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Full text of "Dictionary of national biography"

A 



DICTIONARY 



OF 



NATIONAL BIOGRAPHY 



INGLIS JOHN 




DICTIONARY 



or 



NATIONAL BIOGRAPHY 



EDITED BY 

SIDNEY LEE 



VOL. XXIX. 
INGLIS JOHN 



MACMILLAN AND CO. 

LONDON : SMITH, ELDER, & CO. 
1892 



za 






LIST OF WRITERS 



IN THE TWENTY-NINTH VOLUME. 



J. G. A. . . J. G. ALGEB. 
R. E. A. . . R. E. ANDERSON. 
W. A. J. A. . W. A. J. ARCHBOLD. 
G. F. R. B. . G. F. RUSSELL BARKER. 

R. B THE REV. RONALD BAYNK. 

T. B THOMAS BAYNE. 

G. T. B. . . G. T. BETTANT. 

G. C. B. . . G. C. BOASB. 

G. S. B. . . G. S. BOULQEB. 

E. T. B. . . Miss BRADLEY. 

A. R. B. . . THE REV. A. R. BUCKLAND. 

A. H. B. . . A. H. BULLEN. 

E. C-N. ... EDWIN CANNAN. 

H. M. C. . . H. MANNERS CHICHESTEB. 

A. M. C. . . Miss A. M. CLERKE. 

J. C THE REV. JAMES COOPBB. 

T. C THOMPSON COOPER, F.S.A. 

W. P. C. . . W. P. COURTNEY. 

J. C-N. . . . JAMES CRANSTOUN, LL.D. 

C. C CHARLBS CRKIGHTON, M.D. 

M. C THE BISHOP OF PETERBOROUGH. 

L. C LIONEL CUST, F.S.A. 

A. I. D. . . ARTHUR IRWIN DASBNT. 

R. D ROBERT DUNLOP. 

C. H. F. . . C. H. FIRTH. 

J. G. F. . . J. G. FOTHERINGHAM. 

R. G RICHARD GABNETT, LL.D. 



J. T. G. . . J. T. GILBERT, F.S.A. 
G. G GORDON GOODWIN. 

A. G THE REV. ALEXANDER GORDON. 

J. M. G. . . J. M. GRAY. 

W. A. G. . . W. A. GREENHILL, M.D. 
J. C. H. . . J. CUTHBERT HADDEN. 
J. A. H. . . J. A. HAMILTON. 

T. H THE REV. THOMAS HAMILTON, D.D. 

R. H ROBERT HARRISON. 

W. J. H. . . W. JEROME HARRISON. 

T. F. H. . . T. F. HENDERSON. 

W. H. ... THE REV. WILLIAM HUNT. 

B. D. J. . . B. D. JACKSON. 

H. J HENRY JENNER, F.S.A. 

C. K. . . . . CHARLES KENT. 
C. L. K. . . C. L. KINGSFORD. 
J. K JOSEPH KNIGHT. 

J. K. L. . . PBOFESSOB J. K. LAUGHTON. 

S. L SIDNEY LEE. 

A. G. L. . . A. G. LITTLE. 
W. R. LL. . COLONEL W. R. LLUELLYN. 
W. B. L. . . THE REV. W. B. LOWTHEB. 
M. M. ... JENEAS MACKAY, LL.D. 
E. H. M. . . E. H. MAKSHALL. 

L. M. M. . . MlSS MlDDLETON. 

A. H. M. . . A. H. MILLAR. 
C. M COSMO MONKHOUSK. 



V 



List of Writers. 



N. M NORMAN MOORE, M.D. 

J. B. M. . . J. BASS MUI.I.INGER. 

A. N AXBEHT NICHOLSON. 

K. N Miss KATE NORGATE. 

F. M. O'D. . F. M. O'DoNOGHCE. 
J. F. P.. . . J. F. PAYNE, M.D. 

B. L. P. . . R. L. POOLE. 

B. P MlSS PORTER. 

R. B. P. . . R. B. PROSSEH. 
E. J. R. . . E. J. RAPSOX. 
J. M. R. . . J. M. RIGG. 
T. S THOMAS SBCCOMHE. 

R. F. S. . . R. FARQfHARSON SHARP. 

AY. A. S. . . AY. A. SHAW. 
L. S. . . LESLIE STEPHEN. 



C. W. S. . . C. W. SUTTON. 
W. C. S. . . W. C. SroNBY. 

J. T JAMES TAIT, of Oxford. 

H. R. T. . . H. R. TEDDER. 

D. LL. T. . . D. LLKCFKR THOMAS.' 

E. M. T. . . E. MAUNDE THOMPSON, D.C.L. 

F.S.A. 
T. F. T. . . PROFESSOR T. F. TOUT. 

E. V THE REV. CANON VENABLES. 

R. H. V. . . COLONEL R. H. A T ETCH, R.E. 
A. W. AY. . A. AV. AYARD, Litt.D. 

M. G. W. . . THE REV. M. G. WATKINS. 

F. W-T. . . FRANCIS WATT. 

C. W-H. . . CHARLFS WELCH, F-S.A. 
W. W. ... WARWICK WROTH, F.S.A. 



DICTIONARY 



OF 



NATIONAL BIOGRAPHY 



Inglis 



Inglis 



INGLIS, CHARLES (1731 P-1791), rear- 
admiral, a younger son of Sir John Inglis of 
Cramond, bart., entered the navy in 1745 on 
board the Ludlow Castle,with Captain George 
Brydges (afterwards Lord) Rodney [q. v.] 
He followed Rodney to the Eagle, and in 
that ship was present in Hawke's action with 
L'Etenduere on 14 Oct. 1747. After three 
years in the Eagle he was appointed to the 
Tavistock with Captain Francis Holburne. 
He passed his examination on 5 Feb. 1755, 
being then, according to his certificate, more 
than twenty-three years of age, and the next 
day he was promoted to be lieutenant of the 
Monarch, with Captain Abraham North. In 
April 1756 he was appointed to the Magna- 
nime, with Captain Wittewronge Taylor; 
turned over, with him, to the Royal William 
on 3 June 1757 [cf. HOWE, RICHAKD, EARL], 
and a fortnight later was promoted to the 
command of the Escort sloop, attached to 
the expedition to Rochefort under Sir Edward 
(afterwards Lord) Hawke [q. v.] In June 
1759 he was appointed to the Carcass bomb, 
part of the force under Rodney which bom- 
barded Havre and destroyed the flat-bot- 
tomed boats there in July. On 15 Dec. 1761 
he was posted to the Newark of 80 guns, 
which early in the following year went out 
to the Mediterranean with the broad pennant 
of Commodore Sir Peircy Brett. He re- 
turned to England after the peace, and on 
the occasion of the Spanish armament in 
1770 was appointed to command the Lizard 
frigate. In August 1778 he commissioned 
the Salisbury of 50 guns, in which he went 
out to Jamaica, and on 12 Dec. 1779 cap- 
tured the San Carlos, a Spanish privateer of 
60 guns, and laden with military stores, in 

VOL. XXIX. 



the Bay of Honduras. In the following sum- 
mer he returned to England, and when the 
Salisbury was paid off was appointed to the 
64-gun ship St. Albans, one of the fleet under 
Vice-admiral Darby at the relief of Gibraltar 
in March 1781. Towards the end of the 
year he was sent out to the West Indies in 
charge of convoy, and having joined the flag 
of Sir Samuel (afterwards Viscount) Hood 
[q. v.] at Barbadoes, was with him during 
his attempt to relieve St. Kitts, 25 Jan. 1782. 
Afterwards, in the battle of 12 April, the 
St. Albans was the second ship astern of the 
Formidable, and passed through the enemy's 
line closely following her and the Namur. 
In August 1782 the St. Albans went to North 
America with Admiral Pigot, and returned 
to England after the peace. Inglis had no 
further service, but was promoted to be rear- 
admiral on 21 Sept. 1790. and died on 10 Oct. 
1791. 

His son Charles, first lieutenant of the 
Penelope in her remarkable engagement with 
the Guillaume Tell [see BLACKWOOD, SIK 
HENRY], was immediately promoted to com- 
mand the Petrel, and in her led the fleet under 
Lord Keith into the harbour of Marmorice, 
during a violent gale, on 1 Jan. 1801 (PARSON, 
Nelsonian Reminiscences, p. 80). He was ad- 
vanced to post rank on 29 April 1802, and 
died, still a captain, on 27 Feb. 1833. 

[Charnock's Biog. Nav. vi. 455 ; Commission 
and Warrant Books in Public Eecord Office ] 

J. K. L. 

INGLIS, CHARLES (1734-1816), bishop 
of Nova Scotia, was born, apparently, in -Near 
Yorkj-in 1734. From 1755 to 1758 he con- 
ducted a free school at Lancaster, Pennsyl- 
vania, and gained the goodwill of the neigh- 

No. 1 M-t, 



Inglis 

hours, who recommended him to the Society 
for the Propagation of the Gospel. He came 
to England, was ordained by the Bishop of 
London, and, returning to America, began 
work on the Dover mission station, which 
then included the county of Kent, Delaware, 
1 July 1759. In 1765 he became assistant 
to Dr. Auchnutz, at Holy Trinity Church, 
New York, and catechist to the negroes. 
While there he took part in the controversy 
on the subject of the American episcopacy, 
advocating its foundation in a pamphlet, and 
being a member of the voluntary convoca- 
tion which met 21 May 1766. In conjunc- 
tion with Sir William Johnson he actively 
assisted in evangelical work among the Mo- 
hawk Indians. The university of Oxford 
created him by diploma M.A. 6 April 1770, 
and D.D. 25 Feb. 1778 (FOSTER, Alumni 
Oxon. p. 728). In 1776, when Washington 
obtained possession of New York, Inglis, as a 
loyalist, retired to Long Island for a time, 
but Dr. Auchnutz died 4 March 1777, and I 
Inglis was chosen to succeed him in the bene- 
fice of Holy Trinity. The church had just 
been burnt down, and Inglis was inducted 
by Governor Tryon among the ruins. His 
loyalty to the English crown rendered him 
obnoxious to the new American government. 
His property was taken from him, and he 
appeared in the Act of Attainder of 1779. 
He resigned his living 1 Nov. 1783, and 
visited England. On 12 Aug. 1787 he was 
consecrated first bishop of Nova Scotia, thus 
becoming the first British colonial bishop ; 
he proceeded to his diocese, and in 1809 
was made a member of the council of Nova 
Scotia. He died at Halifax, Nova Scotia, in 
1816. Inglis married Margaret Crooke, daugh- 
ter of John Crooke of Ulster county, New 
York, and by her had two daughters and a 
son, John, who became in 1825 third bishop 
of Nova Scotia, died in London in 1850, and 
was the father of Sir John Eardley Wilmot 
Inglis [q. v.] Inglis published a few pam- 
phlets. 

[Sabine's Loyalists of the American Revolu- 
tion, i. 563-5 ; Notes and Queries, 1st ser. vi. 
151, 516, vii. 263, ix. 527, 2nd ser. 461, 4th 
ser. viii. 87 ; Magazine of American Hist. ii. 59 ; 
Nichols's Lit. Illustr. vii. 488; Perry's Hist, of 
the Amer. Episc. Ch. i. 242, &c., ii. 50 n. &c. ; 
Winsor's Hist, of Amer. vi. 270, 608 ; Ander- 
son's Hist, of the Colonial Church, i. 420, iii. 
435, 602-7, 716; Documentary Hist, of New 
York, vols. iii. and iv.] "W. A. J. A. 

INGLIS, HENRY DAVID (1795-1835), 
traveller and miscellaneous writer, the only 
son of a Scottish advocate, was born at Edin- 
burgh in 1795, and was educated for commer- 
cial life ; but he found work in an office un- 



Inglis 



congenial, turned to literature, and travelled 
abroad. Under the nom de guerre of Derwent 
Conway, he published his first work, ' Tales 
of the Ardennes,' 1825. It met with a favour- 
able reception, and there followed in quick 
succession ' Narrative of a Journey through 
Norway, part of Sweden, and the Islands and 
States of Denmark,' 1826, ' Solitary Walks 
through many Lands,' 1828, and ' A Tour 
through Switzerland and the South of 
France and the Pyrenees,' 1830 and 1831. 
For a short time before 1830 he edited a 
local newspaper at Chesterfield in Derby- 
shire, but soon relinquished it for further 
foreign travel. Of his j ourneys through Spain 
and the Tyrol in 1830 and following years, 
he published valuable accounts, 'Spain in 
1830' appearing in 1831, and 'The Tyrol, 
with a Glance at Bavaria,' in 1833. The 
former is his best work. In 1832 Inglis wrote 
a novel, in three volumes, entitled ' The New 
Gil Bias, or Pedro of Pennaflor,' 1832, de- 
lineating social life in Spain, but this effort, 
though not without merit, was a failure. 
In the same year he went to the Channel 
islands, and edited a Jersey newspaper, called 
' The British Critic,' for two years. He pub- 
lished in 1834 a description, in two volumes, 
of the Channel islands. Later, in 1834, he 
made a tour through Ireland, publishing an 
interesting and impartial account of his ob- 
servations under the title of 'Ireland in 1834.' 
The book attracted attention, was quoted as 
an authority by speakers in parliament in 
1835, and reached a fifth edition in 1838. 
Subsequently Inglis settled in London, and in 
1837 contributed to ' Colburn's New Monthly 
Magazine ' his last literary work, ' Rambles in 
the Footsteps of Don Quixote,' with illustra- 
tions by George Cruikshank. He died of 
disease of the brain, the result of overwork, 
at his residence in Bayham Terrace, Regent's 
Park, on Friday, 20 March 1835. All his 
books are agreeably written, and supply ser- 
viceable information. 

[Athenaeum, 28 March 1835 ; Chambers'sBiog. 
Diet, of Eminent Scotsmen, ii. 336 ; Gent. Mag. 
September 1835 ; Brit. Mus. Cat] W. C. S. 

INGLIS, HESTER (1571-1624), cali- 
grapher and miniaturist. [See KELLO.] 

INGLIS, JAMES (d. 1531), abbot of Cul- 
ross, was clerk of the closet to James IV in 
1511,when he received, according to the ' Trea- 
surer's Accounts,' his livery and the instalment 
of his annual salary of 40/. He seems to have 
had the confidence of the king, who thanks 
him in one of his letters (Epistolce Regum Sco- 
torum) for an offer of certain rare books on 
alchemy. He became chaplain to Prince 



Inglis 



3 



Inglis 



James (afterwards James V), to whom Sir 
David Lyndsay was usher, and in 1515 was 
secretary to Queen Margaret. lie was also 
entrusted with money for the purchase of 
clothes, &c., for the young prince and his 
brother. In 1515 Inglis was in England on 
the queen's business (cf. his letters in the 
Cottonian MSS.) Like Lyndsay, he had a 
share in providing dramatic entertainments 
for royalty, and in 1526 received money, ' be 
the king's precept,' to purchase stage apparel 
(cf. Treasury Records}. In 1527 he is de- 
scribed in a charter as chancellor of the Royal 
Chapel of Stirling, and in the same year was 
* master of werk,' at an annual salary of 40, 
superintending the erection of buildings for 
the king (cf. ib.*). About the same time he 
was appointed abbot of Culross. On 1 March 
1531, for a reason unknown, he was murdered 
by his neighbour, John Blacater, baron of Tul- 
liallan, and a priest named William Lothian. 
Summary vengeance followed on 28 Aug., 
when ' John Blacater of Tullyalloune and 
William Louthian (publicly degraded from 
his orders in the Kingis presence the preced- 
ing day), being convicted by an assize of art 
and part of the cruel slaughter of James In- 
glis, abbot of Culross, were beheaded ' (PiT- 
CAIEN, Criminal Trials, i. *151). 

Sir David Lyndsay, in stanza v. of the pro- 
logue to ' The Testament and Complaynt of 
our Soverane Lordis Papyngo,' regrets the 
repression of Inglis's poetic gift owing to his 
holding ecclesiastical preferment : 

Quho can say more than Schir James Inglis sayis, 
In ballattis, farses, and in plesand playis ? 
Bot Culrose hes his pen maid impotent. 

His writings are lost, although the Maitland 
MS. credits him with a vigorous onslaught 
on the clergy entitled ' A General Satyre,' 
which, however, the Bannatyne MS., with 
distinct plausibility, assigns to Dunbar. Mac- 
kenzie's rash assumption, in his ' Writers of 
the Scots Nation,' that Inglis wrote the 
' Complaynt of Scotland ' (which was not 
printed till 1549), has unnecessarily compli- 
cated the question regarding the authorship 
of that work. Another ecclesiastic named 
Inglis figures in the ' Treasurer's Accounts ' of 
1532 as singing ' for the kingis saule at Banak- 
burne/andif an Inglis wrote the* Complaynt,' 
this may have been the man. Robert Wed- 
derburn, however, is the most likely author 
(see LAING, Dunbar). 

[Lesley's De Rebus G-estis Scotorum ; Pinker- 
ton's Hist, of Scotland, vol. ii. ; Dunbar's Poems, 
ed. Laing, ii. 390, and Laing's preface to The 
Gude and Godlie Ballates ; Chambers's Eminent 
Scotsmen ; Irving's Hist, of Scotish Poetry.] 

T.B. 



INGLIS, JOHN, D.D. (1763-1834), Scot- 
tish divine, born in 1763, was the youngest son 
of Harry Inglis, M.A., minister of Forteviot, 
Perthshire. He graduated at the university of 
Edinburgh, studying divinity under the Rev. 
Dr. Hunter, and completed a distinguished 
academical course in 1783. He was ordained 
as minister of Tibbermore, Perthshire, on 
20 July 1786. He took an active share in 
presbyterial administration, and early showed 
his ability as an ecclesiastical politician. On 
3 July 1799 he was presented by the town 
council of Edinburgh to the Old Greyfriars 
Church as proximate successor to Principal 
Robertson the historian. The degree of doctor 
of divinity was conferred upon him by the 
university of Edinburgh in March 1 804, and he 
presided as moderator of the general assembly 
held in that year. He was appointed one of 
the deans of the Chapel Royal by George III 
in February 1810, and was continued in the 
office by William IV. He died on 2 Jan. 1834. 
Inglis married, in 1798, Maria Moxham Pass- 
more, daughter of Abraham Passmore, of 
Rollefarm, Devonshire, and had four sons and 
one daughter. The youngest son, John, who 
became lord justice-general of Scotland, is 
separately noticed. 

Inglis's name is principally associated with 
his scheme for the evangelisation of India. 
Through his efforts a committee was ap- 
pointed for this purpose by the general as- 
sembly on 27 May 1824, and it was largely 
owing to his perseverance, tact, and energy 
that the scheme was successfully carried out. 
As a preacher he was too profound and argu- 
mentative to catch the popular ear, and his 
influence was greater in the church, courts 
than in the pulpit. His principal wotka, all 
published in Edinburgh, were, besides four 
single sermons, 1803-26: 1. 'An. Exami- 
nation of Mr. Dugald Stewart's Pamphlet 
relative to the election of a Mathematical 
Professor,' 1805. 2. ' Reply to Professor Play- 
fair's Letter to the Author,' 1806. 3. 'A 
Vindication of Christian Faith,' 1830. 4. ' A 
Vindication of Ecclesiastical Establishments,' 
1833. 5. Account of Tibbermore in Sinclair's 
' Statistical Account.' 

A portrait is in the National Portrait Gal- 
lery of Scotland. 

[Hew Scott's Fasti, i. 44, iv. 668; Cockburn's 
Memoirs, p. 232.] A. H. M. 

INGLIS, JOHN, LORD Gi,ENCOE8E(1810- 
1891), lord justice-general of Scotland, 
youngest son not eldest, as sometimes 
stated of John Inglis [q. v.], minister of 
Tibbermore, Perthshire, by Maria Moxham 
Passmore, was born in his father's house in 
George Square, Edinburgh, on 21 Aug. 1810. 

B2 



Inglis 

After attending the high school of Edinburgh 
and the university of Glasgow, he entered 
Balliol College, Oxford, where he graduated 
B.A. in 1834 and M.A. in 1836. He was 
admitted a member of the Faculty of Advo- 
cates, Edinburgh, in 1835, and soon acquired 
a reputation as an eloquent and skilful pleader. 
As an advocate his most famous achievement 
was his brilliant defence in 1857 of Madeline 
Smith, accused of poisoning. The jury re- 
turned a verdict of not proven. 

In politics Inglis was a conservative, and 
on the accession of Lord Derby to power in 
February 1852 he was made solicitor-general 
of Scotland, this office being, after the general 
election three months later, exchanged for that 
of lord advocate. He resigned his post on the 
defeat of Lord Derby's government in No- 
vember, and was elected immediately after- 
wards dean of the Faculty of Advocates. On 
the return of Lord Derby to power in 1858, he 
again became lord advocate, and on 3 March 
was returned to the House of Commons as 
member for Stamford, but his political career 
was brought to a close on 13 July of the same 
year, when he was raised to the bench as lord 
justice-clerk and president of the second divi- 
sion of the court of session. The only im- 
portant piece of legislation associated with his 
name is the Universities of Scotland Act of 
1858. Though founded on a bill drafted by his 
predecessor in office, it was rendered, by the 
introduction of material modifications, prac- 
tically a new measure. It met with general 
approbation, and his services both in preparing 
it and guiding it through the House of Com- 
mons were acknowledged by his election to the 
permanent chairmanship of the commission 
appointed by the act, and the conferment on 
him in December 1858 of the degree of doctor 
of laws by the university of Edinburgh. In 
1859 he was also created a D.C.L. by the uni- 
versity of Oxford. In the same year he was 
sworn a member of the privy council. 

On the death of Lord Colonsay [see MAC- 
NEILL, DTJNCAN], Inglis was on 26 Feb. 1867 
installed lord justice-general of Scotland, and 
lord president of the court of session, taking 
the title of Lord Glencorse. Except Lord 
Stair, no Scottish judge has ranked so high as 
a jurist. As an exponent of law he owed 
much to his severe conscientiousness and im- 
partiality, and to his reverence for Scottish 
jurisprudence as an independent national 
system. But his chief strength as a judge 
lay rather in a ' certain beneficent sagacity, 
a luminousness of mind, a humanity of in- 
telligence, which might almost be regarded 
as unique ' (Scots Observer, 19 July 1890). 
He was uniformly patient, courteous, and 

1 / t 

dignified. 



Inglis 



Outside his judicial duties Inglis did much 
useful work. He was an active member of 
the board of manufactures, and, besides ren- 
dering important services to higher educa- 
tion in Scotland as permanent chairman of 
the university commission appointed in 1858, 
he was a governor of Fettes College, Edin- 
burgh ; was in 1857 chosen lord rector of 
King's College, Aberdeen, and in 1865 of 
the university of Glasgow; and as chancellor 
of the university of Edinburgh, to which, in 
opposition to Mr. Gladstone, he was elected 
in 1869, took a practical share in the admi- 
nistrationof university affairs. His inaugural 
addresses at Aberdeen, Glasgow, and Edin- 
burgh (1869) were published separately. He 
was president of the Scottish Text Society, and 
of his antiquarian tastes he gave incidental 
evidence in 1877 in a privately printed paper 
on the name of his parish, Glencorse, which 
was identical with the name of his own 
estate. The paper was written in protest 
against a proposal officially to change the 
name to Glencross. A valuable and succinct 
paper on ' Montrose and the Covenanters of 
1638,' was published in ' Blackwood's Maga- 
zine ' for November 1887. Its chief aim is to 
vindicate the character of Montrose. Inglis's 
'Historical Study of Law, an Address to the 
Juridical Society,' appeared at Edinburgh in 
1863. 

Inglis was a keen golfer, and was once 
elected to the annual honorary captaincy of 
the golf club of St. Andrews. On his estate 
of Glencorse he took a special interest in the 
cultivation of trees. Though latterly some- 
what broken in bodily health, he continued in 
office to the close of his life. He died, after 
a few days of prostration, at his residence of 
Loganbank, Midlothian, on 20 Aug. 1891, 
just before completing his eighty-first year. 
By his wife Isabella Mary, daughter of the 
Hon. Lord Wood, a judge of the court of 
session, he left two sons, A. W. Inglis, secre- 
tary to the board of manufactures, and 
H. Herbert Inglis, writer to the signet. 

The original portraits of Inglis are a chalk 
drawing by John Faed, R.S.A., in possession 
of A. W. Inglis, esq., engraved by Francis 
Holl, about 1852 ; a full-length portrait by Sir 
John "Watson Gordon, P.R.S.A., 1854, now 
in the university of Edinburgh ; a Kit-Cat 
portrait in his justiciary robes as lord jus- 
tice-clerk, by Sir Francis Grant, P.R.A., in 
possession of A. W. Inglis, esq. ; bust in 
marble by William Brodie, R.S. A., engraved 
privately for James Hay, esq., Leith, now in 
the hall of the Parliament House, Edin- 
burgh; portrait, in a group representing a 
family shooting-party, by Gourlay Steell, 
U.S.A., 1867, in possession of A. W. Inglis, 



Inglis 



esq. ; half-length portrait, in robes of chan- 
cellor of the university of Edinburgh, by Sir 
Daniel McNee, afterwards P.R.S.A., 1872, 
now in the dining-hall of Fettes College, 
Edinburgh ; full-length portrait, in robes 
of lord justice-general, by George Reid, 
P.R.S.A., now in the hall of the Parliament 
House, Edinburgh ; and water-colour sketch 
in the possession of J. Irvine Smith, esq., 
Great King Street, Edinburgh, taken in 1890 
by W. Skeoch Cumming, for his picture of 
the interior of the first division of the court 
of session. 

[Obituary notices in Scotsman and other 
daily papers of 21 Aug. 1891 ; Scots Observer, 
19 July 1890 'Modern Men ' series; National 
Observer, 29 Aug. 1891 ; Journal of Jurispru- 
dence for September 1891 ; Blackwood's Maga- 
zine for October 1891 ; information kindly sup- 
plied by A. W. Inglis, esq.] T. F. H. 

INGLIS, SIR JOHN EARDLEY WIL- 

MOT (1814-1862), defender of Lucknow, 
born in Nova Scotia 15 Nov. 1814, was sou 
of John Inglis, D.D., third bishop of Nova 
Scotia, and his wife, the daughter of Thomas 
Cochrane, member of the council of Nova 
Scotia. Charles Inglis, D.D. [q.v.],first bishop 
of that colony, was his grandtather. On 2 Aug. 
1833 he was appointed ensign by purchase 
in the 32nd foot (now 1st Cornwall light in- 
fantry), in which all his regimental service 
was passed. He became lieutenant in 1839, 
captain in 1843, major in 1848, brevet lieu- 
tenant-colonel in 1849, regimental lieutenant- 
colonel 20 Feb. 1855, brevet-colonel 5 June 
1855. He served with the 32nd during the 
insurrection in Canada in 1837, including the 
actions at St. Denis and St. Eustache; in the 
Punjab war of 1848-9, including the first and 
second sieges of Mooltan, and in the attack 
on the enemy's position in front of the ad- 
vanced trenches 12 Sept. 1848, succeeding to 
the command of the right column of attack 
on the death of Lieutenant-colonel D. Pat- 
toun. He commanded the 32nd at Soorj- 
khoond, and was present at the storm and 
capture of Mooltan, the action at Cheniote, 
and the battle of Goojerat (brevet of lieu- 
tenant-colonel and medal and clasps). 

Inglis was in command of the 32nd, lately 
arrived from the hills, at Lucknow on the 
outbreak of the mutiny in 1857. He was 
second in command under Sir Henry Law- 
rence [q. v.] in the affair at Chinhut, 30 June 
1857 (see MALLESON, iii. 276-388), and after- 
wards in the residency at Lucknow, whither 
the garrison, numbering 927 European officers 
and soldiers and 765 loyal native soldiers, 
withdrew on 1 July. When Lawrence was 
mortally wounded on 2 July, Inglis succeeded 
to the command, at Lawrence's wish, and 



; Inglis 

defended the place until the arrival of Sir 
Henry Havelock, 26 Sept. 1857, and remained 
there until the arrival of Sir Colin Campbell 
on 18 Nov. (medal). Inglis was wounded 
during the defence, but was not included in 
the casualty returns. He was promoted to 
major-general from 26 Sept. 1857, and made 
K.C.B. ' for his enduring fortitude and perse- 
vering gallantry in the defence of the resi- 
dency of Lucknow for 87 days against an 
overwhelming force of the enemy ; ' and the 
legislature of his native colony presented him 
with a sword of honour, the blade formed of 
steel from Nova Scotian iron. He commanded 
a brigade in the attack on Tantia Topee, 
6 Dec. 1857 (ib. iv. 188). He was appointed 
colonel 32nd light infantry 5 May 1860, and 
soon after was given the command of the 
troops in the Ionian islands. Inglis died at 
Hamburg 27 Sept. 1862, aged 47. He was, 
wrote a contemporary, ' entitled to admira- 
tion for his unassuming demeanour, friendly 
warmth of heart, and sincere desire to help 
by all means in his power every one with 
whom he came in contact ' ( United Service 
Mag. November 1862, p. 421). Inglis mar- 
ried in 1851 the Hon. Julia Selina Thesiger, 
daughter of the first Lord Chelmsford, who, 
with her three children, was present in the 
Lucknow residency throughout the defence. 

[Dod's Knightage ; Hart's Army Lists. For 
particulars of the operations in Canada in 1837 
see Henry's Events of a Military Life, London, 
1843, ii. 275-311. For accounts of Punjab war 
see despatches in London Gazettes, 1848-9. For 
particulars of the defence of the Lucknow re- 
sidency, see Malleson's Indian Mutiny (ed. 1888- 
1889), vols. iii. iv. ; Quarterly Keview, ciii. 505 
et seq., and personal narratives there noticed; 
Professional Papers, Corps of Eoyal Engineers, 
vol. x. ; obituary notices in Colburn's United Ser- 
vice Mag. November 1862.] H. M. C. 

INGLIS, MES. MARGARET MAX- 
WELL (1774-1843), Scottish poetess, born 
on 27 Oct. 1774 at Sanquhar, Dumfriesshire, 
was daughter of Dr. Alexander Murray. Her 
decided literary and musical gifts were de- 
veloped by a good education. When very 
young she was married to a Mr. Finlay, who 
was in the navy, and who soon died in the 
W T est Indies. After some vears at home 
with her relatives, Mrs. Finlay, in 1803, be- 
came the wife of John Inglis, son of the 
parish minister of Kirkmabreck in East Gal- 
loway, and an officer in the excise. On his 
death in 1826, his widow and three children 
had to depend solely on a small annuity de- 
volving from his office. Mrs. Inglis now 
studied hard, and wrote much, publishing in 
1828 ' Miscellaneous Collection of Poems, 
chiefly Scriptural Pieces.' These are gene- 



Inglis 



Inglis 



rally spirited and graceful in expression. One 
of the lyrics is a memorial tribute to James 
Hogg, the Ettrick Shepherd, whose manner 
Mrs. Inglis frequently followed with consi- 
derable success. She died in Edinburgh on 
21 Dec. 1843. According to Rogers, Burns 
commended her for her exquisite rendering 
of his songs, especially ' Ca' the yowes to the 
knowes.' 

[Rogers's Scottish Minstrel ; Wilson's Poets 
and Poetry of Scotland.] T. B. 

INGLIS, SIR ROBERT HARRY (1786- 
1855), politician, born in London on 12 Jan. 
1786, was only son of Sir Hugh Inglis, bart., 
for many years a director of the East India 
Company, and sometime M.P. for Ashburton, 
by his first wife, Catherine, daughter and co- 
heiress of Harry Johnson of Milton Bryant, 
Bedfordshire. He was educated at Win- 
chester and at Christ Church, Oxford, where 
he matriculated 21 Oct. 1803, and graduated 
B. A. 1806, M. A. 1809, and was created D.C.L. 
7 June 1826. He was admitted a student 
of Lincoln's Inn on 17 July 1806, and acted 
for some time as private secretary to Lord 
Sidmouth, an old friend of his father (PEL- 
LEW, Life of Lord Sidmouth, 1847, iii. 108). 
In 1814 he was appointed one of the com- 
missioners for investigating the debts of the 
nabobs of the Carnatic, an office which he 
retained to the final close of the commission 
in March 1830. He was called to the bar 
on 8 June 1818, but did not attempt to prac- 
tise, and on 21 Aug. 1820 succeeded his father 
as the second baronet. On the occasion of 
the coronation of George IV it is said that 
he was deputed to meet Queen Caroline at 
the abbey door in order to intimate to her 
that the government had determined to re- 
fuse her admission (Christian Observer, Ixv. 
526). At a by-election in May 1824 Inglis 
was returned to parliament in the tory in- 
terest for the borough of Dundalk. In "May 
1825 he strenuously protested against the 
third reading of the Roman Catholic Relief 
Bill, denying that the Roman catholics had 
either under the treaty of Limerick or under 
the articles of the union any claim whatever 
to relief (Par/. Debates, new ser. xiii. 489- 
504). At the opening of the new parliament 
in November 1826 Inglis was without a seat 
in the House of Commons, but was returned 
for Ripon at a by-election in February 1828. 
In the same month he opposed Lord John 
Russell's motion for the repeal of the Test 
and Corporation Acts (ib. xviii. 710-15), 
and in the following May again protested at 
length against any concession to the Roman 
catholic claims (ib. xix. 417-527). In Fe- 
bruary 1829 he accepted the Chiltern Hun- 



dreds to contest the representation of Oxford 
University against Sir Robert Peel, who had 
resigned his seat on changing his opinions 
on the Roman catholic question, in order 
that his constituents might express an opinion 
on his policy. Inglis defeated Peel by 755 
votes to 609, and continued thenceforth to 
represent the university until he retired from 
parliamentary life. On 30 March 1829 he 
both spoke and voted against the third read- 
ing of the Roman Catholic Relief Bill (ib. 
xx. 1596-1609, 1637), and on 1 March 1831 
made a learned and elaborate speech against 
! the ministerial plan of parliamentary reform 
| (ib. 3rd ser. ii. 1090-1128). On 12 March 
j 1831 Inglis was appointed a commissioner 
on the public records (Parl. Papers, 1837, 
vol. xxxiv. pt. i.), and with Hallani made a 
! minute examination of all the principal de- 
positories of records, making a full report to 
the board on the subject, which was printed 
! in April 1833. In May 1832, when the Duke- 
of Wellington made an abortive attempt to 
form a ministry for the purpose of carrying- 
! a moderate reform bill, Inglis warmly de- 
j nounced any compromise of the kind (Parl. 
' Hist. 3rd ser. xii. 944-8). In February 1833 
he protested against Lord Althorp's bill for 
the reform of the Irish church (ib. xv. 578- 
585), and in April 1834 opposed the intro- 
duction of Grant's Jewish Relief Bill (ib. 
xxii. 1373) [see GRAXT, SIR ROBERT]. On 
the presentation of the ' Report of the Eccle- 
siastical Commissioners for England and 
Wales' in March 1836, Inglis announced his 
opposition to the reduction of the episcopal 
revenues (ib. xxxii. 162-3). In May 1838- 
he carried an address condemning the foreign 
slave-trade (ib. xlii. 1122-37). In April 1842 r 
when the income-tax was under discussion, 
Inglis suggested that not only incomes under 
ISO/, should be exempted, but that that 
amount should be deducted from all incomes 
of a higher value (ib. Ixii. 126-8). In 1845 
he led the opposition to the Maynooth grant, 
and branded the proposed establishment of 
queen's colleges in Ireland ' as a gigantic 
scheme of godless education ' (ib. Ixxx. 378). 
In the following year he opposed the repeal 
of the corn laws, and in August 1847 was 
returned at the head of the poll for the uni- 
versity as a protectionist. In 1851 he sup- 
ported Lord John Russell's Ecclesiastical 
Titles Assumption Bill, though in his opinion 
it was not stringent enough. Inglis retired 
from parliament at the opening of the session 
in January 1854, and was sworn a member 
of the privy council on 11 Aug. following. 
He died at his house in Bedford Square on 
5 May 1855, aged 69. 

Inglis was an old-fashioned tory, a strong 



Inglis 



churchman, with many prejudices and of no 
great ability. He, however, accurately re- 
presented the feelings and opinions of the 
country gentleman of the time, and his genial 
manner and high character enabled him to 
exercise a considerable influence over the 
House of Commons, where he was exceed- 
ingly popular. He was a frequent speaker 
in the debates. He supported Lord Ashley 
in his attempts to amend the factory system. 
He also took an active part in many learned 
and religious societies. He was elected a fel- 
low of the Society of Antiquaries on 22 Feb. 
1816, and was for several years one of the 
vice-presidents. He was also president of 
the Literary Club and a fellow of the Royal 
Society, and in 1850 was elected the anti- 
quary of the Royal Academy. He mar- 
ried, on 10 Feb. 1807, Mary, eldest daughter 
of Joseph Seymour Biscoe of Pendhill Court, 
Bletchingley, Surrey, who survived him many 
years. 

In default of issue the baronetcy became 
extinct upon his death. His portrait, by 
George Richmond, R.A., was exhibited at 
the Royal Academy in 1855. A verse task 
of Inglis at Winchester on ' the influence of 
local attachment' is preserved among the Ad- 
ditional MSS. in the British Museum (29539, 
ff. 15-16). The authorship of the ' Sketch of 
the Life of Sir Hugh Inglis, Bart.' (London, 
1821, 8vo, privately printed),is ascribed in the 
' Grenville Catalogue ' to his son. There does 
not, however, appear to be any authority for 
this, and the pamphlet is identical with the 
obituary notice given in the fifth volume of 
the 'Annual Biography and Obituary ' (1821, 
pp. 320-8). 

Inglis published the following works : 
1. ' Speech ... in the House of Commons 
on the Third Reading of the -Roman Catholic 
Relief Bill,' &c., London, 1825, 8vo. 2. ' On 
the Roman Catholic Question. Substances 
of two Speeches delivered in the House of 
Commons on 10 May 1825 and 9 May 1828. 
[With an appendix],' London and Oxford, 
1828, 8vo. 3. ' Reform. Substance of the 
Speech delivered in the House of Commons, 
1 March 1831, on the Motion of Lord John 
Russell for a Reform in the Representation,' 
London, 1831, 8vo. 4. ' Parliamentary Re- 
form. Substance of the Speech delivered in 
the House of Commons 17 Dec. 1831,' &c., 
London, 1832, 8vo. 5. 'The Universities 
and the Dissenters. Substance of a Speech 
delivered in the House of Commons . . . 
26 March 1834 ... in reference to a Peti- 
tion from certain Members of the Senate of 
the University of Cambridge,' London, 1834, 
8vo. 6. 'Family Prayers. [By Henry Thorn- 
ton, edited by R. H. I.],' London, 1834, 8vo ; 



Inglis 

15th edition, London, 1843, 8vo ; 26th edi- 
tion, London, 1851, 8vo ; 31st edition, Lon- 
don, 1854, 8vo. 7. 'Family Commentary 
upon the Sermon on the Mount. [By H. 
Thornton, edited by R. H. I.],' London, 1835, 
8vo. 8. 'Family Commentary on portions 
of the Pentateuch ; in Lectures, with Prayers 
adapted to the Subjects. [By Henry Thorn- 
ton, edited by R. H. I.],' London, 1837, 8vo. 
9. ' Sermons on the Lessons, the Gospel, or 
the Epistle, for every Sunday in the Year. 
(Vol. iii., Sermons ... for Week-day Fes- 
tivals and other Occasions.) [By Reginald 
Heber, Bishop of Calcutta, edited by Inglis],' 
London, 1837, 8vo, 3 vols. ; 3rd edition, Lon- 
don, 1838, 8vo, 2 vols. 10. ' Church Exten- 
sion. Substance of a Speech delivered in 
the House of Commons ... 30 June 1840,' 
London, 1840, 8vo. 11. ' Ecclesiastical Courts 
Bill. Subject of a Speech delivered in the 
House of Commons ... 10 April 1843,' 
London, 1843, 8vo. 12. ' On the Ten Com- 
mandments: Lectures [with the text] by 
. . . H. Thornton . . . with Prayers by 
the Editor (R. H. I.),' London, 1843, 8vo. 
13. ' Female Characters. [By Henry Thorn- 
ton, with a preface by Inglis],' London, 1846, 
8vo. 14. ' The Jew Bill. Substance of a 
Speech delivered in the House of Commons 
16 Dec. 1847,' London, 1848, 8vo. 15. ' The 
Universities. Substance of a Speech . . . 
in the House of Commons ... 23 April 
1850,' London, 1850, 8vo. 16. ' Parochial 
Schools of Scotland. Substance of a Speech 
delivered in the House of Commons 4 June 
1851,' London, 1851, 8vo. 17. ' Universities ; 
Scotland. Substance of a Speech delivered 
in the House of Commons . . . against the 
Second Reading of the Bill to regulate the 
Admission of Professors to the Lay Chairs 
in the Universities of Scotland,' London, 
1853, 8vo. 

[Fraser's Mag. 1846, xxxiv. 648-53; Christian 
Observer, 1865, Ixv. 521-7, 610-19; Random Ee- 
collections of the House of Commons, 1836, pp. 
127-30; Eyall's Portraits of Eminent Conserva- 
tives, Istser. (with portrait) ; Illustrated London 
News, 21 Jan. 1854 (with portrait), 12 May 1855 ; 
Times, 7 May 1855 ; Walpole's Hist, of England 
from 1815, vols. ii-v. ; Ann. Eeg. 1855, App. to 
Chron. pp. 272-3; Gent. Mag. 1855, new ser. 
xliii. 640-1; Burke's Peerage, &c., 1857, p. 500 b; 
Foster's Alumni Oxon. 1885, ii. 728 ; Official Ee- 
turn of Lists of Members of Parliament, pt. ii. 
pp. 298, 305, 309, 319, 332, 344, 355, 369, 385, 
403, 420 ; Brit. Mus. Cat.] G. F. E. B. 

INGLIS, SIB WILLIAM (1764-1835), 
general, born in 1764, was the third son of 
William Inglis, M.D. His father was three 
times president of the College of Surgeons, 
Edinburgh, and descended from the Inglis 



Inglis 



8 



Inglis 



family of Manner and Mannerhead, Rox- 
burghshire. The son was appointed on 11 Oct. 
1779 ensign in the 57th regiment, which he 
joined at New York in 1781 ; he continued to 
serve in America till 1791. In 1793 he ac- 
companied the expedition to Flanders, and 
afterwards that to Normandy and Brittany. 
He returned to Flanders, was present in 
Nimeguen during the siege, and took part in 
the retreat through Holland and Westphalia 
in the winter of 1 794-5. In 1796, having at- 
tained the rank of major, he commanded a 
detachment of the 57th at the siege and fall 
of Morne Fortune, St. Lucia, and the capture 
of the island, and received the special thanks 
of Sir John Moore, to whom, until the arrival 
of the headquarters of the regiment, he was 
second in command. After assisting in the 
reduction of the insurgent force at Grenada, 
be in 1797 accompanied his regiment to Tri- 
nidad, whence he returned to England in the 
latter end of 1802. Having obtained the 
brevet rank of lieutenant-colonel, he was in 
1803 employed informing a second battalion 
of the regiment. This done, he rejoined the 
first battalion, succeeded to its command in 
1805, accompanied it in the November of 
that year to Gibraltar, and in 1809 embarked 
with it to join the army under Sir Arthur 
"Wellesley in the Peninsula. The 57th was 
attached to the brigade commanded by Major- 
general Richard Stewart, which formed part 
of General Hill's division ; but, in conse- 
quence of General Stewart's illness, the bri- 
gade command devolved on Inglis at Sarce- 
dos, and he continued to hold the command 
during the movements previous to the battle 
of Busaco, at that battle (September 1810), and 
in the subsequent retreat to the lines before 
Lisbon. During the pursuit of Massena from 
Santarem Inglis again commanded the bri- 
gade, and took part in the affair at Pombal. 
After being present at Campo Mayor, Los 
Santos, and the first siege of Badajoz, Inglis 
commanded the 57th at the battle of Al- 
buera (May 1811), where the brigade was 
under the command of General Houghton, 
till the death of that officer again placed In- 
glis in brigade command. 

At Albuera the 57th occupied a position I 
as important as it was deadly. ' Die hard ! ! 
57th,' said Inglis, ' die hard ! ' They obeyed, 
and the regiment is known as the 'Die-hards ' 
to this day. Inglis, besides having a horse 
shot under him, received a four-ounce grape- 
shot in the neck, which, after he had carried 
it about with him for two days, was extracted 
from behind his shoulder. Twenty-three offi- 
cers and 415 rank and file, out of 579, were 
among the killed and wounded ; not a man 
was missing. ' It was observed,' wrote Mar- 



shal Beresford, ' that our dead, particularly 
the 57th, were lying as they fought, in ranks, 
and every wound was in front.' ' Nothing,' 
he added, ' could exceed the conduct and 
gallantry of Colonel Inglis at the head of his 
regiment.' When the 57th was engaged at 
Inkerman on 5 Nov. 1854, ' Men, remember 
Albuera ! ' were the words of encouragement 
used by the officer in command, Captain Ed- 
ward Stanley, just before he fell, and it de- 
volved on Inglis's elder son, Captain William 
Inglis, to lead the regiment out of action 
(KiNGLAKE, Hist, of Crimean War). 

Inglis was sent home after Albuera to re- 
cover from his wound, but he soon returned 
to the Peninsula, and when able to take the 
field was appointed brigadier-general to com- 
mand the first brigade of the seventh divi- 
sion, consisting of the 51st and 68th regi- 
ments of light infantry, the first battalion of 
the 82nd, and the Chasseurs Britanniques. 
The division was commanded by Lieutenant- 

feneral the Earl of Dalhousie. In June 1813, 
nglis, who had been made a major-general, 
marched with his brigade from St. Estevan, 
and on 8 July gained the top of the range of 
mountains immediately above Maya, over- 
looking the flat country of France, and occu- 
pying the passes of Maya and Echallar. On 
25 July, the French having succeeded in 
turning the British right, that flank was 
thrown back, and retired in the direction of 
Pamplona, in the neighbourhood of which 
town a series of engagements took place. It 
was on 30 July, during the engagement 
known as the second battle of Sauroren, that 
Inglis was ordered to possess himself of the 
crest of a high mountain occupied by the 
enemy, commanding the high road which 
passed between that position and their main 
body. ' General Inglis,' writes Napier, ' one 
of those veterans who purchase every step 
of promotion with their blood, advancing on 
the left with only five hundred men of the 
seventh division, broke at one shock the two 
French regiments covering Chauzel's right, 
and drove down into the valley of Lanz. He 
lost, indeed, one-third of his own men, but, 
instantly spreading the remainder in skirmish- 
ing order along the descent, opened a biting 
fire upon the left of Conroux's division, which 
was then moving up the valley from Sau- 
roren, sorely amazed and disordered by this 
sudden fall of two regiments from the top of 
the mountain into the midst of the column.' 
Wellington, in his despatch, gives the highest 
credit to the conduct and execution 01 this 
attack. The strength of the enemy, accord- 
ing to their own computation, exceeded two 
thousand men, while, from the occupation of 
a part of his brigade elsewhere, the force 



Inglott 



Ingoldsby 



which Inglis could employ is placed by one 
estimate as low as 445 bayonets. The casual- 
ties in this small force amounted to 145. 
Inglis had a horse shot under him. The 
brigade was further engaged in the actions 
of the following days. On 31 Aug. 1813, the 
day on which San Sebastian was taken, In- 
glis's brigade took an active part in the com- 
bat of Vera, having been ordered to support 
the 9th Portuguese brigade in Sir Lowry 
Cole's division. The fight was a severe one. 
Inglis again had a horse shot under him. 
Lord Dalhousie, in referring Wellington for 
details of the operations to Inglis's report, re- 
marked : ' The 1st brigade had to sustain the 
attack of two divisions of the enemy on a 
strong and wooded hill ; the loss there was 
unavoidable.' On 10 Nov. the seventh divi- 
sion marched to the embouchure of the Puerto 
d'Echallar, and Inglis's 1st brigade, after 
carry ing the fortified heights above the village 
of Sure, received orders from Marshal Beres- 
ford to cross the Nivelle by a wooden bridge 
on the left and attack the heights above. The 
heights were carried after a severe struggle. 
On 23 Feb. 1814 the brigade was again en- 
gaged with the enemy near the village of 
Airgave. On the 27th it had a considerable 
share in the battle of Orthez. The general's 
horse was struck. 

For these services Inglis, with other gene- 
ral officers, received the thanks of both houses 
of parliament. In 1825 he became a lieu- 
tenant-general. He was created a knight 
commander of the Bath, appointed lieutenant- 
governor of Kinsale, and subsequently gover- 
nor of Cork (January 1829). Finally, on 
16 April 1830, he was appointed colonel of 
the 57th. He died at Ramsgate on 29 Nov. 
1835, and was buried in Canterbury Cathe- 
dral. 

Inglis married in 1822 Margaret Mary 
Anne, eldest daughter of Lieutenant-general 
William Raymond of the Lee, Essex, and 
had two sons, the General William Inglis 
mentioned above (1823-1888), and Major 
Raymond Inglis (1826-1880). 

[Napier's Peninsular War; Wellington Des- 
patches ; United Service Journal, February 1836 ; 
Philippart's Koyal Mil. Cal.] W. E. LL. 

INGLOTT, WILLIAM (1554-1621), mu- 
sician, was born in 1554, and became organist 
of Norwich Cathedral. He was noted for 
his skill as a player on the organ and vir- 
ginals. His name appears as a composer in 
the manuscript volume (Fitzwilliam Museum, 
Cambridge) known as ' Queen Elizabeth's 
Virginal Book,' but none of his works are 
now known. He died at Norwich in De- 
cember 1621, and was buried in the cathe- 



dral, where a monument was erected to his 
memory in 1622. About ninety years after- 
wards the monument, having fallen into dis- 
repair, was restored at the expense of Dr. 
William Croft [q. v.] An engraving of it as 
restored may be seen in the 'Posthumous 
Works of Sir Thomas Browne,' 1712, and the 
eulogistic inscription is printed by Hawkins. 

[Hawkins's Hist, of Music, v. 22, 23 ; Grove's 
Diet, of Music, ii. 3.] J. C. H. 

INGMETHORPE, THOMAS (1562- 
1638), schoolmaster, born in 1562, was a 
native of Worcestershire. He matriculated 
at Brasenose College, Oxford, in the end of 
May 1581, graduated B.A. from St. Mary 
Hall in 1584, and proceeded M. A. from Brase- 
nose in 1586 (Oaf. Univ. J?e?.,Oxf. Hist. Soc., 
ii. iii. 119). In 1594 he received the living of 
Stainton-in-Strata, Durham, and about 1610 
was also head-master of Durham School. But 
he was ultimately deprived of his mastership 
for ' a reflecting sermon ' against Ralph Ton- 
stall, prebendary of Durham Cathedral, and 
retired to Stainton, where he taught a few 
boys. Wood speaks of him as a famous school- 
master, and eminent in the Hebrew iongue. 
He held the living of Stainton till his death 
in November 1638, and was buried there. He 
published several sermons, of which three are 
in the Bodleian Library. 1. ' Upon Part 
(w. 3-6) of the 2nd chapter of the 1st Epistle 
of St. John,' Oxford, 1598, 8vo. 2. Upon 
the same chapter (vv. 21-3), wherein the 
present state of the Papacie is in parte but 
impartially represented, and showed to be 
. . . plaine Anti-christian,' London, 1609, 4to. 
3. ' Upon the Wordes of St. Paul, Rom. xiii. 1 
. . . wherein the Pope's Sovereignitie over 
Princes is refuted,' London, 1619, 4to. Be- 
sides these sermons Wood mentions ' A Short 
Catechism for Young Children to learn by 
Law authorized,' London, 1633 > 8vo, and 
there is in the British Museum Library ' A 
short Catechism . . . Translated into He- 
brew by T. I.,' 1633, 8vo. 

[Wood's Athenae (Bliss), iv. 592 ; Surtees's 
Durham, iii. 64.] E. T. B. 



INGOLDSBY, SIR RICHARD (rf. 
regicide, was the second son of Sir Richard 
Ir-goldsby of Lenthenborough, Buckingham- 
shire, by Elizabeth, daughter of Sir Oliver 1O /,, . 
Cromwell of Hinchinbrook, Huntingdon- 
shire. He was educated at Thame grammar 
school (CKOKE, History of the Family of 
Croke, 1823, p. 616; WOOD, Fasti, sub ann. 
1649). At the outbreak of the civil war he 
held a captain's commission in Hampden's 
regiment, and in 1645 was colonel of a regi- 
ment of foot in the ' New Model ' (PEACOCK, 



Ingoldsby 



10 



Army Lists, pp. 46, 105). He was detached 
by Fairfax in May 1645 to relieve Taunton, 
and was therefore not present at Naseby, but 
took part in the storming of Bridgwater and 
Bristol, and in Fairfax's campaign in the west 
(SPRIGGE, Anglia Rediviva, ed. 1854, pp. 19, 
77, 107, 120). In the quarrel between the 
parliament and the army in 1647 Ingoldsby, 
whose regiment garrisoned Oxford, took part 
with the army. The regiment was ordered 
to be disbanded at two o'clock on 14 June 
1647, and 3,500/. sent to pay it off. The 
money was recalled by a subsequent vote, 
but had already reached Oxford, and was 
forcibly seized by the soldiers, who attacked 
and routed its escort (WooD, Annals, ii. 508 ;' 
RTTSHWORTH, vi. 493, 499). The regiment 
was also one of the first to petition against 
the treaty at Newport, and to demand the 
punishment of the king (ib. vii. 1311 ; The 
Moderate, 31 Oct.-7 Nov. 1648). Ingoldsby 
himself was appointed one of the king's 
judges, and signed the death-warrant, but 
does not appear to have been present at any 
of the previous sittings of the court (NALSON, 
Trial of Charles I, 1684). At the Restora- 
tion he asserted that his signature had been 
extorted by force, ' Cromwell taking his hand 
in his and, putting the pen between his fingers, 
with his own hand writ Richard Ingoldsby, 
he making all the resistance he could ' (CLA- 
RENDON, Rebellion, xvi. 225). But the name 
is remarkably clearly written, shows no sign 
of any constraint, and is attested by In- 
goldsby's family seal. 

Ingoldsby's regiment, which was deeply 
imbued with the principles of the levellers, 
broke out into mutiny in September 1649, 
made New College their headquarters, and 
confined their colonel in one of the Oxford 
inns; but he was released by the courage 
of Captain Wagstaffe, with whose aid he 
quickly suppressed the revolt {The Moderate, 
11-18 Sept. 1649 ; Proceedings of the Oxford 
Architectural and Historical Society, No- 
vember 1884). 

On 4 Oct. 1647 Ingoldsby was elected 
M.P. for Wendover, and represented Buck- 
inghamshire in the parliaments of 1654 and 
1656 (Old Parl. Hist. xx. 497, xxi. 4; Re- 
turn of Members of Parliament, i. 485). He 
was chosen one of the council of state in 
November 1652, and was summoned to Crom- 
well's House of Lords in December 1657 
(Cal. State Papers, Dom. 1651-2, p. 505). 
In the ' Second Narrative of the late Parlia- 
ment' (1658) he is described as 'a gentleman 
of courage and valour, but not very famous 
for any great exploits, unless for beating the 
honest innkeeper of Aylesbury in White-hall,' 
' no great friend to the sectaries,' and, accord- 



ing to common report, 'can neither pray 
nor preach' (Harleian Miscellany, iii. 482, 
ed. Park). 

In 1659, when the officers of the army 
began to agitate against Itichard Cromwell, 
Ingoldsby vigorously supported the new Pro- 
tector, who was his own kinsman. ' Here is 
Dick Ingoldsby, who can neither pray nor 
preach, and yet I will trust him before ye 
all,' said the Protector ; ' which imprudent 
and irreligious words,' writes Ludlow, ' were 
soon published to his great prejudice' (Me- 
moirs, ed. 1751, p. 241). On the fall of Ri- 
chard Cromwell, Ingoldsby lost his command 
and, seeing the Restoration at hand, entered 
into negotiation with the agents of Charles II 
(BAKER, Chronicle, ed. Phillips, pp. 657, 660 ; 
Clarendon State Papers, iii. 489, 650). The 
Earl of Northampton, in representing In- 
goldsby's merits to the king, states that his 
conversion was free and unconditional. ' He 
would never listen to any discourse of reward, 
but still declared that your pardon and for- 
giveness of his former errors was all that he 
aimed at, and that his whole life should be 
spent in studying to deserve it' (CARTE, 
Original Letters, ii. 333). As he was a regi- 
cide, the king refused to promise him in- 
demnity, and left him to earn a pardon by 
signal services (CLARENDON, Rebellion, xvi. 
226). Accordingly, in the struggle between 
the parliament and the army Ingoldsby ener- 
getically backed the former, and on 28 Dec. 
1659 received its thanks for seizing Windsor 
Castle (Old Parl. Hist. xxii. 34). Monck ap- 
pointed him to command Colonel Rich's regi- 
ment (February 1660), and sent him to sup- 
press Lambert's intended rising (18 April 
1660). On 22 April he met Lambert's forces 
near Daventry, arrested him as he endeavoured 
to fly, and brought him in triumph to London 
(KENNETT, Register, pp. 68, 120; CLARENDON, 
Rebellion, xvi. 148). Ingoldsby was thanked 
by the House of Commons 26 April 1660 
( Commons' Journals, viii. 2), and was not only 
spared the punishment which befell the rest 
of the regicides, but was created a knight of 
the Bath at the coronation of Charles II, 
20 April 1661 (KENNETT, Register, p. 411). 

In the four parliaments of Charles II, In- 
goldsby represented Aylesbury. He died in 
1685, and was buried in Hartwell Church, 
Buckinghamshire, on 16 Sept. 1685. He 
married Elizabeth, second daughter of Sir 
George Croke of Waterstock, Oxfordshire, 
and widow of Thomas Lee of Hartwell(CROKE, 
p. 605 ; NOBLE, House of Cromwell, ii. 190). 

Sir Richard Ingoldsby is sometimes con-* 
fused with his younger brother, SIR HENRY 
INGOLDSBY (1622-1701), who commanded a 
regiment in Ireland under Cromwell and < 



Ingoldsby 



Ireton, represented the counties of Kerry, 
Limerick, and Clare in the parliaments of 
1654, 1056, and 1659, and had the singular 
fortune to be created a baronet both by the 
Protector (31 March 1658) and by Charles II 
(30 Aug. 1660) (ib. ii. 184 ; Life of Anthony 
Wood, ed. 1848, p. 51). 

[Crake's Hist, of the Family of Croke, 1823 ; 
Noble's House of Cromwell, ed. 1787, ii. 181; 
Wood's Athenae Oxon. ed. Bliss ; a pedigree is 
also given in the Genealogist, July 1886.] 

C. H. F. 

INGOLDSBY, RICHARD (d. 1712), 
lieutenant-general, commander of the forces 
in Ireland, does not appear in the family 
pedigree given by Lipscombe (Buckingham- 
shire, ii. 169), but is probably correctly de- 
scribed by Sir Alexander Croke (Hist, of 
Croke, genealogy No. 33) as the son of Sir 
George Ingoldsby or Ingoldesby, a soldier, 
who was a younger brother of the regicide, Sir 
Richard Ingoldsby [q. v.] ; married an Irish 
lady of the name of Gould ; was knighted, and 
was killed in the Dutch wars. Richard In- 

foldsby obtained his first commission 13 July 
667. Beyond the statement that he adhered 
to the protestant cause in 1688, and was 
employed under King William, the military 
records afford no information respecting him 
until 1692, when he held the rank of colonel, 
and was appointed adjutant-general of the ex- 
pedition to the coast of France (Home Office 
Military Entry Book, ii. f. 282 ; MACATJLAY, 
Hist, of England, iv. 290 et seq.) He was 
appointed colonel of the Royal Welsh fusi- 
liers, vice Sir John Morgan deceased, 28 Feb. 
1693, and commanded the regiment under 
King William in Flanders, being present at 
the famous siege of Namur. In 1696 he be- 
came a brigadier-general. He appears to have 
been in Ireland from 1697 to 1701. Lut- 
trell mentions his committal to prison for 
carrying a challenge from Lord Kerry to 
the Irish chancellor, Methuen, and his re- 
lease by order of the king on 5 Jan. 1697-8 
(Relation of State Affairs, v. 326-8). He ' 
had command of the troops sent from Ire- 
land to Holland in November 1701, and 
commanded a division under Marlborough in | 
1702-6, and in the attack on Schellenburg. j 
At the battle of Blenheim he was second in 
command of the first line under Charles 
Churchill (Marlborough Desp. i. 401, 407). 
He became a major-general in 1702, and 
lieutenant-general in 1704. In 1705 he was 
transferred to the colonelcy of the 18th royal } 
Irish foot from the royal Welsh fusiliers, and 
appears to have been sent to Ireland on a 
mission relating to reinforcements for Marl- 
borough's army. Marlborough refers to him 



r Ingoldsby 

as sick at Ghent in 1706 (ib.), in which year 
he commanded the British troops at the siege 
of Ath. In 1707 he was appointed one of the 
comptrollers of army clothing (LTJTTKELL, 
vi. 270), and was made commander of the 
forces, master of the horse, and general of 
artillery in Ireland, posts which he held up 
to his death. He -sat for Limerick in the 
Irish parliament from 1703. In the absence 
of the lord-lieutenant, Ormonde, Ingoldsby 
acted as one of the lords j ustices. In a letter 
dated 6 Oct. 1709 Marlborough is glad 'to 
learn that my endeavours to do you justice 
have succeeded to your satisfaction ' (Marl- 
bqrough Desp. iv. 638). Ingoldsby died in 
Dublin on 11 (27 ?) Jan. 1712, and was buried 
in Christ Church. He appears to have had 
a son, an officer in the royal Welsh fusiliers- 
when commanded by Brigadier Sabine (ib. 
vol. v.) ' Swift (Letters to Stella) and Lut- 
trell cause some obscurity by occasionally 
styling him ' brigadier ' after his promotion, 
to higher rank. In the British Museum 
Catalogue he is indexed as ' Colonel ' Richard 
Ingoldsby in 1706 (Addit. MS. 23642, f. 18). 
Ingoldsby had a contemporary namesake in 
the service, a Colonel Richard Ingoldsby , who 
was made major and captain of one of the 
independent companies of foot in garrison at 
New York 10 Sept. 1690 (Home Office Mili- 
tary Entry Book, ii. f. 161), was sometime 
lieutenant-governor of the province of New 
York (Cal. State Papers, 1697-1707), and 
died a colonel about 1720 (Treas. Papers t 
ecxxxiii. 50). 

INQOLDSBY, RICHARD (d. 1759), brigadier- 
general, was son of Thomas Ingoldsby, who 
was high sheriff of Buckinghamshire in 172Q 
and M.P. for Aylesbury in 1727-34, and 
died in 1760. His mother was Anne, daugh- 
ter of Hugh Limbrey of Tangier Park, Hamp- 
shire. Sir Richard Ingoldsby [q. v.] the regi- 
cide was his great-grandfather, and the elder 
Richard Ingoldsby was a: distant cousin. He 
was appointed ensign 1st foot-guards 28 Aug.. 
1708, became lieutenant and captain 24 May 
1711, and captain and lieutenant-colonel 
11 Jan. 1715. He was second major of his. 
regiment in Flanders, and was appointed a. 
brigadier of foot by the Duke of Cumberland 
(MACLACHLAN, pp. 65, 189-92). The night 
before Fontenoy (11 May 1745) he was sta- 
tioned on the British right, with the 12th 
(Duroure's) and 1 3th (Pulteney's) regiments of 
foot, the 42nd highlanders, and the Hanoverian 
regiment of Zastrow. They were ordered to 
take a French redoubt or masked battery called 
the Fort d'Eu, a vital point ; cavalry support 
was promised. Ingoldsby advanced to the 
attack, but met with such a warm reception 
from the French light troops in the adjacent - 



Ingram 



12 



Ingram 



wood that he fell back and sent to ask for 
artillery. Further delays and blunders fol- 
lowed; the cavalry never came, and when 
Cumberland's last advance was made, In- 
goldsby was wounded and Fort d'Eu remained 
untaken, so that the guards, on gaining the 
crest of the French position, were exposed 
to a reverse fire from it. Ingoldsby was 
afterwards brought before a court-martial or 
council of war, as it was called, at Lessines, 
of which Lord Dunmore, commanding the 
3rd foot-guards, was president, was found 
guilty of not having obeyed the Duke of Cum- 
berland's orders, and was sentenced ' to be 
suspended from pay and duty during his 
highness's pleasure.' The duke then named 
three months to allow Ingoldsby time to 
dispose of his company and retire, which he 
did. The king refused to allow him to dis- 
pose of the regimental majority, which on 
20 Nov. 1745 was given to Colonel John 
Laforey. A letter from Ingoldsby appealing 
piteously to the Duke of Cumberland is in 
the British Museum Addit. MS. 32704, f. 46. 
Ingoldsby appears to have retained the title 
of brigadier-general after leaving the army. 
He died in Lower Grosvenor Street, Lon- 
don, 16 Dec. 1759, and was buried at the 
family seat, Hartwell, Buckinghamshire. His 
widow, named in the burial register Catherine, 
died 28 Jan. 1789, and was buried in the 
same place. Letters from this lady, signed 
' C. Jane Ingoldsby,' appealing to the Duke 
of Newcastle on behalf of her husband, and 
finally asking for a widow's pension of 50Z., 
are in Addit, MSS. 32709 f. 265, 32717 f. 
313, 32902 f. 242, at the British Museum. 

[Home Office Military Entry Books, vols. ii- 
viii. ; Marlborough Despatches ; Cannon's Hist. 
Eec. 18th Royal Irish Foot and 23rd Royal Welsh 
Fusiliers ; Cal. State Papers, Treasury, under 
dates. Collections of Ingoldsby letters are noted 
among the Marquis of Ormonde's and Duke of 
Marlborough's papers in Hist. MSS. Comm. 
3rd Rep. 426, 7th Rep. 761 6, 8th Rep. pt. i. 
32 a, 35 b, 37 a, 38 b, 40a. Lipscombe's Bucking- 
hamshire, ii. 1 69 ; Hamilton's Hist. Grenadier 
Guards, ii. 119 et seq., and Roll of Officers in 
vol. iii. ; A. N. C. Maclachlan's Orders of Wil- 
liam, Duke of Cumberland, London, 1876, in 
which Ingoldsby's Christian name is wrongly 

given ' James ; ' The Case of Brigadier I y, 

London, 1746.] H. M. C. 

INGRAM, SIB ARTHUR (d. 1642), 
courtier, was son of Hugh Ingram, a native 
of Thorp-on-the-Hill, Yorkshire, who made 
a fortune as a linendraper in London, by 
Anne, daughter of Richard Goldthorpe, 
haberdasher, lord mayor of and M.P. for 
York (FosiEE, Yorkshire Pedigrees, vol. i.) 
fie became a successful merchant in Fen- 



church Street, London, and acquired the 
manor of Temple Newsam, where he built 
a splendid mansion, and other estates in 
Yorkshire. In buying estates his practice 
was to pay half the purchase-money down, 
then, pretending to detect some flaw in the 
title, he would compel the seller to have re- 
course to a chancery suit. In this way he 
ruined many. Ingram was fond of lavish 
expenditure ; often placed his purse at the 
service of the king, and thus rendered him- 
self an acceptable person at court. In 1604 
he was appointed comptroller of the customs 
of the port of London, and on 21 Oct. 1607 
the office was conferred on him for life. He 
was chosen M.P. for Stafford on 1 Nov. 1609, 
for Romney, Kent, in 1614, for Appleby, 
Westmoreland, in 1620-1, and again for that 
borough, Old Sarum, and York in 1623-4, 
when he elected to serve for York, being re- 
elected in 1625, 1625-6, and 1627-8. In 
1640 a Sir Arthur Ingram (possibly Ingram's 
eldest son, who had been knighted on 16 July 
1621) was returned for New Windsor and 
Callington, Cornwall (METCALFE, Book of 
Knights, p. 178). 

Ingram was himself knighted on 9 July 
1613 (ib. p. 164). In March 1612 he was 
appointed one of the secretaries of the coun- 
cil of the north, and about the same time 
undertook to carry on the royal alum works 
in Yorkshire, paying the king an annual 
sum of 9,000/. (cf. Cal. State Papers, Dom. 
1623-5, pp. 44, 336-7, 360). The specula- 
tion proved a loss. When occupied with the 
affairs of the northern council he lived prin- 
cipally in a large and splendidly furnished 
house on the north side of York Minster. 
In February 1614-15 he was sworn cofferer 
of the king's household, but was removed 
from the office in April following at the in- 
stigation of the courtiers, who objected to 
his plebeian birth. He was high sheriff of 
Yorkshire in 1620. At the instance of Sir 
John Bourchier, who pretended to have dis- 
covered in the alum accounts a deficiency of 
50,000/., Ingram was arrested and brought 
up to London in October 1624 (Court and 
Times of James I, ii. 484), but he appears to 
have cleared himself to the satisfaction of 
the king. In 1640 he built the hospital 
which bears his name in Bootham, York. 
Charles I, who occupied Ingram's house during 
his long sojourn at York in 1642, would have 
made him a peer for a money consideration 
had he dared (Cal. State Papers, Dom. 1641- 
1643, p. 41). Ingram must have died at York 
in 1642, for his will (registered in P. C. C. 107, 
Cambell) was proved in that year. He married, 
first, Susan, daughter of Richard Brown of 
London ; secondly, Alice, daughter of Mr. 



Ingram 



Ingram 



Ferrers, citizen of London ; and, thirdly, Mary, 
daughter of Sir Edward Grevile of Milcote, 
Warwickshire. He had issue by each mar- 
riage. 

[Cartwright's Chapters in the Hist, of York- 
shire ; Court and Times of James I ; Davies's 
Walks through York ; Earl of Strafford's Let- 
ters (Knowler), i. 6, 28, 29, 30; Cal. State 
Papers, Dom. 1611-18 ; Yorkshire Archaeolog. 
and Topogr. Journal, vols. ii. v. vii. viii.] 

G. G. 

INGRAM, DALE (1710-1793), surgeon, 
was born in 1710, and, after apprenticeship 
and study in the country, began practice 
at Reading, Berkshire, in 1733, and there, 
in 1743, published ' An Essay on the Gout.' 
Later in that year he emigrated to Barbadoes, 
where he practised till 1750, when he re- 
turned to England and set up as a surgeon 
and man midwife on Tower Hill, London. 
In 1751 he published ' Practical Cases and 
Observations in Surgery,' his most important 
work. It contains records of cases observed 
in England and the West Indies. He de- 
scribes one successful and one unsuccessful 
operation in cases of abdominal wounds pene- 
trating the bowel. He washed the intestine 
with hot claret, and then stitched the perito- 
neum to the edge of the wound and the ab- 
dominal wall. The procedure is one of the 
earliest English examples of a method of sur- 
gery which has only been universally adopted 
within the last few years. In 1754 he went 
to live in Fenchurch Street, London, and in 
1755 published ' An Historical Account of 
the several Plagues that have appeared in 
the World since the year 1 346.' It is a mere 
compilation. On 24 Jan. 1759 he was elected 
from among five candidates to the office of 
surgeon to Christ's Hospital, and thence- 
forward resided there. He sometimes visited 
Epsom, and in 1767 published ' An Enquiry 
as to the Origin of Magnesia Alba, the 
principal saline ingredient of the Epsom 
springs. A controversy had arisen as to the 
cause of death of a potman who had received 
a blow on the head in an election riot at 
Brentford in 1769, and he published a lengthy 
pamphlet entitled ' The Blow, or Inquiry into 
the Cause of Mr. Clarke's Death at Brent- 
ford,' which demonstrates that blood-poison- 
ing arising from an ill-dressed scalp wound 
was the true cause of death. In 1777 he 
published ' A Strict and Impartial Inquiry 
into the Cause of Death of the late William 
Scawen,' an endeavour to prove that poison 
had not been administered. In 1790 it was 
stated that he was too old for his work at 
Christ's Hospital, and as he would not resign 
he was superseded in 1791. He died at Epsom 
on 5 April 1793. 



[Works ; original journals of Court of Go- 
vernors of Christ's Hospital, examined by per- 
mission of the treasurer ; original lists of sur- 
geons in London at Koyal College of Surgeons ; 
Index Catalogue of Library of Surgeon-General's 
Office, Washington, U.S.A. ; original parish regis- 
ters of St. Bartholomew the Less, St. Sepulchre- 
extra-Newgate and Christ Church, Newgate 
Street ; Gent. Mag. 1 793, pt. i. p. 380.] N. M. 

INGRAM, HERBERT (1811-1860), pro- 
prietor of the ' Illustrated London News,' was 
born at Boston, Lincolnshire, on27 May 1811, 
and was educated at the Boston free school. 
At the age of fourteen he was apprenticed to 
Joseph Clarke, printer, Market Place, Boston. 
From 1832 to 1834 he worked as a journey- 
man printer in London, and about 1834 settled! 
at Nottingham as a printer, bookseller, and 1 
newsagent, in partnership with his brother- 
in-law, Nathaniel Cooke. In company with 
his partner he soon afterwards purchased from 
T. Roberts, a druggist at Manchester, a re- 
ceipt for an aperient pill, and employed a 
schoolmaster to write its history. Ingram 
claimed to have received from a descendant 
of Thomas Parr, known as Old Parr, who was 
said to have lived to the age of one hundred 
and fifty-two, the secret method of preparing 
a vegetable pill to which Parr's length of life- 
was attributed {Medical Circular, 23 Feb. 
1853, pp. 146-7, 2 March, pp. 167-8). Mainly 
in order to advertise the pill its proprietors 
removed to London in 1842. 

Meanwhile Ingram had projected an illus- 
trated newspaper. He had long noticed how 
the demand for the 'Weekly Chronicle' in- 
creased on the rare occasions when it con- 
tained woodcuts, and on 14 May 1842 he and 
his partner produced the first number of the 
'Illustrated London News.' Their original 
design was to make it an illustrated weekly 
record of crime, but Henry Vizetelly, who 
was employed on the paper, persuaded Ingram 
to give it a more general character. The- 
Bow Street police reports were, however, il- 
lustrated by Crowquill. The first number of 
the paper, published at sixpence, contains 
sixteen printed pages and thirty-two wood- 
cuts, and twenty-six thousand copies were 
circulated. The best artists and writers of 
the day were employed. Frederick William- 
Naylor Bayley, known as Alphabet Bayley, 
or Omnibus Bayley, was the editor, and John 
Timbs was the working editor. The news- 
paper steadily advanced in public favour, and" 
soon had a circulation of sixty-six thousand 
copies. The Great Exhibition of 1851 gave- 
it a further impetus, and in 1852 a quarter of 
a million copies of the shilling number illus- 
trating the funeral of the Duke of Wellington 
are said to have been sold. At Christmas 



Ingram 

1855 the first number containing coloured 
prints was brought out. High prices were 
charged for advertisements, and the average 
profit on the paper became 12,000/. a year. 
The success of the enterprise caused Andrew 
Spottiswoode, the queen's printer, to start a 
rival paper, the ' Pictorial Times,' inwhich he 
lost 20,000/., and then sold it to Ingram, who 
afterwards merged it in a venture of his own, 
the ' Lady's Newspaper.' Another rival was 
the 'Illustrated Times,' commenced by Henry 
Vizetelly on 9 June 1855, which also came 
into Ingram's hands, and in 1861 was incorpo- 
rated with the 'Penny Illustrated Paper.' 
On 8 Oct. 1857he purchased from George Stiff 
the copyright and plant of the ' London 
Journal,' a weekly illustrated periodical of 
tales and romances, for 24,0007. (Ingram v. 
Stiff, 1 Oct. 1859, in The Jurist Reports, 1860, 
v. pt. i. pp. 947-8). Elated by the success of 
the ' Illustrated London News,' Ingram, on 
1 Feb. 1848, started the 'London Telegraph,' 
in which he proposed to give daily for three- 
pence as much news as the other journals 
supplied for fivepence. The paper was pub- 
lished at noon, so as to furnish later intelli- 
gence than the morning papers. It com- 
menced with a novel, ' The Pottleton Legacy,' 
ty Albert Smith, but the speculation was un- 
profitable, and the last number appeared on 
9 July 1848. 

Ingram and Cooke, besides publishing 
newspapers, brought out many books, chiefly 
illustrated works. In 1848 the partnership 
was dissolved, and the book-publishing branch 
of the business was taken over by Cooke. 
From 7 March 1856 till his death Ingram was 
M.P. for Boston. In an evil hour he made 
the acquaintance of John Sadleir [q. v.], M.P. 
for Sligo, a junior lord of the treasury, and 
lie innocently allowed Sadleir to use his name 
in connection with fraudulent companies 
started by Sadleir and his brother James, 
chiefly in Ireland. After the suicide of Sadleir 
on 16 Feb. 1856, documents were found among 
his papers which enabled Vincent Scully, 
formerly member for Sligo, to bring against 
Ingram an action for recovery of some losses 
incurred by him owing to Sadleir's frauds 
\Law Mag. and Law Review, February 1862, 
pp. 279-81). The verdict went against In- 
gram, but the judge and jury agreed that his 
honour was unsullied. He left England with 
liis eldest son in 1859, partly for his health, 
and partly to provide illustrations of the 
Prince of Wales's tour in America. In 1860 
he visited the chief cities of Canada. On 

7 Sept. he took passage at Chicago on board 
the steamer Lady Elgin for an excursion 
through Lake Michigan to Lake Superior. On 

8 Sept. the ship was sunk in a collision with 



4 Ingram 

another vessel, and he and his son, with almost 
all the passengers and crew, were drowned. 
Ingram's body was found, and buried in Bos- 
ton cemetery, Lincolnshire, on 5 Oct. A 
statue was erected to Ingram's memory at 
Boston in 1862. He married, on 4 July 1843, 
Anne Little of Eye, Northamptonshire. 

His youngest son, WALTER IXGRAM (1855- 
1888), became an officer of the Middlesex 
yeomanry, and studied military tactics with 
great success. At the outset of Lord Wolse- 
ley's expedition to Khartoum in 1884, In- 
gram ascended the Nile in his steam launch, 
joined the brigade of Sir Herbert Stewart in its 
march across the desert, was attached to Lord 
Charles Beresford's naval corps, and took part 
in the battles of Abu Klea and Metammeh, 
after which he accompanied Sir Charles Wil- 
son and Lord Charles Beresford up the Nile 
to within sight of Khartoum. His services 
were mentioned in a despatch, and he was re- 
warded with a medal (SiR C. WILSON, From 
Korti to Khartoum, 1886, p. 120; Times, 
11 April 1888, p. 5). He was killed by an 
elephant while on a hunting expedition near 
Berbera, on the east coast of Africa, on 6 April 
1888. 

[Mackay's Forty Years' Recollections, 1877, 
ii. 64-7-5 ; Jackson's Pictorial Press, 1885, pp. 
284-311, with portrait; Hatton's Journalistic 
London, 1882, pp. 24, 221-39, with portrait; 
Bourne's English Newspaper Press, 1887, ii. 119- 
124, 226-7, 235, 251, 294-8 ; Grant's News- 
paper Press, 1872, iii. 129-32 ; Andrews's 
British Journalism, 1859, ii. 213, 255-6, 320, 
336,338, 340; Bookseller, 26 Sept. 1860, p. 558; 
Gent. Mag. November 1860, pp. 554-6 ; Annual 
Register, 1860, pp. 154-6; Times, 24 Sept. 1860, 
p. 7, 27 Sept. p. 1 ; Illustrated London News, 
29 Sept. I860, p. 285, 6 Oct. pp. 306-7, with 
portrait, 26 Sept. 1863, pp. 306, 309, with view of 
statue ; Boston Gazette, 29 Sept. and 6 Oct. I860.] 

G. C. B. 

INGRAM, JAMES (1774-1850), Anglo- 
Saxon scholar and president of Trinity Col- 
lege, Oxford, son of John Ingram, was born 
21 Dec. 1774, at Codford St. Mary, near Salis- 
bury, where his family had possessed property 
for several generations. He was sent to War- 
minster School in 1785, and entered as a com- 
moner at Winchester in 1790. On 1 Feb. 
1793 he was admitted a commoner at Trinity 
College, Oxford, and was elected scholar of 
the college 16 June 1794. He graduated B.A. 
in 1796, M.A. in 1800, and B.D. in 1808 ; was 
for a time an assistant master at Winchester ; 
became fellow of Trinity College 6 June 1803, 
and acted astutorthere. Froml803 to 1808 he 
was Rawlinsonian professor of Anglo-Saxon. 
On the establishment of the examination for 
undergraduates called ' Responsions,' in 1809, 



Ingram 



Ingram 



Ingram acted as one of the ' masters of the 
schools.' From 1815 to 1818 he filled the office 
of keeper of the archives, and from 1816 to 
1824 was rector of Rotherfield Grays, a Trinity 
College living, near Henley-on-Thames. On 
24 June 1824 he was elected president of his 
college, and proceeded D.D. Ingram was too 
deeply absorbed in antiquarian research to 
take much part in the management of the 
college or in the affairs of the university. At 
Garsington, near Oxford, of which Ingram was 
rector in virtue of his presidency, he super- 
intended and largely helped to pay for the 
erection of a new school, of which he sent 
an account to the ' Gentleman's Magazine,' 
1841, vol. i. He died 4 Sept, 1850, and was 
buried at Garsington, where there is a brass 
plate to his memory inserted in an old stone 
slab. He was married, had no family, and 
survived his wife. By his will he left the 
greater part of his books, papers, drawings, 
&c., to Trinity College, some pictures to the 
university galleries, and some coins to the 
Bodleian Library. There are two portraits 
of him in the president's lodgings at Trinity. 
Ingram was a fellow of the Society of 
Antiquaries, and held a high rank among 
archaeologists. As an Anglo-Saxon scholar 
he was perhaps the very best of his genera- 
tion, and the most distinguished of John 
Mitchell Kemble's predecessors. In 1807 he 
published his inaugural lecture (as professor 
of Anglo-Saxon) on the utility of Anglo- 
Saxon literature, to which is added the geo- 
graphy of Europe by King Alfred (Oxford, 
4to). His edition of the ' Saxon Chronicle,' 
London, 1823, 4to, was a great advance on 
Gibson's edition (Oxford, 1692, 4to), for 
Ingram had thoroughly explored the Cot- 
tonian MSS. in the British Museum. His 
edition of Quintilian (Oxford, 1809, 8vo) is 
correct and useful. The work by which 
Ingram is best known is his admirable ' Me- 
morials of Oxford,' with a hundred plates 
"by Le Keux, 3 vols. 8vo, Oxford, 1832-7 
(reissued 1847, 2 vols.) Among his other 
publications are : 'The Church in the Middle 
Centuries, an attempt to ascertain the Age 
and Writer of the celebrated " Codex Boer- 
nerianus"' (anon.), 8vo, Oxford, 1842; ' Me- 
morials of the Parish of Codford St. Mary,' 
8vo, Oxford, 1844 ; and the descriptions of 
Oxford and Winchester cathedrals in Brit- 
ton's ' Beauties of England and Wales.' 

[Annual Eegister, 1850 ; Gent. Mag. 1850, 
p. 553; Illustrated London News, 14 Sept. 1850 ; 
Oxford Calendar ; personal knowledge and recol- 
lections ; communication from Professor Earle of 
Oxford. Ingram is mentioned in Pycroft's Ox- 
ford Memories, and in G. V. Cox's Eecollec- 
tions of Oxford, p. 158.] W. A. G. 



INGRAM, JOHN (1721-1771?), en- 
graver, born in London in 1721, first prac- 
tised engraving there. He subsequently 
went to Paris, and settled there for the re- 
mainder of his life. He both etched and 
engraved in line-manner. He engraved a 
number of plates after Francois Boucher, 
some after C. N. Cochin, and a set of emble- 
matical figures of the sciences in conjunction 
with Cochin and Tardieu. He was employed 
in engraving small plates for book illustra- 
tion, and more especially on plates for the 
' Transactions ' of the Academic des Sciences. 
He was an engraver of great merit. 

[Nagler's Kiinstler-Lexikon ; Beraldi et Por- 
talis's Graveurs du XVIIP Siecle ; Dodd's ma- 
nuscript Hist, of English Engravers (Brit. Mus. 
Addit. MS. 33402).] L. C. 

INGRAM, ROBERT, D.D. (1727-1804), 
divine, born at Beverley, Yorkshire, on 
9 March 1726-7, was descended from the 
family of Henry Ingram (1616-1666), vis- 
count Irwine in the Scottish peerage. His 
father had retired from business in London, 
and settled at Beverley soon after his mar- 
riage with Theodosia, younger daughter of 
Joseph Gascoigne, sometime revenue collector 
at Minorca. He was educated at Beverley 
school under John Clarke (1706-1761) [q. v.], 
and in 1745 was admitted to Corpus Christ! 
College, Cambridge, where he graduated B.A. 
in 1749 and M.A. in 1753. In 1758 he 
became perpetual curate of Bredhurst, Kent, 
and in the following year Dr. Green, bishop 
of Lincoln, presented him to the small vicar- 
age of Orston, Nottinghamshire. In 1760 
he obtained the vicarage of Wormingford, 
Essex, where he resided till within a year of 
his death. He also became, through the 
influence of his wife's family with Dr. Terrick, 
bishop of London, vicar of Boxted, Essex. 
He died in his son's house at Seagrave, near 
Loughborough, Leicestershire, on 3 Aug. 
1804. He married in 1759 Catherine, eldest 
daughter of Richard Acklom, esq., of Weir- 
eton, Nottinghamshire, and by her left two 
sons, Robert Acklom Ingram, B.D. [q. v.], 
and Rowland Ingram, who succeeded Paley 
as head-master of Giggleswick school. 

His works are : 1. ' An Exposition of 
Isaiah's Vision, chap. vi. ; wherein is pointed 
out a strong similitude betwixt what is said 
in it and the infliction of punishment on the 
Papists, by the witnesses, Rev. xi. 6,' Lon- 
don, 1784, 8vo. 2. ' A View of the great 
Events of the Seventh Plague, or Period, 
when the Mystery of God shall be finish'd,' 
Colchester, 1785, 8vo. 3. ' Accounts of the 
Ten Tribes of Israel being in America, origi- 
nally published by Manasseh ben Israel, with 



Ingram 



16 



Ingulf 



Observations thereon,' London, 1792, 8vo. [ 
4. ' A complete and uniform Explanation of 
the Prophecy of the Seven Vials of Wrath, 
or the Seven last Plagues, contained in the 
Revelations of St. John, chapters xv. xvi. 
To which is added a short Explanation of 
chapter xiv. ; with other Revelation Pro- 
phecy interspersed and illustrated,' 1804. 

[Gent. Mag. Iv. 732, Ixii. 548, Ixxiv. 343, 882; 
Chalmers's Biog. Diet.; Cantabrigienses Graduati, 
1787, p. 217 ; Watt's Bibl. Brit. ; Reuss's Reg. 
of Authors, p. 215 ; Bodleian Cat. ; Masters's 
Corpus Christi Coll. List of Members, p. 28.] 

T. C. 

INGRAM, ROBERT ACKLOM (1763- 
1809), political economist, eldest son of 
Robert Ingram [q. v.], was born in 1763, and 
educated first in Dr. Grimwood's school at 
Dedham, and afterwards at Queens' College, 
Cambridge, where he graduated B. A. as senior 
wrangler in 1784. He became fellow and tutor 
of his college, commenced M.A. in 1787, was 
moderatorin 1790, and proceeded B.D.inl796. 
On taking orders he was appointed curate of i 
Boxted, Essex, and in 1802 he was presented | 
by the master and fellows of Queens' College 
to the rectory of Seagrave, Leicestershire, 
where he died on 5 Feb. 1809. 

His principal works are: 1. ' The Necessity 
of introducing Divinity into the regular 
Course of Academical Studies considered,' 
Colchester, 1792, 8vo. 2. ' An Enquiry into 
the present Condition of the Lower Classes, 
and the means of improving it ; including 
some Remarks on Mr. Pitt's Bill for the 
better Support and Maintenance of the Poor : 
in the course of which the policy of the Corn 
Laws is examined, and various other im- 
portant branches of Political Economy are 
illustrated,' London, 1797, 8vo. 3. 'A Syl- 
labus or Abstract of a System of Political 
Philosophy ; to which is prefixed a Disserta- 
tion recommending that the Study of Political 
Economy be encouraged in our Universities, 
and that a Course of Lectures be delivered 
on that subject,' London, 1800, 8vo. 4. ' An 
Essay on the importance of Schools of In- 
dustry and Religious Instruction ; in which 
the necessity of Promoting the good Educa- 
tion of poor Girls is particularly considered,' 
London, 1801, 8vo. 5. 'The Causes of the 
Increase of Methodism and Dissension, and 
of the Popularity of what is called Evan- 
gelical Preaching, and the means of obviat- 
ing them, considered in a Sermon [on Rom. 
xiv. 17, 19]. To which is added a Postscript 
... on Mr. Whitbread's Bill ... for en- 
couraging of Industry among the Labouring 
Classes,' London, 1807, 8vo. 6. 'Disquisi- 
tions on Population, in which the Principles 
of the Essay on Population, by T. R. Malthus, 



are examined and refuted,' London, 1808, 
8vo. 

[Lit. Memoirs of Living Authors, 1798, i. 
318; Reuss's Reg. of Authors, Suppl. i. 546; 
Gent. Mag. Ixxix. 189, 275; Cooper's Memorials 
of Cambridge, i. 315 ; Graduati Cantabr. ; Watt's 
Bibl. Brit.] T. C. 

INGULF (d. 1109), abbot of Crowland or 
Croyland in Lincolnshire, an Englishman, 
was secretary of William the Conqueror, 
and after having made a pilgrimage to Jeru- 
salem entered the monastery of St. Wan- 
drille in Normandy, where Gerbert, a man of 
much learning, was then abbot. He became 
prior, and when Ulfcytel, abbot of Crowland, 
was deposed, was in 1086 appointed by the 
Conqueror to his office. He interceded suc- 
cessfully for his predecessor, who was released 
from confinement at Glastonbury, and allowed 
to return to his old home, the monastery of 
Peterborough. Though much afflicted with 
gout, Ingulf was full of energy, and rebuilt 
part of his abbey church and other buildings 
which had been destroyed by fire. In 1092 
he translated the body of Earl Waltheof 

Ej. v.], beheaded in 1076, from the chapter- 
ouse to a place near the high altar of the 
church. He died on 16 Nov. 1109. He was 
one of the few Englishmen appointed to high 
office in the Conqueror's reign (FBEEMAN, 
Norman Conquest, iv. 600). 

Some fabulous notices of Ingulfs life are 
given in the forged ' History ' which bears 
his name ; his known relations with Gerbert, 
however, probably justify partial acceptance 
of the account of his learning contained in the 
forgery. The assertion that he wrote a life 
of St. Guthlac is founded only on a passage 
in the ' History,' and is not worthy of belief. 
The ' History ' has been printed by Savile in 
his ' Scriptores post Bedam,' pp. 850-914, 
London, 1596, fol. ; reprinted, Frankfort, 
1601 ; byFulman, with a continuation falsely 
attributed to Peter of Blois and other con- 
tinuations, in his ' Quinque Scriptores,' pp. 
1 sqq., Oxford, 1684, fol., a volume usually 
reckoned as the first of Gale's ' Scriptores ; ' 
separately by Mr. Birch in the ' Chronicle of 
Croyland Abbey by Ingulph ' (Lat.), 1883 ; 
and in part in the ' Recueil des Historiens, r 
xi. 153-7 ; it has been translated by Riley 
in Bonn's ' Historical Library,' 1854. Five 
manuscripts of it are known to have existed, 
of which only one is supposed to be extant 
(Brit. Mus. Arundel MS. No. 178, 54 pages 
fol., written in a hand of the sixteenth cen- 
tury ; printed by Mr. Birch). Selden, in his 
edition of ' Eadmer ' (1623), speaks of a ma- 
nuscript then kept at Crowland, and held to- 
be Ingulfs autograph. He could not see it ; 



Ingulf 



Ingworth 



Spelman, however, saw and used it for his 
* Concilia,' i. 623 (1639). Selden used another 
manuscript for the so-called laws of William 
the Conqueror, given in his notes on ' Ead- 
mer.' This manuscript is noticed by Camden 
in the dedicatory epistle to his reprint oi 
Asser in his ' Anglica,' &c. (1602) ; it is sup- 
posed to have been burnt in the fire which 
destroyed part of the Cotton Library in 1731. 
A third manuscript was used by Fulman ; it 
belonged to Sir John Marsham, and was said 
to have been carried off by Obadiah Walker 
(seeMonumentaHistoricaritannica,p.l.ln.) 
A fourth, imperfect, was used by Savile who 
gives no account of it. 

From the foundation of the abbey to the 
thirty-fourth year of Edgar the writer pro- 
fesses to base his work on a chronicle of the 
house compiled under Abbot Turketul by a 
brother named Sweetman. The early part 
consists mainly of charters of donation con- 
nected by a slender thread of narrative. From 
the accession of Edward the Confessor the 
narrative becomes more prominent. The book 
contains a great many curious and evidently 
untrue stories. In Fulman's time the charters 
were used as evidence of title, and Dr. Caius, 
in his book on Cambridge (1568), and after 
him Spelman, Dugdale, Selden, and others, ac- 
cepted the ' History ' as authoritative. Whar- 
ton, however, in his ' Historia de Episcopis et 
Decanis Londinensibus' (1695), pp. 19, 24-6, 
pointed out that some of the charters were 
forgeries, and he was followed by Wanley, 
and more at length by Hickes in his ' Thesau- 
rus ' and his ' Dissertatio Epistolaris.' From 
that time the charters were rejected ; but 
at the end of the eighteenth century Richard 
Gough [q. v.] maintained that the ' History ' 
was by Ingulf, who, however, himself forged 
the charters. Gibbon noted the anachronism 
in the statement regarding the study of Aris- 
totle at Oxford. In 1826 Sir Francis Palgrave, 
in an article in the ' Quarterly Review,' ex- 
posed some of the points which mark the book 
as a forgery, and in 1862 this was done more 
thoroughly by Riley in the ' Archaeological 
Journal.' Among these points may be noticed 
the assertions that the abbey in Edred's days 
bore the French appellation of ' curteyse ; ' 
that Turketul, who is said to have been born 
in 907, is also said to have advised the con- 
secration of bishops in 905 ; that Ingulf, the 
supposed author, was educated at Oxford, 
and read Aristotle there ; that on visiting 
Constantinople he saluted the emperor Alexis 
(Alexius), who began to reign in 1081, and 
was received by the patriarch Sophronius, 
who died in 1059, that he was appointed 
abbot in 1075, and that there was a ' vicar ' 
of a place called Wedlongburc in 1091. The 

VOL. XXIX. 



spelling of place names belongs rather to the 
fourteenth than to the eleventh century, and 
many words and phrases occur which were 
certainly not in use in Ingulfs time. The 
motive of the forgery appears to have been 
the desire to defend the property of the abbey 
against the claims of the Spalding people. 
From the fifteenth-century continuation, 
which seems to be a bona fide work, Riley 
shows that it is probable that the forgery of 
the charters began about 1393. He further, 
with great ingenuity, assigns the compilation 
of the book to 1413-15, and regards it as the 
work of the prior Richard, then engaged, the 
abbot being blind, in a lawsuit with the people 
of Spalding and Multon on behalf of the abbey ; 
the counsel for the abbey, Serjeant Ludyng- 
ton, afterwards justice of the common pleas, 
must, in Riley's opinion, have been cognisant 
of the affair. One of the absurdities of the 
book is the story of the five sempectae or senior 
members of the house, who, in order to ac- 
count for the preservation of the traditions 
of the convent, are made to live to immense 
ages, one to 168, another to 142 years, and 
one of them, a fabulous Aio, to about 125 
years. In spite of the work of Palgrave, 
Riley, and others, and of the general con- 
sensus of scholars, H. S. English, in his 
' Crowland and Burgh ' (1871, 3 vols.), be- 
lieves that the ' History ' is a mutilated and 
altered edition of a genuine work written by 
Ingulf (i. 22) ; and Mr. Birch, in his ' Chro- 
nicle of Croyland Abbey ' (1883), argues that 
the charters are a reconstruction of original 
documents, and that the book, as a whole, 
is not a wanton forgery. Neither of them 
accurately defines his position or supports it 
with adequate arguments. 

[The only authority for the Life of Ingulf is 
the account given by Orderic, pp. 542, 543 ; see 
also Freeman's Norman Conquest, iv. 600-2, 
690. For the character of the Crowland History 
see Quarterly Beview (1826), xxxiv. 289 sqq. ; 
Archseol. Journal (1862), xix. 32-49, 113-33; 
Hardy's Materials, i. ii. 816, ii. 58-64 (Eolls 
Series); Mon. Hist. Brit. pp. 11,18,19; Wright's 
Biog. Brit. Lit. ii. 28-33 ; and other works 
quoted in text.] W. H. 

INGWORTH, RICHARD OP (fl. 1224), 
Franciscan, was, according to Thomas Ec- 
cleston [q. v.],the first Minorite who preached 
to the peoples north of the Alps. He was 
among the friars who came to England with 
Agnellus in 1224, and was then a priest and 
advanced in years. W 7 ith three other friars he 
established the first house of Franciscans in 
London ; he then proceeded to Oxford, hired 
ahouseinSt.Ebbe's, and thus founded the ori- 
ginal convent in the university town ; he also 
founded the friary at Northampton. After- 



Inman 



18 



Inman 



wards he became custodian of Cambridge, 
which was specially noted for its poverty 
under his rule. In 1230, when Agnellus at- 
tended the general chapter at Assisi, Richard 
acted as vicar of the English province. Soon 
after this he was appointed by the general, 
John Parens, provincial minister of Ireland. 
He was released from the office by Albert of 
Pisa in 1239, and set out as a missionary to 
the Holy Land, where he died. In the manu- 
scripts of Eccleston his name is usually 
written ' Ingewrthe ' or ' Indewurde.' Le- 
land and his followers call him 'Kinges- 
thorp.' The only authority for this form is 
a late marginal note in the Phillipps MS. 
of Eccleston, from which Leland made his 
extracts (see English Hist. Rev. for October 
1890). 

[Mon. Franciscana, vol. i. ed. Brewer (Rolls 
Ser.)] A. G. L. 

INMAN, GEORGE ELLIS (1814-1840), 
song-writer, born in 1814, and well educated, 
was for some time clerk in the office of a firm 
of wine merchants in Crutched Friars, Lon- 
don. He obtained some reputation as a song- 
writer,fellavictimto opium-taking, and com- 
mitted suicide on 26 Sept. 1840 in St. James's 
Park. 

Two compositions of his, 'The Days of 
Yore' and 'St. George's Flag of England,' 
gained prizes of ten and fifteen guineas re- 
spectively from the Melodists' Club in 1838 
and 1840. Other songs of his were ' Sweet 
Mary mine,' which enjoyed a concert season's 
popularity; 'My Native Hills,' set to music 
by Sir Henry Bishop ; and ' Wake, wake, my 
Love,' set to music by Raffaelle Angelo 
WalKs. He wrote the libretto for Wallis's 
opera, ' The Arcadians.' He also contributed 
to various magazines. In the ' Bentley Bal- 
lads,' edited by Dr. Doran (new edition, 1 861 ), 
are included two vigorous poems of his, ' Old 
Morgan at Panama' (p. 17) and 'Haroun 
Alraschid' (p. 80). In 'La Belle Assem- 
blee ' for September 1844 appeared posthu- 
mously a piece by him, ' Le premier Grena- 
dier des Armees de la Republique.' He is 
said to have published a small volume of 
poems (Notes and Queries, 4th ser. v. 326). 

[Globe newspaper, 28 Sept. 1840, p. 4, and 
30 Sept. p. 4; Gent. Mag. November 1840, p. 
550; Notes and Queries, 4th ser. v. 225-6.] 

F. W-T. 

INMAN, JAMES (1776-1859), professor 
of navigation and nautical science, born in 
1776, was younger son of Richard Inman of 
Garsdale Foot, Sedbergh, Yorkshire. The 
family of substantial statesmen had owned 
property in the neighbourhood from the 



time of the dissolution of the monasteries. 
James received his early education at Sedbergh 
grammar school, and subsequently became a 
pupil of John Dawson [q. v.] (see also J. W. 
CLARK, Life and Letters of Adam Sedgwick, 
i. 70), and although entered at St. John's Col- 
lege, Cambridge, in 1794, did not go into resi- 
dence till 1796. Inman graduated B. A . in 1800 
as senior wrangler and first Smith's prizeman, 
and was elected to a fellowship. Though with 
no immediate intention of taking orders, In- 
man now turn 3d his thoughts towards mission 
work in the East, and set out for Syria. The 
course of the war rendered it impossible for 
him to proceed further than Malta, where he 
devoted some time to the study of Arabic. 
On his return to England he was recom- 
mended to the board of longitude for the post 
of astronomer on board the Investigator dis- 
covery-ship, and joined her on her return to 
Port Jackson in June 1803 [see FLINDERS, 
MATTHEW]. When the Investigator's officers 
and men were turned over to the Porpoise, 
Inman was left at Port Jackson in charge of 
the instruments; but after the wreck and the 
return of Flinders, Inman accompanied him 
in the Rolla, and assisted him in determining 
the position of the reef on which the Porpoise 
had struck. With the greater part of the crew 
he then returned to England, via China, being 
assigned a passage in the company's ship War- 
ley, in which he was present in the celebrated 
engagement with Linois off Pulo Aor on 
15 Feb. 1804 [see DANCE, SIR NATHANIEL ; 
FRANKLIN, SIR JOHN]. In 1805 he proceeded 
M.A., and about the same time was ordained, 
though he does not appear to have held any 
cure ; he proceeded to the degree of B.D. in 
1815, and of D.D. in 1820. 

On the conversion of the Royal Naval 
Academy at Portsmouth in 1808 into the 
Royal Naval College, Inman was appointed 
professor of mathematics, and virtually prin- 
cipal, and here he remained for thirty years. 
In this office Inman turned to good account 
the knowledge of navigation and naval gun- 
nery which he had acquired at sea. In 1821 
appeared his well-known book, ' Navigation 
and Nautical Astronomy for the use of Bri- 
tish Seamen,' with accompanying tables. In 
the third edition (1835) he introduced a new 
trigonometrical function, the half-versine, or 
haversine, thelogarithms of which were added 
to the tables, and enormously simplified the 
practicalsolution of spherical triangles. After 
long remaining the recognised text-book in 
the navy, the ' Navigation ' has been gradually 
superseded, but the tables, with some addi- 
tions, still continue in use. 

It is said that Inman suggested to Captain 
Broke [see BROKE, SIR PHILIP BOWES VERB] 



Inman 



Inman 



some of the improvements in naval gunnery 
which were introduced on board the Shannon. 
He published in 1828 ' An Introduction to 
Naval Gunnery/ designed strictly as an ' in- 
troduction' to the course of scientific teach- 
ing. It was during this period also that he 
produced for the use of his classes short trea- 
tises on ' Arithmetic, Algebra, and Geometry,' 
1810, and ' Plane and Spherical Trigono- 
metry,' 1826. These, however, have long 
been out of use, and are now extremely rare. 
No copy of either can be found in any of the 
principal libraries in London. 

At his suggestion the admiralty established 
a school of naval architecture in 1810, and 
Inman was appointed principal. To supply 
the want of a text-book, he published in 
1820 ' A Treatise on Shipbuilding, with Ex- 
planations and Demonstrations respecting 
the Architectura Navalis Mercatoria, by Fre- 
derick Henry de Chapman,. . .translated into 
English, with explanatory Notes, and a few 
Eemarks on the Construction of Ships of 
War,' Cambridge, 4to. The translation was 
made from a French version, though com- 
pared with the Swedish. It has of course 
long been obsolete ; but to Inman's labours 
was largely due the improvement in English 
ship-building during the first half of the 
present century. In 1839 the college was 
again reorganised, and Inman retired. For 
the next twenty years he continued to reside 
in the neighbourhood of Portsmouth, and died 
at Southsea on 2 Feb. 1859. 

Inman married Mary, daughter of Richard 
Williams, vicar of Oakham, Rutlandshire, 
a direct descendant of the mother of Sir Isaac 
Newton [q. v.] by her second husband, and 
left issue. In addition to the works already 
named, he was also the author of ' The Scrip- 
tural Doctrine of Divine Grace : a Sermon 
preached before the University,' Cambridge, 
8vo, 1820, and 'Formulae and Rules for 
making Calculations on Plans of Ships,' 
London, 8vo, 1849. 

[Information from the Eev. H. T. Inman, In- 
man's grandson.] J. K. L. 

INMAN, THOMAS, M.D. (1820-1876), 
mythologist, born on 27 Jan. 1820 in Rut- 
land Street, Leicester, was second son of 
Charles Inman (a native of Lancaster, de- 
scended from a Yorkshire family), who was 
sometime partner in Pickford's carrying com- 
pany, and afterwards director of the Bank 
of Liverpool. William Inman [q. v.] was his 
younger brother. Thomas went to school at 
Wakefield, and in 1836 was apprenticed to 
his uncle, Richard Inman, M.D., at Preston, 
Lancashire. He entered at King's College, 
London, where he had a distinguished career, 



graduating M.B. in 1842 and M.D. in 1844 
at the university of London. Declining a 
commission as an army surgeon, he settled 
in Liverpool as house-surgeon to the Royal 
Infirmary. He obtained a good practice as 
a physician, and was for many years phy- 
sician to the Royal Infirmary. His publica- 
tions on personal hygiene are full of shrewd 
practical counsel. 

On 21 Oct. 1844 he became a member of the 
Literary and Philosophical Society of Liver- 
pool, to whose ' Proceedings ' he frequently 
contributed papers, chiefly on archaeological 
subjects. He had little original scholarship, 
but read widely, and, although the philological 
basis of his researches is quite unscientific, his 
writings display great ingenuity. From God- 
frey Higgins [q. v.] he. derived the suggestion 
that the key to all mythology is to be sought 
in phallic worship. On 5 Feb. 1866 he first 
propounded this theory in a paper on ' The An- 
tiquity of certain Christian and other Names.' 
The subject was pursued in other papers, and 
in three works on ' Ancient Faiths,' which he 
published between 1868 and 1876. 

In 1871 he gave up practice and retired to 
Clifton, near Bristol, where he died on 3 May 
1876. He was a man of handsome presence, and 
his genial temperament made him generally 
popular. He married in 1844 Jennet Leigh- 
ton, daughter of Daniel Newham of Douglas, 
Isle of Man, and had six sons and two daugh- 
ters, of whom tAvo sons and two daughters 
survived him. 

His most important publications are: 
1. ' Spontaneous Combustion,' Liverpool, 
1855, 8vo. 2. ' On certain Painful Muscular 
Affections,' 1856, 8vo ; 2nd edition, with 
title, ' The Phenomena of Spinal Irritation,' 
&c., 1858, 8vo ; 3rd edition, with title, ' On 
Myalgia,' &c., 1860, 8vo. 3. ' The Foundation 
for a new Theory and Practice of Medicine,' 
1860, 8vo; 2nd edition, 1861, 8vo. 4. 'On 
the Preservation of Health,' &c., Liverpool, 
1868, 8vo ; 2nd edition, 1870, 8vo ; 3rd edi- 
tion, 1872, 8vo. 5. 'Ancient Faiths em- 
bodied in Ancient Names ; or, an Attempt 
to trace the Religious Belief ... of certain 
Nations,' &c., vol. i. 1868, 8vo ; vol. ii. 1869, 
8vo ; 2nd edition, 1872-3, 8vo. 6. ' Ancient 
Pagan and Modern Christian Symbolism 
exposed and explained,' &c., 1869, 8vo. 
7. ' The Restoration of Health,' &c., 1870, 
8vo ; 2nd edition, 1872, 8vo. 8. < Ancient 
Faiths and Modern: a Dissertation upon 
Worships . . . before the Christian Era,' 
&c., New York (printed at Edinburgh), 
1876, 8vo. 

[Information kindly furnished by Miss Z. 
Inman ; Proceedings of the Lit. and Philos. Soc. 
of Liverpool ; personal knowledge.] A. G 

c2 



Inman 



Innes 



INMAN, WILLIAM (1825-1881), foun- 
der of the Inman line of steamships, born at 
Leicester on 6 April 1825, was fourth son 
of Charles Inman, a partner in the firm of 
Pickford & Co., who died on 10 Nov. 1858, 
by Jane, daughter of Thomas Clay of Liver- 
pool (she died 11 Nov. 1865). Thomas In- 
man [q. v.], the mythologist, was his elder 
brother. Educated at the Collegiate Institute 
at Liverpool and at the Liverpool Royal In- 
stitution, William entered a mercantile office, 
and was clerk successively to Nathan Cairns 
(brotherof Lord Cairns), toCater& Company, 
and to Richardson Brothers, all merchants 
at Liverpool. Of the latter firm he became 
a partner in January 1849, and managed 
their fleet of American sailing packets, then 
trading between Liverpool and Philadelphia. 
Here he first gained an intimate knowledge 
of the emigration business. Having watched 
with interest the first voyage to America, 
early in 1850, of Tod & Macgregor's screw 
iron ship the City of Glasgow of 1,600 tons 
and 350 horse-power, he was convinced of 
the advantages she possessed over both sailing 
ships and paddle steamers for purposes of 
navigation. In conj unction with his partners, 
he purchased the City of Glasgow, and on 
17 Dec. in the same year despatched her 
with four hundred steerage passengers on a 
successful voyage across the Atlantic. In 
1857 he formed the Liverpool, New York, 
and Philadelphia Steamship Company, better 
known as the Inman line. Between 1851 
and 1856 the company purchased the City of 
Manchester, the City of Baltimore, the Kan- 
garoo, and the City of Washington, all iron 
screw-ships. In 1857 the company enlarged 
the area of their operations by making New 
York one of their ports of arrival, and esta- 
blishing a fortnightly line thither. In 1860 
they introduced a weekly service of steamers ; 
in 1863 they extended it to three times a 
fortnight, and in 1866 to twice a week during 
the summer. The failure of the Collins line 
was advantageous to Inman, for he adopted 
their dates of sailing, and henceforth carried 
the mails between England and America. 
Inman specially directed his attention to 
the removal of the discomforts of emigrant 
passengers. In 1875 the City of Berlin, the 
longest and largest steam-vessel afloat, the 
Great Eastern excepted, was launched. In- 
man was a member of the local marine board, 
of the Mersey Docks and Harbour Trust, and 
of the first Liverpool school board; was a 
captain of the Cheshire rifle volunteers, a 
magistrate for Cheshire, and chairman of the 
Liverpool Steam Shipowners' Association. 
He frequently gave evidence before com- 
mittees of the House of Commons, more par- 



ticularly in 1874 on the committee on Mer- 
chant. Ships Measurement of Tonnage Bill 
(Parliamentary Papers, 1874, vol. x., Report 
1874, pp. 182-8, 238-47). 

He died at Upton Manor, near Birkenhead, 
on 3 July 1881, and was buried in Moreton 
parish church on 6 Julv. He married, on 
20 Dec. 1849, Anne Brewis, daughter of Wil- 
liam Stobart of Picktree, Durham, by whom 
he had twelve children, nine sons and three 
daughters. 

[Lindsay's Merchant Shipping, 1876, iv. 251- 
260, 611-12; Times, 26 Jan. 1877, p. 10, 5 July 
1881, p. 8 ; Burke's Landed Gentry.] 

G. C. B. 

INNERPEFFER,,LoRD. [See FLETCHER, 
ANDREW, d. 1650, Scottish judge.] 

INNES, COSMO (1798-1 874), antiquary, 
born on 9 Sept. 1798at the old manor-house of 
Durris on Deeside, was the youngest child but 
one of the sixteen children of John Innes by 
his wife Euphemia (wee Russell). John Innes, 
who belonged to the family of Innes of Innes, 
had sold his property in Moray to buy Durris. 
He resided at Durris for many years, but was 
afterwards ejected by a legal decision, a lead- 
ing case in the Scottish law of entail. Cosmo 
was sent to the high school, Edinburgh, 
under Pillans, and studied at the universities 
of Aberdeen and Glasgow. He afterwards 
matriculated at Balliol College, Oxford, on 
13 May 1817, graduating B.A. 1820, and 
M.A. 1824. In 1822 he became an advocate 
at the Scottish bar. His practice was never 
large, but he was soon employed in peerage 
and other cases demanding antiquarian and 
genealogical research. His first case of this 
kind was the Forbes peerage case, about 
1830-2. In the Stirling case he was crown 
advocate. For several years, from about 1833, 
he was advocate-depute. In 1840 he was 
appointed sheriff of Moray, and while in office 
had to deal with the Moray mobs, who at 
the time of the Irish potato famine resisted 
the export of produce from their own dis- 
trict. In 1845 he was a member of the 
municipal corporation (Scotland) commis- 
sion. In 1852 he resigned his sheriffdom, 
and succeeded his friend Thomas Thomson 
as principal clerk of session. 

About 1830 Innes had assisted Thomson 
in arranging the ancient documents in the 
Register House (cp. INNES, Memoir of T. 
Thomson, 1854, 8vo). He was afterwards 
officially engaged in editing and preparing 
for the press the ' Rescinded Acts,' and in 
partly editing the folio edition of the ' Acts 
of the Scots Parliament' (1124-1707). He 
wrote an introduction to vol. i. (1844) of the 



Innes 



21 



Innes 



' Acts,' and in July 1865 began to compile 
with his assistants the 'General Index' to 
the whole work. This was published in 1875 
after his death. Innes was an acute and 
learned student of ancient Scottish records, 
and singularly skilful as a decipherer. He 
was an active member and editor of the Ban- 
natyne, Spalding, and Maitland clubs. He 
edited the chartularies of numerous Scottish 
religious houses, as well as various acade- 
mical and municipal works of importance. 
In his ' Scotland in the Middle Ages,' 1860, 
and ' Sketches of Early Scotch History,' 
1861 (the latter selected from his ' Intro- 
ductions to the Chartularies'), he displayed 
a sympathetic interest in the pre-Reformation 
period, and was accused of being a Roman 
catholic, though he was a member of the 
episcopal church. From 1846 till his death 
Innes held the post of professor of consti- 
tutional law and history at the university 
of Edinburgh. His lectures were attractive. 
He also gave valuable lectures on Scottish 
legal antiquities before the Juridical Society. 
While on a highland tour he died suddenly 
at Killin on 31 July 1874. His body was 
removed to Edinburgh, and buried in War- 
riston cemetery on 5 Aug. In appearance 
Innes was tall and handsome. He suffered 
from shyness, which sometimes took the form 
of nervous volubility in conversation. He 
was a keen sportsman, and amused himself 
with gardening. He had a great contempt 
for the mere bookworm, and said that more 
was to be learnt outside books than in them. 
As an antiquary he had no rival in his own 
line. In politics he was a whig. He advo- 
cated the claims of women students of medi- 
cine to graduate at the university of Edin- 
burgh. 

Innes married in 1826 Miss Rose of Kil- 
varock, by whom he had nine children. The 
eldest son entered the Indian army, but died 
at twenty-four. The eldest daughter married 
in 1855 John Hill Burton [q. v.] the his- 
torian. During his married life Innes lived 
chiefly in or near Edinburgh, first at Ramsay 
Lodge ; then at No. 6 Forres Street (where 
he was intimate with Francis Jeffrey [q. v.] 
and his family) ; subsequently at the Hawes, 
South Queensferry, and finally at Inverleith 
House, Edinburgh. 

The following are Innes's principal publi- 
cations (S. and B. indicate the publications 
of the Spalding and Bannatyne clubs respec- 
tively): 1. 'Two Ancient Records of the 
Bishopric of Caithness,' 1827, &c., 4to ; also 
1848, 4to, B. 2. ' Registrum Monasterii de 
Passelet' (Paisley), 1832, 4to, Maitland Club. 
3. ' Liber Sancte Marie de Melros,' 1837, 4to, 
B. 4. ' Registrum Episcopatus Moraviensis,' 



1837, 4to, B. 5. ' Liber Cartarum Sancte 
Crucis. Munimenta Eccles. Sanct. Crucis de 
Edwinesburg,' 1840, 4to, B. 6. ' Registrum 
de Dunfermelyn,' 1842, 4to, B. 7. ' Regis- 
trum Episcopatus Glasguensis,' 1843, 4to, B. 
8. ' Liber S. Marie de Calchou ' (Kelso Abbey), 
1846, 4to, B. 9. ' Liber Insule Missarum : 
Abbacii Canonic. Regul. . . . de Inchaffery re- 
gistrum,' 1847, 4to, B. 10. ' Carte monialium 
de Northberwic' (North Berwick Priory), 
1847, 4to, B. 11. ' Liber S. Thome de Aber- 
brothoc ' (Arbroath Abbey), ed. by C. Innes 
and P. Chalmers, 1848, &c., 4to, B. 12. 'Re- 
gistrum S. Marie de Neubotle ' (Newbattle 
Abbey), 1849, 4to, B. 13. ' Origines Paro- 
chiales Scotiae,'1850,4to, B (a work of much 
research). 14. ' Registrum Honoris de Mor- 
ton,' ed. completed by C. I., 1853, 4to. 
15. 'Fasti Aberdonenses,' 1854, 8vo (selec- 
tions from the records of the university 
and King's College of Aberdeen). 16. ' The 
Black Book of Tayrnouth,' 1855, 4to, B. 
17. ' Registrum Episcopatus Brechinensis,' 
1856, 4to, S. 18. J. Barbour's ' The Bras,' 
1856, 4to, S. 19. ' The Book of the Thanes of 
Cawdor,' 1859, 4to, S. 20. 'Scotland in the 
Middle Ages,' Edinburgh, 1860, 8vo (adapted 
from his university lectures). 21. 'Sketches 
of Early Scotch History and Social Progress,' 
Edinburgh, 1861, 8vo. 22. 'An Account of 
the Familie of Innes' (by Duncan Forbes 
(1644 P-1704) [q. v.], with additions by C. I.), 
1864, 4to, S. 23. ' Ledger of A. Halyburton, 
1492-1503,' 1867, 8vo. 24. 'Facsimiles of 
National Manuscripts of Scotland. Edited, 
with Introduction, by C. I.,' 1867, c., fol. 
25. 'Ancient Laws and Customs of the Burghs 
of Scotland,' 1868, &c., 4to. 26. ' Lectures 
on Scotch Legal Antiquities,' Edinburgh, 
1872, 8vo. 27. ' Memoir of Dean Ramsay ' in 
the 22nd (1874) ed. of Ramsay's < Reminis- 
cences.' 28. Contributions to the 'Quarterly 
Review ' and the ' North British Review.' 
(For Innes's work connected with the Scotch 
statutes, see above.) 

[Memoir of Innes, Edinburgh, 1874, partly 
founded on obituary notices in the Scotsman, 
Courant, Glasgow Herald, Athenaeum, and Pall 
Mall Gazette; Dr. J. A. H. Murray in the 
Academy for 15 Aug. 1874, p. 181 ; Brit. Mus. 
Cat,] W. W. 

INNES or INNES-KER, JAMES, fifth 
DUKE OP ROXBUKGHE (1736-1823). [See 
KEE.] 

INNES, JOHN (d. 1414), bishop of Moray, 
a native of Moray, is reckoned by Forbes 
(Familie of Innes, 1698) as thirteenth laird of 
Innes, but it is not certain, though it is pro- 
bable, that he belonged to that family. In 
1389 he was a canon of Elgin Cathedral, in 



Innes 



22 



Innes 



1395 he held the prebend of Duffus, and in 

1396 he was also archdeacon of Caithness. 
He desired to go to Paris to study canon law, 
and, ' inasmuch as the fruits of his arch- 
deaconry were not sufficient to enable him 
to fulfil his wish,' Alexander Bar, bishop of 
Moray, gave a grant of certain of the tithes 
of that diocese by way of an exhibition 
( ' ad exhibendum Joanni de Innes in studio 
Parisiensi ' ). He returned by 1397, when he 
was judge in a question of tithe between 
William de Spynie, bishop of Moray, and the 
vicar of Elgin. On 23 Jan. 1406 he was con- 
secrated bishop of Moray at Avignon by Pope 
Benedict XIII. In the li'st (dated 1437) of the 
bishops of Moray he is described as ' bachelor 
in both laws and in arts.' He died at Elgin 
on 25 April 1414, and was buried in his cathe- 
dral, where his monument, now demolished, 
told how during his seven years' episcopate 
he had strenuously pushed on the rebuilding 
of that noble church, which had been burned 
in 1390 by Alexander Stewart, 'the Wolf of 
Badenoch ' [q. v.] At the chapter held to elect 
his successor the canons agreed that if any of 
them should be elected he should devote the 
third of his revenue to the completion of the 
cathedral. The older part of the bishop's 
palace at Elgin and the beautiful gateway at 
the palace of Spynie are Innes's work. His 
arms show the three stars of Innes on a bend 
between three keys ; the shield is surmounted, 
not by a mitre, but by a pastoral staff. The 
Greyfriars Church at Elgin, sometimes attri- 
buted to him, was founded by another John 
Innes fifty years later. 

[Chartulary of Moray ; Familie of Innes (Spald- 
ing Club) ; Keith's Catalogue ; Young's Annals 
of Elgin ; M'Gibbon and Ross's Castellated 
Architecture of Scotland.] J. C. 

INNES, JOHN (1739-1777), anatomist, 
was born in 1739 at Callart in the highlands 
of Scotland. He went to Edinburgh as a 
boy, and was employed by the second Dr. 
Alexander Monro [q. v.], then professor of 
anatomy in the university. He became a 
dexterous dissector, and when eighteen was 
made dissector to the anatomical theatre. It 
was his duty to dissect out the parts for each 
of the professor's lectures, and he thus ac- 
quired a minute knowledge of human anatomy. 
The students liked him, and with the con- 
sent of his employer he used to give evening 
demonstrations of anatomy, and became so 
famous for the clearness of his descriptions 
that his audience numbered nearly two hun- 
dred students. In 1776 he published at Edin- 
burgh 'A Short Description of the Human 
Muscles, chiefly as they appear on Dissection,' 
and this book, with some additions by Dr. 



Monro, continued to be used in the dissect- 
ing rooms at Edinburgh for fifty years after 
his death. Though its descriptions in places 
show signs of being written by a man with- 
out literary education, they are generally 
terse and lucid, and copies of the book often 
bear evidence that it was placed, as intended 
by the author, upon the body which the stu- 
dent was dissecting. Later in the same year 
he published ' Eight Anatomical Tables of 
the Human Body.' The plates represent the 
skeleton and muscles, and are copied from 
Albinus, with brief original descriptions of 
each plate. Both books were published in 
second editions by John Murray in London 
in 1778 and 1779 respectively. After a long 
illness Innes died of phthisis, 12 Jan. 1777, 
in Edinburgh. 

[Works; Memoir by Dr. Alexander Monro 
prefixed to both -works.] N. M. 

INNES, LEWIS (1651-1738), principal 
of the Scots College in Paris, born at Walker- 
dales, in the Enzie of Banff, in 1651, was 
the eldest son of James Innes, wadsetter, of 
Drumgask in the parish of Aboyne, Aber- 
deenshire, by his wife, Jane Robertson, daugh- 
ter of a merchant in Aberdeen. The family 
of Drumgask was descended from the Inneses 
of Drainie in the county of Moray. Lewis's 
father held Drumgask in mortgage from the 
Earl of Aboyne, but it afterwards became 
the irredeemable property of the family. 
Lewis studied for the Roman catholic priest- 
hood at Paris, and on the death of Robert 
Barclay in February 1682 he was appointed 
principal of the Scots College there. Along 
with his brother, Thomas Innes [q. v.l, he 
devoted himself to the preservation and ar- 
rangement of the records in the college library. 
He took a conspicuous part in the proceed- 
ings connected with the vindication of the 
authenticity of the famous charter which 
established the legitimacy of King Robert III. 
He carried this charter to St. Germains, 
where it was shown to James II and the 
nobility and gentry of his court. Afterwards 
he submitted it to an examination by the 
most famous antiquaries of France, including 
Renandot, Baluze, Mabillon, and Ruinart, in 
the presence of several of the Scottish nobility 
and gentry, at a solemn assembly held in the 
abbey of St. Germain-des-Pres, on 26 May 
1694. The document was printed by him, 
under the title of ' Charta authentica Robert! 
Seneschalli Scotiae ; ex Archivio Collegii 
Scotorum Parisiensis edita,' Paris, 1695, 4to. 
Innes is said to have been one of five who 
acted as a cabinet council to James II at St. 
Germains on the king's return from Ireland 
in 1690. On 11 Nov. 1701 he was admitted 



Innes 



Innes 



almoner to the queen-mother, Mary of Este, 
an office he had previously held while she was 
queen-consort. On 23 Dec. 1713 he was ad- 
mitted almoner to her son, the Chevalier de 
St. George, resigned the office of principal of 
the Scots College in the same year, and in 
1714 was appointed lord almoner. He ap- 
pears to have acted as a sort of confidential 
secretary, and repeated allusions to him are 
scattered through the printed volume of the 
' Stuart Papers.' In the beginning of 1718 he 
was set aside from his office, but within a few 
years he was again in confidential communi- 
cation with his master. He was trusted in 
the important business of securing Bishop 
Atterbury's papers, which after the bishop's 
death were deposited in the Scots College. 
He died at Paris on 23 Jan. 1738. 

Innes probably compiled ' The Life of 
James II, King of England, &c., collected 
out of Memoirs writ of his own hand,' 2 vols., 
London, 1816, 4to, edited by James Stanier 
Clarke [q. v.], who attributed the authorship 
to the younger brother, Thomas Inues. It is 
certain that the original memoirs written 
by James II were deposited in the Scots 
College under the special care of Lewis 
Innes [see under JAMES II, infra]. 

[Memoirs by George Grub, LL.D., prefixed to 
Thomas Innes's Hist, of Scotland, 1853, and his 
Critical Essay on the Ancient Inhabitants of 
Scotland, 1879 ; Miscellany of the Spalding Club, 
ii. 418; Life of James II (Clarke), pref. p. xix; 
Chalmers's Life, of Kuddiman, p. 201 ; Stothert's 
Catholic Mission in Scotland, pp. 248, 249; 
Michel's Les Ecossais en France, ii. 303, 319, 
328 n. t 531.] T. C. 

INNES, THOMAS (1662-1744),historian 
and antiquary, second son of James Innes, 
and younger brother of Lewis Innes [q. v.], 
was born in 1662 at Drumgask in the parish 
of Aboyne, Aberdeenshire. In 1677 he was 
sent to Paris, and studied at the college of 
Navarre. He entered the Scots College on 
12 Jan. 1681, but still attended the college 
of Navarre. On 26 May 1684 he received 
the clerical tonsure ; on 10 March 1691 was 
promoted to the priesthood, and afterwards 
spent a few months at Notre Dame desVertus, 
a seminary of the Oratorians near Paris. Re- 
turning to the Scots College in 1692, he as- 
sisted the principal, his elder brother Lewis, 
in arranging the records of the church of 
Glasgow, which had been deposited partly 
in that college and partly in the Carthusian 
monastery at Paris by Archbishop James 
Beaton. In 1694 he graduated M.A. at 
Paris, and in 1695 was matriculated in the 
German nation. After officiating as at priest 
for two years in the parish of JNIagnay in 



the diocese of Paris, he went again to the 
Scots College in 1697. In the spring of 
1698 he returned to his native country, and 
officiated for three years at Inveravon, Banff- 
shire, as a priest of the Scottish mission. In 
October 1701 he returned to Paris, and be- 
came prefect of studies in the Scots College, 
and also mission agent. There he spent twenty 
years, occupied in the quiet discharge of his 
duties and in literary pursuits. His intimacy 
with Rollin, Duguet, and Santeul led to his 
being suspected of Jansenism. In 1720 his bro- 
therLewis, in what appears to be aformal letter 
to the vicar-general of the Bishop of Apt, con- 
tradicted a report that Thomas had concurred 
in an appeal to a general council against 
the condemnation of Quesnel's ' Moral Re- 
flections ' by Pope Clement XI. ' There is/ 
remarks his biographer, Dr. Grub, 'no ap- 
pearance of Jansenism in his historical works, 
though they mark clearly his decided opposi- 
tion to ultramontanism.' After a long absence 
he again visited Scotland in order to collect 
materials for his ' Essay ' and his ' History.' 
In the winter of 1724 he was at Edinburgh, 
pursuing his researches in the Advocates' 
Library. In December 1727 he was appointed 
vice-principal of the Scots College at Paris, 
where he died on 28 Jan. 1744. 

The results of Innes's laborious researches 
in Scottish history and antiquities were libe- 
rally communicated to all scholars who sought 
his assistance. Atterbury and Ruddiman ap- 
pear to have been equally attracted by him, 
and Bishop Robert Keith was greatly in- 
debted to him for materials incorporated in 
the ' Catalogue of Scottish Bishops.' 

His works are: 1. 'A Critical Essay on 
the Ancient Inhabitants of the Northern 
Parts of Britain or Scotland. Containing 
an Account of the Romans, of the Britains 
betwixt the Walls, of the Caledonians or 
Picts, and particularly of the Scots. With 
an Appendix of ancient manuscript pieces,' 
2 vols., London, 1729 ; reprinted, with a 
Memoir by George Grub, LL.D., in vol. viii. 
of ' The Historians of Scotland,' Edinburgh, 
1879, 8vo. This work elicited an anonymous 
volume of 'Remarks' [by George Waddel], 
Edinburgh, 1733, and ' The Roman Account 
of Britain and Ireland, by Alexander Taitt,' 
1741. Both these replies are reprinted in 
' Scotia Rediviva,' 1826, vol. i., and in ' Tracts 
illustrative of the Antiquities of Scotland,' 
1836, vol. i. Innes's fame mainly rests 
upon this ' Critical Essay.' ' Authors [such 
r a Pinkerton and Chalmers] who agree in 
nothing else have united to build on the 
foundations which Innes laid, and to extol 
his learning and accuracy, his candour and 
sagacity' (Spalding Club Miscellany, vol. ii. 



Inskipp 



pref. p. cxv). 2. ' Epistola de veteri apud 
Scotos habendi Synodos modo,' dated Paris, 
23Nov.l735. Invol.i.of Wilkins's 'Concilia 
Magnse Britanniae;' reprinted with Innes's 
' Civil and Ecclesiastical History.' 3. ' The 
Civil and Ecclesiastical History of Scotland/ 
edited by George Grub, LL.D., and printed 
at Aberdeen for the Spalding Club, 1853, 4to, 
from a manuscript in the possession of Dr. 
James Kyle, bishop of Germanica, and vicar- 
apostolic of the northern district of Scotland. 
4. Papers by Innes, and documents con- 
nected with his family. In ' Miscellany of 
the Spalding Club,' ii. 351-80. They include 
(a) ' Letter to the Chevalier de St. George,' 
dated 17 Oct. 1729; (b) 'Remarks on a Charter 
of Prince Henry, son of David I ; ' (c) 'Of 
the Salisbury Liturgy used in Scotland.' 

6. Five closely-written volumes, mostly in 
his handwriting, of his manuscript collections 
in Scottish history, now among the Laing 
manuscripts in the library of Edinburgh Uni- 
versity. 6. A thick quarto volume of collec- 
tions and dissertations. This was at Preshome 
under the charge of Bishop Kyle in 1853. 

7. 'Original Letters,' 1729-33. In the Uni- 
versity Library, Edinburgh (' Laing Collec- 
tions,' No. 346). Several of his letters to the 
Hon. Harry Mania of Kelly, author of the 
' Registrum de Panmure,' are printed in the 
appendix to Dr. John Stuart's edition of that 
work, 2 vols. 4to, Edinburgh, 1874. 

The ' Life of King James II ' has been 
attributed to him, but was probably com- 
piled by his brother, Lewis Innes. 

[Life by George Grub, LL.D., prefixed to 
Innes's Hist, of Scotland and his Critical Essay, 
1879 ; Maule's Eegistrum de Pantnure, pref. pp. 
Ixiv-lxvi, cxi-cxxviii ; Chambers's Biog. Diet, 
of Eminent Scotsmen (Thomson), ii. 337 ; Fox's 
Hist, of James II, pref. p. xxvi n. ; Eegistrum 
Episcopatus Glaguensis (Bannatyne Club), vol. i. 
pref. p. xiii ; Life of James II, edited by J. S. 
Clarke, vol. i. pref. p. xix ; Michel's Les Ecossais 
en France, ii. 322, 325-8, 329, 519, 531 ; Miscel- 
lany of the Spalding Club, ii. 418 ; Stothert's 
Catholic Mission in Scotland, pp. 248, 249, 566; 
information from H. A. Webster, esq.] T. C. 

INSKIPP, JAMES (1790-1868), painter, 
born in 1790, was originally employed in the 
commissariat service, from which he retired 
with a pension, and adopted painting as a 
profession for the remainder of his life. He 
began with landscapes, one of which he ex- 
hibited at the Royal Academy. Subsequently 
he devoted himself to small subject-pictures, 
and with less success to portraits. He was 
a frequent contributor to the British Insti- 
tution and to the Society of British Artists, 
as well as to the Royal Academy. A pic- 
ture of ' A Girl making Lace ' is at Bowood, 



4. Insula 

Wiltshire, and another of 'A Venetian Wo- 
man 'at Deepdene, Surrey. His pictures were 
admired at the time, and some were engraved. 
He drew a series of illustrations for Sir Harris- 
Nicolas's edition of Izaak Walton's' Complete 
Angler,' published in 1833-6. Inskipp re- 
sided the latter part of his life at Godalming,. 
Surrey, where he died on 15 March 1868, 
aged 78. He was buried in Godalming ceme- 
tery. In 1838 he published [a series of en- 
gravings from his drawings, entitled 'Studies 
of Heads from Nature.' 

[Redgrave's Diet, of Artists; Graves's Diet, of 
Artists, 1760-1880; Catalogues of the Royal 
Academy and British Institution.] L. C. 

INSULA, ROBERT DE, or ROBERT" 
HALIELAND (d. 1283), bishop of Dur- 
ham, was born at Holy Island, apparently of 
humble parentage. He became amonk at Dur- 
ham. The Lanercost chronicler (p. 113) call* 
him Robertus de Coquina, which looks as if 
he was employed in some menial office. He 
rose to be prior of Finchale, and in May 1274 
attended the council of Lyons' as proctor for 
the prior of Durham. On 24 Sept. in the 
same year he was chosen bishop of Durham;, 
his election was confirmed 31 Oct., the 
temporalities were restored 11 Nov., and on 
9 Dec. he was consecrated at York. In 1276 
he issued some ' Const itutiones Synodales,' 
relating to tithes, which are printed in Wil- 
kins's ' Concilia ' (ii. 28-30). Next year he- 
was engaged in a quarrel with the king 
of Scotland as to some border forays, and 
when Edward issued a commission to treat 
with the Scots, Bishop Robert attended at 
Tweedmouth to substantiate his claim, but 
nothing came of it (F&dera, ii. 84-6). In 
1280 he and his chapter refused to admit the 
visitation of William Wickwaine, archbishop 
of York, grounding their refusal on a state- 
ment that the archbishop was bound to visit 
his own chapter first, and when the arch- 
bishop came to Durham on 24 June they 
shut the gates of the city against him. The 
archbishop thereupon excommunicated them,, 
and laid the diocese under interdict. Bishop 
Robert paid a visit to Rome during the year 
to lay the matter before the pope, but the 
dispute was still unsettled at his death ; some 
letters relating to the quarrel are preserved' 
(see RAINE, Letters from Northern Registers f 
pp.65-6, and PECKH AM, Reg. i. 383, ii.494, both 
in Rolls Ser. ; see also HEMINGBTTRGH, ii. 7, 
219, and GRAYSTANES, c. xvii.) Robert db 
Insula died at Middleham, Yorkshire, 7 June 
1283, and was buried in the chapter-house at 
Durham. He is praised as a defender and en- 
larger of the liberties of his church (Planctus 
in laudem Roberti Episcopi, ap. Surtees Sa- 



Inverarity s 

ciety, xxxi. 51-3). Three charters granted by 
him to Finchale are printed, with engravings 
of his seal, in ' The Priory of Finchale ' (pp. 
110, 148, 183, Surtees Soc.) He left various 
bequests to the convent of Durham (Hist. 
Dunelm. Script. Tres, p. xci), and is said to 
have been a benefactor of the university of 
Cambridge. 

[Authorities quoted ; Annales Monastic! (Rolls 
Ser.); Graystanes Chronicle in Hist. Dunelm. 
Script. Tres (Surtees Soc.) ; Wharton's Anglia 
Sacra, ii. 743-5 ; Tanner's Bibl. Brit.-Hib. p. 429 ; 
Surtees's Hist. Durham, i. xxx-i.] C. L. K. 

INVERARITY, ELIZABETH, after- 
wards MRS. MARTYN (1813-1846), Scottish 
vocalist and actress, was born in Edinburgh 
on 23 March 1813. She was first taught by 
Mr. Thorne, and afterwards by Alexander 
Murray of Edinburgh, at one of whose con- 
certs she appeared as an amateur singer in 
1829. She made her debut at Covent Garden 
in 'Cinderella 'on 14 Dec. 1830. In 1832 she 
sang in ' Robert le Diable ' at Covent Garden, 
and in the same year appeared at the Philhar- 
monic Society's concerts. In 1836 she married 
Charles Marty n, a bass singer, and in 1839 she 
went with an operatic company to New York, 
where,with her husband, she sang in ' Fidelio ' 
and other works. She died at Newcastle-on- 
Tyne on 27 Dec. 1846. She is said to have 
been a fine-looking woman, but not to have 
excelled greatly either as a singer or an 
actress. She had a sister who was also a 
professional vocalist. Mr. and Mrs. Martyn 
wrote jointly some ballads of no merit. 

[Brown's Diet, of Music ; Scotsman, 6 Jan. 
1847; Dibdin's Annals of the Edinburgh Stage; 
private information.] J. C. H. 

INVERKEITHING, RICHARD (d. 

1272), bishop of Dunkeld, was in earlier life 
a prebendary of that see (KEITH, Scottish 
Bishops, p. 80), and, according to some autho- 
rities, chamberlain of the king (Chron. de 
Lanercost,^. 56; MYLNE, Vit. Dunkeld. Eccl. 
EpiscopJ) By favour of the crown he suc- 
ceeded David, bishop-elect of Dunkeld, in 
the bishopric in 1250. In the contests for 
supreme power which filled the minority of 
Alexander III [q. v.] Inverkeithing was a pro- 
minent leader of the English party (RYHER, 
Fcedem, orig. ed. i. 565-7). In 1255 his party 
secured possession of the king and, after in- 
terviews with Henry III at Wark Castle and 
Kelso (August), deprived the rival party of 
the Comyns of office. Thereupon Inverkeith- 
ing displaced Gameline [q.v.], bishop of St. 
Andrews, as chancellor of Scotland, and was 
among the fifteen regents appointed for seven 
years (ib.) But in the counter-revolution of 
1257 the party of the Comyns took the great 



> Inwood 

seal from his vice-chancellor, Robert Stute- 
will, dean of Dunkeld, and he seems to have- 
been superseded in his office by Wishart r 
bishop of Glasgow. The compromise of 1258 
between the two parties does not appear to- 
have restored the seal to him. According to- 
Keith he declined to continue in the office. 

About Easter 1268 Inverkeithing was with 
the other bishops summoned to a council by 
the legate Ottobon. The bishops deputed 
Inverkeithing and Robert, bishop of Dun- 
blane, to watch over their interests. When 
the council met the legate ordained some 
new statutes, chiefly concerning the secular 
and regular priests of Scotland, which the- 
bishops declined to accept (FoRDUN', i. 303). 
Inverkeithing died on St. Magnus day 1272, 
at a great age ; his body was buried at Dun- 
keld, and his heart in the choir of the church 
of Inchcolm, which he himself had built 
(MYLNE, u.s.) Reports, which rest on no 
ascertained authority, are said to have been 
circulated that Inverkeithing and Margaret, 
queen of Alexander III, who died shortly 
after, were both poisoned (Chron. de Laner- 
cost, p. 97). The Lanercost chronicler also- 
states that Inverkeithing, in order to prevent 
the customary confiscation by the crown of 
the possessions of deceased prelates, disposed 
of his property in his lifetime. 

[Fordun, Chronica Gentis Scotorum, i. 297-8,. 
303, ed. Skene, 1871 ; Chron. de Lanercost, pp. 
56, 97, ed. J. Stevenson for Bannatyne Club,. 
1835 ; Mylne, Vitse Dunkeldensis Ecclesiae Epi- 
scoporum, p. 11 (Bannatyne Club), 1823; Wyn- 
toun, lib. vii. c. x.; Keith's Scottish Bishops, pp.. 
80-1, 1824; Burton's Hist, of Scotland, ii. 25-6 ; 
Tytler's Hist, of Scotland, i. 59, ed. Alison.] 

J. T-T. 

INVERNESS, titular EARL OP. [See- 
HAY, JOHN, 1691-1740.] 

INWOOD, HENRY WILLIAM (1794- 
1843), architect, born on 22 May 1794, was- 
the eldest son of William Inwood [q. v.], 
the architect. He was educated under his 
father, and in 1819 travelled in Greece, espe- 
cially studying and drawing the architecture- 
of Athens. He formed a small collection 
of Greek antiquities from Athens, Mycenae,. 
Laconia, Crete, &c. This collection, con- 
sisting of about thirty-nine objects (frag- 
ments from the Erechtheion and Parthenon,, 
terra-cottas, inscriptions, &c.), was sold to 
the British Museum in 1843 for 401. Ant 
inventory of it (dated 8 March 1843), in 
Inwood's handwriting, is in the library of 
the department of Greek and Roman an- 
tiquities in the museum. He assisted his 
father in designing and in superintending 
the erection of St. Pancras New Churcbi 



Inwood 



lolo Goch 



(1819-22), and was also connected with him 
in the erection of three London chapels 
(1822-4) [see under IXWOOD, WILLIAM]. 
Inwood was a fellow of the Society of An- 
tiquaries, and for many years, from 1809, an 
exhibitor at the Royal Academy. He is sup- 
posed to have died on 20 March 1843, about 
which time a vessel in which he had sailed 
for Spain was lost with all on board. In- 
wood published : 1. ' The Erechtheion at 
Athens ; fragments of Athenian architec- 
ture, and a few remains in Attica, Megara, 
FJleusis, illustrated,' London, 1827, fol. A 
German work, ' Das Erechtheion,' Potsdam, I 
1843, by A. F. Quast, is based on this. 
2. ' Of the Resources of Design in the Archi- 
tecture of Greece, Egypt, and other Countries | 
obtained by ... studies . . . from Nature,' , 
London, 1834, 4to (only two parts published). 

[Architectural Publ. Soc. Diet.; Eedgrave's 
Diet, of Artists.] W. W. 

INWOOD, WILLIAM (1771 P-1843), 
architect and surveyor, was born about 1771 j 
at Caen Wood, Highgate, where his father, ] 
Daniel Inwood, was bailiff to Lord Mans- 
field. He was brought up as an architect 
and surveyor, and became steward to Lord 
Colchester and practised as a surveyor. He 
designed numerous mansions, villas, bar- 
racks, warehouses, &c. In 1821 he planned 
the new galleries for St. John's Church, 
Westminster, and in 1832-3 designed, with 
the assistance of his second son, Charles Fre- 
derick Inwood (see below), the new West- 
minster Hospital. His best-known work is 
St. Pancras New Church, London, in the 
designing of which after Greek models, espe- 
cially the Athenian Erechtheion, he was as- 
sisted by his eldest son, Henry William In- 
wood [q. v.] This church was built between 
1 July 1819 and 7 May 1822, and cost 63,25U, 
exclusive of the organ and fittings (BRITTON 
and PUGIN, Public Edifices, 1825, i. 145 : WAL- 
:FORD, Old and New London,\. 353). Its style 
is severely criticised by Fergusson (Hist, of 
-Architecture, 2nd edit.iv. 334,|335), who says 
its erection ' contributed more than any other 
circumstances to hasten the reaction towards 
the Gothic style, which was then becoming 
fashionable.' Inwood also erected in Lon- 
don, with the assistance of his eldest son, 
St. Martin's Chapel, Camden Town, 1822- 
1824; Regent Square Chapel, 1824-6; Somers 
Town Chapel, Upper Seymour Street, 1824-7. 
From 1813 Inwood for several years exhi- 
bited architectural designs at the Royal Aca- 
demy . He died at his house in Upper Seymour 
Street, London, on 16 March 1843 (in the 
'Gentleman's Magazine' for 1843, new ser. 
xix. 547, he is described as ' late of Euston 



Square '). He was buried in the family vault 
in St. Pancras New Church. He had many 
pupils, one of whom was AV. Railton the ar- 
chitect. Inwood published (in 1811 or 1819 ?) 
' Tables for the Purchasing of Estates . . . 
and for the Renewal of Leases held under 
. . . Corporate Bodies.' A second edition of 
this well-known work, which was founded 
on the tables of Baily and Smart, appeared 
in 1820, and the 21st edition, by F. Thoman, 
in 1880. 

His eldest son, Henry William, is sepa- 
rately noticed. His second, CHARLES FRE- 
DERICK IXWOOD (1798-1840), also an archi- 
tect, acted as assistant to his father and 
brother, designed All Saints' Church, Great 
Marlow (opened 1835), and the St. Pancras 
National Schools, London. 

[Architectural Publ. Soc. Diet.; Eedgrave's 
Diet, of Artists.] W. W. 

IOLO GOCH, or the RED (Jl. 1328-1405), 
Welsh bard, whose real name is said to be 
EDWARD LLWTD, was lord of Llechryd and 
resided at Coed Pantwn in Denbighshire, his 
mother, according to Gruffydd Hiraethog 
[q. v.], being the Countess of Lincoln. The 
recently extinct family of Pantons of Plas- 
gwyn, Anglesey, traced its descent from lolo. 
He is said to have received a university edu- 
cation, and to have taken the degrees of M. A. 
and Doctor of Laws. According to a state- 
ment in a late manuscript (printed in lolo 
MSS. pp. 96, 491), he attended the last of 
the ' three Eisteddfods of the Renascence ' of 
Welsh literature (Tair Eisteddfod Dadeni), 
which was held, probably in 1330, at Maelor 
(Bromfield), under the patronage and pro- 
tection of Roger Mortimer, first earl of March. 
Dafydd ap Gwilym [q. v.] was the president, 
and lolo was made a ' chaired bard ' for his 
knowledge of the laws of poetry, his tutor 
being Ednyfed ab Gruffydd. lolo must have 
been quite a young man at the time. A diffi- 
culty has been made as to his date, because 
he wrote an elegy on the death of Tudur ab 
Gronw, of the family of Edny ved Fychan of 
Penmynydd, Anglesey, who is said to have 
died in 1315 ; but itappearsfrom a genealogical 
table of that family (Archceologia Cambrensis, 
3rd ser. xv. 378) that there was another Tudur 
ab Gronw, who died in 1367 ( Y Cymmrodor, 
v. 261-3), and the elegy probably referred to 
the latter. lolo was a staunch friend of Owen 
Glendower [q. v.], who owned a neighbour- 
ing estate. When Owen was in the height of 
his glory he invited lolo to stay at his house 
at Sycharth, which must have been before 
2 May 1402, when it was burned by Hotspur ; 
and after his visit the poet wrote a glowing 
description of the splendour of Owen's palace, 



lolo Goch 



lorwerth 



comparing it with Westminster Abbey. On 
this account lolo has often been erroneously 
described as Owen's family bard (FouLKES, 
Geiriadur Bywgraffyddol, p. 553) instead 
of his friend and neighbour. This poem is 
preserved in a manuscript volume in the 
British Museum, known as the ' Book of 
Huw Lleyn ' (Add. MS. 14967), which is 
in the handwriting of Guttyn Owain, written 
prior to 1487. When Owen actually broke 
out into rebellion, lolo, though in advanced 
years, poured forth stirring patriotic songs in 
his praise, and chief among them is one 'com- 
posed with the view of stirring up his country- 
men to support the cause of Owen' (Welsh 
text in JONES, Gorchestion Beirdd Cymru, 
p. 79, English translation in Y Cymmrodor, 
vi. 98). Much of Owen's early success may 
be justly attributed to the enthusiasm created 
by lolo's stirring verses. The appearance of 
a comet in March 1402 (WALSINGHAM, Hist. 
Anglicana, ii. 248) was made the subject of a 
poem by lolo, in which he prophesied Owen's 
coming triumph (JONES, Gorchestion, p. 84). 
In another poem, possibly the last he ever 
wrote, he lamented the mysterious disappear- 
ance of Owen in 1412, though he still fore- 
told his ultimate success (ib. p. 81 ; see Eng- 
lish translation in Y Cymmrodor, iv. pt. ii. 
pp. 230-2). He probably died soon after- 
wards [see GLENDOWER, OWEN]. 

Besides the numerous poems inspired by 
the political events of his time, much devo- 
tional verse was composed by lolo. Seven 
of his poems were published in ' Gorchestion 
Beirdd Cymru,' edited by Rhys Jones. An 
elegy on Dafydd ap Gwilym was printed in 
that poet's works edited by Owen Jones in 
1789. In 1877 the Rev. Robert Jones [q.v.] 
commenced to publish a complete edition of 
lolo's poems for the Cymmrodorion Society, 
but he died when thirteen only had been 
printed, two of which had previously been 
published in Jones's ' Gorchestion.' Only 
eighteen of lolo's poems have therefore been 
printed. One hundred and twenty-eight poems 
by him are mentioned as scattered throughout 
different volumes of the Myvyrian collection 
in the British Museum (Add. MSS. 14962- 
15089), but some of these are probably du- 
plicates. There are many at Peniarth, par- 
ticularly in Hengwrt MSS. 253 a, 330, 356, 
and 361, and three are also included in the 
' Red Book of Hergest.' lolo is said to have 
written a history of the three principalities 
of Wales (JONES, Poetical Eelicks of Welsh 
Bards, ed. 1794, p. 87), but this has long 
since been lost. 

[Williams's Eminent Welshmen ; Hans 
Llenyddiaeth y Cymry, by G-. ab Ehys, pp. 127- 
135.] D. LL. T. 



IORWERTH AB BLEDDTN (d. 1112), 
Welsh prince, was a younger son of Bleddyn 
ab Cynvyn, and brother, therefore, of Cadw- 
gan (d. 1112) [q.v.], Madog, Rhirid, and 
Maredudd. In 1100 he was living in Cere- 
digion as the vassal of Robert of Belleme, 
earl of Shrewsbury [q. v.], and to some extent 
joint ruler with his elder brother Cadwgan (d. 
1112) [q.v.], the prince of Ceredigion and part 
of Powys. In 1102, when Belleme revolted 
against Henry I, he called on the Britons sub- 
ject to him to come to his help, promising 
them property, gifts, and freedom (Brut y 
Tywysogion, p. 69, Rolls ed. The dates of 
the ' Brut ' are here two years wrong). lor- 
werth accompanied Cadwgan to the neigh- 
bourhood of Bridgnorth to annoy the troops 
which Henry I had brought against Robert's 
stronghold (OBDEKictrs VITALIS, Hist. JEccl. 
iv. 173, ed. Le PrSvost). Henry now sent 
William Pantoul or Pantulf, a bitter enemy 
of his former lord, Belleme, to buy off the 
Welsh kings (ib. iv. 174). He separated 
lorwerth from Cadwgan by promising him 
Powys, Ceredigion, half of Dy ved (including 
Pembroke Castle), Ystrad Towy, Gower, and 
Kidwelly, ' whilst the king should live, free 
without homage and payment \Bruty Tywy- 
soyion, p. 71). lorwerth went to the king's 
camp and agreed to change sides. While 
Cadwgan and Maredudd were still with Earl 
Robert, lorwerth managed to turn the whole 
Welsh army against the lord of Shrewsbury. 
This unexpected blow was the more severe as 
Belleme had sent his cattle and riches for safety 
among the Britons. He saw that all was 
lost, in despair abandoned Bridgnorth, and 
soon lost his power altogether. The Welsh 
writers perhaps assign too great a share to 
lorwerth in bringing about Belleme's fall, but 
it was not inconsiderable. 

lorwerth was now at war with his brothers, 
but he soon made peace with Cadwgan, ac- 
knowledging him as lord of his former pos- 
sessions in Ceredigion and Powys and con- 
tenting himself with the rest of King Henry's 
grant. But he took Maredudd prisoner and 
handed him over to King Henry. He then 
repaired to Henry to receive his reward. But 
the king broke his word, and gave Dy ved to 
a Norman knight named Saer, and Ystrad 
Towy, Gower, and Kidwelly to a rival Welsh 
chieftain, Howel, son of Goronwy. Next 
year (1103) lorwerth was summoned to 
Shrewsbury, and, after a day's trial before 
the king's council, in which all his pleadings 
and claims were judged against him, was 
thrown into prison, ' not according to law 
but according to power.' ' Then failed the 
hope and happiness of all the Britons' (ib. 
p. 77). 



Irby 



Irby 



lorwerth remained in prison until 1111 
(Annales Cambria, p. 34 ; Eruty Tywysogion, 
p. 97, dates his release in 1107). He was then 
released by the king on giving hostages and 
paying a ransom, and his territory (apparently 
some part of Powys) was restored to him. 
But his outlawed nephews, Owain, son of 
Cadwgan, and Madog, son of Rhirid, took up 
their abode on his lands and hid their prey 
there. lorwerth in vain besought them to 
leave him in peace. As he had been strongly 
enjoined to have no intercourse with them 
but to hunt them out and deliver them to the 
king, he was forced to collect his followers 
and pursue them. They retreated to Meirio- 
nydd, but soon went to Ceredigion, whose 
ruler, Cadwgan, was now again on good terms 
with lorwerth. There they committed fresh 
outrages. lorwerth accompanied Cadwgan 
on his visit to the king's court to deprecate 
Henry's wrath. Henry deprived Cadwgan of 
Ceredigion for his weakness, but left lorwerth 
in possession of Powys. Madog soon went 
back to lorwerth's territory. lorwerth was 
still afraid to receive him, so Madog hid him- 
self and joined Llywerch, son of Trahaiarn, 
in a plot against his uncle. They at last 
(1112) made a night attack on lorwerth's 
house in Caereineon, and sent up a shout 
which awoke lorwerth, who bravely defended 
the house. Madog set fire to it, and lor- 
werth's companions escaped, leaving him in 
the fire. lorwerth, severely burnt, tried to 
get out, but his enemies received him on the 
points of their spears and slew him. 

[Brut y Tywysogion, the Welsh text in J. G-. 
Evans's Red Book of Hergest, vol. ii., the Eng- 
lish translation in the Rolls ed. ; Annales Cam- 
brise (Rolls ed.) ; Ordericus Vitalis, Hist. Eccl. 
ed. Le Prevost ; Freeman's William Rufus, ii. 
424-53.] T. F. T. 

IRBY, CHARLES LEONARD (1789- 
1845), captain in the navy and traveller, born 
9 Oct. 1789, was sixth son of Frederick Irby, 
second lord Boston, and brother of Rear- 
admiral Frederick Paul Irby [q. v.] He 
entered the navy in 1801, and after serving 
in the North Sea and Mediterranean, at the 
Cape of Good Hope, the reduction of Monte 
Video, and in the Bay of Biscay, was pro- 
moted to be lieutenant on 13 Oct. 1808. He 
afterwards served at the reduction of Mauri- 
tius, and on the coast of North America ; 
and on 7 June 1814 was promoted to the 
command of the Thames, in which he took 
part in the unfortunate expedition against 
New Orleans. Ill-health compelled him to 
resign the command in May 1815; and in the 
summer of 1816 he left England in company 
with an old friend and messmate, Captain 



James Mangles [q. v.], with the intention of 
making a tour 011 the continent. The jour- 
ney was extended far beyond their original 
design. They visited Egypt, and, going up the 
Nile, in the company of Giovanni Baptista 
Belzoni [q. v.] and Henry William Beechey 
[q. v.], explored the temple at Abu-Simbel 
(Ipsamboul) ; afterwards, they went across 
the desert and along the coast, with a 
divergence to Balbec and the Cedars, and 
reached Aleppo, where they met William 
John Bankes [q. v.] and Thomas Legh, who 
with themselves were the earliest of modern 
explorers of Syria. Thence they travelled to 
Palmyra, Damascus, down the valley of the 
Jordan, and so to Jerusalem. They after- 
wards passed round the Dead Sea, and through 
the Holy Land. At Acre they embarked in 
a Venetian brig for Constantinople ; but being 
both dangerously ill of dysentery, they were 
landed at Cyprus for medical assistance. In 
the middle of December 1818 they shipped on 
board a vessel bound for Marseilles, which 
they reached after a boisterous passage of 
seventy-six days. Their letters during their 
journeyings were afterwards collected, and 
privately printed in 1 823 under the title of 
' Travels in Egypt and Nubia, Syria and Asia 
Minor, during the years 1817-18.' In 1844 
they were published as a volume of Murray's 
' Colonial and Home Library.' 

In August 1826 Irby was appointed to 
command the Pelican sloop, fitting out for 
the Mediterranean, where she was actively 
employed in the suppression of piracy in the 
Levant and on the coast of Greece. On 2 July 
1827 he was posted to the Ariadne, but was 
not relieved from the command of the Peli- 
can till the end of September ; and after the 
battle of Navarino he was appointed by Sir 
Edward Codrington to bring home the Genoa 
[see BATHTTRST, WALTER], which he paid off 
at Plymouth in January 1828. He had no 
further service, and died on 3 Dec. 1845. He 
married, in February 1825, Frances, a sister 
of his friend Captain Mangles, and left issue. 

[Marshall's Roy. Nav. Biog. x. (vol.iii. pt. ii.) 
1 ; O'Byrne's Naval Biographical Diet. ; Gent. 
Mag. 1845, xxv. new ser. 536 ; Travels in Egypt, 
&c. (as ia text) ; Foster's Peerage.] J. K. L. 

IRBY, FREDERICK PAUL (1779- 
1844), rear-admiral, born on 18 April 1779, 
was second son of Frederick, second lord 
Boston, and brother of Captain Charles Leo- 
nard Irby [q. v.] He entered the navy in 
1791, served on the home and North Ameri- 
can stations, and, as midshipman of the Mon- 
tagu, was present in the battle of 1 June 
1794. On 6 Jan. 1797 he was promoted to 
be lieutenant of the Circe frigate, in which 



Irby 



he was present at the battle of Camperdown. 
He was afterwards in the Apollo, which was 
wrecked near the Texel on 7 Jan. 1799. On 
22 April 1800 he was promoted to command 
the Volcano bomb ; in the following year was 
moved into the Jalouse, was employed in the 
North Sea, and was advanced to post rank 
on 14 April 1802. In 1805 he had command 
of the sea-fencibles in the Essex district, and 
towards the end of 1807 was appointed to 
the Amelia, a 38-gun frigate, on the home 
station, one of the squadron under Rear- 
admiral Stopford, which, on 24 Feb. 1809, 
drove ashore and destroyed three large fri- 
gates near Sables d'Olonne [see STOPFORD, 
SIR ROBERT]. The Amelia, being the look- 
out ship of the squadron, first sighted them, 
engaged them in a running fight, and received 
little material support from her consorts. 
Irby's gallantry and the good conduct of his 
men elicited the special approval of the admi- 
ralty. For the next two years he continued ac- 
tivelyemployed on the coast of France,and on 
24 March 1811 he assisted in driving on shore 
and destroying the French frigate Amazone. 
Still in the Amelia, Irby was afterwards sent 
as senior officer of the squadron on the west 
coast of Africa, which was employed in the 
suppression of the slave trade and the support 
of our settlements. In the end of January 
181 3, as he was on the point of leaving Sierra 
Leone for England, two French 40-gun fri- 
gates, Arethuse and Rubis, arrived on the 
coast. Each of them was of rather more than 
the nominal force of the Amelia, whose crew 
was, moreover, worn and reduced by the two 
years of African climate, while the enemy's 
ships were newly come from France. Irby, 
however, at once put to sea, meaning to keep 
watch on them, while he collected such force 
as was on the station ; but coming in sight 
of them at anchor on 6 Feb., the Arethuse 
weighed and stood out to meet him. Irby, 
who did not know that the Rubis had been 
on shore and was disabled, made sail off the 
land in order to draw the Arethuse away 
from her consort, and it was not till the 
evening of the next day, 7 Feb., that he 
turned to meet the French ship. One of the 
most equal and gallant actions of the war 
then followed. After four hours of stubborn 
fight, both frigates had received such injuries 
that they were unable to continue. They 
separated to repair damages, and neither 
was willing to renew the combat. Each re- 
ported that the other had fled, though, in 
the damaged state in which they both were, 
flight was impossible. Irby was naturally in 
momentary apprehension of the Rubis join- 
ing her consort, and at the same time felt 
sure that the Arethuse would be compelled 



) Ireland 

to return to France, and that the Rubis 
would go with her. He thus felt justified, 
for the sake of his many wounded, in leaving 
the coast. The Amelia was paid off in May 
1813, and Irby had no further service. He 
was made a C.B. in 1831, became a rear- 
admiral in 1837, and died on 24 April 1844. 
He was twice married, and left a numerous 
issue. 

[Marshall's Roy. Nav. Biog. iii. (vol. ii.) 
488 ; Men of the Eeign ; James's Naval His- 
tory, ed. of 1860, vi. 42 ; Chevalier's Histoire 
de la Marine Fran<jaise sous le Consulat et 
1'Empire, p. 299 ; Foster's Peerage.] J. K. L. 

IRELAND, DIJKE op. [See VERE, RO- 
BERT DE.] 

IRELAND, FRANCIS (fl. 1745-1773), 
musical composer. [See HUTCHESON, 
FRANCIS, the younger.] 

IRELAND, JOHN (d. 1808), author, 
was born at the Trench Farm, near Wem in 
Shropshire ; the house had been the birth- 
place and country house of Wycherley, whose 
widow is said to have adopted him, but, dying 
without a will, to have left him unprovided 
for. His mother was daughter of the Rev. 
Thomas Holland, and granddaughter of Philip 
Henry [q. v.] Ireland was first apprenticed to 
Isaac Wood, a watchmaker, of Shrewsbury. 
He afterwards practised as a watchmaker in 
Maiden Lane, London, and was a well-known 
member of the society that frequented the 
Three Feathers coffee-house, Leicester Fields 
(see J. T. SMITH, Book for a Rainy Day). He 
published in 1785 a poem, ' The Emigrant,' 
for which he apologised on the score of youth. 
He was a friend of John Henderson [q. v.] 
the actor, and in 1786 published Hender- 
son's ' Letters and Poems, with Anecdotes 
of his Life,' a book of some merit. Ireland 
was a great admirer and collector of the 
works of William Hogarth [q. v.] In 1793 
he was employed by Messrs. Boydell to edit 
a work on the lines of Trusler's ' Hogarth 
Moralised,' and called ' Hogarth Illustrated.' 
The first two volumes were published in 
1791, and reprinted in 1793 and 1806. Sub- 
sequently Ireland obtained from Mrs. Lewis, 
the executrix of Mrs. Hogarth, a number of 
manuscripts and sketches which had belonged 
to Hogarth, including the original manuscript 
of the 'Analysis of Beauty,' and many auto- 
biographical memoranda and sketches pre- 
pared by Hogarth himself in view of the 
publication of 'A History of the Arts.' From 
this Ireland compiled a biography of the 
artist, which has been the foundation of all 
subsequent memoirs. It was published in 1798 
as a supplementary volume to his ' Hogarth 



Ireland 



3 



Ireland 



Illustrated, with Engravings from some 
hitherto unpublished Drawings.' A second 
edition of the ' Supplement ' appeared in 
1804 ; the whole work was reprinted in 1812. 
Ireland died in Birmingham in November 
1808. 

His collection was sold by auction on 5 and 
6 March 1810. A portrait of Ireland was 
engraved by Isaac Mills from a drawing by 
J. R. Smith, which was afterwards in the 
collection of J. B. Nichols. Another por- 
trait, drawn by his friend J. H. Mortimer, was 
engraved by Skelton for his ' Hogarth Illus- 
trated ; ' a copy of this by T. Tagg appeared 
in the later reprints. A portrait of him, 
drawn by R. "VVestall, R.A., is in the print 
room at the British Museum, where there is 
also a small drawing of him prefixed to a 
copy of the sale catalogue of his collection. 
He was no relation to Samuel Ireland (d. 
1800) [q. v.] He is sometimes stated to 
have been a print-seller, but, if this was the 
case, he does not appear to have concerned 
himself with other engravings than those by 
or after Hogarth, 

[Gent. Mag. 1808, Ixviii. 1189; Chalmers's 
Biog. Diet. ; Shropshire Archseol. Trans. 2nd 
ser. ii. 349 ; Ireland's own works.] L. C. 

IRELAND, JOHN, D.D. (1761-1842), 
dean of Westminster, born at Ashburton, 
Devonshire, on 8 Sept. 1761, was son of 
Thomas Ireland, a butcher of that town, and 
of Elizabeth his wife. He was educated at 
the free grammar school of Ashburton, under 
the Rev. Thomas Smerdon. William Gifford 
[q. v.] was a fellow-pupil, and their friend- 
ship continued unbroken until death. For a 
short time Ireland was in the shop of a shoe- 
maker in his native town; but on 8 Dec. 
1779, when aged 18, he matriculated as bible- 
clerk at Oriel College, Oxford. He gra- 
duated B.A. on 30 June 1783, M.A. as grand 
compounder on 13 June 1810, and B.D. and 
D.D. on 24 Oct. 1810. After serving a small 
curacy near Ashburton for a short time, he 
travelled on the continent as tutor to the son 
of Sir James Wright. From 15 July 1793 
till 1816 he was vicar of Croydon. While 
in that position he acted as reader and chap- 
lain to the Earl of Liverpool, who procured 
his appointment to a prebendal stall in West- 
minster Abbey (14 Aug. 1802). His con- 
nection with the abbey lasted for life. He 
was made subdean in 1806, when the theo- 
logical lectureship, which was founded at 
Westminster by the statutes of Queen Eliza- 
beth, was revived for him, and on the death 
of Dean Vincent in December 1815 he was 
promoted to the deanery, being installed on 
9 Feb. 1816. From 1816 to 1835 Ireland 



held the rectory of Islip in Oxfordshire, and 
he was also dean of the order of the Bath. The 
regius professorship of divinity at Oxford was 
offered to him in 1813, but he declined it. 
With such preferments Ireland acquired con- 
siderable wealth, which he used with great 
generosity. In 1825 he gave 4,000/. for the 
foundation at Oxford of four scholarships, of 
the value of 301. a year each, ' for the pro- 
motion of classical learning and taste.' (For 
a full list of the scholars, see Oxford Mag. 
21 Jan. 1891.) To Westminster* School he 
gave bOOl. for the establishment of prizes 
for poems in Latin hexameters. (For a list 
of the winners from 1821 to 1851, see WELCH, 
Alumni Westmonasterienses, ed. Phillimore.) 
Mindful of the advantages he had derived 
from his free education in classics, he ex- 
pended 2,000/. in purchasing a house in East 
Street, Ashburton, as a , residence for the 
master of its grammar school, left an endow- 
ment for its repair, and drew up statutes for 
remodelling the school. For the support of 
six old persons of the same town he settled 
a fund of 301. per annum. 

For four years before his death Ireland was 
in feeble health, but he lived to a great age, 
dying at the deanery, Westminster, on 2 Sept. 
1842, and being buried on 8 Sept. by the side 
of Gifford, in the south transept of the abbey, 
where a monument, with a Latin inscription, 
was placed to his memory. He married 
Susannah, only daughter of John Short of 
Bickham, Devonshire, who died without issue 
at Islip rectory on 9 Nov. 1826, aged 71. 
Though much of his property passed to his 
relatives, he left 5,000/. for the erection of a 
new church at Westminster, which was in- 
validated under the Mortmain Acts ; 10,000/. 
to the university of Oxford for a professor of 
the exegesis of the Holy Scripture ; and 2,0001. 
to Oriel College for exhibitions. As dean 
of Westminster he held the crown at the 
coronations of George IV, William IV, and 
Queen Victoria, and his likeness, as he ap- 
peared on the first of these occasions, was 
drawn by G. P. Harding, and engraved by 
James Stow in Harding's series of portraits 
of the deans in Brayley's ' Westminster 
Abbey,' illustrated by Neale, and also in Sir 
George Naylor's ' Coronation of George IV/ 
A marble bust of him by Chantrey is in the 
Bodleian Library. An early portrait by 
Hoppner has not been engraved. 

Ireland was the author of: 1. 'Five Dis- 
courses for and against the Reception of 
Christianity by the Antient Jews andGreeks,' 
1796. 2. ' Vindicise Regise, or a Defence of 
the Kingly Office, in two Letters to Earl 
Stanhope' [anon.], 1797, 2 editions. 3. ' Let- 
ters of Fabius to Right Hon. William Pitt, 



Ireland 3 

on his proposed Abolition of the Test in favour 
of the Roman Catholics of Ireland' [anon.], 
1801. The letters originally appeared in Cob- 
bett's paper, ' The Porcupine.' 4. ' Nuptiae 
Same, or an Enquiry into the Scriptural Doc- 
trine of Marriage and Divorce' [anon.], 1801. 
Reprinted by desire 1821, and again in 1830. 

5. ' The Claims of the Establishment,' 1807. 

6. ' Paganism and Christianity compared, in 
a Course of Lectures to the King's Scholars 
at Westminster in 1806-7-8,' 1809 ; new edit., 
1825. The lectures were continued until the 
summer of 1812, the second subject being 
' The History and Principles of Revelation,' 
but they were not printed. 7. ' Letter to 
Henry Brougham,' 1818, and in the ' Pam- 
phleteer,' vol. xiv. relating to certain cha- 
rities at Croydon, which were referred to by 
Brougham in his ' Letter to Sir Samuel Ro- 
milly on the Abuse of Charities.' A printed 
letter to Sir William Scott on the same sub- 
ject is also attributed to Ireland in the Cata- 
logue of the British Museum Library. 8. ' The 
Plague of Marseilles in 1720. From docu- 
ments preserved in the archives of that city, 
1834.' It was read by Sir Henry Halford at 
the College of Physicians, 26 May 1834. A 
lecture on the ' Plague of Athens compared 
with the Plague of the Levant and that of 
Milan in 1630 ' was also written by Ireland, 
and read by Halford on 27 Feb. 1832, but 
does not appear to have been printed. When 
dying he ordered that all his manuscripts 
should be destroyed. 

Ireland gave valuable assistance to Wil- 
liam Gifford in his edition of the works of 
Massinger, and Gifford cordially acknow- 
ledged his help in his translation of Juvenal. 
In the ' Maeviad ' (lines 303, &c.) are some 
touching allusions by Gifford to their long 
friendship, and among the odes is an 'Imita- 
tion of Horace,' addressed to Ireland. At the 
close of the ' Memoir of Ben Jonson ' ( Works, 
i. p. ccxlvii) is a feeling reference by Gifford 
to his friend, and in announcing to Canning 
his retirement from the editorship of the 
' Quarterly Review ' (September 1824), he 
mentions that Ireland had stood closely by 
him during the whole period of its exist- 
ence. He is said to have contributed many 
articles to the early numbers of the ' Quar- 
terly,' but none of these have been identified. 
Ireland proved Gifford's will, and obtainec 
his consent to his burial at Westminstei 
Abbey. 

Edward Hawkins [q. v.], provost of Oriel 
and first professor of the exegesis of the Holy 
Scripture under Ireland's will, delivered the 
inaugural lecture (2 Nov. 1847), which was 
afterwards printed, ' with brief notices of the 
founder. 



Ireland 

[Welch's Alumni Westmonast. ed. Phillimore, 
3p. 36, 538, 540-2 ; Forshall's Westminster 
School, pp. 110-11 ; Chester's Eeg. of Westmin- 
ster Abbey, p. 510 ; Stapleton's Corresp. of Can- 
ning, i. 225-6 ; Worthy's Ashburton, pp. 38, 47, 
and App. pp. x, xi, xxv ; Gifford's Massinger, 
. pp. xxxiv-v ; Nichols's Illustr. of Lit. vi. 9, 11 ; 
Foster's Oxford Reg. ; Gent. Mag. 1826 pt. ii. 
p. 476, 1842 pt. ii. pp. 549-50.] W. P. C. 

IRELAND, SAMUEL (d. 1800), author 
and engraver, began life as a weaver in 
Spitalfields, London, but soon took to deal- 
ing in prints and drawings and devoted his 
Leisure to teaching himself drawing, etching, 
and engraving. He made sufficient progress 
to obtain a medal from the Society of Arts 
in 1760. In 1784 he appears as an exhibitor 
for the first and apparently only time at 
the Royal Academy, sending a view of Ox- 
ford (cf. Catalogues, 1780-90). Between 
1780 and 1785 he etched many plates after 
John Hamilton Mortimer and Hogarth. 
Etched portraits by him of General Ogle- 
thorpe (in 1785) and Thomas Inglefield, an 
armless artist (1787), are in the print room 
of the British Museum, together with etch- 
ings after Ruisdael (1786) and Teniers (1787) 
and other masters, and some architectural 
drawings in water-colour. There is some- 
thing amateurish about all his artistic work. 
Meanwhile his taste for collecting books, pic- 
tures, and curiosities gradually became an all- 
absorbing passion, and his methods exposed 
him at times to censure. In 1787 Horace Wai- 
pole, writing of an edition (limited to forty 
copies) of a pamphlet which he was pre- 
paring at Strawberry Hill, complained that 
' a Mr. Ireland, a collector, I believe with 
interested views, bribed my engraver to sell 
him a print of the frontispiece, has etched it 
himself, and I have heard has represented 
the piece, and I suppose will sell some copies, 
as part of the forty ' (Letters, ed. Cunning- 
ham, ix. 110). In 1794 Ireland proved the 
value of a part of his collection by issuing- 
' Graphic Illustrations of Hogarth, from Pic- 
tures, Drawings, and Scarce Prints in the 
Author's possession.' Some of the plates- 
were etched by himself. A second volume 
appeared in 1799. The work is of high in- 
terest, although it is possible that Ireland 
has, either wilfully or ignorantly, assigned 
to Hogarth some drawings by other artists 
(cf. sketch of Dennis in vol. ii.) 

In 1790 Ireland published ' A Picturesque 
Tour through France, Holland, Brabant, 
and part of France made in the Autumn of 
1789,' London (2 vols. roy. 8vo and in large- 
paper 4to). It was dedicated to Francis 
Grose and contained etchings on copper in 
aqua-tinta from drawings made by the 



Ireland 



Ireland 



author ' on the spot.' He paid at least one 
visit to France (cf. W. H. IRELAND, Con- 
fessions, p. 5), and the charge brought against 
him by his enemies that he was never out 
of England is unfounded. A second edition 
appeared in 1795. The series, which was 
long valued by collectors, was continued in 
the same form in ' Picturesque Views on the 
Eiver Thames,' 1792 (2 vols.,2nd ed. 1800-1), 
dedicated to Earl Harcourt ; in ' Picturesque 
Views on the River Medway,' 1793 (1 vol.), 
dedicated to the Countess Do wager of Ayles- 
ford ; in ' Picturesque Views on the War- 
wickshire Avon,' 1795 (1 vol.), dedicated to 
the Earl of Warwick ; and in ' Picturesque 
Views on the River Wye,' 1797 (1 vol.) 
In 1800, just after Ireland's death, appeared 
' Picturesque Views, with an Historical Ac- 
count of the Inns of Court in London 
and Westminster,' dedicated to Alexander, 
lord Loughborough, and the series was con- 
cluded by the publication in 1824 of ' Pic- 
turesque Views on the River Severn '(2 vols.), 
with coloured lithographs, after drawings 
by Ireland, and descriptions by T. Harral. 
Ireland had announced the immediate issue 
of this work in his volume on the Wye in 
1797. 

In 1790 Ireland resided in Arundel Street, 
Strand, and a year later removed to 8 Nor- 
folk Street. His household consisted of Mrs. 
Freeman, a housekeeper and amanuensis, 
whose handwriting shows her to have been 
a woman of education, a son William Henry, 
and a daughter Jane. The latter painted 
some clever miniatures. He had also a mar- 
ried daughter, Anna Maria Barnard. 

Doubts are justifiable about the legitimacy 
-of the surviving son, WILLIAM HENRY IRE- 
LAND (1777-1835), the forger of Shake- 
speare manuscripts, with whose history the 
later career of the father is inextricably con- 
nected. Malone asserted that his mother 
was Mrs. Irwin, a married woman who was 
separated from her husband, and with whom 
the elder Ireland lived (manuscript note 
in British Museum copy of W. H. IRE- 
LAND'S Authentic Account, 1796, p. 1). Ac- 
cording to the same authority the boy was 
baptised as William Henry Irwin in the 
church of St. Clement Danes in the Strand 
in 1777, in which year he was undoubtedly 
born, but there is no confirmation of the 
statement in the parish register. He him- 
self, in a letter to his father dated January 
1797 (Addit. MS. 30346, f. 307), mournfully 
admitted that there was a mystery respect- 
ing his birth, which his father had promised 
to clear up on his coming of age, and in an 
earlier letter, 13 Dec. 1796, he signed him- 
aelf ' W. H. Freeman,' evidence that he be- 



lieved his father's housekeeper to be his 
mother (ib. f. 3026). Although undoubtedly 
christened in the names of William Henry, 
his father habitually called him ' Sam,' in 
affectionate memory, it was asserted, of a 
dead brother, and he occasionally signed him- 
self 'Samuel Ireland, junior,' and ' S. W. H. 
Ireland.' At first educated at private schools 
in Kensington, Baling, and Soho, he was 
sent when he was thirteen to schools in 
France, and he retained through life the 
complete knowledge of French which he ac- 
quired during his four years' stay there. On 
his return home he was articled to William 
Bingley, a conveyancer in chancery of New 
Inn. He enmlated his father's love of an- 
tiquities, and while still a boy picked up 
many rare books. He studied Percy's ' Re- 
liques,' Grose's ' Ancient Armoury,' and 
mediaeval poems and romances, and amused 
himself by writing verse in imitation of 
early authors. His father read aloud to him 
Herbert Croft's ' Love and Madness,' and the 
story of Chatterton, with which part of the 
book deals, impressed him deeply. At the 
same time he was devoted to the stage. The 
elder Ireland was a fervent admirer of Shake- 
speare, and about 1794, when preparing his 
' Picturesque Views of the Avon,' he took his 
son with him to Stratford-on-Avon. They 
carefully examined all the spots associated 
with the dramatist. The father accepted as 
true many unauthentic village traditions, 
including those concocted for his benefit by 
John Jordan [q. v.], the Stratford poet, who 
was his chief guide throughout his visit ; 
and he fully credited an absurd tale of the 
recent destruction of Shakespeare's own 
manuscripts by an ignorant owner of Clop- 
ton House. 

Returning to London in the autumn of 
1794, young Ireland, who developed lying 
proclivities at an early age, obtained some 
ink which had all the appearance of ancient 
origin, and wrote on the fly-leaf of an Eliza- 
bethan tract a dedicatory letter professing 
to have been addressed by the author to 
Queen Elizabeth. His father was com- 
pletely deceived. The young man had much 
time to himself at Bingley's chambers, and 
had free access there to a collection of parch- 
ment deeds of the reigns of Elizabeth and 
James I. At the house of Albany Wal- 
lis, a solicitor of Norfolk Street, and an inti- 
mate friend of his father, he had similar 
opportunities of examining old legal docu- 
ments. In December 1794 he cut from an 
ancient deed in Bingley's office a piece of 
old parchment, and wrote on it in an old law 
hand a mortgage deed purporting to have been 
made between Shakespeare and John Hem- 



Ireland 



33 



Ireland 



inge on the one part, and Michael Fraser and 
his wife on the other. The language and sig- 
nature of Shakespeare were copied from the 
genuine mortgage deed of 1612, which had 
been printed in facsimile by George Steevens. 
Old seals torn from other early deeds were ap- 
pended. On 16 Dec. young Ireland presented 
the document to his father, who at once ac- 
cepted it as genuine, and was corroborated in 
his opinion next day by Sir Frederick Eden, 
who carefully examined it. In the follow- 
ing months William supplied his father with 
many similar documents, and with verses 
and letters bearing Shakespeare's forged sig- 
nature written on fly-leaves torn from Eliza- 
bethan books. He also produced a large 
number of early printed volumes in which he 
had written Shakespeare's name on the title- 
pages, and notes and verses in the same 
feigned handwriting on the margin. A 
transcript of ' Lear,' with a few alterations 
from the printed copies, and a few extracts 
from ' Hamlet,' were soon added to the col- 
lection. The orthography, imitated from 
Chatterton's ' Rowley Poems,' was chiefly 
characterised by a reckless duplication of 
consonants, and the addition of e to the end 
of words. When his father inquired as to the 
source of such valuable treasure-trove, young 
Ireland told a false story of having met at a 
friend's house a rich gentleman who had 
freely placed the documents at his disposal, 
on the condition that his name was not to be 
revealed beyond the initials ' M. H.' Mon- 
tague Talbot, a friend of young Ireland, who 
was at the time a law-clerk, but subsequently 
was well known as an actor in Dublin under 
the name of Montague, accidentally dis- 
covered the youth in the act of preparing 
one of the manuscripts, but he agreed to 
keep the secret, suggested modes of develop- 
ing the scheme, and in letters to his friend's 
father subsequently corroborated the fable of 
' M. H.,' the unknown gentleman. When 
the father was preparing to meet adverse 
criticism, he made eager efforts to learn more 
of ' M. H.,' and addressed letters to him, which 
he gave William Henry to deliver. The an- 
swers received, though penned by his son in a 
slightly disguised handwriting, did not ex- 
cite suspicion. The supposititious correspon- 
dent declined to announce his name, but took 
every opportunity of eulogising William 
Henry as ' brother in genius to Shakespeare,' 
and enclosed on 25 July 1795 some extracts 
from a drama on William the Conqueror, 
avowedly William Henry's composition. 

In February 1795 the elder Ireland had 
arranged all the documents for exhibition at 
his house in Norfolk Street, and invited the 
chief literary men of the day to inspect them. 

VOL. XXIX. 



The credulity displayed somewhat excuses 
Ireland's sell-deception. Dr. Parr and Dr. 
Joseph Warton came together, and the latter, 
on reading an alleged profession of faith by 
Shakespeare, declared it to be finer than any- 
thing in the English church service. Bos- 
well kissed the supposed relics on his knees 
(20 Feb.) James Boaden acknowledged 
their genuineness, while Caley and many offi- 
cers of the College of Arms affected to demon- 
strate their authenticity on palseographical 
grounds. Dr. Valpy of Reading and George 
Chalmers were frequent visitors, and brought 
many friends. On 25 Feb. Parr, Sir Isaac 
Heard, Herbert Croft, Pye, the poet laureate, 
and sixteen others, signed a paper solemnly 
testifying to their belief in the manuscripts. 
Person refused to append his signature. The 
exhibition, which roused much public excite- 
ment, continued for more than a year. On 
17 Nov. Ireland and his son carried the papers 
to St. James's Palace, where the Duke of 
Clarence and Mrs. Jordan examined them, 
and on 30 Dec. Ireland submitted them to 
the Prince of Wales at Carlton House. 

Meanwhile the collection had been growing. 
Encouraged by his success, young Ireland had 
presented his father in March with a new 
blank-verse play, ' Vortigern and Rowena,' in 
what he represented to be Shakespeare's auto- 
graph, and he subsequently produced a tra- 
gedy entitled ' Henry II,' which, though tran- 
scribed in his own handwriting, he represented 
to have been copied from an original in Shake- 
speare's handwriting. On the announcement 
of the discovery of Vortigern,' Sheridan, the 
lessee of Drury Lane Theatre, and Harris 
of Covent Garden both applied to Ireland 
for permission to read it, with a view to its 
representation. In the summer young Ireland 
concocted a series of deeds to prove that an 
ancestor of the same names as himself had 
saved Shakespeare from drowning, and had 
been rewarded by the dramatist with all the 
manuscripts which had just been brought to 
light. It was not, however, with the assent 
of his son that Ireland issued a prospectus 
announcing the publication of the docu- 
ments in facsimile (4 March 1795). The 
price to subscribers for large-paper copies 
was fixed at four guineas, and in December 
1795 the volume appeared. Its title was 
' Miscellaneous Papers and Legal Instru- 
ments under the hand and seal of William 
Shakespeare, including the tragedy of King 
Lear, and a small fragment of Hamlet, from 
the original MSS. in the possession of Samuel 
Ireland ' (London, 1796). Neither 'Vorti- 
gern ' nor ' Henry II ' was included. 

From the first some writers in the news- 
papers had denounced the papers as forgeries 



Ireland 



34 



Ireland 



(cf. Morning Herald, 17 Feb. 1795). Eitson 
and George Steevens, among the earliest visi- 
tors to Norfolk Street, perceived tlie fraud. 
Malone, although he declined to call at Ire- 
land's house,was soon convinced of the deceit, 
and promised to expose it. James Boaden, 
a former believer, grew sceptical ; placed the 
' Oracle,' of which he was editor, at the dis- 
posal of the unbelievers, and published early 
in 1796 ' A Letter to George Steevens,' at- 
tacking Ireland. ' A Comparative View of 
the Opinions of James Boaden,' from the pen 
of Ireland's friend Wyatt, ' Shakespeare's 
Manuscripts, by Philalftthes ' [i.e. Colonel 
Francis Webb], and ' Vortigern under Con- 
sideration,' by W. C. Oulton, were rapidly 
published in Ireland's behalf in answer to 
Boaden. Porson ridiculed the business in a 
translation of ' Three Children Sliding on the 
Ice' into Greek iambics, which he represented 
as a newly discovered fragment of Sophocles. 
A pamphlet by F. G. Waldron, entitled ' Free 
Reflections,' was equally contemptuous, and 
supplied in an appendix a pretended Shake- 
spearean drama, entitled ' The Virgin Queen.' 
The orthography of the papers was unmerci- 
fully parodied by the journalists. The ' Morn- 
ing Herald ' published in the autumn of 1795 
Henry Bate Dudley's mock version of the 
much-talked-of ' Vortigern,' which was still 
unpublished, and Ireland had to warn the 
public against mistaking it for the genuine 
play. Dudley's parody was issued separately 
in 1796 as ' Passages on the Great Literary 
Trial.' 

After much negotiation Sheridan in Sep- 
tember 1795 had agreed to produce ' Vor- 
tigern ' at Drury Lane. Two hundred and 
fifty pounds were to be paid at once to Ireland, 
and half-profits were promised him on each 
performance after 350?. had been received by 
the management (cf. agreement inAddit^MS. 
30348, ff. 22 sq.) When the piece was sent to 
the theatre in December Kemble's suspicions 
were aroused. Delays followed, and Ireland 
wrote many letters to both Sheridan and 
Kemble, complaining of their procrastination. 
At length the piece was cast ; the chief actors 
of the company were allotted parts. Pye 
wrote a prologue, but it was too dubious in 
tone to satisfy Ireland, who rejected it in 
favour of one of Sir James Bland Burges 
[q. v.] ; Robert Merry prepared an epilogue to 
be spoken by Mrs. Jordan ; William Linley 
wrote music for the songs. When the play 
was put into rehearsal Mrs. Siddons and Mrs. 
Palmer resigned their characters, on the spe- 
cious excuse of ill-health. On the eve of the 
performance (March 1796) Malone issued his 
caustic ' Inquiry into the Authenticity ' of the 
papers, to which Ireland temporarily replied 



in a handbill, appealing to the public to give 
the play a fair hearing. On Saturday, 2 April 
1796, the piece was produced. Kemble, who 
had been prevented by Ireland's complaints 
from fixing the previous night April Fool's 
day for the event, nevertheless added to 
the programme the farce entitled ' My Grand- 
mother,' and Covent Garden announced for 
representation a play significantly entitled 
' The Lie of the Day.' Drury Lane Theatre 
was crowded. At first all went well, but the 
audience was in a risible humour, and the 
baldness of the language soon began to pro- 
voke mirth. When, in act v. sc. 2, Kemble 
had to pronounce the line 

And when this solemn mockery is o'er, 

deafening peals of laughter rang through the 
house and lasted until the piece was con- 
cluded (cf. Notes and Queries, 2nd ser. iii. 492). 
Barrymore's announcement of a second per- 
formance met with a roar of disapprobation. 
The younger Ireland afterwards commemo- 
rated the kindly encouragement which Mrs. 
Jordan offered him in the green-room, but for 
Kemble and most of the other actors he ex- 
pressed the bitterest scorn. Kemble asserted 
that he did all he could to save the piece 
{Clubs of London, 1828, ii. 107). The receipts 
from the first and only performance amounted 
to 555/. 6s. Qd., of which 1021. 13s. 3d. was 
paid to the elder Ireland. 

The flood of ridicule rose to its full height 
immediately after this exposure, and both 
the Ireland's were overwhelmed. But the 
father's faith was not easily shaken. His son 
at once confessed to his sisters that he was 
the author of all the papers, but when the 
story was repeated by them to the elder Ire- 
land he declined to credit it. A committee 
of believers met at the house in Norfolk Street 
in April to investigate the history of the 
papers. William Henry was twice examined, 
and repeated his story of 'M. H.' But find- 
ing the situation desperate, he fully admitted 
the imposture at the end of April to Albany 
Wallis, the attorney of Norfolk Street, and 
on 29 May he suddenly left his father's house 
without communicating his intention to any 
of the family. Before the end of the year he 
gave a history of the forgeries in an ' Au- 
thentic Account of the Shakesperian MSS.,' 
avowedly written ' to remove the odium 
under which his father laboured.' George 
Steevens made the unfounded statement that 
this work was published, by arrangement be- 
tween father and son, with the sole view of 
' whitewashing the senior culprit ' (NICHOLS, 
Lit. III. vii. 8). This opinion gained ground, 
and the old man's distress of mind was piti- 
able. He still refused to believe his son, a lad 



Ireland 



35 



Ireland 



of nineteen, capable of the literary skill need- 
ful to the production of the papers, or to re- 
gard the proof of forgery as sufficient. He 
published in November 1796 ' A Vindication 
of his Conduct,' defending himself from the 
charges of having wilfully deceived the pub- 
lic, and with the help of Thomas Caldecott 
attacked Malone, whom he regarded as his 
chief enemy, in 'An Investigation of Mr. Ma- 
lone's Claim to the Character of Scholar and 
Critic.' On 29 Oct. 1796 he was ridiculed on 
the stage at Covent Garden as Sir Bamber 
Blackletter in Reynolds's ' Fool of Fortune.' 
When in 1797 he published his ' Picturesque 
Tour on the Wye,' the chilling reception 
with which it met and the pecuniary loss to 
which it led proved how low his reputation 
liad fallen. George Chalmers's learned 'Apo- 
logy for the Believers in the Shakesperian 
Papers/ with its 'Supplemental Apology' 
(1797), mainly attacked Malone, made little 
reference to the papers, and failed to re- 
store Ireland's credit. In 1799 he had the 
hardihood to publish both ' Vortigern ' and 
* Henry II,' the copyrights of which his son 
gave him before leaving home, and he made 
vain efforts to get the latter represented on 
the stage. Obloquy still pursued him, and 
more than once he contemplated legal pro- 
ceedings against his detractors. He died in 
July 1800, and Dr. Latham, who attended 
him, recorded his deathbed declaration, ' that 
lie was totally ignorant of the deceit, and was 
equally a believer in the authenticity of the 
manuscripts as those who were the most cre- 
dulous ' (Diabetes, 1810, p. 176). He was 
never reconciled to his son. His old books 
and curiosities were sold by auction in Lon- 
don 7-15 May 1801. The original copies of 
the forgeries and many rare editions of Shake- 
speare's works were described in the printed 
catalogue. His correspondence respecting 
the forgeries was purchased by the British 
Museum in 1877 (cf. Addit. MS. 30349-53). 
Gillray published, 1 Dec. 1797, a sketch of 
Ireland as ' Notorious Characters, No. I.,' 
with a sarcastic inscription in verse by Wil- 
liam Mason (cf. Gent. Mag. 1797, p. 931). 
Ireland was anxious to proceed against the 
artist for libel (Addit. MS. 30348, f. 35). 
Two other plates, ' The Gold Mines of Ire- 
land,' by John Nixon, and ' The Ghost of 
Shakespeare appearing to his Detractors,' by 
Silvester Harding, introduce portraits of Ire- 
land. 

Meanwhile William Henry had wandered 
almost penniless through Wales and Glou- 
cestershire, visiting at Bristol, in the autumn 
)f 1796, the scenes connected with Chatter- 
on' s tragic story. His appeals to his father 
or money were refused. On 6 June 1796 he 



had married in Clerkenwell Church Alice 
Grudge, and in November 1797 he wrote home 
that ' he had been living on his wife's cloaths, 
linnen, furniture, &c., for the best part of six 
months.' He thought of going on the stage, 
but his applications were treated with scorn, 
and he began planning more tragedies after 
the pattern of ' Vortigern.' In 1798 he opened 
a circulating library at 1 Princes Place, Ken- 
nington, and sold imitations in his feigned 
handwriting of the famous forged papers. A 
copy of ' Henry II' transcribed in this manner 
is now in the British Museum (Addit. MS. 
12052). A complete set of the forgeries 
belonged at a later date to William Thomas 
Moncrieff the dramatist (Notes and Queries, 
5th ser. v. 160), and was presented in 1877 to 
the Birmingham Shakespeare Memorial Li- 
brary, where it was destroyed by fire in 1879. 
Book-collectors, in pity of his poverty, em- 
ployed him to ' inlay ' illustrated books, and 
rumours of his dishonesty in such employ- 
ment were current at one time. In 1802 
he had a gleam of better fortune, and was 
employed by Princess Elizabeth, afterwards 
landgravine of Hesse-Homburg [q. v.], to 
prepare a ' Frogmore Fete.' Finally he ob- 
tained fairly regular employment of varied 
kinds from the London publishers. He was 
in Paris in 1822, and thenceforth described 
himself on the title-pages of his books as 
' member of the Athenaeum of Sciences and 
Arts at Paris.' His verses show some literary 
facility, and his political squibs some power 
of sarcasm. Throughout his writings he exhi- 
bits sufficient skill to dispose of the theory 
that he was incapable of forging the Shake- 
spearean manuscripts. That achievement he 
always regarded with pride, and complained 
until his death of the undeserved persecution 
which he suffered in consequence. His ' Con- 
fessions,' issued in 1805, expanded his 'Au- 
thentic Account' of 1796, and was reissued in 
London in 1872, and with a preface by Mr. 
Grant White in New York in 1874. Almost 
his latest publication was a reissue of ' Vorti- 
gern' (1832), prefaced by a plaintive rehearsal 
of his misfortunes. He died at Sussex Place, St. 
George's-in-the-Fields, on 17 April 1835, and 
was survived by a daughter, Mrs. A. M. de 
Burgh. Mr. Ingleby describes his wife as 
belonging to the Kentish family of Culpepper, 
and widow of Captain Paget, R.N. ; but this 
does not correspond with what we learn from 
the elder Ireland's papers of the lady whom 
young Ireland married in 1796 ; he may, how- 
ever, have married a second time. 

A portrait of W. H. Ireland at the age of 
twenty-one was drawn and etched by Silvester 
Harding in 1798. An engraving by Mackenzie 
is dated 1818. A miniature of him in middle 

D2 



Ireland 



Ireland 



life, painted on ivory by Samuel Drummond, 
hangs in Shakespeare's birthplace at Strat- 
ford-on-Avon. 

W. H. Ireland's chief publications in verse 
were 'Ballads in Imitation of the Antient,' 
chiefly on historical subjects, and ' Mutius 
Scaevola,' an historical drama in blank verse 
(both in 1801) ; under the pseudonym of Paul 
Persius, ' A Ballade wrotten on the Feastynge 
and Merrimentes of Easter Maunday laste 
paste ' (1802) ; ' Rhapsodies,' by the ' author of 
the Shaksperian MSS.' (1803) ; ' The Angler, 
a didactic poem by Charles Clifford,' 1804, 
12mo ; ' All the Blocks, or an Antidote to 
All the Talents,' by Flagellum, and ' Stul- 
tifera Navis, or the Modern Ship of Fools,' 
anon., both in 1807 ; ' The Fisher Boy ' 
and ' The Sailor Boy,' narrative-poems, after 
the manner of Bloom field, both issued under 
the pseudonym of ' H. C., Esq.,' 1809 (2nd 
edit, of the latter, 1822); ' Neglected Genius, 
a poem illustrating the untimely and un- 
fortunate fate of many British Poets,' 1812, 
chiefly treating of Chatterton,with imitations 
of the Rowley MSS. and of Butler's ' Hudi- 
bras ; ' ' Jack Junk, or the Sailor's Cruise on 
Shore,' by the author of ' Sailor Boy,' 1814 ; 
' Chalcographiminia, or the Portrait-Collector 
and Printseller's Chronicle,' by Satiricus 
Scriptor, 1814, in which he is said to have been 
assisted by Caulfield, and ' Scribbleomania, or 
the Printer's Devil's Polichronicon,' edited by 
' Anser Pen-drag-on, Esq.,' 1815, 8vo. 

His novels and romances included ' The 
Abbess ; ' 'The Woman of Feeling,' 1803, 
4 vols. 12mo ; ' Gondez the Monk, a Romance 
of the Thirteenth Century,' 4 vols. 1805 ; and 
'The Catholic, or Acts and Deeds of the 
Popish Church,' 1826. ' Les Brigands de 
1'Estramadure,' published at Paris in 1823 
(2 vols.), was described as translated from 
the English of W. H. Ireland. ' Rizzio, or 
Scenes in Europe during the Sixteenth Cen- 
tury,' was edited from Ireland's manuscript 
by G. P. R. James in 1849. 

Other of his works were : ' The Maid of 
Orleans,' a translation of Voltaire's ' Pucelle,' 
1822 ; ' France for the last Seven Tears,' an 
attack on the Bourbons, 1822 ; ' Henry 
Fielding's Proverbs,' 1822 (?) ; ' Memoir of a 
Young Greek Lady (Pauline Panam),' an 
attack on the Prince of Saxe-Coburg, 1823 ; 
'Memoir of the Duke of Rovigo,' 1823; 
'Memoirs of Henry the Great and of the 
Court of France,' 1824; 'The Universal 
Chronologist from the Creation to 1825,' 
under the pseudonym of Henry Boyle, Lon- 
don, 1826; ' Shaksperiana : Catalogue of 
all the Books, Pamphlets, &c., relating to 
Shakespeare' (anon.), 1827; 'History of 
Kent,' 4 vols. 1828-34; 'Life of Napoleon 



Bonaparte,' 4 vols. 1828 ; ' Louis Napoleon's 
Answer to Sir Walter Scott's " Life of Na- 
poleon,"' a translation, 1829; 'Authentic 
Documents relating to the Duke of Reich- 
stadt,' 1832. In 1830 he produced a series 
of political squibs: 'The Political Devil/ 
'Reform,' 'Britannia's Cat o' Nine Tails,' and 
' Constitutional Parodies.' 

[Gent. Mag. 1800, pt. ii. pp. 901, 1000; Fra- 
ser's Mag. August 1860 (art. by T. J. Arnold) ; 
London Review, October 1860 ; Ingleby's Shake- 
speare, The Man and the Book, pt. ii. pp. 144 
sq. ; Prior's Life of Malone, pp. 222-7 ; W. H. 
Ireland's Authentic Account (1796), Confessions 
(1805), and Preface to Vortigern (1832); Ge- 
nest's Account of the Stage, vii. 245 sq. For an 
account of contemporary pamphlets on the manu- 
scripts controversy see R. W. Lowe's Bibliogra- 
phical Account of Theatrical Literature. The 
story of the forgery is the subject of Mr. James- 
Payn's novel, The Talk of the Town (1885). Brit. 
Mus. Addit. MSS. 30349-53 contain the elder 
Ireland's correspondence respecting the forgeries 
and a number of cuttings from contemporaneous 
newspapers. In the British Museum are also 
many specimens of the younger Ireland's forged 
documents and of his inscriptions on old books.] 

S. L. 

IRELAND, alias IRONMOXGEK, WIL- 
LIAM (1636-1679), Jesuit, born in 1636, was 
eldest son of William Ireland of CroftonHall r 
Yorkshire, by Barbara, daughter of Ralph 
(afterwards Lord) Eure of Washingborough,. 
Lincolnshire. He was sent at an early age 
to the English College at St. Omer, was ad- 
mitted into the Society of Jesus 7 Sept. 1655, 
and made a professed father in 1673. After 
being for some years confessor to the Poor 
Clares at Gravelines, he was in 1677 sent to- 
the English mission, and shortly afterwards 
became procurator of the province in London. 
On the night of 28 Sept. 1678 he was arrested 
by a body of constables, headed by Titus Gates 
in person, and carried before the privy council, 
together with Thomas Jenison, John Grove 
[q. v.], Thomas Pickering, and John Fenwick 
[q. v.] After examination by the privy council 
the prisoners were committed to Newgate, 
where Ireland appears to have undergone ex- 
ceptionally severe treatment. He was tried at 
the Old Bailey sessions on 17 Dec. following, 
the charge against him being that, in addition 
to promoting the general plot, he had been 
present at a meeting held in William Har- 
court's rooms on 19 Aug. 1678, when a plan 
for assassinating the king was discussed, and 
it was finally decided to ' snap him in his 
morning's walk at Newmarket.' Ireland at- 
tempted to prove an alibi, and in a journal 
written afterwards in Newgate he accounted 
for his absence from London on every day 
between 3 Aug. and 14 Sept. The trial oc- 



Ireton 



37 



Ireton 



eurred, however, at the moment when the 
excitement concerning the plot was at its 
climax. Edward Coleman [q. v.], the first 
victim, had been executed barely a fortnight, 
Gates was at the summit of his popularity, 
.nd the death of Sir Edmund Berry Godfrey 

}. v.] was still fresh in people's memory. The 
ard swearing of Gates and Bedloe, together 
with the evidence of a woman called Sarah 
Pain, who swore to having seen Ireland on 
20 Aug. at a scrivener's in Fetter Lane, over- 
came any-scruples on the part of the jury. 
Chief-justice Scroggs summed up against the 
prisoner, who in vain pleaded his relationship 
to the Pendrells of Boscobel, and the death 
of his uncle, Francis Ireland, in the king's ser- 
vice. Ireland was executed together with John 
Grove on 3 Feb. 1679, the event being at- 
tended (it was alleged by the victim's friends) 
by a number of miraculous circumstances, 
which are detailed in Tanner's ' Brevis Rela- 
tio Felicis Agonis,' Prague, 1683, and in 
Foley's 'Jesuits,' v. 233 seq. Portraits of 
Ireland are given in both these works. A 
deposition, ' plainly proving ' that Ireland's 
plea of an alibi was false, was subsequently 
published by Robert Jenison (1649-1688) 
[q. v.], and further charges were brought 
against Ireland in John Smith's ' Narrative 
containing a further Discovery of the Popish 
Plot,' 1679, fol., p. 32. The supposed plot of 
Ireland was also the occasion of another very 
curious pamphlet entitled ' The Cabal of 
several notorious Priests and Jesuits dis- 
covered as William Ireland . . . Shewing 
their endeavours to subvert the Government 
and Protestant Religion ... by a Lover of his 
King and Country who was formerly an Eye- 
witness of those things ' (London), 1679, fol. 
[Cobbett's State Trials, vii. 570 sq. ; The His- 
tory of the Plot, or a Brief and Historical Account 
of the Charge and Defence of William Ireland, 
&c., London, 1679, fol. ; Challoner's Memoirs of 
Missionary Priests, 1748, ii. 208, 376; Burnet's 
Own Time.ii. 178; Gillow's Diet, of Engl. Cath. 
iii. 552; Lingard's Hist. ix. 191.] T. S. 

JKIRETON, HENRY (1611-1651), regi- 
''cide, baptised 3 Nov. 1611, was the eldest 
son of German Ireton of Attenborough, near 
Nottingham. His father, who settled at 
eAttenborough about 1605, was the younger 
brother of William Ireton of Little Ireton 
in Derbyshire (CORNELIUS BKOWN, Worthies 
of Nottinghamshire, p. 182). Henry became 
in 1626 a gentleman-commoner of Trinity 
College, Oxford, and took the degree of B.A. 
in 1629. According to Wood, ' he had the 
character in that house of a stubborn and 
saucy fellow towards the seniors, and there- 
fore his company was not at all wanting' 
(Athena O.wn. ed. Bliss, iii. 298). In 1629 



he entered the Middle Temple (24 Nov.), 
but was never called to the bar ( The Trial 
of Charles I, with Biographies of Bradshaw, 
Ireton, fyc., in Murray's Family Library, 1832, 
xxxi. 130). 

At the outbreak of the civil war Ireton was 
living on his estate in Nottinghamshire, ' and 
having had an education in the strictest way 
of godliness, and being a man of good learn- 
ing, great understanding, and other abilities, 
he was the chief promoter of the parliament's 
interest in the county ' (HtrTCHirrsoN, Me- 
moirs of Col. Hutchinson, ed. 1885, i. 168). On 
30 June 1642 the House of Commons nomi- 
nated Ireton captain of the troop of horse to be 
raised by the town of Nottingham (Commons' 
Journals, ii. 664). With this troop he joined 
the army of the Earl of Essex and fought at 
Edgehill, but returned to his native county 
Avith it at the end of 1642, and became major 
in Colonel Thornhagh's regiment of horse 
(HUTCHINSON, i. 169, 199). In July 1643 the 
Nottinghamshire horse took part in the vic- 
tory at Gainsborough (28 July), and shortly 
afterwards Ireton ' quite left Colonel Thorn- 
hagh's regiment, and began an inseparable 
league with Colonel Cromwell' (ib. pp. 232, 
234 ). He was appointed by Cromwel 1 deputy 
governor of the Isle of Ely, began to fortify 
the isle, and was allowed such freedom to 
the sectaries that presbyterians complained 
it was become 'a mere Amsterdam' (Man- 
chester's Quarrel with Cromwell, Camden 
Soc., 1875, pp. 39, 73). He served in Man- 
chester's army during 1644, with the rank of 
quartermaster-general, and took part in the 
Yorkshire campaign and the second battle of 
Newbury. Although Ireton, in writing to 
Manchester, represented the distressed con- 
dition of the horse for want of money (Hist. 
MSS. Comm. 8th Rep. pt. ii. p. 61), he was 
anxious that Manchester should march west 
to join Waller, and after the miscarriages at 
Newbury supported Cromwell's accusation 
of Manchester by a most damaging deposi- 
tion ( Cal. State Papers, Dom. 1644-5, p. 158). 

Ireton does nyt appear in the earliest list 
of the officers of the new model, but directly 
the campaign began he obtained the com- 
mand of the regiment of horse to which Sir 
Michael Livesey had been at first appointed 
(Lords' Journals, viii. 278 ; SPEIGGE, Anglia 
JRediviva, ed. 1854, p. 331). The night before 
the battle of Naseby he surprised the royal- 
ists' quarters, ' which they had newly taken 
up in Naseby town,' took many prisoners, 
and alarmed their whole army. Next day 
Fairfax, at Cromwell's request, appointed 
Ireton commissary-general of the horse and 
gave him the command of the cavalry of the 
left wing. The wing under his command 



Ireton 3 

was worsted by Rupert's cavaliers and par- 
tially broken. Ireton, seeing some of the 
parliamentary infantry hard pressed by a 
brigade of the king's foot, ' commanded the 
division that was with him to charge that 
body of foot, and for their better encourage- 
ment he himself with great resolution fell 
in amongst the musketeers, where his horse 
being shot under him, and himself run through 
the thigh with a pike and into the face with 
an halbert, was taken prisoner "by the enemy.' 
When the fortune of the day turned Ireton 
promised his keeper liberty if he would carry 
him back to his own party, and thus suc- 
ceeded in escaping (ib. pp. 36, 39, 42). He re- 
covered from his wounds sufficiently quickly 
to be with the army at the siege of Bristol 
in September 1645 (ib. pp. 99, 106-18). The 
letter of summons in which Fairfax endea- 
voured to persuade Rupert to surrender that 
city was probably Ireton's -work. 

Ireton was one of the negotiators of the 
treaty of Truro (14 March 1646), and was 
afterwards despatched with severalregiments 
of horse to block up Oxford, and prevent it 
from being provisioned (ib. pp. 229, 243). 
The^king tried to open negotiations with him, 
and sent a message offering to come to Fair- 
fax, and live wherever parliament should 
direct, ' if only he might be assured to live 
and continue king.' Ireton refused to discuss 
the king's offers, but wrote to Cromwell beg- 
ging him to communicate the king's message 
to parliament. Cromwell blamed him for 
doing even that, on the ground that soldiers 
ought not to touch political questions at all 
(CART, Memorials of the Civil War, i. 1 : 
GARDINER, Great Civil War, ii. 470). Ireton 
took part in the negotiations which led to the 
capitulation of Oxford, and married Bridget, 
Cromwell's daughter, on 15 June 1646, a few 
days before its actual surrender. The cere- 
mony took place in Lady Whorwood's house 
at Holton, near Oxford, and was performed 
by William Dell [q. v.], one of the chaplains 
attached to the army (CARLTLE, Cromwell, 
i. 218, ed. 1871). 

Though the marriage wasthe result of the 
friendship between Cromwell and Ireton, 
rather than its cause, it brought the two men 
closer together. The union and the confidence 
which existed between them was during the 
next four years a factor of great importance 
in English politics. Each exercised much 
influence over the other. 'No man,' says 
Whitelocke, ' could prevail so much, nor order 
Cromwell so far, as Ireton could ' (Memorials, 
f. 516). Ireton had a large knowledge of poli- 
tical theory and more definite political views 
than Cromwell, and could present his views 
logically and forcibly either in speech or 



* Ireton 

writing. On the other hand, Cromwell's 
wider sympathies and willingness to accept 
compromises often controlled and moderated 
Ireton's conduct. 

On 30 Oct. 1645 Ireton was returned to 
parliament as member for Appleby ; but there 
is no record of his public action in parlia- 
ment until the dispute between the army 
and the parliament began (Names of Mem- 
bers returned to serve in Parliament, i. 495). 
His justification of the petition of the army, 
which the House of Commons on 29 March 
1647 declared seditious, involved him in a 
personal quarrel with Holies, who openly 
derided his arguments. A challenge was ex- 
changed between them, and the two went 
out of the house intending to fight, but were 
stopped by other members, and ordered by 
the house to proceed no further. On this 
basis Clarendon builds an absurd story that 
Ireton provoked Holies, refused to fight, and 
submitted to have his nose pulled by his cho- 
leric opponent ( Clarendon MSS. 2478, 2495 ; 
Rebellion, x. 104; LTJDLOW, ed. 1751, p. 94; 
Commons' Journals, 2 April 1647). Thomas 
Shepherd of Ireton's regiment was one of the 
three troopers who presented the appeal of 
the soldiers to their generals, which Skippon 
on 30 April brought to the notice of the 
House of Commons. In consequence Ireton, 
Cromwell, Skippon, and Fleetwood, being- 
all four members of parliament, as well as 
officers of the army, were despatched by the 
house to Saffron Walden ' to employ their 
endeavours to quiet all distempers in the 
army.' The commissioners drew up a report 
on the grievances of the soldiers, which Fleet- 
wood and Cromwell were charged to present, 
while Skippon and Ireton remained at head- 
quarters to maintain order. Ireton foresaw 
a storm unless parliament was more mode- 
rate, and had little hope of success. In 
private and in public he had at first dis- 
couraged the soldiers from petitioning or 
taking action to secure redress, but when an 
open breach occurred he took part with the 
army (Clarke Papers, i. 94, 102; GARY, Me- 
morials of the Civil War, i. 205, 207, 214). 
When Fairfax demanded by whose orders 
Joyce had removed the king from Holdenby r 
Ireton owned that he had given orders for 
securing the king there, though not for taking- 
him thence (Huntingdon's reasons for laying- 
down his commission, MASERES, Tracts, i. 
398). From that period his prominence in 
setting forth the desires of the army and de- 
fending its conduct was very marked. ' Colonel 
Ireton,' says Whitelocke, 'was chiefly em- 
ployed or took upon him the business of the 
pen, . . . and was therein encouraged and 
assisted by Lieutenant-general Cromwell, 



Ireton 



39 



Ireton 



his father-in-law, and by Colonel Lambert ' 
(Memorials, f. 254). 

The form, if not the idea, of the ' engage- 
ment' of the army (5 June) was probably 
due to Ireton, and the remonstrance of 14 June 
was also his work (RTJSHWOETH, vi. 512, 564). 
lie took part in the treaty between the com- 
missioners of the army and the parliament, 
and when the former decided to draw up a 
general summary of their demands for the 
settlement of the kingdom, the task was 
entrusted to Ireton and another (Clarke 
Papers, i. 148, 211). The result was the 
manifesto known as ' The Heads of the Army 
Proposals.' By it Ireton hoped to show the 
nation what the army would do with power 
if they had it, and he was anxious that no 
fresh quarrel with parliament should take 
place until the manifesto had been published 
to the world. He hoped also to lay the 
foundation of an agreement between king 
and parliament, and to establish the liberties 
of the people on a permanent basis (ib. pp. 179, 
197). But, excellent though this scheme of 
settlement was, it was too far in advance of 
the political ideas of the moment to be ac- 
cepted either by king or parliament. Ireton 
was represented as saying that what was 
offered in the proposals was so just and rea- 
sonable that if there were but six men in 
the kingdom to fight to make them good, 
he would make the seventh (' Hunting- 
don's Reasons,' MASEEES, i. 401). In his 
anxiety to obtain the king's assent he modi- 
fied the proposals in several important points, 
and consequently imperilled his popularity 
with the soldiers. "When the king rejected 
the terms offered him by parliament, Ireton 
vehemently urged a new treaty, and told 
the house that if they ceased their addresses 
to the king he could not promise them the 
support of the army (22 Sept. 1647). Pam- 
phlets accused him of juggling and under- 
hand dealing, of betraying the army and 
deluding honest Cromwell to serve his own 
ambition, and of bargaining for the govern- 
ment of Ireland as the price of the king's 
restoration (Clarke Papers, i. Preface, xl- 
xlvi ; A Declaration of some Proceedings of 
Lieutenant-colonel John Lilburn, 1648, p. 15). 
In the debates of the council of the army 
during October and November 1649, Sexby 
and Wildman attacked him with the greatest 
bitterness. Ireton passionately disavowed 
all private engagements, and asserted that if 
he had used the name of the army to support 
a further application to the king, it was 
because he sincerely believed himself to be 
acting in accordance with the army's views. 
He had no desire, he said, to set up the king 
or parliament, but wished to make the best 



use possible of both for the interest of the 
kingdom ( Clarke Papers, i. 233). In resisting 
a rupture with the king he urged the army, 
for the sake of its own reputation, to fulfil the 
promises publicly made in its earlier declara- 
tions (ib. p. 294). With equal vigour he op- 
posed the new constitution which the level- 
lers brought forward, under the title of ' The 
Agreement of the People,' and denounced 
the demand for universal suffrage as destruc- 
tive to property and fatal to liberty, although 
for a limitation of the duration and powers 
of parliament and a redistribution of seats 
he was willing to fight if necessary (ib. 
p. 299). He wished to limit the veto of the 
king and the House of Lords, but objected 
to the proposal to deprive them altogether 
of any share in legislation. 

Burnet represents Ireton as sticking at 
nothing in order to turn England into a com- 
monwealth ; but in the council of the army he 
was in reality the spokesman of the conser- 
vative party among the officers, anxious to 
maintain as much of the existing constitu- 
tion as possible. The constitution was always 
in his mouth, and he detested and dreaded 
nothing so much as the abstract theories of 
natural right on which the levellers based 
their demands (ib. Preface, pp. Ixvii-lxxi ; 
BTTENET, Own Time, ed. 1833, i. 85). 

On 5 Nov. the council of the army sent a 
letter to the speaker, disavowing any desire 
that parliament should make a fresh applica- 
tion to the king, and Ireton at once withdrew 
from their meetings, protesting that unless 
they recalled their vote he would come there 
no more (Clarke Papers, -p. 441). But the flight 
of the king to the Isle of Wight (11 Nov.) 
led to an entire change in his attitude. The 
story of the letter from Charles to the queen, 
which Cromwell and Ireton intercepted, is 
scarcely needed to account for this change. 
Without it Ireton perceived the impossibility 
of the treaty with Charles, on which he had 
hoped to rest the settlement of the king- 
dom (BiKCH, Letters between Colonel Robert 
Hammond, General .Fai'r/a.r,&c.,1764, p. 19). 
He held that the army's engagements to the 
king were ended, and when Berkeley brought 
the king's proposals for a personal treaty to 
the army, received him with coldness and 
disdain, instead of his former cordiality 
(29 Nov. 1647 ; BERKELEY, Memoirs ; MA- 
SEEES, i. 384). Huntingdon describes him as 
saying, when the probability of an agreement 
between king and parliament was spoken 
of, ' that he hoped it would be such a peace 
as we might with a good conscience fight 
against them both ' (ib. i. 404). When Charles 
refused the ' Four Bills,' Ireton urged par- 
liament to settle the kingdom without him 



Ireton 



Ireton 



(WALKER, History of Independency, i. 71, 
ed. 1601). As yet he was not prepared to 
abandon the monarchy, and for a time sup- 
ported the plan of deposing the king and 
setting the Prince of Wales or Duke of York 
on the throne (ib. p. 107 ; GARDINER, Great 
Civil War, iii. 294, 342). 

In the second civil war Ireton served under 
Fairfax in the campaigns in Kent and Essex. 
After the defeat of the royalists at Maid- 
stone he was sent against those in Canter- 
bury, whocapitulated on his approach (8 June 
1648) (RUSHWORTH, vii. 1149 ; Lords' Jour- 
nals, x. 320). He then joined Fairfax before 
Colchester, and was one of the commissioners 
who settled the terms of its surrender (RUSH- 
WORTH, vii. 1244). To Ireton's influence 
and to his 'bloody and unmerciful nature' 
Clarendon and royalist writers in general 
attribute the execution of Lucas and Lisle 
(Rebellion, xi. 109 ; Mercurius Pragmaticus, 
3-10 Oct. 1648; GARDINER, Great Civil War, 
iii. 463). Ireton approved the decision of 
the council of war which sentenced them to 
death, and defended its justice both in an 
argument with Lucas himself at the time 
and subsequently as a witness before the high 
court of justice. There is no foundation for 
the charge that the sentence was a breach 
of the capitulation [see FAIRFAX, THOMAS, 
third LORD FAIRFAX]. 

The fall of Colchester (28 Aug.) was fol- 
lowed by a renewal of agitation in the army, 
and Ireton's regiment was one of the first to 
petition for the king's trial (RUSHWORTH, vii. 
1298). Already a party in the parliament was 
anxious that the army should interpose to stop 
the treaty of Newport, but Ludlow found Ire- 
ton strongly opposed to premature action. He 
thought it best 'to permit the king and the par- 
liament to make an agreement, and to wait till 
they had made a full discovery of their inten- 
tions, whereby the people, becoming sensible 
of their danger, would willingly join to oppose 
them' (LTJDLOW, Memoirs, p. 102). About 
the end of September Ireton offered to lay 
down his commission, and desired a discharge 
from the army, 'which was not agreed unto' 
(GARDINER, Great Civil War, iii. 473-5). 
For a time he left the headquarters and re- 
tired to Windsor, where he is said to have 
busied himself in drawing up the army re- 
monstrance of 16 Nov. 1648 (reprinted in 
Old Parl. Hist, xviii. 161). All obstacles to 
agreement among the officers of the army 
were removed by the king's rejection of their 
last overtures. 'It hath pleased God,' wrote 
Ireton to Colonel Hammond, 'to dispose the 
hearts of your friends in the army as one man 
. . . to interpose in this treaty, yet in such 
wise both for matter and manner as we be- 



j lieve will not only refresh the bowels of the 
saints, but be of satisfaction to every honest 
member of parliament.' He conjured Ham- 
mond, in the national interest, to prevent 
i the king from escaping, and endeavoured to 
; convince him that he ought to obey the army 
j rather than the parliament (BiRCH, Letters 
\ to Hammond, pp. 87, 97). In conjunction 
j with Ludlow he arranged the exclusion of 
I obnoxious members known as ' Pride's Purge' 
j (Memoirs, p. 104). In conjunction with 
I Cromwell he gave directions for bringing the 
j king from Hurst Castle ; he sat regularly in 
I the high court of justice, and signed the 
\ warrant for the king's execution (NALSON, 
Trial of Charles I, 1684). 

During December 1648 the council of the 
army was again busy considering a scheme 
for the settlement of the kingdom, which 
resulted in the ' Agreement of the People ' pre- 
sented to the House of Commons on 20 Jan. 

1649 (Old Parl. Hist, xviii. 516). The first 
sketch of the 'Agreement' was not Ireton's, 
but by the time it left the council of war it 
had been revised and amended till it sub- 
stantially represented his views. While a 
section in the council held that the magis- 
trate had no right to interfere with any man's 
religion, Ireton claimed for him a certain 
power of restraint and punishment. Lilburne 
complains that Ireton ' showed himself an 
absolute king, against whose will no man 
must dispute' (Legal Fundamental Liberties, 
1649, 2nd ed. p. 35). Outside the council of 
war his influence was limited. The levellers 
hated him as much as they did Cromwell, 
and denounced both in the ' Hunting of the 
Foxes by five small Beagles ' (24 March 
1649) and in Lilburne's ' Impeachment of 
High Treason against Oliver Cromwell and 
his son-in-law, Henry Ireton' (10 Aug. 1649). 
With the parliament he was, as the chief 
author of the 'Agreement,' far from popular, 
and though he was added by them to the 
Derby House Committee (6 Jan. 1649) they 
refused to elect him to the council of state 
(10 Feb. 1649). 

On 15 June 1649 Ireton was selected to 
accompany Cromwell to Ireland as second in 
command, and set sail from Milford Haven 
on 15 Aug. His division was originally in- 
tended to effect a landing in Munster, but 
the design was abandoned, and he disem- 
barked at Dublin about the end of the month 
(Commons' Journals, vi. 234; MURPHY, Crom- 
well in Ireland, p. 74). During Cromwell's 
illness in November 1649, Ireton and Michael 
Jones commanded an expedition which cap- 
tured Inistioge and Carrick, and in February 

1650 he took Ardfinnan Castle on the Suir 
(CARLYLE, CromwelCs Letters, cxvi. cxix.) 



Ireton 



Ireton 



On 4 Jan. 1650 the parliament appointed him 
president of Munster ( Cal. State Papers, Dora. 
1649-50, pp. 476, 502 ; Commons' Journals, vi. 
343). When Cromwell was recalled to Eng- 
land he appointed Ireton to act as his deputy 
(29 May 1650). Parliament approved the 
choice (2 July), and appointed Ludlow and 
three other commissioners to assist Cromwell 
in the settlement of Ireland (ib. vi. 343, 479). 
All Connaught, the greater part of Munster, 
and part of Ulster still remained to be con- 
quered. Ireton began by summoning Carlow 
(2 July 1650), which surrendered on 24 July. 
Waterford capitulated on 6 Aug. and Dun- 
cannon on 17 Aug. Half Athlone was taken 
(September) and Limerick was summoned 
(6 Oct.), but as the season was too late for a 
siege it was merely blockaded. Ireton's army 
went into winter quarters at Kilkenny in 
the beginning of November (GILBERT, Apho- 
rismical Discovery, iii. 218-25 ; BOELASE, 
Hist, of the Irish Rebellion, ed. 1743, App. 
pp. 22-46). The campaign of 1651 opened 
late. On 2 June Ireton forced the passage 
of the Shannon at Killaloe, and the next day 
came before Limerick, which did not capitu- 
late till Oct. 27. In announcing the fall of 
Limerick he congratulated the parliament 
that the city had not accepted the conditions 
tendered it at the beginning of the siege. 
This obstinacy, he said, had served to the 
greater advantage of the parliament ' in point 
of freedom for prosecution of justice one of 
the great ends and best grounds of the war ; ' 
and also ' in point of safety to the English 
planters, and the settling and securing of 
the Commonwealth's interest in this nation ' 
(GILBERT, iii. 265). Twenty-four persons 
were excepted from mercy, some on account 
of their influence in prolonging the resist- 
ance, others as ' original incendiaries of the 
rebellion, or prime engagers therein ' (ib. p. 
267). Seven of the excepted were imme- 
diately hanged, and others reserved for future 
trial by civil or military courts. Ireton's 
severity, however, was not indiscriminate. 
His 'noble care' of Hugh O'Neill, the go- 
vernor of Limerick, is praised by the author 
of the ' Aphorismical Discovery' (iii. 21). He 
cashiered Colonel Tothill for breaking a pro- 
mise of quarter made to certain Irish prisoners, 
and executed two other officers for ' the kill- 
ing one Murphy, an Irishman' (BORLASE, 
App. p. 34 ; Several Proceedings in Parlia- 
ment, 31 July-7 Aug. 1651). The distinc- 
tion he drew between the different classes 
among his opponents is clearly set forth in 
his letter of summons to Galway (7 Nov. 
1651 ; Mercurius Politicus, p. 1401). Ireton's 
policy as to the settlement of Ireland was a 
continuation of Cromwell's. He regarded 



the replantation of the country with English 
colonists as the only means of permanently 
securing its dependence on England. He 
ordered the inhabitants of Limerick and 
Waterford to leave those towns with their 
families and goods within a period of from 
three to six months, on the ground that their 
obstinate adherence to the rebellion and the 
principles of their religion rendered it im- 
possible to trust them to remain in places of 
such strength and importance. He promised, 
however, to show favour to any who had 
taken no share in the massacres with which 
the rebellion began, and to make special pro- 
vision for the support of the helpless and 
aged (BORLASE, p. 345). Toleration of any 
kind he refused, believing that the catholics 
were a danger to the state, and that they 
claimed not merely existence but supremacy. 
He forbade all officers and soldiers under his 
command to marry catholic Irishwomen who 
could not satisfactorily prove the sincerity of 
their conversion to protestantism (1 Mayl651 ; 
Several Proceedings in Parliament, p. 1458 ; 
LUDLOW, Memoirs, p. 145). 

In the civil government of Ireland and in 
the execution of his military duties Ireton's 
industry was indefatigable. Chief-justice 
Cooke describes him ' as seldom thinking it 
time to eat till he had done the work of the 
day at nine or ten at night,' and then willing 
to sit up ' as long as any man had business 
with him.' ' He was so diligent in the pub- 
lic service,' says Ludlow, 'and so careless of 
everything that belonged to himself, that he 
never regarded what clothes or food he used, 
what hour he went to rest, or what horse he 
mounted ' (ib. p. 143). Immoderate labours 
and neglect of his own health produced their 
natural result, and after the capture of Lime- 
rick Ireton caught the prevailing fever, and 
died on 26 Nov. 1651. On 9 Dec. parliament 
ordered him a funeral at the public expense 
( Commons' Journals, vii. 115). His body was 
brought to Bristol, and conveyed to London, 
where it lay in state at Somerset House, and 
was interred on 6 Feb. 1652 in Henry VII's 
Chapel in Westminster Abbey (CHESTER, 
Westminster Abbey Registers, p. 522 ; CaL 
State Papers, Dom. 1651-2, pp. 66, 276). His 
funeral sermon was preached by John Owen, 
and published under the title of ' The Labour- 
ing Saint's Dismission to his Rest ' (ORME, 
Life of Owen, p. 139). An elegy on his death 
is appended to Thomas Manley's ' Veni, Vidi, 
Vici'(12mo, 1652). A magnificent monument 
was erected with a fervid epitaph, which is 
printed in Crull's ' Antiquities of Westmin- 
ster ' (ed. 1722, ii. App. p. 21). ' If Ireton could 
have foreseen what would have been done by 
them/ writes Ludlow, ' he would certainly 



Ireton 



Ireton 



have made it his desire that his body might 
haA'e found a grave where his soul left it, so 
much did he despise those pompous and ex- 
pensive vanities, having erected for himself a 
more glorious monument in the hearts of good 
men by his affection to his country, his abili- 
ties of mind, his impartial justice, his dili- 
gence in the public sen-ice, and his other 
virtues, which were a far greater honour 
to his memory than a dormitory amongst 
the ashes of kings ' (Memoirs, p. 148). On 
4 Dec. 1660 the House of Commons ordered 
the ' carcasses ' of Cromwell, Ireton, Brad- 
shaw, and Pride to be taken up, drawn on a 
hurdle to Tyburn,there to be hanged up in their 
coffins for some time, and after that buried 
under the gallows (Commons' Journals, viii. 
197). This sentence was carried into effect 
on 26-30 Jan. 1661 [see CROMWELL, OLIVER]. 
The royalist conception of Ireton's cha- 
racter is given by Sir Philip Warwick (Me- 
moirs, p. 354) and by Clarendon (Rebellion, 
xiii. 175). The latter describes him as a man 
' of a melancholic, reserved, dark nature, who 
communicated his thoughts to very few, so 
that for the most part he resolved alone, but 
was never diverted from any resolution he 
had taken, and he was thought often by his \ 
obstinacy to prevail over Cromwell, and to 
extort his concurrence contrary to his own | 
inclinations. But that proceeded only from | 
his dissembling less, for he was never re- 
served in the communicating his worst and ' 
most barbarous purposes, which the other 
always concealed and disavowed.' Accord- j 
ing to Ludlow, Ireton was in the last years 
of his life 'entirely freed from his former j 
manner of adhering to his own opinion, 
which had been observed to be his greatest 
infirmity ' (Memoirs, p. 144). Ludlow s pane- 
gyric on the lord deputy expresses the general 
opinion of his companions in arms. ' We that 
knew him,' wrote Hewson, 'can and must 
say truly we know no man like-minded, 
most seeking their own things, few so singly 
mind the things of Jesus Christ, of public 
concernment, of the interest of the precious 
sons of Zion ' (Several Proceedings in Par- 
liament, 4-11 Dec. 1651). John Cooke de- 
scribes Ireton's character at length in the 
preface to ' Monarchy no Creature of God's 
making' (12mo, 1652), dwelling on his in- 
dustry, self-denial, love of justice, godliness, 
and extraordinary learning. Ireton's disin- 
terestedness was undoubted. On the news 
that parliament had voted him a reward of 
2,000/. a year he said ' that they had many 
just debts, which he desired they would pay 
before they made any such presents; that 
he had no need of their land, and therefore 
would not have it, and that he should be 



more contented to see them doing the ser- 
vice of the nation than so liberal in dispos- 
ing of the public treasure.' 'And truly,' 
adds Ludlow, ' I believe he was in earnest ' 
(Memoirs, p. 143; Commons' Journals, vii. 
15). This disinterestedness, combined with 
the rigid republicanism attributed to Ireton, 
led to the belief that he would have op- 
posed Cromwell's usurpation, and made him 
the favourite hero of the republican party 
(CLARENDON, Rebellion, xiii. 175 ; Life of 
Col. Hutchinson, ii. 185). Portraits of Ireton 
and his wife by Robert Walker, in the pos- 
session of Mr. Charles Polhill, were num- 
bers 785 and 789 in the National Portrait 
Exhibition of 1866. Engravings are given 
in Houbraken's ' Illustrious Heads,' and 
Vandergucht's illustrations to Clarendon's 
' Rebellion.' A royalist newspaper, in a pre- 
tended hue and cry after Ireton, thus de- 
scribes his person : ' A tall, black thief, with 
bushy curled hair, a meagre envious face, 
sunk hollow eyes, a complection between 
choler and melancholy, a four-square Machia- 
vellian head, and a nose of the fifteens ' (The 
Man in the Moon, 1-15 Aug. 1649). 

Ireton's widow, Bridget Cromwell, mar- 
ried in 1652 General Charles Fleetwood 
[q. v.], and died in 1662. By her Ireton 
left one son and three daughters: (1) Henry, 
married Katharine, daughter of Henry 
Powle, speaker of the House of Commons in 
1689, became lieutenant-colonel of dragoons 
and gentleman of the horse to William III. 
He left no issue ; (2) Elizabeth, born about 
1647, married in 1674 Thomas Polhill of Ot- 
ford,Kent; (3) Jane, born about 1648, mar- 
ried in 1668 Richard Lloyd of London; 
(4) Bridget, born about 1650, married in 
1669 Thomas Bendish (NoBLE, House of 
Cromwell, ed. 1787, ii. 324-46 ; WAYLEX, 
House of Cromwell, 1880, pp. 58, 72 ; Notes 
and Queries, 5th ser. vi. 391, and art. supra 
BEXDISH, BRIDGET). 

JOHN IRETON (1615-1689), brother of the 
general, was lord mayor of London in 1658, 
and was knighted by Cromwell. After the 
Restoration he was excepted from the Act of 
Indemnity, and for a time imprisoned in the 
Tower. In 1662 he was transported to Scilly, 
was released later, and imprisoned again in 
1685 ( NOBLE, i. 445; Cal. State Papers, 
Dom. 1661-2, p. 460). Another brother, 
Thomas Ireton, captain in Colonel Rich's 
regiment in 1645, was seriously wounded at 
the storming of Bristol (SPRIGGE, pp. 121, 
131). 

[Lives of Ireton are contained in Wood's 
Athense Oxon. ed. Bliss, iii. 298 ; Noble's Souse 
of Cromwell, ed. 1787, ii. 319; and Cornelius 
Brown's Worthies of Notts, 1882, p. 181. The 



Ireton 



43 



Ireton 



fullest biography is that appended to the Trial 
of Charles I and of some of the regicides, vol. 
xxxi. of Murray's Family Library, 1832. Let- 
ters by Ireton are printed in Gary's Memorials 
of the CivilWar, 1842; Birch's Letters to Colonel 
Kobert Hammond, 1764; and Nickolls's Origi- 
nal Letters and Papers addressed to Oliver 
Cromwell, 1743. Borlase's History of the Irish 
Rebellion, ed. 1743, has a valuable supplement, 
containing a number of Ireton's letters derived 
from the papers of his secretary, Mr. Cliffe. For 
other authorities on his services in Ireland see 
the bibliography of the article on Oliver Crom- 
well. The Clarke Papers, published by the Cam- 
den Society (vol. i. 1891), throw much light on 
Ireton's career, and contain reports of his speeches 
in the council of the army. The Memoirs of Lud- 
low and the Life of Colonel Hutchinson are of 
special value for Ireton's Life.] C. H. F. 

IRETON, RALPH (d. 1292), bishop of 
Carlisle, was a member of a family that took 
its name from the village of Irton, near Ra- 
venglass in Cumberland, where it held estates 
that remained in its possession until the 
eighteenth century. A pedigree in Hutch- 
inson's ' Cumberland' (i. 573) makes him the 
son of Stephen Irton, and assigns him two 
brothers, Robert and Thomas. Ralph Ireton 
became a canon regular of the order of St. 
Augustine, at the priory of Gisburne in Cleve- 
land. In 1261 he first appears as prior of 
Gisburne (DUGDALE, Monasticon, vi. 266), an 
office which he held until 26 Dec. 1278, when 
he was elected by the prior and canons of 
Carlisle, who were also of the Augustinian 
order, as bishop of Carlisle. At a previous 
election on 13 Dec. the chapter had chosen 
William Rotherfield, dean of York, who had, 
however, declined the promotion. The second 
election was without royal license, and Ed- 
ward I fined the chapter five hundred marks 
and refused his assent. Moreover, the Arch- 
bishop of York delayed his confirmation of 
the election, and after his death the bishop- 
elect, whom the chapter still refused to recog- 
nise, appealed in despair to Pope Nicholas III, 
who appointed a committee of three cardi- 
nals to investigate the matter. They decided 
that the election had been, on highly tech- 
nical grounds, informal, whereupon the pope 
quashed the appointment, but at once nomi- 
nated Ireton to the vacant see by papal pro- 
vision. Ireton, who was still in Rome, was 
there consecrated by Ordonius Alurz, cardinal 
bishop of Tusculum, one of the three com- 
missioners. On 9 April 1280 Nicholas, when 
informing King Edward of these events, 
urged him to receive Ireton as bishop (Fcedera, 
i. 579). At the end of May Ireton was back 
in England. Edward accepted the pope's 
advice, and on 10 July 1280 Ireton's tempo- 
ralities were restored. The prior and con- 



vent were pardoned on paying 100/. to the 
king. 

Ireton was active in his diocese. The 
Franciscans of Carlisle, the probable authors 
of the so-called ' Chronicle of Lanercost,' give 
a very black account of his doings. He was 
a man of foresight and wisdom, but exceed- 
ingly avaricious. His constant visitations 
became mere means of despoiling his poverty- 
stricken clergy. In October 1280 he extorted 
a tenth from a diocesan council, and insisted 
that it should be paid on a real, and not on. 
a traditional, valuation, and in the new 
money. He incurred special odium by extort- 
ing large sums of money from the ' anniver- 
sary' priests who, without benefices, earned 
a precarious livelihood by saying private- 
masses. This he devoted to building a new 
roof and adding glass and stall-work to 
his cathedral (Chron. de Lanercost, pp. 102,. 

105, 145). A visitation of Lanercost in. 
1281 seems to have been equally resented 
(ib. p. 106). 

Ireton's benefactions were insignificant. 
In 1282 he appropriated the church of Ad- 
dingham and gave it to the prior of his cathe- 
dral, though this was only the confirmation of 
a grant of Christiana Bruce (RAINE, Papers 
from Northern Registers, p. 250, Rolls Ser.) 
In 1287 he confirmed a grant of the church of 
Bride Kirk to his old comrades at Gisburne 
(Monasticon, vi. 274). He recovered Dalston 
manor and church from Michael Barclay, 
and sought in vain to obtain the tithes of 
the newly cultivated lands in Inglewood 
Forest for his chapter (HuTCHiNSOtf, Cumber- 
land, ii. 622-3). Ireton's most important poli- 
tical employment was with Bishop Antony 
Bek [q. v.], on the embassy sent to negotiate- 
the marriage of Edward, the king's son, and 
Margaret of Norway. On 18 July 1290 the- 
envoys brought the negotiation to a success- 
ful issue iu. the treaty of Brigham. Ireton 
was at the famous gatherings at Norhani and 
Berwick in 1291, and was in the same year 
appointed jointly with the Bishop of Caith- 
ness to collect the crusading tenth in Scot- 
land. He attended the London parliament 
in January 1292, and died suddenly at his 
manor of Linstock, near Carlisle, imme- 
diately after his return, on 28 Feb. or 
1 March 1292. He was buried in Carlisle- 
Cathedral, where on 25 May a great fire de- 
stroyed his tomb, along with much of his- 
new work. This was looked upon as a 
judgment for his extortions from the sti- 
pendiary priests. 

[Rymer's Fcedera, vol. i., Eecordedit. ; Steven- 
son's Historical Documents relating to Scotland, 
vol. i.; Chron. of Lanercost, pp. 101, 102, 105- 

106, 113, 143, 1 44-5 (Maitland Club); Heming- 



Irland 



44 



Irland 



burgh, i. 40 (Engl. Hist, Soc.) ; Le Neve's Fasti 
Ecclesise Anglicanae, ed. Hardy, iii. 233 ; Parl. 
Writs, vol. i. ; Hutchinson's Cumberland, i. 573, 
ii. 622-3 ] T. F. T. 

IRLAND, JOHN (f. 1480), divine and 
diplomatist, apparently a native of Scotland, 
.settled in Paris, and became a doctor of the 
Sorbonne. A Johannes de Hirlandia, ' bac- 
calaureus Navarricus,' appears in the index 
t>ut not in the text of Bulaeus (Hist. Univ. 
Paris, vol. v.) as rector of the university of 
Paris in 1469. Irland's Scottish birth and 
proved ability caused Louis XI of France to 
send him to Scotland in 1480 to urge James III 
to declare war with England and to recon- 
cile Alexander Stewart, duke of Albany 
fq. v.], with his brother, James III. In the 
atter object he failed, but he is said to have 
greatly impressed James, who induced him 
to return to live in Scotland, and gave him 
a rich benefice (DEMPSTER, Hist. Eccl. Gentis 
Scotorum, No. 752). He was doubtless the 
Dr. John Irland, doctor of theology and rec- 
tor of Hawick, who was one of the Scottish 
ambassadors sent in 1484 to France to re- 
ceive the oath of Charles VIII to the treaty 
of 1483 (CRAWFURD, Affairs of State, i. 45, 
ed. 1726 ; MICHEL, Les Ecossais en France}. 
On 23 Sept. 1487 Henry VII, at the request 
of King J ames, granted a safe-conduct to the 
Bishop of St. Andrews and John Irland, clerk ; 
(Fcedera, orig. ed., xii. 326). According to i 
Dempster, Irland wrote : 1. 'In Magistrum ! 
Sententiarum,' in four books. 2. A book of 
sermons. 3. ' Reconciliations Modus ad Ja- I 
cobum III Kegem super dissidio cum Duce i 
Albanise.' 4. One book of letters. 

[Dempster's Hist. Eccl. Gentis Scot. (Ban- 
natyne Club), 1829; Michel's Les Ecossais en 
France; Burton's Hist, of Scotland, iii. 22.] 

J. T-T. 

IRLAND, ROBERT (d. 1561), professor 
of law at Poitiers, was the second son of 
Alexander Irland of Burnben in Lorn and 
Margaret Coutts. His family, an old and ; 
important one, was originally settled in the 
west of Scotland, but the elder male line be- 
coming extinct the estates passed by marriage 
about 1300 to the Abercrombies. Irland, when 
a young man, went to France about 1496. 
Having completed his studies at the univer- 
sity of Poitiers, he there received the degree of 
doctor of laws, and in 1502 obtained one of 
the chairs of law in that university. Letters 
of naturalisation were granted to him by 
Francis I in May 1521. Irland, whose lec- 
tures were well attended, acquired a great 
reputation as a jurist. Philippe Hurault, 
chancellor of France, and de Harley, first pre- 
sident of parliament, and other well-known 



statesmen were among his pupils. Baron, 
professor of law at Bourges, whom Cujas 
termed the most learned man of his time, 
dedicated (25 Dec. 1536) to Irland in highly 
laudatory terms his work, ' The Economy of 
the Pandects.' Rabelais refers to Irland in 
treating of the decretals. ' II m'avint/ he 
says, ' un jour a Poitiers chez 1'Ecossais Doctor 
Decretalipotens, &c., &c.' He occupied his 
chair for about sixty years, and died at an 
advanced age on 15 March 1561. He was 
twice married, first to Marie Sauveteau, by 
whom he had one son, John, who became 
counsellor in the parliament of Rennes ; and 
again to Claire Aubert, of a noble family of 
Poitou, by whom he had two sons, Louis 
and Bonaventuve. 

BOXAYEXTFRE IRLAXD (1551-1612 ?) SUC- 

ceeded his father in the professorship of laws 
at Poitiers, was a colleague of Adam Black- 
wood [q. v.], and was a conseiller du roi 
of the city. He wrote : ' Remontrances au 
roi Henri III, au nom du pays de Poitou,' 
Poitiers, n.d., 8vo (HoEFEB). A philosophi- 
cal treatise entitled ' Bonaventurse Irlandi 
antecessorum primicerii sive decani et con- 
siliarii regii apud Pictavos, de Emphasi et 
Hypostasi ad recte judicandi ration em con- 
sideratio,' Poitiers, 1599, 8vo. By ' Emphase' 
he designated the false or misleading forms 
under which things may be presented so as 
to delude our apprehension or our judgment; 
and by ' Hypostase,' the truth or reality of 
things which is hid from us. He proposes, 
in a manner somewhat akin to that of Bacon 
in indicating his ' Idola,' to guard the mind 
against the seductions of the imagination. 
He refers to his master Ramus, whose errors 
he deplores. In the preface to this work he 
mentions that he had written a life of his 
father, and had dedicated it to the Chancellor 
de Chiverny. It does not seem to have been 
published. He also wrote a ' Latin speech 
on the birth of the Dauphin Louis XIII, 
dedicated to Henry IV,' Poitiers, 1605, 12mo. 
He died about 1612. According to a cus- 
tom much in vogue during the sixteenth 
century his name of Bonaventure was fre- 
quently translated into Greek, Eutyches or 
Eutychius. Dreux du Radier states that 
some of his contemporaries called him indif- 
ferently by the one or the other name. The 
family of Irland intermarried with the best 
families of Poitou, and Robert Irland's de- 
scendants in France are very numerous at 
the present time. 

[Letters patent passed under the great seal 
of Scotland, 19 April 1665, giving genealogy, 
and attesting the noble descent of Eobert Irland, 
included in Flores Pictavienses, by Napoleon 
Wyse, Perigueux, 1859; Filleau's Dictionnaire 



Irons 



45 



Ironside 



des families de 1'ancien Poitou, ii. 234, 238 ; 
Kabelais' Pantagruel, lib. iv. chap. lii. ; Michel's 
LesEcossais en France; Bibliotheque historique 
et critique du Poitou, par Dreux du Radier, 5 vols. 
18mo, Paris, 1754 ; Nouvelle Biographie Gene- 
rale, par Hoefer, Paris, 1868 ; Dempster's Hist. 
Eccles. Gentis Scotorum, No. 748.] J. G. F. 

IRONS, WILLIAM JOSIAH (1812- 
1883), theological writer, born at Hoddesdon, 
Hertfordshire, 12 Sept. 1812, was second son 
of the Rev. JOSEPH IKONS (1785-1852), by his 
first wife, Mary Ann, daughter of William 
Broderick. His mother died in 1828. His 
father, a popular evangelical preacher, born at 
Ware, Hertfordshire, on 5 Nov. 1785, com- 
menced preaching in March 1808 under the 
auspices of the London Itinerant Society, was 
ordained an independent minister on 21 May 
1814, was stationed at Hoddesdon from 1812 
to 1815, and at Sawston, near Cambridge, 
from 1815 to 1818, and was minister of Grove 
Chapel, Camberwell, Surrey, from 1818 until 
his death at Camberwell on 3 April 1852 
(BAYFIELD, Memoir of the Rev. Joseph Irons, 
1852). 

William Josiah, after being educated at 
home, matriculated from Queen's College, 
Oxford, on 12 May 1829, and graduated 
B.A. 1833, M.A. 1835, B.D. 1842, and D.D. 
1854. He was curate of St. Mary, Newing- 
ton Butts, Surrey, from 1835 till 1837, when 
he was presented to the living of St. Peter's, 
Walworth. He became vicar of Barkway 
in Hertfordshire in 1838, vicar of Bromp- 
ton, Middlesex, 17 Sept. 1840, honorary 
canon of St. Paul's Cathedral December 
1840, rector of Wadingham, Lincolnshire, 
6 April 1870, and on 7 June 1872 rector 
of St. Mary Woolnoth with St. Mary Wool- 
church-Haw in the city of London, on the 
presentation of Mr. Gladstone. In 1870 he 
was Bampton lecturer at Oxford, and his 
published lectures, 'Christianity as taught 
by St. Paul,' reached a second edition in 
1871. He died at 20 Gordon Square, Lon- 
don, on 18 June 1883. He married first, in 
1839, Ann, eldest daughter of John Melhuish 
of Upper Tooting, who died 14 July 1853 ; 
and secondly, on 28 Dec. 1854, Sarah Albinia 
Louisa, youngest daughter of Sir Launcelot 
Shadwefl; she died 15 Dec. 1887. _ 

Irons's chief work is the 'Analysis of Hu- 
man Responsibility,' 1869, written at the re- 
questof the foundersof the Victoria Institute. 
There Irons lectured on Darwin's ' Origin of 
Species,' on TyndalPs ' Fragments of Science,' 
on Mill's 'Essay on Theism,' and on the 
' Unseen Universe.' For the volume of ' Re- 
plies to Essays and Reviews ' he wrote, in 
1862, ' The Idea of a National Church.' He 
zealously defended church establishment in 



a series of works, of which the earliest was 
a pamphlet called ' The Present Crisis,' pub- 
lished in 1850, and the latest a series of 
letters entitled 'The Charge of Erastianism/ 
In 1855 appeared a pamphlet signed 'A. E./ 
entitled ' Is the Vicar of Brompton a Trac- 
tarian ? ' He was an advocate of free and com- 
pulsory education, and suggested an entire 
modification of the poor law. He was one- 
of the editors of the ' Tracts of the Anglican- 
Church,' 1842, and of the 'Literary Church- 
man.' In the latter he wrote the leading- 
articles from May 1855 to December 1861. 
He translated the ' Dies Tree ' of Thomas de- 
Celano in the well-known hymn commencing 
' Day of wrath ! day of mourning ! ' 

Irons wrote, besides the works mentioned 
and single sermons and addresses: 1. 'On 
the Whole Doctrine of Final Causes,' 1836. 
2. 'On the Holy Catholic Church,' parochial 
lectures, three series, 1837-47. 3. ' Our 
Blessed Lord regarded in his Earthly Re- 
lationship,' four sermons, 1844. 4. ' Notes 
of the Church,' 1845 ; third edit., 1846. 
5. ' The Theory of Development examined/ 
1846. 6. 'Fifty-two Propositions. A Letter 
to the Rev. Dr. Hampden,' 1848. 7. ' The- 
Christian Servant's Book,' 1849. 8. 'The 
Judgments onBaptismal Regeneration,' 1850. 
9. ' The Preaching of Christ/ 1 853. 1 0. ' The- 
Miracles of Christ,' a series of sermons, 1859. 
11. 'The Bible and its Interpreters,' 1865; 
2nd edit., 1869. 12. ' On Miracles and Pro- 
phecy,' 1867. 13. ' The Sacred Life of Jesus 
Christ. Taken in Order from the Gospels/ 

1867. 14. 'The Sacred Words of Jesus 
Christ. Taken in Order from the Gospels/ 

1868. 15. ' Considerations on taking Holy 
Orders,' 1872. 16. ' The Church of all Ages/ 
1875. 17. ' Psalms and Hymns for the 
Church,' 1875 ; another edit., 1883. 18. ' Oc- 
casional Sermons,' chiefly preached at St.. 
Paul's, seven parts, 1876. 

[Mackeson's Church Congress Handbook, 1877, 
pp. 98-100 ; Guide to the Church Congress,. 
1883, p. 46; Miller's Singers and Songs of the- 
Church, 1869, pp. 34, 515; Times, 20 June 1883, 
p. 14, 21 June, p, 5.] G. C. B. 

IRONSIDE, EDWARD (1736 P-1803), 

topographer, born about 1736, was the eldest 
son of Edward Ironside, F.S.A., banker, of 
Lombard Street, who died lord mayor on 
27 Nov. 1753. He was a supercargo in the- 
East India Company's service. For many 
years he lived at Twickenham, where he died 1 
on 20 June 1803, aged 67, and was buried on 
the 28th (LYSONS, Environs, Suppl. pp. 319, 
322 ; Gent. Mag. vol. Ixxiii. pt. i. p. 603). 
He wrote ' The History and Antiquities of 
Twickenham ; being the First Part of Paro- 



Ironside 



Ironside 



chial Collections for the County of Middlesex,' 
4to, London, 1797, issued in Nichols's 'Biblio- 
theca Topographica Britannica,' vol. x. No. 6. 
It was to have been followed by a history of 
Isleworth, which he did not complete. 
[Nichols's Lit. Anecd. ix. 194.] G. G. 

IRONSIDE, GILBERT, the elder (1588- 
1671 ), bishop of Bristol, elder son of Ralph 
Ironside, by Jane, daughter of William Gil- 
bert , M.A. of Magdalen College, Oxford, supe- 
rior beadle of arts, was born at Hawkesbury, 
near Sodbury, Gloucestershire, on 25 Nov. 
1588. His father, Ralph Ironside (1550?- 
1629), born at Houghton-le-Spring, Durham, 
about 1550, was third son of John Ironside of 
Iloughton-le-Spring (d. 1581) ; matriculated 
from St. Edmund Hall, Oxford, 20 Dec. 1577, 
and graduated B.A. in 1580-1. Elected a 
fellow of University College, he graduated 
M.A. in 1585, and B.D. in 1601. He was 
rector of Long Bredy and of Winterbourne 
Abbas, both in Dorset, and died 25 May 1629. 
He is often confused with his second son, 
also Ralph (1 590-1 683),who took holy orders, 
became rector of Long Bredy in succession 
to his father, and is said to have been ejected 
from his benefice by the Long parliament, 
and to have been reduced to the utmost 
poverty (HuiCHlNS, Hist, of Dorset, ii. 194). 
On the Restoration the younger Ralph was 
reinstated in his living ; was chosen proctor 
of the clergy in convocation, and became arch- 
deacon of Dorset in 1661. He died o March 
1682-3, and was buried in Long Bredy 
Church, where there is a monument to him. 

Gilbert Ironside matriculated at Trinity 
College, Oxford, 22 June 1604, and became 
scholar of his college 28 May 1605,B.A. 1608, 
M.A. 1612, B.D. 1619, and D.D. 1660, and 
feUow of Trinity 1613. In 1618 he was 
presented to the rectory of Winterbourne 
Steepleton, Dorsetshire, by Sir Robert Miller. 
In 1629 he succeeded his father in the benefice 
of Winterbourne Abbas. He was also rector 
of Yeovilton in Somerset. Wood says that 
he kept his preferments during the protec- 
torate, but this statement seems doubtful (ib. 
ii. 198). Either by marriage or other means 
he amassed a large fortune before the Resto- 
ration. On 13 Oct. 1660 he was appointed 
to a prebendal stall in York Minster, but re- 
signed the post next year, when on 13 Jan. 
1661 he was consecrated bishop of Bristol. 
As a man of wealth he was considered fitted 
to maintain the dignity of the episcopate 
with the reduced revenues of the see (Woon, 
Athena Oxon. iii. 940, iv. 849). At Bris- 
tol Ironside showed much forbearance to 
nonconforming ministers. Calamy gives the 
particulars of a long conference between 



him and John Wesley [q. v.] of Whitchurch 
(father of Samuel Wesley [q. v.] of Epworth 
and grandfather of the famous John Wesley 
[q. v.]). Wesley refused to use the Book 
of Common Prayer, and, according to Ken- 
nett, ' the bishop was more civil to him than 
he to the bishop.' Finding him impracti- 
cable, Ironside is said to have closed the 
interview with the words, ' I will not meddle 
with you, and will do you all the good I can ' 
(KEXXETT, Register, p. 919; CAIAJIY, Me- 
morial, pp. 438-47). Ironside died on 
19 Sept. 1671, and was buried in his cathedral 
without any memorial, near the steps of the 
bishop's throne. He married (1) Elizabeth, 
daughter of Edward Frenchman of East 
Compton, Dorsetshire, and (2) Alice, daugh- 
ter of William Glisson of Marnhull, Dorset- 
shire. By his first wife he was father of 
four sons, of whom Gilbert, the third son, 
is separately noticed. 

He was the author of ' Ten Questions of 
the Sabbath freely described,' Oxford, 1637; 
and two separately published sermons, 1660 
and 1684. 

[Wood's Athense Oxon. iii. 940, iv. 896-7 ; Ken- 
nett's Register/pp. 295, 328, 331, 354, 919 ; Hut- 
chins's Hist, of Dorset, Introd. vol. xxv. pt. ii. pp. 
198, 280; Calamy's Memorial, pp.438-47 ; Lans- 
downeMSS. 987, 102, No. 2; Burke's Landed 
Gentry.] E. V. 

IRONSIDE, GILBERT, the younger 
(1632-1701), bishop of Bristol and of Here- 
ford, third son of Gilbert Ironside the elder 
[q. v.], was born at Winterbourne Abbas in 
1G32. On 14 Nov. 1650 he matriculated at 
Wadham College, Oxford,where he graduated 
B.A. on 4 Feb. 1652-3, M.A. 22 June 1655, 
B.D. 12 Oct. 1664, D.D. 30 June 1666. He 
became scholar of his college in 1651, fellow 
in 1656, and was appointed public reader in 
grammar in 1659, bursar in 1659 and 1661, 
sub-warden in 1660, and librarian in 1662. 
He was presented in 1663 to the rectory of 
Winterbourne Faringdon by Sir John Miller, 
with which he held from 1666, in succes- 
sion to his father, the rectory of Winter- 
bourne Steepleton. On the promotion of Dr. 
Blandford to the see of Oxford in 1667, he 
was elected warden of Wadham, an office 
which he held for twenty-five years. Ac- 
cording to Wood he was ' strongly averse 
to Dr. Fell's arbitrary proceedings,' and re- 
fused to serve the office of vice-chancellor 
during his life. After Fell's death in 1686, 
he filled the office from 1687 to 1689, and 
when James II made his memorable visit to 
Oxford in September 1687, with the view of 
compelling the society of Magdalen College 
to admit his nominee as president, Ironside 



Irvine 



47 



Irvine 



in a discussion with the king insisted on 
the fellows' rights (WoOD, Life, pp. cvii-xii ; 
BLOXAM, Magdalen College and James II, 
Oxf. Hist. Soc., pp. 90-2). He declined in 
November an invitation to dine with the 
king's special commissioners on the evening 
after they had expelled the fellows of Mag- 
dalen, saying, ; My taste differs from that of 
Colonel Kirke. I cannot eat my meals with 
appetite under a gallows ' (MACATTLAY, Hist. 
vol. ii. chap, viii.) ' The new chancellor has 
much pleased the university,' wrote Sykes 
to Dr. Charlett, ' by his prudent behaviour 
in all things, and I hear that the king was 
pleased to say that he was an honest, blunt 
man ' (AUBREY, Lives, i. 36). 

After the revolution, Ironside was re- 
warded for his resistance by being appointed 
bishop of Bristol. Hearne spitefully writes 
that he supported the Prince of Orange, 
so as to 'get a wife and a bishopric.' But 
the emolument of the Bristol see was small, 
and Ironside was consecrated, 13 Oct. 1689, 
on the understanding that he should be 
translated to a more lucrative see when 
opportunity offered. Accordingly, on the 
death of Bishop Herbert Croft, he was trans- 
ferred to the see of Hereford in July 1691. 
He died on 27 Aug. 1701, and was buried in 
the church of St. Mary Somerset, Thames 
Street, London. On the demolition of that 
church in 1867, the bishop's remains were 
transferred to Hereford Cathedral. 

He appears to have been conspicuous for 
the roughness of his manners among his Ox- 
ford contemporaries (' Table Talk of Bishop 
Hough,' in Collectanea, ii. 415, Oxf. Hist. 
Soc.) When about sixty years of age, ac- 
cording to Wood, Ironside married 'a fair 
and comely widow ' of Bristol, whose maiden 
name was Robinson. 

Ironside published, with a short preface 
from his own pen, Bishop Ridley's account 
of a disputation at Oxford on the sacrament, 
together with a letter of Bradford's, Oxford, 
1688, and a sermon preached before the king 
on 23 Nov. 1684, Oxford, 1685. 

A portrait is in the hall of Wadham Col- 
lege. 

[Wood's Athense Oxon. iv. 896 ; Wood's Life, 
pp. cv, cvii-xii; Hutchins's Dorset, Introd. p. 
xxvi, ii. 529 ; Macaulay's Hist, of England, ii. 
304 ; Bloxam's Magdalen College and James II, 
pp. 90-2, and passim; Gardiner's Eeg. of Wad- 
ham College, p. 184 ; Hearne's Coll., ed. Doble 
(Oxf. Hist. Soc.), i. 97.] E. V. 

IRVINE, SIR ALEXANDER, OF DKTJM 
(d. 1658), royalist, was descended from Wil- 
liam de Irvine, who was armour-bearer to 
Robert Bruce, and was rewarded for his de- 
voted services by a grant of the forest of 



Drum, Aberdeenshire, at that time part of 
a royal forest. A grandson of William de 
Irvine (Sir Alexander) distinguished himself 
at the battle of Harlaw (1411), in a hand- 
to-hand encounter with MacLean of Dowart, 
general of Donald of the Isles, in which both 
were slain. The prowess of this ' gude Sir 
Alexander Irvine' is specially celebrated in 
the ballad on the battle of Harlaw. Other 
heads of the family rendered important ser- 
vices to subsequent sovereigns, and in the 
seventeenth century the lairds of Drum vied 
in wealth and power with many families of 
noble rank. 

Alexander, the royalist, was the eldest son 
of Alexander, ninth laird of Drum, by Lady 
Marion, daughter of Robert Douglas, earl of 
Buchan. He was probably educated at the 
university of Aberdeen, where the name of 
Alexander Irvine occurs as an entrant on the 
ides of December 1614 (Fasti Aber. p. 454). 
In December 1634 he was appointed sheriff 
of Aberdeen (SPALDING, Memorials, i. 55), 
and the appointment was annually renewed 
for many years (ib. passim). As one of the 
commissioners for Aberdeen he received in 
1638 an order to cause the people to subscribe 
the king's covenant and bond (ib. p. Ill), 
and he was one of the few commissioners in 
the north who aided the Marquis of Huntly in 
that work (ib. p. 112 ; GORDON, Scots Affairs, 
i. 122). He also accompanied Huntly to the 
cross of Aberdeen, when the king's proclama- 
tion discharging the Service Book was read 
(SPALDING, i. 113). On the outbreak of hos- 
tilities in 1639, Montrose on 6 April quartered 
five hundred highlandmen sent by Argyll on 
the lands of the laird of Drum, where ' they 
lived lustelie upon the goods, sheep, corn, 
and victual of the ground ' (ib. p. 162) until 
the llth (ib. p. 166). Irvine himself had 
meanwhile, on 28 March, taken ship for Eng- 
land (ib. p. 151); but in June he returned in 
a collier brig under the command of Lord 
Aboyne, and finally, landing on the 6th (ib. 
p. 203), assisted in the capture of Aberdeen 
for the king (ib. p. 205). Afterwards he pro- 
ceeded to fortify his place of Drum (ib. p. 265), 
but according to Gordon it was ' not strong 
by nature, and scarcely fencible at that time 
by art ' (Scots Affairs, iii. 197). On 2 June 
1640 General Monro arrived before it with 
the Earl Marischal. Irvine was absent, but 
when Monro proceeded to open fire his wife 
agreed to deliver the castle, on condition that 
the garrison were permitted to go out free 
with their arms and baggage, and that she 
and her children were allowed to reside in 
one of the rooms. She moreover promised 
to send her husband to Monro at Aberdeen 
(GORDON, pp. 197-8 ; SPALDING, i. 280-1). 



Irvine 



4 s 



Irvine 



Irvine accordingly delivered himself up to 
Monro, by whom he was courteously re- 
ceived, but was det ained a prisoner (ib. p. 283"), 
and on the llth was sent with other anti- 
covenanters to Edinburgh, where they were 
warded in the Tolbooth, Irvine being also 
fined ten thousand merks (ib. p. 288). While 
he was still a prisoner in Edinburgh he was 
again named sheriff of Aberdeen,but his lands 
were plundered by the covenanting soldiers 
(ib. p. 295), and on 23 July the tenants were 
required to pay their rents to the Earl Ma- 
rischal (ib. p. 308). He obtained his liberty 
early in 1641, and, discouraged both by the 
disasters that had befallen him and by the 
absence of the Marquis of Huntly from the 
country, he conformed to the covenant. On 
20 Nov. 1643 he, however, refused to subscribe 
the covenant at Aberdeen, affirming that it 
was sufficient to have subscribed it in his own 
parish church (ib. ii. 293). In January 1644 
he refused to attempt the apprehension of the 
Marquis of Huntly (ib. p. 306), but refrained 
from actually assisting the royal cause. When 
Huntly on 26 March assembled a large force 
in Aberdeen in behalf of the king, Irvine 
though his son Alexander (see below) was 
present 'baid at hame, and miskenit all' 
(ib. p. 330). In the beginning of the follow- 
ing year (1645) Argyll and the Earl Ma- 
rischal paid a hostile visit to Drum. Irvine 
and his sons were absent ; but although the 
visitors were welcomed by Irvine's ' lady and 
his gude daughter, Lady Mary Gordon,' both 
ladies were evicted from the house ' in pitiful 
form,' and with difficulty 'got twa wark naigs 
[horses] which bure thame in to Aberdeen ' (ib. 
p. 354). The place of Drum was then plun- 
dered by the soldiers, not only of its provi- 
sions, but of all its costly furniture, and left in 
charge of fifty musketeers (ib. p. 355). The 
reason for these forcible proceedings was that 
Irvine's two sons were giving active support 
to the royalists in the north, and although 
Irvine intimated his disapproval of their con- 
duct, and ' came to the lords in humble 
manner,' his professions were not trusted and 
he received no redress, the only favour granted 
him being leave to go to his daughter's house 
at Frendracht (ib. p. 356). As evidence of 
his good faith he attended, on 24 May 1645, 
a meeting of the covenanting committee in 
Aberdeen (ib. p. 370), but on subsequently 
going to Edinburgh, where his sons were im- 
prisoned in the Tolbooth, he was confined 
(November) within the town (ib. p. 431), and 
was not permitted to return home till 31 May 
in the following year (ib. p. 478). Being 
called in 1652 to subscribe the covenant by 
the presbytery of Aberdeen, he affirmed that 
neither in conscience nor honour could he 



agree to what was proposed. On being- 
threatened with excommunication, he sent 
a protest to the presbytery (printed in Mis- 
cellany of the Spalding Club, iii. 205-7), and 
appealed to Colonel O verton, who commanded 
the parliamentary forces in the district. No 
further steps appear to have been taken 
against him. On 12 April 1656 Irvine sup- 
plemented his father's gift for the foundation 
of bursaries in Marischal College, Aberdeen 
(Fasti Marts, p. 207). He died in May 1658. 
By his wife, Magdalene, eldest daughter of 
Sir John Scrimgeour, he had, besides other 
children, two sons, ALEXANDER IRVINE, tenth 
laird (d. 1687), and ROBERT IRVINE (d. 1645), 
who were among the most persistent sup- 
porters of the cause of Charles in the north. 
They were excommunicated, and on 14 April 
1644 a price was put upon their heads. After 
setting sail from Fraserburgh, they were com- 
pelled by stress of weather to put in at Wick, 
where they were apprehended and imprisoned 
in the castle of Keiss. Thence they were sent 
to Edinburgh, and confined in the Tolbooth. 
Robert died there on 6 Feb. 1 644-5 (SPALDIN G, 
ii. 446). but Alexander, after being removed to- 
the castle of Edinburgh, obtained his liberty 
through the triumph of Montrose at Kilsyth 
in 1645. After the Restoration Charles II 
renewed to him the offer of the earldom of 
Aberdeen of which a patent to his father 
had been prevented from passing the great 
seal by the outbreak of the revolution but 
he declined the honour. He died in 1687, 
and was buried in Drum's aisle, in the parish- 
church of St. Nicholas, Aberdeen. After the 
death of his first wife, Lady Margaret Gor- 
don, fourth daughter of the first Marquis 
of Huntly, he married Margaret Coutts, a 
maiden of low degree, ' the weel-faured May T 
of the well-known ballad/ The Laird o' Drum / 

[Spalding's Memorialls of the Trebles (Spald- 
ing Club) ; Gordon's Scots Affairs (Spaldin* 
Club) ; Sir James Balfour's Annals ; Miscellany 
of the Spalding Club, vol. iii. ; Burke's Landed 
Gentry; Anderson's Scottish Nation.] T. F. H. 

IRVINE, ALEXANDER (1793-1873), 
botanist, son of a well-to-do farmer, was 
born at Daviot, Aberdeenshire, in 1793. He 
was educated at the grammar school at Daviot 
and at Marischal College, Aberdeen, which he 
left in 1819 to engage in private tuition. In 
1824 he came to London in pursuit of the 
same profession. He afterwards acted as 
schoolmaster at Albury, in London, at Bris- 
tol, and at Guildford. He finally opened a 
school in 1851 at Chelsea. For eight or ten 
years toward the close of his life he held a 
ministerial office in the Irvingite church at 
White Notley, Essex, but did not reside 



Irvine 



49 



Irvine 



there. He died in Upper Manor Street, Chel- 
sea, on 13 May 1873, and was buried in 
Brompton cemetery. 

Irvine interested himself in botany at an 
early age, and on his first visit to London 
(1824) he made extensive collections in the 
surrounding country. John Stuart Mill and 
William Pamplin often accompanied him in 
his botanical excursions. A manuscript cata- 
logue of over six hundred species, which he 
found within a two-mile radius of Hampstead 
Heath, was compiled by him between 1825 
and 1834. After contributing to Loudon's 
e Magazine of Natural History,' he published 
in 1838, while at Albury, his so-called ' Lon- 
don Flora,' the first part of which includes 
plants from all the south-eastern counties and 
the second part from the whole of Britain. A 
new edition is dated 1846. 

Irvine was in the habit of making long 
summer excursions in Wales, Scotland, or 
England, mostly on foot, and became a con- 
tributor to the old series of the ' Phyto- 
logist.' On its cessation at the death of 
the editor (George Luxford) in 1854, Irvine 
edited a new series, which was carried on 
through six volumes, at a pecuniary loss, 
from May 1855 to July 1863, when Pamplin, 
the publisher, retired from business. With 
the earlier numbers of this magazine were 
given away some sheets of a descriptive work 
on British botany. This material Irvine in- 
corporated in his most comprehensive work, 
the ' Illustrated Handbook of British Plants,' 
a popular manual, issued in five parts in 1858. 
Always endeavouring to popularise the study 
of his favourite science, he started in Novem- 
ber 1863 the ' Botanist's Chronicle,' a penny 
monthly periodical. This he circulated with 
a catalogue of second-hand books which he 
had for sale. It only ran, however, to seven- 
teen numbers. In addition to botany, Irvine 
made a close study of the Scriptures, and left 
behind him manuscript collections of pro- 
verbs and folk-lore. 

[Journal of Botany, 1873, p. 222 ; Gardeners' 
Chronicle, 1873, p. 1017.] G. S. B. 

IRVINE, CHRISTOPHER, M.D. (fl. 
1638-1685), physician, philologist, and anti- 
quary, was a younger son of Christopher 
Irvine of Robgill Tower, Annandale, and 
barrister of the Temple (ANDERSON", Scottish 
Nation, ii. 538), of the family of Irvine of 
Bonshaw in Dumfriesshire. He calls him- 
self on one of his title-pages ' Irvinus abs Bon 
Bosco.' He was brother of Sir Gerard Irvine, 
bart., of Castle Irvine, co. Fermanagh, who 
died at Dundalk in 1689. 

Irvine, like his relative, James Irvine of 
Bonshaw, who seized Donald Cargill, was 

VOL. XXIX. 



an ardent royalist and episcopalian, and was 
ejected from the college of Edinburgh in 
1638 or 1639 for refusing the covenant. In- 
volving himself in some unexplained way in 
the Irish troubles of the following years, he 
was deprived of his estate (Preface to his 
Nomenclature?). 'After my travels,' he con- 
tinues, ' the cruel saints were pleased to mor- 
tify me seventeen nights with bread and 
water in close prison' (ib.) Allowed to re- 
turn to Scotland, he was reduced to teaching 
in schools at Leith and Preston (SiBBALD, 
Bibliotheca Scotica, MS. Adv. Lib. ap. CHAM- 
BERS). About 1650 or 1651 Irvine resumed 
the profession to which he seems to have been 
bred, and became surgeon, and finally phy- 
sician, at Edinburgh. He was present in the 
camp of Charles II in Athol in June 1651 
(Preface to Anatomia Sambuci). After the 
battle of Worcester he made his peace with 
the party in power, and was appointed about 
1652 or 1653 surgeon to Monck's army in 
Scotland. This office he held until the 
Restoration. He was in London in 1659, 
and after the Restoration held the office of 
surgeon to the horse-guards. By what he 
calls ' a cruel misrepresentation ' he lost his 
public employment before 1682 (Preface to 
Nomenclatura). Irving says he was also his- 
toriographer to Charles II. On 17 Nov. 1681 
the Scottish privy council granted his petition 
that he should be allowed to practise in Edin- 
burgh, of which he was a burgess, free of in- 
terference from the newly incorporated Col- 
lege of Physicians. This act was ratified by 
the Scottish parliament in 1685 (Acts of 
Parl. ofScotl. viii. 530-1). The date of his 
death is unknown. He married Margaret, 
daughter of James Whishard, laird of Pot- 
terow, and had two sons, Christopher, M.D., 
and James. 

Irvine published the following works : 

1. 'Bellum Grammaticale, ad exemplar Ma- 
gistri Alexandri Humii . . . editum,' a ' tra- 
gico-comcedia ' in five acts and in verse, nar- 
rating a war of the nouns and the verbs. 
This rare jeu d'esprit is stated by Chambers 
to have been first published in 1650, but the 
copy in the British Museum, printed at Edin- 
burgh in 1658 in 8vo, bears no signs of being 
a second edition. It was reprinted in 1698. 

2. ' Anatomia Sambuci,' by Martin Bloch- 
witz, translated by C. Irvine, London, 1655, 
12mo. 3. ' Medicina Magnetica, or the art 
of Curing by Sympathy,' London (?), 1656, 
8vo, dedicated to Monck; a curious tract 
reviving some of the wildest ideas of Para- 
celsus. 4. ' J. Wallsei [of Leyden] Medica 
Omnia,' edited by C. Irvine, London, 1660, 
8vo (preface dated London, 26 July 1659). 
5. 'Locorum, nominum propriorum . . . quae 

E 



Irvine 



Irvine 



in Latinis Scotorum H istoriis occummt expli- 
catio vernacula. ... Ex schedis T. Craufurdii 
excussit . . . C. Irvine,' Edinburgh, 1665, 8vo, 
pp. 79. 6. ' Historise Scoticae nomenclatura 
Latino-vernacula,' Edinburgh, 1682, 8vo, and 
1697, 4to, fulsomely dedicated to James, duke 
of York, at the time he was high commis- 
sioner in Scotland (an expansion of No. 5). 
This has twice been reprinted, by James Watt, 
Montrose, 1817, 16mo, and at Glasgow, 1819, 
12mo. Irvine also projected, but never car- 
ried out, a work ' On the Historic and An- 
tiquitie of Scotland.' 

[The fullest account of Irvine is in Chambers's 
Diet, of Eminent Scotsmen, ed. Thomson, ii. 339 ; 
Burke's Landed Gentry.] J. T-T. 

IRVINE, JAMES (1833-1889), portrait- 
painter, born in 1833, was eldest son of John 
Irvine, wright, of Meadowburn, Menmuir, 
Forfarshire. He was educated at Menmuir 

garish school ; became a pupil of Colvin 
mith [q. v.], the painter, at Brechin; subse- 
quently studied at the Edinburgh Academy, 
and was afterwards employed by Mr. Carnegy- 
Arbuthnott of Balnamoon to paint portraits 
of the old retainers on his estate. Irvine 
practised as a portrait-painter for some years 
at Arbroath, and then removed to Montrose. 
After a period of hard struggle he became 
recognised as one of the best portrait-painters 
in Scotland, and received numerous commis- 
sions. He was an intimate friend of George 
Paul Chalmers [q. v.] Among his best-known 
portraits were those of James Coull, a sur- 
vivor of the sea-fight between the Shannon 
and the Chesapeake (which was painted for 
Mr. Keith of Usan, and of which Irvine 
painted four replicas), of Dr. Calvert, rector 
of Montrose Academy, and other well-known 
residents at Montrose. He also painted some 
landscapes. He had begun memorial por- 
traits of the Earl and Countess of Dalhousie 
for the tenantry on thePanmure estate, when 
he died of congestion of the lungs at his resi- 
dence, Brunswick Cottage, Hillside, Mont- 
rose, 17 March 1889, in his sixty-seventh year. 
[Dundee Advertiser, 18 March 1889 ; Scots- 
man, 18 March 1889.] L. C. 

IRVINE, WILLIAM,M.D. (1743-1787), 

chemist, was the son of a merchant in Glas- 
gow, where he was born in 1743. He entered 
the university of his native town in 1756, and 
studied medicine and chemistry under Dr. 
Joseph Black [q. v.], whom he assisted in his 
first experiments on the latent heat of steam. 
After graduating M.D. he visited London 
and Paris for purposes of professional im- 
provement, was appointed on his return in 
1766 lecturer on materia medica in the uni- 
versity of Glasgow, and succeeded Eobison 



in 1770 in the chair of chemistry. His lec- 
tures were described by Cleghorn as remark- 
able for erudition, sagacity, and explanatory 
power. His experiments were largely de- 
voted to the furtherance of manufactures. 
He was working at the improvement of glass- 
making processes in a large factory in which 
he was concerned when he was attacked with 
a fever, which proved fatal on 9 July 1787. 
The offer of a lucrative post under the Spanish 
government came to him upon his deathbed. 
By his wife, Grace Hamilton, he left one son, 
William (1776-1811) [q. v.], who published 
from his father's papers, with some additions 
of his own, ' Essays, chiefly on Chemical Sub- 
jects,' London, 1805. Irvine's doctrine of the 
varying capacities of different bodies for heat 
was defended, and his method of experiment- 
ing was explained by his son in Nicholson's 
' Journal of Natural Philosophy ' (vi. 25, xi. 50). 
[Preface to Irvine's Essays on Chemical Sub- 
jects ; preface to William Irvine the younger's 
Letters on Sicily ; Edinburgh Medical Commen- 
taries for 1787, p. 455 (Cleghorn) ; Watt's Bibl. 
Brit. ; Poggpndorff's Biographisch-Literarisches 
Handworterbuch ; Black's Lectures on Chemistry, 
i. 504 (Robison).j A. M. C. 

IRVINE, WILLIAM (1741-1804), 
American brigadier-general, was born near 
Inniskilling, Ireland, 3 Nov. 1741, studied 
medicine at Dublin University, and served 
as a surgeon in the royal navy during part 
of the war of 1756-63. He resigned before 
the close of the war, emigrated, and settled 
in medical practice at Carlisle, Pennsylvania. 
He sided with the colonists at the beginning 
of the revolution, and took an active part in 
public affairs. He was a member of the 
provincial convention assembled at Phila- 
delphia, 15 July 1774, which recommended 
a general congress. He was appointed by 
congress colonel of the 6th Pennsylvanian 
infantry and ordered to Canada. He raised 
the regiment, led it through the mouth of 
the Sorel, and commanded it in the attempted 
surprise of the British at Three Rivers. He 
was taken prisoner on 16 June 1776, and was 
released on parole, but was not exchanged 
until 6 May 1778. He was a member of 
the court-martial that tried General Charles 
Lee. In 1778 he commanded the 2nd Penn- 
sylvanian infantry, and in 1779 was made 
brigadier-general and given command of the 
2nd Pennsylvanian brigade, with which he 
was engaged at Staten Island and in Wayne's 
unsuccessful attempt on Bull's Ferry, 21-22 
July 1780. He attempted unsuccessfully to 
raise a corps of Pennsylvanian cavalry. In 
March 1782 he was sent to Fort Pitt to com- 
mand on the western frontier, where he re- 
mained until October 1783. In 1785 he was 



Irvine 

appointed agent for the state of Pennsylvania 
to examine the public lands, and had the 
administration of the act directing the distri- 
bution of the donation-lands promised to the 
soldiers of the revolution. He suggested the 
purchase of the piece of land known as ' The 
Triangle,' to give Pennsylvania an outlet on 
Lake Erie. He was a member of the conti- 
nental congress of 1786, and was one of the 
assessors for settling the accounts of the union 
with individual states. He commanded the 
Pennsylvanian state militia against thewhisky 
insurgents in 1794 ; served as a representative 
in the third congress from 2 Dec. 1793 to 
3 March 1795 ; subsequently he removed to 
Philadelphia, and in 1801 was made superin- 
tendent of military stores there. He was pre- 
sident of the state society of Cincinnati at the 
time of his death, which took place at Philadel- 
phia 29 July 1804. Two of Irvine's brothers 
were in the military service of the revolution, 
Andrew, a captain of infantry, and Matthew, 
a surgeon ; and he left several sons serving 
as officers in the United States army. 

[Appleton's Cyclop. American Biography, 
vol. iii. The statement in Appleton that Irvine 
'graduated' at Dublin is doubtful, as the name 
does not appear in the Dublin Catalogue of 
Graduates.] H. M. C. 

IRVINE, WILLIAM (1776-1811), phy- 
sician, son of William Irvine (1743-1787) 
[q. v.], professor of chemistry at Glasgow, was 
born there in 1776. He studied medicine in 
the university of Edinburgh,where he took the 
degree of M.D. 25 June 1798. His thesis, 'De 
Epispasticis,' was based upon an unpublished 
essay of his father's on nervous diseases (Pre- 
face to Chemical Essays, 1805). He became 
a licentiate of the College of Physicians of 
London 25 June 1806, and his professional life 
was spent in the medical service of the army 
as physician to the forces. In 1805 he pub- 
lished his father's ' Essays, chiefly on Chemical 
Subjects.' In 1808 he was stationed in Sicily, 
and in 1810 his most important work ap- 
peared, ' Some Observations upon Diseases, 
chiefly as they occur in Sicily.' This book 
is based upon observations on malarial fever 
and dysentery made in the general army 
hospital at Messina, and contains several 
acute remarks, such as that abscess of the 
liver is associated with dysentery, that it 
may burst through the diaphragm into the 
lung, and the patient nevertheless recover. 
Shingles was then confused with erysipelas, 
but he notes accurately a difference in the 
results of treatment which is due to the de- 
finite duration of the former disease. He 
had carefully compared his own observations 
with those of George Cleghorn [q. v.] and of 
James Currie [q. v.] on similar fevers, and 



Irving 



had studied minutely the observations of 
Hippocrates on diseases of the Mediterranean 
region. He died of fever at Malta, 23 May 
1811. After his death were published in 1813 

his ' Letters on Sicily.' 

[Works ; Hunk's Coll. of Phys. iii. 37.] 

KM. 

IRVING, DAVID, LL.D. (1778-1860), 
biographer and librarian, fourth and youngest 
son of Janetus Irving of Langholm, Dum- 
friesshire, by Helen, daughter of Simon Little, 
was born at Langholm on 5 Dec. 1778. After 
a sound preliminary education at Langholm, 
David entered Edinburgh University in 1796, 
and in 1801 graduated M.A. While a stu- 
dent he was a successful private tutor, and 
enjoyed the friendship of the veteran critic, 
Dr. Anderson, to whom in 1799 he ' grate- 
fully inscribed ' his ' Life of Robert Fergus- 
son, with a Critique on his Works.' This 
puerile and imperfect performance was fol- 
lowed by similar biographies of William 
Falconer of the ' Shipwreck,' and Russell the 
historian of modern Europe, and the three 
sketches were republished together in 1800, 
with a dedication to Andrew Dalzel, the 
Edinburgh professor of Greek. In 1801 ap- 
peared Irving's ' Elements of English Com- 
position,' which has been a very popular text- 
book. 

Abandoning his original intention of be- 
coming a clergyman, Irving for a time studied 
law, but at length settled to literary pursuits. 
In 1804 he published in two volumes ' The 
Lives of the Scotish Poets ; with Preliminary 
Dissertations on the Literary History of Scot- 
land and the Early Scotish Drama.' This 
evinced both learning and critical capacity, 
and it was followed in 1805 by the 'Life 
of George Buchanan,' which amply demon- 
strated Irving's wide and minute scholarship, 
exceptional faculty for research, and literary 
dexterity. Revised and enlarged, the work re- 
appeared in 1817 as ' Memoirs of the Life and 
Writings of George Buchanan.' In 1808 the 
university of Aberdeen conferred on Irving 
the honorary degree of LL.D., and in the same 
year he was candidate for the chair of classics 
at Belfast, but withdrew before the election. 
InlSlO he marriedthe daughter of Dr. Robert 
Anderson (1750-1830) [q. v.], who died in 
1812 after the birth of a son. In 1813 he 
printed a touching ' Memorial of Anne Mar- 
garet Anderson,' for private circulation. Up 
to 1820 Irving devoted himself to literary 
work, and to the interests of a few university 
students who boarded with him. His super- 
intendence of their studies led to his printing 
in 1815 'Observations on the Study of the 
Civil Law,' which was reprinted in 1820 and 

E2 



Irving 



Irving 



1823, and in 1837 appeared in an enlarged 
form as ; An Introduction to the Study of the 
Civil Law.' 

In 1820 Irving became principal librarian 
of the Faculty of Advocates, passing his first 
vacation at Gottingen, in accordance with 
the terms of his appointment. This gained 
him new friends and valuable experience, 
and brought him in time the Gottingen de- 
gree of doctor of laws. In October of this 
year he married his cousin, Janet Laing of 
Canonbie, Dumfriesshire, and for twenty- 
nine years pursued a quiet, but prosperous 
and happy career. At the disruption in 1843 
lie joined the seceders from the church of 
Scotland, remaining a valued member of the 
Free church. In 1848 the curators of the 
library, on account apparently of his ad- 
vancing years, induced him to resign his post. I 
Thenceforth he lived a retired and studious 
life, amassing a private library of about seven 
thousand volumes. He died at Meadow Place, 
Edinburgh, on 11 May 1860. 

Irving published much during his last 
forty years. In 1821 he edited, with bio- 
graphical notices, the poems of Alexander 
Montgomerie, author of ' The Cherrie and the 
Sloe.' For the Bannatyne Club he prepared, 
in 1828-9, an edition of Dempster's ' De 
Scriptoribus Scotis ; ' in 1835 a reprint of 
Robert Charteris's edition of ' Philotus, a 
Comedy ; ' and, in 1837, the first edited issue 
of David Buchanan's Lives : ' Davidis Bu- 
chanani de Scriptoribus Scotis Libri Duo.' 
For the Maitland Club he edited in 1830 
' Clariodus, a Metrical Romance,' from a six- 
teenth-century manuscript, and in 1832 ' The 
Moral Fables of Robert Henryson : reprinted 
from the edition of Andrew Hart.' He did not 
revise Hart's text, but he furnished a valu- 
able preface. Between 1830 and 1842 he con- 
tributed to the seventh edition of the ' Ency- 
clopaedia Britannica ' the articles on Juris- 
prudence, Canon Law, Civil Law, and Feudal 
Law, besides numerous important Scottish 
biographies, many of which were republished, 
in 1839, in two volumes, entitled ' Lives of 
Scotish Writers.' In 1854 Irving reissued, 
with enlarged preface and notes, Selden's 
' Table Talk,' which he had edited in 1819. 
He likewise progressed with his 'History 
of Scotish Poetry,' which he began in 1828 ; 
it appeared posthumously in 1861, edited by 
Dr. John Carlyle, with a prefatory memoir 
by Dr. David Laing. Several of the ' Ency- 
clopaedia ' articles notably those on Bar- 
bour, Dunbar, Henryson, and Lindsay were 
incorporated in this work. Although it wants 
revision in the light of researches undertaken 
since the date of its composition, it remains 
the standard authority on its subject. 



[Laing's Memoir prefixed to Scotish Poetry ; 
Gent. Mag. 1860, i. 645 ; Dr. Hanna's obituary 
notice in the Witness.] T. B. 

IRVING, EDWARD (1792-1834), divine, 
was born at Annan on 4 Aug. 1792, on the 
same day as Shelley. His father, Gavin 
Irving, was a tanner, of a family long esta- 
blished in the neighbourhood ; his mother, 
Mary Lowther, was the daughter of a small 
landed proprietor. As a boy, he was emi- 
nently successful in gaining school prizes, 
and showed a partiality for attending the ser- 
vices of extreme presbyterians, seceders from 
the church of Scotland, at the neighbouring 
hamlet of Ecclefechan, Carlyle's birthplace. 
There he doubtless received impressions which 
influenced his future career. At thirteen he 
went to Edinburgh University, where he gra- 
duated in 1809. Though he does not appear 
to have been a remarkably distinguished stu- 
dent, he attracted the favourable notice of 
Professors Christison and Leslie, by whose 
recommendation he obtained in ISlOthe mas- 
tership of the so-called mathematical school 
just established at Haddington. Here he re- 
mained two years teaching, studying for the 
ministry, and at the same time giving private 
lessons to a little girl, Jane Baillie Welsh, 
who was destined to influence his life in future 
years. In 1812, by the continued patronage 
of Sir John Leslie, he obtained the master- 
ship of a newly established academy at Kirk- 
caldy, on the northern shore of the Firth of 
Forth, which he administered successfully, 
but, if lingering traditions may be trusted, 
with unreasonable severity towards his 
scholars. He found another female pupil 
destined to affect his future life in Isabella 
Martin, daughter of the minister of the parish, 
and, after obtaining a license to preach in 
June 1815, occasionally assisted her father, 
not greatly, as would appear, to the edifica- 
tion of the people. ' He had ower muckle 
gran'ner,' they said. While at Kirkcaldy 
he made the acquaintance of Carlyle, who 
arrived in the autumn of 1816 to take charge 
of an opposition school. Irving received his 
competitorwith the utmost generosity. ' Two 
Annandale people,' he said, 'must not be 
strangers in Fife.' Neither teacher appears 
to have taken a very engrossing or strictly 
professional interest in his pursuit, and they 
speedily became fast friends. Irving, the 
elder man, and at the time by much the more 
interesting and conspicuous, was in a posi- 
tion to be of the greatest service to Carlyle, 
who gratefully records the stimulus of his 
conversation and the access to books which 
he afforded to him. ' But for Irving I had 
never known what the communion of man 
with man means.' In 1818 Irving resigned 



Irving 



53 



Irving 



his appointment, a proceeding speedily imi- 
tated by Carlyle, and he repaired to Edin- 
burgh with a view to qualifying himself for 
some profession. He learned French and 
Italian, he attended lectures in chemistry and 
natural history, and, not wholly despairing 
of being a preacher yet, burned all his unap- 
preciated Kirkcaldy sermons, and exercised 
himself in writing others on a new model. 
When, in August 1819, he found another 
opportunity of preaching, he succeeded so 
well that Dr. Chalmers, one of his audience, 
invited him to become his assistant at St. 
John's, Glasgow, where he settled in October. 
This congregation thus had for a time the 
two most famous modern preachers of Scot- 
land ; but Irving felt himself entirely eclipsed 
by Chalmers. The consciousness that he 
was unjustly depreciated combined with in- 
creased confidence in his own powers to sti- 
mulate the ambition which had always been 
a leading trait in his character, but which 
circumstances had hitherto repressed. He 
became restless and uncomfortable, and em- 
braced the opportunity of a new sphere 
afforded by the invitation which he received 
in 1822 from the little chapel in Hatton 
Garden, London, connected with the Cale- 
donian Asylum, although a knowledge of 
Gaelic should have been a requisite, and the 
congregation was so small and poor that it 
at first seemed unable to give the bond for 
the minister's due stipend required by the 
church of Scotland. These difficulties were 
eventually surmounted, and, ' at the highest 
pitch of hope and anticipation,' Irving re- 
moved to London in July 1822. He had 
already, in May 1821, given Carlyle an in- 
troduction to Jane Welsh, and had parted 
from his friend after an earnest conversation 
on Drumclog Moss, unforgotten by either. 

Byron scarcely leapt into fame with more 
suddenness than Irving. The new preacher's 
oratory was pronounced worthy of his melo- 
dious and resonant voice, noble presence, 
commanding stature, and handsome features, 
which were marred only by a slight obliquity 
of vision. The little chapel was soon crowded, 
and the original congregation was almost lost 
in the influx of the more brilliant members of 
London society. His celebrity is said to have 
been greatly aided by a compliment paid him 
by Canning in the House of Commons, but, 
however attracted, his hearers remained. One 
great source of magnetism in Irving was un- 
doubtedly the tone of authority that he as- 
sumed. Others might reason and expostulate, 
he dictated. The effect of Irving's success on 
his own character was unfavourable ; it fos- 
tered that ' inflation ' which Carlyle had al- 
ready remarked in him in his obscure Kirk- 



caldy days, and, by encouraging his belief in 
his own special mission, made him a ready 
prey to flatterers and fanatics. His first im- 
portant publication, ' An Argument for Judg- 
ment to come,' published along with his ' Ora- 
tions ' in 1823, is in its origin almost incredi- 
bly silly, being a protest against the respec- 
tive Visions of Judgment of Southey and 
Byron, which Irving thought equally profane. 
It is no wonder that he himself soon became 
a mark for satirists, but their attacks only 
served to evince his popularity. 

Irving's domestic circumstances were not 
satisfactory. On 13 Oct. 1823 he was married 
at the manse of Kirkcaldy to Isabella Martin, 
after an eleven years' engagement, which, as 
Mrs. Oliphant significantly says, ' had sur- 
vived many changes, both of circumstances 
and sentiment.' It is in fact now known 
that Irving had been in 1821 deeply in love 
with Jane Welsh, who had before conceived 
a childish attachment to him. that she at 
that time reciprocated his feeling, that he 
had endeavoured to persuade the Martin 
family to release him from his engagement, 
that they had refused, and that he fulfilled 
it reluctantly, though with the best grace in 
his power. The marriage proved neverthe- 
less much happier than might have been ex- 
pected ; but it was still the greatest of mis- 
fortunes to Irving to have missed a wife 
I capable of advising and controlling him, and 
found one who ' could bring him no ballast 
for the voyage of life.' Her admiration and 
affection led her to surround him with wor- 
] shippers, inferior people themselves, who kept 
superior people away. Carlyle, whose criti- 
cism might have been very valuable, found 
it impossible to keep up any intimate inter- 
course with his old friend. ' If I had married 
Irving,' said Jane Welsh Carlyle long after- 
wards, ' the tongues would never have been 
heard.' 

While Irving's extravagant assumptions 
in the pulpit served to provide frivolous so- 
ciety in London with a new sensation, the 
student of ecclesiastical history may see in 
them a premonition of the great sacerdotal 
reaction which occurred ten years later, a 
reaction grounded on very different postu- 
lates and supported by very different argu- 
ments, but equally expressive of a tendency in 
the times. Indeed, when Irving arrived in 
London in 1822, partly by inevitable reaction 
from the lukewarmness of the eighteenth cen- 
tury, partly from the marvellous political his- 
tory of the preceding thirty years, a great 
revival of enthusiastic religious feeling was 
beginning. People could hardly be blamed for 
seeing a fulfilment of prophecy in the events 
of the French revolution ; and, this granted, 



Irving 



54 



Irving 



the corollary of an impending end of the world 
was but reasonable. The Apocalyptic ten- 
dency expressed itself in the poetry and art 
of the time ; in Byron's ' Heaven and Earth' 
and Moore's ' Loves of the Angels ; ' and in the 
pictures of Danby and Martin. It was inevi- 
table that Irving should go with the current, 
and equally so that he should be entirely 
carried away by it. His entire absorption in 
the subject may be dated from the beginning 
of 1826, when he became acquainted with 
the work of the Spanish Jesuit Lacunza, pub- 
lished under the pseudonym of Aben Ezra, 
' The Coming of the Messiah in Glory and 
Majesty.' Deeply impressed, he resolved to 
translate it, and the intimacy which this task 
occasioned with Henry Drummond [q. v.] 
and others of similar sentiments gave birth 
to the conferences for the study of unfulfilled 
prophecy which for many years continued 
to be held at Drummond's seat at Albury. 
The translation was published in 1827, with 
a long preface, which has been reprinted 
separately. Irving's eloquence had long ago 
transformed his originally small and poor 
congregation into a large and rich one, and 
at this time the fact became externalised in a 
new church in Regent Square, then regarded 
as the handsomest of any not belonging to 
the establishment in London. There, Sunday 
after Sunday a thousand persons assembled 
to hear Irving expound for three hours at a 
stretch, though, as he assured Chalmers, he 
could bring himself down to an hour and 
forty minutes. A less devoted congregation 
at Hackney Chapel dropped away at the end 
of two hours and a half, and the prudent 
Chalmers began to fear ' lest his prophecies 
and the excessive length and weariness of 
his services may not unship him altogether.' 
Chalmers was right. Whether from Irving's 
prolixity, or their own fickleness, or from the 
distance of the new church from any leading 
thoroughfare, the fashionable crowds that 
had filled Hatton Garden stopped short of 
Regent Square. Irving proved his sincerity 
by making no attempt to bring them back. 
Early in 1828 he published his ' Lectures on 
Baptism,' evincing a decided approximation 
to the views of the sacramental party in the 
church of England. In May of that year he 
undertook a journey in Scotland, with the 
object of proclaiming the imminence of the 
second advent. The experiences of this tour 
were of a chequered character. Chalmers 
thought his Edinburgh lectures ' woeful,' but 
he brought the Edinburgh people out to hear 
them at five in the morning. At his native 
Annan he was received with enthusiasm ; 
but at Kirkcaldy an unfortunate accident 
from the fall of the overcrowded galleries 



made him, most unreasonably, an object of 
popular displeasure. On this tour he con- 
tracted a friendship with Campbell of Row, 
soon about to be tried for heresy, which 
gave support to the suspicions of heterodoxy 
which were beginning to be entertained 
against himself. They were increased by the 
publication at the end of the year of his 
' Sermons on the Trinity,' though these had 
been delivered in 1825 without exciting cri- 
ticism from any quarter. Early in 1829 the 
' Morning Watch,' a journal on unfulfilled 
prophecy, entirely pervaded, as Mrs. Oliphant 
remarks, by Irving, was established by the 
members of the Albury conference. Another 
expedition to Scotland followed, and at the 
beginning of 1830 his tract, ' The Orthodox 
and Catholic Doctrine of our Lord's Human 
Nature,' exposed him to open charges of 
heresy, intensified by the accusations simi- 
larly brought against his friends Campbell, 
Scott, and Maclean. For the time, how- 
ever, inquisition remained in abeyance, while 
public attention was directed to matters of 
a more exciting character, and which gave 
an easier handle to Irving's adversaries. 

The 'unknown tongues' the crowning 
development of Irving's ministrations were 
first heard on 28 March 1830, from the mouth 
of Mary Campbell, ' in the little farmhouse of 
Fernicarry, at the head of the Gairloch.' On 
Irving's theories of the second advent, this 
and the miraculous cure of Miss Campbell, 
which was believed to have occurred shortly 
afterwards, were events to be expected, and 
he can scarcely be excused of excessive cre- 
dulity for having rather encouraged than 
repressed the manifestations which rapidly 
multiplied. They were at first confined to 
private prayer-meetings, but on 16 Oct. 1831 
the public services in Regent Square Church 
were interrupted by an outbreak of unin- 
telligible discourse from a female worshipper, 
and such occurrences speedily became ha- 
bitual. ' I did rejoice with great joy,' owns 
Irving, ' that the bridal jewels of the church, 
had been found again.' The manifestations 
have been described by many, both speakers 
and hearers. The best descriptions are the 
vivid account of Robert Baxter, himself an 
agent, who ended by attributing them to 
diabolical possession, and that by Irving 
himself, who, obliged to maintain the Pente- 
costal affinities of the phenomenon, is exceed- 
ingly indignant with ' the heedless sons of 
Belial 'who pronounced the utterances mere 
gibberish ; and protests that, on the contrary, 
' it is regularly formed, well proportioned, 
deeply felt discourse, which evidently want- 
eth only the ear of him whose native tongue 
it is to make it a very masterpiece of power- 



Irving 



55 



Irving 



ful speech.' But whose native tongue was 
it ? Miss Campbell conjectured, for unknown 
reasons, the Pelew Islanders'. The whole 
story is a curious instance of religious delu- 
sion. 

Irving had never been on cordial terms 
with the religious world, and since the de- 
livery in 1826 of a powerful sermon advo- 
cating the prosecution of missions by strictly 
apostolic methods, he had been regarded by 
it with suspicion and dislike. An attempted 
prosecution for heresy in December 1830 
had failed for the time in consequence of Ir- 
ving's withdrawal from the jurisdiction of the 
London presbytery, but he was now helpless. 
The church trustees, who disapproved of the 
tongues, were clearly bound to take steps for 
the abatement of what they regarded as an 
intolerable nuisance, and as Irving was not 
prepared ' defendre a Dieu de faire miracle 
en ce lieu,' no course but his removal was 
possible. He defended himself with an im- 
perious haughtiness little calculated to con- 
ciliate his judges, most of whom were pro- 
bably inimical to him on other grounds, but 
the most friendly tribunal could hardly have 
come to any other decision, and he was re- 
moved from the pulpit of Regent Square 
Church on 26 April 1832. The larger part 
of the congregation, numbering no less than 
eight hundred communicants, nevertheless 
adhered to him, and found temporary refuge 
in a large bazaar in Gray's Inn Road, which 
was shared with them, much to their dis- 
satisfaction, by Robert Owen. In the autumn 
Irving's followers, reconstituted (as they as- 
serted) with 'the threefold cord of a sevenfold 
ministry,' and assuming the title of the ' Holy 
Catholic Apostolic Church,' removed to the 
picture gallery in Newman Street which 
had formerly been used by Benjamin West. 
Though now the minister of a dissenting con- 
gregation, Irving retained his status as a 
clergyman of the church of Scotland until 
his deprivation by the presbytery of Annan, 
on 13 March 1833, on a charge of heresy re- 
specting the sinlessness of Christ. The tri- 
bunal was not a highly competent one, and 
its decision carried little moral weight. It 
broke Irving's heart nevertheless. He tra- 
velled for some time through his native 
county, addressing crowded audiences in the 
open air, and then returned to London to 
find himself suspended and almost deposed 
by his own congregation, of which the world 
naturally supposed him to be prophet, priest, 
and king. It was far otherwise. Irving him- 
self had never been favoured with any super- 
natural gifts ; he was consequently bound, 
on his own principles, to give place to those 
\vhohad. When, therefore, immediately upon 



his return an inspired voice proclaimed that, 
having lost his orders in the church of Scot- 
land, he must not administer the sacraments 
until he had received fresh ones, he could 
only acquiesce and stand aside. He accepted 
the situation with the utmost meekness, con- 
senting without a murmur to be controlled 
and on occasion rebuked by inferior men, 
whose alleged revelations on points of cere- 
monial were often in violent contrast with 
his own ideas and the traditions of the church 
to which he had hitherto belonged. He still 
preached, and occasionally undertook mis- 
! sions at the bidding of the authorities who 
had assumed the direction of his conscience, 
but never came prominently before the world, 
and his own rank in his community was only 
that of an inferior minister. His health de- 
clined rapidly. The last glimpse of him as 
j a writer is obtained, in the autumn of 1834, 
from a series of letters written to his wife 
while he was on a journey through the west 
midland counties and Wales in search of 
health, and preparing for another mission to 
Scotland. These letters, in every way more 
simple, natural, and human than the more 
celebrated epistles of former years, convey a 
most affecting picture of the man sinking into 
the grave. After his arrival at Glasgow his 
strength entirely failed, and he expired on 
7 Dec. 1834, his last words being, ' If I die, 
I die unto the Lord.' He was buried in the 
crypt of Glasgow Cathedral. Few of his 
children survived to adult age, but he left 
a son, Martin Howy Irving, who obtained 
distinction as a professor in Australia. 

The 'Irvingite' or 'Holy Catholic Apos- 
tolic Church' still survives. A fine Gothic 
church, built in Gordon Square in 1854, is 
the chief home of the denomination. 

Irving's character offers a paradox in many 
respects. As a general rule, a person in whom 
the moral qualities are greatly in excess of the 
intellectual may be a pleasing figure, but not 
a picturesque or imposing one. The person, 
too, who obtains a large share of public notice 
by mere eloquence, without solid acquire- 
ments or valuable ideas, is usually something 
of a charlatan. Irving was one of the most 
striking figures in ecclesiastical history, and 
as exempt from every taint of charlatanism 
as a man can be. He cannot be acquitted of 
an enormous over-estimate of his own powers 
and a fatal proneness to believe himself set 
apart for extraordinary works ; but this mis- 
taken self-confidence never degenerated into 
conceit, and on many occasions he gave evi- 
dence of a most touching humility. Morally 
his character was most excellent ; his life 
was a succession of tender and charitable 
actions, in so far as his polemics left him 



Irving 



Irving 



time and opportunity. Intellectually he was 
weak, to say nothing of his deficiency in 
judgment and common sense ; his voluminous 
writings are a string of sonorous common- 
places, empty of useful suggestion and ori- 
ginal thought. This poverty of matter is in 
part redeemed by the dignity of the manner, 
for which Irving has never received sufficient 
credit. The composition is always fine, often 
noble ; and, though it is certainly framed upon 
biblical models, such perfect imitation implies 
delicate taste as well as rhetorical power. In 
his familiar letters, however, the maintenance 
of this exalted pitch soon becomes exceedingly 
tiresome. 

[Oliphant's Life of Edward Irving; Wilks's 
Edward Irving, an Ecclesiastical and Literary 
Biography ; Carlyle's Reminiscences, and Essay 
on Irving in Eraser's Mag. for January 1835; 
Froude's Thomas Carlyle ; Jane Welsh Carlyle's 
Memorials ; Mrs. Alexander Ireland's Life of 
Jane Welsh Carlyle ; Baxter's Narration of Facts ; 
Hazlitt's Spirit of the Age ; Collected Writings 
of Edward Irving, edited by G. Carlyle.] 

E. G. 

IRVING, GEORGE VERE (1815-1869), 
lawyer and antiquary, born in 1815, was only 
son of Alexander Irving of Newton, Lanark- 
shire, afterwards a Scottish judge with the 
title of Lord Newton. In 1837 he was 
called to the Scottish bar. He took a great 
interest in the volunteer movement, and 
became captain of the Carnwath troop. He 
died at 5 St. Mark's Crescent, Regent's 
Park, London, on 29 Oct. 1869, aged 53 
(Edinburgh Evening Courant, 3 Nov. 1869, 
p. 4). 

Irving was F.S.A. Scot, and vice-president 
of the British Arch geological Association. 
He also contributed frequently to ' Notes 
and Queries.' His works are: 1. 'Digest of 
the Law of the Assessed Taxes in Scotland/ 
8vo, Edinburgh, 1841. 2. 'Digest of the 
Inhabited House Tax Act,' 8vo, London, 
1852. 3. ' The Upper Ward of Lanarkshire 
described and delineated. The Archaeological 
and Historical Section by G. V. Irving. The 
Statistical and Topographical Section by 
Alexander Murray,' 3 vols. 4to, Glasgow, 
1864. 

[Notes and Queries, 4th ser. iv. 398; Irving's 
Book of Scotsmen, p. 234.] G-. G. 

IRVING, JOSEPH (1830-1891), histo- 
rian and annalist, born at Dumfries 2 May 
1830, was son of Andrew Irving, joiner. 
After being educated at the parish school of 
Troqueer, Maxwelltown, on the opposite 
bank of the Nith from Dumfries, he served 
an apprenticeship as a printer in the office of 
the 'Dumfries Standard;' subsequently prac- 



tised as compositor and journalist in Dum- 
fries and Sunderland ; was for a time on the 
staff of the ' Morning Chronicle,' London, 
and in 1854 became editor of the ' Dumbarton 
Herald.' For some years afterwards he was 
a bookseller in Dumbarton, published a his- 
tory of the county, and started in 1867 the 
'Dumbarton Journal,' which was unsuccess- 
ful. In 1860 he became a fellow of the So- 
ciety of Antiquaries of Scotland, and in 1864 
an honorary member of the Archa3ological 
Society of Glasgow, to the 'Transactions' of 
which he contributed an important paper on 
the ' Origin and Progress of Burghs in Scot- 
land.' Disposing of his Dumbarton business 
in 1869 on the death of his wife, who had 
helped him much in all his undertakings, 
Irving, after living a few years in Renton, 
Dumbartonshire, settled in Paisley in 1880, 
where he wrote for the ' Glasgow Herald' and 
other journals, and did much solid literary 
work. He was an authority on Scottish his- 
tory and an excellent reviewer. After some- 
years of uncertain health he died at Paisley 
2 Sept. 1891. 

Irving's works are as follows : 1. ' The 
Conflict at Glenfruin : its Causes and Con- 
sequences, being a Chapter of Dumbarton- 
shire History,' 1856. 2. ' History of Dum- 
bartonshire from the Earliest Period to the 
Present Time,' 1857 ; 2nd edit. 1859. 3. 'The 
Drowned Women of Wigtown : a Romance 
of the Covenant,' 1862. 4. ' The Annals of 
our Time from the Accession of Queen Vic- 
toria to the Opening of the present Parlia- 
ment,' 1869 (new edit. 1871), with two sup- 
plements from February 1871 to 19 March 
1874, and from 20 March 1874 to the occu- 
pation of Cyprus, published respectively in 
1875 and 1879 ; a further continuation brings 
the record from 1879 down to the jubilee of 
1887 (Lond. 1889), and Mr. J. Hamilton Fyfe 
has undertaken a later supplement. 5. ' The 
Book of Dumbartonshire : a History of the 
County, Burghs, Parishes, and Lands, Me- 
moirs of Families, and Notices of Industries/ 
a sumptuous and admirable work, 3 vols. 4to t 
1879. 6. 'The Book of Eminent Scotsmen/ 
1882, a compact and useful record. 7. 'The 
West of Scotland in History/ 1885. He also 
published : ' Memoir of the Smolletts of Bon- 
hill ' ; ' Memoir of the Dennistouns of Den- 
nistoun/ 1859; and 'Dumbarton Burgh Re- 
cords, 1627-1746/ 4to, 1860. Irving has 
sterling merits as a local historian, and 
his ' Annals ' L is a standard work of refer- 
ence. 

[Information from Irving's son, Mr. John 
Irving, Cardross, Dumbartonshire, and Mr. 
George Stronach, Advocates' Library, Edin- 
burgh; Glasgow Herald, 5 Sept. 1891.] T. B. 



\ 



Irving 



57 



Irwin 



IRVING, SIR PAULUS ^EMILIUS 

(1751-1828), general, born 30 Aug. 1751, 
was son of Lieutenant-colonelPaulus^Emilius 
Irving, who was wounded at Quebec when 
serving as major commanding the 15th foot 
under Wolfe, and died lieutenant-governor 
of Upnor Castle, Kent, in 1796. His mother 
was Judith, daughter of Captain William 
Westfield of Dover. He was appointed lieu- 
tenant in the 47th foot in 1764, became cap- 
tain in 1768, and major in 1775. He served 
with his regiment in the affair at Lexington, 
at the battle of Bunker's Hill, and in Boston 
during the blockade. Subsequently he ac- 
companied the regiment to Quebec, and was 
present in the affair at Trois Rivieres and the 
various actions of Burgoyne's army down to 
the surrender at Saratoga, 17 Oct. 1777. He 
was afterwards detained as a prisoner of war in 
America for three years. He returned home 
in 1781, and in 1783 became lieutenant- 
colonel 47th foot. In 1790 he took the regi- 
ment out to the Bahamas, where he served 
until 1795, becoming brevet-colonel in 1791 
and major-general in 1794. On the death 
of Sir John Vaughan, 21 June 1795, Irving 
succeeded to the West India command, in 
which he was replaced by Major-general 
Leigh in September of the same year. Irving 
then assumed the command in St. Vincent, 
and on 2 Oct. 1795 carried the enemy's 
position at La Vigie with heavy loss. He 
received the thanks of George III, conveyed 
through the Duke of York. He returned 
home in December 1795. He was appointed 
colonel of the 6th royal veteran battalion in 
1802, and was afterwards transferred to the 
colonelcy of his old corps, the 47th (Lan- 
cashire) foot. He was created a baronet 
19 Sept. 1809, became a full general in 1812, 
and died at Carlisle 31 Jan. 1828. Irving 
married, 4 Feb. 1 786, Lady Elizabeth St. Law- 
rence, second daughter of Thomas, first earl 
of Howth, by whom he left two sons and a 
daughter. The baronetcy became extinct on 
the death of Irving's younger son, the third 
and last baronet. 

[Burke's Baronetage, 1850 ; Appleton's Cyclop. 
American Biography under 'Irving, Paulus 
^Emilius ' and ' Irving, Jacob ^rnilius ; ' Gent. 
Mag. xcviii. pt. i. 269-70; Philippart's Eoyal 
Military Calendar, 1820, i. 349-50.] H.M. C. 

IRWIN, EYLES (1751P-1817), oriental 
traveller and miscellaneous writer, younger 
son of James Irwin, H.E.I.C.S., of Hazeleigh 
Hall, Essex, by his wife Sarah (Beale), widow 
of Henry Palmer, was born in Calcutta, and 
educated in England under Dr. Rose at Chis- 
wick. Being appointed on 21 Nov. 1766 to 
a writership in the East India Company's 



service in the Madras presidency, he returned 
to India in February 1768, and in 1771 was 
appointed ' superintendent of the company's 
grounds within the bounds of Madras,' &c. 
Upon the deposition of Lord Pigot in 1776, 
Irwin signed a protest against the revolution 
in the Madras government, and on his refusal 
to accept the post of assistant at Vizagapa- 
tam, to which he was appointed by the coun- 
cil in November 1776, was suspended from 
the company's service. In order to seek 
redress, Irwin sailed for England early in 
1777. After enduring many vicissitudes of 
fortune during a journey of eleven months, 
a full account of which is given in his ' Series 
of Adventures in the course of a Voyage up 
the Red Sea,' &c., Irwin arrived in England! 
at the close of the year, and found that ha 
had already been reinstated in the service of 
the company. Returning to India in the 
autumn of 1780 by another route, which is 
described in the third edition of his ' Series 
of Adventures,' &c., he was appointed by 
Lord Macartney on 6 Oct. 1781 a member of 
the committee of ' assigned revenue,' and in 
1783 was made the superintendent of revenue 
in the Tinnevelly and Madura districts. Under 
his advice, Colonel William Fullarton [q. v.} 
undertook a successful expedition against 
the Poligars, and by his judicious manage- 
ment the revenues of the district were greatly 
improved. In November 1784 he was ordered 
to the Trichinopoly district to arrange ' the 
speediest and most effectual mode of paying 
off the fighting men ' of the southern army. 
In March 1785 he was further appointed com- 
missary on the part of the Madras government 
to negotiate for the cession of the Dutch 
settlements on the coasts of Tinnevelly and 1 
Marawa, and in consequence of the surrender 
of the assignment, delivered over the district 
of Tinnevelly in July to the nabob's agents. 
Towards the close of 1785 Irwin was com- 
pelled to return to England on account of 
his health, and in 1789 was awarded the sum 
of six thousand pagodas by the court of direc- 
tors for his ' able, judicious, and upright man- 
agement ' of the assigned districts south of 
the Coleroon. In 1792 he was sent out with 
two colleagues to China, where he remained 
rather less than two years. He retired from 
the service in 1794, and in the following year 
was an unsuccessful candidate for a director- 
ship of the company. The remainder of his 
days he passed in retirement, devoting himself 
chiefly to literary pursuits. Irwin died at 
Clifton, near Bristol, on 12 Aug. 1817, and 
was buried in the old churchyard at Clifton. 
He appears to have been an honest and able 
administrator. His character is said to have 
been 'remarkable for its amiable simplicity.' 



Irvvin 



Invin 



His portrait, painted by Romney, is in the 
possession of his great-grandson, Charles 
Stuart Pringle. It has been engraved by I 
James Walker and Thornthwaite. In 1778 
Irwin married Honor, daughter of the Rev. 
"William Brooke of Dromavana and of Fir- , 
mount, co. Longford, and first cousin once re- i 
moved of Henry Brooke (1703 P-1783) [q. v.], | 
the author of ' The Fool of Quality.' By her j 
he had three sons and two daughters. His 
eldest son, James Brooke Irwin, a captain in 
the 103rd regiment, was killed in the assault 
on Fort Erie in August 1814. 

Irwin was the author of the following 
works: 1. 'Saint Thomas's Mount; a Poem, j 
Written by a Gentleman in India,' London, 
1 774, 4to. 2. ' Bedukah, or the Self-devoted, ' 
anlndian Pastoral,' London. 1776, 4to. 3. 'An 
Epistle to ... George, Lord Pigot, on the 
Anniversary of the Raising of the Siege of j 
Madras. Written during his Lordship's Con- j 
finement at St. Thomas's Mount ' [in verse], ) 
anon., London, 1778, 4to. 4. 'Eastern Eclo- 
gues ; written during a Tour through Arabia, | 
Egypt ... in the year MDCCLXXVII,' &c., ' 
anon., London, 1780, 4to. 5. ' A Series of 
Adventures, in the course of a Voyage up 
the Red Sea, on the coasts of Arabia and 
Egypt, and of a Route through the Desarts 
of Thebais ... in the year MDCCLXXVII. , 
. . . Illustrated with Maps,' &c., London, 
1780, 4to; 2nd edit., London, 1780, 4to ; 
3rd edit., ' with a Supplement of a Voyage 
from Venice to Latichea, and of a Route 
through the Desarts of Arabia, by Aleppo, 
Bagdad, and the Tigris, to Busrah, in the 
years 1780 and 1781,' &c., London, 1787, 
&vo, 2 vols. Translated from the third edi- 
tion into French by J. P. Parraud, Paris, 
1792, 8vo, 2 torn. 6. ' Occasional Epistles, 
written during a Journey from London to 
Busrah ... in the years 1780 and 1781 ' 
fin verse], London, 1783, 4to. 7. ' Ode to 
Robert Brooke, Esq., occasioned by the death 
of Hyder Ally,' London, 1 784, 4to. 8. ' The 
Triumph of Innocence ; an Ode, written on 
the Deliverance of Maria Theresa Charlotte, 
Princess Royal of France, from the Prison 
of the Temple,' London, 1796, 4to. 9. ' An 
.Enquiry into the Feasibility of the supposed 
Expedition of Buonapart6 to the East,' Lon- 
don, 1798, 8vo. 10. 'Buonaparte in Egypt, 
or an Appendix to the Enquiry into his sup- 
posed Expedition to the East/ Dublin, 1798, 
Svo. 11. 'Nil us, an Elegy. Occasioned by 
the Victory of Admiral Nelson over the 
Trench Fleet on August 1, 1798,' London, 
1798, 4to. 12. ' The Failure of the French 
Crusade, or the Advantages to be derived 
by Great Britain from the restoration of 
Egypt to the Turks,' London, 1799, 8vo. 



13. ' The Bedouins, or Arabs of the Desert. 
A Comic Opera in three Acts [prose and 
verse]. With Corrections and Additions,' 
Dublin, 1802, 12mo. 14. 'Ode to Iberia,' 
London, 1808, 4to. 15. ' The Fall of Sara- 
gossa, an Elegy,' 1808, 4to. 16. ' Napoleon, 
or the Vanity of Human Wishes,' 1814, 4to, 
2 pts. 17. 'An Elegy to the Memory of 
Captain James Brooke Irwin, who perished 
... in the Assault of Fort Erie, Upper 
Canada, on the fifteenth of August, 1814,' 
London, 1814, 4to, privately printed. 18. 'An 
Essay on the Origin of the Game of Chess/ 
prefixed to 'The incomparable Game of Chess 
developed after a new Method . . . translated 
from the Italian of Dr. Ercole dal Rio [or 
rather D. Ponziani]. By J. S. Bingham/ 
London, 1820, 8vo. This essay is an extract 
from a letter written by Irwin while at Can- 
ton, dated 14 March 1793, and communicated 
by the Earl of Charlemont to the Royal Irish 
Academy (see Transactions, vol. v. 'Antiqui- 
ties,' pp. 53-63). 

[Annual Biog. and Obit. 1818, ii. 221-36 ; 
European Mag. 1789 xv. 179-81 (with portrait), 
1817 Ixxii. 277; Gent. Mag. 1792 vol. Ixii. pt. i. 
p. 276, 1817 vol. Ixxxvii. pt. ii. p. 376, 1818 
vol. Lxxxviii. pt. i. pp. 93-4 ; Asiatic Journal, 
1817, iv. 425; A Collection of Letters, chiefly 
between the Madras Government and Eyles Irwin, 
in the years 1781-5 (1888) ; Colonel William 
Fullarton's View of the English Interests in 
India, 1788; Bishop Caldwell's Political and 
General History of the District of Tinnevelly, 
1881, pp. 82, 143-57; Georgian Era, 1834, iii. 
465-6 ; Baker's Biog. Dramatics, 1812, vol. i. 
pt. i. pp. 390-3; Prinsep's Record of Services of 
Madras Civilians, 1885, p. 80 ; Burke's Landed 
Gentry, 1882, i. 199-200 ; Foster's Peerage, 
1883, s.n. ' Charlemont ; ' Dictionary of Living 
Authors, 1816, p. 174 : Notes and Queries, 4th 
ser. xi. 34 ; Watt's Bibl. Brit. ; Brit. Mus. Cat.] 

G. F. R. B. 

IRWIN, SIR JOHN (1728-1788), general, 
born in Dublin in 1728, was son of General 
1 Alexander Irwin. who entered the army in 
! 1689, and was colonel of the 15th foot i'rom 
1737 until his death in 1752, holding im- 
portant commands on the Irish establish- 
ment. While still very young John attracted 
the notice of Lionel, duke of Dorset, lord- 
lieutenant of Ireland, who appointed him 
page of honour about 1735 or 1736. Owing 
to his patron's interest and his father's rank 
in the army, he was given a company in his 
father's regiment (the 5th foot) while still a 
schoolboy. His commission as ensign bears 
the date'8 July 1736, and on 14 Jan. 1737 
| he became a lieutenant. At the close of 
I 1748 his father granted him a year's fur- 
lough so that he might travel on the conti- 



Irwin 



59 



Irwin 



nent. Lord Chesterfield, who, while lord- 
lieutenant of Ireland in 1745-6, seems to 
have taken a fancy to him and regularly 
corresponded with him for the succeeding 
twenty years, gave him a letter of introduc- 
tion to Solomon Dayrolles at the Hague (cf. 
CHESTERFIELD, Letters, iii. 307). Chester- 
field describes him as ' a good pretty young 
fellow ; and, considering that he has never 
been yet out of his native country, much 
more presentable than one could expect.' 
From the Hague Irwin went to Paris, and 
in April 1749 Chesterfield advised him (ib. iii. 
337) by letter to visit Rome to see the papal 
jubilee. On his return to Dublin at the close 
of the year, Chesterfield (ib. iii. 363) wrote to 
him : ' You have travelled a little with great 
profit ; travel again, and it will be with still 
greater.' But his marriage in December 1749 
with Elizabeth, youngest daughter of Hugh 
Henry of Straffan, Kildare, kept him at 
home. His wife died in the following April, 
and he was still in Dublin in 1751, when 
he had attained the rank of major. In the 
following year (1752) he was gazetted lieu- 
tenant-colonel of the 5th foot, his father's 
old regiment, and in 1753 he married Anne, 
daughter of Sir Edward Barry [q. v.] In 
1755 he visited Chesterfield at Bath, and it 
was currently reported that Irwin at this time 
suggested to Chesterfield his paper on ' Good- 
Breeding ' which appeared in the ' World ' 
(No. 148) of 30 Oct. 1755. Irwin and his 
wife were very frequently in London after 
1757, when his regiment left Ireland for 
Chatham. In 1760 he served with distinc- 
tion in Germany through the campaign upder 
Prince Ferdinand of Brunswick. He be- 
came a full colonel on 1 March 1761, and 
was appointed to command the 74th foot . On 
10 July 1762 he attained the rank of major- 
general, and on 30 Nov. entered the House 
of Commons, in accordance with a desire he 
had expressed to Chesterfield eight years 
earlier (cf. ib. iv. 105), as member for East 
Grinstead, a borough in the hands of the Duke 
of Dorset, his first patron. He was re-elected 
in 1760, 1774, and 1780, and retired in 1783, 
but his attendance in the house was always 
irregular. On becoming a member of parlia- 
ment he took a prominent place in London 
society, and fixed his town residence in Queen 
Anne Street, Cavendish Square. 

From 1706 to 1768 he held the post of 
governor of Gibraltar, where his second wife 
died in 1767. While abroad he was gazetted 
colonel of the 57th regiment of foot on the 
Irish establishment (17 Nov. 1767). He was 
in Paris on 26 June 1768, when Madame du 
DefFand wrote to Horace Walpole of the 
favourable impression she had formed of him. 



Chesterfield introduced him at the same time 
to Madame de Monconseil, writing of him, 
' pour un Anglais, il a des manieres ' (ib. 
iv. 473). Chesterfield afterwards told him 
that he believed him to be the first English 
traveller that could bring testimonials from 
Paris of having kept good company there. 

In May 1775 he was appointed commander- 
in-chief in Ireland and a privy councillor 
there. He was active in repressing White- 
boy outrages, but lived chiefly in Dublin, 
where he maintained a lavish establishment 
and was popular with all classes. In 1779 
he was made a knight of the Bath, and 
joined the other new knights in giving a ball 
at the Opera House in the Haymarket to all 
the nobility and distinguished persons in 
London. In 1780 he became colonel of the 
3rd regiment of horse or carabineers in Ire- 
land (afterwards the 6th dragoon guards). 
At a banquet which he gave at Dublin to 
the lord-lieutenant (the Earl of Carlisle) in 
1781 he spent nearly 1,500. on a centre-piece 
for the dinner-table, consisting of a model 
in barley-sugar of the siege of Gibraltar. He 
retired from the post of commander-in-chief 
in Ireland on the downfall of Lord North's 
administration in 1782 ; took up his residence 
in his house in Piccadilly, overlooking the 
Green Park ; resumed his place in parliament ; 
and became full general on 19 Feb. 1783. 

Irwin delighted in the pleasures of so- 
ciety, and his charm of manner rendered him 
a general favourite. With George III he 
was on especially good terms. Wraxall tells 
the story that the king once said to him : 
' They tell me, Sir John, that you love a 

lass of wine,' to which Irwin replied : ' Those, 
ir, who have so reported of me to your 
Majesty have done me great injustice; they 
should have said a bottle ' (WRAXALL, Me- 
moirs, ed. 1 884, iii. 93). Wraxall relates that 
his tall, graceful figure, set off by all the 
ornaments of dress and by the insignia of the 
order of the Bath, which he constantly wore, 
even in undress, always made him conspicu- 
ous when he attended the House of Com- 
mons. But his reckless extravagance both at 
home and abroad dissipated his resources. 
At Paris Madame duDeffand noted his 'folles 
depenses.' Owing to pecuniary difficulties he 
resigned his seat in parliament on 3 May 1783 
and retired to France, where he rented a 
chateau in Normandy. Thence he removed 
into Italy, and took up his permanent abode 
at Parma, where he enjoyed the friendship of 
the duke and his consort, the Archduchess 
Amelia, and kept open house for all English 
visitors with characteristic hospitality. He 
died at Parma towards the close of May 1788, 
aged 60. Wraxall relates that, notwithstand- 



Isaac 



Isaacson 



ing the intervention of the duke, his remains 
were denied by the priesthood the rites of 
Christian burial, and the funeral service was 
read by an English gentleman. Sir John 
was survived by a third wife, who died on 
27 Aug. 1805. Her maiden name and the 
date of the marriage are not known. 

Portraits of Sir John and his second wife 
were painted by Sir Joshua Reynolds in 
March 1761 ; Mrs. Irwin's portrait was en- 
graved in mezzotint by Watson. 

[Gent. Mag. 1788, p. 562; Morning Post and 
Morning Chronicle, 20 June 1788 ; Memoirs of 
Sir James Campbell of Ardkinglass, 1832, i. 279 ; 
Earl of Chesterfield's Letters, 1845-53, iii. 307, 
310, 337, 363, 433, iv. 17, 95, 105, 209, 348, 473, 
477, 479, 485, v. 346 ; Wraxall's Memoirs, ed. 
1884, iii. 91-5 ; Corresp. de Madame du Deffand, 
Paris, 1865, i. 483, 490,544 ; Grenville Corresp.] 

A. I. D. 

ISAAC, SAMUEL (1815-1886), projector 
of the Mersey tunnel, son of Lewis Isaac of 
Poole, Dorsetshire, by Catherine, daughter 
of N. Solomon of Margate, was born at 
Chatham in 1815. Coming to London as a 
young man, he established a large business 
as an army contractor in Jermyn Street, 
trading as Isaac, Campbell, & Company. His 
brother, Saul Isaac, J.P., afterwards member 
for Nottingham 1874-80, was associated with 
him in partnership. The firm during the 
Confederate war in America were the largest 
European supporters of the southern states. 
Their ships, outward bound with military 
stores and freighted home with cotton, were 
the most enterprising of blockade-runners 
between 1861 and 1865. Isaac's eldest son 
Henry, who died at Nassau, West Indies, 
during the war, had much to do with this 
branch of the business. Having raised a regi- 
ment of volunteers from among the workmen 
of his own factory at Northampton, Isaac was 
rewarded with the military rank of major. He 
and his firm were large holders of Confederate 
funds, and were consequently ruined on the 
conclusion of the American war in 1865. In 
1880 he acquired the rights of the promoters 
of the Mersey tunnel, and himself undertook 
the making of the tunnel, letting the works 
to Messrs. Waddell, and employing as en- 
gineers Mr. James Brunlees and Sir Douglas 
Fox. The Right Hon. H. C. Raikes became 
chairman, with the Right Hon. E. P. Bouverie 
as vice-chairman, of the company formed to 
carry through the undertaking. Money was 
raised, and the boring was completed under 
Isaac's superintendence on 17 Jan. 1884. The 
tunnel was opened on 13 Feb. 1885 ; the 
first passenger train ran through on 22 Dec., 
and it was formally opened by the Prince of 
Wales on 20 Jan. 1686 (Illustrated London 



News, 30 Jan. 1886, pp. Ill, 112). The queen 
accepted from Isaac an ingenious jewelled 
representation of the tunnel, in which the 
speck of light which shines at the end of 
the excavation was represented by a brilliant. 
He formed a collection of paintings contain- 
ing some of the best works of Mr. B. W. 
Leader, A.R. A. Isaac died at 29 Warrington 
Crescent, Maida Vale, London, on 22 Nov. 
1886, and left 203,084/. 17*. 9d. 

[Times, 24 Nov. 1886, p. 6 ; Jewish Chronicle^ 
26 Nov. 1886, p. 10.] G-. C. B. 

ISAACSON, HENRY (1581-1 654),theo- 
logian and chronologer, born in the parish 
of St. Catherine, Coleman Street, London, 
in September 1581, was the eldest son of 
Richard Isaacson, by Susan, daughter of 
Thomas Bryan ( Visitation of London, 1633-5, 
Harl. Soc., ii. 3-4). He appears to have 
been educated under the care of Bishop Lance- 
lot Andrewes [q. v.], by whom he was sent 
to Pembroke Hall, Cambridge. Upon leaving- 
college he became an inmate of the bishop's 
house, and remained with him as his amanu- 
ensis and intimate friend until Andrewes's 
death in 1626. In 1645 he held the office 
of treasurer of Bridewell and Bedlam ( Gent. 
Mag. 1831, pt. ii. p. 502). Besides hand- 
somely providing for his numerous children, 
of whom several settled in Cambridgeshire, 
Isaacson, in imitation of his father, was a 
benefactor to the poor of the parish of St. 
Catherine, Coleman Street, where he died 1 
on 7 Dec. 1654, and was buried on the 14th 
(SMYTH, Obituary, Camden Soc., p. 39, name 
misprinted ' Jackson '). In his will he de- 
scribed himself as ' citizen and paint er-stainer 
of London' (P. C. C. 263, Aylett), and be- 
queathed to Dr. Collins, provost of King's 
College, Cambridge, a portrait of Bishop 
Andrewes. By his wife Elizabeth, daughter 
and sole heiress of John Fan of London, he 
had nine sons and eight daughters. He was 
owner of the advowson of Woodford, Essex, to 
which he presented successively his younger 
brother William and his eldest son Richard 
(WooD, Fasti Oxon. ed. Bliss, i. 377). 

In 1630 appeared a small volume called 
' Institutiones Piae, or Directions to Pray,' 
&c., 12mo, London, collected by ' H. I.,' 
which passed through several editions. Some 
passages are borrowed from Andrewes's ' Pre- 
ces Privatse,' and in a preface to the fourth 
edition (1655) the original publisher, Henry 
Seile, claimed the whole work for Andrewes, 
and described Isaacson's relations to the three 
former editions as that of a kind foster-father 
then lately dead (cf. Hale's Preface to In- 
stitutiones Pice, ed. 1839). 

Isaacson's principal work is a great folio- 



Isaacson 



61 



Isaacson 



entitled ' Satvrni Ephemerides, sive Tabvla 
Historico-Chronologica, containing a Chrono- 
logical Series ... of the foure Monarchyes. 
. . . As also a Succession of the Kings and 
Rulers ouer most Kingdomes and Estates of 
the World . . . with a Compend of the His- 
tory of the Chvrch of God from the Creation 
. . . lastly an Appendix of the Plantation and 
Encrease of Religion in ... Britayne,' &c., 
London, 1633. It was probably inspired by 
Andrewes. The lists of authorities fill six 
pages, and the citations and references are 
remarkable for their accuracy. Richard Cra- 
shaw contributed some pleasing verses in 
explanation of the curious engraved title- 
page by W. Marshall (CRASHAW, Works, ed. 
Grosart, i. 246). 

Isaacson wrote also ' An Exact Narrative 
of the Life and Death of ... Lancelot An- 
drewes,' 4to, London, 1650, which was in- 
corporated in the following year in Fuller's 
' Abel Redivivus.' The work treats of An- 
drewes's mental endowments rather than of 
the events of his life. An edition published 
in 1829 by a descendant, Stephen Isaacson 
{q. v.], contains a life of the author. 

To Isaacson may be probably ascribed the 
devotional manuals issued under the initials 
of ' H. I. : ' 1. ' Jacob's Ladder, consisting 
of fifteene degrees or ascents to the know- 
ledge of God by the consideration of His 
creatures and attributes,' 12mo, London, 
1637. The address to the reader is signed 
<H. I.' 2. 'A Treaty of Pacification, or 
Conditions of Peace between God and Man,' 
12mo, London, 1642. 3. ' A Spirituall Duell 
between a Christian and Satan,' &c., 12mo, 
London, 1646. 4. 'The Summe and Sub- 
stance of Christian Religion, set down in a 
Catechisticall Way,' 12mo, London, 1647. 
5. 'Divine Contemplations necessary for these 
Times,' 12mo, London, 1648. 6. ' The Scrip- 
ture Kalendar in use by the Prophets and 
Apostles and by our Lord Jesus Christ/ 8vo, 
London, 1653. Isaacson may likewise have 
furnished the 'Address to the Reader by 
H. I.' prefixed to R. Sibbes's 'Breathing 
after God,' 12mo, 1639. 

[Stephen Isaacson's Life referred to: r,(nt.Mag. 
vol. ci. pt. ii. p. 194; Notes and Queries, 2nd 
ser. iv. 286.] G. G. 

ISAACSON, STEPHEN (1798-1849), 
miscellaneous writer, born on 17 Feb. 1798, 
at the Oaks, Cowlinge, Suffolk, was son of 
Robert Isaacson, auctioneer, of Cowlinge, and 
afterwards of Moulton, Suffolk, by his second 
"wife, Mary Anne, daughter of John Isaacson, 
rector of Lydgate and Little Bradley, Suffolk, 
and perpetual curate of Cowlinge. He was 
educated at Christ's College, Cambridge, and 



graduated B.A. in 1820. Both at school and 
college he obtained some reputation as a 
writer of humorous verse, and was even 
then a frequent contributor to the ' Gentle- 
man's Magazine ' and other periodicals. In 
1822 he projected the ' Brighton Magazine,' 
which had a very brief existence. More suc- 
cessful was his translation of Jewel's ' Apo- 
logia ' (1825), with a life of the bishop and 
a preliminary discourse on the doctrine and 
discipline of the church of Rome in reply to 
some observations which Charles Butler had 
addressed to Southey on his ' Book of the 
Church.' Butler answered Isaacson in a 
' Vindication of " The Book of the Roman 
Catholic Church'" (1826). Shortly after- 
wards Isaacson accepted the rectory of St. 
Paul, Demerara. In 1829 he edited Henry 
Isaacson's ' Life ' of Bishop Andrewes, and 
prefixed a brief memoir of the author. By 
1832 he had returned to England, and 
avowed as the results of his own experience 
that the social and religious condition of the 
negro slaves could not be bettered. On 
8 Aug. of that year he delivered a clever 
speech in vindication of the West India pro- 
prietors at Mansion House Chapel, Camber- 
well, which was afterwards published. For 
the next year or two he served as curate of 
St. Margaret, Lothbury. In 1834 he was an 
unsuccessful candidate for the preachership 
of the Magdalen Hospital. He soon became 
curate of Dorking, Surrey, and remained 
there until February 1837. In that year he 
published two popular manuals, entitled ' The 
Altar Service ; for the use of Country Con- 
gregations,' and ' Select Prayers for all Sorts 
and Conditions of Men.' He again came 
forward as an anti-abolitionist in 1840 by 
issuing part i. of ' An Address to the British 
Nation on the Present State and Prospects 
of the West India Colonies,' in which he 
argued in favour of an extensive system of 
immigration as the only means of extinguish- 
ing slavery and the slave-trade. From 1843 
to 1847 he lived at Dymchurch, near Hythe 
in Kent, taking duty as chaplain of theElham 
union. 

During his residence there Isaacson became 
a member of the newly established British 
Archaeological Association, and contributed 
some papers on local antiquities to its 'Jour- 
nal.' His quaint poem of the ' Barrow Digger ' 
and other legends (printed in 1848) were 
suggested by the field operations of the as- 
sociation. He subsequently removed to Hod- 
desdon, Hertfordshire ; but died on 7 April 
1849 at 2 Tavistock Street, Bedford Square, 
London. 

Isaacson married at St. George's Church, 
Guiana, in November 1826, Anna Maria 



Isabella e 

Miller, youngest daughter of Bryan Bernard 
Killekelly of Barbadoes. 

[Gent. Mag. ne\r ser. xxxii. 101-2; Archaeo- 
logia Cantiana, xv. 369, 372-3 ; Clergy Lists.] 

G. G. 

ISABELLA (1214-1241), wife of the 
emperor Frederic II, born in 1214, was the 
second daughter and fourth child of John, 
king of England, and his queen, Isabella of 
Angouleme [q. v.] Her nurse, Margaret, 
had an allowance of one penny a day from 
the royal treasury in 1219 (Rot. Glaus, i. 
393). This was doubtless Margaret Biset, 
'her nurse and governess,' who went with 
Isabella to Germany sixteen years later, and 
who during all those years had the care of the 
girl, left virtually motherless by the queen's 
re-marriage early in 1220. When in the fol- 
lowing June Isabella's sister Joanna [see 
JOANNA, QUEEN OF SCOTLAND] was betrothed 
to Alexander II of Scotland, it was stipu- 
lated that if Joanna could not be brought 
back to England before Michaelmas, Alex- 
ander should within a fortnight after marry 
Isabella in her stead; but this article of 
the treaty was not enforced. Twice within 
the next ten years Henry III vainly en- 
deavoured to dispose of one of his sisters 
probably Isabella in marriage ; first (1225) 
to Henry, king of the Romans, son of the 
man whom Isabella eventually married, and 
afterwards to Louis IX of France. In Novem- 
ber 1234 the emperor Frederic H, then a 
widower for the second time, sought Isabella's 
hand at the suggestion of Pope Gregory IX, 
and (an embassy, headed by his chancellor, 
Peter de Yinea, was sent to urge his suit in 
February 1235. After three days' delibera- 
tion Henry consented to the match ; Isabella 
was brought from her retirement in the Tower 
for the inspection of the ambassadors at 
Westminster; they 'pronounced her most 
worthy of the imperial nuptials,' placed the 
betrothal-ring on her hand, and saluted her 
as empress. The marriage contract was 
signed 22 Feb. 1235. Henry gave his sister 
a dowry of thirty thousand marks, to be paid 
by instalments within two years, besides 
plate, jewels, horses, and rich wearing ap- 
parel. The marriage of a daughter of Eng- 
land with the emperor was a subject of ex- 
ultation to both king and people, though the 
latter were sorely aggrieved by the immense 
' aid ' exacted for the occasion. Early in May 
the Archbishop of Cologne and the Duke of 
Brabant came to fetch the bride ; she set out 
from London 7 May, under their care and 
that of the Bishop of Exeter, William Brewer. 
Her brothers accompanied her in a trium- 
phal progress through Canterbury to Sand- 



5 Isabella 

wich, whence she and her escort sailed 
11 May ; four days later they landed at 
Antwerp. Some of the emperor's foes were 
said to be in league with the French king to 
seize and carry her off, but the guard pro- 
vided by Frederic was strong enough to pre- 
vent any such attempt, and on Friday, 
24 May, she arrived safe at Cologne. Here 
she dwelt in the house of the provost of St. 
Gereon for more than six weeks, the emperor 
being engaged in a war with his own son. 
At last he summoned her to meet him at 
Worms, where they were married, and the 
empress was crowned by the Archbishop of 
Mainz (Chron. Tewkesb. a. 1235) on Sunday, 

15 July (HinLLABD-BBEHOLLES,Vol. iv. pt. ii. 

p. 728). The wedding festivities lasted four 
days, and are said to have been attended by 
four kings, eleven dukes, and thirty counts 
and margraves, besides prelates and lesser 
nobles out of number. Isabella or Eliza- 
beth, as some of her husband's subjects 
called her seems to have been a very win- 
ning as well as beautiful woman ; Frederic 
was delighted with her, but no sooner were 
theweddingguests departed than he dismissed 
all her English attendants except Margaret 
Biset and one maid, and placed her in seclu- 
sion at Hagenau, where he spent a great part 
of the winter wit h her. The statement of later 
writers that Isabella's first child was a son 
named Jordan, that he was born at Ravenna 
in 1236, and that he died an infant, rests on 
no contemporary authority. The terms in 
which Frederic announced to some of his 
Italian subjects the birth of a daughter 
(Margaret), in February 1237, clearly imply 
that she was the first child of the marriage 
(ib. vol. iv. pt. ii. p. 926). Twelve months 
later the emperor and empress were in Lom- 
bardy together, and there, 18 Feb. 1238, a 
son, Henry, was born. In September Frede- 
ric sent his wife to reside at Andria in 
Apulia till December, when the Archbishop 
of Palermo escorted her back to Lombardy. 
Early in 1239 she spent sometime at Noenta 
while her husband was at Padua; in Fe- 
bruary 1240 she returned to Southern Italy, 
whither Frederic soon followed her. He seems 
to have esteemed and loved her in a character- 
istically strange fashion, taking the greatest 
care of her safety, and surrounding her with 
luxury and splendour, but keeping her in 
strict retirement. Henry III complained 
that she was never permitted to ' wear her 
crown ' in public, or appear as empress on 
state occasions, and in 1241, when her second 
brother, Richard of Cornwall, went to visit 
Frederic, it was only ' after several days ' 
that, ' by the emperor's leave and good will,' 
he visited his sister's apartments. She died 



Isabella 



Isabella 



at Foggia, 1 Dec. 1241, at the birth of a child, 
which did not survive her. Frederic was 
then besieging Faenza ; her last words to him 
when they parted had been a request that he 
would continue to befriend her brother the 
English king. She was buried at Andria, 
beside Frederic's second wife, Yolanda of 
Jerusalem. Matthew Paris lamented her as 
' the glory and hope of England.' Her son 
Henry, titular king of Jerusalem after his 
father's death (December 1250), died in 1254. 
Her daughter Margaret became, by marriage 
with Albert, landgrave of Thuringia, a re- 
mote ancestress of the house of Saxe-Coburg 
and Gotha. 

[Eoger of Wendover, vol. iii. ; Matt. Paris's 
Chronica Majora, vols. iii. iv. and Historia 
Anglorum, vol. ii. ; Eoyal Letters, vol. i. (all in 
Rolls Ser.) ; Rymer's Fcedera, vol. i. pt. i. (Re- 
cord edition) ; Annales Colonienses and Annales 
Marbacenses (Pertz's Mon. Germ. Hist. vol. 
xvii.); Ann. S. Justinae Patavini (ib. vol. xix. 
and Muratori's Ital. Rer. Script, vol. viii.); 
Richard of San Germane (Pertz, vol. xix. and 
Muratori.vol.vii.) ; Huillard-Breholles's Historia 
Diplomatica Friderici II ; Mrs. Everett-Green's 
Princesses of England, vol. ii.] K. N. 

ISABELLA OP ANGOIJLEME (d. 1246), 
queen of John [q.v.], daughter and heiress 
of Aymer, count of Angouleme, by Alicia, 
daughter of Peter of Courtenay, a younger 
son of Louis VI of France, was by the ad- 
vice of Richard of England solemnly es- 
poused to Hugh of Lusignan, called ' le 
Brun,' eldest son of Hugh IX, ' le Brun,' 
count of La Marche, and lived under the 
care of her betrothed husband's family, 
though the marriage was not completed on 
account of her youth. When John was in 
France in 1200 he agreed to marry her, and, 
her father having obtained the custody of 
her by craft, she was married to the king at 
Angouleme by the Archbishop of Bordeaux 
on or about 26 Aug. John's marriage with 
her led to the loss of nearly all his conti- 
nental possessions [see under JOHN]. She 
accompanied her husband to England, and 
was crowned with him by Archbishop Hubert 
at Westminster on 8 Oct. The crown was 
again placed on her head at the court held 
at Canterbury at Easter, 25 March 1201. 
In May she went with her husband to Nor- 
mandy, where she shared his idle, luxurious 
life, his carelessness about the loss of his do- 
minions being in some measure ascribed to 
his fondness for her (WENDOVEK, iii. 171, 
181). She bore her first-born son, after- 
wards Henry III [q. v.], on 1 Oct. 1207. In 
1213 she inherited Angoumois, and early in 
the next year sailed with her husband to Ro- 
chelle and visited her city of Angouleme. 



John was an extremely unfaithful husband, 
but it is said that she also was guilty of in- 
fidelities, and that the king put her lovers 
to death. In December 1214 John ordered 
that she should be kept in confinement at 
Gloucester, and she was probably there at 
the time of his death. In 1217 she returned 
to her own country, and wrote several let- 
ters asking for help from England against 
the French king. In May 1220 she married 
her old lover Hugh, who had succeeded his 
father as count of La Marche, and was be- 
trothed to her daughter Joanna. She de- 
manded her dowry and especially Niort, the 
castles of Exeter and Rockingham, and 3,50^ 
marks. Her demands not being granted, 
she stirred up her husband and his house to 
acts of hostility against her son's subjects in 
Poitou, for which she was threatened with 
excommunication by Honorius III, and she 
seems to have been disposed to detain Joanna, 
who was to marry Alexander of Scotland ; 
but Honorius wrote decidedly to Hugh on 
the matter, and a severe illness caused him 
to send Joanna back to her brother in No- 
vember. Relying on help from England, 
Isabella, in December 1241, persuaded her 
husband to refuse to do homage to Alfonso, 
brother of Louis IX, as count of Poitou ; she 
was present at the count's court at Christmas, 
when Hugh defied Alfonso, and rode off with, 
her husband and his men-at-arms through, 
the midst of Alfonso's troops. Henry made 
alliance with Hugh and his mother as coun- 
tess of Angouleme, and when Louis and Al- 
fonso invaded La Marche brought an army 
over to help them. Hugh played him false 
at Taillebourg, and declared that his change 
of conduct was entirely due to his wife's in- 
trigues. They both submitted unreservedly 
to Louis and were pardoned. Isabella is 
said to have sent two servants to poison the 
French king and his brother, and when the 
attempt was discovered to have tried to stab 
herself in a rage, and to have fallen in a se- 
vere sickness from mortification (WILLIAM 
DE NANGIS ; Chron. de St.-Denys). The at- 
tempt probably belongs to the time when 
the king and his brother were overrunning 
La Marche, and its discovery may be con- 
nected with the charge brought against Hugh 
in 1243 by a French knight who challenged 
him to combat. Alfonso spoke bitterly of 
Hugh's misdeeds, and on hearing this Isabella 
fled to Fontevraud and dwelt with the nuns 
there (MATT. PAKIS) . She died at Fontevraud 
in ] 246, hated both by English and Poitevins, 
and was buried in the cemetery of the house. 
In 1254 Henry III visited her grave, caused 
her body to be moved into the church, and 
placed a tomb over it. The effigy on her 

D/ 



Isabella 



6 4 



Isabella 



tomb is still to be seen at Foutevraud ; an 
engraving of it by Stothard has been partly 
reproduced for Miss Strickland's ' Queens of 
England.' 

Isabella was a beautiful and mischievous 
woman. By John she had two sons and 
three daughters [see under JOHN], and by 
Hugh le Brun five sons (Hugh of Lusig- 
nan, who succeeded his father ; Guy, lord of 
Cognac ; William of Valence ; Geoffrey of 
Lusignan, lord of Chateauneuf; and Aymer of 
Valence, bishop of Winchester [see AYMER] ; 
the four younger were of note in England) 
and probably three daughters, of whom 
Margaret married Raymond VII, count of 
Toulouse, and Alicia married John, earl of 
Warren. 

[Hoveden, iv. 119, 139, 140 (Rolls Ser.) ; 
Wendover, iii. 148, 165, 166, 171, 181 (Engl. 
Hist. Soc.)l Matt. Paris, ii. 563, iv. 178, 211, 
253, 563, v. 475 (Rolls Ser.); Coggeshall, p. 168 
(Rolls Ser.) ; Royal Letters, Hen. Ill, i. 10, 22, 
114, 302, 536, ii. 25 (Rolls Ser.) ; Hardy's Patent 
Rolls, Introd. pp. 46-50; Rigord, De Gestis 
Philippi, and W. of Armorica, De Gestis and 
Philippidos, ap. Recueil des Hist, xv-ii. 55, 75, 
185. The editors of Recueil xviii. have made 
a perplexing confusion between Hugh, the hus- 
band of Isabella, and his father, see p. 799 and 
references p. 783. Isabella could not have been 
betrothed to the father of her future husband 
in 1200, for his -wife Matilda was then alive, 
comp. L'Art de Verifier, x. 231 ; W. de Nangis 
and Chron. de St.-Denys, Recueil, xx. 337-9, 
xxi. 113; Strickland's Queens, i. 328 sq.] 

W. H. 

ISABELLA OP FRANCE (1292-1358), 
queen of Edward II, was the daughter of 
Philip the Fair, king of France, and of his 
wife, Joan of Champagne and Navarre. She 
is said to have been born in 1292 (ANSELME, 
Histoire Genealogique de la Maison de France, 
i. 91 ; Ann. Wig. in Ann. Monastici, iv.!538). 
She is, however, described as about twelve 
years old in 1308 (Cont. GTJILL. DE NANGIS, 
i. 364, Soc.de 1'Histoire de France) . In June 
1298 Boniface VIII, as mediator, brought 
about a truce between her father and Ed- 
ward I, by which her aunt Margaret became 
Edward's second wife and Isabella was pro- 
mised to Edward, the king's son. The renewal 
of the truce in 1299 contained a similar pro- 
vision, and after the conclusion of the perma- 
nent peace in May 1303 Isabella was formally 
betrothed to young Edward at Paris (Fce- 
dera, i. 954). In January 1307 the Cardinal 
Peter of Spain was sent to the Carlisle parlia- 
ment to conclude the marriage arrangements 
(Chron. de Lanercost, p. 206, Maitland Club). 
Edward soon after became king of England, 
and, crossing over to France, was married 
to Isabella at Boulogne on 25 Jan. 1308, 



Philip the Fair and a great gathering of 
French nobles attending the magnificent 
ceremonies. Charles of Valois and Louis of 
Evreux, Isabella's uncles, accompanied her 
to England. On 25 Feb. she was crowned 
at Westminster. Edward gave all her pre- 
sents from her father to Piers Gaveston, and 
neglected her for the sake of his favourite. 
Her uncles left England, disgusted at her 
treatment (Ann. Paulini in STUBBS, Chron. 
Edward I and II, i. 262, Rolls Ser.) Isabella 
complained to her father of the slights she 
underwent and the poverty to which she was 
reduced (TROKELOWE, p. 68). In May 1312 
she was with Edward and Gaveston at Tyne- 
mouth. She implored Edward with tears in 
her eyes not to abandon her, but Edward left 
her with Gaveston and went to Scarborough. 
She was comforted by secret messengers from 
Thomas of Lancaster, assuring her that he 
would not rest till he drove Gaveston from 
Edward's society (ib. pp. 75-6). This is 
the first evidence of her dealings with the 
opposition. 

Isabella's first child, afterwards Ed- 
ward III, was born on 13 Nov. 1312 at 
Windsor. On 29 Jan. 1313 she removed 
from Windsor to Westminster. On 4 Feb. 
the Fishmongers' Company gave a great pa- 
geant in her honour, accompanying her to 
Eltham, where she now took up her abode 
(Ann. London, in STTTBBS, i. 221). In May 
she accompanied Edward on a visit to her 
father at Paris, where, on Whitsunday, her 
brothers were dubbed knights with great 
state. She returned to England on 16 July. 
In October she joined Gilbert Clare, tenth 
earl of Gloucester [q. v.], in mediating a 
peace between Edward and the barons 
(TROKELOWE, p. 80). 

On 15 July 1316 Isabella gave birth to her 
second son, John, at Eltham. In July 1318 
her daughter Isabella was born at Wood- 
stock. In August of the same year she 
joined the Earl of Hereford in procuring for 
a second time a peace between Edward and 
the party of Lancaster (MONK OF MALMES- 
BURY in STUBBS, ii. 236). In 1319 she went 
northwards with Edward. While Edward 
and Lancaster besieged Berwick, Isabella 
remained behind, in or near York. The Scots 
invaded Yorkshire, and James Douglas formed 
a plan for carrying off Isabella by surprise 
(ib. p. 243; TROKELOWE, p. 103). The design 
was frustrated by the capture of a spy, and 
Isabella was sent offby water to Nottingham. 
The expedition which had sought to capture 
her defeated Archbishop Melton at Myton, 
Yorkshire. It was believed in France on 
another occasion that Robert Bruce purposely 
avoided capturing the queen on account of 



Isabella 



Isabella 



her connection with his friends (Cont. GTJILL. 
DE NANGIS, i. 410). 

In June 1320 Isabella went with Edward 
to Amiens/where she met her brother Philip V, 
to whom Edward did homage for Ponthieu. 
In June 1321 she gave birth to her youngest 
daughter, Joan, at the Tower of London. In 
August she again joined Pembroke and some 
of the bishops in procuring a new peace 
between the king and his lords, ' begging on 
her knees for the people's sake ' (Ann. Paul. 
p. 297). But on 13 Oct. of the same year 
she was travelling to Canterbury, and re- 
quested Lady Badlesmere to give her ad- 
mission to Leeds Castle to pass the night. 
Though the castle belonged to the crown, and 
Badlesmere was a member of Pembroke's 
party, with whom Isabella had generally 
acted, her marshals were told that no one 
might enter. Six of her followers were slain 
in a scuffle that ensued (TROKELOWE, pp. 110- 
111 ; Ann. Paul. pp. 298-9). Edward took 
up his wife's cause, and his siege of Leeds 
brought about the beginning of the conflict 
which ended with the fall of Lancaster and 
the great triumph of Edward's reign at the 
parliament of York. In the disastrous cam- 
paign against the Scots which succeeded 
Isabella was again exposed to great per- 
sonal danger. When in October Edward 
was nearly captured by the Scots at Byland 
Abbey, Isabella fled with difficulty to some 
castle on the sea-coast, whence she only es- 
caped the danger of a siege by a voyage over 
a stormy sea, during which she suffered great 
hardships and two of her ladies perished 
(Cont. GTJILL. DE NANGIS, ii. 44). 

The influence of the Despensers over Ed- 
ward in the years following his triumph 
soon proved no less irksome to Isabella than 
that of Gaveston. By their advice Edward 
resumed possession of her estates on 18 Sept. 
1324 (Foedera, ii. 569 ; GALFRIDTJS LE BAKER, 
pp. 17-18, ed. Thompson), and put her on an 
allowance of 20s. a day. Her friends and ser- 
vants were removed from her, the wife of the 
younger Hugh Despenser was appointed to 
look after her, and she could not even write a 
letter without that lady's knowledge (Laner- 
cost, p. 254). The motives for such action, 
apart from economy, were that Isabella was 
in close relations with Adam of Orleton, the 
disgraced bishop of Hereford, and with Bishop 
Burghersh of Lincoln, who was anxious to 
evenge his uncle Badlesmere. She was also 
suspected of intrigues with the French, and 
specially with her uncle Charles of Valois. 
t was rumoured that the younger Despenser 
lad sent a friar, named Thomas of Dunheved, 
o Home to ask the pope to divorce Edward 
-om Isabella (ib. p. 254 ; Ann. Paul. p. 337). 

TOI. XXIX. 



Isabella's indignation with the Despensers 
was soon transferred to her husband. But, 
guided probably by the crafty Orleton, she 
quietly meditated revenge. She found her 
opportunity in the unwillingness of the De- 
spensers to allow Edward to visit France to 
perform homage to her youngest brother, the 
new king, Charles IV. She used all her 
blandishments to persuade Edward to allow 
her to visit her brother, and begged him to 
desist from his attacks on Gascony. Bishop 
Stratford and many of the magnates approved 
of her design. The Despensers were not sorry 
to get rid of her. Early in February 1325 the 
prudent prior Henry of Eastry [q. v.] urged 
the necessity of restoring her to her accus- 
tomed state and following before she went 
abroad (Lit. Cantuar. i. 137, Eolls Ser.) But 
the commonest precautions were neglected, 
and early in March 1325 she crossed over to 
France with a scanty following. Froissart 
gives a pretty picture of her reception by 
her brother (ii. 29, ed. Kervyn de Letten- 
hove). But the only political advantage she 
obtained for England was a prolongation of 
the truce until 1 Aug. (MALMESBXJRY p. 279). 
All through the summer Charles insisted that 
Edward should perform homage in person, 
but, instigated by Isabella, agreed to accept 
the homage of their eldest son, Edward, if 
the king would invest him for that purpose 
with Guienne and Ponthieu. On 12 Sept. 
the boy left England ; but after he had per- 
formed homage, he and his mother lingered 
at Paris. About Michaelmas Edward wrote 
asking her to return. She sent back many 
of her retinue, and gave specious excuses for 
remaining at her brother's court. But her 
acts had now become so hostile that Bishop 
Stapleton, who had accompanied her son to 
France, escaped to England in the disguise 
of a pilgrim. On 1 Dec. Edward peremptorily 
ordered her to come home (Fcedera, ii. 615). 
But she had now formed a close political 
connection with the escaped traitor, Roger 
Mortimer, which soon ripened into criminal 
intimacy. Before Christmas it was feared 
she would invade England (Lit. Cantuar. i. 
162). Her connection with Mortimer was 
notorious in England in March 1326. An in- 
creasing band of exiles and fugitives gathered 
round her. She protested that she would 
never return to her husband as long as the 
Despensers remained in power. Edward 
stopped all supplies, but Isabella was main- 
tained by her brother, King Charles (Cont. 
GriLL. DE NANGIS, ii. 61), who saw in her 
perfidy prospects of recovering Guienne. 

In the spring of 1326 Isabella left Paris 
for her dower lands in Ponthieu (ib. ii. 67). 
She afterwards removed to Hainault, where 

F 



Isabella 



66 



Isabella 



she obtained a valuable ally by negotiating the 
marriage of her son with Philippa, daughter 
of Count William of Hainault (G. LE BAKER, 
p. 20). Froissart, who (ii. 43-61) gives a long 
romancing account of her wanderings in the 
Netherlands, says that she left Paris because 
her brother was ashamed to support her any 
longer. She had employed her daughter-in- 
law s marriage portion in hiring mercenaries 
in Germany and the Low Countries. Roger 
Mortimer and John, brother of the Count of 
Hainault, took command of her troops, and 
she and the Duke of Aquitaine were out- 
lawed as traitors. 

On 23 Sept. 1326 Isabella embarked at 
Dort, and on 24 Sept. landed at Harwich, 
accompanied by her son, Edmund, earl of 
Kent, her brother-in-law, John of Hainault, 
Roger Mortimer, a large number of English 
exiles, and her foreign mercenaries. She took 
Colvasse, four leagues from Harwich, about 
mid-day, and lodged for the first night at 
Walton. Her other brother-in-law, Thomas, 
the earl-marshal, amid whose estates she 
landed, at once joined her, along with Henry 
of Lancaster and most of the gentry of the 
neighbourhood. She then marched on Bury 
St. Edmunds, 'as if on a pilgrimage,' and 
seized there a large sum of the king's money. 
Thence she went to Cambridge, stopping some 
days at Barnwell Priory and went through 
Baldock and Dunstable, in pursuit of the 
king, who had fled to Wales. Bishops Orleton 
and Burghersh hurried to her standards, and 
were soon joined by Bishop Stratford, after 
his hollow attempt at mediation had failed. 
Archbishop Reynolds sent her money. She 
found no real resistance. At Oxford her 
spokesman, Orleton, explained in a sermon 
that she had come to put an end to mis- 
government. At Wallingford she issued on 
15 Oct. a violent proclamation against the 
Despensers (Foedera, ii. 645-6). On the same 
day London rose in revolt in her behalf, the 
king's minister, Bishop Stapleton, was mur- 
dered, and a revolutionary government was 
established under her second son, John of 
Eltham. Isabella now advanced to Gloucester, 
where she was joined by a northern army 
under Lords Percy and Wake, and a strong 
force from the Welsh marches. She then 
marched from Gloucester to Berkeley, re- 
storing the castle, which the younger De- 
spenser had held, to Thomas of Berkeley, the 
lawful heir. When she advanced to Bristol, 
the town surrendered after a show of resist- 
ance. On 26 Oct. she proclaimed the Duke 
of Aquitaine guardian of the realm (tb. ii. 
646). Isabella then advanced to Hereford, 
where she stayed a month. The execution 
of the two Despensers and the capture of her 



husband soon completed her triumph. Re- 
turning eastwards with Mortimer and her 
son, she kept Christmas at Wallingford, and 
reached London on 4 Jan. 1327. A parlia- 
ment assembled there on 7 Jan., deposed 
Edward II, and recognised the Duke of Aqui- 
taine as Edward III. Isabella's agent, Orle- 
ton, told the estates that if she rejoined her 
husband he would murder her. 

The new king was only fourteen years old, 
and Isabella and Mortimer governed England 
in his name. So large a provision was made 
for Isabella that hardly a third of the re- 
venue remained to the king (MvKDnriH, 
p. 52). The forfeited estates of the De- 
spensers were secured for herself and her 
lover. She now sought to win popularity by 
carrying on the war against Scotland, and 
after keeping Easter at Peterborough Abbey, 
held a great council on 19 April at Stamford, 
where she was ordered by the barons never 
to return to her husband (Orleton's apology 
in TwTSDEN", c. 2766, and BAKER, ed. Thomp- 
son, p. 207). She went north for the rest of 
the year, dwelling mostly at York, while her 
son Edward led an inglorious expedition over 
the border. She still wrote in affectionate 
terms to her husband (MuRiMFTH, p. 52), but, 
conscious that he was a danger to the per- 
manency of her rule, and fearful, perhaps, of 
being forced to return to him (G. LE BAKEB, 
p. 29), she urged on his gaolers to treat him 
with the utmost severity, and in September 
1327 procured his murder (tb. p. 31). To 
strengthen her position, she now concluded 
a permanent peace with France (September 
1327). This was followed by the ' disgraceful 
peace' (AVESBTJRY, p. 283, Rolls Ser.) of 
Northampton, which in March 1328 gave up 
the overlordship of Scotland, and was espe- 
cially regarded as the work of Isabella and 
Mortimer (Lanercost, p . 26 1 ) . Isabella seems 
to ha ve obtained for herself a large share of the 
20,OOOZ. paid by the Scots. Her shameless ra- 
pacity, no less than her pusillanimous policy, 
provoked the strongest disgust. Already in 
1327 Isabella's old enemy, Thomas of Dun- 
heved, formed an abortive plot against her. 

After Trinity Sunday 1328 Isabella went 
to Hereford and Wigmore, to attend the mar- 
riage of two of Mortimer's daughters and the 
great 'round-table' that celebrated the event 
(BAKER, p. 42; AVESBTJRY, p. 284). On 
19 July she was at Berwick for the marriage 
of her daughter Joan to David of Scotland 
(Lanercost, p. 261). In October she was at 
Salisbury to meet the parliament. Henry of 
Lancaster refused to attend it, and Isabella 
and Mortimer ravaged his lands and took 
his town of Leicester. The mediation of 
the new archbishop, Meopham, secured peace 



Isabella 



6 7 



Isabella 



for a time, but in March 1330 Isabella and 
Mortimer procured the death of Edmund of 
Woodstock, earl of Kent [q. v.] This led 
Lancaster to make another effort against the 
queen and her favourite, and the king, tired 
of his mother's disgraceful tutelage, readily 
joined in his plans. In October Isabella 
and Mortimer, who now lived almost openly 
together, went to Nottingham to open a 
parliament (RNTGHTOsr, c. 2553). On the 
night of 18 Oct. the attack was made on 
them. Both were arrested, despite Isabella's 
despairing cry, ' Sweet son, have pity on the 
gentle Mortimer ! ' Mortimer was speedily 
executed as a traitor (G. LE BAKEB, p. 46 ; 
French Chron. of London, p. 63; KNTGHTON, 
c. 2556 ; Ann. Paul. p. 352 ; Gesta Edwardi 
in STTJBBS, ii. 101). 

Isabella's power was now at an end, but 
Edward at the pope's entreaty hushed up 
the story of 1 his mother's shame, and showed 
her every deference (STTJBBS, Const. Hist. ii. 
357). Numerous as were the articles on which 
Mortimer was condemned, nothing was said 
in the legal record of his adultery with the 
queen. The only charge against him which 
involved Isabella was one of causing discord 
between her and the late king (Hot. Parl. 
ii. 53). Though Isabella was forced to sur- 
render her ill-gotten riches, the adequate 
dower of 3,000/. a year was assigned for her 
maintenance (Fcedera, ii. 835). It has often 
been said that Isabella lived the rest of her life 
in a sort of honourable imprisonment ( Cont. 
G. DE NASTGIS, ii. 120 ; FROISSAKT, ii. 247), and 
her manor of Castle Rising, near Lynn in Nor- 
folk, is generally regarded as the place of her 
confinement. But Castle Rising was only one 
of her favourite places of abode. The months 
immediately succeeding her fall were spent at 
Berkhampstead, while she passed her Christ- 
inas in 1330 at Windsor (Norfolk Archeology, 
iv. 61). In 1332 she received permission to 
dwell at Eltham whenever her health required 
a change of air. Her income was increased 
by the restoration of Ponthieu and Montreuil 
and other manors (Foedera, ii. 893), and she 
was permitted to dispose of her goods by will. 
In June 1338 she was at Pontefract, and 
in 1344 she celebrated the king's birthday 
with him at Norwich (MTTKIMTJTH, pp. 155, 
231). At Castle Rising she lived a com- 
fortable and somewhat luxurious life, as the 
presents of meat, wax, wine, swans, turbot, 
lampreys, and other delicacies from the neigh- 
bouring corporation of Lynn clearly show 
(Hist, MSS. Comm. llth Rep. App. iii. 213- 
219). She amused herself with hawking and 
-ollecting relics, and went on pilgrimage to 
>ur Lady of Walsingham. She entertained 
ier son on his frequent visits to her with no 



small state. Her numerous retinue some- 
times quarrelled with the Lynn burgesses (ib. 
p. 217). In 1348 she was even proposed as 
a mediator for peace with France. She de- 
voted herself to pious works, almsgiving, and 
charity, and finally took the habit of the 
sisters of Santa Clara (Chron. Lanercost, p. 
266). She died on 23 Aug. 1358 at her castle 
of Hertford, and was buried in November in 
the Franciscan church at Newgate in London. 
There is a statue of her among the figures 
which adorn the tomb of her son, John of 
Eltham, at Westminster. 

[Stubbs's Chron. of Edward I and Edward II, 
Thompson's Murimuth and Avesbury, Literse 
Cantuarienses, Annales Monastic!, Trokelowe 
(all the above in Eolls Ser.) ; Chron. Lanercost 
(Maitland Club) ; Galfridus le Baker, ed. E. M. 
Thompson ; Cont. Guillaume de Nangis and 
Froissart, ed. Luce (both inSoc. de 1'Histoirede 
France) ; Kymer's Fcedera, vols. ii. and iii. ; 
Kolls of Parliament, vol. ii. (Record ed.) ; Hist. 
MSS. Comm. llth Rep.; Harrod in Norfolk 
Archaeology, iv. 59-68, 1855; Strickland's Queens 
of England, i. 326-76, 6 vol. ed.] T. F. T. 

ISABELLA (1332-1379), eldest daughter 
of Edward III and his queen Philippa, was 
born at Woodstock on 16 June 1332. In June 
1335 her father made an unsuccessful attempt 
to arrange a marriage between her and Peter, 
son of Alfonso XI of Castile, who was after- 
wards betrothed to her younger sister Joanna 
(Fcedera, ii. 910). Negotiations were opened 
in November 1338 for a marriage between 
Isabella and Louis, son of Louis, count of 
Flanders, in place of her sister Joanna, whose 
name had been submitted in 1337 (ib. pp. 967, 
998, 1063). This marriage was pressed by Ed- 
ward through 1339 and 1340, but as the count 
was allied with France, while Edward was on 
friendly terms with the count's rebellious sub- 
jects, the proposals came to nothing. Anew 
match with the son of John III, duke of Bra- 
bant, was planned for Isabella in 1344, and 
application was made to the pope for a dis- 
pensation, for the parties were within the 
prohibited degrees (ib. iii. 25). But after the 
murder of Edward's ally, Van Arteveld, the 
hief towns of Flanders sent deputies to the 
English king to suggest, along with other 
matters, that the scheme for a marriage be- 
tween their count's son and Isabella should 
be renewed (FROISSART, i. 207). The count 
fell at Crecy, and neither Edward's ambassa- 
dors nor the Flemings could induce the young 
count Louis, who was under the influence of 
Philip of France, to consent to marry Isabella. 
He defended his refusal by alleging that Isa- 
bella's father Edward had slain his father. His 
Flemish subjects punished his resistance to 
the match by placing him under restraint, and 



Isabella 



68 



Isabella 



he soon thought it politic to appear to yield. 
Isabella's wedding clothes were provided 
(GREEN), and she was taken by her father and 
mother to Bergues, near Dunkerque, where on 
1 March 1347 they were met by Louis and the 
Flemishburgomasters ; Ed ward protested that 
he had had no hand in the last count's death, 
and Louis solemnly promised to marrylsabella 
within the fortnight after the coming Easter, 
agreeing to assign her as dower Ponthieu and 
Montreuil, or a certain compensation until 
such time as he should have peaceable pos- 
session of them, and ten thousand livres a 
year, while the king settled a sum of money 
on his daughter (FROISSART, i. 258 ; Fosdera, 
iii. Ill, 112). On the 28th, however, Louis 
escaped from his keepers, took refuge in 
France, and soon afterwards married Mar- 
garet of Brabant. 

Isabella had been reared in luxury, and 
after her father's return to England in the 
autumn of 1347 shared in all the gaieties and 
splendours of the court (GREEN). In Febru- 
ary 1349 Edward proposed her in marriage to 
Charles IV, the king of the Romans, then a 
widower. The scheme failed, and in May 
1351 Edward published his consent to her 
marriage with Bernard, eldest son of the lord 
of Albret, promising to settle on her a revenue 
of one thousand marks and to give her four 
thousand marks as her portion (Fcedera, iii. 
218). On 15 Nov. five ships were ordered 
to take her to Gascony. The marriage never 
took place, and Edward satisfied certain 
claims of the lord of Albret by other means. 
In March 1355 Edward assigned Isabella 
the custody of the alien priory of Burstall in 
Yorkshire, and gave her other grants. She 
seems to have been extravagant, like the rest 
of the court, and incurred heavy debts. On 
29 Sept. 1358 the king settled on her an 
income of one thousand marks a year, and 
gave her the revenues proceeding from the 
lands in England belonging to the abbey of 
Fontevraud (GREEN). 

On 27 July 1365, when Isabella had just 
completed her thirty-third year, she married 
at Windsor Ingelram or Enguerraud VII, 
lord of Coucy,son of Enguerraud VI (d. 1347) 
and Catharine, daughter of Leopold I, duke 
of Austria (d. 1327), by his wife Catharine, 
daughter of Amadeus V, count of Savoy. 
Enguerraud, who was then twenty-seven, 
was residing at the court of Edward III as j 
a hostage; his grace and valour had made 
him a favourite with the king, who had j 
granted him lands in the north of England, \ 
which he claimed in virtue of the marriage of 
Enguerraud V with Christina, niece of John de 
Baliol (1249-1315) [q. v.] He was released at 
his marriage from his pledges as a hostage, and 



in November Isabella accompanied her hus- 
band to Coucy. In April 1366 she bore a daugh- 
ter named Mary, and soon afterwards visited 
England with her husband, who was created 
earl of Bedford in May. In 1367 she bore 
another daughter named Philippa, at Eltham r 
and in July returned to France. On the eve 
of the renewal of the war between England 
and France in 1368, Enguerraud, unwilling 
either to break with his father-in-law or to 
fight against his lord the French king, went 
to Italy and served in the wars of Urban V 
and Gregory XI against the Viscouti. Dur- 
ing his absence Isabella resided in Eng- 
land. She met her husband at Saint-Gobain 
on his return after about six years' absence, 
but came back to England while he made 
his campaign in Aargau and Alsace in 1375 
against Leopold II of Austria. She met 
him on his return in January 1376, and ac- 
companied him to England. He had, how- 
ever, promised to uphold the cause of the 
French king, and after staying for a while at 
the English court, where he and his wife were 
received joyfully, he left her and returned to- 
France, allowing her younger daughter to 
remain with her, and keeping the elder with 
him in France, where she had been brought 
up. Subsequently Enguerraud renounced his 
homage to the English king, and his lands- 
in England were forfeited. In March 1379- 
Richard II provided out of those lands for 
the maintenance of his aunt, Isabella (Fce- 
dera, iv. 60). She died a few months later r 
and was buried in the church of the Grey 
Friars in London. Her effigy is on her 
father's tomb in Westminster Abbey. Her 
elder daughter, Mary, married Henry, son of 
Robert, duke of Bar ; her younger, Philippa, 
married Robert de Vere, earl of Oxford. 

[Mrs. Green, in Lives of the Princesses, iii. 
164-221, gires a full account, of Isabella's life, 
drawn mainly from manuscript records ; Rymer's- 
Foedera, iii. passim, iv. 60 (Record edit.) ; Frois- 
sart, i. 257-9, 603, 703, 706, ed. Buchon ; 
Duchesne's Histoire des Maisons de Guisnes . . . 
Coucy, &c., pp. 26.5, 415 ; L'Art de Verifier les 
Dates, xii. 357 ; Chron. Angliae, pp.4, 56 (Rolls 
Ser.); Dugdale's Baronage, i. 61.] W. II. 

ISABELLA or FRANCE (1389-1409), 
second queen of Richard II, was the second 
daughter, and the first that survived infancy, 
of Charles VI, king of France, and his queen 
Isabella of Bavaria. She was born at the 
Louvre in Paris on 9 Nov. 1389 (ANSELME, 
Histoire Genealogique de la Maison de France, 
i. 114; Bibliotheque de VEcole des Chartes, 4 e 
serie,iv.477; GODEFROY, Hist.de Charles VI, 
p. 731). On 15 Dec. 1391 she was contracted 
in marriage to John, eldest son of Peter II, 
count of Alencon (WALLON, Richard II, ii. 



Isabella 



6 9 



Isabella 



440). Froissart's statement (xv. 164, ed. Ker- 
vyn de Lettenhove) that she was affianced to 
the son of the Duke of Brittany is an error. 

Richard II had become a widower in 1394, 
and was very anxious for a permanent good 
understanding with France, and had already 
concluded a short truce with that country. 
He therefore proposed to marry Isabella, then 
a child of six. The first commissions to treat 
of the marriage \vere issued by Richard in 
July 1395 (Fcedera, vii. 802). But there 
were difficulties on both sides which pro- 
tracted the negotiations. In France Louis 
of Orleans and in England Thomas of Glou- 
cester disliked the match, and the French 
council urged that a settled peace or a long 
truce was an indispensable preliminary of 
the alliance. But the general desire of both 
countries to secure a peace triumphed over 
every obstacle. 

Young as she was, Isabella, when visited 
by Mowbray, the earl-marshal, who was at 
the head of the English embassy, replied, ' of 
her own accord, and without the advice of 
any one,' that she would willingly be queen 
of England, ' for they tell me that then I shall 
"be a great lady' (FROISSART, xv. 186). The 
ambassadors brought back to Richard glow- 
ing accounts of the precocity, intelligence, 
and beauty of the child. After a second 
-embassy had been despatched the marriage 
contract was signed on 9 March 1396 at 
Paris (Fcedera, vii. 820). By it Isabella re- 
ceived a marriage portion of eight hundred 
thousand francs of gold, of which three hun- 
dred thousand were to be paid down at once, 
and the rest in annual instalments of one 
hundred thousand. It was provided, how- 
ever, that if Richard died before she attained 
the age of twelve, all that had been actu- 
ally paid of this sum should be refunded, 
except the original payment of three hun- 
dred thousand. In the same case Isabella 
was to be allowed to return freely to France 
with all her property. She was also to re- 
nounce all her rights to the French throne. 
A truce for twenty-eight years, carefully kept 
separate from the marriage treaty, was signed 
at the same time (CosNEAU, Les grandes 
Traites de laguerre de Cent Ans, pp. 71-99). 
On 12 March the betrothal took place in the 
Sainte Chapelle, before the patriarch of Alex- 
andria, the earl-marshal acting as Richard's 
proxy (Religieux de Saint-Deny s, ii. 412). 
There were great rejoicings. The new queen 
Isabella would end the wars which the former 
queen Isabella had begun (ib. ii. 414). Dis- 
pensations were obtained from both popes 
(Fcedera, vii. 836 ; Report on Faedera, App. D, 
p. 63), and the chief English lords, including 
Henry of Derby, bound themselves to allow 



Isabella to return freely to France if Richard 
died before her (ib. pp. 63-4). 

Isabella, provided with an equipment of 
unheard-of splendour, and followed by her 
father, was taken through St.-Denis to Pi- 
cardy (Religieux de Saint-Denys, ii. 450, 452- 
462, 466 ; DOTJET-D'ARCQ, Pieces inedites sur 
le regne de Charles VI, i. 130, Soc. de 1'Histoire 
de France ; FROISSART, xv. 304-6 ; J. JTJVE- 

KAL DES URSINE in MlCHATJD et PotJJOTTLAT, 

Coll. de Memoires, l e s6rie, ii. 404-7 ; WALS- 
INGHAM, Hist. Anglic, ii. 221-2 ; OTTER- 
BOURNE, pp. 186-7). Richard was waiting 
for her at Calais. At the second interview of 
the kings on 28 Oct. Isabella was handed over 
by her father as a pledge of peace, Richard 
loudly proclaiming his entire satisfaction at 
the marriage. She was entrusted to the 
Duchesses of Lancaster and Gloucester, who 
had brought her to Calais in a magnificent 
litter. The lady of Coucy was the chief of 
her French attendants. Isabella was married 
to Richard at St. Nicholas Church, Calais, by 
Archbishop Arundel. The date is variously 
given (1 Nov. FROISSART, xv. 306 ; 4 Nov. 
Religieux de Saint-Denys, ii. 470, which is 
probably right ; 10 Nov. MONK OP EVESHAM, 
p. 129, which is plainly too late). On 4 Nov., 
after the ceremony, the first three hundred 
thousand francs of her portion were paid 
(Fcedera, vii. 846). After a short stay at 
Calais, Isabella was taken to Eltham through 
Dover and Canterbury. On 23 Nov. she made 
her solemn entry into London (MoNK OF 
EVESHAM, p. 129). On 5 Jan. she was crowned 
at Westminster by Arundel. Enormous sums 
were lavished on her reception, and she re- 
ceived many costly presents (Chronique de la 
Traison, pp. 108-13). 

Richard showed a remarkable attachment 
to Isabella. He learnt from her French 
friends a strong love of display and a keen 
desire to make himself absolute. Isabella's 
marriage was the prelude to his successful 
attempt at despotism in 1397. 

Isabella resided at Eltham, Leeds Castle in 
Kent, Windsor, and other places in the neigh- 
bourhood of London. Just before his depar- 
ture for Ireland (May 1399) Richard got tired 
of the extravagance of the lady of Coucy, and 
left orders behind him that she should be 
dismissed (ib. p. 163). He parted with Isa- 
bella after a very affecting interview at Wind- 
sor, where great jousts had been given in her 
honour (FROISSART, xvi. 151). Richard pro- 
mised that she should follow him (Chronique 
de la Traison, pp. 163-8). They never met 
again. 

Isabella was ill of grief for a fortnight or 
more, and was then removed to Wallingford 
Castle, while her French attendants were dis- 



Isabella 



missed, as Richard had ordered. Great in- 
dignation was expressed in France (Reli- 
gieux de Saint-Denys, ii. 702-5 ; JUVENAL 
DBS URSINS, p. 417). Froissart is wrong in 
making the Londoners expel the French ladies 
in the interests of Henry of Lancaster (xvi. 
189). Henceforward Isabella was left with 
English-speaking attendants, except one lady 
and her confessor. On Henry's invasion in 
July the regent York entrusted her to the 
care of "Wiltshire and Richard's other chief 
favourites (Focdera, viii. 83). But she soon 
fell into Henry's hands, and was placed at 
Sonning, near Reading. A letter she wrote 
to her father never reached him (Religieux 
de Saint-Denys, ii. 720). Richard asked in 
vain to see her (CRETOX, p. 117). 

The French court would not recognise 
Henry IV as king, and demanded the resti- 
tution of Isabella and the two hundred 
thousand francs of her portion paid since her 
marriage. Henry was unable to pay so large 
a sum, and commissioned ambassadors to 
treat for a marriage between the Prince of 
Wales and a daughter or cousin of Charles VI 
(Fcedera, viii. 108). Isabella was evidently 
intended (FROISSART, xvi. 237 ; Chronigue de 
la Tra'ison, p. 106), and it would not have 
been hard to arrange the union, as her mar- 
riage with Richard had never been consum- 
mated. But the French would not listen 
to the proposal, even after Richard's death. 
They demanded the fulfilment of the treaty 
of 1396, and Henry, though putting things 
off as long as he could, did not venture to 
openly repudiate it. But he set up, as a 
counterclaim to the demand for Isabella's 
portion, a request for the unpaid arrears of 
King John's ransom. 

Isabella was still at Sonning when the 
rebellion of January 1400 broke out. The 
insurgents, headed by Kent, captured Son- 
ning, and comforted her with hopes of greater 
success, tearing away Henry IVs badges 
from her sen-ants (WALSINGHAM, ii. 243-4), 
but they do not seem to have attempted to 
take her away with them. After this she 
was guarded more carefully, and removed to 
Havering-atte-Bower in Essex. The death of 
Richard was for a time carefully concealed 
from her. In November 1400 she was visited 
by the French ambassadors, who pledged 
themselves to make no mention of Richard 
(FROISSART, xvi. 220). They had been se- 
cretly instructed to urge her not to involve 
herself in any matrimonial or other engage- 
ment (DoUET-D'ARCQ, Pieces Inedites, i. 171- 
173). It was feared that Henry would keep 
her until after her twelfth birthday, when 
she could contract a legal marriage. 
The threat of an invasion of Guienne facili- 



tated Isabella's restoration. On 27 May 1401 
a treaty was signed at Leulinghen that she 
should be sent back with her jewels and be- 
longings in July, on her pledging herself to 
abstain from all intrigues in England. The 
question of her portion was to be considered 
later on. Great preparations were now made 
for her restoration with a pomp not unworthy 
of her reception. On 27 June the Earl of 
Worcester conducted her to Westminster. 
She was taken before Henry, but in his pre- 
sence she hardly spoke, remaining sullen and 
morose, and clad in deep black (ADAM OP 
USK, p. 61). Next day she was taken through 
the silent crowds of Londoners on her way 
to the coast. She was kept nearly a month 
at Dover, and crossed the Straits on 28 July. 
On 31 July she was handed over by Worcester 
to the Count of Saint-Pol at Leulinghen, and 
Isabella took leave of her English ladies amid 
much weeping and lamenting. She signed 
at Boulogne the required bond, and was 
taken to Paris, being received with great re- 
joicings in every town. On her arrival at 
Paris she was made to issue a declaration 
that she had never acknowledged Henry 
as her husband's successor. Her mother 
now took charge of her. Henceforth she 
lived in less state, but was still attended by 
ladies of high rank (Reliyieux de Saint-Denys, 
iii. 4). Common fame said that she was 
never happy after her return from England 
(Chron. Anonyme in MOITSTRELET, vi. 192). 
Partisans of Richard II in England still 
looked to Isabella or her friends for help. In 
1403 it was believed she was about to land 
in Essex, and in 1404 the French invaders 
of the Isle of Wight demanded tribute in 
her name and that of the false Richard, 
hidden away in Scotland. But Isabella's 
friends never recognised the impostor in any 
way, though repeated applications had failed 
to extract any of her marriage portion from 
Henry IV, and Louis of Orleans, Henry's 
special foe, was predominant in her father's 
counsels. In June 1404 she was contracted 
in marriage to her cousin Charles, count of 
Angouleme, afterwards famous as a poet, and 
the eldest son of Louis of Orleans (DOUBT- 
S' ARCQ, Pieces Inedites, i. 260), who gave 
her as dower six thousand livres a year, and 
all the profits of the chatellenie of Crecy- 
en-Brie (Report on Fcedera, App. D, p. 146). 
In 1406 another proposal to marry her to- 
Henry, prince of Wales, was rejected (Mox- 
STRELET, i. 126), and she was married to- 
Angouleme at Compiegne on 29 June 140& 
(Religieux de Saint-Denys, iii. 394 ; Mox- 
STRELET, i. 129 ; ANSELME, i. 208). Isabella 
wept bitterly during the ceremony which 
united her to a boy two years her junior 



Isbister 



Isham 



(JUVENAL DBS UESINS, p. 438, who says the 
marriage was at Senlis). Isabella became 
Duchess of Orleans, on the murder of her 
father-in-law, on 23 Nov. 1407. With Valen- 
tina Visconti, her husband's mother, she went 
to Paris, and throwing herself at Charles VI's 
feet, demanded justice on the murderers. 

On 13 Sept. 1409 Isabella gave birth at 
Blois to her only child, Joan, and died a few 
hours after. She was buried at Blois, in the 
chapel of Notre Dame des Bonnes Nouvelles, 
in the abbey of Saint-Laumer. Charles of 
Orleans gave her rich robes to the monks of 
St.-Denys, to be made up into chasubles and 
dalmatics (Religieux de Saint-Denys, iv. 252). 
In 1624 her body was transferred to the 
Orleans burying-place in the church of the 
Celestines in Paris (ANSELME, Hist. Geneal. 
i. 208). Her daughter Joan married in 1424 
John II of Alenfon, and died without chil- 
dren in 1432. A portrait of Isabella as the 
bride of Charles of Orleans is engraved in 
Miss Strickland's 'Lives of the Queens of 
England.' 

[Most of the facts of Isabella's life are col- 
lected, in a readable, if not very critical "way, in 
Strickland's Lives of the Queens of England, 
i. 428-54, ed. 1889. Anselme's Histoire Gene- 
alogique de la Maison Eoyale de France, vol. i., 
corrected by^ M. Vallet de Viriville in Biblio- 
theque de 1'Ecole des Chartes, 4 C serie, iv. 473- 
482. Wallon's Kichard II and Wylie's Henry IV 
best summarise the political aspects of Isabella's 
life. The chief original sources include Froissart, 
ed. Kervyn de Lettenhove ; Chroniques du Ee- 
ligieux de Saint-Denys (Doc. Inedits) ; Monstrelet 
(Soc. de 1'Histoire de France) ; Jean Juvenal des 
Ursins in Michaud andPoujoulat's Collection des 
Memoires, l e serie, t. ii. ; Walsingham's Hist. 
Angl. (Eolls Ser.) ; Monk of Evesham and Otter- 
bourne, both ed. Hearne ; Chronique de la Tra'ison 
et la Mort de Eichart Deux (Engl. Hist. Soc.) ; 
Creton's Metrical Chronicle in Archseologia, vol'. 
xx. ; Eymer's Fcedera, vols. vii. and viii., and 
Eeport on Fcedera, App. D ; Nicolas's Proc. and 
Ord. of Privy Council, vol. i. ; Godefroy's Hist, 
de Charles VI.] T. F. T. 

ISBISTER, ALEXANDER KENNEDY 

(1822-1883), educational writer, eldest son 
of Thomas Isbister, an officer of the Hudson 
Bay Company, was born at Fort Cumberland, 
Canada, in 1822, and was sent to Scotland, 
the original home of his family, to be edu- 
cated. In his fifteenth year he returned to 
Canada, and after serving for a short time as 
a pupil-teacher, he entered the service of the 
Hudson Bay Company. Seeing little prospect 
of advancement he threw up his appointment 
and, returning to Scotland, studied at the 
universities of Aberdeen and Edinburgh. At 
the latter he graduated M. A. on 3 March 1858. 
During part of this period he supported him- 



self by contributing to the ' Encyclopaedia 
Britannica ' and to Chambers's ' Educational 
Course.' 

In 1849 he became second master in the 
East Islington proprietary school, and a year 
afterwards the head-master. Five years later 
he was appointed the head-master of the 
Jews' College in Finsbury Square, and from 
1858 to 1882 was master of the Stationers' 
Company's school. His connection with the 
College of Preceptors, 42 Queen Square, 
Bloomsbury (now located in its own building 
in Bloomsbury Square), began in 1851. In 
1862 he was appointed editor of the 'Educa- 
tional Times,' the official organ of the college, 
and in 1872 he succeeded the Rev. G.A.Jacob, 
D.D.,as dean of the college. His services were 
very great, and to him the present position of 
the college is largely due. On 17 Nov. 1864 
he was admitted to the bar at the Middle 
Temple, and took the degree of LL.B. at 
the university of London in I860. He died 
at 20 Milner Square, Islington, London, on 
28 May 1883. He was the author of nu- 
merous works, chiefly school books, among 
which were: 1. ' Elements of Bookkeeping,' 
1850, with forms of a set of books, 1854. 
2. 'A Proposal for a New Penal Settlement in 
the Uninhabited Districts of British North 
America,' 1850. 3. 'Euclid,' 1860, 1862, 
1863, and 1865. 4. 'Csesaris Commentarii de 
Bello Gallico,' 1863, 1864, 1865, and 1866. 

5. 'The Elements of English Grammar,' 1865. 

6. ' Arithmetic,' 1865. 7. ' Outlines of the 
English Language,' 1865. 8. ' Xenophon's 
Anabasis,' 1866. 9. 'First Steps in Read- 
ing and Learning,' 1867. 10. ' The Word- 
builder,' 1869. 11. ' The Illustrated Public 
School Speaker,' 1870. 12. ' Lessons on 
Elocution,' 1870. 

[Times, 30 May 1883, p. 11 ; Journal of Edu- 
cation, July 1883, p. 247; Solicitors' Journal, 
9 June 1883, p. 537; Law Times, 9 June 1883, 
p. 119.] G. C. B. 

ISCANUS, JOSEPHUS. [See JOSEPH 

OF EXETER.] 

ISHAM or ISUM, JOHN (1680 P-1726), 
composer, was born about 1680 and educated 
at Merton College, Oxford, whence he pro- 
ceeded to London and served as deputy or- 
ganist of St. Anne's, Westminster, under 
Dr. William Croft [q. v.] Croft resigned in 
Isham's favour in 1711, and in 1713 Isham 
went from London to Oxford to assist Croft 
in the performance of the exercise for his 
doctor's degree, being himself admitted at 
the same time to the degree of Mus. Bac. 
Appointed organist of St. Andrew's, IIol- 
born, in April 1718, and of St. Margaret's, 
Westminster, in the following year, Isham 



I sham 



Isham 



held the two last-mentioned posts in conjunc- 
tion until his death in June 172G, when he 
was buried in St. Margaret's Church. Two 
anthems composed by Isham, ' Unto Thee, 
O Lord,' and ' O sing unto the Lord a new 
song,' are included in Croft's 'Divine Har- 
mony, or a New Collection of Select Anthems ' 
(1712). With William Morley he published, 
about 1710, a collection of songs, from which 
Sir John Hawkins reprinted in his 'History' 
a duet by Isham, ' Bury delights my roving 
eye.' Three other songs and a catch are 
catalogued under the name of Isum in the 
British Museum Library. 

[Hawkins's Hist, of Music, ii. 799; Burney, 
iii. 303 ; Georgian Era, iv. 513 ; Hueffer's Pur- 
cell, pp. 103, 105; Add. MS. 31464; Notes and 
Queries, 6th ser. xii. 288.] T. S. 

ISHAM, SIR JUSTINIAN, second 
baronet (1610-1674), royalist, was only son 
of Sir John Isham (1582-1651), by his wife 
Judith, daughter of William Lewin, D.C.L., 
of Otterden, Kent, and was baptised on 
3 Feb. 1610, taking his Christian name from 
his mother's brother, Sir Justinian Lewin, 
knt. He was admitted a fellow-commoner at 
Christ's College, Cambridge, on 18 April 1627, 
and subsequently contributed 20/. towards the 
new buildings of his college ( May 1640). He 
was married on 10 Nov. 1634 to Jane, eldest 
daughter of Sir John Garrard, bart., of Lamer, 
Hertfordshire ; but his wife died in childbirth 
on 4 March 1638, and Isham became one of 
the suitors of Dorothy Osborne. The earnest- 
ness and persistency of his suit did not make 
a favourable impression upon the lady, who 
nicknamed him ' The Emperor,' laughed at 
his vanity and pompousness, and finally de- 
clared that she would rather 'chose a chain 
to lead her apes in' than marry him. On the 
other hand, however, Miss Osborne frequently 
mentions ' Sir Jus's ' learning. She describes 
him to Sir William Temple as ' that one of 
her servants ' whom Temple liked the best, 
and she showed herself by no means best 
pleased on the occasion of his second mar- 
riage (Dorothy Osbome's Letters, ed. Parry, 
passim). Isham appears in fact to have been 
a man of culture, and seems to have laid the 
foundation of the present library at Lamport 
Hall, Northamptonshire. BrianDuppa[q.v.], 
bishop of Salisbury, was a frequent correspon- 
dent of his, and answered in a letter, still 
extant, some inquiries which Isham made re- 
spectingthedisposition of Selden's books after 
his death (Hist. MSS. Comm. 3rd Rep. App. 
p. 255). Loans to the king as well as fines to 
the parliament had greatly injured the Isham 
estates when in 1651 Sir Justinian succeeded 
to the baronetcy. He had been detained in 



prison for a short time during 1649 as a de- 
linquent, and he was now forced to compound 
for the estate of Shangton in Leicestershire, 
which had been bought by his father in 1637 
by a payment of 1,106/. (C'a/. of Advance of 
Money, ed. Green,i. 485). After the Restora- 
tion he was elected M.P. for Northamptonshire 
in the parliament which met in 1661. He died 
at Oxford, whither he had gone to place his 
two sons at Christ Church, on 2 March 1674, 
and was buried in the family burial place on the 
north side of the chancel in Lamport Church, 
where there is a long Latin inscription to his 
memory (see LE NEVE, Monumenta Anyli- 
cana, ii. 163). There is a portrait of the 
baronet at Lamport Hall by John Baptista. 

Isham's second wife, whom he married in 
1653, was Vere, daughter of Thomas, lord 
Leigh of Stoneleigh, by Mary, daughter of 
Sir Thomas Egerton. Four children by her 
survived him : Sir Thomas, noticed below, 
third baronet ; Sir Justinian, fourth baronet 
(d. 1730) ; Mary (d. 1679), who married Sir 
Marmaduke Dayrell of Castle Camps, Cam- 
bridgeshire ; and Vere, an erudite young lady, 
' learned beyond her sex and years in mathema- 
ticks and algebra,' who died in 1674, aged 19. 
There also survived him three daughters by 
his first wife: Elizabeth (d. 1734), who mar- 
ried Sir Nicholas L'Estrange of Hunstanton, 
Norfolk, second baronet, and nephew of Sir 
Roger L'Estrange [q. v.] ; Judith, who died 
unmarried, and was buried in Westminster 
Abbey 22 May 1679 ; and Susanna, who 
was married on 4 May 1656 to Sir Nicholas 
Carew, kt. 

ISHAM, SIB THOMAS (1657-1681), third 
baronet, eldest son of the above, was born at 
Lamport on 15 March 1657. When still a 
boy he wrote a diary in Latin by the command 
of his father. This diary, which gives a vivid 
picture of the everyday doings of a family 
of the period, was translated and privately 
printed (1875) by the Rev. Robert Isham, 
rector of Lamport, where the original is still 
preserved. Isham succeeded to the baronetcy 
upon the death of his father in 1674, and 
shortly afterwards proceeded with his tutor, 
the Rev. Zacheus Isham [q. v.], upon an ex- 
tended tour on the continent, especially in 
Italy, whence he brought numerous art trea- 
sures to Lamport. He died unmarried in Lon- 
don, and was buried at Lamport on 9 Aug. 
1681. There are several portraits of Sir 
Thomas Isham at Lamport Hall, including 
one by Lely, which was engraved by Loggan, 
and is noticed in Granger's 'Biographical 
History,' iii. 393, where Isham is described 
as 'a young gentleman of great expectations.' 

[Bridges's Northamptonshire, ed. Whalley, ii. 
1 12 ; Collins's English Baronetage, 1741, ii. 40 ; 



Isham 



73 



Islip 



Foster's Peerage ; Burke's Eoyal Descents ; in- 
formation kindly supplied by the Eev. H. Isham 
Longden. There are some interesting memoranda 
of the Isham family, transcribed from a note- 
book of Sir John, first baronet, in the Genealogist, 
ii. 241, iii. 274 ; and a full pedigree of the family 
is given in Hill's History of Langton, p. 216; see 
also Addit. MS. 29603.] ' T. S. 

ISHAM, Z ACIIEUS (1651-1705), divine, 
was the son of Thomas Isham, rector of 
Barby, Northamptonshire (d. 1676), by his 
wife Mary Isham (d. 1694). He was grand- 
son of another Zacheus, who was first cousin 
once removed of Sir John Isham of Lamport, 
Northamptonshire, first baronet (d. 1651). 
He matriculated from Christ Church, Oxford, 
in 1666, and was successively student, B.A. 
(1671), M.A. (1674), B.D. (1682), and D.D. 
(1689). After taking his degree in 1671 he 
acted for some time as tutor to Sir Thomas 
Isham, third baronet [see under ISHAM, SIR 
JUSTINIAN], and accompanied him on his 
travels in Italy and elsewhere. In 1679 he 
was an interlocutor in the divinity school at 
Oxford (TASWELL, 'Autobiography ' in Cam- 
den's Miscellany, iii. 28), and was speaker of 
theMorrisian oration in honour of Sir Thomas 
Bodley in 1683 (MACKAT, Annals of the Bod- 
leian Library, p. 151). He was appointed 
chaplain to Dr. Compton [q. v.], bishop of 
London, about 1685, obtained a prebend at 
St. Paul's in 1685-6, and was in 1691 installed 
a canon at Canterbury Cathedral. He became 
rector of St. Botolph's, Bishopsgate, in 1694, 
represented the clergy of the diocese of Lon- 
don in the convocation of 1696 (LTJTTRELL, 
Brief Relation, iii. 552, v. 572), and was in 
1701 appointed rector of Solihull, Warwick- 
shire, where he died on 5 July 1705. He was 
buried in Solihull Church, and there is a monu- 
ment to him on the chancel floor in which he 
is described as ' Vir singular! eruditione et 
gravitate preeditus, in concionando celeber- 
rime foecundus' (DUGDALE, Warwickshire, 
ed. Thomas, ii. 944). Isham was married to 
Elizabeth, daughter of Thomas Pittis, chap- 
lain to Charles II; he had four sons and four 
daughters, the second of whom, Mary (d. 
1750), married Arthur Brooke, grandfather of 
Sir Richard de Capell Brooke, first baronet. 

Besides sermons, including one on the 
death of Dr. John Scott (1694), which is in- 
corporated in Wilford's ' Memorials,' Isham 
published : 1. ' The Catechism of the Church, 
with Proofs from the New Testament,' 1695, 
8vo. 2. 'Philosophy containing the Book 
of Job, Proverbs, and Wisdom, with explana- 
tory notes,' 1706, 8vo. There is a small work 
of his among the Rawlinson MSS. in the 
Bodleian Library entitled ' The Catechism of 
the Church, with Proofs from the New Testa- 



ment, and some additional questions and 
answers,' 1694. An attestation by Isham and 
others is prefixed to ' George Keith's Fourth 
Narrative . . . detecting the Quakers' Gross 
Errors in Quotations . . . ,' 1706, 4to. 

[Wood's Athenae,iv. 654; Fasti, ii. 407; Cole's 
Athense Cantabr. i. f. 77 ; Dart's History and An- 
tiquities of Canterbury Cathedral, 1726, p. 202; 
Colvile's Warwickshire Worthies, p. 456 ; Bridges's 
Northamptonshire, i. 26, ii. 112; Hearne's Collec- 
tions, ed. Doble, i. 322 ; Hasted's Kent, iii. 188, 
iv. 615; Ellis Orig. Lett. 2nd ser. iv. 65, where 
Isham is wrongly described as dean of Christ 
Church; information from the Eev. H. Isham 
Longden.] T. S. 

ISLES, LOEDS OP THE. [See MACDONALD, 
DONALD,J#. 1420; MACDONALD, JOHN, d. 1388 ; 
Ross, JOHN, eleventh EARL OF Ross, d. 1498.] 

ISLIP, JOHN (d. 1532), abbot of West- 
minster, was doubtless a member of the 
family which rose to ecclesiastical impor- 
tance in the person of Archbishop Simon Islip 
[q. v.] John entered the monastery of West- 
minster about 1480, and showed his admin- 
istrative capacity in minor offices, till in 1498 
he was elected prior, and on 27 Oct. 1500 
abbot of Westminster. The first business 
which he undertook was to claim for the 
abbey of Westminster the possession of the 
body of Henry VI, for whose canonisation 
Henry VII was pressing at Rome. The claim 
was disputed by Windsor and Chertsey, and 
the question was argued before the privy 
council, which decided in favour of West- 
minster. Henry VI's remains were removed 
from Windsor at a cost of 500/. Islip had 
next to advise Henry VII in his plan for re- 
moving the old lady chapel of the abbey 
church and the erection instead of the chapel 
which still bears Henry VII's name. The 
old building was pulled down, and on 24 Jan. 
1503 Islip laid the foundation-stone of the 
new structure (HOLINSHED, Chronicle, ed. 
1577, ii. 1457). The indentures between the 
king and Abbot Islip relating to the foun- 
dation of Henry VII's chantry and the re- 
gulation of its services are in the Harleian 
MS. 1498. They are splendidly engrossed, 
and have two initial letters which represent 
the king giving the document to Islip and 
the monks Avho kneel before him. The face 
of Islip is so strongly marked that it seems 
to be a real portrait (see NEALE and BRAY- 
LET, Westminster Abbey, ii. 188-92). 

Islip seems to have discharged carefully 
the duties of his office. In 1511 he held a 
visitation of the dependent priory of Mai vern, 
and repeated it in 1516, when he suspended 
the prior. His capacity for business led 
Henry VIII to appoint him a member of the 



Islip 



74 



Islip 



privy council, probably on his departure to 
France in 1513, as Islip's name first appears 
attached to a letter in September of that 
year (BREWER, Calendar of State Papers, i. 
5762). Islip was further one of the triers of 
petitions to parliament, and was on the com- 
mission of the peace for Middlesex. Still 
Islip's dignified position did not protect him 
from Wolsey's authority, who showed his 
determination to use his legatine power by 
a severe visitation of Westminster in 1518 
(POLYDORE VERGIL, Hist. Angl. ed. 1570, p. 
657) ; and again in 1525, when the monas- 
tery had to pay a hundred marks for the ex- 
penses of the visitation. In the same year we 
find Islip acting as Wolsey's commissioner in 
the affairs of the monastery of Glastonbury 
(BREWER, Calendar, iv. 1244). In 1527 Islip, 
as president of the English Benedictines, 
issued a commission to the Abbot of Glou- 
cester for the visitation of the abbey of 
Malmesbury, where there had been a rebellion 
of the monks against their abbot (ib. 3678). 

This peaceful discharge of ordinary duties 
was disturbed for Islip, as for most other 
Englishmen of high position, by the pro- 
ceedings for the king's divorce. In July 
1529 Islip was joined with Burbank and 
others for the purpose of searching among 
the royal papers for documents to present to 
the legatine court of Wolsey and Campeggio 
(ib. 5783, 5791). In 1530 Islip was one 
of those who signed a letter to the pope in 
favour of the king's divorce (RxMER, Fcedera, 
xiv. 405), and in July 1531 Henry VIII 
suggested to the pope that Islip, whom he 
calls ' a good old father,' should be joined 
as an assessor to Archbishop Warham for 
the purpose of trying the cause in England 
(State Papers of Henry VIII,\'u. 312). But 
though Henry was bent upon his divorce, 
he could attend to minor matters; for in 
September 1531 he negotiated an exchange 
with the abbey of Westminster of sundry 
tenements reaching as far as Charing Cross, 
for which he gave them the site of the con- 
vent of Poghley, Berkshire, one of the lesser 
monasteries, dissolved by Wolsey, which had 
become forfeited to the crown (BREWER, 
Calendar, v. 404). Islip died peaceably on 
12 May 1532. and was buried in the abbey 
with extraordinary splendour. An account 
of his funeral is in the Brit ish Museum Addit. 
MS. 5829, f. 61 ; extracts are given in Dug- 
dale's 'Monasticon,' i. 278. 

Islip's career was entirely representative 
of the life of a great churchman of the time 
in other points than those already men- 
tioned. In 1526 he was one of those com- 
missioned by Wolsey to search for heretics 
among the Hanseatic merchants in London 



(ib. iv. 1962), and often sat in the consistory 
court of London to judge English heretics 
(FoXE, Acts and Monuments, ed. Townsend, 
iv. 689, v. 417). But the chief reason why 
Islip's name is remembered is his buildings at 
Westminster Abbey. He raised the western 
tower as far as the level of the roof, repaired 
much of the church, especially the buttresses, 
filled the niches with statues, and designed a 
central tower, which he did not proceed with 
because he found the pillars too weak to bear 
the weight. He built many apartments in the 
abbot's house, and a gallery overlooking the 
nave on the south side. Moreover, he built 
for himself the little mortuary chapel which 
still bears his name, and is adorned by his 
rebus, a boy falling from a tree, with the le- 
gend ' I slip.' The paintings in the chapel 
have disappeared, and only the table of his 
tomb remains. The original work is described 
by Weever in ' Funerall Monuments,' p. 488. 
Islip's fame as a custodian of the fabric of 
the abbey long remained, and his example 
was held as a model by Williams when he 
was dean of Westminster (HACKET, Life of 
Williams, p. 45). 

[Dugdale's Monasticon, i. 277-8 ; Widmore's 
Hist, of Westminster Abbey, pp. 119-26; Stevens's 
Additions to Dugdale, i. 285-6 ; Dart's West- 
monasterium, i. 40, ii. 34; Newcourt's Reper- 
torium Ecclesiasticum, i. 717; Neale and Bray- 
ley's History and Antiquities of Westminster 
Abbey, i. 11-16, ii. 188-92; Historical Manu- 
scripts Commission, i. 95 ; Stanley's Memorials 
of Westminster Abbey, ed. 1882, p. 335.] 

M. C. 

ISLIP, SIMON (d. 1366), archbishop of 
Canterbury, derived his name from the vil- 
lage of Islip on the Cherwell, about six miles 
north of Oxford, where he was probably born. 
Of his namesakes or kinsfolk, Walter Islip 
was a baron of the Irish exchequer between 
1307 and 1338, and in 1314 treasurer (Cal. 
Hot. Pat. 68 b, 77, 121 b, 128). John Islip was 
until 1332 archdeacon of Stow, in the diocese 
of Lincoln. William Islip, Simon's nephew, 
held the manor of Woodford in south North- 
amptonshire, and William Whittlesey, subse- 
quently archbishop, was another kinsman. 

In 1307 Simon was a fellow of Merton 
College (WooD, Colleges and Halls, p. 15 ; 
BRODRICK, Memorials of Merton, p. 199, Ox- 
ford Hist. Soc.) He proceeded doctor in 
canon and civil law at Oxford. He soon 
made his way as an ecclesiastical lawyer, 
and apparently enjoyed the patronage, first 
of Bishop Burghersh of Lincoln, and after- 
wards of Archbishop Stratford of Canter- 
bury. His early preferments include the 
rectories of Easton, near Stamford, and Horn- 
castle, the first of which he exchanged in 



Islip 



75 



Islip 



1332 for a brief tenure of the archdeaconry 
of Stow (1332-3), and the last he vacated by 
cession in 1357 (LsNEVE, Fasti Heel. Anglic. 
ii. 78, ed. Hardy). He held the prebend of 
Welton Brinkhall, in the cathedral of Lin- 
coln, from 1327 tiU 1331 (ib. ii. 228). In 
1329 he was collated to the prebend of Ayles- 
bury in the same cathedral, which he ex- 
changed in 1340 for that of Welton Beckhall 
(ib. ii. 96, but cf. ii. 225). In 1337 he was 
vicar-general to the Bishop of Lincoln. In 
1343 he was made archdeacon of Canterbury, 
but in 1346 he surrendered that post to Peter 
Rogier, afterwards Pope Gregory XI (ib. i. 
40). He also became dean of arches, and 
in 1348 prebendary of Mora in St. Paul's 
Cathedral on the presentation of the king 
(ib. ii. 410). In March 1348 he wae also 
collated to the prebend of Sandiacre in Lich- 
field (ib. i. 624). 

Islip attached himself to the king's service, 
becoming in turn chaplain, secretary, coun- 
cillor, and keeper of the privy seal to Ed- 
ward III. On 4 Jan. 1342 he was one of the 
ambassadors sent to treat for a truce with 
France at Antoing, near Tournay, on 3 Feb. 
(Fcedera, ii. 1185, Record ed.) On 1 July 
1345 he was appointed, with other members 
of the council, to assist the king's son Lionel, 
while acting as regent during the king's ab- 
sence abroad (ib. iii. 50). In 1346 he was 
authorised to open royal letters and treat 
with foreign ambassadors during Edward Ill's 
residence beyond sea (ib. iii. 85). 

Archbishop Stratford had died on 23 Aug. 
1348. His successor, John Ufford, died of 
the Black Death on 20 May 1349, before he 
was consecrated. On 26 Aug. the famous 
scholastic Bradwardine [q. v.] died of the 
same pestilence, only a week after he had 
received the temporalities of the see. On 
20 Sept. the monks of Christ Church elected 
Islip, at the king's request, to the vacant 
archbishopric (WiiAETON', Anglia Sacra, i. 
119) ; but on 7 Oct. Pope Clement VI, also 
in obedience to a royal request, conferred the 

Srimacy upon him by provision (ib. i. 376). 
n 20 Dec. 1349 Islip was consecrated at St. 
Paul's. He received the pallium on 25 March 
1350 at Esher from Bishop Edington. As the 
Black Death had not yet ceased its ravages, 
he caused himself to be enthroned privately 
at Canterbury (ib. i. 377), and without the 
usual lavish festivities. The Christ Church 
monks, who already resented his consecra- 
tion out of Canterbury, unfairly attributed 
the absence of the customary entertainments 
to his parsimony, and a reputation for nig- 
gardliness remained to him for the rest of 
his life. On 23 April 1350 Islip assisted at 
the gorgeous pageant at "Windsor in which 



Edward III inaugurated the order of the 
Garter (G. LB BAKEE, pp. 109, 278-9, ed. 
Thompson). He long remained very poor, 
and he incurred much reproach for cutting 
down and selling the timber on his estates ; 
for exacting larger sums from his clergy than 
he had received papal authority to exact ; 
for dealing hardly with the executors of 
Ufford in the matter of dilapidations ; and 
for alienating for ready money the perpetual 
right of the archbishops to receive from the 
Earls of Arundel a yearly grant of twenty- 
six deer. 

Islip's diocese had been demoralised by the 
ravages of the Black Death, and in an early 
visitation he sought energetically to remedy 
the evils. He afterwards visited ' perfunc- 
torily' the dioceses of Rochester and Chi- 
chester, but subsequently remained mostly in 
his manors, of which Mayfield in Sussex soon 
became his favourite residence. In 1356 he 
was specially exhorted by Innocent VI to 
resume his visitations (WiLKiNS, Concilia, iii. 
35-6). Islip was never lacking in vigilance, 
and strove earnestly to restore discipline (cf. 
his constitutions and canons in WILKINS, 
vol. iii.) He deprived criminous clerks of 
their benefices ; took care that clerks incar- 
cerated in ecclesiastical prisons should not 
fare too well ; and enforced a stricter keeping 
of Sunday, especially by putting down mar- 
kets and riotous gatherings on that day. He 
directed, however, that work should not be 
suspended on minor saints' days (WALSING- 
HAM, Hist. Angl. i. 297, Rolls Ser.) The 
plague had thinned the ranks of the beneficed 
clergy, and unbeneficed priests now refused 
to undertake pastoral work for the stipends 
customary before the Black Death. Many 
parishes were thus wholly or in part deprived 
of spiritual direction. Islip therefore issued 
in 1350 a canon which is a sort of spiritual 
counterpart of the Statute of Labourers, or- 
dering chaplains to remain content with the 
salaries they had received before the Black 
Death ("WILKINS, iii. 1-2). In 1362, the year 
after the second visitation of the Black Death 
had intensified existing evils, Islip drew up 
other constitutions defining more strictly the 
priests' remuneration, and ordering the de- 
privation of those who refused to undertake 
pastoral functions when called upon by the 
bishop (ib. iii. 50). Islip's measures drove 
many priests to theft (WALSINGHAM, i. 297). 
In 1353 Islip also drew up regulations for the 
apparel and salaries of priests (WlLKlNS, iii. 
29). His care for the secular clergy led him 
to limit the rights of the friars to hear con- 
fessions or discharge pastoral functions (ib. 
iii. 64). 

In 1353 Islip arranged with Archbishop 



Islip 



7 6 



Islip 



Thoresby of York to end the long strife be- 
tween the rival archbishops as to the right of 
the northern primate to carry his cross erect 
in the southern province. They submitted 
their respective claims to the arbitration of 
Edward III, whose decision, uttered on 
20 April at Westminster, was confirmed by 
Pope Clement VI. The chief feature in the 
agreement was that the archbishops of York 
were allowed to bear their cross erect within 
the province of Canterbury on condition that 
every archbishop of York, within two months 
of his confirmation, presented to the shrine of 
St. Thomas a golden image of an archbishop 
or jewels to the value of 40. (Anglia Sacra, 
i. 43, 75 ; T. STFBBS in RAIXE, Historians of 
York, ii. 419, Rolls Ser. ; RAINE, Fasti Ebo- 
racenses, pp. 456-7; WILKIXS, Concilia, iii. 
31-2). 

Islip was involved in several grave dis- 
putes with Bishop Gynwell of Lincoln, who 
had procured a bull from Clement VI ab- 
solving him from his obedience to Canter- 
bury. Islip obtained another bull from 
Innocent VI which practically revoked the 
preceding grant. When, in 1350, Gynwell 
refused to confirm the election of William of 
Palmorva to the chancellorship of Oxford 
University, Islip, in answer to the univer- 
sity's appeal, summoned Gynwell to appear 
before him, and appointed a commission to 
admit William to his office. The Bishop of 
Lincoln then appealed to Pope Clement VI, 
who finally decided in Islip's favour (W T IL- 
KJNS, Concilia, iii. 3-8 ; Mun. Acad. pp. 168- 
172 ; LYTE, Hist . Univ. Oxf. pp. 169-70 ; WOOD, 
Annals of Oxford, i. 452-3, ed. Gutch). A 
third triumph over his unruly diocesan was 
obtained by Islip in 1354, when he removed 
the interdict under which Gynwell had placed 
Oxford, after a great riot between town and 
gown. Gynwell, however, had previously sus- 
pended the interdict. The final arrangement 
between the university and the townsmen was 
made by the king on the mediation of Islip. 

Islip was generally on good terms with his 
old master, Edward III. It was during his 
primacy that the first Statutes of Provisors 
and Prsemunire were passed. In 1359, how- 
ever, when Islip refused to confirm the elec- 
tion of Robert Stretton to the bishopric of 
Lichfield, on the ground of his age, blindness, 
and incompetency, Edward, prince of Wales, 
and his father the king obtained his appoint- 
ment by appealing to Avignon against the 
primate's action ( Anglia Sacra, i. 44, 449). He 
Lad another difference with the Prince of 
Wales in 1357, when the prince demanded 
certain crown dues on the death of Bishop 
Trevor of St. Asaph, and Islip successfully 
maintained against him that these dues be- 



longed in the north AVelsh dioceses and in 
Rochester to the Archbishop of Canterbury 
(Archaeological Journal, xi. 275). Yet in 
1358, when Bishop de Lisle of Ely was found 
guilty by a secular court of burning a farm- 
house belonging to Lady Wake, and insti- 
gating the murder of one of her servants, 
Islip declined to shelter the guilty prelate by 
the authority of the ecclesiastical courts. 

Islip bitterly resented the extravagance of 
Edward III. In 1356 he presided over a 
synod which rejected the king's demand for 
a clerical tenth for six years, and only allowed 
him a tenth for one year (AvESBURY, p. 459, 
Rolls Ser.) Disgusted at the exactions of the 
king's servants and courtiers, he addressed to 
Edward a long and spirited remonstrance on 
the evils of purveyance, and the scandal and 
odium produced by the king's greedy insist- 
ence on his prerogative. The action of the 
archbishop combined with the strong peti- 
tion of the commons to procure the statute of 
1362, which seems to have removed the worst 
abuses of purveyance. Copies of Islip's remon- 
strance, which is entitled ' Speculum regis 
Edwardi,' are in Bodleian MS. 624, Harleian 
MS. 2399, Cotton. MSS. Cleopatra D. ix., and 
Faustina, B. i. Extracts are given in Stubbs's 
' Constitutional History,'ii. 375, 404, 536, and 
a summary is in ' Archseologia,' viii. 341-4. 

In January 1363 a stroke of paralysis de- 
prived Islip of the power of articulate speech. 
He partially recovered, but died at May- 
field on 26 April 1366. On 2 May he was 
buried in his cathedral. At his own request 
all expense and pomp were avoided, and only 
six wax candles were lighted round his corpse 
(Eulogium Hist. iii. 239). Over his grave in 
Canterbury Cathedral was erected a ' fine 
tomb of marble inlaid with brass in the 
middle,' in the nave of the church (SOMNER, 
Canterbury, ed. Battely, i. 134). His epitaph 
is preserved by Weever (Ancient Funerall 
Monuments, pp. 223-4). Parts of his will, 
dated in 1361, are printed in 'Anglia Sacra,' i. 
60-1 (cf. Hist. MSS. Comm. 5th Rep. p. 436). 
He left a large amount of plate and vestments 
to the monks of Canterbury, together with a 
thousand of his best ewes to improve the breed 
of their sheep. According to Bale (Script. 
Brit. Cat. cent. vi. xx. ed. Basel), Islip wrote 
sermons on Lent, on the saints, and on time. 

Despite his poverty Islip increased the en- 
dowments of the Canterbury hospitals (Hist. 
MSS. Comm. 5th Rep. p. 443) ; gave Buck- 
land parsonage to Dover priory, and Bilsing- 
ton parsonage to the monks of that place ; 
restored his palace at Canterbury, and pulled 
down W T rotham manor to complete the build- 
ing of the manor-house at Maidstone, which 
had been begun by Archbishop Ufford (Son- 



Islip 



77 



Ite 



NER, Canterbury, ed. Battely, i. 62, 73, 134 ; 
cf. HASTED, Kent, ' Canterbury,' ii. 118, 392). 
In 1350 he released the monks of St. Martin's, 
Dover, from their old dependence on Christ 
Church (Hist. MSS. Comm. 5th Rep. p. 441). 
In 1365 he restored to the monks of his cathe- 
dral the churches of Monkton and Eastry, 
though taking care that perpetual vicars 
should be appointed (ib. p. 442 ; SOMNER, i. 
134). He was, however, often on bad terms 
with Christ Church. In 1362 he had listened 
to ' sinister reports ' against the prior and 
monks (Literce Cantuar. ii. 308). In 1353 
the prior ' with his own hand ' wrote what 
amounted to a practical refusal to entertain 
the archbishop during a proposed visit of 
twelve days (ib. ii. 314-16). 

Islip always took a keen interest in Oxford, 
and since 1356 was commemorated by the 
university among its benefactors ( Munimenta 
Academica, i. 186). He was also a benefactor 
of Cambridge (Anglia Sacra, i. 794). He 
was most anxious to increase the number of 
' exhibitions ' at the universities for poor stu- 
dents, and desired that the regular clergy 
should receive more generally an academic 
training. The Black Death had greatly di- 
minished the numbers of the learned clergy. In 
1355 Islip strongly urged the prior of Christ 
Church to send more of his monks to the uni- 
versities (Literce Cantuar. ii. 332). Finally, 
he elaborated a plan for a new college, in 
which he made the bold experiment of mix- 
ing together in the same society monks and 
secular clergy. He bought for this purpose 
some houses, whose situation is still marked 
by the Canterbury quadrangle of the modern 
Christ Church, Oxford. On 20 Oct. 1361 he 
obtained the royal license to found his col- 
lege for ' a certain number of clerks both re- 
ligious and secular,' and secured the king's 
consent to appropriate the advowson of Pag- 
ham in Sussex for its endowment (ib. ii. 
409-10 ; LEWIS, Life of Wycliffe, pp. 285- 
290). He closely connected his college with 
his cathedral, and directed the monks of 
Christ Church to appoint the first warden 
by nominating three persons to the arch- 
bishop, of whom he chose one (Literce Can- 
tuar. ii. 417). Islip in March 1362 nominated 
one of the monks' three nominees, Dr. Henry 
Woodhall, as first warden (ib. ii. 416). On 
13 April 1363 Islip issued his charter of foun- 
dation (ib. ii. 442-3). Provision was made 
for eleven fellows, besides the warden, and a 
chaplain. Four of these seem to have been 
Christ Church monks, the rest seculars. On 
4 June 1363 Islip obtained from his nephew, 
"William Islip, the manor of Woodford, North- 
amptonshire, as an additional endowment (ib. 
ii. 443, 447-8). Quarrels at once arose be- 



tween the regular and secular members on. 
the foundation. The seculars, who were in a 
majority, seem to have driven out Woodhall 
and the monks, and to have chosen as their 
head John Wycliffe, a secular priest, who is 
variously identified with the reformer [see 
WYCLIFFE, JOHN] and with another John 
Wycliffe, whom Islip had, in 1361, appointed 
to be vicar of Mayfield (LECHLER, John Wy- 
clif, i. 160-84, translated by Lorimer; but cf. 
SHIRLEY, Fasciculi Zizaniorum, pp. 513-28, 
Rolls Ser., and POOLE, Wycliffe and Move- 
ments for Reform ; cf. also WYCLIFFE, De 
Ecclesia, pp. 370-1, ed. Loserth, Wyclif So- 
ciety). Islip practically sided with the secu- 
lars. The elaborate statutes for the college 
(printed in WILKINS, iii. 52-8), which were- 
probably drawn up by him at this time as a 
new constitution, substantially contemplate 
a secular foundation, based on the rule of 
Merton, Islip's old college. Wycliffe only re- 
tained office for the rest of Islip's life. Arch- 
bishop Langham [q. v.] restored Woodhall, 
and in 1370, after a famous suit, the pope's 
decision converted Islip's foundation into a 
mere appendage at Oxford of Christ Church, 
Canterbury, and a place for the education of 
the Canterbury monks. It was finally ab- 
sorbed byWolsey and Henry VIII, in Cardinal 
College, afterwards Christ Church, Oxford. 

[Hook's Archbishops of Canterbury, iv. 111- 
162 ; Wharton's Anglia Sacra, vol. i., especially 
Birchington's Life, pp. 43-6, and Dies obituales, 
pp. 60-1 and p. 119; Sheppard's Literse Can- 
tuarienses, Walsingham's Hist. Angl., both in 
Rolls Ser.; Wilkins's Concilia, vol. iii.; Bymer's 
Fcedera, Record ed. ; Hist. MSS. Comm., 5th Rep. ; 
Lewis's Life of Wycliffe ; Lechler's John Wyclif 
and his English Precursors, translated by Lo- 
rimer ; Wood's Hist, and Antiquities of Oxford, 
ed. Gutch; Lyte's Hist, of the University of Ox- 
ford ; Le Neve's Fasti Ecclesise Anglicanse, ed. 
Hardy; Somner's Canterbury, ed. Battely.] 

T. F. T. 

ISRAEL, MANASSEH BEX (1604- 
1657), founder of the modern Jewish com- 
munity in England. [See MANASSEH BEN 
ISRAEL.] 

ITE (d. 569), Irish saint, whose name also 
occurs as Ita, Ida, Ide, Ytha, Idea, and with 
the prefix mo, mine, as Mide, Mida, Medea, 
is the patroness of Munster, and is sometimes 
spoken of by Irish writers as the Mary of 
Munster. Her father, Cennfoeladh, and her 
mother, Necta, were both of the tribe of the 
Deisi, descendants of Feidhlimidh Recht- 
mhuir,king of Ireland, who had marched south 
from Tara and conquered for themselves a 
territory in the south of Munster, part of the 
present county of Waterford. When grown 
up, Ite left her own country with the inten- 



Ive 



7 8 



Ive 



tion of founding a religious community, 
settled at Cluaincreadhail, at the foot of 
Sliabh Luachra (co. Limerick), and she be- 
came abbess of the society which she instituted 
there. Her abbey has disappeared, and the 
only indication of its site is her name in the 
parochial designation, Killeedy (Gill Ite), Ite's 
church. The baronies of Costello, in which 
this parish is situated, were then called 
Ua Conaill Gabhra, and the O'Cuileans, who 
then ruled it, and are still numerous in the 
district under the Anglicised name Collins, 
gave land and protection to the saint. She 
was no recluse, but took part in the public 
affairs of the clan, travelled to Clonmacnois 
(King's County), visited St. Comgan when 
he was dying, and received St. Luchtighern 
and St. Laisrean. The Ua Conaill believed 
that they obtained victory by her prayers, and 
many legends are preserved of the wonders 
performed by her in the improvement of the 
wicked, the cure of the sick, and the breed- 
ing of horses. She died on 15 Jan. 569, ap- 
parently of hydatid of the liver. 

[Colgan's Acta Sanct. Hibernise, 1645, p. 66 ; 
Martyrology of Donegal, p. 17; Reeves's On a 
MS. Volume of Lives of Saints, 1877; Annala 
Rioghachta Eireann, i. 207.] N. M. 

IVE, PAUL (fl. 1602), writer on fortifi- 
cation, appears to have been a member of 
Corpus Christi College, Cambridge, in 1560, 
though he was never matriculated. In 1597 
he received money from the crown for the 
fortification of Falmouth and for the trans- 
portation of prisoners into Spain. In January 
1601-2 he was employed in fortifying the isle 
of Haulbowline, near Cork, and Castle Ny 
Park, to command the haven of Kinsale. 

He is the author of: 1. 'Instructions for 
the warres, Amply, learnedly, & politiquely, 
discoursing of the method of Militarie Disci- 
pline,' from the French of ' Generall, Monsieur 
William de Bellay, Lord of Langey,' London, 
1589, 4to, dedicated to Secretary William 
Davison [q. v.] 2. ' The Practise of Fortifi- 
cation, in all sorts of scituations ; with the 
considerations to be used in declining and 
making of Royal Frontiers, Skonces, and 
renforcing of ould walled Townes,' London, 
1589, 1599, 4to, dedicated to William Brooke, 
lord Cobham, and Sir Francis Walsing- 
ham, kt. 

[Masters's Corpus Christi Coll. ed. Lamb; 
Pacata Hiberniae, p. 252; Cooper's Athense Can- 
tabr. ii. 241, 550; Ames's Typogr. Antiq. (Her- 
bert), p. 1243; Dep.-Keeper's Eecords, 4th Rep., 
App. ii. 172 ; Addit. MS. 5873, f. 19.] T. C. 

IVE, STMOX (1600-1662), musician, bap- 
tised at Ware in Hertfordshire 20 July 1600, 
was lay vicar of St. Paul's Cathedral until 



about 1653, after which he gave lessons in 
singing. Wood wrote : ' He was excellent at 
the lyra-viol, and improved it by excellent 
inventions.' Upon the Restoration Ive was 
installed as eighth minor prebendary of St. 
Paul's (1661). He died^at Newgate^Street, in 
the parish of Christchurch, London," on 1 July 
1662, and bequeathed his freehold and other 
property in Southwark and Moorfields to his 
daughter Mary, wife of Joseph Body, citizen 
and joiner. He also left legacies to his son 
Andrew, and to relatives in Hertfordshire 
and Essex. A son, Simon, also a musical com- 
poser, was student of Clare Hall, Cambridge, 
about 1644, and probably died early. 

Ive was chosen by Whitelock to co-operate 
with Henry Lawes [q. v.] and William Lawes 
[q. v.] insetting to music Shirley's masque the 
' Triumph of Peace,' which was performed at 
Whitehall in February 1633-4 (ARBER, Sta- 
tioners' Registers, iv. 287). Ive was paid 1001. 
for his share of the work. He also assisted 
Whitelock in the composition of a popular 
corante. Among his vocal compositions are : 
'Si Deus nobiscum,' canon a 3 (in Warren's 
' Collection' and Hullah's 'Vocal Scores,' p. 
154) ; ' Lament and Mourn,' a 3 ; an ' Elegy 
on the Death of William Lawes ' (in Lawes's 
' Choice Psalms,' 1638) : several numbers in 
Playford's ' Select Ayres and Dialogues,' 1669 ; 
catches (in Hilton's ' Catch that catch can,' 
1652 ; Playford's ' Musical Companion,' 1672; 
and Additional MS. 11608, fol. 74 b). His 
instrumental works include twelve pieces in 
' Musick's Recreation on the Lyra-viol,' 1652, 
' Court Ayres,' 1655, and ' Musick's Recrea- 
tion on the Viol, Lyra-way,' 1661 ; seventeen 
fantasias for two basses (in the handwriting 
of J. Jenkins [q. v.], Addit. MS. 31424), and 
fantasias, almain, pavan (Addit. MSS. 17792 
and 31423). He also set the collect of the 
Feast of the Purification to music (CLIFFORD, 
Divine Services). Ive bequeathed a ' set of 
fancies and In Nomines of (his) own com- 
position of four, five, and six parts' to the 
petty canons of St. Paul's, in addition to 
'one chest of violls, of Thomas Aired his 
making, wherein are three tenors, one base, 
and two trebles ; also another base that one 
Muskett his man made.' 

[Hawkins's Hist, of Music, iii. 770; Burney's 
Hist, of Music, iii. 369-79, quoting Whitelock ; 
Diet, of Musicians, 1827. p. 401 ; Grove's Diet, 
of Music, ii. 26 ; Anthony a Wood's manuscript 
notes (Bodleian) ; P. C. C. Registers of Wills, 
Laud, fol. 97; Malcolm's Londinium Redivivum, 
iii. 27.] L. M. M. 

IVE or IVY, WILLIAM (d. 1485), 
theologian, studied at Magdalen College, 
Oxford, and was afterwards a fellow and lec- 
turer in theology there. He was head-master 



Ives 



79 



Ives 



at Winchester College from 1444 to 1454 
{Hist. of the Colleges of Winchester, #c.,p. 51). 
In 1461-2, before which date he had gradu- 
ated D.D.,Ivewas commissary or vice-chan- 
cellor for George Neville, the chancellor of the 
university. A number of documents relating 
to his tenure of this office are printed in the 
' Munimenta Academica ' (ii. 683-4, 693, 
697, 757, Rolls Ser.) On 29 Jan. 1463 he was 
appointed rector of Appleby, Lincolnshire, 
and on 21 July 1464 master of Whitting- 
ton's College at St. Michael Royal, London, 
which post he resigned before 1470 (NEW- 
COURT, Repertorium, i. 493). He was a canon 
residentiary of Salisbury, and on 21 Aug. 1470 
was made chancellor of the diocese. Tanner 
says he was also canon of St. Paul's, and for 
some time held the church of Brikkelworth. 
He was dead by 8 Feb. 1485. 

Ive wrote : 1. ' Praelectiones contra hsere- 
sim fratris Johannis Mylverton.' These lec- 
tures, four in number, were delivered at St. 
Paul's, apparently at the end of 1465. Myl- 
verton was a Carmelite who had defended 
the Mendicant Friars. The first two lectures 
had for their subject ' quod Christ us in per- 
sona sua nunquam proprie mendicavit ' (styled 
by Bale ' De Mendicitate Christ! '). The third 
is ' De Sacerdotio Christi,' and the fourth ' De 
Excellentia Christi.' The manuscript was in 
Bernard's time in the royal library at West- 
minster (Cut. MSS. AnffL, 'MSS. in ^Edibus 
Jacobaeis,' No. 8033). The manuscript does 
not, however, appear in Casley's ' Catalogue 
of the Royal MSS.' thirty years later, and it 
seems to have now disappeared . Tanner gives 
a description of the manuscript. 2. ' Lec- 
tura Oxonii habita 9 Feb. contra mendicita- 
tem Christi.' This appears to have been in 
the same manuscript. Bale also gives, 3. ' In 
Minores Prophetas.' 4. 'De Christi Dominio.' 
6. ' Sermones ad Clerum.' 6. ' Determina- 
tiones.' New College, Oxford, MS. 32 was pre- 
sented by Ive. It contains the commentary 
of Peter Lombard on the Psalms. Ive was 
also the owner of Magd. Coll. Oxford MS. 98. 

[Bale, viii. 31 ; Pits, p. 654 ; Tanner's Bibl, 
Brit.-Hib. p. 447 ; Wood's Hist, and Antiq. Univ 
Qxon. i. 622, 626. The writer has also to thank 
Mr. "Ward, of the British Museum, for an endea- 
vour to trace Ive's manuscript.] C. L. K. 

IVES, EDWARD (d. 1786), surgeon anc 
traveller, served in the navy as surgeon o: 
the Namur in the Mediterranean from 1744 
to 1746, and returned to England in the 
Yarmouth. He was afterwards for some time 
employed by the commissioners for sick anc 
wounded, and from 1753 to 1757 was surgeon 
of the Kent, bearing the flag of Vice-admira 
Charles Wat son [q.v.] as commander- in-chie 



n the East Indies. On the admiral's death 
n August 1757, his own health being some- 
what impaired, he resigned his appointment, 
ind travelled home overland from Bassorah, 
;hrough Baghdad, Mosul, and Aleppo, thence 
>y Cyprus, to Leghorn and Venice, and so 
lome through Germany and Holland, arriving 
nEngland in March 1759. He had no further 
service in the navy, but continued on the half- 
mylist till 1777, when he was superannuated. 
During his later years he resided at Titch- 
leld in Hampshire, dividing his time, appa- 
rently, between literature and farming. He 
died at Bath on 25 Sept. 1786 (Gent. Mag. 
1786, vol. Ivi. pt. ii. p. 908). In 1773 he pub- 
.ished ' A Voyage from England to India in 
she year 1754, and an Historical Narrative 
of the Operations of the Squadron and Army 
in India, under the command of Vice-admiral 
Watson and Colonel Clive, in the years 1755- 
1756-7 ; . . . also a Journey from Persia to 
England by an unusual Route.' Ives's pre- 
sence at many of the transactions which he 
describes and his personal intimacy with 
Watson give his historical narrative an un- 
usual importance, and his accounts of the 
manners and customs of the inhabitants, and 
of the products of the countries he visited, 
are those of an enlightened and acute ob- 
server. Ives married about 1751 Ann, daugh- 
ter of Richard Roy of Titchfield, by whom 
he had issue a daughter, Eliza, and three 
sons, the eldest of whom, Edward Otto, was 
in Bengal at the time of his father's death ; 
the second, Robert Thomas, had just been 
appointed to a writership ; the third, John 
Richard, seems to have been still a child (will 
in Somerset House, 29 March 1780, proved 
in London, 1787). Mention is also made of a 
sister, Gatty Ives. 

[Beyond his own narrative, nothing is known 
of his life, except the bare mention of his ap- 
pointments in the official books preserved in the 
Public Eecord Office.] J. K. L. 

IVES, JEREMIAH (^. 1653-1674), 
general baptist, came of a family afterwards 
connected with Norwich, but originally of 
Bourn, Lincolnshire. Probably he is the 
' brother Ives ' whom Henry Denne [q. v.] 
and Christopher Marriat sought in vain at 
Littlebury, Essex, on 8 Nov. 1653, in order 
' to require satisfaction of him concerning 
his preaching at that place.' He was at 
this time, if Crosby's vague statement may 
be trusted, ' pastor of a baptised congre- 
gation ' which met somewhere in the Old 
Jewry. Crosby says he held this office ' be- 
tween thirty and forty years.' A self-taught 
scholar, he exercised his remarkable contro- 
versial powers in defence of adult baptism. 



Ives 



Ives 



and against quakers and Sabbatarians. For 
a time he shared the quaker objection to oath- 
taking. For refusing in January 1661 the 
oath of allegiance he was thrown into prison 
in London, whence he wrote a letter to two 
of his friends reproaching them for taking the 
oath. After five days' incarceration he took 
the oath himself, and published a book to 

Erove some oaths lawful, though not all. 
ater he held a disputation with a ' Komish 
priest' at the bidding and in presence of 
Charles II. Ives was habited as an anglican 
clergyman, but his opponent, finding at 
length that he had to deal with ' an ana- 
baptist preacher,' refused to continue the 
argument. Among his own people he was 
highly esteemed. His latest known publi- 
cation is an appendix to a report of dis- 
cussions held on 9 and 16 Oct. 1674, and he 
is supposed to have died in the following 
year. 

He published: 1. 'Infants-baptism Dis- 
proved,' &c., 1655, 4to (in answer to Alex- 
ander Kellie). 2. ' The Quakers Quaking,' 
&c., 1656 ? (answered by James Nayler [q.v.] 
in ' Weaknes above Wickednes,' &c., 1656, 
4to). 3. ' Innocency above Impudency,' &c., 
1656, 4to (reply to Nayler). 4. ' Confidence 
Questioned,' &c., 1658, 4to (against Thomas 
Willes). 5. ' Confidence Encountred ; or, 
a Vindication of the Lawfulness of Preaching 
without Ordination,' &c., 1658, 4to (answer 
to Willes). 6. ' Saturday no Sabbath,' &c., 
1659, 12mo (account of his discussions with 
Peter Chamberlen, M.D. [q. v.], Thomas 
Tillam, and Coppinger). 7. ' Eighteen Ques- 
tions,' &c., 1659, 4to (on government). 

8. ' The Great Case of Conscience opened 
. . . about . . . Swearing,' &c., 1660, 4to. 

9. ' A Contention for Truth,' &c., 1672, 4to 
(two discussions with Thomas Danson [q.v.]). 

10. 'A Sober Request,' &c., 1674 (broadside; 
answered by William Penn). 11. 'William 
Penn's Confutation of a Quaker,' &c., 1674 ? 
(answered in William Shewen's ' William 
Penn and the Quaker in Unity,' &c., 1674, 
4to). 12. ' Some Reflections,' &c., appended 
to Thomas Plant's 'A Contest for Chris- 
tianity,' &c., 1674, 8vo. The British Mu- 
seum Catalogue suggests that Ives wrote 
' Strength-weakness ; or, the Burning Bush 
not consumed ... by J. J.,' &c., 1655, 4to. 

[Sewel's Hist, of the Quakers, 1725, pp. 504 
sq. ; Crosby's Hist, of the Baptists, 1739 ii. 
308, 1740 iv. 247 sq.; Wilson's Diss. Churches 
of London, 1808, ii. 302, 444 sq.; Ivimey's Hist, 
of Engl. Baptists, 1814, ii. 603 sq. ; Wood's Hist, 
of Gen. Baptists, 1847, p. 140 ; Records of Fen- 
stanton (Hanserd Knollys Society), 1854, xxvi. 
77 ; Smith's Bibliotheca Anti-Quakeriana, 1873, 
pp. 243 sq., 362.J A. G. 



IVES, JOHN (1751-1776), Suffolk herald 
extraordinary, born at Great Yarmouth in 
1751, was the only son of John Ives, an opu- 
lent merchant of that town, by Mary, daugh- 
ter of John Hannot. He was educated in. 
the free school of Norwich, and was subse- 
quently entered at Caius College, Cambridge, 
where he did not long reside. Returning 
to Yarmouth, he became acquainted with 
' honest Tom Martin' of Palgrave, from whom 
he derived a taste for antiquarian studies. 
He was elected F.S.A. in 1771, and F.R.S. 
in 1772. His first attempt at antiquarian 
publication was by the issuing of proposals, 
anonymously, in 1771, for printing ' The His- 
tory and Antiquities of the Hundred of 
Lothingland in the County of Suffolk,' for 
which several arms and monuments were en- 
graved from his own drawings. The work 
never appeared, but a manuscript copy of it 
is preserved in the British Museum (Addit. 
MS. 19098). His next performance was 'A 
True Copy of the Register of Baptisms and 
Burials in ... Yarmouth, for seven year* 
past,' printed at his private press 5 Sept. 
1772. He contributed the preface to Henry 
Swinden's ' History and Antiquities of Great 
Yarmouth,' 1772." Swinden, who was a 
schoolmaster, was an intimate friend of Ives r 
who not only rendered him pecuniary as- 
sistance when living, but superintended the 
publication of the history for the benefit of 
the author's widow. 

In 1772 he had nine wooden plates cut of 
old Norfolk seals, entitled ' Sigilla antiqua 
Norfolciensia ; ' and a copper-plate portrait of 
Thomas Martin, afterwards prefixed to that 
antiquary's ' History of Thetford,' was en- 
graved at his expense. By favour of the Earl 
of Suffolk, he was in October 1774 appointed 
an honorary member of the College of Arms, 
and created Suffolk herald extraordinary, 
which title was expressly revived for him 
(NOBLE, Hist, of the College of Arms, p. 445). 

In imitation of Horace Walpole (to whom, 
the first number was inscribed), Ives began 
in 1773 to publish 'Select Papers chiefly 
relating to English Antiquities,' from his 
own collection, of which the second number 
was printed in 1774 and a third in 1775. 
Among these are 'Remarks upon our English 
Coins, from the Norman Invasion down to 
the end of the Reign of Queen Elizabeth,' 
by Archbishop Sharp; Sir William Dug- 
dale's ' Directions for the Search of Records, 
and making use of them, in order to an His- 
torical Discourse of the Antiquities of Staf- 
fordshire;' with 'Annals of Gonville and 
Caius College, Cambridge,' and the ' Coro- 
nation of Henry VII and of Queen Elizabeth.' 
In 1774 he published 'Remarks upon the 



Ivie 



81 



Ivimey 



Garianonum of the Romans ; the Scite and 
Remains fixed and described,' London, 8vo, 
with map and plates ; 2nd edit., Yarmouth, 

1803. He died of consumption, 9 June 1776, 
having just entered on his twenty-fifth year, 
and was buried with his father and grand- 
father at Belton, Suffolk, where a monument 
was erected to his memory with a Latin in- 
scription which has been printed by Dawson 
Turner (Sepulchral Reminiscences of a Market 
Town, p. 128). His library was sold by 
auction 3-6 March 1777, including some 
curious manuscripts, chiefly relating to Suf- 
folk and Norfolk, that had belonged to Peter 
Le Neve, Thomas Martin, and Francis Blome- 
field. His coins, medals, ancient paintings, 
and antiquities were sold in February 1777. 
Two portraits of him have been engraved. 
One of them, engraved by P. Audinet from 
a drawing by Perry, is in Nichols's ' Illustra- 
tions of Literature.' 

In August 1773 Ives eloped with Sarah, 
daughter of Wade Kett of Lopham, Norfolk, 
and married her at Lambeth Church, 16 Aug. 
1773. A temporary estrangement from his 
father followed. His wife survived him, and 
married, on 7 June 1796, the Rev. D. Davies, 
B.D., prebendary of Chichester. 

[Memoir by the Eev. Sir John Cullum, bart., 
prefixed to 2nd edit, of Remarks upon the Ga- 
rianonum of the Komans ; Gent. Mag. Ivii. 275, j 
hriii. 575; Granger's Letters (Malcolm), pp. 101, 
296; Lowndes's Bibl. Man. (Bohn), p. 1174; 
Nichols's Illustr. of Lit. iii. 608, 609; Nichols's 
Lit. Anecd. iii. 198, 199, 200, 622, 756, v. 386- 
389, vi. 93 ; Thorpe's Cat. of Ancient MSS. 
<1835),No. 869.] T.C. 

IVIE, EDWARD (1678-1745), Latin 
poet, born in 1678, was admitted a founda- 
tion scholar of Westminster School in 1692, 
and was elected in 1696 to a scholarship at 
Christ Church, Oxford, where he graduated 
B.A. in 1700 and M.A. in 1702. After 
taking orders he was appointed chaplain to 
Dr. Smalridge, bishop of Bristol. He was 
instituted on 27 March 1717 to the vicarage 
of Floore, Northamptonshire, where he died 
on 11 June 1745, aged 67. 

He was well known to scholars by his 
* Epicteti Enchiridion, Latinisversibus adum- 
bratum,' Oxford, 1715, 8vo; 1723, 8vo; re- 
printed, with Simpson's ' Epictetus,' Oxford, 

1804, 8vo, which was undertaken on the 
idvice of Bishop Smalridge, to whom it is 
ledicated. Ivie also contributed 'Articuli 

5 acis,' a poem, to the ' Examen Poeticum,' 

698. 

[Gent. Mag. xv. 332 ; Baker's Northampton- 
lire, i. 157; Welch's Alumni Westmon. (Philli- 
ore), pp. 222, 231; Cat. of Oxford Graduates; 
owndes's Bibl. Man. (Bohn), p. 745.] T. C. 

VOL. XXIX. 



IVIMEY, JOSEPH (1773-1834), baptist 
minister and historian, eldest of eight chil- 
dren of Charles Ivimey (d. 24 Oct. 1820) by 
his wife Sarah Tilly (d. 1830), was born at 
Ringwood, Hampshire, on 22 May 1773. 
His father was a tailor, of spendthrift habits. 
Ivimey was brought up under Arian influ- 
ences, but his convictions led him towards 
the Calvinistic baptists, and on 16 Sept. 
1790 he received adult baptism from John 
Saffery at Wimborne, Dorsetshire. He fol- 
lowed his father's trade at Lymington, 
Hampshire, whither he removed on 4 June 
1791. In April 1793 he sought employment 
in London ; he finally left Lymington in 
1794 for Portsea, Hampshire. Here he be- 
came an itinerant preacher, visiting in this 
capacity many towns in the district. Early 
in 1803 he was recognised as a minister, and 
settled as assistant to one Lovegrove at 
Wallingford, Berkshire. He was chosen 
pastor of the particular baptist church, Eagle 
Street, Holborn, on 21 Oct. 1804, and was or- 
dained on 16 Jan. 1805. From 1812 he acted 
on the committee of the Baptist Missionary 
Society. On 19 April 1814 the Baptist So- 
ciety for Promoting the Gospel in Ireland 
was formed. Ivimey was the first secretary 
(an honorary office) ; he visited Ireland in 
May 1814, and retained the secretaryship till 
3 Oct. 1833. In 181 7, and again in 1819, he 
made missionary journeys to the Channel 
islands. At Portsea, on 18 Aug. 1820, his 
father and mother received adult baptism at 
his hands. He was a conscientious minister, 
but his strictness caused in 1827 a secession 
of some fifty or sixty members from his 
church. His views on religious liberty were 
not equal to the strain of Roman catholic 
emancipation ; on this ground he had opposed 
the repeal of the Test and Corporation Acts, 
and at length separated himself from the 
' three denominations,' after their meeting at 
Dr. Williams's Library on 20 Jan. 1829, to 
promote the emancipation of Roman catho- 
lics. He warmly advocated the abolition 
of colonial slavery ; and, to commemorate 
the abolition, foundation-stones of Sunday- 
school premises and almshouses, in connec- 
tion with Eagle Street Church, were laid on 
12 Nov. 1833. Ivimey died on 8 Feb. 1834, 
and was buried on 15 Feb. at Bunhill Fields. 
A tablet to his memory was placed in the 
boys' schoolroom at Eagle Street. He mar- 
ried, first, on 7 July 1795, Sarah Bramble 
(d. 1806), by whom he had two sons and 
four daughters : a son and daughter survived 
him ; secondly, on 7 Jan. 1808, Anne Price 
(d. 22 Jan. 1820), a widow (whose maiden 
name was Spence) with three children : by 
her he had no issue. 

o 



Ivo 82 



Ivory 



Ivitney was a rapid -writer, and from 1808, 
when he began to publish, a very prolific 
one. His historical account of English bap- 
tists was projected in 1809, primarily with a 
biographical aim. The work swelled to four 
volumes 8vo (1811-30), and contains a great 
deal of information, to be used with caution. 
George Gould [q. v.] has severely criticised 
its ' blunders and contradictions,' asserting 
that Ivimey is apt to get into ' a maze of 
mistakes ' except when he follows Crosby. 

Other of his publications are: 1. 'The 
History of Hannah,' c., 1808, 12mo. 2. ' A 
Brief Sketch of the History of Dissenters,' 
&c., 1810, 12mo. 3. 'A Plea for the Protestant 
Canon of Scripture,' &c., 1825, 8vo. 4. 'The 
Life of Mr. John Bunyan,' &c., 1825, 12mo. 
5. ' Communion at the Lord's Table,' &c., 
1826, 8vo (against open communion, in reply 
to Robert Hall). 6. ' Pilgrims of the Nine- 
teenth Century,' &c., 1827, 12mo (intended 
as a continuation of Bunyan's ' Pilgrim's 
Progress '). 7. ' Letters on the Serampore 
Controversy,' &c., 1831, 8vo. 8. 'The 
Triumph of the Bible in Ireland,' &c., 1832, 
8vo. 9. ' The utter Extinction of Slavery,' 
&c., 1832, 8vo. 10. 'John Milton ; his Life 
and Times,' &c., 1833, 8vo ; republished in 
America. Also many single sermons and 
tracts, including funeral sermons for Wil- 
liam Button and Daniel Humphrey (both 
1821) ; memoirs of Caleb Vernon (1811), 
"William Fox of the Sunday School Society 
(1831), and William Kiffin (1833) ; and anti- 
papal pamphlets (1819, 1828, 1829). He 
contributed to the ' Baptist Magazine ' from 
1809, using generally the signature ' Iota ; ' 
from 1812 he was one of the editors. He 
edited, among other works, the 4th edition, 
1827, 12mo, of 'Persecution for Religion,' by 
Thomas Helwys [q. v.], originally published 
1615; Bunyan's 'Pilgrim's Progress . . . with 
. . . Notes,' &c., 1821, 12mo, and the 1692 
'Life of ... John Bunyan,' &c., 1832, 12mo. 

[Memoir, by George Pritchard, 1835; Monthly 
Repository, 1829, pp. 426 sq. ;] Gould's Open Com- 
munion, 1860, pp. xcvii sq.] A. G. 

IVO OP GBANTMEsifiL (fl. 1101), crusader. 
[See under HUGH, d. 1094, called of Grant- 
mesnil.] 

IVOR HAEL, or the GENEROUS (d. 1361), 
patron of Welsh literature, and particularly 
of his nephew, the poet Dafydd ap Gwilym 
[q. v.], was lord of Maesaleg (Bassaleg), Y 
Wenallt, and Gwernycleppa in Monmouth- 
shire, being the second son of Llewelyn ab 
Ivor of Tredegar, by Angharad, daughter of 
Sir Morgan ab Meredith. He married Nest, 
daughter of Rhys ab Grono ab Llywarch (his 
elder brother, Morgan, marrying her sister), 



and founded the cadet branch of Gwerny- 
cleppa. He died in 1361, and it is often er- 
roneously stated that he left no issue behind 
him (Sarddoniaeth, ed. Jones, p. vi), but 
he had a long line of descendants, in whose 
possession Gwernycleppa remained until it 
was sold, 15 Oct. 1733, to a descendant of 
Ivor's elder brother, from whom Lord Tre- 
degar claims descent. 

Ivor is the hero of much absurd fiction. 
Dafydd ap Gwilym is said to have fallen in 
love with his daughter, who was sent to a 
nunnery in Anglesey in order to prevent an 
alliance, while Dafydd was still retained in 
Ivor's household as family bard and land 
steward. This story is, however, probably 
based upon a mistaken interpretation of some 
of Dafydd's poems. Under Ivor's patronage 
was held, about 1328, at Gwernycleppa the 
first of the ' three Eisteddfods of the Renas- 
cence 'of Welsh poetry (Tair Eisteddfod Da- 
deni). 

At least nine poems were addressed by 
Dafydd ap Gwilym to Ivor and members of 
his family, and the same poet wrote elegies 
on the death of Ivor and Nest, his wife. 

[Clark's Genealogies of Glamorgan, pp. 310, 
329 ; Barddoniaeth Dafydd ap Gwilym, ed. Jones, 
Introduction; Llenddiaeth y Cymry, byGweirydd. 
ab Khys.] D. LL. T. 

IVORY, SAETC (d. 500?). [See IBHAK. 
or IBEBIUS.] 

IVORY, SIK JAMES (1765-1842), mathe- 
matician, born in Dundee in 1765, was the 
eldest son of James Ivory, a watchmaker there. 
At the age of fourteen he matriculated at St. 
Andrews University, and after six years' study 
with a view to becoming a minister of the 
Scottish Church, went to Edinburgh to com- 
plete his theological course, accompanied by 
John (afterwards Sir John) Leslie (1766- 
1832) [q. T.], a fellow-student at Aberdeen, 
who like himself had already evinced a strong 
mathematical bias. Ivory returned to Dundee 
in 1786, and for three years taught in the 
principal school, introducing the study of 
algebra, and raising the standard of general 
instruction. He afterwards joined in starting 
a flax-spinning mill at Douglastown, on the 
Carbet, near Forfar, and acted as managing 
partner. Ivory devoted all his leisure to ma- 
thematical work, especially to analysis as it 
was then taught on the continent, and Henry 
Brougham, at the time a young advocate, cul- 
tivated his acquaintance, and visited him at 
Brigton, near the flax-factory, when on his 
way to the Aberdeen circuit. Four mathe- 
matical papers of his, the first dated 7 Nov. 
1796, were read to the Royal Society of Edin- 



Ivory 



burgh at this time, on rectifying the ellipse, 
solution of a cubic, and of Kepler's problem, 
&c. (Edinb. Roy. Soc. Trans, iv. 177-90, v. 
20-2, 99-118, 203-46). 

The flax-spinning partnership was dissolved 
in 1804, and soon afterwards Ivory was ap- 
pointed professor of mathematics in the Royal 
Military College, then at Marlow, Bucking- 
hamshire, and subsequently removed to Sand- 
hurst. His work at the Royal Military Col- 
lege was thorough and successful, though the 
higher parts of the science were considered by 
some to absorb too much of his attention. He 
prepared an edition of Euclid's ' Elements ' for 
military students, which simplified the geo- 
metrical treatment of proportion and solids. 
Resigning his professorship in 1819, he was 
allowed the full retiring pension, although 
his period of office was shorter than the rule 
required. 

Ivory's skill in applying the infinitesimal 
calculus to physical investigations gave him 
a place beside Laplace, Lagrange, and Le- 
gendre. In 1809 Ivory read his first paper 
to the Royal Society, enouncing a theorem 
which has since borne his name, and which 
completely resolves the problem of attractions 
for all classes of ellipsoids. Ivory's theorem 
was received on the continent ' with respect 
and admiration.' He received three gold 
medals from the Royal Society, of which he 
was elected fellow in 1815: viz. the Copley, 
in 1814, after showing a new method of deter- 
mining a comet's orbit ; the royal medal, in 
1826, for a paper on refractions, which was 
acknowledged by Laplace to evince masterly 
skill in analysis ; and the royal medal a 
second time in 1839, for his ' Theory of As- 
tronomical Refractions,' which formed the 
Bakerian lecture of 1838. Fifteen papers 
by Ivory are printed in the 'Philosophical 
Transactions.' All are characterised by clear- 
ness and elegance in the methods employed 
(Phil. Trans. 1812, 1814, 1822, 1824, 1831, 
1832, 1833, 1838, 1842; TILLOCH, Phil. Mag. 
1821, &c. ; Quarterly Journal of Science, 1822, 
&c.) 

In 1831, on the recommendation of Lord 
Brougham, then lord chancellor, Ivory re- 
ceived the honour of knighthood, in company 
with Herschel and Brewster, and his civil 
list pension was at the same time raised to 
300J. a year. Ivory was elected member of 
the Royal Academy of Sciences of France, 
the Royal Academy of Berlin, and the Royal 
Society of Gottingen. 

In 1829 he made an offer of his scientific 
library to the corporation of Dundee, his 
native town, and as there was then no public 
building suitable for the purpose, James, lord 
Ivory [q. v.], his nephew and heir, kept the 



3 Ivory 

books in his own collection, until his death 
in 1866, when they became part of the Dun- 
dee public library in the Albert Institute. 
Ivory died unmarried at Hampstead, London, 
on 21 Sept. 1842. 

[Nome's Dundee Celebrities, p. 70 ; Weld's 
Hist. Koy. Soc. pp. 570, 573 ; private informa- 
tion.] K. E. A. 

IVORY, JAMES, LOED IVORY (1792- 
1866), Scottish judge, son of Thomas Ivory, 
watchmaker and engraver, was born in Dun- 
dee in 1792. Sir James Ivory [q. v.] the 
mathematician was his uncle. After at- 
tending the Dundee academy he studied for 
the legal profession at Edinburgh University, 
was admitted a member of the Faculty of 
Advocates in 1816, and in that year was en- 
rolled as a burgess of his native town. When, 
in 1819, the select committee of the House of 
Commons was engaged in making inquiries 
into the state of the Scottish burghs, Ivory 
was examined with reference to the municipal 
condition of Dundee, and strongly advocated 
the abolition of self-election, which was then 
prevalent in the town councils of Scotland, 
and continued in force till 1833. Ivory was 
chosen advocate-depute by Francis Jeffrey, 
lord advocate, in 1830; two years afterwards 
he was appointed sheriff of Caithness, and 
in 1833 was transferred to a similar office in 
Buteshire. He was solicitor-general of Scot- 
land under Lord Melbourne's ministry in 
1839, was made a lord-ordinary of session in 
the following year, and sat as j udge in the 
court of exchequer. In 1 849 he was appointed 
a lord of justiciary (taking the title of Lord 
Ivory), and served both in the court of ses- 
sion and the high court of justiciary until his 
retirement in October 1862. For several years 
before that date he was the senior judge of 
both courts. Ivory died at Edinburgh on 
18 Oct. 1866. He married, in 1817, a daugh- 
ter of Alexander Lawrie, deputy gazette 
writer for Scotland. His eldest son, William 
Ivory, has long been sheriff of Inverness-shire. 

As a lawyer Ivory was distinguished by 
the subtlety of his reasoning, his minute- 
ness of detail, and profound erudition. He 
was not a fluent orator, but in the early part 
of his career, when legal argument was con- 
ducted in writing, he obtained a high repu- 
tation. 

[Millar's Eoll of Eminent Burgesses of Dun- 
dee, p. 249 ; Norrie's Dundee Celebrities, p. 273 ; 
Dundee Advertiser, 19 Oct. 1866.] A. H. M. 

IVORY, THOMAS (1709-1779), archi- 
tect, practised his profession in Norwich. He 
was admitted a freeman of the town as a car- 
penter 21 Sept. 1745. He lived in the parish 



Ivory 



8 4 



Izacke 



of St. Helen. At Norwich he designed the 
assembly house (1754), afterwards used as 
the Freemasons' Hall (lithograph by James 
Sillett of Norwich ; view on King's map of 
Norwich, 1766 ; on reduced scale in BOOTH, 
Norwich, 1768, frontispiece); the Octagon 
Chapel in Colegate Street (1754-6), a hand- 
some building in the Corinthian style (views, 
Sillett, King, and Booth, as above) ; and the 
theatre (1757), called Concert Hall before 
1764, of which he is said to have been the 
proprietor. The interior of the last was a 
copy of the old Drury Lane Theatre, and 
Ivory is said to have been assisted in his 
design by Sir James Burrough (1691-1764) 
[q. v.] (view on King's map of Norwich; 
BOOTH, ii. 13). He obtained a license for his 
company of players to perform in Norwich 
in 1768, and in the same year ' Mr. Ivory 
of Northwitch' sent competition drawings 
for the erection of the Royal Exchange in 
Dublin (MTTLVAXY, Life of Gandon, p. 30). 
Ivory is also said to have designed the Nor- 
folk and Norwich Hospital. He died at 
Norwich on 28 Aug. 1779. His widow died 
on 18 June 1787, aged 80. A handsome 
monument to their memory is in the cathedral. 
In his will Ivory is described as ' builder and 
timber merchant.' Of his two sons, Thomas 
was in the revenue office, Fort William, j 
Bengal, and William, architect and builder j 
in Norwich, erected a pew in St. Helen's | 
Church in 1780, and died in King Edward VI 
Almsliouses, Saffron Walden, on 11 Dec. 1837, 
aged 90. 

[Redgrave's Diet, of Artists ; Diet, of Architec- 
ture ; Browne's Norwich, 1814, pp. 47, 49, 124, 
149 ; Woodward's Norfolk Topographer's Manual, 
pp. 110, 113, 114; Booth's Norwich, ii. 602; 
Stacy's Norwich, p. 94 ; Gough's Brit. Topogr. ii. 
13; Architectural Mag. 1837, p. 96; Probate 
Eegistry, Norwich ; information from the Eev. 
Albert J. Porter, T. E. Tallack, esq., and Lionel 
Cust, esq.] B. P. 

IVORY, THOMAS (d. 1786), architect, 
is said to have been self-educated. He prac- 
tised in Dublin, and was appointed master 
of architectural drawing in the schools of the 
Royal Dublin Society in 1759. He held the 
post till his death, and among his pupils was 
Sir Martin Archer Shee [q. v.] In 1765 he 
prepared designs (plate in Gent. Mag. 1786, 
fig. i. p. 217) and an estimate for additional 
buildings to the society's premises in Shaw's 
Court, but these were not executed. Ivory's 
principal work was the King's Hospital in 
Blackball Place (commonly known as the 
Blue Coat Hospital), a handsome building in 
the classic style. The first stone was laid on 
16 June 1773, but from want of funds the 
central cupola has never been finished. The 



chapel and board-room are especially beauti- 
ful ; in the latter some of Ivory's drawings of 
the design hung for many years, but are now 
in a dilapidated condition (cf. in AVARBTTRTOX, 
Dublin, i. 564-71 ; thirteen neatly prepared 
drawings, signed Thomas Ivory, 1776, in the 
King's Library; plate, with cupola and steeple 
as intended, in MALTOST , Dublin ; elevation of 
east front in POOL and CASH, Dublin, p. 67). 
He designed Lord Newcomen's bank, built 
in 1781, at the corner of Castle Street and 
Cork Street (Gent. Mag. 1788, fig. iii. p. 
1069). The building is now the public health 
office. The Hibernian Marine School, usually 
attributed to him, was probably the work of 
T. Cooley [q. v.] He made a drawing of 
Lord Charlemont's Casino at Marino, near 
Dublin (designed by Sir W. Chambers), which 
was engraved by E. Rooker. Ivory died in 
Dublin in December 1786. In the board- 
room of the King's Hospital is a picture (as- 
signed to 1775) representing Ivory and eight 
others sitting at or standing round a table 
on which a^ e spread plans of the new build- 
ing. 

[Redgrave's Diet, of Artists (in which Ivory 
is erroneously called James) ; Diet, of Architec- 
ture ; Bye-Laws and Ordinances of the Dublin 
Society, p. 12; Gilbert's Hist, of Dublin, i. 26, 
ii. 301-2, iii. 222 ; Warburton, Whitelaw, and 
Walsh's Hist, of Dublin, i. 566-7; Pasqnin's 
Artists of Ireland; Hibernian Mag. 1786, p. 672; 
Herbert's Irish Varieties, pp. 57, 63 ; informa- 
tion from G. E. Armstrong, esq., King's Hospital, 
Dublin.] B. P. 

IZACKE, RICHARD (1624 P-1700 ?), 
antiquary, born about 1624, was the eldest 
son of Samuel Izacke of Exeter, and appa- 
rently a member of the Inner Temple (1617). 
On 20 April 1641 he was admitted a com- 
moner of Exeter College, Oxford, but left 
the university at the end of the following 
year on account of the civil war. He had 
in the meantime entered himself at the Inner 
Temple (November 1641), and was called to 
the bar in 1650 (CooKE, Inner Temple Stu- 
dents, 1547-1660, pp. 218, 310). In 1653 
he became chamberlain of Exeter, and town- 
clerk about 1682 (WooD, Athenee Oxon. ed. 
Bliss, iv. 489). His father, to whom he had 
behaved badly, left him at his death in 1681 
or 1682 a house in Trinity parish, Exeter, 
and leasehold property in Tipton, Ottery St. 
Mary, on condition of his future good con- 
duct towards his stepmother, brothers, and 
sisters (will registered in P. C. C. 34, Cottle). 
Izacke is stated to have died 'about 1700.' 
By his wife Katherine he had, with other 
issue, a son, Samuel, who also became cham- 
berlain of Exeter. He wrote: 1. 'Anti- 



Jack 



quities of the City of Exeter,' 8vo, London, 
1677 (with different title-page, 1681). Other 
editions, 'improved and continued' by his 
son, Samuel Izacke, were issued in 1723, 
1724, 1731, 1734, and 1741. The book is a 
careless compilation. 2. 'An Alphabetical 
Register of divers Persons, who by their last 
Wills, Grants, . . . and other Deeds, &c., 
have given Tenements, Rents, Annuities, and 
Monies towards the Relief of the Poor of the 



; Jack 

County of Devon and City and County of 
Exon,' 8vo, London, 1736, printed from the 
original manuscript by Samuel Izacke, the 
author's grandson. It was reprinted with 
another title, ' Rights and Priviledges of the 
Freemen of Exeter,' &c., 8vo, London, 1751 
and 1757 ; and enlarged editions were pub- 
lished at Exeter, 1785, 4to, and 1820, 8vo. 

[Cough's British Topography, i. 305; David- 
sou's Bibl. Devon.] G. G. 



JACK, ALEXANDER (1805-1857), 
brigadier, a victim of the Cawnpore massacre, 
was grandson of William Jack, minister of 
Northmavine, Shetland. His father, the Rev. 
William Jack (d. 9 Feb. 1854) (Ml). Edin- 
burgh), was sub-principal of University and 
King's colleges, Aberdeen, 1800-15, and 
principal 1815-54. Principal Jack married 
in 1794 Grace, daughter of Andrew Bolt 
of Lerwick, Shetland, by whom he had six 
children. Alexander, one of four sons, was 
born on 19 Oct. 1805, was a student in 
mathematics and philosophy at King's Col- 
lege, Aberdeen, in 1820-2, and is remem- 
bered by a surviving class-fellow as a tall, 
handsome, soldierly young man. He obtained 
a Bengal cadetship in 1823, was appointed 
ensign in the (late) 30th Bengal native in- 
fantry 23 May 1824, and became lieutenant 
in the regiment 30 Aug. 1825, captain 2 Dec. 
1832, and major and brevet-lieutenant-colo- 
nel 19 June 1846. He was present with his 
battalion at the battle of Aliwal (medal), 
and acted as brigadier of the force sent 
against the town and fort of Kangra in the 
Punjab, when he received great credit for 
his extraordinary exertions in bringing up 
his 18-pouiider guns, which he had been re- 
commended to leave behind. The march was 
said ' to reflect everlasting credit on the Ben- 
gal artillery' (BUCKLE, Hist, of the Bengal 
Art. p. 520). Some views of the place taken 
by Jack were published under the title ' Six 
Sketches of Kot-Kangra, drawn on the spot ' 
(London, 1847, fol.) Jack was in command 
of his battalion in the second Sikh war, in- 
cluding the battles of Chillianwalla and 
Goojerat (medal and clasps and C.B.) He 
was promoted to lieutenant-colonel in the 
(late) 34th Bengal native infantry 18 Dec. 
1851. He became colonel 20 June 1854, and 
on 18 July 1856 was appointed brigadier at 
Cawnpore, the headquarters of Sir Hugh 
Wlieeler's division of the Bengal army. On 
7 June 1857 the mutiny broke out at Cawn- 



pore. Wheeler maintained his position in 
an entrenched camp till the 27th, when an 
attempted evacuation was made in accord- 
ance with an arrangement entered into with 
Nana Sahib. After the troops had embarked 
in boats for Allahabad, the mutineers trea- 
cherously shot down Jack and all the Eng- 
lishmen except four. During the previous 
defence of the lines a brother, Andrew Wil- 
liam Thomas Jack, who was on a visit from 
Australia, had his leg shattered, and suc- 
cumbed under amputation. 

[Information supplied through the courtesy 
of the registrar of Aberdeen University ; East 
Indian Registers and Army Lists ; Buckle's Hist, 
of the Bengal Art. ed. Kaye, London, 1852; 
Kaye'sHist. of the Indian Mutiny, ed. (1888-9) 
Malleson, ii. 217-68 ; Mowbray Thorn son's Story 
of Cawnpore, London, 1859 ; Gent. Mag. 3rd ser. 
iii. 565.] H. M. C. 

JACK, GILBERT, M.D. (1578P-1628), 
metaphysician and medical writer, born in 
Aberdeen about 1578, was son of Andrew 
Jack, merchant. After attending Aberdeen 
grammar school, he became a student in 
Marischal College. By the advice of Robert 
Howie, the principal, Jack proceeded to the 
continent, and studied first at the college of 
Helmstadt, and then at Herborn, where he 
graduated. Attracted by the high reputa- 
tion of the newly founded university of 
Leyden, he enrolled himself a student on 
25 May 1603 (Leyden Students, Index Soc., 
p. 53), and after acting as a private lecturer, 
he became in 1604 professor of philosophy. 
He at the same time diligently prosecuted his 
own studies, particularly in medicine, and 
proceeded M.D. in 1611. His inaugural dis- 
sertation, 'De Epilepsia,' was printed at 
Leyden during the same year. Jack was the 
first who taught metaphysics at Leyden, and 
his lectures gained him such celebrity that 
in 1621 he was offered the Whyte's pro- 
fessorship of moral philosophy at Oxford, 
then lately founded, but he declined it, He 



Jack 



86 



Jackman 



died at Leyden on 17 April 1628, leaving a 
widow and ten children. At his funeral on 
21 April Professor Adolf Vorst pronounced 
an eloquent Latin oration. His portrait ap- 
pears in vol. ii. of Freher's ' Theatrum.' 

Jack published : 1. ' Institutions Physicse,' 
12mo, Leyden, 1614 ; other editions, 1624, 
Amsterdam, 1644. 2. ' Primse Philosophise 
Institutions,' 8vo, Leyden, 1616 ; other edi- 
tions, 1628 and 1640, which he prepared at 
the suggestion of his friend Grotius. 3. ' In- 
stitutiones Medicae,' 12mo, Leyden, 1624; 
another edition, 1631. 

[Paul Freher's Theatrum Virorum Eruditions 
Clarorum, 1688, ii. 1353 ; Vorst's Oratio Fune- 
bris ; Icones ac Vitae Professorum Lugd. Batav. 
1617, pt. ii. pp. 29-30 ; Waller's Imperial Diet. ; 
Evans's Cat. of Engraved Portraits, ii. 216; 
Granger's Biog. Hist, of England, 2nd edit., 
ii. 5 ; Anderson's Scottish Nation.] GK Gr. 

JACK, THOMAS (d. 1598), |cottish 
schoolmaster, was appointed minister of 
Rutherglen in the presbytery of Glasgow, in 
1567, and subsequently became master of 
Glasgow grammar school. In 1570 he was 
presented by James VI to the vicarage of 
Eastwood in the presbytery of Paisley, and 
in August 1 574 resigned his mastership. In 
1577 his name occurs as quaestor of Glasgow 
University, along with the record of his gift 
of the works of St. Ambrose and St. Gregory 
to the university. In 1582 he was an oppo- 
nent of the appointment of Robert Mont- 
gomery as archbishop of Glasgow, and from 
1581 to 1590 he was thrice member of the 
general assemblies, and in 1589 a commis- 
sioner for the preservation of the true re- 
ligion. He was imprisoned before 1591 with 
Dalgleish, Patrick Melville, and others. He 
died in 1598. His widow, Euphemia Wylie, 
survived till 1608, and a daughter, Elizabeth, 
became the wife of Patrick Sharpe, principal of 
Glasgow University. While master of Glas- 
gow grammar school, Jack began a dictionary 
in Latin hexameter verse of proper names oc- 
curring in the classics. Andrew Melville en- 
couraged and helped him ; and he tells us that 
when he called on George Buchanan at Stir- 
ling, the great man interrupted his history of 
Scotland, the sheets of which were lying on 
the table, to correct Jack's book with his 
own hand. Robert Pont, Hadrian Damman, 
and other scholars also gave their aid. The 
dictionary, a work of considerable scholar- 
ship, was finally published as ' Onomasticon 
Poeticum, sive Propriorum quibus in suis 
Monumentis usi sunt veteres poetse, brevis 
descriptio poetica, Thoma lacchseo Caledonio 
Authore. Edinburgi excudebat Robertus 
Waldegrave,' 1592, 4to. 



[M'Crie's Life of Melville, 1824, i. 444, ii. 
365, 478 ; Hew Scott's Fasti Ecclesise Scoticanse, 
vol. ii. pt. i. pp. 78, 210 ; Chambers's Biog. Diet, 
of Eminent Scotsmen, 1869; Tanner's Bibl. 
Brit. p. 426 ; R. Baillie's Letters and Journals, 
iii. 403 ; Wodrow's Collections upon the Lives 
of the Reformers, &c., i. 179, 529.] E. B. 

JACK, WILLIAM (1795-1822),botanist, 
was born at Aberdeen 29 Jan. 1795, and re- 
ceived his early education at that university. 
At sixteen years of age he graduated M.A., 
but an attack of scarlet fever prevented him 
from going to study medicine at Edinburgh. 
He came to London in October 1811, and 
passed his examination as surgeon in the 
next year. Having been appointed surgeon 
in the Bengal medical service, he left for his 
post on his eighteenth birthday. He went 
through the Nepal war in 181415, and after 
further service in other parts of India, he met 
Sir Stamford Raffles at Calcutta in 1818, 
and accompanied him to Sumatra to investi- 
gate the botany of the island. Broken down 
by fatigue and exposure, he embarked for the 
Cape, but died the day following (15 Sept. 
1822). He published some papers on Malayan 
plants in the scarce ' Malayan Miscellanies ' 
(two volumes printed in 1820-1 at Ben- 
coolen), and these were reprinted by Sir 
W. J. Hooker thirteen years later. Jack's 
name is commemorated in the genus Jackia, 
Wallich. 

[Hooker's Comp. Bot. Mag. i. 122; Hooker 
and Thomson's Flora Indica, i. 48.] B. D. J. 

JACKMAN, ISAAC (fl. 1795), journal- 
ist and dramatist, born about the middle 
of the eighteenth century in Dublin, prac- 
tised as an attorney there. He ultimately 
removed to London and wrote for the stage. 
His ' Milesian,' a comic opera, on its produc- 
tion at Drury Lane on 20 March 1777, met 
with an indifferent reception (Biog. Dramat. ; 
GEXEST, Engl. Stage, \. 554). It was pub- 
lished in 1777. ' All the World's a Stage,' 
a farce by Jackman in two acts and in prose, 
was first acted at Drury Lane, 7 April 1777, 
and was frequently revived. Genest (t'6.) 
characterises it as an indifferent piece, which 
met with more success than it deserved. It 
was printed in 1777, and reprinted in Bell's 
' British Theatre ' and other collections. ' The 
Divorce,' ' a moderate farce, well received,' 
produced at Drury Lane 10 Nov. 1781, and 
afterwards twice revived, was printed in 1781 
(ib. vi. 214). ' Hero and Leander,' a burletta 
by Jackman (in two acts, prose and verse), 
was produced ' with the most distinguished 
applause,' says the printed copy, at the 
Royalty Theatre, Goodman's Fields, in 1787. 
Jackman prefixed a long dedication to Phillips 



Jackson * 

Glover of AVispington, Lincolnshire, in the 
shape of a letter on ' Royal and Royalty 
Theatres,' purporting to prove the illegality 
of the opposition of the existing theatres to 
one just opened by Palmer in Wellclose 
Square, Tower Hamlets. Jackman seems to 
be one of two young Irishmen who edited 
the ' Morning Post ' for a few years between 
1786 and 1795, and involved the printer and 
proprietor in several libel cases (Fox BOURNE, 
Hist, of Newspapers ; JOHN TAYLOK, Record 
of my Life, ii. 268). 

[Authorities in text ; Webb's Irish Biography, 
quoting Dublin Univ. Mag.] J. T-T. 

JACKSON, ABRAHAM (1589-1646?), 
divine, born in 1589, was son of a Devon- 
shire clergyman. He matriculated at Oxford 
from Exeter College on 4 Dec. 1607 (Or/. 
Univ. Reg., Oxf. Hist. Soc., vol. ii. pt. ii. p. 
299) ; graduated B.A. in 1611 ; became chap- 
lain to the Lords Harington of Exton, Rut- 
land ; and proceeded M. A. when chaplain of 
Christ Church in 1616 (ib. vol. ii. pt. iii. p. 
303). In 1618 he was lecturer at Chelsea, 
Middlesex. On 18 Sept. 1640 he was ad- 
mitted prebendary of Peterborough (LE 
NEVE, Fasti, ed. Hardy, ii. 546), and appa- 
rently died in 1645-6. 

Jackson wrote : 1. ' Sorrowes Lenitive ; 
an Elegy on the Death of John, Lord Harring- 
ton,' 8vo, London, 1614. In dedicating it 
to Lucy, countess of Bedford, and Lady Anne 
Harington, Jackson observes that he has 
addressed them before in a similar work. 
2. ' God's Call for Man's Heart,' 8vo, London, 
1618. 3. ' The Pious Prentice . . . wherein 
is declared how they that intend to be Pren- 
tices may rightly enter into that calling, 
faithfully abide in it,' &c., 12mo, London, 
1640. 

[Wood's Athense Oxon. ed. Bliss, ii. 267-8 ; 
Bodleian Libr. Cat.] G. G. 

JACKSON, ARTHUR (1593?-1666), 
ejected divine, was born at Little Walding- 
fi'eld, Suffolk, about 1593. He early lost his 
father, a Spanish merchant in London ; his 
mother (whose second husband was Sir T. 
Crooke, bart.) died in Ireland. His uncle 
and guardian, Joseph Jackson of Edmonton, 
Middlesex, sent him to Trinity College, Cam- 
bridge. His tutor was inefficient, but Jack- 
son was studious and obtained his degrees. 
In 1619 he left Cambridge, married, and be- 
came lecturer, and subsequently rector, at St. 
Michael's, "Wood Street, London. He was 
also chaplain to the Clothworkers' Company, 
preaching once a quarter in this capacity at 
Lamb's Chapel, where he celebrated the com- 
munion on a common turn-up table. He 



j Jackson 

declined to read the ' book of sports.' Laud 
remonstrated with him, but, as Jackson was 
' a quiet peaceable man,' took no action 
against him. His parochial diligence was 
exemplary ; he remained amidst his flock 
during the plague of 1624. He accepted the 
rectory of St. Faith's under St. Paul's, vacant 
about 1642 by the sequestration of Jonathan 
Brown, LL.D., dean of Hereford, who died 
in 1643. Under the presbyterian regime Jack- 
son was a member of the first London classis, 
and was on the committee of the London 
provincial assembly. 

He was a strong royalist, signing both of 
the manifestos of January 1648-9 against the 
trial of Charles. In 1651 he got into trouble 
by refusing to give evidence against Chris- 
topher Love [q. v.] The high court of jus- 
tice fined him 50CM., and sent him to the 
Fleet (Baxter says the Tower) for seventeen 
weeks. At the Restoration he waited at the 
head of die city clergy to present a bible to 
Charles ft as he passed through St. Paul's 
Churchyard (in Jackson's parish) on his entry 
into London. He opposed the nonconformist 
vote of thanks for the king's declaration, 
being of opinion that any approbation of pre- 
lacy was contrary to the covenant. In 1661 
he was a commissioner on the presbyterian 
side at the Savoy conference. The Unifor- 
mity Act of 1662 ejected him from his living, 
and Jackson retired to Hadley, Middlesex, 
afterwards removing to his son's house at 
Edmonton. He does not appear to have 
preached in conventicles, but devoted himself 
to exegetical studies. Since his college days 
he had been accustomed to rise at three or 
four o'clock, winter and summer, and would 
spend fourteen, and sometimes sixteen, hours 
a day in study. He died on 5 Aug. 1666, 
aged 73. He married the eldest daughter 
of T. Bownert of Stonebury, Hertfordshire, 
who survived him, and by her he had three 
sons and five daughters. 

Jackson published : 1 . ' Help for the Under- 
standing of the Holy Scripture ; or, Annota- 
tions on the Historicall part of the Old Tes- 
tament,' &c., Cambridge and London, 1643, 
4to ; 2nd vol., 1646, 4to. 2. ' Annotations 
on Job, the Psalms, Proverbs, Ecclesiastes, 
and Song of Solomon,' &c., 1658, 4to, 2 vols. 
Posthumous was : 3. ' Annotations upon 
. . . Isaiah,' &c., 1682, 4to (edited by his son). 

[Memoir by his son, John Jackson, prefixed to 
Annotations upon Isaiah ; Reliquiae Baxterianae, 
1696, i. 67, ii. 284 ; Calamy's Account, 1713, 
pp. 3 sq.; Calamy's Continuation, 1727, i. 7; 
Walker's Sufferings of the Clergy, 1714, ii. 34 ; 
Palmer's Nonconformist's Memorial, 1802, i. 120 
sq. ; Neal's Hist, of the Puritans, 1822, iii. 280, 
325, iv. 374.] A. G. 



Jackson 



88 



Jackson 



JACKSON, ARTHUR HERBERT 
(1852-1881), composer, born in 1852, was a 
student from 1872 of the Royal Academy of 
Music, where he won among other honours 
the Lucas medal for composition, and was 
elected in 1878 a professor of harmony and 
composition. During his short life Jackson 
accomplished work of a high order of merit. 
He died, aged 29, on 27 Sept. 1881. 

His manuscript orchestral compositions 
were : ' Andante and Allegro Giocoso,' pub- 
lished for the piano, 1881 ; overture to the 
' Bride of Abydos ; ' ' Intermezzo ; ' concerto 
for pianoforte and orchestra (played by Miss 
Agnes Zimmermann at the Philharmonic 
Society's concert, 30 June 1880, the piano- 
forte part published in the same year) ; 
violin concerto in E, played by Sainton at 
Cowen's orchestral concert, 4 Dec. 1880. 
For the pianoforte he published : ' Toccata,' 
1874 ; < March ' and ' Waltz,' Brighton, 1878 ; 
'In a boat,' barcarolle, 'Elaine,' 1879; 'An- 
dante con variazione,' 1880 ; ' Capriccio ; ' 
' Gavotte ' and ' Musette,' and ' Song of the 
Stream,' Brighton, 1880 ; three ' Humorous 
Sketches,' 1880 ; and fugue in E,both for four 
hands; three 'Danses Grotesques,' 1881. His 
vocal pieces are: manuscript, two masses for 
male voices; 'Magnificat;' cantata, 'Jason,' 
' The Siren's Song,' for female voices, harp, 
violin, and pianoforte, published 1885 ; ' 'Twas 
when the seas were roaring,' four-part song, 
1882 ; ' O Nightingale,' duet ; and songs : 
' Lullaby,' ' Who knows ? ' ' I meet thee, 
love, again' (1879), 'Pretty little Maid,' 
' The Lost Boat,' 

[Musical Times, xxii. 581 ; Brown's Biogra- 
phical Dictionary, p. 342 ; Athen?eum, 1880, 
p. 2?.] L. M. M. 

JACKSON, CHARLES (1809-1882), 
antiquary, was born 25 July 1809, and came 
of an old Yorkshire family long connected 
with Doncaster, where both his grandfather 
and his father filled the office of mayor. He 
was the third son of the large family of James 
Jackson, banker, by Henrietta Priscilla, se- 
cond daughter of Freeman Bower of Baw- 
try. In 1829 he was admitted of Lincoln's 
Inn, and called to the bar there in 1834, but 
settled as a banker at Doncaster. He was 
treasurer of the borough from 1 838, and trustee 
of numerous institutions, taking a chief share 
in establishing the Doncaster free library. 
He suffered severe losses by the failure of 
Overend, Gurney, & Co. Jackson died at 
Doncaster 1 Dec. 1882. By his marriage 
with a daughter of Hugh Parker of Wood- 
thorpe, Yorkshire, he left four sons and four 
daughters. 

For the Surtees Society Jackson edited, in 



1870, the 'Diary of Abraham de la Pryme, 
the Yorkshire Antiquary;' in 1873 the 
' Autobiography of Mrs. A. Thornton,' &c. ; 
and in 1877 ' Yorkshire Diaries and Auto- 
biographies of the 17th and 18th Centuries.' 
He was engaged at the time of his death in 
editing for the society a memoir of the 
Priestley family. Jackson also contributed 
to the ' Yorkshire Archreological Journal ' a 
paper on Sir Robert Swift and a memoir of 
the Rev. Thomas Broughton, as well as papers 
on local muniments (abstracts of deeds in, 
the possession of Mr. James Montagu of 
Melton-on-the-IIill) and on the Stovin MS. 
His chief work, however, was his ' Doncaster 
Charities, Past and Present,' which was not 
published until 1881 (Worksop, 4to), though 
it was written long before. To it a portrait 
is prefixed. 

[Doncaster Chron. 8 Dec. 1882; Athenaeum, 
16 Dec. 1882 ; Times, 15 Dec. 1882 ; Notes and 
Queries, 6th ser. vi. 500.] J. T-T. 

JACKSON, CYRIL (1746-1819), dean, 
of Christ Church, Oxford, born in Yorkshire 
in 1746, was the elder son of Cyril Jackson, 
M.D. (who lived successively at Halifax,. 
York, and Stamford). Hismotherwas Judith 
Prescot, widow of William Rawson of Jsidd, 
Hall and Bradford, who died in 1745, leaving 
to her the estate and manor of Shipley in 
the parish of Bradford. This property passed, 
to her sons, Cyril and William Jackson(1751 
1815) [q. v.], and afterwards came into the 
hands of John Wilmer Field (BuKKE, Com- 
moners, ii. 47). Some letters to and from the 
father on scientific matters are in Nichols's 
' Illustrations of Literature,' iii. 353-6. He- 
died 17 Dec. 1797, aged 80, and was buried 
at St. Martin's, Stamford, on 22 Dec., his wife 
having previously died on 6 March 1785, at 
the age of sixty-six. 

Cyril was, after some slight teaching at. 
Halifax, admitted into Manchester grammar 
school on 6 Feb. 1755 (cf. Manchester School 
Register, Chetham Soc., i. 62-4). He soon- 
migrated to Westminster School, and in 1760 
became a king's scholar on its foundation. 
Here he was known as one of Dr. William. 
Markham's two favourite pupils, and to his 
master's favour he was partly indebted for his 
success in life. In 1764 he was elected a scholar 
of Trinity College, Cambridge ; but with the 
prospect of a studentship at Christ Church,. 
Oxford, he matriculated there as a commoner 
on 26 June 1764, and the following Christ- 
mas was appointed student. He graduated 
BA. 1768, M.A. 1771, B.D. 1777, and D.D. 
1781. 

When Markham was selected as precep- 
tor to the two eldest sons of George III,. 



Jackson 



8 9 



Jackson 



Jackson became, on his recommendation, 
the sub-preceptor (12 April 1771). From 
this position he was dismissed in 1776, 
when all the other persons holding similar 
places about the princes resigned their 
posts ; but his salary was paid to him for 
some time afterwards. The Duke of York 
told Samuel Rogers that Jackson conscien- 
tiously did his duty (Recollections of Table- 
talk of Rogers, pp. 162-3). John Nicholls 
attributes his removal to the peevishness of 
the Earl of Holdernesse, the governor of the 
prince, and considered i't ' a national cala- 
mity ' (Recollections, i. 393-4). Jackson after- 
wards took holy orders, and from 17 May 
1779 to 1783 held the preachership at Lin- 
coln's Inn. In 1779 he was also created 
canon of Christ Church, Oxford, and in 1783 
became dean, whereupon the Prince of Wales 
wrote a letter of thanks to Fox, expressive 
of his warm admiration and friendship for 
Jackson (Memorials of C. J. Fox, ii. 109). 
Two minor preferments were the rectory of 
Kirkby in Cleveland, to which he was collated 
in 1781, and a prebendal stall in Southwell 
Collegiate Church, which was given to him 
in 1786. 

At Christ Church Jackson soon became 
famous. He possessed a genius for govern- 
ment, and enforced discipline without any 
distinction of persons. He took a large share 
in framing the ' Public Examination Statute,' 
and always impressed upon his undergradu- 
ates the duty of competing for exhibitions 
and prizes. Every day he entertained at 
dinner some six or eight members of the 
foundation, and on his annual travel in some 
part of the United Kingdom took the most 
promising pupil of the year for his companion. 
He was a good botanist and a student of ar- 
chitecture, and under his charge the buildings 
and walks of Christ Church were greatly 
improved. By some he was considered cold 
in his manners and arbitrary in his tone, but 
Polwhele ( Traditions, i. 89) and John James, 
then an undergraduate at Queen's College, 
praise his kindly bearing (Letters ofRadclijfe 
and James, pp. 146-9). C. Kirkpatrick 
Sharpe wrote of him in 1798 as ' a very 
handsome oldish man' (Letters of Sharpe, 
i. 78-9). Copleston highly commended his 
talent in governing and his love of encou- 
raging youth (Letters of Lord Dudley to 
Bishop of Llandaff, p. 192). He declined 
the bishopric of Oxford in 1799 and the 
primacy of Ireland in 1800. When offered 
an English see on a later occasion he is said 
to have remarked : ' Nolo episcopari. Try 
Will [i.e. his brother]; he'll take it.' In 
1809 he resigned his deanery, and retired to 
the Manor House at Felpham, near Bognor, 



in Sussex. Some Latin lines by himself on 
this clerical elysium are in the ' Manchester 
School Register.' He died there on 31 Aug. 
1819. Over his grave in the churchyard i& 
a stone with his name, age, and date of death 
only; but the east window of the church, 
when restored in 1855, was dedicated to his 
memory. An excellent portrait of him by 
Owen hangs in Christ Church hall, and has. 
been engraved by C. Turner. From it was 
executed the statue by Chantrey, which was- 
placed in 1820, at the cost of Jackson's pupils, 
in the north transept of the cathedral. By 
the death of his brother without a will con- 
siderable wealth fell to him, which was sub- 
sequently inherited by his near relation, Cyril 
George Ilutchinson, rector of Batsford in 
Gloucestershire. 

Many illustrious men were under Jackson'a 
charge at Christ Church, among them Can- 
ning, Sir Robert Peel, and Charles Wynn. 
Several letters to and from him are in Par- 
ker's 'Sir R. Peel,' i. 27-8, and in one of 
them Jackson characteristically recommends 
' the last high finish ' of oratory by the con- 
tinual reading of Homer. Abbot, first lord 
Colchester, was his chief friend, and ob- 
tained much political gossip from him. Jack- 
son helped to bring about the removal of 
Addington from the premiership in 1804. 
For some years he kept a diary of his life 
and times, which, with characteristic caution, 
he afterwards destroyed ; but his political 
intrigues are visible in the ' Diaries of the 
first Earl of Malmesbury,' iv. 255-6, 302, 
in Lord Colchester's ' Diary ' (passim), and in 
Dean Pellew's ' Life of Lord Sidmouth,' ii. 
302-4. Jackson was considered to excel in 
Greek scholarship, and about 1802 he and 
the Rev. John Stokes of Christ Church, Ox- 
ford, began printing at the Clarendon press. 
an edition of the history of Herodotus ; but 
it was soon stopped, and almost every copy 
destroyed. The printed sheets are preserved 
at the British Museum (cf. Manchester School 
Register, ii. 272). Parr's not unnatural com- 
ment on him was : ' Stung and tortured as 
he is with literary vanity, he shrinks with, 
timidity from the eye of criticism.' Jackson 
is described under the name of President 
Herbert in R. Plumer Ward's novel of ' De 
Vere,' and a caricature by Dighton, in which 
his stoop is well brought out, depicts him as 
walking with one or two companions. 

[Gent. Mag. 1819 pt. ii. 273, 459-63, 486, 
573, 1820 pt. i. 3-5, 504-5; Notes and Queries, 
2nd ser. xi. 170, 233, 296, 3rd ser. xi. 229-30, 
267, 319, 448, 5th ser. xi. 9, 353, 398, 6th 
ser. vi. 488, vii. 216. viii. 139; Annual Biog. 
1822, vi. 444-6; Spilslmry's Lincoln's Inn, p. 
77; Bell's George Canning, pp. 23-6; Welch's. 



Jackson 



Jackson 



Alumni "Westmonast. (Phillimore), pp. 374,380- 
382, 484, 556-7; Chatham Corresp. ir. 151; 
Manchester School Reg. i. 62-4, 229-30; Quar- 
terly Rev. xxiii. 403 ; G-. V. Cox's Recollections, 
pp. 172-6; Life of Admiral Markham, pp. 13- 
16; Foster's Oxford Reg.] W. P. C. 

JACKSON, FRANCIS JAMES (1770- 
1814), diplomatist, born in December 1770, was 
son of THOMAS JACKSON, D.D. (1745-1797). 
The father, a Westminster scholar, matricu- 
lated at Christ Church, Oxford, in 1763, and 
graduated B.A. 1767, M.A. 1770, B.D. and 
D.D. 1783 (WELCH, Alumni Westmon.) He 
was tutor to the Marquis of Carmarthen, 
afterwards fifth Duke of Leeds ; minister of 
St. Botolph, Aldersgate, until 1796 ; chaplain 
to the king, 1782 ; prebendary of Westmin- 
ster, 1782-92 ; canon residentiary of St. 
Paul's, 1792 ; and rector of Yarlington, So- 
merset. He died at Tunbridge Wells 1 Dec. 
1797. 

Francis James, his eldest son, entered the 
diplomatic service at the early age of sixteen, 
and was secretary of legation from 1789 to 
1 797, first at Berlin, and afterwards at Madrid. 
His letters to the fifth Duke of Leeds during 
this time are among British Museum Addit. 
MSS. 28064-7. He was appointed ambassador 
at Constantinople 23 July 1796, and minister 
plenipotentiary to France on 2 Dec. 1801, after 
Cornwallis had returned from the peace con- 
gress at Amiens [see CORNWALLIS, CHARLES, 
first MARQUIS]. In October 1802 Jackson was 
sent as minister plenipotentiary to Berlin, 
where he married. Except for a brief period, 
when his younger brother George [see JACK- 
SON, SIR GEORGE, 1785-1861] was in tem- 
porary charge, Jackson stayed at Berlin un- 
til the breaking-off of diplomatic relations 
consequent upon the occupation of Hanover 
in 1806. He was employed in 1807 on a spe- 
cial mission to Denmark previous to the i 
bombardment, which he witnessed. After- 
wards, in 1809, he was sent as minister pleni- 
potentiary to Washington on the recall of ' 
DaA'id Montagu Erskine [q.v.], second lord 
Erskine, whose arrangement of the difficulty 
arising out of the conflict between H.M.S. 
Leopard and the U.S. frigate Chesapeake 
in 1807 the British government refused to 
ratify [cf. BERKELEY, GEORGE CRANFIELD]. 
Jackson remained at Washington until the 
rupture between Great Britain and the United 
States in 1811, which ended in the war of 
1812-15. 

Jackson died at Brighton, after a linger- 
ing illness, on 5 Aug. 1814, in the forty-fourth 
year of his age. A number of his diaries and 
letters during the period 1801-10 are included 
in Lady Jackson's ' Diaries and Letters of Sir 
George Jackson.' 



[Welch's Alumni Westmon. 1852 ; Gent. Mag. 
Ixvii. 1075, Ixxxiv. pt. ii. 198; Brit. Mus. Add. 
MSS. under name ; Nelson Desp. vol. iii. ; Lady 
Jackson's Diaries and Letters of Sir George Jack- 
son (London, 1872, 2 vols.) Also Foreign Office 
Papers in Public Record Office, London ; corre- 
spondence under countries and dates ; Haydn's 
Book of Dignities ; Military Auxiliary Expedi- 
tions.] H. M. C. 

JACKSON, afterwards DUCKETT, SIR 
GEORGE (1725-1822), judge-advocate of 
the fleet, born 24 Oct. 1725, was eldest sur- 
viving son of George Jackson of Richmond, 
Yorkshire, by Hannah, seventh daughter of 
William Ward of Guisborough. He entered 
the navy office about 1743, became secretary 
to the navy board in 1758, and second secre- 
tary to the admiralty and judge-advocate on 
11 Nov. 1766. In the last capacity he pre- 
sided at the court-martial on Keppel in 1778. 
Subsequently Palliser was summoned by the 
same tribunal to answer the evidence inci- 
dentally given against him at the court- 
martial on Keppel. No specific charge was 
brought against Palliser. The Duke of Rich- 
mond in the House of Lords (31 March 1779) 
attacked this method of procedure, for which 
Jackson was held responsible. He was called 
before the house and ably defended himself ; 
but the lords passed a resolution which ap- 
peared to censure the admiralty officials, and 
when Lord Sandwich, under whom he had 
worked since 1771, retired from the board, 
Jackson resigned his office of second secre- 
tary 12 June 1782. He retained the judge- 
advocateship, but subsequently declined Pitt's 
offer of the secretaryship of the admiralty. 
From 1762 to 1768 Jackson was M.P. for 
Weymouth'and Melcombe Regis; in 1788 he 
was elected for Colchester, defeating George 
Tierney at a cost of 20,000/., but although 
on that occasion unseated, represented the 
borough from 1790 to 1796. Captain Cook 
the navigator had been, when a boy, in the 
service of Jackson'ssisterat Ayton, andhence 
Jackson was favourable to his schemes, and 
probably influenced Sandwich in his behalf. 
In gratitude Cook, in his first voyage, named 
after him Port Jackson in New South Wales, 
and Point Jackson in New Zealand. Jackson 
obtained in 1766 an act of parliament for 
making the Stort navigable up to Bishop 
Stortford, and saw the work completed in 
1769 (Gent. Mag. 1769, p. 608). On 21 June 
1791 he was created a baronet, and died 
at his house in Upper Grosvenor Street, 
London, on 15 Dec. 1822. He was buried at 
Bishop Stortford. A portrait by Dance and 
a miniature by Copley are in the possession 
of Sir George Duckett, hart. Jackson mar- 
ried, first, his cousin Mary, daughter of Wil- 



Jackson 



9 1 



Jackson 



liam Ward of Guisborough, by whom he left 
three daughters ; secondly, Grace, daughter 
of Gwyn Goldstone of Goldstone, Shropshire 
by Grace, daughter and coheiress of George 
Duckett of Hartham House, "Wiltshire, by 
whom he left surviving a son, George, second 
baronet. In 1797 Jackson assumed the name 
of Duckett by royal license, in accordance 
with the will of his second wife's uncle, 
Thomas Duckett. His reports of the courts- 
martial held on the loss of the Ardent and 
on the lion. William Cornwallis (1744-1819) 
[q. v.] were published in 1780 and 1791 re- 
spectively. He also left a manuscript list, 
drawn up about 1755, of commissioners oi 
the navy from 12 Charles II to 1 George III, 
which was edited by his grandson, Sir George 
Duckett, in 1889. Many of his papers are at 
Hinchinbrook in the possession of the Earl of 
Sandwich. He was very friendly with the 
Pitts, and has been rashly identified with 
Junius (Notes and Queries, 1st ser. i. 172, 
276, 322). 

[Sir George Duckett's Duchetiana, pp. 70, &c. ; 
Jackson's Works ; Annual Eegister ; Haydn's 
Book of Dignities.] W. A. J. A. 

JACKSON, SIR GEORGE (1785-1861), 
diplomatist, born in October 1785, was 
youngest son of Thomas Jackson, D.D. [see 
under his brother, JACKSON, FRANCIS JAMES! 
He was intended for the church, but his father s 
death in December 1797 changed the plans of 
the family, and in 1801 he joined the diplo- 
matic mission to Paris under his brother Fran- 
cis James as an unpaid attache. In October 
1802 he accompanied his brother to Berlin, 
and in 1805 was presented at the Prussian 
court as charge d'affaires, and was sent on 
a special mission to Hesse Cassel. In 1806 
diplomatic relations were broken off" by Great 
Britain in consequence of the occupation of 
Hanover ; but later in the year overtures 
were made by the Prussians for a renewal of 
friendly relations, and when Lord Morpeth 
[see HOWARD, GEORGE, sixth EARL OF CAR- 
LISLE] was sent to conduct the negotia- 
tions at Berlin, Jackson, then a very young 
man, with pleasing manners and a good 
diplomatic training, was sent into the north 
of Germany to pick up what information 
he could. He returned home in February 
1807, with a treaty signed at Memel by 
Lord Hutchinson [see HELY-HUTCHINSON, 
JOHN, second EARL OP DONOUGHMORE], and 
was sent back with the ratification of the 
treaty, and instructions to Hutchinson to 
appoint him charge d'affaires on leaving. 
Diplomatic relations were suspended after the 
treaty of Tilsit, and Jackson returned home 
by way of Copenhagen, bringing with him 



the news of the seizure of the Danish fleet on 
7 Sept. 1807. In 1808-9 he was one of the 
secretaries of legation with the mission under 
John Hookham Frere [q. v.] to the Spanish 
junta, and was subsequently appointed in 
the same capacity to "Washington, where his 
brother Francis James was minister pleni- 
potentiary, but diplomatic relations with the 
United States were broken off before he 
could join. He subsequently did duty with 
the West Kent militia, in which he held a 
captain's commission from 2 July 1809 to 
1812. In 1813 he accompanied Sir Charles 
Stewart (afterwards third marquis of Lon- 
donderry) to Germany ; was present with the 
allied armies in Germany and France during 
the campaigns of 1813-14, and entered Paris 
with them. On the return of the king of 
Prussia to Berlin, Jackson was appointed 
charge d'affaires, with the appointment of 
minister at the Prussian court, and remained 
there until after the battle of Waterloo. In 
1816 he was made secretary of embassy at 
St. Petersburg. In 1822 he was sent by 
Canning on a secret and confidential mission 
to Madrid, and the year after was appointed 
commissioner at Washington, under article 1 
of the treaty of Ghent, for the settlement of 
American claims. This post he filled until 
1827. 

Jackson's later services were in connection 
with the abolition of the slave trade. In 1828 
he was appointed the first commissary judge 
of the mixed commission court at Sierra 
Leone. Afterwards he was chief commis- 
sioner under the convention for the abolition 
of the African slave trade at Rio Janeiro 
from 1832 to 1841, at Surinam from 1841 
to 1845, and at St. Paul de Loando from 1845 
until his retirement on pension, after fifty- 
seven years' service, in 1859. 

Jackson was made a knight-bachelor and 
K.C.H. in 1832, and died at Boulogne, 2 May 
1861, aged 75. He married (1) in 1812 Cor- 
delia, sister of Albany Smith, M.P. for Oke- 
hampton, Devonshire she died in 1853; 
(2), in 1856, at St. Helena, Catherine Char- 
lotte, daughter of Thomas Elliott of Wake- 
field, Yorkshire, who survived him. 

His widow published selections from his 
' Diaries and Letters,' London, 1872, 2 vols. ; 
and a continuation entitled ' Bath Archives/ 
London, 1873, 2 vols. 

[Dod's Knightage, 1861 ; Foreign Office List, 
1861 ; Lady Jackson's publications cited above; 
jent.Mag. 3rd ser. x. 699 ; see also Foreign Office 
Correspondence in Public Kecord Office, London.] 

H. M. C. 

JACKSON, HENRY (1586-1662), divine, 
editor of Hooker's ' Opuscula,' born in 1586 
n St. Mary's parish, Oxford, was the son of 



Jackson c 

Henry Jackson, mercer, and was a ' kinsman ' 
of Anthony a Wood. On 1 Dec. 1 602 he was 
admitted scholar of Corpus Christi College, 
Oxford, ' having for years before been clerk 
of the said house,' and proceeded B. A. 1605, 
M. A. 1608, B.D. 1617. In 1630 he succeeded 
his tutor, Dr. Sebastian Benefield [q. v.], as 
rector of Meysey Hampton, Gloucestershire. 
His death at Meysey Hampton, on 4 June 
1662, is noted by Wood in his diary. Wood, 
who attended the funeral, speaks of Jackson 
as one of the earliest of his learned acquaint- 
ances, and says that ' being delighted in his 
company, he did for the three last yeares of 
his life constantly visit him every summer 'and 
took notes of Jackson's recollections of the 
Oxford of his youth. 

In 1607 Dr. Spenser, president of Corpus 
Christi College, employed Jackson in tran- 
scribing, arranging, and preparing for the 
press ' all Mr. Hooker's remaining written 
papers,' which had come into Spenser's pos- 
session shortly after Hooker's death [see 
HOOKEK, RICHAKD]. Jackson printed at Ox- 
ford in 1612 in 4to Hooker's answer to Walter 
Travers's ' Supplication,' and four sermons in 
separate volumes; of that on justification a 
' corrected and amended ' edition appeared in 

1613. Two sermons on Jude, doubtfully as- 
signed to Hooker, followed, with a long dedi- 
cation by Jackson to George Summaster, in 
the same year. After Spenser's death, in April 

1614, Hooker's papers were taken out of Jack- 
son's custody, but he would seem to have 
supervised the reprints by William Stansby, 
London, of Hooker's ' Works,' in 1618 and 
1622, which included the above-mentioned 
'Opuscula' and the first five books of the 
' Ecclesiastical Polity.' The preface, with 
Stansby's initials, is conjectured to be Jack- 
son's. When Hooker's papers were taken from 
Jackson's care, he was engaged uponan edition 
of the hitherto unpublished eighth book of the 
'Polity,' and complained (December 1612) 
that-the president (Spenser) proposed to put 
his own name to the edition, ' though the re- 
surrection of the book is my work alone ' (' a 
me plane vitae restitutum'). Keble suggests 
that Jackson, aggrieved by Spenser's treat- 
ment, retained his own recension of Hooker's 
work when he delivered up the other papers, 
and that when his library at Meysey Hamp- 
ton was plundered and dispersed by the par- 
liamentarians in 1642, his version of book 
viii., or a copy of it, came into Ussher's 
hands. It is now in the library of Trinity Col- 
lege, Dublin, and has been made the basis of 
the text printed in Keble's editions of Hooker's 
works. 

Besides his editions of Hooker's Sermons, 
Jackson published: 1. WicklifFes Wicket ; 



Jackson 



or a Learned and Godly Treatise of the 
Sacrament, made by John Wickliffe. Set 
forth according to an ancient copie,' Ox- 
ford, 1612, 4to. 2. ' D. Gulielmi Whitakeri 
. . . Responsio ad Gulielmi Rainoldi Refuta- 
tionem, in qua varise controversise accurate 
explicantur Henrico Jacksono Oxoniensi in- 
terprete,' Oppenheim, 1612. 3. 'Orationes 
duodecim cum aliis opusculis,' Oxford, 1614, 
8vo. Jackson's lengthy dedication to Sum- 
master is inserted after the first two ora- 
tions, which had been previously published. 
4. ' Commentarii super 1 Cap. Amos,' Oppen- 
heim, 1615, 8vo, a translation of Benefield's- 
' Commentary upon the first chapter of Amos, 
delivered in twenty-one sermons.' 5. ' Vita 
Th. Lupseti,' printed by Knight in the ap- 
pendix to his ' Colet,' p. 390, from Wood's- 
MSS. in the Ashmolean Museum. Besides 
these printed works Jackson projected editions 
of J. L. Vives's ' De corruptis Artibus ' and 
his ' De tradendis Disciplinis,' and of Abe- 
lard's works. The rifling of his library de- 
stroyed his notes for these works, but Wood 
mentions as extant ' Vita Ciceronis, ex variis 
Autoribus collecta ; ' ' Commentarii in Cice- 
ronis Quaest. Lib. quintum' (both dedicated 
to Benefield) ; translations into Latin of 
works by Fryth, Hooper, and Latimer. Jack- 
son collected the ' testimonies' in honour of 
John Claymond [q. v.] prefixed to Shepgreve's 
' Vita Claymundi,' and translated Plutarch's 
' De morbis Animi et Corporis.' Among 
Wood's MSS. are 'Collectanea H. Jacksoni,' 
regarding the history of the monasteries of 
Gloucester, Malmesbury, and Cirencester. 

[Wood's Fasti, ed. Bliss, passim ; Wood's 
Athense Oxon. ed. Bliss, i. xli, li, iii. 577 and 
passim ; Cooper's Athense Cantabr. ii. 199 ; 
Hooker's Works, Clarendon Press 7th edit.,, 
editor's preface, pp. 28, 31, 51, 52, and passim; 
Catalogues of British Museum and Bodleian 
Libraries.] R. B. 

JACKSON, HENRY (1831-1879), novel- 
ist, born at Boston, Lincolnshire, on 15 April 
1831, was son of a brewer. After attending 
Sleaford and Boston grammar schools, he was 
placed first in a bank, and subsequently in 
his father's brewery. Severe illness left him 
an invalid for life at eighteen, and he devoted 
himself thenceforth to literary work. He 
died at Hampstead on 24 May 1879. 

Jackson's earliest stories were published in 
' Chambers's Journal,' beginning with a brief 
tale called 'A Dead Man's Revenge.' His 
first novel, entitled ' A First Friendship,' was 

Sublished in ' Eraser's Magazine ' while Mr. 
. A. Froude was editor ; it was reissued in 
one volume in 1863. His next novel, ' Gil- 
bert Rugge,' appeared in the same magazine, 
and was published in three volumes in 1866k 



Jackson 



93 



Jackson 



Both novels were reprinted in America, where 
they had alarger circulation than in England. 
In 1871 Jackson published a volume of three 
stories, called ' Hearth Ghosts,' and in 1874 
a novel in three volumes, entitled ' Argus 
Fairbairn,' the only one of his writings to 
which his name is attached. 

[Information from F. Jackson, esq.] G. G. 

JACKSON, JOHN (d. 1689 ?), organist 
and composer, was ' instructor in musick ' at 
Ely in 1669 for one quarter only. He was 
organist of Wells Cathedral in 1676, and 
died at Wells probably in 1689, as adminis- 
tration was granted of his goods to Dorothea, 
his widow, in the December of that year. 

There are printed in Dering's ' Cantica 
Sacra,' second book, 1674, two of Jackson's an- 
thems, ' Set up Thyself ' and ' Let God arise.' 
In Tudway's manuscript collection, vol. ii. 
(Brit. Mus. Harl. MS. 7338), is Jackson's 
solo anthem, ' The Lord said unto my Lord ; ' 
in the choir-books of Wells are a service in 
C, and some single parts of various anthems 
and of a burial service. In the library of 
the Royal College of Music four out of the 
five chants described as ' Welles tunes ' are 
attributed to Jackson, together with the organ 
part of the service in C, and of the anthems, 
'The days of Man,"O Lord, let it be Thy 
pleasure,' ' The Lord said unto my Lord,' ' O 
how amiable,' ' Christ our Passover,' ' Many 
a time ' (a thanksgiving anthem for 9 Sept. 
1683), ' God standeth in the congregation,' 
and ' I said in the cutting off of my days ' (a 
thanksgiving anthem for recovery from a 
dangerous illness). 

[Grove's Diet, of Music, ii. 27 ; Cat. of the Li- 
brary of the Sacred Harmonic Society; Dick- 
son's Ely Cathedral ; P. C. C. Administration 
Acts, December 1689.] L. M. M. 

JACKSON, JOHN (1686-1763), theolo- 
gical writer, eldest son of John Jackson (d. 
1707, aged about 48), rector of Sessay, near 
'Thirsk, North Riding of Yorkshire, was born 
at Sessay on 4 April 1686. His mother's 
maiden name was Ann Revell. Afterpassing 
through Doncaster grammar school he entered 
at Jesus College, Cambridge, in 1702, and 
went into residence at midsummer 1703. He 
studied Hebrew under Simon Ockley. Gra- 
duating B. A. in 1707 he became tutor in the 
family of Simpson, at Renishaw, Derbyshire. 
His father had died rector of Rossington, 
West Riding of Yorkshire, and this pre- 
ferment was conferred on Jackson by the 
corporation of Doncaster on his ordination 
Xdeacon 1708, priest 1710). 

Jackson's mind was turned to contro- 
versial topics by the publication (1712) of 
the ' Scripture Doctrine of the Trinity ' by 



Samuel Clarke (1675-1729) [q. v.] His 
first publication was a series of three letters, 
dated 14 July 1714, by ' A Clergyman of the 
Church of England,' in defence of Clarke's 
position. He corresponded with Clarke, and 
made his personal acquaintance at King's 
Lynn. Jackson's theological writings were 
anonymous ; he acted as a sort of mouth- 
piece for Clarke, who kept in the back- 
ground after promising convocation, in July 
1714, to write no more on the subject of the 
Trinity. Whiston, in a letter to William 
Paul, 30 March 1724, says that ' Dr. Clarke 
has long desisted from putting his name to 
anything against the church, but privately 
assists Mr. Jackson ; yet does he hinder his 
speaking his mind so freely, as he would 
otherwise be disposed to do.' Almost simul- 
taneously with his first defence of Clarke, 
Jackson advocated Hoadly's views on church 
government in his ' Grounds of Civil and 
Ecclesiastical Government,' 1714, 8vo ; 2nd 
edit. 1718. In 1716 he corresponded with 
Clarke and Whiston on the subject of baptism, 
defending infant baptism against Whiston ; 
his ' Memoirs ' contain a previously unpub- 
lished reply to the anti-baptismal argument 
of Thomas Emlyn [q. v.] In 1718 he went 
up to Cambridge for his M.A.; the degree 
was refused on the ground of his writings 
respecting the Trinity. Next year he was 
presented by Nicholas Lechmere (afterwards 
Baron Lechmere [q. v.]), chancellor of the 
duchy of Lancaster, to the confratership of 
Wigston's Hospital, Leicester. Clarke held 
the mastership of the hospital, and recom- 
mended Jackson. The post involved no sub- 
scription, and carried with it the afternoon 
lectureship at St. Martin's, Leicester, for 
which Jackson, who removed from Rossing- 
ton to Leicester, received a license on 30 May 
1720from Edmund Gibson[q.v.], then bishop 
of Lincoln. On 22 Feb. 1722 he was in- 
ducted to the private prebend of Wherwell, 
Hampshire, on the presentation of Sir John 
Fryer; here also no subscription was re- 
quired. The mastership of .Wigston's Hos- 
pital was given to him on Clarke's death 

(1729) by John Manners, third duke of Rut- 
land, chancellor of the duchy of Lancaster. 
Several presentments had previously been 
lodged against him for heretical preaching 
at St. Martin's, and when he wished to con- 
tinue the lectureship after being appointed 
master, the vicar of St. Martin's succeeded 

(1730) in keeping him out of the pulpit by 
somewhat forcible means. In 1730 Hoadly 
offered him a prebend at Salisbury on con- 
dition of subscription, but this he declined, 
for since the publication (1721) of Water- 
land's '.Case of Arian Subscription' he had 



Jackson 



94 



Jackson 



resolved to subscribe no more. He busie 
himself in writing treatises and pampblets 
many of them against the deists. In Septem 
ber 1736 he went to Bath for the benefit o 
a dislocated leg. On 28 Sept. he preache 
at St. James's, Bath, at the curate's request 
Dr.Coney, the incumbent, preached on 12 Oct 
and refused the sacrament to Jackson, on the 
plea that he did not believe the divinity of th 
Saviour. Jackson complained to the bisho 
(John Wynne), who disapproved Coney' 
action. 

Jackson's later years were spent in the 
compilation of his ' Chronological Antiquities 
(1752), a collection of laborious research 
He had projected a critical edition of the 
Greek Testament, but his work was inter- 
rupted by decaying health. He died at Lei 
cester on 12 May 1763. He married, in 1712 
Elizabeth (d. December 1760), daughter o 
John Cowley, collector of excise at Doncas- 
ter, and had twelve children ; his son John 
and three daughters (all married) survivec 
him. 

Apart from his relation to Clarke, Jack- 
son's polemical tracts possess little impor- 
tance. The most notable replies to them are 
by Waterland. Jackson was a pertinacious 
writer, without originality or breadth of cul- 
ture. He had none of the devotion to science 
which distinguished the abler divines of his 
school, and of modern languages he was 
wholly ignorant. He is said to have been 
litigious; but his general disposition was 
amiable and generous. 

He published, besides the tracts already 
mentioned : 1. ' An Examination of Mr. 
Nye's Explication ... of the Divine Unity/ 
&c., 1715, 8vo. 2. ' A Collection of Queries, 
wherein the most material objections . 
against Dr. Clarke . . . are . . . answered,' 
&c., 1716, 8vo. 3. ' A Modest Plea for the 
. . . Scriptural Notion of the Trinity,' &c., 
1719, 8vo. 4. < A Reply to Dr. Waterland's 
Defense,' &c., 1722, 8vo (by ' A Clergyman in 
the Country'). 5. 'The Duty of Subjects 
towards their Governors,' &c., 1723, 8vo (ser- 
mon, at the camp near Leicester, to Colonel 
Churchill's dragoons). 6. ' Remarks on Dr. 
Waterland's Second Defense,' &c., 1723, 8vo 
(by 'Philalethes Cantabrigiensis'). 7. ' Fur- 
ther Remarks on Dr. Waterland's Further Vin- 
dication of Christ's Divinity,' &c., 1724, 8vo 
(same pseudonym). 8. ' A True Narrative of 
the Controversy concerning the . . . Trinity,' 
&c., 1725, 4to. 9. ' A Defense of Humane 
Liberty,' &c., 1725, 8vo ; 2nd edit. 1730, 8vo. 

10. ' The Duty of a Christian . . . Exposi- 
tion of the Lord's Prayer,' &c., 1728, 12mo. 

11. ' Novatiani Presbyteri Romani Opera,' 
&c., 1728, 8vo (this was criticised by Lard- 



ner, ' Works,' 1815, ii. 57 sq., and led to a 
correspondence with Samuel Crell, the Soci- 
nian critic, published in ( M. Artemonii De- 
fensio Emendationum in Novatiano/ &c., 
1729, 8vo). 12. ' A Vindication of Humane 
Liberty,' &c., 1730, 8vo ; also issued as second 
part of 2nd edit, of No. 9 (against Anthony 
Collins). 13. 'A Plea for Humane Reason/ 
&c., 1730, 8vo (addressed to Edmund Gibson, 
then bishop of London). 14. ' Calumny no 
Conviction/ &c., 1731, 8vo (defence of No. 
15). 15. ' A Defense of the Plea for Humane 
Reason/ &c., 1731, 8vo. 16. ' Some Reflexions 
on Prescience/ &c., 1731, 8vo. 17. ' Remarks 
on ..." Christianity as old as the Crea- 
tion/" &c., 1731, 8vo; continuation, 1733, 
8vo (by ' A Priest of the University of Cam- 
bridge '). 18. ' Memoirs of ... Waterland, 
being a Summary View of the Trinitarian 
Controversy for 20 years, between the Doc- 
tor and a Clergyman in the Country/ &c., 
1731, 8vo. 19. 'The Second Part of the 
Plea for Humane Reason/ &c., 1732, 8vo. 

20. ' The Existence and Unity of God/ &c., 
1734, 8vo (defence of Clarke's proof). 

21. < Christian Liberty asserted/ &c., 1734, 
8vo. 22. ' A Defense of ..." The Exist- 
ence and Unity/" &c., 1735, 8vo (against 
William Law). 23. 'A Dissertation on 
Matter and Spirit/ &c., 1735, 8vo (against 
Andrew Baxter [q. v.]) 24. ' Athanasian 
Forgeries . . . chiefly out of Mr. Whiston's 
Writings/ &c., 1736, 8vo (by ' A Lover of 
Truth and of True Religion ; ' ascribed to 
Jackson, but not certainly his). 25. ' A Nar- 
rative of ... the Rev. Mr. Jackson being 
refused the Sacrament/ &c., 1736, 8vo (see 
above). 26. ' Several Letters ... by W. 
Dudgeon . . . with Mr. Jackson's Answers/ 
&c., 1737, 8vo. 27. ' Some Additional Let- 
ters/ &c., 1737, 8vo. 28. ' A Confutation of 

. Mr. Moore/ &c., 1738, 8vo. 29. 'The 
Belief of a Future State proved to be a Fun- 
damental Article of the Religion of the 
Hebrews, and held by the Philosophers/ 
L745, 8vo (against Warburton). 30. 'A 
Defense of ..." The Belief of a Future 
State/" &c., 1746, 8vo. 31. 'A Farther 
Defense/ &c., 1747, 8vo. 32. A Critical 
nquiry into the Opinions ... of the An- 
;ient Philosophers concerning . . . the Soul/ 
748, 8vo. 33. ' A Treatise on the Improve- 
ments ... in the Art of Criticism/ &c., 
748, 8vo (by ' Philocriticus Cantabrigien- 
is'). 34. ' A Defense of . . . "A Treatise/" 
cc.[1748],8vo. 35. ' Remarks on Dr. Middle- 
on'sFree Enquiry/ &c., 1749, 8vo. 36. 'Chro- 
lological Antiquities ... of the most An- 
ient Kingdoms, from the Creation of the 
World for the space of 5,000 years/1752, 4to, 
~ vols. (this was translated into German). 



Jackson 



95 



Jackson 



[Memoirs of Jackson, with Letters and Ee- 
mains, were published anonymously, 1764, by 
Dr. Sutton of Leicester ; the memoirs are founded 
on particulars given by Jackson the summer 
before his death, and their defects are attributed 
to his failing memory ; Memoirs of Whiston, 
1753, p. 267; Nichols's Lit. Anecd.] A. G-. 

JACKSON, JOHN (/. 1761-1792), ac- 
tor, manager, and dramatist, the son of a 
clergyman who held livings at Keighley, 
Doncaster (?), and Beenham in Berkshire, 
was born in 1742, and was educated for the 
church. On 9 Jan. 1761 (according to Biog. 
Dram, on 9 Oct. 1762, as ' a gentleman ') he 
appeared at the Theatre Royal, Edinburgh, 
as Oroonoko. During the season he played 
Romeo, Osmyn in the 'Mourning Bride,' 
Jaffier, Douglas, Hamlet, Prospero, &c. Hav- 
ing given offence to George Anne Bellamy 
&^. v.], he left the following season for Lon- 
on, and appeared at Drury Lane under Gar- 
rick, 7 Oct. 1762, as Oroonoko. He remained 
at this house two or three years, playing Lord 
Guilford Dudley in ' Lady Jane Gray,' Mo- 
neses in ' Tamerlane,' Southampton in ' Earl 
of Essex,' Sir Richard Vernon in the ' First 
Part of King Henry IV,' Polydore in ' The 
Orphan,' Lysimachus in the ' Rival Queens,' 
&c. About 1765 he was playing at Smock 
Alley Theatre, Dublin, where he married 
Miss Browne, the daughter of an actor in 
the same theatre. She was a pleasing singer, 
and was ' possessed of much merit both in 
tragedy and comedy ' (HITCHCOCK). At Dub- 
lin the pair remained for several seasons, 
? laying very many leading characters. On 
July 1775 Jackson was at the Haymarket 
the original Eldred Durvy in his own tragedy 
of ' Eldred, or the British Freeholder,' which 
had been previously given in Dublin. His 
wife, announced as 'from Dublin,' played 
the heroine. As Juliet, Mrs. Jackson made 
her first appearance at Covent Garden on 
25 Sept. 1775. For her benefit, 1 May 1776, 
' Eldred ' was given here, with Jackson as 
Eldred Durvy. In the two following seasons 
she frequently appears to have assumed cha- 
racters of importance, Juliet, Mariana in 'Ed- 
ward the Black Prince,' Cordelia, &c., Jackson 
being rarely heard of except on the occasion 
of her benefits. On 9 June 1777 he, however, 
played Tony Lumpkin at the Haymarket. 

On 10 Nov. 1781 Jackson, according to his 
own account, purchased the Edinburgh thea- 
tre on advantageous terms from Ross, a former 
manager. Bringing his wife with him, he 
began his management with the ' Suspicious 
Husband,' 1 Dec. 1761. About the middle of 
January 1782 he opened a new theatre which 
he had built in Dunlop Street, Glasgow, 
and this he managed together with that at 



Edinburgh. He seldom played himself; en- 
gaged Miss Farren, Mrs. Siddons, Henderson, 
&c., and seems for some years to have been 
a fairly good manager. His engagement of 
Fennell led to a curious quarrel with the 
Edinburgh lawyers [see FENNELL, JAMES]. 
In 1790-1 he fell into pecuniary difficulties, 
took out sequestration,' and put his estate 
into the hands of trustees. His failure seems 
mainly due to his efforts to work together 
the theatres of Edinburgh, Glasgow, Dundee, 
and Aberdeen. A partnership with Stephen 
Kemble was arranged, and led to prolonged 
litigation, Jackson during 1791-2 being re- 
fused admittance into his own theatre. In 
1801-2 Jackson was again manager in con- 
junction with a Mr. Aickin. Under his ma- 
nagement Henry West Betty appeared in 
1804, and Jackson published a pamphlet 
in his defence entitled ' Strictures upon the 
Merits of Young Roscius,' Glasgow, 1804 r 
8vo. In 1809 Jackson finally retired from 
management. 

During his management he had produced 
his own tragedy of ' Eldred ' (Edinburgh, 
1782), a work of some merit, the authorship 
of which was, however, frequently claimed 
for a Welsh clergyman, who was said to have 
given it to Jackson. ' The British Heroine/ 
an unprinted tragedy by him, was given at 
Covent Garden for the benefit of Mrs. Jack- 
son, 5 May 1778. It had been seen under the 
title of ' Giralda, or the Siege of Harlech,' in 
Dublin a year previously. On the same oc- 
casion was given at Covent Garden ' Tony 
Lumpkin's Ramble,' a piece not assigned to 
Jackson by theatrical authorities, but claimed 
by him when he produced it, 26 July 1780, 
in Edinburgh,with the title ' Tony Lumpkin's 
Rambles through Edinburgh.' ' Sir William 
Wallace of Ellerslie, or the Siege of Dum- 
barton Castle,' a tragedy by him, also un- 
printed, was acted in Edinburgh without 
success. In addition to these works, Jackson 
wrote 'The History of the Scottish Stage/ 
Edinburgh, 1793, a species of apologia, a 
work of no merit and little authority, incor- 
porating a previously published ' statement 
of facts explanatory of Jackson's dispute 
with Stephen Kemble, 8vo, 1792. Jackson 
was eaten up with vanity. He had a good 
person and some judgment, but was an in- 
different performer, having a harsh voice 
and a provincial accent. Churchill, in ' The 
Rosciad/ speaks of him with much severity. 
His death cannot be traced. 

[The full particulars of Jackson's life have not 
been collected ; they have to be gleaned from his 
own History of the Scottish Stage, and from the 
Memoirs of Charles Lee Lewis, 1805, vols. iii. 
and iv. of which are largely occupied with dia- 



9 6 



Jackson 



tribes against him, the outcome of a quarrel. 
Genest's Account of the English Stage, the Bio- 
graphia Dramatiea, Dibdin's Annals of the Edin- 
burgh Stage, the Thespian Dictionary, and Lowe's 
Bibliographical Account of English Theatrical 
Literature, have been freely used.] J. K. 

JACKSON, JOHN (d. 1807), traveller, 
was for at least six years before 1792 a wine 
merchant at 31 Clement's Lane, City. In 
1786 he sent to Richard Gough [q. v.], the 
topographer, a description of Roman remains 
then lately discovered during some excava- 
tions in Lombard Street and Birchin Lane, 
which was printed, with plates, in ' Archeeo- 
logia,' vol. viii. He was made a fellow of 
the Society of Antiquaries, 15 March 1787. 
Some years afterwards he proceeded to India 
on private business ; and on 4 May 1797 left 
Bombay by country ship for Bassora on 
his way home. He proceeded by way of 
the Euphrates and Tigris to Baghdad, and 
thence travelled through Kurdistan, Armo- 
rica, Anatolia, Bulgaria/Wallachia, Transyl- 
vania, reaching Hamburg on 28 Oct. the 
same year. He published an account of his tra- 
vels under the title 'Journey from India to- 
wards England . . ./London, 1799, in which he 
showed that the route he followed was prac- 
ticable all the year round. In 1803 he com- 
municated to the Society of Antiquaries an 
account of some excavations made under his 
directions among the ruins of Carthage and 
at Udena, published in 'Archaeologia,' vol. xv., 
1806. He also wrote 'Reflections on the 
Commerce of the Mediterranean, deduced 
from actual experience during a residence 
on both shores of the Mediterranean Sea . . 
showing the advantages of increasing the 
number of British Consuls, and of holding 
possession of Malta as nearly equal to our 
West Indian trade,' London, 1804, 8vo. He 
died in 1807 (Gent. Mag.) 

[Lowndes's London Directory, 1 789 ; List of the 
Soc. of Antiquaries of London, 1717-96 ; Index 
to Archseologia, vols. i-xxx.; Watt's Bibl. Brit.; 
Gent. Mag. vol. Ixxvii. pt. ii. p. 785.] H. M. C. 

JACKSON, JOHN (1778-1831), portrait- 
painter, born 31 May 1778, was son of a 
tailor at Lastingham in the North Riding 
of Yorkshire, to whom he was apprenticed. 
At an early age he showed a predilection 
for art, and drew portraits of his boyish as- 
sociates. His father, who did not wish to 
lose his services, discouraged such practices. 
In 1797 Jackson is said, however, to have 
offered himself as a painter of miniatures at 
York, and during an itinerant excursion to 
Whitby (whether as painter or tailor does not 
appear) he seems to have been introduced to 
Lord Mulgrave. Lord Mulgrave recommended 



him to the notice of the Earl of Carlisle, 
who gave him the advantage of studying the 
fine collection of pictures at Castle Howard. 
Finally Lord Mulgrave and Sir George Beau- 
mont freed him by purchase from the last 
two years of his apprenticeship. His early 
portraits were in pencil, weakly tinted with 
water-colour, and his first essay in oils was 
a copy of a portrait of George Colman the 
elder, by Sir Joshua Reynolds, lent to him 
by Sir George Beaumont. He had to seek 
the materials in the shop of a local house- 
painter and glazier at Lastingham, and not- 
withstanding their roughness and paucity 
he managed to make so creditable a copy that 
Sir George advised him to go to London, 
promising him 50/. a year during his student- 
ship, and a place at his table (some accounts 
say a room in his house, and HAYDON says 
that the pension came from Lord Mulgrave). 
He arrived in London in 1804, and was ad- 
mitted a student of the Royal Academy in 
the following year, the same year as Wilkie 
and the year after Hay don. The three stu- 
dents soon became fast friends, and Jackson 
generously introduced Haydon to Lord Mul- 
grave, and brought Lord Mulgrave and Sir 
George Beaumont to see Wilkie's picture of 
the ' Village Politicians,' a visit which laid 
the foundation of Wilkie's success. Jackson 
first exhibited at the Royal Academy in 1804, 
sending a portrait of Master H. Robinson. 
In 1806 he exhibited a portrait group of 
Lady Mulgrave and the Hon. Mrs. Phipps, 
and his contributions for several years testi- 
fied to the kind patronage of that family, 
which continued till his death. Although 
the boldness of his effects of colour and 
chiaroscuro did not attract a taste which de- 
lighted in the smooth manner of Lawrence, 
Jackson made a good income by his admir- 
able small portraits in pencil, highly finished 
with water-colour, and he obtained much 
employment in painting and copying por- 
traits for Cadell's 'Portraits of Illustrious 
Persons of the 18th Century.' Though not 
greatly patronised by the aristocracy, he soon 
exhibited portraits of Lady Mary Fitzgerald, 
the Marquis of Huntly, the Marquis of Hart- 
ington, the Archbishop of York, Lord Nor- 
manby, and the Marquis of Buckingham, 
besides more than one of Lord Mulgrave, 
and he painted many of the academicians, 
Northcote, Bone, West, Stothard, Ward, 
Westmacott, Thomson, and Shee, to whom 
he afterwards added Nollekens, Dance, Flax- 
man, Soane, and Chantrey. He was elected 
an associate of the Royal Academy in 1815. 
In 1816 he travelled in Holland and Flan- 
ders with the Hon. General Phipps, making 
sketches, some of which are in the South 



Jackson 

Kensington and British Museums. In the 
following year he was raised to the full 
honours of the Academy, and received a pre- 
mium from the British Institution of 200/. 
In 1819 he went to Rome by way of Geneva, 
Milan, Padua, Venice, Bologna, and Florence. 
Chantrey, who accompanied him, testifies to 
his merit as a companion, ' easy and accom- 
modating to a fault.' At Rome he is said 
to have astonished the Italians by his por- 
trait of Canova, one of his best works, which 
was exhibited at the Royal Academy in 1820, 
and by the rapidity and skill with which he 
copied Titian's ' Sacred and Profane Love ' 
(or a portion of it). He was elected a mem- 
ber of the Roman Academy of St. Luke, and 
in the British Museum are several sketches 
in Italy taken in the course of the tour. 
During the remainder of his life Jackson sent 
yearly to the Academy from five to eight 
portraits, though he does not appear to have 
become fashionable or to have charged more 
than fifty guineas for a portrait. The most 
he made in a single year was probably not 
more than 1,500/., a sum which Lawrence 
once received for one picture that of Lady 
Gower and her child but the list of Jack- 
son's sitters from 1815 to 1830 contains many 
notable names, such as the Duke of York, 
the Dukes of Devonshire and Wellington, 
the Marquis of Chandos, Viscounts Nor- 
manby and Lascelles, Earls Grosvenor, Grey, 
Villiers, and Sheffield, Lords Grenville, Bray- 
brooke, and Dundas, Lady Dover, Ladies 
Georgina Herbert, Caroline Macdonald, Mary 
Howard, and Anne Vernon, and the Hon. 
Mrs. Agar Ellis. He also painted some 
actors and actresses, Listen and Macready (as 
Macbeth), Miss Wilson, and Miss Stephens 
(Countess of Essex). At the Loan Collec- 
tion of National Portraits at South Kensing- 
ton in 1868 were (besides some already men- 
tioned) portraits of James Heath, A.R.A., 
Dr. Wollaston, F.R.S., Dr. Latham, F.R.S., 
president of the Royal College of Physicians, 
James Montgomery the poet, the Rev. Adam 
Clarke, Wesleyan preacher, Sir John Frank- 
lin, the arctic explorer, and Sir John Barrow, 
F.R.S. 

Jackson was a Wesleyan methodist, and 
executed the monthly portrait in the ' Evan- 
gelist Magazine,' the organ of his sect. His 
religious opinions were earnest but gloomy, 
and are said to have ruined his health and 
spirits in his last years, while the low state 
of his finances at his death is partly attri- 
buted to his extravagant generosity in sup- 
port of Wesleyan institutions. That his re- 
ligious opinions were not illiberal is never- 
theless testified by his painting for the church 
of his birthplace (Lastingham) a copy of the 

VOL. XXIX. 



97 



Jackson 



Duke of Wellington's Correggio ' Christ 
in the Garden of Gethsemane ' the figures 
increased to life size. He also gave 50/. in 
order to improve the light about the part of 
the building in which it was placed. 

The death of Sir Thomas Lawrence on 
7 Jan. 1830 might have been expected to give 
Jackson much professional advantage, but his 
health was then declining. On returning 
from Lastingham he caught a cold, which 
was aggravated by a chill caught in attend- 
ing the funeral of his old patron the Earl of 
Mulgrave. He died at his house at St. John's 
Wood, 1 June 1831. His addresses, given in 
the Royal Academy Catalogues, are : 1804, 
Hackley Street; 1806, 32 Haymarket; 1809, 
54 Great Marlborough Street; 1811,7 New- 
man Street, where his painting-room was to 
the last. He married twice. His first wife, 
daughter of a jeweller named Fletcher, died 
in 1817 ; his second wife, daughter of James 
Ward, R.A., survived him with three chil- 
dren. They were left without any resources, 
and the Royal Academy granted a pension 
to the widow. 

As a man Jackson was simple and sincere, 
silent in society, but companionable and 
even lively with one or two friends. As a 
portrait-painter he was wanting in vivacity 
and elevation, but very faithful and vigorous 
in character. Of his female portraits, that 
of Lady Dover is regarded as the finest ; of 
his male, that of Flaxman. This portrait 
and that of Chantrey were commissions from 
Lord Dover, and were intended to form part 
of a series of portraits of famous English ar- 
tists, which was never completed. Sir Thomas 
Lawrence characterised the Flaxman, at the 
Academy dinner of 1827, as ' a grand achieve- 
ment of the English School, and a picture of 
which Vandyck might have felt proud to 
own himself the author.' In execution Jack- 
son was rapid and masterly. Several stories 
are told by Cunningham and others of his 
' marvellous alacrity of hand ' in painting 
portraits and copying the works of others, 
and he excelled as a colourist. ' For subdued 
richness of colour,' says Leslie, ' Lawrence 
never approached him.' 

At the National Gallery is Jackson's por- 
trait of the Rev. William Holwell Carr ; and 
at the National Portrait Gallery, Catherine 
Stephens (Countess of Essex), Sir John 
Soane, his own portrait, and one of John 
Hunter (copied from Reynolds). At the 
South Kensington Museum is another one 
of Earl Grey, besides the six sketches made 
in Holland and Belgium. Among the nu- 
merous drawings by him at the British 
Museum are portraits of Sir David Wilkie, 
Joseph Nollekens, R. A., Alexander, emperor 



Jackson 



9 8 



Jackson 



of Russia, Mrs. Hannah More, and two copies 
(one a sketch in pencil and one highlyfinished 
in water-colour) of Sir Joshua Reynolds'e 
portrait of George Column the elder, already 
referred to. The sketch is inscribed ' The 
first of Sir Joshua's pictures I ever saw, 
13 Jan. 1802.' At the British Museum is 
also a sketch of Lastingham. The Royal 
Academy possesses his diploma picture, ' A 
Jewish Rabbi.' Between 1804 and 1830 (both 
inclusive) Jackson exhibited 146 pictures at 
the Royal Academy, and twenty at the British 
Institution. 

[Redgrave's Diet, of Artists ; Redgraves' 
Century of Painters ; Bryan's Diet. (Graves) ; 
Graves's Diet. ; Library of Fine Arts ; Cunning- 
ham's Lives (Heaton) ; Haydon's Autobiography; 
Cunningham's Life of Wilkie ; European Maga- 
zine, August 1823 ; Annals of the Fine Arts, 1817 ; 
Cat. of Loan Collection of National Portraits at 
South Kensington, 1868; Catalogues of Royal 
Academy, &c.; Gent. Mag. 1831.] C. M. 

JACKSON, JOHN (1769-1845), pugilist, 
known as GENTLEMAN JACKSON, was the son 
of a London builder. He was born in Lon- 
don on 28 Sept. 1769, and appeared only 
three times in the prize-ring. His first public 
fight took place on 9 June 1788 at Smitham 
Bottom, near Croydon, when he defeated 
Fewterel of Birmingham in a contest lasting 
one hour and seven minutes, in the presence 
of the Prince of Wales. He was defeated 
by George (Ingleston) the Brewer at Ingate- 
stone, Essex, on 12 March 1789, owing to a 
heavy fall on the stage, which dislocated his 
ankle and broke the small bone of his leg. 
He offered to finish the battle tied to a chair, 
but this his opponent declined. His third 
and last fight was with Mendoza, whom he 
beat at Hornchurch, Essex, on 15 April 1795, 
in ten minutes and a half. Jackson was 
champion of England from 1795 to 1803, 
when he retired and was succeeded by Jem 
Belcher. After leaving the prize-ring, Jack- 
son established a school at No. 13 Bond 
Street, where he gave instructions in the art 
of self-defence, and was largely patronised 
by the nobility of the day. At the coronation 
of George IV Jackson was employed, with 
eighteen other prizefighters dressed as pages, 
to guard the entrance to Westminster Abbey 
and Hall. He seems, according to the in- 
scription on a mezzotint engraving by C. Tur- 
ner, to have subsequently been landlord of 
the Sun and Punchbowl, Holborn, and of 
the Cock at Sutton. He died on 7 Oct. 1845 
at No. 4 Lower Grosvenor Street West, Lon- 
don, in his seventy-seventh year, and was 
buried in Brompton cemetery, where a co- 
lossal monument was erected by subscription 
to his memory. 



Jackson was a magnificently proportioned 
man. His height was 5 feet 11 inches and 
his weight 14 stone. He was also a fine 
short-distance runner and jumper, and is said 
to have lifted, in the presence of Harvey 
Combe, 10 cwt., and with an 84 Ib. weight 
on his little finger to have written his own 
name (Gent. Mag. 1845, new ser. xxiv. 649). 
Jackson was said to make ' more than a thou- 
sand a year by teaching sparring ' (MooEE, 
Memoirs, ii. 230). Byron, who was one of 
his pupils, had a great regard for him, and 
often walked and drove with him in public. 
It is related that while Byron was at Cam- 
bridge his tutor remonstrated with him on 
; being seen in company so much beneath his 
I rank, and that he replied that Jackson's 
manners were ' infinitely superior to those of 
the fellows of the college whom I meet at the 
high table ' (J. W. CLARK, Cambridge, 1890, 
p. 140). Byron twice alludes to his ' old 
I friend and corporeal pastor and master ' in his 
notes to his poems (BYRON, Poetical Works, 
1885-6, ii. 144, vi. 427), as well as in his 
' Hints from Horace ' (ib. i. 503) : 

And men unpractised in exchanging knocks 
Must go to Jackson ere they dare to box. 

Moore, who accompanied Jackson to a prize- 
fight in December 1818, notes in his diary 
that Jackson's house was ' a very neat esta- 
blishment for a boxer,' and that the respect 
paid to him everywhere was ' highly comical ' 
(Memoirs, ii. 233). A portrait of Jackson, 
from an original painting then in the posses- 
sion of Sir Henry Smythe,bart.,will be found 
in the first volume of Miles's 'Pugilistica' 
(opp. p. 89). There are two mezzotint en- 
gravings by C. Turner. 

[Miles's Pugilistica, 1880, i. 89-102; Fights 
for the Championship, by the Editor of Bell's 
Life, 1855, pp. 15-17; Fistiana, 1868, pp. 40, 
46, 64-5, 82, 134 ; Bell's Life in London, 12 Oct. 
1845; Moore's Life of Byron, 1847, pp. 70, 71, 
206, 271, 342 ; Lord John Russell's Memoirs of 
Moore, 1853, ii. 229, 230, 233, iv. 53, 58, v. 269, 
vi. 72 ; Annual Register, 1845, App. to Chron. 
p. 300 ; Gent. Mag. 1845, new ser. xxiv. 649.] 

G. F. R. B. 

JACKSON, JOHN (1801-1848), wood- 
engraver, was born of humble parentage at 
Ovingham, Northumberland, on 19 April 
1801. His early attempts at drawing at- 
tracted the notice of his neighbours, and in 
the expectation that he might follow the 
example of Thomas Bewick [q. v.], a native 
of the same village, he was apprenticed to 
Messrs. Armstrong & Walker, engravers 
and printers at Newcastle. On the failure 
of their business he was apprenticed to Be- 
wick, and at the close of his apprentice- 



Jackson 



99 



Jackson 



ship came to London. Here he assisted 
"William Hughes to engrave the illustrations 
of Mr. Weare's murder for the ' Observer/ and 
was afterwards employed by James North- 
cote, R.A. [q. v.], to engrave most of his 
well-known series of ' Fables.' Henceforth 
Jackson was one of the first engravers of 
illustrations on wood for popular literature 
or journalism. His work for Charles Knight's 
'Penny Magazine' did much to insure the 
success of the periodical. Jackson also drew 
and painted domestic subjects with some 
success. Some of his drawings were engraved 
in the ' New Sporting Magazine,' and to that 
magazine as well as to Hone's ' Every-day 
Book ' he contributed literary articles. Jack- 
son took a literary and historical, as well as a 
practical interest in his profession as a wood- 
engraver, and continually collected materials 
for a history of wood-engraving. Ultimately 
he and his intimate friend, "William Andrew 
Chatto [q. v.], joined together in bringing out 
the work in 1839. The project was Jack- 
son's ; the subjects were selected by him, 
and he contributed some of the historical 
matter, bore the cost of production, and en- 
graved the illustrations ; some of his best 
work as a wood-engraver is to be found in 
the first edition. The whole was edited and 
brought into shape by Chatto. A dispute fol- 
lowed between Jackson and Chatto as to their 
respective shares in the credit of producing it. 
Jackson died in London of chronic bronchitis 
on 27 March 1848, and was buried in High- 
gate cemetery. He was the father of Mason 
Jackson, the well-known wood-engraver. 
There are good examples of his work in the 
print room at the British Museum, 
rinformation from Mr. Mason Jackson.] 

L. C. 

JACKSON, JOHN (1811-1885), bishop 
successively of Lincoln and of London, the 
son of Henry Jackson of Mansfield, Notting- 
hamshire, and afterwards of London, was 
born in London on 22 Feb. 1811. He was 
educated under Dr. Valpy at Reading, and 
became scholar of Pembroke College, Oxford, 
in 1829. In 1833 he came out in the first 
class in the honour school of lit, human., a 
class which also contained the names of 
Charles John, afterwards Earl Canning, 
Henry George Liddell, afterwards dean of 
Christ Church, Robert Scott, afterwards 
dean of Rochester, and Robert Lowe, after- 
wards Lord Sherbrooke. Jackson remained 
at Oxford a short time after taking his degree, 
and failed in a competition for a fellowship 
at Oriel, but in 1834 was awarded the Eller- 
ton theological prize. In 1835 he was or- 
dained deacon, and began pastoral work as 



a curate at Henley-on-Thames. This he re- 
linquished in 1836 to become head-master of 
the Islington proprietary school. Settled in 
North London, Jackson rapidly won a posi- 
tion as a preacher. As evening lecturer at 
Stoke Newington parish church he delivered 
the sermons on ' The Sinfulness of Little 
Sins,' the most successful of his published 
works. In 1842 he was appointed first in- 
cumbent of St. James's, Muswell Hill, re- 
taining his mastership the while. In 1845 
his university made him one of its select 
preachers, an honour repeated in 1850, 1862, 
and 1 866. In 1 853 Jackson was Boyle lecturer, 
and in the same year, at the suggestion of his 
friend Canon Harvey (to whom the post was 
first offered), he was made vicar of St. James's, 
Piccadilly. There his reputation as a good 
organiser and a thoughtful, if not brilliant, 
preacher steadily grew. He was appointed 
chaplain in ordinary to the queen in 1847, 
and canon of Bristol in 1853. In the same 
year the see of Lincoln fell vacant by the 
death of Dr. Kaye, and Lord Aberdeen asked 
Jackson to fill it. The choice was widely 
approved. Even Samuel Wilberforce thought 
it ' quite a respectable appointment,' which, 
however, had ' turned at the last on a feather's 
weight' (Life, ii. 179). The diocese found in 
Jackson the thorough, methodical, patient 
worker it needed. He welded together the 
counties of Lincoln and Nottingham, galva- 
nised into life the ruridecanal system, stimu- 
lated the educational work of the diocese, 
and raised the tone of its clergy. In con- 
vocation he was active, but rarely spoke 
in the House of Lords. When Tait was 
translated from London to Canterbury in 
1868, Jackson was unexpectedly selected by 
Mr. Disraeli, then prime minister, for the 
vacant see of London. The choice was amply 
vindicated by the results. Jackson, like his 
predecessor, had the mind of a lawyer, and 
was a thorough man of business. Despite 
grave anxieties over ritual prosecutions, he 
achieved much that was valuable. By the 
creation of the diocese of St. Albans, and the 
rearrangement of Rochester and Winchester, 
the diocese of London was made more work- 
able, and towards the end of his life a suf- 
fragan was appointed for the oversight of 
East London. Jackson energetically sup- 
ported the Bishop of London's Fund, encou- 
raged the organisation of lay help, and, after 
much hesitation, created a diocesan confer- 
ence. At first opposed to the ritual move- 
ment, he displayed toleration in his final 
action in the case of A. H. Mackonochie 
[q. v.] He died suddenly on 6 Jan. 1885, 
and was buried in Fulham churchyard. Me- 
thodical in thought and act, Jackson was 

H2 



Jackson 



100 



Jackson 



reserved in manner, but was sympathetic 
nevertheless. Jackson married in 1838 Mary 
Anne Frith, daughter of Henry Browell of 
Kentish Town, by whom he had one son and 
ten daughters. 

Jackson's works were: 1. 'The Sanctify- 
ing Influence of the Holy Spirit is indispen- 
sable to Human Salvation' (Ellerton essay), 
Oxford, 1834. 2. ' Six Sermons on the Lead- 
ing Points of the Christian Character,' Lon- 
don, 1844. 3. ' The Sinfulness of Little Sins,' 
London, 1849. 4. ' Repentance : a Course 
of Sermons,' London, 1851. 5. ' The Wit- 
ness of the Spirit,' London, 1854. 6. ' God's 
Word and Man's Heart,' London, 1864. He 
also wrote the commentary and critical notes 
on the pastoral epistles in ' The Speaker's 
Commentary,' New Testament, vol. iii., Lon- 
don, 1881 ; a preface to Waterland ' On the 
Eucharist,' Oxford, 1868 ; with many sepa- 
rately issued charges and sermons. 

[Times, 7 Jan. 1885 ; Guardian, 7 and 14 Jan. 
1885 ; Eecord, 9 and 16 Jan. 1885 ; Our Bishops 
and Deans, London, 1875, i. 349 ; Life of Samuel 
Wilberforce, London, 1881, ii. 179; Annals of 
the Low Church Party, London, 1888, ii. 154, 
250, 377, 488 ; Honours Reg. of the Univ. of 
Oxford (Oxford, 1883), pp. 135, 136, 175, 222.1 

A. R. B. 

JACKSON, JOHN BAPTIST (1701- 
1780?), wood-engraver, born in 1701, is 
stated to have been a pupil of Elisha Kirkall 
[q. v.], and it has been conjectured that he 
and Kirkall engraved conjointly the anony- 
mous wood-engravings in Croxall's edition of 
' JEsop's Fables.' Some cuts to an edition 
of Dryden's 'Poems' in 1717 bear Jackson's 
initials. About 1726 Jackson went to Paris, 
where he was employed on engraving vig- 
nettes and illustrations for books, working 
under the well-known wood-engraver, Papil- 
lon, who has left a depreciatory notice of 
Jackson as a man and as an artist. Not being 
successful in Paris, Jackson went to Rome 
about 1731, and shortly afterwards removed 
to Venice, where he resided some years. At 
Venice Jackson engraved a fine title-page 
to an Italian translation of Suetonius's ' Lives 
of the Caesars ' (1738), and also devoted him- 
self to a revival of the disused art of engraving 
in colours or chiaroscuro, by the superimposi- 
tion of a number of different blocks. He 
published in 1738 as his first essay, in coloured 
engraving, ' The Descent from the Cross ' 
by Rembrandt, now in the National Gallery, 
but then in the collection of Mr. Joseph 
Smith, the British consul at Venice, who 
patronised and employed Jackson. In 1 745 he 
published a set of seventeen large coloured en- 
gravings from pictures by Titian, Paolo Vero- 
nese, and other Venetian painters, entitled 



'Titiani Vecelii, Pauli Caliari, Jacobi Ro 
busti, et Jacopi de Ponte opera selectiora 
a Joanne Baptista Jackson Anglo ligno 
coelata et coloribus adumbrata.' He also en- 
graved some chiaroscuros after Parmigiano, 
six coloured landscapes after Marco Ricci, and 
a portrait of Algernon Sydney. After twenty 
years on the continent Jackson returned to 
England, and started a manufactory of paper- 
hangings, printed in chiaroscuro, at Batter- 
sea, the first of its kind in England. In 1754 
he published ' An Essay on the Invention of 
Engraving and Printing in Chiaroscuro, as 
practised by Albert Diirer, Hugo di Carpi, &c., 
and the Applications of it to the Making 
Paper-hangings of Taste, Duration, and Ele- 
gance.' Thomas Bewick, writing in his diary 
about 1780, notes that Jackson lived in old 
age at Newcastle-on-Tyne, and died in an 
asylum near the Teviot or on Tweedside. 

[Chatto and Jackson's Hist, of Wood En- 
graving ; Linton's Masters of Wood Engraving ; 
Dodd's manuscript Hist, of English Engravers 
(Brit. Mus. Add. MS. 33402) ; Redgrave's Diet, 
of Artists.] L. C. 

JACKSON, JOHN EDWARD (1805- 
1891), antiquary, born on 12 Nov. 1805, was 
second son of James Jackson, banker, of Don- 
caster, by Henrietta Priscilla, second daugh- 
ter of Freeman Bower. Charles Jackson 
(1809-1882) [q. v.] was a younger brother. 
John matriculated at Oxford from Brasenose 
College on 9 April 1823, graduated B. A. with 
second-class classical honours in 1827, and 
proceeded M.A. in 1830 (FOSTER, Alumni 
Oxon. 1715-1886, ii. 736). In 1845 he be- 
came rector of Leigh Delamere-with-Seving- 
ton, Wiltshire, and in 1846 vicar of Norton 
Coleparle in the same county. He was also 
rural dean and honorary canon of Bristol 
(1855). Jackson, who was F.S.A., was li- 
brarian to the Marquis of Bath, and arranged 
and indexed the bulk of the manuscripts at 
Longleat (Hist. MSS. Comm. 3rd Rep. p. 180, 
4th Rep. p. 227). He died in March 1891. 

Jackson was a careful writer on antiquarian 
topics, and was always ready- to aid fellow- 
students. His works are : 1. ' The History 
of Grittleton, co. Wilts,' 4to, 1843, for Wilts 
Topographical Society. 2. 'A Guide to Far- 
leigh-Hungerford, co. Somerset,' 8vo, Taun- 
ton, 1853 (1860, 1879). 3. ' History of the 
ruined Church of St. Mary Magdalene, Don- 
caster,' 4to, London, 1853. 4. ' Maud Heath's 
Causey,' 4to, Devizes, 1854. 5. ' Murder of 
H. Long, Esq., A.D. 1594,' 8vo, Devizes, 1854. 
6. ' Kingston House, Bradford,' 4to, Devizes, 
1854. 7. 'History and Description of St. 
George's Church at Doncaster,' 4to, Lon- 
don, 1855. 8. ' On the Hungerford Chapels 



Jackson 



101 



Jackson 



in Salisbury Cathedral,' 4to, Devizes, 1855. 
9. ' A List of Wiltshire Sheriffs,' 4to, Devizes, 

1856. 10. ' History of Longleat,'8vo, Devizes, 

1857. 11. 'The History of Kington St. Mi- 
chael, co. Wilts,'4to, Devizes, 1857. 12. ' The 
History of the Priory of Monkton Farley, 
Wilts,' 4to, Devizes, 1857. 13. ' Swindon 
and its Neighbourhood,' 4to, Devizes, 1861. 
14. 'Malmesbury,'4to, Devizes, 1863. 15. 'De- 
vizes/ 4to, Devizes, 1864. 16. ' The Sheriffs' 
Turn, Wilts, A.D. 1439,' 4to, Devizes, 1872. 

Jackson also edited for the Wiltshire Ar- 
chaeological and Natural History Society the 
'Wiltshire Topographical Collection' of John 
Aubrey, 4to, 1862 ; Leland's ' Journey through 
Wiltshire,' 4to (1875 ?) ; and for the Rox- 
burghe Club the ' Glastonbury Inquisition of 
A.D. 1189, called "Liber Henrici de Soliaco,'" 
4to, 1882. He was an active contributor to 
the ' Wiltshire Archaeological Magazine,' in 
which appeared his valuable monographs on 
' Charles, Lord Stourton, and the Murder of 
the Hartgills, January 1557,' 1864 ; ' Ambres- 
bury Monastery,' 1866; ' Ancient Chapels in 
Wilts,' 1867; and 'Rowley, alias Witten- 
ham, co. Wilts,' 1872, reissued separately. 

[Athenaeum, 14 March 1891, p. 352; Crock- 
ford's Clerical Directory, 1890 ; Brit. Mus. Cat. ; 
Foster's Yorkshire Pedigrees, vol. i.] G. G. 

JACKSON, JOHN RICHARDSON 

(1819-1877), engraver, born at Portsmouth 
on 14 Dec. 1819, was second son of E. Jack- 
son, a banker in that town. In 1836 he 
became pupil to Robert Graves, A.R. A. [q. vj, 
from whom he learnt line-engraving. He 
subsequently devoted himself to engraving 
in mezzotint. In 1847 he engraved ' The 
Otter and Salmon' after Sir Edwin Landseer, 
which brought him into notice. He obtained 
frequent employment as an engraver of por- 
traits, and to that work he almost entirely 
devoted himself. His engravings show care- 
ful drawing, and a great feeling for the colour 
in mezzotint. He engraved numerous por- 
traits after George Richmond, R. A., including 
'Lord Hatherley,' 'The Earl of Radnor,' 
' Samuel Wilberforce,' ' Archbishop Trench ; ' 
several after J. P. Knight, R. A., including ' Sir 
F. Grant, R. A.,' and 'F.R. Say; "The Queen' 
after W. Fowler ; ' The Princess Royal and 
her Sisters' after Winterhalter ; ' The Arch- 
bishop of Armagh' after J. Catterson Smith, 
and 'Lady Gertrude Fitzpatrick' after Sir 
Joshua Reynolds. He also engraved, among 
other subjects, 'St. John the Baptist' after 
the well-known picture by Murillo in the 
National Gallery. Jackson died at Southsea 
of fever on 10 May 1877. There are some fine 
examples of his engravings in the print room 
at the British Museum. 



[Printing Times, 15 June 1877; Art Journal, 
1877, p. 155; Kedgrave's Diet, of Artists.] 

L. C. 

JACKSON, JOSEPH (1733-1792), letter- 
founder, was born in Old Street, Shoreditch, 
London, 4 Sept. 1733, and was educated at 
a school near St. Luke's, in which church he 
was the first infant baptised. He was ap- 
prenticed to William Caslon the elder (1692- 
1766) [q. v.], at Chiswell Street, to learn ' the 
whole art'(E. Rows MOKES, Dissertation on 
English Typographical Founders, 1778, p. 83), 
and, says Nichols, ' being exceedingly tractable 
in the common branches of the business, he had 
a great desire to learn the method of cutting 
the punches, which is in general kept pro- 
foundly secret ' {Literary Anecdotes, ii. 359). 
This important art was carried on privately 
by Caslon and his son, and Jackson only dis- 
covered the process by watching through a 
hole in the wainscot. He worked for Caslon 
a short time after the expiration of his arti- 
cles, and is represented as a rubber in the 
view of the foundry given in the ' Universal 
Magazine ' (June 1750, vi. 274). Thomas 
Cottrell and he were discharged as the ring- 
leaders of a quarrel among the workmen, and 
the two began business themselves. In 1759, 
however, Jackson was serving on board the 
Minerva frigate as armourer, and in May 
1761 held the same office on the Aurora. At 
the peace of 1763 he took 40/. prize-money. 
Having left the navy, he returned to work 
in Cottrell's foundry in Nevill's Court, Fetter 
Lane. He then hired a small house in Cock 
Lane, and about 1765 produced his first 
specimen-sheet of types. His business in- 
creased, and he moved to Dorset Street, 
Salisbury Square, Fleet Street. In 1773 he 
issued another specimen, including Hebrew, 
Persian, and Bengalee letters ; it is praised 
by Mores, who describes Jackson as ' obliging 
and communicative'(Z)zsserto&'cm,p.83). He 
produced the type used in Domesday Book, 
1783. Woide's facsimile of the New Testa- 
ment of the Codex Alexandrinus is described 
on the title-page as being ' ty pis Jacksonianis ; ' 
and Jackson also cut the punches for Kip- 
ling's edition of the ' Codex Bezse,' 1793. In 
1790 his moulds and matrices were much 
damaged in a fire. He cut for Bensley a 
splendid fount for Macklin's ' Bible,' 1800, 
7 vols. folio, and another for the same printer, 
used in Hume's ' England,' 1806, 10 vols. 
folio ; the last, he asserted, would ' be the 
most exquisite performance of the kind in 
this or any other country '{Gent. Mag. 1792, 
p. 166). The anxiety of this undertaking is 
supposed to have hastened his death, which 
took place 14 Jan. 1792, in his fifty-ninth, 
year. 



Jackson 



102 



Jackson 



Jackson was married, first, to Elizabeth 
Tassell (d. 1783), and, secondly, to Mrs. 
Pasham (d. 1791), widow of a printer in 
Blackfriars. He was buried beside his two 
wives in the burial-ground of Spa Fields 
Chapel. He ' was in every sense 01 the word 
a master of his art ' (T. C. HANSABD, Typo- 
graphia, 1825, p. 359). ' By the death of this 
ingenious artist and truly worthy man the 
poor lost a most excellent benefactor, his own 
immediate connections a steady friend, and 
the literary world a valuable coadjutor to 
their labours' (NICHOLS, Literary Anecdotes, 
ii. 360). An engraved portrait is given by 
Nichols (ib. ii. 358) ; a portrait in oil was 
shown by W. Blades at the Caxton Exhibi- 
tion (Catalogue, p. 336). He was childless, 
and left the bulk of his fortune, which was 
large, to fourteen nephews and nieces. His 
foundry was ultimately purchased by the 
third William Caslon, by whom it was en- 
larged and improved. 

[Nichols's Lit. Anecd. ii. 358-63, iii. 264, 460 ; 
Gent. Mag. January 1792, pp. 92-3, 166; Reed's 
Old English Letter Foundries, 1887, pp. 315- 
329.] H. K. T. 

JACKSON, JULIAN (wrongly called 
JOHN RICHARD) (1790-1853), colonel of the 
imperial Eussian staff and geographer, son of 
William Turner Jackson and his wife Lu- 
cille, was born 30 March 1790, and baptised 
at St. Anne's Church, Westminster, 24 May 
following. He passed through the Royal 
Military Academy, Woolwich, was nomi- 
nated to a Bengal cadetship by Sir Stephen 
Lushington in 1807, and was appointed 
second lieutenant in the Bengal artillery 
26 Sept. 1808, and first lieutenant 28 April 
1809. He resigned his rank in India 28 Aug. 
1813 to seek employment in Wellington's 
army in the Peninsula, but arrived too late. 
On 2 June 1815 the emperor Alexander of 
Russia appointed Julian ' Villiamovitch ' 
Jackson to the quartermaster's staff of the 
imperial suite, with the rank of lieutenant. 
He did duty with the quartermaster-general's 
staff of the 12th Russian infantry division 
under Count Woronzow, forming part of the 
allied army of occupation in France, until 
6 Nov. 1818, when he went to Russia with 
them in the rank of staff-captain. On the 
augmentation of the Lithuanian army corps 
next year Jackson was appointed to the 
quartermaster-general's staff, and attached to 
the grenadier brigade. He did duty with 
this part of the army during most of his 
service, becoming captain 8 Aug. 1821, and 
lieutenant-colonel 29 March 1825. He was 
promoted colonel on the general staff of the 
army 14 Aug. 1829, and retired from the 



Russian service 21 Sept. 1830 (information 
supplied by the imperial Russian staff). On 
Jackson's retirement the Count de la Cane- 
rine, imperial finance minister, appointed him 
commissioner and correspondent in London 
for the Russian department of manufactures. 
Early in 1841 he was appointed secretary of 
the Royal Geographical Society, London. H& 
resigned the secretaryship in February 1847. 
About the same time he was suddenly super- 
seded in his Russian post and emoluments, 
and was thus placed in very straitened cir- 
cumstances. Through Sir Roderick Mur- 
chison he obtained a clerkship under the- 
council of education, which he held until his- 
death. The czar Nicholas also gave him a 
small pension (Journ. of the Roy. Geogr. Soc. 
1853, presidential address). Jackson wa 
made a F.R.S. London in 1845, and was a 
member or corresponding member of many 
learned societies. He was a knight of St. 
Stanislaus of Poland. He died, after long 
suffering, 16 March 1853 (Gent. Mag. new 
ser. xxxix. 562). He married Miss Sarah. 
Ogle, by whom he had several children. 

Jackson was an industrious writer. Hi* 
' Guide du Voyageur,' published at Paris in 
1822, went through several French editions, 
and was reproduced in English under the- 
title of ' What to Observe ; or the Traveller's 
Remembrancer,' in 1841, 1851 (?), and 1861. 
Papers on ' Couleurs dans les corps trans- 
parents,' ' Les Galets ou pierres roulees- 
de Pologne,' 'Transparence et Couleur de 
1'Atmosphere,' ' Les lacs salves ' were con- 
tributed by him to the ' Bibliotheque Univ. 
de Geneve,' 1830-2; and ' Physico-Geogra- 
phical Essays,' ' Hints on Geographical Ar- 
rangement,' a translation of Wietz's memoir 
on 'Ground Ice in Siberian Lakes,' a memoir 
on 'Picturesque Descriptions in Books of 
Travel,' and other papers to the ' Journal of 
the Royal Geographical Society.' He also- 
wrote a pamphlet on ' National Education/ 
which went through two editions ; a work on. 
' Minerals and their Uses ' (London, 1848) ; 
a memoir on ' Cartography ; ' and numerous 
reviews. He translated and edited from the- 
French La ValleVs well-known treatise on 
' Military Geography,' which in Jackson's 
hands became almost a new work. Jackson 
also indexed the first ten volumes of the 
' Proceedings of the Royal Geographical So- 
ciety,' a task that occupied him 255 days, 
at the rate of five hours a day. 

[Information obtained from the India Office, 
from the chief of the Scientific Committee, Im- 
perial Eussian Staff, through the courtesy of 
J. Michell, esq., H.B.M. Consul, St. Petersburg, 
and from the Royal Geographical Society, Lon- 
don ; Presidential Address, 1853, in Journ. of th& 



Jackson 



103 



Jackson 



Roy. Geogr. Soc. 1853, xxiii. Ixxii-iii. Lists 
of Jackson's writings are given in Roy. Soc. 
Cat. Scient. Papers under ' Jackson, Julian R., 
F.R.S.,' and in Brit. Mus. Cat. Printed Books, 
under 'Jackson, John Richard, F.R.S.'] 

H. M. C. 

JACKSON, LAURENCE (1691-1772), 
divine, born on 20 March 1691, son of Lau- 
rence Jackson of London, entered Merchant 
Taylors' School on 12 March 1700-1, was 
admitted a pensioner of St. John's College, 
Cambridge, in 1709, and graduated B.A. in 
1712. He migrated to Sidney Sussex Col- 
lege, of which he was elected a fellow, and 
commenced M.A. in 1716, proceeding B.D. 
in 1723. He became vicar of Ardleigh, near 
Colchester, 11 May 1723, rector of Great 
Wigborough, Essex, 25 April 1730, was col- 
lated to the prebend of Asgarby in the 
cathedral church of Lincoln 15 April 1747, 
and died on 17 Feb. 1772. 

His works are : 1. Verses on the death 
of his ' pious friend and schoolfellow,' Am- 
brose Bonwicke the younger [q.v.], prefixed 
to Bonwicke's ' Life,' 1729, and reprinted in 
Nichols's 'Literary Anecdotes,' v. 154. 2. 'An 
Examination of a Book intituled " The True 
Gospel of Jesus Christ asserted," by Thomas 
Chubb, and also of his Appendix on Pro- 
vidence. To which is added A Disserta- 
tion on Episcopacy, shewing in one short 
and plain view the Grounds of it in Scrip- 
ture and Antiquity,' London, 1739, 8vo. The 
'Dissertation' is reprinted in 'The Church- 
man's Remembrancer,' vol. ii., London, 1807, 
8vo. 3. ' Remarks on Dr. Middleton's Exami- 
nation of the Lord Bishop of London's [T. 
Sherlock] Discourses concerning the Use 
and Intent of Prophecy. In a Letter from a 
Country Clergyman to his Friend in London,' 
London, 1750, 8vo. 4. ' A Letter to a Young 
Lady concerning the Principles and Conduct 
of the Christian Life,' London, 1756, 8vo ; 
4th edit., London, 1818, 12mo. 5. ' A Short 
Review and Defence of the Authorities on 
which the Catholic Doctrine of the Trinity 
in Unity is grounded,' London, 1771, 8vo. 

[Addit. MS. 5873, f. 8 b ; Cantabrigienses Gra- 
duati, 1787, p. 211 ; Gent. Mag. xlii. 151, xlviii. 
623 ; Le Neve's Fasti (Hardy), ii. 103 ; Morant's 
Essex, i. 421, 435 ; Nichols's Lit. Anecd. i. 418, 
v. 154 ; Robinson's Register of Merchant Taylors' 
School, ii. 4 ; Watt's Bibl. Brit.] T. C. 

JACKSON, RANDLE (1757-1837), par- 
liamentary counsel, son of Samuel Jackson of 
Westminster, was matriculated at Oxford 
17 July 1789, at the age of thirty-two (Fos- 
TEK, Alumni Oxonienses). A member first of 
Magdalen Hall, afterwards of Exeter College, 
he was created M.A. 2 May 1793. In the 
same year, on 9 Feb., he was called to the bar 



by the Middle Temple (FosiEK; the Georgian 
Era, ii. 548, says by Lincoln's Inn). He was 
admitted ad eundem at the Inner Temple in 
1805, and became a bencher of the Middle 
Temple in 1828. Jackson won a considerable 
reputation at the bar, and acted as parlia- 
mentary counsel of the East India Company 
and of the corporation of London. Five or 
six of his speeches delivered before parlia- 
mentary committees or the proprietors of East 
India stock on the grievances of cloth- 
workers, the prolongation of the East India 
Company's charter, &c., were printed. Jack- 
son died at North Brixton 15 March 1837. 

Besides his speeches, Jackson published : 
1. 'Considerations on the Increase of Crime,' 
London, 1828, 8vo. 2. ' A Letter to Lord 
Henley, in answer to one from his Lordship 
requesting a vote for Middlesex, and with 
observations on his Lordship's plan for a re- 
form in our Church Establishment,' London, 
1832, 8vo. 

[Authorities cited ; Gent. Mag. 1837, i. 544 ; 
Brit. Mus. Cat.] J. T-T. 

JACKSON, RICHARD (fl. 1570), ballad 
writer, matriculated from Clare Hall, Cam 
bridge, 25 Oct. 1567, proceeded B.A. 1570, 
and was shortly afterwards appointed master 
of Ingleton school, in the West Riding of 
Yorkshire. The authorship of the well- 
known ballad on the battle of Flodden Field, 
supposed to have been written about 1570, 
has been generally ascribed to him, either on 
the ground of vague tradition or from the 
fact that Ingleton borders on the Craven dis- 
trict, in the dialect of which the poem is 
written. Apart from its historical interest 
the ballad is valuable as a spirited example 
of early alliterative poetry. We gather from 
the opening lines that the author was no 
novice at ballad-writing, while the partiality 
constantly shown for the house of Stanley 
and the Lancastrian forces seems to indicate 
some connection between the author and the 
Stanley family. 

The earliest existing manuscript of the 
ballad is in Harl. MS. 3526, with a long 
title commencing ' Heare is the famous his- 
torie in songe called Floodan 'Field ; ' it bears 
no date, but was probably written about 1636. 
The first printed edition was published under 
the title of ' Floddan Field in nine Fits, being 
an exact History of that Famous Memorable 
Battle fought between the English and Scots 
on Floddan-Hill, in the time of Henry the 
Eight, Anno 1513. Worthy of the Perusal 
of the English Nobility,' London, 12mo, 1664. 
In the copy of this edition at Bridgewater 
House there is a manuscript note by Sir Wal- 
ter Scott to the effect that ' this old copy ia 



Jackson 



104 



Jackson 



probably unique,' but there are copies in the 
British Museum, the Huth Library, and else- 
where. Another edition (n. d.) was printed 
by Thomas Gent [q. v.] about 1756, and this 
version is of special interest as having been 
taken from a different source, a manuscript 
in the possession of John Askew of Pallings- 
burn, Northumberland. A third edition was 
printed by Robert Lambe, vicar of Norham- 
upon-Tweed, Berwick, 1773 (reprinted with- 
out alteration in ' Ancient Historic Ballads,' 
Newcastle, 1807), and a fourth by Joseph 
Benson, 'philomath,' 1774. Two valuable 
critical editions were subsequently published, 
one by Henry Weber, Edinburgh, 1808, and 
the other by 'Charles A. Federer, Manchester, 
1884. 

[Cooper's Athenae Cantabr.ii. 1 18 ; Whitaker's 
Craven, ed. Morant, p. 326 ; Collier's Bibl. Ac- 
count, i. 290 ; Watt's Bibl. Brit. ; Weber's and 
Federer's editions of Flodden Field ; Brit. Mus. 
Cat.] T. S. 

JACKSON or KUERDEN, RICHARD 
(1623-1690?), antiquary, son of Gilbert 
Jackson and his wife Ann Leyland, was born 
at Cuerden, near Preston, Lancashire, in 1623. 
He received his early education at Leyland, 
Lancashire, under Mr. Sherburn, and was 
admitted a commoner of St. Mary Hall, Ox- 
ford, in 1638. On the outbreak of the war 
he removed to Emmanuel College, Cam- 
bridge, where he graduated B.A. in 1642. 
In 1646 he returned to Oxford, graduated 
M. A. 22 March, and was elected vice-principal 
of St. Mary Hall and tutor. He was a 
staunch royalist, and declined the office of 
proctor of the university rather than submit 
to the parliamentary government. He then 
began the study of medicine, and in 1652 was 
appointed ' replicant to all incept ors of physic,' 
which office qualified him for the degree of 
M.I). After paying the fees he, however, 
again declined to take the required oath, and 
it was not until after the Restoration that he 
was made M.D. (26 March 1663). At that 
time he was settled at Preston as a physician. 
He appears as a freeman of the borough on 
the Guild Merchant Rolls of 1662 and 1682. 
According to Wood he neglected his practice, 
and devoted himself to the study of antiqui- 
ties. In conjunction with Christopher Town- 
ley of Carr Hall he contemplated the pub- 
lication of a complete history of Lancashire, 
but the project was frustrated by Townley's 
death in 1674. Jackson afterwards issued 
proposals for publishing his work under the 
title of ' Brigantia Lancastriensis Restaurata ; 
or History of the Honourable Dukedom or 
County Palatine of Lancaster, in 5 vols. in 
folio,' 1688. No further progress was made, 
and the manuscripts, in a crabbed and almost 



illegible hand, and consisting of crude ma- 
terials without arrangement, are now pre- 
served in the Heralds' College (8 vols.), the 
Chetham Library, Manchester (2 vols.), and 
the British Museum (1 vol.) A fragmentary 
but valuable itinerary of some parts of Lan- 
cashire from his pen is given in Earwaker's 
' Local Gleanings,' 1876. He was a friend 
of Sir William Dugdale, and acted as his 
deputy and marshal at a visitation held at 
Lancaster. It is supposed that he died be- 
tween 1690 and 1695. 

[Wood's Fasti Oxon. (Bliss), ii. 94, 275; 
Whitaker's Hist, of Manchester, 1775, 4to, ii. 
587 ; Dugdale's Visitation of Lane. (Chetham 
Soc.), p. 1 68 ; Earwaker's Local Gleanings, vol. i. ; 
Baines's Lancashire (Harland), i. 326 ; Ralph 
Thoresby's Diary, i. 388.] C. W. S. 

JACKSON, RICHARD (1700-1782?), 
founder of the Jacksonian professorship at 
Cambridge, born in 1700, was educated at 
Trinity College, Cambridge, graduated B.A. 
in 1727, M.A. in 1731, and became fellow 
of the college. On 13 Nov. 1739 he was in- 
corporated M.A. at Oxford (FOSTER, Alumni 
Oxon. p. 736). By 1775 he was residing at 
Tarrington in Herefordshire. He died ap- 
parently in 1782, and was buried with his 
wife at Kingsbury, Warwickshire. He mar- 
ried Katherine (d. 1762), second daughter 
of Waldy ve Wellington of Hurley in Kings- 
bury, but had no issue (BiTRKE, Landed 
Gentry, 1868, p. 1671). By his will (re- 
gistered in P. C. C. 135, Cornwallis) he 
bequeathed to Trinity College a freehold 
estate at Upper Longsdon in Leek, Stafford- 
shire, for founding a professorship of natural 
experimental philosophy. His bequest took 
effect in 1783, when Isaac Milner was ap- 
pointed the first professor. Jackson also gave 
his library to Trinity College. 

[Authorities cited.] G-. G. 

JACKSON, RICHARD (d. 1787), poli- 
tician, was son of Richard Jackson of Dub- 
lin. He was entered at Lincoln's Inn as a 
student in 1740, and called to the bar in 
1744. On 22 Nov. 1751 he was admitted 
ad eundem at the Inner Temple, became a 
bencher in 1770, reader in 1779, and trea- 
surer in 1780. He was created standing 
counsel to the South Sea Company in 1764, 
was one of the counsel for Cambridge Uni- 
versity, and held the post of law-officer to the 
board of trade. He was elected F.S. A. in 1781, 
and was a governor of the Society of Dis- 
senters for Propagation of the Gospel. On 
a chance vacancy (1 Dec. 1762) he was re- 
turned to parliament for the conjoint borough 
of Weymouth and Melcombe Regis, and from 
1768 to 1784 he sat for the Cinque port of 



Jackson 



New Romney. Lord Edmund Fitzmaurice 
calls him ' the private secretary of George 
Grenville ' in 1765, and writes that in that 
year he warned the House of Commons 
against applying the Stamp Act to the Ame- 
rican colonies. In after-years Jackson was 
known as the intimate friend of Lord Shel- 
burne. When Shelburne formed his ministry 
in July 1782, Jackson was made a lord of the 
treasury, and he held that office until the fol- 
lowing A pril. He died at Southampton Build- 
ings, Chancery Lane, London, on 6 May 1787, 
when a considerable fortune came to his two 
sisters. 

From his extraordinary stores of know- 
ledge he was known as 'Omniscient Jackson,' 
but Johnson, in speaking of him, altered the 
adjective to ' all-knowing,' on the ground that 
the former word was ' appropriated to the 
Supreme Being.' "When Thrale meditated a 
journey in Italy he was advised by Johnson 
to consult Jackson, who afterwards returned 
the compliment by remarking of the 'Journey 
to the Western Islands' that ' there was more 
good sense upon trade in it than he should 
hear in the House of Commons in a year, 
except from Burke.' He is introduced into 
' The old Benchers of the Inner Temple ' in 
Lamb's ' Essays of Elia.' 

[Boswell, ed. Hill, iii. 19, 137; Fitzmaurice's 
Life of Lord Shelburne, i. 321-2 ; W. H. Cooke's 
Inner Temple Benchers, p. 80 ; Lamb's Elia, ed. 
Ainger, p. 127; Gent. Mag. 1764 p. 603, 1787 
pt. i. p. 454 ; Cooper's Annals of Cambridge, iv. 
390 ; Nichols's Lit. Anecd. viii. 466.] W. P. C. 

JACKSON, ROBERT, M.D. (1750- 
1827), inspector-general of army hospitals, 
born in 1750 at Stonebyres, near the Falls 
of Clyde, was the son of a small farmer. 
After a good schooling at Wandon and 
Crawford he was apprenticed for three years 
to a surgeon at Biggar, and in 1768 joined 
the medical classes at Edinburgh. Supporting 
himself by going twice on a whaling voyage 
as surgeon, he finished his studies without 
graduating, and went to Jamaica, where he 
acted as assistant to a doctor at Savanna-la- 
mer from 1774 to 1780. He next made his 
way to New York, with the intention of join- 
ing the state volunteers ; but he was even- 
tually received by the colonel of a Scotch 
regiment (the 71st) as ensign, with the duties 
of hospital-mate. After various adventures 
he arrived at Greenock in 1782, and travelled 
to London on foot. He left early in 1783 on 
a journey on foot through France, Switzer- 
land, Germany, and Italy, and landed on his 
return at Southampton with four shillings 
in his pocket. He walked to London, and 
thence, in January 1784, to Perth, where the 
71st regiment was stationed. Coming at 



5 Jackson 

length to Edinburgh he remained two or 
three months, and married the daughter of 
Dr. Stephenson, and the niece of an officer 
whom he had known in New York. The lady's 
fortune placed him in easy circumstances, 
and he spent the next year in Paris, attend- 
ing hospitals and studying languages (in- 
cluding Arabic), and then proceeded to Ley- 
den, where he passed an examination forM.D. 
in 1786. He settled as a physician at Stock- 
ton-on-Tees, and remained there seven years, 
but with no great relish for private practice. 
When war broke out in 1793, he got appointed 
surgeon to the 3rd regiment, or Buff's, on the 
strength of a book which he had published 
on West Indian fevers. Not being connected 
with the College of Physicians of London he 
was ineligible for the office of army phy- 
sician ; but he received the promotion in 
1794, owing to the personal intervention of 
the Duke of York, who recognised his abili- 
ties. This personal incident was the begin- 
ning of Jackson's resolute opposition to the 
monopoly of the College of Physicians and 
to the corrupt administration of the old army 
medical board, which ended in a new regime 
in 1810, and in an open career from the 
lowest to the highest ranks of the army me- 
dical service. In the course of the contest he 
wrote seven pamphlets (from 1803 to 1809), 
was obliged to retire from active service, and 
committed an assault on Keate, the surgeon- 
general (by striking him across the shoulders 
with his gold-headed cane), for which he suf- 
fered six months' imprisonment. The over- 
throw of the monopolists was hastened by 
their proved incompetence in the disastrous 
Walcheren expedition. Jackson had many 
supporters, among the rest Dr. McGrigor, 
afterwards head of the army medical depart- 
ment. Meanwhile, from 1794 to 1798, he 
had been on active service in Holland and 
in the West Indies, acquiring experience 
which formed the basis of his most important 
works. In 1811, his old enemies being now 
out of the way, he was recalled from his re- 
tirement at Stockton to be medical director 
in the West Indies, in which office he re- 
mained until 1815. He retired on half-pay 
as inspector-general of army hospitals, and 
a pension of 200/. per annum was after- 
wards granted him. In 1819, when yellow 
fever was in Spain, hS visited the Mediter- 
ranean. He died of paralysis at Thursby, 
near Carlisle, on 6 April 1827. Four children 
of his first marriage predeceased him. His 
second wife, who survived him, was a daugh- 
ter of J. H. Tidy, rector of Redmarshall, 
Durham. Jackson was of the middle height, 
muscular, blue-eyed, inclined to be florid, and 
of a pleasing expression. 



Jackson 



1 06 



Jackson 



Jackson's first book was ' A Treatise on the 
Fevers of Jamaica,' 1791 (reprinted at Phila- 
delphia in 1795, and in German at Leipzig 
in 1796), the result of his early experience 
as an assistant. He recommends the treat- 
ment of fevers by cold affusion, which was 
afterwards advocated by Currie, and by him- 
self in a special essay published at Edin- 
burgh in 1808. His San Domingo experi- 
ences of 1796 were embodied in his next 
work, ' An Outline of the History and Cure 
of Fever, Epidemic and Contagious, more 
especially of Jails, Ships, and Hospitals, and 
the Yellow Fever. With Observations on 
Military Discipline and Economy, and a 
Scheme of Medical Arrangement for Armies,' 
Edinburgh, 1798 ; German edition, Stuttgart, 
1804. The subject last in the title he took 
up again in 1804 and expanded into his best- 
known work, ' A Systematic View of the 
Formation, Discipline, and Economy of Ar- 
mies,' which was republished by him at 
Stockton in 1824, and finally at London in 
1845, with portrait and memoir. Part ii. 
of this work is a philosophical sketch of ' na- 
tional military character ' from ancient and 
modern sources. In 1817 appeared his ' His- 
tory and Cure of Febrile Diseases,' relating 
chiefly to soldiers in the West Indies, 1819 ; 
2nd edit., enlarged to 2 vols., 1820. His 
' Observations of the Yellow Fever in Spain ' 
was published in 1821. In 1823 he published 
at Stockton ' An Outline of Hints for the 
Political Organization and Moral Training of 
the Human Race.' Besides studying Arabic 
for its biblical interest he became a student 
of Gaelic in connection with the Ossian con- 
troversy. 

Both as an administrative reformer and as 
a writer on fevers Jackson holds a distin- 
guished place. He was philosophically in- 
clined, modest, and zealous for the public 
interests. 

[Memoir prefixed to 3rd edit. (1845) of his 
Formation, Discipline, and Economy of Armies, 
drawn up from his own papers and from recol- 
lections by Borland; medical notice by Dr. 
Thomas Barnes in Trans. Prov. Med. and Engl. 
Assoc.; Gent. Mag. June 1827, p. 566.] C. C. 

JACKSON, afterwards SCORESBY- 
JACKSON, ROBERT EDMUND (1835- 
1867), biographer and medical writer, was 
a son of Captain Thomas Jackson of the 
merchant navy, of Whitby, by Arabella, third 
and youngest daughter of William Scoresby 
the elder, and sister of William Scoresby, D.D. 
[q. v.], the well-known arctic explorer and 
divine. He was born at Whitby in 1835. 
Jackson was educated for the medical pro- 
fession at St. George's Hospital, London, at 



Paris, and afterwards at Edinburgh, where 
he devoted himself especially to the study of 
materia medica under Professor (afterwards 
Sir) Robert Christison. He took the degree 
of M.D. in 1857, writing a thesis on ' Climate, 
Health, and Disease,' a subject on which he 
afterwards became an authority. In 1859 
he became F.R.C.S., in 1861 F.R.S.E., and 
in 1862 F.R.C.P. He was lecturer upon 
materia medica and therapeutics in Surgeons' 
Hall, Edinburgh, and in 1865 was appointed 
physician to the Royal Infirmary, and soon 
afterwards lecturer on clinical medicine. On 
the death of his uncle, William Scoresby, he 
assumed the additional name of Scoresby. 
For some time he was chairman of the 
medical department of the Scottish Meteo- 
rological Society. Scoresby-Jackson died at 
32 Queen Street, Edinburgh, on 1 Feb. 1867. 
He married in 1858 the only child of Sir 
William Johnston of Kirkhill, and by her 
had two daughters, who survived him. He 
published, besides occasional papers: 1. 'A 
Life of William Scoresby, D.D.,' London, 
1861, 8vo. 2. 'Medical Climatology: a Topo- 
graphical and Meteorological Description of 
Localities resorted to in Winter and Summer 
by Invalids,' London, 1862, 12mo ; a work 
based upon the results of personal visits to the 
chief continental and Mediterranean health 
resorts between 1855 and 1861. 3. 'A Note- 
Book on Materia Medica, Pharmacology, and 
Therapeutics,' 1866, a fourth edition of which, 
revised by F. W. Moinet, M.D., appeared at 
Edinburgh, 1880. 

[Scotsman, 2 Feb. 1867; Edinburgh Medical 
Journal, March 1867; Lancet, 9 Feb. 1867; 
British Medical Journal, 9 Feb. 1 867 ; Athenaeum, 
16 Feb. 1867; Life of William Scoresby; prefaces 
to his works.] J. T-T. 

JACKSON, SAMUEL (1794-1869), 
landscape-painter, was born 31 Dec. 1794 at 
Bristol, where his father was a merchant. 
He began life in his father's office, but on his 
death abandoned business in favour of land- 
scape-painting, and became a pupil of Francis 
Danby [q. v.], who was then residing in 
Bristol. In 1823 he was elected an associate 
of the Society of Painters in Water-colours, 
and during the next twenty-six years con- 
tributed forty-six drawings to its exhibitions. 
All these, with the exception of a few West 
Indian views, the result of a voyage taken in 
1827 for the benefit of his health, illustrated 
English scenery, which he treated in a pleas- 
ing and poetical manner,somewhat resembling- 
that of the two Barrets. In 1833 Jackson 
was one of the founders of a sketching so- 
ciety at Bristol, to which W. J. Miiller, J. 
Skinner Prout, and other artists who later 



Jackson 



107 



Jackson 



achieved eminence belonged, an'd he was 
always closely identified with the Bristol 
' school.' In 1848 he withdrew from the 
Water-colour Society, having failed to obtain 
election to full membership. In 1855 and 
1856 Jackson made tours in Switzerland, after 
which he painted, almost exclusively, Swiss 
views in oils, which were sent to the Bristol 
annual exhibition and sold well. Two draw- 
ings by him are in the South Kensington 
Museum. Jackson died at Clifton, 8 Dec. 
1869. By his marriage with Jane Phillips 
he had one son, Samuel Phillips, now a member 
of the Royal Society of Painters in Water- 
colours, and three daughters. 

[Redgrave's Diet, of Artists ; Eoget's Hist, of 
the Old Water-colour Society, 1891 ; information 
from the family.] F. M. OT>. 

JACKSON, THOMAS (1579-1640), pre- 
sident of Corpus Christi College, Oxford, 
and dean of Peterborough, was born at 
Witton-on-the-Wear, Durham, about St. 
Thomas's day, 21 Dec. 1579. Members of 
his father's family were Newcastle merchants, 
and he was at first intended for commerce. 
But his abilities came under the notice of the 
third Lord Eure, at whose suggestion he 
was sent to Queen's College, Oxford (25 June 
1596), where Crackanthorpe was his tutor. 
He obtained a scholarship at Corpus Christi 
College on 24 March 1596-7. He graduated 
B. A. on 22 July 1599, and M.A. 9 July 1603, 
became a probationer fellow of his college on 
10 May 1606, and was afterwards repeatedly 
elected vice-president. On 25 July 1610 he 
proceeded B.D., receiving a license to preach 
on 18 June 1611, and the degree of D.D. 
26 June 1622. At Oxford Jackson won 
much reputation for his varied learning, but 
mainly devoted himself to theology. He read 
divinity lectures weekly both at his own col- 
lege and at Pembroke, and published the first 
two books of his commentary on the Creed in 
1613, dedicating the first to his patron, Lord 
Eure. He was instituted to the living of 
St. Nicholas, Newcastle, on 27 Nov. 1623, 
through the influence of Neile, bishop of 
Durham, to whom he was chaplain for a 
time. In 1624, with the permission of his 
bishop, he resided much at Oxford, engaged 
in literary work. About 1625 he was pre- 
sented by Neile to the living of Winston, 
Durham, receiving on 14 May 1625 a dispen- 
sation to hold it with Newcastle, and also 
becoming chaplain in ordinary to the king. 
He resided principally at Newcastle, where 
his preaching and charitable work were alike 
notable. In Fuller's words, he became ' a 
factor for heaven where he was once designed 
a merchant.' In 1630 Laud and Neile se- 
cured for Jackson the presidency of Corpus 



Christi, his own college, and on 8 July 1632 
he was presented to the crown living of 
Witney, Oxfordshire. The latter he resigned 
in 1637, the former he held till his death. 
He was installed prebendary of Winchester 
on 18 June 1635, and on 17 Jan. 1638-9 be- 
came dean of Peterborough. He died, aged 61, 
on 21 Sept. 1640, and was buried at Oxford, 
in the inner chapel of Corpus Christi Col- 
lege, but no memorial marks the spot. By 
his will, dated 5 Sept., Jackson bequeathed 
most of his books to his college. 

Jackson's theological works rank high. His 
views were at first decidedly puritanical, but 
they changed under the influence of Neile 
and Laud, and he ultimately incurred the 
wrath of the presbyterians, and especially of 
Prynne, who attacked him in ' Anti- Armi- 
nianism ' and Canterburie's Doome.' At 
Laud's trial Dr. Featley described Jackson 
as ' a known Arminian,' and Dr. Seth Ward 
similarly characterised his religious position. 
' An Historical Narration ' by Jackson, ap- 
parently of extreme Arminian tendency, was 
licensed by Laud's chaplain while Laud was 
bishop of London, but was afterwards called 
in and suppressed, by order, according to 
Prynne, of Archbishop Abbot. Southey de- 
scribed him as ' the most valuable of all our 
English divines,' and insisted on the sound- 
ness of his philosophy and the strength of his 
faith. Jones of Nayland found in his works 
' a magazine of theological knowledge.' His 
theology powerfully commended itself to 
modern high church divines, as recent re- 
prints abundantly prove. Pusey asserted 
that his was ' one of the best and greatest 
minds our church has nurtured.' 

Jackson's chief work was his ' Commenta- 
ries on the Apostles' Creed.' It was designed 
to fill twelve books, nine of which were 
published in separate volumes in his lifetime. 
The first two appeared (London, 1613, 4to) 
under the titles of ' The Eternall Truth of 
Scriptures ' and ' How Far the Ministry of 
Man is necessary for Planting the True Chris- 
tian Faith.' The third, 'The Positions of 
Jesuitesand other later Romanists concerning' 
the Authority of their Church,' appeared in 
1614 ; the fourth, entitled ' Justifying Faith,' 
in 1615 (2nd edit. 1631) ; the fifth, entitled 
' A Treatise containing the Originall of Un- 
beliefe,' in 1625; the sixth, entitled 'A 
Treatise of the Divine Essence and Attri- 
butes,' pt. i. in 1628 (dedicated to the Earl 
of Pembroke), pt. ii. 1629 ; the seventh, 
' The Knowledge of Christ Jesus,' in 1634 ; 
the eighth, ' The Humiliation of the Sonne 
of God,' in 1636 ; the ninth, < A Treatise of 
the Consecration of the Sonne of God,' Ox- 
ford, 1638, 4to. 



Jackson 



ic8 



Jackson 



The tenth book ('Christ exercising his 
Everlasting Priesthood,' or the second part of 
the ' Knowledge of Christ Jesus ') was pub- 
lished by Barnabas Oley for the first time 
in 1654, folio, and the eleventh book (' Domi- 
nus Veniet. Of Christ's Session at the Right 
Hand of God') first appeared, also under 
Oley's auspices, in 1657, folio, in a volume 
containing other of Jackson's sermons and 
treatises. A collected edition of Jackson's 
works, some of which had not been printed 
previously, dated 1672-3, in 3 vols., supplies 
a twelfth book, of which a portion had been 
issued as early as 1627 under the title of ' A 
Treatise of the Holy Catholike Faith and 
Church,' 3 parts (reprinted separately in 
1843). A completer edition of Jackson's 
works was issued at Oxford in 1844, 12 vols. 
In 1653 Oley issued in a single folio volume, 
with a preface by himself and a life of Jack- 
son by Edmund Vaughan, a new edition of 
the first three books of the ' Commentaries,' 
with which the tenth and eleventh books 
(1654 and 1657) were afterwards frequently 
bound. Other books of the Creed, with a 
treatise on the ' Primeval State of Man,' also 
appeared in folio in 1654. 

Besides the ' Commentaries,' Jackson pub- 
lished in his lifetime three collections of 
sermons: 1. 'Nazareth to Bethlehem,' Ox- 
ford, 1617, 4to. 2. 'Christ's Answer unto 
John's Question,' London, 1625, 4to. 3. ' Di- 
verse Sermons,' Oxford, 1637, 4to. 

[Wood's Athense Oxon. (Bliss), ii. 664 ; Wood's 
Fasti (Bliss), i. 281, 299, 339, 401 ; Clark's Reg. 
Oxf. Univ. pt. i. pp. 36, 217, pt. ii. p. 214 ; Lloyd's 
Memoirs, ed. 1668, p. 69; Kennett's Register, 
pp. 670, 681 ; Jones's Life of Bishop Home, p. 
75 ; Walton's Life of Hooker ; Rymer's Fcedera, 
xviii. 660 ; A Discovery of Mr. Jackson's Vanitie, 
by W. Twisse, ed. 1630, p. 270 ; Repertorium 
Theologicum, a synoptical table of Jackson's 
works, by the Rev. H. J. Todd, 1838; Mac- 
kenzie and Ross's Durham, p. 278 ; Brand's 
Newcastle, i. 305 ; Mackenzie's Newcastle, p. 
280; Gale's Winchester, p. 123; Biog. Brit.; 
Chalmers's Diet.] E. T. B. 

JACKSON, THOMAS (d. 1646), pre- 
bendary of Canterbury, born in Lancashire 
and educated at Cambridge, graduated M.A. 
in 1600, and B.I), in 1608, at Christ's College; 
and proceeded D.D. in 1615 from Emmanuel 
College. He was beneficed at several places 
in Kent, between 1603 and 1614 at Wye, and 
later at Ivychurch, Chilham-with-Molash, 
Great Chart,"Milton, near Canterbury, and St. 
George's in Canterbury. On 30 March 1614 
he was installed a prebendary in Canterbury 
Cathedral. At the trial of Laud in 1644 he 
testified that the archbishop had in one of his 
statutes enjoined bowing towards the altar. 



When Laud was taunted with giving prefer- 
ment only to men ' popishly inclined,' he re- 
plied that he disposed of livings to ' divers 
good and orthodox men, as to Doctor Jackson 
of Canterbury,' to whom he had given ' an 
hospital/ Wood says that he ' mostly seemed 
to be a true son of the church of England.' 
He nevertheless found favour with the par- 
liament, as he continued in office until his 
death in November 1646. His wife Eliza- 
beth was buried at Canterbury on 27 Jan. 
1657. One of his sons, also named Thomas, 
was among a number of Canterbury clergy- 
men who in August 1636 were reported to 
Laud for tavern-haunting and drunkenness. 
Jackson was author of: 1. 'David's Pas- 
torall Poeme, or Sheepeheards Song. Seven 
Sermons on the 23 Psalme,' 1603, 8vo. 2. ' The 
Converts Happiness : a Comfortable Sermon/ 
1609, 4to. 3. ' Londons New Yeeres Gift, 
or the Uncouching of the Foxe. A Godly 
Sermon,' 1609, 4to. 4. ' Peters Teares, a Ser- 
mon,' 1612, 4to. 5. ' Sinnelesse Sorrow for 
the Dead. A Comfortable Sermon at the 
Funeral of Mr. John Moyle,' 1614, 12mo. 
6. ' Judah must into Captivitie. Six Ser- 
mons,' &c., 1622, 4to. 7. ' The Raging Tem- 
pest Stilled. The Historie of Christ, His 
Passage with His Disciples over the Sea of 
Galilee,' &c., 1623, 4to. 8. 'An Helpe to 
the Best Bargaine. A Sermon,' 1624, 8vo. 

[Wood's Athenae Oxon. (Bliss), ii. 669 ; Prynne's 
Canterbury's Doom, 1646, pp. 79, 534; Wbarton's 
Troubles and Tryal of Laud, 1695, pp.326, 369 ; 
Walker's Sufferings of the Clergy, fol. pt. ii. p. 7 ; 
Hist. MSS. Comm. 4th Rep. p. 125 ; House of 
Lords' Journals.viii. 573; Le Neve's Fasti (Hardy), 
i. 49 ; Hasted's Kent, ' Canterbury,' 1801, ii. 65; 
Registers of Canterbury Cathedral (Harl. Soc.) ; 
Mnsters's Corpus Christi College (Lamb), pp. 193, 
199 ; Calendar of State Papers, Dom. Ser. James I, 
i. 74,1634-5, 1635, 1635-6, 1636-7; Brit. Mus. 
Cat. ; information kindly supplied by the Revs. 
J. I. Dredge and J. E. B. Mayor.] C. W. S. 

JACKSON, THOMAS (1783-1873), 
Wesleyan minister, born at Sancton, a small 
village near Market Weighton, East York- 
shire, on 12 Dec. 1783, was second son of 
Thomas and Mary Jackson. His father was 
an agricultural labourer. Three of the sons, 
Robert, Samuel, and Thomas, became minis- 
ters in the Wesleyan Methodist Connexion. 
Thomas was mainly self-taught, being taken 
from school at twelve years of age to work 
on a farm. Three years after he was appren- 
ticed to a carpenter at Shipton, a neighbour- 
ing village. At every available moment he 
read and studied, and in July 1801 joined the 
Methodist Society and threw his energies into 
biblical study and religious work. In Sep- 
tember 1804 he was sent by the Wesleyan 






Jackson 



109 



Jackson 



conference as an itinerant preacher into the 
Spilsby circuit. For twenty years he laboured 
in the Wesleyan connexion in the same ca- 
pacity, occupying some of the most important 
circuits, such as Preston and Wakefield, Man- 
chester, Lincoln, Leeds, and London. His 
position and influence grew rapidly. From 
182-4 to 1842 he was editor of the connexional 
magazines, and, despite his lack of a liberal 
education in youth, he performed his duties 
with marked success. The conference elected 
him in 1842 to the chair of divinity in the 
Theological College at Richmond, Surrey, 
where he remained until 1861. 

In 1838-9 Jackson was for the first time 
chosen president of the Wesleyan conference. 
A hundred years had just passed since the 
formation of the first Methodist Society by 
the brothers Wesley, and Jackson prepared 
a centenary volume, describing the origin 
and growth of methodism, and the benefits 
springing from it (1839). In the centennial 
celebration he played a leading part, and 
preached before the conference in Brunswick 
Chapel, Liverpool, the official sermon, which 
occupied nearly three hours in delivery. The 
sermon was published, and had a very large 
circulation. 

Jackson was re-elected president in 1849, 
when the methodist community was agitated 
by the so-called reform movement and the 
expulsion of Everett, Dunn, and Griffiths 
[see DUNN, SAMTTEL, and EVERETT, JAMES]. 
Jackson throughout the crisis showed great 
tact and dignity. 

He retired from Richmond College and 
from full work as a Wesleyan minister in 
1861. At the same time his private library 
was bought by James Heald [q. v.] for 1,00(W. 
and given to Richmond College. After leaving 
Richmond he resided with his daughter, Mrs. 
Marzials, first in Bloomsbury, and afterwards 
in Shepherd's Bush, where he died on 10 March 
1873. 

In 1809 Jackson married Ann, daughter 
of Thomas Hollinshead of Horncastle. She 
died 24 Sept. 1854, aged 69. His son, the 
Rev. Thomas Jackson, M.A., is separately 
noticed. 

Jackson's style as a preacher was simple 
and lucid. As a theologian he belonged to 
the school of Wesley and Fletcher of Made- 
ley. Besides occasional sermons and pam- 
phlets he wrote : 1. ' Life of John Goodwin, 
A.M., comprising an Account of his Opinions 
and Writings,' 8vo, London, 1822 ; new edi- 
tion, 8vo, 1872. 2. ' Memoirs of the Life 
and Writings of the Rev. Richard Watson,' 
8vo, 1834. 3. ' The Centenary of Wesleyan 
Methodism : a Brief Sketch of the Rise, Pro- 
gress, and Present State of the Wesleyan 



Methodist Societies throughout the World,' 
post 8vo, 1839. 4. ' Expository Discourses on 
various Scripture Facts,' &c., post 8vo, 1839. 
5. ' The Life of the Rev. Charles Wesley,' 
2 vols. 8vo, London, 1841. 6. ' The Jour- 
nal of the Rev. Charles Wesley, with Selec- 
tions from his Correspondence and Poetry; 
with an Introduction and Notes,' 2 vols. fcp. 
8vo, London, 1849. 7. ' The Life of the 
Rev. Robert Newton, D.D.,' post 8vo, 1855. 

8. ' The Duties of Christianity theoretically 
and practically considered,' cr. 8vo, 1867. 

9. 'The Providence of God, viewed in the 
Light of Holy Scripture,' cr. 8vo, 1862. 

10. 'Aids to Truth and Charity,' 8vo, 1862. 

11. 'The Institutions of Christianity, exhi- 
bited in their Scriptural Character and Prac- 
tical Bearing,' cr. 8vo, London, 1868. 12. ' Re- 
collections of my own Life and Times,' edited 
by the Rev. B. Frankland, B.A. ; with an 
introduction and a postscript by the Rev. G. 
Osborn, D.D., cr. 8vo, London, 1873. 

He also edited, with a preface or introduc- 
tory essay : ' The Works of the Rev. John 
Wesley in 14 vols.,' 8vo, London, 1829-31 ; 
' John Goodwin's Exposition of Romans ix., 
with two other Tracts by the same,' 8vo, 
London, 1834 ; 'The Christian armed against 
Infidelity,' 24mo, 1837 ; ' Memoirs of Miss 
Hannah Ball,' 12mo, 1839 ; 'A Collection of 
Christian Biography,' 12 vols. 18mo, 1837- 
1840 ; ' Anthony Farindon's Sermons,' 4 vols. 
8vo, 1849 ; ' Wesley's Journals,' 4 vols. 12mo, 
1864 ; ' The Lives of the Early Methodist 
Preachers,' 6 vols. 12mo, 1865. 

SAMUEL JACKSON (1786-1861), Thomas 
Jackson's younger brother, was president of 
the Wesleyan conference at Liverpool in 
1847, and died at Newcastle during the ses- 
sion of the conference there in August 1861. 

[Eecollections of my own Life and Times (as 
above) ; Minutes of the Methodist Conferences ; 
private information.] W. B. L. 

JACKSON, THOMAS (1812-1886), 
divine, son of Thomas Jackson [q. v.], Wes- 
leyan minister, was born in 1812. He was 
educated at St. Saviour's school, Southwark,. 
and St. Mary Hall, Oxford, where he gra- 
duated B.A. 27 Nov. 1834, M.A. 23 NOT. 
1837. While an undergraduate he was the 
author of &jeu (P esprit, entitled ' Uniomachia,* 
in which John Sinclair, afterwards arch- 
deacon of Middlesex, had a hand ; it was 
printed at Oxford about 1833, with annota- 
tions by Robert Scott, afterwards dean of 
Rochester, and went through five editions. 
After holding a curacy at Brompton he be- 
came vicar of St. Peter's, Stepney. In 1844 
he was chosen principal of the National So- 
ciety's training college at Battersea, and in 
1850 prebendary of Wedland in St. Paul's 



Jackson 



no 



Jackson 



Cathedral. In 1850 also he was nominated 
to the bishopric of the projected see of 
Lyttelton, New Zealand, and accordingly 
went out to that colony. Difficulties, how- 
ever, arose about the constitution of the new 
diocese, and he was never consecrated. His 
attitude was vindicated by Blomfield, al- 
ways his firm friend, and Archbishop Sum- 
ner. Blomfield presented him in 1852 to 
the rectory of Stoke Newington. Here he 
rebuilt the parish church from the designs 
of Sir Gilbert Scott. He took great interest 
in the question of education, for some time 
editing the 'English Journal of Education.' 
Owing to ill-health Jackson made arrange- 
ments to vacate his living in June 1886, but 
died previously on 18 March. A mural monu- 
ment was put up to his memory in Stoke 
Newington Church. He was married and 
left issue. 

He published, besides single sermons and 
addresses (1843-56) : 1. ' A Compendium of 
Logic . . . with . . . Notes,' &c., 1836, 
12mo (an edition of Aldrich). 2. ' Sermons,' 
&c., 1859, 8vo; 1863, 8vo. 3. ' Our Dumb 
Companions,' &c., 2nd edition [1864], 4to ; 
new edition [1869], 4to. 4. ' Curiosities of 
the Pulpit,' &c. [1868], 8vo ; with new title, 

* Reminiscences and Anecdotes of Celebrated 
Preachers,' &c. [1875], 8vo. 5. The Nar- 
rative of the Fire of London, freely handled 
on the principles of Modern Rationalism, by 
P. Maritzburg,' &c., 1869, 8vo (reprinted from 

* Good Words '). 6. ' Our Dumb Neighbours,' 
&c. [1870], 4to. 7. ' Our Feathered Com- 
panions,' &c. [1870], 8vo. 8. ' Stories about 
Animals,' &c. [1874], 4to. 

[Times, 20 March 1886, p. 7 ; Cat. of Oxford 
Graduates, 1851, p. 358 ; Crockford's Clerical 
Directory, 1885.] A. G. 

JACKSON, WILLIAM (1737 P-1795), 
Irish revolutionist, son of an officer in the pre- 
rogative court, Dublin, became at an early 
age a tutor in London, and, taking holy orders, 
was for a time curate of St. Mary-le-Strand, 
and gained some notoriety as a preacher at 
Tavistock Chapel, Drury Lane. Before 1775 
he became secretary or factotum to Elizabeth 
Chudleigh [q. v.], duchess of Kingston. Foote 
satirised him as Dr. Viper in his ' Capuchin.' 
An acrimonious correspondence followed in 
the newspapers. In a letter to the duchess 

Foote wrote : ' Pray, madam, is not J n 

the name of your female confidential secre- 
tary? . . . May you never want the benefit 
of clergy in every emergency.' Jackson re- 
taliated by suborning Foote's ex-coachman 
to prefer an infamous charge against him [see 
FOOTE, SAMUEL], and by publishing a disgust- 
ing poem under the pseudonym of Humphry 



Nettle (1775). Jackson had already made 
his way as a radical journalist. He became 
editor of the ' Public Ledger,' a daily paper, 
and published a reply to Dr. Johnson's 
' Taxation no Tyranny,' in which he strongly 
supported the American revolutionists. In 
1776 he edited Gurney's report of the evi- 
dence taken at the Duchess of Kingston's 
trial for bigamy, and probably accompanied 
her to France. Soon returning to England, 
he resumed his connection with the press 
by editing the ' Morning Post,' and gave 
able support to the advanced whigs by pub- 
lishing ' The Constitutions of the several in- 
dependent States of America, the Declara- 
tion of Independence, and the Articles of 
Confederation between the said States. To 
which are now added the Declaration of 
Rights, &c. With an Appendix, &c.,' 8vo, 
London, 1783, dedicated to the Duke of 
Portland. ' Thoughts on the Causes of the 
Delay of the Westminster Scrutiny/ 8vo, 
by Jackson, appeared at London in 1784. 
According to Cockayne, he was sent by Pitt 
on a secret mission to the French govern- 
ment in the interval between Louis XVI's 
deposition and his trial. He may have been 
the pretended Irish quaker sent from London 
to Paris at the end of 1792 with a passport 
from Roland (ETIEXNE DTTMONT, Souvenirs 
sur Mirabeau'). He seems to have remained 
in France until 1794. In March 1794 he 
was commissioned by Nicholas Madgett and 
John Hurford Stone, men in the employ of 
the French foreign office, to ascertain the 
chances of success for a French invasion of 
England or Ireland. Arriving in London, 
he conferred or corresponded with radical 
politicians, who all deprecated an invasion. 
He also renewed acquaintance with the 
Duchess of Kingston's former attorney, 
Cockayne, who betrayed his plans to Pitt. 
Cockayne accompanied Jackson to Dublin, 
and gave information to the authorities which 
led to the intercepting of Jackson's letters. 
Jackson was thereupon charged with high 
treason and arrested (24 April 1794), but was 
treated with great indulgence, and was al- 
lowed to receive visitors. One night, on a friend 
leaving him, he accompanied him to the gate, 
found the turnkey asleep, with his keys on 
the table, took up the keys to let his friend 
out, and went back to his ell. He could 
not have escaped without compromising both 
friend and turnkey. While awaiting trial 
he wrote and published ' Observations in An- 
swer to Mr. T. Paine's "Age of Reason,'" 
Dublin, 1795. Refusing to make any disclo- 
sures, which would apparently have saved 
his life, he was tried for high treason 23 April 
1795, the only evidence against him being 



Ill 



Jackson 



given by Cockayne and the intercepted let- 
ters. Curran, together with Ponsonby and 
M'Nally, defended him, their contention 
being that Cockayne was unworthy of cre- 
dit, and that a single witness was insuffi- 
cient. Jackson was convicted, but recom- 
mended to mercy on account of his age. 
He must therefore have looked or have been 
more than fifty-eight. Judgment was fixed 
for 30 April, on which day his wife break- 
fasted with him, and probably brought him 
poison. After whispering to M'Nally on his ar- 
rival in court, ' We have deceived the senate' 
(the dying words of the suicide Pierre in Ot- 
way's ' Venice Preserved '), he dropped down 
dead in the dock while his counsel were dis- 
puting the validity of the conviction. His 
suicide was attributed to a desire to save from 
forfeiture a small competency for his wife. 
His funeral, on 3 May, in St. Michan's ceme- 
tery, Dublin, was attended by the leading 
United Irishmen, who till his death had sus- 
pected him of being a government spy. He 
was twice married, and by his second wife 
had two daughters. 

[Madden's United Irishmen ; Lecky's Hist, of 
England in the 18th Cent. vii. 27, 28, 136; 
M'Nevin's Pieces of Irish History, New York, 
1807; Lives of Tone, Curran, and Grattan; 
Howell's State Trials ; John Taylor's Records of 
My Life, ii. 319-33.] J. G. A. 

JACKSON, WILLIAM (1730-1803), 
musical composer, known as JACKSON OP 
EXETEE, born 28 May 1730, was the son of 
an Exeter grocer, who afterwards became 
master of the city workhouse. After re- 
ceiving some musical instruction from John 
Silvester, organist of Exeter Cathedral, Jack- 
son was sent in 1748 to London, to become 
a pupil of John Travers, organist to the 
Chapel Royal. In 1767 he wrote the music 
for an adaptation of Milton's ' Lycidas,' which 
was produced at Covent Garden on 4 Nov. 
of the same year, on the occasion of the death 
of Edward Augustus, duke of York and 
Albany, brother to George HI. While in 
London Jackson was a visitor at the meetings 
of the Madrigal Society. On his return to 
Exeter he devoted himself to teaching music 
until Michaelmas 1777, when he was ap- 
pointed subchanter, organist, lay vicar, and 
master of choristers to the cathedral, in suc- 
cession to Richard Langdon. 

On 27 Dec. 1780 Jackson achieved a great 
success by the production at Drury Lane of 
his opera ' The Lord of the Manor,' the li- 
bretto to which was written by General John 
Burgoyne [q. v.] One of its numbers, ' En- 
compassed in an angel's frame,' became very 
popular, and the opera held the stage for 
fifty years. On 5 Dec. 1783 was first per- 



formed a comic opera, ' The Metamorphosis/ 
of which Jackson wrote the music and pro- 
bably the words also. 

In 1792, with the help of one or two friends, 
he started a Literary Society in Exeter. At 
its meetings, which were held at the Globe 
Inn, Fore Street, each member present read 
an original prose or verse composition. A 
volume of the compositions was published in 
1796. By means of an introduction from the 
Sheridans, with whom he was intimate, Jack- 
son contracted in his seventieth year a friend- 
ship with Samuel Rogers, the poet. Writing 
to Richard Sharp on 5 Feb. 1800, the poet 
says, his [Jackson's] kindness has affected me 
not a little. Among other proofs of his re- 
gard, he requested me to take charge of his 
papers.' Dr. Wolcot was another of Jack- 
son's intimate friends. Jackson died of dropsy 
on 12 July 1803. A contemporary account 
describes him as 'pleasant, social, and com- 
municative.' He possessed some skill as a 
painter of landscape after the style of his 
friend Gainsborough, and was an honorary 
exhibitor at the Royal Academy. Early in 
life he married Miss Bartlett of Exeter. His 
wife, two sons, and one daughter survived him. 

Jackson's music displays refinement and 
grace, but little character. Its insipidity is 
most obvious in his church music ; neverthe- 
less his ' Service in F ' was popular, and is 
still to be heard. Besides the works already 
mentioned, his published compositions in- 
clude : 1. 'Twelve Songs,' op. 1, London 
[1765 ?]. 2. ' Elegies for Three Voices,' op. 3, 
London, 1767. 3. 'Twelve Songs,' op. 4, 
London [1767 ?]. 4. < Twelve Songs,' op. 7, 
London [1768 ?]. 5. A setting of Warton's 
'Ode to Fancy,' op. 8, London [1768?]. 
6. ' Twelve Canzonets for Two Voices,' op. 9, 
London [1770?]. 7. 'Six Quartets for 
Voices,' op. 11, London [1775?]. 8. 'Twelve 
Canzonets for Two Voices,' op. 13, London 
[1780?]. 9. A setting of Pope's ode 'A 
Dying Christian to his Soul' [London, 
1780?]. 10. 'Twelve Pastorals for Two 
Voices",' op. 15, London [1784?]. 11. 'Twelve 
Songs,' op. 16, London [1785 ?]. 12. ' Six 
Epigrams for 2, 3, and 4 Voices,' op. 17, 
London [1786?]. 13. 'Six Madrigals for 
2, 3, and 4 Voices,' op. 18, London [1786?]. 

14. 'Services in C, E, E flat, and F.' 

15. ' Hymns in three parts.' He also pub- 
lished two small collections of sonatas for 
the harpsichord, and various separate glees 
and songs. 

Jackson was also the author of ' Thirty 
Letters on Various Subjects ' (three of them 
on music), anon., London, 1782 ; 2nd edit. 
London, 1784 ; 3rd edit. London, 1785, with 
author's name ; ' Observations on the Present 



Jackson 



112 



Jackson 



State of Music in London' (a pamphlet), 
London, 1791 ; ' Four Ages, together with 
Essays on Various Subjects,' London, 1798 ; 
' A First Book for Performers on Keyed In- 
etruments ; ' and various anonymous letters 
and essays contributed to periodicals. 

Posthumous publications were : ' Anthems 
and Church Services by the late W. Jackson 
of Exeter, edited by J. Peddon ' (organist to 
the cathedral), 3 vols., Exeter, 1819 ; ' The 
Year : a Cantata,' London, 1859 ; and selec- 
tions from his works, sacred and secular, 
4 vols., published in London without date. 

[Grove's Diet, of Music, ii. 27 ; Brown's Biog. 
Diet, of Music, p. 343 ; Bemrose's Choir Chant 
Book, App. p. xxi ; Georgian Era, iv. 246 ; 
Clayden's Early Life of Samuel Rogers, p. 399 ; 
Public Characters of 1798-9, p. 242 ; John 
Taylor's Records of My Life ; Madrigal Soc. Re- 
cords ; Jackson's music in Brit. Mus.] R. F. S. 

JACKSON, WILLIAM (1751-1815), 
bishop of Oxford, born in 1751, was the 
younger son of Cyril Jackson, physician, of 
Stamford, Lincolnshire, but latterly of York. 
He was entered at Manchester grammar school 
on 12 Jan. 1762, but was removed to West- 
minster in 1764, when he was elected a king's 
scholar. On 1 June 1768 he matriculated at 
Oxford as a student of Christ Church (FOSTER, 
Alumni Oxon. 1715-1886, ii. 737), and in 
1770 gained the chancellor's prize for Latin 
verse, the subject being ' Ars Medendi.' He 
graduated B.A. in 1772, M.A. in 1775, B.D. 
in 1783, and D.D. in 1799. At Christ Church 
he was for many years actively engaged as 
tutor, rhetoric reader, and censor. He also 
became chaplain to Markham, archbishop 
of York, who appointed him prebendary of 
Southwell on 23 Sept. 1780 (LE NEVE, Fasti, 
ed. Hardy, iii. 420), prebendary of York on 
26 March 1783 (ib. iii. 208), and rector of 
Beeford in East Yorkshire. On 19 Dec. 1783 
he was elected regius professor of Greek at 
Oxford (ib. iii. 517), and shortly afterwards 
one of the curators of the Clarendon press. 
In the same year he was chosen preacher 
of Lincoln's Inn. On 4 Jan. 1792 he was 
made prebendary of Bath and Wells (ib. 
i. 203), and became dean in 1799 (ib. i. 155). 
He was preferred to a canonry at Christ 
Church on 2 Aug. 1799 (ib. ii/522). The 
prince regent having vainly solicited his old 
tutor, Jackson's elder brother, Cyril [q. v.], 
to accept a bishopric, conferred that dignity 
upon William . Jackson was accordingly con- 
secrated bishop of Oxford on 23 Feb. 1812 (ib. 
ii. 509), and was subsequently appointed 
clerk of the closet to the king. He died at 
Cuddesdon, Oxford, on 2 Dec. 1815 (Gent. 
Mag. vol. Ixxxv. pt, ii. p. 633). In E. H. 
Barker's 'Parriana' (i. 421-4) Jackson is 



described as very self-indulgent. His por- 
trait, by W. Owen, is in Christ Church Hall. 
An engraving by S. W. Reynolds is in the old 
school at Manchester. 

Jackson published several sermons. 

[Reg. Manchester Grammar School (Chetham 
Soc.), i. 98-9 ; Welch's Alumni Westmon. 1852, 
p. 388 ; Wood's Antiq. of Oxford (Gutch). vol. ii. 
pt. ii. pp. 855, 950 ; Brit. Mus. Cat.] G. G. 

JACKSON, WILLIAM, 'of Masham' 
(1815-1866), musical composer, was born at 
Masham in Yorkshire on 9 Jan. 1815. He 
was the son of a miller, and as a boy worked 
in the flour-mill or in the fields. At an early 
age he showed an interest in music and in the 
mechanism of instruments. After mending 
some barrel-organs for neighbours, he induced 
his father (equally inexperienced) to help him 
in the construction of one, a task the pair 
accomplished during leisure hours in four 
months' time. Jackson then made a five- 
stop finger-organ. He had taught himself to 
play on fifteen musical instruments, studying 
scores from a library, as well as Callcott's 
' Grammar of Thorough Bass.' His first efforts 
in composition were some tunes for a military 
band, and twelve short anthems. In 1832 
Jackson was earning 3s. 6d. a week as a jour- 
neyman miller ; but after taking a few lessons 
at Ripon, he was appointed first organist to the 
Masham Church, at a salary of 30/. In 1839 
Jackson went into partnership with a tallow- 
chandler for thirteen years. In 1852 he 
settled in Bradford as a music-seller, in part- 
nership with one Winn, and became or- 
ganist to St. John's Church, and afterwards 
to the Horton Lane Independent Chapel. He 
was conductor of the Bradford Choral Union 
(male voices), chorus-master of the Bradford 
musical festivals of 1853, 1856, and 1859, 
and conductor of the Festival Choral Society 
from 1856. Jackson came withhis chorus of 
210 singers to London in 1858, and performed 
before the queen at Buckingham Palace. 

Jackson did not live to conduct his last 
work, the ' Praise of Music,' composed for the 
Bradford festival of 1866. He died at Ash- 
grove, Bradford, on 15 April 1866, leaving a 
widow and nine children. His son William, 
organist at Morningside Church, Edinburgh, 
died at Ripon on 10 Sept. 1877. 

Jackson published : 1 . An anthem for 
soprano and chorus, ' For joy let fertile valleys 
ring,' 1839. 2. A glee, ' Sisters of the Lea/ 
which won the prize at Huddersfield, 1840. 
3. ' 103rd Psalm,' 1841. 4. ' The Deliverance 
of Israel from Babylon,' oratorio, 3 parts, 
Leeds, 1844-5, first performed at Bradford, 
1847, and favourably criticised. 5. ' Blessed 
be the Lord God of Israel.' 6. A service in G. 



Jacob 



Jacob 



7. Church music in vocal score, London, 1848. 

8. ' Singing Class Manual.' 9. ' Mass in E,' 
four voices. 10. 'O come hither !' and 11. '0 
Zion ! ' anthems, 1850. 12. Oratorio, ' Isaiah,' 
1851, produced three years later at Bradford. 
13. Another ' 103rd Psalm,' 1856. 14. Can- 
tata, ' The Year,' words selected from various 
poets, London, composed for Bradford festival 
of 1859, published in that or the following 
year. 15. Several glees. 16. Slow move- 
ment and rondo, pianoforte. 17. ' O Happi- 
ness !' vocal duet. 18. Songs, 'Breathe not 
for me,' ' Come, here's a health,' ' She's on my 
heart,' 'Tears, idle tears.' 19. Sixty-three 
hymns and chants (Bradford Hymn-book 
harmonised), 1860. 20. Glees. 21. Sym- 
phony for orchestra and chorus, compressed 
for pianoforte, London, 1866. Jackson was 
the author of ' Rambles in Yorkshire/ a series 
of articles published in a newspaper. 

[Eliza Cook's Journal, ii. 324 ; Musical Times, 
iii. 229, xii. 289 ; Sheahan's Hist, of the Wapen- 
take of Claro, iii. 239 ; James's Hist, of Brad- 
ford, Supplement, p. 128; Musical World, xliv. 
252; Grove's Diet. ii. 27, iv. 685.] L. M. M. 

JACOB, ARTHUR (1790-1874), oculist, 
second son of John Jacob, M.D. (1754-1827), 
surgeon to the Queen's County infirmary, 
Maryborough, Ireland, by his wife Grace 
(1765-1835), only child of Jerome Alley of 
Donoughmore, was born at Knockfin, Mary- 
borough, on 13 or 30 June 1790. He studied 
medicine with his father, and at Steevens's 
Hospital, Dublin, under Abraham Colles 
[q. v.] Having graduated M.D. at the uni- 
versity of Edinburgh in 1814, he set out 
on a walking tour through the United King- 
dom, crossing the Channel at Dover, and con- 
tinuing his walk from Calais to Paris. He 
studied at Paris until Napoleon's return 
from Elba. He subsequently pursued his 
studies in London under Sir B. Brodie, Sir 
A. Cooper, and Sir W. Lawrence. In 1819 he 
returned to Dublin, and became demonstra- 
tor of anatomy under Dr. James Macartney 
at Trinity College. Here his anatomical re- 
searches gained for him a high reputation, and 
he collected a valuable museum, whichMacart- 
ney afterwards sold to the university of Cam- 
bridge. In 1819 he announced the discovery, 
whichhe had made in 1816, of a previously un- 
known membrane of the eye, in a paper in the 
' Philosophical Transactions ' (pt. i. pp.300-7). 
The membrane has been known since as 
' membrana Jacobi.' On leaving Macartney, 
Jacob joined with Graves and others in found- 
ing the Park Street School of Medicine. In 
1826 he was elected professor of anatomy in 
the Royal College of Surgeons in Ireland, 
and held the chair until 1869. He was three 

VOL. XXIX. 



In 



times chosen president of the colle, 
1832, in conjunction with Charles Benson' 
and others, he established the City of Dublin 
Hospital. "With Dr. Henry Maunsell in 
1839 he started the ' Dublin Medical Press,' a 
weekly journal of medical science, and edited 
forty-two volumes (1839 to 1859). He also 
took an active part in founding the Royal 
Medical Benevolent Fund Society of Ireland 
and the Irish Medical Association. At the 
age of seventy-five he retired from the active 
pursuit of his profession. His fame rests 
upon his anatomical and ophthalmological 
discoveries. Apart from his discovery of the 
'membrana Jacobi,' he described 'Jacob's 
ulcer,' and revived the operation for cataract 
through the cornea with the curved needle. To 
the ' Cyclopaedia of Anatomy ' he contributed 
an article on the eye, and to the ' Cyclopaedia of 
Practical Medicine ' treatises on ' Ophthalmia ' 
and ' Amaurosis.' In December 1860 a medal 
bearing his likeness was struck and presented 
to him, and his portrait, bust, and library 
were afterwards placed in the Royal College of 
Surgeons in Ireland. He died at Newbarnes, 
Barrow-in-Furness, on 21 Sept. 1874. In 
1824 he married Sarah, daughter of Coote 
Carroll, esq., of Ballymote, co. Sligo. She died 
on 6 Jan. 1839. By her he had five sons. 
His chief publications were : 1. 'A Treatise 
on the Inflammation of the Eyeball,' 1849. 
2. ' On Cataract and the Operation for its Re- 
moval by Absorption,' 1851. 

[British Medical Journal, 1874, ii. 511 ; Medi- 
cal Press and Circular, 1874, Ixix. 278, 285; 
Medical Times and Gazette, 3 Oct. 1874, pp. 
405-6; Graphic, 17 Oct. 1874, pp. 367, 372, 
with portrait; Jacob and Glascott's Hist, and 
Genealogical Narrative of the Families of Jacob, 
privately printed, 1875, pp. 63 sq.] G. C. B. 



JACOB, BENJAMIN (1778-1829), or- 
ganist, son of Benjamin Jacob, an amateur 
violinist, was born before 26 April 1778, 
and was employed as a chorister at Portland 
Chapel, London. He learnt the rudiments 
of music from his father, singing from Robert 
"Willoughby, harpsichord and organ from 
William Shrubsole and Matthew Cooke, and 
at a later date harmony from Dr. Samuel 
Arnold [q. v.] At the age of ten Jacob be- 
came organist of Salem Chapel, Soho; in 1789 
organist of Carlisle Chapel, Kennington Lane ; 
in 1790 organist of Bentinck Chapel, Lisson 
Grove; in 1791 he was a chorister at tho 
Handel commemoration ; and in 1794 was ap- 
pointed organist of Surrey Chapel, in succes- 
sion to John Immyns [q. v.], the first organist 
there. An organ (built by Thomas Elliot) 
was first introduced into Surrey Chapel in 
1793, ten years after the chapel was opened 



Jacob 



114 



Jacob 



by Rowland Hill (1744-1833) [q.v.], and 'all 
the serious people were exceedingly grieved' 
by its introduction. Jacob held the post 
until 1825; he was a very fine executant, 
and established a series of organ recitals at 
the chapel. In 1809 Wesley played alter- 
nately with him, and in 1811 and some 
years afterwards Dr. Crotch [q. v.] was his 
principal coadjutor. Their concerts begun at 
11 A.M. and lasted between three and four 
hours, the audiences numbering three thou- 
sand people. A variation was made when 
Salomon played the violin in concert with the 
organ. Jacob also gave annual public con- 
certs in aid of the Rowland Hill Almshouses. 
His connection with Hill ceased after May 
1825, when he accepted the post of organist 
to St. John's Church, Waterloo Road, at a 
salary of 70/., with permission to play once 
each Sunday at Surrey Chapel. Hill preferred 
to dispense entirely with the musician's ser- 
vices, and after a painful discussion and a 
published correspondence their friendship 
was interrupted. Jacob remained at St. 
John's Church until his death on 24 Aug. 
1829. He was buried atBunhill Fields. He 
left a widow and three daughters. An only 
son died early. 

Jacob's compositions were few and unim- 
portant. The best known are ' Dr. Watts's 
Divine and Moral Songs, Solos, Duets, 
and Trios,' London, 1800 (?) ; 'National 
Psalmody ' contains twelve pieces by Jacob 
among a large collection of old church melo- 
dies, London, 1819, 4to. Jacob is also re- 
presented in ' Surrey Chapel Music,' London, 
2 vols. 1800 (?) and 1815 (?). ' Letters ' ad- 
dressed by Wesley to Jacob ' relating to 
Bach' were published by Eliza Wesley in 
1875. 

[Diet, of Music, 1827, i. 385; Georgian Era, 
iv. 324 ; Grove's Diet, of Music, ii. 28 ; article 
by F. G. Edwards in the Nonconformist Musical 
Journal, April and May 1890.] L. M. M. 

JACOB, EDWARD (1710 ?-1788), an- 
tiquary and naturalist, born about 1710, was 
son of Edward Jacob, surgeon, alderman, and 
chamberlain of Canterbury, Kent, by his wife 
Mary Chalker of Romney in the same county. 
He practised as a surgeon at Faversham, 
Kent, and was several times mayor of the 
borough. He purchased the estate of Sex- 
tries in Nackington, near Canterbury. He 
died at Faversham on 26 Nov. 1788, in his 
seventy-eighth year (Gent. Mag. vol. Iviii. 
pt. ii. p. 1127). Jacob married, first, on 
4 Sept. 1739, Margaret, daughter of John 
Rigden of Canterbury, by whom he had no 
surviving issue; and secondly, Mary, only 
daughter of Stephen Long of Sandwich, Kent, 



by whom he had eleven children ; she died 
on 7 March 1803, in her eighty-first year (ib. 
vol. Ixxiii. pt. i. p. 290; Arch<eologia Cantiana, 
xiv. 384). 

Jacob was author of: 1. 'The History of 
the Town and Port of Faversham,' 8vo, Lon- 
don, 17 74; and 2. ' Plantse Favershamienses. 
A Catalogue of . . . Plants growing . . . about 
Faversham . . . With an Appendix, exhibit- 
ing a short view of the Fossil bodies of the 
adjacent Island of Shepey,' 8vo, London, 
1777, to which his portrait, engraved by 
Charles Hall, is prefixed. In 1754 he com- 
municated to the Royal Society 'An Account 
of several Bones of an Elephant found at 
Leysdown, in the Island of Sheppey' (Phil. 
Trans, vol. xlviii. pt. ii. pp. 626-7). In 1770 
he edited, with a preface, the tragedy, ' Arden 
of Faversham.' Jacob was elected F.S. A. on 
5 June 1755, and in 1780 contributed to the 
' Archseologia' some 'Observations on the 
Roman Earthen Ware taken from the Pan- 
Pudding Rock'at Whitstable, Kent, in which 
he took occasion to refute the views held by 
Governor Thomas Pownall, F.S. A. He also 
assisted William Boys in 'A Collection of 
the minute . . . Shells . . . discovered near 
Sandwich,' 4to [1784]. Some of his letters 
to A. C. Ducarel are printed in Nichols's 
'Illustrations of Literature' (vols. iv. vi.); 
his correspondence with E. M. da Costa, ex- 
tending from 1748 to 1776, is in Addit. MS. 
28538, ff. 260-77. 

JOHN JACOB (1765-1840), third son of 
the above, born on 27 Dec. 1765, was in 
1803 residing at Roath Court, Glamorgan- 
shire. In 1815 he removed to Guernsey, 
where he employed his leisure in collecting 
materials for ' Annals of some of the British 
Norman Isles constituting the Bailiwick of 
Guernsey,' of which part i., comprising the 
Casket Lighthouses, Alderney, Sark, Herm, 
and Jethou, with part of Guernsey, was 
printed in a large octavo volume at Paris in 
1830. Part ii., announced for December 1831, 
never appeared. John Jacob died on 21 Feb. 
1840, in Guernsey, in his seventy-fifth year 
( Gent. Mag. newser. xiv. 663-4). He married 
Anna Maria, daughter of George Le Grand, 
surgeon, of Canterbury, and had five sons and 
four daughters. Sir George Le Grand Jacob 
[q. v.] was his fifth son. 

[Nichols's Lit. Anecd. vii. 194, 601 ; Jacob 
and Glascott's Hist, and Geneal. Narrative of 
the Families of Jacob, privately printed, 1 875, 
pp. 15, 23.] G. G. 

JACOB, SIR GEORGE LE GRAND 
(1805-1881), major-general in the Indian 
army, the fifth son and youngest child of 
John Jacob [see JACOB, EDWABD, 1710?- 



Jacob i 

1788, ad Jin.'], by his wife Anna Maria Le 
Grand, was born at his father's residence, 
Roath Court, near Cardiff, 24 April 1805. His 
family in 1815 removed to Guernsey. Jacob 
was educated at Elizabeth College, Guernsey, 
and under private tutors in France and Eng- 
land, and when about fifteen was sent to 
London to learn oriental languages under 
Dr. John Borthwick Gilchrist [q. v.] He ob- 
tained an Indian infantry cadetship in 1820, 
and on the voyage out to Bombay contracted 
a close friendship with Alexander Burnes 
[q. v.] He was posted to the 2nd or grena- 
dier regiment Bombay native infantry (now 
Prince of Wales's own) as ensign 9 June 
1821, in which corps he obtained all his 
regimental steps except the last. His sub- 
sequent commissions were : lieutenant 10 Dec. 
1823, captain 6 June 1836, major 1 May 
1848, lieutenant-colonel in the (late) 31st 
Bombay native infantry 15 Nov. 1853, brevet- 
colonel 6 Dec. 1856, brigadier-general 21 July 
1858, major-general on retirement 31 Dec. 
1861. 

Jacob passed for interpreter in Hindustani 
so speedily after arrival in India, that he was 
complimented in presidency general orders. 
He afterwards passed in Persian and Ma- 
rathi. He saw some harassing service with 
his regiment against the Bheels in the pes- 
tiferous Nerbudda jungles, and was subse- 
quently with it in Cutch and at Ukulkote. 
He took his furlough home in 1831, and in 
January 1833 was appointed orderly officer in 
the East India Military Seminary, Addis- 
combe. While there, at the request of the 
Oriental Translation Fund, he undertook 
the translation of the ' Ajaib-al-Tabakat ' 
(Wonder of the Universe), a manuscript 
purchased by Alexander Burnes in the bazaar 
at Bokhara. Jacob considered the work not 
worth printing, and his manuscript translation 
is now in the library of the Asiatic Society, 
London. On 18 June 1835 he married Emily, 
daughter of Colonel Utterton of Heath Lodge, 
Croydon, and soon afterwards sailed for India. 
His wife died at sea, and Jacob landed at 
Bombay in very broken health. He recovered 
under the care of a brother, William Jacob, 
then an officer in the Bombay artillery, and in 
1836 was appointed second political assistant 
in Kattywar, where he was in political charge 
in 1839-43. His ability in dealing with the 
disputed Limree succession was noticed by 
the government ; the curious details are given 
in his book (Ls GRAND JACOB, Western India, 
pp. 22-55). He was also thanked for his 
report on the Babriawar tribes (1843) and 
other reports on Kattywar. Early in 1845 he 
served as extra aide-de-camp to Major-general 
Delamotte during the disturbances in the 



-5 Jacob 

South Mahratta country, and was wounded 
in the head and arm by a falling rock when 
in command of the storming party in the 
assault on the hill-fort of Munsuntosh. In 
April 1845 Jacob was appointed political 
agent in Sawunt Warree. The little state 
was bankrupt,with its gaols overflowing ; but 
Jacob's judicious measures during a period 
of six years restored order, retrieved the 
finances, andreformed abuses. On 8 Jan. 1851 
Jacob was made political agent in Cutch, and 
was sent into Sind as a special commissioner 
to inquire into the case of the unfortunate 
Mir Ali Morad, khan of Khypore, the papers 
relating to which were printed among ' Ses- 
sional Papers' of 1858 and the following 
years. He also sat on an inquiry into de- 
partmental abuses at Bombay. An account 
of his travels in Cutch appeared in the ' Pro- 
ceedings ' for 1862 of the Bombay Geogra- 
phical Society, since merged in the Asiatic 
Society of Bombay. His health needing 
change, he obtained leave, and visited China, 
Java, Sarawak, and Australia, ' keeping his 
eyes and ears ever on the alert, always read- 
ing, writing, or inquiring mostly smoking 
winning men by his geniality and women by 
his courteous bearing ' (Overland Mail, 6 May 
1881). On his return he was shipwrecked 
on a coral reef in Torres Straits, and saved 
from cannibal natives by a Dutch vessel. He 
quitted Cutch for Bombay in December 1856, 
at first purposing to retire ; but he served under 
Outram in the Persian expedition. In Persia 
he was in command of the native light batta- 
lion in the division under Henry Havelock, 
whom Jacob appears to have regarded as too 
much of a martinet. He returned with the 
expeditionary force to Bombay in May 1857. 
Acting under the orders of Lord Elphin- 
stone, the governor of Bombay, Jacob arrived 
at Kolaporeonl4 Aug., a fortnight after the 
27th Bombay native infantry had broken 
into mutiny there. Four days later he, with 
a mere handful of troops, quietly disarmed 
the regiment, and brought the ringleaders of 
the outbreak to justice (JACOB, Western India, 
pp. 144-77). On 4 Dec. following, when the 
city closed its gates against Jacob's small force 
which was encamped in their lines outside, 
Jacob promptly blew open one of the gates, 
put the rebels to flight, tried by drumhead 
court-martial and executed on the spot thirty- 
six who were caught red-handed, and held 
the city until the mischief was past (ib. 
pp. 182-208). His vigour, no doubt, pre- 
vented the wave of rebellion from sweeping 
over the whole southern Mahratta country 
and overflowing into the nizam's dominions 
(HOLMES, Indian Mutiny, p. 455 ; Report on 
Administration of Public Affairs in Bombay, 

12 



Jacob 



116 



Jacob 



pp. 18-19). Jacob was specially thanked in 
presidency general orders 8 Jan. 1858 for 'the 
promptitude and decision shown by you on 
the occasion of the recent insurrection at 
Kolapore,' and ' for the manner in which you 
upheld the honour of this army, proving' to 
all around you what a British officer can effect 
by gallantry and prudence in the face of the 
greatest difficulties ' (ib. p. 264). Jacob's 
powers, at first limited to Kolapore, Sawunt 
Warree, and Rutnagerry, were in May 1858 
extended to the whole South Mahratta coun- 
try, of which he was appointed special com- 
missioner, the command of the troops with the 
rank of brigadier-general being subsequently 
added. After dealing successfully with various 
local outbreaks (ib. pp. 210-32), Jacob was sent 
to Goa to confer with the Portuguese autho- 
rities respecting the Sawunt rebels on the 
frontier (ib. pp. 232-6). This service suc- 
cessfully accomplished, he resigned his com- 
mand. He remained nominally political agent 
in Cutch up to the date of his leaving India 
in 1859. James Outram appears to have 
desired that Jacob should succeed him as 
member of the council at Calcutta, but he 
retired with the rank of major-general from 
31 Dec. 1861. He was made C.B. in 1859, 
and K.C.S.I. in 1869. 

Jacob has been likened in character to his 
cousin, General John Jacob [q. v.] He had 
the same fearlessness, the same hatred of red- 
tape and jobbery, and the same genius for 
understanding and conciliating Asiatics. His 
outspoken advocacy of native rights not un- 
frequently gave offence to the officials with 
whom he came in contact. Throughout his 
life he was a zealous student of the literature 
of India, and whenever opportunity offered 
did his best to promote research in the history 
and antiquities of the land. He was one of 
the earliest copiers of the Asoka inscriptions 
(250 B.C.) at Girnar, Kattywar; and in Cun- 
ningham's ' Corpus Inscriptionum,' Calcutta, 
1877, are many inscriptions transcribed by 
him in Western India. A list of papers bear- 
ing on the history, archaeology, topography, 
geology, and metallurgy of Western India, 
contributed by Jacob at different times to 
various publications, is given in the ' Journal 
of the Asiatic Society,' London, new ser. 
xiii. pp. vii and viii. Some are included in 
the ' Royal Society's Catalogue of Scientific 
Papers ; ' but neither list appears complete. 
In his prime he was an ardent sportsman. 
Seven lions fell to his rifle in one day in 
Kattywar, and his prowess as a shikarry is 
perpetuated in native verse. The last twenty 
years of Jacob's life were spent at home under 
much suffering a constant struggle with 
asthma, bronchitis, and growing blindness. 



His mental vigour remained unimpaired. 
With the assistance of his niece and adopted 
daughter, Miss Gertrude Le Grand Jacob, he 
wrote his ' Western India before and during 
the Mutiny,' which was published in 1871, 
and was highly commended by the historian 
Kaye ; and shortly before his death he paid 
20/. for a translation from the Dutch of some 
papers of interest on the island of Bali (east 
of Java), subsequently printed in the 'Journal 
of the Asiatic Society,' London, viii. 115, ix. 
59, x. 49. Jacob died in London on 27 Jan. 
1881, and was buried in Brookwood ceme- 
tery, near Woking, Surrey. 

[East India Kegisters and Army Lists ; Kaye's 
Hist. Indian Mutiny, ed. Malleson, cabinet edi- 
tion, vol. v. book xiii. chap. i. book xir. chap. iv. ; 
T. R. E. Holmes's Indian Mutiny, 3rd ed. pp. 446- 
457 ; Report on Administration of Public Affairs 
in Bombay in 1857-8; Goldsmid's James Outram, 
a biography, London, 1888, i. 341-80; Overland 
Mail, 6 May 1881 ; Journal of the Asiatic Soc. 
London, May 1881, new ser. vol. xiii.; Jacob's 
Western India.] H. M. C. 

JACOB, GILES (1686-1744), compiler, 
born in 1686 at Romsey, Hampshire, was the 
son of a maltster. In his ' Poetical Register ' 
(i. 318) he states that he was bred to the 
law under a ' very eminent attorney,' and 
that he was afterwards steward and secretary 
to the Hon. William Blathwait. He died 
on 8 May 1744. 

Jacob was a most diligent compiler. He 
is chiefly remembered by the (1) ' Poetical 
Register, or Lives and Characters of the Eng- 
lish Dramatic Poets,' 2 vols., 1719-20, 8vo 
(some copies are dated 1723) ; and (2) ' A 
New Law Dictionary,' 1729, fol., which 
reached a tenth edition in 1782, and was re- 
issued, with additions by T. Tomlins, in 1797, 
1809, and 1835. Among other law-books 
compiled by Jacob are : 3. ' The Accom- 
plished Conveyancer,' 3 vols., 1714. 4. ' Lex 
Mercatoria,' 1718. 5. 'Lex Constitutionis,' 
1719. 6. ' The Laws of Appeal and Murder,' 
1719. 7. 'The Laws of Taxation,' 1720. 

8. ' The Common Law common-placed,' 1726. 

9. ' The Compleat Chancery-Practiser,' 1730. 

10. ' City Liberties/ 1732, &c. Other com- 
pilations are: 11. 'The Compleat Court- 
keeper, or Land-Steward's Assistant,' 1713 ; 
8th edit. 1819. 12. 'The Country Gentle- 
man's Vade Mecum, containing an Account 
of the best Methods to improve Lands,' 1717. 
13. ' The Compleat Sportsman,' in three parts, 
1718. 14. 'The Land Purchaser's Com- 
panion,' 1720. 

In 1714 Jacob published an indifferent 
farce (never acted), ' Love in a Wood, or 
the Country Squire ' (one act, prose) ; and 
he mentions in the 'Poetical Register' that 



Jacob 



117 



Jacob 



he had written a play called ' The Soldier's 
Last Stake.' ' Human Happiness : a Poem,' 
&c., appeared in 1721, with a dedication to 
Prior. 

Pope introduced Jacob in the ' Dunciad,' 
iii. 149-50: 

Jacob, the Scourge of Grammar, mark with awe, 
Nor less revere him, Blunderbuss of Law. 

In the 'Poetical Register' Pope had been 
handsomely treated, but scant courtesy had 
been shown to Gay, in whose behalf Pope 
attacked Jacob. The latter retorted in a 
letter to John Dennis, printed in ' Remarks 
upon several Passages in the Preliminaries 
to the " Dunciad," by John Dennis,' 1729. 
In 1733 Jacob reprinted the letter to Dennis 
(and opened a fresh attack on Pope) in ' The 
Myrrour, or Letters Satyrical, Panegyrical, 
Serious,' &c., 8vo. 

[Poetical Kegister, i. 318; Baker's Biographia 
Dramatica, 1812 ; Nichols's Anecdotes, viii. 296- 
297 ; Watt ; Brit. Mus. Cat. See for supposed 
descendants Jacob and Grlascott's Hist, and 
Genealog. Narrative of the Families of Jacob, 
privately printed, p. 99.] A. H. B. 

JACOB, HENRY (1563-1624), sectary, 
born in 1563, was son of John Jacob, yeo- 
man, of Cheriton, Kent (parish register). 
He matriculated at Oxford from St. Mary 
Hall on 27 Nov. 1581 (Oxf. Univ. Reg., Oxf. 
Hist. Soc., vol. ii. pt. ii. p. Ill), and gradu- 
ated B.A. in 1583 and M.A. in 1586 (ib. 
vol. ii. pt. iii. p. 116). His father left him 
property at Godmersham, near Canterbury. 
For some time he was precentor of Corpus 
Christi College, Oxford, but he never held 
the rectory of Cheriton. About 1590 he 
joined the Brownists, and upon the general 
banishment of that sect in 1593 he retired to 
Holland. On his return to England in 1597 
he heard Bilson [q. v.], bishop of Winchester, 
preach at Paul's Cross on the article in the 
Apostles' Creed relating to Christ's descent 
into hell. He opposed Bilson's doctrine in 
' A Treatise of the Suiferings and Victory of 
Christ in the Worke of our Redemption de- 
claring . . . that Christ after his Death on 
the Crosse went not into Hell in his Soule,' 
8vo (Middelburg ?), 1598. For this attack 
he was again compelled to fly to Holland, 
where he renewed the conflict in ' A Defence 
of " A Treatise," ' 4to, 1600. 

Though a Brownist, Jacob allowed that 
the church of England was a true church in 
need of a thorough reformation. Hence he 
was commonly called a ' semiseparatist,' and 
his moderation involved him in a fierce con- 
troversy with Francis Johnson [q. v.] 

For a time Jacob settled at Middelburg 
in Zealand, where he collected a congrega- 



tion of English exiles. Thence he issued an 
address ' to the right High and Mightie 
Prince lames,' entitled ' An humble Suppli- 
cation for Toleration and Libertie to enioy 
and observe the ordinances of Christ lesvs 
in th' administration of his Churches in lieu 
of humane constitutions,' 4to, 1609. The 
copy in the Lambeth Library contains mar- 
ginal notes by the king. In 1610 he went to 
Leyden to confer with John Robinson (1575- 
1625) [q. v.], and ultimately adopted the 
latter's views in regard to church govern- 
ment, since known by the name of indepen- 
dency or Congregationalism. In 1616 he re- 
turned to London with the object of forming 
a separatist congregation similar to those 
which he and Robinson had organised in 
Holland ; and the religious society which 
he succeeded in bringing together in South- 
wark is generally supposed to have been the 
first congregational church in England. In 
the same year he sent forth as the manifesto 
of this new sect ' A Confession and Protesta- 
tion of the Faith of Certain Christians in 
England, holding it necessary to observe and 
keep all Christs true substantial Ordinances 
for his Church visible and political,' &c., 
16mo, 1616, to which was added a petition to 
James I for the toleration of such Christians. 
He continued with this congregation about 
six years. In order to disseminate his views 
among the colonists of Virginia, he removed 
thither with some of his children in October 
1622 and formed a settlement, which was 
named after him ' Jacobopolis.' He died in 
April or May 1624 in the parish of St. An- 
drew Hubbard, London (Probate Act Book, 
P. C. C., 1624). By his wife Sara, sister of 
John Dumaresq of Jersey, who survived him, 
he had several children. 

Jacob's writings, other than those noticed, 
include: 1. ' A Defence of the Churches and 
Ministery of Englande, written against the 
. . . Brownists,' &c., 2 pts., 4to, Middelburg, 
1599. Francis Johnson rejoined in ' An An- 
swer,' 1600. 2. ' Reasons taken out of God's 
Word and the best humane testimonies prov- 
ing a necessitie of reforming our Churches 
in England,' 4to (Middelburg ?), 1604, dedi- 
cated to James I. 3. ' A Position against 
vainglorious and that which is falsly called 
learned Preaching,' 8vo, 1604. 4. ' A Chris- 
tian and Modest OlFer of a ... Conference 
. . . abovt the . . . Controversies betwixt 
the Prelats and the late silenced . . . Mini- 
sters in England,' 4to, 1606. 5. ' The Divine 
Beginning and Institution of Christs True 
Visible or Ministeriall Church,' 8vo, Leyden, 
1610. 6. ' A Plaine and Cleere Exposition of 
the Second Commandement,' 8vo [Leyden ?] 
1610 ; another edition Middelburg, 1611. 



Jacob 



118 



Jacob 



7. 'A Declaration and plainer opening of 
certain points ... in a Treatise intituled 
" The Divine Beginning," ' &c., 12mo, Mid- 
delburg,1611; another edit. 8vo, 1612. 8. 'An 
Attestation of many . . . Divines . . . that the 
Church-governement ought to bee alwayes 
with the peoples free consent,' incidentally 
replying to Downame and Bilson, 8vo 
[Geneva?], 1613. To Jacob has been wrongly 
attributed ' A Counter-Poyson ' (1584 ?), a 
reply to Richard Cosin [q. v.] ; it was written 
by Dudley Fenner [q. v.j 

HENRY JACOB (1608-1652), son of the 
above, studied at Leyden ; arrived in Oxford 
in 1628, and on recommendations made by 
William Bedwell [q. v.] to the Earl of Pem- 
broke, the chancellor, was created B.A. In 
1629 he was elected probationer-fellow of 
Merton College ; became subsequently ' reader 
in philology to the juniors' there ; and in 1641 
was nominated superior beadle of divinity 
and proceeded bachelor of physic. Selden 
befriended him and learned much Hebrew 
from him, but he was shiftless and always in 
pecuniary difficulties, was expelled from his 
fellowship in 1648 by the parliamentary com- 
missioners, and died at Canterbury 5 Nov. 
1652. He was buried in the church of All 
Saints. Henry Birkhead published (Oxford, 
1652) a collection of his Greek and Latin- 
verse with two of his Oxford lectures, and 
Edmund Dickinson [q. v.] issued as his own 
(Oxford, 1655) Jacob's ' Delphi Phoenici- 
zantes ' (WooD, Athena Oxon. ed. Bliss, iii. 
329). 

[Notes kindly communicated by E. J. Fyn- 
more, esq. ; Dexter's Congregationalism as seen 
in its Literature, passim ; will of Henry Jacob, 
registered in P. C. C. 38, Byrde ; Wood's Athenae 
Oxon. (Bliss), ii. 308-10, iii. 329; Brook's 
Lives of the Puritans, ii. 330-4; Jacob and 
Glascott's Families of Jacob.pp. 6-7 ; Hanbury's 
Historical Memorials, i. 292.] G. G. 

JACOB, HILDEBRAND (1693-1739), 
poet, born in 1693, was only son of Colonel 
Sir John Jacob, third baronet, of Bromley, 
Kent, by his wife Lady Catherine Barry, 
daughter of the second Earl of Barrymore. 
He was named after his mother's brother, 
Hildebrand Alington, fourth lord Alington 
(d. 1722). He is usually described as of 
West Wratting, Cambridgeshire. During 
1728 and 1 729 he visited Paris, Vienna, and 
the chief towns of Italy. He died, in the 
lifetime of his father, on 25 May 1739, having 
married Muriel, daughter of Sir John Bland, 
bart., of Kippax Park, Yorkshire, by whom 
he left a son, Hildebrand (see below), and a 
daughter. 

Jacob published anonymously in 1720-1 
a clever but indelicate poem, ' The Curious 



Maid,' which was frequently imitated and 
parodied. ' The Fatal Constancy,' a tragedy, 
acted five times at Drury Lane, was published 
in 1 723, 8vo. ' Bedlam: a Poem,' and ' Chiron 
to Achilles: a Poem,' appeared in 1732, 4to ; 
they were followed in 1734 by a 'Hymn to 
the Goddess of Silence,' fol., and ' Of the 
Sister Arts : an Essay,' 8vo. These scattered 
writings were collected, with large additions, 
in 1735, in 1 vol. 8vo : ' The Works of Hilde- 
brand Jacob, Esq., containing Poems on 
various Subjects and Occasions, with the 
" Fatal Constancy," a Tragedy, and several 
Pieces in Prose. The greatest Part never 
before publish'd.' In the dedicatory epistle 
to James, earl of Waldegrave, ambassador 
extraordinary at the court of France, Jacob 
states that he published the book because 
incorrect copies had been circulated, and 
because he wished to convince his friends 
that he was not the author of ' some, perhaps, 
less pardonable Productions that were laid 
to my charge here at home while I had the 
advantage of living under your Lordship's 
protection abroad.' The dedicatory epistle 
is followed by an amusing ' Dialogue, which 
is to serve for preface,' between the publisher 
and author. In the essay, ' How the Mind 
is rais'd to the Sublime,' Jacob shows himself 
to have been an enthusiastic admirer of Mil- 
ton. < A Letter from Paris to R. B * * * *, 
Esq.,' gives a very interesting account of his 
travels in 1728-9. Jacob's other works are 
'Donna Clara to her Daughter Theresa: an 
Epistle ' (verse), 1737, fol. ; and ' The Nest 
of Plays,' 1738, 8vo, consisting of three sepa- 
rate comedies ' The Prodigal Reformed,' 
' The Happy Constancy,' and ' The Trial of 
Conjugal Love' which were acted on the 
same night at Covent Garden, and were em- 
phatically damned. 

SlE HlLDEBKAXD JACOB (d. 1790), the 

poet's son, who succeeded to the baronetcy 
on the death of his grandfather in 1740, is 
said to have been excelled by few as a general 
scholar, and ' in knowledge of Hebrew scarcely 
equalled.' It is related of him that in early 
life, as soon as the fine weather set in and the 
roads were clear, he used to start off with his 
man, ' without knowing whither they were 
going.' When it drew towards evening he in- 
quired at the nearest village whether ' the 
great man in it was a lover of books and had a 
fine library. If the answer was in the negative, 
they went on further ; if in the affirmative, 
Sir Hildebrand sent his compliments that he 
was come to see him, and then he used to 
stay till time or curiosity induced him to 
move elsewhere' (Gent. Mag. 1790, p. 1055). 
In this way he travelled through the greater 
part of England. He died unmarried at 



Jacob 



119 



Jacob 



Malvern, 4 Nov. 1790, aged 76, and was 
buried at St. Anne's, Soho. 

[Jacob and Glascott's Hist, and Geneal. Nar- 
rative of the Families of Jacob, privately printed, 
p. 42; Baker's Biog. Dram. 1812; Gent. Mag. 
1790, p. 1055; Nichols's Lit. Auecd. ii. 61, 83.] 

A. H. B. 

JACOB, JOHN (1765-1840), topo- 
grapher. [See under JACOB, EDWARD.] 

JACOB, JOHN (1812-1858), brigadier- 
general, fifth son of Stephen Long Jacob, 
vicar of Woolavington-cum-Puriton, Somer- 
set, by his wife Eliza Susanna, eldest daughter 
of James Bond, vicar of Ashford, Kent, was 
born at Woolavington on 11 Jan. 1812. Wil- 
liam Stephen Jacob [q. v.] was his brother, and 
Sir George le Grand Jacob [q. v.] his cousin. 
He was educated at home by his father until 
1826, when he was sent to Addiscombe Col- 
lege. Havingobtained a commission as second 
lieutenant in the Bombay artillery of the East 
India Company's service on 11 Jan. 1828, he 
went to India, and passed the first seven years 
of his service with his regiment. He was then 
entrusted with a small detached command, 
and later was employed for a short time in 
the provincial administration of Guzerat. He 
was promoted lieutenant on 14 May 1836. 

On the outbreak of the Afghan war in 
1838, Jacob went to Sind with the Bombay 
column of the army of the Indus under the 
command of Sir John Keane, and in 1839 
commanded the artillery in the expedition 
under Major Billamore into the hill country 
north of Cutchee. This was the first expe- 
dition ever undertaken against the hill tribes 
of that deadly climate, and the interesting de- 
tails were only made known by Jacob in 1845, 
when the publication of Sir William Na- 
pier's ' History of the Conquest of Sind ' pro- 
voked the 'surviving subaltern of Billa- 
more's' to correct the inaccuracies of the 
historian. Soon after the close of the ex- 
pedition Jacob made a reconnaissance of the 
route from Hyderabad to Nuggar Parkur in 
a very hot season and at considerable risk. 
For this service he received the official com- 
mendation of the Bombay government. 

In 1839, when all North-west India was 
in a ferment, it was determined to raise some 
squadrons of irregular horse for service on 
the frontier, and in 1841 some six hundred 
men stood enrolled as the Sind irregular 
torse. At the end of 1841 it was decided to 
augment the regiment. Outram, the politi- 
cal agent in Sind and Baluchistan, selected 
Jacob for the command, and also for the 
political charge of Eastern Cutchee, and in 
an official letter to Jacob of 9 Nov. 1842 was 
able to record that for the first time within 
the memory of man Cutch and Upper Sind | 



had been for a whole year entirely free from 
the devastating irruption of the hill tribes. 
This result he ascribed entirely to the extra- 
ordinary vigilance of Jacob and the strict 
discipline enforced by him. 

At the end of 1842 Sir Charles Napier 
arrived in Sind. On the fields of Meanee, 
Dubba or Hyderabad, and Shah-dad-poor, 
Jacob's irregular horse won great fame. 
Napier called him 'one of the best officers he 
had ever met in his life,' and in his despatch 
after the battle of Meanee (fought 17 Feb. 
1843) said that the crisis of the action was 
decided by the charge of Jacob's horse and 
the 9th Bengal cavalry. Jacob, he said, had 
rendered ' the most active services long pre- 
vious to and during the combat. He won the 
enemy's camp, from which he drove a body 
of 3,000 or 4,000 cavalry.' To Sir William 
Napier he called Jacob ' the Seidlitz of the 
Sind army.' At Shah-dad-poor Jacob, with 
a force of eight hundred men of all arms, 
attacked the army of Shere Mahomed, eight 
thousand strong, and utterly defeated and 
dispersed it. Jacob also served at the capture 
of Oomercote. Although Jacob was recom- 
mended for promotion and honours, neither 
came, and he wrote to his father that he wished 
he had died at Meanee, but that he had the 
consolation of knowing that in the eyes of 
his superiors and comrades he had merited 
the distinction which had fallen to others, 
and he found distraction in incessant work. 

The publication of Sir William Napier's 
' History of the Conquest of Sind,' with its 
studied depreciation of Outram, roused Jacob 
to enter the lists for his friend and to publish 
a rejoinder, which led to a complete estrange- 
ment from Sir Charles Napier. When Napier 
left Sind in 1847 Jacob, who had been made 
a brevet captain on 11 Jan. 1843 and hono- 
rary aide-de-camp to the governor-general on 
8 March the same year, was appointed political 
superintendent and commandant of the fron- 
tier of Upper Sind. On 10 Sept, 1850 he was 
made a C.B. for his services in 1843 ; he 
had already received medals for Meanee and 
Hyderabad. In 1847 Jacob achieved a suc- 
cess against the Boogtees at Shahpore, and 
in 1852 was given the command of the troops 
at Koree for service in Upper Sind. From a 
few troops the Sind horse had expanded until 
it included a second regiment, the Silidar, 
raised by Jacob, and the whole force mustered 
1,600 of the best horsemen in India. Jacob 
trained his men to act always on the offensive. 
His detachments were posted in the open 
plain without any defensive works. Patrols 
scoured the country in every direction on the 
look-out for the enemy, which was no sooner 
discovered than it was attacked by the nearest 



Jacob 



120 



Jacob 



detachment. He thus struck terror into the 
marauding tribes, and prevented their incur- 
sion into British territory. He next disarmed 
every man in the country who was not a go- 
vernment servant, and he succeeded in get- 
ting some of them to work at roads and canals. 
Good roads were made all over the country, 
means of irrigation multiplied fourfold, and 
security generally established on the border. 
The village that ten years before did not con- 
tain fifty souls became a flourishing town of 
twelve thousand inhabitants, and in 1851, 
by order of Lord Dalhousie, its name was 
changed from Kanghur to Jacobabad in honour 
of the man who had made it. 

Jacob, who from subaltern to colonel re- 
mained the commandant of the corps which 
usually went by his name, was assisted by 
only four European officers, two to each regi- 
ment of eight hundred men, and yet the 
discipline was so firm and the devotion so 
unquestioned that it was said not a trooper 
in the corps knew any will but that of his 
colonel. Jacob's theory was that Europeans 
were naturally superior to Asiatics, and that 
the natives, so far from resenting such ascend- 
ency, desired nothing better than to profit by 
it. All they wanted was to obey, provided 
only that their obedience was claimed by one 
clearly competent to demand it. 

In 1854 Jacob was entrusted with the task 
of negotiating a treaty with the khan of Kelat, 
which he did to the entire satisfaction of the 
government of India. On 13 April 1855 he 
was promoted lieutenant-colonel, and on the 
departure of Bartle Frere on furlough to Eu- 
rope in 1856 was appointed acting commis- 
sioner in Sind. On 20 March 1857 Jacob was 
appointed aide-de-camp to the queen, with the 
rank of colonel in the army, in recognition of 
his services in Sind. 

When war was declared with Persia, Outram 
was named commander-in-chief, and Jacob 
received from his old friend the command of 
the cavalry division. He arrived in Bushire 
in March 1857, and was appointed to the com- 
mand at that place. When peace followed 
the fall of Mohumrah, Jacob, with the rank 
of brigadier-general, was left in command of 
the entire force in Persia until Bushire was 
entirely evacuated, when he returned to India. 
His services in Persia were favourably men- 
tioned in despatches, and in the ' Indian 
Government Gazette ' of 7 Nov. 1857. He 
landed at Bombay on 15 Oct., and proceeded 
at once to the north-west frontier. 

Shortly after his return to Sind he pub- 
lished his scheme for the reorganisation of the 
Indian army and a collected edition of his 
various tracts on the same subject. Captain 
(now Sir) Lewis Pelly, a member of Jacob's 



staff, had collected and edited the ' Views and 
Opinions of General Jacob,' and in 1858 a 
second edition, 1 vol. 8vo, was published in 
London. In the same year Jacob was au- 
thorised to raise two regiments of infantry, 
to be called 'Jacob's Rifles,' and to be armed 
with the pattern of rifle which he had in- 
vented, and, in face of great opposition, suc- 
cessfully developed, after spending much of 
his private resources on experiments with it 
and with its explosive bullet. Towards the 
end of 1858 he was surveying in the districts 
when, on 24 Nov., he was taken ill, and at 
once rode into Jacobabad, a distance of fifty 
miles. He arrived on 28 Nov., and died of 
brain fever on 5 Dec. 1858, surrounded by 
all the officers of his staff and of the Sind 
irregular horse, and by his oldest native 
officers. He was buried next day, mourned 
by the entire population, of whom it is esti- 
mated that ten thousand, out of the thirty 
thousand inhabitants to which Jacobabad had 
grown, were present at the ceremony. 

Jacob was unmarried, and did not visit Eng- 
land in the thirty years after he first set foot 
in India. He published many pamphlets on 
military organisation, and was unceasing in 
his denunciations of the lax state of discip- 
line of the Bengal army. His warnings were 
received with indignation and resentment at 
the time, but were too fully verified in the 
Indian mutiny before he died. He was a 
soldier of a rare type. A brilliant cavalry leader 
and swordsman, the inventor of a greatly im- 
proved rifle, the originator of a military 
system, his achievements in the field were 
not his greatest titles to public gratitude. 
He valued the military art only as the instru- 
ment and guarantee of civilisation and peace ; 
he sketched road and irrigation systems, and 
established schemes of revenue collection 
and magistracy, while he matured his mili- 
tary plans, and studied with care the internal 
politics of the ill-known, but important, 
countries beyond the north-western frontier, 
throughout which his name was held in respect. 
Jacob was a man of indefatigable energy, 
possessed of an even temper, and showing 
such an entire forgetfulness, amounting even 
to disdain, of self, that he acquired great influ- 
ence over all with whom he came in contact. 
A bust of Jacob was placed in the Shire 
Hall of his native county at Taunton. 

The following is a list of Jacob's works : 
1. Large map of Cutchee and the north-west 
frontier of Scinde, London, 1848. 2. Papers 
on ' Sillidar Cavalry, as it is and as it might 
be,' printed for private circulation only, 
Bombay, 8vo. 3. ' A few Remarks on the 
Bengal Army and Furlough Regulations with 
a view to their improvement, by a Bombay 



Jacob 



121 



Jacob 



Officer,' 1851 ; reprinted with corrections, 
8vo, Bombay, 1857. 4. 'Memoir of the First 
Campaign in the hills north of Cutchee, under 
Major Billamore, in 1839-40, by one of his 
surviving Subalterns,' with appendix, post 
8vo, London, 1852. 5. ' Record Book of the 
Scinde Irregular Horse,' printed for private 
use, 1st vol. fol., London, 1853 ; 2nd vol., 
London, 1 856. 6. ' Papers regarding the First 
Campaign against the Predatory Tribes of 
Cutchee in 1839-40, and affairs on the Scinde 
Frontier. Major Billamore's surviving subal- 
tern versus SirWilliam Napier and the " Naval 
and Military Gazette," ' 8vo, London, 1854. 
7. 'Remarks by a Bombay Officer on a pam- 
phlet published in 1849 on " The Deficiency 
of European Officers in the Army of India, 
by one of themselves." ' 8. ' Remarks on the 
Native Troops of the Indian Army,' London, 
1854. 9. ' Notes on Sir Charles Napier's 
posthumous work " On the Defects of the 
Government of India," ' 8vo, London, 1854. 
10. ' On the Causes of the Defects existing 
in our Army and in our Military Arrange- 
ment,' London, 1855. 11. 'Rifle Practice 
with Plates,' 1st edit. 1855, 2nd edit. 1856, 
3rd edit., 8vo, London and Bombay, 1857. 
12. 'Letters to a Lady on the progress of 
Being in the Universe,' for private circula- 
tion, 1855 ; reprinted, with prefatory apology 
and addenda, and published 8vo, London, 
1858. 13. ' Tracts on the Native Army of 
India, its Organisation and Discipline, with 
Notes by the Author,' 8vo, London, 1857. 
14. ' Notes on Sir William Napier's Adminis- 
tration of Scinde,' 8vo, no date. 

[Despatches ; India Office Records ; official and 
private correspondence and papers.] E. H. V. 

JACOB, JOSEPH (1667P-1722), sectary, 
born of quaker parents about 1667, was ap- 
prenticed to a linendraper in London, and 
early showed a keen interest in politics. In 
1688, shortly after his coming of age, he 
showed his zeal for the revolution by riding 
to meet William of Orange on his progress 
from Torbay. On the passing of the Tolera- 
tion Act in 1689 he avowed himself a con- 
gregationalist, and studied for the ministry 
under Robert Trail (1642-1716), a Scottish 
presbyterian minister in London. As a 
preacher he obtained a numerous following. 
He conducted a weekly lecture (1697) in the 
meeting-house of Thomas Gouge (1665?- 
1700) [q. v.], but this was soon stopped on 
the ground of his preaching politics. In his 
farewell sermon he satirised Matthew Mead 
[q. v.] and other leading nonconformist di- 
vines. He carried away some of Gouge's 
hearers, and his friends built him (1698) a 
meeting-house in Parish Street, Southwark. 



Here he introduced the then novel practice 
of standing to sing ; and enforced, on pain of 
excommunication, a strict code of life. Dress 
was regulated ; wigs were not allowed ; the 
moustache for men was obligatory. No one 
was permitted to marry out of the congrega- 
tion or to attend the worship of any other 
church. The society dwindled away, and 
the meeting-house was given up in 1702. 
Jacob then hired Turners' Hall, Philpot Lane, 
Fenchurch Street, where he preached politi- 
cal sermons, introducing many personalities. 
Before 1715 he removed to Curriers' Hall, 
London Wall, near Cripplegate, sharing the 
use of it with a baptist congregation. H# 
died on 26 June 1722, aged 55. The inscrip- 
tion on his monument in Bunhill Fields de- 
scribed him as ' an apostolic preacher.' He 
had good natural capacity and some learn- 
ing, but his eccentricities prevented his exeiv 
cising any permanent influence. His wife, 
Sarah Jacob, and two of his daughters were 
buried in Bunhill Fields. He published: 
1. ' Two Thanksgiving Sermons,' &c., 1702, 
4to. 2. ' A Thanksgiving Sermon,' &c., 1705, 
4to. 

[Wilson's Dissenting Chxirches of London, 
1808, i. 139 sq., 236, ii. 561 ; James's Hist. 
Litig. Presb. Chapels, 1867, p. 690.] A. G. 

JACOB, JOSHUA (1805 P-1877), leader 
of the ' White Quakers,' born at Clonmel, 
co. Tipperary, about 1805, prospered as a 
grocer in Dublin. A birthright member of 
the Society of Friends, he was disowned by 
that body in 1838. He then formed a society 
of his own, which gained adherents at Dublin, 
Clonmel, Waterford, and Mountmellick, 
Queen's County. His principal coadjutor 
was Abigail, daughter of William Beale of 
Irishtown, near Mountmellick. The society 
held a yearly meeting of Friends, commonly 
called ' White Quakers,' in Dublin, on 1 May 
1843. Its nickname was suggested by the 
practice of wearing undyed garments, a 
costume previously adopted, in 1762, by 
John Woolman (1720-1772) [q. v.] Jacob 
protested also against the use of newspapers, 
bells, clocks, and watches. Funds employed 
by him in his religious experiment were said 
to be derived from the property of some 
orphans, whose guardian he was. A chan- 
cery suit to recover the funds went against 
him, and he was imprisoned for two years 
for contempt of court. From his prison he 
issued anathemas against the chancellor 
(Sugden) and Master Litton. About 1849 
he established a community at Newlands, 
Clondalkin, co. Dublin, formerly the resi- 
dence of Arthur Wolfe, viscount Kilwarden 
[q. v.] The members of this establishment 



122 



Jacob 



lived in common, abstaining from flesh-food, 
and making bruised corn the staple of their 
diet, flour being rejected. On the breaking 
up of the Newlands community, Jacob went 
into business again at Celbridge, co. Kildare. 
He had lived apart from his wife, who did 
not share his peculiar views. On her death 
he married a person in humble life who 
was a Roman catholic, and at Celbridge 
Jacob brought up a numerous family in that 
faith. He died in Wales on 15 Feb. 1877, 
and was buried at Glasnevin cemetery, 
Dublin, in a plot of ground purchased long 
previously in conjunction with Abigail Beale, 
on which an obelisk had been erected. 

A list of his printed writings, undated (ex- 
cept the last), but all (except the first) issued 
in 1843, is given in Smith's 'Catalogue,' along 
with other publications emanating from the 
-society: 1. ' On the 18th of the 3rd month, 
1842 . . . the word of the Lord came,' 
c., fol. 2. 'The Beast, False Prophet,' 
&c., fol. 3. To the Police of Dublin,' &c., 
Svo. 4. ' Newspapers, Mountebanks,' &c. , fol. 
.5. ' To those calling themselves Roman Ca- 
tholics,' &c., fol. 6. ' The Sandy Foundation,' 
&c., fol. 7. ' Some Account of the Progress 
of the Truth,' &c., Mountmellick, 1843, Svo, 
3 vols. issued in parts. Other tracts, later than 
the above, are known to have been printed ; 
but they were not published, and their circu- 
lation was wholly restricted to adherents. 

[Smith's Catalogue of Friends' Books, 1867, 
ti. 4 ; Webb's Compendium of Irish Biographv, 
1878, p. 260 ; private information.] A. G." 

JACOB, ROBERT, M.D. (d. 1588), 
physician, eldest son of Giles Jacob of Lon- 
don, was entered at Merchant Taylors' School 
on 21 Jan. 1563-4 {Register, ed. Robinson, 
i. 4). He matriculated as a sizar of Trinity 
College, Cambridge, on 12 Nov. 1565, pro- 
ceeded B. A. in 1569-70, was elected a fellow, 
and in 1 573 commenced M. A. He graduated 
M.D. at Basle, and was incorporated at Cam- 
bridge on 15 May 1579. He became phy- 
sician to Queen Elizabeth, who in 1581 sent 
him, at the Czar I van's request, to the Russian 
court, where he attended the czarina, and 
acquired a reputation which still survives. 
Jacob recommended Lady Mary Hastings 
to the czar for his seventh wife. Happily 
for the lady the czar died before the conclu- 
sion of the negotiations, which were opened 
in 1583 with the sanction of Elizabeth. 
Jacob returned to England with Sir Jerome 
Bowes [q. v.], the English envoy in Russia, 
about March 1584. The Russian company 
charged him with trading on his own account. 
On 21 May 1583 he was admitted a licentiate 
of the College of Physicians in London, a 



candidate on 12 Nov. 1585, and a fellow on 
15 March 1586. In the latter year he went 
out to Russia a second time. He died abroad, 
unmarried, in 1588 {Probate Act Book, 
P. C. C., June 1588). 

[Hamel's England and Russia ; Eussia at the 
close of the Sixteenth Century, ed. Bond (Hakl, 
Soc.), pp. 292-3; Cooper's Athenae Cantabr. ii. 
76 ; Munk's Coll. of Phys. 1878, i. 88-9 ; 
British and Foreign Medico-Chirurgical Review, 
October 1862, p. 291 ; will registered in P. C. C. 
42, Rutland.] G. G. 

JACOB, WILLIAM (1762 P-1851), tra- 
veller and miscellaneous writer, was born 
about 1762. For some years he carried on 
business in Newgate Street, London, as a 
merchant, trading to South America. He 
was returned as M.P. for Rye, Sussex, to par- 
liament in the tory interest in July 1808, and 
sat till the dissolution in 1812. In 1809 and 
1810 he spent six months in Spain, and the 
letters he wrote from that country were 
published as ' Travels in the South of Spain,' 
4to, London, 1811, with numerous plates. 
He was elected alderman for the ward of 
Lime Street in 1810, but resigned his gown 
in the following year. His industry in col- 
lecting and epitomising returns and ave- 
rages connected with the corn law question 
was rewarded by his appointment in 1822 to 
the comptrollership of corn returns to the 
board of trade, from which he retired on a 
pension in January 1842. He died on 17 Dec. 
1851, aged 89 {Gent. Mag. new ser. xxxvii. 
523). On 23 April 1807 he was elected 
F.R.S. (THOMSON, Hist, of Roy. Soc. App. iv.) 

He wrote also : 1. ' Considerations on the 
Protection required by British Agriculture, 
and on the Influence of the Price of Corn on 
Exportable Productions,' 8vo, London, 1814. 
2.'ALetterto;SamuelWhitbread,Esq.,M.P., 
being a Sequel to " Considerations "... To 
which are added, Remarks on the Publications 
of a Fellow of University College, Oxford, 
Mr. Ricardo, and Mr. Torrens,' Svo, London, 
1815. 3. ' An Inquiry into the Causes of 
Agricultural Distress,' Svo, London, 1816 
(also in the ' Pamphleteer,' 1817, x. 395-418). 
4. ' A View of the Agriculture, Manufacture, 
Statistics, and State of Society of Germany 
and parts of Holland and France, taken 
during a Journey through those Countries in 
1819,' 4to, London, 1820. 5. ' Report on the 
Trade in Foreign Corn, and on the Agricul- 
ture of the North of Europe .... To which 
is added an Appendix of Official Documents, 
Averages of Prices,' &c v 2nd edit. Svo, Lon- 
don, 1826. 6. ' A Report . . . respecting the 
Agriculture and the Trade in Corn in some 
of the Continental States of Northern Europe/ 
dated 16 March 1828, in the ' Pamphleteer,' 



Jacob 



123 



1828, xxix. 361-456. 7. ' Tracts relating to 
the Corn Trade and Corn Laws, including 
the Second Report ordered to be printed by 
the two Houses of Parliament,' 3 pts. 8vo, 
London, 1828. 8. 'An Historical Inquiry 
into the Production and Consumption of the 
Precious Metals,' 2 vols. 8vo, London, 1831 
(translated into German by C. T. Kleinschrod, 
2 vols. 8vo, Leipzig, 1838). Jacob also con- 
tributed numerous articles, mostly on agri- 
cultural and economical subjects, to the 
' Encyclopaedia Britannica,' 7th edit. 

His son, EDWARD JACOB (d. 1841), gra- 
duated B.A. in 1816 at Gonville and Caius 
College, Cambridge, as senior wrangler and 
first Smith's prizeman. He was subsequently 
elected fellow of his college, proceeded M.A. 
in 1819, and was called to the bar at Lin- 
coln's Inn on 28 June of that year. He prac- 
tised with great success in the chancery court, 
and was appointed a king's counsel on 27 Dec. 
1834. He died on 15 Dec. 1841. With John 
Walker he edited ' Reports of Cases in the 
Court of Chancery during the time of Lord- 
chancellor Eldon, 1819, 1820,' 2 vols. 8vo, 
1821-3, and by himself a volume of similar 
reports during 1821 and 1822, published in 
1828. He also published with valuable addi- 
tions a second edition of R. S. D. Roper's 
'Treatise of the Law of Property arising 
from the relation between Husband and 
Wife/ 8vo, 1826. 

[Authorities cited in the text.] G-. G. 

JACOB, WILLIAM STEPHEN (1813- 
1862), astronomer, sixth son of Stephen Long 
Jacob (1764-1851), vicar of Woolavington, 
Somerset, brother of John Jacob (1812-1858) 
[q. v.], and cousin of Sir George le Grand 
Jacob [q. v.l, was born at his father's vicar- 
age on 19 Nov. 1813. He entered the East 
India Company's college at Addiscombe as 
a cadet in 1828, passed for the engineers, 
and completed his military education at 
Chatham. For some years after his arrival 
at Bombay in 1831 he was engaged on the 
survey of the north-west provinces, and es- 
tablished a private observatory at Poonah in 
1842. In 1843 he came to England on fur- 
lough, married in 1844, and returned in 1845 
to India, but withdrew from the company's 
service on attaining the rank of captain in 
the Bombay engineers. He now devoted 
himself to scientific pursuits, and presented 
to the Royal Astronomical Society in 1848 
a catalogue of 244 double stars, observed at 
Poonah with a 5-foot Dollond's equatoreal 
(Memoirs, xvii. 79). For several noted bi- 
naries he computed orbits (ib. xvi. 320), and 
the triplicity of v Scorpii was discovered by 
him in 1847 (Monthly Notices, xix. 322). Ap- 



pointed in December 1848 director of the 
Madras Observatory, he published in the 
1 Madras Observations ' for 1848-52 a Sub- 
sidiary Catalogue of 1,440 Stars selected from 
the British Association Catalogue.' His re- 
observation of 317 stars from the same col- 
lection in 1853-7 showed that large proper 
motions had been erroneously attributed to 
them (Mem. Royal Astr. Soc. xxviii. 1). The 
instruments employed were a 5-foot transit 
and a 4-foot mural circle, both by Dollond. 
The same volume contained 998 measures of 
250 double stars made with an equatoreal of 
6'3 inches aperture constructed for Jacob by 
Lerebours in 1850. Attempted determina- 
tions of stellar parallax gave only the osten- 
sible result of a parallax of O v- 06 for a Her- 
culis (ib. p. 44 ; Monthly Notices, xx. 252). 
From his measures of the Saturnian and 
Jovian systems, printed at the expense of 
the Indian government (Mem. Royal Astr. 
Soc. vol. xxviii.), he deduced elements for 
the satellites of Saturn and a corrected mass 
for Jupiter (Monthly Notices, xvii. 255, xviii. 
1, 29) ; and he noticed in 1852, almost simul- 
taneously with Lassell, the transparency of 
Saturn's dusky ring (ib. xiii. 240). His plane- 
tary observations were reduced by Breen in 
1861 (Mem. Royal Astr. Soc. xxxi. 83). 

The climate of Madras disagreed with him ; 
he was at home on sick leave in 1854-5, and 
again in 1858-9. A transit-circle by Simms, 
modelled on though smaller than that at 
Greenwich, arrived from England in March 
1858, a month before he finally quitted the 
observatory, of which he resigned the charge 
on 13 Oct. 1859. He joined the official ex- 
pedition to Spain to observe the total solar 
eclipse of 18 July 1860 (Edinburgh New 
Phil. Journal, xiii. 1). His project of erecting 
a mountain observatory at Poonah five thou- 
sand feet above the sea was favourably re- 
ceived, and parliament voted, in 1862, 1,000/. 
towards its equipment. He engaged to work 
there for three years with a 9-inch equatoreal, 
purchased by himself from Lerebours, and 
landed at Bombay on 8 Aug., but died on 
reaching Poonah on 16 Aug. 1862, in his 
forty-ninth year. His wife, Elizabeth, fourth 
daughter of Mathew Coates, esq., of Gains- 
borough, survived him. By her he had six 
sons and two daughters (JACOB and GLAS- 
COTT, Hist, and Genealogical Narrative of the 
Families of Jacob, privately printed, p. 22). 

Jacob's high moral and mental qualities 
and earnest piety won him universal esteem. 
He was elected a fellow of the Royal Astro- 
nomical Society in 1849. The results of 
magnetical observations at Madras (1846- 
1850) were published by Jacob in 1854 ; 
those made under his superintendence (1851 



Jacobsen 



124 



Jacobson 



1855) by Mr. Pogson in 1884. Jacob pub- 
lished in 1850 the Singapore meteorological 
observations (1841-5), and in 1857 and those 
made at Dodabetta (1851-5). While in Eng- 
land in 1855 he wrote a pamphlet on the 
' Plurality of Worlds,' and described the re- 
sults of his experience in the computation 
of stellar orbits for the Royal Astronomi- 
cal Society (Monthly Notices, xv. 205). 

[Monthly Notices, xxiii. 128 ; Me" moires Cou- 
ronnes par i'Academie de Bruxelles, xxm. ii. 1 29, 
1873 (Mailly); Andre et Kayet's L'Astronomie 
Pratique, ii. 84.] A. M. C. 

JACOBSEN, THEODORE (d. 1772), 
architect, was a merchant in Basinghall 
Street, London, and belonged to a wealthy 
family, who were residing near the Steelyard 
at the time of the fire of London. Jacobsen 
designed the Foundling Hospital ; the plan 
was approved in 1742, and was carried out 
under John Home as surveyor. He be- 
came a governor of the hospital, and there 
is a portrait of him still there by Thomas 
Hudson. Jacobsen also designed the Haslar 
Royal Hospital for Sick Soldiers at Gosport 
(see Gent. Mag. 1751, xxi. 408, for an en- 
graving of this hospital). He was a fellow 
of the Royal Society, the Society of Anti- 
quaries, and the Society of Arts. He died 
on 25 May 1772, and was buried in All 
Hallows Church, Thames Street, London. 

[Diet, of Architecture ; Redgrave's Diet, of 
Artists.] L. C. 

JACOBSON, WILLIAM (1803-1884), 
bishop of Chester, son of William Jacobson, 
a merchant's clerk, of Great Yarmouth, Nor- 
folk, by his wife Judith, born Clarke, was 
born on 18 July 1803. His father died shortly 
after his birth, and as his mother's second 
husband was a nonconformist, he was sent 
when about nine years old to a school at 
Norwich kept by Mr. Brewer, a baptist, father 
of John Sherren Brewer [q. v.] Thence he 
went to Homerton (nonconformist) College, 
London, and in 1822-3 was a student at 
Glasgow University. On 3 May 1823 he was 
admitted commoner of St. Edmund Hall, 
Oxford, being, it is said, befriended by Daw- 
son Turner of Yarmouth, a member of the 
Society of Friends ( Times). His means were 
small, and he lived a life of great self-denial. 
In May 1825 he was elected scholar of Lin- 
coln College, and graduated B.A. in 1827, 
taking a second class in literce humaniores. 
Having stood unsuccessfully for a fellowship 
at Exeter College, he accepted a private tutor- 
ship in Ireland, where he remained until 
1829. He then returned to Oxford, obtained 
the Ellerton theological prize, was elected to 
a fellowship at Exeter on 30 June, and pro- 



ceeded M.A. On 6 June 1830 he was or- 
dained deacon, was appointed to the curacy 
of St. Mary Magdalen, Oxford, and was or- 
dained priest the following year. In 1832 
he was appointed vice-principal of Magdalen 
Hall, where he did much to encourage in- 
dustry and enforce discipline. With a view 
to preparing an edition of the ' Patres Apos- 
tolici, he went at this period to Florence, 
Rome, and elsewhere to consult manuscripts. 
In 1836 he was offered a mastership at Harrow 
by Dr. Longley, the head-master, afterwards 
archbishop of York ; but as Longley was that 
year made bishop of Ripon, nothing came of 
it. He offered himself as Longley's succes- 
sor at Harrow, but was not appointed. In 
1839 he became perpetual curate of Iffle y, near 
Oxford, was made public orator of the uni- 
versity in 1842, and was chosen select preacher 
in 1833, 1842, and 1863, but did not serve 
on the last occasion. By the advice of Lord 
John Russell, then prime minister, Jacobson 
was in 1848 promoted to the regius professor- 
ship of divinity at Oxford, which carried with 
it a canonry of Christ Church, and at that 
time also the rectory of Ewelme, Oxfordshire. 
In politics he was a liberal, and he was chair- 
man of Mr. W. E. Gladstone's election com- 
mittee at Oxford in 1865. On 23 June 1865 
he accepted the offer of the see of Chester, 
and was consecrated on 8 July. 

Jacobson was a man of universally acknow- 
ledged piety and of simple habits. Although 
extremely reserved and cautious, he never 
hesitated to act in accordance with his sense 
of right, and was a kind and considerate 
friend. He was a high churchman of the 
old scholarly sort ; the Oxford movement 
exercised no influence on him, and he took no 
part in it. While his theological lectures, 
given when he was divinity professor at Ox- 
ford, were replete with erudition, those at 
which the attendance of candidates for orders 
was compulsory were unsuited to the larger 
part at least of his audience. He diligently 
performed his episcopal duties, and in the 
general administration of his diocese he 
showed tact and judgment ; he continued to 
live simply, and gave away his money libe- 
rally. In his charge at his primary visitation 
in October 1868 (published) he spoke with- 
out reserve on the duty of rubrical confor- 
mity. Although personally he had no liking 
for new or extreme ritual, he made it clearly 
understood that he would discountenance 
prosecutions, and that he viewed with dis- 
pleasure laxity and defect in order. His call 
to conformity gave offence to the more violent 
low churchmen, and in the earlier years of 
his episcopate he was twice mobbed by 
j ' Orangemen ' in Liverpool when on his way 



Jacombe 



125 



Jacombe 



to consecrate churches intended for the per- ; 
formance of an ornate service. He promoted , 
the division of his diocese made by the foun- i 
dation of the bishopric of Liverpool in 1880. j 
Failure of health caused him to resign his 
bishopric in February 1884 ; he was then in j 
his eighty-first year. He died at the episco- | 
pal residence, Deeside, on Sunday morning, 
13 July 1884. His portrait, painted by Rich- 
mond, has been engraved. He married, on 
23 June 1836, Eleanor Jane, youngest daugh- 
ter of Dawson Turner. By his wife, who 
survived him, he had ten children, of whom 
three sons and two daughters survived him. 

Jacobson published an edition of Dean 
Alexander Nowell's ' Catechismus,' with Life, 
1835, 1844 ; an edition of the extant writings 
of the ' Patres Apostolici,' with title ' S. de- 
mentis Romani,S.Ignatii. . . quae supersunt,' 
&c., 2 vols. 1838, 1840, 1847, 1863, a work of 
great learning, and specially important with 
reference to the genuineness of the longer 
recension of the Ignatian epistles f see under 
CTTKETON,WILLI AM] ; an edition of the 'Works 
of Robert Sanderson,' bishop of Lincoln, 
6 vols., 1854, and a few smaller books, ser- 
mons, and charges. He also wrote annota- 
tions on the Acts of the Apostles for the 
' Speaker's Commentary.' 

[Dean Burgon's Lives of Twelve (rood Men, 
ii. 238-303, in the main a reproduction of the 
dean's art. in the Guardian newspaper of 30 July 
1884; see also Guardian of 13 Aug. following; 
Saturday Keview of 19 July 1884 ; Times news- 
paper of 14 July 1884, where the obituary notice 
is not quite accurate ; Maurice's Life of F. D. 
Maurice, i. 99, 179, 356.] W. H. 

JACOMBE, THOMAS (1622-1687), non- 
conformist divine, son of John Jacombe of 
Burton Lazars, near Melton Mowbray, Lei- 
cestershire, was born in 1 622. He was edu- 
cated at the free school of Melton, and for two 
years under Edward Gamble at the school of 
Newark. He matriculated at Magdalen Hall, 
Oxford, in the Easter term, 1 640, and when 
the civil war broke out removed to St. John's 
College, Cambridge (28 Oct. 1642), where he 
graduated B. A. in 1643 ; shortly after signed 
the covenant, and became a fellow of Trinity 
in the place of an ejected royalist, completing 
his M.A. in 1647. In the same year he took 
presbyterian orders, became chaplain to the 
Countess-dowager of Exeter, widow of David 
Cecil, third earl, and received the living of 
St. Martin's, Ludgate Hill, on the sequestra- 
tion of Dr. Michael Jermyn. He was ap- 
pointed by parliament an assistant to the 
London commissioners for ejecting insuffi- 
cient ministers and schoolmasters, and in 
1659 he was made one of the approvers 
or triers of ministers. His opinions, how- 



ever, were moderate, and upon the Restora- 
tion he was created D.D. at Cambridge by 
royal mandate dated 19 Nov. 1660, along with 
two presbyterian ministers, William Bates 
[q. v.j and Robert Wilde. He was named 
on the royal commission for the review of the 
prayer-book (25 March 1661), and was treated 
respectfully at the meetings. He was on the 
presbyterian side, and took a leading part in 
drawing up the exceptions against the prayer- 
book. Pepys heard him preach on 14 April 
1661 and 16 Feb. 1661-2. He was ejected 
for nonconformity in 1662. His two farewell 
sermons, preached on St. Bartholomew's day, 
17 Aug. 1662, were published separately with 
a portrait (8vo, 1662), again in a collection of 
other sermons, entitled ' The London Mini- 
sters' Legacy,' 8vo, 1662, and in 'Farewell 
Sermons of some of the most eminent of the 
Nonconformist Ministers,' London, 1816. 
After his deprivation Jacombe held a con- 
venticle from 1672 in Silver Street, and was 
several times prosecuted. He was protected 
by his old patroness, the Countess-dowager of 
Exeter. Luttrell says that the ' fanatick par- 
son' was taken into her house (in Little Bri- 
tain) in February 1684-5. He died there of a 
cancer, aged 66, on Easter Sunday, 27 March 
1687. The countess's respect for the doctor is 
spoken of by W. Sherlock as ' peculiar,' and 
the favours she conferred on him as extraordi- 
nary. Jacombe was buried on 3 April at St. 
Anne's, Aldersgate, and a large number of con- 
forming and nonconforming divines attended 
his funeral. The sermon was preached by Dr. 
W. Bates. Jacombe had collected a valuable 
library, which was sold after his death for 
1,300. (see the catalogue, Bibliotheca Jacom- 
biana, London, 1687, 4to). Sherlock calls 
Jacombe ' a nonsensical trifler' (A Discourse 
of the Knowledge of Jesus Christ, 1674); but 
he is favourably mentioned by Baxter and 
Calamy. S. Rolle in his ' Prodromus ' speaks 
of Jacombe as a person of ' high repute for 
good life, learning, and excellent gravity,' 
much beloved by the master of Trinity. Pepys 
was pleased by his preaching. 

Jacombe's chief works are : 1. ' Enoch's 
Walk and Change : Funeral Sermon and Life 
of Mr. Vines, sometime Master of Pembroke 
Hall, Cambridge, preached at St. Laurence 
Jewry on 7 Feb. 1655-6,' London, 1656, 8vo. 
2. ' A Treatise of Holy Dedication, both per- 
sonal and domestic, recommended to the 
Citizens of London on entering into their 
new Habitations after the Great Fire,' Lon- 
don, 1668, 8vo. 3. ' Several Sermons, or Com- 
mentary preached on the whole 8th Chapter 
of Romans,' London, 1672, 8vo. 4. ' How 
Christians may learn in every way to be con- 
tent,' in the supplement to the ' Morning Exer- 



Jacombe 



126 



Jaenbert 



cise at Cripplegate,' London, 1674, and en- 
larged 1683, 8vo ; republished, first by T. Case 
in the Crown Street Chapel Tracts '' (1827), 
and in a collection of sermons preached by 
different nonconformists between 1659 and 
1689, called 'The Morning Exercises/ by 
James Nicholls, London, 8vo, 1844. 5. ' A 
Short Account of W. Whitaker, late Minister 
of St. Mary Magdalen, Bermondsey,' prefixed 
to his ' Eighteen Sermons,' London, 8vo, 1674. 
6. ' The Covenant of Redemption opened, or 
the Morning Exercise methodized, preached 
at St. Giles'-in-the-Fields, May 1659,' Lon- 
don, 8vo, 1676. 7. ' The Upright Man's Peace 
at his end,' preached at Matthew Martin's 
funeral, London, 1682. 8. 'Abraham's Death,' 
at Thomas Case's funeral, London, 1682. 
Wood is mistaken in assigning to him a share 
in Poole's ' Annotations.' 

Jacombe had subscribed his name to a 
letter against the quakers, which called forth 
a pamphlet by W. Penn, entitled 'A Just 
Rebuke to one-and-twenty learned Divines 
(so called) . . .,' London, 1674. 

SAMUEL JACOMBE (d. 1659), Thomas's 
younger brother, was also a puritan divine 
and popular preacher. He matriculated at 
Queens College, Cambridge, in 1642 - 3 
(WooD, Athenee, Bliss, iv. 205), graduated 
B.D. 21 June 1644, and became a fellow of 
his college 1 March 1648. He won some 
reputation as a preacher at Cambridge, and 
was made one of the university preachers by 
the parliament. He left Cambridge for Lon- 
don about 1653, and received the living of St. 
Mary Woolnoth in 1655. He died 12 June 
1659. His funeral sermon was preached by 
Simon Patrick, afterwards bishop of Ely ; it 
was subsequently published under the title 
of ' Divine Arithmetic, or the Right Art of 
Numbering our Days ' (London, 1659, 4to, 
1668, 1672), and dedicated to Thomas Ja- 
combe. He wrote some lines on the death 
of Vines (see funeral sermon above), 1656, and 
published them with other elegies and a ser- 
mon entitled ' Moses, his Death,' preached at 
Christ Church, Oxford, at the funeral of E. 
Bright, 23 Dec. 1656, London, 1657,4to; re- 
published in vol. v. of the ' Morning Exercises.' 
Another of Samuel's numerous discourses on 
the ' Divine Authority of the Scriptures ' is 
also in the ' Morning Exercises,' and has been 
reprinted in the reissues of that work. 

[Kennett's Register, pp. 308, 403, 407, 502, 
505, 743, 852 ; Palmer's Nonconf. Mem. i. 160 ; 
Nichols's Leicestershire, ii. 270 ; S.Baxter's Biog. 
Collections, 1766, vol. ii.; Newcourt's Keperto- 
rium, i. 416; Neal's Puritans, ii. 776; Brook's 
Puritans, iii. 319; Luttrell's Relation, i. 328; 
Dunn'sMemoirsofSeventy-fiveEminent Divines, 
pp. 132-206.] E. T. B. 



JAENBERT, JANBRIHT, JAM- 
BERT, GENGBERHT, LAMBERT, or 
LANBRIHT (d. 791), archbishop of Can- 
terbury, was consecrated abbot of St. Augus- 
tine's at Canterbury in 760, and was regarded 
with friendship by Eadbert, king of Kent. 
When foiled in his attempt to secure the 
body of Archbishop Bregwin [q. v.] for burial 
in his monastery, he appealed against the 
claim of the monks of Christ Church. His 
resolute behaviour excited the admiration of 
his opponents ; they knew that he was prudent 
and able, and they had, it is said, no fancy 
for defending their claim at Rome. Accord- 
ingly they elected him to the vacant arch- 
bishopric, and he appears to have been con- 
secrated on Septuagesima Sunday, 2 Feb. 
766, and to have received the pall from Pope 
Paul I, probably in the course of 767. In or 
about 771 Offa, the Mercian king, began to 
conquer Kent ; the struggle lasted for some 
years, and he appears at first to have tried 
to win Jaenbert over to his side, for in 774 
he made him a grant of land at Higham in 
Kent. It is evident that he was unsuccess- 
ful, and having established his superiority 
over Kent, he formed a plan for destroying 
the power of the primatial see of Canterbury 
and transferring the primacy to a Mercian 
metropolitan. Jaenbert vigorously resisted 
his scheme, and it is stated on highly ques- 
tionable authority that he invited Charles the 
Great to invade England (MATT. PAEIS, Vitee 
Offarum, p. 978). Offa was successful at 
Rome, and in 786 Hadrian sent two legates 
to England, who after an interview with 
Jaenbert proceeded to Offa's court, and in the 
following year held a synod at Chelsea (Ceal- 
chythe), where the archbishop was forced to 
give up a large portion of his province to Hig- 
bert [q. v.lbishop ofLichfield, who was raised 
to the rank of an archbishop. By this arrange- 
ment only the dioceses of London, Winches- 
ter, Rochester, Selsey, and Sherborne seem to 
have been left to the province of Canterbury. 
Jaenbert had also to complain of other in- 
juries at Offa's hands. It is said that his 
resistance to the king's scheme cost him all 
the possessions of the see which lay within 
the Mercian kingdom ; but this is perhaps 
founded on the fact that Offa continued to 
withhold from him, as he had withheld from 
Bregwin, an estate granted to his church by 
Ethelbald of Mercia [q. v.] Jaenbert de- 
termined to do his part towards restoring to 
his former monastery its old privilege of being 
the burying-place of the archbishops, of which 
it had been deprived in the cases of Cuthbert 
[q. v.] and Bregwin, his immediate predeces- 
sors. When,therefore,he felt that his end was 
near, he had himself removed to St. Augus- 



J affray 



127 



J affray 



tine's, and there died on 11 or 12 Aug. 791 
(SrsiEON, or 790 FLOE. WIG. and Anglo-Saxon 
Chron.) He was buried in the monastery. 
Jaenbert was the first archbishop of Canter- 
bury of whose coins specimens have been 
preserved. 

[Haddan and Stubbs's Eccl. Docs. iii. 402- 
466 ; Hook's Lives of the Archbishops, i. 242- 
254 ; Kemble's Codex Dipl. i. cxiii-clvii, mxix 
(Engl. Hist. Soc.) ; Anglo-Saxon Chron. ann. 

763, 764, 785, 790 (Rolls Ser.); Flor. Wig. ann. 

764, 790 (Engl. Hist. Soc.) ; Symeon of Dur- 
ham, ii. 43, 53 (Rolls Ser.) ; Hoveden, i. 8 (Rolls 
Ser.) ; William of Malmesbury's Gesta Regum, 
i. c. 87 (Engl. Hist. Soc.) ; Gesta Pontiff, p. 15 
(Rolls Ser.); Gervase, ii. 346 (Rolls Ser.); 
Ralph de Diceto, i. 16, 124, 126; Thorn, cols. 
1773-5,2210, 2211 (Twysden); Matt. Paris'sVitse 
Offarum, p. 978, Wats; Elmham, pp. 319, 335, 
Hardwick; Hawkins's Silver Coinage, p. 102, 
ed. Kenyon; Diet. Chr. Biog., art. ' Jaenbert,' ii. 
336, by Bishop Stubbs.] W. H. 

JAFFRAY, ALEXANDER (1614- 
1673), director of the chancellary of Scot- 
land and a quaker, son of Alexander Jaffray 
(d. 10 Jan. 1645), provost of Aberdeen, by 
his wife Magdalen Erskine of Pittodrie, was 
born at Aberdeen in July 1614. His educa- 
tion, which began in 1623 at the Aberdeen 
High School, was desultory ; he was at several 
country schools, and spent part of a session, 
1631-2, at Marischal College, Aberdeen, 
leaving it at the age of eighteen to marry a 
girl of his parents' choice. Shortly after his 
marriage his father sent him to Edinburgh, 
where he stayed some time in the house of 
his relative Robert Burnet, father of Gilbert 
Burnet [q. v.] His father sent him in 1632 
and 1633 to London, and in 1634 and 1635 
to France. At Whitsuntide 1636 he set up 
housekeeping in Aberdeen, his wife having 
hitherto lived with his parents. He was 
made a bailie in 1642, and in this capacity 
committed a servant cf Sir George Gordon 
of Haddo to prison for riot. On 1 July 1643 
Gordon attacked Jaffray on the road near 
Kintore, Aberdeenshire, wounding him in 
the head, and his brother, John Jaffray, in 
the arm. For this outrage Gordon was fined 
twenty thousand merks, five thousand of 
which went as damages to the Jaffrays. On 
19 March 1644 Gordon, who had joined the 
rising under George Gordon, second marquis 
of Huntly [q. v.], rode into Aberdeen with 
sixty horse, captured the Jaffrays and others, 
and confined them, first at Strathbogie, 
Aberdeenshire, afterwards at Auchendoun 
Castle, Banffshire. They were released in 
about seven weeks, but Jaffray's wife had died 
at Aberdeen, partly from the fright caused 
by the violence attending her husband's cap- 



ture. Owing to the troubles of the times, 
Jaffray, who now represented Aberdeen in 
the Scottish parliament, and had been no- 
minated (19 July 1644) a commissioner for 
suppressing the rebellion, took refuge in 
Dunnottar Castle, Kincardineshire ; but, leav- 
ing it one day, he was taken prisoner with 
his brother Thomas, and committed for several 
weeks to the stronghold of Pitcaple, Aber- 
deenshire. Taking advantage of the laxity 
of the royalist garrison, the Jaffrays and 
another prisoner made themselves masters of 
the place (September 1645), holding it for 
twenty-four hours, till they were relieved 
by a party of their friends. Thereupon they 
burned the stronghold, an act which received 
the approbation of the Scottish parliament 
on 19 Feb. 1649. 

Jaffray appears to have been the represen- 
tative of Aberdeen in the Scottish parliament 
from 1644 to 1650. He sat on important 
committees, and exercised what he after- 
wards considered ' unwarranted zeal ' in 
censuring delinquents. In 1649, and again 
in 1650, he was one of six commissioners de- 
puted to treat with Charles II in Holland. 
On the second occasion he blames himself 
for procuring Charles's adhesion to the cove- 
nant, well knowing that he hated it in his 
heart. He took part in the battle of Dun- 
bar (3 Sept. 1650); his horse was shot under 
him ; and he was severely wounded and taken 
prisoner ; his brother Thomas was killed. 
During the five or six months which elapsed 
before his exchange, Jaffray had many con- 
versations with Cromwell and his chaplain, 
John Owen, D.D., with the result that his 
views on questions of religious liberty were 
widened, and his attachment to presbyterian- 
ism diminished. He was provost of Aberdeen 
(not for the first time) in 1651, and con- 
ducted the negotiations with Monck whereby 
the burgh escaped a heavy fine after its sur- 
render on 7 Sept. In March 1652 he was 
appointed by the court of session keeper of 
the great seal and director of the chancel- 
lary. He accepted the latter office in June, 
and it was confirmed to him by Cromwell, 
with a salary of 2001., by letters of gift at 
Whitehall, 2 March 1657, and at Edinburgh, 
20 Nov. 1657. In June 1653 he was sum- 
moned from Scotland, with four others, to 
sit in the Little parliament, which came to 
an end on 12 Jan. 1654. Jaffray was one of 
some thirty members who remained sitting 
till a file of musketeers expelled them, yet 
Cromwell gave him an order for 1,5001. on 
the commissioners at Leith, to reimburse him 
for his share in the outlay connected with 
the bringing over of Charles II from Breda 
in 1650. Returning to Scotland, Jaffray 



J affray 



128 



Jago 



divided his time between Aberdeen and Edin- 
burgh, where the duties of the chancellary 
compelled him to be in attendance for six 
months in the year. On 15 Nov. 1656 he 
removed his household from Aberdeen to 
Newbattle, near Edinburgh ; and thence on 
10 Nov. 1657 to Abbey Hill, Edinburgh. 
When the Restoration came, Jaffray was called 
upon for his bond to remain in Edinburgh 
till the parliament's further order, or forfeit 
20,000/. Some delay in finding sureties led 
to his imprisonment in the Edinburgh Tol- 
booth, where he lay from 20 Sept. 1660 till 
17 Jan. 1661, when, in consequence of the 
infirm state of his health, he was released 
on subscribing the bond. 

Jaffray's public life was closed, and he ap- 
pears henceforth as a religious leader. Al- 
though he did not actually secede from the 
presbyterian church, and permitted the bap- 
tism of his children, he had lost faith in its 
ordinances, in accordance with the views he 
h*ad first adopted in 1650, and relied much 
on private meditation, which he recorded in 
his diary. On 24 May 1652, in conjunction 
with four others, three of them clergymen, he 
addressed a letter from Aberdeen to ' some 
godly men in the south,' advocating inde- 
pendency and separation from the national 
church. Samuel Rutherford and other divines 
held a conference with the signatories to this 
document. By 1661 he was in considerable 
sympathy with the quakers, and joined their 
body at Aberdeen towards the end of 1662, 
owing to the preaching of William Dews- 
bury [q. v.l He then removed to Inverury, 
Aberdeenshire, where he set up a quaker 
meeting. Returning about 1664 to Kings- 
wells, near Aberdeen (an estate which had 
been in his family since 1587), he was sum- 
moned before the high commission court, at 
the instance of Patrick Scougal, bishop of 
Aberdeen, and ordered to remain in his own 
dwelling-house, and hold no meetings there, 
under a penalty of six hundred merks. His 
health was now very frail, and he suffered 
from quinsy. On 11 Sept. 1668 he was taken 
to Banff Tolbooth for holding a religious 
meeting at Kingswells, and kept in gaol for 
over nine months, till released by an order 
of the privy council. His infirm health dis- 
qualified him from rendering active service 
to the quaker cause in Scotland, but his ac- 
cession gave impetus to the movement, which 
was taken up by George Keith (1640 P-1716) 
[q. v.] in 1664 and by Robert Barclay (1648- 
1690) [q. v.] in 1667. Jaffray died at Kings- 
wells on 7 May 1673, and was buried on 
8 May, in a ground attached to his own 
house. He married, first, on 30 April 1632, 
Jane Downe or Dune, who died on 19 March 



1644, and was mother of ten children, all 
of whom died young except Alexander (6. 
17 Oct. 1641, d. 1672); and secondly, on 
4 May 1647, Sarah, daughter of Andrew 
Cant [q. v.], by whom he had five sons and 
three daughters, all dying young except An- 
drew (see below), 'Rachel, and John. 

Jaffray published nothing except ' A Word 
of Exhortation by way of Preface,' &c., to 
George Keith's ' Help in Time of Need,' &c., 
1665, 4to. His manuscript ' Diary ' was dis- 
covered in the autumn of 1827 by John Bar- 
clay. Part of it was in the study of Robert 
Barclay, the apologist, at Ury House, Kin- 
cardineshire, the rest in the loft of a neigh- 
bouring farmhouse. It was admirably edited, 
with ' Memoirs ' and notes, by John Barclay, 
1833, 8vo ; reprinted 1834 and 1856. 

ANDREW JAFFRAY (1650-1726), son of 
the above, was born on 8 Aug. 1650. He 
became an eminent minister among the 
quakers, and died on 1 Feb. 1726. He mar- 
ried Christian, daughter of Alexander Skene 
of Skene, by whom he had four sons and six 
daughters. He published ' A Serious and 
Earnest Exhortation ... to the . . . Inha- 
bitants of Aberdeen,' &c. [1677], 4to. 

[Jaffray's Diary, 1833; Smith's Catalogue of 
Friends' Books, 1867, ii. 5 sq.] A. G-. 

JAGO, RICHARD (1715-1781),poet, was 
the third son of the Rev. Richard Jago (born 
at St. Mawes in Cornwall in 1679, and rector 
of Beaudesert, Warwickshire, from 1709 until 
his death in 1741), who married in 1711 Mar- 
garet, daughter of William Parker of Henley- 
in-Arden. He was born at Beaudesert on 
1 Oct. 1715, and educated at Solihull under 
the Rev. Mr. Crumpton, whom he afterwards 
described as a ' morose pedagogue.' Shen- 
stone was at the same school, and theirfriend- 
ship lasted unimpaired for life. In his father's 
parish he also made the acquaintance of So- 
merville, the author of ' The Chase.' As his 
father's means were small, he matriculated as 
a servitor at University College, Oxford, on 
30 Oct. 1732, when Shenstone was also in 
residence as a commoner. He graduated 
B.A. in 1736, and M.A. in 1739, and was 
ordained in 1737 to the curacy of Snitter- 
field in Warwickshire. In 1746 he was ap- 
pointed by Lord Willoughby de Broke to 
the small livings of Harbury and Chesterton 
in that county. As he had seven children, 
his nomination in 1754, through the assist- 
ance of Lord Clare, afterwards Earl Nugent, 
to the vicarage of Snitterfield, proved a wel- 
come addition to his resources. These three 
benefices he retained until 1771, when he 
resigned the former two on his preferment, 
through the gift of his old patron, Lord 



Jago 



129 James I of Scotland 



SVilloughby de Broke, to the more valuable 
ectory of Kimcote in Leicestershire (1 May 
L771). Jago continued, however, to reside 
it Snitterfield, passing much of his time in 
mproving the vicarage house and grounds, 
md there he died on 8 May 1781. He was 
buried in a vault which he had constructed 
for his family under the middle aisle of the 
zhurch, and an inscription to his memory 
was placed on a flat stone, which has since 
been moved to the north aisle. He married 
in 1744 Dorothea Susanna Fancourt, daugh- 
;er of John Fancourt, rector of the benefice 
}f Kimcote, which he himself afterwards held. 
She died in 1751, leaving three sons and four 
laughters ; three of the latter survived their 
father. On 16 Oct. 1758 he married at Ruge- 
ey Margaret, daughter of James Under wood, 
svho survived him, but left no issue. 

Jago's pleasing elegy, 'The Blackbirds,' 
ariginally appeared in Hawkesworth's ' Ad- 
venturer,' No. 37, 13 March 1753, and was 
by mistake attributed to Gilbert West. Its 
author thereupon procured its insertion, with 
Dther poems and with his name, in Dodsley's 
; Collection' (vols. iv. and v.), when the 
manager of a Bath theatre (who is suggested 
in Note and Queries, 5th ser. v. 198-9, to 
have been John Lee) claimed it as his own, 
alleging that Jago was a fictitious name from 
' Othello.' This piece was a great favourite 
with Shenstone, who reports in his letters 
(June 1754) that it had been set to music by 
the organist of Worcester Cathedral. Jago 
published in 1767 a topographical poem, in 
bur books, 'Edge Hill, or the Rural Pro- 
spect delineated and moralized,' a subject 
vhich did not present sufficient variety for a 
>oem of that length, but it has been praised 
or the ease of its diction. He also wrote : 
. ' A Sermon on occasion of a Conversation 
aid to have pass'd between one of the In- 
abitants and an Apparition La the Church- 
ard of Harbury,' 1755. 2. ' Sermon at Snit- 
3rfield on the Death of the Countess of 
'oventry,' 1763. 3. ' Labour and Genius : 
Fable,' inscribed to Shenstone, 1768 ; also 
i Pearch's Collection/ iii. 208-18. 4. 'An 
ssay on Electricity,' which is alluded to in 
lenstone's letters, but apparently was never 
iblished. Some time before his death he re- 
sed his poems, which were published in 
84 with some additional pieces, the most 
portant of which was ' Adam ; an Oratorio, 
mpiled from "Paradise Lost,'" and with 
n'j account of his life and writings by 
hn Scott Hylton of Lapal House, near 
ilesowen. His poems have appeared in 
^ny collections of English poetry, including 
>se of Chalmers, vol. xvii., Anderson, vol. 
, Park, vol. xxvii., and Davenport, vol. Iv. 

J OL. XXIX. 



Southey, in his 'Later Poets' (iii. 199-202), 
included Jago's ' Elegy on the Goldfinches;' 
and Mitford, while praising his ' taste, feel- 
ing, and poetical talent,' suggested a selection 
from Shenstone, Dyer, Jago, and others. 
Shenstone addressed a poem to him, in- 
scribed a seat at Leasowes with the words 
' Amicitise et meritis Richardi Jago,' and cor- 
responded with him until death ( Works, iii. 
passim). Many of his letters, essays, and 
several curiosities which were formerly his 
property, have passed to the Rev. W. lago of 
Bodmin. An indignant letter from Jago to 
Garrick on the Stratford jubilee is in Gar- 
rick's ' Correspondence,' i. 367-8. 

[Gent. Mag. 1781, p. 242; Colvile's Warwick- 
shire Worthies, pp. 458-62 ; London Mag. 1822, 
vi. 419-20; Foster's Alumni Oxon. ; Nichols's 
Lit. Anecd. iii. 50-1 ; Shenstone's Works (1791 
edit.), ii. 318, iii. passim ; Mrs. Houstoun's Mit- 
ford and Jesse, pp. 227-31 ; Old Cross (Coventry, 
1879), pp. 369-74; Boase and Courtney's Bibl. v 
Cornub. iii. 1243 ; Boase's Collect. Cornub. 
p. 411 ; Maclean's Trigg Minor, iii. 424.] 

W. P. C. 

JAMES THE CISTERCIAN (Jl. 1270), also 
called JAMES THE ENGLISHMAN, was the first 
professor of philosophy and theology in the 
college which Stephen Lexington [q. v.], ab- 
bot of Clairvaux, founded in the house of the 
counts of Champagne at Paris for the instruc- 
tion of young Cistercians. He supported St. 
Thomas Aquinas in contesting the immacu- 
late conception of the Virgin Mary, and is 
said to have written : 1. ' Commentaries on 
the Song of Songs.' 2. ' Sermons on the Gos- 
pels.' 3. ' Lecturse Scholastic*.' 

[Visch. Bibl. Script. Ord. Cist. p. 142, Douay, 
ed. 1649; Tanner, Bibl. Brit.-Hib. p. 426; 
Fabricius, Bibl. Lat. Med. Mvi, iv. 5, ed. 1754; 
Hist. Litt. de la France, xix. 425.] C. L. K. 

JAMES I (1394-1437), king of Scotland, 
third son of Robert III [q. v.] and Annabella 
Drummond [q. v.], was born at Dunfermline 
shortly before 1 Aug. 1394 (letter from his 
mother to Richard II). His age and his 
father's weak health and feeble character 
render it probable that his education was en- 
trusted to his mother, who lived chiefly at 
Dunfermline and Inverkeithing. After her 
death, in 1402, he was sent to St. Andrews, 
where he was placed under the care of Henry 
Wardlaw, consecrated bishop in 1403. The 
murder of his only surviving brother David, 
duke of Rothesay, in March 1402, at the in- 
stigation of his uncle Albany [q. v.] and 
Archibald, fourth earl of Douglas [q. v.], made 
it necessary that he should be in safe custody, 
and no better guardian could have been found. 
In 1405 Wardlaw received as guests the Earl 



130 



of Scotland 



of Northumberland and his grandson, young 
Henry Percy, Hotspur's son, driven into exile 
after the defeat of Shrewsbury, and the two 
boys were perhaps for a short time educated 
together. The aged and infirm king Robert, 
apprehensive that Albany might treat James 
like his brother, determined to send him to 
France. Embarking at the Bass Rock along 
with the Earl of Orkney, a bishop (according 
to Walsingham),and young Alexander Seton 
(afterwards Lord Gordon), their vessel was 
intercepted off Flamborough Head by an 
English ship of Cley in Norfolk. The bishop 
escaped ; the prince, Orkney, and Seton were 
sent to Henry IV in London, who released 
Orkney and Seton, but detained James and 
his squire, William Gifford. There is discre- 
pancy in the date assigned, both by earlier 
and later historians, for the capture of James. 
The ' Kingis Quair,' his own poem, implies 
that it was in the spring of 1404, when he was 
ten, or about three years past the state of in- 
nocence, i.e. the age of seven. Wyntoun sug- 
gests 12 April 1405, which Pinkerton, Irving, 
and Professor Skeat in his edition of the 
'Kingis Quair' adopt. But in that case the 
capture would have been in most flagrant 
defiance of a truce which had been agreed to 
by Henry till Easter 1405. And Walsing- 
ham, the St. Albans chronicler, is probably 
more correct in assigning the event to 1406. 



that day the constable was ordered to deliver 
him and Griffin, son of Owen Glendower, to 
Richard, lord de Grey, in whose charge he was 
placed at Nottingham Castle, where he re- 
mained from 12 June 1407 till the middle of 
July. He was then removed to Evesham, 
where he continued at least down to 16 July 
1409. In 1412 he appears to have visited 
Henry IV, and there is a holograph letter by 
him in the same year, by which he granted, or 
promised, lands to SirW.Douglas of Drumlan- 
rig, dated at Croydon, where he was probably 
the guest of his kinsman, Thomas Arundel 
[q. v.], archbishop of Canterbury. 



after his father's death on 20 March 1413, 
was to recommit James to the custody of the 
constable of the Tower, along with the Welsh 
prince and his cousin, Murdoch, earl of Fife, 
who had been a prisoner in England since the 
battle of Homildon Hill. On 3 Aug. the three 
were ordered to be transferred to Windsor 
Castle. Throughout his reign HenryV treated 
James well, hoping through his influence to 
detach the Scots from the French alliance. 
But the constable of the Tower continued to 
receive payments for his expenses down to 
14 Dec. 1416. On 22 Feb. 1417, after James 
was twenty-one, Sir John Pelham was ap- 
pointed his governor, with an allowance of 
TOO/, a year, and leave to take him to certain 



Northumberland, who came to St. Andrews i places. Windsor was henceforth his prin- 
before the prince left, certainly did not reach cipal residence. After 1419 there are traces 
Scotland till June 1405, and Bower states of small personal payments to James himself, 
that Robert III, who is known to have died The victory of Agincourt, in 1415, placed 
.on 4 April 1406, barely survived the news of another illustrious captive in Henry's hands, 
his son's capture. Mr. Burnett and Mr. W. Charles of Orleans, about the same age as 
Hardy adopt the later date, and place the James, and, like him, of bright intellect and 
capture about 14 Feb. 1406. The English ] poetic tastes. It has been assumed rather 
records state that the first payment to the than proved that they were fellow-prisoners 
lieutenant of the Tower for the expenses of at Windsor. It is more likely that they were 
the son of the Scotch king was on 10 Dec., j kept apart. In 1420 Henry was engaged in 
in respect of cost incurred from 6 July 1406, | his final struggle with France, and during- 



but the entries are too incomplete to prove 
there was no earlier payment. 

For nineteen years the life of James was 
spent in exile under more or less strict ciis- 
tody. His ransom always an item in the 
calculations of the English exchequer, ex- 
hausted by the French war made his life 
safer than at home in the neighbourhood of 
an ambitious uncle and turbulent nobles. 
His education was carefully attended to, and 
improved a naturally vigorous mind. He be- 
came an expert in all manly and knightly 
exercises. We learn from the recent publi- 
cation of English and Scottish records that 
he was at first confined in the Tower of Lon- 
don, where his expenses were allowed for at 
the rate of 6s. 8d. a day and 3s. 4d. for his 
suite, from 6 July 1406 to 10 June 1407. On 



May, June, and July James received sundry- 
sums towards his equipment for the French 
war. He sailed from Southampton in July, 
and joined Henry at the siege of Melun. 
Henry failed to detach the Scots then fighting 
for France. They declined to acknowledge a 
king who was a prisoner, and he refused, for 
the same reason, to claim their allegiance. 

Melun capitulated after a brave resistance 
of four months, and James suffered the igno- 
miny of seeing his countrymen who had taken 
part in the defence hanged as rebels. He 
was present at the triumphal entry of Henry 
into Paris on 1 Dec. 1420. In the beginning 
ear James went with Henry 
e appears to have remained, 
during Henry's absence in England, from 
3 Feb. till the middle of June. The defeat of 



of the following y< 
to Rouen, where h 



James I i, 

the English at Beauge", 23 March 1421, re- 
called Henry to France, and if James had in 
the interval returned to England he must 
have come back with Henry. During the 
first half of 1422 notices of payments to him 
prove that he was at Rouen. After Henry V's 
death he returned to England. 

The negotiations for his release had gone 
on without intermission from the time of his 
capture. But Albany succeeded in procuring 
the ransom of his own son, Murdoch, in 1416, 
and as the return of James would have put 
an end to a regency which was actual sove- 
reignty of Scotland, it is scarcely likely that 
he wished to see James back in Scotland. 
Albany's death in 1420 at once improved the 
prospects of his liberation. In May 1421 it 
was agreed that he should be permitted to 
return to his own kingdom on sufficient hos- 
tages being given, and on Henry V's death 
the negotiations between the Duke of Bedford 
[q. v.], the English, and Murdoch, the new 
Scottish, regent, began in earnest. 

Thomas of Myrton, James's chaplain, who 
had been sent to Scotland on 21 Feb. 1422, 
appears to have been the envoy who smoothed 
the way for the subsequent treaty. In the 
autumn of 1423 English and Scottish com- 
missioners met at Pontefract, and there the 
basis of the treaty was arranged : a payment 
of sixty thousand marks for the king's release, 
in instalments of ten thousand marks a year, 
for which hostages were to be given; an 
agreement that the Scottish troops should 
quit France, and a request that a noble Eng- 
lish lady should be betrothed to James. The 
treaty was signed 10 Sept. in the chapter- 
house of i York. On 24 Nov. Myrton was 
again sent to Scotland, probably to arrange as 
to the hostages, and in December the Scots 
agreed that the four principal burghs, Edin- 
burgh, Perth, Dundee, and Aberdeen, were 
to become sureties for payment of part of the 
stipulated sum. 

The condition as to the marriage was easiest 
fulfilled. James had already set his heart on 
Jane [q. v.], the young daughter of the Earl 
of Somerset. The marriage was celebrated in 
the church of St. Mary Overy in Southwark 
on 12 Feb. 1424, and the banquet in the ad- 
jacent palace of the lady's uncle, the Bishop 
of Winchester. Next day ten thousand marks 
of the ransom were remitted as Jane's dowry. 
James and his bride set out at once for Scot- 
land, and on 28 March, at Durham, the host- 
ages, twenty-eight of the principal nobles or 
their eldest sons, were delivered, along with 
the obligations of the four burghs, and a truce 
for seven years from 1 May 1424 was signed. 
On 5 April, at Melrose, James issued letters 
under his great seal confirming the treaty, 



i of Scotland 

and by a separate deed acknowledged that ten 
thousand marks were to be paid within six 
months of his entry into Scotland. After 
spending Easter in Edinburgh he was crowned 
at Scone, on 21 May, with great pomp by 
Bishop Wardlaw. The Duke of Albany, as 
earl of Fife, placed him on the throne. The 
queen was crowned with him, and the king 
showed favour to her English followers. 
Walter, elder son of the late regent, whose 
insubordination and profligacy had removed 
some obstacles to James's restoration, was 
arrested a week before the coronation and 
sent to the Bass. Malcolm Fleming of Cum- 
bernauld, a brother-in-law of the regent, 
was arrested at the same time, but soon libe- 
rated. In this, as in subsequent steps taken by 
James to regain firm possession of the throne, 
his object was to strike down Albany and all 
his kin. He returned to Perth for his first 
parliament on 26 May 1424. A series of 
twenty-seven acts prove his legislative ac- 
tivity. These acts appear to have been not 
merely drafted but passed by the lords of the 
articles, a committee of the three estates, 
not then first instituted, but perhaps reor- 
ganised, with full power to make laws dele- 
gated to them by the other members of par- 
liament, who were allowed to return home. 
The privileges of the church were confirmed ; 
private war was prohibited ; forfeiture de- 
clared the penalty of rebellion ; those who 
abstained from assisting the king were to be 
deemed rebels ; those who travelled with 
more than a proper retinue or who lay upon 
the land were to be punished ; and officers of 
the law were to be appointed to administer 
justice to the king's commons. The customs, 
both great and small, were granted to the 
king for life; the process of 'showing of 
holdings ' was to be used, to ascertain who 
had titles to their lands from the death of 
Robert I ; taxes were imposed to provide for 
the king's ransom ; salmon, an important 
branch of revenue, were protected by various 
regulations ; gold and silver mines were to 
belong to the king ; clerks were not to pass 
the sea without leave or to grant pensions 
out of their benefices ; export of gold and 
silver was taxed, and foreign merchants were 
to spend their gains in Scotland; archery 
was encouraged, football and golf prohibited; 
rooks were not to be allowed to build, and 
muirburn after March forbidden ; customs 
were imposed on the chief exports ; money 
was to be coined of equal value to that of Eng- 
land ; hostelries were to be kept in towns ; 
and the burghs were to provide, partly by 
loans in Flanders, twenty thousand English 
nobles towards the king's ransom. The 
royal eye was directed to every branch of 

K2 



James I 



government, agriculture and trade, peace and 
war, currency and finance, church and state. 
Some of the statutes, as that relating to the 
coin, were never carried out ; others were tem- 
porary; but it is from this parliament that 
the Scottish statute-book known in the courts 
dates. For the first time since Robert the 
Bruce, Scotland had effective legislation, 
directed by the king, and accepted by the 
clergy, barons, and burghs. Parliament now 
became annual. James had learned from the 
Lancastrian kings the value of a national 
assembly as a support against nobles who 
were petty kings, engaging in private war, 
and administering private law in their own 
courts. Several of the statutes of this and 
subsequent parliaments were copied from the 
more advanced constitution of England. 

Before the end of 1424 Duncan, earl of 
Lennox, father-in-law of the late regent, was 
arrested and imprisoned at Edinburgh. A 
second parliament, at Perth, 12 March 1425, 
continued, and a third, on 11 March 1426, 
repeated the same politic legislation. The 
most important acts provided for registra- 
tion of infeftments, or titles to land, in the 
king's register ; prosecution of forethought 
felony by the king's officers ; personal attend- 
ance in parliament of prelates, barons, and 
freeholders ; revision of the old books of law 
by a committee of the three estates ; punish- 
ment of heretics with the aid of the secular 
arm ; prayers to be said by the clergy on behalf 
of the king and queen ; a judicial committee 
or sessions, the first attempt to introduce a 
central court, to sit thrice a year; the punish- 
ment of idle men, and the regulation of 
weights and measures. 

More important than the legislation was 
the coup d'etat by which, on the ninth day 
of the parliament of 1425, the late regent, 
his younger son Alexander, with other nobles, 
including Archibald, earl of Douglas, Wil- 
liam Douglas, earl of Angus [q. v.], George 
Dunbar, earl of March, twenty-six in all, were 
arrested. The castles of Falkland and Doune, 
the chief seats of the late regent, were seized ; 
Isabella, the daughter of Lennox, and wife of 
the regent, was imprisoned, while her hus- 
band was sent to Caerlaverock. James, 
youngest son of the regent, the only one 
of the family who escaped, raised a force in 
the highlands, and, aided by Finlay, bishop 
of Lismore, burnt Dumbarton and slew Sir 
John, the Red Stewart of Dundonald, the 
king's uncle, but, pursued by the royal forces, 
fled by way of England to Ireland, from 
which he never returned. Meanwhile the 
parliament, adjourned to Stirling, met on 
18 May 1425, to pass judgment on Albany 
and his kin. An assize of twenty-one nobles 



z of Scotland 

and barons, with Atholl, the king's uncle, as 
foreman, sat on the 22nd, in presence of the 
king, and made quick work of the charges. 
The record is not extant, and under the gene- 
ral term robbery (roboria) of one of the chro- 
nicles (Extracta ex Chronicis Scotice, p. 220) 
must be understood all the illegal acts of the 
regency. The ' Book of Pluscarden ' calls 
their crime treason. Walter was convicted, 
and beheaded on the day of trial; his father, 
his brother Alexander, and his grandfather, 
Lennox, on the following day ; and at the 
same time five retainers of Albany were 
hanged and their quarters sent to different 
towns. Some pity for the victims appears in 
the contemporary chronicles. This startling 
victory is to be attributed to the fact that 
the clergy were on the king's side. With the 
exception of the Bishop of Argyll no prelate 
supported Albany. James conciliated the 
bishops by a strict enforcement of the law 
against heresy, a copy of the Lancastrian 
statute, and by confirming their privileges. 
James also had the support of the ablest of 
the smaller barons, the natural rivals of the 
older nobles. Moreover he had gained the 

! commons by good laws and impartial justice. 

| He thus initiated the constant policy of the 
Stewart kings to rely on the clergy and the 
burghs in order to withstand the great feudal 
lords. 

The chief offices in the n6w administration 
were bestowed on those who had taken a 
leading part in James's restoration. Some 
of the new officers, however, like Lauder, 
bishop of Glasgow, and Sir John Forester of 
Corstorphine, the chamberlain, had already 
served under the regent. The heads of the 
house of Douglas Archibald, earl of Dou- 
glas, William Douglas, earl of Angus, and 
James Douglas of Balvenie had separated 
themselves from the regent, but their alle- 
giance to James was doubtful, and had to 
be retained by fear. The strength of James 
lay in Lothian, where his adherents held the 
castles of Dalkeith, Dunbar, the Bass, and 
Tantallon ; in the south-west, where they 

j held Caerlaverock; and in Fife, where Ward- 

! law, his old tutor and chief adviser, held St. 
Andrews, and the king himself held Doune 
and Falkland. The possession of Perth and 
Dundee, Edinburgh and Stirling, gave him 
control of the chief burghs. The regent's 
party had more influence in the less civilised 
west, the country of Lennox, and in the 
highlands. 

The lowlands being now safe, and the 
whole line of Albany cut off, the lawless con- 
dition of the highlands urgently called for 
strong measures. James summoned a parlia- 
ment in the spring of 1427 to Inverness, where 



James I 



133 



of Scotland 



he had repaired the royal tower, and he seized 
forty chiefs who obeyed the summons. Alex- 
ander Macgorrie and two Campbells were 
tried and executed. The rest were sent to 
different castles throughout the kingdom, 
where some were put to death, though the 
greater number were afterwards liberated, 
including the Lord of the Isles, whose 
mother, however, was detained till her death. 
On his return south he held in July another 
parliament, chiefly occupied with reforms of 
the civil and ecclesiastical courts ; ,and in the 
next parliament, of March 1428, he made an 
attempt to introduce representation of the 
shires and a speaker on the English model. 
But this change another blow at the feudal 
aristocracy, who had the right of personal 
attendance was not carried out. About 
the end of 1427, or early in 1428, Sir John 
Stewart of Darnley, constable of the French 
army, the Archbishop of Rheims, and Alain 
Chartier the poet, chancellor of Bayeux, came 
to ask the hand of the infant Princess Mar- 
garet [q. v.] for the dauphin Louis. So bril- 
liant an offer was not to be refused. Scottish 
ambassadors were sent to France to arrange 
the terms. The treaty was signed by James 
at Perth on 17 July 1428, and by Charles VII 
at Chinon in November. The bride being 
only two and the bridegroom five the mar- 
riage was postponed till they reached the legal 
age ; but the princess was to be sent to France, 
along with six thousand men, as soon as a 
French fleet arrived. Charles promised her 
the dowry of a dauphiness, or, if her husband 
came to the throne, of a queen of France, and 
conveyed to James the county of Saintonge 
and castle of Rochefort. 

Margaret did not, however, go to France 
till the last year of her father's life, and the 
Scottish troops, so urgently needed to sup- 
port Charles against the English, were never 
despatched. This treaty excited the jealousy 
of the English court, and Cardinal Beaufort 
was sent in February 1429 to James at 
Dunbar in order to counteract its effects. 
He succeeded in procuring a renewal of the 
truce between England and Scotland, but 
not in breaking off the treaty with France, 
though possibly in delaying its execution, 
But James showed no favour to England. 
He could not forget his enforced exile. He 
could not raise, and was unwilling to pay 
his ransom, and its non-payment became a 
subject of frequent remonstrance. The Eng- 
lish court kept firm hold of the hostages, the 
sons of his principal nobles, and reasserted, 
if English writers may be credited, the supe- 
riority of England, which had been disowned 
as the result of the war of independence. 
The disorganised state of France, until the 



enthusiasm kindled by Joan of Arc effected 
its deliverance, made James see the necessity 
of fostering other alliances, and he pursued 
a foreign policy which had in view the com- 
mercial and political interests of his king- 
dom. In 1425 he restored, at the request of 
a Flemish embassy, the staple of the Scottish 
trade to Bruges, from which it had been re- 
moved to Middelburg in Zealand, and four 
years later he entered into a commercial 
league for one hundred years with Philip III, 
duke of Burgundy, as sovereign of Flanders. 
In 1426 a Scottish embassy under Sir William 
Crichton renewed at Bergen the alliance with 
Denmark, and settled the long-standing dis- 
pute as to the payment claimed as still due 
for the Hebrides. His relations with the 
papal see were not so amicable. James, as 
a good catholic, sternly suppressed heresy, 
restored the estates of the see of St. Andrews, 
and founded a Carthusian monastery at Perth. 
But he was also a church reformer and a Scot- 
tish patriot, who was determined to tolerate 
neither the abuses nor the encroachments of 
the church. One of James's early acts was 
to pass statutes forbidding the clergy to cross 
the sea without leave, or to purchase benefices 
at Rome (the Scottish equivalents of the Eng- 
lish statutes of praemunire and provisors) . In 
1425 he issued a letter to the abbots and 
priors of the orders of St. Benedict and St. 
Augustine, exhorting them to reform their 
convents, whose abuses, he declared, threa- 
tened the ruin of religion. When he visited 
David I's tomb at Dunfermline he remarked 
that David's piety made him useless to the 
commonwealth,whence came the proverb that 
David was a ' sair saint for the crown.' The 
parliament of 1427 not only passed a strin- 
gent act to reform procedure in the church 
courts, but ordered the provincial council 
then sitting to accept it as one of their 
statutes. 

Martin V, alarmed at these incursions of 
the state into the domain of the church, sum- 
moned in 1429 Cameron, archbishop of Glas- 
gow, and chancellor, to Rome ; but James 
sent the Bishop of Brechin and the Arch- 
deacon of Dunkeld to remonstrate with the 
pope, and inform him that the chancellor's 
absence would be most prejudicial to the 
kingdom. Eugenius IV, the successor of 
Martin, instead of yielding, sent William 
Croy ser, archdeacon of Teviotdale, as a nuncio, 
to cite his own bishop to Rome. For exe- 
cuting the papal citation Croyser was tried by 
an assize in his absence (for he had fled back 
to Rome), and deprived of all his benefices 
and property in Scotland. Eugenius in 1435 
issued a bull restoring Croyser to his bene- 
fices, and denouncing the censures of the 



James I 



134 



of Scotland 



church on all who recognised the sentence. 
The conflict between church and state had 
never been so acute since Robert the Bruce 
refused to receive a papal bull. 

The highlands again claimed the king's 
attention in 1429, for Alexander of the Isles 
had raised the clans and burnt Inverness. 
James surprised him in Lochaber and put i 
him to flight, aided by the dissensions of the 
clans. The Lord of the Isles, forced to seek 
the royal clemency, appeared before James at i 
Holyrood on Palm Sunday without arms, ex- 
cept a bare sword, which he offered the king, | 
who spared his life on the intercession of the | 
queen and barons, but sent him to Tantallon. 
The repair of the castles of Urquhart and In- 
verness, and acts for providing arms, men, 
and, in the west highlands, ships for the ; 
royal service, were passed in the parliament | 
of March 1430, and were calculated to main- 
tain peace in the highlands. 

The same year was marked by the impor- 
tation into Scotland of the first great cannon, 
the Lion, from Flanders. Artillery began from 
this time to be the special care of the Scottish 
kings, and gave them an advantage over the 
barons. In 1431 Donald Balloch, a kinsman 
of the Lord of the Isles, having defeated the 
Earls of Mar and Caithness at Inverlochy, 
James had again to take up arms in person, 
and Balloch was forced to fly to Ireland. The 
statement of Boece that an Irish chief sent Bal- 
loch's head to the king at Dunstaffnage is not 
corroborated. The arrest of the Earl of Dou- 
glas and John, lord Kennedy, both nephews of 
the king, shows that his policy had roused op- 
position beyond the highlands; but Douglas 
was released at the parliament of October 
1431. This parliament granted an aid to re- 
press the northern rebels, and imposed penal- 
ties on those who had not joined the king's 
army in the highlands. In 1432 what Bower 
calls the flying pestilence of lollardism re- 
appeared in Scotland, and next year Paul 
Crawar, a missionary of the Hussites, was 
burnt at St. Andrews. James rewarded the 
diligence of Fogo, the inquisitor, with the 
abbacy of Melrose. 

Throughout his reign James pursued his 
policy of destroying the power of the great 
nobles. One chapter of his legislation, by 
which he protected the tillers of the soil in 
the possession of their holdings, had the best 
results, and this innovation on the oppressive 
rules of the feudal law became an integral 
part of the law of Scotland. But his whole- 
sale forfeiture of the nobles' estates led to his 
own ruin. Immediately after his return to 
Scotland, the attainder of Albany and his 
sons placed the earldoms of Fife, Monteith, 
and Ross in his hands, and that of Lennox 



the earldom of that name, and by 1436 he had 
gained possession of the earldom of March in 
the south, of Fife in the east, of Lennox, 
Strathearn, and Monteith in the central high- 
lands, of Mar in the north-east, and Ross in 
the north. The only great earls left were 
Atholl (his uncle), Douglas (his nephew), 
Crawford, and Moray, and, with the exception 
of Atholl, a secret and fatal foe, none were 
strong enough to be formidable to the king. 

In the last years of his life the relations 
of James with the pope became less, those 
with England more, strained. In 1433 he 
sent eight representatives to the council of 
Basle. In the winter of 1435 ^Eneas Silvius 
Piccolomini, afterwards Pope Pius II,was sent 
to James by the Cardinal of Santa Croce, and 
in the summer of 1436 the Bishop of Urbino 
followed, as a nuncio from the pope, ostensibly 
to reconcile the Scottish court with the papal 
see, and procure the repeal of the sentence 
against Croyser, the archdeacon ; but both 
envoys probably had instructions to procure 
the adhesion of James to the treaty of Arras. 
JEne&s Silvius was received graciously. 
James granted his requests and presented 
him with two palfreys and a pearl. A fanci- 
ful picture of his reception was painted by 
Pinturicchio on the walls of the library of 
Siena for Cardinal Piccolomini, where it 
may still be seen. 

In 1430 Lord Scrope came from England 
to negotiate a peace on the basis of restoring 
to Scotland Berwick and Roxburgh, and 
James referred the matter to the parliament 
of Perth in October 1431. The debate in 
presence of James, which Bower reports, 
was chiefly conducted by the clergy, the 
Abbots of Scone and Inchcolm contending 
that peace could not be made without the 
consent of France; while Fogo, abbot of 
Melrose, took the opposite side. No terms 
could be agreed on, and the alliance with 
France continued. In 1436 the Princess 
Margaret was sent with a great retinue, under 
| the conduct of the Earl of Orkney, to fulfil 
her engagement to the dauphin. On 10 Sept. 
; 1436 William Douglas, second earl of Angus, 
defeated at Piperden Robert Ogle, who made 
' a raid on the Scottish borders in breach of 
j the truce. An attempt was also made to kid- 
nap the king's daughter on her way to France. 
Thereupon James summoned the whole forces 
of his kingdom to the siege of Roxburgh in 
October 1436, but returned after an inglorious 
siege of fifteen days. There can be little doubt 
that the war with England had led to a mu- 
tiny of the Scottish barons, and that James 
had received information of it. After a short 
stay in Edinburgh, where he held his last 
parliament, James went to Perth to keep 



James I 



135 



of Scotland 



Christmas. As he was about to cross the 
Forth a highland woman shouted, ' An ye 
pass this water ye shall never return again 
alive.' He took up his residence in the cloister 
of the Black Friars at Perth. While play- 
ing a game of chess with a knight, nick- 
named the 'King of Love,' James, referring 
to a prophecy that a king should die that 
year, said to his playmate : ' There are no 
kings in Scotland but you and I: I shall 
take good care of myself, and I counsel you to 
do the same.' A favourite squire told James 
he had dreamt ' Sir Kobert Graham would 
slay the king,' and he received a rebuke from 
the Earl of Orkney. James himself had a 
dream of a cruel serpent and horrible toad 
attacking him in his chamber. 

These stories were not written down till 
after the event, but enough was known of 
Sir Robert Graham to lead men to dream or 
to invent stories of the coming danger. In 
the parliament of 1435 Graham, the uncle 
and tutor of Malise, earl of Strathearn, whose 
earldom the king had seized, had taken hold 
of James in the presence of the three estates, 
and said that he arrested him in their name 
for his cruel conduct and illegal acts. Graham 
relied on a promise that the lords would 
support him, but they failed to keep it, and 
himself being arrested, was banished to the 
highlands, where he openly rebelled and a 
price was set on his head. Graham then 
tried, but failed, to incite the nobles to revolt 
at the parliament of Edinburgh in October 
1436, but succeeded in procuring a secret 
promise of assistance from Atholl, the king's 
uncle, and Sir Robert Stewart, Atholl's 
grandson, a young man in great favour with 
the king, who had made him his chamberlain, 
and at Roxburgh constable of the army. The 
object of Graham and his friends was to place 
the crown on the head either of Atholl or his 
grandson. On the night of 20 Feb. 1437, when 
James and his courtiers, Atholl and his grand- 
son among the rest, were amusing themselves 
with chess and music, reading romances and 
hearing tales told, the highland woman who 
had already warned James again appeared in 
the courtyard and asked an audience, but 
the king put her off till the morning. About 
midnight he drank the parting cup, and the 
courtiers left. Robert Stewart, the last to 
leave, tampered with the bolts, so that the 
doors could not be made fast. While James 
was still talking with the queen and her 
ladies round the fire, the noise of horses 
and armed men was heard. James, suspect- 
ing it was Graham, wrenched a plank from 
the floor with the tongs, and hid himself 
in a small chamber below. Catherine Dou- 
glas, afterwards called ' Bar-lass,' one of the 



queen's maids, heroically barred the door of 
the house with her arm, which was broken 
by the incursion of Graham and his followers. 
James's hiding-place was soon discovered. 
After two of the band were thrown down by 
the king, Graham thrust a sword through 
his body. Those who saw the corpse reported 
that there were no less than sixteen wounds 
in the breast alone. The alarm spread to the 
king's servants and the town, and the con- 
spirators, who could not have effected their 
object without the aid of traitors in the king's 
household, fled. Before a month had elapsed 
all the leaders were caught, and within forty 
days tortured and executed with a barbarity 
which was deemed unusual even in that age. 
The king was buried in the convent of the 
Carthusians, where his pierced doublet was 
long kept as a relic. His heart was sent to 
the Holy Land and brought back in 1443 
from Rhodes by a knight of St. John, and 
presented to the Carthusians. The highly 
coloured and circumstantial narrative of his 
death translated from Latin into English by 
John Shirley about 1440 is nearly contem- 
porary, and has been accepted by historians. 
Yet it omits the heroic act of Catherine 
Douglas. 

Affectionate and somewhat melancholy in 
his youth, James was as a king decided, stern, 
severe, even cruel to enemies and breakers of 
the law, yet amiable and playful with friends, 
and, though regardless of the interests, even 
the rights, of the great lords, was zealous for 
those of the people. The story that he shod 
with horseshoes the chief who had done the 
same to a poor woman, is consistent with the 
retributive justice of his time and his own cha- 
racter. His attempts to reform the Scottish 
on, or even in advance of, the model of the 
English constitution of the fifteenth century 
led to his ruin; but he left a monarchy with 
a stronger hold on the loyalty of the nation, 
and a nation freer from feudal tyranny. 
Though James only lived to see the marriage 
of his eldest daughter, that union led to the 
marriage of her sisters with foreign princes, 
and forged new links in the connection be- 
tween Scotland and Europe. It was said of 
him by Drummond that, while the nation 
made his predecessors kings, he made Scotland 
a nation. His children were : Margaret [q.v.], 
afterwards wife of Louis the Dauphin, subse- 
quently Louis XI ; Elizabeth, or Isabel, be- 
trothed in 1441 to Francis, count of Montfort, 
whom she married in 1442, when he had be- 
come by his father's death Duke of Bretagne ; 
Alexander and James, twins, born 16 Oct. 
1430, of whom the former died young and 
the latter succeeded his father as James II ; 
Joan or Janet, who, although dumb, married 



James I of Scotland 136 James II of Scotland 



James Douglas, lord Dalkeith ; Eleanor, mar- 
ried in 1449 Archduke Sigismund of Austria ; 
Mary, who, while still a child, was married 
in 1444 to Wolfram von Borselen, lord of 
Camp-Vere in Zealand, and, in right of his 
wife, earl of Buchan in Scotland ; and Anna- 
bella, betrothed in 1444 to Philip, count of 
Geneva, second son of Amadeus, duke of 
Savoy, the anti-pope Felix of the council 
of Basle, but who married George Gordon, 
second earl of Huntly [q. v.] His love for his 
wife never wavered. Almost alone of Scottish 
kings, he had no mistress and no bastards. 

In person James was short and stout, 
broad-shouldered, narrow- waisted, but well- 
proportioned and agile. ' Quadratus,' or 
square-built, is the term which ^Eneas Sil- I 
vius used and Scottish historians accept as 
appropriate, though Major explains that he 
might have been fat for an Italian but not 
for a Scotsman. A portrait in the castle of 
Kielberg, near Tubingen, is wrongly said, by 
Pinkerton, in whose 'Iconographia' it is en- 
graved, to represent James I. It is a picture 
of James II. From an engraving of James I 
in John Johnstone's 'Icones ' later portraits 
have been taken. In this he appears as a 
man prematurely old, with grey hair, sunken 
cheek, and a double-pointed beard. His hair 
is said by Drummond of Hawthornden to have 
been auburn. His stoutness did not interfere 
with his activity, for he excelled in all games, 
the use of the bow, throwing the hammer, 
and wrestling. Nor was he less skilled in 
music, playing all the instruments then com- 
mon, and having a good voice. 

Theimaginationwhichinspiredthe ' Kingis 
Quair ' did not desert him on his return home, 
and he composed verses both in Latin and 
the vernacular, though the subjects of his 
poems, alluded to by Major under the names 
' Yas Sen ' and ' At Beltane,' have not been 
identified. The manuscript of the ' Quair ' was 
discovered by Lord Woodhouselee in the 
Bodleian Library in Oxford in 1783, and 
published by him in the same year. The 
best edition is that edited by Professor Skeat 
for the Scottish Text Society. The ascription 
of ' Christ-is Kirk on the Green,' ' Peebles to 
the Play,' and the ' Ballade of Guid Counsale ' 
to his authorship has not been established, 
though the last is accepted as his by Professor 
Skeat, on the authority of the colophon in 
\ The Gud and Godly Ballads,' 1578, and the 
internal evidence of the earliest manuscript 
of the close of the fifteenth century. His 
love of learning was shown by his favour for 
St. Andrews. He was its nominal founder 
during his exile, and after his return sought 
out its best students foroffices in church and 
state, attended their disputations, and con- 



firmed their privileges. He was no pedant, 
and encouraged the introduction of foreign 
musicians and actors, as well as of artisans, 
from Flanders to teach his subjects. While 
he repressed, on political grounds, the trade 
with England, he fostered that with France, 
the Low Countries, and Scandinavia. 

[Bower is the contemporary authority for the 
whole life, Wyntoun for the few years prior to 
his capture. The Acts of Parliament are of more 
than usual importance, and the Exchequer Rolls 
and Great Seal Registers are useful supplemen- 
tary records. For his life in England the various 
English records collected by Mr. Bain in vol. 
iii. of the Documents relating to Scotland, pub- 
lished in the Scottish Record Series. Pinkerton's 
History and Mr. Burnett's Preface to the Ex- 
chequer Rolls are the best modern histories ; 
the latter correct, and indeed supersede, Tytler 
and Burton. The King's Tragedy, by D. G. Ros- 
setti, is a modern poetic version of the prose 
narrative of the death of James by Shirley, 
printed by the Maitland Club and as an appendix 
to Pinkerton. Gait's Spaewife is a novel founded 
on the same story.] JE. M. 

JAMES II (1430-1460), king of Scotland, 
son of James I [q. v.] and Jane [q. v.], was 
born on 16 Oct. 1430, and succeeded to the 
throne of Scotland on his father's murder on 
21 Feb. 1437. He was crowned at Holyrood,. 
in the parliament of Edinburgh, on 25 March 
1437. An act of this parliament revoked 
alienations of crown property since the death 
of the late king,and prohibited them, without 
the consent of the estates, till the king's ma- 
jority. The queen retained the custody of 
James and his sisters. Archibald, fifth earl 
of Douglas [q. v.], was regent or lieutenant 
of the kingdom ; John Cameron, bishop of 
Glasgow, appears to have continued chan- 
cellor. The chief power was in the hands of 
two of the lesser barons, Sir William Crich- 
ton [q. v.] and Sir Alexander Livingstone 
[q. v/] The queen, afraid of the growing posi- 
tion of the former, removed the king to> 
Stirling in the beginning of 1439, concealing 
him, it is said, in a chest when she left Edin- 
burgh Castle ostensibly for a pilgrimage to 
White Kirk. She placed herself and her son 
under the protection of Livingstone, and a 
general council at Stirling, on 13 March 1439-, 
passed measures to strengthen the hands of 
Douglas, as lieutenant of the king, against 
Crichton. But Livingstone made terms 
with his rival under conditions which led to 
Crichton superseding Cameron as chancellor, 
while Livingstone retained Stirling and the 
custody of the king. 

The death in 1439 of the Earl of Douglas, 
and the queen's marriage to James Stewart, the 
knight of Lome, in the same year, afforded 



James II 



137 



of Scotland 



an opportunity and a pretext to Livingstone 
to seize the persons of the queen and her new 
husband, who were placed in strict ward in 
Stirling Castle on 3 Aug. They were released 
on 4 Sept. only by making a formal agree- 
ment to resign the custody of James to the 
Livingstones, by giving up her dowry for 
his maintenance, and confessing that Living- 
stone had acted through zeal for the king's 
safety. The barons soon fell out. Crichton 
kidnapped the king in Stirling Park, and 
brought him back to Edinburgh Castle. His 
next act was to kidnap and execute William, 
sixth earl of Douglas [q. v.] Four days after, 
Fleming, the old baron of Cumbernauld, 
brother-in-law of Murdoch, the regent in the 
reign of James I, an ally of the house of 
Douglas, was executed. The great rivals to 
the Stewarts, the Douglases, whose estates 
were partly forfeited to the crown, partly 
divided between the male and female heirs, 
were rendered for a time powerless. But in 
1443 William Douglas (1425 P-1452) [q. y.] 
became eighth earl, and soon after the chief 
companion of the king. On 20 Aug. 1443 
Douglas, in the king's name, besieged and 
razed to the ground Barnton, near Edin- 
burgh, the seat of Sir George Crichton, the 
admiral, brother of the chancellor. A coun- 
cil-general at Stirling on 4 Nov., at which 
James for the first time presided in person, 
outlawed both Sir William, the chancellor, 
and Sir George, and deprived them of their 
offices. Douglas was allowed, by marrying 
his cousin, the Fair Maid of Galloway, to 
reunite the female to the male fiefs of his 
house. Three years of civil war followed, in 
which the rivals harried each other's lands. 
The king, or Douglas in his name, held, with 
the aid of Livingstone, Linlithgow and Stir- 
ling, where James continued to live, while 
Crichton maintained himself in the castle of 
Edinburgh. The marriage of the king's sister 
Mary to the Lord of Camp-Vere, the be- 
trothal at Stirling of his sister Annabella 
to Philip, a son of the Duke of Savoy, 
and the death of his mother at D unbar on 
15 July 1445, appear to have had no imme- 
diate influence on his life. His two other 
sisters were sent about the same time to 
the court of France, where they arrived 
shortly after the death of their eldest sister, 
Margaret [q. v.], the wife of the dauphin. On 
14 June a parliament met at Perth, but ad- 
journed apparently to the town tolbooth at 
H^lyrood while Douglas besieged Edinburgh 
Castle for nine weeks. Crichton capitulated 
on good terms, his offences being condoned ; 
and then, or shortly after, on the death of 
Bruce, bishop of Glasgow, in 1447, he again 
became chancellor. A sentence of forfeiture 



pronounced in the castle of Edinburgh agaii 
James, earl of Angus, on 1 July 1445 pro\ 



uinst 
proves, 

that the king must have been by that date in 
possession of the castle. Before Christmas 
he had retired to Stirling, where he kept the 
festival. During 1446 and 1447 the compro- 
mise between the factions of Crichton, Living- 
stone, and Douglas continued, and the chief 
offices of state remained in their hands, or 
in those of members of their families. 

In 1447 Mary of Gueldres was recom- 
mended by Philip the Good as a suitable, 
bride for James. The negotiations began in 
July 1447, when a Burgundian envoy came 
to Scotland, and were concluded by an em- 
bassy under Crichton the chancellor in Sep- 
tember 1448. Philip settled sixty thousand 
crowns on his kinswoman, and her dower of 
ten thousand was secured on lands in Strath- 
earn, Athole, Methven, and Linlithgow. A 
tournament took place before James at Stir- 
ling, on 25 Feb. 1449, between James, mas- 
ter of Douglas, another James, brother to 
the Laird of Lochleven, and two knights of 
Burgundy, one of whom, Jacques de Lalain,. 
was the most celebrated knight-errant of the 
time. The marriage was celebrated at Holy- 
rood on 3 July 1449. A French chronicler, 
Mathieu d'Escouchy, gives a graphic account 
of the ceremony and the feasts which fol- 
lowed. Many Flemings in Mary's suite re- 
mained in Scotland, and the relations between. 
Scotland and Flanders, already friendly under 
James I, consequently became closer. 

In Scotland the king's marriage led to his 
emancipation from tutelage, and to the down- 
fall of the Livingstones. In the autumn Sir 
Alexander and other members of the family 
were arrested. At a parliament in Edin- 
burgh on 19 Jan. 1450, Alexander Living- 
stone, a son of Sir Alexander, and Robert 
Livingstone of Linlithgow were tried and 
executed on the Castle Hill. Sir Alexan- 
der and his kinsmen were confined in dif- 
ferent and distant castles. A single member 
of the family escaped the general proscription 
James, the eldest son of Sir Alexander, who, 
after arrest and escape to the highlands, wa3 
restored in 1454 to the office of chamber- 
lain to which he had been appointed in the 
summer of 1449. The parliament sat from 
19 Jan. 1450 to the end of the month. Its 
acts show that the influence of the Douglas 
party, with whom Crichton the chancellor 
was now reconciled, was dominant ; but also 
that the estate of the church, headed by 
Kennedy, bishop of St. Andrews, the king's 
cousin, and Turnbull, the new bishop of Glas- 
gow, was rising into power, and that the king 
himself could no longer be treated as a cipher. 
Several statutes of his father's reign were rer 



James II 



138 



of Scotland 



enacted, and eighteen added, the most impor- 
tant of which provided for the proclamation of 
a general peace throughout the realm ; the 
penalties of rebellion and treason, and of tres- 
pass by officers in the execution of their offices ; 
the endurance of leases, notwithstanding sale 
or mortgage of the lands, and against spolia- 
tion or harrying of crops and cattle enact- 
ments much needed in favour of the poor 
labourers of the ground ; against sorners and 
masterful beggars ; against the building of 
towers and fortalices: for the administra- 
tion of civil and criminal justice, the revi- 
sion of the laws, and the preservation of the 
purity of the coinage. Before the parlia- 
ment rose a special charter was granted, at 
the request of the queen and the bishops, 
giving the latter the right of disposing of 
their goods by testament. A series of char- 
ters of lands in favour of the Earl of Dou- 
glas were confirmed. Crichton the chancellor 
and his brother the admiral also received 
considerable grants of land. 

This legislation proves that James was pre- 
pared to govern in his father's spirit, as a 
ling of the nation against breakers of the 
law, however powerful. In November he 
had some quarrel with the Earl of Douglas. 
During Douglas's absence in Rome James 
seized and demolished Douglas Craig, one of 
his castles, besieged others, and forced his 
vassals to swear fealty to the crown. Douglas, 
on his return in 1451, made peace with 
James, and at the parliament of Edinburgh 
on 25 June obtained a re-grant of his estates. 
In spite of these favours, he intrigued with 
the English court, and in the autumn the ex- 
istence of a bond between Douglas and the 
Earls of Crawford and of Ross against all 
men, not excluding the king, was discovered. 
The lawless acts of Douglas forced James to 
take decisive measures against his too power- 
ful vassal. Douglas was induced, by a safe- 
conduct under the privy seal, to visit the 
king at Stirling on 21 Feb. 1452. James re- 
ceived him well, entertaining him at dinner 
and supper on the following day, Shrove 
Thursday. But after supper, at seven o'clock, 
James led him to an inner chamber, chal- 
lenged him with the existence of the bond 
with the earls, charged him to break it, and 
on Douglas's refusal stabbed him with a knife. 
On 17 March James, the brother and heir of 
the murdered earl, with a band, rode through 
Stirling and denounced the murderer. James 
was then at Perth, on his way against the 
Earl of Crawford. Before they met, Craw- 
ford had been defeated at Brechin Muir by 
the Earl of Huntly on 17 May. 'Far more 
were with the Earl of Huntly than with 
the Earl of Crawford, because he displayed 



the king's banner ' a significant proof that 
James, like his father, was more popular than 
the great earls. On 12 June 1452, in a par- 
liament at Edinburgh, James denied having 
given a safe-conduct to Douglas. The estates 
absolved the king of breach of faith, and de- 
clared Douglas had been justly put to death. 
The earl's brothers, however, posted a letter of 
defiance on the door of the parliament hall. 
The Bishop of St. Andrews, Crichton, and 
other barons who joined in the declaration 
received grants of land, and several of them 
were raised to the dignity of peers. It is 
noted by the chronicler that some of the 
grants of land were made by the king's privy 
council, and not by parliament. The Earl 
of Crawford, who had joined the bond with 
Douglas, was attainted in the same session. 
Immediately afterwards the king, having as- 
sembled his feudal levy on Pentland Muir 
to the number of thirty thousand, marched 
south, and wasted the Douglas lands in 
Peebles, Selkirk, and Dumfries. The raid, 
however, led to the submission of James, the 
new earl of Douglas [see DOUGLAS, JAMES, 
1426-1488]. In the spring of 1453 James 
led his forces north of the Tay, and received 
an equally speedy submission from the Earl of 
Crawford, who died soon after. As James had 
already made terms with Ross, the formidable 
confederacy of the three earls was dissolved, 
and the crown was strengthened by the new 
nobility against any attempt to revive it. 
The deaths in 1454 of Crichton the chancel- 
lor, of his son (lately created earl of Moray), 
and of his brother forced James to rely still 
more upon himself, and upon Bishop Ken- 
nedy as his principal adviser. But the Earl 
of Douglas was still intriguing with the Eng- 
lish. In the beginning of March 1455 James 
resolved anew to crush the Douglases. After 
demolishing their castle of Inveravon, James 
passed to Lanark, where he defeated Dou- 
glas. He then wasted with fire and sword 
Douglasdale, Avondale, and the lands ot 
Lord Hamilton in Lanark, and returned to 
Edinburgh. From Edinburgh he went south 
to the forest of Ettrick with a host of low- 
landers, destroying the castles of all who 
would not take the oath of fealty. Coming 
back to Edinburgh, he laid siege to the 
castle of Abercorn, on the Forth, in the first 
week of April, when Lord Hamilton, act- 
ing on the advice of his uncle, Sir James 
Livingstone, came and made his submission, 
in return for which he was appointed sheriff 
of Lanark. Before the end of the month 
Abercorn was taken by escalade. Meantime 
men ' wist not wheare the Douglas was.' On 
1 May his three brothers, the Earls of Or- 
monde and Moray and Lord Balvenie, were 



James II 



139 



of Scotland 



signally defeated at Arkinholm, now Lang- 
holm, on the Esk, by the king's lowland 
forces. The head of Moray was brought to 
James at Abercorn ; Ormonde was captured 
and executed. Douglas Castle and other 
strongholds surrendered, and Threave, the 
chief seat of the earl, in Galloway, alone re- 
mained untaken. Against it James directed 
the whole strength of his artillery, including 
the great bombard, perhaps Mons Meg, which 
he had imported from Flanders. The Earl of 
Orkney at first commanded the siege, but 
James went in person before the surrender 
of the castle. 

Parliament met at Edinburgh on 9 June 
1456, and Douglas, his mother the Countess 
Beatrice, and his three brothers were at- 
tainted, and their whole estates forfeited. 
The sentences show that the rebellion ex- 
tended from Threave in Galloway to Darn- 
away in Elgin, and included the fortification 
of castles in nearly every county. The fol- 
lowing parliament of 4 Aug. passed an act 
of attainder, which, besides uniting to the 
crown the earldoms of Fife and Strathearn, 
forfeited in his father's reign, renewed the 
grant of the whole customs ; declared the 
king's right to the royal castles of Edin- 
burgh, Stirling, Dumbarton, Inverness, and 
Urquhart, and annexed the forfeited Douglas 
lordship of Galloway and castle of Threave, 
and the lordship of Brechin, which the Earl 
of Crawford had held, as well as a number 
of highland baronies, several of them in Ross. 
By these great accessions of territory James 
became more powerful than any former king, 
and for the short remainder of his reign was, 
in fact, almost an absolute monarch in Scot- 
land. Parliament was summoned to Stirling 
on 13 Oct., for the third time in 1455, a 
proof how greatly the king relied on its 
support. The parliament of Stirling was 
almost exclusively occupied with measures 
to secure the kingdom against the English, 
with whom war had already broken out 
in the course of the summer, as a sequel 
of the suppression of the Douglas rebellion. 
In November an embassy under the Bishop 
of Galloway was sent to France pressing for 
immediate assistance, and suggesting that 
the French should attack Calais, and the 
Scots Berwick, simultaneously. Henry VI, 
or those who governed in his name, addressed, 
on 26 July 1455, a threatening letter to 
James, ' asserting himself to be king of Scots,' 
and announcing the intention of the English 
king to chastise him for his rebellion. The 
falsehoods as to Scottish homage collected by 
Edward I were about this time resuscitated, 
and added to by the forgeries of John Hardyng 
[q. v.] and Palgrave's ' Documents illustrating 



the History of Scotland,' pp. cxcvi-ccxxiv. 
James answered these threats by a raid in 
the autumn of 1456, advancing as far as the 
Cale or Calne, a tributary of the Teviot. In- 
terrupted by what Boece calls the fraudu- 
lent promise of the English ambassadors, 
who appear to have represented themselves 
as having authority from the pope to prohibit 
wars between Christian powers, James re- 
treated, but returned within twenty days, and 
ravaged Northumberland with fire and sword, 
destroying, according to the ' Auchinleck 
Chronicle,' seventeen towers and fortalices, 
and remainingin England six days and nights. 
Between 26 Sept. and 1 Oct. he was hunting 
in the neighbourhood of Loch Freuchie, north 
of Glenalmond. On 19 Oct. he was back again 
in Edinburgh, where the parliament made 
further provision for the defence of the realm. 
Regulations were also laid down as to the 
pestilence in burghs and the administration 
of justice in certain places by a committee of 
the three estates. It is noticeable that the 
two last acts seem to have passed, at the 
king's instance, with the special consent of 
the clergy. The burghs probably at the same 
time imposed on themselves a large tax, to 
be paid in Flemish money, and raised it by a 
Flemish loan. These measures for self-de- 
fence were the more necessary as the French 
king, Charles VII, though making professions 
of attachment to James, had pleaded the more 
urgent necessities of his own kingdom, and 
declined to aid in the English war. 

On 6 July 1457 a truce was concluded 
between James and Henry VI, to last till 
6 July 1459 by land, and 28 July by sea. 
It was important for James to have time to 
reduce the northern parts of his kingdom to 
order, and for Henry that Scotland should 
preserve at least an armed neutrality in view 
of the probable renewal of Yorkist intrigues. 
There are no charters under the great seal 
between 25 July 1457 and 30 April 1458, 
i which may perhaps correspond to the period 
James spent in the highlands. While there 
he was busily occupied with building castles ; 
he repaired that of Inverness, completed the 
great hall of Darnaway which Archibald Dou- 
glas, the earl of Moray, had begun, and placed 
that castle under the charge of the sheriff of 
Elgin. About the same time he gave a life- 
rent right of Glenmoriston and Urquhart, 
with the custody of its castle, to the young 
Earl of Ross. Ross's half-brother, Celestine, 
was made keeper of the castle of Redcastle, 
and his ally, Malcolm Mackintosh, chief of 
the clan Chattan, was gratified with gifts of 
land and the commutation of a fine. These 
favours were granted through the influence 
of Lord Livingstone, Ross's father-in-law, 



James II 



140 



of Scotland 



now chamberlain, who, on the king's coming 
south to Linlithgow, . received an extensive 
charter of lands in three counties, and his 
hereditary castle of Callendar. 

In the spring of 1458 the marriages of 
James's sisters, Annabella and Joanna, the 
former to George Gordon, heir of the Earl 
of Huntly, and the latter, though dumb, 
to James Douglas, third lord Dalkeith, who 
was created earl of Morton, still further 
strengthened the crown. 

The most important parliament of his 
reign was held in Edinburgh on 6 March 
1458. It formally instituted a supreme and 
central court for civil justice, although it 
was still to meet at three places, Edin- 
burgh, Perth, and Aberdeen, and provided 
that the judges, representatives of the three 
estates, were to pay their own expenses, 
apart from what could be recovered as 
fines. Annual circuits of the justiciary 
court were also to be held, for the good of 
the commons, and abuses of their extensive 
jurisdiction by the lords of regality to be 
put down. The chamberlain ayres, which 
sat in the burghs, were to be reformed, be- 
cause ' the estates, and specially the poor 
commons,' had been sorely grieved by their 
procedure, and the extortion of fines by the 
royal constables or their deputies suppressed. 
Other statutes showed an anxious desire on 
the part of James to remedy abuses and to 
protect the poorer classes against the great 
lords and his own officers. Another chapter 
of legislation related to the tenure of land, 
and although it did not first introduce the 
tenure called ' feu farm,' gave legal security 
to the farmers who took feus against the 
casualty of ward, and greatly encouraged that 
useful modification of feudal holding. Its 
short preamble, that it was expedient that 
the king should set an example to other land- 
owners, was carried out in practice, for we 
find many charters of feu granted by James, 
especially in Fife. There were also statutes 
for the reform of coinage, of weights and 
measures, of gold and silver work, and to pre- 
vent adulteration by goldsmiths. A com- 
mission was instituted for the reformation of 
hospitals. The smaller freeholders, under 207. 
rent, were relieved from attendance at par- 
liament, which was deemed a burden, not a 
privilege. Better provision was made for the 
promulgation of the statutes by the sheriffs 
and commissioners of burghs. It is clear from 
the tenor of the acts of this parliament that 
James II is entitled, as much as his father, to 
the character of a reformer. In February 
1459 a further prolongation was concluded 
of the truce with England, for seven years, to 
6 July 1468 by land, and to 28 July by sea. 



Towards the end both of 1458 and 1459 par- 
liaments were held at Perth, but nearly all 
the acts of these last two parliaments of the 
i reign appear to have been destroyed or lost, 
No records of either kingdom are extant to 
I support the probable statement of Boece that 
[ Douglas and Northumberland made, in 1459, 
an unsuccessful raid on the Scottish border; 
or that of Bishop Leslie, that Henry VI sent 
ambassadors to treat with James, and offered 
to restore to Scotland the counties of North- 
umberland, Cumberland, and Durham, as 
the price of his help against the Duke of 
York. It is certain that James threw his 
whole influence on the Lancastrian, and 
Douglas on the Yorkist, side. His maternal 
uncle, the Duke of Somerset, was killed fight- 
ing for Henry at the battle of St. Albans, 
and after the defeat and capture of Henry 
himself at Northampton in July 1460, his 
wife and son fled to Scotland. A renewal 
of the war with England followed. James 
brought his whole lowland forces to besiege 
Roxburgh, and the artillery which had been 
specially prepared for use against the Eng- 
lish castles. Reinforced by the highlanders 
under the Earl of Ross and the Lord of the 
Isles, he reduced the town and was on the 
eve of taking the castle, when on Sunday, 
3 Aug. 1460, while he was watching the 
discharge of a bombard, a wedge flew out, 
killed him on the spot, and wounded the 
Earl of Angus, who stood near. His wife 
courageously prosecuted the siege, and the 
castle was soon after taken. The young 
prince was brought to Kelso, and crowned 
in its abbey, while the corpse of James was 
carried to Holyrood, and was buried there. 
He was only thirty years of age at his death. 
He left three sons (James III, Alexander 
Stewart, duke of Albany (d. 1485) [q. v.], 
and John Stewart, earl of Mar (d. 1479) 
[q. v.]) and two daughters, one of whom was 
afterwards married to Thomas, master of 
Boyd, created earl of Arran, and after his 
forfeiture to Lord Hamilton, who succeeded 
to the Arran earldom. 

James was a vigorous, politic, and singu- 
larly successful king. He was popular with 
the commons, with whom, like most of the 
Stewarts, he mingled freely, both in peace and 
war. His legislation has a markedly popular 
character. He does not appear to have in- 
herited his father's taste for literature, which 
descended to at least two of his sisters; but 
the foundation of the university of Glasgow 
in his reign, by Bishop Turnbull, perhaps 
shows that he encouraged learning; and there 
are also traces of endowments by him to St. 
Salvator's, the new college of Archbishop Ken- 
nedy at St. Andrews. He possessed in a high 



James III 



141 



of Scotland 



degree his father's restless energy. A blemish, 
a red mark on one side of his face, gained him 
the name of the ' Fiery Face,' and appears to 
have been deemed by contemporaries an out- 
ward sign of a fiery temper. The manner of 
the death of Douglas leaves a stain on his 
memory ; but it was an age of violence and 
treachery, against which violence and trea- 
chery were regarded as lawful weapons. 

A portrait of James II in the castle of 
Kielberg, near Tubingen, was engraved for 
George von Ehingen's ' Itinerarium,' 1660, 
and in Pinkerton's ' Iconographia,' where it 
is erroneously described as a picture of 
James I. 

[There is no contemporary historian except 
the brief Chronicle printed by Mr. Thomas 
Thomson from the Asloan MS. in the Auchin- 
leck Library. John Major and Hector Boece 
were born shortly after his death, and their his- 
tories, and the later history of Lindsay of Pit- 
ccottie, supplement the imperfect contemporary 
records. The Records of Parliament and the Ac- 
counts of Exchequer are, however, more than 
usually valuable in estimating the character of 
the reign, and as a check on the frequently un- 
trustworthy statements of Boece.] JE. M. 

JAMES III (1451-1488), king of Scot- 
land, son of James II [q. v.] and Mary of 
Gueldres, was born 10 July 1451, and became 
king in his ninth year. He was crowned on 
Sunday, 10 Aug. 1460, in the abbey of Kelso. 
The queen-mother retained the chief power, 
whether or not she was formally regent. Her 
chief counsellors were Kennedy, archbishop 
of St. Andrews, and James Lindsay, provost 
of Lincluden, keeper of the privy seal, and the 
usual changes of a new reign were made in 
the custody of the principal royal castles. 
Parliaments were held, but their records have 
not been preserved. The continuance of the 
English war, as well as large building opera- 
tions at the palace of Falkland, the new castle 
of Ravenscraig, near Dysart, and the Trinity 
College ChurchmEdinburgh,showthequeen- 
mother to have been a vigorous ruler. She was 
supported by the ' young lords,' but opposed by 
the older nobles. When after the de tea oi Tow- 
ton, on 29 March 1461, Henry VI, !iis wife, and 
son, with several of the Lancastrian nobles, 
came to Scotland as refugees, she received 
them hospitably, and the surrender of Berwick 
to Scotland was arranged. Edward IV re- 
taliated by stirring up the rebellion of the 
Earl of Ross, who exercised almost royal au- 
thority in his highland domains, and, though 
frequently summoned, did not appear in par- 
liament. In July 1 462 the households of the 
queen-mother and the young king were sepa- 
rated, and parliament declared that James 
should ' aye remain with the queen,' but 



that she was not to meddle with the profits 
of his estates. In December 1463 Edward IV 
ratified the truce with Scotland, and extended 
it, on 3 June 1464, for fifteen years. In spite 
of the truce, the king's brother, the Duke of 
Albany, was seized when on his voyage to 
Guelderland, but was released on the inter- 
cession of Bishop Kennedy. On 20 June 1465 
a marriage was proposed between James and 
an English subject, and although this was 
not carried out, the truce was prolonged for 
fifty-four years on 1 June 1466. 

Mary of Gueldres died on 16 Nov. 1463, 
and Bishop Kennedy on 10 May 1466. The 
nobles tried as usual to take advantage of a 
royal minority. Three of them usurped the 
chief power : Lord Kennedy, brother of the 
bishop and uncle of the king, became keeper 
of Stirling Castle ; Robert, son of Malcolm 
Fleming of Cumbernauld, who had been 
steward of the household of James II ; and 
Sir Alexander Boyd, governor of Edinburgh 
Castle, to whom the young king's military 
training was entrusted. On 10 Feb. 1456 
these nobles entered into an agreement, by 
which Fleming undertook to maintain Boyd 
and Kennedy as custodians of James. On 
9 July of the same year the king was seized, 
while attending an audit of the exchequer at 
Linlithgow, by a party of nobles headed by 
Boyd, with the connivance of Kennedy, and 
taken to Edinburgh Castle, where a parlia- 
ment was held in his name on 9 Oct. On 
the fifth day of its session a mock trial was 
acted. Boyd came, begged, and received the 
pardon of the boy-king, who, with the con- 
currence of the estates, made his captor go- 
vernor of the persons of himself and of his 
brothers, Albany and Mar, and gave him the 
custody of the royal castles. This was con- 
firmed by a writ under the great seal, and on 
26 April 1467 the eldest son of Boyd, Thomas, 
was created earl of Arran and married to 
the king's sister. The Boyds monopolised 
offices and power, but do not appear to have 
been oppressive rulers. 

In the parliament of Stirling, in January 
1468, the project for the marriage of James 
with Margaret, daughter of Christian of 
Denmark, which had been suggested by 
Charles VII of France before James II's death, 
was resumed, and an embassy, for whose cost 
3,0001. was raised, was despatched to Copen- 
hagen. The marriage treaty was signed on 
8 Sept., and Arran, who took a principal part 
in the negotiation, went home to procure its 
ratification. Denmark agreed to abrogate 
her claim to an annual payment demanded 
from the kings of Scotland since 1263 on ac- 
count of the Danish cession to Alexander III 
of the Hebrides, and promised the payment 



James III 



142 



of Scotland 



of sixty thousand Rhenish florins, for which 
the Orkney and Shetland Isles, at the time 
nominally under Denmark's suzerainty, were 
pledged to James. The ambassadors returned 
with the bride, and the marriage was cele- 
brated with great pomp at Holyrood in July 
1469. During Arran's absence the Boyds, his 
kinsmen, had fallen into discredit. Arran 
fled to Denmark with his wife. His father, 
Lord Boyd, escaped to England. In the 
parliament of Edinburgh in November 1469 
the queen was crowned, the Boyds were for- 
feited for treason, and their lands annexed 
to the principality of Scotland. Although 
only in his eighteenth year, and his bride in 
her twelfth, James now undertook the go- 
vernment, and there is nothing to show that 
any one of the nobles or bishops acquired a 
controlling influence. 

In the autumn of 1470 James and the 
queen went north, by way of Aberdeen, as 
far as Inverness. On 6 May 1471 he held a 
parliament in Edinburgh, which passed acts 
prohibiting the procuring of Scottish benefices 
at Rome, and making provision for the de- 
fence of the kingdom. The queen's jointure 
was settled, and William Sinclair, earl of 
Caithness, received a grant of Ravenscraig 
in Fife, in compensation for the cession of his 
rights in Orkney, which, with Shetland, was 
annexed to the crown. In 1474 Edward IV 
proposed the betrothal of James's infant son, 
afterwards James IV [q. v.], with his daugh- 
ter Cecilia [q. v.] The English king agreed 
to pay a dowry of twenty thousand marks, 
as well as five hundred more as compensation 
for Bishop Kennedy's great barge, the St. 
Salvator, which had been plundered when 
wrecked on the sands of Bamborough. In 
1474 James proposed that his sister Margaret 
should marry the Duke of Clarence, and his 
brother Albany the widowed Duchess of Bur- 
gundy, sister of Edward IV. But Edward, 
on making terms with France, waived these 
proposals, and stopped the instalments of his 
daughter's dowry. At the parliament of 
Edinburgh on 1 Dec. 1475, the Earl of Ross, 
whose share in the rebellion of 1462 remained 
unpunished, was forfeited for treason in ab- 
sence, appeared before James in parliament 
at Edinburgh on 15 July 1476, and sur- 
rendered all his estates, but received them 
back, with the important exception of the 
earldom of Ross. He was also created a lord 
of parliament, with the title of Lord of the 
Isles, and the succession to his estates was 
settled, failing legitimate, on his illegitimate 
children. On 7 Feb. 1478 James, who had 
now reached what the Scots, following the 
Roman law, called the perfect age of twenty- 
five, revoked, as was usual, all alienations of 



crown property to its prejudice, and specially 
of any of the royal castles. He also entrusted 
the queen with the custody of the prince and 
of Edinburgh Castle for a period of five years. 

Up to this time James's reign had been sin- 
| gularly fortunate. The civil wars in Eng- 
land had enabled him to recover Berwick and 
Roxburgh. His marriage had completed the 
boundaries of Scotland by the addition of 
the northern islands. The fall of the Boyds 
had brought into the hands of the crown 
Arran and Bute, as well as their Ayrshire 
estates. The highlands had been reduced 
by the submission of the Lord of the Isles 
and the annexation of the earldom of Ross. 
The skilful diplomacy of Patrick Graham 
fa. v.], the successor of Kennedy in the see of 
St. Andrews, had procured for Scotland the 
coveted archiepiscopal pall, which freed the 
Scottish church from the claims of supremacy 
asserted by the Archbishop of York over 
the southern sees, and by the Archbishop of 
Drontheim over the sees of Orkney and the 
Western Isles. 

It is difficult to fix the exact date or the 
precise causes of the misfortunes which fol- 
lowed. Like his contemporary, Louis XI, 
James adopted as favourites new men from 
the lower ranks ; but he had none of the tena- 
city of purpose which enabled the French 
king to succeed in this policy. The earliest 
of his favourites appears to have been William 
Schevez [q. v.], his physician and an astro- 
loger, who was installed in the archbishopric 
of St. Andrews in 1478. Another favourite 
was Robert Cochrane [q. v.], well known as 
an architect. The royal family was divided 
against itself. His brothers Albany, who 
was three, and Mar, who was six years his 
junior were more popular than James. 
They took part in the martial exercises of the 
period, which James neglected for the more 
effeminate pursuits of music, literature, and 
architecture. The estates seem from the first 
to have distrusted James. In the parliament 
of July 1476 a committee, consisting of the 
king's brothers, Albany and Mar, most of 
the prelates, great barons, and representatives 
of the burghs, were invested with almost regal 
powers. The king's jealousy of Albany and 
Mar led, in 1479, to the arrest of Mar, whose 
death, it was suspected through foul play, 
quickly followed. Cochrane succeeded to the 
vacant earldom. The accusation of witch- 
craft made against Mar, and the burning of 
several witches who were charged with melt- 
ing a wax image of the king, are among the 
first references to this crime in Scottish his- 
tory. Albany was arrested soon after Mar, 
and placed in the castle of Edinburgh, from 
which he escaped to Leith, and thence to 



James III 



143 



of Scotland 



France. He was received with favour by 
Louis XI of France, lie married Anne de la 
Tour, daughter of the Count of Boulogne 
and Auvergne, and subsequently came over 
to England. Edward IV had, in violation 
of the existing truce, shown himself the 
active enemy of Scotland. In June 1481 he 
concluded an alliance with the Lord of the 
Isles and Donald Gorme, another highland 
chief, and showed marked favour to the 
exiled Earl of Douglas [see DOUGLAS, JAMES, 
1426-1488]. In the Scottish parliament of 
March 1482 extensive preparations were au- 
thorised for the defence of the kingdom 
against Edward, who retaliated by a treaty 
with Albany, and conferred on him the dis- 
honourable title of ' Alexander, King of Scot- 
land by the gift of the King of England.' 

To carry out this treaty, Gloucester, with 
an English army, accompanied by Albany, 
and secretly abetted by the Earl of Angus and 
other Scottish nobles, marched to the border. 
In July, James, having assembled his feudal 
army, to the number of about fifty thousand, 
at the Borough Muir of Edinburgh, marched 
to Lauder, where mutiny broke out. The 
barons hanged Cochrane and other favourites, 
and sent the king to Edinburgh Castle. 

Meantime, the town, and in August 1482 
the castle, of Berwick was retaken by the 
English army. The border burgh never again 
became Scottish. Gloucester and Albany at 
once marched to Edinburgh. Then, by a 
sudden and inexplicable change, Albany and 
James were reconciled, through the media- 
tion of the Archbishop of St. Andrews and 
Lord Avondale, the chancellor. Albany re- 
ceived a remission for his treasonable treaty 
with Edward IV, and in the parliament of 
December 1482 was appointed lieutenant- 
general of the kingdom. Gloucester was 
ignored and returned home. Edward IV was 
offered the restoration of the dowry, so far 
as paid, of the Princess Cecilia; but this 
was never carried out, and fruitless negotia- 
tions were set on foot for the marriage of 
Princess Margaret of Scotland with Anthony, 
lord Rivers. On 11 Feb. 1483 Edward 
entered into a new treaty with Albany to 
aid him in acquiring the Scottish crown, 
and promised him one of his daughters in 
marriage. This fresh treason became known 
to James and his Scottish council, but in- 
stead of leading, as might have been an- 
ticipated, to proceedings against Albany, an 
indenture was entered into between him and 
the king, signed at Dunbar on 19 March 1483, 
by which, among other provisions, James 
granted Albany a full remission for all ' trea- 
son and other misdeeds.' Albany renounced 
his obligations to Edward IV, engaged not to 



come within six miles of the king without 
special leave, and surrendered his office of 
lieutenant-general, retaining that of warden 
of the middle marches. He further promised 
to endeavour to procure peace with England. 

Albany, however, with the aid of Lord 
Crichton, instead of carrying out the pro- 
visions of this agreement, fortified Dunbar 
Castle, and sent Sir James Liddale to renew 
his alliance with the English king. The 
death of Edward IV, on 9 April 1483, did not 
put a stop to Albany's treasonable plots, and 1 
on 27 June he was at last forfeited by parlia- 
ment, and a similar doom was then, or shortly 
after, pronounced against Liddale, Crichton, 
and others of his followers. Preparations 
were at once made by James for the siege of 
Dunbar, and the siege was begun, though it 
was prosecuted slowly. Richard III on his 
accession at first favoured Albany, but the 
security of his own crown made it necessary 
for him to temporise by receiving at the end 
of 1483 an embassy sent by James, which suc- 
ceeded in concluding a truce for three years, 
at Nottingham, on 21 Sept. 1484. On St. 
Magdalene's day (22 July of the latter year) 
Albany and the banished Earl of Douglas 
made an unsuccessful raid on Lochmaben. 
Douglas was taken prisoner and sent to- 
London, and Albany himself with difficulty 
escaped to France, where he was killed in 
a tournament in 1485. In or before June 
1486 Dunbar surrendered. The same year, 
probably on 14 July, Queen Margaret died r 
and her death facilitated the plot by which 
the leading nobles, who had never become 
really friendly to the king, procured his son 
(afterwards James IV) as the head of the 
rebellion, in Albany's place. 

The death of Richard III, on 22 Aug, 
1485, led to a treaty in November 1487 by 
which the new monarch, Henry VII, engaged 
to marry one of the sisters of his queen to- 
the Scottish heir-apparent, another to his 
brother, the Marquis of Ormonde, and the 
widow of Edward IV to James himself. 
Once more these matrimonial projects mis- 
carried, owing, it is said, to James's demand 
of the surrender of Berwick as a condition of 
his assent. But the quarrel, which had now 
reached a crisis, between him and his own 
nobles is a more probable cause. James had 
continued to favour men of inferior rank, his 
chief favourites now being Hommyl the 
tailor and Ramsay, lord Bothwell. He had de- 
preciated the currency, and had wasted money 
over building, particularly at Stirling, where 
a royal hall was built and a royal chapel en- 
dowed on a scale of more than ordinary mag- 
nificence. To obtain funds for this James pro- 
cured the pope's sanction to the annexation 



James III 



144 



of the revenues of the monastery of Colding- 
ham, which alienated its patrons, the power- 
ful border family of the Humes. The chronic 
enmity of the great feudal houses to the 
sovereign, combined with the incapacity of 
James III, fully accounts for the extent of 
the revolt. Its heads were Angus (Bell the 
Cat), Lords Gray and Hume, and later the 
Earl of Huntly, Erroll, the Earl-Marischal, 
and Lord Glamis, chiefly, it may be observed, 
the lowland nobles. Most of the northern 
barons, the Earls of Crawford, Atholl, Mon- 
teith, Rothes, and others, and in the west 
Lords Kilmaurs and Boyd, remained faith- 
ful to James. The king showed special favour 
to Crawford, and tried to detach Angus and 
obtain his aid in arresting the rebels at a 
parliament or general council in Edinburgh 
in January 1488; but that stubborn earl re- 
fused to comply, disclosed the king's design 
to the nobles, and James himself had to seek 
safety by flight to the north. Crossing the 
Forth in a ship of Sir Andrew Wood, and 
summoning the barons of Fife, Strathearn, 
and Angus to his standard, he proceeded to 
Aberdeen. He then returned to Perth, where 
he was joined by his uncle, the Earl of Atholl, 
Huntly, Crawford, and Lindsay of the Byres, 
Tvho led a thousand horse and three thousand 
Infantry raised in Fife. Ruthven also brought 
a force of three thousand men of all arms. 
When he reached Stirling, James was at the 
head of an army of thirty thousand men. In 
May he met the rebels under Hepburn, lord 
Hailes, at Blackness on the Forth. The barons 
had also raised their whole forces, and James, 
a timid general, rather than risk an engage- 
ment, entered into a pacification, by the terms 
of which Atholl was delivered as a hostage. 
It was felt on both sides that this was a mere 
suspension of hostilities. James created Craw- 
ford duke of Montrose, and Kilmaurs earl 
of Glencairn, as a reward for their services; 
and his second son was made duke of Ross, 
-with the probable intention of substituting 
him for his brother as heir to the crown. 
Envoys were despatched to France, England, 
and Rome, urgently begging for assistance. 
The castle of Edinburgh was fortified, and 
the royal treasure deposited in it. The rebels 
on their side were not idle ; they increased 
their forces, and treated the king's heralds 
-with derision. They gained over Shaw of 
'Sauchie, the governor of Stirling, in whose 
custody the young prince James was, :ud, 
adopting the prince's standard as their own, 
led him with them to Linlithgow. J.ihies 
determined to attempt to gain possession of 
Stirling Castle, but Shaw refused to admit 
him, and on 11 June 1488 the two hosts con- 
fronted each otheronthe plain through which. 



the Sauchie burn flows, about a mile south of 
the field of Bannockburn. The battle which 
followed, the most celebrated in the early 
civil wars of Scotland, traversed partly the 
same ground as that on which Bruce had won 
his famous victory. The rebels were superior 
in numbers, and their archers and spearmen 
gained the first advantage, which was at 
once turned into a victory by the flight of the 
king. Glencairn, Ruthven, and Erskine are 
the only nobles named as having been killed. 
James himself fled to Miltoun, called Beton's 
Mill, where he imprudently revealed his iden- 
tity to a woman drawing water at the well, 
by telling her in his craven fear, ' I was your 
king this morning.' She called, according to 
the traditionary story, for a priest, and one 
of Lord Gray's men assumed that character. 
When asked by the fallen monarch to shrive 
him, the soldier replied he would give him a 
short shrift, and despatched him with his 
sword. The stories that he survived the 
fatal day were the rumours of the camp or 
the gossip of the country-side. 

James was buried beside his wife at Cam- 
buskenneth, where masses were said for a 
time for his soul, and a monument has re- 
cently been restored by Queen Victoria. He 
was only thirty-six years of age, but had 
been nominally king for twenty-eight years. 
He left three sons : James IV [q. v.], who 
succeeded ; James Stewart, duke of Ross 
(1476-1504) [q. v.], afterwards archbishop 
of St. Andrews ; and John, earl of Mar. Al- 
though pity was felt for his fate at the time, 
and one later historian has tried to defend 
his character, ne was quite unfit to rule over 
Scotland. It may be that his opponents among 
the nobles, whose accounts have chiefly come 
down to our time, exaggerated his weaknesses 
of character into vices. He had a share of 
the culture of his race, and was a lover of 
letters, music, painting, and architecture. His 
legislation, though it is difficult to say how 
far he deserves personal credit for it, was, so 
far as it has been preserved, a continuation 
of that of his father and grandfather more 
favourable to the commons than to the nobles. 
He was not so fortunate as they were in his 
counsellors. The murder of one brother and 
the treason and exile of another were avenged 
by the rebellion of his son. He is said to 
have been pious. He was certainly supersti- 
tious, and, according to Lesley, immoral in 
his relations with women, but there is no 
record of his having left bastards. 

Besides the imaginary portrait in the pos- 
session of the Marquis of Lothian, attributed 
to George Jameson [q. v.], there is a three- 
quarters length picture by an unknown artist, 
now the property of F. Mackenzie Fraser of 



James IV i 

Castle Fraser. The portrait contained in the 
fine altarpiece, perhaps by Van der Goes, now 
at Holy rood, was apparently painted for 
Trinity College Church, the foundation of 
Mary of Gueldres, and represents him kneel- 
ing at the altar with his son, James IV, be- 
hind him. The features betray a weak and 
effeminate character. He may be in some 
points compared to Louis XI, and in others 
to Henry VI, but he had not the wicked 
ability of the French nor the genuine piety 
of the English monarch. Nor had he, as 
they both had, the excuse of an insane taint. 
[Boece's History becomes more nearly contem- 
porary, and is of more value than in earlier por- 
tions. Major's History is tantalisingly brief. 
Lindsay of Pitscottie is, as always, too good a 
story-teller to be quite trustworthy as a his- 
torian. The full publications both of the Ex- 
chequer and Treasurer's Accounts in the Lord 
Clerk Register Series by Mr. Burnett and Mr. 
Dickson are of the greatest value, and enable 
this reign to be told in a manner impossible 
either to Tytler or Burton. Some of the Eng- 
lish records are also important, especially the 
letters of Richard III and Henry VII in the 
Eolls Series, edited by Mr. Gairdner.] JE. M. 

JAMES IV (1473-1513), king of Scot- 
land, eldest son of James III [q. v.] and Mar- 
garet, daughter of Christian I of Denmark, 
was born on 17 March 1473. His betrothal at 
Edinburgh on 18 Oct. 1474 to the Princess Ce- 
cilia [q. v.], third daughter of Edward IV, 
and a proposal in 1487 for his marriage to a 
sister-in-law of Henry VII, both came to 
nothing. The prince was placed at the head 
of the rebels at Sauchieburn, where his father 
was killed (11 June 1488). He was crowned 
at Scone in the last week of June. A chap- 
lain at Cambuskenneth was paid to say masses 
for his father's soul. James performed the 
somewhat ostentatious penance of wearing an 
iron belt, if we may credit his portraits, out- 
side his doublet, and never forgave himself 
for his father's death. The leaders of what 
could no longer be called a rebellion succeeded 
to the great offices of state. The Earl of 
Argyll became again chancellor ; Alexander, 
master of Home [q.v.], replaced David, earl of 
Crawford [q. v.], as chamberlain ; Knollis, pre- 
ceptor of Torphichen, succeeded the abbot of 
Arbroath as treasurer; Lords Lyle [q.v.] and 
Glamis were appointed justiciars south and 
north of the Forth. The Earl of Angus [q. v.] 
as guardian of the king, Home, who soon be- 
came warden of the east marches, and Patrick 
Hepburn, lord Hailes [q. v.], warden of the 
middle and west marches, created earl of 
Bothwell and high admiral, were the nobles 
in whose hands the chief power rested. Before 
parliament met two staunch adherents of the 

VOL. XXIX. 



late king, the Earl of Crawford and Sir An- 
drew Wood, were conciliated by a pardon 
and regrant of their estates. 

After his coronation James came on 26 June 
from Perth to Stirling, attended his father's 
obsequies at Cambuskenneth, and after pre- 
siding over the audit of exchequer on 7 July, 
went to Edinburgh. On 3 Aug. he was at 
Leith to see the Danish ships which had 
brought his uncle, Junker Gerhard, count of 
Oldenburg, who was hospitably entertained 
till the end of the year. On 5 Aug. he went 
to Linlithgow, where the players acted be- 
fore him, and next week to Stirling, on his 
way to a hunt in Glenfinlas, from which he 
returned to the justice ayre at Lanark on 
21 Aug. On the 14th he went to Perth, from 
which he returned next day to Edinburgh to 
prepare for the meeting of parliament. In 
this parliament, which met on 6 Oct., all 
grants by James III prior to 2 Feb. 1488 were 
rescinded, and several of the late king's sup- 
porters were forfeited ; but the Earl of Bu- 
chan was pardoned, and a declaration made 
that the sons of those who fell on the side of 
James HI at Sauchie should succeed to their 
estates as if their ancestors had died in the 
king's peace. 

A singular debate, the first distinctly re- 
corded in a Scottish parliament, is entered in 
the minutes as 'The Debate and Cause of the 
Field of Stirling,' ending with a declaration 
of the three estates, which laid the whole 
blame for the slaughter at the battle upon 
James III and his ' perverse council.' Em- 
bassies were to be sent to the pope, and to the 
kings of France, Spain, and Denmark, with a 
copy of the Act of Indemnity under the great 
seal, and were at the same time to search for a 
wife for the new king. James, although only 
fifteen, began at once to attend audits of ex- 
chequer and circuits of justiciary, as well as 
to preside in parliament. Pitscottie gives a 
graphic account of the trial of Lord Lindsay 
of the Byres before the king in person. James 
kept Yule at Linlithgow, returning to Edin- 
burgh before 14 Jan. 1489, when an adjourned 
session of parliament met. During the next 
two months he went on circuit, both in the 
south and north, returning on 1 April to 
Edinburgh, where he kept Palm Sunday, but 
came to Linlithgow for Easter. He took part 
from May to July, and again in October, in 
the suppression of a rebellion headed by the 
Earl of Lennox and Lord Lyle in the west, 
and by Lord Forbes [q. v.] in the north, who 
carried the bloody shirt of James III as his 
standard. The insurrection was not crushed 
till December. But on 28 July James had 
returned to Edinburgh to meet the Spanish 
ambassadors. He received them at Linlith- 

L 



James IV 



146 



of Scotland 



gow in the middle of August, and they pre- 
sented him with a sword and dagger, pro- 
bably those afterwards taken at Flodden, and 
still preserved in the English Heralds' Col- 
lege. They received in return six hundred 
crowns. The object of the embassy, which 
had already negotiated a marriage between 
Arthur, the eldest son of Henry VII, and the 
Princess Katherine, was by a similar offer to 
detach Scotland from the French alliance ; 
but De Puebla, its chief, exceeded his instruc- 
tions, offering James the hand of an infanta 
instead of an illegitimate daughter of Ferdi- 
nand of Aragon, for which he was repri- 
manded, yet told to ' put off the Scotch king 
with false hopes ' lest he should renew the 
French alliance. 

James kept his Yule in 1489 at Edin- 
burgh. By a prudent policy the leaders of 
the recent rebellion, Lennox, Huntly, the 
Earl-Marischal, Lyle, and Forbes, were par- 
doned. During the same year his atten- 
tion was directed to the defence of the east 
coast from the attacks of English pirates, 
and found in Andrew Wood [q. v.] of Larg, 
who became one of his chief counsellors, an 
admiral able to cope with the marauders. The 
king saw the political importance of the navy, 
and throughout his reign the equipment of 
vessels of war and the encouragement of 
trading and fishing craft were kept steadily 
in view. On 3 Feb. 1490 parliament met at 
Edinburgh, by which the principal rebels were 
forfeited, though afterwards pardoned. A 
mutilated document in the English records 
of that year casts light on a plot otherwise 
unknown for the delivery of the persons of 
' James, king of Scotland, now reigning, and 
his brother, at least the king,' to Henry VII. 
The parties to this plot, which was in the 
shape of a bond for payment of 2661. 13s. 4<Z., 
were Sir John Ramsay, Patrick Hepburn, 
Lord Both well [q. v.], and Sir Thomas Todd, 
a Scottish knight. 

In the parliament which met on 28 April 
1491 important acts were passed for ' wapen- 
schaws,' or musters of the forces, in each 
shire, the practice of archery, the holding 
of justice ayres, and the reform of civil 
and criminal procedure. But the king's 
marriage chiefly interested the parliament. 
Embassies were despatched to find a wife in 
France, Spain, or any other part. The en- 
voys paid repeated visits to France without 
result, and subsequently the Emperor Maxi- 
milian was requested to bestow on James 
his daughter Margaret, but as the lady was 
already betrothed to the infant of Spain, that 
negotiation failed. James was, perhaps, not 
so eager for a marriage as his advisers. His 
illegitimate connections were numerous. His 



intrigue with Marion Boyd, daughter of 
Archibald Boyd of Bonshaw, commenced 
soon after his accession, for its result was the 
birth, at least as early as 1495, of Alexander 
Stewart, afterwards archbishop of St. An- 
drews, as well as of a daughter, Catherine. 
Marion Boyd appears to have been succeeded 
as royal mistress-in-chief by Janet, daughter 
of John, lord Kennedy, and a former mistress 
of Archibald Douglas, fifth earl of Angus 
[q. v.], who became, by the king, the mother of 
James, born in 1499, and created earl of Moray 
on 20 June 1501. This connection lasted at 
least till 1 June 1501, when the castle and 
forest of Darnaway were granted to her for 
life, under certain conditions. She received 
grants from the king down to 1505 (Exche- 
quer Soils, pp. xii, xliii). In February 1510 
she surrendered lands conveyed to her in 
1498 by her earlier lover Angus, receiving in 
exchange all the lands of Bothwell under 
a decree arbitral confirmed by the king (ib. 
p. xlviii). This transaction perhaps gave 
rise to the assertion, which appears scarcely 
credible, that she married Angus after being 
discarded by the king. The best beloved of 
the king's mistresses was Margaret, daughter 
of Lord Drummond, who was high in his 
favour from May 1496 to 1501, the date of 
her death [see DRtrMMOXD, MABGAEET]. In 
1497 her only child, Lady Margaret Stewart, 
was born. The poem of Tayis Banks,' if the 
work of her royal lover, is proof of James's 
affection. Masses were at the king's cost 
sung for her soul at Cambuskennethand other 
places till the close of the reign. A fifth lady 
of noble birth, Isabel Stewart, daughter of 
Lord Buchan, is mentioned as the mother of 
a daughter, Jean, by James, while Dunbar, 
who entreated the king to release himself by 
marriage from such entanglements, hints at 
more vulgar and forgotten amours. 

In the autumn of 1493 James visited the 
Western Isles and received the homage of 
the chiefs, whose head, John, lord of the 
Isles, had been forfeited in the parliament 
which met in May of that year. He was at 
Dunstaffnage in August, and on his return 
south made the pilgrimage to Whithern in 
Galloway, which became an annual custom. 
In October he paid his first visit to St. 
Duthac's at Tain, which divided with Whit- 
hern the honour of being the principal resort 
of the royal pilgrim. His frequent pilgrim- 
ages to these and other shrines, as well as his 
external devotion to the offices of religion, 
have been cited as proof that he was a good 
catholic. Like the penance of the iron belt, 
his admission to the offices of a lay canon of 
the cathedral of Glasgow, and a lay brother 
of the Friars Observant at Stirling, and his 



James IV 



147 



of Scotland 



benefactions to these friars, from whom he 
chose his confessor, are evidence of intervals 
of penitence, intermingled with acts of sin, 
which indicate a singularly unstable cha- 
racter. In May 1494 he again paid a short 
visit to the Isles, and returned to Glasgow 
in July. Probably it was on the occasion of 
this visit that the prosecution of the lollards 
of Kyle in Ayrshire, before the king and 
his council at the instance of Robert Blaca- 
der [q. v.], the archbishop, took place, of 
which Knox has preserved a graphic account 
in his ' History.' If the trial was really al- 
lowed to end by a series of jocular answers 
to the inquisitor, James cannot have been a 
virulent persecutor of heretics ; there were 
mo martyrs in his reign. At Glasgow he 
raised an expedition, which met him at Tar- 
bert in Kintyre on 24 July ; he repaired the 
castle of Tarbert and took the castle of Dun- 
averty, which he garrisoned. But as soon 
as he left it was recaptured by John of Isla, 
and its captain hung in sight of the royal fleet. 
John Mackian of Ardnamurchan recovered 
Dunaverty in September, and John of Isla and 
four of his sons were sent to Edinburgh and 
executed. In 1495 he prepared a new expe- 
dition to the still disturbed Western Isles. 
At Easter he was in Stirling, busy with pre- 
parations for his personal equipment, and on 
5 May, along with the lords of the west, 
ast, and south, he came to Dumbarton. Em- 
barking at Newark Castle, on the Ayrshire 
coast, he sailed to Ardnamurchan, where, at 
the castle of Mingary, he received the sub- 
mission of some of the island chiefs. Before 
the end of June he returned to Glasgow, 
where O'Donnel, chief of Tyrconnel in Ulster, 
visited him and renewed an old league. 

The adroit monarchs of Castile and Ara- 
gon kept dangling before the eyes of James 
the hope of a Spanish match, and the nego- 
tiations for this purpose form a consider- 
able part of the external affairs of Scotland 
during the next three years. On 20 Nov. 
1495 Perkin "Warbeck [q. v.] came to Stir- 
ling. His claim to be the Duke of York, 
son of Edward IV, first put forward in 1491, 
was useful to James, now at enmity with 
Henry VII. James knew nothing of his real 
antecedents, but Warbeck brought strong 
credentials, and as early as March 1492 
James had heard of him from the Earls of 
Desmond and Kildare, who forwarded letters 
from Perkin himself ( Treasurer's Accounts, i. 
190). James allowed him 1,2001. a year, for 
which a special tax was levied, introduced 
him to the principal nobility, and soon after 
gave him the hand of Lady Katharine Gor- 
don, daughter of the Earl of Huntly, grand- 
daughter of James I, and one of the beauties 



of the Scottish court, in marriage. The mar- 
riage, which took place with much ceremony 
in January, appears proof that James at this 
time believed in Perkin's pretensions. Prepa- 
rations were at once made for a war to assist 
his claims, and Perkin remained in constant 
attendance at the royal court. James had kept 
Yule (1495) at Linlithgow, and two days be- 
fore had received at Stirling the Spanish am- 
bassadors, Martin de Torre and Garcia de 
Herrera, who had come with instructions to 
detach James from Perkin and secure his 
alliance with Henry VII, to whose eldest son, 
Arthur, the infanta of Spain had been already 
contracted in marriage. Unfortunately the 
astute monarchs of Spain outwitted them- 
selves by instructing their ambassadors to 
keep James in play by offering him an infanta 
as a bride, an offer they never intended to 
fulfil. Their letters disclosing this duplicity 
fell into his hands before their arrival, and 
they were naturally received with coolness. 
He waived their proposals, but agreed to seno. 
to Spain the Archbishop of Glasgow, with one 
of the Spanish ambassadors, and if a marriage 
could be concluded to consent to peace with 
England. In March 1496 he went his usual 
pilgrimage to St. Duthac's, but returned to 
spend Easter at Stirling, where Perkin was 
still in his company. In June or July 1496 
another ambassador of Spain, Don Pedro de 
Ayala, arrived at Stirling, where he was hos- 
pitably received. He described James as a 
most accomplished sovereign, knowing all 
the languages of Europe, Spanish included, 
which seems little likely ; a devoted son of 
the church, attending all its services, con- 
fessing to the Friars Observant, and full of 
warlike spirit, only .too rash in exposing his 
own person; a wise administrator, taking 
counsel from others, but in the end acting on 
his own opinion. Ayala gives contradictory 
accounts as to James's disposition to marry. 
The Spanish monarchs, unable to fulfil the 
hope they had held out of an infanta, now 
suggested that Henry VII should offer James 
his own daughter, and this device was first 
broached by Richard Foxe [q. v.], bishop of 
Durham, who was sent to Scotland early in 
September 1496, but failed to persuade James 
of the sincerity of the offer or to abandon Per- 
kin. On 2 Sept. 1496 Ramsay, a spy in the 
English interest, was present at a council of the 
Scottish king, when Perkin agreed that on ob- 
taining the English throne he would restore 
Berwick and other northern districts (the 
seven sheriffdoms) to Scotland, as well as 
pay fifty thousand marks. Ramsay notes the 
extent of the preparations for the war, and 
alleges that it was opposed by the leading 
nobles and the king's brother, the Duke of 

L 2 



James IV 



148 



of Scotland 



Ross. Ramsay was also present at the recep- 
tion of Monipenny, Sieur de Concressault, 
with letters from France, and of Roderic de 
Lalain from Flanders, with two small ships 
and six score men. The French king is said 
by Ramsay to have offered a hundred thou- 
sand crowns for the surrender of Perkin, and 
Lalain to have refused to speak to the adven- 
turer, saying his embassy was only to the 
king. But a spy wishing to please his em- 
ployer is a bad authority. Meanwhile James 
was eager to set out, and after summoning 
his troops to meet him at Ellem Kirk on the 
borders on 15 Sept., and reviewing his artil- 
lery at Restalrig on the 12th and 14th, when 
he made offerings at Holyrood and ordered 
masses to be sung at Restalrig Church, he 
marched, with Perkin, to Haddington on the 
14th, and from that across the Lammermuir 
to Ellem Kirk, which he reached on the 19th. 
A proclamation issued in the name of Ri- 
chard IV, king of England, met, to James's 
disappointment, with no response from the 
English borderers, and Perkin, pretending 
that he disliked to shed the blood of his 
own subjects, recrossed the Tweed to Cold- 
stream. After a raid on the Northum- 
brian border and a fruitless siege of the 
house of Heiton, James himself tired of 
the expedition and returned to Edinburgh 
by 8 Oct. After spending some time in 
sport, he again came south to Home Castle 
on the east marches, where he conferred 
on 21 Nov. with Hans, his master-gunner, 
probably the Fleming much employed by 
the monarchs of that age in casting guns. 
Henry VII had, in a council at Westmin- 
ster, received a subsidy for war with the 
Scots, and James was preparing for defence 
and retaliation. In the middle of December 
he was at Dunglas, another castle of Lord 
Home's, on the confines of Haddington and 
the Merse. His Yule was kept at Melrose. 
In preparation for the renewal of war with 
England, wapenschaws were held in January 
and February 1497, the artillery repaired, 
Dunbar fortified, and Sir Andrew Wood ap- 
pointed its captain. On 14 Feb. James sent 
letters to the sheriffs ordaining a muster of 
the lieges for forty days from 6 April. Be- 
fore Easter he had returned to Stirling, where 
he received the Spanish ambassadors, who 
tried in vain to induce him to give up Perkin 
and desist from the English war. On 23 May 
he visited Dunbar to inspect the fortifications. 
His visit was marked as usual by gifts to 
churches. The English, encouraged by the 
delay, commenced hostilities, but were de- 
feated by the Master of Home at Duns early 
in June. On 12 June James was at Melrose, 
where his artillery and feudal levy met him, 



apparently not insufficient number, for an- 
other summons was issued for Lauder on the 
26th. But neither monarch was ready for a 
campaign. The defence of the English border 
was left to the energetic Bishop of Durham, 
who was able to ward off an assault by James 
on his castle of Norham, and summoning- 
Thomas Howard, second duke of Norfolk 
[q.v.],then Earl of Surrey, a retaliatory raid 
was made on Ay ton Castle, which was taken. 
James, according to the English historians, 
though in sight of the smoke of the English 
guns, declined a general engagement or a 
single combat with Surrey, who retreated 
across the border before the end of August. 
Foxe had indeed received on 12 July from his 
sovereign instructions which show through 
their diplomatic verbiage how anxious Henry 
was for peace. Foxe was in the first place to 
demand Perkin's surrender, and to represent 
that the terms offered by the Earl of Angus 
and Lord Home at Jenninghaugh, a short 
time before, could not be entertained ; but 
if this was declined he was to propose a 
meeting between the two kings at Newcastle. 
A duplicate, and no doubt secret, copy of the- 
instructions provided that, if the meetingwas 
refused, Foxe was to be content with the. 
offers made at Jenninghaugh, as the English 
army was not sufficiently prepared to march 
north (GA.IRDJTEE, Letters of Richard III 
and Henry VII, i. 110). Meantime Perkin, 
with his wife had gone by way of Ireland to 
Cornwall, and he was captured at Exeter on 
5 Oct. The return to Scotland of the Spanish 
ambassador, Ayala, seems to have converted 
James to the side of peace, and he consented 
to close the enmity between the two nations 
by marrying Henry VII's daughter Margaret. 
Henry persuaded his council to consent to 
the alliance by the argument that, if a unions 
followed, the lesser would be subordinate to* 
the greater kingdom, citing the precedent of 
Normandy and England. Foxe, a good diplo- 
matist, arranged the treaty of Ayton, which 
provided for a truce of seven years, from 
30 Sept. 1497. The truce was threatened 
almost as soon as made by a quarrel over a 
game between some Scottish and English 
youths at Norham, but on 5 Dec. Ayala, who- 
had gone to London, negotiated with William 
Warham its conversion into a peace for the- 
joint lives of the two monarchs; it was rati- 
fied by James at St. Andrews on 10 Feb. 1498. 
On 21 Feb. 1498 he started from Stirling- 
on an expedition to the still unsettled Western 
Isles. He passed through Glasgow toDuchal r 
where his mistress, Marion Boyd, and her son, 
the future archbishop, resided, and thence ta 
Ayr, whence he sailed to Campbelton, a new 
castle on the shores of Loch Kilkerran, now 



James IV 



149 



of Scotland 



called the Bay of Campbelton. He received 
there the homage of Alexander Macleod of 
Dunvegan and Torquil Macleod of the Lews, 
and attempted to suppress the feud between 
the Clan Huistean of Sleat and the Clan- 
ranald of Moydart. Remaining only a week 
in Kintyre, he returned to Duchal, where on 
16 March, having now completed his twenty- 
fifth year, he executed a revocation of all 
grants in his minority. In April 1499 he made 
Archibald Campbell, second earl of Argyll 
q. v.], lieutenant of the Isles, and gave vari- 
ous grants to him and other chiefs who had 
been serviceable, and thus strengthened the 
royal authority in the outlying parts of the 
highlands and isles. In 1499 a plague, still 
more fatal during 1500, caused a suspension 
of the royal activity. 

On 28 July 1500 Henry obtained a papal 
dispensation for James's marriage with Mar- 
garet. James and Margaret Tudor were re- 
lated only in the fourth degree through the 
marriage of James I with Joan Beaufort, the 
great-grandmother of James, whose brother 
John, duke of Somerset, was the great-grand- 
father of Margaret. In October 1501 pleni- 
potentiaries went to England to conclude the 
marriage, and on 24 Jan. 1502 the treaty was 
agreed to at Richmond. When it was con- 
firmed by James by oath on the evangels and 
<the mass on 10 Dec. the title of king of 
France had been entered in the titles of 
Henry; but James on the same day executed 
,-a notarial instrument declaring that this was 
* by inadvertence,' and signed a copy in which 
the objectionable title was cancelled. Mar- 
garet, attended by the Earl of Surrey and a 
large suite, left Richmond on 27 June 1503, 
and reached the border before the end of July. 
On 3 Aug. James met her at Dalkeith. Next 
<day he paid a private visit, and found Mar- 
garet at cards. She left her game, and to 
show her accomplishments danced a bass 
dance with Lady Surrey while James played 
on the harpsichord and lute. At leaving, to 
how his agility, he leapt on his horse without 
a, stirrup. On the 7th she made her entry 
into Edinburgh, and the marriage was cele- 
brated at Holyrood on the 8th. It was accom- 
panied and followed by festivities of all kinds, 
but the English visitors reported that they ad- 
mired the manhood more than the manners of 
the Scots. The ' Controller's Accounts' show 
an expenditure of more than 6,000/. It was, 
perhaps, in honour of the marriage that a 
new order of knighthood, which took its 
pattern from the round table of Arthur with 
the thistle as its symbol, was instituted. 
Though this cannot be proved from records, 
it is certain that the national symbol then 
first began to be common in connection with 



the royal arms. The windows at Holyrood 
were painted with the device of the union 
of the English flower with the Scottish wild 
plant, and Dunbar wrote, as poet of the court, 
' The Thistle and the Rose.' 

Amid all the festivities, the bride, not yet 
fourteen, was sad, homesick, and petulant. 
Soon after the wedding James visited Elgin, 
Inverness, and Dingwall. About this time 
the Western Isles once more broke out into 
open revolt under Donald Dubh (the Black), 
an illegitimate son of Angus, and grandson 
of John, lord of the Isles. The royal forces 
under Huntly having proved insufficient, 
James in person, with his whole southern 
levy, took the field and crushed the rebellion. 
The parliament of 1504 introduced royal law 
by justiciars or sheriffs for the north and 
south isles, the former at Inverness or Ding- 
wall, and the latter at Loch Kilkerran orTar- 
bert, and provided that the western highlands 
of the mainland were to attend the ayres of 
Perth and Inverness, and for the appointment 
of sheriff's of Ross and Caithness. Such im- 
portant steps towards the civilisation of these 
districts were supplemented by further expe- 
ditions in April 1504. During summer and 
early autumn James made a raid in Eskdale, 
reducing the Armstrongs, Jardines, and other 
border clans, and after returning to Stirling 
in the end of September went his usual pro- 
gress to the autumn ayres in the north, as 
far as Torres and Elgin. In 1505 he was 
again in the Western Isles ; the McLeans of 
Mull and other minor chiefs of Mull and 
Skye submitted. Next year Stornoway Castle, 
the fort of Torquil Macleod of the Lews, 
was taken. The Earls of Argyll and Arran, 
Macleod of Harris, and Y or Odo Mackay of 
Strathnaver had all along supported the king. 
A poem of Dunbar blames James for sparing 
the life of the agile highlander, Donald Dubh, 
who was captured in 1506. Measures were 
taken in 1505 and 1506 to bring the isles 
south of Ardnamurchan, as well as Trot- 
ternish in Skye, into subjection by leases for 
short terms to the occupiers or others, on con- 
dition of their becoming loyal subjects. But 
well devised as these plans were, the chronic 
rebellion of the Western Isles was not over- 
come. James began, however, to introduce 
law and order among the islanders, whose 
language, it is worthy of notice, he is said 
to have spoken. 

The important parliament of Edinburgh, 
on 4 June 1504, sat by continuation on 3 Oct. 
and 31 Dec. A daily council was instituted 
to meet in Edinburgh instead of the movable 
sessions. This was the first attempt to con- 
stitute a central fixed royal court for civil 
causes, a blow to the arbitrary justice of the 



of Scotland 



feudal barons, and a further step towards 
confirming Edinburgh in the position of capi- 
tal, which it had begun to assume since the 
death of James I. Other statutes dealt with 
the administration of criminal law. The 
privileges of the burghs were confirmed, and 
provision made for yearly election of magis- 
trates from those who traded within the 
burghs. No begging was to be tolerated ex- 
cept by sick or impotent folk. All freeholders 
with land of one hundred merks value were to 
appear in parliament personally or by pro- 
curators. The most important statutes, all 
of which show James as a legislator at his 
best, related to the tenure of feu farm. This 
tenure, known from early times in reference 
to church lands, had been regulated by sta- 
tute in 1457. But it was now expressly pro- 
vided by one act that the king might let his 
whole lands annexed or unannexed in feu to 
any person, and that the feu should ' stand 
perpetually to his heirs,' and by another that 
every man, both of the spiritual and temporal 
estate, might do the same. Fixity of tenure 
was thus secured. The general revocation 
which closed the acts of this parliament in- 
cluded not only all acts prejudicial to the 
crown, but also to the catholic church. James 
was a devoted son of the church, and deserved 
the hat and sword with gold hilt and scab- 
bard which Julius II sent him as a special 
mark of favour in 1507. 

The peace with England and the suppres- 
sion of rebellion gave more prominence to 
James's relations with foreign powers, with 
all of whom he desired to be on pacific terms. 
With Denmark his connection, owing to 
his near kinship, was intimate. Between 
August 1501 and August 1502 James sent 
two ships of war to aid his uncle, Hans of 
Denmark, against Swedish rebels. In 1507 
and 1508 James again assisted Hans in his 
contest with Liibeck and the Hanseatic 
League, and in April of the latter year, in 
response to an embassy of Tycho Vincent, 
dean of Copenhagen, he despatched Andrew 
Barton [q. v.] with a ship to the Danish king, 
which, however, Barton appropriated to him- 
self. When James prepared for the English 
war at the close of his reign he urgently, but 
in vain, solicited the aid of his uncle of Den- 
mark, but succeeded in making him at least 
the nominal ally of France. His amicable 
relations with the Emperor Maximilian, 
Louis XII of France, and Henry VII enabled 
him to intercede effectually on behalf of 
Charles, duke of Gueldres, when threatened 
by Philip, archduke of Austria, and entitled 
him to remonstrate warmly with the arch- 
duke when he showed signs of being inclined 
to receive with favour Edmund de la Pole, 



earl of Suffolk. In 1506 he sent an embassy 
to Louis XII of France, and from both Den- 
mark and France he procured supplies of wood 
when his ship-building had exhausted the- 
Scotch forests. On 21 Dec. an ambassador 
from James presented a letter of credence to> 
the Venetian signory stating James's inten- 
tion to visit Jerusalem, and requesting galleys- 
or artificers to build them from the Venetian 
republic a request willingly granted. He 
also asked the pope to excuse him from visit- 
ing Rome on his way. But the remonstrances- 
of the king of Denmark and the state of his- 
own kingdom prevented James's project from 
being realised. Two years later Blacader, 
archbishop of Glasgow, actually started for 
the Holy Land, perhaps as the deputy of 
James, but died on the way. With Spain 
he continued on good terms, and he remon- 
strated with King Emmanuel of Portugal 
against the piracy practised by the Portu- 
guese, though he found the granting of let- 
ters of reprisal to the Bartons more effectual. 
The year 1507 and the first half of 150& 
were the most brilliant period of his reign. 
He was courted by foreign princes, on 
friendly terms with his father-in-law, blessed 
by the pope, and at peace with his own sub- 
jects. The last five years are a period of de- 
cline, due partly to external causes, but still 
more to his own defects of character. At the- 
end of 1507 the Earl of Arran and his brother, 
Sir Patrick Hamilton, passed through Eng- 
land to France without a safe-conduct, and 
on their return in January 1508 they were- 
detained as prisoners, though treated civilly. 
In March, Wolsey (as Mr. Gairdner thinks, 
and not West as Pinkerton and Tytler sup- 
posed) was sent to Scotland to receive James's- 
remonstrances against Arran's detention. His 
letter to Henry VII in April contains his 
view of the character of James. When the 
English envoy reached Edinburgh the king 
was so much occupied in making gunpowder 
that he could not be received till 2 April, after 
which he had daily audiences till the 10th ; 
but such was ' the inconstancy ' of James that 
the envoy did not know what report to send. 
His chief object was to prevent the renewal 
of the old league between Scotland and 
France, which James promised to suspend 
so long as Henry continued to be ' his loving- 
father.' The whole nation, commons as well 
as nobles, were in favour of the renewal ; the 
king, the queen, and the Bishop of Moray 
were the only exceptions. Bernard Stewart, 
lord d'Aubigny, was on his way from France, 
and James promised that after he had heard 
his proposals the Bishop of Moray should be- 
sent to Henry with a secret letter. James 
was willing to meet Henry on the borders. 



James IV i 

On 21 May D'Aubigny and Sellat, the presi- 
dent of the parliament of Paris, arrived. 
Their object was to enlist James in the alliance 
made by the treaty of Cambrai, between the 
pope, the emperor, and France against Venice, 
and to consult as to the marriage of the daugh- 
ter of Louis XII, whose hand was sought by 
Charles of Castile, and also by Francis de 
Valois, dauphin of Vienne. James advised 
the latter. He delayed entering into the 
treaty, and D'Aubigny's death, a month after 
his arrival, interrupted negotiations. 

The death of Henry VII on 22 April 1509 
altered for the worse the relations of the two 
kingdoms. James had now to deal with an 
ambitious brother-in-law as eager for the 
honours of war as himself. Though a formal 
embassy under Bishop Forman congratulated 
the new monarch, trifling disputes continued, 
and finally led to war. Quarrels on the bor- 
der were incessant. Henry VIII detained, 
in spite of repeated demands, the jewels left 
to his sister by her father's will. He also 
aided the Duchess of Savoy against the Duke 
of Gueldres, kinsman and ally of James. In 
July 1511 Andrew Barton was defeated and 
slain. Both monarchs now began to prepare 
for war. The chief object of Henry was 
the invasion of France ; that of James, of 
England. 

James's relations with Louis XII had now 
become intimate. He had done his best to 
reconcile the French king with the pope 
and the emperor by twice sending the Duke 
of Albany, his uncle, and the Bishop of 
Moray to the pope to mediate in the quarrel, 
which threatened to involve all Europe, but 
without result. He also implored by more 
than one envoy the assistance of Denmark, 
but the king was engaged with his own in- 
ternal troubles. When the pope formed the 
Holy league against France in October 1511 
Scotland was France's only ally. James was 
energetically making ready for war during 
the whole of 1511, and completed the build- 
ing, though not the outfit, of the Great 
Michael, which took a year and day to build, 
and carried, he boasted, as many cannon as 
the French king had ever brought to a 
siege. The preliminaries of his league with 
France were signed by him at Edinburgh on 
GMarch, and the treaty itself on 12 July 1512. 
By the former he engaged to make no treaty 
with England unless France was included ; 
and by the latter none without the consent 
of France. Henry vainly sent Lord Dacre 
and West on 15 April to Edinburgh to prevent 
the completion of the league, but early next 
year James, with characteristic inconstancy, 
sent Lord Drummondto Henry to offer terms, 
which the English king refused. Leo X issued 



;i of Scotland 

an excommunication or interdict against 
James in 1513, and immediately afterwards 
James heard that war was finally resolved 
on in the English parliament against both 
France and Scotland. Still, it was Henry's 
obvious policy to keep peace if possible with 
Scotland while he invaded France ; and West 
was again in Edinburgh in March, when 
James promised to abstain from hostilities for 
the present, but would write no letter which 
would ' lose the French king,' though he 'cared 
not to keep him ' if Henry would make an 
equal promise. West left it to the judgment 
of Henry whether 'there was craft in the 
demeanour and answer ' of James. He re- 
ported that he saw on all sides building 
and equipping of ships at Leith and New- 
haven, and the preparation of artillery and 
fortifications. When dismissed after some 
angry passages with James he carried with 
him a letter from Margaret, indignant at the 
detention of her jewels. The single request 
of Henry, which James granted, was the ap- 
pointment of a commission to treat of the 
border grievances in June, but when it met 
it adjourned. No sooner had West left than 
De la Motte, the French ambassador to Scot- 
land, arrived from France. He brought four. 
ships with provisions, fourteen thousand gold 
crowns of the Sun, and, besides his master's, 
letters, one from Anne of Brittany, sending 
a ring and appealing to James, as her knight, 
to succour the French kingdom and queen 
in their hour of need. The Bishop of Moray, 
James's envoy in France, to whom Louis 
had given the rich bishopric of Bourges, about 
the same time, sent a letter to James, assur- 
ing him that his honour was lost if he did 
not assist France. Despite the protest of 
Bishop Elphinstone and 'the smaller but 
better part of the nobles,' it was determined 
to declare war with England unless Henry 
refrained from attacking France. A letter, 
not so imperative in its terms as might have 
been expected, but asking Henry whether he 
would enter into the truce which Louis and 
Ferdinand of Aragon had agreed to for a 
year from 1 April, was despatched by Lord 
Drummond on 24 May (ELLIS, Orig. Letters, 
i. 1, 76). On 30 June Henry, instead of en- 
tering into the truce, sailed for France and 
began active hostilities. James at once sent 
his fleet under Huntly and Arran to aid the 
French on 26 July, and on the same day 
despatched the Lyon king to Henry before 
Terouenne had arrived, with a letter which, 
after recounting all the Scottish grievances, 
ended by peremptorily requiring Henry to 
desist from the French war under the penalty 
of an alliance between James and the French. 
Henry gave a contemptuous refusal. 



152 



of Scotland 



Meantime hostilities had begun on the bor- 
der by the ' 111 Raid ' of Lord Home, the j 
chamberlain, who was defeated by Sir W. | 
Bulmer at Broomridge, near Millfield. Be- 
fore leaving England, Henry had sent Surrey ! 
from Dover to defend the borders, and James 
had summoned his feudal array to meet him 
at the Borough Muir of Edinburgh. Before 
leaving Linlithgow he had been warned 
against the war by one of the best attested j 
apparitions in history. Sir David Lindsay, i 
who was present, told the story to George 
Buchanan. A version, enlarged after the 
event in the prose of Pitscottie, and turned 
into poetry by Scott in ' Mannion,' describes 
how a bald-headed old man, in blue gown, 
with ' brotikins ' on his feet, and belted with 
a linen girdle, suddenly appeared at the king's 
desk while he prayed, and prophesied his de- 
feat and death. In Edinburgh another ap- 
parition at the Cross summoned by name the 
citizens on the way to the muster to the tri- 
bunal of Plotcock (Pluto or the devil), and 
one only, who protested, escaped that fatal 
summons. James nevertheless advanced with 
haste to Norham at the head of eighty thou- 
sand men, according to the English reports, 
certainly with as large a force as any Scot- 
tish king had brought into the field, and with 
artillery hitherto unequalled. He took Nor- 
ham on 28 Aug., after a six days' siege, during 
which he held a parliament or council at 
Twiselhaugh, and seized the smaller castles ', 
of Wark, Etal, and Ford within a few days, j 
At Ford he met the wife of its owner, still a 
prisoner in Scotland, and, according to an j 
early tradition (which Pitscottie first put into [ 
history, and Buchanan adopted), he was him- 
self taken captive by the beauty of its mis- 
tress, and wasted in a criminal intrigue the 
precious days which allowed Surrey to ad- 
vance to the border. Surrey was at Newcastle 
on the 30th ' to give an example to those that 
should follow.' On Sunday, 4 Sept., he sent 
from Alnwick a herald proposing battle on 
Friday, the 9th. James detained the English 
herald, Rouge Croix, and sent his own, ac- 
cepting the challenge. Surrey advanced to 
Woolerhaugh, within three miles of the Scot- 
tish camp, which was on the sideof Flodden,a 
ridge of the Cheviots. He then made a feint j 
march, as if about to attack the Scots on the 
flank, and posted his force under Barmoor- ', 
wood, only two miles distant. On Friday he 
approached Flodden, and James, fearing that 
the enemy would march to Scotland, left his 
strong position on the hill, setting fire to the 
litter of his camp. The smoke impeded the ' 
view, and the two armies were within a mile 
before they could see each other. They met ' 
at the foot of Brankston Hill, the Scots 



keeping the higher ground to the south, the 
English on the east and west with their backs 
to the north. The artillery began the battle. 
James advanced with his main body in five 
or six divisions, but two formed the reserve 
and did not engage. It was met by the Eng- 
lish in the same order. The king himself 
fought on foot in the third division. He fell 
within a spear's length from Surrey. Only 
two commanders in his division, Sir William 
Scot and Sir John Forman, escaped death, 
and they were taken prisoners. The defeat 
was total except on the left wing, where 
Lord Home and Huntly had for a time the 
advantage. The Scots' loss was reckoned at 
ten thousand by the English. Among the 
slain were the king's son the archbishop, 
the Bishop of the Isles and two abbots, 
twelve earls, thirteen lords, and fifty heads 
of families only less than noble. Every part 
of the country felt the blow. James is said 
to have clad several men in the same dress 
as himself that he might not be known, and 
might take the place of an ordinary com- 
batant. It was variously rumoured in Scot- 
land that he survived, that he had been 
treacherously slain after the battle, and that 
he had gone to the Holy Land. But his body 
was recognised, and the sword, dagger, and 
ring in the Heralds' College attest his death. 
His corpse lay unburied till Henry VHI in 
mockery got leave from his ally, the pope, to 
commit the corpse of one excommunicated to 
consecrated ground ; but, according to Stow, 
it was still left, lapped in lead, in a waste 
room in the Carthusian monastery of Sheen 
till Young, the master-glazier of Queen Eliza- 
beth, gave it an ignoble burial with the bones 
from the charnel-house in the church of St. 
Michael's. 

James left only one legitimate child, his 
successor, James V. Five other children of 
Queen Margaret, whose second husband was 
Archibald Douglas, sixth earl of Angus [q.v.], 
had died infants. His illegitimate children 
by Marion Boyd were Alexander Stewart 
[q. v.J, archbishop of St. Andrews ; James, 
to whom there is a solitary reference in a 
letter printed by Ruddiman as a possible 
candidate, when only eight years old, for 
the abbacy of Dunfermline ; and Catherine, 
who married James, earl of Morton ; James 
Stewart, earl of Moray (1499-1544) [q. y.], 
by Janet Kennedy ; Margaret, who married 
John, lord Gordon, by Margaret Drummond ; 
and Jean, who married Malcolm, lord Flem- 
ing, by Isabel Stewart, daughter of the 
Earl of Buchan ; and probably Henry, called 
Wemyss, bishop of Galloway (KEITH, Scot- 
tish Bishops, p. 278), by a lady of that name. 

Several authentic portraits of James IV 



James IV of Scotland 153 James V of Scotland 



have been preserved. One, in the diptych, 
now at Holyrood, represents him as a boy 
praying by the side of his father ; and another, 
with a falcon on his wrist, formerly in the 
royal English collection, is at Keir. A third, 
attributed to Holbein, is in the possession of 
the Marquis of Lothian ; it represents James 
holding a Marguerite daisy in his right hand. 
A fourth painting of 1507, and supposed to 
represent James IV, is the property of the 
Hon. Mrs. Maxwell-Scott. No copy of the 
medal he struck just before Flodden is now 
known to exist. 

Flodden is a deeper stain than Sauchieburn 
on the memory of James. He was the chief 
author of the defeat, which his country never 
recovered till the union of the crowns of 
England and Scotland in the person of his 
great-grandson. A large share of the misery 
of Scotland during the interval must be at- 
tributed to his decision to side with France 
against England, and to his incompetence as 
a general. Yet he had the chivalry of a 
knight-errant and the courage of a soldier. 
He was a wise legislator, an energetic ad- 
ministrator, and no unskilful diplomatist, a 
patron of learning, the church, and the poor. 
Scotland under him advanced in civilisa- 
tion, and became from a second- almost a 
first-class power. 

The elegant latinity of James's diploma- 
tic letters (Letters of Richard III and 
Henry VII), of which many are still in 
manuscript in the Advocates' Library and 
British Museum, is probably due to the 
scholarship of Patrick Panther, royal secre- 
tary during the greater part of the reign, 
and not to James, who cannot himself, as 
Mr. Brewer surmises (Henry VIII, i. 28), 
have been a pupil of Erasmus, though he 
entrusted the education of his bastard son 
Alexander, the archbishop, to the great hu- 
manist. But at no period was the Scottish 
court more friendly to literature and edu- 
cation. The chief authors were Henry the 
Minstrel [q. v.], Robert Henryson [q. v.], 
William Dunbar [q.v.], and Gavin Douglas 
[q. v.], besides a crowd of minor minstrels, 
one of whom, ' Great Kennedy,' was appa- 
rently counted the equal of Dunbar. His- 
tory, as distinguished from mere chronicles, 
was beginning [cf.BoECE, HECTOR; HAY, SIR 
GILBERT; and MAJOR, JOHN]. The statute 
of 1504, which required all barons and free- 
holders to send their sons to grammar schools 
till they had perfect Latin, and then to the 
university, marks the royal interest in edu- 
cation. William Elphinstone [q. v.], bishop 
of Aberdeen, founded the university in his 
town, and James gave his name to King's 
College. James's personal predilection was 



perhaps more for science than literature. 
He amused himself with the astrology and 
practised the imperfect surgery then in vogue. 
A professorship of medicine was instituted at 
Aberdeen, and more than one surgeon was in 
the royal pay. His dabbling in the black arts 
unfortunately made him a prey to impostors, 
one of whom, Damian, the abbot of Tung- 
land, who pretended to fly, and obtained large 
sums to experiment on the quintessence, has 
been pilloried in Dunbar's verse. Another of 
the king's favourite pursuits was the tourna- 
ment, already passing out of fashion in Eng- 
land, but never celebrated with more pomp 
in Scotland than at James IVs marriage, 
that of Perkin Warbeck, and the reception of 
D'Aubigny. The morality of James's court 
was as low as that of the Tudor kings, and 
its coarseness was less veiled. 

James's personal faults infected his regal 
virtues. Inconstancy rendered him infirm as 
a general. Extravagance impoverished the 
exchequer. Obstinacy deprived him of wise 
counsellors, and pride exposed him, though 
not to the same extent as his father, to flat- 
terers. His superstition placed him too much 
in the hands of a bad class of ecclesiastics. 
But with all these faults, he continued popu- 
lar with the commons. The nobles were his 
natural enemies, as of all the Stewarts, but he 
controlled them better than any of his house, 
as the death-roll of Flodden proves. Dunbar, 
though he obtained no preferment and his 
satires had no effect, remained his friend. Sir 
David Lindsay observed him with the close- 
ness of a courtier, and although himself a 
reformer, speaks of him, like Erasmus and 
Ayala, in terms of panegyric. 

[The Treasurer's Accounts, Exchequer Rolls, 
and Acts of Parliament, the letters of James IV 
in Ruddiman's Epistolae Regum Scotorum, sup- 
plemented by Mr. Gairdner's additions in the 
Letters of Richard III and Henry VII, the docu- 
ments printed in Pinkerton's Appendix, and the 
poems of William Dunbar (Scottish Text Soc. 
ed.) are the original authorities. Major is a con- 
temporary, but tantalisingly meagre. Buchanan, 
Leslie, and Lindsay of Pitscottie are separated 
only by one generation.] JE. M. 

JAMES V (1512-1542), king of Scot- 
land, the only son who survived infancy of 
James IV [q. v.] and Margaret (Tudor) [q. v.], 
was born at Linlithgow on Easter eve, 
10 April 1512, and christened on Easter day 
by the name of ' Prince of Scotland and the 
Isles.' The title had been borne by two elder 
brothers, James and Arthur. The date is 
fixed by letters from James IV to his uncle, 
Hans of Denmark, and his queen announcing 
the happy event. David Lindsay, the poet, 
an usher at court, who seems at first to have 



James V 



154 



of Scotland 



been attached to the person of Prince Arthur, 
was appointed to discharge similar duties 
for James, and he has described in attractive 
verse the prince's playfulness in infancy 
(Complaynt to the King, 11. 87-98). 

Leslie dates the coronation of James at 
Stirling on 21 Sept. 1513, and Buchanan at 
the same place on 22 Feb. 1514, but it pro- 
bably took place at Scone in presence of the 
general council which met at Perth before 
19 Oct. and sat till at least 26 Nov. 1513, 
when the French ambassadors, De la Bastie, 
and James Ogilvy presented letters from 
Louis XII. The alliance with France was re- 
newed, and John Stewart, duke of Albany 
(d. 1536) [q. v.], requested to return to Scot- 
land ' to serve the king, the queen, and the 
realm ' against England. The queen-mother 
had been appointed regent under the will of 
James IV while she remained a widow, but 
a council, consisting of James Beaton [q. v.], 
archbishop of Glasgow and chancellor, Alex- 
ander Gordon, third earl of Huntly [q. v.l, 
Archibald Douglas, sixth earl of Angus [q. v.], 
and James Hamilton, first earl of Arran 
[q. v.], was appointed, without whose con- 
sent she was not to act. After the coun- 
cil she removed to Stirling, taking with her 
the young king, and there, in April 1514, she 
gave birth to a posthumous son by James IV, 
Alexander, duke of Ross. Her rash marriage 
in August to Archibald Douglas, sixth earl 
of Angus, lost her the regency. Albany 
landed in Scotland on 18 May 1515, and 
at a parliament in Edinburgh on 12 July was 
proclaimed protector and governor of Scot- 
land till James attained his eighteenth year. 
Eight lords were chosen, from whom Albany 
selected four, who went to Edinburgh, or 
more probably Stirling, with an offer that 
the queen might reject one. The remain- 
ing three were to be the guardians of James 
and his brother. Margaret declined the 
offer, and, still keeping James with her, 
was besieged in Stirling Castle. On 4 Aug. 
Albany himself appeared with seven thou- 
sand men and artillery. After trying a thea- 
trical coup, by placing James on the ramparts 
with crown and sceptre, she surrendered, 
and was confined in Edinburgh. James and 
his brother were detained in Stirling under 
the guardianship of Borthwick, Fleming, and 
Erroll, and the young king was soon brought 
to Edinburgh. His education, though often 
interrupted, was fairly good. His tutors were 
Gavin Dunbar [q. v.l, John Bellenden [q. v.l 
David Lindsay [q. v.J, and James Inglis [q. v.J, 
also a poet. 

When Albany returned to France, Scot- 
land was distracted by the contest between 
two of the council of regency, Angus, head of 



the Douglases, and Arran, head of the Hamil- 
tons, for possession of the young king's per- 
son. His guardians deemed the castle of 
Edinburgh the best place for his safe keep- 
ing, but in the summer or autumn of 1517 
he was sent to Craigmillar on the suspicion 
of a plot, and his mother, who had quarrelled 
with Angus and her brother Henry VIII, was 
allowed to visit him, until a rumour that she 
intended to convey him away to England 
led to his being brought back to Edinburgh. 
In September 1519 he was for a similar 
reason taken to Dalkeith. Meanwhile the 
rival parties of Arran and Angus struggled 
for the possession of Edinburgh [see under 
DOUGLAS, ARCHIBALD, 1489 P-1557], and on 
30 April 1520 Angus gained the town. Next 
year Albany returned to Scotland. The queen 
joined him, and on 4 Dec. they visited the 
young king in Edinburgh Castle. The par- 
liament which met in Edinburgh on 18 July 
1522 agreed, by the desire of the regent and 
the queen, that the king should be removed 
to Stirling and Lord Erskine made his sole 
guardian. In September Albany again went 
to France. Thereupon the queen wrote to 
Surrey, the English lieutenant in the north, 
suggesting that he might aid her in obtaining 
James's emancipation from his guardians and 
his establishment as king with a council in 
which she herself would be paramount. She 
assured Surrey of James's competence. Al- 
bany on his return in September 1523 resumed 
the personal rule. To protect the young king- 
from the nobles, Scottish archers of the 
French king's bodyguard were sent to attend 
on James, and he is the first Scottish king- 
who had such a guard. Albany held at Edin- 
burgh, on 17 Nov., a parliament which en- 
trusted the guardianship of James to Lords 
Borthwick, Cassilis, and Fleming, in turns of 
three months, with the Earl of Moray, a bas- 
tard of his father, as his constant companion. 
At the request of the queen Lord Erskine was 
added, and she herself was allowed to visit 
her son with her ladies but without troops. 
On 20 May 1524 Albany once more returned 
to France, under the condition that if he did 
not come back before 1 Sept. his office should 
terminate and the young king receive the 
sceptre of his kingdom. But the queen-mother 
and the nobles in the English interest, on 
26 July 1524, carried off James from Stirling- 
to Edinburgh, where he was received with ac- 
clamations by the people as well as the nobles. 
A bond, still extant, was signed by the Bishops, 
of Galloway and Ross, the Earl of Arran, and 
others, who undertook to be loyal subjects 
of the king, and annulled their engagements 
to Albany. On 22 Aug. the queen proposed 
at a meeting in the Tolbooth to abrogate. 



James V 



155 



of Scotland 



the regency of Albany, and when Beaton, 
the chancellor, refused to affix the great seal 
to the necessary document, she obtained for- 
cible possession of the seal, and put Beaton 
and the Bishop of Aberdeen in ward. James 
was now surrounded by a guard commanded 
by Arran, by Henry Stuart, his mother's fa- 
vourite, and by his brothers, and these men 
attempted to gain his favour by indulging 
his youthful passions. Sir David Lindsay and 
Bellenden were dismissed from their posts as 
his tutors. Soon after Thomas Magnus [q. v.] 
arrived on an embassy from England, and pre- 
sented James with a coat of cloth of gold and 
a dagger, with which he was greatly pleased. 

On 16 Nov. a parliament met at Edin- 
burgh, by which Albany's governorship was 
at last terminated, because of his failure 
to return, according to his promise, before 
1 Sept. ; the king was declared to have full 
authority to govern in his own person, with 
the advice of his mother and a privy coun- 
cil appointed to assist her. The Archbishop 
of St. Andrews, the Bishop of Aberdeen, 
and the Earls of Arran and Argyll were 
named as members of this select council, 
without whose advice nothing was to be 
done. The next parliament of 15 Feb. 1525 
added Angus and three others, but declared 
that the queen should be principal councillor. 
James apparently was not present at either 
of these parliaments, but he went with his 
mother to Perth, attended the northern jus- 
tice ayres in spring, and was again joined 
by her at Dundee in April. At this time she 
actually used James as an agent to try to 
persuade her husband Angus to submit to a 
divorce. He attended in state the parliament 
at Edinburgh on 17 July, and in it new 
keepers of his person, who were to hold office 
in turn, were appointed, and the queen-mother 
was practically deprived of any share in the 
regency. From this time Angus was the cus- 
todian of James, and exercised sole power in 
the state. 

In March, having obtained a divorce from 
Angus, the queen-mother married Henry 
Stuart, losing thereby all political influence. 
James disliked his mother's remarriage. Lord 
Erskine in his name seized her new hus- 
band at Stirling, and he was kept for some 
time in ward. The parliament of June 1526, 
on the ground that James was now fourteen, 
declared the royal prerogatives were to be 
exercised by himself; it was really an as- 
sembly of the party of Angus who effected 
for a time a reconciliation with Arran. Two 
unsuccessful attempts, with both of which 
the king secretly sympathised, were made to 
rescue him from Angus, one by Walter Scot 
of Buccleuch on 25 July, near Melrose, and 



the other by Lennox, who assembled an army 
for the purpose in the beginning of Septem- 
ber, but was defeated and slain. On 12 Nov. 
a parliament at Edinburgh passed acts ap- 
proving of Angus's conduct, and forfeited, 
many of his opponents. Although some sort 
of reconciliation was effected, and the queen 
visited her son at Christmas, all the offices 
of state were in the hands of Angus and 
his adherents. Angus himself assumed the 
office of chancellor, and in June accompanied 
James to the borders, where the Armstrongs,, 
an unruly clan, were forced to give pledges 
for good behaviour. The queen-mother and 
Beaton the archbishop now made terms with 
Angus, and at Christmas 1527 met at the 
king's table at Holyrood. At Easter Beaton 
entertained the king and the Douglases at 
St. Andrews. But these were hollow recon- 
ciliations. Margaret and her husband were 
forcibly expelled from Edinburgh Castle in 
the end of March 1528 by Angus, and her 
ambitious husband again put in ward. Beaton 
now prompted James to escape from the con-^ 
trol of Angus. In July 1528, on the pretext, 
of a hunt from Falkland during the absence 
of Angus and of his brother and uncle, the 
young king, disguised as a groom, rode to Stir- 
ling Castle, which his mother had given him 
in exchange for Methven. When Angus and 
his kinsmen went in pursuit of the king, they 
were met by a herald forbidding them to> 
come within six miles of court, under the 
pains of treason, and Angus fled to Tantal- 
lon. On 2 Sept. a parliament, from which. 
Angus and his friends were absent, forfeited 
the estates of the Douglases, and revoked all 
gifts made during the domination of Angus. 
Henry Stuart was created Lord Methven and 
master of the artillery. James came at once 
to Edinburgh, where a council was held, and 
Gavin Dunbar [q. v.], archbishop of Glasgow,, 
his old tutor, was created chancellor. Dun- 
bar retained a strong influence over him 
throughout his reign. Sir David Lindsay, who> 
had been removed by Angus, re-entered the 
royal service. Lord Maxwell, provost of Edin- 
burgh, and Patrick Sinclair, a favourite of 
James, were sent on an embassy to England. 
Summonses were also issued to all the lieges 
to attend the king and proceed against Angus. 
James was still under eighteen, but the 
turbulent scenesthrough which he had passed 
had brought on an early manhood. He at 
once raised a force to besiege Douglas Castle. 
But his own party among the nobles forced 
him to delay the siege till after harvest. 
James passionately swore that no Douglas 
should remain in Scotland so long as he lived. " 
Having summoned to his aid Argyll and his 
highland forces, as well as Lord Home and^ 



James V 



156 



of Scotland 



the borderers, he succeeded in reducing An- 
gus's castle of Tantallon before the end of the 
year. Angus fled to England. On 14 Dec. a 
truce for five years was concluded at Berwick 
between James and Henry VIII, Angus being 
allowed to live in England, and the sentence 
of death alone of the penalties for treason 
being remitted. The next year James was 
occupied with reducing the borders, which 
had relapsed, owing to the change of govern- 
ment, into a state of lawlessness. Lords 
Maxwell, Home, Scot of Buccleuch, Ker of 
Fernihurst, Polwarth, Johnston, and other 
border chiefs were put in ward, and James 
in person, having summoned the highland 
chiefs to come as if to a hunting match, rode 
through the border dales, when he seized 
and executed Cockburn of Henderland, Scott 
of Tushielaw, and Johnnie Armstrong of Gil- 
nockie [q. v.] A rising in the Orkneys, 
headed by the Earl of Caithness, was put 
down by the islanders themselves, and a 
revolt of the Western Isles, under Hector 
McLean of Duart, against the authority of 
the Earl of Argyll as royal lieutenant, was 
checked by the prudent course of accepting 
the personal submission of the chiefs to James 
himself. James, like his forefathers, found 
many enemies among the nobles, and had to 
follow the hereditary policy of crushing their 
power. In the west Argyll was imprisoned. 
In the north Crawford was deprived of a 
great part of his estates. Bothwell, who in- 
trigued with the English king, was thrown 
into Edinburgh Castle. Archibald Douglas 
of Kilspindie (1480 P-1540 ?) [q. v.], the 
friend of James's youth, was banished. The 
king relied chiefly on the clergy, whose sup- 
port he gained by repressing heresy, and on 
the commons, whom he protected, and with 
whom he mingled freely, sometimes openly, 
sometimes under the incognito of the ' Gude- 
man of Ballinbreich.' To him specially was 
given the title of the 'king of the commons,' 
though at least two of his ancestors had as 
good a title to the name. In 1531 he enter- 
tained an English embassy under Lord Wil- 
liam Howard [q. v.] at St. Andrews, when 
his mother was with him, but he declined 
the proposal that he should wed the Princess 
Mary of England. The relations of James 
to his mother seem to have been friendly, for 
lie gave his consent soon after this to her re- 
covery of the Forest of Et trick, which had 
been part of her dower. 

In 1532 James took a step, aimed at by 
.successive kings since James I, for centralising j 
justice and reducing the arbitrary power of the 
baronial courts. Albany had already obtained 
leave of the pope to assign a portion of the ; 
revenues of the Scottish bishops for the pay- j 



ment of royal judges ; but it was not carried 
into effect until 13 May 1532, when the par- 
liament passed an act concerning ' the order 
of justice and the institution of ane college of 
prudent and wise men for the administration 
of justice.' Gavin Dunbar, archbishop of 
Glasgow, has the credit of being the chief 
promoter of this measure. The opposition of 
the bishops was overcome by giving the 
clerical estate, to which almost all the law- 
yers belonged, half the places, as well as the 
presidency in the new court of fifteen. This 
court, called the College of Justice, was to 
hold its sittings constantly in Edinburgh. 
In Leslie's opinion the institution gave eternal 
glory to James, but Buchanan pronounces a 
less favourable judgment, and complains that 
it placed too much power in the hands of fif- 
teen men in a country where ' there are almost 
no laws, but decrees of the estates.' 
?- From 1532 to 1534 Henry VIII, taking 
advantage of the unpopularity of James with 
many of his own nobles, and urged by re- 
fugees in England, encouraged border hos- 
tilities, and James retaliated by counter-raids 
and by allowing some of the western islanders 
to support the Irish rebels. Peace was made 
on 11 May 1534, for the joint lives of Henry 
and James and one year longer. Henry was 
eager to secure the support of his nephew in 
his new ecclesiastical policy. James did not 
much favour the policy of separation from 
Rome, though he for a time wavered in ap- 
pearance, and seems to have been really dis- 
posed to reform the abuses of the church. He 
recognised the validity of his uncle's divorce 
and marriage to Anne Boleyn, and on 4 March 
1535 he was invested by Lord William How- 
ard with the Garter as a reward for this con- 
cession. Henry still offered James the hand 
of his daughter in marriage. But the emperor 
sent him the order of the Golden Fleece, and 

fave him the choice of three Marys : his sister 
lary, widow of Louis in Hungary, his niece, 
Mary of Portugal, and his cousin, Mary of 
England. The French king also conferred on 
him the order of St. Michael, and offered him 
either of his two daughters. James, proud of 
these honours, carved the arms of the em- 
peror and French king along with his own 
on the gate of Linlithgow Palace. Henry 
thereupon sent Sir Ralph Sadler with a 
proposal to meet his nephew at York, but 
James declined to go further than New- 
castle. Though conscious of the value of 
the English alliance, his personal inclination 
was more favourable to that with France, and 
this view was seconded by Pope Paul III, 
who sent, in 1537, Campeggio to Scotland to 
present the cap and sword annually blessed at 
Christmas and presented to the most favoured 



James V 



157 



of Scotland 



son of the church among the monarchs of 
Europe. The title of ' defender of the faith,' 
which Henry had forfeited, was offered him, 
and more was promised, if James would take 
up arms against the heretic king. The lead- 
ing Scottish bishops gave the same advice. 

The turning-point of James's life and reign 
was his French marriage. On 29 March 1536 
a treaty was concluded by which James was 
to marry Marie de Bourbon, daughter of the 
Duke of Vendome. Eager to see his betrothed, 
James started with five ships on a voyage to 
France without the knowledge of the nobles, 
but was driven back by a storm to St. Ninians 
in Galloway. He then returned to Stirling, 
from which he made a pilgrimage to Our 
Lady of Loretto, near Musselburgh, and, 
having held a council, obtained its consent to 
his going to France, after naming a regency. 
He again set sail from Kirkcaldy, with a 
larger suite, on 1 Sept. 1536, and landed at 
Dieppe on the 10th. He then paid an in- 
cognito visit, in the dress of John Tennant, 
one of his servants, to Marie de Bourbon, but 
that lady did not please him, and he proceeded 
to the court of Francis I at Lyons. In Octo- 
ber, James fell in love with Madeleine, 
elder daughter of Francis, and their mar- 
riage was agreed to by a treaty signed at 
Blois on 25 Nov. Francis is said to have 
pressed the hand of his second daughter as 
of stronger constitution, but yielded to the 
urgency of James. He was received on his 
entry into Paris on 31 Dec. with the honours 
usually reserved for the dauphin. The mar- 
riage was celebrated in Notre Dame on 1 Jan. 
1537. Stories have been told of his munifi- 
cence ; he is said to have presented his guests 
at a banquet with cups of gold filled with 
bonnet pieces, saying these were the fruits 
of his country. But the whole of his ex- 
penses in France were in the end paid by 
the French king. James remained in France 
with his young bride till the following 
May, and an observer, not altogether trust- 
worthy, for he was a retainer of Angus, may 
probably be credited when he relates how 
James escaped from the ceremonials of the 
court to run about the streets of Paris and 
make purchases as if unknown, though the 
boys in the street pointed to him as 'the 
king of the Scots.' His bad French pro- 
bably betrayed him. At Rouen on 3 April 
1537, when he attained his legal majority, 
he made the usual revocation of previous 
grants. He landed at Leith on 19 May, hav- 
ing received a visit when off Scarborough 
from some Yorkshire catholics, who informed 
him of the oppression of Henry VIII. He 
promised them that he would ' bend spears 
with England if he lived a year.' Madeleine 



was received with great rejoicing in Scotland, 
her fragile beauty attracting both the nobility 
and the commons. According to Buchanan, 
there was even hope that she might have- 
favoured the reformers' movement through 
her education by her aunt, the queen of Na- 
varre. Her premature death, at the age of 
sixteen, in July was the cause of great 
mourning, and led, it is said, to the introduc- 
tion of mourning dress into Scotland. James 
spent some time in retirement, but at once 
sought a successor. David Beaton [q. v.], 
nephew of the archbishop, then abbot of 
Arbroath, the future cardinal, was sent to 
France, and concluded a treaty of marriage 
with Mary of Guise, widow of the Due de 
Longueville, early in 1538. She landed at 
Grail on 14 June, and the marriage was cele- 
brated at St. Andrews. Sir David Lindsay 
wrote and prepared the masque in which an 
angel, descending from a cloud, presented 
Mary with the keys of Scotland as a token 
that all hearts were open to her. 

Between his first and second marriage the- 
attention of James had teen occupied with 
two conspiracies. On 15 July John, master 
of Forbes, was found guilty of having plotted 
at some earlier date ' the slaurghter of our 
Lords most noble person by a warlike machine 
called a bombard, and also of treasonable se- 
dition ; ' he was hanged and quartered at 
Edinburgh. Three days later Lady Glamis 
was condemned for taking part in a treason- 
able conspiracy to poison James, and was. 
burnt on the Castle Hill. Forbes was brother- 
in-law, and Lady Glamis was sister, of Angus- 
[see under DOUGLAS, JANET]. At the same 
period James encouraged the bishops to- 

froceed against heretics. Patrick Hamilton 
ij. v.] had been burnt at St. Andrews in 
528, and similar auto-da-fes followed at 
Edinburgh in 1534 and Glasgow in 1539. 
Heretical books were strictly prohibited, and 
those who owned them punished. James him- 
self was highly commended by the clergy 
for refusing to look at some heretical books 
which Henry VIII sent him. He was, says 
Leslie, ' a hydra for the destruction of pesti- 
lent heresy.' The young queen, Mary of 
Guise, was ' all papist,' and the old queen, who 
always exercised some influence on her son, 
' not much less,' according to Norfolk's report 
to the English council. In the personal cha- 
racter of James V there was little either of 
the piety or the superstition of his father. 
He and his queen seem to have had, however, 
their favourite pilgrimage to Our Lady of 
Loretto, near Musselburgh, and they were- 
duped, not only by Thomas Doughty, the. 
alleged miracle-working hermit of Loretto, 
but also by the fasting impostor, John Scot,. 



' James V 



The language which James V addressed the 
clergy, even the bishops, has something of 
the brutal frankness of his Tudor kin. There 
was undoubtedly something ambiguous in 
the attitude of James V towards the Roman 
church. He saw the necessity for reform 
of corruptions in the church, and on a few 
points carried it out, but probably allowed 
himself to be guided by Beaton, on condi- 
tion of receiving pecuniary aid for himself 
and the state from the overgrown reve- 
nues of the church. He made a communica- 
tion to the provincial council in Edinburgh 
in 1536, urging the abolition of the ' corpse 
presents,' the ' church cow,' and the ' upmost 
cloth,' three of the most hated exactions of 
the clergy, and threatened that if this was 
not done he would force them to feu their 
lands at the old rents. He obtained a con- 
tribution from the revenues of the prelates 
of 1,400/. a year to pay the judges of the 
new court of session. In 1540 James is said to 
have threatened the bishops that if they did 
not take heed, he ' would send half a dozen of 
the proudest to be dealt with by his uncle of 
England.' George Buchanan, who was tutor 
to one of his bastards, wrote by James's desire 
his ironical ' Palinodia,' and his more out- 
spoken 'Franciscanus' against the friars [see 
under BUCHANAN, GEORGE], In January 1540 
Sir William Eure, an English envoy, met on 
the borders Thomas Bellenden and Henry 
Balnavis, when the former requested that a 
copy of the English statutes against the pope 
should be sent for James's private study, and 
represented him as prepared to aid the Re- 
formation. But James never pursued that 
policy. In February Sir Ralph Sadler was 
sent on a fruitless mission to Edinburgh with 
a present of some horses, and vainly endea- 
voured to induce James, by a promise of the 
succession to the English crown in the event 
of Prince Edward's death, to openly support 
Henry and the Reformation. To Sadler's pro- 
posal that he should seize the estates of the 
church, as Henry had done in England, he re- 
plied that ' his clergy were always ready to 
supply his wants,' and that 'abuses could 
asily be reformed.' He seemed especially to 
favour Beaton, and Sadler himself confesses 
that the Scottish nobles who were opposed to 
an English alliance were men of small capa- 
city, a circumstance which forced James to 
use the counsel of the clergy. Sadler men- 
tions the rumour which Knox refers to in his 
* History,' that Beaton had given James a list 
of 360 barons and gentlemen whose estates 
might be forfeited for heresy, with the name 
of Arran at the head. 

On 22 May Mary of Guise bore her first 
child, and soon afterwards James set out on 



;8 of Scotland 

a voyage round the north and west coasts. 
Alexander Lindsay, who had been selected 
as his pilot, has left a narrative of the ex- 
pedition, which was published in Paris in 
1718 by Nicolas d'Arville, the royal cos- 
mographer. The fleet of twelve ships, well 
furnished with artillery, set sail from the 
Forth in the beginning of June, coasted the 
east and north of Scotland, visited the Ork- 
neys, Skye, the coast of Ross and Kintail, 
and the more southern islands, Coll, Tiree, 
Mull, lona, and finally reached Dumbarton 
by way of Arran and Bute. The royal forces 
were strong enough to extort the submission 
of the clans, but the stay was too short for per- 
manent effect. In August Sir James Hamil- 
ton of Finnart (d. 1540) [q. v.] was suddenly 
arrested in his lodging in Edinburgh, on the 
information of his kinsman James, the bro- 
ther of the martyr, Patrick Hamilton ; he was 
tried, condemned, and executed as a traitor 
on 16 Aug. The historians all report a dra- 
matic scene of the informer meeting the king 
as he passed over the Forth, when James, 
giving the ring off his finger to him, told him 
he was to present it to the master of the 
household and treasurer in Edinburgh, who 
effected the arrest of Hamilton. The king, 
perhaps, did not wish to appear prominent 
in the arrest of his old councillor. A weird 
story relates that James thought he saw in a 
dream ' Sir James Hamilton of Finnart com- 
ing upon him with a naked sword, and first 
cut his right arme and next his left from 
him ; and efter he had threatened efter schort 
space also to tak his lyf he evanished.' The 
prophecy was supposed to be half fulfilled 
when the news came in the following year 
of the deaths of his two infant sons within a 
few days of each other, one, an infant five 
days old, on 29 April, and his elder brother, 
James, before 25 May. The king's mother, 
too, died in October 1541. On 3 Dec. 1540 
James held an important parliament at Edin- 
burgh. Besides passing many acts, chiefly 
relating to the administration of justice and 
preparation for war, there occur among its 
proceedings the king's general revocation, by 
which he confirmed the revocation of all 
grants made before 3 April 1537. But by 
an act of annexation he added to the crown 
'the Lands and Lordships of all the Isles 
North and South, the two Kintyres with 
the Castles, the Lands and Lordships of 
Douglas, the Lands and Lordships of Craw- 
ford Lindsay, and Crawford John, the Su- 
periority of all Lands of the Earldom of An- 
gus and all other lands, rents, and posses- 
sions of the Earl of Angus, the Lands and 
Lordships of Glamis, " that are not halden 
of the Kirk," the Orkney and Shetland Isles, 



' James V 



159 



of .Scotland 



the Lands and Lordships of Sir James Hamil- 
ton of Finnart, and the Lands and Lordships 
of Liddesdale and Bothwell.' A general 
amnesty was granted, but from it Angus, his 
brother, Sir George, and the whole adherents 
of the Douglases were excepted. So sweeping 
and unparalleled a confiscation, which, so far 
as time allowed, was acted on, involved in a 
common ruin not only the hated name of Dou- 
glas, but also the Earl of Crawford and the 
chiefs and landowners of the isles. It was a 
sign of the complete breach bet ween James and 
his nobles. On 14 March 1541 James held his 
last parliament, which passed severe statutes 
against heresy, ratified the institution of the 
College of Justice, and made several useful 
laws with regard to criminal justice and the 
administration of burghs, and prohibited the 
passage of clerks to Rome without the king's 
leave, or the reception in Scotland of a papal 
legate. The last act was perhaps aimed at 
Beaton, who had gone to Rome with the view 
of obtaining legatine powers. 

In the summer of 1541 James and the 
queen made a progress to the north, in the 
course of which they visited the college of 
Aberdeen, where they were entertained by 
plays and speeches and deputations of the 
students. In the autumn of 1541 Sir Ralph 
Sadler came on another embassy from Eng- 
land to invite James once more to meet Henry 
at York, but James, though he signed ar- 
ticles promising to do so in December 1541, 
after consulting his council and Beaton, who 
tad now returned and was his chief adviser, 
sent Sir James Learmonth to decline the in- 
vitation. It is stated by Pitscottie that the 
clergy about this time granted him an aid of 
3,0001. a year, which gave force to their ad- 
vice. Henry, who had waited a week at 
York to meet his nephew, expostulated 
warmly on James's failure to keep his pro- 
mise, and is reported to have said that he had 
the same ' rod in store for him as that with 
which he beat his father,' a reference to Sur- 
rey, the victor of Flodden ,who was still living. 

A border raid in August 1542 by Sir Ro- 
bert Bowes [q. v.], the English warden, led 
to his defeat and death at Halidon Rig, when 
Angus, who was with him, narrowly escaped 
capture. War was then made inevitable, 
and Henry, in a long proclamation, declared 
it. On 2l Oct. Norfolk invaded the Lothians 
with twenty thousand men, and, after burn- 
ing villages and destroying the harvest, re- 
turned to Berwick, Huntly, James's general, 
not venturing to attack him, as his force was 
inferior. James had meantime collected an 
army of thirty thousand strong, with his artil- 
lery, on the Borough Muir of Edinburgh, and 
inarched to Fala Muir, on the western ex- 



tremity of the Lammermuir Hills, where he 
received the news of Norfolk's invasion. The 
Scottish barons, averse to war beyond the 
borders, refused to proceed further. They 
( concluded,' says Knox, that ' they would 
make some new remembrance of Lauder brig/ 
where their ancestors had hanged Cochrane 
and other favourites of James III before his 
eyes, but they could not agree among them- 
selves who were to be their victims, and only 
went the length of silently withdrawing their 
forces. James was obliged to return to Edin- 
burgh on 3 Nov. He disguised his anger, but 
determined, even without the consent of the 
nobles, to renew the war, and passed to the 
west borders, where his exhortations induced 
Lord Maxwell, the warden, and the Earls of 
Cassilis, Glencairn, and Lord Fleming to in- 
vade England. Oliver Sinclair, one of the 
royal household, a member of the Roslin 
family, who had always been favourites at 
court, and himself a special favourite of James, 
was the king's military counsellor. James did 
not take the command in person, but stayed 
either at Lochmaben or Caerlaverock. He 
appears already to have been suffering from 
the illness of which he died. A brief letter 
to Mary of Guise is extant, without date, 
but evidently written about this time, and 
bears witness by its incoherent and broken 
sense to weakness of mind as well as body. 
It concludes : ' I have been very ill these three 
days past as I never was in my life ; but, God 
be thanked, I am well.' His forces, to the 
number of about ten thousand, crossed the 
Sol way, and marched in the direction of Car- 
lisle, wasting the country after the usual 
manner of a raid. The Cumberland farmers 
began to collect to defend their crops and their 
houses. Sir Thomas Wharton, the English 
warden, Lord Dacres, and Lord Musgrave, 
with*a small force, not more than three 
hundred, it was said, came to their aid, and 
harassed the Scots. With singular impru- 
dence James had entrusted Sinclair with a 
private order conferring upon him the post of 
general, which naturally belonged to Max- 
well as warden. Sinclair, now producing 
the royal mandate, was proclaimed general. 
Maxwell, whose office gave him claim to 
the command, and the other nobles, whose 
rank was disparaged by a commoner being 
set over them, were indignant, and though 
they fought, fought without heart, and suf- 
fered a total discomfiture. On their at- 
tempt to retreat, many were lost in the Sol- 
way Moss, from which the battle took its 
name. The Earls of Cassilis and Glencairn, 
Lords Maxwell, Fleming, Somerville, Oli- 
phant, and Gray, and two hundred gentlemen 
were taken prisoners. Sinclair fled, according 



James V 



1 60 



of Scotland 



to Knox, without a blow, but was afterwards 
captured. It was a rout more disgraceful than 
Flodden. When the news reached James at 
Lochmaben, the melancholy which had been 
growing overwhelmed him, and though he 
went to bed, he could not rest, and kept ex- 
claiming in reference to Sinclair, ' Oh, fled 
Oliver ! Is Oliver tane ? Oh, fled Oliver ! ' 
Next day, 25 Nov., he returned to Edinburgh, 
where he remained till the 30th, then, crossing 
to Fife, went to Halyards, one of the seats of 
Sir William Kirkcaldy, the treasurer. Sir 
William's wife, in her husband's absence, tried 
in vain to comfort him, and after a short stay 
at Cairny, another castle in Fife, he repaired 
to Falkland, and took to his bed. On 8 Dec. 
Mary of Guise gave birth to Mary Stuart at 
Linlithgow. This news he treated as the 
last blow of adverse fate, and exclaimed, ' The 
Devil go with it. It will end as it began. 
It came with a lass, and will go with a 
lass.' He spoke few sensible words after, 
and died on 16 Dec., and was buried at Holy- 
rood. After his death a will was produced 
by Beat on, under which the cardinal, Huntly, 
Argyll, and Moray were named regents, but 
the condition in which James had been since 
he came to Falkland gave rise to the suspicion 
reported by Knox and Buchanan that he had 
signed a blank paper put into his hands by 
Beaton. The original document, dated 14 Dec. 
1542, was discovered by Sir William Fraser 
among the Duke of Hamilton's manuscripts 
at Hamilton Palace (cf. Hist. MSS. Comm. 
llth Rep. pt. vi. pp. 205-6 ; HERKLESS, Car- 
dinal Beaton, 1891 ; Atheneeum, June and 
July 1891). 

-Besides his only lawful surviving child, 
Mary Stuart, he left seven known bastards : by 
Elizabeth Shaw of Sauchie, James, the pupil 
of Buchanan, who became abbot of Kelso and 
Melrose and died in 1558; by Margaret Er- 
skine, daughter of the fifth Lord Erskine, 
who afterwards married Sir James Douglas 
of Lochleven, James Stewart, earl of Moray 
(1533-1570) [q. v.], well known as the Re- 
gent Moray ; by Euphemia, daughter of Lord 
Elphinstone, Robert, sometimes called Lord 
Robert Stewart, afterwards prior of Holyrood 
and Earl of Orkney ; by Elizabeth, daughter 
of Lord Carmichael, John, prior of Colding- 
ham, who was father of Francis Stewart 
Hepburn, fifth earl of Bothwell [q. v.], and 
Janet, who married the Earl of Argyll ; by 
Elizabeth Stewart, daughter of John, earl of 
Lennox, Adam, who became prior of the Car- 
thusian house at Perth; and by Elizabeth 
Beaton, a child whose name is not known 
(Hist. MSS. CoTOt.l2thRep.pt. viii.p.92). 
The bishops, according to Knox, encouraged 
his amours, and the pope certainly legitimated 



his natural children, and promoted some of 
them while still minors to church benefices. 
James's face was oval, his quick eyes a 
bluish grey, his nose aquiline, his hair red, 
his mouth small, his chin weak for a man, his 
figure good, his height about the middle size. 
Both Leslie and Buchanan note his good 
looks, and from him, rather than Mary of 
Guise, Mary Stuart inherited her fatal beauty. 
Portraits are at Windsor Castle and Castle 
Fraser, and two others belong to the Marquis 
of Hartington. Buchanan also credits him 
with great activity and a sharp wit, insuffi- 
ciently cultivated by learning, and notes that 
he seldom drank wine, that he was covetous 
from the parsimony of his early life, and li- 
centious from the bad guidance of his guar- 
dians, who tolerated his vices that they might 
keep him under their own control. His 
licentiousness hastened the coming, and gave 
a tone to the character, of the Scottish refor- 
mation. A great number of his letters and 
speeches have been preserved. He had some 
of his ancestors' literary tastes, but the ascrip- 
tion to him of ' Christis Kirk on the Green' 
and a few songs cannot be accepted. His 
character had two sides : one shows him as 
the promoter of justice, the protector of the 
poor, the reformer of ecclesiastical abuses, 
the vigorous administrator who first saw the 
whole of his dominions, and brought them 
under the royal sceptre ; the other exhibits 
him as the vindictive monarch, the oppressor 
of the nobles, the tool of the priests, the licen- 
tious and passionate man whose life broke 
down in the hour of trial. John Knox, with 
all his prejudices, describes him in language 
which comes nearest the facts. ' Hie was 
called of some a good poore mans king ; of 
otheris hie was termed a murtherare of the 
nobilitie, and one that had decreed thair hole 
destructioun. Some praised him for the re- 
pressing of thyft and oppressioun ; otheris dis- 
praised him for the defoulling of menis wifns 
and virgines. And thus men spak evin as 
affectionis led thame. And yitt none spack 
all together besydis the treuth : for a parte of 
all these foresaidis war so manifest that as the 
verteuis could nott be denved, so could nott 
the vices by any craft be clocked.' 

[Buchanan, James's senior by six years, and. 
Bishop Leslie, his junior by fifteen, give con- 
temporary views of his life and reign as seen 
from opposite points. Their Histories, and the 
publication of the State Papers, both Domestic 
and Foreign, afford more complete materials for 
his life than exist for any prior Scottish king. 
Buchanan, Leslie, and Knox's Histories are the 
primary authorities, and require to be compared 
and tested by the Record sources, the Acts of 
Parliament, Exchequer Rolls, and the Epistola& 



James I 



161 



of England 



Regum Scotorum piiblished byRuddiman. The 
Poems of Sir David Lindsay are also of great 
importance, from Lindsay's close intimacy -with 
James and the historical character of several of 
.his works. Of modern historians Pinkertou is 
the fullest and best. Brewer's Henry VIII and 
vol. i. of Fronde's History represent the English 
view of James's political position. Michel's Les 
Ecossais en France and the documents in Teulet's 
Relations de la France avec 1'Ecosse, vol. i., give 
the most detailed account of his French marriages, 
as to which Miss Strickland's Lives of Queens of 
Scotland deserves also to be consulted. His rela- 
tions with the Vatican are partially shown by the 
documents in Theiner, Monumenta Historica ; 
but independent search of the papal records 
with reference to Scottish history is still urgently 
required.] ^E. M. 

JAMES VI (1566-1625), king of Scot- 
land, afterwards JAMES I, king of England, 
son of Henry Stuart, lord Darnley, and Mary 
Queen of Scots, was born on 19 June 1566, in 
Edinburgh Castle. On 24 July 1567 he be- 
came king by his mother's enforced abdica- 
tion, and was crowned at Stirling on 29 July. 
The child was committed to the care of the 
Earl and Countess of Mar. The regency was 
given to the Earl of Moray, the illegitimate 
brother of James's mother, and in 1570, on 
Moray's murder, to James's paternal grand- 
father, the Earl of Lennox, whose accession 
to power was followed by a civil war. On 
28 Aug. 1571 the young king was brought 
into parliament, and, finding a hole in the 
tablecloth, said that ' this parliament had a 
hole in it ' (History of James the Sext, p. 88). 
This childish remark was thought to be pro- 
phetical of the death of Lennox in a skirmish 
in September. Mar succeeded as regent, and 
on his death was followed by Morton, who 
in 1573 put an end to the civil war. On 
Mar's death the care of James's person was 
entrusted to Mar's brother, Sir Alexander 
Erskine, under whom the education of the 
young king was conducted by four teachers, 
of whom the most notable was George Bu- 
chanan [q. v.J Buchanan made his pupil a 
good scholar, and James felt considerable 
respect for his teacher, though he afterwards 
expressed detestation of his doctrines. At 
the age of ten James had a surprising com- 
mand of general knowledge, and was ' able 
extempore to read a chapter out of the Bible 
out of Latin into French and out of French 
after into English ' (Killigrew to Walsing- 
ham, 30 June 1574, printed in TYTLER, Hist, 
of Scotland, ed. Eadie, iii. 97). Buchanan 
wanted to make of James a constitutional 
king, subject to the control of what he 
called ' the people.' As a matter of fact, 
neither was James fitted by character to as- 
sume that part, nor did the times demand 

YOL. XXIX. 



such a development. There was in Scotland 
a strong body of nobles still exercising the 
old feudal powers, and lately gorged with 
the plunder of the church. The parliament, 
which consisted of a single house, was at 
that time virtually in the hands of the nobles, 
and a merely constitutional king would 
therefore have been no more than the ser- 
vant of a turbulent nobility. On the other 
hand, the only popular organisation was that 
of the presbyterian church, in which the 
middle class, small and comparatively poor 
as it was, took part in the kirk sessions and 
presbyteries, and thus acquired an ecclesias- 
tical-political training. It was, however, 
guided by the ministers, naturally hostile 
to the lawless nobles who kept them in 
poverty, and also fiercely intolerant of any- 
thing savouring of the doctrines and practices 
of the papacy. 

With elements thus opposed to one an- 
other there was no possibility of parlia- 
mentary union. There were, so to speak, two 
Scottish nations striving for the mastery, and 
only a firm royal government could moderate 
the strife and lay the basis of future unity. 
Something of this kind was attempted by 
Morton as regent, but he made enemies on 
both sides, and was compelled on 8 March 
1578 to abandon the regency, the boy king, 
now nearly twelve years of age, nominally 
taking the government into his own hands 
[see DOUGLAS, JAMES, fourth EAEL OF MOR- 
TON"]. Before long, however, Morton regained 
his authority, but on 8 Sept. 1579 the situa- 
tion was changed by the arrival in Scotland 
of Esm6 Stuart, a son of a brother of the 
regent Lennox. 

It was not only in domestic matters that 
Scotland was divided. The old policy of 
leaning upon France was confronted by the 
new policy of leaning upon England. Morton 
strove, as far as Elizabeth would let him, to be 
on good terms with England. Esm6 Stuart 
was sent by the Guises to win the boy king 
back to the French alliance. Temporarily 
at least he succeeded. He was created earl 
and afterwards duke of Lennox, and an in- 
strument of his, James Stewart, was made 
earl of Arran. Morton was seized, and on 
the charge of complicity with Darnley's 
murder was condemned to death, and exe- 
cuted on 2 June 1581. 

Lennox had attempted to disarm the hos- 
tility of the clergy by professing himself a 
protestant. He soon found it impossible to 
overcome their suspicions, and the conflict 
between himself and the ministers came to 
a head in 1582, when he induced James to 
appoint Robert Montgomery to the vacant 
bishopric of Glasgow. The general assembly, 



James I 



162 



of England 



with Andrew Melville at its head, resisted, 
and before long many of the Scottish no- 
bility, indignant at the predominance of a 
favourite, joined the party of the ministers. 
The result was the so-called Raid of Ruth ven. 
On 22 Aug. 1582 James was seized by the 
Earl of Gowrie and his allies. Though he 
was treated with all outward respect, he 
was compelled to conform to the will of his 
captors and to issue a proclamation against 
Lennox and Arran. Before the end of the 
year Lennox retired to Paris, where he shortly 
afterwards died. Arran was for the present 
excluded from power. 

James was now in his seventeenth year, 
a precocious youth, whose character was 
developed early under the stress of contend- 
ing factions. His position called on him to 
continue the policy of Morton on the one 
hand, to reduce to submission both the nobles 
and the clergy ; and on the other, to cultivate 
friendship with England, which might lead 
to the maintenance of his claim to the Eng- 
lish throne after Elizabeth's death. If he 
had attempted to carry out this policy with 
a strong hand he would probably have failed 
ignominiously. As it was, he succeeded far 
better than a greater man would have done. 
He was, it is true, inordinately vain of his 
own intellectual acquirements and intolerant 
of opposition, but he was possessed of con- 
siderable shrewdness and of a desire to act 
reasonably. Moreover, in seeking to build 
up the royal authority he had more than 
personal objects in view. He regarded it as 
a moderating influence exercised for the good 
of his subjects, and employed to keep at bay 
both the holders of extreme and exclusive 
theories like the presbyterian clergy, and the 
heads of armed factions like the Scottish 
nobles. The love of peace which was so 
characteristic of him thus attached itself in 
his mind to his natural tendency to magnify 
his office. His life, though his language was 
sometimes coarse, was decidedly pure, so 
that he did not come into conflict with the 
presbyterian clergy on that field of morality 
on which they had obtained their final vic- 
tory over his mother. On the other hand, 
there was a want of dignity about him. If 
he had not that extreme timidity with which 
he has often been charged, he certainly shrank 
from facing dangers ; and this shrinking was 
allied in early life with a habit of cautious 
fencing with questioners, without much re- 
gard for truth, which was the natural out- 
come of his position among hostile parties. 
Add to this that he was to the end of his 
life impatient of the intellect ual labour needed 
for the mastery of details, and therefore never 
stepped forward with a complete policy of 



his own, and it can be easily understood how, 
though he was never the directing force in 
politics, he was able by throwing himself on 
one side or the other to contribute not a little 
to his special object, the establishment of 
peace under the monarchy. 

James in the custody of the raiders pro- 
fessed to have discovered the enormity of 
Lennox's conduct, and the obvious explana- 
tion is that he spoke otherwise than he 
thought. It is not, however, quite impossible 
that explanations given to him on one point 
may have changed his feelings towards Len- 
nox. Lennox had been the channel through 
which he had received a proposal for associ- 
ating his mother with himself in the sove- 
reignty over Scotland, and some progress had 
been made in the affair. Objections made 
to the scheme by his new guardians, on the 
ground that by accepting it he would dero- 
gate from the sufficiency of his own title to 
the crown, would be likely to sink into his. 
mind ; and it is certain that when Bowes, 
the English ambassador, attempted to gain 
a sight of the papers relating to the proposed 
association, the young king baffled all his 
inquiries. (For a harsher view of James's 
conduct, see BURTON, Hist, of Scotland, p. 
458.) 

James I in any case did not like being 
under the control of his captors, and this 
dislike was quickened by an equally natural 
dislike of the presbyterian clergy, who under 
the guidance of Andrew Melville put for- 
ward extreme pretensions to meddle with all 
affairs which could in any way Ibe brought 
into connection with religion. /The Duke of 
Guise, who wanted to draw James back to 
an alliance with France, sent him six horses 
as a present. An alliance with France meant 
hostility to protestantism. The horses, there- 
fore, in the eyes of the ministers, covered an 
attack on religion, and twq__of their numjjer'tu 
were sent to remonstrate with the king/ 
James promised submission, but kept toe 
horses. On 27 June 1583 he slipped away 
from Falkland and threw himself into St. 
Andrews, where he was supported by Huntly 
and Argyll, together with other noblemen 
hostile to Gowrie and to the other raiders. 
There were always personal quarrels enough 
among Scottish nobles to account for any 
divisions among them ; but the leading differ- 
ence was hostility to the rising power of 
royalty on the one side, and hostility to the 
clergy on the other. 

James had now placed himself in the 
hands of those who were hostile to the 
clergy. Of course the clergy lectured him on 
what he had done, and James, knowing that 
the lords from whom he had escaped were 



James I 



163 



of England 



friendly to Elizabeth, wrote to the Duke of 
Guise in approbation of a design for setting 
his own mother free, and for establishing 
the joint right of her and himself to the Eng- 
lish crown (James to the Duke of Guise, 
9 Aug. 1583, FROUDE, xi. 592). James soon 
recalled Arran to favour. Gowrie and his 
allies, anticipating evil, made a dash at Stir- 
ling Castle. They were anticipated by Arran, 
and most of them fled to England. Arran 
was made chancellor. Melville was ordered 
into confinement in the castle of Blackness ; 
but he too succeeded in escaping to England. 

In February 1584 James made fresh over- 
tures to the Duke of Guise, and even wrote 
to the pope, holding out no expectation that 
he intended to change his religion, but ask- 
ing the pope to support his mother and 
himself against Elizabeth (ib. xi. 637-40). 
James was himself always in favour of a 
middle course in politics and religion. He 
had no love for either papal or presbyterian 
despotism. Before long Arran took advan- 
tage of James's greatest moral weakness, his 
love of pleasure and his dislike of business. 
He persuaded James to amuse himself with 
hunting instead of attending the meetings 
of the council, and to receive information of 
affairs of state from Arran alone. Arran 
made use of his master's confidence to entrap 
the Earl of Gowrie into a confession of trea- 
son, on promise that it should not be used 
against him, and then had him condemned 
to death and executed (BEtrcE, ' Observations 
on the Life and Death of William, Earl of 
Gowrie,' in Archtsoloffia, vol. xxxiii.) [see 
RiTTHVEir, WILLIAM, first EARL OF GOWRIE]. 

James's subserviency to the base and ar- 
rogant Arran was, far more than his subser- 
viency to Esme Stuart, an indication of the 
most mischievous defect in his character. 
It was not that James weakly took his views 
of men and things from his favourites. He 
thought very badly of Gowrie, and was glad 
that Arran should assail him ; but he took no 
pains to investigate the points at issue for him- 
self, or to understand the character and mo- 
tives of those with whom he had to deal. His 
character at this time is admirably painted by 
a French agent, Fontenay: ' He is wonderfully 
clever, and for the rest, he is full of honourable 
ambition, and has an excellent opinion of 
himself. Owing to the terrorism under which 
he has been brought up, he is timid with the 
great lords, and seldom ventures to contra- 
dict them ; yet his especial anxiety is to be 
thought hardy and a man of courage. . . . He 
dislikes dances and music and amorous talk, 
and curiosity of dress and courtly trivialities. 
. . . He speaks, eats, dresses, and plays like a 
boor, and he is no better in the company of 



Avonien. He is never still for a moment, but 
walks perpetually up and down the room, 
and his gait is sprawling and awkward ; his 
voice is loud and his words sententious. He 
prefers hunting to all other amusements, and 
will be six hours together on horseback. . . . 
His body is feeble, yet he is not delicate ; in 
a word, he is an old young man. . . . He is 
prodigiously conceited, and he underrates 
other princes. He irritates his subjects by 
indiscreet and violent attachments. He is 
idle and careless, too easy, and too much 
given to pleasure, particularly to the chase, 
leaving his affairs to be managed by Arran, 
Montrose, and his secretary. . . . He told me 
that, whatever he seemed, he was aware of 
everything of consequence that was going on. 
He could afford to spend time in hunting, 
for that when he attended to business he could 
do more in an hour than others could do in a 
dav ' (Letter of Fontenay to Nau, in FROUDE, 
xL467). 

It was not in James's power to maintain 
Arran in authority long. The nobles and 
the clergy were alike hostile to the favourite. 
Circumstances soon involved James in a 
policy which drew him in another direction. 
A crisis was approaching in the struggle 
between the two great forces into which 
Europe was divided, and of these forces the 
representatives in Britain were Elizabeth 
and Mary. Mary hoped to make her son 
an instrument in her designs, and had for 
that object favoured the rise successively of 
Lennox and Arran. James thought far too 
much of himself and of his crown to accept 
the subordinate position which was assigned 
to him, and of filial affection there could be 
no question, as he had never seen his mother 
since he was an infant. He entered into 
communication, through a rising favourite, 
the Master of Gray, with Queen Elizabeth, 
and though Arran took part in these ne- 
gotiations, their tendency was manifestly 
hostile to himself. In April 1585 an Eng- 
lish ambassador, Edward Wotton, arranged 
terms with James. He was to have a pen- 
sion of 5,000/. a year, and to ally himself with 
England. Then there was a disturbance on 
the border, in which Lord Russell was killed. 
Wotton declared that Arran was implicated 
in the affair, and demanded and obtained his 
arrest. James had to choose between an alli- 
ance with England and Elizabeth and an 
alliance with the Guises and the catholic 
powers. Not heroically, but with some con- 
sideration for the interests of his country, as 
well as his own, he preferred the former. 
Before the end of July the estates agreed to 
a protestant league between England and 
Scotland. James, however, was still per- 



James I 



164 



of England 



sonally attached to Arran, and, releasing him 
from confinement, refused Elizabeth's de- 
mand for his surrender. On this Elizabeth 
let loose upon him the banished lords of the 
party of the Ruthven raiders. At the head 
of eight thousand men they, with loyalty on 
their lips, secured, on 4 Nov., the person of the 
king at Stirling. Arran fled, and disappeared 
from public life. 

James soon recovered his equanimity. 
A treaty with England, which had been 
authorised by the estates in July 1585, and 
again by the estates which met in December 
of the same year, after the fall of Arran, 
was pushed on, and a treaty between the 
crowns was at last signed at Berwick on 
2 July 1586. James was to have a pension 
of 4,000. a year from Elizabeth, and Eliza- 
beth engaged, in terms intentionally vague, 
to do nothing or allow anything to be done 
to derogate from ' any greatness that might 
be due to him, unless provoked on his part 
by manifest ingratitude.' 

James's alliance with Elizabeth and pro- 
testantism necessarily brought with it a com- 
plete breach with his mother and her catholic 
allies. Mary, foreseeing what was coming, 
had disinherited her son in May, as far as 
any word of hers could disinherit him, and 
had bequeathed her dominions to Philip II 
of Spain (ib. xii. 233, 234). The discovery of 
the Babington conspiracy followed. The be- 
quest to Philip having come to light, Eliza- 
beth took care that James should be informed 
of it. On this James declared that, though 
' it cannot stand with his honour to be a con- 
senter to take his mother's life,' he would 
not otherwise interfere in her favour (the 
Master of Gray to Archibald Douglas, 8 Sept. 
1586, MURDIX, p. 568). The English au- 
thorities gathered from this letter that he 
would not interfere even if his mother were 
put to death. 

Sentence of death having been pronounced 
on Mary on 25 Oct. 1586, James thought it 
time to protest, and authorised his ambassadors 
in England to intercede with Elizabeth. On 
8 Feb. 1587 he despatched the Master of 
Gray and Sir Robert Melville to England 
with the same object ; but he took care not 
to instruct them to use anything like a threat, 
which, indeed, he was hardly in a position to 
carry into effect. Still, there were people 
about him who wanted him to throw in his 
lot with his mother and the Catholic League, 
and, though he does not seem deliberately 
to have bargained for the recognition of his 
title to the English succession as the price 
of his surrender of his mother's life, his 
pressing the matter at such a time showed 
how little chivalry or even respect for de- 



cency there was in his nature (Letters of the 
Master of Gray, MTJRDIST, pp. 569, 571,573). 

I In Scotland itself the clergy were bitterly 
opposed to any intervention on Mary's be- 
half, and when James ordered the ministers 
to pray for his mother, ' they refused to 
do it in the manner he would have it to 
be done that is, by condemning directly 
or indirectly the proceedings of the queen 
of England and their estates against her, 
as of one innocent of the crimes laid to 
her charge.' James then ordered Adam- 
son, archbishop of St. Andrews, to make the 
prayers ; but when Adamson appeared in the 
church he found his place occupied by one 
of the hostile ministers, John Cowper, who 
only gave way at the express order of the 
king. James afterwards had to explain that 
he had only bidden the ministers to pray for 
the enlightenment of his mother, and ' that 
the sentence pronounced against her might 
not take place ' (CALDERWOOD, iv. 606, 607). 
Mary was executed on 8 Feb. 1586-7, and 
James had no difficulty in reconciling himself 
to the event. The Master of Gray was con- 
demned to death, partly on the charge that 
he had urged the English ministers to put 
the queen to death, though he had been sent 
to prevent that catastrophe. His sentence 
was, however, changed to that of banishment 
[see GRAY, PATRICK, sixth LORD GRAY]. 

On 19 June 1587 James reached the age 
of twenty-one. He celebrated the event by 
an attempt to reconcile the feuds between 
the nobility by making the bitterest enemies 

! walk through the streets of Edinburgh hand 

j in hand. In July the estates passed an act 
revoking all grants made to the injury of the 
crown during the king's nonage. 

In 1588 the approach of the Spanish Ar- 
mada threw Scotland as well as England 
into consternation. In opposition to the Earl 
of Huntly in the north and to Lord Maxwell 
on the western borders, James took his stand 
against Spain. He rejected the demand of 
Huntly that he should change his officers, 
and when Maxwell attempted resistance he 
marched against him and reduced him to 
submission (ib. iv. 677, 678). The Armada 

| was ruined before Scotland could be affected 
by its proceedings. 

The bequest of the Scottish crown by 
Mary to Philip II had probably done more 
than anything else to wean James from his 
reliance on favourites like Lennox and Arran, 
who had been in the confidence of the catho- 
lic powers of the continent ; and his know- 
ledge that his chance of succession to the 
English crown would be endangered if he 
placed himself in opposition to Elizabeth, 
drew him in the same direction. 



James I 



of England 



Ever since 1585 negotiations had been in 
progress for a marriage between James and 
Anne, the second daughter of Frederick II, 
king of Denmark. These negotiations had 
been hampered by the objections of Eliza- 
beth ; but James resolved to persevere, and 
the marriage was celebrated by proxy at 
Copenhagen on 20 Aug. 1589. The young 
queen was, however, driven by a storm to 
Norway, and James, impatient of delay, set 
sail from Leith on 22 Oct. to see what had 
become of her. He found her at Opslo, near 
the site of the modern Christiania, where the 
pair were married on 23 Nov. The winter 
was spent in Denmark, and on 21 April 1590 
James and his queen sailed for Scotland, 
landing at Leith on 1 May [see ANNE OF 
DENMARK]. 

The old problem of dealing at the same 
time with the nobles and the clergy awaited 
James on his return, and it was perhaps the 
success with which he had tided over the 
danger from the Armada which threw him this 
time, to some extent, on the side of the clergy. 
In August 1590 he delivered a speech in the 
general assembly in which he praised the 
Scottish at the expense of other protestant 
churches (ib. v. 106). James was at this time 
thoroughly in accord with the clergy in mat- 
ters of doctrine, but he was constantly bicker- 
ing with them on account of their interference 
with his personal actions. Yet in 1592 he 
consented to an act of parliament, said to 
have been promoted by his chancellor, Mait- 
land of Thirlestane, annulling the j urisdiction 
of bishops and establishing the presbyterian 
system of discipline in all its fulness. The 
lawyers, of whom Maitland was a fair repre- 
sentative, gave warm support to James's no- 
tions of establishing order through the royal 
authority, j ust as the French lawyers did 
when the French monarchy was struggling 
with feudal anarchy in the middle ages. 

From the end of 1591 James suffered from 
personal attacks directed against him by 
Francis Stewart, a nephew of his mother's 
third husband, to whom he had given the 
title of Earl of Bothwell [see HEPBURN, 
FRANCIS STEWART]. James had no armed 
force at his disposal, and was at the mercy 
of any nobleman who could gather his fol- 
lowers, unless he could rouse other noble- 
men to take his part. How much unruli- 
ness this implied was seen when letters of 
fire and sword were given to the Earl of 
Huntly to suppress Bothwell after his at- 
tack on Holyrood House. He did not sup- 
press Bothwell, but he used his powers to 
attack and slay the Earl of Moray, a per- 
sonal enemy of his own. Popular rumour 
ascribed the contrivance of the slaughter to 



James, on the ground that 'the bonny Earl 
of Moray ' was ' the Queen's luve.' For this 
scandal there appears to have been no founda- 
tion, but popular opinion in Edinburgh was 
much excited against the king, as Huntly 
was the leader of the catholic nobility, and 
regarded in the capital with deep suspicion. 
James had to send for some of the ministers, 
and to protest that he had no more to do with 
Moray's death than David had to do with 
the slaughter of Abner by Joab (ib. v. 145). 

James was doubtless wise in refusing to 
levy war, as the clergy wished him to do, 
against Huntly and the other powerful Ro- 
man catholic nobles, whose strength was too 
great to be easily shaken, and who might, if 
pushed hard, throw themselves into the hands 
of foreign states ; but he could hardly con- 
ceal the truth that he looked on these very 
Roman catholic nobles as useful allies against 
the clergy themselves. As to foreign affairs, 
James held, in opposition to the clergy, the 
opinion that it was wise to cultivate the 
civil friendship of Roman catholic govern- 
ments ; but partly because this opinion was 
obnoxious to the clergy, partly because he 
thought much more of his own private in- 
terest in the English succession than of any 
avowable broad course of policy, he had to 
carry out his ideas in this respect by secret 
intrigues, which whenever they came to light 
increased the general distrust of his character. 

Such an intrigue there had lately been 
carried on with the king of Spain by Lord 
Semple and his cousin, Colonel Semple (BtrR- 
TON, Hist, of Scotland, vi. 54, n. 1), and in 
1592 Scottish protestants were frightened by 
the so-called ' Spanish blanks,' or blank papers, 
signed by Huntly and others, apparently to 
be filled up with letters addressed to the king 
of Spain, inviting him, as was believed, to 
send an army to be used in an attack on 
England. Moreover, James himself in 1593 
published certain letters of a dangerous ten- 
dency, addressed for the most part to the 
Duke of Parma (PiTCAiRN, Criminal Trials, 
i. 317), and, though he actually marched 
against the northern lords, the clergy com- 
plained that he did not push home the ad- 
vantages which he gained. 

James's difficulty with the clergy about 
the northern earls remained a cause of irrita- 
tion. In 1594 he again marched against 
Huntly, and had pressed him so hard that 
on 19 March 1595 Huntly and other lords 
left Scotland [see GORDON, GEORGE, sixth 
EARL and first MARQUIS OF HUNTLT] ; but 
James did not proceed to declare the lands 
of Huntly and his allies forfeited, which was 
what the ministers wanted. James's finan- 
cial condition was at the same time deplorable, 



James I 



166 



of England 



and early in 1596 (CALDERWOOD, vi. 393) he 
appointed a committee, the members of which, 
being eight in number, were known as the 
Octavians, to improve his revenue. The Oc- 
tavians pursued their work for about a year 
and a half, but they failed to increase the 
revenue of the crown to any appreciable ex- 
tent. Their appointment irritated the clergy, 
as ' some of the number were suspected of 
papistry' (ib. vi. 394). In August 1596 a 
convention of estates was held at Falkland, 
at which, in the teeth of the protests of 
Andrew Melville, the most pertinacious of 
the presbyterian ministers, it was resolved 
that the exiled lords should be called home, 
' the king and the kirk being satisfied ' (ib. vi. 
438). Andrew Melville came over, unbidden, 
to Falkland* to testify in the name of ' the 
king, Christ Jesus, and his kirk' against these 
proceedings, and in September, an assembly 
being held at CuparFife, a deputation of four 
ministers was sent to Falkland to remonstrate 
with the king. James told them that their 
assembly was ' without warrant and seditious.' 
On this Andrew Melville broke in, telling 
James that he was ' but God's silly [i.e. weak] 
vassal,' and in outspoken language upheld 
the right of the clergy to tell him the truth 
about his own conduct (JAMES MELVILLE, 
Diary, pp. 368-70). 

The position of the kirk became more 
difficult to defend when, on 19 Oct., the 
Countess of Huntly offered, in the presbytery 
of Moray, on behalf of her husband, that 
he would be ready to make his submission, 
Huntly himself having by that time returned 
to Scotland, and being in hiding in his own 
district [see GORDON, GEORGE, sixth EAEL 
and first MARQUIS OF HIJNTLY]. 

But the ministers' sermons increased in 
bitterness, and on 16 Dec. the four ministers 
who served Edinburgh were ordered to leave 
the town (CALDEEWOOD, v. 540), and seventy- 
four of the Edinburgh burgesses were to share 
the same fate. Consequently, there was on 
17 Dec. a tumult in Edinburgh, which was 
put down without difficulty. On the 18th 
James went off to Linlithgow, leaving behind 
him a proclamation announcing that in con- 
sequence of the tumult he had removed the 
courts of justice from Edinburgh, which was 
no longer a fit place for their peaceful labours. 
The announcement cooled the ardour of the 
townsmen in defence of the clergy. During 
the king's absence the ministers, especially 
Robert Bruce, had been violent in their in- j 
vectives ; after which Bruce and the more 
outspoken of his colleagues, hearing that the 
magistrates had orders to commit them to 
prison to await their trial, took refuge in 
England. On 1 Jan. 1597 James returned to 



Edinburgh completely master of the situa- 
tion (ib. v. 514-21 ; SPOTISWOOD, iii. 32-5). 
In the course of the year he obtained the re- 
storation of Huntly and the northern earls, 
on condition of their complete submission to 
the kirk, and their hypocritical acceptance 
of its religion and discipline. 

With a view to reconciling the preten- 
sions of the church and state, James astutely 
summoned an assembly to meet at Perth on 
29 Feb. 1597. The Scottish clergy were poor, 
and as travelling was expensive, assemblies 
were always most fully attended by those 
ministers who lived in the neighbourhood of 
the place of meeting. The northern clergy 
would therefore be in a majority at Perth, 
and they would be unwilling to displease the 
powerful Roman catholic northern earls, or 
were themselves less inclined to high presby- 
terian views than were the ministers of Fife 
and the Lothians. 

James having obtained a decision in his 
favour on the question whether the assem- 
bly, having been convened by royal authority, 
was lawfully convened, proposed thirteen 
queries, to which he obtained satisfactory 
replies. The answers limited the claim ot 
the clergy to denounce persons by name from 
the pulpit, and forbade them to find fault 
with the king's proceedings unless they had 
first sought a remedy in vain. Moreover, the 
king was to have the right of proposing to 
future assemblies any changes he thought 
desirable in the external government of the 
church. Speaking broadly, the result of this 
assembly was to establish constitutional re- 
lations between the king and the clergy, 
thereby cutting at the root of the theory of 
' two kingdoms,' which Melville had pro- 
pounded. Of course Melville and his allies 
denounced the meeting at Perth as no true 
and free assembly of the kirk (CALDERWOOD, 
v. 606-21; MELVILLE, Diary, pp. 403-14; 
Book of the Universal Kirk, p. 889). 

James, having thus felt his way, gathered 
anotfier assembly at Dundee in May, and ac- 
cepted a proposal for the appointment of cer- 
tain ministers as commissioners of the church, 
authorised to confer from time to time with 
the king on church affairs. During the re- 
mainder of the year everything seemed set- 
tling down into peace : the Edinburgh clergy 
were allowed to reoccupy their pulpits ; the 
northern earls were restored; nothing was 
heard of foreign intrigue or domestic disorder. 

The next step was to bring the church 
into constitutional relations with parliament. 
Doubtless by agreement between James and 
the new commissioners of the church, a peti- 
tion was presented to the parliament which 
met on 13 Dec. 1597, asking that the church. 



James I 



167 



of England 



might have representatives of its own in par- 
liament. Parliament, however, was very 
much under the control of the nobles, and 
replied with a counter-proposition which it 
embodied in an act (Acts ofParl. of Scotland, 
iv. 130) that such ministers ' as at any time 
his Majesty shall please to provide to the 
office, place, title, and dignity of ane bishop, 
abbot, or other prelate,' should have votes in 
parliament. Nothing imported the allowance 
of any spiritual jurisdiction to the prelates, 
though a wish was expressed in the act that 
the king should treat with the assembly on 
the office to be exercised by them ' in their spi- 
ritual policy and government of the church.' 
James had therefore to choose between throw- 
ing in his lot with the old nobility, who 
wanted posts and dignities for their younger 
sons, and the new clerical democracy, which 
he had discovered to be, after all, less liable 
than he had once feared to be led away by 
the extreme zealots. 

For some months James seems to have 
hoped to follow the latter course. On 7 March 
1598 an assembly met at Dundee. There was 
the usual amount of manoeuvring on the part 
of James, and Andrew Melville was excluded 
by an unworthy trick. The assembly agreed, 
though only by a small majority, that fifty- 
one representatives of the church should sit 
in parliament, and that a convention of a 
select number of ministers and doctors should 
decide on the mode of their election, the de- 
cision of the members only to be binding in 
case of unanimity. The convention met at 
Falkland on 25 July 1598, and decided that 
each representative should be nominated by 
the king out of a list of six ; but the conven- 
tion was not unanimous, and the question 
was thus relegated to the next general as- 
sembly (CALDERWOOD, vi. 17). 

In the autumn of 1598 James adopted the 
opposite idea of keeping the clergy in order 
by nominees of his own. How completely 
this alternative policy soon took possession of 
James's mind appears from the 'Basilikon 
Doron,' a book written by him as a guide 
for the conduct of his eldest son, Henry, 
when he became a king. This book, which, 
though not published till 1599, was in exist- 
ence in manuscript in October 1598 (Nichol- 
son's Advices, October 1598 ; State Papers, 
Scotl. Ixiii. 50), is full of hard hits at those 
ministers who meddled with state affairs, 
and acted as tribunes of the people against 
the authority of princes. To remedy this 
disorder he advised his son to ' entertain and 
advance the godly, learned, and modest men 
of the ministry . . . and by their provision to 
bishoprics and benefices' to banish the con- 
ceited party; and also to 're-establish the 



old institution of three estates in parliament, 
which cannot otherwise be done.' 

In another book, ' The True Law of Free 
Monarchies,' published anonymously in Sep- 
tember 1598 (CALDERWOOD, v. 727), James 
set forth more distinctly his theory of govern- 
ment. Kings were appointed by God to 
govern, and their subjects to obey; but it 
was the duty of a king, though he was him- 
self above the law, to conform his own actions 
to the law for example's sake, unless for some 
beneficial reason. Further, though subjects 
might not rebel against a wicked king, God 
would find means to punish him, and it might 
be that the punishment would take the form 
of a rebellion. 

The chief resistance to the crown at this 
time came from the clerical zealots. In No- 
vember 1599 James held a conference of 
ministers at Holyrood, urging them to con- 
sent to the appointment of representatives of 
the church, to hold seats in parliament for 
life, and to give to their representatives the 
name of bishops. James's proposal was, how- 
ever, rejected (ib. v. 746), and though an as- 
sembly held at Montrose in July 1600 agreed 
to the appointment of parliamentary repre- 
sentatives, it limited their appointment to a 
single year, and tied them down by restric- 
tions which made them responsible to the 
assembly for their votes (ib. vi. 17). 

In the course of the year James was once 
more brought into violent collision with the 
clergy. The Earl of Gowrie and Alexander 
Ruthven were the sons of the Earl of Gowrie 
who had been executed early in the reign, 
and bore a deep grudge against James on 
account of their father's death. On 5 Aug. 
1600 Alexander Ruthven enticed James to 
his brother's house in Perth, and induced him 
to come into a chamber in a tower, locking 
the doors behind him. It is probable that 
the intention of the brothers was to keep the 
king there, and then, after persuading his 
followers to disperse by telling them that he 
had ridden off, to put him in a boat on the 
Tay and to carry him off by water to the 
gloomy and isolated Fast Castle, on the south 
shore of the Firth of Forth, where they 
might murder him or dispose of him at their 
pleasure. (The whole story is discussed in 
BURTON'S Hist, of Scotland, vi. 90.) The 
plan was, however, frustrated by the king's 
struggles, in the course of which he contrived 
to reach a window and to call his followers 
to his help. The arrival of a few of them on 
the scene was followed by a fray, in which 
Gowrie and his brother were both slain by 
a young courtier, James Ramsay. The 5th of 
August was appointed to be held as a day 
of annual thanksgiving for James's escape. 






James I 



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But five ministers refused to accept his story 
as true, or to express their belief in it in the 
pulpit. After trying his best to convince 
them of their error, he threatened them with 
punishment, and finally drove the most per- 
sistent of them, Robert Bruce, into exile. 

This conflict with the ministers, by whom 
the Gowrie family was regarded as specially 
devoted to the defence of the presbyterian 
system, seems to have strengthened James 
in his resolution to meet the resolutions of 
the assembly of Montrose by the direct ap- 
pointment of three bishops in November 1600. 
These bishops had seats in parliament, but 
they in no way represented the church, as 
the representatives whose appointment had 
been suggested at Montrose would certainly 
have done. More regrettable was the king's 
settled hostility to Gowrie's brothers and 
sisters. Two of the sisters were at once 
turned out of the queen's service, and two 
Ruthven boys, brothers of Gowrie, had to 
take refuge in England, where they did not 
venture to appear in public. 

James's eye had for some time been fixed on 
the English succession. His hereditary right, 
combined with his protestantism, gave to his 
claim a weight which left him the only com- 
petitor with any chance of acceptance. Under 
these circumstances a man of common sense 
in James's position would have patiently 
waited till the succession was open. But 
James, unable to restrain himself, engaged in 
a succession of intrigues to secure what was 
virtually already his own. He had many 
counsellors who were anxious to bring about 
an understanding between him and the pope, 
thereby to secure the assistance of the Roman 
catholics in England as well as in Scotland. 
To this James made no objection, though he 
refused to sign a letter in which the pope 
was addressed as 'Holy Father.' In 1599 a 
letter so addressed was carried to Rome by 
Edward Drummond, in favour of the ap- 
pointment of William Chisholm III [q. v.], 
the Scottish bishop of "Vaison, to the cardi- 
nalate, and this letter bore James's signature ; 
but it was subsequently, and, as there is every 
reason to believe, truthfully asserted by him 
that the signature had been surreptitiously 
obtained from him by James Elphinstone 
[ q. v.], his secretary of state (GARDINER, Hist, 
of England, 1603-42, i. 81, ii. 31). James 
also entered into secret negotiations with 
prominent English statesmen and courtiers, 
among them, fortunately for his prospects, 
Sir Robert Cecil, Elizabeth's secretary of state, 
who did his best to keep him patient (BRUCE, 
Correspondence of James VI, Camden Soc.) 

At last, on 24 March 1603, Elizabeth died, 
and James was at once proclaimed in Eng- 



land by the title of James I, king of England r 
though he subsequently styled himself, with- 
out parliamentary authority, king of Great 
Britain. He left Edinburgh for his new 
kingdom on 5 April. Coming from a poor 
country, he fancied that the wealth and power 
of an English king was far greater than it 
really was, and before long he scattered titles 
and grants of money and land with unjusti- 
fiable profusion. As he passed through 
Newark he ordered a cutpurse to be hanged 
without trial, fancying that the royal autho- 
rity, so hampered in Scotland, must be with- 
out limit in England. As a matter of fact, 
the tide of public opinion in the two countries 
was making in opposite directions. In Scot- 
land it was favourable to the creation of a 
monarchy somewhat after the French type, 
in opposition to the nobles and clergy. In. 
England, all that a strong monarchy could 
do had been accomplished, and opinion was 
therefore in favour of imposing restrictions 
upon the existing royal authority. 

The first test of James's statesmanship lay 
in the selection of his councillors. Elizabeth 
had filled her council with representatives of 
all parties. James kept those whose opinions 
agreed with his own. He was himself for 
peace, and he consequently dismissed Raleigh 
as a partisan of war, and kept Cecil, who 
was ready to promote peace. He ordered the 
cessation of hostilities with Spain, though 
peace was not actually concluded till 1604. 
Cecil remained to the day of his death James's 
trusted councillor [see CECIL, ROBERT, EARL 
OF SALISBURY], Raleigh was charged with 
high treason, and condemned to death, but 
his sentence was commuted by James to that 
of imprisonment [see RALEIGH, SIR WALTER]. 
The first purely political question which 
confronted James was that of toleration. He 
had led the English catholics to expect better 
treatment from him than they had had from 
Elizabeth ; and though James does not seem 
to have given any express promise of setting- 
aside the recusancy laws, he had used lan- 
guage in writing to the Earl of Northumber- 
land which implied a disposition to show 
them reasonable favour (Degli EfFetti to 
Del Bufalo, July 16-26, Roman Transcripts, 
Record Office). Cecil, however,- was in favour 
of the old system, and for some time after 
James's accession the recusancy fines were 
still collected. James's language continued 
favourable, but the action of his govern- 
ment did not respond to his words, and in 
June a plot for his capture and an enforcedv 
change of his system of government was dis- 
covered to have been formed by a catholic 
priest named Watson, and other catholics. 
The information which led to the discovery 



James I 



169 



of England 



had been given by the Jesuit, John Gerard 
[q. v.], who still hoped much from the 
king; and on 17 June James, in gratitude, 
informed Rosny, the French ambassador, of 
his intention to remit the fines. It was not, 
however, till 17 July, when a catholic deputa- 
tion waited on him, that James openly an- 
nounced that the fines were to be remitted. 
In August he received assurances from the 
nuncio in Paris that the pope would do all 
in his power to keep the catholics obedient 
subjects of the king, and on this James des- 
patched Sir James Lindsay to Rome, to ask 
Pope Clement VIII to send to England a 
layman to confer with him on the subject of 
obtaining the excommunication of turbulent 
catholics. 

Unfortunately, James was liable to be led 
away from a great policy by personal con- 
siderations. The queen, much to his annoy- 
ance, was secretly a Roman catholic, and in 
January 1604 Sir Anthony Standen arrived 
from Rome with objects of devotion for her. 
Shortly afterwards James learnt that the 
pope refused to agree to allow sentence of 
excommunication to be passed on catholics 
at the instance of a heretic king, and James, 
irritated at the failure of his plan, and at 
the domestic discord, which he attributed to 
Standen's mission, was at the same time 
alarmed by the discovery that the number of 
priests and of catholic converts had greatly 
increased since the removal of the fines. 
Though he did not at once reimpose the fines, 
he issued on 22 Feb. 1604 a proclamation 
banishing the priests. 

The condition of the puritans was forced 
on James's attention as much as that of the 
catholics. On his progress from Scotland the 
so-called Millenary Petition was presented to 
him, asking, not for permission to hold sepa- 
rate worship, but for such a permissive modifi- 
cation in the services of the church as might 
enable puritan ministers to comply with 
their obligations without offending their con- 
sciences. Bacon pleaded in favour of the 
change, and on 14 Jan. 1604 James met them 
and the bishops at the Hampton Court con- 
ference. James was quite ready to agree to 
changes, and he signified as much in his con- 
versation with the bishops on the first day. 
On the second day, however, when four re- 
presentatives of the puritan clergy were ad- 
mitted, his old antagonism with the Scottish 
clergy influenced his mind, and though, in 
the actual discussion, he took up a position 
as mediator between the parties, the unlucky 
use of the word 'presbyters' by one of the 
puritans sent him ofl' into more scolding. 
' If this be all they have to say,' he declared 
of the puritans after he had driven them out 



of the room, ' I shall make them conform 
themselves, or I will harry them out of the 
land.' The phrase of ' No bishop, no king,' 
became an integral part of his policy. 

James, however, did not as yet take refuge 
in unyielding conservatism. He authorised 
a new translation of the Bible, and made up 
his mind to ask the consent of parliament to 
various alterations in the prayer-book. 

The temper of parliament, when it met on 
19 March 1604, was not favourable to work 
in combination with James. The House of 
Commons not only favoured the whole of the 
puritan demands, but urged James to abandon 
his lucrative feudal rights, for what he con- 
sidered to be an inadequate compensation. 
It also set itself against a scheme for a union 
with Scotland which he had much at heart, 
with the result that on 7 July he prorogued 
parliament, after administering a good scold- 
ing to the House of Commons. 

Before the end of 1605 the puritan clergy 
who refused to conform had been expelled 
from their livings. In 1604 the treaty with 
Spain was signed, and James talked with the- 
ambassadors about his desire to marry his 
eldest son to the eldest daughter of Philip III 
of Spain. In the ' Basilikon Doron' he had 
denounced marriages between persons of dif- 
ferent religions, as harmful to the parties. 
But he was now especially gratified by being- 
treated as an equal by the king of Spain, and 
was perhaps also attracted by a scheme for 
putting an end to the religious wars which 
had devastated Europe, by means of the 
closest possible alliance between himself and 
Philip. 

None the less James deliberately drew 
back from his policy of conciliating the Eng- 
lish catholics. His proclamation banishing* 
the priests (February 1604) was not put in 
execution for some weeks, but when a bill 
providing for a stricter course with priests 
and recusants was offered to him, he gave 
it the royal assent. Still, however, he re- 
strained himself from taking actual steps 
against the catholics. In the summer he 
talked with an agent of the Duke of Lorraine 
about the means of converting into reality 
that ignis fatuus of diplomatic churchmen, 
the reunion of the churches of Rome and 
England on terms satisfactory to both (Del 
Bufalo to Aldobrandino, 11-21 Sept., Roman 
Transcripts, Record Office). Just at this 
time, however, judges and juries were con- 
demning catholics to death, and in September 
James, who had probably not authorised the 
action of the judges, again took alarm at the 
increase of the numbers of the catholics, and 
issued a commission to banish the priests. 
In November he ordered the exaction of the 



James I 



170 



of England 



fines from the wealthiest of the catholic laity, 
and early in 1605, being annoyed by learning 
that the pope had taken his loose talk about a 
reunion of the churches to signify a desire of 
personal conversion, replied, announcing on 
10 Feb. his intention to execute the whole 
of the recusancy laws. 

Long before this severe measure was taken 
there had grown up in the minds of certain 
catholics a design to destroy the king and 
his young sons, by blowing them up with the 
Houses of Lords and Commons when parlia- 
ment was next opened [see FAWKES, GUY]. 
Gunpowder plot, as it was called, was re- 
vealed to the council on 26 Oct. 1605, and 
on 3 Nov. the ministers, in informing James 
of their discovery, took care to allow him to 
pride himself on being the first to penetrate 
the secret. In 160G parliament retaliated by 
a recusancy act of increased severity, though 
its operation was intended to be modified by 
a new oath of allegiance, which was to make 
a distinction in favour of such catholics as re- 
fused to uphold the power of deposing kings, 
said to be inherent in the papacy. 

The bringing forward of an oath of alle- 
giance at a time of general exasperation with 
the catholics was the outcome of the con- 
ciliatory tendencies of James's mind. In the 
same spirit he refused to ratify a collection 
of canons drawn up by convocation in 1606, 
in which the doctrine of non-resistance was 
taught, on the ground that obedience was due 
to the king actually in possession (BISHOP 
OVERALL, Convocation Book). To this James 
objected, not merely on the ground that here- 
ditary right was a better basis of authority 
than actual possession, but because he denied 
that tyranny could ever exist by the appoint- 
ment of God. Although ideas so completely 
out of accord with all the fanaticisms of the 
day could never be popular, yet, in this very 
session of 1606, a rumour that James had 
been murdered called forth, as soon as it 
proved to be false, an outburst of enthusiasm 
in the House of Commons, which took visible 
form in the grant of a supply of money. 

It was not, however, only by living in an 
intellectual world of his own that James 
failed to gain a hold on the hearts of English- 
men. The riotous profusion of his court gave 
wide offence. In July 1606, when his brother- 
in-law, Christian IV of Denmark, visited him, 
ladies who were to act in a dramatic per- 
formance before the two kings were too 
drunk to play their parts, and the offence 
was left unconnected. His own life was a 
double one. He liked the company of the 
learned, who could discuss with him questions 
of theology and of ecclesiastical politics, but 
he also liked the boon companionship of the 



hunting-field ; and though his own life was 
pure, and his own head, according to his 
physician's report (MAYERXE,Z)/an/), too hard 
to be affected by wine, he himself indulged 
in coarse language, and took no pains to 
avoid the society of evil-livers. 

James's anxiety to pursue the work of as- 
similation between Scotland and England 
now led him to continue his work of reducing 
the independence of the Scottish clergy. For 
some years after his appointment in Scotland 
of bishops without jurisdiction he had appa- 
rently abandoned all attempts to bring the 
ministers under a real episcopacy, and after 
his removal to England had contented him- 
self with prohibiting the meetings of general 
assemblies. Against this the more active 
clergy rebelled, and on 2 July 1605 nineteen 
ministers met at Aberdeen and declared 
themselves a lawful assembly, though they 
prorogued themselves to September. James 
forbade the meeting, and ordered the prose- 
cution of the leading ministers who had been 
present at Aberdeen, and who subsequently 
declined to submit to the judgment of a 
civil court. In 1606 six ministers, after a 
trial in which every species of unfairness was 
practised, had a verdict recorded against 
them, and were sent into perpetual banish- 
ment, while eight others were placed in con- 
finement. Towards the end of 1606 James, 
summoning to Linlithgow a body of ministers 
nominated by himself,obtained from them the 
concession that the presbyteries and synods 
should always have a ' constant moderator,' 
instead of appointing one at each meeting. 
As the existing bishops were elected as 
moderators of the presbyteries in which they 
resided, men got in the habit of seeing them 
in places of authority, though no formal in- 
road on the presbyterian system had been 
made. James owed his success in part to 
the influence which he had gained over the 
Scottish nobility by his removal to England. 
On the one hand, it was no longer in their 
power to capture him, while, on the other, 
he had pensions and estates to give away to 
their younger sons. 

James also attempted to bring about a 
political union between the two countries. 
He learnt, however, that English prejudice 
was against the complete union which he 
would have preferred, and in 1606-7, during 
the third session of his first parliament, he 
contented himself with asking for four con- 
cessions, of which the two most important 
were freedom of trade between the two coun- 
tries, and the naturalisation of Scotsmen in 
England and of Englishmen in Scotland. On 
both these the House of Commons proved 
obdurate, and in 1608 James obtained from 



James I 



171 



of England 



the judges in the exchequer chamber a deci- 
sion that the post-nati, that is to say Scots- 
men born after his own accession to the 
throne of England, were natural subjects of 
the king of England. At the same time, 
James's partiality to worthless Scotsmen, if 
only they were sprightly and active, was 
shown by the rapid rise in favour of Robert 
Carr [q. v.], to whom, in January 1609, he 
granted the estate of Sherborne, which he 
took away, though not without compensa- 
tion, from Raleigh. 

The other side of James's nature appeared 
in the controversy in which he engaged with 
Cardinal Bellarmine. After Gunpowder plot 
(1605) he published anonymously ' A Dis- 
course of the Manner of the Discovery of the 
Powder Treason,' and in February 1606 he 
published, also anonymously, 'An Apology 
for the Oath of Allegiance,' in answer to two 
breves of Paul V, in which the new oath of 
allegiance was denounced, and also to a letter 
from Bellarmine to the archpriest Blackwell. 
This 'Apology' was answered by Bellarmine 
under the name of one of his chaplains, Mat- 
thew Tortus, and the answer reached James 
in October 1608. The view of the matter 
taken at Rome was that no catholic ought 
to be asked to swear that the pope had no 
right to absolve from allegiance to kings. 
But the controversialists on that side laid 
greater stress on any thing which might dis- 
credit their royal antagonist. Tortus had 
accordingly pointed out that when James 
was still in Scotland his ministers had held 
out hopes of his becoming a catholic, and 
that he had himself written a letter to the 
pope of that day Recommending the Bishop 
of Vaison to the cardinalate. James soon 
obtained from his former secretary, Elphin- 
stone, now Lord Balmerino, an acknowledg- 
ment of having foisted that letter on him 
and hid one of his Scottish favourites, Hay, in 
a neighbouring room, of which the door was 
left open, so that the confession might not 
be without witnesses. James was overjoyed 
at this proof of his cleverness and innocence 
(see extracts from the Hatfield MSS. in 
GARDINER'S Hist, of EngL 1603-42, ii. 33). 
In 1609 he reissued his ' Apology,' this time 
with his name attached to it, together with 
' A Premonition to all most Mighty Mon- 
archies, Kings, Free Princes, and States of 
Christendom,' in which he warned his brother 
sovereigns of the danger of acknowledging 
the claims of the papacy to exert authority 
-over themselves. 

James's view of the position of the mon- 
archy at hoine, as that of a moderating 
power to avoid conflicts between administra- 
tive and judicial officers, was thrown into 



prominence by the claim of the common law 
courts to issue prohibitions annulling the 
action of the ecclesiastical courts. In 1605 
Archbishop Bancroft presented to James 
certain articuli cleri directed against these 
proceedings, and in November 1607 James, 
having had an altercation on the subject with 
Chief-justice Coke, told him ' he thought 
that the law was founded on reason, and 
that he and others had reason as well as the 
judges.' On Coke's argument for the supre- 
macy of the law, which practically meant 
the supremacy of the judges, James replied 
in heat : ' Then I shall be under the law, 
which it is treason to affirm.' In February 
1609 there was a still hotter argument, and 
in the following July the whole matter was 
discussed before the king. James expressed 
his wish to be impartial, but ordered that 
for the present the issue of prohibitions was 
to cease. 

To maintain the position which he had 
taken up James needed the strength of popu- 
larity behind him, and that he had taken no 
pains to secure. Moreover, his finance was 
in a deplorable condition, and when he met 
parliament for its fourth session, in 1610, 
Cecil, who was now earl of Salisbury and 
lord treasurer, as well as secretary of state, 
attempted to choke the deficit by what was 
known as the Great Contract, a bargain with 
the commons by which the king was to 
sacrifice his feudal revenue, most of which 
arose from the court of wards, and to receive 
in return 200,000/. a year. JThe contract was 
agreed to in general terms, on the understand- 
ing that parliament was to meet again in 
November to consider the manner in which 
the new grant was to be raised. The' House 
of Commons would not have proceeded so 
far as this unless James had been concilia- 
tory in another matter. In 1606 the court 
of exchequer had decided in Bate's case that 
the crown had a right to levy impositions 
that is to say, customs duties without a 
parliamentary grant, and in 1608 Salisbury, 
taking ad vantage of this decision, had ordered 
the levy of new impositions bringing in about 
70,000/. a year. In 1610 James agreed to 
abandon the most burdensome of them, re- 
ducing his income from that source, and to 
consent to a bill declaring illegal all further 
levying of impositions without consent of 
parliament, provided that they would confirm 
by a parliamentary grant those impositions 
to which he now laid claim. This, too, was 
left over to the winter session. When that 
arrived a dispute broke out between the 
king and the commons on the Great Contract, 
which was therefore abandoned. Warm lan- 
guage was used in the house, and on 9 Feb. 



James I 



172 



of England 



1611 James dissolved the first parliament of 
liis reign. 

It is possible that a feeling of weakness 
consequent on this breach Avith the House of 
Commons had something to do with James's 
harshness towards his cousin, Arabella Stuart, 
who in 1610 married William Seymour. 
Both husband and wife had some sort of 
claim to the throne, and James, who was 
determined that no child should be born of 
this marriage to contest the claims of his 
own offspring, imprisoned the bride, and kept 
-her in confinement till her death [see ARA- 
BELLA]. 

In dealing with the continental powers 
there was the same absence of strength, con- 
joined with the same desire to mediate be- 
tween extreme parties. He had done his 
best to bring about a peace between Spain 
and the Dutch republic, and on 16 June 
1608 he agreed to a defensive league with 
the latter, binding him to give direct mili- 
tary assistance if Spain attacked the re- 
public after peace had been made. When 
peace appeared to be unattainable, James 
joined the French government in recom- 
mending both parties to agree to a long truce, 
which was ultimately signed at Antwerp on 
30 March (April 9) 1609. 

The strife which threatened to break out 
in Germany in 1609 in consequence of a dis- 
puted succession in Cleves and Juliers, and 
which threatened to bring about a general 
European war, caused James some trouble. 
After the murder of Henry IV he consented 
to pay four thousand English infantry, which 
were at that time in the Dutch service, to be 
employed under Sir Edward Cecil, in com- 
bination with a Dutch force, to rescue Juliers 
from the Archduke Leopold, in order to place 
it in protestant hands. Juliers was captured 
on 22 Aug. (1 Sept.), and James then did his 
best to negotiate a final settlement of the 
dispute ; but he found it impossible to induce 
any of the claimants to abate their preten- 
sions, and the annoyance which he felt led 
him to seek for the maintenance of peace by 
allying himself with the catholic powers. 

The policy on which James thus deliberat ely 
entered led to the worst errors of his reign. 
It was, indeed, not altogether a new one. The 
talk about a marriage between his eldest son 
Henry, who was created Prince of "Wales in 
1610, and a Spanish princess had never quite 
died out. When a Spanish ambassador pro- 
posed a marriage between him and the eldest 
daughter of Philip III, James sent Sir John 
Digby to Madrid in 1611 with instructions to 
treat for the alliance. No doubt James's 
quarrel with the House of Commons and his 
consequent impecuniosity made him eager for 



a rich marriage portion ; but when Digby 
arrived in Madrid, and found that the Infanta 
Anne was already engaged to Louis XIII of 
France, and that her younger sister Maria, 
whom the Spaniards proposed to substitute 
for her, was not yet six years old, James let 
the matter drop. He was, however, still 
anxious to be on good terms with the fol- 
lowers of both religions on the continent, 
and before the end of 1611 he was negotiat- 
ing for the hand of a Tuscan princess for his 
son, and had engaged to marry his daughter 
Elizabeth to Frederick V, the leader of the 
German Calvinists. In following up the 
latter alliance he entered on 28 March into a 
defensive alliance with the protestant union 
of German princes. 

On 24 May 1612 Salisbury's death de- 
prived James of what was, on the whole, a 
steadying influence. James, thinking it a 
fitting moment to assert his own authority, 
put the treasury in commission, and declared 
his intention of being his own secretary of 
state. Unlike Louis XIV when he an- 
nounced a similar resolve on the death of 
Mazarin, he threw the influence which ought 
to have been his own into the hands of a 
favourite, Carr, whom he had created vis- 
count Rochester, but he retained the general 
direction of policy. On 6 Nov. 1612 his eldest 
son, Henry, died of typhoid fever (XORMAN 
MOOEE, M.D., TJie Illness and Death of 
Henry, Prince of Wales}, and on 14 Feb. 
1613 his daughter Elizabeth was married to 
the elector palatine. For a time James in- 
clined to the continental protestant s. At 
his request the Dutch, on 6 May, signed a 
defensive treaty with the union, and a cor- 
responding coolness between himself and 
Spain was the natural result. 

During these years of fluctuating foreign 
policy James had at last secured the hold 
on the Scottish church which he had long 
coveted. In 1610 the assembly at Glasgow 
consented to the introduction of episcopacy, 
and on 21 Oct. of that year three Scottish 
bishops received consecration at the hands of 
English prelates. In Ireland, after the flight 
of the Earls of Tyrone and Tyrconnel and 
the rising of O'Dogherty, James had favoured 
the colonisation of Ulster by English and 
Scottish immigrants, a measure which, what- 
ever might be its ultimate results, gave him 
for the moment a stronger hold upon Ireland 
than any of his predecessors had had. This 
increased power, however, brought an increase 
of expense, and to provide for this he insti- 
tuted the order of baronets, each of whom 
was to pay 1,080/. to be employed in keeping 
thirty foot-soldiers in Ireland for three years. 
The idea that James made a personal profit by 



James I 



173 



of England 



the sale of baronetcies is erroneous. As soon 
as the need was past in Ireland, he invariably 
repaid to the new baronets the sums at which 
they were assessed (Receipt and Issue Books 
of the Exchequer, Record Office). 

Before the end of 1613 increasing financial 
difficulties turned James's thoughts in the 
ction of summoning another parliament, 
vain Bacon reminded him of the necessity 
of having a popular policy if he was to con- 
ciliate popular feeling. When the new par- i 
liament met in 1614, James offered merely to l 
repeat on a smaller scale the policy of bar- 
gaining with the House of Commons which 
had been at the bottom of the failure of the 
Great Contract in 1610. He also, through 
certain influential personages known as the 
Undertakers, attempted to influence the elec- 
tions. The House of Commons, instead of 
voting subsidies in return for small conces- 
sions, declared the impositions to be illegal, 
and asked for the restoration of the non- 
conforming clergy. After a short session 
James dissolved his second parliament, which, 
as it passed no acts, is known in history as 
the Addled parliament. 

The dissolution took place on 7 June. 
Before he ventured on the step he had sent 
for Sarmiento, the very able Spanish am- 
bassador, who was afterwards known as the 
Count of Gondomar, asking him whether he 
could depend on the support of the king of 
Spain. It was a new and by no means a 
fortunate departure in James's English career, 
though it was in accordance with his readi- 
ness to rely on foreign aid when he was king 
of Scotland alone. Hitherto he had sought 
a good understanding with Spain to support 
his continental policy ; he now sought it to 
support him against his own subjects. 

As the Spanish alliance was to be sealed 
by a Spanish marriage between James's sur- 
viving son, Charles, and the Infanta Maria, 
Digby was sent back to Spain to see what 
chance there was of the scheme proving ac- 
ceptable there. A Spanish bride might bring 
with her a considerable portion. In 'the 
meanwhile James was in great extremities. 
He sent to the Tower four of the most violent 
of the opposition in the late House of Com- 
mons. To Sarmiento he unbosomed himself 
of his grievance in having to tolerate a par- 
liament so disorderly, and then, on the ground 
that fresh troubles were breaking out in 
Cleves and Juliers, he appealed to the country 
to make him voluntary gifts under the name 
of a benevoknce, an appeal which, after con- 
siderable pressure from the government, re- 
sulted in bringing in about 66,000, none of 
which was spent in assisting protestants in 
Cleves and Juliers. 



The scission which was declaring itself 
between James and his subjects led to in- 
creased severity on one side and to increased 
outspokenness on the other. In 1614 Oliver 
St. John was sentenced to fine and imprison- 
ment for denying in violent and unbecoming 
language the legality of the benevolence, 
though his punishment was remitted on his 
acknowledging his offence. In the same year 
a clergyman named Oliver Peacham [q. v.] 
was committed to the Tower for having 
written, though he had not preached or pub- 
lished, a sermon in which he attacked James's 
government. Peacham's affair led to a new 
stage in the dispute between Coke and the 
king. The judges had been hitherto con- 
sidered the fit counsellors of the king on 
questions of law, and in January 1615 James 
wished to have their advice on legal questions 
arising out of Peacham's case. At Bacon's 
recommendation, however, James took the 
unusual course of ordering that they should 
be separately consulted, in order to prevent 
them from being no more than the echo of 
the overbearing and self-opinionated Coke. 
Coke, of course, was very angry, and de- 
livered an opinion as opposed as possible to 
that which the court lawyers desired to elicit 
from him. 

Moral causes were contributing with poli- 
tical differences to sap James's position in 
England. In 1613 his favourite, Rochester, 
was anxious to marry Frances Howard, wife 
of the Earl of Essex, and the marriage with 
Essex was annulled by a commission which 
James appointed for the purpose. Before 
the end of 1613 Rochester was married, and 
created earl of Somerset. By his marriage he 
became closely allied to the family of Howard, 
most of the members of which were catholics 
or semi-catholics, and warmly in favour of 
the Spanish alliance. The opponents of the 
Spanish match consequently set themselves 
against him by putting forward young George 
Villiers as a rival favourite, and in 1616 had 
the satisfaction of seeing both the earl and 
countess convicted of the murder of Sir 
Thomas Overbury [q. v.] James commuted 
the death-penalty into one of imprisonment. 
They were afterwards released, but James 
never saw either of them again [see CAKR, 
ROBERT, EARL OF SOMERSET], At the time 
of the trial James exhibited signs of great 
anxiety, as if he feared lest Somerset should 
reveal some dangerous secret. It is probable 
that his anxiety was caused by his know- 
ledge that Somerset knew more about his 
dealings with Spain than he cared to have 
openly told. The Spanish negotiations, in- 
deed, were being pushed steadily on, and in 
1616 James sent Hay to Paris to break off a 



James I 



174 



of England 



negotiation which had been previously en- 
tered on for a marriage between Charles and 
Chrjstina, the sister of Louis XIII, as a pre- 
liminary to a more formal procedure in the 
Spanish treaty. 

In the same year James finally settled 
accounts with Coke, who was now chief 
justice of the king's bench, and in that 
capacity assumed a right of interfering with 
the chancery when it gave a decision in con- 
travention of one already delivered in the 
king's bench. At his instigation, too, the 
judges proceeded to deal with a case relating 
to commendams, though they had been or- 
dered by James, through Bacon, to stop the 
trial till they had spoken to the king. James 
summoned all the judges before him, and 
asked them whether they would acknowledge 
that they ought, in a case which concerned 
the king, to stay proceedings till he could 
consult with them. Coke alone refused to 
submit, and on 30 June was suspended from 
the chief-justiceship, from which he was ulti- 
mately dismissed [see BACOX, FRANCIS, and 
COKE, SIR EDWARD]. On 20 June James 
had declared in the Star-chamber his views 
on the relation between the crown and the 
judges. ' As in the absolute prerogative of 
the crown,' he said, 'that is no subject for 
the tongue of a lawyer, nor is it lawful to be 
disputed. ... It is presumption and high 
contempt in a subject to dispute what a king 
can do, or say that a king cannot do this or 
that ; [he must] rest in that which is the 
king's will revealed in his law.' 

Meanwhile James persisted in an unpopular 
foreign policy. In March 1617 he finally 
decided upon opening formal negotiations for 
his son's marriage with the Infanta Maria ; 
and in the course of the year he charged 
Digby to carry them on at Madrid [see DIGBY, 
JOHN, first EARL OP BRISTOL]. In part, at 
least, he was actuated by his desire of acquir- 
ing a large marriage portion. For the same 
reason, no doubt, he in 1616 liberated Raleigh 
at the request of Villiers, giving him leave 
to seek a gold mine on the Orinoco, but leav- 
ing him exposed to the penalty of death pro- 
nounced on him for treason in 1603 in case 
of his doing any injury to the lands or sub- 
jects of the king of Spain [see RALEIGH, SIR 
WALTER]. 

At home the most striking feature of 
court life was James's inordinate fondness 
for Villiers. who was rapidly promoted in 
the peerage, till, in 1623, he became duke of 
Buckingham. James heaped riches on his 
new favourite, and entrusted him with the 
patronage of the crown, while he kept the 
direction of policy in his own hands [see 
VILLIERS, GEORGE, DUKE OP BUCKINGHAM]. 



Buckingham soon discovered that James 
would support him in his quarrels whether 
he was right 'or wrong, and in 1617 James 
took his part in a question arising out of a 
proposed marriage between one of his brothers 
and Coke's daughter, a marriage to which 
Bacon was opposed. With James's help 
Buckingham brought Bacon on his knees. 

During the progress of this dispute James 
was on a visit to Scotland. Not content with 
the establishment of episcopacy in Scotland, 
he had come to desire the introduction of 
some of the rites of the church of England 
into his native country. In 1614 and 1615 
he ordered that all persons in Scotland should 
receive the communion on Easter-day; and 
in 1616 he called on an assembly which met 
at Aberdeen to adopt five articles which he 
sent down. The communion was to be re- 
ceived in a kneeling posture ; it was, in cases 
of sickness, to be administered in private 
houses ; baptism was, if necessary, to be ad- 
ministered in the same way ; there were to 
be days set apart in commemoration of the 
birth, passion, and resurrection of the Saviour ; 
and, finally, children were to be brought to the 
bishop to receive his blessing. Resistance to 
these proposals at once .declared itself, and 
James postponed their consideration. He 
gave, however, no little offence by sending 
an organ before him to be set up in the chapel 
at Holyrood, and the force of public opinion 
compelled him to withdraw an order for the 
erection of some figures of patriarchs and 
apostles in the same chapel. 

In spite of these preliminary difficulties 
James was well received in Scotland, where 
he laid the foundation of future trouble by 
enforcing kneeling at the reception of the 
communion on great persons attending the 
court at Edinburgh. He lectured the nobility 
on the patriotism that they would show if 
they surrendered their: heritable jurisdic- 
tions, and though he attempted in vain to 
get an act passed acknowledging his own 
power to determine all matters relating to 
the external goA'ernment of the church ' with 
the actions of the archbishops, bishops, and 
a competent number of the ministry,' he at 
once claimed the power as inherent in the 
crown in default of legislation. The best thing 
that he did was to increase the low stipends of 
the clergy; but this was afterwards used as a 
lever to make them subservient. In 1618, 
after he had himself returned to England, 
James obtained from an assembly held at 
Perth an acceptance of his five articles, partly 
by pressure put upon the ministers by the 
nobility, but also by threatening them with 
lowering the increased stipends of those who 
voted against his wishes. 



James I 



175 



of England 



In 1618 Raleigh returned from Guiana. 
Not only had he completely failed in the ob- 
ject of his search, but his men had burnt a 
Spanish village. Gondomar complained, and 
James ordered an inquiry into Raleigh's con- 
duct. There were legal difficulties in the 
way of bringing Raleigh to a formal trial, but 
it was possible to accuse him in public and 
to allow him to answer in his defence. James, 
however, preferred to send him to the block 
on the old sentence of 1603, because he 
feared lest Raleigh should denounce him as 
an accomplice of Spain [see RALEIGH, SIB 
WALTER]. 

James's project for a Spanish alliance was 
by this time at a standstill. What the 
Spaniards wanted was to secure the con- 
version of England, and when, in May 1618, 
Digby returned to England, he brought in- 
formation that Philip was ready to give a 
marriage portion of 600,000^., on condition 
that James would promise, among other 
things, to obtain an act of parliament repeal- 
ing all laws against the catholics. James 
neither could nor would do this, though he 
was prepared to promise to do everything in 
his own power to alleviate their lot. On 
15 July Gondomar left for Spain. 

The higher side of this unhappy marriage 
treaty lay in James's desire to maintain peace 
with all nations on terms equitable to all 
alike. In the spring of 1618 he issued a 
little book named ' The Peacemaker,' much 
of which, as far as may be judged by its 
style, was written by Andre wes, some per- 
haps by Bacon, some by James himself. It 
was the manifesto of a king who preferred 
peace to war. 

In the course of 1618, besides questioning 
Raleigh and discussing the Spanish proposals 
with Gondomar, James was engaged in re- 
moving] the influence of the Howards from 
his domestic administration. During this and 
the following year one Howard after another 
was, on one pretext or another, deprived of 
office, ^the result being that all power was 
practically accumulated in the person of 
Buckingham. The change was, no doubt, ac- 
companied by a series of administrative and 
financial reforms, conducted mainly by Lionel 
Cranfield [q. v.], afterwards lord treasurer and 
earl of Middlesex. For the first time in James's 
reign his receipts nearly balanced his expendi- 
ture. 

About the same time James became in- 
volved in difficulties connected with the out- 
break of a revolution in Bohemia, which 
proved to be the opening scene of the thirty 
years' war. His attitude towards the con- 
tending parties was that of a man sincerely 
desirous of peace, and hopeful of conciliating 



adverse interests by a cheap profession of 
general principles, without real knowledge of 
the characters of men or of the forces by which 
his contemporaries were swayed. In Sep- 
tember he accepted the office of mediator 
between the Bohemians and their king, the 
Emperor Matthias, at the request of the 
Spanish government a request which was 
made in the hope that England would thereby 
be kept from giving material aid to the Bo- 
hemians. James was thus attracted to the 
side of Spain, and continued to think the 
Spanish marriage desirable. In January 1619 
he threw cold water on the schemes of his 
son-in-law, Frederick, the elector paic*u.~ 
for raising a general conflagration in Ger- 
many, informing the elector's ambassador, 
Christopher Dohna, that though he was ready 
to assist his son-in-law and the other princes 
of the union in defending themselves against 
attack, he would not support aggression. In 
February he despatched Doncaster [see HAY, 
JAMES, EAEL OF CARLISLE] to Germany to 
mediate on his behalf, and in April he re- 
jected a proposal made through De Plessen, 
one of Frederick's agents, that he should 
support a plan for giving Bohemia to Charles 
Emmanuel, duke of Savoy, and for procuring 
for him the imperial crown in succession to 
Matthias, who had recently died. 

On 2 March 1618-19 the queen died [see 
ANNE OP DENMARK]. The difference of reli- 
gion between the pair after Anne became a 
Roman catholic had for some years been a 
bar to any close intercourse of affection, and 
when the queen died James was lying ill at 
Newmarket. At one time he was thought 
to be dying, but by the middle of April he 
was well enough to be moved to Theobalds, 
and on 1 June appeared in London, where 
his popularity was still sufficient to gather 
unusual crowds to attend a thanksgiving ser- 
mon at Paul's Cross. The Banqueting House 
at Whitehall, completed in this year by 
Inigo Jones, was the unfinished beginning 
of a great palace which James hoped to com- 
plete. 

For the moment all looked hopeful. Spain 
and France were, in outward show, bidding 
for his help, and he could flatter himself that 
his influence was at least strong enough to 
restrain the ambition of his son-in-law. But 
in July 1619 James found that not only was 
Frederick drifting towards interference in 
Bohemia, but that his own ambassador, Don- 
caster, approved of Frederick's vague hopes 
and plans. James refused to countenance 
these proceedings, but it was not long before 
he learnt that his optimistic hopes of the 
restoration of peace in Bohemia were unlikely 
to be realised. Ferdinand of Styria, a bigoted 



James I 



176 



of England 



Roman catholic, who had succeeded Matthias 
in his hereditary dominions, and who counted 
Bohemia among them, rejected Doncaster's 
mediation, and on 18 Aug. was elected em- 
peror at Frankfort. Two days before (on 
16 Aug.) Frederick was chosen king of Bo- 
hemia by the Bohemian Diet. In Septem- 
ber Dohna arrived in England as Frederick's 
ambassador, to implore James's assistance in 
making good this new claim. James laid 
the matter before the privy council, but on 
10 Sept., before a decision was arrived at, 
news came that Frederick had accepted the 
crown ; and on the 12th James told his 
council that, as the winter was coming on, 
there was no need for coming to an im- 
mediate conclusion. James wanted an ex- 
cuse for keeping the peace, and he found it 
in the rash act of his son-in-law. lie told 
Dohna when he took his leave that he ex- 
pected to be furnished with evidence of the 
legality of Frederick's election. His own 
opinion of his son-in-law's action was re- 
vealed in the order given by him to Don- 
caster to seek out Ferdinand to congratulate 
"him on his election as emperor. Yet he 
was large-minded enough to perceive that 
there were two sides to the question, but he 
was not strong-minded enough to decide on 
which side the balance of argument or ad- 
vantage lay. 

The change which had passed over James's 
mind during 1619 appears clearly in two 
little books which he wrote and printed at 
the interval of a year. Early in 1619 he 
gave to the world 'Meditations on the Lord's 
Prayer.' The spirit with which it is pervaded 
is buoyant, and it contains, along with pious 
observations, attacks on the puritans and 
stories from the hunting-field. Another small 
book, ' Meditations on w. 27-29 of the 27th 
chapter of St. Matthew,' is written in a far 
more melancholy strain. There are no jokes 
in it, no assaults on the puritans; but the 
crown of thorns is spoken of as the pattern 
of the crowns of kings, whose wisdom should 
be applied to tempering discords into a sweet 
harmony. 

James had not yet lost his old self-reliance. 
On 21 Feb. 1620 Buwinckhausen arrived in 
London, as an emissary from the princes of 
the union, to ask James to defend their terri- 
tory if Spain should attack the Palatinate, 
the elector palatine being the chief member 
of the union. James hesitated, and took 
refuge in an investigation of Frederick's 
title to Bohemia. In the meanwhile Eng- 
lishmen were growing excited, and wanted 
to send help of some kind to the protestant 
husband of an English princess. James 
refused permission to Dohna to raise for 



Frederick a loan in the city, and also refused 
to allow Sir Andrew Gray to levy soldiers 
for Bohemia. He told Buwinckhausen that 
the danger of the union resulted from Fre- 
derick's aggression in Bohemia, and that he 
could therefore do nothing for the princes. 

Early in March James changed his mind, 
giving Gray leave to raise the men he 
needed, and sending an ambassador to the 
king of Denmark to borrow money for the 
defence of the Palatinate. On 5 March, how- 
ever, Gondomar landed in England on a 
second embassy, and soon made himself 
master of James's irresolution by a mixture 
of firmness and compliment. The marriage 
treaty was again under discussion, and on 
14 March James refused help to Buwinck- 
hausen, on the ground that he hoped to bring 
about a general peace, which would make 
warlike preparations needless. On the other 
hand, he allowed a voluntary contribution to 
be raised for the princes, and volunteers to be 
enrolled for the defence of the Palatinate. 
On 23 March he finally dismissed Buwinck- 
hausen with an answer which bound him to 
nothing. 

As usual there was something to be said 
both for a policy of war and for a policy of 
peace. There was nothing to be said for a 
king who, after putting forward exorbitant 
claims to be far wiser than his subjects, 
shifted his ground from day to day, and, 
claiming to be the indispensable leader of 
the nation, showed no signs of capacity to 
lead it. Gondomar was fixing the toils 
around him, and, without committing him- 
self to any direct engagement, contrived to 
persuade him that the preparations made in 
the Spanish Netherlands for a military ex- 
pedition under Spinola were not directed 
against the Palatinate. James was busy with 
many things, and in his anger at the mal- 
treatment of English sailors by the Dutch 
in the East, he allowed himself in July to 
be talked over by Gondomar into a plan for 
a joint attack on the Dutch by the combined 
forces of Spain and England, the English re- 
ceiving the promise of Holland and Zealand 
as their share of the spoil. He then sent 
forth a whole band of ambassadors to mediate 
peace on the continent, while he allowed 
Sir Horace Vere to embark with a regiment 
of volunteers for the defence of the Palatinate, 
though he expressed himself with extreme 
bitterness against his son-in-law. 

In September James learnt that Spinola 
had actually invaded the Palatinate. He 
was very angry, and publicly announced his 
intention of helping the princes ; but he soon 
drew back, declaring that his help would be 
conditional en Frederick's withdrawal from 



James I 



177 



of England 



Bohemia. Yet he resolved to summon parlia- 
ment to support him if he found it necessary 
to engage in war. In the meanwhile he called 
on his subjects to furnish him with a benevo- 
lence a second time. On 6 Nov. he issued a 
proclamation summoning parliament to meet 
on 21 Jan. Before that date the question of 
the Bohemian crown had been settled. On 
29 Nov. it was known in London that Fre- 
derick had been defeated on the White Hill, 
near Prague, and was a fugitive from his 
new kingdom. 

James's chief moral difficulty was now at 
an end. He sent an embassy to the princes 
of the union, assuring them that he would 
do everything possible on their behalf, and in 
January 1621 appointed a council of war to 
draw up a scheme for the defence of the 
Palatinate. The session of the new parlia- 
ment was opened by James on 30 Jan. with 
a long, rambling speech, in which he pro- 
claimed his intention to treat for peace, but 
with sword in hand. For this reason money 
would be wanted to strengthen his position. 
The speech sounded so uncertain a note that 
the House of Commons was not very enthu- 
siastic over it ; but they voted two subsidies, 
and then waited to see what James would 
do. James, in fact, was falling back on his 
old policy of mediation, and soon found the 
difficulty of inducing the various powers em- 
broiled to do precisely what he thought they 
ought to do. Frederick continued to lay 
claim to the crown of Bohemia, and refused 
to go to the Palatinate to defend his heredi- 
tary dominions ; while Charles IV of Den- 
mark thought scornfully of James's proposal 
to negotiate first, and to prepare for war 
only after the negotiation had reached its 
inevitable stage of failure. 

The commons, having no longer to think 
of preparations for war, fell on the abuses of 
the court and government. James's indolence 
and favouritism had made his court a hot- 
bed of corruption, and the attendant evils 
were popularly believed to be even worse 
than they were in reality. The commons 
began by questioning various patents con- 
ferring monopolies and regulating trade, and 
finding that these had been referred, before 
they were granted, to certain committees of 
the privy council, they demanded inquiry 
into the conduct of ' the referees ' that is to 
say, of the members of these committees. 
On 10 March James addressed to them a 
speech resisting inquiry, finding fault with 
the commons as disrespectful to himself. The 
commons, however, persisted in their demand, 
and Buckingham at last grew frightened, 
and by his persuasion James sent a message 
to the commons on the 13th declaring his 

VOL. XXIX. 



readiness to redress the grievances of which 
they complained. Soon afterwards Bacon 
was charged with corruption [see BACON", 
FRANCIS]. On 19 March James asked that 
the case of his chancellor might be referred 
to a commission appointed in a special way, 
but when this plan was resisted he abandoned 
it. On 26 March he made a conciliatory 
speech to the house, and protested his readi- 
ness to deal strictly with actual abuses. He 
stood aloof while the monopolists were 
punished, and Bacon impeached and con- 
demned. 

In another matter in which James came 
into collision with the House of Commons 
he gained his end. The commons took steps 
to punish Edward Floyd [q. v.] for using 
scornful expressions against Frederick and 
Elizabeth. On 2 May the king denied their 
authority to punish any one, not being one 
of their own members, who had neither 
offended their house nor any one of its mem- 
bers. On this the commons gave way, and 
left the matter to the House of Lords. On 
4 June the houses, by James's direction, ad- 
journed themselves to the winter, to give 
him time to exercise his diplomatic skill. 

Digby, who was sent to Vienna [see DIGBY, 
JOHN, first EAEL OF BRISTOL], failed to sepa- 
rate the combatants, and before he returned 
home Frederick's general, Mansfeld, having 
abandoned theUpper, fell back on the Lower 
Palatinate. Digby, as soon as he reached 
England, advised James to ask the commons 
for supplies enough to pay Mansfeld during 
the winter, and, unless peace could be ob- 
tained, to prepare for war on a large scale in 
the summer of 1622. On 20 Nov. 1621 the 
houses reassembled, and it soon appeared 
that there was a difference between the poli- 
cies of James and the commons. James 
wanted to proceed with the Spanish match, 
and to trust to the honesty of Philip IV, 
who in 1621 had succeeded his father, 
Philip III, as king of Spain, to help him to 
make Frederick again the undisputed master 
of both Palatinates. The commons, believ- 
ing that Spain was the real originator of the 
mischief, wanted an immediate breach with 
that country. On 3 Dec. they adopted a 
petition on religion asking that James should 
take the lead of the protestant states of the 
continent, should suppress recusants at home, 
and marry the prince to one of his own religion. 

Already Gondomar had called on the king 
to punish the authors of the petition, and 
James, willing enough to comply with the 
request, sent a message to the house telling 
it that it had entrenched on his prerogative, 
and threatening the members with punish- 
ment if they behaved insolently. On 11 Dec. 



James I 



178 



of England 



James received at Newmarket a deputation 
from the house which had been sent to ex- 
plain the first petition. ' Bring stools for the 
ambassadors,' he cried out as the members 
entered his presence, indicating his belief 
that the house by which they were sent was 
claiming sovereign power in asking for the 
direction of foreign policy. The discussion 
grew warmer as it proceeded, and at last 
turned on the question whether or no the 
commons had a right to debate all matters 
of public policy, as the house affirmed, 
though it disclaimed any right to force an 
answer from the king ; or whether, as the 
king affirmed, it had only a right to debate 
such matters as he thought fit to lay before 
them. On 18 Dec. the commons entered 
on their ' Journals ' a protestation setting 
forth their view of the case. On the 19th 
the house was adjourned. On the 30th 
James tore the obnoxious protestation out of 
their ' Journal Book.' Gondomar was tri- 
umphant, and wrote home that James's quar- 
rel with the parliament was ' the best thing 
that had happened in the interests of Spain 
and the catholic religion since Luther began 
to preach heresy.' Some of the leading 
members of the House of Commons were 
imprisoned in the Tower, and others sent 
on a disagreeable mission to Ireland. On 
6 Jan. 1622 James dissolved his third parlia- 
ment. 

As no subsidy had been voted, James in- 
creased the impositions and called for another 
benevolence. He then despatched more am- 
bassadors abroad, with as slight results as 
in former years. He could not pay Mansfeld, 
and Mansfeld's army could not exist without 
plundering, thus raising enemies on every 
side. Before the end of the summer of 1622 
Mansfeld, who was now accompanied by Fre- 
derick, was driven out of the Palatinate, and 
all Frederick's allies defeated. Only three 
fortified posts were held in Frederick's name 
in the Palatinate Heidelberg, Mannheim, 
and Frankenthal. James still expected the 
recovery of all that had been lost through 
the good offices of Spain. 

Gondomar had left England in May 1622, 
after inviting Prince Charles to come to 
Madrid and woo the infanta in person, in 
the hope that he would change his reli- 
gion in Spain. The Spanish government 
was almost in as great difficulty as James. 
Philip IV did not want war with England, 
and at the same time he could not join pro- \ 
testant states in a war against the catholic j 
emperor and the Catholic League. Conse- I 
quently, he temporised, but the necessity of 
decision soon became pressing, both in Eng- 
land and Spain. Heidelberg, defended by an 



English garrison in Frederick's service, was 
taken by Tilly on 6 Sept., and Mannheim was 
surrendered by Sir Horace Vere on 28 Oct. 
On 29 Sept., when James heard of the fall of 
Heidelberg, he summoned Philip to obtain 
its restoration within seventy days, and on 
the 30th he wrote to Pope Gregory XV, 
urging him to put his hand to the pious work 
of restoring peace. Fresh news from Spain, 
however, brought assurances that the Spanish 
government intended to make all reasonable 
concessions in various points of dispute aris- 
ing out of the marriage treaty, which was 
now being negotiated at Madrid by Digby, 
who had recently been created earl of Bristol. 
James, in his love of peace, was anxious to 
accept the hand held out to him ; but the 
privy council, led by Buckingham and Charles, 
declared against it, and James found himself 
face to face with an opposition which he 
could not get rid of as he had got rid of suc- 
cessive parliaments. 

Under these circumstances James pro- 
crastinated. He sent orders to Bristol to 
remain at his post, even if he received an 
unfavourable answer about the Palatinate, 
and on 7 Oct. he sent Endymion Porter to 
Madrid, with instructions to come to an un- 
derstanding, if possible, with the Spanish 
minister, Olivares. Before an answer was 
received the news of the fall of Mannheim 
arrived to aggravate James's difficulties ; but 
it was not till 2 Jan. 1623, when Porter re- 
turned to England, that James was in a 
position to come to a resolution on the two 
questions of the marriage treaty and the 
Palatinate. As to the former, he accepted 
certain alterations proposed by Spain, and 
he and his son signed the articles of mar- 
riage, together with a letter in which they 
promised to relieve the English Roman ca- 
tholics from the operation of the penal laws 
as long as they abstained from giving scandal, 
a letter which was to be kept in Bristol's 
hands till the dispensation for the marriage 
arrived from Rome. In the Palatinate, only 
Frankenthal remained untaken, and James 
now proposed that it should be sequestered in 
the hands of the Infanta Isabella, the gover- 
ness of the Spanish Netherlands, to be re- 
tained by her till terms of peace could be 
agreed on. 

While James was catching at straws he 
was suddenly informed that Buckingham and 
Charles had resolved to start for Madrid, in 
order to put the professions of the Spaniards 
to a test. James's consent was most unwil- 
lingly given. When his son and his favourite 
had once left England control over the rela- 
tions between Spain and England practically 
passed out of James's hands; but he con- 



James I 



179 



of England 



tinued to write to the pair letters of advice 
and warning 1 , which they took into account 
just so far as it suited them to do so (HARD- 
WICKE, State Papers, vol. i.) He was ready, 
he wrote on one occasion, to acknowledge 
the pope as chief bishop if he ' would quit 
his godhead and usurping over kings,' but he 
himself was ' not a monsieur who can shift his 
religion as easily as he can shift his shirt when 
he cometh from tennis.' 

The full consequences of Charles's journey 
revealed themselves slowly to James. In 
March he ordered bonfires to be lighted in 
London upon his son's arrival in Madrid, 
and in April directed the equipment of the 
fleet which was to fetch the infanta to Eng- 
land. In May he made Buckingham a duke. 
Yet he did not altogether like the terms 
which the Spaniards were now attempting 
to exact from him. 'We are building a 
temple to the devil,' he said, in speaking of 
the chapel which was being raised for the in- 
fanta's Roman catholic worship. On 14 June 
Cottington arrived with n,ews that the Spa- 
nish government wanted Charles to remain 
another year in Spain. On this he wrote a 
piteous letter to his ' sweet boys ' (his son 
and Buckingham), urging them to come 
away, ' except ye never look to see your old 
dad again.' The thought of recovering his 
boys was now uppermost in his mind. lie 
engaged to sign the marriage articles as they 
had been altered in Spain, and wrote to 
Charles that he might be married and come 
home. If the Spaniards kept the infanta 
from soon following him, it would be easy to 
divorce him here. 

On 20 July James signed the articles. The 
public articles had included permission to the 
infanta to have a church open to all Eng- 
lishmen, while the secret articles relieved 
the English catholics of all penalties for 
worshipping in private houses, and in all 
.other respects relieved them from the pres- 
sure of the penal laws. James, however, 
explained to the Spanish ambassadors that 
he should hold himself free to put the laws 
in execution if state necessity occurred. 
James had thus in a roundabout way slipped 
back into his own policy. There was to be 
toleration for the catholics as long as they 
were not dangerous. It was precisely what 
he had offered in 1603 with no favourable 
results. 

This explanation was not likely to smooth 
Charles's way in Madrid. It soon appeared 
that if Charles was married he would have 
to return without the infanta, and without 
any definite promise about the Palatinate. 
Hurrying back in anger, Charles and Buck- 
ingham returned to England, and on 6 Oct. 



found James at Royston, when they urged 
him to declare immediate war against Spain. 
Gradually, and sorely against his inclina- 
tion, James gave way. His own policy of 
regaining the Palatinate with the help of 
Spain had broken down too completely to be 
capable of resuscitation. The king of Spain 
was still ready to give vague promises, but 
would engage himself to nothing definite. 
At last, on 28 Dec., James summoned parlia- 
ment. On 19 Feb. 1624 he opened the ses- 
sion with a speech in which he made the 
best of his failure, and left it to Buckingham 
to unfold the actual state of affairs. 

On 3 March the houses were ready to pre- 
sent a petition for the breaking off of the ne- 
gotiations with Spain ; but it was not till the 
23rd that James declared, under much pres- 
sure, that the treaties were dissolved. From 
this time James ceased to be in any real sense 
the ruler of England. Power passed into the 
hands of his son and his favourite. He him- 
self acted, when he acted at all, as a restraining 
influence, though that influence was usually 
exerted in vain. Towards the end of March 
and in the beginning of April he had inter- 
views with two Spanish agents, Lafuente and 
Carondelet, who told him that he was a mere 
tool in the hands of Buckingham, and was 
thereby inclined to hold back the despatch 
ordering his ambassador in Spain to break off 
negotiations. Charles, however, insisted on 
its being sent out on 6 April. How power- 
less James had now become was shown when 
his lord treasurer, Middlesex [see CKAJTFIELD, 
LIONEL, EARL OF MIDDLESEX], supported the 
Spaniards against Buckingham. Charles and 
Buckingham set the commons on to impeach 
Middlesex, and James, much against his will, 
had to submit to the disgrace of a minister to 
whom he was attached. In the same way, he 
was obliged to allow the prosecution of Bris- 
tol, on charges brought against him in con- 
nection with his embassy in Spain. 

With respect to the new policy, James, as 
far as he was allowed to have a policy at all, 
occupied a position of his own. The com- 
mons were for a maritime war exclusively 
directed against Spain. Buckingham was 
for a war against Spain and all the catholic 
powers of the continent. James was for a 
war limited to an effort to recover the Pala- 
tinate by land. Whatever shape the war 
was to take, it would be advisable to be on 
good terms with France, and overtures were 
therefore made to the French court for a 
marriage between Charles and the sister of 
Louis XIII, Henrietta Maria. Both James 
and Charles, however, promised the House 
of Commons that in this case there should be 
no toleration for any catholics in England, 



James I 



180 



of England 



excepting for the bride and her household. 
On 29 May parliament was prorogued, on the 
understanding that in the course of the sum- 
mer James was to ascertain what allies he 
could find, and to hold a session in the au- 
tumn to lay his plans before parliament and 
ask for the necessary supplies. That this un- 
dertaking was not carried out was owing to 
James's incapacity to resist the combination 
between Charles and Buckingham. When 
it appeared that Richelieu insisted on a secret 
article in the French marriage treaty, in 
which religious liberty should be assured to 
the English catholics, James would have 
refused his assent, but gave way before the 
insistence of his favourite and his son. On 
these terms the marriage treaty was actually 
signed on 10 Nov. 1624, and it was therefore 
impossible to hold a session of parliament, 
because the houses would at once have de- 
nounced the leniency shown to the catholics. 
Without a parliamentary grant it was in 
vain to hope for the regaining of the Palati- 
nate. Yet, in combination with France, 
James prepared to send an expedition with 
that object under Mansfeld. Soon, however, 
disputes with France arose. The French king 
wanted to divert the expedition to the relief 
of the Dutch fortress of Breda, then besieged 
by the Spanish general Spinola. James re- 
fused to come to an open breach with Spain, 
and Mansfeld's English troops sailed on 
31 Jan. 1625, with orders to make for the 
Palatinate, and to leave Breda alone. The 
whole expedition, however, soon collapsed 
for want of money and supplies. James's 
efforts to stir up allies for the recovery of the 
Palatinate were scarcely more successful. 
Each of the continental powers who were 
likely to join him had objects in view more 
important than the recovery of the Palatinate ; 
while James wanted them to make the re- 
placement of his daughter and her husband 
at Heidelberg the main object of their policy. 
On 5 March 1625 James was attacked 
by a tertian ague. Buckingham's mother 
attempted to doctor him, and thus brought 
upon her son, and even upon Charles, the 
ridiculous accusation of combining to poison 
him. James's condition varied from day to day, 
but on 27 March he died at Theobalds. He 
was buried in Westminster Abbey on 5 May. 
James had too great confidence in his own 
powers, and too little sympathetic insight 
into the views of others, to make a successful 
ruler, and his inability to control those whom 
he trusted with blind confidence made his 
court a centre of corruption. He was, how- 
ever, far-sighted in his ideas, setting himself 
against extreme parties, and eager to recon- 
cile rather than divide. In Scotland he, on 



the whole, succeeded, because the work of 
reconciliation was in accordance with the 
tendencies of the age. In England he failed, 
because his Scottish birth and experience- 
made him stand too much aloof from English 
parties, and left him incapable of understand- 
ing the national feeling with regard to Spain ; 
while his feeble efforts to reconcile the con- 
tinental powers, at a time when the spirit of 
division was in the ascendant, exposed him to 
the contemptuous scorn of his own subjects. 

During his reign in Scotland, and for some 
| time after his arrival in England, James was- 
doctrinally Calvinistic, and he took up a 
' position of strong antagonism against Ar- 
i minius. In later life his views were affected 
'. by the loyalty and the moderate spirit of the 
! English church. In 1622 he issued an order 
to the vice-chancellor of the university of 
Oxford, which had a great influence on the 
rising generation of students, that those who 
i designed to make divinity their profession 
should chiefly apply themselves to the study 
of the holy scriptures of the councils and 
fathers and the ancient schoolmen ; but as for 
the moderns, whether Jesuits orpuritans, they 
should wholly decline reading their works. 
Yet it was the pliableWilliams, not the unre- 
lenting Laud, who was his favourite prelate. 

For a list of James's children, see AKXTB OF 
DEXMARK, except that the name of the young- 
est, Sophia, is there omitted. She only lived 
for one day, and was buried on 23 June 1607 
in Westminster Abbey. 

James was the author of: 1. ' Essays of 
a Prentice in the Divine Art of Poetry,' 1584. 
2. ' A Fruitful Meditation, containing a Plaim 
. . . Exposition of the 7, 8, 9, and 10 verses of the 
xx. chap. Revelation,' 1588. 3. ' A Medita- 
tion upon the xxv-xxix. verses of the First 
Book of the Chronicles,' 1589. 4. ' Poetical 
Exercises,' 1591. 5. ' Demonology,' 1597. 
6. Basilikon Doron,' 1599. 7. ' The true Law 
of Free Monarchies,' 1603. 8. ' A Counter- 
blast to Tobacco/ 1604. 9. ' Triplici Nodo 
Triplex Cuneus ; or, an Apology for the Oath 
of Allegiance,' 1607. 10. ' Declaration du 
Roy Jacques I ... pour le droit des Hois/ 
1615. His collected works were published 
by Bishop Montague in 1616, with the addi- 
tion of earlier speeches and state papers. 
After that date appeared 'A Meditation upon 
the Lord's Prayer,' 1619, and 'A Meditation 
upon the 27, 28, 29 verses of the xxvii. 
chapter of St. Matthew,' 1620. 

Numerous portraits of James I are extant. 
Four are in the National Portrait Gallery, 
one at the age of eight by Zucchero, and 
another at the age of fifty-five by Paul van 
Somer. Van Somer and Marc Gheeraerts 
the younger [q. v.] were liberally patronised 



James II 



181 



by James, and portraits of the king by the 
former are also at Windsor, Ilolyrood, and 
Hampton Court. From a miniature by Hil- 
liard (1617) Vandyck painted a portrait, 
which was engraved by F. White. A paint- 
ing by George Jameson belongs to the Mar- 
quis of Lothian. Prints were engraved by 
Vertue after Van Somer, and by R. White 
after Cornelius Janssen. 

[The materials for the reign are very ex- 
tensive. The following are specially worthy of 
attention : The History and Life of King James, 
being an Account of the Affairs of Scotland from 
the year 1566 to the year 1596, with a short 
Continuation to the year 1617, Bannatyne Club, 
1825; Memoirs of his own Life, by Sir James 
Melville of Halhill, 1519-93, Bannatyne Club, 
1827 ; Papers relative to the Marriage of King 
James VI of Scotland with the Princess Anna of 
Denmark, Bannatyne Club, 1828 ; Diary of Mr. 
James Melville, 1-556-1601, Bannatyne Club, 
1829; Letters and Papers relating to Patrick, 
Master of Gray ; Memorials of Transactions in 
Scotland, 1569-73, byKichard Bannatyne, Ban- 
natyne Club, 1836 ; Original Letters relating 
to the Ecclesiastical Affairs of Scotland, 1603- 
1625, Bannatyne Club, 1851 ; State Papers of 
Thomas, Earl of Melros, Abbotsford Club, 1837 ; 
Calderwood's History of the Kirk of Scot- 
land, Wodrow Soc. 1842-9 ; Eow's History 
of the Kirk of Scotland, Wodrow Soc. 1842; 
Spotiswood's History of the Church of Scot- 
land, vols. ii. iii., Spottiswoode Soc. 1851 ; Cor- 
respondence of Robert Bowes, Surtees Soc.,1842 ; 
Papiers d'Etat . . . relatifs al'Histoiredel'Ecosse, 
tome ii. iii. Bannatyne Club; Correspondence of 
King James VI of Scotland with Sir R. Cecil 
And others, Camden Soc. 1861 ; History and 
Life of King James the Sext, Bannatyne Club, 
1825; Secret History of the Court of James 
the First, Edinburgh, 1811 ; Court and Times 
of James I, London, 1848 (full of misprints); 
Goodman's Court of King James I, London, 
1839. Above all the State Papers, the Scottish 
.series for James's reign in Scotland, the Domes- 
tic and Foreign series for his reign in England, 
should be diligently consulted. Particulars of 
other sources of information will be found in 
the references to M'Crie's Life of A. Melville, 
Burton's History of Scotland, vols. v. and vi., and 
Gardiner's History of England, 1603-42, vols. 
i-v. Spedding's Letters and Life of Bacon, 
vols. iii-vii., throw light on many points in 
James's career in England. The popular esti- 
mate of James's character is chiefly derived from 
Sir Walter Scott's Fortunes of Nigel.] S. R. G. 

JAMES II (1633-1701), king of Eng- 
land, Scotland, and Ireland, second son of j 
Charles I and Queen Henrietta Maria, was 
born at St. James's Palace 14 (not 15) Oct. 
1633. Soon after his christening he was 
created duke of York and Albany. At Easter 
1642 he was, in defiance of the prohibition 



of parliament, taken by the Marquis of Hert- 
ford to York, whence he was, 22 April, sent 
forward to Hull, with the object of facilitating 
the king's entrance on the following day. He 
was allowed to return unmolested with his 
father, when admission was refused (CLA.- 
RENDON, Rebellion, ii. 385). After narrowly 
escaping capture at Edgehill, he accompanied 
the king to Oxford, where he remained almost 
continuously till the surrender of the city, 
24 June 1 646. In accordance with the articles 
of capitulation, he was handed over to the 
parliamentary commissioners. Sir George 
Ratcliffe remained in attendance upon him 
till he was removed to London, when all his 
servants, down to a favourite dwarf, were 
dismissed. He was now, with the Duke of 
Gloucester and the Princess Elizabeth, placed 
under the guardianship of the Earl of North- 
umberland (Life, i. 29-30). The children 
were allowed to visit their father in June 
1647 at Caversham, and in August at Hamp- 
ton Court and Sion House (CLARENDON, Re- 
bellion, v. 453-4, 471 ; cf. Life, p. 51). At- 
tempts, made at the king's instigation, to 
effect the Duke of York's escape in the winters 
of 1646-7 and 1647-8 failed. The duke was 
examined by a committee of both houses, and 
permitted to remain at St. James's Palace, 
where he discreetly refused to receive even 
a secret letter from the queen. His escape 
was effected under cover of a game at hide 
and seek, 20 April 1648. He was taken to 
the river and, disguised in women's clothes, 
to Middelburg and Dort. He settled at the 
Hague with his sister the Princess of Orange, 
which led to a coolness between him and his 
brother Charles, and many quarrels followed 
among his attendants (Life, i. 33-7, 43-4 ; 
CLARENDON, Rebellion,\i. 33-6, 139-40; arts, 
supra, BAMPFIELD, JOSEPH, and BERKELEY, 
JOHN, first LORD OF STRATTON). 

Early in January 1649 James, by his 
mother's orders, quitted the Hague for Paris, 
which he reached 13 Feb., and spent some 
months there and at St. Germains. On 
19 Sept. he accompanied Prince Charles to 
Jersey, and showed some seamanship on the 
occasion (Life, i. 47). At Jersey he spent 
nearly a twelvemonth, in the course of which 
he lost another favourite dwarf, ' M. Bequers ' 
(CHEVALIER, Journal ap. Hist. MSB. Comm. 
2nd Rep. App. (1871), p. 164). On his re- 
turn he soon tired of his dependence upon 
the queen-dowager (EVELYN, Correspondence, 
iv. 203). It is quite unproved that his mother 
at this time sought to convert him (SiR 
STEPHEN Fox, p. 17). He disliked Sir Ed- 
ward Herbert and Sir George RatclifFe, while 
Lord Byron's moderating influence was over- 
powered by Berkeley (CLARENDON, Life, i. 



James II 



182 



of England 



284-6). Thus James allowed himself to be 
persuaded to leave Paris in October 1650 for 
Holland, against his mother's desire. The j 
Princess of Orange declining to receive him, ! 
he spent some time at Brussels and in the i 
queen of Bohemia's house at Rhenen, in 
great want of money, while his followers 
talked of a futile project for a match with a 
natural daughter of the Duke of Lorraine. 
In January 1651 he was received at the 
Hague, and remained there and at Breda till 
peremptorily summoned back to Paris by 
Charles. At Paris the queen received him 
about the end of June, ' without reproaches ' 
(CLARENDON, Rebellion, vi. 471-84; cf. Life, 
pp. 48-51). 

After Worcester the royal cause seemed 
hopeless, and the ' sweet Duke of York ' 
(EVELYN, Correspondence, iv. 344) was eager 
to provide for himself. Berkeley vainly sug- 
gested a match with the only daughter and 
heiress of the Duke of Longueville (Life, i. 
54; cf. CLARENDON, Rebellion, pp. 588-92). 
James now resolved to take service in the 
French army as a volunteer. Accompanied 
only by Berkeley, Colonel Worden, and a few 
servants, the duke joined Turenne's army at 
Chartres, 24 April 1652. James has himself 
lucidly described the campaign against the 
Fronde which ensued (Life, i. 64157). He 
was for a time in personal attendance upon 
Turenne ; and on the capture of Bar-le-Duc 
(December), Mazarin allowed him to incor- 
porate in the ' regiment of York ' under his 
command an Irish regiment taken from the 
Duke of Lorraine. At the close of the cam- 
paign James returned to Paris (February 
1653). In June 1653 he eagerly entered on 
his second campaign under Turenne, against 
Spain and Lorraine as the allies of Conde. At 
the siege of Mousson he was nearly killed ; 
but he vsoon returned with the court from 
Chalons-sur-Marne to Paris (December), ' full 
of reputation and honour ' (Hyde to Browne 
in EVELYN, Correspondence, iv. 298 ; cf. Life, 
i. 159-91). In 1654 and 1655 James joined 
Turenne's army as lieutenant-general, and 
was left in command of the army at the 
time of the conclusion of the treaty with 
Cromwell, which provided for the removal 
of the English royal family from France. 
Mazarin was anxious to obviate the loss of 
the Irish troops in the French service, and 
accordingly arrived at an understanding 
with the Protector which enabled James 
to become captain-general under the Duke 
of Modena over the forces of the French 
and their allies in Piedmont (ib. pp. 245- 
266 : cf. CLARENDON, Rebellion, vii. 229-30). 
Charles, however, refused his brother's re- 
quest to remain in the French service. Their 



mutual jealousy had been fomented by rival 
factions among the duke's household, headed 
by Berkeley and Sir Henry Bennett. James 
obeyed his brother's summons, but against 
his express desire brought Berkeley with him 
to Bruges. A serious misunderstanding was 
removed with the aid of the Princess of Orange 
in January 1657 ; and, in defiance of the 
queen-mother's faction, James took service 
under the Spanish crown (Life, i. 275-97). 

When in the same year he joined the 
Spanish forces in Flanders, he claims to have 
stood at the head of a contingent of two- 
thousand of his brother's subjects ' drawn 
out of France.' A project to surprise Calais 
failed, and the siege of Ardres, in which 
James took part with his younger brother, 
was raised. James's exposure of himself at 
the siege met with Don John's disapproval. 
James's dissatisfaction with the stolid in- 
activity of the Spaniards increased during 
the successful siege of Mardykeby the French 
and English. Before the Spanish army went 
into winter quarters, January 1658, he had 
an interview with the English commander, 
Reynolds, Avhich aroused grave suspicions in 
Cromwell (ib. i. 297-329). After the faU of 
Dunkirk, in June, James was put in command 
of Is ieuport. Here he received the news of 
Oliver's death, and speedily quitted the army 
for Brussels and Breda (ib. i. 334-68 ; CLAREN- 
DON, Rebellion, vii. 284; PEPYS, ii. 481-2). 

On the news of the rising of Sir George 
Booth in Cheshire (August 1659), James 
hastened to Boulogne, where he remained, in 
a very hazardous incognito, in correspondence 
with his elder brother at Calais. At Amiens 
he entered into a negotiation with Turenne, 
who was eager to command an expedition to 
England for the restoration of Charles ; but 
on the news of Booth's defeat James returned 
to Brussels (Life, i. 378-9), and probably 
soon afterwards refused an offer made to 
him by the Spanish government of the post 
of high admiral, with the command against 
Portugal (ib. i. 381). Clarendon adds that the 
acceptance of this offer would have involved 
James's becoming a catholic (Rebellion, vii. 
363-4). At Breda, 24 Nov. 1659, he con- 
tracted, in sufficient time to legitimatise the 
eldest child afterwards born to them (PEPYS, 
i. 362), a secret promise of marriage with 
Anne, daughter of Sir Edward Hyde [see 
HYDE, ANNE]. 

A few days before he and Charles sailed 
for England, James received a gift of seventy- 
five thousand guilders from the States of 
Holland (SiR STEPHEN Fox, pp. 83-4, cf. ib. 
pp. 53, 62), as well as another of 10,000?. 
brought by the committee of the lords and 
commons. He was named lord high admiral 



James II 



183 



of England 



of England 16 May ; and, when the English 
fleet arrived off Schevening, he was enthu- 
siastically received on board (23 May; PEPYS, 
i. 127 ; cf. CLARENDON, Rebellion, vii. 498). 
He hoisted his flag on the London, landed 
with the king at Dover on 25 May, and 
accompanied him to London. 

It was proposed in parliament to raise 
estates for James and the Duke of Gloucester 
' out of the confiscations of such traitors as 
they daily convict ' {Hist. MSS. Comm. App. 
to 5th Rep. pp. 18, 205). In the end (1663) 
it proved more convenient to settle on him 
the revenues of the post-office, amounting to 
21,0001. a year (THOMAS, Historical Notes, 
1856, ii. 732). Although James had not yet 
caused public scandal in his relations with 
women, like his brother, he gave proof of a 
similartemperament with less discrimination. 
His amour with Lady Anne Carnegie (after- 
wards Lady Southesk), according to Pepys 
(v. 250), dated from the king's first coming-in ; 
and soon after the acknowledgment of his 
marriage with Anne Hyde (concluded 3 Sept. 
1660), he engaged in fresh inconstancies [for 
circumstances of this marriage, see HYDE, 
ANNE]. But the duchess gradually obtained 
a strong ascendency over him. The marriage 
was certainly unpopular, and James attri- 
buted to it much of the opposition soon ex- 
cited against himself. Meanwhile James paid 
unrequited attentions to the beautiful Miss 
Hamilton, to the elder Miss Jennings after- 
wards married to Tyrconnel, who, as Dick 
Talbot, was (according to BTJRNET, i. 416) 
looked upon as the chief manager of the duke's 
intrigues to Lady Robarts, and to Lady 
Chesterfield (PEPYS, ii. 76, 117, 130; cf. Me- 
moirs of Grammont). 

James took a keen interest from the first 
in public affairs. Early in 1661 he was in 
London during the outbreak of Venner's plot, 
and at his recommendation the disbandment 
of the troops was stayed; this proved the 
beginning, under the name of guards, of the 
regular army (HALLAM, Constitutional His- 
tory, 10th edit. ii. 314-15). He was, how- 
ever, chiefly interested in the affairs of the 
navy. On his appointment as lord high ad- 
miral the navy board was reconstituted and 
enlarged. Sir William Coventry [q. v.] be- 
came secretary. Otherwise few changes were 
made among the heads of the official body. 
In January 1662 were issued his general ' In- 
structions,' afterwards (1717) printed from 
an imperfect copy as' The (Economy of H.M.'s 
Navy Office.' They are stated to have re- 
mained in force till the reorganisation of the 
admiralty at the beginning of the present 
century. His general interest in naval mat- 
ters is acknowledged by Pepys, and is shown 



by his 'Original Letters and other Royal 
Authorities,' published under the pretentious 
title of 'Memoirs of the English Affairs, 
chiefly Naval, 1660-73,' probably the handi- 
work of Pepys. He was unable to remedy 
the flagrant evils in the administration of the 
navy, more especially as they were largely 
caused by want of money (PEPYS, i_ 314). 
About 1663 he obtained a grant of 800,000/., 
which was chiefly spent in naval stores (Life, 
i. 399). The inefficiency caused in the service 
by the employment of land-officers was dis- 
tinctly encouraged by James's own example 
(cf. BTJKNET, i. 306-7, CLARENDON, Life, ii. 
326, and WHEATLEY, Samuel Pepys, 1880). 
Particular inquiries were made by the 
duke in the early part of 1664 into the con- 
dition of the fleet (PEPYS, ii. 453, 473), when 
he was advocating a Dutch war, in opposi- 
tion to Clarendon (CLARENDON, Life, ii. 237 
seqq.) Besides his sympathy with the house 
of Orange, he had become governor of the 
Royal African Company (about 1664), and 
was thus particularly alive to the prevailing 
mercantile jealousies (ib. ii. 234-6 ; cf. Life, 
i. 399). As early as 1661 the name of James- 
fort had been given to a fort taken from the 
Dutch on the Guinea Coast by Sir Robert 
Holmes [q. v.], and when in 1664 the Dutch 
settlement of New Amsterdam on Long 
Island was reduced, Charles II in March 
granted his brother a patent of it, and re- 
named it New York. While De Ruyter was 
making reprisals, the duke took advantage of 
the zeal for naval service among the young 
nobility by admitting as many volunteers as 
possible on his flagship (CLARENDON, Life, 
ii. 356). Mutual declarations of war having 
been issued (January and February 1665), 
the English fleet, commanded by the Duke 
of York, set sail for the Texel ; but after 
maintaining a blockade of the Dutch ports for 
about a month, was driven home by stress of 
weather. Hereupon the Dutch put to sea in 
great force under Opdam, and gave battle to 
the duke in Solebay off Lowestoft early in 
the morning of 3 June. After a protracted 
conflict, in which the duke's ship, the Royal 
Charles, closely engaged Opdam's, which 
finally blew up, the Dutch fell into hope- 
less confusion, and only a portion of their 
fleet was brought off by Van Tromp. The 
English losses were small, and the victory if 
pressed home might very probably have ended 
the. war. The duke, who had borne himself 
bravely in the fight, had gone to bed, leaving 
orders that the fleet should keep its course. 
Henry Brouncker, a groom of his bedchamber 
[see under BROUNCKER, WILLIAM], afterwards 
delivered an order purporting to come from 
James, to slacken sail and thus allow the 



James II 



184 



of England 



Dutch to escape. The duke, when the question 
was discussed some months later, disavowed 
the order, and dismissed Brouncker, but em- 
ployed him subsequently in most disgraceful 
services (PEPTS, iii. 474, cf. iv. 117, 389, 486, 
v. 62-4; Life, i. 422-30, ii. 408-20 ; CLAREX- 
DOX, Zj/ie, ii. 384-8 ; CAMPBELL, Naval Hist, 
of Great Britain, 1813, ii. 146-52 ; BIJRXET, 
i. 397-9; and cf. DEXHAM'S ' Directions to a 
Painter,' 1067, in State Poems, p. 26). 

The Duke of York was voted 120,000/. by 
the House of Commons. But Coventry's 
counsel prevailed (PEPTS, iii. 180-1), and he 
had no share in the following battles. In 

1665 he had been sent to York to prevent an 
expected republican rising (Life, i. 422 ; CLA- 
REXDOX, Life, ii. 454-00 ; Memoirs of Gram- 
inont, p. 280). In 1666 he joined the king in 
his endeavours to arrest the great fire of Lon- 
don (Life, i. 424 ; cf. PEPTS, iv. 67, 70). The 
brothers were still on bad terms (ib. iii. 284- 
285, 308). Charles was vexed by the report 
of the duke's passion for Miss Stewart (ib. 
iii. 308), while about the same time James 
began his amour with Arabella Churchill 
[q. v.] (Memoirs of Grammont, p. 274). His 
mistress, Lady Denham [see under DEXHAM, 
SIR JOHX, 1615-1669], died on 6 Jan. 1667 
(PEPTS, iv. 201). The duke's license and the 
duchess's extravagance brought their house- 
hold into such disorder that a commission of 
audit, appointed by James himself, certified 
that his estate showed an annual deficit of 
20,000/. (ib. pp. 389-90, and cf. p. 142). 

James still exercised a real authority over 
his office (ib. pp. 223, 246). In November 

1666 Pepys submitted to him a report ' laying 
open the ill condition of the navy ' (ib. pp. 
160, 242). In March 1667, in prospect of a 
Dutch blockade of the Thames, he obtained 
half a million, and made some attempt to 
strengthen Sheerness and Portsmouth (ib. 
pp. 260-1, 268, 287). He even (Life, i. 425) 
advocated the sending out of a fleet to sea. 
When De Ruyter was in the river, the duke 
ran ' up and down all the day here and there,' 
giving orders, and superintending defensive 
measures (PEPTS, iv. 367-8; EVELTX,H. 219) ; 
but he showed no capacity for averting dis- 
grace, nor even any becoming sense of it 
(PEPTS, iv. 389-90, 394). When the war 
was over, Pett served as the momentary 
scapegoat (ib. v. 319, 333, 335, 380), and 
letters drawn up by Pepys, and signed by the 
duke, admonishing his subordinates, were read 
to the navy board, 29 Aug. and November 
1668 (ib. v. 343-7, 362, 380, 395; cf. WHEAT- 
LET, pp. 139-42). The prevalent indigna- 
tion, however, was concentrated on Claren- 
don. The duke, though never on cordial terms 
with Clarendon, spoke in the House of Lords 



against his banishment (CLAREXDOX, Life, 
iii. 293-4, 308-9 ; cf. Life, i. 433-4). Claren- 
don and James were both reported to have 
plotted with the king for overthrowing par- 
liamentary government by means of an army 
(PEPTS, iv. 423, 441, 447, 452). A fresh es- 
trangement ensued between the brothers 
(ib. v. 18, 20), and the duke's authority sank. 
Coventry was dismissed from his service 
(CLAREXDOX, Life, iii. 293). In the midst 
of the transactions connected with the fall 
of Clarendon, James had a slight attack of 
small-pox (ib. iii. 320 ; PEPTS, v. 37-8, 114). 

The birth of a son to the Duke of York 
(14 Sept. ; an elder son had died in the pre- 
vious June) suspended the rumours of the 
king's intention to legitimatise Monmouth; 
but though the brothers embraced over the 
bottle, the coolness continued (ib. v. 29, 93). 
Charles was beginning, behind the backs of 
his ministers, the policy of a French al- 
liance. James, who really loved France, and 
whose interest it was at any cost to enter 
into his brother's most secret political de- 
signs, had a special motive for taking the 
same line. It is not known at what date he 
began to turn towards the church of Rome. 
He had been thought rather to favour the 
presbyterians (RERESBT, pp. 81-2; and cf. 
Life, i. 431 ; SIDXET, Diary, ed. Blencowe, 
i. 3-4, and notes). But when in the winter 
of 1668-9 Charles expressed to James his re- 
solution to be reconciled to the church of 
Rome (MACPHERSOX, i. 50), James inquired 
of the Jesuit Symond whether he could ob- 
tain a papal dispensation for remaining out- 
wardly a protestant after joining the church 
of Rome. Symond said that he could not, 
and was confirmed in his reply by Pope 
Clement IX. The agreement with France, 
formulated in the secret treaty of Dover 
(20 May 1670), included the restoration of 
England to the catholic church. James's 
adversaries proclaimed him a ' partner ' to 
the secret treaty when it was brought to light 
(see e.g. ' An Account of the Private League,' 
&c., in State Tracts, 1705, i. 37-44; cf. Secret 
History of Whitehall, letter xix.), and con- 
nected his subsequent conversion with its 
conclusion (RERESBT). But, however that 
may have been, of the Anglo-French alliance 
he undoubtedly fully approved. 

In the summer of this year (1670) James 
was seriously ill (Life, i. 451). The death of 
his duchess (31 March 1671), as a professed 
catholic, naturally hastened his own con- 
version, which probably took place before 
the outbreak of the third Dutch war (March 
1672) (cf. ib. i. 455). James eagerly threw 
himself into the war when once declared, 
and hoped to redeem the reputation of the 



James II 



185 



of England 



navy. "Without the help of the French the 
duke gained a victory in Southwold Bay 
over DeRuyter's superior numbers (28 May). 
James, who had been obliged to change his 
ship during the battle, next morning ordered 
the fleet home for refitting. De Ruyter's at- 
tempt to renew the fight ended in his with- 
drawal in a fog, and the duke's hopes of pro- 
longing the campaign were destroyed by the 
revolution in Holland (ib. i. 457-81 ; cf. 
BFRXET, i. 612). 

The breakdown of the attempt to crush 
the Dutch republic was followed by the re- 
vocation of the Declaration of Indulgence 
and the passing of the Test Act (March 
1673). In consequence of the Test Act, the 
duke, who at Christmas 1672 had refused to 
receive the sacrament with the king according 
to the anglican rite (Life, i. 482-3 : cf. EVELYN, 
ii. 290), resigned the admiralty (RERESBY, 
p. 88). In the same year (1673) he married 
again (cf. BURNET, ii. 16; cf. JESSE, iii. 297- 
300). Negotiations for a marriage between 
him and the Archduchess Claudia Felicitas, 
begun in the summer of 1672 by the Em- 
peror Leopold I, were crossed by Louis XIV, 
who, after other suggestions, urged a match 
with one of two princesses of Modena, Elea- 
nor, aunt of the reigning duke, Francis II, 
or his sister, Mary Beatrice. Early in 1673 
the Austrian negotiation was broken off, the 
emperor having resolved to marry the lady 
himself. About the end of July, Peter- 
borough, who had inspected several other 
candidates, was ordered to Modena to ask for 
the hand of Mary Beatrice. She was mar- 
ried to him as the duke's proxy, 30 Sept. [see i 
MARY BEATRICE]. Soon afterwards she was | 
received by her husband at Dover, and their | 
marriage was ' declared ' lawful by Crew, ' 
bishop of Oxford (21 Nov. ; Life, i. 486). 
This marriage finally bound James to the 
policy of Louis XIV. Violent addresses were 
passed against it by the House of Commons 
(cf. BURNET, ii. 17). The fall of the cabal, 
the accession to office of an anti-French and 
church of England administration, and the 
conclusion of peace with the United Provinces 
(January-February 1674), were followed by 
a dead-set against the Duke of York (see 
KLOPP, i. 350-8 ; Supplement to the Life of 
James, 3rd edit. 1705, pp. 11-41 ; also Les 
dernicrs Stuarts, i. 1-134). 

James was advised to retire with his wife to 
thecountry (Life, i. 487). But he courageously 
refused (MACPHERSON, i. 81). The attempt of 
Burnet and Stillingfleet to reconvert him 
(ib. pp. 24-30) was repeated by Archbishop 
Sancroft in February 1678, with the help of 
Bishop Morley of Winchester and with the 
cognisance of iheking (Clarendon Correspond- 



ence, ii. 465-71 ; cf. Life, i. 539-40). James 
did not yield, but allowed both his daughters 
to be brought up as members of the church 
of England, and assented reluctantly to the 
marriage of the elder to the Prince of Orange 
(November 1677). Both before and after the 
secret treaty with France of May 1678 he was 
in constant correspondence with the prince 
(DALRYMPLE, ii. 175 seqq., 208 seqq.) 

James's right of succession was now en- 
dangered by the pretensions of the Duke of 
Monmouth [see SCOTT, JAMES, DUKE OF MOST- 
MOUTH]. James (cf. Life, i. 499-500) dis- 
played on the whole a judicious modera- 
tion, and preserved an attitude of submissive 
loyalty. Occasionally he received in return 
tokens of goodwill, such as the title of gene- 
ralissimo, after a commission as general of 
the forces had been bestowed upon Mon- 
mouth (ib. p. 497). Closer observers, like 
Halifax, perceived that James remained true 
to the French interest, and to the cause of 
Rome, which he sought to strengthen by ad- 
vocating toleration for dissenters in general 
(RERESBY, p. 116). His position became 
perilous as the unpopularity of his cause 
increased. In March 1678 he warned his 
friends in the commons of ' a design to fall 
upon him and the lord treasurer ' (ib. p. 130) ; 
and soon after Oates's first informations the 
duke prudently handed to the king certain 
letters which had been addressed to his con- 
fessor, Bedingfield (BURNET, ii. 149-50). 
Gates seems at first to have wavered about 
bringing charges against the duke (BRAMSTON, 
p. 179). But papers discovered in the house 
of Edward Coleman [q. v.], secretary to the 
duchess, showed that a correspondence with 
Louis's Jesuit confessor, La Chaise, had been 
carried on with the duke's cognisance (not- 
withstanding his attempted denial, RERESBY, 
p. 146). It treated of the scheme for the 
conversion of England agreed upon at Dover, 
though it did not confirm the existence of the 
plot ' revealed ' by Gates (ib. p. 169). The 
letter from the duke himself, discovered with 
the rest, and printed by order of the House of 
Commons, was dated 1675 (State Papers of 
Charles II, pp. 137 seqq.) Soon after the 
meeting of parliament (October 1678) Shaftes- 
bury demanded the removal of the Duke of 
York from the king's counsels and from public 
affairs. James perceived his peril (Les dernier -s 
Stuarts, i. 229). He consented, at the king's 
request, to absent himself from the council ; 
but the commons voted another and more 
stringent address against him. A concilia- 
tory speech from the king in person delayed 
the passing of this address and secured the 
duke s exemption from the operation of a bill 
disabling papists from sitting in parliament. 



James II 



186 



of England 



The public agitation increased, and even the 
catholic lords imprisoned in the Tower sent a 
message to James entreating him to withdraw 
into some neighbouring country, France ex- 
cepted (Life, i. 536). The king himself finally 
ordered his brother's -withdrawal, in a letter 
couched in affectionate terms (28 Feb. 1679; 
ib. \. 541-2 ; KENNETT, iii. 369). After ex- 
cusing himself to Barillon for not retiring to 
France (Les derniers Stuarts, i. 245), James 
sailed on 4 March for Antwerp, and thence 
to the Hague (PEPYS, Correspondence,^!. 125). 

James met with little civility at the Hague 
(SIDNEY, Diary, i. 41, 142, 179), but was 
well received at Brussels (BuENET, ii. 198 .) 
A vote of distrust was hurled after him by 
the House of Commons (27 April), and three 
days later the king offered to compromise 
matters by strictly limiting the powers of a 
popish successor. But the commons were 
not satisfied, and the second reading of the 
Exclusion Bill, brought in for the first time 
on 5 May, was carried on 21 May by a large 
majority. The duke's satisfaction at the con- 
sequent prorogation and dissolution of par- 
liament was marred, both by his inability to 
induce the king to order decisive measures 
of repression and by his jealousy of Mon- 
mouth (Dartmouth's note to BUENET, ii. 228 ; 
cf. REEESBY, p. 172). His friends in Eng- 
land continued to urge his conversion (so the 
' old cavalier ' who published a letter under 
the signature ' Philanax Verus ; ' and cf. 
Clarendon Correspondence, i. 45, 46, 51 ; Life, 
i. 560; SIDNEY, Diary, i. 13) ; while a notion 
was started of making him king of the 
Romans (ib. i. 22, 23, 129). Charles con- 
tinued to forbid his return. When in August 
1679 Charles was unexpectedly seized by a 
succession of ague fits, he, at the suggestion 
of Halifax, Essex, and others, who feared 
the ascendency of Monmouth and Shaftes- 
bury, sent for the duke (TEMPLE ap. SIDNEY, 
Diary, i. 137 n. ; REEESBY, p. 177). The 
king was now much better, and it was 
agreed that Monmouth should be sent away 
from court and the Duke of York appointed 
high commissioner in Scotland. James re- 
turned to Brussels to fetch the duchess, and 
reached England in October (ib. p. 179; SID- 
NEY, Diary, i. 163, 171). On the 27th, not- 
withstanding the opposition of Shaftesburv 
(ib. p. 181), they left for Scotland. 

In Scotland, where Lauderdale had or- 
ganised a loyal reception, and where the 
duke took his seat on the privy council with- 
out being tendered the oath of allegiance, he 
bore himself impartially and moderately (see 
his letter ap. SIDNEY, Diary, i. 385, and cf. 
Life, i. 580, 587 ; BFBXET, ii. 292). But the 
persistency of Monmouth and symptoms of a 



reaction against the whigs induced him to 
return to London, which he reached by sea on 
24 Feb. 1680, and where he was well received 
(RERESBY, p. 181 ; Silvius to Sidney ap. SID- 
NEY, Diary, i. 285-6 ; cf. ib. p. 303 n.) He 
now bore himself withjnjich_tact (ib. ii. 25), 
and visibly began to establish a commanding 
influence over the king (REEESBY, pp. 182-3), 
which he used to prevent the meeting of par- 
liament. Shaft esbury presented him as a recu- 
sant to the Middlesex grand jury (16 June), 
but Chief-justice North removed the indict- 
ment from the Old Bailey to the king's bench, 
' in order to a non pros. 1 (Lives of the Norths, 
i. 399 ; Life, i. 675). Soon afterwards the 
Duchess of Portsmouth turned against him 
(BUENET, ii. 249) ; and when in August the 
king gave way to the cry for a parliament, 
James was obliged again to withdraw to 
Scotland (21 Oct.), having in vain sought to 
obtain from the king a pardon safeguarding 
him against the consequences of impeachment 
(Life, i. 597; cf. ' Reasons for the Indictment 
of the Duke of York,' &c., in State Papers, 
under Charles II, i. 466 seqq.) He was now 
willing to entertain a project of civil war, 
in which he was promptly encouraged by 
Louis XIV (BAEILLON ap. DALEYMPLE, ii. 
334 seqq.) A resolution against a popish, 
successor was passed by the commons, and 
an exclusion bill brought in (4 Nov.), and 
rapidly carried up to the lords, where it was 
finally thrown out on the occond reading, -f i r 
through the influence of Halifax (KENNETT, 
iii. 388). But on the following day (16 Nov.) 
Halifax proposed the banishment of the Duke 
of York, and important limitations in his 
royal authority should he succeed. These 
proposals were rejected as futile, but James 
never forgave Halifax (Historical MSS. of 
the House of Lords, 1678-88, p. 209 ; cf. 
BUENET, ii. 340; Life,i. 619; State Papers 
from 1660 to 1689, ii. 91-2). The commons 
retorted upon the lords by bringing in a bill 
for a protestant association, aimed directly 
against the duke's succession ; and, in reply 
to a firm speech from the king, passed an 
address insisting on the principle of the ex- 
clusion (20 Dec.) On 18 Jan. 1681 the par- 
liament was dissolved and a new one sum- 
moned to Oxford for 21 March. At Oxford 
the king made one more attempt at compro- 
mise by a bill of security, which would have 
entrusted the substance of power to the Prince 
of Orange, and in the meantime banished the 
Duke of York ; but the commons adhering to 
the plan of simple exclusion, the parliament 
was dissolved on 28 March. In August 1681, 
after many representations had been made to 
the duke from his friends at home to declare 
himself a protestant (Life, i. 626 seqq., 657-8), 



James II 



187 



of England 



Hyde was sent to Edinburgh to declare that 
the king could no longer uphold his brother 
unless he conformed, at least so far as to attend 
church (ib. i. 699 ; cf. MACPHERSON, Original 
Papers, i. 129, and RANKE, vii. 149). 

In Scotland, though James adhered in sub- 
stance to the line pursued by Lauderdale, he 
adopted the conciliatory tone sanctioned by 
the king (STORY, William Carstares, 1874, p. 
50). His courtesy was valued by the nobility 
and gentry ; while his attitude was concilia- 
tory towards the presbyterians. He even 
discouraged a rigid enforcement of the laws 
against conventicles. But no actual change 
of system seems to have taken place, and in 
1681 James's rule became more severe. The 
parliament, opened by him in July, passed an 
act completely securing the legitimate suc- 
cession, any difference of religion notwith- 
standing, and another imposing a complicated 
test in favour of the royal prerogative (DAL- 
RYMPLE, i. 71). Argyll, after attempting to 
take it with a reservation, was prosecuted by 
the duke's orders, and sentenced to death, but 
escaped from prison (BURNET, ii. 300 seqq., 
326-7; cf. Life, pp. 694 seqq., 702 seqq.) 
Great severity was shown in the application 
of the Test Act, though even Macaulay admits 
that the degree of James's personal responsi- 
bility is doubtful. Macaulay 's general de- 
scription (i. 270-1) is clearly overdone ; the 
grotesque charge against him of having taken 
pleasure in the spectacle of the administra- 
tion of torture appears to be founded solely 
on Burnet, ii. 426-8 (see Lockhart Papers, 
1817, i. 600). 

The duke's withdrawal from Scotland was 
the work of the Duchess of Portsmouth, who 
was intent upon a job for settling upon her- 
self a portion of the post-office revenues en- 
joyed by him (MACPHERSON, Original Papers, 
i. 129, 132-4; Life, i. 722-7). He sailed 
from Leith on 4 March 1682 for Yarmouth, 
and on 11 March reached Newmarket, where 
he was very kindly received by the king 
(RERESBY, p. 243 ; PEPTS, vi. 138). Though 
the duchess's job could not be managed, the 
king was gratified by his brother's compla- 
cency. James sailed on 3 May to fetch home 
his duchess from Scotland in the Gloucester 
frigate (a ' third rate '). The Gloucester [see 
under BERRY, SIR JOHN] was wrecked off the 
"Yorkshire coast with great loss of life. James 
was afterwards accused of having taken par- 
ticular care of his strong-box, his dogs, and 
his priests, while Legge with drawn sword 
kept off other passengers (BuRNET, ii. 324- 
325 ; Clarendon Correspondence, i. 67-9, 71-4 ; 
PEPYS, Diary and Correspondence,^. 141-4; 
ELLIS, Orig. Letters, 2nd ser. iv. 67 seqq.) 

After his return to England (June), the 



1 political ascendency of James \vas fully esta- 

' Wished. Notwithstanding his pretence of 
impartiality (RERESBY, p. 271), his influence 
was thrown altogether on the side of Roches- 
ter in the ensuing struggle for supremacy 

i between him and Halifax ; while, by making 
his peace with the duke, Sunderland con- 
trived to be restored to his secretaryship (BuR- 
NET, ii. 338 ; RERESBY, p. 269). The design 
of the Rye House plotters was directed against 
him equally with the king, and rumour con- 
nected him with the death of Essex (Secret 
Hist, of James II, p. 179 ; cf. Life, ii. 314). He 
had to consent to the restoration of Mon- 
mouth to the king's favour, which he per- 
sisted in attributing to Halifax (RERESBY, 
pp. 286-90 ; cf. BURJTET, ii. 411-12), and to 

j the discharge of Danby (RERESBY, p. 295). 
But his influence steadilyrose. In May 1684 
he regained the powers, if not the full dignity,, 
of the admiralty (ib. p. 303; but see Life, 
ii. 81). (He had just before assented to the 
marriage of his daughter Anne with George 
of Denmark ; Life, i. 745.) He was freely 
admitted to the deliberations of the cabinet 
(Lives of the Norths, i. 65). In accordance 
with his wishes greater severity was intro- 
duced by Perth in Scotland. James was pre- 
sent at the administration of the last sacra- 
ment to Charles II by Johnlluddleston [q. v.] r 
and after the death of Charles published, with 
an attestation from his own hand, the two 
papers found in his brother's strong-box 
(KEXNETT, iii. 429-30 ; cf. the Defence of the 
Papers written by the late King and the 
Duchess of York, &c., 1686). 

In the reign of James II three periods are 
clearly distinguishable : 

I. From his accession, 6 Feb. 1685, to the 
autumn of the same year. During this period 
James was supported by all moderate men,, 
and the whigs remained mute. In the speech 
delivered by him to the privy council on 
quitting his brother's deathbed, he gave pro- 
mise of support to the church of England ( Cla- 
rendon Correspondence, i. 115; Life, ii. 4-5^ 
cf. EVELYN, ii. 445 seqq.) At first he took 
no step to the contrary. From an early date, 
however, the doors of the queen's chapel at 
St. James's, where he heard mass, were thrown 
open, and on Easter Sunday he attended the 
catholic service in full official pomp. At his 
coronation on St. George's day James cur- 
tailed the anglican rites, but submitted to 
be crowned by the primate (see State Tracts 
under William III, 1706, ii. 94). No dis- 
content was aroused by the proceedings 
against Gates and Dangerfield, or by the re- 
lease of large numbers of quakers and Roman 
catholics. James's policy was still undecided, 
though Louis XIV urged upon him the im- ' 



James II 



188 



of England 



mediate proclamation of liberty of worship 
(C. J. Fox, Appendix, xxiv). In Scotland 
parliament annexed the excise to the crown 
for ever, and voted James a revenue exceed- 
ing by nearly one-third that enjoyed by his 
brother (March and April) (LiXGARD, x. 66). 
The bestowal in Ireland of a regiment upon 
the catholic Talbot (April), in defiance of 
the Test Act, appears to have excited definite 
apprehensions (Fox, Ixvi-vii). 

The ministerial changes made by James 
within the first fortnight of his reign seemed 
.even less significant than they were. Ro- 
chester, who was made lord treasurer, and 
who with Godolphin and Sunderland formed 
the inner cabinet, was the favourite of the 
church party. Although (12 Feb.) the king 
illegally declared his intention of levying the 
customs duties on his own authority, the 
convenience of the professedly temporary 
encroachment recommended it to the mer- 
cantile community. "When parliament met 
on 19 May it contained an overwhelming 
tory majority. A revenue equal to that of 
Charles was at once settled on the king for 
life, certain additional taxes being imposed 
at his request, and, though the committee of 
religion passed a resolution calling upon him 
to execute the penal laws against noncon- 
formists, it was revoked when it was under- 
stood to be offensive to him (MACAULAY, i. 
514). Probably public feeling had been fur- 
ther gratified by certain reforms in the condi- 
tion of the court, which were facilitated by the 
banishment of the Duchess of Portsmouth. 
The attempt made by James at the same time 
to dismiss his own mistress, Catharine Sed- 
ley, failed (Venetian despatch in Les derniers 
Stuarts, ii. 19). James, although economical, 
received ambassadors with more dignity than 
Charles, and gratified English pride by assert- 
ing his equality with the king of France on 
ceremonial occasions (KLOPP, iii. 30-1 ; cf. 

BURNET, iii. 12). 

The crucial question in foreign affairs was 
that of the French alliance. Charles had 
become weary of Barillon's influence. James 
was in a more independent position. His 
first communication to the ambassador was 
his intention to summon a parliament, but he 
avowed his continued adhesion to the alliance 
with Louis. Louis had transmitted the ar- 
rears (five hundred thousand livres) due to 
Charles ; according to Barillon, James re- 
ceived the sum with tears, and sent Churchill 
as ambassador to Paris to ask for more. But 
Louis, on hearing of the summoning of parlia- 
ment, repented (KLOPP, iii. 13, citingMAZURE, 
ii. 43), and, though a fund four times as large 
had been entrusted to Barillon, rarely allowed 
him to use any part of it. Louis was no 



doubt disturbed by the efforts of the Prince of 
Orange to keep up friendly relations with his 
father-in-law. James met these overtures 
halfway, and William in return consented 
to receive Skelton as ambassador, and sent 
Monmouth away from the Hague. The gene- 
ral impression that a complete reconciliation 
had taken place between them (DALRYMPLE, 
ii. 142-4; cf. KLOPP, ii. 20-1) induced Spain 
and the emperor to attempt to gain the 
confidence of James, who was still demand- 
ing money while failing to break with AVil- 
liam. This double position and the loyalty of 
his parliament seem for a moment to have 
suggested to James II the thought of play- 
ing the part of general pacificator of Europe 
(COUNT THUN ap. KLOPP, i. 37-8). In return 
Louis drew the pursestrings tight (C. J. Fox, 
Appendix, xcv, xcvii-viii). The loyal conduct 
of William of Orange during Monmouth's 
rebellion led to the formal renewal of the old 
treaties between England and the United 
Provinces (August), though there never was 
any question of James joining a coalition 
against France (BuRXET, iii. 20 ; cf. MACAU- 
LAY, ii. 2). Louis's disputes with Pope Inno- 
cent XI contributed to the coolness. After 
1 Nov. 1685 Barillon's payments, which 
had amounted to 60,000/., ceased altogether 
(C. J. Fox, Appendix, cxxi; cf. LINGAKD, 
x. 65). 

In spite of the landing of Argyll (14 May) 
and of Monmouth (11 June), the loyalty of 
parliament remained unimpaired. James, as 
a matter of course, assented to the bill of 
attainder against his nephew, while an extra- 
ordinary vote of supply and a bill for the pre- 
servation of the king's person were alsopassed. 
Parliament was prorogued 2 July, and four 
days later the insurrection came to an end 
at Sedgemoor. James has been accused of 
inhumanity for granting the captive Mon- 
mouth an interview without intending to 
pardon him (MACAULAY, i. 616 ; but see Life, 
i. 34-5). It was thought that the publica- 
tion by his orders of the narrative of Mon- 
mouth's capture and execution proved the 
truth of the saying, that, ' though it was in 
his power, it was not in his nature to pardon ' 
(DALRYMPLE, i. 146). The cruel treatment 
of the rebels bears more heavily upon him. 
His satisfaction in the Bloody Assizes {The 
Western Martyrology, 5th edit. 1705) was 
proved by the elevation of Jeffreys to the lord 
chancellorship, and by remarks in his letters 
to William of Orange (10 and 24 Sept., DAL- 
RYMPLE, ii. 53). The executions in London 
and the general rigour with which the penal 
laws were enforced against protestant non- 
conformists spread the terror beyond the seat 
of the rebellion. But there are few signs of 



James II 



189 



of England 



a reaction against James's government such 
as Burnet attributes to the horror excited 
(iii. 68-9). The power of James at home and 
abroad had reached its climax. 

II. From the second meeting of the first 
parliament (November 1685) to the acquittal 
of the seven bishops, 30 June 1688. 

By keeping up the military force raised 
against Monmouth, and thereby increasing 
the standing army more than threefold, as 
well as by granting commissions in the newly 
raised regiments to Roman catholics, in de- 
fiance of the Test Act (Lives of the Norths, 
ii. 150), James entered upon an aggressive 
policy. In the speech with which he opened 
parliament (Life, ii. 48-50) he confidently 
demanded sufficient supplies for his aug- 
mented army, and announced that he should 
maintain his illegal appointments. The com- 
mons sent Coke to the Tower for language 
disrespectful to the king, but when the lords 
showed a spirit of opposition, he prorogued 
parliament forthwith (19 Nov.) The king's 
displeasure with several members was so 
marked that even a courtier like Reresby 
(p. 349) perceived a crisis to have arrived 
'for every thinking man.' The Scottish par- 
liament, which met April 1686 and showed 
itself unwilling to meet the king's wishes as 
to his catholic subjects, was likewise pro- 
rogued. 

The dismissal of Halifax from office and 
from the privy council (21 Oct. 1685) secured 
the ascendency of Sunderland. A catholic 
cabal, of which Sunderland, Father Petre, 
Henry Jermyn (Dover); and Richard Talbot 
(Tyrconnel) (Life, ii. 77) were the principal 
members, was set on foot for the management 
of catholic affairs, which soon came to involve 
affairs at large. James now dropped his 
caution, and took a line too decided for many 
of the English catholics and for Pope Inno- 
cent XI. The Jesuits, with few exceptions, 
supported, like their patron Louis XIV, an 
active policy ( Clarendon Correspondence, ii. 
App. 507-8). James's confessor, the capuchin 
Mansuete, resigned (Ellis Correspondence, \. 
47), and was succeeded by the Jesuit Warner, 
a nominee of Father Petre (LINGARD, x. 127 ; 
cf. RERESBY, p. 363 ; Ellis Correspondence, i. 
35). At the beginning of 1686 James appears 
to have been above all desirous to prevent 
public discussion of his religious policy (ib. 
i. 23). 

The queen and the c'atholics at large were 
offended by the ennoblement as Countess 
of Dorchester (January) of their antagonist 
Catharine Sedley (EVELYN, iii. 15 ; cf. Ellis 
Correspondence, i. 23) ; but the king was ulti- 
mately brought to regard this connection as 
unfavourable to his designs. She left for 



Ireland and returned in August (Clarendon 
Correspondence, i. 544, 552), but did not regain 
her former ascendency (ib. ii. 279). James 
henceforward arranged his amours more de- 
cently than was usual with contemporary 
sovereigns. He was much occupied in the 
' modelling ' of his army, and held frequent 
reviews in the encampment established by 
him on Hounslow Heath (Ellis Correspond- 
ence,].. 60, 125; RERESBY, p. 360; BRAMSTON, 
p. 234 ; cf. Life, ii. 71). About the same time- 
the administration of the navy was reor- 
ganised in accordance with the plans of Pepys 
(Ellis Correspondence, i. 73). James showed 
throughout unusual bodily activity and a 
restless devotion to business (ib. pp. 125, 
272 ; REKESBY, p. 362 ; BRAMSTON, pp. 226- 
228). 

His religious policy first became unmis- 
takable in Ireland, where Clarendon was early 
in 1687 superseded by Tyrconnel. In Scot- 
land the royal letter recommending the re- 
moval of religious tests made a subservient 
parliament unmanageable, and was followed 
t>y the arbitrary admission of catholics to 
offices and honours (cf.BALCARRES, p. 3). Early 
in 1 686 James published the late king's papers, 
and naively pressed the primate to indite a 
' gentlemanlike and solid ' reply (Life, ii. 9). 
He sent Lord Castlemaine to Rome (February} 
as ambassador, with no definite mission except 
that of obtaining a red hat for Father Petre, 
and began the proceedings which aimed at the 
removal of catholic disabilities by means of 
the dispensing power. Changes on the bench 
insured a favourable judicial decision on the 
subject (June); and, according to Burnet (iii. 
103), steps had been taken beforehand to in- 
sure nonconformist support even in the west. 
In July four catholics were admitted into the 
privy council (RERESBY, p. 364). In May 
leave had been given to a catholic convert to- 
retain his London benefice ; another, Obadiah 
Walker, continued to hold the mastership of 
University College, Oxford ; and a third 
catholic, John Massey, was actually named 
dean of Christ Church. In July the court 
of high commission was revived, and sus- 
pended the Bishop of London [see COMPTON,. 
HENRY]. Disturbances ensued in London and 
in other towns. The clergy of the established 
church were now awake, and a very lively 
'controversial war' (BuRNET, iii. 305) began. 
The king's scheme was at last openly carried 
out, catholics being placed on the commis- 
sions of the peace, and freely introduced as 
officers into the army (BRAMSTON, p. 251). 
On Christmas day 1686 the new chapel at 
Whitehall, dedicated by the king, was opened 
(ib. p. 253) and put into the hands of Father 
Petre; many other catholic chapels were 



J 



James II 



190 



of England 



opened, but the anglican churches were left 
unmolested (Life,\i. 79), except that Benedic- 
tines were settled in St. James's Chapel. The 
court in October was said to be deserted by 
all not called thither on actual service (KLOPP, 
iii. 261). On 5 Jan. 1687 Rochester, whom 
the king had in vain attempted to convert, 
succumbed to the cabal [see HYDE, LAU- 
BEXCE]. 

In Scotland a proclamation, issued 18 Feb. 
1687, granted the right of public worship to 
all nonconformists, though with reservations 
burdensome to the presbyterians, and sus- 
pended all penal law against the catholics. 
In London a preliminary attempt was made 
to secure by royal 'closetings ' as many distin- 
guished recruits as possible for Rome (BRAM- 
STON, pp. 268-70; cf. Ellis Correspondence, 
i. 265) ; while in the country the judges on 
assize were instructed to feel the pulse of 
members of parliament (RERESBY, p. 370). 
At court Penn was frequently admitted to 
the presence (Ellis Correspondence, i. 269), 
and on 4 April the fateful Declaration of In- 
dulgence appeared (see ib. ii. 285 ; EVELYX, 
iii. 39). On 3 July James publicly received 
at Windsor the papal nuncio (Count Ferdi- 
nand d'Adda). To the deep annoyance of 
the king (Les dernier s Stuarts, ii. 148), the 
pope left Father Petre unpromoted, but con- 
ferred a cardinalate upon Mary of Modena's 
brother Rinaldo, and named him protector of 
the English nation at Rome. Father Petre 
appointed to the privy council, in November 
1687, the convert Sir Nicholas Butler, and 
Sunderland now formed the triumvirate in 
control of affairs. 

On the day after the nuncio's reception the 
dissolution of parliament was proclaimed 
(4 July 1687). James II tried to secure a 
more subservient body by a manipulation of 
the surrendered municipal charters (BtrBNET, 
iii. 191), and by managing the counties with 
the aid of a renovated lord-lieutenancy. The 
universities were likewise attacked. On the 
deprivation of the vice-chancellor of Cam- 
bridge (May) followed the expulsion of the 
fellows of Magdalen College, Oxford (Decem- 
ber), and its conversion into a catholic semi- 
nary. In the Magdalen case James inter- 
vened personally (Diary of Bishop Cart- 
wright of Chester, pp. 83, 86-93 et al. ; cf. 
BRAMSTON, pp. 284 seqq.) i 

The determination of the king stiffened as 
his manoeuvres failed, and on 27 April 1688 he 
put forth his second Declaration of Indul- 
gence, which, while reiterating his religious 
policy, announced his intention of assembling 
parliament in November at the latest. This 
declaration was (4 May) ordered to be read 
in church on two specified successive Sun- 



days, after being previously distributed by 
the bishops in their dioceses. When seven 
bishops petitioned him (18 May) against the 
declaration, James told them that they had 
raised the standard of rebellion. A fortnight 
afterwards they were consigned to the Tower 
(BuRXET, iii. 189-90; Clarendon Correspond- 
ence, pp. 177, 179-80). The acquittal of the 
bishops (30 June 1688) naturally disturbed 
the king, though he appears to have preserved 
his self-control when the news reached him 
in the camp at Hounslow Heath (RERESBY, 
p. 397 ; Ellis Correspondence, ii. 24-5 ; cf. 
Life, ii. 165). 

The confidence shown by James was partly 
due to the birth of a prince of Wales 
(10 June) ; for the doubtfulness of the suc- 
cession had been an element of weakness in his 
position. The significance of the birth of an 
heir was soon apprehended, and little art was 
needed to prompt and develope the suggestion 
that the child was supposititious. Although 
James was only in his fifty-fifth year, while 
the queen had already given birth to four 
children (who died young), the story found 
willing listeners in the Princesses Mary and 
Anne and among the public at large [see 
JAMES FRAXCIS EDWARD STUART]. 

III. From the summer to the autumn of 
1688 the relations between James II and the 
Prince of Orange had been uneasy. The fear 
that James would renew Charles's offensive 
alliance with France easily became a belief 
that such an alliance had been actually con- 
cluded (KLOPP, iii. 275-6), and that a league, 
more or less resembling the treaty of Dover, 
had been concluded between James and 
Louis. The literature on the subject is enor- 
mous (by way of example see 'An Account 
of a Private League,' &c., in Harleian Miscel- 
lany, i. 37 seqq.) The officiousness of Skelton, 
the English envoy, had personally irritated 
William against James, who in his turn was 
annoyed by the favourable reception given at 
the Hague to Burnet (BURNET, iii. 137-9), 
though by James's desire he ceased to be re- 
ceived at court. In January 1687 James sent 
to the Hague in Skelton's place Albeville, a 
catholic Irishmaif in the pay of France. Wil- 
liam hereupon sent Dykvelt to England, who, 
besides warning the king against the repeal 
of the Test Act, communicated with all the 
statesmen, by whom William was afterwards 
invited to England. During the summer of 
1687 the irritation between the English and 
Dutch governments increased. James, who 
about this time declined to oblige the em- 
peror by coming forward on behalf of the 
peace of Europe, was more isolated than ever 
in his foreign relations. After the dissolu- 
tion of parliament Zuylesteen was sent to 



to 



James II 



191 



of England 



England to sound the situation and to take 
up the threads of Dykvelt's correspondence. 
At this conjuncture (September) it was sug- 
gested to James, through Sunderland (DAL- 
RYMPLE, iii. 134 seqq.), to transfer to the ser- 
vice of the French government, for his own 
eventual use, the regiments in the Dutch ser- 
vice in his pay. But, though Louis offered to 
facilitate the proposal by maintaining part of 
these troops in England (MACATJLAY, ii. 260), 
their recall was delayed, and the Prince and 
Princess of Orange declared their loyalty 
towards James, while recommending a more 
moderate policy (BuKKET, iii. 215-17). At 
last, after vainly demanding the extradition 
of Buruet, James ordered the recall of the six 
regiments from the service of the states 
(27 Jan. 1688). The states refused compli- 
ance, and finally only some officers returned 
(BRAMSTOX, p. 305). In England prices 
fell, and warlike preparations began in the 
Netherlands, where the action of James had 
brought about cordial relations between the 
states and the Prince of Orange, and where 
Louis XIV was suspected of planning an 
immediate invasion. James had not yet 
thought of offensive war. On 3 April he 
issued a proclamation recalling all his sub- 
jects in the Dutch service, and authorising 
their forcible removal after a certain date 
from Dutch ships. Louis, however, urged the 
equipment of an English fleet equal in strength 
to the Dutch (BAEILLO^ ap. MAZTTRE, iii. 92, 
undated). He empowered Barillon to offer 
James a sum of in the extreme case six 
hundred thousand livres. On 29 April an 
agreement was concluded, Louis promising 
five hundred thousand livres for an English 
fleet and the maintenance of two thousand 
English troops recalled from the provinces 
(ib. p. 99). In the meantime Albeville at the 
Hague strove to keep up the tension between 
his master and the Dutch government. The 
issue of the second Declaration of Indulgence, 
followed by the order to the clergy, furnished 
"William with his opportunity. Zuylesteen 
was sent over on the pretext of congratulating 
James on the birth of the Prince of Wales, 
and on the day of the acquittal of the bishops 
the letter was signed which invited William 
of Orange to England (30 June). James, 
still unaware of his danger, had just declined 
Louis's offer of sixteen men-of-war, and this 
offer was not renewed. It was not till 30 Sept. 
that Louis offered a joint declaration against 
Holland, which James declined. Thus, when 
the expedition of William of Orange sailed, 
England, Holland, and France were all at 
peace, and there was no alliance, despite 
the popular belief, between England and 
France. 



During July and August James held re- 
views at the Nore and at Portsmouth (Ellis 
Correspondence, ii. 63, 128), without neglect- 
ing the camp on Hounslow Heath (ib. ii. 
24, 116). On 27 Aug. all governors and 
other officers were ordered to repair to their 
respective commands (Dartmouth MSS. p. 
145). Till the latter part of September, how- 
ever, appointments were made and honours 
bestowed in the sense of James's previous 
policy. On 23 Aug. he and the queen were 
loyally entertained at Bulstrode by Jeffreys 
(Ellis Correspondence, ii. 139), while the 
troops near London were reinforced by a 
small body of Irish soldiery (Clarendon Cor- 
respondence, ii. 190). On 21 Sept., however, 
a proclamation announced that in the ap- 
proaching election catholics should remain 
ineligible as members of parliament, and the 
king thought of summoning the peers in order 
to apprise them of his design to undo his 
innovations. On 22 Sept. he informed the 
Bishop of Winchester of his intention to sup- 
port the church of England (ib. pp. 189-91). 
On the same day a royal proclamation ap- 
pealed to the country for support against the 
imminent Dutch invasion, and stated that 
the king found himself forced to recall the 
parliamentary writs, as his present place was 
at the head of his army (Life, ii. 185). On 
the 29th, the day on which came out a gene- 
ral pardon, from which, with blundering 
pedantry, the clergy were corporately ex- 
cepted (Clarendon Correspondence, ii. 192), 
was also issued the declaration of the Prince 
of Orange. On the following day its circu- 
lation was prohibited (BKAMSXON, p. 329 ; cf. 
EVELYX, iii. 59), and the king had interviews 
concerning it with both bishops and suspected 
temporal peers (Clarendon Correspondence, ii. 
199-201). The westerly winds appeared to 
allow him time for concessions. He restored 
a number of displaced officials in church 
and state, beginning with Bishop Compton 
(30 Sept.), personally restored their old char- 
ter to the mayor and aldermen of the city 
of London (2 Oct.), restored other municipal 
charters (Dartmouth MSS. p. 175), gave au- 
dience to the bishops in London, and within 
a few days abolished the high commission, 
and virtually empowered the Bishop of Win- 
chester, as visitor of Magdalen, to re-establish 
the old order of things there. 

But no enthusiasm was roused. James, in 
answer to an accusation of ' fraud ' in Wil- 
liam's ' Declaration,' made a formal declara- 
tion, supported by evidence, of the genuine- 
ness of the birth of the Prince of Wales 
to an extraordinary council of peers and 
high dignitaries summoned for the purpose 
(22 Oct.) Two days afterwards Sunderland 



James II 



192 



of England 



was dismissed from the secretaryship of state, 
and Preston appointed in his place. 

Meanwhile active preparations of defence 
went on. French aid was disdained {Life, 
ii. 186) ; but thirty ships of the line, with 
sixteen fireships, were collected under the 
command of Dartmouth ; and the king, with 
the aid of Pepys, was active in remedying 
shortcomings (Dartmouth MSS. pp. 152, 154, 
178). The army was augmented so as to 
amount, according to the king's computation, 
to forty thousand men (cf. REKESBT, p. 409 ; 
see History of Desertion, pp. 59-61). 

The news of William's landing at Torbay 
reached James 6 Nov., on which date he 
had an unsatisfactory interview with the 
bishops. On 9 Nov. he acquitted Dartmouth 
of any shortcoming in letting the Dutch fleet 
pass, and on the 12th sent him some seaman- 
like suggestions for the future (Dartmouth 
MSS. pp. 198, 202-3, 206, 230). For about 
a week no person of consequence joined the 
prince's army, but desertions began as the 
armies approached one another. James as- 
sembledtne principal officers still in London 
before leaving for the field, and was warmly 
received. About the same time he un- 
graciously promised a deputation of peers, 
headed by the primate, to call a parliament 
so soon as the invasion and rebellion were 
over (Life, ii. 212 ; cf. History of Deser- 
tion, p. 44 ; MACATJLAY, ii. 502; Les dernier s 
Stuarts, ii. 331 seqq.) Before leaving for 
Salisbury he sent the Prince of Wales under 
the guard of Irish dragoons to Portsmouth, 
where Berwick was in command ; the queen 
seemed safe in London under the protection 
of six thousand troops. ' He committed the 
government to a council of five, Jeffreys, 
Godolphin,and three catholics : Father Petre, 
however, left for France (Life, ii. 222). 
James resolved to strike a crushing blow 
against the enemy in the west. He was de- 
tained at Salisbury, where he arrived 19 Nov., 
by a violent bleeding at the nose. He had | 
to relinquish his intention of visiting his ad- j 
vanced posts at Warminster, and thus in his 
own belief escaped falling a victim to a plot 
laid by Churchill and others to seize him and 
deliver him up to the enemy ( Clarendon Cor- 
respondence, ii. 211; Life] ii. 222-3; MAO 
PHERSON, Original Papers, i. 280 seqq. ; cf. | 
BERWICK, i. 330). The delay facilitated trea- 
son. Churchill's and Grafton's desertion, and 
Kirke's recalcitrance, induced him to fall back 
as far as Andover (23 Nov.) On the same 
evening Prince George of Denmark, Ormonde, 
and Drumlanrig, Queensberry's eldest son, 
rode off into the enemy's camp. There was no 
longer doubt of a conspiracy in the army, and 
on his return to London at 5 P.M. on 26 Nov. 



James heard of the flight of the Princess Anne 
in Lady Churchill's company (Dartmouth 
MSS. pp. 214-15). Next day a council of 
between forty and fifty peers, including nine 
bishops, met in Whitehall at the king's sum- 
mons chiefly to discuss the question of sum- 
moning a parliament. The king assented to 
the issuing on the following day of writs for 
a meeting of parliament on 13 Jan., but de- 
manded anight to consider the other proposals 
made to him. He would not, he said, see him- 
self deposed like Richard II ( Clarendon Corre- 
spondence, ii. 208-11). During the next few 
days all Halifax's suggestions were agreed 
to, a general amnesty was proclaimed, and 
Halifax himself, Nottingham, and Godolphin 
were named commissioners to treat with the 
prince. James meanwhile assured Barillon 
that his promises were merely feigned in 
order to insure the safety of the queen and 
prince, when he would withdraw to Ire- 
land or Scotland, or, if necessary, to France 
(MAZURE, iy. 46; Dartmouth MSS. pp. 228, 
283-6 ; cf. Les derniers Stuarts, ii. 413). The 
removal of the queen and her son was managed 
by Lauztin and other foreign helpers (ib. pp. 
381 seqq.) 

Meanwhile the spirit of defection spread, 
and London was full of confusion. On 8 Dec. 
William met the royal commissioners at Hun- 
gerford. He accepted terms which recognised 
him as a victorious belligerent, and, while 
referring the points in dispute to parliament, 
imposed upon James the dismissal of all 
papists. James could hardly meet parlia- 
ment with any advantage to himself after 
accepting the Hungerford terms, and was in- 
clining towards flight. On 10 Dec., assured 
that his wife and son were fairly on their way 
to safety, he addressed two letters to Dart- 
mouth, announcing his imminent withdrawal. 
He directed that faithful sailors should repair 
to Ireland, and there take orders from Tyr- 
connel (Dartmouth MSS. p. 234). In the same 
spirit he wrote a letter to Feversham, which 
left the latter little choice but to disband his 
forces (KEXXETT, iii. 500 ; cf. BURXET, iii. 
345 ). James took many precautions to con- 
ceal his plan, and assured the city authorities- 
of his intention to remain (MACATJLAY, ii. 
546). At the same time he confided nine 
volumes of manuscript memoirs to Terriesi, 
the Tuscan ambassador, together with three 
thousand guineas (Life, ii. 242-4 ; cf. Les 
derniers Stuarts, ii. 377). On the morning of 
11 Dec., between two and three o'clock, the 
king left Whitehall by a secret passage. A 
hackney coach, in which Sir Edward Hales 
was waiting, carried him to Millbank, whence 
he crossed to Vauxhall. From the place where 
it was afterwards found the great seal was 



James II i 

there supposed to have been thrown by him 
into the river (RERESBY, p. 421, is clearly in 
error). He continued his journey in a car- 
riage to Sheerness, where he had appointed a 
custom-house hoy to be in readiness. ' With 
this,' says Burnet (iii. 345), ' his reign ended.' 

James did not venture to reveal himself to 
the commander of the hoy. Moreover a gale 
was blowing ; ballast had to be taken in ; and 
thus it was that at 11 P.M., when the vessel 
was on the point of putting out again from 
Sheppey Island, she was boarded by fifty 
or sixty fishermen (RERESBY). James was 
roughly handled, was brought to Faversham, 
where his identity was discovered, and es- 
corted by 'seamen and rabble' to the mayor's 
house. He was detained there for two days 
under arrest (Life, ii. 251-6; Hist. MSS. 
Comm. App. to 5th Rep. (1876) p. 319). 

The news of the king's detention arrived 
in London 13 Dec., in a letter unaddressed 
but written in his own hand. The council 
of lords under Halifax immediately des- j 
patched Feversham with a troop of life-guards 
to set him at liberty. Middleton and a few 
others sent by the lords found their way to 
him even sooner. James was allowed to 
take his departure to Rochester, but William 
sent Zuylesteen to bid him remain there. On 
the afternoon of the intervening Sunday 
(16 Dec.) James was back in London. Ac- 
counts differ as to his reception (MACATILAY, 
ii. 572 n. ; Life, ii. 272 ; Clarendon Corre- 
spondence, ii. 230 ; Diary of Sir Patrick 
Hume, ib., 231 n. ; see also Dartmouth MSS. 
p. 244), but it raised his spirits for the 
moment. After his arrival he went to mass 
and dined in public, a Jesuit saying grace 
(EVELYN, iii. 6J ). He also held a council, 
at which he ' refused all proposals ' (ib.) But 
he assented to the introduction of William's 
Dutch guards into St. James's (Clarendon 
Correspondence, ii. 226 n. ; cf. MACATJLAY, ii. 
574) ; declined to reassemble his disbanded 
army, and told Balcarres and Dundee, who 
had come from Scotland with projects of aid, 
that he was bound for France (Memoirs of 
Colin, Earl of Balcarres, pp. xv-xvi ; Les 
derniers Stuarts, ii. 431 ; MAZURE, iv. 71). 
The lords at Windsor, 10 Dec., concluded that 
he should take up his abode outside London. 
On 17 Dec. James was sent back to Rochester. 

Here he received numerous messages en- 
treating him to yield, including an address 
from the primate and the bishops (Life, ii. 
270-2) ; Middleton and Dundee advised him 
to stay. On the night of the 22nd he left 
Rochester with Berwick, passing by a back 
door to the Medway, and on the morning 
of the 23rd boarded a smack which took 
him out of the Thames (BERWICK, p. 334). 

VOL. 



3 of England 

He left behind him a paper, in which he 
charged the Prince of Orange with having, 
while posting his own guards at Whitehall, 
given him