent 
on 31 Oct. 1856 to the CathoUc University 
then recently estabhshed in Dublin under 
the direction of John Henry (afterwards 
cardinal) Newman. In his ' Roundabout Re- 
collections ' O'Shea has given an account of 
his residence at the university, with sketches 
of its rector, professors, and fellow students. 
In 1859 O'Shea migrated to London, 
and sought work as a journalist. His love 
of adventure led liim to become a special 
correspondent. In 1860 he represented an 
American journal at the siege of Ancona, 
defended by the papal troops, and he 
described part of the Austro-Prussian war. 
SettUng in Paris, he acted for some time 
as a correspondent of the ' Irishman ' 
newspaper, then conducted by Richard 
Pigott [q.v.]. For this paper, and for the 
' Shamrock,' a small magazine owned by 
the same proprietor, O'Shea wrote many 
of his best stories and sketches, especially 
the ' Memoirs of a White Cravat ' ( 1868). His 
usual signature was ' The Irish Bohemian.' 
In 1869 he joined the staff of the London 
' Standard,' and for many years was 
one of its most active special corre- 
spondents. In his ' Iron-Bound City ' ( 1886), 
perhaps the best of his books, he gives a 
graphic account of his adventures during 

the Franco-German war. He was in Paris 
through the siege. His subsequent services 
to the ' Standard ' included reports of the 
CarKst war, of the coronation of the king of 
Norway, and of the famine in Bengal. Many 
of his articles were repubhshed in inde- 
pendent books. He left the ' Standard ' after 
twenty • five years association. Henceforth he 
wrote occasional articles in various EngUsh 
and Irish papers, including the ' Freeman's 
Journal ' and ' Evening Telegraph ' of 
Dubhn. He was long a regular member 
of the staff of the ' Universe,' an Irish 
cathohc paper published in London. 
Keenly interested in his native country 
he was a prominent member of Irish 
hterary societies and a frequent lecturer. 
An attack of paralysis disabled him in his 
last years, and a fund was raised by the 
Irish Literary Society of London to re- 
Ueve his wants. He died at liis home in 
Jeffreys Road, Gapham, on 13 March 1905, 
and was buried . in St. Mary's cemetery, 
Kensal Green. He was twice married, 
his second wife and a daughter surviving 

O'Shea's admirable sense of style, his 
dash and wit, distinguish liis writing and 
suggest a touch of Lever's spirit. He was a 
witty conversationalist and raconteur and 
an admirable pubUc speaker. His chief 
publications are : 1. ' Leaves from the Life 
of a Special Correspondent,' 2 vols. 1885. 
2. ' An Iron-Bound City, or Five Months 
of Peril and Privation,' 2 vols. 1886. 3. 
' Romantic Spain : a Record of Personal 
Experience,' 2 vols. 1887. 4, 'Mihtary 
Mosaics : a Set of Tales,' 1888. 5. ' Mated 
from the Morgue: a Tale of the Second 
Empire,' 1889. 6. ' Brave Men in Action' 
(in collaboration with S. J. McKenna), 
1890 ; new edit. 1899. 7. ' Roundabout 
Recollections,' 2 vols. 1892. 

[Men and Women of the Time, 1899 ; 
Freeman's Journal, and The Times, 14 March 
1905 ; Brit. Mus. Cat. ; Reg. of Catholic 
University, Dublin ; O'Donoghue's Poets of 
Ireland ; works mentioned in text ; personal 
knowledge.] D. J. O'D. 

1905), Irish poHtician, born in 1840, was only 
son of Henry O'Shea of Dublin by his wife 
Catharine, daughter of Edward Craneach 
Quinlan of Rosana, co. Tipperary. His 
parents were Roman catholics. Educated 
at St. Mary's College, Oscott, and at Trinity 
College, Dublin, he entered the 18th hussars 
as cornet in 1858, retiring as captain 
in 1862. On 24 Jan. 1867 he married 
Katharine, sixth and youngest daughter 




of the Rev. Sir John Page Wood, second 
baronet, of Rivenhall Place, Essex, and 
sister of Sir Evelyn Wood. In 1880 
O'Shea was introduced by The O' Gor- 
man Mahon [q. v.] to Pamell, who shortly 
afterwards made the acquaintance of Mrs. 
O'Shea. Suspicions of an undesirable 
intimacy between them caused O'Shea 
in 1881 to challenge Pamell to a duel. 
His fears however were allayed by his wife. 
Meanwhile in April 1880 O'Shea had been 
elected M.P. for county Clare, professedly as 
a home ruler. But his friendly relations 
with prominent English liberals caused him 
to be distrusted as a 'whig' by more 
thorough-going nationalists. In Oct. 1881 
the Irish Land League agitation reached a 
climax in the imprisonment of Pamell and 
others as ' suspects ' in Kilmainham gaol, and 
in April 1882 O'Shea, at Pamell's request, 
interviewed, on his behalf, Gladstone, Mr. 
Joseph Chamberlain, and other leading mem- 
bers of the government, arranging what has 
since been called the ' Kilmainham Treaty.' 
The basis of the ' treaty ' was an imdertaking 
on Pamell's part, if and when released, 
to discourage lawlessness in Ireland in 
return for the promise of a government bUl 
which would stop the eviction of Irish 
peasants for arrears of rent. This arrange- 
ment was opposed by William Edward 
Forster, the Irish secretary, who resigned 
in consequence, and it ultimately broke 
down. In 1884 O'Shea tried without success 
to arrange with Mr. Chamberlain a more 
workable compromise between the govern- 
ment and Pamell, with whom O'Shea's social 
relations remained close. 

At the general election in Nov. 1885 
O'Shea stood as a liberal without success 
for the Exchange division of Liverpool. Al- 
most immediately afterwards, in Feb. 1886, 
he was nominated by Pamell for Galway, 
where a vacancy occurred through the 
retirement of Mr. T. P. O'Connor, who, 
having been elected for both Galway and 
the Scotland division of Liverpool, had 
decided to represent the latter constituency. 
O'Shea had not gamed in popularity with 
advanced nationalists, and his nomination 
was strongly opposed by both J. G. Biggar 
and Mr. T. M. Healy, who hurried to Galway 
and nominated M. A. Lynch, a local man, 
in opposition. Biggar telegraphed to Par- 
nell ' The O'Sheas mil be your ruin,' and 
in speeches to the people did not conceal 
his belief that Mrs. O'Shea was Pamell's 
mistress. Pamell also went to Galway 
and he quickly re-estabhshed his authority. 
O'Shea's rejection, he declared, would be 
a blow at his o^\^l power, which would 

imperil the chances of home rule. O'Shea 
was elected by an overwhelming majority 
(942 to 54), but he gave no pledges on the 
home rule question. He did not vote on 
the second reading of Gladstone's first 
home rule bill on 7 June 1886, and next 
day announced his retirement from the re- 
presentation of Galway. In 1889 he filed 
a petition for divorce on the groiind of 
his wife's adultery with Pamell. The case 
was tried on 15 Nov. 1890. There was 
no defence, and a ' decree nisi ' was granted 
on 17 Nov. On 25 June 1891 Pamell 
married Mrs. O'Shea. O'Shea lived during 
his latter years at Brighton, where he died 
on 22 April 1905. He had issue one son 
and two daughters. 

[The Times, and the Irish Times, 25 April 
1905; O'Brien's Life of Pamell, 1898; Annual 
Register 1882 ; Paul's Modern England, 
vol. V. 1904 ; Lucy, Diary of the Gladstone 
Parliament, 1880-5, 1886.] S. E. F. 

1903), meteorologist, bom on 22 March 1808 
in Birmingham, where his father was a 
glass manufacturer, was eldest son of 
Thomas Osier by his wife Fanny Follett. 
From 1816 to 1824 he was at Hazelwood 
school, near Birmingham, which was kept by 
Thomas Wright Hill [q. v.]. On leaving 
school in 1824 Osier became assistant to his 
father. In 1831 the business came imder 
his sole management, and through his 
energy and abUity he greatly developed it. 

Osier was early interested in meteorology. 
In 1835 the coimcil of the Birmingham 
Philosophical Institute purchased a set of 
such meteorological instnmients as were 
then in use. Osier perceived the need of 
appUances which should give continuous 
records of atmospheric changes. He 
therefore set himself to contrive a 
novel self-recording pressure-plate ane- 
mometer, and a self-recording rain-gauge. 
The first anemometer and rain-gauge 
was made by Osier in 1835, and erect^ 
at the Philosophical Institution, Cannon 
Street, Birmingham. A description of 
its work, illustrated with records obtained 
from it, was published in the annual report 
of the Institution for 1836. Osier's self- 
recording anemometer received the varying 
wind pressure on a plate of known area, 
supported on springs and kept at right 
angles to the direction of the wind by 
means of a vane. The degree to which 
this plate was pressed back upon the 
springs by each gust of wind was registered, 
in pounds avoirdupois per square foot, 
by a pencil on a sheet of paper graduated 
ux hours and moved forward at a uniform 




rate by means of a clock. On the same 
sheet the direction of the wind was recorded. 
This was done by means of a vane, and 
its movements were conveyed, by an 
ingenious contrivance, to a pencil which 
moved transversely upon a scale of hori- 
zontal lines representing the points of the 
compass. The curve thus drawn gave a 
continuous record of the direction of the 
wind. The rainfall was also recorded 
on the same paper. The rain was collected 
in a funnel, the top of which had a known 
area, and flowed into a vessel supported on 
a bent lever with a counterbalancing weight ; 
the accumulating water caused the vessel to 
descend, and this movement was registered 
by a pencil, which produced a line on a 
part of the paper that was ruled with a 
scale of fractions of an inch. When the 
limit of the capacity of the counterbalanced 
vessel was reached, it discharged its contents 
automatically, and the pencil returned 
to the zero line. 

The importance to meteorological observa- 
tion of Osier's invention was at once recog- 
nised, and his pressure-plate anemometer 
was soon installed at Greenwich observatory 
(1841), the Royal Exchange, London, at 
Plymouth, Inverness, and Liverpool. Osier 
read a paper in 1837 before the British 
Association describing his instruments. 
To Dr. Robinson's cup anemometer for 
measuring the horizontal motion of the air 
Osier subsequently apphed his own self- 
recording methods, thus obtaining records 
of mean hom'ly velocities as well as total 
mileage of the wind. Later the curves 
of pressure, direction, velocity, and rainfall 
in connection with time were recorded on 
the same sheet of paper. 

As he explained in papers read before 
the British Association at Birmingham in 
1839 and at Glasgow in 1840, Osier at the 
request and expense of the association 
soon developed his graphic contrivances. 
Has self-recording methods soon came into 
very general use. 

By means of another series of monthly, 
quarterly, and annual and mean diurnal 
wind curves, he illustrated the average 
distribution of winds during each part of 
the day, and for the different seasons. 
Mean diurnal wind velocity curves were 
made to run parallel to the mean diurnal 
temperature curve, and on reducing the two 
maxima and minima to the same values 
they proved almost identical. Sir David 
Brewster [q. v.], who came independently 
to the same conclusion in 1840, paid high 
tribute to Osler'-e labours, and described 
his results respecting the phenomena and 

laws of the wind ' as more important than 
any which have been obtained since 
meteorology became one of the physical 
sciences.' Osier persistently urged a more 
scientific and methodical study of meteor- 
ology by the estabUshment of observatories 
in different latitudes. To the British 
Association at Birmingham in 1865 he 
described ' the horary and diurnal varia- 
tions in the direction and motion of the 
air ' in the hght of a minute comparison 
of his observations at Wrottesley, Liverpool, 
and Birmingham. Osier in further researches 
showed the relation of atmospheric dis- 
turbances to the great trade winds, and the 
effect of the earth's rotation in inducing 
eastern and western velocities in the 
northerly and southerly winds. Many 
other papers on his anemometer and on 
his meteorological investigations were 
printed in the reports of the association. 
He communicated his last paper to the 
meeting at Birmingham in 1886, the subject 
being ' The Normal Form of Clouds.' 

Other interests occupied Osier's energies. 
After deUvering three lectures on chrono- 
metry and its history at the Birmingham 
Philosophical Institution (Jan. 1842) he 
collected funds and set up a standard clock 
for Birmingham in front of the Institu- 
tion, and on the roof equipped a transit 
instrument and an astronomical clock. 
Subsequently he altered the clock from 
Birmingham to Greenwich time, to which 
the other pubhc clocks in Birmingham 
were gradually adjusted. In 1883 he 
presented to Birmingham a clock and bells, 
of the same size and model as those at 
the Law Courts in London, to be placed in 
the clock tower of the newly built municipal 
buildings. Craniometry also attracted 
Osier's attention; he devised and con- 
structed a complete and accurate instrument 
for brain measurements, which gave fuU- 
sized diagrams of the exact form of the 

Osier was made F.R.S. in 1855. He 
retired from business in 1876, devoting 
liimself thenceforth entirely to scientific 
pursmts. Among many speculative papers 
was an attempt to account for the dis- 
tribution of sea and land on the earth's 
surface by a theory that the earth had once 
two satellites, one of which returned to it 
within geological time. He generously sup- 
ported scientific and literary institutions 
in Birmingham. His benefactions, always 
anonymous, included 7500Z. to the Bir- 
mingham and Midland Institute and 
I0,000Z. for the purposes of Birmingham 




Osier died at South Bank, Edgbaston, 
on 26 April 1903, and was buried at Bir- 
mingham. He married in 1832 Mary, 
daughter of Thomas Clark, a Birmingham 
merchant and manufacturer, and had issue 
eight children, of whom three svirvived him. 
A daughter Fanny was married to WiUiam 
James Russell [q. v. Suppl. II]. A portrait 
painted in 1863 by W. T. Roden is in the 
possession of his son, H. F. Osier, of Burcot 
Grange, Bromsgrove. 

[The Times, 28 April 1903; Proc. Roy. 
See. voL 75, 1905 ; personal knowledge.] 

P. E. D. 

1907), brewers' chemist, bom at Band on, 
CO. Cork, on 20 Dec. 1841, was son of James 
O'Sullivan, a merchant of that town, by 
his wife Elizabeth Morgan. His only sur- 
viving brother, James O'Sullivan, became 
head of the chemical laboratory of Messrs. 
Bass, RatcUff and Gretton, Burton-on- 

Cornelius, after attending a private school 
in Bandon known as ' Denny Holland's ' 
and the Cavendish school there, went to 
evening science classes in the town held 
under the auspices of the Science and Art 
Department, winning in September 1862 
a scholarship at the Royal School of Mines, 
London. On the completion of the pre- 
scribed three years' course of study he joined 
the teaching staff of the Royal College of 
Chemistry, London, as a student assistant 
under Prof. A. W. von Hofmann, who 
recognised O' Sullivan's promise, and on 
becoming professor of chemistry at Berlin 
in 1865 made O'Sullivan his private 
assistant. A year later the professor's 
influence secured him the post of assistant 
brewer and chemist to Messrs. Bass & Co., 
Burton-on-Trent. In that capacity he 
appUed liis chemical knowledge and apti- 
tude for original research to the scientific 
and practical issues of brewing. Ultimately 
he became head of the scientific and ana- 
lytical staff of Messrs. Bass & Co., holding 
the appointment till Ins death. 

Pasteur's researches on fermentative 
action gave O'SuUivan his cue in his 
earUest investigation. He embodied his 
contributions to the technology of brewing 
in a series of papers on physiological and 
apphed chemistry communicated to the 
Chemical Societ}'. Of these the chief are : 
' On the Transformation Products of 
Starch ' (1872 and 1879) ; ' On Maltose ' 
(1876) ; ' On the Action of Malt Extract on 
Starch ' (1876) ; ' Presence of Raffinose in 
Barley' (1886); 'Researches on the Gums 
of the Arabin Group' (1884 and 1891); 

Invertase : a Contribution to the History 
of an Enzyme ' (with F. W. Tompson, 1890) ; 
and (with A. L. Stem) 'The Identity of 
Dextrose from Different Sources, with 
Special Reference to the Cupric Oxide 
Reducing Power ' (1896). His name ia 
especially associated with the delicate re- 
search which re-estabUshed and elucidated 
the distinct character of maltose, a sugar 
produced by the action of diastase on 
starch. O'Sullivan described in detail 
the properties of this substance, therein 
confirming earlier but practically forgotten 
observations (see Encyclo. Brit. 11th edit., 
art. Brewing). He was elected a fellow of 
the Chemical Society in 1876, served on 
the council 1882-5, and was awarded the 
Longstaff medal in 1884 for his researches 
on the chemistry of the carbohydrates 
(see remarks by W. H. Perkin, F.R.S., 
Anniversary Address, Chem. Soc. Trans. 
vol. xlv.). In 1885 he was elected F.R.S. 
An original member of the Institute of 
Chemistry, the Society of Chemical Industry, 
and the Institute of Brewing, he served on 
the council of each. 

He died at his residence, 148 High Street, 
Burton-on-Trent, on 8 Jan. 1907, and was 
buried near Bandon. He married in 
1871 Edithe, daughter of Joseph Nadin 
of Barrow Hall, near Derby, and had issue 
three sons (one died in early youth) and 
one daughter. 

[Joum. Inst. Brewing, vol. xiii. ; Proc. Inst. 
Chemistry, 1907, part ii., and Presidential 
Address, ibid. ; Memorial Lectures, Chem. 
Soc., p. 592 ; Nature, voL Lxxv. ; Analyst, 
voL xxxii. ; Joum. Soc. Chem. Industry, 
vol. xxvi. ; The Times, 9 Jan. 1907 ; private 
information.] T. E. J. 

OTTE, ELISE (1818-1903), scholar 
and historian, was bom at Copenhagen 
on 30 September 1818, of a Danish father 
and an English mother. In 1820 her 
parents went to Santa Cruz, in the Danish 
West Indies, where her father died. Her 
mother returned to Copenhagen, where she 
met the EngUsh philologist, Benjamin 
Thorpe [q. v.], while he was studying Anglo- 
Saxon under Rask in Denmark, and married 
him. EUse accompanied her mother and 
step-father to England. From her step- 
father Elise Otte received an extraordinary 
education, and at a very tender age knew so 
much Anglo-Saxon and Icelandic as to be 
able to help Thorpe in his grammatical work. 
His tyranny, however, became more than 
she could bear, and in 1840 she went to 
Boston, U.S.A., to secure her independence. 
Here her mind turned from grammar to 




science, and she studied physiology at 
Harvard. Later on she travelled much in 
Europe, and then resumed her life with 
her step-father, whom she helped in his 
version of the 'Edda of Ssemund.' But 
the bondage was again found intolerable, 
and in 1849 EUse Otte escaped to 
St. Andrews, where she worked at 
scientific translations for the use of Dr. 
Gteorge Edward Day [q. v.], Chandos 
professor of anatomy and medicine. In 
1863 she went to reside with Day and his 
wife at Torquay, and in 1872, after Day's 
death, made London her home. Here, 
for years, she carried on an active literary 
career, writing largely for scientific 
periodicals. In 1874 she published a 
' History of Scandinavia,' which is her 
most durable work ; she compiled grammars 
of Danish and of Swedish, and issued 
translations of standard works by De 
Quatrefages, R. PauU, and others. Her 
translation of Pauh's ' Old England ' (1861) 
was dedicated to her step-father, Thorpe. 
Miss Otte was one of the most learned 
women of her time, especially in philology 
and physical science, but she never acquired 
ease in literary expression. She Uved 
wholly in the pursuit of knowledge, even 
in extreme old age, when rendered inactive 
and tortured by neuralgia. She died at 
Richmond on 20 Dec. 1903, in her eighty- 
sixth year. 

[Personal knowledge ; Athenaeum, 2 Jan. 
(by the present writer) and 16 Jan. (by Miss 
Day), 1904.] E. G. 

OUIDA (pseudonym). [See De la 
Ram^ib, Mabie Louise (1839-1908), 

1903), canon of Peterborough and church 
historian, born at Louth, Lincolnshire, 
on 4 Jan. 1835, was only son of Francis 
Overton, surgeon, of Louth, a man of 
learning and of studious habits, by his wife 
Helen Martha, daughter of Major John 
Booth, of Louth. Educated first (1842-5) 
at the Louth grammar school, and next at 
a private school at Laleham, Middlesex, 
under the Rev. John Buckland, Overton 
went to Rugby in Feb. 1849, and thence 
obtained an open scholarship at Lincoln 
College, Oxford. He was placed in the 
first class in classical moderations in 1855 
and in the third class in the final classical 
school in 1857, was captain of his college 
boat club, rowed stroke of its ' eight,' was a 
cricketer and throughout his life retained a 
keen interest in the game, and in his later 

years was addicted to golf. He graduated 
B.A. in 1858, and proceeded M.A. in 
1860. In 1858 he was ordained to the 
curacy of Quedgeley, Gloucestershire, and 
in 1860 was presented by J. L. Fytche, 
a friend of his father, to the vicarage of 
Legbourne, Lincolnshire. While there he 
took pupils and studied EngUsh church 
history, specially during the eighteenth 
century. In 1878, in conjunction with 
his college friend, Charles John Abbey, 
rector of Checkendon, Oxfordshire, he 
pubhshed 'The English Church in the 
Eighteenth Century,' 2 vols., which was 
designed as a review of ' different features 
in the religion and church history of 
England ' during that period rather than 
as ' a regular history ' {Preface to second 
edition) ; it was well received and ranks 
high among EngUsh church histories ; a 
second and abridged edition in one volume 
was pubhshed in 1887. Overton was col- 
lated to a prebend in lincoln cathedral by 
Bishop Christopher Wordsworth [q. v.] in 
1879, and in 1883, on Gladstone's recom- 
mendation, was presented by the crown to 
the rectory of Epworth, Lincolnshire, the 
birthplace of John Wesley [q. v.], in whose 
career he took a warm interest. While at 
Epworth he was rural dean of Axholme. 
In 1889 he was made hon. D.D. of Edinburgh 
University. From 1892 to 1898 he was 
proctor for the clergy in convocation, and 
took an active part in its proceedings, 
speaking with weight and judgment. In 
1898 he was presented by the dean and 
chapter of Lincoln to the rectory of Gumley, 
near Market Harborough, and represented 
the chapter in convocation. He was a fre- 
quent and popular speaker at church con- 
gresses. In 1901 he was a select preacher at 
Oxford, and from 1902 Birkbeck lecturer at 
Trinity College, Cambridge. Early in 1903 
Dr. Carr GIjti, the bishop of Peterborough, 
made him a residentiary canon of his 
cathedral ; he was installed on 12 Feb., and 
as the canonry was of small value, he retained 
his rectory. He kept one period of resid- 
ence at Peterborough, but did not live to 
inhabit his prebendal house, for he died at 
Gumley rectory on 17 Sept. of that year. 
He was buried in the churchyard of the 
parish church of Skidbrook near Louth, 
where many of his family had been interred. 
A high churchman and a member of the 
Enghsh Church Union, he appreciated the 
points of view of those who differed from 
him. He was an excellent parish priest, 
and was courteous, good-tempered, and 
On 17 July 1862 Overton married 




Marianne Ludlam, daughter of John Allott 
of Hague Hall, Yorkshire, and rector of 
Maltby, Lincolnshire ; she survived him with 
one daughter. As memorials of Overton a 
brass tablet was placed in Epworth parish 
church by the parishioners, a stained glass 
window and a reredos in Skidbrook church, 
and a two-Ught window in the chapter-house 
of Lincoln Cathedral. 

As an historian and biographer Overton 
showed much insight both into general 
tendencies and into personal character ; 
was well-read, careful, fair in judgment, 
and pleasing in style. The arrangement 
of his historical work is not uniformly 
satisfactory ; he was apt to injure his 
representation of a movement in thought 
or action by excess of biographical detail. 
Besides his share in the joint work with 
Abbey noticed above, he pubUshed : L 
' William Law, Nonjuror and Mystic,' 1881. 
2. ' Life in the EngUsh Church, 1660-1714,' 
1885. 3. ' The Evangehcal Revival in the 
Eighteenth Century ' in Bp. Creighton's 
' Epochs of Church History,' 1 886. 4. ' Life 
of Christopher Wordsworth, Bp. of Lin- 
cohi,' with Miss Wordsworth, 1888, 1890. 
6. ' John Hannah, a Clerical Study,' 1890. 
6. ' John Wesley,' in ' Leaders of Religion ' 
serias, 1891. 7. 'The Enghsh Church in 
the Nineteenth Century,' 1894. 8. 'The 
Church in England,' 2 vols., in Ditchfield's 
'National Churches,' 1897. 9. 'The 
Anglican Revival ' in the ' Victorian Era ' 
series, 1897. 10. An edition of Law's 
' Serious Call ' in the ' English Theological 
Library,' 1898. 11. 'The Nonjurors, their 
Lives, &c.,' 1902. 12. 'Some Post- 
Reformation Saints,' 1905, posthumous. 
13. At his death he left unfinished 'A 
History of the English Church from the 
Accession of George I to the End of the 
Eighteenth Century,' a volume for the 
' History of the English Church ' edited by 
Dean Stephens [q. v. Suppl. II] and William 
Hunt ; the book was edited and completed 
by the Rev. Frederic Relton in 1906. 
He contributed many memoirs of divines 
to this Dictionary, and wrote for the 
' Dictionary of Hymnology,' the ' Church 
Quarterly Review,' and other periodicals. 

[Private information; The Times, 19 Sept. 
1903; Guardian, 23 Sept. 1903; obituary 
notices in Northampton Mercury, the Peter- 
borough and other local papers.] W. H, 

OVERTOUN, first Baron. [See White, 
John Campbell (1843-1908), Scottish phil- 

OWEN, ROBERT (1820-1902), theo- 
logian, bom at Dolgelly, Merionethshire, on 
13 May 1820, was third son of David Owen, 

a surgeon of that town, by Ann, youngest 
daughter of Hugh Evans of Fronfelen 
and Esgairgeiliog, near Machynlleth. His 
brothers died unmarried in early manhood. 

Educated at Ruthin grammar school, 
where he showed much, precocity (Harriet 
Thomas, Father and Son, p. 60), he matricu- 
lated from Jesus College, Oxford, on 22 Nov. 
1838 ; was scholar from 1839 to 1845 ; gradu- 
ated B.A. in 1842 with a third class in 
classical finals, proceeding M.A. in 1845, 
and B.D. in 1852 (Foster, Al. Oxon.). He 
was feUow of his college from 1845 till 1864, 
and public examiner in law and modem 
history in 1859-60. 

Though he was ordained by Dr. Bethell, 
bishop of Bangor, in 1843, and served a 
curacy till 1845 at Tremeirchion, he held 
no preferment. Coming under the influence 
of the Tractarians, he maintained an occa- 
sional correspondence with Newman long 
after the latter seceded to Rome. In 
1847 Owen edited, for the Anglo-CathoUc 
Library, John Johnson's work on ' The Un- 
bloody Sacrifice,' which had been first issued 
in 1714. He reached the view that estab- 
lishment and endowment were all but fatal 
to the ' cathoUc ' character of the Church of 
England, and in 1893 he joined a few other 
Welsh clergymen in discussing such pro- 
posed legislation as would restore to the 
church her independent Uberty in the 
appointment of bishops and secure some 
voice to the parochial laity. 

In 1864, owing to an allegation of im- 
morality, he was called upon to resign his 
fellowship. He was at that time probably 
the most learned scholar on the foundation. 
He shortly afterwards retired to Bronygraig, 
Barmouth, in which district he owned con- 
siderable property. There he died unmarried 
on 6 April 1902, and was buried at Llanaber, 

Owen's original works were : 1. ' An 
Introduction to the Study of Dogmatic 
Theology,' 1858 ; 2nd edit. 1887. 2. ' The 
Pilgrimage to Rome : a Poem,' Oxford, 
1863. 3. ' Sanctorale CathoUcum, or Book 
of Saints,' 1880 : ' a sort of AngUcan canon 
of saints, especially strong in local British 
saints.' 4. ' An Essay on the Communion 
of Saints, together with an Examination 
of the Cultus Sanctorum,' 1881 ; nearly the 
whole issue perished in a fire at the pub- 
lishers. 5. ' Institutes of Canon Law,' 1884, 
written at the instance of Dr. Walter Kerr 
Hamilton, bishop of Salisbury. 6. ' The 
Kymry: their Origin, History, and Inter- 
national Relations,' Carmarthen, 1891. 

[The Times, 10 April 1902 ; T. R. Roberta, 
Diet, of Eminent Welshmen, 1907, p. 386; 
Brit. Mus. Cat.] D. Ll. T. 





PAGE, H. A. (pseudonym). [See Japp, 
Alexander Hay (1837-1905), author.] 

PAGET, FRANCIS (1851-1911), bishop 
of Oxford, second son of Sir James Paget, 
first baronet [q. v. Suppl. I], surgeon, was 
born on 20 March 1851 at St. Bartholomew's 
Hospital, E.G., in his father's official re- 
sidence as warden (cf. Stephen Paget, 
Memoirs and Letters of Sir James Paget, 
p. 127). His mother was Lydia, youngest 
daughter of the Rev. Henry North, and 
his brothers are Sir John Rahere Paget, 
K.C., Dr. Henry Luke Paget, bishop 
suffragan of Stepney, and Stephen Paget, 
F.R.C.S. He was educated first at St. Mary- 
lebone and All Souls' grammar school, 
and then at Shrewsbury under Benjamin 
Hall Kennedy [q. v.] and Henry White- 
head Moss, contributing elegant Latin 
verse to ' Sabrinae CoroUa.' He was elected 
to a junior studentship at Christ Church, 
Oxford, in 1869. He won the Hertford 
scholarship, the chancellor's prize for 
Latin verse, and a first class in classical 
moderations in 1871. He graduated B.A. 
with a first class in the final classical 
school in 1873, proceeding M.A. in 1876 
and D.D. in 1885. He was elected senior 
student in 1873, tutor in 1876 and hono- 
rary student in 1901. Ordained deacon 
in 1875 and priest in 1877, he became a 
devoted follower of the great Tractarians 
of the time, Edward Bouverie Pusey 
[q.v.], who allowed him to read in the uni- 
versity pulpit a sermon of his which Ul- 
health prevented him from delivering him- 
self, Henry Parry Liddon [q. v.], Richard 
William Church [q. v. Suppl. I], whose eldest 
daughter he married, and James Russell 
Woodford [q. v.], bishop of Ely, whom he 
served as examining chaplain (1878-1885). 
But, being a witty and stimulating com- 
panion, he also established warm friend- 
ships with younger and less conservative 
men of the same school, while his influence 
over undergraduates grew as they became 
accustomed to a certain reserve in his 

In 1881 Paget was appointed Oxford 
preacher at the Chapel Royal, Whitehall, 
and in 1882 accepted the vicarage of Broms- 
grove, but returned to Oxford in 1885, 
having been nominated by Gladstone to 
succeed Edward King [q.v. Suppl.II], bishop 
of Lincoln, as regius professor of pastoral 

theology and canon of Christ Church. 
Bromsgrove had given him a brief insight 
into parochial activities and had consider- 
ably widened the range of his S3rmpathy 
{Com,monwealth, September 1911, p. 276). 
Liddon' s influMice was counteracted by 
close association with younger men, and 
in the autumn of 1889 he joined Charles 
Gore, his successor in the see of Oxford, 
Henry Scott Holland, and others, in 
publishing the volume of essays called 
' Lux Mundi.' Liddon, who was deeply 
distressed at parts of Gore's essay, regarded 
Paget's essay, on ' Sacraments,' as ' a real 
contribution to Christian theology ' (J. 0. 
Johnston, Life and Letters of H. P. 
Liddon, 1904, p. 367 ; cf . p. 396). 

In 1892, Qu the resignation of Henry 
George L,iddell [q. v. Suppl. I], Paget was 
promoted by Lord Salisbury to the deanery 
of Christ Church. His task was difficult, 
and a certain tendency to extravagant 
rowdiness among the undergraduates had 
to be dealt with firmly. Estimates of his 
popularity vary, for ' he could only open out 
to a few,' and his ' elaborate courtesy ' was 
apt ' to keep people back behind barriers 
of civility ' {Commonwealth, September 
1911, p. 277). But he was an anxious 
and capable administrator (cf. letter from 
' Ex JMe Christi,' The Times, 7 Aug. 1911). 
The deanery was more accessible than 
heretofore. He was chaplain to William 
Stubbs [q. V. Suppl. II], bishop of Oxford, 
from 1889 imtil the bishop's death. Thus 
in 1901 the cathedral and the diocese were 
drawn closely together, and Paget learnt 
much of local episcopal problems. 

In 1901, on the death of Bishop Stubbs, 
Dean Paget was promoted by Lord SaUs- 
bury to the bishopric of Oxford, and was 
consecrated on 29 June following. To the 
bishopric is attached the chancellorship 
of the Order of the Garter ; Paget's most 
notable function in that capacity was 
the admission of Edward, Prince of Wales, 
to the order at Windsor on 10 June 1911. 
He was also chosen as ' supporter ' bishop 
at their coronations by both Queen 
Alexandra in 1902 and Queen Mary in 
1911. His administration of the diocese 
of Oxford was marked by the same 
anxious care which he had devoted to his 
college. He was eager to do everything 
himself ; much of the episcopal corre- 
spondence was written in his own clear but 




characteristic handwriting ; and it took 
some time for the people to feel that they 
knew him intimately, though his pastoral 
earnestness was keenly appreciated by 
humble folk in the rural villages. Early 
in 1903 he declined Mr. Balfour's offer of 
the see of Winchester. In 1904, by royal 
warrant dated 23 April, he became a 
member of the royal commission on 
ecclesiastical discipline, and signed its 
report on 21 June 1906. He was one of the 
three out of fourteen members who attended 
at each of the 118 sittings, and he exhibited 
' a genius for fairness towards hostile 
witnesses ' {The Times, 3 July 1906) and 
a remarkable gift for fusing opinions in 
the drafting of the report. TTia attitude 
to prevailing excesses in ritual was shown 
in the charge which he began to deliver 
to his diocese on 8 Oct. 1906, and by the 
action which he took against the Rev. 
OUver Partridge Henly, vicar of Wolverton 
St. Mary, in respect of ' reservation ' and 
' benediction.' The case was taken to the 
court of arches {The Times, 20 and 21 
July 1909) ; the vicar, who was deprived, 
obtained employment in another diocese, 
and afterwards joined the Roman church. 
Paget sought to provide for a sub-division 
of the diocese. For this purpose he made 
a vain endeavour to dispose of Cuddesdon 
Palace. In July 1910 he showed his active 
zeal for the wider work of the church by 
becoming chairman of the Archbishops' 
Western Canada fund. 

To his intimate friends, and in particular 
to Archbishop Davidson, he was not only 
a vrise counsellor but a deUghtful companion. 
He had a cultivated sense of beauty in 
nature, in music, and in words, and his tall, 
willowy figure and impressive, courtly 
bearing made him notable in any assembly. 
He was attacked by serious iUness in the 
summer of 1910, and seemed to recover ; 
but he died of a sudden recurrence of the 
malady in a nursing home in London 
on 2 Aug. 1911. He was interred in his 
wife's grave in the Uttle biirying ground 
to the south of Christ Church Cathedral, 
Oxford. He married on 28 March 1883 
Helen Beatrice, eldest daughter of Richard 
William Church, dean of St. Paul's. 
Paget' s career was permanently saddened 
by his wife's death at the deanery on 
22 Nov. 1900, aged forty-two. She left four 
sons and two daughters ; one of the latter, 
wife of the Rev. John Macleod Campbell 
Crum, predeceased Paget in 1910. 

There is a portrait by Orchardson at 
Christ Church, and a memorial fund is 
being raised (November 1912) to provide 

a portrait for Cuddesdon Palace and an 
exhibition with a view to clerical service 
abroad, to be held at an Enghsh university. 
A cartoon portrait by ' Spy ' appeared in 
' Vanity Fair ' in 1894. 

As a theological scholar Paget is to be 
remembered chiefly for his ' Introduction 
to the Fifth Book of Hooker's Treatise of 
the Laws of Ecclesiastical PoUty' (1899; 
2nd edit. 1907) ; for his ' Lux Mundi ' essay 
mentioned above ; and for a masterly essay 
on acedia or accidie, written at Christ Church 
in 1890 (reprints! separately, in 1912), 
and published with a collection of sermons 
entitled * The Spirit of Discipline ' in 1891 
(7th edit. 1896). He also published 
' Faculties and Difficulties for Belief and 
DisbeUef (1887; 3rd edit. 1894); and two 
other collections of sermons, entitled re- 
spectively ' Studies in Christian Character ' 
(1895) and ' The Redemption of War ' (1900). 

[Memoir of Paget by Stephen Paget and 
the Rev. J. M. C. Crum, 1912; The Times, 

3 Aug. 1911 ; Guardian, and Church Times, 
Aug. 1911 ; Crockford, 1911 ; Canon H. S. 
HoUand in Commonwealth (brilliant character- 
sketch), Sept. 1911 ; Oxford Diocesan Mag., 
Sept. 1911 ; Stephen Paget, Memoirs and 
Letters of Sir James Paget, 1903 ; private 
information.] E. H. P. 

1908), painter and illustrator, bom on 

4 Oct. 1860 at 60 Pentonville Road, London, 
N., was fourth son of Robert Paget, vestry 
clerk from 1856 to 1892 of Clerkenwell, 
by his wife Martha Clarke. At the Cowper 
Street school, London, Paget received his 
early education, and passing thence to 
Heatherley's school of art, entered the 
Royal Academy schools in 1881, where 
he was preceded by his brothers, Henry 
Marriott and Walter Stanley, both well- 
known artists and illustrators. At the 
Academy schools, among other prizes, he 
won in the Armitage competition second 
place in 1885, and first place and medal 
in 1886 for his ' Balaam blessing the 
Children of Israel.' Between 1879 and 
1905 Paget contributed to the Royal 
Academy exhibitions eighteen miscellane- 
ovis paintings, of which nine were portraits. 
The best- known of his pictures, ' Lancelot 
and Elaine,' exhibited in 1891, was pre- 
sented to the Bristol Art Gallery by Lord 
Winterstoke. In 1901 Paget exhibited a 
whole-length portrait of the donor, then 
Sir William Henry WiUs, which is now at 
Mill Hill school, while a study is in the 
possession of Miss J. Stancomb-WiUs. 
Among other portraits painted by him 
were ]>. Weymouth (R.A. 1887), headmaster 




of Mill Hill School, a three-quarter length 
in scarlet robes as D.Litt. ; his father, 
and brother, Robert Ernest (his father's 
successor as vestry clerk), both in the 
town hall, Finsbury; and Sir John Aird, 
as mayor, in Paddington town hall. 

It was as an illustrator that Paget won 
a wide reputation. His vigorous work 
as a black-and-white artist became well 
known not only in the United Kingdom 
but also in America and the colonies, by his 
drawings for the ' Pictorial World ' (1882), 
the ' Sphere,' and for many of Cassell's 
publications. He also drew occasionally 
for the ' Graphic,' ' Illustrated London 
News,' and the ' Pall Mall Magazine.' 
Paget's spirited illustrations for Sir A. 
Conan Doyle's ' Sherlock Holmes ' and 
' Rodney Stone ' in the ' Strand Magazine ' 
greatly assisted to popularise those stories. 
The assertion that the artist's brother 
Walter, or any other person, served as 
model for the portrait of ' Sherlock Holmes ' 
is incorrect. 

A few years before his death Paget 
developed a painful chest complaint, to 
which he succumbed at Margate on 28 Jan. 
1908. He was buried at the Marylebone 
cemetery, Finchley. He married in 1893 
Edith Hounsfield, who survived him with 
six children. 

[The Times, Telegraph, Morning Post and 
Daily Chronicle, 1 Feb. 1908, and Sphere, 
8 Feb. (with portrait and reproductions 
of drawings); Who's Who, 1908; Graves's 
Royal Acad. Exhibitors ; information from 
Mr. H. M. Paget, Royal Academy, and the 
headmaster of Mill Hill School.] J. D. M. 


(1832-1905), diplomatist, bom on 29 Feb. 
1832 in London, was seventh son of 
Thomas Pakenham, second earl of Long- 
ford, by his wife Emma Charlotte, daughter 
of William Lygon, first Earl Beauchamp. 
After private education he matriculated 
from Christ Church, Oxford, on 17 Oct. 
1849. On leaving the university he was 
appointed attache at Lisbon in 1852, and 
was promoted paid attache at Mexico 
two years later. He was transferred in 
1858 to Copenhagen, and in 1863 to 
Vienna. In June 1864 he was promoted 
to be secretary of legation at Buenos 
Ayres. During April, May, and June of 
the following year he was employed on 
special service in Paraguay on board of 
H.M.S. Dotterel, which had been sent up 
the River Plate and its tributaries for the 
protection of British subjects during the 
war between Paraguay, the Argentine 

RepubUc, and Brazil. He acquitted himself 
of this duty to the entire satisfaction of 
his superiors. In August of that year he 
was transferred to Rio de Janeiro, but 
remained in charge of the legation at Buenos 
Ayres till December 1865. In December 
1866 he was employed on special service 
at Rio Grande do Sul in connection with 
an attempt which had been made on the 
life of the British consul, Mr. (afterwards 
Sir) R. de Courcy Perry from motives of 
personal revenge. He was transferred to 
Stockholm in March 1868, and later in the 
same year to Brussels, thence to Washing- 
ton in 1870, and to Copenhagen in 1874. 
In March 1878 he was promoted to be 
minister resident and consul-general at 
Santiago, where he remained till 1885, 
serving in 1883 as British commissioner 
for claims arising out of the war between 
Chile and Bolivia and Peru. In February 
1885 he was appointed British envoy at 
Buenos Ajres, with the additional office of 
minister plenipotentiary to Paraguay. In 
February 1896 he was transferred to Stock- 
holm, where he remained till his retirement 
from the service in 1902. He was made 
K.C.M.G. in 1898. 

While travelling for reasons of health he 
died at Alameda in California on 26 Jan. 
1905. He married on 29 July 1879 Carolme 
Matilda, seventh daughter of the Hon. 
Henry Ward, rector of Killinchy, co. Down ; 
she survived him, without issue. A portrait 
painted in 1900 by Count George de Rosen, 
member of the Royal Swedish Academy, is 
at Bemhurst House, Hurst Green, Sussex, 
the residence of his widow, which Pakenham 
inherited in 1858 by the will of Comte Pierre 
Coquet de Tresseilles. 

Sir Francis was distinguished rather for 
the British quahties of phlegmatic calmness 
and stvirdy good sense than for those which 
are generally attributed to the Irish race. 
His good nature and hospitality made him 
very popular with the British communities 
at the various posts in which he served, and 
he was successfvd in maintaining excellent 
personal relations with the governments 
to which he was accredited, even when, as 
in his South American posts, the questions 
to be discussed were of a nature to occasion 
some heat. 

[The Times, 27 Jan. 1905 ; Foreign Office 
List, 1906, p. 300.] S. 

FRANCIS DOUCE (1829-1904), clerk of 
the House of Commons, foiu-th son of 
Sir Francis Palgrave [q. v.], was born 
at Westminster on 28 June 1829. He 



entered Charterhouse school in 1841 and 
left in 1845. He was articled to Messrs. 
BaUey, Janson & Richardson, soUcitors, 
of BasinghaJl Street, was admitted soli- 
citor in May 1851, and entered the office 
of Messrs. Sharpe & Field. All his 
spare time he employed in sketching 
and sculpture. Through the influence 
of Sir Robert Harry IngUs [q. v.] and 
other friends of his father he was ap- 
pointed to a clerkship in the House of 
Commons in 1853. From 1866 to 1868 he 
was examiner of petitions for private bills ; 
he became second clerk assistant in 1868, 
clerk assistant in 1870, and from 1886 until 
his retirement in 1900 was clerk of the House 
of Commons. In 1887 he was made C.B., 
and in 1892 K.C.B. He was exact and 
careful in his official work, was thoroughly 
famiUar with the practice and procedure of 
the House, and gave interesting evidence 
before various select committees, especially 
before that of 1894 on the vacating of a 
seat by accession to a peerage (Lord Cole- 
ridge's case). He was responsible for the 
8th, 9th, 10th, and 11th (1886-96) 
editions of the ' Rules, Orders, and Forms 
of Procedure of the House of Commons,' 
first prepared by his predecessor in office. 
Sir Thomas Erslane May, Lord Famborough 
[q. v.], and jointly with Air. Alfred Bonham 
Carter for the 10th and much enlarged 
(1893) edition of May's ' Practical Treatise 
on the Law, &c., of ParUament.' Samuel 
Rawson Gardiner [q. v. Suppl. IT], in 
the preface to his 'Fall of the Monarchy 
of Charles I,' speaks of Palgrave's ' great 
knowledge of the documents of the time ' 
and of the valuable help which he gave 
him in revising that work. He was deeply 
interested in the local antiquities of West- 
minster and indicated some famous sites. 

Palgrave, who before 1870 lived first at 
Reigate, and then for a short time at Hamp- 
stead, had from 1870 to 1900 an official 
residence in the Palace of Westminster ; 
after his retirement he resided at East 
Mount, Sahsbury. For many years after 
1870 he spent his summer vacations at a 
house built for him at Swanage, Dorset. He 
had much artistic taste, inherited probably 
from his maternal grandfather, Dawson 
Turner [q. v.], and to the end of his life 
practised water-colour sketching, at which 
he was fairly proficient, and he was for an 
amateur an exceptionally skillful modeller 
in low rehef. Officially neutral in poUtics, 
he was personally a strong conservative ; 
he was a decided churchman and was 
churchwarden of St. Martin's, Salisbury ; 
he was generally popular and was an ex- 



cellent talker, especially on artistic subjects. 
He died at his residence, Salisbury, on 
13 July 1904, and was buried in the cemetery 
there. He married in 1857 Grace, daughter 
of Richard Battley [q. v.], who di^ at 
East Mount, Sahsbury, on 17 July 1905, 
and had one son, Augustin Gifford {d. 1910), 
an electrical engineer, and five daughters. 
A village cross at Swanage has been erected 
to the memory of Sir Reginald and Lady 
Palgrave by members of their family. 

Palgrave published : 1. A ' Handbook 
to Reigate and the adjoining Parishes,' 
Dorking, 1860 ; out of print ; an excellent 
httle guide-book, especially as regards 
architecture, with engravings, some of 
them from his own drawings. 2. ' The 
House of Commons, Illustrations of its 
History and Practice,' 1869 ; revised edit. 
1878. 3. ' The Chairman's Handbook, Sug- 
gestions and Rules for the Conduct of 
Chairmen of Pubhc and other Meetings,' 
1877; 13th edit. 1900. A most useful 
book, based on long experience at the table 
of the House of Commons. 4. ' OUver 
Cromwell, the Protector,' 1890 (new 
edition 1903), a strange book, which 
represents Cromwell as the ' catspaw ' of 
the major-generals, a discredited trickster, 
and the fomenter of plots which enabled 
him to crush his enemies by unjust execu- 
tions. He wrote letters in the ' Athenaeum,' 
22 Jan. and 5 and 26 Feb. 1881, on the date 
of the warrant for the execution of Charles I, 
which S. R. Gardiner criticised adversely 
{History of the Great Civil War, iii. 584-5 n). 

[Private information ; information received 
from and through Sir Courtenay P. Ilbert, 
K.C.B] W. H. 


(1840-1904), general, bom on 25 June 1840 
at Kurubul, India, was son of Captain 
Nicholas Power Palmer of the 54th Bengal 
native infantry, by his wife, Rebecca Carter, 
daughter of Charles Barrett, of Dimgarvan, 
CO. Waterford. His father was killed on the 
retreat from Kabul in 1841, and his mother 
married secondly, in 1849, Morgan, son of 
Morgan Crofton, captain R.N., of co. Ros- 

Educated at Cheltenham College ( 1852-6), 
he entered the Indian army on 20 Feb, 1857 
as ensign in the 5th Bengal native infantry. 
He served throughout the Indian Mutiny 
campaign of 1857-9, raising a regiment of 
Sikhs 600 strong for service in Oude in 
March 1858. After receiving his com- 
mission as lieutenant on 30 April 1858, he 
joined Hodson's horse at Lucknow in the 
following June. At the action of Nawab- 




gunge Barabunki his horse was killed under 
him, and he was present at minor affairs 
(during one of which he was wounded) in 
the Oude campaign until its conclusion on 
the Nepaul frontier. He was mentioned in 
despatches and received the medal. 

In 1861 Palmer was transferred to the 
Bengal staff corps, and shared in the cam- 
paign on the north-west frontier in 1863-4, 
being present in the affair with the Momunds 
near Shubkudder and receiving the medal 
with clasp. He served as adjutant to 
the 10th Bengal lancers in the Abyssinian 
expedition of 1868, and his services were 
favourably noticed by Lord Napier of Mag- 
dala. Agaia he was awarded the medal. 

Palmer acted as aide-de-camp to General 
Stafford in the Duffla expedition of 1874-5, 
and was mentioned in despatches. In 1 876-7 
he was on special duty with the Dutch troops 
in Achin, and fought in several actions in the 
Dutch conflict with the native forces. He 
was mentioned in despatches and received 
the Dutch cross with two clasps from the 
Netherland government. Meanwhile he was 
promoted captain in 1869, and his next 
service was in the Afghan war of 1878-80, 
when he acted as assistant adjutant and 
quartermaster-general to the Kuram field 
force. In the attack on the Peiwar Kotal 
(2 Dec. 1878) Palmer rendered good service 
by making a feint on the right of the 
Afghan position, and in January 1879 he 
accompanied the expedition into the KJaost 
Valley. He was mentioned in despatches 
{Lond. Gaz. 4 Feb. 1879), and received the 
medal with clasp, and was given the brevet 
of lieutenant-colonel on 12 Nov. 1879. 
From 1880 to 1885 he was assistant adjutant 
general in Bengal, becoming polonel in 1883. 
Two years later he took part as commander 
of the 9th Bengal cavalry in the expedition 
to Suakin. He showed great dash and 
energy through the campaign. For his 
share ia the raid on Thakul on 6 May 1885 
he was mentioned in despatches {Lond. Gaz. 
25 Aug. 1885). He received the medal with 
clasp, the bronze star, and the C.B. on 
25 Aug. 1885. 

During the campaign in Burma in 1892-3 
Palmer was once more in action, 
commanding the force operating in the 
Northern Chin HUls. He received the 
thanks of the government of India ; he was 
mentioned in despatches and government 
orders, and was nominated K.C.B. on 8 May 
1894. Meanwhile he attained the rank of 
major-general in 1893 and of lieutenant- 
general in 1897. In 1897-8 he served in the 
Tirah campaign as general officer on the 
line of communications, and subsequently 

commanded the second division at the 
action of Ohagru Kotal. He was awarded 
the medal with two clasps, and his services 
were acknowledged in government orders 
and in despatches {Land. Gaz. 1 March, 
25 April 1898). He commanded the 
Punjab frontier force from 1898 to 1900, 
being promoted general in 1899. On the 
death of Sir William Lockhart [q. v. 
Suppl- I] he was appointed provisional 
commander-in-chief in India, and member 
of the viceroy's council (19 March 1900). 

In selecting regiments and commanders 
for service in South Africa and China in 
1900 Palmer showed high administrative 
capacity, and though owing to the uncer- 
tainty of his tenure of office he carried out 
no sweeping changes, he introduced many 
practical reforms in musketry. He held the 
post of commander-in-chief till 1902, when 
he was succeeded by Lord Kitchener. 

He was nominated G.C.I.E. in 1901, and 
G.C.B. in 190^. He died on 28 Feb. 1904 
in London, after an operation for appendi- 
citis, and was buried at Brompton. He 
married (1) in 1867 Helen Ayhner {d. 1896), 
daughter of Ayhner Harris ; and (2) in 1898 
Constance Gabrielle {d. 1912), daughter of 
Godfrey Shaw and widow of Walter Milton 
Roberts, who survived him with two 

An oil painting of Palmer by Herbert 
Brooks belongs to Palmer's step-sister, 
Mrs. Schneider. 

[The Times, 29 Feb. 1904; Cheltenham 
Coll. Reg. 1911 ; The Cheltonian, March 
1904 ; Lord Roberts's Forty-one Years in 
India, 30th edit. 1898, p. 362 ; S. P. OUver, 
Second Afghan War, 1908 ; R. H. Vetch, Life 
of Sir Gerald Graham, 1901 ; H. D. Hutchinson, 
The Campaign in Tirah, 1898, p. 62 ; Hart's 
and official Army Lists,] H. M. V. 

first baronet (1822-1907), ship-owner and 
ironmaster, born at King's Street, South 
Shields, on 3 Nov. 1822, was fourth son in 
a family of seven sons and one daughter 
of George Palmer (1789-1866), a ship-owner 
and merchant engaged in the Greenland 
and Indian trades. His mother was 
Maria, daughter of Thomas Taylor of Hill 
House, Monkwearmouth. He was educated 
privately, first in South Shields and after- 
wards at Brace's Academy, Percy Street, 
Newcastle, one of the leading private 
schools in the north of England. On 
leaving school he studied for a short time 
in France. At sixteen he entered his father's 
firm, Messrs. Palmer, Bechwith & Company, 
timber merchants ; but a year later, at 
the early age of seventeen, he formed a 




partnership with Sir WilUam Hutt, Nicholas 
Wood, and John Bowea in the manufacture 
of coke. The firm subsequently acquired 
colUeries in the north. At that time the 
northern coalfield was practically shut out 
from the London markets, owing to the 
difficulties of conveying the coal by rail. 
Palmer solved the problem by building 
boats wherein to bring coal by sea to 
London, and thus laid the foundation of the 
extensive coUierj' services which now ply 
between northern ports and the metropolis. 
In 1851 he and his brother George estab- 
lished a shipyard near the pit village of 
Jarrow. The first iron vessel launched from 
this yard was a paddle tug, the Northum- 
berland, and this was followed (in 1852) 
by the John Bowes, which was the first 
iron screw collier to be built, and had a coal 
capacity of 690 tons. The experiment was 
a complete success. 

With the growth of the shipyard, the 
village of Jarrow, which at the outset 
contained only some thousand inhabitants, 
grew into a town with a population of 
nearly 40,000. To their original objects 
the firm added the construction of battle- 
sliips. During the Crimean war the admiralty 
accepted Palmer's tender for the construction 
of a floating battery for the destruction of 
the forts at Kronstadt, and the Terror, 
an armoured battery, was constructed and 
launched within three months. He further 
revolutionised the industry by substituting 
roUed armour plate for forged armour plate, 
and at Jarrow the first armour plate miU 
was laid down for the manufacture of what 
were known as ' Palmer's rolled plates.' 
He was also one of the first to recognise the 
value of the Cleveland ironstone, which 
was smelted at the blast furnaces at Jarrow 
from 1860. Deeply interested in science, 
he was an original member of the Iron 
and Steel Institute, and at the first annual 
meeting in London, 1870, he read a paper on 
' Iron as a Material for Shipbuilding.' 

He introduced the co-operative principle 
for the benefit of his workmen, and zealously 
promoted the welfare of Jarrow. In 1875, 
when the toAvn received its charter, he 
became its first mayor. 

In 1868 Palmer unsuccessfully contested 
the representation in Parliament of South 
Shields in the liberal interest. In 1874 he 
and Sir Isaac Lowthian BeU [q.v. Suppl. II] 
were retxu-ned for North Durham after a 
severe contest, although they were subse- 
quently unseated on a petition. Palmer 
was placed at the head of the poll at a 
new election in June 1874, Sir George 
Elliot, the conservative candidate, being re- 

turned with him, and BeU, the second liberal 
candidate, being defeated. A threatened 
petition agauist Palmer's return was with- 
drawn. \Mien Jarrow was created a con- 
tituency, in 1885, he became its member till 
death. No conservative candidate ven- 
tured to oppose him, and although labour 
candidates contested the seat in 1885. 1892, 
and 1906, they were severely defeated. He 
was a deputy Ueutenant for Durham and 
for the North Riding of Yorkshire. In 1886 
he was created a baronet, while from the 
King of Italy he received the commandership 
of the order of St. Maurice and St. Lazarus. 
He founded in Jarrow the Mechanics' Insti- 
tute and the Palmer Memorial Hospital. 
He was honorary colonel of the Newcastle- 
on-Tyne and Durham engineer volunteers. 

Palmer acquired Easington aad Hinder- 
well Manors and Grinkle Park and Seaton 
HaU estates, to which he devoted much 
attention. He died on 4 June 1907 at 
his residence, 37 Curzon Street, Mayfair, 
London, and was buried at Easington 
church, Yorkshire, the parish church on 
the estate. He was married three times : 
(1) on 29 July 1846 to Jane {d. 1865), 
daughter of Ebenezer Robson of New- 
castle, by whom he had four sons, of whom 
the second, George Robson (1849-1910), 
became second baronet, and Alfred Moly- 
neux (6. 1853), third baronet ; (2) on 4 July 
1867 to Augusta Mary {d. 1875), daughter 
of Alfred Lambert of Paris, by whom he 
had two sons ; and (3) on 17 Feb. 1877 to 
Gertrude, daughter of James Montgomery 
of Cranford, Middlesex, by whom he had 
one son, Godfrey Mark {b. 1878), hberal 
M.P. for Jarrow since 1910, and a daughter. 
A bronze statue by Albert Toft, subscribed 
for by friends and employees, is in the 
grounds of the memorial hospital at Jarrow. 
A marble bust, also by Toft, is in the 
Newcastle-on-Tyne Commercial Exchange. 
A cartoon portrait by 'Ape' appeared in 
' Vanity Fair ' in 1884. 

[Pioneers of the Iron Trade, by J. S. Jeans, 
1875 ; Journal Iron and Steel Institute, vol. 
Ixxiii. ; Men and Women of the Time, 1899 ; 
The Times, 5 June 1907.] L. P. S. 

(1852-1906), finance ofl&cer in India and 
Egypt, born in London on 3 March 1852, 
was second son of Edward Palmer by his 
wife Caroline, daughter of Colonel Gun- 
thorpe. Educated at Lancing College, he 
entered the financial department of the 
government of India in 1870, and being 
attached to the comptroller-general's office 
on 10 Nov. 1871, became assistant comp- 
troller-general. Leaving India, Palmer on 





16 Aug. 1885 succeeded Sir Gerald Fitz- 
gerald as director-general of accounts in 
Egypt where he had already served from 
31 December 1878 to 30 April 1879. To 
Fitzgerald and Palmer ' Egj^t owes a 
system of accounts which can bear com- 
parison with those of any other country in 
Europe' (Milneb, p. 253). He was created 
C.M.G. in 1888. Next year he succeeded 
Sir Edgar Vincent as financial adviser to 
the Khedive, and ' ably and prudently 
continued his predecessor's policy with 
' brilliant results ' {ibid. p. 251). He 
was largely instrimiental in the conversion 
of the privileged, Daira, and Domains 
loans, and had much to do with the 
contract for the construction of the 
Assouan reservoir (Colvin, pp. 285-6). In 
1898 the National Bank of Egypt was 
created by khedivial decree, and Palmer 
resigned his appointment as financial ad- 
viser in order to become its first governor 
at Cairo. In the same year he became 
chairman of the Cairo committee of the 
Daira Sanieh Company, which had taken 
over from the government the Daira or 
private estates of Ismail Pasha. In 1902 
he was made president of the Agricultural 
Bank of Egypt, which was an offshoot of 
the National Bank. Palmer was a shrewd, 
hard-working man, with long financial 
training and great knowledge of accounts ; 
he was a speciaUst rather than a man of 
general administrative capacity, and his 
particular faculties were brought into play 
in developing industrial and commercial 
enterprises at the time when Egypt began 
to reap the benefit of administrative reform 
and engineering works. He was made 
K.C.M.G. in 1892, K.C.B. in 1897, and 
held the grand cordons of the orders of 
Osmanie and Medjidie. He died at Cairo 
on 28 January 1906. In 1881 he married 
Mary Augusta Lynch, daughter of Major 
Herbert M. Clogstoun, V.C, and left one 
son and two daughters. 

[The Times, 29 Jan. 1906; England in 
Egypt by Alfred (Viscount) Miliier, 3rd edit. 
1893 ; Sir Auckland Colvin, The Making of 
Modem Egypt, 1906 ; the Earl of Cromer, 
Modem Egypt, 1908.] C. P. L. 

1904), writer on dialect, was fifth son of 
Sir Woodbine Parish [q. v.] by his first 
wife AmeUa Jane, daughter of Leonard 
Becher Morse. Of his seven brothers and 
five sisters, the eldest, Major-General 
Henry Woodbine Parish, C.B. (1821- 
1890), served with distinction in South 
Africa under Sir Harry Smith, and later 
in Abyssinia ; the second, John Edward 

(1822-1894), became an admiral, and the 
third, Francis (1824^1906), was some time 
consul at Buenos Ayres, and later consul- 
general and state commissioner at Havana. 
His half-sister, Blanche Marion Parish, 
married in 1871 Sir Ughtred James Kay- 
Shuttleworth, first Baron Shuttleworth. 

Bom at 5 Gloucester Place, Portman 
Square, St. Marylebone, on 16 Dec. 1833, 
Parish was at Charterhouse School from 
1848 to 1853. He matriculated at Trinity 
College, Oxford, in the latter year, gradu- 
ating B.C.L. in 1858. Next year he was 
ordained to the curacy of Firle in Sussex, 
becoming vicar in 1863 of the adjoining 
parishes of Selmeston and Alciston. That 
benefice he held until his death. He en- 
deared himself not only to his parishioners 
but also to gypsies and vagrants. From 
1877 to 1900 he was chancellor of Chichester 
Cathedral. Parish died unmarried in Sel- 
meston vicarage on 23 Sept. 1904, and was 
buried in Selmeston churchyard. There are 
a window and two brasses to his memory 
in the church. 

Parish's principal work, ' A Dictionary of 
the Sussex Dialect and Collection of Pro- 
vinciaUsms in use in the County of Sussex ' 
(Lewes, 1875, 2 editions), is more than 
a contribution to etjonology : it is the 
classic example of what a country parson 
with antiquarian tastes, a sense of humour, 
and a sympathetic affection for his peasant 
neighbours, can do to record for posterity 
not only the dialect but the domestic 
habits of the people of his time and place. 

Parish's other pubUcations were : 1. 
'The Telegraphist's Easy Guide,' 1874, 
an explanation of the Morse system written 
primarily for the boys of his parish, to 
whom he taught signalling as a pastime. 
2. ' School Attendance secured -without 
Compulsion,' 1875 (5 editions), a pam- 
phlet describing his successful system of 
giving back to parents their children's school 
payments as a reward for good attend- 
ances. 3. ' Domesday Book in Relation 
to the County of Sussex,' 1886 fol., for 
the Sussex J^chaeological Society, on the 
council of Avhich he served for many years. 
4. ' A Dictionarv of the Kentish Dialect ' 
(with the Rev. W. F. Shaw), 1887, on the 
lines of the Sussex book, but lacking evi- 
dence of intimate acquaintance with the 
Kentish people. Parish also edited a useful 
alphabetical * List of Carthusians [Charter- 
house schoolboys], 1800-79' (Lewes, 1879). 

[A Life of Sir Woodbine Parish, 1910, pp. 
419-425 ; The Times, 26 and 28 Sept. 1904 ; 
East Sussex News, 30 Sept. 1904 ; works 
mentioned ; private information.] P. L. 




Eael ofMoeley (1843-1905), Chainnan of 
Committees of the House of Lords, bom in 
London on 11 June 1843, was only son of 
Edward Parker, second earl (1810-1864), by 
his wife Harriet Sophia ( .1897), only daugh- 
ter of Montagu Edmund Parker of Whiteway , 
Devonshire, and widow of William Coryton, 
of PentiUie Castle, Cornwall. Educated 
at Eton, where he subsequently became a 
fellow and governor, and at BaUiol College, 
Oxford, he took a first class in literae 
humaniores and graduated B.A. in 1865, 
having succeeded his father in the peerage 
in 1864. Li the House of Lords he figured 
as a pohshed speaker of hberal principles. 
From 1868 to 874 he was a lord-in-waiting 
to Queen Victoria during Gladstone's first 
administration. When Gladstone returned 
to office in 1880 Morley became under- 
secretary for war, serving first under Hugh 
Child ers [q. v. Suppl. I] and then under Lord 
Hartington [q. v. Suppl. II]. He proved 
an efficient minister, notably in speeches 
upon recruiting {Hansard, cclxxx. cols. 1846- 
1859) and upon army organisation [ihid. 
ccLxxxi. cols. 750-756) ; and he displayed a 
grasp of affairs during the debates on the 
suppression of the rebellion of Arabi Pasha 
in Egypt and the expedition to Khartomn. 
He quitted office with the ministry in 1885. 

When the home rule question arose to 
divide the hberal party, Morley at first 
followed Gladstone ; and from February to 
April 1886 was first commissioner of pubUc 
works in that minister's third govern- 
ment. On 12 April he resigned, together 
with Mr. Edward (afterwards Lord) 
Heneage, chancellor of the duchy of 
Lancaster, after Gladstone had divulged 
the scope of his measure. He took 
httle part in the ensuing pohtical con- 
troversy, but his judicial temper was put 
to profitable use when, on 4 April 1889, 
he was chosen chairman of committees and 
deputy-speaker of the House of Lords on 
the proposal of Lord Granville by ninety-five 
votes to seventy -nine given to Lord Balfour 
of Burleigh, who was proposed by Lord 
Salisbury. He exercised his powers over 
private biU legislation with much dis- 
cretion. For the guidance of promoters, 
' a model biU ' was annually devised by 
his standing coimsel and himself, and by 
the beginning of every session the proposed 
measures, however numerous, had been 
passed imder thorough review. Attacked 
by a lingering iUness, he, to the general 
regret, sent in his resignation, which he 
intended to be temporary, in February 
1904, Lord Balfour of Burleigh taking 

his place [Hansard, vol. cxxix. cols. 1139- 
1 142). On 12 Feb. 1905 he finally resigned. 
Lord Lansdowne then said that, ' besides 
great diligence and abihty. Lord Morley 
had shown great qualities of firmness, great 
powers of conciMation, and a sound and 
steady judgment, unswayed by considera- 
tions of personal popularity ' [ibid. vol. 
cxh. col. 287). He di^ fourteen days later, 
on 26 Feb. 1905, at Saltram, Plympton St. 
Mary, and was buried in the parish church- 
yard. On the announcement of his death 
ia the House of Lords further tributes to 
his memory were paid by Lord Spencer, 
Lord Halsbiiry, and Dr. Talbot, then bishop 
of Rochester. 

The earl took an active interest in 
Devonshire affairs. He was a chairman 
of quarter sessions and vice-chairman of 
the Devon county council from 1889 to 
1901, when he succeeded Lord CUnton as 
chairman. His speeches displayed a wide 
knowledge of local finance and requirements, 
and he held the appointment \intil 1904. 
In 1900, as one of the three deputy lords- 
Ueutenant, he took an active part in the 
county in the equipment of imperial yeo- 
manry and volxinteers for the South African 
war. In succession to his father and grand- 
father he interested himself in the Ply- 
mouth chamber of commerce, became its 
president in 1864, and made its annual 
diimer the occasion for a speech on public 
affairs. He took pride in the fine col- 
lection of pictures at Saltram, and was an 
enthusiastic gardener. 

He married in 1876 Margaret, daughter 
of Robert Stayner Holford of Dorchester 
House, London, and Weston Birt House, 
Tetbury, and had a daughter and three sons, 
of whom Edmund Robert, Viscoxmt Boring- 
don, bom on 19 April 1877, succeeded him 
as fourth earl. His portrait by Ellis Roberts 
is at 31 Prince's Gardens, London, S.W., 
and a copy of the head and shoulders, made 
after his death by the artist at the request 
of the Devon county council, is in the 
council's chamber at Exeter. 

[The Times, and Western Morning News» 
27 Feb. 1905 ; private information.] 

L. C. S. 

(1829-1910), politician and author, bom at 
Aigburth, Liverpool, on 1 June 1829, was the 
eldest son of Charles Stuart Parkerof FairUe, 
Ayrshire, partner in the Liverpool firm of 
Sandbach, Tume & Co., trading in sugar with 
the West Indies. His mother was Anne,eldest 
daughter of Alfred Sandbach of Hafodunos, 
Denbighshire. Dr. Chalmers, a friend of his 
paternal grandparents, was one of Parker's 




godfathers. He was through life influenced 
by the religious temper of his home training. 
On 13 Aug. 1838 his father's sister Anna 
married Edward (afterwards Viscount) 
Cardwell [q. v.], whose political views he 
came to share. Parker was at Eton from 
1842 to 1847, and won in 1846 the Prince 
Consort's prize for German. On 10 June 
1847 he matriculated from Brasenose 
College, Oxford, but gaining a scholarship 
at University CoUege next year migrated 
thither. At University College, with which 
he was long closely associated, he formed 
intimacies with Arthur Penrhyn Stanley, 
Groldwin Smith, John Conington, Arthur 
Gray Butler, William Bright, and T, W. 
Jex- Blake, afterwards dean of Wells. 
Friends at other colleges included Arthur 
Peel, afterwards Speaker of the House of 
Commons, G. C. Brodrick, Thomas Hill 
Green [q. v.], George Joachim Goschen, 
W. H. Fremantle (Dean of Ripon), Mr. 
Frederic Harrison, and Grant Duff. In 1852 
he joined Goschen, Brodrick, and others in 
starting the Oxford Essay Club, and he 
frequently attended the club dinners in 
later life at Goschen's house and elsewhere. 

In Easter term 1852 Parker was placed 
in the first class in the final classical school, 
and in the second class of the mathematical 
school. He graduated B.A. and proceeded 
M.A. in 1855. He was elected fellow of his 
college in 1854, and retained the office till 
1867. He resided at Oxford till 1864, throw- 
ing himself with vigour into the work of 
both college and university. He was college 
tutor from 1858 to 1865, and lectured in 
modem history. He was examiner in the 
final classical school in 1859, 1860, 1863, 
and 1868. He won the confidence of under- 
graduates, and introduced them to men of 
note from the outer world, whom from 
an early date he entertained at Oxford. 
He organised the university volunteer 
corps and did much while major of the 
battalion (1865-8) to improve its efficiency, 
especially in shooting. The main re- 
creation of his university days was moun- 
taineering. He preferred cUmbing without 
guides, and it was without guides that he 
with his brothers Alfred and Sandbach 
made the second and fourth attempts on 
the Matterhom in 1860 and 1861 respectively 
(cf . Whymper's Scrambles amongst the Alfs). 
Subsequently Parker's companions in the 
Alps included William Henry Gladstone and 
Stephen Gladstone, sons of the statesman, 
who was an early friend of Parker and his 

Like Brodrick, Goldwin Smith, and 
other brilliant Oxford men, Parker was 

a contributor to the early issues of the 
' Saturday Review ' in 1855, but he soon 
withdrew owing to hi dislike of the 
cynical tone of the paper, and a cha- 
racteristic impatience of its partisan 
spirit. He gradually concentrated his 
interest on a liberal reform of the univer- 
sity. He especially urged a prudent 
recognition of the claims of science, modem 
history, and modem languages in the 
academic curriculum, and the throwing open 
of scholarships to competition. He early 
declared for a national system of elementary 
education which should be efficient and 
compulsory, rather than voluntary. In 
1867 he published two essays, one on 
* Popular Education ' in ' Questions for a 
Reformed Parliament,' and the other on 
' Classical Education ' in F. W. Farrar's 
' Essays on a Liberal Education.' 

In 1864 Parker, who inherited ample 
means, diversified his academic duties by 
becoming private secretary to Edward 
Cardwell, whose wife was his aunt. Card- 
well was then colonial secretary, and Parker 
remained with him till he went out of 
office in 1866. At the wish of Gladstone, 
with whom his relations steadily became 
closer, he stood for Perthshire in 1868 in 
the liberal interest, gaining a startling 
victory over the former conservative mem- 
ber, Sir William Stirling Maxwell [q. v.]. 
He remained in the House of Commons 
throughout Gladstone's first administration, 
but was defeated by Stirling Maxwell in 
his old constituency at the general election 
of 1874. He was however re-elected for the 
city of Perth in 1878, and retained the seat 
till 1892, when he was defeated in a three - 
cornered contest. He failed to win a 
seat in West Perthshire in 1900. His 
refinement of manner and accent mili- 
tated against his gaining the ear of the 
house, but his leaders respected him for 
his conscientious study of political issues 
and his judicial habit of mind. During his 
first parliament he was in constant touch 
with his old chief Cardwell, then secretary 
for war, and supported the abolition of 
purchase and Cardwell' s other reforms of 
the army. He was often consulted by 
Gladstone, to whose measures and policy 
throughout his parb'amentary career he gave 
a discriminating assent. At Gladstone's 
invitation he revised his speeches for the 
Midlothian campaign of 1878-80. 

But it was on educational policy that 
Parker exerted his chief influence. Joining 
the public schools commission (1868-74), 
he proved one of its most active members, 
urging that the public school curriculum 




should be modernised in sympathy with a 
progressive policy at the universities. He 
also sat on the commission for military 
education in 1869, and advocated the link- 
ing up of the public schools with Sandhurst 
and Woolwich, so as to ensure a broad 
general cidture before technical and pro- 
fessional training. Again, as a member of 
the Scotch educational endowments com- 
mission in 1872, he argued persistently that 
the benefits of endov^Tnents should go ' not 
to the most necessitous of those fairly fitted 
inteUectuaUy, but to the most fit among 
those who were fairly necessitous.' His 
views greatly stimulated the development 
of secondary education in Scotland. He 
wished the Scotch elementary schools to 
form a ' ladder ' to the Tiniversity, and he 
sought to protect them from the evil system 
of ' payment by results.' He was in 1887 
chairman of a departmental committee on 
higher education in the elementary schools 
of Scotland, and the report which he drew 
up with Sir Henry Craik in 1888 gave 
practical effect to his wise proposals. 

Parker, whose wide interests embraced 
a precise study of scientific hypotheses, 
engaged in his later years in bio- 
graphical work of historical importance. 
In 1891 he brought out the first volume 
of a ' Life of Sir Robert Peel ' from his 
private correspondence, which was com- 
pleted in 3 vols, in 1899. In 1907 there 
followed ' The Life and Letters of Sir 
James Graham ' (2 vols.). He allowed the 
subjects of his biographies to tell their 
story in their own words as far as possible. 
Parker, who was elected honorary fellow 
of University College in 1899, was made 
hon. LL.D. of Glasgow and hon. D.C.L. of 
Oxford in 1908. In 1907 he was admitted 
to the privy coimcil. His last pubUc act 
was to attend the council in May 1910 on 
the death of King Edward VII and sign the 
proclamation of King Greorge V. 

Parker died unmarried at his London 
residence, 32 Old Queen Street, West- j 
minster, on 18 June 1910, and was buried ! 
at Fairlie. His portrait was painted by \ 
Sir Hubert von Herkomer. He bequeathed j 
5000/. to University College, where two 
Parker scholarships for modem history 
have been estabhshed. | 

[The Times, 19 June, 29 Aug. (wiU) 1910 ; 
Eton School Lists ; Foster's Alumni Oxen, ; 
private information ; personal knowledge.] 

PARKER, JOSEPH (1830-1902), con- 
gregationalist divine, bom at Hexham on 
9 April 1830, was the only son of Teasdale 
Parker, a stonemason, and deacon of the 
congregational church, by his wife Elizabeth 

Dodd. His education at three local schools 
was interrupted at fourteen with a view to 
his following the building trade under his 
father ; he soon went back to school, and 
became teacher of various subjects, including 
Latin and Greek. Though he taught in the 
congregational Simday school, he joined 
the Wesleyan body, to which his parents 
had for a time seceded. This led to his 
becoming a local preacher ; his first sermon 
was in June 1848. The family returned 
to Congregationalism in 1852, and Parker, 
having obtained a preaching engagement 
from John CampbeU (1794^1867) [q. v.], 
of the Moorfields Tabernacle, left for 
London on 8 April 1852. While in 
London, Campbell gave him nine months' 
sermon drill, and he attended the lec- 
tures of John Hoppus [q. v.] at Univer- 
sity College. Soon becoming known as a 
preacher of original gifts, he was called 
to Banbury (salary 120Z.), and ordained 
there on 8 Nov. 1853. His Banbury 
ministry of four years and eight months 
was marked by the building of a larger 
chapel, a pubUc disctission on secularism 
with George Jacob Holyoake [q. v. Suppl. 
U], and the winning of the second prize 
(75/.) in a Glasgow prize essay competition 
on the ' Support of the Ordinances of the 
Gospel. ' In 1 858 he was called to Cavendish 
Chapel, Manchester, in succession to Robert 
Halley [q. v.]. He declined to leave 
Banbury till the debt (700/.) on his new 
chapel there was discharged. The Man- 
chester congregation cleared off this, along 
with a debt (200/.) on their own chapel. 
Parker accepted their call in a letter 
(10 June 1858) stipidating for 'the most 
perfect freedom of action,' and maintaining 
that * the office of deacon is purely secular.' 
He began his Manchester ministry on 
25 July 1858, and for eleven years made 
himself as a preacher a power in that city, 
while exercising a wider influence through 
his literary labours. 

In 1862 he received the degree of D.D. 
from Chicago University, but he first 
visited America in 1873. In 1867 he was 
made chairman of the Lancashire congre- 
gational union. Rejecting in 1868, he 
accepted in 1869, a call to the Poultry 
Chapel, London, in succession to James 
Spence, D.D. (1811-76). He rapidly filled 
an empty chapel, instituted the Thursday 
noon-day service, and conducted for 
three years an ' institute of honuletics ' 
for the gratuitous instruction of young 
students in the art of preaching. He had 
come to London on condition of a removal 
of the congregation from the Poultry to a 




new site. After some delay a site on 
Holbom Viaduct was secured for 25,000/., 
and;.the Poultry Chapel sold for 60,200/. 
Parker meanwhile carried on his ministry 
in Cannon Street hall (Sunday mornings), 
Exeter Hall (Sunday evenings), and Albion 
Chapel (Thursdays). His newly built chapel, 
called the City Temple, was opened on 
19 May 1874, when the lord mayor attended 
in state ; Dean Stanley spoke at the collation 
which followed. 

To the end of his days {Parker's popu- 
larity never waned, nor did his resources 
fail. At his Thursday services clergymen 
irrespective of denomination were con- 
stantly seen. Wilham Henry Fremantle 
(dean of Ripon) and Hugh Reginald 
Haweis [q. v. Suppl. II] would have 
preached at these services but were in- 
hibited ; a notable address on preaching 
was given by Gladstone (22 March 1877) 
after Parker's discourse. In 1880 Parker 
came forward as parliamentary candi- 
date for the City of London, with a pro- 
gramme which included disestabUshment 
and the suppression of the Uquor traffic ; 
on the adAAice of nonconformist friends the 
candidature was withdrawn. In 1884, and 
again in 1901, he was chairman of the Con- 
gregational Union of England and Wales. 
Visiting Edinburgh in February 1887, he 
dehvered an address on preaching, and 
preached in various churches, including 
St. Giles'. His fifth voyage to America 
was made in the following August, and on 
4 Oct. he deUvered at Brooklj^ the pane- 
gyric of Henry Ward Beecher {d. 8 March 
1887), whom he was thought to resemble 
in gifts, and whose place in America some 
expected him to fiU. In July and August 
1888 he conducted a ' rural mission ' in 
Scotland ; in May 1894 he addressed the 
general assembly of the Free Church in 
Edinburgh, against some phases of the 
' higher criticism.' In the following 
November he protested against the reporting 
of sermons as a form of hterary piracy. 
' The Times ' of 18 May 1896 contains his 
letter in favovir of ' education, free, com- 
. pulsory and secular.' In March 1902 he 
was made president of the National Free 
Church council. After a long illness in that 
year he resumed preaching in September. 
His letter to ' The Times,' ' A Genera- 
tion in a City Pulpit,' appeared on 22 
Sept. ; his last sermon was preached on 
28 Sept. ; he died at Hampstead on 28 Nov. 
1902, and was buried in the Hampstead 

At the City Temple his portrait, painted 
in 1894 by Robert Gibb, R.S.A., is in the 

vestry, as well as a bust by C. B. Birch, 
A.R.A. (1883), in the entrance. Another 
bust was executed by John Adams- Acton 
[q. V. Suppl. II]. A cartoon portrait by 
* Ape ' appeared in 'Vanity Fair' in 1884. 

Parker married (l)on 15 Nov. 1851 Ann 
Nesbitt (d. 1863) of Horsley HiUs ; (2) on 
22 Dec. 1864 Emma Jane (d. 26 Jan. 1899), 
daughter of Andrew Common, banker, of 
Sunderland. He had no issue. 

Both by its strength and its freshness 
Parker's pulpit work impressed some of the 
best judges in his time. Holyoake, who 
commends his fairness in controversy, says 
he ' had a will of adamant and a soul of 
fire.' Further, he was a master in the arts 
of advertisement, and in the power of 
investing old themes with a novelty which 
startled and arrested. His writings, em- 
bodpng much of his own experience, 
are racy in style and imbued with strong 
sense. He was a constant contributor 
to periodicals, beginning with the ' Homi- 
list,' edited by David Thomas (1813-94) 
[q. v.] ; he himself brought out various 
periodicals, the ' Congregational Economist ' 
(1858), the 'Cavendish Church Pulpit,' 
'Our Own,' the 'Pulpit Analyst' (1866- 
1870), the 'aty Temple' (1869-73), the 
' Fountain,' and the ' Christian Chronicle.' 

His chief pubUcation was ' The People's 
Bible,' 25 vols., 1885-1895. Other of his 
works were : 1. ' Six Chapters on Secu- 
larism,' 1854. 2. ' Helps to Truthseekers,' 
1857 ; 3rd edit. 1858. 3. ' Questions 
of the Day,' 1860 (sermons). 4. ' John 
Stuart Mill on Liberty: a Critique,' 
1865. 5. ' Wednesday Evenings at 
Cavendish Chapel,' 1865 ; 2 edits. 6. 
' Ecce Deus . . . with Notes on " Ecce 
Homo," ' Edinburgh, 1867 ; 5th edit. 1875. 
7. ' Springdale Abbey : Extracts from the 
Diaries and Letters of an Enghsh Preacher,' 
1868 (fiction). 8. ' Ad Clerum : Advices to 
a Young Preacher,' 1870. 9. ' Tyne Chylde : 
My Life and Teaching,' 1880; 1886 (an 
autobiographical fiction). 10. ' The Inner 
Life of Christ,' 3 vols. 1881-2 ; 1884 (com- 
mentary). 11. ' Weaver Stephen,' 1886, 
(a novel). 12. ' Well Begun : Notes for 
those who have to Make their Way,' 1894. 
13. 'Tyne Folk,' 1896. 14. ' GambUng in 
Various Aspects ' ; 5th edit. 1902. 16. 
' Christian Profiles m a Pagan Mirror,' 1898. 
16. ' Pa terson's Parish : A Lifetime amongst 
the Dissenters,' 1898. 17. 'The Qty 
Temple Pulpit,' 1899. 18. ' A Preacher's 
Life,' 1899 (autobiography). 19. • The 
Pulpit Bible,' 1901, 4to. 20. 'The Gospel 
of Jesus Christ,' 1903; new edit. 1908 
(posthumous sermons). 

Parr 73 


[Marsh's Memorials of the City Temple, 
1877 ; Men and Women of the Time, 1899 ; A 
Preacher'sJLife, 1899 (portrait) ; A. Dawson, 
Joseph Parker, D.D., Life and Alinistry, 1901 ; 
W. Adamson, Life, 1902 (nine portraits) ; 
The Times, |29 Nov., 1 and 5 Dec. 1902 ; 
G. J. Holyoake, Two Great Preachers, 1903 ; 
J. Morgan Richards, Life of John Oliver 
Hobbes, 1911 ; G. Pike, Dr. Parker and his 
Friends, 1904.] A. G. 

PARR, Mrs. LOUISA {d. 1903), 
novelist, bom in London, was the only 
child of Matthew Taylor, R.N. Her early 
years were spent at Plymouth. In 1868 
she published in ' Good Words,' under the 
pseudonym of ' IVIrs. Olinthus Lobb,' a short 
story entitled ' How it all happened.' It 
attracted attention, and appeared in a 
French version as a feuiUeton in the 'Jour- 
nal des Debats,' the editor apologising for 
departing from his rule of never printing 
translations. At the request of the Queen 
of Wiirttemberg it was translated into 
Grerman, and it was issued in America 
in pamphlet form. The next year Miss 
Taylor married George Parr, a doctor 
living in Kensington and a collector of 
early editions of works on London. He 
predeceased her. 

In 1871 Mrs. Parr published ' Dorothy 
Fox,' a novel of Quaker life, which was 
so much appreciated in America that a 
publisher there paid Mrs. Parr 300/. for the 
advance sheets of her next novel. Nothing 
of importance followed until 1880, when her 
best novel, ' Adam and Eve,' was published. 
It is an interesting story, told with artistic 
restraint, of Cornish smuggling life founded 
on incidents related in Jonathan Couch's 
' History of Polperro ' (1871). Six novels fol- 
lowed, none coming near to ' Adam and Eve ' 
in merit, the last, ' Can This be Love ? ' 
appearing in 1893. The life of IMiss Mulock 
(ilrs. Craik) in ' Women Novelists of 
Queen Victoria's Reign ' (1897) is from her 
pen. She also contributed short stories 
to magazines. A sense of hiunour and a 
pleasing style are the main characteristics 
of her work. She was always at her best 
in dealing with the sea. 

Mrs. Parr died on 2 Nov. 1903 at 18 Upper 
Phillimore Place, Kensington, London. 

[Who's Who, 1902; Men and Women of 
the Time, 1899 ; Athenseum, 14 Nov. 1903 ; 
Helen C. Black, Pen, Pencil, Baton and Mask, 
1896 ; The Times, 7 Nov. 1903 (a mere refer- 
ence).] E. L. 

PARRY, JOSEPH (1841-1903), musical 
composer, born on 21 May 1841 at Merthyr 
Tyd£l, was son of Daniel Parry {d. 1867), 
an ironworker of that town, by his wife 

Mary. A brother (Henry) and two sisters 
(Jane and Elizabeth) gained some pro- 
minence as vocaHsts in the United States 
(Y Cerddor Cymreig, 1869, p. 15). Joseph 
started work at the puddling furnaces 
before he was ten. In 1853 his father 
emigrated to the United States, and the 
family followed in 1854, settling at Dan- 
ville, Pennsylvania. Parry first studied 
music at about seventeen years of age, 
attending a class conducted by two of his 
Welsh feUow-workers at the iron-works. 
At an eisteddfod held at DanviUe at Christ- 
mas 1860 he won his first prize for com- 
position, namely for a temperance march. 
Next year a subscription raised by the 
Welsh colony at DanviUe enabled Parry to 
study at a normal college at Genesee, New 
York. He returned after a short course to 
become organist at DanviUe. After win- 
ning many prizes at American eisteddfods, 
he sent several pieces for competition to 
the national eisteddfod held at Swansea in 
September 1863 and at Llandudno in 
August 1864, and at each gained prizes. 
In the simimer of 1865 he attended the 
Aberystwyth eisteddfod, where the title 
' Pencerdd America ' was conferred on him. 
A glee, ' Ar don o flaen gwyntoedd,' pub- 
lished shortly afterwards at Wrexham, was 
widely popiUar in Wales, and appeared in 
New York in ' Y Gronf a Gerddorol ' of Hugh 
I J. Hughes (7 Drych, 19 March 1903). 
I On his return to America, a fund was 
1 started to enable him to pursue his musical 
j education. In aid of the fund Parry gave 
j a series of concerts in Pennsylvania, Ohio, 
! and New York, generaUy singing songs of 
■ his own composition (F Cerddor Cymreig, 
! 1870, p. 30). Meanwhile he was award^ 
! prizes for his cantata ' The Prodigal Son ' 
i at Chester eisteddfod, September 1866 
i (stUI in MS., though the overture to it 
j was played at the Royal Academy of 
! Music in 1871), and for his glee ' Rhosjoi 
I yr Haf ' (pubUshed in 1867) at Utica 
j (January 1867). 

I In 1868 Parry and his family (he was 
j already married) removed to Ix)ndon, 
j and in September he entered the Royal ■ 
j Academy of Music, where he studied for 
three years, and won the bronze and silver 
medals. In 1871 he took the degree of 
i Mus. Bac. at Cambridge. His exercise, 
a choral fugue in B minor, was performed 
at the Academy concert on 21 July. After 
going back to America to keep a music 
school at Danville (1871-3) he became 
professor of music at the newly founded 
University CoUege of Wales at Aberyst- 
wyth. The appointment gave a great 




impetus to musical studies in Wales. He 
proceeded Mus.Doc. at Cambridge in 
1878, liis exercise, a cantata, 'Jerusalem,' 
being performed by a Welsh choir from 
Aberdare. When the Aberystwyth pro- 
fessorship was discontinued in 1879 (Da vies 
and Jones, University of Wales, pp. 121, 
133), Parry kept a private school of music, 
■first at Aberystwyth and then (1881-8) 
at Swansea. In 1888 he was appointed 
lecturer, and subsequently professor of 
music, at the University College, Cardiff, 
which he held (together with the director- 
ship of a private musical institute in the 
town) till lus death at his residence, Cartref , 
Penarth, on 17 Feb. 1903. He was buried 
at St. Augustine's, Penarth. 

Joseph Parry was a most prolific com- 
poser. One of his first published pieces was 
a song, ' My Childhood's Dreams,' issued 
from Scranton, Pennsylvania, in 1865 
{Cerddor Cymreig, Sept. 1865, p. 69). His 
opera ' Blodwen,' with Welsh words by 
Richard Davies (Mynyddog), performed from 
MS. at Aberystwyth and Aberdare in 1878, 
and later at the Alexandra Palace, London, 
but not published tiU 1888 (Swansea), has 
been performed hundreds of times in Wales, 
most often, however, as a cantata. It was 
the first opera performed in the Welsh 
language. His other operas include 
' Virginia,' written in 1882 but still in 
MS., based on incidents in the American 
civil war; 'Sylvia' (1889), the words by 
his son, David Mendelssohn ; ' Ceridwen,' 
a one-act dramatic cantata, first per- 
formed at the Liverpool eisteddfod, 1900 ; 
and ' The Maid of Cefn Ydfa ' (words by 
Joseph Bennett), first produced by the 
Moody Manners Co. at the Grand Theatre, 
Cardiff, on 14 Dec. 1902. 

Parry was also the author of two oratorios, 
' Emmanuel,' performed at St. James's Hall, 
London, in 1880, but not published till 1882 
(Swansea), and ' Saul of Tarsus,' first per- 
formed at the Rhyl eisteddfod on 8 Sept. 
1892 (pubUshed London, 1893) ; also the 
following cantatas, ' The Birds ' (Wrexham, 
1873) ; ' Nebuchadnezzar ' (London, 1884) ; 
' Cambria ' (first perfonned at the Llan- 
dudno eisteddfod, 1896) ; 'Joseph ' (Swansea, 
1881). His contributions to sacred music 
include some 400 hymn tunes, the best 
known being ' Aberystwyth,' composed 
on 3 July 1877 for the second volume 
(1879) of the Welsh Congregationalists' 
Hymnal of Edward Stephen (Tany- 
marian) [q. v.] This and sixty-six other 
tunes and a number of short anthems 
were published by Parry in 1892 as 
a Welsh national tune-book. The copy- 

right in these and in a Sunday-school 
tune-book (' Telyn yr Ysgol Sul,' first 
pubhshed in 1877) was acquired after 
Dr. Parry's death by the Welsh Congre- 
gational Union, to which connexion Parry 
belonged. The [appearance of his anthems 
resulted in a great advance in Welsh 
sacred music, and his setting of ' The 
Lord is my Shepherd ' is said to rival 

He edited and harmonised the music of 
a ' National Collection of Welsh Songs,' 
entitled ' Cambrian Minstrelsie ' (Edinburgh, 
6 vols. 1893). He also brought out a 
collection of his own songs, ' Dr. Parry's 
Book of Songs ' (in five parts with portrait 
of the author), and issued a Welsh handbook 
on theory, being part i. of an intended 
series on music (' ELfenau Cerddoriaeth,' 
Cardiff, 1888). 

Parry married (at Danville) Jane daughter 
of Gomer Thomas, who survived him with 
one son, David Mendelssohn, and two 
daughters. Of two sons who predeceased 
him, William Stemdale (1872-1892) and 
Joseph Haydn Parry (1864-1894), the 
latter, who showed much musical promise, 
was appointed professor at the Guildhall 
school of music in 1890, and composed, 
among other works, ' Cigarette,' a comic 
opera (the libretto by his brother, David 
Mendelssohn Parry), produced on 15 Aug. 
1892 at the Theatre Royal, Cardiff, and in 
September at the Lyric Theatre, London, 
and ' Miami,' a more ambitious work, set to 
an adaptation of ' The Green Bushes,' and 
produced 16 Oct. 1893 at the Princess's 
Theatre, London (Grove's Diet, of Music 
and Musicians, 1907, v. 499; Western Mail, 
30 March 1894; Annual Register, 1894, 
p. 157 ; Mardy Rees, Notable Welshmen, 

[For his life to 1868 see contemporary 
references in the Welsh musical monthly, 
Y Cerddor Cymreig, between 1865 and 
1871 (see especially that for 1871, pp. 65-7); 
articles by his pupil. Prof. David Jenkins, 
Mus.Bac. Aberystwyth, in Y Cerddor for 
March 1903 (p. 27), Feb. 1904 (p. 16), and 
April 1911, and by Mr. D. Emlyn Evans in the 
same magazine for December 1903, p. 130 ; the 
Welsh American weekly, Y Drych (Utica), 
for 26 Feb., 19 and 26 March 1903, and 
subsequent issues (not always trustworthy) ; 
The Times, and Western Mail (Cardiff), 
18 Feb. 1903 ; T. R. Roberts's Eminent 
Welshmen, 1907, p. 403 (with photo.) ; 
Grove's Diet, of Music and Musicians (1907) ; 
Baker's Biog. Diet, of Music, 1900 (with 
portrait) ; and Y Geninen for 1903, p. 73, 
and for 1906, p. 237; Cymru, xxxii. 168.] 

D. Ll. T. 




Earl of Rosse (1840-1908), astronomer, 
born at Birr Castle, Parsonstown, King's 
Co., Ireland, on 17 Nov. 1840, was eldest 
of four surviving sons of WiUiam Parsons, 
third earl of Rosse [q. v.], the astronomer. 
The youngest brother. Sir Charles Algernon 
Parsons, C.B., F.R.S. {b. 1854), is well known 
for his invention of the compound steam 
turbine, since applied to marine propulsion. 

Known in youth by the courtesy title of 
Baron Oxmantown, co. Wexford, Laurence 
was ]. educated at home, first under the 
tutorship of the Rev. T. T. Gray, M.A., of 
Trinity College, Dublin, and then of John 
Purser, LL.D., afterwards professor of 
mathematics in Queen's College, Belfast. 

Subsequently he entered Trinity College, 
Dublin, graduating in 1864, but he was 
non-resident. He was early imbued with 
his father's spirit of inquiry. At his 
father's observatory at Birr he assisted in 
the workshops and met leading men of 
science. Succeeding in 1867 to the peerage 
on his father's death. Lord Rosse thence- 
forward divided his interests between the 
management of his estates and the piu'suit 
of astro-physics. He was made sheriff of 
King's Co., Ireland, in 1867, and became 
a representative peer of Ireland in 1868. 
On 29 Aug. 1890 he was created a knight of 
the Order of St. Patrick. He was subse- 
quently lord-heutenant (1892-1908). 

According to Dr. Otto Boeddicker 
(technical coadjutor at Birr Observatory), 
Rosse had 'an inherited genius for mechanical 
relations and contrivances, and endless were 
his ideas and designs, all of a most ingenious 
character.' His first scientific paper, ' De- 
scription of an Equatoreal Clock,' appeared 
in the ' Monthly Notices ' of the Royal 
Astronomical Society (1866). This was 
followed by a classical memoir in practical 
astronomy, ' An Account of Observations 
of the Great Nebula in Orion, made at 
Birr Castle, with the three-feet and six-feet 
Telescopes, between 1848 and 1867,' pub- 
lished in the ' Philosophical Transactions ' 
of the Royal Society. An elaborate draAving 
of the nebula (engraved by J. Basire) accom- 
panied the paper, and was characterised by 
Dr. J. E. L. Dreyer {Monthly Notices Roy. 
Astron. Soc. Feb. 1909) as being ' always of 
value as a faithful representation of the 
appearance of the Orion nebula in the 
largest telescope of the nineteenth century.' 
This study completed, Rosse took up 
(1868-9) an investigation on the radiation 
of heat from the moon (see Proc. Roy. Soc. 
vols, xvii., xix.), which formed the subject 
of the Royal Society's Bakerian lecture 

for 1873 [Phil. Trans, vol. clxiii.), and 
occupied his attention for the greater part 
of his Hfe, despite somewhat scant notice 
from the scientific world. At the Royal 
Institution (1895) he gave'; a lecture, '.The 
Radiant Heat from the Moon dming the 
Progress of an EcUpse ' {Proc. Roy. Inst. 
vol. xiv.). Two days after Rosse 's death, 
Sir Howard [Grubb, F.R.S., exhibited 
at the Dublin meeting of the British 
Association Rosse's new development of 
apparatus for lunar heat observation. Other 
contributions comprised ' The Electric Re- 
sistance of Selenium ' {Phil. Mag. 1874) ; 
' On some Recent Improvements'made in the 
Mountings of the Telescopes at Birr Castle ' 
{Phil. Trans. 1881); 'On a Leaf-arrester, 
or Apparatus for removing Leaves, &c., 
from a Water Supply ' {Reft. Brit. Assoc. 

Lord Rosse was elected chancellor of 
Dubhn University in 1885, succeeding 
Earl Cairns, and held office tUl his death. 
In 1903, in association with the provost 
and members of the university, he issued 
an appeal for funds (subscribing hberally 
himself) to seciu:e the erection and equip- 
ment of science laboratories in Trinity 
College ; the project had a successful issue. 

The University of Oxford conferred the 
honorary degree of D.C.L. in 1870, and 
Dubhn and Cambridge Universities that 
of LL.D. in 1879 and 1900 respectively. 
Elected a feUow of the Royal Society on 19 
Dec. 1867, he served on the council (1871-2, 
1887-8), and was vice-president for those 
years. On 13 Dec. 1867 he was elected a 
fellow of the Royal Astronomical Society, 
and served on the council ( 1876-8). Rosse 
was president of the Royal Dublin Society 
(1887-92) and of the Royal Irish Academy 
(1896-1901). He was made an honorary 
member of the Institution of Mechanical 
Engineers in 1888. 

He died at Birr Castle on 30 Aug. 1908, 
and was buried in the old chiurchyard 
of Birr. He married on 1 Sept. 1870 
Frances Cassandra Harvey, only child of 
Edward WiUiam Hawke, fom-th baron 
Hawke of Towton, by his second wife, 
Frances, daughter of Walker Fetherston- 
haugh. He had issue two sons and one 
daughter. The elder son, WUliam Edward 
Parsons, succeeded to the title. 

Lord Rosse was interested in the prose- 
cution of magnetic observations at Valencia 
Observatory, Ireland, and collected a sum 
of money in furtherance of that object. 
After his death the capital was transferred 
to the trusteeship of the Royal Society, 
and is known as the ' Rosse Fund.' By 




his will he left 1000?. to the Science Schools 
Fund of Trinity College, Dubhn, and the 
Rosse telescope and all his scientific instru- 
ments, apparatus, and papers to his sons 
in order of seniority, successively, whom 
failing, to the Royal Society. He left 
2000Z. upon trust for the upkeep of the 

[Proc. Roy. Soc, vol. Ixxxiii., A. and 
Catal. Sci. Papers ; Monthly Notices Roy. 
Astron. Soc, vol. Ixix. ; Roy. Irish Acad. 
Minutes, session 1908-9, pp. 1, 8 ; Proc. 
Inst. Mechan. Eng. 1908 ; Roy. Soc. Arts 
JoTu:n., vol. Ivi. ; The Observatory, Oct. 1908 ; 
Engineering, 4 Sept. 1908 ; Nature, vol. 
Ixxxviii. ; The Times, 31 Aug., 3 Sept., 
17 Dec. 1908.] T. E. J. 

PATON, JOHN BROWN (1830-1911), 
nonconformist divine and philanthropist, 
son of Alexander Paton by his wife Mary, 
daughter of Andrew Brown of Newmilns, 
Ajrrshire, was bom on 17 Dec. 1830 at 
Galston, Ayrshire. On his father's side 
he was descended from James Paton 
{d. 1684) [q. v.], on his mother's from John 
Brown (1627 ?-1685) [q. v.], ' the Christian 
carrier.' Both his parents, who were 
brought up in distinct seceding bodies 
(burgher and anti-burgher), now be- 
longed to the united secession church, New- 
milns. The father ultimately joined the 
congregationaUsts. From Loudon parish 
school Paton passed in 1838 to the tuition 
of his maternal imcle, Andrew Morton 
Brown, D.D., congregational minister, then 
at Poole, Dorset. £1 1844 Paton was at 
Kilmarnock, where he met Alexander 
Russel [q. v.], and came imder the spell 
of James Morison (181&-1893) [q. v.]. 
Returning in 1844 to his uncle's care, now 
at Cheltenham, Paton' s futiire career was 
determined by the influence of Henry 
Rogers (1806-1877) [q. v.]. Deciding to 
become a congregational minister, he 
entered in Jan. 1847 Spring Hill College, 
Birmingham (now Mansfield College, 
Oxford), in which Rogers held the chair 
of literature and philosophy. With his 
fellow-student, Robert William Dale [q. v. 
Suppl. I], he formed a close and lifelong 
friendship. He heard Emerson lecture on 
the ' Conduct of Life ' in the Birmingham 
town hall, and attended (from 1850) the 
ministry of Robert Alfred Vaughan [q. v.], 
to whose ' intense spirituality ' he owed 
much. During his college course he 
graduated B.A. at London University in 
1849 ; gained the Hebrew and New Testa- 
ment prize there (1850), and a divinity 
scholarship (1852) on the foundation of 
Daniel Williams (1643 ?-1716) [q. v.], and 

proceeded M.A. London in 1854, both in 
classics and in philosophy (with gold medal). 

Leaving college in June 1854 he took 
charge of a mission in Wicker, a parish in 
the northern part of Sheffield. His ministry 
was eminently successful ; the Wicker 
congregational church was built in 1855 ; 
in addition, the congregation in Garden 
Street chapel, Sheffield, was revived. In 
1861 Cavendish College, Manchester, was 
started for the training of candidates for 
the congregational ministry ; Paton went 
weekly from Sheffield to take part in its 
professorial work. In 1863 the institution 
was transferred to Nottingham as the 
Congregational Institute, with Paton as 
its first principal. Temporary premises 
were exchanged for a permanent building 
(1868), and the institute gained increasing 
reputation during the thirty-five years of 
Paton' s headship. In his management of 
young men he was an ideal head ; no 
feature of his teaching was more marked 
than the skill and judgment with which 
he conducted the work of sermon-making 
and delivery. In 1882 he was made D.D. 
of Glasgow University. On his retirement 
in 1898 his portrait by Amesby Brown, 
promoted by a committee headed by the 
archbishop of Canterbury (Temple), was 
presented on 26 Oct. 1898 by the bishop 
of Hereford (Percival) to the city of 
Nottingham, and is now in the Castle 
Museum (a replica was given to Paton). 

Paton' s beneficent activity took other 
than denominational directions. A visit to 
Kaiserswerth had impressed him with the 
idea of the co-operation of all creeds to 
bring the influence of religion to the re- 
generation of society. In conjunction with 
Canon Morse, vicar of St. Mary's, Notting- 
ham, he promoted a series of university 
lectures which led the way to the estab- 
lishment of the Nottingham University 
College in 1880. It was due to Paton 's 
suggestion that the bishop of Lincoln 
(Wordsworth) sent a letter of sympathy 
in 1872 to the Old Catholics (MarchanT, 
p. 289). Greatly interested in the Inner 
ilission, foimded in 1848 by Dr. Wichem of 
Hamburg, he took an active share in plans 
for the raising of social conditions, e.g. 
home colonisation with small land-holders, 
the co-operative banks movement, the 
social purity crusade. Among societies 
of which he was the founder were the 
' National Home Reading Union ' (1889), 
suggested by the account given by Sir 
Joshua Girling Fitch [q. v. Suppl. II] of 
' The Chautauqua Reading Circle ' in the 
' Nineteenth Century,' Oct. 1888. He also 




instituted the ' Bible Reading and Prayer 
Union ' (1892) ; the 'English Land Colonisa- 
tion Society,' 1892 (now the ' Co-operative 
Small Holders Association ' ) ; the Boys' 
(1900) and Girls' (1903) Life Brigades; the 
Young Men's and Young Women's Brigade 
of Service (1905); and the Boys' and Girls' 
League of Honour (1906). He was president 
of the Licensing Laws Information Bureau 
(1898-1902), and vice-president of the 
British Institute for Social Service (1904), 
and of the British and Foreign Bible 
Society (1907). 

Paton, in conjunction with Dale, edited 
(1858-61) 'The Eclectic Review.' With 
F. S. Williams, his colleague, he edited a 
'Home Mission and Tract Series' (1865). 
He was a consulting editor (1882-8) of the 
' Contemporary Review,' to which, at his 
urgent request, Lightfoot previously con- 
tributed (1874^7) his articles on ' Super- 
natural Religion ' (Marchant, p. 76). In 
conjunction with Sir Percy William Bunting 
[q. V. Suppl. II], editor of the ' Contem- 
porary Review,' and the Rev. Alfred Ernest 
Garvie, he edited a series of papers entitled 
' Christ and Civilisation ' (1910), his last 

He died at Nottingham on 26 Jan. 1911, 
and was buried in the general cemetery, 
where the service at the graveside (after a 
nonconformist service in Castlegate chapel) 
was conducted by the bishop of Hereford 
(Percival) and the dean of Norwich (Wake- 
field), now bishop of Birmingham. He 
married Jessie, daughter of William P. 
Paton of Glasgow, and was survived by 
three sons and two daughters ; his son, 
John Lewis, is high master of the Man- 
chester grammar school. 

James Marchant, Paton's biographer, 
gives a bibliography of his publications to 
1909, including leaflets. Among them may 
be noted : 1. ' The Origin of the Priest- 
hood in the Christian Church,' 1877. 
2. ' Christianity and the Wellbeing of the 
People. The Inner Mission of Germany,' 
1885; 2nd edit. 1900. 3. 'The Two- 
fold Alternative . . . Materialism or Re- 
ligion ... a Priestly Caste or a Christian 
Brotherhood,' 1889; 4th edit. 1909. 4. 
' Criticisms and Essays,' vol. i. 1895 ; vol. ii. 
1897. 5. ' Christ's Miracle of To-day,' 1905. 
6. 'The Life, Faith and Prayer of the 
Church,' 1909, 16mo (four sermons). 7. 
' Present Remedies for Unemployment,' 

[James Marchant, J. B. Paton, 1909 (two 
portraits and autobiographical fragment) ; 
University of London General Register, 1860 ; 
W. J. Addison, Roll of Graduates, Glasgow, 

1898; Who's Who, 1911; The Times, 27 
and 30 Jan. and 1 Feb. 1911 ; R. Cochrane's 
Beneficent and Useful Lives, 1890, pp. 146- 
159 (for account of the National Home 
Reading Union).] A. G. 

PATON, JOHN GIBSON (1824-1907), 
missionary to the New Hebrides, bom on 
24 May 1824 at Braehead, Earkmahoe, 
Dumfriesshire, was eldest of the eleven 
children (five sons and six daughters) of 
James Paton, a peasant stocking-maker, 
by his wife Janet Jardine Rogerson. Both 
parents were of covenanting stock and 
rigid adherents of the ' Reformed Presby- 
terian Church of Scotland,' which still repre- 
sented the faith of the covenanters. When 
Paton was five years old, the family 
removed to Torthorwold, a few miles 
from Dumfries, where his parents passed 
the remaining forty years of their lives. 
Here he attended the parish school, till, 
in his twelfth year, he was put to his 
father's trade of stocking-making. Paton 
soon freed himself from the family work- 
shop, and began to support and educate 
himself. He put himself for six weeks — 
all he could afford — to Dumfries Academy ; 
he served vmder the surveyors for the 
ordnance map of Dumfries ; he hired 
himself at the fair as a farm labourer ; he 
taught, when he could get opportunity, in 
schools, and even for a time set up a school 
for himself ; but every spare moment was 
devoted to serious study. At last he 
settled down for ten years as a city mis- 
sionary in a then very neglected part of 
Glasgow, where he created an excellent 
school and put the whole district in order. 

The ' Reformed Church,' by which John 
Paton was ordained, had already a single 
missionary, the Rev. John Inglis, at Anei- 
tyum, the southernmost of the New Hebrides 
Islands in the South Seas ; and the elders 
of the church were seeking somewhat vainly 
for volimteers to join in that hazardous 
enterprise. Paton offered himself, and 
was accepted. On 1 Dec. 1857 he was 
licensed as a preacher, in his thirty-third 
year, and on 23 March following he was 
ordained. With his newly married young 
wife, Mary Ann Robson, he reached the 
mission station at Aneityum on 30 Aug., 
and the pair were soon sent on to establish 
a new station in the island of Tanna, the 
natives of which were then entirely 
untouched by Western civihsation, except 
in so far as they had from time to time 
been irritated by aggression on the part of 
sandalwood traders. The young Scotch- 
man and his wife, without any experience 




of the world outside the small body to 
which they belonged, were thus the first 
white residents in an island full of naked 
and painted wildmen, cannibals, utterly 
regardless of the value of even their own 
lives, and without any sense of mutual 
kindness and obUgation. A few months 
later, in March 1859, a child was bom to 
this strangely placed couple, and in a few 
days more wife and child were both dead. 

Paton, alone but for another missionary 
on the other and almost inaccessible side 
of the island, was left for four years to 
persuade the Tannese to his own way of 
thinking. In May 1861 a Canadian mis- 
sionary and his wife, on the neighbouring 
island of Erromango, were massacred ; and 
the Tannese, encouraged by the example, 
redoubled their attacks on Paton, who, 
after many hairbreadth escapes, got safely 
away from Tanna, with the loss of all his 
worldly property except his Bible and some 
translations which he had made into the 
island language during his four years of 

From Tanna Paton reached New South 
Wales, where he knew no one, walked into 
a church, pleaded successfiilly for a few 
minutes' hearing, and spoke with such effect 
that from that moment he entered on the 
career of special work which was to occupy 
the remaining forty-five years of his long 
life. His main objects — in which he 
succeeded to a marvellous degree — were to 
provide missionaries for each of the New 
Hebridean islands, and to provide a ship 
for the missionary service. As the direct 
result of his extraordinary personality and 
power of persuasion, the ' John G. Paton 
Mission Fund ' was estabHshed in 1890 
to carry on the work permanently. 
Returning for the first time to Scotland 
(1863^), he there married again, and with 
his new wife and certain missionaries whom 
he had persuaded to join in his work was 
back in the Pacific early in 1865. After 
placing the new missionaries in various 
islands, Paton himself settled on the small 
island of Aniwa, the headquarters whence 
from 1866 to 1881 he contrived to make 
his influence felt. After 1881 his 'frequent 
deputation pilgrimages among the churches 
in Great Britain and the colonies rendered 
his visits to Aniwa few and far between,' 
and his headquarters were at Melbourne. 

In addition to his special work as mission- 
ary he took considerable part in moving 
the civil authorities — not merely British, 
but also those of the United States — to 
check the dangerous local traffic in strong 
drink and firearms. He also resisted the 

recruiting of native labour from the 
islands ; and he lost no opportunity of 
protesting against the growth of non- 
British influence in the same places. 

During a visit home in 1884, at the 
suggestion of his youngest brother. Dr. James 
Paton, the missionary somewhat reluctantly 
undertook to write his autobiography. 
James Paton (1843-1906), who had also 
passed from the ministry of the * reformed ' 
to that of the Free Church of Scotland, and 
had graduated D.D. of Glasgow University, 
shaped his brother's rough notes into a book 
which, first published in 1889, has played 
a great part in spreading Paton's iafluence. 
His last years were spent almost wholly 
in Melbourne. He died there on 28 Jan. 
1907, and was buried in Boroondaza 

Paton's second wife, Margaret, whom he 
married at Edinburgh in 1864, was daughter 
of John Whitecross, author of certain 
books of scriptural anecdote, and was 
herself a woman of great piety and strong 
character. She showed literary ability in 
her ' Letters and Sketches from the New 
Hebrides ' (1894), and remarkable power of 
organisation in her work for the Australian 
' Presbyterian Women's Missionary Union.' 
She was of the greatest assistance to her 
husband up to the time of her death on 
16 May 1905 ; in her memory a church was 
erected at Vila, now the centre of admini- 
stration in the New Hebrides. By her 
Paton had two daughters and three sons. 
Two sons became missionaries in the 
New Hebrides ; and one daughter married 
a missionary there. 

[John G. Paton, Missionary to the New 
Hebrides : an Autobiography, edited by his 
brother, the Rev. James Paton, D.D., with 
portrait and map (2 pts. 1889) ; vol. i. 1891 ; 
• re-arranged and edited for young folks,' 
1892 and 1893 (a penny edition) ; Letters 
and Sketches from the New Hebrides, by 
Mrs. John G. Paton, 1894 ; John G. Paton, 
Later Years and Farewell : a Sequel, by A. K. 
Langridge and (Paton's son) Frank H. L. 
Paton, 1910 ; The Triumph of the Gospel 
in the New Hebrides, by Frank H. L. Paton, 
1903.] E. IM T. 

1901), artist,' bom on 13 December 1821, at 
Dunfermline,^ was elder son of Joseph Neil 
Paton, designer of patterns for damask 
(the staple industry of the town), who was 
a collector of works of art and after many 
phases of religious development became 
a Swedenborgian. His mother, Catherine 
MacDiarmid, who claimed descent from 
Malcolm Canmore, through the Robertsons 




of Struan, was an enthusiast for fairy-tales 
and the traditions and legends of the 
Highlands. His younger brother, Waller 
Hugh [q. v.], was the landscape-painter, and 
one of his two sisters, Amelia (1820-1904), 
who married David Octavius Hill [q. v.], 
modelled with skill and executed several 
pubUc statues of merit. At an early age 
the boy Joseph, who read \ndely, was 
impressed by the designs, as well as the 
poetry, of Wilham Blake. By the time he 
was fourteen he had made a series of 
illustrations to the Bible. After completing 
his general education at a local school, he 
in 1839 assisted his father in designing, 
and for the next three years (1840-42) 
held a situation as a designer for sewed 
muslins in Paisley. His leisure was devoted 
to art, and he commenced to paint in oUs. 
In 1843 he entered the schools of the Royal 
Academy in London, where he began a 
lifelong friendship with (Sir) John Everett 
Millais [q. v. Suppl. I], but the Academy 
training proved uncongenial, and Paton 
soon went north again. Senior to the Pre- 
Raphaehtes by a few years, Paton sym- 
pathised with their ideals, and anticipated 
some of their practice, but he did not share 
their ardour for reaUty, and his pictures, 
being more conventional both in subject 
and in style than theirs, more readily won 
popular approval. In the Westminster HaU 
competitions, held in connection with the 
decoration of the Houses of Parliament, 
Paton was awarded in 1845, when he 
was only twenty-four, one of the three 
200Z. premiums for his cartoon ' The Spirit 
of Religion or The Battle of the Soul,' and 
in 1847 the sum of 300/. for his oil-paint- 
ings of ' The Reconciliation of Oberon and 
Titania ' and ' Christ bearing the Cross,' 
a colossal canvas. To ' The Reconcilia- 
tion ' (1847) Paton soon added a com- 
panion painting, 'The Quarrel of Oberon 
and Titania' (1849), the former being 
purchased by the Royal Scottish Academy, 
the latter by the Royal Association ; both 
are now in the National Gallery of Scotland. 
They received enthusiastic welcome, and 
thenceforth Paton enjoyed an outstanding 
position, at any rate in Scotland. Elected 
an associate of the Royal Scottish Academy 
in 1847, he became an academician in 1850. 
From 1856 to 1869 Paton exhibited 
fourteen pictures at the Royal Academy, 
and diuing that period fully maintained 
his popularity as painter of scenes from 
fairy tale or history. ' Home from the 
Crimea ' (1856) was one of the few pictures 
in which the artist touched contemporary 
life. He showed technical accomplishment 

and intensity of feeling in ' Luther at 
Erfurt' (1861). 'The Fairy Raid' (1867) 
evinced abundant fancy. Other notable 
works of this time were ' Dante meditating 
the Episode of Francesca da Rimini ' 
(1852); 'The Dead Lady' (1854); 'In 
Memoriam' (1857); 'Hesperus' (1858), now 
in the Glasgow Gallerv ; ' The Bluidie 
Tryste' (1858); ' The ' Dowie Dens of 
Yarrow' series (1860). 'The Pursuit of 
Pleasure ' (1855) is the first work in which 
Paton's strong leaning to allegory was 
revealed. In 1865 Paton was made by 
Queen Victoria Her Majesty's Limner for 
Scotland, and he was knighted in 1867. 
Meantime, while not wholly abandoning 
fanciful or romantic subjects, he devoted 
his chief strength to rehgious themes. 
' Mors Janua Vitse,' shown in 1866 at the 
Royal Academy, marks the begi nnin g of 
the series to which belong ' Faith and 
Reason' (1871) ; 'Satan watching the Sleep 
of Christ' (1874); 'Lux in^Tenebris' 
(1879) ; ' In Die Malo ' (1881) ; ' VigUate 
et Orate ' (1885), painted for Queen 
Victoria; 'The Choice' (1886); and ' Beati 
Mimdo Corde' (1890). These large pictures 
were not shown in the usual exhibitions, 
but were sent on tour all over the country, 
with footUghts and a lecturer ; they 
proved highly popular, and long Lists of 
subscribers for reproductions were secured. 
But their artistic value and interest were 
small, and Paton's reputation among 
connoisseurs declined. 

Paton's gift was that of an illustrator. 
He valued intention more highly than 
execution, and set moral purpose above 
aesthetic charm. His work lacks the 
true effects of colour. Technically liis 
strongest qualities were drawing, which 
was correct and was marked by a 
sense of suave beauty; the design, if 
wanting in simplicity and concentration, 
was usually learned and accomplished. 
His draughtsmanship is seen at its 
best perhaps in his drawings and studies 
in black and white, and in the outline 
compositions he made in illustration of 
Coleridge's ' Ancient Mariner ' (issued by 
the Art Union of London in 1864) and 
other poems. This feeling for form and 
design also foimd an outlet in some graceful 
works in sculpture and in a few ambitious 
projects of a monumental kind. 

Paton's interests were varied. Widely 
read, he pubhshed two volumes of verse, 
' Poems by a Painter ' (1861) and ' Spin- 
drift' (1867), marked by considerable 
charm and originaUty, mainly dealing with 
themes similar to those of his pictvires. 




The delightful song, ' With the Sunshine and 
the Swallows and the Floweis,' set to music 
by the Rev. Dr. John Park, is widely known. 
His fine collection of art-objects and of arms 
and armour, which was admirably arranged 
in his Edinburgh house, 33 George Square, 
was purchased after his death, largely by 
public subscription, and placed in the Royal 
Scottish Museum, Chambers Street, Edin- 
burgh. Paton was made hon. LL.D. by 
Edinburgh University in 1876, and on 
two occasions, in 1876 and again in 1891, he 
was offered the presidentship of the Royal 
Scottish Academy. He died at Edinburgh 
on 26 Dec. 1901, and was buried in the 
Dean cemetery. 

In 1858 Paton married Margaret {d. April 
1900), daughter of Alexander Ferrier, 
Bloomhill, Dumbartonshire ; by her he had 
issue seven sons and four daughters. The 
eldest son, Dr. Diarmid Noel Paton, is pro- 
fessor of physiology in Glasgow University. 

In the Scottish National Portrait Gallery 
there is a marble bust of Paton by his sister, 
Mrs. Hill. Other portraits are a picture 
by his son Ranald, painter, and a bust by 
another son, who became a lawyer. 

[Scotsman, and The Times, 27 Dec. 1901 ; 
Easter number. Art Jotunal, by A. T. Story, 
1895 ; Scots Pictorial, 28 Aug. 1897 ; exhi- 
bition catalogues ; Ruskin's Notes on the 
Royal Academy, 1856 and 1858; R.S.A. 
Report, 1902 ; catalogue, National Gallery 
of Scotland ; J. L. Caw's Scottish painting, 
1908 ; The English Pre-Raphaelites, by Percy 
Bate ; private information.] J. L. C. 

PAUL, CHARLES KEGAN (1828-1902), 
author and publisher, son of the Rev. 
Charles Paul (1802-1861), by his wife 
Frances Kegan Home (1802-1848), was bom 
on 8 March 1828 at White Lackington near 
Ilminster, Somersetshire, where his father 
was curate. He was educated first at Il- 
minster grammar school vmder the Rev. 
John Allen and afterwards at Eton, where 
he entered Dr. Hawtrey's house in 1841. 
He matriculated at Exeter College, Oxford, 
in January 1846, and in 1849 made the 
acquaintance of Charles Kingsley, whose 
contagious energy greatly impressed him. 
Tractarian theories did not appeal to him, 
and he showed a leaning towards broad 
church views in theology. Graduating B.A. 
in October 1849, he was ordained deacon 
in the Lent of 1851, and accepted the 
curacy of Tew, in the diocese of Oxford. 
Friendship with Kingsley brought him into 
association with F. D. Maurice, Tom Hughes, 
J. M. Ludlow, and other co-operative and 
Christian socialist leaders. He was now 

broadly high church in doctrine, given to 
ritualism, and a radical in politics. About 
this time he took up the practice of mes- 
merism. In 1852, when he was ordained 
priest, he became curate of Bloxham, 
near Banbury, travelled in Germany 
with pupils, and in November 1853 was 
given a ' conductship ' or chaplaincy 
at Eton College. In 1853 appeared his 
first Uterary production, a sermon on ' The 
Communion of Saints.' He became a 
vegetarian and turned his attention to 
Positivism, and was appointed a ' Master 
in College ' {Memories, p. 205) in 1854. 
Two years later he married Margaret Agnes 
Col vile (youngest sister of Sir James W. 
Colvile [q. v.]). He contributed to the 
' Tracts for Priests and People,' brought 
out by Maurice and Tom Hughes, one on 
'The Boundaries of the Church' (1861), in 
which he stated that the very minimum 
of dogma was required from lay members 
of the Church of England. These views 
brought down upon him the wrath of 
Bishop Wilberforce. He left Eton in 
1862 to become vicar of an Eton living at 
Sturminster Marshall, Dorsetshire. As the 
endowment was small, he took pupils. In 
1870 he joined a unitarian society called 
the Free Christian Union. In 1872 he 
associated himself with Joseph Arch's 
movement on behalf of the agricultural 
labourers in Dorset, and in 1873 he edited 
the new series of the ' New Quarterly 
Magazine.' He gradually found himself 
out of sympathy with the teaching of the 
Church of England, and in 1874 threw up 
his living and came to London. In 1876 
appeared his most noteworthy production, 
' Wilham Godwin, his Friends and Contem- 
poraries,' with portraits and illustrations, 
2 vols. The work was undertaken at the 
request of Sir Percy Shelley, Godwin's 
grandson, who placed at Paul's disposal 
a mass of unpublished documents, which 
he used with judgment. 

For some years Paul had acted as reader 
for Henry Samuel King, publisher, of Com- 
hill, who brought out several of his books ; 
King in 1877 relinquished the publishing 
part of his business and Paul took it 
over, inaugurating the house of C. Kegan 
Paul and Co. at No. 1 Paternoster Square. 
Paul thus succeeded King as Tennyson's 
publisher. Among Paul's earliest publica- 
tions were the 'Nineteenth Century,' the 
new monthly periodical (1877), the works 
of George William Cox [q. v. Suppl. II], 
the * Parchment Library of English 
Classics,' Tennyson's works in one volume, 
the 'International Scientific' series (begun 




by H. S. King), some works of Thomas 
Hardy, George Meredith, and R. L. Steven- 
son, and Badger's English-Arabic Lexicon. 
One of his ventures was to give 5000 
guineas for the ' Last Journals of General 
Gordon,' which cost the firm 7000/. before 
a single copy was ready. Li 1881 Mr. 
Alfred Trench, son of the archbishop, 
joined the frrm, now styled Kegan Paul, 
Trench & Co. After various vicissitudes, 
including a calamitous fire in 1883, Messrs. 
Triibner & Co. and George Redway joined 
the firm in 1889, and the amalgama- 
tion was converted into a limited company 
under the style of Kegan Paul, Trench, 
Triibner & Co., Ltd. They moved into 
large *new premises, called Paternoster 
House, in Charing Cross Road, in 1891, 
and for some years the business was 
prosperous. In 1895 the profits of the 
publishing firm fell with alarming abrupt- 
ness, the directors resigned, and the capital 
was reduced. Paul at the same time lost 
money as director of the Hansard Printing 
and PubUshing Company, and other 
enterprises. Paul's publishing concern 
is now incorporated in that of Messrs.- 
Rout ledge; 

Meanwhile from 1888 Paul began to 
attend mass, and in 1890 during a visit to 
France he decided to enter the catholic 
church, and made his submission at the 
church of the Servites at Fulham on 12 Aug. 
1890. His new views were displayed in 
tracts on 'Miracle' (1891), 'Abstinence 
and Moderation ' (1891), and ' Celibacy ' 
(1899), issued by the CathoUc Truth Society, 
and an edition of ' The Temperance 
Speeches ' of Cardinal Manning (1894). A 
volume of 'Memories' (1899), which is 
interesting for its stories of early school 
and Eton Hfe, ends with his conversisn. 

Li 1895 Paul was run over in Kensing- 
ton Road, and never recovered from the 
accident. He died in London on 19 July 
1902, in his seventy-fifth year, and was 
buried at Kensal Green. 

A portrait painted by Mrs. Anna Lea 
Merritt is in the possession of Miss R. M: 
Paul, his daughter. 

Paul also wrote : 1. ' Reading Book for 
Evening Schools,' 1864. 2. 'Shelley Mem- 
orials, from Authentic Sources,' 3rd edition, 
1874. 3. ' Mary Wollstonecraf t [afterwards 
Mrs. Godwin], Letters to Lnlay, with Pre- 
fatory Memoir,' 1879 (expanded from 
' Godwin, his Friends, &c.'). 4. 'Biographical 
Sketches,' 1883 (Edward Ijving, John Keble, 
Maria Hare, Rowland Williams, Charles 
Kingsley, George EUot, John Henry Xew- 
man). 5. ' Faith and Unfaith and other 

VOL. LXIX. — SUP. n. 

Essays,' 1891 ('The Production and Life of 
Books ' deals with the ethics and practice 
of publishing). 6. ' Maria Drummond, a 
Sketch,' 1891 (Mrs. Drummond of Fredley, 
near Dorking, widow of Thomas Drummond 
(1797-1840] [q.v.]). 7. ' Confessio Viatoris,' 
1891 (religious development elaborated in 
' Memories '). 8. ' On the Way Side, Verses 
and Translations,' 1899. 

Paul also published several translations 
including ' Goethe's Faust, in Rime ' (1873) 
(a careful piece of work in the metres of the 
original) ; ' Pascal's Thoughts ' ( 1 885, several 
reissues); *De Lnitatione' (1907); and he 
edited with a preface ' The Genius of 
Christianity unveiled, being Essays never 
before published ; by William Godwin ' 

[Family information ; Paul's Memories, 1899 ; 
Allibone, Diet. Eng. Lit. Suppl., 1891 ; 
Athenaeum, 26 July 1902; The Publishers' 
Circular, 26 July 1902 (with a portrait after 
a photograph) ; Bookseller, 7 Aug. 1902 ; The 
Times, 21 July 1902 ; Who's Who, 1902.] 

H. R. T. 

PAUL, WILLIAM ;(1822-1905),^horti- 
culturist, bom at Churchgate, Cheshunt, 
Hertfordshire, on 16 June 1822, was second 
son of Adam Paul, a nurseryman of Hugue- 
not descent, who cajne to London from 
Aberdeenshire towards the close of the 
eighteenth century and purchased the 
Cheshunt nursery in 1806. After educa- 
tion at a private school at Waltham Cross, 
William joined his father's business. On 
Adam Paul's death in 1847 the business 
was carried on as A. Paul & Son by Wilham 
and his elder brother Greorge. In 1860 
this partnership was dissolved. William 
Paul & Son carried on the Waltham Cross 
nursery, which he had founded a year 
before, while George established the firm 
of Paul & Son at Cheshimt. 

John Claudius Loudon [q. v.] before his 
death in 1843 discovered Paul's hterary 
abihties, and for him Paul did early literary 
work. He afterwards helped John Lindley 
[q. v.], for whom, in 1843, he wrote the 
articles in the ' Gardeners' Chronicle ' 
on ' Roses in Pots,' which were issued 
separately in the same year, and reached 
a ninth edition in 1908. Paul's book, 
' The Rose Garden,' which was first pub- 
lished in 1848, and reached its tenth 
edition in 1903, has enjoyed the unique 
fortime of maintaining a pre-eminent 
authority for sixty years. It is a practical 
treatise, to which Paul's wide reading 
gave a hterary character. Coloured illus- 
trations long rendered the book expensive ; 




later editions were issued in two forms, 
with and without these plates. 

Paul served on the committee of the 
National Floricultural Society from 1851 
until it was dissolved in 1858, when 
the floral committee of the Royal Horti- 
cultural Society was estabhshed. In July 
1858 he joined the National Rose 
Society, which Samuel Reynolds Hole [q. v. 
Suppl. II] had just fotinded, and in 1866 
he was one of the executive committee of 
twenty-one members for the great Inter- 
national Horticultural Exhibition. He also 
acted as a commissioner for the Paris 
Exhibition of 1867. Paul was elected a 
fellow of the Linnean Society in 1875, and 
received the Victoria medal of horticulture 
when it was first instituted in 1897. 

Although best known as a rosarian, 
Paul from the outset of his career devoted 
attention to the improvement of other 
races of plants, such as hollyhocks, asters, 
hyacinths, phloxes, camellias, zonal pelar- 
goniums, hoUies, ivies, shrubs, fruit-trees, 
and Brussels sprouts. He dealt with 
these subjects in ' American Plants, their 
History and Culture ' (1858), the ' Lecture 
on the Hyacinth' (1864), and papers on 
'An Hour with the Hollyhock' (1851) and 
on ' Tree Scenery ' (1870-2). He contributed 
papers on the varieties of yew and holly 
to the ' Proceedings ' of the Royal Horti- 
cultural Society (1861, 1863). In addition 
to ' The Rose Annual,' wliich he issued 
from 1858 to 1881, Paul was associated with 
his friends Dr. Robert Hogg and Thomas 
Moore in the editorship of ' The Florist 
and Pomologist' from 1868 to 1874. 
The practical knowledge with which he 
wrote of varied types of plant life impressed 
Charles Darwin (cf. Animals and Plants 
under Domestication, vol. ii.). Clear and 
fluent as a speaker, he proved an accept- 
able lecturer. One of his best lectures, 
' Improvements in Plants,' at Manchester 
in 1869, was included in his ' Contributions 
to Horticultural Literature, 1843-1892' 

Paul died of a paralytic seizure on 
31 March 1905, and was buried in the 
family vault at Cheshunt cemetery. His 
wife, Amelia Jane Harding, predeceased 
him. His business was carried on by his 
son, Arthur WilUam Paul. The rich library of 
old gardening books and general literature, 
which he collected at his residence, Waltham 
House, was sold at Sotheby's after his death, 
but many volumes were bought by his son. 

Besides the works mentioned, Paul 
was author of: 1. 'Villa Gardening,' 1865; 
3rd revised edit. 1876. 2. A shilling 

brochure, ' Roses and Rose-Culture,' 1874; 
11th edit. 1910. 3. ' The Future of Epping 
Forest,' 1880. 

^ [Garden, Ivii. (1900), 166 ; Ixiii. (1903), pre- 
face with portrait ; and Ixvii. (1905), 213 ; 
Journal of Horticulture, 1. (1905), 305 (with 
portrait) ; Gardeners' Chron. 1905, i. 216, 
231 ; Proc. Linnean Soc. 1904-5, 46-7.] 

C S Ti 

Babon Pauncefote of Pbeston (1828- 
1902), lawyer and diplomatist, born at 
Munich on 13 Sept. 1828, was second son 
of Robert Pauncefote (formerly Smith) of 
Preston Court, Gloucestershire (1788-1843), 
by his wife Emma {d. 1853), daughter 
of R. Smith. His paternal grandfather, 
Thomas Smith, of Gedling, Nottingham- 
shire, and Foel Allt, Wales, was first cousin 
of Robert Smith, first baron Carrington. 
Educated partly at Marlborough College, 
partly at Paris and Geneva, JuUan was 
called to the bar as a member of the Inner 
Temple on 4 -May 1852. He was private 
secretary to Sir WiUiam Molesworth, eighth 
baronet [q. v.], during the latter's short 
term of office as secretary of state for the 
colonies in 1855. On Molesworth's death 
he returned to the bar and practised as a 
conveyancer. In 1862 he went to Hong 
Kong, where there was an opening for a 
barrister, and three years afterwards he 
received the appointment of attorney- 
general in that colony. This office he held 
for seven years, acting for the chief justice 
of the supreme court when the latter was 
absent on leave, and preparing ' The Hong 
Kong Code of Civil Procedure.' 

In 1872 he was appointed chief justice 
of the Leeward Islands, which had recently 
been amalgamated in one colony. On 
quitting Hong Kong he was formally 
thanked for his services by the executive 
and legislative councils, and received the 
honour of knighthood. He took up his 
new appointment in 1874, opened the new 
federal court, and put the administration of 
justice into working order. Towards the 
end of the year he returned to England and 
succeeded Sir Henry Holland, now Viscount 
Knutsf ord, as legal assistant under-secretary 
in the colonial office. In 1876, on the 
recommendation of a committee of the 
I House of Commons, a similar post was 
created at the foreign office, and was 
bestowed by Lord Derby, then foreign 
secretary, on Pauncefote, who was speciaUy 
quaUfied for it by his knowledge of French. 
His services were recognised by the 
bestowal on him of the K.C.M.G. in 
Jan. 1880, and of the C.B. three months 




later. After doing much political work in 
addition to his normal duties, owing to the 
long illness of Charles Stuart Aubrey Abbott, 
third baron Tenterden [q. v.], the per- 
manent under-secretary of state, and the 
infirm health of other members of the staff, 
Pauncefote, on Lord Tenterden's death in 
1882, was appointed by Earl GranviUe, then 
foreign secretary, to the vacant place, while 
he continued to superintend the legal work. 
In 1885 he and Sir Charles Rivers Wilson 
took part in the international commission at 
Paris concerning the free navigation of the 
Suez Canal, and were largely concerned in 
the draft settlement on which was based 
the convention of Constantinople (29 Oct. 
1888). He was created G.C.M.G. at the 
close of 1885, and K.C.B. in 1888. 

On 2 April 1889 Pauncefote was ap- 
pointed envoy extraordinary and minister 
plenipotentiary to the Uniteii States ; Lord 
Salisbury had left the office vacant for 
some months after the abrupt dismissal 
of Lord Sackville [q. v. Suppl. II]. At 
Washington, Pauncefote by his personal 
influence contributed materially to the 
solution of the various differences, some 
of them sufficiently acute, which arose 
between the two countries, and rendered 
invaluable service in producing a more 
friendly feeling towards Great Britain in 
the United States. His patience, urbanity, 
and habits of complete and impartial study 
of compUcated details combined with his 
legal training greatly to assist him in dealing 
-vvith American poUticians and officials, most 
of whom were lawyers. Among the most 
critical questions with which he had to 
deal were the claim of the United States 
to prevent pelagic sealing by Canadian 
vessels in the Behring Sea, a question 
which, after passing through some menacing 
phases, was eventually referred to the 
decision of an arbitral tribimal at Paris in 
February 1892 ; an arrangement was con- 
cluded for a modus vivendi pending the 
award. A second question, which con- 
cerned the boimdary between Venezuela 
and British Guiana, was taken up by the 
United States government in 1895, and the 
unusual tenour and wording of President 
Cleveland's message to Congress on the 
subject, in December, threatened at one 
moment serious comphcations. The 
matter was referred in February 1897 to an 
arbitral tribunal at Paris, which in October 
1899 decided substantially in favour of 
the British claim. In the discussions and 
negotiations which preceded the outbreak 
of war between the United States and 
Spain, in April 1898, Pauncefote tactfully 

sought with the representatives of the 
great European powers to seciure a pacific 
arrangement without suggesting any in- 
difference to freedom and good government 
in Cuba. Pauncefote's prudence through- 
out the period of the war did much to 
establish a lasting friendship between 
England and the United States. 

In 1893, after it had been ascertained 
that such a step would be agreeable to the 
United States government, the British 
representative at Washington was raised 
from the rank of envoy to that of am- 
bassador. Other great powers followed 
suit, and Pauncefote, as the senior am- 
bassador, was of much service in settling 
various questions of precedence and etiquette- 
consequent on the change. 

In 1897, after prolonged negotiations, he 
concluded a convention with the United 
States for the settlement by arbitration 
of differences between the two countries. 
The convention, however, was not approved 
by the senate, and remained unratified. 

In 1899 Pauncefote was appointed 
senior British delegate at the first Hague 
conference which met to devise means for 
the limitation of armaments and the 
pacific settlement of international differ- 
ences. Pauncefote here rendered his most 
important service to the cause of peace. 
Insuperable obstacles were soon apparent 
to the general acceptance of any binding 
obligation to reduce armaments or to 
submit disputes to arbitration. Paunce- 
fote, therefore, ably assisted the president, 
M. de Staal, in setting the conference to 
work, as the best alternative, on establishing 
a suitable permanent tribunal of arbitra- 
tion, to which voluntary recourse could at 
any time be readily had, and which other 
powers might bind themselves to recom- 
mend to disputants. In framing the 
needful machinery Pauncefote gave un- 
ostentatious but most efficient assistance, 
and shared with the president the credit 
of the success attained. On his return 
to England, after the termination of the 
conference, he was raised to the peerage on 
18 Aug. 1898. The remaining years of his 
hfe were spent as British ambassador in 
the United States. In February 1900 he 
signed with Mr. John Hay, the United 
States secretary of state, a convention 
designed to replace the provisions of the 
Clayton-Bulwer treaty of 19 April 1850 
with regard to the construction of a canal 
across the Isthmus of Panama. The 
convention, however, failed to secure con- 
firmation by the senate, and was not 
ratified. A second convention (' the 





Hay-Pavmcefote treaty') signed by him on 
18 Nov. 1901 was more fortunate. By its 
provisions the ships of all nations passing 
through the canal were placed on an equal 
footing, and the United States government 
precluded itself from imposing preferential 
dues. Nevertheless, and in spite of the 
protests of the British government, the 
United States government passed in Aug. 
1912 a law allowing free passage through 
the canal to American coasting vessels. 

Growing years, the climate of Washing- 
ton, the constant strain of work, and 
sedentary habits had by 1901 seriously 
impaired Pauncefote's naturally vigorous 
constitution, and he died at Washington, 
of a prolonged attack of gout, on 24 May 
1902. He had been made Hon. LL.D. 
of Harvard and Columbia Universities 
in 1900. His death called forth unpre- 
cedented expressions of pubhc regret in 
the United States ; the funeral ceremony 
in Washington was attended by the 
president and by the leading 'authorities, 
and the United States government, with 
the assent of the British government, con- 
veyed the body to England in a United 
States vessel of war. The burial took place 
at St. Oswald's Church, Stoke near Newark. 
A fine monument, executed in bronze by 
Greorge Wade, has been placed at the head 
of the grave in the churchyard by his 
widow and daughters. 

Pauncefote married on 14 Sept. 1859 
Sehna Fitzgerald, daughter of Major 
WiUiam Cubitt, of Catfield, Norfolk. By 
her he had one son, who died in infancy, 
and fo\ir daughters. . 

An excellent portrait by Benjamin 
Constant is in the possession of Lady 
Pauncefote, and a copy is at Marlborough 
College. A cartoon portrait appeared in 
; Vanity Fair' in 1883. 

[The Times, 26, 27, 30 May 1902 ; Foreign 
Office List, 1902, p. 194 ; Papers laid before 
Parliament.] S. 

1911), physician, bom at Wroughton, Wilt- 
shire, on 29 May 1829, was son of William 
Pavy, a maltster there, by Mary his wife. 
Educated at Merchant Taylors' School in 
Suffolk Lane, London, where he entered in 
Jan. 1840, he experienced a Spartan disci- 
pline under James Bellamy, the headmaster, 
father of Dr. James Bellamy [q. v. Suppl. II]. 
He proceeded to Guy's Hospital in 1848, and 
matriculated at the University of London. 
Here he gained honours at the intermediate 
examination in medicine in 1850, and the 
scholarship and medal in materia medica 

and pharmaceutical chemistry. In 1852 
he graduated M.B. with honours in physi- 
ology and comparative anatomy, obstetric 
medicine and surgery, and the medal in 
medicine (the medal in surgery being gained 
by Joseph, afterwards Lord, Lister). Pavy 
then served as house surgeon and house phy- 
sician at Guy's Hospital, and in 1853 he went 
to Paris and joined the English Medical 
Society of Paris, of which he became a vice- 
president. The society met in a room near 
the Luxembourg and owned a small library. 
It was the rendezvous of the English medical 
students, where they met weekly to read 
papers and to report interesting cases. In 
Paris Pavy came more especially under the 
influence of Claude Bernard, who was at 
this time giving a course of experimental 
lectures on the role and natvire of glycogen 
and the phenomena of diabetes. Pavy made 
the study of diabetes the work of his life 
and imitated his master in the manner of his 

On his return to England Pavy was 
appointed lecturer on comparative anatomy 
at Guy's Hospital in 1854, and from 1856 
to 1878 he lectured there upon physiology 
and microscopical anatomy, and afterwards 
upon systematic medicine. He was elected 
assistant physician to the hospital in 1858, 
on the promotion of (Sir) William Giill 
[q. v.], and became full physician in 1871, 
when the number of physicians was in- 
creased from three to four. He was 
appointed consulting physician to the 
hospital in 1890, his tenure of office upon 
the full staff having been prolonged for 
an additional year. 

At the Royal College of Physicians of 
London he was elected a fellow in 1860 ; 
he served as an examiner in 1872-3 and in 
1878-9 ; he was a councillor from 1875 to 
1877 and again from 1888 to 1 890 ; a censor 
in 1882, 1883, and 1891. He delivered 
the Goulstonian lectures in 1862-3 ; the 
Croonian lectures in 1878 and 1894, and the 
Harveian oration in 1886. He was awarded 
the Baly medal in 1901. 

He also did good work at the medical 
societies of London. In 1860 he delivered 
the Lettsomian lectures at the Medical 
Society ' On Certain Points connected with 
Diabetes.' He served as president of the 
Pathological Society from 1893 to 1895 and 
as president of the Royal Medical and 
Chirurgical Society from 1900 to 1902. He 
acted for some years as president of the 
Association for the Advancement of Medi- 
cine by Research, and from 1901 he served, 
after the death of Sir William MacCormac 
[q. V. Suppl. 11], as president of the national 




committee for Great Britain and Ireland 
of the International Congress of Medicine. 
The permanent committee of this congress, 
meeting at the Hague in 1909, appointed 
him the first chairman. 

Pavy was elected F.R.S. in 1863; the 
University of Glasgow conferred upon him 
the hon. degree of LL.D. in 1888, and in 1909 
he was crowned Laureat de 1' Academic de 
Medecine de Paris and received the Prix 
Grodard for his physiological researches. 
On 26 June 1909, at a meeting of the 
Physiological Society of Great Britain and 
Ireland held at Oxford, he was presented 
with a silver bowl bearing an expression 
' of affection and admiration.' 

Pavy died at his house, 35 Grosvenor 
Street, London, W., on 19 Sept. 1911, and 
was buried at Highgate cemetery. 

He married in 1854 JuUa, daughter of W. 
Oliver, by whom he had two daughters who 
predeceased him. The elder, Florence Julia 
(d. 1902), was married in 1881 to the Rev. 
Sir Borradaile Savory, second baronet, son 
of Sir William Scovell Savory, first baronet, 
F.R.S. [q. V.]. 

A sketch — a good likeness — made by 
W. Strang, A.R.A., hangs in the rooms of 
the Royal Society of Medicine. 

Pavy was the last survivor of a line of 
distinguished physician-chemists who did 
much to lay the foundations and advance 
the study of metabolic disorders ; at the 
same time he ranks as a pioneer amongst 
the chemical pathologists of the modem 
school. As a pupil of Claude Bernard he 
recognised that all advances in the study 
of disease must rest upon investigations 
into the normal processes of the body ; but 
as his investigations proceeded, he found 
himself obUged to dissent from the views of 
his master and to adopt new working hypo- 
theses which he put to the test of experi- 
ment and frequently varied. Some of his 
theories did not meet with the approval of 
those who were working along similar lines, 
and others never obtained general accept- 
ance. He made the study of carbohydrate 
metabolism the work of his life, and he was 
the founder of the modem theory of 
diabetes. In this connection his name was 
associated with many practical improve- 
ments in clinical and practical medicine, 
and ' Pavy's Test ' for sugar and his use of 
sugar tests and albumen tests in the solid 
form have made his name familiar to phy- 
sicians and medical students throughout 
the world. As a practical physician, too, 
he was greatly interested in dietetics, and he 
wrote a well-known book upon the subject, 
' A Treatise on Food and Dietetics physio- 

logically and therapeutically considered' 
(1873; 2nd edit. 1875; Philadelphia, 
1874; New York, 1881). Throughout life 
he remained a student, and even to the 
last week he was at work in the laboratory 
which he had buUt at the back of his 
consulting room in Grosvenor Street. 
Quiet in bearing, gentle and courteous in 
speech, and with a somewhat old-fashioned 
formality of manner, he was generous in 
his benefactions. At Guy's medical school 
he built a well-equipped 'gymnasium and 
presented it to the students' union in 1890. 
Besides the works cited Pavy published : 
1. ' Researches on the Nature and Treat- 
ment of Diabetes,' 1862 ; 2nd edit. 1869 ; 
translated into German by Dr. W. Langen- 
beck, Gottingen, 1864. 2. ' A Treatise on 
the Functions of Digestion, its Disorders and 
their Treatment,' 1867 ; 2nd edit. 1869. 

3. ' The Croonian Lectures on Certain 
Points connected with Diabetes, delivered 
at the Royal College of Physicians,' 1878. 

4. ' The Harveian Oration, delivered at 
the Royal College of Physicians,' 1886. 

5. * The Physiology of the Carbohydrates, 
their AppUcation as Food and Relation to 
Diabetes,' 1894 ; translated into German 
by Karl Grube, Leipzig and Vienna, 1895. 

6. ' On Carbohydrate Metabolism (a course 
[ of advanced lectures on Physiology delivered 

at the University of London, May 1905), 
with an appendix on the assimilation 
of carbohydrate into proteid and fat, 
followed by the fundamental principles and 
the treatment of Diabetes dialectically 
discussed,' 1906. 

[The Lancet, 1911, ii. 976 (\\dth portrait 
, and bibliography of chief papers contributed 
to periodicals and societies) ; Brit. Med. 
Journal, 1911, ii. 777 {^dth portrait) ; The 
I Guy's Hosp. Gaz. 1911, xxv. 393 (with biblio- 
graphy) ; additional information kindly given 
, by Sir WUham BorradaQe Savory, Bart., his 
' grandson, by H. L. Eason, Esq., M.S., dean 
of the medical school at Guy's Hospital, and 
by Dr. J. S. Edkins ; personal knowledge.] 
i D'A. P. 

' PAYNE, EDWARD JOHN (1844-1904), 
historian, born at High Wycombe, Bucking- 
hamshire, on 22 July 1844, was the son 
] of Edward William Payne, who was in 
: humble circumstances, by his wife Mary 
' Welch. Payne owed his education largely 
to his own exertions. After receiving early 
! training at the grammar school of High 
Wycombe, he was employed by a local 
' architect and surveyor named Pontifex, 
and he studied architecture under 
William Burges [q. v.]. Interested in music 
from youth, he also acted as organist of 




the parish church. In 1867, at the age of 
twenty-three, he matriculated at Magdalen 
Hall, Oxford, whence he passed to Charsley's 
Hall. While an undergraduate he sup- 
ported himself at first by pursuing his 
work as land svirveyor and architect at 
Wycombe, where he designed the Easton 
Street almshouses, and afterwards by 
coaching in classics at Oxford. In 1871 
Pa3Tie graduated B.A. with a first class 
in the final classical school, and in 1872 
he was elected to an open fellowship 
in University College. He remained a 
fellow till his marriage in 1899, and 
was thereupon re-elected to a research 
fellowship. Although his life was mainly 
spent in London, he was keenly interested 
in the management of the affairs of his 
college, and during the years of serious 
agricultural depression his good counsel and 
business aptitude proved of great service. 

On 17 Nov. 1874 he was called to the bar 
by Lincoln's Inn, and in 1883 was appointed 
honorary recorder of Wycombe, holding the 
office till his death. But Payne's mature 
years were mainly devoted to literary work. 
English colonial history and exploration 
were the main subjects of his study. 
In 1875 he contributed a well-informed 
' History of European Colonies ' to E. A. 
Freeman's ' Historical Course for Schools.' 
In 1883 he collaborated with Mr, J. S. 
Cotton in ' Colonies and Dependencies ' for 
the ' English Citizen ' series, and the section 
on ' Colonies ' which fell to Payne he later 
developed into his ' Colonies and Colonial 
Federation' (1904). He also fully edited 
Burke's ' Select Works ' (Oxford, 1876; new 
edit. 1912) and 'The Voyages of Eliza- 
bethan Seamen to America ' (from Hakluyt, 
1880; new edit. 1907). But these labours 
were preliminaries to a great design of a 
' History of the New World called America.' 
The first and second volumes (published 
respectively in 1892 and 1899) supplied a 
preliminary sketch of the geographical know- 
ledge and exploration of the Middle Ages, 
an account of the discovery of America, and 
the beginning of an exhaustive summing up 
of all available knowledge as to the ethno- 
logy, language, religion, social and economic 
condition of the native peoples. Notliing 
more was published, and an original plan 
to extend the survey to Australasia was 
untouched. Payne contributed the first 
two chapters on ' The Age of Discovery ' 
and ' The New World ' to the ' Cambridge 
Modem History ' (vol. i. 1902). 

At the same time Payne wrote much on 
music. He contributed largely to Grove's 
' Dictionary of Music and Musicians.' 

His article on ' Stradivari ' was recognised 
as an advance on all previous studies. 
The history of stringed instnmients had 
a strong attraction for him, and he was 
himself an accomplished amateur per- 
former on the violin and on various ancient 
instruments. He helped to found the 
Bar Musical Society, and was its first 
honorary secretary. 

In his later years Payne lived at Wendover, 
and suffered from heart-weakness and 
fits of giddiness. On 26 Dec. 1904 he 
was found drowned in the Wendover 
canal, into which he had apparently fallen 
in a fit. On 6 April 1899 he married 
Emma Leonora Helena, daughter of Major 
Pertz and granddaughter of Georg Heinrich 
Pertz, editor of the ' Monumenta Germaniae 
Historica.' She survived him with one son 
and two daughters, and was awarded a 
civil Ust pension of 120?. in 1905. A portrait 
by A. S. Zibleri is in her possession. 

[Records of Buckinghamshire, vol. ix. ; The 
Times, 28 Dec. 1904 ; Oxford Mag. 25 .Jan. 
1905 ; Musical Times, Feb. 1905 ; private 
information.] D. H. 

1910), physician, son of Joseph Payne [q. v.], 
a schoolmaster, professor of education at 
the College of Preceptors, by his wife EUza 
Dyer, also a teacher of great abiUty, was 
bom in the parish of St. Giles, Camberwell, 
on 10 Jan. 1840. After school education 
under his father at Leatherhead, Surrey, 
he went to University College, London, and 
thence gained in 1858 a demyship at 
Magdalen College, Oxford. He graduated 
B.A. in 1862, taking a first class in natural 
science, and afterwards obtained the 
Burdett-Coutts scholarship in geology 
(1863), the RadcUffe travelling fellowship 
(1865), and a fellowship at Magdalen, 
which he vacated on his marriage in 1883, 
becoming an honorary fellow on 30 May 
1906. He also took a B.Sc. degree 
in the University of London in 1865. 
He studied medicine at St. George's 
Hospital, London, and graduated M.B. 
at Oxford in 1867, and M.D. in 1880. He 
became a member of the College of 
Physicians in 1868, and was elected a 
fellow in 1873, being the junior chosen 
to deliver the Goulstonian lectures. His 
subject was ' The Origin and Relation of 
New Growths.' In accordance with the 
terms of Dr. RadcUffe's foundation he 
visited Paris, Berlin, and Vienna, and 
made good use of their pathological oppor- 
tunities. He described his foreign experi- 
ences in three articles published in the 




' British Medical Journal ' in 1871. His 
first post at a medical school in London 
was that of demonstrator of morbid 
anatomy at St. Mary's Hospital in 1869, 
and he became assistant physician there 
as well as at the Hospital for Sick Children 
in Great Ormond Street. In 1871 he left 
St. Mary's on becoming assistant physician 
to St. Thomas's Hospital, an office which 
he held tiU appointed physician in 1887. 
In 1900 he had reached the age limit, 
and became consulting physician. He was 
also on the staff of the Hospital for Skin 
Diseases at Blackfriars, and was thus en- 
gaged in the active practice and teaching 
of his profession for over thirty years. 

Pathology, epidemiology, dermatology, 
and the history of medicine were the 
subjects in which he took most interest, 
and he made considerable additions to 
knowledge in each. In September 1877 
he was the chief medical witness for the 
defence at the sensational trial in London 
of Louis Staunton and others for the 
murder of his wife Haniet by starvation, 
and effectively argued that cerebral men- 
ingitis was the cause of death, a view 
which in spite of the prisoner's conviction 
was subsequently adopted (Atlay's Trial 
of the Stauntons, 1911, pp. 176 et passim). 
He edited in 1875 Jones and Sieveking's 
' Manual of Pathological Anatomy,' and in 
1888 published a full and original ' Manual 
of General Pathology,' besides reading many 
papers before the Pathological Society, of 
which he became president in 1897. He 
delivered at the College of Physicians in 1891 
the Lumleian lectures ' On Cancer, especially 
of the Internal Organs.' In 1879 he was 
sent to Russia by the British government 
with Surgeon-major Colvill to observe and 
report upon the epidemic of plague then 
existing at Vetlanka {Trans. Epidemio- 
logical Soc. vol. iv.). The Russian govern- 
ment did Uttle to facilitate the inquiry, 
and a severe illness prevented Pa\Tie from 
accomplishing much, but he always retained 
a warm interest in epidemiology, and wrote 
articles on plague in the ' Encyclopaedia 
Britannica ' (9th edit.), ' St. Thomas's 
Hospital Reports,' ' Quarterly Review ' 
(October 1901), and ' Allbutt's System of 
Medicine,' vol. 2, 1907. He took an active 
part on a committee of the CoUege of Phy- 
sicians in 1905 on the Indian epidemic of 
plague and was chosen as the spokesman of 
the committee to the secretary of state. 
He printed in 1894, with an introduction on 
the history of the plague, the ' Loimo- 
graphia ' of the apothecary William Bog- 
hurst, who witnessed the London plague of 

1665, from the MS. in the Sloane collection. 
Payne also made numerous contributions 
to the ' Transactions ' of the Epidemio- 
logical Society, of which he was president in 
1892-3. In 1889 he published 'Observa- 
tions on some Rare Diseases of the Skin,' and 
was president of the Dermatological Society 
(1892-3). Many papers by him are to be 
found in its 'Transactions.' 

Payne's first important contribution 
to the history of medicine was a life of 
Linacre [q. v.] prefixed to a facsimile of 
the 1521 Cambridge edition of his Latin 
version of Galen, ' De Temperamentis ' 
(Cambridge, 1881). In 1896 he delivered the 
Harveian oration at the College of Physicians 
on the relation of Harvey to Galen, and in 
1900 wrote an excellent life of Thomas 
Sydenham [q. v.]. He had a great know- 
ledge of bibliography and of the history 
of woodcuts, and read (21 Jan. 1901) a 
paper before the BibUographical Society ' On 
the " Herbarius " and " Hortus Sanitatis.'" 
In 1903 and 1904 he delivered the first Fitz- 
Patrick lectures on the history of medicine 
at the College of Physicians. The first 
course was on * English Medicine in the 
Anglo-Saxon Times' (Oxford, 1904), 
the second on ' English Medicine in the 
Anglo-Norman Period.' The history of 
Gilbertus Anglicus and the contents of 
his ' Compendium Medicinse ' had never 
before been thoroughly set forth. Payne 
showed that Gilbert was a genuine observer 
of considerable ability. The lectures of 
1904 which Payne was preparing for the 
press at the time of his death did much to 
elucidate the writings of Ricardus Anglicus 
and the anatomical teaching of the Middle 
Ages. Payne demonstrated that the 
' Anatomy of the Body of Man,' printed 
in Tudor times and of which the editions 
extend into the middle of the seventeenth 
century, was not written by Thomas 
Vicary [q. v.], whose name appears on 
the title-page, but was a mere translation 
of a mwliseval manuscript of unknown 
authorship. He wrote long and valuable 
articles on the history of medicine in the 
' Encyclopaedia Britannica,' and in Allbutt's 
'System of Medicine ' (vol. i. 1905), besides 
several lives in this Dictionary. During the 
spring of 1909 he deUvered a coiu-se of 
lectures on Galen and Greek medicine at the 
request of the delegates of the Common Uni- 
versity Fund at Oxford. His last historical 
work was entitled ' History of the College 
Club,' and was privately printed in 1909. 

In 1899 he was elected Harveian librarian 
of the CoUege of Physicians, a post for 
which his quaUfications were exceptional. 




He gave many valuable books to the library, 
and opened the stores of his mind to every- 
one who sought his knowledge. He was for 
eight years an examiner for the licence of the 
College of Physicians, was a censor in 1896-7, 
and senior censor in 1905. He discharged 
in 1896 the laborious duty of editor of the 
' Nomenclature of Diseases,' and in addition 
to these pubUc services sat on the royal 
commission on tuberculosis (1890), on the 
general 'medical council as representative 
of the University of Oxford (1899-1904), 
on the senate of the University of London 
(1899-1906), and on the committee of 
the London Library. He collected a 
fine Ubrary, the medical part of which, 
except five manuscripts and two books 
which he bequeathed to the College of 
Physicians, was sold to one purchaser for 
2300Z. He had a large collection of 
editions of Milton's works and a series of 
herbals. His conversation was both learned 
and pleasant, and though full of antique 
lore he was an earnest advocate of modern 
changes. He was below the middle height 
and had a curious jerky manner of ex- 
pressing emphasis both in public speaking 
and in private conversation. Among" the 
physicians of London there was no man 
of greater general popularity in his time. 
He lived at 78 Wimpole Street while 
engaged in practice, and after his retire- 
ment at New Bamet. Failing health inter- 
rupted the Uterary labours of his last year, 
and he died at Lyonsdown House, New 
Bamet, on 16 Nov. 1910, and was buried at 
Bell's Hill cemetery, Barnet. He married, 
on 1 Sept. 1882, Helen, daughter of the 
Hon. John Macpherson of Melbourne, 
Victoria, by whom he had one son and three 
daughters. A fine charcoal drawing of his 
head, made by Mr. J. S. Sargent shortly 
before his death, hangs in the dining-room 
of the College of Physicians. 

[The Times, 18 Nov. 1910; Lancet, and 
Brit. Med. Journal, 26 Nov. 1910 ; Sir T. 
Barlow, Annual Address to Royal Coll. of 
Physicians ; Macray, Reg. Fellows Magd. Coll. 
vi. 170-1 and^vii. ; Sotheby, Cat. of Library, 
12 July 1911 ; personal knowledge.] N. M. 

PEARCE, STEPHEN (1819-1904), 
portrait and equestrian painter, born on 
16 Nov. 1819 at the King s Mews, Charing 
Cross, was only child of Stephen Pearce, 
clerk in the department of the mast-er of 
horse, by his wife, Ann Whittington. He 
was trained at Sass's Academy in Charlotte 
Street, and at the Royal Academy schools, 
1840, and in 1841 became a pupil of Sir 
Martin Archer Shee [q. v.]. From 1842 to 

1846 he acted as amanuensis to Charles 
Lever [q. v.], and he afterwards visited 
Italy. Paintings by him of favourite horses 
in the royal mews (transferred in 1825 to 
Buckingham Palace) were exhibited at the 
Academy in 1839 and 1841, and from 1849, 
on his return from Italy, till 1885 he con- 
tributed numerous portraits and equestrian 
paintings to BurUngton House. 

Early friendship with Colonel John 
Barrow, keeper of the admiralty records, 
brought Pearce a commission to paint * The 
Arctic Council discussing a plan of search for 
Sir John Frankhn.' This work he completed 
in 1851 ; it contained portraits of Back, 
Beechey, Bird, Parry, Richardson, Ross, 
Sabine, and others ; was exhibited at the 
Royal Academy in 1853, and was engraved 
by James Scott. Pearce' s picture increased 
the public interest in Franldin's fate. 
Pearce also painted for Colonel Barrow half- 
lengths of Sir Robert McClure, Sir Leopold 
McCUntock, Sir George Nares, and Captain 
Penny in their Arctic dress, and a series 
of small portraits of other arctic explorers. 
Lady Franklin also commissioned a similar 
series, which passed at her death to Miss 
Cracroft, her husband's niece. All these 
pictures are in the National Portrait 
Gallery, to which Colonel Barrow and Miss 
Cracroft respectively bequeathed them. 
Pearce's other sitters included Sir Francis 
Beaufort and Sir James Clark Ross (for 
Greenwich Hospital), Sir Edward Sabine and 
Sir John Barrow (for the Royal Society), and 
Sir George Gabriel Stokes, Charles Lever, 
Sims Reeves, Sir Erasmus Wilson (Hospital 
for Diseases of the Skin, Westgate-on-Sea, 
copied for the Royal College of Surgeons), 
and the seventh Duke of Bedford. 

Pearce was also widely known as a painter 
of equestrian presentation portraits and 
groups, the most important of which is the 
large landscape * Coursing at Ashdown 
Park,' completed in 1869, and presented 
by the coursers of the United Kingdom 
to the Earl of Craven. For this picture, 
which measures ten feet long and contains 
about sixty equestrian portraits, including 
the Earl and Countess of Craven and 
members of the family, the Earls of Bective 
and Sefton, Lord and Lady Grey de Wilton, 
the artist received 1000 guineas and 200 
guineasTfor^the copyright. Pearce painted 
equestrian portraits of many masters of 
foxhounds and harriers, as well as of the 
Earl of Coventry, Sir Richard and Lady 
Glyn, and of Mr. Burton on ' Kingsbridge ' 
and Captain H. Coventry on ' AJcibiade,' 
winners of the Grand National. 

Pearce retired from general practice in 




1885 and from active work in 1888. He 
contributed ninety-nine subjects to the 
Academy exhibitions, and about thirty of 
his pictures were engraved by J. Scott, C. 
Mottram, and others. His portraits, almost 
entirely of men, are accurate Ukenesses, 
and his horses and dogs are well d^a^\^l• 
The earUer paintings are somewhat tight 
in execution, with a tendency to over- 
emphasis of shadow, but the later pictures 
are freer in style. 

Pearce's somewhat naive ' Memories of 
the Past,' published by him in 1903, 
contains nineteen reproductions from his 
paintings, a Hst of subjects painted, biogra- 
phical and some technical notes. He died 
on 31 Jan. 1904 at Sussex Gardens, W., 
and was buried at the Old Town cemetery, 
Eastbourne. A portrait of himself he 
bequeathed to the National Portrait Gallery. 

He married in 1858 Matilda Jane Ches- 
wright, who survived him with five sons. 

[Memories of the Past, 1903, by Stephen 
Pearce ; Sporting Gaz., 2 Oct. 1869 ; Lists 
of the PrintseUers' Association ; Royal Acad. 
Catalogues ; misc. pamphlets, letters, and 
official records, Nat. Port. Gall. ; personal 
knowledge and private information.] 

J. D. M. 

second baronet, of Garde (1861-1907), bene- 
factor to Trinity College, Cambridge, born 
at Chatham on 23 July 1861, was only child 
of Sir WUUam Pearce [q. v.] by his wife 
Dinah EUzabeth, daughter of Robert Sowter 
of Gravesend. Educated at Rugby (1876- 
1878), he matriculated in 1881 at Trinity 
College, Cambridge, and graduated B.A. 
and LL.B. in 1884, proceeding M.A. in 1888. 
He was called to the bar at the Inner Temple 
in 1885. On the death of his father in 
December 1888 he succeeded him in the 
chairmanship of the Fairfield Shipbuilding 
and Engineering Company of Glasgow, an 
undertaking the development of which 
had been the principal work of his father's 
life. Under Pearce's chairmanship, which 
lasted from 1888 until his death, the company 
maintained its high reputation [see Elgar, 
Francis, Suppl. II]. Pearce was returned 
to parliament in 1892 as conservative 
member for Plymouth along with Sir 
Edward Clarke, but did not seek re-election 
in 1895. He was honorary colonel of the 
2ad Devon volunteers Royal Garrison Artil- 
lery. He was a keen sportsman, and his 
estate of Chilton Lodge, Hungerford, was 
noted for the excellence of its shooting. He 
died after a short illness on 2 Nov. 1907 
at 2 Deanery Street, Park Lane, and was 
buried at Chilton Foliat near Hungerford. 

He married on 18 March 1905 Caroline 
Eva, daughter of Robert Coote. There was 
no issue of the marriage. By his wiU he left 
the residue of his property, estimated at 
over 150,000?., subject to his wife's Ufe 
interest, to Trinity College, Cambridge, 
of which he had remained a member, 
although he had maintained no close 
association with the coUege after his life 
there as an undergraduate. Lady Pearce 
only survived her husband a few weeks. 
The coUege thus acquired probably the 
most valuable of the many accessions which 
have been made to its endowments since 
its foundation by Henry VIII. 

[The Times, 4 and 8 Nov. 1907 ; History of 
the Fairfield Works.] H. M'L. I. 

Pearson (1843-1910), Scottish judge, bom 
at Edinbxirgh on 6 Nov. 1843, was second 
son of Charles Pearson, chartered account- 
ant, of Edinburgh, by his wife Margaret, 
daughter of John Dalziel, solicitor, of 
Earlston, Berwickshire. After attending 
Edinburgh Academy, he proceeded to the 
University of St. Andrews, and thence to 
Corpus Christi CoUege, Oxford, where he dis- 
tinguished himself in classics, winning the 
Gaisford Greek prizes for prose (1862) and 
verse (1863). He graduated B.A. with a first 
class in the final classical school in 1865. 
He afterwards attended law lectures in 
Edinburgh, and became a member of the 
Juridical Society, of which he was librarian 
in 1872-3, and of the Speculative Society 
(president 1869-71). He was called to 
the English bar (from the Inner Temple) on 
10 June 1870, and on 19 July 1870 passed to 
the Scottish bar, where he rapidly obtained 
a large practice. Though not one of the 
crown counsel for Scotland, he was specially 
retained for the prosecution at the trial of 
the City of Glasgow Bank directors (Jan. 
1879), became sheriff of chancery in 1885, 
and procurator and cashier for the Church 
of Scotland in 1886. In 1887 he was 
knighted, and was appointed sheriff of 
Renfrew and Bute in 1888, and of Perth- 
shire in 1889. Pearson was a conservative, 
though not a keen politician, and in 1890 
was appointed solicitor-general for Scotland 
in Lord Salisbury's second administration, 
and was elected (unopposed) as M.P. for 
Edinburgh and St. Aiidrews Universities. 
In the same year he became Q.C. In 1891 
he succeeded James Patrick Bannerman 
Robertson, Lord Robertson [q. v. Suppl. 11], 
as lord advocate, and was sworn of the 
privy council. At the general election of 
1892 he was again returned unopposed for 




Edinburgh and St. Andrews Universities. 
After the fall of Lord Salisbury's ministry 
in 1892 he ceased to be lord advocate, and 
was chosen dean of the Faculty of Advo- 
cates. He received the honorary degree of 
LL.D. from Edinburgh University in 1894, 
and on the return of the conservatives to 
power in the following year became again 
lord advocate, and resigned the deanship. 
In 1896, on the resignation of Andrew 
Rutherfurd Clark, Lord Rutherfurd Clark, 
he was raised to the bench, from which 
he retired, owing to bad health, in 1909. 
He died at Edinburgh on 15 Aug. 1910, 
and was buried in the Dean cemetery there. 

Pearson married on 23 July 1873 EUza- 
beth, daughter of M. Grayhurst Hewat of 
St. Cuthbert's, Norwood, by whom he had 
three sons. A painting, by J. Irvine, 
belongs to his widow. 

[Scotsman, and The Times, 16 Aug. 1910 ; 
Roll of the Faculty of Advocates ; Hist, of 
the Speculative See, p. 156 ; Records of the 
Juridical Soc. ; Acts of the General Assembly 
of the Church of Scotland, 1886; Foster, Men 
at the Bar.] G. W. T. O. 


first baronet (1828-1903), director of mer- 
cantile enterprise, bom at Darlington on 
23 June 1828, was elder son of Joseph 
Pease (1799-1872), by his wife Emma, 
daughter of Joseph Gumey of Norwich. 
Edward Pease [q. v.] was his grandfather. 
In January 1839 he went to the Friends' 
school, York, under John Ford (in January 
1900 he laid the foundation stone of exten- 
sive new buildings at Bootham). Entering 
the Pease banking firm at Darlington in 
1845, he became largely engaged in the 
woollen manufactures, collieries, and iron 
trade mth which the firm was associated. 
He was soon either director or chairman 
of the Owners of the Middlesbrough Estate, 
Ltd., Robert Stephenson & Co., Ltd., Pease 
& Partners, Ltd., and J. & J. W. Pease, 
bankers. In 1894 he was elected chairman 
of the North Eastern railway, having been 
deputy chairman for many years. He also 
farmed extensively, and read a paper on 
the ' Meat Supply of Great Britain ' at the 
South Durham and North Yorks Chamber 
of Agriculture, 26 Jan. 1878. 

In 1865 Pease was returned liberal M.P. 
for South Durham, which he represented 
for twenty years. After the Redistribu- 
tion Act of 1885 he sat for the Barnard 
Castle division of Durham county until 
his death. He strongly supported Glad- 
stone on all questions, including Irish home 
rvde, and rendered useful service to the 

House of Commons in matters of trade, 
particularly in regard to the coal and iron 
industries of the North of England. He 
R^as president of the Peace Society and 
of the Society for the Suppression of the 
Opium Trafiic, and a champion of both 
interests in parliament. On 22 June 
1881 he moved the second reading of a bill 
to abolish capital punishment, and his 
speech was separately printed. In 1882 
Gladstone created him a baronet (18 
May). No quaker had previously accepted 
such a distinction, although Sir John Rodes 
(1693-1743) inherited one. 

At the end of 1902 the concerns with 
which Pease and his family were identified 
became involved in financial difficulties. 
Liabilities to the North Eastern railway 
amounted to 230,000Z. Voluntary arrange- 
ments were made by various banking 
firms of quaker origin with whom the 
Peases had intimate connection, and the 
actual loss to the railway was reduced at 
least one-half. Heavy losses fell on the 
companies with which Pease was associated 
and on several London banks. 

He died at Kerris Vean, his Fahnouth 
residence, of heart failure, on 23 June 1903 
and Avas buried at Darlington. 

He married in 1854 Mary, daughter of 
Alfred Fox of Falmouth (she died on 3 Aug. 
1892), and by her left two sons and six 
daughters. The elder son, Alfred Edward 
Pease, second baronet, M.P. for York (1885- 
92), and for the Cleveland division of York- 
shire (1897-1902), was resident magistrate 
in the Transvaal in 1903. The second son, 
Joseph Albert Pease, who sat as a liberal in 
the House of Commons from 1892, became 
president of the board of education in 1911. 

A cartoon portrait by ' Spy ' appeared 
in ' Vanity Fair ' in 1887. 

[The Times, 24 June 1903 ; Who 's Who, 1902 ; 
Hansard ; private information.] C. F. S. 

baronet (1855-1901), amateur astronomer 
and meteorologist, bom at Wimbledon 
on 30 Jan. 1855, was only child of Sir 
Henry Wilham Peek, first baronet (created 
1874), of Wimbledon House, Wimbledon, 
Surrey, a partner in the firm of Messrs. 
Peek Brothers & Co. (now Peek, Winch 
& Co.), colonial merchants, of East 
Cheap, and M.P. for East S\irrey from 
1868 to 1884. His mother was Margaret 
Maria, second daughter of William Edgar 
of Eagle House, Clapham Common. Cuth- 
bert, after education at Eton, entered 
Pembroke College, Cambridge, in 1876 and 
graduated B.A. in 1880, proceeding M.A. in 




1884. After leaving Cambridge he went 
through a course of astronomy and sur- 
veying, and put his knowledge to prac- 
tical use in two journeys, made in 1881, 
into luifrequented parts of Iceland, where 
he took regular observations of latitude 
and longitude and dip of the magnetic 
needle (cf. his account, Geograph. Soc. 
Journal, 1882, pp. 129^0). On his return 
he set up a small observatory in the grounds 
of his father's house at Wimbledon, where 
he observed ^vith a 3 -inch equatorial. 
In 1882 Peek spent six weeks at his own 
expense at Jimbour, Queensland, for the 
purpose of observing the transit of Venus 
across the sun's disc in Dec. 1882. There, 
with his principal instrument, an equatorially 
moimted telescope of 6*4 inches, he observed, 
in days preceding the transit, double stars 
and star-clusters, paying special attention 
to the nebula round rj Argus, one of the 
wonders of the Southern sky, which he 
described in a memoir. Observations of 
the transit were prevented by cloud. Peek 
made extensive travels in Australia and 
New Zealand, bringing back with him 
many curious objects to add to his father's 
collection at Rousdon near Lyme Regis. 

In 1884 he established, on his father's 
estate at Rousdon, a meteorological station 
of the second order, and in the same year he 
set up there an astronomical observatory to 
contain the 6'4 inch Merz telescope and a 
transit instrument with other accessories. 
With the aid of his assistant, Mr. Charles 
Grover, he began a systematic observation 
of the variation of brightness of long 
period variable stars, by Argelander's 
method, and on a plan consistent with that 
of the Harvard College Observatory. 
Annual reports were sent to the Royal 
Astronomical Society, which Peek joined on 
11 Jan. 1884, and short sets of observations 
were occasionally published in pamphlet 
form. The complete series of the observa- 
tions of 22 stars extending over sixteen 
years were collected at Peek's request by 
Professor Herbert Hallj Turner of Oxford 
and published by him after Peek's death 
in the ' Memoirs of the Royal Astronomical 
Society' (vol. Iv.). The introduction to 
the volume contains a section written by 
Peek in 1896 explaining his astronomical 
methods. With similar system regular 
observations were made with his meteoro- 
logical instruments, and these were collected 
and pubhshed in annual volumes. 

Peek succeeded to the baronetcy and 
to the estates that his father had bought 
in Surrey and Devonshire on his father's 
death on 26 Aug. 1898. He was elected 

F.S.A. on 6 March 1890, was hon. secretary 
of the Anthropological Society, and often 
served on the council or as a vice-presi- 
dent of the Royal Meteorological Society 
between 1884 and his death. He endowed 
the Royal Geographical Society, of whose 
coxmcil he was a member, with a medal 
for the advancement of geographical 
knowledge. Interested in shooting, he 
presented a challenge cup and an annual 
prize to be shot for by members of the 
Cambridge University volunteer corps. 
He died at Brighton on 6 July 1901 of 
congestion of the brain, and was buried at 
Rousdon, Devonshire. 

On 3 Jan. 1884 he married Augusta 
Louisa Brodrick, eldest daughter of William 
Brodrick, eighth Viscount Midleton, and 
sister of Mr. St. John Brodrick, ninth 
Viscount Midleton, sometime secretary of 
state for war. She survived him with 
two sons and four daughters. His elder 
son, Wilfrid (6. 9 Oct. 1884) succeeded to 
the baronetcy, 

[Obituary notice by Charles Grover in the 
Observatory Magazine, August 1901 ; Monthly 
Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, 
February 1902.] H. P. H. 

PEEL, Sm FREDERICK (1823-1906), 
railway commissioner, bom in Stanhope St., 
London, W., on 26 Oct. 1823, was second 
son of Sir Robert Peel, second baronet 
[q. v.], statesman, by his wife Julia, daughter 
of General Sir John Floyd, first baronet 
[q. V.]. His eldest brother was Sir Robert 
Peel, third baronet [q. v.] ; his younger 
brothers were Sir William Peel [q. v.], 
naval captain, and Arthur Wellesley (after- 
wards first Viscount) Peel, who was speaker 
of the House of Commons (1884^95). 

Frederick was educated at Harrow 
(1836-41), and thence he matriculated at 
Cambridge from Trinity College. He gradu- 
ated B.A, in 1845 as a junior optime and as 
sixth classic in the classical tripos, and pro- 
ceeded M.A. in 1849. On leaving Cambridge 
he became a student at the Inner Temple on 
5 May 1845, and was called to the bar on 2 
Feb. 1849, In the same month he entered the 
House of Commons, being returned unop- 
posed as liberal member for Leominster. His 
promising maiden speech (11 May 1849) in 
favour of the removal of Jewish disabilities 
called forth general commendation {Grevile 
Memoirs, vi. 295). Peel was a staiinch 
supporter of free trade and of the extension 
of the franchise, but being distrustful of 
secret voting he was not in favour of the 
ballot. His outspoken criticism of the 
Uberal government's ecclesiastical titles 




bill (14 Feb. 1851) showed independent 
judgment, and Lord John Russell recognised 
his ability by appointing him under-secre- 
tary for the colonies. After the general 
election of 1852, when Peel successfully 
contested Bury, he resumed the post of 
under-secretary for the colonies ia Lord 
Aberdeen's coalition ministry. On 15 Feb. 
1853 he introduced the clergy reserves 
bill (Hansard, Parliamentary Debates, 
3 S., cxxiv. col. 133), which was designed 
to give the government of Canada effective 
control over the churches there. The 
object of the measure was to repeal the 
clauses in the Canadian Constitutional Act 
of 1791, by which one-seventh of the lands 
of the colony was appropriated for the 
maintenance of the protestant clergy. 
Under Peel's auspices the bill passed the 
House of Commons, despite violent opposi- 
tion from the conservatives, and received 
the royal assent on 9 May 1853. On the 
fall of the Aberdeen ministry in January 
1856 Peel was nominated by Lord Palmer- 
ston under-secretary for war. In view of 
the popular outcry against the mismanage- 
ment of the Crimean war the post involved 
heavy responsibilities. Peel's chief, Lord 
Panmure [q. v.], sat in the House of 
Lords, and Peel was responsible minister 
in the House of Commons. He incurred 
severe censure for the misfortunes and 
failures incident to the war. In 1857 he lost 
his seat for Bury and resigned office. In 
recognition of his services he was made 
a privy councillor. He was once more re- 
turned for Bury in 1859 and was advanced 
by Lord Palmerston to the financial 
secretaryship of the treasury, a post 
which he held tiU 1865, when he was again 
defeated at Bury at the general election. 
After the death of Palmerston, Peel found 
himself ill-suited to the more democratic 
temper of parhamentary life. He unsuc- 
cessfully contested south-east Lancashire 
in 1868, and never re-entered the House of 
Commons. He was created K.C.M.G. in 
1869, and thenceforth devoted himself to 
legal pursuits. 

In 1873, on the passing of the Regulation 
of Railways Act, Peel was appointed a 
member of the railway and canal commission, 
on which he served tiU his death. The 
tribunal was constituted as a court of arbi- 
tration to settle disagreements between 
railways and their customers which lay 
beyond the scope of ordinary litigation . The 
commission rapidly developed in import- 
ance, and was reorganised by the Railway 
and Canal Act of 1888, a judge of the high 
court being added to its members. Peel 

and his colleagues rendered useful service 
to the farming and commercial interests 
by reducing preferential rates on many 
railways. In Ford & Co. v. London and 
South Western Railway they decided that 
the existence of a favoured list of passengers 
constituted an undue preference {The 
Times, 3 Nov. 1890). The decisions of the 
commissioners were seldom reversed on 
appeal. In the case of Sowerby & Co. v. 
Great Northern Railway, Peel dissented from 
the judgment of his colleagues, Mr. Justice 
Wills and Mr. Price, to the effect that the 
railway company was entitled to make 
charges in addition to the maximum in 
respect of station accommodation and 
expenses, but the view of the majority was 
upheld by the court of appeal (21 March 
1891). As senior commissioner Peel became 
the most influential member of the tribu- 
nal. He had his father's judicial mind and 
cautious, equable temper, but his reticence 
and aloofness militated against his success in 
public life. He died in London on 6 June 
1906, and was buried at Hampton-in-Arden, 
Warwickshire. He married (1) on 12 Aug. 
1857, Elizabeth Emily [d. 1865), daughter 
of John Shelley of Avington House, Hamp- 
shire, and niece of Percy Bysshe Shelley 
[q. v.], the poet ; and (2) on 3 Sept. 1879, 
Janet, daughter of Philip Pleydell-Bouverie 
of Brymore, Somersetshire, who survived 
him. He left no issue. A cartoon por- 
trait by ' Spy ' appeared in ' Vanity Fair ' 
in 1903. 

[The Times, and Morning Post, 7 June 
1906 ; C. S. Parker, Sir Robert Peel, 3 vols., 
1899 ; Harrow School Register, 1911 j Burke's 
Peerage and Baronetage ; Herbert Paul, 
History of Modern England, vol. i. 1904 ; 
Railway Commission Reports.] G. S. W. 

PEEL, JAMES (1811-1906), landscape 
painter, born on 1 July 1811 in Westage 
Road, Newcastle-on-Tjoie, was son of 
Thomas Peel, woollen draper {d. 24 April 
1822), partner in the firm of Fenwick, Reid 
& Co. Educated at Bruce's school, he 
had as schoolfellows there Sir Charles Mark 
Palmer [q. v. Suppl. II] and John CoUing- 
wood Bruce, the antiquary. Edward Dalziel, 
father of the wood engravers the Dalziel 
Brothers [see Dalziel, Edward, Suppl. II], 
first taught him drawing, and in 1840 he 
came to London to paint portraits. Among 
his early work were full-sized copies of 
Wilkie's ' Blind Fiddler ' and ' The Village 
Festival,' in the National Gallery, as well 
as portraits and miniatures. Eventually 
he confined himself wholly to landscape 
painting, in which he exhibited at the 




Royal Academy from 1843 to 1888 and at 
the Royal Society of British Artists from 
1845 onwards. His pictures made their 
mark by their sincere feeling for nature 
and their excellent drawing, especially of 
trees. Three of his pictures, 'A Lane in 
Berwickshire,' * Cotherstone, Yorkshire,' 
and ' Pont-y-pant, Wales,' are in the Laing 
Art Gallery, Newcastle, where a loan 
exhibition of his works was held in 1907. 
Several were bought for other provincial 
galleries at Glasgow, Leeds, and Sunder- 
land, and for clients in Newcastle. He 
resided at Darlington from 1848 to 1857, 
when he again settled in London. 

In 1861 he was admitted a member of the 
Royal Society of British Artists, of which he 
became a leading supporter. In associa- 
tion with Madox Brown, WiUiam Bell Scott 
[q. v.], and other artists he was an active 
organiser of ' free ' exhibitions like those 
of the Dudley GaUery and of the Port- 
land GaUery, of which the latter ended dis- 
astrously. Working to the end with all 
the vigour of earlier years, he died at his resi- 
dence, Elms Lodge, Oxford Road, Reading, 
on 28 Jan. 1906. Peel married at Darling- 
ton, on 30 May 1 849, Sarah Martha, eldest 
daughter of Thomas Blyth,'and left issue. 

[The Times, 5 Feb. 1906; Newcastle 
Weekly Chron., 20 March 1897 (with photo- 
graphic reproduction) ; Illustr. Cat. of Exhib. 
of Works by James Peel, Laing Art GaU., 
Newcastle, March 1907 (with portrait) ; private 
information.] F. W. G-N. 

(1833-1906), Indian administrator, born at 
Liverpool on 27 April 1833, was second son 
in a family of ten children of Thomas Wil- 
liamson Peile [q. v.], by his wife Mary, 
daughter of James Braithwaite. Colonel 
John Peile, R.A., was a brother. In 1852 
James proceeded from Repton School, of 
which his father was headmaster, with a 
scholarship to Oriel College, Oxford. 

At Michaelmas term 1853 he won a first 
class in classical moderations and two years 
later a first class in the final classical school. 
Meanwhile in 1855 the civil service of India 
was thrown open to pubhc competition, 
and Peile obtained one of the first twenty 
appointments, being placed tenth. 

He travelled out to India to join the 
Bombay service m September 1856 by the i 
paddle steamer Pekin, having as a fellow 
traveller William Brydon [q. v.], sole sur- 
vivor of the Kabul retreat in 1842. Peile 
was at once nominated to district work. 
From the Thana district he was sent to 
Surat, and thence to Ahmedabad on 15 

April 1857, where the belated news of the 
Meerut outbreak reached that station on 
21 May 1857. Peile thus experienced some 
of the stern reahties of the Mutiny, and he 
described them graphically in private letters 
to a friend who published them in 'The 
Times ' on 3 Dec. 1857. In 1858 Peile was 
actively engaged in extending primary edu- 
cation and learning an inspector's duties 
under Sir Theodore Hope. On 4 May 1859 
he was entrusted with the special inquiry 
into the claims made against the British 
government by the ruler of Bhavnagar, a 
native state in Kathiawar. His successful 
settlement of this difficulty brought him to 
the front and he was made under-secretary 
of the Bombay government. 

PeUe's observations in Bhavnagar had 
deeply impressed him with the impoverished 
condition of Girassias and Talukdars, de- 
pressed landowners descended from ruUng 
chiefs, who were rapidly losing their 
proprietary rights. For the next five years 
(1861-6) he was chiefly absorbed in endea- 
vours to remedy this state of affairs. He 
devised and carried out in Gujarat a scheme 
of siunmary settlement for the holders of 
* aUenated ' estates {i.e. lands granted on 
favourable terms by government). There 
followed the enactment of Bombay Act, vi., 
1862, for the rehef of the Talukdars of 
Western Ahmedabad. PeUe resigned the 
post of under-secretary to government 
in order that he might ensure the success 
of legislation inspired by himself. Many 
estates were measured and valued by him, 
compUcated boundary disputes settled, 
and the rents due to government were 
fixed for a term of years. His reputation 
for overcoming difficulties was so estabhshed 
that, on the occurrence of a dispute in the 
Rajput state of Dharanpur which threatened 
civil disturbance, he was sent to compose 
it. His arrangements were satisfactory, 
and his thoroughness and efficiency greatly 
impressed Sir Bartle Frere. In April 

1866 he was selected as commissioner for 
revising subordinate civil estabhshments 
throughout Bombay, and then, when a wave 
of speculation passed over the province, 
he became registrar-general of assurances, 
and took an active part in compeUing 
companies to furnish accounts. Having 
thus estabhshed his claims to promotion, he 
took furlough to England from September 

1867 to April 1869. 

On his retm-n to duty he became director 
of pubhc instruction in succession to Sir 
Alexander Grant [q. v.], and held the post 
till 1873. He laid truly the foundations of 
primary education, in which Bombay has 




always taken the lead. He also compiled 
an outline of history to assist school 
teachers in giving their lessons. In 1872 
the finances of the city of Bombay became 
embarrassed, and Peile was sent to settle 
them, acting as municipal commissioner. 
Subsequently he undertook for a short 
period the poUtical charge of Kathiawar, 
to which he returned again in 1874, holding 
it until 1878. As political agent of Kathia- 
war Peile greatly added to his reputation. 
This important agency covered 23,000 
square miles, the territorial sovereignty 
being divided among the Gaekwar of 
Baroda and 193 other chiefs, all equally 
jealous of their attributes of internal 
sovereignty. Peile found the province in 
disorder and its chiefs discontented, and 
he left it tranquil and grateful. In 1873 
Waghirs and other outlaws terrorised the 
chiefs and oppressed their subjects. Capt. 
Herbert and La Touche had been murdered, 
and one morning as Peile reached his tent 
the famous leader Harising Ragji, who 
was under trial for seven miirders and had 
just escaped from prison, appeared before 
him. Peile, who was alone, refused to 
guarantee to him more than justice, and 
the fugitive was rearrested, tried, and 
convicted. Gradually the chiefs were 
persuaded to co-operate in maintaining 
order, and a pohce force was organised. 
While the British officer asserted the rights 
of the paramount power, he did not ignore 
the rights of the chiefs, whose claims to 
revenue from salt and opium he vigorously 
asserted against the government of Bom- 
bay in later years, and he encouraged the 
chiefs to send their karbharis or minis- 
ters in order to discuss with him and each 
other their common interests. He lent 
Chester Macnaghten his powerful support 
and encouragement in estabhshing an 
efficient college at Rajkote for the sons 
and relatives of the ruhng chiefs. Able 
to take up the records of a tangled 
suit or case and read them in the verna- 
cular, he defeated intrigue and corruption, 
for which the pubUc offices had gained a 
bad name, by mastering details and facts 
without the aid of a native clerk. By 
such means he won the confidence of the 
chiefs, and secured their active assistance. 
The PeUe bridge, opened on 17 June 1877, 
over the Bhadar in Jetpur, and the consent 
won from the ruler of Bhavnagar in 1878 
to the construction of a railway, are 
standing records of a pohcy of united 
effort which to-day covers the province 
with roads and railways. In 1877 the 
shadow of famine lay over the province, 

and PeUe sought help from Sir Richard 
Temple [q. v. Suppl. II], who told him 
plainly that he ' could not spare a single 
rupee.' Peile' s answer, ' I know then 
where I stand,' impressed Temple. He at 
once proceeded to organise self-help by 
local co-operation, and averted a grave 
catastrophe. PeUe was a member of the 
famine commission (1878-80), and Temple 
in giving evidence before it declared that 
' the condition of Kathiawar was a credit 
to British rule.' 

Peile spent a few months in Sind in 1878, 
but dechned an offer of the commissionership 
there. From 1879 to 1882 he was secretary 
and acting chief secretary to the Bombay 
government. During 1879 he accompanied 
the famine commission on its tour of in- 
quiry, receiving in the course of it the 
honour of C.S.I. In October he proceeded 
to London to assist in writing the famous 
famine report remarkable ' for its detailed 
knowledge of varying conditions and grasp 
of general principles ' (Lorb Hartington's 
Despatch, No. 4, dated 14 March 1881). On 
his return to Bombay he was sent to 
Baroda to clear off appeals against the 
government of Baroda in respect of 
Girassia claims. He had hardly rejoined 
the secretariat when the governor -general 
recalled him to Simla to take part in a 
conference regarding the rights of certain 
Kathiawar states to manufacture salt. 
On 23 Dec. 1882 he became member of 
council at Bombay, and to him Lord Ripon 
[q. V. Suppl. II] looked with confidence to 
give effect to his self-government policy. 
Peile matured and carried through such 
important measures as the legislative coun- 
cils Bombay Acts I and II, 1884, Local 
Boards, and District Municipalities Acts. 
These Acts did not go as far as Lord Ripon 
hoped in the ehmination of official guidance 
from municipal and local board committees ; 
but Peile knew that it was unsafe to go 
further, and the viceroy cordially acknow- 
ledged his services. In 1886 he carried an 
amendment of the Bombay Land Revenue 
Code, securing to the peasantry the benefit 
of agricultural improvements. His experi- 
ence in educational matters was of great 
service. He had become vice-chancellor of 
the university in 1884, and in 1886 he dealt 
with technical education in his convocation 
address. In 1886' PeUe left the Bombay 
council on his appointment by Lord 
Dufferin, Lord Ripon' s successor on the 
supreme council. From 4 Oct. 1886 to 
8 Oct. 1887, with a few days' interval, PeUe 
served as a member of the supreme govern- 
ment. His presence greatly assisted the 




enactment of the Punjab Tenancy Act and 
the Land Revenue Bill, while Lady Dufferin 
found an active supporter and exponent at 
a pubhc meeting of her benevolent scheme 
for female medical aid. 

To tiie regret of Lord Dufferin, Peile left 
Lidia on his nomination to the Lidia 
council in London (12 Nov. 1887). In 1897 
his ten years' tenn of oflSce was extended 
for another five years. During these fifteen 
years he took a leading part at the India 
oflSce in the government of India. He was 
one of the first to wcge upon his colleagues 
the need for enlarging provincial councils 
and for increasing their powers. He was 
a jealous guardian of the finances of 
India, strenuously opposing the application 
of her revenues to the cost of sending 
troops in 1896 to Suakin as ' not being 
a direct interest of India.' He also ob- 
jected to imposing on cotton exported to 
India a differential and preferential rate (3 
per cent.) of import duties, when the general 
tariff fixed for revenue purposes was 5 per 
cent. While he advocated a progressive 
increase in the number of Indians admitted 
to the higher branches of the service, he 
firmly opposed the ' ill-considered reso- 
lution ' of the House of Commons (2 June 
1893), in favour of simultaneous examina- 
tions. He dechned the offer of chairmanship 
of the second famine commission, but he 
served on the royal commission on the 
administration of the expenditure of India 
in 1895, and recorded the reservations with 
which he assented to their report dated 
6 April 1900. He was made K.C.S.I. in 1888. 

Throughout his career he had found 
recreation in sketching, and some of his 
productions in black and white won prizes 
at exhibitions in India. Retiring from 
pubhc office on 11 Nov. 1902, he devoted 
himself to family affairs, and found leisure 
to record an account of his life for his 
children. He died suddenly on 25 April 
1906 at 28 Campden House Court, London, 
W., and was buried at the Kensington 
cemetery, Hanwell. 

Peile married in Bombay, on 7 Dec. 1859, 
Louisa Elisabeth Bruce, daughter of General 
Sackville Hamilton Berkeley. His wife sur- 
vived him -nith two sons, James Hamilton 
Francis, archdeacon of Warwick, and Dr. 
W. H. Peile, M.D., and a daughter. 

[The Times, 27 April 1906 ; Annals of the 
Peiles of Strathclyde, by the Rev. J. W. Peile 
(brother of Sir James) ; Famine Commissioners 
Reports ; Legislative Proc. of Governments 
of India and Bombay ; Kathiawar admini- 
stration Reports ; private papers lent by the 
archdeacon of Warwick.] W. L-W. 

PEILE, JOHN (1837-1910), Master of 
Christ's College, Cambridge, and philo- 
logist, bom at Whitehaven, Cumberland, 
on 24 April 1837, was only son of WiUiam- 
son Peile, F.G.S., by his wife Ehzabeth 
Hodgson. Sir James Braithwaite Peile 
[q. V. Suppl. n] was his first cousin. His 
father died when he was five years old, and 
in 1848 he was sent to Repton School, of 
which his uncle, Thomas WiUiamson PeUe 
[q. v.], was then headmaster. At Repton 
he remained tiU his imcle's retirement in 
1854. During the next two years he at- 
tended the school at St. Bees, and in 1856 
was entered at Christ's College, Cambridge. 
In 1859 he won the Craven scholarship, and 
in 1860 was bracketed \vith two others as 
senior classic, and with one of these, Mr. 
Francis Cotterell Hodgson, as chancellor's 
medaUist. He graduated B.A. in 1860 and 
proceeded M.A. in 1863. Having been elected 
a fellow of Christ's in 1860, and appointed 
assistant tutor and composition lecturer, he 
settled down to college and imi versify work, 
which occupied him till near his death. He 
took up the study of Sanskrit and compara- 
tive philology, and in 1865, and again in 1866, 
spent some time working with Professor 
Benfey at Gottingen. Till the appointment 
of Professor Edward Byles Cowell [q. v. 
Suppl. II] in 1867, he was teacher of 
Sanskrit in the university, and when 
Sanskrit became a subject for a section of 
part 2 of the classical tripos, he published 
a volume of ' Notes on the Tale of Nala ' 
(1881) to accompany Professor Jarrett's 
edition of the text. He also corrected 
Jarrett's edition, which La consequence of 
a difficult method of transUteration was very 
inaccurately printed. In 1869 appeared 
his book ' An Introduction to Greek and 
Latin Etymology.' The lecture form of 
the first edition was altered in the second, 
which was issued in 1871 ; a third appeared 
in 1875. Soon after the point of view of 
comparative philologists changed in some 
degree, and PeUe, who by this time was 
becoming more immersed in college and 
university business, allowed the book to go 
out of print. A little primer of ' Philology ' 
(1877) had for long a very wide circulation. 
To the ninth edition of the ' Encyclopaedia 
Britannica ' he contributed the article on 
the alphabet and also articles upon the in- 
dividual letters. He was for many years a 
contributor to the ' Athenaeum,' reviewing 
classical and philological pubhcations. In 
1904 he was elected a member of the British 

PeUe was tutor of his coUege from 1871 
to 1884, when, on his appointment to the 




newly constituted post of university reader 
in comparative philology, which was not 
tenable with a college tutorship, he resigned, 
but remained a coUege lecturer. On the 
death of Dr. Swainson^ in 1887 he was 
elected Master of Christ's, but continued 
to lecture for the university tiU his election 
as vice-chancellor in 1891. His two years' 
tenure of the vice-chancellorship (1891-3) 
was eventful beyond the common. The 
most important incident was the passing of 
an act of parliament, whereby the perennial 
conflict of jurisdictions between ' town and 
gown ' was brought to an end satisfactory to 
both parties, the imiversity surrendering its 
jurisdiction over persons not belonging to its 
own body and receiving represen tation on the 
town council. The controversy had reached 
an acute stage over a case of proctorial 
disciphne, and the new arrangement was 
mainly due to Peile's broadmindedness and 
statesmanship. His vigorous vice-chancel- 
lorship made him henceforward more than 
ever prominent in the affairs of the uni- 
versity. While he was vice-chancellor a new 
chancellor — Spencer Compton Cavendish, 
eighth duke of Devonshire [q. v. Suppl. II] 
— was installed, and Peile visited Dubhn on 
the occasion of the tercentenary of Trinity 
CoUege, which conferred upon him the 
honorary degree of Litt.D. (1892). He had 
been one of the early recipients of the 
degree of Litt.D. on the establishment of 
that degree at Cambridge in 1884. 

In 1874 Peile had been elected a member of 
the council of the senate, a position which he 
held uninterruptedly for thirty-two years. 
Along with Prof. Henry Sidgwick [q. v. 
Suppl. I] and Coutts Trotter [q. v.] he repre- 
sented in the university the liberalising 
movement then perhaps at the zenith of its 
influence. He was long an active supporter 
of women's education and a member of the 
council of Newnham CoUege, and in the 
university controversy of 1897 on the ques- 
tion of ' Women's Degrees ' he advocated 
the opening to women of university degrees. 
After the death of Prof. Arthur Cayley [q. v. 
Suppl. I] in 1895 he became president of the 
council, and a new block of coUege buildings 
at Newnham has been named after him. 
He was in favour of making Greek no longer 
compulsory on aU candidates for admission 
to the university when the question was 
debated in 1891, and again in 1905 and 
1906. He also took an active part in the 
university extension movement. 

Though he never ceased to take an 
interest in comparative philology, and 
remained for many years an active and 
influential member of the special board for 

classics, most of his leisure, after he ceased 
to be vice-chanceUor in 1893, was devoted 
to compiling a biographical register of the 
members of his coUege and of its forerunner, 
God's House, a work which entailed a great 
amount of research. In connection with this 
undertaking he wrote in 1900 a history of 
the coUege for Robinson's series of coUege 
histories. The first volume of his register 
(1448-1665) was completed before Peile's 
death, which took place at the coUege after 
a long ilkiess on 9 Oct. 1910. He is buried 
in the churchyard of Trumpington, the 
parish in which he lived before becoming 
Master of Christ's College. 

In 1866 he married Annette, daughter of 
William Cripps Kitchener, and had by her, 
besides two children who died in infancy, two 
sons, and a daughter, Hester Mary, who 
married, in 1890, John Augustine Kemp- 
thome, since 1910 bishop-suffragan of HuU. 

Peile was a man of moderate views who 
had the faculty of remaining on good terms 
with his most active opponents. He was an 
effective speaker and a good chairman. As 
a coUege officer he was very popular, and the 
college prospered under him. As a lecturer 
on classical subjects (most frequently on 
Theocritus, Homer, Plautus, and Lucretius), 
and on comparative philology, he was able 
to put his views clearly and interestingly, 
and, like Charles Lamb, he sometimes found 
the sUght hesitation in his speech a help in 
emphasising a point. To him much more 
than to anyone else was due the success- 
ful study of comparative philology in 

A portrait by Sir George Reid, P.R.S.A., 
is in the possession of the college ; a replica 
presented to Mrs. Peile was given by her to 
Newnham CoUege, and now hangs in Peile 

[Information from Mrs. Peile, Dr. Shipley, 
Master of Christ's College, Prof. Henry Jackson, 
and the headmaster of Repton ; Prof. W. W. 
Skeat in Proc. Brit. Acad. 1910 ; Dr. W. H. D. 
Rouse in Christ's CoU. Mag, 1910 ; personal 
knowledge since 1882.] P. G. 

1907), Camden professor of ancient history, 
Oxford, was grandson of Thomas Pelham, 
second earl of Chichester [q. v.], and eldest 
of the five children of John Thomas 
Pelham, bishop of Norwich [q. v.], by his 
wife Henrietta, second daughter of Thomas 
William Tatton of Wythenshawe Hall, 
Cheshire. Of his three brothers, John 
Barrington became vicar of Thvmdridge in 
1908, and Sidney archdeacon of Norfolk in 
1901. Pelham was bom on 19 Sept. 1846 




at Bergh Apton, then his father's parish. 
Entering Harrow (Westcott's house) in 
May 1860, he moved rapidly up the school, 
and left in December 1864. Next year 
he won an open classical scholarship at 
Trinity College, Oxford (matriculating on 
22 April 1865) ; he came into residence in 
October. At Oxford he took ' first classes ' 
in honour classical moderations and in 
Uterae humaniores, was elected a fellow of 
Exeter College in 1869, and graduated B.A. 
in the same year. In 1870 he won the 
chancellor's English essay prize with a 
dissertation on the reciprocal influence of 
national character and national language. 
He worked continuously as classical tutor 
and lecturer at Exeter CoUege from 1870 
tiU 1889. He was elected by his college 
proctor of the university in 1879. Losing 
his fellowship on his marriage in 1873, he 
was re-elect^ in 1882, xmder the statutes 
of the second university commission. 

From school onwards his principal sub- 
ject was ancient and more particularly 
Roman history. He soon began to publish 
articles on this theme (first in 'Journal 
of Philology,' 1876), while his lectures, 
which (under the system then growing up) 
were open to members of other colleges 
besides Exeter, attracted increasingly large 
audiences ; he also planned, with the 
Clarendon Press, a detailed ' History of the 
Roman Empire,' which he was not destined 
to carry out. In 1887 he succeeded W. W. 
Capes as ' common fund reader ' in ancient 
history, and in 1889 he became Camden 
professor of ancient history in succession 
to George Rawlinson [q. v. Suppl. II], a 
post to which a fellowship at Brazenose is 
attached. As professor he developed the 
lectures and teaching which he had been 
giving as coUege tutor and reader, and 
attracted even larger audiences. But his 
research work was stopped by an attack 
of cataract in both eyes (1890), and though 
a few specimen paragraphs of his projected 
' History ' were set up in type in 1888, he 
completed in manuscript only three and a 
half chapters, covering the years B.C. 35-15, 
and he never resumed the work after 1890 ; 
his other research, too, was hereafter limited 
to detached points in Roman imperial 
history. On the other hand, he joined 
actively in administrative work, for which 
his strong personaUty and his clear sense 
fitted him at least as well as for research ; 
he served on many Oxford boards, was a 
member of the hebdomadal co\mcil from 
1879 to 1905, aided semi-academic edu- 
cational movements (for women, &c.), and 
in 1897 accepted the presidency of his old 

VOL. LXIX. — SUP. n. 

college. Trinity. He was elected honorary 
fellow of Exeter in 1895, was an original 
fellow of the British Academy in 1902 and 
received the hon. degree of LL.D. at Aber- 
deen in 1906. He became F.S.A. in 1890. 
He died in the president's lodgings at Trinity 
on 12 Feb. 1907, and was buried in St. 
Sepulchre's cemetery, Oxford. On 30 July 
1873 he married Laura PriscUla, third daugh- 
ter of Sir Edward North Buxton, second 
baronet, and granddaughter of Sir Thomas 
Fowell Buxton, first baronet [q. v.]; she 
survived him with two sons and a daughter. 

Pelham was a somewhat unusual com- 
bination of the scholar and the practical 
man. An excellent teacher, lecturing at 
a time when Oxford was widening its out- 
look and Mommsen and his school were 
recreating Roman history, he helped to 
revolutionise the study of ancient history 
in Oxford, and by consequence in England. 
Still more, as one who combined practical 
organising genius with an understanding 
of the real needs of learning and the true 
character of scientific research, he did more 
than any other one man to develop 
his university as a place of learning, 
while conserving its value as a place of 
education. Thus, he was prominent in 
providing endowments for higher study 
and research, in introducing archaeology and 
geography to the circle of Oxford historical 
work, and in founding the British^Schools 
at Rome and Athens. In pursuit of his 
principles he helped actively to put natural 
science, Enghsh and foreign languages on 
a more adequate basis in Oxford, and to 
give women full opportunities of academic 
education at the university. After his death 
his friends foimded in his memory a Pelham 
studentship at the British School at Rome, 
to be held by Oxford men (or by women 
students) pursuing higher studies at Rome. 

Pelham wrote little. His chief publica- 
tions were : 1. ' Outlines of Roman History,' 
London, 1893, enlarged from a monograph 
in the ' Encyclopaedia Britannica,' 1887. 
2. Scattered essays and articles on Roman 
history, of which the chief, with a fragment 
of the unfinished ' History,' have been col- 
lected in a posthrmious volume of ' Essays,' 
Oxford, 1911. Both volumes exhibit very 
high historical powers, but Pelham's eye- 
sight and perhaps his temperament turned 
hirn to other activities with more result. 

A portrait by Sir Hubert von Herkomer 
hangs in the haU of Trinity College. 

[Memoir by Prof. Haverfield, prefixed to 
Pelham's Essavs, 1911 ; The Times, 13 Feb. 
1907 ; Proc. Brit. Acad. 1907-8 ; private in- 
formation.] F. J. H. 




PELL, ALBERT (1820-1907), agricul- 
turist, born in Montagu Place, Bloomsbury, 
London, on 12 March 1820, was eldest of 
three sons of Sir Albert Pell (1768-1832), 
serjeant-at-law in 1808, who retired from 
practice in 1825 in indignation at being 
passed over by Lord Eldon for judicial 
promotion, but in 1831 was persuaded by 
his friend Brougham, when he became lord 
chancellor, to accept a judgeship of the 
court of review in bankruptcy ; he was 
at the same time knighted on 7 Dec. 
(cf. Wooleych's Serjeants-at-Law (1869), 
ii. 752-71). Pell's mother was Margaret 
Letitia Matilda (1786-1868), third daughter 
and co-heiress of Henry Beauchamp St. 
John, twelfth Lord St. John of Bletsoe. 

Brought up at his father's houses at 
Pinner Hill and in Harley Street, Pell 
from 1832 to 1838 was at Rugby school 
under Arnold. Thence he passed in 1840 
to Trinity College, Cambridge, where he 
describes himself as ' idle and unstudious.' 
He was, however, instrumental in intro- 
ducing Rugby football to Cambridge. 
His parentage entitled him to take the 
honorary degree of M.A. in 1842, after two 
years' residence. Plans for reading for the 
bar were abandoned, owing to his hking for 
a country life. He at first took a farm in the 
Harrow Vale, twelve miles from London, 
and after his marriage in 1846 lived near 
Ely, finally settUng for good in the spring 
of 1848 at Hazelbeach, mid- way between 
Northampton and Market Harborough, in a 
house which he rented from his wife's relative 
Sir Charles Isham. He found his farm at 
Hazelbeach to be ' dreadfully out of order, 
foul, wet and exhausted ' ; but he set to 
work on its improvement with characteristic 
energy. He became a regular attendant 
at the local markets, besides being 
' churchwarden, overseer, surveyor of the 
highways, guardian of the poor, and justice 
of the peace ' {Reminiscences, p. 165). 
The outbreak of cattle plague in 1865 
bestirred him to a vehement campaign in 
his district in defence of the system of 
slaughter for stamping out the contagion ; 
and he organised a great meeting of agri- 
culturists in London on the subject. An 
indirect outcome of this gathering was 
the estabUshment of the central chamber 
of agriculture, of which Pell became in 
1866 the first chairman. At a bye-elec- 
tion for South Leicestershire in 1867, 
Pell, owing to his exertions in extermi- 
nating the cattle plague, was chosen as 
conservative candidate, but was beaten 
by a smaU majority. In 1868 he was 
returned, and he represented the con- 

stituency until his retirement in 1885. 
Though nominally a conservative, he was, 
in the words of his friend, Mr. James 
Bryce, * no more of a party man than his 
sense of party loyalty required. His 
political opinions might be described as 
half tory, half radical. The tory views 
and the radical views were not mixed to 
make what used to be called a liberal 
conservative, but remained distinct, leav- 
ing him a tory in some points, a radical 
in others' (Reminiscences, introd. p. xliv). 

Pell was an authority on questions of 
poor law, of which he had a wide experi- 
ence. He was guardian for his own parish 
of Hazelbeach as early as 1853. In 1873 
he moved at his own board of guardians 
(Brixworth) for a committee to inquire 
into the mode of administration of out- 
door relief in that and other unions, and 
as the outcome of the committee's report 
out-door reUef was practically abolished 
in the Brixworth union, with remarkable 
results. In 18f6 he carried an amendment 
on Lord Sandon's education bill, providing 
for the abolition of school boards in districts 
where there were only voluntary schools 
(H. Paul, Hist, of Modern England, 1905, 
iii. 413-4). From 1876 to 1889 PeU had 
a seat as a nominated guardian for St. 
George's-in-the-East, London, in which 
parish he had property, and tried to enforce 
there his views on out-door relief. He 
failed in his endeavours to induce the 
House of Commons to consider his proposals 
{Hansard, ccxxx. 1515). But in 1884 he 
carried against the government by 208 
votes to 197 a motion deprecating ' the 
postponement of further measures of relief 
acknowledged to be due to ratepayers in 
counties Mid boroughs in respect of local 
charges imposed on them for national 
services.' On this occasion he made his 
longest speech in the house, speaking for 
an hour and a half {Hansard, cclxxxvi. 
1023). Pell was a prominent figure at 
poor law conferences, and was chairman of 
the central conference from 1877 to 1898. 
He was also an active member of the 
Northamptonshire county council from its 
estabUshment in 1889. Indeed, on all sub- 
jects connected with county government, 
social reform, local taxation, and agricul- 
tural improvement he was regarded as an 
authority both in and out of parliament. 
In June 1879 he and his friend Clare Sewell 
Read [q. v. Suppl. II] went, as assistant 
commissioners to the Duke of Richmond's 
royal commission on agriculture, to America 
and Canada to study agricultural questions 
there. Another inquiry which much inter- 




ested Viim was that of the royal commis- 
sion on the City guilds, of which he was 
appointed a member at the instance of his 
friend Sir WilUam Harcourt, who said to 
Pell that ' he would give him something to 
keep him quiet for a year or two ' [Remi- 
niscences, p. 314). He sat also on the 
royal commissions as to the City parochial 
charities and the aged poor. 

Shortly after his retirement from parlia- 
ment in 1885 Pell became (30 June 1886) 
a member of the council of the Royal 
Agricultural Society, and did excellent work 
on its ' Journal,' and on its chemical and 
education committees. He contributed to 
its ' Journal ' two articles on ' The Making 
of the Land in England' (1887 and 1889) 
and a biography of Arthur Young (1893), 
as well as other minor articles and notes. 
He was a member of the Farmers' Club, 
which he joined in February 1867, be- 
coming a member of the committee in 
1881, and chairman in 1888. He was 
one of the pioneers of the teaching of 
agriculture at his old university, and 
was made hon. LL.D. there when the 
Roj'al Agricultural Society met at Cam- 
bridge in 189-4. In his later years he 
suffered much from deafness and from his 
lungs, and wintered at Torquay. There 
he died on 7 April 1907, and was buried at 

In 1846 Pell married his cousin, Eliza- 
beth Barbara, daughter of Sir Henry 
Halford, second baronet (1825-1894), being 
attired for the occasion ' in puce-coloured 
kerseymere trousers, straps, and Wellington 
boots, an embroidered satin waistcoat and 
a blue dress coat with brass buttons ' (Remi- 
niscences, p. 139). 

He had no children ;jand on his death 

J|^ a nephew, Albert £2ames^ell, succeeded to 

the family property at liTiburtonJ Manor, 

Ely, where there hangs a portrait of Pell, 

painted in 1886 by Miss S. Stevens. 

[Pell's Reminiscences (up to 1885), edited 
after his death by Thomas Mackay, 1908 ; 
article in Poor Law Conferences of 1899-1900, 
by W. Chance ; personal knowledge.] E. C. 

1911), lawj^er, eldest son of John Edward 
Rosg Pember of Clapham Park, Surrey, by 
his wife Mary, daughter of Arthur Robson, 
was bom at his father's house on 28 May 
1833. He was educated at Harrow, and 
after reading for a short time with the 
Rev. T. Elwin, headmaster of Charterhouse 
School, a noted teacher, he matriculated on 
23 May 1850 at Christ Church, Oxford, where 
he was elected a student in 1854. He took 


ibert James Pell,' read 'Albert Julian 
:11.' Ibid., 1. 1 8 from foot. For 'Wibur- 

a first class in classical moderations in 1852, 
and in 1854 he was placed in the first class 
in Uterse humaniores, and in the third class 
of the newly founded school of law and 
modem history. He entered as a student 
of Lincoln's Inn on 2 May 1855, reading 
in the chambers first of the conveyancer 
Joseph BurreU and then of George Mark- 
ham Glffard, afterwards lord justice 
[q. v.]. Called to the bar on 26 Jan. 1858, 
he chose the Midland circuit, and laid 
himself out for common law practice ; 
briefs were slow in coming when a fortunate 
accident introduced him to the parUamentary 
bar. For that class of work and tribunal 
Pember was admirably equipped. His fine 
presence, his command of flowing classical 
English, together with his quickness of com- 
prehension and his readiness in repartee, 
soon made him a prime favourite with 
the committees of both houses. Edmund 
Beckett (afterwards Lord Grimthorpe) [q. v. 
Suppl. nj and George Stovin Venables [q.v.] 
were then the chiefs of the parliamentary 
bar, but Pember more than held his own 
with them, and after they were gone he 
disputed the lead at Westminster for over 
thirty years with such formidable rivals 
as Samuel Pope [q. v. Suppl. II] and (Sir) 
Ralph Littler [q. v. Suppl. II]. Perhaps 
the greatest achievement in his forensic 
career was his conduct of the bill for creat- 
ing the Manchester Ship Canal, which was 
passed in July 1885 in the teeth of the 
most strenuous opposition ; Pember's 
reply for the promoters, which was largely 
extemporary, was one of the most effective 
speeches ever delivered in a parliamentary 
committee room. His speeches as a rule 
were most carefully prepared, and were fine 
examples of literary style. His treatment of 
witnesses was not always adroit, and he was 
over- prone to argument with experts and men 
of science ; but his straightforwardness gave 
him the full confidence of those before whom 
he practised. In April 1897 he appeared as 
counsel for Cecil Rhodes [q. v. Suppl. 11] 
before the parUamentary committee ap- 
pointed to investigate the origin and atten- 
dant circimistances of the Jameson raid. 
Pember took silk in 1874, was made a 
bencher of his Inn in 1876, and served the 
office of treasurer in 1906-7. He retired 
from practice in 1903 in fuU vigour of mind 
and body. He died after a short illness 
on 5 April 1911, at his Hampshire home. 
Vicar's HiU, Lymington, and was buried at 
Boldre Church, Brockenhurst. 

Pember was throughout his fife a promi- 
nent figmre in the social and literary life 
of London. A brilliant talker, he was one 

H 2 




of the most regular and welcome atten- 
dants at the dinners of * The Club.' From 
1896 to 1911 he acted as joint secretary 
of the Dilettanti Society, and in 1909 his 
portrait was painted for that body by Sir 
Edward Poynter, R.A. He was an accom- 
plished musician, having studied singing 
under Perugini and possessing considerable 
technical theoretical knowledge. In 1910 
Pember was elected perpetual secretary of 
the newly formed academic committee of the 
Royal Society of Literature. During the days 
of waiting at the bar he was a constant 
contributor to the weekly press, and he is 
generally credited with the famous epigram 
on Lord Westbury's judgment in the ' Essays 
and Reviews ' case — ' Hell dismissed with 
costs.' Some extracts from a mock New- 
digate poem of his, ' On the Feast of Bel- 
shazzar' (the subject for 1852, when the 
prize was awarded to Edwin Arnold), were 
long current in Oxford. Widely read in 
general literature and highly critical in taste, 
he found relaxation and amusement in 
the making of vers de societi, and of trans- 
lations and adaptations from the Greek 
and Latin, especially from Horace and the 
Greek dramatists. During the latter years 
of his life his leisure was largely occupied 
in the composition of classical plays in 
English, cast in the Attic mould, drawn from 
scriptural and mythological themes. He 
had a good dramatic sense and a correct 
and fastidious ear. He refrained from 
pubUcation, and confined the circulation 
of his plays and poems to a fit and cultured 

Pember married on 28 August 1861 Fanny, 
only daughter of WilHam Richardson of 
Sydney, New South Wales, who survived him. 
His eldest and only surviving son, Francis 
William, became fellow of All Souls in 1884 
and bursar in 1911. 

Besides the picture by Sir Ed ward Poynter, 
now in the rooms of the Dilettanti Society, 
there is a portrait of Pember by Frank 
HoU, R.A., in the possession of his widow. 

Pember ' printed for private distribu- 
tion': 1. ' Debita Flacco, Echoes of Ode 
and Epode,' 1891. 2. ' The Voyage of the 
Phocaeans and other Poems, with Prome- 
theus Bound done into English Verse,' 1895. 
3. ' Adrastus of Phrygia and other Poems, 
with the Hippolytus of Euripides done into 
English Verse,' 1897. 4. ' The Death-Song 
of Thamyris and other Poems, with the 
G]dipus of Colonos done into English 
Verse,' 1899. 5. ' The Finding of Pheidip- 
pides and other Poems,' 1901. 6. ' Jeph- 
thah's Daughter and other Poems,' 1904. 
7. ' Er of Pamphylia and other Poems,' 

1908. He contributed also to Sir George 
Grove's ' Dictionary of Music,' dealing espe- 
cially with the lives of the early Italian 

[Memoir by W. J. Courthope in Proc. Acad. 
Committee Royal See. of Lit., 1911 ; The 
Times, 6 April 1911 ; Foster's Men at the 
Bar ; Oxford University Calendar ; private 
information.] J. B. A. 


(1849-1905), biographer of the stage, bom 
at Birmingham Heath on 1 July 1849, was 
eldest son of Thomas Pemberton, J.P., the 
head of an old-established firm of brass 
founders in Livery Street, Birmingham. 
Charles Reece Pemberton [q. v.] belonged 
to the same old Warwickshire family. 
Educated at the Edgbaston proprietary 
schools, Pemberton at nineteen entered 
his father's counting-house, and in due 
course gained control of the business of 
the firm, with which he was connected 
until 1900. Of literary taste from youth, 
Pemberton long divided his time between 
commerce and varied literary endeavours. 
His industry was unceasing. After the 
publication of two indifferent novels, 
' Charles Lysaght : a Novel devoid of 
Novelty' (1873) and 'Under Pressure' 
(1874), he showed some aptitude for fiction 
in ' A Very Old Question ' (3 vols. 1877). 
There followed ' Bom to Blush Unseen ' 
(1879) and an allegorical fairytale, 'Fair- 
brass,' written for his children. 

At his father's house he met in youth 
E. A. Sothern, Madge Robertson (Mrs. 
Kendal), and other players on visits to 
Birmingham, and he soon tried his hand 
at the drama. His comedietta ' Weeds,' the 
first of a long list of ephemeral pieces, mainly 
farcical, was written for the Kendals, and 
produced at the Prince of Wales's Theatre, 
Birmingham, on 16 Nov. 1874. His many 
plays were rarely seen outside provincial 
theatres. He came to know Bret Harte, 
and his best play, ' Sue,' was adapted with 
Bret Harte's collaboration from the latter's 
story ' The Judgment of Bolinas Plain.' 
Originally brought out in America, it was 
subsequently produced at the Garrick 
on 10 June 1898. The partnership was 
continued. ' Held Up,' a four- act play by 
Harte and Pemberton, was produced at the 
Worcester theatre on 24 Aug. 1903. One or 
two unproduced plays written by the two 
remain in manuscript. On Bret Harte's 
death in 1902 Pemberton wrote ' Bret 
Harte : a Treatise and a Tribute.' 

In succession to his friend Sam Timmins, 
Pemberton was the dramatic critic of the 




' Birmingham Daily Post ' from 1882 until 
he retired to the country at Broadway in 
1900. As a theatrical biographer, Pember- 
ton made his widest reputation, writing 
memoirs of Edward Askew Sothem (1889) ; 
the Kendals (1891); T. W. Robertson 
(1892); John Hare (1895); Ellen Terry 
and her sisters (1902) ; and Sir Charles 
Wyndham (1905). He was personally 
familiar with most of his themes, but 
his biographic method had no literary 
distinction. An excellent amateur actor, 
Pemberton frequently lectured on theatri- 
cal subjects. In 1889 he was elected a 
governor of the Shakespeare Memorial 
theatre, Stratford -on- Avon, and showed 
much interest in its work. He died after 
a long illness at his residence, Pye Comer, 
Broadway, Worcestershire, on 28 Sept. 1905, 
and was buried in the churchyard there. 

Pemberton married on 11 March 1873, 
in the ' Old Meeting House,' Birmingham, 
Mary Elizabeth, second daughter of 
Edward Richard Patie Townley of Edg- 
baston, who survived liim, with two sons 
and three daughters. 

Besides the works cited, Pemberton pub- 
lished 'Dickens's London' (1875), 'Charles 
Dickens and the Stage ' (1888), and ' The 
Birmingham Theatres : a Local Retro- 
spect ' (1889). 

[Edgbastonia, vol. xxv. No. 293 ; Birming- 
ham and Moseley Society Journal, vol. vii. 
No. 75 (with portrait) ; Birmingham Daily 
Mail, 28 Sept. 1905 ; Birmingham Daily Post, 
29 Sept. 1905 ; private information ; personal 
knowledge and research.] W. J. L. 

GORDON DOUGLAS-, second Barox 
Penehyn (1836-1907), colliery owner. 


PENRHYN, second Bakon. [See 


(1817-1903), architect, archaeologist, and 
astronomer, bom on 29 Oct. 1817 at Brace- 
bridge near Lincoln, was yoimgest son of 
John Penrose, vicar of that place. Both his 
father and his mother, Elizabeth Penrose, 
writer for the yoxmg under the pseudonym of 
' Mrs. Markham,' are noticed separately in 
this Dictionary. Penrose owed his second 
name to direct descent through his mother 
from the sister of Archbishop Cranmer. His 
aunt Mary Penrose became the wife of 
Dr. Thomas Arnold [q. v.] of Rugby. 

Francis was the original of the ' Mary ' 
in the ' History of England,' by his 
mother (' Mrs. Markham '). After a 
few years at Bedford grammar school 

(1825-9) he passed to the foundation at 
Winchester College. From early years 
he had shown a taste for drawing, and 
on leaving Winchester he werit in 
1835 to the office of the architect 
Edward Blore [q. v.], where he worked 
until 1839. Thereupon, instead of start- 
ing architectural practice, he entered 
Magdalene College, Cambridge, as an 
undergraduate, and came out tenth senior 
optime in 1842. With his artistic and 
mathematical bents he combined repute 
as an athlete. He thrice rowed in the race 
against Oxford, in 1 840, 1 841 , and 1 842. He 
was captain of his college boat, which he 
brought from a low place to nearly head 
of the river, and was the inventor of the 
system of charts still in use in both univer- 
sities for registering the relative positions 
of crews in the bxmiping races. More than 
once he walked in the day from Cambridge 
to London, and skated from Ely to the 
Wash. Among his friends while an imder- 
graduate were Charles Kingsley [q. v.], 
almost a contemporary at Magdalene, 
Charles Blachford Mansfield [q. v.], John 
Malcolm Ludlow [q. v. Suppl. II], and 
John Couch Adams [q. v. Suppl. I], who 
with George Peacock [q. v.] awakened an 
interest in astronomy. Through Kingsley 
he came to know Frederick Denison 
Maurice [q. v.], and as a young man 
he saw much of his first cousin Matthew 
Amold [q. v. Suppl. I]. 

In 1842 Penrose was appointed travelling 
bachelor of the University of Cambridge, 
and at once set out on an important archi- 
tectural tour (1842-5). To his skill as a 
draughtsman he had added command of 
the art of water-colour, in which he had 
taken lessons from Peter De Wint [q. v.]. 
He made his first prolonged halt at Paris, 
where he visited the observatory, as well as 
architectural scenes. At Paris, and subse- 
quently at Chartres, Fontainebleau, Sens, 
Auxerre, Bourges, Avignon, Nismes, and 
Aries, he sketched and studied indus- 
triously. At Rome in 1843 his keen eye 
criticised the pitch of the pediment of the 
Pantheon as being ' steeper than I quite like,' 
a comment which subsequently received 
justification. Fifty-two years later M. 
Chedanne of Paris read a paper in London 
(at a meeting over which Penrose presided), 
and proved that the pitch of the pediment 
had been altered from the original design. 
Penrose stayed six months at Rome, and 
thence wrote the stipulated Latin letter as 
travelling bachelor to the University of 
Cambridge. He chose as his theme the 
Cathedral of Bourges. 




Between June 1843 and the following 
spring Penrose visited the chief cities of 
Italy, and after a brief return to England 
started somewhat reluctantly for Greece. 
He describes Athens as ' by far the most 
miserable town of its size I have ever seen ' 
(9 Jan. 1845). But he soon fell under the 
spell of the ' Pericleian Moniunents,' to 
which his first enthusiasm for Gothic 
architecture quickly gave way. In August 
he made his way home through Switzer- 
land, Augsburg, Munich, and Cologne. 

Already Penrose realised the importance 
of exact mensuration to a critical study 
of Greek architecture. The pamphlet on 
the subject by John Pennethome [q. v.] 
attracted his attention on its publication 
in 1844. On his arrival in England the 
Society of Dilettanti had determined to 
test thoroughly Pennethome' s theories as 
to the measurements of Greek classical 
bxiildings, and they commissioned Penrose 
to undertake the task in their behalf. In 
1846 Penrose was again at Athens. His 
principal collaborator in the work of 
measurement there was Thomas Willson of 
Lincoln. They completed their labours in 
May 1847. Despite corrections in detail 
Penrose confirmed in essentials Penne- 
thome's theories. When in 1878 Penne- 
thome brought out his ' Geometry and 
Optics of Ancient Architecture ' he adopted 
with due acknowledgment Penrose's mass 
of indisputable material. 

' Anomalies in the Construction of the 
Parthenon,' which the Society of Dilettanti 
published in 1847, was the first result of 
Penrose's labours, but it was in 1851 that 
there appeared his monumental work, 
'Principles of Athenian Architecture,' 
of which a more complete edition was 
issued in 1888. Penrose's exhaustive and 
minutely accurate measurements finally 
established that what is apparently parallel 
or straight in Greek architecture of the best 
period is generally neither straight nor 
parallel but curved or inclined. He 
solved the puzzle which all Vitruvius's com- 
mentators had found insoluble by identi- 
fying the ' scamilli impares ' with those 
top and bottom blocks of the columns 
which, by virtue of the inclination of the 
column or the curvature of stylobate and 
architrave, are ' unequal ' (i.e. they have 
their upper and lower faces out of parallel). 
Some important conclusions relating to the 
Roman temple of Jupiter Olympius at 
Athens Penrose laid before the Institute 
of British Architects in 1888. 

In 1852 Dean Milman and the chapter 
appointed Penrose surveyor of St. Paul's 

Cathedral. The appointment was made 
with a view to the completion of the interior 
decoration in accordance with the inten- 
tions of Wren. Penrose deemed it neces- 
sary to allot, apart from the decorative 
scheme, 2000Z. per annum to the main- 
tenance of the fabric, and a public appeal 
in 1870 provided substantial financial 
support. Penrose took up the decorative 
scheme with enthusiasm, and he insisted 
on respecting his conception of Wren's 
generous intentions. In the result he soon 
found himself at variance with the chapter, 
who favoured a more restricted plan. Nor 
was he at one with them on the methods of 
completing the Wellington monument (see 
Stevens, Alfred). Counsels prevailed in 
which the surveyor was neither consulted 
nor concerned. 

Like Wren himself Penrose found relief 
from the disappointment in astronomical 
study, which had alreaay attracted him 
at Cambridge' and in Paris. He was an 
adept at mechanical inventions, and an 
instrument for drawing spirals won him a 
prize at the Great Exhibition of 1851. A 
theodolite which he had bought in 1852 
primarily for use in measurement of 
buildings, he applied at the suggestion of 
Dr. G. Boole to such astronomical purposes 
as accurate determination of orientation 
and time in connection, for example, with 
the fixing of sundials. In 1862 came the 
purchase of a small astronomical telescope 
which was soon superseded by a larger one 
with a 5J-inch object-glass (Steinheil), 
equatorially mounted by Troughton & 
Simms. In 1866 Penrose, finding the 
prediction of the time of an occultation 
of Saturn in the 'Nautical Almanac' 
inadequate for his purpose, endeavoured 
with success 'to obtain by graphical con- 
struction a more exact correspondence 
suited to the site ' of the observer. He 
published his results in 1869 in ' The 
Prediction and Reduction of Occupations 
and Eclipses ' (4to), and the work reached 
a second edition in 1902. 

In 1870 he visited Jerez in the south of 
Spain to view the total eclipse of the sun 
with his smaller (2j-inch) instrument. 
The observation was spoilt by a cloud, but 
Penrose made the acquaintance of Professor 
Charles A. Young of America, whom he met 
again at Denver in 1878. Penrose's ob- 
servations on the eclipse of 29 July 1878 
were published in the Washington observa- 
tions (Appendix III). He afterwards 
extended to comets the graphical method 
of prediction which he had applied to 
the moon (cf. his paper before the Royal 




Astronomical Society, December 1881, and 
chapter vi. in G. F. Chambers's Handbook 
of Astronomy, 4th edit. 3 vols. 1889). 

His last astronomical work was a study 
of the orientation of temples, to which Sir 
Norman Lockyer directed his attention. 
Presuming that ' the object sought by the 
ancients in orienting their temples was to 
obtain from the stars at their rising or 
setting, as the case might be, a sufficient 
warning of the approach of dawn for pre- 
paration for the critical moment of sacrifice,' 
he perceived the importance of calculating 
the places of certain stars at distant 
epochs, and the possibility of estimating 
the age of certain temples by assuming an 
orientation and calculating the period of 
variation or apparent movement in the 
stars due to the precession of the equinoxes. 
Penrose applied his theory to certain Greek 
temples (see Proceedings and Philosophic 
Transactions of Royal Society), and with 
Lockyer he worked out a calculation on this 
basis in relation to Stonehenge (see also 
Journal R.I.B.A. 25 Jan. 1902). He joined 
the Royal Astronomical Society in 1867, 
and in 1894 his astronomical researches 
were recognised by his election as F.R.S. 

Penrose's creative work as an architect 
was incommensurate in quantity with his 
obvious ability. He built at Cambridge the 
entrance gate at Magdalene, and a wing at 
St. John's ; at Rugby School he erected the 
infirmary; at Wren's church, St. Stephen's, 
Walbrook, he designed the carved choir 
stalls. The vicarages at Harefield near 
Uxbridge and at Maids Moreton were his, 
as also were church restorations at Chilvers 
Coton and Long Stanton. 

When in 1882 the foundation of the 
British School at Athens was projected, 
Penrose generously designed the building 
without fee. It was completed in 1886, 
when Penrose accepted the directorate for 
one season, 1886-7. He held the office again 
in 1890-1. At St. Paul's, where his chief 
architectural work was done, he designed 
the choir school, the choir seats and desks, 
the marble pulpit and stairs, carved oak 
lobbies at the western entrances of the 
north transept, the mosaic pavements in the 
crypt, the WelKngton tomb in the crypt, 
the font and pavement in the south chapel, 
and the marble memorial to Lord Napier of 
Magdala. He was also responsible for the 
removal of the Wellington monument to a 
new position, the rearrangement of the 
steps at the west entrance, and the exposure 
of the remains of the ancient cathedral in 
the churchyard. 

Penrose, whose fellowship of the Royal 

Institute of British Architects dated from 
1848, received the royal gold medal of 
the institute in 1883 and was president in 
1894-6. He became F.S.A. in 1898, when 
he was elected antiquary to the Royal 
Academy. He was made in 1884 one of the 
first honorary fellows of Magdalene College,. 
Cambridge, and in 1898 he became a Litt.D. 
of his university as well as an hon. D.C.L. 
of Oxford. He was a knight of the order 
of the Saviour of Greece. 

His own house, Colebyiield, Wimbledon 
(which had a small observatory), was 
designed by himself. There, where he 
resided for forty years, he died on 15 Feb. 
1903. He was buried at Wimbledon. He 
married in 1856 Harriette, daughter of 
Francis Gibbes, surgeon, of Harewood, 
Yorkshire. His wife predeceased him by 
twelve days. He left a son. Dr. Francis G. 
Penrose, and four daughters, the eldest of 
whom, Emily, became successively principal 
of Bedford College, Holloway College, and 
Somerville College, Oxford. 

Penrose's portrait at the Royal Institute 
of British Architects is one of the most 
characteristic works of J. S. Sargent, R.A. 
(a copy is at Magdalene College). A 
memorial tablet was placed in the crj^t of 
St. Paul's Cathedral, chiefly by architectural 

[R.I.B.A. Journal, vol. x. 3rd series, 1903, 
p. 337, article by Mr. J. D. Grace, also 
pp. 213-4 ; Royal Society Obituary Notices, 
vol. i. pt. 3, 1904, p. 305 ; information from 
Dr. Francis G. Penrose.] P. W. 

GEORGE, Earl Percy (1871-1909), poU- 
tician and traveller, born at 25 (now 28) 
Grosvenor Square, London, on 21 Jan. 1871, 
was eldest son of Henry Gteorge Percy, 
Earl Percy, who became seventh duke 
of Northumberland in succession to bis 
father in 1899. As Lord Warkworth he 
won at Eton the prize for Enghsh verse, 
and at Christ Church, Oxford, first class 
honours in classical moderations in 1891 
and hterae humaniores in 1893, his class in 
the latter school being reputed one of the 
best of the year. He also obtained at 
Oxford in 1892 the Newdigate prize for 
Enghsh verse on the subject of St. Francis 
of Assisi, and his recitation of his poem 
in the Sheldonian Theatre was long re- 
membered as one of the most impressive 
of these performances. In 1895 he con- 
tested Berwick-on-Tweed as a conservative 
without success against Sir Edward Grey, 
but later in the year was chosen at a bye- 
election for South Kensington, which he 




represented continuously till his death. 
Marked out from the first as a debater 
of abiUty, industry, and independence, he 
soon ., became conspicuous in a group of 
conservatives who sometimes adopted a 
critical attitude towards their leaders, and, 
in view of his future prospects, few felt 
surprise when, on Mr. Balfour becoming 
prime minister in July 1902, Earl4Percy 
(as he had been styled since his father's 
succession to the dukedom in 1899) was 
appointed parhamentary under-secretary 
for India. Approving himself in this 
oflBice by the immense pains which he took 
to master matters proper to his department, 
he passed to foreign affairs as under- 
secretary of state on [the reconstruction 
of Mr. Balfour's cabinet in October 1903. 
Since his chief. Lord Lansdowne, was 
in the upper house. Lord Percy had 
occasion to appear prominently in the 
commons and to prove both his capacity 
and his independence, especially in deaUng 
with Near Eastern matters, which had 
long engaged his interest, and had induced 
him once and again to visit Turkish soil. 

Travel in the Near East divided his 
interests with poUtics. In 1895 he first 
visited the Ottoman dominions, when he 
returned with Lord Encombe from Persia 
though Baghdad and Damascus. He went 
back to Turkey in 1897 to make with 
Sir John Stirling Maxwell and Mr. Lionel 
Holland a journey through Asia Minor to 
Erzerum, Van, the Nestorian valleys, 
and the wilder parts of central Kurdistan. 
He returned by Mosul, Diarbekr, and 
Aleppo, and published his experiences in 
' Notes of a Diary in Asiatic Turkey ' (1898), 
a volume which showed strong but dis- 
criminating TurcophUism, sensitiveness to 
the scenic grandeur of the regions traversed, 
and growing interest in their histo. y and 
archaeology. True to the traditions of his 
famUy, he began to collect antiques, par- 
ticularly cylinder seals ; and subsequently 
extending his interest to Egypt, he apphed 
himself to the study of hieroglyphics. 

His most important tour in Turkey was 
undertaken in 1899. He then made his 
way with his cousin, Mr. Algernon Heber 
Percy, through Asia Minor and up the 
course of the southern source of the 
Euphrates to Bitlis and his Nestorian 
friends of Hakkiari. Thence he went on into 
the Alps of Jelu Dagh, traversing a Uttle- 
known part of Kurdistan near the Turco- 
Persian border, and passed by Neri to 
Altin Keupri, whence he descended the 
Lesser Zab and Tigris on a raft to Baghdad. 
On his way out he had been received by 

Sultan Abdul Hamid. His second book, 
• The Highlands of Asiatic Turkey ' (1901), 
was inspired by his old sympathy for Turks, 
but also by a deepened sense of the evils 
of Hamidism, whose downfall he foresaw. 
Intolerant equally of Armenian 5 and of 
Russian aspirations, he advocated agree- 
ment with Germany on Ottoman affairs. 

He was^in Macedonia in 1902, when ap- 
pointed to office, and returned home through 
a wild part of North Albania, although 
not followed by the large Turkish escort 
which the solicitude of the Porte had 
prescribed for him. Thereafter parha- 
mentary duties prevented him from making 
other than short recess tours, during one 
of which he took a motor-boat up the 
Nile, to practise for a projected cruise on 
the Euphrates, which he did not live to 
achieve. On Macedonian and indeed all 
Ottoman affairs his authority was acknow- 
ledged, although his views were not always 
welcome to the advocates of the rayah 
nationahsts. An effective and thoughtful 
though not ambitious or frequent speaker, 
and a forceful but reserved personality, he 
had come to be regarded as a future leader 
in his party, when, to general sorrow, he 
died of pneumonia on 30 Dec. 1909, while 
passing through Paris on his way to Nor- 
mandy. He was unmarried. He became 
a trustee of the National Portrait Gallery 
in 1901, and received in 1907 the degree 
of D.C.L. from the University of Durham. 

[The Times, 31 Dec. 1909; private in- 
formation.] D. G. H. 

(1838-1907), chemist, born on 12 March 
1838 at King David's Lane, Shad well, was 
youngest of three sons of George Fowler 
Perkin (1802-1865), a builder and con- 
tractor, by his wife Sarah Cuthbert. With 
his two brothers and three sisters he 
inherited a pronounced musical talent from 
his father. William Henry, after early 
education at a private school, was sent in 
1851 to the City of London school, where 
liis native aptitude for chemical study 
was effectively encouraged by his master, 
Thomas Hall. In 1853 he entered the 
Royal College of Chemistry as a student 
under Hofmann. By the end of his second 
year he had, under Hofmann's guidance, 
cariied out his first piece of research, a study 
of the action of cyanogen chloride on 
naphthylamine, the results of which he 
announced in a paper read before the 
Chemical Society. In 1857 he was appointed 
an honorary assistant to his professor. 

In 1854 he fitted up a laboratory in 




his own home, where he prosecuted inde- 
pendent research. Here, in conjunction 
with Mr. (now Sir) A. H. Church, he soon 
discovered the fii-st representative of the 
group of azo-dyes, namely, ' azodinaphthyl- 
diamine ' or, in modern nomenclature, 
' aminoazonaphthalene.' This substance was 
patented at a later date (Eng. Pat. 893 of 
1863) and had a limited use as a dyestuff. 
During the Easter vacation of 1856, with the 
idea of synthesising qviinine, Perkin tried, 
with a negative result, the experiment of 
oxidising a salt of allyltoiuidine with potas- 
sium dichromate. On repeating the experi- 
ment with aniline, however, he obtained a 
dark-coloured precipitate which proved to 
be a colouring matter possessed of dyeing 
properties, and was the first aniline dye 
to be discovered. Encouraged by the 
favourable report made on his new product 
by practical dyers and especially by Messrs. 
PiiUar of Perth, Perkin resigned his posi- 
tion at the Royal College of Chemistry and 
entered on the career of an indiistrial 
chemist. Assisted by his father and his 
elder brother, Thomas D. Perkin, he opened 
a chemical factory at Greenford Green. 
The new dye was patented (Eng. Pat. 
1984 of 1856), and at the end of 1858 it was 
first manufactured at Perkin's works under 
the name of ' Aniline Purple ' or ' Tyrian 
Purple.' The name ' Mauve,' by which it 
was afterwards generally known, was at 
once given to it in France. Perkin straight- 
way devoted himself to developing processes 
of manufacturing his raw material (aniline) 
and to improvements in the methods of silk 
dyeing, as well as of suitable mordants for 
enabling the dyestuflf to be appKed to the 
cotton fibre. To Perkin's discovery of the 
first of the aniline dyes was ultimately due 
the supersession of vegetable by chemical 
dye-stuffs. In recognition of his invention 
the ' Societe Industrielle de Mulhouse ' 
awarded him, in 1859, a. silver medal, and 
afterwards a gold one. 

In 1868 the German chemists Graebe and 
Liebermann showed that * alizarin,' the 
' Turkey red ' dyestuff or colouring matter of 
the madder-root, was a derivative of the coal- 
tar product anthracene and not of naphtha- 
lene, as had hitherto been believed. They 
then patented in Germany and in Great 
Britain a process for the manufacture of 
' alizarin ' which was too costly to hold out 
much hope of successful competition with 
the madder plant, requiring, as it did, the 
use of bromine. With the object of cheapen- 
ing this process, Perkin in 1869 introduced 
two new methods for the manufacture of 
artificial alizarin, one starting from dichloro- 

anthracene and the other, which is still 
in use, from the sulphonic acid of anthra- 
quinone. This branch of the coal-tar 
industry developed rapidly, and, in spite of 
some competing effort of Gterman manu- 
factairers, the English market was almost 
entirely held by Perkin until the end of 
1873. Perkin dehvered before the Society 
of Arts in 1879 two lectures, which were 
published under the title ' The history of 
ahzarin and aUied colouring matters, and 
their production from coal-tar.' Mean- 
while, in 1873, when the increasing demand 
for artificial alizarin rendered imperative 
an enlarged plant at Perkin's Greenford 
Green works, he transferred the concern 
to the finn of Brooke, Simpson & SpiUer, 
and, retiring after eighteen years from 
the industry, thenceforth devoted himself 
to pure chemical research. 

Concurrently with his industrial work 
Perkin had maintained a strong interest in 
piu-e chemistry, and had already published 
many important papers in the ' Transactions 
of the Chemical Society,' where his contri- 
butions finally numbered ninety. In 1858, 
in conjunction with Duppa, he discovered 
that aminoacetic acid could be obtained by 
heating bromoacetic acid with ammonia, and 
in 1867 he pubhshed a dascription of his 
method of synthesising unsaturated organic 
acids, known as the ' Perkin synthesis.' 
Next year the synthesis of coumarin, the 
odorous substance contained in Tonka 
bean, etc., was announced, and the con- 
tinuation of this work, after his retirement 
from the industry, led to his celebrated 
discovery of the synthesis of cinnamic 
acid from benzaldehyde. Scientific papers 
on the chemistry of ' Aniline Purple * or 
' mauve ' were also pubhshed in the ' Proceed- 
ings of the Royal Society' in 1863 and 1864 
and in the ' Transactions of the Chemical 
Society' in 1879. In 1881 he first drew 
attention to the magnetic rotatory power 
of some of the compounds which he had 
prepared in his researches, and mtiinly to 
the study of this property as appUed to the 
investigation of the constitution or struc- 
ture of chemical molecules he devoted the 
rest of his life. 

Perkin's services were widely recognised. 
Having joined the Chemical Society in 
1856, he held the ofiBce of president from 
1883 to 1885, and received the society's 
Longstaff medal in 1888. He was elected 
F.R.S. in 1866 and received from the Royal 
Society a royal medal in 1879, and the 
Davy medal in 1889. He was president 
of the Society of Chemical Industry in 
1884-5, recei\'ing the gold medal of 


1 06 

• Perkins 

the society in 1898, and at his death 
was president of the Society of Dyers 
and Colourists. The Society of Arts con- 
ferred on him the Albert medal in 1890, 
and the Institution of Gas Engineers the 
Birmingham medal in 1892. He also re- 
ceived honorary doctorates from the univer- 
sities of Wiirzburg (1882), St. Andrews 
(1891), and Manchester (1904). 

In July 1906 the jubilee was celebrated 
universally of Perkin's discovery of 
* mauve,' the first aniline dye, which had 
created the important coal-tar dyeing 
industry and had revolutionised industrial 
processes in varied directions. Perkin was 
knighted and received honorary degrees 
of doctor from the universities of Oxford, 
Leeds, Heidelberg, Columbia (New York), 
Johns Hopkins (Baltimore), and Munich 
Technical High School. He was presented 
with the Hofmann medal by the German 
Chemical Society and the Lavoisier medal 
by the French Chemical Society. A sum of 
2700^., subscribed by chemists from all 
countries, was handed to the Chemical 
Society as the ' Perkin Memorial Fund,' 
to be applied to the encouragement of 
research in subjects relating to the coal-tar 
and allied industries. The ' Perkin medal ' 
for distinguished services to chemical in- 
dustry was instituted by the Society of 
Dyers and Colourists, and the American 
memorial committee founded a Perldn 
medal for American chemists. 

Perkin died at Sudbury on 14 July 1907, 
and was buried at Christ Church graveyard, 
Harrow. He was twice married: (1) on 
13 Sept. 1859 to Jemima Harriett, daughter 
of John Lisset ; she died on 27 Nov. 1862; 
(2) on 8 Feb. 1866 to Alexandrine Caro- 
line, daughter of Ivan Herman Mollwo ; 
she survived him. He had three sons and 
four daughters. His eldest son, WiUiam 
Henry Perkin, Ph.D. (Wiirzburg), Hon. 
ScD. (Cantab.), Hon. LL.D. (Edin.), F.R.S., 
professor of organic chemistry at Man- 
chester University ; the second son, Arthur 
George Perkin, F.R.S. ; and the youngest 
son, Frederick MoUwo Perkin, Ph.D., have 
all distinguished themselves in the same 
department of science as their father. 

Perkin's portrait in his robe as LL.D. of 
the university of St. Andrews, painted by 
Henry Grant in 1898, is on the wall at the 
Leathersellers' Hall in St. Helen's Place, 
of which company he was master in 1896 ; 
another portrait by Arthur Stockdale Cope, 
R.A., presented to him on the jubilee 
celebration of 1906, is destined for the 
National Portrait Gallery. There is also 
an engraved portrait by Arthur J. Williams 

in the British Museum of Portraits, 
South Kensington collection, and a marble 
bust by F. W. Pomeroy, A.R.A., is in the 
rooms of the Chemical Society at Burlington 

[Trans. Chemical Society, 1908, 93, 2214- 
2257, and Roy. Soc. Proo. 80a, 1908 (memoirs 
by R. Meldola) ; Jubilee of the Discovery of 
Mauve and of the Foundation of the Coal-tar 
Colour Industry by Sir W. H. Perkin, ed. by 
R. Meldola, A. G. Green and J. C. Cain, 
1906.] J. C. C. 

PERKINS, Sir ^NEAS (1834^1901), 
general, colonel commandant royal engineers 
(late Bengal), bom at Lewisham, Kent, on 
19 May 1834, was sixth son in a family of 
thirteen children of Charles Perkins, mer- 
chant, of London, by his wife Jane Homby, 
daughter of Charles William Barkley (6. 
1759), after whom Barkley Sound and 
Island in the Pacific are named. His 
grandfather was John Perkins of Camber- 
well, a partner in Barclay & Perkins's 
Brewery. A brother George, in the Bengal 
artillery, was killed at the battle of the 
Hindun before Delhi in 1857. 

Educated at Dr. Prendergast's school at 
Lewisham and at Stoton and Mayor's school 
at Wimbledon, where Frederick (afterwards 
Earl) Roberts, his lifelong friend, was his 
schoolfellow, iEneas entered the military 
seminary of the East India Company at 
Addiscombe on 1 Feb. 1850, in the same 
batch as Roberts. At Addiscombe he 
showed ability in mathematics, and was a 
leader in all sports. Obtaining a commis- 
sion as second lieutenant in the Bengal 
engineers on 12 Dec. 1851, he, after pro- 
fessional instruction at Chatham, arrived 
at Fort William, Calcutta, on 16 Jan. 1854. 

As assistant engineer in the public works 
department Perkins was soon employed on 
irrigation work on the Bari Doab Canal 
in the Punjab. Promoted first lieutenant 
on 17 Aug. 1866, he was transferred in 
November to the Arabala division, and in 
the following May, when the Mutiny began, 
joined the force under General George Anson 
[q. v.], commander-in-chief in India, which 
marched to the relief of Delhi. Perkins was 
present at the battle of Badli-ki-serai on 
8 June, and at the subsequent seizure of the 
Delhi Ridge. He did much good work 
during the early part of the siege. On 11-12 
June he was employed in the construction 
of a mortar battery, known as ' Perkins's 
Battery'; on the 17th he took part in 
the destruction of a rebel battery and tjie 
capture of its guns ; and on 14 July in 
the repulse of the sortie ; but, wounded a 




few days later near the walls of Delhi, he 
was sent to Ambala. Although he soon 
recovered from the actual wound, he was 
forced by broken health to remain there 
until March 1858, when he was invaUded 
home. For his services in the Mutiny 
campaign he received the medal and clasp. 

On returning to India in 1859, Perkins 
held various offices in Bengal, including 
those of assistant principal of the Civil 
Engineering College at Calcutta, assistant 
consulting engineer for the railways, and 
executive engineer of the Berhampur 
Division. On 12 March 1862 he was pro- 
moted second captain and in the autumn 
of 1864 took part as field engineer in the 
Bhutan Expedition, during which he was 
three times mentioned in despatches for 
gallant conduct, and was recommended for 
a brevet majority. Towards the end of 
the expedition he was appointed chief 
engineer of the force. A strong recommen- 
dation for the Victoria Cross for conspicuous 
gallantry in storming a stockade at the 
summit of the Baru Pass was rejected on 
accoimt of the delay in sending it in. For 
his services in Bhutan, Perkins received the 
medal and a brevet majority on 30 June 

Perkins was next stationed at Morshed- 
abad as executive engineer, and in 1866 
was transferred to the Darjeeling division 
in the same grade. Promoted first captain 
in his corps on 31 Oct. 1868, two years later 
he was sent to the North West provinces 
£is superintending engineer, and in April 
1872 he was transferred in the same grade 
to the military works branch. He became 
regimental major on 5 July 1872, brevet 
lieut. -colonel 29 Dec. 1874, and regimental 
lieu t. -colonel on 1 Oct. 1877. 

A year later Perkins was selected for 
active service in Afghanistan at the request 
of Major-general (afterwards Field-marshal 
Earl) Roberts, commanding the Kuram field 
force. He was appointed commanding royal 
engineer of that force. During the opera- 
tions in front of the Peiwar Kotal he skil- 
fully reconnoitred the enemy's position, 
and selected a site from which the moun- 
tain battery could shell the Afghan camp. 
The works carried on under his control in 
the Kuram Valley greatly facilitated the 
subsequent sidvance on Kabvd. He was 
mentioned in despatches, and was created 
a C.B. in 1879. On the conclusion of peace 
with Sirdar Yakub Khan, Perkins remained 
in the Kuram Valley, laying out a canton- 
ment proposed to be formed at Shalofzan, 
but on the news of the massacre of Sir 
Louis Cavagnari [q. v.] and his escort at 

Kabul an immediate advance was made by 
the Kuram column, and Perkins was present 
at the victory of Charasiab and the entry 
into Kabul on 8 Oct. 1879. He was again 
mentioned in despatches. 

The work which then devolved upon 
the engineers was extremely heavy. The 
Sherpur cantonment and Bala Hissar had 
to be repaired, and a new Une of communi- 
cation with India via Jalalabad had to be 
opened out. The Sherpur cantonment was 
rendered defensible by the beginning of 
December and none too soon. A few days 
later the Afghans assembled in such over- 
whelming numbers that Sir Frederick 
Roberts had to assemble the whole of his 
force within the walls of Sherpur. Under 
Perkins's direction emplacements and 
abattis were rapidly constructed, block- 
houses were built on the Bimaru heights, 
walls and villages dangerously near the 
cantonment were blown down and levelled, 
and a second line of defence within the 
enclosure was improvised. On 23 Dec. the 
enemy delivered their assault in great 
numbers. It was repulsed, and a counter 
attack dispersed the Afghans to their homes. 
Perkins was mentioned in despatches and 
promoted brevet colonel on 29 Dec. 1879. 

Steps were now taken by Perkins to 
render the position at Kabul absolutely 
secure. A fort and blockhouse were 
erected on Siah Sang, the Bala Hissar and 
the Asmai Heights were fortified, Sherpur 
was converted into a strongly entrenched 
camp, bridges were thrown across the 
Kabul river, the main roads were made 
passable for artillery, and many new roads 
were laid out. The works completed 
during the next seven months, chiefly by 
means of imsldlled Afghan labour, comprised 
ten forts, fifteen detached posts, three large 
and several small bridges, 4000 yards of 
loopholed parapet, 45 miles of road, and 
quarters for 8000 men. At the end of 
July 1880 the news of the Maiwand disaster 
reached Kabul, and Perkins accompanied 
Sir Frederick Roberts as commanding 
royal engineer with the picked force of 
10,000 men in the famous march to Kanda- 
har. He was present at the battle of 
Kandahar on 1 Sept. 1880 and soon after- 
wards returned to India. He received the 
medal with foTir clasps and bronze decora- 
tion, and was made an aide-de-camp to the 

Rejoining the nuhtary works depart- 
ment, Perkins was appointed superintending 
engineer at Rawal Pindi, and from April 
to Jiily 1881 he officiated as inspector- 
general of military works. After a furlough 




lasting two years, Perkins was appointed 
chief engineer of the Central Provinces, was 
transferred in the same capacity in April 
1886 to the Punjab, and on 10 March 1887 
was promoted major-general. In May 1889 
he vacated his appointment in the military 
works department on attaining the age of 
fifty- five years, and in 1890 was selected by 
Lord Roberts, then commander-in-chief in 
India, to command the Oudh division ; but 
this command was cut short by his promo- 
tion to heutenant-general on 1 April 1891, 
and he returned to England. Promoted to 
be general on 1 April 1895, and made a 
colonel commandant of his corps on the 
same date, he was two years later created 
K.O.B. He died in London on 22 Dec. 1901, 
and was buried at Brookwood cemetery. 
Lord Roberts wrote of him with admiring 
affection, crediting him with ' quick per- 
ception, unflagging energy, sound judgment, 
tenacity of purpose and indomitable pluck.' 
Perkins figures in de Lang6's picture of the 
march to Kandahar. 

He married in 1863 Janette Wilhelmina 
(who survived him), daughter of Werner 
Cathray, formerly 13th light dragoons, 
by whom he left two sons — ^Major Arthur 
Ernest John Perkins, R.A., and Major 
^neas Charles Perkins, 40th Pathans, and 
three daughters, two of whom are married. 

[Royal Engineers' Records ; obituary 
notice, The Times, 23 Dec. 1901 ; memoir in 
Royal Engineers' Journal, June 1903, by Field- 
marshal Earl Roberts ; private information.] 

R. H. V. 

1906), Master of Corpus Christi College, 
Cambridge, younger brother of John James 
Stewart Perowne [q. v. Suppl. II], was 
born at Burdwan, Bengal, on 8 Jan. 1826. 
After private education he was admitted 
pensioner of Corpus Christi College, Cam- 
bridge, in 1846 and scholar in 1847 ; he was 
Person prizeman in 1848, members' prize- 
man in 1849 and 1852, and senior classic in 
1850. He graduated B.A. in 1850, proceed- 
ing M.A. m 1853, B.D. in 1860, D.D. in 1863. 
He was admitted aci evndem (M.A.) at Oxford 
in 1857. Ordained deacon in 1850 and priest 
in 1851, he was curate of Maddermarket, 
Norfolk ( 1 850-1 ) . Elected fellow and tutor 
of Corpus in 1858, he became Master in 1879. 
He was Whitehall preacher (1864-6); Hul- 
sean lecturer in 1866, examining chaplain to 
the bishop of St. Asaph (1874-88) ; preben- 
dary of St. Asaph (1877-90) ; vice-chancellor 
of Cambridge University (1879-81) ; hon. 
chaplain to Queen Victoria (1898-1900), and 
chaplain-in-ordinary (1900-1), examining 
chaplain to the bishop of Worcester (1891- 

1901). Devoted to his college and univer- 
sity, a sound disciplinarian, a man of many 
friendships and wide interests, Perowne 
refused high preferment and was long one 
of the most conspicuous figiures in the 
academic and social life of Cambridge. He 
was a strong evangeUcal, and in politics 
a somewhat rigid conservative. He^died 
unmarried at Cambridge, after a long ill- 
ness, on 5 Feb. 1906, and was buried at 
Grantchester. A portrait of Perowne, 
painted in 1885 by Rudolf Lehmann, is at 
Corpus Christi College, Cambridge. 

His principal works were : 1. ' The 
Christian's Daily Life, a Life of Faith,' 
1860. 2. ' Corporate Responsibility,' 1862. 
3. ' Counsel to Undergraduates on enter- 
ing the University,' 1863. 4. 'The God- 
head of Jesus,' 1867. 5. ' Commentary on 
Galatians ' (* Cambridge Bible for Schools '), 
1890. 6. 'Savonarola,' 1900. 

[The Times, 6 Feb. 1906 ; Guardian, 7 Feb, 
1906; Record; 9 Feb. 1906; Cambridge 
Review, 15 Feb. 1906 (by C. W. Moule) ; 
Crockford's Clerical Directory; Cambridge 
Univ. Calendar; of. Charles Whibley's In 
Cap and Gown (1889), p. 326.] A. R. B. 


(1823-1904), bishop of Worcester, born at 
Burdwan, Bengal, on 13 March 1823, was 
eldest of three sons of the Rev. John 
Perowne, a missionary of the Church 
Missionary Society, by his wife, EUza Scott 
of Heacham, Norfolk. His brothers were 
Edward Henry Perowne [q.v. Suppl. II] and 
Thomas Thomason Perowne, archdeacon 
of Norwich from 1898 to 1910. The family 
is of Huguenot origin. From Norwich 
grammar school Perowne won a scholarship 
at Corpus Christi CoUege, Cambridge. He 
was Bell University scholar in 1842 ; mem- 
bers' prizeman in 1844, 1846, and 1847 ; 
Crosse scholar in 1845 ; Tyrwhitt scholar 
in 1848. He graduated B.A. in 1845, 
proceedmg M.A. in 1848, B.D. in 1856, and 
D.D. in 1873. In 1845 be became assistant 
master at Cheam school ; was ordained 
deacon in 1847 and priest in 1848 ; and 
served the curacy of Tunstead, Norfolk, 
1847-9. In 1849 he became a master at 
King Edward's school, Birmingham ; but 
in 1851 was elected to a fellowship at Corpus 
Christi College, Cambridge. For a time he 
served his college as assistant tutor, whilst 
also lecturing at King's College, London, 
and acting as assistant preacher at Lincoln's 
Inn. He examined for the classical tripos 
in 1851 and 1852, and was select preacher 
in 1853, an office he also filled in 1861, 1873, 
1876, 1879, 1882, and 1897. 




From 1862 till 1872 Perowne worked in 
Wales. He was vice-principal of St. David's 
College, Lampeter (1862-72); cursal pre- 
bendary of St. David's (1867-72) ; canon of 
Llandaf! (1869-1878) ; and rector of Llan- 
disilio, Montgomeryshire (1870-71). Mean- 
while his commentary on the Psalms (1864) 
made his name as an Old Testament 
scholar, and in 1870 he was chosen one 
of the Old Testament revision company. 
In 1868 he had become Hidsean lecturer, 
and in 1872 he returned to Cambridge. 
From 1873 to 1875 he held a fellowship at 
Trinity ; he was Lady Margaret preacher 
in 1874, and Whitehall preacher from 1874 
to 1876 ; in 1875 he succeeded Joseph Barber 
Lightfoot [q. v.] as Hulaean professor, and 
held office until 1878. For the same period 
(1875-1878) he was one of the honorary 
chaplains to Queen Victoria. 

In 1878 Perowne was appointed dean 
of Peterborough. He developed the cathe- 
dral services, carried on the restoration 
of the fabric, and cultivated friendly 
relations with nonconformists. In 1881 | 
he was appointed to the Ecclesiastical 
Courts Commission, and was one of seven 
commissioners who signed a protest against 
the exercise by the bishop of an absolute 
veto on proceedings. In 1 889 he aided in 
founding a body known as ' Churchmen in 
Couacil,' which aimed at uniting 'mode- 
rate ' churchmen in a poUcy regarding 
ritual ; he explained the aim of the society 
by issuing in the same year a proposal for 
authorising both the maximum and the 
minimum interpretation of the Ornaments 
Rubric, which was widely discussed but led 
to no results. 

PeroTftTie was coiLsecrated bishop of 
Worcester in Westminster Abbey on 2 Feb. 
1891. He obtained the appointment of 
a suffragan bishop, created a new arch- 
deaconry, and summoned a diocesan con- 
ference. In 1892 he presided at some 
sessions of an informal conference on re- 
union of aU English protestants held at 
Grindelwald, and at an English church 
service there administered the Holy Com- 
mimion to nonconformists, an act which 
provoked much criticism. The church con- 
gress, hitherto excluded from the diocese, 
met at Birmingham in 1893, when the bishop 
announced his assent to the division of his 
diocese, and his willingness to contribute to 
the stipend of the new see 5001. a year 
from the income of Worcester. This was 
afterwards made contingent on his being 
allowed to give up Hartlebury Castle, to 
which the ecclesiastical commissioners 
refused consent. Attacked in the Birming- 

ham press for his action in the matter in 
1896, Perowne was presented with an 
address of approval by 60 beneficed clergy 
of three rural deaneries. He resigned the 
see in 1901, and retired to South wick, near 
Tewkesbury, where he died on 6 Nov. 
1904. The Worcester diocese was divided 
imder Perowne's successor and the see of 
Birmingham founded in 1905. 

Perowne married in 1862 Anna Maria, 
daughter of Humphrey WiUiam Woolrych, 
serjeant-at-law, by whom he had four sons 
and one daughter, all of whom survived him. 

Though a life-long evangehcal, Perowne 
took a line independent of his party in 
regard to Bibhcal criticism, home reunion, 
and proposals for meeting ritual difficulties. 
As a bishop he accepted a difficult see late 
in life, but showed himself an industrious, 
capable administrator. There is a portrait 
of the bishop by the Hon. John ColUer in the 
hall of Corpus Christi College, Cambridge, 
and another by Weigall at Hartlebury 

Perowne's main work was the translation 
of and commentary on the Psahns (1864), 
of which a sixth edition appeared in 1886. 
His Hulsean lectures on Immortality were 
published in 1868. In acting as general 
editor of the ' Cambridge Bible for Schools ' 
(1877, &c.), he directed a work of much 
greater importance than its' title suggests. 
He also edited Thomas Rogers on the 
J ' Catholic Doctrine of the Church of 
j England ' (for the Parker Society, 1 854) ; 
i ' Remains of Connop Thirlwall, Bishop of 
St. David's ' (1877) ; *The Letters, Literary 
and Theological, of Connop Thirlwall' 
(1881) ; ' The Cambridge Greek Testament 
for Schools' (1881). 

[The Times, 8 Nov. 1904; Record, 11 Nov. 
1904 ; Lowndes, Bishops of the Day ; Report of 
the Ecclesiastical Courts Commission, 1883 ; 
Report of the Birmingham Church Congress, 
1893 ; private information.] A. R. B. 

1911), schoolmaster and archaeologist, 
bom in Norwich on 24 July 1814, was 
second son of Isaac Perry (1777-1837), who 
was at first a congregational minister at 
Cherry Lane, Norwich (1802-14), then a 
unitarian minister, Ipswich (1814-25) and 
at Edinburgh (1828-30), and afterwards a 
schoolmaster at Liverpool. Walter's mother 
was Elizabeth, daughter of John Dawson 
Copland. He had his early education from 
his father, a fine scholar. In 1831 he was 
entered, as Walter Coupland Perry, at 
Manchester College, then at York (now at 
Oxford), remaining till 1836. He distin- 




guished himself as a classical scholar, and 
on the advice of John Kenrick [q. v.], who 
had studied at Gottingen, he went thither 
in 1836, gaining (25 August 1837) the 
degree of Ph.D. with the highest honours. 
In his ninetieth year he received from 
this university, unsolicited, a document 
recording his services to letters (16 Nov. 
1903). Returning to York, he supplied 
(1837-8) Kenrick's place as classical tutor. 
His first publication consisted of two letters 
on * German Universities,' contributed to 
the 'Christian Reformer' (1837). From 
1838 to 1844 he was minister at George's 
Meeting, Exeter, as colleague with Henry 
Acton [q. v.]. His pulpit services had 
more of a scholarly than a popular character. 
In 1844 he conformed to the Anglican 
church as a layman ; his ' Prayer Bell ' 
(1843) suggests that his views were more 
evangelical than was common in his 
previous denomination. 

On 12 January 1844 he entered as a 
student at the Middle Temple, but was not 
called to the bar till 31 Jan. 1851. Settling 
as a schoolmaster at Bonn (end of 1844) 
he obtained great reputation as a teacher, 
in which capacity he was ably seconded 
by an admirable wife. On 17 Sept. 1860, 
Perry, along with nine other English resi- 
dents at Bonn, was put on trial in the 
Bonn police court in consequence of their 
published protest against language used 
by the public prosecutor in presenting a 
charge against Captain Macdonald, arising 
out of a dispute at the railway station on 
12 Sept. On 24 Sept. Perry, who stated 
during the trial that he ' had been in the 
habit of acting as the organ and repre- 
sentative of the English visitors at Bonn,' 
was sentenced to a fine of 100 thalers, or 
five weeks' imprisonment in default ; the 
sentence was not carried out, owing to the 
general amnesty on the death of Frederick 
William IV (1 Jan. 1861). Among Perry's 
pupils were Edward Robert Bulwer, first 
earl of Lytton [q. v.], Sir Francis Bertie, 
British ambassador in Paris, and Sir Eric 
Barrington. The Crown Prince Frederick, 
who was, through the late Prince Consort, 
brought into connection with Perry in 1 852, 
twice gave him his portrait, and at Bucking- 
ham Palace in 1887 produced the English 
Prayer Book which Perry had given him in 

Returning to this country in 1875, Perry 
settled in London, where he was a member 
of the Athenaeum Club, and employed his 
leisure in the production of works on 
classical and mediaeval subjects. On 29 April 
1876 his former pupils made a large presen- 

tation of plate to Dr. and Mrs. Perry. By his 
efforts, initiated at a meeting in Grosvenor 
House on 16 May 1877, followed by his 
paper ' On the Formation of a Gallery of 
Casts from the Antique in London ' (1878), 
he succeeded in furnishing the country with 
a large collection of casts, installed at first 
in a special gallery at the South Kensing- 
ton Museum. He strongly resented a re- 
arrangement by which they were relegated 
to a badly lighted gallery, and welcomed 
their transference to the British Museum. 

Perry, who had great charm of manner, 
was a mountaineer, an excellent horseman, 
a sportsman with rod and gun, and a good 
amateur actor. He retained his eyesight 
and hearing to the last. On 21 June 1904, 
anticipating his ninetieth birthday, he en- 
tertained at dinner a number of his pupils. 
He lived over seven years longer, dying at his 
residence, 25 Manchester Square, London, 
W., on 28 Dec. 1911 ; he was buried in 
Hendon parish churchyard. He married (1) 
on 23 June 1841 Hephzibah Elizabeth (d. 
1880), second daughter of Samuel Shaen of 
Crix Hall, Hatfield Peverel, Sussex, by whom 
he had five sons, who all survived him, and 
one daughter (d. 1898) ; (2) in 1889 Evelyn 
Emma, daughter of Robert Stopford, who 
survived him. His portrait was painted in 
water-colour and in oils; both are in the 
possession of his widow. 

Perry's period of authorship covered no 
less than seventy-one years, his literary 
energy being maintained to the age of 
ninety -four. He published : 1. ' A Prayer 
Bell for the Universal Church . . . Reflections 
preparatory to . . . Prayer . . . Addresses 
. . . for . . . Holy Communion,' 1843, 
16mo. 2. ' German University Education,' 
1845, 12mo ; 2nd edit. 1846, 12mo (expanded 
from letters (1837) in the ' Christian Re- 
former '). 3. 'The Franks ... to the 
Death of King Pepin,' 1857. 4. 'Greek 
and Roman Sculpture : a Popular Intro- 
duction,' 1882 (illustrated). 5. ' A Descrip- 
tive Catalogue of . . . Casts from the 
Antique in the South Kensington Museum,' 
1884, 1887. 6. 'Walter Stanhope,' 1888 
(a novel published under the pseudonym 
' John Copland '). 7. ' The Women of 
Homer,' 1898 (illustrated). 8. ' The Revolt 
of the Horses,' 1898 (a story, suggested by 
Swift's 'Houyhnhnms'). 9. 'The Boy's 
Odyssey,' 1901, 1906 (edited by T. S. Peppin). 
10. 'The Boy's Iliad,' 1902. 11. ' Sancta 
Paula : a Romance of the Fourth Century,' 
1902. 12. 'Sicily in Fable, History, Art 
and Song,' 1908 (maps). He translated 
H. C. L. von Sybel's ' History of the French 
Revolution,' 1867-9, 4 vols. Some works 



of fiction additional to the above were pub- 
lished without his name. 

[The Times, 1 and 3 Jan. 1912 ; Christian 
Life, 6 Jan. 1912 ; Browne, Hist. Cong. Norf. 
and Suff., 1877, pp. 271, 392 ; Hist. Account, 
St. Mark's Chapel, Edinburgh, 1908 ; Roll of 
Students, Manchester College, 1868 ; Foster, 
Men at the Bar, 1885, p. 361 (needs correc- 
tion) ; Trial of the English Residents at Bonn, 
1861 ; information from Rev. T. L. Marshall, 
Exeter, Rev. J. Collins Odgere, Liverpool, and 
Col. Ottley Lane Perry.] A. G. 

first baronet ( 1 823-1 901 ) , Parsi merchant and 
philanthropist, bom at Bombay on 30 June 
1823, was elder of two sons of Manockjee 
Nasarwanji Petit (1803-59), merchant, by 
his wife Bai Humabai (1809-51), daughter 
of J. D. Mooghna. In 1805 his grand- 
father, Nasarwanji Cowasjee Bomanjee, 
migrated from Surat to Bombay, where he 
acted as agent to French vessels and 
those of the East India Company. On 
account of his small stature his French 
clients gave him the cognomen of Petit, 
and, in accordance with Parsi custom, this 
became the family surname, though with 
Anglicised pronunciation. Dinshaw went 
at the age of nine to a school kept by a 
pensioned sergeant named Sykes, and later 
to a more ambitious seminary kept by 
Messrs. Mainwaring and Corbet. At the 
age of seventeen he obtained a clerkship on 
a monthly salary of Rs. 15 (then the eqtii- 
valent of 11. 10s.) in the mercantile office 
of Dirom, Richmond and Co., of which his 
father was native manager. Subsequently 
his father built up a large broker's 
business, in which Dinshaw and his younger 
brother, Xasarwanjee, became partners in 
1852, carrying it on after their father's 
death in May 1859 till 1864, when they 
divided a fortune of about 25 lakhs of 
rupees and separated by mutual consent. 
Meanwhile Dinshaw inaugurated the 
cotton manufacturing industry which has 
made Bombay the Manchester of India. 
A cotton mill was started for the first 
time in Bombay in 1854 by another Parsi, 
Cowasjee Xanabhai Davur, but it spun 
yams only. In 1855 Dinshaw induced his 
father to erect a similar mill with additional 
machinery for weaving cloth. This mill 
commenced work as the Oriental Spin- 
ning and Weaving Mill, in 1857. In 1860 
he and his brother started the Manockjee 
Petit mill, which they converted into a 
joint-stock companj' concern. 

During the 'share mania' of 1861 and 
1865, when the ruin of the cotton industry 
of Lancashire by the American civil war 

excited wild speculation in Bombay 
Dinshaw Petit maintained his self-control 
and reaped colossal gains. Other mills 
were soon buUt by him, or came under his 
management, and he led the way in the 
manufacture of hosiery, damask, other fancy 
cloths, sewing thread, and also in machine 
dyeing on a large scale. Before Ms death he 
had the chief interest in six joint-stock mills 
aggregating nearly a quarter of a mUUon 
spindles and 2340 looms, and employing 
some 10,000 persons. He is thus mainly 
responsible for the conversion of the town 
and island of Bombay into a great industrial 

Dinshaw Petit served on the board 
of the bank of Bombay; was a justice 
of the peace for the city, and for a short 
time a member of the mimicipal corpora- 
tion; and was sheriff of the city (1886-7). 
He served on the legislative council of 
the governor-general (1886-8), and was 
the first Parsi to receive that honour. 
Having been knighted in February 1887, he 
was created a baronet of the United Bang- 
dom on 1 Sept. 1890, with special Umitation 
to his second son. Petit was the second 
Indian native to receive this hereditary 
title, the first being Sir Jamset jee Jeejeebhoy 
[q. V.]. Like Sir Jamset jee. Petit obtained 
special legislation requiring all successors 
to the title to assume his name in the event 
of not possessing it at their succession. 

Throughout western India Dinshaw Petit 
showed pubUc spirit in the disposal of his 
great wealth. He arranged for housing the 
technical institute at Bombay — a memorial 
of Queen Victoria's jubilee of 1887 — in 
the manufacttiring district of the city. 
He founded the Petit hospital for women 
and children ; gave a lakh of rupees 
(nearly 7000/.) towards building a home for 
lepers ; erected a hospital for animals as 
a memorial to his wife ; and presented 
property both in Bombay and Poona for 
research laboratories. A devout Parsi, 
he was always attentive to the claims of 
his own community, and in various places 
where small colonies of them are to lie 
fotmd erected for their use fire temples 
and towers of silence (i.e. places for the 
disposal of the dead). 

Petit died at his Bombay residence, Petit 
Hall, on 5 May 1901, and his remains 
were committed to the towers of sUence, 
Malabar Hill, the same day. At the oothumna, 
or third day obsequies, charities were 
announced amounting to Rs. 638,551 

Petit married on 27 Feb. 1837 Sakerbai, 
daughter of Framjee Bhikhajee Panday, of 




Bombay; slie died on 6 March 1890, having 
issue three sons and eight daughters. 
Petit's second son, Framjee Dinshaw, on 
whom the baronetcy had been entailed, pre- 
deceased his father on 8 Aug. 1895, and his 
eldest son, Jeejeehhoy Framjee (6. 7 June 
1873), became second baronet under the 
name of Sir Dinshaw Manockjea Petit. A 
posthumous painting of the firat baronet 
by Sir James Linton belongs to the present 
Sir Dinshaw of Petit Hall, Bombay, and 
a statue, to form the pubUc memorial in 
Bombay, is being executed by Sir Thomas 
Brock, R.A. 

[History of the Parsis, 1884, 2 vols. ; Repre- 
sentative Men of India, Bombay, 1891 ; Sir 
W. Hunter's Bombay, 1885 to 1890, 1892 ; 
Imperial Gazetteer of India ; Burke's Peerage ; 
Times of India, 6 May 1901.] F. H. B. 

1905), diplomatist, bom on 4 Sept. 1822 at 
Twickenham, was great-grandson of Robert 
Edward Petre, ninth Baron Petre, and 
was second son of Henry William Petre 
of Dunkenhalgh, Clayton-le-Moors, by his 
first wife EUzabeth Anne, daughter of 
Edmund John Glynn, of Glynn, Cornwall. 
Educated at Stonyhurst^ College and 
Prior Park, Bath, he entered the diplomatic 
service in 1846 as attache to the British 
legation at Frankfort, then the seat of the 
diet of the German confederation, and was 
there during the revolutionary movements 
which convulsed Germany in 1848. He 
was transferred to Hanover in 1852 and to 
Paris in 1853, and was appointed paid at- 
tache at the Hague in 1855 and at Naples in 
March 1856. Owing to the neglect by the 
tyrannical government of the Two Sicilies 
of the joint remonstrance of the British 
and French governments in May, diplo- 
matic relations were broken off in the 
summer. Sir WilUam Temple, the British 
minister, was compelled by iU-health to 
leave Naples in July, and Petre assumed 
charge of the legation until it was with- 
drawn at the end of October. Petre per- 
formed his duties with judgment and 
abiUty ; his reports laid before parhament 
give an interesting narrative of the course 
of events. In 1857 he was temporarily 
attached to the embassy at Paris, and 
in June 1859 he accompanied Sir Henry 
Elliot [q. V. Suppl. II] on his special 
mission to Naples, diplomatic relations 
having been resumed on the accession of 
Francis II to the throne. He then pro- 
ceeded as secretary of legation to Hanover, 
and acted as charge d'affaires there from 
December 1859 until February I860; he 

was transferred in 1864 to Copenhagen 
(where, in the following year, he assisted 
at the investiture of King Christian IX 
with the order of the Garter), to Brussels in 
1866, and was promoted to be secretary of 
embassy at Berlin in 1868. After four 
years of service at Berlin, covering the 
period of the Franco-German war, he 
became charge d'affaires at Stuttgart in 
1872, and in April 1881 he was appointed 
British envoy at Buenos Ayres. In 1882 
he was also accredited to the republic of 
Paraguay as minister plenipotentiary. In 
January 1884 he was appointed British 
envoy at Lisbon, where he remained until 
his retirement on a pension (1 Jan. 1893). 

During the latter years of his service in 
Portugal the obstacles offered by the 
Portuguese authorities to free communica- 
tion with the British missions and settle- 
ments established on the Shire river and 
the shores of Lake Nyassa, and the seizure 
of British vessels while passing through 
Portuguese waters on their way to the lake, 
led to a state of acute tension between 
the two governments. A convention for 
the settlement of these and cognate ques- 
tions was signed by Lord Salisbury and 
the Portuguese minister in London on 
20 Aug. 1890, but in consequence of popular 
and parUamentary opposition the Portu- 
guese government resigned office without 
obtaining the authority of the Cortes to 
ratify it, and their successors found them- 
selves equally unable to carry it through. 
The negotiations had therefore to be 
resumed de novo. A modus vivendi was 
agreed upon and signed by Lord Salisbury 
and the new Portuguese minister, Senhor 
Luiz de Soveral, on 14 Nov. 1890, by which 
Portugal granted free transit over the 
waterways of the Zambesi, Shire and 
Pungwe rivers and a satisfactory settle- 
ment was finally placed on record in the 
convention signed by Petre and the Portu- 
guese minister for foreign affairs on 11 June 
1891. Petre's naturally calm and con- 
cihatory disposition and the excellent 
personal relations which he succeeded in 
maintaining with the Portuguese ministers 
did much to keep the discussions on a 
friendly basis and to procure acceptance 
of the British demands. He was made 
C.B. in 1886 and K.C.M.G. in 1890. He 
died at Brighton on 17 May 1905, and was 
buried at Odiham, Hampshire. 

A portrait in water-colours is in the 
possession of his widow at Hatchwoods, 
Winchfield, Hampshire. Another, in oils, 
painted when he was at Berlin, is at 




Petre married on 10 April 1858 Emma 
Katharine Julia, fifth daughter of Major 
Ralph Henry Sneyd, and left six sons. One 
son and an only daughter predeceased him. 

[The Times, 23 May 1905 ; Lord Augustus 
Loftus, Diplomatic Reminiscences, 2nd ser. 
i. 374; Foreign Office List, 1906, p. 399; 
Papers laid before ParUament ; Burke's 
Peerage, s. v. Petre.] S. 

PETRIE, WILLIAM (1821-1908), electri- 
cian, bom at King's Langley, Hertfordshire, 
on 21 Jan. 1821, was eldest of four sons of 
William Petrie {b. 1784), a war office official. 
His mother, Margaret, was daughter and co- 
heiress of Henry Mitton, banker, of the Chase, 
Enfield. In 1829 Petrie's father was sent to 
the Cape of Good Hope, where he acted until 
1837 as deputy commissary-general, having 
as a near neighbour Sir John Herschel 
[q. v.], the astronomer. After home educa- 
tion in Cape Town, Petrie, with his brother 
Martin [q. v.], was entered at the South 
African College. He had early shown a 
liking for mechanics and chemistry, and his 
youthful studies were much influenced by 
Herschel's friendly encouragement. 

In 1836 Petrie commenced stud)dng for 
the medical profession, attending the Cape 
Town Hospital, but in the year following 
the family returned to London, and the 
curriculum was not pursued. He then 
attended King's College. Later (1840) he 
studied at Frankfort -on-Main, devoting 
himself to magnetism and electricity. 
His inquiries bore fruit in ' Residts of 
some Experiments in Electricity and 
Magnetism,' published in the ' Philosophical 
Magazine ' in 1841 ; and ' On the Results 
of an Extensive Series of Magnetic Investi- 
gations, including most of the known 
Varieties of Steel,' communicated at the 
British Association's Southampton meeting 
of 1846 (see also papers presented to the 
Association in 1850). 

Petrie returned to England in 1841, when 
he took out a patent for a magneto-electric 
machine. From 1846 to 1853 he worked 
assiduously at electric lighting problems 
in collaboration with William Edwards 
Staite. To Petrie's acumen is due the 
invention (1847-8) of the first truly self- 
regulating arc lamp. The essential feature 
was ' to impart more surely such motions to 
one of the electrodes that the light may be j 
preserved from going out, be kept more 
uniform, and be renewed by the action of 
the apparatus itseK whenever it has been ! 
put out.' Petrie's working drawings (still 
preserved) were made in conformity with 
this automatic principle, and he super- 

VOL. LXIX. — SUP. n. 

intended the manufacture of the new 
lamp at Holtzapffel's works in Long Acre. 
It was submitted to rigorous tests, and was 
found to yield a light of between 600 and 
700 standard candle-power, with a con- 
sumption of I lb. of zinc per 100 candle- 
power per hour. On 28 Nov. and 2 Dec. 

1848 Petrie made displays with a lamp of 
700 candle-power from the portico of the 
National Gallery, and on various nights in 

1849 from the old Hungerford suspension 
bridge in London. The demonstrations 
were witnessed by Wheatstone and other 
prominent men of science. On 6 Feb. 1850, 
Petrie (with Staite) read a paper before the 
Society of Arts on ' Improvements in the 
Electrie Light.' 

Petrie and Staite's long and courageous 
efforts to promote electric illumination 
were financially disastrous, and their 
pioneering services escaped the recognition 
of those who perfected the applications 
of the iUuminant, Subsequently Petrie 
turned his attention to electro-chemistry, 
and superintended large chemical works ; 
he introduced into the processes many 
improvements which he patented. He also 
designed and equipped chemical works in 
France, Austraha, and the United States. 
For many years he was adviser and designer 
with Johnson, Matthey & Co; 

Petrie died on 16 March 1908 at Bromley, 
Kent, and was buried there. He married on 
2 Aug. 1851 Anne, only child of Matthew 
Flinders [q. v.]. She was a competent 
linguist, and studied Egyptology. Under 
the pseudonym ' Philomathes ' she pub- 
lished a work on the relation between 
mythology and scripture, and as ' X.Q.' 
contributed essays to periodical literature. 
Their son, the sole issue of the marriage, 
is William Matthew Flinders Petrie, F.R.S., 
professor of Egyptology in University 
CoUege, London. 

[Electrical Engineer, 29 Aug. 1902 and 6 Feb. 
1903, articles by J. J. Fahie (portraits and dia- 
grams) ; Roy. Soc. Catal. Sci. Papers ; Patent 
Office Specifications ; Illustrated London 
News, 9 Dec. 1848 ; private information.] 

T. E. J. 

1908), anatomist, bom on 26 May 1834 at 
Roxhill, Lanarkshire, was son of Robert 
Pettigrew and Mary BeU. He was related on 
his father's side to Thomas Joseph Pettigrew 
[q. v.], and on his mother's side to Henry 
BeU [q. v.], the builder of the Comet steam- 
ship. Educated at the Free West Academy 
of Airdrie, he studied arts at the Univer- 
sity of Glasgow from 1850 to 1855. He then 



migrated to Edinburgh, where he pursued 
medical studies. In 1858-9 he was awarded 
Professor John Goodsir's senior anatomy 
gold medal for the best treatise ' On the 
arrangement C)f the muscular fibres in the 
ventricles of the vertebrate heart' [PML 
Trans, 1864). This treatise procured him 
the appointment of Croonian lecturer at 
the Royal Society of London in 1860. He 
gained at Edinburgh in 1860 the annual 
gold medal in the class of medical juris- 
prudence with an essay ' On the presump- 
tion of survivorship ' {Brit, and For. Med. 
Chirurg. Rev. Jan. 1865). He graduated 
M.D. at Edinburgh in 1861, obtaining the 
gold medal for his inaugural dissertation 
on ' the ganglia and nerves of the heart 
and their connection with the cerebro- 
spinal and sympathetic systems in mam- 
malia ' {Proc. Royal Soc. Edin. 1865). 
In 1861 he acted as house surgeon to 
Prof. James Syme [q. v.] at the Royal 
Infirmary, Edinburgh, and in 1862 he was 
appointed assistant in the Hunterian 
museum at the Royal College of Surgeons 
of England. Here he remained until 1867, 
adding dissections to the collection and 
writing papers on various anatomical sub- 
jects. In 1867 he contributed a paper to 
the 'Transactions of the Linnean Society' 
' On the mechanical appliances by which 
flight is maintained in the animal kingdom,' 
and in the same year he left the Hunterian 
museum in order to spend two years in the 
south of Ireland so as to extend his know- 
ledge of the flight of insects, birds and bats. 
He also experimented largely on the subject 
of artificial flight. 

Elected F.R.S. in 1869, in the autumn of 
that year he became curator of the museum 
of the Royal College of Surgeons of Edin- 
burgh and pathologist at the Royal 
Infirmary. He continued his anatomical, 
physical, and physiological researches, 
especially those on flight, and in 1870 he 
pubhshed a memoir ' On the physiology of 
wings, being an analysis of the movements 
by which flight is produced in the insect, 
bird and bat' {Trans. Royal Soc. Edin. 
vol. xxvi.). 

At Edinburgh he was elected F.R.S. 
in 1872 and F.R.C.P. in 1873. He was 
appointed in the same year lecturer on 
physiology at the Royal College of Surgeons 
of Edinburgh. In 1874 he was awarded the 
Godard prize of the French Academie des 
Sciences for his anatomico-physiological 
researches and was made a laureate of the 
Institut de France. In 1875 he was 
appointed Chandos professor of medicine 
and anatomy and dean of the medical 


faculty in the university of St. Andrews. 
In 1875-6-7 he deUvered special courses 
of lectures on physiology in Dundee, and 
University College, Dundee, owes its origin 
largely to his efforts. In 1877 he was elected 
by the Universities of Glasgow and St. 
Andrews to represent those bodies on the 
General Medical Council. He continued the 
dual representation until 1886, when a new 
medical act enabled each of the Scottish 
universities to return its own member. 
Pettigrew thenceforth represented St. 
Andrews on the council. In 1883 he 
received the hon. degree of LL.D. at 

He died at his residence, the Swallow - 
gate, St. Andrews, on 30 Jan. 1908. He 
married in 1890 Elsie, second daughter of 
Sir WilUam Gray, of Greatham, Durham, 
but left no family. His portrait by W. W. 
Ouless was exhibited at the Royal Academy 
ui 1902. A museum for the botanic gardens 
was erected in his memory by his widow as 
an adjunct to the Bute medical buildings of 
St. Andrews University. 

Pettigrew was author of : 1. ' Animal 
Locomotion, or Walking, Swimming, and 
Fljdng, with a Dissertation on Aeronautics,' 
in" International Scientific Series, 1873, 
translated into French (1874) and into 
German (1879). 2. ' The Physiology of Gr- 
culation in Plants, in the Lower Animals 
and in Man,' illustrated, 1874. 3. ' Design 
in Nature,' illustrated by spiral and other 
arrangements in the inorganic and organic 
kingdoms, 3 vols. 4to, 1908, published pos- 
thumously ; this work occupied the last 
ten years of Pettigrew's Ufe. 

[Men and Women of the Time, 1899; Lancet, 
1908, vol. i. p. 471 ; Brit. Med. Journal, 1908, 
vol. i. p. 357 ; information kindly given by 
Mrs. Bell Pettigrew.] D'A. P. 

PHEAR, SiB JOHN BUDD (1825-1905), 
judge in India and author, born at Earl 
Stonham, Suffolk, on 9 Feb. 1825, was eldest 
of three sons of John Phear, thirteenth 
wrangler at Cambridge in 1815, fellow and 
tutor of Pembroke College, Cambridge, and 
rector of Earl Stonham from 1 824 to 1 881 , by 
his wife Catherine Wreford, only daughter 
of Samuel Budd, medical practitioner, of 
North Tawton, Devon. Of his two brothers, 
Henry Carlyon Phear (1826-1880) was 
second wrangler and first Smith's prizeman 
in 1849, fellow of Caius College, Cambridge, 
and a chancery barrister of some eminence, 
and Samuel George Phear (6. 1829) wasf ourth 
wrangler in 1852, and fellow and from 
1871 to 1895 Master of Emmanuel College, 
Cambridge. Educated privately by his 




father, John entered Pembroke College, 
Cambridge, on 29 March 1843, graduated 
B.A. as sixth wrangler in 1847 and proceeded 
M. A. in 1 850. He was elected fellow of Clare 
College on 23 April 1847, mathematical 
lecturer in September following, and assis- 
tant tutor in 1854. He showed mathe- 
matical abihty in two text-books, ' Ele- 
mentary Mechanics ' (Cambridge, 1850) and 
' Elementary Hydrostatics with Numerous 
Examples ' (Cambridge, 1852 ; 2nd edit. 
1857). He left Cambridge in 1854, but 
retained his fellowship until his marriage 
in 1865. He was moderator of the mathe- 
matical tripos in 1856. 

Entering as a student at the Inner 
Temple on 12 Nov. 1847, Phear was called 
to the bar on 26 Jan. 1854 and joined the 
western circuit, subsequently transferring 
himself to the Norfolk circuit. In 1864 
he was appointed a judge of the High 
Court of Bengal and went out to Calcutta. 
He was in complete sympathy with the 
natives of India and they acknowledged 
his wise and impartial administration of 
jvistice. He displayed activity in other 
than judicial work, was president of the 
Asiatic Society of Bengal (1870-1), of the 
Bengal Social Science Association, and of 
the Bethune Society (for social purposes), 
and closely studied native social Ufe. 
Leaving Calcutta in 1876, he was knighted 
on 4 Oct. 1877, and became in the same year 
chief justice of Ceylon. He revised the civil 
and criminal code for Ceylon, and the Ceylon 
bar presented a portrait of him (in oils) to 
his court in appreciation of his services. 

On his return to England in 1879 Phear 
settled at Marpool Hall, Exmouth, Devon- 
shire, and at once took active part in local 
pubhc Ufe. He was chairman of quarter 
sessions from 18 Oct. 1881 tiU 15 Oct. 1895, 
and an alderman of the Devon county 
council from 24 Jan. 1889 till death. An 
ardent Uberal politician, he thrice contested 
unsuccessfully Devon county divisions in 
the liberal interest — Honiton in 1885, Tavi- 
stock in 1886, and Tiverton in 1892. He 
joined the Devonshire Association for the 
Advancement of Science, Literature, and Art 
in Jime 1881, contributed among other in- 
teresting papers one on manorial tenures, 
and was president in 1886. A keen sports- 
man, a good cricketer, and a Ufe member of 
the London Skating Club, he was a fellow 
of the Grcological Society from 1852. 

Sir John died at Marpool Hall, Exmouth, 
on 7 April 1905, and was buried at Littleham. 
He married at Madras on 16 Oct. 1865 
Emily, daughter of John Bolton of Burnley 
House, StockweU. She was a member of 

the Exmouth school board, and died on 
31 Dec. 1898, leaving two daughters and 
a son. 

Phear's most important pubUcation was 
' The Aryan Village in India and Ceylon ' 
(1880), which embodies the fruit of much 
intelUgent observation. He had previously 
issued ' The Hindoo Joint Family ' (Cal- 
cutta, 1867), a lecture at the Bethune 
Society, 18 March 1867. Phear's other 
works include * A Treatise on Rights of 
Water, including Public and Private Rights 
to the Sea and Sea -shore ' (1859), and 
' Observations on the Present State of the 
Law affecting Title to Land and its Trans- 
fer' (1862). 

[Private information ; The Times, 8 April 
1905 ; records of Pembroke and Clare CJolleges 
and Inner Temple.] T. C. H. 

PHILLIPS, WILLIAM (1822-1905), 
botanist and antiquary, born at Presteign, 
Radnorshire, on 4 May 1882, was fourth 
son in a family of ten children of Thomas 
PhilUps and Elizabeth, daughter of James 
Cross, whose ancestors had been farmers 
of Hanwood and burgesses of Shrewsbury 
since 1634. After receiving a very rudi- 
mentary education at a school at Presteign, 
PhilUps was apprenticed to his elder 
brother James, a tailor, in High Street, 
Shrewsbury, with whom and another 
brother, Edward, he went in due course 
into partnership. In 1859 he joined the 
Shrewsbury volunteers, and became a 
colour-sergeant and an excellent rifle- 
shot, winning the bronze medal of the 
National Rifle Association in 1860. After 
some early private study of astronomy 
and photography, he took up botany about 
1861 at the suggestion of his friend William 
AUport Leighton [q. v.], the Uchenologist. 
Beginning with flowering plants, Phillips 
turned to the fungi about 1869, first 
to the Hymenomycetes and afterwards 
mainly to the Discomycetes, though other 
groups of cryptogams were not neglected. 
Between 1873 and 1891, in conjunction 
with Dr. Plowright, he contributed a series 
of notes on ' New and rare British Fungi ' 
to ' Grevillea,' and between 1874 and 1881 
he issued a set of specimens entitled 
' ElveUacei Biitannici' In 1878 he helped 
to found, and formed the council of, the 
Shropshire Archaeological and Natural His- 
tory Societj', and in its ' Transactions ' 
(vol. i.) appeared his paper on the ferns 
and fem-alUes of Shropshire, which he had 
printed privately in 1877 ; many other 
papers followed in the subsequent ' Trans- 
actions.' In 1878 PhilUps published a 





* Guide to the Botany of Shrewsbury,' and 
before his death completed for the 'Victoria 
County History ' an account of the botany 
of the county. After nearly twenty years' 
preparation Phillips in 1887 published his 
chief work, 'A Manual of the British Disco - 
mycetes,' in the International Scientitic 
series (with twelve excellent plates drawn 
by himself). 

Compelled with advancing years to dis- 
continue microscopic work, Phillips engaged 
in archaeological research of various kinds. 
He made special studies of the earthworks, 
castles, and moated houses of Shrop- 
shire. Many of his results were pub- 
lished in the ' Transactions of the Slu-op- 
shire Archaeological Society/ in ' Salopian 
Shreds and Patches,' in ' Bye-Gones,' and 
in ' Shropshire Notes and Queries,' which he 
edited, and to a great extent wrote, towards 
the close of his life. ' The Ottley Papers,' 
relating to the civil war, which he edited 
for the Shropshire Society between 1893 
and 1898, form a complete county history 
for the period ; and he carefully edited the 
first part of Blakeway's 'Topographical 
History of Shrewsbury.' He took a pro- 
minent part in the preservation of the 
remains of Uriconium ; actively helped to 
arrange the borough records of Shrewsbury, 
and to prepare the calendar (1896) ; edited 
the ' Quarter Sessions Rolls ' of Shropshire 
from 1652 to 1659, and transcribed the 
parish registers of Battlefield (2 vols. 
1899-1900) and Stirchley (1905) for the 
Shropshire Parish Register Society. In 
1896 Phillips, a methodist and at one time 
a local preacher, pubhshed ' Early Metho- 
dism in Shropshire.' The conversion of 
the Shrewsbury Free School buildings into 
a museum and free library (from 1882) 
owed much to Phillips, who became 
the curator of botany. Many manuscript 
volumes by him on antiquarian subjects are 
preserved there. His botanical manuscripts 
and drawings, including his large correspond- 
ence with botanists at home and abroad, 
were purchased at his death for the botanical 
department of the British Museum. Phillips 
was elected a fellow of the Linnean Society 
in 1875, and was F.S.A. He became a 
borough magistrate in 1886, and was pre- 
sented with the freedom of the borough on 
17 Aug. 1903. He died of heart-disease at 
his residence in Canonbury, Shrewsbury, on 
23 Oct. 1905, and was buried in the general 
cemetery, Shrewsbury. 

Phillips married in 1846 Sarah Ann, 
daughter of Thomas Hitchins of Shrews- 
bury, who died in 1895. Two sons and 
two daughters survived him. 

Miles Joseph Berkeley [q.v.] dedicated 
to Phillips a genus of fungi under the name 

[Trans. Shropshire Archseol. See, series iii. 
vol. vi. 407-418 (with a portrait) ; Journal of 
Botany, xliii. (1905) pp. 361-2 (with a por- 
trait) ; Gardeners' Chron. 1905, ii. 331 (with 
a portrait) ; Proc. Linnean Soc. 1905-6, 
pp. 44-5 ; Shrewsbury and Border Counties 
Advertiser, 28 October 1905 (with portrait).] 

G. S. B. 

1901), violoncellist and composer, was bom 
on 8 Jan. 1822 at Bergamo, where his 
father, Antonio Piatti, was leader of the 
town orchestra. At five years old he began 
to learn the violoncello under his great- 
uncle Zanetti, and at seven played in the 
orchestra, next year succeeding to Zanetti' s 
place. In 1832 he obtained a five years' 
scholarship at the Conservatorio of Milan. 
At the end of his course he played in public 
a concerto oi his own composition, and 
was presented with the violoncello he had 
used, on 21 Sept. 1837. He then played in 
the Bergamo orchestra, taking trips with 
his father when there was a chance of 
pla3dng solos. After a time he went into 
Austria and Hungary, but fell ill at Pesth, 
and was obliged to sell his prize violoncello. 
Rescued by a Bergamo friend he returned 
home by way of Munich, where he met 
Liszt, and played at his concert. Liszt 
publicly embraced him, and he was thrice 
recalled. After appearing at Paris and Ems, 
he reached London, where he played in 
the opera orchestra and at private parties, 
and made his debut as soloist at Mrs. 
Anderson's concert on 31 May 1844. The 
boy Joachim first appeared at the same 
concert. Piatti made several other ap- 
pearances, and a provincial tour in the 
autumn ; his success everywhere was im- 
mediate and complete, but he earned little, 
and was able to return home only by 
the assistance of the vocalist Mme. Castellan. 
In 1845 he toured in Russia. In 1846 he 
returned to England, where he at once 
became a principal figure in London musical 
life. His small figure and serious spectacled 
face were thenceforth famiUar for half 
a century to all London concert-goers. 
Mendelssohn talked of writing a concerto 
for him, which however has not been found. 
Alike in execution, in tone, and in expression 
he was unsurpassed. Difficulties had no 
existence for him, and his dehvery of a 
melody was a lesson to vocalists. He took 
composition lessons from Mohque. After 
Lindley's retirement in 1851 Piatti had 
no rival, leading the violoncellos at the 




principal concerts, and taking part in 
chamber music, for which he was peculiarly 
fitted. Stemdale Bennett's sonata-duo 
(1852), MoUque's concerto (1853), and 
Sullivan's concerto (1866) and Duo (1868) 
were all written for him and first performed 
by him. At the Monday Popular Concerts 
Piatti played from their establishment in 
1859 tiU 1896. He Uved at 15 Northwick 
Terrace, St. John's Wood, latterly spending 
the summer at an estate he had bought at 
Cadenabbia, Lake Como. He rarely played 
outside London ; he appeared at Ber- 
gamo in 1875 and again in 1893, on the 
latter occasion receiving the order of the 
Crown of Italy from King Humbert. On 
22 March 1894, to celebrate the jubUee of 
his and Joachim's first appearances in 
London, a testimonial to both was publiclj' 
presented to them at the Grafton Galleries. 

In 1898 Piatti retired. His last few 
months were spent with his only surviving 
daughter, Countess Lochis, at Crocetta near 
Bergamo, where he died on 22 July 1901. 
He was buried in the castle chapel ; four 
professors played his favourite movement, 
the variations on ' Der Tod imd das 
Madchen ' in Schubert's D minor quartett, 
and agreed to play it annually at the grave- 
side. Piatti married in 1856 Mary Ann Lucey 
Welsh, daughter of a singing master ; but 
they separated. She died in Sept. 1901. 

Piatti's compositions included six sonatas, 
three concertos, twelve caprices, and some 
slighter pieces for the violoncello, as well 
as some songs with violoncello obbligato, 
one of wliich, 'Awake, awake,' had a 
lasting success. He re-edited works by 
Boccherini, Locatelli, Veracini, MarceUo, 
and Porpora, and Kummer's method. 
He arranged for the violoncello Ariosti's 
sonatas, melodies by Schubert and Men- 
delssohn, and variations from Christopher 
Sympson's ' Division- Violist ' (1659). 

A portrait by Frank HoU was exhibited 
at^the Royal Academy in 1879. 

[Morton Latham, Alfredo Piatti (with 
portraits) ; Grove's Diet, of Music ; Musical 
Times (with portrait), Aug. 1901.] H. D. 

PICKARD, BENJAMIN (1842-1904), 
trade union leader, born on 26 Feb. 1842 
at Kippax, near Pontefract, in Yorkshire, 
was son of Thomas Pickard, a working 
miner, by his wife Elizabeth Firth, He was 
educated at the colliery school. At twelve 
he commenced to work in the mine with 
his father, and in due course went through 
the various grades of laboiir there. He 
early joined the miners' union, becoming 
lodge secretary in 1858, and in 1873, when 

the membership and work of the West 
Yorkshire Miners' Association greatly in- 
creased, he was elected its assistant secre- 
tary, succeeding to the secretaryship in 
1876. He had also joined the Wesleyan 
body and became one of its local preachers. 
He foresaw that the next step in trade 
unionism was the amalgamation of local 
societies, and in 1881 he brought about 
the union of the south arid west Yorkshire 
associations, under the title of the Yorkshire 
Miners' Association, and became its secre- 
tary ; and when the Miners' Federation 
of Great Britain was formed in 1888 
he was elected president. His policy 
was to protect members by restricting 
output and so check excessive driving. 
In 1885 the employers resolved to reduce 
wages. Pickard adi/ised acceptance, but 
the men declined to follow his lead and a 
strike ensued which was unsuccessful, but 
events then gave Pickard his grip upon 
the miners which he never lost. Prosperous 
times followed, but he again found himself 
involved in the dispute of 1893, when the 
miners again resisted a reduction of 25 per 
cent, and refused arbitration on the ground 
that they were entitled to a living wage. It 
was another form of the opposition to a 
sliding scale for wages which the Miners' 
Federation had been formed to carry on. 
In this great dispute, which lasted sixteen 
weeks, Pickard played the leading part, and 
in the end received a testimonial of 750Z. 
from the men. The result of this strike was 
the estabUshment of conciliation boards to 
settle aU wages disputes. Things went 
smoothly until 1902 when reductions were 
again threatened, unrest was widespread, 
and the Denaby Main strike ensued. 
During the board of trade inquiry which 
followed this strike and at which he gave 
evidence, Pickard died in London on 
3 Feb. 1904 ; he was buried in the Bamsley 

A liberal in politics, Pickard sat in 
parliament for the Normanton division of 
Yorkshire from 1885 tiU his death. In par- 
liament he was the leader of the eight hours 
I for miners agitation, and his interest in arbi- 
j tration sent him in 1887 on a peace deputa 
i tion to the president of the United States 
I (Grover Cleveland). In 1897 he received 
I a cheque for 500Z. from liberal members of 
I the House of Commons as a mark of respect. 
Before entering parliament he was a 
member of the Wakefield school board, 
and in 1889 was elected an alderman of 
' the West Riding county council. 
I He married in. 1864 the daughter of John 
I Freeman of Elippax ; she died in 1901. 




[The Times, 4 Feb. 1904 ; Reports of Miners' 
Federation ; Sidney Webb's History of Trades 
Unionism 1894, and his Industrial Democracy 
1897 ; family information.] J. R. M. 

1910), politician and author, born at 
Liverpool on 8 Aug. 1832, was eldest son of 
Sir James AUanson Picton [q. v.] by his 
wife Sarah Pooley. After early education 
at the High School, then held at the 
Mechanics' Institute, he entered the office 
of his father, who was an architect, in his 
sixteenth year. In his nineteenth year 
he resolved to study for the ministry, and 
joined both the Lancashire Independent 
College and Owens College, Manchester. 
At Owens College he was first in classics 
in his final examination, and in 1855 he 
proceeded M.A. at London University. A 
first attempt in 1856 to enter the ministry 
failed owing to a suspicion of heterodoxy. 
Study of German philosophy dissatisfied 
him with conventional doctrine. Later in 
the year, however, he was appointed to 
Cheetham Hill congregational church, 
Manchester. There with the Rev. Arthur 
Mursell he undertook a course of popular 
lectures to the working classes. A sermon 
on the ' Christian law of progress ' in 1862 
led to a revival of the allegation of heresy. 
Removing to Leicester, he accepted the 
pastorate of Gallowtree Gate chapel, and 
there made a high reputation. In 1869 
he became pastor of St Thomas's Square 
chapel, Hackney, remaining there till 
1879. At Hackney, to the dismay of strict 
orthodoxy, he delivered to the working 
classes, on Sunday afternoons, popular 
lectures on secular themes such as English 
history and the principles of radical and 
conservative politics. He thus prepared the 
way for the Pleasant Sunday Afternoon 
movement. His growing tendency to 
rationalism inclined him to pantheism in 
later years. 

Picton soon took an active part in public 
life as an uncompromising radical of an 
advanced type. A champion of secularism 
in education, he represented Hackney on 
the London school board from 1870 to 
1879. For three years he was chairman of 
the school management committee. In 
1883 he was accepted as a radical candi- 
date for parliament for the Tower Hamlets, 
but withdrew in 1884, when in June he 
entered parliament as member for Leicester, 
succeeding Peter Alfred Taylor [q. v.], most 
of whose opinions he shared. He was 
re-elected for Leicester in 1885, 1886, and 
1892, retiring from the House of Commons 

and from public life in 1894. Picton, who 
was very small in stature, possessed much 
oratorical power, but, never losing the 
manner of the pulpit, failed to win the ear 
of the House of Commons, where he was 
only known as a sincere advocate of 
extreme views. 

Picton wrote much in the press and 
published many sermons, pamphlets, and 
volumes on religion and politics. From 

1879 to 1884 he was a frequent leader 
writer in the ' Weekly Dispatch,' then an 
advanced radical organ, and contributed to 
the ' Christian World,' the ' Theological 
Review,' the ' Fortnightly Review,' the 
' Contemporary Review,' ' Macmillan's 
Magazine,' the ' Examiner,' and other 

His books included : 1. ' A Catechism of 
the Gospels,' 1866. 2. ' New Theories and 
the Old Faith,' 1870. 3. ' The Mystery of 
Matter,' 1873. 4. ' The Religion of Jesus,' 
1876. 5. 'Pulpit Discourses,' 1879. 6. 
' Oliver Cromwell: the Man and his Mission,' 

1882 (a popular eulogy). 7. ' Lessons from 
the English Commonwealth,' 1884; 8. ' The 
Conflict of Oligarchy and Democracy,' 1885. 
9. ' Sir James A. Picton : a Biography,' 
1891. 10; 'The Bible in School,' 1901. 11. 
' The Religion of the Universe,' 1904; 12. 
' Pantheism,' 1905. 13. ' Spinoza : a Hand- 
book to the Ethics,' 1907i 14. ' Man and 
the Bible,' 1909. He died at Caerlyr, Pen- 
maenmawr, North Wales, where he had 
lived since his withdrawal from parliament, 
on 4 Feb. 1910, and his remains were 
cremated at Liverpool. 

He married (1) Margaret, daughter of 
John Beaumont of Manchester ; and (2) 
Jessie Carr, daughter of Sydney Williams, 
publisher, of Hamburg and London. Of 
four sons one survived 

[Morrison Davidson, Eminent Radicals, 

1880 ; Frederick Rogers, Biographical sketch, 

1883 ; H. W. Lucy's Diary of tbe Salisbury 
Parliament, 1886-92 ; House of Commons 
Guides, 1884-94; Who's Who, 1910; 
Christian World, Literary Guide, and 
Leicester Daily Post and Liverpool Daily 
Post, Feb., March 1910.] F. R. 

PIRBRIGHT, first Baron. [See De 
Worms, Henry (1840-1903), politician.] 

1908), physician, born in London on 1 July 
1808, was j^oungest of the seven children 
of Thomas Dix Pitman, a solicitor in 
Furnival's Inn, by his wife Ann Simmons, of 
a Worcester family. Educated privately, 
he entered Trinity College, Cambridge, 
in 1827, where he graduated B.A. in 1832. 




After travelling abroad for a year he spent 
six months in the office of his brother-in- 
law, who was a soUcitor, and thus obtained 
a training in business methods. He then 
turned to medicine, working first for a 
year at Cambridge and then at King's 
College and at St. George's Hospital ; in 
1835 he graduated ALB. at Cambridge, and 
after passing in 1838 the then necessary 
additional examination for the licence at 
that university, he proceeded M.D. in 1841. 
In 1840 he became a licentiate (equivalent 
to member), and in 1845 a feUow, of the 
Royal College of Physicians of London. In 
1846 he was elected assistant physician, and 
in 1857 physician and lecturer on medicine at 
St. George's Hospital. He resigned in 1866 
and was the first to be elected consulting 
physician there. After being censor in 
1856-7, he was in 1858, in succession 
to Dr. Francis Hawkins fq. v.], elected 
registrar to the Royal College of Physicians. 

Pitman, whose mental equipment was 
rather of the legal than of the medical order, 
had a gift for administration. He was long 
identified with the management of the 
Royal College of Physicians and the regula- 
tion and arrangement of the medical curri- 
culum. The Medical Act of 1858 entailed 
numerous changes in the organisation of the 
college, which then surrendered the power to 
confer the exclusive right to practise in 
London. He was largely responsible for the 
translation of the old Latin statutes of the 
college into English bye-laws and regula- 
tions in harmony with the Medical Acts of 
1858 and 1860. He took a prominent part 
in the construction of the first edition of 
the ' Xomenclature of Diseases,' which was 
prepared by the college for the government, 
being begun in 1859 and published in 1869. 
A fresh edition is issued decennially. He 
was largely responsible for the initiation 
and organisation of the conjoint examining 
board in England of the Royal College of 
Physicians and the Royal College of Sur- 
geons, and it was in recognition of his work 
on the new diplomas (L.R.C.P., M.R.C.S.) 
that he was knighted in 1883. He also took 
an active part in the institution of a special 
examination and diploma in pubhc health. 
From 1876 to 1886 he was the representa- 
tive of the college on the general council 
of medical education and registration, and 
in 1881 chairman of the executive com- 
mittee of the council. He resigned the 
registrarship of the College of Physicians in 
1889, being then elected emeritus registrar. 

Pitman died at the patriarchal age of 
100 at Enfield on 6 Nov. 1908, and was 
buried in the Enfield cemetery. He married 

in 1852 Frances {d. 11 Nov. 1910), only 
daughter of Thomas Wildman of East- 
bourne, and had issue three sons and 
four daughters. 

A portrait by Ouless hangs in the reading- 
room of the Royal College of Physicians, to 
which it was presented on behalf of some of 
the fellows by Sir Risdon Bennett in 1886. 

[Autobiography in Lancet, 1908, ii. 1418 ; 
Brit. Med. Journal, 1908, ii. 1528 ; presi- 
dential address at the Royal College of 
Physicians by Sir R. Douglas Powell, Bt., 
K.C.V.O., on 5 April 1909.] H. D. R. 

1904), Persian scholar, bom at Calcutta 
on 1 August 1830, was second son of Robert 
Platts of Calcutta, India, who left at his 
death a large family and a widow in 
straitened circumstances. John, after being 
educated at Bedford (apparently privately), 
returned to India in early manhood, and 
during 1858-9 was mathematical master 
at Benares College. He was in charge of 
Saugor School in the Central Provinces 
from 1859 to 1861, when he became 
mathematical professor and headmaster 
of Benares CoUege. In 1864 Platts was 
transferred to the post of assistant 
inspector of schools, second circle. North- 
west Provinces, and in 1868 he became 
officiating inspector of schools, northern 
circle. Central Provinces. He retired on 
17 March 1872, o^ing to iU-health. Platts 
then returned to England, and settling at 
EaUng occupied himself with teaching 
Hindustani and Persian. He had closely 
studied both languages and had thoroughly 
mastered their grammars and vocabulary. 
On 2 June 1880 he was elected teacher 
of Persian in the University of Oxford: 
He matriculated from Balliol College 
on 1 Feb. 1881, and on 21 June of that 
year was made M.A. honoris causa. On 
19 March 1901 the degree of M.A. was 
conferred upon him by decree. He died 
suddenly in London on 21 Sept. 1904, and 
was buried at Wolvercote cemetery near 

Platts was twice married : (1) in 1856, 
at Lahore, India, to Ahce Jane Kenyon 
{d. 1874), by whom he had three sons and four 
daughters; and (2) on 4 Oct. 1876 to Mary 
Elizabeth, only daughter of Thomas Dunn, 
architect and surveyor, of Melbourne, 
Austraha, and widow of John Hayes, 
architect and surveyor, of Croydon ; by 
her Platts had one son. His widow was 
awarded a civil list pension of 751. in 1905. 

Platts compiled : 1. ' A Grammar of the 
Hindustani Language,' 1874. 2. ' A Hin- 

Play fair 

1 20 

Play fair 

dustani-English Dictionary,' 1881. 3. ' A 
Dictionary of Urdu, Classical Hindi, and 
English,' 1884. 4. 'A Grammar of the 
Persian Language, Part I, Accidence,' 1894. 
He also edited the text of ' Gulistan of 
Sa'di' (1872), and published ' Sa'di (Shaikh 
MusUhuddin Shirazi)' photographed from 
MS. under his superintendence (1891). He 
translated the ' Ikhwanu-s-Safa ' from the 
Hindustani of Maulavi Ikram Ali (1875), 
and the 'GuUstan of Sa'di' (1876). 

Platts' grammars of Persian and Hindu- 
stani were a marked advance upon the 
work of any English predecessor, and still 
hold the field. His ' Hindustani- EngUsh 
Dictionary' is a monument of erudition 
and research. 

[Record Department, India Office ; Oxford 
Times, 1 Oct. 1904.] G. S. A. R. 

(1835-1903), obstetric physician, born at St. 
Andrews, where his family had long been 
prominent citizens, on 27 July 1835, was 
fourth of the five sons of George Playfair, 
inspector-general of hospitals in Bengal, 
by his wife Jessie Ross of Edinburgh. 
Lyon, first Lord Playfair [q. v. Suppl. 1], 
and Sir Robert Lambert Playfair [q. v. 
Suppl. I] were two of his brothers. 

After being educated at St. Andrews, 
he became a medical student at Edinburgh 
in 1852, graduating M.D. in 1856 and then 
working for some time in Paris. In 1857 
he entered the Indian medical service, and 
was an assistant surgeon at Oude during 
the Mutiny. During 1859-60 he was pro- 
fessor of surgery at the Calcutta Medical 
College ; but for reasons of health he 
retired, and after practising for six months 
in St. Petersburg, he returned in 1863 to 
London without definite plans, but was 
soon elected assistant physician for diseases 
of women and children at King's College 
Hospital. In 1872, on the retirement of 
Sir William Overend Priestley [q. v. 
Suppl. I], he was appointed professor of 
obstetric medicine in King's College and 
obstetric physician to King's College 
Hospital, posts which he vacated after 
twenty-five years' service in 1898, and was 
elected emeritus professor and consulting 
phvsician. In 1863 he became M.R.C.P., 
and in 1870 was elected E.R.C.P. 

Playfair became one of the foremost 
obstetricians in this country, and was among 
the first to decline to hand over obstetric 
operations to general surgeons, and thus 
set obstetricians the example of operating 
on their own patients. He was a prolific 
writer with a clear and graceful style. 

He introduced into this country with much 
enthusiasm and success the Weir-Mitchell 
or ' rest-cure ' treatment, which was soon 
widely adopted. In 1896 an action was 
brought against him by a patient for 
alleged breach of professional confidence 
which attracted much attention, and was 
notable for the enormous damages (12,000Z.) 
given against him by the jury ; this amount 
however was reduced by agreement to 
9200?. on application for a new trial. Though 
opinion was much divided on the merits 
of the case, no stain was left on Playfair's 
professional character. He was physician 
accoucheur to the Duchess of Edinburgh and 
to the Duchess of Connaught, an hon. LL.D. 
of the Universities of Edinburgh (1898) and 
of St. Andrews (1885), an honorary fellow 
of the American and of the Boston Gynaeco- 
logical Societies, and of the Obstetrical 
Society of Edinburgh. He was president 
of the Obstetrical Society of London 

Playfair after an apoplectic stroke at 
Florence in 1903 died at St. Andrews, his 
native place, on 13 Aug. 1903, and was 
buried there in the new cemetery of St. 
Andrews, where his two distinguished 
brothers Ue. A sum was collected to found 
a memorial to him in the new Bang's 
College Hospital at Denmark Hill, London. 
His portrait, painted by Fraulein von 
Nathusius, was presented by his widow to 
the Royal College of Physicians of London. 

Playfair married on 26 April 1864 Emily, 
daughter of James Kitson of Leeds and 
sister of the first Lord Airedale ; he had 
issue two sons and three daughters. 

Playfair was author of : 1. * Handbook 
of Obstetric Operations,' 1865. 2. ' Science 
and Practice of Midwifery,' 1876 ; 9th edit. 
1898, translated into several languages. 
3. ' Notes on the Systematic Treatment of 
Nerve Prostration and Hysteria connected 
with Uterine Disease.' 1881. He was joint 
editor with Sir Clifl^ord AUbutt, K.C.B., of 
a ' System of Gynaecology ' (1896 ; 2nd edit, 
revised by T. W. Eden, 1906). He con- 
tributed to Quain's * Dictionary of Medi- 
cine' (1882) the article on ' Diseases of the 
Womb,' and to H. Tuke's 'Dictionary of 
Psychological Medicine' (1892) the article 
on ' Functional Neuroses,' and wrote much 
for medical periodicals, including forty- 
nine papers for the ' Transactions of the 
Obstetrical Society.' 

[Obstetrical Trans., London, 1904, xlvi. 
80-86 ; Brit. Med. Journal, 1903, ii. 439 ; 
the Families of Roger and Playfair, printed 
for private circulation, 1872 ; information 
from Hugh Playfair, M.D.] H. D, R, : 



(1835-1907), diplomatist, bom at Corbalton 
Hall, CO. Meath, on 3 Feb. 1835, was sixth 
son of Arthur James, ninth earl of Fingall, 
and Louise EmiUa, only daughter of EUas 
Corbally of Corbalton HaU. Educated at 
the Roman catholic college, St. Mary's, 
Oscott, he was appointed attache at 
Munich in January 1855, and transferred 
in July of that year to Naples, where he 
remained until diplomatic relations were 
broken oflf on 30 Oct. 1856. After a few 
months of service at the Hague he was 
transferred to Madrid, and in July 1859 
was promoted to be paid attache at St. 
Petersburg. In January 1863 he was 
transferred as second secretary to Copen- 
hagen, where he served during the troubled 
times of the war of Austria and Prussia 
against Deiunark. After service at Vienna, 
BerHn, Florence, and again at Berlin, he 
was promoted to be secretary of legation at 
Yedo in 1873, then at Washington in 1876, 
becoming secretary of embassy at St. 
Petersburg in 1877. He was transferred 
to Constantinople in 1881, but after 
a few months of service, during part 
of which he was in charge of the em- 
bassy in the absence of the ambassador, 
Lord Dufferin [q. v. Suppl. II]. he was 
removed to Paris, with promotion to the 
titular rank of minister plenipotentiary. 
In July 1883 he was appointed British 
envoy at Tokio, and while there in 1886 
he was made K.C.M.G. In 1886 and 1887 
he took part as the senior British delegate 
in the conferences on the very difficult 
question of the revision of the treaties 
between Japan and the European powers, 
and the conditions on which the rights of 
extra-territorial jurisdiction enjoyed by 
those powers over their nationals resident 
in Japan should be abandoned. The 
conditions agreed upon at the conference 
were considered by the Japanese govern- 
ment to be too onerous, and it was not 
until 1894 that a definitive agreement 
was arrived at. In 1888 he was transferred 
to Stockholm, and in 1893 to Brussels, 
where in 1898 and 1899 he took part in 
the conferences for the abohtion of bounties 
on the export of sugar and for the regulation 
of the liquor trade in Africa. In September 
1900 he was appointed British ambassador 
at Vienna, and held that post till his 
retirement on pension in October 1905. 
He was made G.C.M.G. durmg his 
residence at Brussels in 1894, G.C.B. in 
1901, and a G.C.V.O. in 1903, was sworn 
a privy councillor on his appointment 
as ambassador, and received from the 

Emperor Francis Joseph the grand cross 
of the order of Leopold on leaving Vienna, 
where his natural kindUness of disposition 
and urbanity of manner had made him 
universally popular. He died at Paris on 
28 Feb. 1907 and was buried at Boulogne- 

He married on 22 Aug. 1870 May Tevis, 
daughter of Charles Wain Morgan, of Phila- 
delphia, by whom he had two daughters. 

[The Times, 1 and 2 Ma^ch 1907 ; Foreign 
Office List, 1908, p. 401 ; papers laid before 
Parliament.] S. 

PODMORE, FRANK (1855-1910), 
writer on psychical research, born at Elstree, 
Hertfordshire, on 5 Feb. 1855, was the third 
son of the Rev. Thompson Podmore, at one 
time headmaster of Eastbourne CoUege, 
by his wife Georgina Elizabeth, daughter 
of George Gray Barton and Sarah Barton. 
Educated first at Elstree Hill school 
(1863-8), Frank won a scholarship at 
Haileybury, leaving in 1874 with a classical 
scholarship at Pembroke College, Oxford. 
At Oxford he obtained a second class in 
classical moderations (1875) and a first 
class in natural science (1877). In 1879 he 
was appointed to a higher division clerk- 
ship in the secretary's department of the 
post office. This position he held till 1907, 
when he retired without a pension. 

Through life Podmore was keenly inter- 
ested in psychical research. At Oxford he 
had studied spirituaUstic phenomena, had 
contributed papers to ' Human Nature ' (the 
spirituahst organ) in 1875 and 1876, and 
had placed unqualified confidence in a slate- 
writing performance of the medium Slade. 
In 1880 however he changed his attitude 
and announced to the National Association 
of Spiritualists that he had become sceptical 
about spiritualistic doctrine. He was a 
member of the council of the Society for 
Psychical Research from 17 March 1882 
until his resignation in May 1909. In 
that capacity he argued for theories of 
psychological, as opposed to spirituahst, 
causahty, and for a far-reaching appHcation 
of the hypothesis of telepathy. He became 
' sceptic-in-chief ' concerning spirit agency, 
and the official advocatus diaboli when 
the society undertook to adjudicate on 
the claim to authenticity of spiritualistic 
phenomena. His hostility was criticised 
by F. C. S. Schiller {Mi7id, N.S. no. 29) 
and by Andrew Lang. Podmore helped 
in compiling the census of hallucina- 
tions which the society began in 1889 
(Report in Proceedings, vol. x. 1894), and 
with Edmund Gurney and F. W. H. Myers 

Pod more 


[q. V. Suppl. I] he assisted in preparing 
'Phantasms of the Living' (1886), an en- 
cyclopaedic collection of tested evidence. 
In 'Modern SpirituaUsm' (1902) and 'The 
Newer Spiritualism ' (posthumously issued, 
1910) he critically studied the history of 
spiritualist manifestations from the seven- 
teenth century onwards, and incidentally 
contested Myers' doctrine of the subliminal 
self in relation to human personality and 
its survival after death. 

Podmore was one of the founders and 
members of the first executive committee 
of the Fabian Society, the title of which 
he apparently originated (4 Jan. 1884). 
He helped to prepare an early, and now 
rare, report on government organisation of 
unemployed labour, to which Sidney Webb 
also contributed. His rooms at 14 Dean's 
Yard, Westminster, were frequently the 
place of meeting. He wrote none of the 
' Fabian Tracts,' and his interest in ' social 
reconstruction ' bore its chief fruit in his 
full biography of Robert Owen the socialist 
and spiritualist in 1906. 

In 1907 Podmore left London for Brough- 
ton near Kettering, a parish of which his 
brother, Claude Podmore, was rector. He 
died by drowning in the New Pool, Malvern, 
where he was making a short stay, on 
14 Aug. 1910. The jury returned a verdict 
of ' found drowned.' He was buried at 
Malvern Wells cemetery. 

Podmore married on 11 June 1891 Elea- 
nore, daughter of Dr. Bramwell of Perth, 
and sister of Dr. Milne Bramwell, a well- 
known investigator of the therapeutic aspect 
of hypnotism. In his later years Podmore 
lived apart from his wife; there was no 
issue. A civil list pension of 60^. was 
granted his widow in 1912. 

Podmore combined a good literary style 
with scientific method. Apart from the 
works cited he published : 1. ' Apparitions 
and Thought Transference,' 1894. 2. 
' Studies in Psychical Research,' 1897. 3. 
' Spiritualism (with Edw. Wake Cook, in 
' Pro and Con ' series, vol. 2), 1903. 4. ' The 
Naturalisation of the Supernatural,' 1908. 

5. ' Mesmerism and Christian Science,' 1909. 

6. ' Telepathic Hallucinations : the New 
View of Ghosts,' 1910. 

His contributions to the ' Proceedings ' 
of the Society for Psychical Research are 
very numerous, and he wrote articles on 
his special themes in the ' Encyclopaedia 
Britannica' (11th edit.). 

[The Times, 20 Aug. 1910; Malvern 
Gazette, 19 and 26 Aug. 1910 ; Proceedings 
of the Society for Psychical Research, 
Ixii. ; Minutes of the Fabian Society, 1884 ; 

Archibald Henderson, George Bernard Shaw, 
Pall Mall Mag. 1903 (with photographic 
reproduction) ; private information.] 

E. S. H-R. 


(1820-1902), artist and author, bom at 
6 New Burlington Street, London, W., on 
19 Nov. 1820, was second son (in a family of 
three sons and three daughters) of Richard 
Pollen (1786-1838) of Rodbourne, Wiltshire, 
by his wife Anne, sister of Charles Robert 
Cockerell [q. v.], the architect. Sir John 
Walter Pollen (1784-1863), second baronet 
of Redenham, Hampshire, was his uncle. 
Educated at Durham House, Chelsea 
(1829-33), and at Eton (1833-8) under 
Edward Coleridge, Pollen matriculated at 
Christ Church, Oxford, in 1838 ; he gradu- 
ated B.A. in 1842, and proceeded M.A. 
in 1844 ; he was fellow of Merton College 
(1842-52), and dean and biursar in 1844, 
and served ets senior proctor of the 
university (1851-2). 

Pollen fell early under the influence of 
the Oxford Movement, and read much 
patristic literature. Taking holy orders, 
he became curate of St. Peter-le-Bailey, 
Oxford ; but the Tractarian upheaval of 
1845 weakened Pollen's attachment to the 
Church of England, and he resigned his 
curacy in 1846. With Thomas William 
Allies [q. v. Suppl. II] he visited Paris 
in 1847, and studied the organisation 
of the French church. On his return 
he associated himself with Pvisey, Charles 
Marriott [q. v.], and the leading ritual- 
ists, and became pro-vicar at St. Saviour's, 
Leeds, the church which Pusey had 
founded in 1842. During his stay there 
(1847-52) most of his colleagues seceded 
to Rome. In December 1852 he was in- 
hibited by Charles Thomas Longley [q. v.], 
then bishop of Ripon, for his extreme sacra- 
mental views, and on 20 Oct. 1852 he was 
himself received into the Roman catholic 
church at Rouen. His elder brother 
Richard (afterwards third baronet) followed 
his example next year (see Pollen's Narra- 
tive of Five Years at St. Saviour's, Leeds, 
Oxford, 1851, and his Letter to the Parish- 
ioners of St. Saviour's, Leeds, Oxford, 1851). 
Visits to Rome at the end of 1852 and 
1853 led to friendship with (Cardinal) 
Herbert Vaughan [q. v. Suppl. II] and with 
W. M. Thackeray. 

Pollen, who remained a layman, thence- 
forth devoted himself professionally to art 
and architecture. He had already studied 
the subjects at home and on his foreign 
travel, and practised them as an amateur, 




with the encouragement of his uncle, Charles 

In i 1842 he restored the aisle of Wells 
Cathedral, where another uncle Dr. Good- 
enough, was dean. While curate he de- 
sign^ and executed in 1844 the ceilings 
of St. Peter-le-BaUey, Oxford, and he was 
responsible for the fine ceiling of Merton 
CoUege chapel in 1850. Early in 1855 he 
accepted the invitation of John Henry 
Newman [q. v.], the rector, to become 
professor of fine arts in the catholic uni- 
versity of Ireland in Dubhn, and to build 
and decorate the university church. His 
lectures, which began in June 1855 (printed 
in 'Atlantis,' the official magazine of the uni- 
versity), dealt with general aesthetic princi- 
ples rather than with technique, in which he 
had no adequate training. He also joined 
the staff of the ' Tablet ' newspaper, where 
he showed independence and sagacity as an 
art critic, detecting the merits of Turner 
and WTiistler long before their general 

In the summer of 1857 Pollen finally 
settled in London, living first at Hampstead 
and from 1858 to 1878 at Bayswater. He 
had previously met at Oxford Turner and 
MQlais, and through Millais grew intimate 
with other Pre-Raphaelites. With Rossetti, 
Burne- Jones, and WilHam Morris he' assisted 
in the fresco decoration of the haU of the 
Union Society at Oxford in the summer 
of 1858 (see Holman Hunt's Story of the 
Paintitigs at the Oxford Union Society, 
Oxford, 1906, fol. ; Esther Wood's Cfabrid 
Rossetti and the Pre-Raphaelite Movement, 
1894, pp. 142-6 ; Memorials of Sir E. Burne- 
Jones, 1904, i. 158 seq.). He was one of the 
first to reintroduce fresco decoration into 
England. Meanwhile his admiration for 
Turner's work brought him Ruskin's 
acquaintance (1855), and in I860, at 
Ruskin's request, he designed for the new 
Oxford Museum a scheme of decoration, 
which was not carried out ; his drawing is 
in the Museum (see The Times, 11 Feb. 

From 1860 onwards Pollen was busily en- 
gaged on private and pubUc commissions. 
Chief among his works were the decoration 
of BUckhng HaU, Aylsham, for the Marquis 
of Lothian in 1860, and the fresco decora- 
tion at Alton Towers, the seat of the Earl 
of Shrewsbury (1874-7). At Alton Towers 
he produced the effect of tapestry by skil- 
fully and with archaeological accuracy 
painting in oil on rough canvas incidents 
in the hundred years' war. A design in 
water-colours for one of the canvases, 
'The Landing of Henry V at Harfleur,' 

was purchased after Pollen's death for 
South Kensington Museum. He was re- 
sponsible for stained glass windows, furni- 
ture, and panels in the Jacobean style at 
another of Lord Shrewsbury's seatS; Ingestre 
Hall, Stafford, from 1876 to 1891 ; he built 
a house in 1876 for Lord Lovelace on the 
Thames Embankment, and an ornamental 
cottage in 1894 at Chenies for the Duchess 
of Bedford. Among many ecclesiastical 
commissions was the building and decoration 
in 1863 of the church of St. Mary, Rhyl, 
and of the convent of the Sacred Heart at 
Wandsworth in 1870. 

Meanwhile, Thackeray, for whose ' Denis 
Duval ' Pollen made in 1863 an unfinished 
series of sketches, introduced him to Sir 
Henry Cole [q. v.], who appointed him in 
December 1863 official editor of the art and 
industrial departments of the South Ken- 
sington (now Victoria and Albert) Museimi. 
He also served on the advisory committee 
for purchases until November 1876. Pollen 
devoted his energies to the South Kensing- 
ton collections, and besides issuing official 
catalogues gave lectures on historical orna- 
ment and kindred subjects. He served on 
the jury for art at the international exhibi- 
tion at South Kensington in 1862, at the 
Dublin exhibition in 1865, and at Paris in 
1867. At the Society of Arts he lectured 
frequently on decorative art, delivering 
the Cantor lectures in 1885 on ' Carving 
and Furniture,' and winning the society's 
silver medal for a paper on ' Renaissance 
Woodwork ' in 1898. 

Resigning his South Kensington post in 
November 1876, PoUen became in December 
private secretary to the Marquis of Ripon 
[q. V. Suppl. II], and continued to conduct 
the marquis's correspondence in England 
after 1880, when Lord Ripon went to India 
as viceroy. In the autumn of 1884 Pollen 
visited India, and after a brief archaeo- 
logical tour returned home with the viceroy 
in December 1884. A privately printed 
pamphlet entitled ' An Indian Farewell to 
the Marquis of Ripon ' (1885) described 
his Indian experience. He thenceforth 
avowed himself an advanced Uberal in both 
Indian and Irish poHtics, supporting the 
efforts of Mr. Wilfrid Scawen Blunt in 
Ireland and forming an intimacy with 

Artistic pursuits however remained to 
the end his chief interest, and his services 
as a decorator continued in demand. In 
1886 and 1887 he exhibited drawings at the 
Royal Academy and at the Paris Salon, 
and he prepared in 1880 a series of designs 
for St. George's Hall, Liverpool, which were 




not executed. He supported the newly 
founded United Arts and Crafts Guild, and 
was an exhibitor at the Guild's Exhibition 
at the New Gallery in October 1 889. He died 
suddenly at 11 Pern bridge Crescent, North 
Kensington, on 2 Dec. 1902, and was buried in 
the family vault at Kensal Green cemetery. 
He married on 18 Sept. 1855 Maria Mar- 
garet, second daughter of John Charles 
La Primaudaye, of Huguenot descent, of 
St. John's College, Oxford, and Graff ham 
Rectory, by Ellen, sister of John Gellibrand 
Hubbard, first Lord Addington [q. v.], and 
had issue seven sons and three daughters. 
His widow pubUshed ' Seven Centuries of 
Lace' in 1908. 

Pollen did much to reform taste in 
domestic furniture and decoration at 
home and abroad. He was an ardent 
sportsman and a member of the artists' 
corps of volunteers, formed in 1860. He 
was always active in catholic philanthropy. 
His most important publication was the 
' Universal Catalogue of Books on Art ' 
(2 vols. 1870 ; supplementary vol. 1877, 
4to), which he prepared for South Ken- 
sington. Other official compilations were : 

1. ' Ancient and Modern Furniture and 
Woodwork,' 1873; 2nd edit. 1875; revised 
edit, completed by T. A. Lehfeldt, 1908. 

2. ' Catalogue of the Special Loan Exhi- 
bition of Enamels on Metals,' 1874. 3. 
' A Description of the Trajan Column,' 
1874. 4. ' Description of the Architecture 
and Monumental Sculptures,' 1874. 5. 
'Ancient and Modern Gold and Silver- 
smith's Work,' 1878. 6. * A Catalogue of a 
Special Loan Collection of English Furniture 
and Figured Silk ' (Bethnal Green Branch), 
1896. He also contributed chapters on 
furniture and woodwork to Stanford's series 
of 'British Manufacturing Industries' 
(1874 ; 2nd edit. 1877). 

There is a pencil sketch of Pollen by Sir 
William Ross (1823), a painting in oils 
by Mrs. Carpenter (1838), and an etching by 
Alphonse Legros (1865), as weU as a rough 
pen-and-ink sketch drawn by himself in 
1862. Reproductions of these appear in 
the 'Life' (1912). A drawing of Mrs. 
Pollen was made by D, G. Rossetti in 1858. 

[The Times, 5 Dec. 1902 ; Tablet, 6 Dec. 
1902 ; John Hungerford Pollen, by Anne 
Pollen, 1912 ; Liddon's Life of Pusey, iii. 
112-136, 355-368 ; Bryan's Diet, of Painters ; 
Graves's Royal Acad. Exhibitors, 1906 ; 
private information from Sir George Bird\\'ood.] 

W. B. O. 

1904), physician and authority on sanitation, 
bom at Andover on 23 Sept. 1843, was 

youngest of ten children of Commander 
John Poore, R.N., who had retired from 
the service on the reduction of the navy in 
1815. His mother was Martha Midlane. In 
his early days he was destined for his father's 
profession, and after education at home 
was sent at the age of ten to the Royal 
Naval School at New Cross, where he stayed 
until he was nearly seventeen. Here he 
gained a medal for good conduct, but having 
determined to enter the medical profession 
declined a marine cadetship. He began 
his medical training by an apprenticeship 
at Broughton near Winchester under Dr. 
Luther Fox, father of Dr. William Tilbury 
Fox [q. V.]. On leaving Dr. Fox he 
matriculated at the University of London 
and entered as a student at University 
College Hospital, quaUfying as M.R.C.S. 
England in 1866. During the same year he 
acted as surgeon to the Great Eastern while 
she was employed in the laying of the 
Atlantic cable.' 

In 1868 he graduated M.B. and B.S. at 
the University of London, proceeding to the 
doctorate inl871. In 1870 he was admitted 
a member of the Royal College of Physicians 
of London, and in 1877 was elected a fellow. 
During 1870 and 1871 he travelled as 
medical attendant with Prince Leopold, 
Duke of Albany, and he remained in charge 
of his health until 1877. In 1872 he was 
selected by Queen Victoria to accompany 
Edward VII, when Prince of Wales, during 
his convalescence in the south of France 
after his severe attack of tj^hoid fever. 
In 1872, too, Poore became lectiirer on 
medical jurisprudence at Charing Cross 
Hospital, and gave a course of lectiires on 
the ' Medical Uses of Electricity,' a study 
which was then in its infancy. In 1876 
he was elected assistant physician to 
University College Hospital and professor 
of medical jurisprudence and clinical 
medicine. Among his colleagues were 
Sir William Jenner, Sir John Russell 
Reynolds, Sir John Erichsen, Tilbury Fox, 
Grailly Hewett, and Sir Henry Thompson. 
In 1876 he also published his ' Text Book 
of Electricity in Medicine and Surgery,' at 
the time the most complete and useful 
English work on the subject. 

Poore was a brilliant lecturer, his delivery 
being admirable, and his matter being 
always well arranged. His lectures on 
medical jurisprudence were published as ' A 
Treatise on Medical Jurisprudence ' (1901 ; 
2nd edit. 1902). In 1883 he was elected 
full physician to the hospital, and held this 
post with his professorship until May 1903, 
when failing health compelled his retire- 




ment to his country house at Andover. 
He died there on 23 Nov. 1904 from cardiac 
failure due to aortic disease. He was 

Outside his purely medical work Poore 
was well known both to the medical pro- 
fession and to the public as an ardent 
sanitarian. In 1891 he was general secretary 
of the sanitary congress. In his garden at 
Andover he proved that living humus had 
a powerful disinfecting property. In his 
' Essays on Rural Hygiene ' (1893), chapter 
iv., entitled ' The Living Earth,' he set 
forth this opinion with characteristic 
charm of style and wealth of illustration. 
He dealt wth sanitation and with the 
wastefulness of the water carriage of sewage 
in his Milroy lectures for 1899, ' The Earth 
in Relation to the Destruction and Preser- 
vation of Contagia ' (1902, with appendix 
of pubUc addresses), and in ' The Dwelling 
House ' (2nd edit. 1898). His views were 
regarded by many sanitary authorities as 
heretical, but he proved their practical 
value as far as the country dwelling was 

Poore also published, together with 
contributions to medical journals and 
orations upon dietetic and sanitary matters : 
1. ' Physical Diagnosis of Diseases of the 
Throat, Mouth, and Nose,' 1881. 2. 
' London Ancient and Modem from the 
Sanitary and Medical Point of View,' 
1889. 3. ' Nervous Affections of the 
Hand,' 1897. 

[Lancet, 10 Dec. 1904; British Medical 
Journal, 3 Dec. 1904 ; information from 
friends ; personal knowledge.] H. P. C. 

POPE, GEORGE UGLOW (1820-1908), 
missionary and Tamil scholar, was bom 
on 24 April 1820 in Prince Edward Island, 
Nova Scotia. His father, John Pope, 
bom at Padstow, Cornwall, emigrated 
to Prince Edward Island in 1818, and in 
1820 removed to Nova Scotia, where giving 
up trade he became a missionary ; return- 
ing in 1826 to Plymouth, he there resumed 
his business as merchant and shipowner, and 
took a prominent part in municipal affairs. 
George's mother was Catherine Uglow of 
Stratton, North Cornwall. Both parents 
were devout Wesleyans. William Bart 
Pope [q. V. Suppl. II] was his younger 
brother. Educated at Wesleyan institutions 
at Bury and Hoxton, George resolved in 
his fourteenth year to become a missionary 
to the Tamil-speaking population of 
Southern India. He landed at Madras in 
1839, having learned Tamil from books 
during the voyage. In 1843 he was 

ordained in the Church of England, and 
henceforth was associated with the Society 
for the Propagation of the Gospel, which 
had recently taken over the native con- 
gregations founded by Christian Friedrich 
Schwartz [q. v.] and other German mis- 
sionaries in the extreme south of India. 
During the first ten years his sphere of 
work was in TinneveUy. Then came a 
visit to England (1849-51), mostly spent 
at Oxford, where he came into intimate 
relation with Cardinal Manning, Archbishop 
Trench, Bishop Samuel VVilberforce, Bishop 
Lonsdale, Dr. Pusey, and John Keble. On 
his return to India there followed another ten 
years of missionary labour in Tanjore, during 
which he felt himself compelled to protest 
against the practices of the Lutheran 
missionarias of Tranquebar in the toleration 
of caste and native customs. At this time 
he founded in TinneveUy district the 
Sawyer- puram seminary for training native 
clergy, which has a Pope memorial hall and 
library ; and also St. Peter's schools for 
boys (now a college) and for girls at Tanjore. 
In 1859 he founded the grammar school 
at Ootacamund, on the Nilgiri Hills, of 
which he was the first headmaster ; and in 
1870 he was transferred to the principalship 
of Bishop Cotton's schools and college at 
Bangalore, in Mysore, where he left the 
reputation of severity with the cane. With 
both these appointments he combined 
clerical duty, and during this period 
published many educational manuals. In 
1859 he became a fellow of the newly 
founded Madras University, for which he 
was a constant examiner. In 1864 the 
Lambeth degree of D.D. was conferred on 
him by Archbishop Longley. He left 
India finally in 1880, after forty years of 
active work. A short time was passed in 
Manchester, and then he settled at Oxford 
as diocesan secretary of the S.P.G. In 
1884 he was appointed teacher of Tamil 
and Telugu in the university ; in 1886 he 
was awarded the honorary degree of M.A. ; 
and from 1888 he was chaplain at BaUioI 
College, where he enjoyed the intimate 
friendship of two Masters, Jowett and 
Caird. In 1906 he received the gold medal 
of the Royal Asiatic Society, which is 
awarded every three years to an oriental 
scholar (cf. Joum. Boy. Asiatic Soc. 1906, 
pp. 767-790). He died at Oxford, after a 
brief illness, on 11 Feb. 1908, and was buried 
in St. Sepulchre's cemetery. His friends 
and pupils in India, the majority Hindus, 
placed by subscription a momunent on his 
grave and foimded a memorial prize for 
Tamil studies in the imiversity of Madras ; 




a gymnasium called^ by his^ name ^has also 
been erected in Bishop Cotton's school at 

Pope married (1) in 1841 Mary, daughter 
of the Rev. J. Carver ; she died at Tuticorin 
in 1845 ; (2) in 1849, at Madras, Henrietta 
Page, daughter of G. Van Someren. She 
and her two daughters were awarded a 
joint civU list pension of 50Z. in 1909. She 
died at Forest Hill, London, on 11 Sept. 
1911, and is bviried with her husband. 
Three sons won distinction in the service 
of the Indian government, viz. John Van 
Someren Pope, for seventeen years director 
of public instruction in Burma ; Arthur 
William Uglow Pope, CLE. (1906), railway 
engineer and manager in India and China ; 
and Lieut. -colonel Thomas Henryj Pope, 
I.M.S., professor of ophthalmology at the 
Madras Medical College. A not very 
satisfactory portrait by Alfred Wolmark, 
painted by subscription among his Madras 
pupils, is in the Indian Institute at 

Pope ranks as the first of Tamil scholars, 
even when compared with Beschi, Francis 
Whyte Ellis [q. v.], and Bishop Caldwell, 
though he did not concern himself much 
with the cognate Dravidian languages. 
With him Tamil was the means to under- 
stand the history, religion, and sentiment of 
the people of Southern India. As early as 
1842 he published (in Tamil) his 'First 
Catechism of Tamil Grammar,' which was 
re-issued in 1895, with an English transla- 
tion, by the Clarendon Press. His educa- 
tional books of this kind reached comple- 
tion in the series entitled ' Handbook to 
the Ordinary Dialect of the Tamil Lan- 
guage,' which includes Tamil-English and 
English-Tamil dictionaries, as well as a 
prose reader and the seventh edition of his 
Tamil handbook (Oxford, 1904-6). But 
his reputation rests upon his critical 
editions of three classical works of old 
Tanul literature : the ' Kurral ' of the 
pariah poet Tiruvalluvar, which has sup- 
phed a metrical catechism of moraUty to 
the people of Southern India for at least 
a thousand years (1886) ; the ' Naladiyar,' 
or four hundred quatrains of similar 
didactic sayings, probably of yet earUer 
date and of equal popularity (1893) ; and 
the ' Tiruva9agam,' or sacred utterances of 
Manikka-Va9agar, to which is prefixed a 
summary of the life and legends of the 
author, with appendices illustrating the 
system of philosophy and rehgion in 
Southern India known as Saiva Siddhantam 
(1900). Of this last the preface is dated 
on the editor's eightieth birthday and the 

dedication is to the memory of Jowett. 
All these books contain translations into 
English, together with copious notes and a 
lexicon. Apart from their erudition, they 
reveal Pope's warm sjmipathy with the 
people and their literature. In addition 
to his pubUshed books. Pope left in MS. 
complete editions and English translations 
of at least three Tamil works, as well as 
a vast amount of material for a standard 
Tamil dictionary, which it is hoped will be 
utilised by a committee of native scholars 
that has been formed at Madras. He 
further began about 1890 a catalogue of the 
Tamil printed books in the British Museum, 
which was carried out by Dr. L. D. Bamett. 
Among numerous pamphlets and sermons, 
published chiefly in his early days, was 
' An Alphabet for all India ' (Madras, 1859), 
a plan for adapting the Roman alphabet 
to all the languages of India. 

Pope, whose culture was wide, was an 
enthusiastic student of all great htera- 
ture. His favourite poet was Browning, 
to whose loftiness of speculation he paid 
tribute in his ' St. John in the Desert ' 
(1897 ; 2nd edit. 1904, an introduction 
and notes to Browning's ' A Death 
in the Desert). He knew Browning per- 
sonally, and to him the poet gave the 
' square old yellow book with crumpled 
vellum covers,' which formed the basis of 
' The Ring and the Book,' and which Pope 
presented to the library of Bailiol College. 
Keenly interested in all phases of philosophy 
and religion, he welcomed the development 
of modern Christian thought, but was 
always loyal to the Wesleyanism in which 
he had been brought up. His brilliant 
and picturesque talk bore witness to the 
variety of his intellectual interests and his 
catholicity of thought. 

[Obituary by M. do Z. Wickremasinghe 
in Journal of Royal Asiatic See. 1908 ; per- 
sonal reminiscences by Rev. A. L. Mayhew in 
Guardian, 26 Feb 1908.] ' J. S. C. 

POPE, SAMUEL (1826-1901), barrister, 
born at Manchester on 11 Dec. 1826, was 
eldest son of Samuel Pope, a merchant of 
London and Manchester, by his wife Phebe, 
daughter of Wilham Rushton, merchant, 
of Liverpool. After private education he 
was employed in business, and in his 
leisure cultivated in debating societies an 
aptitude for pubUc speaking. Coming to 
London, he studied at London University, 
entered at the Middle Temple on 13 Nov. 
1855, and was called to the bar on 7 June 
1858. Deeply interested in pohtics, he 
unsuccessfully contested Stoke as a Uberal 




in the following year. For a few years 
he practised with success in his native 
town, but removed to London in 1865. 
In the same year, and again in 1868, he 
unsucessfuUy contested Bolton. In 1869 
he was however made recorder of the town 
and took silk. In London he soon devoted 
himself to parUamentary practice, for which 
his persuasive eloquence and commanding 
personahty admirably fitted him. He pre- 
sented complicated facts and figures simply 
and interestingly and in due perepective. 
At his death he was the leader of the par- 
Uamentary bar. He was chosen a bencher 
of his inn on 27 Jan. 1870, and was treasurer 
in 1888-9, when he made a valuable dona- 
tion of books to the Ubrary. 

A keen advocate of the temperance 
cause from youth. Pope was at his death 
an honorary secretary of the United 
Kingdom Alliance. He was a freemason, 
becoming senior grand deacon in grand , 
lodge in 1886. He died at his residence, 1 
74 Ashley Gardens, Westminster, on 22 ! 
July 1901, and was buried at Llanbedr in | 
Merionethshire, of which county he was ■ 
a J. P. and deputy lieutenant. Pope mar- 
ried Hannah, daughter of Thomas Bm'y of 
Timperley Lodge, Cheshire ; she predeceased 
him ^vithout issue in 1880. 

A portrait by Sir Hubert von Herkomer 
is in possession of the family. A loving 
cup ^\'ith a bust of him in rehef was pre- 
sented to the Middle Temple in his memory 
by some friends {Master Worsley's Booh, 
ed. A. R. Ingpen, K.C., p. 327). A cartoon 
portrait by ' Spy ' appeared in ' Vanity 
Fair ' in 1885. 

[The Times, 24 July 1901 ; Foster, Men at 
the Bar ; Men and Women of the Time, 
1899 ; Hutchinson, Notable Middle Templars, 
1902 ; private information.] C. E. A. B. 

POPE, WILLIA^I BURT (1822-1903), 
Wesleyan divine, born at Horton, Nova 
Scotia, on 19 Feb. 1822, was younger son of 
John Pope, and younger brother of George 
Uglow Pope [q. v. Suppl. II for full parent- 
age]. After education at a village school at 
Hooe and at a secondary school at Saltash, 
near Plj-mouth, William spent a year in boy- 
hood (1837-8) at Bedeque, Prince Edward 
Island, assisting an uncle, a shipbuilder and 
general merchant. Devoting his leisure to the 
study of Latin, Greek, French and German, 
he was accepted, in 1840, by the methodist 
synod of Cornwall as a candidate for the 
ministry, and entered the Methodist Theo- 
logical Institution at Hoxton. There he 
added Hebrew and Arabic to his stock 
of languages. In 1842 he began his active 

ministry at Kingsbridge, Devonshire, and 
served for short periods at Liskeard, Jersey, 
Sandhurst, Dover and<Hahfax. and for 
longer periods at City Road, London, Hull, 
Manchester, Leeds, and Southport. 

In 1867 he succeeded Dr. John Hannah 
the elder [q. v.] as tutor of systematic 
theology at Didsbxury. He received the 
degree of D.D. from the Wesleyan Uni- 
versity, U.S.A., in 1865 and from the Uni- 
versity of Edinbvu-gh in 1877. In 1876 
he visited America A^-ith Dr. Rigg as delegate 
to the general conference of the methodist 
episcopal church at Baltimore. In 1877 he 
was president of the Wesleyan conference 
at Bristol. He resigned his position at 
Didsbury in 1886. He died, after much 
suffering from mental depression,^on 5 July 
1903, and was buried in Abney Park ceme- 
tery, London. 

Pope's industry was imflagging. He 
began his day at 4 a.m., and made notable 
contributions to theologicalliterature which 
were deemed authoritative by his own 
church, while he was actively engaged in the 
ministry and in teaching. His chief work 
was the ' Compendium of Christian Theo- 
logy,' in three volumes (1875; 2nd edit. 
1880). In the same year appeared his 
Femley lecture on ' The Person of Christ,' 
which was translated into German. His 
published collections of sermons included 
' The Prayers of St. Paul ' (2nd edit. 1896), 
and his characteristic ' Sermons, Addresses 
and Charges,' delivered during the year of 
his presidency (1878). In 1860 he became 
editor, having as his co-editor (1883-6) 
James Harrison Rigg [q. v. Suppl. II], 
of the ' London Quarterly Review,' to 
which he was already a contributor. 
Pope translated from the German, in 
whole or part, three important books for 
Messrs. T. and T. Clark's ' Theological 
Library,' Stier on ' The Words of the Lord 
Jesus ' (1855) ; Ebrard on the ' Epistles 
of St. John ' (I860) ; and Haupt on the 
'First Epistle of St. John' (1879), and 
he contributed to ' Schafi's Popular Com- 
mentary ' expositions of Ezra, Nehemiah 
(1882) and the Epistles of St. John (1883). 

A portrait, painted by Mr. A. T. No well, 
was presented to Didsbury College by old 
students and friends in 1892. 

Pope married, in 1845, Ann Ehza Leth- 
bridge, daughter of a yeoman farmer of 
Modbury, near Plymouth. By her he 
had six sons, two of whom died in early 
life, and four daughters. 

[William Burt Pope : Theologian and 
Saint, by R. W. Moss, D.D., 1909 ; Telford's 
Life of Dr. J. H. Rigg, 1909.] a H. L 




PORTAL, MELVILLE (1819-1904), 
politician, bom on 31 July 1819 at his 
father's second seat of Freefolk Priors, 
Hampshire, was eldest surviving son of 
John Portal of Freefolk Priors and Laver- 
stoke, Hampshire, the head of the Huguenot 
family of that name, by his second wife, 
Elizabeth, only daughter of Henry Drum- 
mond and Anne Dundas, daughter of Henry, 
first Viscount Melville [q. v.]. He was 
sent to Harrow school in 1832 to the 
house of Archdeacon Phelps, and left in 
1837. He matriculated at Christ Church, 
Oxford, on 30 May 1838, graduated B.A. 
in 1842, and proceeded M.A. in 1844. He 
was treasurer in 1841 and president next 
year of the Union at Oxford, and was an 
admirer of John Henry Newman [q. v.], 
whom he venerated throughout hfe and 
who occasionally wrote to him (Ward, Life 
of Newman, i. 617), though Portal's con- 
victions never advanced further towards 
Rome. With foiu" other young Oxonians 
he provided the funds for the building of 
the church of Bussage, a neglected village 
in Gloucestershire. On 15 April 1842 he 
was entered a student of Lincoln's Inn, was 
called to the bar on 24 Nov. 1845, and 
went the western circuit. He succeeded to 
his father's estate in 1848, and on 6 April 
1849 was elected M.P. for the northern 
division of Hampshire as a conservative 
with a majority of 331 over William Shaw. 
In July 1852 Portal was re-elected without 
opposition, and sat till the next general 
election in 1857, when he retired. His 
first speech in the House of Commons was 
on 25 March 1851, the seventh night 
of ^ the 'debate "^on the [ecclesiastical titles 
assumption bill. He described it as ' the 
hasty effusion of an off-handed premier ' and 
voted^against it. In 1855 he married a sister 
of the wife of the prime minister. Lord John 
Russell [q. v.], and became his friend. Portal 
resided constantly at Laverstoke, and from 
1846, when he ' was appointed a county 
magistrate, took, a prominent part in the 
judicial and administrative' work of the 
coxmty ; in 1863 he was high sheriff. He 
was chairman' of the judicial business 
(1865-89) and was chairman of quarter 
sessions (1879-1903), during which time 
he reformed the treatment of prisoners 
in the coimty goal and introduced 
arrangements since adopted throughout 
England. In 1871 Portal persuaded the 
quarter sessions to order the restoration of 
the" great hall of the castle of Winchester, 
where the assizes were held, and the work 
was carried out under his supervision. 
He pubhshed in 1899 ' The Great Hall of 

Winchester Castle,' a quarto containing the 
history and architectural description of the 
castle, which he had written and illustrated 
in memory of fifty years' familiar inter- 
course with friends within its walls. He 
died at Laverstoke on 24 Jan. 1904, and was 
buried in the mortuary chapel in Laverstoke 
park. His life was spent in laborious and 
disinterested public service. His portrait 
by Archibald Stuart Wortley was presented 
to the coimty by members of the court of 
quarter sessions on 13 Oct. 1890, and is in 
the great hall at Winchester. He married 
on 9 Oct. 1855 Lady Charlotte Mary, fourth 
daughter of Gilbert Elliot, second earl of 
Minto [q. v.]. She died on 3 June 1899. 
They had three sons, of whom the second 
was Sir Gerald Herbert Portal [q. v.], and 
three daughters. 

[Hampshure Chronicle, 18 Oct. 1890, 4 July 
1903, 30 Jan. 1904; Burke's Peerage and 
Baronetage ; Foster, Alumni Oxonienses ; 
Harrow School Register ; P. M. Thornton, 
Harrow School ; Hansard, Debates ; informa- 
tion from Miss E. M. Portal.] N. M. 

POTT, ALFRED (1822-1908), principal 
of Cuddesdon College, bom on 30 Sept. 
1822 at Norwood, was the second son of 
Charles Pott of Norwood, Surrey, and Anna, 
daughter of C. S. Cox, master in chancery. 
Educated at Eton imder Edward Craven 
Hawtrey [q. v.], he matriculated at Balh'ol 
College, Oxford, on 16 Dec. 1840. Having 
been elected to a demyship at Magdalen 
College in 1843, he graduated B.A. in 1844 
with a second class in hterse humaniores, 
and next year he won the Johnson theo- 
logical scholarship. He proceeded M.A. 
in 1847, and B.D. in 1854. He was 
ordained deacon in 1845 and priest in the 
following year. He became curate of 
Cuddesdon, and in 1851 vicar on the 
nomination of Bishop Samuel WUberforce 
[q. V.]. In 1853 he was elected a fellow of 
Magdalen College ; and in 1854 he was 
appointed first principal of the new theo- 
logical college at Cuddesdon. Here he 
laid down the lines upon which the college 
was subsequently carried on. But he was 
somewhat overshadowed by his vice- 
principal, Henry Parry Liddon [q. v.], 
and he resigned owing to ill-health shortly 
after Charles Pourtales GoUghtly [q. v.] had 
called attention to the extreme high church 
practices of the Cuddesdon system. In 
1858 he accepted the Uving of East Hendred, 
Berkshire, becoming vicar of Abingdon in 
1867. Bishop Wilberforce appointed Pott 
one of his examining chaplains, made 
him hon. canon of Christ Church in 1868, 
and in 1869 preferred him to the arch- 




deaconry of Berkshire. Pott subsequently 
held the benefices of CUfton-Hampden 
(1874^2) and of Sonning (1882-99). He 
resigned the archdeaconry in 1903, but 
retained his hon. canonry. In convocation 
Pott was a recognised authority on ecclesias- 
tical law ; and as archdeacon he showed 
wisdom and judgment. Although a high 
churchman he enjoyed the friendship of men 
of widely divergent opinions. He died at 
Windlesham, Surrey, on 28 Feb. 1908, 
and was buried at Chfton-Hampden. In 
1855 he married Emily Harriet (d. 1903), 
daughter of Joseph Gibbs, vicar of CUfton- 

Besides sermons and charges, Pott pub- 
lished : 1. ' C!onfirmation Lectures delivered 
to a Village C!ongregation,' 1852 ; 5th 
edit. 1886. 2. 'Village Lectures on the 
Sacraments and Occasional Services of the 
Church,' 1854. 

[The Times, 29 Feb. 190o ; Guardian, 4 March 
1908 ; Life of Samuel Wilberforce, 1883, ii. 
366, iii. 399 ; Johnston, Life and Letters of 
Henry Parry Liddon, 1904, pp. 30 seq. ; 
Cuddesdon College (1854-1904), 1904 ; Bloxam, 
Register of St. Mary Magdalen College, Oxford, 
1881, vii. 357 ; Foster, Alumni Oxon. 1888.] 

G. S. W. 

1904), regius professor of modern history 
at Oxford, born on 14 Jan. 1850 at 33 
Wobum Place, Bloomsbury, was eldest 
child and only son of Frederick PoweU, 
by his wife Mary {d. 1910), daughter of 
Dr. James York {d. 1882), ' a very clever 
and good physician and a pretty Spanish 
scholar and a handsome man.' His father, 
a commissariat merchant, who had an 
office in Mincing Lane, came of a south 
Wales family, and the son was proud 
to call himself a Welshman. Much of 
Powell's early life was spent at Sandgate, 
where he learned to love the sea and 
developed endming friendships ^yith the 
fisher folk. In the autumn of 1859 he was 
put to a preparatory school at Hastings 
(the Manor House, kept by INIr. Alexander 
Miirray). In 1864 he entered Dr. Jex 
Blake's house at Rugby, but though he 
gained a name for ' uncanny stories and 
remote species of knowledge,' he never rose 
above the lower fifth and left, chiefly for 
reasons of health, in Jvdy 1866. The next 
two years were fruitfully spent in travel 
and self-education. There was a visit 
to Biarritz, and a tovir in Sweden which 
gave Powell, who had read Dasent's story 
of ' Burnt Njal ' at Rugby, occasion to learn 
and practise a Scandinavian tongue. At 

VOL. LXIX. — SUP. h. 

eighteen he was placed under the care of 
Mr. Henry Tull Rhoades at Bonchurch, and 
began to work at Old French, German, and 
Icelandic. He was already a strong socialist 
and agnostic, and had formed most of the 
tastes and prejudices which accompanied 
him through Ufe — an interest in old armour, 
a special attraction for the art of William 
Blaike, a passion for northern and medieval 
literature, and an aversion from philosophy, 
excepting always the work of Kant and 

PoweU went to Oxford in 1868, and 
after a year spent with the non-coUegiate 
students was received into Christ Church, on 
the recommendation of Dr. George WUUam 
Kitchin, censor of the non-coUegiate body 
and formerly student and tutor of Christ 
Church. He gained a first class in the 
school of law and modem history in Trinity 
term 1872. After graduating B.A., Powell 
spent two years (1872-4) at his father's 
house in Lancaster Gate. He had entered 
at the Middle Temple on 8 Nov. 1870, and 
was called to the bar on 6 June 1874. 

PoweU's first academic appointment 
was to teach one of the few subjects in 
which he had no enthusiastic interest. 
In 1874 he was appointed to a lectureship 
in law at Christ Church, and save for a 
year's interlude as history lecturer at 
Trinity — ^an engagement terminated owing 
to the representation of some of his pupils 
who wished to be crammed for examinations 
— ^PoweU's official teaching in Oxford was, 
imtU 1894, confined to the imcongenial 
subjects of law and poUtical economy. He 
had however attracted the attention of 
Mandell Creighton [q. v. Suppl. I], one of 
his examiners in the schools, and was invited 
to contribute a volume on Early England to 
Longman's ' Epochs of EngUsh History,' 
of which Creighton was editor. The book, 
' Early England to the Norman Conquest,' 
which was published in 1876, deUghted 
Creighton, who pronounced it to be written 
' in a charmingly simple, almost BibUcal 
style.' Meanwhile, in 1869, PoweU had 
met Gudbrandr Vigfusson [q. v.], who had 
come to Oxford in 1866 to edit the ' Ice- 
landic-EngUsh Dictionary ' for the Oxford 
Press* In 1877 PoweU was already engaged 
with Vigfusson upon the Prolegomena to 
an edition of the ' Sturlimga Saga,' ' taking 
down across the table,' said Vigfvisson, ' my 
thoughts and theories, so that though the 
substance and drift of the arguments are 
mine, the English with the exception of 
bits and phrases here and there is Mr. 
PoweU's throughout.' An 'Icelandic Prose 
Reader,' the notes to which were mainly the 




work of Powell, followed in 1879, and two 
years later the ' Corpus Poeticum Boreale,' 
an edition of the whole of ' Ancient 
Northern Poetry,' with translations and a 
fvdl commentary. The translations were 
provided by Powell and exhibited his easy 
command of a fresh, manly EngUsh 

The first volume contains the old mythical 
and heroic poetry — the poems of the ' Elder 
Edda ' and other pieces of like character. 
The second volume is a collection of the 
poems written, chiefly by Icelanders, in 
honour of successive kings of Norway and 
other important personages. It is here 
that Powell's work is most valuable in 
illustration of Scandinavian history. The 
poems are those which were used as 
authorities by the early historians of 
Norway (such as Snorre Sturluson) ; the 
introductions to the diflferent sections, in 
the second volume of the ' Corpus,' con- 
taining biographical notices of the poets, 
form the only original work in EngUsh on 
this portion of Scandinavian history. It 
is hardly possible to describe the extra- 
ordinary variety of contents in the editorial 
part of the two volumes — essays on 
mythology and points of literary history, 
often venturesome and always full of life. 

The ' Corpus Poeticum Boreale ' at once 
made Powell's name as a northern scholar 
and was intended to be the prelude to an 
even more ambitious work. In August 
1884 Powell spent a fortnight with Vig- 
fusson in Copenhagen examining Icelandic 
manuscripts, vnth. the view to an edition 
and translation of the best classics in the 
northern prose, a proposal for which had 
been submitted to the Clarendon P»ess. 
The work was steadily pushed on and 
most of the ' Origines Islandicse ' was 
already in proof when Vigfusson died in 
1889. So long as Vigfusson was alive 
Powell was kept steadily working at his 
Scandinavian task, but with the removal 
of his friend and associate the passion for 
miscellaneous reading gained the ascendant, 
with the result that the work was never 
pushed to a conclusion and was only 
published in 1905 after Powell's death. 
Here, as before, the labour of the two 
fellow-workers is often indistinguishable. 
The text of the prose sagas is substantially 
the work of Vigfusson, ' the ordering, the 
English, and many of the Hterary criti- 
cisms, portraits, and parallels are Powell's ' 
(Elton, i. 101). But though Vigfusson 
was the leading partner in these northern 
expeditions, Powell's assistance was sub- 
stantive and essential, adding as it did to 

the fine technical scholarship of the Ice- 
landic patriot a wide knowledge of metlieval 
history and literature and a simple nervous 
English exactly adapted to its purpose. 

Meanwhile, in 1884, through the good 
offices of Dean Liddell, Powell had been 
made a student of Christ Church. His 
official duties as law lecturer were to 
coach men for the law school, to look after 
Indian civil service candidates, and to lecture 
on pass poUtical economy. His real and 
congenial avocations extended far beyond 
this narrow circuit. Besides his work on 
Scandinavian Uterature, he taught Old 
English, Old French, and even for a time 
Old German, for the Association for Educa- 
tion of Women in Oxford, took a leading 
share in founding the ' English Historical 
Review ' (1885), and published a history 
of ' England from the Earliest Times to 
the Death of Henry VII' (1885), designed 
for ' the middle forms of schools,' which is 
remarkable for its fresh use of chronicles, 
ballads, and romances, and for its insight 
into the material fabric of medieval civilisa- 
tion. Then a valuable series of Uttle 
books, ' English History from Contemporary 
Writers,' began under his editorship in 

Thus Powell btiilt for himself a reputa- 
tion as one of the most profound scholars 
in medieval history and literature in 
England, and, accordingly, no surprise 
was felt when upon the death of James 
Anthony Froude [q. v. Suppl. I] in 1894, 
and upon the refusal of Samuel Rawson 
Gardiner [q. v. Suppl. II] to come to 
Oxford, the regius professorship of modem 
history was conferred on Powell on the 
recommendation of Lord Rosebery (Dec. 
1894). The post was accepted with mis- 
givings. Powell had no gift either for 
pubhc lecturing or for organisation. He 
was shy of an audience which he did not 
know, and although both in his inaugural 
lecture and upon subsequent occasions he 
pleaded for the scientific treatment of his- 
tory, for the training of public archivists, 
for the divorce of history and ethics, his 
practice was consistently better or worse 
than his theory, and his numerous articles 
contributed to the press abound in the 
vigorous ethical judgments which were the 
necessity of his strong temperament. 

As professor of history Powell disap- 
pointed some of his friends. He made 
no special contribution to the advance 
of historical science, and failed to make 
any general impression upon the under- 
graduates as a teacher. Indeed, from his 
fortieth year to the end of his life he 




published only two works, a translation 
of the 'Fsereyinga Saga' (1896), dedicated 
jointly to Henry LiddeU, dean of Christ 
Church, and Henry Stone, an old fisher- 
man at Sandgate, and a rendering of 
some quatrains from ' Omar Khayyam ' 
(1901). His services to knowledge caimot 
however, be measured by the ordinary 
tests. PoweU was the most generous as 
well as the most unambitious of men. 
His time was his friends' time, and the 
hours which might have been spent 
upon his own work were freely lavished 
upon the assistance of others. Thus 
the edition of the mythical books of ' Saxo 
Grammaticus,' translated by Professor 
Elton, was due to his suggestion, and the 
bulk of the introduction was his work ; 
and again as delegate of the Clarendon 
Press, an office which he held from 1885 till 
his death, PoweU was able to render services 
to the advancement of learning which were 
none the less substantial because they were 
imadvertised. As professor he regularly 
lectured in his rooms at Christ Church 
on the sources of EngUsh history, and on 
every Thursday evening was at home to 
undergraduates, and here, as on any other 
informal occasion, he was an unfailing 
so\irce of inspiration. In his pleasant 
rooms in the Meadow Buildings of Christ 
Church, with their stacks of books and 
Japanese prints, his shyness would dis- 
appear and he wovdd discourse freely on 
any subject which came up, from boxing 
and fencing (of which he was an excellent 
judge) to the last Portuguese novel. 
His knowledge of foreign, especially of 
Romance, literature was singularly wide. 
He brought Verlaine tx» lecture in Oxford 
in 1891, and as a curator of the Tay- 
lorian Institute (from 1887) procured an 
invitation to Stephane Mallarme to give 
a lecture at the Taylorian on 28 Feb. 1894. 
The Belgian poet Verhaeren and the 
French sculptor Rodin were likewise at 
different times Powell's guests at Christ 
Church. He had also worked at Old Irish, 
and as one of the presidents of the Irish 
Texts Society urged in 1899 the importance 
of pubhshing the MS. Irish hterature of the 
sixteenth, seventeenth and eighteenth cen- 
turies. On 7 April 1902 he lectured in Dubhn 
to the Irish Literary Society on Irish influ- 
ence in English hterature, and in December 
of the same year went to Liverpool to speak 
for the endowment of Celtic studies in the 
university. Meanwhile, he was becoming 
a student of Persian, had dived into Maori 
and Gypsy, and had made a valuable 
collection of Japanese prints. Rumour 

asserted that he contributed to the ' Sport- 
ing Times,' and he was certainly as well 
acquainted with the boxing reports in 
the ' Licensed Victuallers' Gazette ' as 
with the ' Kalevala ' or ' Beowulf.' With 
all this he foxmd time to write numerous 
reviews for the daily and weekly press, prin- 
cipally for the 'Academy,' and after 1890 
for the ' Manchester Guardian ' (see extracts 
in Elton's Biography). Another side of 
Powell's versatile nature is illvtstrated by 
the preface which he wrote to a penny 
garland of songs of labour, written by his 
friend William Hines (1893), chimney 
sweeper, herbalist, and radical agitator, of 
Oxford, and by the active share which he 
took in the foundation of Ruskin College, 
an institution devised to bring workmg 
men to Oxford. Powell, who had the 
genius for making friends among the poor, 
presided over the inaugural meeting at the 
town hall on 22 Feb. 1899, and acted from 
the first as a member of the council of the 
college. In reUgion Powell described him- 
self as a ' decent heathen Aryan,' in politics 
as ' a socialist and a jingo.' He was a 
strong home ruler, an advocate of the Boer 
war, and the first president of the Oxford 
Tariff Reform League. He was made hon. 
LL.D. of Glasgow in 1901. 

In 1874 Powell married Mrs. Batten, 
a widow with two young daughters. Mrs. 
Powell did not Uve in Oxford. It was 
Powell's habit for many years to spend 
the middle of the week during term time 
in Oxford and the week-end with his 
family in town. In January 1881 he 
moved his household from 6 Stamford 
Green West, Upper Clapton, where he had 
resided since his marriage, to Bedford Park, 
then ' an oasis of green gardens and red 
houses ' and the resort of painters, players, 
poets, and journalists, where he resided till 
1902. Here his only child, a daughter, 
MarieUa, was bom in 1884. Four years 
later Powell lost his wife. In the summer 
of 1894 he visited Amble teuse on the coast 
of Normandy for the first time, and for the 
next ten years was ' a centre at the Hotel 
Delpierre ' during the summer season. 
Many of his graphic letters and poems 
refer to the delights of Ambleteuse, where 
he developed a taste for sketching. In 
December 1902 Powell gave up his Lon- 
don ho\ise and settled in North Oxford with 
his daughter. The next year came warn- 
ings of heart trouble. He died on 8 May 
1904 at Staverton Grange, Woodstock 
Road, Oxford. He was buried at Wolver- 
cote cemetery, without reUgious rites by 
his own desire. His daughter was granted 

K 2 




a civil list pension of 70?. in 1905, and 
married Mr. F. H. Markoe in Christ Church 
cathedral, on 6 July 1912. 

Oil-portraits by J. B. Yeats and J. 
Williamson are in the possession of his 
daughter. He also figures in a caricature 
by ' Spy ' in ' Vanity Fair' (21 March 1895) 
and in William Rothenstein's ' Oxford 

In appearance and dress Powell resem- 
bled a sea-captain. He was broad, burly 
and bearded, brusque in manner, with dark 
hair and eyes, and a deep rich laugh : in 
temperament an artist and a poet, in 
attainments a scholar, as a man simple, 
affectionate, observant, with rare powers 
of sensitive enjoyment, the dehght of his 
friends, clerk and lay, rich and poor, and 
the centre of many clubs both in Oxford 
and London. In the sphere of learning 
he will chiefly be remembered for his pub- 
lished services to northern literature, and 
for the general stimulus which he gave to the 
study of medieval letters in Great Britain. 

Besides the works mentioned, Powell 
pubUshed 'Old Stories from British His- 
tory' (1882 ; 3rd edit. 1885 ; new impression 
1903), and contributed with Vigfusson to 
the Grimm Centenary : ' Sigfred-Arminius 
and other Papers ' (1886). He wrote several 
articles for this Dictionary, including a 
memoir of Vigfusson. Some chapters from 
his pen are included in W. G. Collingwood's 
* Scandinavian Britain ' (1908). 

[Frederick York Powell : a Life and a 
Selection from his Letters and Occasional 
Writings, by Oliver Elton, 2 vols., Oxford, 
1906, Avith full bibliography ; Sette of Odd 
Volumes, Opusculum No. xxxviii., London, 
1910, being a privately printed reprint of 
Powell's Some Words on AUegory in England, 
with biographical matter, by Dr. John Tod- 
hunter and Sir Ernest Clarke ; Eng. Hist. 
Review, July 1904; Oxford Mag., 18 May 
1904 ; The Times, 10 May 1904 ; Manchester 
Guardian, 10 May 1904 ; Monthly Review, 
June 1904 ; Morning Post, 10 May 1904 ; 
Folklore, June 1904 ; United Irishman, 
16 July 1904 ; information from Prof. 
W. P. Ker ; private knowledge.] 

H. A. L. F. 

PRATT, HODGSON (1824-1907), peace 
advocate, born at Bath on 10 Jan. 1824, 
was eldest of five sons of Samuel Peace 
Pratt by his wife Susanna Martha Hodgson 
{d. 1875). After education at Haileybury 
College (1844^6), where he won a prize for 
Enghsh essay in his first term, he matricu- 
lated at London University in 1844. In 
1847 he joined the East India Company's 
service at Calcutta, subsequently becoming 

under-secretary to the government of Bengal 
and inspector of public instruction there. 

While in India Pratt showed much 
sympathy with the natives, stimulating 
the educational and social development of 
the province of Bengal, and urging on the 
Bengalis closer relations with English life 
and thought. In 1851 he helped to found 
the ' Vernacular Literature Society ' which 
published Bengali translations of standard 
Enghsh literature, including Macaulay's 
'Life of Chve,' 'Robinson Crusoe,' Lamb's 
' Tales from Shakespeare,' and selections 
from the 'Percy Anecdotes' (see Reports 
of Transactions, 1854r-7). Pratt acted as 
secretary till 1856. He also started a 
school of industrial art. In 1857 Pratt was 
at home on leave and at the close of that 
year he contributed to the ' Economist ' 
articles and letters deaUng with Indian 
questions, social, political, educational, and 
religious, which were published collectively 
in a pamphlet* The spread of the Indian 
Mutiny recalled Pratt hurriedly to India, 
which he left finally in 1861. 

Settling in England Pratt immediately 
threw himself into the industrial co- 
operative movement, in association with 
Vansittart Neale, Tom Hughes, and George 
Jacob Holyoake. He met Heniy Solly in 
1864 and became a member of tne council 
of the Working Men's Club and Institute 
Union (founded by Solly in June 1862). 
In its interest he travelled up and down the 
country, encouraging struggling branches 
and forming new ones (see Peatt's Notes 
of a Tour among Clubs, 1872). He was 
president from 1885 to 1902. With Solly 
he also started trade classes for workmen 
in St. Martin's Lane in 1874. In 1867 he 
was a vice-president with Auberon Herbert, 
W. E. Forster, George Joachim Goschen, 
and others of the Paris Excursion Com- 
mittee, through whose efforts over 3000 
British workmen visited the Paris Exhibi- 
tion of that year (see Pratt's preface to 
Modern Industries : Reports by 12 British 
Workmen of the Paris Exhibition, 1868). 

At the same time Pratt, who had a 
perfect command of French, was an ardent 
champion of international arbitration. 
On the outbreak of the Franco-Prussian 
war of 1870 he pleaded for the peaceful 
settlement of the dispute. Two years 
later he joined in an appeal to M. Thiers, 
the French premier, for the release of 
EUsee Reclus, the geographer, who had 
thrown in his lot with the Commune, 
and had been taken prisoner (Eugene 
Oswald, Reminiscences of a Busy Life, 
pp. 518-21). In 1880 he joined WiUiam 




Phillips and others in founding the Inter- 
national Arbitration and Peace Association, 
becoming first chairman of the executive 
committee. Four years later (1 July 1884) 
he foxmded, and for some time edited, 
the association's ' Journal ' (still continued 
imder the title of ' Concord '). In behalf 
of the association he visited nearly all the 
countries of Europe and helped largely in 
the formation of many kindred Continental 
societies — ^in Belgium, Italy, Germany, 
Austria, and Hungary. He took part in 
many international peace congresses at 
Paris and elsewhere from 1889 onwards. 
For the association Pratt translated Elie 
Ducommun's ' The Programme of the Peace 
Movement ' (1896) and he summarised in 
English Descamps's ' The Organisation of 
International Arbitration ' (1897). Pratt's 
persuasive advocacy of international arbi- 
tration and industrial co-operation bore 
good fruit, and his work was appreciated 
by governments and peoples at home and 
abroad. But his disinterested and retiring 
disposition withheld from him any general 
fame. On his friends' recommendation 
his claims to the Nobel Peace Prize were 
considered in Dec. 1906, when the award 
was made to Theodore Roosevelt. A few 
years before his death Pratt grew convinced 
that the only complete solution of industrial 
and social problems lay in socialism. 

Pratt, who suffered much from defective 
eyesight, spent the last years of his Ufe at 
Le Pecq, Seine et Oise, France, where he 
died on 26 Feb. 1907. He was buried in 
Highgate cemetery. He married (1) in 
1849 Sarah Caroluie Wetherall, daughter 
of an Irish squire; and (2) in 1892 Monica, 
daughter of the Rev. James Mangan, D.D., 
LL. D. She survived him with one daughter. 
A portrait in oils by Mr. FeUx Moscheles 
hangs at the Club and Institute Union, 
Clerkenwell Road, London. The Annual 
Hodgson Pratt Memorial Lecture and 
travelling scholarship for working men, as 
well as prizes, were established in 1911. 

[Concord, March 1907 ; The Times, 5 March 
and 14 Nov. 1907 ; Henry Solly, These Eighty 
Years, 1893, ii. 243-4, 434 seq. ; B. T. Hall, 
Our Fifty Years (Jubilee History of the Work- 
ing Men's Club), 1912; Frederic Passy, 
Pour la paix, 1909, p. 113; MemoriaLs of Old 
Haileybury College, 1894 ; information from 
Mr. J. F. Green and Mr. J. J. Dent.] W. B. 0. 

PRATT, JOSEPH BISHOP (1854^1910), 
engraver, son of Anthony Pratt, a printer 
of mezzotints, by liis wife Ann Bishop, was 
bom at 4 College Terrace, Camden New 
Town, London, N., on 1 Jan. 1854. In 1868 

he was apprenticed to David Lucas, with 
whom he remained five years. The first 
plate for which he received a commission, 
' Maternal Felicity,' after Samuel Carter, 
was published in Dec. 1873. For the firms 
of Agnew, Graves, Lef^vre, Leggatt, and 
Tooth he engraved many plates of animal 
subjects after Landseer, Briton Riviere, 
Peter Graham, Rosa Bonheur, whom he 
visited at Fontainebleau, and others ; these 
were varied occasionally by figure subjects 
and landscapes after Constable and Cox. 
Pratt's early engravings were chiefly in the 
* mixed ' manner, a combination of etching, 
line work and mezzotint, but a second 
period in his career began in 1896, from 
which date he confined himself to pure 
mezzotint, and almost exclusively to sub- 
jects after the English painters of the 
Greorgian era, who had then come into 
fashion. Plates commissioned in that year 
and published in 1897 by Messrs. Agnew 
after Raeburn's ' Mrs. Gregory ' and Law- 
rence's ' Mrs. Cuthbert ' met with great 
success, and Pratt was thenceforth much 
employed by the same firm in engraving 
pictures by Gainsborough, Reynolds, Rom- 
ney, Hoppner, and their contemporaries. 
In doing so, he limited himseK to subjects 
that had not been engraved before. He 
continued to engrave for Messrs. Tooth a 
series of subjects after Peter Graham, R.A., 
and he was selected by Sir Luke Fildes. 
R.A., to engrave the state portraits of 
Edward "VTI (1902) and Queen Alexandra 
(1906). One of his last important plates, 
' The Countess of Warwick and her Children,' 
after Romney, was published by Messrs. P. 
and D. Colnaghi in 1909. Pratt piurchased 
from the widow of Thomas Oldham Barlow 
[q. V. Suppl. I], their late possessor, the 
set of mezzotinter's tools that had been 
used by Samuel Cousins. Exhibitions of 
Pratt's engravings held by Messrs. Agnew 
at Manchester and Liverpool in 1902, and 
by Messrs. Vicars in Bond Street in 1904, 
proved him to be the foremost reproductive 
engraver of his time. A considerable, 
though incomplete, collection of his work 
is in the British Museum. Pratt long 
resided at Harpenden, Hertfordshire, but 
removed in 1907 to Brenchley, Kent. 
Pratt died in London, after an operation, 
on 23 Dec. 1910. He had six children 
by his marriage, on 26 August 1878, to 
CaroUne Ahnader James, who survived 
him ; his eldest son, Stanley Claude Pratt, 
born on 9 June 1882, an engraver, was pupil 
of his father ; his first plate was published 
in 1904. 

[The Times, 24 Dec. 1910 ; Daily Telegraph, 




1 Jan. 1911 ; Exhibition Catalogues ; lists of 
the Printsellers' Association ; private infor- 
mation.] C. D. 

TON (1842-1909), antiquary, bom in Lon- 
don on 20 Aug. 1842, was son of Frederick 
William Price (for many years partner 
and eventually chief acting partner in the 
banking firm of Child & Co.), who died 
on 31 Jan. 1888. Educated at Crawford 
College, Maidenhead, he entered Child's 
Bank in 1860, where he succeeded his 
father as chief acting partner. Much of 
his early leisure was devoted to the 
history of Child's Bank, and in 1875 he 
pubhshed 'Temple Bar, or some Account 
of Ye Marygold, No. 1 Fleet Street ' (2nd 
edit. 1902), where Child's Bank had been 
estabhshed in the seventeenth century. In 
1877 he brought out a useful ' Handbook 
of London Bankers' (enlarged edit. 1890-1). 
He was a member of the Council of the 
Bankers' Institute and of the Central 
Bankers' Association. 

Price's life was mainly devoted to archaeo- 
logy. Always keenly interested in the 
prehistoric as well as historic annals of 
London, he formed a fine collection of 
antiquities of the stone and bronze ages, 
of the Roman period, of Samian ware vessels 
imported during the first and second 
centuries from the south of France, English 
pottery ranging from the Norman times 
down to the last century, tiles, pewter 
vessels and plates, medieval ink-horns, 
coins, tokens (many from the burial pits 
on the site of Christ's Hospital), and so 
forth ; the whole of his collection was 
secured to form in 1911 the nucleus of the 
London Museum at Kensington Palace 
{The Times, 25 March 1911). 

Excavations at home and abroad had 
a great fascination for Price. He took a 
leading part in the excavation of the 
Roman villa at Brading in the Isle of 
Wight, the remains of which were by his 
exertions kept open to the public for some 
time, and on which, in conjunction 
with Mr. J. E. Price, he read a paper before 
the Royal Institute of British Architects 
on 13 Dec. 1880 (printed in the Transactions 
of that society, 1880-1, pp. 125 seq.). On 
the excavations at Silchester or Calleva 
Attrebatum (of the research fund of which 
he was treasurer) he read a paper at the 
Society of Antiquaries on 11 Feb. 1886 
(printed in Archceologia, 1. 263-280). At 
the same time he actively engaged in 
studying and collecting Egyptian anti- 
quities. In 1886 he described a portion of 

his collection in the 'Proceedings of the 
Society of Biblical Archaeology ' (of which he 
was elected member in 1884, vice-president 
in 1901) ; a large selection from his collec- 
tion was exhibited at the Burlington Fine 
Arts Club in 1895, and two years later he 
published an elaborate Catalogue of his 
Egjrptian antiquities, which was followed 
in 1908 by a supplement. In 1905 he was 
elected president of the Egypt Exploration 
Fund (which he joined in 1885). 

Price was deeply interested in the 
Society of Antiquaries, of which he became 
a member on 19 Jan. 1882. He was elected 
director on 23 April 1894, retaining the post 
till his death. A keen numismatist, he 
joined the Royal Numismatic Society in 
1897. He was also elected fellow of the 
Geological Society in 1872. He was a volu- 
minous contributor to the Transactions and 
Proceedings of most of the societies and 
institutions to which he belonged (cf. G. L. 
Gomme's Index of Archaeological Pafers, 
1663-1890, pp. 617-8 and Annual Indexes 
of Archceological Papers, 1891 et seq.). A 
valuable series of illustrated papers on 
' Signs of Old London ' appeared in the 
succeeding issues of the 'London Topo- 
graphical Record' (ii.-v.). 

He died at Cannes on 14 March 1909, after 
an operation, and was buried at Finchley 
(in the next grave to his father). He 
bequeathed 1001. to the Society of Anti- 
quaries for the Research Fund. His books, 
coins, old spoons, and miscellaneous objects 
of art and vertu fetched at auction (1909- 
1911) the sum of 2606Z. 10s. 6d. His 
Egjrptian collection realised 12,040^. 8s. Qd. 
at Sotheby's on 12-21 July 1911 (see The 
Times, 6 June 1911). The same firm sold 
his coins on 17-19 May 1909 and 7-8 April 
1910, 575 lots realising 2309Z. 9s. He 
married in 1867 Christina, daughter of 
William Bailey of Oaken, Staffordshire, 
who survived him, and by whom he had 
one son and one daughter. 

In addition to works already mentioned 
Hilton Price edited ' Sketches of Life and 
Sport in S.E. Africa' (1870) and wrote 
' The Signs of Old Lombard Street' (1887; 
revised edit. 1902) and ' Old Base Metal 
Spoons ' (1908). 

[Who's Who, 1909 ; The Times, 18 March 
1909 ; Athenaeum, 20 March 1909 ; Proc. 
Soc. of Antiquaries, second series, xxii. 444, 
471-2 ; London Topographical Record, vi. 
1909, pp. 107-8.] W. R. 

PRICE, THOMAS (1852-1909), premier 
of South Australia, born at Brymbo 
near Wrexham, North Wales, on 19 Jan. 




1852, was son of John Price by his 
wife Jane. Spending his childhood in 
Liverpool, he was educated at a penny 
school there, and then foUowed the trade 
of stonecutter, taking an interest in pubhc 
matters and adopting the temperance 
cause as an ardent Rechabite. Ordered to 
Austraha for his health in 1883, he landed 
at Adelaide at a time when there was much 
difficiiltj' in getting employment. He was 
temporarily employed as clerk of works at 
the government locomotive shops at Isling- 
ton. Returning to his old calling of stone- 
cutter, he long worked on the new parlia- 
ment biiildings at Adelaide, then in course 
of erection, in which he afterwards sat as 
premier. In 1891 he became secretary of 
the Masons' and Bricklayers' Society in 
South Austraha, and in 1893 he entered 
the House of Assembly of the colony as 
member for Starb in the labour interest. 
That constituency he represented until 
1902, when he was elected for the re-formed 
district of Torrens. Of the labour party he 
became secretary in 1900 and parhamentary 
leader in 1901. In July 1905 he was chosen 
premier of South Australia, combining 
with it the duties of commissioner of pubhc 
works and minister of education, and being 
the first labour premier of an AustraUan 
state, though the commonwealth had for 
four months in 1904 had a labour prime 
minister in Mr. Watson. Price held the 
office of premier until his death, nearly 
four years later. His cabinet was a coaU- 
tion of hberal and labour members, and 
his capacity for leadership held it well 
together. Price was a man of the most 
kindly character : he had a strong sense 
of humour and an abundance of rugged 
eloquence. He was one of the few parha- 
mentary speakers who are known to have 
changed votes and decided the fate of a 
measvire by power of speech. During his 
premiership he was responsible for Acts 
relating to wages boards, municipalisation 
of the tramway system, which had previously 
been in the hands of seven companies, 
reduction of the franchise for the upper 
house, and the transfer of the northern 
territory to the commonwealth. The 
transfer of the territory, however, did not 
take place in his lifetime, as the common- 
wealth parhament only passed the necessary 
legislation for the purpose in the session 
of 1910. He died at the height of his 
popularity at his house at Hawthorn, near 
Adelaide, on 31 May 1909, and was buried 
in the West Terrace cemetery at Ade- 
laide. He married on 14 April 1881 Anne 
Elizabeth, daughter of Edward Lloyd, 

timber merchant, of Liverpool, and had 
issue four sons and three daughters. A 
portrait in oUs, painted by Mr. Johnstone, 
was presented to the Walker Art Gallery 
at Liverpool in 1908 ; a rephca is in the 
Adelaide Art Gallery. 

[Johns's Notable Austrahans ; The Times, 
1 June 1909 ; private sources.] C. P. L. 

known as Val Prinsep (1838-1904), 
artist, born at Calcutta on St. Valentine's 
Day, 14 Feb. 1838, was second son of 
Henry Thoby Prinsep [q. v.], Indian civil 
servant and patron of artists, by his wife 
Sara Monckton, daughter of James Pattle. 
His mother, who was of French descent, was, 
like her six sisters, singularly handsome. 

At an early age Valentine was sent 
to England to be educated, and with a 
view to the Indian civil service went to 
Haileybury. But close intimacy in youth 
with George Frederick Watts [q. v. Suppl. 
II] who for five and twenty years lived 
with his parents at Little Holland House 
and painted portraits of all the members 
of the family, and contact at weekly 
gatherings there with many celebrated 
artists, encouraged in Prinsep a taste for art, 
and giving up a nomination for the civil 
service, he resolved to adopt the profession 
of an artist. He went out with Watts in 
1856-7 to watch Sir Charles Newton's excava- 
tion of Hahcamassus. After studying under 
Watts he proceeded to Gleyre's atelier in 
Paris. There Whistler, Poynter, and du 
Maurier were among his fellow students, and 
he sat unconsciously as a model for Taffy 
in du Maurier's novel ' Trilby.' From 
Paris Prinsep passed to Italy. With 
Bume-Jones he visited Siena and there he 
made the acquaintance of Robert Browning, 
of whom he saw much in Rome during the 
winter of 1859-60. 

Friendship with Dante Gabriel Rossetti 
at first inclined him to Pre-Raphaehtism, 
but he soon came under the influence of 
another friend. Sir Frederic (afterwards 
Lord) Leighton, with whose work his 
own had much affinity. In 1858 he was 
one of the eight painters who under the 
direction of Rossetti and WiUiam Morris 
decorated the new hall of the Union Society 
at Oxford. In 1862 he exhibited at the 
Royal Academy his first picture, ' How 
Bianca Capello sought to poison the 
Cardinal de Medici ' ; it was well placed. 
From that time to his death Prinsep 
was an annual exhibitor. Prinsep' s chi^ 
paintings were ' Miriam watching the 
Infant Moses' (exhibited at the Royal 




Academy in 1867), 'A Venetian Lover' 
(1868), 'Bacchus and Ariadne' (1869), 
'News from Abroad' (1871), 'The Linen 
Gatherers' (1876), ' The Gleaners,' and ' A 

In 1876 he received a commission from 
the Indian government to paint a picture of 
the historical durbar held by Lord Lytton 
for the proclamation of Queen Victoria 
as Empress of India. The result was one 
large canvas and a number of smaller works 
on Eastern subjects. The chief picture, 
called ' At the Golden Gate ' (1882), is a 
good example of Prinsep's work ; it is in 
the possession of the family. 

Prinsep was elected A.R.A. in 1878 and 
R.A. in 1894. His diploma picture, ' La 
Revolution,' was exhibited in 1896. 

He died at Holland Park on 11 Nov. 1904, 
and was buried at Brompton cemetery. 
He married in 1884 Florence, daughter of 
Frederick Robert Leyland of Wootten Hall, 
Liverpool. She survived him with three sons. 

Prinsep possessed versatile accomplish- 
ments, social gifts, great physical strength, 
and after his marriage ample means. He 
was a major of the artists' volunteer corps. 
He published an account of his visit to India 
under the title ' Imperial India : an Artist's 
Journals' (1879). Two plays by him, 
' Cousin Dick ' and ' M. le Due,' were pro- 
duced respectively at the Court Theatre in 
1879 and at the St. James's in 1880. He 
was also author of two novels, ' Virginie ' 
(1890) and ' Abibal the Tsourian ' (1893). 
His painting never had much passion or 
power. His interests were too dispersed 
to enable him to become a great artist. 

His portrait, painted in 1872 by G. F. 
Watts, R.A., belongs to his family. A 
statuette by E. Roscoe Mullins was ex- 
hibited at the Royal Academy in 1880. 
A cartoon portrait by 'Spy' appeared in 
' Vanity Fair ' in 1877. 

[Mag. of Art, 1883 (woodcut portrait by 
A. Legros) and 1905 ; The Times, 14 Nov. 
1904 ; Graves's Royal Acad. Exhibitors, 1906 ; 
Mrs. Orr, Life of Robert Bro\vning, 1908, 
pp. 224 seq.; private information.] 

F. W. G-N. 

PRIOR, MELTON (1845-1910), war 
artist, bom in London on 12 Sept. 1845, was 
son of WiUiam Henry Prior (1812-1882), 
a draughtsman and landscape painter, by 
his wife Amelia. Educated at St. Clement 
Danes grammar school, London^ where he 
attended art classes, and at Bleriot CoUege, 
Boulogne, he helped his father, and thus first 
developed his own artistic powers. He began 
working for the ' Illustrated London News ' 
in 1868, and after spending five years in 

sketching for the paper in England, he first 
acted as war correspondent in 1873, when 
the proprietor. Sir William Ingram, sent 
him to Ashanti with Sir Garnet (afterwards 
Lord) Wolseley's expedition. Thenceforth 
for thirty years he was similarly engaged 
for the 'Illustrated London News' with 
little intermission. In 1874 he proceeded 
to Spain to sketch incidents in the CarUst 
rising, and in 1876 to the Balkan peninstda, 
where he campaigned with the Avistrians 
in Bosnia, followed the fortimes of the 
Servians in their short war with Bulgaria, 
and went through the Turco -Russian war. 
Prior watched the long series of campaigns 
in South Africa (1877-1881), including the 
Kaffir, Basuto and Zulu wars, and the Boer 
campaign which culminated at Majuba Hill 
(27 Feb. 1881). On 14 Sept. 1882 he was 
present with the EngUsh army on its entry 
into Cairo, was with Baker Pasha's army 
at El Teb (29 Feb. 1884), accompanied 
Lord Wolseley's rehef expedition up the 
Nile (1884r-5),' and was with Sir Gerald 
Graham [q. v. Suppl. I] in his campaign in 
the Soudan early in 1885. From the Soudan 
he passed to Burma, where (Sir) Frederick 
(afterwards Earl) Roberts was engaged in 
active warfare (1886-7). The successive re- 
volutions in Brazil, Argentine and Venezuela 
kept him much in South America between 
1889 and 1892. Trouble in the Transvaal 
recalled him to South Africa in 1896 ; he 
went through the Greco -Turkish war, and 
the north-west frontier war in India next 
year, and saw the Cretan rising in 1898. 
When the South African war opened in 
October 1899 Prior went out with the 
first batch of correspondents, and was 
fldth the British besieged force in Lady- 
smith (2 Nov. 1899-28 Feb. 1900). In 
1903 he was with the Somahland expedition. 
His last campaign was the Russo-Japanese 
war, when he accompanied General Oku's 
army into the Liao-tung Peninsula (July 
1904). Prior's manj'^ journeys to illustrate 
great social ceremonials included a visit to 
Athens in 1875 in the suite of King Edward 
VII when Prince of Wales, to Canada with 
King George V when Prince of Wales in 
1901, and to the Delhi Durbar of 1903. 

He twice went round the world, and every 
part of America was f amihar to him. During 
his active career he only spent the whole 
of one year (1883) at home. Besides his 
drawings for the ' Illustrated London News ' 
he occasionally made illustrations for the 
' Sketch,' a paper under the same control. 
Prior's art, if not of the highest order, was 
eminently graphic, and he had a keen eye 
for a dramatic situation. He worked 




almost entirely in black and white, with the 
pen or the pencil, and with extraordinary 
rapidity. He belonged to the adventurous 
school of war correspondents, of which 
Archibald Forbes [q. v. Suppl. I] was the 
leading spirit. In character he was genial, 
kind-hearted, and impulsive. 

He died without issue on 2 Nov.* 1910, 
at Carlyle Mansions, Chelsea, and was 
buried at Hither Green cemetery. He was 
twice married: (1) in 1873, to a daughter 
{d. 1907) of John Greeves, surgeon ; (2) in 
1908 to Georgina Catherine, daughter of 
George Macintosh Douglas. A portrait of 
Prior, painted by Frederick Whiting, is at 
the Savage Club. A tablet to his memory 
in the crypt of St. Paul's Cathedral was un- 
veiled by Sir Evelyn Wood on 22 Oct. 1912-. 

[Prior's Campaigns of a War Correspondent, 
ed. S. L. Bensusan, 1912 ; Mag. of Art, 1902; 
Art Journal, 1910 ; The Times, 3 Nov. 1910 ; 
private information.] F. W. G-K. 

LEY (1837-1903), Anglo-Indian adminis- 
trator, born at Clapham on 5 May 1837, 
was eldest son of Prof. Charles Pritchard 
(1808-1893) [q. v.] by his first wife Emily, 
daughter of J. Newixjn. After early edu- 
cation by his father he entered Rugby in 
1849, and was transferred to Sherborne 
in 1852. Obtaining a nomination to the 
Indian army, he went to Addiscombe in 
1854, but securing a writership in the 
Indian civil service, he completed his 
education at Haileybury. 

On his arrival at Bombay in Jan. 1858 
Pritchard first served as assistant magistrate 
and collector at Belgaum, and did useful 
work in freeing the district of bandits. 
In 1865 he was put in charge of the Thana 
district, and carried on a successful crusade 
against a system of frauds on the forest 
department. Nominated to the province 
of Khandesh in 1867, he was active in 
checking the enslavement of the native 
Bhils by the moneylenders, and in organ- 
ising relief measures during the famine of 
1868. The trenchant manner in which he 
dealt with frauds in the public departments 
led to his appointment as first collector of 
salt revenue in the Bombay presidency. 
In this capacity Pritchard reformed the 
administration, suppressed smuggling, and 
established a large salt factory at Khara- 
ghoda. Considerable opposition was excited 
by the system of private licences, which 
he introduced with a view to ensuring that 
the salt was properly weighed, but thanks 
to his persevering efforts the hostile move- 
ment gradually collapsed. The stabihty 

of the Bombay salt revenue was henceforth 
assured, and when in 1876 a commission 
was appointed to reform the abuses of the 
Madras salt revenue, Pritchard was nomi- 
nated its president. 

In 1877 he undertook the difficult task of 
reforming the system for the manufacture 
and sale of opium and native spirits in the 
Bombay presidency. Pritchard' s policy 
was to confine the manufacture of opium 
and spirits to a few selected places, to raise 
the excise duty to the highest possible rate, 
to reduce the number of retail shops, and 
to levy high licence fees. Measures were 
also taken to bring under control the supply 
of raw material from which the spirit was 
manufactured, and to restrict to contractors 
of known probity the right to sell spirits. 
These regulations despite their unpopularity 
were steadily enforced, and in recognition 
of his services Pritchard was made com- 
missioner of customs in 1881, and of salt 
and dblcari (excise on spirits) in 1882. 
Under his capable administration the 
Bombay presidency derived a largely in- 
creased revenue, amounting between 1874 
and 1888 to an advance of 145 per cent. 
Pritchard, who had been made C.S.I. in 
1886, held the post of commissioner of 
Smd from 1887 to 1889, and there he 
did much to develop harbour works 
and railway communications. He revived 
the idea of the Jamrao canal, which 
was completed in 1901, and he set on foot 
the scheme for the construction of a line 
linking up Karachi with the railway system 
of Rajputana, which was carried out by his 
successor, Sir Arthur Trevor. 

In Nov. 1890 Pritchard was promoted to 
be revenue member of the government of 
Bombay, and in 1891 was created K.C.I.E. 
In the following year he took his seat on 
the viceroy's legislative council as member 
for the pubhc works department. During 
his tenure of office he frequently found 
himself at variance with Lord Elgin, the 
viceroy, and with the majority of his col- 
leagues on questions of high poUcy. He 
disapproved of the ' forward ' pohcy, and 
he joined Sir Antony (afterwards Lord) 
MacDonneU and Sir James Westland [q. v. 
Suppl. II] in protesting against the ex- 
penditure of blood and treasure on expedi- 
tions to Waziristan, Swat, Chitral, and Tira. 
In 1896 his health showed signs of failure, 
and he resigned his seat on the council. 
Returning home, he settled in London, 
where he died on 23 Nor. 1903. He was 
buried at Norwood. 

He married in 1862 Emily Dorothea, 
daughter of Hamerton John Williams, by 




whom he had issue two surviving sous and 
two daughters, both deceased. His yoimg- 
est daughter, Ethel, married in 1898 Sir 
Steyning Edgerley, K.C.V.O., and died in 

A memorial tablet to Pritchard was 
placed in the crypt of St. Paul's Cathedral, 
London. A portrait by Sir George Reid is 
at Karachi, Sind, India. 

[The Times, 25 Nov. 1903 ; Times of India, 
29 Nov. 1896 ; National Review, Jan. 1904, 
art. by H. M. Birdwood ; Ada Pritchard, 
Memoirs of Prof. Pritchard, 1897; C. E. 
Buckland, Dictionary of Indian Biography ; 
private information from his daughter, Mrs. 
Ranken.] G. S. W. 


(1828-1907), gimmaker and draughtsman, 
bom on 24 Feb. 1828, was son of Richard 
Ellis Pritchett, head of the firm of gim- 
makers at Enfield which supplied arms to 
the East India Company and to the board of 
ordnance. His mother was Ann Dumbleton . 
After leaving King's College school Robert 
was brought up to his father's trade, and 
made himself thoroughly famihar with the 
details of the business. By 1852 he had 
become intimate with William Ellis Metford 
[q. v.], ' the father of the modem rifle.' 
The ' Pritchett bullet,' with a hollow, un- 
plugged base, which he and Metford in- 
vented in 1853, brought him fame and an 
award of lOOOZ. from the government on 
its adoption by the small-arms committee. 
As early as 1854 Pritchett was using his 
three-grooved rifle of his own invention. 

The abolition of the East India Company 
in 1858 deprived Pritchett' s firm of its 
principal customer, and he sought other 
interests ; but for some years he kept in 
touch with military rifle matters (partly 
through the Victoria Rifles, which corps 
he joined at its fovmdation in 1853), and 
he lectured on gunlocks and rifles at the 
Working Men's College and elsewhere. He 
interested himself in 1854 in the foundation 
of that college, of which Frederick Denison 
Maurice [q. v.] and Charles Kingsley [q. v.] 
were among the pioneers. He remained 
a liveryman of the Gunmakers' Company 
till his death. 

Art meanwhile became one of Pritchett' s 
pursuits. He exhibited views of Belgium 
and Brittany at the Royal Academy as 
early as 1851 and 1852. He soon formed 
intimate friendships with John Leech 
[q. v.], Charles Keene [q. v.], and Birket 
Foster [q.v. Suppl. I]. Through (Sir) John 
Tenniel he joined the staff of ' Punch,' for 
which he executed some 26 drawings be- 

tween 1863 and 1869. In 1865 he sketched 
in Skye and the Hebrides, and next year 
he executed 100 illustrations for Cassell, 
Petter & Gal pin. In 1868, after a visit 
to Holland, he received a commission for 
work from Messrs. Agnew, who showed 
a collection of his pictures in their galleries 
in 1869. One picture was purchased 
by Queen Victoria, and he was soon 
employed on many water-colour drawings 
of royal fimctions from ' Thanksgiving 
Day ' in 1872 to Queen Victoria's fimeral 
in 1901. Meanwhile he returned to 
Holland, where he dined at Loo with King 
Leopold II. and came to know Josef Israels. 
In 1869 and 1871 he exhibited scenes at 
Scheveningen at the Royal Academy, and 
in the latter year he published ' Brush 
Notes in Holland ' and made numerous 
sketches in Paris after the Commune. 
After a visit to Norway in 1874—5 he issued 
' Gamle Norge ' (1878). In 1880 he craised 
round the world with Mr. and Mrs. Joseph 
Lambert in their yacht the Wanderer, and 
illustrated their book on * The Voyage of 
the Wanderer ' (1883). In 1883 and 1885 he 
joined as artist the tours of Thomas (after- 
wards Earl) and Lady Brassey in the Sun- 
beam yacht, and many of his drawings 
appeared in Lady Brassey' s ' In the Trades, 
the Tropics and the Roaring Forties ' 
(1885) and ' The Last Voyage of the Sun- 
beam ' (1889). 

Pritchett also drew illustrations for 
'Good Words' in 1881 and 1882, and 
made drawings for H. R. Mills's ' General 
Geography ' (1888) and the 1890 edition of 
Charles Darwin's ' Voyage of the Beagle.' 
Exhibitions of his work were repeated 
in London between 1884 and 1890, and 
he lectured on his travels. He was an 
enthusiastic yachtsman, and an expert on 
yachts and craft of all kinds. He illustrated 
the Badminton volumes on ' Yachting ' 
(1894) and ' Sea Fishmg ' (1895), and wrote 
much of the text of the former. His ' Pen 
and Pencil Sketches of Shipping and Craft 
all roimd the World ' first appeared in 1899. 
A collector of curios, he was an authority 
on ancient armour, and issued in 1890 an 
illustrated accoimt of his collection of pipes 
in ' Smokiana (Pipes of All Nations).' 
He was more successful in black-and- 
white than in water-colour ; his drawings 
of shipping are noteworthy for technical 

Pritchett, who was an ardent sportsman, 
a good churchman, and a clever raconteur, 
resided for many years at The Sands, 
Swindon, and subsequently at Burghfield, 
Berkshire, where he died on 16 Jime 1907 ; 




he was buried in the parish churchyard. His 
wife, Louisa Kezia McRae (d. 1899), whom 
he married on 22 Oct. 1857, his son Ellis (d. 
1905), and his daughter Marian predeceased 
him. With the exception of some netsuke, 
which he bequeathed to the Victoria and 
Albert Museimi, and some silver badges of the 
Ligue des Gueux, which he left to the British 
Museimi, most of his ciirios, together with 
some of his drawings, were sold by auction 
by Messrs. Haslam & Son at Reading on 
30 and 31 Oct. 1907 ; some of his pipes were 
subsequently dispersed by sale in London. 
The Victoria and Albert Museiun has 
magazine illustrations, landscapes, and other 
drawings by him. His portrait by Daniel 
Albert Wehrschmidt was exhibited at the 
Royal Academy in 1899. 

[Preface by H. G. W. to catalogue of sale 
at Reading ; M. H. Spielmann's History of 
Punch, 423, 520 (portrait), 521 ; Graves, Diet, 
of Artists and Roy. Acad. Exhibitors ; Brit. 
Mus. Cat. ; The Times, 20 June 1907 ; Encycl. 
Brit. 11th edit. (s. v. Rifle); E. H. Knight, 
Diet, of Mechanics, i. 401-2 ; Engl. Cycl. iv. 
91 ; private information.] B. S. L. 

PROBERT, LEWIS (1841-1908), Welsh 
divine, third son of Evan and Mary Probert, 
was bom at Llanelly, Breconshire, on 
22 Sept. 1841. He became a congregational 
church member in 1860, at a time of revival, 
began to preach in 1862, and, after a short 
preparatory course under Henry Oliver 
at Pontj'pridd, entered Brecon College in 
1863. In July 1867 he was ordained to 
the congregational ministry at Bodringallt, 
in the Rhondda valley, where he was active 
in establishing new churches among a 
rapidly growing colUery population. From 
1872 to 1874 he was pastor of Pentre 
Ystrad, in this district ; in Oct. 1874 
he moved to Portmadoc, Carnarvon- 
shire, where he spent twelve years. In 
1886 he returned to Pentre ; he soon 
gained considerable repute through his 
theological writings, and upon the death 
in 1896 of Evan Herber Evans [q. v. Suppl. 
I] was chosen to succeed him as principal 
of the congregational college at Bangor. 
That position he held imtil his death on 
29 Dec. 1908. In 1891 he received the 
degree of D.D. from Ohio University and 
was chairman of the Welsh Congregational 
Union for 1901. He was twice married: 
(1) in 1870 to Annie, daughter of Edward 
Watkins, of Blaina, Monmouthshire, who 
died in 1874 ; and (2) in 1886 to Martha, 
only daughter of Benjamin Probert of 

In theology Probert had conservative 
views, but was highly esteemed for the 

breadth and solidity of his learning. He 
pubhshed the following : 1. A prize essay 
on the nonconformist ministry in Wales 
(Blaenau Festiniog, 1882). 2. A Welsh 
comhientary upon Romans (Wrexham, 
1890). 3. A companion volume upon 
Ephesians (Wrexham, 1892). 4. 'Crist 
a'r Saith Egl^^ys ' (Rev. i.-iii.) (Merthyr, 
1894). 5. ' Nerth y Groruchaf,' a treatise 
on the work of the Spirit (Wrexham, 1906). 

[Album Aberhonddu (1898); Congregational 
Year Book for 1910, pp. 185-6 ; Rees and 
Thomas, Hanes yr Eglwysi Annibynol, ii. 351, 
iv. 285, 467, 477.] J. E. L. 

PROCTER, FRANCIS (1812-1905), 
divine, bom at Hackney on 21 June 1812, 
was only son of Francis Procter, a ware- 
houseman in Gracechurch St., Manchester, 
by Mary his wife. The son was of delicate 
health, and spent the early years of his life 
at Xewland vicarage, Gloucestershire, imder 
the care of an uncle, Payler Procter, who 
was vicar there. In 1825 he was sent to 
Shrewsbury school under Dr. Samuel 
Butler [q. v.], and thence passed in 1831 to 
St. Catharine's CoUege, Cambridge, where 
another uncle. Dr. Joseph Procter, was 
Master. In 1835 he graduated B.A. as 
thirtieth wTangler and eleventh in the second 
class of the classical tripos. In the following 
year he was ordained deacon in the diocese of 
Lincoln, and in 1838 priest in the diocese of 
Ely. He served curacies at Streatley, Bed- 
fordshire, from 1836 to 1840, and at Romsey 
from 1840 to 1842, when he gave up for the 
time parochial work in order to become 
feUow and assistant tutor of his college. 
In 1847 he left the university for the 
vicarage of Witton, Norfolk. There the rest 
of his long Ufe was spent. After serving 
the cure for nearly sixty years, he died at 
Witton on 24 Aug. 1905, and was buried in 
the churchyard there. In 1848 he married 
Margaret, daughter of Thomas Meryon of 
Rye, Sussex, and had issue five sons and 
three daughters. 

Procter was author of ' A History of the 
Book of Common Prayer, with a Rationale 
of its Offices,' which was originally pubhshed 
in 1855. In many fresh editions Procter 
kept the work abreast of the hturgical studies 
of the day. Further revised with Procter's 
concurrence in 1901, it still remains in use. 
Later he projected an edition of the ' Sarum 
Breviary,' for which he transcribed the text 
of the ' Great Breviary ' printed at Paris ik 
1531. Procter published the first volume 
at Cambridge in 1879 with Christopher 
Wordsworth as joint-editor and with the co- 
operation of Henry Bradshaw, W. Chatter- 




ley Bishop, and others ; the second volume 
followed in 1882, and the concluding one in 

Procter's liturgical work was careful and 
scholarly ; his text-book followed the lines of 
sound exposition laid down by Wheatley and 
his followers, and his edition of the ' Sarum 
Breviary ' was the most notable achievement 
of an era which was first developing the 
scientific study of medieval service-books. 
A portrait painted by an amateur is in the 
possession of his son. 

[Information from Miss Procter (daughter) ; 
Shrewsbury School Register ; Records of 
St. Catharine's College ; Crockford's Clerical 
Directory.] W. H. F. 

LIER (1868-1903), bibliographer, bom at 
Budleigh Salterton, Devonshire, on 13 May 
1868, was only child of Robert Proctor 
(1821-1880) by his wife Anne Tate. The 
father, a good classical scholar, was crippled 
from boyhood by rheumatic fever. Proctor's 
grandfather, Robert Proctor (1798-1875), 
who published in 1825 ' A Narrative of a 
Journey across the Cordillera of the Andes 
and of a Residence in Lima and other Parts 
of Peru in 1823 and 1824,' married Mary, 
sister of John Pa3Tie Collier [q. v.], who 
was thus the bibliographer's grand-uncle. 
A sister of Proctor's father (Mariquita) 
was first wife of George Edmvmd Street 
[q. v.], the architect. 

Proctor, who in childhood developed a 
precocious love of study, went from a 
preparatory school at Reading to Marl- 
borough College at the age of ten. Owing 
to his father's death on 5 March 1880, he 
stayed at Marlborough only a year. There- 
upon he and his mother, who was thence- 
forth his inseparable companion, settled 
at Bath. In January 1881 he entered 
Bath CoUege, where his scholarly instincts 
rapidly matured. In 1886 he won an 
open classical scholarship at Corpus Christi 
College, Oxford, and he matriculated at 
the university in October. His mother 
lived at Oxford during his academic course. 
He won a first class in classical modera- 
tions in Hilary term, 1888, and a second 
in the final classical school in Trinity term 
1890, when he graduated B.A. While an 
imdergraduate Proctor engaged in anti- 
quarian research outside the curriculum of 
the schools. A visit to Greece stimulated 
•his archaeological predilections. Already as 
a schoolboy he had collected books, and at 
Oxford he spent much time in his college 
library. A love of bibliographical study 
developed, and a catalogue which he pre- 

pared of the Corpus incimabula and printed 
books up to 1600 gave promise of unusual 
bibliographical aptitude. 

He remained at Oxford after taking his 
degree in order to continue his study of 
early printed books. Between 23 Feb. 
1891 and Sept. 1893 he catalogued some 
3000 incunabula in the Bodleian library, 
in continuation of work begun by Mr. 
Gordon Duflf, and he did similar work at 
New College and at Brasenose. 

On 16 Oct. 1893 he competed successfully 
(after a first failure) for entry into the 
library of the British Museum, and he 
remained an assistant in the printed books 
department until his death. There he 
made indefatigable use of his opportunities 
and quickly constituted himself a chief 
expert on early typography and biblio- 
graphy. He rearranged the incunabula at 
the Museum and revised the entries of 
them in the catalogue, in which he was also 
responsible for the heading 'Liturgies.' 
He soon set himself to describe every fount 
of type used in Europe up to 1520, and by 
way of preparation read through the whole 
of the British Museum catalogue. His 
reputation was finally established by his 
' Index of Early Printed Books from the 
Invention of Printing to the Year MD,' 
which was issued in four parts in 1898, 
after four years' toil. He then worked on 
a similar index for the period 1501-20, but 
of four projected sections only one — the 
German — was completed in his lifetime 

Proctor's earliest contribution to biblio- 
graphical literature was an article on 
John van Doesborgh, the fifteenth- century 
printer of Antwerp, which appeared in ' The 
Library ' in 1892 and was expanded into 
a monograph for the Bibliographical 
Society in 1894. Proctor soon read many 
learned papers before that society, for 
which he also prepared ' A Classified Index 
to the Serapeum' (1897) and 'The Printing 
of Greek in the Fifteenth Century ' (1900). 
He likewise printed for private circula- 
tion three ' tracts on early printing,' viz. 
' Lists of the Founts of Type and Woodcut 
Devices used by the Printers of the Southern 
Netherlands in the Fifteenth Century ' 
(1895) ; ' A Note on Abraham Frammolt of 
Basel, Printer' (1895); and 'Additions to 
Campbell's " Annales de la typographic 
neerlandaise au XV siecle " ' (1897). 

Proctor subsequently experimented in 
Greek printing, adapting a beautiful type 
from the sixteenth-century Spanish ioxmt 
used in the New Testament of the Com- 
plutensian Polyglot Bible. With his new 




type Proctor caused to be printed at the 
Chiswick Press an edition of ^Eschylus's 
' Oresteia,' which (Sir) Frederic Kenyon 
completed for pubUcation in 1904. In the 
same type there subsequently appeared 
Homer's ' Odyssey ' (1909). 

Interest in the work of WiUiam Morris's 
Kehnscott Press led to a personal ac- 
quaintance with Morris, with whose social- 
istic views Proctor was in sympathy. On 
F. S. Ellis's death in 1901 Proctor became 
one of the trustees imder Morris's will. 
Morris's influence developed in Proctor an 
enthusiasm for Icelandic Uteratxire. His 
first rendering of an Icelandic saga, ' A 
Tale of the Weapon Firthers.' was printed 
privately in 1902 as a wedding gift for 
his friend Mr. Francis Jenkinson, librarian 
at Cambridge University. He subsequently 
published a version of the Laxdaela saga 

From boyhood Proctor was in the habit 
of making long walking tours, usually with 
his mother. The practice famiharised him 
not only with England and Scotland but 
with France, Smtzerland, Belgium and 
Norway. On 29 Aug. 1903 he left London 
for a sohtary walking tour in Tyrol. He 
reached the Taschach hut in the Pitzthal 
on 5 Sept. and left to cross a glacier pass 
without a guide. Nothing more was heard 
of him. He doubtless perished in a crevasse. 
At the end of the month, when his dis- 
appearance was realised in England, the 
weather had broken and no search was 

A memorial fvmd was formed for the 
purpose of issuing his scattered ' Bibho- 
graphical Essays,' including his privately 
printed tracts. The collection appeared 
in 1905, with a memoir by Mr. A. W. 
Pollard. The memorial fund also provided 
for the compilation and pubhcation of the 
three remaining parts of Proctor's ' Index 
of Early Printed Books from 1501 to 1520.' 

[Proctor's Bibliographical Essays (with 
memoir by A. W. Pollard and reproduction of 
a photograph taken at Oxford), 1905 ; Athe- 
naeum, 10 Oct. 1903 ; Brit. Mus. Cat. ; private 
information.] S. L. 

1902), physician and art critic, bom on 
9 April 1834, was the son of John Propert 
(1792-1867), surgeon, by his wiie Juliana 
Ross. His father founded in 1855 the Royal 
Medical Benevolent College, Epsom, of which 
he was long treasurer. Propert was educated 
at Marlborough College (Aug. 1843-Dec. 
1847), and at King's College Hospital. He 
obtained the diploma of the Royal College 

of Surgeons of England and the licence of 
the Society of Apothecaries in 1855, and 
in 1857 he graduated M.B. with honours 
in medicine at the University of London. 
He then joined his father in general practice 
in New Cavendish Street, London, and 
became highly successful. 

Propert was widely known in artistic 
circles as a good etcher and a connoisseur of 
art. His house, 112 Gloucester Place, Port- 
man Square, was filled with beautiful speci- 
mens of Wedgwood, bronzes, and jeweUed 
work. He was credited with being one of 
the first to revive the taste for miniature 
painting in England. His very fine collec- 
tion of miniatures was dispersed by sale 
in 1897. He published in 1887 ' A History 
of Miniature Art, Notes on Collectors and 
Collections,' and compiled in 1889, with in- 
troduction, the illustrated catalogue of the 
exhibition of portrait miniatures at the 
Burlington Fine Arts Club. , 

Propert died at his house in Gloucester 
Place on 7 March 1902, and was buried 
at Brookwood cemetery. He married in 
1864 Mary Jessica, daughter of WiUiam 
Hughes of Worcester, and had three sons 
and three daughters, of whom a son and 
three daughters survived him. 

[Lancet, 1902, vol. i. p. 782 ; the Brit. Med. 
Journal, 1902, vol. i. p. 689; Marlborough 
Coll. Reg. i. p. 12 ; Connoisseur, 1902, iii. 48 
(portrait) ; private information.] D'A. P. 

PROUT, EBENEZER (1835-1909), 
musical composer, organist, and theorist, the 
son of a dissenting minister, was bom at 
Oundle, Northamptonshire, on 1 March 1835, 
He studied at London University, gradua- 
ting B.A. in 1854, and showing a gift for 
languages ; but music was his passion from 
an early period. After acting as school- 
master for some years he devoted himself 
to the musical profession, in spite of strong 
opposition from his father. Though he had 
some pianoforte lessons from Charles Ken- 
sington Salaman, he waa almost entirely 
self-taught. He acted as organist in non- 
conformist chapels, and he contributed 
anthems to a volmne (1872) for Dr. Allon's 
chapel at IsUngton, where he officiated 
(1861-73). In 1862 he won the first prize 
in a competition for a new string quartet, 
instituted by the Society of British Musicians, 
and in 1865 their prize for a pianoforte 
quartet ; this work was occasionally played 
for several decades. A pianoforte quintet 
was still more successful. From 1861 to 
1885 Prout was professor of the pianoforte 
at the Crystal Palace School of Art. 

In 1871 the ' Monthly Musical Record * 




was started by Augener and Co., and 
Prout was appointed editor. He at once 
introduced a new element into musical 
criticism, which he made the prominent 
feature of his journal. He wrote detailed 
analyses of the less known works of Schubert, 
of Schumann's symphonies, and some of 
the later music-dramas of Wagner, all of 
which were practically unknown here. 
Prout and his coadjutors, notably Dann- 
reuther, quickly widened the outlook of the 
musical publio, and led the way for the 
introduction of Wagner's operas. In 1875 
he was compelled to resign the editorship of 
the ' Record,' and after serving as musical 
critic of the * Academy,' acted in a like 
capacity for the 'Athenaeum ' from 1879 to 

Inspired, no doubt, by the performance 
of one of Handel's organ concertos with 
the orchestral accompaniment (then a 
quasi-novelty) at the Handel Festival, in 
1871, Prout composed an organ concerto in 
E minor for modern resources of solo and 
orchestra. Stainer performed it at a 
Crystal Palace concert with great success, 
and many other performances were given 
elsewhere. Another undeveloped resource, 
the combination of pianoforte and har- 
monium, was next treated by Prout, who 
composed a duet-sonata in A major ; this 
also was long successful. Afterwards he 
turned into the beaten tracks of English 
musical composition, and produced the 
cantatas ' Hereward ' (1878), 'Alfred' 
(1882), ' Freedom ' (1885), ' Queen Aimee ' 
(for female voices, 1885), 'Psalm 100' 
(1886), 'The Red-Cross Knight' (1887), 
' Damon and Phintias ' (for male voices, 
1889), as well as three sjrmphonies for 
orchestra, and overtures, ' Twelfth Night ' 
and ' Rokeby.' A string quartet, a piano 
quartet, an organ concerto, and sonatas 
for piano, with flute (1882) and clarinet 
(1890), failed to obtain much recognition. 
Prout published many arrangements of 
classical pieces for the organ. In 1877 he 
contributed a valuable primer on instru- 
mentation to No Velio's series of music 
primers. After being converted to a 
belief in Dr. Day's theory of harmony, 
he began a series of text-books in 1889 
with ' Harmony, its Theory and Practice,' 
which reached a 24th edition. There 
followed ' Counterpoint, Strict and Free ' 
(1890 ; 9th edit. 1910), ' Double Counter- 
point and Canon' (1891), 'Fugue' (1891), 
•Musical Form' (1893), 'Applied Forms' 
(1895), and ' The Orchestra ' (2 vols. 1897), 
besides volumes of illustrative exercises 
These, especially ' Fugue,' became standard 

text-books. In later life Prout abandoned 
the ' Day Theory,' and in consequence 
largely re-wrote the book on harmony 
( Musical Herald, October 1903). 

From 1876 to 1890 Prout was conductor of 
the Borough of Hackney Choral Association, 
performing many important works new and 
old. At the estabUshment of the National 
Training School for Music in 1876 he 
became professor of harmony, migrating 
in 1879 to the Royal Academy of Music, 
where he taught till his death ; he was also 
professor at the Guildhall School of Music 
in 1884. 

The repute of his text-books secured him 
the professorship of music at DubUn Univer- 
sity in succession to Sir Robert Prescott 
Stewart [q. v.] in 1894. The university 
granted him the honorary degree of Mus. 
Doc. Although he was non-resident in 
Dublin, he fulfilled his duties as lecturer and 
examiner with zeal and ability. He was an 
active member of the Incorporated Society 
of Musicians, and frequently leetvired at 
the annual conferences. 

In his later years Front's interest was 
mainly concentrated in Bach. Large selec- 
tions of airs from Handel's operas and 
Bach's cantatas, translated and edited by 
Prout, appeared in 1905-9. A modernised 
edition of Handel's 'Messiah' (1902) had 
little success. 

He Uved at 246 Richmond Road, Hack- 
ney, always spending the summer vacation 
at Vik, Norway. He died suddenly at his 
house in Hackney on 5 Dec. 1909, and was 
buried at Abney Park cemetery. Prout 
married Julia West, daughter of a dissenting 
minister, and had a son, Louis B. Prout, 
who follows his father's profession, and three 
daughters. His large and valuable hbrary 
was acquired by Trinity College, DubUn. 

His portrait, painted in 1904 by E. Bent 
Walker, at the cost of his pupils, was 
presented to the Incorporated Society of 

[Interview in Musical Times, April 1899, 
with full details of early life ; obituaries in 
Musical Times, Musical Herald, Monthly 
Musical Record, Monthly Report of the 
Incorporated Society of Musicians, January 
1910 ; personal knowledge. See also for long 
controversy between Prout and Joseph Ben- 
nett, the musical critic, over Robert Franz's 
edition of Handel's Messiah, Monthly Musical 
Record, April-July 1891 ; caricature in Musical 
Herald, June 1891, Feb. 1899 and Dec. 1902 ; 
Musical Times, 1891.1 H. D. 

1903), hymn- writer, born at West Looe, 
Cornwall, on 23 Aug. 1818, was younger son 




in a family of eight children of John Allen '■■ 
Prynn (a form of the surname abandoned j 
later by his son) by his wife Susanna, 
daughter of John and Mary Rundle of Looe, 
Cornwall. The father, who claimed descent . 
from WiUiam Prynne [q. v.] the puritan, I 
was a native of Newlyn, ComwaJL j 

After education first at a school kept by | 
his sister at Looe,then at the (private) Devon- I 
port Classical and Mathematical School, j 
Prynne matriculated at St. John's College, i 
Cambridge, in October 1836, but migrated 
to Catharine Hall (now St. Catharine's Col- i 
lege), graduating B.A. on 18 Jan. 1840 (M.Ai : 
in 1861, and M.A. ad eundem at Oxford on ( 
30 May 1861). Ordained deacon on 19 Sept. | 
1841, and priest on 25 Sept. 1842, he was 
licensed as cm-ate first to the parish of 
Tywardreath in Cornwall, and on 18 Dec. 
1843 to St. Andrew's, CUfton. At CUfton 
he first came in contact with Dr. Pusey [q.v.], 
whose views he adopted and pubUcly de- 
fended, but he declined Pusey's suggestion i 
to join St. Saviours, Leeds, on accoimt of 
an impUed obhgation of ceUbacy. On the 
nomination of the prime minister. Sir 
Robert Peel, he became vicar of the parish ' 
of Par, Cornwall, newly formed out of I 
that of Tywardreath, from October 1846 
to August 1847, when he took by exchange ^ 
the living of St. Levan and St. Sennen 
in the ?ame county. From 16 Aug. 
1848 until his death he was incumbent of 
the newly constituted parish of St. Peter's, 
formerly Eldad Chapel, Plymouth. 

At Plymouth Prynne's strenuous ad- 
vocacy of Anghcan Catholicism on Pusey's 
lines involved him in heated controversy. 
The conflict was largely fostered by John 
Hatchard, vicar of Plymouth. In 1850 
Prynne brought a charge of criminal Ubel 
against Isaac Latimer, editor, publisher, and 
proprietor of the ' Plymouth and Devonport 
Weekly Journal,' for an article prompted 
by religious differences which seemed to 
reflect on his moral character (24 Jan. 
1850). The trial took place at Exeter, 
before Mr. Justice Coleridge, on 6 and 7 Aug. 
1850, and excited the bitterest feeUng. 
The defendant alleged that the Enghsh 
Church Union was responsible for the pro- 
secution and was supplying the necessary 
funds. The jury found the defendant not 
guilty ( Western Times, Exeter, 10 Aug. 1850), 
and the heavy costs in which Prynne was 
mulcted gravely embarrassed him. In 1852 
Prynne's support of PrisciUa Lydia Sellon 
[q. v.] and her Devonport community of 
Sisters of Mercy, together with his ad- 
vocacy of auricular confession and penance, 
provoked a pamphlet war with the Rev. 

James SpurreU and the Rev. Michael 
Hobart Seymour. An inquiry by Phillpotta, 
bishop of Exeter, on 22 Sept. 1852, into alle- 
gations against Prynne's doctrine and prac- 
tice resulted in Prynne's favour, but a riot 
took place when Dr. Phillpotts held a 
confirmation at Prynne's church next month. 
In 1860 Prynne ' conditionally ' baptised 
Joseph Leycester Lyne, ' Father Ignatius ' 
[q. V. Suppl. II], and employed him as 
unpaid curate. He joined the Society of the 
Holy Cross in 1860 and the English Church 
Union in 1862, becoming vice-president of the 
latter body in 1901. Meanwhile opposition 
diminished. His church was rebuilt and the 
new building consecrated in 1882 without 
disturbance. Although Prynne remained 
a tractarian to the end, he was chosen with 
Prebendary Sadler proctor in convocation 
for the clergy of the Exeter diocese from 
1885 to 1892, and despite their divergence 
of opinion he was on friendly terms with 
his diocesans. Temple and Bickersteth. 
Contrary to the views of many of his party, 
he submitted to the Lambeth judgment 
(1889), which condemned the liturgical use 
of incense. 

Prynne died at his vicarage after a short 
illness on 25 March 1903, and was buried at 
Plympton St. Mary, near Plymouth. He 
married on 17 April 1849 Emily (d. 1901), 
daughter of Admiral Sir Thomas Fellowes, 
and had issue four sons and six daughters. 
The sons Edward A. Fellowes Prynne and 
George H. Fellowes Prynne were connected 
as artist and architect respectively with 
the plan and adornment of their father's 
church at Plymouth, and the Prynne 
memorial there, a mural painting, alle- 
gorically representing the Church Trium- 
phant, is by the son Edward. 

Of Prynne's published works the most 
important was ' The Eucharistic Manual,' 
1865 (tenth and last edit. 1895) ; it was 
censured by the primate, Archbishop Long- 
ley [q. v.]. He was also author of ' Truth 
and Reality of the Eucharistic Sacrifice' 
(1894) and 'Devotional Instructions on 
the Eucharistic Ofl&ce ' (1903). Other prose 
works consisted of sermons and doctrinal 
or controversial tracts. As a writer of 
hymns Prynne enjoyed considerable 
reputation. ' A Hymnal ' compiled by h\m 
in 1875 contains his weU-known ' Jesu, 
meek and gentle,' written in 1856, and 
some translations of Latin hymns. He 
also took part in the revision of ' Hymns 
Ancient and Modem,' and published 'The 
Soldier's D\-ing Visions, and other Poems 
and Hymns' (1881) and ' Via Dolorosa' in 
prose, on the Stations of the Cross (1901). 




An oil painting by his son Edward 
Prynne in 1885 and a chalk drawing by 
Talford about 1853 belong to members of 
the family. A lithograph from a photo- 
graph was published by Beynon & Co., 

[A. C. Kelway, George Rundle Prynne, 1905 ; 
Miss Sellon and the Sisters of Mercy, and 
A Rejoinder to the Reply of the Superior . . . 
by James SpurreU, 1852 ; Nunneries, a lecture, 
by M. Hobart Seymour, 1852 ; Life of Pusey, 
by H. P. Liddon (ed. J. O. Johnston, R. J. 
Wilson, and W. C. E. Newbolt), iii. 195-6-9, 
369 (1893-97) ; Life of Father Ignatius, by 
Baroness de Bertouch, 1904 ; private infor- 
mation.] E. S. H-R. 

writing under the pseudonym of Allen 
Raine (1836-1908), novelist, bom on 6 Oct. 
1836 in Bridge Street, Newcastle-Emlyn, 
was the eldest child in the family of two 
sons and two daughters of Benjamin 
Evans, solicitor of that town, by his 
wife Letitia Grace, daughter of Thomas 
Morgan, surgeon of the same place. The 
father was a grandson of the Rev. David 
Davis (1745-1827) [q. v.] of CasteU Howel, 
and the mother a granddaughter of Daniel 
Rowlands (1713-1790) [q. v.] (J. T. Jones, 
Geiriadur Bywgraffyddol, ii. 290). After 
attending a school at Carmarthen for a short 
time she was educated first (1849-51) at 
Cheltenham with the family of Henry Solly, 
unitarian minister, and from 1851 tiU 1856 
(with her sister) at Southfields, near 
Wimbledon. She learnt French and Italian 
and excelled in music, though she was 
past forty when she learned the vioUn. 
At Cheltenham and Southfields she saw 
many literary people, including Dickens 
and George Ehot. The next sixteen years 
she spent mainly at home in Wales, where 
her coUoquial knowledge of Welsh was 
sufficient to gain her the intimacy of the 
inhabitants, and she acquired a minute 
knowledge of botany. On 10 April 1872 she 
was married at Penbryn church, Cardigan- 
shire, to Beynon Puddicombe, foreign corre- 
spondent at Smith PajTie's Bank, London. 
For eight years they Hved at Elgin ViUas, 
Addiscombe, near Croydon, where Mrs. 
Puddicombe suffered almost continuous 
iU-health. They next resided at Winchmore 
Hill, Middlesex. Her husband became 
mentally afflicted in February 1900, and 
she removed with him to Bronmor, Traeth- 
saith, in the parish of Penbryn, which had 
previously been their summer residence. 
Here he died on 29 May 1906, and here also 
she succumbed to cancer on 21 June 1908, 
being buried by the side of her husband 

in Penbrjm churchyard. There was no 
issue of the marriage. 

From youth Miss Evans showed a faculty 
for story-telUng, and the influence of the 
SoUys and their circle helped to develop 
her literary instincts. At home a few sym- 
pathetic friends of like tastes joined her in 
bringing out a short-lived local periodical, 
' Home Sunshine ' (printed at Newcastle- 
Emlyn). It was not however till 1894 
that she took seriously to writing fiction. 
At the National Eisteddfod held that year 
at Carnarvon she divided with another the 
prize for a serial story descriptive of Welsh 
Ufe. Her story, ' Ynysoer,' deahng with 
the life of the fishing population of an 
imaginary island off the Cardiganshire 
coast, was published seriaUy in the ' North 
Wales Observer ' but was not issued in 
book form. By June 1896 she com- 
pleted a more ambitious work, which 
after being rejected (under the title of 
'Mifanwy') by six publishing houses (see 
letter of Mr. A. M. Burghbs in Daily News, 
24 July 1908) was published by Messrs. 
Hutchinson & Co. in August 1897, under 
the title ' A Welsh Singer . By Allen Raine.' 
Her pseudonym was suggested to her in a 
dream. Like most of her subsequent works 
* A Welsh Singer ' is a simple love-story ; 
the cliief characters are peasants and sea- 
faring folk of the primitive district around 
the fishing village of Traethsaith. Despite 
its crudities it caught the pubUc ear. She 
dramatised the novel, but it was only acted 
for copyright purposes. Thenceforth Mrs. 
Puddicombe turned out book after book 
in rapid succession. Her haste left her 
no opportunity of improving her style or 
strengthening her power of characterisa- 
tion, but she fuUy sustained her first popii- 
larity mainly owing to her idealisation of 
Welsh life, to the prim, simple and even 
child-Uke dialogue of characters in such 
faulty EngUsh as the uncritical might 
assume Cardiganshire fishermen to speak, 
and also to the imaginative or romantic 
element which she introduces into nearly 
aU her stories. Her later works (all issued 
by the same publishers) were : 1. ' Tom 
Safls,' 1898. 2. ' By Berwen Banks,' 1899. 
3. ' Garthowen,' 1900. 4. ' A Welsh Witch,' 

1902. 5. ' On the Wmgs of the Wind,' 

1903. 6. 'Hearts of Wales,' 1905, an 
historical romance dealing with the period 
of Glendower's rebellion (dramatised by 
Mr. and Mrs. Leon M. Leon). 7. ' Queen 
of the Rushes,' 1906, embodying incidents 
of the Welsh revival of 1904r-5. After her 
death there appeared : 8. ' Neither Store- 
house nor Barn,' 1908 ; published seriaUy 




in the * Cardiff Times,' 1906. 9. ' All in a 
Month,' 1908, treating of her husband's 
malady. 10. ' Where BiUows Roll,' 1909. 
11. 'Under the Thatch,' 1910, treating 
of her own disease. 

AU her works have been re-issued at 
sixpence, and their total sales (outside 
America), it is stated, exceed two miUion 
copies. An * Allen Raine Birthday Book ' 
appeared in 1907. 

Airs. Puddicombe wrote some short 
stories for magazines (cf. ' Home, Sweet 
Home ' in the ' Quiver' of June 1907), and 
translated into English verse Ceiriog's 
poem ' Alun Mabon ' ( Wales for 1897, 
vol. iv.). 

[Information from her brother, Mr. J. H. 
Evans, and from Mrs. Philip H. Wicksteed, 
Childrey, near Wantage (daughter of the Rev. 
Henry Solly) ; South Wales Daily News and 
Western Mail, 23 June 1908 ; The Rev. 
H. El vet Lewis in the British Weekly for 25 
June 1908 ; Review of Reviews. Aug. 1905 ; 
probably the most reliable notice of her is 
a Welsh one by her friend Mrs. K. Jones, 
of Grellifaharen, in Yr Ymofynydd for Sept. 
1908. For a criticism of her work from a 
Welsh point of view, see Mr. Ernest Rhys in 
Manchester Guardian, 24 and 27 June 1908, 
and Mr. Beriah Evans in Wales, May 1911, 
p. 35.] D. Ll. T. 

1903), pamphleteer and miscellaneous 
writer, bom at Little Gidding, Hunting- 
donshire on 29 Feb. 1836, was elder son of 
the four children of WUham Pullen, rector 
of Little Gidding, by his wife Ameha, 
daughter of Henry Wright. From Feb. 
1845 to Christmas 1848 Henry was at 
the then newly opened Marlborough Col- 
lege under its first headmaster, Matthew 
Wilkinson. In 1848 his father, who owing 
to fading health had then removed with 
his family to Babbacombe, Devonshire, 
caused to be published a volume of 
verses and rhymes by the boy, called 
' Affection's Offering.' After an interval 
Pullen proceeded to Clare College, Cam- 
bridge, where he graduated B.A. in 1859, 
proceading M.A. in 1862. In 1859 he was 
ordained deacon on appointment to an 
assistant-mastership at Bradfield College, 
and became priest next year. Deeply inter- 
ested in music, he was elected vicar-choral of 
York minster in 1862, and was transferred 
in 1863 to a similar post at Salisbury 
cathedral At Salisbury he passed the 
next twelve years of his life, and did there 
his chief literary work. Several pamphlets 
(1869-72) on reform of cathedral organisa- 
tion and clerical unbelief bore witness to 

VOL. LXIX. — SUP. n. 

his pugnacious and somewhat unpractical 

Near the end of 1870, a month after 
the investment of Paris by the Grermans, 
Pullen leapt into fame with a pamphlet 
'The Fight at Dame Europa's School.' 
Here he effectively presented the European 
situation under a parable which all could 
understand, however they might differ 
from its moral. John, the heaid of the 
school, refuses to separate Louis and 
WiUiam, though he sees that Louis is 
beaten and that the prolongation of the 
fight is mere cruelty. John is reproached 
by Dame Europa for cowardice — is told 
that he has grown ' a sloven and a screw,' 
and is threatened with loss of his position. 

The success of this squib is almost un- 
exampled. The first edition of 500 copies 
was printed at Salisbury on 21 Oct. Twenty- 
nine thousand copies had been issued by 
1 Feb. 1871. The SaUsbury resources then 
becoming overstrained, Messrs. Spottis- 
woode of London printed 50,000 copies 
(1-9 Feb.). The 192nd thousand appeared 
on 18 April. The 193rd and final thousand 
was printed in April 1874. The pamphlet 
was translated into French, German, 
Italian, Danish, Dutch, Frisian, Swedish, 
Portuguese and Jersey-French. A drama- 
tised version by George T. Ferneyhough 
was acted on 17 March 1871 by amateurs 
at Derby, in aid of a fund for French 
sufferers. ' The Fight,' which brought 
Pullen 3000?., evoked a host of rephes, of 
which ' John Justified ' is perhaps the 
most effective. In 1872 Pullen renewed 
his onslaught on Gladstone's administration 
in ' The Radical Member,' but neither then 
nor in ' Dr. Bull's Academy ' (1886) did he 
repeat his success. 

In 1875 Pullen retired from Salisbury. 
During 1875-6 he served in Sir George Nares's 
arctic expedition as chaplain on the Alert, 
receiving on his return the Arctic medal. 
Thenceforth for twelve years he travelled 
widely on the Continent, making Perugia 
his headquarters. The publisher John 
Murray, to whom he had sent useful notes 
of travel, appointed him editor of the well- 
known ' Handbooks.' An admirable linguist 
in five or six languages, he successively 
revised nearly the whole of the series, 
beginning with North Grcrmany. 

Re-settUng in England in 1898, Pullen 
held successively the cura<;y of Rockbeare, 
Devon (1898-9) and several locum-tenencies. 
In May 1903 he became rector of Thorpe 
MandeviUe, Northamptonshire, but died 
unmarried in a nursing-home at Birming- 
ham seven months later, on 15 Dec. 1903. 




He is buried at Birdingbury, Warwickshire. 
There is a brass tablet to his memory 
on the chancel wall at Thorpe Mandeville. 
Pullen's pen was busied with controversy 
tiU near the end. In some stories of school 
life, ' Tom Pippin's Wedding ' (1871), ' The 
Ground Ash ' (1874), and ' Pueris Reverentia ' 
(1892), he attacked defects in the country's 
educational system. Pullen also pubhshed 
apart from pamphlets : 1. ' Our Choral 
Services,' 1865. 2. ' The Psalms and Can- 
ticles Pointed for Chanting,' 1867. 3. ' The 
House that Baby built,' 1874. 4. 'Clerical 
Errors,' 1874. 6. ' A Handbook of Ancient 

Roman Marbles,' 1894. 6. 'Venus and 
Cupid,' 1896. Many of his books were pub- 
lished at his own expense and he lost 
heavily by them. 

[The Rev. W. Pullen's preface to Affection's 
Offering, 1848 ; The Fight at Dame Europa's 
School and the literature connected with it, 
by F, Madan, 1882 ; Narrative of a Voyage 
to the Polar Sea, by Sir George Nares, 1878 ; 
The Times, 18 Dec. 1903; and private 
information,] H. C. M. 

(1832-1904), vocalist. [See Bodda Pynb.] 


QUARRIER, WILLIAM (1829-1903), 
founder of the ' Orphan Homes of Scotland,' 
the only son, and the second of three 
children, of a ship carpenter, was bom in 
Greenock on 29 Sept. 1829. When the boy 
was only a few years old his father died of 
cholera at Quebec, and shortly afterwards 
the mother removed with her children to 
Glasgow, where she maintained herself by 
fine sewing, the boy and the elder sister 
assisting her. At the age of seven Quarrier 
entered a pin factory, where, for ten hours a 
day in working a hand machine, he received 
a shilling a week. In a few months, how- 
ever, he was apprenticed to a boot and shoe 
maker, becoming a journeyman at the age 
of twelve. About his sixteenth year he 
obtained work in a shop in Argyle St., 
Glasgow, owned by a Mrs. Hunter, who 
induced him, for the first time, to attend 
church, and not long afterwards he was 
appointed church ofl&cer. At the age of 
twenty he started a bootshop, and seven 
years afterwards, on 2 Dec. 1856, he married 
Isabella, daughter of Mrs. Hunter. Busi- 
ness prospered with him and he soon had 
three shops ; but his early life of hard- 
ship made him resolve to devote his profits 
towards the assistance of the children 
of the streets. In 1864 the distress of a 
boy whose stock of matches had been 
stolen from him led Quarrier, with the help 
of several others, to found the shoeblack 
brigade. This was followed by a news 
brigade and a parcels brigade, with head- 
quarters for the three brigades in the 
Trongate, called the Industrial Brigade 
Home ; but, from various causes, the 
brigades were not so successful as he antici- 
pated, and in 1871 he turned his attention 
to the formation of an orphan home, which 
was opened in November in Renfrew Lane. 

In the same year a home for girls was 
opened in Renfield Street. From these 
homes a nmnber of children were, through 
a lady's emigration scheme, sent each year 
to Canada, where there were receiving 
homes with facilities for getting the children 
placed in private families. In 1872 the 
home for boys was removed to Cessnock 
House, standing within its own grounds in 
the suburb of Govan, and shortly after- 
wards Ehn Park, Govan Road, was rented 
for a girls' home. About the same time, a 
night refuge was established at Dovehill, 
with a mission hall attached to it. This 
was superseded in 1876 by a city orphan 
home, erected at a cost of 10,000Z., the 
building, which apart from the site cost 
7000Z., being the gift of two ladies. There 
about 100 children are resident, the boys 
being at work at different trades in the city, 
and the girls being trained in home duties ; 
the bmlding also includes a hall for 
mission work. In 1876 a farm of forty 
acres near Bridge of Weir was purchased, 
where three separate cottages, or rather 
villas, and a central building, were opened 
in 1878, as the ' Orphan Homes of Scotland.' 
The homes, the gifts chiefly of individual 
friends, and erected at an average cost of 
about 1500Z., each provide accommodation 
for about thirty children, who are under the 
care of a ' father ' and ' mother.' The homes 
now number over fifty ; and the village 
also includes a church — protestant unde- 
nominational — a school, a training-ship 
on land, a poultry farm, extensive kitchen 
gardens, stores, bakehouses, etc. On addi- 
tional ground the first of four consumptive 
sanatoriums was opened in September 
1896 ; and there are now also homes for 
epileptics. The annual expenditure of the 
orphan homes, amoimting to about 40,000Z., 




is met by subscriptions which are not 
directly solicited. 

Quarrier died on Ib^Oct. 1903 and Mrs. 
Quarrier on 22 June 1 904. They were buried 
in the cemetery of the ' Orphan Homes.' 
They left a son and three daughters. The 
institution is now managed by the family 
with the counsel and help of influential 

[John Clunie's William Quarrier, the 
Orphans' Friend ; J. Urquhart, Life-Story of 
William Quarrier, 1900 ; The Yearly Narrative 
of Facts ; information from Quarrier's 
daughter, Mrs. Bruges.] T. F. H. 

QUILTER, HARRY (1851-1907), art 
critic, was the youngest of three sons of 
WilUam Quilter (1808-1888), first president 
of the Institute of Accountants, and a 
well-known collector of water-colour draw- 
ings by British artists. Quilter's grand- 
father was a Suffolk fanner. His mother, 
his father's first wife, was EHzabeth 
Harriet, daughter of Thomas Cuthbert. 
His eldest brother, William Cuthbert, is 
noticed below. Born at Lower Norwood on 
24 Jan. 1851, Harry was educated privately, 
and entered Trinity College, Cambridge, 
at Michaelmas 1870 ; he graduated B.A. 
in 1874 and proceeded M.A. in 1877. At 
Cambridge he played biUiards and racquets, 
and read metaphysics, scraping through the 
moral sciences tripos of 1873 in the third 
class. He was intended for a business 
career, but on leaving the university 
travelled abroad, and devoted some time 
to desultory art study in Italy. He had 
entered himself as a student of the Inner 
Temple on 3 May 1872, and on returning to 
England he spent six months in studjdng for 
the bar, chiefly with Mr, (now Lord Justice) 
John Fletcher Moulton ; he also attended 
the Slade school of art at University College 
and the Middlesex Hospital. He was 
called to the bar on 18 Nov. 1878. An attack 
of confluent smaU-pox injured his health, 
and the possession of a competence and a 
restless temperament disabled him from con- 
centrating his energies. From 1876 to 1887 
he was busily occupied as an art critic and 
journaUst, writing chiefly for the ' Spec- 
tator.' In 1880-1 he was also for a time 
art critic for ' The Times ' in succession to 
Tom Taylor, and in that capacity roused 
the anger of J. M. Whistler [q.v. Suppl. II.] 
by his frank criticism of the artist's Vene- 
tian etchings (of. The Gentle Art of Making 
Enemies, p. 104). He also angered Whistler 
by his * vandalism ' in re-decorating 
Whistler's White House, Chelsea, which 
he purchased for 2700Z. on 18 Sept. 1879 

and occupied till 1888 (Pennell, Life of 
Whistler, i. 258). Whistler's antipathy to 
critics was concentrated upon Qmlter, to 
whom he always referred as ' 'Arry ' and 
whom he lashed unsparingly \mt\\ his 
death (cf. ibid. i. 267-8 ; and Quilteb's 
' Memory and a Criticism ' of Whistler in 
Chambers's Journal, 1903, reprinted in 
Opinions, pp. 134-151). 

Besides writing on art Quilter was a 
collector and a practising artist. His 
work was regularly hung at the Institute 
of Painters in OU Colours from 1884 to 
1893. Between 1879 and 1887 he fre- 
quently lectured on art and literature in 
London and the provinces. In 1885 he 
studied landscape painting at Van Hove's 
studio at Bruges, and in 1886 was an un- 
successful candidate for the Slade professor- 
ship at Cambridge in succession to (Sir) 
Sidney Colvin {Gentle Art, pp. 118 et seq.). 
In January 1888, ' tired of being edited,' 
he started, without editorial experience, 
an ambitious periodical, the ' Universal 
Review,' of which the first number was 
published on 16 May 1888, and was heralded 
with a whole page advertisement in ' The 
Times ' ; it was elaborately illustrated, 
and contained articles by leading authorities 
in England and France (George Meredith 
contributed in 1889 his ' Jump to Glory 
Jane '). Its initial success was great, but the 
scheme failed pecuniarily and was aban- 
doned with the issue for December 1890. 
He exhibited his paintings at the Dudley 
Gallery in January 1894, and a collection of 
his works in oils, sketches in wax, water- 
colours on vellum, chiefly of Cornish scenes, 
was shown at the New Dudley Gallery in 
February 1908. From 1894 to 1896 he con- 
ducted boarding schools at JVIitcham and 
Liverpool on a ' rational ' system which he 
had himself formulated, and on which he 
wrote an article, ' In the Days of her Youth,' 
in the 'Nineteenth Century' (June 1895). 
In 1902, after two years' continuous 
labour, he published ' What's What,' an 
entertaining miscellany of information (with 
photograph and reproductions of two of his 
pictures) ; of the 1182 pages he wrote about 
a third, containing 350,000 words. 

Until the end he occupied himself 
with periodical writing, travelling, and 
collecting works of art. He died at 42 
Queen's Gate Gardens on 10 July 1907, 
and was buried at Norwood. Most of 
his collections were sold at Christie's in 
April 1906, and fetched over 14,000Z. 
He married in 1890 Mary Constance Hall, 
who survived him with two sons and four 





Quilter's separate publications include : 
1. A thin volume of light verse, ' Idle Hours,' 
by * Shingawn ' (a name taken from a sen- 
sational story in the London Journal of 
the time), 1872. 2. ' Giotto,' 1880 ; new 
edit. 1881. 3. ' The Academy : Notice of 
Pictures exhibited at the R.A. 1872-82,' 
1883. 4. 'Sententise Artis : First Prin- 
ciples of Art,' 1886. 5. ' Preferences in 
Art, Life, and Literature,' 1892. 6. 
* Opinions on Men, Women and Things,' 
1909 (a collection of periodical essays 
made by his widow). He edited an edition 
of Meredith's ' Jump to Glory Jane ' (1892), 
and illustrated one of Browning's * Pied 
Piper of Hamelin' (1898). 

[Quilter's Opinions, 1909; Who's Who, 
1906 ; The Times, 13 July 1907 ; Morning Post, 
12 July 1907 ; Mrs. C. W. Earle, Memoirs 
and Memories, 1911, pp. 291-8 ; information 
kindly supplied by Mrs. Harry Quilter (now 
Mrs. MacNalty) and his sister, Mrs. S. E. 
Muter.] W. R. 

first baronet (1841-1911), art collector and 
politician, bom in Ix)ndon on 29 Jan. 
1841, eldest brother of Harry Quilter 
[q. V. Suppl, II], was educated privately. 
After five years (1858-63) in his father's 
business he started on his own account 
with a partner as a stockbroker, and 
eventually founded the firm of Quilter, 
Balfour & Co. in 1885. He was one of the 
founders of the National Telephone Co. 
(registered on 10 March 1881), and was a 
director and large shareholder till his death. 
In 1883 he bought the Bawdsey estate near 
Felixstowe, extending to about 9000 acres, 
and spent large sums on sea defences, 
a spacious manor house, and an alpine 
garden (see Qardeners' Chronicle, 12 Dec. 
1908). He showed enterprise as an agri- 
culturist, particularly as a cattle-breeder 
(see The Times, 20 Nov. 1911). A keen 
yachtsman, he owned at various times 
several well-known boats, and was vice- 
commodore of the Royal Harwich Yacht 
Club (1875-1909). Quilter was elected as 
a liberal for the Sudbury division of Suffolk 
in Dec. 1885. Declining to accept Glad- 

stone's home rule policy, he was re-elected 
unopposed as a liberal unionist in July 
1886 and continued to represent the same 
constituency in parliament until the 
dissolution of Dec. 1905. Being returned 
after a contest in 1892, and unopposed 
in 1895 and 1900, he was defeated by 
136 votes in Jan. 1906. He rarely spoke 
in the house. He was created a baronet 
on 13 Sept. 1897 ; and was a J.P. and D.L. 
for Suffolk, and an alderman of the West 
Suffolk covmty council. Inheriting his 
father's taste for pictures, he formed a 
collection on different lines, confining 
himself to no one period or school. He was 
generous in loans to public exhibitions. 
Nearly the whole of his collection was 
displayed at Lawrie's Galleries, 159 Bond 
Street, in Nov. 1902, in aid of King Edward's 
Hospital Fund (cf. description by F. G. 
Stephens in Magazine of Art, vols. 20 and 
21, privately reprinted with numerous illus- 
trations). He' presented Sir Hubert von 
Herkomer's portrait of Spencer Compton 
Cavendish, eighth duke of Devonshire [q. v. 
Suppl. II], to the National Portrait Gallery 
in 1909 {The Times, 21 July 1909). The 
collection of his pictures at his London 
house, 28 South Street, Park Lane (120 
lots), realised 87,780^ at Christie's on 9 July 
1909 [The Times, 10 July 1909 ; Cmnoisseur, 
July 1909; Catalogue Raisonn^ of the col 
lection, by M. W. Brock well and W. 
RoBEBTS,privately printed,100 copies, 1909) 

He died suddenly at Bawdsey on 18 Nov 
1911, and was buried in the parish church 
yard. His estate was valued at 1,220,639/ 
with net personalty 1,035,974/. {The Times 
15 Jan. 1912). He married on 7 May 1867 
Mary Ann, daughter of John Wheeley 
Bevington of Brighton. She survived him 
with five sons and two daughters. 

His portrait by Sir Hubert von Herkomer 
was exhibited at the Royal Academy in 
1890 ; a caricature by ' Lib " (Prosperi) 
appeared in ' Vanity Fair ' on 9 Feb. 1889. 

[The Times, 20 Nov. 1911 ; Burke's Peerage, 
1911 ; Who's Who, 1909 ; personal knowledge; 
information kindly supplied by Mr. A. J. 
Grout, Sir Cuthbert's private secretary.] 







(1845-1909), dermatologist, bom at Brighton 
on 6 March 1845, was son of Henry Rad- 
cliflfe Crocker. After attending a private 
school at Brighton, he was thrown on 
his own resources at the age of sixteen, 
and went as apprentice and assistant 
to a doctor at Silverdale, Staffordshire. 
Studying by himself amid the duties 
of his apprenticeship, he .passed the 
matriculation and prehminary scientific 
examination for the M.B. London degree, 
and in 1870 entered University College 
Hospital medical school, eking out his 
narrow means by acting as dispenser to a 
doctor in Sloane Street. In 1873 he passed 
M.R.C.S., and next year L.R.C.P. In his 
later London University examinations he 
gained the gold medal in materia medica 
(1872) and the university scholarship and 
gold medal in forensic medicine, besides 
taking honours in medicine and obstetric 
medicine (1874). At the hospital he won 
the FeUowes gold medal in clinical medi- 
cine (1872). In 1874 he graduated B.S. 
(London) and next year M.I). 

Meanwhile he was a resident obstetric 
physician and physician's assistant at Uni- 
versity College Hospital; clinical assistant 
at the Hospital for Consumption and 
Diseases of the Chest, Brompton ; and 
resident medical officer at Charing Cross 
Hospital (for six months). In 1875 he was 
appointed resident medical officer in Univer- 
sity College Hospital, and next year assistant 
medical officer to the skin department, in 
succession to (Sir) John Tweedy. 

In 1878 he was appointed assistant 
physician and pathologist to the East 
London Hospital for Children at ShadweU, 
and in 1884 honorary physician. He 
remained on the staff of the hospital until 
1893. He became a member of the Royal 
College of Physicians in 1877, and a fellow 
in 1887, and he served on the council 
(1906-8). He was a member of the court 
of examiners of the Society of Apothecaries 
for many years (1880-8 and 1888-96). 

Meanwhile Radcliffe-Crocker was speci- 
aHsing in diseases of the skin under the 
influence of William Tilbury Fox [q. v.], 
whom in 1879 he succeeded as physician 
and dermatologist at the University College 
Hospital. He was an original member of 
the Dermatological Society of London (1882 ; 
treasurer, 1900-5), and of the Dermatological 

Society of Great Britain and Ireland (1894; 
president, 1899). When these societies amal- 
gamated with other London societies to 
form the Royal Society of Medicine (1907), 
he was first president of the dermatologi- 
cal section (1907-8). He also was presi- 
dent of his section at the annual meeting 
of the British Medical Association in London 
(1905). He was an honorary member of 
the American Dermatological Society, of 
the Wiener Dermatologische GeseUschaft, 
and of the Societa Itahana di Dermatologia 
e SifUografia, and corresponding member 
of the Societe Fran'jaise de Dermatol ogie, 
and of the Berliner Dermatologische 
GeseUschaft; and he deUvered the Lett- 
somian lectures on inflammations of the 
skin before the Medical Society of London 

He was a prominent and active member 
of the British Medical Association, serving 
on the council from 1890 to 1904, and as 
treasurer from 1905 to 1907, and being a 
good business man he was chiefly instru- 
mental in bringing about, whilst treasurer, 
the rebuilding and enlargement of the 
headquarters of the association in the 
Strand, and in making important changes 
in the business conduct of * The British 
Medical Journal,' the journal of the 

During his later years Ul-health inter- 
rupted his public work. He died suddenly 
from heart failure whilst on a hoUday at 
Engelberg, Switzerland, on 22 Aug. 1909, 
and was buried there. He married in 1880 
Constance Mary, only daughter of Edward 
FusseU of Brighton, physician to the Sussex 
County Hospital, who survived him. There 
were no children. 

From 1898 he had a country residence 
at Bourne End, Buckinghamshire. His 
extensive Ubrary, consisting of dermatolo- 
gical works in EngUsh, French, German, 
and ItaHan, was given by Mrs. Radcliffe- 
Crocker to the medical school of University 
College, together with 1500Z. in 1912 to found 
a dermatological travelling scholarship. 

Radchffe-Crocker's high position as a 
dermatologist was due to his general know- 
ledge of medicine, his particular skiU as a 
cUnician, and his power of expressing him- 
self in his writings clearly and attractively. 
He always was emphatic in insisting on the 
importance of treating the general condition 
or diathesis which might be the predis- 




posing cause of a skin affection, as well as 
treating directly the local condition itself. 
He was always among the first to test the 
value of new remedies and means of treat- 
ment. He was a distinguished leprologist, 
and his papers on rare skin diseases were 
most illuminating. 

Radcliffe-Crocker's chief work, which held 
standard rank in the medical literature of 
the world, was ' Diseases of the Skin : their 
Description, Pathology,Diagnosis and Treat- 
ment ' (1888), with, a companion volume of 
' The Atlas of Diseases of the Skin,' issued in 
bi-monthly parts (1893-6 ; 2 vols. fol. 1896). 
A second edition of the treatise in 1893, 
which greatly improved on the first, was re- 
cognised as the most comprehensive manual 
of dermatology then published in England. 
In the third edition (2 vols. 1903), in which 
he was helped by Dr. George Pemet, 15,000 
cases of skin diseases were analysed and 
classified, and more plates of the micro- 
scopical anatomy of the diseases were 
included. The * Atlas ' forms a complete 
and systematic pictorial guide to derma- 
tology, each disease being represented by 
coloured plates of actual cases, which 
were accompanied by a short and clear 
descriptive text. 

RadcliSe-Crocker wrote on psoriasis and 
drug eruptions in Quain's ' Dictionary of 
Medicine ' (new edit. 1894) ; on leprosy, 
purpura, guineaworm, erythema, ichthyosis 
&c., in Heath's ' Dictionary of Surgery ' 
(1886) ; on psoriasis and other squamous 
eruptions, and phlegmonous and ulcerative 
eruptions in ' Twentieth Century Medicine ' 
(1896) ; on diseases of the hair in Clifford 
Allbutt's ' System of Medicine ' (vol. viii, 
1899). He was a regular contributor to the 
' Lancet,' writing reviews and notices of 
contemporary dermatological work. 

[Information from Mrs. Radchffe-Crocker 
(widow) ; Lancet, 4 Sept. 1909 ; Brit. Med. 
Journal, 11 Sept. 1909 ; Index Cat. Surgeon- 
General's Office Washington.]' E. M. B. 

RAE, WILLIAM ERASER (1835-1905) 
author, bom in Edinburgh on 3 March 
1835, was elder son of George Rae and 
his wife, Catherine Eraser, both of Edin 
burgh. A younger brother, George Rae, 
settled early in Toronto, Canada, and be- 
came a successful lawyer there. 

After education at Moffat Academy and 
at Heidelberg, where he became an excellent 
German scholar, Rae entered Lincoln's Inn 
as a student on 2 Nov. 1857, and on 30 
April 1861 was called to the bar. But he 
soon abandoned pursuit of the law for the 
career of a journalist. He edited for a 

time about 1860 the periodical called the 
* Reader,' and early joined the staff of the 
' Daily News ' as a special correspondent 
in Canada and the United States. With 
the liberal views of the paper he was in 
complete sympathy. On his newspaper 
articles he based the volume ' Westward 
by Rail' (1870; 3rd edit.1874), which had a 
sequel in ' Columbia and Canada : Notes on 
the Great Republic and the New Dominion ' 
(1877). There subsequently appeared 
' Newfoundland to Manitoba ' (1881 ; with 
maps) and ' Eacts about Manitoba ' (1882), 
which reprinted articles from ' The Times.' 

Afterwards throat trouble led Ra« to 
spend much time at Austrian health 
resorts, concerning which he contributed 
a series of articles to ' The Times.' These 
reappeared as ' Austrian Health Resorts, 
and the Bitter Waters of Hungary ' (1888 ; 
2nd edit. 1889). In 'The Business of 
Travel' (1891), he described the methods 
of Thomas Cook & Son, the travel agents* 
and a visit to Egypt produced next year 
' Egypt to-day ; the Eirst to the Third 

Rae meanwhile made much success as 
the translator of Edmond About' s ' Hand- 
book of Social Economy ' (1872 ; 2nd edit. 
1885) and Taine's ' Notes on England ' 
(1873 ; 8th edit. 1885). But his interests 
were soon largely absorbed by English 
political history of the eighteenth century. 
In 1874 he brought out a political study 
entitled ' Wilkes, Sheridan, and Fox : or 
the Opposition under George III,' which 
echoed the style of Macaulay and showed 
some historical insight. Further study of 
the period induced him to tackle the ques- 
tion of the identity of ' Junius,' and he wrote 
constantly on the subject in the ' Athe- 
naeum ' between 11 Aug. 1888 and 6 May 
1899 and occasionally later. He justified 
with new research the traditional refusal 
of that journal, for which Charles Went- 
worth Dilke [q. v. Suppl; II] was responsible, 
to identify Junius with Sir Philip Francis. 
He believed himself to be on the road 
to the true solution* but his published 
results were only negative. Rae also made 
a careful inquiry into the career of Sheridan. 
With the aid of Lord Dufferin and other 
living representatives he collected much 
unpublished material and sought to relieve 
Sheridan's memory of discredit. His 
labour resulted in ' Sheridan, a Biography ' 
(2 vols. 1896, with introduction by the 
Marquess of Dufferin and Ava). Rae suc- 
ceeded in proving the falsity of many 
rumours* but failed in his purpose of 
whitewashing his hero. In 1902 he pub- 




lished from the original MSS. 'Sheridan's 
Plays, now printed as he wrote them,' as 
well as ' A Journey to Bath,' an unpublished 
comedy by Sheridan's mother. 

Rae also made some halting incursions 
into fiction of the three-volume pattern. 
His 'Miss Bayle's Romance' (1887) was 
followed by ' A Modem Brigand ' (1888), 
'Maygrove' (1890), and 'An American 
Duchess' (1891). 

In his last years he reviewed much for the 
'Athenaeum,' whose editor, Norman MacCoU 
[q. V. Suppl. n], was a close friend. He 
spent his time chiefly at the Reform Club, 
which he joined in 1860, and where he was 
chairman of the library committee from 1873 
till liis death. He wrote the preface to 
C. W. Vincent's ' Catalogue of the Library 
of the Reform Club ' (1883 ; 2nd and revised 
edit. 1894). To this Dictionary he was an 
occasional contributor. Chronic iU-health 
and the limited favour which the reading 
public extended to him tended somewhat 
to sour his last years. He died on 21 Jan. 
1905 at 13 South Parade, Bath, and was 
buried at Bath. 

Rae married, on 29 Aug. 1860, Sara Eliza, 
second daughter of James Fordati of the 
Isle of Man and London. She died at 
Franzensbad, where Rae and herself were 
frequent autumn visitors, on 29 Aug. 1902 ; 
she left two daughters. 

Besides the works mentioned, Rae 
published anonymously in 1873 ' Men of 
the Third Repubhc,' and translated ' EngUsh 
Portraits ' from Sainte-Beuve in 1875. 

[Who's Who, 1905; The Times, 25 Jan. 
1905 ; Athenaeum, 28 Jan. 1905 ; Foster's Men 
at the Bar ; private information.] S. E. F. 

RAGGI, IklARIO (1821-1907), sculptor, 
bom at Carrara, Italj^ in 1821, studied art 
at the Royal Academy, Carrara, winning all 
available prizes at the age of seventeen. 
He then went to Rome, where he studied 
under Temerani. In 1850 he came to 
London, working at first under Monti, 
afterwards for many years under Matthew 
Noble [q. v.], and finally setting up his own 
studio about 1875. His principal works 
were memorial busts and statues. He 
executed the national memorial to Beacons- 
field in Parliament Square, a Jubilee 
memorial of Queen Victoria for Hong 
Kong, with replicas for Kimberley and 
Toronto, and statues of Lord Swansea for 
Swansea, Dr. Tait for Edinburgh, Dr. 
Crowther for Hobart Town, Sir Arthur 
Kennedy for Hong Kong, and Gladstone 
for Manchester. 

His first exhibit in the Royal Academy 

was a work entitled ' Innocence ' in 1854. 
No further work was shown at the Academy 
tin 1878, when he exhibited a marble bust 
of Admiral Rous, which he executed for the 
Jockey dub, Newmarket. He afterwards 
exhibited intermittently tUl 1895, among 
other works being busts of Cardinal 
Manning (1879), Cardinal Newman (1881), 
Lord John Manners, afterwards seventh 
Duke of Rutland (1884), and the duchess 
of Rutland (1895). Raggi died at the 
Mount, Roundstone, Farnham, Surrey, on 
26 Nov. 1907. 

[The Times, 29 Nov. 1907; Graves's Roy. 
Acad. Exhibitors, 1906.] S. E. F. 

RAILTON, HERBERT (185&-1910), 
black-and-white draughtsman and illustra- 
tor, bom on 21 Nov. 1858 at Pleasington, 
Lancashire, was eldest child (in a family of 
two son and a daughter) of John Railton by 
his wife EUza Ann Alexander. His parents 
were Roman cathohcs. After education 
at MaUnes, in Belgium, and at Ampleforth 
College, Yorkshire, he was trained as an 
architect in the oflSce of W. S. Varley of 
Blackbiun, and showed great skill as an 
architectural draughtsman, but he soon 
abandoned his profession for book-illustra- 
tion, and came to London to practise that 
art in 1885. Some of his earUest work was 
contributed to the ' Portfoho ' in that year. 
He first attracted attention by his illustra- 
tions in the Jubilee edition of the 'Pickwick 
Papers' (1887), and in the following year 
joined Mr. Hugh Thomson in illustrating 
' Coaching Days and Coaching Ways,' by 
W. O. Tristram. Some of his best drawings 
appeared in the ' Enghsh Illustrated Maga- 
zine,' and among books which he illustrated 
mav be mentioned ' The Peak of Derbyshire ' 
by J. Ley land (1891 ), ' The Inns of Court and 
Chancery' by W. J. Loftie (1893), ' Hampton 
Court ' by W. H. Hutton (1897), ' The Book 
of Glasgow Cathedral ' by G. Eyre-Todd 
(1898), ' The Story of Brages ' by E. GiUiat- 
Smith (1901), and ' The Story of Chartres ' 
by C. Headlam (1902). Railton was a 
delicate and careful draughtsman, and 
rendered the texture and detail of old 
buildings with particular charm. The 
crisp, broken line of his work lent his 
drawings an air of pleasant picturesqueness, 
though it was not without a mannerism 
which tended to become monotonous. 
His pen work was eminently suited for 
successful reproduction by process, and 
he exercised a wide influence on contem- 
porary illustration. 

Railton died in St. Mary's Hospital from 
pneumonia on 15 March 1910, and was 




buried at St. Mary's catholic cemetery, 
Kensal Green. He married on 19 Sept. 
1891 Frances Janotta Edney, who survived 
him with one daughter. 

[The Times, 18 March 1910 ; Pennell's Pen 
Drawing and Pen Draughtsmen, 1889 ; infor- 
mation from Miss Railton.] M. H. 

RAINE, ALLEN (pseudonym). [See 
PuDDicoMBE, Mrs. Akne Adalisa (1836- 
1908), novelist.] 

ROBERT (1827-1909), general, bom at 
Rome on 9 March 1827, was only son of 
Colonel Joseph Robert Raines of Cork, of 
the 77th, 82nd, 95th, and 48th regiments, 
who had served in the Peninsular war, by 
his wife Julia, daughter of Edward Jardine 
of Sevenoaks, Kent, banker. In boyhood he 
lived with his mother's family at Sevenoaks, 
and attended the school there. He received 
his military education at the Ecole Militaire 
in Brunswick (where an uncle by marriage, 
Baron von Girsewald, was master of horse to 
the duke ). Thence he passed to the Royal 
Military College, Sandhurst. He entered 
the army as ensign 3rd Buffs on 28 Jan. 
1842, and in the same year exchanged 
into the 95th regiment. He was promoted 
lieutenant on 5 April 1844, and captain on 
13 April 1852. 

He served throughout the Crimean war, 
1854r-5. For his services with the Turkish 
army in Silistria, prior to the invasion of 
the Crimea, he long after received the first- 
class gold medal of the Liakat. After the 
affair at Bulganak he carried the Queen's 
colour at the battle of the Alma. He was 
at the battles of Inkerman and Tchemaya, 
and through the siege and fall of Sevastopol 
he served as an assistant engineer, being 
severely wounded in the trenches during the 
bombardment of 17 Oct. 1854, and being 
present in the trenches at the attack on the 
Redan on 18 June 1855. He received the 
medal with three clasps, and was mentioned 
in despatches ' as having served with zeal 
and distinction from the opening of the cam- 
paign.' The Sardinian and Turkish medals 
and fifth class Medjidie were also awarded 
him. A brevet of major was granted him 
on 24 April 1855, and he became major 
on 1 May 1857. 

Raines commanded the 95th regiment 
throughout the Indian Mutiny campaign 
in 1857-9. He was present at the assault 
and capture of Rowa on 6 Jan. 1858, when 
he received the high commendation of the 
governor of Bombay and the commander- 
in-chief for ' gallantry displayed and ably 
conducting these operations.' He led the 

left wing of the 95th regiment at the siege 
and capture of Awah on 24 Jan., and at the 
siege and capture of Kotah on 30 March 
was in command of the third assaulting 
column. At the battle of Kotah-ke-Serai he 
was mentioned in despatches by Sir Hugh 
Rose 'for good service.' He was especially 
active during the capture of Gwalior on 
19 June, when he was wounded by a 
musket ball in the left arm, after taking 
by assault two 18-pounders and helping 
to turn the captured guns on the enemy. 
For gallantry in minor engagements he 
was four times mentioned in despatches. 
The 95th regiment, while under his com- 
mand in Central India, marched 3000 
miles {Lond. Gaz. 11 Jime and 10 Oct. 
1858, 24 March, 18 April, and 2 Sept. 1859). 
He received the medal with clasp, was 
promoted to lieut. -colonel on 17 Nov. 1857, 
received the brevet of colonel on 20 July 
1858, and was made C.B. on 21 March 1859. 
Raines next Saw active service at Aden, 
where he commanded an expedition into the 
interior of Arabia in 1865-6. The British 
troops captured and destroyed many towns 
and ports, including Ussalu, the Fudthlis 
capital, and seven cannon. Raines received 
the thanks of the commander-in-chief at 
Bombay. Subsequently Raines was pro- 
moted major-general on 6 March 1868, 
lieut. -general on 1 Oct. 1877, and general 
(retired) on 1 July 1881, and was nominated 
colonel-in-chief of the Buffs, the East Kent 
regiment, in 1882. 

He was advanced to K.C.B. on 3 June 
1893 and G.C.B. in 1906, and in the same 
year he received the grand cross of the 
Danish Order of the Dannebrog. He died on 
11 April 1909 at his residence, 46 Sussex 
Gardens, Hyde Park, W., and was buried in 
the parish church, Sevenoaks. He married 
on 15 Nov. 1859 his cousin, Catherine 
Elizabeth, eldest daughter and co-heiress 
of John Nicholas Wrixon of Killetra, 
Mallow, CO. Cork. He had no issue. 

Raines pubhshed in 1900 'The 95th 
(Derbyshire) Regiment in Central India.' 

[The Times, 1.3 April 1909 ; Dod's Knight- 
age ; Walford's County FamiUes ; Hart's and 
Official Army Lists ; Raines, The 95th 
(Derbyshire) Regiment in Central India, 1900.] 

H. M. V. 

RAINY, ROBERT (1826-1906), Scottish 
divine, elder son of Harry Rainy, M.D. 
{d. 6 Aug. 1876), professor of forensic 
medicine in Glasgow University, by his 
wife Barbara Gordon {d. July 1854), was 
bom at 49 Montrose Street (now the 
Technical College), Glasgow, on 1 Jan. 




1826. On 10 Oct. 1835 he entered the 
Glasgow High School, where Alexander 
Maclaren [q. v. Suppl. II] was his 
schoolfellow. In October 1838 he pro- 
ceeded to Glasgow University, where he 
graduated M.A. in April 1844. His father 
designed him for the medical profession ; 
he had been taken by his father's friend, 
Robert Buchanan (1802-1875) [q. v.], to the 
debates in the general assembly of 1841 
leading to ' disruption,' and when ' dis- 
ruption ' came in 1843 he felt a vocation to 
the ministry of the Free Chiirch ; on his 
father's advice he gave a year (1843-4) 
to medical study. In 1844 he entered 
the divinity haU of the Free Church 
New College, Edinburgh, studying under 
Chalmers, David Welsh [q. v.], William 
Cunningham [q. v.], ' rabbi ' John Ihm- 
can [q. v.], and Alexander Campbell 
Fraser, He was at this time a mem- 
ber of the famous ' speculative society ' 
at the Edinburgh University. He was 
Ucensed on 7 Nov. 1849 by the Free Church 
presbytery of Glasgow, and for six months 
had charge of a mission at Inchinnan, 
near Renfrew. By Ehzabeth, dowager 
duchess of Gordon [q. v.], he was made 
chaplain at Huntly Lodge ; declining other 
caUs, he became minister of Himtly Free 
Church, ordained there by Strathbogie 
presbytery on 12 Jan. 1851. His repute 
was such that in 1854 he was called to 
Free High Church, Edinburgh, in succes- 
sion to Robert Gordon [q. v.]. As he 
wished to remain in Huntly, his presbytery 
declined (12 April 1854) to sustain the 
call ; so did the synod ; the general 
assembly (22 May 1854) transferred him 
to Edinburgh, henceforth his home. His 
pastorate lasted tiU 1862, when he was 
made professor of church history in the 
Free Church College, deUvering his inaugural 
lecture on 7 Nov 1862. In 1863 he 
received the degree of D.D. Glasgow. He 
became principal of the college in 1874, 
and retained this dignity till death, resign- 
ing his chair in 1901. 

Rainy's position soon became that of 
the ecclesiastical statesman of his church, 
of whose assembly he was moderator in 
1887, in 1900, and in 1905. No one 
since WiUiam Carstares (1649-1715) [q. v.] 
(not even WilUam Robertson (1721-1793) 
leader of the moderates) exercised so 
commanding an influence on the eccle- 
siastical life of Scotland. David Masson 
[q. V. Suppl. II] desciibed him as a 
' national functionary.' His three lectures 
(Jan, 1872) in reply to Dean Stanley's four 
lectures on the ' History of the Church of 

Scotland,' given in that month at the 
Edinburgh Philosophical Institution (first 
deUvered at Oxford, 1870), were not only 
a remarkable effort of readiness but a 
striking vindication of the attitude of 
Scottish reUgion. The flaw in his states- 
manship was his dealing with the case 
(1876-81) of William Robertson Smith 
[q. v.] ; in this matter there was some 
justification for Smith's description of 
Rainy as ' a Jesuit ' (Simpson, i. 396»). 
Yet of the Assembly speech (1881) by 
Marcus Dods [q. v. Suppl. II], in op- 
position to his action. Rainy said ' The 
finest thing I ever heard in my hfe ' (Mac- 
kintosh, p. 77). Rainy's advocacy of the 
' volimtary ' poUcy (simply, however, as 
expedient in the circumstances) began in 
1872, when, in criticism of the abolition 
of patronage (effected in 1874), he declared 
' that the only solution was disestabHsh- 
ment.' This opened the way for a union 
with the United Presbyterian Church 
(mooted as early as 1863) ; but while Rainy 
rightly interpreted the feeling of the majority 
of his own generation, the older men and 
the ' highland host,' led by James Begg 
[q. v.] and John Kennedy [q. v.], 
were unprepared to surrender the prin- 
ciple of a state church. In 1876, after 
long negotiation. Rainy achieved the 

, union of the reformed presbyterian synod 

[ with the Free Church ; the original 

j secession svnod had been incorporated 
with the iVee Church in 1852. In 1881 

j Rainy was made convener of the ' highland 
committee ' of his church, a post which he 

; held till death. He was hampered by 
unacquaintance with GaeHc, but succeeded 
in winning over a section of the minority 
opposed to the poUcy of union. The opposi- 
tion was not so much to disestablishment 
as to xmion with a body which imperfect 

I knowledge led them to distrust (Simpson, i. 

i 446). As convener. Rainy raised, between 
1882 and 1893, 10,795^. for the endow- 
ment scheme promoted by his predecessor, 
Thomas McLauchlan [q. v.], and over 
10,000Z. for the erection of church buildings, 
mainly in the Outer Hebrides, and subse- 
quently 7500Z. for special agencies [High- 
land Witness, p. 1074 seq.). In 1890 he 
supported the motion for refusing any 
process of heresy against professors Marcus 
Dods and Alexander Balmain Bruce 
[q. v. Suppl. I], who were let off with a 
caution. ^The question at issue was the 
inerrancy of Scripture, which Rainy held 
' under difficulties,' but would not press, 
if inspiration were admitted. In 1892 he 
succeeded in passing into law the Declara- 




tory Act, which distinguished in the Con- 
fession of Faith between 'substance' and 
points open to ' diversity of opinion,' and 
disclaimed ' any principles inconsistent 
with Uberty of conscience and the right 
of private judgment.' Union with the 
United Presbyterian Church was effected 
on 31 Oct. 1900, and Rainy was elected the 
first moderator of the united body. Within 
six weeks from the date of the union a 
court of session summons was served upon 
aU the general trustees of the former Free 
Church and all the members of the union 
assembly, the pursuers contending that 
they alone represented the Free Church, 
and were entitled to all its property. While 
litigation was going on, a charge of heresy 
was brought against George Adam Smith, 
D.D., on the ground of his Old Testament 
criticism ; Rainy carried a motion dechn- 
ing to institute any process, maintaining 
that it was ' a question about the respect 
due to facts,' and could not be ' settled 
ecclesiastically' (Simpson, 11. 272-3). 
Judgments in the courts of session were 
given (9 Aug. 1901 ; 4 July, 1902) in 
favour of the United Free Church. An 
appeal to the House of Lords was heard 
from 24 Nov. to 4 Dec. 1903, and reheard 
from 9 to 23 June 1904. Judgment was 
given on 1 Aug., when five peers (Halsbury, 
Davey, James, Robertson, and Alverstone) 
found there had been a breach of the Free 
Church constitution ; two (Macnaghten 
and Lindley) held there had not ; one 
(Halsbury) found definite doctrinal change 
on predestination ; two (Davey and 
Robertson) held that the position of the 
confession had been illegally modified ; two 
(Macnaghten and Lindley) held the con- 
trary. The entire church property was 
handed over to the so-called ' Wee Frees,' 
the United Free Church raising an emer- 
gency fund of 150,000Z. ; its assembly 
in 1905 passed a declaration of spiritual 
independence. After a royal commission 
which reported that ' the Free Church are 
unable to carry out all the trusts of the 
property,' the Churches (Scotland) Act 
(11 Aug. 1905) appointed an executive 
commission for the allocation of the pro- 
perty between the two bodies. The ' Wee 
Frees ' got a sufficient equipment ; the 
United Free Church raised a further sum 
of 15O,O00Z. to supplement the property 
recovered. Rainy did not Uve to re-enter 
the recovered college building. He had 
been operated upon for an internal dis- 
order, and left Edinburgh on 24 Oct. 1906 
for a recuperative voyage to AustraUa. 
His last sermon was at sea ou 11 Nov, He 

reached Melbourne on 8 Dec, and died 
there of lymphadenoma on 22 Dec. 1906 ; 
on 7 March 1907 he was buried in the 
Dean cemetery, Edinburgh. He married 
on 2 Dec. 1857 Susan (6. 1835 ; d. 30 Sept. 
1905), daughter of Adam RoUand of Gask, 
by whom he had four sons and three 
daughters. In 1894 his portrait by Sir 
George Reid was presented to the New 
CoUege, and a replica to his wife. 

His eldest son, Adam Rollaud Rainy 
(1862-1911), M.A., M,B., and C.M.Edin., 
studied at Berhn and Vienna, and practised 
(1887-1900) as a surgeon ocuKst in London. 
He travelled in Austraha and New Zealand 
(1891), in the West Indies (1896), in Spain 
and Algiers (1899 and 1903). Entering on 
political work, he contested Ealmarnock 
Burghs in 1900 as a radical, gained the seat 
in 1906, and held it till his sudden death 
at North Berwick on 26 Aug. 1911. He 
married in 18§7 AnnabeUa, second daughter 
of Hugh Matheson, D.L. of Ross-shire, who 
survived him with a son and two daughters. 

Robert Rainy was a man of fascinating 
personality and infinite tact, amounting to 
skilled diplomacy, being ' a rare manager 
of men,' regarded by his students with 
•' pecuhar veneration and affection,' and, in 
spite of a certain aloofness, winning by his 
earnestness and goodwill the warm attach- 
ment of men in all parties. In general 
poUtics he took little part, but he followed 
Gladstone on the home rule question. His 
writings were not numerous but weighty. 
He pubhshed : 1. ' Three Lectures on the 
Church of Scotland,' Edinburgh 1872 (in 
reply to Dean Stanley). 2. ' The Dehvery 
and Development of Christian Doctrine,' 
1874 (Cunningham Lecture, deUvered 
1873). 3. 'The Bible and Criticism,' 
1878 (four lectures to students of the 
Presbyterian Church of England). 4. 
'The Epistle to the Philippians,' 1893 
(in the ' Expositor's Bible '). 5. ' Pres- 
byterianism as a Form of Church Life 
and Work,' Cambridge, 1894. 6. 'The 
Ancient CathoUc Church from . . . Trajan 
to the Fourth . . . Council,' 1902. 7. 
' Sojourning with God, and other Sermons,' 

He edited 'The Presbyterian' (1868-71), 
and made contributions to many composite 
collections of theological hterature, includ- 
ing W. Wilson's ' Memorials of R. S. 
Candlish ' (1880), F. Hastings' ' The Atone- 
ment, a Clerical Symposium ' (1883), and 
'The Supernatural in Christianity ' (1894). 

The Times, 24 Dec. 1906 ; Highland Witness, 
February 1907 (memorial number ; eight 

Ram 6 



portraits) ; R. Mackintosh, Principal Rainy, 
a biographical study, 1907 (two portraits) ; 
R C. Simpson, Life, 1909, 2 vols, (eight 
portraits).] A. G. 

[See De la Ramee.] 

RAMSAY, ALEXANDER (1822-1909), 
Scottish journalist, son of Alexander Ram- 
say, sheep farmer, was born in Glasgow on 
22 May 1822. In 1824 his family removed 
to Edinburgh, where he was educated at 
Gillespie free school, and where, in 1836, 
he entered the printing office of Oliver 
and Boyd. The years 1843-44 he spent in 
London in the government printing office 
of T. and J. W. Harrison. Returning to 
Edinburgh in 1846, he engaged in literary 
work of different kinds until, in 1847, he was 
appointed editor of the ' Banffshire Journal,' 
a post which he filled for sixty-two years. 
He greatly raised the position of that 
newspaper, in which he gave prominence to 
the subject of the sea fisheries, and made 
a special feature of agriculture and the 
pure breeding of cattle. He was joint editor 
of vols. 2 (1872) and 3 (1875) of the 
* Aberdeen-Angus Herd Book,' and sole 
editor of vols. 4 to 33 (1876-1905). Therein 
he performed a monumental work of a 
national kind, which was recognised in 
1898 by a presentation from breeders 
of poUed cattle throughout the United 
Kingdom and others ; and later by the 
presentation of a cheque for 150l by 
members of the Herd Book Society. He 
was elected provost of Banff in 1894, and 
next year received the hon. degree of 
LL.D. from Aberdeen University. He was 
twice married. He died at Earlhill, Banff, 
on 1 April 1909. A portrait, painted by Miss 
Evans, is in possession of the family. Many 
of his contributions to the 'Banffshire 
Journal' were reprinted as pamphlets. He 
also wrote a ' Life of Goldsmith,' privately 
circulated ; and a ' History of the High- 
land and Agricultiiral Society of Scotland,' 

[Obituary in Banffshire Journal, reprinted as 
a pamphlet (^vith portrait) ; information from 
the family ; personal knowledge.] J. C. H. 


(1824-1906), dean of Chichester, born at 
Newbury, Berkshire, on 13 April 1824, was 
eldest son of James Randall, archdeacon of 
Berkshire, by his wife Rebe, only daughter 
of Richard Lowndes of Rose Hill, Dorking. 
A younger brother, James Leshe, was ap- 
pointed suffragan bishop of Reading in 1889. 
Richard entered Winchester CoEege in 

1836, and matriculated at Christ Church, 
Oxford, on 12 May 1842. He graduated 
B.A. in 1846, with an hon. fourth class in 
classics, and proceeded M.A. in 1849 
and D.D. in 1892. In 1847 he was ordained 
to the curacy of Binfield, Berkshire, and 
in 1851 was nominated to the rectory of 
Lavington-cum-Graffham, Sussex, in suc- 
cession to Archdeacon (afterwards Cardinal) 
Manning [q. v.], who had just seceded to 
Rome. At Lavington Randall's innova- 
tions in high church doctrine and ritual 
excited some opposition. His name be- 
came widely known in high church circles, 
and he was frequently chosen by Bishop 
Samuel Wilberforce [q. v.] as preacher of 
Lenten sermons at Oxford. 

In 1868 Randall was presented by the 
trustees to the new parish of All Saints, 
Clifton. Under his care All Saints became 
the centre of high church practice and 
teaching. Daily services as well as daily 
celebrations of the holy communion were 
instituted, and lectures, Bible classes, 
guilds, and confraternities were organised 
in the parish. Randall showed himself a 
capable administrator, and raised large 
sums in support of church work. Although 
a staunch ritualist and a supporter of the 
English Church Union, he avoided romanis- 
ing excesses. In 1873, owing to complaints 
as to certain practices at All Saints, Charles 
John Ellicott [q. v. Suppl. II], bishop of 
Gloucester, refused to license curates to the 
church, but he declined to allow proceed- 
ings to be taken against Randall under the 
Pubhc Worship Regulation Act. In 1889 
the bishop resumed confirmations in the 
church, and in 1891 bestowed on Randall 
an honorary canonry in the cathedral, where 
he occupied the stall formerly held by his 

In February 1892 Randall was appointed 
by Ix>rd Salisbury dean of Chichester. 
For ten years he earnestly devoted himself 
to his duties, and he was select preacher at 
Oxford in 1893-4. Owing to ill-health he 
retired in 1902, and settled in London. He 
died at Bournemouth on 23 Dec. 1906, and 
was buried at Branksome. On 6 Nov. 
1849 he married Wilhelmina, daughter of 
George Augustus Bruxner of the Manor 
House, Binfield, Berkshire, who sxirvived 
him with three sons and three daughters. 

Randall's published volumes, which were 
mainly devotional, included: 1. 'Public 
Catechising, the Church's Method of 
Training her Children,' two papers read 
at the Church Congress in 1873 and 1883 
respectively ; 2nd edit. 1888. 2. ' Life in 
the Catholic Church : its Blessings aJid 




Responsibilities,' 1889. 3. ' Addresses and 
Meditations for a Retreat,' 1890. 

[The Times, 24 Dec. 1906; Church Times, and 
Guardian, 27 Dec. 1906 ; Winchester College 
Register, 1907; A. R. Ashwell and R. G. 
Wilberforce, Life of Samuel Wilberforce, 1883, 
vols. ii. and iii. ; Brit. Mus. Cat.] G. S. W. 

RANDEGGER, ALBERTO (1832-191 1 ), 
musician, bom at Trieste on 13 April 1832, 
was son of a schoolmaster. The family 
name was derived from Randegg near 
Schaffhausen. His mother, a Tuscan lady, 
was an amateur musician, but the boy 
showed no musical taste till at the age of 
thirteen he played without preparation a 
time with correct melody and harmonies. 
He was then placed under Tivoli, of Trieste 
Cathedral, and afterwards under Lafont, 
for pianoforte. He studied composition 
under Ricci. In 1852-4 he conducted at 
several theatres in Italy and Dalmatia, 
composed ballets, and collaborated in an 
opera buffa. His grand opera ' Bianca 
Capello ' was produced at Brescia, with a 
success that brought him an offer to 
conduct it in America. On the way he 
was stopped by the news of the cholera 
outbreak at New York. On the invitation 
of his eldest brother he came to London 
for a visit in 1854, and decided to remain. 
He had never heard an oratorio, and the 
huge number of performers at an Exeter 
Hall performance daunted him, the strange- 
ness of the style soon sending him to sleep. 
But on the advice of Sir Michael Costa he 
persevered, mastered the English language, 
and soon became known in London as a 
versatile musician equally capable as per- 
former, conductor, and teacher. He took 
further lessons in composition in London 
from Bemhard Molique. In 1857 he 
conducted an opera season at St. James's 
Theatre. From 1859 to 1870 he was organist 
at St. Paul's, Regent's Park; on the Prince 
Consort's death he composed an anthem 
so impressive that the vicar preached no 
sermon, saying that any words would fail 
of their effect. Randegger was most 
successful as a teacher of singing, and in 
1868 was appointed to the staff of the 
Royal Academy of Music. His composi- 
tions were distinguished by practical 
qualities, were always tasteful and ex- 
ternally effective, but had no deep origin- 
ality, and soon fell into disuse. The 
principal were ' The Rival Beauties,' 
operetta (Leeds, 1864), and ' Fridolin,' 
cantata (Birmingham Festival, 1873) ; 
a trio, ' I Naviganti,' was much sung. For 
NoveUo's series of primers he wrote 

' Singing,' which has had an exceptionally 
wide circulation. To the end of his life 
he remained an indefatigable worker, and 
attended the performance of new works, 
always taking a copy which he marked with 
all details of the rendering. He conducted 
the Carl Rosa company in English opera 
in 1880, and Italian opera for Sir Augustus 
Harris from 1887 to 1898, as well as many 
choral concerts. He introduced many 
important novelties, mainly English, at the 
Norwich Triennial Festivals, which he 
conducted from 1881 to 1905. He edited 
collections of classical airs, utilising his 
memoranda of Exeter Hall performances, 
thus continuing English musical traditions. 
Besides his extensive practice at the Royal 
Academy he also became in 1896 a teacher 
at the Royal College, sharing in the 
management of both institutions. He was 
much in request as an adjudicator in com- 
petitions, an4, would give his verdicts in 
well-chosen words, with practical advice 
that proved of value to the imsuccessful 
candidates. He was an honorary member 
of the Philharmonic Society of Madrid, 
and in 1892 the King of Italy raised him 
to the rank of Cavaliere. 

He was still actively engaged, and a 
familiar figure at London musical functions, 
in 1911 when, after a short illness, he died 
at his residence, 5 Nottingham Place, W., 
on 18 Dec. A memorial service, attended 
by very many prominent musicians, was 
held at St. Pancras church by Canon 
Sheppard of the Chapel Royal on 21 Dec. ; 
the remains were cremated at Golder's 
Green. He married in 1897 Louise Baldwin 
of Boston, U.S.A. 

[Detailed account (with portrait) and many 
valuable reminiscences of older musicians 
in Musical Times, Oct. 1899 ; obituaries in 
Musical News, and Musical Standard, 23 Dec. 
1911 ; Musical Times, and Musical Herald, 
Jan. 1912.] H. D. 

HANDLES, MARSHALL (1826-1904), 
Wesleyan divine, born at Over-Darwen, 
Lancashire, on 7 April 1826, was son of John 
Randies of Derbyshire by his wife Mary 
Maguire. He was educated at a private 
school, and after engaging in business 
at Haslingden he was accepted as a 
candidate for the methodist ministry 
in 1850 and studied at Didsbury College. 
He commenced his ministry in 1853, and 
was stationed successively at Montrose, 
Clitheroe, Boston, Nottingham, Lincoln, 
Halifax, Cheetham Hill, Altrincham, Bolton 
and Leeds. In 1882 he w£is elected a 
member of the legal conference, and in 




1886 succeeded Dr. William Burt Pope 
[q. V. Suppl. II] as tutor of systematic 
theology at Didsbury. For many years he 
was chairman of the Manchester district, 
and in 1896 was elected president of the 
conference. In 1891 he received the degree 
of CD. from the Wesley an Theological 
College, Montreal. He retired in 1902 
from the active ministry, and died at 
Manchester on 4 July 1904, being buried in 
Cheetham Hill Wesleyan churchyard. 

In Aug\zst 1856 he married Sarah Dew- 
hurst, second daughter of John Scurrah 
of Padiham; by her he had a son and 
daughter; the son. Sir John Scurrah 
Randies, is conservative M.P. for North 
West Manchester. 

A strong advocate of total abstinence, he 
first dealt with the question in ' Britain's 
Bane and Antidote ' (1864). But his pen 
was mainly devoted to theology on con- 
servative Unes. In his best-known work, 
' For Ever, an Essay on Everlasting 
Punishment ' (1871 ; 4th edit. 1895), he 
argued in favour of the eternity of future 
punishment. Of kindred character was 
his book ' After Death : is there a Poat- 
Mortem Probation ? ' (1904), in which he 
discvisses 'Man's ImmortaUty' (1903), by 
Dr. Robert Percival Downes, a work 
which favoured an intermediate period 
of moral probation after death. The 
view that God is incapable of suffering 
he strongly maintained, against Baldwin 
Brown, Dr. A. M. Fairbaim, George 
Matheson, George Adam Smith, and 
others, in ' The Blessed God : Impas- 
sibility ' (1900). His ablest criticism of 
modem scepticism is found in his ' First 
Principles of Faith' (1884), in which he 
deals with the views of Mill, Herbert 
Spencer, and Mansel. He also published 
' Substitution : a Treatise on the Atone- 
ment ' (1877), and ' The Design and Use of 
Holy Scripture ' (Femley lecture, 1892), in 
which he incidentally acknowledges the 
service of the higher criticism. 

A portrait, painted by Arthur Nowell, 
is at Didsbury CoUege. 

[Private information ; works as above ; 
Methodist Recorder, 23 July 1896.] 0. H. I. 

HINGESTON- (1833-1910). [See Hinges- 

VILLE (1818-1907), admiral, bom in 
London on 26 Jan. 1818, was son of 
Thomas Randolph, prebendary of St. 
Paul's Cathedral from 1812 till his death 

in 1875, chaplain-in-ordinary to Queen 
Victoria and rector of Hadham, Hertford- 
shire. Dr. John Randolph [q. v.], bishop 
of London, was his grandfather. George 
entered the navy as a first-class volunteer 
on 7 Dec. 1830. He passed his examina- 
tion in 1837, and received his commission 
as lieutenant on 27 June 1838. In Sept. 
following he was appointed to the North 
Star, frigate. Captain Lord John Hay [q. v], 
commodore on the north coast of Spain, and 
next, from 1840 to 1844, served on board 
the Vernon in the Mediterranean, being 
first lieutenant during the latter part of the 
commission. In Oct. 1844 he became first 
lieutenant of the Daedalus, of 20 guns, on 
the East India station, and on 19 Aug. 
1845 commanded her barge at the destruc- 
tion of MaUoodoo, a piratical stronghold 
in Borneo. The force landed on this 
occasion numbered 540 seamen and marines, 
under the command of Captain Charles 
Talbot of the Vestal ; there was sharp 
fighting, and the British loss amoimted to 
21 killed and wounded. On 9 Nov. 1846 
Randolph was promoted, and a year later 
was appointed to the Bellerophon, in which 
ship and in the Rodney he served for six 
years in the Mediterranean. He was 
present in the Rodney at the attack on 
Fort Constantine, Sevastopol, took part 
in other operations in the Black Sea, 
and received for his services the Crimean 
medal with clasp, the Turkish medal, and 
the fourth class of the Medjidie. He was 
also made a knight of the Legion of Honour, 
and promoted to captain on 18 Nov. 1854. 
In that rank he commanded the Comwallis, 
coastguard ship Ln the Humber, and after- 
wards the Diadem and Orlando, screw 
frigates, on the North American station. 
The Orlando was transferred to the Mediter- 
ranean in 1863, and Randolph remained 
in her till May 1865, when he was appointed 
to the guardship at Sheerness. He was 
awarded a good service pension in March 
1867, and from Sept. of that year tUl 
March 1869 was commodore at the Cape 
of Grood Hope. He received the C.B. in 
June 1869, and was promoted to his flag on 
24 April 1872. From Dec. 1873 to June 
1875 he commanded the detached squadron, 
this being his last active employment. He 
was promoted to vice-admiral on 16 Sept. 
1877, retired on 26 July 1881, and was 
advanced to the rank of admiral on 8 July 
1884. At Queen Victoria's diamond jubilee 
of 1897 he was raised to the K.C.B. 

Randolph pubUshed in 1867 a treatise on 
' The Rule of the Road at Sea,' and in 1879 
his ' Problems in Naval Tactics ' ; he was 




also a corresponding member of the Royal 
United Service Institution and a fellow 
of the Royal Geographical Society. He 
died on 16 May 1907 at Hove, Brighton, 
and was buried there. 

Randolph married, in 1851, Eleanor 
Harriet, daughter of the Rev. Joseph 
Arkwright of Mark Hall, Essex. She died 
in April 1907. 

[0' Byrne's Naval Biography ; The Times, 
18 May 1907.] L. G. C. L. 

1907), physician and embryologist, bom at 
Cromer, Norfolk, on 19 Nov. 1824, was elder 
son of Henry Ransom, a master mariner 
of that town, who died in 1832. His 
mother, Mary Jones, was daughter of a 
Welsh clergyman. Educated at a private 
school at Norwich, Ransom was appren- 
ticed at sixteen to a medical practitioner 
at Bang's Lynn. In 1843 he proceeded to 
University College, London, where Huxley 
was a fellow student. Writing to Herbert 
Spencer on 1 June 1886, Huxley points out 
that at the examination in 1845 Ransom 
came out first, winning an exhibition, and he 
second, with momentous results to himself. 

* If Ransom,' Huxley continues, * had worked 
less hard I might have been first and he 
second, in which case I should have obtained 
the exhibition, should not have gone into 
the navy, and should have forsaken science 
for practice ' {lAje and Letters of T. H. 
Huxley, 1900, ii. 133). After holding 
residential posts at University College 
Hospital, Ransom studied in Paris and 
Germany, graduating M.D.London in 1850. 
Then settling at Nottingham, he was from 
1854 to 1890 physician to the Nottingham 
General Hospital. He became F.R.C.P. 
London in 1869, and fellow, respectively, of 
the Royal Medical and Chirurgical Society 
and University College, London, in 1854 
and 1896. He was elected E.R.S. on 2 June 
1870 for his knowledge of physiology and 
original observations in ovology, his candi- 
dature being supported among others by 
Huxley, Paget, and Lister 

Ransom's chief contributions to pure 
science were made when he was com- 
paratively young, his later activities 
being absorbed in professional work. He 
was author of nine papers of value on 
embryological subjects, of which the first, 

* On the Impregnation of the Ovum in the 
Stickleback,' appeared in the ' Proceed- 
ings of the Royal Society ' (vol. vii. 1854—5). 
Another, * On the Ovum of Osseous Fishes,' 
was pubhshed in the ' Philosophical Trans- 
actions ' for 1867. He was interested in 

geology and assisted in the exploration 
of Nottinghamshire and Derbyshire caves, 
reading at the first meeting of the British 
Association at Nottingham, in 1866, a 
paper ' On the Occvirrence of Felia Lynx 
as a British Fossil.' In 1892, when the 
British Medical Association met there. 
Ransom was president of the section of 
medicine, his address dealing with various 
aspects of vegetable pathology. 

In 1870 Ransom devised a disinfect- 
ing stove (gas-heated) for the sterilisa- 
tion of infected clothing, which was used 
extensively till steam methods were adopted. 
A presidential address to the Nottingham 
Medico-Chirurgical Society, ' On Colds as a 
Caiise of Disease,' deUvered on 4 Nov. 1887, 
attracted attention. His only independent 
pubUcation, 'The Inflammation Idea in 
General Pathologv, ' appeared in 1906 
{Nature, 29 Nov. 1906; Brit. Med. Joum. 
23 June 1906). 

Through his long career at Nottingham 
Ransom identified himself with the welfare 
of the place. Zealous in support of the 
volunteer movement, he served for fifteen 
yeai-s in the 1st Notts rifle corps. In- 
terested in educational questions, he helped 
in the estabUshment of University College, 
Nottingham, of the governing body of 
which he was a member. He died at 
his residence. Park Valley, Nottingham, on 
16 April 1907. 

In 1860 he married Elizabeth, daughter 
of Dr. John William Bramwell of North 
Shields, who predeceased him. They had 
issue four sons and one daughter. The 
eldest son. Dr. W. B. Ransom {b. 5 Sept. 
1860), succeeded his father as physician to 
the General Hospital, Nottingham, dying 
m 1909. 

[Brit. Med. Journ., 27 April 1907 ; Lancet, 
27 April 1907 ; Medico-Chirurgical Trans, vol. 
xc. ; Roy. Soc. Catal. Sci. Papers ; Report 
Brit. Assoc. 1866.] T. E. J. 

RASSAM, HORMUZD (1826-1910), 
Assyrian explorer, bom at Mosul in Asiatic 
Turkey in 1826, was youngest son and 
eighth child of Anton Rassam, arch- 
deacon in the Chaldean Christian com- 
mimity at Mosul, by his wife Theresa, 
granddaughter of Ishaak Halabee (of 
Aleppo). His father was a Nestorian or 
Chaldean Christian, and claimed to be of 
Chaldean race, but he was probably of 
Assjrrian descent. The word ' Rassam ' 
is Arabic for designer or engraver, and the 
family were originally designers of patterns 
for muslins, the staple product of Mosul. 
An elder brother. Christian, married 




Matilda, sister of George Percy Badger 
[q. V. Suppl. I], the Arabic scholar, and 
became the first EngUsh consul at Mosul. 
As an infant Hormuzd narrowly escaped 
death by the plague. In childhood he 
learned to write and speak both the Chal- 
dean and Syrian language, which the native 

Kouyunjik, and the excavations at Nimroud 
were reopened. Rassam accompanied his 
patron to the ruins in Babylonia and 
returned to England in 1851, when Layard 
brought back his discoveries. 

Next year the trustees of the British 
Museum sent Rassam out alone — ^Layard' s 

Christians used, and Arabic, the speech of health compelling his withdrawal. He 

the country. As a boy he was induced to 
serve as an acolyte in the Roman cathoUc ■ 
church of St. Miskinta, but a project to 
send him to Rome to study the catholic 
faith came to nothing owing to his doubts 
of Roman doctrine. A brother Georges was 
excommvmicated by the Roman church on 
that ground. Mrs. Badger, his brother's 
mother-in-law, finally converted him to 
protestantism and helped him in the study 
of EngUsh. In 1841 he accompanied an 
Austrian traveller on a scientific expedition 
to study the flora and fauna of the Assjrrian 
and Kurdish mountains. Next year he 
became clerk to his brother Christian. In 
the summer Sir Austen Henry Layard 
[q. V. Suppl. I], who passed through Mosul 
on his way from Persia to Constantinople, 
lodged at Christian's house and made 
Hormvizd's acquaintance, with crucial effect 
on his career. 

With Christian's permission Layard took 
Hormuzd with him in 1845, to make 
excavations in the moimds of Nimroud, 
the site of the Biblical Calah. Hormuzd 

worked at Nimroud, Kouyunjik, and tried 
again the mounds representing Assur, the 
old capital of Assyria, now called Qala'a- 
Shergat. In all these places antiquities 
were found, many of them of considerable 
importance. His great discovery on this 
occasion, however, was the palace of Assur- 
bani-apU at Kouyunjik — the North Palace 
— with a beautiful series of bas-reliefs, 
including the celebrated hunting-scenes. 
Among the numerous tablets were some 
supplying accounts of the Creation and 
Flood legends. A few of the slabs found 
in this edifice are now in the Louvre at 
Paris, but most of them are in the British 

On returning to England, Rassam in 1854 
accepted from the Indian government 
the post of political interpreter at Aden, 
leaving further excavating work to William 
Kennett Loftus [q. v.]. At Aden, where 
Rassam remained eight years, he soon 
served as postmaster as well as political 
interpreter. Later he became judge and 
magistrate without salary, and was given 

won Layard' s fullest confidence, and when ; the rank of political resident and justice 

Layard went to Bagdad to arrange for the 
transport of the antiquities to England, 
Hormuzd was left in charge, and all the 
accounts of the excavations passed through 
his hands. His services, however, were 
unpaid. After the discovery at Nimroud 
of the palaces of A^ur-nasir-apU, Shal- ! 
maneser II, Tiglath-pileser IV, Sennacherib, 
and Esarhaddon, work was pursued from 
May 1847 with equal success at Kouyunjik 

In 1848 by Layard' s advice Rassam 
came to England with a view to finishing 
his education at Magdalen College, Oxford. 
He came to know Pusey and the leaders 
of the Oxford Movement, but his sym- 
pathy with them was small. His stay in 
Oxford was short. While Charles Marriott 
[q. v.] was preparing him for matricula- 
tion, Layard recalled him to Assyria to 
assist in excavations at the expense of the 
trustees of the British Museum. He 
subsequently presented to Magdalen College 
a sculptured slab from Nineveh. Rassam 
had now a fixed salary, with an allowance 
for travelling. Arriving late in 1849 he 
pushed on vigorously with the work at 

of the peace. Rassam' s chief duty was to 
qualify the hostility of the neighbouring 
tribes to the British authorities and to one 
another. Forming a friendship with Seyyid 
Alaidrous, whose ancestor he described as 
the patron saint of Arabia Felix, he got 
into touch with the tribes of the interior 
with the best results. In 1861 he was sent 
by the Indian government to Zanzibar 
to represent British interests while the 
claim of the Sultan of Muscat to suzerainty 
over his brother, the Sultan of Zanzibar, 
was imder investigation by the Indian 

In 1864 an exciting episode in Rassam' s 
career opened. Two years earlier Theodore, 
King of Abyssinia, had cast into prison at 
Magdala, Consul Charles Duncan Cameron 
[q. v.], Henry Aaron Stern [q. v.], and other 
British missionaries of the London Jews' 
Society. In 1864 Rassam was chosen for 
the perilous duty of delivering a friendly 
letter of protest to Theodore. Arriving at 
Massowah, he and two companions. Lieuten- 
ant Prideaux and Dr. Blanc, of the Indian 
army, were kept waiting there nearly a 
year before receiving permission to enter the 


1 60 


country, which even then was only granted 
in response to Rassam's threat to return to 
Aden. Rassam met Theodore at Damot on 
28 Jan. 1866. At first the mission was well 
treated ; the captives were set at liberty 
and reached Rassam's camp, while a letter 
of apology from the king was drafted 
(12 March 1866). Suddenly the king's con- 
duct changed ; he imposed fresh conditions 
(12 April) and claimed an indemnity for 
the liberation of the captives. Having 
re- arrested the prisoners, Theodore now 
seized the three members of the British 
mission and threw all, loaded with chains, 
into the rock-fortress of Magdala. 

Rassam, whose personal relations with 
Theodore were not unamiable, succeeded 
in communicating with the frontier, and 
a military expedition was despatched 
to Abyssinia to effect the release of 
the captives, under Sir Robert Napier 
(afterwards Lord Napier of Magdala). On 
2 Dec. 1867 Theodore heard of its landing. 
An ultimatum from the commander-in- 
chief destined for the king was intercepted 
by Rassam, who believed its receipt would 
lead to the massacre of himself and of his 
fellow- captives. Recognising his peril, 
Theodore ordered Rassam's chains to be 
taken off on 18 March 1868, and he and the 
three captives were released on the arrival 
of the British force before Magdala on 
11 April 1868. Until his death Rassam suf- 
fered physicallj'^ from his long confinement. 
On the 14th the fortress was taken by storm, 
and Theodore died by his own hand next 
day. Rassam narrated his strange ex- 
periences in his ' British Mission to Theo- 
dore, King of Abyssinia, with Notices 
of the Coimtry traversed from Massowah 
through the Soudan and the Amhara and 
back to Annesley Bay from Magdala 
(2 vols. 1869). 

Returning to England, Rassam during a 
year's leave of absence married an English 
wife, and resigning his appointment at 
Aden travelled widely in the United King- 
dom and the Near East. He then settled 
first at Twickenham and afterwards at 
Isleworth. In 1877 he was again employed 
by the British government in Asiatic 
Turkey, where he inquired into the con- 
dition of the Christian commmiities and 
sects in Asia Minor, Armenia, and Kurdi- 
stan. He revisited his native town of 
Mosul on 16 Nov. 1877. He gave a de- 
tailed accoimt of his observations on the 
journey in his ' Asshur and the Land of 
Nimrod ' (Cinciimati and New York, 1897). 

Meanwhile, in 1876, with the help of 
Layard, then British ambassador in Turkey, 

Rassam had obtained a firman from the 
Turkish government, on behalf of the 
trustees of the British Museum, for the 
continuation of the excavations in Assyria 
and Babylonia. He at once organised the 
work of exploration, and every year from 
1876 until the end of 1882 he carried 
on excavations, not only at Kouyunjik 
(Nineveh) and Nimroud (Calah) but also 
at Balawat. In Babylonia the sites ex- 
plored included the ruins of Babylon, 
Tel-Ibrahim (Cuthah), Dailem, and Abu- 
Habbah (Sippar). Among the more im- 
portant finds were the bronze gates of the 
Assjrrian king Shahnaneser II (Balawat), 
the beautifid Sungod-stone, the cylinder 
of Nabonidus giving his date for the 
early Babylonian kings Sargon of Agade 
and his son Naram-Sin, and a valu- 
able mace-head with the name of 
king Sargani. The inscriptions included 
additions to the Creation and Flood 
legends, the first tablet of a bilingual 
series prefaced by a new and important ver- 
sion of the Creation story in Sumerian and 
Semitic Babylonian, and numerous other 
documents ; the fragments, large and small, 
amounted, it was estimated, to close upon 
100,000, though many of these were small, 
and consequently of little value. Among 
the imperfect documents was the cylinder 
of Cyrus the Great, in which he refers to 
the capture of Babylon. Rassam's import- 
ant discoveries attracted world-wide atten- 
tion, and the Royal Academy of Sciences 
at Turin awarded him the Brazza prize 
of 12,000 fr. for the four years 1879-82. 
His discovery of the site of the city 
Sippara is especially noticed among the 
grounds of the award. An allegation that 
Rassam's kinsmen had withheld from the 
British Museum the best of Rassam's finds 
was successfully refuted in 1893 in an action 
at law in which Rassam was awarded 501. 
damages for libel. 

After 1882 Rassam lived mainly at 
Brighton, writing on Assyro-Babylonian 
exploration, on the Christian sects of the 
Nearer East, or on current religious con- 
troversy in England. Like most Oriental 
Christians, he was a man of strong religious 
convictions, and having adopted evangelical 
views became a bitter foe of the high 
church movement. He was fellow of the 
Royal Greographical Society, the Society 
of Biblical Archaeology, and the Victoria 

An autobiography which he compiled 
before his death remains in manuscript. 
He died at his residence at Hove, Brighton, 
on 16 Sept. 1910, and was buried in the 




cemetery there. By his wife Anne Eliza, 
daughter of Captain Spender Cosby Price, 
formerly of the 77th Highlanders, whom he 
married on 8 June 1869, he had issue a son 
and six daughters. The son, Anthony 
Hormuzd, bom on 31 Dec. 1883, joined the 
British army, and is now captain in the 
New Zealand staff corps at WelUngton. 

[Rassam's published books and MS. auto- 
biography ; Clements Markham's Hist, of 
the Abyssinian Expedition, 1869 ; H. A. 
Stem's The Captive Missionary, 1868 ; Parlia- 
mentary Papers (Abyssinian), 1867-9 ; Lord 
A. Loftus's Reminiscences (2nd edit.), i. 206; 
Men of Mark, 1881 (with portrait); The 
Times, 17 Sept. 1910.] T. G. P. 

RATHBONE, WILLIAM (1819-1902), 
philanthropist, bom in Liverpool on 11 
Feb. 1819, was eldest of six sons of William 
Rathbone (1787-1868) [see under William 
Rathbone (1757-1809)] by his wife 
Elizabeth Greg, and was the sixth 
WilUam Rathbone in direct succession, 
merchants in Liverpool from 1730. After 
passing through schools at Gateacre, Cheam, 
and Everton, he was apprenticed (1835-8) 
to Nicol, Duckworth & Co., Bombay mer- 
chants in Liverpool. In October 1838 he 
went with Thomas Ash ton (father of Baron 
Ashton of Hyde) for a semester at the 
University of Heidelberg, where he ' gained 
habits of steady work and study,' and 
acquired a knowledge of foreign poUtics. 
His high ideals of pubUc duty were formed 
imder the teaching of John Hamilton 
Thom [q. v.], who had married in 1838 his 
sister Hannah. From Heidelberg he made 
(in 1839) an ItaUan tour, and on his return 
obtained a clerkship in the London firm of 
Baring Brothers. In April 1841 the senior 
partner, Joshua Bates [q. v.], took him on 
a business tour to the United States ; the 
impression of this visit, confirmed by two 
subsequent ones (his third visit, 1848, was 
with his first wife, whose parents were 
American by birth), made him an ' un- 
compromising free-trader.' At the end of 
1841 he became a partner in his father's firm, 
Rathbone Brothers & Co. His philanthropic 
work began in 1849,when he acted as a visitor 
for the District Provident Society ; in later 
hfe he said that in the House of Commons 
he was ' often far more tempted to take a 
low and sordid view of human nature than he 
had ever been in the slums.' His first ex- 
periment in district nursing was made in 
1859, by the engagement for this work of 
Mary Robinson, who had attended his first 
wife in her fatal illness. He consulted 
Florence Nightingale [q. v. Suppl. 11] about a 

VOL. LXIX. — SUP. n. 

supply of nurses, who suggested that liver- 
pool should form a school to train nurses for 
itself. Hence the estabUshment by Rath- 
bone of the Liverpool Training School and 
Home for Nurses, which began work on 
1 July 1862. By the end of 1865 Liverpool 
had been divided into eighteen districts, 
each provided with nursing imder the super- 
intendence of ladies, who made themselves 
responsible for the costs entailed ; for about 
a year Rathbone himself took the place of 
one of the lady superintendents during her 
absence. Ijong after, a colleague remarked 
the t Rathbone was ' the one male member of 
the committee who knew what the homes of 
the poor were actually hke.' The reform of 
sick nursing in the workhouses was also 
achieved by Rathbone, who secured for this 
in 1865 the invaluable services of Agnes 
Elizabeth Jones (1832-68). For three years 
he bore the whole expenses. His nursing 
reforms were extended to Birmingham and 
Manchester, and to London in 1874, when 
the National Association for providing 
Trained Nurses was formed, with Rathbone 
as chairman of its sub-committee for 
organising district nursing. In 1888-9 he 
was honorary secretary and subsequently 
vice-president of Queen Victoria's Jubilee 
Institute for Nurses, to which the Queen 
had devoted 70,000?. out of the Women's 
Offering. Meanwhile, during the cotton 
famine of 1862-3, caused by the civil war 
in the United States, he did much, in con- 
junction with his cousin, Charles Melly, to 
raise to 100,000Z. the Liverpool contribution 
to the reUef fund, and brought wise counsel 
to its distribution. 

His pohtical action began locally in 1852, 
on the hberal side. He took a leading part 
in 1 857 in procuring the Liverpool address 
upholding the findings of the commissariat 
commissions appointed after the Crimean 
war. Gladstone's election in 1865 for South 
I^ancashire owed much to his energy. In 
November 1868 he was elected as one of 
the three members for Liverpool. Among 
other matters he took part in shaping the 
bankruptcy bill (1869). He was especially 
interested in measures for local government 
and in the Ucensing laws, opposing ' pro- 
hibition,' and demanding not more legisla- 
tion but stricter administration. He com- 
missioned in 1892 Mrs. Evelyn Leigh ton 
Fanshawe to report on temperance legis- 
lation in the United States and Canada 
(pubhshed 1893). For Liverpool he sat 
till 1880, when he contested south-west 
Lancashire, and was defeated, but was 
returned in the foUovdng November at a 
bye-election for Carnarvonshire, sitting for 




the county till 1885, and from 1885 for 
North Carnarvonshire. He followed Glad- 
stone on the home rule question. In 1895 
Rathbone retired from parliament. He was 
deputy-lieutenant for Lancashire. 

In the foundation of the University 
College of Liverpool (opened in Jan. 1882) 
he was greatly interested ; vnth his two 
brothers he founded a King Alfred chair of 
modem hterature and EngUsh language ; 
he was president of the college from 1892. 
He was also very active in the movement 
for estabhshing the University College of 
North Wales (opened Oct. 1884), of which he 
was president from 1891. He was actively 
concerned in the Welsh Intermediate 
Education Act of 1889. Liverpol gave him 
the freedom of the city on 21 Oct. 1891. In 
May 1895 he was made LL.D. by Victoria 

Straightforwardness and pertinacity, with 
entire unselfishness, were leading features 
in Rathbone's character. With httle of the 
bonhomie and none of the humour of his 
large-hearted father, seeming indeed to be 
a dry man, he had a tenderness of dis- 
position which found expression rather in 
act than in word. Principled against indis- 
criminate giving, he was constantly liable 
to be overcome by personal appeal. A 
convinced unitarian in theology, he carried 
many traces of his Quaker antecedents. 
His manner of life was simple. , He died 
at Greenbank, Liverpool, on 6 March 1902, 
and was buried in Toxteth cemetery. He 
married (1) on 6 Sept. 1847, Lucretia Wain- 
wright {d. 27 May 1859), eldest daughter 
of Samuel Gair of Liverpool, by whom he 
had four sons, of whom two survived him, 
and one daughter ; (2) in 1862, Emily 
Acheson (his second cousin), daughter of 
Acheson Lyle of Londonderry, who sur- 
vived him with her two sons and two 

Rathbone published : 1. ' Social Duties 
. . . Organisation of . . . Works of Bene- 
volence and Public Utility,' 1867. 2. 
' Local Government and Taxation,' 1875. 
3. ' Local Government and Taxation,' 
1883 (reprinted from the 'Nineteenth 
Century '). 4. ' Protection and Com- 
munism . . . Effects of the American 
Tariff on Wages,' 1884. 5 ' Reform in 
Parliamentary Business,' 1884. 6. ' Sketch 
of the History and Progress of District 
Nursing,' 1890. 

His bust, by Charles Allen, was presented 
to University College, Liverpool. Another 
bust, by Hargreaves Bond, was presented 
(1889) to the Liverpool Reform Club. A 
bronze statue by (Sir) George Frampton, 

R.A., was erected by public subscription 
in St. John's Gardens, Liverpool. 

[The Times, 7 March 1902 ; Christian Life, 
7, 12, and 29 March 1902 ; Memorials of Agnes 
E. Jones, 1871 ; Eleanor F. Rathbone's 
WiUiam Rathbone ; a Memoir, 1905 (portrait) ; 
information from the Rev. J. CoUins Odgers ; 
personal recollection.] A. G. 


(1842-1904), Anglo-Indian jurist, bom at 
Delhi on 4 Sept. 1842, was yoimgest son of 
Bartholomew Rattigan, who left his home, 
Athy, CO. Kildare, at an early age and 
entered the ordnance department of the 
East India Company. Educated at the high 
school, Agra, he entered the ' imcovenanted ' 
service of government in youth as extra 
assistant commissioner in the Punjab, 
acting for a short time as judge of the 
small causes court at Delhi. But being 
dissatisfied with his prospects he resigned, 
contrary to th^ wishes of his family, in order 
to study law. Enrolled as a pleader of 
the Punjab Chief Court on its establishment 
in 1866, he built up an extensive practice, 
first in partnership with Mr. Scarlett, and 
then on his own account. 

Coming to England, he was admitted a 
student of Lincoln's Inn on 3 Nov. 1871, 
and was called to the bar there on 7 June 
1873, also studying at King's College, 
London. Returning to Lahore, he speedily 
rose to be head of his profession there. 
He was for many years government advo- 
cate, and in 1880, 1881, 1882, and 1886, 
for varying short periods, he acted as a 
judge of the chief court. In Nov. 1886 he 
resigned his acting judgeship so as to 
continue his practice without further inter- 
ruption. A linguist of unusual ability, 
Rattigan mastered in all five European 
languages, several Indian vernaculars, and 
Persian. German he studied assiduously, 
and he translated the second volume of 
Savigny's ' System of Roman Law — Jural 
Relations' (1883). In 1885 he took the 
degree of D.L., with first-class honours, at 

In February 1887 Rattigan became 
vice-chancellor of the Punjab University, 
then on the verge of bankruptcy. He 
succeeded in regenerating the institution, 
and was reappointed biennially, retaining 
the vice-chancellorship till April 1895. 
He was made a D.L. of the university 
in Jan. 1896, and LL.D. of Glasgow in 
1901. In 1891 he accepted the president- 
ship of the Khalsa College committee, and 
by his energy and influence overcame 
dissension among the Sikhs, with the result 




that an institution for their higher educa- 
tion on a religious basis was established at 
Amritsar in 1897. When he retired from 
India in April 1900 the Sikh council ap- 
pointed him life president, and on his death 
a memorial hospital was erected at the 
college (opened in 1906). He was an addi- 
tional member of the viceroy's legislative 
council in 1892-3 and of .the Punjab legis- 
lative council in 1898-9. 

A self-made man, without advantages of 
family influence, Rattigan made substantial 
contributions to legal literatiu*e amid his 
professional and public labours. He pub- 
lished ' Selected Cases in Hindu Law decided 
by the Privy Coiuicil and the Superior 
Indian Courts' (2 vols., Lahore, 1870-1), 
•The Hindu Law of Adoption' (1873), 
' De Jure Personarum ' (1873), and he colla- 
borated with ]Mr. Justice Charles Boulnois 
(1832-1912), of the Punjab chief court, in 
' Notes on the Customary Law as adminis- 
tered in the Punjab ' (1878). His most 
important book, 'A Digest of Civil and 
Customary Law of the Pimjab ' (Lahore, 
1880), which reached a seventh edition 
(1909), was designed to classify material 
for a futiue codification, and rendered 
Rattigan a foremost authority upon cus- 
tomary law in Northern India. His other 
works were ' The Science of Jurisprudence ' 
(Lahore, 1888), which, chiefly intended for 
Indian students, reached a third edition 
(1899) ; ' Private International Law' (1895) ; 
and a pamphlet on the international aspects 
of ' The Case of the Netherlands South 
African Railway' (1901). Rattigan Avas 
knighted in Jan. 1895, was made queen's 
counsel in May 1897, and was elected 
bencher of his inn in June 1903. 

On settling in England in 1900 he prac- 
tised before the privy coimcil. At the 
general election of 1900 he rmsuccessfuUy 
contested North East Lanark in the liberal- 
unionist interest ; but at the bye-election 
on 26 Sept. 1901 he won the seat by a 
majority of 904. Speaking rarely, and 
chiefly on Indian matters, he was respected 
by all parties. He was kiUed in a motor- 
car accident near Biggleswade, on his way 
to Scotland, on 4 Jidy 1904, and was 
buried in Kensal Green cemetery. 

He married (1) on 21 Dec. 1861, at Delhi, 
Teresa Matilda {d. 9 Sept. 1876), daughter 
of Colonel A. C. B. Higgins, CLE., examiner 
of accovmts, public works department ; 
(2) at Melboiurne, on 1 April 1878, her 
sister Evelyn, who survives. By his first 
marriage he had two daughters and four 
sons, and by his second marriage three 

There is a memorial window in Harrow 
Chapel, where Rattigan's sons were edu- 
cated, and a tablet is in the cathedral at 

[Rattigan's legal works ; the Punjab 
Magazine, Feb. 1895 ; Men of Merit, London, 
1900 ; Glasgow Contemporaries at DawTi of 
XXth Century, Glasgow 1901 ; Punjab Civil 
Lists ; The Times, 5, 6, 7, and 11 July 1904 ; 
The Biographer, Nov. 1901 ; Civil and Military 
Gazette, Lahore, 7, 9, and 22 July 1904; 
Pioneer, 7 July 1904 ; Law Times,' 9 July 
1904 ; family details kindly suppUed by Lady 
Rattigan.] F. H. B. 

RAVEN, JOHN JAMES (1833-1906), 
archaeologist and campanologist, born on 
25 June 1833 at Boston, Lincolnshire, 
was eldest son of eight children of John 
Hardy Raven, of Huguenot descent, rector 
of WorHngton, Suffolk, by his wife Jane 
Augusta, daughter of John Richman, 
attorney, of Lymington, Hampshire. A 
younger brother, the Rev. John Hardy 
Raven (1842-1911), was headmaster of 
Beccles school. John, after early training 
at home, entered St. Catharine's College, 
Cambridge, on 18 Oct. 1853, and migrated 
on 17 Dec. following to Emmanuel College 
(where he was awarded first an Ash ex- 
hibition and subsequently a sizarship). 
He graduated B.A. as a senior optime in the 
mathematical tripos of 1857, proceeding 
M.A. in 1860 and D.D. in 1872. In 1857 
he was appointed second master of Seven - 
oaks grammar school, and was ordained 
curate of the parish church there. In 1859 
he became headmaster of Bungay grammar 
school, an office which was for nearly 300 
years in the gift of Emmanuel College. He 
improved the working of the school and 
raised money for a new building, which was 
opened in 1863. A commemorative tablet 
testifies to his share of the work. From 
1866 to 1885 he was headmaster of Yar- 
mouth grammar school. He served for 
some time as curate of the parish church, 
Yarmouth, and was from 1881 to 1885 vicar 
of St. George's in that town. In 1885 he 
was presented by the Master of Emmanuel 
to the consolidated vicarage of Fressingfield 
and rectory of Withersdale in Suffolk, and 
was admitted on 23 March 1895 (under 
a dispensation from the archbishop of 
Canterbury) to the vicarage of Metfield in 
the same county. He was chosen honorary 
canon of Norwich in 1888, and rural dean of 
Hoxne in 1896, and a co-opted member 
of the County Education Committee on its 
formation in 1902. 

While a youth Raven began his lifelong 





archaeological study by examining the bells 
of the churches near his home at Wor- 
lington and by contributing to Parker's 
' Ecclesiastical History of Suffolk ' in 1854. 
He served from 1881 till his death on the 
committee of the Norfolk and Norwich 
Archaeological Society, which he joined in 
1871, was a vice-president of the Suffolk 
Institute of Archaeology, and was elected 
r.S.A. on 23 April 1891. The best English 
campanologist of his time, he was president 
of the Norwich Diocesan Association of 
Ringers, and published books on 'The 
Church Bells of Cambridgeshire ' (Lowestoft, 
1869; 2nd edit. Camb. Antiq. Soc. 1881), 
'The Church Bells of Suffolk' (1890), and 
* The Bells of England ' (in the 'Antiquary's 
Books' series, 1906). He died at Fressing- 
field vicarage on 20 Sept. 1906, and was 
buried in the churchyard, A reredos was 
erected to his memory in the church. His 
pupils at Yarmouth presented him with his 
portrait by Alfred Lys Baldry (now belong- 
ing to his eldest son at Fressingfield), and 
a tower at Yarmouth school commemorated 
his successful headmastership. His fine 
library of county and bell literature was 
sold at Fressingfield in Nov. 1906. 

He married on 19 March 1860, at Milden- 
hall parish church, Suffolk, Fanny, young- 
est daughter of Robert Homer Harris of 
Botesdale, and had, with two daughters, 
seven sons, of whom three took holy orders. 

Besides the works already mentioned, 
separate sermons, and contributions to 
periodicals, including 'Emmanuel College 
Magazine,' Raven published ' The History 
of Suffolk' (in the ' Popular County His- 
tories' series, 1895), and 'Mathematics 
made easy : Lectures on Geometry and 
Algebra ' (1897). He also compiled the 
' Early Man ' section of the ' Victoria 
County History of Suffolk,' and projected 
a volume, ' Sidelights on the Revolution 
Period,' for which he transcribed Arch- 
bishop Sancroft's commonplace book. 

[AthenoBum, 29 Sept. 1906 ; Emmanuel Coll. 
Mag., vol. xvii. no. 1 ; private information.] 

T. C. H. 

1906), soldier and Oriental scholar, bom at 
Falmouth on 31 May 1825, was the son of 
Peter Raverty of co. Tyrone, a surgeon in 
the navy. His mother belonged to the 
family of Drown of Falmouth. Educated 
at Fahnouth and Penzance, at fifteen or 
sixteen he showed an inclination for the 
sea, but a short voyage as a passenger from 
Penzance disillusioned him, and he resolved 
to become a soldier. The interest of Sir 
Charles Lemon secured him a cadetship. 

and he sailed for India. Appointed to 
the Welsh fusiliers, he very soon (in 1843) 
exchanged into the 3rd Bombay native 
infantry. With his regiment he was 
present at the siege of Multan in 1848 ; 
served in Gujarat, and in the first frontier 
expedition in 1850 against tribes on the 
Suwat border. For his services at Multan 
and Gujarat he received a medal with two 
clasps, and a medal with one clasp for the 
north-west frontier. Raverty held a civil 
appointment as assistant-commissioner in 
the Punjab from 1852 to 1859. He was 
promoted major in 1863 and retired from 
the army next year. 

Settling in England, first near Ottery St. 
Mary, and afterwards at Grampound Road, 
Cornwall, Raverty pursued till the end 
of his long hfe various Oriental studies 
which he had begun in India. Although 
he lacked academic training, he was gifted 
with scholarly JLnstincts, and devoted him- 
self to linguistic, historical, geographical, 
and ethnological study on scientific lines. 
In India he first learned Hindustani, Per- 
sian, Gujarati, and Marathi, and for his 
knowledge of these languages gained the 
' high proficiency ' prize of 1000 rupees from 
his government. A ' Thesaurus of English 
Hindustani Technical Terms ' (1859) proved 
his Unguistic aptitude in Hindustani. His 
transference to the north-west frontier at 
Peshawar in 1849 had meanwhile directed 
his chief attention to the Pushtu or Afghan 
language, history, and ethnology. To the 
' Transactions ' of the Geographical Society 
of Bombay, Raverty contributed in 1851 
' An Account of the City and Province 
of Peshawar,' illustrated with maps 
and sepia sketches. In order to acquire 
practical knowledge of the Pushtu tongue 
he had to collect, arrange, and systematise 
almost the whole of the needful gram- 
matical and lexical material. Raverty 
thus became ' the father of the study of 
Afghan.' His fiirst efforts proved compre- 
hensive and final. In 1855 he published his 
' Grammar of the Pushto or Language 
of the Afghans,' which Dr. Dom, the 
eminent orientalist of St. Petersburg, 
warmly commended. In 1860, besides a 
second and improved edition of the 
Grammar (3rd edit. 1867), he published his 
monumental ' Dictionary of the Pushto or 
Afghan Language ' (2nd edit. 1867), and his 
admirable anthology of Pushtu prose and 
poetry entitled ' Gulshan i Roh.' He was 
as well acquainted with the Pushtu Uterature 
as with the spoken language. In 1862 there 
followed ' Selections from the Poetry of the 
Afghans from the Sixteenth to the Nine- 




teenth Century ' in an English translation. 
After leaving India, in 1864, he published 
' The Gospel of the Afghans, being a Critical 
Examination of a Small Portion of the New 
Testament in Pushtu '; in 1871 a translation 
of * iEsop's Fables ' into Pushtu, and in 1880 
a ' Pushtu Manual.' Between 1881 and 1888 
he issued in four instalments his ponderous 
work ' Notes on Afghanistan and Balu- 
chistan,' in which he describes as many as 
three and twenty routes in those countries. 
Besides its geographical and topographical 
inf onnation, the book contains an important 
contribution to the ethnology of those 
regions, and much concerning the manners 
and customs of the tribes and clans. The 
' Notes ' were prepared at the request of 
the marquis of Salisbury when secretary of | 
state for India in 1875-6. | 

Simultaneously Raverty was working 
at his translation of the ' Tabakat i Nasiri,' 1 
which was pubhshed in 1881. It is a 
rendering from Persian into English of 
Minhaj ibn Siraj's work on general history, 
with special reference to the Muhammadan 
dynasties of Asia, and particularly those of 
Ghur, Ghaznah (now parts of Afghanistan), 
and Hindustan. By his critical remarks 
and copious illustrative notes derived from 
his wide reading of other native authors, 
Raverty vastly enhanced the historical 
value and completeness of IVIinhaj's work. 

Other of Raverty's valuable studies 
appeared chiefly in the ' Journal of the 
Asiatic Society,' Bengal. Among these 
papers were ' Remarl^ on the Origin of 
the Afghan People ' (1854) ; ' Notes on 
Kafiristan and the Siah - Posh Kafir 
Tribes ' (1858) ; ' On the Language of the 
Siah-Posh Kafirs of Kafiristan' (1864); 
' An Account of Upper Kashghar and 
Chitral' (1864); 'Memoir of the Author 
of the Tabakat i Nasiri' (1882); 'The 
Mihran of Sind and its Tributaries — a Geo- 
graphical Study' (1892) ; and ' Tibbat three 
hundred and sixty-five Years ago ' (1895). 
' Muscovite Proceedings on the Afghan 
Frontier ' was reprinted from the ' United 
Service Gazette ' in 1885. 

Raverty died at Grampound Road, Com- 
waU, on 20 Oct. 1906. He married in 1865 
Fanny Vigurs, only daughter of Commander 
George Pooley, R.N. She survived him 
without issue. 

Raverty, whose frankness in controversy 
cost him many friends, received small 
recognition in his lifetime from his fellow- 
co\intrymen, but his immense labours gave 
him a high reputation among foreign 
Oriental scholars. At his death Raverty 
had seven important works either com- 

pleted in manuscript or in prepara- 
tion, viz. : 1. ' A History of Herat 
and its Dependencies and the Annals of 
Klhurasan from the earUest down to 
modem Times,' based upon the works of 
native historians, which are treated with 
critical acumen ; the six bulky quarto 
volumes of MS., the result of fifty years' 
research, are now at the India office. 

2. ' A History of the Afghan People and 
their Country' (the whole material collected 
and the composition just commenced). 

3. ' A brief History of the Rise of the 
Isma'Uiah Sect in Africa.' 4. ' A History 
of the Mings and Hazarahs of Afghanistan 
and other Parts of Central Asia.' 5. ' A 
Translation of the Ta'rikh • i Alfi from the 
Persian.' 6. ' The Gospels in Pushtu ' 
(completed). 7. ' An Engliah-Pushto Dic- 
tionary ' (not completed). 

[The Times, 26 Oct. 1906 ; Buckland's 
Diet, of Indian Biog. ; Journal of the Royal 
Asiatic Soc, 1907, pp. 251-3 ; papers kindly 
lent by Major Raverty's widow.] E. E. 

RAWLINSON, GEORGE (1812-1902), 
canon of Canterbury, writer on ancient 
history, bom on 23 Nov. 1812, at Chadling- 
ton, Oxfordshire, was third son of Abraham 
Tysack Rawlinson by his wife Eliza Eudocia 
Albinia, daughter of Henry Creswicke, of 
Morton, Worcester. Sir Henry Creswicke 
Rawlinson [q. v.], was his brother. 
Educated at Swansea grammar school 
and at Ealing school, he matriculated in 
1834 at Trinity College, Oxford, as a 
commoner, and in 1838 took a first class 
in the final school of classics, gradu- 
ating B.A. in that year and proceeding 
M.A. in 1841. He played for Oxford in 
the first cricket match with Cambridge in 
1836 and was president of the Union in 
1840. He was elected fellow of Exeter 
College in 1840 and tutor in 1841. In 
1841 and 1842 he was ordained deacon and 
priest, and gained the Denyer prize for a 
theological essay twice — in 1842 and 1843. 
In 1846 he vacated his tutorship on his 
marriage, and for a short time (1846-7) was 
curate of Merton, Oxfordshire. But he 
soon found ways of renewing his activities 
and interests in Oxford. He served on 
the committee of the Tutors' Association, 
a body formed to consider the proposals of 
the University Commission of 1852, with 
Church, Marriott, Osborne Gordon, Mansel, 
and others. In 1853, with Dean Lake, 
he laid before Gladstone the views of the 
Tutors' Association, and thus had an im- 
portant influence in shaping the Oxford 
University Act of 1854. Gladstone's 




interest in Rawlinson may be dated from 
this interview. In the newly organised 
examination of classical moderations 
Rawlinson was a moderator from 1852 to 
1854, with Scott, Conington, Mansel, and 
others. He was an examiner in the final 
classical school in 1854, 1856, 1867 ; and 
in theology in 1874. In 1859 Rawlinson 
succeeded Mansel as Bampton lecturer, his 
subject being ' The Historical Evidences 
of the truth of the Scripture Records stated 
anew, with special reference to the doubts 
and discoveries of modem times ' (1859 ; 
2nd edit. 1860). In 1861 he was appointed 
Camden professor of ancient history. 
He held that post till 1889, and it left him 
leisure for writing and research. His 
interests in Oxford were not wholly aca- 
demic. He was a pioneer in the attempt 
to establish friendly and useful connections 
between the university and the town. 
From 1860 to 1863 he was a guardian of 
the poor ; he was a perpetual curator of 
the University Galleries, and an original 
member and first treasurer of the Oxford 
Political Economy Club. From 1859 to 
1870 he held the office of classical examiner 
Tinder the council of military education. 

In 1872 the crown appointed him canon 
of Canterbury. Indistinctness of speech 
interfered with his efficiency as a speaker 
and preacher, so that Gladstone's choice 
must be taken as a recognition of his 
learning, broad-mindedness, and admini- 
strative capacity. His interest in Canter- 
bury Cathedral was shown by valuable 
gifts and more particularly on the occasion 
of his golden wedding in 1896 by the 
presentation of a gold and jewelled paten 
and chalice. He was proctor in convoca- 
tion for Canterbury from 1873 to 1898. 
In 1888, the year before he resigned the 
Camden professorship, he was preferred 
by the chapter of his cathedral to the rich 
rectory of All Hallows, Lombard Street. 

Early in his career Rawlinson devoted 
himself to the preparation of an elaborate 
Enghsh edition of Herodotus. He arranged 
that his brother. Sir Heiu-y Rawlinson, and 
Sir J. Gardner Wilkinson, should contribute 
special articles on historical, archaeological 
and racial questions, while he himself 
prepared the translation with short notes 
and other adjuncts of scholarship. The 
edition was dedicated to Gladstone and 
superseded all other editions at Oxford for 
many years ; it was entitled ' The History 
of Herodotus. A new English version, 
edited with copious notes and appendices. 
Embodying the chief results, historical 
and ethnographical, which have been 

obtained in the progress of Cuneiform and 
Hieroglyphical discovery. By G. Rawlin- 
son . . . assisted by Sir H. Rawlinson and 
Sir J. G. Wilkinson' (4 vols. 1858-60; 
2nd edit. 1862; 3rd edit. 1875). An 
abridgement in two volumes by A. T. Grant 
appeared in 1897, and the translation, 
edited by G. H. Blakeney, was reprinted 
in ' Everyman's Library ' (2 vols.) in 1910. 
Pursuing his researches in this field, Rawlin- 
son summarised for his generation in 
scholarly form the results of research and 
excavation in the East, in a series of works 
of considerable constructive ability which 
have hardly yet been superseded in English. 
The first was ' The Five Great Monarchies 
of the ancient Eastern World ; or the 
history, geography, and antiquities of 
Chaldsea, Assyria, Babylonia, Media, and 
Persia. . . .' (4 vols. 1862-7 ; 2nd edit., 
3 vols. 1871). This was followed by ' The 
Sixth Great Oriental Monarchy ; or the 
geography, history, and antiquities of 
Parthia ' (1873) ; to which was added ' The 
Seventh Great Oriental Monarchy ; or the 
geography, history, and antiquities of the 
Sassanian or New Persian Empire ' (1876). 
Supplementary to this series were ' The 
History of Ancient Egypt ' (2 vols. 1881) ; 
and ' The History of Phoenicia' (1889). 

RawUnson was the champion of a learned 
orthodoxy which opposed the extremes of 
the literary higher critics by an appeal to 
the monuments and the evidence of archaeo- 
logy. In 1861 he contributed to ' Aids to 
Faith,' the volume of essays written to 
counteract ' Essays and Reviews,' a paper 
' On* the genuineness and authenticity of 
the Pentateuch,' and he published in the 
same year ' The Contrasts of Christianity 
with Heathen and Jewish Systems, or nine 
sermons preached before the University 
of Oxford.' In 1871, at the request of the 
Christian Evidence Society, he delivered 
a lecture on ' The Alleged Historical 
Difficulties of the Old and New Testaments,' 
which appeared in the volume entitled 
' Modem Scepticism.' As a commentator 
and expositor Rawlinson wrote for the 
' Speaker's Commentary ' on Kings, Chron- 
icles, Ezra, Nehemiah, Esther, and the two 
Books of the Maccabees ; and for Ellicott's 
' Old Testament Commentary for English 
Readers ' on Exodus. His last work was 
the life of his brother, entitled ' A Memoir 
of Major-general Sir H. C. Rawlinson. . . . 
with an introduction by Field-Marshal 
Lord Roberts of Kandahar ' (1898). 

Rawlinson was a fellow of the Royal 
Geographical Society, a corresponding 
member of the Royal Academy of Turin and 




of the American Philosophical Society. 
His health failed two years before his death, 
which took place suddenly from syncope 
on 6 Oct. 1902. He was buried in 
Holywell cemetery at Oxford. A portrait 
by his son-in-law, Wilson Forster, was pre- 
sented to Trinity College, Oxford, in 1899. 

Rawlinson married in 1846 Louisa, 
second daughter of Sir Robert Alexander 
Chermside [q. v.], and had issue four sons 
and five daughters. 

Besides the works already mentioned, 
large contributions to Dr. Smith's ' Diction- 
ary of the Bible,' pamphlets among ' Present 
Day Tracts,' and numerous sermons, 
Rawlinson pubUshed : 1. ' A Manual of 
Ancient History from the earliest times 
to the Fall of the Western Empire,' 1869. 
2. ' Historical Illustrations of the Old 
Testament,' 1871. 3 and 4 (for the 
R.T.S.) : ' The Origin of Nations,' 1877 ; 
' The Religions of the Ancient World,' 
1882. 5. ' St. Paul in Damascus and 
Arabia,' 1877. 6. ' Egypt and Babylon 
from Scripture and profane sources,' 1885. 
7, 8, 9 (for the ' Story of the Nations ' 
series): ' Parthia,' 1885 ; 'Phoenicia,' 1885 ; 
' Ancient Egypt,' 1887. 10. ' A Sketch of 
Universal History,' 1887. 11. ' Bibhcal 
Topography,' 1887. 12, 13, 14 (for the 
* Men of the Bible ' series) : ' Moses, his 
Life and Times,' 1887; 'Kings of Israel 
and Judah,' 1890 ; ' Isaac and Jacob, 
their Lives and Times,' 1890. 15. Large 
contributions to the ' Pvdpit Commentary.' 
16. The article on ' Herodotus ' in the 9th 
edition of the ' Encyclopaedia Britarmica.' 

[The Times, 7 Oct. 1902 ; Athenaeum, 11 
Oct. 1902 ; Men and Women of the Time, 
1899 ; Crockford's Clerical Directory.] R. B. 

WORTH (1843-1910), admiral, second son j 
of Christopher Rawson of Woolwich, J.P. 1 
for Surrey, was bom at Walton-on-the- I 
HUl, Lancashire, on 5 Nov. 1843. He was | 
at Marlborough College from Feb. 1854 ; 
to Christmas 1855. Entering the navy j 
on 9 April 1857, he was appointed to the i 
Calcutta, flagship of Sir Michael Seymour < 
[q. v.] on the China station. He served ! 
through the second Chinese war, being '. 
present in the Calcutta's launch at the I 
capture of the Taku forts in 1858, and in I 
1860 was landed as aide-de-camp to 1 
Captam R. Dew of the Encoimter, with j 
whom he was present at the second capture j 
of the Taku forts, at the battle of Palikao, | 
and at the taking of Peking. He saw much 
further active service against the Chinese 
rebels; for the capture of Ning-po, which 

place he afterwards held for three months 
against the rebels with 1300 Chinese 
under his command, and for Fungwha, 
where he was severely woTinded, he was 
mentioned in despatches. He also was 
thanked on the quarter-deck for jump- 
ing overboard at night in the Shanghai 
river to save Ufe. On 9 April 1863 he was 
promoted to sub-lieutenant, and a month 
later to lieutenant. In the same year he 
was one of the officers who took out to 
Japan the gunboat Empress, a present from 
Queen Victoria to the Mikado and the first 
ship of the modem Japanese navy. Rawson 
then qualified as a gunnery lieutenant, and 
after serving a commission as first lieutenant 
of the Bellerophon in the Channel, was 
appointed in Jan. 1870 to the Royal 
yacht, whence on 7 Sept. 1871 he was 
promoted to commander. In Aug. 1871 
he gained the silver medal of the Royal 
Humane Society for saving life at Antwerp. 
As commander he served two commissions 
in the Hercules, in the Channel and in the 
Mediterranean, and on 4 June 1877 was 
promoted to captain. In Nov. following he 
was appointed to the Minotaur as flag- 
captain to Lord John Hay, commanding 
the Channel squadron ; and, going to the 
Mediterranean in 1878, he received the 
thanks of the Admiralty for a report on the 
capabilities of defence of the Suez Canal, 
hoisted the British flag at Nicosia, Cj^rus, 
and was for a month commandant there. 
Follo\^-ing this service he was again flag- 
captain in the Channel squadron imtil March 
1882, and then was appointed to the 
Thaha for the Egyptian campaign, during 
which he served as principal transport 
officer. He was awarded the medal, the 
Khedive's star, the third class of the 
Osmanieh, and the C.B. From Feb. 1883 
to Sept. 1885 he was again flag-captain to 
Lord John Hay, then commander-in-chief 
in the Mediterranean, and in Oct. 1885 
became captain of the steam reserve at 
Devonport, where he remained till 1889. 
He was a member of the signal committee of 
1886, was captain of the battleship Benbow 
in the Mediterranean from 1889 to 1891, 
and was an aide-de-camp to Queen Victoria 
from Aug. 1890 until promoted to flag 
rank on 14 Feb. 1892. 

Rawson was a member of the inter- 
national code signals committee from 1892 
to 1895, in 1893 was one of the lunpires 
for the naval manoeuvres, and in May 
1895 was appointed commander-in-chief on 
the Cape of Good Hope and west coast of 
Africa station, with his flag in the St. George. 
He held this command until Mav 1898, and 




during it organised and carried out two 
expeditions. In Aug. 1895 he landed the 
brigade which captured M'weli, the strong- 
hold of Mburuk, a rebellious Arab chief, 
for which service the general Africa medal 
with ' M'weli, 1895 ' engraved on the rim 
was awarded ; in Aug. 1896 part of his 
squadron bombarded the palace at Zanzibar 
and deposed the pretender, Rawson re- 
ceiving the brilliant star of Zanzibar, first 
class, in acknowledgment from the sultan ; 
his action was officially approved, and he 
received the thanks of the admiralty. 
In Feb. 1897 he landed in command of the 
naval brigade of his squadron, with which, 
together with a force of Haussas, he ad- 
vanced to and captured Benin city, in pun- 
ishment for the recent massacre of British 
political officers. He received the K.C.B. 
for this service in May 1897, and the clasp 
for Benin. On 19 March 1898 he was 
promoted to vice-admiral. 

Rawson commanded the Channel squad- 
ron from Dec. 1898 to April 1901, after 
which he was appointed president of the 
committee which investigated the structural 
strength of torpedo-boat destroyers. This 
was his last naval service. In Jan. 1902 
he was appointed governor of New South 
Wales, ' a post for which his tact, kindliness, 
and good sense were sturdy qualifications.' 
Sir Harry was a successful and popular 
governor, and in 1908 his term of office 
was extended by one year to May 1909. He 
was promoted to admiral on 12 Aug. 1903, 
and retired on 3 Nov. 1908 ; in June 1906 
he was made a G.C.B., and a G.C.M.G. in 
Nov. 1909. He died in London, following 
an operation for appendicitis, on 3 Nov. 
1910, and was buried at Bracknell parish 
church, a memorial service being held at 
St. Margaret's, Westminster. 

Rawson married on 19 Oct. 1871 Florence 
Alice Stewart, daughter of John Ralph 
Shaw of Arrowe Park, Cheshire, and had 
issue five children. Lady Rawson died in 
the Red Sea on 3 Dec. 1905, while on 
passage out to Australia. 

A cartoon by ' Spy ' appeared in ' Vanity 
Fair ' in 1901. 

[The Times, 4 Nov. 1910. An engraved 
portrait was published by Messrs. Walton of 
Shaftesbury Avenue. Royal Navy List.] 

L. G. C. L. 

READ, CLARE SEWELL (1826-1905). 
agriculturist, the eldest son of George 
Read of Barton Bendish Hall, Norfolk, 
by Sarah Ann, daughter of Clare Sewell, 
was born at Ketteringham on 6 Nov. 1826. 

His ancestors had been tenant-farmers in 
Norfolk since the end of the sixteenth 
century. He was educated privately at 
Ljrnn, and from the age of fifteen to 
twenty was learning practical agriculture 
upon his father's farm. Before he was 
of age he was managing the large farm 
of Kilpaison in Pembrokeshire, and was 
afterwards resident agent on the earl 
of Macclesfield's Oxfordshire estates. He 
returned to Norfolk in 1854 and took 
his father's farm at Plumstead, near 
Norwich, xintil 1865, when he succeeded 
a relative at Honingham Thorpe, and 
farmed about 800 acres there until 
Michaelmas 1896. 

In July 1865 he was returned to parlia- 
ment as conservative member for East 
Norfolk, which he continued to represent 
until the Reform Act of 1867, when Nor- 
folk was divided into three constituencies. 
He sat for South Norfolk from 1868 to 1880, 
when he was defeated at the general election 
by one vote. He then decHned to stand 
for North Lincolnshire and Cambridgeshire, 
but in Feb. 1884 was returned unopposed 
for West Norfolk, sitting until the dis- 
solution of parliament in 1885, when he 
retired from the representation of the 
county. He unsuccessfully contested Nor- 
wich in July 1886. 

In his first speech in parliament, in 1866, 
in support of Sir Fitzroy Kelly's motion for 
the repeal of the malt tax, he suggested, 
as an alternative, a beer tax of one penny 
per gallon upon all beer that was sold ; 
that a Hcence should be paid by private 
brewers ; and that all cottagers should be 
free to brew their own beer, a concession 
granted later. He strenuously supported 
and promoted all the acts of parliament 
passed for the suppression of cattle plague 
and all other imported diseases among live 
stock ; advocated the inalienable right of 
the occupier of the land to destroy ground 
game ; persistently contended for the 
compulsory payment of tenant farmers' 
improvements in the soil ; argued that all 
property, and not land and buildings alone, 
should contribute to local as well as im- 
perial burdens ; and in 1876 carried a 
unanimous resolution in the House of 
Commons in favour of representative 
county boards. 

In 1865 he served on the cattle plague 
commission, and for twenty years sat upon 
almost every agricultural committee of 
the House of Commons. In Feb. 1874 he 
was appointed by Disraeli parUamentary 
secretary to the local government board, 
but resigned in Jan. 1876, in consequence of 




the government refusing to extend to Ire- 
land the Cattle Diseases Act which had been 
passed for Great Britain. This, however, 
soon afterwards became law. Upon his 
resigning his government appointment, 
he was presented by the farmers of Eng- 
land with a silver salver and a pmse of 
5500/. at a dinner given at the Cannon 
Street Hotel on 2 May 1876. 

On the appointment in Jmie 1879 of the 
duke of Richmond's royal commission on 
agriculture, Clare Sewell Read and Albert 
PeU [q. V. Suppl. II] were made assistant 
commissioners to visit the United States 
and Canada to inquire into and report 
on the conditions of agriculture there, 
particularly as related to the production 
and exportation of wheat to Evirope. 
They were away six months, and travelled 
16,000 miles. 

In 1848 Read won the Royal Agricultural 
Society's prize essay on the farming of South 
Wales, and in 1854 and 1856 obtained the 
society's prizes for similar reports on Oxford- 
shire and Buckinghamshire. He contributed 
numerous other papers to the Royal Agri- 
cultural Society's ' Journal,' and acted 
frequently as judge at the Royal, Smithfield, 
Bath and West of England, and other 
agricultural shows. 

He also wrote a valuable article on the 
Agriculture of Norfolk for the 4th edition of 
White's 'History, Gazetteer and Directory ' 
of that county (1883). 

In January 1866 he joined the Farmers' 
Club (originally founded in 1842), and was 
an active member till his death, frequently 
reading papers at meetings, serving on 
the committee, and acting as chairman 
for two separate years, in 1868 and again 
in 1892 (jubilee year). He was also a 
member of the council of the central 
chamber of agriculture (of which he was 
chairman in 1869) and of the Smithfield 

WTien his intention to give up fanning 
in Norfolk was made known, a county 
committee organised a fund for presenting 
him wdth his portrait. This pictiire, 
painted by J. J. Shannon, R.A., now 
hangs in the castle at Norwich. In his 
later years Read lived in London at 91 
Kensington Gardens Square, where he died 
on 21 Aug. 1905, but he was buried in his 
native soil at Barton Bendish. In 1859 
he married Sarah Maria, the only daughter 
of J. Watson, and had by her four 

[The Times, 23 and 28 Aug. 1905 ; Mark 
Lane Express, 18 Aug. 1905 ; personal know- 
ledge.] E. C. 

1907), Surrey cricketer, was bom at Reigate 
on 23 Nov. 1855. He was educated at the 
Reigate Priory school, which was managed 
by his father. Showing early aptitude for 
cricket, he joined the Reigate Priory Club, 
and at the age of thirteen scored 78 not out 
against Tonbridge and the bowling of Bob 
Lipscombe. In 1873 Read was introduced 
to Charles WiUiam Alcock, the secretary of 
the Surrey cricket club, and from that date 
to 1897 was a regular member of the 
Surrey team. He assisted his father at 
Reigate Priory school until 1881, when 
he became assistant secretary to the Surrey 
cricket club, and thenceforth he devoted 
all his time to cricket. From 1883 he 
helped Gteorge Lohmann [q. v. Suppl. 11] 
to restore Surrey to a leading cricketing 
position among the counties. In 1885 he 
became partner in a City auctioneering 
and surveying business. In his last years 
he was coach to young players at the Oval. 
During his twenty-five years' career in 
first-class cricket (1873-97) Read gained 
triumphal success as a batsman, scoring no 
fewer than 46 centuries. At his best from 
1885 to 1888, he scored in successive matches 
in June 1887 for Surrey v. Lancashire and 
Cambridge University respectively 247 and 
244 not out, and 338 in 1888 for Surrey 
V. Oxford University. Between 1877 and 
1895 Read played in 23 matches for 
Gentlemen v. Players, his best score being 
159 in July 1885, and in twelve test 
matches in England against the Australians 
between 1884 and 1893, his most memorable 
performance in Austrahan matches being 
at Kennington Oval in August 1884, when 
going in tenth he scored 117. In this match 
Wilham Lloyd Murdoch [q. v. Suppl. II] 
scored 211 for the Austrahans. Read twice 
visited Australia : in 1882-3 with Ivo Bligh's 
team, and in 1887-8 with G. F. Vernon's 
team. In the second tour Read averaged 
over 65 runs per innings in eleven -a-side 
matches. He took a team in the winter of 

i 1 891-2 to South Africa. Of strong physique, 
Read was a determined hitter, and a very 
attractive batsman who brought ' pulling ' 
to a fine art. A very safe field, he shone 
especially at point, and he was also a 
usefid ' lob ' bowler. As a captain he had 
few superiors. 

Read, who published a useful record 
called ' Annals of Cricket ' in 1896, died 
on 6 Jan. 1907 at Col worth Road, Addis- 
combe Park, Croydon, and was buried at 
Shirley. He married and had issue. A 
painted portrait depicting Read at the 

; wicket, by G. H. Barrable and Mr. Staples, 




was exhibited at the Gcupil Galjery in 
1887 ; he also figures m ' Punch ' (13 Aug. 
1887) in ' Cricket at the Oval ' 

[W. W. Read, Annals of Cricket, 1896; 
Daft, Kings of Cricket (with portrait, p. 195) ; 
Wisden's Cricketers' Almanack, 1907, clxxiv- 
vi ; 1908, pp. 14a-151 ; Haygarth's Cricket 
Scores and Biographies, xii. 894-5 ; xiv. xcv- 
xcvii ; portraits in Cricket, 26 April 1888, 
21 Aug. 1890 ; Cricket Field, 24 Sept. 1892 ; 
Wisden's Cricketers' Almanack, 1893 ; Sporting 
Sketches, 17 Sept. 1894 ; information from 
Mr. P. M. Thornton.] W. B. 0. 

1909), geologist, born on 27 May 1832 in 
Mill Street, Toxteth Park, liverpool, where 
hia father William James Reade kept a 
small private school, was of common descent 
from StafjEordshire yeomen with Joseph 
Bancroft Reade [q. v.] and Sir Thomas 
Reade, depiity adjutant-general at St. 
Helena during Napoleon's captivity. His 
mother, Mary Mellard, of Newcastle-under- 
Lyme, was aunt to Dinah Maria Mulock 
[q. V.]. After private schools he began 
work at the end of 1844 in the office of 
Eyes and Son, architects and surveyors, 
Liverpool. At the beginning of 1853 
he entered the engineer's office of the 
London and North Western railway com- 
pany at Warrington, where he rose to be 
principal draughtsman. In 1860 he started 
on his own account in liverpool as architect 
and civil engineer and built up a good busi- 
ness, being architect to the Liverpool school 
board during its existence from 1870 to 1902, 
and laying out the BlundelJsands estate 
in 1868, on which he resided from 1868 
till death. He died at his house, Park 
Comer, BlundeUsands, on 26 May 1909, 
and was bmied at Sefton, Lancashire. 

Always fond of natural history, Reade 
began serious work in geology when about 
thirty-five years old, and lost none of the 
opportunities for that study which his pro- 
fession offered. In addition to two books, 
he wrote nearly 200 papers and addresses, 
of which many were communicated to 
the Liverpool Geological Society, others 
to the ' Geological Magazine ' and the 
Geological Society of London. Of these 
one group deals with the glacial and post- 
glacial geology of Lancashire and the 
adjoining counties. They record many 
important facts disclosed in excavations, 
which would otherwise have been lost. 
A very practical result of his studies was 
that when the tunnel under the Mersey 
was projected in 1873 he predicted that 
it would encounter a buried river channel 
fiUed with drift ; his prophecy was verified in 

1885.^ He also made valuable collections 
of specimens from boulders and of marine 
shells from the glacial drifts. In the 
later years of his life, co-operating with 
Mr. PhiUp Holland, Reade studied the 
mineral structure and changes of sedi- 
mentary, and especially slaty, rocks, 
forming for this purpose a collection of 
rocks, slices, sands and sediments. These 
are now in the Sedgwick Museum, Cam- 
bridge, as the gift of his son, Mr. Aleyn 
LyeU Reade. A third group of his papers 
dealt with questions of geomorphology, 
with which also his two books are occupied. 
In the earlier, on the ' Origin of Mountain 
Ranges ' (1886), he discussed among other 
hypotheses that which attributes them to a 
locaUsed crumpling of the earth's crust, 
caused by a shortening of its radius while 
cooling. Reade maintained them to be 
the slow cumulative result of successive 
variations of temperature in this crust, 
largely produced by the removal of sedi- 
ment (like the transference of a blanket) 
from one part to the other ; pointing out the 
necessary existence in a cooling globe of a 
' level of no strain.' His second book, on 
the ' Evolution of Earth Structure ' (1903), 
further defined and illustrated the above 
view, arguing that while the relative 
proportion of sea and land had been 
fairly constant through geological time, 
regional changes of level were due to 
alterations in the bulk of the lithosphere, 
caused by expansion and contraction. 
Though the majority of geologists have 
not as yet accepted his opinions on this 
question, aU must agree that, as was 
usual with him, they are ably argued and 
demand careful consideration. 

Reade became a Fellow of the London 
Geological Society in 1872, and was awarded 
its Murchison medal in 1896. He was three 
times president of the Liverpool Geological 
Society, was a past president of the Liver- 
pool Architectural Society, an associate 
member of the Institution of Civil Engineers, 
and an honorary member of other societies. 

He married on 19 May 1886 Emma Eliza, 
widow of Alfred Taylor, C.E., who pre- 
deceased him, and by whom he had three 
sons and one daughter. Of the former, 
Mr. Aleyn LyeU Reade is author of 'The 
Reades of Blackwood Hill ' and * Dr. 
Johnson's Ancestry ' (privately printed, 
1906), and 'Johnsonian Gleanings,' part i. 

[Geolog. Mag. 1909 ; Quarterly Journal 
Geolog. Soc. 1910 ; Liverpool Geolog. See. vol. 
xi. pt. i. ; information from Mr. Aleyn LyeU 
Reade ; personal knowledge.] T. G. B. 



1908), biblical scholar, bom at Sydenham 
on 19 June 1848, was eldest son of Henry 
Syme Redpath, solicitor, of Sydenham, by 
his wife Harriet Adeney of Islington. In 
1857 he entered Merchant Taylors' School, 
and won a scholarship at Queen's College, 
Oxford, in 1867, taking a second class in 
classical moderations in 1869 and a third class 
in Liter se humaniores in 1871, graduating 
B.A. in 1871, and proceeding M.A. in 1874 
and D.Litt. in 1901. Ordained deacon in 
1872 and priest in 1874, Redpath, after 
being curate of Southam, near Rugby, and 
then of Luddesdown, near Gravesend, was 
successively vicar of Wolvercote, near 
Oxford (1880-3), rector of Holwell, Sher- 
'bome (1883-90), and vicar of Sparsholt, 
with Kingston Lisle, near Wantage (1890-8). 
In 1898. by an exchange, he became rector 
of St. Dunstan-in-the-East, City. Redpath 
was sub-warden of the Society of Sacred 
Study in the diocese of London, and 
examining chaplain to the Bishop of 
London (1905-8). 

Redpath, who had learned Hebrew at 
Merchant Taylors' School, speciaUsed, while 
a country parson, in the Greek of the 
Septuagint, completing and publishing the 
work which Edwin Hatch [q. v.] left 
imfinished : * A Concordance to the Septua- 
gint and other Greek Translations of the Old 
Testament ' (Oxford, 1892-1906, 3 vols.). 
The value of his work was recognised 
both here and on the Continent (cf. Adolf 
Detssmann, The Philology of the Greek 
Bible, 1908, pp. 69-78). Redpath was 
Grinfield lectiirer on the Septuagint at 
Oxford (1901-5), and shortly before his 
death designed a ' Dictionary of Patristic 

As a biblical scholar he was conservative. 
He expounded his opposition to the 
' critical ' view of the Old Testament in 
' Modem Criticism and the Book of Genesis ' 
(1905), published by the Society for Pro- 
moting Christian Knowledge. An abler and 
more constructive work was his painstaking 
* Westminster Commentary ' on Ezekiel, 
with introduction and notes ( 1 907 ) . He was 
also a contributor to Hastings's ' Dictionary 
of the Bible' (1904, 4 vols.) and to the 
' Illustrated Bible Dictionary.' 

Redpath died at Sydenham on 24 Sept. 
1908, and was buried at ShottermiU, 
Smrrey. He married at Marsh Caundle, 
Dorsetshire, on 5 Oct. 1886, Catherine Helen, 
daughter of Henry Peter Auber of Marsh 
Court, Sherborne. She died at ShottermiU, 
on 26 Aug. 1898, leaving one son. 

[The Times, 25 Sept. 1908 ; Guardian, 30 Sept. 


and 7 Oct. 1908 ; C. J. Robinson, Merchant 
Taylors' School list ; private information.] 

E. H. P. 

1906), naval architect and chief constructor 
of the navy, son of John Reed of Sheemess, 
was born there on 20 Sept. 1830, and after 
serving an apprenticeship with a ship- 
wright in Sheemess dockyard w«is chosen 
in 1849 to enter the school of mathematics 
and naval construction which had been 
established at Portsmouth in 1848 with 
Dr. John Woolley [q. v.] as its principal. 
After passing through the school he re- 
ceived in 1852 an appointment as super- 
numerary draughtsman in the mould loft 
at Sheemess, but finding his duties, which 
were of a routine nature and involved no 
responsibility, irksome, he left the admiralty 
service in the same year. Reed devoted 
his leisure at this time to writing poetry, 
and turned to technical journalism ; in 
1853 he was offered and accepted the editor- 
ship of the ' Mechanic's Magazine.' In 1854 
he submitted to the admiralty a design for 
a fast armour-clad frigate, but the need 
of such a type was not yet admitted and the 
design was refused. At the end of 1859 
John Scott Russell [q. v.] called together 
a small body of naval architects, of whom 
Reed was one, in order to attempt the 
foundation of a technical society. The 
effort was immediately successful, and the 
Institution of Naval Architects was estab- 
lished early in 1860, Reed, who had been 
organising secretary from the first, being 
permanently appointed to the secretary- 
ship. In 1862 he submitted to the admir- 
alty designs for the conversion of wooden 
men-of-war into armour-clads on the belt 
and battery system, and was encouraged 
to proceed. The conversion of three ships 
was put in hand and carried out imder 
Reed's supervision, and before their com- 
pletion he was offered and accepted, in 
1863, the post of chief constructor of the 
navy. With this appointment a new 
epoch of naval construction began. The 
earUest ironclads were very long and xm- 
handy ships, mounting all their guns on the 
broadside. Reed's object was to produce 
shorter ships of greater handiness, and to 
develop their end-on fire without sacrificing 
their weight of broadside. The battle 
between guns and armour had already be- 
gun, and the demand on the one part for 
heavier armour and on the other for larger 
guns was insistent. The Bellerophon, the 
first ship designed by Reed after he took 
office, was typical of many others that 
followed, and marked a great advance 




towards the realisation of the desired 
qualities. Launched in May 1865, she was 
a high freeboard ship, fully rigged as then 
seemed necessary to seamen ; she was 
protected by a complete belt at the 
waterline, and amidships rose an armoured 
citadel enclosing the main battery and 
covering the vitals of the ship. An 
attempt to gain end-on fire was made 
by mounting a smaller battery behind 
armour in the bows, but in later ships this 
expedient was improved on by the intro- 
duction of recessed ports for the guns at the 
comers of the central battery. Structur- 
ally also the Bellerophon was an important 
ship, for in her Reed introduced a new system 
of framing, known as the longitudinal and 
bracket-frame system, which was better 
suited than the old method to the use of 
iron, which was still quite a novel material 
for the hulls of men-of-war. 

At the same time an entirely different 
type of armoured ship was advancing in 
favour. This was the low freeboard moni- 
tor, with its heavy gims mounted in turrets, 
a type which had done well in the peculiar 
circumstances of the American civil war. 
Reed built several ships of this type, all of 
them in the main similar to the Glatton ; 
but he fought strenuously against the idea 
of building large masted monitors as sea- 
going ships. He held, and indeed proved, 
that the low freeboard monitor would be 
dangerously lacking in stabihty under sail, 
and at the time when the Captain was 
building to the plans of Capt. Cowper Phipps 
Coles [q. v.], he put forward a design for 
a large seagoing monitor which should be 
entirely mastless. This was the Devasta- 
tion, a ship whose design exercised a greater 
influence on the course of naval architecture 
perhaps than any other. Reed's plans 
for the ship, which was laid down in 
Nov. 1869, were modified in some, as he 
thought, important particulars, and, owing 
to a failure to agree with the admiralty 
on questions connected with the construc- 
tion of turret ships, he resigned office in 
July 1870. The report of the committee 
on designs which sat after the loss of the 
Captain (7 Sept. 1870) was in many 
respects a justification of Reed's views, 
and directly reassured public opinion as 
to the safety of the Devastation. On 
resigning from the admiralty he joined 
Sir Joseph Whitworth [q. v.] at his ordnance 
works at Manchester ; in 1871 he became 
chairman of Earl's Company, Hull, and 
in the same year began practice as a 
naval architect in London. He designed 
ships for several foreign navies, including 

those of Turkey, Japan, Germany, Chili, 
and Brazil, and of these three, the 
Neptune in 1877, and the sister ships 
Swiftsure and Triumph in 1903, were 
bought into the royal navy. In Oct. 1878 
he visited Japan at the invitation of 
the imperial government. He was also 
consulting naval engineer to the Indian 
government and to the crown colonies. 
Reed was a keen advocate of technical 
education, and while at the admiralty 
used his influence in favour of the Royal 
School of Naval Architecture and Marine 
Engineering, which was estabhshed in 1864. 
It was also in great measure due to his 
appreciation of the value of the work, and 
to his recommendation of it, that the sup- 
port of the admiralty was given to William 
Froude [q. v.] in his model-experiments 
on the resistance and propulsion of ships. 
In 1876 he was elected a fellow by the 
Royal Society ; he had received the C.B. 
in 1868, and was advanced to the K.C.B. 
in 1880, besides which he held several 
foreign decorations. From 1865 to 1905 
he was a vice-president of the Institution 
of Naval Architects, and in addition was 
an active member of other technical 

In 1873 Reed attempted unsuccessfully 
to enter parliament as liberal candidate 
for HuU, and in the following year was 
returned as member for the Pembroke 
boroughs. From the general election of 
1880 until 1895, when he was defeated, 
he sat for Cardiff, and was a lord of the 
treasury in the short Gladstonian adminis- 
tration of 1886. In 1900 he was again 
returned for Cardiff, but did not seek 
re-election in 1905. He served on several 
important parliamentary committees, and 
was chairman of the load-line committee 
of 1884, and of the manning of ships 
committee of 1894. He was for many 
years a J. P. for Glamorgan. 

Reed's contributions both to general and 
to technical literature were numerous. His 
published volumes include ' Corona, and 
other Poems ' (12mo, 1857) ; ' Letters from 
Russia in 1875 ' (first printed in ' The Times ' 
1876) ; ' Japan, its History, Traditions, 
and Religions : with a Narrative of a Visit in 
1879 ' (2 vols. 1880) ; and a further volume 
of 'Poems' (1902). In 1860 he became 
editor of the ' Transactions of the Institute 
of Naval Architects,' to which he continued 
to contribute to the end of his life, his 
papers in vols. iv. to x., issued while he was 
chief constructor, being of especial interest. 
In 1869 he wrote ' Our Ironclad Ships,' 
which was in great measure a vindication 




of his policy ; and in the same year ' Ship- 
building in Iron and Steel,' for several years 
the standard treatise on the subject. In 
1868 and 1871 he contributed papers on 
the construction of ironclad ships to the 
' Philosophical Transactions ' ; and in 1871 
wrote ' Our Xaval Coast Defences.' In 
1872 he founded a quarteriy named ' Naval 
Science,' many articles in which were from 
his pen ; he continued it tiU 1875. His 
' Treatise on the Stability of Ships ' was 
published in 1884, and ' Modem Ships of 
War,' in writing which he had Admiral E. 
Simpson as a collaborator, in 1888. He was 
in addition a frequent contributor to ' The 
Times ' and other periodicals, and took an 
ardent part in many controversies on 
technical subjects. He died in London on 
30 Nov. 1906, and was buried at Putney 
Vale cemetery. 

Reed married in 1851 Rosetta, eldest 
daughter of Nathaniel Bamaby of Sheemess, 
and sister of Sir Nathaniel Bamaby, who 
succeeded him as chief constructor in 1870. 
Edward Tennyson Reed (6. 1860), for 
many years an artist on the staff of ' Punch,' 
is his only son. 

A painted portrait by IVIiss Ethel Mort- 
lock, exhibited at the Royal Academy in 
1886, was presented by the engineer officers 
of the royal navy to Lady Reed. A cartoon 
portrait was published in ' Vanity Fair ' 
for 1875, and a photogravure portrait is 
prefixed to the ' Transactions of the Insti- 
tute of Naval Architects ' for 1907. 

[Trans. Inst. Nav. Architects, xlix. 313 ; 
Proc. Inst, of Ci\-il Engineers, clxviii. pt. ii. ; 
ITie Times, 1 Deo. 1906 ; Reed's own works.] 

L. G. C. L. 

(1821-1902), chief justice of Barbados, 
bom at Bridgetown, Barbados, in 1821 (the 
date is often given erroneously), was one of 
three sons of Thomas Phillipps Reeves, a 
medical man, by a negro slave Peggy Phyllis. 
Reeves, cared for by his father's sister, 
received some education at private schools 
and attracted the notice of Samuel Jackman 
Prescod, a journalist. The boy was fond 
of reading. Prescod gave him employment 
on his paper, the ' Liberal.' Reeves learned 
shorthand, and mastering the details of 
management, was soon able on occasion to 
edit and manage the paper. He joined the 
debating club at Bridgetown, and proved 
ready in debate. 

Disappointed in the hope of obtaining 
an official appointment, Reeves by the kind- 
ness of friends went to England, and became 
a student at the Middle Temple in May 
1860, being called to the bar on 6 Jan. 1863. 

While in London he acted as correspondent 
for the Barbados press. In 1864 he returned 
to Barbados to practise at the local bar. 
From May 1867 he acted for a short time as 
attorney-general of St, Vincent, an island 
which at that time was under the same 
governor as Barbados, and soon gained 
an assured position in Barbados. 

In August 1874 Reeves entered the local 
house of assembly of Barbados as mem- 
ber for St. Joseph, and became solicitor- 
general. In April 1876, when the governor, 
Sir John Pope-Hennessy [q. v.], provoked 
a conflict between the crown (as repre- 
sented by himself) and the legislature. 
Reeves resigned office and took up the 
cause of the old constitution of Barbados 
as against schemes of confederation and 
crown government. Reeves was acclaimed 
by all classes and colours as a Pym or Hamp- 
den. Equally in 1878 he opposed the pro- 
posal introduced by Sir George Strahan for 
the reform of the elective house of assembly 
by the introduction of crown nominees, 
He thus became the champion of the ancient 
Barbados constitution, and the general 
public marked their sense of his services 
by presenting him with an address and a 
purse of 1000 guineas. 

In 1881, however, the next governor. Sir 
William Robinson, enlisted Reeves's cordial 
support in framing the executive committee 
bill. The enactment of this biU enabled the 
executive to secure a proper control in 
matters of finance and administration with- 
out interference with the traditions of the 
house of assembly. The governor acknow- 
ledged Reeves's support by appointing 
him attorney-general in Feb. 1882. Reeves 
was created K.C. in 1883. As attorney- 
general he helped in 1884 to carry out an 
extension of the franchise. Later in the 
year he went on long leave to recruit his 
health, returning to Barbados in 1885. 

In 1886 Reeves became chief justice of Bar- 
bados. The promotion was a rare recog- 
nition of worth in a black man, and was well 
justified in the result. He was knighted in 
1889. His judgments were clear and well 
worded. Several of them were collected in a 
volume by Sir William Herbert Greaves, 
a successor as chief justice, and Mr. Clark, 
attorney-general. Reeves died on 9 Jan. 
1902, at his home, the Eyrie, St. Michael's, 
and was accorded a pubUc funeral, ^Tith a ser- 
vice in the cathedral at Westbury cemetery. 

Reeves married in 1868 Margaret, eldest 
daughter of T. P. R. Rudder of Bushey 
Park, St. Thomas, Barbados. He left one 
daughter, who was married and resided in 




[Memoir by Valence Gale reprinted locally 
in 1902 ; information furnished by Chief 
Justice Sir H. Greaves ; Barbados Globe and 
Barbados Agricultural Reporter, 10 Jan. 1902 ; 
The Times, 31 Jan. 1902; Who's ^Vho, 
1901.] C. A. H. 

REICH, EMIL (1854^1910), historian, 
son of Louis Reich, was born on 24 March 
1854 at Eperjes in Hungary. After early 
education at Eperjes and Kassa he went to 
the universities of Prague, Budapest, and 
Vienna. Until his thirtieth year he ' studied 
almost exclusively in Ubraries.' Then ' find- 
ing books unsatisfactory for a real compre- 
hension of history, he determined to travel 
extensively in order to complement the 
study of books with the study of realities.' 
In July 1884 Reich, with his parents, his 
brother, and two sisters, emigrated to 
America, where after much hardship he was 
engaged in 1887 by the Appleton firm of 
New York in preparing their encyclopaedia. 
On his father's death, his mother and one 
sister settled in Budapest; the brother 
and other sister settled in Cincinnati, the 
one as a photo-engraver, the other as a 
public school teacher. In July 1889 Reich 
went to France. At the end of the year he 
visited England. In February and March 
1890 he delivered at Oxford four lectures, 
subsequently published under the title of 
' Grseco-Roman Institutions ' (Oxford, 1890 ; 
French translation, Paris, 1891), in wliich he 
attempted to 'disprove the appUcableness 
of Darwinian concepts to the solution of 
sociological problems.' His theory of the 
hitherto unsuspected influence of infamia 
on Roman law at first aroused opposition, 
but later was developed in England and 
France. Reich spent his time mainly in 
France till 1893, when he settled in England 
for good. There as a writer, as a lecturer to 
popular and learned audiences in Oxford, 
Cambridge, and London, and as a coach at 
Wren's establishment for preparing can- 
didates for the civil service, he displayed 
remarkable vigour, versatiUty, and self-con- 
fidence. His width of interests appealed to 
Lord Acton, who described him as ' a univer- 
sal speciahst.' His work, although full of 
stimulating suggestions, was inaccurate in 
detail, and omission of essential facts dis- 
credited his conclusions. A lover of paradox, 
and a severe censor of established historical 
and literary reputations, Reich made useful 
contributions to historical criticism in his 
lectures on ' Fundamental Principles of 
Evidence ' and in his The Failure of the 
Higher Criticism of the Bible ' (1905), in 
which he combated modern methods of 
biblical criticism. Of a 'General History 

of Western Nations,' the first part on 
' Antiquity ' was pubUshed in two volumes 
in 1908-9. There Reich waged war on the 
evolutionist theory of history ; he attached 
little or no importance to race in national 
history, laid excessive stress on the geo- 
poUtical and economic conditions, imduly 
subordinating the influences of heredity 
to that of environment. In this work 
(ii. 339, 340 footnote) Reich unjustifiably 
charged A. H. J. Greenidge [q. v. Suppl. II] 
with adopting without acknowledgment 
some researches of his own ; the accusa- 
tion called forth a stout defence from 
Greenidge's friends (see The Times, Lit. 
Suppl. 23 and 30 July, 13 and 20 Aug. 
1908). His most successful pubUshed 
work was his ' Hungarian Literature ' 
(1897; 2nd edit. 1906). In the dispute 
between British Guiana and Venezuela 
(1895-9) in regard to the Venezuelan bound- 
ary, Reich was engaged by the English 
government to help in the preparation of 
their case. A course of lectures on Plato 
at Claridge's Hotel, London, in 1906, which 
were attended by leading ladies of London 
society, brought him much public notoriety. 
He died after a three months' illness 
at his residence at Notting HiU on 11 Dec. 
1910, and was buried at Kensal Green. He 
married in 1893 Cehne LabuUe of Paris, 
who, with a daughter, survived him. Reich 
was fond of music and was an accomplished 

Reich's other pubhshed works were : 
1. ' History of CiviKzation,' Cincinnati, 
1887. 2. ' New Student's Atlas of EngUsh 
History,' 1903. 3. ' Foundations of Modem 
Europe,' 1904. 4. 'Success among Nations,* 

1904 (translated into French, Italian, and 
Spanish). 6. ' Select Documents illustrating 
Mediaeval and Modern History,' 1905. 6. 
' Imperialism : its Prices ; its Vocation,' 

1905 (translated into Russian). 7. ' Plato 
as an Introduction to Modem Criticism 
of Life ' (lectures delivered at Claridge's 
Hotel), 1906. 8. 'Success in Life,' 1906. 

9. ' Germany's SweUed Head,' Walsall, 1907. 

10. 'Atlas Antiquus,' 1908. 11. 'Handbook 
of Geography, Descriptive and Mathemati- 
cal,' 2 vols. 1908. 12. 'Woman through 
the Ages,' 2 vols. 1908. 13. ' Nights with 
the Gods,' 1909 (a criticism of modem 
English society). Reich was editor of 
* The Hew Classical Library,' and for that 
seriiSS conjpiled an alphabetical encyclo- 
paedia of institutions, persons, and events 
of aiicient history in 1906 ; he pubUshed 
an abridgment of Dr. Seyffert's ' Dictionary 
of Classical Antiquities ' (1908). He was 
also a contributor on Hungarian history 




to the 'Cambridge Modem History,' and 
on Hungarian literature to the ' Encyclo- 
paedia Britannica ' (11th edition). 

[The Times, 13 Dec. 1910 ; English Mail, 15 
Dec. 1910 ; Bevandorlo, New York, 16 Dec. 
1910 ; information kindly supplied by Mr. 
Lewis L. Kropf.] W. B. 0. 

1908), painter, bom in Aberdeen on 8 June 
1844, was fourth of five sons (in a family 
of thirteen children) of George Reid, 
manager of the Aberdeen Copper Com- 
pany, by his wife Esther Tait. An elder 
son is Sir George Reid, president of the 
Royal Scottish Academy from 1891 to 
1902, and the youngest son is Sir. Samuel 
Reid, R.S.W. At the age of ten Reid 
entered Robert Gordon's Hospital, now 
Gordon's College, Aberdeen, which he left 
at fourteen for a mercantile career. The 
friendly and cultivated influence of John 
F. White, LL.D., miller, in whose counting- 
house he was emplojed, and the example 
of his brother George, drew him to artistic 
pursuits. ModeUing and painting engaged 
his leisure. There were then no studios 
in Aberdeen, and his earliest practical 
training in art was received at the old 
Mechanics' Institute. 

Abandoning commerce at twenty-three, 
Reid went to Edinburgh to attend the 
classes of the Trustees' Academy, and, 
later, the life-class of the Royal Scottish 
Academy. He remained three years in 
Edinburgh. He first exhibited at the 
Scottish Academy in 1870, and his con- 
tributions to its exhibitions of 1873-4 were 
specially remarked for their predisposition 
to tone. A visit to Holland, which he 
paid in 1874, lastingly affected his art. 
Four years later he went to Paris, and for a 
short time worked in JuUen's studio. Next, 
with a commission from Dr. White, he visited 
Spain. In 1892 he was elected A.R.S.A., and 
five years afterwards a member of the Royal 
Institute of Painters in Oils, from which 
body, however, he soon resigned. He was 
also a member of the Royal Scottish Society 
of Painters in Water-colours. His work 
was rarely exhibited in London galleries. 

Reid travelled much, as the titles of 
his pictures show : ' On the Giadecca, 
Venice^* ' A Court in the Alhambra,' 
' The Scotch House, Campvere,' * Auxerre, 
France,' the last of which was well 
reproduced in colours in the ' Studio ' 
(' Royal Scottish Academy Number,' 1907). 
He always, however, kept closely in touch 
with his native city, which he made his 
permanent home. At one time he had a 

studio in King Street there, but afterwards 
he used those at his brother's residence at 
St. Luke's, Kepplestone, which he occupied 
for some years before his death. Besides 
a natural predilection for Dutch art, he 
shared the friendship of many modem 
Dutch masters with his brother George, 
who had early in life studied under Josef 
Israels. Reid enjoyed also a long intimacy 
with Greorge Paul Chalmers [q. v.], who 
painted many pictures in the Reids' studio. 

Reid undertook a few commission por- 
traits, the most masterly of them perhaps 
that of John Colvin, the sacrist at King's 
CoUege, Aberdeen, where the picture now 
hangs ; but landscapes and the scenery of 
his native shores were his main themes. 
Two of his sea-pieces are included in the 
Macdonald Bequest at Aberdeen. A large 
picture, ' A Lone Shore,' exhibited at the 
Royal Academy in 1875, was purchased for 
300/. after his death by some friends and 
presented to the Aberdeen Art. Gallery. Of 
his works in private collections may be 
mentioned a ' Harvest Scene ' (Glasgow 
Loan Exhibition, 1878), ' Guessing the 
Catch,' and ' Before Service,' a view of 
the interior of King's CoUege Chapel, 
Aberdeen, with figures of monks intro- 
duced. Towards the end of his Life Reid 
produced many landscapes in charcoal. He 
etched a few plates, and some black-and- 
white illustrations by him are to be found 
in the files of ' Life and Work.' 

An accomplished musician and possessed 
of a fine literary taste, Reid was a popular 
member of the Aberdeen club known as 
i the ' New Deer Academy ' (see Memories 
Grave and Gay, by John Kerr, LL.D., 
pp. 221-8). WTien out walking at Ware- 
ham, Dorsetshire, on 30 Aug. 1908, he died 
suddenly of heart failure, and was buried 
in St. Peter's cemeterj', Aberdeen. He 
married in 1893 Margaret, daughter of 
George Sim, farmer, of Kintore, who sur- 
vived him without issue. 

A portrait painted by himself is in the 
Macdonald Bequest at Aberdeen. 

[Private information ; Aberdeen Free Press, 
1 Sept. 1908.] D. S. M. 

REID, Sm JOHN WATT (1823-1909), 
medical director-general of the navy, bom 
in Edinburgh on 25 February 1823, was 
younger son of John Watt Reid, surgeon 
in the navj% by his wife Jane, daughter of 
James Henderson, an Edinburgh merchant. 
Educated at Edinburgh Academy, at the 
university there, and at the extra-mural 
medical school, he qualified L.R.C.S. 
Edinburgh in 1844. He entered the navy 




as an assistant surgeon on 6 Feb. 1845, and 
after serving a commission on board the 
Rodney in the Channel was appointed in 
March 1849 to the naval hospital, Pljmiouth, 
and received the approval of the Admiralty 
for his services there during the cholera 
epidemic of that year. In Jan. 1852 he 
was appointed as acting surgeon to the 
Inflexible, sloop, in the Mediterranean ; 
on 12 Sept. 1854 he was promoted to 
surgeon, and in June 1855 appointed to the 
London, line-of-battle ship, on the same 
station. In these two ships he served in 
the Black Sea until the fall of Sevastopol, 
and received the Crimean and Turkish 
medals with the Sevastopol clasp, and was 
also thanked by the commander-in-chief 
[see DuNDAS, Sie Jambs Whitley Deans] 
for his services to the crew of the 
flagship when stricken with cholera in 
1854. In 1856 he took the degree of 
M.D. at Aberdeen ; and, after serving 
for a short time in the flagship at Devon- 
port, was appointed in April 1857 to the 
Belleisle, hospital ship, on board which 
he continued during the China war of 
1857-9, for which he received the medal. 
In Jan. 1860 he was appointed to the Nile, 
of 90 guns, and served in her for four years 
on the North American station, after which 
he went to Haslar hospital until promoted 
to staff surgeon on 6 Sept. 1866. After a 
year's further service in the Mediterranean, 
he was in June 1870 placed in charge of 
the naval hospital at Haulbowline, where he 
remained till 1873. During the concluding 
months of the Ashanti war (see Hewett, 
Sir William] he served on board the 
Nebraska, hospital ship, at Cape Coast 
Castle, for which he was mentioned in 
despatches, received the medal and, on 
31 March 1874, was promoted to deputy 
inspector-general. In that rank he had 
charge of the medical establishments at 
Bermuda from 1875 to 1878, when he was 
appointed to Haslar hospital. On 25 Feb. 
1880 he was promoted to be inspector- 
general and was appointed medical director- 
general of the navy. This post he held till 
his retirement eight years later, when the 
board of admiralty recorded their high 
opinion of his zeal and efficiency. He 
became an honorary physician to Queen 
Victoria in Feb. 1881 and to King Edward 
VII in 1901, was awarded the K.C.B. 
(military) on 24 Nov. 1882, and had the 
honorary degree of LL.D. conferred upon 
him by Edinburgh University at its tercen- 
tenary in 1884. A medical good service 
pension was awarded him in July 1888. 
Reid died in London on 24 Feb. 1909, and 

was buried at Bramshaw, Hampshire. He 
married, on 6 July 1863, Georgina, daughter 
of C. J. Hill of Halifax, Nova Scotia. 

[The Times, 26 Feb. 1909; Men and 
Women of the Time, 1899 ; R.N. List.] 

L. G. C. L. 

1908), Canadian contractor and financier, 
born of Lowland parents at Coupar Angus, 
Perthshire, in 1842, received his early 
education there and was trained as a bridge- 
builder by an uncle. Entering into business 
on his own account, he made some successful 
contracts and with the proceeds emigrated 
to Australia in 1865. In Australia he en- 
gaged principally in gold mining and the 
construction of public works. 

In 1871 Reid went to America, and ulti- 
mately settled at Montreal. He at once 
made a reputation by building the Inter- 
national Bridge across the Niagara river at 
Buffalo. He was subsequently entrusted 
with the construction of several bridges 
between Montreal and Ottawa on the line of 
the Montreal, Quebec, and Ottawa railway, 
which now forms part of the Canadian 
Pacific system. Another international 
bridge across the Rio Grande between 
Texas and Mexico greatly extended his 
fame. Other great bridges of his construc- 
tion span the Colorado at Austin, Texas, 
the ' Soo ' at Sault Ste. Marie, Ontario, 
and the Delaware at the famous Water 
Gap in Pennsylvania. In 1886 the directors 
of the Canadian Pacific railway, without 
inviting tenders, commissioned him to 
undertake the Lachine Bridge across the St. 
Lawrence above Montreal, three-quarters 
of a mile long. The work was completed 
in six months. The bridge across Grand 
Narrows, Cape Breton, was built for the 
Canadian government in connection with 
the railway in that island in 1889-90. 

Reid was as active and efl&cient in the 
building of railways as in the construction 
of bridges. The difficult Jackfish Bay 
section of the Canadian Pacific railway on 
the rough and almost impassable northern 
coast of Lake Superior was his work. 

Newfoundland, with which Reid's asso- 
ciation began in 1890, was the scene of 
his most varied activities. He first con- 
tracted for the building of the Hall Bay 
railway (260 miles), which he undertook 
in 1890 and completed in 1893. He then 
contracted to buUd for the Newfoundland 
government the Western railway from 
Whitbourne Junction to Port-aux-Basques 
(500 miles). This was accomplished in 
1897. The contract gave Reid the right 
to operate the whole road for ten years 




from Sept. 1893. Meanwhile his firm had 
secured a charter for constructing an electric 
street railway in the city of St. John's, and 
had leased coalfields from the government. 
Owing to the geographical difficulties in 
organising an efficient transport system of 
the island and the financial embarrassment 
of the time the Newfoundland government 
made, in 1898, a new contract with Reid 
on a gigantic scale, which Air. Joseph 
Chamberlain described as ' without parallel 
in the history of any coimtry.' An effort 
to arrange terms of confederation with the 
Dominion of Canada had just failed, owing 
to the amoimt of the Newfovmdland debt 
($16,000,000), and some heroic step was 
deemed necessary by the government. 
The agreement with Reid, dated 3 March 
1898, and known as the ' RaUway Opera- 
ting Contract,' empowered him to work 
free of taxation all trunk and branch 
railway lines in the island for fifty years 
and gave him control of the telegraph 
system. Reid was to provide an improved 
mail service by eight steamboats plying in 
the bays and between the island and the 
mainland. For $1,000,000, to be paid 
within a year after the signing of the 
contract, Reid was further to obtain the 
reversion of the whole railway system at 
the end of fifty years. The agreement at 
the same time transferred to Reid, for a 
consideration, the St. John's dry dock, the 
largest at that time on the Atlantic coast of 
British North America, and it conceded to 
him some 4,500,000 acres of land, including 
' mines, ores, precious metals, minerals, 
stones, and mineral oils of every kind 
therein and thereunder ' (sec. 17). The 
government promised to impose a duty 
of not less than one dollar a ton upon 
imported coal so soon as the contractor was 
able to produce not less than 50,000 tons 
per annum from his mines, provided he 
supplied coal to wholesale dealers at 
prices agreed upon (sec. 45). The govern- 
ment also reserved the right of imposing 
royalties upon minerals raised from the 
contractor's lands. 

The transfer to Reid of the * whole realis- 
able assets ' of the island was ratified by 
the Assembly, but there was strong opposi- 
tion among the people. An effort was made 
to prevent the royal assent being given to 
the bUl on the ground that it would interfere 
with the interests of the holders of New- 
foundland government bonds. But Mr. 
Chamberlain {Colonial Office Despatch, 
No. 70, 5 Dec. 1898) traversed this plea, 
maintaining (sec. 20) that ' the debts of 
the colony have been incurred solely on the 

VOL. LXIX. — SUP. n. 

credit of the colony,' and he could sanction 
' no step which would transfer responsibility 
for them in the slightest degree to the 
imperial government.' The agitation con- 
tinued. Sir James Spearman Winter [q. v. 
Suppl. II], whose government passed the 
contract, fell from power, and was replaced 
after a general election by a liberal govern- 
ment under (Sir) Robert Bond, who was 
supported by an overwhelming majority. 
On the accession of the new government 
to office Reid applied for permission to 
transfer all his interests xmder the con- 
tract to the Reid-Newfoimdland limited 
liabiUty company. Negotiations which 
lasted eighteen months followed between 
! the new premier and Reid. By a new 
; agreement, which was ratified by the House 
I of Assembly in July 1901, Reid's former 
contract was materially revised. Reid 
surrendered the control of the telegraph, 
the reversion of the Newfoimdland railway 
at the end of fifty years, and 1,500,000 
acres of land. He received in exchange 
$2,025,000 cash, and a further claim was 
referred to arbitration. The Reid-New- 
foundland Company was duly authorised 
by the legislature, and to it Reid made 
over the property and privileges of the old 
contract which the new arrangement left 

Of the ' Reid-Newfoundland Company,' 
with a capital of $25,000,000, of which he 
held the largest share, Reid became the 
first president (9 Aug. 1901) and worked 
with his usual energy to ensure its financial 
success. If the terms of the contract justi- 
fied to some extent the bestowal on Reid of 
the title ' Czar Reid,' he showed benevolence 
and beneficence in developing the resources 
of the colony. In 1907 he was knighted as 
a reward for his services to the island. 
Meanwhile Sir Robert kept up his residence 
in Montreal, where he retained large 
financial interests, being a director of the 
Canadian Pacific railway, of the Bank 
of Montreal, and the Royal Trust Com- 
pany. His rugged constitution broke 
down under the strain of his labours 
in Newfoundland. He suffered from in- 
flammatory rheumatism, and foimd no 
relief in the many health resorts to which 
he had. recourse. He was in Egypt when 
his son, as his attorney, signed the contract 
of 1898. Keenly interested in his various 
enterprises to the last, he died of pneimionia 
at his home, 275 Drummond Street, Mont- 
real, on 3 June 1908. His remains were 
cremated at the Mount Royal Crematorium. 
By a resolution of the Board of Trade of 
St. John's, Newfoimdland, all stores and 




public places of business were closed during 
the funeral. 

Reid's integrity was unquestioned, his 
judgment was sound, and his disposition 
generous. His relations with labour were 
invariably harmonious: he never had a 
strike and never employed a private secre- 
tary. He left large sums to charitable 
and educational institutions. In 1865 he 
married Harriet Duff, whom he met on 
his way out to Australia. She survived 
him with three sons and a daughter. 
The eldest son, William Duff Reid, suc- 
ceeded his father as president of the Reid 
Company, and the second, Henry Duff 
Reid, became vice-president. 

[Morgan, Canadian Men and Women of the 
Time, 1898, 2nd edit. 1912 ; Prowse, History 
of Newfoundland, pp. 619-29 (portrait) ; 
Canadian Mag. xvi. 329-34 (portrait) ; Mont- 
real Gazette, 19 June 1908 ; Montreal 
Witness, 3 June 1908 ; Montreal Star, 3 and 
8 June 1908 ; St. John's, Newfoundland, Royal 
Gazette, 21 Dec. 1898 ; Free Press, 24 July 
1901; St. John's Daily News, 25-29 July 
1901 ; St. John's Evening Herald, 23 July 
1901 ; Toronto Mail, 19 Aug. 1901 ; Toronto 
Star, 4 June 1908 ; personal information.] 

D. R. K. 

1905), journaUst and biographer, born in 
Elswick Row, Newcastle-on-Tyne, on 29 
March 1842, was second son of Alexander 
Reid, congregational minister of that town 
from 1830 to 1880, by his second wife, Jessy 
Elizabeth, daughter of Thomas Wemyss 
{d. 1845) of Darhngton, a Hebrew scholar 
and biblical critic of distinction. After a 
short stay at Madras College, St. Andrews, 
where he had brain fever, Reid was edu- 
cated at Percy Street Academy, Newcastle, 
by John CoUingwood Bruce [q. v. Suppl. I]. 
In 1856 he became a clerk in the ' W. B.' 
[i.e. Wentworth Beaumont] Lead office at 
Newcastle, Cherishing as a boy literary 
aspirations, at fifteen he sent papers on local 
topics to the ' Northern Daily Express.' 
These attracted the notice of the proprietor, 
who had him taught shorthand. Reid did 
occasional reporting work at seventeen ; 
and a local cartoon, labelled ' The Press of 
Newcastle,' depicted him at the time as 
a boy in a short jacket perched on a stool 
taking down a speech. Another boyish ex- 
ploit was the foundation near his father's 
chapel of ' The West End Literary In- 
stitute,' which included a penny bank. 
In July 1861 he gave up his clerkship for 
a journalistic career, becoming chief reporter 
on the ' Newcastle Journal.' His brilliant 
descriptive report of the Hartley colliery 

accident in January 1862 was issued as a 
pamphlet, and realised 40?. for the reUef of 
the victims' famihes. 

In 1863 Reid varied reporting with leader- 
writing and dramatic criticism. In June 
1864 he was appointed editor of the 
bi-weekly ' Preston Guardian,' the leading 
journal in North Lancashire ; and in 
January 1866 he moved to Leeds to become 
head of the reporting staff of the ' Leeds 
Mercury,' a daily paper founded and for 
more than a century owned by the Baines 
family. He maintained a connection with 
that journal for the rest of his life. 

From the autumn of 1867 till the spring 
of 1870 Reid was London representative 
of the paper. In order to gain admission 
to the press gallery of the House of Commons 
he had to become an occasional reporter 
for the London ' Morning Star,' then edited 
by Justin McCarthy. He subsequently 
took a leading^ part in the movement which 
resulted in 1881 in the opening of the 
gallery to the provincial press. An acquaint- 
ance with William Edward Baxter [q. v. 
Suppl. I], secretary to the admiralty, placed 
at his disposal important pohtical informa- 
tion which gave high interest to his articles. 

Reid at this time lived on intimate terms 
with Sala, James Macdonell [q. v.], W. H. 
Mudford, and other leading journalists. 
Meanwhile he sent descriptive articles 
to ' Chambers's Journal ' and formed a life- 
long friendship with the editor, James 
Payn. To the ' St. James's Magazine,' 
edited by Mrs. Riddell, he sent sketches 
of statesmen which were republished as 
' Cabinet Portraits,' his first book, in 1872. 

On 15 May 1870 Reid returned to Leeds, 
to act as editor of the ' Leeds Mercury.' 
The paper rapidly developed under his 
alert control. In 1873 he opened on its 
behalf a London office, sharing it with the 
'Glasgow Herald,' and arranged with the 
' Standard ' for the supply of foreign in- 
telligence. His policy was that of moderate 
Uberalism. A ' writing editor ' with an 
extremely able pen, he was the first pro- 
vincial editor to bring a newspaper pub- 
lished far from the capital into line with 
its London rivals alike in the collection 
of news of the first importance, and in 
political comments on the proceedings of 
parliament. He successfully challenged 
the views of ' The Times ' as to the sea- 
worthiness of the Captain, which was 
sunk with its designer, Captain Cowper 
Coles [q. v.], on 7 Sept. 1870; and he 
obtained early inteUigence of Gladstone's 
intended dissolution of parliament in 1874. 
Reid upheld Forster's education bill against 




the radicals, and supported against the 
teetotallers Bruce's moderate licensing bill. 
In the 1880 election at his suggestion 
Gladstone was invited to contest Leeds as 
well as IVIidlothian. With W. E. Forster, 
Reid's relations were always close, and he 
vigorously championed his poUtical action 
in Ireland during 1880-2. The ' Mercury ' 
under his editorship continued to support 
Gladstone when he took up the cause of 
* home rule. Whilst at Leeds, Reid was also 
on friendly terms with Richard Monckton 
IVIilnes, Lord Houghton, at whose house at 
Fryston he was a frequent guest. 

Reid made many journeys abroad, 
chiefly in his journaUstic capacity. In 
1877 he visited Paris with letters of 
introduction from Lord Houghton to the 
Comte de Paris and M. Blowitz, and was 
introduced to Gambetta. A hoUday trip in 
Grermany, Hungary, and Roumania in 1878 
he described in the ' Fortnightly Review.' 
He went to Tunis as special correspondent of 
the ' Standard ' in 1881, and narrated his ex- 
periences in ' The Land of the Bey ' (1882). 

In 1887 Reid withdrew from the editorship 
of the ' Leeds Mercury,' to which he con- 
tinued a weekly contribution till his death, in 
order to become manager of the publishing 
firm of Cassell and Co. London was thence- 
forth his permanent home, and his work 
there was incessant. In January 1890 he 
added to his pubUshing labours the editor- 
ship of the ' Speaker,' a new weekly paper 
which he founded and which combined 
Uterature with Uberal poUtics. A keen 
pohtician, he enjoyed the confidence of 
Gladstone and his leading followers, but 
his zeal in their behalf at times provoked 
the hostility of the extreme radical wing of 
the party. Reid became a strong supporter 
and a personal friend of Lord Rosebery, 
whose views he mainly sought to expound 
in the ' Speaker.' He was knighted on 
Lord Rosebery's recommendation in 1894 
in consideration of ' services to letters and 

In Sept. 1899 Reid ceased to be editor 
of the ' Speaker,' which in spite of its 
literary merits was in the financial respect 
a qualified success. Subsequently he wrote 
a shrewd and well-informed survey of 
pohtical affairs month by month for 
the ' Nineteenth Century,' as well as 
weekly contributions to the ' Leeds Mer- 
cury.' He was elected president of the 
Institute of JournaUsts for 1898-9. He 
had become in 1878 a member of the 
Reform Club on the proposition of Forster 
and Hugh Childers [q. v. Suppl. I], and he 
soon took a prominent part in its manage- 

ment, long acting as chairman of committee. 
He was elected an honorary member of 
the Eighty Club in 1892, at the instance 
of his friend Lord Russell of KUlowen. 

Meanwhile Reid, who received the degree 
of LL.D. from St. Andrews University in 
1893, made a reputation in Uterature. 
During his first residence at Leeds he had 
visited Haworth and interested himself in 
the Uves of the Brontes. Ellen Nussey, Char- 
lotte Bronte's intimate friend and school- 
fellow, entrusted to him the novelist's 
correspondence with herseK and other 
material which had not been accessible 
to Mrs. GaskeU. With such aid Reid wrote 
some articles in ' Macmillan's Magazine ' 
which he expanded into his ' Charlotte 
Bronte : a Monograph ' (1877), which drew 
from Swinburne high appreciation. Reid 
showed admirable skill, too, as the bio- 
grapher of W. E. Forster (2 vols. 1888) 
and of Richard Monckton Milnes, first Lord 
Houghton (2 vols. 1890). In both works 
he printed much valuable correspondence, 
and Gladstone helped him by reading the 
proofs. He also pubUshed memoirs of Lyon 
Playf air, first Lord Playf air of St. Andrews 
(1899) ; of John Deakin Heaton, M.D., of 
Leeds (1883) ; and a vivid monograph on 
his intimate friend WilHam Black the 
noveUst (1902). A ' Life of W. E. Glad- 
stone,' which he edited in 1899, includes a 
general appreciation and an account of the 
statesman's last days from Reid's own pen. 
He further enjoyed success as a novelist. 
His ' Gladys Fane : a Story of Two Lives ' 
(1884; 8th edit. 1902), and ' Mauleverer's 
MUhons : a Yorkshire Romance' (1886), 
each had a wide circvdation. He also left 
' Memoirs ' including much confidential 
matter of a political kind ; portions were 
edited by his brother. Dr. Stuart Reid, 
in 1905. 

Reid died, active to the last, and 
almost pen in hand, at his house, 26 
Bramham Gardens, South Kensington, on 
26 Feb. 1905, and was bmied in Brompton 
cemetery. He was twice married: (1) on 
5 Sept. 1867 to his cousin Kate [d. 4 Feb. 
1870), daughter of the Rev. John Thornton 
of Stockport ; and (2) on 26 March 1873 
to Louisa, daughter of Benjamin Berry 
of Headingley, Leeds, who survived him. 
There was one son by the first marriage, 
and a son and a daughter by the second. 
A portrait in possession of the family was 
painted by Mr. Grenville Manton. 

[Memoirs of Sir Wemyss Reid, 1842-1885 
(M-ith portrait), edited by Stuart J. Reid, 
D.C.L., 1905 (the remainder of the autobio- 
graphy is at present impublished) ; Men of 



1 80 


the Time, 1899 ; The Times, 27 Feb., 3, 4 March 
1905 ; Speaker, 4 March ; Newcastle Weekly 
Chronicle (portrait), 4 March ; Leeds Mercury, 
27 Feb. ; Lucy's Sixty Years in the Wilder- 
ness, pp. 67, 68, 84 ; Stead's Portraits and 
Autobiographies ; Brit. Mus. Cat. ; private 
information.] G. Le G. N. 

(1833-1902), civil engineer, was the second 
son in the family or four sons and three 
daughters of James Meadows Rendel 
[q. v.] by his wife Catherine Jane Harris. 
Bom at Plymouth on 6 Feb. 1833, he was 
educated at Harrow. On leaving school 
he lived for three years with Sir William 
(afterwards Lord) Armstrong at Newcastle 
in order to study engineering. He sub- 
sequently received his final training as an 
engineer in his father's office. As an 
assistant to his father, he was engaged 
on the building of the superstruc- 
ture of the large bridges on the East 
Indian railway across the Ganges and 
Jmnna at Allahabad. Like his younger 
brothers Stuart (afterwards Lord Rendel) 
and Hamilton Owen {d. 1902), George 
became in 1858 a partner in the firm of 
Sir William Armstrong & Co. at Elswick, 
and for twenty-four years, in conjunction 
with Sir Andrew Noble, he directed the 
ordnance works there. 

During his twenty-four years at Elswick 
Rendel took a prominent part in the develop- 
ment of the construction and armament of 
ships of war, especially in the design of gun- 
mountings. To him is due the hydraulic 
system of mounting and working heavy 
guns, which was first tried in the fore- 
turret of H.M.S. Thunderer when she was 
re-armed before her completion in 1877. 
The experiment proved very successful, 
and about the same time the Temeraire 
was fitted with a special type of barbette 
mounting designed by Rendel. Another type 
was used in the Admiral class of battleships ; 
and, with various improvements suggested 
by experience, his hydraulic system has 
been used for all the later warships of the 
British navy, as well as in some foreign 
navies. Rendel was one of the first (if 
not the first) in England to apply forced 
draught to war- vessels other than torpedo- 
boats, namely, in two cruisers built for the 
Chinese and one for the Japanese govern- 
ment in 1879. Li 1881-2 he designed for 
the Chilian and Chinese governments a 
series of 1350-ton unarmoured 16-knot 
cruisers, carrying comparatively powerful 
armaments, protection being afforded by 
light steel decks and by coal-bunkers. 
Immediately afterwards he built for the 

Chilian navy the unarmoured protected 
cruiser Esmeralda (displacement 3000 
tons, speed 18 knots per hour). He thus 
is responsible for the introduction into the 
navies of the world of the cruiser class, 
intermediate between armour-clad men-of- 
war and the wholly unprotected war vessel. 
He further designed the twin-screw gunboats 
of the Staunch class, most of which were 
built at the Armstrong yard, and numerous 
similar gunboats for the Chinese navy. 

In 1871 Rendel was appointed by the 
British government a member of the 
committee on designs of ships of war ; 
and he was also a member of the committee 
appointed in Aug. 1877 to consider questions 
relating to the design of the Inflexible. 

Rendel was elected a member of the 
Institution of Naval Architects in 1879, 
and became vice-president of that society 
in 1882. He was elected a member of the 
Institution of Civil Engineers in 1863, and 
in 1874 he contributed to its * Proceedings ' 
(xxxviii. 85) a paper on ' Gun- Carriages 
and Mechanical Appliances for working 
Heavy Ordnance,' for which he was 
awarded a Watt medal and Telford 

In March 1882 Rendel left the Arm- 
strong firm to become an extra pro- 
fessional civil lord of the admiralty, while 
Lord Northbrook was first lord. The post 
was a new one, and the admission of ' a 
practical man of science ' to the admiralty 
board was generally commended. Rendel 
resigned the office when Lord North- 
brook retired in July 1885, owing to 
ill-health. In 1887 he rejoined the 
Armstrong firm. He and Admiral Count 
Albini became the managing directors in 
Italy of the Armstrong Pozzuoli Company, 
and Rendel took up his residence at 
Posilippo, near Naples. In the winter 
of 1887 he vainly offered his house there 
to the Emperor Frederick, who, then 
stricken by fatal illness, was recommended 
to try the air of South Italy. The re- 
commendation, which came too late, 
brought Rendel the close friendship of 
the Empress, which lasted till her death. 
At Naples, too, Rendel formed a cordial 
intimacy with Lord Rosebery. 

While he lacked the commercial instinct 
and had no great gift as an organiser, 
Rendel combined lucidity of intellect 
and general sagacity Avith an exceptionally 
fertile faculty of invention. He received 
the Spanish order of Carlos III in 1871, 
and the order of the Cross of Italy in 1876. 
He died at Sandown, Isle of Wight, 
on 9 Oct. 1902, and by his widow's wish, 



although he was not a member of the 
Roman catholic church, was buried at 
Kensal Green Roman catholic cemetery. 

He was twice married : (1) on 13 Dec. 
1859, at Brighton, to Harriet (1837-1877), 
third daughter of Joseph Simpson, British 
vice-consul at Cronst^t ; by her he had 
five sons; (2) on 17 March 1880, at 
Rome, to Licinia, daughter of Giuseppe 
Pinelli of Rome, and had issue three 
sons and a daughter. 

A portrait painted by H. Hudson and 
a bust by Mr. Alfred Gilbert are in the 
widow's possession. Lord Rendel owns 
a replica of the bust. 

[Men of the Time, 1899 ; Minutes of Proc. 
Inst. Civ. Eng. cli. 421 ; Trans. Inst. Naval 
Arch. xlv. 332 ; Engineering, 17 Oct. 1902 ; 
information from Lord Rendel.] W. F. S. 

RHODES, CECIL JOHN (1853-1902), 
imperialist and benefactor, bom at Bishop 
Stortford in Hertfordshire on 5 July 1853, 
was fifth son of Francis William Rhodes 
(1806-1878), vicar of that parish, by his 
second wiie, Louisa, daughter of Anthony 
Taylor Peacock, of South Kyme, Lincoln- 
shire {d. 1 Nov. 1873). The family consisted 
of nine sons, four of whom joined the 
army, and of two daughters, both unmarried. 
There siirvive the three youngest sons, 
Major Elmhirst (6. 1858), formerly of the 
Berkshire regiment and director of army 
signaUing in South Africa during the Boer 
war (1899-1901), Arthur Montagu {b. 1859), 
and Bernard [b. 1861), captain R.A., and the 
elder daughter Louisa (6. 1847). The eldest 
son, Herbert, was killed in Central Africa 
in 1879. The third and sixth sons, Basil 
and Frederick, died. in infancy. The second 
son. Colonel Francis WilHam, is noticed 
below. The fourth son, Ernest Frederick 
(6. 1852), captain R.E., died on 4 April 
1907. The younger daughter, Edith Caro- 
line (6. 1848), died on 8 Jan. 1905. 

The father came of yeoman stock trace- 
able to Staffordshire in the seventeenth 
century and thence to Cheshire. The 
father's great-great-grandfather, Wilham 
Rhodes {d. 1768), described as a prosperous 
grazier, came south about 1720, purchased 
near London an estate, * The BrUl Farm,' 
which included the region now occupied by 
Mecklenburgh and Bnmswick Squares and 
the Foundling Hospital, and was buried 
in March 1768 in Old St, Pancras church- 
yard, where a monument of granite now 
stands bearing the inscription ' Erected 
to replace two decayed family tombs by 
C. J. R. , 1890.' William Rhodes's only son, 
Thomas, churchwarden of St. Pancras in 
1756 and 1767, married twice, and died in 

1787, leaving a son, Samuel (1736-1794), of 
Hoxton, the possessor of brick and tUe works 
marked ' Rhodes' Farm ' in Carey's map of 
London (1819), in Islington parish, and the 
purchaser of the Dalston estate now held by 
the Rhodes trustees, Samuel's third son, 
WiUiam (1774-1843), married Anne Wool- 
ridge, whose mother was Danish, and settled 
at Leyton Grange in Essex, and his second 
son was Cecil Rhodes's father. The latter, 
bom in 1806, graduated B,A, from Trinity 
College, Cambridge, in 1830 (M,A, 1833) 
and was perpetual curate of Brentwood 
in Essex from 1834 until 1849, when he 
became vicar of Bishop Stortford ; he died 
at Fairlight, Sussex, on 28 Feb, 1878, 

Cecil, ' a slender, delicate-looking, but not 
deUcate, boy, of a shy nature,' was sent to 
Bishop Stortford grammar school in 1861. 
He won a sUver medal for reading aloud, 
and he showed efficiency in charge of a 
class in his father's Sunday school. In 
1869, at sixteen, his health broke down, 
and since, to his father's disappointment, 
he had no vocation for the church, he was 
sent out to his eldest brother, Herbert, 
then settled in Natal, grooving cotton. He 
landed at Durban on 1 Oct. 1870. ' Very 
quiet and a great reader ' he appeared to 
friends with whom he stayed in Natal on 
his way to his brother's rough quarters at 
Umkomaas. Forty-five acres of bush had 
been cleared and planted with cotton before 
Cecil's arrival ; a few months later a hundred 
acres were planted, and the brothers won 
a prize at an important agricultural show. 
Herbert Rhodes was often away, and CecU 
mainly ran the plantation, discovering a 
sympathy with native labourers and a tiurn 
for managing them which never failed him. 
He fornid congenial company in the son 
of the local resident magistrate, a retired 
soldier. In their spare time the youths 
tried to ' keep up their classics ' ; both 
cherished a dream that they should 
one day return to England and enter at 
Oxford ' without outside assistance,' 

By this time the discovery of diamonds 
in the Orange Free State had resulted in the 
rush for Colesberg Kopje (now the Kimberley 
mine), Du Toit's Pan (later the De Beers 
mine), and other points in what is now the 
Kimberley division. The Rhodes brothers 
were drawn with the rest, Herbert starting 
for the diamond fields in Jan, 1871, while 
Cecil stayed behind to dispose of the stock 
and wind up their joint affairs. In Oct. 
1871 he started for Colesberg Kopje in a 
Scotch cart drawn by a team of oxen, 
carrying a pick two spades, several 
volxunes of the classics, and a Greek lexicon. 




At Kimberley as in Natal he was thrown 
much upon his own resources, for at 
the end of November his brother left for 
England and handed over to him the 
working of his claim. Rhodes is described 
in 1872 as ' a tall, fair boy, blue-eyed and 
with somewhat aquiline features, sitting at 
table diamond-sorting and superintending 
his gang of Kafirs near the edge of the 
huge open chasm or quarry which then 
constituted the mine ' ; and again as 
* pleasant-minded and clever, sometimes 
odd and abstracted and apt to fly off at a 
tangent.' The ' claim ' modestly flourished, 
and was added to ; the brothers found 
themselves with a certain amount of ready 
money, and in the bracing air of the high 
veld Cecil's health was re-established. 

In October 1873 Rhodes returned to 
England to fulfil his ambition of ' send- 
ing himself ' to Oxford. He had hoped to 
enter University College, but the Master, 
Dr. G. G. (afterwards Dean) Bradley, 
finding him unprepared to read for 
honours, refused him admission, but gave 
him an introduction to Edward Hawkins 
[q. v.], provost of Oriel, whom he im- 
pressed. At Oriel he matriculated on 
13 Oct. 1873, keeping Michaelmas term to 
17 December, and living at 18 High Street. 
In November 1873 his mother died, the 
only human being with whom he is known 
at any time to have regularly corresponded. 
Early in the new year he caught a 
chill while rowing ; a specialist found 
both the heart and the lungs affected, and 
entered against his name in his case book 
' Not six months to live.' His Oxford 
career was thus intermpted, but it was 
not closed. He returned to South Africa 
and Kimberley, where his lungs soon 
ceased to trouble him ; henceforth, in- 
deed, his heart caused him his only 
physical anxiety, and that was never cured. 
A growing absorption in South African 
affairs left unmodified his resolve to gradu- 
ate in the university, and until this ambition 
was gratified he revisited Oxford from time to 
time at no long intervals. In 1876 and again 
in 1877 he kept each term of the academic 
year, spending only his long vacations in 
South Africa. On 16 May 1876, too, he 
entered himself as a student at the Inner 
Temple, and although he was not called to 
the bar his name remained on the books till 
it was withdrawn on 17 Dec. 1889, to be 
restored on 20 Feb. 1891. In 1878 he kept 
Lent, Easter, and Trinity terms at Oxford, 
living at 116 High Street. He was back again 
in Michaehnas term, 1881, when he at 
length by dogged effort passed the ordinary 

examination for B.A., and took that degree 
and proceeded M.A. on 17 Dec. He 
lodged at the time at 6 King Edward Street, 
where a tablet commemorates the fact. 
He retained his name on the college books, 
paying a composition fee. Though an in- 
different horseman, he was master of the 
drag during his early sojourns at Oxford, 
and did a little rowing ; otherwise he is 
remembered as making one in * a set which 
lived a good deal apart from both games 
and work.' Although he was 'not a great 
reading man,' he was always a devourer 
of books, and his feeling for certain classical 
authors was strong. Marcus AureUus was 
his constant companion, and at his South 
African home, Groote Schuur, there was 
(until 1902, when it disappeared) a copy of 
the ' Meditations ' marked and annotated by 
his hand. He commissioned for his library 
new translations of the chief classical 
writers, which were sent him in typed script. 
Aristotle's ' En§rgeia the highest activity 
of the soul to be concentrated on the highest 
object ' remained his perpetual watchword. 
Meanwhile his South African career had 
made rapid progress. On his second advent 
in Kimberley in 1874 he took root there, and 
was soon counted with the more successful 
diggers. His brother Herbert early left 
the diamond fields to hunt and explore 
the interior ; he was killed through the 
accidental firing of his hut in 1879, in what 
is now Nyassaland. In 1874, and for some 
years after, Rhodes was in partnership with 
Mr. Charles Dunell Rudd (6. 1844), who 
had beeii educated at Harrow and had 
after matriculating at Trinity College, Cam- 
bridge, in 1863 broken down through over- 
training. Rudd and Rhodes gradually 
increased their holdings after the old 
regulation against the possession of more 
than one claim on the diamond fields was 
repealed. Rhodes specially concentrated 
his holdings in one of the two great mines 
of Kimberley, called after De Beers, the 
Dutch farmer, who originally owned the 
land. Rhodes was quickly recognised as 
one of the ablest speculators in the district, 
with one conspicuous rival or opponent in 
Barnett Isaacs, later known as Barney 
Barnato [q. v. Suppl. I], but from 1875 until 
his death he was greatly helped in all financial 
undertakings by Alfred Beit [q. v. Suppl. II]. 
Mr. Gardner Williams, afterwards general 
manager of the amalgamated industry (the 
De Beers corporation), describes Rhodes 
in these days as ' a tall, gaunt youth, 
roughly dressed, coated with dust, sitting 
moodily on a bucket, deaf to the clatter and 
rattle about him, his blue eyes fixed intently 




on his work or on some fabric in his brain.' 
It was a life of vicissitude. There was 
camp fever, and other forms of epidemic, 
and during 1874 the reef fell in both in 
Colesberg Kopje and in De Beers, covering 
many claims under tons of shale. Floods 
prevailed, mining board taxation was 
heavy, there was constant litigation between 
claim holders and miners and the Griqua- 
land West legislative council. Banks 
refused advances and bankruptcy was 
common. Many diggers left the fields, but 
Rhodes and his partners held on. Towards 
the end of October 1874 they successfully 
completed an imdertaking to pump out 
Kimberley mine, and in 1876 they drained 
of water De Beers and Du Toit's Pan. A 
contemporary recalls how at a meeting of a 
mining board in 1876, when the members 
were ' fractious and impatient,' Rhodes, 
' stUl quite a youth, was able to control 
that body of angry men.' As regards the 
diamond mdustry he, like his rival Bamato, 
already recognised that so long as indi- 
vidual diggers produced and threw upon 
the uncertain markets all the diamonds 
they could find, no real progress was possible, 
and that the remedy lay in an amalgama- 
tion of interests and the regulation of supply. 
To that end, but with different motives 
and ambitions, each was steadily working, 
Rhodes with De Beers mine, Bamato with 
Kimberley mine, as his base and nucleus. 
On 1 April 1880 the Rhodes group had 
established themselves as the De Beers 
Mining Company, with a capital of 200,000^., 
while in the same jcslt the Bamato Mining 
Company was formed to work the richest 
claims in Kimberley mine. 

But Rhodes's ambitions were from the 
first other than commercial. Dming 1875 
he spent eight months m a sohtary journey 
on foot or ox- wagon through Bechuanaland 
and the Transvaal. The experience helped 
to shape his aims. He found the covmtry 
to be not merely of agricultin-al and of 
great mineral value, but also beautiful and 
healthy. The scattered Dutch farmers 
proved hospitable and he felt in sympathy 
with them. He aspired to work with the 
Dutch settlers and at the same time to secure 
the coimtry for occupation by men of English 
blood and to make Great Britain the 
dominant influence in the governance of 
South Africa, and indeed of the world. In 
1877 he had his first serious heart attack 
and made his first wiU, dated 19 Sept. 1877. 
The testator disposed of the fortune which 
he had not yet made to ' the estabhsh- 
ment, promotion, and development of a 
Secret Society the aim and object whereof 

shall be the extension of British rule 
throughout the world, the perfecting of 
a system of emigration from the United 
Kingdom and of colonisation by British 
subjects of aU lands where the means of 
UveUhood are attainable by energy, laboiu-, 
and enterprise, and especially the occupation 
by British settlers of the entire continent 
of Africa, the Holy Land, the valley of 
the Euphrates, the islands of Cj^rus 
and Candia, the whole of South America, 
the islands of the Pacific not heretofore 
possessed by Great Britain, the whole of the 
Malay Archipelago, the sea-board of China 
and Japan, the vltimate recovery of the 
United States of America as an integral part 
of the British Empire, the inauguration of 
a system of colonial representation in the 
imperial ParKament, which may tend to 
weld together the disjointed members of 
the empire, and finally the foimdation of so 
great a power as hereafter to render wars 
impossible and promote the best interests 
of humanity.' The form and substance 
of these aspirations are youthfvil, but they 
dominated Rhodes's Hfe. A federation of 
South Africa under British rule, with Cape 
Dutch assent, was always before his eyes. 

Just before leaving to graduate at Oxford 
in 1881 Rhodes had entered pubUc life in 
South Africa. In 1880 the Act for absorbing 
Griqualand West in the Cape Colony cre- 
ated two electoral divisions at Kimberley 
and Barkly West. As one of two members 
for Barkly West, Rhodes was elected 
in 1880 and took his seat in the Cape 
legislature next year. (He retained the 
seat for Hfe.) The battle of Majuba Hill 
on 27 Feb. 1881, with its sequel in the 
recognition anew of the independence of 
the Transvaal Repubhc, had just given an 
immense advantage to the Dutch claim 
to supremacy in the colony and had almost 
crushed the hope of a permanent British 
predominance. The foundation of the 
Afrikander Bond in 1882 was but one fruit 
of a Dutch national movement, in sym- 
pathy with the Boer repubhc, which looked 
forward to independence of the British 
Empire [see Hofmeyr, Jan Hendrik, 
Suppl. II]. In such unpromising conditions 
Rhodes entered Cape pohtics. His aim 
from the first was to maintain the widest 
powers of local self-government and at the 
same time to organise, confirm, and extend 
the area and force of British settlement 
and British infiuence, not by invoking the 
imperial factor, but by rousing in the 
average Briton a sense of the responsibihties 
of race and empire. In his first session he 
took a friend aside and, placing his hand on 




a map of Africa, said ' That is my dream, 
all British.' But while he sought to bring 
home to Englishmen in South Africa the 
possibilities of new empire in South Africa, 
he desired to co-operate with the Dutch. 
In his second session he frankly remarked 
' Members on the other side believe in a 
United States of South Africa, and so do I, 
but under the British flag.' Rhodes first 
spoke in the Cape Assembly on 19 April 1881. 
He championed the Basutos, his interest 
in whom led presently to a friendship with 
General Gordon, who invited him in 1884 to 
accompany him to Khartoum. On 25 June 
he spoke again, in opposition to the intro- 
duction of the Taal in the Cape parliament, 
for which he asserted that there was no real 
desire in the country. He impressed his 
hearers as ' a good type of English country 
gentleman ' — nervous, ungainly, but of a 
most effective frankness. As a speaker he 
seemed to think, or rather dream, out loud. 
His vocabulary was poor, although he hit 
sometimes on a telling phrase ; he had 
moments of a discursive obscurity. Yet 
men who had listened to the famous 
orators of the world found themselves 
strangely impressed by his speaking. A 
strong persuasiveness and candour, helped 
by his appearance, held any audience. But 
' fundamental brain- work ' had been done 
before he rose, and when trimmed of ex- 
crescences the ordered clearness of his 
sequences was perfect. 

His political activities were soon con- 
centrated on that northern expansion which 
formed a great part of his completed work. 
The Cape Colony was then bounded on the 
north by the Orange River, beyond which 
lay Bechuanaland, of vast extent and the 
only avenue to the coveted northern 
territories which were the objective alike 
of Rhodes and of the Transvaal Boers. By 
the Pretoria Convention of 1881 the west- 
ward expansion of the Transvaal was 
limited to a line east of the trade routes from 
Bechuanaland. This did not prevent a 
series of raids from the Transvaal by which, 
not by haphazard but by design, the re- 
public sought to occupy Bechuanaland, and, 
if might be, the regions of the north, even 
of the west. Rhodes' s first important step 
was to urge the appointment of a delimita- 
tion commission in 1881. On this he served. 
An oSer was obtained in 1882 from Manko- 
roane of the whole of his territory, about 
half Bechuanaland, for the Cape govern- 
ment. To this proposal Rhodes secured 
the agreement of the chief men of Stellaland, 
a Boer raider's settlement consisting of 
400 farms, * with a raad and all the elements 

of a new republic,' seated at Vryburg. Pro- 
longed correspondence and a long appeal 
to the Cape Assembly on 16 Aug. 1883 did 
not avail to procure the acceptance of 
this offer, and it seemed certain that the 
Stellalanders and another group of Dutch 
immigrants, with two Bechuanaland chiefs, 
the opponents of Mankoroane, would be 
annexed by the Transvaal. Rhodes turned 
to the imperial government, and, after 
endless appeals, the force of his personality 
having impressed the high commissioner, 
Sir Hercvdes Robinson, he procured the 
declaration in 1884 of an imperial pro- 
tectorate, the British flag being carried to 
the twenty-second parallel. On 27 Feb. 1884 
a second convention signed in London gave 
definite frontiers on the eastern border of 
Bechuanaland, behind which the Transvaal 
covenanted to abide. 

A few days later Bechuanaland was 
raided afresh by President Kruger. The 
imperial government promptly proclaimed 
the formal annexation of Bechuanaland, and 
sent up as resident the Rev. John Mac- 
kenzie, a veteran missionary. On 16 July 
Rhodes appealed once more, and this time 
with success, to the Cape Assembly, re- 
minding them that Bechuanaland was ' the 
neck of the bottle and commanded the route 
to the Zambesi . . . We must secure it, 
unless we are prepared to see the whole of 
the north pass out of our hands. . . . 
I want the Cape Colony to be able to deal 
with the question of confederation as the 
dominant state of South Africa.' While 
those definitely committed to supporting 
the Dutch republics were not won over, 
a majority of the house concurred with 
Rhodes. Voters may have been influenced 
by the fact that that year, and within six 
months after the second convention of 
London was signed, a new factor entered 
South Africa, and by the supineness alike 
of the imperial and colonial governments 
all Damaraland and Namaqualand between 
twenty-six degrees south and the Portuguese 
border, 320,000 square miles in all, was 
occupied by Germany. The significance 
of the fact, if lost on the imperial govern- 
ment, impressed Rhodes and one other man, 
Jan Hendrik Hofmeyr [q. v. Suppl. II], 
leader of the Afrikander Bond, who com- 
bined his Dutch sjrmpathies with a deep 
antipathy to Germany. Despite the diver- 
sity between the two men's aims, Rhodes 
at once saw the wisdom of co-operation 
with a view to promoting northern expansion. 
Towards the end of 1884 it was clear that 
Mackenzie, though loyal and upright, was 
scarcely the man for the time and place, 




proclaiming as he did all Boer farms in 
Bechuanaland to be the property of the 
British government, and otherwise making 
too much of the imperial authority. The 
resident was recalled by the high com- 
missioner, nominally for the purpose of con- 
ference, and Rhodes replaced him, by the 
style of deputy-commissioner. Reaching 
Rooi-Grand in Goshen, the lesser of the two 
Boer centres, on 25 August, he foimd 
Grenerals Joubert and Delarey just arrived 
from the Transvaal, and armed burghers 
preparing that night to advance on Mafe- 
king and on Montsoia the local chief. All 
Rhodes coidd do was to warn the Boers 
that, in view of the convention, they were 
making war, in effect, on the British 
government, and that done, to retire on 
the larger concentration in Stellaland. 
Arriving at Commando Drift on 1 Septem- 
ber, he went straight to the house of the Boer 
commandant. Van Niekirk, who had refused 
to acknowledge Mackenzie as resident. He 
informed Rhodes that ' blood must flow.' 
Rhodes replied ' Give me my breakfast and 
let us see to that afterwards.' Having dis- 
moimted, he stayed with Van Niekirk six 
weeks, and became godfather to his child. 
By 8 September he had recognised the titles 
of individual Boer settlers and reported to 
the high commissioner that the armed 
burghers had dispersed and that Stellaland 
had accepted the flag. But the return of 
Joubert to Pretoria was followed by a 
proclamation of President Kruger on 16 
September, annexing the Mafeking region 
and so cutting off Cape Colony from access 
northwards. The imperial government 
moved. Sir Charles Warren's expedition- 
ary force was sent to patrol Bechuanaland 
and the Transvaal frontier, and by 14 Feb. 
1885 President Elruger met the general 
and Rhodes at Fourteen Streams in 
peaceful conference. This was the first 
meeting between Rhodes and Kruger, who 
henceforth typified for Rhodes the force 
which his policy of expansion might yet 
encounter. Bechuanaland south of the 
Milopo, with the Kalahari, now became 
part of the Cape Colony, whUe the ter- 
ritory to the north was constituted a 
protectorate. The expansion was thus 
at once both imperial and colonial, or 
colonial under imperial sanction, the ideal 
aUke of Rhodes and of Sir Hercules Robin- 
son. The high commissioner's despatches 
{Bechuanaland Blue Book C. 4432) testify 
how much the intervention and influence 
of Rhodes in keeping the country quiet, 
and insisting that the title of Stellalanders 
should not be cancelled nor the suscepti- 

bilities of Kruger and his officers woimded 
by too much mihtary parade, conduced to 
this result. The despatch of Lord Derby, 
the colonial secretary (No. 17 of September 
1886), took the same view. 

But Rhodes had no security that in the 
coveted hinterland itself the Transvaal 
and Germany might not combine against 
England. Grermany's acquisition in the 
south-west had been followed by an attempt 
— ^frustrated by the governor of Natal — 
to occupy St. Lucia Bay in Zululand on 
the east. The Transvaal, while refusing 
customs and railway union with the Cape, 
on which Rhodes counted to smooth the 
way to federation, and seeking, though 
vainly, from President Brand an alliance 
defensive and offensive with the Orange 
Free State, had given Grerman capitalists 
an exclusive right to construct railways 
within the repubhc, at a sensible cost to 
British prestige. The fear of such a con- 
junction was quickened by the discovery 
of gold on Witwatersrand in 1886, when 
the Transvaal leapt from beggary to wealth 
and importance. North of the twenty- 
second parallel meanwhile was the dominion 
of Lobengula, the able king of the warlike 
Matabele, and Boer and German emissaries 
were reported as coming and going about 
Gobulawayo, the king's kraal. Late in 
1887 Kruger, in defiance of a convention 
signed at Pretoria on 11 June of that year, 
confirming the delimitation of Transvaal 
boimdaries, sent up Piet Grobelaar with 
the title of consul to arrange terms with 
the Matabele king. Rhodes was apprised, 
and hurrying from Kimberley to Cape Town 
besought the high commissioner to proclaim 
a formal protectorate over the northern 
territories. The high commissioner declined 
this step on his own responsibUity, but, 
acting on an alternative suggestion, sent 
the Rev. John Smith Moffat, assistant-com- 
missioner of Bechuanaland, to Lobengula, 
and on 11 Feb. 1888 the king entered into a 
treaty which boimd him to alienate no part 
of his country ^dthout the knowledge and 
sanction of the high commissioner. True 
to his principle, Rhodes looked first to 
the sinews of war, and while still hoping for 
annexation by the imperial government, 
sought to make sure of substantial assets in 
view of a possible alternative. Messrs. Rudd, 
James Rochfort Maguire, and Francis R. 
Thompson, to whom the north was well 
kno^vn, were advised to approach the king at 
Gobulawayo, and on the Unqusa river, on 
30 Oct. 1888, Lobengula signed a concession, 
granting them mineral rights in all his terri- 
tories and promising to grant no land con- 


1 86 


cessions from that day. It was by this time 
clear that Lord SaUsbury' s government would 
not undertake a protectorate over the 
northern territories. Rhodes asked whether 
a chartered company, roughly modelled 
on the old East India Company, would 
be acceptable, and was told that it 
would, and after much manoeuvring on 
the part of soi-disant claimants to con- 
cessions the charter incorporating the 
Biitish South Africa Company was granted 
on 13 July 1889. The territory under the 
new company's control which the company 
was empowered to develop lay to the north 
of the Transvaal and Bechuanaland, and 
vaguely extended to the Zambesi. It was 
soon named Rhodesia after the projector 
of the great scheme. 

Meanwhile Rhodes was developing his 
material interests in the south. By 1885 
the De Beers Mining Company, after a 
period of pecuniary embarrassment, had 
grown by the absorption of additional 
claims to be an enterprise of importance 
with a capital of 84,000Z., while the 
Kimberley Mine, practically controlled by 
BamatOj represented an even larger and 
a rival amalgamation. But the perma- 
nence of the diamond industry was still 
regarded as doubtful. The assistance 
of the Cape government, confidently 
expected, had been refused to the mining 
board. Diamonds were sinking in value. 
Only a final amalgamation could save the 
industry, the question being whether the 
De Beers or the Barnato Company should 
be supreme. Bamato's financial position 
was the stronger, and his ability at least 
equal to Rhodes's. But he had failed to 
secure the important interests of the Com- 
pagnie Fran9aise in the Kimberley Mine. 
On 6 July 1887 Rhodes sailed for Europe, 
obtained the necessary financial support in 
London, and going to Paris bought the 
entire assets of the French company for 
1,400,000?. Barnato challenged the right of 
purchase ; there was bickering and imminent 
litigation, when Rhodes appeared to weaken. 
He offered the French company shares to 
Barnato at cost price, taking payment in 
Kimberley mining shares ; Barnato believed 
the day to be his. But the holding in the 
Kimberley Mine thus acquij-ed was used by 
Rhodes to obtain other shares, until at 
last he had secured a controlling interest 
in the mine ; and on 13 March 1888 both 
companies were amalgamated by the style 
of De Beers Consohdated Mines, with 
Rhodes as its chairman and virtual ruler. 
The trust deed which defined the powers 
conferred on its holders was singular. 

Barnato had desired a trust deed limiting 
the activities of the company to diamond 
mining. Rhodes declared that the com- 
pany should be legally capable of carrying 
out any business not in itself unlawful. 
There was a fresh encounter between the 
two men, who measured their wits against 
each other through a whole night, and 
Rhodes prevailed. The trust deed em- 
powered De Beers Consolidated Mines to 
increase its capital as it could, to acquire 
what it could, and where it could. It could 
' acquire tracts of country ' in Africa or 
elsewhere together with any rights that 
might be granted by the valuers thereof, 
and spend thereon any sums deemed 
requisite for the maintenance and good 
government thereof. ' Since the time of 
the East India Company,' said Mr. (now 
Chief Justice Sir) James Rose-Innes during 
the litigation with shareholders which 
followed, ' no company has had such power 
as this. They-are not confined to Africa ; 
they are authorised to take any steps for the 
good government of any coimtry. If they 
obtain a charter from the secretary of state, 
they could annex a portion of territory 
in Central Africa, raise and maintain a 
standing army, and undertake warlike 
operations.' Such was the corporation — 
the largest in the world — of which Rhodes 
found himself the master at thirty- six. 
At the same time Rhodes acquired large 
stakes in the gold mines of the Rand on 
the discovery of a reef there. His partner, 
Mr. Rudd, proceeded from Kimberley and 
obtained on their joint behalf interests in 
a gold-mining corporation which was soon 
known as the Consolidated Goldfields of 
South Africa. 

Rhodes's energetic interest in the orga- 
nisation of the Chartered Company was 
not diminished by his other activities. By 
arrangement with the Cape government 
the British South Africa Company under- 
took the construction of a railway line 
northwards from Kimberley to Fourteen 
Streams, then subsequently to the British 
Bechuanaland border and on to Vryburg. 
With a view to the occupation of the 
new territories a pioneer expedition was 
arranged in London with Mr. F. C. Selous, 
the famous hunter and explorer, while 
Dr. Leander Starr Jameson, relinquishing 
in 1890 a large medical practice at Kim- 
berley which he had carried on since 
1878, spent months of daring and adroit 
diplomacy in Lobengula's kraal, preparing 
the king for the estabUshment of English- 
men in Matabeleland and Mashonaland. 
On 11 Sept. 1890, after many hardships 




and perils, Dr. Jameson hoisted the Union 
Jack on the site of the present Salisbury, 
and he became the company's administrator. 

In addition to a holding acquired on 
Lake Nyassa, the company's range of 
operations was rapidly extended beyond 
the Zambesi, to the southern end of Lake 
Tanganyika. It was Rhodes's hope to 
push farther and connect Africa under the 
British flag from the Cape to Cairo. But the 
Anglo-German treaty of 1890, which ex- 
tended German East Africa to the Congo, 
made this impossible. In 1892, when the 
retention of Uganda by the imperial govern- 
ment seemed doubtful, Rhodes protested 
against its surrender, and wrote to Lord 
Salisbury, the foreign secretary, offering 
to carry the telegraph from Salisbury to 
Uganda at his own expense. The offer 
was declined, but Uganda was retained. 
In 1893 came war with, the Matabele, who 
were oppressing the neighbouring tribe, 
the Mashonas. A stubborn jSght was waged, 
largely under the direction of Rhodes but 
immediately by Dr. Jameson, who as ad- 
ministrator of the company at Fort Victoria 
took the field. The company's victory, 
despite heavy loss, was assured by the sub- 
mission of the Matabele chiefs (14 Jan. 1894). 
After the death of the Matabele chief 
Lobengula (23 Jan.) Rhodes brought three 
of his sons to Cape Town to be educated at 
his cost. The war confirmed the British pos- 
session of 440,000 square mUes of territory. 

On 17 July 1890 Rhodes became prime 
minister of the Cape in succession to Sir John 
Gordon Sprigg. He was maintained in power 
by Dutch and English votes practically for 
more than five years, and for that period 
was virtually dictator of South Africa. 
He was at the outset head of a ' ministry 
of all the talents.' John Xavier Merriman 
was treasurer-general, J. W. Sauer colonial 
secretary, and Sir James Sivewright 
commissioner of crown lands. The pro- 
priety of his combining the dual position 
as head of the British South Africa 
Company and of the Cape ministry was 
questioned (22 June 1893) ; but he at once 
made clear his readiness at any time to 
resign the premiership. While the develop- 
ment of the north occupied much of his 
attention, no colonial premier did so much 
to raise and broaden Cape pohtics. He 
carried through important reforms, notably 
in local education and in native pohcy, 
and went far to unite to their own 
consciousness the interests of British and 
Dutch in South Africa. The formidable 
Dutch political organisation, the Afrikander 
Bond, which sought openly the dominance 

of the Dutch in Cape politics and furtively 
the establishment of a Dutch republic, 
with the Transvaal as basis, was coaxed 
into his service. It is said that of 25,000 
Chartered Company shares reserved for 
him to dispose of at will, a large propor- 
tion were given to Dutch appUcants. This 
is the nearest approach to anything like 
bribery which his career discloses. He 
admitted that he struck a bargain with 
Hofmeyr, the leader of the Bond, who 
pledged himself with some reluctance in 
the name of the Bond not to throw any 
obstacles in the way of northern expansion 
in return for Rhodes's support of a tariff 
to protect the agricultural interest of 
South Africa. He was entirely frank in 
his desire to identify Bondmen with the 
Chartered Company's work, and when 
seeking to create a local board of control 
in the colony, he offered its presidency 
to the most distinguished of living Dutch- 
men, the chief justice, now Lord De 
Villiers, whose sympathies were with the 
Boer republics. He attended a Bond 
banquet on Easter Monday 1891, to show 
that there was no longer anything antago- 
nistic between the Bond and the mother 
country. He deprecated on the one hand 
too sentimental a regard for the Boer 
republics, and on the other any wish to 
interfere with the independence of neigh- 
bouring states, with which he counselled 
' customs relations, railway communication, 
and free trade in products.' With equal 
candour he addressed the Bond by letter 
on 17 April 1891, defining his views about 
the settlement in the north. 

In the early days of his ministry (Feb. 
1891) Rhodes and the governor. Sir Henry 
(afterwards Lord) Loch [q. v. Suppl. I] had 
visited London to discuss South African 
affairs. He discouraged interference of the 
home government in local affairs, but he 
hoped for the realisation of an imperial 
federal scheme. That hope had led him in 
1888 to subscribe a sum of 10,000Z. to the 
funds of Parnell's followers. Rhodes ad- 
mired Pamell's earnestness but stipulated 
that the Irish members should remain at 
Westminster. He made it clear that home 
rule was in his belief a step on the road to 
imperial federation. But he felt convinced 
that ' the future of England must be liberal ' 
and gave to the funds of the English liberal 
party 5000^. (February 1891) on condition 
that the gift should be kept secret, and 
that Irish representation at Westminster 
should be preserved in any home rule bill. 
Misgivings of the liberal pohcy in Egypt 
caused him subsequent concern, but he 


1 88 


was assured that there was no intention of 
abandoning EngUsh rule there. 

After a second visit to England early in 
1893 differences within the Cape ministry- 
compelled its reconstruction. Rhodes re- 
signed his post of prime minister on 3 May, to 
resume office next day with a reconstructed 
ministry, which included Sir Gordon Sprigg, 
W. P. Schreiner, and others, but excluded 
almost all his former colleagues. An Act 
was soon passed abolishing the secretary- 
ship for native affairs and amalgamating 
the duties with those of the prime minister. 

Rhodes's native policy was always 
courageous. Technical education and tem- 
perance he encouraged. He restricted by 
an Act of 1892 the franchise to men who 
could read and write and had the equivalent 
of a labourer's wage, without respect of 
colour, thus making an end of the raw 
Kafir vote and its abuses ; while in his Glen 
Grey Act of 1894 he introduced into native 
territories village and district councils in 
which natives could discuss educational 
and other matters, levy rates, and thus 
train themselves in the principles of self- 

Towards the end of 1893 Rhodes made 
a tour through Mashonaland and Matabele- 
land. The war had closed, and Rhodes 
brought back encouraging reports of the 
results of the victory. A budget surplus 
of 334,1 61 Z. (14 June 1894) attested the 
colony's prosperity under Rhodes's rule. 
In June 1895 the legislature formally 
pronounced the absorption of British 
Bechuanaland in Cape Colony. 

In the early months of 1895 he was once 
more in England, and was well received. 
On 2 Feb. he was admitted to the privy 
council, and though he was blackballed at 
the Travellers' Club (Jan.), he was in March 
elected by the Committee to the Athenseum. 
JAt the end of 1895 Rhodes while still 
premier entered on a course of action 
which prejudiced his reputation. His 
disposition hardly suffered him to weigh 
advice, and his heart trouble, which taught 
him that he was doomed to an early death, 
made him favour impulsively ' short cuts ' 
to his goal of a South Africa under sole 
British sway. He had sought in vain 
President Kruger's co-operation in a 
system of federation which should leave 
the independence of the republics intact 
while establishing a customs union, equal 
railway rates, and a common court of appeal, 
and he distrusted the capacity of those 
who should come after him to grapple 
with a problem still unsolved. During 1895 
the usage by the Boer government of the 

Uitlander population, to which that govern- 
ment owed most of its wealth and power, 
led to great tension between Briton and 
Boer. The episode which brought Rhodes's 
premiership to a disastrous close was the 
consequence, not the cause, of an intoler- 
able situation. In December 1895 the 
mining population of Witwatersrand, in- 
cluding both Americans and English, at 
Johannesburg, resolved, in despair of a 
peaceful solution, to compass a reform of 
their status by recourse to arms. Rhodes 
was asked and agreed to give this irregular 
movement his support. As a large mine- 
owner, who was the practical head of the 
Consolidated Goldfields of the Rand, where 
his brother Francis William held joint local 
control, he was within his rights, but as prime 
minister of a neighbouring govermnent he 
had no business to meddle in the matter. 
He did far more than become a party to the 
movement for reform. In the words of the 
finding of the' Subsequent Cape commission 
of inquiry : ' In his capacity of controller 
of three great joint-stock companies, the 
British South Africa Company, the De Beers 
Company, and the ConsoUdated Goldfields, 
he directed and controlled a combination 
which rendered a raid on President Kruger's 
territory possible.' On 23 September 
certain areas had been ceded to the British 
South Africa Company by native Bechuana 
chiefs near the frontier. Here, with 
Rhodes's approval. Dr. Jameson, who was 
acting as administrator of the South 
Africa Company, placed an armed force 
of 500 men. Meanwhile Rhodes gave 
money and arms and lent his influence 
to the movement within the Transvaal ; 
Jameson hovering on the border was in 
close concert with the leaders of the reform 
party. The movement hung fire. The 
form of government which was to replace 
ICruger's rule was undetermined. On 27 
December Jameson on his sole authority 
precipitated the crisis by crossing the 
Transvaal border with an armed force. 
In a conflict with the Boers near Krugers- 
dorp (1 January) the raiders were captured. 
For the raid Rhodes had no responsibility, 
but he acknowledged his complicity in the 
preliminary movement and resigned his 
office of premier (6 Jan. 1896). Next 
month he arrived in London to interview 
Mr. Chamberlain, the colonial secretary. 

The course of Rhodes's career was 
thenceforth changed. He returned to the 
Cape resolved to devote himself solely 
to the improvement of fruit and wine 
industries in Cape Colony and to the 
development of Rhodesia. He assumed the 




office of joint administrator with Lord 
Grey of the British South Africa Company, 
but resigned the directorship in May. 
In the interval most of his plans in the 
north had been defeated by the outbreak 
in March of a Matabele rebellion. Rhodes 
took command of one of the columns, and 
the fighting continued till August. Military 
operations had then driven the Matabele 
rebels to the Matoppo Hills, where they 
held an impregnable position. The prospect 
was one of a continued war, which might 
smoulder for years. Rhodes conceived 
the idea of ending the war by his own 
unarmed and tmaided intervention. He 
moved his tent to the base of the Matoppo 
HiUs, and lay there quietly surrounded by 
the rebels for six weeks. Word was sent 
to the natives that Rhodes was ' there, to 
have his throat cut, if necessary,' but as 
one trusting the Matabele, and anxious 
above all to ' have it out with them,' he 
was ready undefended to hear their side 
of the case, A councU was held by the 
chiefs in the heart of the granite hills. 
Rhodes was told that he might attend 
it (21 August). Accompanied by Dr. 
Sauer and Johan Colenbrander, the scout 
and interpreter, he rode to the appointed 
place. There was a long discussion without 
result. A week later (28 August) another 
conference followed. Rhodes was accom- 
panied by Colenbrander and his wife, by Mr. 
J. G. Macdonald and Mr. Grimmer, Rhodes' s 
private secretary. At one point the yoimg 
warriors got out of hand ; Colenbrander 
thought that all was lost and bade the 
party mount and fly. But Rhodes stood 
his gromid and shouted to the Matabale 
' Go back, I teU you ! ' They fell back, and 
Rhodes asked the assembled chiefs 'Is it 
peace, or is it war ? ' They answered ' It is 
peace.' Riding home in sUence, Rhodes 
said ' These are the things that make life 
worth whUe.' The rebellion came to an 
end after a final meeting with the chiefs 
(13 October). Next year Rhodes held an 
' Indaba ' of Matabele chiefs (23 June 
1897) and the settlement was confirmed. 

Meanwhile the Jameson raid and Rhodes' s 
relation with it had roused both in South 
Africa and in England an embittered party 
controversy. The Cape parMament adopted 
a majority report of a select committee 
condemning Rhodes' s action, while absolving 
him of any sordid motives (17 July 1896). 
On 11 Aug. 1896 a select committee of the 
British House of Commons was appointed 
to investigate the affairs of the British 
South Africa Company. Rhodes was ex- 
amined at length (16 Feb.-5 March 1897), 

and the report of the committee on 15 July 
pronounced Rhodes guilty of grave breaches 
of duty both as prime minister of the Cape 
and as acting manager of the company. 

During the few years which remained 
to him Rhodes's best work was given to 
developing Rhodesia and consolidating the 
loyal party at the Cape, where he kept to 
the end his seat in the House of Assembly. 
In Rhodesia he brought the railway from 
Vrybvirg to Bulawayo (opened 4 Nov. 1897), 
and made arrangements for carrying the 
line to Lake Tanganjdka as part of his 
scheme for connecting the Cape through a 
British hne of commimication with Cairo. 
On 21 April 1898 he was re-elected director 
of the company. He revisited Europe 
early next year, and then arranged to carry 
the African telegraphic land hne through 
to Egypt, discussing the project with the 
German Emperor in Berlin and forming a 
highly favourable impression of the Kaiser. 
In the Cape general election of the 
same year and in the succeeding session 
he made some fine speeches which were 
loudly applauded, but his own action had 
for the time shattered the scheme of a 
Federal Union of South Africa, which was 
always his great objective. At the encaenia 
of 1899 the honorary degree of D.C.L. 
was conferred on him at Oxford. He 
had been offered the distinction at the 
encaenia of 1892, but was unable to attend 
at that time. The bestowal of the degree 
in 1899 elicited an unavailing protest in 
the university from resident graduates who 
resented his share in the raid [see Caied, 
Edward, Suppl. II]. The honour was one 
which Rhodes warmly appreciated, and he 
acknowledged it generously in the terms 
of his will, which he signed soon after he 
received the degree. On returning to Cape 
Town (19 July) he was received with great 

The South African war broke out on 
11 Oct. 1899. Rhodes was then at Cape 
Town, but he at once made his way to 
Kimberley. Feeling that it was but right 
for the chief employer of workmen there 
to share the dangers of his employees, 
and impelled by a feeUng, which events 
justified, that the Boers in their desire to 
catch him might be delayed on their ad- 
vance down the ill-defended Cape Colony, 
Rhodes reached Kimberley just in time 
to be besieged (15 October). He took 
a man's part in organising the defence, and 
directed some needed measures of sanita- 
tion. The place was reheved on 16 Feb. 
1900. From this trial he emerged appa- 
rently well, but his health was broken and 




his days were numbered. On 20 July 1901 
he arrived at Southampton on a last visit 
to Europe. He resided at Rannoch Lodge, 
in Perthshire, till 6 Oct., when he left for 
Italy and Egypt. On his return to London 
in Jan. 1902 he spent a day at Dalham, 
Suffolk, an estate which he had just bought 
in the beUef that the air there was easier 
to breathe than elsewhere. Business called 
him back to Cape Town in Feb. ; his malady 
grew critical, and moving from Groote 
Schuur to a cottage by the sea at Muizen- 
berg, he died there after weeks of extreme 
suffering, courageously borne, on 26 March. 
He was forty-nine years and eight months 
old. By his direction he was buried 
in a hole cut in the solid granite of the 
Matoppos ; he had chosen the spot during 
his negotiations with the Matabele chiefs 
in 1896. 

Rhodes's work did not end with his 
death. His last will, his sixth, was dated 

I July 1899, with codicils of Jan. and 

II Oct. 1901 and 18 Jan. and 12 March 
1902. By its provisions his beautiful 
residence, Groote Schuur, an old Dutch 
house, rebuilt on the slopes of Table Moun- 
tain, was left for the use of the premier of 
a federated South Africa. Dalham, the 
Suffolk estate, was bequeathed to his family, 
with a characteristic direction against any 
' loafers ' inheriting it. Save for minor 
personal bequests his entire fortune, amount- 
ing to 6,000,000/., was given to the public 
service. Part of this money was left for the 
purpose of founding some 160 scholarships 
at Oxford, of the value of 300Z. each, to be 
held by two students from every state or 
territory of the United States of America, 
and three from each of eighteen British 
colonies. Fifteen other scholarships of the 
value of 2501. were reserved for German 
students to be selected by the Emperor 
Wilham II. The total scholarship endow- 
ment was 51,750Z. a year. In selecting the 
scholars his trustees were enjoined to con- 
sider not only the scholastic attainments of 
candidates but their athletic capacity and 
moral force. One hundred thousand pounds 
was left to his old college. Oriel, and his 
land near Bulawayo and Sahsbury was left 
to provide a university for the people 
of Rhodesia. Rhodes appointed among 
others as trustees for the execution of 
his will Lord Rosebery, lately prime 
minister of England, Lord Milner, then high 
commissioner of South Africa, Dr. Jameson, 
prime minister of the Cape, Alfred Beit, 
and Earl Grey, presently governor-general 
of the Dominion of Canada. Rhodes's last 
will embodied all that was practicable 

of the boyish ideals of his first will 
made at twenty-four. Its benefactions 
stirred people less than the revelation 
of his ideals ; and those who had been 
foremost in detraction admitted the 
purity of his motives. The last word on 
behalf of the Dutch was spoken on 28 June 
1910 by Lord De Villiers, chief justice of 
the supreme court of South Africa, who, 
unveiling a statue at Cape Town, erected 
by public subscription, pronounced Rhodes 
to be a patriotic Englishman, a friend to 
the Dutch, the forerunner of the Union of 
South Africa. 

Rhodes's impetuosity and impatience 
in act and speech gave in his lifetime an 
impression of him which was misleading. 
Like all statesmen he accepted the con- 
ditions of life as he found them, having 
much to do and little time, as he knew 
from his malady, to do it in. By nature he 
had the shy sensitive kindness of a boy. 
But while his nameless benefactions were 
many, he affected brutality and hardness, 
making it his principle to subordinate 
friendships and all individual claims to 
his schemes. Yet he was not in truth 
a hard man. Except in finance, where 
he was out-distanced by Alfred Beit, 
his mere aptitudes were not remark- 
able ; in conventional accomplishments 
he was not well equipped. He had 
few ideas, but these he had worked for, 
testing their value by his life's experience, 
and wore them, so to say, next his skin. 
The ideas and dexterities which most 
cultivated men of affairs have about them, 
as it were ready made, were not his. His 
temperament was unequal, almost in- 
calculable, combining extreme naivete and 
simplicity with strokes of amazing and 
unexpected shrewdness. His work in its 
entire detail seemed to be done by others. 
While he apparently dreamed they really 
and on their own initiative drafted letters, 
designed meetings and conjunctions, sup- 
ported or opposed policies, and drew up 
as it were programmes, which in a little 
he roused himself to act upon. Yet there 
was no end to the qualities he held in 
reserve. He seemed to muse, yet was 
suddenly alert with the perception of clair- 
voyance, revealing a grasp of detail in sub- 
jects where he had been rashly supposed 
ignorant. He talked anyhow ; yet his 
felicity of phrase after columns of confused 
commonplace was imcanny. The sub- 
ordinates who did so much of his work, 
apparently without consulting him, were 
lost without him. He was there, and the 
rest followed ; he was not there, and nothing 




was done. In a •word he was * daemonic,' 
and the impression of greatness which he 
made on his subordinates is reflected in the 
view now taken of him by his comitrymen. 
His life, however rightly or wrongly con- 
ducted in detaU, is seen to have been 
steadily devoted to impersonal and pubUc 
service and a cause which was really the 
greater friendliness of mankind. 

Rhodes was over six feet high, enor- 
mously broad and deep chested, with a 
fair complexion, deep blue eyes, and hght 
brown waving hair, which grew white in 
his later years. In his blood there was a 
Norse strain, and he had the look of a 
viking. His head was huge and the brow 
massive, and was compared erroneously to 
Napoleon's. The likeness was imperial but 
recalled rather the Roman empire than 
the French. Rhodes is best represented in I 
sculpture in the statue by John Tweed I 
at Bulawayo (unveiled 7 July 1904). A | 
bust by Henry Pegram, A.R.A., is at ' 
Grahamstown (7 Nov. 1904), a statue by i 
the same sculptor at Cape Town ( 1909), and \ 
a colossal equestrian statue by Wilham \ 
Hamo Thomycroft, R.A., at Kimberley 
(1907). On 5 July 1912 Earl Grey dedicated 
to the public an elaborate moniunent to 
Rhodes outside Cape Town on the Groote 
Schuur slopes of Table Mountain, consisting 
of a columned Doric portico approached by 
a long flight of steps lined on each side by 
fovir hons of the Egyptian type from the 
chisel of John McAllan Swan ; at the foot 
of the steps is the statue of ' Physical 
Energy ' by George Frederick Watts, who 
originally presented it to Lord Grey for 
erection at Groote Schuui*. An unfuiished 
painting by Watts was presented to the 
National Portrait Gallery by the executors 
of the artist in 1905. Another portrait by 
Sir Hubert von Herkomer is in the Kimberley 
Club ; a replica belongs to Lord Rosebery. 
A third by A. Tennyson Cole is in Oriel 
College Common room. A fourth by Sir 
Luke FUdes was left unfinished. Of several 
miniatures painted of him, none is so good 
as a photograph taken by Messrs. Downey 
in 1898, before the fine contour of his face 
was blunted by disease. 

[No ' standard ' or adequate biography of 
Rhodes has yet appeared. Sir Thomas Fuller's 
Cecil Rhodes : a Monograph and a Reminis- 
cence (1910) is the most considerable study 
of the man and his career, and is a balanced 
and informed appreciation. The Life by Sir 
Le\\-i3 Michell, Rhodes's banker and one of 
his trustees (2 vols. 1910), though painstaking, 
does not exhaust the authorities accessible, 
and is not authorised by the Rhodes trustees. 

Cecil Rhodes's Private Life, by his private 
secretary, Philip Jourdan (1911), written by 
one of several young colonists — a Dutchman 
in this case — who acted for Rhodes in that 
capacity, abounds in intimate personal obser- 
vation. Cecil Rhodes, his Pohtical Life and 
Speeches, by Vindex, i.e. the Rev. F. Verschoyle 
(1900), is the chief account of Rhodes' s pubhc 
career yet published, consisting largely of his 
speeches from 1881 to 1900 with an explanatory 
thread of narrative. Cecil Rhodes, by Im- 
periaHst (1897), is a popular account of 
his career up to the Jameson Raid, and 
has a chapter by Sir Starr (then Dr.) 
Jameson. Cecil Rhodes, by Howard Hens- 
man (2 vols. 1911), is of a fugitive and popular 
tj^pe. See also With Rhodes in Mashonaland, 
by D. C. De Waal (Cape Town, Juta, 1895) ; 
article on Rhodes in The Empire and the 
Century, London, 1905, by Edmund Garrett, 
the best short impression ; Lord Milner 
and South Africa, by E. B. Iwan MiiUer 
(Heinemann, 1902), also written from per- 
sonal observation ; Sir Percival Lawrence's 
On Circmt in Kaffirland ; Rights and Wrongs 
of the Transvaal War, by E. T. Cook (1902) ; 
Sir Charles Dilke's Problems of Greater 
Britain (1890) ; English and South African 
papers of 27 March 1902 and of 16 and 17 April 
1902 ; address at the grave in the Matoppos 
by the bishop of Mashonaland, and the arch- 
bishop of Cape Town's sermon. Cape Town 
Cathedral, 30 March 1902 ; Scholz and Horn- 
beck's Oxford and the Rhodes Scholarships, 
1907. This article is further based on per- 
sonal knowledge and association and on private 
information from Rhodes's brothers and sisters, 
from Sir Starr Jameson, and many other of 
Rhodes's associates.] C. W. B. 

1905), colonel, elder brother of Cecil John 
Rhodes [see above], bom on 9 April 1851 
at Bishop Stortford, entered Eton in 
1865, where he was in the army class and 
in the cricket elevens of 1869 and 1870. 
After passing through Sandhurst he was 
gazetted lieutenant of the 1st royal dragoons 
in April 1873. He saw service in the Sudan 
as a member of the staff in 1884, and was 
present at the battles of El Teb and Tamai. 
He was mentioned in despatches, received 
the medal with clasp and bronze star, 
and was promoted captain in Oct. 1884. 
He accompanied the Nile expedition in 
1884-5 for the reUef of Khartoum as aide- 
de-camp to Sir Herbert Stewart [q. v.], 
and distinguished himself at the battles of 
Abu Klea and El Gubat, where his horse 
was shot imder him. He was mentioned 
in despatches, and received two clasps and 
the brevet of major and Ueutenant-colonel 
(Sept. 1885). Stewart described Rhodes as 
the best A.D.C. a general could have. 




He next served in the Sudan expedition 
of 1888, and was present at the action of 
Gemaiza (20 Dec. ) ; he was again mentioned 
in despatches, and received the clasp and 
the order of the Medjidie (3rd class). He 
was made colonel in Sept. 1889. From 
1890 to 1893 he was military secretary to 
his schoolfellow. Lord Harris, governor of 
Bombay; he received the D.S.O. in 1891, 
and in 1893 accompanied as chief of staff the 
mission of Sir Gerald Herbert Portal [q.v.] to 
Uganda. On this perilous journey Rhodes 
nearly succumbed to blackwater fever. 

On his recovery he went out in 1894 to 
the South African territory of Rhodesia, 
which, through his brother Cecil's exertions, 
had just been placed under the control 
of the newly incorporated British South 
Africa Company. He was made miUtary 
member of the council of four in the new 
government of Matabeleland, of which 
Dr. L. S. Jameson was first administrator 
(18 July 1894). In Dr. Jameson's ab- 
sence in Europe he acted as administrator 
that year. Next year he went to Johannes- 
burg as representative of the Consolidated 
Goldfields, of which his brother was a 
director. In Sept. 1895 he was at Ramoutsa 
negotiating on behalf of his brother for 
the cession of native territory close to the 
Transvaal border, which soon came under 
the jurisdiction of the British South 
Africa Company (Sir Lewis Michell, 
Life of Cecil Rhodes, 1910, i. 197). As one 
of the members of the Johannesburg 
reform movement for the protection of the 
Uitlanders he was one of the five signa- 
tories of the undated letter (Nov. 1895) to 
Dr. Jameson which ostensibly led to the 
Jameson raid. On the failure of the raid, 
he was arrested by the Boer government, 
tried for high treason, and sentenced to 
death (April 1896). The sentence was soon 
commuted to fifteen years' imprisonment. 
After being in prison in Pretoria until 
Jime, Rhodes and his companions were 
released on payment of a fine of 25,000Z. 
each and on promising to abstain from 
politics for fifteen years. This latter 
condition Rhodes alone of the ringleaders 
refused to accept, and he was banished 
from the Transvaal. For his encourage- 
ment of the Raid, Rhodes was placed on the 
army retired list. In July he joined his 
brother Cecil in the war in Matabeleland. 

In 1898 he went with General Kitchener's 
NUe expedition as war correspondent to 
' The Times,' and was wounded at 
the battle of Omdurman. For his 
services in that campaign his name was 
restored to the active list (Sept. 1898). 

On the outbreak of the war in South 
Africa in 1899 Rhodes went thither and 
served in the early battles in Natal. He 
was besieged in Ladysmith, where by his 
optimism and geniality he helped to keep 
his companions in good spirits (L. S. 
Ameby, The War in South Africa, iii. 175). 
In the fight on Wagon Hill (5-6 Jan. 1900) 
Rhodes displayed great courage, and took 
Lord Ava, who was mortally wounded, out 
of fire into cover {ibid. iii. 194). In May 
following he was intelligence officer with 
the fl3ning column under Brigadier-general 
Bryan Thomas Mahon, which hurried to the 
relief of Mafeking (4-17 May 1900) {ibid. 
iv. 222). For his services in the war he 
was created a military C.B. In Jan. 1903 
he was Lord Kitchener's guest at the 
Durbar at Delhi. In the same year he 
retired from the army, and was till his 
death managing director of the African 
transcontinental telegraph company. 

Rhodes had a great knowledge of the 
continent of Africa, and aided with his 
experience of the Sudan Mr. Winston 
Spencer Churchill in preparing his ' The 
River War' (1899 ; new edit., by Rhodes, 
1902). He also contributed an intro- 
duction and photographs to ' From the Cape 
to the Zambesi' (1905), by G. T. Hutchm- 
son, whom he accompanied in that year to 
the Zambesi. The strain of this journey 
brought on the fatal illness of which 
he died, unmarried, at his brother's 
residence, Groote Schuur, Capetown, on 
21 Sept. 1905. His body was brought to 
England for interment at Dalham, Suffolk. 
A memorial tablet was placed by his friends 
in Eton College chapel in October 1906, and 
prizes for geography have been founded 
at Eton in his memory. 

[The Times, 22 Sept. 1905 ; Broad Arrow, 
23 Sept. 1905 ; Anglo- African Who's Who, 
1905 ; Official Army List ; Amery, Hist. 
War in South Africa, esp. i. 163 seq. 
(portrait) ; Sir Lewis Michell, Life of Cecil J. 
Rhodes, 1910 ; Eton School Lists.] W. B. 0. 

Duke of. [See Gordon-Lennox, Charles 
Henry (1818-1903), lord president of 
the council.] 

BUCHANAN (1817-1903), major-general 
R.A., meteorologist, born at Lilliesleaf, 
Roxburghshire, on 19 Nov. 1817, was third 
son of Sir John Buchanan Riddell, ninth 
baronet, by his wife Frances, eldest 
daughter of Charles Marsham, first earl of 
Romney. With the exception of a year 
at Eton, Riddell was educated at private 




schools. In 1832 he entered the Royal 
Military Academy, Woolwich, passing 
thence (1834) into the royal artillery as 
second lieutenant. The following year he 
was transferred to Quebec, receiving pro- 
motion as first heutenant in 1837, after 
which he returned to England, and was 
ordered to Jamaica, being however invalided 
back a year later. 

In 1839 Riddell became identified with 
scientific research. The Royal Society and 
the British Association were deeply inter- 
ested in the prosecution of inquiries in 
terrestrial magnetism and in meteorology, 
and it was decided to establish stations in 
certain colonies for the advancement of 
these objects. RiddeU was selected for the 
post of superintendent of a magnetical 
and meteorological observatory at Toronto, 
subject to the instructions of the ordnance 
department and under Major (afterwards 
General Sir Edward) Sabine, R.A. [q.v.]. At 
the end of a year Riddell was invalided home, 
but he had done excellent service. Soon 
after, at Sabine's instance, he was appointed 
assistant superintendent of Ordnance Mag- 
netic Observatories at the Royal Military 
Repository, Woolwich. During his four 
years' tenure of this post he assisted 
Sabine in the reduction of magnetic data 
and the issue of results of observations 
made by the directors of the afiihated 
observatories (see Toronto ObservatioTis, 
vol. i. Introduction ; and Rept. Brit. 
Assoc. 1841, p. 340, and p. 26, 'Sectional 
Transactions'). He was elected a fellow 
of the Royal Society on 13 Jan. 1842. 

In 1844 the admiralty published Riddell's 
'Magnetical Instructions for the Use of 
Portable Instrimients adapted for Mag- 
netical Surveys and Portable Observatories, 
and for the Use of a Set of Small Instru- 
ments for a Fixed Magnetic Observatory.' 

Subsequently he was placed on the stafi 
at Woolwich. During the Crimean war he 
was deputy assistant quartermaster-general, 
and of him General PaUiser reported that 
' To his untiring energy throughout the late 
war the successful embarcation of the artil- 
lery without casualty and the provision of 
all the necessary supphes are to be mainly 
attributed.' Riddell served in the Indian 
Mutiny in 1857-8, commanding the siege 
artUlery of Outram's force at the siege 
and capture of Lucknow, and the artiUery 
of Lugard's column at the engagement of 
the Tigree ; he was three times mentioned in 
despatches, was made a C.B., and received 
the medal with clasps. He retired in 1866 
with the rank of major-general. After- 
wards he hved quietly at Chudleigh, Devon- 

VOL. LXIX. — SUP. n. 

shire. There he owned a farm, which 
he managed, and also engaged in parochial 
and educational work. He died at his 
home, Oaklands, Chudleigh, on 25 Jan. 
1903, and was buried at Chudleigh. He 
married on 11 Feb. 1847 Mary {d. 1900), 
daughter of Sir Hew Dalrymple Ross [q. v.], 
and had issue one daughter. 

[Proc. Roy. Soc. Ixxv. ; Nature, 5 March 
1903; The Times, 26 Jan. 1903; Burke's 
Baronetage.] T. E. J. 

LAWSON, known as Mbs. J. H. RroDELii 
(1832-1906), noveUst, bom on 30 Sept. 1832 
at the Bam, Carrickfergus, co. Antrim, was 
the youngest daughter of James Cowan of 
Carrickfergus, by his wife Ellen Kilshaw. 
After her father's death Charlotte hved 
with her mother at Dundonald, co. Down, 
the scene of her novel ' Bema Boyle ' (1884) , 
and then came to London. Her mother died 
in 1856, and in 1857 Miss Cowan married 
J. H. Riddell, a civil engineer, of 
Winson Green House, Staffordshire. Her 
husband soon lost his money, and Mrs. 
Riddell began to write for a livelihood. 

Her first novel, ' The Moors and the Fens,' 
appeared in 1858 (3 vols. ; 2nd edit. 1866). 
She issued it under the pseudonym of 
F. G. Trafford, which she only abandoned 
for her own name in 1864. Novels and 
tales followed in quick succession, and 
between 1858 and 1902 she issued thirty 
volumes. The most notable is perhaps 
' George Geith of Fen Court, by F. G. 
Trafford' (1864; other editions 1865, 1886), 
for which Tinsley paid her SOOl. It was 
dramatised in 1883 by Wybert Reeve, 
was produced at Scarborough, and was 
afterwards played in Australia. From 
1867 Mrs. Riddell was co-proprietor and 
editor of the ' St. James's Magazine,' which 
had been started in 1861 under Mrs. S. C. 
HaU [q. V.]. She also edited a magazine 
called ' Home ' in the sixties, and wrote 
short tales for the Society for the Promotion 
of Christian Knowledge and Routledge's 
Christmas annuals. Her short stories were 
less successful than her novels. 

Her husband died in 1880. Despite 
harass and misfortune her twenty-three 
years of married Life were happy. After 
1886 she Uved in seclusion at Upper HaUi- 
ford, Middlesex. She was the first pensioner 
of the Society of Authors, receiving a pension 
of 60Z. a year in May 1901. She died at 
Hounslow on 24 Sept. 1906. There were no 
children of the marriage. 

Mrs. Riddell, by making commerce the 
theme of many of her novels, introduced a 




new element into English fiction, although 
Balzao ^ had naturalised it in the French 
novel. She was intimately acquainted with 
the topography of the City of London, where 
the scenes of her novels were often laid. At 
the same time she possessed a rare power 
of describing places of which she had no 
first-hand knowledge. When she wrote 
' The Moors and the Fens ' she had never 
seen the district. 

[The Times, 26 Sept. 1906 ; Helen C. Black, 
Notable Women Authors of the Day, 1893 ; 
W. Tinsley, Random Recollections of an Old 
Publisher, 1900, i. 93-6 ; Brit. Mus. Cat.] 


KIDDING, GEORGE (1828-1904), head- 
master of Winchester and first bishop of 
Southwell, was born on 16 March 1828 in 
Winchester College, of wliich his father, 
Charles Henry Ridding (afterwards vicar of 
Andover), was then second master. His 
mother {d. 1832) was Charlotte Stonhouse, 
daughter of Timothy Stonhouse- Vigor, arch- 
deacon of Gloucester, and grand-daughter 
of Sir James Stonhouse, eleventh baronet 
[q. V.]. Isaac Huntingford [q. v.], bishop of 
Gloucester and Hereford and warden of 
Winchester, was great-great-uncle and god- 
father. Ridding was a scholar of Win- 
chester (1840-6), rising to be head of the 
school, while his three brothers won equal 
distinction as cricketers. In default of a 
vacancy at New College, he matriculated as 
a commoner at BaUiol, where he rowed in 
the college boat and gained the Craven 
scholarship, a first class in classics and a 
second in mathematics, and a mathematical 
fellowship at Exeter College (all in 1851) ; 
he won the Latin essay and proceeded 
M.A. in 1853 ; and took the degree of 
D.D. in 1869. From 1853 to 1863 he was 
tutor of Exeter (of which coUege he was 
made an honorary fellow in 1890) ; there 
he took a considerable part on the liberal 
side in college and university politics. 

On 14 Jan. 1863 Ridding was elected 
second master of Winchester ; and on 
27 Sept. 1866, when Dr. George Moberly 
[q. v.] resigned the headmastership, he was 
at once elected to succeed him. The time 
was ripe for reforms, educational and 
material, and Ridding was a wise and 
courageous reformer. Carrjring on the 
policy initiated by Moberly, he established 
six additional boarding-houses, and trans- 
ferred thither the * commoners ' (boys not 
on the foundation), who had hitherto 
been housed in an unsightly and in- 
sanitary block of buildings, which Ridding 
converted into much-needed class-rooms 
and a school library. Land was bought, 

drained, levelled, and presented to the 
school as additional playing-fields, since 
called Ridding Field. A racquet court, 
three fives courts, and a botanical garden 
were likewise given to the school. A 
new bathing-place and a gymnasium were 
provided. Wykeham's chapel was re- 
seated and rearranged, with results which 
though artistically unfortunate were held 
to be good for discipUne ; and ' Chantry,' 
a beautiful fifteenth- century bmlding in 
the centre of the cloisters, was converted 
into a chapel for the smaller boys. The 
funds for carrying out his reforms were 
provided by Ridding out of his own 
salary and private property, to an extent 
estimated at 20,000/., of which about half 
was eventually repaid to him. Education- 
ally Ridding was a pioneer in the expan- 
sion of the curriculum of public schools. 
He was one of the founders of the head- 
masters' conference in 1870, and of the 
Oxford and Cambridge schools examination 
board in 1873 ; but he did not wait for 
the collaboration of other headmasters 
to carry out the reforms which he saw to 
be desirable. He more than doubled the 
staff of assistant masters. He greatly 
enlarged the scope of the mathematical 
teaching ; he practicaUy introduced the 
teaching of history, modern languages, and 
natural science, and made them, especially 
the first-named, vital elements in the 
education of the school. No separate 
' modern side ' was estabUshed ; but oppor- 
tunities were given in the upper part of 
the school for the development of special 
individual capacity. Ridding was himself 
a fine classical scholar and a stimulating 
teacher, and by a system of periodical 
inspection he kept the whole teaching of 
the school under his own eye. He had the 
gift of commanding both the respect and 
the affection of his pupils, and the perhaps 
rarer gift of carrying with him in a course 
of drastic reforms the co-operation and 
devotion of his assistant masters. His 
reforms were often viewed with disfavour 
by the fellows, who before 1871 con- 
stituted the governing body of the college, 
and were strenuously criticised by Wyke- 
hamists in general ; but Ridding won his 
way, and the results justified him. The 
school rose in numbers from about 250 
to over 400, and might have been much 
further enlarged but for Ridding's con- 
viction that a school should not exceed 
the number with which a headmaster can 
keep in personal touch. The record of 
vmiversity successes was excellent ; after 
his resignation he was entertained at 




dinner by sixteen fellows of Oxford colleges 
who were the product of the last eight 
years of his rule at Winchester. In 1872 
occurred the ' tunding row,' arising out 
of a somewhat excessive punishment of a 
stalwart * inferior ' by a prefect. The in- 
cident was trivial, but the victim's father 
appealed to * The Times,' and an animated, 
though in general ill-informed, correspond- 
ence followed [The Times, Nov. and Dec. 
1872). Two members of the governing 
body resigned ; but neither Winchester nor 
the prefectorial system was affected by 
it. A further valuable extension of the 
activities of the school was the foundation, 
after the example of Uppingham, of a 
School INIission, first in 1876 at Bromley 
in East London, and subsequently in 1882 
at Landport in Portsmouth, where the 
mission came into more intimate connection 
with the life of the school. 

In 1883 Ridding refused the offer of the 
deanery of Exeter (while at Oxford he had 
refused a colonial bishopric) ; but in 1884 
he was appointed the first bishop of South- 
well, and consecrated on 1 May. Southwell 
was a new diocese, formed by separating 
the counties of Derby and Nottingham 
from the dioceses of Lichfield and Lincoln 
respectively. The cathedral town was so 
inaccessible that Ridding firmly decUned 
to Uve in it, and rented Thurgarton Priory 
as his residence in place of the ruined 
episcopal palace. In population the 
diocese was the fifth in England, but it 
had no chapter, no diocesan funds, no 
common organisation ; the two counties 
had diverse traditions, and much of the 
patronage remained in the hands of external 
bishops and chapters. Ridding's work 
was to bring unity and a corporate spirit 
out of diversity and jealousy, to create all 
kinds of diocesan organisations, to raise 
the intellectual standard of the clergy, 
and to stimulate spiritual Life in neglected 
districts. As at Winchester, he was not 
understood at first, and encoimtered some 
opposition ; but his sincerity, genuineness, 
and liberaUty (the whole of his official 
income was spent on the diocese) ultimately 
gained the affection and loyalty of both 
clergy and laity. He was emphatic in 
upholding the national church, and very 
definite in his advocacy of church principles. 
His independence and originaUty of thought 
made him a valued adviser of two successive 
archbishops ; with Temple in particular 
he was united by cordial friendship, based 
on considerable resemblances of character. 
This same independence, on the other hand, 
often separated him from the main parties 

of church thought. During the con- 
troversy of 1902 on reUgious education, he 
was not in accord with either the govern- 
ment or the opposition of the day, but 
strenuously advocated a universal system 
of state schools, accompanied by universal 
Uberty of reHgious teaching. 

With the exception of a long holiday 
(necessitated by overwork) in Egypt and 
Greece from December 1888 to April 1889, 
his work in his diocese was unbroken. 
In 1891 he refused translation to Lichfield. 
In 1893 occurred the great strike in the coal 
trade, lasting four months (July-Nov.), 
during which his efforts to restore peace 
were unceasing. In 1897 he presided at 
the Nottingham Church Congress. In 1902 
repeated attacks of rheumatism and sciatica 
began to tell upon his health. In July 1904 
he tendered his resignation ; but before it 
had taken effect an acute crisis supervened, 
and on 30 Aug. he died at Thurgarton. He 
was buried just outside Southwell minster. 
Ridding was twice married: (1) on 
20 July 1858 to Mary Louisa, third child 
of Dr. George Moberly [q. v.], then head- 
master of Winchester ; she died on the first 
anniversary of their marriage ; and (2) 
on 26 Oct. 1876 to Laura Ehzabeth, 
eldest daughter of Roundell Palmer, first 
earl of Selborne [q. v.]. 

Ridding published one volume of ser- 
mons, 'The Revel and the Battle ' (1897); 
and after his death his ' Litany of 
Remembrance ' (1905) and his visitation 
charges, ' The Church and Common- 
wealth ' (1906), ' Church and State ' (1912), 
were edited by his wife. His style, 
whether in writing or in speaking, was 
pecuhar : full of thought, tersely and 
trenchantly expressed, but often difficult 
to follow from lack of connecting links and 
phrases. Nevertheless it was stimulating 
from its vigour and obvious sincerity, as 
well as from the imexpectedness which 
was a characteristic quahty also of his 
teaching and conversation. His admini- 
strative powers are best shown by the 
results : as headmaster he earned the title 
(conferred on him by the conservative 
warden of New College, Dr. Sewell) of 
' second foxinder of Winchester,' and as 
bishop he was the foimder and organiser 
of the diocese of Southwell. 

Ridding's portrait, painted by W. W. 
Ouless, R.A., in 1879, as a wedding gift from 
old Wykehamists, hangs in Moberly Library, 
Winchester ; it was engraved by Paul Rajon. 
Another portrait by H. Harris Brown in 
1896 belongs to Lady Laiu-a Ridding. A 
fuU-length memorial brass by T. B. Carter 





was placed in Winchester College chapel 
by the warden and fellows in 1907 ; and 
a fine bronze statue, kneehng, by F. W. 
Pomeroy, A.R.A., was presented to South- 
well Cathedral by the diocese and friends. 
There are engravings from photographs 
in 1897 and 1904. A cartoon portrait by 
' Spy ' appeared in * Vanity Fair ' in 1901. 

[George Ridding, Schoolmaster and Bishop, 
by his wife. Lady Laura Ridding, with biblio- 
graphy, 1908 ; Miss 0. A. E. Moberly, Dulce 
Domum, 1911 ; articles in the Church Quarterly 
Rev., July 1905, and Cornhill Mag., Dec. 1904 ; 
personal knowledge.] F. G. K. 


fifth baronet and first Viscount Ridley 
(1842-1904), home secretary, bom at 
Carlton House Terrace, London, on 25 July 
1842, was elder son in a family of two 
sons and one daughter of Sir Matthew 
White Ridley, fourth baronet, of Blagdon, 
Northumberland (1807-1877), M.P. for 
North Northumberland. His mother was 
Cecilia Anne, eldest daughter of Sir James 
Parke, Baron Wensleydale [q. v.]. Edward, 
the younger brother (6. Aug. 1843), became 
a judge of the high court in 1897. The 
Ridleys were an old Border family, originally 
of Williemoteswick and Hardriding. On 
18 Nov. 1742 Matthew Ridley of Heaton 
married Elizabeth, daughter of Matthew 
White, who had purchased of the Fen- 
wicks the estate of Blagdon, and owned 
much other landed property. Her brother 
Matthew was created a baronet in 1756 
with special remainder in the absence of issue 
of his own to his sister's son, Matthew 
White Ridley. The latter in 1763 suc- 
ceeded as second baronet, and inherited 
Blagdon and other of Matthew White's 

Ridley was at Harrow from 1856 to 1861. 
There he was in the football and shooting 
elevens, and became captain of the school 
in 1860. In the same year he gained a 
classical scholarship at Balliol College, 
Oxford, and matriculated on 12 Oct. 186L 
Taking a first class in classical moderations 
in 1863 and in the final classical school in 
1865, he in the latter year graduated B.A., 
and was elected a fellow of All Souls, 
proceeding M.A. in 1867. He vacated 
his fellowship in 1874, after his marriage. 

Destined for a political career, Ridley in 
1868 succeeded his father in the conserva- 
tive interest as member of parliament for 
North Northumberland ; his colleague was 
Lord Percy, afterwards seventh duke of 
Northumberland; they were returned un- 
opposed. In 1874 they were again returned 

without a contest. On his father's death on 
21 Sept. 1877 he succeeded as fifth baronet 
and owner of the family estates. Next year 
under Lord Beaconsfield's administration he 
received his first official recognition, becom- 
ing under-secretary to the home office. At 
the general election of 1880 he was returned 
for the third time with Lord Percy, but now 
after a contest with a liberal opponent. 
The conservative government was defeated 
at the polls and went out of office. Ridley 
remained a private member until the sum- 
mer of 1885, when in Lord Salisbury's first 
short administration he was made in Sep- 
tember financial secretary to the treasury, 
retiring with his colleagues in Jan. 1886. 
Meanwhile the Redistribution Act of 1885 
changed the Northumberland constituencies, 
and at the general election in Nov. 1885 
Ridley stood for the Hexham division, where 
he was beaten by Miles Maclnnes. At the 
next general election of July 1886 he stood 
for Newcastle-on-Tyne with Sir William 
Armstrong, but both seats were won by the 
liberal candidates, Mr. John Morley and 
James Craig. In the following August a l^^*] 
bye-election at Blackpool gave Ridley an 
opportunity of returning to parliament, 
and he retained the seat until he was raised 
to the peerage in 1900. Lord SaUsbury's 
second administration had been formed 
in the previous July. Ridley remained a 
private member until 1895. He was, 
however, created a privy councillor on the 
resignation of the conservative government 
in 1892. 

Although Ridley took little part in the 
debates of the house, he won its respect, 
and early in 1895, when Arthur Wellesley 
(Viscount) Peel retired, was put forward on 
10 April as the conservative candidate for 
the speakership, being proposed by Sir John 
Mowbray and seconded by John Lloyd 
Wharton, in opposition to the liberal can- 
didate, William Court GuUy (afterwards 
Viscount Selby [q. v. Suppl. II]. On a divi- 
sion Gully was elected by 285 votes against 
274 for Ridley. It was asserted at the time 
that in the event of a change of government 
after the approaching general election, Sir 
Matthew would at once be placed in the 
chair. But when Lord SaUsbury returned to 
office on 25 June, Gully was not disturbed, 
and Sir Matthew became home secretary in 
the new government. This post he filled 
until the dissolution of 1900. 

Ridley's administration of the home 
office was thoroughly safe and consequently 
attracted little attention. In 1897, when 
he released from prison some men convicted 
of dynamite outrages, he defended himself 




with effect against an attack from his own 
side, led by Mr. (later Sir) Henry Howorth 
and James Lowther [q. v. Suppl. II], but he 
was not otherwise molested. When the 
government was reconstituted after the 
general election (Sept. 1900) Sir Matthew, 
who was left a widower a year earlier, retired 
from political life. His last years were 
mainly spent at Blagdon. 

Ridley was always active in the admini- 
stration of his property. Throughout the 
north of England, where his influence was 
great, he was known as an extremely capable 
man of business. He was long a director 
of the North Eastern railway, and on the 
resignation of Sir Joseph Pease in 1902 he 
became chairman. He especially devoted 
himself to the development of the town 
of Blyth, which, originally part of the 
estates of the Radcliflfe family forfeited 
to the Crown after the rising of 1715, had 
descended to Ridley with the other estates 
of Matthew White. In the eighteenth 
century it was an important place of export 
for coal, and from 1854 was under the 
control of the Blj^h Harbour and Dock 
Company ; but owing to shallowness of 
entrance and increase in the size of ships, 
trade fell off, and in 1883 amounted to only 
150,000 tons. Ridley, after succeeding 
to the baronetcy, carried a bill through 
parliament for the creation of a board of 
commissioners with powers to develop 
the place. As chairman of this board 
Ridley soon transformed the harbour and 
dock. Trade returned, and ultimately 
reached a yearly average output of four 
million tons of coal. As principal pro- 
prietor Ridley benefited largely, but he con- 
trived that the inhabitants should share 
in the prosperity. He gave an open space 
for public recreation, which in the year of 
his death he opened as the Ridley Park. 
He had already given sites, either as a 
free gift or at a nominal rent, for a mechanics' 
institute, a church, and a hospital, and he 
was occupied until the end on a large scheme 
of planting trees in convenient places. 
Ridley was chairman of the Northumberland 
quarter sessions from 1873, and of the 
county council from 1889 ; but he re- 
signed both offices in 1895, when he became 
home secretary. He was also president 
of the National Union of Conservative 
Associations, and was president of the 
Royal Agricultural Society in 1888, when 
the meeting was at Nottingham ; he 
joined the society in 1869. He was D.L. 
and J.P. for Northumberland, Provincial 
Grand Master of Freemasons for Northum- 
berland from 1885, and he commanded the 

Northumberland yeomanry from 1886 to 

Ridley died at Blagdon on 28 Nov. 
1904, and was buried there. He married on 
10 Dec. 1873 Mary Georgiana, eldest daugh- 
ter of Dudley Coutts Marjoribanks, first Lord 
Tweedmouth ; she died on 14 March 1899, 
leaving two sons and two daughters. 
Ridley was succeeded as viscoimt by his 
elder son, Matthew (b. 1874), conservative 
M.P. for Stalybridge from 1900 to 1904. 

A portrait of Ridley by Sir Hubert von 
Herkomer is at Blagdon. A cartoon by 
' Ape ' appeared in ' Vanity Fair ' in 1881. 

[The Times, and Daily Chronicle, 29 Nov. 
1904 ; Foster's Alumni Oxon. ; private infor- 
mation.] R. L. 


(1820-1902), orientalist, bom at Geneva 
on 8 June 1820, was son of Jean Louis 
Rieu, first S3rndic of Geneva, whose memoirs 
he edited (Geneva, 1870). His mother 
was Marie Lasserre. On leaving school 
Charles entered the Academic de Geneve in 
Nov. 1835, where he went through courses 
both in philosophy and science. At Geneva 
he first took up Oriental languages and 
became the pupil of Jean Humbert, who had 
studied under the French orientalist Syl- 
vestre de Sacy. In 1840 Rieu proceeded to 
the university of Bonn, where he was in- 
scribed in the philosophical faculty (30 Oct.). 
There he read Sanskrit with Lassen, and 
Arabic with Freytag and Gildermeister, 
and at the same time he acquired a thorough 
mastery of German. In 1843, on com- 
pleting his studies, he received the degree 
of Ph.D. and published his thesis entitled 
' De Abul-Alse poetse arabici vita et 
carminibus secundum codices Leidanos et 
Parisiensem commentatio ' (Bonn, 1843). 
After a visit to Paris, where he was elected 
a member of the Societe Asiatique on 
8 Nov. 1844, he removed to St. Petersburg, 
and there in conjunction Avith Otto Boeht- 
lingk he edited with German notes the 
text of ' Hemakandra's Abhidhanakin- 
tamani ' or Sanskrit dictionary (St. Peters- 
burg, 1847). While engaged on this work 
he visited Oxford for the purpose of tran- 
scribing the unique manuscript in the 
Bodleian library. 

In 1847 Rieu settled in London, and 
thanks to his eminent qualifications as an 
Arabic and Sanskrit scholar he secured the 
post of assistant at the British Museum 
in the department of Oriental manuscripts. 
Henceforth he was engaged on the important 
task of cataloguing the museum collections. 
In 1867 he became first holder of the office 




of keeper of Oriental manuscripts, and 
in 1871 he completed the second part of 
the ' Catalogus codicum manuscriptorum 
orientalium,' of which the first portion had 
been published by William Cure ton [q. v.] 
in 1846. Besides Arabic and Sanskrit, 
Rieu had an extensive knowledge of Persian 
and Turkish. At the British Museum he 
drew up the ' Catalogue of Persian Manu- 
scripts ' (4 vols. 1879-95) and the ' Catalogue 
of Turkish Manuscripts' (1888). These 
voliimes constitute an invaluable store- 
house of information concerning Moham- 
medan literary history, and show a high 
degree of critical scholarship. 

Rieu, who was for many years professor 
of Arabic and Persian at University 
College, London, received a congratulatory 
address from the University of Bonn on 
the jubilee of his doctorate (6 Sept. 
1893). In 1894, despite his advanced 
age, he was elected Adams professor of 
Arabic in the University of Cambridge 
in succession to William Robertson Smith 
[q. v.]. Of a gentle and retiring disposition, 
he resigned his post at the British Museimi 
in 1895, and died at 28 Wobum Square, 
London, on 19 March 1902. He married in 
1871 Agnes, daughter of Julius Heinrich 
Nisgen, by whom he had issue five sons 
and two daughters. A portrait (c. 1887) 
by his son, Charles Rieu, is in the 
possession of his widow. 

[The Times, 21 March 1902 ; Athenseum, 
29 March 1902 ; Journal of the Royal Asiatic 
Society, July 1902, obit, notice by Prof. E. G. 
Browne ; congratulatory address from Bonn 
University in Brit. Mus., 1893 ; private in- 
formation from Mrs. Rieu.] 6. S. W. 

RIGBY, Sir JOHN (1834-1903), judge, 
bom at Runcorn, Cheshire, on 4 Jan. 1834, 
was second son of Thomas Rigby of that 
place by his wife Elizabeth, daughter 
of Joseph Kendall of Liverpool. He 
received his early education at the institu- 
tion which afterwards became Liverpool 
College, and matriculating at Trinity 
College, Cambridge, in Michaelmas term 
1852, he was elected to an open scholarship 
there in 1854. In 1856 he graduated as 
second wrangler and second Smith's prize- 
man, taking a second class in the classical 
tripos. He became fellow of his college 
in the same year, and proceeded M.A. in 
1859. He entered as a student at Lincoln's 
Inn on 17 Oct. 1855, and was called to the 
bar on 26 Jan. 1860. Starting as ' devil ' 
in the chambers of Richard Baggallay, Q.C. 
[q. V. Suppl. I], one of the leaders of the chan- 
cery bar, he rapidly acqmred a large practice 

both in chambers and in court, and in 1875 
Baggallay, who was then attorney-general, 
made him junior equity counsel to the 
treasury, a post which is held to confer the 
reversion of a judgeship. Rigby, however, 
was not content to wait ; he took silk in 1880 
and attached himself to the court of Mr. 
Justice Kay [q. v. Suppl. I], where he ob- 
tained a complete ascendancy both over his 
rivals and over the judge himself. Within 
a very few years he was in a position to 
confine his main practice to the court of 
appeal, the House of Lords, and the 
privy council, only going before the judges 
at first instance with a special fee. The 
rivals with whom he divided the work were 
Horace (afterwards Baron) Davey fq. v. 
Suppl. II], Edward (afterwards Lord) 
Macnaghten, and Montague Cookson 
(afterwards Crackanthorpe). In May 1884 
he was made a bencher of his inn. 

In December 1885 he entered parlia- 
ment as the hberal member for the Wisbech 
division of Cambridgeshire, and in the split 
which arose out of the introduction of the 
home rale biU of 1886 he followed Gladstone, 
and made a powerful speech in support of 
the second reading (28 May 1886). At the 
general election of that year he lost his seat, 
and did not return to the House of Commons 
until July 1892, when he was elected for 
Forfarshire. So little had his fame pene- 
trated beyond legal circles, that he was 
denounced in his new constituency as 
an English carpet-bagger on the look-out 
for [a county court judgeship. He was 
appointed sohcitor-general by Gladstone 
on 20 Aug. 1892, receiving the honour 
of knighthood, and on 3 May 1894 he 
became attorney-general in succession to 
Sir Charles (afterwards Lord) Russell 
(of Killowen) ; a few weeks later he took 
the place in the court of appeal vacated 
by his old rival Sir Horace Davey, then 
appointed to be a lord of appeal, and was 
admitted to the privy council. 

Rigby owed his success at the bar to 
a complete mastery of the science of equity, 
to his ingenuity and pertinacity, and to his 
impressive and rugged personality. 'He 
had a natural gift for rhetoric,' says a writer 
in ' The Times,' ' in which his fervid utter- 
ance seemed to contend with an almost 
pedantic desire to measure his words and 
give weight to every syllable.' He had a 
rare faculty of being at his best in a bad 
case, and of never losing confidence either 
in the integrity of his client or in his 
ultimate success with the court. During 
his short term as law officer he gave in- 
valuable assistance to Sir William Harcourt 




over the intricate details of the Finance 
Act of 1893. He was not so successful 
in his discharge of general parhamentary 
business. His unconventional ways, appar- 
ent lack of humoixr, and somewhat uncouth 
exterior at first provoked the ridicule of \ 
opponents. But the popularity which he i 
enjoyed at the bar was ultimately assured ' 
him in the house. As solicitor-general 
he conducted at the central criminal court 
without success the prosecution of the 
directors of the Hansard Union. Rigby, 
who was entirely without experience of 
this branch of lus profession, betrayed a 
bewilderment which was almost pathetic. 
The case, which lasted for twenty-four days, 
terminated on 26 April 1893 in the acquittal 
of aU the defendants. 

On the bench he did not altogether justify 
the high expectations that had been formed 
of him. He displayed his accustomed skill 
and ingenuity in the unravelling of compU- 
cated and contradictory statutes ; he showed 
characteristic independence and individu- 
ahty in coming to a conclusion, and his 
dissentient judgments were from time to 
time upheld by the House of Lords in 
preference to those of his colleagues. But 
his intellect, which was massive rather 
than flexible, failed to adapt itself to new 
demands. He resigned in October 1901, 
after showing signs of faUing powers, the 
effect, as was beheved, of a severe fall a year 
or two previously. He died on. 26 July 
1903 at Carlyle House, Chelsea, and was 
buried at Finchley. He was unmarried. 

An oil painting by A. T. XoweU is in the 
possession of his family ; cartoon portraits, 
by ' Stuff ' and ' Spy ' respectively, ap- 
peared in • Vanity Fair' of 1893 and 1901. 

[The Times, 27 July 1903; private in- 
formation.] J. B. A. 

1909), Wesleyan divine, bom at Xewcastje- 
on-Tyne on 16 Jan. 1821, was son of John 
Rigg, a methodist minister there, by his 
second wife Anne, daughter of James 
McMidlen, Irish methodist missionary at 
Gibraltar. Brought up in straitened cir- 
cumstances, the boy was for five years 
(1830-5) a pupil and for four years (1835-9) 
a junior teacher at the Kingswood school 
for preachers' sons near Bristol. In 1839 
he became assistant in the Rev. Sir. Firth's 
Academy, Hartstead Moor, near Leeds, 
and having made an unsuccessful effort 
to conduct a school of his own at Isling- 
ton, London, he became in 1843 classical 
and mathematical master at John Conquest's 
school at Biggleswade. In July 1845 he 

entered the methodist ministry as pro- 
bationer, and being ordained on 1 Aug: 1849, 
served in successive circuits at Worcester, 
Guernsey, Brentford, Stockport, Manchester, 
Folkestone, and Tottenham. 

From an early date Rigg read widely and 
wrote much on reUgious and theological 
themes. A vigorous and clear style gave 
his writings influence in his denomination. 
He was a chief contributor to the ' Bibhcal 
Review ' (1846-9), and frequently wrote in 
the Wesleyan newspaper, the ' Watchman.' 
Contributing to the first number of the 
' London Quarterly Review,' a Wesleyan 
methodist periodical, in September 1853, 
he soon joined its editorial staff (1868), was 
co-editor with Dr; WilUam Burt Pope 
[q; v. Suppl. II] (1883-6), and ultimately 
sole editor (1886-98). Rigg explained Yns 
theological position in three suggestive 
volumes : ' Principles of Wesleyan 5lethod- 
ism' (1850; 2nd edit. 1851), 'Wesleyan 
Methodism and Congregationalism con- 
trasted' (1852), and 'Modem Anglican 
Theology' (1857; 3rd edit. 1880). In the 
last, which showed a keen interest in the 
historical development of the Church of 
England, he ably criticised the broad-church 
teaching of Maurice, Kingsley, and Jowett, 
but his differences with Kingsley were 
so considerately expressed that Kingsley 
sought Ms acquaintance, and Rigg stayed 
with him at Eversley (cf . Mrs. Kjngsley's 
Life of Kingsley, ii. 317-8). In 1866 he 
republished many periodical articles aa 
' Essays for the Times on Ecclesiastical and 
Social Subjects,' and in 1869 he issued 
' Churchmanship of John Wesley ' (new edit. 
1879). His Uterary work was early valued 
in America. He acted as English corre- 
spondent of the ' New Orleans Christian 
Advocate ' (1851) and of the ' New York 
Christian Advocate' (1857-76). In 1865 
he received the degree of D.D. from 
Dickinson College, U.S.A. 

In 1868 Rigg was appointed principal of 
the Westminster (Wesleyan) training college 
for day school teachers, and he held that 
post till 1903. In matters of education he 
acquired an expert knowledge and was an 
active controversiahst. When the first 
elementary education act was passed in 1870, 
Rigg took the traditional Wesleyan view, 
opposing secularism and favouring denomin- 
ational schools, although without sympathy 
for sectarian exclusiveness. From William 
Arthur [q. v. Suppl. II] and Hugh Price 
Hughes [q. v. Suppl. II], both of whom 
supported the transfer of Wesleyan schools 
to the school board as created in 1870, he 
differed profoundly. He pressed his views, 




in correspondence, on the attention of 
Gladstone and W. E. Forster, and the 
Wesleyan conference supported him. In 
1870 he was elected a member for West- 
minster on the first London school board, 
and served in that capacity till 1876. 
With the help of Professor Huxley and 
W. H. Smith, M.P., he secured the pro- 
vision of a syllabus of religious instruction. 
In 1873 he summarised tiis attitude in 
' National Education in its Social Condi- 
tions and Aspects.' Subsequently he was 
a member of the royal commission on 
elementary education (1886-8), over which 
Sir Richard Cross presided and which re- 
ported in favour of the school board manage- 
ment as against the voluntary system. 

In the general administration of Wesleyan 
affairs Rigg was recognised to be a states- 
manlike leader of liberal-conservative 
temper. Elected chairman of the Kent 
district in 1865, he was made a member 
of the legal hundred in 1866. In 1878 
he was elected president of the Wesleyan 
conference, and the unusual distinction was 
paid him of re-election in 1892. From 
1877 until 1896, with two brief intervals, 
he was chairman of the second London 
district, and from 1881 to 1909 he 
was treasurer of the Wesleyan Missionary 
Society. In controversies concerning the 
internal organisation of the Wesleyan church 
Rigg took a middle course. He met the 
demand of the ' progressive ' section under 
Hugh Price Hughes for an enlarged par- 
ticipation of the laity in the work of the 
conference, by proposing and carrying the 
' Sandwich Compromise ' in 1890, which 
* sandwiched ' a representative lay session 
between the two sittings of the pastoral 
session. The compromise lasted till 1901, 
when the liberal section prevailed and con- 
ference was opened by ministers and lajonen 
together, though the pastoral session 
still retained the privilege of electing the 
president. Rigg's proposal of 1894, in which 
Hughes supported him {Methodist Times, 
8 Feb. 1894), to exempt chairmen of 
districts from circuit duties and leave 
them free to exercise supervision over 
the district, was rejected by the conference 
from a suspicion that Rigg's ' separated 
chairmen ' had a colour of episcopacy. 
Rigg's own position in the matter was 
defined in his ' Comparative View of Church 
Organisation. Primitive and Protestant ' 
(1887; 3rd edit. 1896). With Hughes and the 
progressive party Rigg's relations were often 
strained. Writing privately to Cardinal 
Manning, a colleague on the education 
commission, on the education question, 

17 Dec. 1888, he described Hughes as ' your 
intemperate temperance coadjutor, our 
methodist firebrand.' The unauthorised 
publication of the letter in Purcell's ' Life ' 
of the cardinal (1895) led to reprisals by 
Hughes, who wrote in the ' Methodist Times' 
an article on ' The Self-Revelation of Dr. 
Rigg.' At Rigg's request the letter was 
withdrawn from later editions of Purcell's 
book, and Hughes and he were reconciled. 

Rigg, whose somewhat rough manner 
caused even friendly admirers to Hken him 
to Dr. Johnson, never abated his Uterary 
energies amid his varied activities. For 
many years he was a member of the 
committee of the London Library. The 
chief publications of his later life were : 
' The Living Wesley' (1875; re-issued as 
' The Centennial Life of Wesley ' in 1891 ) ; 
' Discourses and Addresses on Religion and 
Philosophy ' (1880) ; ' Character and Life- 
work of Dr. Pusey ' (1893) ; and ' Oxford 
High AngUcanism and its Chief Leaders ' 
(1895 ; 2nd edit. 1899), an interesting study 
and the only attempt made by a noncon- 
formist to write a history of the Oxford 
movement. Rigg was a severe critic of 
Newman. There followed ' Reminiscences 
sixty Years ago' (1904), and ' Jabez 
Bunting, a short Biography ' (1905). Rigg 
also wrote the article on ' Methodism ' in 
the ' Encyclopaedia Britannica ' (9th edit.). 
He died on 17 April 1909, at 79 Brixton Hill, 
where he had lived since 1889, and was 
buried in Norwood cemetery. 

He married, on 17 June 1851, Caroline, 
daughter of John Smith, alderman of 
Worcester. She died on 17 Dec. 1889, leav- 
ing two daughters and a son. The elder 
daughter, Caroline Edith, is head-mistress 
of the Mary Datchelor School and Training 
College, Camberwell ; and the son, James 
McMuUen, barrister-at-law, has contributed 
many articles to this Dictionary. 

A marble medallion portrait by Adams- 
Acton is in possession of his daughter, Mrs. 
Telford, and a marble bust by the same 
sculptor, exhibited at the Royal Academy 
in 1892, is in Westminster Training College. 

[J. H. Rigg: Life by John Telford (his 
son-in-law), 1909 ; Miss Hughes's Life of 
Hugh Price Hughes, 1904 ; Purcell's Life of 
Cardinal Manning, 1895; Men and Women 
of the Time, 1899; Report of Royal Com- 
mission on Education, 1888.] 0. H. I. 

RINGER, SYDNEY (1835-1910), 
physician, born at Norwich in 1835, was 
second son of John M. Ringer, a Norwich 
tradesman, who died when his children were 
very yoimg, by his wife Harriet. His two 



brothers became successful merchants in 
the East. Ringer, whose simple and retiring 
disposition always bore the impress of 
severely nonconformist training in youth, 
began his medical education as an apprentice 
in Norwich, and soon after entered the 
medical faculty of University College in 
1854, graduating M.B.London in 1860 and 
M.D. in 1863. He became M.R.C.P. in 
1863 and in 1870 F.R.C.P. After being resi- 
dent medical officer for two years (1861-2) 
he was appointed assistant physician to 
University C!ollege Hospital in 1863, physi- 
cian in 1865. and consulting physician in 
1900. From 1864 to 1869 he was assistant 
physician to the Hospital for Sick Children. 
At University College he was successively 
professor of materia medica, pharmacology, 
and therapeutics (1862-78), professor of 
the principles and practice of medicine 
(1878-87), and Holme professor of clinical 
medicine (1887-1900). 

Ringer was pre-eminent in two fields 
of work, namely clinical medicine and 
physiological research ; at the outset of his 
career he confined his energies to medicine, 
but when his position as a physician was 
established his interest in physiological 
problems awakened, and for thirty years he 
worked incessantly at them both. He was 
an admirable clinical teacher and physician, 
but was more widely known as the author 
of 'A Handbook of Therapeutics' (1869), 
which reached its 13th edition in 1897. 
His experimental work covered a large area, 
some of the most important researches 
being into the influence of organic salts, 
especially calcium, on the circulation and 
beat of the heart ; ' Ringer's solution ' is 
widely knowTi in connection with experi- 
ments on animals' hearts. He was also 
author of ' The Temperature of the Body as 
a Means of Diagnosis of Phthisis, Measles, 
and Tuberculosis ' (1865 : 2nd edit. 1873), 
of articles on parotitis, measles, and suda- 
mina in Reynolds's ' System of Medicine ' 
(vol. i. 1886), and of numerous papers in the 
' Journal of Physiology.' 

He was elected F.R.S. in 1885, and was an 
honorary member of the New York Medical 
Society and a corresponding member of the 
Academy of Medicine of Paris. He died of 
apoplexy on 14 Oct. 1910 at Lastingham, 
Yorkshire, and was buried there. He married 
Ann, daughter of Henry Darley of Aldby 
Park near York, and had issue two daughters. 

[Brit. Med. Joum. 1910, ii. 1384 ; Proc. Roy. 
Soc. 84 A ; private information.] H. D. R. 

RIPON, first Marquis of. [See 
RoBiNSOK, George Frederick Samuel 
(1827-1909), sUtesman.] 

1911), Indian civil servant and anthropo- 
logist, was bom on 4 Jan. 1851 at Akeley, 
Buckinghamshire, where his father, John 
Risley, was rector. His mother was 
Frances, daughter of John Hope, at one 
time residency surgeon of GwaUor. The 
Risley family for centuries held a high 
position in the county and in Oxfordshire. 
On 13 July 1863 he was elected in open com- 
petition a scholar of Winchester, a privi- 
lege which his ancestors had for many 
generations enjoyed by the mere right of 
founder's kin. He won there the Goddard 
scholai-ship and the Queen's gold medal, 
and on 30 July 1869 obtained a scholarship 
at New College, Oxford. He passed on 
29 April 1871 the competitive examination 
for the Indian civil service, but he graduated 
B.A. in 1872 with a second class in law 
and modem history, before he joined the 
service on 3 June 1873. Posted to Midnapur 
as assistant collector he entered at once 
into the interests of district life, and until 
his death, despite the calls of duties in 
the secretariat, he cultivated an intimate 
knowledge of the peoples of India. At a 
' domum ' dinner at Winchester in 1910 he 
asserted that ' a knowledge of facts con- 
cerning ■ the religions and habits of the 
peoples of India equips a civil servant with 
a passport to their affection.' His zeal for 
work and his Uterary power early attracted 
the attention of the government, and Sir 
William Wilson Hunter [q. v. Suppl. I], 
then engaged on the compilation of the 
' Gazetteer of Bengal ' as director-general of 
statistics, made Risley on 15 Feb. 1875 one 
of his assistants. The chapter on Chota 
Nagpur was written by him. Within five 
years of his arrival in India he rose from 
assistant secretary to be under-secretary in 
Bengal, and in 1879 was promoted to the im- 
perial secretariat as under-secretary to the 
government of India in the home department. 
But despite this unusually rapid promotion 
his heart was still in the districts, and by 
his own wish he reverted to them,