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J. Gr. A. . . J. G. ALGER. 

R. E. A. . . R. E. ANDERSON. 




Gr. T. B. . . Gr. T. BETTANY. 

A. C. B. . . A. C. BICKLEY. 

B. H. B. . . THE REV. B. H. BLACKER. 


Gr. C. B. . . G. C. BOASE. 
G. S. B. . . Gr. S. BOULGER. 

E. T. B. . . Miss BRADLEY. 
A. H. B. . . A. H. BULLEN. 

A. M. C. . . Miss A. M. CLERKE. 



W. P. C. . . W. P. COURTNEY. 







C. H. F. . . C. H. FIRTH. 

S. R. Gf. . . S. R. GARDINER, LL.D. 


J. T. G. . . J. T. GILBERT, F.S.A. 



R. E. G. . . R. E. GRAVES. 

W. A. G. . W. A. GREENHILL, M.D. 

W. H. . . . W. HAINES. 

A. H A. HALL. 

J. A. H. . . J. A. HAMILTON. 



W. J. H-Y W. J. HARDY. 

T. F. H. . . T. F. HENDERSON. 


B. D. J. . . B. D. JACKSON. 
T. B. J. . . T. B. JOHNSTONE. 

C. L. K. . . C. L. KINGSFORD. 


T. G. L. . . T. G. LAW. 

S. L. L. . . SIDNEY LEE. 

M. M. ... JENEAs MACK AY, LL.D. 

W. D. M. . THE REV. W. D. MACRAY, F.S.A. 


L. M. M. . . MlSS MlDDLETON. 


List of Writers. 

A. H. M. . 

N. M 

A. N 

F. M. O'D. 
J. H. 0. . . 

H. P 

N. D. F. P. 

G. G. P. . . 
K. L. P. . . 

B. P 

E. B. P. . . 
J. M. E. . . 
G. B. S. . . 
G. W. S. . 










J. M. EIGQ. 



W. B. S. . 
L. S. . . . 
C. W. S. . 
J. T. 

H. E. T. . 
T. F. T. . 
E. V. . . . 

E. H. V. . 
A. V. ... 
J. E. W. . 
M. G. W. 

F. W-T. . 
C. W-H. . 
W. W. . 



. C. W. SUTTON. 


. H. E. TEDDER. 















HAILES, LORD, Scottish ]udge. [See 
DALRYMPLE, SIR DAVID, 1726-1792.] 

THONY (1766-1845), miscellaneous writer, 
son of a shipwright, was born at Newcastle- 
upon-Tyne on 24 May 1766. An accident in 
his childhood prevented him from attending 
school till his eleventh year. He learnt the 
alphabet from an old church prayer-book, 
and his father taught him writing and arith- 
metic. He remained at school only three 
years, after which he worked as a shipwright 
for sixteen years. During this time he ac- 
quired a good knowledge of Latin and Greek, 
and also studied Hebrew, together with some 
other oriental languages. He wrote several 
papers for the ( Classical Journal/ and con- 
tributed to the ' Gentleman's Magazine ' and 
'Monthly Magazine.' Hails ultimately be- 
came a schoolmaster at Newcastle, but had 
only moderate success. He was a Wesleyan 
methodist, and preached occasionally in the 
chapel of his sect at Newcastle. He died at 
Newcastle on 30 Aug. 1845. 

Hails wrote: 1. 'Nugae Poeticae/ New- 
castle-upon-Tyne (?), 1806. 2. < An Enquiry 
concerning the Invention of the Life Boat,' 
claimingWilliamWouldhave of South Shields 
to be the inventor, Newcastle, 1806. 3. 'A 
Voice from the Ocean,' Newcastle (?), 1807. 
4. < Tract No. 6,' published by the Society for 
the Propagation of Christianity among the 
Jews, 1809. 5. 'The Pre-existence and Deity 
of the Messiah defended on the indubitable 
evidence of the Prophets and Apostles.' 
6. ' Socinianism unscriptural. Being an ex- 
amination of Mr. Campbell's attempt to ex- 
plode the Scripture Doctrine of human de- 
pravity, the Atonement, &c.,' two pamphlets 
on the Socinian controversy, both published 
at Newcastle in 1813. 7. ' The Scorner re- 


proved,' Newcastle, 1817. 8. 'A letter to 
the Rev. W. Turner. Occasioned by the pub- 
lication of Two Discourses preached by him 
at the 6th Annual Meeting of the Association 
of Scottish Unitarian Christians,' Newcastle,. 
1818. A second ' Letter' was published in the 
following year. 9. * Remarks on Volney's 
" Ruins," or a Survey of the Revolutions of 
Empires/ 1825. 10. 'The First Command- 
ment: a Discourse/ Newcastle, 1827. 11. ' A 
Letter to C. Larkin, in reply to his Letter to 
W. Chapman on Transubstantiation/ New- 
castle, 1831. Many of Hails's writings evoked- 
published replies. 

[E. Mackenzie's Hist, of Newcastle, i. 403-4 ; 
John Latimer's Local Records of Northumber- 
land and Durham (Newcastle, 1857), p. 204.1 


HAILSTONE, JOHN (1759-1847), geo- 
logist, born near London on 13 Dec. 1759, 
was placed at an early age under the care of 
a maternal uncle at York, and was sent to 
Beverley school in the East Riding. Samuel' 
Hailstone [q. v.] was a younger brother. John, 
went to Cambridge, entering first at Catha- 
rine Hall, and afterwards at Trinity College,, 
and was second wrangler of his year (1782).. 
He was elected fellow of Trinity in 1784, 
and four years later became Woodwardian 
professor of geology, an office which he held 
for thirty years. He went to Germany, and 
studied geology under Werner at Freiburg for- 
about twelve months. On his return to Cam- 
bridge he devoted himself to the study and 
collection of geological specimens, but did 
not deliver any lectures. He published, how- 
ever, in 1792, 'A Plan of a course of lectures. 7 " 
The museum was considerably enriched by 
him. He married, and retired to the vicarage 
of Trumpington, near Cambridge, in 1818, and 
worked zealously for the education of the poor 



of his parish. He devoted much attention 
to chemistry and mineralogy, as well as to 
his favourite science, and kept for many years 
a meteorological diary. He made additions to 
the Woodwardian Museum, and left manu- 
script journals of his travels at home and 
abroad', and much correspondence on geologi- 
cal subjects. He was elected to the Linnean 
Society in 1800, and to the Koyal Society in 
1801, and was one of the original members of 
the Geological Society. Hailstone contributed 
papers to the ' Transactions of the Geological 
Society '(1816, iii. 243-50), the 'Transactions 
of the Cambridge Philosophical Society '(1822, 
i. 453-8), and the British Association (Report, 
1834, p. 569). He died at Trumpington on 
9 June 1847, in his eighty-eighth year. 

[Obit, notices in Quarterly Journ. Greol. Soc. 
1849, v. xix; Proceedings Linnean Soc. 1849, 
i. 372-3 ; Abstract of Papers contributed to 
Koyal Soc. 1851, v. 711. See also Clark and 
Hughes's Life of A. Sedgwick, i. 152, 155, 195- 
197 ; Koyal Soc. Cat. of Scientific Papers, 1869, 
iii. 125: Notes and Queries, 7th ser. iv. 188, 316; 
Gent. Mag. May 1818 p. 463, September 1847 
p. 328.] H. K. T. 

HAILSTONE, SAMUEL (1768-1851), 
botanist, was born at Hoxton, near London, in 
1768. His family shortly afterwards settled 
in York. He was articled to John Hardy, a 
solicitor at Bradford, grandfather of the pre- 
sent Lord Cranbrook. On the expiration of 
his articles Hardy took him into partnership. 
The scanty leisure of a busy professional life 
was devoted to botany, and Hailstone became 
known as the leading authority on the flora 
of Yorkshire. He formed collections illustrat- 
ing the geology of the district, and of books 
and manuscripts relating to Bradford. He 
contributed papers to the ' Magazine of Na- 
tural History ' (1835, viii. 261-5, 549-53), and 
a list of rare plants to Whitaker's ' History 
of Craven' (1812, pp. 509-19). His valuable 
herbarium was presented by his sons to the 
Yorkshire Philosophical Society, and is now 
in the museum at York. His brother was the 
Rev. John Hailstone [q. v.], the geologist. 
He married in 1808 Ann, daughter of Thomas 
Jones, surgeon, of Bradford. His wife died 
in 1833, aged 53. He died at Horton Hall, 
Bradford, on 26 Dec. 1851, aged 83, leaving 
two sons, John, a clergyman, and Edward, 
who is noticed below. 

EDWAKD HAILSTONE (1818-1890) suc- 
ceeded his father as solicitor at Bradford, 
and finally retired to Walton Hall, near 
Wakefield, where he accumulated a remark- 
able collection of antiquities and books, 
among them the most extensive series of 
works relating to Yorkshire ever brought 
together, which has been left to the library 

of the dean and chapter, York. Edward 
Hailstone died at Walton 24 March 1890, 
in his seventy-third year. He printed a ca- 
talogue of his Yorkshire library in 1858, and 
published l Portraits of Yorkshire Worthies, 
with biographical notices,' 1869, 2 vols. 4to. 

[Bradford Observer, 1 Jan. 1852; Times, 
27 March 1890; Athenaeum, 5 April 1890, 
p. 444.] H. K. T. 

HAIMO (d. 1054?), archdeacon of Canter- 
bury. [See HATMO.] 

HAINES, HERBERT (1826-1872), ar- 
chaeologist, son of John Haines, surgeon, of 
Hampstead, was born on 1 Sept. 1826. He 
was educated at the college school, Gloucester, 
and went to Exeter College, Oxford, 1844, 
where he proceeded B.A. 1849, M.A. 1851. 
In 1848, while still an undergraduate, he pub- 
lished the first edition of his work on monu- 
mental brasses. In September 1849 he was 
licensed to the curacy of Delamere in Cheshire. 
On 22 June 1850 he was appointed by the dean 
and chapter of Gloucester tothe second master- 
ship of his old school, the college school, Glou- 
cester. This office he retained till his death, 
and on two occasions during vacancies in 
1853-4 and in 1871actedfor some time as head- 
master. In 1854 he was appointed chaplain 
to the Gloucester County Lunatic Asylum, 
and in 1859 became also chaplain of the newly 
opened Barnwood House Asylum, near Glou- 
cester. In 1861 he brought out a much en- 
larged and improved edition of ' Monumental 
Brasses.' Haines died, after a very short ill- 
ness, on 18 Sept. 1872, and was buried in the 
Gloucester cemetery. A memorial brass bear- 
ing his effigy, an excellent likeness, was placed 
in Gloucester Cathedral by friends and old 
pupils. It is now in the south ambulatory 
of the choir. Besides some elementary clas- 
sical school books, now antiquated, he wrote : 

1. 'A Manual for the Study of Monumental 
Brasses,' published under the sanction of the 
Oxford Architectural Society, 8vo, Oxford, 
1848; 2nd edit., 2 vols. 8vo, Oxford, 1861. 

2. l St. Paul a Witness to the Resurrection ; 
a Sermon preached before the University 
of Oxford,' 8vo, Oxford and London, 1867. 

3. <A Guide to the Cathedral Church of 
Gloucester/ 8vo, Gloucester and London, 
1867 ; 2nd edit., revised and corrected by 
F. S. Waller, cathedral architect, 1880 ; 3rd 
edit. 1885. 

[Information from the diocesan registrars of 
Chester and Gloucester ; private information; 
personal knowledge.] J. K. W. 

1843), actor and dramatist, was born about 
1799. From 1823 up to the year of his 



death he was engaged in supplying the minor 
theatres of the metropolis with innumerable 
melodramas of the ' blood-and-thunder ' type, 
which were mostly successful. His sea-plays 
gave full scope to the energies of T. P. Cooke 
[q. v.] His * My Poll and my Partner Joe/ 
a nautical drama in three acts, produced at 
the Surrey Theatre on 7 Sept. 1835, yielded 
a profit of 4,000/. Haines occasionally acted 
in his own pieces. He died at Stockwell, 
Surrey, on 18 May 1843, aged 44, being at 
the time stage-manager of the English Opera 
House (Gent. Mag. 1843, pt. ii. p. 103). His 
more popular plays are : 1. * The Idiot Wit- 
ness ; or a Tale of Blood,' a melodrama in 
two acts (Coburg Theatre, 1823). 2. ' Jacob 
Faithful ; or the Life of a Thames Water- 
man,' a domestic local drama in three acts 
(Surrey Theatre, 14 Dec. 1834). 3. 'Richard 
Plantagenet/ an historical drama in three 
acts (Victoria Theatre, 1836). 4. ' The Ocean 
of Life ; or Every Inch a Sailor,' a nautical 
drama in three acts (Surrey Theatre, 4 April 
1836). 5. l Maidens Beware ! ' an original 
burlettainoneact (Victoria Theatre, January 
1837). 6. 'Breakers Ahead ! or a Seaman's 
Log/ a nautical drama in three acts (Victoria 
Theatre, 10 April 1837). 7. ' Angeline Le 
Lis/ an original drama in one act (St. James's 
Theatre, 29 Sept. 1837). 8. < The Charming 
Polly ; or Lucky or Unlucky Days/ a drama 
in two acts (Surrey Theatre, 29 June 1838). 
9. ' Alice Grey, the Suspected One ; or the 
Moral Brand/ a domestic drama in three 
acts (Surrey Theatre, 1 April 1839), 10 'Nick 
of the Woods ; or the Altar of Revenge/ a 
melodrama (Victoria Theatre, 1839). 11. 'The 
Wizard of the Wave ; or the Ship of the 
Avenger/ a legendary nautical drama in three 
acts (Victoria Theatre, 2 Sept. 1840). 12. ' The 
Yew Tree Ruins ; or the Wreck, the Miser, 
and the Mines/ a domestic drama in three 
acts (11 Jan. 1841). 13. ' Ruth ; or the Lass 
that Loves a Sailor/ a nautical and domestic 
drama in three acts (Victoria Theatre, 23 Jan. 
1843). 14. 'Austerlitz; or the Soldier's 
Bride/ a melodrama in three acts (Queen's 
Theatre). 15. 'Amilie; or the Love Test/ 
an opera in three acts. 16. ' The Wraith of 
the Lake ; or the Brownie's Brig/ a melo- 
drama in three acts. 17. ' Rattlin the Reefer ; 
or the Tiger of the Sea/ a nautical drama in 
three acts. Haines also adapted and arranged 
from the French of Scribe and St. Georges 
the songs, duets, quartettes, recitatives, and 
choruses in the opera of ' Queen for a Day/ 
which, set to music by Adolphe Adam, was 
first performed at the Surrey Theatre on 
14 June 1841. 

[Lacy's, Buncombe's, Cumberland's, and Web- 
ster's Collections of Plays.] Gr. Or. 


1701), sometimes called COTJNT HAINES, actor, 
was educated at the school of St. Martin-in- 
the-Fields, London, and was sent, at the ex- 
pense of some gentlemen who were struck by 
his quickness and capacity, to Queen's Col- 
lege, Oxford. Here he attracted the atten- 
tion of Joseph (afterwards Sir Joseph) Wil- 
liamson, a fellow of the college, who, on being 
appointed secretary of state, took Haines as 
his Latin secretary. Dismissed on account of 
his want of discretion, Haines went with an 
introduction from his late employer to Cam- 
bridge, and joined a company of comedians 
at Stourbridge fair. After some experience 
as a dancer (AsTOX, Brief Supplement, p. 20), 
he found his way to the Theatre Royal, where 
Pepys saw him, 7 May 1668, and spoke of him 
as the incomparable dancer. He says that 
Haines had recently joined from the Nur- 
sery (in Golden Lane, Moorfields). After the 
Theatre Royal was' burnt in January 1671- 
1672 he was sent to Paris by Hart and 
Killigrew to examine the machinery used in 
the French operas (MALONE, Historical Ac- 
count of the English Stage, p. 345). His use- 
less expenditure during this expedition em- 
broiled him with Hart. His first recorded 
part is Benito in Dryden's ' Assignation/ a 
comic servant, who is an unintentional Mar- 
plot. This character Dryden is supposed to 
have written expressly for Haines, who in 
1672, as is believed, was the original expo- 
nent. In 1673 he was the original Sparkish 
in Wycherley's ' Country Wife/ and in 1674 
the first Lord Plausible in the ' Plain Dealer.' 
The original parts he took previous to the 
junction of the two companies in 1682 in- 
cluded Visconti in Fane's ' Love in the Dark/ 
1675, Gregory Dwindle in Leanard's 'Coun- 
try Innocence/ Harlequin in Ravenscroft's 
'Scaramouch a Philosopher/ Sir Simon Cre- 
dulous in 'Wits led by the Nose' in 1677, 
Whimer in the ' Man of Newmarket/ by the 
Hon. E. Howard, and Launce in 'Trick for 
Trick/ D'Urfey's adaptation of 'Monsieur 
Thomas,' in 1678. In 1684 he played Bullfinch 
in the revival of Broome's 'Northern Lass/ in 
1685 was the original Bramble in Tate's 'Cuck- 
old's Haven/ and Hazard in ' Commonwealth 
of Women/ D'Urfey's alteration of Fletcher's 
' Sea Voyage.' 

Meanwhile the reputation of Haines for 
writing and speaking prologues and epilogues 
bad greatly risen. In 1675 a new prologue and 
epilogue to ' Every Man out of his Humour/ 
written by Duffett, was spoken by Haines 
(LANGBAIKE, English Dramatic Poets,}*. 291). 
The original epilogue to the ' Island Queens ' 
of Banks was written by Haines, and was in- 
tended to be spoken by him, 1684. It contained 




a line to the effect that players and poets will 
be ruined 

Unless you're pleased to smile upon Count 

The prologue to the ' Commonwealth of 
Women' was spoken by Haines with a 
western scythe in his hand in reference to 
the defeat of Monmouth. Haines's name 
next appears to the character of Depazzi in 
a reprint of the ' Traytor,' 1692. In 1693 
he was Captain Bluffe in Congreve's 'Old 
Batchelor.' Next year he was Gines de 
Passamonte in the first part of D'Urfey's 
' Don Quixote,' in 1697 was Syringe in the 
' Relapse,' Roger in ' yEsop,' and Rumour in 
Dennis's ' Plot and no Plot.' The character 
of Baldernae, called in the dramatis personce 
a Player in Disguise, in the piece last named, 
Haines says in the prologue, was intended 
for himself. In 1699 he was Pamphlet, a 
bookseller, and Rigadoon, a dancing-master, 
in Farquhar's ' Love and a Bottle.' The pro- 
logue and epilogue to this were written and 
spoken by himself. He was in the same year 
Tom Errand in Farquhar's 'The Constant 
Couple.' He also played the Clown in * Othello,' 
Jamy in ' Sawney the Scot,' and other parts. 
In 1700 he played the Doctor in Burnaby's 
' Reformed Wife,' the cast of which piece Ge- 
nest had not seen. He died next year. As an 
actor Haines acquired little reputation. As- 
ton, however, says that there were two parts, 
Noll Bluff in the 'Old Batchelor ' and Roger 
in ' ^Esop,' which none ever touched but Joe 
Haines, and owns to having copied him in 
the latter. His fame was due to the delivery 
of prologues and epilogues, often of his own 
composition. Many of these he delivered under 
strange conditions or with the most curious 
environment. Thus the epilogue to 'Ne- 
glected Virtue, or the Unhappy Conquerour,' 
was spoken as a madman. The epilogue to 
' Unhappy Kindness ' he spoke in the habit 
of a horse-officer mounted on an ass. This 
epilogue is assigned to Haines. It appears, 
however, in the 1730 edition of Tom Brown's 
' Works,' iv. 313, with a print representing 
Haines and the ass on the front of the stage. 
This performance was imitated by succeed- 
ing actors. ' A Fatal Mistake, or the Plot 
Spoiled,' 4to, 1692 and 1696, is, according to 
Gildon, attributed to Haines. Genest, who de- 
clares it a wretched tragedy, supposes Haines 

hold that, though the first edition alludes to 
its having been acted, the statement is scarcely 
credible. Aston says that Haines kept a droll- 
booth at Bartholomew fair, at which in 1685 
he produced a droll called < The Whore of 

Babylon, the Devil, and the Pope.' Haines 
has a reputation for wit, which his prologues 
and epilogues hardly justify. His vivacity and 
animal spirits commended him to aristocratic 
society, both in England and in France. In- 
numerable stories, one or two of them of in- 
describable nastiness, are told concerning him. 
He personated a peer in France, ran into debt 
three thousand livres, and narrowly escaped 
being confined in the Bastille ; was arrested 
for debt in England, and through a trick 
obtained the payment of the amount by the 
Bishop of Ely. Gibber in his 'Apology' 
calls Haines 'a fellow of wicked wit' (i. 273, 
ed. Lowe). He appears to have been popular 
among his fellows and at the Covent Garden, 
coffee-houses. Tom Brown, in his ' Letters 
from the Dead to the Living,' gives three let- 
ters from Haines, whom he calls ' Signior Giu- 
sippe Hanesio, high German Doctor in Bran- 
dipolis,' to ' his friends at Wills's coffee-house r 
(BROWN, Works, ed. 1707, vol. ii. passim). 
During the reign of James II Haines turned 
catholic. Quin declares that Lord Sunderland 
sent for the actor, and questioned him as to 
his conversion. Haines said, ' As I was 
lying in my bed, the Virgin appeared to me- 
and said, "Arise, Joe!"' 'You lie, you 
rogue,' said the earl ; ' if it had really been the- 
Virgin herself, she would have said Joseph, 
if it had only been out of respect for her hus- 
band ' (DAVIES, Dramatic Miscellany, iii. 
267). As Bayes Haines subsequently spoke- 
in a white sheet a recantation prologue, writ- 
ten for him by Brown, two lines in which 

I own my crime of leaving in the lurch 

My mother-playhouse ; she's my mother church 

(ib. iii. 290). Dryden, in consequence, it is- 
supposed, of an imaginary dialogue between 
himself and Haines, written by Brown, says 
in his epilogue to his version of Fletcher's 
' Pilgrim ' (some of the last lines he wrote) : 

But neither you, nor we, with all our pains, 
Can make clean work ; there will be some re- 

While you have still your Gates and we our 

He assumed the title of count when tra- 
velling in France with a gentleman, who, to- 
enjoy his society, paid his expenses. After 
a short illness he died 4 April 1701 at his 
lodgings in Hart Street, Long Acre, and was 
buried in the churchyard of St. Paul's, 
Covent Garden. 

[Works cited ; Genest's Account of the Stage ; 
Colley Gibber's Apology, ed. Lowe ; Life of the 
famous Comedian, Jo Haynes, 1701, 8vo; As- 
ton's Brief Supplement to Colley Gibber ; Baker* 



Reed, and Jones's Biographia Dramatica ; Da- 
vies's Dramatic Miscellanies; Timbs's Handbook 
to London.] J. K. 

HAINES, WILLIAM (1778-1848), en- 
graver and painter, was born at Bedhampton, 
Hampshire, on 21 June 1778 ; but taken in 
infancy to Chichesterhe always regarded that 
city as his native place. He was educated at 
the Midhurst grammar school, witnessing 
while there the destruction by fire of Cow- 
dray House. Two years after that disaster he 
was with Thew, the engraver, at Northaw, 
Hertfordshire, where, when sufficiently profi- 
cient, he worked with Scriven and others on 
.the Boydell-Shakespeare plates. In 1800 he 
went to the Cape of Good Hope ; his ship, 
outsailed by the convoy , successfully resisting 
on the voyage an attack by a French priva- 
teer. At Cape Town and in excursions up 
.the country he made numerous drawings 
(Caffres, Hottentots, &c.),resemblingCatlin's 
later American pictures. From the Cape he 
passed to Philadelphia, where he engraved a 
.number of book illustrations (' Johnson's 
Poets/ ' Bradford's British Classics/ &c.) and 
.some portraits (Drs. Barton and Rush, Sir 
W. Jones, Franklin, &c.) Returning to 
England he commenced (1805) work in Lon- 
don, adding miniature-painting to his prac- 
tice as an engraver, which brought him again 
to Chichester and his connections there. 
Hayley (for whose ' Life of Romney ' he had 
engraved a plate) warmly befriended him, and 
on his recommendation he proceeded (after his 
Chichester engagements were concluded) to 
Southampton, but with little result. Again in 
London his professional prospects improved ; 
lie adopted a larger scale, and ultimately 
.painted in oils. Among his many sitters for 
miniatures in Boyle Street, Savile Row, where 
lie resided and built a studio, were Lords 
Strangford and Portarlington, Lord Fitzroy 
Somerset (afterwards Lord Raglan), Sir An- 
drew Barnard, and other Peninsula officers ; 
vthe Earl of Stanhope (engraved by Reynolds), 
Sir Charles Forbes, Baron Garrow, Legh, the 
traveller, Salame, interpreter; Lady Anne 
Barnard, the Misses Porter, Moore, Theodore 
Hook, Miss Stephens. He painted portraits 
dn oils of Buchanan McMillan and Captain 
(Sir E.) Parry (both engraved by Reynolds). 
Succeeding to some property he retired to East 
Brixton, where he died 24 July 1848. 

[Personal knowledge.] W. H-s. 

HAITE, JOHN JAMES (d. 1874), mu- 
sical composer, was a useful member of the 
Society of British Musicians, which produced 
several of his works. His published compo- 
sitions in elude many songs; some glees; 'Fa- 
vourite Melodies as Quintets/ 1865 ; a can- 

tata, 'Abraham's Sacrifice/ 1871 ; an oratorio, 
1 David and Goliath/ 1880; and a pamphlet, 
' Principles of Natural Harmony, being a per- 
fect System founded upon the Discovery of 
the true Semitonic Scale/ London, 1855, 4to. 
[Brown's Biog. Diet. p. 296; Musical Standard , 
vii. 290 ; Musical Times, xvi. 686; Haite's mu- 
sical works, Brit. Mus. Library.] L. M. M. 

HAKE, EDWARD (/. 1579), satirist, 
was educated by the Rev. John Hopkins 

&. v.], and adopted the profession of the law. 
e resided for a time in Gray's Inn and Bar- 
nard's Inn, but does not appear to have been 
a member of either inn. In 1567 his 'Newes 
out of Pavles Churcheyarde, A Trappe for Syr 
Monye/ was entered in the ' Stationers' Re- 
gister.' No copy of the 1567 edition is 
known; but the work was reprinted in 1579, 
' Newes out of Powles Churchy arie. Now 
newly renued and amplifyed according to 
the accidents of the present time, 1579, and 
otherwise entituled, syr Nummus. Written 
in English Satyrs. . . . Compyled by E. H., 
Gent./ &c., 8vo, b.L, 65 leaves. From the 
dedication to the Earl of Leicester we learn 
that at this date Hake was under-steward 
of New Windsor. On 16 Sept. 1576 he was 
acting as recorder at that town ; in June 1578 
he was one of the bailiffs ; on 10 Aug. 1586, 
the queen being at Windsor was received in 
state by the corporation, ' when she was ad- 
dressed by Edward Hake, Mayor, in behalf 
of the said town ; ' and on 7 Sept. 1586, the 
queen's birthday, Hake delivered an oration 
in her honour at the Guildhall (TiGHE and 
DAVIS, Annals of Windsor}. From 10 Oct. 
1588 to 29 March 1589 Hake represented 
New Windsor in parliament. We do not 
hear of him after 1604, when he published 
' Gold's Kingdom.' He was a puritan, and 
everywhere shows a keen hatred of Roman 
catholics. His style is unpolished, but vigo- 
rous and racy. 

Hake wrote: 1. 'Newes out of Powles 
Churchyarde/ 1579, a very curious and rare 
work. There is a copy at Lamport Hall, 
Northamptonshire, the seat of Sir Charles 
Isham,bart., and another belonged to Heber. 
A facsimile reproduction, with a valuable pre- 
face, by Mr. Charles Edmonds, forms part of 
the ' Isham Reprints/ 1872. The dedicatory 
verses to the Earl of Leicester are followed 
by an address 'To the gentle Reader/ in 
which Hake announces that he does not 
aspire to rank ' amongst the better sort of 
english Poetes of our tyme/ his professional 
duties not affording him opportunities of 
study. He states that he has corrected in 
many places the text of the first edition, and 
has introduced occasional additions. After 



the address to the reader come some Latin 
elegiacs in the author's praise by John Long, 
and some English verses headed ' The same to 
the Citie of London ;' to which succeed fifteen 
six-line stanzas, 'The Author to the Carping 
and scornefull Sicophant,' some commenda- 
tory Latin verses by Richard Matthew, a copy 
of English verses headed ' The Noueltie of 
this Booke,' and an engraving of Leicester's 
arms with a rhymed inscription beneath. The 
satires, eight in number, take the form of a 
dialogue between Bertulph and Paul in the 
aisle of St. Paul's. Clerical and legal abuses 
are denounced ; physicians, apothecaries, and 
surgeons fall under notice ; spendthrifts, bank- 
rupts, bawds, brokers, and usurers are se- 
verely handled; a protest is made against 
unlawful Sunday sports, and against the dis- 
creditable uses to which St. Paul's Cathedral 
wasput (as aplaceof assignation, &c.) 2. 'The 
Imitation or Following of Christ, and the 
Contemning of Worldly Vanities : At the 
first written by Thomas Kempis, a Dutchman, 
amended and polished by Sebastianus Castalio, 
an Italian, and Englished by E. H.,' 1567, 8vo, 
with a dedication to the Duke of Norfolk ; re- 
issued in 1568 with the addition of l another 
pretie treatise, entituled The perpetuall re- 
ioyce of the godly, euen in this lyfe ' (British 
Museum). 3. John Long, in his address 'to 
the Citie of London' (prefixed to 'Newes out 
of Powles Churchyarde '), mentions a lost 
tract of Hake entitled ' The Slights of Wanton 
Maydes.' It must have been written in or be- 
fore 1568, in which year Turberville alluded 
to it in his ' Plaine Path to Perfect Vertue.' 
4. 'A Touchestone for this Time Present, 
expresly declaring such mines, enormities, 
and abuses as trouble the Churche of God and 
our Christian common wealth at this daye. 
Wherevnto is annexed a perfect rule to be 
obserued of all Parents and Scholemaisters, 
in the trayning vp of their Schollers and 
Children in learning. Newly set forth by 
E. H./ 1574, b.l., 8vo, 52 leaves. Prefixed 
is a dedicatory epistle ' To his knowne friende 
mayster Edward Godfrey, Merchaunt ; ' then 
comes ' A Touchestone for this Time Present,' 
in prose, which is followed by ' A Compen- 
dious fourme of Education.' In the 'Touche- 
stone ' Hake inveighs against the vices of 
the clergy, and censures parents for their 
careless training of children. The ' Compen- 
dious fourme/ an abridged metrical render- 
ing of a Latin tract, ' De pueris statim ac 
liberaliter instituendis,' consists of a series of 
quaint dialogues on the education of children. 
In a dedicatory epistle (to John Harlowe) 
the author states that ' being tied vnto soly- 
tarinesse in the countrey,' he had translated 
the tract for recreation, and that he had em- 

ployed verse because it is more easily written 
than prose. The copy of this work in the 
Bodleian Library is supposed to be unique. 
5. 'A Commemoration of the Most Prosperous 
and Peaceable Raigne of our Gratious and 
Deere Soueraigne Lady Elizabeth ' (dated 
17 Nov. 1575), b.l., 8vo, 20 leaves (Brit. 
Museum), mixed verse and prose, has a de- 
dicatory epistle, dated from Barnard's Inn r 
' To the worshipfull, his verie louing Cowsen 
M. Edward Eliotte Esquier, the Queenes 
Maiesties Surueyour of all her Honours, . . . 
and possessions within her highnes County of 
Essex.' Park reprinted this tract in his sup- 
plement to the ' Harleian Miscellany ,'ix. 123,, 
&c. 6. 'A loyfull Continuance of the Com- 
memoration. . . . Nowe newly enlarged with 
an exhortation applyed to this present time r 
(dated 17 Nov. 1578), 8vo, 24 leaves. There- 
is a copy in Lambeth Palace Library ; it is a 
reprint, with additions of the ' Commemora- 
tion.' 7. 'Dauids Sling against Great Goliah. 
... By E. H.,' 1580, 16mo, mentioned in 
Maunsell's ' Catalogue,' may be a lost work 
of Hake. 8. 'An Oration conteyning an Ex- 
postulation . . . now newly imprinted this 
xvij. day of Nouember' (1587), b.l., 4to, 16 
leaves (Lambeth Palace), reprinted in vol. ii. 
of Nichols's ' Progresses of Que*en Elizabeth,' 
is the oration spoken by Hake on the queen's 
birthday, 7 Sept. 1586, in the Guildhall, New 
Windsor. It was dedicated to the Countess 
of Warwick, by whom the author had been 
' often reuiued and singulerly comforted/ 

9. 'The Touche-Stone of Wittes,' 1588, is 
ascribed to Hake by Warton (Hist. EngL 
Poetry, ed. Hazlitt, iv. 203-4), who had cer- 
tainly seen it, but no copy is now known. 

10. ' Of Golds Kingdome, and this Vnhelping- 
Age. Described in sundry Poems inter- 
mixedly placed after certaine other Poems of 
more speciall respect : And ... an Oration 
. . . intended to have been deliuered . . . 
vnto the Kings Maiesty,' &c., 1604, b.l., 4to, 
33 leaves, dedicated to Edward Vaughan ? 
was written in London when the plague was 
raging. The chief topic is the power of gold> 
but reflections in prose -and verse on many 
other subjects are introduced. 11. Lansdowne 
MS. 161 contains three articles by Hake. He 
is praised in Richard Robinson's ' Rewarde of 
Wickednesse ' (1574). 

[Mr.Charles Edmonds's Introduction to Newes 
out of Powles Churchyarde, Isliam Reprints, 
1872.] A.H.B. 

HAKEWILL, GEORGE (1578-1649), 
divine, was third son of John Hakewill, 
merchant, of Exeter, who married Thomazin, 
daughter of John Peryam ; he was therefore 
a younger brother of William Hakewill [q. v.] 



George was born in the parish of St. Mary 
Arches, Exeter, was baptised in its church 
on 25 Jan. 1577-8, and was trained for 
the university in the grammar school. Sir 
John Peryam, who built the common room 
staircase next the hall of Exeter College, 
Oxford, was his uncle, and Sir Thomas Bodley 
was a near kinsman. Hakewill, as their re- 
lative and a Devonian, went to Oxford, ma- 
triculating as commoner of St. Alban Hall 
on 15 May 1595. In the following year 
(30 June) he was elected to a fellowship at 
Exeter College, on account, says Wood, of 
his skill as a disputant and orator. He gra- 
duated B.A. on 6 July 1599 ; M.A. 29 April 
1002; B.D. 27 March 1610 (for which he 
was allowed to count eight terms spent 
abroad) ; and D.D. 2 July 1611. He resigned 
his fellowship on 30 June 1611 . After taking 
his bachelor's degree he applied himself to 
the study of philosophy and divinity, and 
entered holy orders. His reading was very 
extensive, and to further improve his mind he 
obtained from his college leave to travel be- 
yond the seas for four years from 1604. He 
'passed one whole winter' among the Calvin- 
ists at Heidelberg (Answer to Dr. Carter, 1616, 
p. 29). Soon after his return to England he 
became noted for his talents in preaching and 
controversy, and in December 1612, when 
Prince Charles had by his brother's death be- 
come heir to the throne, 'two sober divines, 
Hackwell and another,' says one of Carle- 
ton's correspondents, l are placed with him 
and ordered never to leave him,' to protect 
him from the inroads of popery. This chap- 
laincy Hakewill retained for many years, 
and on 7 Feb. 1617 he was collated to the 
archdeaconry of Surrey. Lack of higher pre- 
ferment was doubtless due to his anti-sacer- 
dotal views on religion, and his opposition 
to the projected Spanish marriage of Prince 
Charles. Hakewill wrote a treatise against 
the Spanish match while the negotiations 
were in progress, and presented his composi- 
tion to the prince without the king's know- 
ledge. Weldon, who did not love the Stuarts, 
says that the author, in handing his tract to 
the prince, added, * If you show it to your 
father I shall be undone for my good will.' 
Charles promised to keep the secret, but ob- 
tained from Hakewill the information that 
Archbishop Abbot and Murray, the prince's 
tutor, had already seen it. Within two hours, 
continues Weldon, Charles gave the work to 
the king, and Hakewill, Abbot, and Murray 
were disgraced and banished from the court. 
Andrewes, bishop of Winchester (according 
to the ' State Papers '), was ordered by James I 
to answer Hakewill's arguments. 

Hakewill's private means must have been 

considerable, for on 11 March 1623 he laid 
the foundation-stone of a new chapel at Exeter 
College, which he built at a cost of 1,200/. 
It was consecrated on 5 Oct. 1624, ' the day 
when Prince Charles returned from beyond 
the seas ; ' and Prideaux, the rector, preached 
the consecration sermon, and afterwards pub- 
lished it with a dedication to Hakewill, who 
was lauded for his generosity, though ' not 
preferred as many are, and having two sonnes 
[John and George, says the side-note] of his 
owne to provide for otherwise.' To this gift 
Hakewill added the sum of 30/. in order that 
a sermon might be preached every year on the 
anniversary of the consecration-day. Many 
years later, on 23 Aug. 1642, he was elected 
to the rectorship of Exeter College, and al- 
though he was for some time absent from 
Oxford through illness, he kept the place 
until his death, and was not disturbed by 
the parliamentary visitors to Oxford. On 
the nomination of Arthur Basset he was pre- 
sented to the rectory of Heanton Purchardon, 
near Barnstaple, where he lived quietly during 
the civil war. Hakewill died at this rectory 
house on 2 April 1649, and was buried in the 
chancel on 5 April, a memorial-stone with 
incription being placed on his grave. In his 
last will he desired that his body should be 
buried in the chapel of Exeter College, or that 
at least his heart should be placed under the 
communion-table, near the desk where the 
bible rested, with the inscription ' Cor meum 
ad te Domine.' These directions were not 
carried out, but his arms were represented on 
the roof of the chapel and on the screens, and 
in the east window was an inscription to his 
memory ; they were destroyed when the pre- 
sent chapel was built. He left the college 
his portrait, painted ' to the life in his doc- 
torial formalities.' It was placed at first in 
the organ loft at the east end of the aisle, 
joining the south side of the chapel, and was 
afterwards removed to the college hall. An 
engraving of it was published by Harding in 
1796. A second portrait, of earlier date, the 
property of Mr. W. Cotton, F.S. A., of Exeter, 
is described in the ' Devonshire Association 
Transactions,' xvi. 157. Hakewill married, 
in June 1615, Mary Ayres, widow, of Barn- 
staple (ViviAN, Marriage Licences, p. 46). 
She was buried at Barnstaple on 5 May 1618 ; 
by her Ilakewill had two sons, buried at 
Exeter college, and a daughter, who married 
and left descendants. 

Hakewill is mentioned by Boswell (Hill's 
ed. i. 219) as one of the great writers who 
helped to form Johnson's style. His works 
are: 1. 'The Vanitie of the Eie. First be- 
ganne for the comfort of a gentlewoman be- 
reaved of her sight and since upon occasion 




inlarged/ displaying wide reading. The second 
edition came out at Oxford by J. Barnes in 
1608, and the third in 1615; another impres- 
sion, erroneously called the second edition, 
is dated in 1633. 2. ' Scvtvm regium, id est 
Adversvs omnes regicidas et regicidarvm 
patronos. In tres libros diuisus,' London, 
1612; another edition, 1613. 3. 'The Aun- 
cient Ecclesiasticall practice of Confirma- 
tion,' 1613, which was written for the prince's 
confirmation in Whitehall Chapel on Easter 
Monday in that year, London, 1613. 4. ' An 
Answer to a Treatise written by Dr. Carier,' 
London, 1616. Benjamin Carier [q. v.] argued 
in favour of the church of Rome. 5. ' King 
David's Vow for Reformation, delivered in 
twelve Sermons, before the Prince his High- 
nesse,' 1621. 6. 'A comparison betweene 
the dayes of Purim and that of the Powder 
Treason,' 1626. 7. ' An Apologie ... of the 
power and providence of God. in the govern- 
ment of the world ... in foure bookes, by 
G. H., D.D.,' 1627, although begun long pre- 
viously. Another edition, revised, but sub- 
stantially the same, appeared with his name 
in full on the title-page in 1630, and the third 
edition, much enlarged, with an addition of 
1 two entire books not formerly published,' 
came out in 1635. The author complained 
that a mangled translation into Latin of the 
first edition was made by one f Johannes 
Jonstonus, a Polonian ; ' was published at 
Amsterdam, 1632, and was translated back 
into English in 1657. Hakewill here argued 
against a prevalent opinion that the world 
and man were decaying, as set forth by Bishop 
Godfrey Goodman [q. v.] in his 'Fall of Man,' 
1616. Goodman replied with * Arguments 
and Animadversions on Dr. G. Hakewill's 
Apology ; ' and the additional matter in the 
1635 edition of Hakewill's 'Apology 'mainly 
consisted of the arguments and replies of the 
t;wo controversialists. Manuscript versions 
of Hakewill's arguments against the bishop, 
differing in many respects from the printed 
passages, are in Ashmolean MSS. 1284 and 
1510. The ' Apology ' was selected as a 
thesis for the philosophical disputation at the 
Cambridge commencement of 1628, when 
Milton wrote Latin hexameters, headed ' Na- 
turam non pati Senium/ for the respondent 
to be distributed during the debate. Pepys 
(3 Feb. 1667) 'fell to read a little' in it, 
* and did satisfy myself mighty fair in the 
truth of the saying that the world do not 
grow old at all.' Dugald Stewart praised 
Hakewill's book as 'the production of an 
uncommonly liberal and enlightened mind 
well stored with various and choice learn- 
ing.' 8. ' A Sermon preached at Barnstaple 
upon occasion of the late happy success of 

God's Church in forraine parts. By G. H.,' 
1632. 9. ' Certaine Treatises of Mr. John 
Downe ' [q. v.], 1633, edited by Hakewill, 
with a funeral sermon on Downe, ' a neere 
neighbour and deere friend,' and a letter from 
Bishop Hall to Hakewill printed also in 
Hall's works (ed. 1839). 10. 'A Short but 
Cleare Discourse of the Institution, Dignity, 
and End of the Lord's Day,' 1641. 11. 'A 
Dissertation with Dr. Heylyn touching the 
pretended Sacrifice in the Eucharist,' 1641. 
Heylyn wrote a manuscript reply, and Dr. 
George Hickes [q. v.] answered it in print in 
' Two Treatises, one of the Christian Priest- 
hood, the other of the Dignity of the Episco- 
pal Order ' (3rd ed. 1711). Hakewill is 
sometimes said to have been the 'G. H.' who 
translated from the French ' Anti-Coton, or 
a refutation of [Pierre] Coton's letter de- 
clarative for the apologising of the Jesuites 
doctrine touching the killing of Kings,' 1611. 
He translated into Latin the life of Sir 
Thomas Bodley, and he wrote a treatise, 
never printed, 'rescuing Dr. John Rainolds 
and other grave divines from the vain assaults 
of Heylyn touching the history of St. George, 
pretendedly by him asserted,' and the views 
of Hakewill, Reynolds, and others on this 
matter are referred to in Heylyn's ' History 
of St. George of Cappadocia,' bk. i. chap. iii. 
A letter from him to Ussher is in Richard 
Parr's 'Life and Letters of Ussher,' 1686, 
pp. 398-9, and two Latin letters to him are 
in Ashmol. MS. 1492. Lloyd, in his ' Me- 
moirs ' (1677 ed.), p. 640, attributes to Hake- 
will ' An exact Comment on the 101 Psalm 
to direct Kings how to govern their courts.' 
Fulman (Corpus Christi Coll. Oxf. MSS. 
cccvii.) absurdly assigns to him ' Delia, con- 
tayning certayne Sonnets. With the com- 
plaints of Rosamond,' 1592, the work of 
Samuel Daniel [q. v.] 

[Vivian's Visit, of Devon, p. 437'; Wood's 
Athense Oxon. (Bliss), iii. 253-7, 558-60; Wood's 
Fasti, i. 281, 296, 339, 344; Wood's Univ. of 
Oxford (Gutch), ii. 314 ; Wood's Colleges and 
Halls (Gutch), pp. 108, 113, 117, 121; Prince's 
Worthies, pp. 449-54 ; Boase's Reg. of Exeter 
Coll. pp. Ixiv, 53, 62, 64, 67, 101, 210; Reg. 
Univ. Oxf. ii. i. 132, 208, ii. 209, iii. 216 (Oxf. 
Hist. Soc.); Camden's Annals, James I, sub 1621 ; 
Halkett and Laing's Anon. Lit. pp. 132, 2334; 
Burrows's Reg. of Visitors of Oxford Univ. pp. 
Ixxv, Ixxxii, 218, 500; Cal. of State Papers, 
1603-23; Pepys, ed. Bright, iv. 225 ; Masson's 
Milton, i. 171-2 ; Black's Cat. of Ashmolean MSS. 
pp. 1044, 1373, 1413.] W. P. C. 

HAKEWILL, HENRY (1771-1830), 
architect, eldest son of John Hakewill [q.v.J, 
was born on 4 Oct. 1771. He was a pupil of 
John Yenn, R.A., and also studied at the 



Royal Academy, where in 1790 lie obtained 
a silver medal for a drawing of the Strand 
front of Somerset House. His first works 
were for Mr. Harenc at Foots Cray, Kent ; 
subsequently he designed Rendlesham House, 
Suffolk, Cave Castle, Yorkshire, and many 
other fine mansions. In 1809 he was ap- 
pointed architect to Rugby School, and de- 
signed the Gothic buildings and chapel there. 
He was also architect to the Radcliffe trustees 
at Oxford, and to the benchers of the Middle 
Temple. Among the churches built by him 
were Wolverton Church, the first church of 
St. Peter, Eaton Square (since burnt down, 
and re-erected by his son from his drawings), 
and the ugly tower of St. Anne's, Soho. 
Hakewill wrote an account of the Roman 
villa discovered at Northleigh, Oxfordshire, 
first published in Skelton's* Antiquities,' and 
reissued separately in 1826. On 14 Nov. 
1804 he married Anne Sarah, daughter of 
the Rev. Edward Frith of North Cray, Kent, 
and died 13 March 1830, leaving seven child- 
ren, including two sons, John Henry and 
Edward Charles, noticed below, and a daugh- 
ter, Elizabeth Caroline, married to Edward 
Browell of Feltham, Middlesex. 

HAKEWILL, JOHN HENEY (1811-1880), 
architect, son of the above, was architect of 
Stowlangtofb Hall,' Suffolk, the hospital at 
Bury St. Edmunds/ and of some churches at 
Yarmouth. He died in 1880, aged 69. 

1872), architect, younger son of the above, 
was a student in the Royal Academy, and 
in 1831 became a pupil of Philip Hard- 
wick, R. A. [q. v.] On setting up for himself 
he built and designed churches at Stonham 
Aspall and Grundisburgh, Suffolk, South 
Hackney, and St. James's, Clapton. He was 
appointed a metropolitan district surveyor, 
but retired in 1867, and settled in Suffolk. 
He died 9 Oct. 1872. In 1851 he published 
'The Temple: an Essay on the Ark, the 
Tabernacle, and the Temple of Jerusalem.' 

[Diet, of Architecture ; Kedgrave's Diet, of 
Artists ; private information.] L. C. 

HAKEWILL, JAMES (1778-1843), 
architect, second son of John Hakewill [q. v.], 
born 1778, was brought up as an architect, and 
exhibited some designs at the Royal Academy. 
He is best known for his illustrated publica- 
tions. In 1813 he published a series of 
' Views of the Neighbourhood of Windsor, 
&c.,' with engravings by eminent artists from 
his own drawings. In 1816-17 he travelled 
in Italy, and on his return published in parts 
*A Picturesque Tour of Italy,' in which 
some of his own drawings were finished 
into pictures for engraving by J. M. W. 

Turner, R. A. In 1820-1 he visited Jamaica, 
and subsequently published ' A Picturesque 
Tour in the Island of Jamaica,' from his own 
drawings. In 1828 he published ' Plans, 
Sections, and Elevations of the Abattoirs in 
Paris, with considerations for their adoption 
in London.' He also published a small tract 
on Elizabethan architecture. He was en- 
gaged in some works at High Legh and 
Tatton, Cheshire, and in 1836 was a com- 
petitor for the erection of the new houses of 
parliament. Hakewill is also supposed to 
be the author of ' Cselebs suited, or the Stanley 
Letters,' in 1812. He was collecting ma- 
terials for a work on the Rhine when he died 
in London, 28 May 1843. He married in 
1807, at St. George's, Hanover Square, Maria 
Catherine, daughter of W. Browne of Green 
Street, Grosvenor Square, herself a well- 
known portrait-painter, and a frequent ex- 
hibitor at the Royal Academy, who died in 
1842. He left four sons, Arthur William, 
Henry James, Frederick Charles, a portrait- 
painter, and Richard Whitworth. 

1856), architect, the eldest son, born in 1808, 
was educated under his father, and in 1826 
became a pupil of Decimus Burton. He was 
best known as a writer and lecturer. In 

1835 he published ' An Apology for the 
Architectural Monstrosities of London ; J in 

1836 a treatise on perspective ; in 1851 l Il- 
lustrations of Thorpe Hall, Peterborough/ 
and l Modern Tombs ; Gleanings from the 
Cemeteries of London,' besides other archi- 
tectural works. He died 19 June 1856, 
having married in 1848 Jane Sanders of 
Northhill, Bedfordshire. 

sculptor, the second son of James Hakewill, 
was born in St. John's Wood, London, 
11 April 1813. He early showed a taste for 
sculpture, and in 1830 and 1832 exhibited 
at the Royal Academy, when his sculptures 
attracted notice. He died 13 March 1834. 

[Diet, of Architecture; Redgrave's Diet, of 
Artists; Graves's Diet, of Artists, 1760-1880; 
Brit. Mus. Cat. ; private information.] L. C. 

HAKEWILL, JOHN (1742-1791), 
painter and decorator, son of William Hake- 
will, the great-grandson of William Hakewill 
[q. v.], master of chancery, was born 27 Feb. 
1742. His father was foreman to James Thorn- 
hill the younger, serjeant-painter. Hakewill 
studied under SamuelWale [q.v.], and worked 
in the Duke of Richmond's gallery. In 1763 
he gained a premium from the Society of Arts 
for a landscape drawing, and in 1764 another 
for a drawing from the antique in the duke's 
gallery. In 1771 he gained a silver palette 




for landscape-painting. He exhibited at the 
Society of Artists exhibition in Spring Gar- 
dens a portrait and a ' conversation ' piece in 
1765, and a landscape in 1766. In 1769, 
1772, 1773 he was again an exhibitor, chiefly 
of portraits. His work had some merit, but 
he lacked perseverance, and devoted himself 
to house decoration. He painted many de- 
corative works at Blenheim, Charlbury, Marl- 
borough House, Northumberland House, &c. 
Hakewill married in 1770 Anna Maria Cook, 
and died 21 Sept. 1791, of a palsy, leaving 
eight children (surviving of fifteen). Three 
sons, Henry [q.v.], James [q.v.],and George 
[q.v.], were architects. A daughter Caro- 
line married Charles Smith, by whom she was 
mother of Edward James Smith [q. v.], sur- 
veyor to the ecclesiastical commissioners. 

[Edwards's Anecdotes of Painters ; Graves's 
Diet, of Artists, 1760-1880; Eedgrave's Diet, 
of Artists ; private information.] L. C. 

HAKEWILL, WILLIAM (1574-1655), 
legal antiquary, eldest son and heir of John ' 
Hakewill, and brother of George Hakewill 
[q. v.], was born in the parish of St. Mary 
Arches, Exeter. He sojourned at Exeter Col- 
lege, Oxford, for a short time in 1600, but left 
without a degree. He entered himself at Lin- 
coln's Inn, where he studied the common law, 
and also took to politics. Several Cornish 
constituencies, Bossiney in 1601, Michell in 
1604-11, and Tregony in 1614 and 1621-2, 
elected him in turn. He acquired considerable 
property in Buckinghamshire, dwelling at 
Bucksbridge House, near Wendover, which 
passed to his descendants. His influence there 
was strengthened by his appointment, in con- 
junction with Sir Jerome Horsey, as receiver 
for the duchy of Lancaster, in Berkshire,Buck- 
inghamshire, and adjoining counties. When 
examining the parliamentary writs in the 
Tower of London, he discovered that three 
Buckinghamshire boroughs, Amersham, Mar- 
low, and Wendover, had formerly returned 
members to parliament, but that they had 
allowed the privilege to lapse. At his sug- 
gestion they claimed their rights, and from 
1625 they were recognised. Amersham re- 
turned him as its member in 1628, but after 
the dissolution of parliament in 1629 he re- 
tired from parliamentary life. Hakewill was 
one of the two executors of his kinsman, Sir 
Thomas Bodley [q. v.], and one of the chief 
mourners at the funeral at Oxford on 29 March 
1613, the day after which he was, by a special 
grace, created M.A. of the university. In 
1614 Hakewill was one of six lawyers 'men 
not overwrought with practice, and yet 
learned and diligent, and conversant in re- 
ports and records ' appointed to revise the 

existing laws. When the government re- 
quired money in 1615, he proposed to raise it 
by a general pardon on payment by each de- - 
linquent of 5Z. The proposal was definitely 
rejected after two months' consideration. In 
May 1617 he was made solicitor-general to 
the queen, but he had ' for a long time taken 
much pains in her business, wherein she 
hath done well.' In 1621, during the attacks 
on monopolies, he and Noy were deputed 
to search for precedents in the Tower, but 
his labours did not give general satisfaction, 
In January 1622 he was arrested with Pym 
and Sir Robert Phillips for some offence in 
parliament. He was elected Lent reader 
of his inn in 1624, and was one of its chief 
benchers for nearly thirty years ; his coat of 
arms was set up in the west window of its 
chapel. He served in 1627 on a commission 
for inquiring into the offices which existed 
in the eleventh year of Queen Elizabeth's 
reign, and into the fees levied therein, and he 
was included in the large commission for the 
repair of St. Paul's Cathedral (April 1631), 
when he showed so much interest in its re- 
storation that he was appointed on the smaller 
working committee in 1634. He was a great 
student of legal antiquity, and a master of 
precedents. In politics he sided with the 
parliament, and took the covenant. In April 
1647 he was appointed a master of chancery, 
and was nominated by both houses to sit with 
the commissioners of the great seal to hear 
causes. He died, aged 81, on 31 Oct. 1655, 
and was buried in Wendover Church, where 
are inscriptions on marble to him and his wife, 
Elizabeth, daughter of Sir Henry Wodehouse 
of Wexham, Norfolk, a sister of Sir Robert 
Killigrew's wife, and a niece of Bacon. She 
was married about May 1617, and died 25 June 
1652, aged 54; John Hakewill (1742-1791) 
[q. v.] was a great-grandson. 

Hakewill was the author of ' The Libertie 
of the Subject against the pretended Power 
of Imposition maintained by an Argument in 
Parliament anno 7 Jacobi regis,' Lond. 1641. 
Copies are among the Exeter College MSS., 
No. cxxviii., British Museum Addit. MSS. 
25271, Lansdowne MSS., No. 490, and Har- 
leian MSS. No. 1578. His argument con- 
troverted the power of the king to raise money 
by charges, fixed by the royal prerogative on 
imports and exports, and Hallam asserts that 
f though long, it will repay ' perusal as ( a 
very luminous and masterly statement of this 
great argument.' The tract is inserted in 
Howell's ' State Trials,' ii. 407-75, and in 
Hargrave's edition, xi. 36, &c., with remarks 
by the editor. Hargrave owned the copy of 
the work now in the British Museum, and it 
contains copious notes by him. Hakewill's 



second work was ( The Manner how Statutes 
are enacted in Parliament by passing of Bills. 
Collected many yeares past out of the Jour- 
nails of the House of Commons. By W. 
Hake will. Together with a catalogue of the 
Speakers' names/ 1641. It had been in manu- 
script for many years, and numerous copies 
had gradually got abroad. One, ' the falsest 
written of all,' was without his knowledge 
printed very carelessly. This was no doubt 
the anonymous volume entitled ' The Manner 
of holding Parliaments in England . . . with 
the Order of Proceeding to Parliament of 
King Charles, 13 April 1640,' 1641. Hake- 
will's publication was much enlarged in ' Mo- 
dus tenendi Parliamentum . . . together with 
the Privileges of Parliament and the Manner 
how Lawes are there enacted by passing of 
Bills,' 1659, which was reprinted in 1671. 
He was a member about 1600 of the first So- 
ciety of Antiquaries, and two papers by him, 
1 The Antiquity of the Laws of this Island ' 
and ' Of the Antiquity of the Christian 'Re- 
ligion in this Island,' are printed in Hearne's 
'Collection of Curious Discourses,' 1720 and 
1771 editions. A treatise by Hakewill on 
'A Dispute between the younger Sons of 
Viscounts and Barons against the claims 
of Baronets to Precedence' was among 
the manuscripts of Sir Henry St. George 
(BERNARD, Cat. ii. fol. 112). His argument 
' that such as sue in chancery to be relieved 
of the judgments given at common law are 
not within the danger of " praemunire," ' is 
in Lansdowne MS. No. 174 ; his speech in 
parliament 1 May 1628 is in the Harleian 
MS. No. 161 ; and his correspondence with 
John Bainbridge [q. v.], the astronomer, re- 
mains at Trinity College, Dublin (Hist. MSS. 
Comm. 4th Rep. p. 594). He compiled and 
presented to the queen a dissertation on the 
nature and custom of aurum reginse, or the 
queen's gold, a duty paid temp. Edward IV 
by most of the judges, serjeants-at-law, and 
great men of the realm. Copies are among 
the Exeter College MSS., No. cvi.,,Addit. 
MS. British Museum 25255, and at the 
Record Office. 

[Wood's Athense Oxon. (Bliss), iii. 231-2 ; 
Wood's Fasti, i. 354; Prince's Worthies, pp. 449- 
451; Cal. of State Papers, 1603-43; Hist. MSS. 
Comm. 4th Rep. p. 594 ; British Magazine and 
Review, 1782; Hallam's Constit. Hist. (7th ed.), 
i. 319 ; Lipscomb's Buckinghamshire, ii. 478, 
482, 490; Courtney's Parl. Hist, of Cornwall, 
pp. 169, 302, 325 ; Spedding's Bacon, vol. v. of 
Life, p. 86, vi. 71, 208, vii. 187, 191, 203.1 

W. P. C. 

^ HAKLUYT, RICHARD (1552 P-1616), 
geographer, of a family possibly of Dutch 
origin, but settled for several centuries in 

Herefordshire, where the name appears on 
the list of sheriffs as early as the time of 
Edward II, was born about 1552 (CHESTER, 
London Marriage Licenses}, and after an early 
education at Westminster School, was in 1 570 
elected to a studentship at Christ Church, Ox- 
ford, where he graduated B. A. 19 Feb. 1574, 
and M.A. 27 Jan. 1577. He appears to have- 
taken holy orders at the usual age. While 
still a boy at Westminster his attention had 
been turned to geography and the history of 
discovery. This study he had pursued with 
avidity while at Oxford, reading, as he tells 
us himself, ' whatever printed or written dis- 
coveries and voyages I found extant, either 
in Greek, Latin, Italian, Spanish, Portugal,. 
French, or English languages,' and some time 
after taking his degree he lectured on these 
subjects, perhaps at Oxford ( JONES, p. 6). 
He claims to have first shown in these lec- 
tures ' the new, lately reformed maps, globes, 
spheres, and other instruments of this art, for 
demonstration in the common schools.' In 
1582 he published his ' Divers Voyages touch- 
ing the Discovery of America,' a work which 
would seem to have secured for him the 
patronage of Lord Howard of Effingham, then 
lord admiral, whose brother-in-law, Sir Ed- 
ward Stafford, going to France in 1583 as 
English ambassador, appointed Hakluyt hi& 

In Paris he found new opportunities of col- 
lecting information as to Spanish and French. 
voyages, ' making,' he says, ' diligent enquiry 
of such things as might yield any light unto> 
our western discovery in America.' These 
researches he embodied in ' A particular Dis- 
course concerning Western Discoveries,' writ- 
ten in 1584, but first printed in 1877, in Col- 
lections of the Maine Historical Society. A 
copy of this presented to the queen procured 
him the reversion of a prebendal stall at 
Bristol, to which he succeeded in 1586. He- 
remained in Paris, however, for two years- 
longer, and in 1586 interested himself in the 
publication of the journal of Laudonniere, 
which he translated and published in London 
under the title of ' A notable History, con- 
taining four Voyages made by certain French 
Captains into Florida,' 1587, 4to; and the 
same year there was published in Paris ' De 
Orbe Novo Petri Martyris Anglerii, Decades 
Octo, illustrates labore et industria Ricardi 
Hakluyti.' [Translated by Michael Lok, 
London, 1612, 4to.] In 1588 he returned to- 
England in company with Lady Sheffield, 
Lord Howard's sister, and in 1589 published 
' The Principall Navigations, Voiages, and 
Discoveries of the English Nation made by 
Sea or over land to the most remote and 
farthest distant quarters of the earth, at 

See Notes and Queries^ cxlvi. 335, 
for details of his ancestry. 




any time within the compass of these 1500 
yeares' [sm. fol. in one vol.], to the 'burden' 
and ' huge toil' of which he was, he tells us, 
incited byhearing and reading while in France, 
* other nations miraculously extolled for their 
discoveries and notable enterprises by sea, 
but the English of all others for their sluggish 
security and continual neglect of the like 
attempts, either ignominiously reported or 
ingly condemned, and finding few or 


none of "our own men able to reply herein, 
and not seeing any man to have care to 
recommend to the world the industrious 
labours and painful travels of our country- 

This one volume, which was dedicated to 
Sir Francis Walsingham, was the germ, or, 
as it is commonly called, the first edition, of 
the much larger and better known work 
which he published some ten years later, 
under a title almost identical in its general 
statement, but differing in the details [3 vols. 
sm. fol. 1598-1600]. The first volume, pub- 
lished in 1598, contained an account of the 
expedition to Cadiz in 1596, which, after 
Essex's disgrace, Hakluyt deemed inadvisable, 
or was directed, to suppress. As the title of 
this first volume contained the words, ' and 
lastly the memorable defeate of the Spanish 
huge Armada, anno 1588, and the famous 
victorie atchieved at the citie of Cadiz, 1596, 
are described,' this title was cancelled, and 
for the above sentence was substituted ' As 
also the memorable defeat of the Spanish 
huge Armada, anno 1588.' This new title- 
page (having some other minor alterations) 
bears date 1599, and has given rise to the 
erroneous notion that there was a second edi- 
tion of the first volume then published : it 
is much the more common, and is the one 
-copied, in facsimile, in the catalogue of the 
York Gate Library (1886), and verbally in the 
modern editions, so called, of 1809 and 1884. 
In April 1590 Hakluyt was appointed to the 
rectory of Wetheringsett in Suffolk, and here 
he seems to have resided during the years he 
was compiling and arranging his great work. 

In May 1602 he was appointed prebendary 
of Westminster, and archdeacon in the fol- 
lowing year : in 1604 he was one of the chap- 
lains of the Savoy (CHESTER). He was still 
occupied with his geographical studies ; in 
1601 he is named as advising to ' set down in 
writing a note of the principal places in the 
East Indies where trade is to be had,' for the 
use of the committee of the East India Com- 
pany, and supplied maps (STEVENS, Dawn of 
British Trade to the East Indies, pp. 123, 143). 
In 1606 he was one of the chief promoters of 
the petition to the king for patents for the 
colonisation of Virginia, and was afterwards 

one of the chief adventurers in the London or 
South Virginian Company. His last publica- 
tion was a translation from the Portuguese 
of the travels and discoveries of Ferdinand 
de Soto, under the title of ' Virginia richly 
valued,' 1609, 4to. He died on 23 Nov. 1616, 
and on the 26th was buried in Westminster 

Hakluyt was twice married, first in or 
about 1594, and again in March 1604, when 
he was described in the license as having 
been a widower about seven years, and as 
aged about fifty-two (CHESTER). He left one 
son, who is said to have squandered his in- 
heritance and to have discredited his name. 
Mr. Froude has aptly called Hakluyt's ' Prin- 
cipal Navigations' 'the prose epic of the 
modern English nation,' ' an invaluable trea- 
sure of material for the history of geography, 
discovery, and colonisation,' and a collection 
of 'the heroic tales of the exploits of the 
great men in whom the new era was in- 
augurated' (FROTJDE, Short Studies on Great 
Subjects, i. 446). Besides his published works 
Hakluyt left a large collection of manuscripts, 
sufficient, it is said, to have formed a fourth 
volume as large as any of the three of the 
' Principal Navigations.' Several of these 
fell into the hands of Purchas, who incorpo- 
rated them in an abridged form in his ' Pil- 
grimes/ whose engraved title-page opens with 
the words ( Hakluytus Postumus ;' others are 
preserved at Oxford in the Bodleian Library. 

[Material for the life of Hakluyt chiefly de- 
rived from the dedications and prefaces to his 
works, more especially from the dedication to 
Walsingham of the Principall Navigations of 
1589, and of the first volume of the enlarged 
edition of 1598 is collected in the article by 
Oldys, in the Biographia Britannica ; in the in- 
troduction, by J. Winter Jones, to the Hakluyt 
Society's edition of the Divers Voyages touching 
the Discovery of America, and in the article by 
C. H. Coote in the Encyclopaedia Britannica. 
See also Wood's Athenae Oxon. ed. Bliss, ii. 186 ; 
Fuller's Worthies of England, Herefordshire, and 
Oxf.Univ. Keg., (Oxf. Hist. Soc.)n. iii. 39, where 
the name is given with eight different spellings, 
one of which is Hacklewight.] J. K. L. 

HALCOMB, JOHN (1790-1852), ser- 
jeant-at-law, born in 1790, studied law in 
chambers with the future judges John Patte- 
son and John Taylor Coleridge, was called 
to the bar at the Inner Temple, and went 
the western circuit. Halcomb, after several 
failures, was elected conservative member for 
Dover in 1831. He took some position in the 
house, but on the dissolution of parliament in 
1835 lost his seat. In 1839 he was made ser- 
jeant-at-law, but his political ambition seems 
to have spoiled his career at the bar, for he 



did not realise the high, expectations formed 
of him. He died at New Radnor on 3 Nov. 
1852, leaving a widow and four sons. 

Halcomb wrote : 1. ' A Report of the 
Trials ... in the causes of Rowe versus 
Grenfell, &c.,' 1826, as to questions regarding 
copper mines in Cornwall. 2. { A Practical 
Measure of Relief from the present system 
of the Poor Law. Submitted to the con- 
sideration of Parliament,' 1826. 3. ' A prac- 
tical Treatise on passing Private Bills through 
both Houses of Parliament,' 1836. 

[Law Times, 13 Nov. 1852, p. 95.] F . W-T. 


(1824-1887), physician, son of James Alex- 
ander Haldane [q.v.] by his second wife, 
Margaret Rutherford, daughter of Professor 
Daniel Rutherford [q. v.], was born in 1824 
and educated at the high school and univer- 
sity of Edinburgh. After graduating M.D. 
in 1848 he studied in Vienna and Paris, and 
on his return lectured on medical jurispru- 
dence and pathology in the extra-mural school 
at Surgeons' Hall, Edinburgh. He succeeded 
Dr. Alexander Wood as teacher of medicine 
at Surgeons' Hall, and he was also physician 
to the Edinburgh Royal Infirmary. He was 
an excellent teacher and very popular with 
students. He was successively secretary and 
president of the Edinburgh College of Physi- 
cians, and represented the college on the gene- 
ral medical council on Dr. Wood's retirement. 
At the tercentenary of the university of Edin- 
burgh the degree of LL.D. was conferred upon 
him. His death, on 12 April 1887, was the 
result of an accidental fall on ice on the pre- 
vious Christmas-day. 

[Scotsman, 13 April 1887.] &. T. B. 


(1768-1851), religious writer, youngest and 
posthumous son of Captain James Haldane 
of Airthrey House, Stirlingshire, and Kathe- 
rine, daughter of Alexander Duncan of Lun- 
die, Forf arshire , and sister of the first Viscount 
Duncan, was born at Dundee on 14 July 1768. 
His father dying in 1768 and his mother in 
1774, he was brought up under the care of his 
grandmother, Lady Lundie, and his uncles. 
After attending Dundee grammar school 
and the high school of Edinburgh he entered 
Edinburgh University in 1781, and attended 
the arts classes for three sessions. In 1785 
he became a midshipman on board the Duke 
of Montrose, East Indiaman. He made four 
voyages in her to India and China. During 
the last he was second officer. An intimacy 
which, in conjunction with his brother Robert 
[q. v.], he contracted with David Bo^ue of 
Gosport [q. v.], made a deep impression on 

him, and in 1794 he abandoned the sea and 
settled in Edinburgh. He began shortly after- 
wards to hold religious meetings. In spite of 
the opposition which the then novel practice 
of lay preaching excited, he began in 1797 to- 
make extensive evangelistic tours over Scot- 
land, preaching wherever opportunity offered, 
often to large audiences. Encouraged by his 
success, in the end of 1797 he established in 
Edinburgh the Society for Propagating the 
Gospel at Home, a non-sectarian organisation 
chiefly intended for the promotion of itinerant 
preaching and tract distribution. Hitherto 
he had been a member of the Church of Scot- 
land, but in January 1799, along with his 
brother and others, he founded a congrega- 
tional church in Edinburgh, of which he was 
ordained pastor on 3 Feb. 1799, thus be- 
coming the first minister of the first congrega- 
tional church in Scotland. He declined to 
receive any salary for his services, and the 
entire congregational income was devoted to 
the support of the Society for Propagating the- 
Gospel at Home. At first he preached in a 
large circus, but in 1801 his brother built 
him. in Leith Walk a tabernacle seated for 
three thousand persons, and here he officiated 
till his death, still spending, however, much 
time every year in itinerant work. In 1808 
he embraced baptist sentiments, and this 
along with other changes in his views caused 
a serious rupture not only in his church, but 
throughout the whole congregational body 
in Scotland, and was the occasion of much 
bitter controversy. He and his brother, how- 
ever, still devoted themselves to the advance- 
ment of religion all over the country, and re- 
tained the confidence of good men everywhere. 
In 1811 he published a treatise, suggested by 
the dissensions which had vexed him, entitled 
' The Duty of Christian Forbearance in regard 
to points of Church Order.' Its issue involved 
him in another controversy, the Rev. Wil- 
liam Jones, a baptist minister in London, and 
others, replying to it, and Haldane publishing 
a rejoinder to their strictures. There was 
scarcely an important religious controversy 
in his time in which he did not take a part.. 
Against the Walkerites he published in 1819 
' Strictures on a publication upon Primitive 
Christianity by Mr. John Walker, formerly- 
fellow of Dublin College.' The Irvingite 
movement called forth a l Refutation of the 
Heretical Doctrines promulgated by the Rev., 
Edward Irving respecting the Person and 
Atonement of the Lord Jesus Christ.' Ta 
this Henry Drummond [q. v.] published a re- 
j oinder, to which Haldane replied. When the 
controversy regarding the views of Thomas 
Erskine of Linlathen [q. v.l and Campbell 
of Bow was at its height, he gave expres- 



sion to his views in ' Observations on Uni- 
versal Pardon, the Extent of the Atonement, 
and Personal Assurance of Salvation.' In 
1842 appeared ' Man's Responsibility; the 
Nature and Extent of the Atonement, and 
the Work of the Holy Spirit, in reply to 
Mr. Howard Hinton and the Baptist Midland 
Association.' In 1843 he issued a tract on 
the Atonement, and in 1845 a work entitled 
4 The Doctrine of the Atonement, with stric- 
tures on the recent Publications of Drs. Ward- 
law and Jenkyn.' A second edition of this 
appeared in 1847. Other works not of a con- 
troversial kind were : 1. ' Journal of a Tour 
to the North,' being an account of his first 
^evangelistic journey. 2. ( Early Instruction 
commended, in a Narrative of Catharine Hal- 
<lane, with an Address to Parents on the im- 
portance of Religion.' This was called forth 
Iby the death in 1801 of his little daughter 
at the age of six, and ran through eleven or 
twelve editions. 3. ' Views of the Social 
Worship of the First Churches,' published in 
1805. 4. 'The Doctrine and Duty of Self- 
ISxamination,' being the substance of two 
sermons preached in 1806 ; he published 
another work on the same subject in 1830. 
5. ' An Exposition of the Epistle to the Gala- 
tians,' published in 1848. For five years he 
^conducted * The Scripture Magazine/ in which 
many essays from his pen appeared, including 
4 Notes on Scripture,' and in addition to the 
works mentioned he was the author of many 
tracts. He died in Edinburgh on 8 Feb. 

He was twice married, first in September 
1793 to the only daughter of Major Alexander 
Joass of Culleonard, Banffshire ; and secondly 
in 1822 to Margaret, daughter of Dr. Daniel 
Rutherford, professor of botany in the univer- 
sity of Edinburgh ; his son, Daniel Ruther- 
ford, by his second wife, is separately noticed. 

[Alexander Haldane's Lives of Robert Hal- 
dane of Airthrey and of his brother, James Alex- 
ander Haldane, 1852.] T. H. 

HALDANE, ROBERT (1764-1842), re- 
ligious writer, eldest brother of James Alex- 
ander Haldane [q. v.], was born 28 Feb. 1764 
in Queen Anne Street, Cavendish Square, 
London. Like his brother he was brought 
up under the care of his grandmother, Lady 
Lundie, and his uncles, and the two boys at- 
tended the grammar school of Dundee and 
the high school of Edinburgh together. After 
spending a very short time at Edinburgh 
University, early in 1780 he joined H.M.S. 
Monarch as midshipman under his uncle, Cap- 
tain (afterwards Viscount) Duncan. Next 
year he was transferred to the Foudroyant, 
commanded by Captain Jervis, afterwards 

Earl St. Vincent, on board of which he saw 
some active service against the French. The 
peace of 1783 brought his naval career to a 
close. Meanwhile he had come under the 
influence of David Bogue of Gosport [q. v.] 
On leaving the navy he spent some time under 
Bogue's tuition, and then returned to Edin- 
burgh University, where he remained for two 
sessions, following up his studies by making 
' the grand tour ' in the spring of 1785. In 
1786 he settled down in his ancestral home 
at Airthrey, where for ten years he led a 
country life. The outbreak of the French 
revolution led him to take a keen interest in 
politics, but his mind became more and more 
engrossed with religion. In 1796 he formed 
a project for founding a mission in India, he 
himself to be one of the missionaries, and to 
supply all the necessary funds. He proposed 
to sell his estates, and to invest 25,000/. for 
the permanent support of the work. His 
friend Bogue agreed to accompany him to 
India, and a body of catechists and teachers 
and a printing-press were to be taken out. 
But the East India Company refused to per- 
mit the mission to be planted on any part of 
its territory, and the scheme was abandoned. 
He then turned his attention to the needs 
of Scotland. In 1798 he sold Airthrey, and 
began occasionally to preach. Leaving the 
church of Scotland in January 1799, and 
joining his brother in organising a congre- 
gational church in Edinburgh, he set about 
establishing tabernacles in the large centres 
of population, after the plan of Whitefield, 
he himself supplying the necessary funds. 
To provide pastors he founded seminaries for 
the training of students, whom he maintained 
at his own expense. It is said that in the 
twelve years 1798-1810 he had expended over 
70,000/. on his schemes for the advancement 
of religion in Scotland. 

About 1798 he entered into a plan for 
bringing twenty-four children from Africa 
to be educated and sent back again to teach 
their fellow-countrymen, and promised to 
bear the entire cost of their transport, sup- 
port, and education, estimated at 7,000/. 
The children were brought over, but for some 
reason or other were not placed under Hal- 
dane's care, though he had arranged for their 
accommodation in Edinburgh. He was sus- 
pected by many for his supposed democratic 
tendencies, as well as his religious views. 
To vindicate himself he published in 1800 a 
pamphlet entitled ' Addresses to the Public 
by Robert Haldane concerning his Political 
Opinions and Plans lately adopted to promote 
Religion in Scotland.' In 1808 his adoption 
of baptist views and other circumstances 
created widespread discussion in the congre- 



gational body. Among others a bitter con- 
troversy sprang up between Haldane and the 
Rev. Greville Ewing in 1810. In 1816 he 
published one of his more important works, 
'The Evidences and Authority of Divine Re- 
velation ' (second edition, enlarged and im- 
proved, 1834). In the same year which saw 
the first appearance of this book he went to 
Geneva and began a remarkable work of con- 
tinental evangelisation. A large number of the 
students of the university came to him daily 
for instruction, and he gained over them a 
wonderful influence. In 1817 he removed 
to Montauban, where he followed a similar 
course. Here he also procured the printing of 
two editions of the Bible in French, amounting 
to sixteen, thousand copies in all, which he 
circulated along with a French translation 
of his * Evidences ' and a commentary on the 
Epistle to the Romans in the same language, 
and many tracts. In 1819 he returned to Scot- 
land to an estate at Auchingray, Lanarkshire, 
which he had purchased. In the end of 1824 
lie became involved in a controversy, which 
raged for twelve years, regarding the circu- 
lation by the British and Foreign Bible So- 
ciety of the Apocrypha along with the Bible. 
His first 'Review of the Conduct of the 
British and Foreign Bible Society relative to 
the Apocrypha and to their Administration 
on the Continent, with an Answer to the 
Rev. Charles Simeon, and Observations on 
the Cambridge Remarks,' appeared in 1824. 
A second * Review ' followed the first. The 
course of this controversy led him to issue 
one of his best known works, ' The Authen- 
ticity and Inspiration of the Scriptures,' 
which at once reached a large circulation, 
and has passed through many editions. In 
1835 appeared the first volume of another 
work, which was also destined to attain great 
popularity, an 'Exposition of the Epistle to 
the Romans,' the beginnings of which had 
already appeared in French. The second 
volume was published in 1837, and the third 
in 1839. In addition to the works mentioned 
lie was the author of many tracts and other 
fugitive publications. He died in Edinburgh 
on 12 Dec. 1842, and was buried in Glasgow 
Cathedral. He married in April 1786 Ka- 
therine Cochrane, daughter of George Oswald 
of Scotstown. 

[Alexander Haldane's Lives of Robert Hal- 
dane of Airthrey and of his brother, James Alex- 
ander Haldane, 1852.] T. H. 

HALDANE, ROBERT (1772-1854), di- 
vine, was the son of a farmer at Overtown, 
Lecropt, on the borders of Perthshire and 
Stirlingshire, and was named after Robert 
Haldane, then proprietor of Airthrey. He 

was educated at the school of Dunblane, and 
afterwards at Glasgow University. He then 
3ecame private tutor, first in the family at 
Leddriegreen, Strathblane, and at a later 
date in that of Colonel Charles Moray of 
Abercairnie. On 5 Dec. 1797 he was licensed 
as a preacher by the presbytery of Auch- 
terarder, but did not obtain a charge until 
August 1806, when he was presented to the 
;hurch of Drummelzier, in the presbytery of 
Peebles, and was ordained on 19 March 1807. 
He had won some distinction as a mathema- 
tician, and when the chair of mathematics 
became vacant in the university of St. An- 
drews in 1807 he was appointed to the pro- 
fessorship, and resigned his charge at Drum- 
melzier on 2 Oct. 1809. He remained in this 
post till 1820, when he was promoted by the 
crown to the pastoral charge of St. Andrews 
parish, vacant by the death of Principal 
George Hill, D.D. His predecessor had held 
the principalship of St. Mary's College in St. 
Andrews in conjunction with his ministerial 
office, and the same arrangement was followed 
in the case of Haldane, who was admitted 
on 28 Sept. 1820. With the office of prin- 
cipal was joined that of primarius professor 
of divinity, and Haldane exhibited conspi- 
cuous ability, both as a theologian and an 

On 17 May 1827 Haldane was elected 
moderator of the general assembly of the 
church of Scotland. His early years had been 
spent among the dissenters, but throughout 
his career he adhered consistently to the esta- 
blished church, and upon the disruption of 
1843 Haldane was called to the chair ad 
interim, and did much to allay the excite- 
ment at the time. To his evangelicalism and 
popularity as a preacher is attributed the fact 
that comparatively few among his parishioners 
left the established church at the disruption. 
Earnest and affectionate in his manner he was 
not only admired as a preacher, but he also 
commanded in a high degree the attention of 
his pupils in his academical lessons. He was 
regarded as an accomplished scholar and a 
sound theologian. His scientific attainments 
were also considerable, and he was elected a 
fellow of the Royal Society of Edinburgh some 
time before his death. He died at St. Mary's 
College, St. Andrews, on 9 March 1854, being 
then in his eighty-third year, and was buried 
in the cathedral cemetery there. His por- 
trait is preserved in the hall of the university 
library at St. Andrews. He was succeeded 
by the Rev. John Tulloch [q. v.] 

Haldane's only publication was a small 
work relating to the condition of the poor in 
St. Andrews, and a reply to strictures upon 
his arguments (Cupar, 1841). 




[Scott's Fasti Ecclesiae Scoticanse, i. 239, ii. 
393 ; Conolly's Eminent Men of Fife, p. 209 ; 
Scots Mag. 1806 p. 725, 1807 p. 635, 1820 pt. ii. 
p. 471 ; Dundee Advertiser, 10, 1 7, and 21 March 
1854; private information.] A. H. M. 

JAMES (d. 1443), prior of St. Andrews, was 
appointed to the priorate in 1418. He was 
dean of theology in St. Andrew's University. 
He was one of an embassy from James I to 
the Roman court in 1425. He did much to 
beautify the monastery and the cathedral 
church of St. Andrews, and improve tke ser- 
vices, and was zealous against heretics. Pope 
Martin V granted him the right of wearing 
the mitre, ring, pastoral staff, and other pon- 
tifical insignia in parliament. He died on 
18 July 1443, and was interred in the north 
wall of the lady chapel of the cathedral. He 
is said to have written a treatise, ' Contra 
Lolardos,' another entitled ' Processus contra 
Haereticos/ and a third/ De Privilegiis Claustri 
sui,' but none of these seem now extant. 

[Reg. Prioratus S. Andree ; Rot. Scotise, ii. 
253; Dempster's Hist. Eccles. 678; Gordon's 
Monasticon, i. 83-5, where his epitaph is given.] 

J. M. R. 

(1718-1791), lieutenant-general, colonel- 
commandant of the 60th foot, governor and 
commander-in-chief in Canada 1778-85, was 
born in October 1718 in the canton of Neuf- 
chatel, Switzerland. It has been stated (Ap- 
PLETON, vol. iii.) that he was once in the 
service of Prussia. But ' no person named 
Haldimand served in the Prussian army 
between 1735 and 1755 ' (information ob- 
tained from the British Embassy, Berlin). 
It is not improbable that Haldimand, like 
his countryman and brother-officer, Colonel 
Henry Bouquet [q. v.], was in the Sardinian 
army during the campaigns against the 
Spaniards in Italy. Like Bouquet, he was 
at a later period in the Dutch army. A search 
in the archives at the Hague has proved that 
Frederick Haldimand was appointed captain, 
with the title of lieutenant-colonel, in the 
regiment of Swiss guards in the service of 
Holland on 1 May 1755, by an act of the 
States of Holland, and that he had served in 
that grade and corps previously, from 1 July 
1750, presumably, by act of the Prince of 
Orange (State Register of Titular Nomina- 
tions, 1747-91, fol. 49, at the Hague). He 
is entered in the name-books of Dutch officers 
after 1750 as serving a la suite, but, singu- 
larly, his name does not appear in the war- 
budgets, neither can the date of his entry 
into the service of the United Provinces be 
ascertained (information furnished from the 

state archives at the Hague). The only in- 
formation in possession of the British war 
office is that Lieutenant-colonel Frederick 
Haldimand, from the Dutch service, was on 
4 Jan. 1756 appointed lieutenant-colonel 
62nd royal Americans, afterwards 60th foot, 
and now the king's royal rifle corps, then 
raising in America under command of the 
Earl of Loudoun. Haldimand's subsequent 
commissions in the British army were : colonel 
in America 17 Jan. 1758, colonel in the army 
19 Feb. 1762, colonel-commandant 2nd bat- 
talion 60th foot 28 Oct .1772, same rank 1st bat- 
talion 60th foot 11 Jan. 1776, major-general 
in America 25 May 1772, lieutenant-general 
29 Aug. 1777, general in America 1 Jan. 1776. 
Haldimand went to America in 1758 and 
distinguished himself at the attack on Ticon- 
deroga 8 July 1758, and by his defence of 
Oswego against four thousand French and 
Indians in 1759. With his battalion he 
served with Amherst's forces in the expedi- 
tion against Montreal in 1760. He was in 
command at Three Rivers, Lower Canada, 
until 1766, when he was appointed to the 
command in Florida, which he held until 
1778. On his arrival at Pensacola he en- 
larged the fort, opened up the streets, and 
otherwise improved the place. He held the 
chief command at New York for a while 
during the absence of General Gage, and in 
August 1775 was summoned to England to 

ive information on the state of the colonies. 
n 27 June 1778 he was appointed to suc- 
ceed Sir Guy Carleton, afterwards first Lord 
Dorchester [q. v.], as governor and com- 
mander-in-chief in Canada, which post be- 
held during the remainder of the American 
war and until November 1784, when he re- 
turned to England. Haldimand never learnt 
to speak or write English well. As an ad- 
ministrator in Canada he is accused of having- 
been harsh and arbitrary, and more than one 
action for false imprisonment was success- 
fully maintained against him in the English 
courts after his return to England. It was 
during his government that the first census 
of Lower Canada was taken, which numbered 
113,012 souls, 28,000 capable of bearing arms ; 
and that the first effective settlement of Upper 
Canada was made, and emigration from home 
began. The Canadian county of Haldimand is 
named after him. Haldimand's correspondence 
from 1758 to 1785, including theentire records 
of his successive commands at Three Rivers, in 
Florida and New York, and in Canada, was 
presented to the British Museum by his grand- 
nephew, William Haldimand, M.P. [q. v.], 
and now forms Addit. MSS. 21661 to 21892. 
Copies thereof, made by order of the Cana- 
dian government, have been placed among^ 



the archives at Ontario. Some other letters 
to Sir John Johnson, superintendent of Indian 
affairs, are in Addit. MS. 29237. Haldi- 
mand died at Yverdun, canton of Neufchatel, 
5 June 1791. His will, dated 30 March 1791, 
was proved in the probate court of Canter- 
bury 2 June 1792. 

Haldimand had a younger brother, described 
as ' burgess of Yverdun and merchant of 
Turin/ who had several sons. One of these, 
Anthony Francis Haldimand (1741-1817), 
merchant of London, founded the banking- 
house of Morris, Prevost, & Co. By his wife, 
Jane Pickersgill, Anthony left several chil- 
dren, including William, the donor of the 
Haldimand MSS. to the British Museum, and 
Jane Haldimand, better known under her 
married name of Mrs. Marcet, the authoress 
of various educational books. 

[A pedigree, commencing with General Hal- 
dimand and his brother, with a facsimile of the 
general's autograph, is given in Misc. Geneal. 
et Her. new ser. iv. 369. Some family particu- 
lars are given in the obituary notice of Professor 
Marcet in Times, 17 April 1853. No mention of 
Haldimand occurs in the published autobio- 
graphies of his friend Bouquet,whose manuscripts 
are also i n the Brit. Mus. Addit. MSS. Some brief 
particulars of Haldimand's early services in Ame- 
rica will be found in Captain Knox's History of the 
Campaigns in America (London, 1762), and in 
P. Parkman's Montcalm and Wolfe (London, 
1814), and other works. An account of his rule 
in Canada is given in Macmullen's History of 
Canada, pp. 211-13. A brief and not quite ac- 
curate biography of Haldimand is given in Apple- 
ton's Encycl. Amer. Biog. vol. iii. The writer of 
the present article has to express his obligations to 
the Kev. Edward Brine, M.A., British chaplain 
at the Hague, and to the British Military Attach^ 
at Berlin for their great kindness in forwarding 
his inquiries at those places.] H. M. C. 

1862), philanthropist, was the son of Anthony 
Erancis Haldimand (1741-1817), a London 
merchant, nephew and heir of Sir Frederick 
Haldimand [q. v.] He was one of twelve 
children, most of whom died young, and was 
born in London 9 Sept. 1784. After receiv- 
ing a plain English education he entered at 
sixteen his father's counting-house, showed 
a great talent for business, and at twenty-five 
became a director of the Bank of England. 
He was a warm advocate of the resumption 
of specie payments, and gave evidence in the 
parliamentary inquiry which led to the act 
of 1819. In 1820 he was elected M.P. for 
Ipswich, and was re-elected in 1826, but the 
return being disputed he gave up the seat. 
In 1828 he settled permanently at his sum- 
mer villa, Denantou, near Lausanne. He 


took a great interest in Greek independence, 
sending the insurgents 1,000/. by his nephew, 
and guaranteeing Admiral Cochrane 20,000^. 
for the equipment of a fleet. A visit to Aix- 
les-Bains for his health resulted in his erect- 
ing there in 1829 a hospital for poor patients. 
The municipality gave it his name, but after 
the annexation of Savoy to France it was 
styled the Hortense Hospital, Queen Hor- 
tense having, however, merely endowed some 
beds in it. Large purchases of French rentes, 
made with a view of strengthening the new 
Orleans dynasty, involved Haldimand in con- 
siderable losses, but his liberality remained 
unabated. He gave 24,000 for a blind 
asylum at Lausanne, and 3,000/. towards the 
erection of an Anglican church at Ouchy. 
Inclined to radicalism in politics, and to 
scepticism in religion, he nevertheless exerted 
himself in favour of the free church in Vaud, 
threatened with state persecution. He died 
at Denantou 20 Sept. 1862. He was unmar- 
ried, and bequeathed 20,000, the bulk of 
his remaining property, to the blind asylum 
at Lausanne. In 1857 he presented to the 
British Museum Addit. MSS. 21631-895, 
which include his great-uncle's official corre- 

[W. de la Rive's Vie de Haldimand ; A. Hart- 
mann'sGallerieberuhmterSchweizer.] J. G. A. 

HALE, SIR BERNA.RD (1677-1729), 
judge, eighth son of William Hale of King's 
Walden, Hertfordshire, by Mary, daughter 
of Jeremiah Elwes of Roxby, Lincolnshire, 
was born in March 1677, entered Gray's Inn 
in October 1696, was called to the bar in 
February 1704, was appointed lord chief baron 
of the Irish exchequer on 28 June 1722, and 
was transferred to the English court of ex- 
chequer as a puisne baron on 1 June 1725 and 
knighted on 4 Feb. following. He died in 
Red Lion Square, London, on 7 Nov. 1729, 
and was buried in the parish church of King's 
Walden, the manor of which had been in his 
family since the time of Elizabeth, and still 
belongs to his posterity. He married Anne, 
daughter of J. Thoresby or Thursby of North- 
amptonshire, by whom he had four sons and 
three daughters. Of his sons, the eldest, Wil- 
liam, died in 1793, and was buried at King's 
Walden; the second, Richard, died in 1812 in 
bis ninety-second year; the third, BERNARD, 
entered the army and rose to the rank of 
general, was appointed lieutenant-governor 
of Chelsea Hospital in 1773, and afterwards 
Lieutenant-general of the ordnance. He mar- 
ried in 1750 Martha, daughter of Richard 
Rigby of Mistley Hall, Essex, by whom he 
bad one son, who assumed the name of Rigby, 
and married Frances, daughter of Sir Thomas 




Rumbold [q. v.], governor of Madras, by 
whom he had issue one daughter only, who 
married Horace, third Lord Rivers. Hale's 
fourth son, JOHN, also served with distinction 
in the army, attaining the rank of general, 
being appointed governor of Londonderry and 
Culmore Forts in 1781. He died on 20 March 
1806, leaving eleven children by his wife 
Mary, second daughter of William Chaloner 
of Gisborough. 

[Foss's Lives of the Judges ; Hist. Ke<?. (Chron. 
Diary) 1725; Berry's County Gen. Hertfordshire, 
p. 36; Misc. Gen. et Herald, new ser. iv. 134 ; 
Smyth's Law Officers of Ireland; Cussans's Hert- 
fordshire, Hundred of Hitchin, p. 122 ; Clutter- 
buck's Hertfordshire, iii. 133; Burke's Landed 
Gentry.] J. M. E. 

HALE, SIB MATTHEW (1609-1676), 
judge, only son of Robert Hale, by Joan, 
daughter of Matthew Poyntz, was born at 
Alderley, Gloucestershire, on 1 Nov. 1609. 
His father, a barrister of Lincoln's Inn, who 
abandoned the practice of the law because he 
had scruples about the manner in which plead- 
ings were drawn, died when Hale was under 
five years of age, and his mother was also 
dead. His puritan guardian, Anthony Kings- 
cote, had him educated in his own principles 
by Staunton, vicar of Wotton-under-Edge. 
In Michaelmas term 1626 Hale went up to 
Magdalen College, Oxford, with a view to 
taking holy orders. Here he developed a 
taste for amusements, dress, and manly sports, 
frequented the theatre, and practised fencing, 
in which, being tall, strong, and active, he 
became very expert, and had thoughts of en- 
tering the service of the Prince of Orange as 
a soldier. Lawyers he regarded as a barba- 
rous sort of people, until he came into con- 
tact with Serjeant Glanville, whom he con- 
sulted about some private affairs, and who 
excited in him a taste for law. 

He entered Lincoln's Inn on 8 Sept. 1628, 
and applied himself to the study of law with 
ardour, reading during the first two years of 
his pupilage as much as sixteen hours a day, 
and afterwards eight hours a day. He was a 
pupil of Noy, who treated him almost like a 
son, so that he was known as { young Noy,' 
and he early made the acquaintance of Sel- 
den, who inspired him with his own love of 
large and liberal culture. He now sought 
recreation in the study of Roman law, ma- 
thematics, philosophy, history, medicine, and 
theology, avoided the theatre and general 
society, was studiously plain in his dress, 
corresponded little, except on matters of 
business or questions of learning, and read no 
news. He was greatly impressed by Corne- 
lius Nepos's l Life of Pomponius Atticus,' 
whom he resolved to take for his model. He 

aimed at a strict neutrality in the approaching- 
civil strife. He probably advised Strafford 
on his impeachment in 1640, though he made 
no speech. He was counsel for Sir John 
Bramston onhis impeachmentin 1641. Wood 
{Athence Oxon. ed. Bliss, iii. 109) states that he- 
took the covenant in 1643, but his name does- 
not appear in the list given in Rushworth's 
'Hist. Coll.'iv. 480, and it is unlikely that he- 
should have taken so decided a step. By 
Laud's desire he was assigned as one of his- 
counsel on his impeachment (November 1643)> 
(COBBETT, State Trials, v. 213; Autobio- 
graphy of Sir John Bramston, Camd. Soc. r 
p. 78). In 1645 he argued on behalf of Lord 
Macguire, one of the principal contrivers of 
the Irish rebellion of 1641, the important 
point of law whether there was jurisdiction 
to try an Irish peer by a Middlesex jury for 
treason committed in Ireland. Prynne ar- 
gued the affirmative to the satisfaction of 
the court of king's bench, and Macguire was 
convicted and executed. He was one of the 
counsel assigned for the eleven members ac- 
cused by Fairfax of malpractices against the 
parliament and the army in the summer of 
1646. Burnet says that he tendered his ser- 
vices to the king on his trial. As, however, 
Charles refused to recognise the jurisdiction! 
of the court, he was not represented by coun- 
sel . Hale defended James, duke of Hamilton 
and earl of Cambridge, on his trial for high 
treason in February 1648-9, arguing elabo- 
rately but unsuccessfully that as a Scotsman 
the duke must be treated not as a traitor, but 
as a public enemy. The duke was convicted. 
According to Burnet he also defended the 
Earl of Holland, Lord Capel [see CAPEL, 
AKTHTJR, 1610 P-1649], but this does not 
appear from the < State Trials ' (WHITELOCKE, 
Mem. pp. 77, 258, 381 ; WOOD, Athence Oxon. 
ed. Bliss, iii. 128 ; COBBETT, State Trials, iv. 
577, 702, 1195, 1211 ; BTJENET, Memoirs of 
the Dukes of Hamilton, p. 398). Though at 
heart a royalist, he did not scruple to take 
the engagement to be true and faithful to the 
Commonwealth required by the ordinance of 
11 Oct. 1649 to be subscribed by all lawyers, 
and thus was able in 1651 to defend the pres- 
byterian clergyman, Christopher Love [q. v.], 
on his trial for plotting the restoration of the 
king. On 20 Jan. 1651-2 he was placed on the 
committee for law reform. On 23 Jan. 1654he 
was created a serjeant-at-law, and soon after- 
wards a justice of the common pleas (COBBETT, 
State Trials, v. 210 et seq. ; Parl Hist. iii. 
1334; WOOD, Athence Oxon. ed. Bliss, iii. 280, 
1091 ; WHITELOCKE, Mem. p. 520 ; Siuedish, 
Ambassy, ii. 133). Hale stood for his native 
county at the general election of 1654, and 
was returned at the head of the poll. Par- 



liament met in September, and set about the 
great business of settling the nation. Hale 
spoke forcibly in favour of subordinating l the 
single person ' to the parliament. Cromwell 
silenced opposition by requiring members 
to subscribe a 'recognition to be true and 
faithful to the Lord Protector and Common- 
wealth of England.' The majority complied, 
and all dissentients, of whom Hale was pro- 
bably one, were excluded by a subsequent 
vote. According to Burnet, Hale was re- 
quired by the council of state to assist at the 
trial of Penruddock (April 1655), but re- 
fused. This, however, is unlikely, as Penrud- 
dock's trial took place at Exeter, and Hale 
belonged to the midland circuit. Burnet also 
intimates that his seat on the bench was 
by no means an easy one, his strict impar- 
tiality rendering him odious to Major-general 
Whalley, who commanded on his circuit, and 
also to the Protector. But this is inconsistent 
with extrinsic evidence. On 1 Nov. 1655 he 
was placed by the council of state on the 
committee of trade ; and on 31 March 1655-6 
Whalley writes to Cromwell from Warwick 
requesting the Protector to give more than 
ordinary thanks to Hale for his behaviour on 
the bench ; and on 9 April tells Thurloe that 
no judge had a greater hold upon the l affec- 
tions of honest men.' 

Hale continued to act as justice of the com- 
mon pleas until the Protector's death, and 
was offered a renewal of his patent by Richard 
Cromwell, but refused it, probably because he 
foresaw that Richard's tenure of power would 
be of short duration. On 27 Jan. 1658-9 he 
was returned to parliament for the university 
of Oxford. He took an active part in the 
restoration of Charles II, but moved that a 
treaty should be made with him, and to that 
end a committee was appointed to search for 
precedents in the various negotiations had 
with the late king at the treaty of Newport 
and on other occasions. The motion was de- 
feated by Monck. In the Convention parlia- 
ment, which met in April 1660, he sat for 
Gloucestershire. He was chosen one of the 
managers of the conference with the lords on 
the settlement of the nation, and was placed 
on a committee for purging the statute book 
of all pretended acts inconsistent with go- 
vernment by king, lords, and commons, and 
confirming other proceedings which were 
equitable, although technically void. He was 
also a member of the grand committee for 
religion, and advocated the old ecclesiastical 
polity against presbyterianism. He supported 
the bill of indemnity, but opposed the inclu- 
sion of the regicides. On 22 June he was 
called to the degree of serjeant-at-law, and 
in that capacity was included in the commis- 

sion for the trial of the regicides. On 7 Nov. 
he was appointed lord chief baron of the ex- 
chequer, and afterwards knighted, somewhat 
against his will, it is said. One of his last 
acts in the House of Commons was to intro- 
duce a bill for the comprehension of presby- 
terians. It was thrown out on the second 
reading on 28 Nov. 1660 (Bunion, Diary, i. 
xxxii, iii. 142 ; WHITELOCKE, Mem. p. 605 ; 
Cat. State Papers, 1655 p. 175, 1655-6 p. 1, 
1656-7 p. 81, 1660-1 p. 354; Thurloe State 
Papers, iv. 663, 686, v. 296 ; BURNET, Own 
Time, fol. p. 80, 8vo i. 322 n. ; Parl. Hist. 
iv. 4, 25, 79, 101, 152-4 ; Comm. Journ. viii. 
194 ; SiDERFitf, Rep. i. 3, 4). 

At the Bury St. Edmunds assizes on 
10 March 1661-2 two old women, Rose Cul- 
lender and Amy Drury, widows, were indicted 
before him of witchcraft. They had, it was al- 
leged, caused certain children to be taken with 
faintingfits, to vomit nails and pins, and to see 
mysterious mice, ducks, and flies invisible to 
others. A toad ran out of their bed, and on 
being thrown into the fire had exploded with 
a noise like the crack of a pistol. Sir Thomas 
Browne gave evidence in favour of the prose- 
cution. Serjeant Kelynge thought the evi- 
dence insufficient. Hale, in directing the jury, 
abstained from commenting on the evidence, 
but ' made no doubt at all' of the existence of 
witches, as proved by the Scriptures, general 
consent, and acts of parliament. The pri- 
soners were convicted and executed (CoB- 
BETT, State Trials, vi. 687-702). 

After the fire of London a special court was 
constituted by act of parliament (1666), con- 
sisting of * the justices of the courts of king's 
bench and common pleas and the barons of the 
coif of the exchequer, or any three of them/ 
to adjudicate on all questions arising between 
the owners and tenants of property in the 
city destroyed by the fire. The commission 
sat at Clifford's Inn, and disposed of a vast 
amount of business. Its last sitting was 
held on 29 Sept. 1672. Besides his part in 
the strictly judicial business of this tribunal, 
Hale is said to have advised the corporation 
on various matters relating to the rebuilding 
of the city. His portrait, with those of his 
colleagues, was painted by order of the cor- 
poration and hung in the Guildhall. Hale 
showed a certain tenderness towards the dis- 
senters in his administration of the Con- 
venticle Acts, the severity of which he did 
his best to mitigate, and also in another at- 
tempt which he made in 1668, in concert with 
Sir Orlando Bridgeman, to bring about the 
comprehension of the more moderate. On 
18 May 1671 he was created chief justice 
of the king's bench, where he presided for 
between four and five years with great dis- 





"tinction. In 1675 he began to be troubled 
with asthma, and his strength gradually fail- 
ing, he tendered the king his resignation, 
which was not at once accepted. On 20 Feb. 
1675-6 he surrendered his office to the king 
in person. Charles took leave of him with 
many expressions of his regard, and promised 
to consult him on occasion, and to continue 
his pension during his life. He died on the 
following Christmas day, and was buried in 
Alderley churchyard, having left express in- 
structions that he should not be buried in the 
church that being a place for the living, not 
the dead. His tomb was a very simple one ; 
but his real monument was a clock of curious 
workmanship, which he had presented to the 
'Church on his sixty-fourth birthday (1 Nov. 
1673), in which, on the occasion of an ex- 
amination of the works in 1833, a paper was 
found with the following words : ' This is the 
gift of the right honourable Chief-justice Hale 
to the parish church of Alderley. John Mason, 
Bristol, fecit, 1 Nov. 1673.' Besides his pa- 
ternal estate at Alderley, which has remained 
in the possession of his posterity to the present 
day, Hale bought in 1667 a small house at 
Acton near the church with a ' fruitful field, 
grove, and garden, surrounded .by a remark- 
ably high, deeply founded, and long extended 
wall,' said to have been the same which had 
belonged to Skippon, and which was then 
'tenanted by Baxter, to whom, while residing 
there, Hale extended his friendship and coun- 
tenance. Baxter thus describes him : ' He was 
a man of no quick utterance, but often hesitant; 
but spoke with great reason. He was most 
precisely just ; insomuch as I believe he would 
have lost all that he had in the world rather 
than do an unjust act : patient in hearing the 
tediousest speech which any man had to make 
for himself. The pillar of justice, the refuge 
of the subject who feared oppression, and one 
of the greatest honours of his majesty's govern- 
ment.' Hale was also on terms of intimacy 
with Wilkins, bishop of Chester, with whom 
"he was associated in his efforts to secure 
the comprehension of the dissenters, with 
Barrow, master of Trinity College, Tillotson, 
Stillingfleet, Ussher, and other eminent di- 
Tines. His friendship with Selden ceased 
only at the death of Selden, who made him 
one of his executors. Though for his station 
a poor man, he dispensed much in charity, 
particularly to the royalists during the war 
and interregnum, and afterwards to the non- 
conformists, his principle being to help those 
-who were in greatest need, without distinction 
of party or religious belief. As a lawyer he was 
-distinguished not less by his strict integrity 
and delicate sense of honour than by his im- 
mense industry, knowledge, and sagacity, dis- 

daining while at the bar the common tricks 
of the advocate, refusing to argue cases which 
he thought bad, using rhetoric sparingly, and 
only in support of what he deemed solid ar- 
gument. On one occasion, while he was lord 
chief baron, a duke is said to have called at 
his chambers to explain to him a case then 
pending. Hale dismissed him unheard with 
a sharp reprimand. He also discountenanced 
the custom of receiving presents from suitors, 
either returning them or insisting on the 
donor taking payment before his case was 
proceeded with. Koger North imputes to him 
a bias against the court, but admits that ' he 
became the cushion exceeding well ; his 
manner of hearing patient, his directions 
pertinent, and his discourses copious and, 
though he hesitated often, fluent/ He adds 
that 'his stop for a word by the produce 
always paid for the delay, and on some occa- 
sions he would utter sentences heroic,' and 
that ' he was allowed on all hands to be the 
most profound lawyer of his time ' (Life of 
Lord-keeper Guilford, ed. 1742, pp. 61-4). 
Elsewhere North compares the court of king's 
bench during Hale's chief justiceship to ' an 
academy of sciences,' so severe and refined was 
Hale's method of arguing with the counsel 
and giving judgment (On the Study of the 
Laws, p. 33). His authority coming at last 
to be regarded as all but infallible, it would 
by no means be surprising if he became, as 
North alleges, exceedingly vain and intole- 
rant of opposition; but of this, beyond 
North's word, we have no evidence. Hale 
remained throughout life attached to his early 
puritanism. He was a regular attendant at 
church, morning and evening, on Sunday, 
and also gave up a portion of the day to 
prayer and meditation, besides expounding 
the sermon to his children. He was an ex- 
treme anti-ritualist, having apparently no 
ear for music, and o ejecting even to singing, 
and in particular to the practice of intoning. 
Though strictly orthodox in essentials, he 
was impatient of the subtleties of theology 
(BAXTEK, Notes on the Life and Death of Sir 
Matthew Hale}. With Baxter he was wont 
to discuss questions of philosophy, such as the 
nature of spirit and the rational basis of the 
belief in the immortality of the soul. He 
carried puritan plainness in dress to such a 
point as to move even Baxter to remonstrate 
with him. 

Hale married first Anne, daughter of Henry 
Moore of Fawley in Berkshire (created bart. 
in 1627), son of Sir Francis Moore, [q. v.], 
knight, serjeant-at-law, by whom he had 
issue ten children, all of whom, except the 
eldest daughter and youngest son, died in his 
lifetime. His fourth and youngest son married 




Mary, daughter of Edmund Goodyere of Hey- 
thorp, Oxfordshire. His first wife was dead 
in 1664. He married for his second wife Anne, 
daughter of Joseph Bishop, also of Fawley in 
Berkshire. She was of comparatively humble 
origin, ' but the good man,' says Baxter, ' more 
regarded his own daily comfort than men's 
thoughts and talk.' By her he had no chil- 
dren. His posterity died out in the male line 
in 1782 (Sxow, Survey of London, ed. 1754, i. 
285-6 ; HERBERT, Antiq. of the Inns of Court, 
p. 275 ; Cal. State Papers,~Dom. 1664-5, p. 20 ; 
BTJRNET, Own Time, fol. i. 259, 554; Notes 
and Queries, 1st ser. ix. 269-70 ; Hist. MSS. 
Comm. 6th Rep. App. 726 a, 7th Rep. App. 
468 b; NICHOLS, Lit. Anecd. ix. 505 ; LYSONS, 
Env. ii. 15 ; MARSHALL, Genealogist, v. 288 ; 
BAXTER, Life, fol. iii. 47). 

Hale's j udgments are reported by Sir Tho- 
mas Raymond, pp. 209-39 ; Levinz, pt. ii. pp. 
1-116; Ventris, i. 399-429; and Keble,ii. 751 
usque ad fin., iii. 1-622. An opinion of his, 
together with those of Wild and Maynard, 
on the mode of electing the mayor, alder- 
men, and common councilmen of the city of 
London, was printed in ' London Liberty ; 
or a Learned Argument of Law and Reason,' 
London, . 1650. Other of his opinions were 
published together with { The Excellency and 
Praeheminence of the Laws of England ' (by 
Thomas Williams, speaker of the House 
of Commons in 1562), London, 1680, 8vo. 
Two of his judgments in the court of ex- 
chequer, reported by Ventris (loc. cit.), also 
appeared in separate form as ' Two Arguments 
in the Exchequer, by Sir Matthew Hale, Lord 
Chief Baron,' London, 1696. In 1668 Hale 
edited anonymously Rolle's ' Abridgment,' 
with a preface, giving a brief account of the 
author, whose intimate friend he had been. 

His earliest original works were : 1. ' An 
Essay touching the Gravitation or Non- 
Gravitation of Fluid Bodies, and the Reasons 
thereof,' London, 1673 ; 2nd edit. 1675, 8vo. 
2. * Difficiles Nugae ; or Observations touchy 
ing the Torricellian Experiment, and th6 
various Solutions of the same, especially 
touching the Weight and Elasticity of the 
Air,' London, 1674, 8vo. Neither treatise 
possessed any scientific value. The latter is 
well described by a contemporary as ' a strange 
and futile attempt of one of the philosophers 
of the old cast to confirm Dame Nature's 
abhorrence of a vacuum, and to arraign the 
new doctrines of Mr. Boyle and others con- 
cerning the weight and spring of the air, 
the pressure of fluids on fluids, &c.' (Philoso- 
phical Transactions, abridged, ii. 134). These 
two tracts elicited from Dr. Henry More a 
volume of criticism worthy of them, en- 
titled l Remarks upon two late Ingenious 

Discourses,' London, 1676, to which Hale- 
rejoined with 'Observations touching the 
Principles of Natural Motions, and especially 
touching Rarefaction and Condensation,' 
which appeared posthumously, London, 1677, 
8vo. Three other works by Hale also ap- 
peared anonymously shortly after his death. 
1 . i The Life and Death of Pomponius Atticus, 
written by Cornelius Nepos, translated . . . 
with Observations . . . ,' London, 1677 (a 
very inaccurate translation). 2. ' Contempla- 
tions Moral and Divine ' (two volumes of edifi- 
catory discourses, the fruit of Hale's Sunday 
evening meditations, with seventeen effusions 
in the heroic couplet on Christmas. The work 
was in the press at Hale's death, and is stated 
in the preface to have been printed without 
the consent or privity of the author, by an 
ardent admirer into whose hands the manu- 
script had come by chance. It was reprinted 
with Burnet's 'Life of Hale' in 1700). 
3. ' Pleas of the Crown ; or a Methodical 
Summary of the Principal Matters relating 
to that Subject,' London, 1678, 8vo. This 
brief and inaccurate digest of the criminal 
law went through seven editions, being con- 
siderably augmented by G. Jacob ; the last 
appeared in 1773, 8vo. 

Hale left many manuscript treatises, chiefly 
on law and religion, and voluminous anti- 
quarian collections, part of which he be- 
queathed to Lincoln's Inn and the remainder 
to his eldest grandson, conditionally on his 
adopting the law as a profession, and in 
default to his second grandson. He gave 
express direction that nothing of his own 
composition should be published except what 
he had destined for publication in his life- 
time, an injunction which has been by no 
means rigorously obeyed. The following is- 
Burnet's somewhat confused list of the manu- 
scripts other than those bequeathed to Lin- 
coln's Inn, which remained unpublished at 
his death : '1. Concerning the Secondary 
Origination of Mankind, fol. 2. Concern- 
ing Religion, 5 vols. in fol. viz. : (a) De Deo,. 
Vox Metaphysica, pars 1 et 2 ; () Pars 3.. 
Vox Naturae, Providentiee, Ethicae, Con- 
scientiae; (c) Liber Sextus, Septimus, Oc- 
tavus ; (d) Pars 9. Concerning the Holy Scrip- 
tures, their Evidence and Authority ; (e) Con- 
cerning the Truth of the Holy Scripture and 
the Evidences thereof.' Nos. 1 and 2 to- 
gether constitute a formal treatise in defence- 
of Christianity, to the writing of which Hale- 
devoted his vacant Sunday evening hours 
after the ' Contemplations ' were finished. The 
composition of the work was spread over 
seven years, but appears to have been com- 
pleted while he was still chief baron. The 
manuscript was submitted to Bishop Wilkins, 




who showed it to Tillotson. Both advised 
condensation, for which Hale never found 
leisure. The first part was published after 
his death as ' The Primitive Origination of 
Mankind considered and examined accord- 
ing to the Light of Nature.' In this very 
curious treatise Hale in the first place 
attempts to show that the world must have 
had a beginning; next, with lawyer-like 
caution, that if by possibility this were not 
so, the human race at any rate cannot have 
existed from eternity ; then passes in review 
certain * opinions of the more learned part 
of mankind, philosophers and other writers, 
touching man's origination,' and finally de- 
fends the Mosaic account of the matter as 
most consonant with reason. The book was 
translated forFriedrich Wilhelm of Branden- 
burg, the great elector, by Dr. Schmettau in 
1683. The other parts have never been pub- 
lished. A copy of the treatise on the ' Secon- 
dary Origination of Mankind/ made for Sir 
Robert Southwell in 1691, exists in Addit. 
MS. 9001. ' 3. Of Policy in Matters of Reli- 
gion, fol. 4. De Anima to Mr. B. fol. 5. De 
Anima, transactions between him and Mr. 
B. (probably Baxter) fol. 6. Tentamina de 
ortu, natura, et immortalitate Animse, fol. 
7. Magnetismus Magneticus, fol. 8. Magne- 
tismus Physicus, fol. 9. Magnetismus Di- 
vinus ' (an edificatory discourse published as 
' Magnetismus Magnus ; or Metaphysical and 
Divine Contemplations on the Magnet or 
Loadstone/ London, 1695, 8vo). ' 10. De 
Generatione Animalium et Vegetabilium,fol. 
Lat. 11. Of the Law of Nature, fol.' (Har- 
grave MS. 485 : a copy of this treatise, 
made from the original for Sir Robert South- 
well in 1693, is in Addit. MS. 18235, and 
another transcript in Harl. MS. 7159). '12. A 
Letter of Advice to his grandchildren, 4to : ' 
a transcript of this manuscript exists in 
Harl. MS. 4009 ; it was first printed in 1816. 
'13. Placita Coronee, 7 vols. fol : ' the following 
minute in the journals of the House of Com- 
mons relates to this manuscript, of which only 
a transcript (Hargrave MSS. 258-264) appears 
to be now extant : ' Ordered, that the exe- 
cutors 01 Sir Matthew Hale, late Lord Chief 
Justice of the Court of King's Bench, be de- 
sired to print his MSS. relating to the Crown 
Law, and that a Committee be appointed to 
take care in the printing thereof.' The editio 
princeps, however, is that by Sollom Emlyn, 
published as ' Historia Placitorum Coronas ; 
The History of the Pleas of the Crown, by 
Sir Matthew Hale, Knight, sometime Lord 
Chief Justice of the King's Bench/ London, 
1736, 2 vols. fol. A new edition by Dogherty 
appeared in 1800, 2 vols. roy. 8vo. ' 14. Pre- 
paratory Notes touching the Rights of the 

Crown, fol.' Cap. viii. of this manuscript, 
dealing with the royal prerogative in ec- 
clesiastical matters, was printed for private 
circulation by leave of the benchers of Lin- 
coln's Inn in 1884. The treatise itself is, 
with occasional breaks, consecutive and com- 
plete. ' 15. Incepta de Juribus Coronae, fol.' 
(a mere collection of materials) . 1 1 6 . De Prse- 
rogativa Regis, fol.' (a fragment, of which 
Hargrave MS. 94 is a transcript) : tran- 
scripts of 14, 15, and 16, made partly by and 
partly under the direction of Hargrave, are 
in Lincoln's Inn Library. A work entitled 
' Jura Coronae : His Majesty's Prerogative 
asserted against Papal Usurpations and 
all other Antimonarchical Attempts and 
Practices, collected out of the Body of the 
Municipal Laws of England/ appeared in 
1680, 8vo, and is probably a garbled version 
of or compilation from one or other or all of 
these treatises. '17. Preparatory Notes touch- 
ing Parliamentary Proceedings, 2 vols. 4to.' 
(Hargrave MS. 95). ' 18. Of the Jurisdic- 
tion of the House of Lords, 4to ' (among the 
Hargrave MSS. in British Museum Library, 
together with a transcript by Hargrave, by 
whom it was printed for the first time in 
1796 under the title 'The Jurisdiction of the 
Lords' House in Parliament considered ac- 
cording to Ancient Records '). ' 19. Of the 
Jurisdiction of the Admiralty' (Hargrave 
MSS. 93, 137). < 20. Touching Ports and Cus- 
toms, fol. 21. Of the Right of the Sea and 
the Arms thereof and Customs, fol : ' tran- 
scripts of this manuscript, entitled ' De Jure 
Maris,' are in Hargrave MS. 97, and Addit. 
MS. 30228. No. 19, with the transcripts of 20 
and 21, now in the Hargrave collection, came 
in the last century into the possession of 
George Hardinge [q.v.], solicitor-general to 
the queen of George III, who gave them to 
Francis Hargrave, by whom the transcripts 
were published in 1787 in a volume entitled 
' A Collection of Tracts relative to the Law 
of England, from MSS. now first edited.? 
There they appear as ' A Treatise in three 
parts : Pars Prima, "De Jure Maris et Bra- 
chiorum ejusdem ; " Pars Secunda, " De Porti- 
bus Maris ; " Pars Tertia, " Concerning the 
Customs of Goods imported and exported." ' 
It has since been reprinted in ' A History of 
the Foreshore/ by Stuart A. Moore, 1888, 
where also will be found the original draft 
of the same treatise, printed for the first time 
from Hargrave MS. 98. The treatise was 
ascribed by Hargrave unhesitatingly to Hale. 
Its authenticity has been questioned, but on 
unsubstantial grounds. The titles correspond 
with those given by Burnet, and the style is 
that of Hale. For a discussion of the ques- 
tion see Hall ' On the Rights of the Crown in 



the Sea Shore,' ed. Loveland, 5 n., and Jer- 
wood's 'Dissertation on the Eights to the 
Sea Shores/ pp. 32 et seq. '22. Concern- 
ing the Advancement of Trade, 4to. 23. Of 
Sheriffs' Accounts, fol.' (published in 1683 
as ' A Short Treatise touching Sheriffs' Ac- 
compts/ together with a report of the trial of 
the witches at Bury St. Edmunds, said to 
have been written by Hale's marshal, 8vo, 
reprinted with the l Discourse touching Pro- 
vision for the Poor/ mentioned infra, in 1716). 
*24. Copies of Evidences, fol. 25. Mr. 
Selden's Discourses, 8vo. 26. Excerpta ex 
Schedis Seldenianis. 27. Journal of the 
18 and 22 Jacobi Regis, 4to. 28. Great 
Commonplace Book of Reports or Cases in 
the Law, in Law French, fol.' 

Manuscripts described by Burnet as ' in 
bundles ' are : 1. f On Quod tibi fieri, &c., 
Matt. vii. 12 ; ' perhaps art. No. (8) of Hale's 
* Works Moral and Religious/ 1805 (see 
below). 2. ' Touching Punishments in relation 
to the Socinian Controversy.' 3. 'Policies 
of the Church of Rome.' 4. ' Concerning the 
Laws of England : ' possibly identical with 
Hargrave MS. 494, fol. 299, * Schema Monu- 
mentorum Legum Anglise/ or with Harl. MS. 
4990, f. 1, 'An Oration of Lord Hales in 
commendation of the Laws of England ; ' or 
may be the original from which the extracts 
contained in Lansd. MS. 632 were taken. 
5. ' Of the Amendment of the Laws of Eng- 
land ' (Harl. MS. 711, ff. 372-418, and Addit. 
MS. 18234, published in 1787 as ' Considera- 
tion touching the Amendment or Alteration 
of Lawes ' in ' A Collection of Tracts relative 
to the Law of England/ by Hargrave, who 
gives an account of the manuscript, which 
belonged to Somers, and afterwards to Sir 
Joseph Jekyll). 6. ' Touching Provision for 
the Poor ' (printed 1683, 12mo). 7. ' Upon 
Mr. Hobbs, his MS.' (appears to be identical 
with the 'Reflections on Hobbes' "Dialogue 
on Laws'" contained in Harl. MS. 711, f. 418 
usque ad fin., of which Addit. MS. 18235 and 
Hargrave MS. 96 are transcripts). 8. ' Con- 
cerning the Time of the Abolition of the Jewish 
Laws.' Burnet also mentions the following as 
4 in quarto/ viz. : 1. ' Quod sit Deus.' 2. ' Of 
the State and Condition of the Soul and 
Body after Death.' 3. 'Notes concerning 
Matters of Law.' 

A full account of the Hale MSS. in Lin- 
coln's Inn Library is given in the catalogue 
(1838) by Joseph Hunter. The collection 
also contains three manuscript copies of the 
Bible in Latin which are supposed to have 
belonged to Hale, one of the fourteenth 
century and two of the fifteenth century. 

The following legal treatises by Hale are 
mentioned neither in the schedule to his will 

nor in the list of his other manuscripts given 
by Burnet: 1. Hargrave MS. 140, of which 
Harl. MS. 711, ff. 1-371, is a transcript, a 
manuscript in Hale's hand, entitled 'The 
History and Analysis of the Common Law 
of England.' Apparently the original was 
in the possession of Harley in 1711, and then 
lent by him to William Elstob, on condition 
that no transcript of it should be made 
(NICHOLS, Lit. Anecd. iv. 124). Two years 
later the work was printed as ' The History 
and Analysis of the Common Law of Eng- 
land, written by a learned hand/ London, 
8vo ; reprinted as by Sir Matthew Hale in 
1716, 8vo; 3rd edit. 1739, 8vo. Cap. xi. of 
this work had appeared in 1700 as a substan- 
tive treatise, ' DeSuccessionibusapud Anglos, 
or the Law of Hereditary Descents/ Lon- 
don, 8vo ; reprinted in 1735. The ' Analysis ' 
also appeared separately in 1739. A fourth 
edition of the entire work, with notes and a 
life of Hale by Serjeant Runnington, issued 
from the press in 1779, London, 8vo ; a fifth 
with many additions in 1794, 2 vols. 8vo, 
and a sixth in 1820, 2 vols. 8vo. 2. 'A 
Discourse concerning the Courts of King's 
Bench and Common Pleas ' (printed by Har- 
grave in the ' Collection of Tracts ' in 1787, 
from a manuscript derived from the same 
source as the tract on the ' Amendment or 
Alteration of Lawes '). 

Of doubtful authenticity are : 1. ' A Trea- 
tise showing how useful . . . the enrolling 
and registering of all Conveyances of Land 
may be to the inhabitants of this kingdom. 
By a person of great learning and judg- 
ment/ London, 1694, 4to ; reprinted with the 
draft, by Whitelocke and Lisle, of an act for 
establishing a county register ; reprinted as 
by Hale in 1710, again in 1756, and in 
'Somers Tracts/ xi. 81-90. 2 'A Treatise 
of the Just Interest of the Kings of Eng- 
land in their free disposing power/ &c., 
London, 1703, 12mo (written 1657 as an 
argument against the proposed resumption of 
lands granted by the crown). 3. ' The Ori- 
ginal Institution, Power and Jurisdiction of 
Parliaments/ London, 1707, 8vo. This is un- 
doubtedly spurious. The first part is a mere 
compilation, chiefly from Coke's ' Institutes/ 
pt. iv. Of the second part Hargrave had a 
manuscript, which now seems to be lost, 
but by which Herbert purported to be the 
author of the work (see manuscript notes in 
Hargrave's copy in the British Museum). 
4. 'The Power and Practice of the Court 
Leet of the City and Liberties of West- 
minster displayed/ 1743, 8vo. 5. ' A Treatise 
on the Management of the King's Revenue ' 
(printed with ' Observations on the Land 
Revenue of the Crown/ by the Hon. John St. 



John, 1787, 4to ; reprinted 1790, 1792, 8vo). 
For other manuscript treatises and miscel- 
laneous collections by Hale see the catalogue 
of the Hargrave MSS. in the British Museum, 
and the catalogue of the Hale MSS. in Lin- 
coln's Inn referred to above. 

Hale was a diligent student of Fitzher- 
bert, and reading habitually pen in hand, 
he covered the margin of his copy of the 
' Novel Natura Brevium' with manuscript 
notes, which formed a complete commen- 
tary on the treatise, and were published as 
such in the 'New Natura Brevium, with 
Sir Matthew Hale's Commentary,' London, 
1730, 4to ; reprinted 1794, 2vols. 8yo. Hale 
also made frequent annotations in his copy of 
' Coke upon Littleton,' which he gave to one 
of his executors, Robert Gibbon, from whom 
it passed to his son, Phillips Gibbon (M.P. for 
Rye, d. 1762), a friend of Charles Yorke (lord 
chancellor 1770). Yorke copied the notes, and 
a transcript of his copy was made for Sir 
Thomas Parker (lord chief baron 1740-72), 
from which transcript they were printed by 
Hargrave and Butler in their edition of ' Coke 
upon Littleton' in 1787 (NiCHOLS,Ze. Anecd. 
viii. 558 n. ; The First Part of the Institutes 
of the Laws of England, authore Ed. Coke, ed. 
Hargrave and Butler, vol. xxvi.) 

Baxter edited from the original manuscript 
' The Judgment of the late Lord Chief Jus- 
tice, Sir Matthew Hale, of the Nature of 
True Religion, the Causes of its Corruption, 
and the Church's Calamity by Men's Addi- 
tions and Violences, with the desired Cure. 
In three several Discourses,' &c., London, 
1684, 4to (re-edited by E. H. Barker in 1832, 
8vo). The same year appeared a collection 
of various fugitive pieces by Hale entitled 
1 Several Tracts, viz. : 1. A Discourse of Re- 
ligion on Three Heads : (a) The Ends and 
Uses of it, and the Errors of Men touching 
it ; (6) The Life of Religion and Superaddi- 
tions to it ; (c) The Superstructions upon it, 
and the Animosities about it. 2. A Trea- 
tise touching Provision for the Poor. 3. A 
Letter to his Children advising them how 
to behave themselves in their Speech. 4. A 
Letter from oneof his Sons after his Recovery 
from the Small-Pox.' Four years later- ap- 
peared ' A Discourse of the Knowledge of 
God and of Ourselves, (1) by the Light of 
Nature, (2) by the Sacred Scriptures. Writ- 
ten by Sir Matthew Hale' (with other tracts 
by Hale), London, 1688. A pious 'Medi- 
tation concerning the Mercy of God in pre- 
serving us from the Malice and Power of 
Evil Angels,' elicited from Hale by the trial of 
the supposed witches, was published by way 
of preface to ' A Collection of modern rela- 
tions of matter of fact concerning Witches and 

Witchcraft upon the Persons of the People/ 
London, 1693, 4to. At Berwick in 1762 
appeared ' Sir Matthew Hale's Three Epistles 
to his Children, with Directions concerning 
their Religious Observation of the Lord's- 
Day, to which is prefixed An Account of ih& 
Author's Life,' 8vo; reprinted with a fourth 
letter and an edificatory tract as ' The Coun- 
sels of a Father, in Four Letters of Sir Mat- 
thew Hale to his Children, to which is added 
The Practical Life of a true Christian in the- 
Account of the Good Steward at the Great 
Audit,' London, 1816, 12mo. His ' Works 
Moral and Religious,' with Burnet's ' Life r 
and Baxter's ' Notes ' prefixed, were edited 
by the Rev. T. Thirlwall, London, 1805,. 
2 vols. 8vo. This collective edition contains; 
(l)the 'Four Letters' to his children, (2) an 
' Abstract of the Christian Religion/ (3) ' Con- 
siderations Seasonable at all times for Cleans- 
ing the Heart and Life,' (4) the ' Discourse- 
of Religion,' (5) ' A Discourse on Life and 
Immortality/ (6) ' On the Day of Pentecoslf / 
(7) ' Concerning the Works of God/ (8) ' Of 
Doing as we would be done unto/ (9) the 
translation of Nepos's 'Life of Atticus/" 
(10) the ' Contemplations Moral and Divine/ 
with the metrical effusions on Christmas 
day. A compilation from the New Testa- 
ment entitled 'The Harmony of the Four- 
Evangelists/ edited by John Coren in 1720,. 
is attributed to Hale on the strength of ' a. 
tradition in the family whence it came/ 

Portions of Hale's edificatory and apolo- 
getic writings have also been from time to- 
time edited for the Religious Tract Society,, 
and by individual religious propagandists^ 
whom it is not necessary to particularise- 
Besides the portrait in the Guildhall already 
referred to, there is one by an unknown painter 
in the National Portrait Gallery, to which it 
was presented by the Society of Serjeants-at- 
Law in 1877. 

[The principal authorities for Hale's bio- 
graphy are Burnet's Life and Death of Sir Mat- 
thew Hale, London, 1682, 8vo ; and the brief 
account given in Wood's Athense Oxon. ed. Bliss,, 
iii. 1090-6. Of more recent lives the most am- 
bitious is Memoirs of the Life, Character, and 
Writings of Sir Matthew Hale, knt., Lord Chief 
Justice of England, by John (afterwards Sir 
John)Bickerton Williams, LL.D.,F.S.A., London, 
1835, a careful compilation marred by the author's- 
painful desire to edify. See also Campbell's 
Lives of the Chief Justices, and Foss's Lives of 
the Judges.] J. M. K. 

HALE, RICHARD, M.D. (1670-1728), 
physician, eldest son of Richard Hale of New 
Windsor, Berkshire, was born at Becken- 
ham, Kent, in 1670. He entered at Trinity 
College, Oxford, with his younger brother, 



Henry, in June 1689, and Mr. Sykes was his 
tutor. He graduated B. A. on 19 May 1693, 
M.A. on 4 Feb. 1695, M.B. on 11 Feb. 1697, 
and M.D. on 23 June 1701. He settled in 
London, and was elected a fellow of the Col- 
lege of Physicians on 9 April 1716. He was 
three times a censor, and delivered the Har- 
veian oration in 1724. It was published in 
1735, and contains an account of the English 
mediaeval physicians, which makes it one of 
the most interesting of the orations. Its style 
is lively and the author shows considerable 
knowledge of the original sources of English 
history. He studied insanity and was famous 
for his extreme kindness to lunatics. He 
gave the College of Physicians 500/. for the 
improvement of their library, and his arms, 
vert, three pheons argent, are still to be seen 
upon many gf the books. In the college 
are two pprfraits of him, one being a copy by 
Richardson, made in 1733, of a painting done 
during his life. He died on 26 Sept. 1728. 

[Hunk's Coll. of Phys. ii. 48, iii. 396 ; MS. 
Admission Book of Trinity College, Oxford.] 


1872), lord mayor of London, descended from 
a family settled in Bennington, Hertfordshire, 
was born on 2 Feb. 1791. Left an orphan 
at an early age, he came to London in 1804 
as apprentice to his brother, Ford Hale, a 
wax-chandler in Cannon Street. He subse- 
quently carried on a successful business in 
Cateaton Street, now Gresham Street, re- 
moving afterwards to Queen Street. His 
success was largely due to the fact that he 
was the first English manufacturer to utilise 
the valuable investigations made by MM. 
Chevreul and Lussac, the celebrated French 
chemists, in relation to animal and vegetable 
fatty acids. He was elected a member of the 
common council on St. Thomas's day, 1826, 
and was mainly instrumental in 1833 in in- 
ducing the corporation to apply the bequest of 
John Carpenter (1370 P-1441 ?) [q. v.], for the 
clothing and education of four poor boys, to 
the establishment of a large public day school. 
An act (4 & 5 Will. IV, c. 35) was obtained, 
under which the City of London School was 
erected in 1837, and "Hale was elected chair- 
man of the committee, an office which he re- 
tained till his death. He also took a prin- 
cipal part in promoting the foundation by 
the corporation of the Freemen's Orphan 
School for children of both sexes, which was 
opened at Brixton in 1854. In 1849 and 
again in 1861 he served as master of the 
Company of Tallow Chandlers, and his por- 
trait in full length is preserved in their hall 
in Dowgate Hill. He was appointed deputy 

of Coleman Street ward in 1850, and became* 
alderman of the same ward on 3 Oct. 1856. 
He served the office of sheriff in 1858-9, and 
that of lord mayor in 1864-5. During hi& 
mayoralty he continued the work of his two 
immediate predecessors in raising a fund for 
the relief of the Lancashire operatives who^ 
suffered from the cotton famine of 1862-5, 
and his arms appear in the memorial window 
at the east end of the Guildhall. To com- 
memorate his public services in the cause of 
education, particularly as originator of the- 
City of London School, and chairman of its- 
committee of management for more than 
thirty years, a fund was raised during his- 
mayoralty, as a result of which the Warren. 
Stormes Hale scholarship was established in 
connection with the school on 28 July 1865. 
He died on 23 Aug. 1872 at his house,. 
West Heath, Hampstead, and was buried on 
the 30th in Highgate cemetery. In 1812. 
he married a daughter of Alderman Richard 
Lea, and left a son, Josiah, and two unmarried, 
daughters. A bust by Bacon and a portrait 
by Allen are at the City of London School,, 
and a portrait by Dicksee is at the Freemen's 
Orphan School. 

[Times, 4 Oct. 1856 p. 10, 22 Oct. 1856 p. 7, 
24 Aug. 1872 p. 9; City Press, 12 Nov. 1864, 
Suppl.. 24 Aug. 1872 p. 5, 31 Aug. 1872 p. 4, 
12 Oct. 1872 p. 5; Price's Descriptive Account 
of Guildhall, 1886, p. 85 ; City of London School,. 
Prospectus of Scholarships, Medals, &c. 1867, 
p. 26, and App. p. 3.] C. W-H. 

HALE, WILLIAM HALE (1795-1870), 
divine, son of John Hale, a surgeon, of Lynn, 
Norfolk, was born on 12 Sept. 1795. His- 
father died about four years later. He be- 
came a ward of James Palmer, treasurer of 
Christ's Hospital, and from 1807 to 1811 
went to Charterhouse School. On 9 June 
1813 he matriculated at Oriel College, Ox- 
ford, and graduated B.A. in 1817, and M.A. 
in 1820, being placed in the second class ini 
classics and mathematics. He was ordained' 
deacon in December 1818, and served his first 
curacy under Dr. Gaskin at St. Benet, Grace- 
church Street. In 1821 he was appointed as- 
sistant curate to Dr. Blomfield at the church 
of St. Botolph, Bishopsgate, and when Blom- 
field accepted in 1824 the bishopric of Chester 
Hale became domestic chaplain, a position 
which he retained on the bishop's translation 
to London in 1828. Hale was preacher at the 
Charterhouse from 1823 until his appointment 
to the mastership in February 1842. He was 
prebendary of St. Paul's Cathedral from 1829 
to 1840, and was archdeacon of St. Albans 
from 17 June 1839 till his appointment to the 
archdeaconry of Middlesex in August 1840. 



The latter preferment he vacated in 1842, 
being installed, 12 Nov., in the more lucrative 
archdeaconry of London. In 1842 he became 
master of the Charterhouse, and from 1847 to 
1857 he retained the rich vicarage of St. Giles, 
Cripplegate. Hale was a staunch tory, and a 
determined opponent of reform. He hotly 
resisted the passage of the Union of Benefices 
Bill, under which some of the ancient city 
churches were pulled down, and the proceeds 
of the sales of the sites applied to the erec- 
tion of churches in more populous districts, 
and he strenuously resisted the proposed abo- 
lition of burials within towns. Bishop Blom- 
field used to say that 'he had two arch- 
deacons with different tastes, one (Sinclair) 
addicted to composition, the other (Hale) to 
decomposition.' Hale died at the master's 
lodge, Charterhouse, on 27 Nov. 1870, and 
was buried in St. Paul's Cathedral on 3 Dec. 
He married at Croydon, 13 Feb. 1821, Ann 
Caroline, only daughter of William Coles, 
and had issue five sons and three daughters. 
His wife died 18 Jan. 1866 at the Charter- 
house, and was buried in St. Paul's Cathedral. 
Hale's antiquarian learning was generally 
recognised. For the Camden Society he 
edited: 1. 'The Domesday of St. Paul's of 
the year 1222 . . . and other Original Docu- 
ments relating to its Manors and Churches,' 
1858. 2. 'Registrum prioratus beatae Ma- 
riae Wigorniensis,' 1865. 3. ' Account of the 
Executors of Richard, bishop of London, 
1303, and of the Executors of Thomas, bishop 
of Exeter, 1310,' 1874 (in conjunction with 
the Rev. H. T. Ellacombe), the introduction 
to which Hale finished just before his death. 
His zeal in arranging the records and docu- 
ments at St. Paul's is acknowledged in Hist. 
MSS. Comm. 9th Rep. p. 1. < Some Account 
of the Early History and Foundation of the 
Hospital of King James, founded at the sole 
costs and charges of Thomas Sutton,' anony- 
mous and privately printed, 1854, was by 
Mm, and he also wrote ' Some Account of 
the Hospital of King Edward VI, called 
Christ's Hospital,' which went through two 
editions in 1855. He edited and arranged 
the ' Epistles of Joseph Hall, D.D., Bishop 
of Norwich/ 1840, and the volume of l Insti- 
tutiones piae originally published by II. I. ? and 
afterwards ascribed to Bishop Andrewes/ 
1839. Together with Bishop Lonsdale he 
published in 1849 the ' Four Gospels, with 
Annotations.' His translation of the ' Pon- 
tifical Law on the Subject of the Utensils 
and Repairs of Churches as set forth by Fa- 
bius Alberti ' was privately printed in 1838. 
For E. Smedley's ' Encyclopaedia Metropoli- 
tana,' 1850, 3rd division, vol. vii., he wrote 
4 The History of the Jews from the time of 

Alexander the Great to the Destruction of 
Jerusalem by Titus,' with other articles. 
Hale also published sermons of all kinds, be- 
sides charges and addresses on church rates, 
the offertory, intramural burial, the pro- 
ceedings of the Liberation Society, and many 
other topics. 

[Foster's Alumni Oxon. ii. 585 ; Le Neve's 
Fasti (Hardy); Times, 28 Nov. 1870; Guardian, 
30 Nov-. 1870, pp. 1389, 1394, 1400, 7 Dec. p. 
1427; Halkett and Laing's Anon. Lit. iv. 2417; 
Stoughton's Eeligion, 1800-50, ii. 239.1 

W. P. C. 


philosopher. [See ALEXANDEE.] 


master of the rolls, son of Thomas Hales, eldest 
son of Henry Hales of Hales Place, near Ten- 
terden, Kent, by Elizabeth, daughter of John 
Caunton, alderman of London, was a member 
of Gray's Inn, where he became an ancient in 
1516 and was autumn reader in 1524. In an 
undated letter conjecturally assigned to 1520, 
Prior Gold well of Christ Church, Canterbury, 
wrote to the lord chancellor begging that 
1 Master Xpher Hales ' might be appointed to 
adjudicate upon a case in which he was inte- 
rested; in 1520-1 Hales was counsel for the 
corporation of Canterbury, and in 1523 he 
was returned to parliament for that city. On 
14 Aug. 1525 he was appointed solicitor- 
general, and he is mentioned as one of the 
counsel to the Princess Mary in the same 
year. He was also one of the commissioners 
of sewers for the Thames between Green- 
wich and Gravesend, and in 1525 was placed 
with Lord Sandes, Sir William Fitzwilliam, 
and others, on a commission to frame ordi- 
nances for the better administration of the 
county of Guisnes. The commissioners met 
at Guisnes and promulgated on 20 Aug. 
1528 ' A Book of Ordinances and Decrees for 
the County of Guisnes,' relating chiefly to 
the tenure of land, which will be found in 
Cotton. MS. Faustina E. vii. ff. 40 et seq. 
They also furnished Henry VIII with a re- 
port on the state of the fortifications of Calais. 
Hales was appointed attorney-general on 
3 June 1529, and on 30 Oct. following pre- 
ferred an indictment against Cardinal Wolsey 
for having procured bulls from Clement VII 
to make himself legate, contrary to the 
statute of prsemunire (16 Ric. II), and for 
other offences. He was on the commission 
of gaol delivery for Canterbury Castle in June 
1530; was one of the commissioners appointed 
on 14 July following to make inquisition into 
the estates held by Cardinal Wolsey in Kent ; 
and was placed on the commission of the 
j peace for Essex on 11 Dec. of the same year. 



In 1532 he was one of the justices of assize 
for the home circuit ; in 1533 he was actively 
engaged in investigating the case of the holy 
nun Elizabeth Barton [q. v.], and in 1535 he 
conducted the proceedings against Sir Thomas 
More, Bishop Fisher, and Anne Boleyn. He 
is mentioned as one of the commissioners of 
sewers for Kent in 1536, in which year he 
succeeded Cromwell (10 July) as master of the 
rolls. In 1537-8 the corporation of Canterbury 
presented him with a gallon of sack. This is 
doubtfully said to be the first recorded appear- 
ance of this wine in England. He was one 
of those appointed to receive the Lady Anne 
of Cleves on her arrival at Dover (29 Dec. 
1539). In 1540 he was associated with Cran- 
mer, Lord-chancellor Rich, and other commis- 
sioners in the work of remodelling the foun- 
dation of Canterbury Cathedral, ousting the 
monks and supplying their place with secu- 
lar clergy. He profited largely by the dis- 
solution of the monasteries, obtaining many 
grants of land which had belonged to them in 
Kent. He died a bachelor in June 1541, and 
was buried at Hackington or St. Stephen's, 
near Canterbury. Sir James Hales [q. v-] was 
his cousin. 

[Hasted's Kent, ii. 576, iii. 94; Berry's County 
Genealogies (Kent), 210; Burke's Extinct Ba- 
ronetage, Hales of Woodchurch ; Dugdale's Orig. 
p. 292; Chron. Ser. pp. 81, 83; Douthwaite's 
Gray's Inn, p. 48; Christ Church Letters (Camd. 
Soc.), p. 79 ; Hist. MSS. Comm. 9th Kep. App. 
151 a, 152 a, 153 a, 175; Letters and Papers, 
For. and Dom. Henry VIII, vol. iv. pt. i. pp. 681, 
707, pt. ii. pp. 1231, 2177, 2228, pt. iii. pp. 2272, 
2314, 2686, 2918, 2931, 3076, vi. 29, 86 ; Wrio- 
thesley's Chron. (Camd. Soc.), ii. 49; Cobbett's 
State Trials, i. 370, 389; Chron. of Calais (Camd. 
Soc.), p. 174; Narratives of the Eeformation 
(Camd. Soc.), p. 273; Weever's Ancient Funerall 
Monuments, p. 260 ; Foss's Lives of the Judges.] 

J. M. K. 

TENTERDEN (d. 1695), was only son of Sir Ed- 
ward Hales, bart., of Tunstall, Kent, a zealous 
royalist, by his wife Anne, the youngest of 
the four daughters and coheirs of Thomas, 
lord Weston. He was a descendant of John 
Hales (d. 1539), baron of the exchequer [see 
under HALES, SIK JAMES]. On the death of his 
father in France, soon after the Restoration, 
he succeeded to the baronetcy, and in the 
reign of Charles II he purchased the mansion 
and estate of St. Stephen's, near Canterbury, 
where his descendants afterwards resided. 
He was educated at Oxford, and Obadiah 
Walker, of University College, his tutor, in- 
clined him to Roman Catholicism; but he 
did not declare himself a catholic until the 
accession of James II (DODD, Church Hist. 

iii. 451). He was formally reconciled to the 
catholic church on 11 Nov. 1685. 

On 28 Nov. 1673 Hales had been ad- 
mitted to the rank of colonel of a foot regi- 
ment at Hackington, Kent, but, contrary to 
the statute 25 Charles II, he had not re- 
ceived the sacrament within three months, 
according to the rites of the established 
church, nor had he taken the oaths of alle- 
giance and supremacy. James now gave him 
a dispensation from these obligations by letters 
patent under the great seal ; and in order to 
determine the legality of the exercise of his 
dispensing power in such cases, a test action 
was arranged. Arthur Godden, Sir Edward's 
coachman, was instructed to bring a qui tarn 
action against his master for the penalty of 
500Z., due to the informer under the act of 
Charles II. Hales was indicted and con- 
victed at the assizes held at Rochester 
28 March 1686. The defendant pleaded the 
king's dispensation. On appeal the question 
was argued at great length in the court of 
king's bench before Sir Edward Herbert, lord 
chief justice of England. On21 June Herbert, 
after consulting his colleagues on the bench, 
delivered judgment in favour of Hales, and as- 
serted the dispensing power to be part of the 
king's prerogative (see arts. JAMES II and HER- 
BERT, SIR EDWARD (1648 P-1698) ; HOWELL, 
State Trials, xi. 1165-1315). 

Hales was sworn of the privy council, and 
appointed one of the lords of the admiralty, 
deputy-warden of the Cinque ports, and 
lieutenant of Dover Castle, and in June 1687 
lieutenant of the Tower and master of the 
ordnance. Luttrell mentions, in June 1688, 
a rumour that he was about to have a chapel 
in the Tower { for the popish service ' (Hist . 
Relation of State Affairs, i. 445). When 
the seven bishops were discharged from his 
custody he demanded fees of them ; but they 
refused, on the ground that their detention 
and Hales's commission were both illegal. 
The lieutenant hinted that if they came into 
his hands again they should feel his power 
(MACATJLAY, Hist, of England, ch. yiii.) 
Hales was dismissed from his post at the 
Tower in November 1688. James II, with 
Hales as one of his three companions, and 
disguised as Hales's servant, left Whitehall 
on 11 Dec., in the hope of escaping to France. 
The vessel which conveyed them was dis- 
covered the next day as it lay in the river 
off Faversham, and the king and his three 
attendants were conducted on shore. Hales 
was recognised, and kept prisoner at the 
courthouse at Faversham. Immediately 
after the king's departure for London he was 
conveyed to Maidstone gaol, and afterwards 
to the Tower, where he remained for a year 



and a half. On 26 Oct. 1689 he was brought 
up to the bar of the House of Commons, and 
ordered to be charged with high treason in 
being reconciled to the church of Rome 
( Commons' Journals, x. 274, 275, . On 31 Jan. 
1689-90 he and Obadiah Walker were brought 
by habeas corpus from the Tower to the 
bar of the king's bench, and were bailed on 
good security ; but both were excepted out 
of the act of pardon dated 23 May following. 
Eventually Hales obtained his discharge on 
2 June 1690 (LUTTKELL, ii. 50). 

Hales proceeded (October) to St. Ger- 
mains, where he was much respected but 
little employed by James II; 'for,' says 
Dodd, l by what I can gather from a kind of 
journal of his life (which I have perused in 
his own handwriting), he rather attended his 
old master as a friend than as a statesman.' 
James rewarded his past services by creating 
him Earl of Tenterden in Kent, Viscount 
Tunstall, and Baron Hales of Emley, by 
patent 3 May 1692. Hasted says that he had 
been informed on good authority that Hales's 
son and successor in the baronetcy, Sir John 
Hales, was offered a peerage by George I, but 
the matter dropped, because Sir John in- 
sisted on his right to his father's titles, and 
to precedence according to that creation (Hist, 
of Kent, ii. 577 rc.) Sir Edward, in 1694, ap- 
plied to the Earl of Shrewsbury for a license 
to return to England, but he died, without 
obtaining it, in 1695, and was buried in the 
church of St. Sulpice at Paris. He was 
scrupulously just in his dealings, regular in 
his habits, and remarkably charitable to those 
in distress. By the schedule to his will, 
dated July 1695, he bequeathed 5,000/., to 
be disposed of according to his instructions 
by Bishop Bonaventure Giffard [q. v.] and 
Dr. Thomas Witham. 

By his wife Frances, daughter of Sir Francis 
Windebank, kt., of Oxfordshire, he had five 
sons and seven daughters. Edward, his 
eldest son, was slain in the service of James II 
at the battle of the Boyne, and John, the 
second son (d. 1744), accordingly succeeded 
to the baronetcy, which became extinct on 
the death of the sixth baronet, Sir Edward 
Hales, without issue, on 15 March 1829. 

Hales left in manuscript a journal of his 
life, which Dodd used in his ' Church His- 
tory' (see iii. 421, 422, 451, &c.) 

[Addit. MSS. 15551 f. 82, 32520 f. 38; 
Burke's Extinct Baronetcies, p. 234 ; Burnet's 
Own Time, i. 660; Butler's Hist. Memoirs (1822), 
iii. 94; Campbell's Lord Chancellors, iii. 562, 
576 ; Courthope's Synopsis of the Extinct Ba- 
ronetage, p. 92; Dodd's Church Hist. iii. 451; 
Echard's Hist, of England, 3rd edit., p. 1077; 
Foss's Biographia Juridica, pp. 343, 530, 640; 

Gillow's Bibl. Diet. ; Lingard's Hist, of England 
(1849), x. 208; Luttrell's Hist. Eelation of 
State Affairs, i. 380, 382, 406, 453, 487, 493, 594, 
597, ii. 10, 14, iii. 520, iv. 426; Macaulay's 
Hist, of England ; Panzani's Memoirs, p. 346 ; 
Wood's Life (Bliss), pp. cv, cix, cxii ; Wood's 
Athense Oxon. (Bliss), iv. 441, 442, 553, 774.] 

T. C. 

HALES, SIE JAMES (d. 1554), judge, 
was eldest son of John Hales of the Dungeon,, 
near Canterbury, by Isabell, daughter of 
Stephen Harry. JOHN HALES (d. 1539) was, 
according to Hasted, uncle of Sir Christopher 
Hales [q. v.], but Wotton (Baronetage, i. 219) 
makes them first cousins. John was a member 
of Gray's Inn, and was reader in 1514 and 
1520. He probably held some office in the 
exchequer, and was appointed third baron 
1 Oct. 1522. He was promoted to be second 
baron 14 May 1528, and held that position on 
1 Aug. 1539, but probably died soon after. 

James was a member of Gray's Inn r 
where he was an ancient in 1528, autumn 
reader in 1533, double Lent reader in 1537,. 
and triple Lent reader in 1540. He was among 
those appointed to receive the Lady Anne of 
Cleves on her arrival at Dover (29 Dec. 1539). 
He was called to the degree of serjeant-at-law 
in Trinity term 1540, and on 4 Nov. 1544 wa& 
appointed king's serjeant. He was standing 
counsel to the corporation of Canterbury in 
1541-2, and he was also counsel to Arch- 
bishop Cranmer, though from what date is- 
not clear. He was created a knight of the 
Bath at the coronation of Edward VI, 20 Feb. 
1546-7. In April 1549 he was placed on. 
a commission for detecting and extirpating 
heresy, on 10 May following was appointed 
a judge of the common pleas, and in the- 
autumn of the same year sat on a mixed 
commission of ecclesiastics, judges, and civi- 
lians appointed to hear Bishop Bonner's ap- 
peal against his deprivation, and which con- 
firmed the sentence. He also sat on the 
commission appointed on 12 Dec. 1550 to try 
Bishop Gardiner for his intrigues and prac- 
tices against the reformation, and concurred 
in the sentence of deprivation passed against 
him on 14 Feb. 1550-1 ; and he was placed! 
on another commission specially directed 
against the anabaptists of Kent and Essex 
in January 1550-1. He was also a member 
of a commission of sixteen spiritual and as 
many temporal persons appointed on 6 Oct. 
1551 to examine and reform the ecclesiastical 
laws ; and on the 26th of the same month he 
was appointed to hear causes in chancery 
during the illness of the lord chancellor, Kich. 
In January 1551-2 he was commissioned to 
assist the lord keeper, Thomas Goodrich, 
bishop of Ely, in the hearing of chancery 



matters. In 1553 Edward VI determined to 
-exclude both the Princess Elizabeth and the 
Princess Mary from the succession and settle 
the crown by an act of council on the Lady 
Jane Grey. Hales, as a member of the coun- 
cil, was required to affix his seal to the docu- 
ment, but steadily refused so to do on the 
ground that the succession could only be 
legally altered by act of parliament. On the 
accession of Mary (6 July 1553) he showed 
equal regard for strict legality by charging the 
justices at the assizes in Kent that the laws of 
Edward VI and Henry VIII against noncon- 
formists remained in force and must not be 
relaxed in favour of Roman catholics. Never- 
theless the queen renewed his patent of justice 
of the common pleas ; but on his presenting 
himself (6 Oct.) in Westminster Hall to take 
the oath of office Gardiner, now lord chancel- 
lor, refused to administer it on the ground 
that he stood not well in her grace's favour by 
reason of his conduct at the Kent assizes, and 
he was shortly afterwards committed to the 
King's Bench prison, whence he was removed 
to the Compter in Bread Street, and afterwards 
to the Fleet. In prison he was visited by Dr. 
Day, bishop of Chichester ; his colleague on 
the bench, Portman [q. v.] ; and one Forster. 
He was at last so worried by their argu- 
ments that he attempted to commit suicide 
by opening his veins with his penknife. This 
intention was frustrated. He recovered and 
was released in April 1554, but went mad 
and drowned himself in a shallow stream on 
4 Aug. following at Thanington, near Can- 
terbury. A case of Hales v. Petit, in which 
his widow, Lady Margaret, sued for trespass 
done to a leasehold estate which had be- 
longed to him, after his death but before his 
goods and chattels had been declared forfeit 
and regranted to the defendant as those of a 
felo de se, gave rise to much legal quibbling 
on the point whether the forfeiture took place 
as from the date of the suicide or only from 
the date of the grant. The following extract 
from Plowden's ' Report ' may confirm the 
conjecture that Shakespeare took a hint from 
this case : ' Sir James Hales was dead, and 
how came he to his death ? It may be an- 
swered by drowning ; and who drowned him ? 
Sir James Hales ; and when did he drown 
him ? in his lifetime. So that Sir James 
Hales being alive caused Sir James Hales to 
die ; and the act of a living man was the 
death of a dead man. And then after this 
offence it is reasonable to punish the living 
man who committed the offence and not the 
dead man.' 

The Lady Margaret referred to was the 
daughter of Thomas Hales of Henley-on- 
Thames. By her Hales had issue two sons, 

Humphrey and Edward, and a daughter, 

[Hasted's Kent, ii. 576, iii. 584; Burke's Ex- 
tinct Baronetage, Hales of Woodchurch; Berry's 
County Genealogies (Kent), 210 ; Douthwaite's 
Gray's Inn, p. 49 ; Chron. of Calais (Caniden 
Soc.), pp. 173, 174; "Wynne's Serjeants-at-law; 
Dugdale's Orig. p. 292 ; Chron. Ser. pp. 87, 88 ; 
Narratives of the Eeformation (Camden Soc.), 
p. 265 ; Hist. MSS. Comm. 9th Rep. App. 1 53 b, 
154 a, 155 a; Nicolas's Hist, of British Knight- 
hood, iii. xiii ; Rymer's Fcedera, ed. Sanderson, 
xv. 181, 250; Strype's Mem. (fol.), vol. ii. pt. i. 
pp. 23, 246, 281, 296, pt. ii. pp. 483-4, 487, 
vol. iii. pt. i. pp. 25, 279-80 ; Strype's Cranmer 
(fol.), pp. 223, 225, 270-1 ; Cobbett's State Trials, 
i. 630, 715 ; Burnet's Eeformation, vol. ii. pt. i. 
p. 458; Holinshed, 1808, iii. 1064,iv.8-9; Foxe's 
Acts and Monuments, ed. Townsend, vi. 710-15 ; 
Plowden's Rep. p. 255 ; Addit. MSS. 5480 f. 115, 
5520 f. 119.] J. M. R. 

HALES or HAYLES, JOHN (d. 1571). 
miscellaneous writer, younger son of Thomas 
Hales of Hales Place in Halden, Kent, was 
not educated at any university, but contrived 
to teach himself Latin, Greek, French, and 
German. He was lamed by an accident in 
youth, and was often called ' club-foot ' Hales. 
He was clerk of the hanaper to Henry VIII, 
and afterwards to Edward VI. About 1543 he 
published l Highway to Nobility,' and trans- 
lated Plutarch's ' Precepts for the Preservation 
of Health ' (London, by R. Grafton, 1543). 
He profited by the dissolution of monasteries 
and chantries, but converted St. John's Hos- 
pital in Coventry, of which he received a 
grant in 1548, into a free school (DTJGDA.LE, 
Warwickshire, p. 179 ; TANNER, Notitia). By 
this act he seems to have made himself the 
first founder of a free school in the reign of 
Edward VI (DixoN, ii. 508). For the use of 
this foundation he wrote ' Introductiones ad 
Grammaticam,' part in Latin, part in English. 
At this time he was also honourably distin- 
guished by his opposition to the enclosure of 
lands. When Somerset issued his commissions 
for the redress of enclosures in 1548, Hales 
was one of the six commissioners named for 
the midland counties. The commission, and 
the charge with which, wherever they held 
session, he was wont to open it, have been pre- 
served (STETPE, Eccl. Mem. iii. 145 ; Cal. of 
State Papers, Dom. i. 9). By his zeal and 
honesty he incurred the resentment of Dud- 
ley, then earl of Warwick, and the inquiry 
was checked. 

In the parliament of the same year, 1548, 
Hales, who was M.P. for Preston, Lancashire, 
made another effort to assist the poor by in- 
troducing three bills : for rebuilding decayed 
houses, for maintaining tillage, against re- 
grating and forestalling of markets. They 



were all rejected (STRYPE, iii. 210). Later 
in the reign, in 1552, he seems to have taken a 
journey to Strasburg (Cranmcr's Lett. p. 434, 
Parker Soc.) On the accession of Mary he 
retired to Frankfort, and with his brother 
Christopher was prominently engaged in the 
religious contentions among tho English 
exiles in that city (STRYPB, iii. 404 ; Oriy. 
Lett. p. 764, Parker Soc.) He returned to 
England upon Mary's death, and greeted 
Elizabeth with a gratulatory oration, which 
is extant in manuscript (Harleian MSS. vol. 
ccccxix. No. 50). This was not spoken, but 
was delivered in writing to the queen by a 
nobleman. Hales was restored to his clerk- 
ship of the hanaper or hamper (STRYPE, An- 
nals, i. i. 74 ; Cal Dom. i. 125-6). But in 
1560 he fell into disgrace by interfering in 
the curious case of the marriage between the 
Earl of Hertford, eldest son of the late pro- 
tector Somerset, and Katherine, one of the 
daughters of Grey, late duke of Suffolk, which 
Archbishop Parker, sitting in commission, 
had pronounced to be unlawful, the parties 
being unable to prove it. Hales put forth a 
pamphlet (now in Harl. MS. 550) to the 
effect that the marriage was made legitimate 
by the sole consent of the parties, and that 
the title to the crown of England belonged to 
the house of Suffolk if Elizabetli should die 
without issue. He was committed to the 
Tower, but was soon released by the influence 
of Cecil, yet in 1568 he was under bond not 
to quit his house without the royal license 
( Cal. Dom. i. 306). The whole affair was very 
complicated, and endangered the reputation 
of Sir Nicholas Bacon [q. v.] and other per- 
sons of eminence. 

Hales died on 28 Dec. 1571, and was buried 
in the church of St. Peter-le-Poer in London. 
His estates, with his principal house in Co- 
ventry called Hales's Place, otherwise the 
White Fryers, passed to John, son of his 
brother Christopher. 

[Wood's Athense Oxon. (Bliss), i. 401-5 ; works 
cited.] K. W. D. 

HALES, JOHN (1584-1656), the < ever- 
memorable/ was born in St. James's parish, 
Bath, on 19 April 1584. His father, John 
Hales, of an old Somersetshire stock, had an 
estate at Highchurch, near Bath, and was 
steward to the Horner family. After passing 
through the Bath grammar school, Hales 
went to Oxford on 16 April 1597 as a scholar 
of Corpus Christi College, and graduated 
B.A. on 9 July 1603 (Oxf. Univ. Reg., Oxf. 
Hist. Soc., II. iii. 243). His remarkable learn- 
ing and philosophic acumen brought him 
under the notice of Sir Henry Savile, and 
secured his election as fellow of Merton in 

1605. He took orders ; shone as a preacher, 
though he appears never to have had a strong- 
voice ; and graduated M. A. on 20 June 1609. 
At Merton he distinguished himself as lec- 
turer in Greek ; he is said by Clarendon to 
have been largely responsible for Savile's 
edition of Chrysostom (1610-13). In 1612 
he became public lecturer on Greek to the 
university. Next year he delivered (29 March) 
a funeral oration on Sir Thomas Bodley [q. v.], 
which formed his first publication. Soon 
after (24 May) he was admitted fellow of 
Eton, of which Savile was provost. 

In 1616 Hales went to Holland as chap- 
lain to the ambassador, Sir Dudley Carleton 
[q. v.], who despatched him in 1618 to Dort, 
to watch the proceedings of the famous synod 
in which the 'five points' of Calvinism were 
formulated. He remained at Dort from 
13 Nov. till the following February, when 
he left, and his duty was undertaken by 
Walter Balcanquhall, D.D. (1586 P-1645) 
[q. v.] His interesting and characteristic re- 
ports to Carleton are included in his f Golden 
Remains ; ' an additional letter (11-22 Dec. 
1618) is given in Carleton's ' Letters ' (1757), 
and inserted in its proper place in the 1765 
edition of Hales's ' Works.' In the letter 
prefixed by Anthony Farindon [q. v.] to the 
'Golden Remains' (27 Sept. 1657), Farindon 
states, on what he alleges to be Hales's own 
authority, that Hales was led at the synod to 
1 bid John Calvin good-night ' when Episco- 
pius, the well-known Arminian, pressed the 
verse St. John iii. 16 to support his own 
doctrine. According to Hales's own letter 
(19 Jan. 1619), Matthias Martinius of Bre- 
men, a halfway divine, employed this text. 
But if Farindon's account be right, Hales, as 
Tulloch remarks, ' did not say good-morning- 
to Arminius.' The main effect of the bynod 
on his mind was to free it from all sectarian 
prejudice. No incident made a stronger im- 
pression upon him than the debate on schism, 
which he reported on 1 Dec. 1618. 

Early in 1619 Hales retired to his fellow- 
ship at Eton. In Sir Henry Wotton, who 
succeeded Savile as provost in 1623, he found 
a kindred spirit. He lived much among his- 
books, visiting London only once a year, 
although he was possibly there more fre- 
quently during the period (1633-43) of Falk- 
land's connection with London [see CART,. 
Lucius, second VISCOUNT FALKLAND]. The 
traces of his connection with Falkland are 
slight ; but his ' company was much desired T 
in the brilliant circle of men of letters then 
gathered in London. Suckling, who in a 
poetical epistle bids him 'come to town/ 
gives us glimpses also in his ' Session of the 
Poets ' of his grave smile, his retiring manner, 



his faculty for ' putting or clearing of a doubt/ 
and his decisive judgment. Both Dryden 
and Howe tell a story of his being present 
when Ben Jonson descanted on Shakespeare's 
lack of learning. Hales sat silent, but at 
length said that if Shakespeare ' had not read 
the ancients he had likewise not stolen any- 
thing from them,' and undertook to find some- 
thing on any topic treated by them at least 
as well treated by Shakespeare. He had 
formed a remarkably fine collection of books, 
and his learning was always under his com- 
mand. Wood calls him i a walking library.' 
Clarendon speaks of him as having a better 
memory for books than any man except Falk- 
land, and equal to him. Heylyn, no very 
friendly judge, says he was ' as communica- 
tive of his knowledge as the celestial bodies 
of their light and influences.' He is said to 
have been backward in the utterance of some 
of his broader views, from a feeling of tender- 
ness for weak consciences ; but in his writings 
there is no reserve. The charge of Socinian- 
ism alleged against him is disproved by his 
brief paper on the doctrine of the Trinity (see, 
for a statement of difficulties regarding the 
atonement, his letter of December 1638, in 
Works, 1765, vol. i.) He had adopted liberal 
views of toleration, possibly with some as- 
sistance from Socinian writers (cf. Suck- 
ling's ' Leave Socinus and the Schoolmen '). 
Hence, on the appearance (in 1628 and 1633) 
of two anonymous irenical tracts belonging 
to that school, he was l in common speech ' 
accredited with their authorship, an error 
perpetuated by Wood. 

The great contribution made by Hales to 
irenical literature is the tract on l Schism 
and Schismaticks,' which appears to have 
been written about 1636. Hales describes 
it as l a letter/ and ' for the use of a private 
friend/ in all probability Chillingworth, who 
was then engaged on his ' Religion of Pro- 
testants ' (1637). It was circulated in manu- 
script, and a copy fell into the hands of Laud. 
Hearing that the paper had given offence to 
the archbishop, Hales vindicated himself in 
a letter to Laud, which is a model of firm- 
ness and good humour. Neither Heylyn nor 
Clarendon mentions this letter. It appears 
that Hales had ' once already ' found Laud 
' extraordinary liberal ' of his patience, and 
there is no doubt that Laud now sent for 
Hales, though the accounts of what passed at 
the interview are not very trustworthy. Des 
Maizeaux mentions the story that Hales as- 
sisted Laud in the second edition (1639) of his 
' Conference ' with Fisher. Laud certainly 
made him one of his chaplains, and obtained 
for him a canonry at Windsor, into which he 
was installed on 27 June 1639 (royal patent 

dated 23 May). Clarendon says that Laud 
had difficulty in persuading him to accept 
this preferment; he would nevet take the 
cure of souls. 

His tract on ' Schism ' was not printed till 
1642, when three editions appeared without 
his name, and apparently without his sanction. 
In the same year he was ejected from his stall 
by the parliamentary committee. Though he- 
was not immediately turned out of his fellow- 
ship at Eton (Walker is in error here), it seems- 
that in 1644 'both armies had sequestered 
the college rents.' Hales hid himself for nine 
weeks in a private lodging in Eton with ' the 
college writings and keys/ living on brown 
bread and beer at a cost of sixpence a week. 
On his refusal to take the ' engagement ' of 
16 April 1649 he was formally dispossessed 
of his fellowship. Penwarden, who was put 
into his place, offered him half tne emolu- 
ment (501. a year, including the bursarship), 
but this he declined, refusing also a position 
in the Sedley family, of Kent, with a salary 
of 100/. a year. He preferred a retreat to- 
Richings Lodge, near Colnbrook, Bucking- 
hamshire, the residence of Mrs. Salter, sister 
to Brian Duppa, bishop of Salisbury, accept- 
ing a small salary as tutor to her son Wil- 
liam, who proved ' blockish/ according to 
Wood. Hales, in his will, calls his pupil his 
'most deservedly beloved friend.' To this 
house Henry King, bishop of Chichester, also- 
retreated, with some members of his family, 
and ' made a sort of a college/ Hales acting* 
as chaplain and using the liturgy. On the 
issue of the order against harbouring malig- 
nants, he left Mrs. Salter against her wish, 
and lodged in Eton, ' next to the Christopher 
inn/ with Hannah Dickenson, widow of his- 
old servant. The greater part of his books 
(which had cost 2,500/.) he sold for 700/, 
to Christopher Bee, a London bookseller. 
Always a liberal giver, he parted by degrees 
with all his ready money in charity to de- 
prived clergy and scholars, till Farindon, who- 
visited him daily for some months before his 
death, found him with no more than a few 
shillings in hand. But his will shows that 
he had property to dispose of. 

Hales died at Eton on 19 May 1656. De- 
pression of spirits, caused by l the black and 
dismal aspect of the times/ probably injured 
his health; for though he had entered his 
seventy-third year his constitution was still 
robust, and he was free from ailment. To- 
Farindon he gave directions for his funeral, 
repeated in his will, that he should be buried 
in the churchyard, { as near as may be to the 
body of my little godson, Jack Dickenson 
the elder.' There was to be no sermon or 
bell-ringing or calling the people together, nor 



any t commessation or compotation/ and the 
tfuneral was to be ' at the time of the next even- 
song after my departure.' His will is dated 
on the day of his death. A monument was 
placed to his memory by Peter Curwen, 
formerly one of his scholars at Eton. No por- 
trait of him is known ; but we have Aubrey's 
graphic description of him as he found him, 
in his last year, * reading Thomas a Kempis.' 
He was then ' a prettie little man, sanguine, 
of a cheerful countenance, very gentle and 
courteous/ to which Wood adds ' quick and 
nimble.' He did not dress in black, but in 
* violet-coloured cloth.' Aubrey says he had 
a moderate liking for ( canarie ; ' Wood that 
he fasted every week ' from Thursday dinner 
to Saturday.' His life was to have been 
written by Farindon ; but Farindon died be- 
fore the issue of the ' Golden Remains/ to 
which his sole contribution is a letter to 
Garthwait the publisher. It is said that 
Bishop Pearson was asked to take up Farin- 
don'stask ; but he contented himself by pre- 
fixing to the ' Remains ' a few pages of dis- 
criminating eulogy. Farindon's materials 
passed to William Fulman [q. v.], who like- 
wise failed to write the memoir. Use has 
T)een made of Fulman's papers by Walker 
:and Chalmers. 

Andrew Marvel justly describes Hales as 
4 one of the clearest heads and best prepared 
breasts in Christendom.' The richness of his 
learning impresses us even less than his felicity 
in using it. His humour enables him to treat 
disturbing questions with attractive lightness 
of touch. His strength lies in an invincible 
core of common sense, always blended with 
good feeling, and issuing in a wise and 
thoughtful charity. 

Hales can hardly be said to have written 
anything for publication. Repeatedly urged 
to write, he was, says Pearson, ' obstinate 
against it.' His works are: 1. 'Oratio Fune- 
bris habita in Collegio Mertonensi . . . quo 
die . . . Thomse Bodleio funus ducebatur/ 
&c., Oxford, 1613, 4to. 2. < A Sermon . . . 
concerning the Abuses of the obscure places 
<of Holy Scripture/ &c., Oxford, 1617, 4to. 
3. The sermon ' Of Dealing with Erring 
'Christians/ preached at St. Paul's Cross, 
seems also to have been printed, at Farin- 
-don's instigation. 4. The sermon ' Of Duels/ 
preached at the Hague, is said to have been 
printed, though Farindon implies the con- 
trary. Other pieces, published during his 
lifetime, but apparently without his autho- 
rity, were : 5. ' The Way towards the Find- 
ing of a Decision of the Chief Controversie 
now debated concerning Church Govern- 
ment/ &c., 1641, 4to, anon. 6. 'A Tract con- 
cerning Schisme and Schismatiques, ... by 

a learned and judicious divine/ &c., 1642, 
4to ; two London editions, same year, also 
one at Oxford, with animadversions. 7. ' Of 
the Blasphemie against the Holy Ghost,' &c., 
1646,4to, anon. Posthumous were : 8. ' Golden 
Remains of the Ever Memorable Mr. John 
Hales/ &c., 1659, 4to ; 2nd edit., with addi- 
tions, 1673, 4to ; 3rd edit., 1688, 8vo. 9. ' Ser- 
mons preached at Eton/ &c., fol. 10. ' Se- 
veral Tracts/ &c., 1677, 8vo ; 2nd edit., 1716, 
12mo, with addition of the letter to Laud. 
The < Works . . . now first collected/ &c., 
were edited by Sir David Dalrymple, lord 
Hailes [q. v.], and printed at Glasgow by 
Foulis, 1765, 16mo, 3 vols. The collection 
embraces all that had been previously pub- 
lished with several new letters, and is a 
beautiful specimen of typography. It should 
be observed, however, that ' some few obso- 
lete words are occasionally altered/ and the 
editor has expunged, on fastidious grounds, 
' two passages in the sermons.' The Socinian 
tracts falsely accredited to Hales are the 
'Anonymi Dissertatio de Pace/ &c., by 
Samuel Przypkowski, and the 'Brevis Dis- 
quisitio/ &c., by Joachim Stegmann the 
elder. Curll printed in 1720 ' A Discourse 
of several Dignities and Corruptions of Man's 
Nature since the Fall/ &c., which he assigned 
to Hales. It is an abridgment of a treatise 
by Bishop Reynolds of Norwich. 

[Des Maizeaux's Historical Account, 1719; 
Wood's Athense Oxon. (Bliss), iii. 409 sq. ; Wood's 
Fasti, ii. 299, 334 ; Walker's Sufferings of the 
Clergy, 1714, ii. 87, 93 sq. ; Clarendon's Life, 
1759, i. 27 sq.; Aubrey's Lives, 1813, p. 364; 
Suckling's Works, 1696, pp. 8, 32 sq. ; Dryden's 
Essay of Dramatic Poesie, 1693, p. 32; Eowe's 
Life of Shakespeare, prefixed to Works, 1709, i. 
p. xiv; Marvell's Eehearsal Transpos'd, 1672, 
p. 175 ; Heylyn's Life of Laud, 1668 ; Chalmers's 
Gen. Biog. Diet. 1814, xvii. 32 sq. ; Tulloch's 
Kational Theology, 1872, vol. i.] A. Gr. 

HALES, JOHN (d. 1679), painter. [See 

HA.LES, STEPHEN (1677-1761), phy- 
siologist and inventor, was born in Septem- 
ber 1677 at Bekesbourne in Kent. His birth- 
day is given variously as 7 Sept. and 17 Sept. 
He was baptised on 20 Sept. (Notes and 
Queries, 2nd ser. iv. 407). He was the fifth 
or sixth son of Thomas Hales, by Mary, daugh- 
ter of Richard Wood of Abbots Langley, 
Hertfordshire. Thomas Hales, who was the 
eldest son of Sir Robert Hales, bart., died 
in his father's lifetime, and the baronetcy is 
now extinct. The family was a younger 
branch of the family of Hales of Woodchurch, 
to which Sir Edward Hales [q. v.] belonged. 
Stephen was entered as a pensioner at Corpus 




Christ! College, Cambridge, on 19 June 1696, 
and was admitted a fellow 25 Feb. 1702-3 
(M.A. 1703, B.D. 1711). In 1733 he was 
created D.D. by diploma of the university of 

During his residence as a fellow he became 
intimate with William Stukeley the anti- 
quary, his junior by ten years, with whom he 
' perambulated ' Cambridgeshire in search of 
Ray's plants. He is said to have constructed 
an instrument for showing the movement of 
the heavenly bodies, a similar contrivance to 
that afterwards known as an orrery. He also 
worked at chemistry in ' the elaboratory at 
Trinity College,' no doubt that of Vigani, 
built by Bentley. 

He was appointed perpetual curate, other- 
wise minister, of Teddington, Middlesex, in 
1708-9. His earliest signature in the parish 
register occurs on 2 Jan. 1708-9. He vacated 
his fellowship by his acceptance of the living 
of Porlock in Somersetshire, which he after- 
wards exchanged for that of Farringdon in 
Hampshire. He made his home at Tedding- 
ton ; but it appears from a letter preserved 
in the Royal Society Library that he occa- 
sionally resided at Farringdon. 

He became a fellow of the Royal Society 
on 20 Nov. 1718, and received the Copley 
medal of that society in 1739. He became one 
of the eight foreign members of the French 
Academy in 1753. He was proctor for the 
clergy of the diocese of Winchester, and one of 
the trustees for the colony of Georgia. In the 
latter capacity he preached in St. Bride's 
Church, London, on 21 March 1734. The ser- 
mon, a dull one on Gal. vi. 2, was afterwards 
published. The plant Halesia remains as a 
memento of this connection, having been 
named in his honour by the naturalist John 
Ellis, governor of the colony. He was active 
in the foundation of the Society for the En- 
couragement of Arts an<I Manufactures and 
Commerce, now known as the Society of Arts, 
and became one of its vice-presidents in 
1755. Frederick, prince of Wales, the father 
of George III, is said to have been fond of 
surprising him in his laboratory at Tedding- 
ton. When the prince died, there was, accord- 
ing to Horace Walpole, some talk of making 
Hales, ' the old philosopher,' tutor to the 
young prince. He was not, however, ap- 
pointed to this post, and Masters (History of 
Corpus Christi, 1755) is probably wrong in 
stating that Hales had ' some share in the 
instruction of her [the Princess of Wales's] 
illustrious offspring. In 1751 he was appointed 
clerk of the closet to the princess-dowager, 
and chaplain to the prince her son. She seems 
to have retained a regard for him, for this 
'mother of the best of kings,' as she styles 


herself, put up the monument to Hales in 
Westminster Abbey. He declined a canonry 
of Windsor offered to him by the king. He 
was an active parish priest, as the registers 
of Teddington show. He made his female- 
parishioners do public penance for irregular 
behaviour. He enlarged the churchyard 
(1734) ' by prevailing with the lord of the- 
manor.' He helped his parishioners to put 
up (1748) a lantern on the church tower, so- 
that the bells might better be heard. In 
1754 the timber tower on which the lantern, 
stood was pulled down, and a brick one put 
up in its place. Under this tower, which 
now serves as a porch, his bones rest. In 
1753 he arranged for the building of a new 
aisle, and not only subscribed 200/., but per- 
sonally superintended the building. In 1754 
he helped the parish to a decent water supply, 
and characteristically records, in the parish 
register, that the outflow was such as to fill 
a two-quart vessel in ' 3 swings of a pendu- 
lum, beating seconds, which pendulum was- 
39 + T 2 5 inches long from the suspending 
nail to the middle of the plumbet or bob/' 
He had Peg Woffington for a parishioner 
and Pope for a neighbour. Spence records a* 
remark of Pope : ' I shall be very glad to- 
see Dr. Hales, and always love to see him ; he 
is so worthy and good a man.' He is men- 
tioned in the ' Moral Essays,' epistle ii. (to- 
Martha Blount, 1. 195). He was one of the- 
witnesses to Pope's will (COURTHOPE, Pope}. 

Horace Walpole calls Hales ' a poor, good, 
primitive creature.' His contemporaries 
speak of his ' native innocence and simpli- 
city of manners.' Peter Collinson, the natu- 
ralist, writes of l his constant serenity and 
cheerfulness of mind ; ' and it is recorded of 
him that ' he could look even upon wicked 
men, and those who did him unkind offices, 
without any emotion of particular indigna- 
tion ; not from want of discernment or sen- 
sibility ; but he used to consider them only 
like those experiments which, upon trial, he 
found could never be applied to any useful 
purpose, and which he therefore calmly and 
dispassionately laid aside.' He continued 
some at least of his parish duties up to within 
a few months of his death. His signature, 
in a tremulous hand, occurs in the Tedding- 
ton register on 4 Nov. 1760. He died on 
4 Jan. 1761, ' after a very slight illness,' his 
thoughts being still busy with his scientific 
work. He married (1719?) Mary, daughter 
of Dr. Richard Newce of Much Hadham, 
Hertfordshire, and rector of Hailsham in 
Sussex. She died without issue in 1721, and 
was buried at Teddington on 10 Oct. 

Hales's work falls into two main classes f 
(1) physiological and chemical, (2) inven- 





tions and suggestions on matters connected 
with health, agriculture, &c. 

He was equally distinguished as a botani- 
cal and as an animal physiologist. His most 
important book, * Statical Essays,' deals with 
both subjects. This book, founded chiefly 
on papers read before the Royal Society, was 
well received at the time, and was translated 
into French, German, Dutch, and Italian. 
It consists of two volumes, of which the first, 
dealing with plant-physiology, was published 
under the separate title of * Vegetable Sta- 
ticks,' in 1727. 

The study of the anatomy of plants made, 
as Sachs points out, small advance during the 
eighteenth century, but there was a revival 
of plant-physiology, to which Hales's work 
was the most original and important contri- 
bution. Much of his work was devoted to 
the study of the loss of water which plants 
suffer by evaporation, and to the means by 
which the roots make good this loss. In 
these subjects many of his experiments re- 
main of fundamental importance. With re- 
gard to the passage of water up the stems of 
trees it is worth notice that he made a sug- 
gestion which has quite recently, under dif- 
ferent auspices, met with a good deal of ap- 
proval, namely, that the ' force is not from 
the roots only, but must proceed from some 
power in the stem and branches '( Veg. Staticks, 
p. 110). It is especially characteristic of his 
work that he sought a quantitative knowledge 
of all the functions which he investigated. 
Thus he calculated the available amount of 
water in a given area of soil, and compared 
it with the loss of water due to the evapora- 
tion from the plants growing on that area. 
He also estimated the rain and dew fall from 
the same point of view ; the variation in root 
force at different times of day ; the force 
exerted by peas as they imbibe water and 
expand ; the rate of growth of shoots and 
leaves by using the method still in use, of 
marking them at equal intervals. 

With regard to the nutrition of plants in 
general he was far in advance of his age in 
two particulars : (1) He wrote well and 
clearly against the theory of the circulation 
of sap, then and long afterwards in vogue, a 
theory which rendered any advance in know- 
ledge impossible ; (2) finding that gas could 
be obtained from plants by dry distillation, 
he was led to believe that gas might be con- 
densed or in some way changed into the sub- 
stances found in plants. In thus recognising 
the fact that the air may be a source of food 
to plants, he was a forerunner of Ingen- 
Housz and De Saussure, the actual founders 
of the central principle of vegetable nutrition ; 
but his views were not clearly enough elabo- 

rated or supported by experiment, and they 
failed to make much impression. He con- 
nected the assimilative function of leaves 
with the action of light, but, misled by the 
Newtonian theory as to the nature of light, 
he supposed that light, the substance, was 
itself a food. 

The latter half of ' Vegetable Staticks ' 
contains a mass of experiments on the gases 
which he distilled from various substances. 
He began the work in connection with his 
theory of the gaseous nutrition of plants, and 
seems to have been led on by its intrinsic 
interest. It led him to speculate on com- 
bustion and on the respiration of animals, and 
if his work had no direct chemical outcome, 
it prepared the way for the work of Priestley 
and others by teaching them how to mani- 
pulate gases by collecting them over water. 
His papers on sea-water and on the water of 
chalybeate springs also contain interesting 
chemical speculations. 

Hales's contributions to animal physiology 
have been well summarised by Dr. Michael 
Foster : ' He not only exactly measured the 
amount of blood pressure under varying cir- 
cumstances, the capacity of the heart, the 
diameter of the blood-vessels and the like, 
and from his several data made his calcula- 
tions and drew his conclusions, but also by 
an ingenious method he measured the rate 
of flow of blood in the capillaries in the ab- 
dominal muscles and lungs of a frog. He 
knew how to keep blood fluid with saline 
solutions, got a clear insight into the nature 
of secretion, studied the form of muscles at 
rest and in contraction, and speculated that 
what we now call a nervous impulse, but 
which was then spoken of as the animal 
spirits, might possibly be an electric change. 
And though he accepted the current view 
that the heat of the body was produced by 
the friction of the blood in the capillaries, 
he was not wholly content with this, but 
speaks of the mutually vibrating action of 
fluids and solids in a way that makes us feel 
that, had the chemistry of the time been as 
advanced as were the physics, many weary 
years of error and ignorance might have 
been saved.' In first opening the way to a 
correct appreciation of blood pressure, Hales's 
work may rank second in importance to 
Harvey's in founding the modern science of 
physiology. In his work on animals and 
plants alike the value of what he did depends 
not merely on facts and principles established, 
but on his setting an example of the scientific 
method and his making widely appreciated 
a sound conception of the living organism as a 
self-regulating machine. 

Hales's best known invention was that of 




artificial ventilators. The method of in- 
jecting air with bellows he applied to the 
ventilation of prisons, ships, granaries, &c. 
By means of a correspondence with D u Hamel, 
the well-known naturalist, he succeeded in 
getting his invention fitted to the French 
prisons in which English prisoners were con- 
fined. On this occasion ' the venerable pa- 
triarch of Teddington was heard merrily to 
say "he hoped nobody would inform against 
him for corresponding with the enemy."' 
By a curious coincidence a method of ven- 
tilating similar to Hales's was brought out 
at the same time (1741) by Martin Triewald, 
captain of mechanics to the king of Sweden. 
The diminution in the annual mortality at 
the Savoy prison after Hales's ventilator had 
been put up seems to have been very great. 
Newgate also benefited in the same way. 

In a letter to Mark Hildesley, bishop of 
Sodor and Man (BUTLER, Life of Hildesley, 
1799), Hales writes, in 1758, of having for 
the last thirty years borne public testimony 
against drams ' in eleven different books or 
newspapers,' and adds that this circumstance 
* has been of greater satisfaction to m.9 than 
if I were assured that the means which I have 
proposed to avoid noxious air should occa- 
sion the prolonging the health and lives of 
an hundred millions of persons.' It would seem 
from this that he believed his efforts against 
spirit-drinking to have had a beneficial effect. 
His writings on this subject were certainly 
popular. His anonymous pamphlet, ( A. 
Friendly Admonition to the Drinkers of 
Brandy,' &c., 1734, went through several 
editions, a sixth being published by the So- 
ciety for the Promotion of Christian Know- 
ledge in 1807. In another pamphlet, ' Dis- 
tilled Spirituous Liquors the Bane of the 
Nation,' 1736, he shows the general evil aris- 
ing from spirit-drinking, and seeks to rouse 
the interest of the landed classes by showing 
that dram-drinkers lose their appetites and 
lower the demand for provisions. The injury 
to the landed interest thus caused by the 
distillers of London he estimates at 600,000/. 

Hales made experiments or suggestions on 
the distillation of fresh from salt water ; on 
the preservation of water and of meat in 
sea-voyages; on the possibility of bottling 
chalybeate waters; on a method of cleans- 
ing harbours ; on a ' sea-gage ' to measure un- 
fathomable depths, the idea of which he 
took from the mercurial gauge with which 
he measured the pressure exerted by peas 
swelling in water ; on a plan for preserving 
persons in hot climates from the evil effects 
of heavy dews ; on the use of furze in fencing 
river banks ; on winnowing corn ; on earth- 

quakes ; on a method of preventing the spread 
of fires ; on a thermometer for high tempera- 
tures ; on natural purging waters, &c. 

His portrait by Francis Cotes, R.A., was 
engraved by Hopwood, and published in R. J. 
Thornton's ' Elementary Botanical Plates/ 
1810; more recently as a woodcut in the 
1 Gardener's Chronicle,' 1877, p. 17. He was 
also painted by Hudson, and a 12mo portrait 
was engraved in mezzotint by McArdell, pro- 
bably from this portrait. His monument in 
Westminster Abbey has a bas-relief in profile 
by Wilton. 

Hales's principal works are: 1. 'Vege- 
table Staticks ; or an Account of some Sta- 
tical Experiments on the Sap in Vegetables . . . 
also a Specimen of an Attempt to Analyse 
the Air . . . ' London, 8vo, 1727. 2. ' Sta- 
tical Essays,' containing : vol. i. ' Vegetable 
Staticks;' vol. ii. ' Haemastaticks : or an Ac- 
count of some Hydraulick and Hydrostatical 
Experiments made on the Blood and Blood- 
Vessels of Animals : with an Account of some 
Experiments on Stones in the Kidney and 
Bladder ; ... to which is added an Appendix 
containing Observations and Experiments 
relating to several Subjects in the first 
Volume,' 8vo, London, 1733. 3. 'A Friendly 
Admonition to the Drinkers of Brandy and 
other Distilled Spirit' (anon.), London, 8vo, 
1734. 4. ' Distilled Spirituous Liquors the 
Bane of the Nation ; being some considera- 
tions humbly offered to the Hon. the House 
of Commons, &c., &c. To which is added an 
Appendix containing the late presentments 
of the Grand Juries,' &c., January 1735-6, 
London, 8vo, 1736. 5. ' Philosophical Experi- 
ments : containing useful and necessary In- 
structions for such as undertake long Voyages 
at Sea ; showing how Sea- water may be made 
fresh and wholesome, and how Fresh Water 
may be preserved sweet ; how Biscuit, Corn, 
&c. , may be secured from theWeevel, Maggots, 
and other Insects ; and Flesh preserved in 
Hot Climates by salting Animals whole ; to 
which is added an account of several Expe- 
riments and Observations on Chalybeate or 
Steel-waters, with some Attempts to convey 
them to distant places, preserving their vir- 
tue to a greater degree than has hitherto 
been done ; likewise a proposal for Cleansing 
away Mud, &c., out of Rivers, Harbours, 
and Reservoirs,' London, 8vo, 1739. 6. ' An 
Account of some Experiments and Observa- 
tions on Mrs. Stephens's Medicines for Dis- 
solving the Stone . . .' 8vo, London, 1740. 
7. 'A Description of Ventilators [and] a 
Treatise on Ventilators,' 2 vols. 8vo, Lon- 
don, 1743 and 1758. 8. 'An Account of 
some Experiments and Observations on Tar- 
Water . . . ,' London, 8vo, 1745. 9. < An 




Account of a Useful Discovery to Distill 
double the usual quantity of Sea-water, by 
Blowing Showers of Air up through the 
Distilling Liquor . . . and an Account of the 
Benefit of Ventilators . . . ' 8vo, London, 

[Masters's Hist, of Corpus Christ! College, 
1753, and Lamb's edition, 1831 ; Annual Register, 
1761, 1764; numerous passages in G-ent. Mag. 
and Annual Register; Lysons's Environs, 1795 ; 
W. Butler's Life of Hildesley, 1799; Teddington 
Parish Register and Teddington Parish Maga- 
zine ; Notes and Queries, passim. Two letters 
are preserved in the Library of the Royal So- 
ciety; one letter is published in W. Butler's Life 
of Hildesley. The author of this work speaks of 
an unfortunate loss of Hales's papers. Lysons, in 
his Environs of London, speaks of many papers 
of Hales being in his possession, but these do not 
seem to have been published.] F. D. 

HALES, THOMAS (jl. 1250), poet and 
religious writer, was a Franciscan friar, and 
presumably a native of Hales (or Hailes) in 
Gloucestershire. Quetif and Echard, finding 
manuscripts of some of his works in the li- 
braries of Dominican houses, without any fur- 
ther ascription than ' frater Thomas/ thought 
he might belong to that order, and other 
writers, as Bale and Pits, have given his date 
as 1340. But that he was a Franciscan is clear 
from the title of a poem ascribed to him in 
MS. Jesus Coll. Oxon., and from a prologue 
attached to a manuscript of his life of the 
Virgin, formerly in the library of the abbey 
of St. Victor. He is probably the 'frater 
Thomas de Hales ' whom Adam de Marisco 
mentions as a friend (Mon. Franciscana, i. 395, 
in Rolls Series). The date thus arrived at 
is corroborated by allusions in his love song 
to 'Henri our king,' i.e. Henry III (1. 82; 
cf. 1. 101), and by the dates of some of the 
manuscripts of his works which belong to 
the thirteenth century. Hales is said to have 
been a doctor of theology at the Sorbonne, 
and famous for his learning as well in France 
and Italy as in England ; but nothing further 
is known as to his life. The following works 
are ascribed to him : 1. ' Vita beatse Vir- 
ginis Marise,' manuscripts formerly in the 
libraries of the Dominicans of the Rue St. 
Honore (sec. xiii.) and of the abbey of 
St. Victor. 2. * Sermones Dominicales ; ' in 
MS. St. John's College, Oxon. 190 (sec. 
xiii.), there are some 'Sermones de Dominica 
proxima ante adventum,' which may be by 
Hales, for the same volume contains 3. ' Ser- 
mones secundum fratrem Thomam de Hales ' 
in French. 4. ' Disputationes Scholasticae.' 
5. 'A Luve Ron' (love song) in MS. Jesus 
College, Oxon., 29 (sec. xiii.) ; this early 
English poem, composed in stanzas of eight 

lines, is 'a contemplative lyric of the simplest, 
noblest mould,' and was written at the re- 
quest of a nun on the merit of Christ as the 
true lover. It is printed in Morris's ' Old 
English Miscellany' (Early English Text 
Society). From the manuscript at St. Victor 
Hales seems to have also written 6. ' Lives- 
of SS. Francis and Helena ' (mother of Con- 
stantine the Great). Petrus de Alva con- 
fuses him with the more famous Alexander 
of Hales [see ALEXANDER, d. 1245]. 

[Bale, v. 49 ; Pits, p. 442 ; Quetif and Echard's 
Script. Ord. Prsed. i. 490; Waddingus, Script. 
Ord. Min. p. 324; Sbaralea, Suppl. in Script. Ord. 
S. Francisc. p. 676 ; Fabricius, Bibl. Lat. Med. 
JEv. vi. 235, ed. 1754 ; Histoire Litteraire de la 
France, xxi. 307-8; Fuller's Worthies, i. 215; 
Ten Brink's Early English Literature, translated! 
by H. M. Kennedy, pp. 208-1 1 ; Coxe's Cat. Cod. 
MSS. in Coll. Oxon.l C. L. K. 

HALES, THOMAS (1740 P-1780), known 
as D'HELE, D'HELL, or DELL, French drama- 
tist, born about 1740, belonged to a good 
English family (BACHATJMONT, Memoires Se- 
crets, xvii. 17), which was settled, according- 
to Grimm, who knew him well, in Gloucester- 
shire. Grimm states that Hales (or D'Hele, 
as he is always called in France) entered the 
English service in early youth, was sent to 
Jamaica, and, after having travelled over the 
continent, lived for some time in Switzerland 
and Italy (Correspondance Litteraire, Paris, 
1880, xii. 496). GrStry, his one intimate 
friend, assures us that D'Hele was in the 
English navy, where he first gave way to the 
excess in drink which partly ruined him (Me- 
moires, ou essais sur la Musique, i. 326). Th& 
date of his withdrawal from the service i 
fixed at 1763, while at Havannah (Suite dw 
Repertoire du Theatre Franqais, t. Ivi. p. 85). 
He went to Paris about 1770, and wasted 
his small fortune. It is not known how he 
attained the mastery of the French language 
which he so delicately displayed in his charm- 
ing conte, ' Le Roman de mon Oncle.' He 
gave this little literary masterpiece to Grimm 
for his' Correspondance Litteraire/ July 1777. 
Through Suard, whose salon was always open 
to Englishmen, he made the acquaintance of 
Gretry, to whom he was recommended ' comme 
un homme de beaucoup d'esprit, qui joignait 
a un gout tres-sain de I'originalitS dans les 
idees ' (Memoires, i. 298). Parisian society 
was divided into the partisans of Piccini and 
Gluck, and D'Hele ridiculed the fashionable 
musical quarrels in a three-act comedy, ' Le 
Jugement de Midas,' for which Gretry, after 
keeping it a long time, composed some charm- 
ing music (E. FETIS, Les Musiciens Beiges, 
ii. 145). The regular companies would not 
look at the piece, but, thanks to the support 




of the Chevalier de Boufflers, Mme. de Mon- 
tesson undertook to bring it out at the private 
theatre of the Due d'Orleans on 27 June 
1778. Her admirable acting and savoir-faire 
she filled the theatre with the high society 
of the day, including bishops and archbishops 
largely helped the success of the piece. A 
few days later it was represented at Versailles. 
The press was loud in its praise (11 Esprit des 
Journaux, August 1778), and the 'Journal de 
Paris' (29 June) printed some complimentary 
verses addressed to the authors. Grimm 
.assured his correspondents : ' Nous n'avons pu 
mous empecher d'etre fort etonnes a Paris 
qu'un etranger eut si bien saisi et les con- 
venances de notre theatre et le genie de notre 
langue, meme dans un genre d'ouvrage ou 
les nuances de style echappent plus ais^ment 
peut-etre que dans aucun autre' (Correspon- 
dance Littcraire, xii. 118). D'Hele may have 
borrowed something from ' Midas,' an Eng- 
lish burletta by Kane O'Hara (BAKER, Bioy. 
Dramatica, iii. 41), but the wit, light raillery , 
and ingenuity of ' Le Jugement de Midas ' 
are all his own. For his verse he was obliged 
to solicit the help of Anseaume, of the Italian 
troupe (Memoires de Gretry, i. 299) ; a like 
service was rendered him in his next comedy 
by Levasseur. D'Hele contributed to the 
* Correspondance Litteraire ' in October 1778 
a reminiscence of his Jamaica residence, re- 
lating to negro legislation in 1761 (Corr. Litt. 
xii. 170). 

He followed up his first dramatic success 
with ' Les Fausses Apparences ou 1'Amant 
Jaloux,' a comedy of intrigue, full of vivacity, 
humour, and pointed dialogue. Gretry again 
contributed the music. It was played before 
the court at Versailles in November 1778 
(GRETRY, Memoires, i. 325), and at Paris on 
23 Dec. Freron thought it inferior to ' Midas,' 
although the author was ' le premier depuis 
dix ans a la comedie italienne qui eut parle 
francais' (JuAnnee Litteraire, 1778, t. vii.) 
La Harpe protested against the unstinted 
praise bestowed on the piece by certain jour- 
nalists (Cours de Litterature, 1825, xv. 447, 
&c.) The plot is said to have owed something 
to Mrs. Centlivre's ' The Wonder, a Woman 
Keeps a Secret' and Lagrange's 'Les Contre- 
temps,' 1736. It was played at the Opera 
Comique 18 Sept. 1850. His third piece, ' Les 
Evenemens Impr6vus,' borrowed from an 
Italian source, ' Di peggio in peggio,' was given 
at Versailles on 11 Nov., and at Paris two days 
later. This was thought to be written with 
less care than its predecessors (Mercure de 
France, 4 Dec. 1779, pp. 84-8), but met with 
equalsuccess ( Journal de Paris, 14Nov. 1779). 
It was not very satisfactorily translated into 
English by Holcroft, who, with all his know- 

ledge of French literature, did not know the 
writer was an Englishman. It formed the 
basis of * The Gay Deceivers' by George Col- 
man the younger, given at the Haymarket 
on 12 Aug. 1804. Michael Kelly had brought 
it from Paris (Reminiscences, 1826, ii. 223). 
D'Hele composed for the actor Volange a 
comedie-parade, ' Gilles Ravisseur,' played at 
the Foire St. Germain 1 March 1781, in the 
Theatre des Variete's Amusantes. 

Besides D'Hele's devotion to the bottle he 
had a passion for an actress of the Comedie 
Italienne, Mademoiselle Bianchi, for whom 
he abandoned his dramatic career and all his 
friends. On being separated from her he died 
of grief, 27 Dec. 1780, aged about 40. He is 
a remarkable example of a man who, writing 
in a foreign language, attained fame in a 
department of literature wherein success is 
peculiarly difficult, and who has remained al- 
most unknown in his own country. D'Hele's 
three pieces remain in the repertory of the 
Theatre FranQais. Gretry and Grimm have 
preserved some characteristic anecdotes of 
his philosophic humour and independence. 
Jouy praises the ingenious imbroglio of his 
plays (Theatre, 1823, t. iv. p.xi); Hoffmann 
gives 'L'Amant Jaloux' as a model of comic 
opera in its best days ; and his literary merit 
has been fully recognised by Barbier and 
Desessarts (Nouvelle Bibliotheque d'un homme 
de ffout, 1808, ii. 197), La Harpe (Correspon- 
dance Litteraire, 1804, i. 30, ii. 254, 328, and 
Cours de Litt. 1825, xiv. 458), Geoffrey ( Cours 
de Litt. Dram. 1825, v. 311-19), and M. J. 
Chenier ( Tableau historique de la Litterature 
Franqaise, 1816, p. 344). 

His works are: 1. 'Le Roman demon Oncle, 
conte,' first published in the 'Correspondance 
Litteraire de Grimm et de Diderot,' and 
by Van de Weyer, ' Choix d'Opuscules,' 1st 
series, 1863, pp. 70-4. 2. ' Le Jugement de 
Midas, comedie en trois actes en prose melee 
d'ariettes, representee pour la premiere fois 
par les comediens Italiens ordinaires du roi, 
le samedi, 27 Juin, par M. d'Hele, musique 
de M. Gretry,' Paris, 1778, 8vo (2 editions) ; 
Parme, 1784, 8vo. 3. ' Les Fausses Appa- 
rences, ou 1'Amant Jaloux, comedie en trois 
actes, me!6e d'ariettes, represent^ devant 
leurs majestes a Versailles en Novembre 1778, 
les paroles sont de M. d'Hele, la musique de 
M. Gretry,' Paris, 1778, 8vo (2 editions), and 
1779, also Parme, 1781, 8vo; reprinted as 
'L'Amant Jaloux, ou les Fausses Apparences ' 
in 'Bibliotheque Dramatique,' 1849, t. xxx. 
4. 'Les Evenemens Imprevus, comedie en 
trois actes, melee d'ariettes, representee pour 
la premiere fois par les comldiens Italiens 
ordinaires du roi le 13 Novembre, 1779, 
paroles de M. d'Hell. musique de M. Gretry,' 

Hales 3 ; 

Paris, 1779 and 1780, 8vo ; < Nouvelle edition, 
corrigee, conforme a la representation et a la 

Eartition gravee/ Toulouse, 1788, 8vo ; trans- 
ited as ' Unforeseen Events, a comic opera, 
in three acts, from the French of M. d'Hele/ 
in the 'Theatrical Recorder/ by Thomas 
Holcroft, 1806, vol. ii. (Nos. 2, 3, and 4 are 
reproduced in l Petite Bibliotheoue des Thea- 
tres/ 1784, 18mo, in ' (Euvres^ de D'Hele/ 
Paris, 1787, 18mo, in < Theatre de 1'Opera 
Comique/ Paris, 1812, 8 vols. 18mo, t. vii., 
and in Lepeintre, ' Suite du Repertoire du 
Theatre Francais/ Paris, 1823, t. Ivi., 18mo.) 
5. ' Gilles Ravisseur, come'die-parade en un 
acte et en prose par M. Dhell, represented 
pour la premiere fois, a Paris, sur le Theatre 
des Varietes Amusantes le l er Mars 1781, et 
a Versailles devant leurs majestesle 10 Sept. 
suivant/ Paris, 1781, 1782, and 1783, 8vo 
(reproduced in 'Petite Bibliotheque des 
Theatres/ 1784, 18mo). 6. ' Les Trois Freres 
Jumeaux Ve"nitiens/ by Colalto, revised by 
D'Hele and Cailhava in 1781, still in manu- 

[The only satisfactory account of D'Hele is by 
S. Van de Weyer, Lettre I. sur les anglais qui 
ont ecrit en Franqais, first published in Miscel- 
lanies of Philobiblon Society, 1854, vol. i., and 
reproduced in Choix d'Opuscules, 1st series, Lon- 
don, 1863. See also Memoires de Gretry and 
Correspondance de Grimm (passim), Luneau de 
Bois Germain, Almanach Musical, 1781 ; Alma- 
nach des trois grands spectacles de Paris, 1782; 
Mercure de France, 6 Jan. 1781; Nouveau 
Dictionnaire Historique, Caen, 1783, t. iv. 336; 
Annales Dramatiques, Paris, 1809; Michaud, 
Biographie Universelle, x. 603; Hoefer, Nouvelle 
Biographie G6nerale, xxiii. 138-9; Athenaeum 
Francois, 1 2 May 1855 ; Examiner, 26 May 1855 ; 
Journal des Debats, 22 June 1856; Saturday 
Review, 4 Oct. 1856. The article by A. Houssaye 
in Galerie de Portraits du xviii 6 siecle, 2 e serie, 
1854, pp. 365-70, is very inaccurate, like the 
few scattered notices in English biographical 
dictionaries.] H. B. T. 

HALES, WILLIAM (1747-1831), chro- 
nologist, born 8 April 1747, was one of the 
children of the Rev. Samuel Hales, D.D., for 
many years curate and preacher at the cathe- 
dral church of Cork. He was educated by 
his maternal uncle, the Rev. James King- 
ston, prebendary of Donoughmore, and in 
1764 entered Trinity College, Dublin, where 
in 1768 he became fellow and B.A., and 
afterwards D.D. As tutor at the college he 
wore a white wig to obviate the objections 
of parents to his youthful appearance. His 
numerous pupils are said to have described 
his lectures as ' pleasant/ though he occa- 
sionally roused his pupils from bed by a dose 
of cold water. Hales also held the professor- 
ship of oriental languages in the university. 


His first published work was ' Sonorum doc- 
trina rationalis et experimentalis/ London, 
1778, 8vo, a vindication and confirmation 
from recent experiments of Newton's theory 
of sounds. In 1782 he published ' De moti- 
bus Planetarum dissertatio/ Dublin, 12mo r 
on the motions of the planets in eccentric 
orbits, according to the Newtonian theory. 
In 1784 he printed at his own expense ' Ana- 
lysis Aequationum/ Dublin, 4to. His friend, 
Baron Maseres, inserted it in his ' Scriptores 
Logarithmici/ and printed 250 separate copies. 
La Grange sent Hales a complimentary letter 
fromjBerlin on the ' Analysis.' In 1788 Hales, 
who had already taken orders, resigned his 
professorship for the rectory of Killeshandra,. 
co. Cavan, where he lived in retirement for 
the remainder of his life. From about 1812 
he also held the chancellorship of the diocese 
of Ernly. In 1798 he procured from the 
government some troops who tranquillised 
the country round Killeshandra. Hales was 
a good parish priest, ' equally pleasing/ says 
his biographer, f to the gentry and the lower 
orders.' He was a kind-hearted, well-in- 
formed man, who told anecdotes well. He 
rose at six and spent the day in learned 
studies. In the evening he told his children 
stories from the ' Arabian Nights/ or played 
with them the game of ' wild horses.' Until 
1819 he was constantly engaged in writing- 
for publication. His best-known work, ' A 
New Analysis of Chronology/ occupied him 
twenty years. It was published by subscrip- 
tion in 1809-12, 3 vols., London, 4to. A 
second edition appeared in 1830, 4 vols., Lon- 
don, 8vo. Hales, noting the great discord- 
ance of previous chronologists, f laid it down 
as a rule to see with mine own eyes ' (Letter 
to Bishop Percy, 6 June 1796), and investi- 
gated the original sources. He gives the ap- 
paratus for chronological computation (mea- 
sures of time, eclipses, eras, &c.) Hales's 
work deals with the chronology of the whole 
Bible, and gives a portion of the early history 
of the world. In 1801 Hales suffered from < a 
most malignant yellow fever/ caught during 
a kind visit to a stranger beggar-woman. 
He recovered, but from about 1820 or earlier 
he suffered from melancholy, and his mind 
seems to have become disordered. He died 
on 30 Jan. 1831, in his eighty-fourth year. 
Hales married, about the middle of 1791, 
Mary, second daughter of Archdeacon Whitty. 
They had two sons and two daughters. 

A list of Hales's works, twenty-two in 
number, is printed at the end of his last pub- 
lication, the ' Essay on the Origin and Purity 
of the Primitive Church of the British Isles/ 
London, 1819, 8vo. His most important pub- 
lications, besides those already enumerated, 




are: 1. 'Analysis Fluxionum,' in Maseres's 
' Scriptores Logarithmic!/ vol. v., 1791, &c., 
4to (mainly a vindication of Newton. Hales 
relates the effect of electrical fluid on himself 
in a violent fever). 2. * The Inspector ; or 
Select Literary Intelligence for the Vulgar, 
A.D. 1798, but correct A.D. 1801, the first 
year of the Nineteenth Century,' 1799, 8vo 
(cp. Gent. Mag. 1799, 865-72). 3. ' Irish 
Pursuits of Literature,' 1799, 8vo (cp. ib. Ixix. 
1135 if.) 4. ' Methodism Inspected,' 2 parts, 
Dublin, 1803-5, 8vo. 5. 'Dissertations on 
the Principal Prophecies respecting . . . 
Christ,' 2nd ed. London, 1808, 8vo. 6. ' Let- 
ters on the . . . Tenets of the Romish Hier- 
archy,' London, 1813, 8vo ; also other writings 
on the church of Rome. 7. ' Letters on the 
Sabellian Controversy,' published in the 'Anti- 
Jacobin Review,' and reprinted as ' Faith in the 
Holy Trinity,' 2nd ed., London, 1818, 8vo. 

[Memoir of Hales in the British Mag. and 
Monthly Kegister of Religious . . . Information, 
vol. i. 1832 ; Nichols's Lit. Illustr. vii. 786, viii. 
317, 320, 678 ; Brit. Mus. Cat.] W. W. 

HALFORD, SIR HENRY (1766-1844), 
physician, was second son of Dr. James 
Vaughan, a successful physician of Leicester, 
who devoted his whole income to educating 
his seven sons, of whom John (d. 1839) be- 
came judge of the court of common pleas, 
Peter (d. 1825), dean of Chester, and Charles 
Richard (d. 1849), envoy extraordinary to 
the United States. The sixth son, Edward 
Thomas, was father of Dean Vaughan, A aster 
of the Temple. Henry, born at Leicester on 
2 Oct. 1766, entered at Christ Church, Ox- 
ford, and graduated B.A. in 1788 and M.D. 
in 1 791. After studying some time at Edin- 
burgh he settled in London, having borrowed 
1 ,0007. on his own security. His good manners 
and learning soon made him friends, and he 
was elected physician to the Middlesex Hos- 
pital in 1793, and fellow of the Royal Col- 
lege of Physicians in 1794, having been ap- 
pointed physician extraordinary to the king 
in the previous year. In March 1795 he 
married Elizabeth Barbara, the third daughter 
of Lord St. John, and by 1800 his practice 
had so greatly increased that he gave up his 
hospital appointment. He inherited a large 
property on the death of Lady Denbigh, 
widow of his mother's cousin, Sir Charles 
Halford, seventh baronet, and consequently 
changed his name from Vaughan to Halford 
by act of parliament in 1809. George III, 
who had a strong liking for him, created him 
a baronet in the same year, and he subse- 
quently attended George IV, William IV, 
and Queen Victoria. For many years after 
Dr. Matthew Baillie's death he was indis- 
putably at the head of London practice. He 

was president of the College of Physicians 
from 1820 till his death, an unbroken tenure 
which was by no means favourable to re- 
form and progress ; but he was largely in- 
strumental in securing the removal of the 
college in 1825 from Warwick Lane to Pall 
Mall East. He was made K.C.H. on this oc- 
casion and G.C.H. by William IV. He died 
on 9 March 1844, and was buried in the parish 
church of Wistow, Leicestershire. His bust 
by Chantrey was presented to the College of 
Physicians by a number of fellows. His por- 
trait by Sir Thomas Lawrence is at Wistow. 
He left one son, Henry (1797-1868), who 
succeeded to the title, and one daughter. 

Halford was a good practical physician 
with quick perception and sound judgment, 
but he depreciated physical examination of 
patients, knew little of pathology, and dis- 
liked innovation. His courtly, formal man- 
ners and his aristocratic connection served 
him well. His chief publications were first 
given as addresses to the College of Phy- 
sicians, his subjects being such as ' The Cli- 
macteric Disease,' ' Tic Douloureux,' ' Shak- 
speare's Test of Insanity ' (' Hamlet,' act iii. 
sc. 4), ' The Influence of some of the Diseases 
of the Body on the Mind,' ' Gout,' ' The 
Deaths of some Illustrious Persons of An- 
tiquity,' &c. 

Halford is described by J. F. Clarke (Auto- 
biographical Recollections) as vain, cringing 
to superiors, and haughty to inferiors. James 
Wardrop [q. v.], surgeon to George IV, termed 
him ' the eel-backed baronet.' Some charges 
of unprofessional conduct are made against 
him by Clarke, who further states that when 
Charles I's coffin was opened in 1813 he ob- 
tained possession of a portion of the fourth cer- 
vical vertebra, which had been cut through by 
the axe, and used to show it at his dinner-table 
as a curiosity. This may be held to be confirmed 
by Halford's minute description of this bone 
in his ' Account.' Halford published : 1. ' An 
Account of what appeared on opening the 
Coffin of King Charles I,'4to, 1813. 2. 'Essays 
and Orations delivered at the Royal Col- 
lege of Physicians,' 1831 ; 3rd edition, 1842. 
3. 'Nugse Metricse. English and Latin, 
1842, besides several separate addresses and 

[Halford's life by Dr. Munk in Lives of Bri- 
tish Physicians, 2nd edit. 1857 ; Pettigrew's 
Medical Portrait Gallery, vol. i. ; J. F. Clarke's 
Autobiographical Recollections, pp. 340-53 ; Sir 
B. Brodie's Autobiography, p. 110, in Collected 
Works ; Notes and Queries, 5th ser. ii. 93, 6th 
ser. vii. 387, xi. 317.] G. T. B. 

HALFPENNY, JOSEPH (1748-1811), 
topographical draughtsman and engraver, 
was born on 9 Oct. 1748, at Bishopsthorpe 



in Yorkshire, where his father was gardener 
to the Archbishop of York. He was ap- 
prenticed to a house-painter, and practised 
house-painting in York for some years. He 
afterwards raised himself to the position of an 
artist and a teacher of drawing. He acted as 
clerk of the works to John Can the architect 
{1723-1807) [q. v.] when he was restoring 
the cathedral at York, and skilfully repaired 
-some of its old decoration. From the scaffold- 
ing then erected he made those drawings of 
Gothic ornaments for which he is principally 

In 1795 he commenced to publish by sub- 
scription his ' Gothic Ornaments in the Ca- 
thedral Church of York/ which was com- 
pleted in twenty numbers in 1800. It was 
reprinted in 1807 under the old date, and a 
-second edition appeared in 1831. The work 
consists of 175 specimens of ornament and 
four views of the interior of the church and 
chapter-house. It is specially valuable as 
depicting portions of the building since in- 
jured by fire. His ' Fragmenta Vetusta, or 
the Remains of Ancient Buildings in York/ 
was published in 1807. In both these works 
lie was his own engraver. He drew and en- 
graved the monument of Archbishop Bowet 
in York Minster for the second volume of 
Gough's t Sepulchral Monuments/ and an 
etching in the British Museum of a portrait 
(by L. Pickard) of Henry Howard, earl of 
Northampton, who died in 1614, is ascribed 
to him by Granger. The Grenville Library 
(British Museum) contains five views of 
churches in Yorkshire, published in 1816 
and 1817 (after his death) by his daugh- 
ters, Margaret and Charlotte Halfpenny. In 
the South Kensington Museum is a water- 
'colour drawing by him of ' The Bridge, Foun- 
tains Abbey, Yorkshire ' (1793) ; and in the 
British Museum a 'Landscape with Mansion 
in the Distance ' (1793), purchased at the 
sale of the Percy collection in April 1890. 

He was twice married, and was survived 
by two daughters. He died at his house in 
the Gillygate, York, on 11 July 1811, and 
was buried in the churchyard of St. Olave's, 
adjoining the ruins of the old abbey. 

[Kedgrave's Diet, of Artists ; Gent. Mag. 1800 
pt. ii. p. 760, 1811 pt. ii. p. 91; Bryan's Diet, 
of Painters and Engravers (Graves's edition); 
Gough's Sepulchral Monuments, ii. pt. i. p. 11, 
and pt. ii. plate xxvii. p. 75; Hargrove's Hist, of 
York, 1818, pp. 599, 600 ; Browne's Metropolitan 
Church of St. Peter, York, 1847, p. 318, in the 
index of which the name is erroneously given as 
IVilliam Halfpenny ; Lowndes's Bibliographer's 
Manual; Brit. Mus. Cat. of Printed Books; Brit. 
Mus. Print Room Cat.; Cat. of Gallery of British 
Art at South Kensington.] B. P. 

MICHAEL HOARE (jtf. 1752), who styles 
himself architect and carpenter on the title- 
page of some of his works, appears to have 
resided at Richmond, Surrey, and in Lon- 
don during the first half of the eighteenth 
century. Batty Langley describes him in 
his ' Ancient Masonry ' (1736), p. 147, as 
' Mr. William Halfpeny, alias Hoare, lately 
of Richmond in Surrey, carpenter/ and seems 
to call him indifferently William Half- 
penny and Michael Hoare. His published 
works were written with a view to being 
useful to ' those who are engaged in y e noble 
art of building/ and are mainly devoted 
to domestic architecture. He prepared esti- 
mates as well as designs for the construction 
of buildings as economically as possible. His 
more ambitious designs for country seats are 
in the classical architecture of the period. 
De Morgan speaks of his ' Arithmetic ' as a 
'surveyor's and artisan's book of application.' 
He has been credited with the invention of 
the method of drawing arches by the inter- 
section of straight lines (B. LANGLEY, An- 
cient Masonry,}*. 147), and his system for the 
formation of twisted hand-rails was well 
thought of in his time. He published : 
1. ' Magnum in Parvo, or the Marrow of 
Architecture/ 1722 ; 1728 (containing in- 
structions in the setting out of pillars and 
arches). 2. ' Practical Architecture/ 1st edit, 
n.d., 1724, 1730, 1736 (5th edit.), 1748, 
1751. 3. ' The Art of Sound Building de- 
monstrated in Geometrical Problems/ 1725 
(containing a design for a church in Leeds). 
4. 'Perspective made Easy/ 1731. 5. 'The 
Modern Builder's Assistant ' (with John Half- 
penny, Robert Morris, and T. Lightoler), 
1742, 1757. 6. ' Arithmetic and Measure- 
ment Improved by Examples/ 1748. 7. ' A 
Perspective View of the sunk Pier and the 
two adjoining Arches at Westminster' (one 
folio plate), 1748. 8. 'A New and Com- 
plete System of Architecture/ 1749 (the 
British Museum copy is in French). 9. 'Twelve 
Beautiful Designs for Farm Houses/ 1749, 

1750. 1774. 10. ' A Plan and Elevation of 
the Royal Fire Works in St. James's Park ' 
(one folio sheet), 1749. 11. 'New Designs 
for Chinese Temples/ four parts (parts ii. iii. 
and iv. with John Halfpenny), 1750, 1752. 
12. 'Six New Designs for Farm Houses/ 

1751. 13. 'Useful Architecture/ 1751, 1755, 
1760 (in which the preceding work is incor- 
porated and new matter added, including 
designs for bridges). 14. 'Thirteen New 
Designs for Parsonages and Farm Houses,' 

1752. 15. ' Rural Architecture in the 
Gothic Taste' (with John Halfpenny), 1752. 
16. ' Chinese and Gothic Architecture pro- 



perly ornamented ' (with John Halfpenny), 
1752. 17. ' Geometry, Theoretical and Prac- 
tical/ 1752. 18. ' Rural Architecture in the 
Chinese Taste/ 1750, 1752. 19. 'The Country 
Gentleman's Pocket Companion and Builder's 
Assistant/ n.d. 20. ' Twenty-six New De- 
signs of Geometrical Paling' (one folio sheet). 

[Works of W. Halfpenny; Eedgrave's Diet, of 
Artists; Gent. Mag. 1752, pp. 194, 586; Brit. 
Mus. Cat. of Printed Books ; Diet, of Architec- 
ture ; Universal Cat. of Books on Art ; Cat. of 
Library of Koyal Institute of British Architects; 
De Morgan's Arithmetic Books, p. 70 ; Brit. Mus. 
Print Room Cat. ; Salmon's Palladio Londinen- 
sis (edit. Hoppus), 1 755, preface; Batty Langley's 
Ancient Masonry, 1736, pp. 147, 391.] B. P. 

HALGHTON, JOHN DE (d. 1324), 

bishop of Carlisle. [See HALTON.] 


(1751-1830), orientalist, was born at West- 
minster on 25 May 1751. His father, William 
Halhed, of an old Oxfordshire family, was 
for eighteen years a director of the Bank of 
England. Halhed was at Harrow under 
Sumner, and there began his friendship with 
Richard Brinsley Sheridan, in conjunction 
with whom he subsequently produced a verse 
translation of Aristsenetus. In 1768 he en- 
tered Christ Church, Oxford, where he made 
the acquaintance of William (afterwards Sir 
William) Jones (1746-1794) [q. v.], who led 
him to study Arabic. Having been jilted 
by Miss Linley in favour of Sheridan, he left 
England, obtaining a writership in the East 
India Company's service. In India he at- 
tracted the notice of Warren Hastings, at 
whose suggestion he began, at the age of 
twenty-three, his translation of the Gentoo 
code, completing it in 1776. This code was 
a digest of Sanskrit law-books made, at the 
instance of Hastings, by eleven Brahman s. 
Halhed translated from a Persian version : 
his work went through several editions, and 
was translated into French. In 1778 he 
published at Hooghly in Bengal a grammar 
of' the Bengal language.' The printing-press 
set up by Halhed at Hooghly was the first 
in India ; the type for printing Bengali was 
cut by Charles (afterwards Sir Charles) Wil- 
kins. Halhed was apparently the first to 
call public attention to the affinity between 
Sanskrit words and * those of Persian, Arabic, 
and even of Latin and Greek/ an affinity in- 
dependently detected somewhat earlier by 
French Jesuits. He thus deserves recognition 
as one of the pioneers of modern philology. 
Keturning to England in 1785, he became a 
candidate for Leicester at the general election 
of 1790, but, withdrawing from the contest, 
was elected M.P. for Lymington, Hampshire, 

which he represented till 1795. In January 
of the latter year he became a believer in the 
prophetic claims of Richard Brothers [q. v.], 
being probably captivated by some resem- 
blance between the teaching of Brothers and 
the oriental mysticism with which he was 
familiar. Contrary to the strong advice of 
his friend Sir Elijah Impey [q. v.], Halhed, 
on 31 March, in a speech which has been 
published, moved that Brothers's ' Revealed 
Knowledge' be laid before the House of Com- 
mons. In defending Brothers from a charge 
of treason he argued that it was no treason 
to claim the crown in a future contingency 
which involved ' a palpable impossibility.' 
On 21 April he moved for a copy of the war- 
rant on which Brothers was apprehended. 
Neither motion found a seconder, and Halhed 
shortly after resigned his seat. His belief in 
Brothers does not seem to have lasted long, 
but it terminated his literary as well as his 
public career. Some of his relatives thought 
him out of his mind, and would have put him 
under restraint. With John Wright, a car- 
penter, who left Brothers with him, he cor- 
responded till 1804. Investments in French 
assignats reduced his fortune, and in July 
1809 he obtained a good appointment in the 
East India House. He died in London on 
18 Feb. 1830, and was buried at Petersham, 
Surrey. He married (before 1784) Helena 
Ribaut, daughter of the Dutch governor of 
Chinsurah, Bengal, but died without issue. 
Halhed had some peculiarities, due to exces- 
sive sensitiveness, but endeared himself to his 
many friends. His imitations of Martial, sup- 
pressed on account of their personal allusions, 
show keen power of epigram. His collection 
of oriental manuscripts was purchased by the 
trustees of the British Museum. Other manu- 
scripts went to his nephew, Nathaniel John 
Halhed, j udge of the Sudder De wannee Adau- 
lut (d. 1838). The legatee's representative 
only received them from the executor, Dr. 
John Grant, in 1863. Among them is a corre- 
spondence with Warren Hastings, from which 
it may be gathered that, between 1800 and 
1816, Halhed had made considerable progress 
with an English translation of the 'Mahabha- 
rata ' from a Persian version ; the manuscript 
is now in the library of the Asiatic Society 
of Bengal. 

He published: 1. 'The Love Epistles of 
Aristaenetus, translated . . . into English 
metre/ &c., 1771, 8vo (preface signed H[al- 
hed]. S[heridan]. ; reprinted in 'Bonn's Clas- 
sical Library/ 1854). 2. ' A Code of Gentoo 
Laws/ &c., 1776, 4to (the translator's name 
is not on the title-page, but is given in the 
preliminary matter) : 2nd edition, 1777, 8vo; 
3rd edition, 1781, 8vo; in French, by J. B. R. 



Robinet, l Code des Lois des Gentoux,' Paris, 
1778, 4to. Halhed's preface was criticised by 
George Costard [q. v.J 3. 'A Grammar of the 
Bengal Language,' &c., Hoogly (sic), 1778, 
4to. 4. 'A Narrative of the Events ... in 
Bombay and Bengal relative to the Mahratta 
Empire,' &c., 1779, 8vo. 5. 'A Letter to 
Governor Johnstone on Indian Affairs,' &c., 
1783, 8vo (signed ' Detector '). 6. ' The Letters 
of Detector on the Seventh and Eighth Re- 
ports of the Libel Committee,' &c., 1783, 8vo. 
7. ' Imitations of some of the Epigrams of 
Martial,' &c., 1793, 4to (anon.; Latin and 
English). His contributions to the Brothers 
literature, all 1795, 8vo, are : 8. t A Testi- 
mony of the Authenticity of the Prophecies 
of R. Brothers,' &c. 9. < The Whole of the 
Testimonies to the Authenticity of the Pro- 
phecies,' &c. (prefixed is Halhed's portrait, 
engraved by White from a drawing by I. 
Cruikshank). 10. ' A Word of Admonition 
to the Rt. Hon. Wm. Pitt,' &c. 11. < Two 
Letters to the Rt. Hon. Lord Loughborough,' 
&c. 12. ' Speech in the House of Commons,' 
&c. (31 March ; two editions, same year). 
13. 'The Second Speech,' &c. (21 April; 
two editions, same year). 14. ' Liberty and 
Equality, a Sermon or Essay,' &c. 15. ' A 
Calculation of the Millenium . . . Reply to 
Dr. Home/ &c. (three editions, same year ; 
contains also No. 12). 16. ' An Answer to 
Dr. Home's Second Pamphlet,' &c. (contains 
also No. 14). 

[The World, 18 June 1790; Teignmouth's 
Memoirs of Sir W. Jones, 1804; Biographical 
Dictionary of Living Authors, 1816 ; Moore's 
Memoirs of Sheridan, 1825; Impey's Memoirs, 
1846 ; information from W. B. Halhed, esq.] 

A. G-. 

bishop of Dunkeld, was the son of George 
Haliburton, minister of Glenisla, Forfarshire, 
from 1615 to 1651 (SCOTT, fasti, vi. 748). 
Graduating at King's College, Aberdeen, in 
1636, he was on 1 Aug. 1642 presented by the 
general assembly to the parish of Menmuir 
in his native county, and in the year follow- 
ing attended the Scots army at Newcastle. 
He was translated to the second or collegiate 
charge at Perth in 1644, and was at Perth 
when it surrendered to Montrose after his 
victory at Tippermuir (1 Sept. 1644). For 
' conversing, eating, drinking, and asking a 
grace at dinner with ' the excommunicated 
marquis he was deposed by the commission 
of the general assembly on 27 Nov. 1644. 
The assembly ratified the sentence (26 Feb. 
1644-5), but on making submission on his 
knees to the presbytery he was reponed by 
the assembly in June of the same year. In 
December 1651 he was silenced by the Eng- 

lish garrison at Perth, and forbidden to preach 
1 for preaching in the king's interest notwith- 
standing his defeat at Worcester.' On the Re- 
storation he was nominated (1661), along with 
James Sharp and others, a parliamentary 
commissioner for visiting the universities and 
colleges of Aberdeen. He was spoken of for the 
see of the Isles, but was appointed to that of 
Dunkeld, to which he was consecrated (with- 
out re-ordination, though he was only in pres- 
byterian orders) at Holyrood on 7 May 1662. 
He had no liking for harsh measures, but 
strictly enforced the law, depriving his own 
kinsman, George Halyburton, minister of 
Aberdalgie, Perthshire, the father of Thomas 
Halyburton [q. v.] He died at his own house 
in Perth on 5 April 1665, leaving two sons, 
James and George, by his marriage with 
Catherine Lindsay. Keith calls him l a very 
good, worthy man ; ' writers of the other side- 
admitted he was a ' man of utterance/ but 
inferred insincerity from his frequent changes. 
He had been a zealous covenanter, and ended 
by accepting a bishopric, but he was all along 
a royalist. 

[Haliburton's Memoirs ; Lament's Diary ; 
Keith's Catalogue ; Hew Scott's Fasti, iv. 615, 
838, vi. 841-2 ; Grub's Eccl. Hist., &c.] J. C. 

bishop successively of Brechin and Aber- 
deen, son of William Haliburton, A.M., 
minister of Collace, Perthshire, was born at 
Collace in 1628. His father was brother- 
german to James Haliburton of Enteryse, 
and was connected with the notable family 
of the Haliburtons of Pitcur, while his mother 
was a daughter of Archbishop Gladstanes of 
St. Andrews. Having studied at St. An- 
drews University, George took his degree as 
master of arts in 1646, and two years after- 
wards he was presented to the parish of Cou- 
par- Angus. His strong episcopalian procli- 
vities brought about his suspension from this 
charge in September 1650 ; but this sentence 
was reversed in November 1652, and he con- 
tinued to retain his position as minister of 
Coupar- Angus long after he had gained high 
ecclesiastical preferment. In 1673 the de- 
gree of D.D. was conferred upon him by the 
university of St. Andrews, and he was pro- 
moted by Charles II to the bishopric of 
Brechin on 30 May 1678. The revenues of 
this bishopric, though once very extensive, 
had been greatly reduced at the Reformation, 
and it appears from the ' Register of the 
Privy Seal ' that on 28 Jan. 1680 the king 
presented Haliburton to the additional parish 
of Fame 11 in Forfarshire, on the ground of 
the poverty of the bishopric. Haliburton 
retained this plurality of benefices until he 




was translated from Brechin to the bishopric 
of Aberdeen on 15 July 1682. He remained 
in Aberdeen till the abolition of episcopacy 
by the estates in April 1689, when he retired 
to the small estate of Denhead, Coupar- An- 
gus, which he had purchased. He resisted 
the appointment of the presbyterian minister 
to the church of Halton of Newtyle, which 
was in the neighbourhood of his residence, 
and from 1698 till 1710 he conducted services 
there according to the episcopal ritual in de- 
fiance of the authorities, until age and infir- 
mity compelled him to desist. He died at 
Denhead on 29 Sept. 1715, being then in his 
eighty-seventh year, leaving a widow and a 
family of three sons and one daughter. 

[Wodrow's Hist, of the Kirk of Scotland ; 
Keith's Cat. of Scottish Bishops ; Hew Scott's 
Fasti Ecclesiae Scoticanse ; Millar's Roll of Emi- 
nent Burgesses of Dundee.] A. H. M. 

JAMES (1788-1862), Egyptologist, was born 
on 22 Sept. 1788. His father, James Halibur- 
ton, of Mabledon, Tunbridge, Kent, and after- 
wards of The Holme, Regent's Park, was a 
member of the family of Haliburton of Rox- 
burghshire, but changed his name in early 
life to Burton, and devoted himself to the 
conduct of large building speculations, espe- 
cially in London. James Burton the younger 
was educated at Trinity College, Cam- 
bridge, where he graduated B.A. in 1810 
and M.A. in 1815. He was engaged by 
Mehemet Ali Pasha to take part in a geo- 
logical survey of Egypt, and sailed from 
Naples for that country in March 1822. 
During this and the following years he made 
a journey into the eastern desert, in the 
course of which he decided the position of 
My os Hormos or Aphrodite (Add.MS. 25624). 
In April 1824 he was with John Gardner 
Wilkinson [q. v.], the famous Egyptologist, 
at Alexandria, and was contemplating an 
expedition to the oasis and Western Egypt 
(Add. MS. 25658, ff. 3, 9). During 1825 
and 1 826 he made a journey up the Nile, and 
in the latter year met Edward W. Lane 

[q. v.] at Dendarah, and afterwards travelled 
with him (LANE-PooLE, Life of Lane, p. 31). 
Between 1825 and 1828 his 'Excerpta Hiero- 

glyphica,' consisting of sixty-four lithographs 
without any letterpress, were published at 
Cairo. Shortly afterwards Burton returned 
to England, where he spent the next two 
years. From April 1830 to February 1832 
he was on a journey in the eastern desert. 
He came home about 1835, and does not 
appear to have again visited Egypt. In 
1838 he resumed the name of Haliburton, i 
and in the same year he was one of the com- < 

mittee for the White River Expedition.. 
During the latter part of his life he devoted 
himself chiefly to the collection of particulars 
concerning his ancestors, the Haliburtons. 
For many years previously to 1841 he was 
a fellow of the Geological Society, but after 
that date his name disappears from the 
society's lists. Haliburton died on 22 Feb.. 
1862, and was buried in West Dean Ceme- 
tery, Edinburgh ; his tombstone gives the- 
dates of his birth and death, and has the 
inscription, 'James Haliburton, a zealous 
investigator in Egypt of its Languages and 

Haliburton was a friend of Joseph Bonomi 
[q. v.], and, like him, held an honourable- 
place in the band of workers employed by 
Robert Hay of Linplum, N.B., to make- 
sketches and drawings of Egyptian antiqui- 
ties. His merits were rather those of an 
intelligent traveller and copyist than of a 
scholar, but Sir John Gardner Wilkinson,, 
in the preface to his ; Manners and Customs 
of the Ancient Egyptians,' speaks highly of 
the assistance which Burton rendered him. 
His ' Collectanea ./Egyptiaca,' contained in 
sixty-three volumes (MSS. Add. 25613-75), 
were presented to the British Museum in 1864 
by his younger brother, Decimus Burton, the 
architect [q. v.] They include, besides care- 
fully kept diaries, numerous drawings of hiero- 
glyphic inscriptions, architectural sketches, 
and notes on the history, geology, zoology r 
and botany of the country, together with 
his passports and correspondence. Many of 
Haliburton's other drawings and maps are 
contained in the collection of views, sketches, 
&c., made for Robert Hay, and now in the 
British Museum (Add. MSS. 29812-60). 

[Authorities quoted ; information kindly sup- 
plied by his nephew, Alfred H. Burton, esq. ; 
Haliburton's Collectanea JEgyptiaca; Cat. Grad. 
Cantab. ; Geological Society's Lists of members; 
Brit. Mus. Catalogues.] C. L. K. 

HALIBURTON, THOMAS (1674-1712), 

professor of divinity at St. Andrews. [See 

LER (1796-1865), author of < Sam Slick/ 
only child of the Hon. William Otis Halibur- 
ton, a justice of the court of common pleas 
of Nova Scotia, by Lucy, eldest daughter of 
Major Grant, was born at Windsor, Nova 
Scotia, in December 1796, and educated at 
the grammar school and at King's College in 
his native town. In 1820 he was called to 
the bar. He practised at Annapolis Royal, 
the former capital of Nova Scotia, where he 
acquired a large and lucrative business. After 
a short time he entered the legislative as- 




.sembly as member for the county of Anna- 
polis. In 1828 he was appointed chief jus- 
tice of the court of common pleas of Nova 
.Scotia, which place he held to 1840, when 
the court of common pleas was abolished and 
.his services were transferred to the supreme 
court, where he commenced his duties 1 Jan. 
1842. In February 1856 he resigned his 
office of judge, and removed to England, 
where he continued to reside to his death. 
In 1825 and 1829 he published histories of 
his native province. His works were widely 
circulated, and the Nova Scotia House of 
Assembly tendered him a vote of thanks for 
his Historical Account, which he received in 
person in his place in parliament. He next 
began a series of articles in the ' Nova Sco- 
tian' newspaper in 1835, writing under the 
pseudonym of Sam Slick, a Yankee pedlar. 
The articles were popular, and were copied 
by the American press. They were then 
-collected together and published at Halifax 
anonymously in 1837, and several editions 
"were issued in the United States. A copy 
feeing taken to England by General Fox, was 
given to Kichard Bentley, who issued an 
edition which had a considerable circulation. 
The only benefit which Haliburton received 
from this English edition was the presenta- 
tion from Bentley of a silver salver, with an 
inscription written by the Rev. Richard Bar- 
ham. Haliburton, writing as Sam Slick, told 
his countrymen many home truths. Those 
who laughed at Sam Slick's jokes did not 
.always relish his outspoken criticisms, and 
Jiis popularity as a writer was far greater out 
of Nova Scotia than in it; his fame, however, 
became general. None of his writings are 
regularly constructed stories, but the inci- 
dents and characters are always spirited and 
mostly humorous. * Sam Slick ' had a very 
extensive sale, and notwithstanding its idio- 
matic peculiarities was translated into seve- 
ral languages. In 1842 Haliburton visited 
England again, and in the next year embodied 
the result of his observations on English 
society in his amusing work ' The Attache.' 
1 The Bubbles of Canada. By the Author of 
" The Clockmaker," ' issued in 1839, was a 
serious book on the political government of 
the country. It was suggested by Lord Dur- 
ham's famous report, and attracted much at- 
tention in England. His other works are 
4 The Letter Bag of the Great Western,' 1839, 
and 'The Old Judge,' 1843. On resigning his 
judgeshipin 1856 he applied for his pension 
of 300/. a year ; the claim was resisted for 
several years, and he did not succeed in ob- 
taining the first payment until after a deci- 
sion in his favour made by the judicial com- 
mittee of the privy council in England. 

In 1856 he took up his residence in Lon- 
don, where he became a member of the 
Athenaeum Club. In 1857 he was asked to 
come forward as member of parliament for 
Middlesex, a proposal which he declined, but 
two years afterwards, on the general elec- 
tion, at the solicitation of the Duke of North- 
umberland, he stood for Launceston in the 
conservative interest, was elected 29 April 

1859, and sat until 6 July 1865. The univer- 
sity of Oxford created him a D.C.L. in 1858, 
the university of King's College, Windsor, 
having previously made him an honorary 
M.A. He died at his residence, Gordon 
House, Isleworth, Middlesex, 27 Aug. 1865. 
In 1889 a society called ' The Haliburton ' was 
established at King's College, Windsor, Nova 
Scotia, to further the development of a dis- 
tinctive Canadian literature. The first pub- 
lication of the society (July 1889) was a 
memoir of Haliburton by F. Blake Crofton. 

Haliburton married first in 1816 Louisa, 
daughter of Captain Lawrence Neville of 
the 19th light dragoons (she died in 1840) ; 
secondly, in 1856, Sarah Harriet, daughter of 
William Mostyn Owen of Woodhouse, Shrop- 
shire, and widow in 1844 of Edward Hosier 
Williams of Eaton Mascott, Shrewsbury. 

Haliburton was the first writer who used 
the American dialect, and was pronounced by 
Artemus Ward to be the founder of the Ame- 
rican school of humour. He was author of 
the following works, several of which went 
to numerous editions : 1. ' A General Descrip- 
tion of Nova Scotia,' 1825. 2. f An Historical 
and Statistical Account of Nova Scotia/ 1829. 
2 vols. 3. ' The Clockmaker, or Sayings and 
Doings of Sam Slick of Slickville,' three series, 
1837, 1838, 1840. 4. < The Letter Bag of the 
Great Western, or Life in a Steamer,' 1839. 
5. ' The Bubbles of Canada. By the Author 
of " The Clockmaker," ' 1839. 6. ' A Reply to 
the Report of the Earl of Durham. By a 
Colonist,' 1839. 7. 'Traits of American 
Humour by Native Authors,' 1843. 8. ' Sam 
Slick's Wise Saws and Modern Instances,' 
1843, 2 vols. 9. * The Old Judge, or Life 
in a Colony,' 1843, 2 vols. 10. ' The Ameri- 
cans at Home, or Byeways, Backwoods, and 
Prairies,' 1843, 3 vols. 11. ' The Attache, 
or Sam Slick in England,' 1843-4, 4 vols. 
12. 'Rule and Misrule of the English in 
America,' 1850, 2 vols. 13. 'Nature and 
Human Nature,' 1855. .14. 'Address at 
Glasgow on the Condition, Resources, and 
Prospects of British North America,' 1857. 
15. ' Speech in House of Commons on Re- 
peal of Duties on Foreign and Colonial Wool,' 

1860. 16. 'The Season Ticket,' a series of 
articles reprinted from the ' Dublin Univer- 
sity Magazine,' 1860. Pirated compilations 




from Haliburton's works were brought out 
under the following titles, which were in- 
vented by American publishers : ' Yankee 
Stories and Yankee Letters,' 1852 ; ' Yankee 
Yarns ; ' ' Sayings and Doings of Samuel Slick, 
Esq., together with his Opinion on Matri- 
mony;' and ' Sam Slick in search of a Wife.> 

[Memoir, by F. Blake Crofton, 1889 ; Morgan's 
BibliothecaCanadensis, 1867, pp. 166-71 ; Grant's 
Portraits of Public Characters, 1841, i. 291-304; 
Tallis's Drawing Room Portrait Gallery, 1860, 
3rd series, with portrait; Illustrated London 
News, 15 July 1843, p. 37, with portrait, and 
9 Sept. 1865, p. 245, with portrait; Bentley's 
Miscellany, 1843, xiv. 81-94, with portrait; 
Statesmen of England, 1862, with portrait; The 
Critic, 5 Feb. 1859, p. 126, with portrait.] 

G. 0. B. 

M.D. (1728 ?-l 802), physician and politician, 
son of Samuel Haliday [q. v.], the nonsub- 
scribing divine, was born at Belfast about 
1728. He was educated at Glasgow as a 
physician, and practised with great repute 
at Belfast, where for nearly half a century he 
was one of the most influential of public men. 
On 23 Dec. 1770 Belfast was invaded by some 
twelve hundred insurgents belonging to the 
society known as 'Hearts of Steel,' who 
marched from Templepatrick, co. Antrim, to 
rescue one David Douglas, imprisoned on a 
charge of maiming cattle. The ' Hearts of 
Steel' were animated by agrarian discontent, 
and their immediate grievance was that Bel- 
fast capitalists had purchased leases from the 
Marquis of Donegal! over the tenants' heads. 
Haliday's prompt interposition between the 
rioters and the authorities saved the town 
from destruction by fire. His house in Castle 
Street was the headquarters of James Caul- 
feild, earl of Charlemont [q. v.], on his annual 
visits to Belfast from 1782 in connection with 
the volunteer conventions. His correspon- 
dence with Charlemont (of which some speci- 
mens are given in Benn) lasted till the earl's 
death, and is full of information on the poli- 
tics of the north of Ireland, enlivened by 
strokes of humour. He died at Belfast on 
28 April 1802. ' Three nights before he died,' 
writes Mrs. Mattear to William Drennan 
[q. v.], ' Bruce and I played cards with him, 
and the very night that was his last he played 
out the rubber. " Now," said he, " the game 
is finished, and the last act near a close."' 
He was buried in the Clifton Street cemetery, 
then newly laid out. His will leaves to his 
wife (an Edmonstone of Red Hall) ' a legacy 
of 1001. by way of atonement for the many 
unmerciful scolds I have thrown away upon 
her at the whist table/ also ' the sum of 500/. 
in gratitude for her never having given on 

any other occasion from her early youth till 
this hour any just cause to rebuke or com- 
plain of her,' and ' a further sum of 100/.' for 
her goodness in amusing him with ' a game 
of picket' when his eyesight had decayed.. 
His fine library, rich in classics, was sold 
after his death ; part of it is now the property 
of the First Presbyterian Church, Belfast. 
Haliday wrote, but did not publish, a tragedv r 
submitted to Charlemont, and many satirical 
verses. His grandson and namesake published 
anonymously a volume of original hymns, Bel- 
fast, 1844, 16mo. 

[Benn's Hist, of Belfast, 1877, i. 520 sq., 615,. 
631 sq., 663sq., 1880 ii. 35 ; Belfast News-Letter, 
30 April 1802 ; Bsnn's manuscripts in the posses- 
sion of Miss Benn, Belfast.] A. G-. 

HALIDAY, CHARLES (1789-1866), 
antiquary, born in 1789, was son of William 
Halliday or Haliday, an apothecary in Dublin, 
and younger brother of William Haliday 
[q. v.] He passed some of his early years in 
London, and about 1812 began business in 
Dublin as a merchant. He took an active 
part in the attempts to ameliorate the condi- 
tion of the poor, especially during the cholera 
at Dublin in 1832. He was in 1833 elected 
a member of the corporation for improving 
the harbour of Dublin and superintending 
the lighthouses on the Irish coasts, and to the 
affairs of this body his attention was mainly 
devoted through life. Haliday acquired con- 
siderable wealth, erected a costly villa near 
Dublin, and formed a large collection of books 
and tracts. He filled for many years the posts 
of consul for Greece, secretary of the chamber 
of commerce, Dublin, and director of the 
Bank of Ireland. His public services to the 
commercial community of Dublin were ac- 
knowledged by presentations of addresses and! 
plate on two occasions. He died at Monks- 
town, near Dublin, 14 Sept. 1866. In 1847 
Haliday was elected a member of the Royal 
Irish Academy, to which body a large portion 
of the books and tracts collected by him were 
presented by his widow, and a catalogue of 
them has been completed by the writer of the 
present notice. A portrait of Haliday is pre- 
served with his collection at the Royal Irish 

Haliday was author of the following pam- 
phlets : 1. ' An Inquiry into the Influence of 
the Excessive Use of Spirituous Liquors in 
producing Crime, Disease, and Poverty in 
Ireland' (anon.), Dublin, 1830. 2. 'The 
Necessity of combining a Law of Settlement 
with Local Assessment in the proposed Bill 
for the Relief of the Poor of Ireland' (anon.), 
Dublin, 1838. 3. 'A Letter to the Commis- 
sioners of Landlord and Tenant Inquiry on 


4 6 


the State of the Law in respect of the Build- 
ing and Occupation of Houses in towns in Ire- 
land' (anon.), Dublin, 1844. 4. < An Appeal 
to the Lord- Lieutenant [of Ireland] on be- 
half of the Labouring Classes/ Dublin, 1847, 
in relation to the rights of the poor in the 
vicinity of Kingstown, near Dublin. 5. ' A 
Letter to the Right Hon. Sir William Somer- 
ville, Bart., M.P., from the Corporation for 
Preserving and Improving the Port of Dublin, 
with Observations on the Report of Captain 
Washington, R.N., to the Harbour Depart- 
ment of the Admiralty on the state of the 
Harbours and Lighthouses on the South and 
'South- West of Ireland,' Dublin, 1849. 

Haliday collected some material for a his- 
tory of the port and commerce of Dublin from 
early times, but he did' not live to complete 
the work. The results of his labours were 
<embodied in the three following papers : 
1. * On the Ancient Name of Dublin,' printed 
in the ' Transactions of the Royal Irish Aca- 
demy,' vol. xxii. 1854. 2. ' Observations ex- 
planatory of a plan and estimate for a Citadel 
.at Dublin, 1673.' 3. ' On the Scandinavian 
Antiquities of Dublin.' Portions of the last 
paper were communicated to the Royal Irish 
Academy in 1857. The whole of it, together 
with the second paper, was published with 
the title of t The Scandinavian Kingdom of 
Dublin ' (Dublin, 1881), under the editorship 
of John P. Prendergast, esq. An unfinished 
treatise on the ' sanitary condition of Kings- 
town ' by Haliday was published at Dublin 
in 1867 by Thomas M. Madden, M.D. 

[Proceedings of the Royal Irish Academy ; 
Webb's Irish Biograohy ; private information.] 

J. T. G-. 

{1685-1739), Irish non-subscribing divine, I 
was son of the Rev. Samuel Haliday (or j 
Holly day) (1637-1724), who was ordained 
presbyterian minister of Convoy, co. Done- 
gal, in 1664; removed to Omagh in 1677 
{K& Minutes ofLaggari) ; fled to Scotland in 
1688, where he was successively minister of 
Dunscore, Drysdale, and New North Church, 
Edinburgh (Scoix, Fasti) ; and returning to 
Ireland in 1692, became minister of Ardstraw, 
where he continued till his death. Samuel, 
the son, was born in 1685, probably at Omagh, 
where his father was then minister. In 1701 
lie entered Glasgow College, his name being 
enrolled in the register as ' Samuel Hollyday, 
Hibernus,' among the students of the first 
class under John Loudon, professor of logic 
and rhetoric. He graduated M.A., and went 
to Leyden to study theology (19 Nov. 1705). 
In 1706, whilst at Leyden, he published a 
theological ' Disputatio ' in Latin. In the same 
year he was licensed at Rotterdam, and in 

1708 received ordination at Geneva, choosing, 
he said, to be ordained in this place, ' because 
the terms of communion are not narrowed by 
any human impositions.' He now became chap- 
lain to the Scots Cameronianregiment,serving 
in this capacity under Marlborough in Flan- 
ders. He was received by the synod of Ulster 
in 1712 as 'an ordained minister without 
charge,' and declared capable of being settled 
in any of its congregations. For some time, 
ho we ver,he lived in London, where he l appears 
to have been highly esteemed and well known 
to the leaders of the whig party both in and out 
of the government' (REID, History of Irish 
Presbyterian Church,iu. 213), and used his in- 
fluence to promote the interests of his fellow- 
churchmen. In 1718 he took a leading part 
in obtaining a considerable augmentation 
of the regium donum ; the synod of Ulster 
thanked him for his zeal in the service of the 
church, and voted him 30/. to aid in covering 
his outlay in opposing the extension of the 
Schism Bill to Ireland. In 1719 he was 
present at the Salters' Hall debates, and in 
the same year received a call from the first 
congregation of Belfast, vacant by the death 
of the Rev. John McBride. He was at this 
time chaplain to Colonel Anstruther's regi- 
ment of foot. A report having arisen that 
he held Arian views, the synod in June 1720 
considered the matter, and unanimously re- 
solved that he had ' sufficiently cleared his 
innocency.' His accuser, the Rev. Samuel 
Dunlop, Athlone, was rebuked. On 28 July 
1720, the day appointed for his installation 
in Belfast, he refused to subscribe the West- 
minster Confession of Faith, tendering instead 
to the presbytery the following declaration : 
' I sincerely believe the Scriptures of the Old 
and New Testament to be the only rule of 
revealed religion, a sufficient test of ortho- 
doxy or soundness in the faith, and to settle 
all the terms of ministerial and Christian 
communion, to which nothing may be added 
by any synod, assembly, or council whatso- 
ever : and I find all the essential articles of 
the Christian doctrine to be contained in the 
Westminster Confession of Faith, which ar- 
ticles I receive upon the sole authority of the 
holy Scriptures '(preface to his Reasons against 
Subscription, p. v). The presbytery proceeded 
with the installation, in violation of the law 
of the church, and in the face of a protest 
and appeal from four members. The case 
came before the synod in 1721 ; but though 
Haliday still refused to sign the Confession, 
the matter was allowed to drop. A resolu- 
tion was, however, carried after long debate 
that all members of synod who were willing 
to subscribe the confession might do so, with 
which the majority complied. Hence arose 




the terms ' subscribers ' and ' non-subscribers.' 
Haliday continued identified with the latter 
till his death. A number of members of his 
congregation were so dissatisfied with the 
issue of the case that they refused to remain 
under his ministry. After much opposition 
they were erected by the synod into a new 
charge. The establishment of this congrega- 
tion called forth ' A Letter from the Revs. 
Messrs. Kirkpatrick and Haliday, Ministers 
in Belfast, to a Friend in Glasgow, with 
relation to the new Meeting-house in Bel- 
fast,' Edinburgh, 1723. The subscription 
controversy raged for years, Haliday con- 
tinuing to take a foremost part in it, both in 
the synod and through the press. In 1724 
he published f Reasons against the Imposi- 
tion of Subscription to the Westminster Con- 
fession of Faith, or any such Human Tests 

of Orthodoxy, together with Answers to the 
Arguments for such Impositions,' pp. xvi and 
152, Belfast, 1724. A reply to this having 

been issued by the Rev. Gilbert Kennedy, 
Tullylish, co. Down, Haliday published ' A 
Letter to the Rev. Mr. Gilbert Kennedy, occa- 
sioned by some personal Reflections,' Belfast, 
1725, and in the following year 'A Letter to 
the Rev. Mr. Francis Iredell, occasioned by 
his "Remarks" on "A Letter to the Rev. Mr. 
Gilbert Kennedy/" Belfast, 1726. To end 
the strife the synod in 1725 adopted the ex- 
pedient of placing all the non-subscribing 
ministers in one presbytery, that of Antrim, 
which in the following year was excluded 
from the body. Haliday also published ' A 
Sermon occasioned by the Death of the Rev. 
Mr. Michael Bruce, preached at Holywood 
on 7 Dec. 1735,' pp. 35, Belfast, 1735. A cor- 
respondence between him and the Rev. James 
Kirkpatrick of Belfast on the one side, and 
the Rev. Charles Mastertown, minister of the 
newly erected congregation there, on the 
other, with regard to a proposal that the two 
former and their congregations should com- 
municate along with the hearers of the latter, 
may be found in the preface to Kirkpatrick's 
1 Scripture Plea,' 1724, p. 5, &c. Haliday 
married the widow of Arthur Maxwell, who 
brought him considerable property. He died 
on 5 March 1739 in his fifty-fourth year (Bel- 
fast News Letter, ii. 157). 

[MS. Minutes of Laggan; MS. Minutes of 
Synod of Ulster ; Narrative of Seven Synods ; 
Peacock's Leyden Students, p. 45 ; Reid's Hist. 
of the Presbyterian Church in Ireland, vol. iii. ; 
Witherow's Memorials of Presbyterian ism in Ire- 
land, vol. i.] T. H. 

HALIDAY, WILLIAM (1788-1812), 
Irish grammarian, born in Dublin in 1788, 
was son of William Haliday or Halliday, an 
apothecary, and elder brother of Charles Hali- 

day [q. v.] He was bred a solicitor, and learnt 
Irish from three Munstermen who lived in 
Dublin, MacFaelchu, O'Connaill, and O'Ca- 
thasaigh ; and so despised in his middle sphere 
of society was the native language of Ireland 
that Haliday assumed the name of William 
O'Hara when he began to take lessons from 
O'Cathasaigh. In 1808 he published in Dub- 
lin * Uraicecht na Gaedhilge : a Grammar of 
the Irish Language/ under another assumed 
name, Edmond O'Connell. This is a compi- 
lation based upon Stewart's * Gaelic Gram- 
ir.' He was one of the founders in 1807 
of the Gaelic Society of Dublin, established 
for the investigation and revival of ancient 
Irish literature, and in 1811 published in 
Dublin the first volume of a text and trans- 
lation of Keating's < History of Ireland.' He 
had begun an Irish dictionary when he died, 
26 Oct. 1812. He was an enthusiastic stu- 
dent of Irish literature of the same kind as 
O'Reilly the lexicographer. Their work is 
defective in thoroughness, because of their 
imperfect training, but has been of great 
service to many more learned persons, and 
has given much enjoyment to many of the 

[Webb's Compendium of Irish Biography, 
1878 ; O'Donovan's Grammar of the Irish Lan- 
guage, 1845, preface; O'Reilly's Irish-English 
Dictionary, 1821, preface; Transactions of the 
Gaelic Society of Dublin, 1808.] N. M. 

GEORGE, 1633-1695.] 

CHARLES, 1661-1715 : DUNK, GEORGE 
MONTAGUE, 1716-1771.] 

CHARLES, 1800-1885.] 

HALIFAX, JOHN (d. 1256). [See 

HALKERSTON, PETER (d. 1833?), 
Scotch lawyer, received a university edu- 
cation, and took the degree of M.A. He 
studied law, and became a member of the 
Society of Solicitors to the Supreme Courts of 
Scotland. For ten years he acted as one of 
the examiners of that body, and was their 
librarian for a still longer period. He also 
held for some time the office of bailie of the 
abbey of Holyrood. During his tenure of office 
he studied the records of the place, and pro- 
duced in 1831 ' A Treatise on the History, 
Law, and Privilege's of the Palace and Sanc- 
tuary of Holyrood House.' Halkerston, who 
seems to have directed himself rather to the 
theoretical than the practical side of his pro- 
fession, received the honorary degree of LL.D. , 
and was also elected an extraordinary member 



of theKoyal Physical Society. His other works 
were: 1. 'A Compendium or General Abridg- 
ment of the Faculty Collection of Decisions of 
the Lords of Council and Session from Feb. 4 
1754 to the Session of 1817,' Edinb. 1819-20. 
2. 'A Translation and Explanation of the 
Technical Terms in Mr. Erskine's Institutes 
of the Law of Scotland/ Edinb. 1820; 2nd 
edition, 1829. 3. A Collection of Latin 
Maxims and Rules in Law and Equity, with 
an English translation/ Edinb. 1823. 4. ' An 
Analysis of the Act of Parliament 6 Geo. IV, 
and the Acts of Sederunt founded thereon/ 
Edinb. 1827. These acts remodelled the pro- 
cedure in the court of session. 5. 'A Digest 
of the Law of Scotland relating to Marriage. 
Book i./ Edinb. 1827 ; new edition, 1831. 

[Keferences in works above quoted ; Cat. of 
Advocates' Library.] F. W-T. 

covenanter. [See HACKSTON.] 

HALKET, GEORGE (d. 1756), Scottish 
song-writer, is said by Peter Buchan ( Glean- 
ings of Scotch, English, and Irish Old Ballads} 
to have been a native of Aberdeenshire. In 
1714 he was appointed schoolmaster, pre- 
centor, and session-clerk in the parish of Ra- 
then, Aberdeenshire. One apartment served 
for dwelling and schoolhouse, and when, in 
1718, Halket married Janet Adamson, the 
heritors being severely economical caused his 
box-bed to be reversed, so that its back should 
be a partition between school and bedroom, 
while they let a window into the north wall 
to insure the comfort of the sleepers. Hal- 
ket's unsteady habits led to his dismissal from 
Rathen in 1725, and with his wife and three 
children he settled at Cairnbulg, some dis- 
tance off, and was a more or less successful 
schoolmaster there for twenty-five years. In 
1750 he removed to Memsie, becoming tutor 
in the families of Colonel Fraser and Sir 
James Innes, besides doing other private 
teaching. His last change was to Tyrie, 
where he died in 1756. According to Buchan, 
he is buried in Fraserburgh old churchyard. 

Halket's only undoubted publication is 
a thin 12mo volume, entitled l Occasional 
Poems upon Several Subjects,' printed at 
Aberdeen in 1727 for the author, who figures 
on the title-page as 'George Hacket.' There 
are four poems in the work : ( Advice to Youth/ 
based on Ecclesiastes, xii. 1-2 ; ' Good Friday/ 
in which the author illustrates one part of 
his theme with severe references to the treat- 
ment of Charles I by Scottish and English 
whigs ; ' Easter Day ; ' and an insipid ' Pas- 
toral.' The volume containing these poems 
is extremely rare and was unknown to Bu- 
chan. Perhaps the only existing copy is in 

the Mitchell Library, Glasgow. It has not 
much value as literature, nothing in it ap- 
proaching the rapid movement and the pun- 
gent satirical thrusts of the Jacobite ballad, 
'Whirry Whigs, Awa' Man/ and nothing 
suggestive of the romantic tenderness, the 
cheerful and resolute self-dependence, and 
the lyrical grace of 'Logie o' Buchan.' Halket 
is credited with both of these poems, but 
there is a total lack of evidence on the point. 
As, however, there is no one else of the 
period to whom they can be assigned, it is 
just possible that they are his, and at any 
rate his claims are supported by a persistent 
tradition and the weighty surmise of Peter 
Buchan. Halket is quite likely to have writ- 
ten 'A Dialogue between the Devil and 
George II/ a perusal of which, in 1746, caused 
the Duke of Cumberland to offer a reward 
of 100/. for the author ' alive or dead.' He- 
may also have been the author of a ballad 
entitled ' Schism Displayed.' 

[Peter Buchan's Gleanings, as above; Wil- 
liam Walker's Bards of Bon-Accord.] T. B. 

(1622-1699), royalist and writer on religious 
subjects, born in London 4 Jan. 1622, was- 
the younger daughter of Thomas Murray, a. 
cadet of the Tullibardine family, who had 
been appointed by James I tutor to his son 
Charles, and subsequently was provost of Eton 
College. Her mother was Jane Drummond y 
related to the noble family of Perth, who r 
after acting as sub-governess to the Duke of 
Gloucester and the Princess Elizabeth during- 
the absence of the Countess of Roxburgh, 
succeeded on the death of the countess to- 
ner office. Anne lost her father when she was 
only three years old, and was carefully edu- 
cated by her mother. She and her sister 
Jane were sent to masters to be instructed 
in French, dancing, and playing on the lute 
and virginals, and a gentlewoman was kept 
for instructing them in needlework. Special 
importance was also attached to her religious 
instruction, and in her early years she was 
seldom or never absent 'from divine service 
at five o'clock in the morning in summer, and 
six o'clock in the winter ' (Autobiography \ 
p. 3). In order to help the poor she studied 
physic and surgery with such success that 
patients sought her from all parts of England 
and Scotland as well as from the continent. 
In 1644 her affections became engaged to 
Thomas Howard, eldest son of Edward, lord 
Howard. Her mother forbade the match on 
account of the small fortune of the lovers. 
She would not marry in defiance of her 
mother, but promised to marry no one else. 
She asked her relative, Sir Patrick Drum- 




mond, to procure her admission to aprotestant 
nunnery in Holland, but he succeeded in re- 
conciling her to her mother. In July 1646 
Howard married Lady Elizabeth Mordaunt. 
Anne's mother died on 28 Aug. of the fol- 
lowing year, and shortly afterwards, through 
her brother Will, she made the acquaintance 
of Joseph Bampfield [q. v.] He pleased her 
by his serious discourse, and she helped him 
in contriving the escape of the Duke of York 
by procuring from her tailor a female dis- 
guise for the duke. She herself dressed the 
duke in the disguise at the waterside and 
provided him also with a Woodstreet cake 
before he entered the barge that conveyed 
liim to the ship at Greenwich. After the 
escape of the duke she had frequent inter- 
views with Bampfield, who made use of her 
in the conveyance of letters between him 
and the king. He persuaded her that his 
wife was dead, and offered her his hand. In 
the autumn of 1649 she was on a visit to Anne, 
wife of Sir Charles Howard of Naworth 
Castle, when she heard of Bampfield's arrest, 
and was then informed that his wife was 
alive. This caused a serious illness, in which 
her life was despaired of. Her recovery was 
assisted by the happy news that as she sup- 
posed in answer to her prayers Bampfield 
had escaped from the Gatehouse. At the in- 
stance of Bampfield, in whose good faith she 
had still implicit trust, the Earl of Derwent- 
water promised that if she came to Scotland 
he would assist her in the recovery of part 
of her inheritance. Bampfield was himself 
then in Scotland. She reached Edinburgh 
on 6 June 1650, and was introduced to 
Charles II at Dunfermline. After the battle 
of Dunbar she left on 2 Sept. for the north, 
but was delayed two days at Kinross, attend- 
ing the soldiers wounded in the battle. On 
Teaching Perth she received the special thanks 
of the king for the exercise of her skill, and 
he sent her from Aberdeen a reward of fifty 
pieces. Bampfield still protested his innocence, 
and she consented to an interview. She re- 
mained for about two years with the Countess 
of Dunfermline at Fyvie, Aberdeenshire, 
where she was visited by a large number of 
sick and wounded persons. In June 1652 
he returned to Edinburgh, where she began 
a law-suit for the recovery of the portion left 
her by her mother. She stayed there to assist 
Bampfield in royalist plots. In February 
1652-3 he left to promote a rising in the 
north, when she was disquieted by the pre- 
diction of Jane Hambleton, supposed to be 
gifted with the second sight, that Bampfield 
should never be her husband, and shortly 
afterwards news reached her that Bampfield's 
.wife was undoubtedly living in London (ib. 


p. 83), Sir James Halkett, who had already 
paid her his addresses, now induced her to 
undertake the charge of his two daughters, 
and to give him also a conditional promise 
of marriage. In 1654 she paid a visit to 
London, when Bampfield obtained an inter- 
view by surprise, and asked whether she was 
married to Sir James Halkett. She said ' I 
am' (out aloud), and secretly said 'not.' He 
immediately rose up and said, 'I wish you and 
him much happiness together' (ib. p. 99). 
She was married to Halkett 2 March 1656 
at her sister's house at Charleton, and a few 
days afterwards returned to Scotland. While 
pregnant with her first child, and apprehen- 
sive that she might die in childbirth, she 
wrote a tract entitled ' The Mother's Will 
to her Unborn Child.' On the death of 
Charles I she had been deprived of her inte- 
rest, amounting to 412/. annually, due upon 
an unexpired lease of Barham stead, a house 
and park belonging to the king. She had also 
found that her ' malignancy ' had rendered her 
efforts for the recovery of 2,000/. of her por- 
tion entirely fruitless. At the Restoration 
she applied for compensation, but received 
nothing more than 500 out of the exchequer, 
and 50/. from the Duke of York as a gift to 
one of her children. After her husband's 
death in 1676 she found it necessary to sup- 
plement her income by taking the charge, in 
her house at Dunfermline, of the education 
of the children of several persons of rank. 
James II, after his accession in 1685, re- 
warded her services to him in assisting his 
escape by a pension of 100/. a year. She died 
22 April 1699. 

Lady Halkett left twenty volumes in manu- 
script, chiefly on religious subjects. A list 
of the contents is given in her ' Life,' prefixed 
to the volume of her writings published in 
1701. This volume contains : (1) ' Meditations 
on the Seventieth and Fifth Psalm ; ' (2) ' Medi- 
tations and Prayers upon the First Week ; 
with Observations on each Days Creation ; 
and Considerations on the Seven Capital 
Vices to be opposed ; and their opposite ver- 
tues to be studied and practised ; ' and (3) 
' Instructions for Youth.' Her autobiography 
was first printed at length by the Camden 
Society in 1875. 

[Life of Lady Halkett, 1701 ; Autobiography 
of Anne, Lady Halkett (Camden Society, 1875).] 

T. F. H. 

LADY WARDLAW (1677-1727). [See WARD- 

HALKETT, SIR COLIN (1774-1856), 
general, governor of Chelsea Hospital, eldest 
son of Major-general Frederick or Frederick 




Godar Halkett [q. v.], by his wife, Georgina 
Robina Seton, was born on 7 Sept. 1774, at 
Venlo, his father being then a major in the 
regiment of Gordon of the Scots brigade. 
On 2 March 1792, having previously served 
seven months as a regimental cadet, he was 
nominated ensign with the rank of lieutenant 
in Lieutenant-general Van Aerssens van 
Royeren van Vorhol's company of the 2nd 
battalion Dutch foot-guards (Archives of the 
Councils of the States of Holland: 'Register 
of Subaltern Officers taking the Oath,' 1784- 
1795, p. 197 ; ' Status of Officers Dutch Foot- 
guards,' 1 Jan. 1794) ; became effective en- 
sign in Lieutenant-colonel Pagniet's company 
14 July 1792 (ib. p. 209), and subsequently 
lieutenant with the rank of captain in 
General-major Schmid's company 1st bat- 
talion of Dutch foot-guards. By a resolution 
of the committee of land affairs of the con- 
federacy he was permitted to retire at his 
own request 27 April 1795. On 3 Jan. 1799 
he was appointed ensign 3rd Buffs, which he 
never joined, resigning his commission in 
February 1800, when the Dutch levies, which 
had been serving on the continent under the 
Prince of Orange, were taken into British pay 
(AA's Biog. Woordenboek, xx. 264, and refer- 
ences there given). Halkett became captain in 
the 2nd Dutch light infantry, commanded by 
Lieutenant-colonel T. Sprecher van Bernegg, 
and quartered in Guernsey (Muster-Halls 
Dutch Troops, 1800-2, in Public Record 
Office, London). These troops never appeared 
in the Army List. They were stationed in 
the Isle of Wight and the Channel Islands 
until the peace of Amiens, when they were 
sent to certain towns in Holland to be dis- 
banded, Halkett and the other officers receiv- 
ing special gratuities on discharge ( War Office 
Correspondence with Inspectors of Foreign 
Corps, ii. 94 et seq., and iii. 160 et seq., in 
Public Record Office). In August 1803, on 
the dissolution of the Hanoverian army after 
the convention of Lauenburg, when many dis- 
charged soldiers were looking to England for 
employment, Halkett, described as a major in 
the Dutch service, which by that time he seems 
to have left, was authorised by the English 
government to raise a battalion of light in- 
fantry in Hanover, to consist of 489 men, 
Halkett having rank as major-commandant, 
with the promise of a lieutenant-colonelcy 
when the numbers reached eight hundred 
men. German recruits offering in England 
in great numbers, the formation of a German 
legion, under command of the Duke of Cam- 
bridge, was decided on soon after. Recruit- 
ing for the independent levies of Baron von 
der Decken and Major Halkett in Germany 
then ceased, and these two corps became re- 

spectively the 1st and 2nd light battalions 
of the new King's German Legion. They 
were dressed as riflemen, and stationed at- 
first in the New Forest, and afterwards at 
Bexhill, Sussex. Halkett was appointed 
lieutenant-colonel on 17 Nov. 1803 (BEAMISH,, 
i. 80). At the head of the 2nd light battalion 
King's German Legion, Halkett served under 
Lord Cathcart, in the north of Germany in 
1805-6, and in Ireland in 1806 ; was ship- 
wrecked with part of the battalion in the 
Northumberland transport on Rundle Stone 
rock off the Land's End in May 1807 (zft.i.104) ; 
was afterwards at the Isle of Rugen and in 
the Copenhagen expedition of the same year. 
He was in Sweden and Portugal in 1808 ; in 
Moore's retreat through Spain, when the Ger- 
man light battalions were among the troops 
that retired onVigo ; and in theWalcheren ex- 
pedition,where these battalions repeatedly dis- 
tinguished themselves. In command of his bat- 
talion in the German light brigade of Charles 
Alten [q. v.] Halkett joined Beresford's army 
before Badajoz, in April 1811, a few days be- 
fore the fall of Olivenca (ib. i. 331), and com- 
manded the brigade at the battle of Albuera. 
He became brevet-colonel 1 Jan. 1812, was 
with his battalion at Salamanca and in the 
operations against Burgos ; and commanded 
the German light brigade with the 7th divi- 
sion in the Burgos retreat, where he won the 
special approbation of Lord Wellington ; in 
the affair at Venta de Pozo, where the 2nd 
light battalion was commanded by his brother, 
Hugh Halkett [q. v.] ; and at the bridge of 
Simancas (ib. ii. 114-16 ; GURWOOD, Well. 
Desp. vi. 136, 142). He commanded the 
German light brigade during the succeeding" 
campaigns, including the battle of Vittoria, 
occupation of Tolosa, passage of the Bidassoa,, 
and the battles on the Nive and at Toulouse. 
He became a major-general 4 June 1814. In 
the Waterloo campaign Halkett commanded 
a British brigade composed of the 30th,, 
33rd, 69th, and 73rd regiments, in the 3rd 
division, which was very hotly engaged at 
Quatre Bras and Waterloo, where Halkett 
himself received four severe wounds. The 
duke refers to him in a despatch as ' a very 
gallant and deserving officer ' ( Well. Suppl. 
Desp. x. 752). Halkett remained in the 
British service ; he was for some years lieu- 
tenant-governor of Jersey, became a lieu- 
tenant-general in 1830, and general in 1841 r 
and was commander-in-chief at Bombay from 
July 1831 to January 1832. He was appointed 
colonel in succession of the 71st highland light 
infantry, 31 st and 45th regiments. He was a 
G.C.B. and G.C.H., and knight of numerous 
foreign orders, and honorary general in the 
Hanoverian service. He was appointed lieu- 



tenant-governor of Chelsea Hospital in 1848 
and became governor on the death of Sir 
George Anson in 1849. Halkett married 
Letitia (Crickett), widow of Captain Tyler, 
royal artillery, and by her had issue. He 
died at Chelsea 24 Sept. 1856. 

[Burke's Landed Gentry, 1886 ed., under 
' Oaigie-Halkett ; ' information from the Dutch 
State Archives (Gecommitteerde Kaden van de 
Staten van Holland, or Delegated Councils of the 
States of Holland, 1784-95, and Committ6 over 
de algemeene zaken van het Bondgenootschap 
te Lande, or Committee of Land Affairs of the 
Confederacy, 1795, which at that time was en- 
trusted with the military administration), sup- 
plied by the courtesy of the Rev. Edward Brine, 
M. A., British chaplain at the Hague ; War Office re- 
cords in Public Record Office, London ; Beamish's 
Hist. King's German Legion, with the various 
authorities therein cited ; Napier's Peninsular 
War; Philippart's Roy. Mil. Calendar, 1820, iii. 
380; Si home's Waterloo; Gurwood'sWell. Desp. 
vi. 136, 142, viii. H7, 150 ; Well. Suppl. Desp. 
viii. 9, 29, 419, x. 3, 535, 551, 604, 659, 661, 752, 
xiii. 670, xiv. 203, 209 ; Gent. Mag. new ser. i. 
649.] H. M. C. 


(1728-1803), major-general, was son of 
Lieutenant-general Charles Halkett, of the 
Dutch army, colonel of a regiment of the 
Scots brigade in the pay of Holland, by his 
second wife, Anne le Foucher, a French lady. 
He was therefore younger half-brother of 
Colonel Charles Halkett of the Dutch service, 
governor of Namur, who married the heiress 
of Craigie of Dumbarnie, and died in 1812, 
and grandson of Major Edward Halkett, who 
served in the Scots brigade in the pay of Hol- 
land in Marlborough's campaigns, and died 
from wounds received at the battle of Ra- 
millies. Edward Halkett's grandfather, John 
Halkett, was a general in the Dutch service, 
and president of the grand court marishall in 
Holland. He was killed at the siege of Bois- 
le-Duc in 1628. 

Frederick Godar Halkett was born some- 
time in 1728. The regiments of the Scots 
brigade, having their own chaplains, kept 
separate registers, now among the archives 
at Rotterdam. The State Archives at the 
Hague show that Halkett became ensign in 
the regiment of Gordon on 13 June 1743, 
and rose through each grade to be lieutenant- 
colonel of the 2nd battalion of the regiment 
of Dundas on 5 Nov. 1777. Soon after the 
outbreak of the American war, a message was 
sent by George III to the States-General of 
Holland, desiring the return of the Scots 
or Scotch brigade. This was not complied 
with. When an open rupture between Great 
Britain and Holland occurred in 1782, an 
edict was issued in Holland requiring the 

officers of the brigade to declare that they 
recognised no power other than the States- 
General as their sovereign. The use of the 
British uniform and colours was to be dis- 
continued, the words of command were to be 
in Dutch instead of English, and the old Scots' 
march was to beat no more. Considering that 
the change would involve a surrender of their 
rights as British subjects and soldiers, Hal- 
kett, with many other officers of the brigade, 
left Holland and returned home, without at 
first receiving equivalent half-pay rank in 
the British army as they expected. Halkett 
settled in Edinburgh. On 21 Oct. 1771 
he married Georgina Robina, daughter and 
heiress of George Robert Seton and his wife 
Margaret Abercrombie, by whom he had 
several children, including Colin [q. v.] and 
Hugh [q. v.] 

After the breaking, out of the French revo- 
lutionary war Halkett was summoned to 
the Hague to advise on the military position, 
but refused to take any command, although 
he accepted a commission in the Dutch guards 
for his son Colin. On his return home Hal- 
kett raised one of the battalions of the so- 
called Scotch brigade, a corps which, after 
distinguished services in India and the Pen- 
insula, was disbanded, as the 94th foot, in 
1818. Halkett, whose commission as lieute- 
nant-colonel commandant was dated 14 April 
1794, became a brevet-colonel in 1795, and 
retired from active service on account of age 
soon afterwards. He became a major-general 
in 1802, and died at Edinburgh 8 Aug. 1803, 
at the age of seventy-five. 

[Anderson's Scottish Nation (for genealogy), 
ii. 407 ; Burke's Landed Gentry, ed. 1886, under 
' Craigie-Halkett ; ' Account of the Scotch Brigade 
(London, 1794); Roy. Mil. Calendar, new ser. 
(1820), iii. 84; Colburn's United Service Mag. 
October 1868, pp. 286-7 ; British Army Lists ; 
Scots Mag. Ixv. 671.] H. M. C. 

KETT (1783-1863), general of Hanoverian 
infantry, lieutenant-colonel in the British 
service, second son of Major-general Frede- 
rick Godar Halkett [q. v.], was born at Mus- 
selburgh 30 Aug. 1783. As a boy he was 
chiefly noticed for his activity and love of 
horses. On 19 April 1794 he was made en- 
sign in his father's battalion of the Scotch 
brigade, then raising ; became lieutenant in 
1795 ; joined the regiment in 1797, and in 
1798 (up to which time he was shown on the 
rolls as on recruiting service) went out to 
India in charge of a draft of 240 men, but 
arrived after the capture of Seringapatam, in 
which the Scotch brigade took part. He 
served in India until 1801, when he was in- 

E 2 



valided home. In 1803 he was nominated 
.senior captain of the light battalion raising 
in Hanover under his brother, Colin Halkett 
,[q. v.], which became the 2nd light battalion 
of the king's German legion in British pay, and 
in which Hugh Halkett became major before 
he was twenty-two. He served with the bat- 
.talion in the north of Germany under Lord 
Cathcart in 1805-6, in the isle of Rugen and 
at the siege of Stralsund in 1807, and in the 
.expedition against Copenhagen later in the 
year. His promptitude in outpost duty in 
-seizing a Danish redoubt without waiting for 
orders won the approval of Sir David Baird. 
Halkett, who was very modest in speaking 
of his own deeds, used to allude to the occur- 
rence in after years as ' the best thing I ever 
did' (Allg. deutsche Biogr.; BEAMISH, i. 116- 
118). He went with his battalion to Sweden 
in 1808, and thence to Portugal. He was in 
the Corunna retreat with the troops that em- 
barked at Vigo and were not actually present 
at the battle of Corunna, in the Walcheren 
expedition, and at the siege of Flushing, and 
in 1811 went to the Peninsula and com- 
manded his battalion at the battle of Albu- 
era. He commanded it again in the follow- 
ing year at the siege of the forts of Sala- 
manca, at the battle of Salamanca, and in the 
Burgos retreat, where the light brigade, com- 
posed of the 1st and 2nd light battalions of 
the German legion, formed the rear-guard of 
the army. On 22 Oct. 1812 these battalions 
distinguished themselves by their gallant re- 
pulse of the French cavalry at Venta de Pozo 
(BEAMISH, ii. 114; NAPIER, bk. xix. chap, iv.) 
Halkett was promoted to the lieutenant- 
colonelcy of the 7th line battalion of the le- 
gion, then in Sicily. In April 1813 Halkett, 
then on leave in England, was sent to North 
Germany, with some officers and men of the 
German legion, to assist in organising the 
new Hanoverian levies (BEAMISH, ii. chaps, 
vii. and ix.) In command of a brigade of 
.these troops in Count Walmoden's army he 
distinguished himself at the battle of Go'hrde, 
16 Sept. 1813, and in the unsuccessful fight 
with the Danes at Schestedt in December 
following. On the latter occasion, when a 
Danish cavalry regiment was attacking a bat- 
talion of his brigade, Halkett dashed upon 
the standard-bearer, seized the standard, and 
.escaped by clearing a quickset hedge with 
double ditch, over which none of his many 
-pursuers cared to folio w(Allg. deutsche Biogr.} 
He held command at the sieges of Gluckstadt 
~and Harburg in 1814. In the Waterloo 
campaign Halkett commanded the 3rd and 
4th "brigades of the subsidiary force of Hano- 
verian militia or landwehr, which accom- 
panied the newly organised Hanoverian re- 

gular troops (not to be confused with the 
German legion in British pay) into Belgium. 
On 18 June these brigades were with Clin- 
ton's division in the wood to the right of 
Hougoumont, where, at the close of the day, 
Halkett distinguished himself by taking pri- 
soner the French general, Cambronne, com- 
mander of the imperial guard, whose tra- 
ditional utterance, 'La garde meurt, et ne 
se rend pas,' he laconically pronounced to be 
' damned humbug.' It is probable, however, 
that the words were actually spoken to the 
guard. Halkett's version was that, after the 
last French advance, broken parties of the 
guard, which had already begun to fall back, 
were close to the British advanced skir- 
mishers. Observing a French general rallying 
his men, and wishing to give encouragement 
to his own young soldiers, Halkett put spurs 
to the powerful English hunter he bestrode, 
which started off. The French evidently 
thought that Halkett's horse had bolted. 
Coming close to Cambronne,Halkett presented 
a pistol and called on him to surrender, which 
he did. At the moment Halkett's horse was 
shot under him, and he saw Cambronne making 
off towards his men. Getting his horse on 
its legs again with a desperate effort, Halkett 
pursued, caught Cambronne by the aiguillette, 
swung him round, and cantered off with him 
into the British line (BEAMiSH/ii. 381 ; Notes 
and Queries, 6th ser. ii. 144; WILKINSON, 
Reminiscences, ii. 55). After the peace the 
German legion in British pay, in which Hal- 
kett was still lieutenant-colonel 7th line 
battalion, was disbanded. Halkett was put 
on British half-pay, which he drew until his 

Halkett and other legionaries received per- 
manent appointments in the new Hanoverian 
army. In 1817 he was colonel of the Embden 
landwehr battalion, linked with the 10th 
Hanoverian line infantry ; in 1818 he became 
a major-general in the Hanoverian army, and 
colonel of the 8th or Hoya infantry ; in 1819 
colonel of the 4th or Celle infantry ; in 1834 
lieutenant-general and commander of the 4th 
infantry brigade ; in 1836 commander of a 
division ; in 1848 general and inspector-gene- 
ral of Hanoverian infantry. He was sent to 
Osnabriick in 1839, when disturbances were 
feared in consequence of certain constitutional 
changes. His tact and popularity rendered 
repressive measures unnecessary. He was 
put in command of the 10th army corps of 
the German confederation assembled for au- 
tumn manosuvres near Liineburg in 1843, and 
in 1848 commanded the same army corps in the 
Schleswig-Holstein war, under Von Wrangel 
(Ann. Reg. 1848, pp. 340-52 ; SICHART, Tages- 
buch 10. Bundes Armee- Corps im Jahre 1848, 




Berlin, 1851 ; Allg. deutschefiioffr.) Ten years 
later Halkett sought leave to retire. On the 
anniversary of Waterloo in 1858 the Hano- 
verian chambers voted him a life pension 
ril to the full pay of his rank, lie was 
made a baron. 

Halkett was a C.B. and G.C.H. ; he had 
the decorations of the Prussian Black Eagle 
and St. Anne of Russia, both of the lirst class, 
in brilliants ; the Prussian order of Military 
Merit, the Danish Dannebrog, the Sword of 
Sweden, and other orders, together with the 
Spanish gold cross for Albuera, the British 
gold medal with clasps for Albuera and 
Salamanca, the Peninsular, Waterloo, and 
Hanoverian war medals. Halkett is described 
as a bright, active, cheery little man, very 
popular with all ranks, speaking German very 
badly with an English accent. He married, 
25 May 1810, Emily Charlotte, daughter of 
Sir James Bland Burges, afterwards Lamb 
[see BURGES], and Anne de Montoleiu his 
second wife, and by her had a large family. 
Three of his sons were officers in the British 
army (see BURKE, Landed Gentry^). Halkett 
died at Hanover after a long illness on 26 July 

[Burke's Landed Gentry, 1886 ed., under 
' Craigie-Halkett ; ' British Army Lists; N. L. 
Beamish's Hist. King's German Legion, 2 vols. 
1832, and the records quoted marginally therein, 
which are now preserved among the state archives 
at Hanover, except the regimental muster-rolls 
and pay-lists in the Public Record Office, London ; 
Napier's Hist. Peninsular War; E. von dem 
Knesebeck's Leben des Freiherrn von Halkett, 
Stuttgart, 1865; biography by Poten in Allg. 
deutsche Biogr. vol. x. ; Hof und Staats Handbuch 
fiir Hannover, 1864, necrology; Kev. Chas. Allix 
Wilkinson's Reminiscences of the Court of King 
Ernest I of Hanover, 1886, ii. 83-5.] H. M. C. 

HALKETT, SAMUEL (1814-1871), li- 
brarian, was born in 1814 in the North Back 
of the Canongate, Edinburgh, where his father 
carried on business as a brewer. He was 
educated at two private schools, and was 
apprenticed at the age of fourteen. For five 
years he was employed by Messrs. Marshall 
& Aitken, and afterwards by Messrs. Aber- 
nethy <fc Stewart, with whom he remained 
until he entered into business for himself. 
His spare time was devoted to study, and 
his l philological genius ' and ' extraordinary 
attainments ' were spoken of by Sir William 
Hamilton and others in supporting his can- 
didature for the keepership of the library of 
the Faculty of Advocates, Edinburgh, in 
1848. On being appointed to that office he 
found the library without an alphabetical 
catalogue, and at once commenced a slip- 
catalogue, which formed the basis of the 

valuable ' Catalogue of the Printed Books in 
the Library of the Faculty of Advocates,* 
Edinburgh, 1863-79, 7 vols. 4to. The print- 
ing was begun in 1860, but the labour was 
so great that at Halkett's death he had not 
proceeded further than the word ' Catalogue/ 
The work was completed on a scale some- 
what less extensive than at first planned. A 
report by Halkett on the state of the library 
in 1868 is appended to a memorandum signed 
by J. Hill Burton on a proposed enlargement 
of the scope of the library (Edinburgh, 1868, 
8vo). In 1856 Halkett wrote to l Notes and 
Queries ' (2nd ser. i. 129) that he had been 
collecting materials for a dictionary of anony- 
mous English works ; on his death his ma- 
terials were handed over to the Rev. John- 
Laing, librarian of the New College, Edin- 
burgh, who continued the work until his. 
death in 1880. The book finally appeared,, 
with many additions, edited by Miss Cathe- 
rine Laing, as l A Dictionary of the Anony- 
mous and Pseudonymous Literature of Great 
Britain' (Edinburgh, 1882-8, 4 vols. 8vo). 
Halkett contributed some articles to Cham- 
bers's ' Cyclopsedia.' His knowledge of books 
and literature was very great, but he was 
chiefly distinguished for his remarkable lin- 
guistic acquirements. He died in April 1871, 
aged 57, and left a widow and four children.. 

[Death of Mr. Halkett, reprinted from the 
Edinburgh Evening Courant, 21 April 1871 
(1871), sm. 8vo; Testimonials in favour of Mr. 
Samuel Halkett, Edinburgh, 1848, 8vo ; Athe- 
naeum, 27 April 1871, p. 528 ; Notes and Queries, 
4th ser. vii. 381, ix. 271, 403, 5th ser. vi. 447.] 

H. K. T. 

HALL, MRS. AGNES C. (1777-1846), 
miscellaneous writer, born in Roxburghshire, 
was the wife of Robert Hall, M.D. (1763- 
1824) [q. v.], whom she survived, dying in 
London on 1 Dec. 1846. She was an indus- 
trious and versatile contributor on literary 
and scientific topics to Gregory's, Nichol- 
son's, and Rees's ' Cyclopaedias,' Aikins's ' Old 
Monthly,' Knight's ' Printing Machine,' and 
wrote the notes to Helms's ' Buenos Ayres * 
(1806). She translated the l Travels ' of De- 
pons (1807), Bory de St. Vincent, Mangourit, 
Millinand Pouqueville (1813), Goldberry and 
Michaux, Vittorio Alfieri's ' Autobiography ' 
(1810), Madame de Genlis' historical ro- 
mance 'La Duchesse de La Valliere' (1804), 
and some other works by the same writer, and 
some of the tales of August Heinrich Lafon- 
taine. She also published ' Rural Recrea- 
tions;' ' Obstinacy ' (1826), a tale for young 
people; 'First and Last Years of Wedded 
Life,' a story of Irish life in the reign of 
George IV; and an historical novel founded 




on the massacre of Glencoe. During her 
later years she contributed to the * Annual 
Biography/ the ' Westminster Review/ and 
1 Fraser's Magazine.' 

[Gent. Mag. 1847, i. 97-8; Watt's Bibl. Brit.] 

J. M. E. 

HALL, ANNA MARIA (1800-1881), 
novelist and miscellaneous writer, was born 
in Anne Street, Dublin, 6 Jan. 1800. Her 
mother, Sarah Elizabeth Fielding, being left 
a widow, took up her residence with her step- 
father, George Carr of Graigie, Wexford, 
where she remained until 1815. The daugh- 
ter came to England with her mother in 1815, 
and on 20 Sept. 1824 married Samuel Carter 
Hall [q. v.] From 1826 Mrs. Fielding resided 
with the Halls, in whose house, 21 Ashley 
Place, London, she died 20 Jan. 1856, aged 83. 
Mrs. Hall's first recorded contribution to lite- 
rature is an Irish sketch called l Master Ben/ 
which appeared in ' The Spirit and Manners 
of the Age/ January 1829, pp. 35-41 et seq. 
Other tales followed. Eventually they were 
collected into a volume entitled ' Sketches 
of Irish Character/ 1829, and henceforth she 
became ' an author by profession/ Next year 
she issued a little volume for children, ' Chro- 
nicles of a School-Room/ consisting of a series 
of simple tales. In 1831 she published a 
second series of ' Sketches of Irish Character ' 
fully equal to the first, which was well re- 
ceived. The first of her nine novels, ' The 
Buccaneer/ 1832, is a story of the time of 
the protectorate, and Cromwell is among the 
characters. To the ' New Monthly Maga- 
zine/ which her husband was editing, she 
contributed t Lights and Shadows of Irish 
Life/ articles which were republished in three 
volumes in 1838. The principal tale in this 
collection, 'The Groves of Blarney/ was 
dramatised with considerable success by the 
authoress with the object of supplying a cha- 
racter for Tyrone Power, and ran for a whole 
season at the Adelphi in 1838. Mrs. Hall 
also wrote ' The French Refugee/ produced 
at the St. James's Theatre in 1836, where it 
ran ninety nights, and for the same theatre 
' Mabel's Curse/ in which John Pritt Harley 
[q. v.] sustained the leading part. 

Another of her dramas, of which she had 
neglected to keep a copy, was ' Who's Who ? ' 
which was in the possession of Tyrone Power 
when he was lost in the President in April 
1841. In 1840 she issued what has been 
called the best of her novels, ' Marian, or a 
Young Maid's Fortunes/ in which her know- 
ledge of Irish character is again displayed in 
a style equal to anything written by Maria 
Edgeworth. Her next work was a series of 
' Stories of the Irish Peasantry/ contributed 
to ' Chambers'*! Edinburgh Journal/ and af- 

terwards published in a collected form. In 
1840 she aided her husband in a book chiefly 
composed by him, ' Ireland, its Scenery, Cha- 
racters, &c.' She edited the 'St. James's 
Magazine/ 1862-3. 

In the ' Art Journal/ edited by her hus- 
band, she brought out 'Pilgrimages to Eng- 
lish Shrines' in 1849, and here the most 
beautiful of all her books, ' Midsummer Eve, 
a Fairy Tale of Love/ first appeared. One 
of her last works, ' Boons and Blessings/ 1875, 
dedicated to the Earl of Shaftesbury, is a col- 
lection of temperance tales, illustrated by the 
best artists. 

Mrs. Hall's sketches of her native land 
bear a closer resemblance to the tales of Miss 
Mitford than to the Irish stories of Banim 
or Griffin. They contain fine rural descrip- 
tions, and are animated by a healthy tone of 
moral feeling and a vein of delicate humour. 
Her books were never popular in Ireland, as 
she saw in each party much to praise and 
much to blame, so that she failed to please 
either the Orangemen or the Roman ca- 

On 10 Dec. 1868 she was granted a civil 
list pension of 1001. a year. She was instru- 
mental in founding the Hospital for Consump- 
tion at Brompton, the Governesses' Insti- 
tute, the Home for Decayed Gentlewomen, 
and the Nightingale Fund. Her benevolence 
was of the most practical nature ; she worked 
for the temperance cause, for women's rights, 
and for the friendless and fallen. She was 
a friend to street musicians, and a thorough 
believer in spiritualism ; but this belief did 
not prevent her from remaining, as she ever 
was, a devout Christian. She kept the fiftieth 
anniversary of her wedding day on 20 Sept. 
1874. She died at Devon Lodge, East 
Moulsey, 30 Jan. 1881, and was buried in 
Addlestone churchyard 5 Feb. 

She was the author of: 1. 'Sketches of 
Irish Character/ 1829, 3 vols., second series, 
1831. 2. 'The Juvenile Forget-me-Not/ 
edited by Mrs. S. C. Hall, 1829 and 1862 

3. 'Chronicles of a School-Room/ 1830. 

4. ' The Buccaneer/ anon., 1832. 5. ' The 
Outlaw. By the Author of " The Bucca- 
neer," ' 1835. 6. < Tales of a Woman's Trials/ 
1835. 7. 'Uncle Horace/ anon., 1837. 

8. ' St. Pierre, the Refugee, aburletta/ 1837. 

9. < Lights and Shadows of Irish Life/ 1838, 
3 vols. 10. 'The Book of Royalty: Character- 
istics of British Palaces/ 1839. 11. ' Tales 
of the Irish Peasantry/ 1840. 12. 'Marian, 
or a Young Maid's Fortunes/ 1840, 3 vols. 
13.' The Hartopp Jubilee/ 1840. 14. 'Sharpe's 
London Magazine, conducted by Mrs. S. 0. 
Hall,' 1845, &c. 15. 'The White Boy, a Novel/ 
1845, 2 vols. 16. 'Midsummer Eve, a Fairy 




Tale of Love/ 1848. 17. ' The Swan's Egg, 
a Tale,' 1850. 18. ' Pilgrimages to English 
Shrines,' 1850. 19. ' Stories of the Governess,' 

1852. 20. ' The Worn Thimble, a Story,' 1853. 
21. 'The Drunkard's Bible,' 1854. 22. 'The 
Two Friends,' 1856. 23. 'A Woman's Story,' 
1857, 3 vols. 24. ' The Lucky Penny and 
other Tales,' 1857. 25. ' Finden's Gallery 
of Modern Art, with Tales by Mrs. S. 0. 
Hall,' 1859. 26. ' The Boy's Birthday Book,' 
1859. 27. ' Daddy Dacre's School/ 1859. 
28. ' The St. James's Magazine, conducted 
foy Mrs. S. C. Hall/ 1861. 29. < Can Wrong 
be Right ? a Tale/ 1862, 2 vols. 30. ' The 
Village Garland : Tales and Sketches/ 1863. 

31. 'Nelly Nowlan and other Stories/ 1865. 

32. ' The Playfellow and other Stories/ 1866. 

33. * The Way of the World and other Stories/ 
1866. 34. '"The Prince of the Fairy Fa- 
mily/ 1867. 35. * Alice Stanley and other 
Stories/ 1868. 36. ' Animal Sagacity/ 1868. 

37. ' The Fight of Faith, a Story/ 1869, 2 vols. 

38. 'Digging a Grave with a Wineglass/ 
1871. 39. ' Chronicles of a Cosy -Nook/ 1875. 
40. ' Boons and Blessings : Stories of Tem- 
perance/ 1875. 41. ' Annie Leslie and other 
Stories/ 1877. 42. ' Grandmother's Pockets/ 

1880. In conjunction with her husband she 
wrote: 43. 'A Week at Killarney/ 1843. 
44. 'Ireland, its Scenery, Characters, &c., 
1841-3, 3 vols. 45. ' Handbooks for Ireland/ 

1853. 46. ' The Book of the Thames/ 1859. 
47. ' Tenby/ 1860. 48. ' The Book of South 
Wales/ 1861. 49. ' A Companion to Killar- 
ney/ 1878. With Mrs. Jonathan Foster she 
wrote: 50. 'Stories and Studies from the 
Chronicles and History of England/ 1847, 
2 vols., which went to nine editions. Mrs. 
Hall also wrote upwards of fifty tales and 
sketches, the majority of which appeared in 
various libraries, collections of stories, and 

[Samuel Carter Hall's Retrospect of a Long 
Life, 1883, ii. 251-2, 421-78, with portrait; 
Eraser's Mag. June 1836, p. 718, with portrait; 
Colburn's New Monthly Mag. August 1838, pp. 
559-62, with portrait ; Dublin University Mag. 
August 1840, pp. 146-9, with portrait; Kale's 
Woman's Record, 1855. pp. 691-5, with portrait ; 
Illustrated News of the World, 1861, vol. viii., 
with portrait; Illustrated London News, 12 Feb. 

1881, pp. 149-50, with portrait; Times, 1 Feb. 
1881, p. 10 ; G-odey's Lady's Book, August 1852, 
pp. 134-6.] Gr. C. B. 

HALL, ANTHONY (1679-1723), anti- 
quary, born at Kirkbride, Cumberland, in 
1679, was the son of Henry Hall, rector of 
that parish (WILLIAM HTJTCHINSON, Cumber- 
land, ii. 485). After some schooling at Car- 
lisle he was admitted a batler of Queen's Col- 
lege, Oxford, 7 July 1696, but did not ma- 

triculate until 18 Nov. 1698. He took his 
bachelor's degree 15 Dec. 1701, and, having 
been ordained, proceeded M.A. 16 June 1704. 
He was elected fellow of his college 18 April 
1706. In November 1716 he was an unsuc- 
cessful candidate for the librarianship of the 
Bodleian Library, vacated by the death of 
John Hudson,who had hoped that Hall might 
succeed him. Hudson bequeathed to Hall the 
editing of his ' Josephus/then nearly finished, 
and by Hall's exertions it was published in 
1720 in two folio volumes. Hall also mar- 
ried Hudson's widow, Margaret, daughter of 
Sir Robert Harrison, an alderman and mercer 
of Oxford. On 8 April 1720 he received in- 
stitution to the college rectory of Hampton 
Poyle, Oxfordshire, and on 4 July 1721 ac- 
cumulated his degrees in divinity. He died 
at Garford, Berkshire, and was buried at 
Kingston in that county on 6 April 1723. 
His wife survived him. 

Hall, although his literary labours were de- 
rided in his lifetime, contrived to get his books 
liberally subscribed for, and they were printed 
at the university press. Hearne is especially 
severe on him : ' A dull, stupid, sleepy fellow/ 
he writes, ' a man of no industry, it being 
common with him to lye abed till very near 
dinner-time, and to drink very freely of the 
strongest liquors ' {Collections, Oxf. Hist. Soc. 
ii. 164, 171). Edward Thwaites and other 
fellows of Queen's persuaded him in 1705 
to edit Leland's ' Commentarii de Scriptori- 
bus Britannicis ' from the manuscript in the 
Bodleian Library, carefully concealing the 
fact from Tanner, who had been at work upon 
an edition for ten or twelve years past. The 
book appeared in March 1709 in two octavo 
volumes, and was condemned even by his own 
friends. Hearne says that it was full of the 
grossest errors, caused by incapacity to read 
the manuscript (ib. ii. 174 ). In 1 719 Hall pub- 
lished ' Nicolai Triveti Annales sex Regum 
Anglise. E . . . CodiceGlastoniensi/8vo, Ox- 
ford, 1719. From the same manuscript he 
edited ' Nicolai Triveti Annalium Continua- 
tio; ut et Adami Murimuthensis Chronicon, 
cum ejusdem continuatione ; quibus accedunt 
Joannis Bostoni Speculum Coenobitarum et 
Edmundi Boltoni Hypercritica/ 8vo, Oxford, 
1722. Hall furnished the introduction or 
account of the ancient state of Britain for 
Thomas Cox's ' Magna Britannia/ 1720. He 
' owned the account of Berkshire to be his ' 
(GouGH, British Topography, i. 33-4), but 
repudiated the description of Cumberland in 
a postscript to his edition of Trivet's ' An- 
nales.' In the proposals for the publication 
of Urry's ' Chaucer/ 1716, the addition of a 
copious glossary was promised by Hall, but 
it appears to have been afterwards under- 



taken and completed by a student of Christ 
Church. Hall's correspondence with Dr. Ar- 
thur Charlett q. v.] is preserved in the Bal- 
lard collection in the Bodleian Library (xviii. 
23-7). His portrait has been engraved by 

[Gent. Mag. 1734 553, 1800 pt, ii. 1031-2; 
Chalmers's Biog. Diet. xvii. 45-6, xviii. 281 ; 
Oxford Graduates (1851), p. 285; Evans's Cat. 
of Engraved Portraits, ii. 164.] G. G. 

HALL, ARCHIBALD (1736-1778), di- 
vine, was born in the parish of Penicuick, 
Midlothian, in 1736. He learned the rudi- 
ments of the Latin, Greek, and Hebrew 
languages from John Brown (1722-1787) 
[q. v.] of Haddington, completed his arts 
curriculum at the university of Edinburgh, 
and studied divinity under the Rev. James 
Fisher of Glasgow. He was licensed to 
preach in 1758, and soon after was ordained 
minister of the associate congregation at 
Torphichen in West Lothian. In 1765 he 
became minister of the Secession church in 
Well Street, London, and in that capacity he 
exercised a widespread and beneficial influ- 
ence, not only over the Scotsmen who chiefly 
composed his congregation, but also over the 
whole neighbouring community. He died 
6 May 1778 in his forty-second year, and was 
buried in Bunhill Fields. His works are dis- 
tinguished by practical good sense and clear 
energetic diction. 

Hall wrote : 1. ' An humble Attempt to 
Exhibit a Scriptural view ... of the Gospel 
Church,' Edinburgh, 1769, 2nd ed. London, 
1795. 2. 'Church Fellowship. Being an 
essay on ... the communion of Saints in 
the Gospel Church/ Edinburgh, 1770. 3. 'An 
Impartial Survey of the controversy about 
the religious clause of some Burgess oaths.' ' 
Summarised by McKerrow, pp. 212-14. It 
called forth a letter in reply, published under 
the pseudonym of Corydon, in 1772. 4. 'Grace 
and Holiness, viz. Redemption by Christ 
without Law and Believer's death to the 

Evangelical Preacher,' vol. i. 1802. 5. 'The j 
Life of Faith exhibited. Being a selection I 
of Private Letters,' 1828, edited, with a me- 
moir, by John Brown. Dr. Peddie is also 
said to have edited a treatise by Hall on the 
' Faith and Influence of the Gospel.' 

[McKerrow's Hist, of the Secession Church, \ 
pp. 212-14, 872-4; Brown's Memoir; Brit, Mus. 
Cat.] T. B. J. 

HALL, ARTHUR C#. 1563-1604), trans- 
lator and member of parliament, born at i 
Grantharn about 1540, was son of John Hall 

of Grantham, Lincolnshire, who was surveyor 
of Calais. On his father's death in his early 
youth, he became a ward of Sir William Cecil,, 
and was brought up in Cecil's house with 
Cecil's son Thomas, afterwards earl of Exeter. 
He seems to have studied for a short time at 
St. John's College, Cambridge, but took no 
degree. Roger (whom he miscalls Richard) 
Ascham encouraged him in his studies, and 
he became proficient in classics. About 1563 
he began a translation of Homer into Eng- 
lish, but did not complete it for many years- 
Subsequently he travelled in Italy and south- 
eastern Europe. In January 1568-9 he re- 
turned to England from Constantinople. 

Hall seems to have been a well-to-do* 
country gentleman, and in 1582 inherited 
much property, on the death of a kinsman at 
Grantham, but he apparently lived in London,, 
and gained notoriety by his excesses (CaL 
State Papers, Dom. 1547-90, p. 46). Or* 
2 April 1571 he was elected M.P. for Grant- 
ham, and on 8 May 1572 was returned again 
for the same constituency to the parliament 
which sat till 1583. Nine days after his 
second election the House of Commons or- 
dered him to answer at the bar of the- 
house a charge of having made ' sundry 
lewd speeches ' both within and without the 
house. Witnesses were directed to meet at 
Westminster, and deliver their testimony to- 
the speaker in writing. On 19 May Hall 
was brought by the serjeant-at-arms*to the- 
bar. He apologised for his conduct, and was 
discharged after the speaker had severely re- 
primanded him. In the following year he- 
was in more serious trouble. He was play- 
ing cards in an ordinary in Lothbury (16 Dec- 
1573), when he quarrelled over the game 
with one of his companions, Melchisedecb 
Mallory, whom he seems to have charged with 
cheating. A temporary truce was patched 
up, but the quarrel soon broke out with re- 
newed violence. Hall, according to Mallory, 
declined to fight him ; but on 30 June 1574} 
a serious affray between the disputants and 
their followers took place at a tavern near 
Fleet Bridge, and in November Edward 
Smalley, and other of Hall's servants, attacked 
and wounded Mallory in St. Paul's Church- 
yard. Mallory obtained a verdict for IOOL 
in a civil action against Smalley, and Hall 
began a libel suit against Mallory. But while- 
the suit was pending, and before Smalley had 
paid the damages, Mallory died on 18 'Sept. 

Mallory's executor failing to receive the 
100/. from Smalley caused him to be arrested. 
As the servant of a member of parliament, 
he claimed immunity from arrest, and the 
House of Commons ordered his discharge, at 




the same time directing the serjeant-at-arms 
to rearrest him, on the ground that he was 
fraudulently seeking to avoid the payment 
of a just debt. Much feeling was excited by 
the controversy, and both inside and outside 
the House of Commons Hall and his allies 
were condemned. A bill was introduced, but 
was soon dropped, providing that Hall should 
pay the 100/., and be disabled for ever from 
sitting in parliament. Finally, Smalley, and 
one Matthew Kirtleton, described as 'school- 
master to Mr. Hall,' were committed to the 
Tower for a month by order of the house, and 
thenceforward until Smalley gave security for 
the payment of the 100/. Hall endeavoured 
to improve his position by printing a long 
account of the quarrel with Mallory, in the 
form of a letter dated from London, 19 May 
1576, from ' one F. A. . . .to his^yery friend 
L. B., being in Italy.' I T _, .^ynneman 
[q. v.] printed about a hundred copies, but 
Hall only distributed fourteen. Hall was here 
especially severe on the action of Sir Robert 
Bell, the speaker, and other members of par- 
liament. Parliament was in recess at the 
date of the publication, and did not resume 
its sittings till January 1580-1. In 1580 the 
privy council summoned Hall before it, and 
he apologised for the tone of his book, but 
still kept a few copies in circulation. On 
16 Jan. 1580-1 Thomas Norton, M.P., at the 
opening of the new session of parliament, 
brought the offensive work to the notice of | 
the house. A committee was appointed to 
examine Hall, Bynneman, and others, but 
Hall's answers to the committee proved un- 
satisfactory, and on 14 Feb. 1580-1 he was 
for a second time summoned to the bar of 
the house. He declined to comment on the 
subject-matter of the book, but in general 
terms acknowledged his error, and asked 
for pardon. By a unanimous vote he was 
committed to the Tower for six months, or 
until he should make a satisfactory retracta- 
tion; was ordered to pay a fine to the queen 
of five hundred marks, and was expelled from 
the house for the present parliament. Bacon, 
referring to the case in a speech delivered in 
the House of Commons in 1601, asserted that 
Hall was committed 'for that he said the 
Lower House was a new person in the 
Trinity, and because these words tended to 
the derogation of the state of the house, and 
giving absolute power to the other' (SPED- 
DING, Bacon, iii. 37 ; cf. Cal. State Papers, 
Dom. 1581-90, p. 5). A new writ was issued 
for Grantham, and the book was condemned 
by a resolution of the house as a slanderous 
libel. The session closed on 18 March, but 
Hall does not appear to have been released 
till the dissolution of parliament, 9 April 

1583. On 23 July 1582 he begged Lord 
Burghley to obtain permission for him to 
study in a foreign university. 

On 27 Nov. 1585 Hall is said to have been 
elected for a third time M.P. for Grantham ; 
but on 12 Dec. notice was given to the House- 
of Commons that he had not attended during 
the session, and orders were sent him to* 
present himself on the following Monday 
(D'EwES, Journal, pp. 338, 339). To the par- 
liament returned in October 1586 he was not 
re-elected, but he brought an action against 
the borough of Grantham for arrears of wages 
due to him as member in an earlier parliament- 
On 2 Dec. 1586 Hall's claim was referred to 
a committee of the House of Commons, and 
he agreed to forego the demand on 21 March 
1586-7 (ib. p. 417). 

Hall was in trouble again in 1588. He- 
was imprisoned in the Fleet as early as June,, 
and in October he wrote to Burghley from 
prison regretting that he had left Burghley's. 
service, and that the queen was incensed 
against him. He intended (he said) to remove 
himself by habeas corpus to the King's Bench 
prison (Cal. State Papers, Dom. 1581-90, 
p. 554). He submitted to the council in 
November, and was thereupon released from 
prison. Early in 1591 he mentions, in further 
letters to Burghley, his ' trouble in the matter 
of the Countess of Sussex,' the injuries he 
sustained by his long confinement in the 
Tower, and the anxieties caused him by the 
enmity of one Richard More, who claimed 
his lands. Hall added that he had served 
the queen for twenty-six or twenty-seven 
years without reward (ib. 1591-4, pp. 11, 12). 
On 22 Nov. 1591 he recommended Burghley 
to prohibit the exportation of corn and beer 
as a precaution against the prevailing dearth. 
In 1597 Lord Burghley interceded with the- 
barons of the exchequer, who pressed him 
for payment of 400/. which he owed the 
crown. On 28 Nov. 1604 he pointed out, in 
a letter to James I, the corruptions prevalent 
in the elections to the newly summoned par- 
liament, and advised an immediate dissolu- 
tion (ib. 1603-10, p. 102). Nothing is known, 
of Hall at a later date. He was married,, 
and his son Cecil married Elizabeth, daughter 
of Sir Griffin Markham. 

Hall's chief literary work was ' Ten Books- 
of Homer's Iliades, translated out of French/ 
dedicated to Sir Thomas Cecil, knight, Lon- 
don, by Ralph Newberie, 1581, 4to. In the 
dedication he mentions with approval the 
labours of Googe, Jasper Hey wood, Arthur 
Golding, Lord Buckhurst, and George Gas- 
coigne, and writes with ill-judged enthusiasm 
of Phaer's translation of 'Virgil.' An imper- 
fect copy is in the British Museum. This is 



the first attempt to render Homer into Eng- 
lish. Hall closely follows the French verse 
translation of the first ten books by Hugues 
Salel (Paris, 1555), but occasionally examined 
some Latin version. Hall's copy of Salel's 
translation is in the British Museum, with 
his autograph on the title-page and the date 
1556 affixed. His lines, each of fourteen 
syllables, rhyme throughout, and the render- 
ing is very clumsy and inaccurate, but it held 
its own till superseded by George Chapman's 
translation. A. copy of Hall's very rare ' Let- 
ter sent by F. A., touching the proceedings in 
a private quarrell and unkindnesse between 
Arthur Hall and Melchisidech Mallerie, 
gentleman, to his very friend L. B., being in 
Italy ,' 4to, n.d., is in the Grenville collection 
at the British Museum. It is dedicated to Sir 
Henry Knevet, and was probably printed in 
1576. F. A. dates his letter from London 
19 May of that year. At the close is ' An 
admonition by the Father of F. A. to him, 
feeing a burgesse of the Parliament, for his 
better behaviour,' an elaborate disquisition 
on the history and constitution of parliament. 
A reprint was issued in 1815 by Robert Trip- 
hook in * Miscellanea Aiitiqua Anglicana,' 
vol. i. (London, 1810, 4to). Some unpub- 
lished verses sent by Hall, apparently to Cecil, 
on 1 Jan. 1558-9, are in the Public Record 
Office (cf. Cal. State Papers, Dom. 1547-80, 
p. 120), and an imprinted ' Treatise of Trans- 
portable Commodities, the advantages thereof, 
Statutes relating thereto, &c.,' is in Brit. Mus. 
MS., Royal, 18 A. 75. 

[Cooper's Athense Cantab, ii. 397-9 ; Hallam's 
Const. Hist. ; Collier's Reg. Stationers' Company 
((Shakespeare Soc.), ii. 132 ; D'Ewes's Journals ; 
Corser's Collectanea, pt. vii. p. 105 seq. ; Ritson's 
Biogr. Poetica ; Warton's Hist, of English Poetry, 
iii. 356 ; Official Return of Members of Parlia- 
ment ; Brydges's Restituta, iii. 512; Watt's 
Bibl. Brit., where, by the repetition of an error 
of Ames, Hall's name is given as Hill.] 

S. L. L. 

HALL, BASIL (1788-1844), captain in 
the navy and author, second son of Sir James 
Hall, bart. (1761-1832) [q. v.], of Dunglass, 
Haddingtonshire, was born on 31 Dec. 1788. 
He was educated at the high school of Edin- 
burgh, and entered the navy in May 1802, on 
board the Leander of 50 guns, then fitting for 
the flag of Sir Andrew Mitchell as commander- 
!n-chief on the North American station. In 
the Leander he continued till the admiral's 
death in the spring of 1806, and in her was 
present at the capture of the Ville de Milan 
on 23 Feb. 1805 [see TALBOT, SIR JOHN]. Sir 
George Berkeley, who succeeded to the com- 
mand, shortly afterwards transferred his flag 
to the Leopard, taking Hall and other officers 

with him. In March 1808 the Leopard re- 
turned to England, and Hall, after passing his 
examination, was promoted on 10 June to be 
lieutenant of the Invincible, from which he 
was very shortly moved at his own request into 
the Endymion, ' one of the finest, if not the 
very finest frigates then in his majesty's ser- 
vice,' under the command of the Hon. Thomas 
Bladen Capel, which in October was sent 
to Corunna, convoying reinforcements for Sir 
John Moore. She was afterwards ordered 
back to assist in re-embarking the troops, and 
Hall being on shore saw the battle on 16 Jan. 
1809. The Endymion was afterwards em- 
ployed in co-operating with the Spaniards of 
Galicia, and in independent cruising on the 
coast of Ireland, and as far south as Madeira, 
the incidents of which Hall has graphically 
described in his ' Fragments of Voyages and 
Travels' (1st ser. vol. iii., and 2nd ser. vol. i.) 
In March 1812 he was appointed to the 
Volage frigate, and in her went out to the 
East Indies, where he was moved into the 
Illustrious, flagship of Sir Samuel Hood 
(1762-1814) [q. v.], to whom he had been re- 
commended. On 22 Feb. 1814 he w r as pro- 
moted to the command of the Victor sloop, 
then building at Bombay, which he took 
to England in the following year. He was 
then appointed to the 10-gun brig Lyra, 
ordered to China in company with the Alceste 
frigate and Lord Amherst's embassy [see MAX- 
WELL, SIR MURRAY] . Of the incidents of the 
commission, including his explorations in the 
then little known Eastern seas, his visit to 
Canton, and his interview with Napoleon, 
w r ho had known his father, Sir James Hall, 
when a boy at school at Brienne, Hall has 
himself given a very detailed description in 
his l Account of a Voyage of Discovery to the 
West Coast of Corea and the Great Loo-Choo 
Islands' (4to, 1818), which afterwards passed 
through several editions, to the later of which 
many of the more interesting and personal 
parts of the narrative were added. The Lyra 
reached England in October 1817, and on 
5 Nov. Hall was posted to the rank of cap- 
tain. He seems to have employed the next 
two years in travelling on the continent, and 
in May 1820 was appointed to the Conway, 
a 26-gun frigate, for service on the South 
American station. He sailed from England 
in August, and on joining the Commodore, 
Sir Thomas Hardy, 'in the Plate, was at once 
sent round to Valparaiso. For the next two 
years he continued on the \vest coast of Ame- 
rica, his voyage ranging as far north as San 
Bias, where, as previously at Rio and at the 
Galapagos, he carried out a series of pen- 
dulum observations, the account of which 
was published in the ' Philosophical Trans- 




actions' (1823, pp. 211-88). He had already, 
while in China, been elected a fellow of the 
Royal Society (28 March 1816). He sailed 
from San Bias in June 1822, and after touch- 
ing at Kio de Janeiro returned to England, 
and paid off in the spring of 1823. His ' Ex- 
tracts from a Journal written on the Coasts 
of Chili, Peru, and Mexico in the years 1820- 
1821-2,' published in 2 vols. 8vo shortly after 
his return, had a remarkable success, and ran 
rapidly through several editions. 

Hall had no further service in the navy, 
but having married in 1825 Margaret, daugh- 
ter of Sir John Hunter, consul-general in 
Spain, spent his time in private travel or in 
literary and scientific pursuits at home. Of 
his travels in North America in 1827-8, he 
published an account in 1829 in 3 vols. 12mo, 
which was translated into French. His 
frank criticism of American customs excited 
the utmost indignation in the United States, 
of which an interesting account appears in 
Mrs. Frances Trollope's ' Domestic Manners 
of the Americans/ 1831. In September 1831, 
while living in London, he was able to lay 
before Sir James Graham, then first lord of 
the admiralty, the medical recommendation 
for Sir Walter Scott [q. v.] to winter abroad, 
and to obtain for him a passage to Malta in 
the Barham frigate. His own account of the 
circumstances of Scott's embarkation is fully 
given in his ' Fragments of Voyages and 
Travels ' (3rd ser. iii. 282). In 1842 Hall's 
mind gave way ; he was placed in Haslar 
Hospital, and died there on 11 Sept. 1844, 
leaving a widow (d. 1876), by whom he had 
two daughters and a son, Basil Sidmouth De 
Ros Hall, who died, a captain in the navy, 
in 1871. Perhaps the best known of Hall's 
works is the ' Fragments of Voyages and 
Travels ' (three series, each in 3 vols. 12mo, 
1831-3, and frequently reprinted), which, in 
addition to the subject-matter of the title, 
contains many interesting accounts of the in- 
ternal state of the navy in the early part of 
the century. He also wrote ' Schloss Hain- 
feld, or a Winter in Lower Styria ' (8vo, 1836), 
and 'Patchwork' (3 vols. 12mo, 1841), and 
numerous papers in the ' United Service Maga- 
zine,' as well as in the leading scientific peri- 
odicals (see Royal Society Catalogue of Scien- 
tific Papers). In addition to theRoyal, he was 
a fellow of the Royal Astronomical, Royal 
Geographical, and Geological Societies. 

[The principal authority for Hall's Life is his 
own works, which are to a large extent autobio- 
graphical; Marshall's Eoy. Nav. Biog. viii. (Sup- 
plement, pt. iv.) 142; Proceedings of the Royal 
Society, v. 526 ; Journal of the Royal G-eog. Soc. 
vol. xv. p. xlii; Foster's Baronetage.] 

j. K. L. 

(1802-1867), the eldest son of Benjamin 
Hall, M.P., of Hensol Castle, Glamorgan- 
shire, by his wife Charlotte, daughter of Wil- 
liam Crawshay of Cyfarthfa, Glamorganshire, 
was born on 8 Nov. 1802. He was educated 
at Westminster School, where he was ad- 
mitted in January 1814. On 24 May 1820 
he matriculated at Christ Church, Oxford, 
but left without taking any degree. At the 
general election in May 1831 he was returned 
to parliament for Monmouth boroughs in the 
whig interest, but was unseated upon peti- 
tion in the following July (Journals of the 
House of Commons, vol. Ixxxvi. pt. ii. p. 665). 
He was, however, duly elected for the same 
constituency at the next general election in 
1832, and continued to represent it until the 
dissolution of parliament in July 1837. Hall's 
first reported speech was delivered during 
the debate on the address in February 1833 
(Parl. Debates, 3rd ser. xv. 340-1). In 
March 1834 he seconded Mr. Divett's motion 
for the abolition of church rates (ib. xxii. 
387-8), and in March 1837 he supported 
Grote's motion in favour of the ballot (ib. 
xxxvii. 38-9). At the general election in 
July of this year he was returned at the head 
of the poll for the borough of Marylebone, 
for which constituency he continued to sit 
until his elevation to the House of Lords, 
and on 16 Aug. 1838 was created a baronet. 
In July 1843 he both spoke and voted in 
favour of Smith O'Brien's motion for the 
consideration of the causes of discontent 
then existing in Ireland (ib. Ixx. 898-9) . Hall 
gradually became a frequent debater in the 
house. He insisted on the right of the Welsh 
to have the services of the church rendered in 
their own tongue, and took an active part in 
the cause of ecclesiastical reform. The speech 
which he delivered on the Ecclesiastical Com- 
mission Bill on 8 July 1850 was afterwards 
published in pamphlet form (London, 1850, 
8vo). In ' A Letter to his Grace the Arch- 
bishop of Canterbury on the State of the 
Church ' (London, 1850, 8vo), and again in 
a 'Letter to the Rev. C. Phillips, M.A.' 
(London [1852], 8vo), he called the attention 
of the public to the great abuses existing in 
the management of ecclesiastical property, 
and in the distribution of church patronage. 
Upon the reconstruction of the general board 
of health, in August 1854, Hall was ap- 
pointed president, and was sworn a member 
of the privy council on 14 Nov. in the same 
year. In July 1855 he became chief com- 
missioner of works (without a seat in the 
cabinet), in the place of Sir William Moles- 
worth, who had been appointed secretary of 
state for the colonies. On 16 March 1855 he 



brought in a bill 'for the better local ma- 
nagement of the metropolis ' (Par I. Debates, 
3rd ser. cxxxvii. 699-722), by which the 
metropolitan board of works was first esta- 
blished (18 & 19 Viet. cap. 120). During 
his tenure of the office of chief commissioner 
considerable improvements were made in the 
London parks. On the overthrow of Lord 
Palmerston's administration, in February 
1858, Hall was succeeded by the present 
Duke of Eutland, then Lord John Manners. 
Upon Lord Palmerston's accession to power 
for the second time Hall was created Baron 
Llanover of Llanover and Abercarn in the 
county of Monmouth, on 29 June 1859 
(Journals of the House of Lords, xci. 304). 
He took his seat in the upper house on 4 July 
following, but never took much part in the 
debates, and spoke there for the last time in 
July 1863 (ParL Debates, 3rd ser. clxxii. 1041- 
1042). On 20 Nov. 1861 he was sworn in as 
lord-lieutenant of Monmouthshire. He died, 
after a long illness, at Great Stanhope Street, 
Mayfair, on 27 April 1867, in the sixty-fifth 
year of his age. Monuments have been 
erected to his memory in Llandaff Cathedral 
and in Llanover churchyard, where he was 
buried. Hall married, on 4 Dec. 1 823, Augusta, 
daughter and coheiress of Benjamin Wadding- 
ton of Llanover, by whom he had two sons, 
both of whom predeceased him, and an only 
daughter, Augusta Charlotte Elizabeth, who 
on 12 Nov. 1846 married John Arthur Ed- 
ward Herbert of Llanarth Court, Mon- 
mouthshire. In default of male issue his 
titles became extinct upon his death. His 
widow, who in 1861 edited the 'Autobio- 
graphy and Correspondence of Mary Gran- 
ville, Mrs. Delany,'&c. (London, 8 vo, 3 vols.), 
still survives him. A portrait of Hall by 
Hurlstone is in the possession of Lady Llan- 

[Alumni Westmonasterienses, 1851, p. 44-1 ; 
Men of the Time, 1865, pp. 528-9 ; Illustrated 
London News, 4 May 1867; Burke's Extinct 
Peerage, 1883, p. 257; Gent.Mag. 1867, pt.i.814; 
Foster's Alumni Oxon. ii. 586; Official Keturn 
of Lists of Members of Parliament, pt. ii. 331, 
343, 354, 368, 384, 403, 418, 434, 450; London 
Gazettes ; Brit. Mus. Cat.] G. F. E. B. 

HALL, CHAMBERS (1786-1855), col- 
lector of drawings, bronzes, and other works 
of art, was born in 1786. He lived at 
Elmfield Lodge, Southampton, and died on 
29 Aug. 1855 in Bury Street, St. James's, 
London. In 1855, a few months before his 
death, he presented to the British Museum 
(Brit. Mus. Guide to Exhibition Galleries] 
sixty-six drawings by Thomas Girtin [q. v.], 
and various antiquities including bronzes. To 
the university of Oxford he gave at the same 

time the rest of his collections, including 
drawings by Raphael, a portrait of Mrs. Bra- 
dyll by Sir J. Reynolds, a portrait of Thorn- 
hill and sketches by Hogarth, a painting 
from Herculaneum, bronzes, &c. He also 
left to the university a portrait of himself 
by Linnell, which is said to lack Hall's usual 
benevolence of expression. 

[Gent. Mag. 1855 pt.ii. 548-9, 1856 pt. i. 162 
(from the Athenaeum) ; Michaelis's Ancient Mar- 
bles in Great Britain, pp. 175, 571.] W. W. 

HALL, CHARLES (1720 P-1783), line 
engraver, born about 1720, was brought up 
as a writing engraver, but by his own exer- 
tions he made so much progress in art that,, 
although he never rose above mediocrity, he 
became a fair engraver of portraits, medals, 
coins, and other antiquities. His best works 
are his portraits, many of which are faithful 
copies of earlier engravings. They include 
portraits of Thomas Howard, second duke of 
Norfolk, and Henry Fitz Alan, earl of Arundel, 
after Holbein : Mary I ; Thomas Goodrich, 
bishop of Ely; Sir George Barnes, lord mayor 
of London ; William Harvey, Clarenceux 
king-at-arms ; Jack Adams, the astrologer ; 
Thomas Pellet, M.D., and William Bullock, 
the comedian, said to be after Hogarth ; Ca- 
tharine, duchess of Buckingham, and Mary 
Sidney, countess of Pembroke, from the plates 
by Magdalena and Simon Van de Passe ; Sir 
Thomas More, and William Alexander, earl 
of Stirling, from the plates by Marshall ; and 
Sir Francis Wortley, bart., from that by 
Hertocks. Hall died at his lodgings in Graf- 
ton Street, Soho, London, on 5 Feb. 1783. 

[Strutt's Biog. Diet, of Engravers, 1785-6, ii. 
5 ; Bryan's Diet, of Painters and Engravers, ed. 
Graves, 1886-9, i. 619; Nichols's Literary Illus- 
trations, v. 436.] K. E. G. 

HALL, CHARLES, M.D. (1745 P-1826 P), 
writer on economics, seems to be identical 
with the 'Carolus Hall, Anglus/who became 
a student of Leyden, 30 May 1765 (PEACOCK, 
Ley den Students, Index Soc., p. 45). He after- 
wards took the degree of M.D., and published 
at Shrewsbury in 1785 ' The Medical Family 
Instructor, with an Appendix onCanineMad- 
ness.' In 1805 appeared his ' Effects of Civi- 
lisation on the People in European States r 
(London, 8vo) . In this remarkable work Hall 
anticipates later socialist theories; analyses 
the defects of the existing conditions of so- 
ciety ; and claims to prove that the working 
classes in his day 'retained only one-eighth 
part of the produce of their own labour.' At 
the date of publication Hall was suffering ex- 
treme poverty owing to defeat in a law suit, 
and he soon afterwards removed to the Fleet 
prison. His friends offered to pay for his re- 




lease, but he deemed that he had been un- 
justly treated by the law courts, and resolved 
to die in prison. He died in the Fleet, aged 
about 80. His friend, John Minter Morgan, 
reprinted Hall's * Effects ' in his ' Phoenix 
Library' (London, 1849). In his 'Hampden 
in the 19th Century/ 1834, i. 20-1, Morgan 
described Hall as a man of classical and scien- 
tific attainments. Approving mention is made 
of Hall's arguments in Charles Bray's ' Philo- 
sophy of Necessity,' 1841, ii. 657, App., and 
in Mary Hennell's ' Outlines of Social Sys- 
tems,' 1841, p. 240. 

[Prof. Anton Menger's Das Eecht auf den 
vollen Arbeitsertrag in geschichtlicher Darstel- 
lung, Stuttgart, 1886, pp. 45-9; J.M.Morgan's 
works cited above ; Watt's Bibl. Brit. ; informa- 
tion from Dr. Stephan Bauer of Vienna.] 

HALL, SIE CHARLES (1814-1883), 
vice-chancellor, fourth son of John Hall of 
Manchester and Mary, daughter of John 
Dobson of Durham, was born on 14 April 
1814. His father, having sustained heavy 
losses by a bank failure, did not give him a 
university education, but articled him to a 
solicitor in Manchester. In 1835 he entered 
the Middle Temple, and read for the bar 
successively with William Taprell, special 
pleader, James Russell of the chancery bar, 
and Lewis Duval the conveyancer [q. v.] At 
the expiration of his year as a pupil he became 
Duval's principal assistant, and by extraor- 
dinary industry contrived to earn from him 
700/. or 800/. a year, though receiving the 
unusually low proportion of one-fourth of 
the fees received by Duval. In 1837 he mar- 
ried Sarah, daughter of Francis Duval of 
Exeter and Lewis Duval's niece. Eventually 
Hall succeeded to the bulk of Duval's prac- 
tice, and through his wife to the bulk of his 
fortune, and resided till his death in Duval's 
house, 8 Bayswater Hill, once the residence of 
Peter the Great when in London. During the 
next twenty years he became the recognised 
leader of the junior chancery bar, and the first 
authority of his day upon real property law. 
Having been called to the bar in Michaelmas 
term 1838, he gradually obtained a large 
court practice. His pupil room was always 
crowded, and from it came the foremost of 
the succeeding generation of equity lawyers. 
His best known cases were the Bridgewater 
peerage case in the House of Lords in 1853, 
the Shrewsbury peerage case, and Allgood 
v. Blake in the exchequer chamber in 1872, 
of his argument in which the lord chief baron 
said that it was the most perfect he had 
ever listened to. He drew several bills for 
Lord Westbury, including his Registration 
of Titles Act, and assisted Lord Selborne in 

drafting the Judicature Act of 1873. Twice 
Lord Westbury offered him a silk gown ; but 
being without a rival at the chancery bar, and 
earning 10,000/. a year, he refused it. In 
1862 he became under-conveyancer and in 
1864 conveyancer to the court of chancery, 
and in 1872 a bencher of his inn. 

He was raised to the bench in succession 
to Vice-chancellor Wickens in November 
1873 and knighted. Here he distinguished 
himself by an industry which eventually 
impaired his constitution. While walking 
home from his court he was attacked by a 
stroke of paralysis in June 1882. He re- 
signed his judgeship before the ensuing Mi- 
chaelmas sittings, and died on 12 Dec. 1883. 
He was fond of art and letters, but never 
played any part in politics. He had four sons, 
two of whom survived him the younger, 
Charles, is a queen's counsel and attorney- 
general to the Prince of Wales, and M.P. for 
the Western Division of Cambridgeshire 
and four daughters. 

[Times, 13 Dec. 1883; Solicitors' Journal, 
15 Dec. 1883 ; Law Mag. 4th ser. ix. 220; Law 
Journal, 15 Dec. 1883; private information.] 

J. A. H. 

1827), dean of Durham, born in 1763, was 
the son of Charles Hall, dean of Booking, 
Essex. He was admitted on the foundation 
at Westminster in 1775, was elected thence 
to Christ Church, Oxford, and matriculated 
on 3 June 1779 (FOSTER, Alumni Oxon. 1715- 
1886, ii. 587). In 1781 he won the chan- 
cellor's prize for Latin verse on ' Strages In- 
dica Occidentalis,' and in 1784 the English 
essay on ' The Use of Medals.' He graduated 
B.A. in 1783, M.A. in 1786, B.D. in 1794, 
and D.D. in 1800. From 1792 to 1797 he 
was tutor and censor of Christ Church. In 
1793 he served the office of junior proctor ; 
was presented by his college to the vicarage 
of Broughton-in-Aredale, Yorkshire, in 1794; 
and was appointed Bampton lecturer and 
prebendary of Exeter in 1798. He became 
rector of Kirk Bramwith, Yorkshire, in June 
1799, and prebendary of the second stall in 
Christ Church Cathedral on 30 Nov. of that 
year. In 1805 he was made sub-dean of 
Christ Church, and in 1807 vicar of Luton, 
Bedfordshire, a preferment which he held 
until his death. In February 1807 he was 
elected regius professor of divinity, and re- 
moved to the fifth stall in Christ Church, but 
resigned both offices in October 1809, on being 
nominated dean of Christ Church. He was 
prolocutor of the lower house of convocation 
in 1812. On 26 Feb. 1824 he was installed 
dean of Durham. He died at Edinburgh on 



16 Feb. 1827. He published his < Bampton 
Lectures ' on ' Fulness of Time ' in 1799, and 
some single sermons. 

[Welch's Alumni Westmon. 1852 ; Gent. Mag. 
1827 pt. i. p. 563 ; Le Neve's Fasti, ed. Hardy.] 

G. G. 

HALL, CHESTER MOOR (1703-1771), 
inventor of the achromatic telescope, was born 
at Leigh in Essex, and was baptised in the 
parish church on 9 Dec. 1703. He was the 
only son of Jehu Hall by his wife Martha, 
daughter and coheiress of Richard Brittridge 
of New House, Sutton, Essex. The Halls 
were originally from Stepney, but settled at 
Leigh on inheriting by successive marriages 
the properties of the Moors and of the Ches- 
ters of Leigh. Jehu Hall removed to Brent- 
wood, and there died in 1728. Chester Moor 
Hall was admitted a student of the Inner 
Temple on 5 Oct. 1724, and was made a 
bencher in 1763. He resided at New Hall, 
Sutton, where he died on 17 March 1771, 
aged 67. His elder sister, Martha Hall, 
erected a marble monument to him in the 
church of Sutton, of which he was patron. 
The inscription describes him as ' a judicious 
lawyer, an able mathematician, a polite 
scholar, a sincere friend, and a magistrate of 
the strictest integrity.' He was an extensive 
landowner in Essex, and is frequently de- 
signated as ' Moor of Moor Hall.' His library 
was sold in 1772. 

A writer in the ' Gentleman's Magazine ' 
states that Hall obtained, from a study of the 
human eye, the conviction that achromatic 
lenses were possible, and discovered in 1729, 
after various experiments, two kinds of glass 
of dispersion sufficiently different to enable 
him to realise his idea. He accordingly con- 
structed, about 1733, several telescopes, sub- 
sequently pronounced by experts to be truly 
achromatic. Their excellence was shown by 
their bearing, with apertures of two and a 
half, focal lengths of twenty inches. One 
was on sale with Ayscough of Ludgate Hill 
in 1754 : another was in 1790 in the pos- 
session of the Rev. Mr. Smith of Charlotte 
Street ; some were stated by Sir John Herschel 
and Professor Barlow to have been in existence 
about 1827. Hall proved his indifference to 
claims of priority by taking no part in the trial 
of Dollond v. Champness in 1766, although 
probably in London [see DOLLOKD, JOHN], 
Some of the workmen whom he had employed, 
having furnished them with the radii of cur- 
vature and added finishing touches, gave evi- 
dence, and his invention of the achromatic 
telescope in 1733 was regarded by Lord Mans- 
field as fully proved. The obscurity in which 
it was allowed to remain is inexplicable. Hall's 

autograph, presented by Mr. R. B. Prosser in 
1886 to the Royal Astronomical Society, was 
ordered to be framed and suspended in the 
council room. 

[Ranyard, Astronomical Register, xix. 194; 
Monthly Notices, xlvi. 460 ; Wackerbarth, ib. 
xxviii. 202; Gent, Mag. 1766 p. 102, 1771 p. 143, 
1 790 pt. ii. p. 890 ; Morant's Hist, of Essex, i. 254 ; 
Observatory, ix. 177; Brewster's Edinburgh 
Encyclopaedia, i. pt. i. p. 105; Encycl. Metropo- 
litana, iii. .408 (Barlow), iv. 411 (Herschel); 
Nichols's Lit. Anecd. iii. 669.] A. M. C. 

HALL, EDMUND (1620 P-1687), puritan 
divine, born at Worcester about 1620, was 
younger son of Richard Hall, clothier, of 
Worcester, by his wife, Elizabeth (Bonner), 
and was apparently educated at the King's 
School, Worcester. Thomas Hall (1610- 
1665) [q. v.] was his eldest brother. In 1636 
he entered Pembroke College, Oxford, but 
left the university without a degree to take 
up arms for the parliament against Charles I. 
He took ' the covenant, and at length became 
a captain ' in the parliamentary army. About 
1647 he returned to Oxford, and was made a 
fellow of Pembroke College, and proceeded 
M. A. on 11 March 1649-50. He was strongly 
in favour of monarchy, and wrote against 
Cromwell's pretensions with great bitterness. 
About 1651 he was committed to prison by 
the council of state, and remained there for 
twelve months, still attacking the govern- 
ment in published pamphlets. Subsequently 
he preached in Oxford and the neighbour- 
hood, and about 1657 became chaplain to Sir 
Edmund Bray, of Great Risington, Glouces- 
tershire. Bray was a royalist, and his en- 
deavours to present Hall to the rectory of 
Great Risington, of which he was patron, 
proved of no avail. Hall's sermons, accord- 
ing to Wood, ' had in them many odd, light, 
and whimsical passages, altogether unbe- 
coming the gravity of the pulpit, and his 
gestures, being very antic and mimical, did 
usually excite somewhat of laughter in the 
more youthful part of the auditory.' His 
views, although Calvinistic, grew into some- 
thing like conformity with the church of 
England. At the Restoration he made pro- 
fessions of loyalty. In May 1661 he peti- 
tioned the government to remove Lewis Atter- 
bury from the rectory of Great Risington, to 
which Bray had presented the petitioner, but 
his petition does not appear to have been 
granted. He secured, however, preferment 
at Chipping Norton, Oxfordshire, where he 
was generally popular. He there ' obtained 
the character from some of a fantastical, and 
from others of an edifying preacher.' In 
1680 he at length became rector of Great 
Risington on the presentation of Bray. He 

Hall t 

died in August 1687, and was buried (5 Aug.) 
in the chancel of his church. On removing 
to Great Risington, he ' took to him in his 
elderly years a fair and comely wife.' 

Hall was author of l 'H moaratrln 6 avrL- 
Xpio-ros, ... A scriptural Discourse of the 
Apostacy and the Antichrist, by E. H./ 
London, 1653, 4to, dedicated to ' the Right 
Reverend and Profound Prophetick Textmen 
of England/ by ' An obedient Son and Ser- 
vant of the Church and State of England/ 
and of ' A Funeral Sermon on Lady Anne 
Harcourt/ Oxford, 1664, 8vo. According to 
Wood, he was the anonymous author of 
'Lazarus's Sores lick'd' (London, 1650, 4to), 
an attack on Lazarus Seaman, who had re- 
commended submission to Cromwell and the 
army. Two anonymous pamphlets, entitled 
respectively ' Lingua Testium, wherein Mo- 
narchy is proved to be JureDivino/ &c. (Lond. 
July 1651, 4to), and 'Manus Testium Movens, 
or a presbyteriall glosse upon . . . prophetick 
Texts . . . which point at the great day of 
the Witnesses rising/ &c. (London, July 
1651, 4to), are also attributed to Hall by 
Wood. Both are severe on the f present 
usurpers in England/ who are denounced as 
' anti-Christian.' The author disguises him- 
self on either title-page as ' Testis-Mundus 
Catholicus Scotanglo-Britanicus.' 

[Wood's Athense Oxon. (Bliss), iv. 212-14; 
Cal. State Papers, Dora. 1660-1, p. 600; Brit. 
Mus. Cat. sub. 'E. H.," Lazarus/ and ' Catho- 
licus.'] S. L. L. 

HALL, EDWARD (d. 1547), historian* 
was the son of John Hall of Northall, Shrop- 
shire, by his wife Catharine, daughter of 
Thomas Gedding. He was probably born in 
1498 or 1499, as in 1514 he left Eton Col- 
lege, where he was educated, and proceeded 
to King's College, Cambridge. He took the 
degree of B.A. in 1518, and then proceeded 
to read law at Gray's Inn. The remainder 
of his life was spent in legal and political 
activity in London. In 1532 he was ap- 
pointed common serjeant, and in 1535 se- 
condary of Bread Street compter, which he 
exchanged in 1537 for secondary of thePoulter 
compter. In 1533 he was autumn reader at 
Gray's Inn, and in 1540 Lent reader. In 
political matters Hall was a staunch sup- 
porter of Henry VIII, and his parents seem 
to have been important personages among the 
more advanced reformers. There are two 
letters of Bradford to ' John Hall and his 
wife, prisoners in Newgate for the testimony 
of the Gospel/ in 1555 (FoxE, Acts and 
Monuments, ed. 1847, vii. 242-4). Strype 
says that Mrs. Hall, mother of Hall the 
chronicler, was the same to whom several of 
the martyrs wrote letters ; and her death is 

s Hall 

recorded in 1557 by Machyn (Diary, p. 139). 
Thus Hall was probably allied with the re- 
forming party, but he showed a lawyer's 
caution in not going beyond the wishes of 
the king. We do not know when he first 
entered parliament, but in 1542 he sat for 
the borough of Bridgnorth ( WILLIS, Notitia 
Parl. iii. 6). He seems to have gone to- 
parliament as a creature of the crown, and 
Foxe (v. 504) gives an abstract of a charac- 
teristic speech of his in support of the Bill 
of Six Articles in 1539. Hall's historical 
studies were boldly applied to the main- 
tenance of an extreme theory of the royal 
supremacy. < In chronicles may be found/ 
he said, 'that the most part of the cere- 
monies now used in the church of England 
were by princes either first invented, or at 
the least were established.' After such a. 
speech it is not surprising to find that Hall 
was one of the commissioners appointed in 
January 1541 to inquire into all transgres- 
sions of that statute (FoxE, v. 440, and Ap- 
pendix ix.), and in this capacity his name is 
set as a witness to the confession of Anne 
Askew on 20 March 1544 (ib. p. 543). Hall 
died in 1547, and was buried in the church of 
St. Benet Sherehog (Sxow, Survey of London, 
ed. 1770, bk. iii. 28). 

Hall's chronicle shows its character in its 
title, i The Union of the Noble and Illustre 
Famelies of Lancastre and York.' It is a 
glorification of the house of Tudor, and es- 
pecially a justification of the actions of 
Henry VIII. It begins with the accession 
of Henry IV and reaches to the death of 
Henry VIII. The first edition printed by 
Berthelot in 1542 is so rare, that it is doubt- 
ful if there exists a complete copy (AMES, 
Typographical Antiquities, ed. 1816, iii. 461,, 
466) ; a second edition appeared in 1548, but 
the most complete edition was issued by 
Richard Grafton [q. v.] in 1550. In his pre- 
face Grafton says : < This is to be noted that 
the author thereof, though not to all men, yet 
to many very well known, was a man in the 
later time of his life not so painful and stu- 
dious as before he had been.' He adds that 
Hall finished his chronicle to the year 1532, 
and left a number of notes, which Grafton 
says he put together without any addition of 
his own. Possibly after 1532 Hall found the 
office of royal panegyrist beset with difficulties 
and dangers. 

The early part of Hall's chronicle is a com- 
pilation without much independent value, 
though here and there he adds a detail, and 
Shakespeare followed him closely in his earlier 
historical plays. For the reign of Henry VII 
he is more important. His groundwork 
is the history of Polydore Vergil, but he 



alters the point of view and adds a 
deal from the floating knowledge of the citi- 
zens of London. It is for the early years of 
Henry VIII that he becomes an authority 
of the greatest value, not so much for the 
facts which he relates as for the light 
which he throws upon the social life and 
opinions of his times. lie expresses the pro- 
found loyalty of the middle class, and repre- 
sents the conditions which rendered possible 
the policy of the king. His descriptions of 
the festivities of the court are full and vivid ; 
he shows us the discontent awakened by 
Wolsey, and gives many instructive accounts 
-of London life, and of the growing spirit of 
independence among Englishmen. His lite- 
rary merits are of high order, especially in 
his accounts of the opposition which Wolsey's 
masterful proceedings aroused ; his power of 
describing the action of a mob is admirable. 
Hall has scarcely yet met with due recog- 
nition. His chronicle was one of the books 
prohibited by Mary in 1555, and in conse- 
quence became rare. The later chronicles 
of Grafton, Holinshed, and Stow borrowed 
a good deal from Hall, and became more 
^popular, so that Hall's chronicle was not 
reprinted till 1809 by Ellis, and the only 
English historian who has seen its full value 
is Brewer in his l History of the Reign of 
Henry VIII.' 

[Bale's Catalogns, p. 718; Dudale's Origines 
Juridiciales, p. 292 ; Creasy's Eminent Etonians, 
ed. 1876, p. 417 ; Cooper's Athense Cantabr. i. 
92, 537 ; Pauli's Geschichte von England, v. 
701-2 ; G-airdner's Chroniclers of England, pp. 
300-4.] M. C. 

HALL, ELISHA (/. 1562), fanatic, was 
an impostor who professed to have revela- 
tions and to write books by direct inspira- 
tion. On his appearance in London he was 
brought before Grindal, bishop of London, 
on 12 June 1562 for examination. He as- 
serted that in 1551 he heard a voice say 
* Ely, arise, watch and pray ; for the day 
draweth nigh,' and that in April 1552 he was 
absent from earth two days while he saw 
heaven and hell. He was bidden to watch 
and pray for seven years, and then to write 
for three years and a half, during two years 
and a half of which he should ' bring nothing 
to pass,' while at the end of the last year he 
was to * be troubled and fall into persecution.' 
He affirmed that he had during the last year 
been examined several times before commis- 
sioners, and that unless he should have a 
fresh revelation his commission would cease 
in a few weeks. He made no claim to being 
a religious teacher, and affirmed that the 
' Great Book' he had written was a work 
of inspiration, as he had not ' read much' of 

the Bible, or consulted with any one. His 
revelation commanded him neither to eat 
fish nor flesh, to forsake everything pleasant, 
and to write his book on his knees. As his 
examination did not reveal that he held dan- 
gerously heterodox opinions, or that he en- 
deavoured to propagate heresy, he does not 
appear to have been further proceeded against 
nor to have published his ' Great Book.' 

According to Tanner, Hall wrote : 1. 'Of 
Obedience.' 2. A book of * Visions ' in Metre. 
Tanner says that a manuscript of the latter 
belonged to Sir John Parker. 

[Strype's Annals of the Keformation, vol. i. 
pt. i. pp. 433-5, ed. 1828 ; Tanner's Bibl. Brit.- 
Hibern.] A. C. B. 

1866), theological writer, son of the Rev. 
Samuel Hall, incumbent of St. Peter's, Man- 
chester, was born on 17 May 1788. He was 
educated at the Manchester grammar school 
and at St. John's College, Cambridge, where 
he was elected a fellow. He graduated B.A. 
in 1810, MA. in 1813, B.D. in 1820, and 
D.D. in 1839, and held the rectory of Ful- 
bourn, near Cambridge, from 1826 until his 
death on 18 Nov. 1866. He wrote: 1. < Rea- 
sons for not contributing to circulate the 
Apocrypha,' &c., 1825, 8vo. 2. ' Regeneration 
and Baptism considered/ 1832, 8vo. 3. ' A 
Letter ... on the present Corrupt State of 
the University of Cambridge,' 1834. 4. 'Hints 
to Young Clergymen,' 1843. He also wrote 
occasional poetical pieces, and compiled a 

[J. P. Smith's Manch. School Reg. (Chetham 
Soc.), ii. 215; Brit. Mus. Cat.] C. W. S. 

HALL, GEORGE (1612 P-1668), bishop 
of Chester, born in 1612 or 1613, at Walt- 
ham Abbey, Essex, was the son of Joseph 
Hall [q.v.], successively bishop of Exeter and 
Norwich. He matriculated as a commoner 
at Exeter College, Oxford, in 1628, took the 
B.A. degree on 30 April 1631, was elected 
fellow on 30 June 1632, and proceeded M.A. 
on 17 Jan. 1633-4 (College Register,^. C. W. 
Boase). On 8 Oct. 1637 he was inducted to 
the vicarage of Menheniot, Cornwall, became 
prebendary of Exeter on 23 Dec. 1639, and 
archdeacon of Cornwall on 7 Oct. 1641, in 
succession to his brother Robert. Though 
deprived of these preferments by the parlia- 
ment, he was ultimately allowed to accept the 
lectureship of St. Bartholomew, Exchange, 
and by 1655 was minister at St. Botolph, 
Aldersgate. After the Restoration he became 
a royal chaplain, canon of Windsor on 8 (18) 
July 1660, and archdeacon of Canterbury 
four days later ( Cal State Papers, Dom. June 
1660, pp. 83, 86, 229). On 2 Aug. of the 



same year he was created D.D. at Oxford 
(WooD, Fasti Oxon. ed. Bliss, i. 460, 469, 
ii. 237). He was consecrated bishop of Chester 
on 11 May 1662, and during that year had 
the richly endowed rectory of Wigan con- 
ferred on him by Sir Orlando Bridgeman, 
which he held in commendamwiih his bishop- 
ric (BAINES, Lancashire, ed. Whatton and 
Harland, ii. 177). He died on 23 Aug. 1668, 
aged 55, of a wound received by a knife in 
his pocket in a fall from the mount in his 
garden at Wigan, and was buried at the east, 
end of the rector's chancel there. He gave 
Exeter College, after the death of his wife 
Gertrude, his golden cup, and his estate in 
Trethewin, near St. Germans, Cornwall, 
worth 40/. a year (sold to Lord St. Germans 
in 1859). His writings are : 1. l God's Ap- 
pearing for the Tribe of Levi, improved in a 
Sermon [on Numb. xvii. 8] preached at St. 
Pauls ... to the sons of Ministers, then so- 
lemnly assembled,' 4to, London, 1655. 2. 'The 
Triumphs of Rome over despised Protestancie' 
(anon.), 4to, London, 1655 (another edition, 
8vo, London, 1667), an answer to a popish 
pamphlet entitled 'The Reclaim'd Papist,' 
8vo, 1655. 3. < A Fast-Sermon [on Psalm 
vii. 9] preached to the Lords ... on the day 
of solemn humiliation for the continuing 
pestilence,' 4to, London, 1666. 

[Wood's Athenee Oxon. (Bliss), iii. 812-14; 
Boase and Courtney's Bibl. Cornub. i. 203, 
iii. 978; Chalmers's Biog. Diet. xvii. 57; Ash- 
mole's Berkshire, 1719, iii. 275; Masson's Life 
of Milton, iii. 674.] G. G. 

HALL, GEORGE, D.D. (1753-1811), 
bishop of Dromore, son of the Rev. Mark Hall, 
of Northumberland, was born there in 1753, 
but settled early in life in Ireland. His first 
employment was as an assistant-master in 
Dr. Darby's school near Dublin. Having 
entered Trinity College in that city, 1 Nov. 
1770, under the tutorship of the Rev. Gerald 
Fitzgerald, he soon distinguished himself, 
and was elected a scholar in 1773 ; he graduated 
B.A. 1775, M.A. 1778, B.D. 1786, and D.D. 
1790. On his first trial, and against several 
competitors, he was a successful candidate for 
a fellowship in 1777, and on 14 May 1790 
he was co-opted a senior fellow. Along with 
his fellowship he filled various academical 
offices from time to time, being elected Arch- 
bishop King's lecturer in divinity 1790-1, 
regius professor of Greek 1790 and 1795, pro- 
fessor of modern history 1791, and professor 
of mathematics 1799. He resigned his fellow- 
ship in 1800, and on 25 Feb. of that year was 
presented by his college to the rectory of 
Ardstraw in the diocese of Derry. In 1806 
he returned to Trinity College, having been 
appointed to the provostship by patent dated 


22 Jan., and held that office until his pro- 
motion, on 13 Nov. 1811, to the bishopric of 
Dromore (Lib. Mun. Hib^) He was con- 
secrated in the college chapel on the 17th 
of the same month, but died on the 23rd in 
the provost's house, from which he had not 
had time to remove. He was buried in the 
college chapel, where a monument with a 
Latin inscription to his memory has been 
erected by his niece, Margaret Stack. There 
is another memorial of him in the parish 
church of Ardstraw in Newtown-Stewart, 
co. Tyrone, of which he had been rector. 

[Dublin University Calendars; Todd's Cata- 
logue of Dublin Graduates, p. 243 ; Gent. Mag. 
1811, Ixxxi. pt. ii. 493, 667 ; Cotton's Fasti Ec- 
clesise Hibernicae, iii. 288; Mason's Parochial 
Survey of Ireland, i. 119.] B. H. B. 

HALL, HENRY (d. 1680), of Haugh- 
head, covenanter, was a son of Robert (lo- 
cally called Hobbie) Hall, whose name stands 
in an old valuation roll of 1643 as proprietor 
of Haugh-head, on the banks of the Cayle, 
in the parish of Eckford in Lower Teviotdale. 
The estate, now annexed to adjoining pro- 
perty of the Duke of Buccleuch, was then 
valued at 200/. a year. The ruins of the 
dwelling-house, which was continuously oc- 
cupied till the end of the eighteenth century, 
are still preserved. Near the house is a flat 
stone inscribed with verses commemorating 
an encounter in 1620 between ' Hobbie ' Hall 
and some neighbours who attempted to seize- 
the land on behalf of a powerful landowner. 
The family belonged to a clan long famous 
on the borders. The son, Henry, of strong 
religious temperament, actively opposed the 
resolutions adopted by the moderate party in 
the church in 1651, ceased to attend the 
church at Eckford, and repaired weekly to 
Ancrum, then under the ministry of the 
Rev. John Livingstone. After the restoration 
of episcopacy by Charles II, Hall adhered 
to the presbyterian preachers, and became so- 
obnoxious to the government that in 1665 he 
took refuge on the English side of the bor- 
der, but within an easy riding distance of 
his estate. He left his retreat to join the 
covenanters, who were in arms at the Pent- 
land Hills in 1676, and was arrested and 
imprisoned in Cessford Castle, two or three 
miles from his own home. The Earl of Rox- 
burghe, to whom the castle belonged, procured 
his release, and Hall returned to Northum- 
berland. There he was present at a scuffle 
near Crookham, at which one of his friends, 
Thomas Ker of Hayhope, near Yetholm, was 
killed. On this account he was compelled tc 
quit the locality, and, returning to Scotland, 
wandered up and down, often in company with 




Donald Cargill [q. v.~j and other covenanting 
ministers. Conventicles, or field meetings, 
were held on his estate. Its seclusion and 
proximity to the border hills, where refuge 
could easily be found in case of surprise by 
the dragoons, admirably adapted it for this 
purpose. There Richard Cameron [q. v.] was 
licensed to preach the gospel. 

Hall was one of four covenanting elders 
who, at a council of war at Shawhead Muir, 
on 18 June 1679, were appointed, with Car- 
gill, Douglas, King, and Barclay, to draw up 
a statement of ( Causes of the Lord's wrath 
against the Land.' He was also one of the 
commanding officers of the covenanters' army 
from the skirmish at Drumclog till their de- 
feat at Both well Bridge (June 1679). The 
blue silk banner carried before him in battle 
is still in possession of a family in MofFat, 
Dumfriesshire, On 25 June 1679 the Scot- 
tish privy council ordered a search for Hall. 
But he escaped to Holland. Returning after 
three months, he was surprised by Middleton, 
governor of Blackness Castle, while entering a 
house inQueensferry in company with Cargill 
(3 June 1680). Hall, being t a bold and brisk 
man,' struggled with the governor, and Car- 
gill escaped. A blow on the head disabled 
Hall, but with friendly assistance he managed 
to get away towards Edinburgh. Fainting 
on the road, he was carried into a house near 
Echlin, where he was captured by General 
Thomas Dalyell or Dalzell [q. v.] of Binns 
and a company of the king's guards. He 
died while being conveyed to Edinburgh by 
the soldiers. His body was carried to the 
Canongate Tolbooth, and lay there three days, 
when it was interred at night by his friends. 
On his person was found a rough draft of a 
document, afterwards published under the 
name of ' The Queensferry Paper,' in which 
the subscribers renounced allegiance to the 
existing king and government, and engaged 
to defend their rights and privileges, natural, 
civil, and divine. Robert Hall (1763-1824) 
[q. v.] was a great-grandson. 

[Old Valuation Boll, 1643-78; Howie's Scots 
Worthies, ed. 1870; Eecords of Privy Council of 
Scotland ; Statistical Account of Eckford Parish, 
1793 ; Scott's Minstrelsy of the Scottish Border, 
and note ; Transactions of the Berwickshire Na- 
turalists' Club; personal visit and inquiries in 
the locality.] J. T. 

HALL, HENRY, the elder (1655 P-1707), 
organist and composer, was born about 1655. 
His father, Captain Henry Hall, was con- 
nected with Windsor between 1657 and 1675 
(TiGHE and DAVIS, Annals of Windsor, ii. 281 
et seq.) Hall was a chorister of the Chapel 
Royal, and, as it appears from his lines printed 
in Purcell's l Orpheus Britannicus,' a fellow- 

student with Purcell, under Blow. In 1674 
Hall was admitted lay vicar and succeeded 
Coleby as organist of Exeter Cathedral ; in 
1679 he was elected vicar choral, and in 1688 
organist, of Hereford Cathedral. He died 
there on 30 March 1707, and was buried in 
the cloisters of the vicars choral. Tudway 
has preserved music by Hall in vols. iv. and 
vi. of his collection : this includes ' Morning 
and Evening Services in E flat ' (of which 
the Te Deum has been printed), and anthems, 
1 Let God arise/ ' clap your hands,' ' By the 
waters of Babylon,' ' Comfort ye,' and ' The 
Souls of the Righteous.' An anthem, ' Blessed 
be the Lord my strength,' is in the British 
Museum (Addit. MS. 17840, p. 273). Hall 
was referred to by contemporary writers not 
only as an excellent organist and a sound 
musician, but also as a staunch upholder of 
the dignity of art. The duets, ' As Phoebus ' 
and ' Beauty the painful mother's prayer' 
(Delicice Musicce, 1695) ; the song, ' In vain I 
strive,' and others ; an opera on the subject 
of the marriage of the Doge of Venice and 
the Adriatic (mentioned by Duncombe as an 
example of Hall's humour), may possibly 
have proceeded from the lighter and more 
ingenious talent of his son Henry Hall the 
younger [q. v.] 

Another son, WILLIAM HALL (d. 1700), 
was a violinist, and in 1692 and until 1700 
one of the musicians in ordinary to the king. 
He died in 1700, and was buried at Rich- 
mond, Surrey. An inscription on his grave- 
stone proclaims him ' a superior violin.' His 
compositions are few and unimportant. 

[Authorities quoted ; Hawkins's Hist, of 
Music, p. 768 ; Bedford's Great Abuse of Music, 
p. 197 ; Warren's Tonometer, p. 7 ; Buncombe's 
Hist, of Hereford, i. 586 ; Havergal's Fasti Here- 
fordenses, pp. 98, 103 ; music ; Bloxam's Magd. 
Coll. Reg. ii. 192 ; Chamberlayne's Notes, 1692 
p. 174, 1700 p. 498 ; Grove's Diet, of Muic, i. 
646.1 L. M. M. 

HALL, HENRY, the younger (d. 1713), 
organist, son of Henry Hall the elder [q. v.], 
succeeded his father in 1707 as organist of 
Hereford Cathedral. He is said to have com- 
posed little or no music, applying himself to 
verse-making. Such trifles as ' To Mr. R. C., 
a dun ; ' l All in the Land of Cider ; ' ( Catch on 
the Vigo Expedition,' in ' The Grove,' 1721 ; 
and 'A Ballad on the Jubilee,' in ' Pope's 
Miscellany ' (Lintot, 5th edit., 1727, vol. ii.) 
were admired for their ease and brilliancy in 
an age that was not repelled by their coarse- 
ness. Hall's commendatory poem prefixed 
to Blow's ' Amphion ' is a pleasing example 
of his writing. There is no mention in the 
1 Fasti Herefordenses ' of the election of the 
younger Hall to the office of vicar choral, 



though after his death, on 22 Jan. 1713, he 
was buried in the cloisters, near his father. 

[For authorities see under HALL, HENRY, the 
elder.] L. M. M. 

HALL, JACOB (/. 1668), rope-dancer, 
distinguished himself as a performer on the 
tight-rope. In 1668 he attained his greatest 
popularity. The court encouraged him, and 
he described himself as 'sworn servant to 
his Majestie.' Lady Castlemain, afterwards 
Duchess of Cleveland, to avenge herself on 
Charles for neglecting her, fell, according to 
Pepys and Grammont, ' mightily in love ' with 
him. In April 1668 he was a regular visitor 
at her house, and received a salary from her. 
He appears to have given his earliest enter- 
tainment in a booth at Smithfield, in con- 
nection with Bartholomew Fair. Pepys wit- 
nessed his performance there on 28 Aug. 1668, 
and described his 'dancing of the ropes' as 
4 a thing worth seeing, and mightily followed.' 
On 21 Sept. 1668 Pepys attended again, and 
afterwards met Hall at a tavern. Hall told 
Pepys that he had often fallen, but had never 
broken a limb. ' He seems,' Pepys adds, ' a 
mighty strong man.' A placard was issued 
describing the performances of ' himself and 
those of Mr. Richard Lancashire, with several 
others of their companies.' Hall and his 
friends promised' excellent dancing and vault- 
ing on the ropes, with variety of rare feats 
of activity and agility of body upon the stage, 
as doing of somersets and flipflaps, flying over 
thirty rapiers, and over several men's heads, 
and also flying through several hoops.' Hall 
finally challenged 'all others whatsoever, 
whether Englishmen or strangers, to do the 
like with them for twenty pounds, or what 
more they please' (Notes and Queries, 2nd 
ser. vii. 62). Subsequently Hall began to 
build a booth in Charing Cross, and was com- 
mitted to prison for continuing its erection 
after the local authorities had ordered its 
demolition. But hi s influence with the king's 
mistress enabled him to complete the booth. 
He also erected a stage in Lincoln's Inn 
Fields, but the inhabitants intervened again, 
with the result that his performances there 
were inhibited. On 4 Sept. 1679 William 
Blaythwaite, in a letter to Sir Robert South- 
well, mentioned that he had just witnessed 
Hall's exhibitions of agility. Robert Wild, 
in his 'Rome Rhymed to Death,' 1683; 
Dryden, in his epilogue to Nat. Lee's ' Mith- 
ridates ; ' Dr. John King, in his ' Collection 
of Riddles,' refer to his skill, and in the 
second edition of the collection entitled ' Wit 
and Drollery' (1682) he is described as still 
delighting London with his jumping. 

A picture of Hall, heavily dressed on a 

tight-rope, with a balancing rod in his hands, 
forms the frontispiece to ' News from Bar- 
tholomew Fair, or the World 's Mad.' A fine 
portrait by Van Oost of a man richly dressed 
was adopted, without much authority, as a 
representation of Hall in early editions of 
Hamilton's ' Memoirs of Grammont.' 

[Jesse's Court under the Stuarts, iii. 190, 193 ; 
Henry Morley's Memoirs of Bartholomew Fair, 
1 859, pp. 238-9, 245-8, 288 ; Hamilton's Memoirs 
of Grammont (Bonn's extra ser.), pp. 118-19; 
Pepys's Diary, ed. Lord Braybrooke, iii. 420, 
iv. 13, 25.] ' S. L. L. 

HALL, JAMES (d. 1612), navigator, a 
native of Hull, made four voyages to Green- 
land, and wrote an account of the first two. 
He made his first voyage in 1605, when he 
was chief pilot on an expedition sent by 
Christian IV of Denmark to discover the lost 
colony of Greenland. They landed on the 
western coast near the modern Holsteiiiborg, 
and Hall describes the Eskimos as ' a kind 
of Samoydes worshipping the sun,' and gives 
their mode of deceiving the seals by wearing 
sealskin garments. He went again on the 
same quest in 1606 as pilot under Admiral 
Lindenov, when he saw the natives' winter 
houses, made of whalebones and covered with 
earth. After joininga thirdDanish expedition 
to Greenland in 1607, he returned to England 
with a Scarborough youth, William Huntriss, 
who had accompanied him on all his voyages, 
and had a special allowance for his seamanship 
from Christian IV. Hall persuaded four rich 
merchants to join him in fitting out an Eng- 
lish expedition for mineral ores, and sailed for 
Greenland on his fourth and last voyage, in 
command of two ships, the Patience and 
Heartsease, in 1612. The famous William 
Baffin [q. v.] was pilot of the Patience, and 
wrote an account (published by Purchas) of 
this, Hall's last voyage. The party reached 
Cockin Sound on 8 July, and on the 21st Hall 
was mortally wounded by an Eskimo, in re- 
venge probably for having carried off or slain 
some natives on a previous voyage. Hall 
died 22 July 1612, his last wishes being that 
Barker, master of the Heartsease, should suc- 
ceed him as commander, and Huntriss take 
Barker's post. By his own desire he was 
buried on an island, not at sea. Purchas 
gives accounts of Hall's first two voyages, 
somewhat abbreviated, and says he also pos- 
sessed an account of the third voyage, illus- 
trated by Josiah Hubert, but since the ship 
was forced to turn back he does not print it. 
Baffin's journal is also in Purchas. 

[Purchas his Pilgrimes, ed. 1625, i. 814, 821, 
827, 831 ; John Davis, by Clements Markham, 
pp. 249-51, 257.] E. T. B. 





HALL, JAMES, D.D. (1755-1826), pres- 
byterian divine, was born at Cathcart, near 
Glasgow, on 5 Jan. 1755. His parents be- 
longed to the middle class, and were zealous 
adherents of the secession church. From his 
father, who died in his infancy, was obtained 
the feu on which was built the meeting-house 
of Shuttle Street, afterwards Greyfriars, Glas- 
gow, the earliest secession congregation in the 
city. His mother presented the seceders of 
Kirkintilloch with land which she owned 
there for a meeting-house and manse, and to 
her James and his brother Robert, afterwards 
minister of the secession church in Kelso, owed 
their early training. Hall studied in the uni- 
versity of Glasgow, under Professors Young, 
Jardine, and Dr. Thomas Reid, and finally pro- 
ceeded to the theological course under John 
Brown (1722-1787) of Haddington [q. v.] In 
the spring of 1776 he was licensed to preach 
by the associate presbytery of Glasgow. An 
offer of a good living in the established church 
was rejected with scorn, and on 16 April 
1777 he was ordained pastor of the associate 
congregation at Cumnock. A call to the con- 
gregation of Wells Street, London, in 1780 
was set aside by the synod, which then decided 
calls to ordained ministers ; but on 15 June 
1786 Hall was translated to the congregation 
of Rose Street, which had seceded from the 
first associate congregation in Edinburgh. In 
1800 he declined a call to Manchester. 

Hall took a high place as a preacher and 
minister, while his general intelligence and 
polished manners gave him good standing in 
Edinburgh society. The meeting-house in 
Rose Street was filled to overflowing, and a 
more spacious church was erected in Brough- 
ton Place in 1820-1. In 1792 a pulpit gown 
was presented to him, but the use of such 
robes was distasteful to strict seceders, and a 
few of his hearers left. He died on 20 Nov. 
1826, and was buried in the New Calton 
cemetery, in a tomb purchased by the con- 
gregation. A. marble tablet was placed in the 
lobby of the church. 

From 1786 onwards Hall was always con- 
spicuous on the side of progress in the reli- 
gious movements of his time. His knowledge 
of business, ready utterance, and combina- 
tion of suavity and dignity made him a 
useful member of ecclesiastical courts. He 
encouraged bible and missionary societies, 
and was chairman of the committee which, on 
8 Sept. 1820, brought about a union among 
seceders after a separation of more than 
seventy years. 

[History of Broughton Place Church, 1872, 
includingbiographical sketch appended to funeral 
sermon on Hall by the Rev. John Brown ; pri- 
vate information.] J. T. 

HALL, SIK JAMES (1761-1832), 

Oist and chemist, the first geologist to 
y apply the test of laboratory experi- 
ment to geological hypotheses, was born in 
1761, being the eldest son of Sir John, third 
baronet of Dunglass, Haddingtonshire, by 
Magdalen, daughter of Sir Robert Pringlej 
bart. Hall succeeded to the baronetcy in 
1776. His attention seems early to have been 
directed to geological questions : he became- 
intimate with James Hutton and his expo- 
nent Playfair, and himself relates how, after 
three years of almost daily arguments with 
Hutton, he was led to adopt the leading 
principles of his system. These he tested by 
careful study of the rocks in various parts of 
Scotland, in the Alps, in Italy, and in Sicily. 
During his travels, from which he returned 
in 1785, he also paid considerable attention 
to architecture. He was anxious to test 
the objections of the Neptunist followers- 
of Werner to Hutton's Plutonist views by 
experiment, believing with Paracelsus that 
* Vulcan is a second nature, imitating con- 
cisely what the first takes time and circuit 
to effect.' Hutton, however, objected * to 
judge of the great operations of the mineral 
kingdom from having kindled a fire and 
looked into the bottom of a little crucible,' 
so Hall postponed the publication of any of 
his results until after his friend's death in 
1797. In a series of memoirs communicated 
to the Royal Society of Edinburgh, of which 
he was president, he showed, in opposition to 
the Wernerians, that basalt and even bottle- 
glass, when fused and very slowly cooled r 
became stony and crystalline, and not glassy ; 
that carbonate of lime, when heated under 
pressure, was not burnt into quicklime, but 
became a crystalline marble ; and that the 
vertical position and convolutions of strata 
in the neighbourhood of granite have been 
produced by its intrusion in a molten state 
causing lateral pressure. He gave a true 
account of the formation of volcanic cones 
as illustrated by Vesuvius, but he folio wed De 
Saussure and Pallas, in opposition to Hutton 
and Playfair, in attributing to a great sea- 
flood or ' debacle ' the presence of boulders on 
the Jura and similar phenomena at Corstor- 
phine which we now recognise as glacial. In 
1797 he laid before the Royal Society of Edin- 
burgh an interesting introductory 'Essay on 
the Origin and Principles of Gothic Archi- 
tecture,' of twenty-seven pages, with six plates 
and a coloured frontispiece, which he issued 
in an enlarged form in 1813 as an ' Essay on 
the Origin, History, and Principles of Gothic 
Architecture,' extending to 150 pages, with 
sixty plates. He argues in detail that Gothic 
architecture began in the reproduction in stone 


6 9 


of simple wattle buildings, deriving crockets 
from the sprouting buds on willow-staves, 
-cusped ornaments from curling flakes of bark 
on unbarked poles, and the pointed arch and 
groined roof from flexible poles tied together 
-as rafters across a beam. He describes a 
miniature Gothic cathedral built by him in 
wattle-work, which is represented in the 
frontispiece. From 1807 to 1812 Hall repre- 
sented the borough of Michael or Mitchell, 
Cornwall, in parliament. He died at Edin- 
burgh on 23 June 1832, a machine invented 
toy him for regulating high temperatures being 
described to the Geological Society of London 
after his death by his second son, Captain 
Basil Hall [q. v.] He married (9 Nov. 1786) 
Helen, second daughter of Dunbar Douglas, 
fourth earl of Selkirk. She died 12 July 1837. 
By her Hall had three sons and three daugh- 
ters; the eldest son, John (1787-1860), fifth 
baronet, was F.K.S. ; the younger ones, Basil 
and James, are separately noticed. 

[Proc. Geol. Soc. i. 438. 478 ; the works above 
mentioned ; Experimental Geology, by F. "W. 
Kudler, in Proc. Geol. Assoc. vol. xi.; Burke's 
Baronetage; Gent. Mag. 1832, ii. 178-9.] 

G. S. B. 

HALL, JAMES (1800 P-1864), advocate 
and amateur painter, was the third and 

SDungest son of Sir James Hall, bart., of 
unglass, the geologist [q. v.] He was born 
about 1800, and was educated for the legal 
profession. At the general election in June 
1-841, and again in February 1842, he was an 
nmsuccessful candidate in the conservative 
interest for the borough of Taunton. But it 
was as a patron of art and an amateur por- 
trait-painter that he was best known. He 
was a student of the Royal Academy, and 
became the friend of John Watson Gordon, 
Oollins, Allan, and especially of Sir David 
Wilkie, many of whose studies and sketches 
he possessed, and whose favourite palette he 
presented to the National Gallery, where it 
jnow adorns the pedestal of Samuel Joseph's 
marble statue of Wilkie. He was a liberal 
donor to the funds of the British Institution, 
:and both there and at the Royal Academy was 
an occasional exhibitor of portraits and Scot- 
tish scenery between 1835 and 1854. Among 
his landscapes were * The real Scenery of the 
Bride of Lammermuir/ * From Burns's Monu- 
ment in Ayrshire the Island of Arran in 
the distance/ ' The Pentland Hills near Edin- 
tmrgh/ 'Dunglass/ 'Tantallon Castle,' and 
'The Linn at Ashiesteel, where it enters the 
Tweed.' He painted a full-length portrait 
of Sir Walter Scott, whose manuscript of 
* Waverley ' he gave to the Advocates' Library 
:at Edinburgh, and in 1838 he sent to the 
Hoyal Academy a portrait of the Duke of 

Wellington. His success as an artist, how- 
ever, was not so great as it might have been 
if he had given his undivided attention to 

glinting. His studio at 40 Brewer Street, 
olden Square, was shared by Sir John Watson 
Gordon when in London for a short time in 
the season. He also wrote some speculative 
letters on ' Binocular Perspective/ which ap- 
peared in the 'Art Journal' for March and 
August 1852, and were reviewed by Sir David 
Brewster. Hall died unmarried at Ashiesteel, 
Selkirkshire, the residence of his sister, Lady 
Russell, on 26 Oct. 1854, aged 54. A half- 
length portrait of him was left unfinished by 
Sir David Wilkie. 

[Scotsman, 1 Nov. 1854; Art Journal, 1854, 
p. 364 ; Gent. Mag., 1855, i. 90; Allan Cunning- 
ham's Life of Sir David Wilkie, 1843; Eoyal 
Academy Exhibition Catalogues, 1835-53 ; Bri- 
tish Institution Exhibition Catalogues (Living 
Artists), 1837-54.] E. E. G-. 

HALL or HALLE, JOHN (1529?- 
1566 ?), poet and medical writer, was born 
in 1529 or 1530, became a member of the 
Worshipful Company of Chirurgeons, and 
practised as a surgeon at Maidstone, Kent. 
He appears to have been a man of strong 
character and of great zeal in his profession. 

His works are: 1. ' Certayne Chapters 
taken out of the Proverbes of Solomon, with 
other Chapters of the Holy Scripture, and 
certayne Psalmes of David, translated into 
English Metre/ London (Thomas Raynalde), 
1549, 8vo. 2. ' A Poesie in Forme of a 
Vision, briefly inveying against the most 
hatefull and prodigious artes of Necromancie, 
Witchcraft, Sorcerie, Incantations, and divers 
other detestable and deuilishe practises, dayly 
used under colour of Judiciall Astrologie/ 
London, 1563, 8vo. 3. < The Court of Ver- 
tue, contayning many Holy or Spretuall 
Songes, Sonnettes, Psalmes, Balletts, and 
Shorte Sentences, as well of Holy Scripture, 
as others/ with musical notes, London, 1565, 
16mo. This book seems by the prologue to 
have been written in contrast to one named 
' The Court of Venus/ which was a collection 
of love songs. 4. l A most excellent and 
learned woorke of chirurgerie, called Chi- 
rurgia parva Lanfranci, Lanfranke of My- 
layne his briefe : reduced from dy vers trans- 
lations to our vulgar-frase, and now first pub- 
lished in the Englyshe prynte/ black letter, 
4 pts., London, 1565, 4to. It contains a 
woodcut portrait of the translator, ' set. 35, 
1564.' 5. 'A very frutefull and necessary 
briefe worke of Anatomic/ 1565, appended 
to his translation of Lanfranc's ' Chirurgia 
Parva.' 6. ' An Historiall Expostulation : 
Against the beastlye Abusers, both of Chy- 
rurgerie, and Physyke, in oure tyme : with a 



goodlye Doctrine and Instruction, necessarye 
to be marked and folowed, of all true Chi- 
rurgiens,' 1565, appended to his translation 
of Lanfranc's ' Chirurgia Parva.' This curious 
treatise was reprinted in the eleventh volume 
of the publications of the Percy Society, Lon- 
don, 1844, 8vo, under the editorship of T. J. 
Pettigrew, F.R.S. Hall boldly denounces 
the quacks of the day, and is loud in his pro- 
testations against the combination of magic, 
divination, and physic. 7. A metrical ver- 
sion of ' The Prouerbes of Salamon, thre 
chapters of Ecclesiastes, the sixthe chapter of 
Sapientia, the ix chapter of Ecclesiasticus, 
and certayne psalmes of Dauid,' London (Ed- 
ward Whitchurch), n.d. 8vo, dedicated to 
John Bricket, esq., of Eltham. Hall grie- 
vously complains that ' certayne chapters of 
the Prouerbes, translated by him into English 
metre, 1550, had before been untruely enti- 
tuled to be the doyngs of mayster Thomas 
Sternhold.' 8. English translation of Bene- 
dict Victorius's and Nicholas Massa's treatises 
on the * Cure of the French Disease ; ' manu- 
script in Bodleian Library, No. 178, which 
also contains some letters from Hall to Wil- 
liam Cunningham, M.D., of London. 9. Com- 
mendatory English verses prefixed to Thomas 
Gale's 'Enchiridion of Chirurgerie,' 1563, 
and to the same author's ' Institution of a 
Chirurgian,' 1563. 

[Ames's Typogr. Antiq. pp. 550, 584, 805, 806, 
854 ; Bibliographer, iv. 90 ; Brydges's Brit. Bibl. 
ii. 349-52 ; Granger's Biog. Hist, of England, 
5th edit. i. 308 ; Lowndes'sBibl. Man. (Lowndes), 
p. 978 ; Percy Society's Publications, vol. xi. ; 
Eits'on's Bibl. Poetica, p. 232 ; Tanner's Bibl. 
Brit. p. 372.] T. C. 

HALL, JOHN (1575-1635), physician, 
and Shakespeare's son-in-law, born in 1575, 
seems to have been connected with the Halls 
of Acton, Middlesex, although he was not 
born there. He was well educated, travelled 
abroad, and acquired a good knowledge of 
French, He called himself master of arts, 
but his university is not known, and, although 
he practised medicine, he had no medical 
degree On 5 June 1607 he married, at 
Stratford-on-Avon, Susanna, Shakespeare's 
elder daughter, and thenceforth resided in 
Stratford. His first house there was appa- 
rently in the street called Old Town. His only 
child Elizabeth was baptised at Stratford on 
21 Feb. 1607-8. In 1612 he leased a small 
piece of wooded land from the corporation. 
His wife received, under the will of her father, 
Shakespeare, in 1616, the house known as 
New Place at Stratford. She and Hall were 
residuary legatees and executors of the will. 
In June 1616 Hall proved the will in London, 
in the Archbishop of Canterbury's registry. 

Hall and his family removed to New Place- 
soon afterwards. 

Hall obtained great local eminence as a, 
doctor. More than once he attended the Earl 
and Countess of Northampton at Ludlow 
Castle, more than forty miles from Stratford. 
In March 1617 he attended Lord Compton, 
probably at Compton Wyniates, Warwick- 
shire. Hall was elected a burgess of Stratford 
in 1617, and again in 1623, but was excused 
from taking office on the ground of his pro- 
fessional engagements. In 1632, however, 
he was compelled to accept the position, and 
was soon afterwards fined for non-attendance 
at the meetings of the town council. He- 
was a deeply religious man, and showed from 
an early period puritan predilections. He 
gave to the church a costly new pulpit, and 
in 1628 he was appointed a borough church- 
warden, in 1629 a sidesman, and in 1633 the 
vicar's churchwarden. In 1633 the vicar, 
Thomas Wilson, an ardent puritan and Hall's 
intimate friend, induced him to join in a chan- 
cery action brought by himself against the 
town council. Hall was already engaged in 
personal disputes with his fellow-councillors. 
In October 1633 they expelled him from the 
council, on the ground of his breach of orders, 
' sundry other misdemeanours,' and ' for his 
continual disturbances at our halles.' In 1632 
Hall was seriously ill. He died on 25 Nov. 
1635, and was buried next day in the chancel of 
the parish church. The register describes him 
as ' medicus peritissimus.' His tomb bears a 
Latin inscription. By a nuncupative will he 
left a house in London to his wife, a house 
at Acton and a meadow to his daughter, and 
'his study of books' and his manuscripts to 
his son-in-law, Thomas Nash. The manu- 
scripts were to be burnt or treated as the 
legatee pleased. Nothing is now known of 
them, and it is suggested that they included 
manuscripts of Shakespeare's works, which 
Hall and his wife, as residuary legatees,, 
doubtless inherited in 1616. Hall's family 
widow, daughter, and son-in-law lived 
together at New Place after his death. The 
widow died there on 11 July 1649, and was 
buried beside her husband on the 16th. An 
English epitaph in verse was placed on her 

Hall's daughter Elizabeth married, in April 
1626, Thomas Nash (1593-1647), a resident 
at Stratford, who was a student of Lincoln's 
Inn, and had considerable property. He died 
at New Place on 4 April 1647, aged 53, and 
was buried in Stratford Church next day. 
His widow afterwards married at Billesley, 
a village four miles from Stratford, on 5 June 
1649, Sir John Bernard or Barnard, a wealthy 
widower of Abington, Northamptonshire. 



She was buried at Abington on 17 Feb. 1669- 
1670, and was the latest survivor of Shake- 
speare's direct descendants. Sir John Bar- 
nard died early in 1674 (cf. BAKEK, North- 
amptonshire, i. 10 ; Transactions of New 
Shakespeare Soc. 1880-5, pt. ii. pp. ISf-lSf). 
In 1643 James Cooke, a surgeon, visited 
Mrs. Hall at New Place, in attendance on a 
detachment of the parliamentary army, and 
was invited by her to examine her late 
husband's manuscripts. As a result, Cooke 
issued in 1657 the rare volume entitled 

* Select Observations on English Bodies, and 
Cures both Empericall and Historicall per- 
formed upon very eminent persons in despe- 
rate diseases, first written in Latin by Mr. 
John Hall, physician, living at Stratford- 
upon-Avon in Warwickshire, where he was 
very famous, as also in the counties adjacent, 
as appears by these observations drawn out 
of severall hundreds of his as choysest, and 
now put into English for common benefit by 
James Cooke, practitioner in Physick and 
Chirurgery,' London, 12mo. A second edi- 
tion appeared in 1679, which was reissued, 
with a new title-page, in 1683. Hall's ori- 

final Latin notes, which cover the dates 
622-36, are in Brit. Mus. Egerton MS. 

[J. 0. Halliwell-Phillipps's Outlines of Life of 
Shakespeare (7th edit.), i. 219-24, 271-5, ii. 170, 
321-3 ; Dugdale's Warwickshire.] S. L. L. 

HALL, JOHN (1627-1656), of Durham, 
poet and pamphleteer, son of Michael Hall, 

* gent.,' born at Durham in August 1627, was 
educated at Durham school, and was admitted 
to St. John's College, Cambridge, on 26 Feb. 
1645-6 (MAYOK, Admissions, p. 76). At the 
age of nineteen he published ' Horse Vacivae, 
or Essays. Some occasional Considerations,' 
1646, 12mo, which he dedicated to the master 
of his college, John Arrowsmith. Commen- 
datory verses in English were prefixed by 
Thomas Stanley, William Hammond, James 
Shirley, &c. ; Dr. Henry More contributed 
Greek elegiacs ; and Hall's tutor, John Paw- 
son, supplied a preface, dated from St. John's 
College, 12 June 1646. A portrait of the 
author by Marshall adorns the little volume. 
In a biographical notice before Hall's post- 
humous ' Hierocles,' 1657, his friend John 
Davies of Kidwelly (1627 P-1693) [q. v.] de- 
clares that these youthful essays 'amazed 
not only the University but the more serious 
part of men in the three nations/ and that 

* they travelled over into France and were 
by no ordinary person clad in the language 
of that country.' Hall sent a copy to James 
Howell, whose letter of acknowledgment is 
printed in part ii. of l Epistolae Ho-Elianse.' 

The essays were followed by a small collec- 
tion of not uninteresting ' Poems,' published 
at Cambridge in January 1646-7 ; reprinted 
by Sir S. Egerton Brydges in 1816. Com- 
mendatory verses by Henry More and others 
were prefixed, and the volume was dedicated 
to Thomas Stanley. The general title-page 
is dated 1646, but ' The Second Book of Di- 
vine Poems ' has a new title-page dated 1647. 
Some of the divine poems were afterwards 
included in ' Emblems with Elegant Figures 
newly published. By J. H., esquire ' [1648], 
12mo, 2 parts, which was dedicated by the 

gublisher to Mrs. Stanley (wife of Thomas 
tanley), and has a commendatory preface 
by John Quarles. Hall remained at Cam- 
bridge till May 1647, cherishing a grievance 
against the college authorities * for denying 
those honorary advancements which are as 
it were the indulgence of the university when 
there is an excess of merit ' (DAVIES). He 
was afterwards entered at Gray's Inn. 

In 1648 he published 'A Satire against 
Presbytery,' and in 1649 ' An Humble Motion 
to the Parliament of England concerning the 
Advancement of Learning and Reformation 
of the Universities,' 4to, a well-written tract 
in which he complains that the revenues of 
the universities are misspent and the course 
of study is too restricted, advocating that 
the number of fellowships should be reduced 
and more professorships endowed. By com- 
mand of the council of state he accompanied 
Cromwell in 1650 to Scotland, where he drew 
up ' The Grounds and Reasons of Monarchy,' 
with an appendix of ' An Epitome of Scottish 
Affairs,' printed at Edinburgh and reprinted 
at London. Other political pamphlets were 
* A Gagg to Love's Advocate, or an Asser- 
tion of the Justice of the Parliament in the 
Execution of Mr. Love,' 1651, 4to ; 'Answer 
to the Grand Politick Informer,' 1653 ; ' A 
Letter from a Gentleman in the Country,' &c., 
1653. He also put forth a new edition, dedi- 
cated to Cromwell, of ' A Treatise discover- 
ing the horrid Cruelties of the Dutch upon 
our People at Amboyna,' 1651, which had 
originally appeared in 1624. The Dutch am- 
bassador complained about the book, but no 
notice was taken of his complaint. Davies 
states that Hall was awarded a pension of 
100/. per annum by Cromwell and the coun- 
cil for his pamphleteering services. 

Hall's non-political writings, in addition 
to ' Horse Vacivae ' and the poems, are : 
1. 'Paradoxes,' 1650, 8vo, of which a second 
and enlarged edition appeared in 1653. 2. A 
translation of 'Longinus of the Height of 
Eloquence,' 1652, 8vo. 3. ' Lusus Serius, or 
Serious Passe-Time. A Philosophicall Dis- 
course concerning the Superiority of Creatures 



under Man,' 1654, 8vo, translated from the 
Latin of Michael Mayerus. 4. ' Hierocles upon 
the Golden Verses of Pythagoras ; Teaching 
a Vertuous and Worthy Life,' posthumously 
published in 1657, with commendatory verses 
by Kichard Lovelace and others. The ' Para- 
doxes 7 and 'Lusus Serius' were published 
under the disguised name * J. de La Salle.' 
In 1647 Hall edited Robert Hegge's [q. v.] 
' In aliquot Sacrse Paginae loca Lectiones.' 

Hall died on 1 Aug. 1656, leaving several 
unpublished works. At the time of his death 
he was engaged upon a translation of Pro- 
copius. He wrote very rapidly, and is re- 
ported to have had a marvellous memory. 
Hobbes, who frequently visited him, had a 
high opinion of his abilities ; another of his 
friends was Samuel Hartlib [q. v.] According 
to Davies, he greatly objected to taking exer- 
cise, so much so that in 1650 and 1651, ' being 
inclined to pursinesse & fatnesse, rather than 
he would use any great motion, he thought 
fitter to prevent it by frequent swallowing 
down of pebble-stones, which proved effec- 
tual!.' Wood observes that, l had not his 
debauchery and intemperance diverted him 
from the more serious studies, he had made 
an extraordinary person, for no man had ever 
done so great things at his age. So was the 
opinion of the great philosopher of Malmes- 

[Memoir by John Davies of Kidwelly prefixed 
to Hall's Hierocles upon the Golden Verses of 
Pythagoras, 1657 ; Wood's Athense, ed. Bliss, 
ii. 457-60 ; Brydges's preface to Hall's Poems, 
1816.] A. H. B. 

HALL, JOHN (d. 1707), divine, was 
elected a fellow of Trinity College, Cambridge, 
in 1658, proceeded B.A. and M.A. in due 
course, and B.D. in 1666. He was collated on 
11 March 1663-4 to the rectory of Hanwell, 
Middlesex. On 11 July 1664 he was collated 
to the prebend of Isledon in the church of St. 
Paul, and on 20 Feb. 1665-6 to the rectory 
of St. Christopher-le-Stocks, London. On 
5 Oct. 1666 he was collated to the rectory of 
Finchley, Middlesex. On 21 March 1666-7 
he exchanged the prebend of Isledon for that 
of Holywell, alias Finsbury. He was presi- 
dent of Sion College, London, and died to- 
wards the close of 1707. 

He was the author of: 1. ' Grace leading 
unto Glory: or a Glimpse of the Glorie, 
Excellencie, and Eternity of Heaven. . . . 
Written by J. H.,' London, 1651. Dedicated to 
Elizabeth Cecil, countess dowager of Exeter. 
2. 'Jacobs Ladder: or the Devout Souls 
Ascention to Heaven, in prayers, thanksgiv- 
ings, and praises. In four parts, viz. Private 
Devotions, Family Devotions for every day 

in the week, Occasional Devotions, Sacred 
Poems upon select subjects. With Graces 
and Thanksgivings. Illustrated with sculp- 
tures/ 2nd edit., enlarged, London, 1676, 
24mo; 9th edit. London, 1698; 14th edit. 
London, 1716; 16th edit. London, 1728; 
19th edit. London, 1764. The work contains 
accounts of the Gunpowder plot, the plague, 
and the fire of London. 

[Cantabrigienses G-raduati, 1787, p. 173; Le 
Neve's Fasti (Hardy) ; Newcourt's Repertorium, 
i. 162, 168, 325, 606, 628; Notes and Queries, 
3rd ser. v. 497, 530, vi. 37 ; Watt's Bibl. Brit.] 

T. C. 

HALL, JOHN (d. 1707), criminal, born 
of poor parents in Bishop's Head Court, 
Gray's Inn Lane, London, was brought up 
as a chimney-sweeper, but soon turned pick- 
pocket, and in January 1682 was convicted 
of theft at the Old Bailey, and whipped at 
the cart's tail. He was sentenced to death 
in 1700 for housebreaking, but was pardoned 
on condition of removing within six months 
to America. He managed to desert the ship 
in which his passage was secured, and in 1702 
was sentenced to be burnt in the cheek and 
to undergo two years' imprisonment for steal- 
ing portmanteaus from behind a coach. On 
his return in 1704 he joined, with two com- 
panions, Stephen Bunce and Richard Low, in 
a series of daring burglaries, and managed for 
a time to escape arrest, and when arrested in 
1705, and again in 1706, was acquitted for 
want of evidence. In 1707 he and his two 
friends, Bunce and Low, were convicted of 
breaking open the house of Captain Guyon, 
near Stepney, and were hanged at Tyburn on 
17 Dec. 1707. Luttrell, in his < Brief Relation/ 
vi. 115, mentions the conviction of Hall, { a no- 
torious highwayman/ on lODec. 1706, but the 
'Newgate Calendar 7 gives 1707 as the date of 
Hall's death. Hall is credited with composing 
before his execution : ' Memoirs of the Right 
Villanous John Hall, the late famous and no- 
torious robber, penn'd from his own mouth/ 
published in London in 1708. This is a 
general account of a thief s life in and out of 
Newgate, with interesting lists of thieves' 
technical terms. A fourth edition of the 
same year contains some verses by Hall and 
his two friends, and an elegy and epitaph in 
verse upon him. In 1714 another edition, 
also called ' the fourth/ was issued. 

[Knapp and Baldwin's Newgate Calendar, 
i. 47-8 ; Hall's Memoirs.] 

HALL, JOHN,D.D. (1633-1710), bishop 
of Bristol, son of John Hall, vicar of Broms- 
grove, Worcestershire, and Anne his wife, 
was born at his father's vicarage on 29 Jan. 
1632-3. He was admitted into Merchant 




Taylors' School in June 1644, and proceeded 
to Pembroke College, Oxford, where he was 
under the tuition of his uncle, Edmund Hall 
[q. v.], at one time a captain in the parliamen- 
tary army, but then a fellow of his college. All 
his kinsmen belonged to the puritanic school. 
Another uncle, Thomas (1610-1665) [q. v.], 
was ejected from his living of King's Norton 
in 1662. His brother-in-law, John Spilsbury, 
held the vicarage of Bromsgrove under the 
Commonwealth, and was ejected at the Re- 
storation. With Spilsbury, Hall was always 
on affectionate terms. 

Hall became a scholar of Pembroke in 
1650,and graduated B. A. in 1651, 
1653, in which year he was elected fellow. 
4 Educated among presbyterians and inde- 
pendents,' writes Wood, ' he acted as they 
did, and submitted to the authority of the 
visitors.' He was popular in his college, and 
was chosen master on 31 Dec. 1664, and ap- 
pointed to the college living of St. Aldate's, 
Oxford, which he held in commendam till his 
death. He took his degree of B.D. in 1666, 
and of D.D. in 1669. At St. Aldate's he 
drew, by his 'edifying way of preaching,' 
large congregations of ' the precise people and 
scholars of the university ' (WooB, Athence 
Oxon. iv. 900). He succeeded Dr. Thomas 
Barlow [q. v.] as Lady Margaret's professor 
of divinity on 24 March 1676. Wood calls 
him ' a malapert presbyterian ' when record- 
ing that he preached at St. Mary's on 5 Nov. 
'sharply and bitterly against the papists,' 
in the first excitement of the popish plot in 
1678 (WooD, Life, Ixxxi-ii). He was also 
domestic chaplain to Charles II. On the 
translation of Dr. Gilbert Ironside [q. v.] 
from Bristol to Hereford, Hall was elected 
to the former see, still continuing to hold his 
mastership. He was consecrated in Bow 
Church on 30 Aug. 1691. He still chiefly 
resided at Oxford, where in 1695 he built 
new lodgings for the master of Pembroke, 
and was ' known more in than out of Ox- 
ford ' as ' a good man laughed at by the 
wits, but esteemed for his godliness by pious 
people ' (NoBLE, Contin. of Granger, i. 102 ; 
STOUGHTON, Hist, of Religion, v. 223). In 
spite of his bitter prejudice against Hall's poli- 
tical and religious views, his contemporary 
Hearne acknowledges him to have been ' a 
learned divine, a good preacher, and an ex- 
cellent lecturer.' According to Calamy he 
knew how to bring ' all the theology of the 
Westminster assembly out of the church 
catechism.' Of his episcopate Hearne speaks 
with characteristic bitterness. In nonjuring 
language he terms him ' one of the rebel 
bishops,' and describes him as ' a thorough- 
paced Calvinist, a defender of the republican 

doctrines, ever an admirer and favourer of 
the whiggish party, a stout and vigorous ad- 
vocate for the presbyterians and dissenters, 
and a strenuous persecutor of truly honest 
men.' * 'Twas to none but men of rebellious 
principles he bestowed his charity. Let them 
be what they would, if they were men of that 
stamp they were sure to meet encouragement 
from him, even if men of no learning and 
hardly endowed with common sense, who 
could cant themselves into the good esteem 
of the Calvinistic brethren ' (HEARNE, Col- 
lections, ed. Doble, ii. 343, iii. 50). A puritan 
by birth and education, * he was,' writes Mr. 
Abbey, f the only bishop of his time who ad- 
hered to the school which once almost mono- 
polised the bench. . . . Almost the last of his 
race, in him the old puritan doctrines sur- 
vived, but with none of the old enthusiasm 
or energy' (ABBEY, The Church and her 
Bishops, i. 151). It was an ominous sign of 
the times that, on the death of Archbishop 
Tillotson in 1695, Hall was considered by 
many a fit person to succeed to the primacy. 
He died at Oxford, in the master's lodgings 
which he had built, in February 1709-10. He 
was buried in the church of his native parish of 
Bromsgrove, where a monument was erected 
to him on the south wall of the chancel, with 
a very long and laudatory epitaph by W. 
Adams, student of Christ Church and rector 
of Stanton-on-Wye, recording the zeal with 
which he drove back ' ingruentes Romse et 
Socini errores,' enlarging on his unwearied 
fidelity in preaching and administration, his 
carelessness of dignities, and his charity to the 
poor. During his life he was a considerable 
benefactor to his college. By his will he be- 
queathed his books to the library, which was 
then transferred from a room over the south 
aisle of St. Aldate's Church to an apartment 
above the hall. He also bequeathed 800/. for 
the benefit of the poor at Bromsgrove, and 
70/. a year for the purchase of bibles for distri- 
bution in his diocese. His nephew John Spils- 
bury, a dissenting minister at Kidderminster, 
he made his heir (PALMER, Nonconf. Mem. ii. 
765, iv. 893 ; KENNETT, Reg. p. 818). 

[Hearne's Collections (Oxf. Hist. Soc.) ; Wood's 
Athense, iv. 900 ; Life, Ixxxi-ii ; Kennett's Re- 
gister; Evans's Hist, of Bristol, p. 246; Godwin, 
De Praesul. ii. 147 ; Abbey's Ch. of Engl. and 
her Bishops, i. 151 ; Stoughton's Church of the 
Revolution, p. 223.] E. V. 

HALL, JOHN (1739-1797), line engraver, 
was born at Wivenhoe, near Colchester, on 
21 Dec. 1739. Early in life he came to Lon- 
don, and in 1756 he was awarded a premium 
by the Society of Arts. He was also em- 
ployed in painting on china in the celebrated 




works at Chelsea. He then became a pupil 
of Francis Simon Ravenet, in whose studio 
at the same time was the unfortunate Wil- 
liam Wynne Ryland. His plates in Bell's 
' Shakespeare' and 'British Theatre' were 
among his earliest works, and by them he 
gained much reputation. In 1763 his name 
appears on the roll of the Free Society of 
Artists, but in 1766 he subscribed the roll 
declaration of the Incorporated Society of 
Artists of Great Britain, with whom he con- 
tinued to exhibit until 1776. In 1785 he was 
appointed historical engraver to George III, 
in succession to William Woollett. His most 
important engravings were after the works 
of Benjamin West, P.R.A., and comprise 
' William Penn treating with the Indians for 
the Province of Pennsylvania,' ' The Death 
of the Duke of Schomberg at the Battle of 
the Boyne/ ' Oliver Cromwell dissolving the 
Long Parliament,' ' Venus relating to Adonis 
the Story of Hippomenes and Atalante,' 
1 Pyrrhus when a Child brought to Glaucias, 
king of Illyria, for Protection,' ' Moses,' and 
' Of such is the Kingdom of Heaven.' He 
also engraved ' Timon of Athens,' after Na- 
thaniel Dance ; ' The Death of Captain Cook,' 
after George Carter ; ' Thieves in a Market,' and 
* Thieves playing at Dice,' after John Hamilton 
Mortimer, and other plates, some of which 
were for the collection of Alderman Boydell. 
Besides these he executed several portraits, 
including those of Pope Clement IX, after 
Carlo Maratti ; Edward Gibbon, Samuel John- 
son, and Richard Brinsley Sheridan, after Sir 
Joshua Reynolds ; SirWilliam Blackstone and 
George Colman, after Gainsborough ; Admiral 
Lord Hawke, after Francis Cotes ; George, 
Earl Macartney, after Thomas Hickey ; Isaac 
Barr6, after Gilbert Stuart ; William War- 
bttrton, bishop of Gloucester, after William 
Hoare ; Richard Chenevix, bishop of Killaloe ; 
Sir Robert Boyd, lieutenant-governor of Gi- 
braltar, after A. Pozzi ; Shakespeare, from the 
Chandos portrait ; Dr. John Jortin, after Ed- 
ward Penny, and many other smaller por- 
traits for the illustration of books. Hall, 
who ranks as one of the best historical en- 
gravers, died in Berwick Street, Soho, London, 
on 7 April 1797, and was buried in Pad- 
dington churchyard. There is a portrait of 
him by Gilbert Stuart in the National Por- 
trait Gallery. 

[Redgrave's Diet, of Artists of the English 
School, 1878; Bryan's Diet, of Painters and 
Engravers, ed. Graves, 1886-9 ; Gait's Life and 
Studies of Benjamin West, 1816-20 ; Pye's Pa- 
tronage of British Art, 1845.] K. E. G. 

HALL, SIR JOHN, M.D. (1795-1866), 
army surgeon, born in 1795 at Little Beck, 
Westmoreland, was the son of John Hall of 

that place by Isabel, daughter of T. Fother- 
gill. On leaving the grammar school of Ap- 
pleby he applied himself to medicine, attend- 
ing Guy's and St. Thomas's Hospitals, and 
graduated M.D. at St. Andrews in 1845. In 
June 1815 he entered the army medical ser- 
vice as hospital assistant, and joined the forces, 
in Flanders. His next active service was in 
Kaffraria in 1847 and 1851 as principal medi- 
cal officer. He held the same rank in the 
Crimea from June 1854 to July 1856, with- 
out a day's absence from duty, and was present 
at numerous engagements. He was men- 
tioned in despatches, and made K.C.B., officer 
of the Legion of Honour, and 3rd class of the 
Medjidie. He then retired on half-pay, with 
the rank of inspector-general of hospitals, and 
died at Pisa on 17 Jan. 1866. In 1848 he 
married Lucy Campbell, daughter of Henry 
Hackshaw, and widow of Duncan Sutherland 
of St. Vincent, West Indies. 

His writings are two pamphlets, 1857 and 
1858, defending the army medical officers 
in the Crimea from the reflections on them 
in the report of the sanitary commission which 
was sent out. Hall contends that the in- 
sanitary state of the army had been in great 
part remedied before the commission got to 
work, that the members of the latter accom- 
plished little, and that what little they ac- 
complished was effected with an amount of 
difficulty that should have taught them more 
consideration for their brethren of the mili- 
tary profession, who were less fortunately 
situated, and were hampered by the exigen- 
cies and discipline of the service. 

[Gent. Mag. 1866, i. 444; Lancet, 27 Jan. 
1866.] C. C. 

HALL, JOHNVINE (1774-1860), author 
of ' The Sinner's Friend,' was born on 14 March 
1774 at the town of Diss, Norfolk. His father 
had been a man of property, but had lost it. 
At eleven ' little Jack' was apprenticed to 
a schoolmaster who, he says, ' taught me to 
write the law-hands, and by way of making* 
the most of me hired me to the then clerk 
of the peace' (Autobiography). In January 
1786 he became errand-boy to a bookseller in 
Maidstone, and rose to be the chief assistant. 
In 1801, tempted by larger pay, he became 
clerk and traveller to a Maidstone wine mer- 
chant. Here he fell into drunken and pro- 
fligate habits, and read Volney's 'Law of 
Nature ' and Paine's ' Age of Reason.' In 
1802 a friend lent him Porteus's ' Evidences 
of Christianity,' and his views changed. In 
February 1804 he bought a bookseller's shop 
at Worcester, and removed thither. His in- 
temperate habits cost him terrible struggles, 
and he became a rigid total abstainer from 




1818, and an ardent advocate of teetotalism. 
In 1812 he became the subject of strong re- 
ligious convictions. In April 1814 he re- 
turned to Maidstone as proprietor of the 
bookshop where he had been errand-boy 
twenty-eight years before. One of his fa- 
vourite occupations here was visiting the pri- 
soners in the county gaol, especially those 
under sentence of death. In 1821 he conceived 
the idea of writing 'The Sinner's Friend/ 
the first edition of which consisted of a series 
of selections from Bogatzky's ' Golden Trea- 
sury,' with a short introduction by himself. 
It appeared on 29 May 1821. In subsequent 
editions he gradually substituted pages from 
his own pen for those taken from Bogatzky, 
until in the end the little work was entirely 
his own, with the exception of one extract. 
It quickly became a favourite in the religious 
world. It has been translated into thirty lan- 
guages, and reached a circulation of nearly 
three millions of copies. In 1850 he retired 
from business, and in 1854 went to reside 
at Heath Cottage, Kentish Town. He now 
became an elder in Surrey Chapel, of which 
his son, the Rev. Newman Hall, LL.B., was 
minister, and busied himself about religious 
and temperance work. He died on 22 Sept. 
1860. His remains were interred in Abney 
Park cemetery. He married, at Worcester, 
in August 1806, Mary Teverill. 

[Conflict and Victory, the Autobiography of 
the author of The Sinner's Friend, edited by New- 
man Hall, LL.B., 1874.] T. H. 

HALL, JOSEPH (1574-1656), bishop of 
Norwich, was born at Bristow Park, Ashby- 
de-la-Zouch, 1 July 1574. His father, John 
Hall, was employed under the Earl of Hunt- 
ingdon, president of the north, and was his 
deputy at Ashby. His mother was Winifred 
Bainbridge, a strict puritan. Hall has left 
among his works two tracts (' Observations 
of some Specialties of Divine Providence in 
the Life of Joseph Hall, Bishop of Norwich/ 
and i Hard Measure '), which together form 
a useful and interesting autobiography. The 
first part of his education was received at the 
grammar school at Ashby. When he was 
of the age of fifteen Mr. Pelset, lecturer at 
Leicester, a divine of puritan views, offered 
to take him ' under indentures ' and educate 
him for the ministry. Just before this ar- 
rangement was completed, it came to the 
knowledge of Nathaniel Gilby, son of An- 
thony Gilby [q. v.], and a fellow of Emmanuel 
College, Cambridge, who was a friend of the 
family. Gilby induced Hall's father to send 
his son to Emmanuel College in 1589. The 
expense of his education at the university was 
partly borne by his uncle, Edmund Sleigh. He 

was elected scholar and afterwards fellow of 
Emmanuel College (1595), graduating B. A. in 
1592 and M.A. in 1596 (B.D. 1603 and D.D. 
1612). Fuller, nearly a contemporary, say& 
that Hall * passed all his degrees with great 
applause.' He obtained a high reputation in 
the university for scholarship, and read the 
public rhetoric lecture in the schools for two- 
years with much credit. 

Hall's earliest published verse appeared 
in a collection of elegies on the death of Dr. 
William Whitaker, to which he contributed 
the only English poem (1596). A line in John 
Marston's ' Pigmalion's Image ' (1598) proves 
that Hall also wrote pastoral poems at an 
early age, but none of these have survived. 
He first made a reputation as a writer by his 
pungent satires, published in 1597 under the 
title of l Virgidemiarum, Sixe Bookes. First 
three bookes of Toothlesse Satyrs ' (Lond. by 
Thomas Creede), 12mo. A second volume, 
with the same general title, containing ' three 
last bookes of byting Satyres/ followed in 
1598. New editions appeared in 1599 and 
1602. They have been frequently republished 
and illustrated by Warton, Singer, Ellis, and 
Dr. Grosart (1879). These satires are formed 
on the model of the Latin satirists. Their 
diction is sometimes rough, and the allusions- 
obscure, while some passages border closely 
upon scurrility ; but Hall's verses are gene- 
rally vigorous and witty. Hall calls him- 
self the ' first English satirist/ which must be 
interpreted as the first formal writer of satires- 
after the Latin models since Wyatt, Gas- 
coigne, Lodge, and others had preceded him 
as satirists. His claims of priority seem to 
have specially excited the wrath of Marston, 
whose satires, issued in 1598, attack Hall with 
much bitterness. On 1 June 1599 an order 
signed by Whitgift, archbishop of Canterbury, 
and Bancroft, bishop of London, directed the 
Stationers' Company to burn Hall's satires, 
together with books by Marston, Marlowe, 
and others, on the ground of their licentious- 
ness. But a few days later Hall's satires 
with Cutwode's ' Caltha Poetarum ' were- 
1 staied/ i.e. reprieved (cf. Notes and Queries, 
3rd ser. xii. 436). In 1600 Hall wrote an elegy 
and epitaph, both in verse, on Sir Horatio 
Pallavicino, which were published in ' An 
Italian's dead Bodie stucke with English 
Flowers/ Lond. 1600 (a copy is in the Lam- 
beth Library). 

Towards the end of the century Hall took 
holy orders, and in 1601 had the offer of the 
mastership of Blundell's school at Tiverton 
[see BLTTNDELL, PETER]. He was on the 
point of accepting this when the offer of the 
living of Halsted in Suffolk came from Lady 
Drury, and he decided to take the benefice. 


7 6 


In the early part of his residence here Hall 
composed and published the first book of his 
meditations, l Meditatiunculse Subitaneae,' 
containing a hundred religious aphorisms and 
reflections, many of them very striking. His 
active labours atHalsted were much opposed 
by a Mr. Lilly (probably John Lilly or Lyly, 
authorof ' Eunhues'), whom he calls ' a witty 
and bold atheist/ He was also treated in the 
matter of his stipend with great meanness by 
Sir Robert Drury,who had obtained the grant 
of the tithes of the parish on condition of 
providing a vicar. In 1 603 Hall married, and 
in the same year published his final volume 
of verse, a congratulatory volume on James Fs 
accession, entitled ' The King's Prophecie or 
Weeping Joy.' The only perfect copy of this 
tract now known belongs to J. E. T. Love- 
day, Esq., of Williamscote, Oxfordshire, and 
it was reprinted by the Roxburghe Club under 
the editorship of the Rev. W. E. Buckley in 
1882. An imperfect copy, the only other 
known, is in the British Museum. In 1605 
he accompanied Sir Edmund Bacon to Spa. 
Of this journey he has left us some curious 
details. He travelled dressed as a layman, 
and seems to have courted disputations with 
the priests and Jesuits whom he encountered, 
who were much surprised by his theological 
knowledge and superior Latin. During his 
residence at Spa, Hall wrote a second century 
of his ' Meditations.' Returning to Halsted, 
and finding no probability of an increase in 
his stipend from Sir Robert Drury, Hall be- 
gan to look out for a more lucrative post. 
His * Meditations ' had attracted considerable 
attention, and been read by Henry, prince of 
Wales, who expressed a wish to hear the 
author preach. The sermon, he tells us, was 
1 not so well given as taken,' and the prince 
appointed him one of his chaplains (1608). 
The Earl of Norwich now offered him the 
donative of Waltham, Essex, which he gladly 
accepted. About this time he interfered with 
good effect to induce Thomas Sutton to per- 
severe in spite of obstacles in his scheme for 
the foundation of the Charterhouse. Before 
commencing his residence at Waltham, Hall 
had appeared again in the character of a sa- 
tirist, but now in prose. In 1605 was published 
,t Frankfort in four books a Latin tract called 
* Mundus alter et idem,' dedicated to the Earl 
of Huntingdon (republished at Hanau in 
1607). The manuscript had been entrusted 
some years before to a friend named Knight, 
who was responsible for the publication. An 
English translation by John Healey, entitled 
' The Discovery of a New World,' appeared 
in London about 1608. This strange com- 
position, sometimes erroneously described as 
a * political romance,' to which it bears no 

resemblance whatever, is a moral satire in 
prose, with a strong undercurrent of bitter 
gibes at the Romish church and its eccen- 
tricities, which sufficiently betray the author's 
main purpose in writing it. It shows con- 
siderable imagination, wit, and skill in la- 
tinity, but it has not enough of verisimilitude 
to make it an effective satire, and does not 
always avoid scurrility. Other popular books 
written by Hall about this time were ' Holy 
Obseruations. Lib. I. Also some fewe of 
David's Psalmes Metaphrased for a Taste of 
the Rest,' Lond. 1607 (Brit. Mus.) and 1609 ; 
two volumes of ' Epistles ' each containing 
'two decades,' (1608); ' Characters of Vices 
and Vertues,' 1608 (French translation 1619 ; 
versified by Nahum Tate 1691) ; ' Solomon's 
Divine Arts,' a digest of Proverbs and Eccle- 
siastes, with a paraphrase of the Song of 
Songs (1609); and 'Quo Vadis? a lust Cen- 
sure of Travell as it is commonly undertaken 
by the Gentlemen of our nation ' (1617), dedi- 
cated to Edward, Lord Denny, of Waltham. 
Hall's earliest controversial work was with 
the Brownists. In 1608 he had written a 
letter of remonstrance to John Robinson and 
John Smith, who had joined this sect. Robin- 
son, who had been a beneficed clergyman 
near Yarmouth, had replied in 'An Answer 
to a Censorious Epistle,' and upon this Hall 
published (1610) 'A Common Apology against 
the Brownists.' This is a treatise of consider- 
able length, answering Robinson's * Censori- 
ous Epistle ' paragraph by paragraph. It has 
the terse and racy style and the exuberance 
of illustrations and quotations which distin- 
guish all Hall's theological writings. Hall's 
constant custom while at Waltham was to 
preach thrice in the week, and he carefully 
wrote every sermon beforehand. On the 
death of his patron, Prince Henry, Hall 
preached the funeral sermon to his house- 
hold, and soon after this he was involved in 
a troublesome, but ultimately successful, law- 
suit. He had been induced by his kinsman, 
Archdeacon Barton, to apply for a prebend 
in the collegiate church of Wolverhampton, 
which was in the patronage of the dean of 
Windsor. Having obtained the appointment 
of the prebend of Willenhall, he immediately 
joined with another of the prebendaries in 
endeavouring to put the revenues of the church 
on a more satisfactory footing. A certain Sir 
Walter Leveson held the whole of the estates 
of the church in what was called a * perpetual 
fee -farm,' and doled out what he pleased to 
the prebendaries. Hall brought an action 
against him, in the course of which it was 
discovered that the claim of the fee-farm 
rested on a manifest forgery. The law courts 
adjudged the title of the property to the dean 




and prebendaries, who consented to grant it ' 
out to the Leveson family on leases. In 1616 
Hall was sent by the king as chaplain to Lord 
Doncaster in his embassy to France. Here he 
became seriously ill, and reached his home 
at Waltham with much difficulty. During 
his absence he found that James I had nomi- 
nated him to the deanery of Worcester. 
Before, however, he could take possession of 
his new dignity, he was summoned to attend 
the king to Scotland (1617). 

James was now endeavouring to introduce 
the ceremonial and the liturgy of an episcopal 
church. In this scheme Hall does not seem 
to have been a very zealous assistant. At any 
rate he was accused to the king of an ' over- 
plausible demeanour to that already prejudi- 
cate people,' and was ordered by the king to 
write something in defence of the five points 
of ceremonial which it was desired that the 
Scotch should accept. This he did to the king's 
satisfaction. It was probably the knowledge 
which James had of Hall's fondness for the 
Calvinistic theology, as well as his readiness 
to be amenable to direction in his views, 
which led him to select the new dean, to- 
gether with Bishop Carlton and Drs. Dave- 
nant and Ward, to represent him at the synod 
of Dort (1618). At this assembly, Hall, to- 
gether with the other English deputies, did 
something to moderate the bitterness of the 
onslaughts of the Calvinists on the Arminians. 
Ill-health obliged him to leave Dort before 
the conclusion of the synod. Before his de- 
parture he was presented with a handsome 
gold medal as a testimonial, and had the 
opportunity of preaching a Latin sermon to 
the synod, in which with the utmost earnest- 
ness and solemnity he advocates unanimity, 
moderation, and mutual charity. Soon after 
his return Hall found the church of England 
1 begin to sicken of the same disease ' which 
he had seen raging in Holland. Richard 
Montagu of Stamford Rivers, Essex, had, in 
a controversial tract against the Romanists, 
attributed doctrine to the church of England 
which was held to be identical with the ' five 
points ' of Arminius. He was delated to Arch- 
bishop Abbot and censured by him. Hall, 
endeavouring to soften matters, wrote a tract 
called < Via Media, the Way of Peace.' This, 
as he confesses, had no great effect, the quin- 
quarticular controversy beginning now to rage 
with much fierceness in England. At the 
meeting of the parliament and convocation 
in 1624 Hall preached the Latin sermon 
before convocation entitled ' Columba Noas,' 
advocating peace and good will. In this 
year (1624) the bishopric of Gloucester was 
offered to him, but he refused it ' with most 
humble deprecation.' 

After the death of King James (27 March 
1625) Hall continued in equal favour with his ; 
successor. His views of the Romish contro- 
versy were acceptable to Charles and Laud. 
Discarding the ordinary protestant view of 
the apostasy of the visible church, Hall main- 
tained, in his ' No Peace with Rome,' that the 
catholic church, of which the church of Eng- 
land formed a part, had fallen into corrup- 
tions, of which the church of England had now 
E urged herself, and that the church of Eng- 
md should denounce the errors of the church 
of Rome without denying her catholicity. 
This line of argument gave much offence to 
some of the zealous protestant controversial- 
ists of the day, but commended itself to the 
king and his ecclesiastical advisers. In the 
same spirit Hall wrote a treatise called the 
< Old Religion ' (London 1628), which he de- 
fended in the same year by his ' A.pologetical 
Advertisement ' and ' Reconciler,' the latter 
being accompanied by letters of approval from 
Bishops Morton and Davenant, Drs. Prideaux 
and Primrose. Before the publication of these 
treatises Hall had accepted another offer of a 
bishopric. He was consecrated to the see of 
Exeter on 23 Dec. 1627, being allowed, on 
account of the small re venue of the see, to hold 
the living of St. Breoc in commendam. Laud, 
thinking Hall too favourable to Calvinist 
and puritanical notions, desired him to be 
closely watched. ' I soon had intelligence/ 
writes Hall, 'who were set over me for 
espials ; my ways were curiously observed 
and scanned.' He determined, however, upon 
a conciliatory policy towards the puritans, 
and succeeded in reducing all to conformity. 
Laud's spies were consequently busy, and the 
bishop was terribly harassed. He says : ' I 
was three several times on my knees to 
his majesty to answer these great crimina- 
tions.' At length he plainly told Laud that 
' rather than be obnoxious to these slanderous 
tongues of his misinformers he would cast 
up his rochet/ which amount of spirit seems 
to have procured him somewhat of peace. 
Probably some part of the dissatisfaction 
shown with Hall's administration of his 
diocese was due to his disinclination to en- 
force the reading of the declaration for sports 
on the Sunday (1633). In the diocese of 
Exeter it does not appear that any of the 
clergy were censured for refusing to read this 
document. In 1635, however, Laud, in the 
report on his province to the king, says : ' I 
must do my lord of Exeter this right, that 
for his majesty's instructions they have been 
carefully observed.' Hall, leaning to the 
puritans and the low church party, probably 
induced the archbishop to recommend to him 
(in 1637) the writing of a treatise in defence 



of the ' Divine Right of Episcopacy.' Hall 
undertook the charge, and sent to Laud the 
heads of his proposed work. The archbishop, 
approving generally of the draft, returned it 
with some alterations. These Hall readily 
accepted, and wrote the treatise as desired. 
Contrary to his anticipation it was again 
carefully revised by Laud and his chaplains. 
They made the case stronger against the 
foreign reformed churches and the Sabba- 
tarians, and objected to the pope being called 
antichrist. Hall humbly accepted Laud's 

The latter years of the bishop's sojourn at 
Exeter seem to have been peaceful. He 
writes : ' I had peace and comfort at home 
in the happy sense of that general unanimity 
and loving correspondence of my clergy till 
the last year of my presiding there, after the 
synodical oath was set on foot.' This was 
the oath known as the et cetera oath, ordered 
by the convocation of 1640 to be taken by all 
clergymen. Hall declares that he never ad- 
ministered this oath, but he defended and ex- 
plained it, and thus incurred no small share 
of the unpopularity of Laud and his party. 
The anger of the parliament of 1640 was es- 
pecially directed against the late convocation. 
The order of bishops and the whole status 
of the church were violently assailed in pam- 
phlets. No less than 140 of these passed the 
press before the session was very far ad- 
vanced. Hall came gallantly forward to de- 
fend his order and church. In a speech deli- 
vered in the House of Lords he claimed pro- 
tection for the church, and in a published 
work, l An humble Remonstrance to the 
High Court of Parliament ' (1640 and 1641, 
published by Nathaniel Butter), he vindicated 
liturgies and episcopacy with great skill and 
power. He was immediately answered by 
five puritan divines, the initials of whose 
names made up the word Smectymnuus. In 
reply to their treatise the bishop wrote a 
* Defence of that Remonstrance,' which pro- 
duced a ' Vindication ' from the divines, and 
an ' Answer to the Vindication of Smectym- 
nuus' from Bishop Hall. Other writers 
joined in the controversy, Milton contribu- 
ting no less than five tracts to it. Hall ap- 
Cled to the learned Ussher to lend a helping 
d, which drew from the Irish primate the 
tract entitled ' The Original of Bishops and 
Metropolitans briefly laid down.' In the at- 
tempt made by Archbishop Williams to effect 
a compromise which might satisfy the puri- 
tans, and which led to the lords' committee 
on religion (March 1641), Bishop Hall took 
a part. He, together with Williams, Morton, 
and Ussher, as being among the most moderate 
of the prelates, sat on the committee. 

Hall none the less protested boldly in his 
place in the House of Lords (1 May 1641) 
against the bill for taking away the bishops' 
votes in parliament. On 31 July (1641) a 
committee was appointed to draw up articles 
of impeachment against thirteen bishops, of 
whom Hall was one, for having passed canons 
in the late convocation by which it was as- 
serted that they had fallen under the prse- 
munire statute. On this occasion Hall made 
a speech in defence of the canons and the 
action of convocation. During the king's ab- 
sence in Scotland and the recess of parlia- 
ment Hall went to his diocese of Exeter, 
where he was enthusiastically received, and 
on 7 Sept. preached a sermon at Exeter on the 
pacification between the English and Scots, 
in which he bewails the troubled state of the 
church. The king, who had conceded the 
abolition of episcopacy in Scotland, was now 
desirous to show that his mind was not 
changed as regards the English church, and 
accordingly issued conges tfelire for filling up 
the vacant sees. Hall was translated to the 
see of Norwich (15 Nov.) Laud in his ' His- 
tory of his Troubles ' mentions this appoint- 
ment in answering the charge that he offered 
preferment only to ' such men as were for 
ceremonies, Popery and Arminianism.' On 
the reopening of parliament in the winter of 
1641, the bishops, insulted by the rabble, 
petitioned the king, declaring that they were 
hindered by violence from attending to their 
parliamentary duties, and protesting against 
the legality of all acts of parliament done in 
their enforced absence. The House of Lords, 
resenting this proceeding, immediately sent a 
message to the commons. The lower house 
voted that the bishops were guilty of high 
treason, and they were at once sent for, 
brought to the bar of the House of Lords, 
and committed to the Tower (30 Dec. 1641). 
Hall has given in his ' Hard Measure ' a touch- 
ing account of the way in which he and his 
brethren were treated ; how they were brought 
again and again amidst the greatest tumults 
to the bar of the House of Lords to plead; and 
how, when it was found that the impeachm ent 
could not be sustained, they were voted by 
parliament to be guilty of a prsemunire, and 
all their estates forfeited. A sum was allowed 
for their maintenance, 400/. a year being as- 
signed to Hall. The bishops were now libe- 
rated from the Tower on bail, but the commons 
objecting to this, they were again arrested 
and confined for six weeks longer, when upon 
giving bonds for 5,000/. they were allowed 
to depart, ( having spent the time betwixt 
New-year's eve and Whitsuntide in those 
safe walls.' Hall now made his way to his 
new diocese of Norwich, which he had not 




yet visited. He was at first received with 
considerable respect, and his sermons atten- 
tively listened to. Probably also he enjoyed 
at first some of the revenues of the see. But 
on the passing of the act for sequestra- 
tion of the property of malignants, in which 
Hall was mentioned by name (April 1643), 
commissioners were sent to Norwich, who 
not only impounded all the rents of the see 
then due, but seized everything in the palace, 
* not leaving so much as a dozen of trenchers 
or the children's pictures.' Some charitable 
friends, Mrs. Goodwin and Mr. Cook, paid to 
the sequestrators the amount at which the 
goods were valued, and the bishop was 
allowed to use them a little longer. Mean- 
time, being now utterly destitute of re- 
sources, he applied to the committee of the 
eastern counties for an allowance, and they 
assigned him the 400/. a year which had been 
voted by parliament. This, however, was at 
once stopped by the London committee, which 
ordered that ' the fifth ' allowed to the wives 
and families of * malignants ' should be the 
only payment made to him. There was con- 
siderable difficulty in ascertaining what these 
fifths amounted to, and the bishop and his 
family were still kept without payment. The 
"bishop continued with great courage to hold 
his place, ordaining and instituting even after 
the passing of the covenant. He was fre- 
quently threatened and insulted. The towns- 
people forced their way into his chapel and 
obliged him to demolish the painted windows. 
They desecrated and wrecked the cathedral, 
with circumstances of the greatest profanity, 
and at length violently expelled the bishop 
and his family from the palace in so sudden 
a manner that they would have had to lie 
in the street all night had it not been for the 
kindness of a Mr. Gostlin, who gave up his 
house to them. The ' Hard Measure,' which 
relates all these troubles, was published in 
May 1647, and it is probable that the bishop's 
ejection from his palace took place not long 
before this, as no mention is made in it of 
his removal to Higham. To this village near 
Norwich he removed with his family, renting 
a small house near the church, which after- 
wards became the Dolphin inn ; and here he 
lived for about ten years in retirement and 
devotional works, dying 8 Sept. 1656, in the 
eighty-second year of his age. A funeral 
sermon preached in Norwich at the bishop's 
death by the Rev. J. Whitefoot, the parson 
of Higham, states that when forbidden to 
preach, and afterwards pre vented by infirmity, 
he still attended divine service. The bishop 
suffered much in his latter years from bodily 
diseases, but was remarkable for his patience 
and sweetness of temper. He was very 

generous in his charitable gifts, though his 
means were but small, ' giving a weekly con- 
tribution of money to certain poor widows to 
his dying day.' He does not seem to have re- 
sented the ill-treatment he had received, and 
took no part in public affairs after his forced 
retirement. Fuller's estimate of his works is 
probably as true as any that can be made. * He 
was commonly called our English Seneca for 
his pure, plain, and full style. Not ill at 
controversies, more happy at comments, very 
good in his characters, better in his sermons, 
best of all in his meditations ' ( Worthies, p. 

By his wife Elizabeth, daughter of George 
Winiffe of Brettenham, Suffolk (she died 
27 Aug. 1652, aged 69), Hall had six sons 
and two daughters. The eldest son, Robert 
Hall, D.D. (1605-1667), became canon of 
Exeter in 1629, and archdeacon of Cornwall 
in 1633. Joseph Hall, the second son (1607- 
1669), was registrar of Exeter Cathedral. 
George, the third son (1612-1668), bishop of 
Chester, is noticed separately. Samuel, the 
fourth son (1616-1674), was sub-dean of 

As a theological writer Hall occupies a 
middle place between Bishop Andrewes and 
Jeremy Taylor. He had somewhat of the pun- 
gent quaintness of Andrewes, without being 
so grotesque ; and much of the eloquence and 
power of learned illustration of Taylor. His 
accommodating temper may be held by some 
to be his chief fault, but it is fair to attribute 
it rather to an excess of charity than alack of 
honesty. Hall's devotional works are cer- 
tainly his best. To this class rather than to 
that of exegesis we may assign his ' Contem- 
plations upon the Principall Passages of the 
Holy Storie,' issued in eight volumes between 
1612 and 1626, and again in the edition of his 
works in 1634. * Contemplations on the New 
Testament ' first appeared in the folio of 1662, 
after the bishop's death. Among the bishop's 
works are ' Six Decades of Epistles,' some of 
which run almost into treatises, and also a 
great number of essays or treatises upon 
various practical subjects. His work as a 
commentator is represented by his ' Para- 
phrase of Hard Texts from Genesis to Reve- 
lation ' (1633, fol.) Something has already 
been said of his writings as a satirist and a 
controversialist. He was not free from the 
tendency to scurrility when arguing against 
the Roman church, though he did much to 
raise the tone of the English controversialists 
against Rome. Several folio editions of his 
works were published by the bishop in his 
lifetime, viz. in 1621, 1625, and 1634. The 
preface of the first folio has an extravagant 
laudation of King James, reprinted in the 



folio of 1634. A small quarto, with a collec- 
tion of posthumous pieces called ' The Shaking 
of the Olive Tree,' was published in 1660, and 
in 1662 came out another folio with a more 
complete collection of the bishop's works. In 
1714 the moral works were published in a 
separate folio. The first complete edition 
was that published by the Rev. Josiah Pratt 
in ten octavo volumes (London, 1808). This 
was followed by an improved edition under 
the editorship of Peter Hall [q. v.], a de- 
scendant of the bishop, in twelve octavo vo- 
lumes (Oxford, 1837), and by another col- 
lection, edited by the Rev. Philip Wynter 
(Oxford, 1863), in ten volumes. Of separate 
portions of the bishop's works there have 
been numerous editions. Singer edited the 
poems with Warton's illustrations in 1824. 
Dr. Grosart's complete edition of the poems 
appeared in 1879. 

Engraved portraits of Hall are prefixed to 
his 'Resolutions and Cases of Conscience,' 
1650; to his ' Shaking of the Olive Tree,' 
1660 ; and to Whitefoot's funeral sermon. 

[Bishop Hall's autobiographical tracts, Obser- 
vations of some Specialities of Divine Providence, 
and Hard Measure, in his Shaking of the Olive 
Tree (1660) ; Wordsworth's Eccl. Biograph. vol. 
iv., London, 1839 ; the Rev. George Lewis's Life 
of Joseph Hall, D.D. (1886); Memoirs of Bishop 
Hall, by the Kev. John Jones, London, 1826 ; Life 
of Archbishop Laud, by Peter Heylyn, London, 
1668; Prynne's Canterbury's Doom, London, 1 645 ; 
Archbishop Laud's History of his Troubles, Lon- 
don, 1695; Clarendon's History of Rebellion, Ox- 
ford, 1843; Fuller's Worthies, London, 1662; 
Hall's King's Prophecie, ed. W. E. Buckley 
(Roxb. Club), 1882; Newly Discovered Poems 
by Bishop Hall, by J. P. Collier, in Gent. Mag. 
1851, i. 235-9.] ' G. G. P. 

HALL, MARSHALL (1790-1857), phy- 
siologist, was born at Basford, near Notting- 
ham, on 18 Feb. 1790. His father, ROBERT 
HALL (1755-1827), a cotton manufacturer 
and bleacher, was the first who used chlorine 
for bleaching on a large scale, and received a 
prize from the Society of Arts for the inven- 
tion of a new crane. He was a Wesley an, 
and known for his benevolence. During the 
Luddite disturbances the rioters wrote to him 
promising not to injure him. His wife, a 
woman of great worth and intelligence, bore 
him eight children. The second was Samuel 
Hall [q. v.], a prolific inventor. 

Marshall, the fourth son and sixth child, 
showed an early fondness for reading. After 
a non-classical education by the Rev. J. 
Blanchard of Nottingham he was placed 
at fourteen with a chemist at Newark, and 
studied chemistry and anatomy with great 
diligence. In October 1809 he entered as a 

medical student at Edinburgh University, 
and in 1811 he was elected senior president 
of the Royal Medical Society of Edinburgh. 
Some of his early chemical papers, printed 
in ' Nicholson's Journal,' showed much origi- 
nality ; he was a persevering dissector, and 
in medicine specially devoted himself to diag- 
nosis. As a student he showed his character- 
istic tendency to think intently on pheno- 
mena deemed inexplicable or irrelevant to the 
experiments in hand. Having graduated M.D. 
in June 1812, Hall was appointed resident 
house physician to the Edinburgh Royal In- 
firmary. He gave a course of lectures on 
diagnosis in 1813. In 1814-15 he spent se- 
veral months in visiting the medical schools 
of Paris, Gottingen, and Berlin, walking 
alone and on foot from Paris to Gottingen in 
November 1814. After six months' practice, 
at Bridgewater in 1816 Hall settled in Not- 
tingham in February 1817, and published his 
well-known work on ' Diagnosis,' ' compre- 
hensive, lucid, exact, and reliable ' (Lancet, 
15 Aug. 1857). Dr. Baillie, then president 
of the Royal College of Physicians, when 

J Hall called upon him, mistook him for the 
son of the author of that ' extraordinary 
work,' and could scarcely credit such an 

; achievement at twenty-seven. In 1818 Hall 
was elected fellow of the Royal Society of 

j Edinburgh. Gaining an excellent practice, 
Hall soon became widely known for his suc- 
cesses by diminished blood-letting. In 1824 
his valuable paper on l The Effects of Loss 
of Blood ' was published in the ( Medico- 
Chirurgical Transactions.' In 1825 he was 
elected physician to the Nottingham General 
Hospital ; but in 1826 he removed to London, 
and his Nottingham practice largely followed 
him. For two years he lived at 15 Keppel 
Street, Russell Square, with his friend Burn- 
side (partner in the publishing house of See- 
leys) . His work on the ' Diseases of Females/ 
1828, brought him much practice, and further 
studies and writings on blood-letting occu- 
pied much time. In November 1829 he mar- 
ried, and in 1830 removed to 14 Manchester 
Square, where he lived for twenty years. 

With a view to the fellowship of the Royal 
Society, Hall now took up the subject of the 
circulation of the blood in the minute ves- 
sels, and read a succession of highly original 
papers to the society in 1831. They made 
known facts which are now the common- 
places of microscopical study, but then came 
upon students with remarkable fascination. 
His paper ' On the Anatomy and Physiology 
of the Minute and Capillary Vessels,' though 
read, was refused a place in the society's 
'Transactions,' but the great Johannes Miiller 
pronounced it to be of extraordinary interest. 




Hall published his views in a separate work. 
His paper ' On the Inverse Ratio which sub- 
sists between Respiration and Irritability in 
the Animal Kingdom/ read before the Royal 
Society 23 Feb. 1832, was published in the 
'* Philosophical Transactions ' for that year. 
It was followed by an important paper on 
Cybernation, and by his election as fellow 
on 5 April. He was now on the track of his 
greatest discovery, which was made during 
a study of the circulation in the newt's lung. 
The newt's head had been cut off. On touch- 
ing the skin with the point of a needle mus- 
cular movements occurred in the dead body. 
On examining into the cause of these they 
were found to be excited through the cuta- 
neous nerves of sensation, passing to the 
spinal marrow, and thence being reflected to 
the muscular nerves. On cutting either set 
of nerves, or on destroying the spinal mar- 
TOW, the phenomenon ceased. Thus was laid 
the foundation of the theory of reflex action, 
first made known at a meeting of the Com- 
mittee of Science of the Zoological Society on 
27 Nov. 1832, and more fully in a paper on 
1 The Reflex Function of the Medulla Ob- 
longata and Medulla Spinalis,' read before 
the Royal Society on 20 June 1833, and 
printed in its f Transactions ' for that year. 
Notwithstanding the interest excited by his 
discoveries, and their immediate translation 
into German by Johannes M tiller, who at the 
ame time announced nearly similar and in- 
dependent discoveries, the author was de- 
nounced as the propagator of absurd and idle 
theories (see LE GROS CLARK-, Address at St. 
Thomas's Hospital, 21 Jan. 1852), and his 
next paper, ' On the True Spinal Marrow and 
the Excito-Motor System of Nerves,' read 
"before the Royal Society in 1837, was refused 
publication. Hall vainly begged the council 
to appoint a commission to witness his ex- 
periments, although he offered to withdraw 
from practice for five years to devote himself 
to further research on the subject. In 1840 
a series of papers on the subject by Hall ap- 
peared in Miiller's ' Archiv.' In 1847 he once 
more offered to the Royal Society an experi- 
mental paper, detailing researches on the re- 
lation of galvanism and the nervous and 
muscular tissues ; but it was refused publi- 
cation. Against this he protested in a letter 
(privately printed) to the Earl of Rosse, then 
president of the Royal Society. In 1850, 
however, his name appeared on the list of the 
council of the society, but he never received 
any of its medals. Meanwhile, in the midst 
of active practice Hall spent every spare mo- 
ment in study and writing, trusting mainly 
to future recognition. ' I appeal,' he said, 
* from the first half of the nineteenth century 


to the second.' His practice grew very ex- 
tensive, as his discoveries gave him insight 
into disorders of the nervous system which 
till then remained obscure. His two small 
volumes of ( Practical Observations in Medi- 
cine,' 1845 and 1846, were cordially received. 
His fame spread widely in Europe and Ame- 
rica, and many marks of distinction were 
conferred upon him from abroad, though he 
received none at home. His works were 
reprinted in America and translated into 
French, German, Dutch, and Italian. On 
the continent students and doctors regarded 
him as the most eminent practitioner in Eng- 
land. In London he never was appointed 
physician to any hospital. He lectured to 
medical students from 1834 to 1836, at the 
Aldersgate Street School ; and from 1836 to 
1838 at Webb Street School and Sydenham 
College. In 1839 he could not complete his 
course owing to failure of voice. In 1842-6 
he lectured on nervous diseases at St. Thomas's 
Hospital. He was not elected a fellow of 
the Royal Society of Physicians till 1841, but 
in 1842 he delivered the Gulstonian lectures 
there, and the Croonian in 1850-2. In these 
lectures he fully explained his discoveries 
and opinions on the nervous system, and on 
nervous diseases. He took a prominent part 
in the formation of the British Medical As- 
sociation, and delivered the oration on me- 
dical reform in 1840. Every philanthropic 
movement in which bodily and mental health 
was concerned found in him a warm and ac- 
tive advocate. Open railway carriages, cruel 
flogging of soldiers (see his letters signed 
' Censor,' Times, 27 and 31 July 1846), the 
sewage question (see his pamphlet, Suggested 
Works on the Thames, 1850, 1852, 1856), and 
slavery in the United States, were among the 
subjects on which he actively exerted himself. 
He advocated a system of gradual emancipa- 
tion. His * Twofold Slavery of the United 
States ' was published in 1854, after a visit of 
fifteen months to the States, Cuba, and Canada 
in 1853, when he had finally given up practice, 
owing to a peculiar affection of the throat, 
handing over his patients to Dr. J. Russell 
Reynolds. During 1854-5 he travelled in 
Italy and France, and in the latter year was 
elected corresponding member of the French 
Institute. After this his chief work was in 
connection with the restoration of persons 
apparently drowned ; he devised a system, 
and drew up rules for its application, which 
were soon adopted by the National Lifeboat 
Institution. In 1856 he recommended the 
use of the living frog as the most delicate 
test of the presence of strychnia in cases 
where poisoning was suspected, and proved 
that a young frog was strongly affected by 




one five-thousandth of a grain of strychnia. 
lie continued to develop fresh applications 
of his discoveries and to publish them in the 
' Lancet ; ' but his throat affection gained 
ground and prevented his taking sufficient 
food. He died at Brighton after a long and 
painful illness on 11 May 1857, and was 
buried at Nottingham. A ' Marshall Hall ' 
fund was founded in 1873, and placed in the 
hands of the Royal Medical and Chirurgical 
Society, to encourage research in the anatomy, 
physiology, or pathology of the nervous sys- 
tem, by giving a prize every five years for 
the best work done and recorded in English 
during the previous five years ; the prize- 
winners have been in 1878 Dr. Hughlings 
Jackson, in 1883 Dr. Terrier, in 1888 Dr. 
W. H. Gaskell. 

Hall's versatility is shown by his papers 
on the f Higher Power of Numbers ' and on the 
4 Signs used in Algebra ' in the l Mechanic's 
Magazine' for 26 Aug. and 30 Sept. 1848, by 
his ' Suggestion of a National Decimal Phar- 
macopoeia ' in the ' London and Edinburgh 
Monthly Journal of Medical Science/ 1849, 
and by his new forms of conjugation and de- 
clension for Greek verbs and nouns, printed 
for private circulation, and approved by Dr. 
Donaldson, author of the 'New Cratylus.' 
At Rome in 1854-5 he made rapid progress 
in Hebrew under a rabbi. His professional 
income rose from 800/. in 1826 to 2,200/. in 
1833 ; his discoveries in physiology for some 
years diminished his practice, but it latterly 
increased to 4,000/. a year. In matters of 
professional etiquette he was very strict. He 
was calm and prompt in emergencies, straight- 
forward in his moral treatment of patients, 
and he abhorred coaxing, wheedling, and 

A great part of his scientific work was 
done at night, after a day's hard work. Many 
of his works were written in his carriage be- 
tween his visits. He always recorded results 
of experiments at once. His readiness to 
reply to attacks gave some offence, but he 
showed, neither vanity nor petulance. He 
was a man of strong Christian faith. 

By his discovery of reflex action Hall 
rescued an obscure class of convulsive affec- 
tions from unintelligibility, and explained 
with remarkable ingenuity the mechanism of 
the convulsive paroxysm. The treatment of 
epilepsy was made rational by him ; the use 
of strychnia in spinal diseases, the discourage- 
ment of excessive blood-letting, and the 
ready method in asphyxia, are among his most 
valuable achievements. He wrote tersely 
and well, in French as well as in English ; 
Louis, the great French physician, said of his 
' Apercu du Systeme Spinal : ' ' De ce petit 

ouvrage tout plait au premier abord, la forme- 
et le fond. . . . "Vous etes un ecrivain consom- 
me, meme en fra^ais.' 

Hall was below the middle height, with 
strong well-made features, clear forehead, and 
bright keen eyes. He found a devoted helper 
in his wife, who afterwards compiled and 
wrote his ( Memoirs,' which, though lauda- 
tory, are attractive. Hall had an only child, 
a son Marshall, born 1831, now a barrister. 

Hall wrote the following separate works : 

I. ' The Diagnosis of Diseases,' 1817 ; 2nd 
edition, 1834; 3rd edition issued in 1837, as- 
part of 11. 2. 'On the Mimoses; or a De- 
scriptive, Diagnostic, and Practical Essay on 
the Affections usually denominated Bilious,. 
Nervous, &c.,' 1818 ; the second edition bore- 
the title, ' An Essay on Disorders of the Di- 
gestive Organs and General Health, and on 
their Complications.' 3. ' The Effects of Irri- 
tation and Exhaustion after Parturition, 
Abortion, &c./ 1820. 4. ' On the Symptoms 
and History of Diseases,' 1822. 5. 'Medical 
Essays,' 1824. 6. 'Commentaries on the Dis- 
eases of Females,' with plates, 1826; 2nd edit. 
1830. 7. 'Observations on Blood-letting, 
founded on researches on the Morbid and 
Curative Effects of Loss of Blood,' 1830. 
8. ' An Experimental Essay on the Circula- 
tion of the Blood,' 1831. 9. 'Eupaedia, or 
Letters to a Mother on the Watchful Care 
of her Infant,' 1831. 10. 'Lectures on the. 
Nervous System and its Diseases,' 1836. 

II. ' Principles of the Theory and Practice 
of Medicine,' 1837. 12. ' On the Functions 
of the Medulla Oblongata and Medulla Spi- 
nalis, and on the Excito-motory System of 
Nerves/ 4to, with plates, 1837. 1 3. ' Diseases 
and Derangements of the Nervous System/ 
1841. 14. 'Gulstonian Lectures/ 1842. 
15. 'New Memoir on the Nervous System/ 
4to, with plates, 1843. 16. ' Practical Obser- 
vations and Suggestions in Medicine/ two- 
series, 1845, 1846. 17. ' Essays on the Theory 
of Convulsive Diseases/ 1848. 18. 'Six 
Essays on the Theory of Paroxysmal Diseases 
of the Nervous System/ 1849. 19. ' Synopsis 
of the Diastaltic Nervous System/ 4to, with 
plates, Croonian Lectures, 1850. 20. ' Syn- 
opsis of Cerebral and Spinal Seizures/ 
4to, Croonian Lectures, 1851. 21. ' On the 
Threatenings of Apoplexy and Paralysis/ 
1851. 22. ' Synopsis of Apoplexy and! 
Epilepsy/ 4to, Croonian Lectures, 1852. 

23. ' Suggested Works on the Thames,' 1852. 

24. 'The Twofold Slavery of the United 
States/ 1854. 25. ' Ape^u du Systeme Spi- 
nal/ Paris, 1855. 26. ' Asphyxia ; its Nature 
and its Remedy/ 1856. 27. ' Prone and Pos- 
tural Respiration in Drowning, and other 
forms of Apnoea/ 1857. The titles of forty 



memoirs by Hall are given in the ' Royal 
Society's Catalogue of Scientific Papers ; ' he 
also contributed many articles to the ' Cyclo- 
paedia of Practical Medicine.' 

[Memoirs of Marshall Hall, by his widow, 
1861 ; Pettigrew's Medical Portrait Gallery, vol. 
iv. ; Lancet, 8, 15, 29 Aug. 1846, 27 July 1850, 
14 Aug. 1857 ; Medical Times and Gazette, 
29 Aug. 1857 ; Edinb. New Phil. Journ. 1858 ; 
Athenaeum, 3 Aug. 1861 ; J. F. Clarke's Auto- 
biographical Recollections, p. 327.] G. T. B. 

HALL, PETER (1803-1849), divine and 
topographer, born 31 Dec. 1803, was the ' 
third son of James Hall of St. George's, j 
Bloomsbury, London. He claimed descent 
from Joseph Hall [q. v.], bishop of Exeter j 
and Norwich. At the age of thirteen he was 
sent to Winchester College, where he was 
educated on the foundation, and thence pro- 
ceeded to Brasenose College, Oxford, matricu- 
lating 15 Jan. 1822 (FosTEK, Alumni Oxon. 
1715-1886, p. 588). He graduated B.A. 
1 Dec. 1825 and M. A. 21 Jan. 1830. In 1828 
he was ordained and became curate of St. 
Edmund's, Salisbury, where he remained until 
1833. He gave an account of his dismissal 
from this curacy in the preface to ' The Church 
and the World,' a sermon preached at St. 
Thomas's, Sarum, on 21 April 1833. In Sep- 
tember 1834 he was instituted to the rectory 
of Milston-cum-Brigmerston, Wiltshire, but 
was soon obliged to abandon residence by the 
ill-health of his wife. He was for a short 
time curate of St. Luke's, Chelsea, and after- 
wards, in May 1836, became minister of Tavi- 
stock Chapel, Drury Lane. In June 1841 he 
undertook the charge of Long Acre episcopal 
chapel, in the parish of St. Martin's-in-the- 
Fields. In 1843 he became minister of St. 
Thomas's Chapel, Walcot, at Bath. He was 
also for some time travelling secretary to the 
Reformation Society. He , died at Great 
Malvern, Worcestershire, on 10 Sept. 1849, 
leaving a widow and three daughters. His 
library was sold 27 May-4 June 1850. 

Hall's original writings are : 1. ' TeK^pia 
fjifrpiKa ; Symptoms of Rhyme, original and 
translated' (anon.), 4to, London, 1824 
(twenty-five copies printed). 2. 'Ductor 
Vindogladiensis ; an Historical and Descrip- 
tive Guide to the Town of Wimborne-Minster, 
Dorsetshire,' 8vo, London, 1830 (fourteen 
copies were printed on coloured paper) ; 2nd 
edit. 8vo, Wimborne, 1853). 3. l Picturesque 
Memorials of Winchester,' 4to, 1830. 4. 'A 
Few Topographical Remarks relative to the 
parishes of Ringwood, Ellingham, Ibbesley, 
Harbridge, and Fordingbridge, and the New 
Forest ' (anon.), 12mo, Ringwood, 1831 ; 4th 
edit, enlarged, with a short description of 
Bournemouth, 8vo, Ringwood, 1867. 5. ' Pic- 

turesque Memorials of Salisbury, a series of 
original etchings and vignettes. ... To 
which is prefixed a brief History of Old and 
New Sarum,' fol. Salisbury, 1834 (three 
copies of the ' Brief History ' were struck off 
separately in ( follio ' sic). 6. ' Congrega- 
tional Reform, according to the Liturgy of 
the Church of England, in four sermons, 
with an appendix of notes,' 12mo, London, 
1835 ; 2nd edition the same year. 

He also edited: 1. ' The Crypt, or Recep- 
tacle for things past ; an Antiquarian, Lite- 
rary, and Miscellaneous Journal,' 3 vols. 
12mo, Ringwood, 1827-8 ; continued as ' The 
Crypt . . . and West of England Magazine, 
new series,' 1 vol. 8vo, Winchester, 1829. 
2. ' De Animi Immortalitate, a Latin poem 
by Isaac Hawkins Browne, with a memoir,' 
12mo, 1833. 3. ' Sermons and other Remains 
of Robert Lowth, D.D., sometime Bishop of 
London; now first collected and arranged, 
partly from original MSS., with an introduc- 
tory memoir,' 8vo, 1834. These discourses, 
which are not remarkable for either elegance 
or learning, were pronounced to be spurious 
by the representatives of the Lowth family. 
A good deal of correspondence on the matter 
by Hall, W. Sturges Bourne, and an anony- 
mous writer, ' Verax,' appeared in the ' Gentle- 
man's Magazine ' for August and September 
1834, and February, March, and April 1835. 

4. 'A Summary View and Explanation of 
the Writings of the Prophets, by John Smith, 
D.D., minister of the Gospel at Campbel- 
town, with a brief Memoir,' 8vo, 1835. 

5. ' Versiones Biblicae, from the Hebrew Lec- 
tures of Bishop Lowth,' 12mo, Rugby, 1836. 

6. < The Works of Joseph Hall,' 12 vols. 8vo, 
Oxford, 1837-9. 7. 'Satires and other Poems, 
by Joseph Hall, D.D., afterwards Bishop of 
Exeter and of Norwich,' 8vo, 1838. 8. < Spi- 
ritual Pleadings and Expostulations with 
God in Prayer, by Thomas Harrison, D.D.,' 
16mo, 1838. 9. < An Exposition on the two 
Epistles to the Thessalonians, by J. Jewell,' 
12mo, 1841. 10. 'The Harmony of Pro- 
testant Confessions, . . . enlarged by ... 
P. Hall,' 8vo, 1842. 11. 'Reliquiae Liturgicse. 
Documents connected with the Liturgy of 
the Church of England,' 5 vols. 16mo, Bath, 

1847. 12. 'Fragmenta Liturgica. Docu- 
ments illustrative of the Liturgy of the 
Church of England,' 7 vols. 16mo, Bath, 

1848. 13. Bishop Lancelot Andrewes's ' Pre- 
ces private quotidianae,' 8vo, 1848, of which 
he had published a translation in 1830, 12mo. 
He also edited l A Dialogue between a Popish 
Priest and an English Protestant, by Mat- 
thew Poole ; ' ' Serious Thoughts on Mar- 
riage . . . Strictures on the Education of 
Children, by W. Giles ; ' < Scripture Charac- 



8 4 


ters, ... by Thomas Robinson, with a Me- 
moir of the Author/ 4 vols. Hall also pub- 
lished numerous sermons, pamphlets, and 
letters, and was engaged, when seized with 
his last illness, in the compilation of another 
collection of liturgical pieces to be entitled 
' Monumenta Liturgica.' His labours as 
editor and biographer are of little value, 
though his topographical works may be found 

[Gent. Mag. 1834 pt. ii. 143-5, 254-6, 1835 
pt. i. 155-7, 276, 385-9, 1845 pt. ii. 542-3; Cat. 
of Libr. of Lond. Inst. iv. 331 ; Brit. Mus. Cat.] 

G. G. 

HALL, RICHARD, D.D. (d. 1604), ca- 
tholic divine, a native of Lincolnshire or 
Yorkshire, was matriculated as a member of 
Clare Hall, Cambridge, in 1552. Migrating 
to Christ's College in that university, he pro- 
ceeded B.A. in 1555-6. In 1556 he was 
elected a fellow of Pembroke Hall, and in 
1559 he commenced M.A. (COOPEE, Athence 
Cantabr. ii. 368). From incidental remarks 
in his ' Life of Bishop Fisher,' it appears that 
during Queen Mary's reign he was intimate 
enough with the leading catholics to dine 
with Bishop Gardiner, then lord chancellor, 
and other lords of the council. It is also 
clear that he composed this ' Life ' before his 
withdrawal from England, and probably 
finished it about 1559. Being attached to 
the catholic religion he went into voluntary 
exile early in Elizabeth's reign. He pro- 
ceeded first to Belgium, and afterwards to 
Rome, where he completed his theological 
studies, and took the degree of D.D. On his 
return to Belgium he was appointed by the 
abbot, Arnold de la Cambe, commonly called 
Gantois, to deliver lectures on divinity at the 
Benedictine monastery of St. Rictrudes at 
Marciennes, three leagues from Douay, on 
the Scarpe (Pixs, De Anglice Scriptoribus, 
p. 802). Afterwards he was made a canon 
of Saint-G6ri at Cambray, but in consequence 
of the civil wars he was forced to retire to 
Douay. He took up his residence in the 
newly founded English College on 14 Dec. 
1576, and laboured there for many years as 
professor of holy scripture. Pits, who made 
his acquaintance at Douay about 1580, has 
recorded that he often saw him disputing, 
lecturing, and preaching, sometimes in Eng- 
lish and sometimes in French, and adds that 
he was ' held in universal esteem.' On the 
invitation of the Bishop of St. Omer, who 
had heard of his learning and zeal, he was 
made a canon of the cathedral of St. Omer, 
and official of the diocese. These latter offices 
he held till his death, which took place at 
St. Omer on 26 Feb. 1603-4. On the south 

side of the rood loft in the cathedral there is 
a tablet with a short Latin inscription to his 
memory (Addit. MS. 5803, f. 98). 

Dodd describes Hall {Church Hist.ii. 70) 
as ' an excellent casuist, and zealous promoter 
of church discipline ; of a very retired life, 
and somewhat reserved in conversation.' He 
was a severe and uncompromising moralist. 
His works are : 1. ' The Life of John Fisher, 
Bishop of Rochester,' manuscript written 
probably about 1559. It is much to be re- 
gretted that this interesting and valuable 
biography has not yet been printed in a correct 
form. The work was left in manuscript by 
the author, after whose death it was deposited 
in the library of the English Benedictines at 
Dieulward in Lorraine. A copy fell into the 
hands of a person named West, from whom 
it passed in 1623 to Franciscus (Davenport) a 
Sancta Clara, and from him to Sir Wingfield 
Bodenham, who, having kept it for some years 
with the intention of printing it, lent it to 
Dr. Thomas Bayly [q. v.] The latter, after 
making many unwarrantable alterations, sold 
a transcript to a bookseller, who printed it 
in 1655. In the dedication Bayly speaks of 
the book as if he were the author of it. A 
second edition by Coxeter was published at 
London in 1739, 12mo. Bayly added to 
Hall's work nothing but verbiage and blun- 
ders, and Hall has thus been unjustly dis- 
credited. Lord Acton, in the ' Quarterly 
Review' (January 1877, p. 47), asserts that 
Hall wrote the ' Life of Fisher ' on the con- 
tinent about 1580, whereas it was written 
twenty years earlier, and in England, when 
Fisher's contemporaries were alive, and the 
author could have access to documents. The 
time, the place, and the character of the au- 
thor are all guarantees of its authenticity, 
and contemporary documents recently pub- 
lished generally confirm its accuracy (BuiD- 
GETT, Life of the Blessed John Fisher, preface). 
Nine copies of the original work are in the 
British Museum, viz. Arundel MS. 152 ; Harl. 
MSS.250(imperfect),6382,6896, 7047 (byH. 
Wanley), 7049 (a volume of Thomas Baker's 
collections ; Hall's work begins at f. 137, and 
is transcribed from a copy then in the pos- 
session of John Anstis, with regard to which 
Baker has written, ' This is taken from the best 
copy that I have seen; that at Caius College 
is not so perfect ') ; Lansd. MS. 423 (a copy 
in an Italian hand of the beginning of the 
eighteenth century, from a manuscript stated 
to have been then in the library of the Earl of 
Cardigan at Deene) ; and Addit. MSS. 1705, 
1898. At Caius College, Cambridge, in MS. 
195, there is another copy, and at Stonyhurst 
College there is an excellent manuscript, of 
which a transcript is preserved at St. Mary's 



catholic presbytery, Clapham (GiLLOW, Diet, 
of the English Catholics, iii. 94). 2. < Opus- 
cula qusedam his temporibus pernecessaria de 
tribus primariis causis tumultuum Belgi- 
corum, ad ... Ludovicum a Berlaymont, 
Archiepiscopum et Ducem Cameracensem, 
libelli tres. Contra coalitionem multarum 
religionum, quam liberam religionem vocant, 
ad ... Arnoldum de le Cambe, diet. Gan- 
thois, Abbatem Marcianensem, tractatus 
nnus. Libellus exhortatorius ad pacem qui- 
busvis conditionibus cum rege catholico 
faciendam, ad ... Jacobum Froye, Abbatem 
Hasnoniensem,' Douay, 1581, 8vo. 3. < Trac- 
tatus aliquot utilissimi pro defensione regiae 
et episcopalis auctoritatis contra rebelles 
horum temporum,' Douay, 1584, 12mo. 4. ' De 
Proprietate et Vestiario Monachorum aliisque 
ad hoc Vitium extirpandum necessariis liber 
unus,' Douay, 1585, 8vo. This work gave 
offence in certain quarters. 5. ( De castitate 
Monachorum ; ' a work suppressed, and never 
published. 6. Latin hexameters and penta- 
meters prefixed to the ' Institutiones Dialec- 
tics ' of Dr. John Sanderson, canon of Cam- 
bray. 7. ' De Quinqvepartita Conscientia ; 
i. Recta, ii. Erronea, iii. Dvbia, iv. 
Opinabili, sen opiniosa, et v. Scrvpvlosa, 
Libri III.,' Douay, 1598, 4to. 8. 4 Orationes 
varise.' 9. ' Carniina diversa.' He was also 
editor of Dr. John Young (Giovanus) 'De 
Schismate, sive de Ecclesiastics Vnitatis 
Divisione Liber Vnus/ Louvain, 1573, 8vo, 
Douay, 1603. 

[Addit. MSS. 5851 f. 102, 5871 f. 35; 
Archaeologia, xxv. 88 ; Ayscough's Cat. of MSS. 
p. 85; Davies's Athense Britannicae, 1716, pref. 
p. 33 ; Douay Diaries, p.'425; Duthillceul's Bibl. 
Douaisienne, 1842, Nos. 65, 75, 76, 1552 ; Fuller's 
Church Hist. 1837, ii. 59, iii. 211 ; Hawes and 
Loder's Framlingham, p. 230 ; Peter Langtoft's 
Chronicle (Hearne), p. 550 ; Lewis's Life of 
Bishop Fisher, i. xxvii; Smith's Cat. of Caius 
College MSS. p. 99 ; Witte's Diarium Biogra- 
phicum ; "Wood's Athense Oxon. (Bliss), ii. 528.] 

T. C. 

HALL, ROBERT, M.D. (1763-1824), 
medical writer, born in Roxburghshire in 
1763, was a great-grandson of Henry Hall of 
Haughhead (d. 1680) [q. v.], the covenanter. 
From school at Jedburgh he went to the 
medical classes at Edinburgh. After three 
years' practice in Newcastle he entered the 
navy as surgeon, and served several years on 
the Jamaica station. On his return he pro- 
ceeded M.D. at Edinburgh, and took up prac- 
tice at Jedburgh. Thence he went to Lon- 
don, and occupied himself in translating, 
compiling, editing, &c. On the fitting out 
of an expedition to the Niger he was ap- 
pointed medical officer. Invalided by a fall 

and the climate, he returned to Madeira. He 
died at Chelsea early in 1824, of a decline. 
Mrs. Agnes C. Hall [q. v.] was his wife. His 
writings are : 1. Translation of Spallanzani 
on the ' Circulation,' with Tourdes' notes and 
life of the author, London, 1801. 2. Trans- 
lation of Guyton de Morveau's 'Means of 
Purifying Infected Air,' London, 1802 (with 
a vindication of Johnstone's priority as against 
Carmichael Smyth). 3. * Elements of Botany/ 
1802. 4. Revised edition of Clare's < Treatise 
on the Motion of Fluids,' 1804. He also con- 
tributed papers to the medical journals on 
cow-pox, hydrophobia, pemphigus, &c. 

[Georgian Era, ii. 585 ; Watt's Bibl. Brit. ; 
Gent. Mag. March 1824.] C. C. 

HALL, ROBERT (1764-1831), baptist 
divine, youngest of fourteen children of 
Robert Hall (1728-1791), was born at Ar- 
nesby, Leicestershire, on 2 May 1764. The 
father was a baptist minister, who in 1753 
left Northumberland for Arnesby, and is 
known as the author of 'Helps to Zion's 
Travellers ; ' his works, with memoir, were 
published in 1828, 12mo. His son Robert 
was a precocious boy ; taught himself the 
alphabet by help of gravestones ; wrote hymns 
before he was nine years old ; and at the age 
of eleven is said to have been put up to preach 
at a religious meeting in the house of a baptist 
minister, Beeby Wallis of Kettering, North- 
amptonshire. On his mother's death (De- 
cember 1776) he was sent to the boarding- 
school of John Ryland, baptist minister, at 
Northampton. On 6 Sept. 1778 he received 
adult baptism, having confessed his faith on 
23 Aug. Intended for the ministry, he entered 
(October 1778) the baptist academy at Bristol, 
under Caleb Evans, D.D.(divinity), and James 
Newton, M.A. (classics). His first sermon 
was delivered at an ordination in July 1779; 
on 13 Aug. 1780 he was set apart for the 
ministry by his father's church at Arnesby. 
In November 1781 he went as an exhibitioner 
to King's College, Old Aberdeen, graduating 
M.A. in 1784. With James (afterwards Sir 
James) Mackintosh, his fellow-student, he 
formed a strong intimacy ; they read Greek 
together, and were nicknamed by their com- 
rades Plato and Herodotus. He heard the 
divinity lectures of Alexander Gerard, D.D. 
[q. v.], a leader of the ' moderates.' 

As early as November 1783 Hall had been 
invited to begin his ministry in Bristol ; he 
went there in the spring of 1785, assisting 
Evans at Broadmead Chapel, and taking New- 
ton's place as tutor in the academy. In 
preaching he formed his early style on that 
of Robert Robinson of Cambridge ; but his 
own powers rapidly developed, and his elo- 




quence drew crowded audiences of all classes. 
His theological views were somewhat influ- 
enced by his admiration for the scientific 
genius and personal character of Priestley, to 
whose system of materialism he then inclined. 
From Calvinism he advanced to Arminianism, 
and was rather a dualist than a trinitarian, 
never losing faith in the divinity and atone- 
ment of our Lord. Uneasiness in his congre- 
gation was complicated by a difference with 
Evans, and on 11 Nov. 1790 he resigned. In 
January 1791 he removed to Cambridge, as 
the successor of Kobinson, who had died in 
the previous June. A small section of the 
congregation, who thought him too orthodox, 
formed a secession for a short time under 
William Frend [q. v.] He did not shrink 
from pronouncing a eulogium on Priestley in 
reply to a sermon in July 1791 by John 
Clayton (1754-1843) [q. v.] ; invited to his 
pulpit the Arian cyclopsedist, Abraham Rees ; 
formed an acquaintance with Habakkuk 
Crabb [q. v.], and preached his funeral ser- 
mon. At Cambridge his taste for the exact 
sciences was encouraged by association with 
Olinthus Gilbert Gregory [q. v.] He also 
studied Hebrew. In 1800 the delivery and 
publication of his discourse on * Modern In- 
fidelity ' made a great sensation. Its sub- 
stance had already been preached at the 
Unitarian chapel, Le win's Mead, Bristol, 
during the ministry of John Prior Estlin 
[q. v.] 

His constitution was always delicate, and 
between 1802-3 he suffered severely from 
ill-health. By Mackintosh's advice he tried 
tobacco as a sedative ; but in later years he 
added large quantities of laudanum, and even 
as much as 120 grains of solid opium. He 
had attacks of hypochondria, and his mind 
twice lost its balance (11 Nov. 1804-19 Feb. 
1805, and 26 Nov. 1805-February 1806). His 
mother had been temporarily insane. Re- 
covering under care, his restoration to health 
was coincident with a change in his religious 
views, and he dates his real * conversion ' from 
this period. Rest and removal being recom- 
mended by his physicians, he resigned his 
Cambridge charge on 4 March 1806. On 
7 Oct. 1807 he became minister at Harvey 
Lane, Leicester. Here he had two congre- 
gations under his care, that in the morning 
being an open communion church. At Lei- 
cester he delivered (it is said at half-an-hour's 
notice, and without notes) his famous sermon 
on the death of Princess Charlotte (1817). 
In September 1817 the Marischal College, 
Aberdeen, sent him its diploma for the de- 
gree of D.D., but he never adopted the title. 
At the end of March 1826 he returned to 
Bristol, having accepted on 21 Dec. 1825 an 

invitation to succeed John Ryland, D.D., at 
Broadmead. He still read much, and now 
learned Italian in order to read Dante. Among 
English poets Milton was his idol. His early 
admiration for Priestley, as a philosopher, he 
seems to have transferred to Jeremy Bentham. 
Miss Edgeworth he regarded as the most 
irreligious writer he ever read. His ill-health 
increased, aggravated in 1830 by heart disease. 
He preached for the last time in January 
1831 ; on 9 Feb. he attended a church meet- 
ing. He died on 21 Feb. 1831. He was 
married on 25 March 1808, and had five 
children ; one son died in 1814, another 
son and three daughters survived him. His 
portrait, presenting a singular but not an in- 
tellectual visage, has often been engraved. 

Hall's fame rests mainly on the tradition 
of his pulpit oratory, which fascinated many 
minds of a high order. His eloquence re- 
commended evangelical religion to persons 
of taste. Dugald Stewart commends his 
writings as exhibiting ' the English language 
in its perfection,' which is certainly extrava- 
gant praise . His conversation , of which some 
fragments are preserved, was brilliant when 
his powers were roused by intellectual society. 
Except some anonymous contributions to a 
Bristol paper in 1786-7, his first publication 
was 1. ' Christianity consistent with a Love 
of Freedom,' &c., 1791, 8vo (contains the re- 
ference to Priestley). Of his other publica- 
tions the chief are : 2. 'Apology for the Free- 
dom of the Press,' &c., 1793, 8vo. 3. < Modern 
Infidelity considered with respect to its In- 
fluence on Society,' &c., 1800, 8vo. 4. 'Re- 
flections on War,' &c., 1802. 5. ' The Ad- 
vantage of Knowledge to the Lower Classes,' 
&c., 1810, 8vo. 6. On Terms of Communion,' 
&c., 1815, 8vo. 7. ' A Sermon occasioned by 
the Death of ... Princess Charlotte/ &c., 
1817, 8vo. 8. ' Memoir of Thomas Toller,' 
1821, 8vo. His ' Works' were collected in 
six volumes, 1832, 8vo, with memoir by 
Gregory, and essay on his character and 
preaching by John Foster (1770-1843) [q.v.] ; 
the fifth volume contains many of his letters. 
A volume of * Reminiscences ' of his early 
sermons was published by John Greene, 1 832, 
8vo. ' Selections ' from his writings, with 
notes by C. Badham, appeared in 1840, 8vo. 
A collection of ' Fifty Sermons ' was issued 
in 1843, 8vo. His ' Miscellaneous Works 
and Remains,' with Gregory's memoir and 
Foster's essay, were included in Bohn's 
Standard Library, 1846, 8vo. He was one 
of the conductors of the l Eclectic Review ' 
(begun January 1805) and a frequent con- 

[Kyland's Funeral Sermon for Robert Hall, 
1791 ; Biographical Dictionary of Living Authors, 




1816, pp. 142 sq. ; Chandler's Authentic Account 
of the Last Illness &c. of Hall, 1831 ; Memoir 
by Gregory (in vol. vi. of 'Works'), 1832 (the 
memoir was to have been written by Mackintosh, 
who died before beginning it) ; Morris's Bio- 
graphical Eecollections, 1833 ; 2nd edit. 1846; 
Bennett's Hist, of Dissenters, 1839, pp. 477 sq. ; 
Knight's Biography (English Cyclopaedia), iii. 
262 sq.] A. G. 

HALL, ROBERT (1817-1882), vice- 
admiral, was born at Kingston in Upper 
Canada in 1817, and entered the navy in 1833. 
In November 1843 lie was made lieutenant, 
and, after serving in the Pacific and on the 
west coast of Africa, was promoted to be 
commander on 6 Sept. 1852. In 1853 he 
served as commander of the Agamemnon, 
one of the earliest of the screw line-of-battle 
ships ; in 1854 he commanded the paddle 
sloop Stromboli in the Baltic, going out in 
her, at the end of the season, to the Mediter- 
ranean and Black Sea ; in May and June 
1855 he took part in the expedition to Kertch 
and the Sea of Azof, under the command of 
Captain Lyons [q. v.], and on Lyons's death 
was promoted to be captain of the Miranda, 
which he brought home and paid off in 1857. 
Prom 1859 to 1863 he commanded the Ter- 
magant in the Pacific, and on his return to 
England was appointed private secretary to 
the Duke of Somerset, then first lord of the 
admiralty. In 1866 he was appointed super- 
intendent of Pembroke dockyard, and in 1872 
became naval secretary to the admiralty. 
This appointment he held till the spring of 
1882, when he resigned: but a few weeks 
afterwards, his successor being sent to Ireland 
as under-secretary, Hall was requested to 
resume his old post. He had barely done so 
when he died suddenly of heart disease, on 
11 June 1882. 

[Times, 14 June 1882; O'Byrnes Nav. Biog. 
Diet.; Navy Lists.] J. K. L. 

HALL, SAMUEL (1769?-! 852), known 
as the 'Sherwood Forest Patriarch/ born 
about 1769, worked as a cobbler at Brookside 
Cottage, Sutton-in-Ashfield, Nottingham- 
shire. He joined the quakers at an early 
age, and wore the dress, though by marrying 
out of the pale he ceased to belong to the 
society. He died on 20 Aug. 1852, in his 
eighty-fourth year (Gent. Mag. 1852, pt. ii. 
435). By his wife Eleanor Spencer, a Derby- 
shire shepherdess and dairymaid, he had, 
with other issue, a son, Spencer Timothy 
Hall [q. v.] Hall was author of 'A Few 
Remarks offered to the consideration of the 
professors of the Christian name ; among 
which are some reasons why the people 
called Quakers chuse to suffer loss in their 

property rather than actively comply with 
requisitions to serve in the Army or Militia, 
or to pay or hire others for serving in their 
stead,' 8vo [Nottingham], 1797 (JOSEPH 
SMITH, Cat. of Friends Hooks, i. 907). He 
also penned a treatise on the advantages of 
pressure upon light soils to the growth of 
grain and bulbous roots, and invented a ma- 
chine for sowing, manuring, and pressing 
turnip seed in one operation. At the age of 
sixty-five he wrote his ' Will/ in which he 
set forth his religious opinions. 

[Authorities as above.] G. Gr. 

HALL, SAMUEL (1781-1863), engineer 
and inventor, was second son of Robert Hall, 
cotton manufacturer and bleacher, of Basford, 
Nottingham, where he was born in 1781. He 
was an elder brother of Marshall Hall [q. v.] 
the physiologist. He took out patents in 1817 
and 1823 for t gassing ' lace and net, which 
consisted in passing the fabric rapidly through 
a row of gas flames, all the loose fibres being 
thus removed without injury to the lace. 
The process exercised a most important in- 
fluence upon the lace trade of Nottingham, 
and is still used universally. It brought 
much wealth to the inventor, but he un- 
fortunately dissipated his fortune in bring- 
ing out other inventions. In 1838 Hall 
patented his 'surface condenser/ in which 
the steam is condensed by passing it through 
a number of small tubes cooled on the out- 
side. It was chiefly intended for use at sea, 
and it was hoped that the evils attending 
the presence of salt in boilers would be ob- 
viated by charging them with fresh water at 
the commencement of a voyage and using it 
over and over again. The invention was ex- 
tensively though unsuccessfully tried during 
1839-41, but the principle of tubular con- 
densers is now largely used for cooling pur- 
poses. His other patents, which number 
twenty in all, relate chiefly to steam engines 
and boilers. He died 21 Nov. 1863 in very 
reduced circumstances, in Morgan Street, 
Tredegar Square, Bow. 

[Mechanic's Mag. vols. xxviii-xxxiii. xxxvii.; 
Nottingham Journal, 4 Dec. 1863.] R. B. P. 

1889), author and editor, was born in the 
Geneva barracks, near Waterford, on 9 May 
1800. His father, ROBERT HALL (1753-1836), 
was born at Exeter on 20 June 1753, entered 
the army as an ensign in the 72nd regiment 
in 1780, and served at Gibraltar during the 
siege. In 1794, while at Topsham, he raised 
a regiment known as the Devon and Corn wall 
Fencibles, which he accompanied to Ireland 
in the following year, and there served with 
it until 1802, when it was disbanded. While 




in Ireland he engaged in working copper mines, 
by which he was ruined. He died at Chelsea 
on 10 Jan. 1836. He married at Topsham, 
on 6 April 1790, Ann Kent, born at Ottery 
St. Mary, Devonshire, 30 Sept. 1765. After 
the ruin of her husband Ann Hall established 
a business at Cork by which she supported 
her family of twelve children. 

The fourth son, Samuel Carter, at an early 
age printed a small work, entitled * The 
Talents, a Dramatic Poem/ a jeu d'esprit. 
Leaving Cork in the beginning of 1821, he 
came to London, and in the following year 
served as literary secretary to Ugo Foscolo. In 
1823 he w~as acting as parliamentary reporter 
in the House of Lords. By the recommenda- 
tion of Sir Robert Wilson he was appointed 
in the same year secretary to 'the shortlived 
committee to aid the Spanish Cortes.' At 
the same period he was writing reviews and 
criticisms on art for the 'British Press/ On 
3 July 1824 he was entered as a student of 
the Inner Temple, but was not called to the 
bar until 30 April 1841, and never practised. 
While continuing to work as a reporter, he 
contributed to the 'Representative,' 1823, and 
the 'New Times/ 1825. He founded and 
edited an annual called ' The Amulet, a 
Christian and Literary Remembrancer/ in 
1826, and continued it yearly till 1837, when 
the, publishers, Westley & Davis, became 
bankrupt. He then found that owing to his 
having participated in the profits he was held 
answerable for the debts of the firm, and 
ruined. In 1823 he had edited the ' Literary 
Observer/ which ran only for six months ; in 
1826 he edited the ' Spirit and Manners of 
the Age/ and in 1829-30 the 'Morning 
Journal.' By the desire of Henry Colburn, 
he became sub-editor of the ' New Monthly 
Magazine ' in 1830, in place of Cyrus Redding, 
and on the retirement of Thomas Campbell 
succeeded him as editor. Afterwards, in 1831, 
he was again sub-editor under Ly tton Bulwer, 
again became editor in 1832, and held that 
post until 1836, when he was displaced to 
make room for Theodore Hook. In February 
1831 he visited Paris for the first time. In 
1830 he wrote for Colburn's Juvenile Library 
a ' History of France.' He worked inces- 
santly for eighteen days, almost night and 
day, and at the conclusion of his task was 
laid up with a brain fever. After this he 
started a newspaper called ' The Town/ a 
conservative whig journal, in which he had 
the assistance of Chitty, Gilbert a Beckett, 
Lytton and Henry Bulwer, and other good 
writers, but failed in getting a circulation. In 
1835 he wrote a few leading articles for the 
' Watchman/ a Wesleyan methodist news- 
paper. The ' John Bull ' was sub-edited by him 

in 1837, and he was general manager of the? 
' Britannia ' in 1839. 

In the latter year Hall was employed by 
Hodgson & Graves, the print publishers of 
6 Pall Mall, to edit the 'Art Union Monthly 
Journal.' The first number, consisting of 750 
copies, appeared on 15 Feb. 1839, price eight- 
pence, post free. After a short interval he pur- 
chased a chief share of this periodical for 200/. 
and became the principal proprietor. From 
that time he endeavoured to encourage BritisK 
art, and in 1843 began giving engravings of 
sculpture, then considered a novelty. Nina 
years passed before the magazine paid its ex- 
penses. In it he ruthlessly exposed the trade 
in old masters, printing month after month 
the custom-house returns of the pictures im- 
ported, and also showing how paintings were 
manufactured in England. In consequence- 
of these articles such pictures became almost 
unsaleable, and a Raphael could be pur- 
chased for 71. and a Titian for 31. 10s. It 
was claimed for this periodical that it was- 
the only journal in Europe that adequately 
represented the fine arts and arts of manufac- 
ture. In 1848 Robert Vernon, before pre- 
senting his pictures to the National Gallery,, 
gave permission to Hall to engrave and pub- 
lish the whole of them in the ' Art Union 
Journal.' The circulation of the periodical 
grew, and in 1851 the queen and Prince Albert- 
accorded leave to engrave 150 pictures from, 
their private collection. The illustrated re- 
port of the Great Exhibition of 1851 in the- 
' Art Journal ' (a change of title adopted in. 
1849) was very popular, and its sale brought 
in 72,000/. This sum, however, did not cover 
the cost of production, and Hall was obliged 
to sell his share to his co-proprietors, and 
from that time he was only the paid editor 
on 600 /. a year, retiring in December 1880 1 
with a pension. In 1874 he was presented 
with a testimonial to commemorate his golden, 
wedding; 1,600/. was collected and spent for 
him in an annuity. On 9 March 1877, at 
the request of John, marquis of Townshend r 
he undertook the editing of ' Social Notes/ a 
weekly publication, with which he continued 
connected up to the forty-eighth number. 
This engagement led to several actions at 
law, much to Hall's annoyance, as he had 
done his best to discharge his duties faith- 
fully and honourably. Lord Beaconsfield on 
28 April 1880 granted him a civil list pension 
of 150/. a year 'for his long and valuable ser- 
vices to literature and art.' He was intimate 
with most of the well-known celebrities of his 
day, and had a general acquaintance with all 
the artists and actors. He was an original 
member of the society of No viomagus, 11 Dec. 
1828, and president from 1855 until his retire- 


8 9 


ment in 1881. On 7 April 1842 he was 
elected a fellow of the Society of Antiquaries. 
He was a believer in spiritualism and a patron 
of Daniel D. Home. With his wife he aided 
in the formation of many charitable institu- 
tions. He died at his residence, 24 Stanford 
Road, Kensington, London, on 16 March 
1889, and was buried at Addlestone, Surrey, 
on 23 March. He married in 1824 Anna 
Maria Fielding, who is noticed separately. 

Although Hall was a most industrious lite- 
rary man, and edited with annotations nume- 
rous books, he did not publish many original 
works; his chief productions were : 1. 'The 
Amulet,' edited by S.C. Hall, 1826-36, 11 vols. 
2. 'The Book of Gems, the Poets and Artists 
of Great Britain,' edited by S. C. Hall, 1836- 
1838, 3 vols. ; another ed. 1866. 3. ' The 
Book of British Ballads,' edited by S. C. Hall, 
1842 ; other editions, 1879 and 1881. This 
work was illustrated by British artists from 
designs drawn on wood. The idea of it was 
taken from the ' Nibelungenlied/ and the 
book was dedicated to Louis, king of Bavaria. 

4. ' Gems of European Art, the Best Pictures 
of the Best Schools/ edited by S. C. Hall, 
1843-5, 2 vols. 5. ' The Beauties of the Poet 
Moore,' edited by S. C. Hall, 1844. 6. 'The 
Acquittal of the Seven Bishops,' a descriptive 
history, 1846. 7. ' The Baronial Halls and Pic- 
turesque Edifices of England,' 1848. 8. 'The 
Gallery of Modern Sculpture,' edited by S. C. 
Hall, 1849-54. 9. ' The Vernon Gallery of 
British Art,' edited by S. C. Hall, 1849-54, 
3 vols. 10. 'Poems,' &c., 1850. 11. 'The 
Royal Gallery of Arts, Ancient and Modern,' 
1858-9, edited by S. C. Hall. 12. 'Selected 
Pictures from the Galleries and Private Col- 
lections of Great Britain,' edited by S. C. Hall, 
1862-8, 4 vols. 13. 'A Book of Memoirs of 
Great Men and Women of the Age from per- 
sonal acquaintance,' 1871 ; 2nd edit., 1877. 
14. * Wimbledon, illustrative details concern- 
ing the Parish and Wimbledon Park Estate,' 
1872. 15. 'The Trial, of Sir Jasper: a 
Temperance Tale in Verse/ 1873; another 
edit, 1874. 16. 'An Old Story: a Tem- 
perance Tale in Verse/ 1875; 2nd edit. 

1876. 17. ' Words of Warning addressed to 
Societies for Organising Charitable Relief/ 

1877. 18. 'Social Notes/ directing editor 

5. C. Hall, 1878. 19. 'A Memoir of T. 
Moore/ 1879. 20. 'Rhymes in Council. 
Aphorisms versified/ 1881. 21. 'Retrospect 
of a Long Life from 1815 to 1883,' 1883, 
2 vols. He also wrote many works in con- 
junction with his wife. 

[Retrospect of a Long Life, 1883, with por- 
trait; Cassell's Family Mag. September 1883, 
pp. 587-91, with portraits of Mr. and Mrs. 
Hall; Times, 17, 19, 23 March 1889 ; Illustrated 

News of the World, vol. viii. 1861, with por- 
trait ; Graphic, 30 March 1889, pp. 319, 320^ 
Illustrated London News, 30 March 1889, p. 
407, with portrait ; Standard, 19 March 1889; 
Athenaeum, 23 March, 6 April 1889; GOSS'S. 
Life of Llewellyn Jewitt, 1889, pp. 39 et seq.] 

G. C. B. 

HALL, SPENCER (1806-1875), libra- 
rian of the Athenaeum Club, was born in- 
Ireland in 1806, and was articled to John 
Booth, bookseller, of Duke Street, Portman 
Square, London. He lived a short time in. 
Germany and was afterwards with Messrs.. 
Hodges & Smith of Dublin. He was ap- 
pointed librarian of the Athenaeum Club in 
1833, on the recommendation of his relative- 
Magrath, who succeeded Faraday as the first 
secretary of the club. The members had 
been only three years in possession of their 
present house in Pall Mall, so that Hall was 
connected with the early organisation of the 
library. He issued a pamphlet on the classi- 
fication of the library in 1858, followed three 
years later by a letter to John Murray suggest- 
ing an edition of Shakespeare with literary 
criticisms. His other publications were mainly 
of an antiquarian character. He was elected 
a fellow of the Society of Antiquaries, 13 May 
1858. Under his management the library of 
the Athenaeum Club gradually became one of 
the choicest collections of books of reference 
in London. He retired after forty-two years' 
service, owing to failing health, in May 1875 r 
when he was elected an honorary member 
of the club and voted a pension. He died 
21 Aug. 1875 at Tunbridge Wells, in his- 
seventieth year. His knowledge of books and 
general literature was very great, and he was 
always ready with help and advice. His 
own library was sold by Messrs. Sotheby 
on 26 June 1876. William Hall, of Messrs, 
Chapman & Hall, was his brother. 

He contributed to the 'Archaeological 
Journal/ to the ' Proceedings of the So- 
ciety of Antiquaries/ as well as to the ' Art 
Journal ' and other serials. He published : 

1. ' Suggestions for the Classification of the- 
Library, now collecting at the Athenaeum/ 
London, 1838, 8vo (for private circulation). 

2. 'Letter to John Murray upon anesthetic- 
Edition of the Works of Shakespeare/ Lon- 
don, 1841, 8vo. 3. ' Echyngham of Echyng- 
ham/ London, 1850, 8vo. 4. 'Notices of Sepul- 
chral Memorials at Etchingham, Sussex, and 
of the Church at that Place/ London, 1861, 
8vo. 5. 'Documents from Simancas relating- 
to the Reign of Elizabeth (1558-68) ; trans- 
lated from the Spanish of Don Tomas Gon- 
zalez, and edited with Notes and an Intro- 
duction/ Lond., 1865, 8vo. 6. ' Francesca da 
Rimini' [London, privately printed, 1874], 


9 o 


8vo (translated from the Inferno ' of Dante, 
canto v.) 

[Personal knowledge; see also the Athenseum, 
11 Sept. 1875, p. 338; Proceedings Soc. Anti- 
quaries, 24 April 1876, p. 11 ; Transactions of 
the Conference of Librarians, 1877, London, 
1878, pp. 231-2.] H. E. T. 

1885), known as the ' Sherwood Forester,' 
born on 16 Dec. 1812, in a cottage near the 
village of Sutton-in-Ashfie!d in Sherwood 
Forest, Nottinghamshire, was the son of 
Samuel Hall (17G9P-1852) [q. v.], a quaker 
cobbler, and Eleanor Spencer, a Derbyshire 
shepherdess and dairymaid. His father gave 
him a little education. At seven years of age 
lie wound cotton for the stocking-makers, and 
at eleven began weaving stockings himself. 
Perusal of the life of Benjamin Franklin led 
to a resolve to become a printer. In January 
1829 he went to Nottingham and bound him- 
self apprentice compositor at the ' Mercury ' 
newspaper office. At the end of a year his 
master, well satisfied with his conduct, re- 
ceived him into his house, and subsequently 
made him his confidential assistant. Some 
lines descriptive of Clifton Grove, inspired by 
Bloomfield's ' Farmer's Boy,' gained him an 
introduction to the Howitts and other lite- 
rary residents of Nottingham. About 1830 he 
helped to found a scientific institution in the 
town, at which he read essays. Two years 
later he contributed verses to the ' Mirror,' the 
* Metropolitan Magazine,' and other periodi- 
cals. In 1836, at the end of his apprentice- 
ship, he started, with the assistance of friends, 
as a printer and bookseller on his own account 
at Sutton-in-Ashfield. He was appointed post- 
master there, and printed a monthly periodi- 
cal called the ' Sherwood Magazine.' In May 
1839 he accepted the post of superintendent 
in the printing establishment of Messrs. Har- 
grove at York. In 1841 he published a volume 
of prose and verse descriptive of his birth- 
place, called ' The Forester's Offering,' which 
he set up in type himself, the greater portion 
without manuscript. The book having been 
praised by James Montgomery, Hall was in- 
vited to Sheffield, where he became co-editor 
of the ' Iris ' newspaper and governor of the 
Hollis Hospital. A volume of prose sketches 
entitled l Rambles in the Country ' was ori- 
ginally written for the ' Iris ; ' it was re- 
issued in an enlarged form in 1853, under the 
title of ' The Peak and the Plain.' He wrote 
and spoke publicly in defence of phrenology, 
and was the first honorary secretary of the 
Sheffield Phrenological Society, and after- 
wards an honorary member of the Phreno- 
logical Society of Glasgow. He aided La 
Fontaine, who came to Sheffield to lecture on 

mesmerism about 1841, and in 1842 himself 
lectured through the country on the same 
subject. During 1843 he edited a short-lived 
periodical called * The Phreno-Magnet.' At 
Edinburgh in September 1844 his lecture was 
attended by Combe, Gregory, and Liebig, all 
of whom, he declares, were completely con- 
vinced by the experiments. The result of 
his work he published in his ' Mesmeric 
Experiences' (1845). He is said to have 
wrought numerous cures. His most illustri- 
ous patient was Harriet Martineau, whom, 
it seems, he cured of an apparently hopeless 
illness in the summer of 1844. As the re- 
sult of a visit paid to Ireland in the famine 
year he published in 1850 ' Life and Death 
in Ireland as witnessed in 1849,' one of his 
best books. About 1852 he became a homoeo- 
pathic doctor, and published ' Homoeopathy ; 
a Testimony ' (1852). After living for some 
time at Derby he settled in 1866 at Plum- 
garths, near Kendal ; in 1870 or 1871 he re- 
moved to Burnley, in 1880 to Lytham, and 
soon afterwards to Blackpool. Not being 
legally qualified he never obtained much 
practice. He paid special attention to hydro- 
pathy, and was at one time head of an*esta- 
blishment at Windermere. The latter years 
of his life, owing to illness and the ill-success 
of his various speculations, were spent in 
poverty. A few months before his death he 
received a grant of 100/. from the govern- 
ment. He died at Blackpool on 26 April 
1885, and was buried in the cemetery there 
on the 29th. He was twice married. His 
degrees of M.A. and Ph.D. were derived from 

Hall was also the author of: 1. 'The 
Upland Hamlet and other Poems,' 1847. 
2. 'Days in Derbyshire,' 1863. 3. 'Bio- 
graphical Sketches of Remarkable People, 
chiefly from personal recollection, with mis- 
cellaneous papers and poems,' 1873 (originally 
published as ' Morning Studies and Evening 
Pastimes'). Most of the biographies had 
previously appeared in the supplement of the 
' Manchester Weekly Times ' and other perio- 
dicals. 4. ' Pendle Hill and its Surround- 
ings, including Burnley,' 1877. 5. 'Lays 
from the Lakes, and other Poems,' 1878. He 
wrote besides various guide-books to Lytham 
in Lancashire, Malvern in "Worcestershire, 
and Richmond in Yorkshire. 

[Manchester Weekly Times, 2 May 1885 ; Glas- 
gow Examiner, 5 Oct. 1844 ; Blackpool Herald, 
1 May 1885; Blackpool Gazette, 1 May 1885; 
Blackpool Times, 29 April and 6 May 1885 ; 
Academy, 9 May 1885 ; H. Martineau 's Autobio- 
graphy, ii. 192-5 ; H. Martineau's Letters on 
Mesmerism (1); Chambers's Journal, January 
1842 (autobiography).] G. G. 



for &*'*'*** HALL, THOMAS (1610-1665), ejected 
tep#-l* ^minister, son of Richard Hall, clothier, by 
j/-, 6 -f his wife Elizabeth (Bonner), was born in St. 
Andrew's parish, Worcester, about 22 July 
1610. He was educated at the King's School, 
Worcester, under Henry Bright (d. 1626), 
one of the most celebrated schoolmasters of 
his day. In 1624 he entered Balliol College, 
Oxford, as an exhibitioner. Finding himself 
under ' a careless tutor,' he removed to the 
newly founded Pembroke College as a pupil 
of Thomas Lushington [q. v.] He graduated 
B.A. on 7 Feb. 1629. Returning to Wor- 
cestershire he became teacher of a private 
school, and preached inihe chapels of several | 
hamlets in the parish of King's Norton, of | 
which his brother, John Hall, vicar of Broms- 
grove, was perpetual curate. At this period 
he conformed, but attendance at the puritan 
lecture, maintained at Birmingham, contri- I 
buted to make him a presbyterian. He be- ; 
came curate at King's Norton under his 
brother, who soon resigned that living in his | 
favour. The living was of little value, but I 
Hall obtained the mastership of the grammar 
school, founded by Edward VI. 

During the civil war he was ' many times 
plundered, and five times imprison'd' (CA- 
LAMT). He refused * far greater preferment ' 
when his party was in power. In June 1652 
he ' had liberty allow'd him by the delegates 
of the university ' to take the degree of B.D. 
on the terms of preaching a Latin and an 
English sermon. His presbyterian principles 
prevented him from joining Baxter's Wor- 
cestershire agreement in 1 653 ; and he became 
a member of the presbytery of Kenilworth, 
Warwickshire [see GKEW, OBADIAH]. He, 
however, si gned Baxter's Worcestershire peti- 
tion for the retention of tithe and a settled 

Hall was a ' plain but fervent ' preacher, 
and ' a lover of books and learning.' When 
a library was established in connection with 
the Birmingham grammar school he contri- 
buted many books, and collected others from 
his friends. Subsequently he founded a 
similar library at King's Norton ; the parish 
at his instance erected a building, and Hall 
transferred to it all his books for public use. 
After his ejection by the Uniformity Act 
(1662) he was reduced to great poverty, but 
his friends did not allow him to want. He 
died on 13 April 1665, and was buried at 
King's Norton. John Hall (1633-17 10) [q.v.J, 
bishop of Bristol, was his nephew. 

Hall wrote : 1. ' Wisdoms Conquest/ &c., 
1651, 8vo (translation of the contest of 
Ajax and Ulysses, Ovid, * Metamorph.' xiii.) 
2. The Pulpit Guarded with xvii. Argu- 
ments,' &c., 1561, 4to (against unlicensed 

preachers) ; with appendix, also found sepa- 
rately, * Six Arguments to prove our Minis- 
ters free from Antichristianisme,' &c., 1651, 
4to. 3. ' The Font Guarded with xx. Argu- 
ments,' &c., 1651 (i.e. 1652), 4to (against in- 
discriminate baptism) ; has appendix, ' The 
Collier and his Colours,' &c., 1652, 4to 
(Against Thomas Collier, a general baptist 
preacher, of Unitarian sentiments); and second 
appendix, * Prsecursor Prsecursoris : oraW r ord 
to Mr. Tombs,' &c., 1652, 4to (against John 
Tombes (1603-1656) [q.v.], baptist preacher. 

4. < The Beauty of Holiness/ 1653, 8vo 
(Wood gives 1658 ; perhaps a second edition). 

5. ' Comarum 'AKooyu'a. The Loathsomnesse 
of Long Haire. . . . Appendix . . . against 
Painting/ &c., 1654, 8vo. 6. < Centuria 
Sacra . . . Rules for ... understanding of 
the Holy Scriptures/ &c., 1654, 8vo. 7. <Rhe- 
torica Sacra . . . Tropes and Figures con- 
tained in the Sacred Scriptures/ &c., 1654, 
8vo. 8. ' Histrio-mastix. A Whip for Web- 
ster/ &c., 1654, 8vo, against an ' examen 
of academies' appended to John Webster's 
'Saint's Guide/ 1654, 4to). 9. 'Vindicige 
Literarum ; the Schools Guarded/ &c., 1654 
(i.e. 1655), 8vo ; makes all learning a hand- 
maid to divinity. 10. ' Phaetons Folly/ &c., 
1655, 8vo (translations of Ovid, ' Metam.' ii. 
and ' Trist.' eleg. i.) 11. ' A Scriptural Dis- 
course of the Apostacy of Antichrist/ &c., 
1655, 4to. 12. ' Chiliastomastix Redivivus, 
sive Homesus Enervatus. A Confutation of 
the Millenarian Opinion . . . with a Word 
to our Fifth-monarchy Men/ &c., 1657, 4to 
(WooD); 1658, 12mo (against < The Resur- 
rection Revealed/ 1654, 4to, by Nathaniel 
Holmes, D.D. [q. v.]). 13. A Practical and 
Polemical Commentary [on 2 Tim. iii. iv.]/ 

| &c., 1658, fol. 14. 'To SXas rfs yfis: sive 
Apologia pro Ministerio Evangelico/ &c., 
Frankfort, 1658, 8vo ; in English, ' Apology 
for the Ministry/ &c., 1660, 4to (SMITH). 

15. < Samaria's Downfall/ &c., 1659, 4to ; 
comment on Hosea xiii. 12-16, supplementary 
to the ' Exposition ' of Jeremiah Burroughes 
[q.v.]; 1660, 4to ; 1843, 4to ; appended is an 
attack on Solomon Eccles [q. v.], the quaker. 

16. ' The Beauty of Magistracy/ &c., 1660, 
4to (written in conjunction with George 

j Swinnocke). 17. ' Funebria Florae. The 
; Downfall of May-games/ &c., 1660, 4to; 
I 1661, 4to, two editions. 18. ' An Exposition 
| [Amos, iv-ix.]/ &c., 1661, 4to. 

[Abel Kedivivus, 1674, appended to Moore's 
Pearl in an Oyster-shel, 1675 (the list of works 
given by Moore is inaccurate) ; "Wood's Athense 
Oxon. (Bliss), iii. 677 ; Fasti, i. 218, 438, ii. 171 ; 
Calamy's Account, 1713. p. 765; Calamy's Con- 
tinuation, 1727, ii. 884; Smith's Bibliotheca 
Anti-Quakeriana, 1873, p. 211.] A. G. 



HALL, THOMAS, D.D. (1660 P-1719 ?), 
catholic divine, born in London about 1660, 
was son of Thomas Hall, a cook, who resided 
for some time in Ivy Lane, near St. Paul's 
Cathedral, and brother of William Hall [q. v. ], 
prior of the Carthusians at Nieuwpoort. He 
studied in the English College at Lisbon till 
he had completed his study of philosophy, 
when he was sent to Paris to study divinity, 
and to take his degrees. After about six 
years he was admitted B.D. and received 
deacon's orders. In October 1688 he became 
professor of philosophy in the English College 
at' Douay, where on 24 Sept. 1689 he was 
ordained priest. In the following year he 
returned to Paris, and was created D.D. 
Afterwards he laboured on the English mis- 
sion for several years, and finally retiring to 
Paris, died there about 1719. Dodd describes 
him as a person of extraordinary natural 
parts, and an eloquent preacher. 

He left in manuscript the following works : 
1. 'A Treatise of Prayer.' 2. ' Spondani 
Annales,' a translation, 2 vols. fol. 3. ' The 
Catechism of Grenoble,' a translation, 3 vols. 
8vo. 4. ' A Collection of Lives of the Saints/ 
a translation, left incomplete. 

[Dodd's Church Hist. iii. 482 ; Gillow's Bibl. 
Diet. iii. 95.] T. C. 

HALL, TIMOTHY (1637 P-1690), titular 
bishop of Oxford under James II, the son of 
a wood-turner and householder of St. Ka- 
tharine's, near the Tower, a precinct of St. 
Botolph, Aldgate, was born probably in 1637, 
within the area now covered by the docks. He 
was admitted student of Pembroke College, 
Oxford, in 1654, then under presbyterian in- 
fluences. He took no degree but that of 
B. A. Afterwards he obtained the livings of 
Norwood and Southam (KENNETT, Register, 
p. 922), from which he was ejected in 1662. 
In 1667, having complied and signed the 
articles (11 Jan.), he was presented to the 
small living of Horsendon, Buckinghamshire. 
He became perpetual curate of Princes Ris- 
borough in 1669, vicar of Bledlow in 1674, all 
of which benefices he relinquished in 1677 
for the city living of Allhallows Staining. 
He seems to have acted as broker for the 
Duchess of Portsmouth in the sale of par- 

Under James II he published the royal de- 
claration for i liberty of conscience ' (1687), 
and on the death of Bishop Parker he was 
nominated (18 Aug. 1688) to the see of Ox- 
ford ; but though duly consecrated at Lam- 
beth on 7 Oct. he was refused installation 
by the canons of Christ Church, and conse- 
quent admission to the temporalities, while 
the university refused to create him doctor 

of divinity, though he had a mandamus 
(LUTTEELL, Relation, i. 457). After the re- 
volution he was reduced to hopeless poverty. 
At first he refused to take the oaths to the 
new king and queen, but yielded at the last 
moment (ib. ii. 6), and retained his title till 
his death. There is no valid ground to charge 
him with actual perversion to Romanism. 

His death is thus recorded in the registers 
of St. John, Hackney : < The rt. Revd. Eather 
in God, Timothy (Hall), late L d Bpp. of 
Oxford, dyed the 9 th & was buried the 13 th - 
of April 1690.' 

Hall is described by Kennett as ' one of 
the meanest and most obscure of the city 
divines, who had no merit but that of read- 
ing the king's declaration' (Complete History r 
iii. 491). He was author of two funeral ser- 
mons, printed respectively in 1684 and 1689 ; 
and he appears to have obtained a regular 
grant of arms (see Rawlinson MS. 128 B. y 
Bodleian Library). 

[Wood's Athense Oxon. iv. 875, ed. Bliss ; 
Lysons's Environs of London, ii. 500 ; Macau- 
lay's Hist, of England; Browne Willis's Survey 
of Cathedrals, iii. 437.] A. H. 

HALL, WESTLEY (1711-1776), eccen- 
tric divine, son of Thomas Hall of Salisbury, 
matriculated at Lincoln College, Oxford, on. 
26 Jan. 1730-1, aged 20, and became a pupil 
of John Wesley. He took no degree. Wesley 
describes him as a student ' holy and un- 
blamable in all manner of conversation,' and 
he was always noted for his plausibility. 
He became intimate with Wesley's family, 
and visited Wesley's parents at Epworth, 
Lincolnshire. Early in 1734 he was ordained, 
and about the same time secretly engaged 
himself to Martha (b. 1707), Wesley's elder 
sister. A few months later he proposed mar- 
riage to Keziah (b. 1710), Wesley's younger 
sister, and was accepted, with the consent of 
her family, as her future husband. Thereupon 
Martha revealed her own engagement with 
him, and he, throwing over Keziah, straight- 
way married Martha. The brothers Charles, 
and Samuel Wesley denounced Hall's con- 
duct, the former in a poem, and the latter in 
letters to his family, in which he described 
Hall as a smooth-tongued hypocrite. John 
Wesley afterwards declared that his sister 
Keziah never recovered from the effects of 
Hall's duplicity. Verses, however, published 
in the { Gentleman's Magazine' for September 
1735, soon after the marriage, eulogised both 
Hall and his wife as models of virtue and 
piety. In October 1735 Hall and his wife 
arranged to accompany John Wesley to 
Georgia, but Hall suddenly changed his mind, 
and took a curacy at Wootton Rivers, Wilt- 




shire. Keziah Wesley consented to reside 
with the Halls, and in 1737 her mother, 
Susanna Wesley, who had become a widow 
in 1735, joined them. The whole household 
removed to London in 1739, where Hall took 
an active part in the management of the 
Wesleys' newly formed methodist society. 
He insisted on the expulsion of two members 
on the ground that they had disowned the 
church of England, and in September 1739 
converted Susanna Wesley to her son's doc- 
trine of ' the witness of the Spirit.' In 1740 
he preached at Fetter Lane, but joined John 
Wesley in warning his auditors of the Mo- 
ravian l leaven of stillness.' In 1741 he 
adopted the whole of the Moravian tenets, in 
spite of the Wesleys' opposition ; but when, 
in the same year, John Wesley and White- 
field quarrelled over the doctrine of free grace, 
he persuaded Whitefield to abandon his in- 
tention of publicly preaching against Wesley. 
In 1742 he removed with his family to the 
Foundry, the Wesleys' residence, and during 
Wesley's absence in the north on an orga- 
nising tour, openly denounced his manage- 
ment of the society and his religious views. 
Charles Wesley spoke of him at the time as 
* poor moravianised Mr. Hall.' 

Hall returned to Salisbury in 1743, and 
formed a new religious society. He and his 
congregation formally left the church of Eng- 
land, and he quarrelled with his wife because 
she declined to abandon it. In 1745 he wrote 
long letters to the Wesleys, urging them to 
follow his example, and pointing out the in- 
consistency of their continued connection 
with the church. Hall, indefatigable 'in 
dfield and house preaching, drew multitudes 
of the meaner sort . . .'to attend him ; but 
his views changed rapidly. He began to 
preach pure deism ; recommended polygamy, 
and was personally guilty of gross immorality. 
On 20 Oct. 1747 he took leave of his followers 
at Salisbury, and boldly defended his evil 
practices (cf. Gent. Mag. 1747, p. 531). John 
Wesley solemnly remonstrated with him by 
letter on his degraded conduct and neglect of 
his wife, but he persisted in his loose kind of 
life apart from his family, chiefly in London. 
In 1750 and 1751 he made himself conspicu- 
ous by disturbing Charles Wesley's prayer- 
meetings at Bristol, and Charles Wesley at- 
tacked him violently in his ' Funeral Hymns,' 
1759, No. xi. Hall afterwards migrated with 
a mistress to the West Indies, but soon re- 
turned home, and died at Bristol on 3 Jan. 
1776. His wife and her brothers, in spite of 
his gross misconduct, treated him with kind- 
ness to the last. Mrs. Hall, the last survivor 
of the Wesley family, died on 12 July 1791 
and was buried in the burial-ground attached 

o the Wesleys' chapel in the City Road, Lon- 

Besides illegitimate issue, Hall had ten 

hildren by his wife. They all died young. 
The longest-lived a son, Westley was the 
subject of one of Charles Wesley's ' Funeral 
Hymns ' (1759), No. x. For the use of < West- 
ley Hall, jun.,' his father printed in a broad- 
side sheet ' The Art of Happiness, or the Eight 
Use of Reason,' in which all religious belief 
was attacked. The boy died of small-pox at 
the age of fourteen. 

[Tyerman's Oxford Methodists, 1873; Adam 
larke's Memoirs of the Wesley Family.] 

S. L. L. 

HALL, WILLIAM (d. 1718 ?), Carthu- 
sian monk, brother of Thomas Hall, D.D. 
[q. v.], was educated in the English College 
at Lisbon, and after being ordained priest 
was sent back to the mission. In the reign 
of James II he was appointed one of the royal 
chaplains and preachers in ordinary. Wood, in 
his description of the king's reception, relates 
that on Sunday, 4 Sept. 1687, his majesty went 
to the catholic chapel recently set up by the 
dean of Christ Church in the old Canter- 
bury quadrangle, * where he heard a sermon 
preach'd by a secular priest called William 
Hall, . . . which was applauded and admired 
by all in the chapell, which was very full, 
and [by those] without that heard him' 
(Autobiography, ed. Bliss, p. cix). The king 
used to say that as Dr. Ken was the best 
preacher among the protestants, so Father 
Hall was the best among the catholics. At 
the revolution Hall withdrew to the conti- 
nent, and, after paying a visit to James at 
St. Germain, became a monk in the convent 
of the Carthusians at Nieuwpoort in Flanders. 
He was for some time prior of that house, 
where he died about 1718. 

He was the author of: 1. 'A Sermon [on 
John xvi. 23, 24] preached before Her Majesty 
the Queen Dowager, in her Chapel, at Somer- 
set House, upon . . . May 9, 1686,' London, 
1686, 4to, reprinted in ' A Select Collection 
of Catholick Sermons,' 1741, ii. 183. 2. ' Col- 
lections of Historical Matters,' manuscript 

[Dodd's Church Hist. iii. 482 ; Gillow's Bibl. 
Diet.; Wood's Athense Oxon. (Bliss), iv. 450, 
548 ; Wood's Autobiography (Bliss), p. cxii.l 

T. C. 

HALL, WILLIAM (1748-1825), poet 
and antiquary, was born on 1 June 1748 at 
Willow Booth, a small island in the fen dis- 
trict of Lincolnshire. His parents were very 
poor, and he himself at a very early age mar- 
ried a girl named Suke or Sukey Holmes, and 
became a gozzard, or keeper and breeder of 




geese. But the floods swept away his flock, 
which (he complains) were appropriated by 
his neighbours, and after much wandering 
he settled in Marshland in Norfolk, where he 
gained for some time a living as an auctioneer 
and l cow-leech,' while his wife practised mid- 
wifery and phlebotomy. Here he asserts (in 
verse) that his arm broke on account of rheu- 
matic throbbing, whereupon he removed to 
Lynn, and commenced business as a dealer in 
old books. ' The Antiquarian Library,' as he 
called his shop, did fairly well, though he 
was obliged to sell, as opportunity offered, 
many other things besides books. He died 
in 1825. Hall published a considerable num- 
ber of strange rough rhymes, dealing with 
the fens, fen life, and the difficulties of his 
calling. 'Low-Fen-Bill,' as he sometimes 
styled himself, had a perception of his own 
faults, which he describes when mentioning 
John Taylor the 'Water Poet,' 

Who near two centuries ago 
"Wrote much such nonsense as I do. 

But his doggerel is not without a certain 
Hudibrastic force, and it frequently contains 
graphic touches descriptive of modes of fen life 
now passed away. He published at Lynn : 
1. 'A Sketch of Local History, being a Chain 
of Incidents relating to the state of the Fens 
from the Earliest Accounts to the Present 
Time,' 1812. 2. 'Reflections upon Times, 
and Times, and Times ! or a more than Sixty 
Years' Tour of the Mind,' 1816; a second part 
was published in 1818. 

[Sketches of Obscure Poets, 1833; Hall's 
Works.] F. W-T. 


(1797 P-1878), admiral, entered the navy in 
October 1811 on board the Warrior, under 
the command of the Hon. George Byng, 
afterwards sixth Viscount Torrington, and 
during the remaining years of the war served 
continuously in her in the North Sea and 
the Baltic. In November 1815 he was ap- 
pointed to the Lyra sloop, with Commander 
Basil Hall [q. v.], and served in her during 
her interesting voyage to China in company 
with Lord Amherst's embassy. Shortly after 
his return to England in November 1817 
he was appointed to the Iphigenia frigate, 
carrying the broad pennant of Sir Robert 
Mends on the west coast of Africa, and from 
her was promoted to be master of the Mor- 
giana sloop. In this rank he continued, 
actively serving on the West Indian, the 
Mediterranean, and the home stations, till 
1836 ; when, after studying the steam-engine 
practically at Glasgow and on board steamers 
trading to Ireland, he went to the United 
States, and was for some time employed in 

steamboats on the Hudson and Delaware. 
In November 1839 he obtained command of 
the Nemesis, an iron paddle steamer specially 
built at Liverpool for the East India Com- 

Eany, fitted with a sliding keel, having a 
.ght draught of water, and carrying a com- 
paratively heavy armament. On arriving at 
Galle after a stormy and tedious passage, 
she was immediately ordered on to China, 
and joined the squadron in the Canton river 
in time to render efficient assistance in the 
reduction of Chuen-pee fort on 7 Jan. 1841. 
She was at that time the only steamer pre- 
sent, and during the next two years had a 
most important share in the several opera- 
tions of the war ; Hall, by his energy and his 
skilful handling of the frail steamer, winning 
the special commendation of the officers of the 
navy under whom he served [see HERBERT, 
SIR THOMAS, 1793-1861 ; PARKER, SIR 
WILLIAM, 1788-1866]. In consequence of 
their recommendations, an order in council 
was obtained permitting his promotion to 
the rank of lieutenant, his commission being 
dated back to 8 June 1841 ; another order 
in council sanctioned his time served on 
board the Nemesis being counted as though 
served in a queen's ship ; and on 10 June 
1843 he was promoted to be commander. 
The Nemesis had been paid off at Calcutta, 
and Hall, returning home overland, was ap- 
pointed on 1 July 1843 to the royal yacht r 
from which on 22 Oct. 1844 he was advanced 
to post rank. 

From 1847 to 1850 he commanded the 
Dragon steam frigate in the Mediterranean ; 
and on 28 Oct. 1849, when Sir William 
Parker brought the fleet to Besika Bay as a 
visible promise of support to the Turks against 
the demands of Austria and Russia in the 
matter of the Hungarian refugees, he was 
sent to Constantinople carrying the reassur- 
ing news to the British minister (PHILLI- 
MORE, Life of Sir William Parker, iii. 570 ; 
cf. LANE-POOLE, Life of Lord Stratford de 
Redclijfe, ii. 194, where the date is wrongly 
given 3 Oct.) In 1847 Hall was elected a 
fellow of the Royal Society. On the break- 
ing out of the Russian war, not being able 
to obtain command of a vessel of a rate cor- 
responding to his seniority, he accepted the 
Hecla, a small paddle steamer, in which he 
was actively employed in the Baltic in 1854. 
In the following year, again in the Baltic, he 
had command of the Blenheim blockship, in 
which he was present at the bombardment 
of Sveaborg, and in July was nominated a 
C.B. He had no further service, but became 
rear-admiral in 1863 ; was nominated a K.C.B. 
in 1867 ; was advanced to be vice-admiral 
on the retired list in 1869, and admiral in 




1875. He died in London, of apoplexy, on 
25 June 1878. He married in 1845 the Hon. 
Hilare Caroline Byng, third daughter of his 
first captain, Viscount Torrington, hy whom 
he had one daughter, married in 1879 to 
Captain C. D. Lucas, E.N., who, as a mate 
in the Hecla, won the Victoria Cross by 
throwing a lighted shell overboard, before 
Bomarsund, on 21 June 1854. 

Hall published in 1852 (2nd edit, much 
enlarged in 1854) an able little pamphlet on 
' Sailors' Homes, their Origin and Progress,' 
and in 1876 another on ' Our National De- 
fences,' which contains some interesting au- 
tobiographical notes. Hall has been often 
confused with his namesake and contempo- 
rary Sir William King Hall [q. v.] : partly to 
avoid this confusion, and partly in com- 
memoration of his distinguished service in 
China, he was commonly known in the navy 
as * Nemesis ' Hall. 

[Times, 27 June 1878 ; O'Byrne's Diet, of Nav. 
Biog. ; Proc. of Eoy. Geog. Soc. (new ser.), i. 214 ; 
Bernard's Narrative of the Voyages and Services 
of the Nemesis from 1840 to 1843.] J. K. L. 

1886), admiral, son of Dr. James Hall of the 
royal navy, entered the navy in 1829, and, 
after serving in Burmah and on the coast of 
Spain, was mate of the Benbow under Cap- 
tain Houston Stewart, on the coast of Syria 
and at the bombardment of St. Jean d'Acre 
in 1840. On 28 July 1841 he was promoted 
to be a lieutenant of the Britannia, carrying 
the flag of Sir John Acworth Ommanney, 
the commander-in-chief in the Mediterra- 
nean, and commanded by Captain Seymour 
[see SEYMOUK, SIB MICHAEL, 1802-1887]. 
From September 1841 to 1844 Hall was a 
lieutenant of the Indus, also in the Medi- 
terranean ; and from 1845 to 1848, again with 
Captain Seymour in the Vindictive, flag- 
ship of Sir Francis William Austen on the 
North American station. On her paying off, 
Hall, as her first lieutenant, was promoted 
(March 1848) to the rank of commander, and 
from 1849 to 1851 he was in charge of the 
coastguard in the Scilly Islands. In July 1851 
he was appointed to the Styx, which he com- 
manded at the Cape of Good Hope during the 
Kaffir war (1852-3), and on 6 June 1853 was 
advanced to post rank. In 1854 he commanded 
the Bulldog paddle-steamer in the Baltic, on 
board which, at the reduction of Bomarsund, 
the commander-in-chief, Sir Charles Napier 
(1786-1860) [q. v.], hoisted his flag. In 
1855, again in the Baltic, Hall commanded 
the Exmouth of 90 guns, as flag-captain to 
Sir Michael Seymour, and on 3 July was 
nominated a C.B. In the following year he 
was appointed to the Calcutta of 84 guns, 

the flagship of Sir Michael Seymour, going" 
out to China as commander-in-chief. The- 
Calcutta had scarcely arrived at Hongkong 
when the second Chinese war broke out, and 
through the tedious operations of 1856-7-8 
Hall was virtually the captain of the fleet, 
in which capacity his energy and zeal re- 
peatedly called forth the admiral's warmest 
praises. The Calcutta returned to England 
in August 1859, and Hall was immediately 
sent out to take command of the Indus as 
flag-captain to Sir Houston Stewart on the 
North American station. From July I860 
to December 1861 he was employed as 
captain of the steam reserve at Plymouth ; 
during 1862 as captain of the coastguard at 
Falmouth ; from April 1863 to April 1865 
as captain of the steam reserve at Sheerness, 
and afterwards as superintendent of the dock- 
yard there till his promotion to the rank of 
rear-admiral on 17 March 1869. On 20 May 
1871 he was nominated aK.C.B. From 1871 
to 1875 he was superintendent of the dock- 
yard at Devonport ; became vice-admiral on 
30 July 1875 ; from 1877 to 1879 was com- 
mander-in-chief at the Nore, and was pro- 
moted to be admiral on 2 Aug. 1879. He 
died suddenly of apoplexy on 29 July 1886. 
He was twice married, and by his first wife 
had several sons, of whom the eldest, George- 
Fowler King Hall, is now a commander in 
the navy. A lithographed portrait has been 
published since his death. 

Through his whole career Hall showed 
himself deeply impressed by religious feel- 
ing ; and while in command of sea-going 
ships and in the absence of a chaplain he 
was in the habit not only of conducting the 
church service himself, but of preaching 
original sermons, with a rare understanding- 
of the seamen's nature. For many years 
before his death beginning, indeed, during" 
the time of his service at Sheerness as captain- 
superintendent he took a very warm interest 
in the promotion of temperance among sea- 
men, and throwing himself into the cause- 
with a zeal peculiarly his own, became a 
prominent advocate of total abstinence. But 
independently of this his name was widely as- 
sociated with the various naval charities and 
with many other branches of charitable or 
religious organisation. From the similarity 
of Christian names, as well perhaps as from 
his service in the Baltic and in China, he has 
been frequently confused with his contempo- 
rary, Admiral Sir William Hutcheon Hall. 
K.C.B. [q. v.] 

[O'Byrne's Nav. Biog. Diet.; Navy Lists; 
Times, 30 July 1886; personal knowledge; 
journals, papers, and other information communi- 
cated by the family.] J. K. L. 

Hall-Houghton 96 



1889), founder of prizes at Oxford. [See 



<1 803-1 868), foundress of the English con 
gregation of St. Catherine of Siena, of th< 
third order of St. Dominic, was born in 
London on 23 Jan. 1803 of very poor Irish 
parents. After receiving a scanty education 
at an orphanage in Somers Town, she be- 
came a domestic servant in the family o: 
Madame Caulier, the proprietress of a lac( 
warehouse in Cheapside. About 1820 sh< 
was placed in the family of Dr. Morgan, who 
had been physician to George III. At his 
death he left her a legacy of 50/., and she 
resided first with his son, and for twenty 
years afterwards with Mrs. Thompson, his 
married daughter, who lived much at Bruges 
Margaret's ardour as a catholic was always 
remarkable. After many vain endeavours 
to be admitted to the tertiary or third order 
of St. Dominic, she received the habit in 
1834, and in the following year made her pro- 
fession at Bruges. In 1842 she returned to 
England, and in 1844 founded a small com- 
munity of Dominican tertians in Spon Street, 
Coventry. Dr. Ullathorne, vicar-apostolic of 
the western district, and afterwards bishop 
of Birmingham, encouraged the scheme, and 
in 1848 the community removed to Clifton, 
near Bristol, where a convent was erected. 
Another foundation was made at Longton, 
Staffordshire, in 1851, and in 1853 the whole 
community there was transferred to St. 
Dominic's at Stone in the same county. This 
iDecame the mother-house of the congrega- 
tion, and is one of the finest specimens of 
conventual buildings in England. In 1857 
another foundation was made at Stoke-upon- 
Trent. Pius IX decreed, in 1859, that these 
religious houses should be formed into a 
congregation, having one general superioress 
and one novitiate-house. They were placed 
immediately under the jurisdiction of the 
master-general of the third order of St. 
Dominic, who exercises his authority through 
a delegate nominated by himself. So great 
was Mother Margaret's administrative ability 
that she was the direct agent in founding 
five convents, with poor-schools attached to 
each, two middle schools, four churches, 
several orphanages, and the hospital for in- 
curables at Stone. After a long and painful 
illness she died at Stone on 11 May 1868. 

[Life, by her Religious Children, London, 1869 
(with portrait) ; Biographical Sketch, abridged 
from her Life, London, 1871 ; G-illow's Bibl. 
Diet. ; Tablet, 8 May 1869, p. 914, and 15 May, 
p. 947; Athenseum, 29 May 1869; Bowden's 
Life of Faber, pp. 407, 427.] T. C. 

1833). [See under HA.LLAM, HENKY.] 

HALLAM, HENRY (1777-1859), his- 
torian, born at Windsor on 9 July 1777, 
was the only son of John Hallam, canon of 
Windsor (1775-1812) and dean of Bristol 
(1781-1800), a man of high character, and 
well read in sacred and profane literature. 
The Hallams had long been settled at Boston 
in Lincolnshire, and one member of the family 
was Robert Hallam [q. v.], bishop of Salis- 
bury. Later members had been on the puritan 
side. Hallam's mother, a sister of Dr. Ro- 
berts, provost of Eton, was a woman of much 
intelligence and delicacy of feeling. He was 
a precocious child, read many books when four 
years old, and composed sonnets at ten. He 
was at Eton from 1790 to 1794, and some of 
his verses are published in the ' Musse Eto- 
nenses' (1795). He was afterwards at Christ 
Church, Oxford, and graduated B. A. in 1799. 
He was called to the bar, and practised for 
some years on the Oxford circuit. His father, 
dying in 1812, left him estates in Lincoln- 
shire, and he was early appointed to a com- 
missionership of stamps, a post with a good 
salary and light duties. In 1807 he married 
Julia, daughter of Sir Abraham Elton, bart., 
of Clevedon Court, Somerset, and sister of Sir 
Charles Abraham Elton [q. v.] His inde- 
pendent means enabled him to withdraw from 
legal practice and devote himself to the study 
of history. After ten years' assiduous labour 
he produced in 1818 his first great work, 'A 
View of the State of Europe during the 
Middle Ages/ which immediately established 
his reputation. (A supplementary volume 
of notes was published separately in 1848.) 
' The Constitutional History of England from 
:he Accession of Henry VII to the Death of 
George IP followed in 1827. Before the 
completion of his next work he was deeply 
affected by the death of his eldest son, Arthur 
Senry (see below). ' I have,' he wrote, l warn- 
ngs to gather my sheaves while I can my 
advanced age, and the reunion in heaven with 
.hose who await me.' He fulfilled his pur- 
>ose by finishing { The Introduction to the 
Literature of Europe during the 15th, 16th, 
and 17th Centuries,' published in 1837-9. 
During the preparation of these works he 
ived a studious life, interrupted only by 
jccasional travels on the continent. He was 
'amiliar with the best literary society of the 
ime, well known to the whig magnates, and 
a frequent visitor to Holland House and 
3owopd. His name is often mentioned in 
memoirs and diaries of the time, and always 
espectfully, although he never rivalled the 
onversational supremacy of his contempo- 




raries, Sydney Smith and Macaulay. He 
took no part in active political life. As a 
commissioner of stamps he was excluded 
from parliament, and after his resignation 
did not attempt to procure a seat. He gave 
up the pension of 500/. a year (granted ac- 
cording to custom upon his resignation) 
after the death of his son Henry, in spite 
of remonstrances upon the unusual nature 
of the step. Though a sound whig, Hallam 
disapproved of the Reform Bill (see MOORE'S 
Diaries, vi. 221), and expressed his grave 
fears of the revolutionary tendency of the 
measure to one of the leading members of 
the reform cabinet, in presence of the Due 
de Broglie (MIGNET). His later years were 
clouded by the loss of his sons. His domestic 
affections were unusually warm, and he was 
a man of singular generosity in money mat- 
ters. Considering his high position in lite- 
rature and his wide acquaintance with dis- 
tinguished persons, few records have been 
preserved of his life. But he was warmly 
loved by all who knew him, and his dignified 
reticence and absorption in severe studies pre- 
vented him from coming often under public 
notice. John Austin was a warm friend, and 
Mrs. Austin was asked to write his life, but 
declined the task as beyond her powers (MRS. 
Ross, Three Generations of Englishwomen, ii. 
118, &c.) During the greater part of his life 
he lived in Wimpole Street, the ' long, un- 
lovely street' mentioned in Lord Tennyson's 
* In Memoriam,' and for a few years before 
his death in Wilton Crescent. He died peace- 
fully, after many years of retirement, on 
21 Jan. 1859. His portraits by Philips (in 
oil) and by G. Richmond (in chalk) show a 
noble and massive head. 

Hallam was treasurer to the Statistical 
Society, of which he had been one of the 
founders, a very active vice-president of the 
Society of Antiquaries, honorary professor of 
history to the Royal Society, and a foreign 
associate of the Institute of France. In 1830 
he received one of the fifty-guinea medals 
given by George IV for historical eminence, 
the other being given to Washington Irving. 

Hallam seems to have published very little 
besides his three principal works. Byron, 
in * English Bards and Scotch Reviewers,' 
sneers at ' classic Hallam, much renowned 
for Greek/ A note explains that Hallam 
reviewed Payne Knight in the 'Edinburgh 
Review,' and condemned certain Greek verses, 
not knowing that they were taken from Pin- 
dar. The charge was exaggerated, and the ar- 
ticle probably not by Hallam (see Gent. Mag. 
1830, pt. i. p. 389). The review of Scott's 
' Dry den ' in the number for October 1808 is 
also attributed to him. At a later period he 


wrote two articles upon Lingard's 'History 
(March 1831) and Palgrave's ' English Com- 
monwealth' (July 1832) (see MACVEY NA- 
PIER'S Correspondence, p. 73). A character 
by him of his friend Lord Webb Seymour is 
in the appendix to the first volume of Francis 
Horner's ' Memoirs,' 

Hallam's works helped materially to lay 
the foundations of the English historical 
school, and, in spite of later researches, main- 
tain their position as standard books. The 
' Middle Ages ' was probably the first English 
history which, without being merely anti- 
quarian, set an example of genuine study 
from original sources. Hallam's training as a 
lawyer was of high value, and enabled him, 
according to competent authorities, to inter- 
pret the history of law even better in some 
cases than later writers of more special 
knowledge. Without attempting a ' philo- 
sophy of history,' in the more modern sense, 
he takes broad and sensible views of facts. 
His old-fashioned whiggism, especially in the 
constitutional history, caused bitter resent- 
ment among the tories and high churchmen, 
whose heroes were treated with chilling want 
of enthusiasm. Southey attacked the book 
bitterly on these grounds in the ' Quarterly 
Review ' (1828). His writings, indeed, like 
that of some other historians, were obviously 
coloured by his opinions; but more than 
most historians he was scrupulously fair in 
intention and conscientious in collecting and 
weighing evidence. Without the sympa- 
thetic imagination which if often misleading 
is essential to the highest historical excel- 
ence, he commands respect by his honesty, 
accuracy, and masculine common sense in 
regard to all topics within his range. The 
' Literature of Europe,' though it shows the 
same qualities and is often written with 
great force, suffers from the enormous range. 
Hardly any man could be competent to judge 
with equal accuracy of all the intellectual 
achievements of the period in every depart- 
ment. Weaknesses result which will be 
detected by specialists; but even in the 
weaker departments it shows good sound 
sense, and is invaluable to any student of 
the literature of the time. Though many 
historians have been more brilliant, there are 
few so emphatically deserving of respect. 
His reading was enormous, but we have no 
means of judging what special circumstances- 
determined his particular lines of inquiry. 

Hallam had eleven children by his wife, 
who died 25 April 1846. Only four grew 
up, Arthur Henry, Ellen, who died in 1837 
(the deaths of these two are commemorated 
in a poem by Lord Houghton), Julia, who 
married Captain Cat or (now Sir John 



Farnaby Lennard), and Henry Fitzmaurice. 
He had one sister, who died unmarried, leav- 
ing him her fortune. 

HALLAM, ARTHUR HENRY (1811-1833), 
was born in Bedford Place, London, on 1 Feb. 
1811. He showed a sweet disposition, a 
marked thoughtfulness, and a great power of 
learning from his earliest years. In a visit 
to Germany and Switzerland in 1818 he 
mastered French and forgot Latin. A year 
later he was able to read Latin easily, took 
to dramatic literature, and wrote infantile 
tragedies. He was placed under the Rev. 
W. Carmalt at Putney, and after two years 
became a pupil of E. C. Hawtrey [q. v.], then 
assistant-master at Eton. Though fairly suc- 
cessful in his school tasks, he devoted himself 
chiefly to more congenial studies, becoming 
thoroughly familiar with the early English 
dramatists and poets. He wrote essays for 
the school debating societies, showing an 
increasing interest in philosophical and poli- 
tical questions. He contributed some papers 
to the Eton < Miscellany ' in the early part 
of 1827. In the following summer he left 
the school, and passed eight months with 
his parents in Italy. He became so good 
an Italian scholar as to write sonnets in 
the language, warmly praised by Panizzi 
as superior to anything which could have 
been expected from a foreigner. He was 
much interested in art, and especially loved 
the early Italian and German schools. Re- 
turning to England in June 1828, he en- 
tered Trinity College, Cambridge, as a pupil 
of Whewell in the following October. He 
disliked mathematics, and had not received 
the exact training necessary for success in 
classical examination. His memory for dates, 
facts, and even poetry was not strong. He 
won the first declamation prize at his college 
in 1831 for an essay upon the conduct of the 
Independent party during the civil war, and 
in the following Christmas delivered the cus- 
tomary oration, his subject being the influ- 
ence of Italian upon English literature. He 
had won another prize for an essay upon the 
philosophical writings of Cicero. (The last 
two appear in his ' Remains.') At Cambridge 
he formed the intimacy with Tennyson made 
memorable by the * In Memoriam ' (issued in 

He left Cambridge after graduating in 
1832, and entered the Inner Temple, living 
in his father's house. He took an interest 
in legal studies, and entered the chambers 
of a conveyancer, Mr. Walters of Lincoln's 
Inn. His health had improved, after some 
symptoms of deranged circulation. In 1833 
he travelled with his father to Germany. 
While staying at Vienna he died instanta- 

neously on 15 Sept. 1833, from a rush of 
blood to the head, due to a weakness of the 
heart and the cerebral vessels. He was buried 
on 3 Jan. 1834, in the chancel of Clevedon 
Church, Somersetshire, belonging to his ma- 
ternal grandfather, Sir A. Elton. A touch- 
ing memoir written by his father was pri- 
vately printed in 1834, with a collection of 
remains. They go far to justify the anticipa- 
tions cherished by his illustrious friends. After 
a schoolboy admiration for Byron, he had 
become a disciple of Keats, of Shelley, whose 
influence is very marked, and final ly of Words- 
worth, whom he might have rivalled as a 
philosophical poet. He was, however, di- 
verging from poetry to metaphysics, and look- 
ing up to Coleridge as a master. His powers 
of thought are shown in the essay upon Cicero, 
while his remarkable knowledge of Dante is 
displayed in an able criticism of Professor 
Rossetti's ' Disquisizione sullo spirito anti- 
papale,' chiefly intended as a protest against 
the hidden meaningfound in Dante's writings 
by Rossetti. Hallam had begun to translate 
the 'Vita Nuova.' A criticism (first pub- 
lished in the l Englishman's Magazine/ 1831) 
of Tennyson's first poems is also noteworthy 
for its sound judgment and exposition of cri- 
tical principles. 

1850), named after his godfather, Lord Lans- 
downe, was born on 31 Aug. 1824, was edu- 
cated at Eton from 1836 to 1841, and won 
the Newcastle medal. In October 1842 he 
entered Trinity College, Cambridge, won a 
scholarship on his first trial at Easter, 1844, 
and won the first declamation prize (upon 
'The Influence of Religion on the various 
Forms of Art ') in his third year ; graduated 
as 'senior optime' and second chancellor's 
medallist in January 1846, and left Cam- 
bridge at Christmas following. He had 
founded the ' Historical ' debating club in his 
first year, belonged to the society generally 
known as ' The Apostles,' and occasionally 
spoke at the Union, and especially distin- 
guished himself in defence of the Maynooth 
grant. He was called to the bar in Trinity 
term, 1850, and joined the midland circuit. 
He travelled with his family in the summer 
to Rome, was taken ill from feebleness of 
circulation, and died of exhaustion at Siena 
on 25 Oct. 1850. He was buried by the side 
of his brother, mother, and sister (Ellen) on 
23 Dec. at Clevedon. A brief account of 
him by his friends, H. S. Maine and Frank- 
lin Lushington, showing that he was as much 
beloved as his brother, was privately printed 
soon after his death, and was added to the 
reprint of his brother's * Remains ' in 1853. 
The volume was published in 1863. 




[The writer has to thank Sir J. F. Lennard, 
foart., of Wickham Court, Kent, son-in-law of 
Henry Hallam, and Mrs. Robbins and Mrs. Brook- 
field, daughters of Sir C. A. Elton, and nieces of 
Mrs. Hallam, for information very kindly given. 
The best account of Hallam's life and estimate of 
his historical writings is the ' Notice historique ' 
by Mignet, read before the Academie des Sciences 
Morales et Potitiques on 3 Jan. 1862. Mignet 
liad received information from the family.] 


HALLAM, JOHN (d. 1537), conspirator, 
was a native of Cawkill, Yorkshire, and had 
much local influence and popularity. A de- 
termined Romanist he strenuously opposed 
the king's supremacy and the suppression of 
the monasteries. When the priest announced 
at Kilnskill that the king had suppressed St. 
"Wilfrid's day, Hallam angrily protested, and 
persuaded the villagers to keep the feast. 
When the news of the pilgrimage of grace 
in Lincolnshire (1536) arrived, Hallam, who 
was at Beverley, read Aske's proclamation 
[see ASKE, ROBEKT], exhorting the people of 
the East Riding to restore the old religion 
and re-establish the monasteries, and took 
the pilgrim's oath himself. He was made one 
of the captains of the rebel forces between 
Beverley and Duffield, and marched with the 
Beverley contingent under Stapleton to cap- 
ture Hull. . Hallam remained there as gover- 
nor ; but when the rebellion was suppressed 
lie was ousted by Rogers, the mayor, and 
Alderman Eland, both being knighted for 
their services. Hallam shared in the general 
pardon, but in January 1537 he, with Sir 
Francis Bigod [q. v.] and others, concocted 
the second pilgrimage. From Settrington, 
their headquarters, Bigod marched to Bever- 
ley, and Hallam to Hull, which place he and 
his followers entered on market day disguised 
as farmers. They were discovered and pur- 
sued. Hallam was captured and dragged 
inside the Beverley gate just as Bigod's troop 
arrived. He was summarily tried, convicted, 
and hanged in January 1537. 

[Ross's Celebrities of the Yorkshire Wolds, 
1878, p. 71; Oldmixon's History, 1839, i. 102; 
Stow's Chronicle, p. 573 ; Hall's Chronicle, 
p. 239 ; Rapin, i. 815 ; Sheahan and Whellan's 
History of Yorkshire, i. 189.] E. T. B. 


{d. 1417), bishop of Salisbury, was born pro- 
bably between 1360 and 1370, and educated 
at Oxford. He was given the prebend of 
Bitton in Salisbury Cathedral, 26 Jan. 1394- 
1395 ( W. H. JONES, Fasti Eccl. Sarisb.p. 366), 
and that of Osbaldwick in York Cathedral 
16 March 1399-1400 (LE NEVE, Fasti Fed. 
Angl. ed. Hardy, iii. 207). On 7 April 1400 

he was collated to the archdeaconry of Can- 
terbury (ib. i. 42). In 1403 he was elected 
chancellor of the university of Oxford, and 
held the office, according to Wood (Fasti 
Oxon. p. 36, ed. Gutch), until 1406 ; but it 
seems more likely that he resigned according 
to the usual practice in the spring of 1405, 
especially since Dr. William Faringdon is 
mentioned as ( cancellarius natus ' (or acting 
chancellor during a vacancy) on 12 July in 
that year. Hallam, on his election, was a 
master, but probably proceeded to the degree 
of doctor of canon law (which the brass upon 
his tomb shows him to have possessed) dur- 
ing the time that he was officially resident 
at Oxford. 

After the murder of Archbishop Scroope 
in June 1405 the pope nominated him to the 
see of York, but the appointment was not 
carried out in consequence of the king's ob- 
jections (LE NEVE, iii. 109). In the summer 
of 1406 Hallam appears to have resigned all 
the preferments above mentioned, and to 
have taken up his residence at Rome (ib. i. 
42). In the following year he was made 
bishop of Salisbury by a bull of Gregory XII 
dated 22 June 1407 (ib. ii. 602) ; according 
to Bishop Stubbs, however (Reg. Sacr. An- 
glic, p. 63), the letters of provision were not 
issued until 7 Oct. The temporalities of the 
see were restored to him under the style of 
' late archbishop of York,' 1 Dec. (RYMEK, 
viii. 504), not 13 Aug. as Kite says (Monu- 
mental Brasses of Wiltshire, p. 98) ; and he 
made his obedience at Maidstone, 28 March 
1 408 (LE NEVE, I.e.) He was consecrated by 
Gregory XII at Siena (STUBBS, I.e. ; JONES. 
p. 97). 

In 1409 Hallam was appointed one of the 
ambassadors to attend the council of Pisa 
(WALSINGHAM, Hist. Anglic, ii. 280, Rolls 
Ser.), with full powers to bind the clergy 
and laity of England to whatever decisions 
might be come to respecting the restoration 
of unity in the church (H. VON DEE HAKDT, 
Rerum Cone. oec. Constant, torn. ii. 112). He 
preached before the council at its sixth ses- 
sion, 30 April (ib. 89, 112; MANSI, Cone. Coll. 
Ampliss. xxvii. 6, 114, 125 ; not 24 April, 
MANSI, xxvi. 1139), devoting his discourse 
to the main subject for which the assembly 
was convened, the union of the church. 

On 6 June 1411 Hallam was made a car- 
dinal priest by John XXIII (cf. CEEIGHTON, 
i. 246). This at least is stated on documen- 
tary authority by Ciaconius and Oldoinus 
( Vit. Pontif. Roman, ii. 803 f.), but there is 
added the note that * titulum non obtinuit 
de more, quia Romam nunquam venit.' Per- 
haps this irregularity may explain why the 
fact of his cardinalship has been often denied, 





and also why at the council of Constance he 
took rank not as a cardinal but as a simple 
bishop (H. VON BEE HARDT, iv. 591 ; MANSI, 
xxvii. 818). In 1412 he lent the king five 
hundred marks as a contribution towards the 
expenses of his foreign expedition (RYMER, 
viii. 767). On 20 Oct. 1414 Hallam was ap- 
pointed with nine colleagues to act as the 
English ambassadors at the council sum- 
moned to meet shortly at Constance (ib. ix. 
167), and further to conclude a treaty with 
Sigismund, king of the Romans (ib. 168 f.); 
they arrived at Constance on 7 Dec. (H. VON 
DER HARDT, iv. 23), Hallam being provided 
with sixty-four horses and a great company 
of attendants (RiCHENTAL, p. 46). He took 
with him a treatise, written at his request by 
Dr. Richard Ullerston or Ulverstone, an Ox- 
ford divine, in 1408, and entitled l Petitiones 
quoad Reformationem Ecclesise militantis' 
(printed by H. VON DER HARDT, i. 1128-71). 
This treatise Hallam is said to have pro- 
duced at the council. During its earlier 
sessions he seems to have guided the action 
of the English ' nation/ in securing for it an 
independent vote, and uniting it closely with 
the German ' nation ' and with King (after- 
wards Emperor) Sigismund in a definitely re- 
forming policy. Of the several objects for 
which the council was summoned that for 
which he sought earnestly to claim prece- 
dence was the reformation of the church ' in 
capite et in membris.' Such an aim natu- 
rally placed him in opposition to John XXIII, 
the pope to whom he owed his highest prefer- 
ment ; and he made himself conspicuous by 
the energy with which he denounced his con- 
duct (witness his famous declaration, t Rogo 
dignum esse lohannem papam/ 11 March 
1415, ib. iv. 1418, and Fasti, p. 21), and as- 
serted that the council was superior to the 
pope (ib. iv. 59). John mentions Hallam's 
hostility as one of the causes which drove him 
to flee from Constance and take refuge at 
Schaffhausen, 21 March (Informationes Pa- 
pa, &c., ib. ii. 160). The bishop appears, 
indeed, to have taken an active share in 
the negotiations concerning Pope John ; on 
17 April he signed on behalf of the English 
nation the council's letter to the kings and 
princes of Europe, relating the facts of the 
pope's flight and its issues (ib. iv. 125-9) ; 
on 13 May he was placed upon a commis- 
sion to hear appeals (ib. 172) ; on the fol- 
lowing day he gave his assent on the part of 
his nation to the suspension of Pope John 
(ib. 183). The trials of Hus and of Jerom 
of Prague and the condemnation of WyclifiVs 
doctrines seem to have interested him less ; 
once, perhaps, he interposed a question during 
the second hearing of Hus, 7 June (ib. 310), 

and again on 5 July, the day before his death^ 
Hallam took part in a committee of the 
nations at the Franciscan convent which sat 
to urge the prisoner by any means to recant 
his errors (ib. 386 f., 432). There is also a 
hint of the bishop's desire for fair play and 
moderation in dealing with Jerom of Prague,. 
23 May (ib. 218). But it would be a mistake 
to suppose that he looked with the smallest 
approval upon the religious movement in 
Bohemia, which doubtless appeared to him, 
as to the mass of the ' reforming ' members 
of the council, in the light of a vexatious- 
obstacle to the success of their hopes. 

On 19 Dec. 1415 Hallam was present at a 
congregation of the nations, when the Ger- 
man president made an emphatic protest 
against the council's delay in attacking se- 
rious and admitted abuses in the church, 
particularly simony (ib. 556 f.) On 4 Feb.. 
1416 Hallam joined in signing the articles 
of Narbonne relative to the admission to the- 
council of Benedict XIII's supporters (ib. 
591), and on 5 June he made a speech on 
the reception of the ambassadors from Por- 
tugal (ib. 788). After the treaty made 
with Sigismund during his visit to England 
in 1416, Hallam was placed upon commis- 
sions for the purpose of entering into alli- 
ances with various powers, the king of Ar- 
ragon, the princes of the empire and other 
nobles of Germany, the Hanse towns, and 
the city of Genoa, 2 Dec. 1416 (RYMER, ix, 
410-16, cf. 437). Just before Sigismund 
was expected back at Constance, Hallam 
and the other English bishops celebrated 
the prospect of a speedy termination of their 
labours by a banquet to the burghers of the- 
city on Sunday, 24 Jan. 1417, followed by 
a'comcedia sacra' evidently a sort of mys- 
tery play in Latin, on the subject of the 
nativity of Christ, the worship of the magi r 
and the murder of the holy innocents (ib. 
1088 f.) On the 27th, when the king ar- 
rived, Sir John Forester reports to Henry V 
that after the first solemn reception had! 
taken place 'thanne wente my lord of Salis- 
bury to fore hestely to the place of the 
general consayl . . . and he entryde into the 
pulpette : war the cardenal Cameracence 
[Ailly], chief of the nation of France and 
sour special enemy, also had purposith to 
nave y maad the collation to for the kyng, 
in worschip of the Frenche nation : bot my 
lord of Salisbury kepte pocession in wor- 
schip of }ow and }owr nation ; and he made 
ther ryth a good collation that plesyde the 
kyng ryth well' (ib. ix. 434). Two days 
later the English bishops were received with 
marked consideration by the king, and on 
the 31st they entertained him at a great feast 




the dramatic accompaniment they had 
rehearsed the week before (II. VON DER 
HARDT, iv. 1089, 1091). 

In the following spring (1417) Hallam was 
.actively engaged on a committee appointed 
to investigate the charges against Peter de 
Lima (Benedict XIII) in view of his depo- 
sition (ib. 1322, 1323, 1331) ; and when 
this step had been finally taken, 26 July, 
and the council was divided on the question 
of the order of business whether it should 
at once proceed to the election of a new pope, 
or first mature a comprehensive scheme of 
ecclesiastical reform Hallam, with his fel- 
lows in the English nation, vigorously sup- 
ported by Henry V (cf. RYMER, ix. 466), 
were associated more closely than ever with 
Sigismund and the Germans in insisting on 
the second alternative. On 4 Sept., however, 
Hallam died at the castle of Gottlieben, just 
below Constance, at the opening of the Unter- 
,see (letter of Martin V, ap. LE NEVE, ii. 

602ft.; RlCHENTAL, p. 113; H. VON DEE 

HARDT, iv. 1414) ; and his death was im- 
mediately followed by the abandonment of 
the reforming party by the English nation 
.and their adhesion to the cardinals' side, and 
by the election of a new pope, Martin V, on 
11 Nov. The relation of cause and eft'ect has 
been assumed as a matter of course both by 
contemporary and later writers (see ib. 1426 f. ; 
JMiLMAN, Hist. ofLat. Chr. viii. 309, 3rd edit. 
1872; cf. NEANDER, Hist, of the Chr. Eeligion 
and Church, ix. 174, tr. J. Torrey, ed. 1877, 
&c.) ; but the appearance at the council of 
Bishop (afterwards Cardinal) Beaufort, pro- 
bably on or before 20 Oct. (cf. CREIGHTON, i. 
394 n.\ with the object, as it appears, of ne- 
gotiating a reconciliation with the Roman 
party, seems to show that Henry V had 
already accepted the change of policy at the 
time of Hallam's death. If this reasoning 
be correct, it was not the loss of Hallam's 
advocacy that destroyed the hopes of the 
reformers, though his death may have been 
alleged as a colourable pretext for the Eng- 
lish change of front (so CREIGHTON, i. 393). 
On the other hand it is not proved that Beau- 
fort was sent on a special mission by Henry V; 
the statement of Schelstraten (manuscript 
ap. II. YON DER HARDT, iv. 1447) is that 
Sigismund, hearing that he was at Ulm, 
on his journey as a pilgrim to the Holy 
Land, was requested by the English at Con- 
stance to invite him to attend the council; 
which account may equally well be explained 
on the assumption that the English, feel- 
ing themselves powerless without their old 
leader, and half disposed to yield, took ad- 
vantage of the presence of their king's half- 
brother and chancellor in the neighbourhood 

Brasses of Wiltshire,' 
xxxii. Hallam's will, 

and proved 10 Sept., is preserved in the 
beth archives (LE NEVE, ii. 602 ; J 

to appeal to him as an adviser and mediator 
in the hot dispute which was then raging 
between the diiferent parties at the council. 
However this may be, the honesty, straight- 
forwardness, and independence of Ilallam in 
his conduct during nearly three years of the 
council's sessions are beyond dispute. Limit- 
ing himself mainly to the great questions of re- 
storing unity to the church and of reforming 
evils in its system, his position in the coun- 
cil was a highly important one, both through 
his personal work in committees and through 
his influence as president of his nation. 

Hallam's body was brought from Gott- 
lieben to Constance on the day folio wing his 
death (II. VON DER HARDT, iv. 1414), and 
was buried on 13 Sept in the cathedral with 
great pomp, in the presence of Sigismund 
j and all the great personages of the council 
(ib. 1418). His tomb is at the foot of the 
steps leading to the high altar, and is marked 
by a noble brass, which from its decoration 
is conjectured to have been engraved in Eng- 
land. It has been published and described 
by R. L. Pearsall in the ' Arehseologia,' 1844, 
xxx. 431-7 ; and by E. Kite, ' Monumental 
97 ff. and plate 
23 Aug. 1417, 

p. 97), Hallam's name is sometimes cor- 
rupted into l Alarms ' (H. VON DER HARDT, 
iv. 1414) ; on the brass it is written ' Hal- 
lum.' In the records concerning the council 
of Constance he is commonly, though not 
apparently in official documents, described 
as ' archbishop/ a mistake which may either 
be accounted for as a reminiscence of his 
former nomination to York, or, perhaps, 
through a confusion with the dignity of the 
archbishop of Salzburg (< Salisburgensis,' as 
the name is actually spelt, e.g. by RICHEN- 

TAL, p. 46 ; H. VON DER HARDT,' IV. 1089, 

1414, &c.) 

[Le Neve's Fasti Eccl. Anglic., ed. Har-.'.y ; 
W. H. Jones's Fasti Eccl. Rarisb. 1879, pp. 97, 
366 ; Rymer's Feed era, 1709, vols. viii. ix. ; Ulrichs 
von Richental's Chronik des Constanzer Concils, 
ed. M. E. Buck, Tubingen, 1882; H. von der 
Hardt's Res Concil. (Ecum. Constant., Frank- 
furt, 1697-1700, folio; Mansi's Coll. Concil. Am- 
pliss., Venice, 1784, vols. xxvi. xxvii. ; E. Kite's 
Monumental Brasses of Wiltshire, I860, 97 ff. 
and plate xxxii. ; Ciaconii Vitse Pontif. Eoman., 
ed. Oldoinus, Rome, 1677, folio; E. Hailstone in 
Archgeologia, 1847, xxxii. 394 f.; M. Creighton's 
Hist, of the Papacy during the Period of the 
Reformation, 1882, vol. i.] R. L. P. 

HALLE, JOHN (d. 1479), merchant of 
Salisbury, was possibly a son of Thomas 
Halle of that city, who was a member of the 




corporation from 1436 to 1440. John Halle 
is first mentioned in 1444 as a collector of a 
subsidy. He was admitted member of the 
common council in 1446, became alderman in 

1448, and was constable of New Street ward in 

1449. He was elected mayor in 1451, 1458, 
1464, and 1465, and represented the city in 
the parliaments of 1453, 1460, and 1461. 
In 1465 the corporation became involved in 
a quarrel with Richard de Beauchamp [q. v.], 
bishop of Salisbury, and Halle, taking an 
active part in it, was imprisoned in London, 
and the corporation were ordered to elect a 
new mayor, which they refused to do. Halle 
was eventually released, and the dispute 
with the bishop was arranged. In 1470 
Halle found forty men on behalf of the city 
to accompany Warwick the kingmaker for 
a payment of forty marks. Aubrey says that 
' as Greville and Wenman bought all the 
Coteswolde, soe did Halle and Webb all the 
wooll of Salisbury plaines.' He was a mer- 
chant of the staple, and apparently acquired 
considerable wealth. In 1.467 he purchased 
a site in the street now called the New Canal, 
where shortly after he built a residence, the 
hall of which still remains. Until early in 
this century it was partitioned into rooms, 
but was then restored. The old stained glass 
remains in the windows, and Halle's arms and 
merchant's mark appear in them and on the 
chimney-piece. Halle died on 14 Oct. 1479, 
at which time he held property at Salisbury 
and at Shipton Bellinger in Hampshire 
(' Inquisitiones post mortem/ in appendix to 
DUKE, Prolusiones). He was apparently mar- 
ried to Joan Halle, and had a son William, 
who was attainted in 1483 for taking part in 
Buckingham's rising. This sentence was re- 
versed in 1485 (Rot. Part. vi. 246, 273). 
William Halle's daughter and heiress mar- 
ried Sir Thomas Wriothesley, Garter king-at- 
arms in the reign of Henry VII. John 
Halle had also a daughter Chrystian, who 
married Sir Thomas Hungerford, son of Sir 
Edmund Hungerford,and grandson of Walter, 
lord Hungerford [q. v.] 

[Duke's Prolusiones Historic^; or Essays 
illustrative of the Halle of John Hall, &c. vol. i. 
(no more published); Gent. Mag. 1837, pt.i. 172; 
Hatcher's Old and New Sarum in Sir E. C. 
Hoare's Modern Wiltshire.] C. L. K. 

(1628 P-1689), ejected minister, was born 
at Bridport, Dorsetshire, about 1628. He 
became by his own exertions a good Greek 
scholar and proficient in Hebrew. In 1652 
he was ' called to the work of the ministry ' 
at Hinton St. George, Somersetshire, a se- 
questered living, and was ordained to this 
charge on280ct.!652inSt.Thomas's Church, 

Salisbury, by the ' classical presbytery of 
Sarum.' His ordination certificate describes 
him as a ' student in divinity,' of ' competent 
age ' (twenty-four years). From Hinton in 
1656 he was promoted to the rectory of Chisel- 
borough with West Chinnock, Somersetshire,, 
also a sequestered living, which he held until 
the Restoration. Calamy says he held it until 
the Uniformity Act (1662), but Walker states, 
and the rate-books prove, that the sequestered 
rector, Thomas Gauler, was restored ' with, 
his majesty.' Hallett retired to Bridport, 
living there with his father-in-law till he 
settled at Bradpole, Dorsetshire, where he 
kept a conventicle. 

On the indulgence of 1672 Hallett was 
called to Exeter by the presbyterians there,, 
but after the revocation of the indulgence in 
the following year he was brought up, June- 
1673, at the Guildhall, Exeter, for preaching- 
to some two hundred persons in the house of 
one Palmer, and fined 20Z. He continued to- 
preach, and was twice imprisoned in the- 
South Gate, the second occasionbeing in 1685. 
James II's declaration for liberty of consci- 
ence (1687), although Hallett refused to read 
in public, enabled the Exeter presbyterians 
to build a meeting-house (known as James' 
Meeting), of which Hallett was the first 
minister. It was this meeting-house to which, 
when William of Orange entered Exeter in 
November 1688, access was obtained by Ro- 
bert Ferguson (d. 1714) [q. v.] 

Hallett's health was shattered by his im- 
prisonments. He died on 14 March 1689. 
By his wife Elizabeth he had two daughters,. 
Elizabeth (b. 21 Feb. 1658) and Mary (b. 
15 Oct. 1659), and a son, Joseph [q. v.] His 
funeral sermon was preached by his successor,, 
George Trosse. The publications ascribed to- 
him by Calamy appear to belong to his son. 

[Calamy's Account, 1713, p. 269; Calamy's 
Continuation, 1727, p. 427 ; Walker's Sufferings 
of the Clergy, 1714, ii. 254 ; Funeral Sermon for 
Trosse, 1713, p. 31 ; Life of Trosse, 1714, p. 95 ; 
Life of Trosse (Gilling), 1715, p. 35; Murch's 
Hist. Presb. and Gen. Bapt. Churches in West of 
Engl., 1835, pp. 376 sq. ; information from the 
Rev. C. F. Newell, Chiselborough.] A. G. 


(1656-1722), nonconformist minister, son of 
Joseph Hallett (1628 P-1689) [q. v.], was 
born and baptised on 4 Nov. 1656. He was 
probably educated by his father, was ordained 
in 1683, and on the erection of James' Meet- 
ing (1687) was appointed his father's assis- 
tant. He retained a similar office under 
George Trosse, his father's successor, and on 
Trosse's death (11 Jan. 1713) became pastor. 
Towards the end of the year James Peirce 
[q. v.] became his colleague. 




Hallett conducted at Exeter a noncon- 
formist academy, which became famous as 
a nursery of heresy. Its opening has been 
dated as early as 1690 ; it had a well-es- 
tablished reputation when John Fox (1693- 
1763) [q. v.] entered it in May 1708. No 
taint of heresy attached to it until 17 10, when 
Hallett's son Joseph [see HALLETT, JOSEPH, 
1691 P-1744] became an assistant tutor, and 
brought in the private discussion of Whis- 
ton's views. Rumours spread as to the free- 
dom of opinion concerning our Lord's divinity 
permitted in the academy, until in September 
1718 the Exeter assembly (a mixed body of 
presbyterian and congregationalist divines) 
called for a declaration of belief in the Holy 
Trinity to be made by all its members. Hal- 
lett was the first to comply ; his declaration, 
though adopted by some and not formally 
objected toby any, was not satisfactory to the 
majority. In November the thirteen trustees 
who held the property of the Exeter meet- 
ing-houses applied to their ministers for fur- 
ther assurances of orthodoxy, and failed to 
obtain them. By the advice of five London 
ministers, of whom Calamy was one, the case 
was laid before seven Devonshire presbyterian 
divines, whose decision led the trustees to 
exclude (6 March) Hallett and Peirce from 
James' Meeting, and on 10 March from all 
the meeting-houses. In Calamy's view the 
trustees exceeded their powers ; a vote of the 
congregation should have been taken. Hal- 
lett and Peirce secured a temporary place of 
worship, which was opened on 15 March. 
They were still members of the Exeter as- 
sembly. This body in May proposed that 
all its members should subscribe Bradbury's 
' gallery declaration ; ' fifty-six did so, nine- 
teen refused and seceded. On 6 May a paper 
was drawn up, apparently by Hallett, whose 
signature stands first, in which the charges of 
Arianism and of baptising in the name of the 
Father only are disclaimed. 

A new building, called the Mint Meeting, 
was erected for Hallett and Peirce (opened 
27 Dec. 1719) ; their congregation numbered 
about three hundred. Hallett's academy did 
not long survive these changes ; it was closed 
in 1720. For a list of thirty-seven of his 
students see ' Monthly Repository,' 1818, p. 
89. The most distinguished were James Foster 
[q. v.] and Peter King [q. v.], afterwards lord 
chancellor. Hallett died in 1722. His son 
Joseph is separately noticed. 

Hallett published: 1. 'Twenty-seven 
Queries ' addressed to quakers, and printed 
by them in * Gospel Truths Scripturally as- 
serted ... by John Gannaclift' and Joseph 
Nott,' &c., 1692, 4to. 2. < Christ's Ascension 
into Heaven,' &c., 1693, 8vo. 3. ' A Sermon 

. . .at the Funeral of ... Geo. Trosse . . . 
to which is added a Short Account of his 
Life,' &c., 1713, 8vo. 4. 'The Life of ... 
Geo. Trosse . . . written by himself,' &c., 
1714, 8vo. 

[Peirce's Remarks upon the Account of what 
was transacted in the Assembly at Exon. 1719, 
pp. 37 sq. ; Fox's Memoirs in Monthly Repository, 
1821, pp. 130 sq., 198; Calamy's Own Life, 
1830, ii. 403 sq. ; Murch's Hist. Presb. and Gren. 
Bapt. Churches in West of Engl. 1835, pp. 386 
sq. ; The Salter's Hall Fiasco in Christian Life, 
16 and 23 June 1888 ; manuscript list of ordina- 
tions in records of Exeter Assembly.] A. Gr. 


(1691 P-1744), nonconformist minister, eldest 
son of Joseph Hallett (1656-1722) [q. v.], was 
bom at Exeter in 1691 or 1692. He was edu- 
cated at his father's academy. Among his 
class-mates was John Fox (1693-1763) [q.v.], 
who describes him as 'a very grave, serious, 
and thinking young man,' 'most patient of 
study,' and reading more than any other stu- 
dent. From 1710 he acted as assistant tutor. 
Early in that year he was attracted by the ' Ad- 
vice for the Study of Divinity ' in Whiston's 
' Sermons and Essays,' 1709, 8vo. He wrote to 
Whiston, cautioning him not to direct the an- 
swer to himself, since if it were known that 
he ' corresponded with Whiston he would be 
ruined.' Whiston, whose reply is dated 1 May 
1710, seems to have thought his correspondent 
was the father ; Fox tells us it was the son, and 
adds that Hallett was the first who at Exeter 
' fell into the Unitarian scheme,' the term being 
used in Whiston's sense. On 6 May 1713 
Hallett was licensed to preach. An ordina- 
tion at Chudleigh, Devonshire (18 June 1713), 
led to a correspondence between Hallett and 
Fox, in which Hallett expressed ' high no- 
tions' of ministerial authority and the aposto- 
lic succession, confirming Fox in the opinion 
that Hallett had f a great propensity to rule 
and management.' On 19 Oct. 1715 Hallett 
was ordained at Exeter along with John 
Lavington, afterwards the leader of presby- 
terian orthodoxy in the West of England. 
He is probably the Hallett who, according 
to Evans's list, was minister for a time to a 
congregation of four hundred people at Mar- 
tock, near South Petherton, Somersetshire. 
He signed the disclaimer of Arianism (6 May 
1719) drawn up by his father, and took part 
in the controversy which divided the Exeter 
assembly, aiming to reconcile the unity of 
God with a recognition of the Son as subor- 
dinate deity. 

On his father's death (1722) he succeeded 
him as colleague to Peirce at the Mint Meet- 
ing. When Peirce died (1726) his place was 
taken by Thomas Jefiery, formerly a student 




at the elder Hallett's academy. Fox de- 
scribes Hallett as * a popular preacher, learned 
and laborious/ and characterises his publica- 
tions as having ' much more of clergy than of 
the mother in them.' He attempted to steer, 
with Clarke, a middle course between Arian- 
ism and orthodoxy. His conjectural emenda- 
tions of the received text of the Hebrew 
scriptures were in very many instances con- 
firmed as various readings by Kennicott. 
He died on 2 April 1744. 

He published : 1. 'The Belief of the Sub- 
ordination of the Son ... no characteristic!! 
of an Arian,' &c., Exeter, 1719, fol. 2. ' Re- 
flections on the . . . Reasons why many 
citizens of Exeter,' &c., 1720, 8vo. 3. < The 
Unity of God not inconsistent with the 
Divinity of Christ,' &c., 1720, 8vo. 4. <A 
Funeral Sermon for the Rev. James Peirce,' 
&c., 1726, 8yo. 5. l Index Librorum MSS. 
. . . et Yersionum . . . Novi Frederis,' &c., 
1728, 8vo. 6. ' A Free and Impartial Study 
of the Holy Scriptures . . . being Notes . . . 
Discourses, and Observations,' &c., 1729, 8vo; 
2nd vol. 1732, 8vo ; 3rd vol. 1736, 8vo (his 
main work). 7. ' A Defence of a Discourse 
on the Impossibility of Proving a Future State 
by the Light of Nature,' &c., 1731, 8vo (in 
answer to Henry Grove [q. v.]) 8. ( A Para- 
phrase and Notes on ... Philemon,' &c., 
1731, 4to (anon.) 9. 'A Paraphrase ... on 
the Three Last Chapters of . . . Hebrews,' &c., 
1733, 4to. 10. 'The Consistent Christian,' 
&c., 1738, 8vo (against Chubb, Woolston, 
and Morgan), also some other tracts in the 
Arian controversy and against the Deists. 

[Whiston's Memoirs, 1753, pp. 127 sq. ; Fox's 
Memoirs in MonthlyRepository,1821,pp. 131 sq.; 
Murch's Hist. Presb. and Gen. Bapt. Churches 
in West of Engl., 1835, pp. 386 sq. ; Christian Ee- 
former, 1836, p. 34 ; manuscript list of ordina- 
tions in records of Exeter Assembly.] A. Gr. 

HALLEY, EDMUND (1656-1742), astro- 
nomer, was born at Haggerston, in the parish 
of St. Leonard, Shoreditch, London, on 8 Nov. 
1656. His father, Edmund Halley, a member 
of a good Derbyshire family, had a soap-boiling 
establishment in Winchester Street in the city 
of London. He was rich, and sent his only 
son to St. Paul's School, under the care of 
Dr. Thomas Gale [q. v.] Here he was equally 
distinguished in classics and mathematics, 
rose to be captain of the school at fifteen, 
constructed dials, observed the change in the 
variation of the compass, and studied the 
heavens so closely that it was remarked by 
Moxon the globe maker f that if a star were 
displaced in the globe he would presently find 
it out.' He entered Queen's College, Oxford, 
as a commoner at midsummer term 1673, 
carrying with him, besides a competent know- 

ledge of Greek, Latin, and Hebrew, a ' curious 
apparatus ' of instruments. With a telescope 
of 24 feet he observed a lunar eclipse on 
27 June 1675 in Winchester Street, and at 
Oxford a remarkable sunspot in July and 
August 1676 (Phil. Trans, xl. 687), and the 
occultation of Mars by the moon on 21 Aug. 
1676 (ib. p. 683). Before he was twenty he 
communicated to the Royal Society a ' Direct 
and Geometrical Method of finding the 
Aphelia and Eccentricity of the Planets ' (ib. 
p. 683), finally abolishing the notion of a 
' centre of uniform motion ; ' invented shortly 
afterwards an improved construction for solar 
eclipses, and noted defects in the theories of 
Jupiter and Saturn. For the correction of 
these he perceived that a revision of the 
places of the fixed stars was indispensable, 
and with the design of supplementing in the 
southern hemisphere the labours of Flam- 
steed and Hevelius in the northern, he left 
the university without a degree, and em- 
barked for St. Helena in November 1676. 
His father allowed him 300/. a year ; a re- 
commendation from Charles II to the East 
India Company procured him facilities of 
transport ; but the climate proved unfavour- 
able, and by assiduous observations during 
eighteen months with a 5^-foot sextant he 
succeeded in determining only 341 stars. 
His enterprise, however, laid the foundation 
of austral stellar astronomy, and earned for 
him from Flamsteed the title of the l Southern 
Tycho.' In the course of the voyage he im- 
proved the sextant, collected a number of 
valuable facts relative to the ocean and at- 
mosphere, noted the equatorial retardation 
of the pendulum, and made at St. Helena, on 
7 Nov. 1677, the first complete observation 
of a transit of Mercury. 

On his return to England in October 1678 
Halley presented to the king a planisphere 
of the southern constellations, including that 
of ( Robur Carolinum,' newly added by him- 
self, and was rewarded with a mandamus 
to the university of Oxford for a degree of 
M.A., conferred on 3 Dec. 1678. His ' Cata- 
logus Stellarum Australium'was laid before 
the Royal Society on 7 Nov. 1678, and im- 
mediately translated into French ; but owing 
to his dependence upon Tycho's fundamental 
points it was of little practical value until 
Sharp reduced and included in the third 
volume of Flamsteed's ( Historia Coalestis ' 
(p. 77) 265 of the stars it contained. Halley 
appended to his ' Catalogue ' a proposal for 
amending lunar theory by the introduction 
of an annual equation, and an account of 
the transit of Mercury, from which he de- 
duced a solar parallax of 45". He was elected 
a fellow of the Royal Society on 30 Nov. 


1678 at the age of 22, and was, six months 
later, sent by that body to Danzig as arbiter 
of a dispute between Hooke and Hevelius on 
the respective advantages of telescopic and 
plain sights. He shared the observations of 
Hevelius from 26 May to 18 July 1679, and 
testified to their accuracy in a letter printed 
by Hevelius in his f Annus Climactericus ' 
(1685, p. 101). 

Towards the close of 1680 he started on a 
continental tour with his school-friend, Ro- 
bert Nelson, and caught sight near Calais of 
the great comet of that year, upon which he 
made, with Cassini, at Paris, observations of 
great service to Newton in fixing its orbit. 
He spent most of 1681 in Italy, and married 
in England in 1682 Mary, daughter of Mr. 
Tooke, auditor of the exchequer, an amiable 
and attractive woman. His first house was 
at Islington, where his instruments excited 
much curiosity ; but he removed later to 
Golden Lion Court, Aldersgate Street. He 
lost no time in entering upon his favourite 
project of perfecting the lunar theory by 
means of observations continued through a 
' sarotic ' period of 223 lunations, or a little 
more than eighteen years, and secured at 
Islington in 1683-4 nearly two hundred ob- 
servations, by which his expectation of the 
regular recurrence of errors was confirmed. 
These results were published by him in 1710 
as an appendix to the second edition of 
Street's ' Caroline Tables.' He was, how- 
ever, interrupted by the death of his father 
in 1684 in unexpectedly bad circumstances, 
and was obliged to postpone everything to 
the defence of the little that was left of his 

In an address delivered at Cambridge on 
19 April 1888 Dr. Glaisher expressed the con- 
viction that 'but for Halley the "Principia" 
would not have existed.' His suggestions 
originated it ; he averted the threatened sup- 
pression of the third book. ' He paid all the 
expenses, he corrected the proofs, he laid 
aside all his own work in order to press for- 
ward to the utmost the printing. All his 
letters show the most intense devotion to the 
work.' Keenly alive to the importance of 
the problem of gravity, Halley obtained from 
Kepler's third law in January 1684 the law of 
inverse squares, but failed to deduce from it 
the planetary motions. Having fruitlessly 
applied to Wren and Hooke, he in August 
1684 paid a visit to Newton at Cambridge, 
and ' learned from him the good news that he 
had brought this demonstration to perfection.' 
The first eleven propositions of the ' Principia' 
were communicated three months later to 
Halley, who again repaired to Cambridge to 
confer with their author, and on 10 Dec. gave 


an account of them to the Royal Society. 
Although now a poor man, he undertook on 
2 June 1686 to print Newton's work at his 
own charge, and in a letter to him of 5 July 
1687 was able to announce its completion. 
His outlay was eventually reimbursed by 
the sale of copies. A ' Discourse concerning 
Gravity ' was read by Halley before the Royal 
Society on 21 April 1686, by way of prepara- 
tion for the ' incomparable treatise of motion 
almost ready for the press ' (Phil. Trans, xvi. 
3). He prefixed to the first edition a set of 
Latin verses ending with the line 

Nee fas est propius mortal! attingere Divos, 

and presented to James II a copy of the 
' Principia ' with a discourse ' On the true 
Theory of the Tides ' (ib. xix. 445). 

Halley was refused the Savilian professor- 
ship of astronomy at Oxford in 1691, owing 
to a suspicion, which he vainly tried to com- 
bat, of his holding materialistic views. Flam- 
steed, lately become his enemy, did his ut- 
most to hinder his election. Halley acted 
as assistant secretary to the Royal Society 
and editor of the l Philosophical Transac- 
tions ' from 1685 to 1 Jan. 1693. Among his 
numerous contributions to them about this 
time were an 'Historical Account of the 
Trade "Winds and Monsoons ' (ib. xvi. 153), 
giving the first detailed description and a 
sketch of a circulatory theory of these winds ; 
' An Account of the Circulation of the Watery 
Vapours of the Sea, and of the Cause of 
Springs ' (ib. xvii. 468), establishing an equi- 
librium between expenditure by evaporation 
and supply by condensation in the waters of 
the globe ; a ' Discourse tending to prove at 
what Time and Place Julius Caesar made his 
first Descent upon Britain ' (ib. p. 495) ; and 
a ( New and General Method of finding the 
Roots of Equations' (ib. xviii. 136). Appointed 
by Newton's influence deputy-controller of 
the mint at Chester in 1696, he held the 
post, in spite of * intolerable ' annoyances from 
his fellow-officials, until its abolition two 
years later. He corresponded meantime ac- 
tively with the Royal Society through Sir 
Hans Sloane, observed at Chester the partial 
lunar eclipse of 19 Oct. 1697 (ib. xix. 784), and 
ascended Snowdon for the purpose of testing 
his method of determining heights by the 
barometer. His theory of the variation of the 
compass was proposed in 1683, and further 
developed in 1692 (ib. xiii. 208, xvii. 563). It 
assumed the direction of the needle to be go- 
verned by the influence of four magnetic poles, 
two fixed in the outer shell of the earth, two 
revolving with an inner nucleus in a period 
roughly estimated at seven hundred years. 
This hypothesis explained with surprising 




success the 'abstruse mystery' of secular mag- | 
netic changes. It was revived by Hansteen in | 
1819. Desirous of investigating thoroughly 
phenomena which he hoped might prove 
regular enough to serve for the determina- 
tion of longitudes, Halley obtained from 
William III in 1698 the command of a war- 
sloop, the Paramour Pink, with orders to 
study the variation of the compass, and ' at- 
tempt the discovery of what land lies to the 
south of the western ocean.' He sailed from 
Portsmouth at the end of November 1698, 
but was compelled by the refractory conduct 
of his crew to return from Barbadoes in the 
following June. Having got his lieutenant 
cashiered, he started again in September, and 
penetrated to 52 south latitude, where he 
' fell in with great islands of ice, of so in- 
credible a height and magnitude that I scarce 
dare write my thoughts of it.' After a narrow 
escape from destruction he steered north, ex- 
plored the Atlantic from shore to shore, and 
cast anchor in the Thames on 7 Sept. 1700, 
his ship's company diminished only by the 
loss of one boy swept overboard. Of this 
incident he could never afterwards speak 
without tears. His ' General Chart ' of the 
variation of the compass appeared in 1701. 
It set the example of a method, since ex- 
tensively employed, of representing to the 
eye a mass of complex facts, and gave the 
first general view of the distribution of ter- 
restrial magnetism by means of lines of equal 
declination, long called * Halleyan lines.' 

Resuming the command of the Paramour 
Pink, Halley made in 1701, by the king's 
orders, a thorough survey of the tides and 
coasts of the British Channel, of which he 
published a map in 1702. He was next sent 
by Queen Anne, at the Emperor Leopold's 
request, to inspect the harbours of the Adriatic, 
and, on a second journey thither, aided the 
imperial engineers to fortify Trieste. In 
passing through Hanover he supped with the 
elector (afterwards George I) and his sister, 
the queen of Prussia, and at Vienna was pre- 
sented by the emperor with a diamond ring 
from his own finger. Dr. Wallis [q. v.] having 
died just before his arrival in England, in 
November 1703, he was appointed in his room 
Savilian professor of geometry at Oxford, 
where he was created D.C.L. on 16 Oct. 1710. 
He was no sooner installed in the Savilian 
chair than Dr. Aldrich engaged him to com- 
plete a translation from Arabic into Latin, 
begun by Dr. Bernard, of Apollonius's ' De 
Sectione Rationis,' till then unknown to Euro- 
pean scholars. His success, and the useful 
emendations of the original manuscript which, 
notwithstanding his previous ignorance of 
Arabic, he suggested, were extremely sur- 

prising to Dr. Sykes, the greatest orientalist 
of his time. He added a restoration, from 
the description of Pappus, of * De Sectione 
Spatii,' by the same author, and the whole 
was published from the university press in. 
1706. The first complete edition of the 
1 Conies ' of Apollonius, including a masterly 
restoration of the lost eighth book, was issued 
by him, with Serenus's ' De Sectione Cylindri 
et Coni,' in 1710. His edition of Ptolemy's 
1 Catalogue' formed part of the third volume 
of Hudson's ' Geographise Veteris Scriptores 
Grseci' (Oxford, 1712), and his edition of the 
'Spherics' of Menelaus was published by 
his friend Dr. Costard in 1758. 

Halley was a leading member of the com- 
mittee entrusted by Prince George of Den- 
mark with preparing Flamsteed's observa- 
tions for the press, and edited the first or 
'spurious' version of the 'Historia Ccelestis' 
in 1712. His accurate prediction of the cir- 
cumstances of the total solar eclipse of 2 May 
1715 added greatly to his reputation. He 
observed the event, in company with the Earl 
of Abingdon and Chief-justice Parker (after- 
wards Earl of Macclesfield), from the roof of 
the Royal Society's house in Crane Court ; 
and minutely described the corona, without 
venturing to decide whether it belonged to 
the sun or to the moon {Phil. Trans, xxix. 
245). The great aurora of 16 March 1715, 
the first he had seen, was observed by him 
at London. He explained the auroral crown 
as an optical effect due to the ' concourse ' of 
many streamers, and suggested a mode of 
determining the height of such phenomena 
(ib. p. 407). The hypothesis of their magnetic 
origin was a development of his views on 
terrestrial magnetism. He supposed aurorae 
to be occasioned by the escape of a ' luminous 
medium,' by which a subterranean globe was 
rendered habitable. 

Halley became secretary to the Royal So- 
ciety on Sir Hans Sloane's resignation, 13 Nov. 
1713, and on 9 Feb. 1721 was appointed, 
through Lord-chancellor Parker's interest, 
astronomer-royal in succession to Flamsteed. 
He took possession of the house on 7 March, but 
on 6 May had not ' yet got into the observa- 
tory ,' which he found 'wholly unprovided with 
instruments, and, indeed, of everything else 
that was moveable.' Five hundred pounds 
were allotted by the board of ordnance for 
supplying the needful apparatus, and in 1721 
the first transit-instrument erected at Green- 
wich one 5 feet in length, constructed 
twenty years earlier by Hooke was in its 
place. Halley 's observations with it, however, 
begun on 1 Oct. 1721, were rendered useless by 
the absence of any means of taking zenith dis- 
tances. After October 1725 his main depen- 




dence was on a new iron quadrant, by Graham , 
of 8-feet radius. His leading object was 
to bring the lunar tables to the perfection 
required for gaining the prize offered for the 
solution of the problem of longitudes, and 
although in his sixty-fourth year at the time 
of his appointment, he resumed and carried 
out the design conceived forty years pre- 
viously of observing the moon through a 
complete period of eighteen years. He im- 
mediately began to draw up lists of lunar 
errors, but published nothing ; and at a meet- 
ing of the Royal Society on 2 March 1727 
Newton remarked upon the neglect of the 
late queen's precept regarding the commu- 
nication of results, whereupon Halley ac- 
quainted the council that he had numerous 
observations of the moon, but ' had hitherto 
kept them in his own custody, that he might 
have time to finish the theory he designed 
to build upon them, before others might take 
the advantage of reaping the benefit of his 
labours ' (BAILY, Memoirs Royal Astron. So- 
ciety, viii. 188). It is said byHearne that a 
quarrel ensued which shortened Newton's life. 
Four years later Halley announced to the 
Royal Society that he had made nearly fifteen 
hundred lunar observations, and was able 
to predict the place of the * sidus contumax' 
(as he called it) within two minutes of arc. 
He added a narrative of his efforts towards 
the improvement of its theory (Phil. Trans. 
xxxvii. 185). He published, however, only 
his observations of a partial solar eclipse on 
27 Nov. 1722 (ib. xxxii. 197), of the transit 
of Mercury on 29 Oct. 1723 (ib. xxxiii. 228), 
and of an eclipse of the moon on 15 March 
1736 (ib. xl. 14). 

About September 1729 Queen Caroline 
visited the Royal Observatory, and finding 
that Halley had held the commission, she 

?rocured for him the pay of a post-captain, 
lis salary as astronomer-royal was 100/. a 
year, with no allowance for an assistant. 
Owing to the pressure of official duties he 
resigned in 1721 the secretaryship to the 
Royal Society, and declined some years later 
the post of mathematical preceptor to the 
Duke of Cumberland. He was elected in 
1729 a foreign member of the Paris Academy 
of Sciences. Until 1737, when his right hand 
became affected with paralysis, he had never 
experienced a constitutional ailment, and was 
accustomed to relieve slight fever on catch- 
ing cold with doses of quinine in water-gruel, 
which he called his ( chocolate.' Every Thurs- 
day regularly he went to London to dine 
with his friends and attend the meetings of \ 
the Royal Society ; and he * stuck close to 
his telescope,' aided only by his friend Gale 
Morris, F.R.S., as amanuensis, until 31 Dec. 

1739. His bodily poAvers now failed rapidly,, 
although his memory and cheerfulness re- 
mained unimpaired. At last, tired of the 
doctors' cordials, he asked for a glass of wine,, 
drank it, and expired, on 14 Jan. 1742, in the 
eighty-sixth year of his age. He was buried 
in the churchyard of Lee, near Greenwich, 
with his wife, who died in 1737. The in- 
scription marking the tomb was placed there 
in 1742 by the two daughters who survived 
him. Of these, the elder, Margaret, died 
unmarried on 13 Oct. 1743; the second, Mrs. 
Price, lived until 1765. His son, Edmund 
Halley, a surgeon in the royal navy, died 
before him, and he lost several children in. 
infancy. His will was proved on 9 Dec. 1742, 
one of the witnesses to it being James Bradley 
[q. v.] 

In person Halley was 'of a middle stature, 
inclining to tallness, of a thin habit of body, 
and a fair complexion,' and it is added that 
' he always spoke as well as acted with an 
uncommon degree of sprightliness and vi- 
vacity.' His disposition was ardent, gene- 
rous, and candid; he was disinterested and 
upright, genial to his friends, an affectionate 
husband and father, and was wholly free 
from rancour or jealousy. He passed a life 
of almost unprecedented literary and scientific 
activity without becoming involved in a 
single controversy, and was rendered socially 
attractive by the unfailing gaiety which em- 
bellished the more recondite qualities of a 
mind of extraordinary penetration, compass, 
and power. One of his admirers was Peter 
the Great, who in 1697 not only consulted 
him as to his shipbuilding and other pro- 
jects, but admitted him familiarly to his 
table. Portraits of Halley were painted by 
Murray, Phillips, and Kneller, and engrav- 
ings from each were published. There is 
no trace in his writings of the sceptical views 
attributed to him by Whiston (Memoirs, i. 
123). Professor Rigaud endeavoured (in his 
' Defence of Halley,' 1844) to exonerate him 
wholly from a charge perpetuated by the 
dedication to him, in the character of an ' in- 
fidel mathematician,' of Bishop Berkeley's 
' Analyst,' but there seems little doubt that 
he habitually expressed free opinions in con- 
versation. His moral character has been 
impeached, perhaps on insufficient grounds. 

On his appointment as astronomer-royal, 
Halley withheld, in the hope of improving, 
the lunar and planetary tables he had printed 
in 1719 (Phil. Trans, xxxvii. 193); yet they 
appeared posthumously in 1749, without fur- 
ther alteration than the addition of the places 
and errors of the moon deduced from obser- 
vations at Greenwich, 1722-39. An Eng- 
lish edition was issued in 1752; they were 


1 08 


translated into French by La Chappe and 
Lalande in 1754 and 1759, and continued in 
general use for many years. The mass of 
Halley's observations are preserved in manu- 
.script at the Royal Observatory, in four small 
quarto volumes ; a fifth, not included in the 
collection, was stated by Maskelyne to have 
been found at his death. They were copied 
for the Astronomical Society, at the instance 
.of Baily, in 1832. No advantage adequate 
Ao the labour could accrue from their reduc- 
tion. Halley took no account of fractional 
parts of seconds of time, and considered 10" 
of arc ' as the utmost attainable limit of accu- 
racy.' His clocks were besides ill-regulated, 
and his system of registration unmethodical. 
He seems, as Professor Grant remarks, ' to 
have undervalued those habits of minute at- 
tention which are indispensable to the attain- 
ment of a high degree of excellence in the 
practice of astronomical observation.' His 
administration of the Royal Observatory was 
the least successful part of his career. Pur- 
suing one end too exclusively, he virtually 
failed to reach it. His revival of the ' saros ' 
was not for the advantage of science, yet he 
devoted to the scheme of lunar correction 
based upon it the most sustained efforts of his 
life. The dilapidated state of the observatory 
at his death was the natural consequence of 
his prolonged infirmity. The screws of the 
quadrant were broken, its adjustment was 
widely erroneous ; the mark on the park wall 
for setting the transit instrument was inter- 
cepted by the growth of trees (BRADLEY, 
Miscellaneous Works, p. 382). 

Halley's discovery of the 'long inequality' 
>f Jupiter and Saturn was published at the 
end of his Tables.' He first attributed their 
opposite discrepancies from theory to the 
effects of mutual perturbation, assigning to 
-each planet a secular equation increasing as 
the square of the time. From a comparison 
of ancient with modern eclipses he inferred 
in 1693 a progressive acceleration of the 
moon's mean motion (Phil. Trans, xvii. 913), 
explained on gravitational principles by La- 
place in 1787. He set forth the conditions 
of the daylight visibility of Venus in 1716, 
'by some reckoned to be prodigious' (ib. 
xxix. 466) ; collected observations of me- 
teors (ib. p. 159), and deduced a height from 
the earth's surface of seventy-three miles for 
that seen in England on 19 March 1719 (ib. 
xxx. 978), while maintaining the origin of 
such objects from terrestrial exhalations (ib. 
p. 989). His most celebrated work, however, 
was 'Astronomiae Cometicae Synopsis' (ib. 
xxiv. 1882), communicated to the Royal So- 
ciety in 1705, and separately published in 
English at Oxford the same year. It was 

reprinted with his ' Tables ' in 1749, and 
translated into French by LeMonnierin 1743. 
Having computed, with ' immense labour,' 
the orbits of twenty-four comets, he found 
three so nearly alike as to persuade him that 
the comets of 1531, 1607, and 1682 were ap- 
paritions of a single body, to which he as- 
signed a period of about seventy-six years. 
In predicting its return for 1758, he appealed 
to ' candid posterity to acknowledge that this 
was first discovered by an Englishman.' The 
reappearance of 'Halley's comet' on Christ- 
mas day 1758 verified the forecast, and laid 
a secure foundation for cometary astronomy. 
A period of 575 years was erroneously as- 
signed by Halley to the comet of 1680. 

The employment of transits of Venus for 
ascertaining the sun's distance was first re- 
commended by Halley in 1679 ; again in more 
detail in 1691 (ib. xvii. 511); finally in 1716, 
when his { method of durations ' was elabo- 
rated with special reference to the transit of 
1761 (ib. xxix. 454). He believed that the 
great unit might in this way be measured 
within ~Q of its value, and his enthusiasm 
stimulated the efforts made to turn the op- 
portunity to account. An inquiry into pre- 
cession led Halley in 1718 to the discovery 
of stellar proper motions evinced in the 
changes of latitude, since Ptolemy's epoch, of 
Sirius, Aldebaran, and Arcturus (ib. xxx. 
736). From the instantaneousness of occul- 
tations he gathered the spurious nature of 
star-discs, and estimated the number of stars 
corresponding to each magnitude on the hypo- 
thesis of their uniform distribution through 
space (ib. xxxi. 1, 24). Nebulas were re- 
garded by him as composed of a ' lucid me- 
dium shining with its own proper lustre,' 
and as occupying ' spaces immensely great, 
and perhaps not less than our whole solar 
system.' Six such objects were enumerated 
by him in 1716 (ib. xxix. 390), and he dis- 
covered, in 1677 and 1714 respectively, the 
star clusters in the Centaur and in Hercules. 

Halley divined and demonstrated in 1686 
the law connecting elevation in the atmo- 
sphere with its density, consequently with 
barometrical readings (ib. xvi. 104) ; he mate- 
rially improved diving apparatus, and him- 
self made a descent in a diving-bell (ib. 
xxix. 492, xxxi. 177) ; experimented on the 
dilatation of liquids by heat (ib. xvii. 650) ; 
and by his scientific voyages laid the foun- 
dation of physical geography. As the com- 
piler of the ' Breslau Table of Mortality' he 
takes rank as the virtual originator of the 
science of life-statistics. His papers on the 
subject (ib. pp. 596, 654) were reprinted in 
the 'Assurance Magazine' (vol. xviii.) It 
has been observed by M. Marie (Hist, des 



Sciences, vii. 125) that 'his results in pure 
geometry, though the fruits only of leisure 
moments, would alone suffice to secure him 
a distinguished place in scientific history.' 
Besides his important restorations of ancient 
authors, he investigated the properties of the 
loxodromic curve, and first solved the pro- 
blem to describe a conic section of which the 
focus and three points are given. He fur- 
nished an improved construction for equa- 
tions of the third and fourth degrees (Phil. 
Trans, xvi. 335) ; his universal theorem for 
finding the foci of object-glasses (ib. xvii. 960) 
appeared originally as an appendix to Moly- 
neux's 'Dioptricks' (1692) ; and his account 
of the relations of weather to barometrical 
fluctuations was included by Cotes in his 
'Hydrostatieal Lectures' (2nd ed. 1747, p. 
246). His papers on the ' Analogy of the 
Logarithmic Tangents to the Meridian Line ' 
and on ( A compendious Method of Construct- 
ing Logarithms ' were reprinted in Baron 
Maseres's 'Scriptores Logarithmic! ' (vol. ii. 
1791). The ' Miscellanea Curiosa,' edited by 
Halley in 1708 (in 3 vols.), was largely com- 
posed of his contributions to the 'Philo- 
sophical Transactions.' His t Journal ' during 
his two voyages, 1698-1700, was published in 
1775 by Dalrymple in his 'Collection of 
Voyages in the South Atlantic ; ' and a num- 
ber of interesting letters addressed by him at 
the same epoch to Josiah Burchett, secretary 
to the admiralty, are preserved at the Record 
Office (under the heading ( Captains' Letters, 
1698-1700 '). His ' Southern Catalogue ' was 
reprinted, with notes and a preface by Baily, 
in the thirteenth volume of the Royal Astro- 
nomical Society's ' Memoirs.' Dr. Gill re- 
cognised in 1877 the foundations of his ob- 
servatory at St. Helena (see MBS. GILL, Six 
Months in Ascension, p. 33). 

Lalande styled Halley 'the greatest of 
English astronomers,' and he ranked by com- 
mon consent next to Newton among the 
scientific Englishmen of his time. Of eighty- 
four papers inserted by him in the ' Philoso- 
phical Transactions ' a large proportion ex- 
pounded in a brilliant and attractive style 
theories or inventions opening up novel lines 
of inquiry and showing a genius no less fer- 
tile than comprehensive . ' While we thought,' 
wrote M. Mairan, ' that the eulogium of an 
astronomer, a physicist, a scholar, and a phi- 
losopher comprehended our whole subject, 
we have been insensibly surprised into the 
history of an excellent mariner, an illustrious 
traveller, an able engineer, and almost a 

[Several abortive attempts have been made to 
write a complete biography of Halley. Mr. 
Israel Lyons of Cambridge was, in 1775, inter- 

rupted in the task by death. Professor EigaucS 
of Oxford had made much more extensive collec- 
tions (deposited after his death in 1839 in the 
Bodleian Library), which still await an editor. 
The chief sources of information at present are : 
Biog. Brit. vol. iv. (1757), where the substance- 
of manuscript memoirs imparted by Halley's- 
son-in-law, Mr. Henry Price, is communicated ; 
Mairan's ' Eloge,' in Memoires de 1'Acad. des 
Sciences, Paris, 1742 (Histoire.p. 18 2), translated 
in Gent. Mag. xvii. 455, 503 ; Wood's Athense- 
Oxon. (Bliss), iv. 536 ; Wood's Fasti Oxon. it. 
368 ; Aubrey's Lives of Eminent Men, ii. 365 ;: 
Thomson's Hist. E. Society, pp. 207, 335; Eigaud; 
in Bradley's Miscellaneous Works (see Index) ; 
Memoirs E. Astr. Society, ix. 205 ; Monthly' 
Notices, iii. 5, vi. 204 ; Philosophical Mag. viii. 
219, 224 (1836) ; Baily's Account of Flamsteed, 
pp. xxxi, 193, 213, 747; Hutton's Mathematical 
Diet. 1815; Brewster's Life of Newton; Grant's 
Hist, of Phys. Astronomy, p. 477 and passim ; 
Whewell's Hist, of the Inductive Sciences; Phil. 
Trans. Abridg. (Hutton), ii. 326 (1809) ; H.Brom- 
ley's Cat. of Engraved Portraits, p. 291 ; Lysons's; 
Environs, iv. 504, 509 ; Nature, xxi. 303 (Hal- 
ley's Mount) ; Walford's Insurance Cyclopaedia, 
v. 616; Graetzer's E. Halley und Caspar Neu- 
mann (Breslau, 1883); Poggendorff's Hist, de- 
la Physique (1883), p. 436 and passim; Mon- 
tucla's Hist, des Mathematiques, iv. 50, 308 ; 
Bailly's Hist, de 1'Astr. Moderne, ii. 432 ; De- 
lambre's Hist, de 1'Astr. au XVIII 8 Siecle, 
p. 116 ; Lalande's Preface Historique aux Table* 
de Halley (1759) ; Delisle's Lettres sur les Tables, 
de Halley (1749); Wolf's Geschichte der As- 
tronomie ; Madler's Gesch. der Himmelskunde ; 
Cunningham's Lives of Eminent Englishmen, 
iv. 453; Nichols's Illustr. of Lit. iv. 22, 33; The- 
Observatory, iii. 348 (Oliver), viii. 429 (Lynn); 
Mailly's Annuaire de 1'Observatoire de Bruxelles, 
1864, p. 305; Addit. MS. 4222, f. 177; Egerton 
MSS. 2231 f. 186, 2334 C. 2. Many unpublished 1 
letters from Halley to Sir Hans Sloane and others' 
are preserved in the Guard Book and Letter- 
Books of the Eoyal Society.] A. M. C. 

HALLEY, ROBERT, D.D. (1796-1876) r 
nonconformist divine and historian, the eldest 
of four children of Robert Hally (sic), was born 
at Blackheath, Kent, on 13 Aug. 1796. His 
father, originally a farmer at Glenalmond, 
Perthshire, of the 'antiburgher' branch of the 
secession church, had married as his first wife 
Ann Bellows of Bere Regis, Dorsetshire, and 
settled at Blackheath as a nurseryman. Halley 
received most of his early education at Maze 
Hill school, Greenwich, and in 1810 began 
life in his father's business. His mind being' 
drawn towards the ministry, he entered 
(18 Jan. 1816) the Horn erton Academy under 
John Pye Smith, D.D., and remained there six 
years. Among his fellow-students was Wil- 
liam Jacobson [q. v.], afterwards bishop of 
Chester. Halley's first charge was the pastor^ 




ate of the independent congregation at St. 

N ; :>. Huntingvlov. accepted 

on 18 May 1832. He \ra ordained on 11 June, 
but was careful to disclaim the presby terian 
notions* of ordination. On4J. 
invited to bivome classical tutor in the High- 
bury College (opened 5 SepO Forthi> 

.11 fitted, both by attainment and 
character, and his influence on his pupils was 
both genial and bracing. In 1884 his able 
reply to James Yates on points of biblical 
criticism gained him the unsolicited degree 
of DJX from Princeton Colle^ N 
After thirteen years of collegiate work he re- 
turned to the active ministry, succeeding in ' 
1889 Dr. M'All at Mosley Street Chapel, 
Manchester. Next year ^1840) he was offered, ' 
but declined, the principalship of Coward 
College, then located in London. He acquired 
in Manchester a position of great influence. 
During the bread riots of 1 842 his voice calmed 
and changed the counsels of a hungry and 
dangerous mob. In June 1848 his congrega- 
tion removed to a new chapel in Cavendish 
Street. He travelled in the East in 1854, and 
next vear presided as chairman of the ' con- 
gregational union of England and Wales.' 
In 1857 Halley succeeded John Harris, D.D. 
^ 1 SO-' - 1 s:>o \ if v.], as principal and professor 
of theology at New College, St. John s Wood, 
London ; this important position he filled 
Avith marked distinction till 1872. He suf- 
fered pecuniary loss by the failure of the Bank 
of London, and in 1866, and again on his re- 
tirement, his friends made presentations to 
him, which together nearlv reached the sum 
of 6,0007. He retired to Clapton, but his last 
days were spent at Bat worth Park, near Arun- 
del, Sussex. On 25 June 1876 he preached 
for the last time. He died on 18 Aug. 187i>, 
and was buried on 24 Aug. in Abney Park 
cemetery, lie married in March 1823 Rebekah 
(d. September 1865), daughterof James Jacob, 
timber merchant at Deptford, by whom he 
had three sons and three daughters. His sons 
Robert and Jacob John followed their father's 
calling; his youngest son,Ebenezer,a suv. 
died in New Zealand in 1875. 

Halley was a man of transparent simplicity 
of character, combining a warm attachment 
to evangelical religion with real catholicity 
of spirit. Even among opponents he made no 
enemies. His permanent reputation will rest 
on his admirable survey of the religious his- 
tory of Lancashire. On occasion of t he bicen- 
tenary of the uniformity act of 1662 the pro- 
iect of compiling county histories of noncon- 
formity was suggested in manv of the local 
unions of congregationalists. Several works 
of various merit were produced. llallevV 
excels them all, not only from the range of 

its subject, but from its breadth of treatment 

and the naturalness and frequent beauty of 

Halley '$ \\ork lacks that uiinute- 

'..val informat ion which ehara, 

Pavid's -Essex' (1888), 1> Norfolk 

folk,' (18H), M l rwiofc 

but he alone rises above the noncon- 
formist annalist, and il .'lace among 
church historians. 

He published:!. 'The Prosper 
Churches promoted bv Social 1 
1881, ft rhe&niV. >lonial 

I : fee . 188 I, to - 
Version ... a Creed,' .v 
temperate and cogent criticism, exhibiting 
real scholarship and quiet humour, in reply 
to the Rev. James Yates, a defender of the 
Unitarian version of the New Testament X 
4. * An Inquiry into the Nature of the . , . 
Sacraments,' \\-.. 1>U -M, 2 vol>.. >\o; 2nd 
edition, l>"l. - vols., 8vo ^ being the 
gregat ional lecture ' for 1848 on bapt ism, and 
for 1 >"0 on the Lord's supper X 5. l*apt ism 
the Designation of the Catechumen.-. ., 

vo (a defence of No. 4, vol. i.) 6. Me- 
moir of Thomas Goodwin, 1>.R % <\. v.], pre- 
fixed to Goodwin 'a* Works," IsU.'svo. vol. ii. 
7. 'The Act of Uniformity; a Bicentenary 
Lecture,' &c., 1862, 8vo. *8. The Book of 
Sports; a Bicentenary Lecture,' ISt 
0. ' Lancashire: its Puritanism and Noncon- 
formity,' &c., 2 vols,, I860, 8vo ; 2nd edition, 

vo. Posthumous was 10. A Selec- 
tion of his Sermons,' a]>pended to ' A 
Biography,' &c., l>7i>. >vo, by his son, Hu- 
bert Halley, M.A., of Arundel. Also several 
tracts. He was a frequent contributor to the 
Eclectic Review,' and declined an ofter of 
its editorship. 

[Short Biography, 1 879 ; Report of the Senatus 
of Associated Theological Colleges, 1887, p. .'- ; 
Hallev's works and private letters.} A. G. 



1S39), physician, was born at Ihnn- 
fries, Scotland, in 1781. He was at tirst edu- 
cated for the presbyterian ministry, but pre- 
ferred medicine and graduated M.D. at l\din- 
burgh on 24 June 1806. He travelled for a 
time in Russia, and on his return settled in 
practice at Ilalesowen, \Yorcestershire, but 
soon joined the army as a surgeon. 1 le >er\ t \l 
in the Peninsula with the Portugue>e army, 
and in 1811 was contemplatingahist orv of t he 
war (GuRWOOD, Wellington Despatches^ iv. 
524, 532). lie after\vard> entered the British 
service, and was ]>n-seut at the asMiult of IHT- 
gtMi-v^n-Xoiun and at NYaterloo. lie beeame 
ilomestic ]>hy>iei:in to the IhiKe of Clarence 
(afterwards William IV), and travelled on 




the continent with him. He became a ] 

. 'ejre of Physicians on 'I'l \)- ':. 
1H9, and was knighted by George IV in 
1821. He was given the post of inspector of 
hospitals in the \V<--* J r rii<-s in ]".'>'>. but his ! 
health broke down, and he retired to his 
native town in 1837, where he died at Hun- 
tingdon Lodge on 7 Sept. 1839. 

His thesis for the degree of M.D., printed 
at Edinburgh in 1806, was ' De Pneumatosi/ 
a term invented by Cullen to express what 
is now called surgical emphysema, an extra- 
vasation of air into tissues, generally due to 
injury of the lung, and he published a trans- 
lation of this Latin essay into English in 
London in 1807, with some additions, as ' Ob- 
servations on Emphysema.' It is an almost 
valueless compilation, but contains a single 
valuable original observation describing a case 
in which air was found under the skin all over 
the body after the rupture into the chest of 
a phthisical cavity in one lung. His other 
medical writings contain very little informa- { 
tion of value. They are : 1. ' Remarks on 
the Present State of the Lunatic Asylums in 
Ireland/ London, 1808. 2. ' Observations 
on the Fifth Report of the Commissioners of 
Military Enquiry/ 1809. 3. ' Observations 
on the Present State of the Portuguese 
Army/ 1811 ; 2nd edit., with additions, 1812. 
4. Translation of Franck's ' Exposition of the 
Causes of Disease/ 1813. o. ' Letter to Lord 
Binning ... on the State of Lunatic Asy- 
lums and on the Insane Poor in Scotland, 
1816. 6. 'A General View of the Present 
State of Lunatics and Lunatic Asylums in 
( I r^at Britain and Ireland and in some other 
Kingdoms/ 1828. 6. 'A Letter to Lord R. 
Seymour with reference to the Number of 
Lunatics and Idiots in England and Wales/ 
B9. 7. 'A Letter to the Right Hon. the 
Secretary at War on Sickness and Mortality 
in the West Indies/ 1839. He also wrote 
' A Memoir of the Campaign of 1815,' 1816 ; 
and ' The West Indies : the Nature and Phy- 
sical History of the Windward and Leeward 
Colonies.' 1837; and edited 'A General His- 
tory of the House of Guelph/1821 ; and 'An- 
nals of the House of Hanover/ 2 vols., 1826. 

[Gent. Mag. 1840, pt. i. 93; Munk's Coll. of 
Phys. iii. 212'; Works; Brit. Mas. Cat.l 


HALLIDAY, ANDREW (1830-1877), 
whose full name was ASDEEW HALLIDAY 
JH;FF, essayist and dramatist, born at the 
Grange, Marnoch, Banffshire, early in 1830, 
was son of the Rev. William Duff, M.A., 
minister, of Grange, Banffshire, 1821-44, who 
died 23 Sept. 1844, aged 53, by his wife Mary 
nson. Andrew was educated at the Maris- 

chal College and the university, Aberdeen. On 
corning to London in 1 849 he was for some time 
connected with the ' Morning Chronicle/ the 
' Leader/ the ' People's Journal/ and other 
periodicals. He soon became known as a 
writer, and discarded the name of Duff'. 
In 1851 he wrote the article ' Beggars ' in 
Henry Mayhew's * London Labour and the 
London Poor.' He wrote for the * Cornhill 
Magazine/ and was a constant contributor to 
' All the Year Round.' To the latter periodi- 
cal he furnished a series of essays from 1861 
onwards, which were afterwards collected 
into volumes entitled * Everyday Papers/ 
' Sunnyside Papers/ and 'Town and Country/ 
His article in 'All the Year Round' called 
'My Account with Her Majesty' was re- 
printed by order of the postmaster-general, 
and more than half a million copies circu- 
lated. As one of the founders and president 
of the Savage Club in 1 857, he naturally took 
an interest in dramatic writing, and on Boxing 
night 18o8, in conjunction with Frederick 
Lawrence, produced at the Strand Theatre a 
burlesque entitled ' Kenilworth/ which ran 
upwards of one hundred nights, and was fol- 
lowed by a travesty of ' Romeo and Juliet.' 
In partnership with William Brough he then 
wrote the ' Pretty Horsebreaker/ the ' Census/ 
the ' Area Belle/ and several other farces. In 
domestic drama he was the author of ' Daddy 
Gray/ the ' Loving Cup/ ' Checkmate/ ami 
' Love's Dream/ pieces produced with much 
success by Miss Oliver at the Royalty Theatre. 
The ' Great City/ a piece put on the stage at 
Drury Lane on 22 April 1867, although not re- 
markable for the plot or dialogue, hit the 
public taste and ran 102 nights. The opening 
piece at the new Vaudeville Theatre, London, 
16 April 1870, ' For Love or Money/ was 
written by Halliday. He also was the writer 
of a series of dramas adapted from the works 
of well-known authors. These pieces were : 
' Little Em'ly/ Olympic Theatre, 9 Oct. 1869, 
which ran two hundred nights; 'Amy Rob- 
sart/ Drury Lane, 24 Sept. 1870; 'Nell/ 
Olympic Theatre, 19 Nov. ; ' Notre Dame/ 
Adelphi Theatre, 10 April 1871 ; < Rebecca/ 
Drury Lane, 23 Sept.; 'Hilda/ Adelphi, 
1 April 1872 ; ' The Lady of the Lake/ Drury 
Lane, 21 Sept. ; and ' Heart's Delight/ founded 
on Dickens s ' Dombey and Son, Globe Thea- 
tre, 17 Dec. 1873. He possessed a remark- 
able talent for bringing out the salient points 
of a novel, and his adaptations were success- 
ful where others failed. Charles Dickens 
warmly praised the construction of ' Little 
Emly.' From 1873 Halliday suffered from 
softening of the brain. He died at 74 St. 
Augustine's Road, Camden Town, London, 
10 April 1877, and was buried in Highgate 




cemetery on 14 April. His printed works 
were: 1. 'The Adventures of Mr. Wilder- 
spin in his Journey through Life,' 1860. 
2. ' Everyday Papers,' 1864, 2 vols. 3. ' Sunny- 
side Papers,' 1866. 4. * Town and Country 
Sketches,' 1866. 5. 'The Great City,' a 
novel, 1867. 6. ' The Savage Club Papers,' 
1867 and 1868, edited by A. Halliday, 
2 vols. 7. Shakespeare's tragedy of 'An- 
tony and Cleopatra,' arranged by A. Hal- 
liday, 1873. In Lacy's f Acting Edition of 
Plays,' the following pieces were printed: in 
vol. xliii. ' Romeo and Juliet travestie,' and 
in vol. Ixxxv. 'Checkmate,' a farce. The 
farces by William Brough and A. Halliday 
were : In vol. 1. the ' Census,' in vol. li. 
the 'Pretty Horsebreaker,' in vol. Iv. 'A 
Shilling Day at the Great Exhibition ' and 
the ' Colleen Bawn settled at last,' in vol. 
Ivii. ' A Valentine,' in vol. Ix. ' My Heart's 
in the Highlands,' in vol. Ixii. the 'Area 
Belle,' in vol. Ixiii. the ' Actor's Retreat,' in 
vol. Ixiv. 'Doing Banting,' in vol. Ixv. ' Going 
to the Dogs,' invol.lxvi. ' Upstairs and Down- 
stairs,' in vol. Ixvii. ' Mudborough Election.' 
' Kenil worth,' a comic extravaganza, by 
A. Halliday and F. Lawrence, and ' Check- 
mate,' a comedy, were also printed. In a 
publication called 'Mixed Sweets,' 1867, 
Halliday wrote 'About Pantomimes,' pp. 

[Illustrated Review, 4 Feb. 1874, pp. 81-2, 
with portrait; Era, 15 April 1877, p. 12; Car- 
toon Portraits, 1873, pp. 88-9, with portrait; 
The Theatre, 17 April 1877, pp. 140-1 ; Illustrated 
London News, 21 Aug. 1877, p. 373, with por- 
trait ; Illustrated Sporting and Dramatic News, 
21 April 1877, pp. 105-6, with portrait ; Inglis's 
Dramatic Writers of Scotland, 1868, pp. 49, 
132.] G. C. B. 

RICK (1822-1869), amateur artist, son of a 
captain in the navy, was from 1839 until his 
death clerk in the parliament office, House 
of Lords. He cultivated a taste for painting 
in later years with much energy and fair 
success. He exhibited at the Royal Aca- 
demy in 1853 a view of ' Moel Shabod from 
the Capel Curig Road.' In 1856 he exhibited 
' The Measure for the Wedding Ring,' and 
two scenes from the Crimean war ; the former 
attracted much notice and was engraved. 
He exhibited in 1857 ' The Sale of a Heart,' 
in 1858 ' The Blind Basket-maker with his 
First Child,' in 1864 ' A Bird in the Hand,' 
and in 1866 ' Roma vivente e Roma morta.' 
He contributed an etching of ' The Plea of 
the Midsummer Fairies' to the edition of 
Hood's * Poems ' published by the Junior 
Etching Club in 1858. Halliday was one of 
the earliest members of the pre-Raphaelite 

school of painting. He was also an enthu- 
siastic volunteer, a first-rate rifle-shot, and 
one of the first English eight who competed 
for the Elcho Shield at Wimbledon. He 
died after a short illness at Thurloe Place, 
South Kensington, on 1 June 1869, and was- 
buried at Brompton cemetery. 

[Redgrave's Diet, of Artists; Art Journal, 
1869; Athenaeum, 12 June 1869; Eoyal Aca- 
demy Catalogues.] L. C. 

HALLIFAX, SAMUEL (1733-1790), 
bishop successively of Gloucester and St. 
Asaph, born at Mansfield on 8 Jan. 1733 r 
was eldest son of Robert Hallifax, apothecary , 
of Mansfield, Nottinghamshire, by Hannah, 
daughter of Samuel Jebb of the same town, 
who are commemorated by a monument in 
Chesterfield Church. Robert Hallifax, M.D. 
(1735-1810), who was physician to the Prince 
of Wales (afterwards George IV), was a 
younger brother (MuNK, Coll. of Phys. ii. 
336). Sir Richard Jebb (1729-1787) [q. v.] 
and John Jebb (1736-1786) [q. v.] were his 
first cousins. His grandfather, Robert Water- 
house of Halifax, was the first to drop the 
patronymic of Waterhouse, and to call him- 
self Hallifax, from the town with which his 
family had been long connected. After at- 
tending the grammar school of Mansfield,. 
Hallifax was admitted into Jesus College, 
Cambridge, as an ordinary sizar 21 Oct. 1749, 
and was elected to a close scholarship on the 
foundation of Archbishop Sterne on 24 Oct. 
In January 1 754 he graduated B. A., when he 
was third wrangler in mathematics, and won 
the chancellor's gold medal for classics, and in 
1755 and 1756 he carried off" one of the mem- 
bers' prizes. He was elected foundation scho- 
lar on 16 Feb. 1754, and admitted to a fellow- 
ship on 22 June 1756. Next year he proceeded 
M.A., and before resigning his fellowship at 
J esus College, early in 1760, held the college 
offices of praelector, dean, tutor, steward, and: 
rental bursar. On migrating to Trinity Hall r 
Hallifax was elected to a fellowship (3 April 
1760), and speedily became eminent as its 
tutor. Here he applied himself to the study 
of law, and took the degree of LL.D. in 1764. 
He was presented to the rectory of Ched- 
dington, Buckinghamshire, 30 Nov. 1765, 
and held it until 1777, but continued to re- 
side at Cambridge, and retained his fellow- 
ship until 1 Nov. 1775. When the chair of 
Arabic became vacant in January 1768, Halli- 
fax, then deputy of Dr. Ridlington, professor 
of civil law, defeated his cousin, John Jebb, 
who had studied Arabic for some time, in the 
contest for the Arabic chair. He held as sine- 
cures for two years both the professorship of 
Arabic on the foundation of SirThomas Adams 



and the lord almoner's professorship of Arabic 
(1768-70). These censurable proceedings on 
the part of Hallifax alienated his cousin. Their 
differences were aggravated in 1772 on the 
attempt to abolish subscription to the Thirty- 
nine Articles by clergymen and members of the 
universities, when some letters signed ' Eras- 
mus ' in the newspapers, in favour of subscrip- 
tion, were generally ascribed to Hallifax. He 
was attacked by Mrs. Jebb with such wit and 
sarcasm that he is said to have called on 
Wilkie, her publisher, to request him not to 
print any more of her writings. They were 
again at variance in 1774, when Jebb carried 
Tiis grace for a syndicate to promote annual 
examinations. From 1770 to 1782 Hallifax 
lield the regius professorship of civil law at 
Cambridge. He was created chaplain in or- 
dinary to the king in February 1774, and D.D. 
by royal mandate in 1775. When Dr. Top- 
ham vacated his mastership of faculties at Doc- 
tors' Commons, Hallifax succeeded to the post 
(1770). In 1778 Mrs. Gaily, for his services to 
religion, rewarded him with the valuable rec- 
tory of Warsop, Nottinghamshire, where he 
made the parish choir famous for miles round. 
His candidature in 1779 for the mastership 
cf Catherine College, Cambridge, was unsuc- 
cessful. On 27 Oct. 1781 he was consecrated 
bishop of Gloucester, and on 4 April 1789 he 
was confirmed as bishop of St. Asaph, being, 
it is said, the first English bishop that had 
been translated to a Welsh see. After much 
suffering he died of stone in the bladder at 
Dartmouth Street, Westminster, on 4 March 
1790. His favourite son, who died at War- 
sop in 1782, when a boy, through being 
scalded in a brewhouse, was buried in the 
chancel of Warsop Church, where the bishop 
directed that he himself should be buried, 
and a mural tablet with a Latin inscription, 
written by his father-in-law, records their 
death. His wife, whom he married in Oc- 
tober 1775, was Catherine, second daughter 
of Dr. William Cooke, dean of Ely (1711- 
1797) [q. v.] Their surviving issue was one 
son and six daughters ; the widow is said to 
have received a pension from George III. 
John Milner, the Roman catholic bishop of 
Castabala, asserted in his * End of Religious 
Controversy' (pt. i. p. 77) that Hallifax 
4 probably' died a catholic. This assertion 
was contradicted in the ' British Critic/ 
April 1825, pp. 365-6. Parr, in his elabo- 
rate letter on Milner's work, showed its im- 
probability, and incidentally dwelt on Halli- 
fax's amiability and his intellectual qualities. 
Parr's appendix (pp. 53-60) contains corre- 
spondence between Milner and the Rev. B. F. 
Hallifax, the bishop's son. 

Hallifax, says Sir Egerton Brydges, who 


attended his law lectures, was ' a mild cour- 
teous little man, accomplished with learning, 
and of a clear intellect, not only of no force, 
but even languid.' Bishop Watson adds that 
he was not above the ' ordinary means of ingra- 
tiating himself with great men.' His treat- 
ment of dissenters during his tutorship at 
Trinity Hall is shown in his harsh demea- 
nour towards Samuel Hey wood, serjeant-at- 
law. His numerous publications comprised : 
1. l Saint Paul's Doctrine of Justification by 
Faith explained in three Discourses before 
the University of Cambridge,' 1760; 2nd edit. 
1762, in which he replied to some previous 
sermons by the Rev. John Berridge [q. v.] 
on t Justification by Faith alone, without 
Works.' 2. ' Two Sermons preached before 
the University, 1768, in praise of Benefac- 
tors.' 3. 'Three Sermons preached before 
the University on the Attempt to abolish 
Subscription to the Thirty-nine Articles of 
Religion,' 1772, two editions ; this produced 
an anonymous ' Letter to Dr. Hallifax upon 
the Subject of his three Discourses,' 1772, by 
Samuel Blackall [q. v.], which was deemed 
by Parr ' very argumentative and justly se- 
vere,' while the three sermons were, on the 
same critic's authority, ' shewy and amply 
rewarded.' 4. ' An Analysis of the Roman 
Civil Law, in which a Comparison is occa- 
sionally made between the Roman Laws and 
those of England: being the heads of a course 
of Lectures publickly read in the University 
of Cambridge/ 1774; 2nd edit. 1775; 4th edit. 
1795 ; new edition, with alterations and ad- 
ditions by J. W. Geldart, king's professor of 
the civil law, 1836. It was also included in 
vol. ii. of three volumes published in 1816- 
1818 by the proprietors of the 'Military 
Chronicle/ to show the course of education 
at Cambridge and Oxford. These lectures 
were attended ' by persons of the highest rank 
and fortunes in the university.' 5. ' Twelve 
Sermons on the Prophecies concerning the 
Christian Church, and in particular the 
Church of Papal Rome. Preached in Lin- 
coln's Inn Chapel at Lecture of Bishop War- 
burton/ 1776. 6. ' Sermons in Two Volumes 
by Samuel Ogden. To which is prefixed an 
Account of the Author's Life/ with a vindi- 
cation of his writings by Hallifax, 1780, 1786, 
1788, and 1805. Hallifax followed Ogden 
at the Round Church, Cambridge, and ' af- 
fected his tone and manner of delivery, but 
did not succeed in attracting so numerous a 
congregation' (GUNNING, Reminiscences, i. 
240). 7. ' Preface by Hallifax to a Charge 
delivered by Bishop Butler at his Primary 
Visitation of Durham Diocese/ 1786. The 
preface was added to numerous separate edi- 
tions of Butler's 'Analogy' from 1788, and to 




the edition in Bohn's Standard Library, and 
to the reproduction of Butler's ' Fifteen Ser- 
mons preached at the Rolls Chapel ' in Cat- 
termole and Stebbing's sacred classics. He 
contributed to the university collections of 
poems printed in 1760 and 1763. He pub- 
lished fourteen single sermons, and that 
preached in 1788 on the anniversary of the 
martyrdom of King Charles provoked 'A 
Letter to the Bishops on the Test Acts, in- 
cluding Strictures on Hallifax's Sermon/ 
1789. An apology for the clergy and liturgy 
of the established church was attributed to 
him by Dr. Lort. There are some slight re- 
ferences to him in the Cole MSS. at the Bri- 
tish Museum (Addit. MSS. 5859, 5872, and 
5876), and several of his letters are in the 
possession of the Dalrymple family (Hist. 
MSS. Comm. 4th Rep. p. 531). His portrait 
hangs in the hall at Trinity Hall. 

[Disney's Jebb, i. 20-35, 62-70, iii. 60; 
Bishop "Watson's Anecdotes, i. 115; Sir E. 
Brydges's Autobiography, i. 59 ; Wakefield's 
Memoirs, i. 96, 283-5, 330; Beloe's Sexagenarian, 
i. 60; Dyer's Cambridge, ii. 139; Cooper's An- 
nals of Cambridge, iv. 328, 389 ; Nichols's Illus- 
trations of Lit. vii. 505-7 ; Nichols's Lit. Anec- 
dotes, iii. 96, v. 664, vi. 368, viii. 367, 576, 649, 
ix. 630, 659 ; Field's Parr, ii. 26 ; Barker's Par- 
riana, i. 287, ii. 377-408 ; Bibl. Parriana, p. 576 ; 
Le Neve's Fasti (Hardy) ; Thoroton's Notting- 
hamshire, iii. 370 ; Lipscomb'sBuckinghamshire, 
iii. 313; Jesus College Records, supplied by the 
Rev. H. A. Morgan, D.D. ; Warsop Parish Regis- 
ters by the Rev. R. J. King, 1884.] W. P. C. 

1789), lord mayor of London, was third son of 
John Hallifax, a clockmaker, of Barnsley, and 
his wife, Anne Archdale of Pilley. Born 
at Barnsley in 1721, he was apprenticed to 
a grocer there, but before his indentures 
fully expired he left Barnsley and came to 
London, where he rapidly gained a position 
as a goldsmith and banker. On 5 Jan. 1753 
he became partner of, or perhaps joined in 
establishing, the firm of Joseph Vere, Sir 
Richard Glyn, and Thomas Hallifax, carry- 
ing on business as bankers in Lombard Street 
(WILKINSON, Worthies of Barnsley, p. 172). 
The firm shortly afterwards removed to Bir- 
chin Lane, where they became the largest 
private banking-house in London, their pre- 
sent style being Glyn, Mills, Currie & Co. 
(PRICE, Handbook of London Bankers, 1876, 
pp. 57-9). He became free of the city in the 
same year (1753). On 27 Sept. 1753 he was 
admitted to the freedom of the Goldsmiths' 
Company by redemption ; was elected a livery- 
man in 1754, and a member of the court of as- 
sistants in 1755 ; and served as prime warden 
of the company in 1768-9. His arms are set 

up in the Goldsmiths' Hall. On 26 Nov, 
1766 he was elected alderman of Aldersgate 
ward, served the office of sheriff in 1768, and 
took part in the splendid reception and en- 
tertainment given to the king of Denmark 
on 23 Sept. It was probably on this occa- 
sion that he was knighted. Early in 1769 
he acted as returning officer during the re- 
peated re-elections of Wilkes as member of 
parliament for Middlesex, and maintained 
the right of free election against the efforts 
of the government to invalidate the return. 
Shortly afterwards Hallifax joined the court 
party, and was put forward with Alderman 
Shakespeare in 1772 to oppose Wilkes in his 
contest for the mayoralty, the election re- 
sulting in the return of Alderman Towns- 
end (HORACE WALPOLE, Last Journals, ed. 
Doran, i. 163). He was elected lord mayor 
on Michaelmas day 1776. The Wilkes agita- 
tion had then subsided, and Hallifax invited 
to his mayoralty entertainment the leading 
members of the ministry who had not been, 
asked for seven years (ib. ii. 84). He gained 
much credit during his year of office by his 
opposition to the press-gang system. While- 
refusing to back the illegal press warrants, he 
gave orders to the city marshals to search the 
public-houses and take into custody all sus- 
pected persons, and hand over to the king's 
naval officers such as could give no account of 
themselves (Gent. Mag. 1776, p. 529). He 
represented the borough of Aylesbury in par- 
liament from 31 March 1784 till his death. In 
1781 he was engaged in a suit with the parish 
of Bury St. Edmunds for refusing to serve the 
office of churchwarden, on the ground of his 
privilege as an alderman of London. On 
29 March a motion was brought forward in 
the court of common council to defray the ex- 
penses of the suit, when it was decided that 
no further cost should be incurred, and that 
the costs of all similar suits should in future 
be defrayed by the parties interested. 

Hallifax lived at Enfield, in Gordon House, 
on the Chase Side, formerly belonging to 
William Cosmo, duke of Gordon, the house 
in which Lord George Gordon [q.v.] is said to 
have been born. He died suddenly at Birchin 
Lane, after four days' illness, on 7 Feb. 1789, 
and was buried on the 17th with much pomp 
in the family vault of the Saviles in Enfield 
churchyard. His tomb, bearing inscriptions 
commemorating himself and his second wife, 
is a plain altar monument of white stone, 
enclosed with iron rails. He left no will. 
His property was estimated at 100,000/. Hal- 
lifax married (1) in 1762, at Ewell, Penelope, 
daughter of Richard Thomson of Lincoln's 
Inn (she brought him 20,000 /., and died 
within a year) ; and (2) Margaret, daughter 



and coheiress of John Savile, esq., of Clay hill, 
Enfield ; she died on 17 Nov. 1777, after 
giving birth to a second child, Savile, on 
6 Nov. previous. The elder child, Thomas, 
born 9 Nov. 1774, resided at Chadacre Hall, 
Suffolk, where an indifferent portrait of Sir 
Thomas Hallifax remains. His portrait also 
appears in a painting at Guildhall by Miller, 
representing the swearing in of Alderman 
Newnham as lord mayor on 8 Nov. 1782. 
This was engraved by Smith, and published 
by Boydell in 1801. 

[Gent. Mag. 1789, pt. i. pp. 183-4; Wilkin- 
son's Worthies of Barnsley, pp. 165-86; Price's 
Handbook of London Bankers, 1876, pp. 57-9.1 

C. W-H. 

HALLIFAX, WILLIAM (1655 P-1722), 
divine, born at Springthorpe, Lincolnshire, 
about 1655, was the son of the Rev. John 
Hallifax. On 20 Feb. 1670 he entered Brase- 
nose College, Oxford, as a servitor, but was 
admitted a scholar of Corpus Christi College 
in April 1674, and a fellow inDecember 1682. 
He graduated B.A. in 1675, M.A. in 1678, 
and B.D. in 1687. In 1685 he published from 
the French a translation of Millet de Chales's 
' Euclide.' On 18 Jan. 1687-8 he was elected 
chaplain to the Levant Company at Aleppo, 
and held the appointment until 27 Nov. 1695. 
Having at Michaelmas 1691 paid a visit to 
Palmyra in Syria, he sent an account to Pro- 
fessor Edward Bernard, which, with a sketch 
of the ruins taken by two of his travelling 
companions, was inserted in the 'Philoso- 
phical Transactions ' for 1695 (xix. 83-110). 
He took the degree of D.D. by diploma in 
1695, and on 17 Aug. 1699 he was presented 
by Thomas Foley of Witley Court to the 
richly endowed rectory of Old Swinford, 
Worcestershire, and held it with the rectory 
of Salwarpe in the same county, to which he 
was instituted on 18 July 1713 (NASH, Wor- 
cestershire, ii. 212, 214, 339). He died ap- 
parently in the beginning of 1722, and desired 
to be buried in the chancel of Salwarpe Church. 
His will, dated 2 Nov. 1721, was proved on 
15 Feb. 1722 (P. C. C. 28, Marlborough). By 
his wifeMary, sister of the Rev. GeorgeMartin, 
he probably left no issue. He bequeathed 
to Corpus Christi College, Oxford, his oriental 
books and manuscripts, a silver-gilt basin 
bought at Aleppo, and a collection of coins 
and medals. He wrote also ' A Sermon . . . 
preach'd Jan. 30, 1701. With a Vindication 
of its Author from aspersions cast upon him 
in a late libel, entitled a Letter to a Clergy- 
man in the City, concerning the Instructions 
lately given to the Proctors of the Clergy 
for the Diocese of Worcester/ 1702. 

[Wood's Athenge Oxon. (Bliss), iv. 620 ; J. B. 
Pearson's Chaplains to Levant Co.] G. G. 

HALLIWELL, HENRY (1765-1835), 
classical scholar, son of William Halliwell, 
master of the Burnley grammar school, and 
incumbent of Holme, was born at Burnley, 
Lancashire, on 25 Aug. 1765, and educated 
at his father's school and at Manchester gram- 
mar school. Proceeding to Oxford he ma- 
triculated at Brasenose College 18 Jan. 1783, 
was nominated Hulmean exhibitioner in 1787, 
and graduated B.A. in 1783, M.A. in 1789, 
and B.D. in 1803. In 1790 he became fel- 
low, and in 1796 dean and Hebrew lecturer 
of his college. He was an assistant chap- 
lain of the Manchester Collegiate Church in 
1794, and was presented to the rectory of 
Clayton-cum-Keymer, near Ditchling, Sus- 
sex, in 1803, when he resigned all his college 
offices. From a peculiarity in his gait he 
was known at Oxford as ' Dr. Toe,' and he 
was the subject of an amusing epigram by 
Bishop Heber on his being jilted by a lady 
who married her footman. He was also the 
central object of a clever satire, entitled ' The 
Whippiad,' by Heber, published in 'Black- 
wood's Magazine ' (July 1843, liv. 100-6). He 
was one of the scholars who assisted the Fal- 
coners in their edition of ' Strabo ' in 1807 
[see FALCONER, THOMAS, 1772-1839], and he 
made an English translation of that work, 
which has not been published. After his 
marriage in 1808 to Elizabeth Carlile of 
Sunnyhill, near Bolton, he resided at Clay- 
ton, where he was long remembered as ' a 
hospitable parish priest of the old high church 
type,' and as a singularly humane and bene- 
volent man. He died at his rectory on 15 Jan. 
1835, aged 69. 

[J. F. Smith's Manch. School Eeg. (Chetham 
Soc.), ii. 247 ; Notes and Queries, 1st ser. vii. 
393.] C. W. S. 

HALLIWELL, afterwards HALLI- 
(1820-1889), biographer of Shakespeare, born 
21 June 1820 at Sloane Street, Chelsea, was 
third and youngest son of Thomas Halliwell, 
a native of Chorley, Lancashire, who came to 
London about 1795 and prospered in business 
there. James was educated at private schools, 
and showed an aptitude for mathematics. 
When only fifteen he began to collect books 
and manuscripts, and contributed to 'The 
Parthenon' between November 1836 and 
January 1837 a series of lives of mathemati- 
cians. On 13 Nov. 1837 he matriculated 
at Trinity College, Cambridge, but removed 
in the following April to Jesus College, 
where he gained a mathematical prize and 
scholarship, and acted as librarian. He 
took little interest in ordinary academic 
studies, and spent much time in the Jesus 
College and the university libraries. He 

I 2 




came to know Thomas Wright [q. v.], his 
senior by ten years, who was still at Cam- 
bridge, and Wright aided him in his lite- 
rary projects, and introduced him to the 
library of his own college, Trinity. For 
many years the two friei-ds were closely as- 
sociated in various literary enterprises. In 
1838 appeared Halli well's first book, 'An 
Account of the Life and Inventions of Sir 
Samuel Morland ' (Cambridge, 8vo). In 
August of the same year he was staying at 
Oxford with Professor Rigaud, and corre- 
sponding with Joseph Hunter. Next year 
he wrote for the ' Companion to the British 
Almanac ' a paper on early calendars, which 
was reprinted in pamphlet form; published 
'A Few Hints to Novices in Manuscript Lite- 
rature ' (London, 1839, 8vo), and edited ' Sir 
John Mandeville's Travels ' (London, 1839, 
8vo). Halliwell afterwards claimed to be 
responsible only for the introduction to this 
edition of Mandeville, which has been often 

Halliwell's activity at so early an age at- 
tracted attention. Miss Agnes Strickland 
sought his acquaintance. He became inti- 
mate with William Jerdan, editor of the 
' Literary Gazette,' Charles Roach Smith, and 
Howard Staunton. On 14 Feb. 1839 he was 
elected a fellow of the Society of Antiquaries, 
and afterwards contributed many papers to 
the l Archgeologia.' On 30 May 1839, before 
reaching his nineteenth birthday, he was 
elected a fellow of the Royal Society an 
honour for which he was recommended by 
Baden Powell, Whewell, Sedgwick, Davies 
Gilbert, Sir Henry Ellis, and others. On the 
title-page of the books which he published in 
1840 he described himself as member also of 
the Astronomical and of ten antiquarian so- 
cieties on the continent of Europe and in 
America. In the autumn, after his election 
to the Royal Society, he catalogued the mis- 
cellaneous manuscripts in the Society's li- 
brary, and the catalogue was published in the 
following year. Early in 1840 he projected 
the Cambridge Antiquarian Society, of which 
he was the first secretary. But after Lent 
term he left Cambridge without a degree and 
settled with his father in London. He had 
at that date collected about 130 early manu- 
scripts, chiefly dealing with mathematics and 
astrology. He printed a catalogue, but was 
forced by pressure of creditors to sell the 
collection in 1840. 

In London he worked hard in the library 
of the British Museum, bought books and 
manuscripts, and found recreation in frequent 
visits to the theatre. In 1840 he prepared 
for the press ten works, and in 1841 thirteen. 
These included three tracts on the manuscript 

collections at Cambridge ; Sherwin's Latin 
history of Jesus College, Cambridge, dedi- 
cated to Joseph Hunter (1840) ; ' Rara Ma- 
thematica, or a Collection of Treatises on 
Mathematics, c., from ancient unedited 
MSS. ; ' and his earliest works on Shakespeare, 
of whom he wrote to Hunter, 15 Jan. 1842, 
' I grow fonder every day.' He was at the 
same time an energetic member of all the 
newly founded literary societies. For the 
Camden Society (established in 1838) he 
edited Warkworth's ' Chronicle' (1839), Ris- 
hanger's ' Chronicle ' (1840), Dee's ' Private 
Diary ' (1842), a selection of Simon Forman's 
papers (suppressed, but fifteen copies pre- 
served), 1843, and the * Thornton Romances ' 
(1844). All these works were printed from 
manuscripts not previously edited. On 10 Aug. 
1839 he addressed a letter to the president 
of the Camden Society, Lord Francis Eger- 
ton, urging him to confine the society's la- 
bours to the elucidation of early English 
history, and complaining of the taunts to 
which he had to submit on account of his 
youth. For the Percy Society, founded in 

1841 with a view to publishing ballad- 
literature, he edited the early naval bal- 
lads of England and two other volumes in 
1841 ; in 1842 < The Nursery Rhymes of Eng- 
land, collected principally from oral tradition,' 
which met at once with popular success, and 
seventeen other volumes between 1842 and 
1850. Nor were his services to the Shake- 
speare Society, founded in 1841, less con- 
spicuous. In 1841 he prepared for that society 
' Ludus Coventriee : a Collection of Mysteries 
formerly represented at Coventry,' and eight 
other volumes in subsequent years, besides 
many short essays contributed to the society's 
volumes of miscellaneous papers. He like- 
wise attempted in 1841 to start another lite- 
rary society on his own account, entitled the 
Historical Society of Science, for which he 
prepared a useful l collection of letters illus- 
trative of the progress of science in Eng- 
land from the reign of Elizabeth to that of 
Charles II,' but the society soon died. Nothing 
daunted, Halliwell began a periodical, ' The 
Archaeologist and Journal of Antiquarian 
Science/ of which he published, with the 
aid of Thomas Wright, ten numbers between 
September 1841 and June 1842. In 1841 and 

1842 he spent some time with Mr. James Hey- 
wood at Manchester preparing a catalogue 
of the manuscripts at the Chetham Library, 
which was published in the latter year. 

In 1841 Halliwell's archaeological zeal came 
to the notice of Sir Thomas Phillipps, the 
antiquary, to whom he dedicated, 20 Dec. 
1840, the first volume of a collection of 
' Scraps from Ancient MSS.,' entitled < Reli- 



quise Antiquae,' 1841 (prepared with Thomas 
Wright, and reissued in 1845). Phillipps in- 
vited him to his house at Middle Hill, Broad- 
way, Worcestershire, and Halliwell, soon a fre- 
quent guest there, fell in love with Phillipps's 
eldest daughter, Henrietta Elizabeth Moly- 
neux. Phillipps indignantly refused his con- 
sent to their marriage, but it took place despite 
his opposition at Broadway on 9 Aug. 1842. 
Phillipps never forgave either Halliwell or 
his daughter, and declined all further inter- 
course with them. The newly married pair, 
for many years in straitened circumstances, 
took up their residence first with Halliwell's 
father in London, and afterwards at Islip, Ox- 
fordshire, of which place Halliwell published 
a history in 1849. In 1844 a serious charge 
was brought against him. Several manu- 
scripts from his Cambridge collection were 
purchased about 1843 by the trustees of the 
British Museum from Kodd, the bookseller, 
to whom Halliwell had sold them in 1840. 
In 1844 it was discovered that many of these 
manuscripts had previously belonged to the 
library of Trinity College, Cambridge, and 
had been missing from that library for five or 
six years. That the manuscripts were abs- 
tracted from Trinity College admitted of no 
doubt, and Whewell, the master of Trinity 
College, demanded their restoration at the 
hands of the trustees of the British Museum. 
Sir Henry Ellis, the chief librarian of the 
Museum, began an investigation, and on 
10 Feb. 1845 issued an order forbidding 
Halliwell to enter the Museum until the sus- 
picions attaching to him were removed. After 
many threats of actions at law on the part of 
all the persons interested, the matter dropped; 
the manuscripts remained at the Museum ; 
but the order excluding Halliwell from the 
Museum was not rescinded. Halliwell as- 
serted in a privately printed pamphlet (1845) 
that he had bought the suspected manu- 
scripts at a shop in London, and his defence 
proved satisfactory to his friends. 

Meanwhile, besides his labours for literary 
societies, Halliwell produced ' Nugae Poeticaa ' 
from fifteenth-century manuscripts (1844) ; 
and Sir Simonds D'Ewes's ' Autobiography,' 
1845. In 1846 appeared his * Dictionary of 
Archaic and Provincial Words, Obsolete 
Phrases, Proverbs, and Ancient Customs from 
the Fourteenth Century' (London, 1846, 
8vo), a remarkable compilation for a man of 
six-and-twenty. It sold steadily from the 
first, and reached a tenth edition in 1881. In 
1848 he published, with a dedication to Miss 
Strickland, his valuable ' Letters of the Kings 
of England, now first collected,' 2 vols. 
From 1849 onwards he issued his reprints 
of ancient literature in very limited and pri- 

vately issued editions a practice which he 
frequently defended on the ground that the 
public interest in the subject was very small. 
Thus his ' Contributions to Early English 
Literature,' a collection of six rare tracts 
(1848-9), and his 'Literature of the Six- 
teenth and Seventeenth Centuries ' (reprints 
of eight rare tracts) in 1851, were in each 
case * strictly limited to seventy-five copies,' 
and in later life he reduced the number of his 
privately printed issues to twenty-five or even 
to ten copies, carefully destroying all others. 
For private circulation he also prepared from 
time to time accounts of his own collections : 
a catalogue of his chapbooks, garlands, and 
popular histories in 1849, a collection of Nor- 
folk ballads and tracts in 1852, and accounts 
of his theological manuscripts and ' Sydneian 
Literature ' in 1854. Of < a brief list ' of his 
rare books issued in 1862 he wrote that it 
contained ' more unique books than are to be 
found in the Capell collection or many a col- 
lege library.' In 1855 he published, at the 
expense of a relative, an orthodox essay on 
the ' Evidences of Christianity,' and started, 
with Wright, Robert Bell, and others, a 
publishing society called the ' Warton Club,' 
for which he prepared a volume of early 
English miscellanies in prose and verse, but 
the society soon disappeared. 

Halliwell was gradually concentrating his 
attention on the life of Shakespeare and the 
text of his works. In 1840 he laid the founda- 
tions, by a few purchases at George Chalmers's 
sale, of his unique Shakespearean library. In 
1841 he published 'An Introduction to the 
Midsummer Night's Dream,' an essay ' On the 
Character of Sir John Falstaff,' and ' Shake- 
speriana,' a catalogue of the early editions 
and commentaries. His labours for the 
Shakespeare Society had in the following 
years drawn him closer to the study, and in 
1848 he produced his l Life of William 
Shakespeare, including many particulars re- 
specting the poet and his family never before 
published.' For the last work he had begun 
about 1844 an exhaustive study of the re- 
cords at Stratford-on-Avon, and although he 
accepted as authentic J. P. Collier's forged 
documents, the biography is remarkable as 
the first that made any just use of the 
Stratford records. He subsequently rej ected 
Collier's alleged discoveries, and denounced 
the Perkins folio as a modern forgery (cf. 
pamphlets issued in 1852 and 1853). Halli- 
well s ' New Boke about Shakespeare and 
Stratford-on-Avon ' (1850) gave the results 
of further investigation at Stratford. He 
disclaimed all responsibility for an edition of 
Shakespeare's works, ' Tallis's Library Edi- 
tion' (London, 1850-3), with his name as 




editor on the title-page, which embodied some 
notes on the comedies contributed by him to 
an American edition in 1850. In 1852 he 
printed a catalogue of his Shakespearean col- 
lections, and in 1853 issued the first volume 
of his magnificently printed folio edition of 
Shakespeare, with notes, drawings, and com- 
plete critical apparatus, aiming, as he said, 
at ' a greater elaboration of Shakespearean 
criticism than has yet been attempted.' The 
edition was limited to 150 copies. F. W. 
Fairholt prepared the wood-engravings. The 
sixteenth and last volume appeared in 1865. 
The original price was 63/. with the plates 
on plain paper, and 84/. with plates on India 
paper. The edition is probably the richest 
storehouse extant of Shakespearean criticism. 
Another expensive enterprise was the private 
issue between 1862 and 1871 of lithographed 
facsimiles, by Mr. E. W. Ashbee, of the 
Shakespearean quartos in forty-eight volumes. 
The price of each volume was five guineas, 
and although fifty copies of the series were 
prepared, the editor destroyed nineteen, so 
that thirty-one alone survived. A fire in 
1874 at the Pantechnicon in Motcomb Street, 
Belgrave Square, the warehouse in London 
where unsold copies were stored, further re- 
duced the number of sets, and Halliwell, 
writing on 13 Feb. 1874, was of opinion that 
only fifteen complete sets were then in exist- 
ence. Other valuable works produced by 
Halliwell about the same time were his new 
edition of Nares's ' Glossary/ with the aid of 
Thomas Wright (1859), and his ' Dictionary 
of Old English Plays ' based on Baker's ' Bio- 
graphia Dramatica ' in 1860. 

Halliwell's income was still small, and he 
was involved in lawsuits which caused him 
repeated pecuniary losses. But he was able 
to remove about 1852 to Brixton Hill, and 
subsequently to West Brompton. An insati- 
able collector of rare books and manuscripts 
to the end of his life, the work of collecting 
grew more expensive every year. In youth 
he found rare volumes ' plenty as blackberries ' 
on the outside stalls of old bookshops, pro- 
curable for a few pence or shillings ; but com- 
petition drove the prices up, and it was with 
increasing difficulty that he was able to satisfy 
his special affection for the early editions of 
Shakespeare's works. He often found it 
necessary to sell his collections by auction, 
and to begin his task of collecting anew. 
Every year between 1856 and 1859 Messrs. 
Sotheby sold for him many rare volumes 
which he had used in editing his folio Shake- 
speare, and which included some of the least 
accessible of the quartos. In 1857 the sale 
lasted three days, and very high prices were 
realised. In 1858 the British Museum pur- 

chased his mortgage deed of a house in Black- 
friars (11 March 1612-13), which contains 
one of the few genuine signatures of Shake- 
speare. In 1867 the death of his father-in- 
law placed his wife, under her grandfather's 
will, in possession of the Worcestershire 
estates, in which Sir Thomas Phillipps had 
only a life-interest, and he was thenceforth 
able to indulge his passion as a collector with 
less difficulty. 

In 1862 Halliwell,who had long paid annual 
visits for purposes of research to Stratford, 
arranged without fee the majority of the re- 
cords preserved there. In 1863 he published 
privately, and at his own expense, a full de- 
scriptive calendar of the archives, which he 
had put in order. In 1864 he issued an ex- 
haustive history from legal documents of 
New Place, Shakespeare's last residence at 
Stratford, and ' Stratford-on-Avon in the 
times of the Shakespeares, illustrated by ex- 
tracts from the council-books,' &c., with en- 
graved facsimiles of the original entries. 
Very limited imprints followed of the cham- 
berlain's accounts (1585-1616), of the vestry 
books, of the council books, and of the archives 
of the court of record at Stratford in Shake- 
speare's time. 

In 1863 Halliwell initiated at Stratford the 
movement for purchasing the house and cot- 
tages then standing on the sites of Shake- 
speare's residence, New Place, and of the 
garden originally attached to it, with a view 
to making them over to the Stratford corpora- 
tion . For this purpose he raised 5,000/. , con- 
tributing largely himself, and paying all the 
expenses connected with the movement out 
of his own purse. The house is now a Shake- 
spearean museum, and the ground around it 
has been cleared, so as to form a public gar- 
den. In 1863-4 he and William Hepworth 
Dixon acted as joint-secretaries of the com- 
mittee formed to celebrate at Stratford the 
tercentenary of Shakespeare's birth. 

In 1870 Halliwell abandoned the critical 
study of the text of Shakespeare, and hence- 
forth devoted himself exclusively to eluci- 
dating Shakespeare's life. In 1874 appeared 
a first part of his ' Illustrations of the Life/ 
which included a number of documents and 
discursive, although exhaustive, notes on 
various topics. This work remained a frag- 
ment, but he pursued his investigations, and 
examined in the next five years the archives 
of thirty-two towns besides Stratford, in the 
hope of discovering new information respect- 
ing Shakespeare's life. In 1881 he ' printed 
for the author's friends ' the first version of 
his ' Outlines of the Life of Shakespeare/ an 
octavo volume of 192 pages. A second edi- 
tion, issued for general circulation in 1882, 




extended to 700 pages, the third, in 1883, 
to 786 pages. In 1884 it reappeared in two 
quarto volumes, and the latest edition (1887) 
issued in his lifetime had grown to 848 pages. 
In this book, which in its final forms is 
lavishly illustrated, and was sold at a price 
below its cost, Halliwell incorporated all the 
facts and documents likely to throw any light 
on Shakespeare's biography or the history of 
the playhouses with which he was connected. 
Until his death he continued to work on the 
subject. One of his latest publications was an 
account of the visits paid by Elizabethan actors 
to country towns, the result of personal ex- 
plorations in the muniment-rooms of nearly 
seventy English towns. 

In 1872 Halliwell's wife met with an acci- 
dent while riding, which ultimately led to 
softening of the brain. He thereupon as- 
sumed by royal letters patent the additional 
surname of Phillipps, and took the manage- 
ment of her Worcestershire property. He 
improved the estates, although he soon sold 
the greater part of them. His wife died on 
25 March 1879, and he married soon after- 
wards Mary Rice, daughter of James William 
Hobbs, esq., solicitor, of Stratford-on-Avon. 
In 1877-8 he purchased a plot of ground 
(about fourteen acres), known as Holling- 
foury Copse, on the Downs near Brighton, on 
which he intended to erect a large dwelling- 
house. But while the plans were unsettled 
he set up a wooden bungalow, and, finally 
abandoning his notion of a more ambitious 
building, added from time to time a number 
of rooms, galleries, and outhouses, all of wood 
with an outer casing of sheet-iron. Thither 
he removed from his London house at Bromp- 
ton his chief collections, the greater part of 
which he had acquired since 1872, and to 
which he was adding year by year. In 1887 
lie printed a calendar of the most valuable 
contents, which included a copy of Droeshout's 
portrait of Shakespeare in its original proof 
state before altered to the form in which it 
was published in 1623, and the original con- 
veyance of Shakespeare's Blackfriars estate in 
1613, besides a valuable series of sketches of 
Stratford and its neighbourhood, made at 
Halliwell's expense by J. T. Blight, F.S. A., of 
Penzance, between 1*862 and 1868. At Hol- 
lingbury for the last ten years of his life he dis- 
pensed a lavish and genial hospitality, warmly 
welcoming any one who sympathised with his 
tastes at any point, but working hard each 
morning from five o'clock till noon. Many 
notes on Shakespeare and his works he printed 
4 for presents only ' up to his death. In one 
pamphlet (1880), entitled 'New Lamps or 
Old,' he strenuously argued that manuscript 
evidence favoured the spelling of the drama- 

tist's name as ' Shakespeare ' and not ' Shak- 
spere/ His last literary work was to prepare 
for private circulation ' A Letter to Professor 
Karl Elze,' politely deprecating some of the 
i criticisms which Elze had bestowed on his 
j own views in a newly published translation 
of the professor's biography of Shakespeare 
j The letter is dated 19 Dec. 1888. Halliwell 
i was taken ill on the following Christmas day, 
j and died on 3 Jan. 1889, aged 69, being buried 
, on the 9th in Patcham churchyard, near his 
residence. His second wife, with three daugh- 
ters by his first wife, survived him. 

As the biographer of Shakespeare Halli- 
well deserves well of his country, and his 
results may for the most part be regarded as 
i final. The few errors detected in his tran- 
scription of documents do not detract from 
the value of his labours. The testing of tra- 
I ditions about Shakespeare and his works, the 
I accumulation . of every kind of evidence 
j legal documents, books, manuscripts, draw- 
ings likely to throw light on the most re- 
mote corners of his subject, became the passion 
of his later years, and as he advanced in life 
his methods grew more thorough and ex- 
haustive. His interest in aesthetic or textual 
criticism of Shakespeare gradually declined, 
until he abandoned both with something like 
contempt. Halliwell's earlier labours as a 
lexicographer and editor prove that he at- 
tempted too much to do all well. Richard 
Garnett [q. v.], in the ' Quarterly Review ' 
for March 1848, in an article on ' Antiquarian 
Club-books,' showed that his linguistic at- 
tainments and his skill in deciphering manu- 
scripts were often at fault. Mr. J. R. Lowell 
(cf. My Study Windows) pointed out the de- 
fective scholarship displayed in Halliwell's 
edition of Marston (1856). But little of the 
enormous mass of his publications is useless 
to the students whose interests he wished to 
serve. He gave his privately printed volumes 
freely to any one to whom he believed they 
would be serviceable ; offered to all able to 
profit by it the readiest access to his library, 
and liberally encouraged the work of younger 
men in his own subject. For the declining 
days of his fellow- worker, Thomas Wright, 
who died in 1877 after some years of mental 
failure, he helped to make provision. Nor 
was he less generous to public institutions. 
As early as 1851, when his private resources 
were small, he presented 3,100 proclama- 
tions, broadsides, ballads, and poems to the 
Chetham Library, Manchester. In October 
1852 he gave to the Smithsonian Institute, 
Washington, * a collection of several thou- 
sand bills, accounts, and inventories illus- 
trating the history of prices between 1650 
and 1750.' Of both of these gifts he printed a 




catalogue. From 1860 onward he spent seve- 
ral summer holidays at Penzance, and, liking 
the place and people, he made between 1866 
and 1888, important additions to the town 
library. His first present consisted of three 
hundred volumes of Restoration literature, 
and ultimately 1,764 books were received. 
They are kept in a compartment by them- 
selves, and a separate catalogue was printed 
in 1880. The freedom of the borough of Pen- 
zance was offered him in 1884, but he was 
unable to visit the to *vn, and it was never con- 
ferred. To the library of Edinburgh Univer- 
sity he presented in 1872 a valuable Shake- 
spearean library. The honorary degree of 
LL.D. was granted him by Edinburgh Uni- 
versity in 1883. 

Halliwell, as far as he could, avoided con- 
troversy. For a time he was deceived by J. P. 
Collier's forgeries respecting Shakespeare, but 
in 1853 he convinced himself of the truth, 
and in his ( Observations on the Shakespearean 
Forgeries at Bridgwater House ' pointed out 
as considerately as possible the need of a care- 
ful scrutiny of all the documents which Col- 
lier had printed. From the first he expressed 
his suspicion of the Perkins folio, but as- 
sumed that Collier was himself the innocent 
victim of deception, and always chivalrously 
defended Collier's memory from the worst 
aspersions cast upon it. In 1880 Mr. Swin- 
burne dedicated to Halliwell in admiring 
terms his f Study of Shakspere.' Thereupon 
in 1881 Dr. Furnivall, director of the New 
Shakspere Society, who was engaged at the 
time in a warm controversy with Mr. Swin- 
burne, severely attacked Halliwell in the 
notes to a facsimile reproduction of the Ham- 
let quarto of 1604. Halliwell sent letters of 
remonstrance to Robert Browning, the presi- 
dent of the New Shakspere Society, who de- 
clined to interfere, but Halliwell printed the 
correspondence, and some eminent members 
of the New Shakspere Society withdrew. 
A more distressing difference arose in 1884 
between Halliwell and the corporation of 
Stratford-on-Avon. A committee was ap- 
pointed to calendar certain documents with 
which he had failed to deal when arranging 
the archives in 1863, and he regarded this 
action as a reflection on himself. At the 
same time he offered to prepare autotypes of 
the more valuable Shakespearean documents 
at his own expense, but a dispute arose as to 
the authority which he claimed to exercise 
over the archives, and after charging the cor- 
poration with ingratitude and discourtesy he 
left the town for ever, and revoked the be- 
quest of his collections to its corporation. 
He published six editions of a pamphlet 
giving his account of the quarrel. A case, 

presented by Halliwell to the Birthplace 
Museum in 1872 on condition that it should 
not be opened until his death, was unlocked 
on 14 Feb. 1889, and was found to contain. 
189 volumes of manuscript notes and corre- 
spondence, and pamphlets chiefly dealing with. 
Halliwell's folio Shakespeare. 

Under his will more than three hundred 
volumes of his literary correspondence, from 
which- he ' eliminated everything that could 
give pain and annoyance to any person/ were 
left, with many books, manuscripts, and pri- 
vate papers, to the library of Edinburgh Uni- 
versity. His electro-plates and wood-blocks 
he gave to the Shakspere Society of New 
York. His chief Shakespearean collections 
(originally destined for Stratford-on-Avon) 
were to be offered to the Birmingham cor- 
poration for 7,000/. ; if this offer were not 
accepted they were to be sold undivided for 
10,000 /., and if no buyer came forward within, 
twelve years the whole was to be sold by 
auction in a single lot. The Birmingham cor- 
poration declined the offer, and the collec- 
tions are still unsold. The residue of the 
library was left, with trifling reservations, to 
Halliwell's nephew and executor, Mr. E. E. 
Baker of Weston-super-Mare, who sold the- 
chief portion by auction in London in June; 

[Information from Halliwell's brother, the- 
Rev. Thomas Halliwell of Brighton, and from* 
friends; personal knowledge; Daily News, 4 Jan.. 
1889 ; Manchester Guardian, 5 Jan. 1889 ; Brigh- 
ton Herald, 5 Jan. 1889; Athenseum, 12 Jan.. 
1889 ; Birmingham Daily Gazette, 14 Jan. 1889 - r 
Halliwelliana, a Bibliography of the Publica- 
tions of James Orchard Halliwell-Phillipps, by 
Justin Winsor (Cambridge, Mass.,1 88 1 ) ; C. Roack 
Smith's Retrospections ; Halliwell's privately 
printed Statements in Answer to Reports, 1845;. 
his pamphlets respecting Dr. Furnivall's remarks- 
(1881) and the quarrel with the Stratford cor- 
poration (1883-6), and the accounts (privately- 
printed) of his own collections, especially thafc 
of 1887 ; Brit. Mus. Cat. Some early letters from. 
Halliwell to Joseph Hunter and others are pre- 
served in Brit. Mus. Addit. MSS. 24869 ff. 3-1 2,. 
28510 ff. 185-7, and 28670 ff. 4-6.] S. L. L. 

LAWRENCE HYNES (1766-1831), mis- 
cellaneous writer, ' apparently a native of Ire- 
land,' was born in 1766. He became master 
of an academy at Alphington, near Exeter,. 
where he had as pupil the future master of 
the rolls, Lord Gifford. Here he published 
'Odes, Poems, and Translations/ 1790, and 
1 Poems on Various Occasions,' 1791. These- 
include a variety of subjects, as ' Ode on His- 
Majesty's Birthday,' f Animal Magnetism/ 
' Anna/ * Extempore Effusion to the Memory 




of an Infant/ ' Elegy under a Gallows,' &c., 
' Ode on the proposed Visit of their Majesties 
to the City of Exeter/ 1791. A few years 
after Halloran was a chaplain in the royal 
navy. He published a charity sermon for 
19 Dec. 1797, in celebration of the naval vic- 
tories. He was chaplain on board the Bri- 
tannia, the vessel which carried the flag of 
Admiral the Earl of Northesk, third in com- 
mand at the battle of Trafalgar. During the 
engagement Halloran, who had a very loud 
and clear voice, stood beside the commander 
and repeated the word of command through 
a speaking-trumpet after him. He soon pub- 
lished ' A Sermon on Occasion of the Victory 
off Trafalgar, delivered on board H.M.S. 
Britannia at Sea, 3 November 1805/ and 
'The Battle of Trafalgar, a poem/ 1806. 
He was afterwards appointed rector of the 
public grammar school, Cape Town, and chap- 
lain to the forces in South Africa. Here in 
1810 a duel took place between two officers. 
A court-martial was held on the parties 
engaged in the affair. Halloran warmly es- 
poused the cause of the accused and wrote 
their defence. Lieutenant-general the Hon. 
H. G. Grey, considering that his interference 
was improper, ordered him to remove to 
Simon's Town. Rather than do this he re- 
signed his chaplaincy, but revenged himself 
by publishing a satire, ' Cap- Abilities, or 
South African Characteristics/ 1811. There- 
upon the governor of the colony, the Earl 
of Caledon, ordered a criminal prosecution 
to be commenced against him. He was found 
guilty, was condemned in costs, and was 
banished the colony (Proceedings, including 
Original Correspondence, fyc., at the Cape of 
Good Hope, in a Criminal Process for a Libel 
instituted at the Suit of Lieut. -Gen. the Hon. 
H. G. Grey, by order of the Earl of Caledon, 
Governor of the Colony, 1811). He now re- 
turned to England, where, preaching and 
teaching, he led a somewhat erratic life. 
He styled himself a doctor in divinity. He 
introduced himself at Bath to the Rev.Richard 
Warner, who describes him as of ( striking but 
not prepossessing appearance.' Warner, how- 
ever, employed him for some time till he heard 
rumours that he was an impostor. Halloran, 
being asked for proof of the position he as- 
sumed, could only produce papers for deacon's 
orders ; those relating to priest's ordination and 
doctor's degree had (he said) been mislaid by 
a maid-servant. They were never produced, 
and Halloran soon after left Bath to resume 
his wandering life. 

In 1818 he was charged at the Old Bailey 
with having forged a frank, by which the re- 
venue was cheated of tenpence, on a letter 
addressed to the rector whose church he was 

serving. 'He persisted in pleading guilty,, 
because, he said, the only person who could 
establish his innocence was dead/ and added 
' that the charge would not have been brought 
against him but for a subsequent quarrel with 
his rector.' He was sentenced to seven years' 
transportation. The reporter, who calls him r 
apparently without suspicion, ' a Doctor of 
Divinity/ adds that ' he has a large family ' 
(Gent. Mag. 1818, ii. 462). He subsequently 
established a school at Sydney, New South, 
Wales, which he conducted very successfully. 
He died there 8 March 1831. 

Besides the works noted Halloran wrote : 
1. 'Lacrymse Hibernicse, or the Genius of 
Erin's Complaint, a ballad/ 1801. 2. 'The- 
Female Volunteer ' (a drama under the name 
of ' Philo-Nauticus '), 1801. 3. ' Stanzas of 
affectionate regard to the Memory of Capt_ 
Dawson of the Piedmontaise/ 1812. 

[Gent. Mag. 1831, ii. 476-7, December 1831 
p. 482; Diet, of Living Authors, 1816; Kev.. 
Richard Warner's Literary Eecollections, 1830, 
ii. 292-8; Notes and Queries, 2nd ser. ix. 165 ; 
A. J. Hewitt's Sketches of English Church Hist, 
in South Africa.] F. W-T. 

1834), admiral.] 

HALLS, JOHN JAMES (/.1791-1834),, 

painter, a native of Colchester, was christened 
by his father after Jean-Jacques Rousseau. 
He was nephew through his mother of Dr. 
John Garnett, dean of Exeter. He exhibited a, 
landscape at the Royal Academy in 1791, and 
about 1797 settled as a professional artist in. 
London. He exhibited in 1798 ' Fingal as- 
saulting the Spirit of Loda/ in 1799 ' Zephyr 
and Aurora/ and in 1800 'Creon finding 
Heemon and Antigone in the Cave.' Subse- 
quently he chiefly devoted himself to portrait- 
painting, but he occasionally attempted am- 
bitious subjects, like 'Lot's Wife' (1802),. 
Hero and Leander ' (1808), and <Danae r 
(1811). A large picture (exhibited at the; 
British Institution in 1813) of * Christ raising 
the Daughter of Jairus/ which won a premium, 
of two hundred guineas, was much admired 
by contemporary amateurs, but has not main- 
tained its reputation ; it is now in the church 
of St. Peter at Colchester. His most suc- 
cessful effort was 'A Witch "but in a 
sieve I'll thither sail" from Macbeth/ which 
was finely engraved in mezzotint by C.Turner 
in 1807. In 1802 he accompanied Henry 
Fuseli, R.A. [q. v.], and others to Paris to 
study the collections brought together by 
Napoleon. Halls completed in 1813 a stained- 
glass window for Lichfield Cathedral, a com- 
mission which he obtained through his in- 




timate friend, Henry Salt, F.R.S. [q. v.],the 
famous Egyptian consul and explorer. Halls 
interested himself deeply in Egyptian and 
Abyssinian expeditions. In 1831 he edited 
'The Life and Adventures of Nathaniel 
Pearce,' from the latter's own journals in 
Abyssinia, and in 1834, * The Life and Cor- 
respondence of Henry Salt, F.R.S./ to which 
is prefixed a portrait of Salt, painted by him- 
self, and engraved by S. Freeman. A full- 
length portrait of Charles Kean as Richard III 
by Halls was engraved in mezzotint by 
Charles Turner. A portrait of Lord Den- 
man by Halls, exhibited at the Royal Aca- 
demy in 1819, is now in the National Por- 
trait Gallery. 

[Life of Henry Salt; Redgrave's Diet, of 
Artists; Graves's Diet, of Artists, 1760-1880; 
Knowles's Life of Fuseli; Royal Academy 
Catalogues.] L. C. 


1750-1790), engraver, a native of Ireland, 
worked in Dublin, and was principally en- 
gaged in engraving frontispieces and vig- 
nettes for the booksellers there. He executed 
JRocque's * Survey of Dublin in Parishes,' 
1757, the geometrical elevation of the parlia- 
ment house, 1767, and also engraved a por- 
trait of Dr. Charles Lucas, after T. Hickey. 
He resided in Blackamoor Yard, and was for 
some years the only native line-engraver in 

1780), son of the above, was a pupil of F. R. 
West and J. J.Barralet, and contributed some 
drawings after these artists to the exhibition 
of the Society of Artists in Ireland held in 
Dublin in 1780. He painted miniatures in 
Dublin and London. After a short trial of 
the theatrical profession (he appeared at the 
Crow Street Theatre, Dublin) he resumed 
painting in London. 

[Dodd's MS. Hist, of English Engravers 
(Brit. Mus. Addit. MS. 33401); A. Pasquin's 
Artists of Ireland ; Gilbert's Hist, of Dublin, ii. 
332.] L. C. 

GRAHAM (1829-1868), a writer under the 
name of MILES O'REILLY, born at Oldcastle, 
co. Meath, 20 Nov. 1829, was son of the 
Rev. Nicholas John Halpin [q. v.] He was 
educated at Trinity College, Dublin, until 
1846, was originally intended for the medi- 
cal profession, but he preferred the law, and 
in his leisure wrote for the press. The sud- 
den death of his father and his own early 
marriage compelled him to adopt journalism 
as a profession. In 1851 he emigrated to Ame- 
rica, and took up his residence at Boston, 
where he became assistant editor of the ' Bos- 

ton Post,' and, with Benjamin P. Shillaber, 
commenced a humorous journal called ' The 
Carpet Bag,' which was unsuccessful. He 
afterwards resided at Washington, where he 
acted as the correspondent of the ' New 
York Times.' Removing to New York he 
secured employment on the ' Herald,' and 
in a few months established relations with 
several periodicals. He undertook a great 
variety of literary work, most of which was 
entirely ephemeral. He next became asso- 
ciate editor of the ' New York Times,' for 
which paper in 1855 and 1856 he wrote the 
Nicaragua correspondence at the time of 
William Walker's filibustering expedition. 
In 1857 he became principal editor and part 
proprietor of the New York ' Leader,' which 
inder his management rapidly increased in 
circulation. At the beginning of the civil 
war in April 1861 he enlisted in the 69th 
New York infantry, in which he was soon 
elected a lieutenant, and served during the 
three months for which he had volunteered. 
He was then transferred to General David 
Hunter's staff as assistant-adjutant-general 
with the rank of major, and soon after went 
with that officer to Missouri to relieve Gene- 
ral John Charles Fremont. He accompanied 
General Hunter to Hilton Head, and while 
there wrote a series of burlesque poems in the 
assumed character of an Irish private. Seve- 
ral o f them were contributed to the * New York 
Herald 7 in 1862 under the pseudonym of 
Miles O'Reilly/ and with additional articles 
were issued in two volumes entitled ' Life and 
Adventures, Songs, Services, and Speeches 
of Private Miles O'Reilly, 47th Regiment 
New York Volunteers/ 1864, and * Baked 
Meats of the Funeral, a Collection of Essays, 
Poems, Speeches, and Banquets, by Private 
Miles O'Reilly, late of the 47th Regiment 
New York Volunteer Infantry, 10th Army 
Corps. Collected, revised, and edited, with 
the requisite corrections of punctuation, 
spelling, and grammar, by an Ex-Colonel of 
the Adjutant-General's Department, with 
whom the Private formerly served as Lance- 
Corporal of Orderlies/ 1866. Halpine was 
subsequently assistant-adjutant-general on 
General Henry W. Halleck's staff with the 
rank of colonel in 1862, and accompanied 
General Hunter on his expedition to the 
Shenandoah valley in the spring of 1864. 
On his return to New York he resigned his 
commission in consequence of his bad eye- 
sight, receiving the brevet of brigadier-gene- 
ral of volunteers. He then made New York 

association to advocate reforms in the civil 




administration of New York city. In 1867 
he was elected registrar of the county of New 
York by a coalition of republicans and demo- 
crats. Incessant labour brought on insomnia. 
He had recourse to opiates, and his death in 
New York city on 3 Aug. 1868 was caused 
by an undiluted dose of chloroform. Besides 
the books above mentioned he was the author 
of ' Lyrics by the Letter H,' 1854. 

[The Poetical Works of Charles G. Halpine, 
ed. by K. B. Eoosevelt, 1869, with portrait; 
Appleton's Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 
1887, iii. 53 ; Matthew Hale Smith's Sunshine 
and Shade in New York, 1868, pp. 659-61.] 

G. C. B. 

1850), miscellaneous writer, was born 18 Oct. 
1790 atTortarlington. After a distinguished 
career at Dublin University, where he pro- 
ceeded B.A. in 1815, he took orders in the 
Irish church, but devoted himself largely to 
literary pursuits, and was for many years 
editor of the ' Evening Mail,' the chief pro- 
testant paper of Dublin. He was a permanent 
member of the Royal Irish Academy. He 
died at Dublin 22 Nov. 1850. He married in 
1817 Anne Grehan, who, together with three 
sons and four daughters, survived him ; of 
the former, Charles Graham is noticed sepa- 

Halpin wrote: 1. 'An University Prize 
Poem, on His Majesty King George the Third 
having completed the Fiftieth Year of his 
Reign,' Dublin, 1811. 2. 'Tithes no Tax,' 
Dublin, 1823. 3. ' Authentic Report of the 
Speeches and Proceedings of the Meeting 
held at Cavan 26 January 1827, for the pur- 
pose of forming a Society for Promoting the 
Reformation, to which are added Notes and 
Appendix/ edited Dublin, 1827. 4. < The Im- 
possibility of Transubstantiation.' 5. ' No 
Chimaera, or the Lay Reformation in Ireland,' 
Dublin, 1828. 6. 'Oberon's Vision in the 
"Midsummer Night's Dream," illustrated by 
a comparison with Lylie's " Endymion,"' Lon- 
don, Shakespeare Society, 1843, an attempt 
to prove that Shakespeare was covertly re- 
ferring to current events connected with 
Queen Elizabeth and Leicester. 7. ' Bridal 
Runaway, an Essay on Juliet's Soliloquy,' 
London, Shakespeare Society, 1845. 8. ' The 
Dramatic Unities of Shakespeare, in a Letter 
addressed to the editor of "Blackwood's Edin- 
burgh [Magazine,"' Dublin, 1849. 9.' Obser- 
vations on Certain Passages in the Life of 
Edmund Spenser,' Dublin, 1850. 

[Gent. Mag. August 1851, p. 212; Cat, of 
Dublin Graduates.] F. W-T. 

HALS, WILLIAM (1655-1737?), com- 
piler of the l History of Cornwall,' was born 
at Tresawen, Merther, in 1655. He was the 

second son of James Hals of Fentongollan 
and Anne, daughter of John Martin of Hur- 
ston, Devonshire. James Hals was son of 
Sir Nicholas Halse [q. v.], and served at 
La Rochelle in 1628, and afterwards in the 
West Indies, where, according to his son, he 
was governor of Montserrat ; during the civil 
war he sided with the parliament. When 
living at Fentongollan in St. Michael Pen- 
kivel, Hals began about 1685 to make collec- 
tions for a ' Parochial History of Cornwall,' 
which he continued for half a century, bring- 
ing it down to 1736. He died in 1737 or 
1739 at Tregury, St. Wenn, of which he 
owned the rectorial tithes, having nearly 
completed the work. He married thrice, his 
wives belonging respectively to the families 
of Evans of Landrini in Wales, Carveth of 
Pewansand, and Courtney of Tremeer, but 
he had no issue (Parochial Hist, of Cornwall, 
1870, iii. 323-6). 

About 1750 Andrew Brice of Exeter [q. v.] 
published in ten folio numbers Hals's ' Com- 
plete History of Cornwall, Part II being the 
Parochial History/ containing accounts of 
seventy-two parishes, Advent to Helston. 
The first part was never published. Hence 
there is no general title-page. On the printed 
wrapper of the first number of the published 
second part it is stated that the work was 
to have been completed in one volume of 
two hundred sheets, to be delivered in weekly 
Qd. numbers of four sheets each ; the second 
part was commenced first, ' not only because 
the proper necessaries for the first part are 
not yet completed, but as considerable ad- 
ditions are preparing by a very great hand.' 
It is believed that the scurrilous details in- 
serted by Hals caused a discontinuance of the 
publication. Hals's incomplete 'History' is 
very rare. The most complete copy is in the 
Grenville Library at the British Museum. A 
note in that copy states that at Lysons's 
sale in 1828 his copy with manuscript addi- 
tions was sold to the Earl of Aylesbury for 
108/. (168/. BOASE and COTTKTNEY, i. 204). The 
' Parochial History of Cornwall ' [see GIL- 
BEET, DAVIES] was founded upon the collec- 
tions of Hals, with additional collections by 
Thomas Tonkins. Hals's digressions and 
gossip are chiefly omitted. The manuscripts 
of Hals's l History ' passed through various 
hands, and belonged at one time to Dr. Whit- 
aker. They were given by Whitaker's daugh- 
ter, Mrs. Taunton, to H. S. Stokes of Bodmin, 
Cornwall. Mr. Stokes transferred them to 
Sir John Macleane, from whom they were 
acquired in 1875 for the British Museum 
(Addit. MS. 29762). The British Museum 
possesses other manuscripts by Hals, viz. : 
(1) < The History of St. Michael's Mount ; ' 




(2) 'An Latirner ayKernow, a Dictionary of 
the Cornish Language ; ' (3) an amended tran- 
script of Keigwin's ' Mount Calvary/ 1679- 
1680 (Addit. MS. 28554, ff. 51-8). 

[Boase and Courtney's Bibl. Cornub. 1874, i. 
204, iii. 1214; Pol whole's Hist, of Cornwall, 1806, 
v. 203 ; D. Gilbert's Parochial Hist, of Cornwall, 
passim; Notes and Queries, 3rd ser. xii. 22; 
Gent. Mag. 1790 pt. ii. pp. 608, 711, 1791 pt. i. 
p. 32 ; . Lo-wndes's Bibl. Man. 1858, i. 525; 
Lysons's Magna Britannia, 1814, cv. 2 ; H.Meri- 
vale's Historical Studies, 1865, p. 357; Journal 
of Brit. Archaeol. Assoc. xxxiii. 37; information 
from Mr. Stokes; see also note in Mr. Stokes's 
Voyage of Arundel.] N. D. F. P. 

HALSE, SIB NICHOLAS (d. 1636), in- 
ventor, was the son of John Halse or Halsey 
of Efford, near Plymouth. He acquired con- 
siderable property in Cornwall during the 
reign of Elizabeth, was knighted by James I 
at Greenwich 22 May 1605 (METCALFE, Book 
of Knights, p. 155), and in 1608 was made 
governor of Pendennis Castle, in which capa- 
city he approved of the foundation of the 
town of Falmouth, and at the request of the 
council gave his reasons (GILBEKT, ii. 9, 10). 
In 1608 and 1609 he addressed two discourses 
to James I on the Dutch fisheries on the 
English coast (Cal. State Papers, Dom. 1603- 
1610, pp. 426, 529). Halse was the inventor of 
a new mode of drying malt and hops by means 
of iron plates, ' without the annoyance of 
smoke,' and James I, in acknowledgment of 
his public merit, granted him 'the benefit 
of all salt marshes won from the seas in Ire- 
land ' (ib. 1634, pp. 390, 391). His name occurs 
many times as a petitioner to Charles I in 
1634, 1635, and 1636 in connection with his 
invention, and also in connection with some 
proposals of his whereby his majesty might 
gain money to replenish the treasury and sup- 
plement the tax of ship-money which was 
then being levied. He prays King Charles ' to 
employ the first seven years' profit of the 
writer's invention of kilns for sweet-drying 
malt without touch of smoke.' He suggests 
further that Charles should undertake to go- 
vern the Low Countries on behalf of the king 
of Spain, on consideration of an annual pay- 
ment of 2,000,0007. by the latter, especially 
as the * Hollanders ' had already become un- 
grateful and insolent to the English, and if not 
checked might soon keep the Newcastle coals 
from coming to London, and entirely deprive 
this country of the supply of cables, cordage, 
and other such matters. In another petition 
(ib. 1635-6, p. 34), Halse estimates that his 
invention would save London alone 40,000/. 
yearly in wood and fuel, or 400,0007. for all 
England and Ireland. In the following year, 
accordingly, an order dated Hampton Court, 

11 June, directs that ' malt-kilns erected by 

ceased/ petitioned the king ' to take order 
for vacating all patents in prejudice to the 
grant to Sir N. Halse for the sole use of his 
new invented kilns.' During the same year, 
a commission was appointed, dated 2 June, 
' to enquire whether Nicholas Page, clerk, or 
Sir Nicholas Halse was the first inventor of 
certaine kilns for the drying of malt ; ' and 
subsequent entries in the ' State Papers Col- 
lection ' (e.g. under 27 April) seem to esta- 
blish the claims of the assigns of Halse. 

Halse married Grace, daughter of Sir John 
Arundell of Tolverne, and had by her four 
sons : John ; William, who was a captain in 
the navy and served in the expedition to La 
Rochelle in 1628 ; Richard, who was purser 
of the king's ship S. Claude ; and James, who 
was father of William Hals [q. v.] Halse is- 
sometimes called Hall and sometimes Hales ; 
his sons appear in the * State Papers' as Hals. 

The most interesting relic of Halse is a. 
small manuscript volume in the ' Egerton 
Collection ' entitled l Great Britain's Trea- 
sure, unto the sacred majestie of the great 
and mightie monarch Charles the first of 
England, Scotland, France, and Ireland king, 
most humbly presenteth Francis Stewart 
by whose loyall care the subsequent treatises- 
have been painefully recollected out of the 
old papers and fragments of that worthy and 
lately deceased knight, your Majestie's faith- 
full and ingenuous servant, Sir Nicolas Halse, 
anno Domini 1636.' The treatises, five in 
number, are written in a beautiful Old Eng- 
lish character, and inscribed outside, ' Tibi 
soli O Rex Charissime.' The contents refer 
mainly to various revenues, giving Halse's- 
estimate of the amount realised, and certain 
improvements that could be effected on behalf 
of the crown. King Charles is advised to 
increase his income ' by ordaining, after the: 
example of the King of France, that all 
foraigne shipps shall pay 15s. for eache tun r 
on landing. Another proposal is to grant ' a 
Lease of 21 years of your Majesty's fishing 
unto the Hollenders.' One treatise suggests 
the ' coynage of Mundick and sinder Tinne f 
instead of the copper then current ; but per- 
haps the most ingenious proposal for improv- 
ing matters was the conversion ' of 100,000 
sturdie vagabonds and idle beggars' into 
' laborious and industrious tradesmen in the 
fishing craft.' The book consists of 114 
pages, followed by about forty unpaged, which 
contain an 'Epilogue/ several statistical 
notes, and a Medulla or abstract of the topics 




[Davies Gilbert's Parochial History of Corn- 
wall, passim; Boase and Courtney's Bibl. Cornub. 
i. 204, iii. 1215 ; Egerton MS. 1140; Cal. State 
Papers, Dom. 1634-9 ; Patent No. 85.1 

K. E. A. 

DANIEL, D.D., LL.D. (1558P-1695?), clas- 
sical scholar, born in Yorkshire in or about 
1558, arrived from England at the English- 
College of Douay, then temporarily removed 
to Rheims, on 22 June 1580, and was sent in 
the same year with a number of other stu- 
dents to the English College at Rome, into 
which he was admitted on 9 Sept. He was 
ordained priest by Thomas Goldwell [q. v.], 
bishop of St. Asaph in the reign of Queen 
Mary, in October 1583. He remained in the 
college till September 1586, and was one of 
those who petitioned for the retention of the 
Society of Jesus in the management of the 
college. When he left he was sent with 
others to collect alms for the Rheims college, 
and it was intended that he should afterwards 
proceed to the English mission, but, with the 
consent of Cardinal Allen, he remained in 
Italy to continue his studies in one of the 
universities of that country, where he was 
created a doctor of the canon and civil laws 
and of divinity. Pits, who had been his fellow- 
student in the English College at Rome, 
extols him highly for his learning. He dis- 
tinguished himself in oratory, poetry, phi- 
losophy, and mathematics, and in his know- 
ledge of Greek, Latin, and Hebrew. For 
some years he lived at the court of his patron, 
the Duke of Savoy, and afterwards was ap- 
pointed theologian to St. Charles Borromeo, 
archbishop of Milan, with whom he resided 
both at Rome and Milan. On 22 Sept. 1591 
lie visited the hospice attached to the English 
College at Rome, and made a stay of five 
days. In the ' Pilgrim-Book ' he is described 
as of Salop (FoLEY, Records, vi. 564). He 
died at Rome about 1595. 

He was author of: 1. l Virgilii Maronis 
Bucolica, e Latino in Grsecum Idioma ver- 
sibus translata. Authore Dan. Alsvorto, 
Anglo,' Turin, 1591, 8vo. The dedication to 
Cardinal Allen contains some curious remarks 
on the state of England. 2. ' Avli Licinii 
Archiae Poetae tantopere a Cicerone celebrati 
F]pigrammata. . . . ADanieleAlsuortoAnglo 
Latinis versibus fidelissime reddita,' Rome, 
1596, 8vo, dedicated to Cardinal Henry 
Cajetan, protector of the English nation. 
Reprinted in vol. ii. of ' M. T. Ciceronis 
Orationum Commentaria Selecta virorum 
Germanise, Italise, et Galliae, notis, scholiis, 
et annotationibus illustrata/ Cologne, 1685, 
8vo. 3. Several other works, both in prose 
and verse, which were never printed. 

[Dodd's Church Hist. ii. 90 ; Douay Diaries, 
pp. 167, 168,375; Foley's Records, vi. 116, 143, 
507 ; Grillow's Bibl. Diet, of the English Catho- 
lics, iii. 103 ; Knox's Letters and Memorials of 
Cardinal Allen, p. 291 ; Pits, De Anglise Scrip- 
toribus, p. 794 ; Tanner's Bibl. Brit. p. 372.] 

T. C. 

HALTON, IMMANUEL (1628-1699), 
astronomer, born at Greystoke in Cumber- 
land on 21 April 1628, was the eldest son of 
Miles Halton of Greenthwaite Hall, where 
the family had resided from the time of 
Richard II. Timothy Halton [q. v.] was pro- 
bably a younger brother. Halton was educated 
at Blencowe grammar school in Cumberland, 
became a student at Gray's Inn, and thence 
entered the service of Thomas Howard, earl of 
Arundel. He transacted on his behalf affairs 
of importance in Holland, and on his return to 
England accepted and kept for twenty years 
the post of auditor of his household, involving 
onerous duties connected with commissions 
and arbitrations. In 1660 the successor of 
his patron made him a grant of part of the 
manor of Shirland in Derbyshire ; he came 
to reside at Wingfield Manor in the same 
county early in 1666, and purchased some of 
the adjacent lands from the sixth Duke of 
Norfolk on 28 May 1678. Having heard of 
Flamsteed's astronomical proficiency, Halton 
called to see him at Derby during the Lenten 
assizes of 1666, and afterwards sent him Ric- 
cioli's ' New Almagest,' Kepler's ' Rudolphine 
Tables,' and other books on astronomy (BAILY, 
Account of Flamsteed, p. 21). ' He was a 
person/ Flamsteed says (ib. p. 26), ' of great 
humanity and judgment, a good algebraist, 
and endeavoured to draw me into the study 
of algebra by proposing little problems to 
me.' Halton's observations at Wingfield on 
the solar eclipse of 23 June 1675 were com- 
municated to the Royal Society by Flamsteed, 
who styled him 'amicus meus singularis' 
(Phil, trans, xi. 664). In a letter to Collins 
of 20 Feb. 1673 Flamsteed mentioned that 
Halton was then translating Kinkhuysen's 
' Moon- Wiser ' into English, t that I may 
have a view of it ' (RiGAUD, Correspondence 
of Scientific Men, ii. 160). A little later he 
speaks of observing with his quadrants, and 
on 27 Dec. 1673 told Collins that ' lately, in 
discourse with Mr. Halton, he was pleased 
to show me a straight-lined projection for 
finding the hour by inspection, the sun's de- 
clination and height being given' (ib. p. 171). 
Some of the sun-dials put up by him are still 
to be seen at Wingfield Manor ; and a letter 
written from Gray's Inn in May 1650, de- 
scribing a dial of his own invention, was 
published in the appendix to Samuel Foster's 
' Miscellanea/ London, 1659. He married 




Mary, daughter of John Newton of Oaker- 
thorpe in Derbyshire, and had by her three 
sons, two of whom left issue. Halton made 
several alterations and improvements in Wing- 
field Manor, and repaired the worst ravages in- 
flicted upon it by the civil war. It remained the 
property of his descendants until a few years 
ago, when it passed by marriage to the Tris- 
trams of Hampshire (E. BKADBTJKY, All about 
Derbyshire, p. 286). He died in 1699, aged 
72, and was buried in the church of South 
Wingfield. The inscription on his tomb 
states that ' the late years of his life were 
chiefly spent in the studies of music and the 
mathematics, in which noble sciences he at- 
tained a great perfection.' 

[J. Barlow Robinson's Historical Sketch of 
the Ancient Manor of South Wingfield, 1872, 
p. 12 ; Henry T. Wake, in Notes and Queries, 
6th ser. iii. 45; Addit. MSS. 6670 f. 236, 6705 
f. 6b, 1026, 6707 f. 11.] A. M. C. 


(d. 1324), bishop of Carlisle, was a canon of 
the Augustinian convent of St. Mary's, Car- 
lisle, which was also the cathedral of the 
diocese. He became prior in due course 
(DTJGKDALE, Monasticon, vi. 141), and on 
23 April 1292 was elected bishop (Chron. de 
Lanercost, p. 146). The royal assent was 
given on 26 May. His temporalities were 
restored on 18 June, and he was consecrated 
on 14 Sept. at York by Anthony Bek, bishop 
of Durham (STTJBBS, Reg. Angl. p. 48 ; LE 
NEVE, Fasti, iii. 234, ed. Hardy). A Gilbert 
de Halton who was archdeacon of Carlisle 
between 1311 and 1318 was doubtless a kins- 
man (Ls NEVE, iii. 249). Halton was pro- 
bably educated at Oxford, for which he very 
warmly claims equal privileges with the uni- 
versities of France (RAINE, Papers from the 
Northern Registers, p. 122). 

Halton was hardly consecrated when he 
was busy with the great suit for the crown 
of Scotland. He was present on 17 Nov. 
1292 when the king's decision was announced 
at Berwick, and at the homage of John Balliol 
on 26 Dec. at Newcastle (Fcedera, i. 780, 782). 
He found his cathedral town burnt down by 
a destructive fire on 25 May (Lanercost, p. 
144). This was only the beginning of the 
troubles which beset Carlisle and the whole 
diocese during hislong episcopate. He was ap- 
pointed by Celestine V one of the collectors 
of the crusading tithe in Scotland, an office 
which led to constant disputes, excommunica- 
tions, and difficulties. At last Boniface VIII 
absolved him from the impossible order to 
collect ten thousand marks within a poor 
and distracted country, now at war with 
England (RAINE, pp. 112-14). 

In 1295 Halton was sent as an ambassador 
to King John of Scotland, and on 8 Nov. re- 
ceived a safe-conduct for his return (ib. pp. 
119-20). On 13 Oct. 1297 Halton was ap- 
pointed custos of Carlisle Castle and of the 
royal domains (Cal Doc. Scotl. ii. 244). He 
held this office many years, and made great 
exertions in repairing the works and provision- 
ing and garrisoning them. When Wallace 
ravaged the country thirty miles round, the 
burden of defending the great border fortress 
rested entirely on him (ib. iii. 119). Elabo- 
rate accounts of his expenses and receipts are 
printed from his register by Canon Raine 
(Papers from Northern Registers, pp. 154-9). 
So exhausted did his diocese become that he 
sought and obtained the pope's authority to 
remit, sometimes a third, sometimes the whole 
of the papal taxation levied on the clergy (ib. 
pp. 151, 161). He was constantly thrown 
back on his own resources for fighting against 
the Scots, and could get little help from an 
exhausted treasury. Things got worse after 
Edward II's accession. In 1309 he was or- 
dered by Clement V to excommunicate Bruce 
for the murder of Comyn. Instead of attend- 
ing the Easter parliament of 1314, Halton 
was ordered to reside in his diocese to defend 
it against the Scots (Parl. Writs, n. iii. 
644; RAINE, p. 219), in which object he 
worked along with the sheriff Andrew Har- 
clay [q. v.] In 1318, however, he was a. 
member of the extraordinary council which 
Lancaster imposed, and in 1321 he was pre- 
sent at the meeting of northern clergy sum- 
moned by Lancaster to Sherburn in Elmet 
for 28 July (BKIDLINGTON, p. 62). Yet he 
seems to have sent troops to fight against 
Lancaster in the final struggle which ended 
at Boroughbridge. 

The Scottish war had reduced Halton to- 
great poverty. In 1314 his houses outside 
Newcastle had been destroyed to build the 
town wall, though for this he got compensa- 
tion (RAINE, p. 218) ; but in 1318 he wrote 
piteously to pope John XXII begging for 
help, and requesting that the living of Horn- 
castle in Lincolnshire, the manor of which 
was already in the hands of the Bishop of 
Carlisle, should be permanently annexed to 
his see (ib. pp. 282-4). Edward II backed 
up his efforts, and he obtained his request 
(Fcedera, ii. 378). Henceforth Horncastle 
became a favourite residence of the bishops 
when they wished to enjoy a little repose 
from the troubles of the'ir warlike frontier 

In 1320 Halton went on his last embassy 
to Scotland, and had his expenses refused 
by the king on the ground that he went for 
his own good as well as for that of the 




realm (Cal. Doc. Scotl. iii. 119). In 1322 
lie excused himself, on account of old age, 
infirmity, and poverty, from attending in 
person the famous parliament at York. In 
February 1324 he was excused for the same 
reasons, and especially on account of his 
want of the proper means of conveyance, 
from attendance at the parliament at West- 
minster. Yet he continued to work till the 
last. On 6 Aug. 1324 he administered the 
oaths to the commissioners of array for Cum- 
berland and Westmoreland. On 1 Nov. he 
died at his manor of Rose Castle (Lanercost, 
p. 253). He was buried in the north aisle 
of his cathedral, where a much-decayed effigy 
is still pointed out as his ( JEFFEKSON, Hist, 
and Antiq. Carlisle, p. 178). His register 
is still preserved, and is the earliest remain- 
ing register of his see. A large number of 
letters from it, many of considerable political 
importance, have been printed by Canon Raine 
in his ' Papers from the Northern Registers ' 
in the Rolls Series. 

[Rymer's Foedera, vols. i. and ii., Record ed. ; 
Parl. Writs, i. 520, IT. iii. 644-5; Raine's Papers 
from the Northern Registers (Rolls Ser.) ; Brid- 
lington's G-esta Edwardi II in Stubbs's Chron. 
of Edward land II, ii. 57, 62 (Rolls Ser.); Chron. 
de Lanercost (MaitlandClub), pp. 144, 146, 253 ; 
Documents illustrative of the Hist, of Scotland, 
1286-1306 ; Calendar of Documents relating to 
Scotland, vols. ii. and iii. ; Nicolson and Burn's 
Hist, of Westmorland and Cumberland, ii. 262- 
263.] T. F. T. 

HALTON, TIMOTHY, D.D. (1632?- 
1704), provost of Queen's College, Oxford, 
was probably the Timothy Halton, son of 
Miles Halton of Greenthwaite Hall, Cumber- 
land, who was baptised at Greystoke Church 
19 Sept. 1633, and in that case he was a 
younger brother of Immanuel Halton [q. v.] 
(Notes and Queries, 6th ser. iii. 45). He 
entered Queen's College as batler 9 March 
1648-9, and was elected fellow April 1657 
(Cal. State Papers, Dom. 1656-7, p. 338). 
He proceeded B.D. 30 April 1662, D.D. 
27 June 1674 (Cat. Oxf. Grad. p. 288; see 
also WOOD, Athence Oxon. ed. Bliss, iv. 520). 
On 17 March 1661 Halton writes to Joseph 
Williamson that he had offers of chaplaincies 
from William Lucy, bishop of St. David's, 
and from the queen of Bohemia (Cal. State 
Papers, Dom. 1660-1, p. 535). Eventually 
he refused them both, preferring to retain 
his position at Oxford. The first offer, how- 
ever, led to a Welsh connection (ib. pp. 551, 
562, 572, 587). He became archdeacon of 
Brecknock 8 Feb. 1671-2 (LE NEVE,i. 312), 
and was canon of St. David's (his epitaph). 
He was made archdeacon of Oxford 10 July 
1675 (LE NEVE, ii. 516), and provost of 

Queen's College 7 April 1677, succeeding 
Dr. Thomas Barlow [q. v.] He was also 
rector of the college living, Charlton-on-Ot- 
moor, Oxfordshire. He. was vice-chancellor 
in 1679-81 and 1685. He died 21 July 1704, 
and was buried in Queen's College chapel ; 
his epitaph states that he was a considerable 
benefactor to the college. Numerous letters 
from Halton to Williamson, written between 
1655 and 1667, are preserved in the Record 
Office (see Cal. State Papers, Dom. Ser.) 
Some references to him in Hearne's ' Collec- 
tions ' (Oxf. Hist. Soc. ii. 69, 224) seem to- 
imply that he was a man of jovial habits. 
There is an engraved portrait of him by 

J Authorities quoted; information kindly sup- 
plied by the provost of Queen's College ; Noble's 
Biog. Hist. i. 95 ; Wood's Fasti Oxon., ed. Bliss, 
ii. 238, 345, 369, 371, 395; and Life, pp. xc, 
xciv, cxiv, cxx ; Nichols's Anecd. viii. 460.1 

N. D. F. P. 

JAMES (1518-1589), provost of Dundee, 
Scottish reformer, was son of George Haly- 
burton of Pitcur or Gask (Reg. Mag. Sig. Scot. 
1513-46, entry 1546). His grandfather was 
Walter Haliburton or Halyburton (second son 
of the first Lord Halyburton of Dirleton),who, 
with his wife, the daughter and coheiress of 
Alexander de Chisholm, obtained the barony 
of Pitcur, in the parish of Kettins, Forfar- 
shire, of which he had a charter in 1432. 
James was born in 1518, and studied at the 
university of St. Andrews, where he graduated 
M.A. in 1538. In 1540 he obtained from 
James V for himself and his affianced bride, 
Margaret Rossy, a charter of Buttergask and 
other lands (ib. entry 2221). About the same 
time he was enrolled as one of the burgesses 
of Dundee. He became tutor or guardian to- 
Sir George Halyburton, son of his elder bro- 
ther, Andrew of Pitcur, on which account 
he is usually referred to by contemporaries 
as ' tutor of Pitcur.' At the siege of Broughty 
Castle, when in the hands of the English, he 
commanded a troop of horse provided by the 
Angus barons and l landit men,' and assisted 
the French in the assault by which it was 
captured on 20 Feb. 1548-9. In 1556 he 
was appointed to the command of a troop of 
light horse, raised by the queen-regent to 
guard the frontier of Liddesdale. He was 
taken prisoner by the Grahams, who placed 
him in the tower or keep of a rebel Scot, only 
separated from England by a ditch, resolving- 
to remove him to England should his rescue 
be attempted. The tower was, however, sur- 
prised by the Scots during the night, and the 
tutor of Pitcur carried off before the Gra- 
hams, to whom the alarm was sent, had time 




4x> reach the tower (M. D'Oysel to M. de 
Noailles in TETJLET'S Relations politiques de la 
France et de VEspagne avec I'Ecosse, i. 287-8). 
In 1553 Halyburton had been elected pro- 
vost of Dundee, a dignity he retained for 
thirty-three years. Dundee, owing to its inter- 
course with Germany, wat, one of the earliest 
towns in Scotland to become infected with 
Reformation principles (KNOX, i. 61) ; and in 
command of the men of Dundee Halyburton 
played a prominent part in the ensuing con- 
test with the queen-regent. In 1559 he was 
chosen by the reformed party one of the 
lords of the congregation as representing the 
boroughs (Cal. State Papers, For. Ser. 1559- 
1560, entry 120). As provost of Dundee he 
was requested by the queen-regent to appre- 
hend the reformer Paul Methuen, who had 
"been preaching in that town, but instead of 
doing so he/ gave secret advertisement to the 
man to avoid the town for a time' (KNOX, i. 
317). He was one of the leaders whom the 
Earl of Argyll and Lord James Stuart, after 
their failure to come to terms with the queen- 
regent, summoned to meet them at St. An- 
drews on 4 June 1559 ' for Reformation to 
be made there ' (ib. p. 347). With the men 
of Dundee he joined the forces which shortly 
afterwards barred the queen-regent's march 
towards St. Andrews ; and the other lords 
having on account of his military experi- 
ence delegated to him the disposition of the 
forces, he posted the hurried musters from 
Fifeshire andForfarshire in such a skilful posi- 
tion on Cupar Muir as to command the whole 
surrounding country (ib. p. 351). The queen- 
regent, thus finding her immediate purpose 
baffled, agreed to a truce of eight days, and 
promised to retire l incontinent to Falkland,' 
to dismiss the French soldiers from her ser- 
vice, and. to send a commission to consider 
final terms of agreement between her and the 
lords of the congregation. As she showed no 
signs of fulfilling the conditions of the ' assur- 
ance,' Halyburton, in command of the men of 
Dundee, again took up arms to assist the re- 
formers in delivering Perth from the French 
soldiers. When at Perth he, along with his 
brother, Alexander Halyburton, and John 
Knox, made strenuous but vain exertions to 
restrain the men of Dundee, who had special 
reasons for taking revenge on the Bishop of 
Moray, from destroying the palace and abbey of 
Scone on 25 and 26 June (ib. pp. 360-1). Sub- 
sequently he assisted in the defence of Edin- 
burgh, and in October, having, in command of 
the men of Dundee, 'passed forth of the town 
with some great ordnance to shoot at Leith,' 
was surprised by the French while at dinner, 
and compelled to retreat, leaving the ordnance 
in their hands (ib. p. 457). In a second skir- 

mish on 5 Nov. his brother, Captain Alexan- 
der Halyburton (sometimes confounded with 
him), was slain. The provost of Dundee was 
one of the commissioners who met the Duke 
of Norfolk at Berwick to arrange the condi- 
tions on which assistance might be obtained 
from Elizabeth (ib. ii. 56 ; CALDERWOOD, i. 
581), and he signed the * last band at Leith ' 
for ' setting forward the reformation of reli- 
gion.' He was also one of the lords of the 
congregation who on 27 Jan. 1560-1 signed 
the first Book of Discipline (KNOX, ii. 257). 
He was chosen in 1563 to represent Dundee 
in parliament, and was elected to all subse- 
quent conventions and parliaments down to 
1581 (FoRSTER, Members of the Parliament 
of Scotland, p. 168). By the parliament of 
1563 he was chosen one of a commission to 
administer the Act of Oblivion ; and the fol- 
lowing year was one of a committee appointed 
by the general assembly to present certain 
articles to the lords of the secret council in 
reference to the ' abolition of idolatry,' espe- 
cially the mass. Being, along with others of 
the extreme section of reformers, strongly 
opposed to the marriage of Mary with the 
catholic Lord Darnley, he joined the Earl of 
Moray in his attempt to promote a rebellion, 
and after the * roundabout raid ' took refuge 
in England (CALDERWOOD, ii. 294). On 2 Aug. 
1565 he was required to enter into ward (Reg. 
P. C. Scotl. i. 348), and on the 27th he was 
denounced as a rebel (ib. p. 357). In all 
probability he returned to Scotland with 
Moray about the time of the murder of Rizzio. 
On 23 March 1566-7 he received a pension of 
500/. for his important military services to his 
country, especially in resisting the invasion of 
England (ib. p. 501). This pension was sub- 
sequently increased, and was ordered to be 
paid out of the thirds of the abbey of Scone 
(ib. ii. 112). Halyburton was present on 
29 July 1567 at the coronation of the infant 
prince at Stirling. He was one of ' the lords 
of secrete counsale and uthers, barons and 
men of judgement,' who on 4 Dec. 1567 had 
under consideration the casket letters pre- 
paratory to the meeting of parliament (MuR- 
DIN, State Papers, p. 455). He also took part 
in the battle of Langside on 30 May of the 
following year. In the jeu d'esprit pub- 
lished after the regent Moray's assassination, 
in which the regent is represented as holding 
a conference with the six men of the world 
' he believed most into,' to obtain their ad- 
vice for his advancement and standing, Haly- 
burton, being famed as a soldier, is repre- 
sented as advising him to make himself 
' strong with waged men both horse and 
foot ' (published in vol. i. of the Bannatyne 
Club Collections ; in RICHARD BANNATYNE'S 




Memorials, pp. 5-10 ; and in CALDERWOOD'S 
History, ii. 515-25). In August 1570, in 
command of the men of Dundee, he assisted 
in preventing the capture of Brechin by the 
Earl of Huntly (CALDERWOOD, iii. 8). In 
June of the following year he was present 
with the Earl of Morton in the skirmish 
.against the queen's forces at Restalrig, be- 
tween Leithand Edinburgh (ib. p. 101). On 
27 Aug., while engaged in chasing a foraging 
party and driving them into the city, ' he 
was taken at the port upon horseback, sup- 
posing that his companions were following ' 
{ib. p. 138). On 10 Sept. he was delivered 
into the Earl of Huntly's hands and was to 
have been executed next day, but was saved 
foy the interposition of Lord Lindsay (BAtf- 
NATYNE, Memorials, p. 187). Soon after- 
wards he was set at liberty, for on 2 Dec. he 
was present at a meeting of the secret coun- 
cil (Reg. P. C. Scotl. ii. 98). On 22 Nov. 1572 
he was named one of a commission for the 
trial of Archibald Douglas, parson of Glasgow 
{fl. 1568) [q. v.], then in ward in the castle 
of Stirling (ib. ii. 171). 

The Earl of Morton on 28 Sept. 1578 ap- 
pointed Halyburton his commissioner in the 
conference with Argyll and Atholl, by which 
a reconciliation was brought about between 
the rival parties in Scotland (MorsiE, Me- 
moirs,^. 19). On 22 Dec. following he held 
a conference by order of the king in Stirling 
Castle for the settlement of the church. He 
was named in April one of the commissioners 
on pauperism (Reg. P. C. Scotl. iii. 138), and on 
7 Aug. of the following year he was named 
a commissioner for the reforming of the uni- 
versities, with special reference to the uni- 
versity of St. Andrews (ib. p. 200). He also 
served on a similar commission chosen 1 April 
1587-8. Halyburton was on 4 Dec. 1579 
presented to the priory of Pittenweem, pre- 
viously held by Sir James Balfour. After 
obtaining the king's protection Balfour re- 
possessed himself of the priory, but, on the 
complaint of Halyburton, was ordered to 
4 deliver the abbey within twenty-four hours 
after being charged, under pain of rebel- 
lion ' (ib. p. 520). On 26 Oct. 1583 it was 
taken from Halyburton and bestowed on 
Colonel William Stewart. Halyburton was on 
5 March 1581-2 elected a member of James's 
privy council (ib. iii. 458). He was present 
at the raid of Ruthven on 22 Aug. 1582, but 
according to one account was ' not there at 
the beginning, but being written for came 
afterward ' (CALDERWOOD, iii. 637). In the 
following October he was appointed, along 
with Colonel William Stewart, the king's 
commissioner to the general assembly of the 
kirk (ib. p. 674), and he was also commis- 


sioner to the general assembly which met in 
April of the following year (ib. p. 709). On 
the escape of King James from the protestant 
lords to St. Andrews in 1584, Halyburton 
was deprived of the provostship of Dundee 
and was compelled to go into hiding (ib. iv. 
421 ). He probably returned with the banished 
lords, who captured the castle of Stirling in 
November 1585. At the general assembly 
which met in February 1587-8 he was again 
one of the king's commissioners, and in this as 
well as the assembly which met in August he 
acted as one of the assessors of the moderator. 
He died in February 1588-9. On account of 
the services rendered by him to the nation, and 
also to the town of Dundee, he received the 
honour of a public funeral at the expense of 
the corporation. He was buried in the South 
Church, Dundee. During the alterations made 
in the church a monument to him with a 
Latin inscription was discovered in May 1827 
on the floor on the west side of the pulpit, 
but it was destroyed by the burning of the 
churches in 1841. 

[Eeg. Mag. Sig. Scot. vol. i.; Keg. P. C. Scotl. 
vols. i-iv. ; Acta Parl. Scot. vol. ii. ; Cal. State 
Papers, For. Ser. reign of Elizabeth ; Richard 
Bannatyne's Memorials ; Moysie's Memoirs ; 
Knox's Works ; Calderwood's Hist, of the Church 
of Scotland ; Millar's Roll of Eminent Burgesses 
of Dundee.] T. F. H. 

1712), theologian, was born at Dupplin, Perth- 
shire, on 25 Dec. 1674. His father, GEORGE 
HALYBURTON (d. 1682), descended from the 
Haliburtons of Pitcur, and a near relative of 
George Haliburton [q. v.], bishop of Dunkeld, 
graduated at the university of St. Andrews 
in 1652 ; after being licensed by the Glasgow 
presbytery in 1656, became assistant minister 
of the parish of Aberdalgie and Dupplin in 
1657 ; was deprived for nonconformity in 
1662 ; lived, by the kindness of George Hay 
of Balhousie, in the house at Dupplin, where 
his son Thomas was born ; was denounced by 
the privy council for keeping conventicles 
3 Aug. 1676; and died in October 1682, 
having had eleven children by his wife Mar- 
garet, daughter of the Rev. Andrew Playfair, 
his predecessor at Aberdalgie. 

On his father's death, his mother, a woman 
of much religious feeling, removed to Rotter- 
dam to escape threatened persecution, and 
Thomas was educated there at Erasmus's 
school, where he proved himself a good classi- 
cal scholar. He returned to Scotland in 1682, 
graduated at the university of St. Andrews 
24 July, 1696 and, after serving as a private 
chaplain, was licensed by the presbytery of 
Kirkaldy 22 June 1699. He was ordained to 
the parish of Ceres, Fifeshire, 1 May 1700, 




but he injured his health by excessive labour. 
On 1 April 1710 he was appointed by Queen 
Anne, at the instance of the synod of Fife, 
professor of divinity at the, New College, o-r 

devoted his inaugural lecturo to an attempt 
to confute the deistical views lately promul- 
gated by Dr. Archibald Pitcairn in 1688. 
He died at St. Andrews 23 Sept. 1712, aged 
only 38. His piety was remarkable, and the 
deeply religious tone of his unfinished auto- 
biography, published after his death, gave him 
a very wide reputation. Wesley and White- 
field recommended his writings to their fol- 

Halyburton's works, all of which were 
issued posthumously, are as follows: 1. 'Na- 
tural Religion Insufficient and Revealed ne- 
cessary to Man's Happiness ' (together with 
the inaugural lecture against Pitcairn, 'A 
Modest Enquiry whether Regeneration or Jus- 
tification has the Precedency in the order of 
Nature,' and ' An Essay concerning the reason 
of Faith '), Edinburgh, 1714, 8vo ; Montrose, 
1798, with preface by J. Hog. The ' Modest 
Enquiry ' and the ' Essay ' were reissued to- 
gether at Edinburgh in 1865 as 'An Essay 
on the Ground or formal Reason of a saving 
Faith.' Throughout this volume Halyburton 
attacks the deism of Lord Herbert of Cher- 
bury and of Charles Blount from the point 
of view of Calvinistic orthodoxy. He was 
well read in the writings of his opponents, 
and in a list which he appends of books con- 
sulted mentions the works of Locke, Hobbes, 
and Spinoza. Leland, in his view of ' Deisti- 
cal Writers,' admitted Halyburton's narrow- 
ness, although he approved his conclusions 
(cf. REMUSA.T, Lord Herbert of Cherbury, 
LORD HERBERT, Autobiogr., ed. Lee, 1886, 
Introd.) 2. * Memoirs of the Life of the 
Reverend Mr. Thorn as Halyburton. Digested 
into Four Parts, whereof the first three were 
written with his own hand some years before 
his death, and the fourth is collected from 
his Diary by another hand; to which is an- 
nex'd some Account of his Dying Words by 
those who were Witnesses to his Death,' dedi- 
cated by Janet Watson (Halyburton's widow) 
to Lady Henrietta Campbell; 2nd edit., cor- 
rected and amended, Edinburgh, 1715 ; an- 
other edit., also called the 2nd, with recom- 
mendatory epistle by Dr. Isaac Watts, Lon- 
don, 1718, 8vo ; 8t'h edit., Glasgow, 1756, 
8vo ; with introductory essay by D. Young, 
Glasgow, 1824, 12mo ; 14th edit., 1838, 1839, 
Edinburgh, 1 848. ' An Abstract of the Life 
and Death of Thomas Halyburton ' appeared 
in London in 1739, and again in 1741, with 
recommendatory epistle by George White- 
field and preface by John Wesley. An ab- 

breviated version was also issued at Cork in 
1820, and has frequently been reissued in 
collections of evangelical biography. 3. ' The 
Great Concern of Salvation, with a Word of 
Recommendation by I. Watts,' Edinburgh, 
1721 and 1722, 8vo, and 1797, 12mo ; Glas- 
gow, 1770, IGmo. 4. 'Ten Sermons preached 
before and after the Celebration of the Lord's- 
Supper,' Edinburgh, 1722. 5. < The Unpar- 
donable Sin against the Holy Ghost briefly 
discoursed of/ Edinburgh, 1784, 8vo. Haly- 
burton's works were collected and edited, 
by the Rev. Robert Burns, D.D., of Paisley,, 
London, 1835. A portrait of Halyburton is- 
prefixed to this volume. 

[Hew Scott's Fasti Eccl. Scot. iv. 477, 621 - 
Halyburton's Memoirs, 1714; Brit. Mus. Cat. ; 
Chalmers's Biog. Diet. ; Leland's View of Deisti- 
cal Writers.] S. L. L. 

HAMBOYS, JOHN (ft. 1470). [See 

HAMBURY, HENRY DE (Jl. 1330), 
judge, was a son of Geoffrey de Hambury of 
Hambury or Hanbury in Worcestershire, 
Early in life he became an adherent of Thomas . 
earl of Lancaster, but received a pardon with 
consent of parliament at York for all felonies 
in that regard on 1 Nov. 1318. In 1324 he 
was appointed a justice of the common pleas 
in Ireland. He was promoted in the follow- 
ing year to be a judge of the Irish court of 
king's bench, and almost immediately after- 
wards to be chief justice ; but in 1326 Richard 
de Willoughby was appointed chief justice, 
and Hambury returned to the common pleas. 
In 1327 he appears to have been chief justice 
of that court, when he was transferred to 
England, and in 1328 became a judge of the 
English king's bench (Col. Rot. Pat. 94 b, 
95 b, 96, 97, 99 b ; the Irish Close Rolls, i. 34, 
35, speak of him as chief justice of the Irish 
king's bench in 1327). He also was ap- 
pointed to hold pleas of forest in Gloucester- 
shire, Somersetshire, Dorsetshire, Wiltshire, 
and South Hampshire. He seems to have 
retired before 1338, as the 'Liberate Roll' 
does not mention him as a judge in that year, 
but he was still alive in 1352, when he is 
named in the herald's visitation of Worcester- 
shire, in which county he had become pos- 
sessed of the abbey of Bordesley in 1324. He 
founded a chantry at Hambury in 1346. 

[Foss's Judges of England ; Parl. Writs, vol. ii. 
pt. ii. pp. 130, 205; Abbr. Eot. Orig. i. 281, 
ii. 24.] J. A. H. 

HAMEY, BALDWIN, the elder, M.D. 
(1568-1640), physician, descended fromOdo 
de Hame, who served under the Count of 
Flanders at the siege of Acre, was born at 

For ' the New College, or college of St. 
Leonard, St. Andrews ' read * St. Mary's 
(sometimes called the " New ") College.' 

Hamey i 

Bruges in 1568. His parents, though much 
impoverished by the exactions of Alva, sent 
him to the university of Leyden, where he 
graduated M.D. Soon after, in 1592, he was 
nominated by the university physician to the 
czar of Muscovy, Theodore Ivanovitz, in ac- 
cordance with a request for a distinguished 
physician sent to the rector by that emperor. 
In 1598 he obtained leave, with difficulty, 
to resign his post in Russia and returned to 
Holland, where he married, at Amsterdam, 
Sara Oeils, and in the same year settled in 
London, where he was admitted a licentiate 
of the College of Physicians on 12 Jan. 1610, 
and practised with success till his death, of 
a pestilential fever, 10 Nov. 1640. He was 
buried on the north side of the church of 
All Hallows Barking, near the Tower of 
London, 12 Nov. 1640, and his three children 
erected a monument in the church to his 
memory. His eldest son, Baldwin [q. v.], 
became a physician, his second son a mer- 
chant in London, and his daughter married 
Mr. Palmer, whose descendants possessed 
Hamey's portrait by Cornelius Jansen. He 
bequeathed 20/. to the College of Physicians. 

[Hunk's Coll. of Phys. i. 153; Hamey's Bus- 
torum Aliquot Eeliquise, in manuscript at the 
College of Physicians (copy), pp. 15-36; Palmer's 
Life of the most eminent Dr. Baldwin Hamey, 
in manuscript at the College of Physicians.] 

N. M. 

HAMEY, BALDWIN, the younger, M.D. 
(1600-1 676), physician, eldest son of Baldwin 
Hamey [q. v.], M.D., was born in London 
24 April 1600, and entered at the university 
of Leyden as a student of philosophy in May 
1617. He visited Oxford for a time in 1621, 
and studied in the public library there. In 
August 1625 he went to Hastings, intending 
to sail thence to Holland. He supped with 
the mayor, and was to sail next morning ; 
but the mayor, perhaps excited to suspicion 
by Hamey's learned conversation, dreamed 
that the stranger ought to be detained, and 
accordingly set a guard at the inn, which 
prevented his sailing with sixty other pas- 
sengers, who were all lost in a storm which 
arose less than an hour after the ship sailed. 
When the mayor, who could not explain 
why he had prevented Hamey's embarkation, 
found that his life had thus been saved, he 
caressed him as the darling of heaven. 
Another vessel conveyed him to Holland, and 
he graduated M.D. at Leyden 12 Aug. 1626, 
writing a thesis ' De Angina.' He then visited 
the universities of Paris, Montpelier, and 
Padua ; and after travels in Germany, France, 
and Italy, was incorporated M.D. at Oxford 
4 Feb. 1629. He was admitted a fellow of 
the College of Physicians of London 10 Jan. 


1633, was eight times censor, from 1640 to 
1654, was registrar in 1646 and 1650 to 1654, 
and treasurer 1664-6. In 1647 he delivered 
the Gulstonian lectures. He married Ann 
Petin of Rotterdam, and settled in practice 
in the parish of St. Clement's, Eastcheap. 
Dr. Pearson's sermons on the Creed were 
preached in the parish church, and he became 
one of Hamey's friends. During the great 
rebellion he at one time thought of leaving 
London; but an attack of inflammation of 
the lungs changed his intention. The day 
he was convalescent a roundhead general 
consulted him, and, delighted with his pro- 
mise of cure, handed him a bag of gold. 
Hamey thought the fee too great, and handed 
it back ; whereupon the puritan took a hand- 
ful of gold pieces from the bag, put them 
into the physician's pocket, and went away. 
Hamey's wife was waiting dinner, and he 
handed his fee of thirty-six broad pieces to 
her. She was pleased, and told him how, 
during his illness, she had paid away that 
very sum to a state exaction rather than 
trouble him with discussion. Hamey thought 
this incident an omen against migration, re- 
mained in London, and soon had many patients 
among the parliament men. He complied 
with the times so far as to go and hear the 
sermons of the sectaries, but used to take with 
him either an octavo Aldine Virgjil in vellum, 
or a duodecimo Aristophanes in red leather 
with clasps. The unlearned crowd took 
them for Bible and Greek Testament, and 
lost in their study he was saved the annoy- 
ance of the sermon. He must have earned 
many fees, for he bought a diamond ring of 
Charles I bearing the royal arms for 500/., 
and several times sent gifts to Charles II. 
The ring he gave to Charles II at the Resto- 
ration. The king would have knighted him, 
but he declined the honour. He retired from 
practice in 1665, and went to live at Chelsea, 
where he died, 14 May 1676. He was buried 
in the chancel of the parish church, wrapped 
in linen, without coffin, and ten feet deep, 
and with no monument but a black marble 
slab bearing his name, the date of his death, 
and the sentence : ' When the breath goeth 
out of a man he returneth unto his earth.' The 
longer gilt inscription, with his arms, which 
is still visible, was put up some years after, 
and has recently been restored by the College 
of Physicians. lie had no children, and as he 
had a good inheritance as well as a lucrative 
practice he was always well off, and used his 
wealth with generosity throughout life. When 
only thirty-three he paid the expenses of the 
education at school and at Oxford of a de- 
serving scholar, John Sigismund Clewer 
(PALMEK, Life, p. 20). He gave 100/. towards 





the repairs of St. Paul's Cathedral, and also 
contributed liberally to the fabrics of All 
Hallows Barking, of St. Clement's, East- 
cheap, and of St. Luke's, Chelsea. He also 
gave a great bell to Chelsea Church, with the 
inscription, ' Baldwinus Haniey Philevange- 
licus Medicus Divo Lucas medico evangelico, 
D.D.D.' He was still more generous to the 
College of Physicians, and became its largest 
benefactor. He gave a large sum towards 
its rebuilding after the fire of 1666, and wains- 
coted the dining-room with carved Spanish 
oak, some of which, with his arms, is pre- 
served in the present college. In 1672 he 
gave the college an estate near Great Ongar 
in Essex. The rents of this, among other 
objects, were to pay annual sums to the phy- 
sicians of St. Bartholomew's, provided that 
hospital accepted the nominees of the College 
of Physicians. On a vacancy the college is 
informed of it by letter and makes a nomi- 
nation, which is rejected by the hospital, 
while the senior-assistant physician is ap- 
pointed. Thus the physicians of St. Bar- 
tholomew's have never received Hamey's 
benefaction ; but to make up to them the 
hospital pays each one hundred guineas a 
year, so that, circuitously, his good wish is 
carried out. Hamey's thesis was his only 
printed work, but several of his manuscripts 
remain in the College of Physicians. They 
are : 1. ' Bustorum aliquot Reliquiae ab anno 
1628, qui mihi primus fuit conduct i seorsim 
a parentibus non inauspicato hospitii.' Be- 
sides the original there is a beautiful copy of 
this manuscript, and another copy exists in 
the British Museum. It begins with an ac- 
count of Theodore Goulston [q. v.], and then 
gives histories of fifty-three other physicians, 
contemporaries of Hamey. 2. * Universa Me- 
dicina,' a folio book of notes on medicine. 
3. < Gulstonian Lectures.' 4. ' Notes on Ari- 
stophanes.' After his death Adam Littleton 
edited in 1693 Hamey's ' Dissertatio episto- 
laris de juramento medicorum qui opicos 'Iir- 
TTOKodrovs dicitur.' Vandyck painted his por- 
trait in 1638 (PALMER, manuscript). A por- 
trait of him at the age of seventy-four, at 
present in the great library of the College of 
Physicians, is by Snelling. In it busts of 
Hippocrates and Aristophanes, his favourite 
Greek authors, lie before him. 

[Munk's Coll. of Phys. i. 207 ; Hamey's Bus- 
torum Aliquot Keliquiae, manuscript copy in the 
College of Physicians' Library ; Palmer's Life of 
the Most Eminent Dr. Baldwin Hamey, original 
manuscript in College of Physicians' Library.] 

N. M. 

1852); DOUGLAS, JAMES, fourth DUKE (1658- 

1712) ; DOUGLAS, WILLIAM, third DUKE 
(1635-1694); DOUGLAS, WILLIAM ALEX- 
(181 1-1863). For other dukes and marquises 
see HAMILTON below.] 

HAMILTON, MRS. (fi. 1745-1772), ac- 
tress, made her first recorded appearance at 
Covent Garden on 12 Dec. 1745 as the Queen in 
' King Henry V.' She was then, and for some 
years later, known as Mrs. Bland, her husband 
being an actor of small parts in the theatre. 
In the summer season of 1746 she supported 
Garrick in a short engagement, playing Regan 
in ' Lear,' Lady Anne in ' King Richard III,' 
Emilia in 'Othello/ and Dorinda in the 
( Stratagem.' She went to Dublin in 1748, 
and played at Smock Alley Theatre. She 
improved greatly, and reappeared at Covent 
Garden on 25 Sept. 1752 as Clarinda in the 
' Suspicious Husband.' Rich signed a long 
engagement on favourable terms. She re- 
mained at Covent Garden until 1762. She 
played Queen Elizabeth in the ' Earl of 
Essex ' of Henry Jones on 21 Feb. 1753, an 
original part, and long a special favourite 
with her. She played Emilia when Murphy 
appeared as Othello on 18 Oct. 1754, and 
spoke the prologue that he wrote for the occa- 
sion. She was now described as Mrs. Hamil- 
ton, late Mrs. Bland. She appeared as Portia, 
Lady Jane Grey, Hypolita, Jane Shore, and 
Cleopatra in 'All for Love/ Mrs. Sullen, 
Millamant, Rosalind, &c. Her second hus- 
band seems to have lived upon her, and 
robbed her at one time of 2,0001. She was 
fine-looking, inclined from the first to port- 
liness, and in the end very stout ; had a mass 
of black hair, wore no powder, was generous, 
but vulgar, quarrelsome, and conceited. She 
had much comic spirit, and was respectable in 
tragedy ,which was scarcely her forte. An un- 
lucky quarrel with George Anne Bellamy won 
her the nickname of ' Tripe.' Beard and Ben- 
craft, who succeeded Rich at Covent Garden, 
found her intractable, but held themselves 
pledged to her by their predecessor. Believ- 
ing herself necessary to the theatre, she let 
out that a secret clause in her agreement 
with Rich released either of them in the case 
of a change of management, and was dis- 
missed at the close of the season 1761-62. 
She went to Dublin, and was unsuccessful, 
married in Ireland (at Kilkenny f ) a third 
husband, Captain Sweeney, who also lived 
ipon her. Tate Wilkinson found her at Mai- 
ton playing the Nurse in ' Romeo and Juliet ' 
with a wretched company, and engaged her 
through charity. She appeared at York in 
January 1772 as Queen Elizabeth, and some 
interest was inspired by her misfortunes. 




An accident to her false teeth as she played 
Lady Brumpton turned applause into ridi- 
cule. Her last appearance in York, and 
probably on any stage, was on 11 April 
1772. She returned to Covent Garden an 
object of charity. Her distresses were the 
cause of the establishment of the Theatrical 
Fund, from which, as she was not on the 
books of either Drury Lane or Covent Gar- 
den, she could receive nothing but a donation. 
Through the influence of Thomas Hull [q. v.] 
and his wife she was made wardrobe-keeper 
and dresser at the Richmond Theatre. She 
died in poverty and obscurity. 

[In his Wandering Patentee, 1795, Tate Wil- 
kinson devotes thirty pages (i. 123-53) to a 
gossiping and good-natured account of this actress. 
She is praised in A General View of the Stage, 
by Mr. Wilkes (Samuel Derrick), 1759, and by 
various writers of the period. Genest's Account of 
the Stage, Hitchcock's Irish Stage, andGilliland's 
Dramatic Mirror have been consulted. Dibdin's 
Edinburgh Stage speaks of Mrs. Bland Hamil- 
ton playing in Edinburgh iu 1765-6, and says 
' she has lost her voice, her looks, her teeth, and 
is deformed in her person.'] J. K. 

merchant and author, describes himself as 
t having a rambling mind and a fortune too 
narrow to allow him to travel like a gentle- 
man.' He therefore < applied himself to the 
study of nautical affairs,' and having spent his 
younger days ' in visiting most of the maritime 
kingdoms of Europe and some parts of Bar- 
bary,' and having made a voyage to Jamaica, 
he went out to the East Indies in 1688, and 
remained there till 1723. During this time he 
seems to have followed a life of commercial 
adventure, sometimes as captain of a ship, 
sometimes as supercargo, sometimes in a ship 
of .his own, or in one privately owned, some- 
times in a ship of one or other of the rival 
companies, and so to have visited almost every 
port, from Jeddah in the Red Sea to Amoy in 
China. His adventures and experiences are 
told in a most interesting manner in his ( New 
Account of the East Indies ' (2 vols. 8vo, 1727 ; 
2nd edit. 2 vols. 8vo, 1744),a work which, in the 
charm of its naive simplicity, perfect honesty, 
with some similarity of subject in its account 
of the manners and history of people little 
known, offers a closer parallel to the history 
of Herodotus than perhaps any other in 
modern literature. Its historical value must, 
however, be weighted with his distinct con- 
fession that 'these observations have been 
mostly from the storehouse of my memory, 
and are the amusements or lucubrations of 
the nights of two long winters ; ' and again, 
that ' If I had thought while I was in India 
of making my observations or remarks public 

and to have had the honour of presenting 
them to so noble a patron ' as the Duke of 
Hamilton, to whom the work is dedicated 
' I had certainly been more careful and curious 
in my collections, and of keeping memoran- 
dums to have made the work more complete.' 
As these reminiscences extend over five-and- 
thirty years, they may well be occasionally 
untrustworthy ; still, as a seaman, we may 
suppose that he had his journals, or, as a 
merchant, his trade memoranda, which would 
to some extent keep him straight. Of his 
honesty and of his truthfulness, within the 
limits of his memory and observation, it is 
impossible to doubt. He returned to England 
in 1723, seems to have spent a considerable 
part of 1724 in Holland, presumably settling 
his business affairs, and the two following 
years in writing and arranging his 'lucu- 
brations.' He describes himself as having 
' brought back a charm that can keep out 
the meagre devil, poverty, from entering into 
my house, and so I have got holy Agur's 
wish in Prov. xxx. 8. A ' Captain Alexander 
Hamilton' died 7 Oct. 1732 (Gent. Mag. 
1732, p. 1030). 

[The only authority for Hamilton's life is his 
own book ; there is also some mention of him in 
Clement Downing's Compendious History of the 
Indian Wars (1737), pp. 14-25.] J. K. L. 

1802), professor of midwifery in Edinburgh 
University, was born in 1739 at Fordo un, 
Kincardineshire, where his father, a retired 
army surgeon, practised. In 1758 he became 
assistant to John Straiten, surgeon, of Edin- 
burgh; on his master's death in 1762 he was 
admitted member of the Edinburgh College 
of Surgeons, and commenced to practise. He 
afterwards obtained a medical degree, and 
was admitted a licentiate, and subsequently 
fellow, of the Edinburgh College of Phy- 
sicians. In 1777, as deacon of the Edinburgh 
College of Surgeons, he made a strenuous 
effort to get surgery taught in the university 
by a separate professor, but failed, owing to 
the opposition of Monro secundus. After lec- 
turing on midwifery with success for some 
years, he was in 1780 appointed joint pro- 
fessor of midwifery in the university of Edin- 
burgh with Dr. Thomas Young, and sole pro- 
fessor in 1783 on Young's death. Through 
his exertions the Lying-in Hospital was esta- 
blished in 1791. He was a successful prac- 
titioner and writer on midwifery. [For de- 
tails respecting the accusation made by Dr. 
James Gregory in 1792 that Hamilton was 
the author of a pamphlet on the ' Study of 
Medicine in Edinburgh University,' which 
Hamilton denied, see GREGORY, JAMES (1753- 
1821) and HAMILTON, JAMES, jun. (d. 1839).] 




Hamilton resigned his professorship in 1800, 
and died on 23 May 1802. His sons James 
(d. 1839) and Henry Parr are separately 

Hamilton wrote : 1. ' Elements of the Prac- 
tice of Midwifery,' London, 1775. 2. ' A 
Treatise of Midwifery, comprehending the 
whole Management of Female Complaints and 
Treatment of Children in early Infancy,' Edin- 
burgh, 1780 ; translated into German by J. P. 
Ebeling. 3. ' Outlines of the Theory and 
Practice of Midwifery,' Edinburgh, 1784 ; 5th 
edit. 1803. 4. ' Smellie's Anatomical Tables ; 
with Abridgment of the Practice of Mid- 
wifery/ revised, with notes and illustrations, 
Edinburgh, 1786. 5. 'Treatise on the Manage- 
ment of Female Complaints, and of Children 
in Early Infancy,' Edinburgh, 1792 ; 7th edit, 
revised by James Hamilton the younger, 
1813; French translation, 1798. 6. 'Letter 
to Dr. William Osborn on certain Doctrines 
contained in his Essays on the Practice of 
Midwifery,' Edinburgh, 1792. 

[Anderson's Scottish Nation, ii. 446; Prof. 
A. E. Simpson's Lecture on the Hist, of the Chair 
of Midwifery, 1883 ; Kay's Edinburgh Portraits ; 
J. Gairdner on Hist, of Medical Profession in 
Edinburgh (Edinburgh Med. Jour.), 1862, p. 700; 
Grant's Story of Edinburgh University, i. 322, 
ii. 416.] G. T. B. 

1824), orientalist, was in the employment of 
the East India Company in Bengal, and was 
a member of the Asiatic Society of Calcutta. 
On his return to England he continued his 
Sanscrit studies, first at the British Museum, 
and after the peace of Amiens at the Paris 
library. On the recommencement of hostili- 
ties he was among the British subjects de- 
tained as hostages. Regarded as the only 
man on the continent with a thorough mas- 
tery of Sanscrit, he taught that language to 
Frederic Schlegel and Fauriel. At the re- 
quest of Langles, keeper of oriental manu- 
scripts at the Paris Library, he drew up an 
analytical catalogue of its Sanscrit manu- 
scripts, which till then had been catalogued 
only by librarians ignorant of the language. 
This was translated, annotated, and published 
by Langles in the ' Magasin Encyclopedique,' 
1807. Released probably on account of this 
service, Hamilton, who in 1808 was elected 
a F.R.S., became professor of Sanscrit and 
Hindoo literature at Haileybury College. He 
published * The Hitopadesa in the Sanscrit 
Language,' London, 1811; 'Terms of Sanscrit 
Grammar,' London, 1815; and 'A Key to the 
Chronology of the Hindus,' 1820. He also 
wrote magazine articles on ancient Indian 
geography. He died at Liverpool 30 Dec. 

[Gent. Mag. 1 825 ; Journal Asiatique, Paris, 
1825; Academic des Inscriptions, notices of 
Fauriel and Chezy; Moniteur, 31 May and 
25 June 1808.] J. G. A. 

HAMILTON, ANDREW (d. 1691), 
rector and prebendary of Kilskerry, was 
probably son of Andrew Hamilton, M. A., who 
was collated in August 1639 to the rectory 
and prebend of Kilskerry, co. Tyrone, and 
the rectory of Magheracross, co. Fermanagh, 
which he held until 1661 (BKADSHAW, Ennis- 
killen Long Ago, p. 122). Andrew Hamilton, 
'jun.' (COTTON), was admitted to priest's 
orders on 7 Aug. 1661, and graduated M.A. 
at an unknown date and university. He was 
collated to the union of Kilskerry and Magh- 
eracross 4 April 1666, in succession to James 
Hamilton. He took an active part in the 
measures of self-defence adopted by the pro- 
testants in Ireland under James II, and 
lost heavily by the wanton destruction of 
his property. In August 1689 he was sent 
by the governor and officers of Enniskillen 
as their agent to King William and Queen 
Mary, with a certificate stating that Hamilton 
had been a member of their association from 
its inauguration on 9 Dec. 1688 ; that he had 
raised a troop of horse and a company of foot ; 
that a force under the Duke of Berwick had 
burnt his houses in ten villages, and carried off 
over a thousand cows, two hundred horses, and 
two thousand sheep from him and his tenants ; 
that he had lost his private estate and church 
living, worth above 400/. a year, and now in 
the enemy's power ; and that he had been a 
' painful and constant preacher ' during his 
tenure of the prebend of Clogher. His name 
appears in the l List of the Persons Attainted 
in King James's Parliament of 1689 in Ire- 
land' as 'Andrew Hamilton of Maghery- 
crosse, clerk.' Having been, as he has stated, 
' an eye-witness ' of what he describes, and 
an ' actor therein/ he published a small quarto, 
entitled 'A True Relation of the Actions of 
the Inniskilling Men from December 1688, 
for the Defence of the Protestant Religion 
and their Lives and Liberties' (London, 
1690), and this faithful record has been twice 
reprinted (Belfast, 1 813 and 1864). He died 
in 1691, and was succeeded in his benefice 
by James Kirkwood. 

[Cotton's Fasti Ecclesise Hibernicae, iii. 98 ; 
Bradshaw's Enniskillen Long Ago, pp. 112, 122; 
Sir James Ware's Works, ed. Harris, ii. 252; 
Archbishop King's State of the Protestants of 
Ireland under King James's Government, ed. 
1691, p. 276.] B. H. B. 

HAMILTON (1636-1717). [See under 




HAMILTON, LADY ANNE (1766-1846), 
friend of Queen Caroline, George IV's wife, 
was eldest daughter of Archibald, ninth duke 
of Hamilton and sixth of Brandon, by Lady 
Harriet Stewart, fifth daughter of the sixth 
Earl of Galloway. Lord Archibald Hamil- 
ton [q. v.], political reformer, was her brother. 
She was born on 16 March 1766, and became 
lady-in-waiting to Caroline, princess of Wales. 
.She held this position till the princess's 
foreign journey in 1813. She met Queen 
Caroline at Montbard on her return to Eng- 
land in 1820, and entered London in the 
;same carriage with her. Afterwards Queen 
Caroline took up her residence with her in 
Portman Street, Portman Square. On the 
-abandonment of the Pains and Penalties Bill 
the queen, accompanied by Lady Anne, went 
to Hammersmith Church to receive the sa- 
'-crament. Lady Anne also walked on the 
queen's right in the procession to St. Paul's 
on 30 Nov. to return thanks for her acquittal. 
The queen died at Hammersmith on 7 Aug. 
1821, and Lady Anne accompanied the body 
to Brunswick, and was present when it was 
laid in the royal vault there on 26 Aug. The 
only legacy left her by the queen was a pic- 
ture of herself. On the death of William, 
fourth duke of Queensberry, in 1810, Lady 
Anne received a legacy of 10,0007. ; but 
she presented this to her brother, Lord 
Archibald Hamilton, and her circumstances 
during her later years were by no means 
affluent. She died on 10 Oct. 1846 in White 
Lion Street, Islington, and was buried in 
Kensal Green cemetery. A person who had 
gained the confidence of Lady Anne, and ob- 
tained from her a variety of private informa- 
tion, published, without her knowledge and 
much to her regret and indignation, a volume 
purporting to be written by her, entitled 
4 Secret History of the Court of England from 
the Accession of George III to the Death of 
George IV,' London, 1832. A reprint ap- 
peared in 1878. 

[Gent. Mag. new ser. 1846, pt. ii. pp. 552, 661 ; 
Memoirs of Queen Caroline, severally by Night- 
ingale, Adolphus, and Clerke.] T. F. H. 

1720), author of the l Memoires du Comte de 
Grammont/ third son of Sir George Hamilton 
[see under HAMILTON, JAMES, first EAEL OP 
ABERCORN] by Mary, third daughter of Wal- 
ter, viscount Thurles, eldest son of Walter, 
eleventh earl of Ormonde, was probably born 
at Roscrea, Tipperary, about 1646. Anthony 
Hamilton's eldest brother, James, was groom 
of the bedchamber to Charles II, and colonel 
of a regiment of foot ; he died of wounds re- 
ceived in a naval engagement with the Dutch 

6 June 1679, and was buried in Westminster 
Abbey, where a monument was erected to 
his memory by the Duke of Ormonde ; his 
eldest son was James Hamilton, sixth earl 
of Abercorn [q. v.] The second brother, 
George, was page to Charles II during his 
exile, and after the Restoration was an officer 
of the horse guards till 1667 ; he then en- 
tered the French service with a troop of 
horse who were enrolled in the bodyguard of 
Louis XIV, and known as the ' gens d'armes 
Anglais ; ' he was made a count and mare- 
chal du camp, and was killed at the battle of 
Saverne ; he married Frances Jennings, after- 
wards Duchess of Tyrconnell [see under TAL- 
had by her three daughters. These two bro- 
thers are frequently mentioned in the ' M6- 
moires.' Thomas, the fourth brother, was in 
the naval service, and is perhaps the Thomas 
Hamilton of whom a biography is given by 
Charnock (Biographia Navalis, i. 310-11, 
where he is confused with his eldest brother, 
James) ; he is said to have died in New Eng- 
land. Richard, the fifth, is separately noticed. 
John, the sixth, was a colonel in the service 
of King James, and was killed at the battle of 
Aughrim in 1691. Anthony Hamilton had 
also three sisters, of whom the eldest was 
Elizabeth, comtesse de Grammont [q. v.] 

Anthony Hamilton probably accompanied 
his brother George to France in 1667, as we 
hear of him in Limerick in 1673 holding a 
captain's commission in the French army and 
recruiting for his brother's corps. He ap- 
peared as a zephyr in a performance of Qui- 
nault's ballet, the ' Triomphe de 1'Amour,' at 
St. Germain-en-Laye in 1681. In 1685 he 
was appointed to succeed Sir William King 
as governor of Limerick, where he arrived on 
1 Aug., and soon after went publicly to mass, 
which no governor had done for thirty-five 
years. He was at this time lieutenant-colonel 
of Sir Thomas Newcomen's regiment, but was 
advanced, on Lord Clarendon's recommenda- 
tion, to the command of a regiment of dra- 
goons and sworn of the privy council in 1686. 
About the same time he was granted a pen- 
sion of 200/. per annum, charged on the Irish 
establishment. With the rank of major-gene- 
ral he commanded the dragoons, under Lord 
Mountcashell, at the siege of Enniskillen, and 
in the battle of Newtown Butler on 31 July 
1689 was wounded in the leg at the begin- 
ning of the action, and his raw levies were 
routed with great slaughter. Hamilton suc- 
ceeded in making good his escape, and fought 
at the battle of the Boyne, 1 July 1690 (The 
Actions of the Inniskilling Men, pp. 37-8 ; A. 
Farther Account of the Actions of the Innis- 
killing Men, pp. 60-1 ; Great and Good News 




from His Grace the Duke of Schomberg's Camp 
atDundalk>I689; STOEY, Continuation of the 
History of the Wars of Ireland, p. 30). He 
is probably the Colonel Hamilton mentioned 
by Luttrell (23 Dec. 1690) as the author of 
an intercepted letter to King James ' giving 
an account of the desperate condition of the 
garrison of Limerick. He does not appear 
to have been present at the battle of Aughrim. 
It is not clear when or how he obtained his 
title of count. The Count Hamilton who 
was in the service of the Roman catholic 
elector palatine, Johann Wilhelm, in 1694-5, 
is another person (LTTTTRELL, Relation of 
State Affairs, ii. 149, iii. 454 ; Hist. MSS. 
Comm. 7th Rep. App. 264-5). The rest of 
his life appears to have been spent chiefly at 
the court of St. Germain-en-Laye, where he 
wrote some touching verses on the death of 
King James (6 Sept. 1701). He lived on 
terms of the closest intimacy with the family 
circle of the Duke of Berwick, as many let- 
ters printed in his correspondence testify. 
He is said to have been naturally grave and 
in later life sincerely religious, and to have 
had little readiness of wit in conversation. 
He never married. He died at St. Germain- 
en-Laye on 21 April 1720. 

To Henrietta Bulkeley, one of the duchess's 
sisters, whom he sometimes addresses fami- 
liarly as ' belle Henriette/ Hamilton seems to 
have been particularly attached. Five charm- 
ing letters from him to this lady (Mile. B***) 
are extant ((Euvres, ed. Renouard, iii. 148 ; 
ADOLPHE JTJLLIEST, Les Grandes Nuits de 
Sceaux, p. 18). Some of his best verses are 
also addressed to this lady and to her sisters, 
the Duchess of Berwick and Laura Bulkeley. 
With the Duke of Berwick he carried on a 
regular correspondence during his campaigns 
in Spain and Flanders (1706-8). His verses 
are usually graceful, but hardly poetical. They 
consist principally of epistles and songs ad*- 
dressed to various ladies. Passages of verse are 
not unfrequently introduced in his prose let- 
ters, of which practice the celebrated 'Epistle 
to the Comte de Grammont ' is the most re- 
markable example. His epistolary style is 
uniformly easy and sprightly and often bril- 
liant ((Euvres, ed. Renouard, vol. iii.) For 
the entertainment of his friends, and particu- 
larly of Henrietta Bulkeley, Hamilton wrote 
four f Contes,' designed to satirise the fashion- 
able stories of the marvellous. These are : 
1. ' Le Belier,' written to furnish a romantic 
etymology for the name of Pontalie, given to 
an estate belonging to his sister, the Comtesse 
de Grammont, in substitution for the too com- 
monplace Moulineau, the principal incident 
being a contest between a prince and a giant 
for the daughter of a druid. 2. ' Histoire de 

Fleur d'Epine,' satirising the popular imita- 
tions of the ' Arabian Nights' Entertainments/ 
which were written, as Hamilton says, in a 
style ' plus Arabe qu'en Arabic.' 3. < Les Quat re- 
Facardins,' a fragment in the same style, com- 
pleted by the Due de Leon for Renouard's- 
edition of Hamilton's works (Paris, 1812, 8vo), 
4. <Zen6yde,' in which the nymph of the Seine 
recounts her history; also a fragment, and 
completed by the Due de L6on in Renouard's 
edition. He also wrote a fifth < Conte,' ' L'En- 
chanteur Faustus,' in which Queen Elizabeth 
reviews a series of beauties from Helen to Fair 
Rosamond; 'La VolupteV and some frag- 
mentary pieces entitled ' Relations de diffe- 
rents endroits d'Europe,' and 'Relation d'un 
Voyage en Mauritanie.' About 1704 Hamilton 
wrote the ' Epistle to the Comte de Gram- 
mont,' announcing his intention of writing the 
'Memoirs 'of the count (ib. iii. 1 etseq.) Hamil- 
ton sent the letter to Boileau, from whom he 
received a very complimentary reply on 8 Feb.. 
1705 ((Euvres de Boileau, ed. Gidel, iv. 242). 
He probably began the composition of the 
t Memoirs ' about the same period, deriving 
the materials direct from the count. The 
work is mainly occupied with the l amorous- 
intrigues ' at the court of Charles II during 
1662-4; it is written with such brilliancy 
and vivacity that it must always rank as a 
classic. Grammont died in 1707, and the 
book appeared anonymously in 1713. It be- 
came what Chamfort ((Euvres, ed. 1824,. 
iii. 247) called it, ' le breViaire de la jeune 
noblesse.' The Abbe de Voisenon thought 
it a book to be regularly re-read every year 
((Euvres, ed. 1781, iv. 129). Voltaire's es- 
timate is more discriminating : ' de tous les- 
livres celui ou le fonds le plus mince est par& 
du style le plus gai, le plus vif et le plus, 
original ' ((Euvres, ed. 1785, xx. 101). That 
a foreigner should thus prove himself more- 
French than the French is a unique pheno- 
menon in the history of literature. Hamil- 
ton also executed a free paraphrase in French 
Alexandrines of Pope's * Essay on Criticism/ 
a copy of which he sent to Pope, and which 
Pope very handsomely acknowledged, 10 Oct.. 
1713 (POPE, Works, ed. Roscoe, vi. 215). It 
remains in manuscript, with the exception of 
a brief extract appended to Renouard's edi- 
tion of Hamilton's ' Works ' (1812). Hamil- 
ton was accustomed to write their letters for 
several of his lady friends, and in particular 
for his niece the Countess of Stafford, Lady 
Mary Wortley Montagu's friend. A few of 
these letters are extant in his correspondence 
( Works, ed. Renouard, iii. 199 et seq.) 

The principal editions of the ' M6moires r 
are : (1) ' Mmoires de la Vie du Comte 
de Grammont. Contenant partlculierement 




L'Histoire Amoureuse de la Cour d'Angle- 
terre sous le Regne de Charles II ' (with an 
' avis du libraire '), Cologne, 1713, 1715 ; Rot- 
terdam, 1716; the Hague (with 'Discours 
Preliminaire '), 1731 or 1741 ; Utrecht, 1732, 
12mo ; (2) ' Memoires de la Vie du Comte 
de Grammont ' (Bibliotheque de Campagne, 
ed. E. A. Philippe de Pretot, vol. vi.), the 
Hague and Geneva, 1749, 12mo : (3) ' Me- 
moires du Compte (sic) de Grammont,' Am- 
sterdam (?), 1760, 12mo ; (4) < Memoires du 
Comte de Grammont. Nouvelle edition. Aug- 
mentee de Notes et Eclaircissemens N6ces- 
saires. Par M. Horace Walpole' (dedicated 
to Madame du Deffand), Strawberry Hill, 
1772, 4to (very rare, only one hundred copies 
having been printed ) ; (5) London, 1776, 8vo ; 

(6) Paris, 1780 (D'Artois collection; on vel- 
lum, only three copies printed), 3 torn. 18mo ; 

(7) London, 1781, 2 torn. 12mo; (8) London, 
1793, 4to (with 72 portraits) ; (9) London, 
1811, 2 torn. 8vo (with biographical notice and 
64 portraits engraved by E. Scriven; revised 
and edited by A. F. Bertrand de Moleville, 
with notes drawn in part from Sir Walter 
Scott's edition of the English translation, as 
to which see infra) ; (10) ' . . . accompagnes 
d'un appendice contenant des extraits du 
journal de S. Pepys et de celui de J. Evelyn 
. . . d'une introduction et de commentaires, 
&c., par G. Brunet,' Paris, 1859, 12mo; 
(11) * . . . avec une introduction et des notes 
par M. de Lescure' (Nouvelle Bibliotheque 
Classique\ Paris, 1876, 12mo ; (12) * Reim- 
pression conforme a 1'Edition Princeps, 1713. 
Preface et Notes par B. Pifteau. Frontispice, 
Six Eaux-fortes par J. Chauvet. Lettres, 
Fleurons, et Culs-de-Lampe par L. Lemaire,' 
Paris, 1876, 8vo; (13) Paris, 1888, 8vo (with 
portrait and thirty-three etchings by Boisson, 
from compositions by Delort, preface by 
Gausseron). There is also an English trans- 
lation by Abel Boyer, a very slovenly per- 
formance, London, 1714, 1719, 8vo ; revised 
and edited anonymously, with notes and il- 
lustrations by Sir Walter Scott, 1811, 8vo; 
reprinted, London, 1818; again, in Bonn's 
extra volume, London, 1846, 8vo ; new and 
revised edition, illustrated by Boisson, after 
Delort, London, 1889, 8vo. A German trans- 
lation appeared at Leipzig in 1780, 8vo. 

Of the * Contes ' the following are the chief 
editions : (1) * Le Belier, Conte,' Paris, 
1730, 12mo; (2) 'Les Quatre Facardins, 
Conte,' Paris (?), 1749, 12mo ; (3) ' His- 
toire de Fleur d'Epine,' Paris (?), 1749, 
12mo ; (4) * (Euvres Diverses du Comte An- 
toine Hamilton ' ( the ' Lettres et Epitres ' 
and ' Zeneyde '), London, 1776, 12mo ; 
(5) 'Contes d'Hamilton' (D'Artois collec- 
tion; vellum, three copies only printed), 

Paris, 1781, 8vo ; (6) ' Le Belier, Fleur 
d'Epine, et Les Quatre Facardins ' (' Le- 
Cabinet des Fees,' vol. xx.), Amsterdam, 1785, . 
8vo ; (7) ' L'Enchanteur Faustus ' ('Voyages 
Imaginaires, Songes, Visions, et Romans Ca- 
balistiques,' vol. xxxv.), Amsterdam, 1789, 
8vo ; (8) * Contes d'Hamilton ' (without the 
continuations, and prefaced by Anger's bio- 
graphical notice, vols. xiii. and xiv. of a ' Col- 
lection dediee a Madame la Duchesse d'An- 
gouleme '), Paris, 1815, 3 torn. 16mo ; 1826 r 

2 torn. 32mo (in ' Collection de Classiques- 
Fran9ais ') ; 1828, 32mo (in ' Collection des 
Meilleurs Romans Fran9ais et Etrangers '). 
(9) * Contes d'Hamilton avec une notice de- 
M. de Lescure' (' Petits Chefs d'oeuvres' ser.) r 
Paris,! 873, 12mo; (10) 'Fleur d'Epine' (part 
of a volume of reprints edited by M. de Les- 
cure and entitled ' Le Monde Enchant^ ') r . 
Paris, 1883, 8vo. An English translation of 
the ' Contes ' appeared under the title of ' Se- 
lect Tales. Translated from the French,*" 
London, 1760, 2 vols. 12mo : another, en- 
titled * Fairy Tales and Romances. Trans- 
lated from the French by M. Lewis, H. T. 
Ryde, and C. Kenney,' in Bohn's extra volume, 
London, 1849, 8vo. There is also a German 
translation of the l Contes ' in ' Die Blaue 
Bibliothek,' vol. ii., Gotha, 1790. 

The following collected editions of Hamil- 
ton's work were issued : 1 . ' (Euvres du Comte 
Antoine Hamilton,' Paris and London, 1749 
1776, 7 torn. 12mo. 2. < CEuvres Completes 
du Comte Antoine Hamilton' (with historical 
and literary notices and additional pieces 
by L. S. Auger), Paris, 1804, 3 torn. 8vo. 
3. 'CEuvres,' with 'Notice sur la Vie et 
les Ouvrages d'Hamilton ' (unsigned), 1812, 

3 torn. 8vo; 1813, 5 torn. 18mo ; 1825, with 
biographical notice signed D. (Depping),! torn. 
8vo ; 1825, with biographical notice by J. B. J.. 
Champagnac, 2 torn. 8vo. 

[The earliest consecutive account of Hamilton's- 
life is the ' Avertissement' to an edition of the- 
Memoires published in 1746, Paris, 12mo, and 
which may also be read in Notes and Queries, 
1st ser. ix. 3. Biographies more or less elabo- 
rate are also prefixed to the collective editions of 
his works. Besides the works cited see Cunning- 
ham's Story of Nell Gwyn, 1852, App. ii. ; 
Querard's Diet. Nouvelle Biog. Univ. Litteraire ;. 
Douglas's Peerage of Scotland, i. 7; Carte's Life 
of Ormonde, iii. 584; Arlington's Letters, ii. 332 - r 
Gabriel Daniel's laMiliceFra^oise, 1721, 
ii. 247 ; Diet, des Theatres, v. 538 ; Memoires du 
Comte de Grammont, ed. Horace Walpole, 1772, 
p.viw ; Fitzgerald's Narrative of the Irish Popish 
Plot, 1680, p. 5 ; Ferrar's Limerick, 1st ed. 1767, 
p. 39, 2nd ed. 1787, p. 59; Lenihan's Limerick,, 
p. 210; Clarendon Correspondence, i. 336, 422-3, 
488-9, 553, ii. 1 ; Archdall's Peerage of Ireland,, 
v. 119.] J. M. E. 





1593), catholic controversialist, was a native 
of one of the islands off the coast of Scotland. 
Dempster states that he was educated in 
France, and became a professor in the uni- 
versity of Paris, a doctor of the Sorbonne, 
and by presentation of Mary Queen of Scots 
A canon of St. Quentin. According, however, 
to his antagonist, Thomas Smeton, he was 
brought up in the protestant faith, and re- 
ceived his education in the university of St. 
Andrews, where for five years he disputed 
against the authority of the pope. After his 
conversion to Catholicism he engaged in a 
public disputation with John Knox. In con- 
sequence of the civil wars in France he re- 
tired to Rome, where his learning secured 
for him the friendship of many illustrious 
men, and employment as one of the librarians 
at the Vatican. He died there in 1598 in 
the apartments which had been assigned to 
Tiim by Gregory XIII. 

He wrote : 1. ' De Confusione Calvinianse 
Sectee apud Scotos Ecclesise nomen ridicule 
usurpantis Dialogus/ Paris, 1577, 8vo, dedi- 
cated to Mary Queen of Scots. Thomas Sme- 
ton published a Latin reply to this work in 
1579. 2. ' Calvinianse Confusionis demon- 
stratio, contra maledicamMinistrorum Scotiae 
responsionem, in duos divisa libros. Quorum 
prior : proprietatum verae Ecclesiae evictio- 
nem : posterior, earundem in hypothesi ad 
res subjectasapplicatarum, contentionem con- 
tinet,' Paris, 1581, 8vo. 3. < De Philosophia 
Aristotelica.' In five books. 

[Dempster's Hist. Ecclesiastica, viii. 671, 672; 
Tanner's Bibl. Brit. ; Lowndes's Eibl. Man. 
<Bohn), p. 986.] T. C. 


<1580 P-1659), archbishop of Cashel and 
Emly, son of Claud Hamilton of Cochno 
in Dumbartonshire, was educated at Glas- 
gow University, where he proceeded D.D. 
Advanced by James I on 21 May 1623 to the 
conjoint sees of Killala and Achonry, he was 
consecrated in St. Peter's Church, Drogheda, 
on 29 June following. On 20 April 1630 he 
was translated to the archbishopric of Cashel 
and Emly. The temporalities of that see 
having been much diminished by the whole- 
sale alienations of Archbishop Miler Magragh 
[q. v.], Hamilton earnestly petitioned Went- 
worth for their recovery. But for this pur- 
pose the common law proved insufficient, and 
it required a special letter of instruction from 
the king to undo the mischief committed by 
Archbishop Magragh. Archbishop Laud, who 
was warmly interested in the case, but whose 
confidence, as he admitted, in Hamilton was 
not infinite, cautioned "VVentworth to keep 

a sharp eye on him lest he should prove * as 
good at it as Milerus was ' (STEAFFOED, 
Letters, i. 172, 380-1 ; LAUD, Works, vii. 
58-9, 107, 141, 159). It was not long before 
Hamilton incurred Laud's displeasure. For 
having, t upon his own authority, commanded 
a fast once a week for eight weeks together 
throughout his province/ it transpired in the 
course of his examination that, notwithstand- 
ing the restoration of his temporalities, he 
was in the possession of sixteen vicarages. 
Being summoned to Dublin to explain mat- 
ters, Hamilton pleaded inability to travel 
owing to an acute attack of sciatica. His 
excuse weighed little with Laud, who wrote 
to Wentworth: 'Do you not think it would 
lame any man to carry sixteen vicarages ? 
But surely that burden will help him to a 
sciatica in his conscience sooner than in his 
hips.' Hamilton's friends, including the 
queen of Bohemia, interceded with the king 
for his forgiveness, and solicited for him ' a 
portion in the plantation going forward in 
Ormonde or Clare.' But Laud and Went- 
worth both agreed that he already possessed 
as much as he deserved, and being pardoned, 
it does not appear that his petition was 
granted (LAUD, Works, vii. 298, 309, 328, 
393, vi. 522; STEAFFOED, Letters, ii. 42, 
157). In November 1641, when the rebel- 
lion broke out in Tipperary, Hamilton hap- 
pened to be absent from his diocese, and 
being joined by his wife and family, who 
owed their preservation to the humanity of 
their Roman catholic neighbours (HiCKSOtf, 
Irish Massacres, ii. 244, 245), he appears 
shortly afterwards to have quitted Ireland 
and, like many others of his kindred, to have 
retired to Sweden. His loss of personal pro- 
perty in the rebellion was very great. He 
is usually said to have died at Stockholm, 
aged about 80, in 1659. Peringskiold, in his 
' Monumenta Ullarakeriensia cum Upsalia 
Nova Illustrata ' (Stockholm, 1719, p. 176), 
states, however, that he died at Upsala in 
1658, and lies buried in the cathedral there, 
in the same grave as Laurentius Petrie 
Nericius, the first protestant archbishop of 
Upsala. Schroder in his 'Upsala Domkyrka' 
(2nd edit., Upsala, 1857), p. 27, repeats this 
statement, but the destruction by fire in 1702 
of the Upsala church registers makes con- 
firmation impossible, and inquiries at Upsala 
have failed to identify the grave. The arch- 
bishop married the daughter of Bessie Mac- 
Do wall, wet-nurse of the queen of Bohemia, 
and from one of his sons some of the existing 
Hamilton families in Sweden are believed to 
derive their descent. 

[Information very kindly supplied by Professor 
Harald Hjarne of ' Upsala; Lodge's (Archdall) 




Peerage; Cotton's Fasti Eccl. Hib. iv. 67; 
D' Alton's Hist, of Drogheda; "Ware's Works, ed. 
Harris ; Notes and Queries, 3rd ser. vol. v. ; 
Christianus Hagerman, Dissertatio G-radualis de 
illustri Hamiltoniomm gente, Lund, 1754 ; John 
Anderson's Historical and Genealogical Memoirs 
of the House of Hamilton, Edinburgh, 1825; 
Ussher's Works, vol. xv. ; Straiford's Letters ; 
Laud's Works, vols. vi. and vii. ; Mrs. Green's 
Lives of the Princesses of England, vol. v. ; Miss 
Hickson's Irish Massacres.] K. D. 

(1770-1827), political reformer, born on 
6 March 1770, was the younger son of Archi- 
bald, ninth duke of Hamilton and sixth duke 
of Brandon, by his wife Lady Harriet Stewart, 
daughter of the sixth earl of Galloway. He 
was therefore brother of Alexander Hamilton 
Douglas, tenth duke of Hamilton [see DOU- 
GLAS], and LadyAnne Hamilton, both of whom 
-are separately noticed. He was educated at 
Eton and Christ Church, Oxford, where he 
matriculated on 23 April 1788 and graduated 
B.A. in 1792 and M.A. in 1795. On 14 Oct. 
1790 he was admitted a student of Lincoln's 
Inn, and was called to the bar in Hilary term 
1799. It does not appear that he ever practised, 
and on 7 Nov. 1808 he took his name off the 
books of the society. At the general election in 
1802 he was returned to parliament for Lanark- 
shire, and continued to sit for that constituency 
until his death. Hamilton quickly became 
an active member of the opposition, and took 
a frequent part in the debates. He was an 
ardent advocate of political reform and a de- 
termined opponent of every kind of injustice 
and abuse. In 1804 he published 'Thoughts 
on the Formation of the Late and Present 
Administrations' (London, 1804, 8vo), in 
which he contended that Addington's and 
Pitt's second administration were formed 
4 upon principles fundamentally opposite to 
the spirit of the constitution and subversive 
of its dearest interests.' On 25 April 1809 
he brought forward his resolution of censure 
upon Lord Castlereagh for corrupt disposal 
of his patronage as president of the board of 
control. The resolution was lost by a majority 
of 49 (Parl. Debates, xiv. 203-57). On 7 May 
1819 his motion for referring the petitions 
from the royal burghs of Scotland to a select 
committee was carried against the govern- 
ment by 149 to 144 (ib. xl. 178-98). When, 
however, in February 1822, after enume- 
rating the abuses which the reports of the 
three committees of 1819, 1820, and 1821 
had disclosed, he moved that the house should 
in committee consider the state of the royal 
burghs, he was defeated. Like his sister, 
Lady Anne, he was a warm supporter of 
Queen Caroline, and on 22 June 1820 he 

moved an amendment to Wilberforce's mo- 
tion for adjusting the differences of the royal 
family, urging the insertion of the queen's 
name in the liturgy. It was seconded by 
Sir Francis Burdett, but the original motion 
was carried by a large majority (ib. new ser. 

1. 1259-65). 

Hamilton spoke for the last time in the 
house on 5 Dec. 1826, when he called atten- 
tion to the great distress which was then pre- 
vailing among the Lanarkshire weavers (ib. 
xvi. 227-30). He died unmarried on 28 Aug. 
1827, in the Upper Mall, Hammersmith, and 
was buried in the mausoleum at Hamilton 
Palace. Two of his speeches were published 
in pamphlet form, viz. : 1. ' Burgh Reform. 
Speech of the Right hon. (sic) Lord A. Hamil- 
ton, in the House of Commons, on his motion 
for production of the Papers respecting the 
Burgh of Aberdeen,' Glasgow, 1819, 8vo. 

2. ' Substance of the Speech delivered in the 
House of Commons, on the twentieth of Fe- 
bruary 1822, by Lord Archibald Hamilton, 
on a motion for going into a Committee of 
the whole House, on the subject of the Royal 
Burghs of Scotland. With a dedication to 
the Burgesses of the said Burghs/ London, 
1822, 8vo. 

[Douglas's Peerage of Scotland, 1813, i. 724 ; 
Wilson's Biog. Index to the House of Commons, 
1808, pp. 332-3 ; Gent. Mag. 1770 xl. 142, 1827 
vol. xcvii. pt. ii.p.462; Ann. Reg. 1770 p. 178, 
1827 App. to Chron. p. 255; Alumni Oxon. ii. 
592; Lincoln's Inn Registers; Official Return of 
Lists of Members of Parliament, pp. 226, 238, 
254, 269, 281, 296, 311 ; Notes and Queries, 7th 
ser. vi. 187, 338 ; Brit. Mus. Cat.] G. F. R. B. 

HAMILTON, CHARLES, (by courtesy) 
LOKD BINNING (1697-1733), poet, born in 
1697, was eldest son of Thomas Hamilton, 
sixth earl of Haddington [q. v.], by his wife 
Helen, only daughter of John Hope of Hope- 
toun. He was carefully educated. In 1715 
he j oined his father in suppressing the Jacobite 
rising, and fought gallantly at Sheriffmuir 
(13 Nov.) He was elected M.P. for St. Ger- 
mains, Cornwall, in 1722, and was afterwards 
knight marischal of Scotland, and a commis- 
sioner of trade. Signs of consumption making 
their appearance, Binning went to Naples. 
He died there on 13 Jan. H 1732-3, in his 
father's lifetime. By his wife Rachel, youngest 
daughter of George Baillie of Jerviswood, he 
had five sons and three daughters. His eldest 
son Thomas succeeded his grandfather in 
1735 as seventh earl of Haddington. 

A popular pastoral poem by Binning, en- 
titled l Ungrateful Nanny,' first appeared in 
the 'Gentleman's Magazine' for 1741, and 
was republished by Ritson in his ' Scottish 
Songs,' 1794. Another poem, 'The Duke of 




Argyle's Levee,' which appeared in the same 
periodical for 1740, although often assigned 
to Binning, was from the pen of Joseph 
Mitchell [q. v.] (cf. Lord Ilailes in Edinburgh 
Mag., April 1786). Binning is the subject 
of a fine elegy by William Hamilton of Ban- 
gour (1704-1754) [q. v.] An admirable por- 
trait, engraved by A. V. Haecken after a 
painting by J. Richardson, dated 1722, is in 
Walpole's ' Royal and Noble Authors/ 

[Walpole's Koyal and Noble Authors, ed. Park, 
v. 142 sq. ; Douglas's Peerage of Scotland, ed. 
Wood, i. 683-4; Anderson's Scottish Nation, 
ii. 442 ; Ritson's Scottish Songs.] 

HA.MILTON, CHARLES (1691-1754), 
historian, was natural son of James Dou- 
glas (1658-1712) [q. v.], earl of Arran, after- 
wards fourth duke of Hamilton, by Lady Bar- 
bara Fitzroy, natural daughter of Charles II 
and the Duchess of Cleveland. He was born 
at Cleveland House on 30 March 1691, while 
his father, Arran, was a prisoner in the Tower. 
Queen Mary and his father's father, "William 
Douglas [q. v.], third duke of Hamilton, were 
incensed at the discovery of the intrigue, and 
they made it a condition of Arran's release 
that Lady Barbara should retire abroad. She 
soon died in the nunnery at Pontoise. Hamil- 
ton was brought up at Chiswick by his ma- 
ternal grandmother, the Duchess of Cleveland, 
and was, on his father's marriage, sent by him 
to France, and put under the care of the Earl 
of Middleton, secretary to James II. He was 
styled count of Arran, and used his oppor- 
tunity to collect historical material. He 
accompanied his father in his famous duel 
with Lord Mohun in November 1707, and 
himself fought with and disarmed General 
Macartney, whom he accused of treacherously 
stabbing the duke. Hamilton was for a time 
committed to Newgate. General Macartney, 
who had been obliged to flee to the continent, 
was again challenged by Hamilton, then at 
Antwerp, but refused to fight. 

Hamilton finally settled in Switzerland, 
where he occupied himself with classical 
studies. In 1737 he married Antoinette 
Courtney of Archambaud. He died at 
Paris on 13 Aug. 1754, and was buried at 
Montmartre. He is usually credited with 
the authorship of ' Transactions during the 
Reign of Queen Anne, from the Union to the 
Death of that Princess,' published at Edin- 
burgh, 1790 ; but, as appears from the preface, 
the book was written by his son and only 
child Charles, who was born at Edinburgh 
16 July 1738, and died at Edinburgh 9 April 
1800, irom materials bequeathed to him by 
the father. Anderson in his ' Scottish Na- 
tion ' confuses him with his namesake Charles 

Hamilton (1753 P-1792) [q. v.] The son is- 
perhaps the Charles Hamilton who in 1784 
published ' The Patriot ; a Tragedy from the 
Italian of Metastasio ' (BAKER, Bioq. Dram.. 
i. 309). 

[Preface to Transactions ; Hist. MSS. Comm. 
llth Rep. App. pt. v. pp. 311-14 ; John Ander- 
son's Historical and Genealogical Memoirs of the 
House of Hamilton, Ediiib. 1825 ; Anderson's 
Scottish Nation, ii. 421.] F. W-T. 

HAMILTON, CHARLES (1753 P-1792), 
orientalist, born in Belfast about 1753, was 
the only son of Charles Hamilton (d. 1759), 
merchant, by Miss Katherine Mackay (d+ 
1767). After spending two years in the 
office of a Dublin merchant he obtained a 
cadetship on the East India Company's esta- 
blishment at Bengal, and proceeded to India 
in 1776. He gained his first commission on 
24 Oct. of that year, and was promoted lieu- 
tenant on 10 July 1778 (DODWELL and MILES, 
Indian Army List, pp. 126-7). He studied 
oriental languages, and became one of the first 
members of the Asiatic Society of Calcutta. 
While engaged in the expedition against the 
Rohillas he collected the materials for his 
excellent 'Historical Relation of the Ori- 
gin, Progress, and Final Dissolution of the 
Government of the Rohilla Afgans in the 
Northern Provinces of Hindostan,' 1787, com- 
piled from a Persian manuscript and other 
original papers. In 1786 he obtained per- 
mission to return home for five years in order 
to translate from the Persian the ' Hedaya,. 
or Guide,' a commentary on the Mussulman 
laws ; he was selected for the task by the 
governor-general and council of Bengal. The 
work having been published in four quarto 
volumes in 1791, Hamilton was appointed 
resident at the court of the grand vizier at 
Oudh, and prepared to leave England. Symp- 
toms of consumption, however, appeared, and 
he was recommended to take a voyage to Lis- 
bon, but he died at Hampstead on 14 March 
1792, aged 39, and was buried in Bunhill 
Fields. A monument to his memory was 
afterwards erected at Belfast by his sisters, 
one of whom was the well-known writer, 
Elizabeth Hamilton (1758-1816) [q. v.] A 
second edition of the ' Hedaya/ by Standish 
Grove Grady, was published in 1870. 

[Benger's Memoirs of Mrs. Elizabeth Hamil- 
ton, vol. i.] G. G. 

1849), admiral, born 6 July 1767, was eldest 
son of Sir John Hamilton. His father was a 
grandson of Sir William Hamilton of Chels- 
ton, brother of James Hamilton, sixth earl of 
Abercorn [q.v.] ; he was a captain in the royal 
navy, was created a baronet in 1776 for his 




gallant conduct during the siege of Quebec in 
the previous year, and died 24 Jan. 1784 ; 
by his wife Cassandra Agnes, daughter of Ed- 
ward Chamberlayne of Maugersbury, Glou- 
cestershire, he had two sons, Charles and 
Edward [q. v.] In 1776 Charles Hamilton 
was entered on the books of the Hector, then 
commanded by his father, and in the fol- 
lowing year was nominated to the Royal 
Naval Academy at Portsmouth, from which 
in 1779 he was again appointed to the Hector. 
In her he went out to the Jamaica station ; 
and on 20 Oct. 1781 was made lieutenant 
into the Tobago sloop. On the death of his 
father, 24 Jan. 1784, he succeeded to the 
baronetcy. In 1789 he was promoted to be 
commander of the Scorpion, and was advanced 
to post rank 22 Nov. 1790. Early in 1793 
he was appointed to the Dido frigate, which, 
after a summer in the North Sea and on the 
coast of Norway, was sent out to the Medi- 
terranean, where, in the following spring, 
Hamilton served at the sieges of Bastia, Calvi, 
San Fiorenzo, and in the reduction of a mar- 
tello tower at Girolata. In July he was 
moved into the San Fiorenzo, one of the cap- 
tured frigates, and shortly after into the 
Romney, in which he returned to England. 
He then commissioned the Melpomene, which 
he commanded for upwards of seven years, 
in the operations on the coast of Holland in 
1799 [see MITCHELL, SIR ANDREW], as senior 
officer on the coast of Africa, and at the re- 
duction of Goree in 1800 : and in the West 
Indies, where he also carried out the duties 
of commissioner at Antigua till July 1802. 
In 1801 he was returned to parliament as 
member for Dungannon, and in 1807 for 
Honiton, which he continued to represent 
till 1812, although at the time serving actively 
afloat. In November 1803 he was appointed 
to the Illustrious of 74 guns, in the Channel 
fleet, and afterwards to the T6meraire and 
Tonnant. On 1 Aug. 1810 he was promoted 
to be rear-admiral, and hoisted his flag on 
board the Thisbe frigate, as commander-in- 
chief in the Thames, a post which he held 
till his promotion to be vice-admiral 4 June 
1814. From 1818 to 1824 he was governor 
and commander-in-chief at Newfoundland ; 
attained the rank of admiral 22 July 1830, 
was nominated a K.C.B. 29 Jan. 1833, and 
died at his residence, Iping, near Midhurst 
in Sussex, on 14 Sept. 1849. He married in 
1803 Henrietta Martha, daughter of Mr. 
George Drummond, and left issue a son, 
who succeeded to the baronetcy. 

[Marshall's Roy. Nav. Biog. i. 411; O'Byrne's 
Nav. Biog. Diet, ; Gent. Mag. 1784 pt. i. 150, 
1850 pt. i. 315; Burke's Peerage and Baro- 
netage.] J. K. L. 

(1543 P-1622), generally known as LORD 
CLATJD HAMILTON, was the fourth son of 
James Hamilton, second earl of Arran and 
duke of Chatelherault [q. v.], by his wife 
Lady Margaret, eldest daughter of James 
Douglas, third earl of Morton [q. v.] The 
date of Hamilton's birth is uncertain, but it 
was possibly in September 1543, for Sir Ralph 
Sadler wrote to Henry VIII that Chatel- 
herault had gone 'to Blackness to his wife, 
who laboured with child ' (SADLER, Letters) ; 
but he is said to have been in his seventy- 
eighth year at the time of his death ; while on 
20 March 1560 the list of Scottish pledges 
gives his age as fourteen (Cal. State Papers, 
For. Ser. 1559-60, entry 903), and a papal 
bull of 5 Dec. 1553, conferring on him the 
abbey of Paisley in commendam, says that he 
was in his fourteenth year (bull printed in 
LEE'S Abbey of Paisley, pp. clxxxiii-5). The 
bull was issued at the instance of Claud's 
uncle, John Hamilton (1511 P-1571) [q. v.], 
archbishop of St. Andrews, who until then 
held the abbacy, and was still to administer 
its temporal and spiritual concerns till his 
nephew Claud should reach his twenty-third 
year ; and as a matter of fact Claud was infeft 
in the temporalities on 29 July 1567. Being 
one of the hostages for the fulfilment of the 
treaty of Berwick, Hamilton was detained in 
England at Newcastle till February 1561-2 
(ib. 1561-2, entry 860). He took a leading 
part in the plot for the deliverance of Queen 
Mary from Lochleven and her re-establish- 
ment on the throne. Shortly after Mary 
crossed the Firth of Forth on her escape on 
2 May 1568, he met her with fifty horse and 
convoyed her first to Niddry Castle, Linlith- 
gowshire, and then to Hamilton. In all pro- 
bability it was not Lord John Hamilton 
[q. v.], as stated by Sir James Melville (Me- 
moirs, p. 201), but Lord Claud as stated by 
Herries (Memoirs, p. 102), and by the author 
of the ' Hist, of James the Sext ' (p. 26), who 
led the vanguard of the queen at the battle 
of Langside ; for Lord John had some time 
previously gone to France, and apparently 
had not returned in time to sign the band of 
8 May. The vanguard consisted of about 
two thousand men, who endeavoured to storm 
the village, and were all but successful in 
turning the regent's right when, through the 
watchfulness of Kirkcaldy of Grange, rein- 
forcements were brought up from the main 
battle, who with their low weapons l struck 
their enemy in their flanks and faces ' (SiR 
JAMES MELVILLE, Memoirs, p. 202), and 
threw them into confusion. At the parlia- 
ment held by the regent in the same year 
Hamilton and the other principal supporters 




of the queen were forfeited (Acta Parl. Scot. 
iii. 45-8). With his brother, Lord John, he 
was concerned in the plot by which the regent 
Moray was assassinated (January 1570), and 
James Hamilton of Bothwellhaugh [q. v.l, 
the murderer, subsequently applied to him by 
letter for assistance (Cal. State Papers, For. 
Ser. 1572-4, entry 4). On the forfeiture of 
Hamilton the abbey and lands of Paisley had 
been bestowed on Lord Semple, who placed a 
strong garrison in the castle. During a truce 
in 1571 Claud Hamilton surprised it and left 
a dependent, John Hamilton, with several 
men-at-arms, to hold it ; but the new regent, 
Lennox, by cutting off their water supply com- 
pelled them to surrender (HEEKIES, Memoirs, 
p. 131). On 19 April of this year he was re- 
ceived by the queen's party into the castle of 
Edinburgh (Bannatyne Memorials, p. 111). 
He was one of the leaders of the daring attempt 
to capture the regent Lennox and the principal 
lords of the king's party at Stirling on 5 Sept. ; 
and the trooper Calder, who shot the regent, 
confessed that he did so^by Hamilton's spe- 
cial instructions (confession in Cal. State 
Papers, For. Ser. 1569-71, entry 2023). It 
was also asserted that he had given directions 
that all the noblemen taken prisoners should 
be slain as soon as they were brought outside 
the port of the town (CALDERWOOD, i. 139). 
On 3 July 1572 he and other Hamiltons were 
specially denounced as traitors (Reg. P. C. 
Scotl. ii. 155) ; but on the 10th of the same 
month he surprised Lord Semple while col- 
lecting rents from his tenants, killing forty- 
two of his men and taking sixteen prisoners 
(Hist. James the Sext, p. 113). By the ' paci- 
fication of Perth,' 23 Feb. 1572-3 (printed 
in Reg. P. C. Scotl. ii. 193-200), Hamilton 
was replaced in possession of his estates. 
Lord Semple refused to deliver up the house 
of Paisley, but Hamilton, on 10 June 1573, 
obtained a levy of forces to aid him in re- 
covering it (ib. p. 241). In August 1574 
Hamilton married Margaret, only daughter 
of George, sixth lord Seton, and took up his 
permanent residence at Paisley. 

During Morton's regency (1573-8) Hamil- 
ton seems to have taken part in no schemes 
in behalf of Mary, although he was privy to 
the plot which led to Morton's fall in 1578. 
He and his brother John were still under sen- 
tences for their connection with the murders 
of the two regents, the question having been 
evaded in the pacification of Perth (ib. p. 198). 
The regent, however, agreed to refrain from 
action, and to be guided in the future by the 
advice of the queen of England. Her deci- 
sion was that its consideration might be left 
over till King James came of age. They 
would probably have been unmolested, but 

when the king nominally assumed the govern- 
ment the old agreement no longer held, and 
Morton seems to have deemed it advisable, 
even for his own safety, no longer to spare 
them. On 30 April 1579 the council there- 
fore suddenly issued an order for the revival 
of the old acts against them for the commis- 
sion of the crimes, instruction being given 
for their immediate apprehension, and for the 
surrender of their houses and lands (ib. iii. 
146-7). Both the Hamiltons, though taken 
completely by surprise, succeeded in effecting 
their escape. To conceal this they made osten- 
tatious preparations for the defence of their 
principal strongholds. They entertained no 
hope of making any effectual resistance, but 
the bold attitude of their dependents in de- 
fending the castles led the government com- 
pletely astray. When the castle of Paisley 
surrendered, it was found that ' Lord Claud 
was not in his strength, but had conveyed 
himself quietly to sic pairt as no man knows T 
(MoYsiE, Memoirs, p. 21). After remaining 
for some time in hiding in Scotland he made 
his way to the borders, where he was received 
by Sir John Forster. Elizabeth was natu- 
rally displeased at proceedings taken with- 
out her advice, and she was disposed to screen 
the Hamiltons on account of their near heir- 
ship to the Scottish crown. On 13 Sept. she 
sent a letter to King James excusing the con- 
duct of Sir John Forster in harbouring Hamil- 
ton (Cal. State Papers,Scott. Ser. i. 399), and 
on the 16th sent Nicholas Arrington to Scot- 
land to mediate on his behalf (ib.~) Her 
mediation was unheeded, and at the parlia- 
ment held in November doom of forfeiture 
was passed against the two Hamiltons and 
their principal associates. De Castelnau, the 
French ambassador, wrote to his master that 
Claud professed entire devotion to the French 
cause, but that it was expedient that the 
Hamiltons should owe their restoration rather 
to the mediation of France than to Elizabeth. 
Claud also himself wrote to Queen Mary, 
making an offer of his services (ib. ii. 929), 
and it was clear that he was devoted to 
her interests, although wholly dependent on 
Elizabeth for protection. For a time, how- 
ever, he was compelled to act in direct oppo- 
sition to the policy of Mary's representatives. 
The chief agents in expelling Morton from 
power Esme Stuart, duke of Lennox, and 
Captain James Stuart, recognised by the king 
as earl of Arran had been made to share 
the spoils of the Hamiltons [see under 
HAMILTON, JOHN (1532-1604)]. The French 
king, notwithstanding the remonstrances of 
De Castelnau, had declined to interfere on 
behalf of the Hamiltons, and as Claud had 
to depend for redress wholly on Elizabeth 




his purposes for the time became identical 
with hers. By the raid of Ruthven in 1582 
the two favourites were driven from power ; 
but after the escape of the king to the ca- 
tholic lords at St. Andrews in June 1583, 
Arran, who had usurped the titles of the 
Hamiltons, was installed as the reigning fa- 
vourite. Claud was thus disposed to sup- 
port Elizabeth's Scottish policy, then directed 
against Arran. In 1584 Claud Hamilton and 
his brother John were sent down by Eliza- 
beth to the borders to aid the Ruthven lords 
in a scheme for again obtaining possession of 
the king's person. Hamilton was present in 
April at the capture of the castle of Stirling 
(MOYSIE, p. 48) ; but the arrest in Dundee 
of Gowrie, the head of the conspiracy, ren- 
dered their success of no avail, and without 
striking a further blow they fled to England. 
On 3 Nov. following Hamilton, without the 
knowledge of the English government, ' re- 
turned to Scotland on the king's simple pro- 
mise ' (CALDEKWOOD, iv. 208). Arran having 
taken umbrage at his presence in Scotland, 
he was sent to the northern regions, where 
he was entertained by Huntly until on 
6 April 1585 an order was made for him to 
go abroad before 1 May {Reg. P. C. Scotl. 
iii. 733). In July he arrived at Paris (Paget 
to the Queen of Scots, Cal. State Papers, 
Scott. Ser. ii. 974), where on the 16th he 
wrote a letter to Queen Mary, professing his 
devotion and offering his services (ib. p. 973). 
He was still in Paris when the second at- 
tempt against Arran was successful. He 
had ceased to enjoy the confidence of Eliza- 
beth, but was recalled by James, and left Paris 
about the end of January 1586, bearing a 
letter from Henry III to the king of Scots 
(TETJLET, Relations politiques de la France 
et de VEspagne avec I'ficosse, ed. 1862, iv. 
18). From the French king he received a 
gift of five hundred crowns to defray the 
expenses of the journey (z'6.),and intimation 
was given to M. D'Esneval that he would 
receive powerful aid from Hamilton in coun- 
teracting the English influence at the court 
of the Scottish king (ib. p. 31). 

Hamilton's ability and ambition caused him 
to be selected by the party of Queen Mary as 
the agent in their schemes in preference to his 
brother John. His brother was at this time 
completely under his influence, and it was 
Claud's hope a hope carefully fostered by 
Mary that he might supplant his brother as 
the nearest heir to the Scottish crown. On 
6 Feb. he had an interview with the king at 
Holyrood, and was favourably received. Ac- 
cording to Moysie he was l a man well lykit 
of be the king for his wit, and obedience in 
coming and going at the king's command, and 

for reueiling of certane interpryses of the 
Lordis at thair being in Ingland ' (Memoirs, 
p. 56). It was stated that Hamilton, who 
dad lately become a Roman catholic, had been 
summoned to return by the king, who wished 
to form a new faction to ruin the Earls of 
Angus and Mar, and the other lords who had 
ousted Arran from power (Rogers to Wal- 
singham, 12 Jan. 1586, Cal. State Papers, 
Dom. Ser. Addit. 1580-1625, p. 167). This- 
rumour was undoubtedly correct so far as it 
expressed the wish of the Guises and the- 
desire of Hamilton. From this time he ap- 
pears as sharing with Huntly the leadership 
of the catholic party in Scotland. One of 
the special missions with which he was en- 
trusted by the Guises was to effect a recon- 
ciliation between the Queen of Scots and her 
son (Archbishop of Glasgow to Mary Stuart,. 
21 March 1586, in LABANOFF, vii. 184) ; but 
he was also the agent in much more important 
schemes. In connection with the projected 
foreign invasion with which the Babingtoni 
conspiracy was conjoined Mary, on 20 May, 
wrote a remarkable letter to Charles Paget 
to secure, if possible, the co-operation of Scot- 
land in the enterprise (ib. vi. 318). Paget was- 
instructed to inform Hamilton of the scheme, 
and to secure his assistance. If the king of 
Scots declined to join, he was to be seized 
and placed in the hands either of the king of 
Spain or the pope to be educated on the con- 
tinent in the catholic religion. During his- 
absence it was proposed that Hamilton should 
act as regent. Paget was also indirectly to put 
him in hope that Mary would cause him to 
be declared heir to the Scottish crown should 
her son die without children. Hamilton had 
been already in communication with the king^ 
of Spain, and on 15 May had sent Robert 
Bruce to Spain as ambassador for himself 
and the Earls of Huntly and Morton with 
separate letters from each nobleman urging 
Philip to lend his aid in a project for t placing 
the king at liberty and establishing the ca- 
tholic religion ' (TETJLET, Relations politiques, 
v. 349-54). The discovery of the Babington 
conspiracy and the execution of Mary inter- 
fered with the completion of the project in its 
original form ; but the negotiations with the 
king of Spain were not broken off. Hamil- 
ton had earnestly urged James to exert his 
utmost efforts to save his mother (Despatches 
of M. Courcelles, Bannatyne Club, 1828, p. 
13). James's apparent indifference to her 
fate had exasperated the catholics against 
him. Hamilton and his friends prosecuted 
the Spanish project with greater earnestness 
than ever, and their importunity helped to 
promote the Armada expedition. In connec- 
tion with the project there was a proposal 




to assassinate among other noblemen Lord 
John Hamilton in order that his dependents 
might transfer their allegiance to Claud, a 
man of greater energy and intelligence (' Me- 
moria de la Nobleza de Escocia,' in TEULET, 
v. 453-4). Even after the dispersion of the 
Armada they continued their communica- 
tions with Spain, and in February 1588-9 
several incriminating letters were seized on 
^ Scotsman who had been appointed to carry 
.them to the Prince of Parma (Cal. State 
Papers, Scott. Ser. i. 553-4 ; CALDERWOOD, 
History, v. 19-36). In one of the letters they 
urged that the invasion of England should 
again be attempted by Scotland. Hamil- 
ton denied that he had any knowledge of 
the letters (CALDERWOOD, v. 36), but offered 
to deliver himself up, and on 7 March he was 
sent to the castle of Edinburgh (Cal. State 
Papers, Scott. Ser. i. 555). He appears, how- 
ever, to have received his liberty shortly 
afterwards, for on 5 Jan. 1589-90 the pre- 
sence of him and other papists in Edinburgh 
caused an alarm of an intention to surprise 
it during the night (CALDERWOOD, v. 70). 
While he had been carrying on these intrigues 
with Spain he had been on good terms with 
the king, and his extensive estates, including 
the pertinents of the abbacy and monastery 
of Paisley, had on 29 July 1587 been erected 
into a temporal lordship for him and his heirs 
male under the title of Baron of Paisley. 
From 1590 he, however, completely disap- 
pears from the stage of public life, and two 
references to him in the letters of the Am- 
bassador Bowes show that his inactivity was 
due to insanity, which for many years had 
affected his eldest brother. On 28 Nov. 
1590 Bowes informs Burghley that Paisley 
had returned to his senses (Cal. State Papers, 
Scott. Ser. ii. 584) ; but on 16 Dec. 1591 he 
reports that he is ' beastly mad ' (ib. p. 599). 
From this time the name of the master of 
Paisley appears on the register of the privy 
council as attending the meetings, and in other 
ways representing his father. Paisley died in 
1622, and was buried in the abbey of Pais- 
ley. By his wife Margaret, only daughter of 
George, sixth Lord Seton, he had four sons 
and a daughter. The sons were James, first 
earl of Abercorn [q. v.] ; Hon. Sir Claud 
Hamilton, appointed on 6 Oct. 1618 constable 
of the castle of Toome, county Antrim, Ire- 
land, for life ; Hon. Sir George Hamilton of 
Greenlaw and Roscrea, co. Tipperary ; and 
Hon. Sir Frederick Hamilton, father of Gus- 
tavus Hamilton, viscount Boyne [q. v.] The 
daughter, Margaret, became wife of William 
Douglas [q. v.], first marquis of Douglas. 

[Eegister P. C. Scotl. vols. ii-vi. ; Cal. State 
Papers, Scott. Ser. ; ib. For. Ser. Reign of Eliza- 

beth, and Dom. Ser. Reign of James I ; Hist. 
MSS.Comm. 1 1th Rep. Appendix, pt. vi. ; Teulet's 
Relations politiques de la France et de 1'Espagne 
avec 1'Ecosse, Paris ed. ; Papiers d'Etat relatifs 
a 1'histoire de 1'Ecosse au XVI e Siecle; Cor- 
respond ance de Fenelon (Cooper and Teulet) ; 
Letters of Mary Stuart (Labanoff) ; Historie of 
James the Sext (Bannatyne Club) ; Moysie's Me- 
moirs, ib.; Sir James Melville's Memoirs, ib.; 
G-ray Papers, ib. ; Lord Herries's Memoirs (Ab- 
botsford Club) ; Histories of Calderwood, Spotis- 
wood, and Keith ; John Anderson's Genealogical 
History of the Hamiltons ; Lees's Abbey of 
Paisley ; Douglas's Scottish Peerage (Wood\ i. 
1-2.] T. F. H. 

HAMILTON, SIR DAVID (1663-1721), 
physician, a native of Scotland, entered as a 
medical student at Leyden on 30 Oct. 1683, 
and graduated M.D. of the university of 
Rheims (incorrectly stated 'Paris 'by Munk) 
in 1686. He was admitted a licentiate of 
the London College of Physicians in 1688, 
and fellow in 1703. Elected F.R.S. in 
1708, he became a leading practitioner in 
midwifery, and was successively physician to 
Queen Anne, who knighted him, and to Caro- 
line, princess of Wales. He is said to have 
acquired a fortune of 80,000/., which he lost 
in the South Sea scheme. He died on 28 Aug. 
1721. He wrote : 1. ' An inaugural Disserta- 
tion for M.D. "De Passione Hysterica,"' 
Paris, 4to, 1686. 2. ' The Private Christian's 
Witness for Christianity, in opposition to the 
National and Erroneous Apprehensions of 
the Arminian, Socinian, and Deist of the Age,' 
London, 8vo, 1697. 3. ' The Inward Testi- 
mony of the Spirit of Christ to his outward 
Revelation,' London, 1701, 8vo. Both these 
were anonymously published (see DARLING, 
Cyclop. Bibl.} 4. ' Tractatus Duplex : prior 
de Praxeos Regulis, alter de Febre Miliari,' 
London, 1710, 8vo ; Ulm, 1711; English 
translation, London, 1737. 

[Munk's Coll. of Phys. ii. 13 ; Donald Monro's 
Harveian Oration, 1775 ; Houstoun's Memoirs of 
his own Lifetime, pp. 81, 82.] G-. T. B. 

HAMILTON, DAVID (1768-1843), ar- 
chitect, born in Glasgow 11 May 1768, was 
during the early part of the century the de- 
signer of most of the principal buildings in 
the west of Scotland. In Glasgow he was 
architect of the theatre (1804), the Western 
Clubhouse, several of the leading banks 
and churches built during that period, and 
the Royal Exchange (1837-40). Hamilton's 
greatest work was the palace built for the 
Duke of Hamilton in Lanarkshire, remark- 
able no less for its extent than for its dignity 
and graceful proportion, its facade, and its 
magnificent portico. Other successful under- 
takings of his were Toward Castle, Lennox 




Castle which some critics have pronounced 
the most finished of his architectural efforts 
and Dunlop House, a beautiful specimen of 
what is termed ' the Scottish manorial style.' 
He obtained the 500/. prize from the govern- 
ment for his design of the new houses of 
parliament when that of Sir Charles Barry 
was preferred. Hamilton's contemporaries 
speak of his ' singular amiability and modesty ' 
and t the vivacity of his conversation,' as well 
as of his love of art and his educated classical 
taste. He died, after an attack of paralysis, 
at Glasgow, 5 Dec. 1843. 

[Builder, 16 Dec. 1843; Glasgow Citizen, 
9 Dec. 1843; Chambers's Eminent Scotsmen; 
Irving's Book of Scotsmen.] E. E. A. 

1851), admiral, younger brother of Admiral 
Sir Charles Hamilton [q. v.], was born on 
12 March 1772, and is said to have served 
actually on board the Hector with his father 
in the West Indies from 1779 to 1781. He was 
then sent to school at Guildford, and in 1787 
re-entered the navy on board the Standard 
with Captain Chamberlayne. On 9 June 

1793 he was promoted to be lieutenant of the 
Dido with his brother, and in 1794 was per- 
sonally engaged at the siege of Bastia and 
the reduction of the Girolata fort. In July 

1794 he was appointed to the Victory, then 
carrying the flag of Lord Hood in the Medi- 

\terranean, and continued in her, with Eear- 
Wmiral Man, and afterwards with Sir John 
Jjervis, till promoted to command the Comet 
fireship, 11 Feb. 1796, in which he was 
/shortly afterwards sent to the West Indies. 
/On 3 June 1797 he was advanced to post 
rank and appointed to the Surprise, a small 
frigate, formerly the French corvette Unite. 
In her he was employed on convoy service to 
Newfoundland, and in July 1798 to Jamaica, 
where he was placed under the orders of Sir 
Hyde Parker, and is said during the next 
eighteen months to have taken or destroyed 
upwards of eighty of the enemy's privateers, 
armed vessels, and merchant ships, the net pro- 
ceeds of which, counting only those brought 
in, amounted to 200,000/. In October 1799 
he was sent off Puerto Cabello to look out 
for the Spanish frigate Hermione, expected 
shortly to sail from that port. The Ilermione 
had been a British frigate, but on 22 Sept. 
1797 had been seized by her crew, who, after 
murdering their officers, had taken the ship 
into La Guayra. There they handed her 
over to the Spaniards, who fitted her out 
with forty-four guns and a complement of 
nearly four hundred men. A large propor- 
tion of the mutineers had been since captured 
and hanged, but every officer on the station 


felt that the presence of the Hermione under 
the Spanish flag was an insult to the navy 
and to England. The Surprise anchored off 
Puerto Cabello on 21 Oct., and finding the 
Hermione moored inside, with no apparent 
intention of stirring, while the Surprise's 
provisions were running low, Hamilton re- 
solved to cut her out. The ship was moored 
head and stern between two large batteries, 
commanding the entrance of the port, and 
mounting some two hundred guns. After 
two days spent in examining the position, on 
the evening of the 24th Hamilton announced 
his intention to the ship's company. It was 
received with the utmost enthusiasm ; the 
boats were armed and left the ship a little 
before midnight, carrying about one hundred 
men. On their way they were discovered by 
the Hermione's launch, rowing guard a mile 
in front of the ship. She was beaten back, 
but the noise of the conflict gave the alarm both 
to the Hermione and batteries. The Spaniards 
went to quarters and opened a warm but 
random fire in the direction of the boats, in 
the midst of which the first boat, containing 
Hamilton himself, the gunner, and some ten 
men, pushed alongside and boarded. They 
were for several minutes unsupported on the 
Hermione's quarter-deck, but the other boats 
coming up, the Spaniards, after a fierce 
struggle, were beaten below; the cables were 
cut, sail made, and the ship towed out of the 
harbour, the batteries opening their fire on 
her as she passed out, regardless of the fate 
of their own men. The loss of the Spaniards 
was 119 killed and 97 wounded; of the Eng- 
lish only twelve men wounded, which is the 
more extraordinary as the ship was not taken 
by surprise. Hamilton himself, however, 
was severely wounded. The stock of a mus- 
ket had been broken over his head, he had 
various flesh wounds in both legs, and a 
severe contusion of the loins, the effects of 
which he felt through the rest of his life. 
But the feat of arms was unsurpassed in the 
annals of the navy. The king conferred on 
him the honour of knighthood by letters 
patent, as well as the naval gold medal ; the 
Jamaica House of A ssembly voted him a sword 
of the value of three hundred guineas, and the 
city of London conferred on him the freedom 
of the city in a gold box, which was delivered 
to him in person at a public dinner at the 
Mansion House on 25 Oct. 1800, the anni- 
versary of his brilliant exploit. Returning 
home in the Jamaica packet in April 1800 
for the re-establishment of his health, Hamil- 
ton was captured by a French privateer and 
taken to France. At Paris he is said, on 
what seems doubtful authority, to have been 
personally examined by Bonaparte ; he was 




at any rate exchanged very shortly after- 
wards, and on his return to England was ap- 
pointed to the Trent of 36 guns (23 Oct.) 
He refused a pension of 300/. a year offered 
by the admiralty in consideration of his 
wounds, thinking it would be made an excuse 
for not employing him again. During the 
year 1801 he was actively engaged in the 
blockade of the northern coast of France ; 
but on 22 Jan. 1802, while the ship was 
lying at Spithead, he was tried by court-mar- 
tial for seizing up in the main rigging the 
gunner and his mates, who, as he alleged, had 
grossly disobeyed his orders. It would seem 
not improbable that the terrible blow on the 
head received in cutting out the Hermione 
had to some extent affected his brain ; but 
the evidence was clear that the offence of the 
men was trivial, and their punishment ex- 
cessive and illegal. Hamilton was accord- 
ingly dismissed the service, but was specially 
reinstated in the following June. In June 
1806 he was appointed to the royal yacht 
Mary, which, and afterwards the Prince Re- 
gent, he commanded till 1819. On 2 Jan. 
1815 he was nominated a K.C.B., and was 
created a baronet on 20 Oct. 1818. He be- 
came rear-admiral on 19 July 1821, vice- 
admiral 10 Jan. 1837, admiral 9 Nov. 1846, 
and died in London 21 March 1851. 

Hamilton married in 1804 Frances, daugh- 
ter of John Macnamara of Llangoed Castle, 
Brecon, by whom he had issue two sons and 
two daughters. His eldest son, John James 
Edward, having died in 1847, he was succeeded 
in the baronetage by his grandson, Edward 

[Marshall's Koy. Nav. Biog. ii. (vol. i. pt. ii.) 
821, and xii. (vol. iv. pt. ii.) 430; O'Byrne's 
Nav. Biog. Diet. ; Naval Chronicle, v. 1 ( -with 
an engraved portrait), and vii. 164, 531 ; United 
Service Mag. 1851, pt. i. p. 648; Balfe's Nav. 
Biog. iv. 132; James's Naval Hist.; Burke's Peer- 
age and Baronetage.] J. K. L. 

DE GRAMMONT (1641-1708), < la belle Hamil- 
ton,' eldest daughter of Sir George Hamil- 
ton (d. 1679), fourth son of James, first earl 
of Abercorn [q. v.], by Mary, third daughter 
of Walter, viscount Thurles, eldest son of 
Walter, eleventh earl of Ormonde, was born 
in 1641. She was one of the most brilliant 
ornaments of the court of Charles II, and is 
described by her brother, Anthony Hamilton 
[q. v.], in his ' Memoires du Comte de Gram- 
mont,' as of unrivalled beauty and intelligence. 
After refusing the Duke of Richmond, Henry 
Jermyn, nephew of the Earl of St. Albans, 
Henry Howard, brother of the Earl of Arun- 
del, and afterwards Duke of Norfolk, and 

Richard Talbot, afterwards earl of Tyrconnel, 
she married Philibert, comte de Grammont, 
probably near the end of 1663 (Notes and 
Queries, 1st ser. ix. 583 ; PEPYS, Diary, ed. 
Braybrooke ,v. 437-9), Grammont, born in 
France in 1621, belonged to a distinguished 
family, was educated at Pau, lived in youth 
a life of pleasure in Paris and Turin, fought 
under Conde and Turenne, and was banished 
from France in 1662 for making advances to 
one of the French king's mistresses, Made- 
moiselle de la Motte. He came to London, 
was well received by Charles II and Lady 
Castlemaine (December 1662), and was a 
leading spirit in all the diversions of the 
court. ' La belle Hamilton's ' brother An- 
thony became his close friend, and Anthony 
describes the course of Grammont's courtship 
of his sister in the ' Memoires du Comte de 
Grammont,' but he suppresses the important 
part which he himself played in bringing 
about the marriage. The story is told in a 
letter from Lord Melfort to Richard Hamil- 
ton, dated in 1689 or 1690, that Grammont, 
being suddenly recalled to France, was on 
the point of returning without the lady, and 
had actually got as far as Dover, when he was 
overtaken by Anthony and his elder brother 
George, who asked him inFrench, ' Chevalier 
de Grammont, n'avez-vous rien oubli6 a Lon- 
dres ? ' to which the count replied, ' Par- 
donnez-moi, messieurs, j'ai oublie d'epouser 
votre so3ur.' He then returned to London, 
and the marriage was at once solemnised. The 
incident is said to have furnished Moliere with 
the idea of ' Le Mariage Force.' The stoi-y 
is hardly consistent with Hamilton's stater- 
ment that, apparently in 1663 r Grammont's" 
sister, the Marquise de St. Chaumont, wrote 
informing him that Louis XIV had consented 
to his recall, and that he hurried to Paris to 
find the information untrue, and was in a few 
days ordered to leave France again. The 
count and countess on 3 Nov. 1664 certainly 
left London for France, where they thence- 
forth principally resided (Hist. MSS. Comm. 
8th Rep. App. 493 a ; VOISENON, (Euvres Com- 
pletes, 1781, iv. 129). They paid, however, 
frequent visits to the English court, on their 
return from one of which in 1669, Charles IT 
wrote to his sister, the Duchess of Orleans, 
commending the countess to her for ' as good a 
creature as ever lived '(DALRYMPLE, Memoirs, 
i. App. 26, 24 Oct. 1669 ; Hist. MSS. Comm. 
6th Rep. App. 762). Evelyn says that he 
dined in the count's company in London in 
1671. In 1688 Grammont came as a special 
envoy from Louis XIV to congratulate 
James II on the birth of a son, and received 
a gratuity of 1,083/. 6s. 8d. (Secret Services, 
Camd. Soc., p. 207). He delighted in frivo- 




lities till his death. At the age of eighty 
(1701) he dictated his famous ' Memoirs,' 
chiefly dealing with his life in England, to 
Anthony Hamilton. When in Grammont's 
own interests the censor of the press, Fonte- 
nelle, declined to license them, Grammont in- 
dignantly appealed to the chancellor and got 
the prohibition removed. He died 10 Jan. 
1707, but his ' Memoirs ' were not published 
till 1713, when they appeared at Cologne. 
The countess died on 3 Jan. 1708. They had 
issue two daughters only : (1) Claude Char- 
lotte, who married at St. Germains on 3 April 
1694 Henry Howard, earl of Stafford, and 
{2} Marie Elisabeth, who became the abbess 
of Ste. Marie de Poussey in Lorraine. The 
countess's portrait was painted several times 
by Lely with more than usual care, and was 
considered by him to be his best work. Some 
of these pictures are now at Windsor Castle, 
others are at Hampton Court, and one is in 
the National Portrait Gallery. 

[Memoires du Comte de Grammont, cap. vii. 
and ix. ; Douglas's Peerage of Scotland, i. 6 ; 
Anderson's Scottish Nation ; art. ' Philibert, 
Comte de Grammont,' in Biographie Generale.] 

J. M. K. 

OF HAMILTON and afterwards of ARGYLL 
(1734-1790). [See 

miscellaneous writer, was born at Belfast 
on 21 July 1758. She was of the Scottish 
Hamiltons of Woodhall, but straitened family 
circumstances had sent her father, Charles 
Hamilton, into a mercantile house in London. 
He married Katherine Mackay of Dublin, and 
at his death in 1759 there were three chil- 
dren, Katherine, Charles, and Elizabeth. Her 
father's sister, the wife of Mr. Marshall, a 
Stirlingshire farmer, took Elizabeth home, 
and when Mrs. Hamilton died the child, 
aged nine, was left to the kindly and some- 
what primitive care of these worthy rela- 
tives. They educated her well, and though 
lier studious habits rather puzzled them they 
were proud of her talents. Her brother, 
Charles Hamilton (1753-1792) [q. v.], before 
going off to the duties of an Indian cadet- 
ehip, visited Elizabeth in 1772, and their 
cherished arrangement for a regular corre- 
spondence produced an interesting and valu- 
able body of letters. Elizabeth's leisure had 
already been occupied with a journal of a 
highland tour, and she presently began an 
historical novel in the form of letters, with 
Arabella Stuart for heroine and Shakespeare 
as a subordinate character. In 1782 her aunt 
died, and between that and 1786, when her 
brother returned on a five years' furlough, 

she devoted herself to her uncle, and made 
considerable literary progress. In December 
1785 a paper of hers formed No. 46 of the 
' Lounger,' and a poem on ' Anticipation ' 
belongs to the same year. 

Miss Hamilton took a direct practical in- 
terest in the progress of her brother's f He- 
daya,' on which he was engaged during his 
holiday in Scotland, and with him, in 1788, 
she visited London, forming several impor- 
tant friendships. About the end of the year, 
after her return, her uncle died, when she 
rejoined her brother in London, remaining 
with him and her sister, Mrs. Blake, for about 
two years. In this sojourn she made the ac- 
quaintance of Dr. George Gregory [q. v.] and 
his wife, who continued to be close and valued 
friends. The death of Charles Hamilton in 
1792 was a great blow to his sisters (Letters 
on Education, vol. i.), who for the next four 
years were together at Hadleigh, Suffolk, and 
then at Sonning, Berkshire. In 1796 Miss 
Hamilton published her ' Hindoo Rajah,' a 
series of criticisms on England somewhat in 
the manner of the ' Citizen of the World,' and 
influenced by impressions from her brother. 
Her next work, ' Memoirs of Modern Philoso- 
phers,' a series of humorous sketches prompted 
by a conversation with Dr. Gregory, and 
written in London, in Gloucestershire, and 
at Bath, appeared in 1800, and ran through 
two editions in a year. Meanwhile Miss 
Hamilton had an attack of gout, an ailment 
ultimately chronic with her, and Mrs. Blake, 
who had been in Ireland, returned and nursed 
her. Recovering, she published f Letters on 
Education,' 1801-2, and in 1804 ' Memoirs of 
the Life of Agrippina, the wife of Germani- 
cus,' Bath, 3 vols. 8vo, which is practically 
'an epitome of Roman laws, customs, and 
manners/ After a tour through Wales and 
the Lake country, the sisters in 1804 fixed 
their residence in Edinburgh, Miss Hamilton 
at the same time having a pension settled on 
her by government. For six months she was 
guardian to a nobleman's family, writing in 
Essex in 1806 ' Letters on the Formation of 
the Religious and the Moral Principle to the 
Daughter of a Nobleman.' Returning to Edin- 
burgh she contrasted the two modes of life, 
and warmly indicated her own preference in 
* My ain Fireside,' a true Scottish song, rest- 
ing on a certain independence of attitude, 
and suffused with sturdy sentiment and ten- 
derness of feeling. 

From this time Mrs. Hamilton (as she at 
length preferred to be called) was important 
and influential. She was a true philanthro- 
pist, and her desire for the improvement of 
Scottish rustics induced her to write her note- 
worthy story, ' The Cottagers of Glenburnie/ 





1808. Woven into the narrative are various 
reminiscences of her early Stirling days. 
Her Mrs. M'Clarty, with her inevitable < I 
canna be fash'd,' is still a figure of interest 
for Scottish readers. Mrs. Hamilton gave 
help in the establishment of the Female House 
of Industry in Edinburgh, and for the in- 
mates she wrote in 1809 ' Exercises in Reli- 
gious Knowledge.' In 1812 she continued 
the subject of her education letters in ' Popu- 
lar Essays on the Elementary Principles of 
the Human Mind.' After a three months' 
visit to Ireland she returned to Edinburgh, 
and in 1815, influenced by a study of Pesta- 
lozzi, published ( Hints addressed to the Pa- 
trons and Directors of Public Schools.' From 
1812 her health had been very uncertain, and 
now a disease of the eyes, added to other weak- 
ness, necessitated change of climate. She went 
to England, and died at Harrogate 23 July 
1816. She was buried in Harrogate Church, 
and a monument was erected to her memory. 

Mrs. Hamilton was much appreciated by 
her contemporaries. Miss Edgeworth wrote 
a eulogistic notice at her death. Lord Wood- 
houselee, in l Life of Lord Kames/ ii. 282, 
praises the philosophical spirit of her writings 
on education. Mrs. Grant of Laggan (Me- 
moir and Correspondence, ii. 16, 129) alludes 
to the substantial value of her essays, and 
speaks warmly of her qualities as a friend 
and a social factor. 

[Memoirs, with a Selection from her Corre- 
spondence and other Unpublished Writings, of 
the late Mrs. Eliz. Hamilton, by Miss Benger 
(1815); Tytler and Watson's Songstresses of 
Scotland.] T. B. 

1815), wife of Sir William Hamilton (1730- 
1803) [q. v.l, ambassador at Naples, was the 
daughter of Henry Lyon of Nesse, in the 
parish of Great Neston, Cheshire, and of his 
wife, Mary, people in the humblest circum- 
stances. She was baptised in the church of 
Great Neston on 12 May 1765. In the offi- 
cial record of her death in January 1815 
she is described as fifty-one, which, if we 
may allow her own statement that her birth- 
day was 26 April, would place her birth in 
1763. This document, however, contains 
inaccuracies, and there are strong reasons 
for supposing that she was born earlier, not 
improbably in 1761, the date given by a con- 
temporary but anonymous writer (Memoirs, 
p. 16). She was christened Amy, but, after 
trying the various changes of Amyly, Emly, 
Emyly, and Emily, finally adopted the name 
of Emma. Shortly after her baptism her 
father died, and her mother returned to her 
native place, Hawarden in Flintshire, where 
she and her child lived with her mother, 

Mrs. Kidd. While still quite young Emma 
is said to have been nurse-girl in the family 
of Mr. Thomas of Hawarden, and to have- 
come to London a year or two after, appa- 
rently in the course of 1778, as nursemaid in 
the family of Dr. Richard Budd [q. v.] She is 
said on various and doubtful authority to have? 
been afterwards a shop-girl, a lady's-maid, 
a barmaid, mistress of Captain John Willet 
Payns and mother of his child, a street-walker, 
and the representative of the goddess of health 
in the more or less indecent exhibition of John 
Graham (1745-1794) [q. v.], a quack-doctor 
(Memoirs, pp. 20, 30, 35 ; GAGNIEEE, p. 4 ; 
AKGELO, Reminiscences, ii. 237-8). It is cer- 
tain that about the beginning of 1780 she- 
gave birth to a child, afterwards known a 
' little Emma ; ' and that towards the end of 
the same year she accepted the protection of 
Sir Harry Fetherstonhaugh of Up Park iru 
Sussex, where she lived in a dissolute set 
till December 1781, when Fetherstonhaugh, 
apparently offended by what she mildly called 
her 'giddy' ways, abruptly dismissed her, al- 
though on the point of becoming a mother, 
giving her barely sufficient money to enable- 
her to reach Hawarden. She was kindly re- 
ceived by old Mrs. Kidd, and gave birth to a, 
second child, which, as nothing more is heard! 
of it, was probably stillborn. She was at this 
time in great pecuniary distress, for Mrs. Kidd 
was almost, if not quite, a pauper, and Fether- 
stonhaugh refused even to answer her letters. 
She then wrote anxiously to the Hon. Charles- 
Greville, with whom she had been apparently 
on terms of 'giddy' intimacy, and who was- 
possibly the father of the expected child. Her 
letters at this time are signed Emily Hart, 
and are those of a person utterly illiterate. 
Greville brought her to London, where for the- 
next four years she lived with him in a small 
house near Paddington Green, her mother, 
who now called herself Mrs. Cadogan, acting 
as cook and housekeeper. The style of life 
seems to have been curiously modest and 
economical. Greville was an earl's son and 
member of parliament, but his income was 
only 500/. a year, and that was encumbered ; 
20/. was all that he allowed his mistress for 
dress and pocket-money ; and his retirement 
from society seems to have been mainly a 
measure of retrenchment. The girl seems to 
have been really in love with him, and con- 
tent with her secluded life. Greville's attach- 
ment was not of the romantic sort, but he- 
was kind to her, provided for her child, gave- 
her masters in music and singing, encouraged 
her to read poetry or novels, and 'taught her 
to take an intelligent interest in such things- 
as his ancient coins, choice engravings, and 
mezzotints' (JEAFFKESON, Lady Hamilton, i. 




80). She was refined by her intimacy with 
Romney [see ROMNEY, GEORGE], to whom she 
was introduced by Greville in the summer of 
1,782, and who almost at once conceived for her 
a passion of the best and purest kind, though 
mixed with a wild adoration, presaging the 
future darkness of his intellect. During these 
years she repeatedly sat to Romney ; but it is 
not true that she was Romney's mistress, that 
she was a professional model, or that she 
sat for various ' studies from the nude,' more 
fthan realising ' a naked Leda with a swan ' 
{ALLAN CUNNINGHAM, The Most Eminent 
British Painters, Bohn's edit. ii. 1 86). There 
is no trace of indelicacy in any picture for 
which she sat : she was painted by Reynolds, 
Hoppner, and Lawrence in England, and after- 
wards by numerous artists in Italy (JOHN 
ROMNEY, Life of George Romney, pp. 181-3). 
In the summer of 1784 Greville's maternal 
uncle, Sir William Hamilton, ambassador 
.at Naples, came to England on leave, and at 
his nephew's house saw and was greatly im- 
pressed by his mistress. l She is better,' he 
is reported to have said, ' than anything in 
nature. In her particular way she is finer 
than anything that is to be found in antique 
art.' Greville seems to have had no scruple 
in the following year, when the state of his 
-affairs compelled him to break up his esta- 
blishment, in asking his uncle to take the girl 
off his hands. Hamilton readily acquiesced, 
and, though there was probably no actual bar- 
gain, became more willing to help his nephew 
pecuniarily. Sir William had sportively in- 
vited the girl to visit him at Naples; it was 
now arranged between him and Greville that 
the invitation should be formally repeated, 
and that she should come out as if to pur- 
sue the study of music and singing. Ac- 
cordingly she and Mrs. Cadogan left England 
on 14 March 1786, travelling as far as Rome 
under the escort of Gavin Hamilton (1730- 
1797) [q. v.], the painter. Four days after 
her arrival she wrote to Greville : * I have 
ihad a conversation this morning with Sir 
William that has made me mad . . . Greville, 
my dear Greville, write some comfort to me 
.. . . Sir William shall not be anything to me 
but your friend ' ( JEAFFRESON, Lady Hamil- 
ton, i. 153). But Greville, after many other 
letters, coldly advised her to accept Sir Wil- 
liam's proposals. To this she answered pas- 
sionately (1 Aug. 1786) : ' If I was with you 
I would murder you and myself both,' con- 
cluding with : ' I never will be his mistress. 
If you affront me, I will make him marry me ' 
(ib. i. 167-8). In November, however, she 
became Hamilton's mistress. 

At Naples, as the mistress of the English 
minister, possessed of a wondrous beauty, 

singing divinely, speaking Italian which 
she picked up with marvellous quickness 
with a remarkable turn for repartee, she 
became a great social power, without much 
assistance from hints of a secret marriage. 
Artists, poets, musicians raved about her ; and 
a series of so-called ' attitudes/ or tableaux- 
vivants, which she was in the habit of giving, 
at once achieved an almost European celo- 
l>rity(GovT-H.-E,Italienischeeise, 16, 22 Marz 
1787). Through all it would appear that 
she never lost sight of her original pur- 
pose of marrying Hamilton. In May 1791 
she returned with him to England, and 
on 6 Sept. they were married in Maryle- 
bone Church, where she signed the regis- 
ter 'Amy Lyon,' though in the published 
announcements of the marriage she was 
spoken of as ' Miss Harte ' ( Gent. Mag. 1791, 
vol. Ixi. pt. ii. p. 872). During her further 
stay in England the queen refused to recog- 
nise her, but in passing through Paris she 
was received by Marie Antoinette ; and on 
her return to Naples was presented to the 
queen, Maria Carolina, and became within a 
short time her confidante and familiar friend. 
The hatred which the French sympathisers 
freely lavished on the queen was extended to 
the confidante, and their friendship was made 
the subject of the vilest calumnies, which 
have been accepted without a tittle of evi- 
dence (COLLETTA, Storm di Napoli, lib. v. 
cap. i. ; GAGNIERE, p. 31). Lady Hamilton 
was, during the whole of her residence at 
Naples, one of the leaders of society, and even 
respectable English visitors were glad to be 
admitted to her receptions ( JEAFFRESON, Lady 
Hamilton, i. 282). ' You never saw anything 
so charming as Lady Hamilton's attitudes/ 
wrote the Countess of Malmesbury to her 
sister, Lady Elliot (11 Jan. 1792); 'the most 
graceful statues or pictures do not give you 
an idea of them. Her dancing the Taran- 
tella is beautiful to a degree ' (Life and Let- 
ters of Sir Gilbert Elliot, first Earl of Minto, 
i. 406). A few years later, when her figure 
had already lost its sylphlike proportions, Sir 
Gilbert Elliot wrote to his wife (6 Nov. 1796) : 
1 She is the most extraordinary compound I 
ever beheld. Her person is nothing short of 
monstrous for its enormity, and is growing 
every day. She tries hard to think size ad- 
vantageous to her beauty, but is not easy 
about it. Her face is beautiful.' He adds 
that she is very good-humoured, and ' she 
has acquired since her marriage some know- 
ledge of history and of the arts.' She shows, 
however, the ease of a barmaid not of good 
breeding, and 'her language and conversation 
(with men) are exaggerations of anything I 
ever heard anywhere' (ib. ii. 364). He is, 




however, astonished at ' the very refined 
taste ' as well as ' the extraordinary talent ' 
shown in her attitudes (ib. ii. 365). Hamil- 
ton commissioned the German artist, Reh- 
berg, to commit a selection of the 'attitudes' 
to paper ; these were afterwards published, 
under the title of 'Drawings faithfully copied 
from Nature at Naples, and with permission 
dedicated to the Right Honourable Sir Wil- 
liam Hamilton ' (1794). 

The favour of Maria Carolina, won pro- 
bably by Emma's beauty and unaffected good- 
humour, was continued with a distinctly 
political object. The queen was a keen and 
intelligent politician, and her horror of the 
revolution in France culminated on the exe- 
cution of her sister, Marie Antoinette. Her 
hatred of the French was bitter beyond ex- 
pression, and she looked for her best support 
to England. But she was surrounded with 
spies, and correspondence with the English 
ambassador was difficult. Her ostentatious 
friendship with the ambassador's wife ren- 
dered it easy. Billets addressed to Lady 
Hamilton excited no suspicions. Thus there 
sprang up a remarkable correspondence now 
preserved in the British Museum (Egerton 
MSS. 1615-19) and the Public Record Office. 
Some imperfect selections have been pub- 
lished in Italy and France, which, wanting 
the key of the official despatches, are crude 
and frequently mysterious. On the continent 
it has been believed that Lady Hamilton was 
a ' spy of Pitt,' whose function was to simu- 
late a friendship with the queen, and worm 
herself into the queen's confidence, in order to 
obtain secret intelligence (GAGNIERE, p. 30). 
No intrigue was required, for the queen 
gained by her intimacy precisely the weapon 
which she needed. Lady Hamilton's vanity 
led her to exaggerate enormously her share 
in various transactions of which she became 
cognisant, and to put forward imaginary 
claims upon her country. 

Nelson sanctions one of her best known 
claims in the last codicil to his will. ' She 
obtained,' he says, ' the king of Spain's letter 
in 1796 to his brother, the king of Naples, 
acquainting him of his intention to declare 
war against England, from which letter the 
ministry sent out orders to then (sic) Sir John 
Jervis to strike a stroke if opportunity offered 
against either the arsenals of Spain or her 
fleets ' (NICOLAS, vii. 140). Lady Hamilton 
herself, in a memorial to the king in 1813, 
says that she ' obtained the king of Spain's 
letter to the king of Naples, expressive of 
his intention to declare war against England. 
This important document your Majesty's 
memorialist delivered to her husband, Sir 
William Hamilton, who immediately trans- 

mitted it to your Majesty's Ministers' (PET- 
TIGREW, ii. 632). It would appear, however r 
that in familiar conversation her claim went ' 
far beyond this. Several different versions, 
have been given of it (e.g. Memoirs, p. 149) : 
but Lady Hamilton's own statement, formally 
drawn up and signed, is that her husband 
being dangerously ill, she prevailed on the 
queen to permit her to take a copy of the 
letter, and spent 400. from her private purse 
to secure its safe transmission to Lord Gren- 
ville (JEAFFRESON, Queen of Naples, ii. 307). 
The Hamilton correspondence in the Pub- 
lic Record Office (Sicily, vol. xli.) shows- 
that the whole story is based only on the 
fact that some letters relating to the turn 
of affairs in Spain in 1795 were sent to- 
Hamilton by the queen, under cover, as- 
usual, to Lady Hamilton ; others were given 
to him by the queen direct; but there is, 
throughout, no hint at any intention of de- 
claring war with England, though a letter 
from Galatone (the Neapolitan minister at 
Madrid) of 30 March shows that the Spanish 
government thought it probable that England 
might declare war against Spain. This letter, 
which did little more than confirm direct in- 
telligence to the government from Spain, was 
sent to Hamilton by the queen on 28 April,, 
with a request that it might be returned at 
once. Hamilton, in returning it, desired his. 
wife to ask the queen for a copy of it, and 
this she sent him the following day, 29 April. 
Hamilton was then just convalescent after a 
serious illness, and sent a despatch, with the 
correspondence in question, to the English 
government, taking great precautions for se- 
crecy. The queen's letter to Lady Hamilton 
of 28 April (PALTJMBO, p. 153 ; PETTIGREW, ii. 
610 ; the holograph letter in Sicily, vol. xli. ? 
is not dated ; the date is given by Hamilton 
in his despatch) is sufficient to show the 
measure of the part Lady Hamilton had in 
the business. 

Another very well known allegation, also- 
approved by Nelson in his last codicil, is 
that by her influence with the queen she 
obtained an order for the governor of Syra- 
cuse to permit the British fleet to water 
there in July 1798, without which order the 
fleet would have had to go back to Gibraltar. 
The statement itself is wonderful, but still 
more so is Nelson's endorsement of it, for he 
at least knew perfectly well, first, that, even 
under the terms of the treaty with France, the 
delay in watering would not have extended 
over more than three or four days ; secondly, 
that he had strict orders from Lord St. Vincent 
to take by force, in case of refusal, whatever 
he needed (NICOLAS, iii. 26) ; and thirdly, that 
he actually did water at Syracuse by virtue 



of a letter in the king's name from General 
Acton,the Neapolitan prime minister (Hamil- 
ton to Nelson, 17, 26 June 1798, in CLARKE 
and Me ARTHUR, Life of Nelson, ii. 64 ; 
Hamilton to Lord Grenville, 18 June, 4 Aug., 
enclosing copy of letter from the governor 
of Syracuse to Acton, 22 July, in Sicily, 
vol. xliv.) If, as is just possible, the queen, 
through Lady Hamilton, added a further 
letter to the Sicilian governors, it does not 
appear to have been used ; and Nelson's 
own letters to Sir William (22, 23 July, 
NICOLAS, iii. 47) and to Lady Hamilton 
(22 July, Morrison MSS. ; Edinburgh Review, 
clxiv. 549) prove conclusively that no secret 
orders had been sent to the Sicilian ports. 
And the statement repeatedly made and in- 
sisted on, that on Troubridge and Hamilton's 
going together to Acton a council was sum- 
moned, which, after an hour and a half, 
ended in disappointment and refusal (HAR- 
RISON, i. 244; Blackwood's Mag. cxliii. 643; 
JEAFFRESON, Queen of Naples, ii. 309), is 
entirely false. There was no council; the 
interview with Acton lasted half an hour, 
in which time Acton, on his own authority 
and in the king's name, wrote and handed 
to Troubridge the letter addressed to the 
governors of Sicily, and which at Syracuse 
proved sufficient. Nelson's acceptance of 
Lady Hamilton's version of the story, in spite 
of his certain knowledge of the actual facts, 
is only one out of very many instances of his 
extraordinary infatuation. 

In a flying visit to Naples in September 
1793 Nelson had first met Lady Hamilton ; 
he had then described her to his wife as ' a 
young woman of amiable manners, and who 
does honour to the station to which she is 
raised' (NICOLAS, i. 326) ; it was not till his 
return in September 1798, after the battle 
of the Nile, that he can be said to have 
made her acquaintance. She had already, 
some three weeks before, publicly shown 
the most extravagant joy at the news of the 
victory, and on Nelson's arrival she, with 
her husband, and attended by a large party 
of friends in a procession of boats, went out 
into the bay to meet him. She went on 
board the Vanguard, and, on seeing 'the con- 
quering hero,' exclaimed, ' Oh God, is it pos- 
sible ! ' and fainted in his arm. ' Tears, how- 
ever,' as Nelson wrote to his wife, * soon set 
matters to rights ' (ib. iii. 130). A few days 
later she gave a magnificent fete in honour 
of Nelson's birthday (29 Sept.), when l H.N. 
Glorious 1st of August ' was the favourite 
device. ' Eighty people, Nelson wrote to his 
wife, 'dined at Sir William Hamilton's; 
1,740 came to a ball, where 800 supped' (ib. 
iii. 139; JEAFFRESON, Lady Hamilton, ii. 8). 

The Hamiltons seem to have but kept pace 
with the general enthusiasm. Within a couple 
of months war was declared against France, 
and an army of 35,000 men was levied, only 
to be swept away by the first advance of the 
French troops. Lady Hamilton afterwards 
considered that she had forced the war policy 
on the queen, who brought the king over to 
it ; and that she had inspired her husband, 
Nelson, and Sir John Acton, and brought 
pressure on the council (PETTIGREW, ii. 
617; JEAFFRESON, Queen of Naples, ii. 313). 
In point of fact the war policy was deter- 
mined in concert with the Austrian govern- 
ment ; the defensive and offensive treaty was 
formally ratified at Vienna on 16 July, and 
reached Naples on the 30th; the declaration 
of war followed as a matter of course when 
the plans of the two governments were ripe ; 
and Lady Hamilton had nothing to do with 
it beyond serving as the queen's occasional 
intermediary with the English ambassador. 
Of the same nature was her real share in the 
conduct of the celebrated flight to Palermo 
on the scattering of the Neapolitan army. 
The measures relating to the royal family 
and their property were arranged by the 
queen ; Lady Hamilton was the medium of 
correspondence with the English admiral, 
and through her the cases of treasure and 
other valuables were transmitted (NICOLAS, 
iii. 210; GAGNIERE, p. 94). The popular 
story (PETTIGREW, ii. 617-18) that the queen's 
timidity was controlled by Lady Hamilton's 
high spirit is the very reverse of the fact, 
though there is no doubt that Lady Hamilton 
behaved admirably under very trying circum- 
stances. On this point, as a matter that 
came under his own notice, Nelson's evidence 
is indisputable (NICOLAS, iii. 213). She 
afterwards stated that, to avert suspicion of 
the intended departure, Hamilton sacrificed 
property to the value of 30,000/., and she her- 
self sustained a loss of 9,000/. But Hamil- 
ton's most valuable property had been shipped 
several months before for carriage to Eng- 
land, and lost in the wreck of the Colossus ; 
and though the household furniture was left 
behind at Naples, Nelson, writing with di- 
rect information from Hamilton, and urging 
his claim for compensation, estimated the 
total loss, in the Colossus and at Naples to- 
gether, at 10,000/. (Egerton MS. 1614, f. 12). 
As to Lady Hamilton, she did not possess 
property of the value of 9,000/., and car- 
ried away the greater part of what she 
had (JEAFFRESON, Lady Hamilton, ii. 35-8). 
Her statement that she had bought corn to 
the value of 5,000/. for the relief of the 
Maltese is equally false; she had no such 
sum of money at her disposal (ib. ii. 132-5). 




She may have been able to influence the des- 
patch of provisions for the starving Maltese, 
and it was presumably on some such grounds 
that Nelson applied to the emperor of Kus- 
sia, as grand master of the knights of Malta, 
to grant her the cross of the order. The em- 
peror sent her the cross, naming her at the 
same time ' Dame Petite Croix de 1'Ordre de 
St. Jean de Jerusalem/ 21 Dec. 1799 (ib. ii. 
135 ; NICOLAS, iv. 193 n.) 

Her exaggerated claims have been counter- 
balanced by maliciously false charges. Of 
these the most atrocious is that which ac- 
cuses her of being the virtual murderer of 
Caracciolo, who was executed for treason 
and rebellion on 29 June 1799 ; of having 
been present at his execution, and of having 
shown indecent satisfaction at his death. 
In the whole story as told (among many 
others by BEENTOIST, Naval History, ii. 483) 
the only particle of truth is that Lady Hamil- 
ton was on board the Foudroyant at the time 
(LoMONACO, Rapporto al Cittadino Carnot, 
p. 80 ; COLLETTA, lib. v. cap. i.) 

Whether from vanity, emotional enthu- 
siasm, or genuine admiration, Lady Hamil- 
ton undoubtedly laid herself out, with too 
complete success, to win Nelson's heart. The 
two lived for and with each other, to the 
scandal of the whole Mediterranean station, 
keeping up all the time the extraordinary 
pretence of a pure platonism, which not only 
deceived Sir William Hamilton, but to some 
extent even Nelson himself, between whom 
and Hamilton there was to the last a feeling 
of warm friendship. It has indeed been 
suggested, though the probabilities seem to 
be against it, that till April 1800, when Lady 
Hamilton with her husband accompanied 
Nelson in the Foudroyant on a visit to Malta, 
their relations were really platonic (PET- 
TIG EEW, ii. 640 ; JEAFFEESON, Lady Hamil- 
ton, ii. 140). In the summer of 1800 she 
left Palermo in the company of her hus- 
band and Nelson. From Leghorn the party 
travelled homeward through Vienna, Dres- 
den, and Hamburg, whence they crossed 
over to Yarmouth. Afterwards in London, 
at Merton, on tours of pleasure, or in diffe- 
rent country houses, she and Nelson were 
seldom apart, except when he was serving 
afloat, and his devotion to her led directly 
to his separating from his wife. They kept 
up a pretence of purity and platonism, and 
their friends, as well as Nelson's sisters and 
relations,who treated Lady Hamilton well, re- 
garded the relationship as innocent (NICOLAS, 
vii. 394; Life and Letters of Sir Gilbert Elliot, 
iii. 284 ; PHILLIMOEE, Life of Sir William 
Parker, i. 230-1). A mystery long enveloped 
the parentage of Horatia, the child to whom 

Lady Hamilton gave birth on or about 
30 Jan. 1801. Many years ago Pettigrew 
(ii. 652) quoted passages of a letter (1 March 
1801) from Nelson to Lady Hamilton dis- 
tinctly acknowledging the child as theirs. 
The original letter, in Nelson's handwriting, 
is now in the Morrison collection. This and 
other letters in the same collection, the 
tone of which is quite beyond doubt, make 
the close friendship between Nelson and 
Hamilton, which continued unbroken till 
Hamilton's death on 6 April 1803, truly sur- 
prising. Latterly indeed, with the peevish- 
ness of old age, Sir William expressed him- 
self dissatisfied with the engrossing attention 
his wife paid to Nelson, but at the same time 
he added : ' I well know the purity of Lord 
Nelson's friendship for Emma and me ' ( JEAF- 
FEESON, Lady Hamilton, ii. 253). During his 
mortal illness Nelson sat by his side for the 
last six nights, and at his death ' the pillow was 
supported by his wife, and his right hand was 
held by the seaman,' who wrote a few hours 
afterwards to the Duke of Clarence, ' My dear 
friend, Sir William Hamilton, died this morn- 
ing ; the world never, never lost a more up- 
right and accomplished gentleman (ib. ii. 
254). That this was hypocrisy is contrary 
to all that we know of Nelson's or even of 
Emma's nature, and we are driven to suppose 
that the two had persuaded themselves that 
their conduct towards the injured husband 
was void of offence. 

Hamilton left a large property to his 
nephew, charged with an annuity of 800/. 
to Emma for her life ; she also had 800/. in 
cash, and the furniture, paintings, &c., valued 
at about 6,000 J. (ib. ii. 259). It appears, how- 
ever, that she had already, unknown to her 
husband or Nelson, contracted debts pos- 
sibly by gambling to the amount of upwards 
of 7,000/. (Greville to Lady Hamilton, 8 June 
1803, EVANS, Statement regarding the Nel- 
son Coat, p. 37), and that from the first she 
was in straitened circumstances, notwith- 
standing Nelson's allowing herl,200/. a year 
and the free use of Merton. Her applica- 
tion to the queen of Naples for relief was 
coldly received (NICOLAS, v. 117, vi. 95, 99, 
105, 181); and Mr. Addington or Lord Gren- 
ville, as first lords of the treasury, turned a 
deaf ear to all her memorials for a pension 
on the ground of her services at Naples. 
The queen and Lord Grenville have been un- 
justly blamed for refusing to reward services 
which they knew to be purely imaginary. 
During the last years of his life Nelson re- 
peatedly expressed a hope of marrying her at 
some future day. His loss must have touched 
her keenly, but the repeated exhibition of 
herself fainting in public when Braham sang 




' The Death of Nelson/ going apparently to the 
theatre for the purpose, throws some discredit 
on the genuineness of her woe. Under Nel- 
son's will she received 2,0007. in cash, an 
annuity of 5007. charged on the revenues of 
Bronte, and the house and grounds of Mer- 
ton, valued at from 12,0007. to 14,0007. The 
interest of 4,0007. settled on Iloratia was 
also to be paid to her until the girl should 
reach the age of eighteen. Nelson further 
left her, by his dying request, as a legacy to 
his country, mainly on the ground of her 
public services. The story of this codicil 
having been concealed by Nelson's brother, 
the first Earl Nelson, until the parliamentary 
grant had been passed (PETTIGKEW, ii. 625), 
has been disproved by Mr. Jeaffreson (Lady 
Hamilton, ii. 291-3), who has shown that the 
codicil or memorandum was duly handed over 
to Sir William Scott ; that on account of its 
reference to the queen of Naples it was deemed 
unadvisable to make it public ; but that it 
was laid before Lord Grenville and de- 
cided on adversely, in all probability, on 
the merit of the alleged claims. After the 
death of Nelson she was nominally in the 
possession of upwards of 2,0007. a year ; but 
everything was swallowed up by her debts 
and by her wasteful expenditure. Within 
three years she was in almost hopeless diffi- 
culties ; on 25 Nov. 1808 a meeting of her 
friends was held to consider her case ; as the 
result of which Merton and the rest of her 
property was assigned to trustees to be sold 
for the benefit of her creditors, and a sum of 
3,7007., to be charged on the estate, was 
raised for her immediate necessities. The 
old Duke of Queensberry, with whom during 
the life of Nelson she had been on terms of 
friendly intimacy, and who seems to the last 
to have been fond of her society, left her in 
1810 a further annuity of 5007. ; but his will 
became the subject of a tedious litigation, 
and she received no benefit from it. Her 
affairs rapidly grew worse, and in the summer 
of 1813 she was arrested for debt and con- 
signed to the King's Bench prison. About a 
y ear afterwards she was released on bail by Al- 
derman Joshua Jonathan Smith, with whose 
assistance she escaped to Calais, where she 
lived for the next seven or eight months, 
and where she died on 15 Jan. 1815. It has 
been confidently stated and very generally 
believed that during this period she was in 
the utmost penury. Her letters show that 
she was living on partridges, turkeys, and 
turbot, with good Bordeaux wine (ib. ii. 
321). There is no reason to suppose that 
she was altogether penniless, and in any 
case Horatia's 2007. a year was payable to 
her for their joint use. According to the false 

story told to Pettigrew by Mrs. Hunter, Lady 
Hamilton died in extreme want, unattended 
save by herself and Horatia ; she was buried at 
Mrs. Hunter's expense, in a cheap deal coffin 
with an old petticoat for a pall ; and the service 
of the church of England was read over the re- 
mains by an Irish half-pay officer, there being 
no protestant clergyman in Calais. Lady 
Hamilton's daughter assured Mr. Paget 
(lackwood,cxlm. 648) that Mrs. Hunter was 
unknown to her. The funeral was conducted 
by a Henry Cadogan on the part of Mr. Smith. 
Of this Cadogan we know nothing ; but his 
name would seem to point to a possible con- 
nection with Mrs. Cadogan, as Lady Hamil- 
ton's mother had been called for more than 
thirty years. It is at any rate quite certain 
that she was buried in an oak coffin, and that 
the bill, including church expenses, priests, 
candles, dressing the body, &c., amounting to 
287. 10s., was paid to Cadogan by Mr. Smith 
(ib. p. 649). The mention of priests and 
candles agrees with her daughter's statement, 
and confirms the story that during her later 
years she had professed the Roman catholic 
faith (Memoirs, p. 349). 

Of her children, the eldest, Emma, was 
brought up at the expense of Mr. Greville 
and afterwards of Sir William Hamilton ; 
she appears to have died about 1804. The 
second, the presumptive child of Sir Harry 
Fetherstonhaugh, was probably still-born, or 
died in infancy. The third, Horatia, lived, 
after her mother's death, with Nelson's sis- 
ters; in 1822 she married the Rev. Philip 
Ward, afterwards vicar of Tenterden in Kent, 
became the mother of eight children, and died 
on 6 March 1881. A fourth, also Emma, of 
which Nelson was the father, born in the 
end of 1803 or the beginning of 1804, died 
in March 1804 (JEAFFRESOisr, Queen of Naples, 
ii. 257). 

The portraits of Lady Hamilton are very 
numerous, and have been repeatedly engraved. 
Twenty-three painted by Romney are named 
by his son in a list admittedly imperfect 
( ROMNEY, Life of Romney, p. 181). Two of 
these and engravings after ten others were 
exhibited at the Royal Academy in the winter 
of 1878 ; one, a head only, sketch for a Bac- 
chante, is in the National Gallery ; another, as 
a sybil, with auburn hair and dark grey eyes 
of a wondrous beauty is in the National 
Portrait Gallery. There are many others by 
most of the leading artists of the day, English 
or Italian. One by Madame Lebrun was 
bought by the prince regent in 1809. As 
early as 1796 Lady Hamilton was growing 
very stout, the tendency increased, and in her 
later years she was grotesquely portrayed in 
f A New Edition, considerably enlarged, of 




Attitudes faithfully copied from Nature, and 
humbly dedicated to Admirers of the Grand 
and Sublime,' 1807 (anonymous; catalogued 
in the British Museum under ' Rehberg '). 

[The writer has to acknowledge the courtesy 
of Mr. Alfred Morrison in permitting him free 
access to his collection of manuscripts, which is 
particularly rich in documents relating to the 
private life of Lady Hamilton. Working from 
these, Mr. J. C. Jeaffreson published in 1887 a 
memoir under the title of Lady Hamilton and 
Lord Nelson, and in 1889 another with the title 
The Queen of Naples and Lord Nelson. In this 
last he has included an examination of the manu- 
scripts in the British Museum (Egerton, 1613- 
1621), but not of the official correspondence from 
Naples or Spain in the Public Record Office. 
A selection of these, with the title 'Nelson's Last 
Codicil,' was published by the present writer in 
Colburn's United Service Magazine, April and 
May 1889. The Memoirs of Lady Hamilton, 
with illustrative Anecdotes (1815), a book of 
virulent abuse and pseudo-religious reflections, 
is of little authority, but not quite worthless. 
The Letters of Lord Nelson to Lady Hamilton 
(2 vols. 8vo, 1814) require corroboration from 
other sources ; the same may be said of Harri- 
son's Life of Nelson (2 vols. 8vo, 1806), inspired 
if not virtually written by Lady Hamilton, 
and crowded with falsehoods, many of which, 
through the influence of Southey, have passed 
into general currency. Nicolas's Despatches and 
Letters of Lord Nelson contains much interesting 
and valuable matter, see index at the end of 
vol. vii. ; and in Pettigrew's Life of Nelson were 
published for the first time many of the Nel- 
son-Hamilton papers, though the author's easy 
credulity deprives his work of much of its value. 
Paget's Memoir of Lady Hamilton, originally j 
published in Blackwood's Magazine (April 1860), 
and afterwards in Paradoxes and Puzzles, is an 
interesting sketch drawn mainly from the im- 
perfect materials at the disposal of Nicolas and 
Petti grew; to this Mr. Paget has added a supple- 
mentary article (Blackwood's Mag. May 1888), se- 
verely, but unjustly, criticising Jeaffreson's exami- 
nation of Lady Hamilton's claims, and especially 
in reference to the entry of the fleet into the har- 
bour of Syracuse. There are besides interesting 
notices of Lady Hamilton in Life and Letters of 
Sir Gilbert Elliot, first Earl of Minto; Mrs. 
St. George's Journal, kept during a visit to Ger- 
many in 1799, 1800 (edited by her son, Arch- 
bishop Trench); and Miss Cornelia Knight's 
Autobiography. Palumbo's Carteggio di Maria 
Carolina . . . con Lady Emma Hamilton (1887), 
and Gagniere's La Reine Marie-Caroline de 
Naples (1886) are largely made up of the queen's 
correspondence, but of Lady Hamilton personally 
they know nothing beyond what has been handed 
down by scandalous rumour. Helfert's Revolu- 
tion und Gegen-Revolution von Neapel (1882) 
and Maria Karolina von Oesterreich, Konigin 
von Neapel und Sicilien (1884) contain no ori- 
ginal information on the subject.] J. K. L. 

HAMILTON, FRANCIS (1762-1829). 

HAMILTON, GAVIN (1561 P-1612), 
bishop of Galloway, was the second son of 
John Hamilton of Orbiston, Lanarkshire. The 
father, descended from Sir James Hamilton 
of Cadzow [see under JAMES, first LOKD 
HAMILTON], fell at the battle of Langside, 
fighting for Queen Mary (13 May 1568). 
Gavin was born about 1561, and was educated 
at the university of St. Andrews, where he 
took his degree in 1584. He was ordained 
and admitted to the second charge of Hamil- 
ton in 1590, was translated to the parish of 
Bothwell in 1594, and again to the first charge 
of Hamilton in 1604. At an early period of 
his ministry he was appointed by the general 
assembly to the discharge of important duties 
pertaining to the office of superintendent or 
visitor, and after 1597 he was one of the stand- 
ing commission chosen by the church from 
among its more eminent clergy to confer with 
the king on ecclesiastical matters. A sup- 
porter of the royal measures for the restora- 
tion of episcopacy, he received on 3 March 

1605 the temporalities of the bishopric of Gal- 
loway, to which were added those of the 
priory of Whithorn on 29 Sept. and of the 
abbeys of Dundrennan and Glenluce. In 

1606 he became dean of the Chapel Koyal at 
Holyrood,on the revival of that office by King 
James. In 1606 the general assembly ap- 
pointed him constant moderator of the presby- 
tery of Kirkcudbright, and three years later 
he was sent up to court by the other titular 
bishops to confer with the king as to further 
measures which were in contemplation for 
the advancement of their order. The church, 
having agreed in 1610 to the restoration of 
the ecclesiastical power of bishops, Hamilton, 
with Spotiswood, archbishop of Glasgow, 
and Lamb, bishop of Brechin, were called up 
to London by the king, and were consecrated 
21 Oct. of that year in the chapel of London 
House according to the English ordinal by 
the bishops of London, Ely, Rochester, and 
Worcester. They were not reordained, as 
the validity of ordination by presbyters was 
then recognised by the English church and 
state. On his return to Scotland Hamilton 
assisted in consecrating the rest of the bishops, 
and died in February 1612, aged about 51. 
Keith describes him as ' an excellent good 
man,' and in the scurrilous lampoons on the 
bishops by the antiprelatic party of the time 
he fared better than most of his colleagues. 
Calderwood says that he seldom preached 
after his consecration, and died deep in debt, 
notwithstanding his rich preferments. He 
married Alison, daughter of James Hamilton 




of Bothwellhaugh, and had a son, John of 
Inchgoltrick, commendator of Soulseat, and a 
daughter, married to John Campbell, bishop 
of Argyll, and afterwards to Dunlop of that 
ilk. Two of his letters to the king appear 
in ' Original Letters,' vol. i. 

[Keith's Cat.; Calderwood's Hist.; Ander- 
son's House of Hamilton ; Scott's Fasti Eccl. 
Scot. pt. i. 393, pt. ii. 776, pt. iii. 257, 260, 267.] 

G. W. S. 

HAMILTON, GAVIN (1730-1797), 
painter, excavator, and dealer in antiquities, 
was born in the town of Lanark in 1730, and 
was descended from the Hamiltons of Mur- 
diston, an old Scottish family. When young 
he went to Rome, and studied under Agos- 
tino Masucci. In 1748 he is mentioned as 
living there in intimacy with James Stuart, 
Nicholas Revett, and Matthew Brettingham 
the elder [q.v.] About 1752 he was for a short 
time resident in London, and in 1755 was a 
member of the artists' committee for forming 
a royal academy. In or before 1769 he re- 
turned to Rome, where he henceforth chiefly 
resided. He visited Scotland more than once 
at the end of his life, and in 1783 came to take 
possession of a considerable estate inherited 
from his elder brother. On returning to Rome 
in March 1786, he escorted f Emma Hart,' the 
future Lady Hamilton [q.v.], and her mother, 
who were on their way to Naples. He died 
at Rome in the summer of 1797, his death 
being occasioned, it is said, 'by anxiety on 
the entry of the French.' 

In painting Hamilton had a predilection 
for classical, and especially Homeric, subjects 
(NAGLER, Kunstler-Lexikori). His 'Achilles 
dragging the body of Hector at his chariot 
wheels' was painted for the Duke of Bed- 
ford, who afterwards sold it (to General 
Scott), as it reminded him of the fate of his 
own son, the Marquis of Tavistock, who was 
dragged to death at his horse's stirrup. 
Hamilton also painted ' Hector and An- 
dromache' (formerly in the possession of 
the Duke of Hamilton) ; the ' Death of 
Lucretia' (which belonged to the Earl of 
Hopetoun); and an Apollo, 'well and solidly 
painted, but heavy in colour,' presented to 
the city of London by Alderman Boydell, 
and exhibited at the International Exhibition 
of 1 862. While living at Rome Hamilton sent 
classical subjects to London for exhibition at 
the Royal Academy in 1770-72-76, and for 
the last time in 1778. About 1794 he painted 
a room in the Villa Borghese at Rome in 
compartments represent ing the story of Paris. 
His paintings from Homer were engraved 
by Cunego and others. In 1773 he published 
at his own expense ' Schola Italica picturae,' 

Rome, folio (with plates forming pi. 972- 
1011 and vol. xxii. of the collected works of 
G. B. and F. Piranesi). The plates, engraved 
from Hamilton's own drawings, illustrate 
Italian painting from L. Da Vinci to the 
Caracci. He painted a few portraits, appa- 
rently in the early part of his career. These 
included full-length figures of the Duke and 
Duchess of Hamilton, the latter with a grey- 
hound (painted in Scotland) ; the Countess- 
of Coventry ; and ( Dawkins and Wood dis- 
covering Palmyra in 1751 ' (engraved by 
Hall), and now at Over Norton House, Ox- 
fordshire, the seat of Lieutenant-colonel 
Dawkins (Notes and Queries, 1887, 7th ser. 
iii. 345). Hamilton's artistic taste was ' pure 
and founded on classic study, his drawing 1 
good but timid, his colour and light and 
shade weak' (REDGRAVE, Diet, of Artists}. 

Hamilton is now chiefly remembered for his- 
remarkable excavations in Italy (1769-92), 
which furnished statues, busts, and reliefs- 
for the Museo Pio-Clementino, and which 
contributed to several important private col- 
lections of statuary in England. Hamilton, 
had a good instinct and, as a rule, good luck 
in making discoveries. He began in 1769 
with his well-known excavation of Hadrian's 
villa below Tivoli. He found sixty marbles 
(chiefly busts), ' some of the first rank.' In 
1771 he found many statues while excavating 
on the Via Appia in the ' tenuta del Colom- 
baro.' He also excavated at Prima Porta 
and in the country round the Alban moun- 
tains. Some fine antiquities were discovered 
by him at Monte Cagnuolo, the villa of An- 
toninus Pius, near the ancient Lanuvium 
(cp. Ancient Marbles in Brit. Mus. pi. 45, x. 
frontisp. and pi. 25, 26). In 1775 he found 
some good marbles (including the Cupid 
drawing a bow in the Townley Coll. ; ib. ii. 
pi. 33) at Castel di Guido. He often broke 
ground in many parts of the circuit of Ostia, 
but was compelled to desist by the malaria 
of the marshes. In 1792 he made a good 
finish to his labours by an excavation, in con- 
junction with Prince Marco Antonio Bor- 
ghese, on the territory of the ancient Gabii 
(marbles found there by him are now in the 
Louvre) . The excavations at Hadrian's villa 
were undertaken by Hamilton with James 
Byres and Thomas Jenkins. With the last 
named Hamilton often acted in partnership. 
Hamilton sold the antiquities which he dis- 
covered or bought up, but did not adopt the 
lax trading principles of the Roman art- 
dealers of his day. Visconti speaks of him 
in high terms (MiCHAELis, Ancient Marbles, 
p. 74, n.), and Fuseli says he was 'liberal 
and humane.' Hamilton occasionally, how- 
ever, indulged in ' restoration,' transforming, 




for instance, a torso of a Discobolos (sold to 
Lord Lansdowne) into a ' Diomede carrying 
off the Palladium.' He was the regular agent 
for Charles Townley, then forming his im- 
portant collection of marble?, now in the 
British Museum (ELLIS, Townley Gallery, 
index, and Brit. Mus. Guide to the Grseco- 
Roman sculptures, where details as to the find- 
ing of the sculptures are recorded). Townley 
contributed to the excavation expenses of 
Hamilton and Jenkins. Extracts from Hamil- 
ton's letters to Townley are given in Dalla- 
way's 'Anecdotes/ pp. 364-81. William, 
second earl of Shelburne, afterwards first 
Marquis of Lansdowne, when forming his 
fine collection at Lansdowne (originally Shel- 
burne) House, purchased largely from Hamil- 
ton's excavations made in 1770-80. Hamil- 
ton (letter, 18 Jan. 1772) said that he meant 
to make the Shelburne House collection 
famous throughout the world. His letters 
to Lord Lansdowne, written 1771-9, and 
published from the manuscripts at Lans- 
downe House by Lord E. Fitzmaurice (Aca- 
demy, 1878, 10, 17, 24, 31 Aug., 7 Sept.; 
reprinted, Devizes, 1879, 8vo), give an ac- 
count of their transactions. Among other 
antiquities he sold Lord Lansdowne for 200/. 
a statue of Paris found in Hadrian's villa, 
and then sent him for 150/. a ' sweet pretty 
statue representing a Narcissus (Apollo Sau- 
roktonos), of the exact size of the Paris, and, 
I imagine, will suit it for a companion, with- 
out waiting for a Venus.' He also sold him 
a Hermes (and a bust of Antinous) for 500/. 
(see MICHAELIS, Ancient Marbles, p. 464). 
Hamilton further sold ancient sculptures 
to James Smith-Barry of Marbury Hall, 
Cheshire, to Thomas Mansel-Talbot, and to 
Lyde Brown. He had some share in forming 
the sculpture collection of the second Lord 
Egremont at Petworth. 

[Redgrave's Diet, of Artists of English School; 
hambers's Biog. Diet, of Eminent Scotsmen, ii. 
205,206; Nagler'sKiinstler-Lexikon; Michaelis's 
Ancient Marbles in Great Britain ; Hamilton's 
Letters to Lord Lansdowne ; Ellis's Townley 
Gallery.] W. W. 

HAMILTON, GAVIN (1753-1805), 
friend of Burns, was the son of John Hamil- 
ton, a native of Kype, Lanarkshire, who 
settled in Mauchline, Ayrshire, as a writer 
or solicitor, in the first half of the eighteenth 
century. Gavin was one of a family of three 
sons and two daughters, their mother's name 
being Jacobina Young. By his second wife, 
said to be a daughter of Mr. Murdoch, Auld- 
house, John Hamilton had a son and a daugh- 
ter, the latter afterwards being Mrs. Adair, 
Burns's ' Sweet flower of Devon.' Hamilton, 

following his father's profession, became one 
of the leading men in Mauchline, and, siding 
with the ' New Light ' clergy in the great 
ecclesiastical dispute of his time, was the 
object of a bitter attack by the kirk session 
of Mauchline, who belonged to the whig or 
' Auld Light ' party. They found him con- 
tumacious regarding a ' stent ' or tax for the 
poor, the collection and distribution of which, 
under his management, were marked by in- 
explicable irregularities ; and they further 
charged him with breaking the Sabbath, and 
neglecting church ordinances and family 
worship. Above all, in his own defence, 
Hamilton had written an ' abusive letter ' to 
the session. 

The farm of Mossgiel, in the neighbour- 
hood of Mauchline, was rented from the owner 
by Hamilton, and farmed under him on a 
sub-lease by Burns and his brother. This 
interested Burns in his case, and gave addi- 
tional point to the powerful ecclesiastical 
satires which he wrote between 1785 and 
1789. Hamilton is specially banned by * Holy 
Willie ' as one that ' drinks, and swears, and 
plays at cartes.' He was apparently a man 
in advance of his time, whom persecution 
urged into a more pronounced attitude of 
revolt than he would spontaneously have 
adopted. Ayr presbytery, to which Hamil- 
ton appealed, after a long and wearisome 
contest, decided in his favour (July 1785), 
and the session gave him a certificate clear- 
ing him from ' all ground of church censure ' 
(CHAMBEES, Burns, i. 135). Burns remained 
his steadfast friend ; wrote to him some of 
his most interesting letters; honoured him 
with a vigorous and clever * Dedication ; ' and 
composed for him an epitaph, the spirit of 
which tradition endorses, to the effect that 
he was a poor man's friend unworthily per- 
secuted. Hamilton's wife was Helen Ken- 
nedy, daughter of Kennedy of Daljarroch, Ayr- 
shire hence the 'Kennedy's far-honoured 
name' of the 'Dedication' and he had a 
family of seven children, to several of whom 
Burns makes affectionate reference in his 
letters. Hamilton died on 8 Feb. 1805. 

[Cromek's Reliques of Burns ; Lockhart's Life 
! of Burns ; Burns's "Works, especially the edi- 
| tions of Chambers and W. Scott Douglas ; Dr. 
Edgar's Old Church Life in Scotland; special 
information communicated by the Rev. Dr. Ed- 
gar, Mauchline.] T. B. 

OEKNEY (1666-1737), general, was fifth son 
of "William, earl of Selkirk (eldest son of 
William, marquis of Douglas), who became 
Duke of Hamilton in 1660, and his wife Anne, 
duchess of Hamilton [see under DOUGLAS, 




was born at Hamilton Palace, Lanark, and 
baptised there 9 Feb. 1666. He was trained 
as a soldier under the care of his paternal 
uncle, the Earl of Dumbarton, being captain 
of the 1st or royal regiment of foot under that 
earl's command in 1684. He served under the 
standard of William of Orange, and became 
lieutenant-colonel in 1689 of a newly raised 
foot regiment, and brevet-colonel 1 March 
1689-90. He distinguished himself at the 
battle of the Boyne on 1 July 1690, and after- 
wards at Aughrim on 12 July 1691. In Ja- 
nuary 1692 he was made colonel of the Royal 
Fusiliers, and took part in the battle of Stein- 
kirk on 3 Aug. 1692, after which he became 
colonel of the first battalion of his old regi- 
ment the Royal Foot. He distinguished 
himself at Landen on 19 July 1693, and was 
also at the sieges of Athlone (1691), Limerick 
(1691), and Namur (1695). At Namur, while 
in command of the Royal Foot, he was severely 
wounded, and was promoted brigadier-general 
(10 July 1695). On 25 Nov. 1695 he married 
his cousin, Elizabeth Villiers, daughter of Sir 
Edward Villiers, knight-marshal, the well- 
known mistress of William III. On 30 May 
1695 William III granted to her almost all 
the private estates of James II in Ireland. 
Swift described her as ' the wisest woman he 
ever knew.' The marriage turned out very 
happily, despite the inauspicious position held 
by the lady previously. On 10 Jan. 1696 
Hamilton was created Earl of Orkney in the 
peerage of Scotland, with remainder to sur- 
viving issue male or female. He retained to 
the last the full confidence of William III. 

Orkney was promoted major-general on 
9 March 1702, and served at the siege of 
Stevensvaert. He became lieutenant-general 
on 1 Jan. 1704, and on 7 Feb. of the same year 
was made a knight of the order of the Thistle. 
At Blenheim (1704) he commanded a brigade 
of infantry under Marlborough, taking pri- 
soner thirteen hundred officers and twelve 
thousand men who had been posted in the 
village of Blenheim. In June 1705 he 
commanded the advance guard of twelve 
thousand men sent from the Moselle to the 
Netherlands to prevent the junction of two 
large bodies of French troops, and was in time 
to save the citadel of Liege, then invested 
by Villeroy. After the battle of Ramillies 
(23 May 1706) Orkney pursued the French 
at the head of a large body of cavalry as far 
as Louvain. He commanded a force at the 
passage over the Dyle, and was at the siege 
of Menin in July 1706. On 12 Feb. 1707 
Orkney was elected one of the sixteen repre- 
sentative peers for Scotland to sit in the first 
parliament of Great Britain. He served again 

under Marlborough in the indecisive cam- 
paign of 1707, and distinguished himself by- 
harassing the French in their retreat upon 
Lille. On 11 July he took a prominent part 
in the victory of Oudenarde, and after the 
battle advocated, in opposition to Marl- 
borough, an immediate advance on Paris (cf. 
Hist. MSS. Comm. 8th Rep. pt. i. ; Defoe to> 
Godolphin, 3 Aug. 1708). In November 1708 
Orkney commanded the van of the army at the 
passing of the Scheldt, and in June of the year 
following he assisted at the siege of Tournay, 
and captured the forts of St. Amand and 
St. Martin's Sconce. On 31 Aug. 1709 he 
was unable to secure the passage of the 
Heine, an operation successfully carried out 
a few days later by the prince of Hesse-Cassel, 
but he took part in the battle of Malplaquet 
on 11 Sept. 1709, and at the head of fifteen 
battalions, supported by cavalry on each flank y 
opened the attack, which was successful, al- 
though his loss of men was terribly heavy. 
On his return to England Orkney appeared 
frequently in parliament, and voted for the 
impeachment of Sacheverell. In 1710 he was 
sworn of the privy council, and the same year 
was made general of the foot in Flanders, being- 
present at the sieges of Douay and Bouchain. 
Appointed two years later colonel of the royal 
regiment of foot guards, called the Fusiliers, 
he served in Flanders under the Duke of Or- 
monde until the campaign closed. For his 
services he was appointed colonel of the se- 
cond battalion of the 1st Foot, becoming thus, 
colonel-commandant of both battalions of his 
regiment. In 1714 Orkney was made one 
of the lords of the bedchamber to George I 
(28 Oct.), and governor of Virginia (17 Dec.) 
He was likewise appointed afterwards con- 
stable, governor, and captain of Edinburgh 
Castle, lord-lieutenant of the county of 
Clydesdale, and field-marshal of ' all his 
majesty's forces' 12 Jan. 1736. Orkney was 
repeatedly chosen one of the Scotch repre- 
sentative peers in parliament, and had con- 
siderable influence at the court, as well as in 
the House of Lords. He died at his residence 
in Albemarle Street, London, on 29 Jan. 1737, 
and was buried privately at Taplow. His 
wife died 19 April 1733. By her he had 
three daughters, and his eldest daughter^ 
Anne, wife of William O'Brien, earl of In- 
chiquin, succeeded her father as Countess of 
Orkney. From this lady the present Earl of 
Orkney is descended. 

Orkney was no military strategist, and 
was not very successful when first in com- 
mand. He was, however, an admirable subor- 

[The Heads of Illustrious Persons of Great 
Britain, with their Lives and Characters, by 




Thomas Birch, A.M., F.R.S., new edit., 1813; 
Collins's Peerage; Burnet's Hist, of his own 
Time ; The Marlborough Despatches ; Millner's 
Journals of Battles and Sieges under Marl- 
borough ; Sir A. Alison's Military Life of Marl- 
borough ; Coxe's Life of Marlborough ; Lediard's 
Life of Marlborough ; Anderson's Scottish Nation ; 
E. Cannon's Kecords of 1st and 7th Regiments of 
Foot; Luttrell's Brief Relation; Macaulay'sHist.; 
Story's Wars in Ireland, 1689-92 ; War Office 
Records. This article owes much to notes kindly 
supplied by Charles Dalton, esq.] G. B. S. 

HAMILTON, GEORGE (1783-1830), 
"biblical scholar and divine, born at Armagh 
in 1783, while his father was dean, was the 
fourth son of Hugh Hamilton, D.D. [q. v.], 
bishop of Ossory, and Isabella, eldest daughter 
of Hans Widman Wood of Eossmead, co. 
"Westmeath. Having entered Trinity College, 
Dublin, on 10 June 1799, under the tutorship 
of the Rev. Bartholomew Lloyd, he graduated 
B.A. 1804 and M.A. 1821. He married, first, 
Sophia, daughter of George Kiernan of Dublin, 
by whom he had issue ; and secondly, Frances, 
daughter of Rear-admiral Sir Chichester 
Fortescue, Ulster king-of-arms, who survived 
him. In 1809 he was presented to the 
rectory of Killermogh in the diocese of Ossory, 
which benefice he held as long as he lived. 
He was a conscientious parish priest and an 
arly and zealous promoter of religious so- 
cieties in connection with the church of Ire- 
land. He died 10 Aug. 1830, and was buried 
in the churchyard of Killermogh, where there 
is a brief inscription to his memory. 

Besides some separate sermons and papers 
in religious periodicals, Hamilton published : 
1. ' A General Introduction to the Study of 
the Hebrew Scriptures, with a Critical His- 
tory of the Greek and Latin Versions, of the 
Samaritan Pentateuch, and of the Chaldee 
Paraphrases,' Dublin, 1813. 2. ' A Letter to 
the Rev. Peter Roe, M.A., November 1813, 
with Papers on Apostolick Practice and Ec- 
clesiastical Establishments ' (printed in 'The 
Evil of Separation from the Church of Eng- 
land considered,' 2nd edit. London, 1817). 
3. ' Observations upon Mr. O'Callaghan's 
pamphlet against Bible Societies,' Kilkenny, 
1818. 4. 'Codex Criticus of the Hebrew 
Bible, being an attempt to form a Standard 
Text of the Old Testament,' London, 1821. 
5. ' Observations on a passage in the Medea 
of Seneca, and on the Argument against the 
Evidence of Prophecy drawn from it by 
Deistical Writers' (read before the Royal 
Irish Academy, 22 Jan. 1821, and printed in 
their ' Transactions,' vol. xiv.) 6. 'Observa- 
tions on the Rev. Hart Symons's late publi- 
cation, entitled " A Light to the House of 
Israel," ' London, 1821. 7. ' A Letter to 

Rabbi Herschell, showing that the Resurrec- 
tion is as credible a fact as the Exodus, and 
that the tract called " Toldoth," giving the 
Jewish account of the Resurrection, is no 
more worthy of credit than Tacitus's " History 
of the Jews " ' (printed in or before 1824). 
8. ' Tracts upon some leading Errors of the 
Church of Rome,' London, 1824. 9. ' The 
Claims of the Church of Rome to be the ap- 
pointed Interpreter as well as the Depositary 
of the Word of God considered, in a corre- 
spondence between the Rev. George Hamilton 
and the Rev. N. Shearman/ Dublin, 1825. 
10. 'Observations on the Present State of 
the Roman Catholic English Bible, addressed 
to the Roman Catholic Archbishop of Dublin 
[Dr. Murray],' Dublin, 1825. 11. ' A Second 
Letter to the Most Rev. Dr. Murray, on the 
Present State of the English Roman Catholic 
Bible,' Dublin, 1826. 12. 'The Scripture 
Authority of the Christian Sabbath vindi- 
cated against Roman Catholics and Separa- 
tists ' (anonymous), Dublin, 1828. 

[Todd's Cat. of Dublin Graduates, p. 247; 
Burke's Landed Gentry, 3rd edit. p. 513 ; 
Christian Examiner (September 1830), x. 721; 
Blacker's Contributions towards a proposed 
Bibliotheca Hibernica, No. vii., in the Irish Ec- 
clesiastical Gazette (May 1876), xviii. 153 ; 
Roe's Thoughts on the Death of the Rev. George 
Hamilton (reprinted in Madden's Memoir of the 
Rev. Peter Roe, pp. 451-61); Caesar Otway's 
Scenes in the Rotunda, Dublin ; McGhee's Life 
and Death of the Kiernan Family.] B. H. B. 


(1802-1871), politician, was born at Tyrellas, 
co. Down, on 29 Aug. 1802. He was elder 
son of the Rev. George Hamilton of Hampton 
Hall, co. Dublin, who died in March 1833, by 
Anna, daughter of Thomas Pepper of Bally- 
garth Castle, co. Meath. His grandfather, 
George Hamilton (d, 1793), who was a baron 
of the exchequer from 1777 to 1793, was a 
nephew of Hugh Hamilton, bishop of Ossory 
[q. v.] He was sent to Rugby School in 1814, 
and matriculated from Trinity College, Ox- 
ford, 15 Dec. 1818, took his B.A. degree in 
1821, and was created D.C.L. 9 June 1853. 
Soon after leaving the university he settled on 
his paternal estate and began to take a part 
in the public political meetings in Dublin. 
At the general election in 1826 he became a 
candidate for the representation of that city, 
but after a severe and expensive contest 
lasting fourteen days was defeated by a small 
majority. In 1830 and 1832 he again unsuc- 
cessfully contested the seat for Dublin. At 
the close of another election for Dublin in 
January 1835 the numbers were : O'Connell 
2,678, Ruthven 2,630, Hamilton 2,461, West 
2,455. A petition was, however, presented ; 




the commissioners sat from 3 May 1835 to 
6 Jan. 1836, and from 29 Feb. to 26 May, 
when Hamilton and West were declared duly 
elected. In the following year, 1837, he again 
contested Dublin unsuccessfully, and al- 
though in presenting a petition he was sup- 
ported by ' the protestants of England,' and 
a sum of money known as the Spottiswoode 
subscription was raised to assist him in pay- 
ing his expenses, O'Connell on this occasion 
retained his seat. Throughout his career he 
took the side of the Orangemen, and was a 
prominent figure in the protestant demonstra- 
tions. On the formation of the ' Lay Asso- 
ciation for the Protection of Church Property ' 
in August 1834, he became the honorary secre- 
tary of the association, and for a long period 
worked energetically in the cause. In parlia- 
ment he was chiefly known as having pre- 
sented the petition of the celebrated protes- 
tant meeting of 14 Jan. 1837, which gave rise 
to much discussion and subsequently to the 
Earl of Roden's committee of inquiry. On 
10 Feb. 1843, on the occurrence of a chance 
vacancy, he was returned by the university 
of Dublin, which constituency he represented 
without intermission until February 1859. 
To him was mainly due the formation of 
the Conservative Society for Ireland, which 
formed the rallying point for the conservative 
party after the passing of the Reform Bill. 
On 2 June 1845 he spoke on the subject of 
the 'godless college bill.' Another speech 
of 21 Aug. 1848 was printed with the title of 
' Education in Ireland. Report of Speech in 
the House of Commons on Mr. Hamilton's 
motion on above subject,' 1848. On 21 June 
1849 his proposal for an alteration in education 
in Ireland so as to make it acceptable to the 
protestant clergy was lost by 162 to 102 votes. 
He held the financial secretaryship of the 
treasury under Lord Derby's administration 
from March to December 1852, and again on 
the return of the conservatives to power from 
March 1858 to January 1859. At this latter 
date he was appointed permanent secretary of 
the treasury. He was sworn a member of the 
privy council 7 Aug. 1869, and in the follow- 
ing year was named one of the commissioners 
of the church temporalities in Ireland. He 
was a magistrate and deputy-lieutenant for 
the county of Dublin, and an LL.D. of Dub- 
lin University. He died at Kingstown, Ire- 
land, 17 Sept. 1871. His wife, whom he mar- 
ried 1 May 1835, was Amelia Fancourt, daugh- 
ter of Joshua Uhthoff of Bath. 

[Portraits of Eminent Conservatives, 2nd ser. 
(1846), with portrait ; Burke's Landed Gentry; 
Times, 20 Sept. 1871, p. 6 ; Illustrated London 
News, 11 Dec. 1852, pp. 517-18, with portrait, 
and 23 Sept. 1871. p. 283.] G. C. B. 

BOYNE (1639-1723), was the second son of 
Sir Frederick Hamilton, fifth and youngest 
son of Claud Hamilton, first lord Paisley 
[q.v.], by Sidney, daughter and heiress of 
^ir John Vaughan, governor of the city and 
county of Londonderry. He entered the 
army, and became captain towards the close 
of the reign of Charles II. In this capacity 
he attended the Duke of Ormonde, chancellor 
of Oxford, to that university, and on the oc- 
casion received the degree of D.C.L., 6 Aug. 
1677. On the accession of James II he was 
sworn a privy councillor, but resigned his 
seat in disgust at the unconstitutional con- 
duct of James. Tyrconnel thereupon deprived 
him of his commission, and he retired to his 
estate in co. Fermanagh. In 1688 he was 
appointed by the protestants governor of 
Enniskillen, and took up his residence in the 
castle. With great energy he collected and 
armed a trustworthy force. Smiths were em- 
ployed to fasten scythes on poles, while all 
the country houses round Loch Erne were 
strengthened and garrisoned. Sir William 
Stewart, viscount Mount] oy, during his visit 
to Ulster, endeavoured to persuade the men 
of Enniskillen ' to submit to the king's au- 
thority,' assuring them that he would 'protect 
them,' but they answered him jeeringly that 
the king would ' find it hard enough to protect 
himself.' After the vote of the Convention par- 
liament William and Mary were proclaimed at 
Enniskillen. On learning that a Jacobite force 
had been sent into Ulster, Hamilton returned 
to Londonderry, and undertook the defence 
of Coleraine, which he held for six weeks 
against the whole of the hostile army, which 
twice attempted to storm it. He thus covered 
Londonderry until it was fully prepared for 
a siege (petition of Major-general Hamilton 
to the queen in Treasury Papers, 1708-14, 
p. 188). He then retreated in good order 
towards Londonderry, having stayed with a 
troop till they burned three arches of a bridge. 
Thence he returned to the command of the 
Enniskilleners, but his exertions for a time 
broke down his health. On his recovery he 
joined the army of the Duke of Schomberg. 
He commanded a regiment at the battle of 
the Boyne, where he had a horse shot under 
him. Afterwards he served under Ginkel 
[q. v.] during the remainder of the Irish cam- 
paign. He specially distinguished himself at 
the brilliant capture of Athlone, wading the 
Shannon at the head of the grenadiers who 
stormed it. On its surrender he was ap- 
pointed governor of the town. On the con- 
clusion of the war he was made a privy coun- 
cillor, and received a large grant out of the 
forfeited estates. He was gazetted brigadier- 




general on 30 May 1696, and by Queen Anne 
he was made a major-general on 1 Jan. 1703. 
In the first parliament of Queen Anne he 
represented Donegal. lie commanded a regi- 
ment at the siege of Vigo. In May 1710 he 
was appointed a privy councillor to Queen 
Anne, and in October 1714 privy councillor 
to George I. By George I he was, on 20 Oct. 
1715, created Baron Hamilton of Stackallan, 
ancl on 20 Aug. 1717 advanced to the dignity 
of Viscount Boyne in the Irish peerage. He 
died on 16 Sept. 1723. By his wife Eliza- 
beth, second daughter of Sir Henry Brooke, 
knt., of Brooke's-Borough, co. Fermanagh, he 
had one daughter and three sons. His eldest 
son, Frederick, predeceased him, and Gusta- 
vus, the eldest son of Frederick, succeeded 
his grandfather in the peerage and estates. 

[Andrew Hamilton's True Relation of the Ac- 
tions of the Inniskilling Men, 1689; MacCor- 
mick's Further Impartial Account of the Actions 
of the Inniskilling Men, 1692; Cal. Treasury 
Papers, 1696-1714; Macaulay's Hist, of Eng- 
land; Lodge's Irish Peerage, v. 174-8; Wills's 
Irish Nation, ii. 447-56.] T. F. H. 

1880), dean of Salisbury, born on 3 April 
1794, was the son of Alexander Hamilton, 
M.D. (1739-1802) [q. v.] He was educated 
at Trinity College, Cambridge, where he gra- 
duated B.A. as ninth wrangler in 1816, was 
elected fellow, and proceeded M.A. in 1819. 
In 1830 he was presented by the Marquis of 
Ailesbury to the rectory of Wath, nearRipon, 
Yorkshire, and in 1833 obtained from his col- 
lege the perpetual curacy of St. Mary the 
Great, Cambridge, which he resigned in 1844, 
in order to reside permanently at Wath. He 
became rural dean in 1847. In 1850 he was pre- 
ferred to the deanery of Salisbury. Towards 
the restoration of the cathedral he contri- 
buted large sums of money. He was also a 
warm supporter of the board of education 
and other diocesan institutions. He died on 
7 Feb. 1880. By his wife Ellen, daughter 
of Thomas Mason, F.S.A., of Copt Hewick, 
Yorkshire {Gent. Mag. vol. ciii. pt. ii. p. 462), 
who survived him, he had an only daughter, 
Katharine Jane, married on 29 Nov. 1854 to 
Sir Edward Hulse. Hamilton's accomplish- 
ments won him the regard of Whewell and 
Sedgwick, and other distinguished men. He 
was elected F.R.S. on 17 Jan. 1828, and was 
also F.R.S. Edinb., F.R. A.S., and F.G.S. The 
more important of his writings are : 1. ' The 
Principles of Analytical Geometry/ 1826. 
2. l An Analytical System of Conic Sections,' 
1828 ; 5th edit. 1843. 3. < The Education of 
the Lower Classes. A Sermon,' 1840 ; 2nd 
edit. 1841. 4. ' Practical Remarks on Popular 
Education in England and Wales/ 1847. 

5. ' The Church and the Education Question/ 
1848 ; 2nd edit. 1855. 6. < The Privy Council 
and the National Society. The question con- 
cerning the management of Church of Eng- 
land Schools stated and examined/ 1850. 
7. ' Scheme for the Reform of their own Ca- 
thedral by the Dean and Chapter of Salisbury/ 

"[Guardian, 11 and 18 Feb. 1880 ; Men of the 
Time, 10th ed., p. 483; Irving's Book of Scots- 
men, pp. 197-8; Clergy Lists, 1843-50; Crock- 
ford's Clerical Directory, 1879, p. 419; Burke's 
Peerage, 1885, p. 710.] G. G. 

MANAGH (d. 1679), was, according to the 
' Svenska Adelns Attartaflor ' (genealogies of 
the Swedish nobility), second son of Malcolm 
Hamilton, archbishop of Cashel and Emly 
(d. 1629), by his first wife Mary, daughter 
of Robert Wilkie of Sachtonhill. His grand- 
father was Archibald Hamilton of Dalserf r 
Lanarkshire, who is said to have been grand- 
son of James Hamilton, second earl of Arran 
[q. v.], but this relationship is not clearly 
proved. The Swedish authorities state that 
Hugh was sent by his father to join the 
Swedish army in 1624 ; became colonel of a 
regiment in Ingermanland in 1641 ; colonel 
of the Upland infantry regiment in 1645 ; 
and commander in Greifswald in 1646. He 
was naturalised as a Swedish noble in 1648 r 
and, with his younger half-brother Louis- 
Hamilton, was ennobled in Sweden as barons- 
Hamilton de Deserf (i.e. Dalserf ). After the 
Restoration, on 2 March 1660 he was created 
by Charles II baron Hamilton of Glenawley, 
co. Fermanagh, in the peerage of Ireland; 
returned to Ireland in 1662, and settled, as- 
heir of his elder brother, Archibald, on the 
estate which had belonged to his father, at 
Ballygally, co. Tyrone. In 1678 he gave the 
interest of 20/. in perpetuity to the parish of 
Erigilkeroy, to be disbursed annually by the 
rector and churchwardens. He died in April 
1679. He was thrice married and left issue. 
The title became extinct on the death, at 
the age of twenty, of William, his surviving* 
son, the second baron. Letters from the first 
Lord Glenawley to Lord Lauderdale, in 1660- 
1672, are in Brit. Mus. Addit. MSS. 23117, 
23124, 23131, 23132, 23134. 

[Information kindly supplied by Professor 
Hjarneof Upsala; Burke's Extinct Peerage, 1883- 
ed. ; Svenska Adelns Attartaflor, ed. Gabriel 
Anrep, Stockholm, 1861, ii. 181 sq. ; Svenska 
Adelns Attartaflor, ed. Schlegel and Klingspor, 
Stockholm, 1875, pp. lllsq. ; John Anderson's- 
Hist, and Genealog. Memoirs of the House of 
Hamilton, 1 825, p. 446. None of these authorities 




Agree as to the genealogy, but the account given 
above seems most consistent with established 
facts.] H. M. C. 

TON in Sweden (d. 1724), Swedish military 
commander, was younger son of Captain John 
Hamilton of Ballygally, co. Tyrone, Ireland, 
by his wife Jean, daughter of James Somer- 
ville. His father was a younger son of Mal- 
colm Hamilton, archbishop of Cashel and 
Emly, and Hugh or Hugo Hamilton, first 
lord Hamilton of Glenawley [q. v.] was his 
uncle. Hugh is said, after seeing much mili- 
tary service at home, to have been summoned 
to Sweden in 1680 by his elder brother, Mal- 
colm Hamilton [q. v.], already an officer in 
the Swedish army. In Sweden his earliest 
commission was as lieutenant of the Elfs- 
burg regiment, in which he rose to be cap- 
tain. In 1693 he and his brother were en- 
nobled in Sweden as barons Hamilton de 
Hageby. Hugh rose to great distinction 
during the wars of Charles XII, especially 
signalising himself against the Danes in 1710 
at Helsingborg, and against the Russians at 
Gene in 1719. He became, after a long series 
of promotions, a general and master of the 
ordnance. He died in 1724, and was buried 
in Lommarya church in the province of 
Jonkoping. He was married to a Swedish 
lady, daughter of Henrik Ardvisson of Goth- 
enburg, and left numerous children. . His 
sixth son, Gustavus David, was created Count 
Hamilton in 1751 ; attained distinction in 
the seven years' and Russian wars ; became 
a field marshal, and died in 1788. The pre- 
sent Swedish Counts Hamilton are his direct 

[Burke's Extinct Peerage (1883 ed.); au- 
thorities as under HAMILTON, HUGH or HUGO 
(d. 1679). The statement in the Swedish Bio- 
grafiskt Lexikon, vi. 47, that he was Malcolm's 
illegitimate son and not his brother is unsup- 
ported.] H. M. C. 

HAMILTON, HUGH, D.D. (1729-1805), 
bishop of Ossory, eldest son of Alexander 
Hamilton, M.P., of Knock, co. Dublin, and 
Newtownhamilton, co. Armagh, by Isabella 
Maxwell, his wife, was born at Knock on 
26 March 1729. He was descended from Hugh 
Hamilton, who settled in Ireland in the time 
of James I, and was one of the Hamiltons 
of Evandale, of whom Sir James Hamilton 
of Finnart (d. 1540) [q. v.] was an ancestor. 
He entered Trinity College, Dublin, 17 Nov. 
1742, under the tutorship of the Rev. Thomas 
McDonnell, and graduated B.A. 1747, M.A. 
1750, B.D. 1759, and D.D. 1762. In 1751 he 
was elected a fellow, having been unsuccess- 
ful, though his answering was very highly 


commended, at the examination in the preced- 
ing year. In 1759 he was appointed Erasmus 
Smith's professor of natural philosophy in the 
university of Dublin ; he was also elected about 
the same time a fellow of the Royal Society 
and a member of the Royal Irish Academy. 
He resigned his fellowship in 1764, and was 
presented by his college to the rectory of Kil- 
macrenan in the diocese of Raphoe ; in 1767 
he resigned this preferment and was collated 
to the vicarage of St. Anne's, Dublin, which 
benefice he exchanged in April 1768 for the 
deanery of Armagh, by patent dated the 
23rd of that month (Lib- Mun. Hib.} On 
20 Jan. 1796 he was promoted to the bishopric 
of Clonfert and Kilmacduagh ; and by patent 
dated 24 Jan. 1799 he was translated to 
Ossory. He died at Kilkenny 1 Dec. 1805, 
and was buried in his cathedral of St. Canice 
in that city, where there is a monument in- 
scribed to his memory. 

In 1772 he married Isabella, eldest daugh- 
ter of Hans Widman Wood of Rossmead, co. 
Westmeath, and of Frances, twin sister of 
Edward, earl of Kingston, and by her had two 
daughters and five sons : Alexander (d. 1552), 
a barrister, Hans, Henry, George Hamilton 
(1785-1830) [q. v.], and Hugh. 

Hamilton was author of several learned 
treatises, including : 1. { De Sectionibus Coni- 
cis Tractatus Geometricus,' London, 1758. 
2. ' Philosophical Essays on Vapours/ &c., 
London, 1767. 3. 'An Essay on the Existence 
and Attributes of the Supreme Being,' Dublin, 
1784. 4. ' Four Introductory Lectures on 
Natural Philosophy.' His principal works 
were collected and republished, with a me- 
moir and portrait, by his eldest son, Alex- 
ander Hamilton, in two 8vo vols., London, 

[Burke's Landed Gentry, 3rd edit. p.. 513; 
Gent. Mag. 1805, Ixxv. pt. ii. 1176; Dublin 
University Calendars ; Todd's Cat. of Dublin 
Graduates, p. 247 ; Cotton's Fasti Ecclesise 
Hibernicae, ii. 290, iii. 34, iv. 173 ; Mant's Hist, 
of the Church of Ireland, ii. 742 ; Stuart's Hist, 
of Armagh, p. 528.] B. H. B. 


(1734 P-1806), portrait-painter, born in Dub- 
lin about 1734, was a student in the Dublin 
art school under James Mannin. He prac- 
tised as a portrait-painter from an early age, 
and achieved his first successes by drawing 
small oval portraits in crayons. These were 
executed in a low grey tone, and finished 
with red and black chalk. They are very 
clever in expression, and as Hamilton did 
not charge highly for them, he obtained a 
very large practice. His success tempted him 
to come to London, where he settled in Pall 




Mall. George III and Queen Charlotte sat 
to him, besides many of the aristocracy. He 
gained a premium of sixty guineas from the 
Society of Arts in 1765. In 1771 he exhi- 
l)ited some portraits at the exhibition of the 
Incorporated Society of Artists, of which he 
was a member. In 1772 he exhibited with 
the Free Society of Artists, and again in 
1773, 1774, 1775 with the Incorporated So- 
ciety, including in the last year two con- 
versation pieces. In 1778 he went to Rome, 
where he settled for some years, and drew 
the portraits of many of the British visitors to 
that city. By the advice of Flaxman he tried 
oil-painting, and subsequently confined him- 
self to painting portraits in that method. 
Though he maintained his reputation and had 
many sitters, he never reached the same excel- 
lence that he showed in his crayon drawings. 
About 1791 he returned to Dublin, where he 
resided until his death in 1806. There are 
several important portraits by Hamilton at 
Dublin, including those of the Right Hon. 
John Foster, speaker of the Irish House of 
Commons, in the possession of the Dublin 
corporation, and 'Dean Kirwan preaching,' 
in the Dublin Royal Society. He also tried 
historical painting, such as * Medusa' (a co- 
lossal head), l Prometheus,' and ' Cupid and 
Psyche.' Many of his portraits were en- 
graved, notably, Chief Baron Burgh, by W. 
Barnard ; the Duke of Gloucester, by R. Ear- 
lorn ; Colonel Barre, by R. Houston (a por- 
trait of Barre by Hamilton is in the collection 
of Baroness Burdett-Coutts) ; Mrs. Hartley, 
the actress, by Houston ; Mrs. Frederick, by 
Laurie ; Mrs. Brooksbank, by J. R. Smith ; 
Dean Kirwan, by W. Ward; Mr. Joseph 
Gulston, by J. Watson, and many others. 
Hamilton's portrait of Anne, lady Temple, 
which is now in the National Portrait Gal- 
lery, was engraved by W. Greatbach for Cun- 
ningham's edition of Walpole's ' Letters.' A 
portrait of Hamilton himself was engraved 
by W. Holl. Another by G. Chinnery is in 
the possession of the Royal Hibernian Aca- 
demy, and was exhibited at the Irish Exhi- 
bition in London, 1888. 

[Redgrave's Diet, of Artists ; Pasquin's Artists 
of Ireland; Chaloner Smith's Brit. Mezzotinto 
Portraits ; Exhibition Catalogues.] L. C. 

first LOED HAMILTON (d. 1479), was de- 
scended from Walter de Hamilton, or Walter 
Fitzgilbert, styled in Barbour's ' Bruce ' 
Schyr Walter Gilbertson, who, after swearing 
fealty to Edward I, became a supporter of 
Robert Bruce, and was rewarded by the 
barony of Cadzow, with the castle, which had 
formerly been a royal residence. He was 

the eldest of five sons of Sir James Hamilton, 
the fifth baron of Cadzow, by his wife Janet, 
eldest daughter of Sir Alexander de Levin- 
stoun of Callendar. Shortly after the death 
of Archibald, fifth earl of Douglas, in 1439, 
he married by papal dispensation his widow, 
Lady Euphemia, eldest daughter of Patrick ? 
earl of Strathearn. This lady was the mother 
of the Fair Maid of Galloway, who in 1444 was- 
married to William Douglas, eighth earl of 
Douglas [q. v.] To these alliances was due 
the close connection of Hamilton with the 
ambitious schemes of the powerful house of 
Douglas, of which he was for some time re- 
garded as one of the principal retainers. In 
1444 he assisted in the devastation of the lands 
of Bishop Kennedy of St . Andrews, in Fife and 
Forfar, on which account he and other noble- 
men were sentenced to excommunication for 
a year. Soon after the sentence expired he 
obtained a special mark of royal favour, being- 
on 3 July 1445 created a lord of parliament, 
under the title of Lord Hamilton of Cad- 
zow, with the superiority of the lands of the 
farm of Hamilton, his manorhouse called the 
Orchard to be henceforth called Hamilton. 
On 18 Sept. 1449 he was appointed one of 
the commissioners to meet on the borders for 
the renewal of a truce with England (CaL 
Documents relating to Scotland, iv. entry 
1216 ; RYMEK, Fcedera, xi. 238). The same 
year he obtained authority from Pope Sixtus V 
to erect the parish church of Hamilton (for- 
merly Cadzow) into a collegiate church, and 
to add a provost and six prebendaries to a 
former foundation of two chaplainries in the 
church. In 1450 he accompanied Douglas 
to the jubilee celebration at Rome (CaL Docu- 
ments relating to Scotland, iv. entry 1254). 
He also adhered to the confederacy formed 
by Douglas soon after his return with the 
Earls of Crawford, Ross, and Moray for 
mutual defence, and was one of those in at- 
tendance on Douglas when he paid his fatal 
visit to the king in Stirling Castle in Fe- 
bruary 1452. He accompanied Douglas to- 
the castle gate, but on attempting to enter 
was rudely thrust back by the porter. In- 
dignant at the insult he drew his sword, but 
his relation, Sir Alexander Livingston, held 
him back from within by a long halbert till 
the gate was made fast. After the slaughter 
of Douglas by the king a pair of spurs is said 
to have been conveyed to Hamilton from 
some one in the castle as a hint to escape. 
A month afterwards he accompanied James y 
ninth earl, to Stirling, when the king was 
denounced as a traitor, and the safe-conduct 
granted the late earl was dragged through the 
streets. On the night before the assembling 
of the estates at Edinburgh, 12 June 1453 ? 




the Earl of Douglas, his three brothers, and 
Lord Hamilton fixed a placard to the door 
of the house of parliament, renouncing their 
allegiance to the king as a traitor and mur- 
derer. They and the other confederate noble- 
men were thereupon forfaulted, and other 
peers created to take their place (Acta Part. 
Scot. ii. 73). When Douglas soon afterwards 
made terms with the king, Hamilton gave in 
his submission. Shortly afterwards he was sent 
on a mission to London ( Cal. of Documents re- 
lating to Scotland, iv. entry 1266). Of this he 
appears to have taken advantage to act as the 
agent of Douglas in his intrigues with the 
Yorkists. The Duke of York agreed to sup- 
port Douglas against the king on condition 
that he took the oath of homage to the 
English crown. Hamilton declined, but be- 
fore Douglas could return an answer as to his 
own intentions, he was suddenly attacked 
by the king, who during the same raid devas- 
tated also the lands of Hamilton. While 
the king was besieging the castle of Abercorn, 
Douglas and Hamilton gathered a great force 
with a view to ' take the extreme chance of 
fortune' (PiTSCOTTiE, p. 129). Hamilton is 
said to have been the prime adviser of Douglas 
in the bold attitude he had assumed, but when 
Douglas came in sight of the royal army his 
courage failed him, and he hesitated to engage 
it. Hamilton, disgusted at Douglas's reluc- 
tance, and having had promises from the king 
through Bishop Kennedy, went over the same 
night (ib. p. 134). Hamilton is described 
by Pitscottie as a ' man of singular wisdom 
and courage, and in whom the army put their 
whole hope of victory ' (ib. p. 174). His de- 
fection caused the other followers of Douglas 
immediately to disperse. Hamilton was well 
received by the king, but until the surrender 
of Abercorn Castle was for the sake of pre- 
caution retained a prisoner in Roslin Castle. 
Afterwards, on the forfeiture of Douglas, he 
obtained a grant of Finnart in Renfrewshire 
and other lands. In 1455 he was sent along 
with other commissioners to York -to arrange 
a treaty of peace with England, and on 1 July 
of the same year he was made sheriff of the 
county of Lanark. On 14 Jan. 1459-60 
Hamilton granted a charter of four acres to 
the college of Glasgow, on condition that the 
master and students should daily after supper 
pray for the souls of Lord Hamilton and his 
wife Euphemia. In 1457 he entered into a 
bond with George Douglas, fourth earl of 
Angus [q. v.], to be ' his man of special retinue 
and service all the days of his life.' He also 
became one of the most trusted friends and 
counsellors of James III, and after the forfei- 
ture of Thomas Boyd, earl of Arran, in 1469, 
he married Boyd's widow, the Princess Mary 

Stewart, daughter of James II. Buchanan 
states that a divorce was made during Boyd's 
absence in Flanders, and that the princess mar- 
ried Hamilton much against her will. Boyd, he 
adds, died not long afterwards. Another ver- 
sion is that Boyd was dead before the marriage 
was arranged. It probably took place in Fe- 
bruary or March 1473-4. On 25 April 1476 a 
dispensation was granted by Pope Sixtus IV 
to Lord James Hamilton and Mary Stewart as 
having married within the prohibited degrees 
(THEHSTER, Vetera Monumenta, p. 477). By 
this marriage with the king's sister the house 
of Hamilton gained a great position, and be- 
came the nearest family to the throne. 'The 
head of that house was in fact either the 
actual heir to the monarch for the time being 
or the next after a royal child down to the 
time when in the family of James VI of Scot- 
land and I of England there were more royal 
children than one' (HiLL BURTON", Scotland, 
iii. 14). Under James III Hamilton was 
employed on several important missions to 
England. In 1474 he was commissioner ex- 
traordinary to the English court, and he was 
afterwards one of the commissioners appointed 
to meet the plenipotentiaries of England to 
arrange a betrothal between the Princess 
Cecilia, daughter of Edward IV, and Prince 
James, duke of Rothesay, then both in their 
infancy. He died on 6 Nov. 1479, and the 
Princess Mary about Whitsuntide 1488. By 
his first wife he had two daughters, Elizabeth, 
married to David, fourth earl of Crawford, 
created by James III Duke of Montrose, and 
Agnes, married to Sir James Hamilton of 
Preston. By his second wife he had a son, 
James, second lord Hamilton and first earl 
of Arran [q. v.], and a daughter, married to 
Matthew, second earl of Lennox. Among 
his natural children were Sir Patrick Hamil- 
ton of Kincavel, father of Patrick Hamilton 
the martyr [q. v.], and John Hamilton of 

[Cal. Documents relating to Scotland, vol. iv. ; 
Exchequer Rolls of Scotland; Rymer's Foedera; 
Auchinleck Chronicle ; Histories of Lindsay of 
Pitscottie, Bishop Lesley, and Buchanan ; Ander- 
son's Genealogical History of the Hamiltons ; 
Douglas's Scottish Peerage (Wood), i. 695-7 ; 
Hamilton Papers, in Maitland Club Miscellany, 
vol. iv. ; Report on the Manuscripts of the Duke 
of Hamilton, Hist. MSS. Comm. llth Rep. Ap- 
pendix, pt. vi.] T. F. H. 

MILTON and first EARL OF ARRAN (1477 ?- 
1529), only son of James, first lord Hamilton 
[q. v.], by his second wife, the Princess Mary 
Stewart, daughter of James II, was born 
about 1477. While an infant he succeeded 
to the estates and honours of the family, on 





the death of his father in 1479, and on 1 Aug. 
1489 he was infeft in the heritable sheriff- 
ship of Lanark. By James IV he was made 
a privy councillor. In 1503 he was sent with 
other noblemen to England to conclude the 
negotiations for a marriage between the king 
and the Princess Margaret, eldest daughter 
of Henry VII, and he signed the notarial in- 
strument confirming the dower of Margaret 
(Cal. Documents relating to Scotland, iv. 
entry 1736). Hamilton was a proficient in 
all the knightly accomplishments of the time, 
and one of the chief performers at the famous 
tournaments of the court of James IV. At 
the tournament held in honour of the king's 
marriage, Hamilton fought in the barriers 
with the famous French knight, Anthony 
D'Arcy de la Bastie. Though neither was 
victorious, the king was so pleased with the 
carriage of Lord Hamilton, as well as with 
his magnificent retinue, that on 11 Aug. he 
granted him a patent creating him Earl of 
Arran to him and his heirs male, which fail- 
ing the patent was to return to the king 
(Hist. MSS. Comm. llth Kep. App. pt. vi. 
p. 20). He also received a charter of the same 
date constituting him king's justiciary within 
the bounds of Arran. Arran and La Bastie 
had various subsequent encounters (BALFOUR, 
Annals, i. 228). As lieutenant-general of the 
kingdom Arran was sent in 1504 to co-operate 
with Sir Andrew Wood and Robert Barton 
in reducing the Western Isles. After his 
return he was despatched, with ten thousand 
men, to the assistance of the king of Denmark, 
whom he succeeded in re-establishing on his 
throne (LESLEY, History, Bannatyne ed. p.72). 
In 1507 he was sent with the Archbishop of 
St. Andrews on an embassy to France. The ne- 
gotiations aroused the jealousy of Henry VII, 
and on the return of Arran and his natural 
brother, Sir Patrick Hamilton, through Eng- 
land, they were arrested in Kent, and com- 
mitted to prison. Notwithstanding the re- 
monstrances of the Scottish king, they were 
?robablv detained in England till the death of 
lenry Vll. 

On the accession of Henry VIII, there was 
a short revival of friendship between Eng- 
land and Scotland. On 29 Aug. 1509 Arran 
signed a renewal of the treaty bet ween the two 
kingdoms (Cal. State Papers, Henry VIII, i. 
entry 474), and also on 24 Nov. witnessed a re- 
newal of the notarial attestation of James IV 
(ib. 714). When James afterwards took the 
French side, Arran, who, chiefly on account 
oi'his knightly accomplishments, had been ap- 
pr- : ntfd generalissimo of the kingdom, was 
pi i""/i in command of the expedition which 
in 1 :">!" wn sent to the aid of the king of 
France. The licet was one of the largest that 

had ever been assembled, and Arran, on board 
the Great Michael, had its sole direction. 
Owing to his bad seamanship, or from stress 
of weather, he landed at Carrickfergus, which 
he stormed and plundered. He then returned 
to Ayr, where, according to Pitscottie, his 
' men landit and played themselves, and re- 
posed for the space of forty days.' The king, 
incensed at his remissness, despatched Sir 
Andrew Wood to supersede him in the com- 
mand. Arran refused to give over his office, 
and ' pulled up sails and passed wherever 
he pleased, thinking that he would come to 
France in due time' (PITSCOTTIE). During 
his absence occurred the battle of Flodden. 
Of the results of Arran's expedition there is 
no certain information. The French govern- 
ment bought one at least of the larger ships, 
and Arran returned to Scotland with only 
some of the smaller vessels. Before the return 
of Arran the marriage of the Earl of Angus 
[see DOUGLAS, ARCHIBALD, sixth earl (1489 ?- 
1 557 )] to the queen-dowager, Margaret Tudor, 
stimulated the rivalry between the Douglases 
and Hamiltons. Angus had the support of 
Henry VIII. Arran was countenanced by 
France, with which Scotland was in close 
alliance. He supported the regency of Al- 
bany, brother of James III, only so far as 
it held in check the pretensions of Angus, 
but the prolonged visits of Albany to France 
rendered his regency almost nominal. Arran 
returned to Scotland along with his rival, 
La Bastie, whom Albany, on being chosen 
regent, sent over as his representative till he 
himself should arrive. Not long after his 
return Arran made a fruitless attempt to seize 
Angus by an ambuscade. Until the arrival 
of Albany in May 1515, the young king 
remained in the hands of Angus and the 
queen-dowager. Arran supported Albany in 
the proceedings which led to the flight of 
Angus and the queen-dowager to England, 
and when Lord Home, one of the few nobles 
who supported Angus, was taken prisoner, he 
was committed by Albany to the custody of 
Arran in Edinburgh Castle. Home now flat- 
tered Arran with the hope that Angus and 
the queen-dowager would support his claims 
to the regency. The two therefore retired to 
the borders to have a conference with Angus. 
Home thus obtained his liberty, and pos- 
sibly on reaching the borders A'rran recog- 
nised that he had been deceived. At all 
events when Albany proceeded to lay siege to 
Cadzow Castle, Arran, at the request of his 
mother, the Princess Mary, who had inter- 
ceded for him, agreed to return on a promise 
of pardon. Dissatisfied, however, with his 
position, he shortly afterwards entered into 
a confederacy with other nobles to wrest the 




government from Albany. The royal maga- 
zines at Glasgow were seized, and Arran also 
made himself master of Dumbarton Castle, 
but the promptitude of Albany prevented the 
movement from going further, and Arran 
again came to terms. On the departure of 
Albany for France in 1517, Arran was chosen 
one of the council of regency, of which Angus 
was also a member. By the members of the 
council Arran was ultimately chosen presi- 
dent, and virtually acted as governor of the 
kingdom. Shortly after Albany's departure 
La Bastie, who had been made one of the 
wardens of the marches, was on 20 Sept. led 
into an ambuscade by Home of Wedderburn 
and others, and murdered. Arran was there- 
upon made warden of the marches, and placed 
in command of a large force to punish the 
murder. Arran apprehended Sir George 
Douglas, brother of Angus, who was sup- 
posed to have instigated the crime, and, taking 
possession of the principal border fortresses, 
compelled Lord Home and others to take 
refuge in England (letter of the estates of 
Scotland to the king of France, in TETJLET, 
Relations politiques de la France et de VEs- 
pagne avec VEcosse, i. 11-13 ; letter of Arran 
to the king of France on the same subject, 
ib. 15-16; Cal. State Papers, Henry VIII, 
ii. entry 4048 ; LESLEY, Hist, of Scotl. Ban- 
natyne ed. p. 117), but the Scottish nobles 
generally approved secretly of the murder, and 
no further punishment was inflicted on those 
concerned. In 1517 Arran was chosen pro- 
vost of Edinburgh, but having gone to Dal- 
keith with the young king on account of an 
outbreak of small-pox, he on returning to the 
city in September of the following year found 
the gates shut against him, and the city in 
the possession of the Douglases, who secured 
the election to the provostship of Archibald 
Douglas, uncle of Angus. Arran endeavoured 
to force an entrance, but was repulsed with 
heavy loss, and for some time after this the 
city remained in the hands of Angus. On ac- 
count, however, of the constant feuds between 
the two factions, Albany interposed, and on 
his recommendation that no person of the 
name of Hamilton or Douglas should be 
chosen provost, Robert Logan in 1520 suc- 
ceeded Archibald Douglas. Arran now ven- 
tured into the city, and finding that Angus 
had relaxed his precautions, and was attended 
by only about four hundred followers, re- 
solved to overpower them. All endeavours 
to mediate between the rival factions failed, 
and Arran, provoked by the attitude of the 
Douglases, drawn up across the street, at- 
tempted to ' cleanse the causeway.' After 
a short and fierce struggle his followers were 
routed with great loss, the famous knight, 

his half-brother, Sir Patrick Hamilton of 
Kincavel, father of Patrick Hamilton the 
martyr [q. v.], being among the slain. Arran 
and his son James, afterwards second earl of 
Arran, made their escape down a close. Angus 
usurped the government of the kingdom, but 
a quarrel with his wife, the queen-dowager, 
led to the return of Albany and the banish- 
ment of Angus. D uring the absence of Albany 
in France in 1522 Arran formed one of the 
council of regency. In September of the fol- 
lowing year he was appointed lieutenant over 
the greater part of the south of Scotland, in- 
cluding Teviotdale and the marches with 
Lothian, Stirlingshire, and Linlithgowshire 
(Cal. State Papers, Henry VIII, vol. iii. entry 
3208). He now entered into an understand- 
ing with the queen-dowager, and so thwarted 
the proceedings of Albany that the latter in 
1524 retired to France. With the sanction, 
if not at the instigation, of Henry VIII, Arran 
and the queen- do wager now brought the 
young prince from Stirling to Edinburgh, 
where a council was held, at which he was 
erected as king, and proclamations issued in 
his name. Arran and the queen-dowager 
hoped to prevent the return of Angus to 
power, and urged Henry VIII to detain him 
in England. Henry tried to secure Arran's 
devotion by a small pension, but distrusted 
him, and resented his attempt at a bar- 
gain. Norfolk advised Wolsey that if Angus 
were in Scotland, Arran would be compelled 
to abate his high tone (ib. iv. 739). On 
23 Nov. 1524 Angus entered Edinburgh with 
a large force, and demanded that the king 
should be given up to the custody of the 
nobles ; but Arran having threatened to open 
fire on him from the castle, he withdrew to 
Tantallon. Arran and the queen-dowager 
now proposed to Henry a pacification, and a 
marriage between the young king and the 
Princess Mary, and to show their sincerity 
sent an embassy to France to declare that 
the regency of Albany was at an end. Wolsey 
was convinced, however, that Angus ' would 
be more useful to England than five Earls of 
Arran.' Henry had also committed himself 
to Angus. His neutrality compelled the 
queen-dowager to admit Angus on the coun- 
cil of regency, and at the opening of the parlia- 
ment he bore the crown, Arran bearing the 

At a parliament held in July a compro- 
mise was made, practically in the interests 
of Angus. It was agreed that the care of 
the king should be committed to a nobleman 
and an ecclesiastic, who were to be succeeded 
by other two at the end of three months. 
Angus and the Archbishop of Glasgow were 
chosen for the first three months; but at 




the end of their term of office refused to 
deliver up the king to their appointed suc- 
cessors, Arran and the Bishop of Aberdeen. 
Arran thereupon mustered a force and ad- 
vanced to Linlithgow, but on Angus march- 
ing out against him, accompanied by the king, 
he shrank from taking up the gage of battle, 
and after a precipitate retirement dispersed 
his forces. The marriage of the queen- 
dowager with Henry Stewart shortly after- 
wards alienated nearly all her former sup- 
porters, and Arran now came to terms with 
Angus, and, although he received no office of 
trust, supported him against Lennox when 
the latter endeavoured to obtain possession 
of the king. Lennox was the nephew of 
Arran, and his nearest heir, and Arran's di- 
vorce of his second wife, by whom he had no 
children, had caused an alienation between 
them. On 4 Sept. 1526 he was sent by Angus 
with a large force to prevent Lennox, who had 
a secret understanding with the king, from 
marching on the capital. Arran had seized 
the bridge over the Avon, near Linlithgow, 
and sent a messenger to Angus asking for 
reinforcements. Lennox was hampered with 
the difficulties of crossing, and after a fierce 
struggle his lines had begun to waver, when 
the arrival of the Douglases spread a panic 
which resulted in utter rout. Lennox was 
cruelly slain in cold blood by Sir James Ha- 
milton (d. 1540) [q.v.], after he had been taken 
prisoner. His death was deeply mourned not 
only by the king, but by Arran, who was 
seen after the battle ' weeping verrie bitterlie 
besyd the Earl of Lennox,saying " the hardiest, 
stoutest, and wysest man that evir Scotland 
bure, lyes heir slaine this day," and laid his 
cloak of scarlet upon him, and caused watch- 
men stand about him, quhile the kingis ser- 
vantis cam and buried him' (PITSCOTTIE, 
p. 328). On the forfeiture of the estates of the 
rebel lords, Arran received a grant of the lands 
of Cassilis and Evandale. After the escape of 
the king from the power of the Douglases at 
Falkland, Arran attended the meeting of the 
council at Stirling, at which the Douglases 
were forbidden to approach within six miles 
of the court on pain of death. He was also 
one of those who sat on the forfeiture of 
Angus, and after the act of forfeiture was 

Esd received the lordship of Bothwell 
. Mag. Sig. i. entry 707). He died before 
ily 1529. 

Arran was married first to Beatrix, daugh- 
ter of John, lord Drummond, by whom he 
had a daughter, Margaret, married to An- 
drew Stewart, lord Evandale and Ochiltree, 
whose grandson was Captain James Stewart 
[q. v.], the accuser of the regent Morton, 
and favourite of James VI, by whom he 

was created Earl of Arran, while James Ha- 
milton, third earl [q. v.], was still living, but 
insane. He was married secondly to Eliza- 
beth, daughter of Alexander, lord Home, from 
whom he was divorced on the ground that 
her previous husband, Thomas Hay, son and 
heir of John, lord Hay of Tester, was still 
living when the marriage took place (nota- 
rial copy of sentence of divorce in Cal. of 
Documents relating to Scotland, iv. 173-9 ; 
process of divorce against Elizabeth Home 
in t Hamilton Papers,' Maitland Club Miscel- 
lany, iv. 199; and Hist. MSS. Comm. llth 
Rep. App. pt. vi. pp. 49-50). By this marriage 
he had no issue. The legality of the divorce 
was afterwards disputed by the Earl of Len- 
nox, on the ground that the wife's first husband 
was dead when the second marriage took place. 
On this plea Lennox afterwards claimed 
against the descendants of the third wife 
whom he represented to be bastards to be 
next heir to the crown. The third wife was 
Janet, daughter of Sir David Bethune of 
Creich, comptroller of Scotland, and widow 
of Sir Thomas Livingstone of Easter Wemy ss. 
By her he had two sons, James, second earl 
of Arran and duke of Chatelherault [q.v.], 
and Gavin ; and four daughters, first, Isabel, 
married to John Bannatyne of Corhouse ; 
second, Helen, to Archibald, fourth earl of 
Argyll ; third, Johanna, to Alexander, fifth 
earl of Glencairn ; and fourth, Janet, to David 
Boswell of Auchinleck. He had also four 
natural sons whom he acknowledged : Sir 
James Hamilton of Finnart (d. 1540) [q. v.], 
ancestor of the Hamiltons of Evandale, 
Crawfordjohn, &c., Sir John Hamilton of 
Clydesdale, James Hamilton of Parkhill, 
and John Hamilton [q. v.], archbishop of 
St. Andrews. 

[Cal. Docs, relating to Scotland, vol. iv. ; Cal. 
State Papers, Henry VIII ; Keg. Mag. Sig. Scot. 
vol. i. ; Hamilton Papers, in Maitland Club Mis- 
cellany, vol. iv. ; Hist. MSS. Comm. llth Rep. 
App. pt. vi. ; Histories of Lindsay of Pitscottie, 
Bishop Lesley, and Knox; Douglas's Scottish 
Peerage (Wood), i. 697-8.] T. F. H. 

HAMILTON, SIR JAMES (d. 1540), of 
Finnart, royal architect, was a natural son 
of James Hamilton, second lord Hamilton 
and first earl of Arran [q. v.], and was there- 
fore half-brother of James Hamilton, second 
earl of Arran [q. v.], governor of Scotland, and 
of John Hamilton, archbishop of St. Andrews 
[q. v.] He is admitted to have been a man 
of exceptional ability, but was wild and im- 
petuous, regardless of principles, and yet a 
bigot in religion. Though the stain on his 
birth precluded him from all hope of succes- 
sion to his father's title, he was deemed a 
fitting companion for the youthful king, 




James V, over whom he latterly wielded con- 
siderable power. Hamilton's early years were 
spent abroad, and he seems to have developed 
his great natural taste for architecture at the 
court of Francis I, where he resided for some 
time. On his return he found Scotland dis- 
tracted betwixt the rival factions of the Dou- 
glases and the Hamiltons, and he at once threw 
himself enthusiastically into the contest, 
taking part with his father. His name figures 
prominently as ( the Bastard of Arran ' in the 
fierce struggles between these leaders, and 
many of the most reprehensible acts com- 
mitted by the Hamilton faction are laid to 
his charge. In the conflict called l Cleanse 
the Causeway ' in the streets of Edinburgh on 
30 April 1520 betwixt the Earl of Arran and 
Archibald Douglas, sixth earl of Angus [q. v.], 
Hamilton took a leading part, and it is asserted 
that all attempts at a pacific termination of the 
fray were frustrated by his action. The Hamil- 
tons were defeated, and Sir James and his 
father escaped with difficulty, being forced, 
it is said, to fly from the scene of the combat 
mounted double on a collier's pack-horse. 
After the battle of Linlithgow, 4 Sept. 1526, 
between John Stewart, earl of Lennox, and 
James Hamilton, first earl of Arran [q. v.], 
Hamilton was guilty of the murder of Len- 
nox, after that nobleman had delivered up 
his sword and declared himself a prisoner. 
Hamilton's apologists have in vain denied the 
charge. A groom of the dead earl followed 
Hamilton to Edinburgh and murderously 
assaulted him, although he failed to kill him. 
There is still in the possession of the Duke 
of Montrose an agreement made by Sir James 
Hamilton with the murdered man's son, 
Matthew, earl of Lennox, whereby James 
becomes bound to fee six chaplains to ' do 
suffrage for the soul of the deceased John, 
earl of Lennox, for seven years, three of 
them to sing continually in the College Kirk 
of Hamilton, and the other three to sing 
continually in the Blackfriars of Glasgow ' 
(Hist. MSS. Comm. 3rd Rep. p. 393). After 
the death of Hamilton the grant thus made 
was renewed by the king from Hamilton's 
forfeited estates (Reg. Mag. Sig. xxvii. 115). 
Despite his turbulence Hamilton still re- 
tained his place in the king's favour. He had 
obtained the lands of Finnart in Renfrewshire 
from his father in 1507, with express consent 
of the king, then Prince James (Reg. Mag. Sig. 
xiv. 483), superior of that territory, and after 
the accession of James V acquired additional 
estates. From a charter recorded in the ' Re- 
gister of the Great Seal,' under date 20 Jan. 
1512-13, it appears that the Earl of Arran, 
Tiaving no legitimate heirs at that time, no- 
minated his natural son, Sir James Hamilton 

of Finnart, as his heir of tailzie, with approval 
of the king, James IV, though this proceeding 
was contrary to legal practice in Scotland. 
The wealth which Hamilton had thus amassed 
rendered him one of the most powerful of the 
Scottish barons, and he had the address to re- 
tain the affection of one of the most fickle of 
monarchs through all his turbulent career. His 
ability as an architect was largely utilised by 
the king, and he is acknowledged to have been 
the designer of Craignethan Castle and the 
reconstructor of the royal palaces of Linlith- 
gow and of Falkland. The renovation of the 
latter palace was completed by him in 1539, 
and as a reward for his services he obtained 
letters of legitimation from the king under 
the great seal on 4 Nov. in that year (ib. 
xxvi. 438). 

Hamilton took, in 1528, an active part in 
the martyrdom of Patrick Hamilton [q. v.], 
a relative of his own. In 1540 James Hamil- 
ton of Kincavel, brother of Patrick, revealed 
to the king an alleged plot in which Sir James 
Hamilton had been involved for the murder of 
the king so far back as 1528. Upon this infor- 
mation Sir James was arrested and brought to 
trial on a charge of high treason. As the king 
had consented to his arrest, no time was lost in 
convicting the prisoner, and he was executed 
immediately thereafter, on 16 Aug. 1540. His 
extensive estates were confiscated, and many 
pages of the ' Register of the Great Seal ' are 
occupied with the record of the distribution 
of these estates among the new favourites of 
the king. 

It is asserted by some of the older his- 
torians that the king was seized with remorse 
for his share in the death of his favourite, and 
that during the two brief years which he sur- 
vived his couch was haunted by the spectre 
of his old companion. 

Hamilton was married previous to 1528 (ib. 
xxiii. 80) to Margaret Levingstoun of Easter 
Wemyss, who survived him, and who obtained 
after her husband's death a grant of the life- 
rent of the barony of Tillicoultry, which had 
been forfeited through the treason of Sir James 
Colville of Easter Wemyss. The Hamiltons 
of Gilkerscleugh, Evandale, and Crawford- 
john descended from Sir James Hamilton of 

[Tytler's Hist, of Scotland ; Pitcairn's Criminal 
Trials ; Registrum Magni Sigilli ; Acta Parl. 
Scot. vol. ii. ; Lesley's Hist, of Scotland ; Holins- 
hed's Chronicle, ii. 191, Arbroath ed. 1805.] 

A. H. M. 

(d. 1575), governor of Scotland, the eldest 
son of James Hamilton, second lord Hamilton 
and first earl of Arran [q. v.], by his second 




wife, Janet Beaton of Easter Wemyss, suc- 
ceeded to the earldom on the death of his father 
in 1529. During his minority he remained 
under the guardianship of Sir James Hamilton 
(d 1540) [q. v.] of Finnart (Hamilton MSS. 
5, 6). In 1536 he accompanied James V on his 
matrimonial expedition into France (PINKER- 
TON, ii. 337). On the death of James (14 Dec. 
1542), shortly after the battle of Solway 
Moss, he was chosen governor of the realm 
during the minority of Mary ; and. notwith- 
standing the violent and unscrupulous op- 
position of Cardinal Beaton [see BEATON, 
DAVID], was installed in his office on 22 Dec. 
1542. His election, which was confirmed 
by the estates on 15 March 1543 (Acts of 
Part. ii. 411, 593), was due rather to his 
position as ' second person of the realm ' 
(through the marriage of his grandfather, 
Sir James Hamilton of Cadzow, lord Hamil- 
ton (d. 1479) [q. v.], with Mary, sister of 
James III), than to any commanding talents 
of his own, though, according to Knox, ' the 
cause of the great favour that was borne to 
him was that it was bruited that he favoured 
God's word, and because it was well known 
that he was one appointed to have been perse- 
cuted, as the scroll found in the king's pocket 
after his death did witness ' (Reformation, 
i. 94, 101 ; SADLEIR, State Papers, i. 94, 108). 
He was a man of great wealth and refine- 
ment, genial and tolerant, though somewhat 
vain in his private relations, but in public 
affairs indolent and vacillating in the ex- 
treme. Almost from the first it was appa- 
rent that in political capacity and daring he 
was inferior to his rival the cardinal. To 
Henry VIII, however, his character and re- 
ligious sentiments seemed to present a fa- 
vourable opportunity for the realisation of 
his scheme of a union between the two king- 
doms, and no efforts were spared, even to a 
tempting offer of marriage between his eldest 
son and the Princess Elizabeth, to attach him 
to the English interest (SADLEIR, i. 129, 139). 
But though a pliant enough instrument in 
Henry's hand, he was by no means a trust- 
worthy one. Already, in the beginning of 
April 1543, Sir Ralph Sadleir noticed symp- 
toms of tergiversation in him, which were 
generally attributed to the influence of his 
natural brother, John Hamilton (d. 1570) 
[q. v.], abbot of Paisley, and afterwards arch- 
bishop of St. Andrews, a man of unbounded 
ambition, who, having attached himself to 
Cardinal Beaton, laboured assiduously to win 
Arran over to the French side, representing 
to him how, owing to the manner of his 
father's divorce from his first wife, Elizabeth 
Home, it would inevitably endanger his claim 
to the succession were he to cut himself off 

from communication with Rome (ib. i. 157 r 
158, 160 ; CRAWFURD, Officers of State, i. 376 ; 
KNOX, Reformation, i. 109 ; Hamilton MSS. 

49). John's representations carried much 
weight with the weak-minded governor ; but 
his inclination evidently lay in the other 
direction, and Henry's agents warned him of 
the risk he ran of playing into the cardinal's 
hand, only to find himself discarded in the- 
end (State Papers, Henry VIII, v. 274). For 
a time Henry's threats and promises kept 
him firm, and on 1 July 1543 the prelimi- 
naries were arranged for a treaty between 
England and Scotland on the basis of a, 
marriage between the infant Mary and the 
young Prince Edward (RYMER,xiv.788,796). 
But the alliance was not popular. The 
common people everywhere, wrote Sadleir, 
murmured against the governor, i saying he 
was an heretic and a good Englishman, and 
hath sold this realm to the king's majesty r 
(SADLEIR, i. 216, 234). The capture of Mary 
and her removal from Linlithgow to Stirling,, 
together with the appearance of Lennox on 
the scene as a rival claimant to the succes- 
sion, further alienated him from the English, 
alliance. ' The governor, methinketh/ wrote- 
Sadleir, ' is out of heart and out of courage ' 
(ib. p. 260). After confirming the English, 
treaties on 25 Aug. he, on 3 Sept., joined the; 
French party. He stole quietly away, as. 
Knox expressed it, from Holyrood Palace to 
Callander House, near Falkirk ; there he met 
the cardinal, and proceeded with him to Stir- 
ling (ib. pp. 270, 282-3). In the Franciscan* 
convent of that city he publicly abjured his. 
religion, and, having received absolution, re- 
nounced the treaties with England, and de- 
livered his eldest son to the cardinal as a 
of his sincerity (CHALMERS, Life of 

art/, ii. 404). But after having taken this 
decisive step he still wavered in his policy. 
At one time he secretly informed Sadleir 
that he was only temporising with the French 
party (SADLEIR, i. 288) ; at another he was r 
' by the persuasions of the cardinal, earnestly 
bent against England,' and was resolved to 
destroy ' all such noblemen and others within 
the realm as do favour the same ' (ib. p. 336)* 
The repudiation of the treaties was of course 
followed by an outbreak of hostilities. 

Arran's conduct in the regency had given 
little satisfaction to either party, and a coali- 
tion having taken place between them, it was- 
resolved, at a convention of nobles at Stir- 
ling in June 1554, to transfer the govern- 
ment to the queen-dowager, Mary of Guise 
(State Papers, Henry VIII, v. 391-4 ; Diur- 
nal of Occurrents, p. 33). On this occasion 
Arran acted boldly, and, ignoring the act of 
the Stirling convention, summoned a parlia- 




ment to Edinburgh on 31 July. Thereupon 
the queen-dowager advanced against him at 
the head of a considerable force, but, finding 
the city too strongly fortified, retired to Stir- 
ling. Arran postponed the meeting of par- 
liament till November (Acts of Par I. ii. 445). 
The queen-dowager issued writs for a rival 
parliament to be held at Stirling on the 12th 
of the same month (Diurnal of Occur rents, 
p. 36 ; TYTLER, History, v. 359-65). But 
by the cardinal's intervention she was con- 
strained to give way, and on 6 March 1545 
consented to acknowledge Arran's supre- 
macy, and co-operate with him in the conduct 
of affairs (Hamilton MSS. p. 36). Meanwhile 
the war with England still went on. After 
the defeat of the Scots at Pinkie Cleugh 
(10 Sept. 1547) the situation of Scotland 
was grave in the extreme. Arran exerted 
himself as much as his weak nature was 
able ; but, deserted by the nobles, many of 
whom had privately made their peace with 
England, he was unable to work to much 
purpose, and the reins of government gradu- 
ally slipped into the stronger hands of the 
queen-dowager. By her advice a council was 
convened at Stirling, when it was resolved 
to appeal to France for assistance against 
England. The proposal was warmly sup- 
ported by the French ambassador D'Oysel, 
and a suggestion was made that the young 
Queen Mary should be removed to France 
for safety. The suggestion, foreshadowing 
as it did a marriage between Mary and the 
dauphin, was distasteful to Arran, who was 
not without hope of an alliance between her 
and his eldest son (LESLEY, p. 204 ; THORPE, 
Cal. i. 68, 71 ; TYTLER, vi. 37). At a meet- 
ing of the estates on 17 July 1548 the ar- 
rangement was formally confirmed ; a judi- 
cious distribution of French gold among the 
nobility, and a grant of the duchy of Chatel- 
herault to Arran himself, with other favours, 
smoothing over all difficulties (STEVENSON, 
Cal. ii. 19; SPOTISWOOD, p. 89). Arran's 
supine conduct is generally attributed to 
the absence of his brother the archbishop, 
supposed to be on his deathbed at the time 
(CRAWFURD, i. 377). The arrival of reinforce- 
ments from France and the conclusion of 
peace with England in 1550 gave the queen- 
dowager a further advantage in her endea- 
vour to oust Chatelherault from the regency. 
Notwithstanding his assiduous devotion to 
his duties the nobility were gradually drawn 
over to her side. Influenced, however, by his 
brother, who had recovered from his illness, 
and who represented to him the folly of re- 
tiring from power, when only the life of a 
feeble girl stood between him and the crown 
, pp. 21, 73), Chatelherault 

did not yield without a struggle. But finally, 
finding himself deserted on all sides, he on- 
12 April 1554 reluctantly consented to abdi- 
cate (Acts of Par 1. ii. 600-4). He mani- 
fested, however, no feelings of resentment 
against the queen-dowager, and continued ta 
support her government until she had driven 
the protestant nobles into rebellion. After 
much hesitation he then adopted a policy 
more consonant with his own interests. Or* 
the capture of Edinburgh (29 June 1559) by 
the lords of the congregation he intimated to- 
the regent that it was no longer possible for 
him to take part with her against those of the- 
same religion as himself. On the following^ 
day he retired to Hamilton (STEVENSON, Cal. 
i. 349, 365). He would still have gladly ob- 
served a strict neutrality, but the pressure of 
the protestants and of Cecil finally led him, 
with evident reluctance, to sign the covenant 
(ib. i. 401, 571 ; SADLEIR, i. 404). His defec- 
tion exasperated the regent, who charged him 
with a desire to usurp the crown (STEVEN- 
SON, Cal. ii. 43), and endeavoured to under- 
mine his credit at the English court by forg- 
ing a letter addressed to Francis II, in which 
Chatelherault was made to profess allegiance 
to the French king, and to offer security for 
his fidelity in the shape of a blank bond. The 
letter came to the knowledge of the English 
privy council, and though there was a general 
tendency to discredit it, yet Chatelherault's- 
reputation for insincerity gave plausibility 
to the charge, and he was immediately ques- 
tioned about it. He denied all knowledge 
of it, and offered to fight any one who doubted 
his word. The plot was finally exploded by 
an intercepted letter from the regent to the 
cardinal of Lorraine, complaining of the way 
in which the French ambassador in Eng- 
land had mismanaged the business. But 
the suspicion, while it rested upon him, gave 
Chatelherault great uneasiness, and caused 
him to age rapidly (ib. ii. 332, 453, 481 ; 
TEULET, i. 407, 566 ; HAYNES, p. 267). His. 
property in France had long since been 
seized, but by the treaty of Edinburgh it 
was stipulated that it should be restored to 
him (HAYNES, p. 354). After the death of 
Francis II in December 1560 Chatelherault 
again conceived the project of a marriage be- 
tween his eldest son and Queen Mary, which- 
he regarded as the only adequate guarantee 
for the recognition of his claim to the succes- 
sion. His overtures were received by Mary 
in a friendly spirit, but there was little pro- 
spect, in the opinion of others, that they would 
be realised (STEVENSON, Cal. iii. 580, iv. 85 ; 
TYTLER, vi. 208, 219). On the queen's arrival 
in Scotland he was one of the first to salute 
her, but his absence from the subsequent fes- 




tivities at Edinburgh was noted and com- 
mented upon in a style that obliged him to 
appear at court, when he was ' well received' 
by the queen (STEVENSON, Cal.iv. 391). But 
he was ill at ease, foreseeing danger, but 
doubting from what quarter it would come. 
The madness of his son James, and his story 
of a plot to seize the queen's person and sub- 
vert the government, implicating himself, his 
father and Bothwell, still further unsettled 
Mm. Mary's conduct on this occasion (ib. 
iv. 592-4) went far to reassure him, but the 
surrender of Dumbarton Castle into her hands 
followed almost as a matter of course. In 
1565 the restoration of his old enemy Lennox 
and the proposed marriage between Mary and 
Darnley filled him with fresh apprehensions 
(ib. vii. 338, 352). Animated by the attitude 
of Murray, he declined to obey a summons to 
court (Register of the Privy Council, i. 365). 
He was thereupon proclaimed a traitor, and 
shortly afterwards compelled to flee for his 
life across the border. Elizabeth disavowed 
all sympathy with him, and from Newcastle 
he soon made overtures for forgiveness and re- 
storation. At first Mary indignantly de- 
clined to listen to him, declaring that nothing 
but his head would satisfy her (STEVENSON, 
Cat. vii. 480, 483), but on his consenting to 
go into banishment for five years he obtained 
a pardon (Hamilton MSS. p. 43). Leaving 
his debts unpaid, Chatelherault slipped away 
in February 1566 to France, where he oc- 
cupied himself in vain endeavours to recover 
his duchy (STEVENSON, Cal. viii. 6, 19, 69, 
91). The murder of Darnley, Mary's mar- 
riage to Bothwell, her imprisonment, and the 
appointment of Murray as regent materially 
altered Chatelherault's attitude. Darnley 
out of the way, Mary was no longer his 
enemy. He therefore repaired to the French 
court, protested his loyalty, and offered his 
sword in defence of his sovereign's cause. 
He desired at the same time, we are told, to 
add something touching his suit for the 
recovery of his duchy, but the king ' cut 
it short,' and turned the conversation into 
another channel (ib. viii. 295). He managed, 
however, to secure in lieu of it a pension of 
four thousand francs, and a cupboard of plate 
worth fifteen hundred crowns (ib. viii. 319). 
His attempt to raise a French force was 
frustrated by Throckmorton, and when he 
landed in England early in 1569 he was prac- 
tically unattended. At York his progress was 
arrested by the Earl of Sussex, but on pro- 
mising to behave in a dutiful manner he was 
allowed to proceed (CROSBY, Cal. ix. 31). 
His return to Scotland, and the menacing 
attitude of the Hamiltons generally, discon- 
certed the regent Murray. He tried in vain 

to obtain from Chatelherault an acknowledg- 
ment of the king's supremacy, and afterwards, 
on pretence of a conference, inveigled him to 
Edinburgh, where he was arrested (TYTLER, 
vii. 225-8). After Murray's assassination 
in January 1570 Chatelherault was still more 
closely confined, and it was not till the arri- 
val of Verac from France that he was set at 
liberty on 20 April. During the civil war 
that followed, his castles of Hamilton, Kin- 
neil, and Linlithgow were razed to the ground 
by Sir W. Drury (ib. ix. 257). But, notwith- 
standing his own losses and the apparent 
hopelessness of the struggle, he continued 
faithfully to support the queen's party till 
23 Feb. 1573, when, acting in union with 
the Earl of Huntly, he consented to acknow- 
ledge the king's authority and lay down his 
sword. He afterwards declared to Killigrew 
that he would never consent to the introduc- 
tion of a French force into the kingdom, but 
Killigrew was not without a suspicion that 
he was even then only temporising (ib. x. 
281, 522). 

Chatelherault died at Hamilton on 22 Jan. 
1575. By his wife, the Lady Margaret, eldest 
daughter of James Douglas, third earl of Mor- 
ton, he had issue: James Hamilton, third 
earl of Arran [q. v.] ; John, first marquis of 
Hamilton [q. v.] ; David, who died young ; 
and Claud, lord Paisley [q. v.] ; and four 
daughters : Barbara, who married James, 
fourth lord Fleming [q. v.], high chamber- 
lain of Scotland ; Margaret, who married 
Alexander, lord Gordon, eldest son of George, 
fourth earl of Huntly ; Anne, who married 
George, fifth earl of Huntly [q. v.] ; and Jane, 
who married Hugh Montgomery, third earl 
of Eglintoun (DOUGLAS, Peerage, i. 701). 

[Hamilton MSS. (Hist. MSS. Comm. 1 1th Eep. 
App. pt. vi.); Acts of the Parliament of Scot- 
land; Sadleir's State Papers ; State Papers of the 
Reign of Henry VIII, vol. v. ; Eymer's Fcedera ; 
Diurnal of Occurrents in Scotland (Bannatyne 
Club); Knox's History of the Reformation, ed. 
Laing ; Register of the Privy Council of Scot- 
land ; Melvill's Diary ; Crawfurd's Officers of 
State; Thorpe's Cal. of State Papers; Cal. of 
Hatfield MSS. ; Haynes's Burghley Papers ; Cal. 
of State Papers, For. Corresp., ed. Stevenson 
and Crosby, vols. i-x.; Douglas and Crawfurd's 
Peerages of Scotland ; and the Histories of Scot- 
land by Buchanan, Drummond, Lesley, Keith, 
Robertson, Spotiswood, Tytler, and Burton.] 

R. D. 

HAMILTON, JAMES (/. 1566-1580), 
of Bothwellhaugh, assassin, w T as descended 
from a younger branch of the noble family of 
Hamilton. His grandfather was the fifth son 
of John Hamilton of Orbieston, the nephew 
of Sir James, first lord Hamilton [q. v.], and 
grandson of Sir James Hamilton of Caclzow, 




(DOUGLAS, Baronage of Scotland, p. 563). 
Ills father was David, ' gude man of Both- 
wellhaugh,' a designation implying that he 
held his estate as a vassal from a superior. 
George Buchanan states that his mother was 
the sister of Hamilton, archbishop of St. An- 
drews, but her name was Catherine Schaw 
(PiTCAiKtf, Criminal Trials, i. 23). There 
were at least three sons, James, David, and 
John. James seems to have been the eldest, 
although David, on the death of the father, 
added the title of Bothwellhaugh to that of 
Monkton-mains which he formerly held, pro- 
bably because the property fell to him on 
account of his brother's forfeiture. David 
and James were married to two sisters, Isa- 
bel and Alison Sinclair, coheiresses of Wood- 
houselee. Ignorance of the fact that James 
as well as David was interested in Wood- 
houselee has led to the supposition that David 
was the murderer of the regent (see Records of 
the Burgh ofPrestwick, Maitland Club, 1834, 
pp. 139-42). James Hamilton first appears, 
26 April 1566, as one of the cautioners for 
the Earl of Arran (Reg. P. C. Scotl. i. 453). 
He was taken prisoner at Langside on 13 May 
1568 (Hist, of James the Seat, p. 26), was tried, 
and sentenced to death, but was pardoned 
at the intercession of Knox (CALDEEWOOD, ii. 
417). According to the author of the ' His- 
torie of James the Sext,' Hamilton's lands re- 
mained forfeited, and his wife, expecting to be 
allowed to remain in her house of Woodis- 
lee, was nevertheless violently expelled, and 
f quhat for greif of mynd and exceeding cold 
that schee had then contracted conceived sic 
madness of spreit as was almost incredible ' 
(p. 46). The lands of Woodhouselee came 
into the possession of Bellenden, lord justice 
clerk, the uncle of Hamilton's wife, and the 
probability is that they were formally con- 
veyed to him to save them from forfeiture. 
Spotiswood states that because Bellenden 
would not part with them Hamilton made 
' his quarrel to the regent, who was most inno- 
cent and had restored him to life and liberty.' 
According to one of the ' Hamilton Papers,' 
Bothwellhaugh killed Moray partly on ac- 
count of his treatment of the queen, and 
partly in revenge of private injuries (Maitland 
Club Miscellany, iv. 123). It was given out 
that the whole motive was private revenge, 
and according to later tradition Hamilton's 
wife perished from the exposure to which 
she had been subjected at the instance of 
the regent. Thus Woodhouselee was sup- 
posed to have been haunted, as described in 
Sir Walter Scott's ballad of ' Cadzow Castle,' 
by the l sheeted phantom ' of the wife of 
Bothwellhaugh. The lady, in fact, not only 
survived her husband, but was alive thirty 

years after the battle of Langside (Acta Parl. 
Scot. iv. 354). Mr. Maitland traces the story 
of the ghost supposed to haunt Woodhouselee 
to the tragic death of Lady Anne Both-well, 
the heroine of the ' Lady Anne Bothwell's 
Lament,' which took place at Glencorse, near 
Woodhouselee. He supposes that the two 
traditions have gradually become blended 
(Scottish Ballads, ii. 331-2). 

Though Bothwellhaugh was probably ac- 
tuated by private revenge, he was aided by 
the chiefs of the house of Hamilton, and 
the deed was fully approved by the queen's 
friends. The regent Moray was induced to 
leave Edinburgh to discuss the surrender of 
the fortress with Lord Fleming of Dumbarton, 
but on reaching Glasgow he discovered that 
he had been misled, and shortly afterwards 
returned to Stirling on his way to Edinburgh. 
Bothwellhaugh lay in wait for him on more 
than one occasion during his progress. He 
either preceded or dogged him to Linlithgow, 
where the regent slept on 22 Jan. 1569-70. 
He took up his position in a house belonging 
to the Archbishop of St. Andrews, four doors 
eastward from the regent's lodging. John 
Hamilton (1532-1604) [q.y.], abbot of Ar- 
broath (afterwards Marquis of Hamilton), 
had supplied him with his own carbine and 
with a swift horse. He hid behind a window 
curtain, and at the distance of a few feet 
took leisurely aim at the regent as, on the 
morning of the 23rd, he began his journey 
along the narrow street. The carbine was 
loaded with four pellets, one of which in- 
flicted a fatal wound ; the weapon is still pre- 
served at Hamilton Palace. The long line of 
high houses concealed Bothwellhaugh, who 
escaped by the garden at the back, mounted 
his hors,e, and galloped westwards towards 
Hamilton Castle. According to Robert Birrel 
he was speedily followed, but ' after yat 
spure and vand had failed him he drew furth 
hes dagger and strooke hes hors behind, quhilk 
caused the horse to leape averey brode stanke, 
by quhilk meines he escaipit and got away 
from all ye rest of the horses ' (Diary, p. 18). 
The assassination did not produce the in- 
tended political effect. The chiefs of the Ha- 
milton family publicly disavowed the murder, 
and ' sent to the rest of the Hamiltons 1 pre- 
tending to dissuade them from all fellowship 
with the murderer' (CALDEKWOOD, ii. 512), 
who probably by this time was safe from all 
prosecution in France. On 8 June 1570 he 
was deputed by the friends of Mary as am- 
bassador to the king of France to obtain aid 
in carrying on the war in Scotland (CaL 
State Papers, For. Ser. 1569-71, entry 988). 
Mary expressed to the Archbishop of Glasgow 
her fervent satisfaction that she had been 




avenged, and, while stating that the deed 
had been done without her order, candidly 
confessed that she was only the more in- 
debted to Bothwellhaugh 011 that account. 
She also expressed the intention of bestow- 
ing on him a pension as soon as her join- 
ture as queen-dowager of France was avail- 
able (LABASTOFF, Lettres de Marie Stuart, 
iii. 354). On 2 Jan. 1572 Bothwellhaugh 
wrote to Lord Claud Hamilton [q. v.] from 
Brussels stating that on 26 Dec. he had been 
compelled to leave Paris from 'lack of ex- 
pense,' and assuring him that he had not re- 
ceived a shilling from any one since the death 
of the Archbishop of St. Andrews (Gal. State 
Papers, For. Ser. 1572-4, entry 4). Mary in 
her letter to the Archbishop of Glasgow had 
expressed the wish that another l mchante 
cr6ature ' were l hors du monde,' and stated 
that she would be well pleased if one of her 
own subjects were the instrument in effect- 
ing this. The person thus devoted to death 
is supposed to have been Admiral Coligny. 
Whether this be so or not, an attempt was 
made, according to De Thou, to engage Both- 
wellhaugh in Coligny's murder, but, adds De 
Thou, he spurned the proposal ' with con- 
tempt and indignation, asserting that he had 
avenged his own just quarrel, but he would 
neither for pence nor prayer avenge that of 
another man.' Bothwellhaugh, however, was 
the principal agent of the Spanish authorities 
in their incessant plots against the life of the 
Prince of Orange. He and his brother, John 
Hamilton, provost of Bothwell, were excepted 
from the abstinence agreed upon on 10 July 
1572 (Reg. P. C. Scotl. ii. 158), and were not 
mentioned among the Hamiltons included in 
the pacification at Perth. They and other per- 
sons who were abroad ' stirring up and prac- 
tising rebellion' were, on 12 Feb. 1573-4, 
denounced as traitors (ib. p. 335). As the 
John Hamilton who acted in concert with 
James Hamilton of Bothwellhaugh in the 
several plots against the Prince of Orange is 
always referred to as his brother, the pre- 
sumption is that he was John Hamilton 
provost of Bothwell, and not John Hamilton 
\fl. 1568-1609) [q. v.] the anti-protestant 
writer, a theory suggested by Mr. Froude 
(Hist, of Engl. cab. ed. ix. 196) and accepted 
by Hill Burton (Hist, of Scotland, v. 37). 
On 26 Dec. 1572 Bothwellhaugh left Paris 
for Brussels, where he wrote a letter to Lord 
Claud Hamilton begging assistance (Cal. 
State Papers, For. Ser. 1572-4, entry 4). In 
August of the following year the two Hamil- 
tons were observed in Paris on their way 
through France into Flanders (ib. entry 11 32). 
They were then in the service of the king of 
Spain, to whom they had been recommended 

on 3 April by Don Diego de Zufiiga on the 
testimony of the Archbishop of Glasgow 
(TEULET, Relations politiques, v. 110-11). 
From Brussels Bothwellhaugh on 29 Sept. 
wrote to Don Frances de Alava that he had 
found a fitting tool for the murder of the 
prince in a gentleman of his own nation (ib. 
p. 112). The plot failed, but Bothwellhaugh 
did not lose sight of the project. On 16 May 
1575 Aguilon, secretary of the Spanish em- 
bassy at Paris, wrote to Zayas, secretary of 
state, that James Hamilton and another Scot 
had a practice in hand against the Prince of 
Orange, and requested the secretary to en- 
courage the undertaking (ib. p. 127). The 
plot miscarried, probably by Hamilton being 
thrown into prison, but on 19 Dec. he made 
his escape by the aid of Colonel Balfour and 
other Scots, whom Don John was suspected 
to have bribed (Cal. State Papers, For. Ser. 
1575-7, entry 1097). On the 29th he was 
seen to arrive at Marche-en-Famene (Horsley 
to Walsingham, ib. entry 1094). Shortly 
afterwards Colonel Balfour was employed by 
him to make another at tempt on the life of the 
prince, which also ended in failure (ib. entry 
1175). Paulet, writing to the queen in May 
1577, reports that the two Hamiltons had 
come from Don John to the Duke of Guise at 
La Charit^, and were now said to have gone 
into Spain (ib. entry 1448). On the revival 
of the acts of forfeiture against the Hamil- 
tons, Bothwellhaugh was on 21 Oct. 1579 
summoned to appear before the king and hi& 
justice for ' treason anent the Earl of Moray 7 
(Acta Parl. Scot. iii. 125). An officer was 
sent to serve the writ on him at his dwelling- 
place at Bothwellhaugh, but he was found 
to be not at home, and his wife declined to 
receive it (ib. p. 133). Failing to answer the 
summons he was disinherited (ib. p. 137). In 
April 1580 he was seen with Ker of Fernie- 
herst riding from France into Spain (Wal- 
singham to Bowes, 3 May 1580, in BOWES, 
Correspondence, Surtees Soc. p. 49). Both- 
wellhaugh's mother, Catherine Schaw, was 
charged for her connection with the regent's 
murder, but was not tried. A servant, David, 
was condemned and executed ; another, Ar- 
thur, wrongly described by some historians 
as a brother, was tried and acquitted. In 
all probability James Hamilton died abroad, 
but it is popularly believed that he was buried 
at Monkton. By the statute of 1585, c. 21, 
Bothwellhaugh's heir was restored, but by 
c. 22 the lands of Woodhouselee were ex- 
cepted in favour of Sir Louis Bellenden, lord 
justice clerk, son and heir of Sir John Bellen- 
den. On 12 Jan. 1591-2 the privy council 
passed an act restoring David Hamilton and 
Isabel and Alison Sinclair to the lands of 




Woodhouselee (Reg. P. C. Scot I. iv. 711), in 
accordance with the act of parliament passed 
in favour of the Ilamiltons in 1585. Lord- 
justice Bellenden still, however, continued 
to hold the lands, and for threatening his 
servants during their work David Hamilton 
was on 9 Feb. 1601 summoned before the 
council (ib. vi. 211). They were finally re- 
stored by act of parliament in 1609 (Acta 
Parl. Scot, iv. 450). John Hamilton, pro- 
vost of Both-well, returned to Scotland after 
the death of Morton. David Hamilton, some- 
times confounded with his brothers, with 
whose plots he had no connection, died on 
13 March 1613. 

[Reg. P. C. Scotl. vols. ii-v. ; Acta Parl. Scot, 
vols. iii. iv. ; Pitcairn's Criminal Trials : Hist, of 
James the Sext (Bannatyne Club) ; Histories of 
the Church of Scotland by Calderwood and Spotis- 
wood; Letters of Mary Stuart, ed. Labanoff; 
Teulet's Relation s politiqu es,1862ed.,and Papi ers 
-d'Etat (Bannatyne Club) ; Kecords of the Burgh 
of Prestwick (Maitland Club) ; Anderson's Genea- 
logical Hist, of the Hamilton s ; Notes and Queries, 
3rd ser. xi. 452, 502, xii. 10, 69, 4th ser. xii. 406, 
5th ser. xii. 386, 512.] T. F. H. 

ARRAN (1530-1609), was the eldest son of 
James, second earl of Arran and duke of 
Chatelherault [q. v.], by his wife Lady Mar- 
garet, eldest daughter of James Douglas, third 
earl of Morton. While negotiations were in 
progress in May 1543 for the arrangement of 
a marriage between the Princess Mary and 
Edward, prince of Wales, Henry VIII made 
.a supplementary proposal to the second earl 
of Arran, then governor of Scotland, for a 
marriage between his eldest son and the 
Princess Elizabeth of England. Arran ap- 
pointed the Earl of Glencairn and Sir George 
Douglas to thank King Henry for his pro- 
posal, and himself wrote to Henry that he 
had given them full powers to ( perfect the 
said contract ' (Cal. State Papers, Scott. Ser. 
i. 43). Through the influence of Cardinal 
Beaton, he, however, soon entirely changed 
his policy, and on 7 July refused to confirm 
the treaty which had been concluded by the 
commissioners. The son was presumptive 
heir to the Scottish throne, and even a mar- 
riage with a princess of England would not 
compensate him for the marriage of the Prin- 
cess Mary to another suitor than himself. 
When the son was in 1546 detained in the 
castle of St. Andrews as a hostage by the 
murderers of Cardinal Beaton, Henry pro- 
mised them assistance provided they ' should 
keeape the governor's son, my Lord of Errane, 
and stuid freindlie to the contract of marriage ' 
(KNOX, i. 183). In view of the possibility 
of his falling into the hands of the English, 

the estates passed an act debarring him from 
all right of succession to the family estates 
and to the crown while he remained in cap- 
tivity (Acta Parl. Scot. i. 474). He was 
released on the surrender of the castle to the 
French in the following year. His father, 
after the failure of the marriage treaty with 
England, had obtained a bond from some of 
the principal noblemen of Scotland obliging 
themselves to support a marriage with the 
Princess Mary, but he nevertheless did not 
venture to oppose the betrothal in 1548 of 
Mary to the dauphin of France. 

Hamilton shortly after left for France, and 
in 1550 was appointed to the command of 
the Scots guards in France (list in FORBES- 
LEITH'S Scotsmen at Arms in France, i. 189- 
190). After his father was in 1553 created 
Duke of Chatelherault the son was usually 
styled the Earl of Arran. In 1557 he marched 
with Admiral Coligny to La Fere in Picardy, 
and with his regiment distinguished himself 
in the defence of St. Quentin (ib. p. 99). In 
France he kept up an acquaintance with Mary 
Stuart In May 1557 she wrote to the queen- 
dowager, asking her consent to a marriage 
between him and Mademoiselle de Bouillon, 
and proposing that on the marriage he be 
created Duke of Arran (Lettres de Marie 
Stuart, Labanoff, i. 43). The date of Arran's 
conversion to protestantism is uncertain. The 
story that he had with him in France a pro- 
testant chaplain, who in 1559 openly preached 
the reformed doctrines, first in Scotch and 
afterwards in French (HubertLanguet toUlric 
Mordesius, quoted in Cal. State Papers, For. 
Ser. 1559-60, entry 45), and that on this 
account the Guises resolved to have his life, 
is termed fey Hill Burton a f romantic fable' 
(Hist. Scotl. iii. 358) ; but in all its main 
features it is amply corroborated. The French 
king himself, in a letter to M. de Noailles, 
states that as the zeal of Arran for the 
new doctrines had caused great scandal, 
Arran's arrest had been ordered, but timely 
information enabled him to escape (TEULET, 
i. 320). Arran was in communication with 
Throckmorton, the English ambassador at 
Paris, and probably by his advice he went to 
Geneva. On learning from Throckmorton 
whither he had gone, Cecil sent Killigrew to 
bring him through Germany to Emden, and 
thence by ship to England. In this Cecil 
seems to have been acting on the advice of 
Knox, who desired that the Earl of Arran 
should be sent for into England, where he 
might be secretly detained until Elizabeth's 
advisers might l consider what was in him/ 
and whether he or Lord James Stuart (after- 
wards Earl of Moray) were the more suitable 
person to supersede the queen-dowager in the 




regency (Cal. State Papers, For. Ser. 1558-9, 
entry 1119). The supposed presence of Arran 
in England caused much uneasiness in France 
and Spain. Elizabeth was suspected of in- 
tending him to be ' more than a guest' ( De 
Quadra to Philip II, quoted by FEOUDE, 
History, cab. ed. vi. 216). Arran arrived at 
Cecil's house at Westminster on 28 Aug. (Cal. 
State Papers, For. Ser. 1558-9, entry 1274). 
Elizabeth had an interview with him there, 
and again at Hampton Court. 

Before Arran's arrival in England Sadleir 
had advised that as soon as possible he should 
be sent to Scotland, that he might over- 
come the hesitation of the Duke of Chatel- 
herault in supporting the reformed party 
(SADLEIK, State Papers, i. 400). Arran's pre- 
sence in England was not recognised, though 
generally known. A pass to Scotland was 
now made out for him under a feigned name 
(Cal. State Papers, For. Ser. entry 1293). 
He set out on 8 Sept., and was present at the 
convention held at Stir ling on the llth(KNOX, 
i. 413). His protestant zeal for a time neutra- 
lised the weak resolution of his father, who, 
under his advice, became reconciled to some 
of the lords of the congregation, and also 
signed the letter to the queen-regent depriv- 
ing her of the regency. Encouraged by the 
arrival of Arran and the presence of Ran- 
dolph, the English ambassador, the congre- 
gation on 15 Oct. entered Edinburgh with a 
force of fifteen thousand, whereupon the 
queen-regent retired within the fortifications 
of Leith. Elizabeth was persuaded by Cecil 
to send 4,000/. for the support of the Scottish 
confederates. The Earl of Bothwell [see 
WELL, 1536-1578] waylaid the messenger 
and took the money. Arran and Lord James 
Stuart made an unsuccessful attempt to cap- 
ture Bothwell at Crichton Castle, his prin- 
cipal residence (Cal. State Papers, For. Ser. 
1559-60, entry 183), and had to content 
themselves with placing fifty gunners in it 
(id.) On 6 Nov. Arran and Stuart marched 
out of Edinburgh to protect a convoy of pro- 
visions from a sally of the French from Leith, 
but becoming entangled in the marshes be- 
tween Restalrig and Holyrood, had to retire 
into the city with heavy loss. This and pre- 
vious disasters, coupled with the neutrality 
of Lord Erskine, governor of the castle, dis- 
couraged the protestants. In spite of Ar- 
ran's remonstrances the whole force hastily 
fell back on Stirling. Although a sermon 
by Knox on Wednesday the 8th helped 
to revive their drooping spirits, they deter- 
mined, till succour should arrive from Eliza- 
beth, to act strictly on the defensive. While 
one division of the forces was sent to protect 

Glasgow and the rest of Scotland, Arran and 
Stuart went to St. Andrews to prepare re- 
sistance against a threatened attack on Fife 
(KNOX, ii. 5). On 9 Nov. Bothwell had sent 
Arran a cartel of defiance (SADLEIK, State 
Papers, i. 565), and after the queen-regent 
took possession of Edinburgh he proclaimed 
him a traitor at the sound of the trumpet 
(KNOX, ii. 3). Learning in the beginning of 
January that the French had left Stirling, 
and were marching towards Fife, Arran and 
Stuart assembled their forces at Cupar, and 
sent their men-of-war round to Kinghorn 
(ib. p. 5). At Cupar Knox preached a ser- 
mon partly directed at Arran, ' because he 
keipit himself more close and solitary than 
many men would have wished' (ib. p. 9). 
After the sermon Arran and Stuart set out 
for Dysart with a force of about six hun- 
dred men. There for twenty-one days they 
kept the French at bay, although from their 
inferiority in numbers none of them dared to 
risk undressing during all that time, and they 
were frequently kept skirmishing from morn- 
ing till night (ib. p. 9). Disheartened by such 
a vigorous resistance, the French resolved to 
march round the sea-coast to St. Andrews, 
their ships with provisions being kept within 
sight ; but their enterprise received a sudden 
check by the arrival in the Firth of Forth of 
the English fleet. The persistency of Arran 
and Stuart thus saved Fife ; for the French 
now with great precipitation retreated by 
Kinghorn to Stirling, whence with the ut- 
most haste they returned to Leith (ib. pp. 
13-15). Arran was present at the siege of 
that town, and on 10 May signed in the camp 
the confirmation of the treaty of Berwick, 
his name standing next to that of his father. 
He also signed ( the last band at Leith ' for 
the ' liberty of the evangel ' (ib. p. 63), and 
he subscribed the first * Book of Discipline ' 
(ib. p. 129). On account of Lord Semple 
having laid wait for Arran ' as he was riding 
with his accustomed company' (ib. p. 131), 
he and his father set out on 24 Sept. to be- 
siege Castle Semple in Renfrewshire, which 
they captured on 14 Oct. (Diurnal of Occur- 
rents, p. 63). Subsequently he was one of 
those appointed to go to the west for the 
' destruction of the monuments of idolatry/ 
that is, the demolition of the religious houses 
(KNOX, p. 167). 

According to the articles forming part of 
the convention or treaty of peace signed at 
Edinburgh on 6 July 1560, Arran and his 
father were to be reinstated in their French 
estates (articles in KNOX, ii. 73-82, and 
KEITH, i. 298-306). The death of the queen- 
regent, on 10 June, made the lords of the 
congregation anxious for the marriage of 




Arran to Elizabeth, in which case they would 
' cause the French queen to renounce for 
ever her title to Scotland ' (Throckmorton to 
the queen, 4 May, Cal. State Papers, For. Ser. 
1560-1, entry 27). The conclusion of the treaty 
with France did not in the least modify their 
intentions. Apparently to prepare Elizabeth 
for the proposal, Arran on 18 July wrote her 
a rather tardy letter of thanks and personal 
admiration (ib. entry 341). By a resolution of 
the parliament held in August (Acta Parl 
Scot. ii. 605-6) the Earls of Morton and Glen- 
cairn and Maitland of Lethington started for 
England on 11 Oct. to press Arran's suit 
(Diurnalof Occurrents, p. 62). Maitland, and 
probably Morton, were reluctant ; the nobles 
generally disliked the proposal ; and Arran 
was lukewarm, though on 28 Sept. he wrote 
to Cecil affirming that his life depended on 
the success of the mission (Cal. State Papers, 
For. Ser. entry 566). The Scottish estates 
had intimated their intentions to the court 
of France (letter in TETJLET, ii. 150-2). 
Mary and her husband had little fear of the 
success of the mission, but hoped to turn its 
failure to account, and were even prepared to 
offer Arran an alliance with one of their own 
house, and to make him the delegate of 
Queen Mary in Scotland. Elizabeth was 
complimentary, but ' indisposed to marry at 
present ' (queen of England to the Scottish 
ambassadors, Cal. State Papers, For. Ser. 
1560, entry 786). With this disappointing 
news the ambassadors arrived in Edinburgh 
on 3 Jan. 1561 (Diurnal of Occurrents, p. 

The king of France had died on 6 Dec. 1560, 
and, as Maitland saw, the Queen of Scots now 
became the inevitable object of the nation's 
attachment (letter to Cecil, January 1560-1). 
By the Hamiltons the marriage with Mary 
had also always been regarded as the prefer- 
able match, and there is reason to believe 
that Arran himself had formed a strong at- 
tachment to Mary. His interest in the mis- 
sion of the ambassadors to England instantly 
ceased. He made a confidant of Knox, who 
deemed it of the highest importance that Mary 
should marry a protestant, and advised Arran 
at once to renew his suit. The king of Navarre 
and the Constable Montmorency were sup- 
posed to favour the suit of Arran, while the 
Guises were for a marriage with the king of 
Spain (Throckmorton to the privy council, 
10 Jan. Cal.StatePapers,~For. Ser. 1560-1, en- 
try 871). Mary, though she made use of kind 
words, was understood to bear Arran little 
affection, and before her arrival in Scotland the 
suit had been practically refused. Arran was 
however, one of the first to meet her on her 
disembarkation at Leith, and he was namec 

a member of her privy council. Neverthe- 
"ess, he strongly opposed the celebration of 
;he mass in the queen's chapel, and when 
lie privy council made a proclamation for 
the protection of the servants brought by the 
queen from France from molestation or deri- 
sion on account of their religion, protested 
n the presence of the herald (KNOX, ii. 274). 
He absented himself when the queen made 
ler public entry into Edinburgh (Randolph 
to Cecil, 1 Sept. 1561, in KEITH, ii. 82), and 
afterwards announced his purpose ' not to be 
at court so long as the mass remained' (Ran- 
dolph to Cecil, 24 Oct., ib. p. 99). Later 
events prove that the peculiarities of Arran's 
conduct were due to mental aberration. As- 
early as April 1560 he had to leave the camp 
at Leith on account of an illness which was 
stated to be mental rather than physical. 
In February 1561-2, during the festivities at 
the marriage of Lord James Stuart, he fell 
sick, ' some said as much for misliking as any 
other cause' (Randolph to Cecil, 12 Feb., Cal. 
StatePapers, For. Ser.1561-2, entry 883) ; and 
on the 20th Randolph informs Cecil that he 
is so ' drowned in dreams or beset with fan- 
tasies ' as to give cause for anxiety (ib. entry 

Arran was still at feud with Bothwell. 
A drunken frolic, in which Bothwell com- 
mitted outrages in pursuit of a woman sup- 
posed to be the mistress of Arran, did not 
improve matters (K:trox, ii. 315). Shortly 
afterwards Bothwell asked Knox to mediate 
between him and Arran (ib. ii. 323). They 
had a friendly meeting in the presence of 
Knox and others, when their differences were 
adjusted to their mutual satisfaction, and 
the next day Bothwell, 'with some of his 
honest friends, came to the sermoun with 
the Erie foirsaid ' (ib. p. 326). On the Thurs- 
day following (26 March) they dined together, 
and on the Friday Arran, accompanied by 
two friends, sought an interview with Knox r 
to whom he stated that Bothwell had advised 
him to carry off the queen to his stronghold 
in Dumbarton, to compel her to marry him r 
and to murder Lord James Stuart, Maitland 
of Lethington, and others that ( now misguide 
her.' Arran professed to be greatly shocked, 
and proposed to lay the matter before the 
queen and her brother. This he persisted in 
doing, although Knox, who discerned in his 
manner evident signs of insanity, strongly 
advised him against it. Possibly the story 
of Arran would have been at once dismissed 
as an insane delusion had not the queen been 
already suspicious of him. There had been 
rumours in the previous November of an 
attempt of a similar kind by Arran (Ran- 
dolph to Cecil, 7 Dec., in KEITH, ii. 115, also 




, ii. 293). Bothwell's previous charac- 
ter and subsequent history harmonise with 
ihis supposed conduct. Arran, on informing 
his father of the matter, is stated to have 
been treated with great severity. He was 
forcibly confined to his room, but ' escaped 
out of his chamber with cords made out of 
the sheets of his bed' (Randolph to Cecil, 
31 March, Cal. State Papers,For. Ser. 1561-2, 
-entry 971), and, attired only in his doublet 
and hose, arrived late at night at the house of 
the laird of Grange (ib. 993). He was subse- 
.quently summoned to St. Andrews, where he 
and Both well were brought before the council. 
Arran persisted in his accusation. Bothwell 
was confined in the castle, and Arran was 
sent to the house of the Earl of Mar (Lord 
James Stuart). Both were subsequently 
transferred to the castle of Edinburgh, from 
which Bothwell made his escape on 23 Oct. 
Shortly after Arran's removal to Edinburgh 
he was visited by Mar, Morton, and others, 
who reported that his wits then served him 
;as well as ever they did (Cal. State Papers, 
For. Ser. 1562, entry 145), but he afterwards 
.had repeated relapses (see various letters by 
Randolph, and also some by Arran, ib., from 
1562 to 1566). Though Mary paid Arran a 
friendly visit in prison, and though his father, 
the Duke of Chatelherault, made strenuous 
efforts for his release, he did not obtain his 
liberty till 2 May 1566, shortly after Both- 
well had come forward as the protector of 
Mary against the murderers of Eizzio. Be- 
fore obtaining it he had to find caution in 
12,OOOZ. Scots to appear when called for (ib. 
1566-8, entry 342 ; Reg. P. C. Scotl. i. 453). 
He was then weak and sickly, and had lost his 
speech above four months. At a meeting of 
the estates, held in August 1568, he was ar- 
raigned with the other members of his family, 
but in January following they made terms 
-with Moray. 

After this Arran lived in retirement with 
liis mother at Craignethan Castle. On the 
death of his father, in 1575, he came into 
nominal possession of his estates, which were, 
"however, administered by his second brother, 
John, first marquis of Hamilton (1532-1604) 
[q. v.] In 1579, when the prosecution of 
the Hamiltons was renewed, the king, at 
the professed instance of Arran, initiated a 
process against Lord John Hamilton and his 
two brothers for detaining Arran wrongously 
in confinement, the ground of the accusa- 
tion being that Arran was ' compos mentis, 
*and not an idiot/ and that whether he were 
or not, a tutor, curator, or administrator 
ought to be appointed (ib. iii. 160-1). The 
proceedings seem, however, to have been 
merely a device of the government to obtain 

a firmer hold on the Hamilton estates. Craig- 
nethan Castle, in which he was confined, was 
besieged with the avowed purpose of deliver- 
ing him from those who detained him un- 
lawfully. After its surrender he was brought, 
along with his mother, to Linlithgow, where 
he was placed in the charge of Captain 
Lambie, a dependent of Morton (Hist. James 
the Sext, p. 176). On the apprehension of 
Morton in 1580, Captain James Stewart,him- 
self shortly afterwards created Earl of Arran, 
was appointed his tutor (ib. p. 230). The 
estates were restored to the family on the 
downfall of Stewart in 1585. Arran sur- 
vived, without regaining his reason, till 
March 1609. 

[Cal. State Papers, For. Ser., Keign of Eliza- 
beth ; Reg. Privy Council Scotl. vols. i-iii. ; 
Lettres de Marie Stuart, ed. Labanoff ; Teulet's 
Relations politiques de la France et de 1'Espagne 
avec 1'Ecosse ; Knox's Works, ed. Laing ; Sadleir's 
State Papers; Histories of Calderwood, Spotis- 
wood, Buchanan, and Lesley ; Diurnal of Occur- 
rents ; Hamilton Papers in Maitland Club Mis- 
cellany, iv.; Hist. MSS. Comm. llth Rep. Ap- 
pendix, pt. iv. ; Tytler and Hill Burton's His- 
tories of Scotland ; Froude's History of England ; 
Douglas's Scottish Peerage (Wood), i. 698-9.] 

T. F. H. 

ABERCORN (d. 1617), was the eldest son of 
Claud Hamilton, lord Paisley [q. v.], and the 
grandson of James Hamilton, second earl of 
Arran [q. v.], governor-regent of Scotland 
and heir-presumptive of the Scottish crown. 
His father's position brought him early into 
notice, and as he had considerable ability he 
soon attained an eminent place among the 
statesmen of the time. With James VI he 
seems to have been an especial favourite, and 
the influence of his maternal grandfather, 
George Seton, father of the first earl of 
Dunfermline, was largely exercised in his 
behalf. He was appointed a gentleman of 
the bedchamber by the king, and appeared 
in the famous convention of the nobility and 
council held at Holyrood House on 6 Jan. 
1596-7. When the 'privy council was defi- 
nitely constituted at the convention of es- 
tates held on 14 Dec. 1598, he was named one 
of the thirty-two members of that body 
under his designation of Master of Paisley ; 
but he did not appear at any of their meetings 
until 10 Feb. 1601. In the preceding year 
he obtained from the king the office of here- 
ditary sheriff of Linlithgow, and shortly after- 
wards he received a charter of lands in Ren- 
frewshire and West Lothian, which were in- 
corporated into the free barony of Abercorn 
in 1603, from which he took his title of Baron 
Abercorn. When the Articles of Union were 




prepared and signed in 1604, he was one of 
the twenty-eight Scottish commissioners who 
appended their names, and for his efforts in 
this matter he was rewarded with the title 
of Earl of Abercorn, by patent dated 10 July 
1606. To this title were attached the minor 
dignities of Baron Hamilton, Mount Castle, 
and Kilpatrick, which are still enjoyed by his 
present representative. Large grants of land 
in the barony of Strabane, Ireland, were made 
to him, and his eldest son was created Baron 
of Strabane in 1617 ; the Irish estates de- 
scended to the younger sons. Though Aber- 
corn was a faithful attendant at the meetings 
of the Scottish privy council during an im- 
portant period of its history, the share which 
he took in public affairs is not easily identified. 
He died during the life of his father on 
16 March 1617. He is now represented by 
his descendant, the present Duke of Aber- 

Abercorn married Marion, eldest daughter 
of Thomas, fifth lord Boyd, by whom he had 
five sons and four daughters. James, the 
eldest son, became second earl of Abercorn 
and inherited the extensive estates of his 
grandfather, Baron Paisley, at that noble- 
man's death in 1621 ; in 1634 he resigned the 
barony of Strabane to his next brother, Claud, 
who died 14 June 1638, and was grandfather 
of Claud and Charles, fourth and fifth earls 
of Abercorn. Sir William, the third son, 
represented Henrietta Maria, when queen- 
dowager, at the papal court. George, the 
fourth, is noticed below. Sir Alexander, the 
fifth, went to Germany, and was in the ser- 
vice of Philip William, elector palatine, who 
sent him as his envoy to James II ; he was 
eventually created a count of the empire. 

HAMILTON, SIK GEOKGE (d. 1679), held 
property at Dunalong in Tyrone and Nenagh 
in Tipperary. In 1641 he Was in Scotland 
with Charles I, served in Ireland during the 
rebellion, and was governor of Nenagh Castle 
during the viceroyalty of his brother-in-law, 
the Marquis of Ormonde, whom he followed 
to Caen in the spring of 1651 with his wife 
and family. On the Restoration he returned 
to England, was created a baronet of Ireland 
in 1660, and received other grants from 
Charles II in recompense for his services. 
He married Mary, third daughter of Walter, 
viscount Thurles, eldest son of Walter, 
eleventh earl of Ormonde ; by her, who died 
in August 1680, he had six sons and three 
daughters ; his third and fifth sons, Anthony 
and Richard, and his eldest daughter, Eliza- 
beth, are noticed separately ; some account 
of the other sons will be found under their 
brother, Anthony Hamilton (1646 ?-l 720). 
Sir George Hamilton died in 1679. 


[Crawford's Hist, of the Shire of Renfrew, 
Semple's Continuation, 1782; Register of Privy 
Council, vols. v. vi. vii. ; Douglas's Peerage of 
Scotland, ed. Wood.] A. H. M. 

OF HAMILTON (1589-1625), son of Lord John 
Hamilton, first marquis [q. v.], and Lady 
Margaret Lyon, was born in 1589. His com- 
panion in his youthful studies was George 
Eglisham [q. v.], afterwards a physician and 
poet, to whom he remained a friend and 
patron through life. He succeeded his father 
as marquis on 12 April 1604, and his uncle 
as Earl of Arran in March 1609. In 1604 
he offered his services to King James VI, in 
continuation of those rendered by his father 
to the crown, which were accepted ; and the 
king, in consideration of the loyalty and 
sufferings of the family, confirmed to him in 
1608 the lands of the abbey of Arbroath, 
erecting them into a temporal lordship in his 
favour, with the title of a lord of parliament. 
He was appointed a privy councillor of Scot- 
land on 14 Jan. 1613, of England in August 
1617, gentleman of the bed-chamber on 
4 March 1620-1, and lord steward of the 
household on 28 Feb. 1624, and among other 
tokens of the royal favour was created on 
16 June 1619 an English peer, with the titles 
of Earl of Cambridge and Baron of Ennerdale 
in Cumberland. He was spoken of in 1618 
for the office of lord treasurer, and in the fol- 
lowing year for that of lord chamberlain. 
In April 1619, when James thought himself 
dying, Hamilton was specially recommended 
to Prince Charles by the king on account of 
his fidelity. On 3 Nov. 1620 he became a 
member of the council for the plantation of 
New England. In the discussion on Bacon's 
sentence in the House of Lords in May 1621, 
Hamilton spoke in favour of leniency, and 
suggested the compromise (finally adopted) 
by which Bacon was excluded from the house 
and from court, without being degraded per- 
sonally. He was appointed lord high com- 
missioner to the Scottish parliament held at 
Edinburgh in July 1621, receiving 10,0007. 
for his expenses, and succeeded, in spite of 
great opposition, and much to the king's grati- 
fication, in enacting into law the Five Articles 
of Perth (Acts of the Parliaments of Scotland f 
iv. 592 et seq.) He was one of the commis- 
sioners for the treaty with Spain in connec- 
tion with the projected marriage of Prince 
Charles to the Infanta, and he was appointed 
to receive the Infanta at Southampton (May 
1623). On the preceding St. George's Day, 
15 April, he was installed as a knight of the 
garter, and it was intended to create him a 
duke. But the failure of the Spanish nego- 
tiations apparently defeated that intention. 





In the debate in the council in January 1623- 
1624 on the question of the marriage Hamilton 
voted ( neutral/ and on the question of de- 
claring war with Spain he, although usually 
opposed to Spain, advocated peace ; but two 
months later he was suspected by Laf uente, the 
Spanish ambassador, of employ ing Frenchmen 
to rob him of his despatches near Amiens, at 
Buckingham's instigation, in order to increase 
the difficulties between England and Spain. In 
the following April Hamilton dissuaded Buck- 
ingham from avenging his personal animosity 
by submitting the Earl of Bristol to the in- 
dignity of imprisonment in the Tower, and 
in September strongly opposed Buckingham's 
policy of subserviency to France. In 1624 
he was instructed to report on the proposi- 
tions of the treaty of Frankenthal. He died 
of a malignant fever at Whitehall on 2 March 
1624-5, and his body, after being carried to 
' Fisher's Folly,' his house outside Bishops- 
gate, by torchlight and with much ceremony, 
was conveyed to Scotland for interment. 
"When the news of his death was communi- 
cated to the king he exclaimed, ' If the 
branches be thus cut down, the stock cannot 
continue long' (AiKMAN, iii. 382). The kin 
followed his servant to the grave on the 23r 
of the same month. Hamilton's proteg6, 
George Eglisham, unwarrantably charged 
Buckingham, in his ' Prodromus Vindictae,' 
1626, with having poisoned his patron. Sir 
Philip Warwick describes Hamilton as ' a 
goodly, proper, and graceful gentleman' (Me- 
moirs, p. 102), and Chamberlain, the letter- 
writer, says that he was ' held the gallantest 
gentleman of both nations,' and ' the flower 
of that nation' (Scotland) (Cal. State Papers, 
Dom. 1617-25). Chamberlain also says that 
the Scots wished the marquis to marry 
Elizabeth, eldest daughter of King James 
(ib. 1612); but he married (contract dated 
30 Jan. 1603) Lady Anne Cunningham, fourth 
daughter of James, earl of Glencairn,by whom 
he had two sons, James, third marquis and 
first duke [q. v.], and William, second duke 
[q. v.], with three daughters. The marchio- 
ness survived her husband, and was prominent 
on the side of the covenanters in their conflict 
with Charles I. She raised a troop of horse 
in 1639, and rode at their head to the field, 
armed with pistol and dagger. Their coronets 
bore as a device a hand repelling a book (the 
service book), and, as a motto, 'For God, the 
King, Religion, and the Covenant.' Her elder 
son, James, in the interests of the king, led a 
fleet into the Firth of Forth, and she dared 
him to land, at the risk of being shot by his 
mother's hand. She had silver bullets specially 
provided for the occasion (Cal. State Papers, 
Dom. 1639, pp. 146, 163, 282). She made her 

last will in 1644, and it is a highly characteris- 
ic document (quoted fully in the Historical 
MSS. Commission Report, No. xi. pt. vi. ; 
Hamilton MSS. pp. 55-7). Hamilton's por- 
trait was painted by Paul Van Somer. There 
are engravings by Martin Droeshout, 1623, 
and by Vaughan. 

[Hist.MSS. Comm.llthEep.; Hamilton 
MSS. pp. 8-46, 69 ; Douglas's Peerage of Scot- 
land, ed. Wood, i. 703, 704 ; Gardiner's Hist, of 
England ; Doyle's Official Baronage, s. v. ' Cam- 
bridge ; ' Cal. State Papers, Dom. 1611-25.] 


BOTE (1559-1643), was the eldest son of 
Hans Hamilton, vicar of Dunlop, Ayrshire, 
by Janet, daughter of James Denham of West 
Shield. He was probably educated at the 
university of St. Andrews, where a James 
Hamilton was made M.A. in 1585. His re- 
putation as ' one of the greatest scholars and 
hopeful wits of his time' secured him the 
notice of James VI of Scotland, by whose 
direction he was sent in 1587, along with Sir 
James Fullerton, on a secret political mission 
to Ireland. To mask their purpose they 
opened a Latin school in Great Ship Street, 
Dublin, which they carried on with as much 
energy and zeal as if it were the main pur- 
pose of their stay in the city. Among their 
pupils were the future Archbishop Ussher, 
who was accustomed to reckon it among God's 
special providences to him that he had t the 
opportunity and advantage of his education 
from those men who came thither by chance, 
and yet proved so happily useful to himself 
and others ' (PAKE, Life of Ussher, p. 3) . On 
the establishment of Trinity College, Dublin, 
he was in 1592 appointed one of the fellows. 
In August 1600 he was sent by James to 
London to act as his agent in connection 
with the negotiations for the succession to 
the English throne ( Cal. State Papers, Scott. 
Ser. ii. 784, 785). While there he witnessed 
the Essex rebellion, of which he wrote an 
account in a letter of 8 Feb. 1600-1. After 
the accession of James to the English throne 
he for some years attended on the court at 
Whitehall, and besides receiving the honour 
of knighthood was made serjeant-at-law. On 
the forfeiture of Irish lands he received large 
grants from the king, including a grant on 
16 April 1605 of the territories of Upper Clane- 
boyeand the great Ardes (State Papers, Irish 
Ser. 1603-6, p. 271). Additional grants were 
bestowed in subsequent years, and he ulti- 
mately became one of the most powerful and 
wealthy of the English settlers in the north 
of Ireland. At Killelagh he built ' ane very 
stronge castle; thelykisnotinthenorthe.' He 
also specially interested himself in the further- 




ance of presbyterianism, and ' planted his es- 
tate with pious ministers from Scotland/ In 
1613 he was chosen to represent county Down 
In parliament. In August 1619 he was ap- 
pointed one of the commissioners for the plan- 
tation of Longford. On 4 May 1622 he was 
raised to the peerage by the title of Viscount 
Claneboye in the county of Down and Baron 
Hamilton. From Charles I he received on 
20 Aug. 1630 the entire lately dissolved mo- 
nastery of Bangor, and on 14 July 1634 he 
was appointed a member of the privy council. 
On the outbreak of the rebellion in 1641 he 
received a commission for raising the Scots in 
the north, and putting them in arms. This 
was done by him with such expedition and 
thoroughness that Ulster was preserved en- 
tirely free from disturbance. Hamilton is 
described as having been ' of a robust, health- 
ful body.' He died in 1643, at the age of 
eighty-four, and was buried in the church of 
Bangor. His five younger brothers all fol- 
lowed him to Ireland, and each succeeded in 
acquiring wealth. He was thrice married, 
first to Penelope Cook ; secondly to Ursula, 
sixth daughter of Edward, lord Brabazon of 
Ardee ; and thirdly to Jane, daughter of Sir 
John Phillips of Picton Castle, Pembroke- 
shire, first Baron Pembroke. By his third wife 
he had an only son, James, who succeeded to 
the estates and honours, and was also created 
in 1647 Earl of Clanbrassill. Lord Clane- 
boye erected a monument to his father in 
the church of Dunlop, and also erected and 
endowed a school in the parish. 

[Lowry, the Hamilton MSS. 1867; Ayr and 
Wigton Archaeological Collections, iv. 29-30 ; 
Cal. State Papers (Scotch and Irish Ser.); Court 
of James I ; Lodge's Peerage of Ireland (Arch- 
dall), iii. 1-3.] T. F. H. 

and first DTJKE OP HAMILTON in the Scottish 
peerage, second EARL OP CAMBRIDGE in the 
English peerage (1606-1 649), born on 19 June 
1606, was the son of James, second marquis 
[q. v.], and of his wife, Anne Cunningham, 
fourth daughter of the Earl of Glencairn. In 
his fourteenth year he was married to Mary 
Feilding, daughter of Lord Feilding (sub- 
sequently first Earl of Denbigh) and of Susan 
Villiers, sister of the Duke of Buckingham 
(DOUGLAS, Scottish Peerage). He was then 
sent to Exeter College, Oxford, where he ma- 
triculated on 14 Dec. 1621. On his father's 
death on 2 March 1625, he became, in his eigh- 
teenth year, Marquis of Hamilton and Earl 
of Cambridge, and the accession of Charles I 
shortly afterwards brought him into court 
favour. After the king's coronation on 2 Feb. 
1626, his private affairs took him to Scotland. 

Later in the year he thought of taking part in 
Lord Willoughby's naval expedition, though 
he soon abandoned his intention (GifFard to 
Buckingham, 29 Aug. 1626, State Papers, 
Dom. xxxiv. 52), and did not return to Eng- 
land until 1628. He reached London on 20 Oct. 
(Mead to Stuteville, 1 Nov. 1628, Court and 
Times of Charles /, i. 419), and on 7 Nov. 
succeeded to Buckingham's office of master 
of the horse {Sign- Manuals, ix. 64). He 
also became gentleman of the bedchamber 
and a privy councillor in England and Scot- 
land. Towards the end of 1629 he offered, to 
join Gustavus Adolphus in his approaching 
intervention in Germany, and on 30 May 
1630 the king of Sweden agreed to take him 
into his service on condition of his bringing 
with him a force of six thousand men. Gus- 
tavus landed in Germany in June, and in 
August Hamilton received the necessary per- 
mission from Charles to levy soldiers. In 
March 1636 Charles gave him 11,000/. to- 
wards the expenses of the levy, and to this 
a further sum of 15,015. was subsequently 
added (GARDINER, Hist, of Engl vii. 178). 
In the same month Hamilton went to Scot- 
land to collect his men, but could not induce 
more than four hundred to follow him. In his 
absence Lord Reay brought forward a charge 
which never ceased to pursue him as long as 
he lived. Hamilton was the next heir to the 
throne of Scotland after the descendants of 
James VI, and Reay now declared that he 
intended to use his levies to seize it for him- 
self. To this charge Charles, always faith- 
ful to his favourites, gave no ear, and, upon 
Hamilton's return to England, insisted upon 
his sleeping in the same room with himself, 
as an expression of his confidence. Hamil- 
ton not being able to find volunteers in 
England had recourse to official pressure, 
and at last, on 16 July, he sailed with six 
thousand Englishmen, by no means of the best 
quality. By this time one thousand recruits 
had been obtained from Scotland, so that he 
carried seven thousand men with him. The 
number was, however, reduced to six thou- 
sand on 3 Aug., on which day he had com- 
pleted his landing near the mouth of the 

The whole enterprise failed signally. Hamil- 
ton was sent to guard the fortresses on the 
Oder while Gustavus fought Tilly at Brei- 
tenfeld. His men were swept away by famine 
and plague. His diminished forces were 
then employed in the blockade of Magde- 
burg, which he entered after it had been 
abandoned by the enemy. By this time his 
army had almost ceased to exist. He had 
reason to believe that Gustavus distrusted 
him, fearing lest he should use in the special 


1 80 


service of the elector palatine any power 
that he might acquire. In September 1634 he 
therefore returned to England. Possibly any 
other man might under the circumstances 
have failed equally, but Hamilton had cer- 
tainly not displayed any of the qualities 
which go to make either a successful general 
or a successful statesman. 

After his return Charles took Hamilton as 
his adviser in all matters relating to Scot- 
land. His hereditary influence was great 
in that kingdom, and, what was of special 
importance in a country where the nobility 
were of more weight than they were in Eng- 
land, a considerable number of the nobles 
attached themselves to him from considera- 
tions of interest. When the king visited 
Scotland in 1633, the collection of a taxa- 
tion granted by parliament was placed in 
Hamilton's hands, with leave to repay him- 
self out of it for the expenses of his German 
expedition. For some time little is heard of 
him, though he seems, as was natural for a 
Scotsman, to have opposed Charles's policy 
of allying himself with Spain. He had his 
share in the good things which Charles had 
to give away. In 1637 he became licenser 
of hackney coaches, and in 1638 he gained 
4,OOOZ. a year from the payments exacted 
from the Vintners' Company. 

By far the most important part of Hamil- 
ton's life commenced when, in May 1638, 
Charles selected him as the commissioner 
to be sent to Scotland to pacify the country 
after the disturbances consequent upon the 
attempted introduction of the new prayer- 
book had culminated in the signature of 
the national covenant. Hamilton's conduct 
during the remainder of his career has been 
variously estimated. His character seems 
to have been devoid of intellectual or moral 
strength, and he was therefore easily brought 
to fancy all future tasks easy and all present 
obstacles insuperable. Accordingly, when- 
ever he found himself engaged in a piece 
of work more than usually surrounded with 
difficulties, his instinct led him to turn 
back and to seek some way of escape. Add 
to this that, though he was personally at- 
tached to Charles, and was incapable of enter- 
taining those designs upon his life and crown 
which were attributed to him, he was never 
whole-hearted in his devotion, and was dis- 
inclined to serve him beyond the point at 
which his own interests would be imperilled 
by more chivalrous conduct. He had pro- 
perty both in England and Scotland, and he 
could never persuade himself so to play his part 
as to bring heavy losses upon himself in either 
kingdom. He was at all times an advocate 
of compromises, because he had no interest 

in the higher religious or political issues of 
the strife. 

Already, before he started, Hamilton an- 
ticipated evil. His countrymen, he declared, 
' were possessed by the devil.' He arrived in 
Scotland on 4 June. On the 7th he informed 
Charles that it would need an army to force 
the Scots to abandon their demands. On the- 
8th he entered Edinburgh amidst a hostile 
population. On the 15th he wrote that it was 
useless to negotiate on terms short of the call- 
ing an assembly and parliament which would 
be certain to require the reversal of the king's 
ecclesiastical policy. He was by this time- 
thoroughly cowed, and on the 24th he offered 
to the covenanters to return to England to- 
urge the king to give way. Fresh orders from 
Charles interrupted his movements, and on 
4 July he had to order the reading in public- 
of a royal declaration to the effect that the 
prayer-book and canons would not be pressed 
except in a legal way. A declaration of this 
kind served only to exasperate the Scots, and 
Hamilton had to return to England to per- 
suade Charles to yield more completely to 
the covenanters, as he had failed in inducing 
the covenanters to yield to Charles. It is- 
said, and on good evidence, that before he left 
he tried to curry favour with the covenanting- 
leaders by encouraging them to stand firm in 
their resistance (GTJTHKY, Memoirs, p. 40). 

On 27 July Hamilton received instructions 
from Charles to go back once more to Edin- 
burgh, and to allow the election of an assembly 
and a parliament. He was to protest against 
any proposal to abolish episcopacy, but might 
assent to any plea for making bishops re- 
sponsible to future assemblies. On 10 Aug. 
he arrived in Edinburgh. He was at once- 
involved in a controversy upon the mode of 
electing the promised assembly, and on the 
25th he again returned to England. On 
17 Sept. he appeared for the third time in 
Edinburgh, bringing with him a revocation 
of the obnoxious prayer-book, canons, and 
high commission, and also a new king's co- 
venant less offensive to Charles than the na- 
tional covenant was. To this he attempted! 
to obtain signatures, but it found only a few 

The assembly met in Glasgow Cathedral 
on 21 Nov., with Hamilton presiding as the 
royal commissioner. On the 28th, upon its de- 
claring itself competent to judge the bishops, 
Hamilton dissolved it. It, however, con- 
tinued its sittings in spite of the dissolu- 
tion, and Hamilton returned to Charles to 
give an account of his mission. 

On 15 Jan. 1639 he told his story to the 
English privy council. Charles was now 
resolved on war, and Hamilton was chosen 




to lead an English force to take posses- 
sion of Aberdeen. Suspicions were abroad 
that he had acted as a traitor in the preced- 
ing year, and Dorset openly charged him with 
treason. Aberdeen having been lost to the 
royalists, Hamilton was ordered in April to 
transfer his expedition to the Forth, where 
he would threaten the rear of the Scottish 
army, while Charles faced it on the borders. 
Seizing Scottish shipping on the way, he 
reached the Forth on 1 May, only to find that 
Leith had been fortified and that the country 
was too hostile to give him a chance of suc- 
cess . He again wrote despairing letters 
to the king. After a short time he was re- 
called, and on 7 June he was in Charles's 
camp, once more urging him to give way to 
the covenanters. 

After the signature of the treaty of Ber- 
wick (18 June 1639) Hamilton was sent to 
instal Patrick Ruthven as governor of the 
castle, and was there received with derisive 
shouts of ' Stand by Jesus Christ,' and treated 
as an enemy of God and his country. On 
8 July he resigned his commissionership. 

Hamilton was always ready to take part 
in an intrigue, and on 16 July Charles au- 
thorised him to open friendly communications 
with the covenanters with the object of be- 
traying their plans. Later in the year he sup- 
ported Wentworth's proposal to summon the 
Short parliament. He took care, however, to 
ingratiate himself with the queen, and advo- 
cated the claims of her candidate for the 
.secretaryship, the elder Vane. True to his 
dislike of violence, he persuaded Charles to 
^attempt to conciliate the Scots by setting 
Loudoun free in June 1640, though it is said 
that he recommended the seizure of the 
Spanish bullion in the Tower to be used to 
.supply funds for the new expedition against 
Scotland, which had by that time been re- 
solved on. 

Hamilton was again designed for service 
on the east coast of Scotland. His troops, 
however, broke out into mutiny in conse- 
quence of the appointment of catholic officers 
to command them, and were disbanded before 
the end of August. It is not likely that he felt 
any good-will to the organisers of an expedi- 
tion which threatened to bring him for a 
second time into collision with the bulk of his 
countrymen. Early in August he had dis- 
suaded the king from going to York to take 
the command of the English army. After the 
rout of Newburn he offered to Charles to go 
among the covenanters, apparently as a friend, 
in order to betray their secrets. Charles ac- 
cepted the proposal, and Hamilton had there- 
fore an excellent opportunity of passing him- 
.self off as a friend of both parties. 

When the Long parliament met, Hamilton 
was anxious to be on friendly terms with the 
parliamentary leaders, whose policy of an alli- 
ance with the Scots exactly accorded with 
his own wishes. It was believed in Straf- 
ford's family that he joined with the elder 
Vane in sending for Strafford in order to work 
his ruin. At all events, in acting against 
Strafford he may have fancied himself to be 
reconciling patriotic with loyal sentiments, 
and to be aiming at the removal from the 
king's councils of the man who was most 
forward in injuring both the king and the 
Scots by stirring up enmity between them. 
Moreover, if he knew of the intention of the 
parliamentary leaders to add his own name 
to the list of those whom they proposed to 
impeach, his knowledge can only have served 
to drive him to make his peace with those 
who had such a terrible weapon at their dis- 
posal. He soon made his peace with Straf- 
ford's enemies, and in February 1641 it was 
upon his advice that Charles admitted their 
leaders to the privy council. Though he took 
no active part in bringing Strafford to death, 
there can be no doubt that he had no friendly 
disposition towards him. 

Men of Hamilton's character never fail to 
find enemies among the generous and out- 
spoken, and Strafford was no sooner dead than 
Hamilton found a fresh opponent in Montrose, 
with whom he had already come into collision 
ROSE]. When Walter Stewart was captured 
on 4 June 1641, a paper, which apparently 
emanated from Montrose, was found upon 
him, in which the king was warned against 
placing confidence in Hamilton. Hamilton 
in fact was busily employed on a scheme for 
reconciling Charles with Rothes and Argyll, 
apparently on the basis, on the one hand, of 
a complete acceptance of presbyterianism by 
the king, and on the other of armed assist- 
ance to be given by the Scots to Charles 
against the English parliament. He had, in 
short, already sketched out the design which 
brought his master and himself to the scaf- 
fold in 1649. On 10 Aug., when Charles set 
out for Scotland, he was one of the few who 
accompanied him. 

At Edinburgh Hamilton attached himself 
entirely to Argyll, even when he found that 
any real understanding between Charles and 
Argyll was impossible. This desertion of the 
king was an object of bitter comment. On 
29 Sept. Lord Ker challenged him. Hamilton 
gave information to Charles, and extracted 
an apology from Ker. He soon discovered 
that Charles himself was displeased with 
him on account of the course which he had 
taken, and had spoken of him to his brother 




the Earl of Lanark as being ' very active in 
his own preservation.' Montrose wrote to 
Charles offering to prove Hamilton to be a 
traitor. Then came the discovery of the 
plot, known as the Incident, to seize Argyll 
and the two Hamilton brothers, and if ne- 
cessary to murder them. On 12 Oct. all 
three fled from Edinburgh. Charles had to 
plead ignorance of the whole affair. After 
some little time Hamilton returned to Edin- 
burgh, and accompanied the king when he 
left Scotland. On 5 Jan. 1642, when Charles 
went into the city of London, after the 
failure of the attempt on the five members, 
Hamilton was with him in his coach. 

During the spring of 1642, for some time 
after the king left London, Hamilton was ill. 
In July, after subscribing to raise sixty horse 
for the king's service, he went to Scotland 
in the hope of being able to induce the Scots 
to abstain from an intervention on the parlia- 
mentary side in the approaching civil war. 
This mission produced no result except a 
breach between Hamilton and Argyll. In 
the spring of 1643 certain Scottish commis- 
sioners prepared to wait on the king with a 
petition urging him to allow them to appear 
as mediators in England, with the intention 
of driving the king to assent to the establish- 
ment of presbyterianism in England. On 
this Hamilton tried to gain a hold upon 
Loudoun, who was the principal of them, by 
getting up what was known as ' the cross peti- 
tion/ in which the king was asked to aban- 
don the annuities of tithes which had been 
granted him by act of parliament. Hamil- 
ton in fact knew that Charles had sold these 
annuities to Loudoun, so that their abandon- 
ment would strike him, and not the king. 
As this petty trick did not succeed, and Lou- 
doun was not to be frightened into taking 
the king's part, Hamilton then asked Charles 
to send to Edinburgh all the Scottish lords 
of his party to counteract Argyll, and to keep 
Scotland from interfering in England, by 
outvoting Argyll in the Scottish parliament. 
This advice at once aroused the indigna- 
tion of Montrose, who was with the queen 
at York, and who, believing that the Scots 
would certainly send an army across the 
border, wished to anticipate the blow by a 
military rather than by a political operation. 
Upon this Hamilton betook himself to York, 
and induced the queen to countenance his 
scheme rather than that of Montrose. He 
held that if Charles would only convince the 
Scots that their own presbyterian church was 
out of danger, they would not trouble them- 
selves about the fortunes of the English 
church. This, however, was precisely what 
Charles was unable to do. When on 10 May 

a Scottish convention of estates was sum- 
moned without the king's authority, Hamil- 
ton attempted to hinder its meeting under 
such circumstances ; but on 5 June, finding his 
opposition useless, he dissuaded Charles from 
prohibiting it. Before the elections were held 
news arrived of a plot of a combined move- 
ment of English and Irish against the Scottish 
army in Ulster, and for a joint invasion of 
Cumberland if not of Scotland itself. Under 
these circumstances, when the convention 
met it was found that Hamilton's supporters 
were in a minority. 

Though success was evidently hopeless r 
Hamilton's influence with the king was still 
so great that Charles refused again to listen to 
Montrose's plan of attacking the Argyll party 
while they were still unprepared. Events soon 
justified Montrose's prescience. There was 
no longer room for parliamentary royalism 
in Scotland, and in November Hamilton and 
his brother were compelled to leave Scotland 
upon their refusal to sign the solemn league 
and covenant. On 16 Dec. they arrived in 
Oxford. Every royalist at court was open- 
mouthed against them, and Charles could 
no longer resist the tide. Lanark escaped, but 
Hamilton, in the beginning of January 1644,. 
was sent as a prisoner to Pendennis Castle. 

In July 1645 Hamilton, being still a pri- 
soner, had an interview with Hyde, and confi- 
dently professed his assurance that if he were 
allowed to go to Scotland he would be able to 
induce the Scots either to mediate a peace in 
England or to declare for Montrose (CLAEEN- 
DON, ix. 152-7). To this entreaty Hyde gave 
no heed, and later in the year Hamilton was 
removed to St. Michael's Mount (ib. ix. 158) ? 
where he was liberated by Fairfax's troops 
when the fortress surrendered on 23 April 
1646. Soon after the king reached Newcastle 
Hamilton waited on him, and was urgent 
with him to abandon episcopacy in England 
so as to be secure of the support of a Scot- 
tish army in regaining his crown. Early in 
August he went to Scotland, where he used 
his influence to induce the covenanters to- 
come to terms with Charles, and in the early 
part of September reappeared at Newcastle 
at the head of a deputation charged with a 
message to Charles, urging him to accept the 
propositions of the English parliament. As, 
however, these included the establishment of 
presbyterianism in England, the deputation 
proved a failure, and Hamilton returned to 
Scotland. On 16 Dec. the Scottish parlia- 
ment under his influence voted to urge the 
English parliament to allow the king to go 
to London, but Argyll and the clergy were 
too strong for him, and conditions were added 
which it was impossible for Charles to accept. 




The Scottish army left England the follow- 
ing year, and Charles was transferred to the 
English parliament. 

In 1647 the seizure of the king by Joyce, 
and his consequent transference to the cus- 
tody of the army and the independents, 
brought about a revulsion of feeling in Scot- 
land. On 2 March 1648 a new parliament 
met at Edinburgh, in which Hamilton, who 
favoured the intervention of a Scottish army 
in England, was secure of a majority of thirty 
or thirty-two votes over Argyll, who with 
the more severe of the clergy was opposed 
to this intervention (Montreuil to Mazarin, 
March 8-18, 14-24, Arch, des Aff. Etran- 
geres, Angleterre, vol. Ivi.) All through the 
early part of the year there was a network 
of plots with the object of a combined rising 
in England of the royalists and presbyterians, 
and of the arrival of the Prince of Wales in 
Scotland to place himself in the army with 
which Hamilton was to cross the border. It 
was not till 8 July, after the English risings 
were occupying theEnglish army, that Hamil- 
ton entered England at the head of a force 
numbering about twenty thousand. Lambert, 
who was opposed to him with a much inferior 
force, kept him in check till Cromwell came 
up. In the second week in August Cromwell 
joined him, but even then the English army 
counted not much more than nine thousand, 
while the Scots had been raised by rein- 
forcements to twenty-four thousand. Hamil- 
ton, however, had never conducted any opera- 
tion of life with success, and he was not 
likely to succeed in war. He allowed his 
regiments to scatter over the country, while 
Cromwell, who kept his men well in hand, 
dashed successively at each fragment of the 
Scottish host. In three days (17-19 Aug.) 
the whole of Hamilton's army was com- 
pletely beaten, in the so-called battle of 
Preston, and the duke himself surrendered 
on 25 Aug. 

On 21 Dec. Hamilton saw the king at 
Windsor, as he passed through on the way 
to his trial. He did not long survive his 
master. An attempt at escape failing, he 
was brought to St. James's, and on 6 Feb. 
1649 he was put upon his trial before the 
high court of justice. On 6 March he was 
condemned to death, and was executed on 
the 9th. 

MARY HAMILTON (1613-1638), duchess of 
Hamilton, wife of the above, was married 
when only seven years of age. Her husband 
was at first averse to keeping the contract, 
and for some years they were on bad terms. 
She was lady of the bed"chamber to Henrietta 
Maria, and enjoyed the confidence both of 
the king and the queen. Burnet describes 

her as t a lady of great and singular worth/ 
and Waller wrote his ' Thyrsis Galatea ' in 
her praise (COLVILLE, Warwickshire Worthies, 
pp. 272-4). She died 10 May 1638, leaving 
three sons, who died young, and three daugh- 
ters, Mary (died young), Anne, and Susanna. 
In 1651, on the death of her uncle, William, 
earl of Lanark and second duke of Hamilton 
[q. v.], who succeeded his brother by special 
remainder, the Scottish titles reverted to Anne 
as eldest surviving daughter of the first duke 
[see under DOUGLAS, WILLIAM, third DUKE 
OP HAMILTON], while the earldom of Cam- 
bridge became extinct. 

[The leading authority for the life of the duke 
is fiurnet's Lives of the Hamiltons, which contains 
a large number of original documents. Though 
allowance must be made for the zeal of a bio- 
grapher, the general accuracy of th^ book bears 
the test of a comparison with letters in the Hamil- 
ton Charter Chest, which have recently been pub- 
lished by the Camden Society, under the title of 
the Hamilton Papers.] S. K. Gr. 

HAMILTON, JAMES (d. 1666), divine, 
was second son of Gawen Hamilton, third son 
of Hans Hamilton, vicar of Dunlop. After 
receiving a liberal education at Glasgow he 
was appointed by his uncle, James Hamilton, 
lord Claneboye [q. v.], overseer and general 
manager of his estates in Ireland. Of a natu- 
rally serious disposition, he attracted the at- 
tention of Robert Blair (1593-1666) [q. v.], at 
that time minister of the church at Bangor 
in co. Down, who, after a private trial of his 
ability as a preacher, persuaded him to enter 
the ministry. Accordingly in 1626, notwith- 
standing his presbyterian proclivities and he- 
terodox views, which resembled Blair's own 
in regard to episcopacy, he was ordained by 
Bishop Echlin, and presented by Lord Clane- 
boye to the church at Bally waiter in co. Down. 
Here he laboured successfully for ten years 
' until, by the rigidities of my Lord Went- 
worth and the then Bishop of Derry [John 
Bramhall, q. v.], new terms of church com- 
munion to be sworn to were imposed upon 
the whole church of Ireland, whereunto he 
could not submit.' His example was followed 
by several prominent ministers in the north 
of Ireland. Henry Leslie, Bishop Echlin's 
successor, was urged by Bishop Bramhall to 
proceed to their deposition. But, determined 
to conyince them of the error of their ways, 
Leslie challenged them to a public disputa- 
tion. His challenge was accepted, and Hamil- 
ton was chosen to conduct the defence on their 
behalf. The conference opened on 11 Aug. 
1636, in the presence of a large assemblage, 
but after the debate had proceeded a little 
way Bishop Bramhall interfered, and, having 
obtained an adjournment, persuaded Leslie 




not to resume it, but to forthwith pass sen- 
tence on the recalcitrant ministers. On the 
following day they were deposed, and war- 
rants being shortly afterwards issued for their 
arrest Hamilton consulted his safety by re- 
tiring to Scotland, and was appointed minis- 
ter of the church at Dumfries. In Septem- 
ber 1642 he revisited Ireland, in order to 
minister to the spiritual necessities of the 
colonists, but returning to Scotland he was 
in March 1644 appointed by the general 
assembly to superintend the administration 
of the covenant in Ulster (REID, Presbyterian 
Church, ii. 27-42). On his return to Scot- 
land the ship in which he and several others, 
including his father-in-law, had taken their 
passage, was captured by the Harp, a Wex- 
ford frigate, commanded by Alaster Mac- 
Donnell, who was bringing reinforcements to 
Montrose in the highlands. Alaster Mac- 
Donnell, who hoped by an exchange of pri- 
soners to secure the release of his father, old 
Colkittagh, then in the hands of the Marquis 
of Argyll, landed his prisoners at Ardnamur- 
chan, and confined them in Mingary Castle. 
There Hamilton remained for ten months, 
witnessing the release of several of his com- 
panions, and the death of his father-in-law, 
the Rev. David Watson, and another minis- 
ter, Mr. Weir, until the exertions of the general 
assembly and Scottish parliament set him free 
on 2 May 1645 (Hamilton MSS. p. 78). He 
returned to his charge at Dumfries, and was 
afterwards removed to Edinburgh. Being 
appointed a chaplain to Charles II by the 
general assembly, he was taken prisoner at 
Alyth in Forfarshire by Colonels Alured and 
Morgan, and carried to London, where he 
was confined for a short time in the Tower. 
Released by Cromwell's order, he returned 
to Edinburgh, where he preached till the re- 
storation of the episcopacy in Scotland drove 
him from his pulpit, and compelled him to 
retire to Inveresk. He died at Edinburgh 
on 10 March 1666. By his wife, Elizabeth 
Watson, daughter of David Watson, minister 
of Killeavy, near Newry, he had fifteen chil- 
dren, all of whom died in their infancy except 
one son, Archibald, who was a leading minis- 
ter in the presbyterian church in Ireland, and 
three daughters, Jane, Mary, and Elizabeth. 
He was, according to Livingstone, ' a learned 
and diligent man,' his style of preaching being 
' rather doctrinal than exhortatory.' 

[Hamilton MSS. ed. by T. K. Lowry; Eeid's 
Hist, of the Presbyterian Church in * Ireland ; 
Patrick Adair's True Narrative of the Eise and 
Progress of the Presbyterian Church ; McBride's 
Sample of Jet-Black Prict-Calumny, Glasgow, 
1713 ; and the Lives of the Kevs. Eobert Blair 
and John Livingstone.] E. D. 

HAMILTON, JAMES (1610-1674), 
bishop of Galloway, was the second son of Sir 
James Hamilton of Broomhill, by Margaret, 
daughter of William Hamilton of Udston, 
and brother of John, first lord Belhaven. He 
was born at Broomhill in 1610, studied at the 
university of Glasgow, graduated there in 
1628, and in 1634 was ordained as minister of 
Cambusnethan by Archbishop Lindsay. He 
was deposed by the synod of Glasgow in 
April 1639 for signing the protestation of the 
bishops and their adherents against the as- 
sembly of 1638, but on professing penitence 
was restored by the assembly of 1639. The 
committee, to whom his case was referred, re- 
ported that l he was a young man of good be- 
haviour, and well beloved of his parish, and 
guilty of nothing directly but the subscribing 
of the declinature.' After this he went with 
the times. Bishop Burnet says : ' He was 
always believed episcopal. Yet he had so 
far complied in the time of the covenant, 
that he affected a peculiar expression of his 
counterfeit zeal for their cause, to secure him- 
self from suspicion ; when he gave the sacra- 
ment, he excommunicated all that were not 
true to the covenant, using a form in the Old 
Testament of shaking out the lap of his 
gown; saying so did he cast out of the church 
and communion all that dealt falsely in the 
covenant.' In 1648 he supported the l En- 
gagement,' and was urged by his kinsman 
the Duke of Hamilton to accept a chaplaincy 
in the army raised for the rescue of the king. 
At the Restoration he was rewarded by a 
grant of money and the bishopric of Galloway, 
and along with Sharp, Leighton, and Fair- 
foul was consecrated at Westminster 15 Dec. 
1661. Galloway was a stronghold of the 
extreme covenanters. Many of the ministers 
refused to submit to episcopacy, and when de- 
prived held field meetings, which were largely 
attended by their old flocks. At the request of 
the bishop and his clergy, whose ranks had 
been recruited from the north, soldiers were 
quartered on the frequenters of conventicles 
to compel their attendance at church, and 
there appears to be good authority for the 
statement that Sir James Turner, the officer 
in command, ' was obliged to go beyond his 
instructions to satisfy the bishop.' Hamilton 
acquired the estate of Broomhill in 1669 from 
his brother, who had been raised to the peer- 
age, and died in August 1674. Burnet de- 
scribes him as * a good-natured man, but weak.' 
Wodrow says : ' His gifts were reckoned every 
way ordinary, but he was remarkable for his 
cunning and time-serving temper; ' while one 
of his grandsons describes him as ' mighty 
well seen in divinity, accurate in the fathers 
and church history . . . very pious and chari- 




table, strict in his morals . . . and every way 
worthy of the sacred character he bore.' In 
1635 he married Margaret, only daughter of 
Alexander Thomson, one of the ministers 
of Edinburgh, and had two sons and four 

[Keith's Cat.; WodroVs Hist. ; Kecords of the 
Kirk ; Burnet's Hist, of his Own Time ; Birnie's 
Family of Bromhill ; Scott's Fasti ; Register of 
the Synod of Galloway, 1664-71.] G. W. S. 

HAMILTON, JAMES (/. 1640-1680), 
painter, belonged to the family of Hamilton 
of Murdieston in Fifeshire. A strong royalist, 
he quitted Scotland during the Common- 
wealth for Brussels, where he practised for 
some years as a painter of animals and still 
life. Hamilton had three sons, all born at 
Brussels, who were highly distinguished in 
the same line of painting : (1) FERDINAND 
PHILIP, born 1664, who was appointed painter 
to the Emperor Charles VI at Vienna, where 
he resided and died in 1750 ; (2) JOHN GEORGE, 
born 1666, was also employed by the em- 
peror at Vienna, where he died about 1733 ; 
and (3) CHARLES WILLIAM,- born 1670, was 
employed by Alexander Sigmund, bishop of 
Augsburg, where he resided and died in 1754. 
Pictures by the two elder brothers are in the 
galleries at Vienna, Munich, Dresden, &c. 

[Nagler's Kiinstler-Lexikon ; Bryan's Diet, of 
Painters and Engravers, ed. Graves; Eedgrave's 
Diet, of Artists.] L. C. 

ABERCORN (1656-1734), was eldest son of 
James Hamilton, by Elizabeth, daughter of 
John, lord Colepeper [q. v.], and grandson of 
Sir George Hamilton of Dunalong [see under 
He was groom of the bedchamber to Charles II, 
and in the following reign commanded a regi- 
ment of horse. At the Revolution he sided 
against King James, and in February 1688-9 
was sent to Ireland to assist in the defence 
of Londonderry (Hist. MSS. Comm. 12th 
Rep. App. pt. vi. 162-73). He had refused 
to assume the title of baronet on his grand- 
father's death in 1679, but in 1701, on the 
death of his cousin Charles, fifth earl, he be- 
came Earl of Abercorn ; on 9 Sept. 1701 he 
was created Viscount Strabane in the Irish 
peerage. As a Scottish peer he steadily sup- 
ported the union in 1706. He was a privy 
councillor in the reigns of Anne, George I, 
and George II. He died 28 Nov. 1734, and 
was buried in Henry VII's chapel in West- 
minster Abbey. By his wife Elizabeth, daugh- 
ter and heiress of Sir Robert Reading, bart., 
of Dublin, he had nine sons and four daugh- 


CORN (d. 1744), the second son, succeeded his 
father. He was sworn a member of the 
privy council of England 20 July 1738, and 
of that of Ireland 26 Sept. of the follow- 
ing year. He died in Cavendish Square, 
London, 13 July 1744, and was buried in the 
Duke of Ormonde's vault in Westminster 
Abbey on 17 Jan. following. By his wife 
Anne, daughter of Colonel Plumer of Blakes- 
weare, Hertfordshire, he had six sons and a 
daughter. His two eldest sons, James, eighth 
earl, and John (d. 1755), are separately no- 
ticed. Abercorn devoted considerable atten- 
tion to scientific pursuits, and was a fellow 
of the Royal Society of London. He was 
the author of ' Calculations and Tables re- 
lating to the Attractive Power of Loadstones,' 
1729, published under the initials <J. H.' 
Walpole, in his ' Royal and Noble Authors,' 
wrongly attributed the work to the sixth earl, 
but the error was corrected by Park, who 
points out that in ' Bibl. Westiana ' it is 
entered under the name of Lord Paisley. In 
the ' British Museum Catalogue ' Abercorn is 
also credited with being the joint author along 
with Dr. Pepusch of a ' Treatise on Harmony, 
containing the Chief Rules for Composing in 
Two, Three, and Four Parts,' 1730 ; 2nd ed. 

[Douglas's Scottish Peerage, ed. Wood, i. 11 ; 
"Walpole's Eoyal and Noble Authors, ed. Park, 
vol. v. ; Brit. Mus. Cat.] T. F. H. 

ABERCORN (1712-1789), eldest son of James, 
seventh earl [see under HAMILTON, JAMES, 
sixth EARL OF ABERCORN], by Anne, daugh- 
ter of Colonel John Plumer of Blakesweare, 
Hertfordshire, was born on 22 Oct. 1712. On 
23 March 1736 he was summoned to the 
House of Peers in Ireland as Baron Mount- 
castle. He succeeded his father as Earl of 
Abercorn and Viscount Strabane in 1744, 
and in 1761 and subsequent general elections, 
including that of 1784, was chosen one of the 
sixteen Scottish representative peers. He op- 
posed the bill to repeal the American Stamp 
Act in 1766, and voted for the rejection of 
Fox's India Bill in 1783. He was created a 
peer of Great Britain on 8 Aug. 1786 by the 
title of Viscount Hamilton, with remainder 
to John James Hamilton, son of his brother 
John Hamilton (d. 1755) [q. v.] No new elec- 
tion of Scottish representative peers having 
been ordered in the room of him and the 
Duke of Lauderdale, who had been also on 
the same occasion created a British peer, 
a committee of privileges finally decided on 
13 Feb. 1787 that, having been created British 
peers, they had ceased to sit as representa- 
tives of the peerage of Scotland. In 1745 
Abercorn purchased from the Duke of Argyll 




the barony of Duddingston, where he built a 
mansion for his residence ; but when, in 1764, 
he acquired from Thomas, eighth earl of Dun- 
donald, the lordship of Paisley, previously 
held by his ancestors, he made Paisley his 
principal residence. In 1781 he feued out that 
portion of the lands of the abbey of Paisley 
which remained unbuilt on, thus founding 
the ' new town ' of Paisley. He possessed a 
large estate in Ireland, where he built the 
mansion of Baronscourt, near Londonderry, 
and he had also a seat at Witham, Essex, 
where he entertained Queen Charlotte in 
September 1761. He died, unmarried, at 
Boroughbridge on 9 Oct. 1789, and was buried 
in the abbey of Paisley, in a vault beneath 
St. Mirren's Chapel. He was succeeded by 
his nephew John James, afterwards first mar- 
quis of Abercorn. 

[Lee's Abbey of Paisley, 1878 ; Semple's Hist, 
of ^Renfrewshire ; Douglas's Scottish Peerage, 
ed. Wood, i. 12.] T. F. H. 

HAMILTON, JAMES (1769-1829), au- 
thor of the Hamiltonian system of teaching 
languages, was born in 1769. He was taught 
for four years at a school in Dublin kept by 
Beatty and Mulhall, two Jesuits. He went 
into business, and for about three years before 
the revolution was living in France. In 1798 
he was established as a merchant in Ham- 
burg, where he had been made free of the city 
and had bought a house in the Neuen Burg. 
Here he applied for instruction in German 
to General D'Angeli, a French emigre 1 . 
D'Angeli, without using a grammar, trans- 
lated to him word for word a German book 
of anecdotes, parsing as he proceeded. After 
about twelve lessons Hamilton found that he 
could read any easy German book. Beatty 
and Mulhall had had a somewhat similar 
system. Hamilton already knew Latin and 
some Greek, and was well read in French 
and English. About this time he lodged in 
German houses in Leipzig and other towns. 
Removing to Paris he, in conjunction with 
the banking-house of Karcher & Co., did 
considerable business with England at the 
time of the peace of Amiens. At the rup- 
ture of the peace he was ' detained,' and his 
business in Hamburg and Paris was ruined. 
He went to New York in October 1815, with 
an idea of becoming a farmer and manufac- 
turer of potash. At the last moment he 
changed his mind and determined to teach 
languages there on the principle of D'Angeli. 
His plan, he says, was l to teach instead of 
ordering to learn.' He began at once with 
a word-for-word translation, and left instruc- 
tion in grammar till a later stage. His first 
pupils were three clergymen and Van Ness, 
judge of the district court, and his whole 

time was soon engaged in teaching. His 
pupils, of whom he had about seventy in his 
first year, read French easily in twenty-four 
lessons of four hours each. His charge was 
a dollar a lesson. In September 1816 he went 
to Philadelphia, and gave his first lecture in 
explanation of the 'Hamiltonian System/ 
Here he also printed his first reading-book, 
chapters i-iii. of St. John's Gospel, in French, 
with an interlinear and analytical transla- 
tion. At a later time several 'books profess- 
ing to be adapted to his system were pub- 
lished without his authority, and which, as 
he complained, did not make a teacher and 
a dictionary superfluous. Among the books 
with literal and interlinear English transla- 
tions published by Hamilton were : 1. (in 
Greek) The Gospels of St. Matthew and St. 
John. 2. (in Latin, costing 4s. each) * St. 
John's Gospel,' Lhomond's 'Epitome His- 
tories Sacrse,' ' ./Esop's Fables,' ' Eutropius,' 
' Aurelius Victor,' t Phsedrus/ 3. (in French) 
1 St. John's Gospel' (nine editions), Perrin's 
'Fables.' 4. (in German) Campe's ' Robinson 
Crusoe.' 5. (in Italian) < St. John's Gospel/ 
In 1817 Hamilton left Philadelphia for 
Baltimore, his wife and daughters teaching 
with him. The professors at Baltimore Col- 
lege ridiculed him in a play called l The New 
Mode of Teaching,' acted by their pupils. 
Hamilton went to the play, and three days 
after published it in a newspaper with his 
own comments. The college, he says, was 
soon without a pupil, while the Hamiltonian 
school at Baltimore had more than a hun- 
dred and sixty pupils and twenty teachers. 
He was obliged by ill-health and pecuniary 
difficulties to leave the school to his teachers, 
and went on to Washington, and then to 
Boston, where he could only obtain four 
pupils. A professor at the Boston Univer- 
sity attacked him as a charlatan, but a com- 
mittee examined and approved his four pupils, 
and he soon had two hundred. Hamilton 
also taught at the colleges of Schenectady, 
Princeton, Yale, Hartford, and Middleburg, 
and often had the teachers as well as their 
pupils in his classes. In 1822 he went to 
Montreal, and then to Quebec. At Montreal 
he instructed the gaoler, and successfully 
taught reading to eight ignorant English 
prisoners there (on the method adopted see 
History, Principles, fyc., of the Hamiltonian 
Method, pp. 13, 14). He left America in 
July 1823, an