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DICTIONARY 

OF 

NATIONAL BIOGRAPHY 

M ALTHUS MASON 




\) 

1 DICTIONARY 



OF 



NATIONAL BIOGRAPHY 



EDITED BY 

SIDNEY LEE 



VOL. XXXVI. 
MALTHUS MASON 



TM1 



MACMILLAN AND CO. 

LONDON : SMITH, ELDER, & CO. 
1893 



18 

4- 
18S5 



DICTIONARY 



OF 



NATIONAL BIOGRAPHY 



Malthus 



Malthus 



MALTHIJS, THOMAS ROBERT (1766- 
1834), political economist, second son of 
Daniel Malthus, was born on 17 Feb. 1766 
at his father's house, the Rookery, near Guild- 
ford. Daniel's eldest son, Sydenham. Malthus, 
grandfather of Colonel Sydenham Malthus, 
C.B., died in 1821, in his sixty-eighth year. 
Daniel Malthus, born in 1730, entered Queen's 
College, Oxford, in 1747, but did not gra- 
duate. He lived quietly among his books, 
and wrote some useful but anonymous pieces 
(OTTEK, p. xxii). He had some acquaint- 
ance with Rousseau, and according to Otter 
became his executor. He was an ardent be- 
liever in the ' perfectibility of mankind,' as 
expounded by Condorcet and Godwin (ib. 
p. xxxviii), and some ' peculiar opinions ' about 
education were perhaps derived from the 
' Emile.' He was impressed by his son's abi- 
lities, and undertook the boy's early educa- 
tion himself. He afterwards selected rather 
remarkable teachers. In 1776 Robert (as he 
was generally called) became a pupil of 
Richard Graves (1715-1804) [q. v.], well 
known as the author of the ' Spiritual 
Quixote,' 1772, a coarse satire upon the me- 
thodists. Malthus's love of * fighting for 
fighting's 5>u,_ f J/| ip. least malice, and 

his keen sense of humuu*, ' -"ribed by 

Graves to the father (ib. p. XXA,, and he 
appears to have been afterwards a cricketer 
and a skater (ib. p. xxv), and fond of row- 
ing (Ricardo's Letters to Malthus, p. 158). 
He kept up his friendship for Graves, and 
attended his old schoolmaster's deathbed as a 
clergyman. He was afterwards a pupil of Gil- 
bert Wakefield, who became classical master 
of the dissenting academy at Warrington in 
1779. Malthus attended the academy for 

VOL. xxxvi. 



a time, and after its dissolution in 1783 re- 
mained with Wakefield till he went to college. 
A letter appended to Wake field's 'Life' (ii. 
454 - 63) is attributed by Mr. Bonar to Malthus, 
and if so Malthus highly respected his tutor, 
and kept up a long friendship with him. On 
8 June 1784 Malthus was entered a pensioner 
of Jesus College, Cambridge, of which Wake- 
field had been a fellow, and probably began 
residence in October. One of his tutors was 
William Trend [q. v.], who, like Wakefield, 
became a Unitarian. Malthus read history, 
poetry, and modern languages, obtained prizes 
for Latin and Greek declamations, and was 
ninth wrangler in the mathematical tripos 
of 1788. After graduating he seems to have 
pursued his studies at his father's house and at 
Cambridge. On 10 June 1793 (not in 1797) 
he was elected to a fellowship at Jesus, and 
was one of the fellows who on 23 June 1794 
made an order that the name of S. T. Cole- 
ridge should be taken off the boards unless 
he returned and paid his tutor's bill. He 
held his fellowship until his marriage, but 
only resided occasionally (information from 
the Master of Jesus). He took his M.A. 
degree in 1791, and in 1798 he was in holy 
orders, -and held a curacy at Albury, Surrey. 
Malthus's opinions were meanwhile develop- 
ing in a direction not quite accordant with 
those of his father and his teachers. He wrote 
a pamphlet called 'The Crisis' in 1796, but 
at his father's request refrained from print- 
ing it. Some passages are given by Otter 
and Empson. He attacked Pitt from the 
whig point of view, but supported the poor- 
law schemes then under consideration in 
terms which imply that he had not yet 
worked out his theory of population. God- 



Malthus 



Malthus 



win's * Enquirer/ published in 1797, led to 
discussions between Malthus and his father 
about some of the questions already handled 
by the same author in his ' Political Justice/ 
1793. Malthus finally resolved to put his 
reasons upon paper for the sake of clearness. 
He was thus led to write the ' Essay on 
Population/ published anonymously in 1798. 
Godwin had dreamt of a speedy millennium 
of universal equality and prosperity. He 
had already briefly noticed in his ' Political 
Justice' the difficulties arising from an ex- 
cessive stimulus to population. Malthus 
brought them out more forcibly and systema- 
tically. He laid down his famous principle 
that population increases in a geometrical, 
and subsistence only in an arithmetical ratio, 
and argued that population is necessarily 
limited by the ' checks ' of vice and misery. 
The pamphlet attracted much notice. Mal- 
thus was replying to an ' obliging' letter from 
Godwin in August 1798 (PAUL, Godwin, i. 
321). In 1801 Godwin replied to Malthus 
(as well as to Parr and Mackintosh) in his 
* Thoughts on Dr. Parr's Spital Sermon.' He 
was both courteous and ready to make some 
concessions to Malthus. Malthus soon came 
to see, as his letter to Godwin already indi- 
cates, that a revision of his arguments was 
desirable. In 1799 he travelled in order to 
collect information. He went with E. D. 
Clarke [q. v.], J. M. Cripps [q. v.], and Wil- 
liam Otter [q. v.] to Hamburg, and thence 
to Sweden, where the party separated. Mal- 
thus and Otter went through Sweden to 
Norway, Finland, and Russia. Malthus added 
some notes to the later editions of Clarke's 
'Travels.' His father died in 1800. In 1802 
he took advantage of the peace to visit France 
and Switzerland. In 1800 he had published 
a tract upon the ' High Price of Provisions/ 
and promised in the conclusion a new edi- 
tion of his essay. This, which appeared in 
June 1803, was a substantially new book, 
containing the results of his careful inquiries 
on the continent and his wide reading of 
the appropriate literature. He now expli- 
citly and fully recognised the ' prudential ' 
check implicitly contained to some degree in 
the earlier essay, and repudiated the imputa- 
tion to which the earlier book had given 
some plausibility. The 'checks 'no longer 
appeared as insuperable obstacles to all social 
improvement, but as defining the dangers 
which must be avoided if improvement is 
to be achieved. He always rejected some 
doctrines really put forward by Condorcet 
which have been fathered upon him by later 
Malthusians. He made converts, and was 
especially proud (EMPSON) of having con- 
vinced Pitt and Paley. 



On 13 March 1804 Malthus married Harriet, 
daughter of John Eckersall of Claverton 
House, St. Catherine's, near Bath. At the 
end of 1805 he became professor of history 
and political economy at the newly founded 
college of Haileybury. He took part in the 
services of the college chapel, and he gave 
lectures on political economy, which, as he 
declares, the hearers not only understood, 
but ' did not even find dull.' The lectures 
led him to consider the problem of rent. The 
theory at which he arrived is partly indicated 
in two pamphlets upon the corn laws, pub- 
lished in 1814 and 1815, and is fully given in 
the tract upon i The Nature and Progress of 
Rent' (which was being printed in January 
1815). The doctrine thus formulated has 
been generally accepted by later economists. 
A similar view had been taken by James 
Anderson (1739-1808) [q. v.] The same 
doctrine was independently reached by Sir 
Edward West, and stated in his ' Essay on 
the Application of Capital to Land ... by a 
Fellow of University College, Oxford/ pub- 
lished in the same year as Malthus's pam- 
phlet. Ricardo, in an essay on ' The Influ- 
ence of a Low Price of Corn on the Profits 
of Stock/ while replying to the two tracts in 
which Malthus had advocated some degree of 
protection, substantially accepted the theory 
of rent, although they differed upon certain 
questions involved (see BONAR, pp. 238-45). 
Malthus's ' Political Economy/ published in 
1820, sums up the opinions to which he had 
been led upon various topics, and explains 
his differences from Ricardo, but is not a 
systematic treatment of the subject. 

Malthus lived quietly at Haileybury for 
the rest of his life. He visited Ireland in 
1817, and in 1825, after the loss of a daugh- 
ter, travelled on the continent for his own 
health and his wife's. He was elected F.R.S. 
in 1819. In 1821 he became a member of 
the Political Economy Club, founded in that 
year by Thomas Tooke ; James Mill, Grote, 
and Ricardo being among his colleagues. 
Professor Bain says that the survivors long 
remembered the ' crushing' attacks of James 
Mill upon Malthus's speeches. He was elected 
in the beginning of 1824 one of the ten royal 
associates of the Royal Society of Literature, 
each of whom received a hundred guineas 
yearly during the life of George IV, Wil- 
liam IV declining to continue the subscrip- 
tion (JERDAN, Autobiography, iii. 159, 162). 
He contributed papers to the society in 1825 
and 1827 upon the measure of value. He was 
also one of the first fellows of the Statistical 
Society, founded in March 1834. He wrote 
several papers and revised his ' Political Eco- 
nomy' during this period, and he gave some 



Malthus 



Malthus 



evidence of importance before a committee 
of the House of Commons upon emigration 
in 1827, but added nothing remarkable to 
his previous achievements in political eco- 
nomy. 

Malthus died suddenly of heart disease on 
23 Dec. 1834, while spending Christmas with 
his wife and family at the house of Mr. Ecker- 
sall at St. Catherine's. He was buried in 
the Abbey Church at Bath. He left a son and 
a daughter. The son, Henry, became vicar 
of Effingham, Surrey, in 1835, and of Don- 
nington, near Chichester, in 1837. He died 
in August 1882, aged 76. Brougham as- 
serted (M. NAPIEK, Correspondence, p. 187) 
that he offered a living to Malthus, who de- 
clined it in favour of his son, ' who now has 
it' (31 Jan. 1837). 

Malthus was a member of the French In- 
stitute. He was elected in 1833 one of the 
five foreign associates of the Academie des 
Sciences Morales et Politiques, and a mem- 
ber of the Royal Academy of Berlin. A 
portrait by Linnell was engraved for the ' Dic- 
tionnaire de 1'Economie Politique ' (1853). 

Malthus appears to have been a singularly 
amiable man. Miss Martineau, in her ' Auto- 
biography ' (i. 327), gives a pleasant account 
of a visit to him at Haileybury in 1834. She 
says that although he had a * defect in the 
palate' which made his speech ' hopelessly 
imperfect,' he was the only friend whom 
she could hear without her trumpet. He 
had asked for an introduction, because, while 
other friends had defended him inj udiciously, 
she had interpreted him precisely as he could 
wish. (Mr. Bonar identifies the passage re- 
ferred to as that in ' A Tale of the Tyne,' 
p. 56.) He also told her (Autobiography, 
p. 211) that he had never cared for the abuse 
lavished upon his doctrine 'after the first fort- 
night,' and she says that he was when she 
knew him 'one of the serenest and most 
cheerful' of men. Otter says that during an 
intimacy of nearly fifty years he never saw 
Malthus ruffled or angry, and that in success 
he showed as little vanity as he had shown 
sensibility to abuse. Horner and Empson 
speak in similar terms of his candour and 
humanity. His life was devoted to spreading 
the doctrines which he held to be essential 
to the welfare of his fellows. He never aimed 
at preferment, and it would have required 
some courage to give it to a man whose doc- 
trines, according to the prevalent opinion, 
were specially unsuitable to the mouth of 
a clergyman, and therefore gained for him 
Cobbett's insulting title of ' Parson Malthus.' 

Politically he was a whig, though gene- 
rally moderate and always a lover of the 
'golden mean.' He supported catholic 



emancipation, and accepted the Reform Bill 
without enthusiasm. He objected to reli- 
gious tests, and supported both of the rival 
societies for education (HoE^ER, ii. 97). He 
was a theologian and moralist of the type 
of Paley. Though a utilitarian he did not, 
any more than Bentham, accept the abstract 
principle of laissez-faire which became the 
creed of Bentham's followers. He was in 
favour of factory acts and of national edu- 
cation. He was convinced, however, that 
the poor laws had done more harm than 
good, and this teaching had a great effect 
upon the authors of the Poor Law Bill of 
1834. In political economy Malthus ob- 
jected to the abstract methods of Ricardo 
and his school, although he was personally 
on the most friendly terms with Ricardo, 
and carried on a correspondence, Ricardo's 
share of which was edited by Mr. Bonar in 
1889. He followed Adam Smith in the con- 
stant reference to actual concrete facts. Mal- 
thus's doctrine of population had been antici- 
pated by others, especially by Robert Wallace, 
who had replied to Hume's 'Essay on the 
Populousness of Ancient Nations ' in 1753, 
and published in 1761 his 'Various Pro- 
spects of Mankind, Nature, and Providence.' 
In 1761 had also been published J. P. Siiss- 
milch's ' Gottliche Ordnung,' from which 
Malthus drew many statistics. In the pre- 
face to the second edition Malthus says that 
the only authors whom he had consulted for 
the past were Hume, Wallace, Adam Smith, 
and Dr. Price ; he had since found dis- 
cussions of the same topic in Plato and Aris- 
totle, in the works of the French economists, 
especially Montesquieu and in Franklin, Sir 
James Stewart, Arthur Young, and Joseph 
Townshend, the last of whom published in 
1786 a 'Dissertation on the Poor Laws/ and 
whose ' Travels in Spain' (1786-7) are no- 
ticed by Malthus as making a fresh exami- 
nation of the same country unnecessary. 

Although more or less anticipated, like 
most discoverers, Malthus gave a position to 
the new doctrine by his systematic exposition, 
which it has never lost. Francis Place [q. v.], 
the radical friend of James Mill, supported 
it in 1822 in ' Illustrations and Proofs of the 
Principle of Population.' It was accepted 
by all the economists of the Ricardo and 
Mill school, and Darwin states (Life, i. 63) 
that Malthus's essay first suggested to him 
the theory which in his hands made a famous 
epoch in modern thought. In spite of his own 
principles, Malthus had no doubt stated the 
doctrine in too abstract a form ; but the only 
question now concerns not its undeniable 
importance, but the precise position which it 
should occupy in any scientific theory of social 

B 2 



Malthus 



Malthus 



development. In his own time Malthus's 
theory was exposed to much abuse and mis- 
representation. He was attacked on one side 
by the whole revolutionary school, Godwin, 
Hazlitt, and Cobbett ; and on the other, for 
rather different reasons, by the conservatives, 
especially such ' sentimental ' conservatives 
as Coleridge and Southey. The * Edinburgh 
Review ' had supported Malthus ; while the 
' Quarterly,' after attacking him in 1812, had 
come round to him as an opponent of its 
worst enemies (see BONAR, p. 364). Among 
the opponents to whom Malthus himself 
replied may be noticed Godwin, who at- 
tacked him again in 1820, James Grahame 
(' Enquiry into the Principle of Population,' 
1816, which gives a list of previous writers 
at p. 71), JohnWeyland (' Principles of Popu- 
lation,' 1816), Arthur Young, and Robert 
Owen. A review by Southey in Aikin's 
' Annual Review ' for 1803 embodies notes 
by Coleridge in a copy of the second edition 
now in the British Museum (see BONAR, 
p. 374. Southey and Coleridge were living 
together at Keswick when the review was 
written. Southey claims the review, Life,&c,., 
1850, ii. 251, 284, 294). Among others maybe 
mentioned W. Hazlitt's ' Reply to Malthus,' 
1807 ; Michael T. Sadler's ' Treatise on the 
Law of Population ' (1830), answered by 
Macaulay in the ' Edinburgh Review ' for 
July 1830, and again, in answer to a reply 
from Sadler, in the ' Edinburgh ' for January 
1831 (MACAULAY, Miscellaneous Writings} ; 
Poulett Scrope, ' Principles of Political Eco- 
nomy ' (1833) ; Archibald Alison, ' Popula- 
tion ' (1840) ; and Thomas Doubleday, ' True 
Law of Population' (1842). Attacks by later 
socialists are in Marx's f Capital ' and Mr. 
Henry George's ' Progress and Poverty.' An 
argument as to the final cause of Malthus's 
law, which agrees in great part with a similar 
argument (afterwards omitted) in the first 
essay, was expounded by J. B. Sumner (after- 
wards archbishop of Canterbury) in ' A 
Treatise on the Records of Creation . 
with particular reference ... to the consis- 
tency of the principle of population with the 
wisdom and goodness of the Deity ' (2 vols 
8vo, 1816). 

Malthus's works are: 1. 'Essay on the 
Principle of Population as it affects the 
future Improvement of Society' (anon.) 
1798. The title in the second edition (1803' 
is, 'Essay on the Principle of Population, or 
a View of its Past and Present Effects on 
Human Happiness, with an Enquiry into our 
Prospects respecting the future Removal or 
Mitigation of the Evils which it occasions. 
The third edition (1806) contains various 
alterations mentioned in the preface; the 



burth (1807) is apparently a reprint of the 
hird; the fifth (1817) recasts the articles 
ipon rent ; the sixth (and last in his lifetime) 
ippeared in 1826. A seventh edition was 
ublished in 1872 ; and an edition, with life, 
nalysis, &c., by G. T. Bettany, in 1890. 2. < On 
:he High Price of Provisions,' 1 800. 3. ' Letter 
:o Samuel Whitbread, M.P., on his proposed 
3ill for the Amendment of the Poor Laws,' 
L807. 4. * Letter to Lord Granville . . .' (in 
defence of Haileybury), 1813. 5. < Obser- 
vations on the Effects of the Corn Laws,' 1814. 
3. ' Grounds of an Opinion on the Policy of 
Restricting the Importation of Foreign Corn,' 
1815. 7. ' An Inquiry into the Nature and 
Progress of Rent, Principles by which it is 
regulated,' 1815. 8. ' Statements respecting 
the East India College . . .' (fuller ex- 
planation of No. 4), 1817. 9. ' Principles of 
Political Economy considered with a View to 
their Practical Application/ 1820 (2nd ed. re- 
vised, with memoir by Otter, 1836). 10. 'The 
Measure of Value stated and illustrated, 
with an Application of it to the Alteration 
in the Value of the English Currency since 
1790,' 1823. 11. Article on 'Population' in 
supplement to the 'Encyclopaedia Britan- 
nica,' 1824; reissued with little alteration as 
' Summary View of the Principle of Popu- 
lation,' 1830. 12. ' On the Measure of the 
Conditions necessary to the Supply of Com- 
modities,' 1825, and ' On the Meaning which 
is most usually and most correctly attached 
to the term Value of Commodities,' 1827, 
two papers in the 'Transactions of the Royal 
Society of Literature.' 13. ' Definitions in 
Political Economy,' 1827. Malthus contri- 
buted to the ' Edinburgh Review ' of July 
1808 an article upon Newenham's ' Popula- 
tion of Ireland,' and some others (see ESIP- 
SON), including probably an article upon the 
bullion question in February 1811. He 
wrote another upon the same question in 
the ' Quarterly Review ' of April 1823 (see 
BONAE, p. 285), and reviewed McCulloch's 
' Political Economy ' in the ' Quarterly ' for 
January 1824. A correspondence with Mal- 
thus, which forms the appendix to two lec- 
tures on population by N. W. Senior (1829), 
is of some importance in regard to Malthus's 
opinions. 

[Malthus and his "Work, by James Bonar, 1885, 
gives a full and excellent account of Malthus's life 
and works, with references to all the authorities. 
The chief original authorities for the biography 
are a life by W. Otter, afterwards bishop of 
Chichester, prefixed to the second edition of the 
Political Economy (1836), and an article by 
Empson in the Edinburgh Review for January 
1837, pp. 469-506. See also Miss Martineau's 
Autobiography, i. 209-11, 327-9; Homer's Me- 



Malton 



Malton 



moirs, 2nd ed. 1853, i. 433, 446, 463, ii. 69, 97, 
220, 222 ; Charles Comte's Notice Historique sur 
la vie et lestravaux, in Transactions of the Acad. 
des Sciences Morales et Politiques, 28 Dec. 1836; 
Dictionnaire de 1'Economie Politique, 1853; 
Macvey Napier's Correspondence, 1879, pp. 29, 
31, 33, 187, 198, 226, 231 ; Eicardo's Letters to 
Malthus (Bonar), 1889.] L. S. 

MALTON, THOMAS, the elder (1726- 
1801), architectural draughtsman and writer 
on geometry, born in London in 1726, is 
stated to have originally kept an upholsterer's 
shop in the Strand. He contributed two 
drawings of St. Martin's Church to the ex- 
hibition of the Free Society of Artists in 
1761, and also architectural drawings to the 
exhibitions of the Incorporated Society of 
Artists in 1766 and 1768. In 1772 and the 
following years he sent architectural draw- 
ings to the Royal Academy. In 1774 he 
published * The Royal Road to Geometry ; or 
an easy and familiar Introduction to the 
Mathematics,' a school-book intended as an 
improvement on Euclid, and in 1775 * A 
Compleat Treatise on Perspective in Theory 
and Practice, on the Principles of Dr. Brook 
Taylor.' He appears to have given lectures 
on perspective at his house in Poland Street, 
Soho. Subsequently, owing to pecuniary 
embarrassment, it is said, Malton removed 
to Dublin, where he lived for many years, 
and obtained some note as a lecturer on geo- 
metry. He died at Dublin on 18 Feb. 1801, 
in his seventy-fifth year. There are four 
drawings by him in the South Kensington 
Museum. 

His eldest son, Thomas Malton the 
younger, is noticed separately. 

MALTON, JAMES (d. 1803), architectural 
draughtsman and author, was another son. 
He accompanied his father to Ireland. Like 
his father, he was a professor of perspective 
and geometry, and, like his brother, produced 
some very fine tinted architectural drawings. 
In 1797 he published l A Picturesque and 
Descriptive View of the City of Dublin,' 
from drawings taken by himself in 1791-5. 
In 1795 he published ' An Essay on British 
Cottage Architecture ; ' in 1800 a practical 
treatise on perspective, entitled ' The Young 
Painter's Maulstick,' and in 1802 ' A Col- 
lection of Designs for Rural Retreats or 
Villas.' Malton died of brain fever in Norton 
(nowBolsover) Street, Marylebone, on 28 July 
1803. There are specimens of his drawings in 
the British and South Kensington Museums. 

[Eedgrave's Diet, of Artists; Graves' s Diet, 
of Artists, 1760-1880; Pasquin's Artists of Ire- 
land ; Gent. Mag. 1801 i. 277, 1803 ii. 791, 
1804 i. 283 ; Catalogues of the Royal Academy, 
&c.] L. C. 



MALTON, THOMAS, the younger 
(1748-1804), architectural draughtsman, son 
of Thomas Malton the elder [q.v.l, was 
born in 1748, probably in London. He was 
with his father during the latter's residence 
in Dublin, and then passed three years in the 
office of James Gandon [q. v.], the architect, 
in London. In 1774 Malton received a pre- 
mium from the Society of Arts, and in 1782 
gained the Academy gold medal for a design 
for a theatre. In 1773 he sent to the Aca- 
demy a view of Covent Garden, and was 
afterwards a constant exhibitor, chiefly of 
views of London streets and buildings, drawn 
in Indian ink and tinted ; in these there is 
little attempt at pictorial effect, but their 
extreme accuracy in the architectural details 
renders them of great interest and value as 
topographical records; they are enlivened 
with groups of figures, in which Malton is 
said to have been assisted by F. Wheatley. 
After leaving Ireland, Malton appears to 
have always lived in London, with the ex- 
ception of a brief stay at Bath in 1780 ; 
from 1783 to 1789 he resided in Conduit 
Street, and at an evening drawing-class which 
he held there, received as pupils Thomas Gir- 
tin and young J.M. W. Turner, whose father 
brought him to be taught perspective. In 
after-life Turner often said, ' My real master 
was Tom Malton.' In 1791 Malton removed 
to Great Titchfield Street, and finally, in 1796, 
to Long Acre. He made a few of the draw- 
ings for Watts's ' Seats of the Nobility and 
Gentry,' 1779, &c., and executed some large 
aquatints of buildings in the metropolis and 
Bath, being one of the first to avail himself 
of the newly introduced art of aquatinta for 
the purpose of multiplying copies of his 
views. He also painted some successful scenes 
for Covent Garden Theatre. In 1792 Malton 
published the work by which he is now best 
known, ' A Picturesque Tour through the 
Cities of London and Westminster,' illus- 
trated with a hundred aquatint plates. At 
the time of his death he was engaged upon 
a similar series of views of Oxford, some of 
which appeared in parts in 1802, and were re- 
issued with others in 1810. Malton died in 
Long Acre on 7 March 1804, leaving a widow 
and six children. His portrait, painted by 
Gilbert Stuart, was engraved by W. Barney 
in 1806 ; and a portrait of his son Charles, 
when a child, drawn by Sir T. Lawrence, has 
been engraved by F. C. Lewis. The South 
KensingtonMuseum possesses three character- 
istic examples of Malton's art, and a fine view 
by him of the interior of St. Paul's Cathedral 
is in the print room at the British Museum. 

[Redgrave's Diet, of Artists ; Thornbury's 
Life of Turner, 1862 ; Universal Cat. of Books 



Maltravers 



Maltravers 



on Art; Gent. Mag. 1804, i. 283 ; Imperial Diet. 
of Bio. pt. xiii. p. 295 ; Royal Academy Cata- 
logues.] F. M. O'D. 

MALTRAVERS, JOHN, BAEON MAL- 
TKAVEES (1290 P-1365), was son of SIR JOHN 
MALTRAVERS (1266-1343 ?) of Lytchett Ma- 
travers, Dorset, who was himself son of John 
Maltravers (d. 1296), and a descendant of 
Hugh Maltravers, who held lands at Lytchett 
in 1086. The father was knighted with Ed- 
ward, prince of Wales, on 12 May 1306 ; was 
a conservator of the peace for Dorset in 1307, 
1308, and 1314 ; served in Scotland on various 
occasions between 1314 and 1322, and was 
summoned to go to Ireland in February 1317 
to resist Edward Bruce, and in 1325 for service 
in Guienne. He was again summoned for ser- 
vice in Scotland in 1327 and 1331, and in 
1338 had orders to guard his manors near 
the sea against invasion. The statement that 
he was ever summoned to parliament ap- 
pears to be inaccurate. He died between 
7 Sept. 1342 and 2 July 1344, having mar- 
ried (1) Alianor before 1292, and (2) Joan, 
daughter of Sir Walter Foliot. John was 
his son by his first wife. Dugdale confuses 
father and son. 

John Maltravers the younger was born 
about 1290, and was knighted on the same 
occasion as his father, 12 May 1306. He is 
said to have been taken prisoner at Bannock- 
burn in 1314. On 20 Oct. 1318 he was chosen 
knight of the shire for Dorset. He seems to 
have sided with Thomas, earl of Lancaster [see 
THOMAS], and was throughout his early career 
an intimate associate of Roger Mortimer, earl 
of March (d. 1330) [q. v.] In September 1321 
he received pardon for felonies committed in 
pursuit of the Despensers, but in the follow- 
ing December is described as the king's 
enemy (Part. Writs, i. 192, ii. 165, 172). In 
the spring of 1322 he was in arms against 
the king, and attacked and burnt the town 
of Bridgnorth. He was present at the battle 
of Boroughbridge on 16 March, and after 
the execution of Earl Thomas fled over sea 
(ib. ii. 174-5, 201). He would appear to 
have come back with Mortimer and the 
queen in October 1326, for he received re- 
stitution of his lands on 17 Feb. 1327, and 
on 27 March had a grant out of the lands 
of Hugh Despenser. On 3 April he was 
appointed one of the keepers of the deposed 
king, the other being Thomas Berkeley. 
Murimuth and Baker say that while 
Berkeley acted with humanity, Maltravers 
treated his prisoner with much harshness. 
Murimuth says that Edward was killed by 
order of Maltravers and Thomas Gourney 
[see under GOURNEY, SIR MATTHEW], but 
from the circumstance that in 1330 Mal- 



travers was condemned, not for this but 
for another crime, it would appear that he 
was not directly responsible for Edward's 
death. Edward was murdered on 21 Sept. 
1327. Maltravers and Berkeley remained in 
charge of the body till its burial at Gloucester 
on 21 Oct. (see their accounts in Archaeologia, 
1. 223-6). 

During the next few years Maltravers was 
employed on frequent commissions of oyer 
and terminer, the most important occasion 
being in February 1329, when, with Oliver de 
Ingham [q. v.] and others, he was appointed 
to try those who had supported Henry, earl 
of Lancaster [see HENRY], in his intended 
rising at Bedford ( Chron. Edward I and II, 
i. 243). He was also on several occasions a 
justice in eyre for the forests (cf. Gal. Pat. 
Rolls of Edward III}, and was in 1329 made 
keeper of the forests south of Trent. On 
4 April 1329 the pardon granted to him two 
years previously was confirmed, in considera- 
tion of his services to Queen Isabella and the 
king at home and abroad. In May he accom- 
panied the young king to France. He is 
on this occasion spoken of as seneschal or 
steward, and next year he appears as steward 
of the royal household (ib. p. 517). About the 
same time he had a grant of the forfeited 
lands of John Gifford of Brimsfield. Mal- 
travers was actively concerned in the cir- 
cumstances which led to the death of Ed- 
mund, earl of Kent [see EDMUND], in March 
1330, and was on the commission appointed 
for the discovery of his adherents (ib. p. 556). 
On 5 June 1330 he was summoned to parlia- 
ment as Baron Maltravers ; he was already 
described as 'John Maltravers, baron,' in 
November 1329 (ib. p. 477). On 24 Sept. he 
was appointed constable of Corfe Castle, but 
on the fall of Mortimer shortly afterwards, 
Maltravers, like the other supporters of the 
queen-mother and her paramour, was dis- 
graced. In the parliament held in November 
he was condemned to death as a traitor on 
account of his share in the death of the 
Earl of Kent. On 3 Dec. orders were given 
for his arrest, to prevent his going abroad 
(Fcedera, ii. 801), but he managed to escape 
to Germany, and lived there and elsewhere 
in Europe for many years (MUEIMUTH, p. 54). 
He would appear to have chiefly spent his 
time in Flanders, where he seems to have 
acquired considerable wealth and sufficient 
influence to make it worth the while of 
Philip of France to offer him a large bribe 
for his services. But, apparently during the 
troubles which attended the death of Jacob 
van Artevelde, he lost all his goods and suf- 
fered much oppression. When Edward III 
came to Flanders in July 1345, Maltravers 



Maltravers 



Malvern 



met him at Swyn, and petitioned for leave 
to return to England, pleading that he had 
been condemned unheard. In consideration 
of the great service he had done the king in 
Flanders, he was granted the royal pro- 
tection on 5 Aug., and allowed to return to 
England (Feeder a ^ iii. 56 ; Rolls of Parl. ii. 
173 a}. The confirmation of his pardon was 
delayed owing to his employment in 1346 on 
urgent business abroad, but the protection 
was renewed on 28 Dec. 1347 (Fccdera, iii. 
146). In June 1348 he was sent on a mission 
to the commonalties of Ghent, Bruges, and 
Ypres (ib. iii. 162). Final restitution of his 
honour and lands was not made till 8 Feb. 
1352 (Rolls of Parl. ii. 243). He was governor 
of the Channel Islands in 1351. A John 
Maltravers fought at Crecy and Poictiers, 
but there were other persons of the same 
name (e.g. his own son, and a cousin, Sir 
John Maltravers of Crowell), and it is not 
clear which is meant. Maltravers died on 
16 Feb. 1365, and was buried at Lytchett. 

Maltravers married (1) Ela or Eva, 
daughter of Maurice, lord Berkeley, and 
sister of the keeper of Edward II, and (2) 
Agnes, daughter of Sir William Bereford. 
Maltravers's second wife had previously 
married both Sir John de Argentine (d. 
1318) and Sir John de Nerford (d. 1329). 
She died after 1374, and was buried at Grey- 
friars, London (Coll. Top. et Gen.} By his 
first wife he had a son John, who died 13 Oct. 
1350 (1360 according to NICOLAS), leaving 
by his wife Wensliana a son Henry and two 
daughters, Joan and Eleanor. Henry Mal- 
travers died before his grandfather, at whose 
death the barony fell into abeyance, between 
his granddaughters, Joan, who was twice 
married but left no children, and Eleanor, 
who married John Fitzalan, second son of 
Richard, third earl of Arundel. John Fitz- 
alan, her grandson, succeeded as sixth earl 
of Arundel in 1415, and Thomas, son and 
heir of William, ninth earl, sat in parliament 
during his father's life, from 1471 to 1488, as 
Baron Maltravers. Mary, daughter of the 
twelfth earl, carried the title to Philip 
Howard, fourth duke of Norfolk. In 1628 
the barony of Maltravers was by act of par- 
liament annexed to the earldom of Arundel, 
and the title is consequently still held by 
the Duke of Norfolk. 

Maltravers re-founded in 1351 the hospital 
of Bowes at St. Peter's Port in Guernsey 
(DUGDALE, Monasticon, vi. 711). His name 
is usually given by contemporary writers as 
Mautravers or Matravers. 

[Murimuth's Chronicle (Rolls Ser.); Baker's 
Chronicle, ed. E. M. Thompson ; Rolls of Par- 
liament ; Parliamentary Writs ; Calendar of 



Patent Rolls, Edward III, 1327-30; Rymer's 
Fcedera (Record edit.) ; Dugdale's Baronage, 
ii. 101 ; Hutchins's Dorset, ii. 315-21 ; Collec- 
tanea Top. et Gen. v. 150-4 ; Nicolas's Historic 
Peerage, pp. 308-9, ed. Courthope.] C. L. K. 

MALVERN, WILLIAM OF, alias PAB- 
KEK (f,. 1535), last abbot of St. Peter's, Glou- 
cester, was born between 1485 and 1490, and 
is said to have been of the family of Parker 
of Hasfield in Gloucestershire. He was pro- 
bably educated at the Benedictine abbey of 
Gloucester, and was sent by the monks to 
Gloucester Hall, Oxford, where he suppli- 
cated for leave to use a 'typett,' 17 April 
1507, being at that time B.C.L. He suppli- 
cated for the university degrees of D.C.L. 
29 Jan. 1507-8, B.D. *1 July 1511, D.D. 
17 May 1514 ; he was not admitted to the 
degree of D.D. until 5 May 1515. Meanwhile 
he had returned to Gloucester, and entered 
the Benedictine order at St. Peter's Abbey. 
Under the abbot John Newton, alias Brown, 
Malvern was supervisor of the works, and 
acquired a taste for building, which he was 
afterwards able to gratify. On 4 May 1514 
he was elected abbot, and in that capacity fre- 
quently attended parliament. Wolsey visited 
the abbey in 1525 and found the revenues to 
be just over a thousand pounds. Malvern 
added a good deal to the buildings. He re- 
paired and in part rebuilt the abbot's house 
(now the palace) in the city, and also the 
country house at Prinknash. At Barnwood 
he built the tower, and in the cathedral the 
vestry at the north end of the cross aisle 
and the chapel where he was buried. He is 
said to have been opposed to Henry VIII's 
ecclesiastical policy, but he paid 500/. as the 
prcemunire composition, and on 31 Aug. 1534 
he subscribed to the supremacy. He seems 
also to have been friendly with Rowland 
Lee [q. v.], bishop of Coventry, and attended 
him when he was doing his best to sup- 
port Henry's views (Letters and Papers of 
Henry Fill, ed. Gairdner, viii. 915). Henry 
himself seems to have been at Gloucester in 
1535. During the year Malvern was charged 
by an anonymous accuser with having tried 
to hush up the scandal connected with Llan- 
thony Abbey, about which Dr. Parker, the 
chancellor of Worcester, perhaps a kinsman 
of Malvern, had been appealed to in vain. 
The accusation is preserved in the Record 
Office. St. Peter's Abbey surrendered 2 Dec. 
1539, and the deed was signed by the prior, 
but not by Malvern. He does not seem to 
have had a pension, and this gives credibility 
to the account that at the dissolution he re- 
tired to Hasfield, and there died very shortly 
afterwards. He was buried in the chapel he 
had built on the north side of the choir of 



Malverne 



8 



Malvoisin 



Gloucester Cathedral ; his tomb is an altar- 
monument with a figure in white marble. 

Malvern wrote in 1524 an account in 
English verse of the foundation of his mo- 
nastery, which Hearne printed in his edition 
of * Robert of Gloucester ' from a manuscript 
at Caius College, Cambridge. 

[Letters and Papers of Henry VIII, ed. Gaird- 
ner; Hart's Histor. et Cartul. Monast. S. Petri 
Glouces. (KollsSer.\ iii. 296, 305, 307; Gasquet's 
Henry VIII and the Engl. Monasteries ; Tanner s 
Bibl. Brit. ; Dugdale's Monasticon, i. 536 ; Le- 
land's Itin. iv. 77 ; Rudder's Hist, of Gloucester- 
shire, p. 138 ; Hearne's Kobert of Gloucester, 
Pref. p. vi, and ii. 578 sqq.] W. A. J. A. 

MALVERNE, JOHN (d. 1415 ?), his- 
torian, was according to Pits a student of 
Oriel College, Oxford; he was a monk of 
Worcester, and is no doubt the John Mal- 
verne who was sacrist, and became prior, 
19 Sept. 1395 (Liber Aldus, f. 3806). There 
was a John Malverne who was ordained aco- 
lyte in Worcester in 1373 (Reg. Prior, et 
Conv. Wigorn. f. 171 ft). As prior of Wor- 
cester he was present in 1410 at the trial of 
the lollard, John Badby [q. v.], before the 
diocesan court (FoxE, Acts and Monuments, 
iii. 236). He seems to have died in or before 
1415. Malverne was the author of a con- 
tinuation of Higden's l Poly chroni con ' from 
1346 to 1394, which is printed in the edition 
in the Rolls Series, viii. 356-428, iv. 1-283 
from MS. 197 at Corpus Christi College, Cam- 
bridge : it is a work of considerable value. 
Stow makes him the author of ' Piers Plow- 
man,' an error in which he is followed by 
Tanner [see LANGLAND, WILLIAM]. Prior 
Malverne's register from 1395 as far as 1408 
is continued in the ' Liber Albus,' ff. 380-435, 
preserved in the muniments of the Worcester 
Cathedral chapter. The historian is clearly a 
different person from his contemporary and 
namesake the physician, 

MALVERXE, JOHN (d. 1422 ?), who was 
perhaps the true alumnus of Oriel. He is 
said to have been a doctor of medicine (Digby 
MS. 147), and of theology (NEWCOTJRT, i. 
134). He was made rector of St. Dunstan's- 
in-the-East, London, on 8 March 1402, and 
received the prebend of Chamberlainwood 
at St. Paul's, 8 Jan. 1405 ; he also held the 

Srebend of Holy well there, and may be the 
ohn Malverne who was made canon of 
Windsor, 20 March 1408 (LE NEVE, Fasti, 
iii. 384). He was present at the examination 
of William Thorpe [q. v.] in 1407, and took 
part in the controversy. He is described as 
a ' phisician that was called Malueren per- 
son of St. Dunstan's' (FoxE, Acts and Monu- 
ments, iii. 251, 274-5, 278-80). He seems 
to have died early in 1422. He is no doubt 



the author of a treatise ' De Remediis Spiri- 
tualibus et Corporalibus contra Pestilentiam,' 
inc. * Nuper fuit quedam scedula publice 
conspectui affixa continens consilia' in Digby 
MS. 147, ff. 53ft-56a, in the Bodleian Li- 
brary. This tract also appears in Sloane 
MS. 57, ff 186-8 at the British Museum as 
1 Consiliurn contra Pestem,' but there begins 
' Ipsius auxilio devocius invocato.' 

[Pits, p. 878 ; Tanner's Bibl. Brit.-Hib. p. 504 ; 
Lumby's Pref. to the Polychronicon; Newcourt's 
Repertorium, i. 134, 160,233; information kindly 
supplied by E. L. Poole, esq.] C. L. K. 

MALVOISIN, WILLIAM (d. 1238), 
chancellor of Scotland and archbishop of 
St. Andrews, was of Norman origin, and was 
said to have been educated in France. He 
became one of the clerici regis in Scotland, and 
he was made chancellor of Scotland in Sep- 
tember 1 199. During the following month he 
was elected bishop of Glasgow. Subsequently, 
while at Lyons, he was ordained priest and 
consecrated to the see of Glasgow 23 Sept. 
1200 by John Belmeis [q. v.], archbishop of 
Lyons, at the order of Innocent III. He 
landed at Dover on his return home on 1 Feb. 
following. He was a frequent correspondent 
of the Archbishop of Lyons, one of whose 
letters to him, written about this time, has 
been reproduced by Mabillon in his ' Ana- 
lecta,' p. 429. The letter contains two 
replies made to inquiries by Malvoisin : 
one referring to the working of the consis- 
torial courts in the diocese of Lyons, ' de 
temporali regimine ecclesiae Lugdunensis ; ' 
and the other as to how far those in holy 
orders ought to take part in civil disputes or 
to bear arms a question which the arch- 
bishop answered wholly in the negative. 
In 1201 he, as bisbop, was party to an 
arrangement, made in confirmation of one 
previously existing, in presence of the papal 
legate, John de St. Stephanus, at Perth, by 
which the monks of Kelso held the property 
of the churches within that borough free from 
dues or charges of any kind. In 1202 Mal- 
voisin was transferred on the king's recom- 
mendation to the archbishopric of St. An- 
drews, lie showed much wisdom and energy 
in ruling the church. Many rights and pri- 
vileges that had lapsed through the remiss- 
ness of his predecessors were vindicated anew 
by him and zealously defended. He was in 
constant communication with the holy see, 
asking instructions on points of doctrine, 
forms of procedure, or legal opinions, such as 
whether or no he could allow proof by wit- 
nesses in establishing contracts of marriage. 
A long-standing dispute between the see 
of St. Andrews and Duncan of Arbuthnot 
regarding the kirklands of Arbuthnot was 



Malvoisin 



Malynes 



settled, after inquiry by the legate and the 
king. A bull of Innocent III, addressed to 
Duncan in July 1203, describes the settle- 
ment as a compromise. Other authorities 
state that it was in favour of the bishop. 
Malvoisin, who was abroad during the greater 
part of 1205, was afterwards confirmed in 
all his prerogatives and immunities by bulls 
of Innocent III, dated 2 April 1206 and 
12 Jan. 1207, which were doubtless sug- 
gested by him while at the papal court. 
The later bull is termed ' De confirmatione 
privilegiorum Episcopi Sancti Andreae ej us- 
que successoribus in perpetuum.' The pro- 
perties belonging to the see are thus stated : 
'In Fife Kilrymond, with all the shire, 
Derveisir, Uhtredinunesin, the island of 
Johevenoh, with its appurtenances, Mune- 
mel, Terineth, Morcambus, Methkil, Kileci- 
neath, Muckart, Pethgob, with all the church 
lands, Strathleihten, llescolpin, Cas, Dul- 
brudet, Russin, Lossie, and Longport, near 
Perth ; in Maret Buchan, Monymusk, Cul- 
samuel, Elon, with the church lands and all 
their appurtenances; in Lothian Listune, 
Egglesmaniken, Keldeleth, Raththen, Lass- 
wade, Wedale, Clerkington, Tyningham, 
with their appurtenances.' The bull finally 
provides that Can (cam. superior duties) 
and Cuneveth (cean-mhath), first-fruits for 
the bishop's table, are to be duly levied. The 
bishop was always fastidious about the supply 
to his table. Fordun says that he with- 
drew from the abbey of Dunfermline the 
patronage of two livings Kinglassie and 
Hales because the monks had stinted his 
supply of wine. He was empowered by a 
bull, November 1207, to fill up any vacant 
charges caused by the decease of vicars, if 
the titulars of such charges did not do so 
within the proper time. In 1208 he conse- 
crated the cemetery of Dryburgh Abbey. 
His name is appended to a bond given by 
William, king of Scotland, for the payment 
of fifteen thousand marks to John of Eng- 
land, dated Northampton, 7 Aug. 1209. In 
1211 he resigned the chancellorship of Scot- 
land. During the following year he presided 
at a provincial council of the church held 
at Perth, when the pope's order was read 
regarding a new crusade a proposal coldly 
received by the nobles present. In 1212 he 
was empowered by bull (1 June) to conse- 
crate John, archdeacon of Lothian, as bishop 
of Dunkeld, and in the following year he 
consecrated Adam, abbot of Melrose, as 
bishop of Caithness. He was sent, 7 July 
1215, to treat with King John of p]ngland. 
During the same year he went to Rome to 
attend a general council, accompanied by 
the bishops of Glasgow and Moray. He re- 



turned in January 12 18 and found the country 
under papal interdict, but with the help of 
the legate he succeeded in having the inter- 
dict removed. He gave absolution to the 
monks of the Cistercian order on their sub- 
mitting to the authority of the church. He 
signed the act of espousals between Alex- 
ander II of Scotland and Joan (1210-1238) 
[q. v.], sister of Henry III, at York, ] 5 June 
1220; and 18Junel221 he witnessed a charter 
of dowry granted by Alexander to his bride. 
The bishop founded the hospital of St. Mary 
at Lochleven, called Scotland Wall. He 
also confirmed to the master and brethren 
of Soltre both the church of St. Giles at Or- 
miston in East Lothian with its revenue for 
their proper use, and the church of Strath- 
martin in Forfarshire, which was confirmed 
by Pope Gregory 14 Oct. 1236. He gave to 
the canons of Lochleven the revenue of the 
church of Auctermoonzie for the support of 

ims. He continued the building of the 
idral at St. Andrews, begun by his pre- 
decessor, and devoted a part of the revenue 
of his see to that purpose. He died at his 
residence at Inchmurtach 5 July 1238, and 
was buried in the cathedral. Dempster says 
that he wrote the lives of St. Ninian and 
St. Kentigern, but Hardy, the compiler oi 
the catalogue of the Rolls publications, says 
that of the two anonymous lives of these 
saints he has been unable to assign either of 
them to him. 

[Fordun's Scotichronicon, lib. viii. ; Kymer's 
Fcedera, vol. i. ; Melrose Chronicle ; Midlothian 
Charters of Soltre (Bannatyne Cluh) ; Patrologise 
Cursus Completus ; Spotiswood's History of 
Church of Scotland, vol. i.; Gordon's Eccl. 
Chronicle of Scotland, i. 146-54; Tanner's Bibl. 
Brit.] J. G. F. 

MALYNES, MALINES, or DE 
MALINES, GERARD (/. 1586-1641), 
merchant and economic writer, states that 
his ' ancestors and parents ' were born in 
Lancashire (Lex Mercatoria, 1622, p. 263). 
His father, a mint-master (ib. p. 281), pro- 
bably emigrated about 1552 to Antwerp, 
where Gerard was born, and returned to 
England at the time of the restoration of 
the currency (1561), when Elizabeth obtained 
the assistance of skilled workmen from Flan- 
ders. Gerard was appointed (about 1586) 
one of the commissioners of trade in the 
Low Countries 'for settling the value of 
monies' (OLDTS, p. 96), but he was in Eng- 
land in 1587, for in that year he purchased 
from Sir Francis Drake some of the pearls 
which Drake brought from Carthagena. Ma- 
lynes is probably identical with ' Garet de Ma- 
lines,' who subscribed 200/. to the loan levied 
by Elizabeth in 1588 on the city of London 



Malynes 



10 



Malynes 



(J. S. BUEN, p. 11). He was frequently con- 
sulted on mercantile affairs by the privy 
council during her reign and that of James I. 
In 1600 he was appointed one of the commis- 
sioners for establishing the true par of ex- 
change, and he gave evidence before the 
committee of the House of Commons on the 
Merchants' Assurance Bill (November and 
December 1601). While the Act for the 
True Making of Woollen Cloth (4 Jac. I, c. 2) 
was passing through parliament he prepared 
for the privy council a report showing the 
weight, length, and breadth of all kinds of 
cloth. 

During the reign of James I Malynes took 
part in many schemes for developing the 
natural resources of the country. Among 
them was an attempt to work lead mines in 
Yorkshire and silver mines in Durham in 
1606, when at his own charge he brought 
workmen from Germany. He was joined by 
Lord Eure and some London merchants, but 
the undertaking failed, although ' his action 
was applauded by a great person then in au- 
thoritie, and now [1622] deceased, who pro- 
mised all the favour he could do ' (Lex Mer- 
catoria, p. 262). The object of these schemes 
was probably to make England independent 
of a foreign supply of the precious metals. 
Monetary questions were indeed his chief 
care. He was an assay master of the mint 
(ib. p. 281). In 1609 he was a commis- 
sioner on mint affairs, along with Thomas, 
lord Knyvet, Sir Richard Martin [q. v.], John 
Williams, the king's goldsmith, and others. 
Shortly afterwards he engaged in a scheme 
for supplying a deficiency in the currency, 
of coins of small value, by the issue of farthing 
tokens. Private traders had for some years 
infringed the royal prerogative by striking 
farthing tokens in lead. A l modest proposal/ 
which seems to have been inspired by Malynes, 
was put forth in 1612 to remedy this evil. The 
scheme was adopted, and John, second lord 
Harington [q. v.], obtained the patent for sup- 
plying the new coins (10 April 1613), which 
he assigned to Malynes and William Cockayne, 
in accordance with an agreement previously 
made with the former. Upon the withdrawal 
of Cockayne, who did not like the terms of the 
original grant, Malynes was joined by John 
Couchman. But from the first the contrac- 
tors were unfortunate. The Duke of Lennox 
tried to obtain the patent from Lord Har- 
ington by offering better terms than Malynes. 
The new farthings, which were called * Har- 
ingtons,' were unpopular. They were re- 
fused in Staffordshire, Derbyshire, Flint, and 
Denbigh ; and even in counties where they 
were accepted the demand for them was so 
small that in six months the issue was less 



than 600/. The death of Lord Harington 
in 1614 gave rise to new difficulties, the 
patent was infringed, and private traders 
continued to issue illegal coins. Malynes 
spared no pains to make the scheme suc- 
cessful, but the loss resulting from its failure 
fell chiefly upon him. In a petition which he 
addressed to the king from the Fleet Prison 
(16 Feb. 1619) he complained that he had 
been ruined by his employers, who insisted 
on paying him in his own farthings. But 
he appears to have surmounted these diffi- 
culties. In 1622 he gave evidence on the 
state of the coinage before the standing com- 
mission on trade. Malynes was deeply im- 
pressed with the evils which the exactions of 
usurers inflicted on the poorer classes. i The 
consideration hereof,' he writes, ' hath moved 
my soul with compassion and true commise- 
ration, which imply eth a helping hand. For 
it is now above twentie years that I have 
moved continually those that are in au- 
thoritie, and others that have beene, to be 
pleased to take some course to prevent this 
enormitie ' (ib. p. 339). Hopeless of success 
and ' stricken in years,' he had to content 
himself with publishing his last project. 
He proposed the adoption of a system of 
pawnbroking and a 'Mons Pietatis,' under 
government control. In this way he hoped 
to enable poor people to obtain loans at a 
moderate rate of interest. Malynes lived to 
a great age, for in 1622 he could appeal to his 
'fiftie yeares' observation, knowledge, and 
experience,' and he addressed a petition to the 
House of Commons of 1641. 

Malynes was one of the first English 
writers in whose works we find that con- 
ception of natural law the application of 
which by later economists led to the rapid 
growth of economic science. He doubtless 
borrowed it from Roman law, in which he 
appears to have been well read. But in his 
numerous works all other subjects are sub- 
ordinate to the principles of foreign exchange, 
of which he was the chief exponent. Malynes 
recognised that certain elements, such as time, 
distance, and the state of credit, entered into 
the determination of the value of bills of ex- 
change, but he overlooked the most important, 
namely, the mutual indebtedness of the trad- 
ing countries. The condition of trade and the 
method of settling international transactions 
at that time also gave an appearance of truth 
to his contention that ' exchange dominates 
commodities.' In his view the cambists and 
goldsmiths, who succeeded to the functions 
of the king's exchanger and his subordinates, 
defrauded the revenue and amassed wealth, 
at the expense of the king. Throughout his 
life he maintained the * predominance of ex- 



Malynes 



ii 



Man 



change,' exposed the ( tricks of the exchangers,' 
and urged that exchanges should be settled 
on the principle of ' par pro pan, value for 
value.' Naturally, therefore, he sought to re- 
vive the staple system, and appealed to the 
government to put down the exchangers. He 
also severely criticised the views of Jean Bo- 
din. The appointment in 1622 of the standing 
commission on trade gave rise to numerous 
pamphlets dealing with the subjects of in- 
quiry. When, among other writers, Edward 
Misselden [q. v.] discussed the causes of the 
supposed decay of trade, Malynes at once 
attacked his views, on the ground that he 
had omitted ' to handle the predominant 
part of the trade, namely, the mystery of 
exchange,' which ' over-ruled the price of 
moneys and commodities.' Misselden easily 
enough refuted his arguments, which, he 
said, were ' as threadbare as his coat ; ' but 
Malynes was not to be daunted, and he re- 
newed the attack. Although his theory of 
exchange was demolished, his works are full 
of valuable information on commercial sub- 
jects, and are indispensable to the economic 
historian. He published : 1. ' A Treatise of 
the Canker of England's Commonwealth. 
Divided into three parts,' &c., London, 1601, 
8vo. 2. ' St. George for England, allegori- 
caUy described,' London, 1601, 8vo. 3. 'Eng- 
land's View in the Unmasking of two 
Paradoxes [by De Malestroict] ; with a Re- 
plication unto the Answer of Maister J. 
Bodine,' London, 1603, 12mo. 4. 'The 
Maintenance of Free Trade, according to 
the three essentiall parts of Traffique . . . 
or, an Answer to a Treatise of Free Trade 
[by Edward Misselden] . . . lately published,' 
&c., London, 1622, 8vo. 5. ' Consuetudo vel 
Lex Mercatoria, or the Ancient Law Mer- 
chant. Divided into three parts ; according 
to the essentiall parts of Trafficke,'&c., Lon- 
don, 1622, fol. A second edition of this work 
appeared in 1629. It was republished with 
Richard Dafforne's 'Merchants Mirrour,' 
1636, and in 1686 with Marius's 'Collec- 
tion of Sea Laws : Advice concerning Bills,' 
with J. Collins's ' Introduction to Merchants 
Accounts,' and other books. Malynes's 'Phi- 
losophy ' (' Lex Mercatoria,' pt. ii. cap. i.) 
was reprinted in 'A Figure of the True 
and Spiritual Tabernacle,' London, 1655; 
and ' his advice concerning bee-keeping ' (ib. 
pp. 231 sqq.) in Samuel Hartlib's < Re- 
formed Commonwealth of Bees,' London, 
1655, 4to. 6. ' The Center of the Circle of 
Commerce, or the Ballance of Trade, lately 
published by Efdwardl M[isselden],' Lon- 
don, 1623, 4to. 

[Foreigners Eesident in England, 1618-1688 
(Camd. Soc.), p. 71; J. S. Burn's Foreign Pro- 



testant Eefugees, London, 1846, p. 11; Wil- 
liam Oldys's British Librarian, 1737, pp. 96,97 ; 
Ruding's Annals of the Coinage, 3rd ed. i. 365- 
370; Snelling's View of the Copper Coin and 
Coinage of England, 1763, pp. 5-11 ; Brydges's 
Censura Literaria, 2nd ed. v. 151 ; Notes and 
Queries, 2nd ser. ii. 148, 6th ser. v. 437 ; Archseo- 
logia, xxix. 277, 297; State Papers, Dom. 
Jac.I,lxix. 7, xc. 158, cv. 113, Car. I. cccclxxxiii. 
Ill; Hist. MSS. Comm. 3rd Rep. p. 166, 7th Rep. 
p. 1886, 8th Rep. i. 435. Numerous biographi- 
cal details will be found throughout Malynes's 
works. His views were noticed or criticised in 
the following seventeenth-century pamphlets, in 
addition to those of Edward Misselden: Lewis 
Roberts's Merchants Mappe of Commerce, &c., 
London, 1638, p. 47; Thomas Mun's England's 
Treasure by Foreign Trade, London, 1664, pp. 
126 sqq.; Simon Clement's Discourse of the 
Grenernl Notions of Money, Trade, and Ex- 
changes, &c., London, 1695, p. 17; W.Lowndes's 
Further Essay for the Amendment of the Gold 
and Silver Coins, London, 1695. For the con- 
troversy between Malynes and Misselden vide 
John Smith's Memoirs of Wool, 2nd ed. 1757, 
i. 104-18; Anderson's Deduction of the Origin 
of Commerce, ed. 1801, ii. 117,203, 259, 270, 
297 ; McCulloch's Literature of Political Eco- 
nomy, 1845, p. 129; Travers Twiss's View of 
the Progress of Political Economy, 1847, p. 35; 
Richard Jones's Lectures on Political Economy, 
1859, pp. 323, 324 ; Heyking's Geschichte der 
Handelsbilanztheorie, 1880, pp. 60-4 ; Schanz's 
Englische Handelspolitik, 1881, i. 334 sqq.; 
Cunningham's Growth of English Industry and 
Commerce, 1885, pp. 279, 309 sqq. ; Stephen 
Bauer's art. 'Balance of Trade' (Diet. Pol. Econ. 
pt.i. 1891); Hewins's English Trade and Finance 
in the 17th Century, 1892, pp.xxsqq., 9, 10, 12.] 

W. A. S. H. 

MAN, HENRY (1747-1799), author, born 
in 1747 in the city of London, where his 
father was a well-known builder, was edu- 
cated at Croydon under the Rev. John Lamb, 
and distinguished himself as a scholar. At 
the age of fifteen he left school and became 
a clerk in a mercantile house in the city. In 
1770 he published a small volume called 
' The Trifler,' containing essays of a slight 
character. In 1774 he contributed to Wood- 
fall's ' Morning Chronicle ' a series of letters 
on education. The following year he pub- 
lished a novel bearing the title of ' Bentley, 
or the Rural Philosopher.' In 1775 he re- 
tired from business for a time, but after his 
marriage in 1776 he obtained a situation in 
the South Sea House, and the same year was 
elected deputy secretary of that establish- 
ment. Here he was the colleague of Charles 
Lamb, who pays a tribute to his wit and 
genial qualities in his essay on the South 
Sea House (LAMB, Essays, ed. by Ainger, 
London, 1883, p. 8). He had published a 



Man 



12 



Man 



dramatic satire called ' Cloacina'in 1775, and 
he continued to write essays and letters for 
the 'Morning Chronicle' and the 'London 
Gazette' till his death on 5 Dec. 1799. In 
1802 his collected works were published in 
two volumes, consisting of essays, letters, 
poems, and other trifles. Man's daughter, 
Emma Claudiana, died at Sevenoaks on 
14 Aug. 1858. 

[Collected Works of Henry Man, with Memoir, 
London, 1802; Gent. Mag. 1799 ii. 1092, 1858 
ii. 536.] A. E. J. L. 

MAN or MAIN, JAMES (1700P-1761), 
philologist, born about 1700 at White wreath, 
in the parish of Elgin, Morayshire, was edu- 
cated first at the parish school of Longbride, 
and afterwards at King's College, Aberdeen, 
where he graduated M.A. in 1721. He was 
then appointed schoolmaster of Tough, Aber- 
deenshire, and in 1742 master of the poor's 
hospital in Aberdeen. He proved a very use- 
ful superintendent of the hospital, to which 
at his death in 1761 he left more than half 
the little property he had accumulated. 

Man's zeal for the character of George Bu- 
chanan led him to join the party of Scottish 
scholars who were dissatisfied with Thomas 
Ruddiman's edition of Buchanan's works 
published in 1715. Man exposed the errors 
and defects of Ruddiman's edition in 'A 
Censure and Examination of Mr. Thomas 
Ruddiman's Philological Notes on the Works 
of the great Buchanan . . . more particularly 
on the History of Scotland . . . containing 
many particulars of his Life,' 8vo, Aberdeen, 
1753. This treatise, which extends to 574 
pages, is learned and acute, but very abusive. 
Ruddiman replied in his ' Anti-crisis,' 1754, 
and in 'Audi alteram partem,' 1756 [see 
RUDDIMAN, THOMAS]. 

Man made collections for an edition of 
Arthur Johnston's poems, which were in the 
possession of Professor Thomas Gordon of 
Aberdeen, and was encouraged by many 
presbyterian ministers to undertake a history 
of the church of Scotland. He only com- 
pleted an edition of Buchanan's ' History of 
Scotland/ which was issued at Aberdeen in 
1762. 

[Chalmers's Life of Ruddiman, p. 248.1 

G-. G-. 

MAN, JOHN (1512-1569), dean of 
Gloucester, was born in 1512 at Laycock, 
Wiltshire, according to Wood, though the 
records of Winchester College name Winter- 
bourne Stoke, in that county, as his birth- 
place (KiRBY, Winchester Scholars, p. 112). 
He was admitted into Winchester College 
in 1523, and was elected to New College, 
Oxford, where he became a probationer fellow, 



28 Oct. 1529, being made perpetual fellow 
two years afterwards. He graduated B.A. 
20 July 1533, and M.A. 13 Feb. 1537-8 
(WOOD, Fasti Oxon. ed. Bliss, i. 95, 105). 
On 9 April 1 540 he was appointed the south ern 
proctor of the university. Being suspected of 
heresy, he was expelled from New College, 
but in 1547 he was made principal of White 
Hall, afterwards absorbed in Jesus College. 

Soon after Elizabeth's accession he was 
appointed chaplain to Archbishop Parker, 
who nominated him to the wardenship of 
Merton College in 1562 (WooD, Annals, ed. 
Gutch, ii. 149). On 2 Feb. 1565-6 he was 
installed dean of Gloucester (LE NEVE, Fasti, 
ed. Hardy, i. 443). Queen Elizabeth on 
12 Jan. 1566-7 despatched him to Spain as 
her ambassador, ' with 3/. 6s. 8d. diet.' Her 
majesty is reported to have punned upon his 
mission, saying that as the Spaniard has sent 
her a goose-man (Guzman) she could not re- 
turn the compliment better than by sending 
him a man-goose. While at Madrid he was 
accused of having spoken somewhat ir- 
reverently of the pope, and was in conse- 
quence first excluded from court, and subse- 
quently compelled to retire from the capital 
to a country village where his servants were 
forced to attend mass (CAMDEN, Annals, ed. 
1635, p. 91). On 4 June 1568 the queen 
recalled him to England. The bill of the 
costs of transportation of himself, his men, 
and his ' stuft'e ' from the court of England 
to the court of Spain is preserved among 
the Cottonian manuscripts in the British 
Museum (Vespasian C. xiii. f. 407), and was 
printed by Sir Henry Ellis in the ' Gentle- 
man's Magazine' for October 1856. The 
total expense, including diet, was 399/. 8s. lOd. 
Many of his official letters from Spain are 
preserved among the manuscripts in the 
University Library, Cambridge (Mm. iii. 8). 
Man died in London on 18 March 1568-9, 
and was buried in the chancel of St. Anne's 
Church, near Aldersgate. 

By his wife Frances, daughter of Edmund 
Herendon, mercer, of London, he had several 
children, and Wood states that some of his 
posterity lived at Hatfield Broad Oak, Essex. 

He published : ' Common places of Chris- 
tian Religion, gathered by WolfgungusMus- 
culus, for the vse of suche as desire the 
knowledge of Godly truthe, translated out 
of Latine into Englishe. Hereunto are added 
two other treatises, made by the same Author, 
one of Othes, and an other of Vsurye,' Lond. 
1563, fol., with dedication to Archbishop 
Parker ; reprinted London, 1578, 4to. 

[Ames's Typogr. Antiq. (Herbert), pp. 608, 
982 ; Cat. of MSS. in Univ. Libr. Cambridge, 
iv. 178, 179; Foster's Alumni Oxon. 1500-1714, 



Manasseh 



Manasseh 



iii. 963 ; Haynes's State Papers, p. 472 ; Lodge's 
Illustrations, 2nd edit., i. 437; Murdin's State 
Papers, pp. 763, 765 ; Oxford Univr. Register 
(Boase), i. 160; Walcott's Wykeham, p. 396; 
Watt's Bibl. Brit. ; Wood's Hist, et Antiq. Univ. 
Oxon. i. 285 ; Wood's Athenae Oxon. (Bliss), i. 
366 ; Wright's Elizabeth, i. 247, 249.] T. C. 

MANASSEH BEN ISRAEL (1604- 
1657), Jewish theologian and chief advocate 
of the readmission of the Jews to England 
under the Commonwealth, born in 1604 in 
Portugal, probably at Lisbon, was son of 
Joseph ben Israel, one of the Maranos (i.e. 
Jews who professed Christianity but secretly 
practised Judaism in the Spanish peninsula), 
by his wife Rachel Soeira. The family sub- 
sequently emigrated to Amsterdam, where 
the education of Manasseh was entrusted to 
Rabbi Isaac Uziel, a distinguished talmudist 
and physician. Manasseh proved an apt 
pupil ; he studied almost every branch of 
knowledge, while his attractive manners and 
high-minded character gained him numerous 
friends in the best society of Amsterdam. 
Besides Hebrew and other Semitic dialects, 
he was thoroughly acquainted with Latin, 
Spanish, Dutch, and English. His master, 
Rabbi Isaac, died in 1620, and two years 
later Manasseh, although only eighteen 
years old, was appointed his successor as 
minister and teacher of the Amsterdam 
synagogue known as Neveh-Shalom. He 
interested himself in all the theological 
controversies of the day, and Christian 
scholars listened with interest to his argu- 
ments. He soon counted Isaac Vossius and 
Hugo Grotius among his friends. With 
many of his contemporaries he shared an in- 
clination towards mysticism, but his works 
do not show much knowledge of the Kabba- 
lah. He was convinced of the imminent ful- 
filment of the Messianic prophecies of the 
Bible, and was confirmed in this belief by the 
story told by a certain Aaron Levi, alias An- 
tonius Montezinus, and readily accepted as 
true by Manasseh, of the discovery of the lost 
ten tribes in the American Indians (see 
MANASSEH, 8pes Israelis}. His salary being 
small, he supplemented his income by esta- 
blishing in 1626, for the first time, a Hebrew 
printing-press at Amsterdam, and thus was 
the founder of Hebrew typography in Hol- 
land. When in course of time competition 
reduced this source of income, he resolved 
(1640) to emigrate to Brazil, but was dis- 
suaded by his friends. 

Manasseh at an early age resolved to do 
what he could to improve the condition of 
the Jews in Europe, by securing for them re- 
admission to countries still closed to them. 
He imagined that the restoration of the Jews 



must be preceded by their dispersion into all 
parts of the earth. So that this condition 
might be fulfilled, he was especially desirous 
that England should be opened to them. 
Since Edward I's edict of 1290, the Jews 
had no legal right to reside in England, and 
although a few had settled there [see LOPEZ, 
RODEKIGO], their position was insecure. The 
relations between Holland and England had 
long been close, both socially and commer- 
cially, and Manasseh followed with great 
attention the course of the civil war in Eng- 
land. He had watched the growth of the 
demand for liberty of conscience, and soon 
found that the readmission of the Jews into 
England had some powerful advocates there 
from a religious point of view (cf. Rights of 
the Kingdom, by JOHN SADLER ; An Apology 
for the Honourable Nation of the Jews, by 
ED. NICHOLAS, and the petition of Johanna 
and Ebenezer Cartwright, dated 5 Jan. 1649, 
for the readmission of the Jews). In a letter 
to an English correspondent in September 
1647 he ascribed the miseries of the civil wars 
to divine punishment for wrongs done to the 
Jews (Harl. Miscellany, vii. 584). Encour- 
aged by English friends ( Vind. Jud. 37) he 
undertook after the death of Charles I to 
petition the English parliament to grant 
permission to the Jews to settle in England 
freely and openly. Thurloe records (State 
Papers, ii. 520) that an offer was made in 1649 
to the council of state by Jews to purchase 
St. Paul's Cathedral and the Bodleian Li- 
j brary for 500,000/., but the story seems im- 
I probable, and Manasseh was at any rate not 
concerned in the matter. In 1650 he pub- 
lished, in Latin and Spanish, 'Spes Israelis,' 
which was at once issued in London in 
an English translation. In the dedication 
to the English parliament Manasseh, while 
acknowledging their ' charitable affection ' 
towards the Jews, begged that they would 
* favour the good of the Jews.' The work, 
despite some adverse criticism, was favour- 
ably received. On 22 Nov. 1651, and again 
on 17 Dec. 1652, Manasseh secured a pass 
for travelling from Holland to England, but 
circumstances prevented his departure. On 
the second occasion, however, Emanuel Mar- 
tinez Dormido, alias David Abrabanel, ac- 
companied by Manasseh's son, Samuel, went 
to London to personally present Manasseh's 
petition to parliament. It was recommended 
by Cromwell, but its prayer was refused by 
the council of state. 

Manasseh himself visited London (October 
1655) with his son Samuel, and some in- 
fluential members of the Jewish community 
in Amsterdam. On 31 Oct. he presented 
an 'Humble Address 'to the Lord Protector, 



Manasseh 



Manby 



in which he entreated that the Jews should 
be allowed to ' extol the Great and Glorious 
Name of the Lord in all the bounds of the 
Commonwealth, to have their Synagogues 
and the free exercise of their religion.' With 
the address he published ' A Declaration to 
the Commonwealth, showing his Motives for 
his coming to England, how Profitable the 
Nation of the Jews are, and how Faithful 
the Nation of the Jews are.' On 13 Nov. 
1055 Manasseh presented a further petition 
to the Lord Protector, asking him (1) to pro- 
tect the Jews ; (2) to grant them free public 
exercise of their religion ; (3) the acquisition 
of a cemetery; and (4) freedom to trade as 
others in all sorts of merchandise ; (5) to 
appoint an officer to receive their oath of 
allegiance ; (6) to leave to the heads of the 
synagogue to decide about differences be- 
tween Jews and Jews; (7) to repeal the 
laws adverse to the Jews. 

An assembly of lawyers and divines, in- 
cluding Hugh Peters, Owen, Manton, and 
others, was convened by Cromwell for the 
purpose of considering Manasseh's argu- 
ments, and it met thrice in December. 
Cromwell, who presided, submitted two 
questions: 1. 'Is it lawful to readmit the 
Jews?' 2. 'Under what conditions shall 
such readniission take place ? ' The first 
was answered in the affirmative; on the 
second point there was such divergency of 
opinion that no decision was arrived at 
(see COLLIER, Ecclesiastical Hist. viii. 380; 
Mercurius Publicus, 1655). A heated pam- 
phlet war followed. Prynne opposed Ma- 
nasseh in * A Short Demurrer to the Jews' 
long-discontinued Remitter into England,' 
and Manasseh replied in his * Vindiciee Ju- 
dseorum.' 

The halting result of the conference seemed 
unsatisfactory to Manasseh. But Evelyn, 
under date 14 Dec. 1655, wrote, l Now were 
the Jews admitted ' (Diary, i. 297), and it 
is certain that Jews forthwith settled in 
London. Cromwell made important conces- 
sions to them. They bought a site for a 
cemetery, and soon afterwards opened a 
synagogue. Manasseh's efforts thus proved 
successful. Meanwhile he was left by his 
friends in London without means, and on an 
appeal to Cromwell he was granted an annual 
pension of 100/., but on 17 Nov. 1657, just 
after the death of his son Samuel, when he 
was in need of means to carry the body to 
Holland for burial, he appealed a second time, 
and received 2007. in lieu of the annual pen- 
sion. He returned to Holland, and died on 
his way home in Middleburg, 20 Nov. 1657. 
He married Rachel, a great-granddaughter of 
Don Isaac Abrabanel, who claimed to trace 



his pedigree to King David. He had two 
sons : Joseph (d. 1648 in Lublin) and Samuel 
(d. 1657 in London), and one daughter named 
Grace. An etched portrait of Manasseh by 
Rembrandt belongs to Miss Goldsmid. A 
painting entitled ' Manasseh ben Israel before 
Cromwell and his Council,' by S. A. Hart, 
R.A., is in possession of the Rev. J. de K. 
Willians. A replica belongs to Mr. F. D. 
Mocatta. 

Manasseh's works, apart from those already 
noticed, are: 1. 'P'ne Rabba,' in Hebrew, 
the revised edition of a biblical index to 
Rabboth, Amsterdam, 1628. 2. ' El Concilia- 
dor,' in Spanish, a reconcilement of apparent 
contradictions in the scriptures, Frankfurt, 
1632, and Amsterdam, 1651; an English trans- 
lation, by E. H. Lindo, was published in 
London, 1842. 3. < De Creatione,' Problemata 
xxx., Amsterdam, 1635. 4. ' De Resurrec- 
tione Mortuorum, libri iii., 'Latin and Spanish, 
Amsterdam, 1636. 5. ' De Termino Vitae,' 
in Latin, on the length of man's life, whether 
it is predetermined or changeable, Amster- 
dam, 1639. 6. ' La Fragilitad Humana,' on 
human weakness and divine assistance in 
good work, Amsterdam, 1642. 7. ' Nishmath- 
' hayyim,' on the immortality of the soul, 
in Hebrew, Amsterdam, 1651. 8. 'Piedra 
gloriosa o de la estatua de Nebuchadnesar,' 
an explanation of passages in the book of 
Daniel, 1655. A German translation of the 
' Vindicise Judseorum,' by Marcus Herz, with 
a preface by Moses Mendelssohn, was pub- 
lished both at Berlin and Stettin in 1782. 

[Wolf'sBibl. Hebr. iii. 703; Steinschneider's 
Cat. Bibl. Hebr. in Bibl. Bodl. p. 1646; Kay- 
serling's Manasseh ben Israel ( Jahrbuch fur die 
Gesch. der Juden, ii. 83 sqq.) ; G-raetz's Ge- 
schichte der Juden, x. 83 sqq. ; Laicien Wolf's 
Resettlement of the Jews (Jewish Chronicle, 
1887,1888); Cal. State Papers, 1650-7; Tovey's 
Anglia Judaica ; Picciotto's Sketches of Anglo- 
Jewish History ; Aa's Biographisch Woorden- 
book der Nederlanden, xii. 121.] M. F-R. 

MANBY, AARON (1776-1850), engi- 
neer, second son of Aaron Manby of Kings- 
ton, Jamaica, was born at Albrighton, Shrop- 
shire, 15 Nov. 1776. His mother was Jane 
Lane, of the Lanes of Bentley, who assisted 
Charles II to escape from Boscobel after the 
battle of Worcester [see under LANE, JANE]. 
Manby's early years were, it is believed, spent 
in a bank in 'the Isle of Wight, but in 1813 
he was in business at Wolverhampton as an 
ironmaster, and under that description took 
out a patent in that year (No. 3705) for 
utilising the refuse 'slag 'from blast furnaces 
by casting it into bricks and building blocks. 
About this time he founded the Horseley 



Manby 



Manby 



ironworks, Tipton, where he carried on the 
manufacture of steam engines, castings, &c. 
The concern is still in existence. 

In 1821 he took out a patent (No. 4558) 
for a form of steam engine specially applic- 
able for marine purposes, which he called an 
oscillating engine, by which name it has been 
known ever since. He was not the original 
inventor of this form of engine, which had 
been proposed by William Murdoch [q. v.] 
in 1785, and patented by R. Witty in .1811, 
but he was the first to introduce it practi- 
cally. He also patented the oscillating en- 
gine in France in the same year, and included 
in the specification a claim for making ships 
of iron, and an improved feathering paddle- 
wheel. He now commenced the building of 
iron steamships, and the first, the Aaron 
Manby, 120 feet long and 18 feet beam, was 
made at Horseley and conveyed in pieces to 
the Surrey Canal Dock, where it was put 
together. It was tried on the Thames on 
9 May 1822 (Morning Chronicle, 14 May 
1822). Manby was endeavouring to form a 
company to establish a line of steamers to 
France, and among the persons interested in 
the scheme was Captain (afterwards Admiral) 
Charles Napier [q. v.] The Aaron Manby, 
with Napier in command and Charles Manby 
[q. v.] as engineer, left the Thames in the 
early part of June 1822, and arrived in Paris 
to the surprise of the inhabitants on the 
llth of that month, as recorded in the ' Con- 
stitutional' of the 13th and the ' Debats ' of 
the 16th. This was the first iron ship which 
ever went to sea, and it was also the first 
vessel of any kind which had made the 
voyage from London to Paris. The boat 
continued to ply upon the Seine for many 
years, and it was still running in 1842. 
Another iron vessel was afterwards made. 

In 1819 Manby founded an engineering 
works at Charenton, near Paris, the manage- 
ment of which he entrusted to Daniel Wilson 
of Dublin, a chemist who was the first to 
patent the use of ammonia for removing sul- 
phuretted hydrogen from gas. The Charen- 
ton establishment was of great importance, 
and gave rise to the formation of many 
similar works in France. In 1825 a gold 
medal was awarded to the founders by the 
Societe d'Encouragement A very full ac- 
count of the foundry is given in the l Bulle- 
tin' of the society for that year, p. 123. 
Upwards of five hundred workmen were 
then employed (see also Bulletin, 1826 p. 
295, and 1828 p. 204) . The effect of Manby's 
efforts was to render France largely inde- 
pendent of English engine-builders, who for 
a time displayed some resentment against 
him. This feeling comes out strongly in the 



evidence given before the parliamentary com- 
mittee on artisans and machinery in 1824 
(see Report, pp. 109-32). On 12 May 1821 
Manby, in conjunction with Wilson and one 
Henry, took out a patent in France for the 
manufacture and purification of gas, and also 
br what was then called ' portable gas ' 
;hat is, compressed gas to be supplied to 
consumers in strong reservoirs. In May 1822 
Manby and Wilson obtained a concession for 
lighting Paris with gas, and, notwithstand- 
ing the strong opposition of a rival French 
company, the Manby- Wilson Company, or 
Compagnie Anglaise, existed until 1847. A 
copy of the report of the legal proceedings 
between the two companies is preserved in 
the library of the Institution of Civil Engi- 
neers. It was presented by Daniel Wilson 
to Thomas Telford, and bequeathed by the 
latter to the institution. It is said that the 
English company was actually the first to 
supply gas to the French capital. In 1826 
Manby and his friends purchased the Creusot 
Ironworks, which were reorganised and pro- 
vided with new and improved machinery 
made at Charenton, and about two years 
afterwards the two concerns were amalga- 
mated under the title of Society Anonyme 
des Mines, Forges et Fonderies du Creusot 
et de Charenton. A report dated 1828, giv- 
ing a history of the enterprise, is preserved 
among the Telford tracts in the library of 
the Institution of Civil Engineers. Manby 
returned to England about 1840, when he 
went to reside at Fulham, removing after- 
wards to Ryde, Isle of Wight, and subse- 
?uently to Shanklin, where he died 1 Dec. 
850. 

Manby was twice married : first, to Julia 
Fewster, by whom he had one son, Charles 
[q. v.] ; and, secondly, to Sarah Haskins, by 
whom he had one daughter, Sarah, and three 
sons, John Richard (1813-1869) (see Proc. 
Inst. Civ. Eng. xxx.446), Joseph Lane (1814- 
1862) (ib. xxii. 629), and Edward Oliver 
(1816-1864) (ib. xxiv. 533). They were all 
civil engineers, practising mostly abroad. 

A portrait was exhibited at the Loan Col- 
lection of Portraits at South Kensington in 
1868. 

[Manby's early engineering work is described 
in Proc. Inst. Civ. Eng. 1842 p. 168, 1843 p. 180, 
1846 pp. 89, 96; Grantham's Shipbuilding in 
Iron and Steel, 1842, pp. 6-9; Gill's Technical 
[Repository, 1822, i. 398, 411, ii. 66. The Gas 
Engineer for December 1882 contains a notice 
of his work in connection with the lighting of 
Paris with x gas. See also Maxime du Camp's 
article L'Eclairage a Paris ' in Eevue des deux 
Mondes, June 1873, p. 780. Private informa- 
tion from a member of the family.] K. B. P. 



Manby 



16 



Manby 



MANBY, CHARLES (1804-1884), civil 
engineer, and secretary to the Institution of 
Civil Engineers, eldest son of Aaron Manby 
[q. v.], was born on 4 Feb. 1804. He re- 
ceived his early education at a Roman 
catholic seminary, whence he was sent in 
1814 to the semi-military college of St. Ser- 
van, Brittany. His uncle, Captain Joseph 
Manby, private secretary and aide-de-camp 
to the Duke of Kent, had already obtained 
a commission for him, but the prospect of 
peace caused him to change his plans, and 
he joined his father at Horseley ironworks, 
and assisted in building the first iron steam- 
boat [see MANBY, AAEON]. He also super- 
intended the erection of the first pair of 
oscillating marine engines ever made, which 
were placed in 1820 in the Britannia, a 
packet on the Dover and Calais station. 
Manby's drawings of these engines are in 
the possession of the Institution of Civil En- 
gineers. About 1823 Manby proceeded to 
Paris to take charge of the gasworks esta- 
blished there by his father, and he subse- 
quently superintended his father's foundry 
at Charenton. After a short stay at the 
Creusot ironworks, which his father had 
undertaken to reorganise, he was employed 
by the tobacco department of the French 
government, and he also received a commis- 
sion in the French military engineers. In 
1829 he returned to England and took the 
management of the Beaufort ironworks in 
South Wales, and, after spending a short 
time at the Ebbw Vale ironworks and the 
Bristol ironworks, he established himself in 
London in 1835 as a civil engineer. In 1838 
he became connected with Sir John Ross's 
enterprise for running steamers to India, 
which was eventually absorbed by the Pen- 
insular and Oriental Company. He relin- 
quished his private practice in 1839, when 
he was appointed secretary to the Institution 
of Civil Engineers. He performed the duties 
of the office for seventeen years with con- 
spicuous success. Upon his retirement in 
1856 a service of plate and a purse of 2,000/. 
were presented to him, and he was elected 
honorary secretary. In 1853 the Royal 
Society elected him a fellow. He was a 
member of the International Commission 
which met in Paris for the purpose of con- 
sidering the feasibility of constructing the 
Suez Canal. His perfect command of the 
French language was of considerable service 
in maintaining a good understanding be- 
tween the engineers' societies of London and 
Paris. In 1864 he helped to establish the 
Engineer and Railway Volunteer Staff Corps, 
in which he held the post of adjutant with 
the rank of lieutenant-colonel. 



He died in London on 31 July 1884. He 
was twice married : first, in 1830, to Miss 
Ellen Jones of Beaufort ; and secondly, in 
1858, to Harriet, daughter of Major Nicholas 
Willard of the Grays, Eastbourne, and widow 
of Mr. W. C. Hood, formerly a partner in 
the publishing house of Whitaker & Co. He 
left no issue. 

[Proc. of the Institution of Civil Engineers, 
Ixxxi. 327 (portrait).] E. B. P. 

MANBY, GEORGE WILLIAM (1765- 
1854), inventor of apparatus for saving life 
from shipwreck, son of Matthew Pepper 
Manby, captain in the Welsh fusiliers, was 
born at Denver, near Downham Market, Nor- 
folk, 28 Nov. 1765. Thomas Manby (1766 ?- 
1834) [q. v.] was his younger brother. He was 
sent to a school at Downham kept by Thomas 
Nooks and William Chatham, where he had 
for his schoolfellow Horatio Nelson, with 
whom he formed a close intimacy (cf. Descrip- 
tion of the Nelson Museum at Yarmouth, 1849, 
Preface). He was subsequently transferred 
to a school at Bromley, Middlesex, and was 
afterwards placed under Reuben Burrow 
[q. v.], then teacher of mathematics in the 
military drawing-room at the Tower. After 
a short time he entered the Royal Military 
Academy at Woolwich, but in consequence 
of a delay in obtaining a commission in the 
artillery he joined the Cambridgeshire mi- 
litia, eventually attaining the rank of cap- 
tain. He married in 1793 the only daugh- 
ter of Dr. Preston, and went to reside near 
Denver, but in 1801 domestic troubles, whose 
character is unknown, caused him to leave 
home. He settled at Clifton, near Bristol, 
devoting himself to literary pursuits as a 
means of distraction. In 1801 he brought 
out * The History and Antiquities of St. 
David's,' followed by * Sketches of the His- 
tory and Natural Beauties of Clifton,' 1802, 
and * A Guide from Clifton to the Counties 
of Monmouth, Glamorgan, &c.,' in 1802, all 
of which are illustrated by engravings from 
his own drawings. In 1803 he wrote a pam- 
phlet entitled * An Englishman's Reflexions 
on the Author of the Present Disturbances,' 
in which he dealt with the threatened inva- 
sion of England by Napoleon. This work 
attracted the notice of Charles Yorke, then 
secretary at war, and in August 1803 Manby 
received the appointment of barrack-master 
at Yarmouth. 

His attention was first turned to the sub- 
ject of shipwrecks by witnessing the loss of 
the Snipe gun brig off Yarmouth during the 
storm of February 1807, when sixty-seven 
persons perished within sixty yards of the 
shore, and 147 bodies were picked up along 



Manby 



Manby 



the coast. In considering a means of rescue 
it occurred to him that the first thing was 
to establish a communication with the shore. 
Remembering that he had when a youth 
once fired a line over Downham Church, he 
obtained from the board of ordnance the loan 
of a mortar, and in August and September 

1807 he exhibited some experiments to the I 
members of the Suffolk Humane Society. The \ 
apparatus was successfully used on 12 Feb. 

1808 at the wreck of the brig Elizabeth. The ! 
invention had been submitted to the board of 
ordnance, who reported upon it in January j 
1808, and it made such rapid progress in | 
public favour that the navy board began to ; 
supply mortars, &c., to various stations round 
the coast in the early part of that year. In 
1810 the apparatus was " investigated by a 
committee of the House of Commons, and the 
report was ordered to be printed 26 March 
of the same year. Further papers were issued 
7 Dec. 1813 and 10 June 1814. Manby em- 
bodied the results of his work in a pamphlet 
published in 1812, entitled 'An Essay on the 
Preservation of Shipwrecked Persons, with 
Descriptive Account of the Apparatus and 
the Manner of Using it,' which has been re- 
printed in many different forms. In 1823 the 
subject again came before the House of Com- 
mons, on Manby's petition for a further re- 
ward. Up to that time 229 lives had been 
saved by his apparatus. The committee re- 
commended the payment to Manby of 2,000/. 
(cf. Parliamentary Paper No. 260 of 1827). 
The use of the apparatus gradually extended 
to other countries, and Manby received j 
numerous medals, which are described and j 
illustrated in a pamphlet published by him 
in 1852. There are now 302 stations in the \ 
United Kingdom where the apparatus is in 
use. Since 1878, however, the mortars have 
been superseded by rope-carrying rockets. 

Manby's claim has been disputed by the 
friends of Lieutenant Bell, who in 1807 pre- 
sented a somewhat similar plan to the So- 
ciety of Arts (see vol. x. of the Transactions 
of that body), and a gratuity of 507. was 
awarded to the inventor. Bell's idea was to 
throw a rope from the ship to the shore; 
Manby's plan reverses this order of procedure. 
Manby also interested himself in the im- 
provement of the lifeboat, and about 1811 he j 
submitted his new boat to the navy board. 
The report of the trial is contained in the 
' Navy Experiment Book No. 3,' preserved 
among the admiralty papers at the Public j 
Record Office. The boat was tried again at 
Plymouth in 1826 (Meek. Mag. August 1826, ' 
p. 252), but it does not appear to have j 
come into general use. He also directed 
his attention to the extinction of fires, and 

VOL. xxxvi. 



he was the first to suggest the apparatus 
now known as the ' extincteur,' consisting 
of a portable vessel holding a fire-extinguish- 
ing solution under pressure. This was ex- 
hibited before the barrack commissioners in 
March 1816, and also at Woolwich, before a 
joint committee appointed by the admiralty 
and the board of ordnance, on 30 Aug. 1816. 
On the same occasion he showed his ' jump- 
ing-sheet,' for catching persons when jump- 
ing from burning buildings ( Gent. Mag. 1816 
pt. i. p. 271, pt. ii. p. 270, 1819 pt. i. p. 351 ; 
Mech. Mag. 2 Oct. 1824, p. 28). The sub- 
ject is further dealt with in Manby's ' Essay 
on the Extinction and Prevention of Fires, 
with the Description of the Apparatus for 
Rescuing Persons from Houses enveloped in 
Flames,' London, 1830. 

About 1813 he commenced experiments 
with a view to the prevention of accidents 
on the ice, and on 19 Jan. 1814 he read a 
paper before the Royal Humane Society, em- 
bodying the results of his useful labours. 
The paper, which contains numerous illus- 
trations, was printed in the ' Gentleman's 
Magazine,' 1814, pt. i. p. 428, and also in the 
'Mechanics' Magazine,' January 1826, p. 216. 
In 1832 he published ' A Description of In- 
struments, Apparatus, and Means for Saving 
Persons from Drowning who break through 
the Ice/ &c. He was elected a fellow of the 
Royal Society in 1831. Manby died at his 
house at Southtown, Yarmouth, 18 Nov. 
1854. His first wife died in 1814, and in 
1818 he married Sophia, daughter of Sir 
Thomas Gooch of Benacre Hall, Suffolk. She 
died 1 Oct. 1843. 

There is a portrait of Manby in the ' Euro- 
pean Magazine,' July 1813, and another in 
his pamphlet describing the medals presented 
to him, already referred to. The print room 
at the British Museum possesses three others. 

In addition to the works already men- 
tioned Manby wrote : 1. ' Journal of a Voy- 
age to Greenland,' 1822. 2. ' Reflections upon 
the Practicability of Recovering Lost Green- 
land,' 1829. 3. ' Hints for Improving the 
Criminal Law, with Suggestions for a new 
Convict Colony,' 1831. 4. 'Reminiscences,' 
1839. 5. 'A Description of the Nelson 
Museum at Pedestal House,' Yarmouth, 1849. 
The chief contents are now in the museum at 
Lynn. A volume lettered ' Captain Manby's 
Apparatus 1810 to 1820,' preserved among the 
Ordnance Papers at the Public Record Office, 
contains a large number of Manby's original 
letters and official reports of the trials of his 
apparatus. 

[Authorities in addition to those cited : Euro- 
pean Mag. July 1813; Gent. Mag. 1821 pt. ii. 
passim, 1855 pt. i. p. 208; Reminiscences, 1839; 

C 



Manby 



18 



Manby 



The Life Boat, January 1855, p. 11 ; Tables re- 
lating to Life Salvage on the Coasts of the United 
Kingdom during the year ended 30 June 1892, 
published by the Board of Trade ; General Re- 
port on the Survey of the Eastern Coast of Eng- 
land for the Purpose of Establishing the System 
for Saving Shipwrecked Persons, London, 1813. 
The only known copy of this tract is bound up 
with the volume of Ordnance Papers referred to 
above.] E. B. P. 

MANBY, PETER (d. 1697), dean of 
Derry, son of Lieutenant-colonel Manby, 
became a scholar of Trinity College, Dublin, 
where he took the degrees in arts, though his 
name does not appear in the printed cata- 
logue of graduates. Archdeacon Cotton and 
other waiters style him D.D., but it does not 
appear that he proceeded to that degree. 
After taking orders in the established church, 
he was appointed on 23 Nov. 1660, being 
then B.A.,to a minor canonryof St. Patrick's, 
Dublin; and on 9 April 1666, being- then 
M.A., he was collated to the chancellorship of 
that church (COTTON, Fasti EccL Hibern. ii. 
118). He became chaplain to Dr. Michael 
Boyle, archbishop of Dublin, who, during 
his triennial visitation in 1670, collated him 
to a canonry of the cathedral of Kildare. 
Manby was" presented to the deanery of 
Derry on 17 Sept. 1672, and installed on 
21 Dec. He afterwards joined the com- 
munion of the church of Rome in conse- 
quence, as Ms adversaries alleged, of his 
failure to obtain a bishopric. James II 
granted him a dispensation under the great 
seal, dated 21 July 1686, authorising him to 
retain the deanery of Derry, notwithstand- 
ing his change of religion. In 1687 he pub- 
lished ' The Considerations which obliged 
Peter Manby, Dean of Derry, to embrace the 
Catholique Religion. Dedicated to his Grace 
the Lord Primate of Ireland/ Dublin and 
London, 1687, 4to, pp. 19. The imprimatur 
is dated from Dublin Castle, 11 March 1686- 
1687. The treatise, although regarded by 
his friends as incontrovertible, contains only 
the usual arguments adduced by advocates of 
the papal claims. William King [q. v.], then 
chancellor of St. Patrick's, and afterwards 
archbishop of Dublin, published a reply, 
which led Manby to rejoin in a book entitled 
' A Reformed Catechism, in two Dialogues, 
concerning the English Reformation, col- 
lected, for the most part Word for Word, out 
of Dr.Burnet, John Fox, and other Protestant 
Historians, published for the information of 
the People/ Dublin and London, 1687, 4to. 
This was answered by King in ' A Vindica- 
tion of the Answer to the Considerations.' 
Dr. William Clagett [q.v.] in England wrote 
' Several captious Queries concerning the 



English Reformation, first proposed by Dean 
Manby . . . briefly and fully answered,' 
London, 1688, 4to. In 1688 James made 
Manby an alderman of Derry. After the 
battle of the Boyne, Manby retired to France. 
He died in London in 1697, according to an 
account given by Dr. Cornelius Nary [q.v.], 
who attended him in his last moments. 

His works are: 1. <A Letter to a Non- 
conformist Minister,' London, 1677, 4to. 
2. ' A brief and practical Discourse of Abs- 
tinence in Time of Lent ; wherein is shewed 
the popular Mistake and Abuse of the Word 
Superstition,' Dublin, 1682, 4to. 3. ' Of Con- 
fession to a lawful Priest : wherein is treated 
of the last Judgment,' London, 1686, 24mo. 

4. l A Letter to a Friend, shewing the Vanity 
of this Opinion, that every Man's Sense and 
Reason is to guide him in matters of Faith,' 
Dublin, 1688, 4to. 

Manby induced his brother Robert, a 
clergyman of the establishment, to join the 
Roman church. Robert Manby became a 
friar ; he left two sons, both of whom joined 
the Society of Jesus. One of these sons, 
PETER MANBY (Jl. 1724), born in Leinster 
in 1681, studied at Coimbra, and on his re- 
turn to Ireland published ' Remarks on Dr. 
Loyd's Translation of the Mountpelier Cate- 
chism,' Dublin, 1724, 8vo. in which, he at- 
tempts to show that this catechism contains 
the condemned propositions of Jansenius and 
Quesnel. 

[Cotton's Fasti, ii. 197, 249, iii. 332; D'Alton's 
Archbishops of Dublin, p. 301 ; Dodd's Church 
Hist. iii. 461 ; Hogan's Cat. of the Irish Province 

5. J.,pp. 63, 64; Jones's Popery Tracts, pp. 150, 
151, 459, 484; Oliver's Jesuit Collections, p. 
258 ; Cat. of Library of Trin. Coll. Dublin ; 
Ware's Writers (Harris), p. 257.] T. C. 

MANBY, THOMAS (fl. 1670-1690), 
landscape-painter, is spoken of as ' a good 
English landskip-painter, who had been 
several times in Italy, and consequently 
painted much after the Italian manner.' 
From Vertue's extracts from the diaries of 
Mr. Beale, the husband of Mary Beale [q. v.], 
it appears that Manby was employed to 
paint in landscapes in the background of the 
portraits by her and probably other painters 
af the time. Manby brought from Italy a 
large collection of pictures, which were sold 
at the Banqueting House in Whitehall about 
1680. 

[Buckeridge's Supplement to De Piles's Lives 
of the Painters ; Walpole's Anecdotes of Paint- 
ing, ed. Wornum.] L. C. 

MANBY, THOMAS (1766 ?-1834),rear- 
admiral, of a family settled for many cen- 
turies at Manby in Lincolnshire, was the 



Manby 



Manby 



son of Matthew Pepper Manby of Hilgay in 
Norfolk, lieutenant of marines, captain in 
the Welsh fusiliers, and afterwards aide- 
de-camp to Lord Townshend when lord- 
lieutenant of Ireland (1767-72). George 
William Manby [q. v.j was his elder brother. 
When lieutenant-general of the ordnance, 
Townshend gave his aide-de-camp's son, 
Thomas, a post in the department, but the 
boy, preferring to go to sea, was entered 
on board the Hyaena frigate on the Irish 
station, in 1783. In 1785 he was moved 
into the Cygnet sloop, in which he went to 
the West Indies. He was afterwards in the 
Amphion, and, returning in her to England, 
served for a short time in the Illustrious. 
Towards the end of 1790 he joined the Dis- 
covery, then fitting out for a voyage to the 
Pacific and the north-west coast of America, 
under the command of Captain George Van- 
couver [q. v.] In the beginning of 1793, 
when it was necessary to send some of the 
officers of the expedition to England and to 
China [see BROUGHTON, WILLIAM ROBERT ; 
MUDGE, ZACHARY], Manby was appointed 
master of the Chatham brig, the Discovery's 
consort, in which he remained for the next 
two years, engaged in the arduous and try- 
ing work of the survey. In 1795 he was 
moved back into the Discovery as acting 
lieutenant, and on his arrival in England 
was confirmed to that rank, 27 Oct. 1795. 
In 1796 he was a lieutenant of the Juste, 
and when Lord Hugh Seymour [q. v.] was 
preparing for an expedition to the Pacific, 
Manby, at his request, was promoted, 5 Feb. 
1797, to command the Charon, a 44-gun 
ship, but armed en flute, as a store-ship. The 
proposed expedition was afterwards counter- 
manded, and the Charon was employed in 
transporting troops to Ireland during the 
rebellion. It is mentioned that on one occa- 
sion she took on board a thousand men at 
Portsmouth, landed them at Guernsey within 
twenty-four hours, embarked another thou- 
sand in their stead, and landed these on the 
following day at Waterford. She was also 
frequently engaged in convoying the local 
trade, and in cruising against the enemy's 
privateers. In the two years during which 
Manby commanded her he is said to have 
given ' protection to no less than 4,753 ves- 
sels, not one of which was lost.' 

He was advanced to post rank 22 Jan. 
1799, and towards the end of the year was 
appointed to the Bordelais, a remarkably 
fine and fast vessel, which had been built a's 
a French privateer, but had fortunately been 
captured on her second trip by the Revolu- 
tionnaire, herself a prize, the work of the 
same builder. She was thought a most beau- 



tiful model, though dangerous from the weak- 
ness of her frame. During 1800 she was cruis- 
ing for some time off the Azores, and was 
afterwards employed on the blockade of 
Flushing. She proved, however, very unfit 
for this service. She was long, narrow, and 
low in the water, and consequently so wet 
that her crew became very sickly. She was 
therefore ordered to Spithead, and thence to 
the West Indies. She sailed at the end of the 
year with the Andromache frigate and a large 
convoy. The convoy was dispersed in a gale 
off Cape Finisterre, and Manby was after- 
wards sent to look out for the stragglers to 
the eastward of Barbados. On his way he 
recaptured two of them, already prizes to 
a French privateer, and on 28 Jan. 1801 
fell in with two large brigs and a schooner, 
French ships of war, which had been sent 
thither by the governor of Cayenne to prey 
on the English West Indian fleet. The arma- 
ment of the brigs was very inferior to that 
of the Bordelais, but they carried nearly 
twice the number of men, and apparently 
thought to carry her-by boarding. No sooner, 
however, did the Bordelais open her fire on 
the leading brig, the Curieuse, than the 
others turned and fled. After a gallant fight 
the Curieuse struck her flag, but she was in 
a sinking condition, and sank shortly after 
(JAMES, iii. 124; TROUDE, iii. 249). The 
little affair derived importance from the fact 
of its saving the scattered convoy from a 
very great danger. During the year Manby 
was employed in active cruising, and on the 
peace he was moved into the Juno, one of the 
squadron on the coast of St. Domingo, and 
in her he returned to England in August 
1802. 

He was shortly afterwards appointed to 
the Africaine, a frigate mounting 48 guns, 
in which on the renewal of the war he was 
stationed off Helvoetsluys, with a 24-gun 
frigate in company, to blockade two large 
French frigates lying there with troops on 
board. This irksome service lasted for nearly 
two years, when, the French frigates having 
been dismantled, and having passed through 
the canal to Flushing, the Africaine joined 
the squadron off the Texel. After sustaining 
serious damage in a heavy gale, she was 
compelled to go to Sheerness to refit. Thence 
she was sent to the West Indies with con- 
voy. She arrived at Barbados with a crew 
of 340 men, in perfect health. She was or- 
dered to return to England with the home- 
ward-bound trade, and to take on board 
some invalids from the hospitals. Within 
? orty-eight hours after her departure from 
Carlisle Bay virulent yellow fever was 
raging on board. The surgeon and the 

c 2 



Manchester 



20 



Mandevil 



assistant-surgeon died on the second day. 
Manby himself acted in their place, and, by 
the advice of a doctor at St. Kitts, dealt out 
large doses of calomel. But the anxiety 
brought on an attack of the fever, which 
nearly proved fatal. At Tortola a surgeon 
was procured, and after a terrible passage of 
six weeks, having lost a third of her crew, 
the Africaine arrived at Falinouth, whence 
she was sent to do a full quarantine at the 
Scilly Islands, after which she was paid out 
of commission. 

About the time of his being appointed 
to the Africaine he was presented by Lady 
Tbwnshend to the Princess of Wales, who 
treated him with much cordiality (G. W. 
MANBY, p. 32). It was afterwards sworn by 
several witnesses that she conducted herself 
towards him with undue, if not with crimi- 
nal familiarity (The Boo\ passim); on 
22 Sept. 1806 Manby made affidavit that 
this testimony was ' a vile and wicked in- 
vention, wholly and absolutely false' (ib. 
pp. 181-2). 

In 1807 Manby, in the Thalia, in command 
of a small squadron, was stationed at Jersey, j 
and in 1808 was sent, in company with the ! 
Medusa frigate and a brig, to look out for j 
two French frigates, supposed to have gone 
to Davis Straits to prey on the whalers. After i 
a trying and unsuccessful cruise of twelve j 
weeks, they filled up with wood and water j 
at a harbour on the coast of Labrador, which j 
Manby surveyed and named Port Manvers. I 
Thence they returned to England by New- 
foundland, the Azores, and Gibraltar. The 
Arctic service had severely tried a con- 
stitution already impaired by yellow fever. 
Manby's health was utterly ruined, and he 
was obliged to give up his command. He pur- 
chased an estate at Northwold in Norfolk, 
where he settled down for the rest of his 
life. 

He was promoted to the rank of rear- 
admiral 27 May 1825. He died from an 
overdose of opium, at the George Hotel, 
Southampton, on 18 June 1834. He married 
in 1800 Miss Hamond of Northwold, and had 
by her two daughters. 

[Marshall's Roy. Nav. Biog. iii. (vol. ii.) 199 ; 
United Service Journ. 1834, pt. ii. p. 524 ; 
G. W. Manby's Reminiscences ; ' The Book ! ' 
or the Proceedings and Correspondence upon 
the subject of the Inquiry into the Conduct of 
H.R.H. the Princess of Wales (2nd edit. 1813) ; 
James's Nav. Hist. ; Troude's Batailles Navales 
de la France.] J. K. L. 

MANCHESTER, DUKES OF. [See MON- 
TAGU, CHARLES, 1664-1722, first DUKE; 
MONTAGU, GEORGE, 1737-1788, fourth DUKE; 
MONTAGU, WILLIAM, 1771-1843, fifth DUKE.] 



MANCHESTER, EARLS or. [See MON- 
TAGU, SIR HENRY, first EARL, 1563 P-1642; 
MONTAGU, EDWARD, second EARL, 1602- 
1671.] 

MANDERSTOWN, WILLIAM (ft. 
1515-1540), philosopher, was born in the 
diocese of St. Andrews, probably at the 
town of Manderston, Stirlingshire. Edu- 
cated apparently at St. Andrews, he subse- 
quently proceeded to the university of Paris, 
where he graduated licentiate in medicine, 
and became one of the school of Terminists, 
at whose head was John Major (1469-1550) 
q. v.] In 1518 Manderstown published at 
h> aris two works/ Bipartitum in Morali Philo- 




Beaton 
and 

12mo; in the first work he is said to have 
plagiarised from 'Hieronymus Angestus;' 
copies of both are preserved in the Advocates' 
Library, Edinburgh. On 15 Dec. 1525 he 
was chosen one of the rectors of the uni- 
versity of Paris (Du BOULAY, Univ. Paris. 
vi. 977). Before 1539 he had returned to 
Scotland, for in that year, along with John 
Major, he founded a bursary or chaplaincy 
in St. Salvator's, and endowed it with the 
rents of certain houses in South Street, St. 
Andrews. On 3 April in the same year 
Manderstown witnessed a charter at Dun- 
fermline Monastery, and also appears as 
rector of Gogar. The date of his death is 
unknown. Tanner wrongly places it in 
1520. Besides the books above mentioned, 
Tanner attributes to Manderstown: 1. ''In 
Ethicam Aristotelis ad Nicomachum Com- 
ment/ 2. ' Quaestionem de Future Contin- 
gent!.' 3. 'De Arte Chymica.' 

[Du Boulay's Universitatis Parisiensis Hist, 
vi. 977 ; Tanner's Bibliotheca Britannica, p. 505 ; 
Chronicles and Memorials of Scotland Keg. 
Magni Sigilli, 1513-1546; Mackay's Life of 
John Mair, pp. 76, 97 ; Catalogue of Advocates' 
Library.] A. F. P. 

MANDEVIL, ROBERT (1578-1618), 
puritan divine, was a native of Cumberland. 
He was ' entered either a batler or servitor ' 
of Queen's College, Oxford, early in 1596, 
and matriculated on 25 June ; he proceeded 
B.A. 17 June 1600, and, after migrating to 
St. Edmund's Hall, M.A. 6 July 1603. In 
July 1607 he was elected vicar of Holm 
Cultram in Cumberland by the chancellor 
and scholars of the university of Oxford, 
and remained there till his death in 1618. 
His life was characterised by great piety and 
zeal for the puritan cause, and he was speci- 
ally active in persuading his parishioners to 
a stricter observance of the Sabbath. 

He wrote : ' Timothies Taske ; or a Chris- 



Mandeville 



21 



Mandeville 



tian Sea-Card/ the substance of addresses at 
two synodal assemblies at Carlisle, on 1 Tim. 
iv. 16, and Acts xx. 28. The book was pub- 
lished at Oxford in 1619 under the editor- 
ship of Thomas Vicars, fellow of Queen's 
College. Wood also ascribes to Mandevil 
' Theological Discourses.' 

[Wood's Athenae (Bliss), ii. col. 251 ; "Wood's 
Fasti (Bliss), i. col. 284; Clark's Reg. of the 
Univ. of Oxford, ii. 214, iii. 221 ; Hutchinson's 
Hist, of Cumberland, ii. 343.] B. P. 

MANDEVILLE, BERNARD '(1670?- 

1733), author of the ' Fable of the Bees,' born 
about 1670, was a native of Dort (or Dor- 
drecht) in Holland. He pronounced an 
' Oratio Scholastics, De Medicina,' upon leav- 
ing the Erasmus School at Rotterdam for the 
university in October 1785. On 23 March 
1689 he maintained a thesis at Leyden 'De 
Brutorum Operationibus,' arguing for the 
automatism of brutes ; and on 30 March 1691 
kept an ' inaugural disputation,' ' De Chylosi 
Vitiata,' at Leyden upon taking his degree as 
doctor of medicine. Copies of these are in 
the British Museum ; the last is dedicated to 
his father, ' Michaelo de Mandeville, apud 
Roterodamenses practice felicissimo.' For 
some unknown reason he settled in England. 
According to Hawkins (Life of Johnson, 
p. 263), he lived in obscure lodgings in Lon- 
don and never acquired much practice. Some 
Dutch merchants whom he nattered allowed 
him a pension. He is also said to have been 
* hired by the distillers ' to write in favour of 
spirituous liquors. A physician who had 
married a distiller's daughter told Hawkins 
that Mandeville was ' a good sort of man,' 
and quoted him as maintaining that the 
children of dram-drinking women were ' never 
afflicted with the rickets.' Mandeville is said 
to have been coarse and overbearing when 
he dared, and was probably little respected 
outside of distilling circles. Lord Maccles- 
field, however, when chief justice (1710- 
1718), is said to have often entertained him 
for the sake of his conversation (HAWKINS, 
and Lounger's Commonplace Book, by JERE- 
MIAH WHITAKER NEWMAN, ii. 306). At 
Macclesfield's house he met Addison, whom 
he described as ' a parson in a tye-wig.' 
Franklin during his first visit to England 
was introduced to Mandeville, and describes 
him as the ' soul' of a club held at a tavern 
and a ' most entertaining, facetious com- 
panion ' (FRANKLIN, Memoirs}. He died 
21 Jan. 1732-3 (Gent. Mag. for 1733), ' in 
his sixty-third year ' according to the ' Biblio- 
theque Britannique.' 

Mandeville published in 1705 a doggerel 
poem called ' The Grumbling Hive, or Knaves 



turned Honest,' which was piratically re- 
printed as * a sixpenny pamphlet,' and sold 
about the streets as a halfpenny sheet (preface 
to later edition). In 1714 it was republished 
anonymously with an ' Inquiry into the Origin 
of Moral Virtue/ and a series of notes, under 
the title ' The Fable of the Bees, or Private 
Vices Public Benefits.' In 1723 appeared a 
second edition, with an ' Essay on Charity 
and Charity Schools,' and a ' Search into the 
Nature of Society.' The grand jury of 
Middlesex presented the book as a nuisance in 
July 1723, and it was denounced in a letter 
by ' Theophilus Philo-Britannus ' in the ' Lon- 
don Journal ' of 27 July following. Mande- 
ville replied by a letter to the same journal 
on 10 Aug., reprinted as a ' Vindication ' 
in later editions. The book was attacked 
by Richard Fiddes [q. v.] in his ' General 
Treatise of Morality,' 1724 ; by John Dennis 
[q. v.] in ' Vice and Luxury Public Mischiefs' 
(1724) ; by William Law [q.v.] in 'Remarks 
upon . . . the Fable of the Bees ; ' by Francis 
Hutcheson (1694-1746) [q.v.] in ' Hiber- 
nicus's Letters ' (1725-7), and by Archibald 
Campbell (1691-1756) [q. v.] in his 'Aperij- 
Xoyi'a (1728), fraudulently published as his 
own by Alexander Innes. Campbell (or 
Innes) challenged Mandeville to redeem a 
promise which he had made that he would 
burn the book if it were proved to be immoral. 
An advertisement of the 'Aper^Xoyia was 
followed by a paragraph stating that the 
author of the ' Fable ' had, upon reading this 
challenge, burnt his own book solemnly at the 
bonfire before St. James's Gate on 1 March 
1728. Mandeville ridiculed this ingenious 
fiction in the preface to a second part of the 
' Fable of the Bees ' added to later editions. 
The sixth edition appeared in 1729, the ninth 
in 1755, and it has been often reprinted. 
Berkeley replied to Mandeville in the second 
dialogue of 'Alciphron' (1732), to which 
Mandeville replied in ' A Letter to Dion ' in 
the same year. John Brown (1715-1766) 
[q. v.], in his ' Essay upon Shaftesbury's Cha- 
racteristics ' (1751), also attacks Mandeville 
as well as Shaftesbury. 

Mandeville gave great offence by this book, 
in which a cynical system of morality was 
made attractive by ingenious paradoxes. It 
was long popular, and later critics have 
I pointed out the real acuteness of the writer 
as well as the vigour of his style, especially 
remarkable in a foreigner. His doctrine 
that prosperity was increased by expenditure 
I rather than by saving fell in with many cur- 
rent economical fallacies not yet extinct. 
Assuming with the ascetics that human de- 
sires were essentially evil and therefore pro- 
i duced ' private vices,' and assuming with the 



Mandeville 



22 



Mandeville 



common view that wealth was a 'public 
benefit,' he easily showed that all civilisation 
implied the development of vicious propen- 
sities. He argued again with the Hobbists 
that the origin of virtue was to be found in 
selfish and savage instincts, and vigorously 
attacked Shaftesbury's contrary theory of 
a 'moral sense.' But he tacitly accepted 
Shaftesbury's inference that virtue so under- 
stood was a mere sham. He thus argued, in 
appearance at least, for the essential vileness 
of human nature ; though his arguments may 
be regarded as partly ironical, or as a satire 
against the hypocrisies of an artificial society. 
In any case his appeal to facts, against the 
plausibilities of the opposite school, shows 
that he had many keen though imperfect 
previsions of later scientific views, both upon 
ethical and economical questions. Dr. John- 
son was much impressed by the ' Fable,' 
which, he said, did not puzzle him, but ' opened 
his views into real life very much ' (HiLL, 
Boswell, iii. 291-3 ; see criticisms in JAMES 
MILL, Fragment on Mackintosh, 1870, pp. 57- 
63 ; BAIN, Moral Science, pp. 593-8 ; STE- 
PHEN, English Thought in the Eighteenth 
Century, i'i. 33-40). 

Besides the ' Fable ' and the Latin exer- 
cises above mentioned, Mandeville's works 
are: 1. 'Esop Dressed, or a Collection of 
Fables writ in Familiar Verse,' 1704. 2. ' Ty- 
phon in Verse,' 1704. 3. 'The Planter's Charity, 
a poem,' 1704. 4. ' The Virgin Unmasked, or 
Female Dialogues betwixt an elderly maiden 
Lady and her Niece,' 1709, 1724, 1731 (a 
coarse story, with reflections upon marriage, 
&c.) 5. ' Treatise of Hypochondriack and 
Hysterick Passions, vulgarly called Hypo in 
Men and Vapours in Women . . .,' 1711, 1715, 
1730 (admired by Johnson according to Haw- 
kins). 6. ' Free Thoughts on Religion, the 
Church, and National Happiness,' 1720. 

7. ' A Conference about Whoring,' 1725. 

8. ' An Enquiry into the Causes of the fre- 
quent Executions at Tyburn,' 1725 (a curious 
account of the abuses then prevalent). 9. 'An 
Enquiry into the Origin of Honour and the 
Usefulness of Christianity in War,' 1732. 
To Mandeville have also been attributed : 
' A Modest Defence of Publick Stews,' 1740 ; 
' The World Unmasked, or the Philosopher 
the greatest Cheat,' 1736 (certainly not his) ; 
and ' Zoologia Medicinalis Hibernica,' 1744 
(but previously published by ' John Keogh ' 
in 1739). 

[The notices in the General Dictionary, vii. 
388 (1738), Chaufepie, and the Biographia Bri- 
tannica give no biographical details ; Hawkins's 
brief note as above and the Lounger's Common- 
place Book (see above) preserve the only per- 
sonal tradition.] L. S. 



MANDEVILLE, GEOFFREY BE, EARL 
OF ESSEX (d. 1144), rebel, was the son of 
William de Mandeville, constable of the 
Tower, and the grandson of Geoffrey de Man- 
deville, a companion of the Conqueror, who 
obtained a considerable fief in England, 
largely composed of the forfeited estates of 
Esgar*(or Asgar) the staller. Geoffrey first 
appears in the Pipe Roll of 1130, when he 
had recently succeeded his father. With the 
exception of his presence at King Stephen's 
Easter court in 1136, we hear nothing of him 
till 1140, when he accompanied Stephen 
against Ely (Cott. MS. Titus A. vi. f. 34), 
and subsequently (according to WILLIAM OF 
NEWBTJRGH) took advantage of his position 
as constable of the Tower to detain Constance 
of France in that fortress, after her betrothal 
to Eustace, the son of Stephen, who bitterly 
resented the outrage. He must, however, 
have succeeded in obtaining from the king 
before the latter's capture at Lincoln (2 Feb. 
1141) the charter creating him Earl of Essex, 
which is still preserved among the Cottonian 
Charters (vii. 4), and which is probably the 
earliest creation-charter now extant. 

From this point his power and his import- 
ance rapidly increased, chiefly owing to his 
control of the Tower. He also exercised 
great influence in Essex, where lay his chief 
estates and his strongholds of Pleshy and 
Saffron Walden. On the arrival of the Em- 
press Maud in London (June 1141), he was 
won over to her side by an important charter 
confirming him in the earldom of Essex, 
creating him hereditary sheriff, justice, and 
escheator of Essex, and granting him estates, 
knights' fees, and privileges. He deserted 
her cause, however, on her expulsion from 
London, seized her adherent the bishop, and 
was won over by Stephen's queen to assist 
her in the siege of Winchester. Shortly after 
the liberation of the king Geoffrey obtained 
from him, as the price of his support, a charter 
(Christmas 1141) pardoning his treason, and 
trebling the grants made to him by the em- 
press. He now became sheriff and justice of 
Hertfordshire and of London and Middlesex, 
as well as of Essex, thus monopolising all 
administration and judicial power within 
these three counties. Early in the follow- 
ing year he was despatched by Stephen against 
Ely to disperse the bishop's knights, a task 
which he accomplished with vigour. His 
influence was now so great that the author 
of the ' Gesta Stephani' describes him as sur- 
passing all the nobles of the land in wealth 
and importance, acting everywhere as king, 
and more eagerly listened to and obeyed than 
the king himself. Another contemporary 
writer speaks of him as the foremost man in 






Mandeville 



Mandeville 



England. His ambition, however, was still 
unsatisfied, and he aspired by a fresh treason 
to play the part of king-maker. He accord- 
ingly began to intrigue with the empress, 
who was preparing to make a fresh effort on 
behalf of her cause. Meeting her at Oxford 
some time before the end of June (1142), he 
extorted from her in a new charter con- 
cessions even more extravagant than those 
he had wrung from Stephen. He also ob- 
tained from her at the same time a charter 
in favour of his brother-in-law, Aubrey de 
Vere (afterwards Earl of Oxford), another 
Essex magnate. But the ill-success of her 
cause was unfavourable to his scheme, and 
he remained, outwardly at least, in allegi- 
ance to the king. His treasonable intentions, 
however, could not be kept secret, and Ste- 
phen, who already dreaded his power, was 
warned that he would lose his crown unless 
he mastered the earl. It was not, however, 
till the following year (1143) that he decided, 
or felt himself strong enough, to do this. At 
St. Albans, probably about the end of Sep- 
tember, Geoffrey, who was attending his court, 
was openly accused of treason by some of his 
jealous rivals, and, on treating the charge 
with cynical contempt, was suddenly arrested 
by the king after a sharp struggle. Under 
threat of being hanged, he was forced to 
surrender his castles of Pleshey and Saffron 
Walden, and, above all, the Tower of London, 
the true source of his might. He was then 
set free, ' to the ruin of the realm/ in the 
words of the ' Gesta Stephani.' 

Rushing forth from the presence of the 
king, ' like a vicious and riderless horse, kick- 
ing and biting' in his rage, the earl burst 
into revolt. With the help of his brother- 
in-law, William de Say, and eventually of 
the Earl of Norfolk, he made himself master 
of the fenland, the old resort of rebels. Ad- 
vancing from Fordham, he secured, in the 
absence of Bishop Nigel, the Isle of Ely, and 
pushing on thence seized Ramsey Abbey, 
which he fortified and made his headquarters. 
From this strong position he raided forth 
with impunity, burning and sacking Cam- 
bridge and other smaller places. Stephen 
marched against him, but in vain, for the 
earl took refuge among the fens. The king, 
however, having fortified Burwell, which 
threatened Geoffrey's communications, the 
earl attacked the post (August 1144), and 
while doing so was wounded in the head. 
The wound proved fatal, and the earl died 
at Mildenhall in Suffolk about the middle of 
September, excommunicate for his desecra- 
tion and plunder of church property. His 
corpse was carried by some Templars to the 
Old Temple in Holborn, where it remained 



unburied for nearly twenty years. At last, 
his son and namesake having made repara- 
tion for his sins, Pope Alexander pronounced 
his absolution (1163), and his remains were 
interred at the New Temple, where an effigy of 
him was, but erroneously, supposed to exist. 

The earl, who presented a perfect type of 
the ambitious feudal noble, left by his wife 
Rohese, daughter of Aubrey de Vere (cham- 
berlain of England), at least three sons: 
Ernulf (or Ernald), who shared in his re- 
volt, and was consequently exiled and dis- 
inherited, together with his descendants; 
and Geoffrey (d. 1166) and William Mande- 
ville [q. v.], who succeeded him in turn, and 
were both Earls of Essex. 

[Geoffrey de Mandeville: a Study of the 
Anarchy, 1892, by the present writer.] 

J. H. R. 

MANDEVILLE, SIR JOHN, was the 
ostensible author of the book of travels 
bearing his name and composed soon after 
the middle of the fourteenth century. The 
earliest known manuscript (Paris, Bibl. Nat. 
nouv. acq. franc. 4515, late Ashburnham 
MS. Barrois xxiv.) is dated 1371, and is in 
French; and from internal evidence it is 
clear that the English, Latin, and other 
texts are all derived, directly or indirectly, 
from a French original, the translation in no 
case being the author's own. The English 
text has practically come down to us in only 
three forms, and in no manuscript older than 
the fifteenth century. The common English 
version, and the only one printed before 1725, 
has, besides other deficiencies, a large gap in 
the account of Egypt (ed. Halliwell, 1866, 
p. 36, 1. 7, ' And there are,' to p. 62, 1. 25, 
1 abbey e often tyme '). The other two English 
versions are of superior value, and are pre- 
served, each in a single manuscript, in the 
British Museum, dating in both cases from 
about 1410 to 1420 : that in Cotton MS. Titus 
C. xvi. was first edited anonymously in 1725, 
and through Halliwell's reprints (1839, 1866, 
&c.) has become the standard English text ; 
the other version, in a more northerly dialect, 
and in some respects superior, is in Egerton 
MS. 1982, and was printed for the Roxburghe 
Club in 1889. As the Cotton manuscript has 
lost three leaves, the latter is really the only 
complete English text. 

In Latin, as Dr. Vogels has shown, there 
are five independent versions. Four of them, 
which apparently originated in England (one 
manuscript, now at Leyden, being dated in 
1390), have no special interest ; the fifth, or 
vulgate Latin text, was no doubt made at 
Liege, and, as will be seen, has an important 
bearing on the author's identity. It is found 
in twelve manuscripts, all of the fifteenth 



Mandeville 



Mandeville 



century, and is the only Latin version as 
yet printed. 

In his prologue the author styles himself 
Jehan de Mandeville, or John Maundevylle, 
knight, born and bred in England, of the 
town of St. Aubin or St. Albans ; and he 
declares that he crossed the sea on Michael- 
mas day 1322 (or 1332, in the Egerton and 
some other English manuscripts), and had 
passed in his travels by Turkey (i.e. Asia 
Minor), Great and Little Armenia, Tartary, 
Persia, Syria, Arabia, Upper and Lower 
Egypt, Libya, a great part of Ethiopia, 
Chaldeea, Amazonia, and Lesser, Greater, 
and Middle India. He adds that he wrote 
especially for those who wished to visit 
Jerusalem, whither he had himself often 
ridden in good company, and in the French 
prologue he ends by stating that, to be more 
concise, he should have (j'eusse) written in 
Latin, but had chosen Romance, i.e. French, 
as being more widely understood. In the 
Latin, and all the English versions except 
the Cotton manuscript, this last sentence is 
suppressed, so that each tacitly claims to be 
an original work ; in the Cotton manuscript 
it is perverted and reads : ' And ye shall 
understand that I have put this book out of 
Latin into French, and translated it again 
out of French into English that every man of 
my nation may understand it.' These words 
not only contradict the French text, but make 
Mandeville himself responsible for the Eng- 
lish version in which they occur, and on the 
strength of them he has even been styled the 
' father of English prose.' But the Cotton 
version, equally with the others, is disfigured 
by blunders, such as an author translating 
his own work could never have made (see 
Roxburghe edit. p. xiii). In the epilogue 
Mandeville repeats that he left England in 
1322, and goes on to say that he had since 
< searched ' many a land, been in many a good 
company, and witnessed many a noble feat, 
although he had himself performed none, 
and that, being now forced by arthritic gout 
to seek repose, he had written his reminis- 
cences, as a solace for his ' wretched ease,' in 
1357, the thirty-fifth year since he set out. 
This is the date in the Paris manuscript ; 
others, French and English, have 1356 (or 
1366 in the case of those which make him 
start in 1332), while the vulgate Latin has 
1355. In the Latin, moreover, he says that 
he wrote at Liege, and it is in the Cotton 
manuscript alone that, by an inexact render- 
ing, he speaks of having actually reached 
home. The passage common to all the Eng- 
lish versions, that on his way back he sub- 
mitted his book to the pope at Rome, is, no 
doubt, spurious. It is at variance with his 



own account of the circumstances under 
which the work was written, and between 
1309 and 1377 the popes resided not at Rome 
but at Avignon. A short dedicatory letter 
in Latin to Edward III, which is appended 
to some inferior French manuscripts, is also 
probably a late addition. In some copies the 
author's name appears as J. de Montevilla. 

The work itself is virtually made up of 
two parts. The first treats mainly of the 
Holy Land and the routes thither, and in 
the Paris manuscript it gives the title to the 
whole, viz. ' Le livre Jehan de Mandeville, 
chevalier, lequel parle de 1'estat de la terre 
sainte et des merveilles que il y a veues.' 
Although it is more a guide-book for pilgrims 
than strictly a record of the author's own 
travel, he plainly implies throughout that he 
wrote from actual experience. Incidentally 
he tells us he had been at Paris and at Con- 
stantinople, had long served the sultan of 
Egypt against the Bedouins, and had refused 
his offer of a prince's daughter in marriage, 
with a great estate, at the price of apostasy. 
He reports, too, a curious colloquy he had 
with the sultan on the vices of Christendom, 
and casually mentions that he left Egypt in 
the reign of Melechmadabron, by whom he 
possibly means Melik-el-Mudhaffar (1346-7). 
Finally, he speaks of being at the monastery 
of St. Catharine on Mount Sinai, and of 
having obtained access to the Dome of the 
Rock at Jerusalem by special grace of the 
sultan, who gave him letters under the great 
seal. But in spite of these personal references 
almost the whole of his matter is undeniably 
taken from earlier writers. The framework, 
as Sir Henry Yule pointed out, is from Wil- 
liam of Boldensele, a German knight and 
ex-Dominican who visited the holy places in 
1332-3, and wrote in 1336 a sober account 
of his journey (GROTEFBHTD, Die Edelherren 
von Boldensele, 1852, 1855). From first to 
last Mandeville copies him closely, though 
not always with intelligence ; but at the 
same time he borrows abundantly from other 
sources, interweaving his various materials 
with some skill. Apart from his use of 
church legends and romantic tales, the de- 
scription he gives of the route through Hun- 
gary to Constantinople, and, later on, across 
Asia Minor, is a blundering plagiarism from 
^- < History of the First Crusade ' by Albert 



the 



of Aix, and his topography of Palestine, when 
not based on Boldensele, is a patchwork from 
twelfth- and thirteenth-century itineraries. 
His authority, therefore, for the condition 
of the holy places in his own time, though 
often quoted, is utterly worthless. Other 
passages can be traced to Pliny and Solinus, 
Peter Comestor, Vincent de Beauvais, Bru- 



Mandeville 



2 5 



Mandeville 



netto Latini, and Jacques de Vitry. From 
the last, for example, he ekes out Bolden- 
sele's account of the Bedouins, and it is from 
a careless reading of De Vitry that he turns 
the hunting leopards of Cyprus into 'papions ' 
or baboons. The alphabets which he gives 
have won him some credit as a linguist, but 
only the Greek and the Hebrew (which were 
readily accessible) are what they pretend to 
be, and that which he calls Saracen actually 
comes from the'Cosmographia' of ^Ethicus! 
His knowledge of Mohammedanism and its 
Arabic formulae impressed even Yule. He was, 
however, wholly indebted for that information 
to the 'Liber de Statu Saracenorum ' of Wil- 
liam of Tripoli (circa 1270), as he was to the 
' Historise Orientis' of Hetoum the Armenian 
(1307) for much of what he wrote about 
Egypt. In the last case, indeed, he shows a 
rare sign of independence, for he does not, 
with Hetoum, end his history of the sultanate 
about 1300, but carries it on to the death of 
En-Nasir (1341) and names two of his suc- 
cessors. Although his statements about 
them are not historically accurate, this fact 
and a few other details suggest that he may 
really have been in Egypt, if not at Jerusalem, 
but the proportion of original matter is so 
very far short of what might be expected 
that even this is extremely doubtful. 

In the second part of the work, which 
describes nearly all Asia, there is, apart 
from his own assertions, no trace of personal 
experience whatever. The place of Bolden- 
sele is here taken by Friar Odoric of Por- 
denone, whose intensely interesting narra- 
tive of eastern travel was written in 1330, 
shortly after his return home (YtTLE, Cathay 
and the Way thither, 1866 ; H. COKDIER, 
O. de Pordenone, 1891). Odoric left Europe 
about 1316-18, and travelled slowly over- 
land from Trebizond to the Persian Gulf, 
where he took ship at Hormuz for Tana, a 
little north of Bombay. Thence he sailed 
along the coast to Malabar, Ceylon, and 
Mailapur, now Madras. After visiting Su- 
matra, Java, and other islands, Champa or 
S. Cochin-China, and Canton, he ultimately 
made his way northward through China to 
Cambalec or Pekin. There he remained three 
years, and then started homeward by land, 
but his route after Tibet is not recorded. 
Mandeville practically steals the whole of 
these extensive travels and makes them his 
own, adding, as before, a mass of hetero- 
geneous matter acquired by the same means. 
Next to Odoric he makes most use of Hetoum, 
from whom he took, besides other details, his 
summary description of the countries of Asia 
and his history of the Mongols. For Mongol 
manners and customs he had recourse to 



I John de Piano Carpini and Simon de St. 
Quentin, papal envoys to the Tartars about 
1250. These two thirteenth-century writers 
I he probably knew only through lengthy ex- 
tracts in the ' Speculum' of Vincent de Beau- 
i vais (d. 1264?). This vast storehouse of me- 
I diaeval knowledge he ransacked thoroughly, 
! as he did also to some extent the kindred 
! Tresor ' of Brunetto Latini (d. 1294). He 
; admits in one place (contradicting his pro- 
| logue) that he was never in Tartary itself, 
though he had been in Russia (Galicia), Li- 
vonia, Cracow, and other countries bordering 
j on it, but, without once naming his autho- 
rities, he writes throughout in the tone of 
an eye-witness. He even transfers to his 
own days, ' when I was there,' the names 
of Tartar princes of a century before (Roxb. 
ed. p. 209). Much in the same way he 
adopts Pliny's language about the ships of 
his time, so that it serves for those of the four- 
teenth century (id. p. 219), and gives as his 
own a mode of computing the size of the 
earth which he found recorded of Erato- 
sthenes (ib. p. 200). But it may be that from 
Vincent de Beauvais's ' Speculum,' and not 
directly from Pliny, Solinus, or the early 
Bestiaries, he obtained particulars of the 
fabulous monsters, human and brute, the 
existence of which he records as sober fact 
in the extreme East. Without doubt in 
the ' Speculum ' he read Caesar's account of 
the customs of the Britons, which he applies 
almost word for word to the inhabitants of 
one of his imaginary islands (Roxb. ed. p. 
218). But, whether repeating fact or fable, he 
associates himself with it. A good example 
of his method is his story of the mythical 
Fount of Youth. He takes this from Prester 
John's letter, and foists it upon Odoric's 
account of Malabar, but he adds that he 
himself had drunk of the fount, and still 
felt the good effects. Similarly at various 
stages he makes out that he had taken ob- 
servations with the astrolabe, not only in 
Brabant and Germany towards Bohemia, 
but in the Indian Ocean, had seen with his 
own eyes the gigantic reeds of the island of 
1 Panten,' had sailed within sight of the 
rocks of adamant, and had been in the 
country of the Vegetable Lamb. He even 
represents that his travels extended from 
62 10' north to 33 16' south. Further, in 
following Odoric through Cathay he adds con- 
versations of his own at Cansay and at Cam- 
balec, and asserts that he and his comrades 
served the Great Khan for fifteen months 
against the king of Manzi. The way he 
deals with Odoric's story of the devil-haunted 
Valley Perilous is curious ; for in working 
it up with augmented horrors he tells how, 



Mandeville 



Mandeville 



with some of his fellows, he succeeded in 
passing through, after being shriven by two 
Friars Minor of Lombardy, who were with 
them. Evidently he here alludes to Odoric 
himself, so as to forestall a charge of pla- 
giarism by covertly suggesting that they 
travelled together. This theory was in 
fact put forward as early as the fifteenth 
century, to account for the agreement be- 
tween the two works, and it was even asserted 
that Mandeville wrote first. Such, however, 
was certainly not the case, and all the evi- 
dence goes to prove that his book is not only a 
mere compilation, but a deliberate imposture. 

There are strong grounds, too, for the 
belief that his name is as fictitious as his 
travels. Mandeville is mentioned, indeed, 
as a famous traveller in Burton's ' Chronicle 
of Meaux Abbey,' written between 1388 and 
1396 (Rolls ed., 1868, iii. 158), and again, 
about 1400, in a list of local celebrities ap- 
pended to Amundesham's ' Annals of St. 
Albans' (Rolls ed., 1871, ii. 306). These 
notices, however, and others later, are plainly 
based on his own statements ; and the fact 
that a sapphire ring at St. Albans (ib. p. 
331) and a crystal orb at Canterbury (LE- 
LAND, Comment., 1709, p. 368) were ex- 
hibited among relics as his gifts only attests 
the fame of his book. No other kind of trace 
of him can be found in England, for the 
legend of his burial at St. Albans was of late 
growth. Although in the fourteenth century 
the Mandevilles were no longer earls of Essex, 
the name was not uncommon. One family 
bearing it was seated at Black Notley in 
Essex, and another was of Marshwood in 
Dorset, holding lands also in Wiltshire, Ox- 
fordshire, Devonshire, and elsewhere. At 
least two members of the latter were called 
John between 1300 and 1360, and other con- 
temporary Mandevilles of the same name are 
also known (Roxb. ed. p. xxx). Two more 
have recently been found by Mr. Edward 
Scott as witnesses to a charter, now at 
Westminster Abbey, relating to Edmonton, 
Middlesex, and dated in 1312-13. Nothing, 
however, is recorded of any one of them that 
makes his identity with the traveller at all 
probable. 

On the other hand, there is abundant proof 
that the tomb of the author of the ' Travels ' 
was to be seen in the church of the Guille- 
mins or Guillelmites at Liege down to the 
demolition of the building in 1798. The 
fact of his burial there, with the date of his 
death, 17 Nov. 1372, was published by Bale in 
1548 (Summarium, f. 1496), and was con- 
firmed independently by Jacob Meyer (An- 
nales rerum Flandric., 1561, p. 165) and 
Lud. Guicciardini (Paesi Bassi, 1567, p. 281). 



Ortelius (Itinerarium, 1584, p. 16) is more 
explicit, and gives the epitaph in full. As 
corrected by other copies, notably one sent 
by Edmund Lewknor, an English priest at 
Liege, to John Pits (De III. Angl. Scriptt. 
1619, p. 511), it ran : ' Hie jacet vir nobilis 
Dom. Joannes de Mandeville, alias dictus 
adBarbam, Miles, Dominus de Campdi, natus 
de Anglia, medicinse professor, devotissimus 
orator, et bonorum suorum largissirnus pau- 
peribus erogator, qui, toto quasi orbe lus- 
trato, Leodii diem vitce sme clausit extremum, 
A.D. MCCCLXXII., mensisNov. die xvii.' Orte- 
lius adds that it was on a stone whereon 
was also carved an armed man with forked 
beard trampling on a lion, with a hand 
blessing him from above, together with the 
words : ' Vos ki paseis sor mi por lamour 
deix (de Dieu) proies por mi.' The shield 
when he saw it was bare, but he was told it 
once contained, on a brass plate, the arms 
azure, a lion argent with a crescent on his 
breast gules, within a bordure engrailed or. 
These were not the arms of any branch of 
Mandeville, but, except the crescent (which 
may have marked a difference for a second 
son), they appear to have been borne by 
Tyrrell and Lamont (PAPWORTH, Ordinary, 
1874, p. 118). Another description of them 
in German verse, with a somewhat faulty 
copy of the epitaph, was given by Jacob 
Piiterich in his ' Ehrenbrief,' written in 
1462, the poet stating that he went twelve 
miles out of his way to visit the tomb 
(IlAUPT, Zeitschrift, 1848, vi. 56). It is not 
very intelligible, but it mentions the lion, 
and adds that the helm was surmounted 
by an ape (Morkhacz). Of about the same 
date is a notice of Mandeville, based on the 
epitaph, in the ' Chronicle ' (1230-1461) of 
Cornelis Zantfliet, who was a monk of St. 
Jacques at Liege ; and earlier still Radulphus 
de Rivo (d. 1403), dean of Tongres, some ten 
miles from Liege, has an interesting passage 
on him in his ' Gesta Pontificum Leodien- 
sium.' He says not only that he was buried 
among the Guillemins, but that he wrote 
his ' Travels ' in three languages. By an ob- 
vious misreading of the date on the tomb 
(y for x} he places his death in 1367. 

But the most important piece of evidence 
for the author's identity was made known in 
1866 (S. BORMANS, in Bibliophile Beige, p. 
236), though it was not appreciated until 
1884 (E. B. NICHOLSON, in Academy, xxv. 
261). This is an extract made by the Liege 
herald, Louis Abry (1643-1720), from the 
fourth book, now lost, of the 'Myreur des 
Histors,' or * General Chronicle,' of Jean des 
Preis or d'Outremeuse (1338-1399). It is 
to this effect : ' In 1372 died at Liege, 



Mandeville 



Mandeville 



12 [MC] Nov., a man of very distinguished 
birth, but content to pass there under the 
name of "Jean de Bourgogne dit a la Barbe." 
He revealed himself, however, on his death- 
bed to Jean d'Outremeuse, his friend and 
executor. In fact, in his will he styled him- 
self " Messire Jean de Mandeville, chevalier, 
comte de Montfort en Angleterre et seigneur 
de 1'isle de Campdi et du Chateau Perouse." 
Having, however, had the misfortune to kill 
in his own country a count (or earl), whom 
he does not name, he bound himself to tra- 
verse three parts of the world. He came to 
Liege in 1343, and, although of very exalted 
rank, he preferred to keep himself there con- 
cealed. He was, besides, a great naturalist, 
and a profound philosopher and astrologer, 
and he had above all an extraordinary know- 
ledge of medicine, rarely deceiving himself 
when he gave his opinion as to a patient's 
chances of recovery. On his death he was 
interred among the Guillelmins in the suburb 
of Avroy ' (cf. S. BORM ANS, Chronique et Geste 
de J. des Preis, 1887, p. cxxxiii). D'Outre- 
meuse again mentions Mandeville in his 
' Tresorier de Philosophic Naturelle ' (Bibl. 
Nat.,fonds fran?., 12326). Without connect- 
ing him with De Bourgogne he there styles 
him ' Seigneur de Monfort,' &c., and quotes 
several passages in Latin from a i Lapidaire 
des Indois,' of which he says he was the 
author ; a French version of the ' Lapidaire ' 
was printed under Mandeville's name at 
Lyons about 1530. D'Outremeuse also as- 
serts that Mandeville lived seven years at 
Alexandria, and that a Saracen friend gave 
him some fine jewels, which he (D'Outre- 
meuse) afterwards acquired. As to Jean de 
Bourgogne a la Barbe, the name is otherwise 
known as that of the author of a treatise on 
the plague. Manuscripts of this are extant in 
Latin, French, arid English, the author some- 
times being called De Burdegalia, De Bur- 
deus, &c. ; and it is significant that a French 
copy originally formed part of the same 
manuscript as the Paris Mandeville ' Travels' 
of 1371 (L. DELISLE, Cat. des MSS. Libri et 
Barrois, 1888, p. 252). The colophon of the 
treatise states that it was composed by Jean de 
Bourgogne a, la Barbe in 1365 at Liege, where 
he had before written other noble scientific 
works; and in the text he claims to have had 
forty years of medical experience, and to have 
written two previous tracts on kindred sub- 
jects. He appears again, as ' John with the 
Beard,' in the Latin vulgate version of Man- 
deville's 'Travels.' Mandeville is there made 
to say that, when in Egypt, he met about the 
Sultan's court a venerable and clever phy- 
sician ' sprung from our own parts ; ' that long 
afterwards at Liege, on his way home in 1355, 



he recognised the same physician in Master 
John ' ad Barbam,' whom he consulted when 
laid up with arthritic gout in the street Basse 
Sauveniere ; and that he wrote the account of 
his wanderings at Master John's instigation 
and with his aid. The same story has even 
been quoted from a French manuscript, with 
the name Jean de Bourgogne in full, and the 
added detail that Mandeville lodged at Liege 
in the hostel of one Henkin Levoz (Roxb. ed. 
p. xxviii). As the whole incident is absent 
from the French manuscripts generally, it 
could hardly have formed part of the origi- 
nal work ; but it marks a stage towards the 
actual identification of De Bourgogne with 
Mandeville, as asserted by D'Outremeuse's 
chronicle and implied in the epitaph, which 
D'Outremeuse probably composed. But, ad- 
mitting this identity, there is the question, 
Which of the two names, Mandeville or De 
Bourgogne, was authentic ? 

If D'Outremeuse reported truly, De Bour- 
gogne in his will claimed not only to be Sir 
John Mandeville, but count, or earl, of Mont- 
fort in England. Such a titfe was certainly 
never borne by the Mandeville family, and 
the probability is that it, like the other ap- 
pellation (' seigneur de 1'isle de Campdi et du 
Chateau Perouse') given by D'Outremeuse to 
his mysterious friend, was a fiction. D'Outre- 
meuse's account of the cause of his friend's 
departure from England may be possibly 
based on historical fact, although the inves- 
tigation is full of difficulty. 

One John de Burgoyne, who was in Ed- 
ward II's reign chamberlain to John, baron de 
Mowbray, took part with his master in the 
rising against the two Despensers, the king's 
favourites, in 1321. The Despensers were then 
banished, and De Burgoyne was, for his share 
in the attack on them, pardoned by parliament 
on 20 Aug. 1321 (Par I. Writs t ii. div. ii. App.p. 
167,div.iii.p.619). Next year the Despensers 
were recalled by the king, and they defeated 
their enemies at Boroughbridge on 16 March, 
when Mowbray, De Burgoyne's master, was 
executed. John de Burgoyne thus lost his 
patron, and in May his own position was 
seriously endangered by the formal revoca- 
tion of his earlier pardon, so that he had 
cogent reasons for quitting England. Man- 
deville, in his ' Travels,' professes to have 
left his native country at Michaelmas 1322. 
This coincidence of date is far from proving 
that the Burgoyne in Mowbray's service is 
identical with the Jean de Bourgogne who 
died at Liege in 1372, and who is credited 
by D'Outremeuse with assuming the alias of 
Mandeville ; but their identity is not impos- 
sible. It would account for such knowledge 
of England as is shown now and then in the 



Mandeville 



Mandeville 



1 Travels' (in the remarks, for example, on the 
letters p and 3), and even perhaps for the choice 
of the pseudonym of Mandeville. For Bur- 
goyne, as the foe of the Despensers, was a 
partisan of a real John de Mandeville, pro- 
bably of Marshwood, who, implicated in 
1312 in the death of Piers Gaveston [q. v.], 
was pardoned in 1313 (ib. ii. div. iii. p. 
1138). This Mandeville was not apparently 
involved in the events of 1322, and would 
himself be too old in 1312 to make it reason- 
able to identify him in any way with the 
friend of D'Outremeuse, who died sixty years 
later, in 1372. But his name might easily 
have been adopted by Burgoyne, the exile 
of 1322. In any case, the presumption is 
that the Liege physician's true name was De 
Bourgogne, and that he wrote the ' Travels ' 
under the pseudonym of Mandeville. Whether 
D'Outremeuse was his dupe or accomplice is 
open to doubt. D'Outremeuse was not over- 
scrupulous, for the travels which Mandeville 
took from Odoric he in turn took from Man- 
deville, inserting them in the ' Myreur ' as 
those of his favourite hero Ogier le Danois 
(ed. Borgnet, 1873, iii. 57). There are signs, 
too, that he may at least have been respon- 
sible for the Latin version of Mandeville's 
' Travels/ in which Ogier's name also occurs ; 
but if he had no hand in the original, he had 
ample means of detecting its character ; his 
own authorities for the extant books of the 
1 Myreur' (Chrowique, p. xcv) include nearly 
all those which Mandeville used. 

The success of the ' Travels ' was remark- 
able. Avowedly written for the unlearned, 
and combining interest of matter and a quaint 
simplicity of style, the book hit the popu- 
lar taste, and in a marvel-loving age its 
most extravagant features probably had the 
greatest charm. No mediaeval work was more 
widely diffused in the vernacular, atfd in 
English especially it lost nothing, errors 
apart, by translation, the philological value 
of the several versions being also consider- 
able. Besides the French, English, and Latin 
texts, there are others in Italian and Spanish, 
Dutch and Walloon, German, Bohemian, 
Danish, and Irish, and some three hundred 
manuscripts are said to have survived. In 
English Dr. Vogels enumerates thirty-four. 
In the British Museum are ten French, nine 
English, six Latin, three German, and two 
Irish manuscripts. The work was plagiarised 
not only by D'Outremeuse, but by the Ba- 
varian traveller Schiltberger, who returned 
home in 1427. More curiously still, as Mr. 
Paget Toynbee has lately proved {Romania, 
1892, xxi. 228), Christine de Pisan, in 1402, 
borrowed from it largely in her * Chemin de 
Long Estude' (vv. 1191-1568) ; the sibyl who 



conducted Christine in a vision through the 
other world first showed her what was worth 
seeing here in terms almost identical with 
Mandeville's. 

According to M. Cordier the first edition 
in type was the German version of Otto von 
Diemeringen, printed probably at Bale about 
1475, but an edition in Dutch is thought to 
have appeared at least as early as 1470 
(CAMPBELL, Typogr. Neerlandaise, 1874, p. 
338). Another German version by Michel 
Velser was printed at Augsburg, 1481. The 
earliest edition of the French text is dated 
Lyons, 4 April 1480, and was speedily fol- 
lowed by a second, Lyons, 8 Feb. 1480-1 . The 
year 1480 also saw an edition in Italian, 
printed at Milan. The earliest Latin editions 
are undated, but one has been assigned, on 
good grounds, to Gerard Leeu of Antwerp, 
1485. In English the earliest dated edition is 
that of W T ynkyn de Worde, 1499, reprinted in 
1503. It was perhaps preceded by Pynson's, 
a unique copy of which is in the Grenville 
Library, No/6713. An edition by T. Este, 
1568, contains virtually the same woodcuts 
which have been repeated down to our own 
days. Fifteen editions in English before 1725 
are known, all, as before stated, of the defec- 
tive text. The edition of Cotton MS. Titus 
C. xvi. in 1725 and its reprints have already 
been mentioned. Modernised forms of it have 
been edited by T. Wright, < Early Travels in 
Palestine/ 1848, and by H. Morley, 1886. 

[Encycl. Britannica, 9th edit. 1883, xv. 473. 
art. on Mandeville by Sir H. Yule and E. B. 
Nicholson, aud authorities there given; Voiage 
and Travaile of Sir J. Maundeville (text from 
Cott. MS. Titus C. xvi.), ed. J. 0. Halliwell, 
1839; The Buke of John Maundeville, ed. 
Gr. F. Warner (Koxburghe Club), containing the 
text in English (Egert. MS. 1982) and French, a 
full introduction, notes on the sources, &c., 1 889 ; 
A. Bovenschen's Untersuchungen iiber J. v. M. 
und die Quellen fiir seine Keisebeschreibung, in 
the Zeitschrift fur Erdkunde, Berlin, 1888, xxiii. 
194; J. Vogels's Die ungedruckten lateiniscben 
Versionen Mandeville's, Crefeld, 1886 ; Vogels's 
Handschrifr.liche Untersuchungen iiber die en- 
glische Version Mandeville's, Crefeld, 1891. In 
the last important tract Dr. Vogels argues that 
there were originally two independent English 
versions, the older (1390-1400) from the Latin 
(E. L.), the other (about 1400) from the French 
(E, F.); that E. L. is only preserved in a muti- 
lated form in Bodleian MSS. e Mus. 116 and 
Kawl. 99 ; that Cott. MS. Titus C. xvi. is a copy 
of E.F.; that from another mutilated copy sprang 
all the manuscripts of the defective text ; and 
that Egert. MS. 1982 is a revised and much im- 
proved edition of the defective text, the editor, 
in order to amend and fill up gaps, using E. L. 
throughout, and occasionally a copy of the ori- 



Mandeville 



Mandeville 



ginal French text. Dr. Vogels is now engaged 
on a critical edition of the French Mandeville. 
For the bibliography: H. Cordier's Bibliotheca 
Sfnica, 1885, ii. 943-59; E. Eohricht's Bibl. 
Geogr. Palsestinae, 1890, pp. 79-85 ; H. Cordier's 
J. de Mandeville (Extrait duT'oungPao, vol. ii. 
No. 4), Leyden, 1891.] G. F. W. 

MANDEVILLE or MAGNA VILLA, 
WILLIAM DE, third EARL OP ESSEX and 
EARL or COUNT OF AUMALE (d. 1189), third 
son of Geoffrey de Mandeville, earl of Essex 
[q. v.], by his wife Rohese, daughter of 
Aubrey de Vere (d. 1141), great chamber- 
lain (ROUND), spent his youth at the court 
of the Count of Flanders, and received 
knighthood from Philip, afterwards count 
(d. 1191). On the death of his brother, Earl 
Geoffrey, in 1166, he came over to England, 
was well received by Henry II, and suc- 
ceeded his brother as Earl of Essex and in 
his estates. After visiting his mother, who 
was incensed against the monks of Walden 
Abbey, Essex, her husband's foundation, 
because they had succeeded against her 
will in obtaining the body of her son, Earl I 
Geoffrey, and had buried it in their church, ! 
William went to Walden to pray at his i 
brother's tomb. He showed himself highly | 
displeased with the monks, made them give 
up his brother's best charger and arms, which 
they had received as a mortuary offering, 
and complained bitterly that his father had 
given them the patronage of the churches on 
his fiefs, so that he had not a single benefice 
wherewith to reward one of his clerks. The 
convent gave him gifts in order to pacify j 
him (Monasticon, iv. 143). He was con- 
stantly in attendance on the king, and was | 
therefore much out of England. He was > 
with Henry, at Limoges and elsewhere, in \ 
the spring of 1173, and swore to the agree- I 
ment between the king and the Count of 
Maurienne. Later in the year he was still 
with Henry, and remaining faithful to him 
when the rebellion broke out, was one of 
the leaders of the royal army when in August 
Louis VII was invading Normandy. In a 
skirmish between the English and French 
knights between Gisors and Trie, he took j 
Ingelram of Trie prisoner. He attested the I 
agreement between Henry and the king of 
Scots at Falaise in October 1174, was present 
at the submission of the younger Henry to 
his father at Bur on 1 April 1175, and re- 
turning to England, probably with the king, 
was at the court at Windsor in October, and 
attested the treaty with the king of Con- 
naught (BENEDICT, i. 60, 82, 99, 103). In 
March 1177 he attended the court at West- 
minster, and was one of the witnesses to 
the king's l Spanish award.' Later in the year 



he took the cross, joined his old companion, 
Philip, count of Flanders, who had paid a 
visit to England, and set out with him 
on a crusade, taking with him the prior of 
Walden as his chaplain. Having joined forces 
at Jerusalem with the Knights Templars 
and Hospitallers and Reginald of Chatillon, 
Philip and the earl laid siege to the castle of 
Harenc, and at the end of a month, on the 
approach of Saladin, allowed the garrison to 
ransom themselves. On 25 Nov. the Christians 
gained the great victory of Ramlah. The 
ransom paid to Philip and the earl was found 
to consist of base metals. They left Jerusa- 
lem after Easter 1178, and on 8 Oct. the 
earl returned to England, bringing with him 
a large number of silken hangings, which he 
distributed among the churches on his fiefs. 
He visited Walden, and was received with 
honour, having given the house some of the 
finest of his silk (Monasticon, iv. 144). 

The earl was again in company with 
Philip, of Flanders in 1179, and joined him 
in attending Louis VII when he came to 
England to visit the shrine of St. Thomas of 
Canterbury. On 14 Jan. 1180 he married, 
at his castle of Pleshey, Essex, Havice, 
daughter and heiress of William, count or 
earl of Aumale (d. 1179), and received from 
the king the county of Aumale and all that 
pertained to it on both sides of the Channel, 
with the title of Aumale (DiCETO, i. 3). From 
this date he is described sometimes by the 
title of Aumale and sometimes by that of 
Essex. In 1182 he was sent by Henry on 
an embassy to the Emperor Frederic I, to in- 
tercede for Henry the Lion, duke of Saxony. 
When war broke out between Hainault, sup- 
ported by Philip of France and Flanders, 
Earl William was called upon by the Count 
of Flanders to go to his aid, and he obeyed the 
call (ib. ii. 32, where the count is described 
as the ' dominus ' of Earl William, which 
makes it certain that the earl must have 
held some fief of the count). In October 1186 
he was twice sent as ambassador to Philip 
with reference to a truce between the two 
kings. Finding that Philip was threatening" 
Gisors, Henry sent Earl William from Eng- 
land to defend it, and, coming over to Nor- 
mandy shortly afterwards, was met by the 
earl at Aumale about the end of February 
1187, and gave him the command of a divi- 
sion of his army. In common with the king 
and many other lords, he took the cross in 
January 1188 (RALPH OF COGGESHALL, p. 23). 
In the late summer a French army, that was 
ravaging the Norman border, under the com- 
mand of the Bishop of Beauvais, burned his 
castle of Aumale. He marched with the king 
across the border, took part with Richard of 



Mandeville 



3 



Mangan 



Poitou in a battle at Mantes, burnt St. Clair 
in the Vexin, and destroyed a fine plantation 
that the French king had made there. Wil- 
liam was with the king during his last days, 
accompanied him in his flight from Le Mans 
in June 1 189, and at his request joined Wil- 
liam FitzRalph in swearing that if ill came 
to Henry they would give up the Norman 
castles to none save his son John ( Vita Gal- 
fridi, vol. i. c. 4). At the coronation of 
Richard I the earl carried the crown in his 
hands, walking immediately before Richard. 
A few days later, at the council at Pipewell, 
Northamptonshire, the king appointed him 
chief justiciar jointly with Bishop Hugh of 
Durham. At a council at London the earl 
took an oath on the king's behalf, before the 
French ambassador, that Richard would meet 
the French king the following spring. He 
then went into Normandy on the king's busi- 
ness, and died without issue at Rouen on 
14 Nov. 1189 (DICETO, ii. 73). He was buried 
in the abbey of Mortemer, near Aumale, his 
heart, according to one account, being sent to 
Walden (Monast. iv. 140, but comp. p. 145). 

Mandeville was a gallant and warlike man, 
( as loyal as his father was faithless ' (NoE- 
GATE). Besides making a grant to Walden 
(ib. iv. 149), he founded a house for Augus- 
tinian canons called Stoneley, at Kimbolton 
in Huntingdonshire (ib. vi. 477), gave the 
manor of Chippenham, Cambridgeshire, to the 
Knights Hospitallers (ib. p. 801 ; Hospital- 
lers in England, pp. 78, 230), and lands to 
Reading Abbey (Monasticon, iv. 35), and to 
the nuns of Clerkenwell (ib. p. 83), and tithes 
to the priory of Colne, Essex (ib. p. 102). His 
widow survived him, and married for her 
second husband William de Fortibus (d. 
1195), bringing him the earldom of Aumale 
or Albemarle, held by his son William (d. 
1242). After the death in 1213 of the Coun- 
tess Havice's third husband, Baldwin de 
Bethune, who held the earldom for life (jure 
uxoris) (DOYLE; STTJBBS ap. HOVEDEN, iii. 
306 n., comp. BENEDICT, ii. 92 n.), the county 
of Aumale was given by Philip of France 
to Reginald, count of Boulogne (GTJLIELMTJS 
AEMORICTJS ap. Recueil, xvii. 100). 

[Benedict's Gesta Hen. II et Ric. I, vols. _i. 
ii. (Rolls Ser.) ; Roger de Hoveden, vols. ii. 
iii. (Rolls Ser.) ; R. de Diceto, vols. i. ii. (Rolls 
Ser.) ; R. de Coggeshall, pp. 23, 26 (Rolls Ser.) ; 
Gervase Cant. i. 262, 347 ; Giraldus Cambr. Vita 
Galfridi, ap Opp. iv. 369 (Rolls Ser.) ; Guliel- 
mus Armoricus ap. Recueil des Hist. xvii. 100; 
Dugdale's Monasticon, esp. iv. 134 sqq., sub tit. 
' Walden Abbey ' a history of the Mandeville 
family; Dugdale's Baronage, i. 204 ; Doyle's Offi- 
cial Baronage, i. 24, 682 ; Round's Geoffrey de 
Mandeville, pp.81, 242, 390; Norgate's Angevin 
Kings, ii. 144, 260, 279, 282.] W. H. 



MANDUIT, JOHN (fl. 1310), astro- 
nomer. [See MAUDUITH.] 

MANFIELD, SIB JAMES. [See MANS- 
FIELD.] 

MANGA1ST, JAMES (1803-1849), Irish 
poet, commonly called James Clarence Man- 
gan, born at No. 3 Fishamble Street, Dublin, 
on 1 May 1803, was son of a grocer there. 
The father, James Mangan, a native of Shana- 
golden, co. Limerick, had, after marrying 
Catherine Smith of Fishamble Street (whose 
family belonged to Kiltale, co. Meath), com- 
menced business in Dublin in 1801. In a 
few years the elder Mangan found himself 
bankrupt through ill-advised speculations in 
house property. The son James was educated 
at a school in Saul's Court, Dublin, where he 
learned Latin, Spanish, French, and Italian, 
under Father Graham, an erudite scholar. 
But at an early age he was obliged to obtain 
employment in order to support the family, 
which consisted of two brothers and a sister, 
besides his parents. For seven years he toiled 
in a scrivener's and for three years in an 
attorney's office, earning small wages, and 
being subject to merciless persecution from 
his fellow-clerks on account of his eccentri- 
cities of manner. He soon contracted a fatal 
passion for drink, from which he never freed 
himself. Dr. Todd, the eminent antiquary, 
gave him some employment in the library of 
Trinity College, and about 1833 Dr. Petrie 
found him a place in the office of the Irish 
ordnance survey, but his irregular habits 
prevented his success in any walk of life. 

As early as 1822 Mangan had contributed 
ephemeral pieces of verse to various Dublin 
almanacs. These are enumerated in Mr. 
McCall's slight memoir. In 1831 he became a 
member of the Comet Club, which numbered 
some of the leading Dublin wits among its 
members, and he contributed verse to their 
journal, the 'Comet,' generally over the sig- 
nature of ' Clarence,' which he subsequently 
adopted as one of his Christian names. He 
also wrote for a notorious sheet called 'The 
Dublin Penny Satirist.' He had mastered 
German in order to read German philosophy, 
and it was to the 'Comet' that he sent his 
first batch of German translations. In 1834 
his first contribution to the l Dublin Univer- 
sity Magazine' appeared, and much prose 
and verse followed in the same periodical, 
the majority being articles on German poetry 
with translations. He also issued many 
pieces which he pretended were render- 
ings from the Turkish, Persian, Arabic, and 
Coptic. He was wholly ignorant of those lan- 
guages, but his wide reading in books about 
the East enabled him to give an oriental 



Mangan 



Mangan 



colouring to his verse. Nor were his adapta- 
tions of Irish poetry made directly from the 
originals, for he was ignorant of Irish, anc 
depended on prose translations made for him 
by Eugene O'Curry and John O'Daly. His 
connection with the ' Dublin University Ma- 
gazine ' brought important additions to his 
scanty income, but his indulgence in drink 
was inveterate, and rendered him incapable 
of regular application. He wrote only at fits 
and starts and lived a secluded life. About 
1839 he became acquainted with Charles 
(now Sir Charles) Gavan Duffy, who was 
tfien editing the ' Belfast Vindicator/ and to 
this journal Mangan sent some characteris- 
tically humorous pieces, using the signature 
of 'The Man in the Cloak.' When the 
' Nation ' was started in 1842, with Duffy as 
editor, Mangan wrote for the second number 
over the signatures of 'Terrae Films' and 
Vacuus.' Duffy treated him generously and 
ve him for a time a fixed salary, but Man- 
n's excesses led to difficulties between them, 
is contributions to the paper for the next 
years were few. After 1845 he wrote 
.ore regularly for the ' Nation,' but when 
e second editor, Mitchel, left it in 1848, 
angan followed him and became a contri- 
itor to Mitchel's new paper, the ' United 
ishman.' Poems of his also appeared in the 
Irishman ' of 1849, a paper started after the 
rary suppression of the 'Nation,' as 
,s in the 'Irish Tribune' (1848) and 
Duffy's Irish Catholic Magazine' (1847), 
'ie latter a venture of the publisher Duffy, 
ho must be distinguished from the editor of 
.e ' Nation.' The various signatures adopted 
3m time to time by Mangan were, besides 
ose already mentioned, 'A Yankee,' ' Monos,' 
'he Mourne-r/ and 'Lageniensis/all which 
ere used in the 'Nation' between 1846 and 
848. 

_ Mangan's friends sought in vain to induce 
'm to take the pledge from Father Mathew. 
t length his mode of life brought on an 
ness which necessitated his removal to 
t. Vincent's Hospital in May 1848. On 
'a recovery he met with an accident and 
obliged to enter Richmond Surgical 
capital. Finally he caught the cholera, in 
e epidemic that raged in Dublin in 1849, 
d died in Meath Hospital on Wednesday, 
June 1849. Hercules Ellis tells a sensa- 
onal story to the effect that on proceeding to 
.e hospital he heard from the house-surgeon 
t Mangan's death was not caused by 
holera but by starvation. He also says that 
in his pocket was found a volume of Ger- 
n poetry, in translating which he had 
n^ engaged when struck down by illness, 
his hat were found loose papers on which 



his last efforts in verse were feebly traced 
by his dying hand ' (Romances and Ballads, 
Introd. p. xiv). 

Mangan was unmarried. In his fanciful 
and untrustworthy autobiography, which 
first appeared in the ' Irish Monthly ' of 1882, 
and is included among his ' Essays in Prose 
and Verse,' he relates an unhappy love-story, 
of which he claimed to be the hero. His per- 
sonal appearance is thus described by Duffy: 
' When he^ emerged into daylight he was 
dressed in a blue cloak, midsummer or mid- 
winter, and a hat of fantastic shape, under 
which golden hair as fine and silky as a 
woman's hung in unkempt tangles, and deep 
blue eyes lighted a face as colourless as 
parchment. He looked like the spectre of 
some German romance rather than a living 
creature ' ( Young Ireland, 1883, p. 297). A 
portrait of him, drawn after his death, was 
executed by Mr. (now Sir) F. W. Burton, 
and is in the National Gallery, Dublin. 

Mangan was probably the greatest of the 
poets of Irish birth, although his merits have 
been exaggerated by some of his editors. His 
translations and paraphrases are remarkably 
spirited, and his command of language is no 
less notable than his facility in rhyming and 
his ear for melody. 

Mangan never wrote for any journal out of 
Ireland. About 1845 it was proposed to bring 
out an edition of his poems in London, Gavan 
Duffy offering to bear a portion of the ex- 
pense, but nothing came of the proposal. 
Thirty of Mangan's ballads were issued in 
Hercules Ellis's ' Romances and Ballads of 
Ireland/ Dublin, 1850. An incomplete edition 
of his poems, edited by Mitchel, appeared in 
New York in 1859. In 1884 the Rev. C. P. 
Meehan edited a collection of his ' Essays in 
Prose and Verse.' But this fails to include 
an interesting series of sketches by him of 
prominent Irishmen which appeared in the 
Irishman ' of 1849. Other volumes by him 
re : 1. ' German Anthology/ 8vo, 2 vols. 
Dublin, 1845; another edition, with intro- 
duction by the Rev. C. P. Meehan, entitled 
Anthologia Germanica/ 18mo, Dublin, 1884. 
2. 'The Poets and Poetry of Munster/ trans- 
lated by J. C. M., and edited by John O'Daly, 
8vo, Dublin, 1849; second edition, 1850; 
:hird edition, with introductory memoir by 
;he Rev. C. P. Meehan, 1884. 3. 'The Tribes 
)f Ireland/ a satire by ^Engus O'Daly, with 
>oetical translation by J. C. M., 8vo, Dublin, 
1852. 4. ' Irish and other Poems ' (a small 
selection), 12mo, Dublin, 1886. 

[John McCall's Life of James Clarence Mangan , 
8vo, Dublin, 1887 ; Poems, ed. by Mitchel, with 
Introd., New York, 1859; O'Donoghue's Poets of 
Ireland, p. 158 ; Duffy's Young Ireland, 1883; 



Mangey 



3 2 



Mangin 



Irishman, 23 June 1849; Irish Monthly, pp. 11, 
495 ; Hercules Ellis's Romances and Ballads of 
Ireland, Dublin, 1850; authorities cited.] 

D. J. O'D. 

MANGEY, THOMAS (1688-1755), di- 
vine, son of Arthur Mangey, a goldsmith of 
Leeds, was born in 1688. He was educated 
at the Leeds free school, and was admitted as 
subsizar to St. John's College, Cambridge, 
28 June 1704, at the age of sixteen. He 
graduated B.A. in 1707 and M.A. in 1711, 
and was admitted a fellow of St. John's 

5 April 1715. In 1716 he is described on 
the title-page of one of his sermons as chap- 
lain at Whitehall. In 1718 he resigned his 
fellowship. In 1719 or earlier he was chaplain 
to the Bishop of London, Dr. John Robinson 
(1714-23). In 1719 he also proceeded 
LL.D., and in July 1725 D.D., being one of 
the seven who then received their doctorate 
at the hands of Dr. Bentley. As deputy to 
Dr. Lupton, preacher of Lincoln's Inn (who 
died in December 1726), he delivered a series 
of discourses on the Lord's Prayer, of which 
a second edition appeared in 1717. From 
1717 to 1719-20 he held the rectory of St. 
Nicholas, Guildford (MANNING, Surrey, i.69), 
and subsequently the vicarage of Baling, 
Middlesex, which he resigned in 1754, and 
the rectory of St. Mildred's, Bread Street, 
which he retained till his death. In May 1721 
he was presented to the fifth stall in Durham 
Cathedral, and promoted from that to the first 
in January 1722. Mangey died at Durham, 

6 March 1755, and was buried in the east tran- 
sept of his cathedral. He married Dorothy, 
a daughter of Dr. John Sharpe, archbishop of 
York, by whom he left a son, John, afterwards 
vicar of Dunmow, Essex, and prebendary of 
St. Paul's, who died in 1782. His widow sur- 
vived him till 1780. 

Mangey was an active and prolific writer. 
His great work was his edition of Philo 
Judseus, 'Philonis Judaei Opera . . . typis 
Gulielmi Bowyer,' 2 vols. fol. London, 1742, 
in which Harwood professed to detect many 
inaccuracies, but which Dr. Edersheim spoke 
of as still, on the whole, the best. Some 
voluminous materials collected by Mangey 
for this edition are in the Additional and 
Egerton MSS. in the British Museum, Nos. 
6447-50 and 6457. He also made collations 
of the text of the Greek Testament (Addit. 
and Egerton MSS. 6441-5) ; while his critical 
notes and adversaria on Diodorus Siculus and 
other classical authors occupy Nos. 6425-9, 
6459, and other volumes of the same collec- 
tion. 

His printed works, besides the 'Philo,' 
are chiefly sermons, and polemical treatises 
against Toland and Whiston. One volume 



of collected sermons by him was published 
in 1732. His ' Remarks upon " Nazarenus," 
wherein the Falsity of Mr. Toland's Maho- 
metan Gospel. &c., are set forth,' 1719, called 
forth more than one rejoinder. Toland re- 
plied to it the year after in his 'Tetradymus.' 
Another of his treatises, l Plain Notions of 
our Lord's Divinity,' also published in 1719, 
was answered the same year by ' Phileleuthe- 
rus Cantabrigiensis,' i.e. Thomas Herne [q. v.] 

[Authorities quoted; Baker's Hist, of St. John's 
College, Cambridge, ed. Mayor, i. 302-3 ; Hut- 
chinson's Hist, and Antiquities of Durham, ii. 
173; Le Neve's Fasti, iii. 309; Nichols's Lit. II- 
lustr. iv. 152, &c. ; various volumes of the Ad- 
ditional and Egerton MSS., ranging from 6422 
to 6457-] J. H. L. 

MANGIN, EDWARD (1772-1852), mis- 
cellaneous writer, was descended from Hugue- 
not ancestors, one of whom, Etienne Mangin, 
was burnt at Meaux, near Paris, on 7 Oct. 
1546. The family migrated to Ireland and 
settled at Dublin. His father, Samuel Henry 
Mangin, originally in the 5th royal Irish 
dragoons, afterwards lieutenant-colonel of 
the 14th dragoons, died in French Street, 
Dublin, 13 July 1798, being then lieutenant- 
colonel of the 12th (Prince of Wales's) light 
dragoons. He married, in September 1769, 
Susanna Corneille, also of French extraction, 
who died in Dublin 21 Dec. 1824, and both 
were buried in the Huguenot burial-ground 
at Dublin. Edward, their eldest son, was 
born in that city on 15 July 1772, and matri- 
culated from Balliol College, Oxford, where 
he was contemporary with Southey, on 
9 June 1792. He graduated B.A. in 1793, 
M.A. in 1795, and was ordained in the Irish 
church. On 2 March 1798 he was collated 
to the prebendal stall of Dysart in Killaloe 
Cathedral, which he vacated on 15 Jan. 1800 
by his collation as prebendary of Rath- 
michael in St. Patrick's, Dublin. This pre- 
ferment he surrendered on 1 Dec. 1803, when 
he became prebendary of Rath in Killaloe, 
in which position he remained until his death. 
For a few months (April to 16 Aug. 1812; 
he was navy chaplain in the Gloucester, a 
74-gun ship. He dwelt for some time at 
Toulouse, and he was in Paris at the time of 
its occupation by the allied armies ; but for 
nearly the whole of his working life he lived 
at Bath. A man of wide reading and of 
fascinating conversation, combined with a 
natural aptitude for drawing, and with a re- 
markable memory, the possession of ample 
means enabled him to spend his time in 
study, and he was universally recognised as 
the head of the literary students of that 
city. He died in sleep on the morning of 
17 Oct. 1852 at his house, 10 Johnstone 



Mangin 



33 



Mangles 



Street, Bath, and was buried in the old 
burial-ground of Bathwick. He married in 
1800 Emily Holmes, who died in Dublin 
14 July 1801, leaving one daughter, Emily. 
On 1 July 1816 he married, at Queen Square 
Chapel, Bath, Mary, daughter of Lieutenant- 
colonel Nangreave of the East Indian army. 
She died in Bath 15 May 1845, leaving two 
sons, the Rev. E. N. Mangin, at one time 
vicar of Woodhorn-with-Newbiggin-by-Sea, 
Northumberland, and the Rev. S. W. Mangin, 
now rector of West Knoyle, Wiltshire, and 
one daughter, Mary Henrietta, who is un- 
married. 

Mangin published many works, original 
and translated, but they fail to render ade- 
quate justice to his talents. His productions 
were: 1. 'The Life of C. G. Lamoignon 
Malesherbes/ translated from the French, 
1804. 2. 'The Deserted City' (anon., but 
with a dedication signed E. M.), 1805. It 
was a poem on Bath in summer, parodying 
Goldsmith's 'Deserted Village.' 3. 'Light 
Reading at Leisure Hours' (anon.), 1805. 
4. ' Oddities and Outlines, by E. M./ 1806, 
2 vols. 5. 'George the Third,' a novel in 
three volumes, 1807. Some of the impres- 
sions had his name on the title-page, and 
others were anonymous. It contained (i. 
71-92) 'a few general directions for the 
conduct of young gentlemen in the university 
of Oxford,' which was ' printed at Oxford in 
1795.' 6. 'An Essay on Light Reading,' 
1808. In this were included some fresh 
facts on Goldsmith's youth, afterwards in- 
corporated in the lives of Goldsmith by 
Prior and Forster. A short memoir of Man- 
gin and a letter from him to Forster on 
24 April 1848 are in the latter's ' Gold- 
smith,' ed. 1871, vol. i. App. 7. 'Essay on 
the Sources of the Pleasures received from 
Literary Compositions ' (anon.), 1809 ; 2nd 
edit, (anon.) 1813. 8. ' Hector, a Tragedy 
in five acts, by J. Ch. J. Luce de Lanci- 
val, translated by E. Mangin,' n.d. [1810]. 
9. 'Works of Samuel Richardson, with a 
Sketch of his Life and Writings,' 1811, 
19 vols. 10. ' Utopia Found : an Apology 
for Irish Absentees. Addressed to a Friend 
in Connaught by an Absentee residing in 
Bath,' 1813. 11. 'View of the Pleasures 
arising from a Love of Books,' 1814. 12. 'An 
Intercepted Epistle from a Person in Bath to 
his Friend in London,' Bath, 1815; 2nd edit., 
with preface and notes, 1815 ; 3rd edit. 1815. 
It was answered by an actor called Ashe in an 
anonymous poem, ' The Flagellator,' Bath, 
1815. 13. ' Letter to Bishop of Bath and 
Wells on Reading of Church Services,' 1819. 
14. ' The Bath Stage,'a dialogue (anon.), Bath, 
1822. 15. 'Letter to Thomas Moore on the sub- 

VOL. XXXVI. 



Ject of Sheridan's" School for Scandal," '1826. 
16. ' Life of Jean Bart, naval commander under 
Louis XIV. From the French, by E. Man- 
gin,' 1828. 17. ' Parish Settlements and Pau- 
perism ' (anon.), 1828. 18. ' Reminiscences 
for Roman Catholics,' 1828. 19. 'Short 
Stories for Short Students.' 20. 'More 
Short Stories,' 1830. 21. 'Essay on Duel- 
ling, by J. B. Salaville. From the French, 
by E. Mangin/ 1832. 22. ' Piozziana : Re- 
collections of Mrs. Piozzi, by a Friend,' 1833. 
23. ' Vagaries in Verse, by author of " Essay 
on Light Reading," ' 1835. It contains (pp. 
5-14) 'The Deserted City.' 24. 'Letter 
to the Admirers of Chatterton,' 1838, signed 
E. M. He believed that the poems were not 
by Chatterton. 25. ' The Parlour Window, 
or Anecdotes, Original Remarks on Books,' 
1841. 26. ' Voice from the Holy Land, pur- 
porting to be the Letters of a Centurion 
under the Emperor Tiberius,' n.d. [1843]. 
27. ' Miscellaneous Essays,' 1851. 

The Rev. Joseph Hunter calls Mangin 
'author of one or more lively dramatic 
pieces.' He contributed to the ' Bath Herald,' 
and supplied the ' Bath and Bristol Magazine,' 
1832-4, with two articles, ' The Rowleyian 
Controversy,' ii. 53-9, and 'Scraps,' ii. 290-4. 
In John Forster's library at the South Kens- 
ington Museum are five numbers of ' The 
Inspector/ a periodical issued by Mangin at 
Bath from 22 Oct. to 19 Nov. 1825. 

[Cotton's Fasti Eccl. Hibernicse, i. 426-7, ii. 
173, v. 74, and Suppl. p. 46 ; Foster's Alumni 
Oxon. ; Peach's Houses in Bath, i. 146-7, ii. 8, 
37-8, 72 ; Monkland's Literature of Bath, p. 90 ; 
Hunter's Bath and Literature, p. 90 ; Gent. 
Mag. 1853, pt. i. pp. 97-8 ; Notes and Queries, 
3rd ser. ix. 107 ; Halkett and Laing's Anon. 
Literature, pp. 828, 1011, 1388, 1419, 1480, 
1486, 1800, 1916, 27^0 ; information from the 
Rev. S. W. Mangin and Emanuel Green, F.S.A.] 

W. P. C. 

MANGLES, JAMES (1786-1867), cap- 
tain in the navy and traveller, entered the 
navy in March 1800, on board the Maidstone 
frigate, with Captain Ross Donnelly, whom 
in 1801 he followed to the Narcissus. After 
active service on the coast of France, at the 
reduction of the Cape of Good Hope, and in 
the Rio de la Plata, he was, on 24 Sept. 1806, 
promoted to be lieutenant of the Penelope, 
in which, in February 1809, he was present 
at the reduction of Martinique. In 1811 he 
was appointed to the Boyne, and in 1812 to 
the Ville de Paris, flagships in the Channel 
of Sir Harry Burrard Neale [q. v.] In 1814 
he was first lieutenant of the Duncan, flag- 
ship of Sir John Poo Beresford [q. v.] in his 
voyage to Rio de Janeiro. He was sent home 
in acting command of the Racoon sloop, and 



Mangnall 



34 



Manini 



was confirmed in the rank 13 June 1815. 
This was his last service afloat. In 1816 he 
left England, with his old messmate in the 
Narcissus, Captain Charles Leonard Irby 
[q. v.], on what proved to be a lengthened 
tour on the continent, and extended to 
Egypt, Syria, and Asia Minor. Their de- 
scriptive letters were privately printed in 
1823, and were published as a volume of 
Murray's * Home and Colonial Library ' in 
1844. Mangles was elected a fellow of the 
Royal Society in 1825, and in 1830 was one 
of the first fellows and members of council 
of the Royal Geographical Society. He was 
also the author of ' The Floral Calendar,' 
1839, 12mo, a little book urging the beauty 
and possibility of window and town garden- 
ing ; ' Synopsis of a Complete Dictionary 
... of the Illustrated Geography and Hy- 
drography of England and Wales, Scotland 
and Ireland/ 1848, 12mo ; 'Papers and Des- 
patches relating to the Arctic Searching Ex- 
peditions of 1850-1-2/1852, 8vo ; and < The 
Thames Estuary, a Guide to the Navigation 
of the Thames Mouth/ 1853, 4to. He died at 
Fairfield, Exeter, on 18 Nov. 1867, aged 81. 

[O'Byrne's Nav. Biog. Diet. ; Journ. of Eoy. 
G-eogr. Soc. vol. xxxviii. p. cxliii ; Gent. Mag. 
1867, ii. 833.] J. K. L. 

MANGNALL, RICHMAL (1769-1820), 
schoolmistress, daughter of James Mangnall 
of Hollinhurst, Lancashire, and London, and 
Mary, daughter of John Kay of Manchester, 
was born on 7 March 1769, probably at 
Manchester, but the evidence on this point 
is inconclusive. On the death of her parents 
she was adopted by her uncle, John Kay, 
solicitor, of Manchester, and was educated at 
Mrs. Wilson's school at Crofton Hall, near 
Wakefield, Yorkshire. She remained there as 
a teacher, and eventually, on the retirement 
of Mrs. Wilson, took the school into her own 
hands, conducting it most successfully until 
her death on 1 May 1820. She was buried 
in Crofton churchyard. 

Her ' Historical and Miscellaneous Ques- 
tions for the use of Young People' was first 
published anonymously at Stockport in 1800, 
but she afterwards sold the copyright for a 
hundred guineas to Longmans, who for many 
years issued edition after edition of the book. 
It has also been published by different firms 
down to the present time, with additions and 
alterations by Cobbin, Pinnock, Wright, Guy, 
and others. Miss Mangnall also wrote a 
' Compendium of Geography' in 1815, of 
which a second edition was published in 1822, 
and a third in 1829 ; and ' Half an Hour's 
Lounge, or Poems ' (Stockport, 1805, 12mo, 
pp. 80). Her portrait in oils still exists, and 



an engraving of it appears in some modern 
editions of the ' Questions ' (MB. THEODOBE 
COPPOCK in Journal of Education, 1889). 

[Journal of Education, 1888 pp. 329, 431, 
1889 p. 199; Heginbotham's Hist, of Stockport, 
ii. 361-2 (with silhouette portrait of Miss Mang- 
nall); Allibone's Diet, of Authors ; English Cata- 
logue ; Brit. Mus. Cat.] C. W. S. 

MANING, FREDERICK EDWARD 

(1812-1883), the Pakeha Maori, born 5 July 
1812, was son of Frederick Maning of John- 
ville, co. Dublin, and grandson of Archibald 
Maning, a wealthy Dublin citizen. His father 
emigrated in 1824 to Van Diemen's Land. In 
1833, attracted by love of adventure, Maning 
went off on a small trading schooner to New 
Zealand, which was not a British colony until 
1841, and was then hardly open even to 
traders, though he found one or two other 
white men before him. His great stature, 
strength, and audacity, combined with good 
humour and vivacity, won the hearts of the 
Maoris, who soon installed him as a Pakeha 
Maori, i.e. to all intents a naturalised stranger. 
He acquired land of the Ngapuhi tribe at 
Hokianga, and settled at Onaki, where he 
won the entire confidence of the natives. 
He married a Maori wife and adopted to a 
great extent the customs of the tribe, seek- 
ing, however, to set an example of greater 
humanity. He was thus enabled to render 
considerable services to both sides in the 
wars of 1845 and 1861. 

On 15 Nov. 1865, when the native lands 
court was established for settling questions 
regarding the title of lands as between Maoris 
under their own customs and traditions, 
Maning was appointed one of the judges, and 
took a prominent part in the proceedings of 
the court. Many of his judgments give a 
graphic account of the customs of the Maoris. 

In 1881 he was compelled by painful 
disease to relinquish his judicial duties, and 
returned to Great Britain in the hope of a 
cure, but died in London 25 July 1883. His 
body was by his own desire taken out to New 
Zealand for burial. His bust stands over the 
door of the Institute Library at Auckland. 

Maning was the author of: 1. ( Old New 
Zealand/ the best extant record of Maori 
life, 2nd edit. 1863. 2. ' The History of the 
War in the North with Heke in 1845.' Both 
were republished in 1876, with a preface by 
the Earl of Pembroke. 

[Mennell's Diet, of Austral. Biog. ; Eusden's 
New Zealand, s.v. ' Maning;' Auckland Weekly 
News, 4 Aug. 1883.] C. A. H. 

MANINI, ANTONY (1750-1786), vio- 
linist, belonged, it has been conjectured, to 
the Norfolk family of Mann, and italianised 



Manini 



35 



Manley 



his name, as in the case of Coperario ; but 
the register at Yarmouth, with which place 
he is associated, contains no notice of his 
birth, and an Italian composer named Manini 
was living 1 in Rome in 1733 (Diet, of Musi- 
cians, 2nd edit. 1827). 

Manini is first traceable in 1770, when at 
a performance for the benefit of ' Signior 
Manini,' at the New Hall in Great Yarmouth, 
he played solos by Giardini and Chabran. 
He led the band in the same year at the open- 
ing of Christian's new Concert Room in Nor- 
wich, and performed at Beccles. In 1772 
he was teaching < ladies the Guittar and gen- 
tlemen the Violin ' at Yarmouth. 

In 1777 he appeared for the first time in 
Cambridge, as leading violinist at Miss Mar- 
shall's concert in St. John's College Hall, 
the programme containing music by Para- 
dies, Boccherini, and Abel. In order to 
benefit by his instruction, Charles Hague 
[q. v.] settled in Cambridge in 1779. This 
and the following year Manini played first 
violin at Scarborough's annual concert at 
St. Ives, Huntingdonshire; while in 1780 
two concerts, for his own benefit, were given 
in Trinity College Hall. In 1781 a similar 
concert was given in Emmanuel College, near 
which he was then living. In 1782 he was 
leading violinist at Peterborough, Hunting- 
don, and Stamford, and he received another 
benefit in the hall of Trinity College. In 
1783 he was principal violinist at Mrs. Pratt's 
benefit concert in Caius College Hall ; in 
Trinity College Hall for his own benefit, on 
which occasion * Master Cramer ' performed ; 
and at Peterhouse for the benefit of Reinagle. 
In 1784 he started three subscription con- 
certs on three successive days (July 1-3) in 
the halls of King's and St. John's ; played 
first violin at Huntingdon, young Hague 
appearing in the vocal part ; and later played 
there again for Leoni's benefit. He also gave 
Leoni a benefit concert in King's College 
Hall ; Leoni and Hague singing, Hague and 
Manini playing the violin. In 1785, the 
year in which Madame Mara [q. v.] caused 
much stir at the Oxford Commemoration 
( WALDERSEB, Sammlung musikal. Vortrcige), 
she sang, for Manini's benefit, in the hall of 
Trinity College. In November, for the benefit 
of ' Master [William] Crotch ' [q. v.], then 
aged ten, a concert was given in King's Col- 
lege Hall, at which the two future univer- 
sity professors (Crotch and Hague) sang, and 
Hague and Manini played. Manini also per- 
formed at the Earl of Sandwich's musical 
entertainments at Hinchingbrooke, dying at 
Huntingdon, soon after one of them, on 6 Jan. [ 
1786. He was buried in the parish of St. ! 
Andrew's the Great in Cambridge. Manini 



shares some characteristics of his contempo- 
rary VVilliam Shield [q. v.] He was spoken 
of at his death in terms of the utmost praise, 
both as a musician and as a man. 

The British Museum contains the only copy 
known of his 'Six Divertimentos for two 
Violins.' Each consists of two parts only. 

[Norwich Mercury; Cambridge Chronicle; 
Earl of Sandwich's Hinchingbrooke MSS 1 

C.S. 

MANISTY, SIE HENRY (1808-1890), 
judge, second son of James Manisty, B.D., 
vicar of Edlingham, Northumberland, by 
his wife Eleanor, only daughter of Francis 
Foster of Seaton Barn Hall, Northumber- 
land, was born 13 Dec. 1808. He was 
educated at Durham Cathedral grammar 
school, and was articled when still a boy in 
the offices of Thorpe & Dickson, attorneys, 
of Alnwick, Northumberland. He was after- 
wards admitted a solicitor in 1830, and 
practised for twelve years as a member of 
the firm of Meggison, Pringle, & Manisty, 
of 3 King's (now Theobald's) Road, near Bed- 
ford Row, London. On 20 April 1842 he be- 
came a student of Gray's Inn, and was called 
to the bar 23 April 1845. He became a 
bencher there in 1859, and treasurer in 1861. 
He joined the northern circuit, and soon ob- 
tained an important if not a leading prac- 
tice. He was made a queen's counsel 7 July 
1857, and appeared principally in mercantile 
and circuit cases. His opinions on points of 
law were always held in especial esteem. 
At length, but somewhat late, in November 
1876, when Lord Blackburn quitted the 
high court, he was made a judge, and was 
knighted. Among his most important de- 
cisions were his judgments in Regina v. 
Bishop of Oxford (1879), Belt v. Lawes 
(1884), Adams v. Coleridge (1884), and 
O'Brien v. Lord Salisbury (1889). He was 
seized with paralysis in court 24 Jan. 1890, 
died 30 Jan. at 24A Bryanston Square, Lon- 
don, and was buried, 5 Feb., at Kensal Green 
cemetery. In August 1831 he married Con- 
stantia, fifth daughter of Patrick Dickson, 
solicitor, of Berwick-on-Tweed, who died 
9 Aug. 1836, and in May 1838 Mary Ann, 
third daughter of Robert Stevenson, surgeon, 
of Berwick-on-Tweed, by whom he had four 
sons and three daughters. 

[Times, 1 Feb. 1890; Solicitor's Journal, 
8 Feb. 1890; Law Times, 15 Feb. 1890; Law 
Journal, 8 Feb. 1890; private information.] 

J. A. H. 

MANLEY, MES. MARY DE LA RI- 
VIERE (1672 P-1724), author of the < New 
Atalantis,' daughter of Sir Roger Manley 
[q. v.], was born about 1672 in Jersey, or, 

D 2 



Manley 



Manley 



according to another version, at sea between 
Jersey and Guernsey. She lost her mother 
while she was young, and her father, who 
had literary tastes, does not appear to have 
taken much care of her. On his death in 
1688 he left her 200/. and a share in the 
residue of the estate. About this time she 
was drawn into a false marriage by her cousin, 
John Manley of Truro, whose wife was then 
living. This cousin was probably the John 
Manley who was M.P. for Bossiney borough, 
Cornwall,from 1701 to 1 708 and 1710 to 1714, 
and for Camelford from 1708 to 1710. He 
died in 1714, and Luttrell mentions a duel 
he fought with another member (see Key to 
Mrs. Mauley's History, 1725). When he 
deserted her, Mrs. Manley went to live with 
the Duchess of Cleveland, who, however, 
soon quarrelled with her on the pretence 
that she had intrigued with her son. After 
two years of retirement, during which she 
travelled to Exeter and other places, a volume 
of f Letters written by Mrs. Manley ' was 
published in 1696. The dedication spoke of 
the eager contention between the managers 
of the theatres as to who should first bring 
her upon the stage, and accordingly we find 
two plays produced in the same year. The 
first, a comedy called f The Lost Lover, or 
the Jealous Husband,' which was written in 
seven days and acted at Drury Lane, was 
not a success ; but the second, ' The Royal 
Mischief,' a tragedy, brought out by Betterton 
at Lincoln's Inn Fields, was more fortunate. 
Intrigues followed with Sir Thomas Skip- 
worth, of Drury Lane Theatre, and John 
Tilly, warden of the Fleet ; and in 1705 she 
was concerned with Mary Thompson, a wo- 
man of bad character, in an attempt to obtain 
money from the estate of a man named 
Pheasant. In order to support the claim, a 
forged entry of marriage was made in the 
church register (STEELE, Correspondence, ed. 
Nichols, 1809, ii. 501-2). 

' The Secret History of Queen Zarah and 
the Zarazians,' 1705, if it is, as seems pro- 
bable, properly attributed to her, is the first 
of her series of volumes dealing with politics 
and personal scandal in the form of a ro- 
mance. The species of composition, though 
new in this precise form to England, had 
been for some years familiar in France. The 
book was reprinted, with a second part, in 
1711, and a French version, with a key, was 
published at Oxford in 1712. ' Almyna, or 
the Arabian Vow,' a play founded on the 
beginning of the 'Arabian Nights' Enter- 
tainments,' was acted at the Haymarket 
Theatre on 16 Dec. 1706, and soon afterwards 
printed, with the date 1707 on the title- 
page. On 26 May 1709 (Daily Couranf) 



appeared Mrs. Manley's most famous book, 
' Secret Memoirs and Manners of Several 
Persons of Quality, of botli Sexes. From 
the New Atalantis,' and a second volume 
followed in the same year. This work passed 
through seven editions, besides a French 
version printed at the Hague, 1713-16. 
Swift said of Mrs. Manley's writing that it 
seemed ' as if she had about two thousand 
epithets and fine words packed up in a bag, 
and that she pulled them out by handfuls, 
and strewed them on her paper, where about 
once in five hundred times they happen to be 
right' (Swift to Addison, 22 Aug. 1710). 
In the ' New Atalantis ' Mrs. Manley fully 
exhibited her taste for intrigue, and impu- 
dently slandered many persons of note, espe- 
cially those of whiggish proclivities. The re- 
sult was that on 29 Oct. 1709 she was arrested, 
together with the publishers and printer of 
the book (LUTTRELL, Brief Relation, 1857, 
vi. 505-6, 508, 546). According to another 
account she acknowledged herself to be the 
author in order to shield the others. The 
printer and p ublishers were released on 1 Nov., 
and Mrs. Manley was admitted to bail on 
5 Nov. The Earl of Sunderland, then secre- 
tary of state, endeavoured without success to 
ascertain from her where she had obtained 
some of her information; but she said that if 
there were indeed reflections on particular 
characters, it must have been by inspiration. 
She was finally discharged by the court of 
queen's bench on 13 Feb. 1710. The only re- 
ference to the case that can be traced in the 
Record Office is a memorandum dated 28 Oct. 
1709 of the issue of a warrant for the ar- 
rest of John Morphew and John Woodward 
for publishing certain scandalous books, es- 
pecially the ' New Atalantis ' (State Papers, 
Dom. Anne, 1709, bundle 17, No. 39). 

In May 1710 (Tatler, No. 177, 27 May) 
Mrs. Manley published ' Memoirs of Europe 
towards the close of the Eighth Century. 
Written by Eginardus, secretary and fa- 
vourite to Charlemagne ; and done into 
English by the translator of the " New Ata- 
lantis." ' This and a second volume which 
soon followed were afterwards reprinted as 
the third and fourth volumes of the ' New 
Atalantis.' The < Memoirs of Europe ' were 
dedicated to Isaac Bickerstaff, i.e. Richard 
Steele, whom Mrs. Manley had attacked in 
the ' New Atalantis.' She in her turn had 
been attacked by Swift in the ' Tatler ' (No. 
63), and Steele, when taxed with the author- 
ship, denied that he had written the paper, 
and acknowledged that he had been indebted 
to Mrs. Manley in former days. This letter 
Mrs. Manley now printed, with alterations, 
and accompanied by fresh charges. In 1711 



Manley 



37 



Manley 



she brought out another book, * Court In- 
trigues, in a Collection of Original Letters 
from the Island of the New Atalantis.' The 
great success and usefulness of the l New Ata- 
lantis ' are referred to, perhaps satirically, in 
* Atalantis Major,' 1711, a piece attributed 
to Defoe. 

The return of the tories to power brought 
better times to Mrs. Manley. In June 171 1 
she succeeded Swift as editor of the ' Ex- 
aminer,' and in July Swift seconded the 
application of 'the poor woman' to Lord 
Peterborough for some reward for her ser- 
vice in the cause, ' by writing her Atalan- 
tis and prosecution, &c.' She had already 
written in April, by the help of hints from 
Swift, ' A True Narrative of what passed at 
the Examination of the Marquis of Guiscard,' 
and later in the year she published other 
political pamphlets, 'A Comment on Dr. 

Hare's Sermon ' and ' The Duke of M h's 

Vindication.' The last and best of these 
pieces was, Swift says, entirely Mrs. Manley's 
-work. In January she was very ill with 
dropsy and a sore leg. Swift wrote : ' I am 
heartily sorry for her ; she has very generous 
principles for one of her sort, and a great 
deal of good sense and invention ; she is 
about forty, very homely, and very fat' 
(Journal to Stella, 28 Jan. 1711-12). In 
May 1713 Steele had an angry correspond- 
ence with Swift, and in the ' Guardian ' 
(No. 53) attacked Mrs. Manley, who found 
an opportunity for reply in ' The Honour 
and Prerogative of the Queen's Majesty vin- 
dicated and defended against the unexampled 
insolence of the Author of the Guardian,' 
published on 14 Aug., and again in 'A 
Modest Enquiry into the reasons of the Joy 
expressed by a certain set of people upon 
the spreading of a report of Her Majesty's 
death ' (4 Feb. 1714). < The Adventures of 
Rivella, or the History of the Author of the 
Atalantis, by Sir Charles Lovemore,' i.e. 
Lieutenant-general John Tidcomb, appeared 
n 1714, and was probably by Mrs. Manley 
nerself. Mrs. Manley's last play, ; Lucius, the 
First Christian King of Britain,' was brought 
out at Drury Lane on 11 May 1717, and was 
dedicated to Steele, with full apologies for her 
previous attacks. Steele, in his turn, wrote a 
prologue for the play, and Prior contributed 
an epilogue. 

In 1720 Mrs. Manley published 'The Power 
of Love, in Seven Novels,' and verses by her 
appeared in the same year in Anthony Ham- 
mond's ' New Miscellany of Original Poems.' 
One piece, ' To the Countess of Bristol,' is 
given in Nichols's ' Select Collection ' (1781), 
vii. 369. Mrs. Manley had for some years 
been living as the mistress of Alderman 



Barber, who is said to have treated her un- 
kindly, though he derived assistance from her 
in various ways. She died at Barber's print- 
ing-house, on Lambeth Hill, 11 July 1724, 
and was buried on the 14th at St. Benet's, 
Paul's Wharf. In her will (6 Oct. 1723) 
she is described as of Berkely, Oxfordshire 
(where she had a house), and as weak and 
daily decaying in strength. She appointed 
Cornelia Markendale (her sister) and Hen- 
rietta Essex Manley, child's coat maker, late 
of Covent Garden, but then in Barbados, 
her executrices, and mentioned her ' much 
honoured friend, the dean of St. Patrick, Dr. 
Swift.' She left a manuscript tragedy called 
' The Duke of Somerset,' and a comedy, ' The 
Double Mistress.' In 1725 ' A Stage Coach 
Journey to Exeter,' a reprint of the * Letters ' 
of 1696, was published, and in the same 
year, or at the end of 1724, Curll brought 
out * Mrs. Manley's History of her own Life 
and Times,' which was a fourth edition of 
the 'Adventures of Kivella.' The third 
edition (1717) was called 'Memoirs of the 
Life of Mrs. Manley.' In the ' Address to 
the Reader ' Curll said the ' Adventures of 
Rivella ' were originally written because 
Charles Gildon had begun a similar work, 
which he abandoned at Mrs. Manley's de- 
sire. 

Other pieces attributed to Mrs. Manley 
without due warrant are : ' The Court Le- 
gacy, a new ballad opera,' by ' Atalia,' 1733 ; 
' Bath Intrigues ' (signed ' J. B.'), 1725 ; and 
* The Mercenary Lover,' 1726. She may have 
written ' A True Relation of the several Facts 
and Circumstances of the intended Riot and 
Tumult on Queen Elizabeth's Birthday,' 1711. 
In March 1724, shortly before her death, 
Curll and 'Orator 'Henley informed Walpole 
that they had seen a letter of Mrs. Manley's, 
intimating that a fifth volume of the ' New 
Atalantis 'was printed off, the design of which 
was to attack George I and the government. 
Curll suggested that the book should be 
suppressed, and added a hope that he should 
get ' something in the post office ' or stamp 
office for his diligent support of the govern- 
ment (Gent. Mag. 1798, pt. ii. p. 191). 
Whether this information was true is uncer- 
tain ; but if the book was in existence it 
seems never to have been published. 

[The Adventures of Kivella noticed above 
supplies details of Mrs. Manley's early years. 
See also Swift's Works, ed. Scott, 1824, i. 118,ii. 
238, 303, 393, 483 ; Notes and Queries, 2nd ser. 
ii. 265, 390, 443, iii. 250,291, 350, 392, 7th ser. 
vii. 127, 232, viii. 11, 156-7; Genest's History 
of the Stage, ii. 75, 92, 361, 600; Theatrical 
Records, 1756, p. 83; Aitken's Life of Richard 
Steele, 1889, i. 140-4, 261-4,394-5, ii. 7, 155-6; 



Manley 



Manley 



Langbaine's Lives of the English Dramatick Poets, 
1698; Jacob's Poetical Kegister, 1719; Leigh 
Hunt's Men, Women, and Books, 1847, ii. 131-2; 
Curll's Impartial History of the Life of Mr. John 
Barber, 1741, pp. 24, 44-7 ; The Life and Cha- 
racter of John Barber, Esq., 1741, pp. 12-16.] 

G. A. A. 

MANLEY, SIR ROGER (1626 P-1688), 
cavalier, second son of Sir Richard Manley, 
was born probably in 1626. His family was 
an old one. Burke refers its origin to a ' Con- 
queror's follower ' who appears as ' Manlay' in 
' Battle Abbey Roll' (HOLINSHED, Chronicles, 
1807, ii. 5). From the twelfth to the six- 
teenth century they resided in Chester, but 
in 1520 moved to Denbigh. Manley's father, 
comptroller of the household to Prince Henry, 
was knighted by James I in 1628. He is the 
Sir Richard Manley at whose house ' in a little 
court behind Westminster Hall ' Pym was 
lodging in 1640 (CLARENDON, Life, 1817, ii. 
67). The eldest son, Sir Francis, was a royalist, 
but John, the third son, became a major in 
Cromwell's army, and married the daughter 
of Isaac Dorislaus [q. v.] His son, also 
named John, is sometimes identified with the 
villain who figures in Mrs. Manley's ' Rivella.' 
According to his daughter, Mrs. Mary Manley 
[q. v.], Sir Roger in his sixteenth year for- 
sook the university to follow the king, and 
we know from the preface to his English ' His- 
tory of the Rebellion ' that he played his part 
in the war until, in his own words, he was, 
' upon the rendition of one of the king's garri- 
sons in 1646, obliged by his articles to depart 
the kingdom ' (translation of CARON, Japan, 
1663, Dedication, pp. 1-2). He passed the 
fourteen years of exile in Holland (e'6.) A 
pass for ' Roger Manley and servant on the 
desire of Mr. Dorislaus,' 17 July 1655, seems 
to point to a visit to England (Cat. State 
Papers, Dom. 1655, p. 592). After the Re- 
storation he was made captain in his ma- 
jesty's Holland regiment, and on 25 Oct. 
1667 was appointed ' Lieutenant-Governor 
andCommander-in-Chief of all His Majesty's 
Castles, Forts, and Forces within the Island 
of Jersey,' by Sir Thomas Morgan, the gover- 
nor. He took the oath of office on 2 Nov., 
and seems to have held the post until 1674 
(information supplied to Mr. G. A. Aitken 
by Mr. H. G. Godfray). Sir Roger was never, 
as is commonly stated, governor of Jersey. 
Afterwards he became governor of Land- 
guard Fort (Hist, of Rebellion, 1691, title- 
page). The ' R. Manley ' who was in Holland 
in 1665 on the king's service, and was flouted 
by De Witt, is probably not Sir Roger (Cal. 
State Papers, Dom. 1665, p. 490; cf. ib. 
1665-6, pp. 91, 104; cf. Hist. MSS. Comm. 
4th Rep. p. 247). In 1670 Manley published 



at the king's command his ' History of Late 
Warres in Denmark,' i.e. from 1657 to 1660, 
a work which has still historical value. His 
'De Rebellione,' a vigorous and fairly correct 
piece of latinity, appeared in 1686 with a 
dedication to James II. This was the last 
work published in his lifetime. The English 
'History of the Rebellion' was published 
posthumously in 1691. Sir Roger must have 
died in 1688, because his will (dated 26 Feb. 
1686) was proved on 11 June 1688. He left 
his house at Kew to his daughter, Mary 
Elizabeth Brathewaite ; his equipage of war, 
horses, clothes, &c.,to his son Francis; 200/. 
each to his daughters Mary de la Riviere and 
Cornelia, and 125/. to his son Edward. The 
balance, from houses at Wrexham, plate, 
foreign gold, &c., was to be divided equally 
among the children (information furnished 
by Mr. G. A. Aitken). Mrs. Mary Manley 
describes with obvious inaccuracies some 
part of her father's career in her romance of 
'Rivella,' and she wrongly represents her 
father as author of the first volume of the 
'Turkish Spy' [see under MIDGELEY, RO- 
BERT]. 

[Cal. State Papers, Dom. 1628-9 p. 212, 1635 
p. 295, 1638 pp. 333, 510, 1640 p. 23, 1644 p. 
338 ; Metcalfe's Book of Knights, p. 189; Lords' 
Journals, iv. 247, 543; Burke's Landed Gentry, 
1886, ii. 1218-19 ; Mrs. Manley's Eivella, 1714, 
pp. 14-29 ; Hallam's Introduction to European 
Literature, 1854, iii. 572; Whitelocke's Me- 
morials, 1732, p. 698, where the Mr. Manley is 
Sir Roger's elder brother, Sir Francis ; Commons' 
Journals, iii. 582, 588, xi. 581-2 ; Hist. MSS. 
Comm. 3rd Rep. p. 329 (the ' Thomas Manley ' 
mentioned here as a druggist's assistant cannot 
be ' Sir Roger's son,' but may be a grandson); 
Brit. Mus. Addit. MS. 18981, fol. 281, an auto- 
graph letter from Sir Roger.] J. A. C. 

MANLEY, THOMAS (/. 1670), author, 
born in 1628, was called to the bar at the 
Middle Temple about 1650. In the preceding 
year he published in 12mo 'Temporis Augus- 
tise : Stollen Houres Recreations,' a collection 
of boyishly sententious essays on religious 
subjects. In 1651 appeared his 'Affliction 
and Deliverance of the Saints,' an execrably 
versified paraphrase of the Book of Job. Next 
year he translated ' Veni, vidi, vici,' a Latin 
poem on Cromwell, and appended an elegy of 
his own on the death of Ireton. Ten years 
later the preface to the second edition is 
dated 20 Nov. 1662 came his ' Sollicitor . . . 
declaring both as to knowledge and practice 
how such an undertaker ought to be be quali- 
fied,' and in 1665 a translation of Grotius's 
' De Rebus Belgicis,' with the title ' Annals 
and History of the Low-countrey Warres.' 
A phrase in the preface describes it as a book 



Manlove 



39 



Manlove 



' wherein is manifested that the United Ne- 
therlands are indebted for the glory of their 
conquests to the valour of the English, under 
whose protection the poor distressed states 
have exalted themselves to the title of high 
and mighty.' In 1 669 he attacked Sir Thomas 
Culpeper the younger's [see under CTJL- 
PEPEE, SIE THOMAS, the elder] tract on 
' Usury ' in a splenetic pamphlet, declaiming 
against luxury, foreign goods, and the high 
wages of English labourers as the real causes 
of the prevailing misery. Manley next year 
published his abridgment of the last two 
volumes of Coke, i.e. parts xii. and xiii., as a 
supplement to Trottman's work and on the 
same method. The most interesting of his 
non-professional publications belongs, on his 
own statement, to 1671, though its character 
and the circumstances of the time delayed 
its publication until he could dedicate it to 
' William Henry, Prince of Orange, and to 
the Great Convention of the Lords and Com- 
mons.' It is entitled ' The Present State of 
Europe briefly examined and found languish- 
ing, occasioned by the greatness of the French 
Monarchy/ 1689, 4to, and its immediate oc- 
casion, he asserts, was the vote of 800,000/. 
nominally for the equipment of a fleet for 1671. 
In Manley 's view instant and aggressive war 
upon France could alone save Europe from 
the despotism which Louis XIV meditated, 
and as a proof of Louis's real feelings towards 
England, he appealed to the threatened in- 
vasion by France when the Dutch war-ships 
were in the Thames. The work was reprinted 
in vol. i. of the 'Harleian Miscellany' (1744 
and 1808). In 1676 he published a short 
tract against the export of English wool. His 
appendix to the seventh edition of Went- 
worth's ' Office and Duty of Executors ' ap- 
peared the same year. Manley gave consider- 
able aid to the movement, which received its 
impetus from James I, for the use of English 
instead of Latin in legal literature. An 
anonymous and undated funeral sermon, 
'Death Unstung/ assigned to Manley, is not 
his, and the i Lives of Henry, Duke of Glou- 
cester, and Mary, Princess of Orange/ 1661, 
by T. M., is also assigned to Thomas May 
(1595-1650) [q. v.] 

[Manley's Works.] J. A. C. 

MANLOVE, EDWARD (fi. 1667), poet, 
a lawyer residing at Ashbourne in Derby shire, 
published a rhymed chronicle of the t Liberties 
and Customs of the Lead Mines . . . com- 
posed in meeter ' for the use of the miners, 
London, 1653, 4to. It became a standard 
work of reference on the subject, being largely 
composed from the ' Exchequer Rolls ' and 
from inquisitions taken in the various reigns 



(see Hist. ofAshbourn, 1839, pp. 90 sq.) From 
the title-page of the poem it is clear that 
Manlove tilled the post of steward of barmote 
courts of the wapentake of Wirksworth, 
Derbyshire. An edition, to which is affixed 
a glossary of the principal mining and other 
1 obsolete terms used in the poem, was pub- 
lished by T. Tapping in 1 851 . In 1667 Manlove 
published ' Divine Contentment ; or a Medi- 
cine for a Discontented Man : a Confession 
of Faith ; and other Poems ' (London, 8vo). A 
manuscript volume of ' Essayes and Contem- 
plations, Divine, Morall, and Miscellaneous, 
in prose and meter, by M[ark] H[ildesly]/ 
grandfather of Bishop Mark Hildesly [q. v.], 
and other members of Lincoln's Inn, dated 
1694, was addressed by the editor to his friend 

I Philanthropus/ i.e. Manlove (Harl. MS. 
4726). The poet's son, Timothy Manlove, is 
separately noticed. 

[Add. MS. 24488, f. 176 (Hunter's Chorus 
Vatum) ; Cat. of Harleian MSS. ; Glover's Hist, 
of Derbyshire, vol. i. App. p. 108; Lowndes's 
Bibl. Man. (Bohn) ; Works in British Museum 
Library.] A. E. J. L. 

MANLOVE, TIMOTHY (1633-1699), 
presbyterian divine and physician, probably 
son of Edward Manlove [q. v.] the poet, was 
born at Ashbourne, Derbyshire, in 1633. He 
was ordained at Atterclifle, near Sheffield, on 

II Sept. 1688, and his first known settlement 
was in 1691, at Pontefract, Yorkshire, where 
he was very popular. In 1694 he was invited 
to the charge of Mill Hill Chapel, Leeds, and 
removed thither with some reluctance. His 
ministry at Leeds was able, but not happy. 
He succeeded a minister of property, and his 
own requirements were not met by the stipend 
raised. He obtained some private practice as 
a physician, and has been called M.D., but 
Thoresby describes him as ' Med. Licent.' At 
first on good terms with Ralph Thoresby the 
antiquary, he quarrelled with him on the sub- 
ject of nonconformity. He removed in 1699 
to Newcastle-on-Tyne as assistant to Richard 
Gilpin, M.D. [q. v.], and, when 'newly gone' 
thither, * dyed of a feaver ' on 4 Aug. 1699, in 
the prime of life, and was buried on 5 Aug. 
A funeral sermon, entitled f The Comforts of 
Divine Love/ was published by Gilpin in 
1700. 

He published : 1. ' The Immortality of the 
Soul asserted. . . . With . . . Reflections 
on a ... Refutation of ... Bentley's 
" Sermon," ' &c., 1697, 8vo (against Henry 
Lay ton [q. v.]). 2. 'Prseparatio Evangelica 
. . . Discourse concerning the Soul's Pre- 
paration for a Blessed Eternity/ &c. 1698, 
8vo. William Tong classes Manlove with 
Baxter for his ' clear, weighty way of writing.' 



Mann 



Mann 



[Wilson's Dissenting Churches of London, 
1810, iii. 506; Thoresby's Ducatus Leodiensis 
(Whitaker), 1816, App. p. 86; Thoresby's Diary, 
1830, i. 291 ; Hunter's Life of 0. Heywood, 1 842, 
p. 356 ; Wicksteed's Memory of the Just, 1849, 
pp. 43 sq. ; Miall's Congregationalism in York- 
shire, 1868, pp. 302,333; Turner's Nonconformist 
Eegisterof Heywood aud Dickenson, 1 881, p. 96 ; 
Glover's Hist, of Derbyshire, vol. i. App. p. 108; 
Add. MS. 24488, f. 176.] A. G. 

MANN, GOTHER (1747-1830), gene- 
ral, inspector-general of fortifications, and 
colonel -commandant of royal engineers, 
second son of Cornelius Mann and Eliza- 
beth Gother, was born at Plumstead, Kent, 
on 21 Dec. 1747. His father, a first cousin 
of Sir Horace Mann [q. v.], went to the West 
Indies in 1760, and died at St. Kitts on 
9 Dec. 1776. Gother was left under the care 
of his uncle, Mr. Wilks of Faversham, Kent, 
and after passing through the Royal Mili- 
tary Academy, Woolwich, obtained a com- 
mission as practitioner engineer and ensign 
on 27 Feb. 1763. He was employed in the 
defences of Sheerness and of the Medway 
until 1775, having been promoted sub- en- 
gineer and lieutenant on 1 April 1771. 

Towards the end of 1775 he was sent to 
Dominica, West Indies. He was promoted en- 
gineer extraordinary and captain lieutenant 
on 2 March 1777. He commanded a body of 
militia when the island was captured by 
the French in September 1778. The little 
garrison made a stout resistance, but were 
outnumbered, and surrendered on terms of 
honourable capitulation. Mann made a re- 
port to the board of ordnance dated 14 Sept., 
giving full details of the attack. He was only 
detained for a few months as a prisoner of 
war, and on 19 Aug. 1779 he was appointed 
to the engineer staff of Great Britain, and re- 
ported on the defences of the east coast. He 
was stationed at Chatham under Colonel 
Debbeig. In 1781 he was selected by Lord 
Amherst and Sir Charles Frederick to accom- 
pany Colonel Braham, the chief engineer, on 
a tour of survey of the north-east coast of 
England, to consider what defences were de- 
sirable, as no less than seven corporations had 
submitted petitions on the subject. 

In 1785 he went to Quebec as commanding 
royal engineer in Canada. Promoted captain 
on 16 Sept. he was employed in every part of 
the country in both civil and military duties, 
erecting fortifications, improving ports, and 
laying out townships, such as Toronto and 
Sorel. He returned home in 1791, and joined 
the army under the Duke of York in Holland 
in June 1793. He was present at the siege of 
Valenciennes, which capitulated on 28 July, 
at the siege of Dunkirk from 24 Aug. to 



9 Sept. and at the battle of Hondschoote 
or Menin, 12-15 Sept. He was promoted 
lieutenant-colonel on 5 Dec. 1793. On his 
return to England in April 1794 he was em- 
ployed under the master-general of the ord- 
nance in London for a short time, and was 
then again commanding royal engineer in 
Canada until 1804. He became colonel in 
the army 26 Jan. 1797, colonel in the royal 
engineers 18 Aug. the same year, and major- 
general 25 Sept. 1803. From 1805 until 1811 
he was employed either on particular service 
in Ireland or on various committees in Lon- 
don. On 13 July 1805 he was made a 
colonel-commandant of the corps of royal 
engineers, on 25 July 1810 lieutenant-general, 
and on 19 July 1821 general. On 23 July 1811 
he succeeded General Robert Morse [q. v.] as 
inspector-general of fortifications, an office 
he held until his death. He was appointed 
president of the committee to examine cadets 
for commissions on 19 May 1828. He died on 
27 March 1830, and was buried in Plumstead 
churchyard, where a tombstone was erected 
to his memory. 

His services in Canada were rewarded by 
a grant, on 22 July 1805, of 22,859 acres of 
land in the township of Acton in Lower 
Canada. He also received while holding 
the office of inspector-general of fortifications 
the offer of a baronetcy, which, for financial 
considerations, he declined. 

Mann married in 1767 Ann, second daugh- 
ter of Peter Wade of Rushford Manor, Ey- 
thorne, Kent, rector of Cooling, vicar of 
Boughton Monchelsea, and minor canon of 
Rochester Cathedral. By her he had five 
sons and three daughters. Of the sons, 
Gother was in the royal artillery, Cornelius 
in the royal engineers, John in the 28th 
regiment, and Frederick William in the 
royal marines, and afterwards in the royal 
staff corps. William, son of Cornelius, is 
noticed below. 

Three coloured miniatures belong to his 
descendants. One, taken when he had just 
entered the corps of royal engineers in 1763, is 
in possession of his grandson, Major-general 
J. R. Mann, C.M.G., of the royal engineers, 
son of Major-general Cornelius Mann, royal 
engineers. This is reproduced in Porter's 
' History of the Corps of Royal Engineers,' 
1889, i. 215. 

The following plans by Mann are in the 
British Museum : (1) A drawn plan of the 
Isle aux Noix, with the new works proposed, 
2 sheets, 1790 ; (2) a drawn plan of the 
Post at Isle aux Noix, showing the state of 
the works, and those proposed for connect- 
ing them together, 1790 ; (3) St. John Fort, 
Lower Canada, a drawn plan of part of Lake 



Mann 



Mann 



Champlain, with the communication down 
to St. John's, 2 sheets, 1791 ; (4) a drawn 
plan of Fort St. John on the river Chambly, 
1791 ; (5) a drawn plan and sections of the 
new works proposed at St. John's, 1791. 

The following drawn plans by Mann, for- 
merly in the war office, are now among the 
records of the government of the dominion 
of Canada: (1) Plan of town and fortifica- 
tions of Montreal, 1768 ; (2) Plan of Fort 
George, showing works of defence, n. d. ; 
(3) Fort Erie, proposed work, n. d. ; (4) En- 
trance of the Narrows between Lakes Erie 
and Detroit, n. d. ; (5) St. Louis and Barrack 
bastions, with proposed works, and six sec- 
tions, 1785 ; (6) Casemates proposed for 
forming a citadel, 1785 ; (7) Quebec and 
Heights of Abraham, with sections of 
works, 1785 ; (8) Military Ports, Lake Huron, 
Niagara, entrance of river to Detroit, To- 
ronto Harbour, and Kingston Harbour, 1788; 
(9) Defences of Canada, 1788; (10) Position 
opposite Isle auBois Blanc, 1796; (11) Isle 
aux Boix, and adjacent shores, showing 
present and proposed works, 2 sheets, 1797; 
(12) Works to be constructed at Amhurst- 
burg, 1799 ; (13) Amhurstburgh and Isle 
au Bois Blanc, with works ordered to be 
constructed, 1799 ; (14) Ordnance Store 
House proposed for Cape Diamond Powder 
Magazine, 2 sheets, 1801 ; (15) City and 
Fortifications of Quebec with vicinity, 1804 ; 
(16) Citadel of Quebec, 2 sheets of sections, 
1804 ; (17) Fortifications of Quebec, 1804. 

[Connolly MSS. ; Eoyal Engineers Kecords ; 
Ordnance and War Office Eecords ; Porter's His- 
tory of the Corps of Eoyal Engineers, 1889; 
private manuscripts.] E. H. V. 

MANN, SIR HOEACE (1701-1786), 
British envoy at Florence, born in 1701, was 
the second son of Robert Mann, a successful 
London merchant, who bought an estate at 
Linton in Kent, built ' a small but elegant 
seat on the site of the old mansion of Capell's 
Court,' and died a fully qualified country 
squire on 9 Sept. 1751. His mother was 
Eleanor, daughter and heiress of Christopher 
Guise of Abbot's Court, Gloucestershire. An 
elder brother, Edward Louisa, died in 1755, 
while of Horace's sisters, Catharine was 
married to the Hon. and Rev. James Corn- 
wallis [q. v.], bishop of Lichfield, and Eleanor 
to Sir John Torriano, son of Nathaniel Tor- 
riano, a noted London merchant, and con- 
tributor to the ' British Merchant ' [see KING, 
CHARLES,^. 1721]. A first cousin was Cor- 
nelius Mann of Plumstead, father of Gother 
Mann [q. v.] The kinship with Horace 
Wai pole which has frequently been claimed 
for Mann has no existence. He was, how- 



ever, an associate of Walpole as a young 
man, and it was entirely owing to this inti- 
macy that he was in 1737 offered by Sir 
Robert Walpole the post of assistant to 
' Mr. Fane,' envoy extraordinary and minis- 
ter plenipotentiary at the court of Florence. 
The grand dukedom of Tuscany had just 
passed to Francis of Lorraine, the husband 
of Maria Theresa, who in 1745 was elected 
emperor (Francis I), but the actual adminis- 
tration was in the hands of the Prince of 
Craon, Francis's quondam tutor, who had 
married a discarded mistress of his father, 
Duke Leopold. Craon and his wife are con- 
sequently ' the prince ' and ' princess ' to whom 
such frequent reference is made in Mann's 
letters of 1738-40. During this period he 
assiduously did the work of Fane, an indolent 
but most particular person, who is described 
by Walpole as taking to his bed for six 
weeks in consequence of the Duke of New- 
castle's omitting on one occasion the usual 
prefix * very ' to ' your humble servant ' in 
signing one of his letters. In 1740 Mann 
was rewarded by being formally appointed 
Fane's successor, and in the same year 
Horace Walpole visited him at Florence, 
at the 'Casa Mannetti, by the Ponte de 
Trinita.' The poet Gray had visited him a 
short while previously ; he describes Mann 
as the best and most obliging person in the 
world, was delighted with his house, from the 
windows of which, he says, * we can fish in 
the Arno,' and in 1745 despatched his ' good 
dear Mr. Mann ' a heavy box of books. 

The envoy's chief business seems to have 
been to watch over the doings of the Pre- 
tender and his family in Italy. He certainly 
retails much gossip that is damaging to the 
character of the last Stuarts. On the death of 
the Old Pretender in 1766 Mann succeeded in 
bullying the pope into suppressing the titles 
of his successor at Rome. Count Albani, the 
Young Pretender, whose habitual drunken- 
ness neutralised any political importance 
that he might have had, came to reside at 
Florence in 1775, from which date onwards 
the British envoy's letters are full of dis- 
agreeable descriptions of his complicated dis- 
orders. In 1783 the Chevalier, who was 
dining at the table of the king of Sweden, 
then a visitor in Florence, gave Sir Horace 
a start by narrating the circumstances of his 
visit to London in September 1750, of which 
an independent and less authentic account 
was subsequently given by Dr. William King 
r q. v.] of St. Mary Hall (Anecdotes, p. 126). 
The despatch containing the account of the 
adventure as it came from the Chevalier's 
own lips, dated 6 Dec. 1783, is preserved 
with the other Tuscan State Papers at the 



Mann 



Mann 



Record Office (cf. MAHON, Hist, of England, 
iv. 11). In corresponding on these topics the 
envoy used a kind of cipher, in which 202 
stood for Mann, 55 for Hanover, 77 for Rome, 
and 11 for the Old Chevalier. Minor duties 
were to receive and conciliate English visitors 
of distinction, among whom are specially 
noted the Duke of York, Lord Bute, and 
Garrick (1764), John Wilkes (1765), Smollett 
(1770), the Duke of Gloucester (1771), Zof- 
fany, who put his portrait in the picture of 
the ' Tribuna,' which he executed for the king 
(1773), and the Duchess of Kingston (1774). 
Besides these distinguished persons were 
numerous ' travelling boys ' belonging to the 
English aristocracy, whose aptitude to forget 
the deference due to the ' petty Italian Trans- 
parencies ' often caused him much anxiety. 
Mann's salary is given in the Townshend 
MSS., under date 1742, as fixed at 31. per 
diem, with allowance of 300/. or 400/. (Hist. 
MSS. Comm. llth Rep. App. iv. 126). 

In 1755 he succeeded his elder brother in 
the estate at Linton, and on 3 March in the 
same year he was created a baronet. His 
receipt of the decoration of K.B. on 25 Oct. 
1768, through the medium of Sir John Dick, 
British consul at Genoa, was the occasion 
of a succession of brilliant fetes, described 
in much detail in his letters to Horace 
Walpole. 

The correspondence by which Mann is 
chiefly remembered commenced with his ap- 
pointment. Walpole left Florence, not to re- 
turn, in May 1741, and never again saw his 
friend, while Mann spent the remainder of 
his life exclusively in Italy ; but during the 
following forty-four years they corresponded 
on a scale quite phenomenal, and, as Wal- 
pole remarked, * not to be paralleled in the 
history of the post-office.' The letters on 
both sides were avowedly written for publi- 
cation, both parties making a point of the 
return of each other's despatches. The strain 
of such an artificial correspondence led to 
much melancholy posturing, but the letters, 
on Walpole's side at least, are among the 
best in the language. Their publication by 
Lord Dover in 1833 gave Macaulay his well- 
used opportunity of ' dusting the jacket/ as 
he expresses it, of the most consummate of 
virtuosos (Edinb. Rev. October 1833). Lord 
Dover describes the letters on Mann's side 
as 'voluminous, but particularly devoid of 
interest, as they are written in a dry, heavy 
style, and consist almost entirely of trifling 
details of forgotten Florentine society.' Cun- 
ningham dismisses them as ' utterly unread- 
able.' Their contents are summarised in two 
volumes published by Dr. Doran (from the 
originals at Strawberry Hill), under the title 



of * Mann and Manners at the Court of 
Florence,' in 1876. They certainly lose much 
from a too anxious adaptation to Walpole's 
prejudices and affectations, but they are 
often diverting, and are valuable as illustra- 
tions of Florentine society (cf. Glimpses of 
Italian Society in the 18th Century, from the 
Journey of Mrs. Piozzi, 1892). They abound 
in accounts of serenades, fetes, masquerades, 
court ceremonial, and Italian eccentricities, 
including an elaborate exposition of the his- 
tory and nature of cicisbeism, and many cir- 
cumstances relating to the alleged poison- 
ing of Clement XIV (Ganganelli) in 1774. 
There are also many interesting particulars 
concerning the eminent Dr. Antonio Cocchi, 
a savant * much prejudiced in favour of the 
English, though he resided some years among 
us.' Writing from Florence in November 
1754 the Earl of Cork describes Mann as 
living in Cocchi's 'friendship, skill, and 
care, and adds : i Could I live with these 
two gentlemen only, and converse with few 
or none others, I should scarce desire to re- 
turn to England for many years ' (NICHOLS, 
Lit.Anecd. i. 347). Madame Piozzi visited 
Mann when she was in Florence, about 1784, 
when the British envoy was ' sick and old,' 
but maintained a ' weekly conversation ' on 
Saturday evenings (Autobioff. 1861, i. 334). 

Mann's last letter to Walpole (' of a series 
amounting to thousands ') is dated 5 Sept. 
1786. He died at Florence on 6 Nov. 1786, 
and was succeeded as envoy in August 1787 
by John Augustus, lord Hervey. He had 
been forty-six years minister. His body was 
removed to England, and buried at Linton. 
The estate and baronetcy passed to his 
nephew Horatio (son of his younger brother 
Galfridus), who, with his wife, 'the fair and 
fragile' Lady Lucy (Noel), had visited Mann 
at Florence in 1775, the pair being frequently 
mentioned with much tenderness and affec- 
tion in his letters. Sir Horatio was M.P. for 
Sandwich in 1790, became a local magnate, 
and was a staunch patron of the Hamble- 
donian cricketers (cf. HASTED, Kent ; NYREN, 
l(oung Cricketer's Tutor, ed. Whibley, pp. 
xi, xxii, 94). He died in 1814, when the 
baronetcy became extinct. 

In his will Mann, who had previously 
bought several pictures on commission for 
the Houghton and Strawberry Hill galleries, 
left five pictures by Poussin to his friend 
Walpole, to whom his letters were also trans- 
mitted. He had sent Walpole his portrait 
by Astley in 1752; this was engraved by 
Greatbatch, and included by Cunningham in 
his edition of Walpole's correspondence. 

[Hasted's Kent, ii. 142 ; Burke's Extinct 
Baronetage, p. 337 ; Doran's Mann and Manners 



Mann 



43 



Mann 



at the Court of Florence ; Elwin's Pope, passim ; 
Gray's Works, ed. Gosse, ii. 52, 86, 128, 132 ; 
Austin Dobson's Horace Walpole, a Memoir, 
p. 295 ; Letters of Walpole, ed. Cunningham, 
vol. ix. Pref. pp. xv, xxiii; Walpole's George III, 
1859, ii. 482; Nichols's Lit. Illustr. vol. vi. ; 
Gent. Mag. 1786 ii. 907, 1834 i. 122; Haydn's 
Book of Dignities, ed. Ockerby, pp. 115, 765; 
Hist. MSS. Comm. 9th Kep. App. pt. ii. p. 382, 
10th Rep. App. pp. 378, 381, 12th Eep. App. 
pt. x. pp. 196, 225; Stephens's Cat. of Satirical 
Prints, vol. iii. No. 3088. Numerous single 
letters from Mann to various friends are among 
the Addit. MSS. in the Brit. Mus.] T. S. 

MANN, NICHOLAS (d. 1753), master 
of the Charterhouse, a native of Tewkesbury, 
proceeded in 1699 from Eton to King's 
College, Cambridge, of which he was elected 
fellow, and graduated B.A. in 1703, M.A. 
in 1707. At college he was tutor to the 
Marquis of Blandford, but afterwards be- 
came an assistant-master at Eton, and then 
one of the clerks in the secretary's office under 
Lord Townshend. He travelled in France 
and Italy, and on his return was appointed 
king's waiter at the custom house, and keeper 
of the standing wardrobe at Windsor. 
Through the interest of the Marlborough 
family he was elected master of the Charter- 
house on 19 Aug. 1737. At his institution 
he is said to have shocked the Archbishop of 
Canterbury by professing himself an Arian 
(BISHOP NEWTON, Life, pp. 20-1). He died 
at Bath on 24 Nov. 1753, and was buried in 
the piazza at the Charterhouse, having some 
years before affixed his own epitaph over the 
chapel door. By will he bequeathed his 
library and collection of manuscripts (except- 
ing those of his own composition) to Eton 
College. 

Mann, who was an excellent scholar and 
antiquary, wrote: 1. 'Of the True Years 
of the Birth and of the Death of Christ ; 
two Chronological Dissertations,' 8vo, Lon- 
don, 1733 (Latin version, with additions, 
1742 and 1752). 2. ' Critical Notes on some 
passages of Scripture' (anon.), 8vo, London, 
1747. Richard Gough had in his possession 
a copy of Gale's ' Antonini Iter ' profusely 
annotated by Mann (NICHOLS, Bibliotheca, 
No. 2, p. vii of Preface). 

[Harwood's Alumni Eton. p. 283 ; Nichols's 
Lit. Anecd. ii. 165, 194 ; Addit. MS. 5876, f. 
180 b ; Jones's Journey to Paris in 1776, ii. 31 ; 
will in P. C. C. 322, Searle.] G. G. 

MANN, ROBERT JAMES (1817-1886), 
scientific writer, son of James Mann of Nor- 
wich, was born at Norwich in 1817, and edu- 
cated for the medical profession at University 
College, London. At the hospital connected 
with the college he acted as dressertothe cele- 



brated Listen. He practised for some years 
in Norfolk, first in Norwich, and afterwards at 
Buxton. In 1 853 considerations of health led 
to the partial abandonment of the practice of 
his profession, and he devoted himself more 
exclusively to literary pursuits. His first 
work, published in 1845, ' The Planetary and 
Stellar Universe,' was based on a course of 
lectures delivered to a country audience, and 
this was followed by a long series of popular 
text-books on astronomy, chemistry, physio- 
logy, and health. Many of these ran through 
a large number of editions, and entitled him 
to a notable place among- those who first 
attempted to make science popular, and its 
teaching generally intelligible. He was also 
a frequent contributor of scientific articles 
to many periodicals, chief among which 
were the ' Edinburgh Review ' and ' Cham- 
bers's Journal.' In the ' Royal Society Cata- 
logue of Scientific Papers ' he appears as 
the author of no fewer than twenty-three 
memoirs in transactions of societies and 
scientific periodicals. In 1854 he graduated 
M.D. in the university of St. Andrews, and 
in 1857, on the invitation of Bishop Colenso, 
he left England for Natal, where he resided 
for nine years. Two years after his arrival he 
was appointed to the newly established office 
of superintendent of education for the colony, 
and this gave him the opportunity of esta- 
blishing there a system of primary education, 
which still continues in force. The climatic 
conditions of the country, with its severe and 
frequent thunderstorms, led him to the special 
study of meteorology, and the careful series 
of observations which he carried out during 
the whole of his residence in Natal are of 
considerable value. In 1866 he returned 
from Natal with a special appointment from 
the legislative council as emigration agent 
for the colony, and for the remainder of his 
life he resided in or near London, devoting 
himself to the study of science and to literary 
work. His was a familiar figure in many 
scientific circles. For three years he was 
president of the Meteorological Society, and 
for about a similar period one of the board of 
visitors of the Royal Institution. From 
1874 to 1886 he acted as secretary to the 
African ' and the ' Foreign and Colonial ' 
sections of the Society of Arts. He was also 
a member or fellow of the Astronomical, Geo- 
graphical, Photographic, and other societies. 
He took an active part in the organisation of 
the loan collection of scientific apparatus at 
South Kensington in 1876, and at every in- 
ternational exhibition to which Natal contri- 
buted he had a share in the colonial repre- 
sentation. He superintended the collection 
and despatch of the Natal collections to the 



Mann 



44 



Mann 



International Exhibition of 1862, and one of 
the last acts of his life was the compilation 
of the catalogue of the Natal court at the 
Colonial and Indian Exhibition of 1886. 
Mann died at Wandsworth on 8 Aug.' 1886, 
and is buried at Kensal Green. 

In addition to the writings already men- 
tioned, Mann's chief works were : 1. ' The 
Book of Health/ 1850. 2. 'The Philosophy 
of Reproduction,' 1855. 3. ' Lessons in Gene- 
ral Knowledge,' 1855-6. 4. ' Tennyson's 
" Maud " vindicated ; an Explanatory Essay,' 
1856. 5. 'A Guide to the Knowledge of 
Lite,' 1856. 6. ' A Guide to Astronomical 
Science,' 1858. 7. 'A Description of Natal,' 
1860. 8. 'The Colony of Natal,' 1860-2. 
9. ' Medicine for Emergencies,' 1861 . 10. ' The 
Emigrant's Guide to Natal,' 1868 ; 2nd ed. 
1873. 11. 'The Weather,' 1877. 12. 'Drink: 
Simple Lessons for Home Use,' 1877. 13. ' Do- 
mestic Economy and Household Science,' 
1878. 14. ' The Zulus and Boers of South 
Africa,' 1879. 15. < The Physical Properties 
of the Atmosphere,' 1879. 16. 'Familiar Lec- 
tures on the Physiology of Food and Drink,' 
1884. 

[Personal knowledge ; Soc. of Arts Journ. 1886, 
xxiv. 961 ; Koyal Astron. Soc. Monthly Notices, 
February 1887 ; British Medical Journal, 21 Aug 
1886; Times, obituary, 9 Aug. 1886; Brit. Mus. 
Cat.] H. T. W. 

MANN, THEODORE AUGUSTUS, 
called the ABBE MANN (1735-1809), man of 
science, historian, and antiquary, the son of an 
English land surveyor, was born in Yorkshire 
on 22 June 1735. Educated at a provincial 
school, he exhibited, with much general pre- 
cocity, a special bent towards mathematics, 
and before 1753, when he was sent to London 
with a view to his adopting the legal profes- 
sion, he had already produced manuscript 
treatises on geometry, astronomy, natural 
history, and rational religion. He soon re- 
volted from the routine incidental to legal 
or commercial life, and towards the end of 
1754 proceeded without the knowledge of his 
parents to Paris. There he managed to sub- 
sist in some unexplained manner, read and 
re-read Bossuet's ' Discours sur 1'Histoire 
Universelle,' and devoted himself to medita- 
tion on religious subjects. This resulted in 
his being, on 4 May 1756, received into the 
Roman catholic communion by Christophe 
de Beaumont, the archbishop of Paris, who 
subsequently promulgated a sort of bull 
against Rousseau's ' Emile.' On the out- 
break of war between England and France 
in 1756, Mann took refuge in Spain, carry- 
ing letters of introduction to Don Ricardo 
Wall, then chief minister of Spain, and to 



the Count d'Aranda. Wall lodged him in his 
own house, and soon obtained for him a com- 
mission in Count O'Mahony's regiment of 
dragoons. But the dearth of books which 
he experienced in his new profession proved 
intolerable to him, though he obtained leave 
to study mathematics at the military aca- 
demy at Barcelona. To obviate all inter- 
ruptions to his studies, he resolved in 1757 
upon monastic retirement. This he found 
in the English Chartreuse, at Nieuport in 
the Netherlands, where he at once recom- 
menced reading fourteen hours a day in 
the endeavour to appease ' his insatiable 
thirst for study.' After nearly two years 
of fruitless attempts at a reconciliation 
with his parents, he became professed in 
1759, and in 1764 was made prior of his 
house. 

About 1775 Mann, whose talents and 
power of application were becoming widely 
known, was proposed for the bishopric of 
Antwerp, then vacant ; the coadjutorship 
of the bishopric of Quebec was at the same 
time offered him by the English minister at 
the Hague, but he hesitated to accept this 
offer on account of his delicate health. His 
doubts were finally resolved by the proposal 
of the Prince de Stahremberg, the Austrian 
plenipotentiary, in October 1776, that he 
should be minister of public instruction in 
the emperor's service, at Brussels. There, 
in the enjoyment of ample literary leisure 
and an annual income of 2,400 florins, he 
became, as the ' Abbe Mann,' a recognised 
celebrity in the world of letters. An ' in- 
genious writer ' on an astonishing variety of 
subjects, he became a sort of foreign corre- 
spondent to numerous learned societies and 
individuals in England, and was regularly 
visited ' by almost every English Traveller 
of erudition.' The Austrian government 
were fully alive to his value ; and to free 
him from unnecessary preoccupation, Car- 
dinal Hersan, Austrian minister at Rome, 
obtained for him a bull of secularisation, 
with a permission to hold benefices. Quitting 
the Chartreuse in July 1777, Mann was al- 
most immediately made a prebendary of the 
church of Courtrai, without residence, and 
in November 1777 was sent to London by 
Stahremberg to examine the means invented 
by David Hartley the younger [q. v.] and Lord 
Mahon for preserving buildings from fire. In 
1781 he was charged to examine the state 
of the coast of Flanders with a view to the 
opening of a fishing port at Blankenberg, his 
memoir on the subject being presented to 
the emperor. He was commanded to pre- 
pare a scheme for the canalisation of the 
Austrian Netherlands ; wrote manuals and 



Mann 



45 



Mann 



primers upon the most diverse subjects for i 
use in the schools of Belgium, and, in 1782, 
revised his previous ' Reflexions sur la Dis- 
cipline Ecclesiastique,' in reference to the , 
Belgian church, adding some remarks upon 
the changes contemplated by the Emperor 
Joseph II's reforming zeal. 

The abbe long suffered from confirmed 
gout ; but from 1779 his health was greatly 
improved by his use of hemlock and aconite. 
He was a pioneer of the employment in the 
Netherlands of these drugs, on the effects 
of which he wrote a paper in 1784. In this 
year also he made an extended tour through 
France, Switzerland, and Germany, acquir- 
ing extensive materials for communications 
to the Royal Academy of Brussels, of which 
he became a member 7 Feb. 1774 and per- 
petual secretary and treasurer in 1786. 

In 1788 the abbe was elected a fellow of 
the Royal Society, an honour which he had 
long coveted. In the next year the French 
revolution broke in upon Belgium, as he 
himself said, like ' a violent sea.' He was 
in continual fear of ill-usage until, in 1792, | 
he accompanied his friend Lord Elgin to ' 
England. On the re-establishment of the | 
Austrian government in 1793, he returned 
to Brussels and resumed his functions. In 
January of the same year he was admitted i 
an honorary member of the Society of Anti- j 
quaries. In June 1794 he had to quit Brussels I 
for the last time in company with his friend ! 
M. Podevin. The fugitives settled at Lintz 
and afterwards at Leutmeritz in Bohemia. 
Thence, however, Mann had to retire at the 
approach of the French armies as far as Prague, 
where he received a warm welcome from the 
Prince- Archbishop deSalm. AtPrague here- 
sumed literary production, and for the British 
Agricultural Society, of which he had been | 
elected a member in 1794, wrote ' A Memoir j 
on the Agriculture of the Austrian Nether- ; 
lands' (1795). This was subsequently printed i 
in Hunter's ' Georgical Essays ' (vol. v.), 
together with his ' Observations on the 
Wool of the Austrian Netherlands,' origi- 
nally communicated to Sir Joseph Banks. 
In 1804 he compiled ' by way of recreation ' 
a most comprehensive ' Table chronologique 
de 1'Histoire Universelle depuis le com- 
mencement de 1'annee 1700 jusqu'a la conclu- 
sion de la paix general e en 1803 ' (Dresden, 
1803), and continued his communications 
with learned societies in various parts of 
Europe until his death at Prague on 23 Feb. 
1809. His chief legatee was the sister of 
his intimate friend, Mile Podevin. 

An extensive collection of Mann's letters 
written to the Society of Antiquaries and 
to various private friends, among them Dr. 



Solander, Magellan, Hartley, and Lord Mul- 
grave, was published at Brussels in 1845; 
and a few selected letters are included in 
Sir Henry Ellis's < Original Letters of Emi- 
nent Literary Men ' (Camden Society). To 
the ' Philosophical Transactions ' he contri- 
buted ' A Treatise on Rivers and Canals ' 
(1780), <A Treatise on Sea Currents and 
their Effects applied to the Sea and Coasts 
of the West of Europe, more especially to 
those which surround the British Islands ' 
(1789), and a paper ' On the Formation of 
great Hailstones and pieces of Ice in great 
Thunderstorms' (1798). To the Society of 
Antiquaries he communicated ' A Descrip- 
tion of what is called a Roman Camp in 
Westphalia' (1796), and <A short Chrono- 
logical Account of the Religious Establish- 
ments made by English Catholics on the 
Continent of Europe' (1797, see Archceo- 
logia, xiii. 1 and 251). 

The most considerable of Mann's writings 
in French are : 1. ' Histoire du regne de 
Marie-Therese,' Brussels, 1781. 2. < Me- 
moires sur le conservation et le Commerce 
des Grains,' Malines, 1784. 3. < Abrege de 
1'Histoire ecclesiastique, civile et naturelle 
de la ville de Bruxelles et de ses environs,' 
Brussels, 1785. 4. ' Recueil de Memoires 
sur les grandes gelees et leurs effets,' Gand, 
1792. 5. ' Principes metaphysiques des etres 
et des connaissances,' Vienna, 1807. A fair 
copy of this work made in Mann's own hand 
is preserved in the British Museum (Add. 
MS. 5794). 

The abbe" also wrote widely on meteoro- 
logy, philology, political economy, weights 
and measures, the voyages of Captain Cook 
and others, on agriculture, religion, and an- 
tiquarian matters, devoting (in 1778) an in- 
teresting paper to an attempt to refute 
William Simmer [q.v.Jand other English 
antiquaries, and to prove that Caesar, when 
he embarked for Britain, sailed not from 
Mardyke nor Whitsand, but from Boulogne 
(Gessoriacum). A great number of his 
writings take the form of communications 
to the Brussels Academy ; among these 
will be found a powerful indictment of ' la 
grande culture ' (1780) and an interesting 
' Memoire sur les diverses methodes in- 
ventees jusqu'a present pour garantir les 
edifices de 1'incendie ' (1778). A volume 
of his papers, presented by the author to 
Sir Joseph Banks, is in the British Museum 
Library. 

Finally the abbe" compiled numerous cata- 
logues and bibliographical works and many 
voluminous reports, commanded by the Aus- 
trian government, on canalisation, fisheries, 
agriculture, &c. Several of these papers 



Mann 



4 6 



Manners 



were translated for ' Opuscoli scelti sulle 
scienze,' published at Milan in 1778, &c. 

[Eloge de 1'Abbe Mann in Keiffenberg's An- 
nuaire de la Bibliotheque Koyale de Belgique, 
Brussels, 1850, pp. 77-125, appended is an ex- 
haustive bibliography , ' Scripta, tarn ineditaquam 
impressa;' G-oethals' Hist, des Lettres en Bel- 
gique. 1840, ii. 319; Nouvelle Biog. Generale, 
xxxiii. 231 ; Ellis's Letters of Eminent Literary 
Men (Camden Society), pp. 413 sq. ; Metnoires 
de 1'Acadernie Imperiale et Royale des Sciences 
et Belles-Lettres de Bruxelles, 4 vols. 1783; 
Nichols's Lit. Anecd. viii. 41-4, ix. 263-5; Gent. 
Mag. 1787, 1788, 1789, passim.] T. S. 

MANN, WILLIAM (1817-1873), astro- 
nomer, was born at Lewisham in Kent^ on 
25 Oct. 1817. He was third son of Major- 
general Cornelius Mann, R.E., and grandson 
of Gother Mann [q.v.], and accompanied his 
family to Gibraltar in 1830, on his father's 
appointment as commanding royal engineer. 
In 1837 Admiral Shirreff procured him the 
post of second assistant at the Royal Obser- 
vatory, Cape of Good Hope, and after due 
preparation he entered upon his duties in Oc- 
tober 1839. For six years he was ^engaged 
chiefly on the remeasurement of Lacaille's arc, 
and sometimes passed three months without 
shelter even by night. His health, impaired 
by hardships, was recruited by a trip to Eng- 
land in 1846, and on his return in December 
1847 he engaged, as first assistant, in the or- 
dinary work of the observatory. His next 
voyage home was for the purpose of fetching 
the new transit-circle, erected by him at the 
Cape in 1855 with only native aid. His 
observations of the great comet of December 
1844, and of the transit of Mercury on 4 Nov. 
1868, were communicated to the Royal As- 
tronomical Society (Monthly Notices, vi. 214, 
234, 252, xxix. 196), of which body he was 
elected a member on 10 March 1871. From 
a chest disorder, contracted through assiduity 
in cometary observations, he sought relief at 
Natal in 1866, in England in 1867, but was 
attacked in 1870 with shattering effect by 
scarlet fever, of which two of his children 
had just died. He retired from the ob- 
servatory, and died at Claremont, near Cape 
Town, on 30 April 1873. He married in 
1853 Caroline, second daughter of Sir Thomas 
Maclear [q. v.] The value for three years of 
a small pension, granted to him from the 
civil list on the eve of his death, was paid 
to her by Mr. Gladstone's orders. Mann's 
character and abilities were superior to his 
opportunities. He was a good mathematician 
and mechanician, and his fellow-assistant, 
Professor Piazzi Smyth, wrote of his ' splendid 
intellectual parts and excellent dispositions.' 

[Monthly Notices, xxxiv. 144.] A. M. C. 



MANNERS, MBS. CATHERINE, after- 
wards LADY STEPNEY (d. 1845). [See 
STEPNEY.] 

MANNERS, CHARLES, fourth DUKE OF 
RUTLAND (1754-1787), the elder son of John 
Manners, marquis of Granby [q. v.], by his 
wife Lady Frances Seymour, daughter of 
Charles, sixth duke of Somerset, and grand- 
son of John, third duke of Rutland, was born 
on 15 March 1754. He was educated at 
Eton and Trinity College, Cambridge, where 
he was created M.A. in 1774. At the general 
election in October 1774 he was returned to 
the House of Commons for the university of 
Cambridge. He warmly opposed the third 
reading of the bill for restraining the trade 
of the southern colonies of America in April 
1775, and protested against the taxation of 
that country, which he declared ' commenced 
in iniquity, is pursued with resentment, and 
can terminate in nothing but blood ' (Parl. 
Hist, xviii. 601-3 ; see also Correspondence 
of William Pitt, Earl of Chatham, 1840, iv. 
405-6). On 18 Nov. 1777 his amendment to 
the address praying that the king might be 
pleased * to cause th e most speedy and effectual 
measures to be taken for restoring peace in 
America 'was seconded by Lord John Caven- 
dish [q. v.], and supported by Burke and Fox, 
but was defeated by 243 to 86 (Parl. Hist. 
xix. 414-15, 442). Upon the death of his 
grandfather John, third duke of Rutland, on 
29 May 1779, he succeeded to the title (cf. 
Journals of the House of Lords, xxxv. 800). 
He was sworn lord-lieutenant of Leicester- 
shire on 9 July 1779 (London Gazettes, No. 
11994), and invested a knight of the Garter 
on 3 Oct. 1782. On 14 Feb. 1783 he was ap- 
pointed lord steward of the household with 
a seat in the Earl of Shelburne's cabinet, and 
on the same day was admitted a member of 
the privy council. He resigned office upon the 
formation of the coalition ministry in April 
1783, but was appointed lord privy seal in 
Pitt's administration on 23 Dec. following 
(ib. No. 12503). He was induced by Pitt 
to accept the post of lord-lieutenant of Ire- 
land in the place of the Earl of Northington 
on 11 Feb. 1784, and was sworn in at Dublin 
on the 24th of the same month (ib. No. 12523). 
Though Pitt at first seems to have been sin- 
cerely anxious to reform the Irish parliament, 
Rutland pronounced the question of reform to 
be ' difficult and dangerous to the last degree/ 
and while the demand for retrenchment was 
at its height insisted on the creation of new 
places in order to strengthen the parlia- 
mentary influence of the government^ He 
appears to have quickly made up his mind in 
favour of a legislative union, and in a letter 



Manners 



47 



Manners 



to Pitt, dated 16 June 1784, says : { Were I 
to indulge a distant speculation, I should 
say that without an union Ireland will not 
be connected with Great Britain in twenty 
years longer' (Correspondence, 1890, pp. 18- 
19). In a speech delivered in the House of 
Lords on 11 April 1799 Richard Watson, 
bishop of Llandaff, who had been the duke's 
tutor at Cambridge, mentioned that he had 
pressed the importance of a legislative union 
upon Rutland, who replied that 'he wholly 
approved of the measure, but added the man 
who should attempt to carry the measure 
into execution would be tarred and feathered' 
(Parl. Hist, xxxiv. 736). After a long corre- 
spondence between the English and Irish 
governments, Pitt's commercial propositions 
were laid before the Irish House of Com- 
mons on 7 Feb. 1785 in the form of ten 
resolutions. They passed through the Irish 
parliament after a concession had been made 
by Rutland to Grattan's views. Owing to 
the determined opposition of the English 
manufacturers, the resolutions were so ma- 
terially altered in the English parliament 
that when Orde, the chief secretary, moved 
for leave to bring in the bill embodying them 
(12 Aug. 1785), it was denounced by Grattan 
in a magnificent speech, and Rutland had to 
abandon the idea of carrying it through the 
Irish parliament. 

Rutland was an amiable and extravagant 
peer, without any particular talent, except 
for conviviality. The utmost magnificence 
signalised the entertainments of the vice- 
regal court, and the duke and the duchess 
'were reckoned the handsomest couple in 
Ireland ' (SiR J. BARRIN-GTON, Historic Me- 
moirs, ii. 225). In the summer of 1787 Rut- 
land went for a tour through the country, and 
was entertained at the seats of many noble- 
men. ' During the course of this tour,' says 
Wraxall, ' he invariably began the day by 
eating at breakfast six or seven turkey's eggs 
as an accompaniment to tea and coffee. He 
then rode forty and sometimes fifty miles, 
dined at six or seven o'clock, after which he 
drank very freely, and concluded by sitting 
up to a late hour, always supping before he 
retired to rest ' (Memoirs, v. 34). Upon his 
return to Dublin he was seized with a violent 
fever, and died at Phoenix Lodge on 24 Oct. 
1787, aged 33. His body, after lying in state 
in the great committee room of the House of 
Lords, was removed to England with great 
pomp (London Gazettes, 17 '87, pp. 545-7), and 
was buried at Bottesford, Leicestershire, on 
25 Nov. 1787. George Crabbe the poet, who 
had been the duke's domestic chaplain atBel- 
voir, wrote f A Discourse read in the Chapel 
at Belvoir Castle after the Funeral of His 



Grace the Duke of Rutland,' &c. (London, 
1788, 4to) ; while Bishop Watson pronounced 
an extravagant panegyric on the late duke 
during the debate on the address on 27 Nov. 
1787 (Parl. Hist. xxvi. 1233-4). 

Rutland was an intimate friend of William 
Pitt, who owed his first seat in the House of 
Commons to the duke's influence with Sir 
James Lowther (WRAXALL, ii. 81-2). Part of 
the ' Correspondence between the Right. Hon. 
William Pitt and Charles, Duke of Rutland, 
Lord-Lieutenant of Ireland 1781-1787,' was 
privately printed by LordMahon (afterwards 
Earl Stanhope) in 1842 (London, 8vo). This 
volume was reprinted and published by 
the present Duke of Rutland in 1890 (Lon- 
don, 8vo). The correspondence of the Irish 
government with Thomas Townshend (after- 
wards Viscount Sydney) during Rutland's 
viceroyalty is preserved at the Record Office. 
The ' Parliamentary History ' records no 
speeches delivered by Rutland in the House 
of Lords. His speeches in the Irish parlia- 
ment will be found in the ' Journals of the 
Irish House of Lords '(v. 533-4, 535-6, 658, 
660, 754-5, vi. 2-3, 124-5). 

He married, on 26 Dec. 1775, Lady Mary 
Isabella Somerset, the youngest daughter of 
Charles, fourth duke of Beaufort, by whom 
he had four sons viz. (1) John Henry, who, 
born on 4 Jan. 1778, succeeded as the fifth 
duke, and died on 20 Jan. 1857; (2) Charles 
Henry Somerset, who, born on 24 Oct. 1780, 
became a general in the army, and died on 
25 May 1855 ; (3) Robert William, who, born 
on 14 Dec. 1781, became a major-general in 
the army, and died on 15 Nov. 1835 ; and (4) 
William Robert Albanac, who, born on 1 May 
1783, died on 22 April 1793 and two daugh- 
ters: (1) Elizabeth Isabella, who married 
Richard Norman of Leatherhead, Surrey, on 
21 Aug. 1798, and died on 5 Oct. 1853, and 
(2) Katherine Mary, who married Cecil Weld 
Forester (afterwards first Baron Forester) on 
17 June 1800, and died on 10 March 1829. 
The duchess survived her husband many 
years, and died in Sackville Street, Piccadilly, 
on 2 Sept. 1831, aged 75. She was a strik- 
ingly handsome woman, and Wraxall gives 
a glowing description of her charms (Me- 
moirs, v. 36-7). Sir Joshua Reynolds, to 
whom the duke gave a large number of com- 
missions, painted her four times. The first 
portrait, taken in March 1780, and engraved 
by Valentine Green in the same year, was 
destroyed in the disastrous fire at Belvoir in 
October 1816. A half-length portrait of the 
duke, painted in 1776 by Reynolds, belongs 
to the Marquis of Lothian. There are en- 
gravings by Dickinson (1794) and Hodges of 
a whole-length portrait by Reynolds. Por- 



Manners 



Manners 



traits of the duke and the duchess painted 
by Richard Cosway were engraved by Wil- 
liam Lane [q. v.] 

[Letters of Horace Walpole, ed. Peter Cunning- 
ham, vols. vi. vii. viii. ix. ; Sir Jonah Barring- 
ton's Historic Memoirs of Ireland, 1833, ii. 216- 
225 ; Hardy's Memoirs of the Earl of Charle- 
mont, 1812, ii. 143-61 ; Life and Times of 
Henry Grattan, 1841, Hi. 198-312 ; Earl Stan- 
hope's Life of William Pitt, 1861, i. 46, 165, 
183-4, 260-75, 349 ; Life and Poems of theKev. 
George Crabbe, 1834, i. 111-27, 131, 136-7, 
ii. 14, 67-9, 97; Lecky's History of England in 
the Eighteenth Century, iv. 269, 296, vi 317, 351- 
413, 414; Nichols's Hist, and Antiquities of the 
County of Leicester, 1 795, ii. pt. i. pp. 66, 68, 1 00 ; 
Nichols's Lit. Anecd. of the Eighteenth Cen- 
tury, 1814-15,viii. 122, 142, ix. 9 ; Nichols's Illus- 
trations, 1812-15, vii. 702-3, viii. 12; Leslie 
and Taylor's Life and Times of Sir Joshua Rey- 
nolds, 1865; Gent. Mag. 1787, pt.ii. pp. 938, 1016, 
1021, 1043,1123,1180; Ann. Reg. 1787, pp. 226- 
227, 238,275-7; Doyle's Official Baronage, 1886, 
ii. 202 ; Burke's Peerage, 1891, p. 1197 ; Return 
of Members of Parliament, pt. ii. p. 149; Grad. 
Cantabr. 1823, p. 197,App.p. 15.] G.F.R.B. 

MANNERS, CHARLES CECIL 
JOHN, sixth DUKE OP RUTLAND (1815- 
1888), born 16 May 1815, was eldest surviving 
son of John Henry, fifth duke of Rutland, by 
Lady Elizabeth Howard, daughter of the fifth 
earl of Carlisle. He was educated at Eton and 
at Trinity College, Cambridge, where he was 
created M.A. in 1835. He was elected M.P. 
for Stamford in 1837, and sat for that borough 
till 1852, when he was returned for North 
Leicestershire. From 1843 to 1846 he was 
lord of the bedchamber to the prince consort. 
He was a strong conservative and protec- 
tionist, opposed Lord John Russell on the 
sugar duties, and generally supported Lord 
George Bentinck during his leadership of the 
protectionist party in the House of Commons 
(1846-7). He was never a powerful speaker, 
though he spoke very often. After 1852 he 
grew out of sympathy with the conservative 
policy; and the lord-lieutenancy of Lin- 
colnshire was, according to Greville, given 
to him in that year ' to stop his mouth.' 
He became lord-lieutenant of Leicestershire, 
20 March 1857, and in the same year suc- 
ceeded his father as Duke of Rutland. He 
was made K.Gr. in 1867, and died unmarried 
at Belvoir, 4 March 1888. He was succeeded 
by his brother, Lord John James Robert Man- 
ners, seventh and present duke of Rutland. 
Rutland's political views were formed in the 
days preceding the repeal of the corn laws, 
and were never afterwards modified. Per- 
sonally he was popular, and a splendid rider 
to hounds, though in later years he was dis- 
abled by gout. 



[Times, 5 March 1888; Illustrated London 
News, 10 March 1888; Field, 10 March 1888; 
Grreville's Journal of the Reign of Queen Vic- 
toria, iii. 123, 471, 472; Hansard's Parl. De- 
bates, especially 1842-57; Eller's Hist, of Bel- 
voir Castle; Disraeli's Life of Lord Greorge Ben- 
tinck.] W. A. J. A. 

MANNERS, EDWARD, third EAKL OF 
RUTLAND (1549-1587), born in 1549, was 
eldest son of Henry, second earl of Rut- 
land [q. v.], by Margaret, fourth daughter of 
Ralph Neville, fourth earl of Westmorland. 
He seems to have been educated at Oxford, 
though he did not graduate there as a student. 
He bore the title of Lord Roos or Ros, the 
old title of his family, until 1563, when by 
the death of his father he became third Earl 
of Rutland. He was made one of the queen's 
wards, and was specially under the charge 
of Sir William Cecil, who was connected 
with him by marriage. He accompanied 
the queen on her visit to Cambridge in 1564, 
and was lodged in St. John's College, and 
created M.A. 10 Aug. In October 1566 he 
was made M.A. of Oxford. In 1569 he joined 
the Earl of Sussex, taking his tenants with 
him, and held a command in the army which 
suppressed the northern insurrection. In 
1570 he passed into France, Cecil drawing 
up a paper of instructions for his guidance. 
He was in Paris in the February of the next 
year. At home he received many offices, and 
displayed enthusiastic devotion to the queen. 
On 5 Aug. 1570 he became constable of 
Nottingham Castle, and steward, keeper, war- 
den, and chief justice of Sherwood Forest ; 
in 1571 he was feodary of the duchy of 
Lancaster for the counties of Nottingham 
and Derby ; in 1574 he was appointed lord- 
lieutenant of Nottinghamshire. 

On 17 June 1577 Rutland was placed on 
the ecclesiastical commission for the pro- 
vince of York, and in 1579 on the council 
of the north. In the grand tilting match of 
1580 Rutland and twelve others contended 
with a similar number, headed by Essex, be- 
fore the queen at Westminster. His public 
offices probably now absorbed all his time, 
as in 1581 a relative, John Manners, seems 
to have been managing his estate. On 
23 April 1584 he became K.G., and on 14 June 
1585 lord-lieutenant of Lincolnshire. His 
style of living was very expensive ; when he 
went with his countess to London about 1586 
he had with him forty-one servants, includ- 
ing a chaplain, trumpeter, gardener, and 
apothecary. In June 1586, with Lord Eure 
and Randolph, he arranged a treaty of peace 
with the Scots at Berwick, and his brother 
Roger wrote that his conduct had been ap- 
proved by the court. On 6 Oct. he was one 






Manners 



49 



Manners 



of the commissioners to try Mary Queen of 
Scots. The queen promised to make him 
lord chancellor after the death of Sir Thomas 
Bromley [q. v.], which took place 12 April 
1587, and he was for a day or two so styled. 
He died, however, on 14 April 1587 at his 
house at Ivy Bridge in the Strand. Camden 
says that he was a learned man and a good 
lawyer. His funeral was very costly ; his 
body was taken to Bottesford, Leicestershire, 
and buried in the church, where there is an 
epitaph. Eller gives an account of his will. 
A late portrait, attributed to Jan Van der 
Eyden [q. v.], is at Belvoir. After negotia- 
tions with several other ladies, he married 
(later than January 1571-2) Isabel, daugh- 
ter of Sir Thomas Holcroft of Vale Royal, 
Cheshire, and left a daughter, Elizabeth, 
who was styled Baroness Roos; she married 
in 1588 Sir William Cecil, afterwards Lord 
Burghley, and died in 1591. Her son Wil- 
liam was in right of his mother confirmed in 
the barony of Roos in 1616, and died in 1618 
[see under LAKE, SIR THOMAS]. The earl 
was succeeded by his brother John, fourth 
earl, who, dying 21 Feb. 1587-8, was fol- 
lowed by his son Roger, fifth earl [q. v.] The 
widow, who lived till 1606, was troubled 
with money difficulties owing to her hus- 
band's debts, and engaged in litigation about 
his will. Many of the earl's letters are pre- 
served at Belvoir Castle. 

[Cooper's Athense Cantabr. i. 13, 542 ; Doyle's 
Official Baronage; SanfordandTownsend's Great 
Governing Families of England; Eller's Hist, 
of Belvoir Castle, pp. 48 sq. ; Cal. State Papers, 
Dom. 1547-80 pp. 406, &c.. 1581-90 pp. 34, &c.; 
Nichols's Leicestershire, ii. 48; Froude's Hist, 
of Engl. ix. 522 ; Nichols's Progresses of Queen 
Elizabeth, ii. 509; Hist. MSS. Comm. 12th Rep. 
App. iv. passim ; Calendar of Hatfield MSlS. ii. 
210, &c., iii. 143, &c.] W. A. J. A. 

MANNERS, FRANCIS, sixth EAKL of 
RUTLAND (1578-1632), second son of John, 
fourth earl of Rutland, nephew of Edward, 
third earl [q. v.], and brother of Roger, fifth 
earl [q. v.], was born in 1578. He seems 
to have been with his brothers under the 
care of John Jegon [q. v.] at Cambridge. In 
1598 he went abroad, and in the course of 
his travels through France, Germany, and 
Italy he was entertained by various princes, 
notably the Emperor Mathias and the Arch- 
duke Ferdinand. Returning to England he 
took part, like his brothers, Roger, fifth earl 
of Rutland [q. v.], and Sir George Manners, 
in Essex's plot in February 1600-1, and was 
imprisoned in the Poultry Counter. He was 
fined a thousand marks and committed to the 
custody of his uncle Roger at Enfield. Sir 
Robert Cecil, however, obtained a remission 

VOL. XXXVI. 



of the fine, and thus the affair cost little either 
to him or his brother George. As soon. as he 
was free he wrote a penitent letter to his 
uncle Sir John Manners of Haddon. In 
November 1601 he became a member of the 
Inner Temple. 

He was prominent at the court of James I, 
and was created K.B. on 4 Jan. 1604-5 at 
the same time as Prince Charles, and on 
27 May 1607 became joint keeper of Besk- 
wood Park. On 26 June 1612 he succeeded 
his brother Roger as sixth earl of Rutland, 
and was made lord-lieutenant of Lincoln- 
shire on 15 July following. On 7 Aug. in 
the same year he entertained James I at 
Belvoir, and the king repeated the visit five 
times in after years. He held the offices of 
constable of Nottingham Castle and keeper 
of Sherwood Forest from October 1612 until 
April 1620, and at the burial of Prince 
Henry carried the target. He took part in 
all the court ceremonies, and was made 
K.G. 24 April 1616. The title of Lord 
Roos had been carried by a daughter of the 
third Earl of Rutland into the family of the 
Marquis of Exeter [see under MANNERS, ED- 
WARD] ; but Rutland claimed it, and he was 
acknowledged to be Lord Roos of Hamlake 
on 22 July 1616. 

On 6 April 1617 Rutland became a privy 
councillor, and attended the king into Scot- 
land the same year. He was created war- 
den and chief justice of the royal forests 
north of the Trent on 13 Nov. 1619, and 
custos rotulorum for Northamptonshire on 
7 Feb. 1622-3. Although he seems to have 
disapproved an extreme policy in church 
matters, his family connection with Buck- 
ingham secured him the appointment, on 
21 April 1623, of admiral of the fleet to 
bring home Prince Charles from Spain. At 
the coronation of Charles he bore the rod 
with the dove. He died on 17 Dec. 1632 
at an inn in Bishops Stortford, Hertford- 
shire. Many of his family were round him, 
and he made them a curious speech, of which 
notes are preserved at Belvoir. He was 
buried at Bottesford. Rutland married, 
first, on 6 May 1602, Frances, daughter of 
Sir Henry Knevet of Charlton, Wiltshire, 
and widow of Sir William Bevil of Kilk- 
hampton, Cornwall ; secondly, after 26 Oct. 
1608, Cicely Tufton, daughter of Sir John 
Tufton and widow of Sir Edward Hunger- 
ford. The courtship, of rather a mercenary 
character, is described in a letter preserved 
at Belvoir. By his first wife he had a 
daughter Catherine, who married the Duke 
of Buckingham on 16 May 1620 [see under 
VILLIERS, GEORGE, first DUKE of BUCKING- 
HAM], and after his death Randal Mac- 



Manners 



Manners 



Donnell, first marquis of Antrim [q. v.] By 
his second wife he had two sons, who died in 
infancy from the supposed effects of sorcery. 
The widow died in 1653. Rutland was less 
extravagant than most of his family, though 
his clothes were valued at 500/. when he died. 
A late portrait, attributed to Van der Eyden, 
is at Belvoir. He was succeeded by his bro- 
ther, Sir George Manners, as seventh earl. 

[Dugdale's Baronage ; Doyle's Official Baron- 
age ; Calendar of MSS. preserved at Belvoir 
(Hist. MSS. Comm.), especially vol. i. ; Eller's 
Belvoir Castle, pp. 58 sq.; Bygone Lincolnshire, 
ii. 127 sq.; Nichols's Progresses of King James I; 
Gal. of State Papers, Dom., especially 1625-6; 
Metcalfe's Book of Knights.] W. A. J. A. 

MANNERS, GEORGE (1778-1853), 
editor of the ' Satirist,' was born in 1778. 
He was called to the bar, became a noted 
wit in London, and was in 1807 founder 
and one of the proprietors of the ' Satirist, 
or Monthly Meteor,' a venture in scurrilous 
literature, issued monthly, with a view, it 
was claimed, to the exposure of impostors. 
The first number appeared on 1 Oct. 1807. 
At first coloured cartoons were attempted, 
but it is stated in the preface to vol. ii. that 
these were dropped owing to the artists 
having disappointed the editor. In 1812 
Manners parted with it and the publishing 
offices at 267 Strand to William Jerdan 
[q. v.], who tried his luck ' with a new series, 
divested of the personalities and rancour of 
the old.' Despite the bad bargain which he 
made over this purchase, Jerdan describes 
Manners as ' a gentleman in every sense of 
the word, full of fancy and talent, acute and 
well informed' (Autobiography, i. 108). The 
periodical ceased in 1824. In 1819 Manners 
became British consul at Boston, and held 
office till 1839. He died at Coburg in Canada 
on 18 Feb. 1853. 

Manners wrote: 1. ' Edgar, or the Cale- 
donian Brothers,' a tragedy, London, 1806, 
4to. 2. ' Mentoriana, or a Letter of Admo- 
nition to the Duke of York,' 1807, 8vo. 

3. 'Vindicise Satiricse, or a Vindication of 
the Principles of the " Satirist," ' 1809, 8vo. 

4. ' The Rival Impostors, or Two Political 
Epistles to Two Political Cheats,' 1809, 8vo. 

5. ' The Conflagration : a Poem,' Boston, 
1825, 4to; this was written to assist the 
sufferers in Canadian fires. 

[Notes and Queries, 2nd ser. i. 314, 361, ii. 
156 ; Watt's Bibl. Brit. ; Drake's Amer. Biog.] 

W. A. J. A. 

MANNERS, HENRY, second EARL OF 
RUTLAND (d. 1563), was eldest son of Thomas | 
Manners, first earl of Rutland and Lord Ros j 
[q. v.], by Eleanor, daughter of Sir William j 



Paston. He is stated by Doyle to have been 
born before 1526, but most probably he was 
born before 1515. A son of Lord Ros is men- 
tioned as being a page of honour at the mar- 
riage of Louis XII of France and the Princess 
Mary. His mother complained that in bring- 
ing him up she had incurred debts which 
she could not pay. He succeeded as second 
Earl of Rutland on his father's death, 20 Sept. 
1543, was knighted by Henry VIII in 1544, 
and was one of the mourners at the king's 
funeral. At Edward's coronation he was 
bearer of the spurs. In 1547 he was no- 
minated constable of Nottingham Castle and 
warden and chief justice of Sherwood Forest 
as a reward for conducting an expedition 
into Scotland. On 1 May 1549 he was 
appointed warden of the east and middle 
marches, and had personal command of a 
hundred horse at Berwick. He seems to 
have belonged to Warwick's party, and he 
made depositions in 1549 as to conversa- 
tions he had had with Seymour, the lord 
admiral. He took part in the Scottish opera- 
tions, notably the demolition of the fortifica- 
tions of Haddington. He was one of those 
who received the French hostages in 1550, 
when the treaty which followed the loss of 
Boulogne was concluded. On 14 April 1551 
he became joint lord-lieutenant of Lincoln- 
shire and Nottinghamshire, and at that time 
lived when in London at Whittington's Col- 
lege. From May to August 1 551 he was absent 
as lord in attendance on the emba ssy to France. 
He belonged, like Northumberland, to the ex- 
treme reformed party in church matters, and 
was one of those who took part on 3 Dec. 1551 
in the second debate on the real presence 
between Cheke and Watson in Sir Richard 
Morison's house. On 16 May 1552 he be- 
came lord-lieutenant of Nottinghamshire, 
probably in Northumberland's interest, and 
on Mary's accession he was at once impri- 
soned in the Fleet as an adherent of Lady 
Jane Grey. 

Rutland, however, soon came to terms 
with Mary's government. He was made an 
admiral in 1556, and took part as a general 
of horse in the French war of 1557. After 
the loss of Calais he was on duty at Dover 
(cf. FKOUDE, History, vi. 439), and on 19 Jan. 
1557-8 five hundred picked men raised in the 
city of London were ordered to serve under 
him. Rutland was a favourite of Queen 
Elizabeth, and had also, according to Lloyd, a 
certain reputation for learning. On 13 April 
1559 he was nominated K.G.,and on 10 May 
in the same year became lord-lieutenant of 
Rutland. On 24 Feb. 1560-1 he was made 
lord president of the north, and on 5 May 
1561 an ecclesiastical commissioner for the 



Manners 



5 1 



Manners 



province of York. He died, seemingly of the 
plague, on 17 Sept. 1563, and was buried at 
Bottesford in Leicestershire. Rutland carried 
on his father's work of altering Belvoir, com- 
pleting the restoration in 1555. A late por- 
trait, attributed to Van der Eyden, is at 
Belvoir. He married first, on 3 July 1536, 
Lady Margaret Neville, fourth daughter of 
Half, earl of Westmorland she died at Holy- 
well, London, 13 Oct. 1559, and had a splendid 
funeral at St. Leonard's, Shoreditch; se- 
condly, Bridget, daughter of John, lord 
Hussey, and widow of Sir Charles Morison 
of Cashiobury, Hertfordshire, who after his 
death remarried Francis, second earl of Bed- 
ford, and died 12 Jan. 1600-1. He was 
succeeded by his eldest son by his first wife 
Edward, third earl of Rutland, who is sepa- 
rately noticed. Much of his correspondence 
is preserved at Belvoir. 

[Doyle's Official Baronage ; Collins's Peerage, 
ed. Brydges, vol. i. ; Nichols's Leicestershire, ii. 
45 sq. ; Fronde's Hist. iii. 143, v. 147; Lloyd's 
State Worthies (life of Lord Grey of Wilton) ; 
The Chron. of Calais (Camd. Soc.), p. 76 ; 
Machyn's Diary (Camd. Soc.), passim ; Gal. of 
State Papers, Domestic, 1547-80 ; Cal. of MSS. 
at Belvoir (Hist. MSS. Comm.), vol. i.; Hist. 
MSS. Comm. 4th Rep. pp. 202, 204, 208 ; Eller's 
Belvoir Castle, pp. 44 sq. ; Godfrey's Hist, of 
Lenton, pp. 218-19 ; Nottingham Records, iv. 
121 sq.; Strype's Annals, i. i. 10, 198; Memo- 
rials, n. i. 359, 464, 511, 585, ii. 308, in. i. 25, 
ii. 1 09 ; Life of Cheke, pp. 70, 77.] W. A. J. A. 

MANNERS, JOHN, eighth EAEL OP 
RUTLAND (1604-1679), eldest son of Sir 
George Manners (d. 1623) of Haddon, was 
cousin of George, seventh earl of Rutland, 
and was descended from Sir John Manners, 
the second son of Thomas Manners, first earl 
of Rutland [q. v.] His mother was Grace, 
second daughter of Sir Henry Pierrepoint 
and sister to Robert, earl of Kingston. He 
was born at Aylestone, Leicestershire, on 
10 June 1604, and educated at Trinity Col- 
lege, Cambridge, where he does not seem to 
have graduated. In November 1621 he be- 
came a member of the Inner Temple. He 
was high sheriff of Derbyshire in 1634 and 
1636, and M.P. for the same county from 
1640 to 1642. On 29 March 1642 he succeeded 
as eighth earl of Rutland. Throughout the 
struggle between the king and parliament 
Rutland was a moderate parliamentarian. In 
January 1642-3, when parliament was sum- 
moned to Oxford, he was one of the twenty- 
two peers who remained at Westminster. In 
July 1643 he was sent with Lord Grey on a 
mission from the parliament to Edinburgh to 
ask for assistance from the Scots (cf. Hist. 
MSS. Comm. 5th Rep. App. pt. i. pp. 96, 



112). He retired, however, on the plea of 
ill-health. On 16 Oct. 1643 he took the 
covenant. In November 1643 he was no- 
minated first commissioner of the great seal, 
but was excused at his own request. Belvoir 
was taken by the royalists under Sir Gervase 
Lucas early in 1643, and all Rutland's estate 
was soon in the hands of the enemy, who 
wasted the timber. In November 1645 the 
castle was stormed by a party under Syden- 
ham Poyntz, the outworks were taken, and 
on 3 Feb. 1545-6 the garrison marched out 
under a capitulation. In 1645 Rutland was 
sent to Scotland as chief commissioner from 
the English parliament. On 28 Nov. 1646 he 
was made lord warden of the forests north 
of the Trent. On 9 Oct. 1647 Fairfax gave 
orders to garrison Belvoir for the parliament, 
as it had been disgarrisoned, and Rutland was 
proposed in 1648 as a commissioner to treat 
with the king in the Isle of Wight. He was 
also made one of the navy committee. In May 
1648 more horse soldiers were sent to Belvoir, 
much to Rutland's discontent, which was in- 
creased in May 1649, when the council of state 
recommended that the house should be de- 
molished. Rutland complained that he had 
lost three years' rents. He received 1,500. 
compensation for the damage done in dis- 
mantling Belvoir, and after this time lived 
chiefly at Nether Haddon in Derbyshire. 
After the Restoration he rebuilt the house at 
Belvoir, completing it in 1668. On 14 Feb. 
1667 he became lord-lieutenant of Leicester- 
shire, and died at Nether Haddon 29 Sept. 
1679. He was buried at Bottesford, Leicester- 
shire. He married in 1628 Frances (d. 1671), 
second daughter of Edward, first lord Mon- 
tagu of Boughton. He was succeeded by his 
third son, John, ninth earl and first duke of 
Rutland, who is separately noticed. Three 
portraits, by Van der Eyden, by Cooper, and 
in miniature, are at Belvoir. 

[Doyle's Official Baronage; Collins's Peerage, 
ed. Brydges, vol. i. ; Eller's Belvoir Castle, pp. 
68 sq. ; Gardiner's Great Civil War, i. 209; 
Evelyn's Diary, iv. 180; Clarendon's Hist, of the 
Rebellion, Oxford edit., vol. vii.; Cal. of State 
Papers, Dom. 1644 pp. 40, 47, 1649-50 pp. 66, 
&c. ; Cal. of the MSS. preserved at Belvoir (Hist. 
MSS. Coram.) ; Cal. of the Proc. of the Comm. 
for Advance of Money, pp. 39, 40, &c. ; Nichols's 
Leicestershire, ii. 50 sq.] W. A. J. A. 

MANNERS, JOHN, ninth EARL and 
first DUKE OF RUTLAND (1638-1711), born at 
Boughton, Northamptonshire, 29 May 1638, 
was third son of John, eighth earl of Rutland 
[q. v.] He was M.P. for Leicestershire from 
1661 till 1679, when he succeeded his father 
as Earl of Rutland. He was made lord-lieu- 
tenant of Leicestershire 4 June 1677, and a 

E2 



Manners 



Manners 



list of his household at the time shows the 
state which he maintained at Belvoir. He 
was summoned to the House of Lords as 
Lord Manners of Haddon on 30 April 1679, 
but succeeded to the earldom on 29 Sept. 
following. He bore the queen's sceptre with 
the cross at the coronation of James II, but he 
seems to have followed his father in politics, 
and 11 Aug. 1687 was dismissed from his 
lord-lieutenancy for political reasons. At 
the revolution he joined the Earls of Stam- 
ford and Devonshire and others in raising 
forces for William in Nottinghamshire. The 
Princess Anne, when she fled from Whitehall, 
took refuge at Belvoir. Manners was restored 
to his lord-lieutenancy 6 April 1689. He was 
very rich, and gave his daughter a marriage 
portion of 15,0007. in 1692. On 29 March 
1703 he was made Marquis of Granby and 
Duke of Rutland, and having in this year re- 
signed his lord-lieutenancy he was restored 
to it in 1706. During the last years of his 
life he lived entirely in the country, having 
a rooted objection to London, for which 
probably his matrimonial unhappiness was 
accountable. He died at Belvoir 10 Jan. 
1710-11 (LB NEVE, Monumenta Anglicana, 
1700-15, p. 202), and was buried at Bottes- 
ford, Leicestershire. Rutland married, first, 
15 July 1658, Lady Anne Pierrepoint, daugh- 
ter of Henry, marquis of Dorchester. From 
her he was divorced by act of parliament on 
22 March 1670. This divorce created con- 
siderable excitement at the court, the Duke 
of York being against the granting of it and 
the king on the other side (BuRNET, Own 
Time). Rutland married in 1671 his second 
wife, Lady Anne Bruce, daughter of Robert, 
first earl of Aylesbury, and widow of Sir Sey- 
mour Shirley, bart. She died in July 1672. 
His third wife, whom he married on 8 Jan. 
1673, was Catherine Noel, daughter of Bap- 
tist, viscount Campden. By her, who died 
in 1732, he had two sons and two daughters, 
of whom John (d. 1721) succeeded as second 
duke, and married Catherine, daughter of 
Lord William Russell. Several portraits of 
the first duke, with one of his third wife, are 
at Belvoir. 

[LuttrelPs Brief Hist. Eelation, passim ; 
Doyle's Official Baronage ; Collins's Peerage, ed. 
Brydges, vol. i. ; Nichols's Leicestershire, ii. 
61 sq. ; Macaulay's Hist, of Engl. ii. 327, 514 ; 
Gal. of MSS. at Belvoir (Hist. MSS. Comm.) ; 
Eller's Belvoir, p. 100 sq.] W. A. J. A. 

MANNERS, JOHN, MARQUIS OF GRAN- 
BY (1721-1770), lieutenant-general, colonel 
of the royal horse guards (blues), eldest son 
of John, third duke of Rutland, K.G. (1696- 
1779), by his marriage in 1717 with Bridget, 
only daughter and heiress of Robert Sutton, 



lord Lexinton [q.v.], was born 2 Aug. 1721, 
and was educated at Eton and Trinity Col- 
lege, Cambridge. He travelled some time 
on the continent with his tutor John Ewer 

.v.], afterwards bishop of Bangor. In 
r 41 he was returned to parliament for the 
borough of Grantham ; and during the Ja- 
cobite rising four years later received his first 
military commission, dated 4 Oct. 1745, as 
colonel of a regiment of foot raised by the 
Rutland interest at Leicester. The ' Leices- 
ter Blues,' as it was called, was one of fifteen 
short-service regiments formed on a scheme 
proposed by the Duke of Bedford, which 
Horace Walpole declares to have been a 
gross job, as not six out of the fifteen were 
ever raised (WALPOLE, Letters, i. 390). 
Granby's regiment was one of the excep- 
tions. It was in Lichfield camp in November 
1745 when the Duke of Cumberland was 
marching on Carlisle, and, under Lieutenant- 
colonel John Stanwix, was with General 
Wade at Newcastle-on-Tyne and Gateshead 
in 1746 (see War Office Marching Books, 
1745-6). Granby was then serving as a 
volunteer with Cumberland's army. His 
name is mentioned in a despatch in the ( Lon- 
don Gazette ' of 22-5 March 1746, as having 
been present in an affair with the rebels at 
Strathbogie. In a letter to his father, dated 
Fort Augustus, 17 June 1746 (the earliest 
of Granby's letters among the family papers), 
he describes the devastation of the highlands 
after Culloden, in accordance with the duke's 
directions to destroy and burn all the country 
(Hist MSS. Comm. 12th Rep. pt. v., Rut- 
land MSS. ii. 196-7). Granby's regiment, 
the men of which had been for some time 
clamouring for discharge (ib. pp. 197-8), was 
disbanded, 25 Dec. 1746. Granby retained 
his rank and seniority as colonel in the 
army. 

On his first appointment a new writ had 
been issued, but he was re-elected for Grant- 
ham, and was again returned in the general 
election of 1747. Letter-books preserved at 
Belvoir Castle show that Granby and his 
brother, Lord Robert Manners-Sutton, made 
the campaign of 1747 with the army in Flan- 
ders. On 31 Sept. 1750 Granby married 
Frances, eldest daughter of Charles Seymour, 
sixth duke of Somerset. Horace Walpole 
writes to Mann of the marriage projects : ' The 
bride is one of the heiresses of old proud 
Somerset. . . . She has 4,000. a year ; he is 
said to have the same at present, but not to 
touch hers. He is in debt 10,000/.' The lady, 
' who never saw nor knew the value of ten 
shillings while her father lived, and has had 
no time to learn it ... squandered 7,000/. in 
all sorts of baubles and fripperies ' just before 



Manners 



53 



Manners 



her marriage ; ' so her 4,000. a year is to 
be set aside for two years to pay her debts. 
Don't you like this English management? 
Two of the greatest fortunes mating, and 
setting out with poverty and want ' (Letters, 
ii. 223-4). Granby was returned for Cam- 
bridgeshire in 1754, and represented it in 
successive parliaments up to his death. He 
became a major-general, 4 March 1755, and 
colonel of the royal horse guards (blues), 
13 May 1758. He appears to have been in 
Germany (near Embden) in July 1758 (Rep. 
Rutland M88. ii. 200), and in command at 
Cassel in May 1759 (ib. p. 201). He had ob- 
tained the rank of lieutenant-general in Fe- 
bruary 1759, was at the head of the blues at 
the battle of Minden, 1 Aug. 1759, and had 
set his regiment in motion to follow the re- 
treating French when he was peremptorily 
halted by Lord George Sackville [see GEE,- 
MAINE, GEOKGE SACKVILLE]. Granby and 
Sackville did not get on well together, but 
Sackville was confident Granby would readily 
acknowledge that the object of the halt was 
to carry out Prince Ferdinand's orders as to 
preserving the alignment (Hist. MSS. Comm. 
9th Rep. pt. iii.) After the battle Granby 
was specially thanked by Prince Ferdinand. 
When Sackville resigned, Granby became 
commander-in-chief of the British contingent 
from 14 Aug. 1759 (Rep. Rutland MSS. ii. 
201). The strength of the British troops, after 
the arrival of the reinforcements in 1760, was 
thirty-two thousand men. In this position 
Granby acquired high reputation during the 
ensuing campaigns. He was a great favourite 
with Prince Ferdinand, a circumstance which 
his critics attributed to his pliant disposition 
and hard drinking ; but the fact remains that 
the troops under his orders were always 
assigned the post of danger, and, with their 
commander, always proved themselves worthy 
of the honour. At Warburg in Westphalia, 
when the French were defeated, with the 
loss of fifteen hundred men and ten guns, on 
31 July 1760, a brilliant charge of the British 
heavy cavalry led by Granby, in the words of 
Prince Ferdinand, ' contributed extremely to 
the success of the day.' Ferdinand testified 
to the ' unbeschreibende Tapferkeit ' with 
which Granby's corps defended the wooded 
heights of Fellinghausen (Kirchdenkern) on 
15 July 1761, against the attack of the French 
under De Broglie, and on the morrow against 
the united efforts of De Broglie and Soubise, 
who were compelled to retreat in what 
turned into a flight to the Rhine. On 24 June 
1762, at Gravenstein, where he commanded 
the right wing of the allies ; at Wilhelm- 
stahl next day, when he cut off the French 
rear-guard, and the elite of their grenadiers 



laid down their arms to the 5th foot, one of 
the regiments under his orders ; on 6 Aug. 
of the same year, when he stormed the 
heights of Homburg, and so cut off the 
French from their base at Frankfort-on- 
Maine, Granby's services were as important 
as they were brilliant. He left a sickbed on 
an inclement night during the siege of Cassel, 
to head the cavalry in seizing a position of 
importance to the security of the army, de- 
clared by the other generals to be imprac- 
ticable. Ligonier rallied him pleasantly in 
a letter of 7 Oct. 1762 on his new cure for 
fever (ib. ii. 359). 

As a divisional leader Granby was unques- 
tionably a splendid soldier. He was brave to a 
fault, skilful, generous to profuseness, careful 
of his soldiers, and beloved by them. When 
the troops in Germany, thro ugh no faultof his, 
were in bad quarters, he is stated to have pro- 
cured provisions and necessaries for the men 
at his own cost ; his table was at the same 
time always open to the officers. The sick and 
wounded of all ranks found in him a constant 
friend. In the days of his political power he 
warmly opposed the principle of dismissing 
military officers for their political opinions. 

Granby's order-books in Germany are in 
the British Museum (Add. MS. 28855), 
together with a proposal by him to raise a 
regiment of light dragoons (ib. 32903, f. 23). 
The regiment, known as the 21st light dra- 
goons or royal Windsor foresters, was raised 
in the neighbourhood of London early in 1761. 
Granby was colonel, and his brother, Lord 
Robert Manners-Sutton, lieutenant-colonel 
commanding. It was said to be one of the 
finest corps in the service. It was disbanded 
at Nottingham, 3 March 1763 (see SUTTON, 
Nottingham Date Book}. Granby, who was 
long dangerously ill with fever at Warburg 
during the latter part of 1762, returned home 
early in 1763 His popularity was then un- 
bounded. Fox [see Fox, HENKY, LOED HOL- 
LAND, 1705-1774] wrote asking his political 
support in October 1762 (Rep. Rutland MSS. 
ii. 360), and special messengers awaited his 
return at all the principal ports to offer him a 
choice of the ordnance or the horse guards (cf. 
JESSE, Memoirs of the Reign of George III, i. 
145-370). Granby was made master-general 
of the ordnance on 1 July 1763, and became 
twelfth commander-in-chief, 13 Aug. 1766. 
In this position he was savagely assailed three 
years later by ' Junius,' who declared that he 
' had degraded the office of commander-in- 
chief to that of a broker in commissions.' Sir 
William Draper [q. v.] replied in a letter to 
the ' Public Advertiser,' defending Granby, 
which provoked ' Junius ' to further attacks. 
As the object of ' Junius ' was to overthrow 



Manners 



54 



Manners 



the Graft on ministry, he doubtless thought it 
necessary to use extra pains to damage the re- 
putation of those who stood highest in public 
opinion. After Granby's death ' Junius ' de- 
clared that he bore him no ill-will that his 
(Granby's) ' mistakes in public conduct did 
not arise from want of sentiment or judgment, 
but, in general, in the difficulty of saying no 
to the bad people who surrounded him ' (z'6.) 
Walpole speaks of him as having sunk (in 
public estimation) by changing his views so 
often (Letters, v. 214-16). Early in 1770 
Granby made a public recantation of the 
views he had previously expressed at the 
Middlesex election, and declared that he 
should always lament his vote on that occa- 
sion as the greatest misfortune of his life. 
Shortly afterwards he cut short his public 
career by resigning all his appointments, the 
colonelcy of the blues excepted. His latter 
days appear to have been much harassed by 
creditors. 

Granby was made P.O. in 1760, lord-lieu- 
tenant of Derbyshire in 1762, and LL.D. 
Cambridge in 1769. He died at Scarborough, 
of gout in the stomach, 18 Oct. 1770, aged 49, 
and was buried at Bottesford, Leicestershire. 
His unsecured debts at his death are stated 
at 37,000/. (Rutland MSS. ii. 316). By his 
marriage he had issue, John, lord Roos, born 
on 27 Aug. 1751, died in 1760; Charles, 
afterwards Marquis of Granby and fourth 
Duke of Rutland ; Lord Robert Manners 
[q. v.], and three daughters. 

Granby was twice painted by Reynolds, 
and one of these portraits, showing him on 
horseback, is now in the National Gallery. 

[Foster's Peerage, under ' Rutland ' and 
'Somerset;' H. "Walpole's Letters; Parl. Hist. 
under dates ; Bohn's Letters of Junius, ed. by 
Wade ; Calendar Home Office Papers, 1766-70 ; 
Hist. MSS. Comm. 12th Rep. pt. v. Rep. on Rut- 
land MSS. ; Brit. Mus. Add. MS. 28855, G-. 0. 
in Germany, 28553 ; Letters from Prince Fer- 
dinand, 32864-955 ; Correspondence (copies) 
with Holies, duke of Newcastle, and other let- 
ters ; Home Office, Mil. Entry Books, and Ord- 
nance Records in Public Record Office. The 
originals of the Secretary of State's instructions 
to the Marquis of Granby in Germany are at 
Belvoir, only entries existing in the Public Re- 
cords ; while the originals of the marquis's des- 
patches home are in the Record Office (Foreign 
Office Papers). The extracts printed by the 
Hist. MSS. Commission (Rutland MSS.) are from 
the copies at Belvoir, not from the originals.] 

H. M. C. 

MANNERS, SIK ROBERT (d. 1355 ?), 
constable of Norham, is said to have been 
son of a certain William de Manners who 
died in 1349. He obtained a grant of land 
in Berrington, Northumberland, in 1329, and 



petitioned the king for Learmouth on account 
of his own and his father's services in the 
Scottish wars in 1331. A curious letter of 
1333 from the Bishop of Durham to the coun- 
cil, referring to his jurisdiction over Norham, 
mentions Manners as constable, and seems 
to mark an earlier date than 1345, which is 
usually assigned to his appointment. Man- 
ners was a rough border soldier. He was 
ordered to give up two hostages whom he 
illegally detained in 1333. In 1340 he was 
M.P. for Northumberland, and in 1341 he 
aided Lord Grey of Werk in stopping a raid 
of the Earl of Sutherland. In 1342 he was 
allowed to embattle Etal in Northumberland, 
and thus founded the influence of his family 
in that district. He arranged the truce with 
David Bruce the same year, and when the 
Scots invaded England, in alliance with the 
French, in 1346, he took part in the battle 
of Neville's Cross. He seems to have died 
in 1355, as in that year the custody of Etal 
was given to the Lethams, who were after- 
wards, in the interest of the heir, accused 
of wasting it. Sir Robert's wives were Mar- 
garet and a certain Ada. The pedigree is 
differently stated, possibly because of the two 
seats of the family, but it is certain that his 
heir was John Manners, who was born in 1 355. 
Possibly John was a grandson of Sir Robert. 

The second SIK ROBEKT MANNERS (1408- 
1461) was probably grandson of Sir John 
Manners and great-great-grandson of the first 
Sir Robert. He was a justice of the peace for 
Norhamshire in 1438, when he succeeded to 
the family property, was sheriff of North- 
umberland in 1454, and M.P. for Northum- 
berland in 1459. He died about 1461, and 
was buried in the church of the Austin 
Friars, London. He married Johanna, daugn- 
ter of Sir Robert Ogle, and sister of Robert, 
first lord Ogle [q. v.], and by her, who died 
in 1488, left four sons : 1. Sir Robert Man- 
ners, sheriff of Northumberland in 1463,1465, 
when he was knighted, and 1485, who mar- 
ried Eleanor, daughter of Lord Roos, and so 
brought that title into the Manners family ; 
he was grandfather of Thomas Manners, first 
earl of Rutland [q. v.] 2. John Manners (d. 
1492). 3. Gilbert Manners, a retainer of the 
Earl of Warwick. 4. Thomas Manners of Etal. 

[Raine's North Durham, pp. 21 1 , &c. ; Cal. of 
Docs, relating to Scotland, 1307-1 509 ; Collins's 
Peerage, ed. Brydges, vol. i.; Registrnm Palati- 
num Dunelmense, ed. Hardy (Rolls Series), 
vols. iii. and iv. ; Nichols's Leicestershire, ii. 41.] 

W. A. .T. A. 

MANNERS, LORD ROBERT (1758- 
1782), captain in the navy, born 6 Feb. 1758, 
was the second son of John Manners, marquis 
of Granby [q. v.], and grandson of John, third 



Manners 



55 



Manners 



duke of Rutland. On 13 May 1778 he was 
promoted to be lieutenant of the Ocean, in 
which he was present in the action offUshant 
on 27 July. On 17 Sept. he was moved into 
the Victory, flagship of Admiral Keppel, and 
on 15 July 1779 into the Alcide, one of the 
ships which went out to Gibraltar with Rod- 
ney and defeated the Spanish squadron off 
Cape St. Vincent. On 8 Dec. 1779 Lord Sand- 
wich had written of Lord Robert to Rodney: 
' There is another young man of fashion now 
in your squadron concerning whom I am 
tormented to death. I cannot do anything 
for him at home ; therefore, if you could con- 
trive while he remains with you, by some 
means or other, to give him rank, you will 
infinitely oblige me ' (MuNDY, Life ofHodney, 
i. 207). Rodney accordingly took the first 
opportunity, 17 Jan. 1780, to promote Man- 
ners to be captain of the Resolution, under 
Sir Challoner Ogle (d, 1816) [q. v.], whom he 
constituted a commodore. The Resolution re- 
turned to England with Rear-admiral Robert 
Digby [q. v.], and was shortly afterwards sent 
out to North America with Rear-admiral 
Thomas (afterwards Lord) Graves [q. v.] 
When Rodney, after his visit to the coast of 
North America in the summer of 1780 [see 
ARBTJTHNOT, MARRIOT; RODNEY, GEORGE 
BRYDGES, LORD], returned to the West 
Indies, he took the Resolution with him, 
shortly after which Ogle, having been pro- 
moted to be rear-admiral, went home, leaving 
Manners in command of the ship. The whole 
business is a curious illustration of the 
crooked policy of the then first lord of the 
admiralty. In the following year the Resolu- 
tion went north with Sir Samuel (afterwards 
Lord) Hood [q. v.], and took part in the 

fcion off Cape Henry on 5 Sept. She was 

;erwards with Hood at St. Kitts in Janu- 
iry 1782, and in the battle of Dominica, 
12 April 1782, was in the centre of the line, 
third ship astern of the Formidable. In 
the action Manners received several severe 
wounds, in addition to having one leg shot 
off. From the strength of his constitution 
hopes w r ere entertained of his recovery. He 
was put on board the Andromache frigate 
for a passage to England, but some days 
later lockjaw set in, and terminated fatally 
(BLANE, Observations on the Diseases incident 
to Seamen, p. 479). He is described as a 
young man of great gallantry and promise. 
His portrait by Reynolds has been engraved. 

[Commission and warrant books in the Pub- 
lic Record Office ; Beatson's Naval and Military 
Memoirs.] J. K. L. 

MANNERS, ROGER, fifth EARL OF RUT- 
LAND (1576-1612), born 6 Oct. 1576, was son 
of John, fourth earl of Rutland, and nephew 



of Edward, third earl [q. v.] His mother was 
Elizabeth, daughter of Francis Charleton of 
Apley Castle, Shropshire. He was educated 
for a time at Queens' College, Cambridge, 
and had a man and a boy to look after him. 
On 21 Feb. 1587-8 he succeeded as fifth Earl 
of Rutland on the death of his father, and, 
passing through London on his way to Cam- 
bridge, he had an interview with Queen Eliza- 
beth, who spoke kindly to him and said that 
'she knew his father for an honest man.' In 
1590 his tutor, John Jegon [q. v.], removed to 
Corpus Christi College, and among other of his 
pupils, Rutland went with him ; Burghley 
wrote approving of the change, and also of 
his going down to Belvoir for the hunting 
season. Jegon took great care of him, writ- 
ing many letters to his mother. On 20 Feb. 
1595 he became M.A. Burghley approved 
of his making a foreign tour, though he wrote 
that the young earl knew very little about his 
estate, and in September 1595 he received 
leave to travel abroad. For his guidance a 
manuscript of ' Profitable Instructions ' (now 
Harl. MS. 6265, p. 428) was drawn up, which 
was printed, with two similar essays, in 1633, 
and was then assigned to Robert Devereux, 
second earl of Essex. Bacon was more pro- 
bably the author (cf. SPEDDING, Bacon, ix. 
4 sq.) His old tutor Jegon warned him 
against the character of the French. Rut- 
land sailed early in 1596 from Plymouth, and 
passed by way of Paris to Switzerland and 
Italy. In North Italy he had a dangerous 
illness (cf. BIRCH, Elizabeth, i. 428, ii. 26). 
He seems to have been fond of learned men, 
and met Caspar Waser at Zurich (Zurich 
Letters, Parker Soc., ii. 326). On 2 Feb. 
1597-8 he was admitted member of Gray's 
Inn. As he had announced some time be- 
fore his intention of joining Essex in his 
Irish expedition, he was made a colonel of 
foot in 1599. Essex knighted him 30 May 
1599, but he passed only a short time in 
Ireland, as he was in England in June 1599, 
in some disgrace with the court. On 10 July 
1599, he was incorporated M.A. at Oxford. 
Wood describes him as ' an eminent traveller 
and good soldier.' He passed a short time 
on service with the Dutch in company with 
the Earl of Northumberland, and 14 June 
1600 became constable of Nottingham Castle 
and steward of Sherwood Forest. On 8 Feb. 
1600-1 he took part in Essex's plot, and was 
one of those who were captured at Essex 
House. His uncle Roger, an old servant of 
the queen, who had three nephews impli- 
cated, lamented that they had ever been 
born. In the Tower, Rutland soon came to 
his senses, wrote very penitently, was ex- 
amined and rated by the council, and was 



Manners 



Manners 



fined 30,000/. His fortunes recovered under 
James I, who stayed at Belvoir in his pro- 
gress southwards, witnessing the performance 
of Ben Jonson's ' Metamorphosed Gypsies,' 
and made him a K.B. at his coronation. On 
9 June 1603 Rutland received the keepership 
of Birkwood Park, Yorkshire, and Clipstone 
Castle, Northamptonshire, and from June to 
August 1603 was engaged on a mission to 
Christian IV, king of Denmark, to present 
him with the order of the Garter, and to re- 
present James at the christening of his son 
(Hist. MS 8. Comm. 7th Rep. App. p. 527). 
On 20 Sept. 1603 he became lord-lieutenant 
of Lincolnshire, and the same year high 
steward of Grantham. In 1609 he received 
also the stewardships of Long Bennington 
and Mansfield. His constitution seems to 
have been worn out prematurely, and he died 
on 26 June 1612. He was buried at Bottes- 
ford, Leicestershire. He is noted as being 
engaged in two duels when the subject at- 
tracted attention in 1613 (SPEEDING, Bacon, 
xi. 396). Rutland married, early in 1599, 
Elizabeth, daughter of Sir Philip Sidney, who 
died without issue in 1615. The title passed 
to a brother, Francis, sixth earl of Rutland 
[q. v.] Many of Rutland's letters are pre- 
served at Belvoir, Hatfield, and Longleat. 

[Doyle's Official Bamnage; Hist. MSS. Comm. 
1st Rep. App. p. 48, 3rd Kep. p. 152, &c., 5th 
Rep. p. 282, &c. ; Nichols's Leicestershire, ii. 48, 
49; Spedding's Bacon, vol. ix. ; Collins's Peerage, 
ed. Brydges, i. 473 sq. ; Wood's Fasti Oxon. ed. 
Bliss, i. 244, 280, 316; Sanford and Townsend's 
Great Governing Families of England ; Cat. of 
MSS. at Belvoir (Hist. MSS. Comm.); Eller's 
Belvoir Castle ; Cal. State Papers, Dom. Eliza- 
beth ; Gal. of Carew MSS. 1589-1600, pp. 409, 
436; Edwa*rds's Ralegh, i 233; Devereux's Lives 
of the Earls of Essex, vol. ii. chap. iv. ; Nichols's 
Progresses of James I, vol. i.] W. A. J. A. 

MANNERS, THOMAS, first EAKL OF 
RUTLAND (d. 1543), eldest son of Sir George 
Manners, by Anne, daughter of Sir Thomas 
St. Leger. His father became twelfth baron 
Ros of Hamlake in 1487 by the death of his 
mother, Eleanor, eldest sister and coheiress 
of Edmund, eleventh lord Ros of Hamlake, 
Triesbut, and Belvoir ; he was a distinguished 
soldier, and was knighted by the Earl of 
Surrey on the Scottish expedition of 1497. 
He died at the siege of Tournay on 27 Oct. 
1513. On 22 June 1513 Thomas landed at 
Calais on the French expedition. The same 
year he became Baron Ros on his father's 
death, and was summoned in 1515 to parlia- 
ment. He was at the Field of the Cloth of 
Gold in 1520 and at Henry VIII's meeting 
with Charles V afterwards. In December 
1521 he became cupbearer to the king; in 



January 1522 he was made steward of Picker- 
ing, Yorkshire ; and from April to October 
of the same year he held the appointment of 
lord warden of the east marches, in which 
he was succeeded by Lord Percy. He also 
received the wardenship of Sherwood Forest 
on 12 July 1524, an office which afterwards 
became practically hereditary in his family. 
He was appointed K.G.on 24 April 1525, and 
on 18 June 1525 he was made Earl of Rut- 
land. He was a great favourite of Henry VIII 
and had many grants, including the keeper- 
ship of Enfield Chase, which was given him 
12 July 1526. On 11 Oct. 1532 he landed 
with Henry in France; he was at the corona- 
tion of Anne Boleyn in 1533, and took part 
in her trial. Rutland was actively engaged 
in meeting the troubles of 1536 '(cf. Hist. 
MSS. Comm. 6th Rep. App. p. 445, &c.) 
He held a joint command with the Earls of 
Huntingdon and Shrewsbury and marched to 
Nottingham and thence to Newark, South- 
well, and Doncaster against the northern 
rebels. He was steward of many monasteries, 
and from his various ancestors he had claims 
by way of foundation on certain of the 
houses. Hence when the dissolution came 
he received numerous grants of monastic 
property. In Leicestershire he obtained 
Charley, Garradon, and, by exchange, Crox- 
ton; in Yorkshire, Beverley, Warter, and 
Rievaulx by exchange. With Robert Tyr- 
whit he took Belvoir, Eagle, and Kynie in 
Lincolnshire, and in Yorkshire Nun Burn- 
ham (cf. NICHOLS, Leicestershire, ii. 43). 

When Anne of Cleves came to England, 
Rutland was appointed her lord chamberlain, 
and met her at Shooter's Hill after her un- 
fortunate interview with the king at Ro- 
chester. In 1542 he became constable of 
Nottingham Castle. He went to the border 
again on 7 Aug. 1542 as warden of the 
marches (cf. State Papers, v. 211, for his in- 
structions ; Hamilton Papers, vol. i.) But 
he was recalled, in consequence of illness, 
in November of the same year. From 
Newark-on-Trent he wrote on 7 Nov. to 
the council of the north : ' As Gode best 
knows, I ame in a poyur and febyll estat.' 
He died 20 Sept. 1543. His will is printed 
in * Testamenta Vetusta ' (ii. 719). When 
not at Belvoir, which he repaired and turned 
from afortress into a dwelling-house, he seems 
to have lived at the old Benedictine nunnery 
of Holy well in Shoreditch, London. A por- 
trait by an unknown artist is at Belvoir. He 
married, first, Elizabeth, daughter of Sir Ro- 
bert Lovel; and secondly, Eleanor, daughter 
of Sir William Paston. By his second wife he 
had five sons and six daughters. His eldest 
son, Henry, who succeeded him in the title, 



Manners-Sutton 



57 



Manners-Sutton 



is separately noticed. His third son, Roger 
of Uffington, was a benefactor to Corpus 
Christi College, Cambridge. A letter from 
the second Lady Rutland expressing dislike 
of the Holy Maid of Kent has been preserved, 
and many of the earl's letters are printed 
in full or in abstract in the ' State Papers, 
Henry VIII,' the l Letters and Papers,' and 
the Calendar of the Duke of Rutland's manu- 
scripts (Hist. MSS. Comm. 12th Rep.) 

[Letters and Papers, Henry VIII, ed. Brewer 
and G-airdner, passim, especially vol. xi.; Hodg- 
son's Northumberland, nr. ii. 186; Nichols's 
Leicestershire, ii. 42 sq. ; Sanford and Towns- 
end's Great Governing Families of England ; 
Eller's Belvoir Castle, pp. 38 sq. ; Nottingham 
Records, iii. 376, 382; .Rutland Papers, ed.Jerdan 
(Camd. Soc.), pp. 30, 124; Wriothesley's Chron. 
(Camd, Soc.), i. 50, 56 ; Three Chapters of Sup- 
pression Letters, ed. Wright (Camd. Soc.), pp. 62, 
94 ; Chron. Calais (Camd. Soc.), pp. 12, 20, 41, 76, 
169, 175; Froude's Hist, of Engl. iii. 143 (in the 
index the first and second earls are confused) ; 
Doyle's Official Baronage ; Burke's Peerage ; 
Tanner's Not. Monast. Indices.] W. A. J. A. 

MANNERS-SUTTON, CHARLES 

(1755-1828), archbishop of Canterbury, born 
14 Feb. 1755, was fourth son of Lord George 
Manners-Sutton (d. 1783) and grandson of 
John, third duke of Rutland. His father 
assumed the additional surname of Sutton 
upon inheriting the estates of his maternal 
grandfather, Robert Sutton, baron Lexinton, 
at the decease of his elder brother, Lord Ro- 
bert Manners-Sutton, in 1762. His mother 
was Diana, daughter of Thomas Chaplin of 
Blankneyin Lincolnshire. He was educated 
at the Charterhouse, and proceeded to Em- 
manuel College, Cambridge, where he gra- 
duated B.A. in 1777 as fifteenth wrangler, 
his younger brother, Thomas Manners-Sut- 
ton, lord Manners [q. v.], being at the same 
time fifth wrangler; he proceeded M.A. 1780, 
D.D. 1792. In 1785 he was appointed to 
the rectory of Averham-with-Kelham in Not- 
tinghamshire, a family living, of which his 
brother was patron, and also to that of 
Whitwell in Derbyshire, by his kinsman, the 
Duke of Rutland. In 1791 he became dean 
of Peterborough, and in the following year 
bishop of Norwich, succeeding the well- 
known Bishop Home. In 1794 the deanery 
of Windsor was conferred on him in com- 
mendam. His residence at Windsor brought 
him into intimate relations with the royal 
family, with whom both he and his wife were 
great favourites. Accordingly, on the death 
of Archbishop Moore in 1805, he was, through 
their influence, elevated to the primacy, 
against, it is said, the will of Pitt, who de- 
signed the post for his old tutor, Dr. Tomline. 



In 1797 Thomas James Mathias [q. v.], the 
author of 'The Pursuits of Literature,' had 
described him as ' a prelate whose amiable 
demeanour, useful learning, and conciliating 
habits of life particularly recommend his 
episcopal character.' 'No man,' he added, 
' appears to me so peculiarly marked out for 
the highest dignity of the church, sede vacante, 
as Dr. Charles Manners-Sutton.' While he 
was bishop of Norwich his liberality and the 
expenses of a large family seem to have in- 
volved him in some pecuniary embarrass- 
ment, but he cleared it all oft' when he became 
archbishop. During his occupancy of the see 
of Canterbury the country palace of Adding- 
ton was purchased (1807) from a fund accu- 
mulating from the sale of the old palace of 
Croydon. 

As primate Manners-Sutton took an im- 
portant part in that revival of church life 
which characterised the epoch. He was a 
staunch supporter of the small but very- 
active band of high churchmen of whom 
Joshua and J. J. Watson, H. H. Norris, and 
Charles Daubeny were the leading spirits. 
He presided over the first meeting which 
issued in the foundation of the National 
Society, and the speedy and prosperous float- 
ing of that great scheme for the education 
of the poor was in no slight degree due to 
his efforts. He gave all the strength of his 
support to the foundation of the Indian 
episcopate ; he guided and animated the re- 
viving energies of the Society for Promoting 
Christian Knowledge, identifying himself on 
more than one memorable occasion with 
those who strove to uphold its distinctly 
church character (see Life of D. Wilson, 
Bishop of Calcutta, p. 143), and he chose for 
his chaplains men who were in the van of 
the church movement : Richard Mant, after- 
wards bishop of Down and Connor ; Chris- 
topher Wordsworth, afterwards master of 
Trinity College, Cambridge ; Archdeacon 
Cambridge ; and Dr. D'Oyly, the biographer 
of Archbishop Sancroft. His services to the 
cause, apart from his position, arose from his 
moral and social influence rather than from 
his intellectual powers. He was of imposing 
appearance, liberal almost to a fault, very ac- 
cessible and affable to his clergy, and exem- 
plary in his domestic life. ' Seldom,' writes 
Archdeacon Churton, ' has any primate pre- 
sided over the English church whose personal 
dignity of character commanded so much de- 
ference from his suffragans, or whose position 
was so much strengthened by their concordant 
support' (Memoir of Joshua Watson, i. 254). 

The archbishop never spoke in the House 
of Lords except upon ecclesiastical subjects. 
He steadily opposed all concession to the Ro- 



Manners-Sutton 



Manners-Sutton 



man catholics, but generally voted in favour 
of the claims of the protestant dissenters. The 
very year of his death, when he was too ill to 
attend in person, he gave his vote by proxy 
in favour of the latter, and expressed his 
sentiments through Charles Blomfield, then 
bishop of Chester. He died at Lambeth on 
21 July 1828, and was buried 29 July at Ad- 
dington, in a family vault which had been 
constructed under the church about half a 
year previously. 

In 1778 he married Mary, daughter of 
Thomas Thoroton of Screveton, Notting- 
hamshire, by whom he had a family of two 
sons and ten daughters. The elder son, 
Charles Manners-Sutton, afterwards Vis- 
count Canterbury, is separately noticed. 
Francis, the second son (1783-1825), was a 
colonel in the army. 

Manners-Sutton published two separate 
sermons, which were published respectively 
in 1794 and 1797. 

[Private information; Annual Register, 1828, 
p. 248; Gent. Mag. 1828, pt. ii. pp. 173, 194; 
Georgian Era ; Churton's Memoir of Joshua Wat- 
son.] J. H. 0. 

MANNERS-SUTTOJSr, CHARLES, first 
VISCOUNT CAJSTTEEBTJEY (1780-1845), speaker 
of the House of Commons, the elder son of 
Charles Manners-Sutton [q. v.], archbishop 
of Canterbury, by his wife Mary, daughter of 
Thomas Thoroton of Screveton, Nottingham- 
shire, was born on 29 Jan. 1780. He was 
educated at Eton and Trinity College, Cam- 
bridge, where as fourth junior optime he gra- 
duated B.A. 1802, M.A. 1805, and LL.D. 
1824. Having been admitted a student of 
Lincoln's Inn on 19 May 1802, Manners- 
Sutton was called to the bar on 9 May 1806, 
and for a few years went the western circuit. 
At the general election in November 1806 he 
was returned in the tory interest for Scar- 
borough, and continued to represent that 
borough in the House of Commons until the 
dissolution in December 1832. On 1 Nov. 
1809 he was appointed judge-advocate-gene- 
ral in Spencer Perceval's administration, and 
on the 8th of the same month was sworn a 
member of the privy council (London Gazettes, 
1809, pt. ii. p. 1773). He opposed Lord Mor- 
peth's motion for an inquiry into the state of 
Ireland on 4 Feb. 1812, and declared that the 
government of that country had been ' deeply 
slandered ' (Parl. Debates, 1st ser. xxi. 619- 
622). In March 1813 he both spoke and voted 
against Grattan's motion for a committee on 
the claims of the Roman catholics (ib. xxiv. 
1028-35,1078). On 30 April 1817 he brought 
in his Clergy Residence Bill (ib. xxxvi. 88-92), 
which subsequently became law (57 Geo. Ill, 
c. 99). With these exceptions his speeches 



in the house were chiefly confined to subjects 
relating to his own official duties. On 2 June 
1817 he was elected to the chair of the House 
of Commons, in the place of Charles Abbot, 
afterwards Baron Colchester [q. v.], by a 
majority of 162 votes over C. W. W. Wynn, 
the whig candidate (ib. xxxvi. 843-56), and 
thereupon resigned the office of judge-advo- 
cate-general. Manners-Sutton was re-elected 
speaker without opposition in January 1819, 
April 1820, November 1826, October 1 830, and 
June 1831. During this period he was twice 
pressed to take office. On Canning's accession 
to power in April 1827 Manners-Sutton was 
offered the post of home secretary, which he 
declined ' from his feelings on the catholic 
question' (RAIZES, i. 89-90), and in May 1832 
he refused, after some hesitation, to undertake 
the formation of a tory ministry (CEOKEE, ii. 
163-7; G SEVILLE, ii. 325-9; ToEEENS,i.408). 
On 30 July 1832 Manners-Sutton intimated 
his wish to retire from the chair at the close 
of the parliament, and a vote of thanks to him 
for his services was proposed by Lord Althorp 
and seconded by Goulburn and carried unani- 
mously (Parl. Debates, 3rd ser. xiv. 931-9). 
An annuity of 4,000/. was also granted to 
him for life, and one of 3,000/. after his 
death to his heir male (2 & 3 Will. IV, c. cix.) 
At the general election in December 1832 
Manners-Sutton was returned for the uni- 
versity of Cambridge with Henry Goulburn 
[q. v.] as a colleague. Owing to their hesi- 
tation to meet the reformed parliament with 
an inexperienced speaker, the ministers per- 
suaded Manners-Sutton to postpone his re- 
tirement. Annoyed at this decision of the 
whig cabinet, the radicals opposed his re-elec- 
tion to the chair at the meeting of the new 
parliament on 29 Jan. 1833. Their candi- 
date, Edward John Littleton, afterwards 
Lord Hatherton [q. v.], was defeated by a 
majority of 210, and Manners-Sutton was 
thereupon elected unanimously (Parl. De- 
bates, 3rd ser. xv. 35-83). He was made 
G.C.B. on 4 Sept. 1833, as ' a reward for his 
conduct during the session, in which he has 
done government good and handsome ser- 
vice' (Greville Memoirs, pt. i. vol. iii. p. 30), 
and at the general election in January 1835 
he was again returned for the university 
of Cambridge. On the opening of parlia- 
ment on 19 Feb. 1835 his re-election was 
opposed by the whigs, who complained bit- 
terly of his partisanship outside the house. 
Though Manners-Sutton effectually disproved 
the charges which had been brought against 
him, namely, (1) that being speaker he had 
busied himself in the subversion of the late 
government, (2) that he had assisted with 
others in the formation of the new govern- 



Manners-Sutton 



59 



Manners-Sutton 



ment, and (3) that he had counselled and 
advised the late dissolution of parliament, 
his opponent, James Abercromby, afterwards 
Lord Dunfermline [q. v.], was elected speaker 
by a majority of ten votes (Parl. Debates, 
3rd ser. xxvi. 3-61). Manners-Sutton was 
created Baron Bottesford of Bottesford, 
Leicestershire, and Viscount Canterbury on 
10 March 1835, and took his seat in the 
House of Lords for the first time on 3 April 
following (Journals of the House of Lords, 
Ixvii. 80-1). He was selected to fill the 
office of high commissioner for adj listing the 
claims of Canada on 18 March 1835, but 
shortly afterwards resigned the appointment 
on account of his wife's health (Gfreville 
Memoirs, pt. i. vol. iii. p. 234). He only spoke 
nine times in the House of Lords. While 
travelling on the Great Western railway he 
was seized with an apoplectic fit, and died 
at the residence of his younger son in South- 
wick Crescent, Hyde Park, London, on 21 July 
1845, aged 65. He was buried at Addington 
On the 28th of the same month. 

Though not a man of any remarkable 
ability, Manners-Sutton was a dignified and 
impartial speaker. During his speakership 
he thrice exercised his right to speak in com- 
mittee of the whole house on 26 March 
1821 he spoke on the Roman Catholic Dis- 
ability Removal Bill (Parl. Debates, 2nd ser. 
iv. 1451-4), and on 6 May 1825 and on 2 July 
1834 on the bill for admitting dissenters to 
the universities (ib. 2nd ser. xiii. 434-5, 3rd 
ser. xxiv. 1092-3). While he was in office 
the houses of parliament were destroyed by 
fire (16 Oct. 1834), and his frequent com- 
munications with the king on this subject 
gave rise to the rumour that he was endeavour- 
ing to eflect the overthrow of the whig cabi- 
net. He was elected a bencher of Lincoln's 
Inn on 6 June 1817, and held the post of regis- 
trar of the faculty office from 1827 to 1834. 

He married first, on 8 July 1811, Lucy 
Maria Charlotte, eldest daughter of John 
Denison of Ossington, Nottinghamshire, by 
whom he had two sons, viz., Charles John, 
who, born on 17 April 1812, succeeded as 
second Viscount Canterbury, and died un- 
married on 13 Nov. 1869, and John Henry 
Thomas, third viscount Canterbury [q. v.], and 
one daughter, CharlotteMatilda, who married, 
on 12 Feb. 1833, Richard Sanderson of Bel- 
grave Square, London, M.P. for Colchester. 
His first wife died on 7 Dec. 1815, and on 
6 Dec. 1828 he married, secondly, Ellen, 
widow of John Home-Purves of Purves, 
N.B., a daughter of Edmund Power of Cur- 
ragheen, co. Waterford, by whom he had one 
daughter, Frances Diana, who became the 
wife of the Hon. Delaval Loftua Astley, after- 



wards third Baron Astley (8 Aug. 1848), and 
died on 2 June 1874. His widow survived 
him but a few months, and dying at Clifton, 
Gloucestershire, on 16 Nov. 1845, aged 54, was 
buried in the crypt of Clifton Church. A por- 
trait of Manners-Sutton as speaker by H. W. 
Pickersgill belongs to Lord Canterbury. It 
was engraved in 1835 by Samuel Cousins. 
There is also an engraving of him by Hall 
after Chalon. 

[Greville Memoirs, 1874, pt. i. vols. ii. and iii. ; 
Journal of Thomas Eaikes, 1856, vols. i. and ii. ; 
Correspondence and Diaries of J. W. Croker, 
1884, i. 121-2, ii. 163-7, 200, 266; Sir D. Le 
Marchant's Memoir of Viscount Althorp, 1876, 
pp. 449-50, 530-2 ; ^Torrens's Life of Lord Mel- 
bourne, 1878, i. 408, ii. 71-95; Walpole's Hist, 
of England, ii. 57, 676-7, iii. 139-40, 287-9, 
414-15; Manning's Lives of the Speakers of the 
House of Commons, 1851, pp. 484-8 ; Annual 
Begister, 1845, App. to Chron. pp. 290-2; Gent. 
Mag. 1845, pt. ii. pp. 305-6 ; John Bull, 26 July 
1845 ; Times, 22 July 1845; Cambridge Inde- 
pendent, 26 July 1845; Burke's Peerage, 1890, 
p. 235; Doyle's Official Baronage, 1886, i. 315 ; 
Grad. Cantabr. 1856, pp. 376, 446; Lincoln's Inn 
Eegisters.] G. F. B. B. 

MANNERS-SUTTON, JOHN HENRY 
THOMAS, third VISCOUNT CANTERBURY 
(1814-1877), the younger son of Charles 
Manners-Sutton, first viscount Canterbury 
[q. v.], by his first wife, Lucy Maria Char- 
lotte, eldest daughter of John Denison of 
Ossington, Nottinghamshire, was born in 
Downing Street, London, on 27 May 1814. 
He was educated at Eton and Trinity Col- 
lege, Cambridge, where he graduated M.A. 
in 1835. He was admitted a student of 
Lincoln's Inn on 18 Sept. 1835, but was 
never called to the bar, and took his name 
off the books of the society on 25 Nov. 1853. 
In September 1839 he defeated Thomas 
Milner Gibson at a by-election for the 
borough of Cambridge, but was subsequently 
unseated for bribery (Journals of the House of 
Commons, xlv. 293-4). At the general elec- 
tion in June 1841 he was again returned for 
Cambridge, and on 25 Aug. following spoke 
for the first time in the House of Commons 
(Parl Debates, 3rd ser. lix. 216-17). On 
the formation of Sir Robert Peel's second 
administration in September 1841, Manners- 
Sutton was appointed under-secretary for 
the home department, but he took little part 
in the parliamentary debates. He resigned 
office upon Sir Robert Peel's overthrow in 
June 1846, and losing his seat for Cambridge 
at the general election in August 1847, did 
not again enter the House of Commons. In 
1851 he published the 'Lexington Papers' 
(London, 8vo), which had been discovered 
at Kelham, Nottinghamshire, in the library 



Manners-Sutton 



Manners-Sutton 



of his cousin, John Henry Manners-Sutton, 
M.P. for Newark. On 1 July 1854 he was 
appointed lieutenant-governor of New Bruns- 
wick, a post which he retained until October 
1861, when he was succeeded by Sir A. H. 
Gordon. He became governor of Trinidad 
on 24 June 1864, and on 19 May 1866 was 
promoted to the post of governor of Victoria. 
He was created a K.C.B. on 23 June follow- 
ing, and assumed the office of governor on 
15 Aug. 1866. On the death of his elder 
brother, Charles John Manners-Sutton, in 
November 1869, he succeeded as third vis- 
count Canterbury. He resigned his post of 
governor of Victoria, where he was very 
popular, in March 1873, and returning to 
England took his seat in the House of Lords 
for the first time on 28 April following 
(Journals of the House of Lords, cv. 270). 
In May 1873 he spoke in the debate on the 
second reading of the Australian Colonies 
(Customs Duties) Bill, and in July 1874 
made some observations on the cession of the 
Fiji islands (Par I. Debates, 3rd ser. ccxv. 
2006-8, ccxx. 1341, ccxxi. 187-8, 189), but 
took no other part in the debates of the 
House of Lords. He was created a knight 
grand cross of St. Michael and St. George on 
25 June 1873. He died in Queensberry 
Place, London, on 23 June 1877, aged 63. 

He married, on 5 July 1838, Georgiana, 
youngest daughter of Charles Tompson of 
Witchingham Hall, Norfolk, by whom he 
had five sons viz. (1) Henry Charles, the 
fourth and present viscount Canterbury ; 
(2) Graham Edward Henry, who died 
30 May 1888 ; (3) George Kett Henry, who 
died 2 March 1865 ; (4) John Gurney Henry, 
and (5) Robert Henry, who was called to 
the bar at the Inner Temple on 7 May 1879 
and two daughters, viz. (1) Anna Maria 
Georgiana, who married, on 25 Aug. 1868, 
Charles Edward Bright, C.M.G., of Torrak, 
Australia, and (2) Mabel Georgiana. His 
widow is still living. He succeeded his father 
as registrar of the faculty office in 1834, and 
retained that appointment until his death. 

[Annual Kegister, 1877, pt. ii. p. 149 ; Illus- 
trated London News, 30 June and 7 July 1877 
(with portrait) ; Pod's Peerage, &c., 1877, pp. 
177-8 ; Doyle's Official Baronage, 1886, i. 316- 
317; Burke's Peerage, &c. 1890, p. 235; Heaton's 
Australian Dictionary of Dates, 1879, p. 33 
Lincoln's Inn Registers ; Official Return of Lists 
of Members of Parliament, pt. ii. pp. 364, 379 ; 
Grad. Cantabr. 1856, p. 367 ; Stapylton's Eton 
School Lists, 1864, pp. 127, 134; Haydn's Book 
of Dignities, 1890.] G. F. R. B. 

MANNEES-SUTTOlSr, THOMAS, first 
BARON MANNERS (1756-1842), lord chan- 
cellor of Ireland, fifth son of Lord George 



Manners-Sutton by his first wife, Diana, 
daughter of Thomas Chaplin of Blankney, 
Lincolnshire, and grandson of John Manners, 
third duke of Rutland, was born on 24 Feb. 
1756. Charles Manners-Sutton [q. v.], arch- 
bishop of Canterbury, was his elder brother. 
On the death of his uncle, Lord Robert Sut- 
ton, in 1762, the estates of his great-grand- 
father, Robert Sutton, lord Lexinton [q. v.], 
devolved on his father, who thereupon as- 
sumed the additional surname of Sutton. 
Thomas was educated at the Charterhouse 
and Emmanuel College, Cambridge, where, 
as fifth wrangler, he graduated B.A. 1777, 
M.A. 1780. He was admitted a student of 
Lincoln's Inn on 16 Nov. 1775, and was 
called to the bar on 18 Nov. 1780. He gra- 
dually obtained a considerable practice in the 
court of chancery, and at the general election 
in May 1796 was returned to the House of 
Commons for the borough of Newark-upon- 
Trent, for which he continued to sit until 
February 1805. In July 1797 he was ap- 
pointed a Welsh judge, and in 1800 became a 
king's counsel, and received the appointment 
of solicitor-general to the Prince of Wales. 
In February and March 1802 he unsuccess- 
fully urged the claims of the prince to the 
revenues of the duchy of Cornwall (Parl. 
Hist, xxxvi. 322-6, 332", 406-13, 441). He was 
appointed solicitor-general in Aldington's 
administration on 11 May 1802, and received 
the honour of knighthood on the 19th of the 
same month. Though no longer in his ser- 
vice, Manners-Sutton addressed the House of 
Commons on behalf of the Prince of Wales 
during the debate on the king's message in 
February 1803 (ib. xxxvi. 1202-3). He took 
part in the prosecution of Edward Marcus 
Despard for high treason, of Jean Peltier for 
libelling Napoleon Buonaparte, and of Wil- 
liam Cobbett for libelling the lord-lieutenant 
of Ireland (HowELL, State Trials, xxviii. 
345-528, 529-620, xxix. 1-54). Manners- 
Sutton succeeded Sir Beaumont Hotham 
[q. v.] as a baron of the exchequer, and 
having been called to the degree of serjeant- 
at-law took his seat on the bench on 4 Feb. 
1805. On 20 April 1807 he was created 
Baron Manners of Foston, Lincolnshire, and 
two days afterwards was sworn a member 
of the privy council. On the 23rd he was 
appointed lord chancellor of Ireland in the 
place of George Ponsonby, and on the 24th 
took his seat in the House of Lords for the 
first time (Journals of the House of Lords, 
xlvi. 191). Manners was a staunch protes- 
tant, and was greatly influenced in his con- 
duct by William Saurin, who cordially de- 
tested the Roman catholics. The case of 
Patrick O'Hanlon, who was removed from 



Manners-Sutton 



61 



Manners-Sutton 



the bench of magistrates by Manners for 
supporting the catholic claims, was brought 
before the House of Commons on 13 June 
1816 (Parl. Debates, 1st ser. xxxiv. 1103-7 ; 
see also O'HANLON, Letter to the Lord Man- 
ners . . . on alleged partial exercise of Au- 
thority by his Lordship, &c., Dublin [1817], 
8vo). The controversy between Manners and 
Lord Cloncurry will be found in detail in the 
1 Personal Recollections of Lord Cloncurry,' 
1849 (pp. 256-66). In 1820 Manners took 
a somewhat active part in the proceedings 
against Queen Caroline, and both spoke and 
voted in favour of the second reading of the 
Bill of Pains and Penalties, the arguments 
in support of which ' he considered to be 
irresistible ' (Parl. Debates. 2nd ser. ii. 997- 
999, iii. 735-6, 891-2, 1646-9, 1698). His 
presence at the Orange dinner given by the 
Dublin Beefsteak Club in 1823, when the 
lord-lieutenant's health was drunk in solemn 
silence, gave great offence to Lord Wellesley, 
but the quarrel was ultimately patched up 
(LoKD COLGHESTEB, Diary, iii. 274; and the 
DTTKE OF BUCKINGHAM, Memoirs of the Court 
of George IV, i. 429-35, 443). After hold- 
ing office for twenty years Manners sent in 
his resignation and sat for the last time in 
the Irish court of chancery on 31 July 1827. 
On 9 June 1828 Manners spoke in the 
House of Lords on the subject of the catholic 
claims, and declared that it was impossible 
* to grant the catholics the concessions they 
sought, and to afford any protection to the 
established reformed church of Ireland in 
the present temper of the Irish nation ' (Parl. 
Debates, 2nd ser. xix. 1170). He voted 
against the second reading of the Roman 
Catholic Relief Bill on 4 April 1829 (ib. xxi. 
396), and two days afterwards spoke in 
favour of the Qualification of Freeholders 
(Ireland) Bill, which he looked upon ' as an 
act of justice, and one which would confer 
considerable benefit upon a great portion of 
the forty-shilling freeholders themselves ' (ib. 
413-15). Manners does not appear to have 
spoken in the House of Lords after the pass- 
ing of the Reform Bill. He died in Brook 
Street, London, on 31 May 1842, aged 86, 
and was buried at Kelham, Nottingham- 
shire. 

Manners was a dignified and courteous 
judge. His judgments, many of which are 
recorded in the reports of Ball and Beatty 
(1813-24) and Beatty (1847), do not carry 
great weight, notwithstanding the assertion 
of Joy, the Irish attorney-general, that out 
of his 4,469 Irish decisions ' only fourteen 
have been reversed and seven varied in some 
particulars' (O'FiANAGAN, ii. 370). 

O'Connell declared that 'he was a bad 



Lawyer, but he was the most sensible-looking 
man talking nonsense he ever saw ' (BURKE, 
History of the Lord Chancellors of Ireland, 
p. 203) ; and during the debate on the choice 
of a speaker in the House of Commons on 
29 Jan. 1833 drew a most unflattering sketch 
of the lord chancellor's career (Parl. Debates, 
3rd ser. xv. 55-6). While in Dublin he 
Lived at 51 Stephen's Green East, where he 
kept great state, and was ' preceded by his 
ten servants walking two and two ' when he 
went to church on a Sunday (O'FLANAGAN, 
ii. 363). 

Manners gave Lady Morgan her first 
iesson in salad-making, but when he dis- 
covered the emancipating tendency of her 
novel 'O'Donnel' he ordered the book 'to be 
burnt ' (wrote Lady Morgan) ' in the servants' 
hall, and then said to Lady Manners (who 
told it to my sister), " Jenny, I wish I had 
not given her the secret of my salad." Ever 
after he only bowed to me when we met at 
court, never spoke to me ' (Memoirs, 1863, ii, 
495). 

He married, first, on 4 Nov. 1803, Anne, 
daughter of Sir Joseph Copley of Sprot- 
borough, Yorkshire, bart., by whom he had 
no issue. She died very suddenly at 
Thomas's Hotel, Berkeley Square, on 5 Aug. 
1814, and on 28 Oct. 1815 he married, 
secondly, the Hon. Jane Butler, daughter 
of James, ninth baron Cahir, and sister of 
Richard, first earl of Glengall, by whom he 
had an only son, John Thomas, who suc- 
ceeded him as second Baron Manners. His 
widow died at Fornham Hall, Bury St. Ed- 
munds, on 2 Nov. 1846, aged 67. The pre- 
sent peer is a grandson of the first baron. 
Manners was for some years the recorder of 
Grantham. He was elected a bencher of 
Lincoln's Inn on 16 July 1800, but retired 
from the society in February 1805, upon his 
elevation to the judicial bench. There is 
an engraving of Manners by Cardon after 
Comerford. 

[O'Flanagan's Lives of the Lord Chancellors 
of Ireland, 1879, ii. 335-75; Burke's Lord Chan- 
cellors of Ireland, 1879, pp. 197-204 ; Shell's 
Sketches of the Irish Bar, 1856, ii. 172-91; 
Foss's Judges of England, 1864, viii. 371-3 ; 
Parker's Sir Robert Peel, 1891, pp. 196, 314, 
400; Diary and Correspondence of Charles 
Abbot, Lord Colchester, 1861, iii. 341, 416, 488, 
598; Georgian Era, 1833, ii. 323; Gent. Mag. 
1842, ii. 202. 677; Annual Register, 1842, App. 
to Chron. p. 270; Burke's Peerage, 1891, pp. 916, 
1197; Grad. Cantabr. 1823, p. 455; Lincoln's Inn 
Registers ; Official Return of Lists of Members of 
Parliament, pt. ii. pp. 205, 220 ; Haydn's Book 
of Dignities, 1890; Notes and Queries, 7th ser. 
xii. 388, 455, 8th ser. i. 35.] G. F. K. B. 



Mannin 



Manning 



MANNIN, JAMES (d. 1779), flower- 
painter, was a native of France. He settled 
in Dublin, where he practised as a flower- 
painter, and obtained such distinction in his 
ornamental compositions that in 1746 he was 
appointed to the office of master in the class 
of ornament and flower-painting in the newly 
established drawing academy of the Dublin 
Society in Shaw's Court, Dublin. Many ar- 
tists who subsequently attained distinction 
were his pupils. Mannin was a contributor 
to the exhibitions of the Society of Artists 
in Ireland in 1765 and other years. He died 
in Dublin in 1779. 

[Redgrave's Diet, of Artists ; Pasquin's Artists 
of Ireland; Gilbert's Hist, of Dublin, ii. 291.] 

L. C. 

MANNING, HENRY EDWARD (1808- 
1892), cardinal-priest, youngest son of Wil- 
liam Manning, West India merchant, of Bil- 
liter Square, London, by his second wife, 
Mary, daughter of Henry Lenoy Hunter of 
Beech Hall, near Reading, Berkshire, was 
born at his father's country house, Copped 
Hall, Totteridge, Hertfordshire, on 15 July 
1808. On the father's side he was probably 
descended from a family settled in Jamaica 
in the time of Charles II ; his mother's family 
is said to have been of Italian extraction, 
Hunter being a translation of the Italian 
name Venatore. His father, who made and 
lost a considerable fortune, sat in parliament 
in the tory interest from 1794 to 1830, and in 
1812-13 was governor of the Bank of Eng- 
land. In 1815 he removed from Copped Hall 
to Coombe Bank, Sundridge, Kent. There 
Manning made friends with Charles and 
Christopher Wordsworth [q. v.], afterwards 
bishops of St. Andrews and Lincoln respec- 
tively, whose father, the Rev. Christopher 
Wordsworth [q. v.], brother of William 
Wordsworth the poet, and afterwards master 
of Trinity College, Cambridge, held the 
rectory of Sundridge from 1815 to 1820. 
Manning followed Charles Wordsworth to 
Harrow in 1822, and thence to Oxford, where 
he matriculated on 2 April 1827, entering 
Balliol College. He brought with him the 
reputation of an athlete and sportsman ; he 
was a bold rider and a skilful oarsman, had 
played in more than one eleven at Lord's, 
and had killed a hare with his first shot, but 
had not greatly distinguished himself as a 
scholar. A certain air of authority had gained 
him the sobriquet of ' The General,' and he is 

Isaid to have been inclined to dogmatise on 
matters of which he knew little or nothing 
(cf. SIR FRANCIS HASTINGS DOYLE, Remi- 
niscences, p. 105). 
Manning's private tutor was Charles Words- 



worth, and among his fellow-pupils were Mr. 
Gladstone and James Robert Hope, after- 
wards Hope-Scott [q. v.], with both of whom 
he formed enduring friendships. He read 
hard, and took a first class in the classical 
schools in Michaelmas term 1830. He also 
acquired some knowledge of Italian in his 
shaving time, it is said but, like Newman, he.' 
remained entirely ignorant of German. He 
was one of the readiest and most effective of 
the speakers at the Union, of which he was 
president in Michaelmas term 1829, the term 
of the historic debate (26 Nov.) with the 
Cambridge men on the comparative merits 
of Byron and Shelley as poets, when he 
left the chair to sustain the cause of Byron. 
Nearly half a century later (122 Oct. 1873) 
he spoke at the banquet given in commemo- 
ration of the foundation of the society at 
the Oxford Corn Exchange. 

Manning's natural bent was towards poli- 
tical life ; but a parliamentary career being, 
in consequence of his father's losses, out of 
the question, he obtained soon after taking 
his degree (2 Dec. 1830) a subordinate post 
in the colonial office probably as private 
secretary to one of the chief clerks, for he 
was not paid out of public funds read poli- 
tical economy, and dined with the Political 
Economy Club. By the advice, however, of 
a pious lady of evangelical views, Miss Favell 
Lee Bevan, afterwards Mrs. Mortimer [q. v.], 
he returned to Oxford, and having been 
elected to a fellowship at Merton College on, 
27 April 1832, was ordained on 23 Dec., and 
at once took a curacy under the Rev. John 
Sargent, the evangelical rector of Woollav- 
ington-cum-Graffham, Sussex. On 6 June 
1833 he proceeded M.A, and four days later 
(Sargent having recently died) was instituted 
to the rectory of Woollavington, and on 
16 Sept. following to that of Graffham. On 
7 Nov. the same year he married the late rec- 
tor's third daughter, Caroline, the ceremony 
being performed in Woollavington Church 
by the bride's brother-in-law, the Rev. 
Samuel Wilberforce [q. v.], afterwards suc- 
cessively bishop of Oxford and Winchester. 
A model parish priest, Manning rebuilt both 
his churches, and cared for the bodies as well 
as the souls of his parishioners, by whom he 
was greatly beloved. Long afterwards, in 
one of the finest passages in his writings, he 
spoke of the love he felt for ' the little church 
under a green hillside, where the morning 
and evening prayers and the music of the 
English Bible for seventeen years became a 
part of my soul ' (England and Christendom, 
p. 124). In 1837 Manning was appointed to 
the second rural deanery of Midhurst. The 
same year (24 July) Mrs. Manning died of 



Manning 



Manning 



consumption. The marriage, though child- 
less, had been extremely happy, and Man- 
ning felt his wife's loss acutely, and to the 
end of his days religiously observed the anni- 
versary of her death. 

At his ordination Manning already be- 
lieved in baptismal regeneration. In 1834 he 
adopted Hooker's doctrine of the eucharist, 
and about the same time he assimilated the 
doctrine of apostolical succession, and learned 
to attach a high value to tradition (cf. his 
first published sermon, The English Church; 
its Succession and Witness, London, 1835, 
and another, The Rule of Faith, London, 1838, 
8vo). How far this rapid development was 
spontaneous, how far due to the influence of 
the ' Tracts for the Times,' cannot be pre- 
cisely determined. He was not at the time 
closely associated with any of the leaders of 
the tractarian movement, and he never con- 
tributed to the tracts. Whatever savoured 
of Erastianism was now utterly abhorrent 
to him. In the ecclesiastical commission of 
1835 he discerned ' a virtual extinction of 
the polity of the church ' ( The Principle of 
the Ecclesiastical Commission examined, in 
a Letter to the Right Rev. Lord Bishop of 
Chichester, London, 1838, 8vo). He was 
feeling his way towards a scheme for a 
thorough system of national but clerically 
controlled education, and took an active part 
in the establishment of diocesan boards in 
connection with the National Society for 
Promoting the Education of the Poor. On 
30 Dec. 1840 he was instituted to the arch- 
deaconry of Chichester, and in his first 
1 charge' deplored the paralysis of convoca- 
tion. In 1842 he was appointed select 
preacher at Oxford, and published, under the 
title ' The Unity of the Church,' London, 
1842, 8vo, 2nd edit. 1845, an able exposition 
of Anglo-catholic principles, intended to 
serve as a complement, and, to some extent, 
as a corrective of Mr. Gladstone's essay on 
' The State in its Relations with the Church.' 
He had still, however, no sympathy with 
Rome, and after arguing elaborately for 
visible organic unity as a note of the true 
church, devoted a footnote (pp. 152-4) and 
a few pages in the last chapter to the dis- 
cussion of the Roman claim to primacy. 
' Tract XC.' he thought casuistical, and deeply 
grieved Newman by preaching a strongly 
anti-papal sermon in St. Mary's, Oxford, on 
Guy Fawkes' day 1843. Like Newman, he 
could fill St. Mary's on a week-day. His 
' Sermons preached before the University oi 
Oxford/ published in 1844 (Oxford, 8vo), are 
characterised by deep spirituality and occa- 
sional eloquence. 

With W. G. Ward {q. v.] Manning had no 



personal acquaintance until Ward's degrada- 
tion by the Oxford convocation, 13 Feb. 1845 ; 
against this step he recorded his vote, having 
come to Oxford in the worst of weather for 
the express purpose. After the sentence he 
met Ward in Dr. Pusey's rooms, A long 
conversation followed on Lutheranism, and 
Ward, defending the strongly anti-Lutheran 
position taken up in his book on ' The Ideal 

a Christian Church,' drew from Manning 
the remark that that was the most Lutheran 
book he had ever read. The reference, of 
course, was to the extreme vehemence of its 
denunciatory passages. The connection thus 
formed ripened into a close friendship which 
lasted throughout Ward's life, though Man- 
ning was at first extremely pained by Ward's 
marriage. 

After the secession of Ward and Newman, 
Manning became for a time one of the most 
trusted leaders of the high church party; nor 
was his confidence in the tenability of its posi- 
tion seriously shaken until he proved the diffi- 
culty of making it intelligible to foreigners 
during a tour on the continent, July 1847 to 
June 1848. He travelled slowly through 
Belgium and Germany to Italy, was much 
impressed by the apparent vitality of Ro- 
manism, and in May 1848 had an audience of 
Pope Pius IX, who praised the philanthropic 
spirit of English Christianity. On his return 
to England he found the church in a turmoil 
about the recent elevation of Renn Dickson 
Hampden [q. v.] to the episcopal bench. The 
education question had also entered on a new 
phase, in consequence of the determination 
of government to make grants in aid of new 
elementary schools conditional upon the in- 
sertion in their trust deeds of certain clauses 
providing for their management by local com- 
mittees. These clauses were regarded by the 
clergy with much suspicion, and at a meet- 
ing of the National Society for Promoting 
the Education of the Poor, held in West- 
minster on 6 June 1849, the Rev. G. A. (now 
Archdeacon) Denison moved a resolution ad- 
verse to the acceptance of state aid on such 
terms, but afterwards withdrew it in favour 
of an amendment by Manning to much the 
same effect, but couched in more diplomatic 
language. A compromise was eventually 
arrived at. On 8 March 1850 judgment was 
given by the privy council in the case of 
George Cornelius Gorham [q. v.], who had 
been refused institution to a living on ac- 
count of his unorthodox views on bap- 
tism, and twelve days later Manning's name 
appeared in the ' Times' at the head of 
the subscribers to a protest against the de- 
cision. On the defeat of the attempt subse- 
quently made to settle the question by legis- 



Manning 



6 4 



Manning 



lation, Manning published a letter to his 
bishop (Ashurst Turner Gilbert), entitled 
' The Appellate Jurisdiction of the Crown in 
Matters Spiritual,' London, 1850, 8vo, in 
which, with more ingenuity than cogency, he 
argued that no such jurisdiction in fact ex- 
isted. He also put in circulation a ' decla- 
ration' against the jurisdiction, which was 
signed by eighteen hundred of the clergy 
during the autumn. The acquiescence of the 
rest convinced him that the church of Eng- 
land was no branch of the church catholic. 
At the same time nothing was further from 
his thoughts than to become the founder of 
an Anglo-catholic free church. ' Three hun- 
dred years ago,' he said, when the suggestion 
was made, ' we left a good ship for a boat. 
I am not going to leave the boat for a tub.' 

Meanwhile the excitement caused by the 
so-called papal aggression reached its height, 
and by the irony of fate Manning's last official 
act as archdeacon of Chichester was to pre- 
side at a ' No Popery ' meeting of his clergy 
summoned (ministerially) by himself. The 
meeting was held in Chichester Cathedral 
Library on 22 Nov. 1850. Manning formally 
presided, but except to express his entire want 
of sympathy with the object of the meeting 
took no part in the proceedings. The meet- 
ing over, he resigned his archdeaconry and 
came to London, where, after some months 
of anxious thought, he was received into the 
church of Rome with his friend Hope at the 
residence attached to the Jesuits' Church, 
Farm Street, Mayfair, on Passion Sunday, 
6 April 1851. On the following Sunday he 
received minor orders from Cardinal Wise- 
man, by whom he was ordained priest on 
14 June. A confessional was at once assigned 
him in Farm Street Church. By his secession 
Manning sacrificed a dignified position in 
a church to which he was attached by the 
strongest ties of sentiment for a doubtful 
future in one regarded with intense hostility 
by all ranks of English society. He had 
been powerfully influenced by Newman's 
1 Development of Christian Doctrine,' and had 
in effect adopted its principles without realis- 
ing either their practical result or the legal 
position of the church of England until the 
Gorham case compelled him to confront both 
the one and the other. A study of the 
' Loci Theologici ' of Melchior Canus then 
completed what Newman had begun. Dur- 
ing the period of inward debate he suffered 
extremely. *E da martirio venni a questa 
pace ' (And from martyrdom came I to this 
peace), he wrote when it was over, slightly 
misquoting the closing words of canto xv. of 
Dante, 'Paradiso,' in which Cacciaguida de- 
scribes his translation to heaven. 



The winter of 1851 saw Manning established 
in Rome, where he spent the best part of the 
next three years in study at the Accademia 
dei Nobili Ecclesiastici and in the intimate 
society of Pius IX. The summers he divided 
between England and Ireland. His first 
appearance in a Roman catholic pulpit was 
made in the little chapel in Horseferry Road, 
Westminster, on 10 June 1852. The same year 
he published four lectures delivered in South- 
wark on ' The Grounds of Faith '(London, 8vo, 
9th ed. 1888), in which he represented Roman- 
ism as the only alternative to rationalism. 
His first sermon in Rome, preached in the 
church of S. Andrea della Valle on 13 Jan. 
1853, made a profound impression. In Eng- 
land he made several proselytes, among them 
his elder brother, Charles John Manning, 
whose wife had already seceded, and whose 
family followed suit, Edward LowthBadeley, 
Q.C. [q. v.], and Archdeacon Robert Isaac 
Wilberforce [q. v.] In 1854 he received from 
the pope the degree of D.D., and began 
regular work in England, retaining his confes- 
sional at Farm Street, and throwing himself 
with great zeal into a movement for establish- 
ing reformatories. In 1857 he was made 
provost of the chapter of Westminster by 
the pope, who also sanctioned a rule which 
he had drawn up for a community of secular 
priests, modelled on that founded at Milan 
by St. Charles Borromeo in the sixteenth 
century, and subject to the jurisdiction of 
the Archbishop of Westminster. Installed 
as superior of this ' Congregation of the 
Oblates of St. Charles,' as it was called, 
at the mother -house of St. Mary of the 
Angels, Westmoreland Road, Bayswater, 
on Whitsunday, 31 May 1857, Manning oc- 
cupied himself during the next eight years 
with its direction, with preaching, the care 
of education, mission work in the slums of 
Westminster, and the literary defence of the 
temporal power of the pope. During this 
period he was frequently at Rome, Avhere he 
preached several times at S. Andrea della 
Valle and other churches, and in 1860 was 
appointed by the pope his domestic prelate 
and protonotary apostolic, with episcopal rank 
and the title of Monsignore, to which the 
envious added the epithet Ignorante, in refer- 

! ence to his real or supposed want of perfect 
accomplishment in the refinements of theo- 
logy and ceremonial etiquette. The honour- 

i able reception accorded to Garibaldi on his 
visit to England in the spring of 1864 drew 
from Manning a strong protest in the shape 
of a letter to the Right Hon. E. Cardwell, 
reprinted in his ' Miscellanies,' vol. i. The 
same year he published two letters 'To an 
Anglican Friend,' in which he expatiated on 



Manning 



Manning 



the progress of rational ism within the church 
of England as shown by the judgment of 
the privy council in regard to the ' Essays 
and Reviews ' and the impotence of con- 
vocation in the matter. A third on 'The 
Workings of the Holy Spirit in the Church 
of England/ addressed to Dr. Pusey, elicited 
that theologian's celebrated l Eirenicon.' All 
three letters, with a pastoral on ' The Re- 
union of Christendom,' issued in 1866, and 
an historical introduction, were reprinted in 
1867 under the title 'England and Christen- 
dom ' (London, 8vo). 

On the death of Cardinal Wiseman, Man- 
ning preached his funeral sermon at St. Mary's, 
Moorfields (23 Feb. 1865). On 30 April 
following the pope, obedient to an inward 
voice which said ever to him ' mettetelo li,' 
1 mettetelo li ' (place him there), nominated i 
Manning to the vacant see of Westminster, 
though he had been passed over by the chap- 
ter. He was consecrated at St. Mary's, I 
Moorfields, on 8 June, received the pallium 
at Rome on Michaelmas day, and was en- 
throned at St. Mary's, Moor fields, on 6 Nov. 
The same year he published ' The Temporal 
Mission of the Holy Ghost ' (London, 8vo, I 
later edits. 1877, 1888, 1892), in which he ' 
retracted certain ' errors ' contained in his 
Anglican writings and expounded the Roman ! 
catholic doctrine of the functions of the Holy 
Spirit in his fourfold relation to the church, 
human reason, holy scripture, and tradition. 
Ten years later he published a complementary 
volume on 'The Temporal Mission of the Holy 
Ghost' (London, 8voX in which he dealt with 
the work of the Holy Ghost in the individual j 
soul. These two treatises contain his most | 
characteristic and systematic teaching. 

As an archbishop Manning was by no 
means disposed to minimise his authority, 
and his autocratic methods were at first the 
more irksome to the clergy within his jurisdic- 
tion by contrast with the easy-going ways of 
his predecessor. Gradually, however, he 
established cordial relations with all his 
subordinates. If exacting towards others, 
he by no means spared himself. During the 
greater part of his long tenure of office it 
was his custom to spend his summer holi- 
days in visiting the principal towns of the 
northern dioceses, preaching, lecturing, and 
holding receptions as he went. A thorough 
ultramontane, he italianised the vestments of 
his priests and their pronunciation of Latin, 
discountenanced all music but the Gregorian, 
and heartily approved of the papal veto placed 
upon Newman's scheme for a Roman catholic 
hall at Oxford. The church, he held, must 
provide for the education of her children with- 
in her own unity, and the paramount need of 

VOL. xxxvi. 



the hour was primary education. Accordingly 
in 1866 he established the Westminster Dio- 
cesan Education Fund, for the maintenance 
and extension of Roman catholic primary 
schools. He also founded in various parts of 
the diocese, homes, orphanages, industrial, re- 
formatory, and poor schools for Roman ca- 
tholic children, and spared no pains to obtain 
their legal custody from boards of guardians 
and other authorities. By a quarter of a cen- 
tury of such patient labour he succeeded in 
doubling the number of children in receipt of 
education in his schools, though the Roman 
catholic population had not increased. (For 
details see his 'Lenten Pastoral' for 1890 
and ' The Month ' for February 1892.) 

In order not to overtax the liberality of his 
people he suffered the scheme for a cathedral 
at Westminster to remain in abeyance, but 
founded in 1867 the pro-cathedral at Kensing- 
ton. Plans, however, were drawn and funds 
accumulated for the cathedral, for which in 
1868 the site of the disused Tothill Fields 
Prison was secured. In 1872 a roomy but 
barrack-like structure, which had served as a 
club for the guards in Carlisle Place, Vauxhall 
Bridge Road, was purchased at a low figure, 
and converted into an archiepiscopal residence. 
Thither Manning removed from the house in 
York Place, Baker Street, which had been 
his residence since his accession to the see, 
and there he resided in great simplicity, yet 
hospitable with the hospitality of the true 
Christian bishop, for the rest of his life. 

To prepare the way for the oecumenical 
council of 1870, Manning issued two pastorals, 
viz. ' The Centenary of St. Peter and the 
General Council ' (London, 1867, 8vo) and 
' The (Ecumenical Council and the Infalli- 
bility of the Roman Pontiff' (London, 1869, 
8vo), in which he marshalled at great length 
the evidence for the thesis of the infallibility 
of the pope, at the same time dealing supercili- 
ously with Gallicanism an attitude which 
drew a reply from Dupanloup. As a member 
of the ' Deputatio pro Rebus ad Fidem perti- 
nentibus ' Manning played a prominent part 
in the proceedings of the council. At its close 
he issued another pastoral expository of its 
several decrees, entitled ' The Vatican Coun- 
cil and its Definitions' (London, 1870, 8vo). 
The three letters were reissued in one volume 
entitled ' Petri Privilegium 'in 1871 (Lon- 
don, 8vo). 

Ever vigilant in regard to education. Man- 
ning had issued a pastoral on the subject in 
the autumn of 1869, warning his clergy that 
a great controversy was impending. While 
at Rome, amid the stress and strain of the 
council he found time to master the details 
of Mr. Forster's measure, and on his return 

F 



Manning 



66 



Manning 



he quietly matured his plans for the defence 
of the ' voluntary principle' under the new 
conditions imposed by the act of 1870. In 
1872 he made an urgent appeal on behalf 
of his schools in a pastoral addressed to both 
clergy and laity, which with that of 1869 was 
reprinted the same year in a small volume 
entitled ' National Education and Parental 
Rights ' (London, 8 vo) . The appeal met with 
a hearty response, and the schools continued 
not only to maintain their existence but to 
increase in numbers and efficiency. In re- 
gard to higher education he was less success- 
ful. A University College founded at Ken- 
sington in 1874 proved, under the management 
of Monsignor Capel, an entire failure and was 
closed in 1 878. For the training of the clergy 
he founded in 1876 the diocesan seminary of 
St. Thomas, Hammersmith, which gave a 
great impulse to the establishment of similar 
institutions in other dioceses. 

A sentence about the deification of the 
human nature of Christ in one of Manning's 
sermons at the pro-cathedral in 1873 (see The 
Divine Glory of the Sacred Heart, a sermon, 
London, 1873, 8vo) was impugned as here- 
tical in a private letter by an Anglican 
clergyman, Dr. A. Nicholson. Manning re- 
plied through his secretary, Father Guiron, 
and a correspondence ensued, which was even- 
tually published in the 'Guardian,' 17 Sept. 
Manning thereupon reviewed the contro- 
versy, defending his orthodoxy with much 
dialectical skill in a series of anonymous 
articles in the ' Tablet/ 27 Sept,-25 Oct., re- 
printed, under the pseudonym ' Catholicus,' 
and the title 'Dr. Nicholson's Accusation of 
the Archbishop of Westminster' (London, 
1873, 8vo), and afterwards in his f Miscel- 
lanies,' vol. ii. 

A pamphlet on ' Cresarism and Ultramon- 
tanism,' published by Manning in 1874, 
and two articles contributed by him to the 
' Contemporary Review ' in April and June 
of that year, in reply to certain criticisms 
by Mr. (now Sir) James Fitzjames Stephen, 
are also included in his ' Miscellanies/ vol. 
ii., and form an extremely coherent state- 
ment of the ultramontane theory of the 
relations of church and state. In 1875 he 
published 'The Vatican Decrees in their 
bearing on Civil Allegiance,' London. 8vo, 
a masterly reply to Mr. Gladstone's 'poli- 
tical expostulation ' under the same title. 
Challenged by Lord Redesdale in the columns 
of the 'Daily Telegraph/ 9 Oct. 1875, to re- 
concile the infallibility of the Roman church 
with her practice of communion in one kind, 
he published several letters on that topic in 
the same newspaper. A reprint of them, en- 
titled ' The Infallible Church and the Holy 



Communion of Christ's Body and Blood/ 
appeared the same year, London, 8vo. 

Meanwhile Manning had received the 
berretta of a cardinal-priest from the pope, 
who assigned the church of S. Gregory the 
Great on the Ccelian for his title. There 
his enthronement took place in presence 
of a vast congregation, largely English, 
on 31 March 1875. He did not receive 
the hat until 31 Dec. 1877. Pius IX was 
then in his last illness, and Manning re- 
mained at Rome, and was present at his 
death on 7 Feb. 1878. At the election of 
his successor he voted with the majority of 
the conclave. In 1877 appeared ' The True 
Story of the Vatican Council/ a reprint of 
a series of articles contributed by him to 
the 'Nineteenth Century ' in that year (Lon- 
don, 8vo ; 2nd edit. 1884). 

During the last twenty years of his life 
Manning was a pledged 'total abstainer/ and 
carried on a crusade as a lecturer and writer 
against the use of alcoholic stimulants. He 
was the founder (1868) of the temperance 
society known as ' The League of the Cross/ 
and was a strong advocate of the legislative 
restriction of the liquor traffic (cf. Miscel- 
lanies, vol. iii.) His philanthropy was as 
wide as it was untiring. He sat on the 
Mansion House committee for the relief of 
the starving poor of Paris in January 1871, 
was an active promoter of the Hospital 
Sunday and Hospital Saturday movements 
of 1872 and 1874, and pronounced his beni- 
son on the newly founded Agricultural La- 
bourers' Union at a meeting in Exeter Hall on 
10 Dec. 1872, and on lawful combinations of 
workmen generally, in a lecture on ' The Dig- 
nity and Rights of Labour' (repr. in Miscel- 
lanies, vol. ii. and in pamphlet form, 1887, 
London, 8vo). Before his submission to the 
see of Rome Manning's political principles 
were those of a moderate liberal, extremely 
suspicious of doctrinaire ideas and methods. 
After that great change they were of course 
mainly determined by it, but he did not often 
interfere directly in practical politics. He 
published, however, in 1868 a manifesto on 
the disestablishment of the Irish church and 
the reform of the Irish land laws in the 
shape of a letter to Lord Grey, reprinted in 
his ' Miscellanies/ vol. i. ; and he was known 
to favour Mr. Gladstone's later Irish policy, 
including, with some reservations, the Home 
Rule Bill of 1886. On the religious issue 
which he conceived to be involved in the 
constitutional question raised by the return 
of Charles Bradlaugh to parliament in 1880, 
he contributed to the ' Nineteenth Century ' 
and ' Contemporary Review ' some animated 
'Protests' against any modification of the 



Manning 



Manning 



existing law, and in a series of articles in 
the former publication he led in 1882-3 the 
agitation for the amendment of the Educa- 
tion Act of 1870 in the interest of voluntary 
schools (cf. Miscellanies, vol. iii., and a sepa- 
rate reprint of the articles on the Education 
Act, with other of his miscellanea, en- 
titled ' National Education,' London, 1889, 
8vo). In October 1885 he published in the 
' Dublin Review ' a direct appeal to Roman 
catholics to make the amendment of the 
Education Act a test question at the ensuing 
general election. 

Manning sat on the royal commission of 
1884-5 on the housing of the working classes, 
and signed, besides the principal report, which 
did little more than indicate the urgency and 
difficulty of the problem, a supplementary 
report in favour of the enfranchisement of 
leaseholds. He was also a member of the 
royal commission of 1886-7 on the Elemen- 
tary Education Acts. In the proceedings of 
both commissions he took an active part, and 
in the signing of the reports was accorded 
precedence next after the chairman. The 
compromise embodied in the Education Act 
of 1891 was largely due to his skilful and 
patient advocacy of the claims of voluntary 
schools. 

So far as consisted with his firm and 
uncompromising adhesion to ultramontane 
principles, Manning was a patriotic English- 
man, full of pride in his country and loyalty 
to his queen. His sympathy with the needy 
and suffering was profound, and sometimes 
got the better of his political economy. In 
January 1888 he boldly maintained in the 
' Nineteenth Century ' the right of the suf- 
ferers by the prevalent industrial stagnation 
to ' work or bread,' and, as a member of a 
deputation received by Lord Salisbury on 

I Feb. following, urged the advisability of 
instituting relief works. On occasion of the 
strike of the London docklabourers in August 
1889 he warmly espoused their cause, and 
materially contributed to bring about an ad- 
justment of the dispute. In December 1890 
he published in the l Nineteenth Century ' an 
article on f Irresponsible Wealth,' in which he 
advocated wholesale almsgiving as the social 
panacea. 

^ Other causes in which Manning interested 
himself were the suppression of the East 
African slave-trade and of the Indian custom 
of 'child-marriage/ state-directed colonisa- 
tion, and the raising of the minimum age for 
child-labour (cf. Times, 21 May 1886 and 

II Feb. 1887). He paid an eloquent tribute 
to Newman's memory at his requiem mass in 
the Brompton Oratory on 20 Aug. 1890. His 
own strength was now failing, but -his energy 



remained unabated, and in the winter of 
1891-2 he was hard at work on a scheme 
for providing maintenance for superannuated 
teachers, when an attack of bronchitis ter- 
minated his life at 8 A.M. on 14 Jan. As the 
end approached, he was clothed, by his own 
desire, in the full dress which he wore on state 
occasions, 'glad,' as he said after making his 
last profession of faith, t to have been able to 
do everything in order.' His remains, after 
lying in state for some days, were removed 
to the Brompton Oratory, and were interred 
in St. Mary's cemetery, Kensal Green, on 
22 Jan. His obsequies were attended by 
immense crowds. By his will he appointed 
three of the oblates of St. Charles and Canon 
Keens his executors ; his property was sworn 
under 3,000/., and the net value did not 
exceed 750/. 

By his distinguished appearance, fine 
manners, and exquisite tact, Manning was 
eminently qualified to make proselytes in the 
fashionable world. His portrait as he ap- 
peared in and to society has been painted by 
Lord Beaconsfield in the Cardinal Grandison 
of ' Lothair ' and the Nigel Penruddock of 
'Endymion.' His saintliness was of the 
most exalted type, deeply tinged with mys- 
ticism and entirely free from spiritual pride 
and moroseness. His work on ' The Eternal 
Priesthood ' (London, 1883, 8vo) shows how 
lofty was his conception of priestly dignity 
and duty. 

Manning was above the middle height, spare 
and agile in frame, with extremely regular and 
refined features, clear and penetrating grey 
eyes, and a high and expansive forehead. By 
the rigour of his asceticism he became in later 
life attenuated almost to emaciation. A 
miniature of him (done in 1812) as a child 
holding a seashell to his ear was the property 
of his elder brother, Charles John Manning, 
on whose decease in 1880 it passed to his 
widow. His portrait in oils, by George Rich- 
mond, R.A., painted in 1844, is in the posses- 
sion of his sister, Mrs. Austen. His bust in 
marble, by Mr. J. Harvard Thomas, is at Arch- 
bishop's House ; another in terra-cotta, by 
Mr. F. F. Stone, for which he gave several 
sittings shortly before his death, has since 
been completed. 

A great ecclesiastical statesman and diplo- 
matist, an eloquent and impressive preacher, 
a dogmatic theologian of considerable learn- 
ing and rare power of logical and luminous 
exposition, an acute, subtle, and trenchant 
controversialist, Manning was disqualified 
for the part of mediator between Christianity 
and modern thought by the unspeculative 
and uncritical cast of his mind. At the out- 
set of his career he set his face as a flint 

F2 



Manning 



68 



Manning 



against rationalism, and after his secession 
he denounced it and 'acatholic' science gene- 
rally in unmeasured terms (cf. his sermon 
The Rule of Faith, London, 1838, 8vo ; The 
Temporal Mission of the Holy Ghost, cc. ii. 
and iii. ; and the chapter on ' The Gift of 
the Understanding ' in The Internal Mission 
of the Holy Ghost}. Nevertheless he was a 
member of the Metaphysical Society, before 
which in 1871 he read a paper on ; The Re- 
lation of the Will to Thought,' published in 
the ' Contemporary Review,' vol. xvi. He 
also published in pamphlet form in 1872, 
London, 8vo, a paper on ' The Daemon of 
Socrates,' read before the Royal Institution ; 
and in the ' Contemporary Review ' for No- 
vember 1876 criticised Mr. Kirkman's ' Philo- 
sophy without Assumptions ' from the point 
of view of St. Thomas Aquinas (see Mis- 
cellanies, vols. i. and ii.) A tract entitled 
' Religio Viatoris,' published in 1887, Lon- 
don, 8vo (later editions 1888 and 1890), con- 
tains a summary statement of the philosophi- 
cal basis of his faith. An article entitled 
' The Church its Own Witness,' contributed 
to the ' North American Review ' in Sep- 
tember 1888 {Miscellanies, vol. iii.), is a 
favourable example of his apologetic method. 
His Roman catholic writings breathe a spirit 
of large charity towards those born without 
the pale of the Roman church. The people 
of England, he held, had never deliberately 
rejected the faith, but had been robbed of 
it by their rulers; but he had no hope of 
their speedy return to the true fold. He 
anticipated the eventual extinction of the 
protestant religion throughout the world, to 
be followed by a mighty struggle between 
the papacy and the forces of revolution (cf. 
England and Christendom, pp. 92 et seq. ; 
Miscellanies, i. 75 et seq., iii. 285 etseq., 305 
et seq.) 

Manning published numerous separate ser- 
mons besides those mentioned in the text, 
and seven 'Charges' delivered at the ordi- 
nary visitations of the archdeaconry of Chi- 
chester, 1841-3, 1845-6, and 1848-9. He 
also collected the chief sermons preached be- 
fore his conversion (1842-50) in 4 vols. 8vo. 
Subsequently appeared ( Sermons on Eccle- 
siastical Subjects, with an Introduction on 
the Relations of England to Christianity,' 
Dublin, 1863-73, 3 vols. 8vo, and l Mis- 
cellanies,' 1877-88, 3 vols. 8vo, which in- 
clude his chief articles in magazines. ' Pas- 
time Papers,' a collection of literary essays, 
appeared posthumously, London, 8vo, 1893. 
His more important works have been trans- i 
lated into French, German, and Italian. The I 
following volumes of selections have also | 
appeared: 'Thoughts for those that Mourn,' i 



London, 1843, 16mo; l Devotional Readings,' 
Frome Selwood, 1868, 16mo : ' Characteris- 
tics, Political, Philosophical, and Religious ' 
(ed. W. S. Lilly), London, 1885, 8vo ; < To- 
wards Evening,' London, 1887, 16mo. 

[Dublin Keview, April 1875, and April 1892 ; 
Oldcastle's (pseudonym for Wilfrid Meynell) Car- 
dinal Archbishop of Westminster, 1886 ; Memo- 
rials of Cardinal Munning, 1892, and Sayings of 
Cardinal Manning, 1892; A. W.Hutton's Cardinal 
Manning, 1892; White's Cardinal Manning, 1882; 
Ornsby's Memoirs of James Robert Hope-Scott ; 
Allies's Life's Decision, pp. 112, 150; Manning's 
Sermons on Ecclesiastical Subjects, pp. 5-9, and 
England and Christendom, pp. 3-11 ; Mozley's 
Eeminiscences, i. 423, 430, 446; Overton and 
Wordsworth's Life of Christopher Wordsworth, 
pp. 33, 448; Charles Wordsworth's Annals of 
my Early Life ; Sir H. Taylor's Autobiography, 
p. 239; A. J. C. Hare's Memorials of a Quiet 
Life, ii. 332 ; Stephens's Life of W. F. Hook, ii. 
189, 245 ; Wilfrid Ward's William George Ward 
and the Oxford Movement, p. 343, and W. G.Ward 
and the Catholic Revival, passim ; Contemporary 
Review, February 1892 ; Nineteenth Century, 
February 1892; Quarterly Review, July 1892 ; 
Strand Magazine, July 1891 ; Keview of Reviews, 
February and May 1892 ; Cristofori's Storia dei 
Cardinali di Santa Eomana Chiesa (Rome, 1888) ; 
Acta et Decreta Sacrosancti et (Ecumenici 
Concilii Vaticani (Freiburg, 1872) ; Arthur's 
The Pope, the Kings, and the People, 1877; 
Times (see Palmer's Index), 1849-92 ; G-uardian, 
6 June 1849, 4-10 April, 17-24 July. 27 Nov. 
1850 ; Tablet, 12 April 1851, 25 Feb., 13 May, 
10 June, and 11 Nov. 1865, and January 1892 ; 
Lancet, 1872 ii. 761, 857, 866, 1874 ii. 562, 
16 Jan. 1892; League of the Cross Magazine, 
April 1884 p. 70, June 1884 p. 97, November 
1885 p. 1 ; Report of the Speeches at the Ban- 
quet in the Corn Exchange, Oxford, on Occa- 
sion of the Fiftieth Anniversary of the Oxford 
Union Soc., 22 Oct. 1873, Oxford 1874, 8vo ; 
Parl. Papers (H.C.) 1849 xliii. 463, 1090, 1111, 
1884-5 xxx. and xxxi., 1886 xxv. c. 4863, 1887 
xxix. c. 5056, xxx, c. 5158, 1888 xxxv. c. 5485 ; 
Foster's Alumni Oxon., Baronetage (s.v. 'Hun- 
ter'), and Index Ecclesiasticus; information from 
Sir K. G. Raper, secretary to the lord bishop and 
acting registrar of the diocese of Chichester; 
Notes and Queries, 8th ser. i. 419,502; Gent. 
Mag. 1812, pt. ii. p. 92 ; see also Galaxy, January 
1872, and Catholic World, March 1879.] 

J. M. K. 

MANNING, JAMES (1781-1866), ser- 
jeant-at-law, born in 1781, was son of 
James Manning, Unitarian minister, Exeter, 
by Lydia, daughter of John Edge of Bristol. 
He early acquired a familiarity with history, 
antiquities, and the European languages, 
was called to the bar at Lincoln's Inn 
23 June 1817, and went the western circuit, 
of which he was for many years the leader. 



Manning 



6 9 



Manning 



His reputation rested mainly upon his learn- 
ing. He was no orator, and his powers of 
advocacy were slight; but as a junior he ob- 
tained much business. By his knowledge of 
copyhold law he secured a perpetual retainer 
from the lord of the manor of Taunton Dean, 
Somerset, whose rights were the subject of 
continual litigation. He enjoyed the friend- 
ship of Lords Brougham and Denman, and 
rendered them assistance in the defence of 
Queen Caroline. He was appointed recorder 
of Sudbury in 1835, and recorder of Oxford 
and Banbury in November 1837, three offices 
which he held till his death. He was raised 
to the degree of a serjeant-at-law 19 Feb. 
1840, received a patent of precedence April 
1845, and was made queen's ancient Serjeant 
in 1846. This dignity, revived at his own 
suggestion, after a long interval of dormancy, 
entitled him to a seat in the House of Lords, 
ex officio, but gave him no right of speaking, 
unless consulted, or of voting. He became 
judge of the Whitechapel County Court in 
March 1847, from which he retired in Fe- 
bruary 1863 on a pension of 700/. He died at 
44 Phillimore Gardens, Kensington, London, 
on 29 Aug. 1866. He was twice married : 
first, on 7 Sept. 1820, to Clarissa, daughter 
of William Palmer of Kimbolton, Hereford- 
shire (she died 15 Dec. 1847, aged 51) ; and 
secondly, on 3 Dec. 1857, to Charlotte, daugh- 
ter of Isaac Solly of Leyton, Essex, and widow 
of William Speir, M.D., of Calcutta (she died 
1 April 1871). 

Manning was the author of: 1. 'A Di- 
gested Index to the Nisi Prius Reports of T. 
Peake, I. Espinasse, and Lord Campbell, with 
Notes and References,' 1813. 2. 'The Prac- 
tice of the Exchequer of Pleas, Appendix,' 
1816. 3. 'A Digest of the Nisi Prius Reports, 
with Notes and References,' 1820. 4. ' The 
Practice of the Court of Exchequer, Revenue 
Branch,' 1827, with an appendix containing 
an inquiry into the tenure of the conven- 
tionary estates in Cornwall, 1827. 5. l Ser- 
viens ad Legem: a Report of Proceedings 
... in relation to a Warrant for the Sup- 
pression of the Antient Privileges of the 
Serjeants-at-Law,' 1840. 6. ' Cases in the 
Court of Common Pleas, 1841-6,' 7 vols. (with 
T. C. Granger). 7. ' Observations on the 
Debate to make lawful Marriages within cer- 
tain of the Prohibited Degrees of Affinity,' 
1854. 8. 'An Inquiry into the Character 
and Origin of the Possessive Augment in 
English and in cognate Dialects,' 1864. 
9. 'Thoughts upon Subjects connected with 
Parliamentary Reform,' 1866. With Archer 
Ryland he wrote 10. 'Reports of Cases in 
Court of King's Bench, 8 Geo. I V-ll Geo. IV, 
1828-37,' 5 vols. With T. C. Granger and 



J. Scott he wrote 11. 'Common Bench Re- 
ports, 1846-57,' 9 vols. 

[Law Mag. and Law Keview, 1866, xxii. 174- 
Law Times, 1866, xli. 767, 808.] G-. C.' B. 

MANNING, MARIE (1821-1849), mur- 
deress, whose maiden name was Marie de 
Roux, was born at Lausanne, Switzerland, 
in 1821, and entered domestic service in 
England. At first maid to Lady Palk of 
Haldon House, Devonshire, she entered the 
service of Lady Blantyre at Stafford House 
in 1846, and on 27 May 1847 married, at St. 
James's Church, Piccadilly, Frederick George 
Manning, a publican. She had previously 
made the acquaintance of Patrick O'Connor, 
a ganger in the London Docks, and this 
friendship was continued after her marriage. 
On 9 Aug. 1849 O'Connor dined with the 
Mannings at their house, 3 Miniver Place, 
Bermondsey. Husband and wife, according 
to a preconcerted plan, thereupon murdered 
their guest and buried his body under the 
flagstones in the kitchen. On the same day 
Mrs. Manning visited O'Connor's lodgings, 
Greenwood Street, Mile End Road, and re- 
peated the visit next day, stealing the dead 
man's railway scrip and money. The police 
on 17 Aug. discovered O'Connor's remains, 
and soon after apprehended his murderers. 
They were tried at the Old Bailey on 25 and 
26 Oct., found guilty, and executed at Horse- 
monger Lane Gaol on 13 Nov. Mrs. Man- 
ning wore a black satin dress on the scaffold, 
a fact which caused that material to become 
unpopular for many years. Charles Dickens 
wrote a letter to the ' Times ' on the wicked- 
ness and levity of the mob during the exe- 
cution. Mademoiselle Hortense, Lady Ded- 
lock's waiting- woman in ' Bleak House,' was 
suggested to Dickens by Mrs. Manning's 
career. 

[Times, 18 Aug. 1849 et seq., 26, 27, and 
29 Oct.; Central Criminal Court, Minutes of 
Evidence, 1 849, xxx. 654-79 ; Celebrated Crimes 
and Criminals, 1890, pp. 51-72; Donald Nicoll's 
Man's Eevenge, 1890, pp. 71-83; C. Dickens's 
The Story of his Life, 1870, p. 214; Huish's 
Progress of Crime, 1849, with portrait; Trial 
of Gr. and M. Manning, 1849, with portraits.] 

G. C. B. 

MANNING, OWEN (1721-1801), the 
historian of Surrey, son of Owen Manning 
of Orlingbury, Northamptonshire, was born 
there on 11 Aug. (O.S.) 1721, and received 
his education at Queens' College, Cambridge, 
where he graduated B.A. in 1740, M.A. in 
1744, and B.D. in 1753. While an under- 
graduate he nearly succumbed to small-pox, 
and was at one period of the attack actually 
laid out for interment. He was elected in 



Manning 



Manning 



1741 to a fellowship which carried with it 
the living of St. Botolph, Cambridge. He 
retained both these preferments until he 
married in 17<55. He was chaplain to Dr. 
Thomas, bishop of Lincoln, who collated him 
to the prebend of South Scarle in the church 
of Lincoln, 5 Aug. 17o7, and on 15 March 
1760 to that of Milton Ecclesia, in the same 
church, consisting of the impropriation and 
advowson of the church of Milton, Oxford- 
shire (LE NEVE, Fasti, ed. Hardy, ii. 188, 
207). In 1763 he was presented by Dr. Green, 
dean of Salisbury, to the vicarage of Godal- 
ming, Surrey, where he resided till his death. 
In 1769 he was presented by Viscount Midle- 
ton to the rectory of Pepper Harrow, an ad- 
joining parish. He was elected F.R.S. 10 Dec. 
1767, and F.S.A. in 1770. He died at Godal- 
inmg on 9 Sept. 1801. His parishioners 
placed a handsome marble tablet to his 
memory in the church, and some private 
friends put an inscription on a headstone in 
the churchyard (Hist, of Surrey, i. 640). 

By Catherine, his wife, daughter of Mr. 
Reade Peacock, a quaker, mercer, of Hunting- 
don, he had three sons and five daughters, 
all of whom survived him except George 
Owen Manning, his eldest son (B.A. of 
Queens' College, Cambridge, 1778), and one 
of the daughters, who died young. 

From his first settlement in Surrey he em- 
ployed himself in amassing materials for a 
history of that county, but he did not regard 
his collections as sufficiently complete for 
publication, and a total loss of sight pre- 
vented him from having them printed under 
his own inspection. The manuscripts were 
eventually entrusted to the care of William 
Bray [q. v.] the antiquary, who published 
them, with large additions and a continua- 
tion by himself, for the benefit of Manning's 
widow, under the title of ' The History and 
Antiquities of the County of Surrey, with 
a facsimile Copy of Domesday, engraved on 
thirteen Plates,' three magnificent volumes, 
London, 1804-9-14, fol. It is one of the best 
of our county histories. In the British Mu- 
seum there is a sumptuous copy, 'illustrated 
by upwards of six thousand drawings, prints, j 
maps, and plans ; portraits, architectural and ' 
other delineations of the churches, monastic 
edifices, and old manor-houses, pedigrees, and 
heraldic insignia of families,' &c., 30 vols. 
London, 1847, fol. (a collection formed by 
Richard Percival). There appeared at London 
in 1819, fol., 'The Ecclesiastical Topography 
of the County of Surrey, containing Views of 
Churches in that County (to illustrate Man- 
ning and Bray's History of Surrey), drawn 
by Hill and engraved by Peak.' 

Manning completed the Saxon dictionary 



of his friend the Rev. Edward Lye, and pub- 
lished it under the title of l Dictionarium 
Saxonico et Gothico-Latinum. Accedunt 
Fragmenta Versionis Ulphilanse, necnon 
Opuscula quaedam Anglo-Saxonica. Edidit, 
nonnullis Vocabulis auxit, plurimis Exemplis 
illustravit, et Grammaticam utriusque Lin- 
guae praemisit Owen Manning,' 2 vols. London, 
1772, fol. He also translated and annotated 
' The Will of King Alfred,' from the original 
in Thomas Astle's library ; this was printed 
in 1788, under the editorship of Sir Herbert 
Croft [see ASTLE, THOMAS]. 

[Memoir prefixed to vol. i. of the History of 
Surrey; Nichols's Lit. Anecd. vii. 248, ix. 445, 
x. 622 ; Nichols's Illustr. Lit. (index) ; Lowndes's 
Bibl. Man. <Bohn), pp. 29, 1420,1465; Gent. 
Mag. 1801, pp. 865, 958 ; Addit. MSS. 5808 f. 
226, 5849 ff. 279, 280, 5876 f. 57.] T. C. 

MANNING, ROBERT (d. 1731), catholic 
controversialist, was educated in the English 
College at Douay, and he was for some time 
professor of humanity and philosophy there. 
Afterwards he was sent to the English 
mission, and composed various controver- 
sial treatises, which, says Dodd, were * much 
esteemed by the learned on account of their 
easy flowing style.' He appears to have been 
chaplain to Lord Petre, baron of Writtle, to 
whose family, as he remarks, he was indebted 
for all he possessed in this world. He died 
in Essex on 4 March (O.S.) 1730-1. 

His works are : 1 . l The shortest Way to 
end disputes about Religion. The Answer 
to all Objections against Infallibility con- 
tained in a book entitled The Case Stated ' 
(between the Church of Rome and the Church 
of England. By C. Leslie). Two parts, 
Brussels, Antwerp, 171 6, 8vo ; another edition, 
Brussels, 1716, 8vo. In the latter edition the 
errata are corrected and part ii. is without 
title-page; reprinted, Dublin, 1827, 12mo. 
A reply appeared under the title of 'A 
Treatise of Infallibility . . . By a Presbyter 
of the suffering Church of Scotland,' Edin- 
burgh, 1752, 8vo. 2. 'Modern Controversy; 
or, a plain and rational Account of the Catho- 
lick Faith : in three parts,' 1720, 8vo. 3. ' The 
Case Stated between the Church of Rome 
and the Church of England, in a second 
Conversation betwixt a Roman Catholick 
Lord and a Gentleman of the Church of 
England/ sine loco, 1721, 8vo (anon.) ; re- 
printed, with an address by Richard Coyne, 
under the title of ' The celebrated Answer to 
the Rev.C. Lesley's Case . . . printed word 
for word, and refuted sentence after sentence/ 
Dublin, 1839 and 1842, 12mo. 4. 'England's 
Conversion and Reformation compared, or the 
Young Gentleman directed in the Choice of his 
Religion' (anon.), Antwerp, 1725, 8vo ; re- 



Manning 



Manning 



printed, Belfast, 1817, 8vo ; first American 
edition. Lancaster, 1813, 12mo. A reply by 
Joseph Trapp, D.D., appeared under the title of 
'The Church of England defended against the 
Calumnies and False Reasonings of the Church 
of Rome,' London, 1727, 8vo. This elicited 
from Manning 5. ' A Single Combat, or per- 
sonal dispute between Mr. Trapp and his 
anonymous antagonist . . . Whether Mr. 
Trapp or the Author [of f England's Conver- 
sion and Reformation compared'] has writ 
nonsense?' Antwerp, 1728, 8vo. 6. 'The 
Rise and Fall of the Heresy of Iconoclasts, 
or Image-Breakers. Being a brief Relation 
of the Lives and Deaths of those Emperors of 
the East, who first set it up . . . or . . . 
oppos'd it. From the year 717 to 867. Col- 
lected by R. M.,' London, 1731, 8vo (cf. Notes 
and Queries, 4th ser. i. 32). 7. ' Moral En- 
tertainments on the most important Prac- 
tical Truths of the Christian Religion/ 3 vols. 
London, 1742, 12mo. Dedicated to Lord Petre. 
A posthumous publication. A treatise 'Of 
Devotion to the Blessed Virgin Mary,' ex- 
tracted from this work, was published at 
London, 1787, 12mo. 

[Dodd's Church Hist. iii. 488 ; Gillow's Bibl. 
Diet. vol. i. Preface p. xiii; Cat. of Library of 
Trin. Coll. Dublin; Notes and Queries, ]st ser. 
xi. 28.] T. C. 

MANNING, SAMUEL (d. 1847), sculp- 
tor, is perhaps identical with S. Manning, 
jun., who in 1806 exhibited at the Royal 
Academy a model of a young lady. He was 
possibly the son of Charles Manning, sculptor, 
who exhibited at the Royal Academy from 
1801 to 1812, and appears to have died in 
that year or the next, as in 1813 an engrav- 
ing of the monument to Captain Hardinge in 
St. Paul's Cathedral, executed by Manning, 
was published by Sarah Manning, probably 
his widow. Samuel Manning was a pupil 
and assistant of John Bacon the younger, 
and assisted in or carried out many of his 
works. Among these may be noted the 
monument of Warren Hastings in West- 
minster Abbey, for which Manning did the 
bust, and some memorial slabs to the Met- 
calfe family in Hawstead Church, Suffolk. 
In 1819 Manning sent a bust to the Royal 
Academy, in 1820 a statue of the Princess 
Charlotte, and in 1822 a model of a statue of 
John Wesley. There are three monumental 
slabs by him in St. Paul's Cathedral. Man- 
ning died in 1847, leaving a son, 

SAMUEL MANNING the younger (fl. 1846), 
who began to practise modelling in 1829. 
In 1830 he received a premium from the 
Society of Arts for a model of a bust from 
the antique, in 1831 a premium for a bust 



from the life, and in 1833 the gold medal for a 
model of a statue of Prometheus. This statue 
he subsequently executed in marble, and ex- 
hibited at the Royal Academy in 1845. It 
was engraved by B. Holl in the ' Art Union ' 
for 1846. On 13 Aug. 1846 he married 
Honoria, daughter of Captain James Wil- 
liams. 

[Redgrave's Diet, of Artists ; Art Union, 1846, 
p. 528 ; Eoyal Academy Catalogues ; Gent. Mag. 
1846, pt. ii. p. 528 ; information from the Rer. 
Leslie Mercer.] L. C. 

MANNING, SAMUEL (1822-1881), 
baptist minister, was born at Leicester in 
1822. His father, who was several times 
mayor of Leicester, acted for many years as 
churchwarden of St. Martin's in that town, 
but subsequently left the church of England, 
and with his family attended the ministry of 
Mr. Mursell, a well-known baptist preacher. 
After a short business career in Liverpool, 
Manning entered in 1840 the Baptist College 
at Bristol. In 1846, having completed his 
education at Glasgow University, he became 
a baptist minister at Sheppard's Barton, 
Frome, Somerset, where he remained until 
1861. During his pastorate he contributed 
largely to denominational as well as to gene- 
ral literature, and was for some years editor 
of the ' Baptist Magazine.' In 1863 he be- 
came the general book editor of the Religious 
Tract Society, and when, in 1876, it was re- 
solved that in future there should be two 
secretaries of the society, Manning was 
unanimously chosen one of them. He died 
at 35 Ladbroke Grove, London, on 13 Sept. 
1881. He had frequently refused an offer of 
the degree of D.D., but" a few years before 
his death he accepted the diploma of LL.D. 
from the university of Chicago. 

Manning contributed to ' The Church ' a 
series of papers called ' Infidelity tested by 
Fact,' reissued in book form in 1850 ; edited 
selections from the ' Prose Writings ' of 
John Milton (1862); and projected the well- 
known series of illustrated books of travel 
published by the Religious Tract Society. 

[Guardian, 21 Sept. 1881, p. 1309; Bookseller, 
5 Oct. 1881, p. 885; Baptist Mag. Ixxiii. 479.] 

(T. G. 

MANNING, THOMAS (1772-1840), 
traveller and friend of Charles Lamb, born 
at Broome, Norfolk, 8 Nov. 1772, was the 
second son of the Rev. William Manning, 
successively rector of Broome and Diss, who 
died at Diss on 29 Nov. 1810, aged 77, by 
his wife Elizabeth, only child of the Rev. 
William Adams, rector of Rollesby in the 
same county, who died at Diss on 28 Jan. 
1782, aged 34. His elder brother, William, 



Manning 



Manning 



was educated at the grammar school, Bury 
St. Edmunds: but Thomas, through ill- 
health, was trained for the university in his 
father's rectory. He matriculated at Caius 
College, Cambridge, in 1790, where his bro- 
ther, afterwards a fellow and tutor, had pre- 
ceded him (Gent. Mag. 1857, pt. i. p. 364), 
and remained a scholar on the foundation 
from Michaelmas 1790 to Lady-day 1795, 
applying himself eagerly to the study of 
mathematics. But he objected to oaths and 
tests, and did not take his degree. He remained 
at Cambridge as a private tutor for some years, 
was friendly with Person, and in the autumn 
of 1799 made the acquaintance of Charles 
Lamb, through the introduction of Charles 
Lloyd [q. v.] Manning is mentioned in the 
* Essays of Elia ' (in the ' Old and New School- 
master ') as ' my friend M., who with great 
painstaking got me to think I understood the 
first proposition in Euclid, but gave me over 
in despair at the second.' While at Cam- 
bridge he grew interested in the structure of 
the Chinese language, and he ardently desired 
to study the moral and social characteristics 
of the Chinese. He proceeded to Paris in 
1800, and for more than three years studied 
Chinese under Dr. Hagan and in the Na- 
tional Library. There he became friendly 
with several scientific inquirers, and espe- 
cially with Carnot, to whom he communi- 
cated many ideas afterwards incorporated 
by Carnot in his treatises (Biog. Univ. xxvi. 
362-4). After the breaking out of war be- 
tween France and England in 1803, the re- 
spect which Carnot and Talleyrand had for 
Manning's plans induced them to solicit 
Napoleon to grant him leave to return to 
England, and his passport was the only one 
which was signed by the emperor. He in- 
tended to have proceeded from his own 
country to Russia, and thence to China if j 
possible by the north, but soon found that | 
he could not perfect himself in Chinese j 
while in England, and determined, in spite 
of the appeal of Charles Lamb, to dwell at 
Canton for that purpose. The theory of 
medicine had long been familiar to him, and 
for six months before May 1806 he attended 
its practice, mainly at the Westminster 
Hospital. On 31 'May 1806 Sir Joseph 
Banks, as president of the Royal Society, 
addressed a letter to the court of directors of 
the East India Company, supporting Man- 
ning's application to be allowed to proceed 
to Canton as a doctor. The court thereupon 
gave him a free passage, and ordered that he 
should live in the English factory. Next 
month he quitted England, when, writes 
Mary Lamb, ' the loss of Manning made 
Charles very dull ' ( W. HAZLITT, Memoirs, 



i. 138), and in 1807 he arrived at Canton. 
He made several unsuccessful attempts to 
penetrate into the interior of China, and 
with the single exception of a visit to Cochin 
China, in February 1808, he remained at 
Canton until 1810. Early in that year he 
went to Calcutta, with a recommendation 
from the select committee at Canton to Lord 
Minto, the governor-general, and after a few 
months' lionising in a society which was 
attracted by his flowing beard, his eccentri- 
city of dress and manner, and by his love of 
banter and paradox, proceeded, without any 
aid from the government, and with a single 
Chinese servant, to Rangpur on a journey 
to Lhasa. He entered Bhutan by the Lakhi 
Duar in September 1811, and reached Pari- 
jong, on the frontier of Tibet, on 20 Oct. 
There he found a Chinese general with troops, 
some of whom he cured of illness, and in their 
company he travelled, as a medical man, to 
Lhasa (December 1811), being the first, and 
for many years the sole, Englishman to enter 
the holy city. He remained in it for some 
months, but under peremptory orders from 
Peking was sent back to India, leaving 
Lhasa on 19 April 1812, and arriving at 
Calcutta in the ensuing summer. In this 
enterprise he displayed great courage and 
energy, but he was at times ' quick tem- 
pered and imprudent.' Manning wrote from 
India to Dr. Marshman a ' long and interest- 
ing narrative ' of this journey, which is now 
lost ; but the incidents of the expedition 
were jotted down by him day by day in a 
rough notebook, which was copied out fair 
by his sister and printed by Mr. C. R. 
Markham, C.B., F.R.S., with an introductory 
memoir, in 1876. To the officials at Cal- 
cutta he declined to give any particulars of 
the travel, and he proceeded once more to 
Canton to dwell in the factory. In 1816 
Manning consented to accompany Lord Am- 
herst's embassy to Peking as junior secre- 
tary and interpreter, but when he joined the 
party Lord Amherst objected to his flowing 
beard as ' incongruous ' in a British embassy, 
though the objection was abandoned on the 
refusal of Sir George Staunton to go without 
him. On the termination of the embassy he 
started homeward in the Alceste, but the 
ship was wrecked near Simda on 17 Feb. 
1817, and the passengers were taken to St. 
Helena in the following July, when in very 
happy language he reminded the fallen em- 
peror of the passport which he had granted 
him. He returned to England a disappointed 
man, quitted its shores in August 1827 for a 
visit of two years to Italy, and then returned 
to live in strict retirement, first at Bexley in 
Kent, and afterwards at a cottage called 



Manning 



73 



Manning 



Orange Grove, near Dartford. The house 
was never furnished, and Manning lived in 
a vast library of Chinese books, but the charm 
of his conversation attracted many visitors, 
including ministers of the crown and the chief 
men of letters: In 1838 he was afflicted with 
a paralytic stroke, which disabled his right 
hand, and to secure better medical attention 
he removed to Bath ; but before leaving his 
cottage he plucked out the whole of bis beard 
by the roots. He died at Bath of apoplexy 
on 2 May 1840, and was buried in the Abbey 
Church on 8 May. Though he never made 
much progress in colloquial Chinese, he was 
master of its classical literature, and was 
considered the first Chinese scholar in Europe 
(Friend of India, 30 July 1840, p. 482). 

Manning wrote ' An Introduction to 
Arithmetic and Algebra,' Cambridge, 1796 ; 
vol. ii. Cambridge, 1798; 'An Investigation 
of a Differential Series,' included in Ma- 
seres's * Scriptores Logarithmici,' vi. 47-62 ; 
and ' A New Method of Computing Loga- 
rithms '(< Philos. Trans.' 1806, pp. 327-41). 
He is said to have revised the proof-sheets 
of the ' Reports on the Poor Laws,' and on 
his return in 1817 to have drawn up a paper 
on the consumption of tea in Bhutan, Tibet, 
and Tartary. His description of the mode 
of preparing tea in Tibet is in Samuel Ball's ! 
'Account of Tea in China,' 1848, p. 199. 
He was familiar with fifteen languages, and 
his manuscript papers and printed books 
were given by his brother to the Royal 
Asiatic Society. The books were to be pre- 
served in a separate case, and a catalogue of 
them was undertaken by Mr. Samuel Ball 
(Ann. Reg. May 1841, p. vi). The edition 
of Charles Lamb's letters by Canon Ainger 
contains in the text and notes all his letters 
to Manning, several of which had not been 
printed before. The ' Dissertation upon 
Roast Pig ' begins with a reference to a 
Chinese manuscript, which 'my friend M. 
was obliging enough to read and explain to 
me.' Manning was acquainted with Henry 
Crabb Robinson, and is sometimes mentioned 
in his ' Diary.' 

[Memoir by C. R.Markham, esq.; Gent. Mag. 
July 1840, pp. 97-100, by A. J. Dunkin ; Notes 
nnd Queries, 2nd ser. x. 143-4, 5th ser. iii. 272 ; 
Peter Auber's China, pp. 218-23 ; Hazlitt's Me- 
moirs of W. Hazlitt, i. 138, 162; Essays of Elia, 
ed. Ainger, pp. 67, 164, 388; Letters of Lamb, 
ed. Ainger, i. 324 ; information from his nephew, 
the Rev. C. R. Manning of DissJ W. P. C 

MANNING, WILLIAM (1630 P-1711), 
ejected minister, was born, probably in Essex, 
about 1630. He was one of three brothers, 
all holding benefices till the Uniformity Act 
of 1662, and members, while beneficed, of 



congregational churches; John (d. 1694), who 
entered Emmanuel College, Cambridge, in 
1633, and graduated M.A. in 1641, was per- 
petual curate of Peasenhall, Suffolk; Samuel 
was perpetual curate of Walpole, Suffolk. 
William, whose place of education is un- 
known (not Emmanuel College), was perpe- 
tual curate of Middleton, Suffolk, and ejected 
for nonconformity in 1662. He settled at 
Peasenhall, and took out a license under the 
indulgence of 1672 as a ' congregational 
teacher in his own house 'there; his brother 
John, who remained at Peasenhall after his 
ejection, took out a similar license. Calamy 
describes William Manning as ' a man of great 
abilities and learning.' In 1686 he published 
a small volume of sermons, broad in spirit, 
but evangelical in doctrine. He was in the 
habit of preaching occasionally at Lowestoft, 
Suffolk, and this brought hirn into acquaint- 
ance with Thomas Emlyn [q. v.], who in 1689 
was chaplain at Rose Hall to Sir Robert Rich, 
a member of the presbyterian congregation at 
Lowestoft. Manning and Emlyn read Sher- 
lock's ' Vindication ' of the Trinity (1690), and 
were both led in consequence to doubt that 
doctrine. Manning soon made up his mind in 
favour of Socinianism, and argued strongly 
for it in his correspondence with Emlyn, 
which began on Emlyn's removal to Dublin 
(1691), and lasted till Manning's death. 
Several of the letters are printed in the 
1 Monthly Repository.' He seems to have 
lost no opportunity of making converts to 
his new views ; he succeeded in bringing 
over some of his hearers, and endeavoured 
without effect to gain an adherent in John 
Hurrion [q. v.], a student for the ministry 
(1698) at Heveningham, near Walpole, after- 
wards congregational minister at Denton, 
Norfolk (from 29 July 1701). His chief 
local opponent was Nathaniel Parkhurst, 
vicar of Yoxford, Suffolk. He became very 
deaf, and this led him to give up preaching 
(before 1704), but he retained an active mind, 
and took great interest in the current develop- 
ments of theological opinion. He died on 
13 Feb. 1711, aged 81, and was buried at 
Peasenhall on 15 Feb. He was married in 
1652; his wife Priscilla died on 14 June 
1710, aged 80. His great-grandson, Wil- 
liam Manning of Ormesby, Norfolk, died on 
30 June 1825, aged 93. 

He published: 'Catholick Religion . . . 
discovered in ... some Discourses upon 
Acts x. 35, 36,' &c., 1686, 12mo. 

[Calamy's Account, 1713, p. 650; Calamy's 
Continuation, 1727, ii. 806; Emlyn's Memoirs, 
1746, pp. xiii, xix sq. ; Monthly Repository, 
1817 pp. 377 sq., 387 sq., 478, 182.) pp. 497, 
705 sq., 1826 pp. 33 sq. (at p. 336 'Mr. N.' is 



Manning 



74 



Manningham 



Stephen Nye, 'Mr. 'is Nathaniel Parkhurst, 

' Mr. J.' is Gr. Jones) ; Browne's Hist. Congr. 
Norf. and Suff., 1877, pp. 336 sq., 438, 528 sq. ; 
information from the Master of Emmanuel.] 

A. G. 

MANNING, WILLIAM OKE (1809- 
1878), legal writer, born in 1809, was son of 
William Oke Manning, a London merchant, 
and nephew of James Manning [q. v.], ser- 
jeant-at-law. He was educated at Bristol 
under Dr. Lant Carpenter, who had been the 
colleague of his grandfather, James Manning, 
in the Unitarian ministry at Exeter. 

After leaving school Manning entered his 
father's counting-house. In 1839 he pub- 
lished ' Commentaries on the Law of Nations.' 
There was then no English treatise on the 
subject (though there were two by Ameri- 
cans), and Manning's book was noticeable for 
its historical method, its appreciation of the 
combination of the .ethical and customary 
elements in international law, as well as for 
the exactness of its reasoning and its artistic 
completeness. The book at first attracted 
little attention, but was gradually found use- 
ful by teachers, and was cited as an authority 
in the courts. 

The new edition, issued in 1875, was re- 
vised and enlarged by Professor Sheldon 
Amos. Manning, then incapacitated by ill- 
ness, wrote a preface. He also published 
' Remarks upon Religious Tests at the 
English L T niversities,' 1846 (reprinted from 
' Morning Chronicle'). He died, after much 
suffering, on 15 Nov. 1878, at 8 Gloucester 
Terrace, Regent's Park, aged 69. 

[Obituary notice by W. B. Carpenter in 
Athenaeum, 30 Nov. 1878; Standard, 19 Nov. 
1878 ; Brit. Mus. Cat.] G. LE G. N. 

MANNINGHAM, JOHN (d. 1622), 
diarist, was son of Robert Manningham of 
Fen Drayton, Cambridgeshire, by his wife 
Joan, daughter of John Fisher of Bledlow, 
Buckinghamshire. On 16 March 1597-8 he 
was entered a student in the Middle Temple, 
and on 7 June 1605 he was called to the de- 
gree of an utter barrister. A Tellow-student, 
Edward, son of William Curll and brother 
of Walter Curll [q. v.], afterwards bishop of 
Winchester, obtained for him the post of 
auditor of the court of wards. He was also 
befriended by a distant relative, Richard 
Manningham, who, born at St. Albans in 
1539, made a fortune in London as a mercer, 
and in his old age retired to Bradbourne, near 
Maidstone. Richard Manningham died on 
25 April 1611, and was buried in East Mailing 
Church, where John Manningham erected a 
monument to his memory. To John, his sole 
executor, Richard left his house and lands in 



Kent. John made his will on 21 Jan. 1621, 
and it was proved by Walter Curll and a 
cousin, Dr. William Roberts of En field, on 
4 Dec. 1622. 

Manningham married, about 1607, Ann, 
sister of his friend Curll. By her he had 
three sons, Richard (b. 1608), John (b. 1616), 
and Walter, and three daughters, Susannah, 
Ann, and Elizabeth. Walter Curll, by his 
will of 15 March 1646-7, left legacies to his 
sister Mrs. Manningham and her son and 
his godson Walter. She was dead before 
1656, when her eldest son Richard sold the 
property at Bradbourne to Thomas Twysden, 
serjeant-at-law (HASTED, Kent, ii. 213). 

Manningham is the author of a diary now 
preserved among the Harl. MSS. (5353), and 
first printed by the Camden Society in 1868, 
under the editorship of John Bruce. It 
covers the period from January 1601-2 to 
April 1603; at the time the writer was a 
student in the Middle Temple. The work 
is an entertaining medley of anecdotes of 
London life, political rumours, accounts of 
sermons, and memoranda of journeys. The 
gossip respecting Queen Elizabeth's illness 
and death and the accession of James I is 
set down in attractive detail, and Manning- 
ham often supplies shrewd comments on the 
character of the chief lawyers and preachers 
of the day. He also gives an interesting 
account (p. 18) of the performance of Shake- 
speare's 'Twelfth Night' on 2 Feb. 1601-2 
in the Middle Temple Hall. Collier, in 
his 'Annals of the Stage,' 1831, i. 320, in 
noticing this entry, first called attention to 
Manningham's work. The familiar anec- 
dote of Shakespeare's triumph over Richard 
Burbage [q. v.] in the pursuit of the favours 
of a lady of doubtful virtue rests on Man- 
ningham's authority (p. 39). Sir Thomas 
Bodley, John Stow, and Sir Thomas Over- 
bury are also occasionally mentioned by 
Manningham. 

[Manningham's Diary ( Camd. Soc.), ed. Bruce, 
Preface ; ' Visitation of County of Kent in 1619 ' 
in Archaeologia Cantiana, iv. 255.] S. L. 

MANNINGHAM, SIR RICHARD, 
M.D. (1690-1759), man-midwife, second son 
of Thomas Manningham [q. v.], afterwards 
bishop of Chichester, was born at Eversley, 
Hampshire, in 1690. He was intended, like 
his elder brother Thomas, for the church, and 
educated at Cambridge, where he graduated 
LL.B. in 1717. He afterwards took the de- 
gree of M.D. He took a house in Chancery 
Lane,London, and there lived till 1729, when 
he moved to the Hay market, thence in 
1734 to Woodstock Street, and in the follow- 
ing year to Jermyn Street, where he resided 



Manningham 



75 



Manningham 



for the rest of his life. On 10 March 1720 
he was elected a fellow of the Royal Society, 
and on 30 Sept. in the same year was ad- 
mitted a licentiate of the College of Physi- 
cians. On 18 Feb. 1721 he was knighted by 
George I. He was the chief man-midwife of 
his day, and was sometimes engaged in the 
summer to attend ladies in the country (The 
Febricula, p. 3), though it is an anachronism 
in ' Tristram Shandy ' (chap, xviii.) to repre- 
sent him as so deeply engaged in practice in 
1718 as to be unable to undertake Mrs. 
Shandy's case. In 1726 he published ' Exact 
Diary of what was observed during a close 
attendance upon Mary Toft the pretended 
Eabbit Breeder.' Mary Toft [q. v.] at God- 
aiming declared that she had given birth to 
several rabbits, and fragments of these were 
produced. Manningham showed that these 
were pieces of adult and not of young rabbits, 
and that the woman was not parturient at 
all. The court took a deep interest in the 
rabbit-breeder. She afterwards confessed the 
fraud, but Manningham in his account fails 
to determine whether the imposture began 
as an hysterical attempt to attract notice or 
was a mere piece of sordid knavery through- 
out. Hogarth drew Mary Toft, all the town 
talked of the affair, and Manningham's name 
became more widely known. Manningham 
published in 1740 * Artis Obstetricariee Com- 
pendium,' with a pretentious title of fifty- 
eight words. The parts of the subject are 
arranged in tabular forms, each tabulation 
being followed by a series of aphorisms. 
An English translation was published by the 
same publisher in 1744. In 1750 appeared his 
' Treatise on the Symptoms, Nature, Causes, 
and Cure of the Febricula or Little Fever,' 
which reached a third edition in 1755. The 
term 'febricula' is still in use for any slight 
continued fever, and perhaps the only value 
of this treatise is, that it shows the danger 
of using a general term which tends to check 
exhaustive inquiry into the cause of any par- 
ticular rise of temperature. Manningham 
shows no grasp of the importance of the sub- 
ject, while the fact that the thermometer was 
not used in his day deprives his work of all 
precision. He describes under this one heading 
cases of diseases as widely separated as enteric 
fever, phlebitis, and a common cold. In 1756 
he published in Latin 'Aphorismata Medica,' 
which is a revised and enlarged edition of 
his compendium, and in 1758 ' A Discourse 
concerning the Plague and Pestilential 
Fevers/ which is an enlargement of ' The 
Plague no Contagious Disorder,' a pamphlet 
which he had issued anonymously in 1744. 
In 1739 he established a ward in the paro- 
chial infirmary of St. James's, Westminster, 



for parturient women, the first ward of the 
kind established in Great Britain. He lec- 
tured there on midwifery, and the whole fee 
for his course of instruction was twenty 
guineas (Abstract of Midwifery, p. 35). He 
died 11 May 1759 at Chelsea, and he was 
buried there (Gent. Mag. 1759, p. 146). Dr. 
Thomas Denman [q. v.] says he was 'suc- 
cessful in practice and very humane in the 
exercise of his art ' (Midwifery, 3rd ed., 1801, 
p. xxxi). 

Thomas Manningham, his second son, gra- 
duated M.D. at St. Andrews, 24 May 1765, 
and became a licentiate of the College of 
Physicians 25 June. He lived in his father's 
house in Jermyn Street, London, till 1780, 
when he went to Bath and died there 3 Feb. 
1794. 

[Munk's Coll. of Phys. ii. 75, 267; Manning- 
ham's Works; Thomson's Hist, of Royal Soc. 
1812, p. xxxv ; Nichols's Literary Anecdotes, i. 
210-11, 346, vi. 97.] N. M. 

MANNINGHAM, THOMAS (1651?- 

1722), bishop of Chichester, born about 
1651 in the parish of St. George, South- 
wark, was son of Richard Manningham, 
rector of Michelmersh, Hampshire. He was 
admitted in 1661 scholar of Winchester 
(KiKBY, Winchester Scholars, p. 191), whence 
he proceeded with a scholarship to New 
College, Oxford, matriculating on 12 Aug. 
1669. He was fellow from 1671 till 1681, 
and graduated B.A. in 1673, M.A. on 
15 Jan. 1676-7 (FOSTER, Alumni Oxon. 
1500-1714). He became, says Wood, < a high- 
flown preacher, and for some time tutor to 
Sir John Robinson, bart., eldest son of Sir 
John Robinson, sometime lieutenant of the 
Tower.' In 1681 he was presented to the 
rectory of East Tisted, Hampshire. The 
king, who admired his preaching, promised 
him the prebend of Winchester, vacated by 
the promotion of Thomas Ken to the bishopric 
of Bath and Wells ; it proved, however, to 
be in the gift of the lord keeper, and one 
Thomas Fox obtained it. In November 1684 
Manningham was made preacher at the Rolls, 
and from about 1689 to 1692 was head-master 
of Westerham grammar school, Kent. He 
subsequently became rector of St. Andrew, 
Holborn, on 8 Sept. 1691 ; chaplain in ordi- 
nary to William and Mary ; canon of Windsor 
on 28 Jan. 1692-3 (LE NEVE, Fasti, ed. Hardy, 
iii. 405) ; rector of Great Ilaseley, Oxford- 
shire, 1708; and dean of Windsor on 26 Feb. 
1708-9 (ib. iii. 376). On 21 Dec. 1691 the 
Archbishop of Canterbury created him D.D. 
He was consecrated bishop of Chichester on 
13Nov. 1709(i*. i. 253), and dying on 25 Aug. 
1722 at his house in Greville Street, Holborn, 



Mannock 



7 6 



Manny 



was buried in St. Andrew's, Holborn. The 
inscription on his monument, which is over 
the north gallery of the church, has long 
been illegible. His wife Elizabeth (1657- 
1714) was buried in Chichester Cathedral, 
where there is a monument to her memory 
(LE NEVE, Mon. Angl. 1650-1718, p. 257, 
No. 529). In his will he mentions three sons 
Thomas Manningham, D.D. (d. 1750), trea- 
surer of Chichester in 1712 (LE NEVE, Fasti, 

1. 269), prebendary of Westminster in 1720 
(ib. iii. 364), and rector of Slinfold and Sel- 
sey, Sussex ; Sir Richard Manningham, M.D. 
[q. v.]: and Simon Manningham, prebendary 
of Chichester (1719-67) and vicar of East- 
bourne (1720-34) and two married daugh- 
ters, Mary Rawlinson and Dorothea Walters, 
besides five other children. 

Manningham printed a large number of 
his sermons between 1680 and his death, 
and was author of 'Two Discourses,' 8vo, 
London, 1681, and 'The Value of Church 
and College Leases consider'd ' in Sir Isaac 
Newton's ' Tables,' 12mo, 1742. 

[Wood's Athense Oxon. (Bliss), iv. 555 ; will 
registered in P. C. C. 176, Marlboro'; Nichols's 
Lit. Anecd. i. 207-11; Chester's Westminster 
Abbey Registers, pp. 339, 38 1 ; Notes and Queries, 
3rd ser. ix. 278, 7th ser. iv. 192, 295.] G. G. 

MANNOCK, JOHN (1677-1764), Bene- 
dictine monk, born at Giffords Hall, Suffolk, 
in 1677, was second son of Sir William Man- 
nock, the third baronet, of Giffords Hall, by 
his wife Ursula, daughter of Henry Neville, 
esq., of Holt, Leicestershire. On 24 Oct. 
1693 he was admitted a student of the 
English College at Rome. He afterwards 
became a monk of the Benedictine order, 
making his profession at St. Gregory's Con- 
vent, Douay, 7 March 1700, taking in re- 
ligion the name of Father Anselm. After 
being ordained at Liege he was sent to Eng- 
land on the mission, and from 1709 till 1759 
he acted as chaplain to the Canning family 
at Foxcote, Warwickshire. He held several 
offices in his order, being appointed pro- 
curator of the southern province in 1729, de- 
finitor of the province in 1755, and definitor 
of the regimen and titular cathedral prior of 
Worcester in 1757. Hewas stationed at Kel- 
vedon Hall, Essex, from 1759 until his death, 
which took place there on 30 Nov. 1764. 

His works are : 1. ' The Creed Expounded, 
or the Light of Christian Doctrine set up on 
the Candlestick of Orthodox Interpretation. 
. . . To which is premised a short Essay on 
Faith, byway of introduction,' London, 1735. 

2. * The Poor Man's Catechism, or the Chris- 
tian Doctrine explained. With short Admoni- 
tions,' London, 1762. 3. ' The Poor Man's 



Controversy' [London?], 1769, pp. 136. A 
posthumous work, the manuscript of which 
is at St. Gregory's College, Downside, near 
Bath, where several other works by Mannock 
are also preserved in manuscript, including 
4. 'The Poor Man's Companion.' 5. 'A 
Summary or Abridgment of the Christian 
Doctrine.' 6. 'Annus Sacer Britannicus, or 
short Lives of the English Saints,' 3 vols. 
7. ' Thesaurus Praedicatorum.' 8. i A Com- 
mentary on the Bible,' 9 vols. 9. ' An His- 
torical Catechism of the Old Testament.' 
10. 'An Historical Catechism on the Life 
and Death of Christ.' 

[Downside Review, iv. 156, vi. 137; Foley's 
Records, v. 548, 549, vi. 443 ; Oliver's Catholic 
Religion in Cornwall, p. 519 ; Snow's Necrology, 
p. 114; Weldon's Chronicle, App. p. 12.] T.C. 

MANNY or MAUNY, SIR WALTER 
DE, afterwards LORD DE MANNY (d. 1372), 
military commander and founder of the Char- 
terhouse, was a native of Hainault. His 
father was Jean, called Le Borgne de Mauny, 
lord of Mauny or Masny, near Valenciennes, 
and said to have been descended from the 
Counts of Hainault (FROISSART, ed. Letten- 
hove, xxii. 174). Le Borgne de Mauny, 
according to Froissart (iv. 292-8), was slain 
by private enemies in the English camp, 
before La R6ole on the Garonne in 1324 or 
1325 (BELTZ, Memorials of the Order of the 
Garter, p. 111). Froissart makes Sir Walter 
discover his body when at La Reole in 1346, 
and bury it in the church of the Friars 
Minors at Valenciennes with an epitaph, a 
supposed copy of which, containing an im- 
possible date, is quoted by Lettenhove (xxii. 
174). Manny's mother was Jeanne de Jen- 
lain, from whom he inherited that lordship 
(ib. iv. 293 ; BELTZ, p. 113). Froissart (ii. 
53, iii. 80) seems to place him fourth among 
five sons, three others of whom also fought 
in the French wars. The English authorities 
almost invariably spell his name Manny, not 
Mauny (cf. Notes and Queries, 5th ser, iii. 
347, 6th ser. ix. 26, 78, 118, 335, 377). 

Manny may have been in attendance upon 
Queen Isabella during her visit to Hainault 
in 1326 (FROISSART, ii. 53), but probably first 
came to England at the end of the next year 
in the train of Queen Philippa, who made him 
one of her esquires (ib. ii. 193, xxii. 179). 
He was knighted in 1331, and greatly dis- 
tinguished himself in the Scottish wars, ac- 
companying Edward Balliol in July 1332, by 
permission of the king, in his invasion of Scot- 
land (MuRiMUTH, p. 296), taking a foremost 
part in the siege of Berwick in the next year, 
and, if we may credit Froissart (ii. 293, 297, 
317), being left with W T illiam de Montacute 



Manny 



77 



Manny 



to guard the frontiers. He was rewarded 
with grants of land, the governorship of Me- 
rioneth (1332), and the custody of Harlech 
Castle (1334) (DTJGDALE, Baronage, ii. 148- 
149). He was probably chiefly employed in 
Scotland until his appointment on 11 Aug. 

1337 as admiral of the fleet north of the 
Thames (Fcedera, ii. 988), for there can 
hardly be any truth in the story that he took 
part in the embassy which went to Flanders 
in April (LETTENHOVE, ii. 526; GALFRID LE 
BAKER, p. 60 ; cf. Fcedera, ii. 747-8). Some 
months after his appointment he took pri- 
soner Guy de Rickenburg, bastard brother of 
Count Louis of Flanders, in a sharp skirmish 
with the garrison of the island of Cadzand, at \ 
the mouth of the Scheldt. The English au- 
thorities describe it as an accidental conflict ' 
(WALSINGHAM, Hist. Any 1. i. 222 ; Mum- j 
MTJTH, p. 80). Froissart (ii. 430) represents ' 
it as an organised expedition, dates the attack ' 
on the night of St. Martin, and gives the chief 
command to the Earl of Derby, whose life \ 
Manny saves. He may be here anticipating ! 
the earl's later association with Manny. To '\ 
Sir Walter the king, after releasing Guy of 
Flanders on 26 Jan. 1340, granted the 8,00(M. ! 
paid for his and the other prisoners' ransom 
(Fcedera, ii. 1107, 1123). Two of the ambas- | 
sadors accredited by Edward to Philip of j 
France and Louis of Flanders on 3 Oct., the j 
Bishop of Lincoln and the Earl of Suffolk, are 
said by some writers to have been on Manny's 
fleet when Cadzand was attacked (z^.pp. 811- J 
813; FROISSART, ed. Luce, i. 1348; Chronicles I 
of Edward I and Edward II, ii.' 133). On ' 
24 Nov. 1337 Manny was sent to sea with 
orders to attack the king's enemies, if he 
thought it advisable, but to return within 
three weeks (Fcedera, ii. 1005). On 24 Feb. 

1338 he was ordered to provide ships by a 
fortnight after Easter for the passage of the 
king to the continent, but was not able to 
do so in time (ib. pp. 1015, 1027). In April 
he had to convoy Brabant merchants to and 
from Ipswich and Orwell (ib. pp. 1031, 1041). 
The king gave him about this time the manors 
of Oveston in Northamptonshire and Aber in 
North Wales (Abbrev. Rotul Original ii. 126). 
He probably conveyed Edward to Antwerp 
in July. 

Before leaving England Manny, with many 
other knights, is said to have taken the ' Vow 
of the Heron/ at the instance of the fugitive 
Robert of Artois, undertaking to burn a town 
held by Godemar de Fay (WRIGHT, Political 
Songs, i. ]3). Froissart's version is that he 
bound himself to be the first to enter France 
and take a town or castle. Immediately after 
the defiance of the French king in 1339 he rode 
hastily, says Froissart, with only forty lances, 



through Brabant and Hainault, and entering 
France took a castle called Thun 1'Eveque, in 
which he left a garrison under his brother, 
Gilles Grignart, who was slain next year be- 
fore Cambray. After which he returned to 
Edward at Malines (FROISSART, ed. Letten- 
hove, ii. 487-93, iii. 83). He took part in 
all the operations of the campaign and re- 
turned to England with the king in February 
1340 (ib. iii. 8, 9, 12, 27, 53, 71). In June 

1340 he is said by Froissart to have eclipsed 
all his companions in valour at Sluys; he 
was present at the siege of Tournay in 
August, and joined in wasting the surround- 
ing country (ib. iii. 197, 235 ; BELTZ, p. 113 
nJ) Manny accompanied the king when he 
' stole home ' to surprise his ministers on 
30 Nov. (MURIMTJTH, p. 116). He is said to 
have taken part in the Scottish campaign of 

1341 (FROISSART, iii. 428, 464). 

Early in 1 342 Edward sent him to Brittany 
to help the heroic Countess of Montfort 
against Charles of Blois, empowering him to 
receive and keep towns and castles belong- 
ing to the Duke of Brittany (MURIMUTH, 
p. 125; Fcedera, ii. 1181, 1189). Froissart 
gives a glowing description of his valour and 
deeds of chivalrous daring, in the relief of 
the countess at Hennebon, in a naval victory 
over Louis of Spain at Quimperle, and in the 
siege and defence of several Breton towns 
and castles (iv. 38,44-50, 54-6, 70-96, 102-9, 
147-79). Murimuth says that after making 
a truce with Charles of Blois early in July, 
subject to the king's consent, he returned to 
England, and that Edward, not approving of 
the truce, sent the Earl of Northampton to 
Brittany (cf. Fcedera, ii. 1205). Froissart 
speaks of Manny as present with Edward in 
Brittany in the later months of the year (iv. 
192-7, 447). In June 1345 he was sent to 
Gascony with the Earl of Derby, as one of 
the two marshals who had command of the 
vanguard, according to Froissart, who largely 
ascribes to Manny the success of the two 
j brilliant campaigns in which fifty or sixty 
i towns and castles were captured (MuRi- 
j MUTH,pp.l89,248; AvESBURY,p.356; BAKER, 
p. 77 ; FROISSART, iv. 214-372, v. 89-96). 
Froissart (v. 97-108) has a circumstantial 
story relating how, on hearing of the victory 
at Crecy, Manny obtained from the Duke of 
Normandy, son of King Philip, then besieging 
Aiguillon, a safe-conduct to go to the English 
king by land, but was arrested at Orleans, 
taken to Paris and thrown into the Chatelet, 
whence he was only released on the indig- 
nant remonstrance of the Duke of Normandy 
with his father. But the siege of Aiguillon 
was raised six days before Crecy, and Derby 
in a despatch preserved by Avesbury (p. 372) 



Manny ; 

simply says that on 12 Sept. Sir Walter, in 
spite of a safe-conduct, was attacked near St. 
Jean d'Angely in Saintonge, that while his 
escort was captured and thrown into prison 
in that town, he himself escaped with diffi- 
culty. Derby, who was on his march to 
Poictiers, at once took St. Jean and released 
Manny's men. If we could credit Froissart 
(v. 143, 195-6), Edward entrusted the siege of 
Calais to him, placing the Earl of Warwick 
and Sir Ralph Stafford under his orders, and 
he induced the king to limit his vengeance, 
though he failed to save Eustache de St. Pierre 
and his companions (z.pp. 198-210, 213-15). 
Avesbury (pp. 392, 396) only tells us that he I 
was one of the five English representatives ; 
in the negotiations with the king of France j 
during the last week of July, and that after 
Calais had fallen he with seven others con- 
cluded the truce of 28 Sept. 

On 13 Nov. Manny was summoned to par- 
liament as a baron, and received writs to 
parliament and council until January 1371 
(App. to Report on Dignity of a Peer, pp. 574, 
617, 622, 625, 627, 630, 647). He frequently 
appears as a trier of petitions, and is once 
mentioned as giving j udgment in parliament 
on a traitor (Rot. Parl. ii. 164, 222, 268, 275, 
283, 289, 294, 303, iii. 12). On 14 March 
1348 Manny was once more appointed admi- 
ral of the fleet from the Thames to Berwick 
(Fcedera, iii. 156), and on 25 Sept. of the 
same year was commissioned, with the Earls 
of Lancaster and Suffolk and two others, to 
treat for peace with France (ib. p. 173). When 
the attempt to recover Calais by treachery 
on the night of 31 Dec. 1349 was frustrated, 
King Edward and the Black Prince, accord- 
ing to Froissart (v. 232-8, 243-9), honoured 
Manny by fighting under his banner, but of 
this the English authorities know nothing j 

(AVESBURY, p. 408 ; BAKER, p. 103 ; WAL- 

SINGHAM, i. 273-4). He may have taken | 
part in the sea-fight with the Spaniards off 
Winchelsea on 29 Aug. 1350 (BELTZ, p. 120; 
FROISSART, v. 258). During 1349-50 he re- j 
ceived grants in Aquitaine, Berwick, and Ox- j 
fordshire, and is mentioned as marshal of the 
Marshalsey '(Abbreviatio Rotul. Origin, ii. 
199 ; DUGDALE, Baronage, ii. 149). In the 
summer of 1350 he held an inquest in Hert- 
fordshire (Gesta Abbatum St. Albani, iii. 
200), and in the autumn of that year and 
the spring of 1351 he was chosen, as a 
Hainaulter, to conduct negotiations respect- j 
ing the affairs of the Low Countries with 
Margaret of Hainault and Holland, widow 
of the Emperor Louis of Bavaria (Fcedera, 
iii. 206, 220). Manny is said to have taken 
part in the Breton campaign of 1352 (DUG- 
DALE, ii. 149). 



Manny 



Accompanying Edward to Artois in Oc- 
tober 1355, he returned with him in order 
to save Berwick. After laying the king's 
wishes before a parliament at Westminster 
on 18 Nov., he was sent forward to relieve the 
castle of Berwick and begin the recovery of 
the town, whose walls he undermined with the 
help of men from the Forest of Dean (AvES- 
BURY, pp. 429, 450; Rot. Parl. ii. 264 ; note 
to BAKER, p. 291). He was staying at West- 
minster when the news of Poictiers reached 
England (DEVON, Issues, p. 166). On 17 Jan. 
1359 he was sent to France and negotiated 
an extension of the truce, which expired on 
13 April (Fosdera, iii. 417). When Edward 
invaded France in October 1359, Manny was 
on his staff; he was given the Garter vacated 
by the death of John, lord Grey of Rother- 
field, on 1 Sept., and was presented by the 
Black Prince with ' a grisell palfrey ' (BELTZ, 
p. 120). He accompanied Edward in his 
march into Burgundy in January 1360, and 
on their return skirmished with some new- 
made knights at the very gates of Paris 
(FROISSART, vi. 209,213/221,224, 266-7). 
His name is among the guarantors of the 
treaty of Bretigni in May ; he was one of the 
guardians of King John at Calais until the 
payment of John's ransom on 25 Oct. (ib. pp. 
277, 295-7 ; BELTZ, p. 120), and on 20 Sept. 
he was appointed with others to decide upon 
the claims of Charles of Blois and John of 
Montfort (Fcedera, iii. 508). On 7 July 1362 
he was appointed a commissioner to prorogue 
the truce with Charles of Blois for one year 
(ib. p. 662). At Quesnoy on 12 May in that 
year he had acknowledged receipt of nine- 
teen thousand golden florins from Margaret, 
countess of Hainault, to whom he had lent 
considerable sums, and at the same time re- 
leased her from all claims against her and her 
son Duke Albert, but the latter was still in 
Manny's debt at his death (BELTZ, p. 121 ). He 
attended the king of Cyprus when he visited 
London to solicit English aid against the 
Turks (ib. FROISSART, vi. 384). In the autumn 
of 1364 he was with the king at Dover arrang- 
ing with Louis of Flanders for the marriage of 
his daughter to Edmund of Cambridge, when 
the news of the victory of Auray arrived 
(ib. vii. 65). He was present in the council 
in 1366 which promised help to Pedro the 
Cruel (ib. p. 110). In 1368 he was ordered 
to Ireland (LETTENHOVE, xxii. 182). In Au- 
gust 1369 he was sent with John of Gaunt 
in his invasion of France as second in com- 
mand, and Froissart relates an instance in 
which neglect of his advice robbed the army 
of an advantage (id. vii. 423, 429). On 10 Nov. 
1370 he was ordered, as lord of Merioneth, to 
fortify his castle, and on the 15th he was one 



Manny 



79 



Manny 



of the witnesses to the letters patent issued 
by the king respecting the complaints of the 
people of Aquitaine against the government 
of the Black Prince (Fosdera, iii. 901 ; FROIS- 
SART, vii. 462). 

The king by letters patent of 6 Feb. 1371 
licensed Manny to found a house of Car- 
thusian monks to be called La Salutation 
Mere Dieu (BEARCROFT, Historical Account 
of Thomas Sutton and of his Foundation in 
Charterhouse, 1737, pp. 167-73). But this 
foundation, known as the London Charter- 
house, appears to have been created ten years 
before. When the black death was raging in 
1349, Manny had purchased from the hospital 
of St. Bartholomew thirteen acres of land 
outside the 'bar of West Smithfield,' and had 
it consecrated for a burial-ground. According 
to Manny's own statement no fewer than fifty 
thousand persons were buried there during 
that year (ib.) He built on it a handsome 
chapel of the Annunciation, which gave it 
the name of ' Newchurchhaw,' and obtained 
a bull from Pope Clement VI to allow him 
to endow a college with a superior and 
twelve chaplains (ib. ; SHARPE, Calendar 
of Wills in Court of Husting, ii. 26, 107). 
But this plan seems to have been dropped. 
Michael de Northburgh, bishop of London, 
purchased the place and the patronage of the 
chapel from Manny, and, dying on 9 Sept. 
1361, left by his will 2,000/., with certain 
leases, rents, and tenements, to found aeon- 
vent of the Carthusian order in ( Newchurch- 
haw' (Hist. MSS. Comm. 9th Kep. App. 
pt. i. p. 47 ; SHARPE, ii. 62). Yet in the 
letters patent of February 1371 and Manny's 
charter, dated 28 March 1371, Manny appears 
as the founder, and the only mention of 
Northburgh is that the monks are to pray 
for his soul and those of his successors, as 
well as for Manny and his family. A papal 
bull 'in favour of ' the new house of the 
Mother of God,' usually attributed to Ur- 
ban V, but proved by Bearcroft (pp. 176-80) 
to have been granted by Urban VI in 1378, 
recites that Northburgh and Manny founded 
* conventum duplicem ordinis Cartusiensis.' 
This probably points to the solution of the 
enigma. 

Manny died in London on or about 15 Jan. 
1372 (FROISSART, ed. Lettenhove, viii. 432, 
xxii. 184 ; cf. BELTZ, p. 121). He left direc- 
tions that he should be buried without any 
pomp in the choir of the church of the Carthu- 
sian monastery which he had founded ; the 
king and his sons with numerous prelates and 
barons followed him to the grave. John of 
Gaunt had five hundred masses said for his 
soul (ib.} His will, dated 30 Nov. 1371, and 
proved at Lambeth 13 April 1372, instructed 



his executors to pay a penny to every poor 
person coming to his funeral, to pray for him 
and the remission of his sins (DUGDALE, Ba- 
ronage, ii. 150; NICOLAS, Testamenta Vetusta, 
i. 85-6). The tomb of alabaster with his 
effigy, which he ordered to be made ' like 
unto that of Sir JohnBeaucliamp in Paul's in 
London,' remained until the dissolution in 
the church of the Charterhouse, where also 
his wife and his brother, Sir William Manny > 
were buried (ib. ; Collectanea Topographica 
et Heraldica, iv. 309). 

Manny married Margaret, daughter and 
heir of Thomas 'of Brotherton,' second son of 
Edward I, and widow of John, lord Segrave, 
who died in 1352. She succeeded her father 
as countess-marshal and Countess of Norfolk, 
and many years after Manny's death was 
created Duchess of Norfolk. By her Manny 
is said to have had one son, Thomas, who 
was drowned in a well at Deptford during his 
father's lifetime. His only surviving child, 
Anne, who was seventeen years of age at his 
death, and had been married since 1368 to 
John Hastings, earl of Pembroke, became his 
heir, and outliving her husband, who called 
himself 'Lord de Manny,' by nineteen years, 
she died in 1384. The 'Escheats Roll' enu- 
merates estates of Manny and his wife in 
sixteen English counties, besides his proper- 
ties in Calais and Hainault. Pembroke sold 
the latter, including the ancestral estate of 
Manny, to his wife's cousin, Henry de Mauny, 
youngest son of Sir Walter's brother Thierri, 
who married Anne, daughter of the Earl of 
Suffolk. Henry's granddaughter, who took 
the veil, was the last of the name in the direct 
line, and Mauny passed by inheritance to the 
Sires de Renesse, who still held it at the 
end of the eighteenth century (LETTENHOVE, 
xxii. 178). In his will Manny leaves small 
legacies to two illegitimate daughters, called 
Mailosel and Malplesant, who had taken the 
veil. 

Manny was clearly one of the ablest and 
boldest of Edward Ill's soldiers of for- 
tune, but his merits certainly lost nothing 
in the hands of his countrymen, Jean le 
Bel, Jean de Kleerk, and Froissart. He was 
a fellow-townsman and patron of Froissart, 
who visited Valenciennes in his company in 
1364 (i. 125), and gave expression to his gra- 
titude directly in his poems (ed. Schiller, 
ii. 9), and indirectly in the prominence he 
assigns to his benefactor in his ' Chronicles.' 
' Mon livre,' he says (viii. 114) himself, 'est 
moult renlumine" de ses prouesses.' He is 
represented, especially in the Breton scenes, 
as the mirror of the chivalrous daring of the 
time, as ' sagement empar!6 et enlangag6 ' 
(v. 200). Yet his vengeance on Mirepoix, as 



Mannyng 



Mannyng 



related in the ' Chroniques Abregees ' (LET- 
TENHOVE, xvii. 169), coupled with Muri- 
muth's reference to his 'ssevitia' at Cadzand, 
suggests that he could on occasion be cruel. 

[Many facts about Manny's career are brought 
together in the passage of Dugdale's Baronage re- 
ferred to, and in the notes to Froissart by Baron 
Kervyn de Lettenhove, which should be com- 
pared, however, with those of M. Luce. Beltz's 
life follows Froissart almost literally. The 
Foedera are quoted in the Record edition, and 
Murimuth, Avesbury, and Walsingham in the 
Kolls Series ; Galfrid le Baker of Swynbroke, 
ed. E. Maunde Thompson ; cf. also Devon's 
Issues, p. 175; Brantingham's Issue Eoll, pp. 
,317, 432; British Museum Addit. MSS. 5937 
fol. 108, 6298 fol. 306 ; Chandos's Black Prince, 
p. 45 ; French Chronicle of London, ed. C*mden 
Soc.,p. 78; Barnes's Edward III, p. 827; Long- 
man's Edward III ; Button's James and Philip 
van Artevelde. For the question of the Charter- 
house the following works, in addition to those 
in the text, may be consulted : Dugdale's Monas- 
ticon, ed. Carey, Ellis, and Bandinel, vi. 6-9 ; 
Dugdale's History of St. Paul's, p. 34 ; Stow's 
Survey of London, ed. Strype, bk. iv. p. 61 ; 
Tanner's Notitia ; Newcourt's Repertorium Pa- 
roch. Londin. i. 578 ; Samuel Herne's Domus 
Carthusiana, 1677; and Archdeacon Hale's paper 
in the Trans, of the London and Middlesex Ar- 
chseol. Soc. iii. 309. Much the best guide is, how- 
ever, Bearcroft (quoted in text), who prints the 
documents and corrects several errors.] J. T-T. 

MANNYNG, ROBERT, or ROBERT DE 
BRTJNKE (/. 1288-1338), poet, was, as he 
says himself, 'of Brunne wake in Kesteuene' 
(Handlyng Synne in Dulwich MS. 24) ; the 
reading of other manuscripts' Brymwake ' led 
to the erroneous notion that he was an inmate 
of an imaginary ' Brimwake priory.' But it is 
abundantly clear that Robert Mannyng as 
he calls himself in his chronicle was a native 
of Brunne or Bourne in Lincolnshire, and 
entered the house of the Gilbertine canons 
at Sempringham, six miles from his native 
place, in 1288. He says that he wrote 
'Handlyng Synne' in 1303, and had then 
been in the priory fifteen years. It is pos- 
sible that, as Dr. Furnivall suggests, Mannyng 
was not a canon, but merely a lay brother. 
He would seem to have been educated at 
Cambridge, for he speaks of having been 
there with Robert de Bruce, the future king 
of Scotland, and his two brothers, Thomas 
and Alexander. If so, it is evident, from the 
way in which Mannyng refers to the Bruces, 
that this must have been subsequent to his 
entry at Sempringham, for Robert de Bruce 
the eldest was born only in 1274. It may 
be, however, that Mannyng is referring to a 
casual visit, for the Gilbertines had a house 
at Cambridge. In 1338, when Mannyng 



finished his ' Chronicle/ he was resident in 
the priory of his order at Sixhill, Lincoln- 
shire. The date of his death is unknown, 
but he must at this time have been about 
seventy years of age. 

Manny-rig's works consist of: 1. ' Hand- 
lyng Synne,' a translation of the ' Manuel 
des Pechiez ' of William of Wadington, who 
wrote under Edward I. Tanner wrongly 
describes the French original as being by 
Bishop Grossetete. Mannyng made a free 
use of his original, often curtailing, amplify- 
ing, or omitting altogether, and even insert- 
ing new matter drawn at times from his own 
experience. The whole gives an excellent 
picture of the social life, and forms a keen 
satire on the vices of his time. The known 
manuscripts are Harley 1701 (of the end of 
the fourteenth century), Bodley 415, and 
Dulwich 24 (incomplete). The first, col- 
lated with the Bodley MS., was edited by 
Dr. Furnivall for the Roxburghe Club in 
1862, together with Wadington's French text 
from Harley MSS. 273 and 4657 ; a new edi- 
tion by Dr. Furnivall is promised for the 
Early English Text Society. Halliwell, in 
his * Dictionary of Old English Words and 
Phrases,' quotes a manuscript in the midland 
dialect which appears to be lost. 2. The 
' Chronicle of England.' Of this there are 
two manuscripts, Petyt MS. 511, in the Inner 
Temple Library, and Lambeth MS. 131. The 
earlier part has been edited by Dr. Furnivall 
for the Rolls Series. The second part was 
edited by Hearne. under the title ' Peter of 
Langtoft's Chronicle, as illustrated and im- 
proved by Robert of Brunne, from the Death 
of Cadwallader to the end of King Edward 
the First's Reign,' in 1725 ; a second edition 
appeared in 1800. The work is throughout 
unoriginal, Mannyng only claiming to write 
' in simple speech for love of simple men.' In 
its earlier portion it follows for the most part 
Wace, with occasional insertions from Bede, 
Geoffrey of Monmouth, and Langtoft. Man- 
nyng would not follow the last writer en- 
tirely, because he ' over hopped ' too much of 
Geoffrey's Latin narrative. The last part of 
Mannyng's chronicle onwards is simply a 
translation of Langtoft. 3. f Meditacyuns 
of ]>e Soper of our Lorde Ihesus ; and also of 
hys Passyun ; and eke of ]?e peynes of hys 
swete moder, Mayden Marye, ]?e whyche 
made yn Latyn Bonaventure Cardynall.' 
This work follows the l Handlyng Synne ' in 
the Harley and Bodley manuscripts, and may 
be by Mannyng, as Mr. Oliphant and Mr. 
Cowper, its editor, think ; but the ascription 
is open to doubt. It was edited for the Early 
English Text Society in 1875. 

Mannyng is in no sense to be regarded as 



Mansel 



81 



Mansel 



an historian, and his 'Handlyng Synne' is 
historically more valuable than his chronicle. 
His importance is entirely literary, but in 
this department his work is of the first in- 
terest. Mr. Oliphant speaks of the ' Hand- 
lyng Synne' as 'the work which more than 
any former one foreshadowed the path that 
English literature was to tread from that 
time forward ; . . . it is a landmark worthy 
of the carefullest study.' In the same spirit 
Dr. Furnivall speaks of Mannyng as t a lan- 
guage reformer, who helped to make English 
flexible and easy.' The extension of the mid- 
land dialect, and by this means the creation 
of literary English, was no doubt aided by 
Mannyng's writings. 

[Tanner's Bibl. Brit.-Hib. p. 132, s.v. ' Brunne ; ' 
Hearne's Pref. to Langtoft ; Furnivall's Prefaces 
to Handlyng Synne and the Chronicle ; T. L. 
Kington-Oliphant's Old and Middle English, 
chap. vi. ; Ten Brink's Early English Literature, 
pp. 297-302, transl. by H. M.Kennedy; Warner's 
Cat. of Dulwich MSS. p. 347.] C. L. K. 

MANSEL, CHARLES GRENVILLE 

(1806-1886), Indian official, born in 1806, 
was appointed a writer in the East India 
Company's service on 30 April 1826. He was 
made assistant to the secretary of the western 
board of revenue in Bengal on 19 Jan. 1827 ; 
registrar and assistant to the magistrate of 
Agra and officiating collector to the govern- 
ment of customs at Agra on 10 July 1828 ; 
acting magistrate of Agra, 1830; joint magis- 
trate and deputy collector of Agra, 15 Nov. 
1831; acting magistrate and collector of 
Agra, 13 March 1832; secretary and super- 
intendent of Agra College in 1834 ; magis- 
trate and collector of Agra, 2 Nov. 1835 ; 
and temporary secretary to the lieutenant- 
governor in political, general, judicial, and 
revenue departments, 21 Feb. 1837. From De- 
cember 1838 to April 1841 he acted as Sudder 
settlement officer in Agra, and in 1842 pub- 
lished a valuable ' Report on the Settlement 
of the District of Agra.' In 1841 he became 
deputy accountant-general in Calcutta, and 
in 1843 one of the civil auditors. From 1844 
to 1849 he was on furlough, and on his re- 
turn to India was appointed a member of 
the board of administration for the affairs 
of the Punjab, under the presidency of Sir 
Henry Montgomery Lawrence [q. v.] In No- 
vember 1850 he was gazetted the resident 
at Nagpur, where he remained till 1855, 
when he retired upon the East India Com- 
pany's annuity fund. He is chiefly remem- 
bered as the junior member of the board to 
which was entrusted the administration and 
reorganisation of the Punjab after its annex- 
ation. He died at 7 Mills Terrace, West 
Brighton, on 19 Nov. Ifc86. 

VOL. XXXVI. 



[Malleson's Recreations of an Indian Official, 
1872, p. 41 ; Edwardes's Life of Sir H. Lawrence^ 
1872, ii. 136 et seq.; Kaye and Malleson's Indian 
Mutiny, 1889, i. 37, 55, 61, 126; Sir Richard 
Temple's Men and Events of my Time in India, 
1882, pp. 55, 64; Dodwell and Miles's Bengal 
Civil Servants, 1839, pp. 312-13; East India 
Registers, 1826 et seq. ; R. Boswell Smith's 
Life of Lord Lawrence, 1885, i. 246, 318, 319; 
Times, 25 Nov. 1886, p. 6.] G. C. B. 

MANSEL, HENRY LONGUEVILLE 
(1820-1871), metaphysician, born on 6 Oct. 
1820 at the rectory of Cosgrove, Northamp- 
tonshire, was the eldest son and fourth of 
the eight children (six daughters and two 
sons) of Henry Longueville Mansel (1783- 
1835), rector of Cosgrove, by his wife Maria 
Margaret, daughter of Admiral Sir Robert 
Moorsom. The Mansels are said to have been 
landowners in Buckinghamshire and Bed- 
fordshire from the time of the Conquest 
(Historical and Genealogical Account of the 
Ancient Family o/Maunsell, Mansell, Mansel, 
by William W. Mansell, privately printed in 
1850). They lived at Chicheley, Bucking- 
hamshire, for fourteen generations, till in 
the early years of the seventeenth century a 
Samuel Maunsell became possessed by mar- 
riage of Cosgrove, where the family after- 
wards lived. John Mansel, a great-grandson 
of Samuel, became a general, and was killed 
at the battle of Coteau in Flanders, when 
serving under the Duke of York. He was 
leading a brigade of cavalry in a charge 
which, as his grandson, Henry Longueville, 
stated in a letter to the 'Times,' 26 Jan. 
1855, surpassed the famous charge of the six 
hundred at Balaclava. General Mansel left 
four sons, the eldest of whom, John Christo- 
pher, retired with the rank of major, and 
lived at Cosgrove Hall; the second son, 
Robert, became an admiral ; the third, George, 
died in 1818, as captain in the 25th light dra- 
goons ; and Henry Longueville, the youngest, 
held the family living, built the rectory house, 
and lived at Cosgrove till his death. Henry 
Longueville, the son, was brought up at Cos- 
grove, for which he retained a strong affection 
through life, and showed early metaphysical 
promise, asking ' What is me:" in a childish 
soliloquy. Between the ages of eight and 
ten he was at a preparatory school kept by the 
Rev. John Collins at East Farndon, North- 
amptonshire. On 29 Sept. 1830 he entered 
Merchant Taylors' School, and was placed in 
the house of the head-master, J. W. Bellamy. 
He was irascible, though easily pacified, and 
cared little for games, but soon showed re- 
markable powers of concentration and ac- 
quisition. He had a very powerful memory, 
and spent all his pocket-money on books, 



Mansel 



Mansel 



forming ' quite a large library of the English 
poets.' He was already a strong tory, as 
became a member of an old family of soldiers 
and clergymen. He wrote in -the 'School 
Magazine' in 1832-3, and in 1838 published 
a volume of youthful verses, ' The Demons 
of the Wind and other Poems.' After his 
father's death in 1835 his mother left Cos- 
grove, and from 1838 to 1842 lived in London, 
where her two sons (the younger, Robert 
Stanley, being also at Merchant Taylors') 
lived in her house. In 1842 she returned to 
Oosgrove. In 1838 Mansel won the prize 
for English verse and a Hebrew medal given 
by Sir Moses Montefiore. In 1839 he won 
two of the four chief classical prizes, and on 
11 June 1839'was matriculated as a scholar of 
St. John's College, Oxford. He was a model 
undergraduate, never missing the morning 
service at chapel, rising at six, and, until his 
health manifestly suffered, at four, and work- 
ing hard at classics and mathematics, while 
at the same time he was sociable and popular. 
His private tutor for his last years was Arch- 
deacon Hessey, who was much impressed 
by his thoroughness in attacking difficulties 
and his skill in humorous application of 
parallels to Aristotle, drawn from Shake- 
speare or ' Pickwick.' In the Easter term of 
1843 he took a < double first.' His viva voce 
examination is said to have been disappoint- 
ing, because he insisted upon arguing against 
a false assumption involved in his examiner's 
first question. 

He began to take pupils directly after his 
degree, and soon became one of the leading 
private tutors at Oxford. He was ordained 
deacon at Christmas 1844, and priest at 
Christmas 1845 by the Bishop of Oxford. 
He found time to study French, German, 
and Hebrew, the English divines, and early 
ecclesiastical history . He became also popular 
in the common-room, where his brilliant wit 
and memory, stored with anecdotes and lite- 
rary knowledge, made him a leader of con- 
versation. His strong tory and high church 
principles made him a typical Oxford don 
of the older type. He soon published (see 
below) some logical treatises, showing great 
command of the subject, and in 1850 pub- 
lished his witty ' Phrontisterion/ an imita- 
tion of Aristophanes spontaneous and never ' 
malevolent suggested by the commission j 
appointed to examine into university orga- 
nisation and studies. 

In 1849 he stood unsuccessfully for the 
chair of logic against Professor Wall. In \ 
October 1854 he was elected as one of the j 
members of convocation upon the hebdomadal i 
council under the new regulations. On 
16 Aug. 1855 he married Charlotte Augusta, 



third daughter of Daniel Taylor of Clapham 
Common. He gave up taking pupils, though 
j he retained his tutorship at St. John's, living 
at a house in the High Street. He was after- 
wards (8 April 1864) elected ' professor fellow ' 
of St. John's. He had been enabled to marry 
by his election to the readership in moral 
and metaphysical theology at Magdalen Col- 
lege. His inaugural lecture and another upon 
Kant were published in 1855 and 1856, and 
he wrote the article upon metaphysics for 
the ' Encyclopaedia Britannica ' (eighth edi- 
tion) in 1857. He was in the same year ap- 
pointed Bampton lecturer for 1858. Although 
far from easy to follow, his lectures were 
heard by large audiences. They made a great 
impression when published, and led to a sharp 
controversy. Mansel's theory was a deve- 
lopment of that first stated by Sir William 
Hamilton in his article upon 'The Philosophy 
of the Unconditioned.' He aimed at proving 
that the ' unconditioned ' is ' incognisable 
and inconceivable,' in order to meet the cri- 
ticisms of deists upon the conceptions of 
divine morality embodied in some Jewish 
and Christian doctrines. His antagonists 
urged that the argument thus directed against 
' deism ' really told against all theism, or was 
virtually ' agnostic.' Mr. Herbert Spencer, in 
the ' prospectus ' of his philosophical writings 
(issued March 1860), said that he was ' carry- 
ing a step further the doctrine put into shape 
by Hamilton and Mansel.' F. D. Maurice 
(whom Mansel had already criticised in 
1854, in a pamphlet called ' Man's Concep- 
tion of Eternity') attacked Mansel from this 
point of view in ' What is Revelation ? ' 
Mansel called this book { a tissue of misre- 
presentations without a parallel in recent 
literature,' and replied in an ' Examination.' 
Maurice answered, and was again answered 
by Mansel. Professor Goldwin Smith in 1861 
renewed the controversy from the same side 
in a postscript to his ' Lecture on the Study 
of History/ to which Mansel also replied in a 
' Letter to Professor Goldwin Smith.' What- 
ever the legitimate conclusion from Mansel's 
arguments, he was undeniably sincere in re- 
pudiating the interpretation of his opponents. 
He argued that belief in God was reasonable, 
although our conceptions of the deity were 
inadequate ; that our religious beliefs are 
' regulative/ not ' speculative/ or founded 
rather upon the conscience than the under- 
standing, and that a revelation was not only 
possible, but actual. 

While carrying on this controversy Mansel 
was actively employed in other ways. In 
1859 he edited (with Professor Veitch) Sir 
William Hamilton's lectures. He was select 
preacher from October 1860 to June 1862 



Mansel 



Mansel 



(he held the same position afterwards from 
October 1869 till June 1871), and contributed 
to 'Aids to Faith' (1861), besides writing 
various sermons and articles. In 1865 his 
health suffered from his labours, and he took 
a holiday abroad, visiting Rome with his 
wife. On returning, he answered Mill's 
* Examination of Sir W. Hamilton's Philo- 
sophy ' in some articles in the ' Contemporary 
Review,' afterwards republished. He cri- 
ticised Mill's ignorance of the doctrines of 
Kant, but breaks oft* with an impatient ex- 
pression of contempt without completing his 
answer. In 1865 he was a prominent member 
of the committee in support of Mr. Gathorne 
Hardy against Mr. Gladstone. From 1864 
to 1868 he was examining chaplain to the 
Bishop of Peterborough (Dr. Jeune). At the 
end of 1866 he was appointed by Lord Derby 
to the professorship of ecclesiastical history, 
vacant by the death of Dr. Shirley on 30 Nov. 
He delivered in the Lent term of 1868 a course 
of lectures upon * The Gnostic Heresies,' 
published after his death. In the same year 
he was appointed to the deanery of St. Paul's 
by Mr. Disraeli. His health was weakened 
by the pressure of business at Oxford, and 
he had been much distressed by the direction 
in which the university had been developing. 
He hoped to find more leisure for literary 
projects in his new position. There was, 
however, much to be done in arranging a 
final settlement with the ecclesiastical com- 
missioners, and he was much occupied in 
finishing his share of the ' Speaker's Com- 
mentary' (the first two gospels) which he 
had undertaken in 1863. He also took the 
lead in promoting the new scheme for the 
decoration of the cathedral. He paid visits 
with his wife to his brother-in-law at Cos- 
grove Hall during his tenure of the deanery, 
and while staying there in 1871 he died 
suddenly in his sleep (30 July), from the 
rupture of a blood-vessel in the brain. A me- 
morial window, representing the incredulity 
of St. Thomas, was erected to his memory in 
the north chapel of St. Paul's Cathedral, and 
unveiled on St. Paul's day 1879. 

Many of Mansel's epigrams are remem- 
bered, and Dean Burgon has collected some 
good specimens of his sayings. If a rather 
large proportion consists of puns, some of 
them ' atrocious,' there are some really good 
sayings, and they show unforced playfulness. 
He was invariably cheerful, fond of joining 
in the amusements of children, and a simple 
and affectionate companion. The ' loveliest 
feature of his character,' says Burgon, was 
his ' profound humility,' which is illustrated 
by his readiness to ' prostrate his reason ' be- 
fore revelation, having once satisfied himself 



that the Bible was the word of God. It 
must be admitted that this amiable quality 
scarcely shows itself in his controversial 
writings. He was profoundly convinced that 
the teaching of Mill and his school was ' ut- 
terly mischievous,' as tending to materialism 
and the denial of the freedom of the will. 
His metaphysical position was that of a fol- 
lower of Sir William Hamilton, and upon 
some points the disciple was in advance of 
his master. Later developments of thought, 
however, have proceeded upon different lines. 

Mansel's works are: 1. 'The Demons of 
the Wind and other Poems,' 1838. 2. ' On 
the Heads of Predicates,' 1847. 3. ' Artis 
Logicse Rudimenta' (a revised edition of Aid- 
rich's ' Logic '). 4. ' Scenes from an unfinished 
Drama entitled Phrontisterion, or Oxford in 
the Nineteenth Century,' 1850,4th edit. 1852. 
5. ' Prolegomena Logica,' a series of Psycho- 
logical Essays introductory to the Science, 
1851. 6. 'The Limits of Demonstrative 
Science considered ' (in a Letter to Dr. Whe- 
well), 1853. 7. * Man's Conception of Eternity,' 
1854 (in answer to Maurice). 8. ' Psychology 
the Test of Moral and Metaphysical Philo- 
sophy' (inaugural lecture), 1855. 9. ' On the 
Philosophy of Kant ' (lecture), 1856. 10. Ar- 
ticle on 'Metaphysics' in eighth edition of 
' Encyclopaedia Britannica,' 1857. Repub- 
lished in 1860 as ' Metaphysics, or the Phi- 
losophy of Consciousness, Phenomenal and 
Real.' 11. 'Bampton Lectures/ 1858 (two 
editions), 1859 (two editions), and 1867. A 
preface in answer to critics is added to the 
fourth edition. 12. ' Examination of the Rev. 
F. D. Maurice's Strictures on the Bampton 
Lectures of 1858,' 1859 (in answer to Mau- 
rice's ' What is Revelation ? ') 13. ' Letter 
to Professor Gold win Smith concerning the 
Postscript to his Lectures on the Study of 
History, 1861. A second letter replied to 
Professor Smith's ' Rational Religion and the 
Rationalistic Objections of the Bampton Lec- 
tures for 1858,' 1861. 14. ' Lenten Sermons,' 
1863. 15. ' The Philosophy of the Condi- 
tioned : Remarks on Sir W. Hamilton's Phi- 
losophy, and on J. S. Mill's Examination of 
that Philosophy,' 1866. 16. ' Letters, Lec- 
tures, and Reviews' (edited by Chandler in 
1873). 17. 'The Gnostic Heresies of the 
First and Second Centuries,' with Sketch by 
Lord Carnarvon. Edited by J. B. Lightfoot, 
D.D., 1875. Mansel edited Hamilton's Lec- 
tures with Professor Veitch in 1859 ; contri- 
buted a ' critical dissertation' to ' The Mira- 
cles,' by the Right Hon. Joseph Napier, and 
wrote part of ' The Speaker's Commentary 
(see above). 

[Lord Carnarvon's Sketch, as above ; Burgon'o 
Twelve Good Men, 1888, ii. 149-237.] L. S. 



Mansel 



8 4 



Mansel 



MANSEL or MAUNSELL, JOHN 
(d. 1265), keeper of the seal and counsellor 
of Henry III, was the son of a country priest 
(MATT. PAKIS, v. 129), a circumstance which 
probably explains the allegation that he was 
of illegitimate birth (Placita de quo warranto, 
p. 749). Weever, however, says that he had 
seen a pedigree showing his descent from 
Philip de Mansel, who came over with the 
Conqueror (Funerall Monuments, p. 273), 
and Burke makes him a descendant of Henry 
Mansel, eldest son of Philip (Dormant and 
Extinct Peerage, p. 354), but these statements 
are opposed to the known facts. Mansel 
was brought up from early youth at court 
(Fcedera, i. 414), but the first mention of 
him is on 5 July 1234, when he was appointed 
to reside at the exchequer of receipt and to 
have one roll of the said receipt (MADOX, Ex- 
chequer, ii. 51). The office thus created seems 
to have been a new one, and was probably 
that of chancellor of the exchequer, which is 
first spoken of by name a few years later. 
Soon after Easter 1238 Henry III despatched 
a force under Henry de Trubleville to aid 
the Emperor Frederick in his warfare with 
the cities of northern Italy. Mansel accom- 
panied the expedition, and distinguished him- 
self at the capture of various cities during the 
summer and in the warfare with the Milanese. 
After his return to England Mansel was in 
1241 presented to the prebend of Thame by 
a papal provision, and in despiteof the bishop, 
Robert Grosseteste. Grosseteste was highly 
indignant at the infringement of his rights, 
and Mansel rather than create trouble with- 
drew his claim, and obtained in recompense 
the benefices of Maidstone and Howden. 
Next year Mansel accompanied the king on 
his expedition to France, and distinguished 
himself in the fight at Saintes, on 22 July, 
when he unhorsed Peter Orige, seneschal of 
the Count of Boulogne. In the spring of 
1243 Mansel was present at the siege of the 
monastery of \ 6rines, in the department of 
Charente-Inferieure ; he again distinguished 
himself by his vigour and courage, and was 
severely wounded by a stone hurled from the 
wall. On his recovery after a long illness 
he rose yet higher in the royal favour, and 
in 1244 the king made him his chief coun- 
sellor. He had returned to England with 
the king in September 1243. 

On 8 Nov. 1246 Mansel received custody 
of the great seal, which office he held till 
28 Aug. 1247, when he surrendered it to 
go on an embassy for the king (Rot. Pat. 
31 Hen. Ill, m. 2). He does not appear to 
have held the title of chancellor, for Matthew 
Paris speaks of him simply as ' having custody 
of the seal to fill the office and duty of chan- 



cellor' (iv. 601). The object of Hansel's 
foreign mission was to treat for a marriage 
between the king's son Ed ward and the daugh- 
ter of the Duke of Brabant ; the negotiations 
proved futile, and in 1248 Mansel returned 
to England. On 17 Aug. 1248 he again re- 
ceived custody of the great seal, and held 
it till 8 Sept. 1249. In October of the latter 
year he was taken ill, it was said from poison, 
at Maidstone. On 7 March 1250 he took the 
cross along with the king and many nobles. 
In June he was one of the entertainers of the 
general chapter of the Dominicans then being 
held in London. 

As the foremost of the royal counsellors 
Mansel was employed by Henry to obtain the 
bishopric of Winchester for his half-brother 
Aymer [q. v.] in September 1250. His influ- 
ence with the king enabled him to intercede 
successfully in behalf of Henry de Bathe [q. v.] 
and of Philip Lovel [q. v.], though in both 
cases his application was at first refused. He 
also interceded for Richard of Croxley, abbot 
of Westminster, and was appointed, together 
with Earl Richard of Cornwall, to arbitrate 
between the abbot and his convent. In these 
cases Mansel was acting on behalf of men 
who had been his colleagues in public life ; 
more questionable was his support of his 
brother-in-law, Sir Geoffrey Childewike, in 
his quarrel with the abbey of St. Albans, 
which dispute was through his influence de- 
cided against the abbey (MATT. PARIS, v. 129, 
234; Gesta Abbatum, i. 315-20). Mansel 
himself was at this time (1251-2) engaged in 
a dispute with the abbey of Tewkesbury as 
to the tithes of Kingston Manor, he being then 
rector of Ferring, Sussex. The quarrel was 
decided by the arbitration of the bishop of 
Chichester (Ann. Mon. i. 147-9). In the 
autumn of 1251 he was employed on a 
mission to treat for peace with Scotland and 
arrange a marriage between Alexander III 
and Henry's daughter Margaret. In 1253 
he accompanied the king to Gascony, and on 
15 May was sent with William de Bitton, 
bishop of Bath and Wells, to treat with 
Alfonso of Castile ; in this commission he is 
described as the king's secretary (Fcedera, 
i. 290). The object of the mission was to 
arrange for a marriage between the king's 
son Edward and Alfonso's sister ; the mis- 
sion was unsuccessful, but a second one in 
February 1254, in which Mansel also took 
part, fared better, and the treaty was signed 
\ on 1 April. In the following October Mansel 
was present at Burgos, on the occasion of 
Edward's marriage to Eleanor of Castile. 
During these negotiations he had obtained 
from Alfonso a charter renouncing any rights 
that he had in Gascony, and also the grant 



Mansel 



Mansel 



of certain liberties for pilgrims going to Com- 
postella. In September 1255, Mansel and 
Richard de Clare, earl of Gloucester, were 
sent to Edinburgh to inquire into the treat- 
ment of the young queen Margaret. This deli- 
cate mission was successfully performed, and 
Margaret and her husband were released from 
the tutelage of Robert de Ros and John de 
Baliol (Cat. Docs. Scotl. i. 381-8). As a con- 
sequence of his negotiations with the pope, 
Henry III had agreed to go to Apulia and 
prosecute his son Edmund's claims in person. 
For this purpose he desired a free passage 
through France, and on 24 Jan. 1256 Mansel 
was sent to treat with Louis IX (Fcedera, 
i. 335). On 30 Jan. Henry wrote a long 
letter to Mansel with reference to the affairs 
of Gascony and Castile, giving him full au- 
thority to decide the matter on account of 
his great knowledge of the subject (SHIR- 
LEY, ii. 110-11). In June Mansel was sent 
with the Earl of Gloucester to Germany, to 
negotiate with the electors as to the choice 
of Richard of Cornwall to be king of the 
Romans. After much bargaining and bribery 
their object was accomplished by the election 
of Richard on 13 Jan. 1257 (Ann. Mon. iv. 
112). Mansel was back in England in time 
for the Lent parliament on 25 March. In 
June he was appointed, with Simon de Mont- 
fort and others, to treat with the pope as to 
Sicily, but does not appear to have left 
England (Fcedera, i. 359-60). During the 
summer both of this and the following year 
he was engaged in the north of England and 
in Scotland on missions to arrange the dispute 
between Alexander III and his rebellious 
subjects (ib. i. 347, 376 ; Cal. Docs. Scotl. i. 
2131, 2133 ; Chron. de Mailros, p. 184). In 
January 1258 he held an examination of the 
civic officers of London at the Guildhall, and 
deposed several aldermen (Lib. de Ant. Legi- 
bus, pp. 30-7, Camden Soc. : Ann. Lond. in 
Chron. Edw. land II, i. 50). 

When at the parliament of Oxford in June 
1208 Henry had to assent to a new scheme 
of government, 'the provisions of Oxford,' 
Mansel was named one of the royal represen- 
tatives on the committee of twenty-four, and 
was likewise a member of the council of fifteen, 
having previously been one of the two royal 
electors appointed for its choice. In March 
he was associated with the Earls of Leicester 
and Gloucester and others in the mission to 
France, which led to the abandonment of the 
English king's claims on Normandy. In May 
he was employed with the Earl of Gloucester 
to arrange the marriage between Henry's 
daughter Beatrice and John of Brittany 
(Fcedera, i. 382, 386). In October he was 
with the queen at St. Albans, and in the fol- 



io wing month accompanied the king to France 
(cf. SHIRLEY, ii. 152, 155). When Edward 
quarrelled with his father in 1260, Mansel and 
Richard, earl of Gloucester, were the only 
royal counsellors who were admitted freely 
to the king's presence. In August 1260 the 
temporalities of Durham were entrusted to 
Mansel during the vacancy of the see, and 
while in charge of the bishopric he enter- 
tained the king and queen of Scotland in 
October (Flores Hist. ii. 455; Cal. Docs. 
Scotl. i. 2204). 

Mansel is said to have advised Henry to 
withdraw from ' the provisions ' (Ann. Mon. 
iv. 128), and in March 1261 Henry was com- 
pelled to dismiss him from his council. Man- 
sel took refuge in the Tower, but when in 
May he learnt of the removal of the baronial 
justiciar and chancellor by the king, he left 
London by stealth and joined Henry at Win- 
chester. Mansel was apparently alarmed for 
the consequences of Henry's action, and by 
his advice the king then came to London ; 
no doubt he was Henry's adviser in his sub- 
sequent vigorous action with regard to the 
appointment of the sheriffs. 

On 5 July he was one of the arbitrators to 
decide all grounds of dispute between the 
king and the Earl and Countess of Leicester 
(SHIRLEY, ii. 175). In November he was 
one of the arbitrators appointed to decide 
the dispute as to the appointment of the 
sheriffs (Ann. Mon. iv. 129). On 1 Jan. 
1262 the council charged Mansel with having 
stirred up strife between the king and his 
nobles, but Henry on the same day addressed 
a warm letter of defence to the Roman curia. 
(Fcedera, i. 414). It was through Mansel's 
exertions that in the following month a 
papal bull was obtained, securing for Henry 
the fullest release from all his obligations 
(SHIRLEY, ii. 206). In July he went over 
with the king to France as keeper of the great 
seal, but resigned the office on 10 Oct., and 
after that date is again called the king's secre- 
tary. He returned to England with the king 
on 20 Dec. When open war broke out in the 
following spring, Mansel was one of the chief 
objects of the barons' wrath. After shelter- 
ing for some time in the Tower, he proceeded 
stealthily with the king's son Edmund to 
Dover, and thence on 29 June crossed over 
to Boulogne, Henry of Almaine, then a sup- 
porter of De Montfort, pursuing him in hot 
haste. All his lands in England were be- 
stowed on De Montfort's son Simon. Mansei 
never returned to England ; he was present 
at the Mise of Amiens on 23 Jan. 1264, and 
in February was acting for Henry in his 
negotiations with Louis IX. After the battle 
of Lewes he was one of the royalists who 



Mansel 



86 



Mansel 



endeavoured to collect a force for the invasion 
of England (Lib. de Antiquis Leyibus, pp. 67- 
69 ; Chron. Edw. I and II, i. 64). He died 
in France in great poverty, about the feast 
of St. Fabian, 20 Jan. 1265 (ib. i. 66 ; Chron. 
de Mailros, p. 214). 

Mansel acquired an ill-name as the holder 
of numerous benefices; he is said to have 
had as many as three hundred, so that ' there 
was no wealthier clerk in the world.' Even 
in 1252 his annual rents were estimated at 
four thousand marks (MATT. PARIS, v. 355), 
and another estimate puts them as high as 
eighteen thousand (Chron. de Mailros^. 214). 
On 20 Aug. 1256 he entertained Henry and 
Eleanor, the king and queen of Scotland, and 
many nobles at a magnificent banquet, such 
as no clerk had ever given (MATT. PARIS, v. 
575). His chief preferments, with the dates 
of his appointment, were : chancellor of St. 
Paul's, 24 May 1243; dean of Wirnborne 
Minster, 13 Dec. 1246; provost of Beverley, 
1247 ; according to Dugdale he had resigned it 
by 1251, but he is still styled provost in 1258 
(Monast. AngL vi. 1307, 492-3; cf. Fader a, 
i. 335) ; treasurer of York, January 1256. At 
various times he held prebends at London, 
Lincoln, Wells, Chichester, York, and Bridg- 
north in Shropshire ; he also held the bene- 
fices of Hooton, Yorkshire ( Chron. de Melsa, 
ii. 112), Wigan, Howden, Ferring in Sussex, 
Sawbridgeworth in Dorset, and Maidstone in 
Kent. He is said to have refused more than 
one bishopric. The Melrose chronicler re- 
lates how when he had on one occasion ob- 
tained a fair benefice of 201. , he exclaimed 
' This will provide for my dogs.' He founded 
a priory for Austin canons at Bilsington, near 
Romney in Kent, in June 1253, according to 
his charter, but in 1 258 according to Matthew 
Paris (v. 690-1 ; DUGDALE, Monast. AngL vi. 
492-3). It is not clear that he is the John 
Mansel whom John of Pontoise, bishop of 
Winchester (d. 1305), in his bequest to the 
university of Oxford, desired to be held in 
remembrance (Munimenta Academica, i. 82, 
ii. 371, Rolls Ser.) As rector of Wigan he 
obtained the first charter for that town on 
26 Aug. 1246. 

Mansel incurred much odium as having 
been Henry's chief adviser during the long 
era of his unpopularity, and also on account 
of his vast accumulation of preferment. An 
ecclesiastic only from the custom of his time, 
he was no doubt more at home in the council 
chamber or even the battle-field than in the 
church. But whatever his demerits, he must 
certainly have been a capable and diligent 
administrator. He served his master with 
unswerving loyalty, and was a true friend to 
many of his colleagues. 



In the inquisition of Mansel's estates held 
after his death it was reported that his nearest 
heir was unknown ; there is, however, a re- 
ference to a cousin Amabilla de Rypuu (Cal. 
Gen. i. 118). According to the statements 
in Burke, Mansel married Joan, daughter of 
Simon Beauchamp of Bedford, and left three 
sons : Henry, ancestor of the extinct baronets 
of that name and of Baron Mansell of Mar- 
gam ; Thomas, ancestor of Sir Richard Mansel 
of Muddlescombe, Carmarthenshire ; and a 
third from whom descend the Maunsels of 
Limerick (Dormant Peerage; Baronetage; 
Landed Gentry). But it is extremely un- 
likely that an ecclesiastic in Mansel's position 
should have contracted any sort of marriage. 
More probably there has been some confusion 
with a namesake ; another John Mansel is 
known to have held lands at Rossington, 
Yorkshire, in the reign of Henry III. 

[Matthew Paris; Annales Monastici ; Gervase 
of Canterbury ; Chron. Edward I and II ; Flores 
Historiarum; Shirley's Royal and Historical 
Letters (all these are in the Rolls Ser.) ; Ris- 
hanger's Chronicle and Liber de Antiquis Legibus 
(Camd. Soc.) ; Melrose Chronicle (Bannatyne 
Club) ; Rymer's Foedera (Record ed.) ; Le Neve's 
Fasti Eccl. Angl. ; Foss's Judges of England, ii. 
391-7 ; Campbell's Lives of the Lord Chancellors, 
i. 135 ; Bridgeman's History of Wigan Church, 
i. 4-30 (Chetham Society) ; other authorities 
quoted.] C. L. K. 

MANSEL, WILLIAM LORT (1753- 
1820), bishop of Bristol, born at Pembroke 
2 April 1753, was son of William Wogan 
Mansel of Pembroke, who married Anne, 
daughter of Major Roger Lort of the royal 
Welsh fusiliers. He went to the grammar 
school at Gloucester, and was admitted as 
pensioner at Trinity College, Cambridge, on 
2 Jan. 1770, graduating B.A. 1774, M.A. 
1777, and D.D. 1798. His college appoint- 
ments were scholar 26 April 1771, junior 
fellow 1775, full fellow 1777, sublect'or se- 
cundus 1777-8, lector linguse Latinee 1781, 
lector primarius 1782, lector linguae Grsecae 
1783, junior dean 1782-3 and 1785, and 
catechist 9 April 1787. His Latin letter to 
his relative, the Rev. Michael Lort [q. v.], 
soliciting his 'vote for the fellowship,' is 
printed in Nichols's * Literary Anecdotes/ ii. 
674-5. Mansel was ordained in the English 
church on 30 June 1783, was recommended 
by Trinity College to the Bishop of Ely for 
the sequestration of the living of Bottisham, 
near Cambridge, where he inserted in the 
registers a singular entry recording the death 
of Soame Jenyns ( WRANGHAM, English Libr. 
p. 296), and was presented by his college, on 
6 Nov. 1788, to the vicarage of Chesterton 
in Cambridgeshire. While tutor at Trinity 



Mansel 



Mansell 



College he numbered among his pupils the 
Duke of Gloucester and Spencer Perceval, 
and was generally known as the chief wit 
and mimic of academic society. His popu- 
larity led to his election as public orator 
in 1788, and during his tenure of that office 
to 1798 he often preached before the uni- 
versity, and took part in county politics. 
Through Perceval's recommendation he was 
appointed by Pitt, on 25 May 1798, to the 
mastership of Trinity, in order that his strong 
discipline might correct some abuses which 
had crept into its administration; but it ap- 
pears from the college records that there had 
been some informality in his admission, as a 
second grant was obtained from the crown, and 
he was admitted ' according to due form' on 
4 July 1798. He was vice-chancellor of the 
university for the year 1799-1800. Perceval, 
the prime minister, selected Mansel for the 
bishopric of Bristol, to which he was conse- 
crated on 30 Oct. 1808, and in his capacity of 
chancellor of the duchy of Lancaster the 
same ( friend ' presented him to the rich 
rectory of Barwick-in-Elmet in Yorkshire. 
He died at the master's lodge, Trinity Col- 
lege, on 27 June 1820, aged 68, and was 
buried in the chapel on 3 July. His portrait, 
painted by T. Kirkby and engraved by W. 
Say, was published on 1 May 1812 by R. 
Harraden Son of Cambridge. A second 
portrait, etched by Mrs. Dawson Turner from 
a sketch by G. H. H., a private plate, is dated 
in 1815 (W. MILLAR, Biog. Sketches, i. 43). 
His arms, impaling those of the see, are on 
the organ screen in Bristol Cathedral (LE- 
VERSAGE, Bristol Cathedral, ed. 1888, p. 51). 

Mansel was the author of two sermons 
(1810 and 1813), and Spencer Perceval ad- 
dressed to him in 1808 a printed letter in 
support of his bill for providing additional 
curates. His jests and verses obtained great 
fame. Many of his epigrams and letters 
have appeared in ' Notes and Queries/ 2nd 
ser. ix. 483, x. 41-2, 283-4, xii. 221, 3rd ser. 
xii. 485; in Gunning's 'Reminiscences/i. 55- 
56, 194-5, 317, ii. 101 ; and in Bishop Charles 
Wordsworth's * Annals of my Early Life,' pp. 
69-70. Rogers expressed the wish that some 
one would collect his epigrams, as they were 
1 remarkably neat and clever.' A manuscript 
collection of them is known to have been in 
the possession of Professor James Gumming 
[q. v.], rector of North Runcton, Norfolk, 
at his death in 1861. Some poems to him 
by T. J. Mathias are in the latter's ' Poesie 
Liriche,' 1810, and ' Odie Latinse.' One, sup- 
posed to be addressed to him by a parrot which 
he had neglected, was printed separately. 

[Gent. Mag. 1820, pt. i. p. 637; Le Neve's 
Fasti, i. 221, iii. 611, 615, 670; Walpole's Per- 



ceval, i. 58, 285 ; Dyce's Table Talk of Eogers, 
p. 60 ; Annual Biography, vi. 440-1 ; Cooper's 
Annals of Cambridge, iv. 425, 451, 459, 462, 
490 ; information from the Eev. Edward Pea- 
cock of Frome, and from Aldis Wright esq 
fellow of Trin. Coll. Cambridge.] W. P. C. 

MANSELL, FRANCIS, D.D. (1579- 

1665), principal of Jesus College, Oxford, 
third son of Sir Francis Mansell, bart., and 
his first wife, Catherine, daughter and heir 
of Henry Morgan of Muddlescombe, Car- 
marthenshire, was born at Muddlescombe, 
and christened on Palm Sunday, 23 March 
1578-9. He was educated at the free school, 
Hereford, and matriculated as a commoner 
from Jesus College, Oxford, 20 Nov. 1607. He 
graduated B.A. 20 Feb. 1608-9, M.A. 5 July 
1611, B.D. and D.D. on 3 July 1624, and 
stood for a fellowship at All Souls in 1613 
'as founder's kinsman, but that pretension 
being disliked, came in at the next election ' 
(Life, by SIR LEOLINE JENKINS). On the 
death of Griffith Powell, 28 June 1620, 
Mansell was elected principal of Jesus Col- 
lege, and was admitted by the vice-chancel- 
lor in spite of protests from other fellows 
who had opposed the election. On 13 July 
Mansell expelled three of his opponents from 
their fellowships, and on the 17th, by the au- 
thority of the vice-chancellor, he proceeded 
against a fourth. His position does not, 
however, appear to have been secure, and 
before the expiration of the year he resigned 
the principalship and retired to his fellow- 
ship at All Souls. His successor, Sir Eubule 
Thelwall, having died on 8 Oct. 1630, Man- 
sell was a second time elected principal. In 
the same year he became rector of Easing- 
ton, Oxfordshire, and in 1631 of Elmley 
Chapel, Kent, prebendary of St. Davids, and 
treasurer of Llandaff. 

Mansell's second tenure of office was 
marked by considerable extension of the col- 
lege buildings. Thelwall's library, which 
does not seem to have been satisfactory, was 
pulled down, and the north and south sides 
of the inner quadrangle were completed. 
Mansell was indefatigable in collecting con- 
tributions, and from his own purse enriched 
the college with revenues and benefices. He 
was compelled to leave Oxford in 1643 to 
look after the affairs of his brother Anthony, 
who had been killed at the battle of New- 
bury, and for the next few years rendered 
efficient help to the royalist party in Wales. 
He returned to look after the college interests 
when the parliamentary visitation opened in 
1647. He was ejected from the principalship 
and retired to Llantrithyd, Glamorganshire, 
where he was subjected to considerable per- 
secution and annoyance at the hands of 



Mansell 



88 



Mansell 



the puritans. In 1651 he again returned to 
Oxford and took up his residence with a 
baker in Holywell Street; but during the 
next year was invited by the fellows, in re- 
turn for his good offices, to take rooms in 
Jesus College, where he remained for eight 
years. His successors in the principalship 
were first Michael Roberts and then Francis 
Howell, but after the Restoration Mansell 
was reinstated on 1 Aug. 1660. ' The decay es 
of age and especially dimness of sight ' in- 
duced him to resign in 1661, and, gradually 
becoming more infirm, he died on 1 May 
1665. There is an inscription to his memory 
in Jesus College Chapel. 

[Life of Mansell, by Sir Leoline Jenkins, 
printed but not published, 1854 ; Wood's 
Athense Oxonienses, iii. 993 ; Fasti, i. 416, ii. 
232 ; History and Antiquities, ii. 318, 319 ; Life 
and Times, ed. Clark, i. 328, 382, ii. 35; Burke's 
Extinct and Dormant Baronetcies; Foster's 
Alumni Oxonienses, 1500-1714; Oxford Ee- 
gister, ed. Clark ; Colleges of Oxford, ed. Clark, 
pp. 70-3 ; "Williams's Eminent Welshmen ; 
Burrows's Eegister of the Visitors of the Univ. 
of Oxford.] A. F. P. 

MANSELL, Sm ROBERT (1573-1656), 
admiral, born in 1573, the fourth son of Sir 
Edward Mansell of Margam, Glamorganshire 
(d. 1595), and of his wife, the Lady Jane 
Somerset, youngest daughter of Henry, earl of 
Worcester (d. 1548). Through the Gamages 
of Coity he was related to Lord Howard, 
the lord admiral [see HOWARD, CHARLES, 
EARL OF NOTTINGHAM], with whom, it is 
said, he first went to sea. This would seem 
to imply that he served against the ' Invin- 
cible ' Armada in 1588 : but nothing is dis- 
tinctly mentioned till 1596, when he served 
in the expedition to Cadiz under Howard 
and the Earl of Essex, and was knighted. 
In 1597 he was captain of the Mer-Honour, 
carrying Essex's flag in ' the Islands' Voy- 
age.' In January 1598-9 he went out in 
command of a small squadron on the coast 
of Ireland, and in August 1600 was com- 
manding in the Narrow Seas. As his force 
was weak, Sir Richard Leveson [q. v.], com- 
ing home from the coast of Spain, was or- 
dered to support him. It was only for a 
short time, and on 9 Oct. he fought a savage 
duel in Norfolk with Sir John Hey don (see 
under HEYDON, SIR CHRISTOPHER; Gent. 
Mag. new ser. xxxix. 481 ; Brit. Mus. Addit. 
MS. 27961, and Eg. MS. 2714, ff. 96, 100, 
112-22, containing several letters about the 
business, some in Mansell's handwriting). 
A formal inquiry followed, but Mansell was 
held guiltless, and in the following February 
1600-1 was active in arresting the accom- 
plices or companions of Essex. In October, 



in company with Sir Amyas Preston, he 
captured six Easterlings, or Hansa ships, and 
brought them in as being laden with Portu- 
guese merchandise (Cal. State Papers, Dom. 
31 Oct. 1601 ; Addit. MS. 5664, f. 225). 

In September 1602 he was sent out in 
command of a small squadron to intercept 
six galleys, which were reported on their 
way from Lisbon to the Low Countries. 
He posted himself with three ships off Dun- 
geness, with two fly-boats to the westward. 
In the Downs and off Dunkirk were some 
Dutch ships. On the 23rd the galleys ap- 
peared and were at once attacked. After 
being very roughly handled by the English 
they dispersed and fled, but only to fall into 
the hands of the Dutch, by whom and by a 
gale which came on afterwards they were 
completely destroyed (Cal. State Papers, 
Dom. 27 Sept. 1602 : MANSELL, A true Re- 
port of the Service done upon certaine Gal- 
lies, 1602). In the following spring, with 
the recognised title of ' vice-admiral of the 
Narrow Seas,' he was stationed with a squa- 
dron of six English and four Dutch ships to 
guard the Channel, and appears to have 
made some rich prizes, among others a car- 
rack laden with pepper. At the same time 
he had to escort the French and Spanish 
ambassadors from Calais and Gravelines. 
He himself attended on the Spaniard at 
Gravelines, while the Frenchman, embarking 
at Calais, hoisted the French flag. Halfway 
across Mansell met him, and compelled him 
to strike the flag. The French complained 
to James, and the matter was smoothed 
over ; but Mansell had clearly acted accord- 
ing to his instructions. On 15 Nov. he 
escorted Sir Walter Ralegh from London 
to Winchester for his trial. On 20 April 
1604 he had a grant of the office of treasurer 
of the navy for life, on the surrender of Sir 
Fulke Greville, afterwards Lord Brooke [q.v.] 
It was, however, ten years before he reaped 
the full benefit of it. In 1605 he accompa- 
nied the Earl of Nottingham on his embassy 
to Spain. The story is told that at an en- 
tertainment given by the king of Spain 
some of the plate was stolen, and suspicion 
seemed to be thrown on the English, till at 
another entertainment Mansell saw a Spa- 
niard in the very act of secreting a cup, 
and proved his guilt in presence of the whole 
assembly. During the following years he con- 
tinued to command the ships in the Narrow 
Seas, and to perform some of the duties of 
treasurer. The accounts of the Prince Royal, 
launched atDeptford on 25 Sept. 1610, show 
him acting in this capacity. In the fete and 
mock fight given on the Thames on 11 Feb. 
1612-13, in honour of the marriage of the 



Mansell 



8 9 



Mansell 



Princess Elizabeth, Mansell and the lord ad- 
miral commanded the opposing sides. In 
June 1613, however, he was committed to 
the Marshalsea for l animating the lord ad- 
miral ' against a commission to reform abuses 
in the navy. His real offence was question- 
ing and taking counsel's opinion as to the 
validity of the commission, which was held 
to be questioning the prerogative [cf. WHITE- 
LOCKE, SIR JAMES]. Notwithstanding his 
readiness to make submission, he was kept 
in confinement for a fortnight. In May 1618 
he sold his office of treasurer of the navy, 
consequent, it would seem, on his being 
appointed vice-admiral of England, a title 
newly created for Sir Richard Leveson, and 
which had been in abeyance since his death. 
The administration of the navy was noto- 
riously corrupt during James I's reign, but 
there seems no ground for charging Mansell 
while treasurer with any gross dishonesty. 
He made no large fortune in office (OPPEN- 
HEIM, ' The Eoyal Navy under James I,' in 
English Hist. Rev. July 1892). 

On 20 July 1620 Mansell was appointed 
to the command of an expedition against 
the Algerine pirates. Sir Richard Hawkins 
[q. v.] was the vice-admiral, and Sir Thomas 
Button [q. v.] rear-admiral. The fleet, con- 
sisting of six of the king's ships, with ten 
merchantmen and two pinnaces, finally sailed 
from Plymouth on 12 Oct., and after touch- 
ing at Cadiz, Gibraltar, Malaga, and Ali- 
cante, anchored before Algiers on 27 Nov. 
After some negotiation forty English cap- 
tives were given up. These, it was main- 
tained, were all that they had ; but though 
Mansell was well aware that this was false, 
he was in no condition to use force. His 
ships were sickly and short of supplies. 
He drew back to Majorca and the Spanish 
ports. It was 21 May 1621 before he again 
anchored off Algiers. On the 24th he sent 
in five or six fireships, which he had pre- 
pared to burn the shipping in the Mole. 
They were, however, feebly supported the 
ships stationed for the purpose were short of 
powder and could do nothing. The Alge- 
rines repelled the attack without difficulty 
and without loss, and, realising their danger, 
threw a boom across the mouth of the har- 
bour, which effectually prevented a repeti- 
tion of the attempt. Mansell drew back to 
Alicante, whence eight of his ships were 
sent to England. Before the end of July he 
was recalled with the remainder. 

Some antagonism between him and the 
Duke of Buckingham prevented his being 
offered any further command at sea ; and 
though he continued to be consulted as to the 
organisation and equipment of the navy, his 



attention was more and more devoted to his 
private interests in the manufacture of glass, 
in the monopoly of which he first obtained a 
share in 1615 (ib. iv. 9). As involving a 
new process for using sea-coal instead of 
wood, the monopoly was to a great extent 
of the nature of a legitimate patent ; but it 
had to be defended equally against those 
who wished to infringe the patent, and against 
those who wished to break down the mono- 
poly. He was M.P. for King's Lynn in 1601, 
Carmarthen in 1603, Carmarthenshire in 
1614, Glamorganshire in 1623 and 1625, 
Lostwithiel in 1626, and Glamorganshire in 
1627-8. In 1642 it was suggested to the king 
that the fleet should be secured by giving the 
command of it to Mansell, a man of experi- 
ence and known loyalty. The king, however, 
judged him too old for so arduous a duty. 
He died in 1656, his will being administered 
by his widow on 20 June 1656. 

He was twice married, first, before 1600, 
to Elizabeth, daughter of Sir Nicholas Bacon 
[q. v.] the lord keeper. In his correspond- 
ence in 1600 with Sir Bassingbourne Gawdy 
(d. 1606), who had married Dorothy, daugh- 
ter of Sir Nicholas Bacon of Redgrave, Suf- 
folk, son of the lord keeper, he signs himself 
' your most assured loving frend and affec- 
tionat unckle.' Gawdy was a magistrate 
for Norfolk, and, though many years older 
than his ' unckle,' gave him valuable support 
in the matter of the duel. He married 
secondly, in 1617, Anne, daughter of Sir 
John Roper, and one of the queen's maids 
of honour (Cal. State Papers, Dom. 18 Nov. 
1616, 15 March 1617). She died in 1663. 
By neither wife had he any children. His 
portrait is preserved at Penrice, the seat of 
the Mansells in Gower. It has not been 
engraved. 

Mansell in his youth wrote his name 
Mansfeeld. It is so spelt in the letters to 
Gawdy (Eg. MS. 2714 u. s.) In later life he 
assumed or resumed the spelling Mansell. 
The present baronet, descended from his bro- 
ther, spells it Mansel. Other branches of 
the family have adopted Maunsell or Maun- 
sel (Notes and Queries, 2nd ser. ii. 430, 490). 

[Clark's Some Account of Sir Robert Mansel, 
kt., 1883 ; Mansell's Account of the Ancient 
Family of Maunsell, &c., 1850; Eg. MS. 2439 
(1754); Cal. State Papers, Dom.; Fortescue 
Papers (CamdenSoc. 1871); Chamberlain's Let- 
ters (Camden Soc. 1861); Howell's Epistolse 
Ho-Eliange; Gardiner's Hist, of England (see 
Index at end of vol. x.)] J. K. L. 

MANSELL, Sm THOMAS (1777-1858), 
rear-admiral, son of Thomas Mansell of 
Guernsey, was born 9 Feb. 1777. He entered 
the navy in January 1793, on board the Cres- 



Mansfield 



9 o 



Mansfield 



cent frigate with Captain James Saumarez 
[q. v.], whomhe followed to the Orion, in which 
he was present in Lord Bridport's action off 
Lorient, at the battle of Cape St. Vincent, and 
at the battle of the Nile ; after which he was 
promoted by Nelson to be acting-lieutenant 
of the Aquilon, a promotion which was con- 
firmed by the admiralty to 17 April 1799. 
He subsequently served in the Channel and on 
the French coast, and at the reduction of the 
Cape of Good Hope, whence he was sent home 
by Sir Home Popham in command of an 
armed transport. He was flag-lieutenant to 
Sir James Saumarez in the Diomede, Hibernia, 
and Victory, and on 17 Sept. 1808 was pro- 
moted to the command of the Rose sloop, in 
which he took part in the capture of Anholt 
in the Baltic, 18 May 1809, and was at 
different times engaged with the Danish gun- 
boats. In 1812 he was presented by the 
emperor of Russia with a diamond ring, in 
acknowledgment of his having piloted a 
Russian squadron through the Belt ; and by 
the king of Sweden with the order of the 
Sword, ( in testimony of the esteem in which 
he held his services.' In 1813 Mansell com- 
manded the Pelican on the north coast of 
Spain, and on 7 June 1814 was advanced to 
post rank. It is stated that while in com- 
mand of the Rose and Pelican he captured 
at least 170 of the enemy's vessels, some of 
them privateers of force. In 1837 he was nomi- 
nated a K.C.H. and knighted. On 9 Oct. 1849 
he became a rear-admiral on the retired list, 
and died in the early summer of 1858. In 1806 
he married Catherine, daughter of John Lukis, 
a merchant of Guernsey, and by her had issue 
four daughters and four sons. These latter 
all entered the navy or marines. The second, 
Arthur Lukis, for some years commanded the 
Firefly, surveying ship, in the Mediterranean, 
and died, a retired vice-admiral, in 1890. 

[O'Byrne's Nav. Biog. Diet.] J. K. L. 

MANSFIELD, EAKLS OF. [See MURRAY, 
WILLIAM, 1705-1793, first EARL; MURRAY, 
DAVID, 1727-1796, second EARL.] 

MANSFIELD, CHARLES BLACH- 
FORD (1819-1855), chemist and author, was 
born on 8 May 1819 at Rowner, Hampshire, 
where his father, John Mansfield, was rector. 
His mother was Winifred, eldest daughter of 
Robert Pope Blachford of Osborne House, 
Isle of Wight. He was educated first at a 
private school at Twyford, Berkshire, and 
afterwards at Winchester College. When 
sixteen his health broke down, and he passed 
a year with a private tutor in the country. 
On 23 Nov. 1836 he entered his name at Clare 
Hall, but did not begin residence till October 



1839. Owing to frequent absences from ill- 
health he did not graduate B.A. till 1846 
(M.A. 1849). Meanwhile he read widely, 
and his personal fascination rapidly gathered 
many friends round him. With Kingsley, 
who was his contemporary at Cambridge, 
Mansfield formed a lifelong friendship (Me- 
moir, pp. xii-xiv). Medicine attracted him 
for a time, and while still at Cambridge he 
attended the classes at St. George's Hospital; 
but when he settled in London in 1846 he 
definitely devoted himself to chemistry, occu- 
pying his leisure with natural history, botany, 
mesmerism, and with abstruse studies in medi- 
aeval science. Chemistry, he satisfied himself, 
was a suitable starting-point for the system of 
knowledge which he had already more or less 
clearly outlined, whose aim, in his own words, 
was ' the comprehension of the harmonious 
plan or order upon which the universe is con- 
structed an order on which rests the belief 
that the universe is truly a representation 
to our ideas of a Divine Idea, a visible symbol 
of thoughts working in a mind infinitely wise 
and good.' In 1848, after completing the 
chemistry course at the Royal College, he 
undertook, at Hofmann's request, a series of 
experiments which resulted in one of the 
most valuable of recent gifts to practical che- 
mistry, the extraction of benzol from coal- 
tar (see Chemical Soc. Journal, i. 244-68, for 
experiments), a discovery which laid the 
foundation of the aniline industry (MEYER, 
Gesch. der Chimie, 1889, p. 434). He pub- 
lished a pamphlet next year, indicating some 
of the most important applications of benzol, 
among others the production of a light of 
peculiar brilliancy by charging air with its 
vapour (JBenzol,its Nature and Utility) 1849). 
Mansfield patented his inventions, then an ex- 
pensive process, but others reaped the profits. 
In the crisis of 1848-9 he joined Maurice, 
Kingsley, and others in their efforts at social 
reform among the workmen of London, and 
in the cholera year helped to provide pure 
water for districts like Bermondsey, where 
every drop was sewage-tainted. He also 
wrote several papers in * Politics for the 
People,' edited by the Rev. Frederick Denison 
Maurice [q. v.] and Mr. J. M. Ludlow, and 
afterwards in the * Christian Socialist.' In j 
September 1850 the description of a balloon 
machine constructed at Paris led him to inves- 
tigate the whole problem of aeronautics, and 
in the next few months he wrote his 'Aerial 
Navigation,' still after forty years one of the tj 
most striking and suggestive works on its sub- a 
ject. In the winter of 1851-2 he delivered in \ 
the Royal Institution a course of lectures on 1 
the chemistry of the metals, remarkable for j 
some brilliant generalisations and for an at* 



Mansfield 



Mansfield 



tempted classification upon a principle of his 
own represented by a system of triangles 
(Chemical Soc. Journal, viii. 110; PROFESSOR 
MASKELTNE'S Preface to MANSFIELD'S Theory 
of Salts, pp. 23-7, where the principle is de- 
scribed). Next summer Mansfield, 'to gratify 
>& whim of wishing to see the country, which 
I believed to be an unspoiled Arcadia' (Let- 
ters from Paraguay, Pref. p. 8), started for 
Paraguay. He arrived at Buenos Ay res in 
August, and having obtained permission from 
Urquiza, whom he describes as an ' English 
farmer-like, honest-looking man' (ib. p. 157), 
to go up the Parana, he reached Assumption 
on24 Nov., and remained there two and a half 
month s. Paraguay, under Francia and his suc- 
cessor Lopez, had been shut from the world for 
forty years, and Mansfield was, if not the first 
English visitor to the capital, certainly the first 
to go there merely to take notes. His letters, 
published after his death, contain bright and 
careful descriptions of Paraguayan society, 
the scenery, plant and bird life, and a scheme 
for the colonisation of the Gran Chaco, a fa- 
vourite dream with him for the rest of his life. 
A sketch of the history of Paraguay, valu- 
able for the period immediately preceding 
and following his arrival, forms the conclud- 
ing chapter of the volume of 'Letters.' His 
earlier letters, printed in the same volume, 
deal in a similar manner with Brazil. These 
were translated into Portuguese by Pascual, 
and published along with elaborate criti- 
cal essays on Mansfield's narrative at Rio 
Janeiro, the first volume in 1861, the second 
in 1862. 

Mansfield returned to E n gland in the spring 
of 1853, resumed his chemical studies, and 
began a work on the constitution of salts, 
based on the lectures delivered two years 
previously at the Royal Institution. This 
work, the ' Theory of Salts/ his most impor- 
tant contribution to theoretical chemistry, 
he finished in 1855, and placed in a pub- 
lisher's hands. He had meanwhile been in- 
vited to send specimens of benzol to the Paris 
Exhibition, and on 17 Feb. 1855, while pre- 
paring these in a room which he had hired 
for the purpose in St. John's Wood, a naphtha 
still overflowed, and Mansfield, in attempt- 
ing to save the premises by carrying 1 the 
blazing still into the street, was so injured 
that nine days later he died in Middlesex 
Hospital. He had not completed his thirty- 
sixth year. 

Mansfield's works, published at various 
intervals after his death, are fragments to 
which he had not added the finishing touch, 
yet each bears the unmistakable impress of 
a mind of the highest order, a constant atti- 
tude towards the sphere of knowledge more 



akin to that of Bacon or Leibnitz than of a 
modern specialist. The testimony, written 
or spoken, of many who knew him confirms 
Pascual's estimate, ' a great soul stirred by 
mighty conceptions and the love of mankind ' 
(Ensaio Critico, p. 8). A portrait of Mans- 
field by Mr. Lowes Dickinson is in the pos- 
session of his brother, Mr. R. B. Mansfield. 
The engraving prefixed to the ' Letters from 
Paraguay ' is from a photograph. 

[Private information from Mr. R. B. Mans- 
field ; Memoir by Kingsley, prefixed to Letters 
from Paraguay ; Mrs. Kingsley's Life of Kingsley, 
1877, pp. 216-18, 440-4; Preface by Professor 
Maskelyne to the Theory of Salts ; Mr. J. M. 
Ludlow's Preface to Aerial Navigation ; Chem. 
Soc. Journal, viii. 110-12 ; Pascual's Ensaio Cri- 
tico sobre a viagem ao Brasil, 1861-2 ; Wurtz's 
Dictionnaire de Chimie, i. 527, 542-3, 545; Hof- 
mann's Report on the Exhibition of 1862 ; Che- 
mistry, p. 1 23 ; Study of Chemistry, p. 9 ; Timbs's 
Year-book of Facts, 1850, pp. 75-7 ; Fraser's 
Mag. liv. 591-601 ; New Quarterly Review, 1856, 
pp. 423-8.] J. A. C. 

MANSFIELD, HENRY DE (d. 1328), 
chancellor of Oxford University. [See 
MAUNSFIELD.] 

MANSFIELD (originally MAN- 
FIELD), SIE JAMES (1733-1821), lord 
chief justice of the court of common pleas, 
born in 1733, son of John James Manfield, at- 
torney, of Ringwood, Hampshire, was elected 
a scholar of Etoninl750(HAKWooD,yl/zmm 
Eton. p. 339), and proceeded to King's Col- 
lege, Cambridge, where he obtained a fellow- 
ship in 1754, graduated B. A. in 1755 and M. A. 
in 1758 (Grad. Cantab)-.} His grandfather is 
said to have been a foreigner, and to have held 
some post in Windsor Castle. Mansfield in- 
serted the s in his name while still at Cam- 
bridge. In November 1758 he was called to 
the bar at the Middle Temple. He practised 
both at common law and in chancery, and 
was engaged in some state trials. He was 
one of Wilkes's advisers on his return to Eng- 
land in 1768, and argued in support of his 
unsuccessful application in the king's bench 
to be admitted to bail for the purpose of 
prosecuting a writ of error against his out- 
lawry (20 April). He took silk in July 1772, 
and was afterwards appointed counsel to the 
university of Cambridge. Another of Mans- 
field's clients was the bigamous Duchess of 
Kingston, whose immunity from punishment 
he materially contributed to secure in 1776. 
The same year he appeared for the defence 
in the Hindon bribery case, the year follow- 
ing for the incendiary, James Aitkin [q. v.], 
and in 1779 for the crown (with Attorney- 
general Wedderburn [q. v.]), on the infor- 
mation exhibited against George Stratton 



Mansfield 



Mansfield 



[q. v.] and his colleagues in the council of ^ 
Fort St. George for their usurpation of the | 
government of the settlement in 1776 [see ! 
PIGOT, GEORGE, BARON PIGOT OF PATSHITLL]. I 

Mansfield entered parliament on 10 June | 
1779 as member for the university of Cam- j 
bridge, and on 1 Sept. 1780 was appointed | 
solicitor-general, in which capacity he took j 
part in the prosecution of Lord George Gor- 
don [q.v.] in February 1781, and in that of j 
the spy De la Motte, convicted of high trea- 
son in the following July. He went into 
opposition with Lord North in March 1782, 
and returned to office on the coalition be- 
tween North and Fox in November 1783. In 
parliament he made a poor figure, whether 
in office or in opposition, and after the dis- 
missal of the coalition ministry, 18 Dec. 1783, 
hardly opened his mouth in debate. He lost 
his seat at the general election of April 1784 
and never re-entered parliament. 

Mansfield, with Attorney-general John 
Scott, afterwards Lord Eldon [q. v.], repre- 
sented the Trinity Hall dons, June 1795, on 
the appeal of Francis Wrangham [q. v.] to 
Lord-chancellor Loughborough, as visitor of 
the university of Cambridge, against their 
refusal to elect him to a fellowship. The 
argument turned upon the proper construc- 
tion of the words * idoneus moribus et ingenio ' 
in the college statutes, and Wrangham's 
counsel cited Terence, Horace, and other 
Latin authors to prove that ' mores/ as ap- 
plied to an individual, could only mean morals 
Wrangham's morals being unimpeachable. 
Mansfield, however, disposed of this conten- 
tion by a single line from Ovid describing 
two mistresses, ' Hsec specie melior, moribus 
ilia fuit ; ' and Lord Loughborough, accord- 
ingly, dismissed the appeal. 

In July 1799 Mansfield was appointed to the 
chief-justiceship of Chester, whence in April 
1804 he was transferred to that of the common 
pleas and knighted. On qualifying for office 
by taking the degree of serjeant-at-law, he 
chose for his ring the Horatian motto ' Serus 
in ccelum redeas,' in allusion to the lateness 
of his advancement. He was sworn of the 
privy council on 9 May. On the return of 
the whigs to power after Pitt's death, he was 
offered the great seal, but declined it. 

Mansfield was a sound, if not a profound, 
lawyer, a good scholar, and a keen sports- j 
man. On circuit it was his custom to rise 
at five to kill something before breakfast. 
He was a dull speaker, with an ungraceful 
delivery and a husky voice. His advance- i 
ment to the bench came too late for his repu- j 
tation. He presided, however, for nearly ten I 
years in the court of common pleas without j 
positive discredit, in spite of declining powers, 



and resigned in Hilary vacation 1814. He 
died on 23 May 1821 at his house in Russell 
Square. 

[Gent.Mag.l821,pt.ii.p. 572; Ami.Biog.1821, 
p. 452; Foss's Lives of the Judges; Howell's State 
Trials, xix. 1075 et seq.,xx. 402,634, 1226 etseq., 
xxi. 486 et seq., 687 et seq., 1046 etseq.; Returns 
of Members of Parliament (Official); London 
Gazette, 29 Aug.-2 Sept. 1780, 15-18 Nov. 1783, 
8-12 May 1804 : Vesey, jun.'s Reports, ii. 609 ; 
Gunning's Reminiscences, ii. 23 ; Ormerod's 
Cheshire, ed. Ilelsby, i.66; Haydn's Book of Dig- 
nities, ed. Ockerby; Diary of Lord Colchester, 
ii. 36 ; Taunton's Reports, v. 392 ; Wraxali's Hist. 
Mem. 1815, i. 555, ii. 475; Hist. MSS. Comm. 
8th Rep. App. p. 233 a, loth Rep. App. pt. iv. p. 
26; Jesse's George Selwjn and his Contempo- 
raries, .pp. 167, 187; Add. MSS. 6402 f. 140, 
21507 ff. 381-7, and Eg. MS. 2137, f. 215; 
Cooper's Annals of Cambridge, iv. 392, 399, 
412.] J. M. R. 

MANSFIELD, SIR WILLIAM ROSE, 
first LORD SANDHURST (1819-1876), general, 
born 21 June 1819, was fifth of the seven 
sons of John Mansfield of Diggeswell House, 
Hampshire, and his wife, the daughter of 
General Samuel Smith of Baltimore, U.S.A. 
He was grandson of Sir James Mansfield 

&.V.], and among his brothers were Sir Samuel 
ansfield, at one time senior member of coun- 
cil, Bombay, Colonel Sir Charles Mansfield of 
the diplomatic service, and John Mansfield, a 
London police-magistrate. He was educated 
at the Royal Military College, Sandhurst, and 
passed out in November 1835 at the head of 
the five most distinguished cadets of his half- 
year. He was appointed ensign 53rd foot 
27 Nov. 1835, became lieutenant in the regi- 
ment in 1838, and captain in 1843. After 
serving with the 53rd in the Mediterranean 
and at home, he accompanied the regiment to 
India, and was present with it in the first Sikh 
war at Buddiwal, Aliwal, and Sobraon, on 
which latter occasion he acted as aide-de-camp 
to Lord Gough (medal and clasps). He be- 
came major 3 Dec. 1847, and was employed 
in command of a small detached force sup- 
pressing disturbances in Behar early in 1848 
(ROGERSON, p. 143). He afterwards com- 
manded the regiment in the Punjab war of 
1849, and at the battle of Goojerat (medal 
and clasp). On 9 May 1851 he became junior 
lieutenant-colonel at the age of thirty-two, 
passing over the head of Henry Havelock 
[q. v.], and having purchased all his steps save 
the first. In 1851-2 he was constantly em- 
ployed on the Peshawur frontier, either in 
command of the 53rd (see ib. pp. 143-6) or 
attached to the staff' of Sir Colin Campbell, 
lord Clyde [q. v.], who was in command on 
the frontier, and who appears to have formed 



Mansfield 



93 



Mansfield 



a very high opinion of him (frontier medal 
and clasp). 

At this period Mansfield is said to have 
had a taste for journalism, and desired to 
become a bank director. To the end of his 
life he believed himself better fitted to con- 
duct grand financial operations than any- 
thing else. On 28 Nov. 1854 he became 
colonel by brevet. At the outbreak of the 
Russian war he addressed a letter to Lord 
Panmure, then secretary of war, which was 
afterwards published as a pamphlet, advoca- 
ting greater facilities for enabling militiamen 
with their company officers of all ranks to 
volunteer into the line. In April 1855 he 
exchanged to the unattached list, and was 
appointed deputy adjutant-general in Dublin, 
and in June the same year was sent to Con- 
stantinople, with the local rank of brigadier- 
general in Turkey, to act as responsible mili- 
tary adviser to the British ambassador, Lord 
Stratford de Redcliffe [see CANNING, SIR 
STRATFORD, VISCOUNT STRATFORD DE RED- 
CLIFFE, 1786-1880]. 

He arrived in Constantinople when the 
plan for relieving Kars with the Turkish 
contingent was under consideration. Mans- 
field was in constant communication with 
the Turkish authorities on the subject (see 
POOLE, Life of Stratford de Redcliffe, ii. 352). 
He afterwards accompanied the ambassador 
to the Crimea, and is said to have rendered 
valuable services, which from their very 
nature have remained unknown to the public. 
At the close of the war in 1856 he received 
the quasi-military appointment of consul- 
general at Warsaw, with the rank of brigadier- 
general in Poland. With the summer of 1857 
came the tidings of the outbreak of the mutiny, 
and the appointment of Sir Colin Campbell 
(Lord Clyde) to the chief command in India. 
In an entry in his diary on 11 July 1857, 
Colin Campbell wrote : ' Before going to the 
Duke of Cambridge I had settled in my mind 
that my dear friend Mansfield should have 
the offer made to him of chief of the staff. 
His lordship (Panmure) proposed the situa- 
tion of military secretary, but that I told his 
lordship was not worth his acceptance, and 
I pressed for the appointment of chief of the 
staff being offered to him, with the rank of 
major-general and the pay and allowances of 
that office in India' (SHADWELL, Life of Clyde, 
i. 405) . Mansfield was appointed chief of the 
staff in India, with the local rank of major- 
general, 7 Aug. 1857. Clyde's biographer 
states that when passing through London to 
take up his appointment Mansfield was con- 
sulted by the government, and submitted a 
plan of operations based on the same prin- 
ciples as that communicated in confidence by 



Clyde to the Madras government on his way 
to Calcutta (ib. ii. 411). Mansfield was 
Clyde's right hand, his strategetical mentor, 
it was said, throughout the eventful period 
that followed. He was in the advance on 
Lucknow and the second relief in October 
1857 (for which he was made K.C.B.), and 
at the rout of the Gwalior contingent at 
Cawnpore on 6 Nov. following. On the after- 
noon of the battle he was sent by Clyde to 
occupy the Soubahdar's Tank, a position on 
the line of retreat of the enemy's right wing. 
Mansfield halted rather than push through 
about a mile of ruined buildings, in which 
the mutineers were still posted, after dark, by 
which the enemy were enabled to get off with 
all their guns. His conduct on this occa- 
sion has been sharply criticised (MALLESON, 
iv. 192; cf. SHADWELL, ii.41). With Clyde. 
Mansfield was in the advance on Futtehgur 
and the affair at Kalee Nuddee, at the siege 
of Lucknow (promoted to major-general for 
distinguished service in the field), in the hot- 
weather campaign in Rohilcund, the battle of 
Bareilly and the affairs at Shahjehanpore, the 
campaign in Oude in 1858-9, and the opera- 
tions in the Trans-Gogra (medal and clasp). 
When the peril was past, on Mansfield fell the 
chief burden of reorganising the shattered 
fragments of the Bengal native army, dealing 
with the European troops of the defunct com- 
pany, and conducting the overwhelming mass 
of official correspondence connected therewith. 
Some of his minutes at this period are models 
of lucidity. In December 1859 he was offered 
the command of the North China expedition, 
which he refused, and Sir James Hope Grant 
fq. v.] was appointed. He remained chief of 
the staff in India until 23 April I860. He 
held the command of the Bombay presidency, 
with the local rank of lieutenant-general, from 
18 May 1860 to 14 March 1865. During this 
period he was appointed colonel 38th foot in 
1862, and became lieutenant-general in 1864. 
He also published a pamphlet ' On the Intro- 
duction of a Gold Currency in India,' Lon- 
don, 1864, 8vo. On 14 March 1865 he was 
appointed commander-in-chief in India and 
military member of council, a position he held 
up to 8 April 1870. In the supreme council 
he was a warm supporter of John, lord 
Lawrence [q. v.] (cf. Mansfield's Calcutta 
speech reported in the Times, 9 Feb. 1869). 
Mansfield's independent military commands 
in India cannot be said to have been success- 
ful. He was unpopular, and sometimes want- 
ing in temper and j udgment . He had painful 
and discreditable quarrels, the most damaging 
of which was the court-martial on a member 
of his personal staff, against whom he brought 
a string of charges of peculation and falsi- 



Mansfield 



94 



Manship 



fying accounts, not one of which, after most 
patient investigation, could be substantiated 
or justified, although the officer was removed 
from the service on disciplinary grounds (see 
reports of the Jervis court-martial in the 
Times, July-September 1866, and the scathing 
leader in the same paper of 3 Oct. 1866). 
Mansfield, who became a full general in 1872, 
commanded the forces in Ireland from 1 Aug. 
1870 to 31 July 1875. In Ireland, too, he 
was unpopular, and in some instances showed 
lamentable failure of judgment. 

Mansfield was raised to the peerage on 
28 March 1871, during Mr. Gladstone's first 
administration, under the title of Baron Sand- 
hurst of Sandhurst, Berkshire, in the peerage 
of the United Kingdom. He took an active 
part in 'the House of Lords in the debates on 
army reorganisation, and predicted that aboli- 
tion of the purchase system would result in 
' stagnation, tempered by jobbery.' He was 
a good speaker, but is said never to have 
carried his audience with him in the house or 
out of it. He was a G.C.S.I. 1866, G.C.B. 
1870, P.O. Ireland 1870, and was created 
D.C.L. of Oxford in 1870. He died at his 
London residence, 18 Grosvenor Gardens, 
23 June 1876, aged 57, and was buried at 
Digswell Church, near Welwyn, Hertford- 
shire. 

His character has been impartially drawn 
by Malleson : ' Tall and soldierly in appear- 
ance, it was impossible for any one to look at 
him without feeling certain that the man 
before whom he stood possessed more than 
ordinary ability. Conversation with him 
always confirmed this impression. He could 
write well ; he could speak well ; he was 
quick in mastering details ; he possessed the 
advocate's ability of making a bad cause ap- 
pear a good one. He had that within him to 
procure success in any profession but one. He 
was not and could not become a great soldier. 
Possessing undoubted personal courage, he 
was not a general at all except in name. The 
fault was not altogether his own. Nature, 
kind to him in many respects, had denied him 
the penetrating glance which enabled a man 
on the instant to take in the exact lay of 
affairs in the field. His vision, indeed, was 
so defective that he had to depend for in- 
formation regarding the most trivial matters 
upon the reports of others. This was in 
itself a great misfortune. It was a misfortune 
made irreparable by a haughty and innate 
reserve, which shrank from reliance on any 
one but himself. He disliked advice, and, 
although swayed perhaps too easily by those 
he loved and trusted, he was impatient of 
even the semblance of control from men 
brought into contact with him only officially 



and in a subordinate position. Hence it was 
that in an independent command, unable to 
take a clear view himself, he failed to carry 
out the idea which to so clever a man would 
undoubtedly have suggested itself had he had 
leisure to study it over a map in the leisure 
of his closet ' (MALLESON, iv. 192-3). 

He married, 2 Nov. 1854, Margaret, daughter 
of Robert Fellowes of Shottesley Park, Nor- 
folk, by whom he left four sons and a daughter. 
His eldest son, William, second and present 
lord Sandhurst, succeeded him in the peerage. 
From 1886 till her death in 1892, his widow 
took a prominent part as a member of the 
Women's Liberal Federation in the agitation 
in favour of Home Rule and other measures 
advocated by Mr. Gladstone. 

[Foster's Peerage under ' Sandhurst ;' Army Lists ; 
Eogerson's Hist. Kec. 53rd Foot, now 1st Shrop- 
shire L.I., London, 1890 ; Malleson's Hist. Sepoy 
Mutiny, cab. ed. ; Parl. Debates, 1871-6. Among 
the obituary notices may be mentioned that in 
the Times, 24 June 1876, and the leader in the 
Army and Navy Gazette, 1 July 1876. For will 
(personalty 60,000/.) see Times, 29 July 1876.1 

H. M. C. 

MANSHIP, HENRY (ft. 1562), topo- 
grapher, was a native of Great Yarmouth, 
and carried on business as a merchant there. 
He was elected a member of the corporation 
in 1550, and soon took an active part in 
public affairs. The old haven having become 
obstructed, Manship was, in 1560, named as 
one of a committee of twelve persons on 
whom was devolved the responsibility of de- 
termining where the new haven should be 
cut. He says that he ' manye tymes travayled 
in and about the business,'' and it was chiefly 
through his influence that Joas or Joyce 
Johnson, the Dutch engineer, was brought 
from Holland, and the present haven con- 
structed under his direction. On 11 Feb. 1562 
Manship was appointed a collector of the 
' charnel rents ' with George King. He com- 
piled a brief record of all the most remark- 
able events in the history of the borough, 
under the title, ' Greate Yermouthe : a Booke 
of the Foundacion and Antiquitye of the 
saide Towne,' which was printed for the first 
time by Charles John Palmer, [q. v.], 
1847, with notes and appendix. The n: 
script then belonged to James Sparke of Bury 
St. Edmunds, but it was sold (lot 234) at 
Palmer's sale in 1882. 

HENRY MANSHIP (d. 1625), topographer, 
son of the above, born at Great Yarmouth, 
was educated at the free grammar school 
there. He became one of the four attorneys 
of the borough court. On 4 Nov. 1579 he 
was elected town clerk, but resigned the 
office on 2 July 1585. He continued to be a 



m 
e manu- 



Manship 



95 



Manson 



member of the corporation until 1604, when 
he was dismissed for saying that Mr. Damett 
and Mr. Wheeler, two aldermen who then 
represented the borough, ' had behaved them- 
selves in parliament like sheep, and were both 
dunces.' Thereafter he appears to have de- 
yoted himself to the compilation of a history 
of the borough. In 1612 he obtained leave 
to go to the Hutch and peruse and copy 
records for forty days. Finding that many 
of the documents were missing and the re- 
mainder uricared for, he persuaded the cor- 
poration to appoint a committee to inquire 
into the matter. Their labours are recorded 
in a book containing a repertory of the docu- 
ments, which was engrossed by Manship 
and delivered to the corporation, in whose 
possession it still remains, though almost 
every document enumerated in it is now de- 
stroyed or lost. Manship appears to have 
regained the favour of the corporation, for he 
was appointed to ride to London about a 
license to ( transport herrings in stranger- 
bottoms,' and to endeavour to get the ' fishers 
of the town discharged from buoys and 
lights/ In 1614, when Sir Theophilus Finch 
and George Hardware were returned to par- 
liament for the borough, Manship acted as 
their solicitor, with a salary of forty shillings 
per week, and in 1616 he was again sent to 
London to manage the town's business, but 
on this occasion he was accused of improperly 
1 borrowing money in the town's name/ and 
fell into disgrace. His ' History of Great 
Yarmouth' was completed in 1619, and the 
corporation voted him a gratuity of 50L, but 
his expectations of fame and profit were ap- 
parently not realised, for he circulated in 
1620 a pamphlet wherein, say his enemies, 
he ' extolled himself and defamed the town/ 
He afterwards deemed it expedient to apolo- 
gise. Manship died in 1625 at an advanced 
age and in great poverty. The corporation 
granted a small annuity to his widow Joan, 
daughter of Henry Hill of King's Lynn. 

Manship was indebted in some part of his 
curious history to that compiled by his 
father. A contemporary copy, with an ap- 
pendix containing a transcript of the charters 
made by him, was deposited in the Hutch, 
but is believed to have ultimately found its 
way into the library of Dawson Turner. 
Several other copies are extant, from one of 
which the book was first published, under the 
editorship of C. J. Palmer, in 1854. A cata- 
logue of the charters of Great Yarmouth, 
compiled by Manship in 1612, is in the 
British Museum, Addit. MS. 23737. 

[Palmer's Perlustration of Great Yarmouth, 
i. 116-18 ; Eye's Norfolk Topography (Index 
Soc.)] G. G. 



MANSON, DAVID (1726-1792), school- 
master, son of John Manson and Agnes Ja- 
mieson, was probably born in the parish of 
Cairncastle, co. Antrim, in 1726. His parents 
being poor, he began life as a farmer's servant- 
boy, but was allowed by his employer to at- 
tend a school kept by the Rev. Robert White 
in the neighbouring town of Larne. There 
he made such good progress that in a short 
time he himself opened a school in his 
native parish, tradition says in a cowhouse. 
By-and-by he became tutor to the Shaw 
family of Ballygally Castle, and later on 
taught a school in Ballycastle. In 1752 he 
removed to Belfast, where he started a 
brewery, and in 1755 announced in the 'Bel- 
fast Newsletter ' that < at the request of his 
customers ' he had opened an evening school 
in his house in Clugston's Entry, where he 
would teach, ' by way of amusement/ Eng- 
lish grammar, reading, and spelling. His 
school increased, so that in 1760 he removed 
to larger premises in High Street, and em- 
ployed three assistants. In 1768 he built a 
still larger school-house in Donegall Street, 
where he had fuller scope for developing his 
system of instruction, * without the discipline 
of the rod,' as he described it. For the 
amusement of his pupils he devised various 
machines, one a primitive kind of velocipede. 
To carry out his ideals of education he wrote 
and published a number of school-books, 
which long enjoyed a high reputation in the 
north of Ireland and elsewhere. These were 
* Manson's Spelling Book ; ' an ' English Dic- 
tionary,' Belfast, 1762; a 'New Primer,' 
Belfast, 1762 ; a ' Pronouncing Dictionary/ 
Belfast, 1774. He also published a small trea- 
tise in which he urged hand-loom weavers, 
of whom there were then many in Ireland, 
to live in the country, where they could 
relieve their sedentary task by cultivating 
the soil, appending directions as to the most 
profitable methods of doing so. He invented 
an improved machine for spinning yarn. In 
1775 he was among the seatholders in the 
First Presbyterian Church, Belfast, and in 
1779 he was admitted a freeman of the borough 
( Town Book of Belfast, p. 300). He died on 
2 March 1792 at Lillyput, a house which he 
had built near Belfast, and was buried at 
night by torch-light, in the churchyard at 
the foot of High Street, the graves in which 
have all long since been levelled. 

Manson married a Miss Lynn of Ballycastle, 
but had no children. An oil-painting of him 
hangs in the board-room of the Royal Aca- 
demical Institution, Belfast. 

[Ulster Biog. Sketches, 2nd ser. by Classen 
Porter; Belfast Newsletter, 1755, 1760, 1768; 
Benn's History of Belfast.] T. H. 



Manson 



9 6 



Mant 



MANSON, GEORGE (1850-1876), Scot- 
tish artist, son of Magnus Manson, an Edin- 
burgh merchant, was born at Edinburgh on 
3 Dec. 1850. After he had left school he spent 
some months in the workshop of a punch- 
cutter, where he was engaged in cutting dies 
for printers' types. In May 1866 he entered 
the wood-engraving department of Messrs. 
W. & R. Chambers, publishers, and during 
an apprenticeship of five years with that firm 
produced a number of woodcuts, including 
some tailpieces for ' Chambers's Miscellany.' 
He found time to attend the School of Art, 
to copy in the Scottish National Gallery, and 
to contribute to a Sketching Club ; and he 
spent his summer holiday of 1870 in London, 
making studies in the national collections. 
His indentures having been cancelled by his 
request in August 1871, he devoted himself 
more assiduously to the work of the Edin- 
burgh School of Art, and in the folio wing year 
he gained a free studentship and a silver 
medal for a water-colour study. In 1873 he 
travelled in France, Belgium, and Holland, 
visiting Josef Israels at the Hague. Shortly 
after his return his health failed, and he 
was compelled, early in 1874, to go south 
to Sark, where he made some of his best 
sketches. He returned to Scotland for a 
short time, and in January 1875 went to 
Paris, to take lessons in etching in the studio 
of M. Cadart. He was back in England in 
April, and he settled for a few months at 
Shirley, near Croydon. In September he 
sought change at Lympstone in Devonshire, 
where he died on 27 Feb. 1876. He is 
buried in the neighbouring churchyard of 
Gulliford. He has left a small water-colour 
portrait of himself when an apprentice, and 
another executed in 1874, and hung in 1876 
in the exhibition of the Royal Scottish 
Academy. A good photograph (1873) is re- 
produced in Mr. Gray's 'Memoir.' 

In his engraving Manson was an acknow- 
ledged disciple of Bewick, copying his simple 
and direct line effects, and preferring to work 
' from the solid black into the white, instead 
of from the white into grey by means of a 
multiplicity of lines.' His paintings, which 
deal with homely and simple subjects, are 
realistic transcripts from nature, and are 
chiefly notable for their fine schemes of 
colour. Many of his works are reproduced 
in the ' Memoir.' 

[George Mansou and his Works, Edinb. 1880, 
containing a biographical preface by J. M. Gray, 
founded on material given by the artist's friends ; 
information kindly supplied by J. R. Pairman, 
esq., and W. D. McKay, R.S.A. ; Hamerton's 
Graphic Arts, pp. 311-12; Scotsman, 1 March 
1876.1 G. G. S. 



MANT, RICHARD (1776-1848), bishop 
of Down, Connor, and Dromore, eldest son 
and fifth child of Richard Mant, D.D., was 
born at Southampton on 12 Feb. 1776. His 
father, the master of King Edward's Grammar 
School, and afterwards rector of All Saints, 
Southampton, was the son of Thomas Mant 
of Havant, Hampshire, who had married a 
daughter of Joseph Bingham [q.v.] the 
ecclesiastical archaeologist. Mant was edu- 
cated by his father and at Winchester School, 
of which he was elected scholar in 1789. 
In April 1793 he was called on with other 
scholars to resign, in consequence of some 
breach of discipline. Not being (as was ad- 
mitted) personally in fault, he refused, and 
was deprived of his scholarship. He entered 
as a commoner at Trinity College, Oxford, 
in 1793, and in 1794 obtained a scholarship. 
In 1797 he graduated B.A., and in 1798 was 
elected to a fellowship at Oriel, which he 
held to the end of 1804. His essay ' On 
Commerce ' (included in l Oxford English 
Prize Essays/ 1836, 12mo, vol. ii.) obtained 
the chancellor's prize in 1799. In 1800 he 
began his long series of poetical publications 
by verses in memory of his old master at 
Winchester, Joseph Warton, D.D. He gra- 
duated M. A. in 1801, was ordained deacon in 
1802, and, after acting as curate to his father, 
took a travelling tutorship, and was detained 
in France in 1802-3 during the war. Having 
been ordained priest in 1803, he became 
curate in charge (1804) of Buriton, Hamp- 
shire. After acting as curate at Crawley, 
Hampshire (1808), and to his father at 
Southampton (December 1809), he became 
vicar of Coggeshall, Essex (1810), where he 
took pupils. In 1811 he was elected Bamp- 
ton lecturer, and chose as his topic a vindica- 
tion of the evangelical character of Anglican 
preaching against the allegations of metho- 
dists. The lectures attracted notice. Man- 
ners-Sutton, archbishop of Canterbury, made 
him his domestic chaplain in 1813, and on 
going to reside at Lambeth he resigned Cog- 
geshall. In 1815 he was collated to the 
rectory of St. Botolph's, Bishopsgate, and 
commenced D.D. at Oxford. He was pre- 
sented in 1818 to the rectory of East Hors- 
ley, Surrey, which he held with St. Bo- 
tolph's. 

In February 1820 Mant was nominated 
by Lord Liverpool for an Irish bishopric. 
He is said to have been first designed for 
Waterford and Lismore (though this was 
not vacant), but was ultimately appointed 
to Killaloe and Kilfenoragh, and was conse- 
crated at Cashel on 30 April 1820. He at 
once took up his residence at Clarisford 
House, bringing English servants with him, 



Mant 



97 



Mant 



a proceeding so unpopular that he soon dis- 
missed them. He voted against Roman 
catholic emancipation in 1821, and again in 
1825. On 22 March 1823 he was translated 
to Down and Connor, succeeding Nathaniel 
Alexander, D.D. (d. 22 Oct. 1840), who had 
been translated to Meath. There was then, 
as now, no official residence connected with 
his diocese ; Mant fixed his abode at Knock - 
nagoney (Rabbit's Hill), in the parish of Holy- 
wood, co. Down, a few miles from Belfast. 
He had come from a diocese which was 
largely Roman catholic to a stronghold of 
protestantism, mainly in its presbyterian 
form, and he succeeded in doing much for the 
prosperity of the then established church. 
Mant was on the royal commission of in- 
quiry into ecclesiastical unions (1830) ; the 
publication of its report in July 1831 was 
followed by considerable efforts of church 
extension in his diocese. He found Belfast 
with two episcopal churches, and left it with 
five. He took an active part in connection 
with the Down and Connor Church Accom- 
modation Society, formed (19 Dec. 1838) at 
the suggestion of Thomas Drew, D.D. (d. 
1859), which between 1839 and 1843 laid 
out 32,000/. in aid of sixteen new churches. 
In 1842, on the death of James Saurin, D.D., 
bishop of Dromore, that diocese was united to 
Down and Connor, in accordance with the 
provisions of the Church Temporalities Act 
of 1833. The united diocese is a large one, 
being ' a sixteenth of all Ireland.' The last 
prelate who had held the three sees conjointly 
was Jeremy Taylor, to whose memory a marble 
monument, projected by Mant, and with an 
inscription from his pen, had been placed in 
1827 within the cathedral church at Lis- 
burn, co. Antrim. 

Mant was an indefatigable writer; the 
bibliography of his publications occupies 
over five pages in the British Museum Cata- 
logue. His poetry is chiefly notable for 
its copiousness. Four of his hymns are in- 
cluded in Lord Selborne's ' Book of Praise,' 
1863 ; about twenty others, some being me- 
trical psalms, are found in many hymnals. 
Many of his hymns were adapted from the 
Roman breviary. The annotated Bible (1814) 
prepared by George D'Oyly, D.D. [q.v.], and 
Mant, at the instance of Archbishop Man- 
ners-Sutton, and at the expense of the So- 
ciety for Promoting Christian Knowledge, 
was largely a compilation; it still retains 
considerable popularity. It was followed by 
an edition of the prayer-book (1820), on a 
somewhat similar plan, by Mant alone. 

His best work is his * History of the 
Church of Ireland ' (1840), the fruit of much 
research into manuscript as well as printed 

VOL. XXXVI. 



sources. It was undertaken to meet a want, 
felt all the more from the conspicuous abilitv 
which marked the first two volumes (1833- 
1837) of Reid's t History of the Presbyterian 
Church in Ireland.' No one was so well 
equipped for the task as Charles Richard 
Elrington, D.D. [q.v.]; but on his failure, 
owing to ill-health, to fulfil the design, Mant 
came forward. His style is very readable, 
and if his comments are those of a partisan, 
his facts are usually well arranged and as- 
certained with care. The earlier church 
history of Ireland is ignored, and the period 
immediately preceding the Reformation is 
treated too much in the manner of a pro- 
testant pamphlet ; but the real topic of the 
book, the post-Reformation annals of the 
Irish establishment to the union, could hardly 
have enlisted a more judicious narrator. A 
copious index by Mant himself adds to the 
book's value. 

Mant was taken ill on 27 Oct. 1848 while 
staying at the rectory-house, Ballymoney, 
co. Antrim, and died there on 2 Nov. 1848. 
He was buried on 7 Nov. in the churchyard 
of St. James's, Hillsborough, co. Down. He 
married, on 22 Dec. 1804, Elizabeth Wood 
(d. 2 April 1846), an orphan, of a Sussex 
family, and left Walter Bishop Mant [q. v.], 
another son, and a daughter. 

His publications may be thus classified : 

1. POETICAL. 1. ' Verses to the Memory of 
Joseph Warton,D.D.,' &c., Oxford, 1800, 8vo. 

2. ' The Country Curate/ &c., Oxford, 1804, 
8vo. 3. * A Collection of Miscellaneous 
Poems,' &c., Oxford, 1806, 8vo (3 parts). 

4. 'The Slave,' &c., Oxford, 1806, 8vo. 

5. ' The Book of Psalms . . . Metrical Ver- 
sion,' &c., 1824, 8vo. 6. ' The Holydays of 
the Church . . . with . . . Metrical Sketches- 
&c., 1828-31, 8vo, 2 vols. 7. ' The Gospd 
Miracles ; in a series of Poetical Sketches,' 
&c., 1832, 12mo. 8. ' Christmas Carols,' &c., 
1833, 12mo. 9. 'The Happiness of the 
Blessed,' &c., 1833, 12mo; 4th ed. 1837; 
1870, 8vo. 10. 'The British Months: a 
Poem, in twelve parts,' &c., 1835, 8vo, 2 vols. 
11. ' Ancient Hymns from the Roman Bre- 
viary . . . added, Original Hymns,' &c., 
1837, 12mo. 12. ' The Sundial of Armoy,' 
&c., Dublin, 1847, 16mo. 13. 'The Matin 
Bell,' &c., Oxford, 1848, 16mo. 14. 'The 
Youthful Christian Soldier . . . with . . . 
Hymns,' &c., Dublin, 1848, 12mo. II. HISTO- 
KICAL : 15. ' The Poetical Works of ... Thomas 
Warton . . . with Memoirs,' &c., 1802, 8vo. 
16. 'Biographical Notices of the Apostles, 
Evangelists, and other Saints,' &c., Oxford, 
1828, 8vo. 17. ' History of the Church of 
Ireland,' &c., 1840, 8vo, 2 vols. III. THEOLO- 
GICAL : 18. ' Puritanism Revived,' &c. ; 1808, 



Mant 




9 8 



Mante 



8vo. 19. A Step in the Temple . . . Guide 
to ... Church Catechism,' &c. [1808], 8vo ; 
reprinted, 1840, 12mo. 20. ' An Appeal to 
the Gospel,' &c., Oxford, 1812, 8vo (Bamp- 
ton lecture); 6th edit. 1816, 8vo. (Extracts 
from this were issued as ' Two Tracts . . . 
of Regeneration and Conversion,' c., 1817, 
12mo.) 21. ' Sermons,' &c., Oxford, 1813-15, 
8vo, 3 vols. 22. ' Sermons . . . before the 
University of Oxford,' &c., 1816, 8vo (against 
Socinianism). 23. ' The Truth and the Ex- 
cellence of the Christian Religion,' &c., 1819, 
12mo. 24. 'The Christian Sabbath/ &c., 
1830, 8vo. 25. 'The Clergyman's Obliga- 
tions/ &c., Oxford, 1830, 12mo, 2 parts ; 2nd 
edit, same year (referred to by Newman as ' a 
twaddling so to say publication'). 26. 'A 
Letter to . . . H. H. Milman . . . Author 
of a History of the Jews/ &c., 1830, 8vo. 

27. <A Second Letter/ &c., 1830, 8vo. 

28. ' The Churches of Rome and England 
compared/ c., 1836, 12mo; 1884, 12mo. 

29. ' Does the Church of Rome agree with 
the Church of England in all the Funda- 
mentals ? ' &c., Dublin, 1836, 8vo. 30. ' Ex- 
temporaneous Prayer/ c., Dublin, 1837, 8vo. 
31. 'The Church and her Ministers/ &c., 
1838, 8vo. 32. ' Romanism and Holy Scrip- 
ture/ &c., new edit. 1839, 12mo ; 1868, 16mo. 

33. 'Primitive Christianity/ &c., 1842, 8vo. 

34. ' A Churchman's Apology/ c., Dublin, 

1844, 8vo. 35. 'Horse Ecclesiasticae/ &c., 

1845, 16mo. 36. ' Horse Liturgicse/ &c., 

1845, 16mo. 37. 'Religio Quotidiana/ &c., 

1846, 8vo. 38. < Ferine Anniversaries/ &c., 

1847, 16mo, 2 vols. 39. ' The Scotch Com- 
munion Office/ c., Oxford, 1857, 8 vo. 40. ' A 
short Tract for Revivalists/ &c., 1859, 8vo. 

V. MISCELLANEOUS: 41. 'A Parsing . . . 
some of the Colloquies of Cordery/ &c., 
tSOl, 12mo. 42. ' Reflections on ... Cruelty 
to Animals/ &c., 1807, 8vo. 43. ' Church 
Architecture considered/ c., Belfast, 1843, 
8vo. Also single sermons, 1813-40, and 
charges, 1820-42. 

[Memoir by Berens, 1849 ; Memoirs by Walter 
Bishop Mant, 1857; Biog. Diet, of Living Au- 
thors, 1816, p. 220; Ewart's Handbook of the 
United Diocese of Down, Connor, and Dromore 
[1886] ; Newman's Letters, 1891, i. 218; Julian's 
Diet. Hymnology, 1892, pp. 713 sq. ; Notes and 
Queries, 5th ser. x. 86.] A. GK 

MANT, WALTER BISHOP (1807- 
1869), divine, eldest son of Richard Mant 
[q.v.], was born on 25 June 1807 atBuriton, 
Hampshire. He matriculated at Oriel Col- 
lege, Oxford, on 6 Feb. 1824, and graduated 
B.A. 1827, M.A. 1830. In 1831 he took 
orders, and was appointed archdeacon of 
Connor by his father. In October 1834 he 
was preferred to the rectory of Hillsborough, 



I 

P 



co. Down, and was appointed archdeacon of 
Down. For many years he was provincial 
grand master, and afterwards provincial 
grand chaplain, of the freemasons of Down 
and Antrim. Like his father, whose biogra- 
pher he became, lie wrote verse. In anti- 
quarian subjects he took considerable inte- 
rest, and contributed to the ' Proceedings ' of 
local societies. He preached on Sunday, 
4 April 1869, and died of influenza two days 
later at the archdeaconry, Hillsborough; he 
was buried on 10 April at Hillsborough. 

He published: 1. 'Horae Apostolicae/ &c., 
1839, 8vo. 2. 'The Man of Sorrows . . . 
five Discourses/ &c., Oxford, 1852, 8vo. 
3. ' Memoirs of ... Richard Mant/ &c., 
Dublin, 1857, 8vo. 4. ' Christophoros and 
other Poems/ &c., 1861, 8vo. 5. 'Bible 
Quartetts/ &c.[1862],32mo (three numbers). 
6. 'Scientific Quartetts,' &c. [1862-3], 32mo 
(six numbers). 

[Belfast Newsletter, 7 April and 12 April 1869 ; 
Guardian, 14 April 1869, p. 400; E wart's Hand- 
book of Diocese of Down, Connor, and Dromore, 
1886, p. 49; Foster's Alumni Oxon. 1715-1886.] 

A. G. " 

MANTE, THOMAS (Jl. 1772), military 
writer, describes himself as having served 
as an assistant engineer at the siege of Ha- 
vana in 1762, and as major of brigade to 
Colonel Dudley Bradstreet in the campaigns 
against the Indians in 1764. His name 
does not appear in any British ' Army List/ 
nor in Porter's ' History of the Royal Engi- 
neers.' Mante wrote several military works, 
the most important being his ' History of 
the late War in America, including the 
Campaigns against His Majesty's Indian 
Enemies/ London, 1772, a handsome quarto, 
praised by the American historians Sparks 
and Bancroft, and now scarce (cf. LOWNDES, 
Bibl. Manual, Bonn; WINSOR, Hist, of Ame- 
rica, v. 616, footnote). Mante obtained, but 
did not take out, a license to print and vend 
the work for a term of fourteen years (Home 
Office Warrant ook,vol.-xxxi-v. 1. 195). The 
book was published in the ordinary way. 
Mante also wrote a ' Treatise on the Use of 
Defensive Arms, translated from the French 
of Joly de Maizeray, with Remarks/ London, 
1771 ; ' System of Tactics, translated from 
the French of Joly de Maizeray/ and dedi- 
cated to Guy Carleton, lord Dorchester, 
London, 1781 ; and ' Naval and Military 
History of the Wars of England, including 
those of Scotland and Ireland,' London, 
1795 P-1807. The last two volumes are de- 
scribed as ' completed by an impartial hand/ 
presumably after the author's death. 

[Allibone's Diet. vol. ii. ; Drake's American 
Biog. ; Watt's Bibl. Brit. ; Mante's Works. The 



Mantell 



99 



Mantell 



note from a Mr. Thomas ' Mant ' about an ac- 
ceptance in 17o, among the Caryll Papers in 
the British Museum (Add. MS. 28232, f. 372), 
may suggest a clue to his origin.] H. M. C. 

MANTELL, GIDEON ALGERNON 
(1790-1852), geologist, was born in 1790 in 
the parish of St. Jolm-sub-Castro, Lewes, 
Sussex, being one of a family of six four sons 
and two daughters. His father was a shoe- 
maker in good business, noted for his shrewd- 
ness, integrity, and whig principles. Gideon 
was sent first to a dame's school, next to one 
kept by a Mr. Button on the Cliffe (for his 
father's principles practically excluded him 
from the grammar school), then to a private 
school in Wiltshire. He was next articled 
to James Moore, a surgeon in Lewes, by whom 
lie was so much esteemed that, on the comple- 
tion of his medical education by becoming a 
licentiate of the Apothecaries' Hall, he was 
taken into partnership. Mantell was very 
successful in his profession at Lewes, making 
midwifery a special study. He contributed 
to the f Lancet ' several papers on this and 
other medical subjects, and, with the help 
of his brother Joshua [q. v.], a member of 
the same profession, was instrumental in 
arresting the death penalty, and procuring 
an ultimate pardon, for a woman who had 
been condemned for poisoning Her husband 
with arsenic, since he succeeded in showing 
that the tests relied upon by the medical 
witnesses for the crown were untrustworthy. 
As a result of this, he published in 1827 a 
treatise entitled ' Observations on the Medi- 
cal Evidence necessary to prove the Presence 
of Arsenic in the Human Body in cases of 
supposed Poisoning by that Mineral.' 

But, while actively following his profes- 
sion, Mantell lost no opportunity of indulg- 
ing his taste for natural history and geology, 
and of collecting specimens, first from the 
chalk about Lewes, then from the Weald 
of Sussex. ' A Description of a Fossil Al- 
cyonium from the Chalk Strata near Lewes,' 
read before the Linnean Society in 1814, and 
printed in their ( Transactions ' (xi. 401-7), 
was the first of a long series of publications. 
His reputation rapidly grew, especially after 
his discovery of the iguanodon in the sand- 
stone of Tilgate Forest, an account of which 
was read before the Royal Society early in 
1825, and is printed in the ' Philosophical 
Transactions,' cxv. 179. His collection of 
fossils became noted, for he spared neither 
time nor money in augmenting it, and in 1835, 
by the advice, backed by liberal pecuniary 
help, of the Earl of Egremont, he removed it 
and his family (for he had married a Miss 
Woodhouse, the daughter of one of his pa- 
tients) to Brighton. But here he was less 



successful in his profession than he had been 
at Lewes, and, after a vain effort had been 
made in the district to raise a fund sufficient 
to retain the collection for Sussex, Mantell 
sold it to the British Museum for 5,000/. In 
1839 he removed to a house on Clapham Com- 
mon, and after a few years there moved into 
London, living at 19 Chester Square. But, 
while his scientific repute increased, his medi- 
cal practice declined. In his later years he 
devoted himself mainly to literature and lec- 
turing, in both of which, in the words of Lord 
Rosse (president of the. Royal Society)/ he was 
eminently successful,' owing to ' the singular 
ability, the felicitous illustration, and the 
energetic eloquence that characterised all his 
discourses.' He was also a zealous antiquary, 
opening many tumuli about Lewes. In the 
later years of his life Mantell suffered from 
a spinal complaint, the result of an accident. 
Though at times in acute pain, he bore it 
bravely, continuing to join scientific meet- 
ings and deliver lectures. The end was un- 
expected. After a lecture to the Clapham 
Athenaeum, he took opium to allay pain. 
The dose, though not in itself a fatal one, 
proved so to his exhausted frame, and he 
died 10 Nov. 1852. He was buried in St. 
Michael's Church, Lewes, where there is a 
brass tablet to his memory. He left two 
sons : Walter, who discovered the fossil re- 
mains of the gigantic dinornis ; and Joshua ; 
besides one daughter. 

Mantell was a facile and prolific writer. 
Under his name sixty-seven books and me- 
moirs appear in Agassiz and Strickland's 
1 Bibliographia Zoologiae,' and forty-eight 
scientific papers in the Royal Society's Cata- 
logue. Of the latter, ten were communicated 
to that society and printed in the 'Philo- 
sophical Transactions,' and nineteen were 
published by the Geological Society. Of these 
papers, the majority deal with the geology and 
palaeontology^ vertebrate and invertebrate, 
not forgetting plants, of the south-east of 
England ; but Mantell also wrote on the fossil 
fox of CEningen, and on the 'Dinoruis' and 

1 Notornis ' of New Zealand, the remains of 
which had been sent over by his son Walter. 
His last paper was on i TelerpetonElginense/ 
a fossil reptile discovered in Moray, in strata 
considered (erroneously) to be of old red sand- 
stone age, together with some remarks on 
supposed fossil ova of batrachians from the 
lower Devonian of Forfarshire. ' The Fossils 
of the South Downs,' 4to, 1822, was his first 
book, the plates of which were executed by 
his wife ; others were ' The Geology of the 
South-East of England,' 1833 ; Thoughts on 
a Pebble,' 1836 ; 'The Wonders of Geology/ 

2 vols., 1838 ; < The Medals of Creation,' 

H 2 



Mantell 



100 



Manton 



2 vols., 1844 ; ' Thoughts on Animalcules/ 
1846 : ( Geological Excursions round the Isle 
of Wight and along the adjacent Coast of 
Dorsetshire,' 1847 all 8vo. Most of these 
went through more than one edition ; of the 
' Wonders ' six were published in the first 
ten years. 

Mantell was elected into the Linnean 
Society in 1813, and into the Geological 
Society in 1818 ; from the latter he received 
the Wollaston medal in 1835 ; he was one of 
its secretaries in 1841-2, and a vice-president 
in 1848-9. He was elected F.R.S. in 1825, 
and received a royal medal in 1849 ; he was 
enrolled an honorary fellow of the Royal 
College of Surgeons in 1844, having become 
M.R.C.S. in 1841, and was granted, in the last 
year of his life, a pension from the crown. 

Mantell was not only a popular lecturer 
and writer, but also the first to demonstrate 
the fresh- water origin of the Wealden strata, 
and by his researches among them to dis- 
cover four out of the five genera of Dinosaurs 
known at the time of his death. But his 
chief service to science was ' as a working 
geologist, as a discoverer, as a collector, and 
as one who, in the infancy of geological 
science, placed before the world the means 
by which others could write a thesis or found 
a system.' The Royal Society possesses a 
portrait of Mantell by J. J. Masquerier. 

[Obituary notices in Presidential Addresses 
(Lord Rosse) to the Royal Society, 1852, pp. 26- 
31, and to the Geological Society (Quart. Jouru. 
Geolog. Soc. vol. ix. pp. xxii-v) ; Gent. Mag. 1 852, 
pt. ii. pp. 6447 ; Lower's Sussex Worthies, pp. 
158-9 ; Agassiz and Strickland's Bibliographia 
Zoologies et Geologise, pp. 539-42 ; Royal Soc. 
Catalogue of Scientific Papers, iv. 219-20.] 

T. G. B. 



[Brit. Mus. Cat. ; Gent, Mag. 1865, pt. i. p. 
800.] B. B. W. 

MANTELL, SIR THOMAS (1751-1831), 
antiquary, born in 1751, was the only son of 
Thomas Mantell, surgeon, of Chilham, Kent, 
by Catharine, daughter of John Nichols, 
rector of Fordwich. He belonged to the 
Kentish branch of the Mantells. Pegge the 
antiquary was his godfather. Early in life 
he settled at Dover in his father's profession, 
but retired on being appointed agent for 
prisoners -of war and transports at Dover. 
In 1814 he was appointed agent for packets 
at Dover, a post at that time demanding un- 
remitting attention. He was for many years 
a magistrate at Dover, and six times its 
mayor. He was knighted on 13 May 1820 
during his mayoralty. He died at his house 
in Dover on 21 Dec. 1831, aged 80, and was 
buried in the family vault at Chilham. He 
married Anne, daughter of William Oakley, 
but left no family. 

Mantell was elected fellow of the Society 
of Antiquaries in 1810. He investigated 
the tumuli in various parts of Kent, and was 
a collector of antiquities. His publications 
are : 1. ' Short Directions for the Manage- 
ment of Infants,' 1787. 2. ' Case of Imper- 
forate Anus successfully treated ' in ' Me- 
moirs of Medicine,' vol. iii. 1792. 3. ' An 
Account of Cinque Ports Meetings, called 
Brotherhoods and Guestlings,' Dover, 1811, 
4to. ; reissued with additions as ' Cinque 
Ports, Brotherhoods, and Guestlings,' Dover, 

| 1828, 4to. 4. ' Coronation Ceremonies . . . 

! relative to the Barons of the Cinque Ports,' 
&c., Dover, 1820, 4to. 

[Gent. Mag. 1832, pt. i. pp. 88, 89, 651; Brit. 
Mus. Cat.] W. W. 



MANTELL, JOSHUA (1795-1865), sur- 
geon and writer on horticulture, born in 1795, 
was younger brother of Gideon Algernon 
Mantell [q. v.] He adopted the medical pro- 
fession, was admitted a licentiate of the Apo- 
thecaries' Company, London, in 1828 (Med. 
Direct. 1845), and practised as a surgeon at 
Newick in Sussex. 

He was devoted to floriculture, and fo unded 
the Newick Horticultural Society. About , 
1834 he was thrown from his horse, and re- 
ceived an injury to his brain which necessi- 
tated his removal to an asylum at Ticehurst, 
where he died in 1865. 

Mantell was the author of an article on 
' Floriculture/ issued both separately and in 
Baxter's * Library of Agricultural and Hor- 
ticultural Knowledge,' 2nd edit. 8vo, Lewes, 
1832 (4th edit. 1846), of which work and 
'The Farmer's Annual' he is said to have 
been the principal editor. 



MANTON, JOSEPH (1766? -1835), 
gunmaker,was, according to the specification 
of a patent granted to him in April 1792, 
then established in business in Davies Street, 
Berkeley Square, London ; his name does not 
appear in the ' Directory ' until two years 
afterwards. He remained in Davies Street 
until 1825, and his shop, No. 25, became 
widely known to shooters. Colonel Peter 
Hawker [q. v.] was a great friend and admirer 
of ' Joe Manton,' as he was almost universally 
called, and his 'Instructions to Young Sports- 
men' abounds with references to Manton's 
skill. Blaine (Encyclopcedia of Sports and 
Pastimes, 1840, p. 748) is more cautious, but 
admits that ' had he never done more than 
invent his breech and his elevated rib his 
name would have been associated with the 
fowling-piece as long as fowl remained to be 
killed.' The possession of one of his guns 
was an object of ambition to sportsmen. 



Manton 



101 



Manton 



Praed writes in his 'Chaunt of the Brazen 
Head:' 

Still brokers swear the shares will rise, 
Still Cockneys boast of Manton's gun. 
He took out several patents between 1792 
and 1825 for an improved hammer and breech- 
ing ; a spring to prevent the rattling of the 
trigger ; cartridges ; a perforated hammer to 
allow air to escape when the charge is being 
rammed down ; the ' elevated rib,' by which 
the barrels of double guns are connected I 
together : the ' gravitating stop ' to prevent ! 
accidental discharge, and the ' musical sear/ 
by which a musical sound was produced on 
cooking the piece. According to Daniel 
(Rural Sports, iii. 440), Manton applied for 
a patent in 1790 for a machine for rifling 
cannon, and for an improved shot with a base 
of soft wood to take into the grooving. He 
was offered a sum of 500/. for these inven- 
tions, which he declined. The patent was 
refused, in consequence of the interposition 
of the board of ordnance, although the 
king's warrant for the sealing of the patent 
had been issued. In his best guns he intro- 
duced platinum touch-holes for preventing 
corrosion, and his barrels were proved by 
hydraulic pressure. He used to say that 
none of his guns were ever known to burst. 
His inventions unconnected with gunmaking 
comprised a method of enclosing clocks in 
exhausted cases ; air-tight sliding tubes for 
telescopes ; and a tool for boring holes in 
horses' feet, so that shoes might be attached 
by screws instead of by nails. Hawker claims 
for Manton the introduction of the copper 
percussion-cap, but this is hardly borne out 
by the evidence. He unquestionably had 
something to do with the introduction of the 
percussion system, as is proved by his patents 
of 1818 and 1825 for priming tubes, but these 
inventions fall far short of the simplicity of 
the copper cap. Notwithstanding Manton's 
great reputation and the high prices he re- 
ceived for his guns he did not succeed in 
business, and in January 1826 he became 
bankrupt (London Gazette, p. 194). His 
certificate was eventually allowed, 20 July, 
but he never seems to have recovered himself. 
At the time of his bankruptcy he was carry- 
ing on business at 11 Hanover Square, but 
the next year he was in the New Koad, then in 
Burwood Place, and subsequently in Holies 
Street. He died at Maida Hill, 29 June 
1835, aged 69, and was buried in Kensal 
Green cemetery, his epitaph being from the 
pen of Colonel Hawker, who prints it in 
his 'Instructions.' Manton's business was 
carried on by his sons at 6 Holies Street until 
1840, when it was acquired by Messrs. Charles 
and Henry Egg, also a name of repute in the 



gun trade. Manton married, on 17 Jan. 1792, 
at St. George's, Hanover Square, Marianne 
Aitkens, and the baptism of several of their 
children is recorded at that church. 

His brother, JOHN MANTON (d. 1834), was 
also a gunmaker, with a reputation little in- 
ferior to that of Joseph. His shop was at 
No. 6 Dover Street, Piccadilly, where he 
carried on business down to the time of his 
death. He took out four patents, but none 
were of much importance. The business 
was continued by his sons for some years 
afterwards. 

The patent indexes also contain the names 
of George Henry Manton (son of John 
Manton) and John Augustus Manton, both 
of whom were gunsmiths. Charles Manton, 
brother to John Augustus, was appointed 
master furbisher at the Tower about 1829. 
Some of his inventions are described in a 
volume lettered ' Percussion Arm Papers, 
1836 to 1847,' preserved among the ordnance 
papers at the Public Record Office. The same 
volume contains reports of trials of several 
inventions by the Mantons. 

[Colonel Hawker's Instructions to Young 
Sportsmen, llth ed. 1859, pp. 1, 6, 20, 76, 80 ; 
Elaine's Encyclopedia of Sports and Pastimes, 
1840, pp. 747, &c. ; Daniel's Eural Sports, iii. 
440, 480, Suppl. p. 447.] E. B. P. 

MANTON, THOMAS, D.D. (1620-1677), 
presbyterian divine, baptised at Lydeard St. 
Lawrence, Somerset, 31 March 1620, was 
son of Thomas Manton, probably curate of 
that place at the time. He was educated at 
the free school, Tiverton, and was an 'apt 
scholar, ready at fourteen for the university.' 
On 11 March 1635 he entered Wadham Col- 
lege, Oxford, and applied himself to divinity ; 
he graduated B.A. from Hart Hall 15 June 
1639, and was ordained by Bishop Hall of 
Exeter at the age of twenty (HAERis). This 
premature step he afterwards speaks of (Expo- 
sition of James] as a ' rash intrusion.' Wood 
conceives that he was not ordained until the 
beginning of 1660, by Bishop Galloway at 
Westminster, which is unlikely. Hill of 
Rotterdam says that he only took deacon's 
orders from Bishop Hall, and that he never 
would submit to any other ordination (Athence 
Oxon. iii. 1135 n.) Manton preached his 
first sermon at Sowton, near Exeter. He was 
in that city during the siege by the royalists, 
and upon its surrender (4 Sept. 1643) went 
to Lyme. Soon afterwards he was chosen 
lecturer at Cullompton, Devonshire. About 
the end of 1644, or early in 1645, he was ap- 
pointed by Colonel Alexander Popham, M.P., 
and lessee of the manor, to the living of 
Stoke Newington, on the sequestration of 
William Heath. Manton soon became ex- 



Manton 



102 



Manton 



tremely popular, and an acknowledged leader 
of the presbyterians in London. 

He was one of the three scribes to the 
Westminster Assembly, and signed the pre- 
face to the ' Confession,' adding an ' Epistle 
to the Reader ' of his own (see ed. Edinb. 
1827). On at least six occasions Manton 
was called to preach before the Long parlia- 
ment, the first being 30 June 1647, a fast day 
(Commons' Journals}. He strongly disap- 
proved of the king's execution, but remained 
in favour with Cromwell and his parliament, 
and again preached before them on thanks- 
giving and fast days until 4 Feb. 1658. He 
attended Christopher Love [q. v.] on the 
scaffold (22 Aug. 1651), and afterwards, in 
spite of threats of shooting from the soldiers, 
preached a funeral sermon (printed 1651) in 
Love's church of St. Lawrence Jewry, though 
' without pulpit-cloth or cushion.' Manton 
was incorporated B.D. on 20 April 1654 at 
Oxford, on the ground that ' he is a person 
of known worth, and a constant preacher 
in London.' In 1656 he was presented by 
William Russell, earl of Bedford, to the 
rectory of St. Paul's, Covent Garden, a new 
church built and endowed by Francis, fourth 
earl (NEWCOURT, i. 707). Although he was 
not legally admitted until 10 Jan. 1660 
(KEKSTETT, Register], he attracted to the 
church, under the Commonwealth, crowds 
of the nobility, both Scottish and English. 
Evelyn was there (Diary, i. 327) on 23 May 
1658, when Manton had collections made for 
the sequestrated ministers. On another oc- 
casion Baxter and Dr. Wilkins, afterwards 
bishop of Chester, assisted him in a service 
for the Piedmontese protestants. He was 
nominated by the committee of parliament, 
with Baxter and others, to draw up the 
' Fundamentals of Religion ' (BAXTER, Reli- 
quia, pt. ii. p. 197). He was also appointed 
one of the 'triers' or inquisitors of godly 
ministers. Wood derisively calls him the 
' prelate of the Protectorate.' On 26 June 
1657 Manton was present in Westminster 
Hall, and l recommended his Highness, the 
Parliament, the council, the forces by land 
and sea, and the whole government and 
people of the three nations to the blessing and 
protection of God ' ( WHITELOCKE, p. 662). 

Manton was anxious for the Restoration, 
and was one of the deputation to Breda, 
where Charles II promised to make subscrip- 
tion easier for the presbyterians. In June or 
July 1660 he was sworn one of the twelve 
chaplains to the king, but never preached 
before him, or received or expected any pay 
(BAXTER). He sat on the commission for the 
revision of the liturgy, which met in the first 
instance at Calamy's house 2 April 1660, and 



diligently attended the Savoy conference 
(convened 25 March 1661). He accompanied 
Baxter, Calamy, and others to an audience 
of the king, who desired them ' to set down 
what they would yield to.' The presbyterians 
met at Sion College for two or three weeks, 
and attended at Lord-chancellor Manchester's 
when their declaration was read before the 
king (22 Oct. 1660). 

On 19 Nov. 1660 Manton was created D.D. 
at Oxford, and was offered the deanery of Ro- 
chester, but he declined to subscribe. He con- 
tinued at St. Paul's, Covent Garden, not read- 
ing the liturgy nor having it read, until a pe- 
tition was presented by his congregation at the 
end of 1661. On 24 Aug. (St. Bartholomew's 
day) 1662 he left his living, but disclaims 
having preached any farewell sermon (KEN- 
NETT, p. 779). He attended the services of 
his successor, Dr. Patrick, afterwards bishop 
of Ely, until Patrick charged him with circu- 
lating a libel about him in the church (Bodl 
MSS. Cod. Tann. xxxiii. fol. 38). Manton 
then held frequent services in his own house 
in King Street, Covent Garden, until the 
numbers grew too large, and the meetings 
were moved successively to White Hart Yard, 
Brydges (now Catherine) Street, and to Lord 
Wharton's in St. Giles's. It is a sign of his 
popularity that the Earl of Berkshire, ' a Jan- 
senist papist,' who lived next door, offered 
egress ' over a low wall ' if trouble arose 
(HARRIS). A mong those who regularly came 
were the Countesses of Bedford and Man- 
chester, Lady Clinton, Sir William Lockier, 
and Lady Seymour (Hist. MSS. Comm. 2nd 
Rep. App. vi. p. 15). In September 1668 
Manton, l being next the court and of great 
name among the presbyterians,' drew up, at 
the suggestion of Sir John Baber [q. v.], an 
address to the king acknowledging the cle- 
mency of his majesty's government. Manton 
described his own and his companion's recep- 
tion at Lord Arlington's, the secretary of 
state, in a letter to Baxter (Reliquice, iii. 37). 
His meetings were connived at until about 
1670, when he was arrested on a Sunday 
afternoon just as he was finishing his sermon. 
He was committed to the Gatehouse, but was 
treated leniently, Lady Broughton being the 
keeper. Baxter 'judges him well at ease.* 
On being released, six months after, Manton 
began preaching in a room in White Hart 
Yard, and only escaped a second arrest by a 
timely warning, which enabled James Bed- 
ford, who had taken the Oxford oath, to 
occupy his place. In 1672 he was chosen one 
of the first six preachers for the merchants and 
citizens of London at the weekly lecture in 
Pinners' Hall, where he continued to preach 
occasionally until his death. Two years 



Manton 



103 



Manton 



later, Manton, with Baxter and Bates, met 
Tillotson and Stillingfteet, ' to consider of an 
accommodation.' A draft was agreed upon 
and laid before the bishops, who rejected it. 
About 1C75 his health failed. A visit to 
Lord Wharton's country seat at Woburn did 
him little good. He fell into a lethargy 
painful to the many friends who visited him, 
and died 18 Oct. 1677, in the fifty-seventh 
year of his age. He was buried in the 
chancel of St. Mary's, Stoke Newington, on 
22 Oct. His funeral sermon was preached 
by William Bates (printed London, 1678). 
John Collinges [q. v.] preached at the mer- 
chants' lecture, and Thomas Case [q. v.], then 
above eighty, also commemorated his death. 
( Words of Peace/ Manton's dignified and 
spiritual utterances on his deathbed, was 
published as a broadside a month or two 
after. 

Manton was the most popular of the pres- 
byterians, and used his influence 'for the 
public tranquillity.' Bates says ' his prudent, 
pacific spirit rendered him most useful in 
these divided times.' According to Neal, he 
was ' a good old puritan, who concerned not 
with the politics of the court,' only with its 
religion. He made no enemies. His portrait, 
engraved by White, is prefixed to most of his 
works. His place was, above all, in the pulpit. 
Archbishop Ussher called him ' a voluminous 
preacher,' and the six folio volumes published 
after his death contain 589 sermons. Lord 
Bolingbroke, writing to Swift (SwiFT, Let- 
ters, ed. 1767, ii. 172), says: 'Manton taught 
my youth to yawn, and prepared me to be a 
high churchman, that I might never hear him 
read or read him more.' Besides the public 
occasions mentioned above, Manton preached 
the second sermon to the Sons of the Clergy, 
several times before the lord mayor and alder- 
men at St. Paul's, and took part in the morn- 
ing exercises at Cripplegate. and elsewhere. 

Manton married Mary Morgan of Sidbury, 
Devonshire, who survived him twenty years. 
They had several children. A daughter 
Ann married a Mr. Terry, and died 16 March 
1689. Some commemorative verses by her 
nephew, Henry Cutts, are to be found in 
* Advice to Mourners, &c., a Sermon long 
since preached by J. Manton,' published by 
Matthew Silvester, 1694, with a short account 
of the two wives of Mr. Terry. A son Thomas 
was baptised at Stoke Newington 7 Oct. 1645, 
and a son James was buried there 18 June 1656. 
Another son, Nathaniel, born 4 March 1657, 
was a bookseller at the Three Pigeons in the 
Poultry (see note at end of Preface to vol. iv. 
of the folio edition of his sermons). Another 
daughter, Mary, was born 9 Dec. 1658. 

Dr. Manton's extremely valuable library 



was sold at his house in King Street, Covent 
Garden, 25 March following his death. The 
catalogue was the fourth printed. A copy, 
with the prices in manuscript, is in the 
British Museum Library. 

Manton published : 1. 'Meate out of the 
Eater, &c./ London, 1647. 2. 'England's 
Spirituall Languishing, &c.,' London, 1648. 
Both fast sermons preached before the com- 
mons. 3. * A Practical Commentary, or an 
Exposition, with Notes, upon the Epistle of 
James/ London, 1651 ; reprinted 1653, 1657, 
1840, 1842, and 1844. 4. 'The Blessed Es- 
tate of them that Die in the Lord/ London, 
1656. 5. ' A Practical Commentary on the 
Epistle of Jude/ 1658, being weekly lectures 
delivered at Stoke Newington. 6. ' Smec- 
tymnuus Redivivus/ with a preface of his 
own, being a reprint of the 1641 edition (see 
CALAMY), 1669. He also wrote a number of 
prefaces or recommendatory epistles to the 
works of Case, Chetwynd, Clifford, Holling- 
worth, Gray, Strong, Sibbes, and others. 

Immediately after Manton's death Bates 
published a volume of his sermons, with por- 
trait, 1678, 4to. A second was published by 
Baxter, 1679, 8vo. 'A Practical Exposi- 
tion of the Lord's Prayer ' appeared in 1684, 
and ' Several Discourses tending to Promote 
Peace and Holiness among Christians/ 1685; 
' Christ's Temptation and Transfiguration 
Practically Explained and Improved/ 1685 ; 
' A Practical Exposition on Isaiah liii./ 1703. 
Vol. i. of the folio complete edition of his 
sermons, with memoir by William Harris, 
D.D. [q. v.], and 190 sermons on Psalm cxix., 
appeared in 1681; 2nd edit., corrected, 1725; 
a later edition, in 3 vols. 8vo, 1842. Vol. ii. 
pt. i., dedicated to William, earl of Bedford, 
by Bates, Collins, and Howe, 1684 ; pt. ii., 
dedicated to Lord and Lady Wharton, by 
Bates and Howe, 1684. Vol. iii. pt. i., con- 
taining a treatise on the Lord's Supper, 1688. 
Vol. iv. 1693. They are supplied with a 
curious but most complete index. ' The 
Morning Exercises at Cripplegate, St. Giles, 
and Southwark/ edited by Nichols, 6 vols. 
1844, contains four of Manton's sermons. 

[Authorities mentioned above ; Gardiner's Ke- 
gisters of Wadham, p. 129; Wood's Athenae 
Oxon. ed. Bliss, iii. 1134-9 ; Calamyand Palmer, 
i. 175, 426; Harris's Memoir, 1725; Eachard's 
Hist. p. 936 ; Mitchell's Westminster Assembly, 
pp. xx, 124, 469; Neal's Puritans, iv. 445 n. ; 
Eobinson's Hist, and Antiquities of Stoke New- 
j ington, pp. 140-3 ; Lysons's Environs of Lon- 
don, pp. 291-2; Burnet's Hist, of bis own 
j Time, i. 259, 308 ; Clarendon's Kebellion, xvi. 
! 242, ed. 1849; Marsden's Later Puritans, 1st 
j edit. p. 418 ; Baxter's Biographical Collections, 
j 1768, pp. 199-226 ; Kennett's Hist, of England, 



Manwaring 



104 



Manwaring 



iii. 281 ; Wilson's Hist, of Dissenting Churches, 
iii. 545-66 ; Darling's Encyclop. Bibliograph. 
1854; Administration at Somerset House ; Re- 
gisters of Lydeard St. Lawrence per Rev. F. L. 
Hughes, of Stoke Newington per Rev. L. E. j 
Shelford, and of Covent Garden per Rev. S. T. | 
Cumberlege.] ' C. F. S. 

MANWARING or MAYNWARING, \ 
ROGER (1590-1653), bishop of St. Davids, 
born at Stretton in Shropshire in 1590, was 
educated at the King's School, Worcester, 
and entered as a bible-clerk at All Souls' 
College, Oxford, in 1602. He is stated, some- 
what doubtfully, to be descended through 
younger sons from John Manwaring or Main- 
waring (d. 1410), sheriff of Cheshire under 
Henry IV (see BURKE, Extinct Baronetcies, 
p. 334). He graduated B.A. in 1608, M.A. 
on 5 July 1611, and accumulated the degrees 
of B.D. and D.D. on 2 July 1625. He was 
collated to the rectory of St. Giles's-in-the- 
Fields, London, on 3 June 1616, and about 
1626 was appointed chaplain in ordinary to 
Charles I. In this capacity he preached before 
the king on 4 July 1627 at Oatlands on ' Re- 
ligion,' and on the 29th following at Alder- 
ton on ' Allegiance.' In the first sermon he 
asserted that the king's royal command im- 
posing taxes and loans without consent of 
parliament did ' so far bind the conscience of 
the subjects of this kingdom that they could 
not refuse the payment without peril of 
damnation,' an illustration of their probable 
fate being supplied by the case of Korah, 
Dathan, and Abiram ; in the second sermon 
he maintained that the authority of parlia- 
ment was not necessary for the raising of aids 
and subsidies. The sermons were printed 
in August 1627, by I. H. for R. Badger, 
London, 4to, ostensibly 'by command of 
his majesty,' though the license and order for 
printing were subsequently assigned to the 
maleficent influence of Laud. They were 
reprinted in 1667 and 1 709 (cf. FORSTER, Eliot, 
i. 387 n. ; LOWNDES, Bibl. Man. 1469). In the 
following May he repeated the substance of 
these sermons in his parish church. Phelips, 
in the House of Commons, had already in 
memorable language protested against the 
absolutist tendency of Manwaring's sermons 
(GARDINER, vi. 237). Rouse and other more 
prominent members took the matter up, and 
on 9 June 16^8 Pym carried up to the lords 
the charges which had been gradually col- 
lected against the preacher. He was charged 
with trying 'to infuse into the conscience of 
his majesty the persuasion of a power not 
"bounding itself with law,' with seeking ' to 
blow up parliamentary powers, not much un- 
like Faux and his followers/ or, in the words 
of Pym, with ' endeavouring to destroy the 



king and kingdom by his divinity.' Man- 
waring's condemnation followed, and he was 
sentenced to be imprisoned during the plea- 
sure of the house, to pay a fine of 1,OOOJ., and 
to be suspended for three years. He was 
also disabled from holding any ecclesiastical 
dignity or secular office. On 23 June Man- 
waring, with tears in his eyes, humbly re- 
pented and acknowledged his errors and 
indiscretions at the bar of the upper house, 
after which he was removed to the Fleet, 
where he remained until the dissolution. A 
few days after the sentence the king, at the 
request of parliament, issued a proclamation 
for the suppression of Manwaring's book, in 
which, although l the grounds were rightly 
laid, yet in divers passages, inferences, and 
applications trenching upon the law of the 
land ... he [Manwaring] hath so far erred 
that he hath drawen upon himselfe the most 
just censure and sentence of the high court 
of Parliament ' (' Proclamation ' in British Mu- 
seum, also printed in RYMER, Fcedera, xviii. 
1025). Charles is said to have remarked with 
regard to the sentence : * He that will preach 
more than he can prove, let him suffer for it ; 
I give him no thanks for giving me my due.' 
He nevertheless directed Heath, the attorney- 
general, to prepare Manwaring's pardon as 
early as 6 July, and in the course of the same 
month he presented Manwaring to the living 
of Stanford Rivers, Essex, with a dispensa- 
tion to hold it together with St. Giles's-in- 
the-Fields. He held the former living down 
to 1641, and in the meantime was collated 
rector of Muckleston, Staffordshire, in 1630, 
and of Mugginton, Derbyshire, in 1631. On 
28 Oct. 1633 he was appointed dean of Wor- 
cester (LE NEVE, Fasti, iii. 71), and in De- 
cember 1635 he was consecrated by Laud to 
the bishopric of St. Davids, a proceeding 
which subsequently found a place among the 
numerous charges brought against the arch- 
bishop. No sooner did the Short parliament 
meet in March 1640 than the lords proceeded 
to question Manwaring's appointment. On 
27 April the king could with difficulty prevent 
them from passing a fresh censure upon him, 
and on the following day he was deprived of 
his vote in the upper house (NALSON, ii. 336). 
Fresh charges were preferred against him con- 
cerning his conduct while dean of Worcester. 
He was accused of popish innovations in 
directing that the king's scholars, forty in 
number, ' usually coming tumultuously into 
the choir,' should come in ' bimatim,' and of 
exhibiting a sociability and joviality ill be- 
fitting his office. By the Long parliament 
he was in consequence imprisoned, losing all 
his preferments, and relapsing into poverty 
and obscurity, when he was greatly befriended 



Manwood 



105 



Manwood 



by Sir Henry Herbert [q. v.] ' For the last 
two years of his life,' says Lloyd, ' not a 
week passed over his head without a mes- 
sage or an injury, which he desired God not 
to remember against his adversaries, and 
adjured all his friends to forget.' He died 
at Carmarthen on 1 July 1653, ' after he had 
endured many miseries,' and was buried by 
the altar in the collegiate church at Breck- 
nock, where a long Latin inscription com- 
memorates his virtues. 

Wood says of him that he had some 
curiosity in learning, but greater zeal for the 
church of England. It is said,' he adds, 
' that he was much resolved on three things : 
1. The redemption of captives. 2. The con- 
version of recusants. 3. The undeceiving 
of seduced sectaries. . . . Mr. [William] 
Fulman [q. v.], who married this bishop's 
granddaughter, used to report a remarkable 
story concerning a loving dog which he kept 
several years before he died, that after his 
master was dead sought for him in all the 
walks that he used to frequent, at length 
finding the church door open, went to his 
grave, not covered, and there he remain'd till 
he languished to death.' 

Manwaring's name is usually thus spelt 
by his contemporaries, though on the title- 
page of his printed sermons it is given Mayn- 
wayring. He was probably connected, but 
remotely, with the Maynwarings or Main- 
warings of Over Peover and Ightfield, whose 
name, according to Lower, assumes 131 dif- 
ferent forms (Patronym. Brit.} 

[Wood's Athense Oxon. ed. Bliss, iv. 811; 
Foster's Alumni Oxon. 1500-1714; Lansdowne 
MS. 985, f. 101 (White Kennett's collections); 
Harl. MS. 980, f. 326 ; Freeman and Jones's St. 
Davids, p. 332 ; ManLy's Hist, and Antiq. of 
St. Davids, p. 160 ; Theophilus Jones's Hist, of 
Brecknockshire; Lloyd's Memoires, 1677, pp. 
272-6 ; Walker's Sufferings of the Clergy, pt. 
ii. p. 16; Hacket's Life of Williams, 1714, p. 
174 ; Chambers's Biog. Illustr. of Worcester- 
shire, p. 194; Prynne's Canterburie's Doome, p. 
352 ; Sanderson's Hist, of Charles I, 1658, p. 
115; Newcourt's Repertorium, i. 612, ii. 547; 
State Papers, Dom. 1628, passim ; State Trials, 
iii. 335-58; Eanke's Hist, of England, i. 586; 
Gardiner's Hist, of England, 1603-40, vols. vi. 
vii. and ix. ; Parl. Hist. ii. 377 ; The Proceedings 
of the Loi-ds and Commons in the year 1628 
against Roger Manwaring, D.D., the Sacheverell 
of his day. for two Seditious, High-flying Ser- 
mons, London, 1709.] T. S. 

MANWOOD, JOHN (d. 1610), legal 
author, a relative of Sir Roger Manwood 
[q. v.], was a barrister of Lincoln's Inn, game- 
keeper of Waltham Forest, and justice of the 
New Forest. He died in 1610. Manwood 
married Mary Crayford, of a Kentish family, 



by whom he had issue. His estate of Priors, 
part of the dissolved priory of Blackmore, in 
the parish of Bromfield, Essex, remained in 
his posterity till the last century, when the 
male line became extinct. 

Manwood compiled and printed in 1592 (at 
first for private circulation) a compendium of 
forest law entitled ' A Brefe Collection of the 
Lawes of the Forest ; collected and gathered 
together as well out of the Statutes and 
Common Lawes of this Realme as also out 
of sundrie auncient Presidents and lie- 
cords, concerning Matters of the Forest. 
With an Abridgment of all the principall 
Cases, Judgments, and Entres, contained in 
the Assises of the Forestes of Pickering and 
of Lancaster,' 4to. The first published edition 
of this excellent work, much enlarged and 
improved, appeared in 1598, London, 4to ; 
2nd edit. 1599, 4to. A new and enlarged 
edition was published in 1615 with the title: 
' A Treatise of the Lawes of the Forest : 
wherein is declared not only those Lawes, as 
they are now in Force, but also the Originall 
and Beginning of Forests : And what a 
Forest is in his owne proper Nature, and 
wherein the same doth differ from a Chase, 
a Parke, or a Warren, with all such Things 
as are incident or belonging thereunto, with 
their severall proper Tearrnes of Art. Also 
a Treatise of the Pourallee, declaring what 
Pourallee is, how the same first began, what 
a Pourallee man may do, how he may hunt 
and use his owne Pourallee, how farre he may 
pursue and follow after his Chase, together 
with the Limits and Bounds, as well of the 
Forest as the Pourallee. Collected as well 
out of the Common Lawes and Statutes of 
this Land, as also out of sundrie Learned 
Auncient Authors, and out of the Assises of 
Pickering and Lancaster,' London, 4to ; re- 
printed, London, 1665, 4to ; 4th edit. London, 
1717, 8vo ; 5th edit. London, 1741, 8vo, both 
revised by William Nelson of the Middle 
Temple. An abridgment by N. Cox is dated 
1696. Manwood is also the author of a brief 
' Project for Improving the Land Revenue 
by inclosing Waste,' submitted to Sir Julius 
Csesar, 27 April 1609, first printed in John 
St. John's * Observations on the Land Re- 
venue of the Crown/ App. No. 1, London, 
1787, 4to. 

[Lansd. MS. 90, if. 19-2o ; Addit. MS. 26047, 
ff. 161-4; Morant's Essex, ii. 77 ; Wright's Essex, 
i. 187 ; Boys's Sandwich, pp. 187, 481 ; Cal. State 
Papers, Dom. 1603-10, pp. 418, 645 ; Dugdale's 
Orig. p. 60 ; Bridgman's Legal Bibliography ; 
Nichols's Lit. Anecd. viii. 298.] J. M. K. 

MANWOOD, SIR PETER (d. 1625), an- 
tiquary, w^as eldest son of Sir Roger Man- 
wood [q. v.] In 1583 he became a student 



Manwood 



106 



Manwood 



of the Inner Temple (CooivE, Admissions, 
1547-1660, p. 106). On 10 Dec. 1591 he 
had assigned to him, his wife Frances, and 
his son Roger, the lease of Lidcourt Mea- 
dows, Eastry, Kent, for their three lives (Cal. 
State Papers, Dom. 1591-4, p. 142), and in 
1595, 1596, and 1597 had other small grants 
arising out of lands in Kent (ib. 1598-1601, 
pp. 527, 528, 531). He was M.P. for Sand- 
wich in 1588-9, 1592-3, 1597, and 1601 ; 
for Saltash, Cornwall, in March 1603-4 ; for 
Kent in 1614; and for New Romney in 
January 1620-1. On 12 Dec. 1598 he had 
license granted him to travel beyond seas 
'for his increase in good knowledge and 
learning' (ib. 1598-1601,, p. 132). He was 
appointed sheriff of Kent in 1602 (ib. 1601- 
1603, p. 268), and at the coronation of 
James I, on 25 July 1603, was made knight 
of the Bath (METCALFE, Book of Knights, 
p. 150). He was also a commissioner of 
sewers for Kent (Cal. State Papers, Dom. 
1619-23, p. 281). Manwood was not only 
learned himself, but a patron of learned men, 
whom he liked to gather round him at his 
seat at St. Stephen's, otherwise Hackington, 
near Canterbury. He is mentioned with 
great respect by Camden (Britannia, ed. 1607, 
p. 239), and was a member of the Society of 
Antiquaries in 1617, when application was 
made for a charter (Archceologia, i. xxi). 
His lavish style of living involved him in 
difficulties, and he had to quit the country 
in August 1621. Broken in health he ven- 
tured back as far as Dover in April 1624, 
hoping to persuade his creditors to accept 
some arrangement whereby he might, be 
suffered to end his days in his own country. 
His lifelong friend, Lord Zouch, wrote to 
Secretary Conw r ay begging him to use his 
influence with the king for Man-wood's pro- 
tection (Cal. State Papers, Dom. 1623-5, 
p. 213). 

Manwood died in 1625, and was buried in 
St. Stephen's Church, leaving a large family 
by his wife Frances (1573-1638), daughter 
of Sir George Hart of Lullingstone, Kent. 
(BEERY, County Genealogies, ' Kent/ p. 356). 
John Manwood (d. 1653), his second son and 
ultimate successor to the estates, was one of 
the gentlemen of the king's privy chamber, 
and was knighted on 3 April 1618 (MET- 
CALFE, p. 173). In 1639 he was lieutenant- 
governor of Dover Castle, and in April 1640 
was elected M.P. for Sandwich. About 1637 
he sold the estate of St. Stephen's to Colonel 
Sir Thomas Colepeper, and, having married 
a Dutch lady as his second wife, resided 
thenceforth a good deal in Holland (HASTED, 
Kent, fol. ed., iii. 595). Another son, Thomas 
Manwood, student of the Inner Temple 1610, 



and B.A. Lincoln College, Oxford, 1611, 
was drowned in France in 1613 (FOSTER, 
Alumni Oxon. 1500-1714, iii. 968). His pre- 
mature death was gracefully commemorated 
by William Browne of Tavistock in the 
fourth eclogue of ' The Shepherd's Pipe ' 
(1614). A daughter, Elizabeth, married Sir 
Thomas Walsingham [q. v.] 

Part of the manuscript of Sir Roger 
Williams's i The Actions of the Lowe Coun- 
tries ' having fallen into Manwood's hands, 
he gave it to Sir John Hayward for revi- 
sion, and published it in 1618, 4to, pre- 
fixing an epistle dedicatory to Sir Francis 
Bacon. He hoped that the publication 
might prove 'a meane of drawing the resi- 
due into light.' 

Two of Manwood's letters to Lord Zouch, 
dated 1620, are in Egerton MS. 2584, ff. 98, 
129. A register of documents relating to 
his estates, dated 1551-1619, is Additional 
MS. 29759. 

[Boys's Sandwich, 1 792, p. 249 ; Notes and 
Queries, 3rd ser. iv. 477 ; Lansd. MS. 109, art. 
97.] G. G-. 

MANWOOD, SIR ROGER (1525-1592), 
judge, second son of Thomas Manwood, a 
substantial draper of Sandwich, Kent, by 
Catherine, daughter of John Galloway of 
Cley, Hundred of South Greenhow, Norfolk, 
was born at Sandwich in 1525. Educated 
at St. Peter's school, Sandwich, he w r as ad- 
mitted in 1548 to the Inner Temple, where 
he was called to the bar in 1555. The same 
year he was appointed recorder of Sandwich, 
and entered parliament as member for Hast- 
ings. In 1557-8 he exchanged Hastings for 
Sandwich, which he continued to represent 
until 1572. He resigned the recordership 
of Sandwich in 1566, but acted as counsel 
for the town until his death. Manwood was 
also, for some years prior to his elevation to 
the bench of the common pleas, steward, 
i.e. judge, of the chancery and admiralty 
courts of Dover. 

At the Inner Temple revels of Christmas 
1561 Manwood played the part of lord chief 
baron in the masque of * Palaphilos ' [cf. HAT- 
TON, SIR CHRISTOPHER, 1540-1591]. He early 
attracted the favourable notice of the queen, 
who in 1563 granted him the royal manor 
of St. Stephen's, or Hackington, Kent, which 
he made his principal seat, rebuilding the 
house in magnificent style. He was reader 
at the Inner Temple in Lent 1565 ; his read- 
ing on the statute 21 Hen. VIII, c. 3, is 
extant in Harleian MS. 5265 (see also 
THORESBY, Ducat. Leod. Cat. of MSS. in 
4to, No. 119). He was a friend of Sir 
Thomas Gresham and Archbishop Parker, 






Manwood 



107 



Manwood 



and steward of the liberties to the latter, in 
concert with whom he founded at Sandwich 
a grammar school. It took the place of St. 
Peter's school, which had been suppressed in 
1 547 with the chantry of St . Thomas, to which 
it was attached. The school was built on a site 
near Canterbury Gate, and endowed partly 
out of Manwood's own funds and money 
bequeathed him for the purpose, partly by 
public subscription between 1563 and 1583, 
and long continued to send scholars to the 
universities, but has been in abeyance since 
the middle of the present century. Man- 
wood was called to the degree of serjeant-at- 
law on 23 April 1567. In parliament he 
supported the Treason Bill of 1571, was a 
member of the joint committee of lords and 
commons to which the case of the queen 
of Scots was referred in May 1572, and 
concurred in advising her execution. On 
14 Oct. he was rewarded with a puisne judge- 
ship of the common pleas. He was one of 
the original governors of Queen Elizabeth's 
oramniar school, founded at Lewisham in 
574, and in 1575 obtained an act of par- 
liament providing for the perpetual mainte- 
nance of Rochester bridge, which, however, 
did not prevent its demolition in 1856, to 
make way for the present iron structure. 
Manwood was joined with the Bishops of 
London and Rochester in a commission of 
11 May 1575 for the examination of foreign 
immigrants suspected of anabaptism. The 
inquisition resulted in the conviction of 
two Flemings, John Peters and Henry Twi- 
wert, who were burned at West Smithfield. 
On 23 April 1576 Manwood was placed on 
the high commission. As a judge he was 
by no means disposed to minimise his juris- 
diction, advised that the Treason Act did not 
supersede, but merely reinforced the common 
law r , and that a lewd fellow, whom neither 
the pillory nor the loss of his ears could 
cure of speaking evil of the queen, might be 
punished either with imprisonment for life 
' with all extremity of irons, and other strait 
feeding and keeping/ or by burning in the 
face or tongue, or public exposure, ( with jaws 
gagged in painful manner,' or excision of the 
tongue. He also held that non-attendance 
at church was punishable by fine, and fa- 
voured a rigorous treatment of puritans. 
Nevertheless, he seems to have been popular 
on circuit, Southampton conferring upon him 
its freedom on 28 March 1577. By the in- 
fluence of Walsingham and Hatton, Man- 
wood was created lord chief baron of the 
exchequer on 17 Nov. 1578, having been 
knighted at Richmond two days before. He 
took his seat in the following Hilary term 
(Add. MS. 16169, f. 67 ). As lord chief 



baron Manwood was a member of the court 
of Star-chamber which on 15 Nov. 1581 
passed sentence of fine and imprisonment upon 
William, lord Vaux of Harrowden [q.v.], 
and other suspected harbourers of the Jesuit 
Edmund Campion [q.v.] for refusing to be 
examined about the matter. His judgment, 
in which he limits the legal maxim, * Nemo 
tenetur seipsum prodere/ to cases involving 
life or limb, is printed in * Archaeologia/ xxx. 
108 et seq. (see also Hist. MSS. Comm. 
llth Rep. App. pt. vii. pp. 103-5). 

In 1582, on the death of Sir James Dyer 
[q.v.], chief justice of the common pleas, 
Manwood offered Burghley a large sum for 
his place, which, however, was given to Ed- 
mund Anderson [q.v.] In February 1584-5 
he helped to try the intended regicide Parry, 
and in the following June he took part 
in the inquest on the death of the Earl of 
Northumberland in the Tower [see PERCY, 
HENRY, eighth EARL OF NORTHUMBERLAND]. 
He was a member of the special commission 
which, on 11 Oct. 1586, assembled at Fother- 
ingay for the examination of the queen of 
Scots, and concurred in the verdict after- 
wards found against her in the Star-chamber 
(25 Oct.) He also sat on the commission which, 
on 28 March 1587, found Secretary Davison 
guilty of ' misprison and contempt ' for his 
part in bringing about her execution [see 
DAVISON, WILLIAM, 1541-1608]. 

In 1591 he was detected in the sale of 
one of the offices in his gift, and sharply 
censured by the queen. A curious letter, in 
which he attempts to excuse himself by 
quoting precedents, is extant in Harleian 
MS. 6995, f. 49. This was but one of several 
misfeasances of various degrees of gravity 
with which Manwood was charged during 
his later years. Thomas Digges [q. v.j and 
Richard Barry, lieutenant of Dover Castle, 
charged him with deliberate perversion of 
justice, in the chancery and admiralty courts 
of Dover, and the exchequer; Sir Thomas 
Perrott [q.v.] and Thomas Cheyne, with co- 
vinous pleading in the court of chancery ; and 
Richard Rogers, suffragan bishop of Dover, 
with selling the queen's pardon in a murder 
case for 240/. According to Manningham 
(Diary, Camden Soc., p. 91), he even stooped 
to appropriate a gold chain which a gold- 
smith had placed in his hands for inspection, 
and on the privy council intervening by writ 
at the suit of the goldsmith, returned the 
scornful answer, 'Malas causas habentes 
semper fugiunt ad potentes. Ubi non valet 
veritas, prrcvalet auctoritas. Currat lex, 
vivat Rex, and so fare you well my Lords/ 
'But/ adds the diarist, 'he was commit/ 
This strange story is confirmed by extant 



Manwood 



ic8 



Manwood 



letters of Manwood, from which it appears j 
that he was arraigned before the privy conn- ! 
cil in April 1592, refused to recognise its | 
jurisdiction in a contemptuous letter contain- | 
ing the words ' fugiunt ad potentes,' was 
thereupon confined in his own house in Great 
St. Bartholomew's by order of the council, \ 
and only regained his liberty by apologising 
for the obnoxious letter, and making humble 
submission (14 May). His disgrace, how- | 
ever, did not prevent his offering Burghley j 
five hundred marks for the chief justiceship ! 
of the queen's bench, vacant by the death of 
Sir Christopher Wray [q.v.] The bribe was 
not taken, arid on 14 Dec. 1592 Manwood \ 
died. The letters above referred to will be i 
found in Lansdowne MS. 71, arts. 5, 6, 7, and 
68 ; Harleian MS. 6995, art. 62 ; and Strype, 
'Annals ' (fol.), iv. 119-23. _ Other of Man- 
wood's letters are preserved in Egerton MS. j 
2713, f. 193, Additional MS. 12507, f. 130, 
Lansdowne MS. arts. 24 and 31, and the ' Man- 
wood Papers ' in the Inner Temple Library. 
His hand is one of the least legible ever 
written. A note of some of the charges 
against him in Burghley's handwriting is in 
Lansdowne MS. 104, art. 32 (see alsoLansd. 
MSS. 24 art. 39, 26 art. 7). Some eulogistic 
Latin hexameters on his death are ascribed 
to Marlowe (cf. Works of Christopher Mar- 
lowe, ed. Dyce, iii. 308). 

Manwood was buried beneath a splendid 
marble monument, erected during his life- 
time, in the south transept of St. Stephen's 
Church, near Canterbury. Coke calls him 
a ' reverend judge of great and excellent 
knowledge in the law, and accompanied with 
a ready invention and good elocution.' Of 
the four high courts of justice he wittily 
said : ' In the common pleas there is all law 
and no conscience, in the queen's bench both \ 
law and conscience, in the chancery all con- 
science and no law, and in the exchequer 
neither law nor conscience.' His opinion 
' as touching corporations, that they were in- 
visible, immortal, and that they had no soul, 
and therefore no subpoana lieth against them, 
because they have no conscience nor soul,' is 
recorded by Bulstrode, ' Reports,' pt. ii. p. 
233. 

If an unscrupulous judge, Manwood was 
a munificent benefactor to his native county. 
Besides his school, he built a house of cor- 
rection in Westgate, Canterbury, gave St. 
Stephen's Church a new peal of bells and a 
new transept that under w r hich he was 
buried and procured in 1588 a substantial 
augmentation of the living. He also built 
seven almshouses in the vicinity of the 
church, and by his will left money to pro- 
vide work and wages for the able-bodied poor 



of Hackington and the adjoining parishes in 
bad times. 

Manwood married twice, in both cases a 
widow. By his first wife, Dorothy, daughter 
of John Theobald of Sheppey, he had issue 
three sons and two daughters ; by his second 
wife, Elizabeth, daughter of John Copinger, 
of Allhallows, near Rochester, he had no issue. 
Of his sons one only survived him, Peter 
[q. v.] His posterity died out in the male 
line during the seventeenth century. Both 
Manwood's daughters married ; Margaret, 
the elder, Sir John Leveson of Home, Kent ; 
Ann, the younger, Sir Percival Hart of 
Lillingston. Fuller ( Worthies, ' Kent ') erro- 
neously ascribes to the judge a treatise on 
' Forrest Law ' [see M ANWOOD, JOHN] . A por- 
trait of Manwood by an unknown hand is in 
the National Portrait Gallery ; it is a sketch 
in water-colours from an ancient picture. 

[Lambard's Perambulation of Kent, 1596, p. 
394 ; Holinshed's Chronicles, anno 1 584 ; Berry's 
County Genealogies, ' Kent; ' Camden 's Britannia, 
ed. G-ough, i. 217; Addit. MSS. 5507 p. 329, 
12507 f. 130, 29759, 33512 if. 5-16; Eg. MS. 
2713, f. 193; Lansd. MSS. 24 art. 39, 26 art. 7, 
27 art. 48, 50 art. 24 and 31, 104 art. 32 ; Harl. 
MSS. 6993 ff. 7, 17, 6994 if. 21,154, 7567 art. 15; 
Inner Temple Books; Eeturns of Members of 
Parliament (Official) ; Boys's Sandwich, pp. 199- 

269, 484, 744-5: Hasted's Kent, ii. 20, 621, 
iii. 598, 600, iv. 273 ; Hasted's Kent, ed. Drake, 
pt. i., ' Hundred of Blackheath,' pp. 268, 27lw., 
284; Dugdale's Orig. p. 150; Chron. Ser. pp. 93, 
94; Gal. State Papers, Dom. 1547-80, pp. 441, 
521, 556, 1581-90 p. 648, 1591-4 pp. 219-20; 
Burgon's Life of Sir Thomas Gresham, ii. 478 ; 
Nicolas's Life of Sir Christopher Hatton, p. 67 ; 
D'Ewes's Journ. of Parliaments during the Keign 
of Queen Elizabeth, 1682, pp. 160, 165, 167, 178, 
180, 183, 206, 222, 223; Parl. Hist. i. 745; 
Hist. MSS. Comm. llth Rep. App. pt. iii. p. 20; 
Analytical Index to the Remembrancia, p. 117; 
Rymer's Fcedera (Sanderson), xv. 718, 740 ; Cob- 
bett's State Trials, i. 1095, 1114, ii. 62 et seq. ; 
Somers Tracts, i. 220 ; Narratives of the Re- 
formation (Camden Soc.), p. 339 ; Trevelyan 
Papers (Camden Soc.), ii. 84, 86 ; Camden Mis- 
cellany (Camden Soc.), vol. iv. ; Lodge's Illustra- 
tions, ii. 382 ; Parker Corresp. (Parker Soc.), pp. 
187-92, 338, 405 ; Becon's Prayers (Parker Soc.), 
p. 601 ; Strype's Whitgift, fol.,i. 285, ii. 360-73, 
iii. 138 et seq. ; Strype's Aylmer, 8vo, p. 91 ; 
Strype's Grindal, fol., pp. 208, 232-3; Strype's 
Parker, fol., i. 274 et seq., ii. 377, iii. 337, 343 ; 
Strype's Annals, fol., vol. iii. pt. i. pp. 62, 138, 

270, 364; Coke's Reports, fol., pt. iii. p. 26; 
Croke's Reports, 4th ed.,p. 290; Fronde's Hist, of 
England, xi.88; Carlisle's Endowed Grammar 
Schools, i. 595 et seq. ; Parl. Papers, 1865, vol. 
xliii. ; Murray's Handbook to Kent ; Kelly's 
Directory to Kent and Sussex ; Foss's Lives of 
the Judges.] J. M. R. 



Map 



109 



Map 



MAP or MAPES, WALTER (ft. 1200), 
mediaeval author and wit, was from his name 
of Welsh descent, and he speaks of the Welsh 
as his fellow-countrymen (De Nugis, ii. 20). 
Map, which is Welsh for i son/ and which 
has been shortened to Ap in forming modern 
patronymics, seems to have been used by 
the Saxons as a nickname for a Welshman. 
Walter himself was almost certainly a native 
of Herefordshire ; he calls himself ' a marcher 
of Wales ' (ib. ii. 23), and his < De Nugis 
Curialium' abounds in legends relating to 
that county ; moreover, he was throughout 
his life more or less closely connected with 
the city of Hereford. It is known that there 
was a succession of Walter Maps at Worms- 
ley, about eight miles north of that city, 
between 1150 and 1240 (cf. citations from 
Harl. MSS. 3586 and 6726, ap. WARD, Cat. 
of Romances, i. 736-8) . Walter may have been 
a member of this family, but there is no cer- 
tain evidence, although he is known to have 
held land at Ullingswick, at no great dis- 
tance (Cart. S. Peto- Gloucester, ii. 156, 
Rolls Ser.) It has, however, been argued, 
though on very insufficient grounds, that 
Map was a native of Pembrokeshire (Notes 
and Queries, 3rd ser. xi. 386; HARDY, Cat. 
Brit. Hist. ii. 487). All that we know of 
his parents is that they were of sufficient 
position to have been of service to Henry II, 
both before and after he became king (De 
Nugis, v. 6). Map was probably born about 
1140, and went to study at Paris soon after 
1154, for Louis VII had lately married Con- 
stance of Castile, and he was there at least 
as late as 1160, for he studied under Girard 
la Pucelle, who began to teach in or about 
that year (ib. v. 5, ii. 7). He was, however, 
back in England before 1162, for he was pre- 
sent at the court of Henry II, while Thomas 
Becket was still chancellor (ib. ii. 23). Map 
says that he had earned Henry's favour 
and affection through his parent's merits (ib. 
v. 6). He was one of the clerks of the royal 
household, and thus was frequently employed 
as a justice itinerant (GiRALDUs C AMBRENSIS, 
Opera, iv. 219) ; his name occurs in this capa- 
city at Gloucester in 1173 (MADOX, Hist. 
Exchequer, i. 701), and as a justice in eyre 
for Herefordshire and the neighbouring coun- 
ties in 1185 (EYTON, Itinerary of Henry II, 
pp. 176, 265). Giraldus says that Map always 
excepted the Jews and Cistercians from his 
oath to do justice to all men, since 'it was 
absurd to do justice to those who were just to 
none.' Map was with Henry at Limoges in 
1173, when he had care of Peter of Tarentaise. 
In 1179 Henry sent him to the Lateran 
Council at Rome (cf. ib. p. 223) ; on his way 
he was hospitably entertained by Henry of 



Champagne. At the council he was deputed 
by the pope to argue with the representatives 
of the Waldensians, who were present there 
(De Nugis, ii. 3, v. 5, i. 31 ). In 1176 he re- 
ceived the prebend of Mapesbury at St. 
Paul's ; apparently he was already canon and 
precentor of Lincoln, and parson of West- 
bury, Gloucestershire, a living in the gift of 
the vicars choral at Hereford (LE NEVE, ii. 
82, 406). In 1183 he was with Henry II in 
Anjou, and at the time of the young king's 
death in June was at Saumur (De Nugis, 
iv. 1, v. 6). Before 1186 he had become 
chancellor of Lincoln (Cart. S. Peter Glouc. 
ii. 156). His connection with the court seems 
to have ceased at the death of Henry II (De 
Nugis, iv. 2). In 1197 (not 1196 as often 
stated) he was made archdeacon of Oxford, 
and at the same time resigned his precentor- 
ship (R. DE DICETO, ii. 150). Two years later, 
on a vacancy in the see of Hereford, the 
chapter wished to have Walter for bishop ; 
he held at this time one of the prebends. 
Walter accompanied a deputation from the 
chapter to Angers in March 1199, when they 
attempted to gain their end with the aid of 
Bishop Hugh of Lincoln ( Vita S. Hugonis 
Lincolniensis, p. 281, Rolls Ser.) Their mis- 
sion was unsuccessful, and John, on his ac- 
cession soon after, gave the see to Giles de 
Braos [q.v.] In January 1202 Walter, as 
archdeacon of Oxford, was ordered to seize all 
the property of his old friend Giraldus with- 
in his archdeaconry (GIRALDUS CAMBRENSIS, 
Opera, iii. 20). In November 1203 he was 
one of the candidates whom Giraldus, not 
very sincerely, suggested for the see of St. 
Davids (ib. i. 306, iii. 321). Map was still 
alive on 15 March 1208, when an order was 
made for a payment to him (Cal. Rot. Litt. 
Claus. i. 106), but apparently he was dead 
when Giraldus wrote the proosmium to the 
second edition of his ' Hibernica ' about 1210, 
for, in referring to Map, Giraldus says, ' cujus 
animse propitietur Deus' (Opera, v. 410). 
The date of his death is given as 1 April in 
a calendar printed from a Hereford missal in 
the ' History of Hereford,' London, 1717. 

In the only extant charter granted by 
Map, his nephew, Philip Map, is mentioned 
as a witness ( Cotton Charter, xvi. 40, printed 
ap. Latin Poems, p. xxix). Map had other 
nephews (De Nugis, p. 13), but nothing 
further is known of them. There is no doubt 
that Map is the right spelling of his name ; 
it is the form invariably used by his con- 
temporaries, and is given by Walter himself 
(ib. v. 6, * cui agnomen Map '). Mapes is the 
latinised and inaccurate form, though it has 
been most popularly used. Map is to be 
carefully distinguished from his predecessor 



Map 



no 



Map 



in the archdeaconry of Oxford, Walter Ca- 
lenius [q.v.], with whom he has been often 
confused. 

Walter Map's undoubted literary remains 
are scarcely commensurate with the reputa- 
tion which he has almost continuously en- 
joyed. A man of the world, with a large 
circle of courtly acquaintances he bears wit- 
ness himself to his familiarity with the two 
Henrys of England, Henry II and his son, 
with Louis of France, and Henry of Cham- 
pagne actively engaged in public affairs from 
his youth up, he was probably more familiar to 
his contemporaries as a wit than as a writer ; 
to this Giraldus Carnbrensis bears witness in 
the record that he has preserved of his friend's 
1 courtly jests ' {Opera, iii. 145, iv. 219, &c.) 
It is possible also that this is all that Giral- 
dus alludes to in his repeated references to 
Map's French ' dicta,' though this is suscep- 
tible of another explanation. Map himself 
says expressly to Giraldus, ' Nos multa dixi- 
mus ; vos scripta dedistis et nos verba,' and 
that his ' dicta ' had brought him a consider- 
able reputation (GiKALDFS, Opera, v. 410- 
411). However, Giraldus is also our wit- 
ness that Map was a scholar, well versed in 
law and theology, and a man of poetic taste, 
well read in literature (ib. i. 271-89, iv. 140). 
Much of this might be inferred from his one 
undoubted work, the ' De Nugis Curialium ' 
(Courtiers' Triflings). This curious bo.ok, al- 
though devoid of any visible arrangement, 
made up largely of legends from his native 
county, gossip and anecdotes of his court 
life, also displays his interest in and ac- 
quaintance with the ancient classics, the 
Christian fathers, and contemporary history. 
In its form hardly more than the undigested 
reminiscences and notes of a man of the 
world with a lively sense of humour, there 
is yet a deeper purpose underlying it ; it is, 
indeed, in some sense a keen satire on the 
condition of church and state in the writer's 
own day. It incorporates much historical 
information, chiefly of a traditional and 
anecdotal character, but of considerable in- 
terest ; especially noticeable are his accounts 
of the Templars and Hospitallers, and his 
sketch of the English court and kings from 
the reign of William II to his own time. 
To the ' De Nugis ' we also owe nearly all 
our knowledge of Map's own life. The work 
appears to have grown out of a request made 
by a friend called Geoffrey, that he would 
write a poem on ( his sayings and doings 
that had not been committed to writing ' 
(De Nugis, pp. 14, 19). Elsewhere he im- 
plies that he wrote at the wish of Henry II, 
and tells us that the book was composed in 
the court by snatches (ib. p. 140). It is 



sufficiently clear from the work itself that 
it was composed at various times between 
1182 and 1192 (ib. pp. 176 and 230 ; see also 
pp. 20, 22, 39, 209, 228, 232). Moreover, 
the same stories or incidents are sometimes 
related more than once. The only manu- 
script of the 'De Nugis Curialium' is Bodl. 
MS. 851, a manuscript of the fifteenth cen- 
tury, once the property of John Wellys, 
monk of Ramsey and sometime student of 
Gloucester Hall, Oxford (inscription in Bodl. 
MS. 851, and WOOD, Oity of Oxford, ii. 260, 
Oxf. Hist. Soc.) There is a transcript made 
from this manuscript by Richard James [q.v.] 
in James MSS. 31 and 39, in the Bodleian 
Library. It was edited by Mr. T. Wright 
for the Carnden Society in 1850. A discus- 
sion of some of the folk-tales contained in 
the ' De Nugis' will be found in 'Germania,' 
v. 47-64. In the ' De Nugis ' (Distinctio, iv. 
c. iii.) is incorporated a little treatise, ' Dis- 
suasio Valerii ad Rufinum ne uxorem ducat/ 
which seems to be a work of Map's earlier 
years, and of which many anonymous copies 
exist (e.g. Bodl. MS. Add. A 44, early thir- 
teenth century with a fourteenth-century 
commentary, and Arundel MS. 14, and Bur- 
ney MS. 360 in the British Museum). Ib 
is printed among the supposititious works 
of St. Jerome in Migne's ' Patrologia,' xxx. 
254. 

In the ' De Nugis Curialium ' there are 
incorporated various stories of a romantic 
character. But there is nothing which, for 
its style or matter, would lead us to attri- 
bute to Map that share in the composition 
of the Arthurian romances with which he 
has in varying proportions been credited. 
The manuscripts of the great prose romance 
of ' Lancelot ' commonly ascribe the author- 
ship to Map. Of the four parts of this work 
the first two compose the i Lancelot ' proper, 
the other two being the ' Quest of the S. 
Graal,' andthe'Morte Arthur.' Allfour parts 
are in several manuscripts, attributed speci- 
fically to Walter Map (e.g. Royal, 19 C xiii. 
thirteenth century, in the British Museum). 
But in Egerton MS. 989 which is a copy of 
the ' Tristram' the writer, who passes under 
the name of Helie de Borron, tells us that 
Map wrote l le propre livre de M. lancelot 
du lac.' The same writer in the ' Meliadus ' 
(cf. Add. MS. 12228) gives the usual as- 
cription of the ' Lancelot ' to Map, with the 
significant addition l qui etoit le clerc le roi 
henri.' The constancy of the tradition would 
in itself point to there being some founda- 
tion of fact ; it is therefore interesting to find 
Hue of Rotelande, who was himself a native 
of Herefordshire, and wrote about 1185, 
after describing the threefold appearance of 



Map 



his hero at the tournament in white, red, 
and black armour, excuse his romance-writing 
with these words : 

Sul ne sai pas de mentir lart, 
Walter Map reset ben sa part. 

(Ipomedon.} 

( l I am not the only one who knows the art of 
lying, Walter Map knows well his part of it.') 
The incident of the tournament figures of 
course in the * Lancelot,' and it is almost in- 
credible that we have not here a conscious 
allusion to that romance, and to Map as its 
author. With this corroborative evidence we 
may take the statement by the so-called Helie 
de Borroii in the ( Meliadus.' Helie lived about 
1230, and was an ' arrangeur ' of older and 
shorter romances, from which he probably 
derived his assertion of Map's share in the 
composition of the ' Lancelot.' If Helie was 
merely endeavouring to father the ' Lancelot ' 
on an eminent man, it is strange that he 
should not have given Map his later designa- 
tion of archdeacon, instead of going back 
fifty years to the time when he was a simple 
clerk of the king. That Helie or his autho- 
rities should have known that Map was a 
royal clerk is in itself perhaps a little pecu- 
liar, and the assertion that he translated the 
' Lancelot ' into French at Henry's request is 
a further coincidence, when compared with 
Map's own statement in the ' De Nugis ' that 
he engaged in literature at the king's wish 
(p. 140). Taking the analogy of the great 
prose ' S. Graal,' which was asserted to be 
a translation from the Latin by Robert de 
Borron, but which has proved to be founded 
on a short poem by that writer, we may not 
unfairly conclude that the foundation of the 
prose ' Lancelot ' was an Anglo-French poem 
by Walter Map. Map wrote poetry and 
wrote in French, and it is possible that this 
is what he refers to as his ' dicta,' using that 
word in the sense of the French ' dites,' and 
* dicere ' in the sense of composing in the 
spoken language as opposed to ' scribere ' (to 
compose in Latin). That such Anglo-French 
poems on this subject did exist we know from 
Ulrich of Zatzikhoven, who partly founded 
his romance of ' Lanzelet ' on a book which 
he borrowed from Hugh de Morville [q.v.], 
when a hostage in Germany for Richard I. 
M. Paulin Paris and Dr. Jonckbloet even 
favour Map's claim to be the author of the 
prose ' Lancelot,' including the ' S. Graal ' 
and 'Morte Arthur.' On the other hand, 
M. Gaston Paris would deprive him of any 
share whatever in its composition. On the 
whole it seems probable that Map did con- 
tribute in a considerable degree towards 
giving the Arthurian romances their exist- i 



i Map 

ing shape, but how far any of his work has 
survived must be a matter of dispute. It 
is perhaps worth notice that M. Paulin Paris 
hazarded a theory that Map wrote his ro- 
mances in defence of Henry's opposition to the 
Roman court, and that the legend of Joseph 
of Arimathea constituted a claim for ponti- 
fical supremacy in defiance of the pope (ib. 
) This theory, though per- 
ed, is enticing when viewed 



472 



haps far 



et sqq.) 
r fetche 



in connection with Map as the satirist of 
Roman corruption. 

It is as a satirist, rather than as the author 
of the ' De Nugis Curialium ' or the ' Lan- 
celot,' that Walter Map has enjoyed so lasting 
a reputation. To his pen has been ascribed 
much of the Goliardic verse, in which the 
later twelfth and early thirteenth centuries 
were so prolific. These Latin poems consist 
of satires on the corruptions of the ecclesi- 
astical order generally, and above all on the 
church of Rome. A ' Goliardus '* was a clerk 
of loose life, who made a living by his coarse 
and satirical wit (on the derivation of the 
word see WEIGHT, Latin Poems attributed 
to Walter Map, or DUCANGE, sub voce). 
From this we have the pretended Bishop 
Golias, the burlesque representative of the 
clerical order, whose ' Confession ' and ' Apo- 
calypse ' are the chief among the poems of 
this class attributed to Map. But Giraldus 
Cambrensis was familiar with the ' Confes- 
sion,' and criticises its writer severely under 
the name of Golias ; it would therefore ap- 
pear that he at any rate did not suspect his 
intimate friend of the authorship (Speculum 
Ecclesics. ap. Opera, iv. 291-3). Giraldus also 
cites the poem entitled ( Golias in Romanam 
Curiam ' (ib. ; cf. Latin Poems, pp. 36-9). 
Of the other poems the 'Metamorphosis 
Goliae' (ib. pp. 21-30) appears to have been 
written about 1140 (art. by M. Haureau in 
Mem. Acad. Inscr. et Belles-Lettres, xxviii. 
II. 223-38). A collection of these poems 
was edited by Mr. T. Wright for the Cam- 
den Society, * Latin Poems attributed to Wal- 
ter Map,' 1841. There is no sure ground for 
ascribing any of this extant poetry to Map, and 
the ascriptions of them to him in manuscripts, 
though common in the fifteenth century, are 
in no case older than the fourteenth century. 
We do, however, know that Map wrote 
verses against the Cistercians, and some of 
his jests preserved by Giraldus are made at 
the expense of the clergy (cf. Opera, iii. 145, 
' vir linguEe dicacis et eloquentiae grandis 
illorum et similium sugillans avaritiam epi- 
scoporum '). The ' De Nugis Curialium ' more- 
over contains some unfavourable criticisms 
of the monastic orders, and comments on the 
avarice of the court of Rome (cf. pp. 37, 44- 



Map 



112 



Maplet 



58, 87). It was probably the knowledge of 
these sentiments and his fame as a satirist 
that earned Map the repute of being the true 
Golias. Of his poems against the Cistercians, 
one line appears to have been preserved : 

Lancea Longini grex albus ordo nefandus. 

This occurs in a reply by W. Bothewald, sub- 
prior of St. Frideswide's, Oxford, dating from 
the twelfth century (printed in Latin Poems, 
p. xxxv). In one place Bothewald seems to 
allude to the ' De Nugis ' (ib. p. xxxvii). It 
is noticeable that the metre of this line is 
different from that of any of the poems com- 
monly attributed to Map. Giraldus says that 
Map's hostility to the Cistercians arose out of 
a dispute with the Cistercians of Flixley as to 
the rights of his church of Westbury (Opera, 
iv. 219-24, 140). He also refers to Map's 
poetic tastes in a long letter which he ad- 
dressed to him (ib. i. 271-89), and preserves 
a poem which he sent to Map with a stick, 
and Map's reply in twelve elegiacs (ib. i. 362- 
363). The latter appears to be the only un- 
doubted product of Map's muse which is now 
extant. 

The famous so-called f Drinking-Song ' 

Meum est propositum in taberna mori, 
Vinum sit appositum morientis ori, 
Ut dicant cum venerint angelorum chori, 
Deus sit propitius huic potatori 

which more than all else has secured Map a 
popular repute in modern times, consists of 
two separate extracts from the ' Confessio 
Golise,' lines 45-52, and 61-76. The first 
four of these lines form the opening verse of 
another drinking-song given in Sloane MS. 
2593, f. 78, which dates from the fifteenth 
century (printed in Latin Poems, p. xlv). 
It is therefore probable that before that 
date the well-known song had been con- 
structed out of the ' Confessio.' There have 
been many modern translations of this song 
(cf. Notes and Queries, 7th ser. viii. 108, 
211, 252). Among these are versions by 
Leigh Hunt, Sir Theodore Martin, and Mr. 
J. A. Symonds ( Wine, Women, and Song}. 
Its supposed authorship must in all pro- 
bability be abandoned, and in any case the 
titles of 'the jovial archdeacon' and 'the 
Anacreon of his age ' which it has earned 
for Map are utterly inappropriate. 

Many specimens of Map's wit are pre- 
served by Giraldus (cf. Opera, iii. 145, iv. 
140, 219-24). A version of the fable of 
the hind in the ox-stall is given as ' ex dictis 
W. Map,' in C.C.C. MS. 139. It is printed 
in Wright's edition of the 'De Nugis,' p. 244. 

[Almost all our knowledge of Map's life is due 
to the De Nugis Curialium and the frequent 



references in the works of Giraldus Cambrensis ; 
the latter are quoted from the edition in the 
Rolls Series ; there are two passages relating to 
him in the life of S. Hugh of Lincoln by Adam 
of Eynsham in the Rolls Ser. ; there are also a 
few references in the Pipe Rolls and Calendars 
of Patent and Close Rolls. The most valuable 
modern account is to be found in Ward's Cata- 
logue of Romances in the British Museum, i. 
218, 345-66, 734-41 ; see also Wright's prefaces 
to the De Nugis Curialium, and Latin Poems at- 
tributed to Walter Map, and his Biographia 
Britannica Literaria, ii. 295-310; Foss's Judges 
of England, i. 275-8. For various points in con- 
nection with Map's supposed share in the Arthu- 
rian romances see Paulin Paris's Romans de la 
Table Ronde, esp. v. 351-67, and Manuscrits 
Fran9ois de la Bibliotheque du Roi ; Gaston 
Paris's Litterature Franchise au Moyen Age, 
60, 62, 63; Jonckbloet's Le Roman de la 
Charrette par Gauthier Map et Chrestien de 
Troyes, The Hague, 1850 ; Maertens's ' Lanzelot- 
sage, eine litterarhistorische Untersuchung,' in 
Romanische Studien, v. 557-706 ; Romania, i. 
457-72, ' De 1'origine et du developpement des 
romans de la Table Ronde,' by Paulin Paris, x. 
470, on the Lanzelet of Ulrich of Zatzik- 
hoveri by Gaston Paris, and xii. 459-534, ' Le 
Conte de la Charrette,' by Gaston Paris ; Nutt's 
Studies in the Legend of the Holy Graal. The 
writer has to thank Mr. H. L. D. Ward of the 
British Museum for some valuable assistance.] 

C. L. K. 

MAPLET, JOHN (d. 1592), miscella- 
neous writer, matriculated as a sizar of 
Queens' College, Cambridge, in December 
1560, proceeded B.A. in 1563-4, was a fellow 
of Catharine Hall in August 1564, and com- 
menced M.A. in 1567. On 26 Nov. 1568 he 
was instituted, on the presentation of Sir Tho- 
mas Mildmay, to the rectory of Great Leighs, 
Essex, which he exchanged for the vicar- 
age of Northall (now Northolt), Middlesex, 
on 30 April 1576 (NEWCOTTKT, Repertorium, 
i. 222, 703, ii. 385). He was buried in the 
chancel of Northolt Church on 7 Sept. 1592 
(parish register), leaving issue : John, Thomas 
(b. 1577), Margaret, Ellen (b. 1575-6), and 
Mary (b. 1581). His wife was apparently a 
widow named Ellen Leap. A few weeks 
after Maplet's death she married Matthew 
Kandall, servant on her husband's glebe, and 
died at Baling in 1595 (Probate Act in Vic. 
Gen. Book, Bp. London, 1595, f. 32 b}. Ran- 
dall, who became a prosperous yeoman at 
Ealing, survived until 1630 (Act Book, Comm. 
Court ofLond. 1627-30, f. 115 b). 

To Northolt Church Maplet left his 
1 Byble of the greatest vollome ' and some 
small benefactions to the parish (will regis- 
tered in P. C. C. 70, Scott). 

Maplet wrote : 1. ' A Greene Forest, or a 
Naturall Historic. Wherein may bee seene 



Maplet 



Mapletoft 



first the most sufferaigne vertues in all the 
whole kinde of stones & mettals : next of 
plants, as of herbes, trees, & shrubs ; lastly 
of brute beastes, foules, fishes, creeping 
wormes, & serpents/ 8vo, London, 1567, de- 
dicated to Thomas, earl of Sussex. 2. ' The 
Diall of Destinie . . . wherein maybe seen 
the continuall . . . course, . . . effectes, and 
influence of the seven planets upon allkyndes 
of creatures here below : and unto the severall 
. . . situation of countryes and kingdomes. 
Compiled and discussed briefly, as well astro- 
logical^ as poetically /12mo,Lond. 1581 (8vo, 
1582), dedicated to Sir Christopher Hatton. 
Both these curious treatises are very rare. 

[Information from J. Challenor Smith, esq., 
and W. H. L. Shadwell, esq. ; Cooper's Athense 
Cantabr. iii. 135-6; Tanner's Bibl. Brit.-Hib. 
1748, p. 508.] G. Gr. 

MAPLET, JOHN (1612 P-1670), physi- 
cian, probably born in 1612 in the parish of 
St. Martin-le-Grand, London, was son, ac- 
cording to Wood, of ' a sufficient shoemaker.' 
According to the ' Register of the Parlia- 
mentary Visitors to Oxford ' (ed. Burrows, 
p. 488) he was twenty in 1632. He was 
educated at Westminster, whence in 1630 he 
was elected to Christ Church, Oxford. He 
graduated B.A. on 8 July 1634, MA. on 
17 April 1638, and M.D. 24 July 1647. On 
9 Dec. 1643 he was elected junior proctor 
upon the death of William Cartwright, and 
served for the remainder of the year ; and in 
the autumn of 1647 he was nominated princi- 
pal of Gloucester Hall, now Worcester Col- 
lege. He was a delegate of the university 
appointed to receive the parliamentary visi- 
tors, and is said to have submitted to their 
authority. But he quickly left the univer- 
sity. About 1648 he became tutor to Lucius 
Gary, third lord Falkland, with whom he 
travelled in France for two years, staying 
chiefly at Orleans, Blois, and Saumur. During 
the tour he made many observations, which 
he committed to writing, 'in a neat and 
curious hand, with a particular tract of his 
travels in an elegant Latin style ' (GUTDOTT). 
He afterwards went to Holland and the Low 
Countries, where an uncle seems to have 
resided. On 5 March 1651 it was certified 
to the committee for reformation of the uni- 
versities that he was ' absent upon leave ' 
(BURROWS, p. 329), but while still abroad 
he appears to have been ejected from his 
offices at Oxford. On his return he settled 
as a physician at Bath, practising there in 
the summer and at Bristol in the winter * with 
great respect and veneration from all people 
in those parts.' He was acquainted with the 
chief physicians of his time, and helped 

VOL. XXXVI. 



Guidott in his early days [see GFIDOTT, THO- 
MAS]. At the Restoration he resumed the 
principalship of Gloucester Hall, but retired 
in 1662. He died at Bath on 4 Aug. 1670, 
aged 55 ; his wife died in the following Fe- 
bruary. In the north aisle of Bath Abbey, 
where they were buried, an elaborate monu- 
ment, with a black marble tablet with a 
Latin inscription to Maplet's memory, was 
erected by Guidott. Under it is another 
small tablet with an inscription to his wife, 
aged 35, and his children, a son John, aged 
three years, and a daughter Mary, aged three 
months. Of Maplet Guidott says : ' He was 
of a tender, brittle constitution, inclining to 
feminine, clear skinn'd and of a very fresh 
complexion.' Wood says * he was learned, can- 
did, and ingenious, a good physician, a better 
Christian, and an excellent Latin poet.' 

Besides Familiar Epistles,' Maplet left in 
manuscript 'Mercurial Epistles/ ' Consulta- 
tion with Dr. Edmund Meara [q. v.], Dr. 
Samuel Bave, and others,' * Cosmetics,' the 
' Treatise of his Travels into the Low Coun- 
tries and France/ and ' Poems and Epitaphs 
on Several Occasions and Persons ' (in the 
Oxford collection), all in Latin. In 1694 
Guidott published in quarto Maplet's ' Episto- 
larum Medicarum Specimen de Thermarum 
Bathoniensium Eftectis/ which was dedicated 
to the leading contemporary physicians. Gui- 
dott also preserves some Latin verses by him 
on catarrh in the eyes, some lines headed ( De 
Catarrhi Fuga ' and ' In Primum Canitiem/ 
with a rhymed translation of the latter. He 
considers his patron's style terse and his words 
choice, but his periods a little too elaborate. 

[G-uidoft's Lives and Characters of the Physi- 
cians of Bathe, pp. 151-63; Wood's AthenaeOxon. 
ed. Bliss, iii. 71, iv. 733, vii. 900-1, Fasti, pt. 
i. pp. 473, 506, ii. 56, 104; "Welch's Alumni 
Westmonast. pp. 102-3 ; Foster's Alumni Oxon. 
1500-1714 ; Chalmers's Biog. Diet. xxi. 269-70, 
which is also copied by Kose.] G. LE G. N. 

MAPLETOFT, JOHN (1631-1721), 
physician and divine, was descended from 
an old Huntingdonshire family. His father 
was Joshua Mapletoft, vicar of Margaret- 
ting and rector of Wickford, Essex, and his 
mother Susanna, daughter of John Collet 
by Susanna, sister of Nicholas Ferrar [q. v.] 
of Little Gidding. She afterwards married 
James Chedley, and, dying on 31 Oct. 1657, 
was buried at Little Gidding. John was 
born at Margaretting on 15 June 1631. 
On the death of his father in 1635 he was 
taken to Little Gidding, where he was brought 
up by Nicholas Ferrar, his godfather. In 
1647 he was sent by his uncle, Robert Maple- 
toft [q. v.], to Westminster School, was en- 
tered as a pensioner at Trinity College, Cam- 



Mapletoft 



114 



Mapletoft 



bridge, on 21 May 1648, and was elected to a ! 
Westminster scholarship there in 1649. He 
graduated B.A. in January 1651-2, M.A. in 
1655, and became fellow of his college on 
1 Oct. 1653. He was incorporated B.A. at 
Oxford on 11 July 1654. On 12 May 1652 
he was admitted a student of Gray's Inn. 
From 1658 to 1660 he was tutor to Jocelyne, 
son of Algernon, earl of Northumberland. 
He then went abroad to study physic. His 
fellowship expired in 1662, and in 1663 he 
re-entered the earl's family in England (Let- 
ters from Lord Percy to Mapletoft are pre- 
served at Alnwick Castle). In 1667 he took 
his M.D. degree at Cambridge, and was in- 
corporated M.D. at Oxford on 13 July 1669. 

While practising in London he made the 
acquaintance of many of the noted men of 
the time, both physicians and theologians, 
and came much into contact with the Cam- 
bridge latitudinarians at the house of his 
kinsman, Thomas Firmin [q. v.] With John 
Locke, whom he had known at Westminster 
School, he was for many years on terms of 
great intimacy. He is said to have intro- 
duced him to both Sydenham and Tillotson. 
With Sydenham Mapletoft was for seven 
years closely associated in medical practice. 

In 1670 he attended Lord Essex in his em- 
bassy to Denmark, and in 1672 was in France 
with the Dowager Duchess of Northumber- 
land. In 1675 he was chosen professor of 
physic in Gresham College, and in 1676 was 
again in France with the dowager duchess, 
then the wife of the Hon. Ralph Montague. 
He retained his professorship at Gresham 
College till 10 Oct. 1679, when he retired 
from medical practice and prepared himself 
for ordination. He had some scruples about 
subscribing to the Thirty-nine Articles, and 
consulted his friend Dr. Simon Patrick [q. v.] 
(see Dr. Patrick's letter of 8 Feb. 1682-3 
in Addit. MS. 5878, f. 151, and in EVANSO^, 
Three Discourses, p. 79). But on 3 March 
1682-3 he took both deacon's and priest's 
orders, having previously been presented 
to the rectory of Braybrooke in Northamp- 
tonshire. This living he held until 1685-6, 
and though non-resident was a benefactor 
to the place. A letter from Mapletoft, 
written in 1719, complaining of the misuse 
of his charity (founded in 1684) and giving 
some details respecting the parish during his 
rectorship, is preserved in Braybrooke Church. 
On 4 Jan. 1684-5 he was chosen lecturer at 
Ipswich, and on 10 Jan. 1685-6, on his re- 
signing Braybrooke, vicar of St. Lawrence 
Jewry in London, where he continued to 
preach till he was over eighty years of age. 
He also held the lectureship of St. Christopher 
for a short time from 1685. In 1689-90 he 



took the degree of D.D. at Cambridge, and 
henceforth devoted his life to religious and 
philanthropic objects (cf. Cod. Rawlinson, C. 
103). 

Mapletoft was an original member of the 
Company of Adventurers to the Bahamas 
(4 Sept. 1672), but, being abroad at the time, 
transferred his share to Locke. In the same 
year he was using his influence and purse 
in support of Isaac Barrow's scheme for 
building a library at Trinity College. He 
was elected a fellow of the Royal Society 
on 10 Feb. 1675-6, was member of council 
in 1677, 1679, 1690, and 1692, and as long 
as he practised the medical profession took 
part in the discussions and experiments. He 
joined the Society for Promoting Chris- 
tian Knowledge in July 1699, early in the 
second year of its existence. In this con- 
nection he was brought into contact with 
Robert Nelson [q. v.], with whom he corre- 
sponded for some years. He was an original 
member and active supporter of the Society 
for the Propagation of the Gospel in Foreign 
Parts (incorporated by charter in 1701), a 
benefactor to the library and buildings of 
Sion College, of which he was president in 
1707, and one of the commissioners of Green- 
wich Hospital. 

The last ten years of Mapletoft's life were 
spent with his daughter, partly in Oxford 
and partly in Westminster. His mental 
j and bodily health remained excellent till 
1 nearly the end (Lansdowne M S. 990, f. 107). 
He died in Westminster on 10 Nov. 1721, in 
the ninety-first year of his age, and was 
buried in the chancel of the church of St. 
Lawrence Jewry. 

On 18 Nov. 1679 Mapletoft married Re- 
becca, daughter of Lucy Knightley of Hack- 
ney, a Hamburg merchant, and younger 
j brother of the Knightleys of Fawsley in 
Northamptonshire. His wife died on 18 Nov. 
1693, the fourteenth anniversary of their 
wedding-day. By her he had two sons and 
one daughter : Robert, born in 1684, became 
fellow of Trinity Hall, Cambridge (LL.B. 
1702, LL.D. 1707), advocate of Doctors' 
Commons (12 July 1707), and commissary 
of Huntingdon ; died on 3 Dec. 1716, and 
was buried in St. Edward's Church, Cam- 
bridge. John, born in 1687, became rector 
of Broughton in Northamptonshire in 1718, 
and of By field in November 1721, holding 
both livings till 1753, when he resigned 
Broughton in favour of his son Nathaniel ; 
he married, on 23 Nov. 1721, Ann, daugh- 
ter of Richard Walker of Harborough, and 
died at Byfield on 25 May 1763. Elizabeth, 
married, 20 Aug. 1703, Francis Gastrell [q. v.], 
bishop of Chester, and died on 2 Feb. 1761. 



Vhe 



Mapletoft 



Mapletoft 



In 1715 Mapletoft gave to his son John a 
copy of Nicholas Ferrar's ' Harmonies ' (for- 
merly in the possession of his aunt, Mary 
Collet), to be ' preserved in the family as long 
as may be.' It now belongs to his descend- 
ant, Mr. H. Mapletoft Davis of New South 
Wales. Another copy which had belonged 
to his mother is now in the possession of 
Miss Heming of Hillingdon Hill, Uxbridge, 
daughter of Mapletoft's great-nephew. 

Of Mapletoft's disinterestedness and hu- 
manity Ward gives a beautiful picture. His 
learning was considerable. Besides a know- 
ledge of the classical languages, he was ac- 
quainted with French, Italian, and Spanish. 
He is said to have translated from English 
into Latin his friend Sydenham's ' Observa- 
tiones Medicae/ published in 1676 (which 
was dedicated to him by the author), and 
all that is contained in the edition of Syden- 
ham's works published in 1683, with the ex- 
ception of the treatise ' De Hydrope.' The 
extent of his share in Sydenham's works has 
been questioned. Watt (Bibl. Brit.} places 
the * Observationes Medicse ' among Maple- 
toft's works, while on the other hand it has 
been denied that Sydenham originally wrote 
in English (cf. Gent. Mag. 1742 pp. 634-5, 
1743 pp. 528-9 ; and in PICAKD, Sydenham, 
pp. 119-26). 

Mapletoft's published works, apart from 
single sermons, include : 1. ' Select Pro- 
verbs ' (anon.), London, 1707. 2. 'The 
Principles and Duties of the Christian Reli- 
gion . . . with a Collection of suitable De- 
votions ' [also issued separately], London, 
1710, 1712, 1719. 3. 'Wisdom from Above ' 
(anon.), London, 1714, 2nd part, 1717. 
4. ' Placita Principalia, sen Sententise peru- 
tiles e Dramaticis fere Poetis,' London, 1714. 
6. ' Placita Principalia et Concilia, seu Sen- 
tentise perutiles Philosophorum,' London, 
1717, 1731. The last two are selections from 
Greek authors with Latin translations, and 
were reprinted in 1731. 

In Appendix xv. to Ward's ' Lives ' (p. 
120) are printed three Latin lectures by 
Mapletoft on the origin of the art of medi- 
cine and the history of its invention, under 
the title ' Praelectiones in Collegio Gresha- 
mensi, Anno Dom. 1675,' and in the Cam- 
bridge University Library (MS. 3185) is 
* The Inaugural Lecture of a Gresham Pro- 
fessor' (Latin), probably Mapletoft's. He 
wrote the epitaph for the monument to his 
friend Isaac Barrow in Westminster Abbey. 

[Ward's Lives of the Professors of Gresham 
College (copy in Brit. Mus. with manuscript ad- 
ditions), ii. 273-9; Newcourt's Repertorium, 
i. 388, ii. 406, 656; Welch's Alumni Westmonas- 
terienses, pp. 26, 130-1 ; Trin. Coll. Reg. and 



Bursar's books, per the Master ; Foster's Alumni 
Oxon. 1500-1714; Foster's Admissions to Gray's 
Inn; Addit. MSS. 5846 if. 241, 266, 316, 461, 
6194 f. 242 (account of election to Gresham 
College), 5876 f. 29, 15640; Hist. MSS. Comm. 
3rd Rep. App. pp. 92-3 ; Fox Bournes Life of 
Locke, i. 211-12, 310 ; Letters from Locke and 
Nelson to Mapletoft, in Addit. MS. 6194, ff. 
245-9, and in European Ma. 1788 and 1789; 
Names of Commissioners of Greenwich Hosp. ; 
Picard's Sydenham, pp. 39, 61 ; Sydenham's 
Works, ed. Swan, 1763, pp. ix, 227 ; Bridges's 
Northamptonshire, i. 487, ii. 13-14; Birch's 
Hist, of Royal Soc. iii. 271 et seq. ; Lists of the 
Royal Soc. ; McClure's Chapter in English 
Church Hist, pp. 5, 6, 28-63 ; Humphreys's Hist. 
Account of Soc. for Propagation of the Gospel, 
pp. xix, 18, 19; Reading's Hist, of Sion College, 
pp. 25, 29, 33, 44, 48, 49 ; will (206. Bucking- 
ham) in Somerset House ; Blomefield's Collect. 
Cantabr. p. 80 ; Harleian Soc. Publications, xxiv. 
148, 246 ; MS. Act Book and Entries of Doctors' 
Commons, in Lambeth Palace Library; Peckard's 
Memoirs of Ferrar ; Mayor's Cambridge in the 
17th Cent. i. 293-4, 383 ; Archseologia, 1888, Ii. 
193-4; Halkett and Laing's Diet, of Anon, and 
Pseudon. Lit. ; Coxe's Cat. of MSS. in Bodleian 
Libr. ; parish reg. of Broughton ; information 
from the Rev. .T. Ridgway Hakewill of Bray- 
brooke, the Rev. F. H. Curgenven of Byfield, 
and Captain J. E. Acland.] B. P. 

MAPLETOFT, ROBERT (1609-1677), 
dean of Ely, son of Hugh Mapletoft, rector 
of North Thoresby, Lincolnshire, was born at 
that place on 25 Jan. 1609, and educated at 
the grammar school at Louth. He was ad- 
mitted a sizar of Queens' College, Cambridge, 
on 25 May 1625, and graduated B. A. in 1628, 
M.A. 1632, B.D. 1639, D.D. 1660. He was 
elected fellow of Pembroke College on 8 Jan. 
1630-1, and became chaplain to Bishop Mat- 
thew Wren, who till his death was his firm 
friend and patron. On Wren's recommenda- 
tion he was presented to the rectory of Bart- 
low, Cambridgeshire, by Charles I in 1639, 
the king exercising the patronage by reason 
of the outlawry of the patron, H. Huddleston 
(RYMEK, xx. 296). At the parliamentary visi- 
tation of the university in 1644 he was ejected 
as a malignant and a loyalist. After his ejec- 
tion, we are told, he ' lived as privately and 
quietly as he could,' finding shelter at one 
time in the house of Sir Robert Shirley in 
Leicestershire, where he made the acquaint- 
ance of Sheldon, afterwards archbishop of 
Canterbury. During the protectorate he offi- 
ciated for some time to a private congrega- 
tion in Lincoln, according to the ritual of 
the church of England. ' Being discovered, he 
was like to come into some trouble, but came 
oft' safe when it became known that his con- 
gregation had made a considerable purse for 
him, which he would not accept' (Baker 

i2 



Mapletoft 



116 



Mar 



MSS. xxxvi. 103). At the Restoration he 
received the degree of D.D. by royal man- 
date, 28 Jan. 1660, ' on account of his suffer- 
ings and his services to the church during the 
recent troubles ' (KENNETT, Register, p. 213), 
and on 23 Aug. he was presented by the crown 
to the subdeanery of Lincoln Cathedral and 
the prebendal stall of Clifton, and on 8 Dec. 
received the mastership of the Spital Hos- 
pital. While subdean he was involved in a 
tiresome dispute with the precentor of the 
cathedral, John Featley [q. v.], with regard 
to some capitular appointments, and was 
attacked by him in a virulent tract entitled 
'Speculum Mapletoftianum,' which exists in 
manuscript among the chapter documents. 
As master of the Spital Hospital he exerted 
himself vigorously for the revival of that 
sorely abused and practically defunct charity, 
in conjunction with Dean Michael Honywood 
[q. v.j A bill in chancery was exhibited in 
1662 against Sir John Wray for the restora- 
tion of the estates, and Mapletoft at his own 
expense rebuilt the demolished chapel and in- 
creased its revenues, making the office rather 
one of expense than emolument (Reports and 
Papers of the Associated Architectural Soc. 
for 1890, pp. 285-8, 298). He also received 
from the crown the living of Clay worth, Not- 
tinghamshire, which in 1672 he exchanged 
for the college living of Soham, near Ely, 
resigning his fellowship. He was nominated 
master of his college (Pembroke), but he 
waived in favour of Mark Frank [q. v.], whom 
he succeeded as master in 1664. He held the 
office, together with the benefice of Soham, 
till his death. He served as vice-chancellor 
in 1671. He was made dean of Ely on 7 Aug. 
1667, holding the subdeanery of Lincoln with 
the deanery till 1671. When in 1668 Anne 
Hyde, duchess of York [q.v.], began to waver 
in her allegiance to the church of England, 
Mapletoft was recommended as her chaplain 
by his old friend Sheldon, as ' a primitive and 
apostolical divine,' whose influence might pre- 
vent her secession. Feeling himself ' unfit for 
court life,' he was reluctant to undertake the 
office, and in 1670 the duchess openly joined 
the church of Rome. He died on 20 Aug. 
1677 in the master's lodge at Pembroke, and, 
by his desire, was buried in the chapel, near 
the grave of his patron, Bishop Wren. It is 
recorded of him that ' wherever he resided 
he kept a good table, and had the general 
reputation of a pious and charitable man.' 
In person he was exceedingly thin, t vir valde 
macilentus.' He was cousin to Nicholas 
Ferrar [q. v.], and was ' one that had a long 
and special intimate acquaintance with him.' 
He was a frequent visitor at Little Gidding, 
Huntingdonshire, and on Ferrar's death he 



preached the funeral sermon and officiated at 
the funeral. His brother, Joshua Mapletoft, 
married Susanna Collett, Ferrar's niece, and 
was father of John Mapletoft [q. v.] Maple- 
toft himself was unmarried. By his will he 
bequeathed his library, the ' small reserves 
from the late plundering times,' and 100/. to 
Ely Cathedral, and the same sum to poor 
widows of clergy in the diocese. He also 
founded a catechetical lecture at the colleges 
of Queens' and Pembroke, Cambridge, and 
' petty schools ' at his native parish of Tho- 
resby and at Louth, to prepare boys for the 
grammar school at that town, now converted 
into scholarships at those places. 

[Cole MSS. xix. 127 a; Baker MSS. xxxvi. 
103,xxxviii. 191 ; Lansdowne MSS. 986, No. 98, 
f.214; Harl. MS. 7043, pp. 229, 243.] E. V. 

MAR, E AKLS or. [See COCHEANE, ROBEKT, 
EAEL or MAE, d. 1482 ; EESKINE, JOHN, first 
or sixth EAEL of the Erskine line, d. 1572 ; 
EESKINE, JOHN, second or seventh EAEL, 
1558-1634 ; EESKINE, JOHN, sixth or eleventh 
EAEL, 1675-1732 ; STEWAET, JOHN, EAEL or 
MAE, d. 1479.] 

MAR, DONALD, tenthEAEL OF (d. 1297), 
was the son of William, ninth earl [q. v.], 
and Elizabeth Comyn, his first wife. He was 
knighted by Alexander III at Scone in 1270, 
and succeeded as earl before 25 July 1281, 
when he took oath at Roxburgh to observe 
the treaty for the marriage of Princess Mar- 
garet of Scotland and Eric, king of Norway. 
At Scone in 1284 he similarly undertook to 
acknowledge their daughter, the Maid of 
Norway, as queen of Scotland in the event 
of Alexander's death, and in 1289 he united 
with the community of Scotland in recom- 
mending to Edward I of England the mar- 
riage of the Prince of Wales and the Maid of 
Norway. This was agreed to, and the mar- 
riage arranged at Birgham, Berwickshire, in 
July 1290, in a treaty to which Mar was a 
party. After the death of the Maid of Nor- 
way, when different claimants appeared for 
the Scottish crown, Mar united in the Scots' 
appeal to Edward to be their arbiter. Person- 
ally he supported the claim of Robert Bruce, 
whose son, the future king, married his daugh- 
ter Isabel, and whose daughter,Christian, mar- 
ried his son, Gratney. He swore allegiance 
to Edward at Upsettington, Berwickshire, on 
13 June 1291, and was a witness to Edward's 
protest at Berwick as to his claim to be lord 
superior of Scotland. Under Edward's suze- 
rainty he held the office of bailie of Aboyne. 
In 1294 Mar, with other Scottish nobles, was 
summoned to London to attend Edward on 
foreign service. Rather than obey they re- 
volted. But after the battle of Dunbar, in 



Mar 



117 



Mar 



1296, Mar came to Edward at Montrose, and 
afterwards swore fealty again at Berwick. 
He was, notwithstanding, carried prisoner 
to England, but was released on parole, 
23 June 1297, in order to visit Scotland, 
Edward at the same time exacting from him 
a pledge that he would serve him against 
France. He died about this time, leaving a 
son and successor, Gratney, eleventh earl of 
Mar, and father of Donald, twelfth earl of 
Mar [q. v.]; he also left two daughters, Isa- 
bel, wife of Robert the Bruce, and Mary, who 
married Kenneth, earl of Sutherland. 

[Bain's Calendar of Documents relating to 
Scotland, vol. ii. passim ; Antiquities of Aber- 
deenshire (Spalding Club), iv. 198, 600, 698- 
704; Kymer's Foedera, i. 596, 638, 730-74, 791, 
804.] H. P. 

MAR, DONALD, twelfth EARL OF 
(1293P-1332), was the son of Gratney, 
eleventh earl, and Lady Christian Bruce, 
sister of King Robert Bruce. He was pro- 
bably born about 1293 (FRASER, Red Book 
of Menteith, vol. i. p. Ixxx), and, as his father 
died about 1305, he was but a young boy at 
the time of his succession. After the defeat 
of Bruce at Methven in 1306, along with 
others, Mar was brought to Edward in token 
of submission, and was carried prisoner to 
England, where, in respect of his tender age, 
he was entrusted to the custody of the 
Bishop of Chester, first in the castle of 
Bristol, and afterwards at the bishop's own 
house, with suitable attendants (PALGRAVE, 
Documents and Records, Scotland, pp. 353-6). 
He spent nearly all the remainder of his life 
in England, taking service with Edward III, 
for which he received fifteen pence per day as 
wages. During this time he is never styled 
earl, but simply Donald of Mar. He was 
the owner of a trading vessel there called 
La Blithe. 

After the battle of Bannockburn, in 1314, 
Mar and his mother, with Bruce's wife and 
daughter, and Wishart, bishop of Glasgow, 
were exchanged for the Earl of Hereford, 
Edward's brother-in-law, who had been taken 
prisoner by the Scots at Both well. But when 
Newcastle was reached in their journey to 
Scotland Mar turned back, preferring to re- 
main in England (Chronicon dc Lanercost, 
p. 229). He paid visits to Scotland in 1318 
and 1323. But to encourage him to remain 
in his service Edward conferred upon him 
various grants of lands and wardships, in- 
cluding the manor of Longbynington in Lin- 
colnshire, and in 1321 appointed htm keeper 
of Newark Castle (some call it Bristol Castle), 
which he held for the king till 1326, when 
he delivered it up to Queen Isabella and 
Lord Mortimer (Scalacronica, p. 151). He \ 



went to Scotland in 1327 for assistance to 
replace Edward III upon his throne, but in- 
stead of bringing help he joined the Scots 
in their raid of that year to Byland Abbey 
in Yorkshire, and was declared a rebel by 
Edward. Mar now remained in Scotland, 
and assumed his position as one of the seven 
earls. He had grants of lands from Bruce 
there in 1328 and 1329, and after the death 
of Randolph, 30 July 1332, he was chosen 
regent of Scotland. But he only held the 
honour ten days. Edward Pjaliol landed in 
Scotland the very day of his appointment, 
and Mar took command of the Scottish force 
which was raised to meet him, a post for 
which he was no way qualified. The battle 
was fought on 9 Aug. at Dupplin Moor in 
Perthshire, and Mar's army of thirty thousand 
j was routed by Baliol's of three thousand, and 
himself slain. He left a widow, Isobel Stewart, 
who had two other husbands, Geofrey de Mou- 
bray, whom she divorced, and Sir William 
Carswell ; also a son, Thomas, who succeeded 
as thirteenth earl of Mar [q. v.], and a daugh- 
ter, Margaret, who succeeded as Countess of 
Mar after her brother's death, and married 
William, first earl of Douglas [q. v.] 

[Bain's Calendar of Documents relating to 
Scotland, vol. iii. passim ; Antiquities of Aber- 
deenshire (Spalding Club), iv. 698-725 ; Acts of 
the Parliaments of Scotland, i. 13-97.] H. P. 

MAE, THOMAS, thirteenth EARL OF 
(d. 1377), was the son of Donald, twelfth earl 
[q. v.], and succeeded on his father's death 
in 1332, though probably still under age. He 
was one of the Scottish commissioners sent 
to Newcastle in 1351 to treat for peace with 
England, and for the release of David II, 
and was also one of the hostages for the pay- 
ment of his ransom. In 1358 he was ap- 
pointed great chamberlain of Scotland, but 
held the office only about a year. He en- 
tered into an agreement with Edward III 
of England at Westminster (24 Feb. 1359) 
whereby he promised to remain with and 
faithfully serve the king of England against 
all the world (David, king of Scots, excepted) 
in return for a pension of six hundred merks 
sterling yearly, with compensation if on 
account of this agreement he should lose his 
Scottish estates (Eotuli Scotia, i. 830). After 
this date he only occasionally appears in 
Scotland. 

David II in 1361 seized Mar's castle of 
Kildrummy (WYNTOWN, Cronykil, lib. viii. 
cap. xlv. 11. 113-28). According to ' Scala- 
cronica' (pp. 202, 203), the seizure was due 
to a quarrel arising out of a single combat 
between Mar and Sir William Keith (d. 
1407 ?) [q. v.] at Edinburgh, when Mar ac- 



Mar 



118 



Mara 



cused the king of unduly favouring Keith. | 
He was to receive back the castle upon pay- j 
ment of 1,000/. Scots at the expiry of five | 
years, and during that period, at least, it re- 
mained in the hands of the king (Exchequer 
Rolls of Scotland, ii. 164, 166). 

Between 1357 and 1373 Mar had nume- 
rous passports from Edward for journeys 
through England and pilgrimages to France 
and elsewhere, and also for the transit of j 
horses and cattle, in which he seems to | 
have trafficked (Rotuli Scotia, i. 471, 807- 
960 passim). He attended so little to his | 
Scottish duties that the parliament in 1369 j 
declared him to be contumaciously absent 
(Acts of the Parliaments of Scotland, i. 
149), and on his next visit to Scotland, in 
the following year, he was arrested and im- 
prisoned in the Bass (Exchequer Rolls, ii. 
357). In that year (1370), however, David II 
died, and Mar was present at Scone on 
27 March 1371, when Robert II was crowned, 
and he affixed his seal to the deed of that 
date, which settled the order of succession 
(Acts of Parliament, i. 181). He founded 
an altar in the cathedral church of Aberdeen 
in honour of St. James (Antiquities of Aber- 
deenshire, i. 151). 

In 1352 the earl married Lady Margaret 
Graham, countess of Menteith, and widow 
of Sir John Moray of Bothwell. He received 
a dispensation from Pope Clement VI in 
that year, and another from Pope Inno- 
cent VI in 1354 (FKASER, Red Book of Men- \ 
teith, i. 121-30). But he divorced this lady j 
' at the instigation of the devil/ says For- 
dun's ' Continuator,' and upon entirely false j 
pretences (FoRDUN, ed. Goodall, ii. 150). 
She had no children by him. He married, 
secondly, Lady Margaret Stewart, countess 
of Angus, but neither had he any issue by 
her, and on his death in 1377 the male line 
of the Celtic earls of Mar ended. He was 
succeeded in the earldom by his sister Mar- 
garet, countess of Douglas. 

[Rymer's Fcedera, iii. 630-969 ; Bain's Calen- 
dar of Documents relating to Scotland, vol. iii. 
No. 1629, vol. iv. Nos. 27, 90, 101, 154; Anti- 
quities of Abercleenshire, vols. i-iv. passim.] 

H. P. 

MAE,, WILLIAM, ninth EARL OF 
(d. 1281 P), was the son of Duncan, eighth earl 
of Mar, and grandson of Morgrund, fifth earl. 
He succeeded his fat her in or before 1237, when 
he attested at York the agreement between 
Henry III of England and Alexander II of 
Scotland. His right of succession was con- 
tested by Alan Durward, who asserted that 
William's father and grandfather were both 
of illegitimate birth, and that he ought to 
succeed as lawful heir. But apparently the 



case was arranged on the footing of an agree- 
ment which had been made about 1228 with 
Thomas Durward, father of Alan, who re- 
ceived a large accession of territory in Mar ; 
and the earldom remained with William de 
Mar. In 1249, during the minority of Alex- 
ander III, he was appointed one of the regents 
of Scotland. He held the office of great 
chamberlain of Scotland from 1252 to 1255, 
in which year, owing to political dissensions, 
he was removed from the government, and 
received permission from Henry to sojourn for 
a time in England. In 1258 he was a party 
to the treaty between some of the Scots and 
Llewellyn, prince of Wales, not to make peace 
with Henry without each other's consent 
(RYMER, Fcedera, i. 370). But in the same 
year he was reappointed one of the Scottish 
regents, and they received the promise of 
Henry's support so long as they acted right- 
eously. He again became great chamberlain 
of Scotland in 1262, and continued in the 
office till 1267. He was also sheriff of Dum- 
bartonshire. After the battle of Largs in 
1263 he was sent by Alexander III with a 
military force to reduce the chiefs of the 
Western Isles who had supported Haco, 
king of Norway. He was still alive in 1273, 
but must have died in or before 1281. He 
married Elizabeth, daughter of William 
Comyn, earl of Buchan, by whom he had 
two 'sons, Donald, tenth earl [q. v.], who 
succeeded, and Duncan; and after her death 
he married an English lady, Muriel, grand- 
daughter and one of the heiresses of Robert 
de Muschaump, whose barony lay in the see 
of Durham, but had no issue by her. She 
died in 1291 (RAINE, North Durham, p. 267). 

[Bain's Calendar of Documents relating to 
Scotland, vol. i. passim, vol. ii. Nos. 201, 4.77, 
544 ; Antiquities of Aberdeenshire, vols. i-iv. 
passim ; Exchequer Rolls of Scotland, i. Ixv, 10, 
11, 30, ii. cxxi; Kymer's Fcedera, i. 329, 353, 
378, 402.] H. P. 

MARA, MRS. GERTRUDE ELIZA- 
BETH (1749-1833), vocalist, daughter of 
Johann Schmeling, musician, was born at 
Cassel on 23 Feb. 1749. At a very early 
age she played the violin, and her father, 
after exhibiting her at Frankfort, Vienna, 
and other places, as a prodigy, brought her 
when only ten to London, and she there at- 
tracted great attention. To the early prac- 
tice of the violin she afterwards attributed her 
wonderful justness of intonation (BACOX) ; 
but by the advice of someEnglish ladies, who 
thought the instrument ' unfeminine,' she 
gave it up in favour of singing. She was 
placed under an Italian master named Para- 
disi, with whom she made great progress, 
but whose profligate character soon rendered 



Mara 



Mara 



her removal necessary. Returning to Cassel, 
the father tried to get her an engagement at 
the Berlin court, but Frederick II, having an 
antipathy to German singers, declined to en- 
tertain the application. After spending five 
years at Killer's academy at Leipzig, she 
emerged with a voice ' remarkable for its ex- 
tent and beauty, a great knowledge of music, 
and a brilliant style of singing.' She was the 
first great singer that Germany had produced. 
Her compass extended from the middle G to 
E in alt. 

Fraulein Schmelingmade a successful debut 
at Dresden in an opera byllasse, and Frederick, 
being persuaded to hear her on her return to 
Berlin in 1771, was so pleased with the per- 
formance that he engaged her for life to sing 
at court, at a salary of 11,250 francs. A 
violoncello-player named Johann Mara came 
to Berlin at this time, and the two meeting 
professionally at the court concerts, she mar- 
ried him in spite of the king's warnings and 
protests. Mara was a man of dissipated and 
vicious character, and her married life was 
extremely unhappy. Frederick proved an 
exacting master, and the story is told that 
a body of soldiers acting under his orders 
dragged her from her bed on one occasion and 
compelled her to sing at the opera, though she 
was complaining, truly or untruly, of illness 
(EDWAEDS). After seven years in Berlin, she 
was offered an engagement in London, and 
the king declining to annul her contract, she 
made her escape with her husband, and with 
some difficulty reached Vienna, where she 
remained for two years, singing frequently in 
public. She then began a tour in Germany, 
Holland, and Belgium. Mozart heard her at 
Munich, but records in a letter that l she had 
not the good fortune to please me.' After 
another brief sojourn in Vienna, she reached 
Paris in 1782. There she found a rival in 
the celebrated Todi, and, society was soon 
divided into factions over the pair. 

Madame Mara arrived in London in the 
spring of 1784, and made her first appearance 
at the Pantheon, where she sangfor six nights. 
She was one of the vocalists at the Handel 
Commemoration at Westminster Abbey in 
1784, and again in 1785; and in 1786 she 
made her debut on the London stage in a 
pasticcio by Hoare, entitled ' Didone Ab- 
bandonata.' In March 1787 she took the 
part of Cleopatra in Handel's ' Giulio Cesare ' 
with such success that the opera was fre- 
quently repeated during the season. Appear- 
ing again in the Handel festival of 1787, 
she was in the following year at the carnival 
at Turin, and in 1789 at Venice. Returning 
to London in 1790, she was again at Venice 
in 1791, after which she came once more to 



England, and remained for ten years. Dur- 
ing this period she confined herself mainly to 
concert and oratorio engagements. When she 
left, in 1802, she took with her over 1,000/. 
as the result of a benefit concert. Her voice 
was now gradually losing strength, and she 
settled at Moscow. Through the improvi- 
dence and dissipation of her husband and his 
friends she was soon without means, and had 
to take to teaching. The burning of Moscow 
in 1812 ruined her. Removing first to Revel, 
she in 1816 returned to London as a vocalist, 
although sixty-eight years old. She was an- 
nounced as ' a most celebrated singer,' whom 
her agents l were not at liberty to name ; ' but 
when she appeared at the King's Theatre it 
was found that her voice was entirely gone, 
and she was never heard again. She returned 
to Revel, where she died on 20 Jan. 1833. 
In 1831 Goethe sent her a poem for her birth- 
day, ' Sangreich war dein Ehrenweg.' 

Madame Mara's abilities as a singer were 
of the very first order. Her voice, clear, 
sweet, distinct, was sufficiently powerful, 
though rather thin ; and ' its agility and 
flexibility rendered her excellent in bravura' 
(MOUNT-EDGCUMBE). She was an indifferent 
actress, and had a bad figure for the stage. 
When quite a child her father used to bind 
her to an armchair while he attended to his 
affairs, and to this cause was attributed her 
weakly constitution. There is a caricature 
in which she is shown singing at a ' Wapping 
Concert ' seated, and also a letter, in which 
she apologises for not being able to sit on a 
platform throughout a concert (see GKOVE). 
The best portrait of her was engraved by 
Collyer after P. Jean ; an engraving of this 
forms the frontispiece to Hogarth's ' Me- 
moirs of the Musical Drama,' vol. i. 

[A biography by G. C. Grosheimwas published 
at Cassel in 1823, and another by Kochlitz in 
his Fur Freunde der Tonkunst, vol. i. See also 
Hogarth's Memoirs of the Musical Drama, ii. 
185,216,447; Lord Mount-Edgcumbe's Musical 
Eeminiscences of an Old Amateur, pp. 59, 80 ; 
Gilliland's Dramatic Mirror, ii. 839, which is 
inaccurate in some pai'ticulars ; Grove's Dic- 
tionary of Music, ii. 208 ; Edwards's History of 
the Opera, i. 200, ii. 4 ; Bacon's Elements of 
Vocal Science.] J. C. H. 

MARA, WILLIAM DE (/. 1280), Fran- 
ciscan, probably studied at Oxford before he 
went to Paris, where he came under the in- 
fluence of Bonaventura and Roger Bacon. 
In 1284 he published a criticism of Thomas 
Aquinas, called ' Correct orium,' or * Repre- 
hensorium,' the substance of which has been 
printed several times (at Strasburg, 1501 ; 
Cordova, 1701, &c.) with the reply to^ it 
under the name of ^Egidius Colonna. Wil- 



Marbeck 



120 



Marbeck 



Ham argues that, as the * principium indi- 
viduationis ' is, according to the Thomists, 
matter, and not form, individuality, accord- 
ing to them, ceases to exist as soon as the 
soul leaves the body; in other words, the 
Dominican school supported the Averroistic 
heresy of the universal soul. William also 
wrote in favour of a strict observance of the 
rule of St. Francis. He died before 1310, when 
he was classed with Bonaventura, Peckham, 
and others among the ' solemn masters ' of 
the order. Among his extant works are : 
'Qusestiones deNaturaVirtutis,' Burney MS. 
Brit. Museum, 358 ; and ' Commentaries on 
the first three books of the Sentences,' manu- 
scripts of which are in the Lauren tian Li- 
brary at Florence, formerly in the Franciscan 
library of Santa Croce. 

[Hist. Litt. de France, xxi. 299 ; Haureau's 
Philosophic Scolastique, ii. 99, 1880 ; Bartholo- 
mew of Pisa's Liber Conformitntiim, fol. 81 ; 
"Wadding's Supplementum ad Scriptores, p. 323 ; 
Charles's Roger Bacon, p. 240 ; Analecta Fran- 
ciscana, ii. 115.] A. G-. L. 

MARBECK or MERBECK, JOHN (d. 
1585 ?), musician and theologian, was a lay- 
clerk and afterwards, in 1541, organist at 
St. George's Chapel, Windsor. On 9 Sept. 
1540 he wrote out the will of William Tate, 
canon of Windsor, and signed his name 'John 
Merbeck ' (Notes and Queries, 5th ser. x. 55). 
From an early age he studied Calvin's writ- 
ings and adopted CaHin's religious views. 
On 16 March 1542-3 (the Thursday before 
Palm Sunday) commissioners arrived at 
Windsor to search for heretical books. In 
Marbeck's house were found not only writings 
against the Six Articles but materials for a 
concordance of the Bible in English, upon 
which he had been engaged for six years. 
He was consequently sent in custody to 
London and lodged in the Marshalsea (cf. 
Acts of the Privy Seal, 1542-7, p. 98). Be- 
tween the date of his arrest and Whitsun- 
tide he was five times examined by Gardiner, 
bishop of Winchester, or his agents ; and 
Gardiner sharply reprimanded him for endea- 
vouring to supersede the Latin language in 
religious worship by translating his concor- 
dance into English. His wife with difficulty 
obtained permission to visit him in prison. 
On 26 July 1544 he was sent to Windsor to 
be tried at ' a session specially procured to be 
holden.' The indictment charged Marbeck 
with having denounced the mass in writing, 
but Marbeck pointed out that the suspected 
paper was copied out of one of Calvin's 
epistles some years before the promulgation 
of the Six Articles, which, it was alleged, it 
controverted. The jury, composed of farmers 
who were tenants of the collegiate church at 



Windsor, at first disagreed respecting Mar- 
beck's guilt, but finally declared against him. 
He was condemned to suffer at the stake on 
the following day, but Gardiner, on account, 
it is said, of his regard for Marbeck's musical 
talents, obtained a royal pardon for him, and 
he was set at liberty. Anthony Peirson, 
Robert Testwood, and Henry Filmer, three 
of Marbeck's Windsor friends and fellow- 
prisoners who were convicted at the same 
time, were duly executed. Marbeck sup- 
plied an account of his persecution to Foxe 
who described the proceedings at length in 
his ' Acts and Monuments,' but by a curious 
error in the first edition of 1563 Foxe 
omitted mention of Marbeck's pardon, and 
described him as dying in the company of 
Peirson and Testwood. Foxe made the need- 
ful correction of ' Filmer ' for ' Marbeck ' in 
a concluding list of 'Faultes and oversightes 
escaped.' The error, although it was removed 
in the second and later editions, long excited 
the ridicule of Foxe's enemies, and helped to 
diminish his reputation for historical accu- 
racy (cf. Acts and Monuments, ed. Towns- 
end, vi. 474-98, and see art. FOXE, JOHN). 

Marbeck cautiously abstained from any 
further display of his religious views till the 
accession of Edward VI. At length, in 
July 1550, appeared his f Concordance : that 
is to saie, a worke wherein by the ordre of 
the letters of the A. B. C. ye maie redely 
finde any worde conteigned in the whole 
Bible so often as it is there expressed or 
mencioned.' It was printed by Richard 
Grafton, and was dedicated to Edward VI. 
Although Marbeck asserts that he had ab- 
breviated his manuscript at the printer's re- 
quest, the published volume reaches nearly 
nine hundred folio pages, and each page is 
divided into three columns. Every word is 
followed by its Latin equivalent, and the 
quotations are brief. It was the earliest 
concordance to the whole English Bible, 
although Thomas Gibson had produced in 
1536 a concordance to the New Testament 
(cf. TOWNELEY, Bibl. Illustrations, iii. 118- 
120). 

There followed in the same year the book 
by which Marbeck is best known, 'The 
Boke of Common Praier noted ' (Richard 
Grafton, 4to). It is an adaptation of the 
plain chant of the earlier rituals to the 
first liturgy of Edward VI, issued in 1549. 
Two copies are at Lambeth ; one is in the 
British Museum. Maskell noted in the 
church accounts of Stratton, Cornwall, the 
expenditure in 1549 of \Qd. on * new books 
notyd for matens and evensong yn ynglyssh,' 
and suggested that the ' new books notyd ' 
formed an edition of Marbeck's work earlier 



Marbeck 



121 



Marbeck 



than any now extant (Monumenta Ritualia 
Eccl. Anglic, vol. i. p. xxv), but the conjec- 
ture cannot be substantiated. Marbeck's in- 
tention seems to have been to prevent ' the 
great diversity in saying- and singing' oJ 
which the compilers of ' Edward YI's First 
Prayer Book ' had expressed disapproval in 
their preface, and to follow out their sugges- 
tion that ' the whole realm ' should 'have but 
one use.' But his book received no authori- 
sation from the ecclesiastical authorities, and 
was not in sufficient demand in his day to 
render a second edition needful (MASKELL, 
Ancient Liturgy of the Church of England, 
1882, p. xi). It was reprinted by Whitting- 
ham for Pickering in 1844, in facsimile ; by 
Rimbault in 1845; and in Jebb's ' Choral 
Responses for Litanies,' 1857. 

About the date of the appearance of his 
' Book of Common Prayer ' Marbeck is said 
to have supplicated for the degree of Bachelor 
of Music at Oxford, but the university re- 
gister of the time is defective, and the result 
of his supplication is not known. He con- 
tinued his musical and theological studies 
for more than thirty years later, and was still 
organist in 1565. Foxe notes that he was 
alive in 1583, when the second English edi- 
tion of the' Actes and Monuments 'appeared. 
He is said to have died at Windsor in 1585. 
Roger Marbeck [q. v.] was his son. A hymn 
for three voices by Marbeck is printed in 
Hawkins's ' History of Music.' Portions of 
a mass for five voices, ' Per arma Justitise,' 
are in Burney's ' Musical Extracts,' vol. vi. 
(Addit. Jf& 11686), and in the Oxford Music 
School. Other musical manuscripts by him 
are at Peterhouse, Cambridge. 

Besides the works already noted, Marbeck 
published : 1. ' The Lyues of Holy Sainctes, 
Prophetes, Patriarches, and others contaynd 
in Holye Scripture,' dedicated to Lord Burgh- 
ley, London (by Henry Denham and Richard 
Watkins), 1574, 4to (Brit. Mus.) ; 2nd edit. 
1685, with addresses to 'Christian Reader,' 
(signed R. M.) 2. ' The Holie Historie of 
King Dauid . . . Drawne into English 
Meetre for the Youth to reade,' London (by 
Henrie Middleton for John Harrison), 1579, 
4to (a copy is at Britwell). 3. ' A Ripping 
vp of the Popes Fardel,' London, 1581, 8vo. 
4. ' A Booke of Notes and Commonplaces 
with their Exposition collected and gathered 
out of the Workes of diuers singular Writers 
and brought Alphabetically into Order,' Lon- 
don (by Thomas East), 1581, 8vo, dedicated 
to the Earl of Huntingdon, about 1200 pp. 
(Brit. Mus.) 5. 'Examples drawn out of 
Holy Scriptures with their Application: 
also a Brief Conference between the Pope 
and his Secretary, wherein is opened his 



great blasphemous pride,' London 1582, 8vo. 
6. 'A Dialogue between Youth and Olde 
Age, wherein is declared the Persecutions 
of Christ's Religion, since the Fall of Adam, 
hitherto,' London, 1584. 

Marbeck spelt his name either thus, or 
with a final * e ' added. 

[Information kindly supplied by W. Barclay 
Squire, esq. ; Wood's Fasti Oxon. ed. Bliss, i. 130; 
Bale's Script-ores; Tanner's Bibl. Brit.; Fuller's 
Worthies ; Grove's Diet, of Musicians, s.v. ' Mer- 
becke ; ' Notes and Queries, 4th ser. v. 293 ; 
authorities cited.] S. L. 

MARBECK, M ARKBEEKE, or MER- 
BECK, ROGER (1536-1605), provost of 
Oriel College, Oxford, and physician, was 
born in 1536, probably at Windsor, where his 
father, John Marbeck [q. v.], was organist. 
He was educated at Eton, was elected 
student of Christ Church, Oxford, in 1552, 
and seems to have resided there for about 
fifteen years. He graduated B.A. on 26 Jan. 
1554-5, and M.A. on 28 June 1558. On 
3 Feb. 1559 he was made prebendary of 
Withington in Hereford Cathedral. In 1562 
he was senior proctor, and again in 1564, and 
on 18 Nov. of the same year he was appointed 
first public orator for life, with a yearly 
pension of twenty nobles (6/. 13s. 4d.) from 
the university chest. Copies of some of his 
speeches and addresses, which are notable for 
their elegant latinity, are among the Rawlin- 
son MSS. in the Bodleian Library. Early in 
1565 he was made canon of Christ Church, 
and after some negotiation with the visitor, 
Nicholas Bullingham [q. v.], bishop of Lin.- 
coln, Marbeck was unanimously elected pro- 
vost of Oriel College by the whole body of 
fellows on 9 March 1564-5. Although he 
held clerical appointment, Marbeck does not 
seem to have been ordained. Early in 1566 
Queen Elizabeth paid a visit to Oxford, and 
Marbeck, who was ' delicise Latinarum lite- 
rarum,' delivered a Latin speech. The queen 
received him very graciously, and said to 
bim, ' We have heard of you before, but now 
we know you.' She visited Oxford again in 
the same year (6 Sept.), and Marbeck again 
delivered the customary Latin oration. At 
this time there seems to have been no more 
popular or distinguished member of the uni- 
versity; but an unhappy and discreditable 
marriage, which took place or was discovered 
soon after, forced him to resign all his offices, 
to leave Oxford, and to change his whole 
plan of life. 

His wife died early, and lie turned his 
noughts to medicine. Where he conducted 
lis professional studies is not known, but on 
L July 1573 he became B.M. of Oxford, and 
3.M. on the following day. There is appa- 



Marcet 



122 



Marcet 



rently no other instance of these two degrees 
being taken on successive days, and the indul- 
gence may have been due to the queen's in- 
terposition. He joined the London College of 
Physicians, and was elected fellow about 157 8. 
He was the first registrar of the college, and 
after filling that office for two years, he was on 
3 Nov. 1581 elected for life. He was to have 
40s. a year, paid quarterly, besides various 
fees of 3s. kd. 'The duties of his office/ says 
Dr. Munk, * he performed with the greatest 
care and diligence, as the annals them- 
selves sufficiently testify.' In early life he 
had been noted for his caligraphy, and while 
a B.A. had the honour of writing out a docu- 
ment to be presented to the lord chancellor. 
He filled various other college offices, viz. 
censor (1585, 1586), elect (1597), and consi- 
liarius (1598, 1600, 1603, 1604). He renewed 
his acquaintance with the queen, and was 
appointed chief of the royal physicians. At 
the age of fifty-three in 1589 he was ad- 
mitted to Gray's Inn, an honorary distinction 
which other well-known men of the time ac- 
cepted. In September 1596 he accompanied 
the lord high admiral, Howard, in the ex- 
pedition against Cadiz, and there is in the 
British Museum (Sloane 226) a beautiful 
manuscript (probably written by himself) 
entitled l A Breefe and a true Discourse of 
the late honorable Voyage unto Spaine, and 
of the wynning, sacking, and burning of the 
famous Towne of Cadiz there, and of the 
miraculous ouerthrowe of the Spanishe Navie 
at that tyme, with a reporte of all other Ac- 
cidents thereunto appertayning, by Doctor 
Marbeck attending upon the person of the 
right honorable the Lorde highe Admirall of 
England all the tyme of the said Action.' 
Another manuscript copy is in the Bodleian 
Library (Rawlinson MS. D. 124), and it is 
printed, without Marbeck's name, in Hak- 
luyt's ' Voyages,' London, 1599, i. 607. A 
pamphlet, entitled ' A Defence of Tobacco/ 
London, 1602, is assigned to Marbeck be- 
cause his name appears in an acrostic forming 
the dedication. A copy is in the British 
Museum. He died at the beginning of July 
1605, and was buried in St. Giles's, Cripple- 
gate, London. 

[MS. Register of Oriel Coll. Oxford; MS. 
Hist, of the Canons of Christ Church, by Leonard 
Hutten [q. v.] ; Wood's Fasti Oxon. ed. Bliss, 
ii. 194; Athenae, i. 354; Hist. and Antiq. p. 128, 
ed. 1786 ; Foster's Alumni Oxon.; Hunk's Coll. 
ofPhys. i. 75.] W. A. G. 

MARCET, ALEXANDER JOHN GAS- 
PARD, M.D. (1770-1822), physician, was 
born in 1770 at Geneva, and received his 
school education there. He went to the uni- 
versity of Edinburgh, where lie became M.D. 



on 24 June 1797, writing a thesis on diabetes, 
printed at Edinburgh in the same year. On 
the title-page he uses only the first of his 
Christian names. The essay is for the most 
part a compilation, and contains no evidence 
of clinical experience, but is interesting as 
showing in several passages that the author 
had already an inclination for chemical ex- 
periments. He took a house in London, and 
w r as admitted a licentiate of the College of 
Physicians on 25 June 1799. Guy's Hospital 
did not then require any higher diploma, and 
he became one of its physicians on 18 April 
1804. In 1805 he contributed an essay, ' A 
Chemical Account of the Brighton Chaly- 
beate,' to a new edition of the l Treatise on 
Mineral Waters ' of his colleague, Dr. Wil- 
liam Saunders [q. v.] This was also pub- 
lished in the same year as a separate octavo 
pamphlet of seventy-four pages. He describes 
a variety of experiments of the rudimentary 
chemistry of that period made with the water 
of a chalybeate spring called the Wick, and 
shows that, unlike the Tonbridge spa, it might 
be drunk warm without any precipitation of 
iron. He took charge of the temporary mili- 
tary hospital at Portsmouth in 1809 for some 
months, when it contained invalids from 
Walcheren. He married Jane Haldimand 
[see MARCET, JANE], lived in Russell Square, 
and, as he grew wealthier, grew less and 
less inclined for medical practice. He be- 
came lecturer on chemistry at Guy's Hospi- 
tal, and published in 1817 'An Essay on the 
Chemical History and Medical Treatment of 
Calculous Disorders.' This contains much 
information and some good drawings. He 
complains that he was unable to give full 
statistics, as no great London hospital then 
kept any regular record of cases. He was 
probably the first to remark that the pain of 
a renal calculus is oftenest due to its passage 
down a ureter, and that it may grow in the 
kidney without the patient suffering acutely 
at all. He retired from the staff of Guy's 
Hospital 10 March 1819, and went to live 
in Geneva, where he was appointed honorary 
professor of chemistry. He visited England 
in 1821, and died, when preparing to return 
to Geneva, in Great Coram Street, London, 
19 Oct. 1822. He had been elected F.R.S. 
in 1815, and published some chemical papers 
in the ' Philosophical Transactions.' His 
portrait was painted by Raeburn and was 
engraved by Meyer. 
[Hunk's Coll. of Phys.ii. 466 ; Works.] N. M. 

MARCET, MRS. JANE (1769-1858), 
writer for the young, was the only daughter 
of Francis Haldimand, a rich Swiss merchant 
established in London. On 4 Dec. 1799 she 



Marcet 



123 



March 



married Dr. Alexander Marcet [q. v.] She 
wrote familiarly on scientific subjects, at a 
time when simple scientific text-books were 
almost unknown. The large number of edi- 
tions through which Mrs. Marcet's books 
passed testify to their popularity. Her first 
work was ' Conversations on Chemistry, in- 
tended more especially for the Female Sex,' 
1806; other editions were published in 1813, 
1817, 1824 ; the sixteenth is dated 1853. It 
is said that 160,000 copies were sold in the 
United States before 18- r >3 (HALE, Woman's 
Record, pp. 732-3). Her most famous book 
was ' Conversations on Political Economy,' 
1816, which was frequently reprinted edi- 
tions are dated 1817, 1821, and 1824. It was 
highly praised by Lord Macaulay, who says, 
' Every girl who has read Mrs. Marcet's little 
dialogues on political economy could teach 
Montagu or Walpole many lessons in finance ' 
(Essay on Milton, 1825). McCulloch, writing 
in 1845, after the publication of Harriet 
Martineau's ' Illustrations of Political Eco- 
nomy,' states that Mrs. Marcet's book t is on 
the whole perhaps the best introduction to 
the science that has yet appeared ' (Lit. of 
Polit. Econ.) Jean-Baptiste Say, the French 
political economist, praises Mrs. Marcet as 'the i 
only woman who had written on political 
economy and shown herself superior even to 
men.' 

Miss Martineau's ' Illustrations of Political 
Economy' (1832) owed its origin to Mrs. 
Marcet's book, although she makes no mention 
of her obligations in the work itself. In her 
'Autobiography,' however, Miss Martineau 
writes : l It was in the autumn of 1827, 1 think, 
that a neighbour lent my sister Mrs. Marcet's 
" Conversations on Political Economy." I 
took up the book chiefly to see what Political 
Economy precisely was. ... It struck me at 
once that the principles of the whole science 
might be exhibited in their natural workings 
in selected passages of social life. . . . The 
view and purpose date from my reading of 
Mrs. Marcet's " Conversations " ' (Autobiofj. 
vol. i. sect, iii.) In 1833 Mrs. Marcet, who 
generously acknowledged the success of Miss 
Martineau's efforts, had become intimate with 
Miss Martineau. ' She had,' Miss Martineau 
wrote, ' a great opinion of great people ; of 
people great by any distinction ability, office, 
birth, and what not : and she innocently sup- 
posed her own taste to be universal. Her 
great pleasure in regard to me was to climb 
the two flights of stairs at my lodgings 
(asthma notwithstanding) to tell me of great 
people who were admiring, or at least reading, 
my series. She brought me "hommages" and 
all that sort of. thing from French savans, 
foreign ambassadors, and others ' (ib.) 



Mrs. Marcet's ' Conversations on Natural 
Philosophy,' 1819, was a familiar exposi- 
tion of the first elements of science for very 
young children. She had, she confessed, no 
knowledge of mathematics. Other editions 
appeared in 1824, 1827, 1858 (13th edit.), and 
1872 (14th edit, revised and edited by her 
son, Francis Marcet, F.R.S.) It was written 
previous to either of her former publications 
(Preface to edit, of 1819), and was designed 
as an introduction to her work on chemistry. 
Mrs. Marcet died on 28 June 1858, aged 89, 
at Stratton Street, Piccadilly, the residence 
of her son-in-law, Mr. Edward Romilly. 

Besides the works mentioned, Mrs. Marcefc 
wrote : 1 . ' Conversations on Vegetable Physio- 
logy,' 1829. 2. ' Stories for Young Children/ 
1831. 3. ' Stories for very Young Children 
(The Seasons),' 1832. 4. ' Hopkins's Notions 
on Political Economy,' 1833. 5. < Mary's 
Grammar,' 1835. 6. ' Willy's Holidays, or 
Conversations on different kinds of Govern- 
ments,' 1 836. 7. l Conversations for Children 
on Land and Water,' 1838. 8. ' Conversations 
on the History of England for Children,' 1842. 
9. ' Game of Grammar,' 1842. 10. 'Conver- 
sations on Language for Children,' 1844. 
11. 'Lessons on Animals, Vegetables, and 
Minerals,' 1844. 12. ' Mother's First Book- 
Reading made Easy,' 1845. 13. 'Willy's 
Grammar,' 1845. 14. ' Willy's Travels on the 
Railroad,' 1847. 15. ' Rich and Poor, Dia- 
logues on a few of the first principles of 
Political Economy,' 1851. 16. 'Mrs. M.'s 
Story-book Selections from Stories for 
Children contained in her Books for Little 
Children,' 1858. 

[Gent. Mag. 1858, ii. 204; Nouv. Eiog. Gner. 
xxiii.466; American Monthly Mag. 1833, vol. i.J 
Allibone's Diet.] E. L. 

MARCH, EAKLS OF. [See MORTIMER, 
ROGER, first EARL, 1286-1330 ; MORTIMER, 
EDMUND, third EARL, 1351-1381 ; MORTIMER, 
ROGER, fourth EARL, 1374-1398; MORTIMER, 
EDMUND, fifth EARL, 1391-1425; STUART, 
ESME, 1579?-! 624; DOUGLAS, WILLIAM, 
afterwards fourth DUKE or QUEENSBERRY, 
1724-1810.] 

MARCH, MRS. (1825-1877), musical com- 
poser. [See GABRIEL, MARY ANN VIRGINIA.] 

MARCH, JOHN (1612-1657), legal 
writer, was possibly descended from the 
Marches of Edmonton or Hendon, and was 
second son of Sam March of Finchampstead, 
Berkshire (see Visitation of London, Harl. 
Soc. vol. xvii., and NICHOLAS, Visitation of 
Middlesex), He was apparently admitted at 
Gray's Inn 18 March 163o-6, being described 
as 'late of Barnard's Inn, Gentleman,' and 
was possibly the John March called to the 



March 



124 



March 



bar on 1 June 1641 (FOSTER, Registers of 
Gray's Inn, and information from W. 11. 
Dowthwaite, esq.) He seems subsequently 
from 1644 to have acted in some secretarial 
capacity to the committee for safety of both 
kingdoms which sat at Derby House (State 
Papers, Dom. Car. I, 1644, May 25). On 
20 Aug. 1649 the council of state nominated 
him to the parliament as one of four com- 
missioners to go to Guernsey to order affairs 
there (ib. Interreg. ii. 61, 75, iii. 104), and 
three years later (6 April 1652) he was 
chosen by the council of state to proceed to 
Scotland along with three others to admi- 
nister justice in the courts, 100/. each being 
allowed them as expenses for the journey (ib. 
xxiv. 5). In 1056 he seems to have been act- 
ing as secretary or treasurer to the trustees 
for the sale of crown lands at Worcester 
House (ib. 20 Nov. 1656), and he died early 
in 16571 By license dated 23 March 1637- 
1638, < John March of St. Stephen's, Wai- 
brook, scrivener, bachelor, 26,' married Alice 
Mathews of St. Nicholas Olave (' Marriage 
Licenses granted by the Bishop of London,' 
Harl. Soc. Publ vol. xxvi.) On 5 Feb. 1656-7 
the legal writer's widow, Alice, petitioned 
the Protector: ' My truly Christian and pious 
husband was delivered from a long and ex- 
pensive sickness by a pious death, and has 
left me with two small children weak and 
unable to bury him decently without help. 
I beg relief from your compassion on account 
of his integrity in his employment in Scot- 
land, and his readiness to go thither again 
had not Providence prevented.' On the same 
day the council ordered her a payment of 20/. 
(State Papers, Dom. Interreg. cliii. 84). On 
20 Jan. 1667-8 March's daughter Elizabeth 
' of Richmond, Surrey, about 18,' was married 
to James Howseman of St. Margaret's, West- 
minster, gent. (' Marriage Licenses issued 
by the Dean and Chapter of Westminster,' 
Harl. Soc. Publ. vol. xxiii.) 

Another John March was admitted to the 
degree of B.C.L. 27 Nov. 1632, as a member 
of St. Edmund Hall, Oxford, while a ' gen- 
tleman,' of Gray's Inn, of the same names 
obtained a license 17 Aug. 1640 to marry 
Elizabeth Edwards of St. Mary Alderman- 
bury, he being then twenty-four years of 
age (ib.) 

March's legal works are: 1. 'An Argu- i 
ment or Debate in Law of the great ques- 
tion concerning the Militia as it is now j 
settled by Ordinance of Parliament, by which 
it is endeavoured to prove the Legality of it 
and to make it warrantable by the Funda- 
mental Laws of the Land,' London, 1642, | 
4to. The title-page bears only the initials | 
J. M., whence it has been attributed to i 



Milton. At present it stands assigned to 
March in both Halkett and Laing and the 
Brit. Mus. Catalogue, but only on the au- 
thority of a manuscript note (apparently 
not in Thomasson's hand) on the title-page 
of the copy among the Thomasson tracts. 
2. ' Actions for Slander, or a Methodical 
Collect ion under certain Grounds and Heads 
of what Words are Actionable in the Law 
and what not, &c. ... to which is added 
Awards or Arbitrements Methodised und-er 
several Grounds and Heads collected out of 
our Year-Books and other Private Authentic 
Authorities, wherein is principally showed 
what Arbitrements are good in Law and 
what not,' London, 1648, 8vo. 3. A second 
edition of No. 2, London, 16mo, 1648, aug- 
mented by a second part bearing the title, 
' The Second Part of Actions for Slanders, 
with a Second Part of Arbitrements, together 
with Directions and Presidents to them very 
usefull to all Men. To which is added 
Libels or a Caveat to all Infamous Libellers 
whom these distracted times have generated 
and multiplied to a common pest. ... A 
third edition, reviewed and enlarged, with 
many useful additions, by W. B.,' London, 
1674. 4. ' Reports, or New Cases with divers 
Resolutions and Judgments given upon 
solemn arguments and with great delibera- 
tion, and the Reasons and Causes of the said 
Resolutions and Judgments,' London, 1648, 
4to (contains the reports from Easter term 
15 Caroli I to Trinity term 18 Caroli I). 
5. ' Amicus Reipublicae, the Commonwealth's 
Friend, or an Exact and Speedie Course to 
Justice and Right, and for Preventing and 
Determining of tedious Law Suits, and many 
other things very considerable for the good 
of the Public, all which are fully Contro- 
verted and Debated in Law,' London, 1651, 
8vo. This work is dedicated to John Brad- 
shaw [q. v.], lord president, and is remark- 
able for the enlightenment with which March 
discusses a series of eighteen questions (such 
as common recovery, arrest for debt, the 
burden of the high court of chancery, bas- 
tardy, privilege of clergy, &c.) 6. ' Some 
New Cases of the Years and Time of 
Hy. VIII, Ed. VI, and Queen Mary, writ- 
ten out of the " Great Abridgement," com- 
posed by Sir Robert Brook, Knight [see 
BROKE, SIR ROBERT], there dispersed in the 
Titles, but here collected under Years, and 
now translated into English by John March 
of Gray's Inn, Barrister,' London, 1651, 8vo. 
In 1878 the Chiswick Press reprinted Sir 
Robert Broke's 'New Cases' and March's 
1 Translation ' in the same volume. 

[Authorities quoted ; \vorks in Brit. Mus. and 
Bodleian.] W. A. S. 



March 



I2 5 



March 



MARCH, JOHN (1640-1692), vicar of 
Newcastle, possibly descended from the 
Marches of Redworth in Durham, was born 
in 1640 in Newcastle-on-Tyne, of anabaptist 
parents, 'who died while he was young, and 
left Ambrose Barnes some way in trust for 
him ' (see Harl. MS. 1052, f. 92 b ; HUTCHIN- 
BON, Durham, iii. 205 ; STJRTEES, Durham, iii. 
308; Durham Wills (SurteesSoc.), xxxviii. 
188). He was educated in grammar-school 
learning at Newcastle, under George Rit- 
schel, was entered as a commoner at Queen's 
College, Oxford, 10 June 1657, under the 
tuition of Thomas Tully, and matriculated 
in the university 15 June, being described as 
' John March, gent.' When, in December 
1658, Tully was elected principal of St. Ed- 
mund Hall, March followed him thither. 
He graduated B.A. 14 June 1661, M.A. 
26 May 1664, B.D. 23 March 1673-4, and 
became a noted tutor and for several years 
(1664-72) vice-president of St. Edmund Hall. 
Among his pupils there was John Kettlewell 
(see Life prefixed to KETTLEWELL'S Works, 
p. 11). In June 1672 he was presented by 
the warden and fellows of Merton College to 
the vicarage of Embleton (Chathill, North- 
umberland), and subsequently became chap- 
lain to Dr. Crew, bishop of Durham. On 
30 Aug. 1672 he was appointed afternoon 
lecturer at St. Nicholas's, the parish church 
of Newcastle-on-Tyne, and on 25 June 1679 
became vicar of St. Nicholas, resigning the 
Embleton vicarage. In the same year he 
was constituted proctor for the diocese of 
Durham in convocation. The salary at- 
tached to his cure at St. Nicholas's was 
paid by the corporation, and was at first 
60/. a year, with an additional 10/. for his 
turns on the Thursday lecture. On 30 March 
1682 this sum was permanently increased to 
90/. per annum. March was a strong church- 
man, very anti-papal, and, despite his early 
training, virulent against the dissenters 
(' these frogs of Egypt '), and earned the re- 
putation of having, along with Isaac Basire, 
brought Newcastle to a high degree of con- 
formity by his zeal and diligence in preaching 
and personal instruction, especially of the 
young (DEAN GEAKVILLE, Works and Let- 
ters, Surtees Soc., xxxvii. 167, 27 May 1683). 
He took part in an attempt to establish a 
monthly meeting of clergy and civilians for 
the consideration of discipline and the Com- 
mon Prayer-book (see DEAN GRANTILLE, 
Remains, Surtees Soc., xlvii. 171). He was 
an outspoken defender of passive obedience, 
and opposed to the revolution, ' taking the 
short oath of allegiance with such a declara- 
tion or limitation as should still leave him 
free to serve the abdicated king ' (BARNES, 



Diary, p. 436). On one occasion (15 July 
1690) he had to be informed by the corpora- 
tion that his salary would be stopped if he 
did not pray for William and Mary by name 
(Newcastle common council books, quoted by 
BRAND). March died on 2 Dec. 1692, and was 
buried on the 4th in the parish church of St. 
Nicholas. His son Humphrey entered St. Ed- 
mund Hall in 1694-5. His sister was married 
to Alderman Nicholas Ridley of Newcastle, 

Three original portraits of March exist : 
one at Blagdon, a second in the vicarage 
house at Newcastle, and the third men- 
tioned by Brand as belonging to Alderman 
Hornby, for which a subscription was some 
time since raised with the object of placing 
it in the Thomlinson Library. An engraving 
of one of these, by J. Sturt, is prefixed to 
the volume of sermons below. 

Besides separately issued sermons, March 
published : 1. ' Vindication of the present 
Great Revolution in England, in five Letters 
pass'd betwixt James Wei wood, M.D., and 
Mr. John March, Vicar of Newcastle-upon- 
Tyne, occasioned by a Sermon preached by 
him on 30 Jan. 1688-9 before the Mayor and 
Aldermen for passive obedience and non- 
resistance ' (consists of three letters of Wei- 
wood's, a Scottish doctor practising in New- 
castle, remonstrating with March's declara- 
tion for passive obedience, and two extremely 
caustic and uncourteous replies by March), 
London, 1689, 4to. 2. * Sermons preached 
on Several Occasions by John March, &c., 
the last of which was preached 27 Nov. 
1692, being the Sunday before he died/ 
London, 1693 ; 2nd edit, with a preface by 
Dr. John Scott, and a sermon added, preached 
at the assizes in Newcastle in the reign of 
King James, London, 1699. 

[Foster's Alumni; Hearne's Reliq. ii. 60; 
Henry Bourne's History of Newcastle-on-Tyne, 
pp. 74-5, whose notice is taken practically ver- 
batim by his successors, John Brand (Hist, and 
Antiq. of Newcastle, i. 307), Sykes (Local Re- 
cords, i. 124), and Mackenzie (Account of New- 
castle-on-Tyne, i. 266); Watt's Bibl. Brit.; 
Wood's Athense Oxon. ed. Bliss, iv. 373, Fasti, 
ii. 248, 278, 335; Diary of Ambrose Barnes; 
Dean Granville's Remains and Works and Letters 
(Surtees Soc.) ; Kettlewell's Works ; information 
kindly sent by the Rev. J. R. Magrath, D.D., 
provost of Queen's, the Rev. Mr. Osborn, vicar 
of Embleton, and the Rev. E. Moore, D.D., prin- 
cipal of St. Edmund Hall.] W. A. S. 

MARCH, PATRICK DUNBAR, tenth 
EAKL OP (1285-1369). [See under DURBAR, 
AGNES.] 

MARCH, DE LA MARCHE, or DE 
MARCHIA, WILLIAM (d. 1302), trea- 
surer, and bishop of Bath and Wells, was a 



March 



126 



March 



clerk of the chancery in the reign of Ed- 
ward I, apparently of humble origin, and a 
follower of Bishop Robert Burnell [q. v.] In 
October 1289 he was put on a commission, of 
which Burnell was the head, to inquire into 
the complaints brought against the royal 
officials during the king's long absence 
abroad (Fcadera, i. 715; cf. Ann. Land, in 
STUBBS'S Ckron. of Edward land Edicard II, 
i. 98). About 1285 he became clerk of the 
king's wardrobe (MADOX, Exchequer, p. 750, 
ed. 1711), in which capacity he received on 
24 Feb. 1290, and again after the death of 
Bishop Burnell, the temporary custody of the 
great seal. There is, however, no reason for 
putting him on the list of lord keepers, as he 
simply took charge of the seal when it was in 
the wardrobe, its customary place of deposit 
(Foss, Judges of England, iii. 127 ; Bio- 
graphia Juridica, p. 432 ; Cat. Rot. Pat. 
pp. 54 and 55). About 1290 he was re- 
warded for his services to the crown by a 
grant of a messuage in the Old Bailey in 
London (Cal. Hot. Cart. p. 120). On 6 April 
of the same year he was made treasurer, in 
succession to John Kirkby [q. v.], bishop of 
Ely, who died on 26 March (MADOX, Hist, 
of Exchequer ', p. 571 ; Dunstaple Annals in 
Ann. Monastics, iii. 358). During the absence 
of king and chancellor in the north, at the 
time of the great suit of the Scots succession, 
William acquired a prominent position among 
the officials remaining in London. 

William received various ecclesiastical pre- 
ferments, important among which was a 
canonry at Wells. On 25 Oct. 1292 the 
death of Burnell left vacant the bishopric 
of Bath and Wells. There were the usual 
difficulties as to obtaining an agreement 
between the two electing bodies, the secular 
chapter of Wells and the monastic chapter 
of Bath. But at last the monks of Bath 
]oined with a minority of the canons of 
Wells, who had gone down to the election 
intent on procuring the appointment of 
William of March. He was accordingly 
elected on 30 Jan. 1293. When the an- 
nouncement of the election was made to the 
people in Bath Abbey, a countryman invoked 
in English blessings on the new bishop 
(PKYKNE, Records, iii. 567-9; LE NEVE, 
Fasti Eccl. Angl. i. 135, ed. Hardy). The 
king gave his consent on 1 March, but the 
vacancy of the see of Canterbury, caused by 
the death of Peckham, delayed William's 
consecration until 17 May 1293, when he 
was consecrated at Canterbury by the bishops 
of London, Rochester, Ely, and Dublin (cf. 
Osney Annals in Ann. Monastici, iv. 334 ; 
Flores Hist. iii. 87 ; STTJBBS, Reg. Sacr. 
Angl. p. 48). The occasion was made me- 



I rnorable by an unseemly fray that broke 

j out between the servants of the Archbishop 

of Dublin and the Bishop of Ely, as they 

I were returning home. The archbishop's 

tailor was slain by one of the bishop's men 

(PRYNNE, Records, iii. 567-9.) 

William retained the treasurership with 
his bishopric, but his excessive sternness 
rendered him unpopular (Dunstaple Annals, 
p. 399 j, and in 1295 he became involved in the 
odium which Edward's violent financial ex- 
pedients excited at that period. When Arch- 
bishop Winchelsea complained to Edward 
of his sacrilege in seizing one half of the 
treasure of the churches, the king answered 
that he had not given the order, but that the 
treasurer had done it of his own motion 
(Ann. Edwardi I in RISHANGER, p. 473 ; cf. 
Flores Historiarum, iii. 274). Thereupon 
Edward removed William from the treasury. 
The displaced minister paid large sums to 
win back the royal favour, but does not seem 
to have had much success ( Dunstaple Annals, 
p. 400). He is described during his minis- 
terial career as a man of foresight, discre- 
tion, and circumspection (Osney Annals, p. 
324). 

Thus removed from secular life, William 
was able to devote the rest of his life to the 
hitherto neglected affairs of his diocese. He 
took no great part in public affairs, and 
showed such liberality in almsgiving and 
general zeal for good works, that he obtained 
great popular veneration. He obtained from 
the king the grant of two fairs for the lord- 
ship of Bath. He built the magnificent 
chapter-house of Wells Cathedral, with the 
staircase leading to it works that well mark 
the transition of the ' Early English ' to the 
' Decorated ' style of architecture (Proceedings 
of the Somerset ArcJiceological Society, vol. i. 
pt. ii. p. 74). He died on 11 June 1302, and 
was buried in his cathedral. His tomb, with 
his effigy upon it, lies against the south wall 
of the south transept, between the altar of 
St. Martin and the door leading to the 
cloister. He seems to have left behind him 
no near kinsfolk, for the jury of the post- 
mortem inquest returned that they were 
ignorant as to who was his next heir ( Calen- 
darium Genealogicum, p. 623). It was be- 
lieved that many miracles, especially wonders 
of healing, were worked at his tomb (Anglia 
Sacra, i. 567 ; Foedera, ii. 757). The result 
was that a popular cry arose for his canon- 
isation. In 1324 and 1325 the canons of 
Wells sent proctors to the pope to urge upon 
him the bishop's claims to sanctity. In the 
latter year the whole English episcopate 
wrote to Avignon with the same object. On 
20 Feb. 1328 application was made to the 



Marchant 



127 



Marchi 



same effect in the name of Edward III (ib. 
ii. 757). But nothing came of these requests, 
and the miracles soon ceased. 

[Annals of Dunstaple, Osney, and Worcester, 
in Luard's Annales Monastici, vols. iii. and iv. ; 
Stubbs's Chronicles of Edward I and Edward II ; 
Rishanger ; Flores Historiarum (all the above 
in Rolls Series) ; Prynne's Records, vol. iii. ; 
Canonicus Wellensis in Anglia Sacra, i. 567, 
with Wharton's notes ; Rymer's Fcedera, vols. 
i. and ii. (Record edition) ; Cassan's Lives of the 
Bishops of Bath and Wells, pp. 150-4; Foss's 
Judges, iii. 127,and Biographia Juridica,p. 432; 
Madox's Hist, of the Exchequer; Le Neve's Fasti, 
i. 135, ed. Hardy.] T. F. T. 

MARCHANT, NATHANIEL (1739- 
1816), gem-engraver and medallist, was born 
in Sussex in 1739. He became a pupil of 
Edward Burch, R. A. [q. v.], and in 1766 was 
a member of the Incorporated Society of 
Artists. He went to Rome in 1773, and re- 
mained there till 1789, studying antique 
gems and sculpture. He sent impressions 
from ancient intaglios to the Royal Academy 
from 1781 to 1785, and was an exhibitor 
there till 1811. He was elected associate of 
the Royal Academy in 1791, and academician 
in 1809. He was also a fellow of the Society 
of Antiquaries, and a member of the Aca- 
demies at Stockholm and at Copenhagen. 
He was appointed assistant-engraver at the 
Royal Mint in 1797, and held the office till 

1815, when he was superannuated (RtrDiXG, 
Annals, i. 45 ; Numismatic Journal, ii. 18). 
The portrait of George III on the 3s. bank 
token was engraved by Marchant from a 
model taken by him from life. Marchant 
died in Somerset Place, London, in April 

1816, aged 77. His books, which related 
chiefly to the fine arts, were sold by Cochrane 
in London on 13 and 14 Dec. 1816. 

Marchant had a high and well-merited re- 
putation as a gem-engraver. His produc- 
tions are intaglios, and consist of portraits 
from the life, and of heads, figures, and 
groups in the antique style. King praises 
the delicacy of his work, but remarks that it 
was done with the aid of a powerful magnifier, 
and that consequently it is often too minute 
for the naked eye. Merchant's signature is 
' Marchant ' and ' Marchant F. Romee.' He 
published by subscription, in 1792, ' A Cata- 
logue of one hundred Impressions from 
Gems engraved by Nathaniel Marchant,' 
London, 4to, to accompany a selection of 
casts of his intaglios. A number of his 
works are described in Raspe's ' Tassie Cata- 
logue' (see the Index of Engravers). Va- 
rious intaglios by him are in the British 
Museum, but many of his choicest pieces 
were made for the Marlborough cabinet, and 



among these may be mentioned his ' Her- 
cules restoring Alcestis to Admetus,' a com- 
mission from the elector of Saxony, and a 
present from him to the Duke of Marlbo- 
rough. The duke sometimes specially sent 
fine stones to Rome to be engraved by Mar- 
chant. The prince regent (George IV) ap- 
pointed Marchant his engraver of gems. 
King mentions as one of his best perform- 
ances an engraving on a brown sard of two 
female figures, one reclining on a sofa. For 
this Marchant is said to have received two 
hundred guineas. 

[Redgrave's Diet, of Artists ; King's Antique 
Gems and Rings, i. 446-7 ; Nagler's Kiinstler- 
Lexikon; Gent. Mag. 1816, pt. i. p. 377; Mar- 
chant's Sale Cat. of Books, London, 1816, 8vo.l 

W. W. 

MARCHI, GIUSEPPE FILIPPO 
LIBERATI (1735P-1808), painter and en- 
graver, was born in the Trastevere quarter 
of Rome, and there, when at the age of fifteen, 
came under the notice of Sir Joshua Rey- 
nolds, whom he accompanied to England in 
1752. He studied in the St. Martin's Lane 
Academy, and became Reynolds's most 
trusted assistant, being employed to set his 
palette, paint his draperies, make copies, and 
sit for attitudes. The first picture painted 
by Reynolds when he settled in London was 
a portrait of young Marchi in a turban, which 
was much admired at the time, and engraved 
by J. Spilsbury in 1761 ; it is now the pro- 
perty of the Royal Academy. Marchi did 
not reside with Reynolds until 1764, when 
the following entry occurs in one of the lat- 
ter's diaries : ' Nov. 22, 1764. Agreed with 
Giuseppe Marchi that he should live in my 
house and paint for me for one half-year from 
this day, I agreeing to give him fifty pounds 
for the same.' Marchi took up mezzotint 
engraving, and from 1766 to 1775 exhibited 
engravings, as well as an occasional picture 
with the Society of Artists, of which he was 
a member. His plates, which, though not 
numerous, are of excellent quality, include 
portraits of Miss Oliver (1767), Miss Chol- 
mondeley (1768), Mrs. Bouverie and Mrs. 
Crewe (1770), Oliver Goldsmith (1770), Mrs. 
Hartley (1773), and George Colman (1773), 
all after Reynolds, and that of Princess 
Czartoriska (1777), from a picture by him- 
self. Marchi was a clever copyist, but did 
not succeed in original portraiture ; he tried 
at one time to establish himself at Swan- 
sea, but soon returned to the service of Sir 
Joshua, with whom he remained until the 
painter's death. Subsequently he was much 
employed in cleaning and restoring paintings 
by Reynolds work for which his intimate 
knowledge of the artist's technical methods 



Marchiley 



128 



Mardisley 



well qualified him. March! died in London 
on 2 April 1808, aged 73. 

[Gent. Mag. 1808, i. 372 ; Northcote's Memoir 
of Sir J. Eeynolds, 1813; Leslie and Taylor's 
Life and Times of Sir J. Keynolds, 1865 ; J. Cha- 
loner Smith's British Mezzotinto Portraits ; So- 
ciety of Artists' Catalogues.] F. M. O'D. 

MARCHILEY, JOHN (d. 1386?), Fran- 
ciscan. [See MAEDISLEY.] 

MARCHMONT, EARLS OF. [See HUME, 
SIR PATRICK, first EARL, 1641-1724;^ CAMP- 
BELL, ALEXANDER, second EARL, 1675-1740; 
HUME, HUGH, third EARL, 1708-1794.] 

MARCKANT, JOHN (/. 1562),was one 
of the contributors to the Sternhold and 
Hopkins Metrical Psalter of 1562. He was 
inducted vicar of Clacton-Magna, 31 Aug. 
1559, and was vicar of Shopland, Essex, 
1563-8 (NEWCOURT). His contributions to 
the Psalter were the 118th, 131st, 132nd, 
and 135th Psalms. These, being at first 
merely initialed ' M.,' have been conjecturally 
attributed to John Mardeley [q. v.] (BRYDGES, 
Censura Literaria, vol. x. ; HOLLAND, Psalm- 
ists of Britain, i. 136, &c.), but the name is 
given in full, ' Marckant/ in 1565, and in later 
editions, as in that of 1606, is sometimes 
printed * Market.' The same remarks apply 
to ' The Lamentation of a Sinner ' (' Oh ! 
God, turn not Thy face away,' afterwards 
altered by Reginald Heber), and ' The Humble 
Sute of a Sinner,' both also marked ' M.' in the 
1562 Psalter. In St. John's College, Oxford, 
is a broadside ballad, attributed by Dr. Bliss 
to Marckant: ' Of Dice, Wyne, and Women,' 
London (by William Griffith), 1571. Fur- 
ther, three publications, entered in the f Sta- 
tioners' Registers,' are there assigned to 
Marckant, viz. ' The Purgation of the Ryght 
Honourable Lord Wentworth concerning 
the Crime layd to his Charge, made the 
9 Januarie 1558 ; ' ' A New Yeres Gift, in- 
tituled With Spede Retorne to God, and 
Verses to Diuerse Good Purposes,' licensed 
to Thomas Purforte 3 Nov. 1580. None of 
these are now known, although the last is 
noticed in Herbert's edition of Ames's * Typ. 
Antiq.,' 1316. 

[Newcourt's Eepertorium, ii. 153 ; Julian's 
Dictionary of Hymnology, s.v. ' Old Psalters ; ' 
Livingstone's Keprint of 1635 Scottish Psalter, 
Glasgow, 1864, pp. 27, 70 ; Notes and Queries, 
3rd ser. iii. 144; Collier's Stationers' Company 
Eeg. i. 22, 102, ii. 128.] J. C. H. 

MARCUARD, ROBERT SAMUEL 

(1751-1792 ?), engraver, was born in Eng- 
land in 1751 and became a pupil of Bartolozzi, 
whose manner he successfully followed, work- 



ing entirely in stipple. Between 1778 and 
1790 he produced many good plates after 
Cipriani, A. KaufFmann, W. Hamilton, W. 
Peters, T. Stothard, and others; also por- 
traits of Francesco Bartolozzi and Ralph Mil- 
bank (both after Reynolds), Major Francis 
Pierson, and Cagliostro. Marcuard died 
about 1792. 

[Redgrave's Diet, of Artists ; Dodd's Memoirs 
of English Engravers, Brit. Mus. Add. MS. 
33403.] F. M. O'D. 

MARDELEY, JOHN (fl. 1548), was 
clerk of the mint (Suffolk House, South- 
wark) under Edward VI (RuoiNG, Annals 
of the Coinage, i. 53), and was the author of: 
1. f Here is a shorte Resytal of certayne Holy 
Doctours whych proveth that the naturall 
Body of Christ is not conteyned in the Sacra- 
ment of the Lordes Supper but fyguraty vely.' 
' In myter, by Jhon Mardeley,' London, 12mo,' 
published 1540-50? ; partly written in < Skel- 
tonic ' metre (COLLIER, Bibliograph. Account, 
i. 515-16). 2. 'Here beginneth a necessary 
instruction for all covetous ryche men,' &c., 
London, 1547-53 ? 3. 'A ruful Complaynt 
of the publyke weale to Englande,' London, 
about 1547, 4to, in four-line stanzas. 4. l A 
declaration of the power of God's Worde 
concerning the Holy Supper of the Lord ' 
(against the 'maskynge masse'), London, 
' compyled 1548.' This is in prose ; after the 
dedication to Edward, duke of Somerset, 
occurs 'A complaynt against the styffnecked ' 
in verse. Some verse translations in the 
Psalter of 1562 signed ' M.' and attributed 
by Haslewood to Mardeley are by John 
Marckant [q. v.] Bale credits Mardeley with 
earlier verse - translations of twenty -four 
psalms and with religious hymns (Script. 
106). 

[Authorities cited above; Warton's Hist, of 
Engl. Poetry, iv. 151, ed. Hazlitt; Notes and 
Queries, 3rd ser. i. 374, iii. 114; Hazlitt's 
Handbook.] W. W. 

MARDISLEY, JOHN (d. 1386 ?), Fran- 
ciscan, was probably a native of Yorkshire. 
He incepted as D.D. of Oxford before 1355. 
In this year he disputed in the chancellor's 
schools at York in defence of the Imma- 
culate Conception against the Dominican, 
William Jordan. His manner of disputa- 
tion gave offence to his opponents, but the 
chapter of York issued letters testifying to 
his courteous behaviour. In 1374 he was 
summoned with other doctors to a council at 
Westminster, over which the Black Prince 
and the Archbishop of Canterbury presided. 
The subject of discussion was the right of 
England to refuse the papal tribute. The 
spiritual counsellors ' advised submission to 



Mare 



129 



Mare 



the pope. The old argument about the two 
swords was used. Mardisley retorted with 
the text, ( Put up again thy sword into his 
place,' and denied the pope's claim to any 
temporal dominion. The next day the papal 
party yielded. Mardisley about this time 
became twenty-fifth provincial minister of 
the English Franciscans, but had ceased to 
hold the office in 1380. According to Bale, 
he died in 1386 and was buried at York. 

[Tanner's Bibliotheca, p. 509; Monumenta 
Franciscana, vol. i. ; Eulogium Historiarum, iii. 
337-8; Engl. Hist. Review, October 1891.1 

A. G. L. 

MARE, SIB PETER DE LA (fl. 1370), 
speaker of the House of Commons. [See 
DE LA MARE.] 

MARE, THOMAS DE LA (1309-1396), 
abbot of St. Albans, was son of Sir John 
de la Mare, by Johanna, daughter of Sir 
John de Harpesfeld, and was born in the 
earlier part of 1309. His family was an 
honourable one of Hertfordshire, and con- 
nected with William Montacute, earl of 
Salisbury, John Grandison [q. v.], bishop of 
Exeter, and probably with Sir Peter De la 
Mare [q. v.], the speaker of the Good parlia- 
ment. He had three brothers and a sister, 
who all adopted a religious life at his per- 
suasion. William, the eldest, was abbot of 
Missenden 1339-40 (DUGDALE, Monasticon, 
vi. 547). 

As a child Thomas was of a studious dis- 
position, and of his own accord entered St. 
Albans when seventeen years old, under 
Abbot Hugh de Eversden (d. 7 Sept. 1326). 
His regular profession was made shortly after- 
wards before Abbot Richard of Wallingford. 
He was first sent to Wyniondham, a cell of 
St. Albans, where he was chaplain to John de 
Hurlee, the prior. Abbot Michael (1335-49) 
recalled him to St. Albans, and after making 
him successively kitchener and cellarer, sent 
him to be prior of Tynemouth, another cell 
of the abbey, about the end of 1340. This 
house Thomas ruled with much popularity for 
nine years. In 1346 he fortified the priory 
against the Scots. On 12 April 1349 Abbot 
Michael died, and Thomas was chosen in his 
place. While on his visit to the papal court 
at Avignon to procure his confirmation he 
fell ill, but was miraculously restored by 
drinking putrid water. The election was 
confirmed by the king on 22 Nov. 1350. 

In September 1351 Thomas presided at a 
general chapter of the order, and again in 
1352, 1355, 1363, performing the duties of 
his office with lavish profusion of expendi- 
ture (Gesta, m. 418; Hist. Angl i. 300). 
His constitutions are printed in the ' Gesta 

VOL. XXXVI. 



Abbatum,' ii. 418-49. Thomas's skilful ad- 
ministration won the favour of Edward III, 
who made him a member of his council, and 
employed him to visit the abbeys of Eyns- 
ham, Abingdon, Battle, Reading, and Ches- 
ter, where he corrected a variety of abuses. 
Edward, prince of Wales, was also a friend 
of the abbot, and King John of France 
during his captivity often stayed at St. Al- 
bans. John persuaded Thomas to relinquish 
an intention to resign the abbacy, because 
it would be ruinous to the abbey. 

Thomas was a strenuous defender of the 
rights of his office and abbey; a charac- 
teristic which involved him in perpetual 
trouble and litigation. He sought to protect 
the monastery against papal exaction, by 
negotiating for a remission of the customary 
attendance of a new abbot for confirmation 
by the pope. But after wasting much money 
on dishonest agents, nothing came of it 
( Gesta, iii. 145-84) . When Henry Despenser 
[q. v.] attempted to make the prior of Wy- 
mondham collector of tithes in his diocese, 
Thomas defeated him by withdrawing the 
prior, and obtained a royal decision support- 
ing the privileges of his abbey (ib. iii. 122- 
134, 281-4, 395 ; Chron. Anglic, 1328-88, 
pp. 258-61). Lesser quarrels were with Sir 
Philip de Lymbury, who put the cellarer, 
John Moote, in the pillory ; John de Chil- 
terne, a recalcitrant tenant, who vexed him 
six-and- twenty years (Gesta, iii. 3-9, 27) ; 
Sir Richard Perrers, and the notorious Alice 
Perrers [q. v.], whose character has no doubt 
suffered in consequence at the hands of 
the St. Albans chroniclers (ib. iii. 200-38 ; 
for a list of Thomas's opponents see ib. 
iii. 379, and cf. AMTJNDESHAM, Annales, i. 
673). 

The most serious trouble was, however, 
with the immediate tenants and villeins of 
the abbey. There were old-standing griev- 
ances, which had been somewhat sternly 
suppressed by Abbot Richard, but were re- 
vived under pressure of the Black Death, 
the Statute of Labourers, and the strict rule 
of Abbot Thomas. There had been some 
disputes as early as 1353 and 1355, when 
the abbot had successfully maintained a plea 
of villeinage (Gesta, iii. 39-41). During the 
peasant rising in 1381 St. Albans was one 
of the places that suffered most. On 13 June, 
the day that Wat Tyler entered London, the 
tenants and townsfolk of St. Albans rose 
under William Grindcobbe, a burgess. Two 
days after they broke open the gaol, broke 
down the fences, and threatened to burn the 
abbey unless the abbot would surrender the 
charters extorted by his predecessors, and give 
up his rights over wood, meadow, and mill. 



Mare 



130 



Maredudd 



Thomas refused at first, though at last he 
yielded to the alarm of his monks, and pro- 
mised all that was demanded. But Tyler's 
rebellion had in the meantime been sup- 
pressed, and within a month the abbey 
tenants and burgesses were brought to terms, 
the privileges extorted given up once more, 
and Grindcobbe and his chief supporters exe- 
cuted. 

Thomas's remaining years were troubled 
only by constant illness, the result of an at- 
tack of the plague. For the last ten years 
of his life he was unable to attend in par- 
liament through old age and sickness, while 
the rule of the abbey was chiefly left to 
John Moote, the prior. Thomas died on 
15 Sept. 1396, aged 87, and was buried in 
the presbytery under a marble tomb, on 
which there was a fine brass of Flemish 
workmanship with an effigy. This brass 
has now been removed for safety to the 
chantry of Abbot William Wallingford close 
by. The tomb bore the following inscrip- 
tion : 

Est Abbas Thomas turaulo prsesente reclusus, 
Qui vitse tempus sanctos expendit in usus. 

Walsingham describes Thomas as a man of 
piety, humility, and patience, homely in 
dress, austere to himself but kindly to others, 
and especially to his monks ; a learned divine, 
well acquainted with English, French, and 
Latin, a good speaker, a bad but rapid 
writer. In his youth he had delighted in 
sports, but afterwards, out of his love for 
animals, came to abhor hunting and hawking. 
He was withal of a strong and masterful 
spirit, which, if ill suited to meet the social 
troubles of his time, enabled him to raise 
St. Albans to a high pitch of wealth and 
prosperity. Despite the great sums which 
he spent on litigation, he increased the re- 
sources of the abbey, which he had found 
much impoverished. He adorned the church 
with many vestments, ornaments, and pic- 
tures, especially with one over the high 
altar, which he procured in Italy. Various 
parts of the abbey were rebuilt or repaired 
by him, and in particular the great gate, 
which is now the only important building 
left besides the church. He also spent much 
on charity, and especially on the mainte- 
nance of scholars at Oxford. His chief 
fault was a rash and credulous temperament, 
which made him too ready to trust unworthy 
subordinates. But against Thomas himself 
even the rebels of 1381 had no complaint 
(Gesta, iii. 307), and he may justly be re- 
garded as the greatest of the abbots of St. 
Albans, and a not unworthy type of the 
mediaeval monastic prelate. 



[Walsingham's Gesta AbLaturn, ii. 371-449, 
iii. 1-423, in the Rolls Series, but especially ii. 
361-97, and iii. 375-423; Dugdale's Monasti- 
con, ii. 197-8; Froudu's Annals of an English 
Abbey, in Short Studies on Great Subjects, 3rd 
ser., is not always quite fair to Thomas.] 

C. L. K. 

MAREDUDD AB OWAIN (d. 999 ?), 

Welsh prince, was the son of Owain ap Hywel 
Dda. According to the sole authority, the 
contemporary 'Annales Cambrise,' he lived in 
the second period of Danish invasion, a time 
of great disorder in Wales as elsewhere, and 
first appears as the slayer of Cadwallon ab 
Idwal, king of Gwynedd, and the conqueror 
of his realm, which, however, he lost in the 
ensuing year. In 988, on the death of his 
father Owain, he succeeded to his domi- 
nions, viz. Gower, Kidwelly, Ceredigioii, and 
Dyfed, the latter probably including Ystrad 
Tywi. His reign, which lasted until 999, 
was mainly spent in expeditions against his 
neighbours (Maesyfed was attacked in 991, 
Morgannwg in 993, Gwynedd in 994) and 
in repelling the incursions of the Danes. 
On one occasion he is said to have redeemed 
his subjects from the Danes at a penny a 
head. 

Maredudd's only son, so far as is known, 
died before him. But so great was the 
prestige he acquired in his brief reign that 
his daughter, Angharad, was regarded, con- 
trary to ordinary Welsh custom, as capable 
of transmitting some royal right to her 
descendants. Her first husband, Llywelyn 
ap Seisyll [q. v.], ruled Gwynedd from about 
1010 tol023, their son, the well-known Gruf- 
fydd ap Llywelyn [q. v.], from 1039 to 1063. 
By her second marriage with Cynfyn ap 
Gwerstan she had two other sons, Rhiwallon 
and Bleddyn, of whom the latter, with no 
claim on the father's side, ruled Gwynedd 
and Powys from 1069 to 1075 and founded 
the mediaeval line of princes of Powys. 

[Annales Cambrise, Rolls ed. The dates given 
above are nearly all approximate.] J. E. L. 

MAREDUDD AP BLEDDYN (d. 1132), 

grince of Powys, was the son of Bleddyn ap 
ynfyn (d. 1075), founder of the last native 
dynasty of Powys. During his earlier years 
he played only a subordinate part in Welsh 
affairs, being overshadowed by his brothers 
lorwerth [q. v.] and Cadwgan (d. 1112) [q. v.J 
He joined them in the support which they 
gave to their over-lord, Earl Robert of 
Shrewsbury, in his rebellion against Henry I 
(1102), but lorwerth soon went over to the 
king and, while making his peace with Cadw- 
gan, consigned Maredudd to a royal prison. 
In 1107 Maredudd escaped and returned to 



Marett 



Marett 



Powys. He remained, however, without ter- 
ritory for several years. Even when lorwerth 
and Cadwgan were slain in succession in 1112 
he did not improve his position. According- to 
' Brut y Ty wysogion ' (Oxford edit. p. 291), he 
was in Ills "penteulu ' (captain of the guard) 
to Owain ap Cadwgan, an office specially re- 
served by Welsh custom for landless mem- 
bers of the royal family (Ancient Laws of 
Wales, ed. 1841, i. 12). In that year, how- 
ever, Owain divided with him the forfeited 
domains of Madog ap Rhiryd. Though the 
gift seems to have been resumed, Maredudd 
recovered it on Owain's death in 1116, and 
henceforward appears regularly among the 
princes of Powys. In 1118 he took part in 
the feud between Hywel of Rhos and Rhu- 
foniog and the sons of Owain ab Edwin. In 
1121 he was leader of the resistance offered 
by Powys to the invasion of Henry I. During 
the few remaining years of his life his power 
grew apace ; in 1123 his nephew, Einon ap 
Cadwgan, bequeathed him his territory ; in 
1124 a second son of Cadwgan, Maredudd, 
was murdered ; and in 1128 a third, Morgan, 
died on pilgrimage. Two other enemies to 
his progress his nephew, Ithel ap Rhiryd, 
and his great-nephew, Llywelyn ab Owain 
Maredudd himself removed, the former by 
murder, the latter by mutilation. Thus at 
his death in 1132 he was lord of all Powys 
[see MADOG AP MAREDUDD]. 

[Annales Cambriae, Eolls ed. ; Brut y Tywys- 
ogion, Oxford edit, of Eed Book of Hergest.] 

J. E. L. 

MARETT or MARET, PHILIP (1568 ?- 
1637), attorney-general of Jersey, born about 
1568, was second son of Charles Maret, by 
Margaret, born Le Cerf, and was descended 
on both sides from Norman families long re- 
sident on the island. He was educated in 
a Spanish seminary, and was consequently 
described by his enemies as a papist, though 
he was ostensibly a strong supporter of the 
English church. Being well versed both in 
law and the customs of Jersey, he was in 
1608 appointed advocate-general of the island, 
and in 1609 succeeded Philip de Carteret of 
Vinchelez as attorney-general, in which ca- 
pacity he supported the ' captain ' or gover- 
nor, Sir John Peyton, against the claims 
of the presbyterian ' colloquy ' or synod to 
exclude episcopally ordained ministers. In 
the complicated feud which raged between 
the governor and the bailiff, John Herault, 
Marett succeeded in rendering himself tho- 
roughly obnoxious to the bailiff, whom he ac- 
cused of every kind of usurpation. Herault 
rejoined by disputing Marett's title to the 
office of king's receiver and procureur in 



Jersey, with which Peyton had rewarded 
his adherent. The long strife culminated 
in 1616, when Marett, losing his temper, 
vented his abuse on the bailiff while the 
latter was presiding in the royal court, and 
accused Sir Philip de Carteret, a jurat of the 
island, of an attempt to assassinate him. For 
this outrage he was, in May 1616, ordered to 
apologise and pay a fine of fifty crowns. In 
the meantime his enemies sought to replace 
him in office by one of their own partisans. 
Marett, refusing to submit or to acknowledge 
the competence of the court, was ordered to 
England to appear before the lords of the 
privy council. By them he was committed to 
the Gatehouse for contempt, and finally sent 
back to the island to submit to the judgment 
of the court. Still refusing to appear in court 
and submit to his sentence, he was committed, 
in September 1616, to Elizabeth Castle, 
whence he piteously complained of the 
weight of his manacles. He was soon re- 
leased, and found further means of evading 
his sentence. Charges and counter-charges 
were freely bandied about. Marett was 
doubtless a victim of much private and per- 
sonal malice, but he is described, with pro- 
bable truth, as ( proud, presumptuous, and 
hated of the people,' while his effrontery in 
denial earned him the title of ' L'Etourdi.' 
After numerous cross-appeals the case was 
referred to the royal commissioners (in Jer- 
sey), Sir Edward Con way and Sir William 
Bird, and, their finding being adverse to 
Marett, was eventually referred to the king 
himself, who ordered the ex-procureur back 
to Jersey to make public submission, or in 
default to be banished from the island. 

Marett seems subsequently to have been 
reconciled with Herault, and was, 12 March 
1628, elected a jurat of the royal court. In 
May 1632 he was appointed lieutenant- 
governor of the island by Sir Thomas Jer- 
myn, during the temporary absence of Cap- 
cain Thomas Rainsford. He died in January 
1636-7, and was buried in the parish church 
of St. Brelade. By his wife Martha, daugh- 
ter and coheiress of Nicholas Lempriere and 
widow of Elias Dumaresq, he had a son 
Philip (d. 1676), who was imprisoned by 
Colonel Robert Gibbons, the Cromwellian 
governor, for strenuous resistance to his exac- 
tions, in 1656. 

A descendant, SIR ROBERT PIPON MARETT 
(1820-1884), son of Major P. D. Marett by 
Mary Ann, daughter of Thomas Pipon, lieu- 
benant bailiff of Jersey, was educated at 
Oaen and at the Sorbonne, was constable of 
St. Helier, where he effected some notable 
mprovements, in 1856, and solicitor-general 
of Jersey in 1858. He was attorney-general 



Marfeld 



132 



Margaret 



in 1866, and was elected bailiff in 1880, 
when lie received the honour of knighthood. 
He was distinguished on the bench, where 
his judgments in the case of Bradley v. Le 
Brun and in the Mercantile Joint-Stock 
scandals attracted considerable attention be- 
yond the island, and he suggested some im- 
portant modifications in the laws affecting 
real property, which were adopted by the 
States in 1879. He edited in 1847 the manu- 
scripts of Philip Le Geyt [q. v.], the insular 
jurist, and was also the author of several 
poems written in the Jersey patois. These 
were published in 'Rimes et Poesies Jer- 
siaises,' edited by Abraham Mourant (1865), 
and in the ( Patois Poems of the Channel 
Islands,' edited by J. Linwood Pitts (1883). 
Francois Victor Hugo reproduced one of 
Marett's poems, ' La fille Malade,' in his 
'Normandie Inconnue.' Sir Robert mar- 
ried in 1865 Julia Anne, daughter of Philip 
Marett of La Haule Manor, St. Brelade's, by 
whom he left four children. He died 10 Nov. 
1884. 

[Payne's Armorial of Jersey, pp. 273-7 ; Le 
Quesne's Constit. Hist, of Jersey, passim ; Gal. 
State Papers, Dom. Ser. Addenda, 1580-1625, 
freq.; revision by E. T. Nicolle, esq., of Jersey; 
materials kindly furnished by Mr. Eanulph 
Marett, fellow of Exeter College, Oxford, and 
only son of Sir E. P. Marett.] T. S. 

MARFELD, JOHN (fl. 1393), physician. 
[See MIRFELD.] 

MARGARET, ST. (d. 1093), queen of 
Scotland, was daughter of Edward the Exile, 
son of Edmund Ironside [q. v.], by Agatha, 
usually described as a kinswoman of Gisela, 
the sister of Henry II the Emperor, and wife 
of St. Stephen of Hungary. Her father and 
his brother Edmund, when yet infants, are 
said to have been sent by Canute to Sweden 
or to Russia, and afterwards to have passed 
to Hungary before 1038, when Stephen died. 
No trace of the exiles has, however, been found 
in the histories of Hungary examined by Mr. 
Freeman or by the present writer, who made 
inquiries on the subject at Buda-Pesth. Still, 
the constant tradition in England and Scot- 
land is too strong to be set aside, and pos- 
sibly deserves confirmation from the Hun- 
garian descent claimed by certain Scottish 
families, as the Drummonds. The legend of 
Adrian, the missionary monk, who is said to 
have come from Hungary to Scotland long 
before Hungary was Christian, possibly may 
have been due to a desire to flatter the mother- 
country of Margaret. The birth of Margaret 
must be assigned to a date between 1038 and 
1057, probably about 1045, but whether she 
accompanied her father to England in 1057 



we do not know, though Lappenberg assum 
it as probable that she did. Her brothe 
Edgar Atheling [q. v.], was chosen king : 
1066, after the death of Harold, and mac 
terms with William the Conqueror. But i 
the summer of 1067, according to the 'Angle 
Saxon Chronicle/ ' Edgar child went out 
with his mother Agatha and his two sisters 
Margaret and Christina and Merleswegen 
and many good men with them and came 
to Scotland under the protection of King 
Malcolm III [q. v.], and he received them all. 
Then Malcolm began to yearn after Mar- 
garet to wife, but he and all his men long 
refused, and she herself also declined,' pre- 
ferring, according to the verses inserted in 
the 'Chronicle,' a virgin's life. The king 
' urged her brother until he answered " Yea," 
and indeed he durst not otherwise because 
they were come into his power.' The con- 
temporary biography of Margaret supplies 
no dates. John of Fordun, on the alleged 
authority of Turgot, prior of Durham and 
archbishop of St. Andrews, who is doubt- 
fully credited with the contemporary bio- 
graphy of Margaret, dates her marriage with 
Malcolm in 1070, but adds, ' Some, however, 
have written that it was in the year 1067.' 
The later date probably owes its existence 
to the interpolations in Simeon of Durham, 
which Mr. Hinde rejects. The best manu- 
scripts of the { Anglo-Saxon Chronicle ' ac- 
cept 1067. Most writers since Hailes, in- 
cluding Mr. Freeman, have assumed 1070. 
Mr. Skene prefers the earlier date, which has 
the greater probability in its favour. The 
marriage was celebrated at Dunfermline by 
Fothad, Celtic bishop of St. Andrews, not 
in the abbey of which parts still exist, for 
that was founded by Malcolm and Margaret 
in commemoration of it, but in some smaller 
church attached to the tower, of whose 
foundations a few traces may still be seen in 
the adjoining grounds of Pittencreiff. 

According to a letter preserved in the 
* Scalacronica ' from Lanfranc, archbishop 
of Canterbury, the archbishop, in reply to 
Margaret's petition, sent her Friar Goldwin 
and two monks to instruct her in the proper 
conduct of the service of God. Probably soon 
after her marriage, at the instance of these 
English friars, a council was held for the re- 
form of the Scottish church, in which Malcolm 
acted as interpreter between the English and 
Gaelic clergy. It sat for three days, and 
regulated the period of the Lenten fast ac- 
cording to the Roman use, by which it began 
four days before the first Sunday in Lent ; 
the reception of the sacrament at Easter, 
which had been neglected ; the ritual of the 
mass according to the Roman mode, the ob- 



Margaret 



133 



Margaret 



servance of the Lord's day by abstaining 
from work, the abolition of marriage between 
a man and his stepmother or his brother's 
widow, as well as other abuses, among which 
may have been the neglect of giving thanks 
after meals, from which the grace cup re- 
ceived in Scotland the name of St. Mar- 
garet's blessing. 

According to a tradition handed down 
by Goscelin, a monk of Canterbury, she was 
less successful in asserting the right of a 
woman to enter the church at Laurence- 
kirk, which was in this case forbidden by 
Celtic, as it was commonly by the custom of 
the Eastern church. Her biographer dilates 
on her own practice of the piety she incul- 
cated : her prayers mingled with her tears, her 
abstinence to the injury of health, her charity 
to the orphans, whom she fed with her own 
spoon, to the poor, whose feet she washed, 
to the English captives she ransomed, and to 
the hermits who then abounded in Scotland. 
For the pilgrims to St. Andrews she built 
guest-houses on either side of the Firth of 
Forth at Queensferry, and provided for their 
free passage. She fasted for forty days be- 
fore Christmas as well as during Lent, and 
exceeded in her devotions the requirements 
of the church. Her gifts of holy vessels and 
of the jewelled cross containing the black 
rood of ebony, supposed to be a fragment 
from the cross on which Christ died, are 
specially commemorated by her biographers, 
and her copy of the Gospels, adorned with 
gold and precious stones, which fell into the 
water, was, we are told, miraculously re- 
covered without stain, save a few traces of 
damp. A book, supposed to be this very 
volume, has been recently recovered, and is 
now in the Bodleian Library. To Malcolm 
and Margaret the Culdees of Lochleven 
owed the donation of the town of Bal- 
christie, and Margaret is said by Ordericus 
Vitalis to have rebuilt the monastery of 
lona. She did not confine her reforms to 
the church, but introduced also more be- 
coming manners into the court, and improved 
the domestic arts, especially the feminine 
accomplishments of needlework and em- 
broidery. The conjecture of Lord Hailes 
that Scotland is indebted to her for the in- 
vention of tartan may be doubted. The in- 
troduction of linen would be more suitable 
to her character and the locality. The edu- 
cation of her sons was her special care [see 
under MALCOLM III], and was repaid by 
their virtuous lives, especially that of David. 
1 No history has recorded,' says William of 
Malmesbury, ' three kings and brothers who 
were of equal sanctity or savoured so much 
of their mother's piety. . . . Edmund was 



the only degenerate son of Margaret. . . . But 
being taken and doomed to perpetual imprison- 
I ment, he sincerely repented.' Her daughters 
I were sent to their aunt Christina, abbess of 
j Ramsey, and afterwards of Wilton. Of Mar- 
garet's own death her biographer gives a 
pathetic narrative. She was not only pre- 
pared for, but predicted it, and some months 
before summoned her confessor, Turgot (so 
named in Capgrave's ' Abridgment,' and in 
the original Life), and begged him to take 
care of her sons and daughters, and to warn 
them against pride and avarice, which he 
promised, and, bidding her farewell, returned 
to his own home. Shortly after she fell ill. 
Her last days are described in the words 
of a priest who attended her and more than 
once related the events to the biographer. 
For half a year she had been unable to ride, 
and almost confined to bed. On the fourth 
day before her death, when Malcolm was 
absent on his last English raid, she said to 
this priest : ' Perhaps on this very day such 
a calamity may befall Scotland as has not 
been for many ages.' Within a few days 
the tidings of the slaughter of Malcolm and 
her eldest son reached Scotland. On 16 Nov. 
1093 Margaret had gone to her oratory in 
the castle of Edinburgh to hear mass and 
partake of the holy viaticum. Returning to 
bed in mortal weakness she sent for the 
black cross, received it reverently, and, re- 
peating the fiftieth psalm, held the cross 
with both hands before her eyes. At this 
moment her son Edgar came into her room, 
whereupon she rallied and inquired for her 
husband and eldest son. Edgar, unwilling 
to tell the truth, replied that they were well, 
but, on her abjuring him by the cross and 
the bond of blood, told her what had hap- 
pened. She then praised God, who, through 
affliction, had cleansed her from sin, and 
praying the prayer of a priest before he re- 
ceives the sacrament, she died while uttering 
the last words. Her corpse was carried out 
of the castle, then besieged by Donald Bane, 
under the cover of a mist, and taken to 
Dunfermline, where she was buried opposite 
the high altar and the crucifix she had 
erected on it. 

The vicissitudes of her life continued to 
attend her relics. In 1250, more than a cen- 
tury and a half after her death, she was de- 
clared a saint by Innocent IV, and on 19 June 
1259 her body was translated from the ori- 
ginal stone coffin and placed in a shrine of 
j pinewood set with gold and precious stones, 
j under or near the high altar. The limestone 
pediment still may be seen outside the east 
end of the modern restored church. Bower, 
the continuator of Fordun, adds the miracle, 



Margaret 



134 



Margaret 



that as the bearers of her corpse passed the 
tomb of Malcolm the burden became too 
heavy to carry, until a voice of a bystander, 
inspired by heaven, exclaimed that it was 
against tlie divine will to translate her 
bones without those of her husband, and they 
consequently carried both to the appointed 
shrine. Before 1567, according to Papebroch, 
her head was brought to Mary Stuart in 
Edinburgh, and on Mary's flight to England 
it was preserved by a Benedictine monk in the 
house of the laird of Dury till 1597, when it 
was given to the missionary Jesuits. By one 
of these, John Robie, it was conveyed to 
Antwerp, where John Malder the bishop, on 
15 Sept. 1620, issued letters of authentication 
and license to expose it for the veneration 
of the faithful. In 1627 it was removed to 
the Scots College at Douay, where Herman, 
bishop of Arras, and Boudout, his successor, 
again attested its authenticity. On 4 March 
1645 Innocent X granted a plenary indul- 
gence to all who visited it on her festival. 
In 1785 the relic was still venerated at 
Douay, but it is believed to have perished 
during the French revolution. Her remains, 
according to George Conn, the author of 
1 De Duplici Statu Religionis apud Scotos,' 
Rome, 1628, were acquired by Philip II, 
king of Spain, along with those of Malcolm, 
who placed them in two urns in the chapel 
of St. Laurence in the Escurial. When 
Bishop Gillies, the^ Roman catholic bishop of 
Edinburgh, applie'd, through Pius IX, for 
their restoration to Scotland, they could not 
be found. 

Memorials, possibly more authentic than 
these relics, are still pointed out in Scotland : 
the cave in the den of Dunfermline, where 
she went for secret prayer ; the stone on the 
road to North Queensferry, where she first 
met Malcolm, or, according to another tradi- 
tion, received the poor pilgrims ; the venerable 
chapel on the summit of the Castle Hill, 
whose architecture, the oldest of which 
Edinburgh can boast, allows the supposition 
that it may have been her oratory, or more 
probably that it was dedicated by one of her 
sons to her memory ; and the well at the 
foot of Arthur's Seat, hallowed by her name, 
probably after she had been declared a saint. 

[The Life of Queen Margaret, published in 
the Acta Sanctorum, ii. 320, in Capgrave's Nova 
Legenda Anglise, fol. 225, and in Vitae Antiques 
SS. Scotia?, p. 303, printed by Pinkerton and 
translated by Father Forbes Leith, certainly ap- 
pears to be contemporary, though whether the 
author was Turgot, her confessor, a monk of 
Durham, afterwards archbishop of St. Andrews, 
or Theodoric, a less known monk, is not clear; 
and the value attached to it will vary with the 



religion or temperament of the critic, from what 
Mr. Freeman calls the 'mocking scepticism' of 
Mr. Burton to the implicit belief of Papebroch 
or Father Forbes Leiih. Fordun and Wyntoun's 
Chronicles, Simeon of Durham (edition by Mr. 
Hinde), and William of Malmesbury's Gesta Re- 
gum Anglorum are the older sources ; Free- 
man's Norman Conquest, Skene's Celtic Scotland, 
Grrub, Cunningham, and Bellesheim's Histories 
of the Church of Scotland, and Robertson's 
Scotland under her Early Kings give modern 
versions.] JE. M. 

MARGARET (1240-1275), queen of 
Scots, was the eldest daughter and second 
child of Henry III of England and of his 
queen, Eleanor of Provence. She was born 
on 5 Oct. 1240 (GREEN, Princesses, ii. 171, 
from Liberate Rolls ; Flores Hist. ii. 239 ; cf. 
MATT. PARIS, Hist. Major, iv. 48, and Teiokes- 
bury Annals in Ann. Monastics, i. 116). The 
date of her birth is given very variously by 
different chroniclers, while others get some 
years wrong through confusing her with her 
younger sister, Beatrice, born in Aquitaine 
in 1243 ( Winchester Annals in Ann. Mon. 
ii. 89 ; Osney Annals and WTKES in ib. iv. 
90). Sandford's statement that she was 
born in 1241 is incorrect {Genealogical His- 
tory, p. 93). She was born at Windsor, 
where the early years of her life were passed 
along with her brother Edward, who was a 
year older, and the daughter of the Earl of 
Lincoln. She was named Margaret from 
her aunt, Queen Margaret of France, and be- 
cause her mother in the pangs of child-birth 
had invoked the aid of St. Margaret (MATT. 
PARIS, iv. 48). On 27 Nov. a royal writ 
ordered the payment of ten marks to her 
custodians, Bartholomew Peche and Geoffrey 
de Caux (Cal.Doc. Scotland, 1108-1272, No. 
1507). She was not two years old when a mar- 
riage was suggested between her and Alex- 
ander, the infant son of Alexander II, king 
of Scots, born in 1241 (MATT. PARIS, Hist. 
Major, iv. 192). Two years later there was 
a fresh outburst of hostilities between her 
father and the king of Scots ; but the treaty 
of Newcastle, on 13 Aug. 1244, restored peace 
between England and Scotland (Fcedera, i. 
257). As a result it was arranged that the 
marriage already spoken of should take place 
when the children were old enough. Mar- 
garet was meanwhile brought up carefully 
and piously and somewhat frugally at home, 
with the result that she afterwards fully- 
shared the strong family affection that united 
all the members of Henry Ill's family. 

In 1249 the death of Alexander II made 
Margaret's betrothed husband Alexander III 
of Scotland. Political reasons urged upon 
both countries the hurrying on of the mar- 



Margaret 



135 



Margaret 



riage between tlie children, and on 20 Dec. 
1251 Alexander and Margaret were married 
at York by Archbishop Walter Grey of 
York. There had been elaborate prepara- 
tions for the wedding, which was attended 
by a thousand English and six hundred 
Scottish knights, and so vast a throng of 
people that the ceremony was performed 
secretly and in the early morning to avoid 
the crowd. Enormous sums were lavished 
on the entertainments, and vast masses of 
food were consumed (MATT. PARIS, v. 266- 
270; cf. Cal Doc. Scotland, 1108-1272, Nos. 
1815-46). Next day Henry bound himself 
to pay Alexander five thousand marks as 
the marriage portion of his daughter. 

The first years of Margaret's residence in 
Scotland were solitary and unhappy. She 
was put under the charge of Robert le Nor- 
rey and Stephen Bausan, while the widowed 
Matilda de Cantelupe acted as her governess 
(MATT. PARIS, v. 272). The violent Geoffrey 
of Langley was for a time associated with 
her guardianship (ib. v. 340). But in 1252 
the Scots removed Langley from his office and 
sent him back to England. The regents of 
Scotland, conspicuous among whom were 
the guardians of the king and queen, Robert 
de Ros and John Baliol, treated her un- 
kindly, and she seems to have been looked 
upon with suspicion as a representative of 
English influence. Rumours of her misfor- 
tunes reached England, and an effort to in- 
duce the Scots to allow her to visit England 
proving unsuccessful, Queen Eleanor sent in 
1255 a famous physician, Reginald of Bath, 
to inquire into her health and condition. 
Reginald found the queen pale and agitated, 
and full of complaints against her guardians. 
He indiscreetly expressed his indignation in 
public, and soon afterwards died suddenly, 
apparently of poison (ib. v. 501). Henry, who 
was very angry, now sent Richard, earl 
of Gloucester, and John Mansel to make 
inquiries (ib. v. 504). Their vigorous action 
released Margaret from her solitary confine- 
ment in Edinburgh Castle, provided her with 
a proper household, and allowed her to enjoy 
the society of her husband. A political re- 
volution followed. Henry and Eleanor now 
met their son-in-law and daughter at Wark, 
and visited them at Roxburgh (Burton An- 
nals in Ann. Mon. i. 337 ; Dunstaple Annals, 
p. 198). Margaret remained a short time with 
her mother at Wark. English influence was 
restored, and Ros and Baliol were deprived 
of their estates. 

Early in 1256 Margaret received a visit 
from her brother Edward. In August of the 
same year Margaret and Alexander at last 
ventured to revisit England, to Margaret's 



great joy. They were at Woodstock for the 
festivities of the Feast of the Assumption 
on 15 Aug. (MATT. PARIS, v. 573), and, pro- 
ceeding to London, were sumptuously en- 
tertained by John Mansel. On their return 
the Scottish magnates again put them under 
restraint, complaining of their promotion 
of foreigners (ib. v. 656). They mostly 
lived now at Roxburgh. About 1260 Alex- 
ander and Margaret first really obtained 
freedom of action. In that year they again 
visited England, Margaret reaching London 
some time after her husband, and escorted 
by Bishop Henry of Whithorn (Flores Hist. 
ii. 459). She kept Christmas at Windsor, 
where on 28 Feb. 1261 she gave birth to her 
eldest child and daughter Margaret (ib. ii. 
463 ; FORDUN-, i. 299). The Scots were angry 
that the child should be born out of the 
kingdom and at the queen's concealment from 
them of the prospect of her confinement. 
Three years later her eldest son, Alexander, 
was born 011 21 Dec. 1264 at Jedburgh 
(FoRDUN, i. 300 ; cf. Lanercost Chronicle, p. 
81). A second son, named David, was born 
in 1270. 

In 1266, or more probably later, Margaret 
was visited atHaddingtonby her brother Ed- 
ward to bid farewell before his departure to 
the Holy Land (Lanercost Chronicle, p. 81). 
In 1268 she and her husband again attended 
Henry's court. She was very anxious for 
the safety of her brother Edward during his 
absence on crusade, and deeply lamented her 
father's death in 1272 (ib. p. 95). Edward 
had left with her a ' pompous squire,' who 
boasted that he had slain Simon de Montfort 
at Evesham. About 1273 Margaret, when 
walking on the banks of the Tay, suggested 
to one of her ladies that she should push the 
squire into the river as he was stooping down 
to wash his hands. It was apparently meant 
as a practical joke, but the squire, sucked 
in by an eddy, was drowned ; and the nar- 
rator, who has no blame for the queen, saw in 
his death God's vengeance on the murderer of 
Montfort (ib. p. 95). On 19 Aug. 1274 Mar- 
garet with her husband attended Edward I's 
coronation at Westminster. She died soon 
after at Cupar Castle (FoRDUsr, i. 305) on 
27 Feb. 1275, and was buried at Dunferm- 
line. The so-called chronicler of Lanercost 
(really a Franciscan of Carlisle), who had 
his information from her confessor, speaks of 
her in the warmest terms. ' She was a lady,' 
he says, ' of great beauty, chastity, and 
humility three qualities which are rarely 
found together in the same person.' She was 
a good friend of the friars, and on her death- 
bed received the last sacraments from her 
confessor, a Franciscan, while she refused to 



Margaret 



136 



Margaret 



admit into her chamber the great bishops 
and abbots (Lanercost Chron. p. 97). 

[Matthew Paris's Historia Major, vols. iv. and 
v. ; Flores Historiarum, vols. ii. and iii. ; Luard's 
Annales Monastic! (all in Rolls Series); Chro- 
nicle of Lanercost (Bannatyne Club) ; Calendar 
of Documents relating to Scotland ; Kymer's 
Foedera, vol. i. ; Fordun's Chronicle ; Sandford's 
Genealogical History, p. 93 ; Robertson's Scot- 
land under her Early Kings, vol. ii. An excel- 
lent biography of Margaret is in Mrs. Green's 
Lives of the Princesses of England, ii. 170-224.] 

T. F. T. 

MARGARET(1282?-1318),queenof Ed- 
ward I, youngest daughter of Philip III, called 
' le Hardi/ king of France, by Mary, daughter 
of Henry III, duke of Brabant, was born about 
1282. A proposal was made in 1294 by her 
brother, Philip IV, that Edward I of England, 
who was then a widower, should engage him- 
self to marry her (Foedera, i. 795). The pro- 
posal was renewed as a condition of peace be- 
tween the two kings in 1298 ; a dispensation 
was granted by Boniface VIII (ib. p. 897) ; the 
arrangement was concluded by the peace of 
Montreuil in 1299 ; and Margaret was married 
to Ed ward by Archbishop Winchelsey at Can- 
terbury on 9 Sept., receiving as her dower 
lands of the value of fifteen thousand pounds 
tournois (ib. p. 972 ; see account of marriage 
solemnities, which lasted for four days, in 
Gesta Regum Cont. ap. Gervasii Cant. Opp. ii. 
317). She entered London in October, and 
after residing some time in the Tower during 
her husband's absence, went northwards to 
meet him. On 1 June 1300 she bore a son at 
Brotherton, near York, and named him Tho- 
mas, after St. Thomas of Canterbury, to whom 
she believed she owed the preservation of her 
life. For some time after this she appears 
to have stayed at Cawood, a residence of the 
Archbishop of York. On 1 Aug. 1301 she 
bore a second son, Edmund, at Woodstock. 
She was with the king in Scotland in 1303-4. 
Edward increased her dower in 1305, and in 
1306 Clement V granted her 4,000/. from the 
tenth collected in England for the relief of 
the Holy Land, to help her in her expenses 
and in her works of charity (Foedera, i. 993). 
At Winchester in May she bore a daughter 
called Margaret (WALSINGHAM, i. 117) or 
Eleanor (Flores, sub an.), who died in infancy. 
In June she was present at the king's feast at I 
Westminster, and wore a circlet of gold upon I 
her head, but, though she had previously worn 
a rich crown, she was never crowned queen. 
She accompanied the king to the north, and 
was with him at Lanercost and Carlisle. She 
grieved much over her husband's death in 
1307, and employed John of London, probably 
her chaplain, to write a eulogy of him (Chro- 



nicles of Edward I and II, ii. 3-21). In the 
following year she crossed over to Boulogne 
with her stepson, Edward II, to be present at 
his marriage. She died on 14 Feb. 1318, at 
the age of thirty-six, and was buried in the 
new choir of the Grey Friars Church in Lon- 
don, which she had begun to build in 1306, 
and to which she gave two thousand marks, 
and one hundred marks by will. She was 
beautiful and pious, and is called in a con- 
temporary poem ( flos Francorum ' (Political 
Songs, p. 178). Her tomb was defaced and 
sold by Sir Martin Bowes [q. v.] (Slow, 
Survey of JLondon, pp. 345, 347) ; her effigy 
is, however, preserved on the tomb of John 
of Eltham [q. v.] in Westminster Abbey, 
and is engraved in Strickland's ' Queens of 
England,' vol. i. 

[Strickland's Queens, i. 452 sqq. ; Rymer's 
Fcedera, vol. i. pt. ii. vol. ii. pt. i. passim (Record 
ed.) ; Political Songs, p. 178 (Camden Soc.); 
Matt. Westminster's FloresHist. pp. 413, 415, 416, 
457, ed. 1570; Gervase of Cant. Opp. ii. 316-19 
(Kolls ed.) ; Ann. Paulini, and Commendatio 
Lamentabilis, ap. Chron. Edw. I, Edw. II, i. 282, 
ii. 3-21 (Rolls ed.); T. Walsingham, i. 79, 81, 
117 (Rolls ed.); Opus. Chron. ap. John de Troke- 
lowe, p. 54 (Rolls ed.); Liber de Antiqq. Legg. 
p. 249 (Camden Soc.); Cbron. Lanercost, pp. 193, 
200, 205, 206 (Maitland Club); Dugdale's Mon- 
asticon, vi. 1514; Stow's Survey, pp. 345,347, 
ed. 1633.] W. H. 

MARGARET OF SCOTLAND (1425?- 
1445), wife of the dauphin Louis (afterwards 
Louis XI, king of France), was the eldest 
child of James I of Scotland and Joan Beau- 
fort. Her age as given in the dispensation 
for her marriage in 1436 would fix her birth 
to the end of 1424 or beginning of 1425 
(BEAUCOURT, Hist, de Charles VII, iii. 37). 
But according to the ' Liber Pluscardensis * 
(vii. 375) she was only ten years old at her 
marriage. Charles VII of France at the cri- 
tical moment of his fortunes sent an embassy, 
of whom Alain Chartier the poet was one, 
towards the close of April 1428, to request 
the hand of Margaret for the dauphin Louis 
(b. 3 July 1423), with renewed alliance and 
military aid (BEATTCOUET, ii. 396). James 
broke off his negotiations with England, re- 
newed the Scoto-Frencli alliance (17 April), 
and undertook (19 April) to send Margaret 
to France within a year of the following 
Candlemas, with six thousand men, if Charles 
would send a French fleet and cede to him 
the county of Saintonge and the seigniory 
of Rochefort (Acts of Parl of Scotl. ii. 26- 
28 ; BEAUCOURT, ii. 397). The French coun- 
cil disliked the conditions, but on 30 Oct. 
Charles signed the marriage treaty at Chinon, 
with the provision that should the dauphin 



Margaret 



137 



Margaret 



die before the marriage was consummated 
Margaret should marry Charles's next sur- 
viving son, if there should be one, while if 
Margaret died one of her sisters should be 
substituted at the choice of James (ib. ii. 
398). In April 1429 the English were on 
the look-out for the fleet which was to carry 
Margaret and the troops to France (Proceed- 
ings of Privy Council, iii. 324). But Charles 
was relieved by Joan of Arc from the neces- 
sity of purchasing help so dearly. He never 
sent the fleet, and it was not until 1433 that, 
in alarm at the renewed negotiations between 
England and Scotland, which ended in the 
despatch of English ambassadors to negotiate 
a marriage between Henry and a daughter of 
the Scottish king, he wrote to James inti- 
mating that though he was no longer in 
need of his help, he would like the princess 
sent over. James in his reply (8 Jan. 1434) 
alluded dryly to the long delay and rumours 
of another marriage for the dauphin, and re- 
quested a definite understanding (BEAU- 
COURT, ii. 492-3). In November Charles sent 
Regnault Girard, his maitre d'hotel, and two 
others, with instructions to urge, in excuse 
of the long delay in sending an embassy to 
make the final arrangements for Margaret's 
coming, the king's great charges and poverty. 
James was to be asked to provide the dau- 
phine with an escort of two thousand men. 
If the Scottish king alluded to the cession 
of Saintonge, he was to be reminded that 
Charles had never claimed the assistance for 
which it was promised. The ambassadors, 
after a voyage of ' grande et merveilleuse 
tourmente,' reached Edinburgh on 25 Jan. 
1435 (Relation of the Embassy by Girard, 
ib. ii. 492-8). A month later James agreed 
to send Margaret from Dumbarton before 
May, in a fleet provided by Charles, and 
guarded by two thousand Scottish troops, 
who might, if necessary, be retained in 
France. He asked that his daughter should 
have a Scottish household until the consum- 
mation of the marriage, though provision was 
to be made ' pour lui apprendre son estat et 
les manieres par la ' (ib. ii. 499). After some 
delay, letters arrived from Charles announc- 
ing the intended despatch of a fleet on 
15 July, declining the offer of the permanent 
services of the Scottish escort, as he was en- 
tering on peace negotiations at Arras, and 
declaring that it would not be necessary to 
assign a residence to the princess, as he meant 
to proceed at once to the celebration of the 
marriage (ib. ii. 500-1). The French fleet 
reached Dumbarton on 12 Sept., but James 
delayed his daughter's embarkation till 
27 March 1436. She landed at La Palisse in 
the island of Re on 17 April, after a pleasant 



voyage (ib. iii. 35, not ' half-dead ' as MICHEL, 
Ecossais en France, i. 183, and VALLET DE 
VIBIVILLE, Hist, de Charles VII, ii. 372, 
say). On the 19th she was received at La 
Rochelle by the chancellor, Regnault de 
Chartres, and after some stay there proceeded 
to Tours, which she reached on 24 June. 
She was welcomed by the queen and the 
dauphin. The marriage was celebrated next 
day in the cathedral by the Archbishop of 
Rheims, the Archbishop of Tours having 
(13 June) granted the dispensation rendered 
necessary by the tender age of the parties. 
The dauphin and dauphine were in royal 
costume, but Charles, who had just arrived, 
went through the ceremony booted and 
spurred (BEAUCOTJRT, iii. 37). A great feast 
followed, and the city of Tours provided 
Moorish dances and chorus-singing (ib. p. 38). 
It was not until July 1437, at the earliest, 
that the married life of the young couple 
actually began at Gien on the Loire (ib. iii. 
38, iv. 89). It was fated to be most unhappy. 
While under the queen's care Margaret had 
been treated with every kindness, but Louis 
regarded her with positive aversion (JENEAS 
SYLVIUS, Commentarii, p. 163; COMINES, ii. 
274). According to Grafton (i. 612, ed. 1809) 
she was ' of such nasty complexion and evill 
savored breath that he abhorred her company 
as a cleane creature doth a cary on.' But there 
is nothing of this in any contemporary chro- 
nicler, and Mathieu d'Escouchy praises her 
beauty and noble qualities (BEAUCOUET, iv. 
89). Margaret sought consolation in poetry, 
surrounded herself with ladies of similar 
tastes, and is said to have spent whole nights 
in composing rondeaux. She regarded her- 
self as the pupil of Alain Chartier, whom, 
according to a well-known anecdote reported 
by Jacques Bouchet in his * Annals of Aqui- 
taine ' (p. 252, ed. 1644), she once publicly 
kissed as he lay asleep on a bench, and being 
taken to task for choosing so ugly a man, 
retorted that it was not the man she had 
kissed, but the precious mouth from which 
had proceeded so many witty and virtuous 
sayings (MICHEL, i. 187; BEAUCOUET, iv. 90). 
We catch glimpses of her sallying into the 
fields with the court from Montils-les-Tours 
on 1 May 1444 to gather May, and joining 
in the splendid festivities at Nancy and 
Chalons in 1444-5. At Chalons one even- 
ing in June of the latter year she danced the 
' basse danse de Bourgogne ' with the queen 
of Sicily and two others. But the dauphin's 
dislike and neglect, for which he was warmly 
reproached by the Duchess of Burgundy, now 
on a visit to the court, induced a melancholy, 
said to have been aggravated by the reports 
spread by Jamet de Tillay, a councillor of 



Margaret 



138 



Margaret 



the king, that she was unfaithful to Louis. 
Her health declined, she took a chill after a 
pilgrimage with the king to a neighbouring 
shrine on 7 Aug., and inflammation of the 
lungs declared itself and made rapid pro- 
gress. She repeatedly asserted her innocence 
of the conduct imputed to her by Tillay, 
whom, until almost the last moment, she re- 
fused to forgive, and was heard to murmur, 
'N'etoit ma foi, je me repentirois volontiers 
d'etre venue en France.' She died on 16 Aug. 
at ten in the evening ; her last words were, 
1 Fi de la vie de ce monde ! ne m'en parlez 
plus'(^.iv. 105-10). 

Her remains were provisionally buried in 
the cathedral of Chalons, until they could 
be removed to St. Denis, but Louis next 
year interred them in St. Laon at Thouars, 
where her tomb, adorned with monuments 
by Charles, survived until the revolution 
(MICHEL, i. 191). If the heartless Louis did 
not feel the loss of his childless wife, it was 
a heavy blow to his parents, with whom Mar- 
garet had always been a favourite. The 
shock further impaired the queen's health, 
and Charles, hearing how much Margaret had 
taken to heart the charges of Tillay, and dis- 
satisfied with the attempt of the physicians 
to trace her illness to her poetical vigils, 
ordered an inquiry to be held into the cir- 
cumstances of her death and the conduct of 
Tillay (ib.iv. 109, 111). The depositions of 
the queen, Tillay, Margaret's gentlewomen, 
and the physicians were taken partly in the 
autumn, partly in the next summer. The 
commissioners sent in their report to the king 
in council, but we hear nothing more of it. 
Tillay certainly kept his office and the fa- 
vour of the king (ib. iv. 181-2). 

A song of some beauty on the death of 
the dauphine, in which she bewails her lot, 
and makes her adieux, has been printed by 
M. Vallet de Viriville (Revue des Societes 
Savantes, 1857, iii. 713-15), who attributes 
it to her sister, Isabel, duchess of Brittany, 
and also by Michel (i. 193). A Scottish 
translation of another lament is printed by 
Stevenson (Life and Death of King James I 
of Scotland, pp. 1 7-27, Maitland Club). The 
Colbert MS. of Monstrelet contains an illu- 
mination, reproduced by Johnes, representing 
Margaret's entry into Tours in 1436. 

[Du Fresne de Beaucourt, in his elaborate 
Histoire de Charles VII, has collected almost 
all that is known about Margaret ; Francisque 
Michel's Ecossais en France is useful but inaccu- 
rate; Liber Pluscardensis in the Historians of 
Scotland; Mathieu d'Escouchy and Comines, ed. 
for the Societe de 1'Histoire de France; Pro- 
ceedings of the Privy Council, ed. Harris Nicolas.] 

J. T-T. 



MARGARET OP ANJOTJ (1430-1482), 
queen consort of Henry VI, was born on 
23 March 1430 (LECOY DE LA MARCHE, Le 
Roi Rene, i. 434). The place of her birth 
is not quite clear. It was probably Pont-a- 
Mousson or Nancy (LALLEMENT, Marguerite 
d' Anjou-Lorraine, pp. 25-7). She was the 
fourth surviving child of Ren6 of Anjou and 
his wife Isabella, daughter and heiress of 
Charles II, duke of Lorraine. Rene himself 
was the second son of Louis II, duke of Anjou 
and king of Naples, and of his wife Yolande 
of Aragon. He was thus the great-grandson 
of John the Good, king of France. His sister 
Mary was the wife of Charles VII, king of 
France, and Rene himself was a close friend 
of his brother-in-law and as strong a partisan 
as hi s weakness allowed of the royal as opposed 
to the Burgundian party. At the time of 
Margaret's birth Rene possessed nothing but 
the little county of Guise, but within three 
months he succeeded to his grand-uncle's in- 
heritance of the duchy of Bar and the mar- 
quisate of Pont-a-Mousson. A little later, 
25 Jan. 1431, the death of Margaret's ma- 
ternal grandfather, Charles II of Lorraine, 
gave him also the throne of that duchy, but 
on 2 July Ren6 was defeated and taken pri- 
soner at Bulgneville by the rival claimant, 
Antony of Vaudemont, who transferred his 
prisoner to the custody of Duke Philip of 
Burgundy at Dijon. He was not released, 
except for a time on parole, until February 
1437. But during his imprisonment Rene 
succeeded, in 1434, by the death of his elder 
brother Louis, to the duchy of Anjou and to 
the county of Provence. In February 1435 
Queen Joanna II of Naples died, leaving him 
as her heir to contest that throne with Alfonso 
of Aragon. With the at best doubtful pro- 
spects of the monarchy of Naples went the 
purely titular sovereignties of Hungary and 
Jerusalem. Rene had also inherited equally 
fantastic claims to Majorca and Minorca. 

Her father's rapid succession to estates, 
dignities, and claims gave some political 
importance even to the infancy of Margaret. 
The long captivity of Rene left Margaret 
entirely under the care of her able and 
high-spirited mother, Isabella of Lorraine, 
who now strove to govern as best she could 
the duchies of Lorraine and Bar. But after 
1435 Isabella went to Naples, where she 
exerted herself, with no small measure of 
success, to procure her husband's recognition 
as king. Margaret was thereupon transferred 
from Nancy, the ordinary home of her infancy, 
to Anjou, now governed in Rene's name by 
her grandmother, Yolande of Aragon, under 
whose charge Margaret apparently remained 
until Queen Yolande's death, on 14 Nov. 1442, 



Margaret 



139 



Margaret 



at Saumur (ib. i. 231). During these years 
Margaret mainly resided at Saumur and 
Angers. In 1437 Rene, on his release, spent 
some time in Anjou, but he speedily hurried 
off to Italy to consolidate the throne acquired 
for him by the heroism of his consort. But 
the same year that saw the death of Yolande 
witnessed the final discomfiture of the An- 
gevin cause in Italy, and Rene and Isabella, 
abandoning the struggle, returned to Pro- 
vence. For the rest of his life Rene was 
merely a titular king of Naples. On receiving 
the news of his mother's death, Rene hurried 
to Anj on, where he arrived in June 1443. For 
the next few years he remained for the most 
part resident at Anjou, generally living at 
Angers Castle with his wife and daughters. 
Anjou therefore continued Margaret's home 
until she attained the age of fourteen (cf. 
LECOY, Comptes et Memoriaux du Roi Rene, 
p. 226). 

The constant fluctuations of Rene's for- 
tunes are well indicated by the long series 
of marriages proposed for Margaret, begin- 
ning almost from her cradle. In February 
1433 Rene, then released for a time on 
parole, agreed at Bohain that Margaret 
should marry a son of the Count of Saint- 
Pol ; but the agreement came to nothing, 
and Rene was subsequently formally released 
from it. In 1435 Philip of Burgundy, Rene's 
captor, urged that Margaret should be wedded 
to his young son, the Count of Charolais, then 
a boy a year old, but afterwards famous as 
Charles the Bold. She was to bring Bar and 
Pont-a-Mousson as a marriage portion to her 
husband, and so secure the direct connection 
between the Low Countries and Burgundy, 
which was so important an object of Bur- 
gundian policy. But Rene preferred to remain 
in prison rather than give up his inheritance. 
The story that a secret article in the treaty 
which released Ren6 in 1437 stipulated that 
Margaret should marry Henry VI of England 
is, on the face of it, absurd, though accepted 
by the Count of Quatrebarbes, the editor of 
Rene's works (GEuvres du Roi Rene, I. xlii.), 
and many other modern writers (cf. LECOY, 
i. 127). But the Burgundian plan for an 
Angevin alliance was still pressed forward. 
In the summer of 1442 Philip negotiated with 
Isabella for the marriage of Margaret with his 
kinsman Charles, count of Nevers. On 4 Feb. 
1443 a marriage treaty was actually signed 
at Tarascon, but Charles VII opposed the 
match, and it was abandoned (G. Du FRESNE 
BE BEATJCOTTRT, Histoire de Charles VII, iii. 
260; see for all the above negotiations LECOY, 
Le Roi Rene, i. 104, 117, 127, 129, 231, and 
the authorities quoted by him). 

More tempting prospects for Margaret 



were now offered from another quarter. 
Since 1439 the peace party, headed by Car- 
dinal Beaufort, had gained a decided ascen- 
dency at the English court, and had sought 
to marry the young Henry VI to a French 
princess as the best way of procuring the tri- 
umph of their policy. 'But their first efforts 
were unsuccessful, and excited the suspicions 
of the French, as involving a renewal of the 
alliance between the English and the old 
feudal party in France. However, the Duke 
of Orleans, who had been released from his 
English prison to promote such a plan, now 
changed his policy. After the failure of 
the Armagnac marriage, and the refusal of 
Charles VII to give one of his daughters to 
Henry, Orleans seems to have suggested a 
marriage between Henry and Margaret of 
Anjou. The idea was warmly taken up by 
Henry himself and by the Beaufort party, 
though violently opposed by Humphrey, duke 
of Gloucester [q. v.], and the advocates of a 
spirited foreign policy. In February 1444 
William de la Pole, earl of Suffolk [q. v.], 
was sent to treat for a truce with ' our uncle of 
France.' He had further instructions to ne- 
gotiate the Angevin marriage. Charles VII 
now held his court at Tours, whither King 
Ren6 came from Angers, and gave his con- 
sent to the sacrifice of his daughter in the 
interests of the French nation and throne. 
Suffolk was welcomed on his arrival at 
Tours by Rene, and the negotiations both for 
the marriage and truce proceeded quickly 
and smoothly. Early in May Margaret, who 
had remained behind at Angers, was brought 
by Queen Isabella to meet the English am- 
bassadors. She was lodged with her father 
and mother at the abbey of Beaumont-les- 
Tours. On 22 May it was decided to con- 
clude a truce and the marriage of Margaret. 
On 24 May the solemn betrothal of Mar- 
garet and Henry was celebrated in the church 
of St. Martin. The papal legate, Peter de 
Monte, bishop of Brescia, officiated, and Suf- 
folk stood proxy for the absent bridegroom. 
The king of France took a prominent part in 
the ceremony, which was carried out with 
great pomp and stateliness. It terminated 
with a great feast at St. Julian's Abbey, 
where Margaret was treated with the respect 
due to a queen of England, and received the 
same honours as her aunt the French queen. 
Strange shows were exhibited, including 
giants with trees in their hands, and men- 
at-arms, mounted on camels, and charging 
each other with lances. A great ball termi- 
nated the festivities, and Margaret returned 
to Angers (LECOY, i. 231-3, ii. 254-7 ; VALLET 
DE VIRIVTLLE, Charles VII, ii. 40-4 ; STE- 
VENSON, Wars of English in France, n. xxxvi- 



Margaret 



140 



Margaret 



i; 



xxxviii). On 28 May the truce of Tours was 
signed, to last for nearly two years, between 
England and France and their respective 
allies, among whom King Rene was included 
(CosNEAU, Les Grands Traites de la Guerre 
de Cent Ans, pp. 152-71). 

Various difficulties put off the actual cele- 
bration of Margaret's marriage. Her father 
went to war against the city of Metz, and 
was aided by Charles VII. Financial diffi- 
culties delayed until December the despatch 
of the magnificent embassy which, with Suf- 
folk, now a marquis, at its head, was destined 
to fetch Margaret to England. Suffolk, on 
reaching Lorraine, found Rene", with his guest 
King Charles, intent upon the reduction of 
Metz. The further delay that ensued suggested 
both to contemporaries and to later writers 
that fresh difficulties had arisen. It was be- 
lieved in England that Charles and Ren6 
sought to impose fresh conditions on Suffolk, 
and that the English ambassador, apprehen- 
sive of the failure of the marriage treaty, 
was at last forced into accepting the French 
roposal that Le Mans and the other towns 
eld by the English in Maine should be sur- 
rendered to Charles, the titular count of 
Maine, and Rene's younger brother. The 
story is found in Gascoigne's ' Theological 
Dictionary' (Loci e libro Veritatum, pp. 190, 
204, 219, ed. J. E. T. Rogers) and in the 
* Chronicle ' of Berry king-at-arms (GoDE- 
FROY, Charles VII, p. 430), and has been 
generally in some form accepted by English 
writers,' including Bishop Stubbs, Mr. J. 
Gairdner, and Sir James Ramsay (Hist, of 
England, 1399-1485, ii. 62), who adduces 
some rather inconclusive evidence in support 
of it. The story seems mere gossip, and was 
perhaps based upon an article of Suffolk's im- 
peachment. There is not a scrap of evidence 
that Suffolk made even a verbal promise, and 
none that anything treacherous was contem- 
plated (DE BEATJCOURT, Hist, de Charles VII, 
iv. 167-8). Margaret, however, was carefully 
kept in the background, and may even, as has 
been suggested, have been hidden away in 
Touraine (RAMSAY, ii. 62) while Suffolk 'was 
conducting the final negotiations at Nancy. 
She only reached Nancy early in February 
(BEAUCOURT, iv. 91 ; cf. CALMET, Hist, de 
Lorraine, Preuves, vol. iii. col. ccc. pp. ii-iii). 
At the end of the same month Metz made its 
submission to the two kings, and the French 
and Angevin courts returned to Nancy to 
a series of gorgeous festivities. Early in 
March the proxy marriage was performed 
at Nancy by the bishop of Toul, Louis de 
Heraucourt. Eight days of jousts, feasts, 
balls, and revelry celebrated the auspicious 
occasion. The marriage treaty was not 



finally engrossed until after Easter, when 
the court had quitted Nancy for Chalons. 
By it Margaret took as her only marriage 
portion to her husband the shadowy rights 
which Ren6 had inherited from his mother to 
the kingdom of Majorca and Minorca, and she 
renounced all her claims to the rest of her 
father's heritage. Margaret's real present to 
her husband was peace and alliance with 
France. 

Margaret, escorted by Suffolk and a very 
numerous and brilliant following, was accom- 
panied by her uncle, Charles VII, for the first 
two leagues out of Nancy, and she took leave 
of him in tears (BERRY ROY D'ARMES, p. 426). 
Rene" himself accompanied Margaret as far as 
Bar-le-Duc, and her brother John, duke of 
Calabria, as far as Paris, which she reached on 
15 March. On the 16th she was received with 
royal state at Notre-Dame in Paris. On 
17 March the Duke of Orleans, the real author 
of the match, escorted her to the English fron- 
tier, which she entered at Poissy (MATJPOINT, 
1 Journal Parisien/ Memoires de la Societe de 
VHuttoire de Paris, iv. 32). There Richard, 
duke of York, governor of Normandy, received 
her under his care. She was conveyed by 
water down the Seine from Mantes to Rouen, 
where on 22 March a state entry into the 
Norman capital was celebrated. But Mar- 
garet did not appear in the procession, and 
the Countess of Salisbury, dressed in the 

Sieen's robes, acted her part (MATHIEU 
'ESCOUCHY, i. 89). She was perhaps ill, 
a fact which probably accounts for a delay 
of nearly a fortnight before she was able to 
cross the Channel. She sailed from Harfleur 
in the cog John of Cherbourg, arriving on 
9 April at Portsmouth, l sick of the labour 
and indisposition of the sea, by the occasion 
of which the pokkes been broken out upon 
her' (Proceedings of Privy Council, vi. xvi). 
The disease can hardly, however, have been 
small-pox, as on 14 April she was well enough 
to join the king at Southampton ( Wars of 
English in France, i. 449). On 23 April 
Bishop Ayscough of Salisbury repeated the 
marriage service at Tichfield Abbey. On 
28 May Margaret solemnly entered London 
(GREGORY, Chronicle, p. 186), passing under 
a device representing Peace and Plenty set 
up on London Bridge, and welcomed even by 
Humphrey of Gloucester, the most violent 
opponent of the French marriage. On 30 May 
she was crowned in Westminster Abbey by 
Archbishop Stafford. Three days of tourna- 
ments brought the long festivities to a close 
(WYRCESTER, p. 764). Parliament soon con- 
ferred on Margaret a jointure of 2,000/. a year 
in land and 4,666/. 13-5. d. a year in money 
(Rot. Parl. v. 118-20). 



Margaret 



141 



Margaret 



Margaret was just fifteen when she ar- 
rived in England. She was a good-looking, 
well-grown (' specie et forma prsestans,' BA- 
SIN, i. 156), and precocious girl, inheriting 
fully the virile qualities of her mother and 
grandmother, and also, as events soon showed, 
both the ability and savagery which belonged 
to nearly all the members of the younger 
house of Anjou. She was well brought up, 
and inherited something of her father's lite- 
rary tastes. She was a ' devout pilgrim to 
the shrine of Boccaccio ' (CHASTELLAIN, vii. 
100, ed. Kervyn de Lettenhove), delighting 
in her youth in romances of chivalry, and 
seeking consolation in her exile and misfor- 
tunes from the sympathetic pen of Chastellain. 
Talbot, earl of Shrewsbury, presented her 
with a gorgeously illuminated volume of 
French romances, that ' after she had learnt 
English she might not forget her mother- 
tongue ' (SHAW, Dresses, fyc., of the Middle 
Ages, ii. 49). The manuscript is now in the 
British Museum (Royal MS. 15 E. vi.) She 
was also a keen lover of the chase, constantly 
ordering that the game in her forests should 
be strictly preserved for her own use, and 
instructing a cunning trainer of hounds ' to 
make two bloodhounds for our use ' (Letters 
of Margaret of Anjou, 90, 100, 106, 141, 
Camden Soc.) The popular traditions which 
assign to her a leading part in the events of 
the first few years succeeding her marriage 
are neither likely in themselves nor verified 
by contemporary authority. She came to 
England without political experience. But 
she soon learned who were her friends, and 
identified herself with the Beaufort-Suffolk 
party, recognising in Suffolk the true nego- 
tiator of the match, and being attached both 
to him and to his wife, Chaucer's grand- 
daughter, by strong personal ties. Unluckily 
for her and for the nation, she never got 
beyond the partisan's view of her position 
(see COMINES, Memoires, ii. 280-1, ed. Du- 
pont). A stranger to the customs and in- 
terests of her adopted country, she never 
learned to play the part of a mediator, or to 
raise the crown above the fierce faction fight 
that constantly raged round Henry's court. 
In identifying her husband completely with 
the one faction, she almost forced the rival 
party into opposition to the king and to the 
dynasty, which lived only to ratify the will 
of a rival faction. Nor were Margaret's 
strong, if natural French sympathies, less in- 
jurious to herself and to her husband's cause. 

To procure the prolongation of the truce 
with France was the first object of the Eng- 
lish government after her arrival in England. 
Her first well-marked political acts were de- 
voted to this same object. A great French 



embassy sent to England in July 1445 agreed 
to a short renewal of the truce, and to a per- 
sonal meeting between Henry and Charles ; 
but immediately afterwards a second French 
embassy, to which Ren6 also gave letters of 
procuration, urged the surrender of the Eng- 
lish possessions in Maine to Rent's brother 
Charles. ' In this matter,' Margaret wrote 
to Ren6, ' we will do your pleasure as much 
as lies in our power, as we have always done 
already ' (STEVENSON, i. 164). Her entreaties 
proved successful. On 22 Dec. Henry pledged 
himself in writing to the surrender of Le Mans 
(ib. ii. 639-42). But the weakness and hesi- 
tating policy of the English government pre- 
vented the French from getting possession of 
Le Mans before 1448. 

Margaret was present at the Bury St. Ed- 
munds parliament of 1447, when Duke Hum- 
phrey came to a tragic end, but nothing is 
more gratuitous than the charge sometimes 
brought against her of having any share in 
his death ; though doubtless she rejoiced in 
getting rid of an enemy, and she showed 
some greediness in appropriating part of his 
estates on behalf of her jointure on the very 
day succeeding his decease (RAMSAY, ii. 77 ; 
F&dera, xi. 155 ; Rot. Parl. v. 133). Suf- 
folk's fall in 1449 was a great blow to her. 
She fully shared the unpopularity of the un- 
successful minister. The wildest libels were 
circulated about her. It was rumoured abroad 
that she was a bastard and no true daughter 
of the king of Sicily (MATHIETJ D'EscoiiCHY, 
i. 303-4). The literature of the next century 
suggests that Margaret had improper rela- 
tions with Suffolk ; but this is absurd. Suffolk 
was an elderly man, and his wife was very 
friendly with Margaret during his life and 
after his death. Margaret now transferred to 
Somerset the confidence which she had for- 
merly felt for Suffolk. But the loss of Nor- 
mandy, quickly followed by that of Guienne, 
soon involved Somerset in as deep an odium 
as that Suffolk had incurred. It also strongly 
affected Margaret's position. She came as 
the representative of the policy of peace with 
France, but that policy had been so badly 
carried out that England was tricked out of 
her hard-won dominions beyond sea. 

The leaders of the contending factions 
were now Richard, duke of York, who had 
popularfavour on his side, and Edmund, duke 
of Somerset, who was popularly discredited. 
Margaret's constant advocacy of Somerset's 
faction drove York to violent courses almost 
in his own despite. When in 1450 Somerset 
was thrown into prison, he was released by 
Margaret's agency, and again made chief of 
the council. When York procured his second 
imprisonment, Margaret visited him in the 



Margaret 



142 



Margaret 



Tower, and assured him of her continued 
favour (WATTRIN, Chroniques, 1447-71, pp. 
264-5). 

Margaret was now beginning to take an 
active part, not only in general policy, but 
in the details of administration. She became 
an active administrator of her own estates, a 
good friend to her servants and dependents, 
but a hearty foe to those whom she disliked. 
Her private correspondence shows her eager 
for favours, greedy and importunate in her 
requests, unscrupulous in pushing her friends' 
interests, and an unblushing ' maintainer,' 
constantly interfering with the course of 
private justice. She was an indefatigable 
match-maker, and seldom ceased meddling 
with the private affairs of the gentry (Letters 
of Margaret ofAnjou, Cam den Soc. ; KAMSAY, 
ii. 128, 141 ; Paston Letters, i. 134, 254, 305, 
ed. Gairdner). Poor and greedy, she early 
obtained an unlimited power of evading the 
customs duties and the staple regulations by 
a license to export wool and tin whithersoever 
she pleased (RAMSAY, ii. 90). 

A more pleasing sign of Margaret's activity 
at this time was her foundation of Queens' 
College, Cambridge. The real founder of this 
house was Andrew Doket [q. v.J, rector of St. 
Botolph's, Cambridge, who had obtained in 

1446 a charter for the establ ishment of a small 
college, called St. Bernard's College, of which 
he himself was to be president. But he after- 
wards enlarged his site and his plans, and in 

1447 persuaded the queen, who was probably 
anxious to imitate her husband's greater 
foundation of King's College, to interest her- 
self in the work. She petitioned her husband 
to grant a new charter, and, as no college in 
Cambridge had been founded by any queen, 
she begged that it might be called Queen's 
College, of St. Mary and St. Bernard. The 
prayer was granted, and in 1448 a new charter 
of foundation was issued. The whole of the 
endowment, however, seems to have been 
contributed by Doket. On 15 April 1448 her 
chamberlain, Sir J. Wenlock, laid the first 
stone of the chapel, which was opened for 
worship in 1464 (SEARLE, History of Queens' 
College, Cambridge, Cambridge Antiquarian 
Soc. 8vo ser. No. ix. ; WILLIS and CLARK, 
Architectural History of Cambridge). After 
Margaret's fall the college fell into great diffi- 
culties, but Doket finally persuaded Elizabeth 
Wydville, the queen of Edward IV, to re- 
found the house. The course of events gave 
Margaret a new importance. In August 1453 
Henry VI fell into a condition of complete 
prostration and insanity. On 13 Oct. Mar- 
garet gave birth to her only son, after more 
than eight years of barrenness. The king's 
illness put an end to the old state of confusion, 



during which Margaret and Somerset had tried 
to rule through his name. A regency was now 
necessary. Fp this position Margaret her- 
self was a claimant. In January 1454 it was 
known that ' the queen hath made a bill of 
five articles, whereof the first is that she de- 
sireth to have the whole rule of this land ' 
(ib. i. 265). But public feeling was strongly 
against her. 

Moreover, it is right a great abusion 
A woman of a land to be a regent. 

(Pol. Poems, ii. 268, Rolls Ser.) 

On 27 March parliament appointed York pro- 
tector of the realm, and the personal rivalry 
between York and Margaret was intensified. 
The birth of her son had deprived him of any 
hopes of a peaceful succession to the throne 
on Henry's death, while it inspired her with 
a new and fiercer zeal on behalf of her family 
interests. Henceforth she stood forward as 
the great champion of her husband's cause. 
The Yorkists did not hesitate to impute to 
her the foulest vices. At home and abroad it 
was believed that the young Prince Edward 
was no son of King Henry's (Chron. Davies, 
pp. 79, 92 ; BASIN, i. 299 ; CHASTELLAIN, v. 
464). 

The recovery of Henry VI in January 
1455 put an end to York's protectorate. 
Somerset was released from the Tower, and 
Margaret again made a great effort to crush 
her rival. York accordingly took arms. His 
victory at St. Albans was marked by the 
death of Somerset, and soon followed by a 
return of the king's malady. York was now 
again protector, but early in 1456 Henry 
was again restored to health, and, anxious 
for peace and reconciliation, proposed to con- 
tinue York as his chief councillor. But 
Margaret strongly opposed this weakness. 
' The queen/ wrote one of the Paston cor- 
respondents, * is a great and strong laboured 
woman, for she spareth no pain to sue her 
things to an intent and conclusion to her 
power' (Paston Letters, i. 378). She ob- 
tained her way in putting an end to the 
protectorship, but she did not succeed in driv- 
ing York and his friends from the administra- 
tion. Profoundly disgusted at her husband's 
compliance, she withdrew from London, 
leaving Henry in York's hands. She kept 
herself with her son at a distance from her 
husband, spending part of April and May, 
for example, at Tutbury (ib. i. 386-7). At 
the end of May she visited her son Edward's 
earldom of Chester (ib. i. 392). She no doubt 
busied herself with preparations for a new 
attack on York. In August she was joined 
by Henry in the midlands, and both spent 
most of October at Coventry, where a great 



Margaret 



143 



Margaret 



council was held, in which Margaret pro- 
cured the removal of the Bourchiers from 
the ministry, but failed to openly assail their 
patron, the duke. A hollow reconciliation 
was patched up, and York left Coventry ' in 
right good conceit with the king, but not in 
great conceit with the queen ' (ib. i. 408). . 
Next year he was sent out of the way as | 
lieutenant of Ireland. Margaret remained ' 
mainly in the midlands, fearing, plainly, to 
approach the Yorkist city of London. To 
combine the Scots with the Lancastrians she 
urged the marriage of the young Duke of 
Somerset and his brother to two daughters 
of the King of Scots (MATHIEU D'EscouciiY, 
ii. 352-4). 

In 1458 there was a great reconciliation 
of parties. On 25 March the Duke of York 
led the queen to a service of thanksgiving at 
St. Paul's. But Margaret at once renewed 
her intrigues. After seeking in vain to drive 
Warwick from the governorship of Calais, 
she again withdrew from the capital. She 
sought to stir up the turbulent and daring 
Cheshire men to espouse her cause with the 
same fierce zeal with which their grand- 
fathers had fought for Richard II (Chron. 
Davies, p. 79). In the summer of 1459 both 
parties were again in arms. Henry's march 
on Ludlow was followed by the dispersal of 
the Yorkists. In November the Coventry 
parliament gratified the queen's vindictive- 
ness by the wholesale proscription of the 
Yorkist leaders. By ordering that the re- 
venues of Cornwall should be paid hence- 
forth directly to the prince, it practically in- 
creased the funds which were at Margaret's 
unfettered disposal (RAMSAY, ii. 219; Rot. 
ParL v. 356-62). Now, if not earlier, Mar- 
garet made a close alliance with her old 
friend Breze, the seneschal of Normandy, the 
communications being carried on through a 
confidential agent named Doucereau. ' If 
those with her,' wrote Breze to Charles VII 
in January 1461, 'knew of her intention, and 
what she has done, they would j oin themselves 
with the other party and put her to death ' 
(Letter of Brez6 quoted in BASIN, iv. 358-60, 
ed. Quicherat ; cf. BEATJCOURT, vi. 288). There 
could be no more damning proof of her trea- 
sonable connection with the foreigner. 

In 1460 the pendulum swung round. The 
Yorkist invasion of Kent was followed by the 
battle of Northampton, the captivity of the 
king, the Duke of York's claim to the crown, 
and the compromise devised by the lords 
that Henry should reign for life, while York 
was recognised as his successor. York, now 
proclaimed protector, ruled in Henry's name. 
The king's weak abandonment of his son's 
rights seemed in a way to justify the scur- 



rilous Yorkist ballads that Edward was a 
'false heir/ born of ( false wedlock' (Chron. 
Davies, pp. 91-4 ; cf. CHASTELLAIN, v. 464; 
BASIN, i. 299). 

Margaret had not shared her husband's 
captivity. In June Henry had taken an 
affectionate farewell of her at Coventry, and 
had sent her with the prince to Eccleshall in 
Staffordshire, while he marched forth to de- 
feat and captivity at Northampton. On the 
news of the fatal battle, Margaret fled with 
Edward from Eccleshall into Cheshire. But 
her hopes of raising an army there were 
signally disappointed. Near Malpas she was 
almost captured by John Cleger, a servant of 
Lord Stanley's. Her own followers robbed 
her of her goods and jewels (WYRCESTEE, p. 
773). At last a boy of fourteen, John Combe 
of Amesbury (GREGORY, p. 209), took Mar- 
garet and Edward away from danger, all three 
riding away on the same horse while the 
thieves were quarrelling over their booty. 
After a long journey over the moors and 
mountains of Wales, the queen and the 
prince at last found a safe refuge within the 
walls of Harlech Castle. There is no sufficient 
evidence to warrant Sir James Ramsay (ii. 
236) in placing here the well-known incident 
of the robber. The only authority for the 
story, Chastellam, distinctly assigns it to a 
later date. 

The king's half-brothers upheld his cause 
in Wales. On the capture of Denbigh by 
Jasper Tudor, Margaret made her way 
thither, where she was joined by the Duke 
of Exeter and other leaders of her party. 
She was of no mind to accept the surrender 
of her son's rights, and strove to continue 
the war. The Lancastrian lords took up 
arms in the north. Margaret and Edward 
took ship from Wales to Scotland. She was 
so poor that she was dependent for her ex- 
penses on the Scottish government. James II 
was just slain, but the regent, Mary of 
Gelderland, treated her kindly and enter- 
tained her in January 1461 for ten or twelve 
days at Lincluden Abbey. She offered to 
marry Edward, now seven years old, to 
Mary, sister of James III, in return for 
Scottish help. But Mary of Gelderland 
also insisted on the surrender of Berwick. 
Margaret, with her usual contemptuous and 
ignorant disregard of English feeling, did 
not hesitate to make the sacrifice. On 5 Jan. 
a formal treaty was signed (BASIN, iv. 357- 
358). She also resumed her old compromising 
dealings with the faithful Breze (ib. iv. 358- 
360). She thus obtained a Scots contingent, 
or the prospect of one ; but her relations with 
the national enemies made her prospects in 
England almost hopeless. 



Margaret 



144 



Margaret 



Meanwhile the battle of Wakefield had 
been won, and York slain on the field. As 
Margaret was in Scotland, the stories of 
her inhuman treatment of York's remains, 
told by later writers, are obvious fictions. 
So much was she identified with her party 
that even well-informed foreign writers like 
Waurin believe her to have been present in 
the field (Chroniques, 1447-71, p. 325). It 
was not until some time after the battle 
that the news of the victory encouraged 
Margaret to join her victorious partisans. 
On 20 Jan. 1461 she was at York, where 
her first care was to pledge the Lancastrian 
lords to use their influence upon Henry to 
persuade him to accept the dishonourable 
convention of Lincluden (BASIN, iv. 357-8). 
The march to London was then begun. A 
motley crew of Scots, Welsh, and wild north- 
erners followed the queen to the south. Every 
step of their progress was marked with plunder 
and devastation. It was believed that Mar- 
garet had promised to give up to her northern 
allies the whole of the south country as their 
spoil. An enthusiastic army of Londoners 
marched out under Warwick to withstand her 
progress. King Henry accompanied the army. 
On 17 Feb. the second battle of St. Albans was 
fought. Warwick's blundering tactics gave 
the northerners an easy victory. The king 
was left behind in the confusion, and taken 
to Lord Clifford's tent, where Margaret and 
Edward met him. Margaret brutally made 
the little prince president of the court which 
condemned to immediate execution Bonville 
and Sir Thomas Kyriel. ' Fair son,' she said, 
' what death shall these two knights die ? ' 
and the prince replied that their heads should 
be cut off (WATJRIN, p. 330). But the wild 
host of the victors was so little under con- 
trol that even Margaret, with all her reck- 
lessness, hesitated as to letting it loose on 
the wealth of the capital. She lost her best 
chance of ultimate success when, after tarry- 
ing eight days at St. Albans, she returned 
to Dunstable, whence she again marched 
her army to the north (WYRCESTEK, p. 776). 
This false move allowed of the junction of 
Warwick with Edward, the new duke of 
York, fresh from his victory at Mortimer's 
Cross. On 4 March 1461 the Duke of York 
assumed the English throne as Edward IV, 
thus ignoring the compromise which the 
Lancastrians themselves had broken, and 
basing his claim upon his legitimist royalist 
descent. Margaret was now forced to re- 
treat back into Yorkshire, closely followed 
by the new king. She was with her hus- 
band at York during the decisive day of 
Towton, after which she retreated with 
Henry to Scotland, surrendering Berwick to 



avoid its falling into Yorkist hands. This 
act of treason and the misconduct of her 
troops figure among the reasons of her at- 
tainder by the first parliament of Edward IV, 
which describes her as ' Margaret, late called 
queen of England ' (Rot. Parl. v. 476, 479). 
In Scotland Margaret was entertained first 
at Linlithgow and afterwards at the Black 
Friars Convent at Edinburgh. She found the 
Scots kingdom still distracted by factions. 
Mary of Gelderland, the regent, was not 
unfriendly, but she was a niece of the Duke 
of Burgundy, who was anxious to keep on 
good terms with Edward IV, and sent the 
lord of Gruthuse, a powerful Flemish baron, 
to persuade Mary to abandon the alliance. 
But Bishop Kennedy of St. Andrews was 
sent back to Scotland by Charles VII to 
keep the party of the French interests in de- 
votion to Lancaster, while Edward himself 
incited the highlanders against his enemies in 
the south. Margaret meanwhile concluded an 
indenture with the powerful Earl of Angus, 
who was to receive an English dukedom and 
a great estate in return for his assistance. 
' I heard,' wrote one of the Paston corre- 
spondents, 'that these appointments were 
taken by the young lords of Scotland, but 
not by the old ' (Paston Letters, ii. 111). 

Margaret's main reliance was still on 
France, whither she despatched Somerset to 
seek for assistance. But Charles VII was 
now dead, and his son, Louis XI, was hardly 
yet in a position to give free rein to his desire 
to help his cousin (ib. ii. 45-6). Nothing, 
therefore, of moment occurred, and Margaret, 
impatient of delay, left her husband in Scot- 
land, and, embarking at Kirkcudbright, ar- 
rived in Brittany on 16 April 1462. She had 
pawned her plate in Scotland, and was now 
forced to borrow from the Queen of Scots 
the money to pay for her journey. She was 
well received by the Duke of Brittany, and 
then passed on through Anjou and Touraine. 
Her father borrowed eight thousand florins to 
meet ' the great and sumptuous expenses of 
her coming' (LECOY, i. 345; cf. WYRCESTER, 
p. 780), and urged her claims on Louis. 
Margaret herself had interviews with Louis 
at Chinon, Tours, and Rouen. In June 1462 
Margaret made a formal treaty with him by 
which she received twenty thousand francs 
in return for a conditional mortgage of Calais 
(LECor, i. 343). There was a rumour in Eng- 
land that Margaret was at Boulogne ' with 
much silver to pay the soldiers/ and that 
the Calais garrison was wavering in its alle- 
giance to Edward (Paston Letters, ii. 118). 
Louis raised ' ban and arriere ban.' There 
was much talk of a siege of Calais, and Ed- 
ward IV accused Margaret of a plot to make 



Margaret 



Margaret 



her uncle Charles of Maine ruler of England 
(HALLIWELL, Letters of Kings of England, i. 
127). But the French king contented him- 
self with much less decisive measures. He, 
however, consented to despatch a small force, 
variously estimated as between eight hundred 
and two thousand men, to assist Margaret in 
a new attack on England. He appointed as 
leader of these troops her old friend Breze, 
now in disgrace at court. 

Early in the autumn Margaret and Breze 
left Normandy, and, escaping the Yorkist 
cruisers, reached Scotland in safety. They 
were there joined by King Henry, and late 
in October invaded Northumberland, where 
they captured Bamburgh, Dunstanburgh, 
and Alnwick. But no English Lancastrians 
rose in favour of the king, who sought to 
regain his kingdom with the help of the 
hereditary enemy. A violent tempest de- 
stroyed their ships, the crews were captured 
by the Yorkists, and Margaret and Brez6 
escaped with difficulty in an open boat to the 
safe refuge of Berwick, now in Scottish hands. 
On their retreat Somerset made terms with the 
Yorkists and surrendered the captured castles. 

In 1463 the three border castles were re- 
conquered by the Lancastrians, or rather by 
the Scots and French fighting in their name. 
Margaret again appeared in Northumber- 
land, but she was reduced to the uttermost 
straits. For five days she, with her son and 
husband, had to live on herrings and no bread, 
and one day at mass, not having a farthing 
for the offertory, she was forced to borrow a 
small sum from a Scottish archer (CHASTEL- 
LAIN, iv. 300). One day, when hiding in 
the woods with her son, she was accosted by 
a robber, ' hideous and horrible to see.' But 
she threw herself on the outlaw's generosity, 
and begged him to save the son of his king. 
The brigand respected her rank and mis- 
fortunes, and allowed her to escape to a 
place of safety. Such incidents proved the 
uselessness of further resistance, and Mar- 
garet sailed from Bamburgh with Breze and 
about two hundred followers. Next year the 
last hopes of Lancaster were destroyed at 
Hedgeley Moor and Hexham. But there is no 
authority for the common belief that Margaret 
remained behind in Britain until after those 
battles, or that, as Bishop Stubbs represents, 
she returned to Scotland again before those 
battles were fought (see Mr. Plummer's note 
on FORTESCTJE, Governance of England,^. 63). 
In August 1463 Margaret and her woebegone 
following landed at Sluys. Margaret had only 
seven women attendants, who had not a change 
of raiment between them. All depended on 
Brez6 for their daily bread. The queen at once 
journeyed to Bruges, where Charles, count of 

VOL. xxxvi. 



Charolais, mindful that his mother was a 
granddaughter of John of Gaunt, received 
the Lancastrian exiles with great hospitality 
and kindness (WYRCESTER, p. 781). But his 
father, Duke Philip, was much embarrassed 
by her presence. He yielded at length to her 
urgency, and granted a personal interview. 
Margaret drove from Bruges to Saint-Pol in a 
common country cart, covered with a canvas 
tilt, l like a poor lady travelling incognita.' As 
she passed Bethune she was exposed to some 
risk of capture by the English garrison at 
Calais. She reached Saint-Pol on 31 Aug., 
and was allowed to see the duke. Philip 
listened sympathetically to her tale of woe, 
but withdrew the next day, contenting him- 
self with a present of two thousand crowns. 
His sister, the Duchess of Bourbon, remained 
behind, and heard from Margaret the highly 
coloured tale of her adventures, which, with 
further literary embellishments, finally found 
its way into the ' Chronicle ' of Chastellain 
((Euvres, iv. 278-314, 332). Margaret then 
returned to Bruges, where Charolais again 
treated her with elaborate and considerate 
courtesy. But there was no object in her re- 
maining longer in Flanders, and Philip urged 
on her departure by offering an honourable 
escort to attend her to her father's dominions. 
Thither Margaret now went, and took up 
her quarters at Saint-Michel-en-Barrois. 
Louis XI, so far from helping her, threw the 
whole of her support on her impoverished 
father, who gave her a pension of six thousand 
crowns a year. She lived obscurely at Saint- 
Michel for the next seven years, mainly oc- 
cupied in bringing up her son, for whom Sir 
John Fortescue (1394 P-1476 ?) [q. v.], who 
had accompanied her flight, wrote his well- 
known book ' De Laudibus Legum Anglise.' 
' We be all in great poverty,' wrote Fortescue, 
' but yet the queen sustaineth us in meat 
and drink. Her Highness may do no more 
to us than she doth ' (PLTJMMER, p. 64). A 
constant but feeble agitation was kept up. 
Fortescue was several times sent to Paris, 
and great efforts were made to enlist the Lan- 
castrian sympathies of the king of Portugal, 
the emperor Frederick III, and Charles of 
Charolais (ib. p. 65 : CLERMONT, Family of 
Fortescue, pp. 69-79). 

After 1467 Margaret's hopes rose. Though 
her old friend Charolais, now Duke of Bur- 
gundy, went over to the Yorkists, Louis be- 
came more friendly and better able to help 
her. In 1468 she sent Jasper Tudor to raise 
a revolt in Wales. In 1469 she collected 
troops and waited at Harfleur, hoping to in- 
vade England (WYRCESTER, p. 792). In the 
spring of 1470 Warwick quarrelled finally 
with Edward IV and fled to France. He 



Margaret 



146 



Margaret 



besought the help of Louis XI, who wished 
to bring about a reconciliation between him 
and Margaret with the object of combining 
the various elements of the opposition to 
Edward IV. There were grave difficulties 
in the way. Warwick had spread abroad 
the foulest accusations against Margaret, 
had publicly denounced her son as a bastard 
(CHASTELLAIN, v. 464 ; BASIN, i. 299), and 
the queen's pride rendered an accommodation 
difficult. At last Warwick made an uncon- 
ditional submission, and humbly besought 
Margaret's pardon for his past offences. He 
went to Angers, where Margaret then was, 
and remained there from 15 July to 4 Aug. 
Louis XI was there at the same time on a 
visit to King Rene. Louis and Ren6 urged 
Margaret very strongly to pardon Warwick, 
and at last she consented to do so. More- 
over, she was also persuaded to conclude a 
treaty of marriage between her son and War- 
wick's daughter, Anne Neville. All parties 
swore on the relic of the true cross preserved 
at St. Mary's Church at Angers to remain 
faithful for the future to Henry VI (ELLIS, 
Original Letters, 2nd ser. i. 134). Soon 
after Warwick sailed to England. In Sep- 
tember Henry VI was released from the 
Tower and restored to the throne. But 
Edward IV soon returned to England, and 
on Easter day, 14 April 1471, his victory at 
Barnet resulted in the death of Warwick and 
the final captivity of Henry. 

Margaret had delayed long in France. In 
November she was with Louis at Amboise. 
Thence she went with her son to Paris. In 
February 1471 Henry urged that his wife and 
son should join him without delay (Feeder a, 
xi. 193). But it was not until 24 March that 
Margaret and Edward took ship at Har- 
fleur, along with the Countess of Warwick 
and some other Lancastrian leaders. But con- 
trary winds long made it impossible for her 
to cross the Channel (WATJEIN, p. 664). ' At 
divers times they took the sea and forsook it 
again ' (Restoration of Edward IV, Camden 
Soc., p. 22). It was not until 13 April that 
a change of the weather enabled her to sail 
finally away. Next day she landed at Wey- 
mouth. It was the same Easter Sunday on 
which the cause of Lancaster was finally 
overthrown at Barnet. Next day she went 
to Cerne Abbey, where she was joined by the 
Duke of Somerset and the Earl of Devonshire. 
The tidings of Warwick's defeat were now 
known, whereat Margaret was f right heavy 
and sore.' However, she was well received by 
the country-people. A general rising folio wed 
in the west; Somerset, Dorset, Wiltshire, 
Cornwall, and Devonshire all contributed 
their quota to swell Margaret's little force. 



Margaret, who had advanced to Exeter, re- 
ceived there a large contingent from Devon- 
shire and Cornwall. She then marched north- 
eastwards, through Glastonbury to Bath. Her 
object was either to cross the Severn and join 
Jasper Tudor in Wales, or to march north- 
wards to her partisans in Cheshire and Lan- 
cashire, but she sent outposts far to the east, 
hoping to make Edward believe that her real 
object was to advance to London. Edward 
was too good a general to be deceived, and 
on 29 April, the day of Margaret's arrival 
at Bath, he had reached Cirencester to block 
her northward route. Margaret, on hearing 
this, retreated from Bath to Bristol. She 
then marched up the Severn valley, through 
Berkeley and Gloucester, while Edward fol- 
lowed her on a parallel course along the Cots- 
wolds. On the morning of 3 May Margaret's 
army, which had marched all night, reached 
Gloucester. But the town was obstinately 
closed against the Lancastrian forces, and 
they could not therefore use the Severn bridge, 
which would have enabled them to escape to 
Wales. The soldiers were now quite tired 
out, but they struggled on another ten miles 
to Tewkesbury, where at length, with their 
backs oil the town and abbey, and retreat 
cut off by the Severn and the Avon and the 
Swilgate brook, they turned to defend them- 
selves as best they could from the approach- 
ing army of King Edward. They held the 
ridge of a hill f in a marvellous strong ground 
full difficult to be assailed.' But the strength 
of the position did not check the rapid advance 
of the stronger force and the better general. 
On 4 May Edward won the battle of Tewkes- 
bury, and Margaret's son was slain on the field 
(see Restorationof Edward IV, Camden Soc. ; 
cf. the account in COMINES, Memoires, ed. 
Dupont, Preuves to vol. iii., from a Ghent 
manuscript.) 

Margaret was not present on the battle- 
field, having retired with her ladies to a 
' poor religious place ' on the road between 
Tewkesbury and Worcester, which cannot 
be, as some have suggested, Deerhurst. There 
she was found three days later and taken 
prisoner. She was brought to Edward IV 
at Coventry. On 21 May she was drawn 
through London streets on a carriage before 
her triumphant rival (Cont. Croyland,^. 555). 
Three days later her husband was murdered 
in the Tower. Margaret remained in restraint 
for the next five years. Edward IV gave it 
out that she was living in proper state and 
dignity, and that she preferred to remain 
thus in England to returning to France 
(BASIN, ii. 270). Yorkist writers speak of 
Edward's compassionate and honourable 
treatment of her; how he assigned her a 



Margaret 



147 



Margaret 



household of fifteen noble persons to serve 
her in the house of Lady Audley in London, 
where she had her dwelling (WAURLNT,p.674). 
She was, however, moved about from one 
place to another, being transferred from 
London to Windsor, and thence to Walling- 
ford, where she had as her keeper her old 
friend the Dowager Duchess of Suffolk, who 
lived not far off, at Ewelme (Paston Letters, 
iii. 33). The alliance between Louis XI and 
Edward IV, established by the treaty of 
Picquigny, led to her release. On 2 Oct. 
1475 Louis stipulated for her liberation in 
return for a ransom of fifty thousand gold 
crowns and a renunciation of all her rights 
on the English throne (CHAMPOLLIOX-FIGEAC, 
Lett-res de Rois, fyc. ii. 493-4 in Documents 
Inedits]. Margaret was conveyed over the 
Channel to Dieppe, and thence to Rouen, 
where, on 29 Jan. 1476, she was transferred 
to the French authorities. 

Margaret's active career was now over. 
Her father Rene had retired since 1470 to 
his county of Provence. In his will, made 
in 1474, he had provided for Margaret a 
legacy of a thousand crowns of gold, and, if 
she returned to France, an annuity of two 
thousand livres tournois, chargeable on the 
duchy of Bar, and the castle of Koaurs for 
her dwelling (LECor, i. 392 ; CALMET, Hist, 
de Lorraine, Preuves, iii. dclxxix). But 
Louis XI, angry at Rene's attempt to per- 
petuate the power of the house of Anjou, 
had taken Bar and Anjou into his own 
hands ; so that Margaret on her arrival found 
herself dependent on the goodwill of her 
cousin. Louis conferred upon her a pension, 
but in return for this, and for the sum paid 
for her ransom, she had to make a full sur- 
render of all her rights of succession to the 
dominions of her father and mother. The 
convention is printed by Lecoy (Le Roi 
Rene, ii. 356-8). It was renewed in 1479 
and 1480. 

Margaret's father died in 1481, but it is 
probable that she never saw him after her 
return, as he lived entirely in Provence 
with his young wife, and cared for little but 
his immediate pleasures and interests. Her 
sister Yolande she quarrelled with, having 
at the instigation of Louis XI brought a 
suit against her for the succession to their 
mother's estates. This deprived her of the 
asylum in the Barrois which her father had 
appointed. She therefore left Louppi, where 
she had previously lived (CALMET, iii. xxv, 
Preuves), and retired to her old haunts in 
Anjou, which after 1476 was again nominally 
ruled by her father. She dwelt first at the 
manor of Reculee, and later at the castle of 
Dampierre, near Saumur. There she lived 



in extreme poverty and isolation. She occu- 
pied herself by reading the touching treatise, 
composed at her request by Chastellain, which 
speaks of the misfortunes of the contem- 
porary princes and nobles of her house and 
race and countries (' Le Temple de Boccace, 
remonstrances par maniere de consolation a 
une de"sole"e reine d'Angleterre,' printed in 
CHASTELLAIN, vii. 75-143, ed. Kervyn ; it 
includes a long imaginary dialogue between 
Margaret and Boccaccio). But her health soon 
gave way. On 2 Aug. 1482 she drew up her 
short and touching testament (printed by 
LECOY, ii. 395-7), in which, ' sane of under- 
standing, but weak and infirm of body,' she 
surrenders all her rights and property to her 
only protector, King Louis. If the king 
pleases, she desires to be buried in the cathe- 
dral of St. Maurice at Angers, by the side of 
her father and mother. ' Moreover my wish 
is, if it please the said lord king, that the 
small amount of property which God and 
he have given to me be employed in bury- 
ing me and in paying my debts, and in case 
that my goods are not sufficient for this, as 
I believe will be the case, I beg the said 
lord king of his favour to pay them for me, 
for in him is my sole hope and trust.' She 
died soon afterwards, on 25 Aug. 1482. 
Louis granted her request, and buried her 
with her ancestors in Angers Cathedral, 
where her tomb was destroyed during the 
Revolution. The attainder on her was re- 
versed in 1485 by the first parliament of 
Henry VII (Rot. Par I. vi. 288). 

Among the commemorations of Margaret in 
literature may be mentioned Michael Dray- 
ton's ' Miseries of Queen Margaret ' and the 
same writer's epistles between her and Suffolk 
in ' England's Heroical Epistles' (Spenser 
Soc. No. 46). Shakespeare is probably little 
responsible for the well-known portrait of 
Margaret in 'King Henry VI.' Margaret 
was also the heroine of an opera, composed 
about 1820 by Meyerbeer. 

A list of portraits assumed to represent 
Margaret is given by Vallet de Viriville in 
the ' Nouvelle Biographie Generale,' xxxiii. 
593. These include a representation of her 
on tapestry at Coventry, figured by Shaw, 
' Dresses and Decorations of the Middle 
Ages,' ii. 47, which depicts her as 'a tall 
stately woman, with somewhat of a mascu- 
line face.' But there is no reason for believ- 
ing that this is anything but a conventional 
representation. The picture belonging to 
the Duke of Sutherland and supposed to re- 
present Margaret's marriage to Henry (Cata- 
logue of National Portrait Exhibition, 1866, 
p. 4) is equally suspected. The figure which 
"Walpole thought represented Margaret is 

L2 



Margaret 



148 



Margaret 



engraved in Mrs. Ilookliam's l Life,' vol. ii. 
Two other engravings by Elstracke and 
Faber respectively are known. 

[The biographies of Margaret are numerous. 
They include: (1) Michel Baudier's History of 
the Calamities of Margaret of Anjou, London, 
1737 ; a mere romance, ' fecond en harangues et 
en reflexions,' and translated from aFrench manu- 
scriptthat had never been printed. (2) The Abbe 
Prevost's Histoire de Marguerite d' Anjou, 2 vols., 
Amsterdam, 1750, a work of imagination by the 
author of Manon Lescaut. (3) Louis Lalle- 
ment's Marguerite d'Anjou-Lorraine, Nancy, 
1855. (4) J. J. Koy's Histoire de Marguerite 
d' Anjou, Tours, 1857. (5) Miss Strickland's 
Life in Queens of England, i. 534-640 (6-vol. 
ed.) ; one of the weakest of the series, and very 
uncritical. (6) Mrs. Hookham's Life of Mar- 
garet of Anjou, 2 vols., 1872; an elaborate com- 
pilation that, though containing many facts, is 
of no very great value, being mostly derived from 
modern sources, used without discrimination. 
(7) Vallet de Viriville's Memoir in theNouvelle 
Biographic Generate, xxxiii. 585-94 ; short but 
useful, though of unequal value, and giving 
elaborate but not always very precise references 
to printed and manuscript authorities. Better 
modern versions than in the professed biogra- 
phers can be collected from Lecoy de la Marche's 
Le Koi Rene ; G-. Du Fresne de Beaucourt's His- 
toire de Charles VII ; Sir James Ramsay's His- 
tory of England, 1399-1 485 ; Stubbs's Const. Hist, 
vol. Hi.; Pauli'sEnglische Geschichte, vol.v. ; Mr. 
Gairdner's Introductions to the Paston Letters ; 
and Mr. Plummer's Introduction to his edition of 
Fortescue's Governance of England. Among con- 
temporary authorities the English chronicles 
are extremely meagre, and little illustrate the 
character, policy, and motives of Margaret. They 
are enumerated in the article on HENRY VI. 
The foreign chronicles are very full and cir- 
cumstantial, though their partisanship, igno- 
rance, and love of picturesque effect make extreme 
caution necessary in using them. It is, however, 
from them only that Margaret's biography can 
for the most part be drawn. Of the above, 
Chastellain, ed. Kervyn de Lettenhove, is the 
most important; but Mathieu d'Escouchy, Basin, 
Philippe de Comines, and Waurin also contain 
much that is valuable. They are all quoted from 
the editions of the Societ6 de 1'Histoire de 
France, except Waurin, who is referred to in the 
recently completed Rolls Series edition. The 
most important collections of documents are: 
Rymer's Foedera, vols. x-xii.; Nicolas's Proceed- 
ings and Ordinances of the Privy Council, vols. 
iii-vi.; the Rolls of Parliament, vols. v. and vi.; 
Stevenson's Wars of the English in France (Rolls 
Series) ; the Paston Letters, ed. Gairdner. Other 
and less general authorities are quoted in the 
text. A large number of letters of Margaret of 
Anjou, covering the ten years that followed her 
marriage, have been published by Mr. C. Monro 
for the Camden Society, 1863, but are of no great 
value.] T. F. T. 



MARGARET OP DENMARK (1457?- 
1486), queen of James III of Scotland, was 
the eldest daughter of Christian I of Denmark, 
Norway, and Sweden, by Dorothea, princess 
of Brandenburg, and widow of Christof III. 
The marriage contract was signed 8 Sept. 

1468, her father granting her a dowry of 
sixty thousand florins Rhenish ; ten thousand 
florins were to be paid before the princess 
left Copenhagen, and the islands of Orkney, 
which then belonged to Denmark, were to 
be pledged for the remainder. James III by 
the same contract undertook to secure his 
consort the palace of Linlithgow and the 
castle of Doune as jointure lands, and to settle 
on her a third of the royal revenues in case 
of her survival. As the king of Denmark 
was only able to raise two thousand of the 
stipulated ten thousand florins before she 
left Copenhagen, he had to pledge the Shet- 
lands for the remainder ; and being also un- 
able to advance any more of the stipulated 
dowry, both the Orkney and Shetland groups 
ultimately became the possession of the Scot- 
tish crown. The marriage took place in July 

1469, the princess being then only about 
thirteen years of age (Record of her Maundy 
Alms, A.D. 1474, when she was in her seven- 
teenth year, in Accounts of the Lord High 
Treasurer , p. 71). In the summer of the fol- 
lowing year she journeyed with the king as 
far north as Inverness. After the birth of an 
heir to the throne in 1472, she made a pilgrim- 
age to the shrine of St. Ninian at Witherne 
in Galloway (ib. pp. 29, 44 ; Exchequer Rolls, 
viii. 213, 239). She died at Stirling on 14 July 

1486 (Observance of day of obit, Accounts of 
the Lord High Treasurer, pp. 89, 345), and 
was buried in Cambuskenneth Abbey. In 

1487 Pope InnocentVIII appointed a commis- 
sion to inquire into her virtues and miracles, 
with a view to her canonisation. 

[Exchequer Rolls of Scotland, vols. vii. and 
viii. ; Accounts of the Lord High Treasurer ; His- 
tories of Leslie, Lindsay, and Buchanan; see art. 
JAMES III OF SCOTLAND.] T. F. H. 

MARGARET, DUCHESS OF BUKGUNDY 
(1446-1503), was the third daughter of 
Richard, duke of York, by Cecily Nevill, 
daughter of Ralph, first earl of Westmorland. 
Edward IV was her brother. She was born 
at Fotheringay Castle in Northamptonshire 
on Tuesday, 3 May 1446. She was over four- 
teen when her father was killed at Wakefield, 
and nearly fifteen when her brother Edward 
was proclaimed king. On 30 March 1465 Ed- 
ward granted her an annuity of four hundred 
marks out of the exchequer, which being in 
arrear in the following November a warrant 
was issued for its full payment (RTMEE, 1st 



Margaret 



i 49 



Margaret 



ed. xi. 540, 551). Two years later (24 Aug. 
1467) the amount of it was increased to 
400*. (Pat. 7, Edw. IV, pt. ii. m. 16). On 
22 March 1466 the Earl of Warwick, Lord 
Hastings, and others were commissioned to 
negotiate a marriage for her with Charles, 
count of Charolais, eldest son of Philip, duke 
of Burgundy. The proposal hung for some 
time in the balance, and Louis XI tried to 
thwart it by offering her as a husband Phili- 
bert, prince of Savoy. A curious bargain 
made by Sir John Paston for the purchase of 
a horse on 1 May 1467 fixes the price at 4/., 
to be paid on the day of the marriage if it 
should take place within two years ; other- 
wise the price was to be only 21. That same 
year Charles became Duke of Burgundy by the 
death of his father, and the suspended nego- 
tiations for the marriage were renewed, a 
great embassy being commissioned to go over 
to conclude it in September (RYMEK, 1st ed. 
xi. 590). On 1 Oct., probably before the 
embassy had left, Margaret herself declared 
her formal agreement to the match in a great 
council held at Kingston-upon-Thames. A 
further embassy was sent over to Flanders in 
January 1468, both for the marriage and for 
a commercial treaty (ib. xi. 601), and on 
17 May the alliance was formally announced 
to parliament by the lord chancellor, when a 
subsidy was asked for a war against France 
(Rolls of Parl. v. 622). 

On 18 June Margaret set out for Flanders. 
She was then staying at the King's Ward- 
robe in the city of London, from which she 
first went to St. Paul's and made an offering; 
then, with the Earl of Warwick before her 
on the same horse, she rode through Cheap- 
side, where the may or and aldermen presented 
her with a pair of rich basins and 100/. in 
gold. That night she lodged at Stratford 
Abbey, where the king and queen also stayed. 
She then made a pilgrimage to St. Thomas 
of Canterbury, and embarked at Margate on 
the 24th. Next day she arrived at Sluys, 
where she had a splendid welcome with bon- 
fires and pageants. On Sunday, the 26th, 
the old Duchess of Burgundy, the duke's 
mother, paid her a visit. Next day the duke 
himself came to see her ' with twenty persons 
secretly,' and they were affianced by the 
Bishop of Salisbury, after which the duke 
took leave of her and returned to Bruges. He 
came again on Thursday, and the marriage 
took place on Sunday following (3 July) at 
Damme. The splendour of the festivities, 
which were continued for nine days, taxed 
even the powers of heralds to describe, and 
Englishmen declared that the Burgundian 
court was only paralleled by King Arthur's. 
But according to a somewhat later authority, 



just after the wedding the duke and his bride 
were nearly burned in bed by treachery in a 
castle near Bruges. 

The marriage was a turning-point in the 
history of Europe, cementing the political 
alliance of Burgundy and the house of York. 
Its importance was seen two years later, 
when Edward IV, driven from his throne, 
sought refuge with his brother-in-law in the 
Netherlands, and obtained from him assist- 
ance to recover it. Margaret had all along 
strenuously endeavoured to reconcile Edward 
and his brother Clarence, and it was mainly 
by her efforts that the latter was detached 
from the party of Henry VI and Warwick. 
Of her domestic life, however, little seems to 
be known. She showed much attention to 
Caxton, who was at the time governor of the 
Merchant-Adventurers at Bruges, and before 
March 1470-1 he resigned that appointment 
to enter the duchess's household. While in 
her service Caxton translated <Le Recueil 
des Histoires de Troye,' and learned the new 
art of printing in order to multiply copies 
of his translation [see CAXTON, WILLIAM]. 
Within nine years of her marriage Mar- 
garet's husband fell at the battle of Nancy, 
5 Jan. 1477, and she was left a childless 
widow. In July or August 1480 she paid 
a visit to the king, her brother, in England, 
and remained there till the end of Septem- 
ber. During her stay she obtained several 
licenses to export oxen and sheep to Flanders, 
and also to export wool free of custom (French 
Roll, 20 Edw. IV, mm. 2, 5, 6). The rest of 
her life was passed in the Netherlands, where 
she was troubled at times in the possession 
of her jointure by the rebellious Flemings, 
and continually plotting against Henry VII 
after he came to the throne. A large part of 
the dowry granted her by Edward IV was 
confiscated on Henry's accession ; and for 
this cause, doubtless, as well as party spirit, 
her court became a refuge for disaffected 
Yorkists. She encouraged the two impostors, 
Lambert Simnel and Perkin Warbeck, re- 
ceiving the latter at her court as her nephew 
Richard, duke of York, and writing in his 
favour to other princes ; but she was obliged 
in 1498 to apologise to Henry for her fac- 
tiousness. In 1500 she stood godmother to 
the future emperor, Charles V, a great-grand- 
son of her husband's, named after him. She 
died at Mechlin in 1503, and was buried in 
the church of the Cordeliers. 

A good portrait of Margaret, painted on 
panel, once the property of the Rev. Thomas 
Kerrich fq. v.], librarian of Cambridge Uni- 
versity, is now in the rooms of the Society of 
Antiquaries at Burlington House. It shows 
a lady of fair complexion, with red lips, dark 



Margaret Beaufort 150 Margaret Tudor 



eyes, and arched eyebrows ; but her hair is 
entirely concealed under one of the close- 
fitting high headdresses of the period. The 
artist, Mr. Scharf thinks, was probably Hugo 
Vander Goes, who is recorded to have been 
employed on the decorations for Margaret's 
wedding. The picture was engraved in vol. v. 
of the first edition of the ' Paston Letters ' 
(1804), and more recently in Blades's ' Life 
and Typography of William Caxton ' (1861). 
[Wilhelmi Worcester Annales; Excerpta His- 
torica, pp. 223-39 ; Memoires d'Olivier de la 
Marche, iii. 101-201 (Soc. de 1'Hist. de France); 
Memoires de Haynin (Soc. des Bibliophiles de 
Mons), i. 106 sq. ; Waurin's Eecueil des Chro- 
niques, vol. v. (Kolls ed.) ; Compte Kendu des 
Seances de la Commission Royale d'Histoire, 
Brussels, 1842, pp. 168-74, ib. 4th ser. ii. 9-22; 
Fragment relating to King Edward IV, at end 
of Sprott's Chronicle (Hearne), p. 296 ; Arohpeo- 
logia,xxxi. 327-38 ; Memorials of Henry VII, and 
Letters and Papers of Richard III and Henry VII 
(Eolls Ser.) ; Calendars of State Papers (Venetian 
and Spanish); Hall's Chron.; Sandford's Geneal. 
Hist.] J. G. 

MARGARET BEAUFORT, COUNTESS 
OP RICHMOND AND DERBY (1441-1509). [See 
BEAUFORT.] 

MARGARET TUDOR (1489-1541), 
queen of Scotland, the eldest daughter of 
Henry VII, king of England, and Elizabeth 
of York, was born at Westminster on 29 Nov. 
1489, and baptised in the abbey on the 30th, 
St. Andrew's day (LELAND, Collectanea, iv. 
252 sq. ; cf. Hamilton Papers, i. 51). Her 
sponsors were Margaret, countess of Rich- 
mond, her grandmother, the Duchess of 
Norfolk, and Archbishop Morton (GREEN, 
Princesses, iv. 50-2). She probably passed 
her infancy with her brother Arthur at 
Farnham in Surrey. Her education was 
early broken off, but she could write, though 
she confessed it an 'evil hand/ and she 
played upon the lute and clavicord (ib. pp. 
53, 69). On 23 June 1495 Henry VII com- 
missioned Richard Foxe [q.v.], bishop of 
Durham, and others, to negotiate a marriage 
between Margaret and James IV of Scot- 
land in the hope of averting his reception 
of Perkin Warbeck, the pretended Duke of 
York (Ftedera, xii. 572 ; Spanish Calendar, 
i. 85 ; PINKERTON, History of Scotland, 1797, 
ii. 26). The offer failed to prevent James 
from espousing the cause of Warbeck, but 
was renewed the next year with the support 
of Spain. The commissioners of 1495 re- 
ceived fresh powers to arrange the marriage 
on 5 May, and again on 2 Sept. 1496 (BAIN, 
Cal. of Documents relating to Scotland, iv. 
No. 1622 ; Fcedera, xii. 635). James was 
not at this time willing to give up Warbeck 



and it was not until after the departure of 
the pretender, and the truce of 30 Sept. 1497 
with England, that the marriage was again 
suggested. The Tudor historians make James 
himself renew the proposal to Foxe when 
sent to arrange a border quarrel at Norham 
in 1498, which threatened to terminate the 
truce (GREEN, p. 57). Henry is said to have 
quieted some fears in his council by the 
assurance that, even if Margaret came to the 
English crown, ( the smaller would ever fol- 
low the larger kingdom ' (POLYDORE VERGIL, 
xxvi. 607). Peace until one year after the 
death of the survivor was concluded be- 
tween Henry and James on 12 July 1499, 
and Scottish commissioners were appointed 
to negotiate the marriage (Cal. of Docu- 
ments, iv. No. 1653). On 11 Sept., three 
days after his ratification of the peace, Henry 
commissioned Foxe to conduct the negotia- 
tions (Fcedera, xii. 729). They were some- 
what protracted. It was not until 28 July 
1500 that the pope granted a dispensation 
for the marriage, James and Margaret being 
related in the fourth degree, through the 
marriage of James I with Joan Beaufort, 
and there was a further delay of nearly 
eighteen months before James, on 8 Oct. 
1501, finally empowered his commissioners 
to conclude the marriage (Cal. of Documents, 
iv. No. 1678 ; Fcedera, xii. 765). At length 
the marriage treaty was agreed to at Rich- 
mond Palace on 24 Jan. 1502. Margaret was 
secured the customary dower lands, including 
Stirling and Linlithgow, to the amount of 
2,000/. a year, but the revenues were to be 
paid to her through James. A pension of 
five hundred marks was, however, to be at 
her own disposal. Henry undertook to give 
her a marriage portion of thirty thousand 
gold ' angel ' nobles (ib. xii. 787 ; GREEN, 
pp. 62, 109). A treaty of perpetual peace 
between England and Scotland was con- 
cluded on the same day (Fcedera, xii. 793). 
The ratifications were exchanged in December 
(ib. xiii. 43, 46, 48-52), and the espousals 
were celebrated at Richmond on 25 Jan. 1503. 
The Earl of Bothwell acted as proxy for 
James. The union was proclaimed at Paul's 
Cross, and welcomed with popular rejoicings 
(GREEN, pp. 63-6). The death of Queen 
Elizabeth, however, on 11 Feb. threw a cloud 
over the festivities. 

In May Margaret's attorneys received seisin 
of her dower lands (Fcedera, xiii. 62, 64-71, 
73). Henry had stipulated that he should 
not send his daughter to Scotland before 
1 Sept. 1503. But on the request of James 
she left Richmond on 27 June. In her suite 
was John Young, Somerset herald, whose 
very full and quaint account of the journey 



Margaret Tudor 151 Margaret Tudor 



is printed by Hearne (LELAND, Collectanea, 
iv. 258 sqq.) Her father took an affectionate 
farewell of her at Collyweston in North- 
amptonshire, and, escorted northwards in 
state by the Earl of Surrey, and gathering 
a great train, she entered Scotland on 
1 Aug. and reached Dalkeith on the 3rd. 
She received daily visits of ceremony from 
James until her state entry into Edinburgh 
on Monday, 7 Aug. They were married on 
8 Aug. in the chapel of Holyrood, by the 
Archbishops of Glasgow and York (id.) Miss 
Strickland (p. 58) prints a manuscript epi- 
thalamium. The court poet, William Dun- 
bar, composed his allegorical poem, 'The 
Thistle and the Rose/ in which he exalted 
the lineage of the (English) rose above that 
of the (French) lily. Dunbar became a 
constant attendant of Margaret, and dedi- 
cated several of his poems to her. After 
several days' festivities her English escort 
returned home, carrying a rather petulant 
and homesick letter to her father (GREEN, 
p. 100). A northern progress occupied the 
rest of the year, and in March 1504 Mar- 
garet was crowned in the Parliament Hall. 

The somewhat querulous young queen was 
childless for several years, and James, who 
had dismissed his mistress, Jane Kennedy, 
before his marriage, though not unkind, re- 
sumed his irregularities and acknowledged 
his illegitimate children (ib. pp. 99, 119). 
But their relations improved with the birth 
of a son, on 21 Feb. 1507, which brought 
upon Margaret a most violent disease, her 
recovery from which was ascribed to a special 
journey James made to the shrine of St. 
Ninian at Whithern (ib. pp. 124-5). But 
the child, who was christened James, died 
on 27 Feb. 1508. A daughter, born 15 July 
in that year, died almost immediately, after 
again nearly costing Margaret her life, and 
a son born 20 Oct. 1509, and christened 
Arthur, lived only to 15 July 1510. But a 
son born on Easter eve, 10 April 1512, sur- 
vived to be king as James V (ib. p. 148 ; 
Letters and Papers, i. 3882). A daughter 
born prematurely, in November of the same 
year, hardly outlived its birth (ib. 3577, 3631 ; 
Memorials of Henry VII, p. 123; GREEN, 
p. 154). A son, Alexander, created Duke 
of Ross, was born on 30 April 1514, after 
her husband's death. 

As early as 1508 James was again leaning 
towards a French alliance. The relations be- 
tween England and Scotland grew more and 
more strained, and when. Henry VIII joined 
the Holy League against France James en- 
tered into an alliance with Louis XII on 
22 May 1512 (ib. p. 150). Margaret, who had 
assured Ferdinand of Aragon in March of 



her husband's desire for peace (Letters and 
Papers, i. 3082), supported Angus Bell-the- 
Cat and the English party, although Henry 
risked this support and gave a pretext to 
James for his change of front by withholding 
a legacy which she claimed. The statements 
of Buchanan, Lindsay of Pitscottie, and 
Drummond that this legacy was one of jewels, 
&c., bequeathed her by Prince Arthur, may 
perhaps be reconciled with those of Mar- 
garet and Dr. West, the English envoy in 
Scotland, that it was a sum of money left 
by Henry VII. by supposing that Arthur 
had left them with the understanding that 
they were to belong to his father during his 
life. West's letters seem to imply that the 
sum was a valuation. It was first formally 
demanded in 1509. Henry seems to have 
been afraid that it would be used to supply 
James's want of money (GREEN, pp. 151-2 ; 
Letters and Papers, i. 3883, 4403). 

By 1513 James had made up his mind to 
join in the war on the side of France, and 
told West, who was sent in March to promise 
payment of the legacy if he would keep the 
treaty of peace, that he would pay his wife 
himself (GREEN, p. 157). It was in vain that 
Margaret tried to deter him from war with 
England by dreams and prearranged mira- 
culous warnings (ib.) Yet in his will he ap- 
pointed Margaret, in the event of his death, 
sole regent and guardian of the young James, 
contrary to the custom of the realm by which 
the minor was left to the guardianship of the 
next in succession, and besides her dower 
bequeathed her one-third of his personal 
revenues for life. He also unwisely em- 
powered her, without the knowledge or con- 
sent of his council, to dispose of a subsidy of 
eighteen thousand crowns lately received 
from France (ib. p. 163). He had refused to 
take her with him, and she remained at Lin- 
lithgow, sending to ask for Queen Cathe- 
rine's prayers, until the news of Flodden and 
her husband's death arrived (Letters and 
Papers, i. 4424 ; cf. 4549). Retreating to 
Perth, she wrote to her brother deprecating 
further hostilities, and, summoning nobles 
and clergy, performed the ' Mourning Coro- 
nation ' or James V within twenty days after 
his father's death (STRICKLAND, p. 95; GREEN, 
p. 173). But her position was a most diffi- 
cult one. In face of the strong French feel- 
ing in Scotland, her success in obtaining a 
truce from Henry only decreased her in- 
fluence, and she was unable to veto the 
recall from France of the next heir to the 
crown after her sons, John Stewart, duke of 
Albany [q.v.], whom the French party were 
already plotting to substitute for her as 
regent (ib. pp. 177-80). The council re- 



Margaret Tudor 152 Margaret Tudor 



sented her application to Rome for power to 
confer vacant bishoprics. At last there was 
an open split, and she withdrew with her 
supporters to Stirling. Strengthened by the 
accession of James Hamilton, second earl of 
Arran [q. v.], and Lord Home, she effected 
a temporary reconciliation of parties in July 

1514, and Scotland was comprised in the 
treaty between France and England signed 
on the 29th of that month. 

But Henry's failure to bind Louis not to 
allow Albany to return to Scotland left Mar- 
garet's position insecure, and almost forced 
her to lean more and more upon the Douglases. 
In what proportions passion, policy, and the 
pressure of the house of Douglas contributed 
to Margaret's decision to surprise the world 
by a marriage with the handsome young 
Archibald Douglas, sixth earl of Angus [q . v.], 
grandson of Archibald Bell-the-Cat, it is 
not easy to determine. She was certainly of 
a susceptible and impetuous temperament. 
Henry had defeated the Scottish idea of 
marrying her to Louis XII, and had induced 
the Emperor Maximilian, whose secretary 
went to Scotland and brought back a favour- 
able report of her, to declare his willingness 
to marry her (Letters and Papers, i. 5208), 
but on 6 Aug. she was privately married to 
Angus in the church of Kinnoull, near Perth, 
by Walter Drummond, dean of Dunblane, 
nephew of Lord Drummond, justiciar of 
Scotland, and maternal grandfather of Angus, 
who is said to have promoted the match. Mar- 
garet was already seeking to advance Gavin 
Douglas the poet, uncle of Angus, to high 
preferment, and the secret soon leaked out. 
Henry VIII accepted the marriage, though 
he, too, had been kept in the dark, and he 
wrote to the pope in support of Gavin 
Douglas's claim to the archbishopric of St 
Andrews, which became vacant some months 
later. But Margaret found she had made a 
most imprudent step, for she had alienated 
the other Scottish nobles and strengthened 
the party of French alliance, led by James 
Beaton [q. v.], archbishop of Glasgow, and 
Forman, whom they successfully supported 
for the archbishopric of St. Andrews. Mar- 
garet was obliged to sign an invitation to 
Albany to come over as governor, and the 
privy council on 18 Sept. resolved that she 
had by her second marriage forfeited the 
office of tutrix to her son (GREEN, pp. 186, 
189). She maintained herself in Stirling, 
and procured the bishopric of Dunkeld for 
Gavin Douglas ; but Albany arrived in May 

1515, was invested with the regency, and 
broke up the party of the Douglases. Mar- 
garet, after an attempt to work upon the 
loyalty of the besiegers by placing James on 



the ramparts in crown and sceptre, had to 
surrender Stirling early in August, and 
Albany obtained possession of the young 
princes (see under DOUGLAS, ARCHIBALD, 
sixth EARL OF ANGUS; GREEN, pp. 185-211 ; 
Letters and Papers, i. 5614, 5641, ii. 67, 574, 
705, 779, 827). 

Margaret was kept under watch at Edin- 
burgh, and her dower revenues were with- 
held. Henry had since the beginning of the 
year been urging her to fly to England with 
her sons, but she had feared to imperil 
James's crown (ib. ii. 44, 62, 66 ; GREEN, 
p. 198). Having now no further control over 
them, she obtained permission to go to Lin- 
lithgow to ' take her chamber,' and thus 
contrived to make her escape to the borders, 
and was admitted alone into England by 
Lord Dacre, under Henry's orders, on Sun- 
day, 30 Sept. 1515. Eight days later she 
gave birth, at Harbottle Castle, Northum- 
berland, to a ' Christen sowle beyng a yong 
lady,' Margaret Douglas [q. v.], afterwards 
countess of Lennox and mother of Lord 
Darnley (ib. pp. 223-4 ; ELLIS, Letters, 2nd 
ser. i. 265). She was again at the point of 
death. On 26 Nov. she was removed, suf- 
fering agonies from sciatica, to Morpeth, 
where Angus joined her (GREEN, p. 228 ; cf. 
Letters and Papers, ii. 1350). Her sufferings 
were somewhat relieved by a 'wonderful 
love of apparell ' (ib.} l She has two new 
gowns held before her once or twice a day. 
She has twenty-two fine gowns and has sent 
for more.' The news of the death of her 
favourite son Alexander, on 18 Dec., aggra- 
vated her illness. It was English pressure 
that made Margaret sign accusations against 
Albany of aiming at the crown and driving 
her from Scotland in fear of her life. At the 
dictation of Lord Dacre she demanded not 
only the government of her children, but the 
regency. A more reasonable" letter from 
herself was followed by the release of Gavin 
Douglas, whom Albany had imprisoned, and 
Dacre in alarm advised her removal south- 
wards (GREEN, pp. 232-6). Angus preferred 
the generosity of Albany, and escaped, 
1 which much made Margaret to muse ' 
(HALL, p. 584). She set out from Morpeth 
on 8 April, received a flying visit from the 
remorseful Angus, and on 3 May entered 
London and was lodged at Baynard's Castle. 
On the 7th she joined the court at Green- 
wich (GREEN, p. 240). Henry, who aimed 
at the entire elimination of French influence 
in Scotland, impeded her reconciliation with 
Albany. But in 1517 she was allowed to 
return to Scotland. She was promised the 
restoration of her dower revenues and liberty 
to see her son, now in Edinburgh Castle, but 



Margaret Tudor 153 Margaret Tudor 



she was not to stay the night. Angus was 
induced to sign a document undertaking to 
cease to interfere with her lands (ib. pp. 242, 
253, 260). But Henry neglected to secure 
an effective guarantee for the performance of 
these promises. On 7 May Margaret joined 
with her sister Mary and with Queen Cathe- 
rine in saving the lives of all but one of the 
apprentices condemned for the riots of ' Evil 
May day ' (ib. p. 254). On 18 May she left 
London, re-entered Scotland on 15 June, was 
met by Angus at Lamberton Kirk, and made 
her entrance into Edinburgh on the 17th (ib. 
p. 260). 

Albany had left Scotland on 8 June on a 
visit to France, but had taken effective pre- 
cautions to prevent Margaret's recovering the 
regency. Her dower rents were still withheld, 
and she was refused access to her son on sus- 
picion that she intended to convey him to 
England [see under JAMES V OP SCOTLAND]. 
She besieged the English council with com- 
plaints. In the contest for power between 
Angus and Arran, the head of the Hamiltons, 
Margaret at first sided with her husband. But 
Angus broke his promise as to her jointure 
lands. Arran took her part, and in October 
1518 she wrote to Henry hinting at a divorce 
(Letters and Papers, iii. 166). Angus, she 
said, loved her not, but she does not allude 
to the ' gentill-woman of Douglasdaill,' with 
whom, according to Lesley (p. 112), he was 
now living. Henry failed to arrest her 
breach with Angus, and she joined Henry's 
adversaries in a request to Francis I for the 
return of Albany, which fell into her brother's 
hands (Letters and Papers, ii. 4547, iii. 373, 
396). Taxed with it by Wolsey she pleaded 
(14 July 1519) her sore plight and the pres- 
sure of the lords (ib. iii. 373, 381). She had 
now access to her son (ib. 889). But next 
year she once more changed sides. Angus 
got possession of Edinburgh by the fray of 
Cleanse-the-Causeway, on 30 April 1520 
(LESLEY, p. 115, but cf. GREEN, p. 300), and 
Henry in August sent Henry Chad worth, 
minister-general of the Friars Observants, 
to chide her for living apart from Angus to 
the danger of her soul and reputation and 
for her reported ' suspicious living,' and 
urged her reconciliation (ib. p. 292 ; Letters 
and Papers, iii. 467, 481-2). At the same 
time Arran and his party were opposing her 
resumption of the regency at the desire of 
Albany, whom Francis had promised Henry 
to keep in France (ib. iii. 467). She there- 
fore joined Angus in Edinburgh on 15 Oct. 
(ib. 482, misdated). But before 8 Feb. 
1521 they had quarrelled again, and Mar- 
garet rejoined Arran's party. According to 
the Douglas account she stole from Edin- 



burgh by night escorted only by Sir James 
Hamilton, but this she denied (ib. iii. 1190 ; 
GREEN, p. 296). When Henry sided with 
Charles V, Francis allowed Albany to return 
to Scotland on 18 Nov. 1521. Albany and 
Margaret were now closely associated, and 
Dacre accused her, truly or falsely, of being 
' over-tender ' with the regent. He and 
Wolsey had circulated a rumour that in 
soliciting at Rome a divorce between Mar- 
garet and Angus Albany proposed to marry 
her himself. Albany, however, ' had enough 
of one wife' (ib. p. 311). So strong was the 
combination of the regent and the queen- 
mother that Angus either consented to re- 
tire to France or was kidnapped thither by 
Albany, as Henry asserted, and Lindsay of 
Pitscottie also states. 

Margaret acted as intermediary in the truce 
negotiations between Dacre and Albany in 
September 1522. After Albany's return to 
France on 27 Oct. Margaret sought to form a 
party of her own round the young king with 
the support of England. Anti-English feeling 
ran high in Scotland after Surrey's devasta- 
tion of the lowlands, and the queen professed 
herself ready, if need be, to enter England 'in 
her smock ' to labour for the security of her 
son (ib. pp. 327-9 ; Letters and Papers, iii. 
3138). When Albany did not return at the 
date promised (August 1523), Margaret, who 
had provided for her retreat into England, 
urged the English government to action, 
but they preferred to let events decide. The 
Scottish parliament of 31 Aug. would have 
emancipated James and come to an arrange- 
ment with England, but for the news that 
Albany had sailed from Picardy, which Mar- 
garet stigmatised as Hidings of the Canon- 
gate.' After this rebuff she ' grat bitterly 
all day' (GREEN, pp. 334-5). The king, 
too, ' spoke very sore for one so young,' and 
from all Surrey could hear the queen ' did 
that she could to cause him so to do.' On 
Albany's arrival, 20 Sept., Margaret re- 
quested the promised refuge in England, 
but Surrey and Wolsey agreed that it would 
be better and less costly to keep her in 
Scotland (ib. p. 345). Her treacherous con- 
fidant, the prioress of Coldstream, reported 
that she was ' right fickle,' and that the 
governor had already ' almost made her a 
Frenchwoman.' Another report says that 
1 since nine hours to-day she has been singing 
and dancing, and the Frenchmen with her ' (ib. 
p. 349). But her private opinion was that 
the governor, ' who can say one thing and 
think another,' would be ' right sharp ' with 
her when the ' hosting ' was done (ib. p. 
351). Albany discovered that she was com- 
pletely in the English interest, and the par- 



Margaret Tudor 154 Margaret Tudor 



liament of 18 Nov. separated her from her 
son. If we may believe Margaret, she re- 
fused a pension of five thousand crowns 
from Albany (ib. p. 362). But a rumour 
that Henry was promoting the return of 
Angus to Scotland seems to have induced 
her to enter into a bond with Albany by 
which she undertook to recognise the par- 
liamentary arrangements for James, and to 
forward his marriage with a French prin- 
cess, being assured of a residence in France 
for herself if necessary (ib. p. 367). A copy 
falling into the hands of the English she 
disavowed it. Albany, after failing to get 
Margaret's promise not to enter into alliance 
with England, or even to consent to peace, 
left Scotland at the end of May 1524, pro- 
mising to return by 31 Aug. (ib. p. 372). 
Margaret, supported by England, though she 
could not get perfectly satisfactory assu- 
rances on the subject of Angus, who had ar- 
rived in England on 28 June, carried off 
James, with Arran's help, from Stirling to 
Edinburgh on 26 July 1524. The step was 
popular, and parliament on 20 Aug. re- 
ceived with favour her proposal to abrogate 
Albany's regency, in spite of the opposition 
of Beaton and the Bishop of Aberdeen, 
whom she cast into prison (ib. pp. 386- 
387). But she threw away the fruits of her 
triumph by her arbitrary employment of the 
king's English guard now formed, by close 
alliance with Arran and wanton offence to 
Lennox and others, and by her over-favour 
to Henry Stewart, a younger brother of 
Lord Avondale, who now came to court as 
master-carver to the king, and was thrust 
by the queen into the offices of lieutenant of 
the guard and treasurer (ib. p. 389). Hear- 
ing that Margaret and Arran were leaning to 
a French alliance and had alienated all the 
lords, Henry at last allowed Angus to cross 
the border (about 28 Oct. 1524). 

The parliament, which met on 14 Nov., re- 
cognised Margaret as the chief councillor of 
the young king, and imposed restrictions 
upon Angus, who, losing patience, broke 
into Edinburgh with four hundred men on 
the morning of Wednesday, 23 Nov. Mar- 
garet fired upon him from the castle, and he 
retired to Tantallon (ib. p. 420). But she 
continued to act with imprudence, and as 
her adherents would not begin civil war ex- 
cept round the young king, she, on 21 Feb. 
1525, admitted Angus into the regency, but 
next day wrote to Albany as ' governor,' to 
Francis, and to the pope urging her divorce 
from the earl (ib. p. 439). Finding the in- 
fluence of Angus rapidly growing, she per- 
sonally, and through the king, pressed him 
to consent to a divorce. Whether from want 



of evidence or fear of a counter-charge, she 
did not accuse Angus of infidelity, but on 
the desperate plea, first brought forward 
early in 1525, that James IV had lived for 
three years after Flodden (ib. pp. 445, 450). 
After Pavia, Henry, who had intercepted her 
letters to Albany and Francis, and no longer 
feared her joining the French party, sent 
her ' such a letter as was never written to 
any noble woman.' The parliament of July, 
which she refused to attend, alleging fear 
of Angus, practically deprived her of all au- 
thority, but on the 'remonstrance of James 
gave her twenty days' grace. This was, 
however, of no avail. Angus was now 
master of the king's person and of the go- 
vernment. Margaret organised resistance 
in the north, but Angus foiled the junction 
she had planned for 17 Jan. 1526 at Lin- 
lithgow with Arran and other opponents of 
the Douglases, and she retreated to Hamil- 
ton with Arran, who soon made terms with 
Angus (ib. p. 454). On receiving assurances 
of personal freedom, Margaret rejoined her 
son in Edinburgh in February, but was soon 
again moving the council against Angus for 
withholding her rents. Finding her influ- 
ence gone, she went to Dunfermline, where 
she was presently joined by Lennox and by 
Beaton, from whom Angus had taken the 
seals. After the failure of two attempts to 
rescue James by force from the constraint 
Angus put upon him, Margaret undertook 
to be guided by Angus, and to renounce the 
company of Henry Stewart (Letters and 
Papers j iv. 2575). Angus on his side is 
said to have withdrawn his opposition to 
the divorce (GKEEN, p. 462). 

On 20 Nov. she came to the opening of the 
new parliament, and soon regained her old 
influence over James. Beaton was recalled to 
court, and a new revolution was expected. But 
her request for the return of Henry Stewart 
was refused by James, and she retired in 
dudgeon to Stirling, which she had placed 
in Stewart's hands (Letters and Papers, iv. 
2777, 2992). She was now 'entirely ruled 
by the counsel of Stewart,' who, if not a 
married man, had only lately divorced his 
wife in the hope of marrying the queen. At 
last, on 11 March 1527, Albany's efforts to 
promote her divorce were crowned with suc- 
cess, and the Cardinal of Ancona, appointed 
judge by Clement VII, gave judgment in 
her favour (State Papers, Henry VIII, iv. 
490). Owing to the disturbed state of the 
continent, Margaret did not hear of the sen- 
tence until December (Maitland Club Mis- 
cellany, ii. 387). It was soon whispered that 
she had contracted a secret marriage with 
Stewart, and in March 1528 she openly de- 



Margaret Tudor 155 Margaret Tudor 



dared it {Letters and Papers, iv. 4134). 
Lord Erskine, in the name of the king, ap- 
peared before Stirling, and Stewart was 
given up by Margaret and put into ward. 
Wolsey wrote in Henry's name to remind 
her of the ' divine ordinance of inseparable 
matrimony first instituted in paradise/ pro- 
testing against ' the shameless sentence sent 
from Rome ' (ib. iv. 4130-1). It was pro- 
bably now that Angus separated her from 
her daughter (GREEN, p. 471). When James 
threw off the tutelage of Angus in June, 
and the earl was driven into England, Mar- 
garet and her husband became his chief ad- 
visers. Lands and revenues were showered 
upon them, and James created Stewart Lord 
Methven, and master of the artillery, ' for 
the great love he bore to his dearest mother.' 
Margaret, who went everywhere with her 
son, recovered possession of her Ettrick 
lands (1532) and entrusted them to Meth- 
ven. She successfully used her influence in 
favour of a truce with England, and Mag- 
nus reported her very favourable to the pro- 
posed marriage of James with the Princess 
Mary. But Lord William Howard of Effing- 
ham [q. v.], who was sent to Scotland to pro- 
mote this match in 1531, when Mary's posi- 
tion in England had become a very dubious 
one, met with open opposition from Margaret 
(ib. p. 481 ; STRICKLAND, p. 243). She, how- 
ever, helped to bring about the peace with 
England concluded on 11 May 1534 (Hamil- 
ton Papers, i. 2, 8 ; Fcedera, xiv. 529). The 
proposed interview between Henry and 
James, first suggested in the autumn, re- 
ceived her warm support, and she wrote to 
her brother and Cromwell on 12 L)ec. boast- 
ing that, ' by advice of us and no other living 
person,' James had consented to the meeting 
(State Papers, v. 2, 12). The prospect of 
taking a principal part in a splendid spec- 
tacle, and appearing before the world as 
mediator between her son and her brother, 
powerfully appealed to Margaret's vanity, 
and though already deeply in debt, she spent 
nearly 20,000/. Scots in preparations for the 
interview. When James was induced by 
the Scottish clergy, well aware that Henry 
intended at the meeting to urge a reforma- 
tion in Scotland upon his nephew, to qualify 
his consent, Margaret allowed her disap- 
pointment to carry her to the length of be- 
traying her son's secret intentions to Henry 
(ib. v. 38). This coming to James's ears 
was naturally connected by him with the 
gifts which Henry, in response to her impor- 
tunity, had recently sent her, and he roundly 
accused her of taking bribes from England 
to betray him (ib. pp. 41, 46-7 ; Hamilton 
Papers, p. 31). She begged Henry to allow 



her to come into England, ' being at the most 
displeasant point she could be, to be alive,' 
j but was told that she must get her son's con- 
i sent (State Papers, v. 55 ; Letters and Papers, 
xi. 111-12). She was so irritated by this reply 
being conveyed through James's ambassa- 
dor, Otterbourne, that she wrote a letter to 
Cromwell, which he called ' insolent,' and 
for which she afterwards apologised (State 
Papers, v. 56; GREEN, p. 488). Her sug- 
gestion that Henry ought to defray the 
losses the border wars had cost her, and her 
expenditure for the abortive interview, was 
coldly and firmly refused (State Papers, v. 
56). 

Margaret appears in a more agreeable light 
a month later (12 Aug.) in her intercession 
with her brother for her daughter, Lady 
Margaret Douglas, who had excited his 
suspicious wrath by a contract of marriage 
with a younger brother of the Duke of Nor- 
folk (ib. v. 58). The English parliament 
professed to believe that there was a scheme 
to raise Lady Margaret and her husband to 
the throne if the king died heirless, and 
that in her lately projected visit to England 
Queen Margaret had designed a reunion 
with Angus, so as to strengthen the interests 
of her daughter by confirm ing her legiti- 
macy (GREEN, p. 491). On 20 Oct. and 
again on 10 Feb. 1537 she begged help of 
Henry that she might not be disgraced be- 
fore the queen (Magdalene) whom her son 
was bringing home from France (Hamilton 
Papers, i. 38-9 ; State Papers, v. 66). Sir 
Ralph Sadler, who was sent to Scotland 
in January, heard at Newcastle a rumour 
that Margaret had taken the veil, which he 
thought l no gospel.' He found her ' con- 
veyed to much misery during her son's ab- 
sence,' and i very evilly used ' in the suit 
she had brought for a ' decision of the va- 
lidity of the matrimony betAveen her and 
Methven ' (ib. i. 529, v. 66, 70). To Henry 
she only accused Methven of having enriched 
his own friends out of her rents, but he is 
stated to have had children by Janet Stewart, 
daughter of the Earl of Atholl, whom he 
married after Margaret's death. One of these 
children was mother of the celebrated Earl 
of Gowrie, which has given rise to the ab- 
surd modern hypothesis that the mother of 
Earl Gowrie was really daughter of Lord 
Methven and Queen Margaret (GREEN, pp. 
493-4; but cf. Reg. Mag. Sir/ill. Scotia, 
1546-80, Nos. 184-5, 639-41, 1568). 

Margaret seconded Sadler's report by a 
letter to her brother dated 8 March, com- 
plaining that the Bishop of St. Andrews 
delayed pronouncing sentence in her divorce, 
though her case was proved by 'twenty 



Margaret Tudor 156 Margaret Tudor 



softycent prowes,' and urging her desire to 
be free of Methven, ' who is but a sobare 
man,' before the return of her son and his 
young wife (Hamilton Papers, i. 42). Sad- 
ler was despatched to Rouen to remonstrate 
with James, who, as Margaret hastened to 
inform her brother, instructed l his Lordis ' 
to do her justice with expedition (State 
Papers, v. 70, 74). She implored Norfolk 
not to make war upon Scotland until she 
was safely divorced, and assured him that 
nothing should pass in Scotland which she 
would not communicate to Henry (ib. v. 
75). On 7 June, after James's return, she 
wrote to Henry to notify him that her di- 
vorce was at the giving of sentence (ib. v. 
90). It was therefore with bitter disap- 
pointment that she had soon after to inform 
her brother that James had stopped her suit 
when the sentence was already written out, 
and proved by forty famous provers, although 
she had bought his promise to let it go on. 
She declares that Methven had offered him 
a higher bribe from her lands (ib. v. 103). 
But perhaps James's proceeding admits of a 
sufficiently obvious and more creditable ex- 
planation. She attempted to steal into Eng- 
land, but was overtaken within five miles of 
the border and conveyed to Dundee by Lord 
Maxwell, who expressed an opinion that all 
things would go well between the realms if 
she did not make a breach (ib. v. 109). Ac- 
cording to her own account, Methven had 
persuaded James that she had intended to 
reconcile herself with Angus because she 
went to her lands in Ettrick. He will only 
allow her to depart ' bed and bwrd ' from 
Methven, and not 'somplecytur.' She com- 
plains that she has none of her dower palaces 
to live in, and talks of a cloister. Henry is 
urged, since she is now his only sister, to 
take strong measures in her behalf ; she is 
now ' fourty years and nine,' and wishes ease 
and rest rather than to be obliged to follow 
her son about like a poor gentlewoman as 
she has done for twenty weeks past (Letters 
of 13 and 16 Nov., ib. i. 534, v. 115 ; Hamil- 
ton Papers, i. 49-51). But this mood was 
transient. She cordially welcomed Mary of 
Lorraine in June 1538, seeking to impress 
her by pretending to have had recent letters 
from Henry (State Papers, v. 127, 135). 
The young queen seems to have soothed 
Margaret's morbid vanity, and by the be- 
ginning of 1539 she was reconciled with 
Methven (ib. p. 154 ; GREEN, p. 500). Nor- 
folk reported to Henry that ' the young 
queen was all papist, and the old queen not 
much less ' (ib.) But in 1541 she was again 
plaguing Henry with her money troubles ; 
and although he was puzzled by the contra- 



dictory reports of her treatment he received, 
he gave some ear to her complaints, as he 
required a spy upon the Scottish war pre- 
parations (Hamilton Papers, i. 60-5, 75). 
On 1 March 1541 she preferred a curious re- 
quest to Henry on behalf of a begging friar 
from Palestine (THORPE, Cal. of Documents 
relating to Scotland, i. 40). On 12 May she 
informed Henry from Stirling of the death 
of the two young princes, and that she never 
left the bereaved parents (State Papers, v. 
188). At the end of that month Henry's 
messenger, Ray, was in secret communica- 
tion with her at Stirling (Hamilton Papers, i. 
75). She was seized with palsy at Methven 
Castle on Friday, 14 Oct., and finding her- 
self growing worse sent for James from 
Falkland Palace, but he did not arrive in 
time to see her alive. She is said to have 
i extremely lamented and asked God mercy 
that she had offended unto the Earl of Angus 
as she had done/ but this rests upon the re- 
port of Henry's messenger, Ray (State Papers, 
v. 193-4). She was unable to make a will, 
but desired that Lady Margaret should in- 
herit her goods. Ray was informed that she 
had no more than 2,500 marks Scots at her 
death (ib.} She died on Tuesday, 18 Oct., 
aged nearly fifty-three ( Chronicle of Perth, 
Maitland Club, and Treasurer's Accounts for 
October 1541, quoted by GREEN, p. 504; the 
Diurnal of Occurrents, Bannatyne Club ed., 
places her death on 24 Nov.) James buried 
her splendidly in the vault of James I in the 
Carthusian church of St. John at Perth 
(LESLEY, p. 157). Methven, by whom she 
had no offspring, though the contrary has 
been asserted, survived her some years. 

Margaret had, in the words of an old 
Scottish writer, a ' great Twang of her 
brother's Temper.' Impetuous, capricious, 
equally ardent and fickle in her attachments, 
unscrupulously selfish, vain of power and 
show, and not without something of Henry's 
robustness and ability, the likeness is not 
merely fanciful. She listened neither to the 
voice of policy nor of maternal affection 
when passion impelled her. Yet she showed 
a real affection even for the daughter of 
whom she had seen so little, and James loved 
and trusted her until she shamefully abused 
his confidence. It was a hard part that she 
had to play in Scotland, distracted by internal 
turbulence and the intrigues of Henry VIII, 
but she played it too often without dignity, 
consistency, or moderation. It was not un- 
natural that in the miserable conflict of 
French and English influence she should 
range herself on the side of her brother ; 
but nothing can justify the cold-bloodedness 
with which she urged him to destroy Scot- 



Margary 



157 



Margetson 



tish ships and Scottish homes, and the 
treachery with which she betrayed her own 
son's counsels to his enemy. Her motives, 
too, were thoroughly selfish, for when her 
own interests dictated it she threw over her 
brother without scruple. Nor can we have 
any real sympathy with the ignoble private 
anxieties which she carried to her grave. 
If we may credit Gavin Douglas, Margaret 
in her youth was handsome, with a bright 
complexion and abundant golden hair. But 
Holbein's portrait represents her with rather 
harsh features. In middle age she grew 
stout and full-faced. Her portrait was fre- 
quently painted. There is a well-known 
one of Margaret and her two brothers by 
Mabuse, about 1496, in the china closet at 
Windsor, engraved as vignette on the title- 
page of vol. iv. of Mrs. Green's ' Princesses.' 
Minour painted one for presentation to 
James in 1502. A portrait by Holbein, in 
the possession of the Marquis of Lothian, 
is engraved as a frontispiece in the same 
volume. Another is mentioned as in the 
possession of the Earls of Pembroke at 
Wilton House. Small (GAVIN DOUGLAS, 
Works, vol. i. p. xci) gives a reproduction 
of an interesting portrait of Albany and 
Margaret, belonging to the Marquis of Bute, 
painted, he thinks, at the period when they 
were reproached with being over-tender. 
There is a portrait at Queen's College, Ox- 
ford ; another, belonging to Charles Butler, 
esq., is described in the catalogue of the 
Tudor Exhibition (p. 55) ; and a third is en- 
graven by G. Valck in Larrey's ' Histoire 
d'Angleterre ' (BKOMLEY, Cat. of Engraved 
Portraits, p. 7). 

[Most of the authorities used have been men- 
tioned in the text. Miss Strickland's Life is 
inaccurate and a little malicious. The Life by 
Mrs. G-reen is extraordinarily thorough and care- 
ful. The recently published Hamilton Papers 
have thrown some new light on the subject. 
Margaret was a prolific correspondent, and her 
letters will be found in great numbers in the 
State Papers, Mrs. Green's Letters of Royal 
Ladies, Teulet's Inventaire Chronologique and 
Papiers d'Etat, Ellis's Historical Letters, and 
the Hamilton Papers. Lesley is quoted in the 
Bannatyne Club edition, and Polydore Vergil 
in the Basle edition of 1570.] J. T-T. 

MARGARY, AUGUSTUS RAYMOND 

(1846-1875), traveller, third son of Henry 
Joshua Margary, major-general R.E., was 
born at Belgaum, in the Bombay presi- 
dency, 26 May 1846. He was successively 
educated in France, at North Walsham 
grammar school, and at University College, 
London. Having received a nomination 
from his relative, Austen Henry Layard, he 



studied Chinese seven hours a day, passed 
a competitive examination before the civil 
service commissioners, obtained an honorary 
certificate, and was appointed a student in- 
terpreter on the Chinese consular establish- 
ment 2 Feb. 1867. In the following month 
he went to China, and on 18 Nov. 1869 
rose to be a third-class assistant. The silver 
medal of the Royal Humane Society was 
awarded to him 16 July 1872 for saving the 
lives of several men who were wrecked 
during a typhoon in the island of Formosa, 
9 Aug. 1871, and he also received the Albert 
medal of the first class 28 Oct. 1872. Till 
1870 he was attached to the legation at 
Pekin, when he was sent to the island of 
Formosa, and there took charge of the con- 
sulate during twelve months. He was made 
a second-class assistant 7 Dec. 1872, was 
acting interpreter at Shanghai 16 Oct. to 
12 Nov. 1873, and interpreter at Chefoo 
24 Nov. 1873 to 9 April 1874. In August 
he received instructions from Pekin to pro- 
ceed through the south-western provinces of 
China to the frontier of Yunnan, to await 
Colonel Horace Browne, who had been sent 
by the Indian government on a mission into 
Yunnan, from the Burmese side, in the hopes 
of opening up a trade with Western China. 
To this mission Margary w r as to act as in- 
terpreter and guide through China. On 
4 Sept. 1874 he left Hankow on an over- 
land journey to Mandalay. Passing the 
Tung-ting lake on the Yang-tse he ascended 
the Yuen river through Hoonan, and tra- 
velled by land through Kweichow and Yun- 
nan, and on 17 Jan. 1875 joined Colonel 
Browne at Bhamo. He was the first Eng- 
lishman who had traversed this route. On 
19 Feb. 1875 he was sent forward to survey 
and report on the road from Burmah to 
Western China, but on 21 Feb. he was 
treacherously murdered at Manwein on the 
Chinese frontier. 

[The Journey of A. R. Margary from Shanghai to 
Bhamo, and back to Manwyne, 1876, biog. pre- 
face, pp. i-xxi, with portrait ; J. Anderson's Man- 
dalay to Momien, 1876, pp. 364-449 ; Boulger's 
History of China, 1884, iii. 715-22; Foreign 
Office List, January 1875 p. 140, July 1875 
p. 215 ; Times, 9, 22, and 28 April 1875 ; Illustr. 
London News, 1875, Ixvi. 233-4, 257-8, with 
portrait ; Graphic, 1875, xi. 296, with portrait.] 

G. C. B. 

MARGETSON, JAMES (1600-1678), 
archbishop of Armagh, born in 1600, was a 
native of Drighlington in Yorkshire. He was 
educated at Peterhouse, Cambridge, and re- 
turned after ordination to his own county, 
where he attracted the notice of Wentworth, 
then lord president of the north,who took him 



Margetson 



158 



Margetson 



as chaplain to Ireland in 1633. He was made 
dean of Waterford by patent, 25 May 1635, 
and in October was presented by the crown 
to the rectory of Armagh in Cavan, as ' one 
of the chancellor's chaplains ' (Lib. Munerum, 
pt. v.) He resigned Armagh in 1637, and 
in that year became rector of Galloon or 
Dartry in Monaghan (SHIRLEY, p. 328), pre- 
bendary of the Holy Trinity in St. Finbar's, 
Cork, and dean of Derry. While Margetson 
held this deanery, 500/. was granted by the 
crown to provide bells for his cathedral ; and 
Laud wrote to Strafford on 10 Sept. 1638, 
* Out I am of the hearing of Londonderry 
bells, but I am glad they are there.' In 
December 1639 Margetson was made dean 
of Christ Church, Dublin. No new dean of 
Derry was appointed until after the Restora- 
tion. It appears from the correspondence 
between Laud and Strafford that the latter 
intended to restore the almost ruinous cathe- 
dral of Christ Church, but that he found 
neither time nor money. Margetson was 
prolocutor of the lower house of convocation 
in 1639. 

When the rebellion of 1641 broke out, Mar- 
getson, himself distressed from the failure 
of income, was yet busy in helping those 
whose need was still greater. In August 
1646 he signed the document in which eleven 
bishops and seventy-seven other clergymen 
congratulated Ormonde upon the conclusion 
of peace, and thanked him for his efforts 
in their behalf, 'without which many of 
us had undoubtedly starved ' (CARTE, Let- 
ter 471). A year later Dublin was in the 
hands of the parliament, and the Anglican 
clergy were invited to use the directory in- 
stead of the Book of Common Prayer. One 
bishop and seventeen clergymen, of whom 
Margetson was one, signed the dignified and 
spirited answer in which they refused to 
hold their churches on these terms (MASON, 
bk. ii. chap, iii.) 

Ormonde left Ireland 28 Aug. 1647, and 
Margetson fled to England about the same 
time. He suffered imprisonment at Man- 
chester and elsewhere, but was afterwards 
allowed to live in London unmolested, but 
very poor. He was employed by the wealthier 
cavaliers to dispense their alms among dis- 
tressed loyalists in England and Wales, and 
William Chappell [q.v.], bishop of Cork, 
Milton's old tutor, is said to have been re- 
lieved by him. 

With the Restoration Margetson's fortunes 
revived. On 25 Jan. 1660-1 he was made 
archbishop of Dublin by patent, and was 
allowed to hold his old living of Galloon, 
his Cork prebend, and the treasurership of 
St. Patrick's, Dublin, along with the arch- 



bishopric. He was consecrated in St. Patrick's 
two days later, along with eleven other 
bishops-elect, certainly one of the most im- 
posing ceremonies of this kind on record 
(ib. bk. ii. chap, iv.) He was also made a 
privy councillor. In 1662 and 1663 he let 
on lease for twenty-one years his Cork pro- 
perty (CAULFIELD). 

Margetson was translated to Armagh in 
1663, where he succeeded Bramhall, who is 
said to have recommended him on his death- 
bed to Ormonde as the fittest man for the 
primacy. Harris throws doubts on this story, 
but perhaps groundlessly (MAi^T, chap. ix. 
sec. ii.) In 1667 he succeeded Jeremy Taylor 
as vice-chancellor of Dublin University, and 
remained in office till his death ; but academi- 
cal duties, though performed with care and 
success, did not prevent him from attending 
to his own diocese. Armagh Cathedral had 
been burned by Sir Phelim O'Neill in 1642,. 
and Margetson lived to see it rebuilt. The 
subscriptions falling far short of what was 
wanted, he made up the deficit himself. 
He also founded a free school at Drighling- 
ton, his native place. Margetson always re- 
fused to invest, even on the most tempting 
terms, in any land which had ever belonged 
to the church. His generosity was at all times 
remarkable, and he sought no credit for it. 
In the same modest spirit he kept his great 
learning in the background. In the winter 
of 1677 he became disabled by obstinate 
jaundice, but nevertheless insisted on com- 
municating publicly in the following May. 
He died in Dublin, 28 Aug. 1678, after en- 
during great pain with remarkable patience, 
and was buried within the altar-rails of 
Christ Church. His charity and exemplary 
life had won him such reputation that all 
sorts and conditions of men resorted to his 
deathbed to receive his last blessing. At his 
funeral Dr. Palliser spoke of his conciliatory 
attitude towards theological opponents. He 
was reverenced and beloved by his clergy, to 
whom he was both kind and strict, and he 
could scarcely blame one of them without 
weeping, ' for the vices of the clergy touched 
his very heart-strings.' 

Margetson's eldest son, John, was killed at 
the siege of Limerick, being then a major in 
William's army, leaving a daughter, Sarah, 
from whom the earls of Bessborough and 
Mountcashel are descended. The Earl of 
Charlemont is descended from Anne Marget- 
son, the primate's only daughter. 

[Ware's Bishops, ed. Harris ; Funeral Sermon, 
preached in Christ Church, Dublin, 30 Aug. 
1678, by Henry [Jones], Lord Bishop of Meath, 
whereunto is added the Funeral Oration (Latin) 
preached at the Hearse by W. Palliser, D.D., as 



Margoliouth 



Marham 



Vice-chancellor of the University of Dublin, Lon- 
don, 1679; Liber Munerum Publicorum Hiber- 
niae, vol. ii. ; Cotton's Fasti Ecclesiae Hibernicse; 
Shirley's Hist, of Monaghan ; Stafford's Letters 
and Despatches; Carte's Ormonde; Mason's Hist, 
of St. Patrick's Cathedral; Caulfield's Annals 
of St. Fin Barre's Cathedral ; Mant's Hist, of 
the Church of Ireland ; Stuart's Armagh ; Lodge's 
Peerage, by Archdall.] K. B-L. 

MARGOLIOUTH, MOSES (1820-1881), 
divine, was born of Jewish parents at Suwalki, 
Poland, on 3 Dec. 1820. He was instructed 
at Pryerosl, Grodno, and Kalwarya in tal- 
mudic and rabbinical learning, and also ac- 
quired Russian and German. In August 1837, 
during a visit to Liverpool, he was induced 
to carefully study the Hebrew New Testa- 
ment, with the result that on 13 April ]838 
he was baptised a member of the church of 
England. For a time he obtained a livelihood 
by giving lessons in Hebrew, but in January 
1840 he entered Trinity College, Dublin, to 
prepare for ordination, and during the vaca- 
tions studied at the Hebrew College, London. 
In 1843 he became instructor of Hebrew, Ger- 
man, and English at the Liverpool Institu- 
tion for inquiring Jews. On 30 June 1844 he 
was ordained to the curacy of St. Augustine, 
Liverpool. Three months later the Bishop 
of Kildare obtained for him the incumbency 
of Glasnevin, near Dublin, and made him his 
examining chaplain. The parish being small, 
Margoliouth had much leisure for literary 
pursuits. He started a Hebrew Christian 
monthly magazine, entitled 'The Star of 
Jacob,' which extended to six numbers 
(January- June 1847), and tried to esta- 
blish a Philo-Hebraic Society for promoting 
the study of Hebrew literature, and for re- 
printing * scarce Hebrew works. He sub- 
sequently served curacies at Tranmere, 
Cheshire; St. Bartholomew, Salford; Wy- 
bunbury, Cheshire (1853-5) ; St. Paul, Hag- 
gerston, London; Wyton, Huntingdonshire; 
and St. Paul, Onslow Square, London. 
Among his own people he was an inde- 
fatigable worker. In 1847 he visited the 
Holy Land, and on his return published an 
interesting account of his wanderings. Dur- 
ing his travels he made the acquaintance of 
many celebrated men, among whom were 
Neander, Mendelssohn Bartholdy, and Mez- 
zofanti. In 1877 he was presented to the 
vicarage of Little Linford, Buckinghamshire. 
He died in London on 25 Feb. 1881, and was 
buried in Little Linford churchyard. In 1857 
he accepted the Ph.D. degree of Erlangen. 

Margoliouth's chief works are: 1. 'The 
Fundamental Principles of Modern Judaism 
investigated/ 8vo, London, 1843. 2. 'An Ex- 
position of the Fifty-third Chapter of Isaiah,' 



8vo, London, 1846 and 1856. 3. ' A Pilgrim- 
age to the Land of my Fathers,' 2 vols. 8vo, 
London, 1850. 4. ' the History of the Jews 
in Great Britain,' 3 vols. 12mo, London, 1851. 
5. 'Genuine Repentance and its Effects: an 
Exposition of the Fourteenth Chapter of 
Hosea,' 8vo, London, 1854. 6. 'The Anglo- 
Hebrews, their Past Wrongs and Present 
Grievances,' 8vo, London, 1856. 7. ' The 
Curates of Riversclale : Recollections in the 
Life of a Clergyman,' 3 vols. 8vo, London, 
I860. 8. ' The End of the Law, being a pre- 
liminary Examination of the " Essays and 
Reviews," '8vo, London, 1861. 9. 'Abyssinia, 
its Past, Present, and probable Future,' 8vo, 
London, 1866. 10. ' Vestiges of the Historic 
Anglo-Hebrews in East Anglia,' 8 vo, London, 
1870. 11.' The Poetry of the Hebrew Pen- 
tateuch,' 8vo, London, 1871. 12. ' The Lord's 
Prayer no adaptation of existing Jewish 
Petitions, explained by the light of the Day 
of the Lord,' 8vo, London, 1876. 13. ' Some 
Triumphs and Trophies of the Light of the 
World,' 8vo, London, 1882. By 1853 he 
had completed, but apparently did not pub- 
lish, a Hebrew translation of the New Testa- 
ment (Notes and Queries, 1st ser. viii. 196). 
In 1872 he projected a quarterly periodical 
called ' The Hebrew Christian Witness and 
Prophetic Investigator,' which he continued 
(with the exception of one year, when the 
magazine was in abeyance) until the end of 
1877. To the early volumes of ' Notes and 
Queries ' he contributed many curious articles 
011 Jewish history and antiquities. A portrait 
of Margoliouth is prefixed to his ' Pilgrimage,' 
1850. 

[Autobiography before Modern Judaism ; 
Memoir prefixed to Some Triumphs ; Guardian, 
9 March 1881, p. 348 ; Crockford's Clerical Di- 
rectory for 1880 ; Jacobs and Wolfs Bibl. Angl. 
Jud. p. 138 ; Jewish World, 4 March 1881.] 

GK G. 

MARHAM, RALPH (fl. 1380), his- 
torian, was a scholar at Cambridge, where 
he graduated D.D. He became an Austin 
friar at King's Lynn, and eventually rose to 
be prior of his house, in which capacity he 
appears in 1378 and 1389. He wrote ' Mani- 
pulus Chronicorum/ inc. 'Fratribus reli- 
gronis animo.' This work is a history in 
seven books, from the Creation to the writer's 
own time. The first letters of the opening 
words spell, 'Frater Radulphus Marham.' 
There is a copy of it in the Bibliotheque 
Nationale at Paris (cf. OSSINGEK). Some 
sermons are also ascribed to him. 

[Bale, vi. 59; Tanner's Bibl. Brit.-Hib. p. 510; 
Ossinger's Bibliotheca Augustiniana, p. 546 ; 
Blomefield's Norfolk, viii. 495.] C. L. K. 



Marianus Scotus 



160 



Marischal 



MARIANUS SCOTUS (1028-1082?), 
chronicler, was a native of Ireland, as his 
second name denotes, and was born in 1028. 
His true name was Moelbrigte, or servant of 
Bridget, and his teacher was Tigernach, no 
doubt the annalist of that name. He became 
a monk in 1052, and, leaving Ireland, entered 
the monastery of Irish monks at Cologne on 
Thursday, 1 Aug. 1056. On 12 April 1058 
he left Cologne for Fulda, was ordained priest 
by Abbot Siegfried of Fulda on 13 March 
1059 at Warzburg, and on 14 May following 
became a ' recluse ' at Fulda. There he re- 
mained ten years, till on 3 April 1069 he left 
Fulda by command of Siegfried, now arch- 
bishop of Mentz, and on 10 July 1069 settled 
at Mentz still as a recluse, and there remained 
in the monastery of St. Alban the Martyr till 
his death, which is said to have taken place 
on 22 Dec. 1082, or 1083. 

Marianus composed a universal chronicle, 
beginning from the Christian era, and coming 
down to 1082 ; it was continued by Dodechin, 
abbot of St. Disebod, near Treves, to 1200. 
Marianus thought that the Dionysian date of 
Christ's nativity was twenty-two years too 
late, and he therefore added to his chronicle 
a double chronology, (1) according to the 
gospel; (2) according to Dionysius, and ap- 
pended tables and arguments in support of 
his theory ; but even in his own time, says 
William of Malmesbury, he had but few 
supporters (Gesta Regum, p. 345, Rolls Ser.) 

The chronicle contains some fifty or sixty 
references to Britain and Ireland. Down to 
725 A.D. these are extracted from Bede ; the 
later ones refer mostly to Marianus himself, 
or to Irish monks. In its earlier portion the 
chronicle is a compilation from various sources, 
and the part that relates to the writer's own 
time is very brief. Florence of Worcester 
adopted Marianus as the basis of his own 
chronicle, and through this source the work 
became familiar to English writers, who, in- 
deed, often cite Florence under the name of 
Marianus. In Germany the chronicle of 
Marianus was not so widely known, though 
Siegfried of Gemblou made extensive use of 
it. The two best manuscripts of the chronicle 
are Cotton MS. Nero C. v., of the eleventh 
century, which was probably used by Florence 
of Worcester ; and Vatican 830, which has 
many claims to be regarded as Marianus's own 
autograph ; in any case the writing is that of 
an Irish monk, and it is also significant that 
in this copy a few short entries in Gaelic 
occur. The Vatican MS. was taken by 
Waitz for his text in the * Monumenta Ger- 
manise Historica,' v. 495-562. The chronicle 
was printed at Basle in 1559 from a mutilated 
manuscript ; this is followed in the editions 



of Pistorius, 1601, and of Struvius, 1726, so 
that Waitz might fairly claim for his edition 
the merit of an ' editio princeps.' 

In addition to the chronicle, Marianus is 
also credited with a variety of scriptural com- 
mentaries, through confusion with his con- 
temporary and namesake, Marianus Scotus, 
abbot of St. Peter's, Ratisbon (see below). 
Similarly his ' Concord of the Gospels ' is 
simply the second book of the chronicle, and 
the various chronological treatises ascribed 
to him extracts from it. 

MARIANTJS SCOTUS (d. 1088), abbot of St. 
Peter's, Ratisbon, is to be carefully dis- 
tinguished from the historian. In an Irish 
gloss in MS. 1247 in the Imperial Library 
at Vienna he describes himself as ' Muire- 
dach trog mace robartaig/ in Latin, ' Maria- 
nus miser filius Robartaci.' Muiredach is 
Latinised as Marianus or Pelagius, Robar- 
taig is the modern RafFerty. Marianus came 
to Bamberg in 1067, and there, by the advice 
of Bishop Otto, became a Benedictine in 
the monastery of St. Michael. After Otto's 
death, Marianus and his companions set out 
for Rome, but, owing to a vision, joined 
Muricherodachus (i.e. Marchard or Morvog), 
an Irish recluse at Ratisbon, where they 
founded the monastery of St. Peter, outside 
the walls. Marianus became the first abbot, 
and after his death was regarded as a saint. 
He probably died in 1088 ; his day is given 
by Colgan as 17 April, by others as 4 July; 
the Bollandists prefer 9 Feb. 

Marianus the abbot was famous for his 
caligraphy, and is said to have copied the 
Bible more than once. The Vienna MS. re- 
ferred to above is a copy of the epistles of St. 
Paul, with a commentary in his handwriting. 
At Ratisbon there is a commentary on the 
Psalms, which Marianus says that he wrote 
in 1074, the seventh year of his pilgrimage. 
Dempster says that he wrote 'Regula ad 
fratres ' and other works (Hist. EccL xii. 837). 
His life, written by an anonymous monk of 
Ratisbon, is printed in the ' Acta Sanctorum.' 

[The details of Marianus's life are given in his 
Chronicle ; see also preface to Florence of Wor- 
cester (Engl. Hist. Soc.) ; Tanner's Bibl. Brit.- 
Hib. pp. 511-12; Hardy's Descript. Cat. Brit. 
Hist. ii. 46 ; Pertz's Mon, G-erm. Hist. v. 481-94 ; 
Allgenieine Deutsche Biographic, xx. 378-9. For 
MARIANUS the abbot see Bolland's Acta Sanc- 
torum, Feb. ii. 361-5 ; Eevue Celtique, i. 262-4.] 

C. L. K. 

MARISCHAL, EARLS OF. [See KEITH, 
WILLIAM, fourth EARL, d. 1581 ; KEITH, 
GEORGE, fifth EARL, 1553P-1623; KEITH, 
WILLIAM, sixth EARL, d. 1635 ; KEITH, 
WILLIAM, seventh EARL, 1617 P-1661 ; 
KEITH, GEORGE, tenth EARL, 1693 P-1778.] 



Marisco 



161 



Marisco 



MARISCO, ADAM DE (d. 1257 ?), Fran- 
ciscan. [See ADAM.] 

MARISCO, MARISCIS, MAREYS, or 
MARES, GEOFFREY BE (d. 1245), jus- 
ticiar or viceroy of Ireland, is said to have 
been the nephew and heir of Hervey de 
Mount-Maurice [q. v.], and nephew of Her- 
lewin, bishop of Leighlin (d. 1217?) (Genea- 
logical Memoir of Montmorency, Pedigree, 
p. ix ; GILBERT, Viceroys of Ireland, p. 78), 
but these assertions seem to lack proof. He is 
also said to have been the brother of Richard 
de Marisco [q. v.], bishop of Durham and chan- 
cellor (GILBEKT, ut supra), which, though pos- 
sible (see SWEETMAN, Documents, No. 745), 
appears to be a mere assumption (see Foss, 
Judges of England, ii. 400 ; STJKTEES, History 
of Durham, vol. i. p. xxviii). The arms used 
by the bishop (see Notes and Queries, 3rd ser. 
i. 91) are different from those carried by 
Geoffrey (see MATT. PAEIS, Chronica Majora, 
vi. 475). Another theory makes him the son 
of a Jordan de Marisco, described as lord 
of Huntspill-Mareys, Somerset, and other 
lands, which Geoffrey is supposed to have in- 
herited ( Genealogical Memoir, ut supra, p. vi ; 
COLLINSON, History of Somerset, ii. 392), but 
save that Geoffrey had a brother named 
Jordan (Documents, No. 2119), and is repre- 
sented as having a son of that name ( Genea- 
logical Memoir, ut supra, p. x), this also seems 
to be unsupported by evidence, for it is im- 
possible to assume, with the pedigree-makers, 
that the Geoffrey FitzJordan mentioned in 
a charter of Quarr Abbey in the Isle of 
Wight (Monasticon, v. 317) is the justiciar ; 
and though Geoffrey is said to have pos- 
sessed large estates in England (GILBERT, 
ut supra, p. 78), it is certain that he had no 
land in this country in 1238 (Documents, 
No. 2445). His name, which, translated, is 
simply Marsh, was as common in England 
in the middle ages as the marshes from 
which it was derived (Monumenta Francis- 
cana, vol. i. Pref. p. Ixxvii), and the com- 
pilers of the pedigrees of the family of Mount- 
morres, or Montmorency, have caused much 
confusion by importing into their schemes 
the names of all persons of any note who 
were known by that common appellation, 
or by one at all like it [see under MOUJSTT- 
MATTRICE, HERVEY DE]. Nothing seems cer- 
tain about Geoffrey's parentage further than 
that he was a nephew of John Comyn (d. 
1212) [q. v.], archbishop of Dublin (Docu- 
ments, No. 276), a fact which may account 
for his rise to wealth and power in Ire- 
land ; and that his mother was alive in 1220 
(Eoyal Letters, Henry III. i. 128). 

Geoffrey was powerful in the south of 

VOL. xxxvi. 



Munster and Leinster, and appears to have 
received large grants of land in Ireland from 
King John. He was with the king at Led- 
bury, Gloucestershire, in 1200 (Documents, 
No. 137), and received a grant of ' Katherain ' 
in exchange for other lands in Ireland, 
together with twenty marks, to fortify a 
house there for himself (ib. No. 139). When 
war broke out among the English in Leinster, 
the lords and others who were discontented 
with the government of the justiciar Hugh 
de Lacy [q. v.] seem to have looked on 
Geoffrey as their leader. He was joined by 
a number of the natives, seized Limerick 
(Annals of Worcester, p. 396), and inflicted 
a severe defeat on the justiciar at Thurles 
in Munster (Annals of the Four Masters, 
iii. 15, 171 ; Annals ap. Chartularies of St. 
Mary's Abbey, ii. 311). For this he obtained 
the king's pardon (GILBERT, ut supra, p. 66), 
and in 1210 made successful war against the 
Irish of Connaught (Annals of Loch Ce, i. 
239, 245). When Innocent III was threaten- 
ing, in or about 1211, to absolve John's 
subjects from their allegiance, he joined the 
other magnates of Ireland in making a pro- 
testation of loyalty (Documents^ No. 448). 
In the summer of 1215 he was with the king 
at Marlborough, and on 6 July was appointed 
justiciar of Ireland, giving two of his sons as 
pledges for his behaviour (ib. Nos. 604, 608). 
On the accession of Henry III he advised 
that Queen Isabella, or her second son, 
Richard, should reside in Ireland (GILBERT, 
ut supra, p. 80). He built a castle at Killaloe , 
co. Clare, in 1217, and forced the people to 
accept an English bishop, Robert Travers, 
apparently one of his own relatives (Annals 
of the Four Masters, iii. 90; Documents, 
Nos. 1026, 2119). In 1218 he was ordered 
to raise money to enable the king to pay 
Louis, the son of the French king, the sum 
promised to him, and to pay the papal 
tribute. He was ordered in 1219 to pay the 
revenues of the crown into the exchequer at 
Dublin, and to present himself before the 
king, leaving Ireland in the care of Henry 
of London, archbishop of Dublin. Having 
already taken the cross he received a safe- 
conduct to make a pilgrimage to the Holy 
Land (Calendar of Patent Rolls, 3 Hen. Ill, 
p. 12), and went to England. There in 
March 1220 he entered into an agreement 
with the king at Oxford, in the presence of 
the council, with reference to the discharge 
of his office, pledging himself to pay the 
royal revenues into the exchequer, and to 
appoint faithful constables for the king's 
castles, and delivering one of his sons to 
be kept as a hostage by the king (Fcedera, 
i. 162). On his return to Ireland he was 



Marisco 



162 



Marisco 



commanded to resume the demesne lands 
that he had alienated without warrant 
(Documents, No. 949). Complaints were 
made against him to the king by the citizens 
of Dublin, and in July 1221 the king wrote to 
the council in Ireland, declaring that he had 
received no money from that country since 
he came to the throne, and that Geoffrey, 
who had while in England made a fine with 
him to satisfy defaults, had not obeyed his 
wishes. Henry therefore desired that he 
should give up his office (ib. No. 1001). 
Geoffrey resigned the justiciarship on 4 Oct., 
was thanked for his faithful services, quit- 
claimed of 1,080 marks, part of the fine made 
with the king, and received a letter of pro- 
tection during the king's minority, and the 
wardship of the heir of John de Clahull (ib. 
Nos. 1015 sqq.) 

During the absence of the justiciar, Wil- 
liam, the earl-marshal, in 1224, Geoffrey 
had charge of the country, and carried on 
war with Aedh O'Neill. He was reappointed 
justiciar on 25 June 1226, and, being then in 
England, received on 4 July a grant of 580Z, 
a year, to be paid out of the Irish exchequer 
as salary (ib. Nos. 1383, 1413 ; Fcedera, i. 
182). This seems to be the first time that a 
salary was appointed for the viceroy of Ire- 
land. On his return to Ireland he wrote to 
the king informing him that Theobald Fitz- 
Walter, who had married Geoffrey's daugh- 
ter, was refractory, and had garrisoned Dub- 
lin Castle against the king. He advised that 
Theobald should be deprived of the castle 
of Roscray, and promised that he would use 
every effort to punish the king's enemies 
(Royal Letters, i. 290 sqq.) He endeavoured 
to detain the person of Hugh, or Cathal, 
O'Conor, king of Connaught ; but Hugh was 
delivered by the intervention of William, 
the earl-marshal. In revenge, his son Aedh 
surprised William, the justiciar's son, near 
Athlone, and made him prisoner ; nor could 
his father obtain his release, except on terms 
that were highly advantageous to the Con- 
naught people (Annals of the Four Masters, 
iii. 245). Geoffrey built the castle of Bally- 
league, in the barony of South Ballintober, 
co. Roscommon, about this time. While 
Hugh O'Conor was at the justiciar's house, 
one of Geoffrey's men slew him, on account 
of a private quarrel, and Geoffrey hanged the 
murderer (ib, p. 247). He resigned the jus- 
ticiarship at his own wish in February 1228 
(Documents, No. 1572). He was reappointed 
justiciar in 1230, and in July inflicted, with 
the help of Walter de Lacy and Richard de 
Burgh [q. v.], a severe defeat on the Con- 
naught men, under their king, Aedh, who 
was taken prisoner (WENDOVER, iv. 213). 



He resigned the justiciarship in 1232 (Royal 
Letters, i. 407). 

In common with Maurice FitzGerald, then 
justiciar, and other lords, Geoffrey in 1234 
received a letter written by the king's evil 
counsellors, and sealed by him, directing that 
should Richard, the earl-marshal, come to 
Ireland he should be taken alive or dead. 
Geoffrey accordingly joined the magnates 
of Ireland in their conspiracy against the 
marshal, who went to Ireland on hearing 
that his lands there had been ravaged. As 
soon as he landed Geoffrey joined him, and 
treacherously urged him to march against his 
enemies, promising him his aid. Acting by 
his advice, the earl, at a conference with the 
magnates at the Curragh, Kildare, refused to 
grant them the truce that they demanded. 
When they set the battle against him Geof- 
frey deserted the earl, who was wounded, 
taken prisoner, and soon afterwards died 
(PARIS, iii. 273-9). Geoffrey fell into tem- 
porary disgrace with the king for his share 
in the business, but on 3 Aug. 1235 Henry 
restored him his lands (Documents, No. 2280). 
In this year his son William, it is said, slew, 
at London, a clerk named Henry Clement, 
a messenger from one of the Irish magnates, 
and was consequently outlawed (ib. No. 2386). 
A man who was accused of an intent to as- 
sassinate the king at Woodstock in 1238 was 
said to have been instigated by William de 
Marisco ; his father, Geoffrey, was suspected 
of being privy to the scheme, and his lands 
in Ireland being distrained upon, he fled to 
Scotland, where he was, with the connivance 
of Alexander II, sheltered by Walter Comyn, 
no doubt his kinsman. Henry was indignant 
with the king of Scots for harbouring him, 
and made it a special ground of complaint. 
After the treaty of July 1244 Alexander sent 
Geoffrey out of his dominions. He fled to 
France, where he died friendless and poor in 
1245, at an advanced age, for he is described 
as old in 1234. 

Meanwhile his son had taken refuge on 
Lundy Island, which he fortified. There he 
was joined by a number of broken men, and 
adopted piracy as a means of sustaining life, 
specially plundering ships laden with wine 
and provisions. Strict watch was kept, in the 
hope of taking him, and in 1242 he was taken 
by craft, carried to London, and there drawn, 
hanged, and quartered, sixteen of his com- 
panions being also hanged. In his dying 
confession he protested his innocence of the 
death of Clement, and of the attempt on 
the king's life (PARIS, iv. 196). He had mar- 
ried Matilda, niece of Henry, archbishop of 
Dublin, who gave her land on her marriage 
(Documents, Nos. 2528, 2853). William had 



Marisco 



163 



Marisco 



also received a grant of land from the king 
for his support in 1228 (id. No. 1640). 

Geoffrey appears to have been vigorous 
and able, a successful commander, and on the 
whole a just and skilful ruler. Like most of 
the great men of Ireland at the time, he did 
not scruple to act treacherously. To the king, 
however, he seems to have been a faithful 
servant. The accusation of treason brought 
against him and his son William is ex- 
tremely improbable, and their ruin must be 
considered as a result of the indignation ex- 
cited by the fate of the earl-marshal. Geof- 
frey founded an Augustinian monastery at 
Killagh, co. Kerry, called Beaulieu (Monas- 
ticon Hibernicum, p. 304), and commanderies 
of knights hospitallers at Any and Adair, co. 
Limerick. An engraving of a tomb in the 
church of Any, which is said to be Geoffrey's, 
is in the f Genealogical Memoir of Montmo- 
rency.' 

Geoffrey married Eva de Bermingham 
(Documents, Nos. 817, 1112), and apparently, 
for his second wife, a sister of Hugh de Lacy 
(WEXDOVER, iv. 304 ; PARIS, iii. 277), named 
Matilda (Documents, No. 2853). Geoffrey told 
Richard, the earl-marshal, that his wife was 
Hugh de Lacy's sister, but the genealogists 
assert that his second wife was Christiania, 
daughter of Walter de Riddlesford, baron of 
Bray, and sister of Hugh de Lacy's wife, 
Emmeline (Genealogical Memoir, Pedigree, 
p. ix). This is an error, for Christiania de 
Riddlesford married Geoffrey's son Robert 
(d. 1243), by whom she was the mother of 
Christiania de Marisco, an heiress of great 
wealth (Documents, No. 2645 and other num- 
bers; comp. also Calendarium Genealogicum, 
i. 171). Of Geoffrey's many sons, William, 
Robert, Walter, Thomas, Henry, John, and 
Richard appear in various public records (see 
Documents passim). He is also said to have 
had an eldest son Geoffrey, who settled in 
Tipperary and died without issue ; William 
was reckoned as his second son ; a third and 
eldest surviving son, named Jordan, married 
the daughter of the lord of Lateragh, and 
continued his line ; his youngest son was 
named Stephen ( Genealogical Memoir, Pedi- 
gree, pp. x, xi, App. p. xl) ; a daughter is 
assigned to him named Emmeline, who is said 
to have married Maurice FitzGerald, < earl of 
Desmond ' (ib. and App. p. clxvii). The first 
Earl of Desmond, however, lived much later 
[see under FITZTHOMAS, MAURICE, d. 1356], 
and the genealogist seems to take for a 
daughter of Geoffrey de Marisco, Emmeline, 
daughter and heiress of Emmeline de Riddles- 
ford, wife of Hugh de Lacy, and Stephen 
Longespee, who married Maurice FitzMau- 
rice (see under FITZGERALD, MAURICE FITZ- 



MAURICE, 1238F-1277; KILDARE, Earls of 
Kildare, p. 17). Geoffrey had a daughter who 
married Theobald Fitz Walter. The assertion 
(Genealogical Memoir, Pedigree, p. x) that 
his son John was viceroy of Ireland in 1266 
is erroneous. The father of the viceroy was 
Geoffrey FitzPeter. Geoffrey the justiciar 
had nephews named Richard, John Travers, 
and William FitzJordan (Documents, No. 
2119). 

[Sweetman's Calendars of Documents, Ireland, 
vol. i. passim (Record publ.) ; Cal. Pat. Rolls, 
Hen. Ill, p. 12 (Record publ.); Rymer's Foe- 
dera, i. 145, 162, 182 (Record ed.) ; Roberts's 
Calendarium Genealogicum, i. 1 7 1 (Record publ.) ; 
Notes and Queries, 3rd ser. i. 91 ; Royal Letters, 
Hen. Ill, i. 128, 290, 500 (Rolls Ser.) ; Annals of 
Loch Ce, i. ann. 1210, 1224, 1227, 1228 (Rolls 
Ser.) ; Annals of the Four Masters, iii. 15, 17, 
190, 245, 247, ed. O'Donovan; Chartularies of 
St. Mary's Abbey, Dublin, i. 175, 272, ii. 311 
(Rolls Ser.) ; Ann. of Osney and Ann. of Wore, 
ap. Ann.Monast. iv. 96, 396 (Rolls Ser.); Wend- 
over, iv. 213, 292 sq., 300-3 (Engl. Hist. Soc.) ; 
M. Paris's Chron. Maj. iii. 197, 265, 273, 277, 
iv. 193, 202, 380, 422, vi. 475 (Rolls Ser.); 
Ware's Annals, p. 48, and Antiqq. p. 103, ed. 
1705; H. de Montmorency-Morres's Genea- 
logical Memoir of Montmorency, passim (un- 
trustworthy) ; Gilbert's Viceroys of Ireland, 
pp. 66, 78, 80, 82, 91, 102.] W. H. 

MARISCO, HERVEY DE (/. 1169), 

Anglo-Norman invader of Ireland. [See 
MOUNT-MAURICE.] 

MARISCO or MARSH, RICHARD BE 

(d. 1226), bishop of Durham and chancellor, 
was perhaps a native of Somerset ; we know 
that Adam Marsh or de Marisco [see under 
ADAM] was his nephew (Cal. Rot. Claus. 
ii. 136 ; Chron. Lanercost, p. 24). The first 
mention of Richard de Marisco is as an officer 
of the exchequer in 1197 (MADOX, Hist. Exch. 
ii. 714), and as one of the clerks of the ex- 
chequer he was in constant attendance on 
the king after 1207 (Cal. Rot. Pat. i. 89-100), 
In 1209 he received a prebend at Exeter, 
which he soon after exchanged for the rectory 
of Bampton, Oxfordshire (ib. i. 86, 87). In 
the following year he was John's adviser in 
the persecution of the Cistercians, the begin- 
ning of a long course of action which made 
him exceedingly unpopular with the clergy 
and monastic orders. He was archdeacon 
of Northumberland before 4 May 1212 (Cal. 
Rot. Chart, p. 186). On 20 July 1212 he 
was presented to the vicarage of Kempsey, 
Worcestershire (Cal. Rot. Pat. i. 93), and in 
November of the same year was sheriff of 
Dorset and Somerset. As one of the clergy 
who had officiated for the king during the 
interdict, he was in this year suspended, and 



Marisco 



164 



Markaunt 



sent to Rome (Ann. Mon. iii. 40) ; while at 
Rome he took part in the negotiations for the 
relaxation of the interdict. In the following 
February he appears as archdeacon of Rich- 
mond, and on 16 Aug. received a prebend at 
York (Cal Rot. Pat. i. 93, 95, 102, 103, 105; 
Cal Rot. Chart, p. 190). He was also in 
1213 and 1214 one of the justiciars before 
whom fines were levied. He was abroad 
with John in the spring of 12 14, but in May 
was sent home. John at the same time re- 
commended him to the monks of Winchester 
for election as bishop, and on 28 June notified 
the legate that he had given his consent to the 
election (Cal. Rot. Pat.'i. 139); the election 
was not, however, confirmed. During 1213 
he is spoken of as ' residens ad scaccarium ; ' 
Dugdale says he was chancellor, but Foss 
considers this an error, and the real date 
of his appointment to that office was 28 or 
29 Oct. 1214 (cf. Cal. Rot. Chart, p. 202) ; 
Matthew Paris (ii. 533), however, calls him 
'regis cancellarius' in 1211, but this is pro- 
bably a mistake. 

As chancellor he signed the charter grant- 
ing freedom of election to the churches on 
15 Jan. 1215. During the end of 1214 and 
spring of 1215 he was engaged with the dis- 
pute as to the election of Abbot Hugh at 
Bury St. Edmunds (Mem. St. Edmund's 
Abbey, ii. 105-12, Rolls Ser.) In September 
1215 he was sent abroad by John to raise 
forces for his service, and on a mission to the 
pope (Cal. Rot. Pat. p. 182). Marisco con- 
tinued to be chancellor after John's death, and 
in accordance with a recommendation made by 
Pope Honorius (Royal Letters, i. 532) he was, 
as a reward for his fidelity, promoted to the 
bishopric of Durham through the influence of 
the legate Gualo (Ann. Mon. ii. 288). His 
election took place on 29 June 1217, and he was 
consecrated at St. Oswald's, Gloucester, by 
Walter de Gray, archbishop of York, on 2 July 
(ib. iv. 408). In December 1217 he absolved 
Alexander of Scotland and his mother from 
their excommunication at Berwick (Chron. 
Melrose, p. 132). In 1219 he was a justice 
itinerant for Yorkshire and Northumberland. 
At Durham, Bishop Richard was soon in- 
volved in a quarrel with his monks, on whose 
privileges he is alleged to have encroached. 
The monks appealed in 1220 to the pope, who 
issued letters of inquiry to the Bishops of 
Salisbury and Ely. The prelates discovered 
' strange and abominable things ' at Durham. 
Richard de Marisco, who had already gone 
to Rome in his turn, by prayers and bribery 
obtained absolution; but the pope, when 
he learnt the truth, declared he had been 
shamefully deceived, though he could not 
quash his decision {Ann. Mon. iii. 67). 



Matthew Paris says that the pope did refer 
the dispute back to the Bishops of Ely and 
Salisbury. In any case, the quarrel was not 
ended, and Richard was on his way to Lon- 
don to plead his suit, when he died suddenly 
at Peterborough on 1 May 1226. He had 
suffered from ophthalmia. His body was taken 
back for burial at Durham. The dispute with 
the monks was so costly that it long burdened 
the bishopric of Durham, and so it was said 
that Richard was bishop for fifteen years 
after his death. 

As a harsh superior, Richard de Marisco 
found no favour in the eyes of monastic chro- 
niclers ; their statements must therefore be 
accepted with caution. Nevertheless they are 
unanimous in their condemnation of him as 
the worst of John's evil advisers. Matthew 
Paris says he was of John's household and 
manners, and a courtier from his earliest years 
(iii. 43, 111); he also relates a story, that in 
1224 John appeared in a dream to a monk 
at St. Albans, and declared that he had 
suffered many torments for his evil deeds at 
the advice of Richard de Marisco (iii. 111- 
113). The Waverley annalist complains of 
Richard's tyranny as John's minister, and 
says that, after employing him as proctor for 
various sees during their vacancy, John in- 
tended to make him a bishop ; but the clergy 
cried out for free election, that 'an ape in 
the court might not become a priest in the 
church ' (Ann. Mon. ii. 288). In another 
place it is asserted that John called Richard 
de Marisco his god, when speaking to the re- 
gular and secular clergy (OoNT. WILL. NEW- 
BURGH, Chron. Steph. Henry II, ii. 512). He 
bequeathed his library to Adam de Marisco 
(Cal. Rot. Glaus, ii. 136). 

[Matthew Paris; Annales Monastic! ; Walter of 
Coventry; Shirley's Royal and Historical Letters 
of the Reign of Henry III (all in Rolls Ser.) ; 
Le Neve's Fasti Ecel. Angl. ; Foss's Judges of 
England, ii. 400-4.] C. L. K. 

MARKAUNT, THOMAS (d. 1439), an- 
tiquary, was the son of John Markaunt and 
his wife Cassandra. He became bachelor of 
divinity at Cambridge and fellow of Corpus 
Christi College, not of Peterhouse, as erro- 
neously stated by Fuller (Hist, of Cambridge, 
p. 65). From his being styled ' confrater ' 
as well as ( consocius ' of the college, Masters 
(Hist, of Corpus Christi) concludes that the 
Corpus gild was still in existence and per- 
haps independent of the college. 

In 1417 Markaunt was proctor of the 
university. He is said to have been one of 
the most eminent antiquaries of his time, 
and to have first collected the privileges, 
statutes, and laws of the university. He left 



Markharn 



165 



Markham 



by his will, dated 4 Nov. 1439, seventy-six 
books, valued at 104J. 12s. 3d., to the college 
library, to be placed in a chest for the use of 
the master and fellows. The books, chiefly 
theological or Aristotelian, seem to have been 
lost before the time of Archbishop Parker, in 
spite of the oath administered to every fellow 
on admission to take every possible care of 
them. But a copy of Markaunt's will, with 
lists of his books and their values and a re- 
gister of borrowers and the books borrowec 
between 1440 and 1516, is extant in MS. 232 
of the Corpus library. It was printed by 
Mr. J. 0. Halliwell in the ' Publications o: 
the Cambridge Antiquarian Society,' vol. ii 
pt. xiv. pp. 15-20. Markaunt died on 19 Nov 
1439 (MASTERS, p. 49; TANNER, p. 512 
HALLIWELL, p. 20, prints 16). 

[Masters's History of Corpus Christi, 1753 
ed. Lamb, 1831, pp. 49, 307; Tanner's Bibl. 
Brit-Bib.] J. T-T. 

MARKHAM, MRS., writer for children. 
[See PENROSE, ELIZABETH, 1781 P-1837.] 

MARKHAM, FRANCIS (1565-1627), 
soldier and author, was a brother of Gervase 



Markham [q. v.] and the second son of Robert 



Markham of Cottam in Nottinghamshire, by 
Mary, daughter of Sir Francis Leake. Francis 
was born on 5 July 1565. After passing his 
early years in the household of the Earl of 
Pembroke, he was sent to Winchester School, 
and was afterwards under the famous scholar, 
Adrian de Saravia. In 1582 he was entered 
of Trinity College, Cambridge, but remained 
only a short time, going as a volunteer to 
the wars in the Low Countries without per- 
mission. Having made submission to his 
father, he was properly fitted out as a volun- 
teer under Sir William Pelham [q. v.], and he 
served at th siege of Sluys. When Pelham 
died, young Francis returned to England, and 
in 1588 he was studying law at Gray's Inn. 
But he soon tired of the law, and crossed 
over to Flushing in the hope of getting a 
captain's company from Sir Robert Sidney, 
who was then governor. Disappointed in 
that quarter, he went to serve under 



none survived him. He was still muster- 
master of Nottingham in 1622, and died in 
1627, aged 62. 

Markham published : 1. 'Five Decades of 
Epistles of War,' fol. 1622, in which he gives 
an account of the duties of the officers in the 
army of every rank in the days of Elizabeth. 
2. ' the Booke of Honour,' fol. 1626; ananti- 
i quarian treatise on the origin and status of 
' the various ranks of nobility and knighthood. 
He also wrote a ' Genealogy or Petigree of 
Markham,' still in manuscript, and dated 
27 July 1601 (it belongs to the present writer) ; 
and a glossary of Anglo-Saxon words, with 
derivations of Christian names. 

[Markham'scurious autobiography was printed 
in the Proceedings of the Society of Antiquaries, 
17 Nov. 1859.] C. E. M 

MAIIKHAM, FREDERICK (1805- 
1855), lieutenant-general, youngest son of 
Admiral John Markham [q. v.], and grandson 
of William Markham [q. v.], archbishop of 
York, was born at his father's house, Ades, 
in Chailey parish, near Lewes, Sussex, 16 Aug. 
1805. He was sent to Westminster School, 
where he was an active cricketer and oarsman, 
and acted Syrus in the ' Adelphi,' the West- 



Prince of Anhalt in the war caused by a dis- 
puted succession to the bishopric of Stras- 
burg, and in 1593 he was studying law at 
Heidelberg. He had a captaincy under the 
Earl of Essex in France and in Ireland, and 
was again in the Low Countries for a short 



minster play of 1823. He was expelled for 
a boating scrape in 1824, and on 13 May of 
that year obtained an ensigncy by purchase in 
the 32nd foot, in which regiment he became 
lieutenant in 1825, captain in 1829, major in 
1839, and lieutenant-colonel in 1842, buying 
all his steps. When the 32nd was in Dublin 
in 1830, Markham was second to Captain 
Smyth, then of the regiment (afterwards 
General Sir John Rowland Smyth, K.C.B., d. 
1873), in a fatal duel with Standish O'Grady, 
a barrister, arising out of a fracas in Nassau 
Street, Dublin, on 17 March. Smyth and Mark- 
lam were tried for their lives, and sentenced 
each to a year's imprisonment in Kilmainham 
aol. Judge Vandeleur was careful to assure 
hem that the sentence implied no reflection 
on their conduct in the affair. Markham 
served with his regiment in Canada, and re- 
j ceived three wounds when in command of 
the I the light company covering the advance in 
the unsuccessful attack on the rebels at St. 
Denis in November 1837, during the insur- 
rection in Lower Canada. He went out in 
command of the regiment to India ; com- 
manded the 2nd infantry brigade at the first 
and second sieges of Mooltan during the Pun- 
jab campaign of 1848-9 (he was wounded 



time with Sir Francis Vere. He travelled jab campaign of 1848-9 (he was wounded 
in France with Lord Roos, and eventually 10 Sept. 1848) ; commanded the division at 
obtained the appointment of muster-master, ' Soorajkhoond, when the enemy's position was 
which gave him a fixed salary with residence stormed and seven guns taken ; commanded 
at Nottingham. In 1608 he married a lady the Bengal column at the storming of Mool- 
named Mary Lovel, and had children, but tan, 2 Jan. 1849, and was present at the sur- 



Markham 



166 



Markham 



render of the city on 22 Jan. and the capture 
of the fort of Cheniote on 2 Feb., and, join- 
ing Lord Gough's army with his brigade on 
20 Feb., was present with it at the crowning 
victory of Goojerat (C.B., medal and clasps). 
He was afterwards made aide-de-camp to the 
queen. 

Markham, who was a wiry, active man, 
was all his life an ardent sportsman. When at 
Peshawiir in April 1852 he made a long shoot- 
ing excursion in the Himalayas in company 
with Sir Edward Campbell, bart., an officer 
of the 60th rifles on the governor-general's 
staff. They visited Cashmere and Tibet, pene- 
trating as far as Ladak, and bringing back 
trophies of the skulls and bones of the great 
Ovis Amman, the burrell, gerow, ibex, and 
musk-deer. Markham published a narrative 
of the journey, entitled' Shoot ing in the Hima- 
layasa Journal of Sporting Adventures in 
Ladak, Tibet, and Cashmere . . . with Illus- 
trations by Sir Edward Campbell, Bart.,' Lon- 
don, 1854. Markham returned home on leave, 
and in March 1854 was sent back to India as 
adjutant-general of the queen's troops. In 
November he was promoted major-general 
and appointed to the Peshawur division, but 
when within two days' journey of his com- 
mand was recalled for a command in the 
Crimea. On 30 July 1855 he w r as appointed 
to the 2nd division of the army before Sebasto- 
pol, with the local rank of lieutenant-general. 
He commanded the division at the attack on 
the Redan, 8 Sept, 1855. He was just able 
to witness the fall of Sebastopol, when his 
health, which had suffered greatly by his 
hurried journey from India, broke do\vn" He 
returned home, and died in London, at Lim- 
mer's Hotel, 21 Dec. 1855. He was buried 
in the family vault, Morland, near Penrith, 
beside a small oak-tree he had planted before 
leaving for the Crimea. A monument to 
him was put up in Morland parish church by 
the officers of the 32nd foot, now 1st Cornwall 
light infantry. 

[A Saval Career during the Old War (Life of 
Admiral John Markham), London, 1883, pp. 275, 
284-7; Gent. Mag. 1856, pt. i. p. 83.] 

H. M. C. 

MARKHAM, GERVASE or JER- 
YIS (1568P-1637), author, brother of Fran- 
cis Markham fq. v.], and third son of Robert 
Markham of Cottarn, Nottinghamshire, was 
born about 1568. In his early years he fol- 
lowed the career of arms in the Low Countries, 
and had a captaincy under the Earl of Essex 
in Ireland. Sir John Harington [q. v.] and 
Anthony Babington [q. v.] were first cousins 
of the father. A letter of Harington in the 
'Xugse Antiquae'(i. 260) mentions that when 



in Ireland he received many kindnesses from 
his cousin Markham's three sons. The eldest 
brother, Robert, was, according to Thoroton, 
, ' a fatal unthrift and destroyer of this emi- 
| nent family,' and is possibly identical with the 
Captain Robert Markham who published in 
verse 'The Description of ... Sir lohn Bvrgh 
. . . with his last Seruice at the Isle of Ree r 
(London, 1628, 4to; reissued as 'Memoirs of 
... Sir John Burroughs or Burgh, Knt.,' in 
1758). 

Apparently Gervase turned to literature in 
i search of the means of subsistence. He was 
well equipped for his calling. He was at once 
a scholar, acquainted with Latin, French, 
Italian, Spanish, and probably Dutch; a 
mediocre poet and dramatist, not afraid of 
dealing at times with sacred topics ; a prac- 
tical student of agriculture; and a champion 
of improved methods of horse-breeding and 
of horse-racing. He was himself the owner 
of valuable horses, and is said to have imported 
the first Arab. In a list of Sir Henry Sidney's 
horses in 1589 'Pied Markham 'is entered as 
having been sold to the French ambassador, 
and Gervase sold an Arabian horse to James I 
for 500/. His services to agriculture were 
long remembered. In 1649 Walter Blith,in 
his ' English Improver, or a new Survey of 
Husbandry,' wrote that divers of his pieces, 
containing much both for profit and recrea- 
tion, ' have been advantageous to the king- 
dom ' and ' worthy much honour.' He treats, 
Blith writes, ' of all things at large that either 
concerns the husbandman with the good 
housewife ' (BETDGES, Censura Lit. ii. 169- 
170). His industry w r as prodigious, and as 
a compiler for the booksellers on an excep- 
tionally large scale he has been called ' the 
earliest English hackney writer.' His books 
shamelessly repeat themselves. He was in 
the habit of writing several works on the 
same subject, giving each a different title. 
He also reissued unsold copies of old books 
under new titles, and thus gives endless 
trouble to the conscientious bibliographer. 
On24July 1617 the booksellers, for their own 
i protection, obtained the signature of Gervase 
\ Markham, ' of London, Gent.,' to a paper in 
i which he promised to write no more books on 
1 the treatment of the diseases of horses and 
cattle. Ben Jonson scorned him, declaring 
that ' he was not of the number of the Faith- 
full, and but a base fellow* (Conversation* 
icith Dnanmondj p. 1 1). He appears to have 
collected a library, and one of the first ex- 
amples of an English plate, in a copy of 
Thomas a Kempis of 1584, is his. 

As early as 1593 he revised for the press 

1 Thyrsis and Daphne,' a poem not known to 

t be extant (cf. Stationers' Eeg. 23 April 1593). 



Markham 



167 



Markham 



Two years later he published a poem on the 
fight of the Revenge, entitled ' The most 
Honorable Tragedie of Sir Richard Grinvile, 
Knight,' 1595, dedicated to Lord Mountjoy; 
it also includes a sonnet addressed to Henry 
Wriothesley, earl of Southampton, whence 
Mr. Fleay awkwardly deduces a very strained 
argument to prove that Markham and Shake- 
speare were rivals for Southampton's favour, 
and that Shakespeare reflected on Markham 
in his sonnets. The original edition is a work 
of extreme rarity ; only two copies, in the 
British Museum and Bodleian respectively, 
are known. It was reprinted by Professor 
Arber in 1871. Gervase tells the thrilling 
story of Grenville's fight in 174 stanzas of 
eight lines each. Tennyson told the same tale 
in fifteen, and some of his expressions were 
doubtless suggested by Markham. Where 
Markham has ' Sweet maister gunner, split 
our keele in twaine/ Tennyson reads, ' Sink 
me the ship, master gunner; sink her split 
her in twain.' 

Markharn's ' Poem of Poems, or Sion's Muse, 
contaynynge the Divine Song of Salomon in 
Eight Eclogues,' appeared in 1595, 12mo 
(Bodleian), 2nd edit. 1596 ; it is dedicated to 
Elizabeth, daughter of Sir Philip Sidney. 
Meres refers to it approvingly in his ' Palla- 
dis Tamia,' 1598. His t Devoreux, or Vertues 
Tears,' 1597, 4to, was a lament for the loss 
of Henry III of France and of Walter Deve- 
reux, the Earl of Essex's brother, who was 
slain before Rouen. It is a paraphrase from 
the French of Madame Gene vie ve PetauMau- 
lette, and is dedicated to Dorothy, countess 
of Northumberland, and Penelope, lady Rich, 
Devereux's sisters. Two sonnets prefixed are 
by R. Allot and E. Guilpin respectively. In 
1600 appeared Markham's 'Tears of the Be- 
loved, or Lamentations of St. John concern- 
ing the Death and Passion of Christ Jesus 
our Saviour' (4to), and in 1601 'Marie Mag- 
dalene's Lamentations for the Loss of her 
Master, Jesus.' The two last poems were 
reprinted and edited by Dr. Grosart in 1871. 
In 1600 John Bodenham mentioned Mark- 
ham among the poets whom he quoted in 
his ' Belvidere.' 

Markham published in 1607 ' The English 
Arcadia alluding his beginning from Sir 
Philip Sydney's ending,' 4to. On the same 
subject he issued in 1613 'The Second and 
Last Part of the First Book of the English 
Arcadia, making a Compleate End of the 
First History,' 4to ; a unique copy is in the 
Huth Library. Ben Jonson wrote that 
Markham 'added Arcadia.' 

In 1608 appeared the English version of 
the ' Satires of Ariosto,' which is sometimes 
assigned to Markham, although it is almost 



certainly by Robert Tofte [q. v.] Tofte un- 
doubtedly claimed the work in his ' Blazon 
of Jealousy,' 1615, and complained that it 
had been printed without his knowledge in 
another man's name. But Markham is clearly 
responsible for ' Ariosto's Conclusions of the 
Marriage of Rogero and Rodomontho,' 1598 
, which was reissued in 1608 as 'Rod- 



mouth's Infernall, or the Divell Conquered : 
paraphrastically translated from the French' 
[of Philippe des Portes]. Another curious 
translation of his is 'The Famous Whore, or 
Noble Curtizan, conteining the Lamentable 
Complaint of Paulina, the famous Roman 
Curtizan, sometime Mrs. unto the great Car- 
dinall Hypolito of Est,' translated into verse 
from the Italian, London (by N. B.for John 
Budge), 1609, 4to (COLLIEK, Bibl. Cat. i. 
516). ' 

Markham collaborated with other writers 
in at least two dramatic pieces. Lewis 
Machin was his coadjutor in 'The Dumbe 
Knight,' published in 1608 (4to),and founded 
on a novel by Bandello [see under MACHIN, 
HEISTS Y]. 'Herod and Antipater,' printed 
in 1622, but played by the company of the 
Revels at the Red Bull Theatre long before, 
was by Markham and William Sampson 
[q. v.] 

Markham's practical prose treatises were 
more numerous and popular than his essays 
in pure literature. Of those treating of horses 
the earliest, ' Discourse on Horsemanshippe/ 
London, 1593, 4to, was written when he was 
twenty-five, and dedicated to his father. It 
was licensed for the press 29 Jan. 1592-3, 
and much of it was reissued in 1596 as ' How 
to Chuse, Ride, Traine and Dyet both Hunt- 
ing and Running Horses,' 4to (1599 and 1606), 
and 'How to Trayne and Teach Horses to 
Amble,' London, 1605, 4to. His next work 
on equine topics was ( Cavelarice, or the Eng- 
lish Horseman,' in seven books, each dedi- 
cated to a distinguished personage, including 
the king and the Prince of Wales (1607, 
2nd edit. 1616-17, 4to, 1625 with an eighth 
book on the tricks of Banks's horse). There 
followed four works on farriery, all practi- 
cally identical, although differing in title: 
' The Methode, or Epitome ' (1616, 3rd edit. 
1623), on the diseases of horses, cattle, swine, 
dogs, and fowls; 'The Faithfull Farrier, dis- 
covering some secrets not in print before,' 
1635, 4to ; ' The Masterpiece of Farriery/ 
1636; and 'The Complete Farrier,' 1639. 
Finally, ' Le Marescale, or the Horse Marshall, 
containing those secrets which I practice, 
but never imparted to any man,' is still in 
manuscript, and belongs to the writer of this 
article. 

His sporting works include 'Country Con- 



Markham 



168 



Markham 



tentments' (1611,11th edit, enlarged 1675), 
the second book of which, 'The English 
Huswife,' treating of domestic subjects, was 
often issued separately; 'The Pleasures of 
Princes' (1615 4to, 1635), containing dis- 
courses on the arts of angling and breeding 
fighting-cocks (often issued with the * Eng- 
lish Husbandman ') ; ' Hunger's Prevention, 
or the whole Art of Fowling by Water and 
Land ' (1621) ; and ' The Arte of Archerie ' 
(1634). A very small 12mo volume, with- 
out date, is called ' The Young Sportsman's 
Instructor' in angling, fowling, hawking, and 
hunting : it was reprinted in 1829. Mark- 
ham also brought out a new edition of Juliana 
Berners's ' Book of St. Albans,' under the title 
of * The Gentleman's Academic, or the Booke 
of S. Albans,' London (for HumfreyLownes), 
1595, 4to; the third and last part, 'The Booke 
of Armorie,' has a new title-page. 

In the interests of agriculture Markham 
edited Barnabe Googe's translation of ' The 
Art of Husbandry,' by Heresbach, in 1614 
(another edit. 1631), and 'The Country 
Farm ' in 1616, a revision of Richard Surflet's 
translation (1600) of Liebault and Estienne's 
' Maison Rustique,' with additions from 
French, Spanish, and Italian authors. Very 
similar treatises were the ' English Husband- 
man,' 3 pts. 1613-15 (4to), 1635 (part 3 is a 
reissue of ' The Pleasures of Princes ') ; ' Cheap 
and Good Husbandry,' 1614, 13th edit. 1676; 
' A Farewell to Husbandry, or the Inriching 
of ... Barren . . . Grounds ' (1620, 10th 
edit. 1676); 'The Country House Wife's 
Garden,' 1623, 4to; 'The Way to get Wealth,' 
reprints of earlier tracts, with a chapter on 
gardening by William Lawson (1625, 14th 
edit. 1683) ; < The whole Arte of Husbandry 
in four bookes' (1631); and the 'Inrichment 
of the Weald of Kent' (1625, five edi- 
tions). 

Four books may be referred to the results 
of Markham's military life, namely, ' Honour 
in his Perfection, or a Treatise in Commenda- 
tion of ... Henry, Earle of Oxenford, Henry, 
Earle of Southampton, Robert,Earle of Essex, 
and ... Robert Bartue, Lord Willoughby 
of Eresby ' (1 624) ; ' The Souldier's Accidence, 
or an Introduction into Military Discipline ' 
(1625); <The Sovldier's Grammar' (1626-7, 
1639, in two parts); and 'The Soldier's 
Exercise, in three books' (1639, 3rd edit. 
1641). Markham's 'Vox Militis,' 1625, is 
a reissue of Barnaby Rich's 'Alarum to 
England.' 

Several books, whose authors wrote under 
the initials J. M., G. M., or I. M., have been 
doubtfully assigned to Jervis, Gervase, or 

vis Markham. Among these is 'A Health 

the Gentlemanly Profession of Serving- 



men, or the Serving Man's Comfort,' London 
(by W. W.), 1598, 4to. ' The Epistle to the 
Gentle Reader' is here signed J. M., but the 
writer describes the work as ' being primo- 
geniti the first batch of my baking ; ' and as 
Markham had published much before 1598, 
it seems unlikely that this book should be by 
him (COLLIER, Bibl. Cat. ii. 328-9). ' Con- 
ceyted Letters, newly layde open : or a most 
excellent bundle of new wit, wherin is knit 
up together all the perfections or arte of 
Episteling,' 1618, 4to, 1622, 1638, has a pre- 
face signed 'I. M.,' and may well be by 
Markham. 

Markham married a daughter of J. Gels- 
thorp, but no children are recorded. He was 
buried at St. Giles's, Cripplegate, on 3 Feb. 
1636-7. A portrait of him was engraved by 
T. Cross. 

Markham has been confused, among others 
by Hume in his ' History of England/ with 
a very distant connection, Gervase Markham 
of Dunham, Nottinghamshire, perhaps son of 
John Markham of King's Walden, Bedford- 
shire (MS. HarL 2109, f. 52), whose disre- 
putable quarrels gave him an evil notoriety. 
In 1597 he had a quarrel with Sir John 
Holies, and on 27 Nov. 1616 was fined 500/. 
in the Star-chamber for sending a challenge 
to Lord Darcy. He died in 1636, and lies 
buried under a fine monument in Laneham 
Church. 

[Brydges's Censura Literaria, passim ; Lang- 
baine's Dramatic Poets ; Brydges's Restituta, ii. 
469; Hunter's Chorus Vatum (MS. Addit. 24491, 
f. 245) ; Heay's Biog. Chronicle of the English 
Drama; Baker's Biog. Dram. ; Lowndes's Bibl. 
Manual (Bohn) ; Brit. Mus. Cat. ; Dr. Grosart's 
Memoir in his edition of Gervase's two sacred 
poems.] C. R. M. 

MARKHAM, SIR GRIFFIN (1564?- 
1644?), soldier and conspirator, born about 
1564, was the eldest of the twelve sons of 
Thomas Markham of Ollerton, Nottingham- 
shire, and Kirby Bellars, Leicestershire, by 
Mary, the heiress of Ryce Griffin of Bray- 
brooke and Dingley, Northamptonshire. He 
was a first cousin of Robert Markham of 
Cottam, the father of Francis and Gervase, 
who are separately noticed. Sir Griffin's 
father was high steward of Mansfield and 
standard-bearer to Queen Elizabeth's band of 
gentlemen pensioners. Some of his brothers 
gave great trouble to their father by becoming 
recusants. Robert, the second, went over to 
Rome in 1592. 

Griffin served as a volunteer under Sir 
Francis Vere in the Netherlands, and he 
was at the siege of Groningen in 1594. He 
was afterwards with the Earl of Essex before 
Rouen, when he received the honour of 



Markham 



169 



Markham 



knighthood. For an offence which does not 
appear to be specified he was confined in 
the Gatehouse in 1596, and there are several 
letters from him at this time preserved at 
Hatfield. He was soon released. In 1597 
he went to Spain, and returned with news 
of the sailing of a Spanish fleet. He seems 
to have been turbulent and restless. When 
the Earl of Essex was sent to Ireland in 1599, 
Markham served under him in command of 
all the cavalry in Connaught. Sir John Har- 
ington wrote of him as a soldier well ac- 
quainted with both the theory and practice 
of war. On the accession of James I, Mark- 
ham became connected with the conspiracy 
having for its object the accession of Ara- 
bella Stuart to the throne. He was appre- 
hended in July 1603, at the same time as 
Sir Walter Ealeigh, Lords Grey and Cobham, 
Watson a priest, and some others. The pro- 
clamation for his arrest described him as ' a 
man with a large broad face, of a bleak com- 
plexion, a big nose, and one of his hands 
maimed by a shot of a bullet.' The lawyers 
made out two branches of the plot, called 
the l Main ' and the ' Bye,' and there was much 
false swearing at the trial, which took place 
at Winchester in November. Markham was 
accused of having been concerned in the 
1 Bye 'plot. He confessed that he had yielded 
to the persuasions of Watson, the priest. 
All the prisoners were convicted of high 
treason. Brooke and Watson were executed. 
On 9 Dec. Markham was brought out to a 
scaffold in front of Winchester Castle, but 
just as he was putting his head on the block 
he was ordered by the sheriff to rise, and 
was led back into the great hall of the castle. 
Lords Grey and Cobham were treated exactly 
in the same way. It was then proclaimed 
by the sheriff that the king had granted them 
their lives. On the 15th the prisoners were 
remanded to the Tower. Markham was ban- 
ished, and his estates confiscated. He had 
married Anne, daughter of Peter Roos of 
Laxton, but had no children. He went to 
the Low Countries, where, in February 1609, 
he fought a duel with Sir Edmund Baynham 
' upon discourse about the Powder Plot.' 
In the autumn of that year Markham's wife 
opened communications with Cecil, in the 
hope of getting a pardon for her husband. 
In 1610 he was in communication with the 
English envoy Trumbull at Antwerp ( WIN- 
WOOD, Memorials, iii. 142). Markham was 
in close correspondence with Beaulieu, the 
secretary to the English embassy at Paris, 
forwarding him information of various kinds, 
and in one of his letters he speaks of having 
visited several of the German courts. Mark- 
ham was living in March 1643-4, when he 



wrote to the Marquis of Newcastle from 
Vienna, regretting that his age precluded 
him from fighting for Charles I ( Cal. State 
Papers^ Dom., 1644, pp. 35, 45, 46, 54, and 
I 86). Nothing further is known of him. His 
brother William assisted in the attempted 
escape of Lady Arabella Stuart from the 
Tower in 1611, and died in 1617. 

There is a pedigree belonging to the present 
writer, drawn for Markham by William Cam- 
den, the Clarenceux king of arms, on vellum, 
twelve feet long, with 155 shields of arms 
emblazoned on it. The latest date on this 
pedigree is 1617, and Camden died in 1623, 
so that the pedigree must have been drawn 
between those dates. The dates are re- 
ferred to reigns of German emperors instead 
of English kings ; it was perhaps prepared 
to assist in gaining Markham an order of 
knighthood or other distinction at a German 
court. 

[There is an account of the trial in the State 
Trials, and references in the Calendar of State 
Papers (Domestic), 1603. Many references to 
the proceedings of Markham occur in the Cecil 
Correspondence at Hatfield, including five letters 
from Brussels in 1607-8-9, praying for a pardon, 
in Sir Dudley Carl eton's Letters, and in theLans- 
downe and Harleian Collections. The letters to 
Beaulieu from Diisseldorf, 1610-12-23, and one 
to the Duke of Buckingham from Ratisbon in 
1623, are among the Lansdowne MSS. Mark- 
ham's Pedigree is in Proc. Soc. Antiq. 17 Nov. 
1859.] C. R. M. 

MARKHAM, JOHN (d. 1409), judge, 
came of a family long settled in a village of 
that name in Nottinghamshire, and for two 
generations closely connected with the law 
(Foss, Judges of England, iv. 172). His father 
was Robert Markham, a serjeant-at-law under 
Edward III, and his mother a daughter of 
Sir John Caunton. Markham is said, on no 
very good authority, to have received his 
legal education at Gray's Inn, and became a 
king's serjeant in 1390 (ib.~) He was made 
a judge of the common pleas on 7 July 1396, 
and sat on the bench until February 1408. 
Markham was chosen as one of the triers of 
petitions in the two parliaments of 1397, and 
in those of Henry IV, from 1401 to 1407 
(Rot. Parl. iii. 338, 348, 455, 486, 522, 545, 
567, 609). He was a member of the com- 
mission whose advice Henry of Lancaster 
took, in September 1399, as to the manner 
in which the change of dynasty should be 
carried out, and which at nine in the morn- 
ing of 29 Sept. received Richard's renuncia- 
tion of the crown in the Tower (ib. iii. 416 ; 
ADAM or USK, p. 31). His name does not 
appear on the rolls of parliament among those 
of the seven commissioners who next day 



Markham 



170 



Markham 



pronounced sentence upon Richard m the 
name of parliament (Rot. Parl. iii. 422), but 
Chief-justice Thirning, in announcing the 
sentence to Richard on behalf of his fellow- 
commissioners on Wednesday, 10 Oct., enu- 
merated Markham among them (ib. p. 424 ; 
KNIGHTON, in Decem Scriptores, ii. 2760 ; 
Chronique de la Traison et Mort de Richart 
Deux, ed. Williams, p. 219). Markham is 
doubtfully stated to have been the judge 
who is credited with having sent Prince 
Henry to prison (FRANCIS MARKHAM, Manu- 
script History of the Family, 1606 ; see art. 
GASCOIGNE, SIR WILLIAM). Retiring from 
the bench, it would seem, in 1408, he died on 
31 Dec. 1409, and was buried in Markham 
Church, where his monument still remains 
(Foss, v. 173 ; Fcedera, viii. 584). By his 
first wife, Elizabeth, daughter of Sir John, 
and sister and coheir of Sir Hugh Cressy, 
he had a son Robert, ancestor of William 
Markham, archbishop of York 1777-1807 
[q. v.], and apparently also the son John (d. 
1479) who is separately noticed, although 
some modern authorities make Markham's 
second wife, Millicent, widow of Sir Nicho- 
las Burdon, and daughter and coheir of Sir 
John Bekeringe, his mother. After her hus- 
band's death she married Sir William Mering, 
and died in 1419. 

[Information kindly supplied by C. R. Mark- 
ham, esq., C.B. ; Rymer's Fcedera, original ed., 
Capgrave's Chron. p. 272, and De Illustribus 
Henricis, p. 113; Adam of Usk, ed. Maunde 
Thompson; Thoroton's Nottinghamshire, ed. 
Thoresby; other authorities in the text.] 

J. T-T. 

MARKHAM, SIR JOHN (d. 1479), chief 
justice of England, was the son of the pre- 
ceding by either his first or second wife (Foss 
Judges, iv. 441). Francis Markham [q. v/ 
in his manuscript ' History of the Family, 1 
written in 1606, Thoroton in his 'History of 
Nottinghamshire' (iii. 230, 417), and Wotton 
in his ' Baronetage/ described him as the 
son of the second wife, but the writ of dower 
which she brought in 1410 against 'John, 
son and heir of her husband by his wife 
Elizabeth,' seems to point the other way 
(Year-Book, 12 Hen. IV, fol. 2). His ex- 
treme youth when his father died, how- 
ever, makes it almost certain that he was 
a son by the second marriage. He does not 
appear as an advocate until 1430, having 
studied the law, according to a doubtful 
authority, at Gray's Inn (Foss, p. 442). At 
Easter 1440 he was made a serjeant-at-law, 
served the king in that capacity, and on 
6 Feb. 1444 was raised to a seat on the king's 
bench. In the subsequent troubles, though 
he probably took no active part, he was 



popular with the Yorkists. He and his elder 
brother Robert were both made knights of 
the Bath at the coronation of Edward IV. 
In October 1450 he reproved an enemy of 
John Paston for the injuries done to Pas- 
ton, and for ' ungoodly ' private life (Paston 
Letters, i. 158). On the accession of Ed- 
ward IV he was immediately promoted to 
the office of chief justice of the king's bench, 
13 May 1461, in place of Sir John Fortescue. 
He was credited with having procured a 
knighthood for Yelverton, ' who had loked 
to have ben chef juge,' to console him for 
his disappointment (ib. ii. 14). On 23 Jan. 
1469 Markham was superseded by Sir Tho- 
mas Billing (Foss, p. 442). Fuller ( Wor- 
thies, bk. ii. p. 217), who couples him with 
Fortescue as famous for his impartiality, 
tells us that the king deprived him of his 
office because he directed a jury in the case 
of Sir Thomas Cooke, accused of high treason 
for lending money to Margaret of Anjou 
(July 1468), to find him guilty only of mis- 
prision of treason. Markham certainly pre- 
sided on the occasion in question, and his 
removal closely followed it (WILLIAM WOR- 
CESTER, p. 790 ; cf. FABYAN, ed. Ellis, p. 656). 
Sir John Markham then laid down the 
maxim of our jurisprudence that ' a subject 
may arrest for treason, the king cannot, for 
if the arrest be illegal the party has no 
remedy against the king ' (HALLAM, Consti- 
tutional History, i. 526 ; MACAULAT, Essays). 
He is said to have won the name of the 
' upright judge,' and Sir Nicholas Throck- 
morton, when on his trial in 1554, urged the 
chief justice to incline his judgment after 
the example of Judge Markham. and others 
who eschewed corrupt judgments (State 
Trials, i. 894). 

Markham spent the rest of his life in re- 
tirement at Sedgebrook Hall, Lincolnshire, 
which he had inherited from his father, and 
dying there in 1479, was buried in the parish 
church. 

By his wife Margaret, daughter and co- 
heiress of Sir Simon Leke of Cottam, Not- 
tinghamshire, he had a son Thomas and a 
daughter Elizabeth. A descendant of Sir 
John Markham was created a baronet by 
Charles I in 1642. The title became extinct 
in 1779 ( WOTTON, Baronetage, ii. 330 ; Foss, 
iv. 444). 

[Information kindly supplied by C. R. Mark- 
ham, esq., C.B. ; William Worcester in Steven- 
son's English Wars in France (Rolls Ser.), vol. 
ii. ; Past on Letters, ed. Gairdner, ii. 127, 133, 
144; Holinshed's Chronicle; Stow's Annals ; 
Fuller's Worthies, ed. 1662, and Church Hist.; 
Foss's Judges of England, ed. 1848-51 ; Burke 's 
Extinct Baronetage.] J. T-T. 



Markham 



171 



Markham 



MARKHAM, JOHN (1761-1827), ad- 
miral, second son of William Markham [q. v.], 
archbishop of York, by Sarah, daughter of I 
John Goddard, was born in Westminster on 
13 June 1761. At the age of eight he was 
sent to Westminster School, where he was \ 
under the special charge of William Vincent 
[q. v.], author of ' The History of the Com- j 
merce and Navigation of the Ancients.' In I 
March 1775 he entered the navy on board j 
the Romney, with Captain G. K. Elphiiistone j 
(afterwards Lord Keith) [q. v.], and in her j 
made a voyage to Newfoundland. In March 
1776 he followed Elphinstone to the Perseus, 
going out to join Lord Howe at New York. 
On the way she captured a couple of American 
privateers, in one of which Markham was sent 
as prize-master, with a crew of four men. 
Going to the West Indies in February 1777, 
the Perseus captured another privateer, to 
which again young Markham was sent as 
prize-master, and a third time, in May, he 
was appointed in a like capacity to a large 
merchant-ship, captured on the coast of Caro- 
lina. He had with him four men and a boy 
from the Perseus, and four of the prisoners, j 
americanised Frenchmen, to assist in work- j 
ing the ship. During a violent gale the ship | 
sprang a leak, and became waterlogged. The | 
English seamen, growing desperate, got dead j 
drunk, and the Frenchmen, arming themselves 
as they best could, attacked Markham, who 
was at the helm. He succeeded, however, 
in beating them below. The ship, too, though 
waterlogged, was laden with barrel-staves, 
and kept afloat until her crew were rescued by 
a passing vessel. Some months later Mark- 
ham arrived in England, to find his family in 
mourning for him, Elphinstone having writ- 
ten that he had certainly been lost with the 
ship. In March 1779 he was appointed to 
the Phoenix, and in July was moved into the 
Roebuck, with Sir Andrew Snape Hamond 
[q. v.], in which he returned to North Ame- 
rica. Hamond appointed him acting-lieu- 
tenant, and in May 1780 Arbuthnot, to whom 
he had private introductions, and who had 
hoisted his flag on board during the siege of 
Charleston, gave him a commission as first 
lieutenant of the Roebuck. In April 1781 
he was moved into the Royal Oak, and in 
August Admiral Graves took him as first 
lieutenant of the London, his flagship [see 
GRAVES, THOMAS, LORD GRAVES]. 

In the London, Markham was presentinthe 
battle off Cape Henry on 5 Sept., and after- 
wards went to Jamaica, where, in March 
1782, Sir Peter Parker promoted him to 
command the Volcano fireship. In May 
Rodney moved him to the Zebra sloop, and 
sent him out to cruise off Cape Tiburon. On 



22 May he fell in with a brig flying a French 
ensign. He chased her, and was fast gaining 
on her, when she hoisted a union jack at the 
fore. Markham supposed that this was a 
signal to a small craft in company, and as- 
the motions of the brig were otherwise sus- 
picious, he fired into her. It then appeared 
that she was a cartel, and meant the English 
jack for a flag of truce. On the complaint of 
the French lieutenant in command, Markham 
was tried by court-martial and cashiered, 
but Rodney, reviewing the evidence, re- 
instated him on his own authority, and the 
king in council, on the report of the ad- 
miralty, completely restored him, 13 Nov. 
He received half-pay for the time, June to 
November, that he was out of the service, 
and on 3 Jan. 1783 was promoted to the rank 
of post-captain. 

From 1783 to 1786 he commanded the 
Sphynx in the Mediterranean. He was then 
on half-pay for seven years, during which he 
travelled in France, in Sweden, in Russia, 
and in North America. In June 1793 he was 
appointed to the Blonde, in which, after a 
few months' service in the Channel, he went 
out to the West Indies with Sir John Jervis 
(afterwards Earl of St. Vincent), and took part 
in the reduction of Martinique. The Blonde 
was then sent home with despatches, and 
during the summer was attached to the squa- 
dron under Admiral George Montagu [q.v.], or 
cruising among the Channel Islands and on 
the French coast. In August Markham was 
moved into the Hannibal, and in May 1795 
was again sent out to the West Indies, 
where he was met by the sad news of the 
death of a dearly loved younger brother, 
David, colonel of the 20th regiment, slain 
at Port-au-Prince on 26 March. The shock 
was very great, and owing to the terrible 
sickness at Port-au-Prince, afloat as well as 
ashore, the work was excessive. In Novem- 
ber he was invalided ; more than one-fourth 
of the ship's company died, and another 
fourth was in hospital. 

In March 1797 Markham commissioned 
the Centaur at Woolwich, and during the 
following months sat on many courts-martial 
on the ringleaders of the mutiny at the Nore. 
He did not get to sea till September, and 
was then employed during a stormy winter 
on the south coast of Ireland. In May he 
sailed under the command of Sir Roger 
Curtis to join Lord St. Vincent, off Cadiz. 
St. Vincent's rule was at all times severe, 
and especially so during the blockade of Cadiz. 
There had been some cases of fever on board 
the Centaur, and the surgeon of the flagship, 
who was sent to examine into the cause, re- 
ported that they were due to i the filthy 



Markham 



172 



Markham 



condition of the woollen clothing.' St. Vin- 
cent thereon ordered, among other measures, 
the woollen clothes to be thrown overboard. 
Markham remonstrated, denying the truth 
of the allegation respecting the woollen 
clothing, and an angry correspondence fol- 
lowed. Having carried his point, St. Vincent 
bore Markham no grudge, and soothed his 
wounded feelings by sending him on detached 
service under Commodore Duckworth [q. v.] 
to capture Minorca. 

Continuing one of the Mediterranean fleet, 
the Centaur took part in the vain chase of 
the French round the Mediterranean and 
back to Brest, in May- August 1799, but 
when Lord Keith returned to his station, the 
Centaur was left to join the Channel fleet, 
and to take part in the blockade of Brest at 
once, under the command of Lord Bridport, 
and the next year under the more stringent 
government of Lord St. Vincent. The two 
men had, however, learnt to understand 
each other ; Markham cordially co-operated 
with St. Vincent ; and when, in February 
1801, St. Vincent was appointed first lord 
of the admiralty, he selected Markham as 
one of his colleagues at the board. For the 
next three years Markham's career was iden- 
tified with St. Vincent's. In November, on 
the death of Lord Hugh Seymour, he was 
returned to parliament by Portsmouth, and 
thus became the representative of the ad- 
miralty in the House of Commons, although 
at the board junior to Sir Thomas Trou- 
bridge [q. v.], who was not in parliament. 
He retired from the admiralty with St. Vin- 
cent in May 1804, but returned to it in 
January 1806, as a colleague of Lord Howick 
[see GREY, CHARLES, second EARL GREY], 
and afterwards of Thomas Grenville [q. v.J, 
till March 1807, when he practically retired 
from public life, though he continued to sit 
in parliament for Portsmouth till 1826, with 
one short break from 1818 to 1820. In 1826 
his failing health compelled him to retire 
altogether. He was ordered to winter in a 
milder climate. He left England in Septem- 
ber, and, travelling by easy stages, reached 
Naples in January 1827. He died there on 
13 Feb., and was there buried. 

According to Sir William Hotham [q. v.], 
there was an appearance of moroseness about 
Markham, despite his notable private virtues. 
' Though he had not many opportunities of 
distinguishinghimself,[he was] a very zealous 
and attentive officer. His acquaintance with 
Lord Lansdowne brought him politically in 
connection with Lord St. Vincent, of whose 
admiralty board he was the efficient member. 
. . . He was very reserved and uncommunica- 
tive in everything connected with public news 



while in office, and my venerable friend, his 
father, used to say that he never got so little 
naval news from anybody as the lord of the 
admiralty. Though his countenance was 
more stern, and his figure in no way so good, 
he bore a strong resemblance to the arch- 
bishop.' He married in 1796 Maria, daughter 
of George Rice and the Baroness Dynevor. 
She died in 1810, leaving issue three sons 
and a daughter. Their youngest son, Fre- 
derick, a distinguished Indian soldier and 
sportsman, is separately noticed. 

Portraits of Markham by Lawrence and by 
Beechey, as well as miniatures copied from 
these, and a miniature of his wife by Mrs. 
Mee, are in the possession of the family. They 
have not been engraved. 

[A Naval Career during the Old War, being a 
Narrative of the Life of Admiral John Markham, 
is published anonymously, but is understood to 
be by Clements R. Markham, esq., C.B., F.R.S.l 

J.K.L. 

MARKHAM, PETER, M.D. (f. 1758), 
writer on adulteration, exposed with some 
force the abuses in the manufacture of bread 
during the great scarcity of 1757. His writ- 
ings did much to attract the attention of 
parliament to the subject, and some of his 
suggestions were adopted in the act for the 
due making of bread (31 Geo. II, c. 29). 
He published: 1. 'Syhoroc, or Considera- 
tions on the Ten Ingredients used in the 
Adulteration of Bread Flour and Bread ; to 
which is added a Plan of Redress,' &c., Lon- 
don, 1758, 8vo. Reprinted in the same year 
with the title, l A Dissertation on Adul- 
terated Bread,' &c. 2. ' A Final Warning 
to the Public to avoid the Detected Poison ; 
being an Exposure . . . [of] an Infamous 
Pamphlet [by Henry Jackson] called " An 
Essay on Bread,"' &c.; 2nd edit. London, 
1758, 8vo. Jackson's pamphlet had been 
written in reply to ' Poison Detected ' and 
' The Nature of Bread Honestly and Dis- 
honestly Made,' published in the same year. 

[Monthly Review, 1758, xviii. 493.] 

W. A. S. H. 

MARKHAM, WILLIAM (1719-1807), 
archbishop of York, eldest son of Major Wil- 
liam Markham, by his wife Elizabeth, daugh- 
ter of George Markham of Worksop Lodge, 
Nottinghamshire, was born at Kinsale, in the 
county of Cork, where his father eked out 
his scanty half-pay by keeping a school. He 
was baptised on 9 April 1719, and on 21 June 
1733 was admitted to Westminster School 
as a home boarder. In the following year 
he was elected head into college, and in 1738 
obtained a studentship of Christ Church, Ox- 



Markham 



173 



Markham 



ford, where lie matriculated on 6 June 1738. 
He graduated B.A. on 13 May 1742, M.A. 
on 28 March 1745, B.C.L. on 20 Nov. 1752, 
and D.C.L. on 24 Nov. 1752. At Oxford 
Markham acquired the reputation of being 
one of the best scholars of his time. His 
' Judicium Paridis' was published in the 
second volume of Vincent Bourne's l Musse 
Anglican,' 1741, pp. 277-82, while several 
other specimens of his Latin verse, which 
appeared in the second volume of ' Carmina 
Quadragesimalia/ Oxford, 1748, 8vo, were col- 
lected and privately printed in 1819 and 1820 
by Francis Wrangnam under the same title. 
Markham appears to have been undecided for 
some years as to what profession he should 
follow. In 1753 he was offered the post of 
head-master of Westminster School, in suc- 
cession to John Nicoll, which after some 
hesitation he decided to accept. Jeremy 
Bentham, who was at Westminster from 1755 
to 1760, thus describes his head-master: 
' Our great glory was Dr. Markham ; he was a 
tall, portly man, and " high he held his head." 
He married a Dutch woman, who brought 
him a considerable fortune. He had a large 
quantity of classical knowledge. His business 
was rather in courting the great than in 
attending to the school. Any excuse served 
his purpose for deserting his post. He had 
a great deal of pomp, especially when he 
lifted his hand, waved it, and repeated Latin 
verses. If the boys performed their tasks 
well it was well, if ill, it was not the less 
well. We stood prodigiously in awe of him ; 
indeed he was an object of adoration' ( Works 
of Jeremy Bentham, 1843, x. 30). Markham 
was appointed chaplain to George II in 1756, 
and prebendary of Durham on 22 June 1759. 
In the face of a good deal of opposition he 
obtained a bill in 1755 empowering him and 
Thomas Salter ' to build houses and open a 
square in and upon ' Dean's Yard, Westmin- 
ster (28 Geo. II, c. 54), and in 1758 the first 
classical scenes used in the representation of 
the Westminster Play were presented by him 
to the school. 

In a letter to the Duke of Bedford, dated 
14 Sept. 1763, Markham complained of ill- 
health, which made his ' attendance on the 
school very painful' to him, and asked for 
assistance in obtaining crown preferment 
(Correspondence of John, fourth Duke of 
Bedford, 1846,iii. 247-8 ; see also pp. 273-7). 
He retired from the head-mastership, on his 
appointment to the deanery of Rochester, in 
February 1765, and in the same year was 
presented to the vicarage of Boxley, Kent. 
In October 1767 he was nominated dean of 
Christ Church, Oxford, when he resigned the 
deanery of Rochester. Markham succeeded 



Edmund Keene as bishop of Chester, and was 
consecrated on 17 Feb. 1771 at the Chapel 
Royal, Whitehall. He thereupon resigned 
his Kentish living and his prebendal stall at 
Durham, but continued to hold the deanery 
of Christ Church in commendam until his pro- 
motion to York. Through the influence of 
his friend Lord Mansfield, Markham was 
appointed preceptor to the young Prince of 
Wales and Prince Frederick, bishop of Osna- 
burg, on 12 April 1771 (WALPOLE, Memoirs 
of the Reign of George III, 1845, iv. 311), 
but was suddenly dismissed from this post in 
May 1776 (WALPOLE, Journal of the Reign 
of George III, 1859, ii. 49-52 ; see also the 
Political Memoranda of Francis, ffth Duke 
of Leeds, Camd. Soc. Publ. 1884, pp. 5-9). 
In January 1777 he was translated to the 
archiepiscopal see of Yark, appointed lord 
high almoner, and sworn a member of the 
privy council. On 30 May 1777 Markham 
replied l with great warmth ' to the attacks 
made upon him by the Duke of Grafton and 
Lord Shelburne for preaching doctrines sub- 
versive of the constitution (Parl. Hist. xix. 
327, 328, 347-8). According to Walpole he 
is said to have declared on this occasion that 
( though as a Christian and a bishop he ought 
to bear wrongs, there were injuries which 
would provoke any patience, and that he, if in- 
sulted, should know how to chastise any petu- 
lance ' (Journal of the Reign of George III, 
1859, ii. 119). These ' pernicious' doctrines, 
which Chatham subsequently denounced in 
the House of Lords (Parl. Hist. xix. 491), 
were contained in a sermon preached by 
Markham in the parish church of St. Mary- 
le-Bow, before the Society for the Propaga- 
tion of the Gospel in Foreign Parts, on 
21 Feb. 1777 (London, 4to). Markham seems 
to have been unable to forget this attack, 
and was one of the four peers who signed 
the protest against the third reading of 
the Chatham Annuity Bill on 2 June 1778 
(RoGEES, Complete Collection of the Protests 
of the House of Lords, 1875, ii. 177-8). 
While on his way to the House of Lords on 
2 June 1780 Markham was attacked by the 
protestant petitioners, and subsequently hear- 
ing of Lord Mansfield's danger he flew down 
from the committee room in which he was sit- 
ting, ' rushed through the crowd, and carried 
offhis friend in Abraham's bosom ' ( WALPOLE, 
Letters, vii. 384). His town house at that 
period adjoined Lord Mansfield's in Blooms- 
bury Square, and in a letter to his son John, 
Markham gives a graphic description of the 
attack on Lord Mansfield's house by the 
Gordon rioters, and of his own narrow escape 
from the violence of the mob (History of the 
Markham Family, pp. 60-5). Markham was 



Markham 



174 



Markham 



a staunch friend of Warren Hastings. His 
eldest son, William, who had been private 
secretary to Hastings, and was afterwards 
appointed resident at Benares, gave evidence 
at the trial in May 1792, and was cross- 
examined by Anst rather and Burke (BOND, 
Speeches of the Managers and Counsel in the 
Trial of Warren Hastings, 1 859-61, vol. iii. 
pp. v-vi). The intemperate language which 
Markham used in reference to Burke's cross- 
examination of Auriol on 25 May 1793 (ib. 
pp. xxiii-iv) was brought under the notice 
of the House of Commons by Whitbread on 
12 June following. After a debate, in which 
Windham, Dundas, Francis, Burke, and Fox 
took part, a motion for adjournment was 
carried, and the matter was allowed to drop 
(Par/. Hist. xxx. 983-94). On 24 March 
1795, when the subject of the present from 
the Nabob Wazir came under consideration, 
Markham expressed his opinion of the con- 
duct of the trial in the strongest terms, and 
declared that Hastings had been 'treated 
not as if he were a gentleman, whose cause is 
before you, but as if you were trying a horse- 
stealer' (BoKD, vol. iv. p. Ixi). 

Markham died at his house in South Audley 
Street, London, on 3 Nov. 1807, aged 89, and 
was buried on the llth of the same month 
in the north cloister of Westminster Abbey, 
where a monument was subsequently raised 
to his memory by his grandchildren. 

Markham was' a pompous and warm-tem- 
pered prelate, with a magnificent presence 
and almost martial bearing. According to Dr. 
Parr his ' powers of mind, reach of thought, 
memory, learning, scholarship, and taste were 
of the very first order ; but he was indolent, 
and his composition wanted this powerful 
aiguillon' (History of the Markham Family, 
p. 66). Walpole calls him ' a pert, arrogant 
man ' (Memoirs of the Reign of George III, 
iv. 311), and alludes to him as that l warlike j 
metropolitan archbishop Turpin ' (WALPOLE, | 
Letters, vii. 80-1). He is severely satirised 
in the twenty-first ' Probationary Ode ' (The 
Rolliad, 1795, pp. 372-80). 

Markham married, on 16 June 1759, Sarah, 
daughter of John Goddard, a wealthy Eng- j 
lish merchant of Rotterdam, by whom he 
had six sons viz. (1) William, who died 
on 1 Jan. 1815 ; (2) John [q. v.], an admiral 
of the blue in the royal navy ; (3) George, 
who became dean of York, and died on 30 Sept. 
1822; (4) David, a lieutenant-colonel of the 
20th regiment of foot, who was killed in the 
island of St. Domingo N on 26 March 1795, 
while directing an attack against a fort near 
Port-au-Prince ; (5) Robert, archdeacon of i 
York and rector of Bolton Percy, Yorkshire, 
who died on 17 July 1837 ; and (6) Osborne, 



comptroller of the barrack department and 
M.P. for Calne, who died on 22 Oct. 1827 
and seven daughters, viz. (1) Henrietta 
Sarah, who married Ewan Law of Horsted, 
Sussex, on 28 June 1784, and died on 
24 April 1829; (2) Elizabeth Katherine, 
who became the second wife of William 
Barnett of Little Missenden Abbey, Bucking- 
hamshire, on 13 April 1796, and died at Flo- 
rence on 22 April 1820 ; (3) Alicia Harriette, 
who married the Rev. H. Foster Mills, rector 
of Elmley, Yorkshire, on 27 Nov. 1794, and 
died on 29 Feb. 1840 ; (4) Georgina, who died 
unmarried on 28 May 1793, aged 21 ; (5) Fre- 
derica, who married William, third earl of 
Mansfield, on 16 Sept. 1797, and died on 

29 April 1860 : (6) Anne Katherine, who died 
unmarried on 3 Oct. 1808, aged 30 ; and 
(7) Cecilia, who married the Rev. Robert 
Philip Goodenough, rector of Carlton, Not- 
tinghamshire, on 6 Dec. 1808, and died on 

30 March 1865. Markham's widow died in 
Mortimer Street, Cavendish Square, London, 
on 26 Jan. 1814, aged 75, and was buried in 
the north cloister of Westminster Abbey on 
3 Feb. following. 

Markham was at one time an intimate 
friend of Edmund Burke [q. v.] Their ac- 
quaintance began in 1753, and in 1758 Mark- 
ham stood godfather to Burke's only son, 
Richard. An interesting letter from Mark- 
ham to the Duchess of Queensberry, dated 
25 Sept. 1759, soliciting her influence with 
Pitt to procure the British consulship at 
Madrid for Burke, is printed among the t Cor- 
respondence of William Pitt, Earl of Chat- 
ham,' 1838, i. 430-3. Markham appears to 
have assisted Burke in his work for the 
' Annual Register,' and to have corrected and 
revised the ' Philosophical Enquiry into the 
Origin of our Ideas on the Sublime and the 
Beautiful,' London, 1756, 8vo. In reply to 
the censures of Markham, who believed him 
to be the author of ' Junius's Letters,' Burke 
wrote an elaborate defence of his own con- 
duct (BuEZE, Correspondence, i. 276-338). 
Their friendship was finally broken off by 
the trial of Warren Hastings [q. v.] 

Markham's portrait by Sir Joshua Reynolds 
(1760) hangs in the hall of Christ Church, 
Oxford. Another, painted by the same art 1st 
in 1776, was lent to the Winter Exhibition 
of the Old Masters in 1876 by the Archbishop 
of York ( Catalogue, No. 28). There is a por- 
trait by Hoppner (1799) at Windsor Castle, 
a bust in the library of Christ Church, Ox- 
ford, and another portrait at Westminster 
School. There are also engravings of Mark- 
ham by J. R. Smith, Fisher, and S. W. Rey- 
nolds after Sir Joshua, by James Ward after 
Romney, and by Heath after Hoppner. 



Markland 



175 



Markland 






A volume of letters written by the Prince 
of Wales and Prince Frederick to Markham 
while he was their preceptor is preserved at 
Becca Hall , Yorkshire. An interesting series 
of Markham's autograph correspondence with 
the Rev. Edward Bentham relating to the 
education of the students of Christ Church, 
Oxford, is referred to in l Notes and Queries/ 
4th ser. ii. 468. A few of Markham's ser- 
mons were published separately. 

[D. F. Markham's Hist, of theMarkham Family, 
1854; A Naval Career during the Old War, 
1883; Alumni Westm. 1852; Chester's West- 
minster Abbey Kegisters (Harl. Soc. Publ. 1876) ; 
Nichols's Lit. Anecd. 1812-15; Nichols's Illus- 
trations of Literary Hist. 1858 ; Walpole's Let- 
ters, edited by Peter Cunningham ; Burke's 
Corresp. 1844, i. 92-4, 270-2, 276-338, 457-9 ; 
Grenville Papers, 1852-3, ii. 474-5, 485-6, iv. 
166-7 ; Hist, of the Trial of Warren Hastings ; 
Cunningham's Lives of Eminent and Illustrious 
Englishmen, 1837, vii. 447-50 ; Monthly Mag. 
xxiv. 561-4; Gent. Mag. 1807, pt ii. pp. 1082-3, 
1049-50; Ann. Eeg. 1807, Chron. pp. 101*-2*; 
Le Neve's Fasti Eccl. Anglic. 1854, iii. 119, 262, 
310, 571, ii. 514, 579; Burke's Landed Gentry, 
1886, ii. 1224 ; Foster's Pedigrees of the County 
Families of Yorkshire (vol. i. West Biding), 
1874; Foster's Alumni Oxon. 1715-1886, iii. 
913; Notes and Queries, 2nd ser. ii. 130, 197, 
312-13, 355-6, 4th ser. ii. 467-8, 7th ser. xii. 
187, 237, 292, 415, 451.] G-. F. E. B. 

MARKLAND, ABRAHAM, D.D. (1645- 

1728), master of the hospital of St. Cross, near 
Winchester, second son of Michael Markland, 
druggist, was born in the parish of St. Dionis 
Backchurch, London, on 25 June 1645, and 
was admitted into Merchant Taylors' School 
in 1658 (ROBINSON, Register of Merchant 
Taylors' School, i. 244). Thence he was 
elected to a scholarship at St. John's College, 
Oxford, in 1662. He graduated B.A. 8 May 
1666, was elected a fellow of his college, and 
commenced M.A. 11 Feb. 1688-9. He was 
senior of the great Act celebrated 14 July 
1669: and retiring afterwards into Hamp- 
shire, he 'followed the pleasant paths of 
poetry and humanity for a time ' (WooD, 
Athena Oxon. ed. Bliss, iv. 710). Entering 
into holy orders, he became successively 
rector of Brixton, Isle of Wight, in 1674, of 
Easton, Hampshire, in 1677, and of Hough- 
ton, in the same county, in 1678 (FOSTER, 
Alumni Oxon. 1500-1714, iii. 971). On 3 July 
1679 he was installed in a prebend of Win- 
chester, and in 1684 he obtained the rectory 
of Meon Stoke, Hampshire. He was ad- 
mitted B.D. and D.D. at Oxford in 1692. 
In August 1694 he was appointed^naster of : 
the hospital of St. Cross, and he held that | 
post till his death on 29 July 1728. 



By his first wife, Catharine, daughter of 
Edward Pitt of Strathfield Say, Dorset, he 
had one son, George, fellow of St. John's 
College, Oxford, who died in 1722, aged 44. 
By his second wife, Elizabeth he had also 
one son, Abraham, born 19 July 1705, who 
died an infant. 

He was author of: 1. 'Poems on His 
Majesties Birth andRestauration; His High- 
ness Prince Rupert's and His Grace the Duke 
of Albemarle's Naval Victories ; the late 
Great Pestilence and Fire of London,' Lon- 
don, 1667, 4to. 2. < A Sermon preached before 
the Court at Guildhall Chappell, 29 Oct. 
1682,' London, 1683, 4to. 3. 'Pteryplegia : 
or the art of Shooting-flying,' a poem, Lon- 
don, 1727, 4to; Dublin, 1727, 8vo ; second 
edit. London, 1735, 8vo ; third edit. London, 
1767, 8vo. 4. 'Sermons preach'd at the 
Cathedral -Church of Winchester,' 2 vols. 
London, 1729, 8vo (a posthumous publica- 
tion). 

[Nichols's Lit. Anecd. iv. 272, 657-9, vii. 249, 
viii. 504 ; Lowndes's Bibl. Man (Bohn), p. 1476 ; 
Hearne's Remarks and Collections (Doble), ii. 57; 
Le Neve's Fasti (Hardy), iii. 34 ; Cat. of Oxford 
Graduates ; Watt's Bibl. Brit. ; Foster's Alumni 
Oxon. 1500-1714.] T. C. 

MARKLAND, JAMES HEYWOOD, 
D.C.L. (1788-1864), antiquary, born at Ard- 
wick Green, Manchester, 7 Dec. 1788, was 
fourth and youngest son of Robert Markland, 
check and fustian manufacturer at Man- 
chester, who afterwards succeeded to the 
estate of Pemberton, near Wigan, and dying 
in 1828 was buried in the chancel of Cheadle 
Church, Cheshire. His mother was Eliza- 
beth, daughter of Robert Hibbert of Man- 
chester. In his twelfth year he was sent for 
his education to the house of the head- 
master of Chester school, and from the asso- 
ciations of the cathedral buildings acquired 
his taste for antiquarian pursuits. He was 
trained for a solicitor at Manchester, but in 
1808 removed to London and practised there. 
In 1814 he was appointed by the West India 
planters their parliamentary agent, and in 
the same year entered as a student at the 
Inner Temple. He remained in London in 
practice, being the head partner in the firm 
of Markland & Wright, until 1839, when he 
withdrew to Malvern, and there lived until 
1841. He then removed to Bath and spent 
the rest of his days in that city. Neither in 
London nor in the country did he neglect his 
favourite studies. He was elected F.S.A. in 
1809, and from 1827 to April 1829, when he 
resigned the post, acted as director of the 
society. He joined the Roxburghe Club at 
its second meeting (1813), when it was en- 



Markland 



176 



Markland 



larged to twenty-four members, in 1816 
became F.R.S., and on 21 June 1849 was 
created D.C.L. of the university of Oxford. 
Markland was a strong and constant sup- 
porter of all church societies ; he was en- 
trusted by Mrs. Ramsden with the founda- 
tion of mission sermons at Cambridge and 
Oxford, and while resident in Bath three 
ladies, the Misses Mitford of Somerset Place 
in that city, selected him for the distribution 
of 14,000/. in charitable works in England 
and the colonies. He died at his house, 
Lansdown Crescent, Bath, on 28 Dec. 1864, 
and was buried in the new Walcot cemetery 
on 3 Jan. 1865, the first window in Bath 
Abbey west of the transept being filled with 
glass to his memory. On 24 Sept. 1821 he 
married at Marylebone Church, Charlotte, 
eldest daughter of Sir Francis Freeling [q. v.], 
who died on 9 Oct. 1867. Their issue was 
one daughter, Elizabeth Jane, who married 
in 1853 the Rev. Charles R. Conybeare, vicar 
of Itchen Stoke, Hampshire. 

Markland wrote: 1. 'A Few Plain Rea- 
sons for Adhering to the Church ' (anon.), 
1807. 2. ' A Letter to Lord Aberdeen, Presi- 
dent of the Society of Antiquaries, on the 
expediency of Establishing a Museum of 
Antiquities,' 1828. It was reprinted in the 
' Gentleman's Magazine,' 1828, pt. i. pp. 61- 
64. 3, ' A Few Words on the Sin of Lying ' 
(anon.), 1834. 4. ' Sketch of the Life and 
Character of George Hibbert ' (anon.), printed 
for private distribution, 1837. 5. l Remarks 
on Sepulchral Memorials, with Suggestions 
for Improving the Condition of our Churches,' 
1840 ; an enlarged edition of this appeared 
as 6. * Remarks on English Churches and on 
the expediency of rendering Sepulchral Me- 
morials subservient to Pious and Christian 
Uses,' 1842; 3rd edit. 1843. 7. { On the 
Reverence due to Holy Places. By the 
Author of" Remarks on English Churches,'" 
1845; 3rd edit, much enlarged and pre- 
face signed J. H. M., 1846. An abridgment 
was published in 1862 by the Rev. S. Fox of 
Morley Rectory, Derbyshire. 8. ' Prayers 
for Persons coming to the Baths of Bath. 
By Bishop Ken. With a Life of the Author,' 
1848. Preface signed M. ; 2nd edit., with a 
brief life of the author by J. H. Markland, 
1849; another issue, 1853. 9. < Diligence 
and Sloth. By a Layman,' 1858. Advertise- 
ment signed J. H. M. 10. ' The Offertory 
the best way of Contributing Money for 
Christian Purposes ; ' 2nd edit. 1862. 

Markland edited for the Roxburghe Club 
in 1818 a volume of ' Chester Mysteries, 
de deluvio Noe, de occisione innocentium ; ' 
furnished ' many valuable communications 
and much friendly assistance ' to Ormerod's 



' Cheshire ' (vol. i. Preface, p. xx) ; aided 
Britton in his 'Beauties of England;' and 
contributed numerous articles to the ' Cen- 
sura Literaria,' the chief of them being a 
notice of William Mason (1725-1797) [q. v.], 
v. 299-308, and to ' Notes and Queries.' His 
assistance is acknowledged in Nichols's ' Lite- 
rary Anecdotes,' vol. i. p. xiv, vol. viii. p. iv ; 
his paper on Abraham and Jeremiah Mark- 
land, with whom he claimed relationship, 
was inserted in that work, iv. 657-61, and 
he supplied Chalmers with some particulars 
of Jeremiah Markland's life (Biog. Diet. xxi. 
329). His communication ' On the Rent-roll 
of Humphrey, Duke of Buckingham,' ap- 
peared in the ' Archaeological Journal,' viii. 
259-81, and at the Somerset congress in 1856 
of the British Archaeological Association 
Markland read the opening address { On the 
History and Antiquities of Bath,' which is 
printed in the * Journal,' xiii. 81-97. For the 
1 Archaeologia ' he compiled the following 
papers : * The Antiquity and Introduction of 
Surnames in England,' xviii. 105-11, 'Early 
Use of Carriages in England,' xx. 443-76, 
' On an Inscription in the Tower,' xxiii. 
405-10, and ' Instructions to his son by Henry 
Percy, ninth Duke of Northumberland/ 
xxvii. 306-58. Letters by him are in T. F. 
Dibdin's ' Reminiscences,' ii. 728, 857, and 
in e Notes and Queries,' 4th ser. iii. 539. He 
had gradually formed a good library, but it 
was dispersed at his death. 

[G-ent. Mag. 1821 pt. ii. p. 278, 1865 pt. i. pp. 
649-52 (by the Rev. C. K. Conybeare) ; Man- 
chester School Keg. (Chetham Soc.), i. 66; Pro- 
ceedings Soc. Antiquaries, 2nd ser. iii. 111-12; 
Foster's Alumni Oxon. ; Notes and Queries, 3rd 
ser. vii. 27 ; Journ. Archseol. Assoc. xxi. 262-4 
(by T. J. Pettigrew); T. F. Dibdin's Eemi- 
niscences, i.376, 381-2; Peach's Historic Houses 
in Bath, pt. i. pp. 108-9 ; Britton's Bath Abbey, 
ed. Peach, 1887, p. 70; Tunstall's Bath, pp. 
281-2.] W. P. C. 

MARKLAND, JEREMIAH (1698- 

1776), classical scholar, son of Ralph Mark- 
land, vicar of Childwall, Lancashire, where 
he was born on 29 Oct. 1693 (or 18 Oct., 
according to the Christ's Hospital register), 
was admitted on the foundation of Christ's 
Hospital, London, in 1704, and proceeded to 
St. Peter's College, Cambridge, in 1710, with 
the usual exhibition of 30/. a year for seven 
years. He graduated B.A. in 1713, and M.A. 
in 1717, when he was elected fellow and 
tutor of his college. In 1714 he appears 
among the poetical contributors to the 
'Cambridge Gratulations,' and in 1717 he 
wrote some verses in vindication of Addison 
against Pope's satire. He was also author of 
a modernisation of Chaucer's ' Friar's Tale/ 



Markland 



177 



Markwick 



He was prevented by the weakness of his 
lungs, and probably by conscientious objec- 
tions to certain doctrines of the church, from 
becoming a clergyman. He left Cambridge 
in 1728 to act as private tutor to the son 
of W. Strode of Punsbourn, Hertfordshire, 
returning to the university in 1733. At a 
later date he lived at Twyford, and in 1744 : 
went to Uckfield, Sussex, in order to super- I 
intend the education of the son of his former j 
pupil, Mr. Strode. In 1752 he fixed his abode 
at Milton Court, near Dorking, Surrey, and 
remained there, living in great privacy, to the 
end of his days. He twice declined to offer 
himself as a candidate for the Greek professor- 
ship at Cambridge, and often repulsed the 
advances of those who would have been glad 
to befriend him or to profit by intercourse 
with him. Yet he was warmly attached to 
a few congenial friends, one of the closest of j 
whom was William Bowyer[q. v.] the learned 
printer. Despite his narrow means he was 
very charitable to the poor, and his benevolent 
disposition led him, a few years before his 
death, to espouse, against her worthless and 
unfeeling son, the cause of the widow with 
whom he lodged, and thus entail upon him- 
self the burden of an expensive lawsuit, which 
reduced him almost to indigence. 

He died at Milton Court on 7 July 1776, 
aged 82, and was buried in Dorking Church, 
where there is a brass plate to his memory. 
He left his books and papers to Dr. Heberden, 
and several of them are preserved in the 
British Museum. His portrait, in which he 
is shown in very gay apparel, is prefixed to 
vol. iv. of Nichols's 'Literary Anecdotes.' 

His works are : 1. ' Epistola Critica ad ... 
Franciscum Hare in qua Horatii loca aliquot 
et aliorum veterum emendantur,' Cambridge, 
1723, 8vo. 2. An edition of the ' Sylvaa' of 
Statius, 1728, 4to, printed by Bowyer. 3. 'Con- 
jectures' to Taylor's edition of Lysise Orationes 
et Fragment a,' 1738. 4. Annotations con- 
tributed to Davies's ' Maximus Tyrius,' 1740. 
5. 'Remarks on the Epistles of Cicero to 
Brutus, and of Brutus to Cicero,' 1745, 8vo. 
His object was to prove that all the epistles 
were spurious, and the book involved him in 
a tedious controversy. 6. 'De Grsecorum 
quinta^declinatione imparisyllabica et inde 
formata Latinorum tertia, queestio gram- 
matica,' 1760, 4to ; forty copies only, 
printed at the expense of W. Hall, of 
the Temple. 7. ' Euripidis Drama Supplices 
Mulieres,' 1763, 4to. 8. ' Euripidis Dramata 
Iphigenia in Aulide et Iphigenia in Tauride,' 
published in 1771, but printed in 1768 at the 
expense of Dr. Heberden. The last three 
books were brought out together by Dr. 
Gaisford in 1811 (Oxford, 4to and 8vo), and 

TOL. XXXVI. 



were reviewed at length in the ' Quarterly 
Review,' June 1812. Markland also con- 
tributed to Arnold's 'Commentary on the 
Book of Wisdom,' 1748 ; Kuster's ' De Verbo 
Medio,' 1750 ; an edition of 'Sophocles,' 1758; 
Foster's ' On Accent and Quantity,' 1763 ; 
and ' Demosthenis Oratio de Corona,' 1769. 
His notes on the New Testament were rescued 
from many other manuscripts which he de- 
stroyed in his later years, and were printed in 
Bowyer's ' Critical Conjectures on the New 
Testament,' 1782. In Musgrave's ' Euripidis 
Hippolytus,' 1756, there are notes by Mark- 
land, but they were printed without his 
knowledge or consent. 

[Nichols's Literary Anecdotes, iv. 272, &c , con- 
taining full notices of Markland and many of his 
letters; Nichols's Illustr. of Lit. Hist.; Chalmers's 
Biog. Diet. xxi. 318; W. Trollope's Hist, of 
Christ's Hospital, 1834 ;Timbs's Promenade round 
Dorking, 1824, p. 122; Quarterly Eev. vii. 441, 
viii. 229 ; Brayley's Hist, of Surrey, v. 99.] 

C. W. S. 

MARKWICK or MARKWICKE, 
NATHANIEL (1664-1735), divine, son of 
James Mark wick of Croydon, was born in 
April 1664. He was admitted to Merchant 
Taylors' School in 1677, and matriculated 
as a commoner at St. John's College, Ox- 
ford, on 14 July 1682. He graduated B.A. 
in 1686, and proceeded M.A. in 1690, and 
B.D. (under the name of Markwith) on 
1 Feb. 1696. He held the vicarage of West- 
bury, Buckinghamshire, from 1692 to 1694, 
and of St. Mary Magdalen, Taunton, from 
1696 till 1703. On 4 Oct. 1699 he also be- 
came prebendary of Bath and Wells. From 
1703 till his death, 20 March 1735, he was 
vicar of East Brent, Somerset. 

Markwick was author of the following : 
1. 'A Calculation of the LXX Weeks of 
Daniel, Chapter ix. Verse 12, as they are 
supposed and shown to be different from the 
Seven and Sixty-two in the following Verse; 
and also from the One Week, Verse 27, etc.,' 
1728,8vo. The alternative title, 'Strictures 
Lucis,' is given in the dedication. 2. ' Last 
Additions to "Strictures Lucis,'" 1730, 8vo. 
3. ' Supplement to " Strictures Lucis," or 
Second Thoughts,' 1730, 8vo. 4. ' The Pre- 
rogative of the Jews asserted, without Dimi- 
nution or Derogation to the Churches of the 
Gentiles. Being some further Thoughts 
upon the Subject in the matter of " Strictures 
Lucis," occasioned by the Objections of Two 
Friends, the Rev. J. N. (or U ?) and Rev. 
J. W. Whereunto are added a few more Re- 
marks tending to illustrate the Calculation 
of Daniel's Weeks/ 1731, 8vo. 5. < Six Small 
Tracts ' (one of the two Brit. Mus. copies 
has manuscript notes), 1733, 8vo. 6. ' Some 



Marlborough 



178 



Marleberge 



Additional Notes towards a further Eluci- 
dation of the Apocalyptick Visions, by way 
of Appendix to Six Small, Tracts/ 1734, 
8vo. 

[Foster's Alumni Oxon. 1500-1715; C. J. 
Kobinson's Register of Merchant Taylors' School, 
i. 293, where the date of Markwick's death is 
wrongly given as 1721 ; Le Neve's Fasti Eccles. 
Angl. i. 191 ; Brit. Mas. Cat.] G. LB G. N. 

MARLBOROUGH, DUKES OF. [See 
CHURCHILL, JOHN, first DUKE, 1650-1722 ; 
SPENCER, CHARLES, third DUKE, 1706-1758; 
SPENCER, GEORGE, fourth DUKE, 1739-1817; 
CHURCHILL, JOHN WINSTON SPENCER, 
seventh DUKE, 1822-1883.] 

MARLBOROUGH, SARAH, DUCHESS 
OF (1660-1744). [See under CHURCHILL, 
JOHN, first DUKE.] 

MARLBOROUGH, EARLS OF. [See 
LEY, JAMES, first EARL, 1550-1629; LEY, 
JAMES, third EARL, 1618-1665.] 

MARLBOROUGH, HENRY OF (/. 
1420), annalist. [See HENRY.] 

MARLEBERGE, THOMAS DE (d. 
1236), abbot of Evesham, was probably, as 
his name suggests, a native of Marlborough. 
He had a uterine brother (Chronicon Abbatia 
de Evesham, ed. Macray, p. 232), and appears 
to have been educated at Paris. Richard 
Poore, afterwards bishop of Salisbury, was, 
he tells us, his fellow-pupil under Stephen 
Langton (ib. p. 232), who lectured in that 
university (ib. p. xxi). He also speaks of 
three clerks of Archbishop Hubert, J. de 
Tynemouth, S. deSuuelle (sz'c),andHonorius 
as 'magistri mei in scholis' (ib. p. 126). He 
was learned in canon and civil law, taught 
at Oxford, and his biographer adds at Exeter 
also, but the likeness between the words 
' Oxoniam ' and ' Exoniam ' may have led to 
a confusion (ib. p. xxi, note). Marleberge did 
not become a monk of Evesham till 1199 or 
1200 (ib. p. 264), but as he says that he had 
personal knowledge of Adam, abbot of Eves- 
ham, who died in 1191, he probably under- 
went a long novitiate. When he entered 
the monastery he brought with him a con- 
siderable number of books on canon and civil 
law and medicine, a book of Democritus, 
three works of Cicero, a Lucan and a Juvenal, 
with many volumes of theological and gram- 
matical notes. Hostility to the abbot, Roger 
Norreys, who succeeded Abbot Adam, and 
was according to Marleberge notoriously pro- 
fligate, seems to have delayed his promotion. 
But when in 1202 Maugere or Malgere [q. v.], 
bishop of Worcester, on the plea that the 
abbot's conduct needed examination, formally 



visited the abbey, which claimed to be an ex- 
empt monastery (i.e. subject to the pope, and 
ree from diocesan control), Marleberge acted 
as spokesman of a committee of twelve monks 
who were appointed to explain to the bishop 
the grounds of their resistance to the visita- 
tion. The bishop replied by suspending all 
:he monks for contumacy, and excommuni- 
cated them. Thereupon Archbishop Hubert, 
at Marleberge's request, held an inquiry re- 
specting the bishop's claim at London, but 
the result was indecisive, and the matter was 
referred to the papal delegates, the abbots of 
Malmesbury, Abingdon, and Eynsham. As 
they were not impartial judges of episcopal 
rights, this step forced the bishop to appeal 
to Rome. 

Meanwhile the monks continued to suffer 
at the hands of their abbot, who farmed out 
lands without the consent of the convent. 
In 1203 Marleberge went to conciliate the 
king and archbishop, whose interests had 
suffered by the abbot's treatment of the pro- 
perty. He was refused an interview with 
John, and met with contumely in the king's 
court, but after he had explained to the arch- 
bishop the real state of affairs, Hubert, as 
papal legate and legitimate visitor of the 
abbey, held a visitation, but refused to give 
sentence on the evidence before him, and 
ordered the abbot and convent to elect arbi- 
trators. The archbishop's death rendered the 
visitation abortive, but it was decided that 
the monks had gone beyond their rights 
in trying to recover lands alienated by the 
abbot, and Marleberge, with three others, was 
banished for a fortnight from the house. He 
was recalled to carry on the case against the 
Bishop of Worcester. Marleberge pleaded 
the case in the presence of the papal com- 
missioners, 1204-5. Their judgment gave 
the bishop temporary possession of the right 
to visit the monastery, but no right to visit 
the churches of the vale of Evesham, which 
the monastery protested were included in its 
papal privileges. Before formal judgment 
was delivered Marleberge hastened to Rome 
to get an early interview with the pope, In- 
nocent III, but the pope evinced little in- 
terest. 

The abbot arrived at Rome in March 1205, 
and Marleberge, who had spent the interval at 
Piacenza and Pavia, met him there, although 
they were still personally very hostile to one 
another. On 19 April 1205 Marleberge re- 
tired to Bologna, where he spent six months 
attending daily lectures on canon and civil 
law, on the advice of Cardinal Hugulini, 
afterwards bishop of Ostia. In October 1205, 
when the abbot had returned to England, 
Marleberge pleaded the abbey's cause at 



Marleberge 



179 



Marleberge 



Rome. The bishop had secured the best 
possible advocates, but after the abbey's re- 
cords of privileges were found to be genuine 
the monastery was declared exempt. Marle- 
berge fainted in court when he heard the 
favourable verdict, 24 Dec. 1205. The ques- 
tion of the bishop's jurisdiction over the 
churches of the vale of Evesham was, how- 
ever, referred, on the ground that neither 
party produced sufficient evidence, to the 
bishops of Ely and Rochester, who gave sen- 
tence for the bishop. The decisions are extant 
in the decretals of Gregory IX (ib. p. xxviii), 
but all the letters and bulls of Innocent III 
are wanting during the period of the trial 
(ib. p. xxix). Marleberge had borrowed 
money to pay for legal advice during the 
litigation, and a bond for one of his loans 
from Peter Malialard, a Roman merchant, 
is extant (ib. p. xxvi). The Bishop of Wor- 
cester had meanwhile inquired into Abbot 
Norreys's conduct, and forwarded to Rome 
an adverse report ; but Marleberge, who was 
imdesirous of the abbot's deposition, hushed 
the matter up, and succeeded in leaving 
Rome secretly in order to avoid making the 
usual presents to the pope and cardinals, and 
perhaps also to escape his creditors, in whose 
hands he was obliged to leave the much 
valued privileges of the abbey. The abbey, 
careful to preserve what rights still remained, 
decided to appoint a secular dean to superin- 
tend the churches of the vale, and Marleberge 
was appointed to the office. He held it till he 
became abbot. 

In 1206 Marleberge was again at Eves- 
ham. The papal legate soon afterwards 
began a visitation, but left its completion to 
two abbots who ordered no reforms. The 
abbot had provided himself with papal in- 
dulgences at Rome, and claimed new powers 
under them. By their authority he expelled 
Marleberge and his friend Thomas de North- 
wich, but thirty monks accompanied them 
into banishment as a protest. The abbot 
pursued them with an armed company, but 
they successfully beat off the attack and 
compelled the abbot to withdraw his claim 
to expel brethren on his own authority. 

In 1213, when the Roman creditors arrived 
to claim the sums owed to them by the 
abbey, Marleberge was sent as a proctor to 
York, Northampton, and London, to extri- 
cate the convent from its financial embarrass- 
ments. At Wallingford it was proposed to 
liquidate the debt on payment of five hun- 
dred marks, but the abbot refused to agree, 
as he held that Marleberge alone was respon- 
sible. Marleberge thereupon urged Pandulf, 
the legate, to depose the abbot. An inquiry 
followed in which Marleberge gave important 



testimony, and on 22 Nov. Norreys was de- 
posed. The monks neglected to choose a 
1 new abbot, and the legate appointed Ran- 
I dulf prior of Worcester. Marleberge worked 
with him harmoniously, the creditors were 
paid, and in 1215 he accompanied him to 
Rome to get the book of the abbey's customs 
confirmed. Marleberge was made sacrist in 
1217 and prior in 1218. 

On the death of Randulf in 1229 he was 
elected abbot. He was consecrated at Chester 
by the Bishop of Coventry 12 July 1230 ; 
temporalities were restored 10 Sept., and 
he was installed 29 Sept. He set to work 
to clear off the debt which still oppressed 
the abbey, and although mainly occupied 
with finance found time to carve monuments 
for himself and for his two predecessors, 
Norreys and Randulf. He represented him- 
self and them in full pontifical robes, the 
right to wear which Norreys had basely sur- 
rendered as a bribe to the Bishop of Wor- 
cester. On 16 April 1233 Marleberge made 
a formal act of submission for himself and 
the abbey to the visitatorial authority of the 
Archbishop of Canterbury ( Tanner MS. 223, 
Bodl. Libr. ; Chron. Abb. p. xxxii). He died 
in 1236. 

Marleberge was an architect and a good 
mechanical workman. As sacrist he made a 
reading-desk, and this is possibly still in 
existence (Archceologia, xvii. 278 ; MAY, in 
his History of Evesham, p. 57, ed. 1845, in- 
clines to ascribe it to an earlier date) ; he 
made the fireplace in the church, and a 
pedestal to the clock (? cum pede horologii} ; 
he repaired all the glass windows, broken 
by a fall of the tower, mended and made 
shrines, and added new slabs to the altar. 
He strengthened the five arches of the pres- 
bytery, and one at the entrance to the crypt. 
When he became prior he collected money 
to rebuild the tower, repaired the walls of 
the presbytery in modum pinnaculorum, and 
the words of his biographer seem to imply 
that he made a triforium which did not 
exist in the monastery before. The throne 
for the shrine of St. Egwin was his work. 
He arranged that the shrines of the principal 
saints should be placed before the altar on 
their feast days. He improved the seating 
of the choir, and procured new stone tombs 
for two of his predecessors. He repaired 
the stained-glass window at the east end, 
and added two others at the west end. 
While abbot he made a new altar, adorned 
it with a marble slab, and erected above it a 
splendid cross with the images of St. Mary 
and St. John. He enlarged the abbot's 
dwelling, and improved the vaulted roofing 
in various parts of the house. His stables 



Marlow 



180 



Marlowe 



were burned down, but in a year's time he 
had built others three times finer than those 
he had lost. He improved the abbatial resi- 
dences on several Evesham manors. In 1233 
a new infirmary chapel was dedicated. He 
also painted the chapter-house, and was very 
skilful with the needle. He presented the 
church with albs and copes which, he had 
made and ornamented with gold work, and 
gave the refectory a wheel surrounded by 
little bells attached to it by chains. His 
donations are recorded not only in the 
1 Chronicle,' but also in miscellaneous deeds 
in Cott. MS. Nero, D. iii. When dean of 
the vale and prior he arranged that every 
tenant in the vale who paid heriot accord- 
ing to the custom of the manor, as specified 
in the abbot's customary book, should pay a 
heriot to the abbot of the best animal of his 
live stock (sheep excepted), and if he had 
none living, then the best dead animal; the 
second best should go to the sacrist as a 
mortuary fee (f. 245, printed in Stevens's 
Monasticon, Appendix, p. 135). 

As prior he abbreviated the life of St. Eg- 
win, and wrote the life of St. Wistan, both 
at the request of the brethren. He copied 
Havmo's commentary on the Revelation of 
St. John, and bound up in the same volume 
his own ' Chronicon Abbatiae de Evesham ' 
from its foundation to 1214. This is extant 
(Rawlinson MS. A. 287), but another copy 
in a separate volume which he wrote is lost. 
Besides these he wrote several liturgical I 
books for the church. 

[Marleberge's Chronicle of the Abbots of 
Evesham to 1214 contains an autobiography of 
the -writer. A continuation in a fifteenth-cen- 
tury hand records his benefactions. The whole 
was published as Chronicon Abbatise de Eves- 
ham, edited byW.D. Macray (Rolls Ser.) See 
also Stevens's Monasticon Anglicanum, Appen- 
dix, No. cxxxvi.] M. B. 

MARLOW, WILLIAM (1740-1813), 
water-colour painter, born in 1740, studied 
under Samuel Scott the marine painter, and 
also at the St. Martin's Lane academy. He 
was a member of the Incorporated Society of 
Artists, and contributed to their exhibitions 
in Spring Gardens in 1762, 1763, and 1764. 
He was employed in painting the country seats 
of noblemen, and by advice of the Duchess j 
of Northumberland travelled in France and 
Italy from 1765 to 1768. On his return he 
renewed his contributions to the Society of 
Artists, and took up his residence in Leicester 
Square. In 1788 he removed to Twickenham, 
and commenced to exhibit at the Royal Aca- 
demy, sending works regularly till 1796, and 
again, for the last time, in 1807, when he 
sent ' Twickenham Ferry by Moonlight.' He 



painted in oil as well as water-colour. In 
the South Kensington Museum is a la'ndscape 
in oil by him, ' Composition with Ruined 
Temple, Cattle Watering, and Men Fishing,' 
besides two drawings in water-colour and 
about forty sketches. There are some of his 
works at the Foundling Hospital, and a few 
drawings in the British Museum. His draw- 
ings are graceful but of no great power, and 
his method in water-colour did not advance 
beyond tinting. His subjects were generally 
English country scenes, but he painted some 
pictures from his Italian sketches, and etched 
some of the latter, as well as some views on 
the Thames. His views of the bridges at 
Westminster and Blackfriars were engraved. 
He realised a moderate competence, and died 
at Twickenham 14 Jan. 1813. He exhibited 
in all 152 works, 125 at the Society of Artists, 
two at the Free Society, and twenty-five at 
the Royal Academy. 

[Redgrave's Diet. ; G-raves's (Algernon) Diet. ; 
Catalogues of South Kensington Museum ; 
Roget's Old Water-Colour Society.] C. M. 

MAKLOW;E, CHRISTOPHER (1564- 

1593), dramatist, was son of John Marlowe, 
a shoemaker, of Canterbury, who was a mem- 
ber of the shoemakers' and tanners' guild of 
the town. The father also acted as ' clarke ' 
of 'St. Maries;' married at St. George's 
Church, 22 May 1561, Catherine, apparently 
the daughter of Christopher Arthur, rector 
of St. Peter's, and died on 26 Jan. 1604-5. 
The dramatist was the eldest son but second 
child of the family. Two sisters are noticed 
in the borough-chamberlain's accounts, viz. 
Ann, wife of John Crauforde, a shoemaker, 
who was admitted a freeman 29 Jan. 1594, 
and Dorothy, wife of Thomas Graddell, a 
vintner, who was admitted a freeman 28 Sept. 
1594. The poet was baptised at the church 
of St. George the Martyr, Canterbury, on 
26 Feb. 1563-4. He was educated at the 
king's school of his native town. The trea- 
surer's accounts between 1578 and 1580 are 
very defective, but they show that Marlowe, 
while attending the school, received an ex- 
hibition of I/, for each of the first three 
quarters of 1579. On 17 March 1580-1 
he matriculated as a pensioner of Corpus 
Christi College, Cambridge. He is entered 
in the register as ' Marlin,' without a Chris- 
tian name proof, apparently, that he did 
not come up to Cambridge with a scholar- 
ship from his school. It has been suggested 
that his academical expenses were defrayed 
by Sir Roger Manwood [q. v.] the judge, 
who lived at St. Stephen's, near Canterbury, 
and whose death in 1592 was the subject 
of a Latin elegy by Marlowe. But it is 



Marlowe 



181 



Marlowe 






equally possible that his father was able to 
provide for him, or he may have been one of 
the thirty students ' kept ' at Corpus Christi 
College by Archbishop Parker in addition to 
the two for whom he provided scholarships 
from the Canterbury school. Marlowe gra- 
duated B.A. in 1583 and M.A. in 1587. 
Among the fellows and tutors of his college 
was Francis Kett [q.v.], who was burnt for 
heresy at Norwich in 1589. Malone's theory 
that Marlowe derived from Kett the ad- 
vanced views on religion which he subse- 
quently developed is not justified by the 
extant details of the ' blasphemous heresies ' 
for which Kett suffered. Kett was a mystic, 
who fully acknowledged the authenticity of 
the scriptures, although he gave them an 
original interpretation. Kett's deflection from 
conventional orthodoxy may have encouraged 
in Marlowe antinomian tendencies, but he 
was in no sense Kett's disciple. While 
a student Marlowe mainly confined him- 
self to the Latin classics, and probably be- 
fore leaving Cambridge he translated Ovid's 
'Amores' into English heroic verse. His 
rendering, which was not published till after 
his death, does full justice to the sensuous 
warmth of the original. He is also credited 
at the same period with a translation of 
Coluthus's ' Rape of Helen/ but this is no 
longer extant (Coxeter's MSS.} 

Of Marlowe's career on leaving the uni- 
versity no definite information is accessible. 
His frequent introduction of military terms 
in his plays has led to the suggestion that 
he saw some military service in the Low 
Countries. It is more probable that he at 
once settled in London and devoted him- 
self to literary work. A ballad, purport- 
ing to have been written in his later years, 
entitled i The Atheist's Tragedy/ describes 
him ' in his early age ' as a player at the 
Curtain Theatre, where he ' brake his leg in 
one lewd scene/ but the ballad is in all pro- 
bability one of Mr. Collier's forgeries. At 
an early date he certainly attached himself 
as a dramatist to one of the leading theatrical 
companies that of the lord admiral (the 
Earl of Nottingham). By that company most 
of his plays were produced, and he had the 
advantage of securing Edward Alleyn's ser- 
vices in the title-roles of at least three of his 
chief pieces. Kyd, Nashe, Greene, Chapman, 
and probably Shakespeare, were at one period 
or another personally known to him, but 
besides the chief men of letters of the day, 
he lived in intimate relations with Thomas 
Walsingham of Chislehurst (first cousin of 
the queen's secretary, Sir Francis), and with 
his son, Sir Thomas, who married a daughter 
of the Manwood family of Canterbury. Sir 



Walter Raleigh was also, it is clear, on 
friendly terms with Marlowe. 

It was as a writer of trajgedies that Mar- 
lowe's genius found its true province ; and 
it cannot have been later than 1587 that he 
composed his earliest drama, ' Tamburlaine/ 
which worked a revolution in English dra- 
matic art. It is only by internal evidence 
that either the date or Marlowe's responsi- 
bility for the piece can be established. It 
was licensed for publication on 14 Aug. 
1590, and was published in the same year, 
but none of the title-pages of early edi- 
tions bear an author's name. A passage 
which Mr. Collier printed as part of Hens- 
lowe's ' Diary ' for the year 1597 (p. 71) men- 
tions 'Marloe's Tamberlen/ but the words 
are clearly forged (WAKNEE, Dulwich MSS.} 
The only external contemporary testimony to 
Marlowe's authorship of the piece is a refer- 
ence by Gabriel Harvey to Marlowe, under 
the pseudonym of 'Tamburlaine/ in 1593. 
A description of Nashe's squalid garret in the 
'Black Book/ 1604, doubtfully ascribed to 
Middleton, speaks of spiders stalking over 
Nashe's head, ' as if they had been conning 
of Tamburlaine/ and Malone, not very ra- 
tionally, found here proof that Nashe was 
at least a part author of the play. Nashe 
at the time of the production of ' Tambur- 
laine ' was no friend of Marlowe, although he 
subsequently knew and respected him, and 
internal evidence practically gives Marlowe 
sole credit for the play. The sonorous verse, 
the bold portrayal of the highest flights 
of human ambition, ' the high astounding 
terms' in which the characters expressed 
themselves, the sudden descents from sub- 
limity into bombast, all identify the piece 
with the works which Marlowe openly 
claimed for himself later. He was conscious 
that in ' Tamburlaine ' he was treading a 
new path. In the prologue he promised to 
lead his audience away 

From jigging veins of rhyming mother-wits 
And such conceits as clownage keeps in pay. 

Although rhyme was chiefly favoured by 
earlier dramatists, blank verse had figured 
011 the stage several times since the produc- 
tion of 'Gorboduc' in 1562 (cf. GASCOIGNE, 
Jocasta, c. 1568), but Marlowe gave it a new 
capacity and freed it of those mechanical 
restraints which had obscured its poetic 
potentialities. In his hand the sense was 
not interrupted at the end of each line, the 
pauses and the force of the accents were 
varied, and the metre was proved capable for 
the first time of responding to the varying 
phases of human feeling. The novelty of the 
metrical experiment was the first character- 



Marlowe 



182 



Marlowe 



istic of ' Tamburlaine ' that impressed Mar- 
lowe's contemporary critics. Nashe held his 
efforts up to ridicule in his preface to Greene s 
Menaphon,' which was probably written in 
1587. Nashe writes doubtless with a satiric 
reference to Marlowe's recent graduation as 
M.A.: 'Idiote artmasters intrude themselves 
to our eares as the alcumists of eloquence ; 
who (mounted on the stage of arrogance) 
think to outbrave better pens with the swell- 
ino- bumbast of a bragging blank verse.' A 
little later Nashe refers to * the spacious volu- 
bility of a drumming decasillabon.' Greene 
who unfairly sneered at Marlowe in ' Mena- 
phon ' as a ' cooler's eldeste sonne 'soon 
afterwards, in his * Perimedes,' 1588, de- 
nounced his introduction of blank verse, and, 
affecting to be shocked by Marlowe's ambi- 
tious theme, deprecated endeavours to dare 
' God out of heaven with that atheist " Tam- 
burlaine." ' In his ' Mourning Garment ' 
Greene again ridiculed ' the life of Tomli- 
volin ' (i.e. Tamburlaine). 

Marlowe seems to have mainly depended 
for his knowledge of his hero on Thomas 
Fortescue's 'Foreste,' 1571, a translation 
from the Spanish of Pedro Mexia's ' Silva 
de Varia Lecion,' Seville, 1543. Peron- 
dinus's ' Vita Magni Tamerlanis,' Florence, 
1551, doubtless gave him suggestions when 
describing Tamburlaine's person, and he de- 
rived hints for his description of Persian 
effeminacy from Herodotus, Euripides, and 
Xenophon (cf. Enylische Studien, xvi. 459). 
The play, although in two parts, is really a 
tragedy in ten acts. Its full title when pub- 
lished ran : ' Tamburlaiue the Great. Who, 
from a Scythian Shephearde by his rare and 
woonderfull Conquests, became a most puis- 
sant and rnightye Monarque. And (for his 
tyranny and terrour in Warre) was tearmed, 
The Scourge of God. Deuided into two Tra- 
gicall Discourses, as they were sundrie times 
shewed upon Stages in the Citie of London. 
By the right honorable the Lord Admyrall, 
his seruauntes. Now first and newlie pub- 
lished. London. Printed by Richard Jhones, 
1590,' 8vo (Bodleian and Duke of Devon- 
shire's libraries) : another 8vo edition, 1592 
(Brit. Mus.) The half-title of the Second Part 
is:- 'The Second Part of the bloody Conquests 
of mighty Tamburlaine. With his impas- 
sionate fury for the death of his Lady and 
loue faire Zenocrate : his fourme of exhorta- 
cion and discipline to his three sons, with the 
maner of his own death.' The first part was 
reissued in 1605, and the second part in 1606 
(for E. White), 4to (Brit. Mus.) A modern 
edition, by Albrecht Wagner, appeared at 
Heilbronn in 1885. 

As in most of Marlowe's plays, some buf- 



foonery figures in the extant texts of ' Tam- 
burlaine,' but Marlowe's reprobation in the 
prologue of the ' conceits ' of ' clownage ' 
seems to clear him of responsibility for it. 
Richard Jones, the publisher, in his preface, 
states that he purposely omitted ' some fond 
and frivolous gestures digressing, and, in my 
poor opinion, far unmeet for the matter.' But 
Jones would appear to have treated some of 
the actors' interpolations with much gentle- 
ness ; he admits that all of them were ' greatly 
gaped at' by 'some vain conceited fondlings' 
when they were shown upon the stage. With 
playgoers the piece was from the first very 
popular. Taylor the Water-poet states that 
' Tamburlaine perhaps is not altogether so 
famous in his own country of Tartaria as in 
England.' The title-role was filled by Alleyn, 
who wore breeches of crimson velvet, while 
his coat was copper-laced. A ballad on the 
plot was licensed to John Danter on 5 Nov. 
1594. At the same time Marlowe's extra- 
vagances readily lent themselves to parody. 
The ludicrous line in Tamburlaine's address 
to the captured kings, 

Holla, ye pampered jades of Asia, 

was parodied by Pistol, and was long quoted 
derisively on the stage and in contemporary 
literature. Hall, in his ' Satires,' ridiculed 
the stalking steps of Tamburlaine's l great 
personage.' Ben Jonson, in his ' Discoveries,' 
notes that 'the true artificer will not fly 
from all humanity with the Tainerlanes and 
Tamer-Chams of the late age, which had 
nothing in them but the scenical strutting 
and furious vociferation to warrant them to 
the ignorant gapers.' About 1650 the play 
was revived at the Bull Theatre. Thirty 
years later it had passed into obscurity. 
Charles Saunders, in the preface to his play, 
' Tamerlane,' 1681, wrote : ' It hath been told 
me there is a Cockpit play going under the 
name of " The Scythian Shepherd, or Tam- 
berlaine the Great," which how good it is 
any one may judge by its obscurity, being a 
thing not a bookseller in London, or scarce 
the players themselves who acted it for- 
merly, cow'd call to remembrance.' In 1686 
Sir Francis Fane '[q. v.] made Tamerlane the 
Great the hero of his tragedy, 'The Sacrifice,' 
and clearly owed something to Marlowe. 

' Faustus ' may fairly be regarded as Mar- 
lowe's second play. Its date may be referred 
to 1588. A ' Ballad of the Life and Death 
of Doctor Faustus, the Great Conjurer,' 
was entered on the Stationers' Registers on 
28 Feb. 1588-9. It was doubtless founded 
on Marlowe's tragedy, and may be identical 
with the ' Ballad of Faustus ' in the Rox- 
burghe collection. Henslowe did not pro- 



Marlowe 



183 



Marlowe 



duce the play before September 1594, but it 
was not until that time that he was con- 
nected with the lord admiral's company, 
for which the piece was written, and no in- 
ference as to its date is to be drawn from 
his entry. 

The * Tragedy of Dr. Faustus' was en- 
tered on the Stationers' Registers 7 Jan. 
1600-1, but the 4to of 1604 is the earliest 
edition yet discovered. A copy (probably 
unique) is in the Bodleian Library. The 
title runs : ' The Tragicall History of D. 
Faustus. As it hath bene Acted by the 
Eight Honourable the Earl of Nottingham 
his seruants. Written by Ch. Marl. London. 
Printed by V. S. for Thomas Bushell, 1604.' 
Five years later this edition was reissued 
practically without alteration. A unique 
copy is in the town library of Hamburg, and 
has the title : ' The Tragicall History of the 
horrible Life and Death of Doctor Faustus. 
Written by Ch. Marl. Imprinted at London 
by G. E. for John Wright, 1609, 4to.' A re- 
issue dated 1611 belonged to Heber (HEBEK, 
Catalogue. No. 3770). A fourth 4to, which 
contains some scenes wholly rewritten, and 
others printed for the first time, was published 
in 1616 as ' The Tragicall History of the Life 
and Death of Doctor Faustus. Written by 
Ch.Marl. London. Printed for John Wright, 
1616.' Other quartos, agreeing in the main 
with that of 1616, appeared in 1619 (belong- 
ing to Mr. F. Locker Lampson), 1620, 1624, 
1631, and, * with several new scenes,' 1663 
(very corrupt). Careful modern editions 
are by Wilhelm Wagner, London (1877 and 
1885), by Dr. A. W. Ward, Oxford (1878 
and 1887), and by H. Breymann, Heilbronn, 
1889. 

The relations between the two texts of 
1604 and 1616 present numerous points of 
difficulty. Neither seems to represent the 
author's final revision. In a very few pas- 
sages the later quarto presents a text of which 
the earlier seems to supply the author's re- 
vised and improved version. In other pas- 
sages the readings of 1616 seem superior to 
those of 1604. At the same time each edi- 
tion contains comic scenes and other feeble 
interpolations for which Mario we can scarcely 
have been responsible ; nor is it satisfactory 
to ascribe them, with Mr. Fleay, to Dekker. 
In 1602 Henslowe paid William Bird and 
Samuel Rowley 4/. for making additions to 
* Faustus,' and, as far as the dates or internal 
evidences go, either quarto may with equal 
reasonableness be credited with contributions 
by Bird and Rowley. The two editions were 
certainly printed from two different play- 
hrcuse copies, each of which imperfectly re- 
Adduced different parts of the author's final 



corrections. Some of the scenes which only 
figure in the 1616 quarto were certainly ex- 
tant more than twenty years earlier. A line 
in one of the interpolated scenes of 1616 was 
imitated in the ' Taming of A Shrew/ pub- 
lished as early as 1594, while reference was 
made to an incident in another added scene 
some three years later in the ' Merry Wives 
of Windsor ' (iv. 5, 71). A careful collation 
of the 1604 edition by Proescholdt is in 
' Anglia,' iii. (1881). In the edition published 
at Heilbronn in 1889 the quartos of 1604 
and 1616 are printed on opposite pages. 

Although a collection of disconnected 
scenes rather than a drama, and despite its 
disfigurement by witless interpolations, Faus- 
tus's apostrophe to Helen, and his great soli- 
loquy in the presence of death ' an agony 
and fearful colluctation' render the tragedy 
a very great achievement in the range of 
poetic drama. The first connected account 
of the story of Faust appeared at Frankfort- 
on-the-Maine in 1587 under the title ' His- 
toria von D. Johann Fausten dem weitbe- 
schreyten Zauberer und Schwartzkiinstler.' 
A unique copy is in the Imperial Library of 
Vienna (cf. reprint by Dr. August Kiinne, 
Zerbst, 1868). The earliest English trans- 
lation extant, ' The Historic of the damnable 
Life and deserved Death of Dr. John Faus- 
tus, by P. F., Gent.,' is dated in 1592, but the 
title-page describes it as ' newly imprinted,' 
a proof that an earlier edition had appeared. 
From that earlier edition Marlowe doubtless 
derived his knowledge of the legend (cf. TH. 
DELITJS, Marlowe 's Faustus und seine Quelle, 
Bielefeld, 1881 ; see ' Marlowe's Faust,' by 
in Anglia, i. 44, and by H. BKEY- 
, Englische Studien, v. 56). 

The play was again well received. Alleyn 
assumed the title-role, and twenty-three per- 
formances were given by Henslowe between 
September 1594 and October 1597. On the 
last occasion, however, the receipts were 
' nil.' According to Prynne's ' Histrio-Mas- 
tix,' 1633, f. 556, on one occasion .the 
devil himself * appeared on the stage at the 
Belsavage Playhouse in Queen Elizabeth's 
dayes ' while the tragedy was being per- 
formed, ' the truth of which,' Prynne adds, 
f I have heard from many now alive, who 
well remember it' (cf. Notes and Queries, 
2nd ser. v. 295). A phrase in the famous 
description of Helen is borrowed by Shake- 
speare in ' Troilus and Cressida,' and scene v. 
is closely imitated in Barnabe Barnes's 
'Divil's Charter,' 1607, where the hero, 
Alexander Borgia, undergoes some of Faus- 
tus's experiences (cf. HERFOED, Lit. Rela- 
tions of England and Germany, pp. 197 sq.) 
Dekker's ' Olde Fortunatus ' also shows 



Marlowe 



184 



Marlowe 



signs of Faustus's influence. ' Of all that 
Marlow hath written to the stage his " Dr. 
Faustus" hath made the greatest noise/ wrote 
Phillips in his ' Theatrum Poetarum,' 1675. 
In 1684 appeared Mountfort's ' Life and Death 
of Dr. Faust,' in which Marlowe's tragedy 
was converted into a pantomime, and in that 
uncomplimentary form obtained a new lease 
of popularity (cf.Anglia,vil 341 sq.) Abroad 
Marlowe's work was equally well appre- 
ciated. English companies of actors per- 
formed it on their continental tours in the 
seventeenth century. It was acted at Gratz 
in 1608, and at Dresden in 1626, and very 
frequently at Vienna (cf. MEISSNER, Die en- 
glischen Comodianten . . . in Oesterreich). 
Goethe admired it, and had an intention of 
translating it before he designed his own 
play on the same theme. W. Miiller ren- 
dered it into German in 1818, and Francois 
Victor Hugo translated it into French in 
1858. A Dutch version was published at 
Groningen in 1887. 

Marlowe's third effort was 'The Jew of 
Malta.' An incidental reference to the death 
of the Duke of Guise proves that its date was 
subsequent to 1588. It was frequently acted 
under Henslowe's management between 
26 Feb. 1591-2 and 21 June 1596. and was 
revived by him on 19 May 1601. Alley n, 
who took the part of Barabas the Jew, is 
said to have worn an exceptionally large 
nose. In 1633 it was again acted in Lon- 
don, both at court and at the Cockpit. On 
24 April 1818 Kean revived at Drury Lane 
a version altered by S. Penley, and played 
Barabas himself: it ran for twelve nights 
(GENEST, Hist. Account, viii. 645). It was 
equally popular abroad. In 1607 English 
actors produced it while on continental tours 
at Passau, and in 1608 at Gratz. In an 
early seventeenth-century manuscript, now 
at Vienna, there is a German comedy based 
partly on Marlowe's play and partly on 
Shakespeare's 'Merchant of Venice.' 'This 
is printed in Meissner's ' Die englischen 
Comodianten,' pp. 130 sq. 

A lost ballad, doubtless based on the play, 
was entered on the Stationers' Registers by 
John Danter on 16 May 1594. Next day 
the tragedy was itself entered there by 
Nicholas Ling and Thomas Millington, but 
it was not published till 1633, when it was 
edited by Thomas Heywood. The full title 
runs: 'The Famous Tragedy of the Rich 
Jew of Malta. As it was played before the 
King and Qveene in Her Majesties Theatre 
at White Hall, by her Majesties servants at 
the Cock-pit. Written by Christopher Mario. 
London. Printed by I. B. for Nicholas Vava- 
sour, 1633,' 4to. It was included in Dodsley's 



collection, 1780; was separately edited by W. 
Oxberry, 1818; and was translated by E. von 
Buelow into German in his ' Altenglische 
Schaubiihne,' 1831, pt. i. A Dutch translation 
was issued at Leyden as early as 1645. 

The opening scenes are in Marlowe's best 
vein, and are full of dramatic energy ; in the 
later acts there is a rapid descent into ' gra- 
tuitous, unprovoked, and incredible atroci- 
ties,' hardly tolerable as caricature, and it is- 
possible that the only accessible text presents 
a draft of Marlowe's work defaced by play- 
house hacks. As in ' Tamburlaine,' Marlowe 
here again sought his plot in oriental history, 
although no direct source is known. He em- 
bodied hearsay versions of the siege of Malta 
by the Turks under Selim, son of the sultan 
Soliman, in 1565, and of another attack on 
the island by the Spaniards (cf. JTJRIEN DE 
LA GRAVIERE, Les Chevaliers de Malte et la 
Marine de Philippe II, Paris, 1887). Barabas 
resembles a contemporary historical person- 
age, Joan Miquez (b. 1520), afterwards known 
as Josef Nassi, a Portuguese Jew, who, after 
sojourning in Antwerp and Venice, settled in 
Constantinople, exerted much influence over 
the sultan, became Duke of Naxos and the 
Cyclades (1569), and took part in the siege 
of Cyprus in 1570 against the Venetians (cf. 
FOLIETA, De Sacro Fozdere in Selimum, 
Geneva, 1587). Marlowe also knew the 
chapter on Malta in Nicholas Nicholay's 
'Navigations . . . into Turkie,' translated 
by T. Washington the younger, 1585 (cf. 
* Die Quelle von Marlowe's " Jew of Malta," ' 
by Leon Kellner, in Englische Studien, x. 
80-110). 

' Edward II ' was Marlowe's chief incursion 
into the English historical drama, and by 
the improvement manifest in dramatic con- 
struction it may be ascribed to his latest year. 
Marlowe mainly borrowed his information 
from Holinshed and had occasional reference 
to Stow, but in his spirited characterisation 
of Gaveston and Edward II, Mortimer and 
Edmund, earl of Kent, he owes little to the 
chroniclers. It is the best constructed of 
Marlowe's pieces. 'The reluctant pangs of 
abdicating royalty in Edward,' wrote Charles 
Lamb, 'furnished hints which Shakespeare 
scarcely improved in his "Richard II;" and 
the death scene of Marlowe's king moves pity 
and terror beyond any scene, ancient or 
modern, with which I am acquainted.' The 
work was entered on the Stationers' Regis- 
ters by William Jones on 6 July 1593. A 
unique copy of an edition of 1594 is in the 
public library of Cassel. The earliest edition 
known in this country was published in 1598 
as ' The Troublesome Raigne and Lame* *> 
able Death of Edward the Second, King| 



Marlowe 



185 



Marlowe 



England ; with the Tragicall Fall of proud 
Mortimer; And also the Life and Death of 
Peirs Gaueston, the great Earle of Cornewall, 
and mighty Favorite of King Edward the 
Second, as it was publiquely acted by the 
Right Honourable the Earle of Pembrooke 
his semauntes. Written by Chri. Marlow, 
Gent. Imprinted at London by Richard 
Bradocke, for William Jones, 1598, 4to ' 
(British Museum and Bodleian). A manu- 
script copy of this edition, in a seventeenth- 
century hand, is in the Dyce Library. The 
text is in a far more satisfactory state than 
in the case of any other of Marlowe's works. 
Other early editions are dated 1612 and 1622. 
It was translated into German by Von Buelow 
in 1831. There are recent editions by Mr. 
F. G. Fleay (1877) and by Mr. 0. W. Tan- 
cock, Oxford, 1879 and 1887. 

In two dramatic pieces of far inferior 
calibre Marlowe was also concerned. The 
' Massacre at Paris,' which concludes with 
the assassination of Henry III, 2 Aug. 1589, 
appears to have been first acted 3 Jan. 
1592-3 (HENSLOWE, Diary}. It reproduces 
much recent French history and seems to have 
been largely based on contemporary reports. 
The text of the printed piece is very corrupt. 
A fragment of a contemporary manuscript 
copy (sc. 19) printed by Mr. Collier is extant 
among the Halliwell-Phillipps papers, and 
attests, as far as it goes, the injury done to 
the piece while going through the press. The 
soliloquy of the Duke of Guise in sc. 2 alone 
is worthy of notice. The only early edition 
is without date. It was probably published 
in 1600. The title runs : < The Massacre at 
Paris : with the Death of the Duke of Guise. 
As it was plaide by the right honourable the 
Lord High Admirall his Servants. Written 
by Christopher Marlow. At London Printed 
by E A. for Edward White. There are copies 
in the British Museum, the Bodleian, and 
the Pepysian libraries. 

The 'Tragedy of Dido,' published in 1594, 
is described as the joint work of Marlowe 
'and Thomas Nash. Gent.' Unlike Marlowe's 
earlier efforts, it is overlaid with quaint con- 
ceits and has none of his tragic intensity. 
./Eneas's recital to Dido of the story of the 
fall of Troy is in the baldest and most pedes- 
trian verse, and was undoubtedly parodied 
by Shakespeare in the play-scene in ' Hamlet.' 
The piece must have been a very juvenile 
effort, awkwardly revised and completed by 
Nashe after Marlowe's death. The title of the 
editio princeps runs : ' The Tragedie of Dido 
Queene of Carthage : Played by the Children 
of her Majesties Chappell. Written by Chris- 
topher Marlowe and Thomas Nash, Gent. 
At London, Printed by the Widdowe Orwin 



for Thomas Woodcocke, 1594. Copies are in 
the Bodleian, Bridgwater House, and Devon- 
shire House libraries. 

Several other plays have been assigned to 
Marlowe on internal evidence, but critics are 
much divided as to the extent of his work 
outside the pieces already specified. Like his 
friends Kyd and Shakespeare, he doubtless 
refurbished some old plays and collaborated 
in some new ones, but he had imitators, from 
whom he is not, except in his most exalted 
moments, always distinguishable. Shake- 
speare's earlier style often closely resembled 
his, and it is not at all times possible to dis- 
tinguish the two with certainty. 'A Taming 
of a Shrew ' (1594), the precursor of Shake- 
speare's comedy, has been frequently as- 
signed to Marlowe. It contains many pas- 
sages literally borrowed from ' Tamburlaine 
or 'Faustus,' but it is altogether unlikely 
either that Marlowe would have literally bor- 
rowed from himself or that he could have suf- 
ficiently surmounted his deficiency in humour 
to produce so humorous a play. ' The Truble- 
some Raign of Kinge John ' (1591), ' a poor, 
spiritless chronicle play,' may in its conclud- 
ing portions be by Marlowe, but many of his 
contemporaries could have done as well. In- 
ternal evidence gives Marlowe some claim 
to be regarded as part author of ' Titus An- 
dronicus/ with which Shakespeare was very 
slightly, if at all, concerned. Aaron might 
well have been drawn by the creator of the 
Jew of Malta, but the theory that Kyd was 
largely responsible for the piece deserves 
consideration. The three parts of ' Henry VI,' 
which figure in the 1623 folio of Shakespeare's 
works, although they were apparently written 
in 1592, present features of great difficulty. 
The first part shows very slight, if any, 
traces of Marlowe's co-operation. But in 
the second and third plays passages appear 
in which his hand can be distinctly traced. 
Each of these plays exists in another shape. 
Part II. is an improved and much altered 
version of f The First Part of the Contention 
betwixt the two Famous Houses of York and 
Lancaster,' 1594, 4to, and Part III. bears 
similar relation to 'The True Tragedie of 
Richard, Duke of Yorke,' 1595, 4to, although 
the divergences between the two are less ex- 
tensive. There are many internal proofs that 
Marlowe worked on the earlier pieces in con- 
junction with one or more coadj utors who have 
not been satisfactorily identified. But that 
admission does not exclude the theory that he 
was afterwards associated with Shakespeare 
in converting these imperfect drafts into the 
form in which they were admitted to the 1623 
folio (cf. FLEAY, Life of Shakespeare, pp. 235 
sq. ; Transactions of New Shakspere Soc. pt. ii. 



Marlowe 



186 



Marlowe 



1876, by Miss Jane Lee ; SWINBURNE, Study 
of Shakespeare, pp. 61 sq.) Evidence of style 
also gives Marlowe some pretension to a 
share in < Edward III,' 1596, 4to, a play of 
very unequal merit, but including at least 
one scene which has been doubtfully assigned 
to Shakespeare. 

Harvey in his ' Newe Letter ' of 1593 ex- 
presses surprise that Marlowe's ' Gargantua 
mind ' was conquered and had ' left no Scan- 
derbeg behind.' Mr. Fleay infers that Mar- 
lowe had written, but had failed to publish, a 
play concerning Scanderbeg ; but this is not 
the^most obvious meaning of a perplexing pas- 
sao-e. ' The True History of George Scander- 
bage, played by the Earl of Oxford's servants ' 
(i.e. not later than 1588), and entered on the 
Stationers' Registers 3 July 1601, is not ex- 
tant. 'Lust's Dominion, or the Lascivious 
Queen. A Tragedie written by Christofer 
Marloe, Gent.,' published by Kirkman in 1657 
(another edit. 1661), is unjustifiably ascribed 
to Marlowe. It is possibly identical, as 
Collier suggested, with the ' Spanish Moor's 
Tragedy/ written for Henslowe early in 1600 
by Dekker, Haughton, and Day. Among the 
plays destroyed by Warburton's cook was 

* The Maiden's Holiday,' a comedy assigned 
to Day and Marlowe. Day belonged to a 
slightly later generation, and there is no 
evidence of Marlowe's association with a 
comedy. 

Three verse renderings from the classics 
also came from Marlowe's pen. His trans- 
lation of Ovid's ' Amores ' was thrice printed 
in 12mo, without date, at ' Middleborough,' 
with the epigrams of Sir John Da vies [q. v.] 
Whether ' Middleborough ' is to be taken 
literally is questionable. The earliest edition, 
' Epigrammes and Elegies,' appeared about 
1597, and is now very rare. A copy at Lam- 
port Hall, Northamptonshire, the property of 
Sir Charles Isham, has been reproduced in fac- 
simile by Mr. Charles Edmonds, who assigns 
it to the London press of W. Jaggard, the 
printer of the ' Passionate Pilgrim.' The work 
was condemned to the flames by the Arch- 
bishop of Canterbury and the Bishop of Lon- 
don in June 1599, on the ground of its licen- 
tiousness (Notes and Queries. 3rd ser. xii. 
436). 

Marlowe's chief effort in narrative verse 
was his unfinished paraphrase of Musseus's 

* Hero and Leander.' He completed two 
' sestiads,' which were entered by John Wolf 
as ' an amorous poem ' on the Stationers' 
Registers on 28 Sept. 1593, and were pub- 
lished in 1598 by Edward Blount [q. v.] at 
the press of Adam Islip. This was dedicated 
by Blount to Sir Thomas Walsingham. A 
copy is in Mr. Christie-Miller's library at 



Brit well. George Chapman finished the poem, 
and in the same year two further editions of 
the work appeared from the press of Felix 
Kingston with the four sestiads added by 
Chapman. Copies of both these later editions 
are at Lamport. Other editions of the com- 
plete poem were issued in 1606 (Brit. Mus.), 
1613, 1617 (Huth Library), 1629, and 1637. 
A copy of the 1629 edition, formerly in He- 
ber's library, contains in seventeenth-century 
handwriting Marlowe's l Elegy on Man wood ' 
and some authentic notes respecting his own 
life (see HEBER'S Cat 1834, iv. No. 1415). It 
now belongs to Colonel Prideaux of Calcutta 
(cf. Notes and Queries, 6th ser. xi. 305, 352, xii. 
15 ; BULLED, iii. App. ii.) The poem is through- 
out in rhymed heroics, and Marlowe's language 
is peculiarly ' clear, rich, and fervent.' Its 
popularity was as great as any of Marlowe's 
plays. According to Nashe he was here in- 
spired by ' a diviner muse ' than Museeus 
(' Lenten Stuffe/ in NASHE, Works, v. 262). 
Francis Meres, in his ' Palladis Tamia' (1598), 
declared that ' Musaeus, who wrote the loves 
of Hero and Leander . . . hath in England 
two excellent poets, imitators in the same 
argument and subject, Christopher Mario w 
and George Chapman.' Ben Jonson quotes 
from it in ' Every Man in his Humour,' and 
is reported by a humble imitator of Mar- 
lowe, William Bosworth, author of ' Chast 
and Lost Lovers ' (1651), to have been ' often 
heard to say' that its ' mighty lines . . . were 
fitter for admiration than for parallel.' Henry 
Pet owe published in 1598 'The Second Part 
of Hero and Leander.' John Taylor the 
Water-poet claims to have sung verses from 
it while sculling on the Thames. Middleton 
in ' A Mad World, my Masters,' described 
it and * Venus and Adonis ' as ' two luscious 
marrow-bone pies for a young married wife.' 
An edition by S. W. Singer appeared in 1821, 
and it was reprinted in Brydges's 'Restituta' 
(1814). 

' The First Book of Lucan['s Pharsalia],' 
entered by John Wolf on the Stationers' 
Registers on 28 Sept. 1593, was issued in 
1600, 4to. It is in epic blank verse, and 
although the lines lack the variety of pause 
which was achieved by Marlowe's greatest 
successors, the author displays sufficient mas- 
tery of the metre to warrant its attribution 
to his later years. The volume has a dedica- 
tion signed by ' Thorn. Thorpe,' the publisher 
of Shakespeare's ' Sonnets/ and addressed to 
Blount. It was reprinted by Percy in his 
specimens of blank verse before Milton. 

Marlowe's well-known song, ' Come live 
with me and be my love/ was first printed, 
without the fourth or sixth stanzas and with 
the first stanza only of the ' Answer/ in the 



Marlowe 



187 



Marlowe 



' Passionate Pilgrim/ 1599, a collection of 
verse by various hands, although the title- 
page bore the sole name of Shakespeare. In 
' England's Helicon ' the lyric appeared in its 
complete form, with the signature ' C. Mar- 
lowe ' beneath it ; the well-known answer in i 
six stanzas which follows immediately is ! 
signed * Ignoto ' and is ascribed to Sir Walter j 
Raleigh. Marlowe's lyric caught the popular 
ear immediately. Sir Hugh Evans quotes it | 
in the ' Merry Wives of Windsor ' (in. i.) ; 
Donne imitated it in his poem called l The ! 
Bait ; ' Nicholas Breton referred to it as ' the ! 
old song ' in 1637 ; andlzaak Walton makes 
Maudlin in the ' Complete Angler ' sing to 
Piscator ' that smooth song which was made j 
by Kit Marlowe,' as well as ' The Nymph's j 
Reply ' ' made by Sir Walter Raleigh in his j 
younger days.' Walton supplies an addi- j 
tional stanza to each lyric. Both were issued 
together as a broadside about 1650 (Rox- \ 
bury he Ballads, i. 205), and they were in- ! 
eluded in Percy's 'Reliques' (cf. ed. 1876, j 
i. 220 sq.) A beautiful fragment by Mar- 
lowe, 'I walked along a stream for pure- 
ness rare/ figures in ' England's Parnassus/ 
1600. 

Marlowe's life ended gloomily. Of revolu- ! 
tionary temperament, he held religious views j 
which outraged all conventional notions of 
orthodoxy. In t Tamburlaine ' (ii. 5) he spoke 
with doubt of the existence of God. Greene j 
in his ' Groatsworth of Wit/ written in Sep- i 
tember 1592, plainly appealed to him to for- 
sake his aggressive unbelief. ' Why should 
thy excellent wit, God's gift, be so blinded 
that thou shouldst give no glory to the j 
giver ? ' Chettle, Geene's publisher, when de- 
fending himself in his < Kind Hart's Dreame ' 
from a charge of having assisted Greene to 
attack Mario we and other dramatists, claimed 
to have toned down Greene's references to 
Marlowe, which in their original shape con- 
tained ' intolerable ' matter. The early manu- 
script notes in the 1629 copy of ' Hero and 
Leander ' (formerly in Heber's collection) also 
describe Marlowe as an atheist, and state that 
he converted to his views a friend and admirer 
at Dover. The latter, whose name has been 
deciphered as l Phineaux' (i.e. Fineux), is said 
to have subsequently recanted (cf. HUNTER'S 
MS. Chorus Vatum). It is moreover certain 
that just before his death Marlowe's antino- 
mian attitude had attracted the attention of 
the authorities, and complaints were made to 
Sir John Puckering, the lord keeper, of the 
scandal created on the part of Marlowe and his 
friends by the free expression of their views. 
On 18 May 1593 the privy council issued ' a 
warrant to Henry Maunder, one of the mes- 
sengers of Her Majesties Chamber, to repair 



to the house of Mr. Thomas Walsingham in 
Kent, or to anie other place where he shall 
understand Christopher Marlow to be re- 
mayning, and by virtue hereof to apprehend 
and bring him to the court in his companie, 
and in case of need to require ayd ' (Privy 
Council MS. Register, 22 Aug. 1592-22 Aug. 
1593, p. 374). Walsingham lived at the 
manor of Scadbury in the parish of Chisle- 
hurst (cf. HASTED, Kent, 1797, ii. 7; MANN- 
ING and BEAT, Surrey, ii. 540). Some weeks 
earlier (19 March) similar proceedings had 
been taken by the council against Richard 
Cholmley and Richard Strange ; the former 
is known to have been concerned with Mar- 
lowe in disseminating irreligious doctrines 
(Privy Council Reg. p. 288). Cholmley and 
Marlowe both escaped arrest at the time. The 
poet reached Deptford within a few days of 
the issue of the warrant, and there almost 
immediately met his death in a drunken 
brawl. He was little more than twenty- 
nine years old. In the register of the parish 
church of St. Nicholas, Deptford, appears the 
entry, which is ordinarily transcribed thus : 
'Christopher Marlow, slain by ffrancis Archer 
1 June 1593.' Mr. Halliwell-Phillipps read 
the surname of the assailant as ' Frezer/ i.e. 
Fraser. 

In a sonnet which concludes Gabriel Har- 
vey's ' Newe Letter of Notable Contents ' 
(September 1593) reference is made to the 
death of ' Tamberlaine ' as one of the notable 
events of 'the wonderful yeare ' 1593, and in 
a succeeding ' glosse ' death, ' smiling at his 
Tamberlaine contempt/ is declared to have 
' sternly struck home the peremptory stroke.' 
The exact circumstances are doubtful. Fran- 
cis Meres, in 'Palladis Tamia/ 1598, wrote: 
' As the poet Lycophron was shot to death 
by a certain rival of his, so Christopher 
Marlowe was stabd to death by a bawdy 
serving- man, a riual of his in his lewde 
love' (fol. 286). William Vaughan, in his 
' Golden Grove/ 1600, supplies a somewhat 
different account, and gives the murderer the 
name of Ingram : ' It so happened that at Det- 
ford, a little village about three miles distant 
from London, as he [i.e. Marlowe] meant to 
stab with his ponyard one named Ingram 
that had inuited him thither to a feast and 
was then playing at tables, hee [i.e. Ingram] 
quickly percey ving it, so avoyded the thrust, 
that withall drawing out his dagger for his 
defence, he stabd this Marlow into the eye, 
in such sort that, his braynes comming out 
at the dagger point, he shortly after dyed.' 
Thomas Beard the puritan told the story 
more vaguely for purposes of edification in 
his 'Theatre of God's Judgments/ 1597, p. 
148. ' It so fell out/ Beard wrote, < that in 



Marlowe 



188 



Marlowe 



London streets as he [i.e. Marlowe] purposed 
to stab one, whom he ought a grudge unto, 
with his dagger the other party, perceiving 
so, avoyded the stroke, that withal catching 
hold of his [i.e. Marlowe's] wrest, he stabbed 
his [i.e. Marlowe's] owne dagger into his 
owne head, in such sort that, notwithstand- 
ing all the meanes of surgerie that could bee 
wrought, he shortly after died thereof.' In 
the second edition of his book (1631) Beard 
omits the reference to ' London streets,' which 
is an obvious error (cf. Notes and Queries, 
3rd ser. x. 301). 

Both Yaughan and Beard describe Mar- 
lowe as a blatant atheist, who had written 
a book against the Trinity, and defamed 
the character of Jesus Christ. Beard insists 
that he died with an oath on his lips. The 
council's proceedings against him and his 
friends were not interrupted by his death. 
Thomas Baker [q. v.] the antiquary found 
several papers on the subject among Lord- 
keeper Puckering's manuscripts, but these 
are not known to be extant, and their con- 
tents can only be learnt from some abs- 
tracts made from them by Baker, and now 
preserved in Harl. MS. 7042. Baker found 
a document headed ' A note delivered on 
Whitsun eve last of the more horrible and 
damnable opinions uttered by Christopher 
Marly, who within three days after came to 
a sudden and fearful end of his life.' Baker 
states that the ' note ' chiefly consisted of 
repulsive blasphemies ascribed to Marlowe 
by one Richard Bame or Baine, and that 
Bame offered to bring forward other wit- 
nesses to corroborate his testimony. Tho- 
mas Harriot [q. v.] the mathematician, Hoy- 
den (perhaps Matthew Hoyden), and Warner 
were described as Marlowe's chief com- 
panions, and Richard Cholmley as their con- 
vert. Thomas Kyd [q. v.], according to 
Baker, at once wrote to Puckering admitting 
that he was an associate of Marlowe, but 
denying that he shared his religious views. 
On 29 June following Cholmley was arrested 
under the warrant issued two months earlier, 
and one of the witnesses against him asserted 
that Marlowe had read an atheistical lecture 
to Sir Walter Raleigh among others. On 
21 March 1/593-4 a special commission under 
Thomas Howard, third viscount Bindon, was 
ordered by the ecclesiastical commission court 
to hold an inquiry at Cerne in Dorset into the 
charges as they affected Sir Walter Raleigh, 
his brother Carew Raleigh, ' Mr. Thinne of 
Wiltshire,' and one Poole. The result seems 
to have been to remove suspicion from Sir 
Walter Raleigh, who (it was suggested) was 
involved merely as the patron of Harriot. The 
' note ' amongthe Puckering manuscripts men- 



tioned by Baker is doubtless identical with 
that in Harl. MS. 6853, fol. 520, described 
as ' contayninge the opinion of one Christofer 
Marlye, concernynge his damnable opinions 
and judgment of Relygion and scorneof God's 
worde.' This document was first printed by 
Ritson in his ' Observations on Wart on.' It is 
signed ' Rychard Bame,' and a man of that 
name was hanged at Tyburn soon afterwards 
(6 Dec. 1594). Marlowe is credited by his 
accuser, whose fate excites some suspicions of 
his credibility , with holding extremely hetero- 
dox views on religion and morality, some of 
which are merely fantastic, while others are 
revolting. 

There is no ground for accepting all Bame's 
charges quite literally. That Marlowe re- 
belled against the recognised beliefs may be 
admitted, and the manner of his death sug- 
gests that he was no strict liver. But the 
testimony of Edward Blount the bookseller, 
writing on behalf of himself and other of Mar- 
lowe's friends, sufficiently confutes Bame's 
more serious reflections on his moral character. 
Blount in 1598, when dedicating Marlowe's 
' Hero and Leander ' to the poet's patron, 
Sir Thomas Walsingham, describes him as 
1 our friend/ and writes of 'the impression of 
the man that hath been dear unto us living 
an after-life in our memory.' A few lines 
later Blount calls to mind how Walsingham 
entertained 'the parts of reckoning and worth 
which he found in him with good counte- 
nance and liberal affection.' Again, Nashe, 
when charged by Harvey in 1593 with 
abusing Marlowe, indignantly denied the ac- 
cusation, and showed his regard for Mar- 
lowe by completing his ' Tragedy of Dido.' 
' Poore deceased Kit Marlowe ' Nashe wrote 
in the epistle to the reader in his ' Christ's 
Tears over Jerusalem ' (2nd edit. 1594), and 
'Kynde Kit Marlowe' appears in verses by 
' J. M.,' dated in 1600 (HALLIWELL-PHILLIPPS, 
Life of Shakespeare]. Chapman too, whose 
character was exceptionally high, makes affec- 
tionate reference to him in his continuation 
of ' Hero and Leander.' 

Numerous testimonies to Marlowe's emi- 
nence as a poet and dramatist date from his 
own time. An elegy by Nashe, which, ac- 
cording to Bishop Tanner, was prefixed to 
the 1594 edition of the ' Tragedy of Dido,' is 
unfortunately absent from all extant copies. 
Henry Petowe was author of a very sympa- 
thetic eulogy in his' Second Part of Hero and 
Leander.' Marlowe is described as a l king 
of poets' and a 'prince of poetrie.' George 
Peele, in the prologue to his ' Honour of the 
Garter ' (1593), wrote of 

Ma.rley, the Muse's darling, for thy verse 

Fit to write passions for the souls below. 



Marlowe 



189 



Marlowe 



Thorpe, in his dedication of the 'Lucan,' 
spoke of him with some point as ' that pure 
elementall wit.' According to the ' Returne 
from Pernassus ' (ed. Macray, p. 86), 

Marlowe was happy in his buskined muse, 

Alas, unhappy in his life and end. 

Pitty it is that wit so ill should dwell, 

Wit lent from heauen, but vices sent from hell, 

Our Theater hath lost, Pluto hath got, 

A tragick penman for a driery plot. 



The finest encomium bestowed on him is 




Next'): 



Neat Marlowe, bathed in the Thespian springs, 
Had in him those brave translunary things 
That the first poets had ; his raptures were 
All air and fire, which made his verses clear; 
For that fine madness still he did retain 
Which rightly should possess a poet's brain. 

Heywood, in his ' Hierarchie of the Blessed 
Angels/ 1635 (bk. iv.), wrote less effec- 
tively : 

Mario, renown'd for his rare art and wit, 
Could ne'er attain beyond the name of Kit, 
Although his Hero and Leander did 
Merit addition rather. 

Ben Jonson, in his verses to Shakespeare's 
memory, describes how Shakespeare excelled 
Marlowe's ' mighty line.' But the most sub- 
stantial proof of Marlowe's greatness was the 
homage paid him by Shakespeare. In ' As you 
like it ' (iii. 5, 80) Shakespeare, quoting from 
Marlowe's i Hero and Leander,' apostrophised 
Marlowe in the lines, 

Dead shepherd, now I find thy saw of might, 
' Who ever loved that loved not at first sight ? ' 

This passage, coupled witL the inferences 
already drawn respecting the two men's 
joint responsibility for Parts II. and III. of 
'Henry VI,' justifies the theory that they 
were personally acquainted. But the power- 
ful influence exerted by Marlowe on Shake- 
speare's literary work is more interesting 
than their private relations with each other. 
All the blank verse in Shakespeare's early 
plays bears the stamp of Marlowe's inspira- 
tion. In ' Richard II ' and the ' Merchant 
of Venice ' Shakespeare chose subjects of 
which Marlowe had already treated in ' Ed- 
ward II ' and the ' Jew of Malta,' and 
although the younger dramatist was more 
efficient in the handling of his plots than 
the elder, Shakespeare's direct indebtedness 
to Marlowe in either piece is unmistakable. 
' Richard III.' again, is closely modelled on 



Marlowe. 'But for him,' says Mr. Swin- 
burne, ' this play could never have been 
written.' In its fiery passion, singleness of 
purpose, and abundance of inflated rhetoric 
it resembles ' Tamburlaine ' (cf. SWHSTBTJKKE, 
Study of Shakespeare, pp. 43-4). Shake- 
speare was conscious of the elder drama- 
tist's extravagances, and at times parodied 
them, as in Pistol or in the players in ' Ham- 
let.' But his endeavours to emulate Mar- 
lowe's great qualities proves his keen appre- 
ciation of them. 

Marlowe's plays retained a certain popu- 
larity, mainly on account of their extrava- 
gances, for many years after his death. 
' Tamburlaine ' or the l Jew of Malta ' often 
figured in the programmes of provincial com- 
panies in Charles I's time (cf. GAYTON, Fes- 
tivous Notes on Don Quixote, 1654, p. 271). 
But his place in English literary history 
was ill appreciated between the seventeenth 
and nineteenth centuries. Charles Lamb 
and Hazlitt first perceived the high merits 
of his ' Faustus ' and ' Edward II,' and Hal- 
lam, a very sober-minded critic, finally de- 
tected the wide interval which separated him 
from all the other predecessors of Shakespeare. 
His reputation has of late years been steadily 
growing at home and abroad. In the opinion 
of his most recent critics, Mr. A. C. Swinburne 
and John Addington Symonds [q. v.], he 
must rank with the great poets of the world. 
On comparatively rare occasions did he do 
full justice to himself; he lacked humour; he 
treated female character ineffectively ; while 
his early death prevented his powers from 
reaching full maturity. But the genius which 
enabled him in his youth to portray man's 
intensest yearnings for the impossible for 
limitless power in the case of Tamburlaine, 
for limitless knowledge in that of Faustus, 
and for limitless wealth in that of Barabas 
would have assuredly rendered him in 
middle age a formidable rival to the greatest 
of all tragic poets. 

A complete edition of Marlowe's works, 
published by Pickering, with a life of the 
author by G. Robinson, appeared in 3 vols. 
in 1826. A copy, with copious manuscript 
notes by J. Broughton, is in the British 
Museum. Dyce's edition was first issued in 
1850 (3 vols.), that by Lieutenant-colonel 
Cunningham in 1871, and that by Mr. A. H. 
Bullen (3 vols.) in 1885. A selection of his 
poetry was issued in the ' Canterbury Poets,' 
1885, ed. P. E. Pinkerton, and five plays, 
ed. H. Havelock Ellis, in ' Mermaid Series ' 
in 1887. A French translation by F. Rabbe, 
with an introduction by J. Richepin, was 
published, 2 vols. Paris, 1885. A German 
translation appears in F. M. Bodenstedt's 



Marmion 



190 



Marmion 



1 Shakespeare's Zeitgenossen und ihre Werke/ 
Band 3, 1860. Editions of separate plays 
have been already noticed. 

Twice has the tragedy of Marlowe's life 
been made the subject of a play. In 1837 
Richard Ilengist tlorne [q. v.] published 
his 'Death of Marlowe/ which Mr. A. H. 
Bullen reprinted in his collective edition of 
the dramatist's works in 1885. Mr. W. L. 
Courtney contributed to the ' Universal Re- 
view' in 1890 (vi. 356 sq.) a dramatic sketch 
entitled ' Kit Marlowe.' This piece was per- 
formed at the Shaftesbury Theatre on 4 July 
1890, and was revived at the St. James's 
Theatre in 1892. 

No portrait of Marlowe is known. A fan- 
ciful head appears in Cunningham's edition. 
A monument to his memory, executed by 
Mr. E. OnslowFord, A.R.A., has been placed, 
by public subscription, near the cathedral at 
Canterbury. It was unveiled by Mr. Henry 
Irving on 16 Sept. 1891. 

[The extract respecting Marlowe from the 
Privy Council Register is here given for the first 
time. Mr. Bullen's Introduction to his edition 
of Marlowe is very valuable. Cf. also Dyce's and 
Cunningham's Prefaces to their collected editions, 
and Dr. A. W. Ward's exhaustive introduction to 
his edition of Faustus (Clarendon Press, 1887, 2nd 
edit.) ; see also Hunter's MS. Chorus Vatum in 
Brit. Mus. Addit. MS. 24488, pp. 372-80 ; Col- 
lier's Hist, of Dramatic Poetry ; Fleay's Life of 
Shakespeare and Biog. Chronicle of the English 
Drama ; J. A. Symonds's Shakspere's Predeces- 
sors, pp. 58 1 sq.; Ward's Hist, of English Dramatic 
Literature ; G-ent. Mag. 1800, pt. i. five good 
papers by James Broughton ; Universal Review, 
1889, iv. 382 sq. by Mr. J. H. Ingram ; A. W. 
Verity's Marlowe's Influence on Shakespeare, 
1886 ; De Marlovianis Fabulis, a Latin thesis, 
by Ernest Faligan, Paris, 1887.] S. L. 

MARMION, ROBERT (d. 1218), justice 
itinerant and reputed king's champion, was 
descended from the Lords of Fontenay le 
Marmion in Normandy, who are said to 
have been hereditary champions of the Dukes 
of Normandy. Wace mentions a Robert or 
Roger Marmion as fighting at Hastings {Ro- 
man de Ron, 13623, 13776). In Domes- 
day Book ' (i. 363 b} a < Robertus Dispen- 
sator' occurs as holding Tamworth Castle 
and Scrivelsby, together with other lands 
which afterwards belonged to the Marmion 
family. But the exact connection of these 
early Marmions with one another or with 
the later family is not quite clear, and, ex- 
cept for the untrustworthy ' Battle Abbey 
Roll,' there is no English record of a Mar- 
mion till the reign of Henry I, when Roger 
Marmion (d. 1130) appears as the holder 
of Tamworth and Scrivelsby. Roger's son, 



ROBERT MARMIOX (d. 1143), was a warlike 
man, who in the days of the anarchy under 
Stephen had no match for boldness, fierce- 
ness, and cunning (NEWBURGH, i. 47). In 
1140 Geoffrey of Anjou captured his castle 
of Fontenay in Normandy, because he held 
Falais against him (ROBERT DE TORIGNY, 
iv. 139). Three years later he expelled the 
monks of Coventry, and made a castle of 
their church. Soon after, on 8 Sept. 1143, he 
engaged in a fight with the Earl of Chester 
outside the walls of his strange fortress. 
Being thrown from his horse between the 
two armies, he broke his thigh, and as he lay 
on the ground was despatched by a cobbler 
with his knife. He was buried at Polesworth, 
Warwickshire, in unconsecrated ground as 
an excommunicated person (NEWBFRGH, i. 
47; Ann. Mon. ii. 230). Dugdale says his 
wife was Matilda de Beauchamp, but her true 
name seems to have been Melisent. Robert 
restored the nuns to Polesworth, of which they 
had been dispossessed, and began the founda- 
tion of the monastery of Barberay in Nor- 
mandy. His son Robert (d. 1185) married 
Elizabeth, daughter of Gervase, count of 
Rethel, who was brother to Baldwin II, 
king of Jerusalem. Robert Marmion the 
justiciar was his son, 

The justiciar, who was probably the sixth 
baron of Tamworth, appears first as a jus- 
ticiar at Caen in 1177. He was one of the 
justices before whom fines were levied in 
1184, and in 1186 was sheriff of Worcester. 
He was a justice itinerant for Warwickshire 
and Leicestershire in 1187-8, Staffordshire 
in 1187-92, Shropshire in 1187-94, Hereford- 
shire in 1188-90, Worcestershire in 1189, 
Gloucestershire in 1189-91 and 1193, and 
Bristol in 1194. Marmion had taken the vow 
for the crusade, but purchased exemption. In 
1195 he was with Richard in Normandy, and 
in 1197 witnessed the treaty between Richard 
and Baldwin of Flanders. During the early 
years of John's reign he was in attendance 
on the king in Normandy. In 1204-5 he was 
again one of the justices before whom fines 
were levied. He sided with the barons 
against the king, but after John's death re- 
joined the royal party. He died on 15 May 
1218. He gave a mill at Barston, Warwick- 
shire, to the Templars, and was a benefactor 
of Kirkstead Abbey, Lincolnshire. 

Marmion was twice married, first, to Ma- 
tilda de Beauchamp, by whom he had a 
son, Robert the elder, and two daughters; 
secondly, to Philippa, by whom he had four 
sons : Robert the younger ; William, who was 
dean of Tamworth ; Geoffrey, who was an- 
cestor of the Marmions of Checkendon, Stoke 
Marmion, and Aynho, to which branch 



Marmion 



191 



Marmion 



Shackerley Marmion [q. v.] belonged ; and 
lastly Philip (d. 1276). Robert Marmion 
the younger was father of William Marmion, 
who was summoned to parliament in 1264, 
and ancestor of the Lords Marmion of 
Witrington, summoned in 1294 and 1297- 
1313. 

Robert Marmion the elder served under 
John in Poitou in 1214. He married Juliana 
de Vassy, and had a son, PHILIP MARMION 
(d. 1291). This Philip was sheriff of War- 
wickshire and Leicestershire in 1249, and of 
Norfolk and Suffolk in 1261. He served in 
Poitou in 1254, and was imprisoned when 
on his way home through France at Pons 
(MATT. PARIS, v. 462). He was one of the 
sureties for the king in December 1263, and 
fighting for him at Lewes, on 14 May 1264, 
was there taken prisoner. Philip Marmion 
married, first, Jane, daughter of Hugh de 
Kilpeck, by whom he had two daughters, 
Jane and Mazera : and secondly, Mary, by 
whom he had another daughter Jane, who 
married Thomas de Ludlow, and was by him 
grandmother of Margaret de Ludlow. Tarn- 
worth passed to Jane, daughter of Mazera 
Marmion, and wife of Baldwin de Freville, 
and Scrivelsby eventually passed with Mar- 
garet de Ludlow to Sir John Dymoke [q. v.], 
in whose family it has since remained. 

Scrivelsby is said to have been held by the 
Marmions by grand serjeanty on condition 
of performing the office of king's champion 
at the coronation. But this rests purely on 
tradition, and there is no record of any Mar- 
mion having ever performed the office. The 
first mention of the office of champion occurs 
in a writ of the twenty-third year of Ed- 
ward III 0349), where it is stated that the 
holder of Scrivelsby was accustomed to do 
this service. From this it may perhaps be 
assumed that Philip Marmion at least had 
filled the office at the coronation of Ed- 
ward I. For the later and more authentic 
history of the office of king's champion held 
by the Dymokes of Scrivelsby as representa- 
tives of Philip Marmion, see under SIR JOHN 
DYMOKE (rf. 1381). 

[Chronicles of William of Newburgh and Ro- 
bert de Torigny in Chron. Stephen, Henry II, 
and Richard I ; Annales Monastic! ; Dugdale's 
Baronage, i. 375 ; Eyton's Itinerary of Henry II ; 
loss's Judges of England, ii. 95-7; Banks's 
Hist, of the Marmion Family; Palmer's Hist, 
of the Marmion Family.] C. L. K. 

MARMION, SHACKERLEY (1603- 
1639), dramatist, apparently only son of 
Shakerley Marmion, owner of the chief por- 
tions of the manor of Aynho, near Brackley, 
Northamptonshire, was born there in January 



1602-3. His mother was Mary, daughter 
of Bartrobe Lukyn of London, gentleman, 
and his parents' marriage was solemnised at 
the church of St. Dunstan's-in-the-West on 
16 June 1600 (NICHOLS, Collectanea, v. 216). 
The father, eldest son of Thomas Marmion 
(d. 1583) of Lincoln's Inn (by his wife Mary, 
youngest daughter of Rowland Shakerley of 
Aynho, whom he married in 1577), studied 
at the Inner Temple, was appointed, 7 April 
1607, a commissioner to inquire into any 
concealed land belonging to Sir Everard 
Digby and the other conspirators executed 
for their share in the Gunpowder plot, and 
in 1609-10 he was escheator of Northamp- 
tonshire and Rutland. He sold his interest 
in Aynho about 1620 to Richard Cartwright 
of the Inner Temple, and thus reduced his 
family to poverty (BRIDGES, Northampton- 
shire, i. 137). Shackerley, however, was edu- 
cated at Thame free school under Richard 
Butcher, and in 1618 became a commoner of 
Wadham College, Oxford. Although he did 
not matriculate till 16 Feb. 1620-1, his caution 
money was received as early as 28 April 1616. 
He proceeded B.A. 1 March 1621-2, and M.A. 
7 July 1624, and seems to have resided in 
college till October 1625. On leaving the 
university he tried his fortune as a soldier in 
the Low Countries, but soon settled in Lon- 
don as a man of letters. Ben Jonson pa- 
tronised him, and he became one of the vete- 
ran dramatist's 'sons.' Heywood, Nabbes, 
and Richard Browne were among his asso- 
ciates. But he lived riotously and was fami- 
liar with the disreputable sides of London life. 
On 1 Sept. 1629 the grand jury at the Mid- 
dlesex sessions returned a true bill against 
him for stabbing with a sword one Edward 
Moore in the highway of St. Giles's-in-the- 
Fields on the previous 11 July. He does 
not appear to have been captured (Middlesex 
County Records, ed. Jeaffreson, iii. 27-8). 
He obtained some reputation as a playwright, 
but in 1638 he joined a troop of horse raised 
by Sir John Suckling, and accompanied it in 
the winter on the expedition to Scotland. 
Marmion fell ill at York, and Suckling re- 
moved him by easy stages to London. There 
he died in January 1639, a*id woo buried m 
the church of St. Bartholomew, Smithfiold. 
According to Wood he had squandered an 
estate worth 7001. a year, but there is pos- 
sibly some confusion here between him and 
his father. 

Marmion was author of an attractive poem 
(in heroic couplets) based on Apuleius's 
well-known story of ' Cupid and Psyche.' 
The title-page ran'AMorall Poem intituled 
the Legend of Cupid and Psyche or Cupid 
and his Mistris. As it was lately presented 



Marmion 



192 



Marnock 



to the Prince Elector. Written by Shacker- 
ley Marmion, Gent.,' London (by N. and 
I. Okes), 1637, 8vo. Commendatory verses 
are contributed by Richard Brome, Francis 
Tuckyr, Thomas Nabbes, and Thomas Hey- 
wood, who compares Marmion's effort to his 
own play on the same subject, 'Love's Mis- 
tress.' 'The Prince Elector' was Charles 
Lewis, son of Frederick by his wife Eliza- 
beth, Charles I's sister. A second edition, 
entitled ' Cupid's Courtship, or the Celebra- 
tion of the Marriage between the God of 
Love and Psyche,' appeared in 1666. A re- 
print, edited by S. W. Singer, was issued in 
1820. Marmion also contributed poems to 
the 'Annalia Dubrensia ' (1636), and to 

* Jonsonus Virbius ' (1638). In the latter 
collection his contribution (in heroic cou- 
plets) is entitled A Funeral Sacrifice to the 
Sacred Memory of his thrice-honoured Father 
Ben Jonson.' Commendatory verse by Mar- 
mion is prefixed to Heywood's 'Pleasant 
Dialogues and Dramas,' 1637. 

As a playwright Marmion was a very 
humble follower of Ben Jonson, but his 
work was popular with Charles I's court. 
He writes in fluent blank verse, and portrays 
the vices of contemporary society with some 
vigour and freedom, but his plots are con- 
fused and deficient in point. The earliest 
piece, which was often acted by. Prince 
Charles's servants at Salisbury Court in 
January 1632, was licensed for the press 
26 Jan" 1632, and was published in the same 
year with the title, ' Hollands Leagver. An 
excellent Comedy as it hath bin lately and 
often acted with great applause by the high 
and mighty Prince Charles his Servants ; at 
the Private House in Salisbury Court. Writ- 
ten by Shackerley Marmyon, Master of Arts, 
London, by J. B. for John Grove, dwelling 
in Swan Yard within Newgate,' 1632. Two 
distinct actions are pursued in alternate 
scenes. The tone is often licentious, and the 
fourth act takes place before a brothel in 
Blackfriars, generally known at the time as 

* Hollands Leaguer,' whence the play derives 
its name. An anonymous prose tract called 

* Hollands Leagver . . . wherein is detected 
the notorious Sinne of Pandarisme,' was pub- 
lished in the same year, but beyond treating 
of a similar topic the play has no relations 
with it. Marmion's second comedy, licensed 
for the press on 15 June 1633, was acted both 
at court and at the theatre in Salisbury Court. 
The title ran, 'A Fine Companion, acted 
before the King and Queene at White-Hall 
and sundrie times with great applause at the 
Private-House in Salisbury Court by the 
Prince his servants. Written by Shaker- 
ley Marmyon. London, by Aug. Mathewes 

;"The Crafty Merchant" and "The 
Souldier'd Citizen" are, however, two dis- 
tinct plays. The former is by William Bonen 
and the latter of which the correct title is 



for Richard Meighen, next to the Middle 
Temple gate in Fleet Street,' 1633. It was 
dedicated to Marmion's ' worthy kinsman, 
Sir Ralph Dutton,' son of William Dutton 
of Sherborne, Gloucestershire. D'Urfey is 
said to owe his Captain Porpuss in his ' Sar 
Barnaby Whig ' to the Captain Whibble in 
this play. Marmion's third piece, acted by the 
queen's men at the Cockpit before 12 May 
1536, was licensed for the press on 11 March 
1640. It was published^ with the title : 
' The Antiquary. A Comedy acted by Her 
Maiesties Servants at the Cock-Pit. Writ- 
ten by Shackerly Mermion, Gent. London, 
Printed by F. K. for J. W. and F. E., and 
are sold at the Crane in S. Pauls Church- 
yard,' 1641, 4to. The plot mainly turns on 
the credulity of an old collector of curiosities, 
Veterano, whose interests are wholly absorbed 
in the past. It is said to have been revived 
for two nights in 1718 on the re-establishment 
of the Society of Antiquaries. O'KeefFe's 
' Modern Antiques ' deals with the same sub- 
ject, and in part is borrowed from it. Sir 
Walter Scott was sufficiently attracted by it 
to include it in his 'Ancient British Drama,' 
and it has figured in all editions of Dodsley's 
1 Old Plays.' These three plays, poorly edited 
by James Maidment and W. PI. Logan, were 
reprinted together at Edinburgh in 1875. 
A fourth piece, 'The Crafty Merchant, or the 
Souldier'd Citizen,' was assigned to Marmion 
in the well-known list of plays burnt by 
Warburton's cook?(f ' The Merchant's Sacri- 
fice,' a cancelled title in Warburton's list, 
was assumed by Halliwell to be the original 
name of the piece. 

[Wood's Athense Oxon. ed. Bliss, ii. 647 ; 
Marmion's Dramatic Works, Edinburgh, 1875 ; 
Pleay's Biographical Chronicle of the English 
Drama ; Hunter's Chorus Vatum (Addit. MS. 
24487) ; Dodsley's Old English Plays, ed. Haz- 
litt, xiii. 411 seq. ; Halli well's Diet, of Plays; 
Gardiner's Kegister of Wadham Coll. Oxford ; 
information kindly supplied by Gordon Good- 
win, esq.] S. L. 

MARNOCK, ROBERT (1800-1889), 
landscape gardener, was born on 12 March 
1800 at Kintore, Aberdeenshire. In early 
life he was gardener at Bretton Hall, York- 
shire. In 1834 he laid out the Sheffield 
Botanic Garden, and was appointed the first 
curator. He subsequently was fora time in 
business as a nursery man at Hackney,but after 
laying out the garden of the Royal Botanic 
Society in the inner circle of Regent's Park, 
he became curator of that garden about 1840. 
Thenceforward Marnock took rank as one of 
the leading landscape gardeners of the day. 
His style was that generally called ' natural ' 
or 'picturesque,' while his work was not 

"The Soddered Citizen" may have beer 
by Marmion, but it was more probably b) 
John Clavell. The play was discovered anc 
edited in the Malone Society Reprints 1936. 



Marochetti 



193 



Marochetti 



only sound and severely economical, but far 
in advance of the prevailing order in purity 
of taste. He was a successful manager of the 
Botanical Gardens exhibitions in Regent's 
Park until he relinquished his post there in 
1862. He practised as a landscape gardener 
from that date until 1879, when he retired 
in favour of his assistant, J. F. Meston. On 
this occasion his admirers gave him his por- 
trait by Wiegmann, and a painting of one of 
his works, together with an address written | 
by Canon (now Dean) Hole, one of the com- 
mittee. His work for Prince Demidoffat San 
Donate, near Florence, in 1852, added greatly 
to his reputation, and to the increasing taste 
for English gardening on the continent. His 
chief designs are those at Greenlands, Henley- 
on-Thames, for the Right Hon. W. H. Smith ; 
at Hampstead, for Sir Spencer Wells; at 
Possingworth, Sussex, for Mr. Lewis Huth ; 
Western Park, Sheffield ; Park Place, Hen- 
ley ; Taplow Court ; Eynsham Hall ; Sopley 
Park ; Montague House, Whitehall ; Blyth- 
wood, near Taplow, for Mr. George Hanbury ; 
Brambletye, near East Grinstead, for Mr. 
Donald Larnach ; and Leigh Place, near Ton- 
bridge, for Samuel Morley. His last public 
work in England was the Alexandra Park 
at Hastings, laid out in 1878. He continued 
to give professional advice in landscape gar- 
dening until the spring of 1889. His last 
private garden was that of Sir Henry Peek 
at Rousdon, near Lyme Regis, completed in 
1889. 

Marnock died at Oxford and Cambridge 
Mansions, London, on 15 Nov. 1889. In 
accordance with his desire, his body, after a 
religious service, was cremated at Woking, 
and the remains deposited at Kensal Green 
on 21 Nov. 

From 1836 to 1842 Marnock was editor of 
the monthly ( Floricultural Magazine,' and 
for several years, commencing with 1845, he 
edited the weekly 'United Gardeners' and 
Land Stewards' Journal.' With Richard 
Deakin he wrote the first volume of * Flori- 
graphia Britannica, or Engravings and De- 
scriptions of the Flowering Plants and Ferns 
of Britain/ 8vo, 1837. 

[Gardeners' Chronicle, 29 April 1882 pp.565. 
567 (with portrait), 23 Nov. 1889 p. 588 (with 
portrait) ; Gardeners' Mag. 23 Nov. 1889, pp. 
733, 744 (with portrait) ; Times, 21 Nov. 1889.] 

G. G. 

MAROCHETTI, CARLO (1805-1867), 
sculptor, royal academician, and baron of the 
Italian kingdom, was born at Turin in 1805. 
Turin, as the capital of Piedmont, then formed 
part of the French empire, but on its sepa- 
ration in 1814 Marochetti's father, who had 
settled near Paris as an advocate in the 

VOL. xxxvi. 



court of cassation there, took out an act of 
naturalisation for himself and family as 
French citizens. Marochetti was educated 
at the Lycee Napoleon and received his first 
lessons in sculpture in the studio of Baron 
Bosio the sculptor. Having failed to win the 
< Prix de Rome ' at the Ecole des Beaux- Arts, 
Marochetti proceeded to Rome at his own 
expense and resided there for eight years 
from 1822 to 1830 working in the academy 
of French artists in the Villa Medici on the 
Pincio. Though born on the Italian side of 
the Alps, Marochetti was thoroughly French 
by nature, and was never even able to speak 
Italian with facility. In 1827 he exhibited 
in Paris ' A Girl playing with a Dog,' for 
which he was awarded a medal at the Beaux- 
Arts and which he subsequently presented 
to the king of Sardinia. His first important 
work was the fine equestrian statue of Em- 
manuel Philibert of Savoy, which he ex- 
hibited for some time in the court of the 
Louvre at Paris and subsequently presented 
to his native town of Turin. This work 
gained for Marochetti not only the esteem 
but the personal friendship of Carlo Alberto, 
king of Sardinia, who summoned him to 
Turin and created him, for this and other 
services, a baron of the Italian kingdom. 
At Turin he executed the equestrian statue 
of Carlo Alberto for the courtyard of the 
Palazzo Carignano (now in the Piazza Carlo 
Alberto), a statue of ' The Fallen Angel ' and 
a bust of Mossi for the Turin Academy, and 
other works. He subsequently returned to 
Paris, where he was received into great 
favour by King Louis-Philippe and his court. 
He received several important commissions, 
including a statue of the Duke of Orleans for 
the courtyard of the Louvre (moved in 1848 
to Versailles), of which he made two replicas 
respectively for Lyons and Algiers ; the re- 
lief of the battle of Jemappes on the Arc de 
1'Etoile ; the relief of ' The Assumption ' for 
the high altar of the Madeleine ; the tomb 
of Bellini the musician in the cemetery of 
Pere Lachaise ; and the monument to La 
Tour d'Auvergne at Carbaix. Marochetti 
was given the Legion of Honour in 1839. On 
the death of his father he inherited the Cha- 
teau de Vaux, near Paris. 

On the outbreak of the revolution in 1848 
Marochetti came to England, where his 
connection with the French court quickly 
brought him into equal consideration among 
the court and nobility here, and he was es- 
pecially patronised by the queen and prince 
consort. In 1850 he exhibited at the Royal 
Academy a bust and a statue of i Sappho ; ' 
the latter was severely criticised and also 
verymuch admired. In 1851 he sent a bust of 



Marochetti 



194 



M arras 



the prince consort and another of Lady Con- 
stance Go wer, and was a frequent and popular 
exhibitor in succeeding years. At the Great 
Exhibition of 1851 he attracted universal 
attention by the model of his great eques- 
trian statue of Richard Coeur de Lion ; this 
fine but unequal work was afterwards exe- 
cuted in bronze by public subscription and 
erected, in a very unsuitable position, out- 
side the House of Lords at Westminster. 
Marochetti received numerous important 
commissions, which he executed with varying 
degrees of success. Among them were the 
equestrian statues of the queen and of the 
Duke of Wellington at Glasgow and of the 
latter at Strathfieldsaye, the statues of Lord 
Olive at Shrewsbury, the Duke of Wellington 
at Leeds, Lord Herbert at Salisbury, Lord 
Clyde in Waterloo Place, London, and the 
seated statue of Sir Jamsetjee Jejeebhoy at 
Bombay. Among his monumental sculptures 
may be noticed the monument to British 
soldiers at Scutari, the Inkerman monument 
in St. Paul's Cathedral, that to Lord Mel- 
bourne in the same place, that to Princess 
Elizabeth Stuart, erected by the queen, in St. 
Thomas's Church, Newport, Isle of Wight, 
and that with full-length recumbent figure 
to John Cust, earl Brownlow, in Belton 
Church, Lincolnshire. His busts were very 
numerous, but he was more successful in 
those of ladies than those of men ; among the 
latter may be noticed W. M. Thackeray in 
Westminster Abbey, and Sir Edwin Land- 
seer, the latter being his diploma contribution 
to the Royal Academy. He also executed a 
good relief medallion portrait of Lord Mac- 
aulay. Marochetti was elected an associate 
of the Royal Academy in 1861, and an acade- 
mician in 1866. He received the Italian 
order of S. Maurizio e S. Lazzaro in 1861. 
Marochetti's handsome figure and engaging 
manners rendered him popular with his 
fashionable patrons in England and on the 
continent. As a sculptor he introduced a 
great deal of vitality into the somewhat stiff 
and constrained manner then prevalent in 
England. His equestrian statues command 
attention, even if they invite criticism, and 
are especially atTurin a conspicuous orna- 
ment to the place in which they are erected. 
He was a strong advocate of polychromy in 
sculpture, and executed in this manner a 
statuette of the queen as ' The Queen of Peace 
and Commerce (Gazette des Beaux- Arts, xvi. 
566). Marochetti died suddenly at Passy, 
near Paris, on 29 Dec. 1867. His son en- 
tered the diplomatic service of the Italian 
kingdom. 

[Times, 4 Jan. 1868; Illustrated London 
News, 11 Jan. 1868; Athenaeum, 11 Jan. 1868; 



Kedgrave's Diet, of Artists; Seubert's Allge- 
meines Kiinstler-Lexikon ; Sandby's Hist, of 
the Koyal Academy.] L. C. 

MARRABLE, FREDERICK (1818- 
1872), architect, born in 1818, was son of 
Sir Thomas Marrable, secretary of the board 
of green cloth to George IV and William IV. 
He was articled to Edward Blore [q. v.], the 
architect, and on the expiration of his time 
studied abroad. On his return he obtained 
a good deal of private practice. In 1856, on 
the establishment of the metropolitan board 
of works, Marrable was appointed superin- 
tending architect to the board. This difficult 
office he filled with great credit, and gained 
the esteem of his profession. He designed 
and built the offices of the board in Spring 
Gardens. He resigned his post in 1862. 
Among important buildings designed by 
Marrable may be noticed the Garrick Club, 
Archbishop Tenison's School in Leicester 
Square, the church of St. Peter at Deptford, 
and that of St. Mary Magdalen at St. Leo- 
nards-on-Sea. Marrable resided in the Avenue 
Road, Regent's Park, and on 22 June 1872 
went to Witley in Surrey to inspect the 
buildings of the Bethlehem Hospital for Con- 
valescents. While thus engaged he was taken 
ill, and died almost immediately. He occa- 
sionally exhibited his designs at the Royal 
Academy. 

[Bull ler, 29 June 1872 ; Athenaeum, 6 July 
1872 ; Redgrave's Diet, of Artists.] L. C. 

MARRAS, GIACINTO (1810-1883), 
singer and musical composer, born at Naples 
6 July 1810, was son of II Cavaliere Giovanni 
Marras and his wife Maria Biliotti, a famous 
Florentine beauty. The father, a distin- 

g.iished artist, was court painter to the Grand 
ukeof Tuscany and the sultan of Turkey (cf. 
Le Courrier deSmyrne^Q May 1831),andwas 
a son of the Roman poetess, Angelica Mosca. 
In 1820 Giacinto entered the preparatory 
school of the Real Collegio di Musica at 
Naples, but shortly afterwards, probably on 
a.ccount of his success in the soprano part of 
Bellini's first opera, 'Adelson e Salvini,' per- 
formed in the college theatre, for which he was 
chosen by the composer because of the beauty 
of his voice (cf. GROVE, Diet, of Musicians, 
i. 212, sub ' Bellini '), Marras was elected to 
a free scholarship at the college, where his 
masters for composition and singing were 
Zingarelli and Crescentini, Bellini and 
Michael Costa being maestrini or sub-pro- 
fessors. During his pupilage he frequently 
sang in the Neapolitan churches, and wrote 
much music for them. 

On leaving the college Marras made a 
professional tour through Italy, and in 1835 



M arras 



M arras 



he was induced by the Marquis of Anglesey 
and the Duke of Devonshire to come to Eng- 
land, where he immediately established a re- 
putation. He was at once engaged for most 
of the principal concerts, including those of 
the Philharmonic Society and the ' Antient 
Concerts.' One of the first performances 
under his own management was given in 
conjunction with Parigiani, Grisi, Caradori 
Allan, Rubini, Tamburini, Lablache, Balfe, 
and others on 30 June 1836, at the great 
concert room of the King's Theatre, when 
Rubini sang ' II nuovo Canto Veneziano,' 
composed by Marras expressly for the occa- 
sion. In 1842 Marras made a concert tour 
in Russia, visiting all the principal towns, 
and meeting with such success at St. Peters- 
burg that the Czar Nicholas offered him the 
lucrative post of director of the court music, 
with full pension after ten years' service. 
This, however, he declined. At Odessa he 
was engaged, at the instance of Prince 
Woronzoff, to sing the primo tenore parts 
in the Italian opera. Later he accompanied 
this prince to Alupka in the Crimea, and 
on his return he sang with ever-increasing 
success at Vienna and also at Naples, where 
he appeared at the Fondo theatre on the 
2nd and at S. Carlo in ' Sonnambula ' on 
19 March 1844 (Morning Post, 23 April 
1844). In the same year he appeared at 
the best c