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G. A. A. . . 
J. G. A. 
W A J A . 

G. A. AlTKEN. 


C. H. F. . . 
J. D. F. 
R. G 

R. B-L. . . . 
G F R B 


J. T. G. . . 
G. G 

M B 


A. G 

B. B 


T. B. . . . 


R. E. G. . . 

H. C. B. . . 
H. E. D. B. 
G. C. B. . . 


W. A. G. . . 
J. C. H. 
J. A. H. . . 
T. H 

G. S. B. . . 
A. R. B. . . 
M. B-s. . . . 
W. C 



C. A. H. . . 
E. G. H. . . 

H. M. C. . . 

J. W. C-K. . 

A. M. C. . . 
T. C 


Miss A. M. CLERKE. 

T. F. H. . . 
C. H. H. . . 
W.A. S.H.. 
W. H 
W. H. H. . 

W. P. C. . . 
J. C 


T. B. J. 
C. L. K. . . 


J. K 

L. D 


J. K. L. . . 

M P 

E L 

G T D 


g L 

R. D 
.F. E. . 


J. E. L. . . 

M. M. 

. C. H. FIRTH. 






. R. E. GRAVES. 


. E. G. HAWKE. 










List of Writers. 


L. M. M. . . MlSS MlDDLETON. 

H. W. M. . H. W. MONCKTON. 



G. P. M-Y.. G. P. MORIARTY. 

A. J. M. M. A. J. M. MORISON. 


D. J. O'D. . D. J. O'DONOGHUE. 

F. M. O'D. . F. M. O'DONOGHUE. 




J. F. P. . . J. F. PAYNE, M.D. 

A. F. P. . . A. F. POLLARD. 

B. P Miss PORTER. 

R. B. P. . . R. B. PROSSER. 

J. M. R. . . J. M. RIGG. 
L. M. M. S. Miss SCOTT. 


W. A. S. . . W. A. SHAW. 

C. F. S. . . Miss C. FELL SMITH. 





C. W. S. . . C. W. SUTTON. 

W. C. S. . . W. C. SYDNEY. 

J. T-T. . . . JAMES TAIT. 

R. H. V. . . COLONEL R. H. VETCH, R.E. 



B. B. W. . . B. B. WOODWARD. 







1821), physician, was born on 31 Aug. 1746 at 
East Ogwell, Devonshire. His father, Francis 
Milman, was rector of that parish, and vicar 
of Abbots Kerswell, in the same county. On 
30 June 1760 he matriculated at Exeter Col- 
lege, Oxford, whence he graduated B. A. 9 May 
1764, M.A. 14 Jan. 1767, M.B. 7 July 1770, 
M.D. 23 Nov. 1776. In 1765 he was elected 
to a college fellowship, and in May 1771 a 
Radcliffe travelling fellow. He was elected 

?hysician to the Middlesex Hospital (1777- 
779), and a fellow of the College of Physi- 
cians of London 30 Sept. 1778. He had made 
the acquaintance of the Duke of Gloucester 
at Rome, and by his influence obtained prac- 
tice in London. In 1785 he was made phy- 
sician extraordinary to the king's household, 
and in 1806 became physician in ordinary to 
the king. At the College of Physicians he 
delivered the Gulstonian lectures on scurvy 
in 1780, was five times censor between 1779 
and 1799, delivered the Croonian lectures in 
1781, and the Harveian oration, which was 
not printed, in 1782. He was elected presi- 
dent in 1811 and 1812, and resigned 6 Oct. 
1813. In 1800 he was created a baronet. 
His published works are only two, and ap- 
peared respectively in 1782 and 1799. The 
former, ' Animadversiones de Natura Hy- 
dropis ejusque curatione,' is dedicated to the 
Radcliffe trustees, and is in part based upon 
observations made during his travels abroad. 
It never rises above the level of a moderately 
good graduation thesis, and shows that its 
author did not distinguish between dropsies 
due to cirrhosis of the liver, to malignant 
growth of the peritoneum, and to renal 
disease. He recommends purgatives and 
tonics, and thinks that the patient's fluid 
food need not be restricted. His other 


book, t An Enquiry into the Source from 
whence the Symptoms of the Scurvy and of 
Putrid Fevers arise/ is dedicated to Lord 
Southampton, and is a compilation showing 
little practical acquaintance with the disease. 
He agrees in general with James Lind [q. v.], 
whom he quotes, and almost the only original 
passage in the 230 octavo pages is one in 
which he comments on a passage of Strabo. 
bk. xvi., and shows that the disease from which 
the army of ^Elius Gallus suffered in Arabia 
in the reign of Augustus was a form of 
scurvy. He died at Pinner Grove, Middlesex, 
24 June 1821, and was buried in the church 
of St. Luke at Chelsea. He was a courtly 
person, of no great medical attainments. 

Milman married, 20 July 1779, Frances, 
daughter of William Hart of Stapleton, 
Gloucestershire. His eldest son, William 
George, succeeded him in the baronetcy, and 
was father of Robert Milman [q. v.] ; his 
youngest son, Henry Hart Milman [q. v.], 
was dean of St. Paul's. 

[Works ; Munk's Coll. of Phys. ii. 316 ; Gent. 
Mag. 1821 ; Annual Keg. 1821 ; Foster's Alumni 
Oxon. ; Boase's Keg. Coll. Exon. xxiv. 107; in- 
formation from Dr. J. B. Mas.] N. M. 


1868), dean of St. Paul's, born in London 
10 Feb. 1791, was the third son of Sir 
Francis Milman, bart. [q. v.], physician to 
George III. He was educated under Dr. 
Burney at Greenwich, and subsequently at 
Eton and Brasenose College, Oxford, where 
his career was remarkably brilliant. He ma- 
triculated 25 May 1810, and graduated B.A. 
1814, M.A. 1816, B.D. and D.D. 1849. In 
1812 he won the Newdigate prize with an 
was considered by Dean Stanley the most 



perfect of Oxford prize poems. In 1814 Mil- 
man was elected fellow of Brasenose, and in 
1816 was awarded the chancellor's prize for 
an English essay on ( A Comparative Esti- 
mate of Sculpture and Painting/ He was an 
early and intimate friend of Reginald Heber, 
for whose ' Hymnal ' he wrote * By thy birth 
and early years,' ' Brother, thou art gone 
before us/ ' When our heads are bowed with 
woe,' and other hymns, which have acquired 
and retain high popularity. In 1821 he was 
elected professor of poetry at Oxford, but 
did not make the mark of Keble, who suc- 
ceeded him in 1831. He had meanwhile 
taken orders (1816), and was in 1818 pre- 
sented to the important living of St. Mary's, 

Though attentive to his clerical duties, 
Milman continued for some time to be known 
principally as a poet. It was the day of 
Scott, Byron, and Moore, who irresistibly 
attracted all talent of the imitative order, 
to which Milman's poetical gift certainly be- 
longed. His first poetical publication was a 
drama, ' Fazio/ composed at Oxford, and de- 
scribed by the author as ' an attempt at re- 
viving the old national drama with greater 
simplicity of plot.' Though ' written with 
some view to the stage/ it was published in 
book form in 1815 (2nd edit. 1816). It was 
first acted at the Surrey Theatre, without the 
author's knowledge, under the title of l The 
Italian Wife.' Having succeeded there and 
at Bath, it was appropriated by the managers 
of Covent Garden, who astonished Milman by 
the request that Charles Kemble might be al- 
lowed to read the part of Fazio to him. The 
imperfection of the law of copyright would 
have frustrated any objections that he might 
have entertained, but, though protesting, he 
was flattered by the compliment, and the 
play was performed for the first time in Lon- 
don on 5 Feb. 1818, with triumphant effect, 
mainly owing to the acting of Miss O'Neill, 
who had seen the piece before publication 
and had then discouraged Milman from an- 
ticipating for it any success on the stage. 
Fanny Kemble subsequently played the part 
of Bianca with great effect, both in England 
and America, while Madame Ristori, when 
at the height of her fame in 1856, had it 
translated into Italian and appeared with 
much success as Bianca both in London 
and abroad. The plot, indeed, which is taken 
from a story in ' Varieties of Literature/ re- 
printed in 1795 by the 'Annual Register/ 
where Milman saw it, is powerful, and much 
the most effective element in the play. The 
diction is florid, and full of the false taste 
which had come in by perhaps inevitable 
reaction from the inanimate style of the 

eighteenth century. Milman's next publica- 
tion, * Samor, the Lord of the Bright City ' 
(1818 ; 2nd edit, same year), an epic of the 
class of Southey's ' Madoc ' and Landor's 
' Gebir/ though not recalling the manner of 
either of these poets, had been begun at Eton, 
and nearly finished at Oxford. The subject is. 
the Saxon invasion of Britain in Vortigern's 
days. The * bright city ' is Gloucester. The 
poem contains much fine writing in both 
senses of the term, and the author in after 
life subjected it to a severe revision. Southey, 
in criticising the poem, suggested that Mil- 
man's powers were ' better fitted for the drama 
than for narration ' (SouxHET, Corresp. chap, 
xii.), and he told Scott that ' Samor' was 'too 
full ' of power and beauty. Milman's next 
works were more mature in thought and in- 
dependent in style, and the vital interest 
of their subjects almost raised him to the 
rank of an original poet. In ' The Fall of 
Jerusalem/ a dramatic poem (1820), the con- 
flict between Jewish conservatism and new 
truth is forcibly depicted ( Corresp. of John 
Jebb and Alex. Knox, ii. 434-44). In < The 
Martyr of Antioch/ another dramatic poem 
(1822), a no less effective contrast is de- 
lineated in the struggle between human 
affections and fidelity to conviction. The 
description of Jerusalem put into the mouth 
of Titus has been greatly admired, and with 
reason, but is unfortunately too fair a sample 
of the entire work. ( Belshazzar/ also a dra- 
matic poem (1822), is chiefly remarkable for 
its lyrics ; and ' Anne Boleyn ' (1826), a poor 
performance, terminated Milman's career as 
a dramatist. 

But he was still to render an important 
and an unprecedented service to English 
poetry by his translations from the Sanscrit. 
These he was led to make by having ex- 
hausted the subjects which he had prescribed 
to himself for his lectures as Oxford profes- 
sor of poetry. Having gained some acquain- 
tance with Indian poetry from the works of 
foreign scholars, he taught himself to a cer- 
tain extent Sanscrit, whose resemblance to- 
Greek delighted him, and, with the assistance 
of Professor H. H. Wilson [q. v.], produced 
some very creditable versions of passages from 
the Indian epics, especially the pathetic story 
of Nala and Damayanti. These were pub- 
lished in 1835. They have been long super- 
seded, but the achievement was none the less 
memorable. At a later period (1849) he pub- 
lished an elegant edition of ' Horace/ and in 
1865 excellent translations of the 'Agamem- 
non ' and the ' Bacchse.' 

In 1827 Milman was selected to deliver 
the Bampton lectures, and took as his sub- 
ject the evidence for Christianity derived 



from the conduct and character of the 
apostles. The treatment was no more original 
than the theme. Three years afterwards, how- 
ever, a book appeared from his pen, to which, 
though not in itself of extraordinary merit, 
the epithet l epoch-making ' might be applied 
with perfect propriety. It is his ' History 
of the Jews' (1830), written for Murray's 
' Family Library.' In this unpretending book 
for the first time ' an English clergyman 
treated the Jews as an oriental tribe, recog- 
nised sheiks and emirs in the Old Testament, 
shifted and classified documentary evidence, 
and evaded or minimised the miraculous.' 
Consternation, which the author had not an- 
ticipated, spread among the orthodox; the 
sale of the book was not only stopped, but 
the publication of the series in which it ap- 
peared ceased. Bishop Mant and Dr. Faussett 
were among the more conspicuous of his as- 
sailants, and a greater man, John Henry New- 
man, who reviewed it in the ' British Critic ' 
so late as January 1841, has recorded in his 
* Apologia' the unfavourable impression it 
produced upon him at the time. It was, 
however, well reviewed in the ' Gentleman's 
Magazine ' (1830, i. 134-7) as an ' excellent 
work,' ' written upon those enlightened prin- 
ciples which alone will be regarded in modern 
times,' while some representative Jews pre- 
sented Milman with a piece of plate in re- 
cognition of his liberal treatment of their 
history. The book was republished in 1863 
and again in 1867, with great improvements, 
and an able introduction, in which Milman 
clearly defined his own position. This he 
further illustrated in his university sermon 
on Hebrew prophecy, preached in 1865. 

Milman's preferment seemed likely to. be 
long impeded, but in 1835 Sir Robert Peel 
took advantage of his brief tenure of office 
to make him canon of Westminster and 
rector of St. Margaret's, Westminster, dig- 
nities invariably conferred on men of special 
eminence. He was still, nevertheless, regarded 
with distrust and dislike, and when his l His- 
tory of Christianity under the Empire ' ap- 
peared in 1840, it was, said Lord Melbourne, 
as completely ignored as if the clergy had 
taken a universal oath never to mention it 
to any one. In 1849, however, Lord John 
Russell advanced Milman to the deanery of 
St. Paul's. No position in the church could 
have better become him than the charge of 
a great historical cathedral, and he speedily 
obtained the general recognition which his 
talents and accomplishments had always 

The historical character of Milman's mind 
was shown by the principal literary labours 
of his later years. In 1838 he had edited 

Gibbon, a task which hardly admits of satis- 
factory performance. So vast is the theme 
so enormous the amount of illustration sup- 
plied by recent research, that either the 
editor's labours must appear inadequate, or 
the text must disappear beneath the com- 
mentary. Milman chose the former alterna- 
tive, but his edition, with the reinforcement 
of Guizot's notes, is still, perhaps, the stan- 
dard one, though this is not a position which 
it can ultimately retain. In 1839 he pub- 
lished the 'Life of E. Gibbon, Esq., with Se- 
lections from his Correspondence and Illus- 
trations.' There followed in 1855 his own 
great historical work, ' The History of Latin 
Christianity down to the Death of Pope 
Nicholas V.' Milman here selected a subject 
on which libraries might be written, but the 
necessity for a comparatively brief general 
survey will always exist, and Milman's book, 
while meeting this want, is at the same time 
executed on a scale and in a style answer- 
able to the dignity of history. Macaulay 
deemed the substance ' excellent,' although 
the style was, in his opinion, ' very much other- 
wise.' The call for a second edition in 1856 
was described by Macaulay as ' creditable to 
the age' (Life, p. 626). The task was one for 
which the cast of Milman's mind and the 
tenor of his studies fully qualified him. The 
shortcomings and minor inaccuracies are 
amply compensated by qualities till then 
rare in ecclesiastical historians liberality, 
candour, sympathy, and catholic appreciation 
of every estimable quality in every person 
or party which not only contributed an es- 
pecial charm to the work, but may be said 
to have permanently raised the standard of 
ecclesiastical history. Milman also possessed 
the fine sense of historical continuity, and 
the power of endowing institutions with per- 
sonality, so necessary to the historian of an 
august corporation like the Latin church. 
The fundamental distinctions between Latin 
and Greek or oriental Christianity and the 
parallelisms between Latin and Teutonic 
Christianity are admirably worked out. His 
great defect is the one visible in his dramas 
the lack of creative imagination, which pre- 
vented him from drawing striking portraits 
of the great company of illustrious men who 
passed under his review. 

The remainder of Milman's life was prin- 
cipally occupied in the discharge of the 
duties of his office, where his intellectual 
superiority acquired for him the designation 
of ' the great dean.' To him were due several 
innovations calculated to make the services 
at St. Paul's popular and accessible. On 
Advent Sunday, 28 Nov. 1858, he inaugurated 
evening services under the dome. He be- 



queathed, moreover, such a memorial to his 
cathedral as few deans would have been able 
to bequeath, in his delightful history of the 
edifice, completed and published by his son 
after his death in 1868. In 1859 he had 
written, for the * Transactions of the Royal 
Society,' a memoir of his friend Macaulay, 
which was prefixed to later editions of the 
historian's works. Some of his articles in the 
' Quarterly Review,' to which in his early 
days he was a constant, and in later years 
an occasional contributor, including essays 
on ' Erasmus ' and ' Savonarola,' were col- 
lected and published by his son in 1870. 
Milman died on 24 Sept. 1868 at a house 
near Ascot which he had taken for the 
summer. He was buried in St. Paul's Ca- 
thedral, and a monument was erected by 
public subscription in the south aisle of the 
choir. On 11 March 1824 he had married 
Mary Ann, daughter of Lieutenant William 
Cockell, by whom he had four sons and two 

Milman was highly esteemed in society, 
and his intimate friends included Macaulay, 
Hallam, Sydney Smith, Lockhart, and his 
publisher, John Murray. Mr. Lecky has 
eulogised him unstintedly, and has described 
the harmony and symmetry of his mind and 
its freedom from eccentricity or habits of ex- 
aggeration. Although he was far from con- 
temptible as a poet, his reputation must rest 
on his historical work. ' That such a writer,' 
writes Mr. Lecky, ' should have devoted him- 
self to the department of history, which, more 
than any other, has been distorted by igno- 
rance, puerility, and dishonesty, I conceive to 
be one of the happiest facts of English litera- 
ture ' (European Morals, Pref. p. x). His in- 
tellect may have lacked originality, but he 
was a pioneer in the study of Sanscrit poetry 
and in the application of criticism to Jewish 

A portrait by G. F. Watts belongs to his 
eldest son, the Rev. W. H. Milman. An en- 
graving by W. Holl is prefixed to the fourth 
edition of the ' History of Latin Christianity.' 

[Annual Register, 1868; Encycl. Brit. 9th 
edit. ; North British Review, vol. 1. ; Blackwood's 
Mag. vol. civ. ; Eraser's Mag. vol. Ixxviii.; Dean 
Stanley in Macmillan's Mag. vol. xix. ; Quarterly 
Review, January 1854; Smiles's Memoir of John 
Murray, vol. ii. ; Milman's own prefaces to his 
writings.] R. Q-. 

MILMAN, ROBERT (1816-1876), bi- 
shop of Calcutta, third son of Sir William 
George Milman, bart., of Levaton in Devon- 
shire, by his wife Elizabeth Hurry, daughter 
of Robert Alderson, recorder of Norwich, 
and nephew of Henry Hart Milman [q. v.], 
dean of St. Paul's, was born at Easton in 

Gordano, Somerset, on 25 Jan. 1816. He 
was sent when young as a day-scholar to 
Westminster School, where in 1833 he ob- 
tained one of the Ireland prizes (WELCH, pp. 
520, 541). In the May of that year he matri- 
culated at Exeter College, Oxford, where he 
obtained a scholarship n 1834, and having 
taken a second class in 1837, graduated B. A. 
in 1838, and proceeded M.A. in 1867, in 
which year he was created D.D. (FOSTER, 
Alumni Oxonienses, iii. 960). He was a 
good linguist, and found the acquisition of 
languages easy. In 1839 he was ordained to 
the curacy of Winwick, Northamptonshire, 
and in 1840 was presented to the vicarage of 
Chaddleworth, Berkshire, by the dean and 
chapter of Westminster, on the nomination 
of his uncle, then canon of Westminster. 
There he had daily service, and, while work- 
ing conscientiously as a clergyman, found 
time for much study, and wrote a ' Life of 
Tasso ' and some smaller books. In 1851 
he exchanged Chaddleworth for the larger 
living of Lambourn, also in Berkshire, at 
that time a wild and neglected place (Memoir, 
p. 4). He worked hard there, building a 
church and schools in the hamlet of East- 
bury, and restoring the chancel of Lambourn 
church, chiefly out of his own pocket, hold- 
ing daily service and weekly celebrations, 
and doing all in his power for the welfare of 
his parishioners. In 1858 his sister, Maria 
Frances Milman, went to live with him, and 
remained his companion during the rest of 
his life. At the request of the Bishop of 
Oxford (Wilberforce), who esteemed him 
highly, he accepted in 1862 the living of 
Great Marlow, Buckinghamshire, though the 
change was in every respect an act of self- 
sacrifice. While there he lectured frequently 
at Cuddesdon Theological College, being well 
versed in patristic learning and the history 
of the primitive church, and also conducted 
several clerical ' retreats.' His preaching 
was eloquent and his sermons full of matter. 
Being appointed bishop of Calcutta in 
January 1867, he was consecrated at Canter- 
bury on 2 Feb., and landed at Calcutta with 
his sister on 31 March. His diocese, which 
at that date included the Central Provinces, 
thePunjaub on the west, and British Burmah 
on the east, extended over nearly a million 
square miles. Milman performed the duties 
of his office with extraordinary energy, and 
during a large part of every year was travel- 
ling on visitation tours, visiting in the year 
of his arrival Burmah and the North-west 
Provinces. A dispute among the Lutheran 
missionaries in Chota Nagpore having led 
the K61 converts to desire to join the English 
church, Milman received them in 1869, or- 



darning three German pastors and a catechist, 
and administering the sacrament to 650 per- 
sons at Ranchi. In matters of order he de- 
sired that the church at Ranchi should retain 
all its former customs and observances that 
were not inconsistent with the English 
prayer-book. Though his conduct was not 
imiversally approved, the Chota Nagpore 
Church grew and flourished; he took great de- 
light in it, and visited the district seven times 
during his episcopate (ib. pp. 95-104, 322). 
In 1870 he again visited Burmah, where the 
king was patronising a school at Mandalay 
under missionary superintendence, but he de- 
clined an interview with the king because he 
could not be received except with formalities 
that would have implied an inferiority to a 
Buddhist religious teacher. Thence he pro- 
ceeded on a metropolitical visitation to Ma- 
dras, Ceylon, and Bombay. He was anxious 
for an extension of the episcopate in India, 
and in 1872 vainly pressed the government 
to found a bishopric of Lahore, but was not 
pleased at hearing, in 1873, that the Arch- 
bishop of Canterbury had sanctioned a pro- 
posal for ordaining bishops to be sent out 
from England to act as commissary-bishops 
in India ; the Bishop of Madras nominated 
two for Tinnivelly. The two great English 
church missionary societies proposed that each 
of them should have its own missionary bi- 
shop, which Milman saw would be highly ob- 
jectionable. Having refused his consent to 
the archbishop's proposal and taken counsel 
with the viceroy and others, he held a meet- 
ing with the Bishops of Bombay and Madras 
in November, and the Bishop of Madras was 
induced to withdraw his nomination. Mil- 
man did not cease to urge a legal and canoni- 
cal division of the Indian dioceses, but failing 
that, would have welcomed the appointment 
of sufiragan bishops (ib. pp. 263-73, 375). He 
established a lay-diaconate and sub-diaconate 
in his diocese, and was anxious to see brother- 
hoods and sisterhoods formed in India. While 
desirous of unity between Christians, he would 
sanction nothing that might impair the posi- 
tion of his own church, insisting on a formal 
act of renunciation and profession from con- 
verts from Roman Catholicism, and refusing 
to allow his clergy to minister in dissenting 
chapels. Though he refused in 1872 to join 
in a memorial against ritualistic practices, 
holding that it was vague and likely to en- 
gender disputes, he warned his clergy against 
practices that might oflend others, and dis- 
approved of the use of eucharistic vestments 
and incense. He did much for the benefit 
of the English artisans in his diocese, and 
for the soldiers of the British army. With 
the natives of all classes he was extremely 

popular, and the extraordinary facility with 
which, though landing in India after his 
fiftieth year, he learnt to speak in Bengali, 
Hindustani, Hindi, and various cognate dia- 
lects, increased his influence over them. 
Holding that the bishops in India should be 
' a link between Europeans and natives ' (ib. 
p, 299), he gave parties to which both were in- 
vited, and tried in every way to make the na- 
tives feel at ease in European society. While 
travelling on his duty from Calcutta toPesha- 
wur in February 1876 he took a chill, was 
laid up at the house of Sir Richard Pollock 
at Peshawur, but getting better on 7 March 
was moved to Rawul Pindi, where he died 
on the 15th. He was buried the next day. 
The viceroy, Lord Northbrook, immediately 
published a ' Gazette ' containing a warm ac- 
knowledgment of the excellence of his cha- 
racter and work, and the government of India 
erected a monument to him in the cathedral 
at Calcutta. He was at once zealous and 
wise, an indefatigable worker and a consistent 
churchman. While staunch in his principles 
he was conciliatory in his conduct, and large- 
hearted and liberal both in his acts and sym- 
pathies. He was never married. 

Milman published : ' Meditations on Con- 
firmation/ 12mo, and some other small books 
or tracts in 1849 and 1850 ; ' Life of Torquato 
Tasso,' 2 vols. 1850, a careful biography, but 
lacking references, exhibiting no great ac- 
quaintance with literary history, and avoiding 
any attempt at criticism ; it is in places too 
rhetorical, in others rather slovenly in expres- 
sion ; the versified translations from poems of 
biographical interest are literal but not parti- 
cularly graceful ; ' Love of the Atonement,' 
1853, 8vo ; ' Mitslav, or the Conversion of 
Pomerania,' 1854, 8vo, also in ' Home Library,' 
1882, 8vo ; < Inkermann,' a poem, 1855, 12mo ; 
1 Convalescence,' 1865, 8vo ; some sermons and 
an article in the ' Calcutta Review,' reprinted 
in the Memoir ' (see below). 

[Memoir, 1879, by the Bishop's sister and 
companion, Frances Maria; Welch's Alumni 
Westmon.pp. 520, 541; Burke's Peerage and Ba- 
ronetage, art. 'Milman;' Foster's Alumni Oxon. 
iii. 960; Honours Keg. of Oxford, 1883, p. 229; 
Times, 20 March 1876, p. 5; Guardian, 22 March 
1876, p. 369 ; for reviews of Life of Tasso, Edinb. 
Rev. 1850, xcii. 533 sq., and Athenaeum, 1850, 
26 Jan. p. 95 sq.] 

MILN, JAMES (1819-1881), archaeolo- 
gist, born in 1819, was the son of James Maud 
Miln of Woodhill, Barry, Forfarshire. He 
entered the navy, serving in the China war 
of 1842, and was afterwards a merchant in 
China and India. Returning to Scotland, 
where he inherited Murie, Perthshire, from 
his father, and Woodhill from his brother, he 



interested himself in small arms, astronomy, 
archaeology, and photography, designed rifles, 
and made telescopic lenses. In order to com- 
pare Scottish with Breton antiquities, he 
went in 1873 to Carnac, intending to stay 
only a few days, but remained, with short 
intermissions, for seven years. In 1874-6 he 
excavated the hillocks of the Bossenno, bring- 
ing to light a Gallo-Roman villa of eleven 
rooms, the upper story of which had evidently 
been destroyed by fire, probably in the third 
century. He also found traces of a villa on 
the flank of the adjoining Mont St.-Michel. 
Of these discoveries he published an account, 
' Excavations at Carnac, Brittany/ in French 
and English versions, published respectively 
at Paris and Edinburgh, 1877. He next ex- 
plored three circular sepultures at Kermario, 
finding pre-Roman buildings and defences. 
In November 1880 he left for Paris and Edin- 
burgh, to arrange for the publication of a 
second volume, but was attacked at Edin- 
burgh by typhoid fever and died there 28 Jan. 
1881. The volume was issued, also in Eng- 
lish and French, by his brother, Mr. Robert 
Miln. The Miln Museum at Carnac contains 
his collections of antiquities. He was a 
F.S.A. Scotland, vice-president of the Mor- 
bihan Philomathic and French Archaeological 
Societies, and a member of other learned 
bodies, British and foreign. His manuscripts 
were handed by his brother Robert to the 
Abbe Luco of Vannes. 

[Information from Mr. George Hay, Arbroath ; 
Luco's J. Miln et les trois sepultures circulaires, 
Tours, 1881 ; Proceedings of Soc. of Antiquaries 
of Scotland, xvi. 7 ; Notes and Queries, 8th ser. 
ii. 232.] J. 0. A. 

MILN, WALTER (d. 1558), Scottish 
protestant martyr. [See MTLNE.] 

MILNE, COLIN (1743 P-1815), divine 
and botanist, was born at Aberdeen about 
1743. He was educated at the Marischal Col- 
lege under his uncle, Dr. Campbell, and after- 
wards received the degree of LL.D. from the 
university. He removed to Edinburgh, and 
became tutor to Lord Algernon Percy, second 
son of Hugh Smithson, afterwards Percy, 
duke of Northumberland. He took Anglican 
orders, and soon made his mark as a preacher. 
He was appointed evening preacher to the 
City of London Lying-in Hospital, lecturer 
to both the Old and the New Church at 
Deptford, and subsequently rector of North 
Chapel, near Petworth, Sussex. He con- 
tinued, however, to reside at Deptford (Cot- 
tage Gardener, viii. 185 ; NICHOLS, Anec- 
dotes, iii.760), where in 1783 he founded the 
Kent Dispensary, now the Miller Hospital, 
Greenwich. He was a prominent promoter 

| of the Royal Humane Society, and several 
times preached the anniversary sermon for 
the society (NICHOLS, Literary Illustrations, 

1. 165). As a botanist he was chosen to preach 
the Fairchild sermon, and sermons which he 
delivered before the Grand Lodge of Free- 
masons and at the Maidstone assizes were 
also printed (cf. NICHOLS, Literary Anecdotes, 
iii. 760). He died at Deptford on 2 Oct. 

He published : 1. ' A Botanical Dictionary, 
or Elements of Systematic and Philosophical 
Botany/ 1770, 8vo, dedicated to the Duke of 
Northumberland, 2nd ed. 1778, 3rd ed. 1805. 

2. ' Institutes of Botany, a Translation of 
the Genera Plantarum of Linnaeus/ pt . i. 1 771 , 
4to, pt. ii. 1772, not completed. 3. ' Sermons/ 
1780, 8vo. 4. In conjunction with Alex- 
ander Gordon (M.D. of Aberdeen, ' reader 
in botany in London/ son of James Gordon, 
the nurseryman of Mile End, who corre- 
sponded with Linnaeus), ' Indigenous Botany 
. . . the result of several Botanical Excur- 
sions chiefly in Kent, Middlesex, and the ad- 
jacent Counties in 1790, 1791, and 1793/ 
vol. i. (all issued), 1793, 8vo. 

[Hist, of English Gardening, by G. W. John- 
son, 1829, p. 232; Records of the Miller Hospital, 
Greenwich, by John Poland, F.K.C.S. (in the 
press) ; Biog. Index of ... Botanists, by J.Britten 
and G. S. Boulger, 1893.] G. S. B. 

MILNE, SIK DAVID (1763-1&45), ad- 
miral, son of David Milne, merchant of Edin- 
burgh, and of Susan, daughter of Mr. Vernor 
of Musselburgh, was born in Edinburgh on 
25 May 1763. He entered the navy in May 
1779, on board the Canada,with Captain Hugh 
Dalrymple, and continuing in the same ship 
with Sir George Collier [q. v.J and Captain 
"William Cornwallis [q. v.], was present at the 
second relief of Gibraltar, at the capture of the 
Spanish frigate Leocadia, at the operations at 
St. Kitts in January 1782, in the actions off 
Dominica on 9 and 12 April 1782, and in the 
disastrous hurricane of 16-17 Sept. 1782. On 
arriving in England he was appointed to the 
Elizabeth of 74 guns ; but she was paid off at 
the peace ; and Milne, having no prospect of 
further employment, entered the merchant 
service, apparently in the East India trade, 
and continued in it until the outbreak of the 
war in 1793, when he joined the Boyne, 
going out to the West Indies with the flag 
of Sir John Jervis. On 13 Jan. 1794 Jervis 
promoted him to be lieutenant of the Blanche, 
in which, under the command of Captain Ro- 
bert Faulknor [q.v.], he repeatedly distin- 
guished himself, and more especially in the 
celebrated capture of the Pique (5 Jan. 1795). 
When, after a very severe action, the Pique 



struck, neither ship had a boat that could float, 
and the prize was taken possession of by Milne 
and ten seamen swimming to her. For his 
gallantry he was promoted to be commander 
of the Inspector sloop, 26 April 1795 ; and 
on 2 Oct. 1795 he was posted to the Matilda 
frigate in reward for his service as superin- 
tendent of transports, an office he continued 
to hold while the Matilda cruised under the 
command of her first lieutenant. 

In January 1796 he was appointed, at his 
own request, to the Pique, ' the frigate he 
had so materially contributed to capture' 
((O'BYRNE), and being stationed at Demerara 
for the protection of trade, the governor for- 
warded to him on 16 July a memorial from 
the resident merchants, to the effect that 
the admiral had promised them a convoy to 
St. Kitts by 15 July ; that if their ships 
waited longer, they would miss the convoy 
to England ; and that if they sailed without 
convoy they would forfeit their insurance. 
Under these circumstances, Milne consented 
to take them to St. Kitts; and arriving there 
too late for the convoy to England, on the 
further representation of the masters of the 
vessels, he took charge of them for the voyage 
home, anchoring at Spithead on 10 Oct. On 
the llth he wrote to the admiralty, explain- 
ing his reasons, and enclosing copies of the 
correspondence with the governor and mer- 
chants of Demerara (Captains' Letters, M. 
1796). His conduct, under the exceptional 
circumstances, was approved, and the Pique 
was attached to the Channel fleet. She was 
thus involved in the mutinies at Spithead 
in 1797, and when these were happily sup- 
pressed, was actively employed on the coast 
of France. On 29 June 1798, in company 
with the Jason and Mermaid frigates, she 
fell in, near the Penmarks, on the south coast 
of Brittany, with the French 40-gun frigate 
Seine, and brought her to action suffering se- 
verely before the Jason could come up. The 
three all got aground, and after an obstinate 
fight the Seine surrendered as the Mermaid 
also drew near. The Jason and Seine were 
afterwards floated off, but the Pique, being 
bilged, was abandoned and burnt. Milne, 
with her other officers and men, brought the 
Seine to England, and was appointed to com- 
mand her, on her being bought into the Eng- 
lish navy (JAMES, ii. 247 ; TROUDE, iii. 137). 

In October 1799 he went on the west 
coast of Africa, whence, some months later, 
he convoyed the trade to the West Indies. 
In August 1800 he was cruising in the Mona 
passage, and on the morning of the 20th 
sighted the French frigate Vengeance, a ship 
of the same size and force as the Seine. The 
Vengeance was under orders to make the 

best of her way to France, and endeavoured 
to avoid her enemy. It was thus close on 
midnight before Milne succeeded in bringing 
her to action. Twice the combatants sepa- 
rated to repair damages; twice the fight 
was renewed ; and it was not till near eleven 
o'clock the next forenoon, 21 Aug., that the 
Vengeance dismasted and sinking hailed 
to say that she surrendered. It was one of 
the very few frigate actions fought fairly to 
an end without any interruption from out- 
side ; and from the equality of the parties, is 
aptly pronounced by James to have been ' as 
pretty a frigate match as any fought during 
the war ' (JAMES, iii. 23 ; TROUDE, iii. 215 ; 
CHEVALIER, iii. 25). But Milne received no 
reward. He continued to command the Seine 
in the West Indies and Gulf of Mexico till 
the peace, when he took her to England and 
paid her off, April 1802. He was reappointed 
to her in April 1803 ; but three months later, 
21 July, she was wrecked on a sandbank 
near the Texel, owing to the ignorance of the 
pilots, who were cashiered by sentence of the 
court martial, which honourably acquitted 
Milne. He was then for several years in 
charge of the Forth district of Sea Fencibles. 
In 1811-12 he commanded the Impetueux 
off Cherbourg and on the Lisbon station. He 
was then appointed to the Dublin, from which 
he was moved into the Venerable. This ship 
was reported to be one of the dullest sailers 
in the service, but by a readj ustment of her 
stowage she became, under his command, one 
of the fastest. Milne afterwards commanded 
the Bulwark on the coast of North America, 
returning to England as a passenger on board 
the Loire frigate in November, on the news of 
his promotion to flag-rank on 4 June 1814. 

In May 1816 he was appointed com- 
mander-in-chief on the North American sta- 
tion, with his flag in the Leander, but his 
sailing was delayed to permit of his going as 
second in command under Lord Exmouth 
in the expedition against Algiers [see PEL- 
this purpose, he hoisted his flag in the Im- 
pregnable of 98 guns, and in her took a very 
prominent part in the action of 27 Aug. 1816, 
in which the Impregnable received 233 shot 
in her hull, many of them between wind and 
water, and sustained a loss in men of fifty 
killed and 160 wounded. It was a curious 
coincidence that the ship which, after the 
Impregnable, suffered most severely was the 
Leander, commanded by Captain Chetham, 
Milne's old first lieutenant in the Seine. The 
loss of the two together in killed was more 
than half of the total loss sustained by the 
English fleet. For his services on this oc- 
casion Milne was nominated a K.C.B., 




19 Sept. 1816, and was permitted to accept 
and wear the orders of Wilhelm of the 
Netherlands and Saint Januarius of Naples. 
The city of London presented him with its 
freedom and a sword ; and as a personal ac- 
knowledgment Lord Exmouth gave him a 
gold snuff-box. 

In the following year Milne went out to 
his command in North American waters, re- 
turning to England in the summer of 1819. 
In 1820 he was elected member of parlia- 
ment for Berwick. He was made vice-ad- 
miral on 27 May 1825, G.C.B. 4 July 1840, 
admiral 23 Nov. 1841. From April 1842 to 
April 1845 he was commander-in-chief at 
Plymouth, with his flag in the Caledonia. 
On his way to Scotland after completing this 
service, he died on board the Clarence, packet- 
steamer from London to Granton, 5 May 
1845. A portrait by Sir Henry Raeburn, in 
the uniform of a rear-admiral, painted in 
1819, is in the possession of the family ; a copy, 
by G. F. Clarke, is in the Painted Hall at 
Greenwich, to which it was presented by 
Milne's sons. 

Milne was twice married : first, in 1804, 
to Grace, daughter of Sir Alexander Purves, 
bart.; and secondly, in 1819, to Agnes, 
daughter of George Stephen of the island of 
Grenada. By the first marriage he had two 
sons, the younger of whom is the present ad- 
miral of the fleet, Sir Alexander Milne, bart., 
K.C.B., and G.C.B. The elder, DAVID MILNE- 
HOME (1805-1890), was one of the founders, 
and for many years chairman of the council of 
the Scottish Meteorological Society. It was 
he who, in 1877, first urged ' the singular ad- 
vantages of Ben Nevis for a high-level obser- 
vatory,' and it was largely through his energy 
and influence that the proposal was carried 
into effect in 1883 (Report of the Council 
of the Scottish Met. Soc., 25 March 1891). 

[Information from Sir Alexander Milne; 
O'Byrne's Nav. Biog. Diet. ; Marshall's Koy. 
Nav. Biog. ii. (vol. i. pt. ii.) 681 ; Naval Chro- 
nicle, xxxvi. 353 ; James's Naval History (edit, 
of 1860) ; Troude's Batailles navales de la France; 
Chevalier's Hist, de la Marine frangaise ; Foster's 
Baronetage.] J. K. L. 

MILNE, JOSHUA (1776-1851), actuary, 
born in 1776, was appointed actuary to the 
Sun Life Assurance Society on 15 June 1810. 
His great knowledge of mathematics well 
qualified him for the reconstruction of the 
life tables then in use, which were based upon 
the table deduced by Dr. Richard Price from 
the burial registers (1735-80) of All Saints' 
Church, Northampton. Milne took as the 
basis of his calculations the Carlisle bills of 
mortality, which had been prepared by Dr. 
John Heysham, and after a long correspond- 

ence (12 Sept. 181214 June 1814) with 
Heysham he published his famous work, 'A 
Treatise on the Valuation of Annuities and 
Assurances on Lives and Survivorships ; on 
the Construction of Tables of Mortality ; and 
on the Probabilities and Expectations of Life,' 
&c., London, 1815, 2 vols. 8vo. The result 
was a revolution in actuarial science. Milne's 
table, which, considering the narrow data 
from which he had to work, was remarkably 
accurate, was very generally adopted by in- 
surance societies, and subsequent writers have 
been greatly indebted to his investigations. 

Milne was the first to compute with accu- 
racy, though with unnecessary complexity, 
the value of fines, and his notation for the 
expression of life contingencies suggested that 
afterwards adopted by Augustus De Morgan 
in his ' Essay on Probabilities.' His book may 
still be read with profit. Milne could never 
be induced to revise his algebraical calcula- 
tions, although they to some extent marred 
by their complexity the usefulness of his work. 
He gave evidence before the select committee 
on the laws respecting friendly societies (1825 
and 1827), but long before his death he ap- 
pears to have abandoned the subject with 
which his name is identified. ( I am far from 
taking an interest now,' he wrote to Augus- 
tus De Morgan (May 1839), ' in investiga- 
tions of the values of life contingencies. I 
have long since had too much of that, and 
been desirous of prosecuting inquiries into 
the phenomena of nature, which I have al- 
ways regarded with intense interest.' He had 
an l unusually minute ' knowledge of natural 
history, and is said to have possessed one of 
the best botanical libraries in London. He 
resigned his position in the Sun Life Office, 
owing to growing weakness, on 19 Dec. 1843, 
and died at Upper Clapton on 4 Jan. 1851. 

In addition to the work mentioned above he 
contributed to the ' Encyclopaedia Britannica,' 
4th edit., articles on 'Annuities,' ' Bills of Mor- 
tality,' and ' Law of Mortality.' The last was 
reprinted in 1827 (Report from the Select 
Committee on the Laws respecting Friendly 
Societies, 1827, App. G 3), together with a 
valuable statement on the Carlisle and North- 
ampton tables of mortality (ib. App. B). The 
Carlisle table was largely superseded by that 
published by the Institute of Actuaries in 

[Gent. Mag. 1851, i. 215; Engl. Cycl. 1856, 
iv. 251 ; Assurance Mag. xiv. 69 ; Keport . . . 
respecting Friendly Societies, 1825, p. 56, and 
1827, pp. 22, 24; De Morgan's Essay on Pro- 
babilities, x, xi, 197, Appendix, ii, xv; informa- 
tion kindly given by Harris C. L. Saunders, esq., 
of the Sun Life Office ; Milne's correspondence 
with Heysham in H. Lonsdale's Life of John 



Heysham, London, 1870. Numerous comments, 
&c., on his work will be found in the Assurance 
Mag. and Statistical Journal.] W. A. S. H. 

MILNE, WILLIAM (1785-1822), mis- 
sionary, was born in 1785, in the parish of 
Kinnethmont, Aberdeenshire, and employed 
in his early years as a shepherd. At the age 
of twenty he resolved to become a missionary, 
and passing through the regular course of 
studies at the college of the London Mis- 
sionary Society at Gosport, he was ordained 
there in 1812. In September he sailed for 
the east, arriving at Macao in July 1813. An 
order from the Portuguese governor com- 
pelled him to leave the settlement, and Milne 
proceeded in a small boat to Canton, where 
he was joined by his colleague, Robert Mor- 
rison [q. v.] Shortly afterwards Milne made 
a year's tour through the Malay Archipelago. 
Settling down at Malacca he mastered the 
Chinese language, opened a school for Chinese 
converts, and set up a printing-press, from 
which was issued the ' Chinese Gleaner.' He 
also translated portions of the Old Testament 
into Chinese, and became principal of an 
Anglo-Chinese College, which he was mainly 
instrumental in founding at Malacca. In 
1818 he received the degree of D.D. from 
Glasgow University, and in 1822 his health 
failed, and he went on a visit to Singapore 
and Penang, but died on 27 May, four days 
after his return to Malacca. Milne married 
in 1812 a daughter of Charles Gowrie of 
Aberdeen, who predeceased him in 1819. 

Milne was author of : 1. 'The Sacred 
Edict,' London, 1817, 8vo. 2. <A Retro- 
spect of the First Ten Years of the Protes- 
tant Mission to China,' Malacca, 1820, 8vo. 
3. ' Some Account of a Secret Association,' 
a paper read before the Royal Asiatic Society 
by the Rev. Robert Morrison, 5 Feb. 1825. 

(1815-1863), missionary to China, ordained 
19 July, and appointed to Canton, sailed on 
28 July 1837, arriving on 18 Dec. at Macao, 
where he assisted until 1842 in the Morrison 
Education Society's House. Proceeding via 
Chusan, Tinghae, Ningpo, and Canton, he ar- 
rived at Hongkong in August 1843, and was 
nominated with Dr. Medhurst [q. v.] to com- 
mence a station at Shanghai. In 1844 Milne 
visited England, but, returning to China in 
1846, he served on the Translation Committee, 
part of whose work he subsequently attacked. 
In 1852 he again visited England, and ter- 
minated his connection with the London Mis- 
sionary Society. He afterwards went back 
to China as an interpreter under the British 
government, became assistant Chinese secre- 
tary to the legation at Pekin, and died there 
on 15 May 1863. Milne married Frances 

Williamina, daughter of the Rev. Dr. Beau- 
mont. He was author of: 1. 'Life in China/ 
1858. 2. < Critical Remarks on Dr. Medhurst's 
Version of the First Chapter of St. John,' and 
contributed to the ' Edinburgh Review,' of 
October 1855, an Account of the Political 
Disturbances in China.' 

[Works in Brit. Museum Library; Memoir 
by the Rev. Robert Morrison, D.D. ; Life and 
Opinions of Rev. William Milne, by Robert 
Phillip ; Memoir in the Christian Library, vol i 
Gent. Mag. 1822, ii. 649, 1863, ii. 381 ; Irving's 
Eminent Scotsmen ; information supplied by the 
Rev. G-. Cousins.] A. F. P. 

MILNER. [See also MILLNEE.] 

MILNER, ISAAC (1750-1820), mathe- 
matician and divine, was born at Leeds on 
11 Jan. 1750. His education began at the 
grammar school, but on the sudden death of 
his father, who had been unsuccessful in 
business, he was taken away when only ten 
years old, and set to earn his livelihood as a 
weaver. He followed this trade until his 
eldest brother, Joseph [q. v.], who had been 
sent to Cambridge by the kindness of friends, 
had taken his degree, and obtained the master- 
ship of the grammar school at Hull. As soon 
as he was established there he appointed Isaac 
his usher (1768). It is said that the friend 
whom he sent to make inquiries as to his 
brother's fitness for the post found him at 
his loom with Tacitus and a Greek author 
by his side. It seems certain that he had 
obtained considerable knowledge of Latin, 
Greek, and mathematics before he went to 
Hull, and that while there he became, as he 
said himself, l a tolerably good classic, and 
acquainted with six books of Euclid' (Life, 
p. 523). In 1770 Joseph Milner found means 
to enter him as a sizar at Queens' College, 
Cambridge. The brothers came up together 
on foot, with occasional lifts in a wagon 
(ib. p. 128). 

Milner found the menial duties then in- 
cumbent on sizars so distasteful, that when 
reproved for upsetting a tureen of soup, he 
exclaimed, ' When I get into power I will 
abolish this nuisance ' (which he did). He 
refused to sign a petition against subscrip- 
tion to the Thirty-nine Articles ; and, when 
keeping the ' opponency/ then required of all 
candidates for the B.A. degree, he used an 
argument so ingenious as to puzzle even the 
moderator, who said, * Domine opponens, ar- 
gumentum sane novum et difficile, nee pudet 
fateri meipsum nodum solvere non j>osse' 
(ib. p. 8). Hard reading combined with his 
natural talents secured for him the first place 
in the mathematical tripos of 1774, and en- 
abled him to outstrip his competitors so com- 




pletely that the moderators wrote the word 
Incomparabilis after his name. Like many 
men who have taken high degrees, he was so 
dissatisfied with his own performance that he 
thought he had completely failed (ib. p. 707). 
He also obtained the first Smith's prize. He 
was ordained deacon in 1775 ; became fellow 
of his college in 1776 ; and tutor and priest 
in 1777. In 1778 he was presented by his col- 
lege to the rectory of St. Botolph, Cambridge, 
which he held till 1792. In 1780 and 1783 
lie was moderator. His reputation as an 
examiner stood very high in the university, 
and for many years he was constantly ap- 
pealed to to settle disputed questions about 
brackets. His method of examination was 
peculiar. His keen sense of humour led him 
to joke over failures, especially those of 
stupid men, whom he called i sooty fellows,' 
and when he had such to examine he would 
shout to the moderator in a voice which 
could be heard from one end of the senate 
house to the other, ' In rebus fuliginosis 
versatus sum' ( GUNNING, Reminiscences, i. 
83). When he examined viva voce he inter- 
spersed his questions with anecdotes and ir- 
relevant remarks. In spite of this habit, 
however, he had a wonderful instinct for 
discovering the best men. 

In 178, whilo otill B.A., Milner was 
elected fellow of the Royal Society, and sub- 
sequently contributed four papers to the l Phi- 
losophical Transactions.' But before long he 
gave up mathematics, and turned his at- 
tention to other subjects. He had a strong 
natural taste for practical mechanics, and is 
said to have constructed a sundial when only 
eight years old. After taking his degree he 
studied chemistry in Professor Watson's lec- 
ture room, and in 1782 lectured on it as 
deputy for Professor Pennington. In the fol- 
lowing year, upon the university's acceptance 
of the professorship of natural philosophy 
founded by Richard Jackson [q. v.], he became 
the first professor. He took great pains with 
his lectures, working indeed so hard at the 
preparation of them as to injure his health, 
and those on chemistry are said to have been 
excellent. He corresponded with several 
scientific men, but his name is not associated 
with any important discovery. His lectures 
on natural philosophy, which he delivered 
alternately with those on chemistry, are de- 
scribed as amusing rather than instructive 
(ib. i. 236). It would seem that he could 
not divest himself of his love of burlesque, 
even in the lecture-room. Notwithstanding 
these defects Professor William Smyth [q. v.] 
thought him ' a very capital lecturer,' adding 
that ' what with him and his German as- 
sistant, Hoffmann, the audience was always 

in a high state of interest and entertainment ' 
(Life, p. 32). 

The close friendship with William Wilber- 
force [q. v.], which lasted during Milner's 
whole life, began at Scarborough in 1784, 
when Wilberforce asked him to be his com- 
panion in an expedition to the south of France. 
They left England in October 1784, and were 
absent for about a year, with the exception of a 
few months in the spring of 1785. Wilberforce 
says of Milner, at the beginning of their re- 
sidence at Nice, that his 'religious principles 
were in theory much the same as in later 
life, yet they had at this time little practical 
effect on his conduct. He was free from 
any taint of vice, but not more attentive than 
others to religion ; he appeared in all respects 
like an ordinary man of the world, mixing 
like myself in all companies, and joining as 
readily as others in the prevalent Sunday 
parties' (Life of Wilberforce, i. 75). In the 
latter part of their tour, however, Wilber- 
force and Milner read the New Testament 
together in the original Greek, and debated on 
the doctrines which it teaches. In those con- 
versations the foundation was undoubtedly 
laid of the great change which about this 
time took place in Wilberforce's convictions. 

In 1786 Milner proceeded to the degree of 
bachelor in divinity. His 'act' excited the 
greatest interest, on account not of his talents 
only, but of those of his opponent, William 
Coulthurst, of Sidney Sussex College, who had 
been specially selected to ensure an effective 
contest. Professor Watson, who presided as 
regius professor of divinity, paid them the 
compliment of saying, ' non necesse est de- 
scendere in arenam, arcades enim ambo estis.' 
The subject, St. Paul's teaching on faith and 
works, is said to have been handled by the 
disputants with a wonderful combination of 
knowledge, eloquence, and ingenuity, long 
remembered in the university, and referred to 
as a type of what a divinity ' act ' ought to be. 

In 1788, on the death of Dr. Plumptre, 
Milner was elected president of Queens' Col- 
lege. He set to work at once, with charac- 
teristic energy, to change the tone of the 
college, to increase its importance as a place 
of education, and at the same time to make 
it a centre for the spread of those evangelical 
opinions of which he was recognised as one 
of the principal promoters in the university. 
The tutorship was, by custom, in the gift of 
the president, and Milner, in order to effect 
the latter object, deliberately rejected, as he 
himself admits (Life, p. 243), several fellows 
who were intellectually well fitted for the 
office, because he thought them ' Jacobites 
and infidels,' and sought elsewhere for men. 
whose opinions were identical with his own. 



Those he forced the society to elect to fel- 
lowships. His proceedings excited consider- 
able opposition at first, but gradually the. 
society submitted, and to the last he ruled 
over the college with a despotism that was 
rarely called in question. Nor was he un- 
popular. The numbers steadily increased, 
and though sneered at as ' a nursery of evan- 
gelical neophytes,' Queens' College stood 
fourth on the list of Cambridge colleges in 

In December 1791 Milner was presented to 
the deanery of Carlisle. He owed this prefer- 
ment to the active friendship of Dr. Thomas 
Pretyman, afterwards Tomline [q. v.], bishop 
of Lincoln, who had been Pitt's tutor. In 
consequence of his university duties he was 
installed by proxy a beginning which might 
have been regarded as typical of his whole 
career as dean, for during his twenty-nine 
years of office he never, except once towards 
the close of his life, resided at Carlisle for 
more than three or four months in each year. 
He made a point of presiding at the annual 
chapter. He preached frequently in the cathe- 
dral, and energetically supported all measures 
for moral and material improvement, but this 
was all (Life, p. 101). 

Milner resigned the Jacksonian professor- 
ship in 1792, and thenceforward gave up 
chemistry, and science in general, except as 
an amusement. To the end of his life he was, 
however, continually inventing something 
as for instance a lamp or a water-clockin 
the workshop fitted up for his private use in 
Queens' Lodge. He was also a member of 
the board of longitude. But after his election 
to the headship of his college he became daily 
more and more immersed in, and devoted to, 
university affairs. In November 1792 he was 
elected vice-chancellor. His year of office 
was rendered memorable by the trial in the 
vice-chancellor's court of the Rev. William 
Frend [q. v.] for publishing ' Peace and 
Union,' a tract recommending both political 
and religious reforms. Frend announced him- 
self a Unitarian, and objected to various parts 
of the liturgy. But the prosecution was poli- 
tical rather than religious. Mr. Gunning, 
who was present at the trial, says that ( it was 
apparent from the first that the vice-chancellor 
was determined to convict ' (Reminiscences, 
i. 272). Milner hated what he called ' Jacobi- 
nical and heterodox principles,' and had, more- 
over, personal reasons for exhibiting himself 
as the assertor of law and order at this parti- 
cular time. He was ambitious, and the piece 
of preferment that he most ardently coveted 
was the mastership of Trinity College. This 
is evident from a remarkable letter to Wil- 
berforce, dated 13 May 1798 (Life, p. 161), 

in which he admits that he < should not have 
been sorry to have been their master' in 
1789, when Dr. Postlethwaite was appointed. 
In 1798 the office was again vacant, and the 
letter was written in the hope of influencing 
Pitt in the choice of a successor. In the 
course of it this sentence occurs : ' I don't 
believe Pitt was ever aware of how much 
consequence the expulsion of Frend was. 
It was the ruin of the Jacobinical party as 
a university thing, so that that party is al- 
most entirely confined to Trinity College/ 
Then, after discussing various claimants, he 
adds: ' When I say that in all I have said, I 
1 have, on this occasion, whatever I might 
j have had formerly, no respect to myself, I 
am sure you will believe me.' Wilberforce 
; may have believed his correspondent, but it is 
I difficult for posterity to be equally credulous. 

In November 1797 Milner lost his elder 
brother, Joseph. The grateful affection 
with which he had always regarded him is 
one of the most pleasing traits in his cha- 
racter. During the rest of his life his best 
efforts were directed to preserve his brother's 
memory. He edited, with additions, the 
volumes of his ' History of the Church of 
Christ' which had already appeared, and 
continued it to 1530. He prided himself 
greatly on the importance assigned to Luther, 
and on his character as there set forth ; but 
the writer's ignorance of German, and his re- 
ligious prejudices, must throw doubt on the 
accuracy of his statements. In connection 
with this work he was led into a controversy 
with Dr. Thomas Haweis [q. v.] 

In 1798 Milner was elected Lucasian pro- 
fessor of mathematics, a post which he held 
till his death. He delivered no lectures, but 
performed the other duties, such as examin- 
ing for the Smith's prizes, very efficiently. 

The remainder of Milner's life was appor- 
tioned, with undeviating regularity, between 
Cambridge and Carlisle. In 1809-10 he was 
again vice-chancellor, and in 1813 he had a 
brisk controversy with Dr. Herbert Marsh 
[q. v.] on the Bible Society. Marsh had 
addressed the senate on the impropriety of 
circulating the Bible without the prayer- 
book, and of allowing an auxiliary branch of 
the society to establish itself at Cambridge. 
Milner had spoken (12 Dec. 1811), at the 
meeting called to establish the auxiliary 
branch ; and subsequently elaborated a vo- 
lume of l Strictures on some of the Publica- 
tions of the Rev. Herbert Marsh,' in which 
he traversed almost the whole of his life and 
writings. Marsh replied, and his antagonist 
did not venture to enter the lists with him 

Milner was fond of describing himself 




as an invalid, and towards the end of his 
life rarely quitted his lodge. In the spring 
of 1820, while on a visit to Wilberforce at 
Kensington Gore, he had a more than usually 
severe attack. No danger was at first ap- 


In person Milner was tall, with a frame 
that indicated great bodily strength, and 
regular features. In old age he became ex- 
cessively corpulent. He was constitution- 
ally gay; and his religious views, though 
they made him disapprove of amusements of 
various kinds, did not impose upon him 
gravity in society. He was ' the life of 
the party' (Life, p. 329), and if the official 
dinners which, as vice-chancellor, he gave 
on Sunday before the afternoon service at 
St. Mary's were very merry, his private 
parties were uproarious (GUNNING, Reminis- 
cences, i. 246). Sir James Stephen, who 
knew him well, says of his conversation: 
' He had looked into innumerable books, had 
dipped into most subjects, whether of vulgar 
or of learned inquiry, and talked with shrewd- 
ness, animation, and intrepidity on them all. 
Whatever the company or whatever the 
theme, his sonorous voice predominated over 
all other voices, even as his lofty stature, 
vast girth, and superincumbent wig, defied 
all competitors.' He was a popular and 
effective preacher, and when he occupied the 

ge promp 

course affably with anybody from whom he 
could extract information or amusement. In 
charity he was profusely generous, and con- 
tributed annually to the distressed poor of 
Leeds. He delighted in the society of young 
people, and spared no pains to make their 
time with him amusing. In politics he was 
a staunch tory, and an equally staunch sup- 
porter of the established church as a state 
institution. His friendship with Wilber- 
force made him an abolitionist, but he nearly 
quarrelled with him over catholic emancipa- 
tion. There is a portrait in oils of Milner by 
Opie, in the dining-room of Queens' College 
Lodge, and a second, by an unknown artist, 
in the combination-room. He was also drawn 
in chalk by the Rev. Thomas Kerrich [q. v.] 
in 1810. 

He wrote: 1. 'Reflections on the Com- 
munication of Motion by Impact and Gravity,' 
26 Feb. 1778, ' Phil. Trans.' Ixviii. 344. 2. < Ob- 
servations on the Limits of Algebraical Equa- 
tions,' 26 Feb. 1777, ib. p. 380. 3. ' On the 
Precession of the Equinoxes produced by 
the Sun's Attraction,' 24 June 1779, ib. 

Ixix. 505. 4. ' A Plan of a Course of Chemi- 
cal Lectures,' 8vo, Cambridge, 1784. 5. ' A 
Plan of a Course of Experimental Lectures 
Introductory to the Study of Chemistry and 
other Branches of Natural Philosophy,' 8vo, 
Cambridge, n.d. 6. ' A Plan of a Course of 
Chemical Lectures,' 8vo, Cambridge, 1788. 
7. ' On the Production of Nitrous Acid and 
Nitrous Air,' 2 July 1789, 'Phil. Trans.' 
Ixxix. 300. 8. ' Animadversions on Dr. 
Haweis's Impartial and Succinct History 
of the Church of Christ ; being the Preface to 
the 2nd edition of vol. i. of the late Rev. 
Jos. Milner's History of the Church of 
Christ,' 8vo, Cambridge, 1800. 9. ' Further 
Animadversions on Dr. Haweis's Misquota- 
tions and Misrepresentations of the Rev. Mr. 
Milner's History of the Church of Christ,' 
8vo, Cambridge, 1801. 10. ' An Account of 
the Life and Character of the late Rev. 
Joseph Milner,' 8vo, Cambridge,1801. 11. The 
same, enlarged and corrected, 2nd edit. 8vo, 
Cambridge, 1802. 12. ' Strictures on some 
of the Publications of the Rev. Herbert 
Marsh,' 8vo, London, 1813. 13. ' The His- 
tory of the Church of Christ, by the late 
Rev. Jos. Milner, A.M., with Additions and 
Corrections by the Rev. I. Milner, D.D.,' 
8vo, London, 1816. 14. ' Sermons by the 
late Jos. Milner. Edited by I. Milner,' 2 vols. 
8vo, London, 1820. 15. 'An Essay on 
Human Liberty, by the late I. Milner,' 8vo, 
London, 1824. 

[Life of Isaac Milner, D.D., by his niece, 
Mary Milner, 8vo, London, 1842 ; Essays in 
Ecclesiastical Biography, by Sir James Stephen, 
1849, ii. 358-67; Life of Wilberforce, passim, 
see index; Gunning's Reminiscences, 1855, i. 
83-5, 234-51, 255-84 ; the Missionary Secre- 
tariat of Henry Venn, by W. Knight, 1880, 
p. 10.] J. W. C-K. 

MILNER, JAMES (d. 1721), merchant 
of London, was extensively engaged in the 
trade with Portugal, and his commercial 
transactions with that country enabled him 
to render great service to the government in 
the remittance of money abroad. During 
the controversy on the eighth and ninth 
clauses of the commercial treaty with France 
(1713) he contributed to the ' British Mer- 
chant ' several articles on the 'Methuen 
Treaty and the Trade with Portugal,' in 
which he combated the arguments advanced 
by Defoe in the ' Mercator.' He was re- 
turned to parliament for the borough of 
Minehead on 11 April 1717, and he voted 
for the repeal of the acts to prevent occa- 
sional conformity in January 1718-19. He 
died on 24 Nov. 1721. 

Milner's articles on the trade with Portu- 
gal, which had first appeared in 1713-14, 



were republished, under the editorship of 
Charles King [q. v.], in the ' British Merchant,' 
London, 1721, 8vo (i. 206-22, iii. 3-92), but 
there is no evidence to show to what extent 
he was aided by other writers in the same 
work. He also published 'Three Letters 
relating to the South Sea Company and the 
Bank,' &c., London, 1720, 8vo, in which he 
foretold the disastrous results of the South 
Sea scheme. 

[The British Merchant, 1721, i. xiv ; Boyer's 
Political State of Great Britain, xx. 411, xxii. 
548 ; Guide to the Electors of Great Britain, 
1722, p. 12; Eeturn of Members of Parlia- 
ment, pt. ii. p. 43 ; Calendar of Treasury Papers, 
c. 104, cxii. 40, cxxi. 12, cxxx. 17, cxl. 16, cxlii. 
23, clvi. 3, 9, clxx. 3.] W. A. S. H. 

MILNER, JOHN (1628-1702), nonjuring 
minister, second son of John Milner and 
Mary, daughter of Gilbert Ramsden, was 
born at Skircoat, in the parish of Halifax, 
and was baptised 10 Feb. 1627-8. He was 
educated at the Halifax grammar school 
and entered at Christ's College, Cambridge, 
21 June 1642. He probably left without a 
degree before the parliamentary visitation of 
the university. Returning to Halifax he 
made the acquaintance of John Lake [q. v.], 
subsequently bishop of Chichester, whose 
sister he seems to have married. Milner was 
probably with Lake at Oldham in 1651. He 
is stated to have been curate of Middleton, 
but the Middleton registers contain no men- 
tion of him. In the accounts of the quarrel 
between Lake and the presbyterian classis of 
the neighbourhood, a John Milner is styled 
1 of Chadderton,' near Oldham, where a 
schoolmaster of that name is known to have 
been appointed in August 1641. Lake's 
friend was preaching at Oldham as late as 
1654. Milner is said to have subsequently 
returned to Halifax, and at the Restoration 
was given the curacy of Beeston in the 
parish of Halifax by Lake, who had then be- 
come vicar of Leeds. In 1662 he obtained 
the degree of B.D. at Cambridge by royal 
letters. His petition for his degree states 
that he had been deprived of a good benefice 
during the rebellion. In the same year he 
was made minister of St. John's, Leeds, was 
inducted vicar of Leeds 4 Aug. 1673, and 
elected prebendary of Ripon 29 March 1681. 

On the revolution of 1688 he joined the 
nonjurors, was deprived of all his prefer- 
ments, and retired to St. John's College, 
Cambridge, where he lived in comparative 
ease and much respected. He died 16 Feb. 
1702, and was buried in the college chapel 
on 19 Feb. with great state. He had a good 
reputation for skill in Eastern languages, but 
was exceedingly modest. His only son, 

Thomas, vicar of Bexhill, Sussex, proved a 
great benefactor to Magdalene College, Cam- 
bridge, under his will dated 5 Sept. 1721. 

Milner published: 1. 'Conjectanea in 
Isaiam ix. 1, item in Parallela qusedam Vete- 
ris ac Novi Testament! in quibus Versionis 
LXX Interpretum . . . cum Textu Hebrseo 
conciliationem meditatur Author,' a work of 
considerable learning, dedicated to D. Du- 
port, master of Magdalene College, Cam- 
bridge, and Dr. Costel, professor of Arabic 
there, London, 1673. 2. ' A Collection of 
the Church History of Palestine from the 
Birth of Christ to the Beginning of the 
Empire of Diocletian,' London, 1688, 4to. 
3. 'A Short Dissertation concerning the 
Four Last Kings of Judah,' London, 1687 or 
1689, 4to, occasioned by Joseph Scaliger's 
' Judicium de Thesi Chronologica.' 4. ' De 
Nethinim sive Nethinaeis et de eis qui se 
Corban Deo nominabant disputatiuncula ad- 
versus Eugabinum, Card. Baronium,' Cam- 
bridge, 1690, 4to. 5. 'A Defence of Arch- 
bishop Usher against Dr. Cary and Dr. Isaac 
Vossius, . . . with an Introduction concern- 
ing the Uncertainty of Chronology,' Cam- 
bridge, 1694, 8vo. 6. ' A Discourse of Con- 
science,' &c., London, 1697 or 1699, 8vo. 

7. ' A View of the Dissertation upon the 
Epistles of Phalaris, Themistocles, &c., lately 
published by the Rev. Dr. Bentley, also of 
the Examination of that Dissertation by the 
Honourable Mr. Boyle,' London, 1698, 8vo. 

8. ' A Brief Examination of Some Passages 
to the Chronological Fact of a Letter written 
to Dr. Sherlock in his Vindication, in a letter 
to a friend,' with ' A Further Examination 
[of the above] in a second letter.' 9. ' An 
Account of Mr. Locke's Religion out of his 
own Writings,' &c. (charging Locke with 
Socinianism), London, 1700, 8vo. 10. 'Anim- 
adversiones upon M. Le Clerc's Reflexions 
upon our Saviour and His Apostles,' Cam- 
bridge, 1702, 8vo. Two anonymous pamphlets 
on Bishop John Lake's ' Dying Profession/ 
sometimes assigned to Milner, seem to be by 
Robert Jenkin [q. v.] They were published 
at London in 1690. 

Milner left in manuscript a translation in 
Latin of the Targum on the First and Second 
Book of Chronicles, and other works on 
Scriptural chronology and current ecclesias- 
tical controversies. 

[Watson's Halifax ; Thoresby's Vicaria Leo- 
diensis ; State Papers, October and November 
1661 ; Appendix iii. to Minutes of Manchester 
Classis (Chetham Soc.) ; Oldham Local Notes 
and Queries; Lists of the Probators of 1641-2 
(House of Lords' MSS.); Kaines MSS. xxxii. 
20 seq. (Chetham Library, Manchester) ; Wil- 
ford's Memorials ; Watt's Bibl. Brit. ; Graduati 



Cantabrigienses ; information from Dr. John 
Peile, master of Christ's College, Cambridge, 
and rector of Middleton.] W. A. S. 

MILNER, JOHN, D.D. (1752-1826), 
bishop of Castabala and vicar-apostolic of 
the western district of England, was born 
in London on 14 Oct. 1752. His father was 
a tailor, and the proper name of the family, 
which came originally from Lancashire, was 
Miller. He received his early education at 
Edgbaston, Birmingham, but was transferred 
in his thirteenth year to the school at Sedgley 
Park, Staffordshire. He left there in April 
1766 for the English College at Douay, where 
he was entered in August, on the recom- 
mendation of Bishop Challoner. In 1777 
lie was ordained priest and returned to Eng- 
land, where he laboured on the mission, first 
in London, without any separate charge, and 
afterwards at Winchester, where he was ap- 
pointed pastor of the catholic congregation 
in 1779. In 1781 he preached the funeral 
sermon of Bishop Challoner, and about the 
same time he took lessons in elocution of the 
rhetorician and lexicographer, John Walker. 
He established at Winchester the Benedictine 
nuns who had fled from Brussels at the time 
of the French revolution. The handsome 
chapel erected at Winchester in 1792, through 
his exertions, was the first example in Eng- 
land of an ecclesiastical edifice built in the 
Gothic style since the Reformation. He him- 
self sketched the design, which was carried 
out by John Carter (1748-1817) [q. v.] 
While at Winchester he ardently pursued 
antiquarian studies, and on the recommenda- 
tion of Richard Gough he was elected a fellow 
of the Society of Antiquaries in 1790. 

Between 1782 and 1791 various committees 
of English catholics (chiefly laymen) were 
formed for the purpose of promoting catholic 
emancipation [see under BUTLEK, CHARLES, 
1750-1832], but their members also wished 
to substitute a regular hierarchy in lieu of 
vicars-apostolic. At the same time they 
showed an impatience of the pretensions of 
their ecclesiastical leaders, and their attitude 
seemed to touch the authority of the papal 
see itself. To all claims on the part of lay- 
men to interference in matters of religion 
Milner energetically opposed himself. When 
the Catholic Committee in 1791 pushed for- 
ward a proposed Bill for Catholic Relief, which 
embodied a form of the oath of allegiance al- 
ready condemned by the three vicars-aposto- 
lic, Walmesley, Gibson, and Douglass, Milner 
acted as agent for the latter in their opposi- 
tion to the measure, and visited Burke, Fox, 
Windham, Dundas, Pitt, Wilberforce, and 
other members of parliament, to urge the 
prelates' objections. His exertions were suc- 

cessful. The oath of the committee was re- 
jected, and the Catholic Relief Act, which 
was passed on 7 June 1791, contained the 
Irish oath of 1788. But the l Catholic Com- 
mittee,' reorganised as the i Cisalpine Club r 
in 1792, still carried on the old agitation, 
and was attacked by Milner. He thus grew 
to be regarded by his coreligionists as the 
champion of catholic orthodoxy. In his work 
entitled 'Democracy Detected,' he openly pro- 
claimed his belief in the inerrancy of the holy 
see, and he frequently declared that he could 
not endure Gallican doctrines. 

On the death of Dr. Gregory Stapleton, 
Pope Pius VII, by brief dated 1 March 1803, 
appointed Milner bishop of Castabala in par- 
tibus, and vicar-apostolic of the Midland dis- 
trict. He was consecrated at St. Peter's 
Chapel, Winchester, on 22 May 1803. After 
his consecration he went to Long Birch, a 
mansion on the Chillington estate that had 
been occupied by his episcopal predecessors, 
but in September 1804 he took up his resi- 
dence permanently in the town of Wolver- 

Much work which was political as well as 
ecclesiastical fell to Milner's lot in those 
eventful times. The question whether the 
English government should have a i veto ' 
on the appointment of catholic bishops in 
the United Kingdom was then in agitation. 
In May 1808 the ' Catholic Board 'was formed 
in England to carry on the agitation for catho- 
lic emancipation on the lines adopted by the 
Catholic Committee. Milner, who at first had 
been disposed to think that a royal veto might 
be accepted by catholics, afterwards became 
its uncompromising opponent. His attitude 
led to his expulsion from the Catholic Board 
and to his exclusion from a meeting of vicars- 
apostolic held at Durham in October 1813. 
Milner meanwhile enjoyed the full confidence 
of the Irish prelates, and acted as their agent 
in London, where he was permitted to reside 
when necessary under a papal dispensation, 
dated 11 April 1808. Milner twice visited 
Ireland in 1807-8. With the majority of the 
Irish prelates Milner now joined the party 
of catholics who were steadfastly opposed 
to any plan for Roman catholic emancipation 
which should recognise a right of veto in 
the English government. After the rejec- 
tion of a bill introduced in 1813 for the 
settlement of the catholic question on the 
lines obnoxious to Milner and his friends, Sir 
John Coxe Hippisley [q. v.] procured from 
Monsignor Quarantotti, secretary of the pro- 
paganda, a rescript declaring ' that the catho- 
lics ought to receive and embrace with content 
and gratitude the law proposed for their eman- 
cipation.' This document, when published 



in England, caused alarm among the oppo- 
nents of the veto, and the Irish bishops, at a 
meeting held at Maynooth on 25 May 1814, 
deputed Dr. Daniel Murray [q. v.], coadjutor 
bishop of Dublin, and Milner to be their 
agents at Rome for procuring its recall. At 
Rome Milner remained for nearly nine months, 
and to Cardinal Litta he gave a written me- 
morial of his controversies with the ' veto ' 
party, led by Dr. Poynter and the Catholic 
Board. He offered to resign his vicariate if he 
were deemed unworthy of the confidence of 
the holy see. At the same time Dr. Poynter 
defended himself in an < Apologetical Epistle/ 
but it was signified to Milner that his conduct 
was in the main approved by the pope and 
cardinals, though he was recommended to be 
more cautious and moderate. The opposi- 
tion of Milner and the Irish prelates to the 
veto was ultimately successful, and it was 
finally abandoned by Peel when he intro- 
duced the Catholic Relief Act of 1829. 

Milner's literary contributions to the ' Or- 
thodox Journal ' gave offence to some of his 
episcopal brethren, and the prefect of propa- 
ganda on 29 April 1820 directed him to dis- 
continue his letters to that periodical, but Mil- 
ner continued to defend, in various books and 
pamphlets, the principles which he believed 
to be essential to the welfare of the Roman 
catholic church. In particular he warmly 
opposed two bills introduced into the House 
of Commons by William Conyngham, after- 
wards lord Plunket [q. v.], one of which 
was for the removal of the disqualifications 
of catholics, and the other for regulating the 
intercourse of the catholic clergy with Rome. 

Milner's health began to break after he had 
attained the age of seventy. In 1824 he had 
two serious attacks of paralysis, and in 1825 
he received a coadjutor in the person of Dr. 
Thomas Walsh, who was consecrated at Wol- 
verhampton on 1 May, when Milner was 
thoroughly reconciled to his former con- 
troversial opponents, Bishops Poynter and 
Collingridge, who assisted at the ceremony. 
Milner died at Wolverhampton on 19 April 
1826, and was buried in the church of St. 
Peter and St. Paul, where a memorial brass 
was placed, with a full-size figure of the 
bishop in his episcopal robes. His fiftieth 
anniversary was celebrated 27 Aug. 1876 
at Wolverhampton, on which occasion two 
sermons were preached by the Rev. Thomas 
Harper, S.J. 

Milner was of middle stature, and was 
stoutly built. His complexion was florid ; 
he had hazel eyes, a well-formed nose, and 
dark expressive eyebrows (HTJSENBETH, Life, 
p. 231). His figure was dignified and im- 
posing. By his coreligionists he is generally 

regarded as the most illustrious of the vicars- 
apostolic"; and his successful efforts to pre- 
vent the Roman catholic church in the United 
Kingdom from becoming subject to state con- 
trol by means of the veto have been fully ac- 
knowledged. By Dr. (afterwards Cardinal) 
Newman he was styled the ' English Atha- 
nasius.' He was a divine of the ultramontane 
type, and detested all Galilean teaching. In 
discipline the rigidity of his theological train- 
ing overcame the indulgent kindness of his 
nature. In devotional matters he was the 
first to object to the cold and argumentative 
tone of the old-fashioned prayer-books, and 
in their place he introduced devotions to the 
Sacred Heart and the Meditations of St. 
Teresa. His influence was shown by the 
conversions which in 1825 had become fre- 
quent in this country. After his death the 
devotional and liturgical changes introduced 
by him were carried out to their full de- 
velopment, and were made instrumental to 
the introduction of an Italian and Roman 
standard of tone and spirit among English 

Milner was a good archaeologist. His chief 
archaeological publication was: 'The History, 
Civil and Ecclesiastical, and Survey of the 
Antiquities of Winchester,' 2 vols. Winches- 
ter, 1798-1 801, 4to ; 2nd edit, enlarged, 2 vols. 
Winchester, 1809, 4to ; 3rd edit., with sup- 
plement and memoir of the author, by F. C. 
Husenbeth, D.D., 2 vols. Winchester, 1839, 
8vo. Notwithstanding the Roman catholic 
bias of the author, this performance ' will 
always keep its place among the few standard 
works in English topography ' (LOWNDES, 
Bibl. Man. ed. Bonn, vi. 1554). The first 
edition must claim the preference as regards 
quality of paper and typography. In connec- 
tion with this work Milner issued ' Letters 
to a Prebendary : being an Answer to Re- 
flexions on Popery by the Rev. J. Sturges, 
LL.D., with Remarks on the Opposition of 
Hoadlyism to the Doctrines of the Church 
of England, and on various Publications oc- 
casioned by the late Civil and Ecclesiastical 
History of Winchester,' Winchester, 1800, 
4to ; 2nd edit, enlarged, Cork, 1802, 8vo ; 
7th edit. London, 1822, 8vo : another edition, 
Derby, 1843, 16mo. The Rev. Robert Hoadly 
Ashe" published in 1799 'A Letter to the 
Rev. J. Milner, occasioned by his Aspersions 
[in his History of Winchester] on the Me- 
mory and Writings of Bishop Hoadly.' Mil- 
ner also published a ' Treatise on the Eccle- 
siastical Architecture of England during the 
Middle Ages/ London, 1811, 8vo ; 3rd edit. 
London, 1835, 8vo. The article on Gothic 
Architecture ' in Rees's ' Cyclopaedia ' is by 
him, and he wrote papers in the ' Archaeo- 




logia' (enumerated in the ' Gentleman's Maga- 
zine,' 1826, ii. 180). 

Milner's chief theological publication was : 
' The End of Religious Controversy, in a 
friendly Correspondence between a Religious 
Society of Protestants and a Roman Catholic 
Divine. Addressed to ... Dr. Burgess, in 
Answer to his Lordship's Protestant Cate- 
chism,' London, 1818, 8vo ; 2nd edit. 1819 ; 
5th edit. ' with considerable emendations by 
the author,' 1824 ; 8th edit. ' in which is in- 
troduced a Vindication of the Objections 
raised by R. Grier ' [1836 ?]; other editions, 
Derby, 1842, 12mo; London, 1853, 12mo; 
Dublin, 1859, 12mo. This work was com- 
posed in 1801-2, but its publication was de- 
ferred for sixteen years at the request of Dr. 
Horsley, bishop of St. Asaph, who had de- 
fended Milner in the House of Lords at the 
period of his dispute with Dr. Sturges. Dr. 
Husenbeth says * that multitudes of converts 
have been made by that work probably 
more than by all our other controversial 
works put together.' It drew forth replies 
from Blakeney, Collette, Fossey, Garbett, 
Grier, Hearn, Hopkins, Jackson, Lowe, dean 
of Exeter, MacGavin, Ouseley, and Phill- 
potts, bishop of Exeter. 

His other works are: 1. 'A Sermon [on 
Deut. xxxii. 39] preached at Winchester, 
23 April 1789, being the General Thanks- 
giving Day for His Majesty's Happy Re- 
covery. . . . With Notes, Historical, Ex- 
planatory,' &c., London, 1789, 4to. In reply 
to this, J. Williamson, B.D., published ' A 
Defence of the Doctrines ... of the Church 
of England from the Charges of the Rev. J. 
Milner,' 1790. 2. < The Divine Right of 
Episcopacy,' 1791, 8vo. 3. ' Ecclesiastical 
Democracy detected,' 1792, 8vo. 4. ' An His- 
torical and Critical Enquiry into the Exist- 
ence and Character of St. George, patron of 
England, of the Order of the Garter, and 
of the Antiquarian Society ; in which the 
Assertions of Edward Gibbon, esq., History 
of Decline and Fall, cap. 23 ; and of certain 
other Modern Writers, concerning this Saint, 
are discussed,' London, 1792, 8yo. 5. ' The 
Funeral Oration of ... Louis XVI, pro- 
nounced at the Funeral Service performed 
by the French Clergy of the King's House, 
Winchester, at St. Peter's Chapel in the said 
City, 12 April 1793.' 6. ' Account of the 
Communities of British Subjects, Sufferers 
by the French Revolution ; ' in the ' Laity's 
Directory' for 1795, 1796, and 1797. 7. 'A 
Serious Expostulation with the Rev. Joseph 
Berington, upon his Theological Errors con- 
cerning Miracles and other Subjects,' 1797. 
8. 'Dissertation on the Modern Style of alter- 
ing Antient Cathedrals, as exemplified in the 

Cathedral of Salisbury,' London, 1798, 4to ; 
2nd edit. 1811. 9. 'Life of Bishop Chal- 
loner,' prefixed to that prelate's ( Grounds 
of the Old Religion,' London, 1798, 12mo. 

10. ' The Case of Conscience solved, in An- 
swer to Mr. Reeves on the Coronation Oath/ 
1801 . This elicited replies from T. Le Mesu- 
rier and Dr. Phillpotts, bishop of Exeter. 

11. 'Authentic Documents relative to the 
Miraculous Cure of Winefrid White, of the 
Town of Wolverhampton, at Holywell, in 
Flintshire,' London, 1805, 12mo; 3rd edit. 
London, 1806, 8vo. Peter Roberts published 
1 Animadversions ' on this work in 1814. 

12. 'An Inquiry into certain Vulgar Opinions 
concerning the Catholic Inhabitants and the 
Antiquities of Ireland, in a series of Letters,' 
London, 1808, 8vo ; 3rd edit. ' with copious 
additions, including the account of a second 
tour through Ireland, by the author, and 
answers to Sir R. Musgrave, Dr. Ryan, Dr. 
Elrington,' &c., London, 1810, 8vo. 13. 'A 
Pastoral Letter [dated 10 Aug. 1808] ad- 
dressed to the Roman Catholic Clergy of his 
District in England. Shewing the dangerous 
tendency of various Pamphlets lately pub- 
lished in the French Language by certain 
Emigrants, and more particularly cautioning 
the faithful against two publications by the 
Abb6 Blanchard and Mons. Gaschet,' London, 
1808, 8vo ; another edition, Dublin, 1808, 8vo. 
This pastoral gave rise to an embittered con- 
troversy. 14. ' Dr. Milner's Appeal to the Ca- 
tholics of Ireland,' deprecating attacks made 
upon him by Sir R. Musgrave, T. Le Mesurier, 
&c., Dublin, 1809, 8vo. 15. ' An Elucida- 
tion of the Veto,' London, 1810, 8vo. 16. ' In- 
structions addressed to the Catholics of the 
Midland Counties of England on the State 
and Dangers of their Religion,' Wolverhamp- 
ton, 1811, 8vo. 17. ' Letters to a Roman 
Catholic Prelate of Ireland in refutation of 
Counsellor Charles Butler's Letter to an Irish 
Catholic Gentleman ; to which is added a 
Postscript containing a Review of Doctor 
O'Connor's Works entitled Columbanus ad 
Hibernos on the Liberty of the Irish Church/ 
Dublin, 1811, 8vo. 18. ' A Brief Summary 
of the History and Doctrine of the Holy 
Scriptures/ London, 1819, 8vo. 19. 'Sup- 
plementary Memoirs of English Catholics, 
addressed to Charles Butler, esq., author of 
Historical Memoirs of the English Catholics/ 
London, 1820, 8vo. Additional notes to this 
valuable historical work were printed in 1821. 
20. 'The CatholicScripturalCatechism/1820, 
reprinted in vol. i. of the tracts issued by the 
Catholic Institute, 1838. 21. 'On Devotion 
to the Sacred Heart of Jesus/ 1821, re- 
printed, London, 1867, 32mo. 22. 'A Vin- 
dication of " The End of Religious Contro- 



versy " from the exceptions of Dr. Thomas 
Burgess, bishop of St. Davids, and the Rev. 
Richard Grier,' London, 1822, 8vo. 23. A 
Letter to the Catholic Clergy of the Mid- 
land District' [on ' a certain new Creed or 
Formulary published in this District, called 
Roman Catholic Principles in reference to 
God and the Country '], London, 1823, 8vo. 
The treatise referred to was written by the 
Benedictine father, James Corker [q. v.] 
25. ' Strictures on the Poet Laureate's [i.e. 
Robert Southey's] Book of the Church,' 
London, 1824, 8vo. 24. < A Parting Word 
to the Rev. Richard Grier, D.D. . . . With a 
Brief Notice of Dr. Samuel Parr's posthu- 
mous Letter to Dr. Milner,' London, 1825. 

Some papers by him are in the f Catholic 
Gentleman's Magazine,' and the ' Catho- 
licon ; ' and many in the * Orthodox Journal.' 

His portrait has been engraved by Rad- 
clyffe, from a portrait at St. Mary's College, 

[Life by F. C. Husenbeth, D.D., Dublin, 1862, 
8vo ; Memoir by Husenbeth, prefixed to 3rd edit. 
of Hist, of Winchestar; Amherst's Hist, of Catho- 
lic Emancipation ; Biog. Diet, of Living Authors, 
p. 235 ; Bodleian Cat. ; Brady's Episcopal Suc- 
cession, iii. 221 ; Catholic Miscellany, 1826, v. 
376-93, new ser. 1828, i. 21 ; Catholicon, 1816, 
ii. 75, vi. 61, 396 ; Flanagan's Hist, of the 
Church in England, ii. 537 ; Gent. Mag. 1826 ii. 
175, 303, 392; Home and Foreign Review, ii. 
531 ; Laity's Directory, 1827, portrait ; Nichols's 
Lit. Anecd. ix. 215; Oscotian, new ser. iv. 118, 
with portrait vi. 64, also jubilee vol. 1888, p. 
28; Smith's Brewood, 2nd edit. 1874, p. 49 ; Ta- 
blet, 4 Oct. 1862, 8 Oct. 1870, p. 454; 29 Aug. 
1874, p. 271.] T. C. 

MILNER-, JOSEPH (1744-1797), divine, 
was born at Quarry Hill, then in the neigh- 
bourhood, now in the midst of Leeds, on 
2 Jan. 1744, and was baptised in Leeds 
parish church. He was educated at Leeds 
grammar school. An attack of the measles 
when he was three years old left him per- 
manently delicate ; but he early developed 
great precocity and a wonderfully retentive 
memory. His father was poor, but through 
the pecuniary help of friends he was sent to 
Catharine Hall, Cambridge, where he was 
appointed chapel clerk. He had little taste 
for mathematics, and the classical tripos was 
not then founded. But he achieved the re- 
spectable position of third senior optime, and 
thus qualified himself to compete for the 
chancellor's medals for classical proficiency, 
the second of which he won in 1766 in an 
unusually strong competition. He then went 
to Thorp Arch, near Tadcaster, Yorkshire, as 
assistant in a school kept by Christopher At- 
kinson, the vicar of the parish, received holy 


orders, and became Atkinson's curate. At 
Thorp Arch he contracted a lifelong friend- 
ship with the son of the vicar, Myles Atkinson, 
who subsequently became a leader of the evan- 
gelical party and vicar of St. Paul's, Leeds. 
While yet in deacon's orders he left Thorp 
Arch to become head-master of the grammar 
school at Hull, which greatly improved under 
his direction, and he was in 1768 elected after- 
noon lecturer at Holy Trinity, or the High 
Church, in that town. He was now in a 
position to assist his family, and he paid for 
the education of his brother Isaac [q. v.] 
In 1770 he became an ardent disciple of the 
rising evangelical school, and incurred the 
disfavour which then attached to those who 
were suspected of * methodism.' He lost 
most of the rich members of his congregation 
at the High Church, but the poor flocked to 
hear him. He also undertook the charge of 
North Ferriby, a village on the Humber, 
about nine miles from Hull, where he officiated 
first as curate and then as vicar for seventeen 
years. At North Ferriby many Hull mer- 
chants had country seats, and among them 
he was long unpopular. But after seven or 
eight years opposition ceased both at Hull 
and Ferriby, and for the last twenty years of 
his life he was a great moral power in both 
places. Largely owing to him Hull became 
a centre of evangelicalism. His chief friends 
were the Rev. James Stillingfleet of Hotham, 
I at whose rectory he wrote a great part of 
I his ' Church History,' and the Rev. William 
Richardson of York, who both shared his 
own religious views. In 1792 he had a severe 
attack of fever, from the effects of which he 
never fully recovered. In 1797 the mayor 
and corporation offered him the living of 
Holy Trinity, mainly through the efforts of 
William Wilberforce, M.P. for Yorkshire. 
The corporation also voted him 40/. a year 
to keep a second usher at his school. On 
his journey to York for institution he caught 
a cold, which ended his life in a few weeks 
(15 Nov. 1797). He was buried in Holy 
Trinity Church, and a monument to his 
memory was erected in it. 

As a writer Milner is chiefly known in 
connection with < The History of the Church 
of Christ' which bears his name, though the 
literary history of that work is a curious 
medley. The excellent and somewhat novel 
idea of the book is no doubt exclusively his. 
He was painfully struck by the fact that 
most church histories were in reality Ii 
more than records of the errors and dispute* 
of Christians, and thus too often played into 
the hands of unbelievers. Perhaps the recent 
publication of Gibbon's ' Decline and Fall 
f first volume, 1776) strengthened this feeling. 





At any rate his object was to bring out into 
greater prominence the bright side of church 
history. ' The terms " church" and "Chris- 
tian," ' he says, ' in their natural sense respect 
only good men. Such a succession of pious 
men in all ages existed, and it will be no con- 
temptible use of such a history as this if it 
prove that in every age there have been real 
followers of Christ.' With this end in view 
he brought out the first three volumes 
vol. i. in 1794, vol. ii. in 1795, and vol. iii. in 
1797. Then death cut short his labours; 
but even in these first three volumes the 
hand of Isaac as well as of Joseph may be 
found, and after Joseph's death Isaac pub- 
lished in 1800 a new and greatly revised 
edition of vol. i. Vols. ii. and iii. did not 
require so much revision, because they had 
been corrected by Isaac in manuscript. In 
1803 appeared vol. iv., and in 1809 vol. v., 
both edited by Isaac, but still containing 
much of Joseph's work. In 1810 the five 
volumes were re-edited by Isaac, and John 
Scott published a new continuation of Mil- 
ner's ' Church History' in three volumes 
(1826, 1829, and 1831). Both Joseph and 
Isaac Milner were amateur rather than pro- 
fessional historians, for Joseph's forte was 
classics, Isaac's mathematics, and both were 
very busy men also in other departments. 
When Samuel Roffey Haitian d [q. v.] brought 
his unrivalled knowledge of ' the dark ages' 
to bear upon that part of Joseph Milner's his- 
tory which related to the Waldenses (1832), 
he was able to find many flaws in it. Joseph 
Milner's fellow-townsman, the Rev. John 
King, ably defended him, but Maitland re- 
mained master of the field. His < Strictures 
on Milner's Church History' (1834) appeared 
at the time when the high church party was 
reviving. A controversy ensued, and fresh 
attention was called to the Milners' work, a 
new and greatly improved edition of which 
was published by the Rev. F. Grantham in 

The other works published by Milner in 
his lifetime were : 1. ' Gibbon's Account of 
Christianity considered, with some Strictures 
on Hume's Dialogues on Natural Religion,' 
1781. 2. ' Some Remarkable Passages in the 
Life of William Howard, who died at North 
Ferriby on 2 March 1784,' 1785, a tract 
which passed through several editions. 3. 'Es- 
says on several Religious Subjects, chiefly 
tending to illustrate the Scripture Doctrine 
of the Influence of the Holy Spirit,' 1789. 
He also edited, with the Rev. W. Richardson, 
'Thomas Adam's Posthumous Works,' 1786. 
After Joseph Milner's death a vast number of 
his sermons were found, and these were pub- 
lished in four volumes under the title of 

' Practical Sermons,' the first (1800) with a 
brief but touching memoir by the editor, 
Isaac Milner ; the second (1809), edited by 
the Rev. W. Richardson. These two were 
afterwards republished together. A third 
volume (1823) was edited by the Rev. John 
Fawcett, and a fourth (1830), < On the Epistles 
to the Seven Churches, the Millennium, the 
Church Triumphant, and the 130th Psalm,' 
by Edward Bickersteth. In 1855 Milner's 
' Essentials of Christianity, theoretically and 
practically considered,' which had been left 
by the author in a complete state for publica- 
tion, and had been revised by his brother, 
was edited for the Religious Tract Society 
by Mary Milner, the orphan niece of whom 
Joseph Milner had taken charge, and writer 
of her uncle Isaac's ' Life.' 

[Joseph Milner's Works, passim ; Dean Isaac 
Milner's Life of Joseph Milner, prefixed to the 
first volume of Joseph Milner's Practical Ser- 
mons ; Mrs. Mary Milner's Life of Dean Milner.] 

J. H. 0. 

MILNER, THOMAS, M.D. (1719-1797), 
physician, son of John Milner, a presbyterian 
minister, was born at Peckham, near London, 
where his father preached and kept a school 
famous in literature from the fact that Gold- 
smith was in 1757 one of its ushers (FORSTER, 
Life of Goldsmith). He graduated M.D. at 
St. Andrews 20 June 1740, and in 1759 was 
elected physician to St. Thomas's Hospital. 
He became a licentiate of the College of Phy- 
sicians 30 Sept. 1760, but in 1762 resigned 
his physiciancy at St. Thomas's, and settled 
in Maidstone, where he attained to large 
practice and used to walk to the parish 
church every Sunday bearing a gold-headed 
cane, and followed in linear succession by 
the three unmarried sisters who lived with 
him. In 1783 he published in London ' Ex- 
periments and Observations on Electricity,' 
a work in which he described some of the 
effects which an electrical power is capable 
of producing on conducting substances, simi- 
lar effects of the same power on electric 
bodies themselves, and observations on the 
air, electric repulsion, the electrified cup, and 
the analogy between electricity and magne- 
tism. He died at Maidstone 13 Sept. 1797, 
and is buried in All Saints' Church there. 

[Hunk's Coll. of Phys. ii. 229 ; Works.] 

N. M. 

1884), statesman. [See GIBSON", THOMAS 


first BARON HOTTGHTON (1809-1885), born 
on 19 June 1809 in Bolton Street, Mayfair, 
London, was only son of ROBERT PEMBER- 



TON MILNES (1784-1858) of Fryston Hall, 
near Wakefield, by tlie Hon. Henrietta Maria 
Monckton, second daughter of the fourth Vis- 
count Galway. The family, originally from 
Derbyshire, was in the eighteenth century 
largely interested in the cloth trade. The 
father achieved some distinction. Born in 
1784, eldest son of Richard Slater Milnes, 
M.P. for York, by Rachel, daughter of Hans 
Busk of Leeds, he was educated at a private 
school in Liverpool and at Trinity College, 
Cambridge, where he. had a brilliant career, 
proceeding B. A. in 1804. In 1806, at the age 
of twenty-two, he became M.P. for Pontefract, 
and on 15 April 1807 he defended the Duke 
of Portland's administration in a remarkable 
speech, which was long remembered. In 
October 1809 he declined the offer of a seat 
in Mr. Perceval's administration, and retiring 
to Yorkshire as a country gentleman led the 
politics of the county, supporting catholic 
emancipation and opposing the repeal of the 
corn laws. After paying a brother's debts 
.he found himself forced to reside abroad, 
chiefly at Milan and Rome, for several years 
from 1829. In 1831 he travelled in southern 
Italy, and afterwards printed the journal of 
his tour for private circulation. He was 
highly popular in society, but of a fastidious 
nature, and he refused a peerage offered by 
Lord Palmerston in 1856. He died on 9 Nov. 

Monckton Milnes, who was delicate as a 
child, was educated at Hundhill Hall school, 
near Doncaster, and then privately, until in 
October 1827 he was entered as a fellow- 
commoner at Trinity College, Cambridge. 
There he owed much to the influence of his 
tutor, Connop Thirlwall [q. v.], afterwards 
bishop of St. Davids, and without great aca- 
demic success he won notice. A conspicuous 
member of the association known as the 
* Apostles,' he was intimate with Tennyson, 
Hallam, Thackeray, and other promising men 
of his time ; he spoke often and well at the 
Union Debating Society, and was a fair 
amateur actor. He also contributed occa- 
sional reviews and poems to the l Athenaeum.' 
In December 1829, on the invitation of F. H. 
Doyle and W. E. Gladstone, he went with 
Hallam and Thomas Sunderland as a depu- 
tation from the Cambridge to the Oxford 
Union Society, to argue the superiority of 
Shelley as a poet to Byron. 

On leaving Cambridge, where he proceeded 
M.A. in 1831, Milnes went to London, and 
attended classes at the recently founded 
University College, Gower Street, and asso- 
ciated with Thomas Campbell, F. D. Maurice, 
John Sterling, and others. After travelling 
in Germany, where he spent some time at 

the university of Bonn, he went to Italy 
and became popular in Italian society He 
visited Landor at Florence. With Christopher 
Wordsworth he made a tour in Greece, and 
afterwards described it in a volume of poeti- 
cal 'Memorials' (London, 1834), which drew 
praise from Christopher North. Returning to 
England in 1835, he began his life in London 
society in the following year. In spite of cer- 
tain foreign manners which at first made him 
enemies, his social and literary qualities, the 
number and variety of his friendships, and 
a kind of bland audacity, obtained him an 
entrance into the best circles, in particular 
to Lansdowne, Holland, and Gore Houses, 
then recognised salons. He was a constant 
guest at Samuel Rogers's breakfast-parties in 
St. James's Place, and he began himself to 
give parties of a similar but more comprehen- 
sive nature in the rooms he took at 26 Pall 
Mall in the spring of 1837. Both then and 
afterwards it was notoriously Milnes's plea- 
sure to bring together men of widely different 
pursuits, opinions, and social position, and no 
one was unwelcome who had any celebrity, or 
was likely to attain it. 

In the general election in June 1837 Milnes 
became conservative M.P. for Pontefract, 
and in the following December made a suc- 
cessful maiden speech. But he afterwards 
adopted a serious and at times pompous 
vein which was not appreciated ; and al- 
though he was a warm advocate of several 
useful measures, he failed to make any mark 
as a politician. In 1839 he published a 
speech he had delivered on the question of 
the ballot, and a pamphlet on ' Purity of 
Election.' He often visited the continent, 
and increased his acquaintance with men of 
note, meeting in 1840 King Louis-Philippe, 
DeTocqueville,Lamartine,and others. With 
Guizot he kept up a correspondence on Eng- 
lish politics. His interest in foreign affairs 
led him to expect office, and he was disap- 
pointed at not receiving a place in Peel's 
ministry in 1841. He did much to secure 
the passing of the Copyright Act, and he in- 
troduced a bill for establishing reformatories 
for juvenile offenders. In Irish questions 
he urged a scheme for endowing catholic 
concurrently with Anglican clergy, as likely 
to aid in averting a repeal of the union. 
On Peel's conversion to free trade, Milnes, 
who had hitherto supported him, unlike the 
other Peelites who formed a separate party, 
joined the liberals. In 1848 he went to 
"Paris to see something of the revolution, 
and to fraternise with both sides. On his 
return he wrote, as a ' Letter to Lord Lans- 
downe,' 1848, a pamphlet on the events of that 
year, in which he offended the conservatives 




by his sympathy with continental liberalism, 
and in particular with the struggle of Italy 
against Austria. The pamphlet excited 
some controversy and much hostile criticism, 
which came to a head in a leading article in 
the ' Morning Chronicle,' written by George 
Smythe, afterwards Lord Strangford, whom, 
in December 1845, Peel had preferred to 
Milnes for the under-secretaryship for foreign 
affairs. Milnes, who was coarsely handled in 
the article, at once challenged the writer; but 
Smythe made an apology, and it was accepted. 

Milnes had meanwhile continued his efforts 
as a writer. In December 1 836 he had assisted 
Lord Northampton to prepare < The Tribute/ 
a Christmas annual, for which he obtained 
contributions from his friends, in particular 
from Tennyson. After some hesitation, the 
latter sent Milnes the stanzas which after- 
wards formed the germ of ' Maud.' He 
published two volumes of verse in 1838, and 
a third in 1840. His poems excited some 
public interest, and a few of them became 
popular, especially when set to music. In 
the l Westminster Review ' he wrote a notice 
of the works of Emerson, who sent him a 
friendly acknowledgment. In the contro- 
versy over the anglo-catholic revival he sup- 
ported the movement in his ' One Tract More, 
by a layman' (1841), a pamphlet which was 
favourably noticed by Newman (Apologia, ch. 
ii. note ad fin.) In the winter of 1842-3 he 
visited Egypt and the Levant, where he was 
commonly supposed to have had numerous ad- 
ventures, and in 1844 he published his poeti- 
cal impressions of the tour in a volume 
entitled ' Palm Leaves.' Milnes, who was 
always ready to assist any one connected 
with literature, at this time exerted himself 
to obtain a civil list pension for Tennyson, 
and he helped Hood in his last days, and on 
his death befriended his family. In 1848 he 
collected and arranged various papers re- 
lating to Keats, and published them as the 
' Life and Letters ' of the poet. Much of 
the material was presented to him by Keats's 
friend, Charles Armitage Brown [q. v.] The 
memoir, greatly abbreviated, was afterwards 
prefixed to an edition of Keats's poems, which 
Milnes issued in 1854. He also contributed 
several articles to the ' Edinburgh Review/ 
and took an interest in the management of 
the Royal Literary Fund. 

On 30 July 1851 Milnes married the Hon. 
Annabel Crewe, younger daughter of the 
second Baron Crewe. They went to Vienna 
for the honeymoon, and proposed to visit 
Hungary ; but the Austrian government re- 
fused the author of the pamphlet on the 
events of 1848 entrance into that kingdom. 
On his return Milnes resumed his literary 

work, and partly from disappointed expec- 
tations, partly from disagreement with either 
party, relinquished his practical interest in 
politics; he refused a lordship of the treasury 
offered him by Lord Palmerston, whom he 
now followed. He revised Gladstone's trans- 
lation of Farini's * History of the Roman 
State ; ' and in 1853 he and M. Van de W eyer, 
Belgian minister in London, established the 
Philobiblon Society, a small circle of emi- 
nent men at home and abroad, interested in 
rare books and manuscripts. Milnes edited 
its l Transactions.' During the Crimean war 
he addressed meetings on behalf of Miss 
Nightingale's fund, and in September 1855 
published in the 'Times' a poem on the Eng- 
lish graves at Scutari. In 1857 he attended 
and spoke at the recently established Social 
Science Congress, over which he presided 
later on (1873) when it met at Norwich ; 
and he warmly advocated the formation of 
mechanics' institutes and penny banks. 

In July 1863 Milnes was at Palmerston's 
instance created Baron Houghton of Great 
Houghton, in the West Riding of Yorkshire. 
Differences of opinion respecting the pro- 
nunciation of his new name were commemo- 
rated in J. R. Planche's poem in ' Punch ? 
(LoCKEK-LAMPSOtf, LymElegantiarum, 1891, 
p. 376). In the House of Lords Houghton 
spoke against the condemnation by convoca- 
tion of i Essays and Reviews/ and in aid of 
the movement for legalising marriage with 
a deceased wife's sister. He was one of the 
few peers who eagerly supported the re- 
form of the franchise, which he advocated at 
a meeting at Leeds, and, with John Bright, 
at a banquet at Manchester. To a volume of 
1 Essays on Reform ' (1867) he contributed 
an article on 'The Admission of the Working 
Classes as a part of the Social System.' 

In 1866 he delivered the inaugural ad- 
dress at the opening of new rooms for the 
Cambridge Union Society. He was presi- 
dent of the group of liberal arts at the 
French Exhibition of 1867, when he spent 
some months in Paris, and met most of the 
leading statesmen of Europe. In 1869 he 
represented the Royal Geographical Society 
at the opening of the Suez Canal, and pre- 
sented a report on his return. In 1873 he 
published, under the title ' Monographs/ inte- 
resting recollections of some friends, the Miss 
Berrys,Landor, Sydney Smith, Wiseman, and 
others ; and in 1875 an edition of Peacock's 
novels, with a preface. 

In his later years Houghton's social quali- 
ties were given the fullest play. Both at 
Fryston and in London, at 16 Upper Brook 
Street, he was constantly entertaining his 
distinguished friends; and he continued to 




relieve genius in distress. In 1860 he be 
friended David Gray [q. v.], and in 1862 wrot 
a preface to his poem ' The Luggie.' Milne 
was also instrumental in making Mr. A. 
Swinburne known to the public, and he drew 
attention to ' Atalanta in Calydon ' in the 
' Edinburgh Review.' He knew every one o 
note, and was present at almost every greai 
social gathering. In 1875 he visited Canada 
and the United States, where he met Long- 
fellow, Emerson, Lowell, and was everywhere 
widely received by leading men, partly for 
the sympathy he had shown with the north 
during the civil war. Towards the close o: 
his life, Houghton, already a fellow of the 
Royal Society, honorary D.C.L. of Oxford 
and LL.D. of Edinburgh, became an hono- 
rary fellow of Trinity College, Cambridge, 
secretary for foreign correspondence in the 
Royal Academy, and a trustee of the British 
Museum. He succeeded Carlyle, who had 
been his lifelong friend, as president of the 
London Library in 1882. In May 1885 he 
took part in unveiling a bust of Coleridge in 
Westminster Abbey, and of Gray at Cam- 
bridge. His last speech was at a meeting of 
the short-lived Wordsworth Society in the 
following July. He died at Vichy on 1 1 Aug. 
1885, and on 20 Aug. was buried at Fryston. 
His wife had predeceased him in February 
1874. He left two daughters and a son, who 
afterwards became lord-lieutenant of Ireland 
in Mr. Gladstone's fourth ministry. 

Houghton abounded in friendliness, but 
his sympathies were broad rather than deep. 
Naturally generous and always ready to 
offer his help, he found a romantic pleasure of 
his own in giving it. His poetry is of the 
meditative kind, cultured and graceful ; but 
it lacks fire. In society, where he found his 
chief occupation and success, especially as an 
after-dinner speaker, he was always amusing, 
and many stories were told of his humorous 
originality. But he was eminently a di- 
lettante ; while his interests were wide, he 
shirked the trouble necessary for judgments 
other than superficial. He had many fine 
tastes and some coarse ones. 

Houghton's poetical works are: 1. 'Me- 
morials of a Tour in some parts of Greece, 
chiefly Poetical/ London, 1834. 2. < Me- 
morials of a Residence on the Continent, 
and Historical Poems,' London, 1838, of 
which an enlarged edition appeared in 1844. 

3. 'Poems of many Years,' London, 1838. 

4. ' Poetry for the People, and other Poems,' 
London, 1840. 5. ' Poems, Legendary and 
Historical,' London, 1844, which included 
pieces previously published. 6. ' Palm 
Leaves,' London, 1844. He also issued 
several songs in single sheets. A collected 

edition in two volumes, with a preface and 
portrait, appeared in London in 1876. 

His prose writings include, besides those 
noticed, pamphlets and articles in newspapers 
and reviews: 1. 'A Speech on the Ballot, de- 
livered in the House of Commons,' London, 
1839. 2. 'Thoughts on Purity of Election,' 
London, 1842. 3. 'Answer to R. Baxter on 
the South Yorkshire Isle of Axholme Bill/ 
Pontefract, 1852. 4. Preface to 'Another Ver- 
sion of Keats's " Hyperion," ' London, 1856. 
5. 'Address on Social Economy' at the Social 
Science Congress, London, 1862. 6. 'On the 
present Social Results of Classical Education/ 
in F. W. Farrar's ' Essays on a Liberal Edu- 
cation/ London, 1867. He also edited various 
papers in the publications of the Philobiblon 
Society and the Grampian Club ; and he wrote 
a preface to the ' History of Grillion's Club, 
from its Origin in 1812 to its 50th Anniver- 
sary/ London, 1880. 

[The Life, Letters, and Friendships of Richard 
Monckton Milnes, first Lord Houghton, by T. 
Wemyss Reid, London, 1890, is a generous ac- 
count of its subject. See also the Times, 12 Aug. 
1885 ; and the Athenaeum, Academy, and Saturday 
Review (art. by G-. S. Venables) for 15 Aug. 1885 ; 
Sir F. H. Doyle's Reminiscences and Opinions, 
pp. 109 et seq.,and the Correspondence of Carlyle 
and Emerson, London, 1883, i. 263.] T. B. S. 


MILRED or MILRET (d. 775), bishop 
of Worcester, was perhaps coadjutor bishop 
to Wilfrith, bishop of the Hwiccas, the people 
of the present Worcestershire and Glouces- 
tershire (GEEEN, Making of England, pp. 129, 
130). His name appears as bishop along with 
that of Wilfrith in the attestation of a char- 
ter (Codex Diplomatics, No. 95) of Ethel- 
bald or ^thelbald (d. 757) [q. v.], king of 
the Mercians, and on the death of Wilfrith 
he succeeded to the see in 743 (FLOBENCE, 
sub an. ; 744 A.-S. Chronicle ; 745 STMEON, 
Historia Regum, c. 40, and HOVEDEN, i. 6). 
William of Malmesbury (Gesta Pontificum, 
3. 9) records his presence at the council of 
I!lovesho held in 747. In 754, or early in 
755, he visited Boniface, archbishop of Mentz, 
ind Bishop Lullus in Germany, and on hear- 
ng less than a year afterwards of the mar- 
yrdom of Boniface (5 June 755), wrote to 
Julius expressing his grief, and sending some 
,mall presents, but not sending a book (' li- 
>rum pyrpyri metri'), for which Lullus had 
ipparently asked, because Archbishop Cuth- 
>ert (d. 758) [q. v.] had delayed to return 
t (Monumenta Moguntina, pp. 267, 268). 
)uring the reign of OfFa of Mercia Milred 
eceived many grants, some of which are 




historically important, as evidence of the ab- 
sorption of small monasteries by episcopal 
churches, and of the growth alongside St. 
Peter's, the old cathedral church of Worcester, 
of the newer monastic foundation of St. 
Mary's, which afterwards became the church 
of the see (GKEEN, History and Antiquities 
of Worcester, i. 24, 25 ; Monasticon, i. 567, 
and specially BISHOP STTJBBS sub ' Milred/ 
ap. Dictionary of Christian Biography). Some 
of the following charters are marked as spuri- 
ous by Kemble, but Bishop Stubbs considers 
that they represent actual grants. From 
Offa Milred received for himself as hereditary 
property land at Wick, ' to the west of the 
Severn' (Codex Diplomaticus, No. 126), and 
at ' Pirigtun' (ib. No. 129), and from Eanbert 
and his brothers, under-kings of the Hwiccas, 
lands for the church of St. Peter's (ib. No. 
102) ; he attests a grant of Uhtred, one of 
these under-kings, in 770, giving Stoke in 
Worcestershire to the monastery of St. Mary's 
at Worcester (ib. No. 118), and another by 
which Uhtred gave lands on the Stour l at 
the ford called Scepesuuasce (Sheepwash),' 
now Shipston in Worcestershire, to the same 
monastery (ib. No. 128). He also attests a 
grant by Abbot Ceolfrith, who had inherited 
his abbey or abbeys from his father Cynebert, 
of the monasteries of Heanburh or Hanbury, 
and Sture in Usmorn, now Kidderminster, 
in Worcestershire, to St. Peter's (ib. No. 127). 
A monastery had been founded at With- 
ington in Gloucestershire by Oshere [q. v.] 
(comp. ib. No. 36), and had been left to his 
daughter, the abbess Hrothwara, who had 
made it over to Mildred. In 774 Milred 
made over this monastery to ^Ethelburga, an 
abbess who appears to have inherited from 
her father Alfred a monastery at Worcester, 
on condition that at her death these monas- 
teries at Withington and Worcester should 
pass to the church of St. Peter (ib. No. 124). 
Milred died in 775 (FLORENCE ; 772, A.-S. 
Chronicle), and was succeeded by Weremund. 

[Kemble's Codex Dipl. i. 114, 123, 145, 152- 
155 (Engl. Hist. Soc.); A.-S. Chron. ann. 744, 
772; Flop. Wig. ann. 743, 774 (Engl. Hist. 
Soc.) ; Will, of Malmesbury's G-esta Pontiff, p. 9 
(Rolls Ser.) ; Mon. Moguntina, pp. 267, 268, ed. 
Jaffe ; Symeon of Durham's Hist. Reg. ap. Op. 
ii. 39 (Rolls Ser.) ; Hoveden, i. 6 (Rolls Ser.) ; 
Green's Hist, and Antiq. of Worcester, i. 24, 25 ; 
Dugdale's Monasticon, i. 567 ; Bishop Stubbs's 
art. 'Milred' ap. Diet. Chr. Biog. iii. 915.] 

W. H. 

MILROY, GAVIN (1805-1886), medi- 
cal writer and founder of the ' Milroy lec- 
tureship ' at the Royal College of Physicians, 
was born in Edinburgh, where his father 
was in business, in 1805. He received his 

general education at the high school, and 
conducted his professional studies at the 
university. He became M.R.C.S. Edin. in 
June 1824, and M.D. Edin. in July 1828. 
He was one of the founders and active mem- 
bers of the Hunterian Society of Edinburgh, 
but soon settled as a general practitioner in 
London. He made a voyage as medical offi- 
cer in the government packet service to the 
West Indies and the Mediterranean, and 
thenceforth chiefly devoted himself to writ- 
ing for medical papers. From 1844 he was 
co-editor of Johnson's t Medico-Chirurgical 
Review' till it was amalgamated with 
Forbes's ' British and Foreign Medical Re- 
view ' in 1847. In October 1846 (iv. 285) he 
wrote in it an elaborate review on a French 
report on ' Plague and Quarantine/ by Dr. 
Prus (2 vols. 8vo, Paris, 1846), and pub- 
lished an abridged translation, with preface- 
and notes, as i Quarantine and the Plague/ 
8vo, London, 1846. He recommended the 
mitigation or total abolition of quarantine^ 
and at the same time the dependence on sani- 
tary measures alone for preservation from 
foreign pestilences. He at once became an 
authority on all questions of epidemiology f 
and was employed in several government 
commissions of inspection and inquiry. In 
1849-50 he was a superintendent medical 
inspector of the general board of health ; in 
1852 he was sent by the colonial office to- 
Jamaica ' to inspect and report on the sani- 
tary condition of that island/ and gave the 
results in an official report. During the 
Crimean war in 1855-6 he was a member of 
the sanitary commission sent out to the army 
in the east ; and when the commission was 
recalled at the end of the war, Milroy joined 
Dr. John Sutherland [q. v.] in drawing up 
the report of its transactions. In 1858 he 
was honorary secretary of the committee ap- 
pointed by the Social Science Association 
to inquire into the practice and results of 
quarantine, and the results of the inquiries 
were printed in three parliamentary papers. 
Milroy belonged to the Medical and Chirur- 
gical Society, and took a very active part in 
the establishment and management of the- 
Epidemiological Society. He was admitted 
a licentiate of the College of Physicians on 
22 Dec. 1847, and was elected a fellow in 
1853. In 1862 he was a member of a com- 
mittee appointed by the college at the request 
of the colonial office for the purpose of col- 
lecting information on the subject of leprosy. 
The report was printed in 1867, and in the 
appendix (p. 230) are some brief and sensible 
* Notes respecting the Leprosy of Scripture * 
by Milroy. He never received from govern- 
ment any permanent medical appointment, 



but a civil list pension of 1001. a year was 
granted him. In later life he lived at Rich- 
mond in Surrey, where he died 11 Jan. 1886, 
at the age of eighty-one. He was buried in 
Kensal Green cemetery. He survived his wife 
(Miss Sophia Chapman) about three years, 
and had no children. He was a modest, 
unassuming man, of sound judgment, and 
considerable intellectual powers. He was 
brought up as a member of the Scottish kirk, 
but in later years attended the services of the 
Anglican church. He left a legacy of 2,0001. 
to the London College of Physicians for the 
endowment of a lectureship on ' state medi- 
cine and public health, and subjects connected 
therewith,' with a memorandum of ' sugges- 
tions,' dated 14 Feb. 1879. At the present 
time (1893) the lectures are four in number, 
and the lecturer's honorarium is sixty-six 

Milroy also wrote some articles on ' Syden- 
ham ' in" the ' Lancet,' 1846-7 ; the article 
on * Plague ' in Reynolds's ' System of Medi- 
cine,' vol. i., and many other anonymous 
articles in the medical journals. 

[Lancet, 27 Feb. 1886 ; Brit. Med. Journ. same 
date ; family information ; personal knowledge.] 

W. A. G. 

DREW, 1692-1766, lord justice clerk.] 

1693), judge, brother of the poet John Mil- 
ton, being the younger son of John Milton, 
scrivener [q.-v.], by Sarah Jeffrey, his wife, 
was born in Bread Street, London, Novem- 
ber 1615, and educated at St. Paul's School 
and Christ's College, Cambridge, wher.e he 
was admitted a pensioner on 15 Feb. 1630- 
1631. The same year he entered the Inner 
Temple, where, having left the university 
without a degree, he was called to the bar 
in 1639. At the outbreak of the civil war 
he resided at Reading, and by virtue of a 
commission under the great seal sequestered 
the estates of parliamentarians in three coun- 
ties. After the surrender of Reading to the 
parliament (April 1643), he ' steered his 
course according to the motion of the king's 
army,' and was in Exeter during Fairfax's 
siege of that place. On its surrender in the 
spring of 1646, his town house, the Cross 
Keys, Ludgate, was sequestered, and he 
compounded for 80/., a tenth of its value. 
Only a moiety of the composition, however, 
was paid by him, and inquiries, apparently 
ineffectual, were made for estates supposed 
to belong to him in Suffolk and Berkshire. 
During the Commonwealth his practice con- 
sisted chiefly of composition cases, among 
them that of his brother's mother-in-law, 

Mrs. Anne Powell. In November 16GO he 
was elected a bencher of the Inner Temple, 
where he was reader in the autumn of 1667. 
At the date of his brother's death, whose 
nuncupative will he attested (5 Dec. 1674), 
he was deputy-recorder of Ipswich. In later 
life he was, or professed to be, a Roman 
catholic, and accordingly, though no great 
lawyer, was raised by James II to the ex- 
chequer bench, 26 April 1686, being first in- 
vested with the coif (21 April), and knighted 
(25 April ). His tenure of office was equally 
brief and undistinguished. On 16 April 
1687 he was transferred to the common pleas, 
being dispensed from taking the oaths, and 
on 6 July 1688 he was discharged as super- 
annuated, retaining his salary. He died in 
March 1692-3, and was buried (22 March) 
in the church of St. Nicholas, Ipswich. Be- 
sides his house at Ipswich he had a villa at 
Rushmere, about two miles from the town. 
He married, probably in 1638, Thomasine, 
daughter of William Webber of London, by 
whom he had issue a son, who died in infancy 
in March 1639 ; another, Thomas, sometime 
deputy-clerk of the crown in chancery ; and 
three daughters, Sarah, Mary, and Catherine. 

[John Milton's note on the flyleaf of his Bible, 
Addit. MS. 32310; Addit. MS. 24501, ff. 12, 
23; Gardiner's Reg. of St. Paul's School; 
Phillips's Life of Milton prefixed to Letters of 
State written by Mr. John Milton, London, 
1694, 12mo; Papers relating to Milton (Camd. 
Soc.) ; Chetham Miscellanies (Chetham Soc.),vol. 
i. (Milton Papers), p. 38; Le Neve's Pedigrees 
of Knights (Harl. Soc.); Inner Temple Books ; 
Dugdale's Orig. p. 169; London Gazette, April 
1686 and 1687 ; Sir John Bramston's Autobiog. 
(Camd. Soc.); Skinner's Reports, pp. 251-2; 
Luttrell's Relation of State Affairs, i. 375, 449 ; 
Evelyn's Diary, 2 June 1686 ; Todd's Milton, i. 
257-9 ; Masson's Life of Milton, vi. 727, 761-2 ; 
Foss's Lives of the Judges.] J. M. R. 

MILTON, JOHN, the elder (1563 P-1647), 
musician, father of the poet, born about 1563, 
was son of Richard Milton of Stanton St. John, 
near Oxford (MASSON). The Miltons were ca- 
tholics of the yeoman class, and according to 
one account Richard was an ' under-ranger ' 
of Shotover Forest (Wootf) ; he was a staunch 
catholic, and was fined as a recusant in 1601. 
John was educated at Christ Church, Oxford, 
where he was perhaps a chorister (Notes and 
Queries, 6th ser. i. 115, 259), and while there 
embraced protestantism, to the annoyance of 
his father, who promptly disinherited him. 
Milton, on leaving Oxford, went to London 
'to seek in a manner his fortune' (WOOD). 
After trying various means of gaining a 
livelihood, he adopted, in 1595, the profes- 
sion of a scrivener, and on 27 Feb. 1599-1600 



was admitted to the Company of Scriveners. 
About 1600 lie started business for himself 
in Bread Street, Cheapside, at the sign of 
the Spread Eagle, the family arms ; and about 
the same time married Sarah, daughter of 
Paul Jeffrey, merchant taylor of St. S within s, 
London; she was about nine years his junior 
(MASSON). Aubrey's statement that her 
maiden name was Bradshaw, and her grand- 
son Edward Phillips's remark that she was * of 
the family of the Castons,' were disproved by 
Colonel Chester the genealogist (cf. STEKN, 
Milton und seine Zeit, i. 345-8). Milton's 
business prospered rapidly, and in the end 
he had a ' plentiful estate' (AUBREY). He 
died in March 1647, and was buried 15 March 
at St. Giles's, Cripplegate. Of six children, 
three survived infancy, viz. Anne by whose 
first husband, Edward Phillips, she was 
mother of Edward Phillips (1630-1698) [q. v.] 
and of John Phillips (fl. 1700) [q. v.] John 
the poet [q. v.], and Christopher [q. v.] the 
judge. The poet says that his mother was 
well known in her neighbourhood for her 
charities (Defensio secunda) ; she died on 
3 April 1637. 

Milton, who was a man of high character 
and a fair scholar, had a special faculty for 
music, to the practice of which he devoted his 
leisure. He had an organ and other instru- 
ments in his house. His musical abilities are 
celebrated by his son in a Latin poem, * Ad 
Patrem.' To Morley's ( Triumphes of Oriana,' 
London, 1601 (reprinted by William Hawes 
1815), he contributed a six-part madrigal 
(No. 18), ' Fayre Oriana in the Morne ; ' and 
to Leighton's ' Teares or Lamentacions of a 
Sorrowfull Soule,' London, 1614, four motets, 
specimens of which are printed by Hawkins 
and Burney. Ravenscroft's ' Whole Booke 
of Psalmes,' London, 1621, contains, among 
other melodies ascribed to him, the common- 
metre tune ' York,' once immensely popular 
(see HAWKINS) and still widely used. The 
melody is, however, probably not his own in- 
vention. The tunes in Ravenscroft are de- 
scribed as being * composed into four parts ' 
i.e. harmonised and as 'York' was so 
treated by one Simon Stubbs, as well as by 
Milton, the former might share the author- 
ship (cf. LOVE). He is said (PHILLIPS) to 
have composed an 'In nomine' in forty parts, 
for which he received a gold chain and medal 
from a Polish prince, to whom he presented 
it. A sonnet in his honour, written by John 
Lane [q. v.] (Harl. MS. 5243), is printed by 
Masson and others. 

[Masson's Life of Milton and generally the 
other biographical works cited under MILTON, 
JOHN, poet ; Wood's Athenae Oxonienses ; God- 
win's Lives of Edward and John Phillips, with 

Aubrey's Sketch ; Milton Papers, edited by John 
Fitchett Marsh (Chetham Soc.) ; Athenaeum and 
Notes and Queries, 19 March 1859 ; Grove's 
Diet, of Music ; Hawkins's and Burney's Histories 
of Music ; Parr's Church of England Psalmody ; 
Love's Scottish Church Music, p. 250.] 

J. C. H. 

MILTON, JOHN (1608-1674), poet, born 
9 Dec. 1608 at the house of his father, John 
Milton [see under MILTON, JOHN, the elder], 
scrivener, in Bread Street, Cheapside. The 
child was christened at Allhallows Church, 
destroyed in the fire of 1666. A tablet to 
commemorate the fact, erected in the present 
century in the new church, was removed, upon 
the demolition of that church in 1876, to Bow 
Church, Cheapside. Milton was a beautiful 
boy, as appears from a portrait taken when he 
was ten years old, and soon showed remark- 
able literary promise. His father (who him- 
self instructed him in music, and, according 
to Aubrey, made him a skilful organist) had 
him taught by a private tutor, Thomas Young 
[q. v.], a Scottish clergyman, afterwards a 
well-known presbyterian divine, who became 
in 1644 master of Jesus College, Cambridge. 
Milton was also sent to St. Paul's School, not 
later than 1620. Alexander Gill the elder 
[q. v.] was head-master, and his son, Alex- 
ander Gill the younger [q. v.], became assist- 
ant-master in 1621. Milton took to study 
nsionately. He seldom left his lessons for 
till midnight, a practice which produced 
frequent headaches, and, as he thought, was 
the first cause of injury to his eyes. Besides 
Latin and Greek, he appears to have learnt 
French, Italian, and some Hebrew (see his Ad 
Patrem), and had read much English litera- 
ture. He was a poet, says Aubrey, from the 
age of ten. Spenser's ' Faery Queen ' and Syl- 
vester's translation of Du Bartas were among 
his favourites. Two paraphrases of Psalms 
were written when he was fifteen. He became 
intimate with the younger Gill, and made 
a closer friendship with Charles Diodati, a 
schoolfellow of his own age, son of a physi- 
cian of Italian origin, and a nephew of John 
Diodati, a famous theologian at Geneva. With 
Charles Diodati, who entered Trinity College, 
Oxford, in February 1622-3, Milton kept up 
an affectionate correspondence. 

Milton was admitted as a pensioner of 
Christ's College, Cambridge, on 12 Feb. 
1624-5, and was matriculated on 9 April 
following. His tutor was William Chappell 
[q. v.], famous for his skill in disputation, who 
was afterwards promoted by Laud's favour 
to the bishopric of Cork. Milton's rooms at 
Christ's College are still pointed out on the 
first floor of the western staircase on the 
north side of the great court. Wordsworth 



paid his respects to the place, drinking, for 
once, till he was 'dizzy' (see the Prelude, bk. 
iii.) Milton kept every term at Cambridge 
until he graduated as M.A. 3 July 1632. He 
took his B. A. degree 26 March 1629. Rumours 
of some disgrace in his university career were 
spread by some of his opponents in later years. 
Aubrey says that Chappell showed him 'some 
unkindness/ above which in the original ma- 
nuscript is the interlineation ' whipt him.' 
This ' whipping ' was accepted by Johnson, 
and the practice of flogging, though declin- 
ing, was not yet obsolete. In a Latin epistle 
to Diodati, probably (see MASSON, i. 161) of 
the spring of 1626, Milton speaks of the harsh 
threats of a master : 

Cseteraque ingenio non subeunda meo. 

Milton clearly had some quarrel with Chap- 
pell, and had to leave Cambridge for a time, 
though without losing his term. He was then 
transferred from the tutorship of Chappell to 
that of Nathaniel Tovey. 

In replying to the attacks upon him Mil- 
ton was able to assert that he had been es- 
teemed above his equals by the fellows of the 
college, and that they had been anxious that 
he should continue in residence after he had 
taken his M.A. degree. His biographers, 
Aubrey and Wood, speak of the respect paid 
to his abilities. Milton while at college cor- 
responded with Diodati, Gill, and his old 
preceptor, Young, in Latin prose and verse. 
He wrote some Latin poems upon events at 
the university and on the Gunpowder plot, 
and seven ' Prolusiones Oratoriae ' (published 
in 1674) were originally pronounced as exer- 
cises in the schools and in college. One of 
them, given in the college hall in 1628, was 
originally concluded by the address to his 
native language in English. Milton wrote 
the copy of Latin verses distributed, accord- 
ing to custom, at the commencement of 1628. 
He had also written some English poems, 
the sonnet to Shakespeare (1630, first pub- 
lished in the second folio, 1632, of Shake- 
speare), that ' On having arrived at the Age 
of Twenty-three' (1631), the clumsy attempt 
at humour upon the death of the carrier 
Thomas Hobson [q. v.], and the noble ' Ode 
on the Nativity ' (Christmas, 1629), in which 
his characteristic majesty of style first ap- 
pears, although marred by occasional conceits. 
Milton (Apology for Smectymnuus) speaks 
with great contempt of dramatic perform- 
ances which he had heard at the university, 
and (letter to Gill, 2 July 1628) expresses 
his scorn for the narrow theological studies 
of his companions, and their ignorance of 

Milton was nicknamed the * lady ' at col- 

lege, from his delicate complexion and slight 
make. He was, however, a good fencer, and 
thought himself a ' match for any one.' Al- 
though respected by the authorities, his proud 
and austere character probably kept him 
aloof from much of the coarser society of the 
place. He shared the growing aversion to the 
scholasticism against which one of his exer- 
cises is directed. Like Henry More, who 
entered Christ's in Milton's last year, he was 
strongly attracted by Plato, although he was 
never so much a philosopher as a poet. He 
already considered himself as dedicated to 
the utterance of great thoughts, and to the 
strictest chastity and self-respect, on the 
ground that he who would ' write well here- 
after in laudable things ought himself to be 
a true poem ' {Apology for Smectymnuus). 
Milton's father had retired by 1632 from an 
active share in his business. He had handed 
this over to a partner, John Bower, and re- 
tired to a house at Horton, Buckinghamshire, 
a village near Colnbrook. Milton had been 
educated with a view to taking orders, and a 
letter (now in Trinity College Library), end- 
ing with the sonnet upon completing his 
twenty-third year, gives reasons for postpon- 
ing but not for abandoning his intention. 
He was, however, alienated by the church 
policy which became dominant under Laud, 
and says, in 1641 (Reasons of Church Govern- 
ment}, that he was unwilling to take the 
necessary oaths, and was (in this sense) 
' church-outed by the prelates.' There are 
slight indications that he thought of studying 
law (MASSON", i. 327), but he soon abandoned 
this and resolved to devote himself exclu- 
sively to literature. His style, ' by certain 
vital signs it had, was likely to live,' he says, 
and in the Latin epistle ' Ad Patrem,' pro- 
bably written about this time, he thanks his 
father for consenting to his plans. Milton 
therefore settled with his father at Horton 
for nearly six years July 1632toApril 1638. 
The house is said by Todd to have been pulled 
down about 1795. Tradition says that it was 
on the site of Byrken manor-house, near the 
church. Milton frequently visited London, 
eighteen miles distant, to take lessons in 
mathematics and music. He read the classical 
writers, and studied Greek and Italian his- 
tory (to C. Diodati, 23 Sept. 1637), and he 
wrote poems already displaying his full 
powers. The < Allegro ' and ' Penseroso, the / 
most perfect record in the language of the 
impression made by natural scenery upon a 
thorough scholar, were probably (MASSON, i. - 
589) written in 1632. The Countess-dowager 
of Derby, who had been the wife of Fer- 
dinando, fifth earl of Derby, and afterwards 
of Thomas Egerton, lord EUesmere [q. v. J 



was living at Harefield, near Uxbridge. Her 
family presented a masque before her in 1633, 
or possibly in 1634, for which Lawes com- 
posed the music and Milton the words, after- 
wards published as t Arcades.' Milton's ac- 
quaintance with Henry Lawes [q. v.] was 
probably the cause of his employment, as no 
other connection with the Egerton family is 
known. John Egerton, first earl of Bridge- 
water [q. v.], the stepson, and also son-in-law 
of the Dowager-countess of Derby, had been 
appointed in 1631 president of the council of 
Wales. He went to his official residence at 
Ludlow Castle in 1633, and in September 
1634 his family performed the masque of 
'Comus'in the great hall of the castle, Milton 
and Lawes being again the composers. This 
noble poem was appreciated at the time. 
Lawes received so many applications for copies 
that he published it (without Milton's name) 
in 1634. The last of the great poems of his 
youthful period, ' Lycidas,' was written in 
November 1637, upon the death of Edward 
King (1612-1637) [q.v.], for the collection of 
poems published by King's friends at Cam- 
bridge in 1638. The poetry already written 
by Milton would by itself entitle him to the 
front rank in our literature, and has a charm 
of sweetness which is absent from the sublimer 
and sterner works of his later years. The 
famous apostrophe of St. Peter in ' Lycidas ' 
shows his growing interest in the theological 
controversies of the day. 

Milton's mother died on 3 April 1637, and 
was buried in the chancel of Hortcn Church. 
The elder Milton was at the same time 
charged by a client with misconduct in 
respect of funds trusted to him for invest- 
ment. A lawsuit ended on 1 Feb. 1637-8 
by an order of court completely exonerating 
him from all charges (MASSON, i. 627-38, 
661). Milton now obtained his father's 
consent to a journey abroad. His brother 
Christopher, who had followed him to St. 
Paul's School and Christ's College, was now 
a law student ; he married about this time, 
and was probably resident at Horton during 
the elder brother's absence. Milton took 
a servant, and the expense of a year abroad, 
as calculated by Howell at the time, would 
be not under 300/. for a well-to-do traveller 
and 50/. for his servant. As Milton had no 
means of his own, his father must have 
been both able and willing to be liberal. 
Milton started in April 1638; he made a 
short stay in Paris, where, according to 
Wood, he disliked 'the manners and genius' 
of the place ; he travelled to Nice ; went by sea 
to Genoa and to Leghorn, and thence by Pisa 
to Florence, where he stayed two months, 
probably August and September. About 

the end of September he went to Rome and 
spent two months there. He then went 
to Naples and heard news of the Scottish 
troubles, which determined him to return, 
lest, as he said, he should be travelling abroad 
while his countrymen were fighting for li- 
berty. He made a second stay at Rome, 
spent two more months in Florence (where 
he was present in March 1639), and thence 
went to Venice by Bologna and Ferrara. 
From Venice he sent home a collection of 
books and music. He left Italy by Verona, 
Milan, and the Pennine Alps, probably the 
Simplon. He spent some time at Geneva, 
where he was present (as appears from an. 
autograph in an album) on 10 July 1639 ; 
and thence returned by Paris, reaching Eng- 
land about the end of July 1639, after fifteen 
months' absence. (The dates are fixed by 
the short account of his travels in the 
'Defensio Secunda' and references in his 
' Occasional Poems and Epistles.') 

Milton declares his freedom from all vice 
during his foreign journey. His statement 
is confirmed by a letter of Nicholas Heinsius 
written from Venice 27 Feb. 1652-3, on occa- 
sion of Milton's controversy with Salmasius. 
Heinsius says that Milton had offended 
the Italians by his strict morality and by 
his outspoken attacks on popery (in P. BUR- 
MANN'S Sylloge Jfipistolarum). His reception 
by distinguished persons indicates the im- 
pression made upon his contemporaries by his 
lofty character, prepossessing appearance, and 
literary culture. Lawes had obtained a pass- 
port for him. Sir Henry Wotton, then provost 
of Eton, and his neighbour at Horton, sent 
him a friendly letter on his departure, thank- 
ing him for a gift of ' Com us,' and giving his 
favourite piece of advice, ' I pensieri stretti ed 
il viso sciolto.' Wotton added a letter of in- 
troduction ; and by others he was introduced to 
Lord Scudamore, the English ambassador in 
Paris. Scudamore introduced him to Grotius, 
then Queen Christina's ambassador, who, ac- 
cording to Phillips, received him kindly. At 
Florence Milton was received with singular 
warmth. He was welcomed by the members 
of all the popular academies, of which he 
speaks with the enthusiasm of gratitude. The 
chief among them were Jacopo Gaddi, Carlo 
Date, Agostino Colsellino, Benedetto Bon- 
mattei, and Antonio Malatesti (see extracts 
from the ' pastorals ' of the Academy of the 
Svogliati in STERN, bk. ii. p. 499). A refer- 
ence in the ' Areopagitica ' tells how they 
complained to him of the tyranny over free- 
dom of speech exercised by the Inquisition. 
He read Latin poems at their meetings, and 
was repaid by complimentary effusions given 
in his subsequent collections of poems (for the 



history of a manuscript given by Malatesti to 
Milton, containing some equivocal sonnets, 
which was afterwards in possession of Thomas 
Hollis, see MAssoN,'i. 786-7 n.) At Florence 
Milton, as he states in the 'Areopagitica/ saw 
Galileo. Keferences in.' Paradise Lost' (i. 
287-91, v. 262) also indicate the impression 
made upon Milton by this interview ; and the 
noble lines upon Vallombrosa commemorate a 
visit of which there was said to be some tra- 
dition at the convent .(WORDSWOKTH'S poem, 
At Vallombrosa, 1837 ; works by KNIGHT, vi. 
82). Two Latin letters written by Milton to 
the convent had been shown at Vallombrosa 
a 'few years ago' in 1877 (Notes and Queries, 
5th ser.viii.117). At Rome Milton's chief as- 
sociation was apparently with Lucas Holsten 
or Holstenius, librarian of the Vatican, who 
had lived at Oxford, and afterwards became 
a convert to Catholicism. Holstenius showed 
him collections of books and manuscripts, 
and introduced him to his patron, Cardinal 
Barberini. Milton attended a concert at 
Barberini's palace, and there probably heard 
the great singer, Leonora Baroni, to whom he 
addressed three Latin epigrams. At Naples 
Milton was introduced by l a certain eremite,' 
with whom he had travelled from Rome, to 
the aged Manso, formerly the patron of Tasso 
and Marini. To Manso he addressed an 
epistle in Latin hexameters, and received in 
acknowledgment two richly worked cups 
(described in his 'Epitaphium Damonis'). 
Manso, says Milton, excused himself for not 
showing more attentions on account of his 
guest's freedom in conversations upon re- 
ligion. Milton was afterwards told that the 
English Jesuits at Rome intended to lay 
snares for him upon the same ground. He 
determined, however, to speak freely if he 
should be attacked, and, though carrying 
out his resolution, was not molested. Mil- 
ton wrote five Italian sonnets and a can- 
zone, professing love to a beautiful Italian 
lady of Bologna, which from the allusions to 
the scenery are supposed to have been writ- 
ten during his visit to that place in the 
spring of 1639. One of them, however, is 
addressed to Charles Diodati, who died in 
August 1638, but it is possible that Milton J 
may not have heard of his loss. Nothing I 
further is known of the lady, whom Warton 
arbitrarily identified with the singer Leonora ; 
and they are chiefly remarkable as proofs of 
Milton's facility in writing Italian, although 
not without occasional slips of grammar and 
idiom (MASSON, i. 826-7 n.) 

Milton soon after his return to England 
took lodgings at a tailor's house in St. 
Bride's Churchyard. His sister, Mrs. Phil- 
lips, had lost her husband in 1631, and 

afterwards married Thomas Agar, who had 
succeeded her first husband as secondary in 
the crown office. She had two sons by her 
first marriage : Edward, aged about nine, and 
John, a year younger, who now became 
pupils of their uncle, the youngest being 
' wholly committed to his charge.' After a 
short stay in lodgings, where he had no 
room for his books, he took a ' pretty gar- 
den-house ' in Aldersgate Street, then, says 
Phillips, one of the quietest streets in Lon- 
don. Professor Masson (ii. 207) thinks that 
it was near Golden Lion Court. The elder 
nephew now came to board with him also, 
and the household became an example of 
' hard study and spare diet.' Once a month 
or so he allowed himself a ' gaudy day,' with 
some ' beaux of these times,' but otherwise 
he devoted himself to carrying out the sys- 
tem of education described in his treatise on 
that subject (letter to Hartlib, published in 
June 1644). He gives a portentous list of 
books to be read ; and his pupils are to be 
trained in athletic and military sports, and in 
poetry and philosophy, besides obtaining a 
vast amount of useful knowledge so far as 
such knowledge is accessible through classi- 
cal authors. Phillips gives some account of 
his practice. In 1643 he began to take more 
pupils. Meanwhile he was busy with literary 
projects. The ' Epitaphium Damonis,' writ- 
ten soon after his return, commemorates, in 
the form of a pastoral idyll in Latin hexa- 
meters, his grief for the loss of Diodati, 
and incidentally states the resolution, to 
which he adhered, of henceforth writing in 
the vernacular. He sketches the plan of an 
heroic poem upon Arthur. A notebook, 
now in the library of Trinity College, Cam- 
bridge, gives a list of ninety-nine subjects for 
poems extracted from scripture and English 
history. Four drafts show that he was already 
contemplating a poem on < Paradise Lost/ 
which was, however, to be in the form of the 
Greek tragedy. The other subjects are more 
briefly noticed, and probably few of them oc- 
cupied his attention for more than the moment. 
A passage in his ' Reason of Church-Govern- 
ment' (1641) describes his meditations upon 
some great moral and religious poem, the 
poem and topic being still undecided (for 
the reasons for assigning the date of about 
1640 to these jottings see MASSON, ii. 121). 
Milton's attention was soon diverted from 
poetry to ecclesiastical disputes. The meet- 
ing of the Long parliament in November 
1640 was the signal for urgent attacks upon 
the episcopacy. Numerously signed peti- 
tions were followed by proceedings in parlia- 
ment, and accompanied by a shower of books 
and pamphlets. The chief champion of epi- 



scopacy was Joseph Hall [q. v.], bishop of 
Exeter, who had published in the previous 
February a defence of the ' Divine Right 
of Episcopacy,' and now (January 1640-1) 
brought out a ' Humble Remonstrance ' to 
parliament. He was opposed by the five 
ministers whose united initials formed the 
name Smectymnuus. Their book appeared 
in March. Hall replied in April by a ' De- 
fence ' of the ' Remonstrance,' and also per- 
suaded Archbishop Ussher to publish (in 
May) a short tract entitled * The Judgment 
of Doctor Rainoldes,' supporting a qualified 
version of the episcopal theory. Smectymn uus 
rejoined in June by a ' Vindication ' of the 
previous book. Professor Masson thinks, on 
rather slight grounds, that Milton had some 
hand in this * Vindication' (MASSON, ii. 260). 
One of the Smectymnuan divines was 
Thomas Young, Milton's old teacher. Mil- 
ton now supported Smectymnuus in three 
pamphlets. The first, l Of Reformation 
touching Church Discipline in England ' 
(May - June 1641), vehemently attacked 
episcopacy upon historical grounds. The 
second, on 'Prelatical Episcopacy' (June- 
July), was a reply to Ussher. The third, 
'Animadversions upon the Remonstrance 
Defence' (July), was a fierce attack upon 
Hall's last book, from which a series of 
passages were cited, with a bitter comment 
appended to each. These writings were all 
anonymous, though no secret was made of 
the authorship. In February 1641-2 Milton 
published, under his own name, a pamphlet 
called l The Reason of Church-Government 
urged against Prelacy,' containing an elabo- 
rate argument upon general grounds, and 
including, after his custom, a remarkable 
autobiographical statement (at the begin- 
ning of the second book). The argument 
refers partly to a collection of seven tracts 
upon the episcopal side, published in 1641 
as l Certaine Briefe Treatises.' Meanwhile 
Hall, after a ' Short Answer' to the Smectym- 
nuus in the autumn of 1641, left Milton's 
animadversions unnoticed till in the begin- 
ning of 1642 he issued a ' Modest Confu- 
tation of a Slanderous and Scurrilous Libel.' 
This pamphlet seems to have been the joint 
work of Hall and his son Robert, a canon 
of Exeter and a Cambridge man, two years 
older than Milton. They had made inquiries 
as to Milton's character, and the result ap- 
peared in much personal abuse. To this 
Milton replied by an ' Apology ' (about April 
1642), defending himself, attacking the 
bishops, and savagely reviling Hall, with 
frequent references to his enemy's early 
satires and other questionable writings. This 
ended Milton's share in the discussion. The 

pamphlets are characteristic, though not now 
easily readable. They breathe throughout a 
vehemence of passion which distorts the 
style, perplexes the argument, and disfigures 
his invective with unworthy personalities. 
His characteristic self-assertion, however, 
acquires dignity from his genuine convic- 
tion that he is dedicated to the loftiest pur- 
poses ; and in his autobiographical and some 
other passages he rises to an eloquence rarely 
approached, and shows the poet of 'Paradise 
Lost ' struggling against the trammels of 
prose. The ecclesiastical doctrine shows that 
he was at this time inclined to presby- 
terianism (see MASSON, ii. 229, 239, 249, 361, 
398, for dates of his pamphlets). 

The outbreak of the civil war at the end 
of 1642 did not induce Milton to enter the 
army. He says himself (Defensio Secunda) 
that as his mind had always been stronger 
than his body, he did not court camps in 
which any common person would have been 
as useful as himself. Professor Masson thinks, 
but upon apparently very inadequate grounds, 
that he had practised himself in military ex- 
ercises (MASSON, ii. 402, 473-81), and Phillips 
gives an obviously incredible report that there 
was a design for making him adjutant-general 
in Waller's army. The expected assault on 
the city when the king's army was at Brent- 
ford in 1642 occasioned Milton's sonnet, which 
decidedly claims a peaceful character. Mean- 
while his father and his brother Christopher 
had removed to Reading, which was taken by 
the Earl of Essex in April 1643. About 
Whitsuntide (21 May 1643) Milton took a 
journey into the country, assigning no reason, 
and came back with a wife (PHILLIPS). She 
was Mary, eldest daughter of Richard Powell 
of Forest Hill, near Shotover, Oxfordshire. 
Powell had bought an estate at Forest Hill 
about 1621. He had also a small estate at 
Wheatley, valued at 40/. a year. Altogether 
he had about 300/. a year, but with many en- 
cumbrances. Mary (baptised 24 Jan. 1625) 
was the third of eleven children, and Powell 
appears to have been a jovial and free-living 
cavalier. Forest Hill was in the neighbour- 
hood in which Milton's ancestors had lived, 
and with which the descendants possibly kept 
up some connection. For some unknown 
reason Powell had in 1627 acknowledged a 
debt of 312/. to Milton, who was then an 
undergraduate, and this debt, among others, 
was still undischarged. There are no other 
traces of previous familiarity to explain Mil- 
ton's sudden journey into a royalist district 
and his return with a bride of seventeen. 
Milton's father, dislodged from Reading, 
came to live with him at the time of his 
marriage, and some of his wife's family paid 



im a visit, when there were ' feastings for 
some days.' The wife soon found the house 
dull after the gaiety of her father's home ; 
there was no society; the nephews (says 
Aubrey) were often beaten and crying, and 
Milton discovered that his bride was stupid. 
She returned to her father's house after try- 
ing ' a philosophical life ' for a month, with 
the understanding, however, that she was to 
return at Michaelmas. Phillips says that as 
Mrs. Milton did not come back at the ap- 
pointed time Milton sent a messenger to her 
home. The family, who disliked the connec- 
tion with a puritan and were encouraged by 
the prosperity of the royalist cause, sent back 
the messenger ' with some sort of contempt ' 
(' evilly entreated ' him, as Aubrey thinks). 
Milton was so indignant that he resolved 
never to take her back, and proceeded to 
write his book upon divorce. Professor Mas- 
son, however, has pointed out that Thoma- 
son, the collector of the king's pamphlets 
in the British Museum, has marked a copy 
of this with the date 'Aug. 1st,' that is, 
1 Aug. 1643. Unless, therefore, there is some 
mistake, Milton must have written and pub- 
lished the pamphlet within less than three 
months of his marriage, and, since his wife 
came to London (by Phillips's account) in 
June and stayed there a month, almost by 
the time of her departure. It is impossible 
to reconcile this with the circumstantial and 
apparently authentic story about the mes- 
senger ; but, on the other hand, there is no 
reason for suspecting Thomason's date. Mil- 
ton's pamphlet is sufficient to show that the 
ground of quarrel was some profound sense 
of personal incompatibility, and not any ex- 
ternal quarrel. Such a piece of literary work 
during a honeymoon, however, is so strange 
that some very serious cause must be sup- 
posed. Pattison sanctions the conjecture, 
supported by a passage in the pamphlet, that 
the bride may have refused to Milton the 
rights of a husband. 

However this may be, Milton's indigna- 
tion took the form, usual to him, of seeing 
in his particular case the illustration of a 
general principle to be enunciated in the most 
unqualified terms. His 'doctrine and dis- 
cipline of divorce ' supports the thesis that 
'indisposition, unfitness, or contrariety of 
mind arising from a cause in nature un- 
changeable ... is a greater reason of divorce 
than natural frigidity, especially if there be 
no children or that there be mutual consent.' 
He asserts this doctrine in his usual pas- 
sionate style, and appeals to the highest 
moral principles in its support. He looks at 
the matter entirely from the husband's point 
of view, is supremely indifferent to all prac- 

tical difficulties, and proposes, by a sweeping 
reform of the marriage law, to ' wipe away 
ten thousand tears out of the life of men.' 
The pamphlet attracted notice. Howell 
calls its author a ' shallow-pated puppy ' 
(Familiar Letters, bk. iv. letter 7). Hall 
was amazed to find that so able an author 
was serious in so monstrous a scheme ; and 
the clergy began to attack him. He there- 
upon brought out a second edition with his 
name to it (2 Feb. 1643-4). It contained 
many additions, including the striking pas- 
sage of the myth of Anteros. 

Milton's views upon divorce made him 
notorious, and he is mentioned by the vari- 
ous writers against the sects, whose multi- 
plication was a significant sign of the times, 
as in Ephraim Paget's ' Heresiography ' and 
Thomas Edwards's ' Gangraena.' Edwards 
tells the story of a Mrs. Attaway who left 
her ' unsanctified ' husband to take up with 
a preacher, and justified her conduct by 
Milton's book. On 15 July 1644 Milton 
published a second pamphlet, 'The Judg- 
ment of Martin Bucer on Divorce,' justifying 
himself by the authority of the reformer, and 
appealing for parliamentary support. Soon 
afterwards Herbert Palmer, a divine of the 
Westminster Assembly, declared, in a sermon 
preached before parliament on a solemn fast- 
day (13 Aug. 1644), that Milton's book ought 
to be burnt. The presbyterians were de- 
nouncing toleration and demanding a general 
suppression of sects. Their demands were 
universally supported by the Stationers' 
Company. The licensing system had broken 
down in the confusion of the civil troubles 
and under the pressure of all kinds of publi- 
cations. The Stationers' Company com- 
plained, not only on account of the character 
of many of the pamphlets, but because their 
copyrights were frequently disregarded. They 
petitioned the House of Commons, which 
(26 Aug. 1644) directed that ' an ordinance' 
should be prepared, and meanwhile directed 
a search for the authors and printers of 
Milton's pamphlet ' concerning divorce.' An 
ordinance had already been passed a year 
before (June 1643), and Milton had dis- 
regarded its regulations and published the 
divorce pamphlets, like their predecessors, 
without license. Although the new ordi- 
nance was passed (1 Oct. 1644), no further 
notice was taken of Milton in the commons. 
Milton, however, was led by these attacks to 
write his ' Areopagitica,' which appeared on 
24 Nov. 1644. The book is directly devoted 
to the question of unlicensed prints, and 
though in favour of such toleration as was 
then practicable, he makes some reserves in 
his application of the principle. The right 



of the ' Areopagitica ' to rank as the best, as 
it is clearly the most popular, of Milton's 
prose works, has been disputed by the jealous 
admirers of others. The popularity, no doubt 
due in part to the subject, is also to be 
x-ascribed to the greater equability and clear- 
ness of the style. If he does not soar to 
quite such heights, there are fewer descents 
and contortions, and it remains at a high 
level of lofty eloquence. In the following 
December the House of Lords, in the course 
of some proceedings about an alleged libel, 
were invited by the wardens of the Stationers' 
Company to examine Milton. An examination 
was ordered accordingly, but nothing more is 
said of it. Milton ended his writings upon di- 
vorce by two more pamphlets, both published 
4 March 1644-5 the ' Tetrachordon,' a 
' proof that the four chief passages in the Bible 
whichrelate to divorce confirm his views; and 
the ' Colasterion/ intended as a castigation of 
Joseph Caryl [q. v.], who had licensed an 
anonymous answer, with an expression of 
approval of the anonymous answerer him- 
self, and (briefly) of Prynne, who had at- 
tacked him in ' twelve considerable serious 

A third edition of the treatise on divorce 
appeared in 1645. Milton, according to 
Phillips, was proposing to apply his prin- 
ciples by marrying the daughter of a Dr. 
Davis, who was handsome and witty, but 
' averse to this motion.' After the separa- 
tion Milton, as Phillips says, had frequented 
the house of Lady Margaret Ley, now mar- 
ried to a Colonel Hobson. His fine sonnet 
to Lady Margaret commemorates this friend- 
ship, and that addressed to a ' virtuous ' (and 
unmarried) ' young lady ' shows that he saw 
some female society. 

Meanwhile the ruin of the royal cause had 
brought the Powells into distress, and they 
desired to restore his real wife to Milton. 
They introduced her to the house of a Mr. 
Blackborough, a relative and neighbour of 
Milton, and when he paid his usual visit his 
wife was suddenly brought to him. She 
begged pardon on her knees, and, after some 
struggle, he consented to receive her again. 
Passages in ' Samson Agonistes ' (725-47) 
and i Paradise Lost ' (bk. x. 937-46) may 
be accepted as autobiographical reminis- 
cences of his resentment and relenting. She 
came to him in a new house in the Barbican 
(now destroyed by a railway), which was 
larger than that in Aldersgate Street, and 
therefore more convenient for an increased 
number of pupils, who were now being pressed 
upon him. His first child, Anne, was born on 
29 July 1646 ; his second, Mary, on 25 Oct. 
1648 ; his third, John (died in infancy), on 

16 March 1650-1; and his last daughteV 
Deborah, on 2 May 1652. His wife died in 
the same year, probably from the effects of 
her last confinement. 

The surrender of Oxford on 24 June 1646 
completed the ruin of the Powells. Powell, 
already deeply in debt, had surrendered his 
estate to Sir Robert Pye, to whom it had 
been mortgaged. The moveable property had 
been sold under a sequestration, and the tim- 
ber granted to the parishioners by the House 
of Commons (MASSON, iii. 473 seq., 487). It 
seems probable that the transaction with Pye 
involved some friendly understanding, as the 
Powells subsequently regained the estate. 
Powell, with his wife and some of his child- 
ren, came to live with Milton and arrange for 
a composition. He had hardly completed the 
arrangement when he died, 1 Jan. 1646-7, 
leaving a will which proves that his affairs 
were hopelessly confused, though there were 
hopes of saving something. Mrs. Powell, who 
administered to the will, her eldest son de- 
clining, left Milton's house soon afterwards 
(ib. pp. 632-40). She continued to prosecute 
her claims, which were finally settled in Fe- 
bruary 1650-1. In the result' Milton, in con- 
sideration of the old debt from Powell, and 
1,000^. which had been promised with his wife, 
had an l extent ' upon the Wheatley estate, 
valued after the war at 80Z. a year, but had to 
pay Powell's composition, fixed at 130/., and 
also paid Mrs. Powell's jointure of 26 /. 13s. Ad. 
a year (ib. iv. 81, 236-46). Disputes arose 
upon this, in the course of which Mrs. Powell 
said that Milton was a ' harsh, choleric man,' 
and referred to his turning her daughter out 
of doors. She found the allowance insuf- 
ficient for eight children. Milton was ap- 
parently willing to pay, but differed as to the 
way in which it was to be charged to the 
estate (see ib. iii. 632-40, iv. 145-6, 236-46, 
336-41, and HAMILTON'S Original Papers}. 
Milton's father died on 15 March 1646-7, 
and was buried in the chancel of St. Giles's, 
Cripplegate. His brother Christopher, who 
had also taken the royalist side, had to com- 
pound, and was in difficulties for some years 
(MASSON, iii. 633). A sonnet addressed to 
Lawes, dated 9 Feb. 1645-6, and a later cor- 
respondence with one of his Italian friends, 
Carlo Dati, suggest some literary occupa- 
tion at this time (for the Dati correspon- 
dence see the Milton Papers printed for 
the Chetham Society in 1851 by Mr. J. F. 
Marsh of Warrington, from manuscripts in 
his possession). The first edition of his col- 
lected poems was published in 1645, the Eng- 
lish and Latin being separately paged. An 
ugly portrait by William Marshall is prefixed, 
under which Milton, with ingenious malice, 



gc& the artist to engrave some Greek verses 
ridiculing it as a caricature. Sonnets written 
iust after this express the antipathy with 
which he now regarded the presbyterians. 

In 1647 the number of Milton's pupils had 
slightly increased, according to Phillips. 
Phillips, however, is anxious to explain that 
he was not a professional schoolmaster. He 
was only persuaded to impart learning to the 
sons of some intimate friends. Among his 
pupils were Cyriac Skinner, grandson by his 
mother of Sir Edward Coke, and the second 
Earl of Barrymore, son of Lady Ranelagh, 
the elder and attached sister of Robert Boyle, 
well known to literary circles in London, and 
afterwards a friend of Milton. She also sent to 
him her nephew, Richard Jones, afterwards j 
first earl Ranelagh [q. v.] In the autumn 
of 1647, however, Milton moved to a small 
house in High Holborn, opening at the back 
into Lincoln's Inn Fields. He gave up teach- 
ing, and as, in spite of the many claims upon 
him, he was able to dispense with this source 
of income, it maybe inferred that he had in- 
herited a competence from his father. 

Milton fully sympathised with the army in 
their triumph over the parliamentary and 
presbyterian party. His feelings are ex- 
pressed in the sonnet to Fairfax upon the 
siege of Colchester (August 1648). About 
the same time he was composing his dog- 
gerel version of the Psalms, of which he 
turned eight into rhyme in 1648, adding 
nine more in 1653. He also employed him- 
self upon compiling the t History of Bri- 
tain,' of which he had written four books 
(Defensio Secunda). He was recalled to 
public affairs by the events which led to the 
execution of Charles I. Immediately after 
the king's death appeared his 'Tenure of 
Kings and Magistrates ' (13 Feb. 1648-9), 
an argument in favour of the right of the 
people to judge their rulers. The newly 
formed council of state invited Milton di- 
rectly afterwards to become their Latin secre- 
tary. He accepted the offer at once, and was 
sworn in on 15 March 1648-9. His salary 
was 15 5 . Ityd. a day (or 289J. 14s. tyd. a | 
year). The chief secretary received about 
730/. a year. Milton's chief duty was to 
translate foreign despatches into dignified 
Latin. He was employed, however, upon a 
number of other tasks, which are fully indi- 
cated by the extract from the ' Proceedings 
of the Council ' given in Professor Masson's 
book. He was concerned in the various deal- 
ings of the government with the press ; he 
had to examine papers seized upon suspected 
persons ; to arrange for the publication of 
answers to various attacks, and to write an- 
swers himself. He also appears as licensing 

the official ' Mercurius Politicus/ of 
Marchmont Needham [q. v.~| was the regular ' 
writer. Needham became r a crony ' accord- 
ing to Wood, and during 1651 Milton super- 
intended the paper, and may probably have 
inspired some articles. Stern (bk. iii. 287- 
297) gives a previously unpublished corre- 
spondence of Milton in his official capacity 
with Mylius, envoy from Oldenburg. By 
order of the House of Commons he ap- 
pended ' Observations ' to the ' Articles of 
Peace ' between Ormonde and the Irish, pub- 
lished 16 May 1649. He was directed also 
to answer the ' Eikon Basilike,' written, as 
is now known, by John Grauden [q. v.], and 
published 9 Feb. 1648-9. Milton's ' Eikono- 
klastes,' the answer in question, appeared 
6 Oct. 1649, a work as tiresome as the ori- 
ginal, and, like Milton's controversial works 
in general, proceeding by begging the ques- 
tion. By the council's order a French trans- 
lation of the l Eikonoklastes ' by John Durie 
(1596-1680) [q. v.] was published in 1652. 
Milton hints a suspicion that Charles was 
not the real author of the 'Eikon.' He 
attacks with special severity the insertion of 
a prayer plagiarised from Sidney's l Arcadia,' 
and enlarged this attack in a second edition 
published in 1650. The prayer had only 
been appended to a few copies of the ' Eikon.' 
This led to the absurd story, unfortunately 
sanctioned in Johnson's ' Life,' that Milton 
had compelled William Dugard [q. v.], then 
in prison, to insert the prayer in order to 
give ground for the attack. The impossi- 
bility of the story is shown by Professor 
Masson (iv. 249-50 n., 252). Dugard was 
concerned in printing the l Eikon,' was im- 
prisoned upon that ground in February 
1649-50, a year after the publication, and, 
on being released at Milton's intervention, 
published Milton's book against Salmasius. 
Salmasius (Claude de Saumaise, 1588-1653), 
a ' man of enormous reading and no judg- 
ment ' (PATTISON), was now a professor at 
Leyden. He had been invited by the Scot- 
tish presbyterians to write in their behalf 
Charles II, who was at the Hague, induc^ 
him to write the ' Defensio Regia for 
Carolo I,' published in November 1649. 734 
ton was ordered to reply by the coun lg ft 
8 Jan. 1650, and his < Pro Populo Angi v -, 
Defensio ' appeared in March 1650. Ho d 
in his ' Behemoth ' (English Works, vi. Veg> 
says that it is hardly to be judged whi lftd 
! the best Latin or which is the worst re ye _ 
ing, and compares them to two declam. re _ 
made by the same man in a rhetoric sc tnig 
Milton did not, as has been said, r< and 
< 1.000J.' for his defence. A hundred pc int< 
was voted to him by the council ot f i 



but the order was cancelled, Milton having 
no doubt refused to accept it. He had 
taunted Salmasius (in error apparently) for 
having received one hundred jacobuses from 
Charles II, and could not condescend to take 
a reward for himself. He finally lost his 
eyesight by the work. It had been failing 
for some years, and he persisted, in spite of 
a physician's warnings, in finishing his book 
(-De/. Secunda) at the expense of his eyes. 
In a famous sonnet he congratulates himself 
on his resolution. His eyes, he says, were 
not injured to ' outward view.' The disease 
was by himself attributed either to cataract 
or amaurosis (Paradise Lost, iii. 25), but is 
said to have been more probably glaucoma 
(the fullest account is given in Milton's letter 
to Leonard Philaras or Villere, 28 Sept. 1654). 
Salmasius replied in a * Responsio,' but he 
died at Spa on 6 Sept. 1653, and his book was 
not published till 1660. Meanwljile other 
attacks had been made upon Milton. An 
anonymous pamphlet by John Rowland (Phil- 
lips erroneously ascribed it to Bramhall), 
1 Pro Rege et Populo Anglicano ' (1651), was 
answered by Milton's nephew, John Phillips, 
and the answer which, according to Edward 
Phillips, was corrected by their uncle has 
been published in Milton's works. Peter du 
Moulin the younger [q. v.], son of a famous 
French Calvinist, attacked Milton with gross 
personal abuse in his ' Regii Sanguinis Clamor 
adccelum' (March 1652) (MASSON, v. 217- 
224. For Du Moulin's account see Gent. 
Mag. 1773, pp. 369-70,and his Parerga, 1670 ; 
also WOOD, Fasti, ii. 195). This was edited 
and provided with a dedicatory epistle by 
Alexander Morus (or More), son of a Scot- 
tish principal of a French protestant college. 
Milton supposed the true author to be the 
nominal editor, whom he had perhaps met at 
Geneva, where More was professor of Greek. 
He had now become a professor at Middleburg. 
There were scandals as to More's relations to 
women, especially to a maid of Salmasius. 
Milton was ordered by the council to reply j 
to the ' Clamor,' and his answer, the ' De- 
"ensio Secunda,' appeared in May 1654. It 
*8 full of savage abuse of Morus, whom 
ancon declared to be the author, and to be 
be :y of all the immorality imputed to him. 
cenrtunately contains also one of the most 
caresting of Milton's autobiographical pas- 
(ncs, and an apostrophe to Cromwell and 
laEr leaders of the Commonwealth, which 
thetrates his political sentiments. The ' De- 
nuio Secunda ' was republished by Ulac, the 
updsher of the ' Clamor,' in October 1654, 
29 . ' Fides Publica,' a reply by Morus, which 
164afterwards completed by a ' Supplemen- 
' in 1655. Morus denied the author- 

ship, and Milton in his final reply, ' Pro se 
Defensio'( August 1655), to which is subjoined 
a ' Responsio to Morus's ' Supplementum/ 
reduces his charge to the statement that, in 
any case, Morus was responsible for editing 
the book. He had received sufficient testi- 
mony from various quarters to convince him 
that Morus was not really the author, had 
he been convincible (MASSON, iv. 627-34). 
He continued to maintain his other charges, 
but happily this was the end of a contro- 
versy which had degenerated into mere per- 

Milton, upon becoming Latin secretary to 
the council, had been allowed chambers in 
Whitehall. At the end of 1651 they had 
been given to others, and he had moved to 
another ' pretty garden-house ' in Petty 
France, Westminster. It afterwards became 
No. 19 York Street, belonged to Bentham, 
was occupied successively by James Mill and 
Hazlitt, and finally demolished in 1877. Here 
he lived until the Restoration. Milton was 
helped in his duties, made difficult on ac- 
count of his blindness, successively by a Mr. 
Weckherlin, by Philip Meadows [q. v.], and 
finally by Andrew Marvell. He continued to 
serve throughout the Protectorate, though in 
later years, after Thurloe became secretary and 
kept the minutes in a less explicit form, his 
services are less traceable. His inability to 
discharge his duties fully was probably taken 
into account in an order made in 1655, by 
which (among other reductions, however) his 
salary is reduced to 150/. a year, though this 
sum was to be paid for his life. The amount 
appears to have been finally fixed at 2001. 
ib. v. 177, 180-3). He could not regularly 
attend the council, but despatches requiring 
dignified language were sent to him for trans- 
lation. The most famous of these were the 
letters (dated chiefly 25 May 1655) which 
Cromwell wrote to various powers to protest 
against the atrocious persecution of the Vau- 
dois. The letters were restrained in language 
by diplomatic necessities ; but Milton ex- 
pressed his own feeling in the famous sonnet. 

On 12 Nov. 1656 he married Catharine 
Woodcock, of whom nothing more is known 
than can be inferred from his sonnet after h,er 
death. She gave birth to a daughter 19 Oct. 
1657. The mother and child both died in 
the following February (ib. v. 376, 382). 
A memorial window to her, erected at the 
cost of Mr. G. W. Childs of Philadelphia, 
in St. Margaret's, Westminster, was unveiled 
on 13 Feb. 1888, when Matthew Arnold 

Save an address, published in his i Essays on 
riticism J (2nd ser. 1888', pp. 56-69). Mil- 
ton had a small circle of friends. Lady 
Ranelagh is mentioned by Phillips, and there 




are two letters to her son at Oxford, showing 
that Milton disapproved even of the re- 
formed university. He also saw Hartlib, 
Marchmont Needham, and Henry Oldenburg 
[q. v.], who was tutor to Lady Ranelagh's 
son at Oxford. His old pupil, Cyriac Skinner, 
and Henry Lawrence, son of the president 
of Cromwell's council, were also friends. 
But his most famous acquaintance was 
Andrew Marvell, who succeeded Meadows 
in 1657, though Milton had recommended 
him as early as 1652 as his assistant in the 
secretary's office. There are no traces of 
acquaintance with other famous men of the 
time. His religious prejudices separated him 
from all but a small party, and the lofty 
severity of his character probably empha- 
sised such separation. It has been vaguely 
suggested that Milton procured an offer of 
help from the council for Brian Walton's 
Polyglott Bible. Foreigners, however, fre- 
quently came to see Milton (PHILLIPS), and, 
according to Aubrey, visited England ex- 
pressly to see Milton and Cromwell. His 
writings upon the regicide were received 
with interest by learned men on the con- 
tinent, who were surprised that a fanatic 
could write Latin as well as Salmasius. It 
is said that Milton had an allowance from 
parliament, and afterwards from Cromwell, 
to keep a ' weekly table ' for the entertain- 
ment of distinguished foreigners (MiTFOKD, 
Life of Milton, App. p. cxlvi). 

Milton retained his secretaryship during 
the protectorate of Kichard Cromwell and 
through the distracted period which inter- 
vened before the Kestoration. Some brief 
pamphlets written at this time are a despair- 
ing appeal on behalf of a policy which all 
practical men could perceive to be hopeless. 
Two of them, published in 1659, are argu- 
ments in favour of a purely voluntary eccle- 
siastical system. In another, published early 
in 1660, he proposes that parliament should 
simply make itself perpetual. A second 
edition was apparently quashed by the speedy 

j i i i /t , -i * . * -.-.. .A * 

attacking a royalist sermon. These writings 
show that Milton was now inclined to the 
old republican party. His republicanism was 
anything but democratic. He desired the 
permanent rule of the chiefs of the army and 
the council, with a complete separation be- 
tween church and state, and abstention from 
arbitrary measures of government. 

At the Restoration Milton concealed him- 
self in a friend's house in Bartholomew 
Close. He remained there during the long 
debates as to the list of regicides to be ex- 
cepted from pardon. On 16 June 1660 it 


was ordered by the House of Commons that 
Milton's 'Defensio' and John Goodwin's 

Obstructors of Justice ' should be burnt by 
the common hangman, and that Milton and 
Goodwin should be indicted by the attorney- 
general, and taken into custody by the ser- 
geant-at-arms. A proclamation was issued 
on 13 Aug. ordering the surrender of all 
copies of the books named. It states that 
both the authors have hitherto concealed 
themselves. Milton was arrested in the 
course of the summer, but in the next session 
it was ordered that he should be released on 
paying his fees. Milton protested, through 
Marvell, against the excessive amount of the 
fees (150/.), and his complaint was referred 
to the committee on privileges. The In- 
demnity Act freed him from all legal con- 
sequences of his actions. 

Pattison thinks that Milton owed his escape 
to his ' insignificance and harmlessness.' Bur- 
net, however, says that his escape caused 
general surprise. Pattison's sense of the un- 
practical nature of Milton's political writings 
probably led him to underestimate the repu- 
tation which they enjoyed at the time. A 
new edition of the 'Defensio' had appeared 
in 1658, and Salmasius's posthumous ' Re- 
sponsio'was published in September 1660. 
Cominges, the French ambassador in London, 
writing to his master on 2 April 1663 of the 
condition of English literature, declared that 
in recent times there was only one man of 
letters * un nomm6 Miltonius qui s'est 
rendu plus infame par ses dangereux ecrits 
que ces bourreaux et les assassins de leur roi ' 
( JTJSSERAND, French Ambassador at the Court 
of Charles II, p. 205). Milton clearly had 
enemies who might have sought to make 
him an example. Professor Masson has en- 
deavoured to construct a history of the nego- 
tiations by which such attempts, if made, 
may have been frustrated (vi. 162-95). The 
only direct statements are by Phillips and 
Richardson. Phillips says that'Marvell ' made 
a considerable party ' for Milton in the House 
of Commons, and, with the help of other 
friends, obtained immunity for him. He adds 
incorrectly that Milton was disqualified for 
holding office. Richardson, writing in 1734 
(Explanatory Notes, p. Ixxxix), mentions a 
report that Secretary William Morice [q. v.] 
and Sir Thomas Clarges [q. v.] 'managed 
matters artfully in his favour.' He gives, 
however, as the real secret that Milton had 
entreated for the life of Sir William D^Ave- 
nant [q. v.], and that D'Avenant now re- 
turned the favour. Richardson heard this 
? rom Pope, Pope heard it from Betterton, and 
Betterton from his steady patron, D'Avenant. 
The objection to the anecdote is its neatness. 





No good story is quite true. Clarges, as 
Monck's brother-in-law, and Marvell ? as 
Monck's intimate friend, had both influence at 
the time, and, as Professor Masson also notes, 
Arthur Annesley, afterwards first Earl of 
Anglesey [q. v.], was a close friend of Milton 
in later years, and was at this time a chief 
manager of the Restoration and in favour of 
lenity. It cannot be now decided how far any 
of these stories represents the facts. An in- 
credible story of a mock funeral, carried out 
by his friends, was given in Cunningham's 
' History of Great Britain,' 1787, i. 14. On 
regaining his liberty, Milton took a house in 
Holborn, near Red Lion Fields (PHILLIPS), 
and soon afterwards moved to Jewin Street. 
He lost much in money. He had, according 
to Phillips, put 2,000/. into the excise office, 
and could never get it out. He lost another 
sum invested somewhere injudiciously. He 
had to give up property valued at 60/., which 
he had bought out of the estates of Westmin- 
ster. Professor Masson calculates that before 
the catastrophe he had about 4,000^. variously 
invested, and some house property in London, 
which, with his official income and some other 
investments, would bring him in some 500Z. 
a year. This may have been reduced to 200/. 
Milton was frugal and temperate, and Phillips 
thinks that, ' allthings considered/hehad still 
a ' considerable estate ' (MASSOIST, vi. 444-5). 
Mrs. Powell renewed her attempts to recover 
the property after the Restoration. Her eldest 
son finally regained Forest Hill, and Milton 
apparently made over the Wheatley estate 
to the Powells, though it does not appear 
what he received for the old debt, or for his 
promised marriage portion of 1,000. (ib. 
^vi. 449-51). 

Milton soon found it desirable to take a 
third wife who could look after his affairs. 
His eldest daughter was in her seventeenth 
year, and the household apparently much 
mismanaged, when on 24 Feb. 1662-3 he 
married Elizabeth Minshull. She was born 
on 30 Dec. 1638, and was a cousin of Milton's 
friend, Dr. Nathan Paget, by whom the match 
was arranged. The marriage, though not 
romantic, was successful. Shortly afterwards 
Milton moved to a house in Artillery Walk, 
Bunhill Fields. It was small, but, like all 
Milton's houses, had a garden. He lived 
there for the rest of his life, except that, ac- 
cording to Richardson, he lodged for a time 
(about 1670) with the bookseller Millington. 
During the plague of 1665 Milton retired to 
Chalfont St. Giles, Buckinghamshire, where 
a 'pretty box' was taken for him by the 
quaker Thomas Ellwood [q. v.] Ellwood 
had been introduced to Milton in 1662 by 
Paget; in order to improve his scholarship 

he had offered to read Latin books to the 
blind man, who became interested in him and 
encouraged his studies. Ellwood afterwards 
became a tutor in the family of the Pen- 
ningtons at Chalfont. The cottage in which 
Milton stayed at Chalfont is now preserved, 
having been bought by public subscription in 
1887, and is the only house connected with 
Milton which still exists. Ellwood visited 
Milton there one day, and received from him 
the complete manuscript of ' Paradise Lost.' 
'Thou hast said much here of "Paradise 
Lost,'" he observed, 'but what hast thou to 
say of Paradise Found ? ' 

Blind, infirm, and poor, depressed by the 
triumph of the principles which he most de- 
tested, Milton had determined to achieve the 
great purpose to which from early youth he 
had been self-devoted. His sonnet upon com- 
pleting his twenty-third year, and the letter 
with which it was accompanied (MASSON", 
i. 324, first published in BIECH'S Life), show 
that he was then looking forward to some 
great work. He had resolved to write a 
poem which should be national in character, 
and set forth his conception of the provi- 
dential order of the world. At the time of 
his foreign journey he had contemplated a 
poem upon the Arthurian legend, to which 
he refers in the 'Epistle to Manso' and the 
' Epitaphium Damonis,' 1638-9. At the time 
of his jottings, however, about 1641, his chief 
interest had come to be in a dramatic treat- 
ment of the fall of man, although in the 
' Reasons of Church-Government,' 1641-2, he 
declares his resolution to take full time for 
meditation on a fit subject. Phillips reports 
that the opening passage of this, composed 
about 1642, was the speech of Satan, which 
is now at the beginning of the fourth book 
of 'Paradise Lost.' Milton's controversies 
and business distracted his mind from poetry, 
and he produced little except the few noble 
sonnets which commemorate his political 
emotions. In 1658 he settled down to the 
composition of ' Paradise Lost.' It is said 
by Aubrey to have been finished in 1663. 
Among earlier poems from which Milton 
may have taken hints are especially notice- 
able : the Anglo-Saxon poem attributed to 
Csedmon [q. v.], and published in 1655 by- 
Francis Junius ; the ' Adamo ' of Andreini, 
which was translated by Cowper for Hay- 
ley's edition of Milton, and is in Cowper's 
' Works ' by Southey (1837, vol. x.) ; and the 
' Lucifer ' of Joost van Vondel, published in 
1654. The coincidences with the last are 
the most remarkable. An account of Vondel's 
poem is given in Mr. Gosse's ' Literature of 
Northern Europe' (1883, pp. 278-312), and 
an elaborate comparison of ' Lucifer' and 




* Paradise Lost ' is given in ( Milton and 
Vondel: a Curiosity of Literature,' by G. 
Edmundson (1885). At an uncertain date 
Milton obtained a license for ' Paradise Lost ' 
from Thomas Tomkyns, chaplain to the Arch- 
bishop of Canterbury. Tomkyns, according 
to Toland (Life, 1709, p. 130), hesitated for a 
time, on account of the lines in the first book 
about fear of change perplexing monarchs. 
The fire of 1 666 destroyed the house in Bread 
Street which Milton had inherited from his 
father, and diminished his income. Many 
booksellers were ruined by the loss of their 
stock. On 27 April 1667, however, Milton 
signed an agreement with Samuel Simmons 
or Symons for the copyright. The original 
of Simmons's copy of the work came into the 
possession of the Tonsons, who had become 
proprietors of the copyright, and was finally 
presented to the British Museum by Samuel 
Rogers. Milton was to receive 51. down, and 
61. more upon the sale of each of the first 
three editions. The editions were to be ac- 
counted as ended when thirteen hundred 
copies of each were sold ' to particular read- 
ing customers,' and were not to exceed fifteen 
hundred copies apiece. Milton received the 
second 51. in April 1669, that is 10/. in all. 
His widow in 1680 settled all claims upon 
Simmons for SI., and Simmons became pro- 
prietor of the copyright, then understood to 
be perpetual. 

The reception of ' Paradise Lost ' has been 
the subject of some controversy. No poet 
ever put more of himself into his work, and 
Milton's singular loftiness of character and 
contemptuous tone of superiority to the 
dominant political and religious parties of 
his day might be expected to keep readers 
at a distance. The degree to which the 
poetry is saturated with the reading of a 
fine classical scholar might also alienate the 
unlearned. Milton rather conquers than 
attracts unless his readers be men of highly 
cultivated taste, or, like Landor, of congenial 
temperament. On the other hand, little 
merit of other kinds is generally required 
for the popularity of a religious poem. Al- 
though ( Paradise Lost ' has been mentioned 
as an instance of popular neglect, it would 
seem on the whole that the sale of thirteen 
hundred copies in eighteen months and some 
4,500 by 1688 marks, as Johnson main- 
tained, a fair degree of success. Richardson 
(Explanatory Notes, p. cxix) preserved a 
tradition that Sir John Denham had, upon 
reading a sheet ' wet from the press,' pro- 
nounced ' Paradise Lost ' to be the noblest 
poem ever written. He adds that it was 
unknown for two years, when Buckhurst, 
afterwards Lord Dorset, found it on an old 

stall, that it was given to him as waste 
paper, and that Dryden, to whom he showed 
it, declared that ' this man cuts us all out 
and the ancients too.' Dryden's phrase may 
be accepted, and is characteristic of his 
generosity in criticism ; but the anecdotes, 
which involve various inaccuracies, are obvi- 
ously so distorted, if at all founded on fact, 
as to prove nothing. Phillips tells us that 
Milton in his later years was much visited 
by foreigners and by men of rank, especially 
Arthur Annesley, earl of Anglesey; and 
Toland says that Sir Robert Howard, Dry- 
den's brother-in-law, was a ' particular ac- 
quaintance.' Edward Phillips says in his 
edition of the ' Thesaurus ' of Buchler (1675) 
that many persons thought Milton to have 
reached the perfection of epic poetry. The 
commendatory poems by Samuel Barrow 
and Marvell, prefixed to the second edition of 
' Paradise Lost ' (1674), imply that Milton's 
position was already regarded as established. 
Marvell's poem contains a reference to a 
well-known anecdote of Dryden. Dryden, 
according to Aubrey, asked Milton's leave to 
put ' Paradise Lost ' into a drama in rhyme., 
Milton told Dryden that he might ' tag his 
verses.' The result was Dryden's ' Heroick 
Opera,' ' The Fall of Angels and Man in In- 
nocence ' (licensed 17 April 1674). The per- 
formance is a contemptible travesty ; but in 
the preface to it, as published in 1675, Dry- 
den speaks emphatically of the sublimity of 
the original. He told Dennis twenty years 
afterwards that he knew not at this time 
'half the extent of Milton's excellence.' 
Wentworth Dillon, fourth earl of Roscom- 
mon [q. v.J, inserts a passage from ' Paradise 
Lost ' into his f Essay on Translated Verse ' 
(2nd edit. 1685), which is generally men- 
tioned as the first public recognition of Mil- 
ton's merits. A few other notices are col- 
lected by Professor Masson (vi. 781-5). In 
1688 Tonson published by subscription a 
sumptuous edition in folio. Among the sub- 
scribers were Somers, who is said to have 
exerted himself greatly for its success, and 
Atterbury, who was always an enthusiastic 
admirer. Dryden's well-known flashy epi- 
gram is placed under the portrait. In 1708, 
when a monument was erected to John 
Philips (1676-1708) [q.v.] in Westminster 
Abbey, the dean (Sprat) suppressed the words 
' soli Miltono secundus,' as that name was 
too detestable to be used in a sacred building. 
Atterbury withdrew the prohibition. A 
monument was erected to Milton himself by 
William Benson [q.v.] in 1737 (STANLEY, 
Memorials, pp. 306-8 ; JOHNSON, Lives of 
Milton and Philips'). Milton's fame was 
now established, and the triumph of the 




whigs removed one external obstacle. Addi- 
son's papers in the ' Spectator ' (1712) only 
ratified the then orthodox opinion. A Ger- 
man translation had been published by E. G. 
von Berge at Zerbst in 1682, while Latin 
translations and an annotated edition had 
already shown the growing reputation of the 

Milton's last poems, ' Paradise Regained ' 
and ' Samson Agonistes,' appeared together 
in 1671. Ell wood says that Milton acknow- 
ledged that the * Paradise Regained ' was 
due to his hint at Chalfont. Philips says 
that Milton could not bear to hear it men- 
tioned as inferior to its predecessor. Its 
studied severity of style has hindered its 
popularity, though such critics as Coleridge 
and Wordsworth have spoken of it as per- 
fect. Although dramatically feeble, the 
' Samson Agonistes ' is to some readers 
among the most interesting of all Milton's 
poems from the singular intensity of the 
scarcely concealed autobiographic utterance. 

Milton wrote no more poetry, but in 1673 
produced a new edition of the early poems. 
He published in 1669 his Latin grammar 
and his ' History of Britain,' written long 
before, and only noticeable as an indication 
that his name was now exciting interest. 
His compendium of Ramus's ' Logic ' came 
out in 1672. A tract upon < True Religion ' 
of 1673, suggested by Charles II's declaration 
of 15 March 1672, is a slight performance, 
giving reasons against tolerating the open 
exercise of popery. His ' Familiar Epistles ' 
and ' College Exercises ' were published in 
1674, though the intended publication at the 
same time of his official letters was for- 

Milton was declining in health and suffered 
much from gout. His domestic life had 
been troubled. His eldest daughter, Anne, 
was deformed and had a defect of speech. 
None of the children were sent to school, but 
they were taught, according to the youngest, 
Deborah, by a mistress at home. Phillips 
states that the two youngest were brought 
up to read to him in various languages, 
including Hebrew, perhaps Syriac, Greek, 
and Latin, without knowing the meaning. 
Though, as Professor Masson remarks, this 
more probably represents the result than 
the intention for Ell wood speaks of Milton's 
annoyance at hearing words read when the 
meaning was not understood the practice 
was doubtless unpleasant. Their grand- 
mother, Mrs. Powell, would probably not 
make things pleasanter. It was declared by 
a servant (see below) that Milton had told 
her, on the authority of a previous servant, 
that about 1662 the children combined to 

cheat their father in household affairs and 
wished to sell his books. His third marriage 
annoyed them, and Mary is reported, on the 
same authority, to have said that a wedding 
was no news, but that ' if she could hear 
of his death that were something.' The 
daughters remained with their father till 
about 1670. The trial of their patience in 
reading had become ' almost beyond endu- 
rance ' (PHILLIPS), and they were all sent out 
to learn such * curious and ingenious sorts 
of manufacture ' as are ' proper for women/ 
especially embroidery in gold and silver. 

Milton died on 8 Nov. 1674 of ' gout struck 
in/ so peacefully that the time of death was 
not perceived. He was buried in St. Giles's, 
Cripplegate, beside his father, with the An- 
glican service. Many friends and a ( con- 
course of the vulgar ' were present, accord- 
ing to Phillips and Toland (accounts of a 
disgusting exhumation in 1790 of what may 
have been his body will be found in Notes 
and Queries, 7th ser. ix. 361-4). Upon 
Milton's death his wife produced for pro- 
bate a nuncupative will. The daughters 
objected, and the widow became adminis- 
tratrix. She settled matters by paying 
the daughters 100/. apiece, and had about 
600J. left for herself. The will had been 
declared to Milton's brother Christopher on 
20 July 1674. Milton had then said that 
he wished to leave to his ' undutiful children ' 
what was due to him from the Powells. He 
intended ' all the rest to go to his loving wife.' 
Evidence of a maid-servant and her sister 
was produced to prove this to have been his 
intention; and he also stated that he had 
spent t the greatest part of his estate ' in 
providing for his daughters. The servant 
might probably be prejudiced in Mrs. Mil- 
ton's favour ; but the general impression is 
no doubt correct that Milton's relations to 
his daughters were, from whatever cause, un- 
fortunate. (The evidence, from the records 
of the court, was first printed in the second 
edition of the ' Minor Poems ' by Warton, 
1791, and is also given in Todd's l Life of 
Milton ' and in the l Chetham Miscellanies/ 
vol. xxiv.) 

Milton's appearance and manners are de- 
scribed with little difference by Aubrey, 
Phillips, and Richardson. He was rather be- 
low the middle height, but well made, with 
light brown or auburn hair and delicate 
complexion. He was stately and courteous, 
though he could be satirical. He would sit 
at his house-door in a grey coarse cloth 
coat in fine weather to receive visitors; 
indoors he is described as neatly dressed 
in black, pale but not cadaverous ; with his 
' fingers gouty and with chalk-stones ' (Ri- 




CHARDSON). Aubrey and Toland tell us that 
he rose as early as four in summer and five 
in winter. Before breakfast the Bible was 
read to him in Hebrew. He afterwards read 
or dictated till midday, when he dined very 
temperately. He took some exercise, walk- 
ing when possible, and in bad weather 
swinging. He always had music in the 
afternoon. He then retired for a time, but 
again saw his friends after six o'clock, had a 
supper of * olives or some light thing' at 
eight, and after a pipe and a glass of water 
went to bed. According to Phillips, Milton 
composed freely only from 'the autumnal 
equinoctial to the vernal ; ' the account was 
confirmed by Mrs. Milton (NEWTON, p. Ixxx), 
though Toland fancies that Phillips has in- 
verted the period, because in his early ' In 
Adventum Veris'(1629) he welcomes the 
revival of his genius in spring. He fre- 
quently dictated from ten to thirty lines to 
any one who happened to be at the house, lean- 
ing in his easy chair, adds Richardson, with 
a leg thrown over the elbow. At times he 
would compose during sleepless nights, and 
would call up and dictate to his daughter. 
He would dictate forty lines in a breath, and 
then reduce them to twenty. The sonnet 
to Lawrence gives an impression of Milton 
in his sociable hours. Milton had come to 
stand apart from all sects, though apparently 
finding the quakers most congenial. He 
never went to any religious services in his 
later years. When a servant brought back 
accounts of sermons from nonconformist 
meetings, Milton became so sarcastic that 
the man at last gave up his place (RICHARD- 

Portraits of Milton, known to be authen- 
tic, are : (1) A portrait at the age of ten, 
ascribed to Cornelius Janssen (engraved as 
frontispiece to Masson's 'Life/ vol. i. ; see 
pp. 66 n., 308 n.), is in the possession of Edgar 
Disney. (2) A portrait taken at Cambridge 
at the age of twenty, engraved by Vertue in 
1731 and 1756, and by other artists. The 
later portrait belonged to Speaker Onslow, 
and is generally known as the l Onslow ' por- 
trait. It has disappeared since a sale of 
Lord Onslow's pictures in 1828. Both these 
belonged to Milton's widow. (3) The por- 
trait engraved by Faithorne for the l History 
of Britain ; ' the original crayon-drawing was 
in possession of the Tonsons in 1760, and an 
etching from it is given in the ' Memoirs of 
Thomas Hollis/ p. 529. Another crayon- 
drawing, now at Bayfordbury, belonged to 
Richardson, and resembles the preceding so 
clearly, that its independence is doubtful. 
This was the portrait recognised by Milton's 
daughter Deborah when the engraver Vertue 

n, , (HOLLIS ' > - 

The ' Onslow ' portrait is the original 
of the caricature by Marshall, prefixed to 
the 1645 poems. A mezzotint by J. Simon 
is inscribed ' R. White ad vivum delin./ but 
there are no traces of the original. A bust 
now in Christ's College, to which it was left 
by John Disney (1746-1816) [q. v.], is said 
to have been taken by ' one Pierce' who exe- 
cuted the bust of Wren now in the Bodleian 
Library. The face is said to be ' a plaster cast 
from the original mould.' A miniature by 
Samuel Cooper once belonged to Reynolds, 
who had a controversy about it with Lord 
Hailes in the 'Gentleman's Magazine' for 
1791 ; but it seems to be clearly not Milton 
(MASSON, i. 66 n., 308-10 n., vi. 754-7 n., and 
SOTHEBY, Ramblings, pp. xvii-xxv ; J. FIT- 
CHETT MARSH in Lancashire and Cheshire 
Historic Society, 1855). 

Milton's widow retired to Nantwich, 
Cheshire, where her family lived, and died 
in the autumn of 1727. Some stories de- 
rived from her are given by Newton. She 
said that her husband had been asked to 
write for the court, but would not write 
against his conscience (NEWTON, p. Ixxx). 
Richardson's report that he was asked to re- 
sume the Latin secretaryship (an incredible 
statement), and told his wife that she wanted 
to ride in her coach, but that he would live 
and die an honest man, is probably an elabo- 
ration of this very doubtful statement. Anne 
Milton married a ' master-builder,' and died in 
childbed before 26 Oct. 1678, when her grand- 
mother, Mrs. Powell (who died in 1682), 
made a bequest of 10/.* apiece to the other 
daughters. Mary died unmarried by 1694. 
Deborah had gone to Dublin as companion to 
a lady before her father's death, and soon 
after it married a weaver, Abraham Clarke. 
The Clarkes settled in Spitalfields, and had 
ten children. She died 24 Sept. 1727, being 
then a widow ; her only surviving son was 
Urban Clarke, a weaver in Spitalfields, who 
died unmarried. Her only surviving daugh- 
ter, Elizabeth, had married Thomas Foster, 
another weaver. Her eldest son , Caleb Clarke, 
had emigrated to Madras, where he was 
married in 1703, had children, and died in 
1719. The last trace of descendants was 
the birth of Mary, daughter of Caleb's son 
Abraham, at Madras in 1727. Deborah 
Clarke received some notice before her death. 
Addison visited her, gave her some money, 
and proposed to get her a pension, but died 
(1719) before doing so. She was seen by 
Professor Ward of Gresham College, con- 
firmed the stories about reading unknown 
languages to her father, and is said to have 
repeated verses from Homer, Ovid, and 



Euripides. She spoke, however, with affec- 
tion (RiCHAKDSON, Explanatory Notes, p. 
xxxvi) of her father, though not of her step- 
mother. Queen Caroline is said to have 
given her fifty guineas, and Voltaire says that 
when her existence was known she ' became 
rich in a quarter of an hour.' Her daughter, 
Elizabeth Foster, had seven children, all of 
whom died before her without issue. Mrs. 
Foster was visited by Newton and Birch (see 
HUNTEK, Gleanings), and ' Comus ' was per- 
formed for her benefit at Drury Lane, 5 April 
1750. Johnson wrote the prologue, and a 
sum of about 130/. was produced by this and 
other subscriptions [cf. art. LATTDEK, WIL- 
LIAM]. She died at Islington, 9 May 1754, 
being probably the last of Milton's descen- 

Milton's works are: 1. 'A Masque pre- 
sented at Ludlow Castle, 1634, on Michael- 
masse Night, before the Right Honourable 
the Earle of Bridgwater, Viscount Brackly, 
Lord President of Wales, and one of his 
Majesties Most Honourable Privie Counsell,' 
London, 1637 (with Dedicatory Letter by 
H. Lawes ; the name f Comus ' is not in this 
or in Milton's ' Poems ' of ] 645 or 1673 ; a 
manuscript in the Bridgewater Library was 
printed by Todd in his edition of ' Comus ' in 
1798). 2. ' Obsequies to the Memorie of Mr. 
Edward King, Anno Dom. 1638,' thirteen 
English poems, of which Milton's ' Lycidas ' 
is the last ; published and sometimes bound 
with twenty-three Latin and Greek poems, 
' Justa Edovardo King Naufrago ab amicis 
moerentibus amoris et pvciat x*P LV ' 3. ' Of 
Reformation touching Church Discipline in 
England, and the Causes that hitherto have 
hindered it : Two Books written to a Friend,' 
1641. 4. 'Of Prelatical Episcopacy, and 
whether it may be deduced from the Apo- 
stolical Times by vertue of those Testimonies 
which are alledg'd to that purpose in some 
late Treatises ; one whereof goes under the 
Name of James, Archbishop of Armagh,' 
1641. 5. 'Animadversions upon the Re- 
monstrant's Defence against .Smectymnuus,' 
1641. 6. < The Reason of Church Govern- 
ment urged against Prelaty, by Mr. John 
Milton,' 1641 (early in 1641-2). 7. ' An 
Apology against a Pamphlet called "A 
Modest Confutation of the Animadversions 
. . .," ' 1642 (March and April 1642). 8. ' The 
Doctrine and Discipline of Divorce, Restor'd, 
to the good of both sexes, from the Bondage 
of Canon Law and other Mistakes, to Chris- 
tian Freedom, guided by the Rule of Charity ; 
wherein also many places of Scripture have 
recovered their long-lost Meaning; reason- 
able to be now thought of in the Reforma- 
tion intended,' 1643 (1 Aug. ? see above) ; 

2nd enlarged edition, 2 Feb. 1643-4, ' the 
author J. M.' 9. 'Of Education: to Mr. 
Samuel Hartlib,' 5 June 1644 (a facsimile 
of the edition of this , appended to the ' Poems ' 
of 1673, was edited by Oscar Browning in 
1883). 10. 'The Judgement of Martin 
Bucer concerning Divorce. Writt'n to 
King Edward the Sixt, in his Second Book 
of the Kingdom of Christ. And now Eng- 
lisht. Wherein a late Book restoring the 
Doctrine and Discipline of Divorce is heer 
confirm'd and justify'd by the Author itie of 
Martin Bucer. To the Parlament of Eng- 
land,' 1644. 11. ' Areopagitica. A Speech 
of Mr. John Milton for the Liberty of Un- 
licensed Printing, to the Parlament of Eng- 
land,' 1644 (November). 12. ' Tetrachordon : 
Expositions upon the foure chief Places in 
Scripture which treat of Marriage, or Nul- 
lities in Marriage. ... By the former Author, 
J. M.,' 1645 (14 March 1644-5). 13. 'Co- 
lasterion: A Reply to a Nameles Answer 
against "The Doctrine and Discipline of 
Divorce." Wherein the trivial Author of 
that Answer is discover'd, the License con- 
ferred with, and the opinion which they tra- 
duce defended. By the former Author, 
J. M.,' 1645 (4 March 1644-5). 14. < Poems 
of Mr. John Milton, both English and Latin, 
compos'd at several times. Printed by his 
true copies. The songs were set in Musick 
by Mr. Henry Lawes, Gentleman of the 
King's Chappel, and one of His Majesties- 
Private Musick,' 1645. An address by the 
stationer, Humphrey Moseley, to the reader 
is prefixed ; Sir H. Wotton's letter to Mil- 
ton and verses by his Italian friends are 
also given, and a portrait by W. Marshall. 
A second edition, called ' Poems, &c., upon 
several Occasions,' with ' A small Tractate 
of Education to Mr. Hartlib,' appeared in 
1673. It included the poems written since 
the first publication, excepting the sonnets 
to Cromwell, Fairfax, Vane, and the second 
to Cyriac Skinner, which first appeared 
with the ' Letters of State ' in 1694. Some 
youthful poems are added ; and the dedica- 
tion of ' Comus ' to Bridgewater and Wot- 
ton's letter are omitted. T. Warton published 
an edition in 1785 ; a second, enlarged, ap- 
peared in 1791. 15. ' The Tenure of Kings 
and Magistrates, proving that it is lawful 
... for any who have the power to call to- 
account a Tyrant or wicked King, and after 
due Conviction, to depose and put him to- 
Death, if the ordinary Magistrate have 
neglected or denied to do it,' 1648-9 ; 2nd 
edition in 1650. 16. 'Observations on the 
Articles of Peace' (between Ormonde and the 
Irish), 1649. 17. ' EiKovoK\ao-Tr)s in Answer 
to a Book entitled " EIKCOI/ jSao-tXt^," ' 1649 ; 




October, 2nd edition^ 1650 ; French transla- 
tion, 1652. 18. ' Joannis Miltoni Angli pro 
Populo Anglicano Defensio contra Claudii 
anonymi, alias Salmasii Defensionem Re- 
giam/ 1650-1. A folio, a quarto, and seve- 
ral 12mo editions were published in 1651, 
another in 1652, and one in 1658. 19. ' Jo- 
annis Miltoni Angli pro Populo Anglicano 
Defensio Secunda contra infamem Libellum 
anonymum cui titulus Regis Sanguinis 
Clamor . . ./ 1654. 20. ' Joannis Miltoni 
pro se Defensio contra Alexandrum Morum 
Ecclesiasten, Libelli famosi cui titulus Regis 
Sanguinis Clamor . . . Authorem recte dic- 
tum/ 1655 (August). To this was appended 
21. ' Joannis Miltoni ad Alexandri Mori 
Supplement um Responsio,' 1655. 22. { Scrip- 
turn Domini Protectoris . . . contra His- 
panos . . .,' 1655 (a translation, with James 
Thomson's ' Britannia/ was published in 
1738). 23. ' A Treatise of Civil Power in 
Ecclesiastical Causes, showing that it is not 
lawfull to compell in Matters of Religion/ 
1658-9. 24. ' Considerations touching the 
likeliest Means to remove Hirelings out of 
the Church, wherein is also discoursed of 
Tithes, Church-Fees, and Church Revenues 
. . ./ 1659. 25. < A Letter to a Friend con- 
cerning the Ruptures of the Commonwealth/ 
dated 20 Oct. 1659 (this and No. 27 pub- 
lished in ' Prose Works ' of 1698, ' from the 
manuscript '). 26. ' The Ready and Easy 
"Way to establish a Free Commonwealth and 
the Excellencies thereof compared with the 
Inconveniences and Dangers of readmitting 
Kingship in this Nation/ 1659-60 ; 2nd edi- 
tion, April 1660. 27. ' The Present Means 
and Brief Delineation of a Free Common- 
wealth, easy to be put in Practice and with- 
out Delay, in a Letter to General Monk/ 
1 660. 28. ' Brief Notes upon a late Sermon 
... by Matthew Griffith, D.D.,' 1660. 
29. ' Paradise Lost : A Poem written in 
Ten Books, by John Milton.' Nine different 
title-pages were prefixed to successive issues 
of the first edition. In the fifth were 
added fourteen pages, containing a prose 
' Argument ' and the paragraph headed the 
1 Verse/ defending the absence of rhyme (see 
MASSON, vi. 622-8, and his preface to the 
facsimile published by Elliot Stock in 1877, 
for an account of these variations). The 
2nd edition (' revised and augmented/ in 
which the poem was first divided into twelve 
books) appeared in 1674, the 3rd in 1678, 
and the 4th in 1688. Latin translations of 
the first book were published in 1686 and 
1691 ; of the whole, as also of ' Paradise Re- 
gained ' and 'Samson Agonistes/ by W. Hog, 
in 1690 ; of the whole, by M. B[old], in 1702 ; 
by Joseph Trapp in 1740-4, 2 vols. ; and by 

W. Dobson, in 1750-3, 2 vols. The British 
Museum contains translations into Arme- 
nian, Danish, Dutch (1728, &c.), French 
(1729, &c.), German (1682, &c.), Greek, 
Hungarian, Icelandic, Italian (1735, &c) 
Manx (1796), Polish (1791), Portuguese, 
Russian, Spanish, Swedish, and Welsh. 
30. ' Accidence commenc't Grammar . ' 
1669. 31. 'The History of Britain, that 
Part especially now called England. From 
the first traditional Beginning continued to 
the Norman Conquest, collected out of the 
antientest and best Authours thereof by John 
Milton/ 1670. 32. 'Artis Logics Plenior 
Institutio ad P. Remi Methodum concin- 
nata/ 1670, also 1672 and 1673. 33. < Para- 
dise Regained, a Poem in IV Books; To 
which is added " Samson Agonistes." The 
author John Milton/ 1671, also 1680, 1688, 
and 1793. Editions of these, often with 
' Paradise Lost/ as ' Poetical Works.' 34. 'Of 
True Religion, Heresy, Schism, Toleration, 
and what best Means may be us'd against 
the Growth of Popery/ 1673. 35. ' Joannis 
Miltoni Angli Epistolarum Familiarium 
Liber unus ; quibus accesserunt ejusdem 
(jam olim in Collegio adolescentis) Prolu* 
siones qusedam Oratoriae/ 1674. 36. 'A 
Declaration or Letters Patent of the Elec- 
tion of this present King of Poland, John II,' 
translated 1674 (anonymous translation, but 
published as Milton's'm the ' Prose Works/ 
1698). 37. ' Litene Pseudo-Senatus Angli- 
cani, necnon Cromwell reliquorumque Per- 
du ellium nomine ac jussu conscriptse a Joanne 
Miltono/ 1676 (this was a surreptitious pub- 
lication of Milton's despatches. It was re- 
printed at Leipzig in 1690 ; and an English 
translation, l Letters of State/ by Phillips, 
with a life of Milton prefixed, in 1694). 
38. 'Mr. John Milton's Character of the 
Long Parliament and Assembly of Divines. 
In MDCXLI./ 1681 (professes to be a passage 
omitted from the 'History of Britain/ in 
later editions of which it is now inserted. 
The authenticity is doubtful, see MASSON, vi. 
807-12). 39. V A Brief History of Mos- 
covia . . . Gather'd from the Writings of 
several Eye-witnesses . . ./ 1682 (said by 
the publisher to have been written by Mil- 
ton's own hand before he lost his sight). 
40. ' J. Miltoni Angli de doctrina Christiana 
Libri duo posthumi/ 1825. Edited by Sum- 
ner, afterwards bishop of Winchester, from a 
manuscript in the State Paper Office. It 
manuscript, together with a copy of the 
' Liters Pseudo-Senatus/ had been entrusted 
by Milton to Daniel Skinner, who after Mil 
ton's death had offered them for publication 
to Elzevir at Amsterdam. Skinner was com- 
pelled to surrender them to government, and 



both manuscripts were discovered in the State 
Paper Office by Robert Lemon in 1823. Such 
of the state letters as had not been already 
published were edited by W. D. Hamilton for 
the Camden Society in * Original Papers ' 
(1859). The ' Christian Doctrine ' gives Mil- 
ton's theological views. Accepting abso- 
lutely the divine authority of the Bible, he 
works out a scheme of semi-Arianism, and 
defends the doctrine of free-will against the 
Calvinist view. He shows little knowledge 
of ecclesiastical authorities. Sumner pub- 
lished a translation of the 'Christian Doc- 
trine/ reprinted in Bohn's edition of the 
' Prose Works.' In 1658 Milton published 
Raleigh's l Cabinet Council ' from a manu- 
script in his possession. 'Original Letters 
and Papers of State addressed to Oliver 
Cromwell . . . found among the Political 
Collections of Mr. John Milton,' 1743, con- 
tains papers which are stated to have been 
given by Milton to Ellwood (see MASSON, vi. 

Milton's l Collections for a Latin Dic- 
tionary ' are said by Wood to have been used 
by E. Phillips in his ' Enchiridion ' and 
1 Speculum ' in 1684. < Three large folios ' of 
Milton's collections were used by the editors 
of the ' Cambridge Dictionary ' of 1693. 

An * Argument on the great Question con- 
cerning the Militia, by J. M.,' 1642, which, 
according to Todd (i. 223), is ascribed to 
Milton in a copy in the Bridgewater Library 
by a note of the second Earl of Bridgewater, 
was really by John March (1612-1657) [q. v.j 
(Bodleian Cat.} Two commonplace books of 
Milton's have been edited by Mr. Alfred J. 
Horwood, one from a copy belonging to Sir 
F. W. Graham in 1876 (privately printed), 
and another for the Camden Society (1876, 
revised edition, 1877). They contain nothing 
original. A manuscript poem, dated 1647, 
discovered by Professor Morley in a blank 
page of the 1673 volume, was attributed by 
him to Milton, and became the subject of a 
warm newspaper controversy in 1868. The 
British Museum has a collection of the articles 
which appeared. The weight of authority 
seems to be against it, and if Milton's, he 
suppressed it judiciously. It has also been 
claimed for Jasper Mayne [q. v.] The Milton 
MSS. now in the library of Trinity College, 
Cambridge, were left to the college by Sir 
Henry Newton Puckeridge, bart., a book- 
collector, who died in 1700. They contain 
copies of ' Comus ' and ' Lycidas,' the ' j ottings ' 
mentioned above, some early poems, many of 
the sonnets in Milton's own hand, besides 
copies of a few sonnets in other hands. 

The first annotated edition of Milton's 
poems appeared in 1695 by P[atrick] H[ume] 

[q. v.] John Callander [q. v.] was accused 
of appropriating the notes unfairly in his 
edition of the first book of ' Paradise Lost ' 
in 1750. Bentley's famous edition appeared 
in 1732, and was attacked by Zachary Pearce 
[q. v.] in that year. The edition by Newton 
of ' Paradise Lost ' appeared in 1749, 2 vols. 
4to, and of the other poems, 1 vol. 4to, in 
1750, and has been frequently reprinted. 
Baskerville's quarto edition of 1758, from 
Newton's text, is handsome but ' full of 
misprints.' Another of Baskerville's followed 
in 1759. Boy dell's sumptuous edition, with 
plates, after Westall, and a life by Hayley, 
appeared in 1794. Cowper's translations of 
the Latin and Italian poems were published 
separately by Hayley in 1808, and are in 
the tenth volume of Cowper's ' Works ' by 
Southey (1837). Todd's ' Variorum ' edition 
appeared in 6 vols. 8vo in 1801, 7 vols. 8vo 
in 1808, and in 1826. The ' Aldine ' edition 
of 1826 contains the life by Phillips, Cow- 
per's translations of Latin and Italian poems, 
and an introduction by J[oseph] P[arkes] ; 
that of 1832, a life by J. Mitford. Sir Eger- 
ton Brydges edited an edition (6 vols. 8vo) 
in 1835, and James Montgomery an edition 
(2 vols. 8vo) in 1843. Professor Masson 
edited the ' Cambridge ' Milton, 3 vols. 8vo, 
in 1877, and again in 1890, and also an edi- 
tion in the ' Golden Treasury ' series in 1874, 
and the < Globe ' Milton in 1877. The 
1 Aldine ' edition, with life by John Brad- 
shaw, appeared in 1892. An edition of the 
English ' Prose Works,' in 1 vol. folio, 1697, 
without the name of printer or place of pub- 
lication, is in the British Museum. The 
' Prose Works ' were collected by Toland in 
1698 in 3 vols. folio, Amsterdam (really 
London). They were republished by Birch 
in 1738, 2 vols. folio, and again in 1753 (when 
Richard Baron [q. v.] restored the later edi- 
tions of tracts printed by Toland from earlier 
copies). They were edited by Charles Sym- 
mons, D.D., in 7 vols. 8vo, in 1806. A selec- 
tion appeared in 1809. A one-volume edi- 
tion was edited by J. Fletcher in 1833, and 
has been reprinted. They are also contained, 
together with the ' Christian Doctrine,' in 
Bohn's edition, 5 vols. 8vo, edited by J. A. 
St. John, 1848-53. The ' Works in Prose and 
Verse,' in 8 vols. 8vo, were edited by John 
Mitford in 1851, but without the ' Christian 

[Everything knowable about Milton has been 
given, with careful references to original sources, 
in Professor Masson's Life of John Milton, nar- 
rated in connection with the Political, Ecclesi- 
astical, and Literary History of his Time, 6 vols. 
8vo, 1859-80. A new and revised edition of 
vol. i. (cited above) appeared in 1881. The 



original sources are : Life in Wood's Fasti 
(Bliss), i. 480-6 (first published in 1691-2). 
Wood's information came chiefly from Aubrey, 
whose memoir was published in the Lives (1813). 
A copy from the original manuscripts is ap- 
pended to Godwin's Lives of E. and J. Phillips 
(1815), and another in Stern (i. 337-44). The 
life by Edward Phillips, which is the most 
valuable, was originally prefixed to the Letters 
of State, 1694, and is reprinted in Godwin's 
Lives of the Phillipses, and in the Poems, 1826. 
Toland's sketch was originally prefixed to the 
Prose Works of 1698, and appeared separately in 
1699andl761. A brief life by Elijah Fenton [q.v.] 
was prefixed to an edition of the Poems in 1725, 
and to many later editions. The Explanatory 
Notes on Paradise Lost, by Jonathan Kichardson, 
Father and Son, 1734, contain a life of Milton 
by the father, who collected a few original facts. 
A life by Thomas Birch was prefixed to the 
Prose Works of 1738 and 1753. Peck's New 
Memoirs of the Life ... of Mr. John Milton, 
1740. is a 'silly medley of odds and ends' 
(MASSON). The life by Newton, prefixed to 
Works in 1749, adds a fact or two from Milton's 
widow and granddaughter. The famous life by 
Johnson first appeared in 1779 in the collection of 
English Poets. An edition, edited by Mr. C. H. 
Firth, was published in 1891. The evidence 
taken upon the will was first published in the 
second edition of the Minor Poems by T. Warton 
in 1791. H. J. Todd's life was first prefixed to 
the 'Variorum' edition of 1801. In a third 
edition (1 826) Todd first made use of the records 
of Milton's official career, preserved in the State 
Paper Office. The notes to the 'Variorum' 
edition contain most of the accessible infor- 
mation. A life by Charles Symmons forms 
the seventh volume of the Prose Works of 1 806. 
Other lives are by Sir Egerton Brydges (Poems of 
1835), by James Montgomery (Poems, 1843), by 
C. K. Edmonds (1851), specially referring to 
Milton's ecclesiastical principles, and by Thomas 
Keightley (Life, Opinions, and Writings of Mil- 
ton, 1855). The standard life previous to Pro- 
fessor Masson was that by J. Mitford, prefixed 
to Works, 1851. Milton und seine Zeit, in 
2 pts. 1877-9, by Alfred Stern, is an indepen- 
dent and well-written, though less comprehen- 
sive, work on the same lines. See also the short 
but admirable lives by Pattison in the Men of 
Letters series, and by Dr. Garnett in the Great 
Writers series. Among special publications 
are Kamblings in Elucidation of the Autograph 
of Milton, by Samuel Leigh Sotheby, F.S.A., 
imperial 4to, 1861 ; Papers connected with Mil- 
ton and his Family, by John Fitchett Marsh, 
in Chetham Society Miscellanies (vol. xxiv. of 
Publications). 1851 ; A Sheaf of Gleanings, by 
Jeseph Hunter, 1850; and Original Papers 
illustrative of the Life and Writings of John 
Milton, with an Appendix of Papers relating to 
his connection with the Powell Family, by W. 
Douglas Hamilton (Camden Soc.), 1859.] 

L. S. 

MILTON, JOHN (jl. 1770), painter, was 
a descendant of Sir Christopher Milton [q. v.l 
brother of the poet. He worked in the neigh- 
bourhood of London, first at Charlton, and 
later at Peckham, exhibiting with the Free So- 
ciety from 1768 to 1774, and with the Society 
of Artists in 1773 and 1774. Milton chiefly 
painted sea-pieces, with an occasional land- 
scape, and some animal subjects ; he excelled 
in the representation of dogs. His Strong 
Gale ' was finely mezzotinted by R. Laurie, 
and his ' English Setter ' was engraved by 
J. Cook and S. Smith as a companion plate 
to Woollett's < Spanish Pointer,' after Stubbs. 
He was the father of Thomas Milton, the 
landscape engraver, who is noticed in a 
separate article. 

[Nagler's Allgemeines Kunstler-Lexicon; Red- 
grave's Diet, of Artists jGraves's Diet, of Artists.] 

F. M. O'D. 

MILTON, JOHN (d. 1805), medallist, 
worked from about 1760 to 1802. He was 
an assistant engraver at the Royal Mint from 
1789 to 1798, and was also medallist to the 
Prince of Wales (George IV). He exhibited 
at the Royal Academy from 1785 to 1802. 
At the close of the eighteenth century he 
executed the dies of the following provincial 

| tokens, all of which are creditable works of 
their kind : Anglesey penny (PYE, Provincial 

I Copper Coins, pi. 28, 3); Hackney penny, 

i 1795, with a view of Hackney Church, made 
for Mr. D. A. Rebello, a coin collector (ib. 
pi. 34, 1) ; Richardson's lottery tokens, Lon- 
don (SHARP, Chetwynd Coll. p. 68) ; Ipswich 
penny (ib. p. 89) ; Wroxham (Norfolk) 3d. 
token, 1797 (ib. p. 3). He also made the 
Isle of Man penny, 1786 (ib. p. 240) ; the 

j Barbados penny and halfpenny (P?E, pi. 19, 
2, 4 ; SHARP, p. 242), and the set of Scottish 
patterns, with the head of Prince George 
(IV), executed for Colonel Fullerton in 1799 
(CROWTHER, Engl. Pattern Coins, p. 46). 
Milton's medals are not numerous or impor- 
tant. The following may be mentioned: 
Matthew Prior (bust only), probably an early 
work (IlA.WKiNS,Med. Illustr. ii. 456); Win- 
chester College prize medal (ib. i. 11) ; John 
Hunter and George Fordyce (CoCHRAN-PA- 
TRICK, CataL of Scott. Med. p. 110, pi. xxi. 
3 ; cp. p. 115, No. 46) ; medal of university 
of Glasgow (ib. p. 151). 

Milton, who was elected a fellow of the 
Society of Antiquaries 24 May 1792, died on 
10 Feb. 1805, leaving one son and two 
daughters. His coins and medals were sold 
by Leigh & Sotheby 30 May 1805 (cf. Sale 

His usual signature is J. MILTON. George 
Valentin Bauert of Altona was his pupil, and 



made a medal of Walpole in conjunction with 
him (HAWKINS, op. cit. ii. 585-6). 

[Works cited above ; Kedgrave's Diet, of 
Artists; James Conder's Arrangement of Pro- 
vincial Coins, Tokens, and Medalets; J. Atkins's 
Coins and Tokens.] W. W. 

MILTON, THOMAS (1743-1827), en- 
graver, born in 1743, was a son of John Milton 
(f,. 1770) [q. v.], marine painter. From the 
character of his plates it seems probable that 
Milton was a pupil of Woollett, and he is 
said to have practised for some time in Lon- 
don, but nothing is known of the work of his 
early life. He was living in Dublin in 1783, 
in which year appeared the first number of 
his ' Views of Seats in Ireland/ a series of 
twenty- four plates of singular beauty from 
drawings by Ashford, Barralet, Wheatley, 
and others ; this work, upon which Milton's 
reputation entirely rests, was completed in 
1793, he having returned to London in 1786. 
His only other important plate was * The 
Deluge,' engraved for Macklin's Bible from 
a picture by De Loutherbourg, now in the 
South Kensington Museum ; but specimens 
of his work occur in Boydell's, Kearsley's, 
and Steevens's editions of Shakespeare, and 
Ottley's ' Stafford Gallery,' 1818. In 1801 
appeared ' Views in Egypt, from the original 
Drawings in the possession of Sir Robert 
Ainslie, taken during his Embassy to Con- 
stantinople by Luigi Mayer, engraved by and 
under the direction of Thomas Milton,' a 
series of coloured aquatints. Milton was a 
governor of the short-lived Society of En- 
gravers founded in 1803. He died at Bristol 
on 27 Feb. 1827. W. Bell Scott, in his ' Auto- 
biographical Notes,' 1892, observes of Milton : 
'He had a unique power of distinguishing 
the foliage of trees and the texture of all 
bodies, especially water, as it never had been 
done before, and never will be done again.' 

[Redgrave's Diet, of Artists ; Dodd's manuscript 
Hist, of English Engravers (Brit. Mus. Add. MS. 
33403); Universal Cat. of Books on Art; Pye's 
Patronage of British Art, 1845, p. 312; Gent. 
Mag. 1827, i. 379.] F. M. O'D. 

MILTON, WILLIAM OF (d. 1261), 

Franciscan. [See MELITON".] 

schoolman, was an Oxford student, who 
flourished in the middle of the fourteenth 
century. In Latin he is called Milverlegus. 
He wrote: 1. ' Compendium de quinque 
universalibus,' incipit ' Pro superficial! no- 
ticia.' Of this there are numerous manu- 
scripts at Oxford, Bodley MS. O. C. 2593, 
New College 289, ff. 58-63, Oriel College 35, 
ff. 1-4, Magdalen College 162, ff. 1-4, and 47, 

ff. 34-7, where it is entitled 'Universalia 
abbreviata,' and Corpus Christi College 103, 
ff. 32-40, from which it appears that it is a 
commentary on the work of Porphyrius. 
2. ' Commentarii in sex principia Gilbert! 
Porretani, 7 MS. Oriel College 35, ff. 134- 
152, Magdalen College 47, ff. 67-86, and 
Lambeth 393, ff. 143 6-184. 3. ' Sophismata. 
De incipere, differre et scire.' In MS. New 
College 289 we have ' Materia bona et utilis 
de inceptione secundum Mag. W. Mylverlye ' 
on f. 71, ' Materia . . . de Differt ' on f. 81, 
and ' Materia . . . de scientia ' on f. 90. In 
Corpus Christi College MS. 116, f. 5, there 
is l Materia de incipit Mirwirley.' Tanner at- 
tributes to Milverley the anonymous tract 
'De q ualitate' in MS. C.C.C. Oxon. 103, 
which is perhaps more probably assigned to 
John Chilmark [q. v.] 

[Bale, v. 85 ; Tanner's Bibl. Brit.-Hib. 528 ; 
Coxe's Catalogus . . . MSS. in Coll. Aulisque 
Oxon.] C. L. K. 

MILVERTON, JOHN (d. 1487), Car- 
melite, was a native of Milverton, Somerset, 
and became a Carmelite friar at Bristol. 
Afterwards he studied at Oxford, where he 
became prior of the house of his order (WooD, 
City of Oxford, ii. 440, Oxf. Hist. Soc.), and 
disputed as doctor of divinity in January or 
February 1451-2 (BoASE, Reg. Univ. Oxon. 
i. 16, Oxf. Hist. Soc.) He was chosen Eng- 
lish provincial of the order in a general chap- 
ter at Paris in 1456, and held the office until 
1465, but was restored in 1469, and retained 
the post till 1482 (Harley MS. 3838, f. 
39). Milverton wrote against the doctrines 
of Reginald Pecock [q. v.] When the Car- 
melites Henry Parker and Thomas Holden 
were censured by the Bishop of London for 
preaching the doctrine of evangelical poverty 
Milverton took up their defence. He was 
opposed by William Ive or Ivy fq. v.], and 
in October 1464 was excommunicated and 
imprisoned by his bishop. Afterwards he 
was summoned, or went, to Rome, where, his 
explanations not being satisfactory, he was 
for three years imprisoned by Paul II in 
the castle of St. Angelo. Eventually his 
case was remitted to the consideration of 
seven cardinals, who acquitted him of heresy. 
The pope is stated to have then offered to 
make him a cardinal, an honour which Mil- 
verton declined. Previously to his imprison- 
ment Milverton is alleged to have been 
chosen bishop of St. Davids, but owing to 
the accusations against him never conse- 
crated; it is, however, to be noticed that 
the last vacancy was in 1460. In Lambeth 
MS. 580 ff. 213-7 there is a bull of Paul II 
as to Milverton's controversy, and a letter 




from some English theologians on the matter, 
both dated 1464, and a later bull dated 1468, 
as to the recantation and restitution of John 
Milverton, who is styled provincial. Mil- 
verton died in London 30 Jan. 1486-7, and 
was buried in Whitefriars ; Weever quotes 
his epitaph (Funerall Monuments, p. 439). 
Bale (Harley MS. 3838, f. 105) gives another 
epitaph beginning : 

Mylvertonus erat doctrine firmus amator. 

Elsewhere (Harley 1819, f. 67 ) he quotes 
some other lines, of which the first two are : 

Deditus hie studio totus miranda reliquit 
Scripta, nee insignior ipse loquendo fuit, 

and states that he was called { doctor pro- 

Milverton wrote : 1. ' Ad papam Pium II 
super articulis, examinatione, disputatione, 
ac tandem revocatione E. Pecock.' 2. ' De 
paupertate Christi.' 3. ' Symbolum sue fidei.' 
4. ' Epistolse Ixiv ad amicos.' He is also cre- 
dited with lectures, determinations, sermons, 
and commentaries on scripture, together with 
various letters to the cardinals, to whom his 
case was referred, and to others, besides some 
other works, the distinct identity of which 
seems doubtful. None of Milverton's writings 
appear to have survived. His controversies 
are alleged to have damaged the position of 
his order in England, a statement which De 
Villiers repudiates. 

[Bale's Heliades in Harley MSS. 1819 ff. 38-9, 
67 b, 107, 216, and 3838 f. 105; Tanner's Bibl. 
Brit.-Hib. pp. 528-9; C. De Villiers's Bibl. 
Carmel. ii. 56-9 ; Todd's Catalogue of Lambeth 
MSS. ; Wood's Hist, and Antiq. Univ. Oxford, 
i. 605, 626.] C. L. K. 

MILWARD, EDWAED (1712 P-1757), 
physician, was born about 1712, probably at 
Lindridge, Worcestershire, where his family 
resided. He was entered at Trinity College, 
Cambridge, but left without graduating, and 
acquired the degree of doctor of medicine from 
some foreign university, possibly Leyden, 
though his name does not appear in the 
'Album Studiosorum'of that university. We 
find from the date of his first book that he 
was in 1733 a doctor of medicine, living in 
London at Queen's Square, Ormond Street, 
whence he removed to Portugal Eow, Lin- 
coln's Inn Fields. On 7 July 1741 he was 
created by royal mandate M.D. of Cambridge 
as a member of Trinity College. He was ad- 
mitted licentiate of the College of Physicians 
30 Sept. 1747, and fellow 30 Sept. 1748 ; was 
censor 1752, and in the same year delivered 
the Harveian oration. He became fellow of 
the Eoyal Society 21 Jan. 1741-2. Subse- 
quently removing to Worcester, he died there 

26 Aug. 1757 ( Gent. Mag. 1757, p. 435), and 
was buried in the Knighton Chapel, Lind- 

the age 

of forty-five. 

Milward was a man of considerable learn- 
ing, and a diligent student of the classical 
medical writers. His only important work 
was his essay on Alexander Trallianus, a 
Greek physician of the sixth century, whom 
he sought to rescue from unmerited obscurity. 
It shows wide reading and an originality re- 
markable in a young man of twenty-one. It 
is spoken of with respect by the latest editor 
of Alexander (PUSCHMANN, Alexander von 
Tralles, Vienna, 1878, i. 100). Milward in- 
tended this essay to be the prelude to a new 
edition of the text of Alexander, for which 
he had made, he says, elaborate preparations, 
but this never appeared. Another ambitious 
scheme was that which occasioned his ' Letter 
to Learned Men,' namely, the plan of a com- 
plete history of British writers on medicine 
and surgery, for which he desired to obtain 
the assistance of other scholars, and had him- 
self made large collections. Among these 
were the papers of William Becket [q. v.] 
the surgeon, who had for thirty years been 
collecting materials for such a purpose, but 
died without carrying out his intention. 
The acquisition of these papers from Curll 
the bookseller was the starting-point of Mil- 
ward's scheme ; he again refers to it in the 
preface to Drake's ' Orationes,' but the pro- 
jected work was never published. Another 
projected but unpublished work is advertised 
at the close of the ' Circular Letter ' as pre- 
paring for the press, viz., ' Gangrsenologia r 
sive de Gangraena et sphacelo liber,' intended 
to be an elaborate treatise on gangrene. The 
important materials collected by the author 
with a view to these works seem to have un- 
fortunately disappeared. 

Of his published works, 1., ' The Essay on 
Trallianus,' appears with two different title- 
pages, though the text in each case is iden- 
tical, (a) ' A Letter to Sir Hans Sloane in 
Vindication of the Character of those Greek 
Writers on Physic that flourished after 
Galen, but particularly of Alexander Tral- 
lian, etc. By E. Milward, M.D., formerly of 
Trinity College, Cambridge,' London, 1733, 
8vo. (b) ' Trallianus Jleviviscens, or an 
Account of Alexander Trallian, &c., being 
a Supplement to Dr. Freind's " History of 
Physick," in a Letter to Sir Hans Sloane/ 
London, 1734, 8vo. 2. A Circular Invita- 
tory Letter to all Orders of Learned Men 
. . ." concerning an Attempt towards an His- 
tory of the Lives, etc., of the most celebrated 




British Physical and Chirurgical Writers,' 
London, 1740, 8vo, 63 pp. 3. ' Oratio Har- 
vaeana,' 1752, London, 1753, 4to. He also 
edited ' Jacobi Drakei Orationes tres de febre 
intermittente,' &c., London, 1742, 4to. In 
the British Museum Library (Sloane MS. 
4435, f. 281) are reports of three medical 
cases by Milward, presented to the Royal 
Society in 1739 but not published. 

[Mil ward's Works ; Hunk's Coll. of Phys. 
1878, ii. 166.] J. F. P. 

MILWARD, JOHN (1556-1609), divine, 
born in 1556, was a member of the Cambridge- 
shire family of that name. He was admitted 
a scholar of St. John's College, Cambridge, 
5 Nov. 1579, graduated B. A., and then appears 
to have matriculated from Christ Church, Ox- 
ford, 23 Nov. 1581, aged 25, proceeding B. A. 
on 19 Jan. 1582, and M.A. and D.D. in 1584 
{Oxf. Univ. Reg., Oxf. Hist. Soc. vol. i. 
p.!7,pt. ii.p. 105,pt.iii.p. 100). He may have 
been the John Milward presented on 17 Jan. 
1590-1 to the vicarage of Dullingham, Cam- 
bridgeshire (GIBBONS, Ely Episcopal Records, 
p. 447), and, 28 Dec. 1596, by Lord North to 
the vicarage of Bovey Tracey, Devonshire. 
About 1605 he became rector of Passenham, 
Northamptonshire (BEIDGES, Northampton- 
shire, i. 307). On 8 Nov. 1608 he was presented 
by the mayor, commonalty, and citizens of 
London to the rectory of St. Margaret Pat- 
tens, Billingsgate ward. About 1605 he was 
defeated in a contest for the office of lecturer 
at Christ Church, Newgate Street, by Wil- 
liam Bradshaw [q. v.] ; he was, however, sub- 
sequently appointed (see his will, and cf. 
CLAEKE, Lives, 1677, ii. 45). 

Soon after the accession of James I Mil- 
ward was appointed one of his chaplains, 
and on 5 Aug. 1607 he was commanded to 

E reach a thanksgiving sermon at St. Paul's 
Dr the deliverance of his majesty from the 
Gowrie conspiracy [see RUTH VEN]. Mil ward's 
sermon, which was printed, under the title of 
' Jacob's Great Day of Trouble and Deliver- 
ance,' with a preface by Matthias Milward 
(see below), London, 1610, is an ingenious 
parody of the life of Jacob, full of witty and 
classical allusions. 

In April 1609 Milward was ordered to 
visit Scotland, in company with Dr. William 
Goodwin [q. v.], in order to aid in the re- 
establishment of episcopacy. The Earl of 
Dunfermline, writing to the king on 5 July 
1609, testifies to the great contentment and 
satisfaction ' your highnes twa chaplaynes, 
Doctor Goodwin and Doctor Milwaird, hes 
given to all in this cuntrie in their doctrine, 
boithe in learning, eloquence, and godli- 
ness' (Letters and State Papers of James VI, 

Abbotsford Club, Edinburgh, 1838, p. 169). 
An annuity of a hundred marks was granted 
him on 15 April 1609, in recognition of his 
services ( Warrant Book, James I). 

Milward died in the house of the lord chan- 
cellor, the Earl of Dunfermline, Edinburgh, 
on 1 Aug. 1609. He married Agnes How 
the younger, and left a son, James, and two 
daughters, Mary and Margaret. He owned 
at the time of his death houses in Warwick 
Lane, in the city of London, and at Hertford, 
as well as land at Sutton, Cambridgeshire. 

MILWABD, MATTHIAS (fl. 1603-1641), 
younger brother of the preceding, scholar of 
St. John's College, Cambridge, and curate 
of Wentworth, Cambridgeshire, in 1600 (Ely 
Episc. Rec. p. 371), was presented by James I 
to the rectory of East Barnet, Hertfordshire, 
on 18 May 1603. A successor was appointed 
inl639(NEWCOUET,i. 806). He was admitted 
a member of Gray's Inn on 1 Nov. 1624 
(FosTEK, Admissions, p. 174). He was after- 
wards rector of St. Helen's, Bishopsgate, 
London. On 31 Aug. 1641 he preached at 
St. Michael's, Cornhill, to the Company of 
Artillery, Thomas Soame, colonel, a. sermon 
which was printed under the title of ' The 
Souldiers Triumph and the Preachers Glory,' 
1641, and was dedicated to Prince Charles. 
He died before 1648. He married, on 28 March 
1605, Anne Evans of Cripplegate (CHESTEE, 
Marr. Licenses, p. 927). A son Joseph, born 
at Barnet in 1621, was a scholar of Gonville 
and Caius College, Cambridge (VENN, Ad- 
missions, p. 198). 

Another JOHN MILWAED (1619-1 683), non- 
conformist divine, son of George Milward, 
gentleman, of Shepton Mallet, Somerset, was 
born there in 1619. He matriculated at New 
Inn Hall, Oxford, on 16 March 1637-8, gra- 
duated B.A. on 1 July 1641, was elected a 
fellow of Corpus Christi College, and was 
created M.A. on 14 April 1648. He was ap- 
pointed a delegate of visitors in 1649, and 
soon afterwards was made rector of the first 
mediety of the living of Darfield in the West 
Riding of Yorkshire, but was ejected about 
1660. His successor, Robert Rogers, was 
instituted on 9 Nov. 1661. Milward then 
settled in London, and occasionally preached 
at the morning exercises in Cripplegate. 
Two of his sermons, entitled ' How ought 
we to love our neighbours as ourselves?' 
' How ought we to do our duty towards 
others, though they do not do theirs towards 
us?' were published by Samuel Annesley 
[q. v.] in ' The Morning Exercises,' &c., 1676 
and 1683 (cf. 5th edit. ed. Nicholls, 6 vols. 
1844). Milward died unmarried at Islington, 
London, in 1683. By his will he left sums 
for books to the Bodleian and the library of 

Mil ward 



Corpus Christi, also to ten ejected ministers, 
or their wives or families, five of Yorkshire 
and five of Somerset. He directed that his 
funeral expenses should not exceed 30/., and 
divided the remainder between his brother, 
Daniel Milward, merchant, of London, and 
his sisters Katherine Stephens and Anne 

[For the elder Milward see Wood's Fasti, i. 
217, 226 ; Newcourt's Repert. Eccl. i. 409 ; State 
Papers, Dom. James I, 1603-10, pp. 116, 119, 
504 ; Nichols's Progresses of James I, p. 289 ; 
Cooper's Athen. Cantab, ii. 522 ; Preface to 
Jacob's Great Day of Trouble (an extract from 
this sermon is to be found in a collection of 
commonplaces against popery, Add. MS. 1251 5) ; 
will at Somerset House, P. C. C., 84 Dorset. For 
the second John Milward see Wood's Fasti, ii. 
Ill; Calamy and Palmer's Nonconf . Mem. i , 228 ; 
Calamy's Account, ii. 66 ; Hunter's Deanery of 
Doncaster, ii. 116; Foster's Alumni Oxon. 1500- 
1714 ; Dunn's Seventy-five Divines, p. 76 ; Bur- 
rows's Register of the Visitors of the Univ. of 
Oxford, 1881, p. 498; will at Somerset House, 
P. C. C., 115 Drax.] C. F. S. 

MILWARD, RICHARD (1609-1680), 
editor of Selden's l Table Talk/ a son of 
Richard Milward, was born at Flitton in 
Bedfordshire, and baptised there on 25 April 
1609 (parish reg.) He matriculated as a sizar 
from Trinity College, Cambridge, on 7 July 
1625, was elected scholar of his college on 
13 April 1627, proceeded B.A. in 1628, M.A. 
in 1632, and D.D. by royal mandate in 1662. 
He became rector of Great Braxted in Essex 
on 12 Dec. 1643, and held the living for the 
rest of his life. He was appointed canon of 
Windsor 31 May, and installed 30 June 1666, 
and was vicar of Isleworth, Middlesex, from 
3 July 1678 till his death on 20 Dec. 1680 ; 
he was buried at Great Braxted on 24 Dec., 
and a black marble slab erected to his me- 
mory is now on the north side of the church. 
At the time of his death he was possessed of 
lands at Flitton and Higham Gobion in Bed- 
fordshire, which he left to his widow, Mary, 
daughter of Sir Anthony Thomas of Cobham, 
Surrey, and after her death to his only daugh- 
ter and heiress, Mary, wife of Sir Anthony 
Abdy of Kelvedon, Essex. 

Milward long acted as amanuensis to John 
Selden [q. v.], and ' had the opportunity to 
hear his discourse twenty years together.' 
The notes that he made from time to time of 
' those excellent things that usually fell from 
him ' were afterwards sorted and arranged by 
him for publication, though the first edition 
of the ' Table Talk ' did not a^near till 1689, 
nine years after Milward's dek h. Discredit 
has been thrown upon the autA ticity of the 
compilation, on the ground thV it contains ' 

many things unworthy of Selden, and at 
variance with his principles and practice. 
David Wilkms [q. v.], Selden's editor and bio- 
grapher, strongly held this view (cf. Act a Eru- 
I ditorum, Leipzig, Suppl.i. 1692, p. 426). There 
j are three manuscript copies of the work in 
i the British Museum (RarL MSS. 690 1315 
I and Shane MS. 2513), but none of them 
original. The second edition of the ' Table 
Talk ' (1696), printed for Jacob Tonson, and 
j Awnsham, and John Churchill, was probably 
| based on the Harleian MS. 1315. It was re- 
printed in 1716. In the Advocates' Library, 
Edinburgh, is also a manuscript copy, which 
differs in some details from the first edition. 
[Newcourt's Repertorium, i. 676, ii. 92 ; Ken- 
nett's Reg. p. 685 ; Cal. State Papers, Dom. Ser 
1661-2, p. 371; Le Neve's Fasti (Hardy), iii. 
403 ; P. C. C. (North, 60); Visitation of Essex 
(Harl. Soc. Publ.), xiv. 628 ; Wright's Essex, ii. 
41 1 ; Milward's dedication of Table Talk, 1689 ; 
Aikin's Lives of Selden and Usher, pp. 167-8 ; 
Singer's Preface to Table Talk, edit. 1856, and 
Irving's Notes, edit. 1854 ; for relative value of 
the various manuscripts and printed editions, 
Reynolds's Introduction to Table Talk, Oxford, 
1892, pp. xi-xiii ; Trin. Coll. Camb. Admission 
Registers ; information from J. W. Clark, esq., 
Cambridge, and the Rev. W. H. Rowlandson, 
Great Braxted.] B. P. 

MIMPRISS, ROBERT (1797-1875), 
Sunday-school worker, was born at Deptford, 
Kent, 14 Jan. 1797. His father was an offi- 
cial in Deptford dockyard, and had nine sons, 
of whom Robert and Thomas, afterwards a 
surgeon, alone survived infancy. After edu- 
cation at a Blackheath boarding school Ro- 
bert, at the age of sixteen, went to sea as 
purser on a foreign merchantman. But after 
the first voyage he abandoned the occupa- 
tion, and after a brief trial of a clerkship in 
a London merchant's office, and subsequently 
of a desultory study of art, he married a lady 
of fortune in 1821, and thenceforth devoted 
himself to the development of Sunday schools. 
He devised what was known as the ' Mim- 
priss System of Graduated Simultaneous 
Instruction,' based on Greswell's ' Harmony 
of the Gospels' [see GKESWELL, EDWARD]. 
He moulded the gospel history into a con- 
tinuous narrative, and divided it into one 
hundred lessons. The course was illustrated 
by pictorial maps, charts, and tables, in the 
preparation of which he was assisted by 
John Wilson, author of ' Lectures on the 
Israelitish Origin of the English Nation.' 
From 1830 to 1850 Mimpriss was chiefly 
engaged in writing books in connection with 
his system, but he repeatedly travelled round 
the country setting forth its merits or advo- 
cating millenarian and teetotal principles. 


4 6 


In 1860 the illness of his wife and pecuniary 
losses, due to the partial failure of his publi- 
cations, led him to relax his efforts. He died 
at Clapham, 20 Dec. 1875. His widow and 
his brother Thomas survived him. A por- 
trait is prefixed to the memoir of 1876. 

His works, apart from elementary manuals 
for the use of schools, were : 1. l A Picto- 
rial, Geographical, Chronological, and His- 
torical Chart, delineating the Rise and 
Progress of the Evangelical or Christian 
Dispensation to the Ascension of our Lord,' 
London, 1832 (with a key,8vo). 2. 'A Har- 
mony of the Four Gospels in the English 
Authorised Version, arranged according to 
Greswell's " Harmonia Evangelica," in Greek 
. . . ' intended principally as an accompani- 
ment to No. 1, London, 1833, 8vo. 3. 'Gospel 
Recreations for Sabbath Evenings/ London, 

1836, 8vo (with a set of card-pictures) ; 2nd 
edit. 1839, revised and much enlarged, under 
the title of 'Conversations for Sabbath 
Evenings on our Lord's Life and Ministry.' 
4. ' The Acts of the Apostles and Epistles 
historically and geographically delineated 
according to Greswell's arrangement,' Lond. 

1837, 8vo (with a chart). 5. ' The Treasury 
Harmony of the Four Evangelists, in the 
words of the Authorised Version, according 
to Greswell's "Harmonia Evangelica," &c.,' 
2vols. London, 1849-51, 12mo; republished 
as the ' Gospel Treasury,' new edit., London, 
1884, 4to. 6. A Full Development of Mim- 

?riss's System of Graduated Simultaneous 
nstruction,' London [1855], 8vo. 7. 'The 
Mimpriss System. The Amalgamated Manual 
for Superintendents,' London [1855], 8vo. 

[Robert Mimpriss : a Memoir of his Life and 
Work, London [1876], 8vo ; Record and Rock 
for December 1875 ; the author's works ; private 
information.] E. GK H. 

MINIFIE, SUSANNAH (1740 P-1800), 

novelist. [See 


MINNES, SIB JOHN (1599-1671), ad- 
miral. [See MENNES.] 

(1625-1666), admiral. [See MYNGS.] 

MINOT, LAURENCE (1300P-1852P), 

lyric poet, was probably born and bred in 
the north-east midlands of England. The 
evidence of this, however, is solely the 
character of his dialect, coupled with the 
frequency of his allusions to Yorkshire per- 
sonages (cf. HALL, p. x). Of his life nothing 
is known on external authority. Even his 
name is attested only by his own mention 

of it in two passages of his poems (v. 1, and 
vii. 20 : ' Now Laurence Minot will bigin '). 
The family of Minot (Miniot, Minyot, My- 
nyot) was, however, widely dispersed in the 
fourteenth century, especially in Yorkshire 
and Norfolk (cf. HALL, Introd. pp. x-xii). It 
included knights, wealthy London merchants, 
and, in particular, a Thomas Mynot,the king's 
notary, who is known to have been officially 
employed in Flanders at the date of the cap- 
ture of Guisnes (1352), which Minot in his 
last poem describes with an air of exceptional 
knowledge. Minot's status and occupation 
cannot be certainly determined. The view 
that he was a monk (RITSON) or a priest 
(BIERBATJM) may be dismissed as baseless. 
The religious allusions are, indeed, not rare, 
but they are such as formed the common 
stock of middle-English romance, and their 
I piety is that of the soldier, not of the cleric. 
! A contemptuous allusion to being ' polled like 
! a frere' (vii. 131) is also significant. Far 
| more probable is the view that Minot was 
j a soldierly minstrel, who wrote and sang 
i mainly for the army, but was also favoured 
I by the court. His songs appear, by their 
I varying use of homelier and more cultivated 
metres, to be designed for audiences of vary- 
ing rank. The alliterative long-line was in 
particular characteristic of the camp-song, 
as in the lines sung before Bannockburn 
j (BRANDL, Thomas of Erceldoune, p. 16). He 
I expresses throughout a personal devotion to 
j Edward III, whom he celebrates (vi. vii. xi.), 
according to the current interpretation of 
Merlin's prophecy, as the boar of Windsor, 
and may have moved in his circle ; it is clear, 
however, that he was not always present on 
Edward's campaigns, since he describes (iii. 
86 foil.) the king as taking part in the fight 
off Southampton, which the other evidence 
shows that he did not. Even his testimony 
to Edward's personal valour at Sluys (v. 78), 
which none of the English chroniclers men- 
tion, but which is attested by Le Bel, does 
not imply his presence at the fight. It is 
probable, however, that his songs are not 
founded solely upon hearsay. Though he 
has no set descriptions, he occasionally lets 
fall a detail which suggests the eye-witness. 
There are many signs that he wrote while 
the events were still fresh, in some cases 
while their final issue was still pending. The 
triumphant poem (vi.) on the siege of Tournay 
(which opened 23 July 1340) was evidently 
written originally between that date and 
25 Sept. following, when Edward unex- 
pectedly raised the siege. Slight changes 
have, however, been made in some of the 
poems (esp. in vi.) at a later date, doubtless 
by Minot himself. No inference can be drawn 




from the abrupt termination of the series at 
1352. Since the series of stirring events by 
no means ceased then, it is likely that Minot 
either died or produced songs which have been 
lost. The absence of any development of style 
in the series makes it probable that he was not 
very young at the outset (1333). 

Minot neither founded nor belonged to a 
school. In metrical form he presents, in va- 
rious combinations, the accentual, alliterative 
verse of the west and north ; and the syllabic, 
rhymed verse of the east and south ; rhyme 
and some degree of alliteration being constant 
features. His most frequent measure is the 
popular six-line strophe (ii.v. ix.x. xi.), while 
the remaining five songs have each a distinct 
stanza of more artificial structure, or the 
rhymed couplet. The alliterative measure 
seems therefore to have grown upon him. 
He tends also to multiply the alliterating 
words without need, at times using double 
alliteration in the same line (e.g. x. 1). He 
also uses the refrain (ii.), and is fond of 
repeating the last words of a stanza in the 
opening of the next (i. vi. vii.) While thus 
profuse in metrical ornament, Minot cannot, 
however, be said to show any further care for 
literary art. He writes in impetuous haste, 
but without true lyric inspiration ; and his 
energy often confuses his narrative instead 
of driving it home. But while Minot has 
no great literary value, and gives almost 
no new information, he embodies in a most 
vivid way the militant England of his day. 
He has but one subject, the triumph of Eng- 
land and the English king over French and 
Scots. The class divisions among English- 
men are for him wholly merged in the unity 
of England ; himself probably of Norman 
origin, his habitual language is the strongest 
and homeliest Saxon. His verse is through- 
out inspired by savage triumph in the national 
successes. He has no elegiac or tender note. 
If he alludes to Bannockburn (ii. 1) it is in 
order to proclaim the vengeance of Halidon 
Hill. His account of the capitulation of 
Calais ignores the intervention of the queen 
(viii. 57 f.) Even the brilliant pageantry of 
fourteenth century warfare is only casually 
reproduced (vii. 46). He does not approach 
his Scottish rival, Barbo ur, either in humanity 
or in poetic power. 

Minot's poems exist only in a manuscript in 
the Cotton Library of the British Museum 
(Galba, E. ix. fol. 52 foil.), written by a 
single hand in the early years of the fifteenth 
century. The scribe was unquestionably 
northern, but the evidence of the rhymes 
shows that the originals contained both 
northern and midland forms (e.g. pres. part, 
in -and; plur. pres. in -in, vii. 135). 

The following is a list of Minot's extant 
poems. None of them has a title ; but all 
(except iv.) are headed by a couplet in which 
the subject is announced : 1. < Lithes and I 
sail tell 3 ow tyll | be bataile of Halidon Hyll.' 
2. Now for to tell pw will I turn j Of p e 
batayl of Banocburn.' In reality, however 
a continuation of 1. 3. ' How Edward be 
king come in Braband | Andtoke homage of 
all be land.' 4. The first invasion of France, 
1339. 5. 'Lithes and be batail I sal bigyn | 
Of Inglisch men and Normandes in be Swyn.' 
6. ' Herkins how King Edward lay | With 
his men bifor Tournay.' 7. < How Edward 
at Hogges unto land wan | And rade thurgh 
France or ever he blan.' The battle of Crecy. 
8. 'How Edward als be romance sais | Held 
his sege bifor Calais.' 9. < Sir David had of 
his men grete loss I With Sir Edward at be 
Nevil Cross.' 10. ' How King Edward and 
his men^e | Met with be Spaniardes in be see.' 
11. 'Howgentill Sir Edward with his grete 
engines | Wan with his wight men be castell 

Hall is inclined to attribute to Minot also 
the ' Hymn to Jesus Christ and the Virgin ' 
(Early English Text Society, No. 26, p. 75) 
on grounds of style and language. 

Minot's poems, discovered by Tyrwhitt, 
were first printed by Ritson, under the title, 
' Poems on Interesting Events in the Reign 
of King Edward III, written in the year 
MCCCLII. by Laurence Minot,' 1795 and 1825. 
They were reissued by T. Wright in ' Politi- 
cal Poems/ i 58 sq. (1859). Two good recent 
editions exist : ' Laurence Minot's Lieder,' von 
Wilhelm Scholle ( Quellen und Forschungen, 
No. 52), 1884, with a valuable study of the 
grammar and metre ; and ' The Poems of 
Laurence Minot,' by Joseph Hall, with ad- 
mirable introduction and illustrative notes 
(Clarendon Press, 1887). Matzner (Spmch- 
proben) has also printed i-iv. ; Wiilcker, 'Alt- 
englisches Lesebuch,' ii. and ix. : Morris and 
Skeat, ' Specimens,' iii. iv. and part of vii. 

[Scholle's and Hall's Introductions and the 
Poems themselves ; Ten Brink's Englische Lit- 
teraturgeschichte, i. 404 f. ; Bierbaum's Ueber 
Laurence Minot und seine Lieder, 1876; Brandl's 
Mittelenglische Literatur in Paul's G-rundriss der 
german. Philologie, p. 648.] C. H. H. 

MINSHEU, JOHN (fl. 1617), lexico- 
grapher, lived chiefly in London, and made 
his living as a teacher of languages. He 
was poor, was married, and had children. 
Often, as may be gathered from his works, his 
lexicographical works were at a standstill for 
want of money, but generous friends, such as 
Sir Henry Spelman, helped him, and he ma- 
naged to carry out his expensive undertak- 
ings. To finish his Spanish dictionary he 


4 8 


went down to Cambridge, where, as may be 
seen from the subscription list prefixed to 
the ' Guide into the Tongues,' he made many 
friends. At Oxford he passed some months, 
with ' bis company of strangers and scholars,' 
revising his ' Guide,' but although the vice- 
chancellor gave him in 1610 a certificate 
signed by himself and several heads of houses 
to the effect that the ' Dictionary ' or ' Guide ' 
was worthy of publication, Oxford did not 
furnish any subscribers. He seems to have 
been a laborious student, lighting the candle, 
as he says, for others and burning out him- 
self. Ben Jonson describes him as a 'rogue' 
(Conversations with Drummond, ed. Laing, 
p. 4). 

Minsheu wrote : 1 . 'A Dictionarie in 
Spanish and English,' London, 1599, fol. 
2. ' A Spanish Grammar,' London, 1599, fol. 
Minsheu's ' Dictionary ' and ' Grammar ' were 
both founded on the works of Eichard Perci- 
val [q_. v.] He also about this time seems 
to have published another shorter Spanish 
dictionary, more in the nature of an encyclo- 
paedia (cf. AKBEK, Stationers' Registers, iii. 
145-6). 3. 'VocabulariumHispanico-Lati- 
num et Anglicum copiosissimum. . . . A most 
copious Spanish Dictionarie with Latine and 
English (and sometime other Languages),' 
London, 1617 (?) fol. 4. 'Hyep&p e ras 
yAoxrcras, id est Ductor in Linguas, the 
Guide into Tongues,' London, 1617, fol., 
containing equivalents in eleven languages 
(2nd edit. 1626, in nine languages and much 
altered). This great lexicon is of great value 
as a dictionary of Elizabethan English; it is 
also in all probability the first English book 
printed by subscription, or at all events the 
first which contains a list of the subscribers. 
Minsheu obtained a license (granted to John 
Minshon) for the sole printing of the ( Glosson ' 
for twenty-one years on 20 Feb. 1611. It 
seems that Bishop Wren had annotated a 
copy of the second edition with a view to re- 
publishing it himself. 

[Works; Gent. Mag. 1786 ii. 1073, 1787 i. 
16, 121 ; H. B. Wheatley's Chron. Notices of the 
Dictionaries of the English Language in Proc. 
of Philol. Soc. 1865, p. 230; Notes and Queries, 
2nd ser. viii. 269, ix. 447, xi. 422 ; Gal. State 
Papers, Dom. 1611-18, p. 10.] W. A. J. A. 

FR AY (1594 P-1668), author, son of Edward 
Minshull of Nantwich, Cheshire, and his 
wife Margaret, daughter of Thomas Main- 
waring, was born about 1594, and admitted 
at Gray's Inn on 11 March 1611-12. In 1617 
he was imprisoned for debt in the King's 
Bench prison, and while there occupied him- 
self by writing a series of ' characters,' which 
he sent to his uncle Matthew Mainwaring 

[q. v.], who generously helped him out of 
his difficulties. These experiences of prison 
life were published in 1618, with the title 
of ' Essayes and Characters of a Prison and 
Prisoners. Written by G. M. of Grayes-Inn, 
Gent.' (small quarto). The volume was re- 
issued without alteration in 1638; the title- 
page bears the inscription t with some new 
additions,' but the contents are precisely the 
same as those of the 1618 edition; it was re- 
printed at Edinburgh in 1821. To this last 
edition, of which only 150 copies were printed, 
an introductory notice was prefixed by the 
anonymous editor. All these editions are in 
the British Museum Library. Minshull died 
in 1668 at Nantwich, where he was buried on 

[Brit. Mus. Cat. ; Hall's Hist, of Nantwich, 
1883, pp. 469, 471 ; Grray's Inn Admission Ke- 
gister (Foster), p. 129.] C. W. S. 

GILBEET, 1751-1814, first EABL ; ELLIOT, 
GILBEET, 1782-1859, second EAEL.] 

BEET, 1651-1718, first LOED; ELLIOT, SIE 
GILBEET, 1693-1766, second LOED.] 

MINTO, WILLIAM (1845-1893), critic, 
born 10 Oct. 1845, near Alford, Aberdeen- 
shire, was son of James Minto, by his wife 
Barbara Copland. Gaining a bursary, he en- 
tered Aberdeen University in 1861. Here 
he steadily outdistanced competitors, until 
on graduating M.A. in 1865 he carried off 
the leading money prizes and took honours 
in three departments classics, mathematics, 
and philosophy a feat unprecedented and 
still unique. In 1866 he went to Merton 
College, Oxford, but left next year without 
taking a degree. Returning to Aberdeen he 
became assistant to the professor of logic and 
English literature, Dr. Alexander Bain. It 
was while thus engaged that he turned his 
mind towards the study of English literature, 
and planned his ' Manual of English Prose 
Literature, Biographical and Critical,' which 
he published in 1872. 

In 1873 he moved to London and engaged 
in literary work, contributing to the now ex- 
tinct t Examiner,' of which paper he was 
editor for four years, 1874-8. Subsequently 
he was on the leader-writing staff of the 
' Daily News ' and < Pall Mall Gazette.' In 
1874 he published his ' Characteristics of 
English Poets from Chaucer to Shirley,' and 
in 1879 a monograph on Defoe for the ' Eng- 
lish Men of Letters ' series. Besides con- 
tributing to the leading reviews he wrote 
for the ' Encyclopaedia Britannica ' a number 
of important articles on literary subjects. 




On 8 Jan. 1880 he married Cornelia, 
daughter of the Rev. Lewis Griffiths, rector 
of Swindon, Gloucestershire. In the same 
year, on the retirement of Professor Bain, he 
was elected to the chair of logic and English 
in Aberdeen University. During his profes- 
soriate he wrote three novels 'The Crack 
of Doom,' 1886, 'The Mediation of Ralph 
Hardelot,' 1888, and ' Was she good or bad ? ' 
1889. He edited Scott's 'Lay,' Oxford, 1886, 
and 'Lady of the Lake/ 1891, Scott's poetical 
works, 1887, and 'Autobiographical Notes of 
the Life of William Bell Scott/ 1892 (cf. 
correspondence in Academy, 1892). 

His health began to decline in 1891, and 
although a voyage to Greece served tem- 
porarily to brace his system, he succumbed 
to a complication of ailments on 1 March 
1893, just when the separation of logic from 
English in his dual chair appeared to open up 
fresh opportunities of pursuing his favourite 
subject. After his death appeared 'Univer- 
sity Extension Manual on Logic ' and ' Plain 
Principles of Prose Composition/ both in 
1893, and a third volume, ' English Litera- 
ture under the Georges ' (1894). 

Minto was a versatile writer. He advo- 
cated advanced liberal opinions in politics, 
and during Lord Beaconsfield's Afghan war 
reviewed the government policy from day to 
day in the ' Daily News ' with conspicuous 
ability. He claimed that he gave currency 
to the word 'jingoism.' His novels, though 
clever and ingenious, do not retain perma- 
nent interest. As an editor he discovered 
and encouraged many young authors, since 
famous, and as a professor he exercised a 
stimulating influence on his students through 
the contagion of his enthusiasm. 

But his chief work was done in criticism. 
Laying an admirable foundation of scholar- 
ship in the wide reading involved in prepar- 
ing his first two volumes, the one an ex- 
haustive and systematic survey of English 
literature, and the other a minutely analytic 
and detailed comparison of styles and cha- 
racteristics, he judged for himself with pene- 
tration, originality, and sanity. He therefore 
often struck out a novel line, as when he 
argued that Burns was not merely a genius, 
but a disciplined student of literature, and 
that the poet owed his recognition not to 
the public but to the critics of his time. 
Coming with an open mind to controverted 
subjects, he often offered a new hypothesis. 
He identified Chapman with the ' rival poet ' 
of Shakespeare's sonnets, and added a new 
sonnet to the recognised number ' Phaeton 
to his friend Florio/ prefixed to Florio's ' Se- 
cond Fruits ' (1591). 

[Personal knowledge.] A. M. 


MINTON, HERBERT (1793-1858) 
manufacturer of pottery and porcelain, second 
son of Thomas Minton, potter, was born at 
Stoke-on-Trent, 4 Feb. 1793. His father was 
a native of Shropshire, and was brought up as 
an engraver at the Caughley pottery works, 
near Broseley, under John Turner, who is 
stated to have discovered the art of printing 
in blue on china. He afterwards went to 
London and worked for Spode at his London 
house of business in Lincoln's Inn Fields. 
In 1788 he settled at Stoke and founded 
the concern which has since become cele- 

Herbert Minton was educated at Audlem 
school, Cheshire, and in 1817 he and his elder 
brother were taken into partnership. The 
father died in 1836, and the brother entered 
the church. Herbert was thus left alone in 
the business. ' Neither a man of profound 
research nor an educated artist/ wrote Mr. 
Digby Wyatt, in a paper read before the 
Society of Arts, ' neither an economist nor an 
inventor, by courage and ceaseless energy he 
brought to bear upon the creation of his ulti- 
mately colossal business such a combination 
of science, art, organisation, and invention as 
can be paralleled only ' in the case of ' his 
great predecessor Josiah Wedgwood.' Like 
Wedgwood, Minton surrounded himself with 
talented artists and ingenious inventors. Down 
to about 1830 nothing but earthenware and or- 
dinary soft porcelain were made by the firm, 
but by the efforts of Minton and his partners 
the manufacture of hard porcelain, parian, en- 
caustic tiles, azulejosor coloured enamel tiles, 
mosaics, Delia Robbia ware, majolica, and 
Palissy ware was gradually introduced. The 
firm was fortunate in obtaining the patronage 
of the Duke of Sutherland, who lived at 
Trentham. Minton contributed a remarkable 
collection to the exhibition held in Birming- 
ham in 1849 in connection with the meeting 
of the British Association. He was awarded 
a council medal at the Great Exhibition of 
1851, and his specimens of majolica ware at 
the Paris exhibition of 1855 created great 
interest. About 1800 some fifty hands were 
employed at the works, but when Minton 
died the number reached fifteen hundred. 
The business was divided between his two 
nephews in 1868, Mr. C. Minton Campbell 
retaining the china and earthenware busi- 
ness, while Mr. M. D. Hollins took the en- 
caustic tile manufactory. He lived for many 
years at Hartshill, near Stoke, where in 1842 
he built and endowed a church and schools. 
The church is one of Sir George Gilbert 
Scott's early works. He died at Torquay, 
1 April 1858, and was buried at Hartshill. 
The School of Art at Stoke was erected by 




Public subscription as a memorial toMinton. 
It was opened in 1860. 

[L. Arnoux's Lecture on Ceramic Manufac- 
tures at the Exhibition of 1851, delivered at the 
Society of Arts 2 June 1852; Digby Wyatt's 
paper on the Influence exercised on Ceramic 
Manufactures by the late Herbert Minton, read 
before the Society of Arts 26 May 1858; Ac- 
count of a Visit to the Works of Mintons (Lim.), 
Stoke-upon-Trent, 1884 ; Spon's Encycl. of the In- 
dustrial Arts, p. 1590; Account of Minton's china 
works in Staffordshire Times, 30 Oct. 1875; 
Gent. Mag. 1859, ii. 432.] K. B. P. 

MIRFELD, JOHN (Jl. 1393), writer on 
medicine, whose name is written Marifeldus 
by Leland (Commentarii de Scriptt. Brit. 
c. 582), was a canon regular of St. Austin in 
the priory of St. Bartholomew in West 
Smithfield, London. He studied at Oxford, 
and there attended the medical lectures of 
Nicholas Tyngewich. He received medical 
instruction from a London practitioner, whom 
he calls ' my master,' but does not name, 
and who was a bold operator. He witnessed 
tapping of the brain and the healing of an 
incised wound of the stomach, as well as the 
partial cure of a paralysis due to cerebral 
haemorrhage caused by a fall from a horse. 
John Helme, one of the brethren of the 
neighbouring foundation of St. Bartholo- 
mew's Hospital, taught him how to treat 
the plague. About 1387 he wrote a great 
treatise on medicine, entitled ' Breviarium 
Bartholomaei,' of which there is a fine manu- 
script copy, written in that year for the hos- 
pital of St. John the Baptist attached to the 
Abbey of Abingdon, in the library of Pem- 
broke College, Oxford, and two imperfect 
ones in the British Museum, which both be- 
longed to Dr. John Dee [q. v.] The ' Bre- 
viarium ' is divided into fifteen parts, viz. : 
1, fevers ; 2, affections of the whole body ; 
3, of the head, neck, and throat ; 4, of the 
chest ; 5, of the abdomen ; 6, of the pelvic 
organs ; 7, of the legs ; 8, of boils ; 9, of 
wounds and bruises; 10, of fractures and 
dislocations ; 11, of dislocations of joints ; 
12, of simple medicines; 13, of compound 
medicines ; 14, of purgatives ; 15, of the 
preservation and recovery of health. It 
contains many interesting cases and original 
remarks. He had read Gaddesden, the 
Arabians, and the ' Regimen Sanitatis Sa- 
lerni.' He tells how to make gingerbread, 
and gives the English names of many diseases, 
among them ' smalpockes/ one of the earliest 
citations of this term. He is an excellent 
teller of stories, and his accounts of the 
Augustinian canon thrown from his horse, 
of the fraudulent innkeeper's tricks, and of 
the doings of a mad dog are superior in 

detail and liveliness to the best narratives 
of Gaddesden. He also wrote 'Parvus Trac- 
tatus de S ignis Prognostic is Mortis ' (Lam- 
beth Library MS. 444). In 1393 he appeared 
in a court of law to represent the convent 
of St. Bartholomew in West Smithfield. 

[Breviarium Bartholomsei, manuscript in li- 
brary of Pembroke College, Oxford, and that in 
the Harleian Collection, No. 3; AnecdotaOxoni- 
ensa, Sinonima Bartholomei, edited by J. L. Gr. 
Mowat (this is a part of the Pembroke copy of 
the Breviarium) ; Norman Moore's Progress of 
Medicine at St. Bartholomew's Hospital, 1889, 
an Introductory Lecture on the Principles and 
Practice of Medicine, Lancet, No. 3659, contain- 
ing several extracts from the Pembroke MS.] 

N. M. 

MIRK, JOHN (Jl. 1403?), prior of 
Lilleshall in Shropshire, is chiefly known by 
his ' Liber ffestialis,' written in English. 
The manuscript, in Cott. Claud. A. n. f. 123, 
has the colophon : ' Explicit tractus qui dici- 
tur ffestial. Per fratrem Johannem Mirkus 
compositus, canonicum regularem Monasterii 
de Lulshu.ll.' The < Festival ' begins with a 
preface in which the writer speaks of himself 
as of one who has charge of souls, and must 
teach his parishioners about the principal 
feasts, information respecting which he has 
partly drawn from the 'Legenda Aurea.' Each 
sermon begins with moral reflections and 
ends with a ' narracio,' the source of which is 
often named. The Cott. MS. contains a story 
about a man of Lilleshall (f. 116), and ser- 
mons for the feasts of the local saints, St. 
Wenefreda and St. Alkemund of Shrews- 
bury. The Cambridge University Library 
MS. Dd. 10. 50 omits the local legends and 
the colophon (Ee. II. 15 and Nn. in. 10 are 
mutilated). The Harl. MSS. 2371 and 2391 
supply the sermons, without the local legends 
and preface, and are arranged * de tempore r 
and ' de sanctis.' The Lansdowne MS. 392 (1), 
which resembles Cott. Claud. A. II., omits 
twelve sermons between St. Margaret's day 
and the Ember days, and ends at All Saints' 
day. The conclusion of the manuscript is 
imperfect. No common origin has yet been 
assigned to the numerous manuscripts of the 
' Liber Festialis.' The printed editions of 
the ' Festial ' by Caxton (1483) and Wyn- 
kyn De Worde (1493) have Mirk's preface, 
but are arranged like the Harl. MSS., with 
various omissions. 

Mirk wrote also the ' Manuale Sacerdo- 
tum,' found in Harl. 5306, Bodl. Cod. Digb. 
75(26), f. 162, imperfect, Jesus Coll. Oxon. I., 
and Cambridge University Library, Ff. 1, 14. 
The title of Harl. 5306, in a later hand, states 
that the author was John Mirseus. The Jesus 
Coll. MS. removes any uncertainty by the 



colophon, ' Explicit libellus dictus . . . secun- 
dum Johannem Marcus, priorem abathie de 
Lilyshel.' Both this manuscript and Harl. 
5306 begin with a letter : ' Amico suo Ka- 
rissimo domino iohanni de S. uicario de A. 
f rater iohannis dictus prior de 1. salutem.' 
The writer humbly asks for corrections, and 
hopes J. de S. may not long delay to turn 
the work into English. In Harl. MS. 5306 
the last eight chapters of the fifth part are 
missing. The Cambridge MS. does not con- 
tain the letter, but is entitled l Manuale 
Sacerdotis ' (Johannis Lilleshullensis) ; it is 
complete, and the transcriber's name, Robert 
Wasselyn, chaplain, is recorded. Mr. Brad- 
shaw noted that the subject and treatment of 
the f Manual ' are much like that of Mirk's 
* Instructions to Parish Priests,' an English 
poem in rhyming couplets, printed for the 
Early English Text Society from the Cott. 
MS. Claud. A. n. ff. 127, 152. This poem, 
which Mirk says he translated from the Latin 
called ' Pars Oculi/ is neither a versified trans- 
lation of John de Burgh's ' Pupilla Oculi ' (a 
dictionary of theological subjects alphabeti- 
cally arranged), nor of Mirk's ' Manual,' as 
has been suggested, but of the ' Pupilla Oculi ' 
by William de Pagula [q. v.] Of this Mirk has 
used both the ' dextra' and the ' sinistra pars,' 
but chiefly the ' dextra.' 

No list of the priors of the canons regular 
of Lilleshull is known, and Mirk's date can- 
not be ascertained. Pits gives it as 1403. 

[Manuscripts quoted in the text (Early English 
Text Soc.) ; Instructions to Parish Priests, ed. 
Perry, with note by H. Bradshaw. On the early 
editions of the Liber Festialis see Lowndes's 
Bibliog. Manual, s.v. ' Festival.'] M. B. 

MISAUBIN, JOHN, M.D. (d. 1734), 
was born in France, and graduated M.D. at 
the university of Cahors on 7 July 1687. He 
settled in London, and became a licentiate 
of the College of Physicians on 25 June 1719. 
His foreign manner and accent sometimes 
excited ridicule, and though he was a regular 
licentiate his arrogance and method of prac- 
tice caused him to be described and carica- 
tured as a quack. In one print of the time 
he is represented as saying ' Prenez des pilules, 
prenez des pilules,' and Fielding relates ( Tom 
Jones, bk. xiii. chap, ii.) that he ' used to say 
that the proper direction to him was to Dr. 
Misaubin " in the world," intimating that 
there were few people in it to whom his great 
reputation was not known.' He has left no 
writings, and his chief claim to recollection 
is that he is one of the four medical prac- 
titioners mentioned in l Tom Jones,' the others 
being Dr. Sydenham [q. v.] and the surgeons 
John Freke [q. v.] and John Ranby [q. v.] 

He lived near Covent Garden, and died on 
AJ April 1734. 

[Munk's Coll. of Phys. ii. 67; Fielding's Tom 
Jones, ed. 1749, v. 8 ; William Wadd's Nuffae 
Chirurgicse, London, 1824.] N. M. 

1654), merchant and economic writer, was 
deputy-governor of the Merchant Adven- 
turers' Company at Delft from 1623 until 
1633. Upon his departure from England 
(October 1623) the East India Company in- 
vited him to act as one of their commissioners 
at Amsterdam to negotiate a private treaty 
with the Dutch. He appears to have been 
well qualified for the position. He was ' re- 
puted a proper merchant and a good civilian' 
(Court Minutes, 17-21 Oct. 1623 ; State 
Papers, East Indies), and had probably been 
employed by the Merchant Ad venturers' Com- 
pany in 1616 in a similar capacity (Carleton 
Letters, 1615-16-1620, pp. 63, 64). His fellow- 
commissioner was Robert Barlow, East India 
merchant. The negotiations, however, were 
fruitless, owing chiefly to the unreasonable 
attitude of the Dutch. Upon the report of the 
outrages at Amboyna new difficulties arose, 
and Misselden himself suffered from ill-health. 
He returned to England, and presented to 
the company an account of the negotiations 
(3 Nov. 1624). The court acknowledged that 
' he had failed in no point of sufficiency or 
integrity, and so, in respect he was sickly, 
wished him to take his ease.' He received 
100/. as ' a token of the well-acceptance of 
his services.' He returned to Delft at the 
end of November 1624, and during the next 
four years he was again employed by the East 
India Company in their attempts to obtain 
satisfaction for the outrages at Amboyna. 
He was also entrusted with the negotiations 
on behalf of the Merchant Adventurers' Com- 
pany for a reduction of the duties on English 
cloth (Court Minutes, 3 Feb. 1626 ; Ashmo- 
lean MS. 831, f. 251). Carleton, the English 
ambassador at the Hague, believed that he 
had been bribed by the Dutch to secretly un- 
dermine the influence of the two companies in 
Holland, but there is no evidence of the truth 
of this accusation, and the East India Com- 
pany rewarded him (27 June 1628) for his 
great pains about the business of Amboyna.' 
The States-General, on the other hand, sus- 
pected him of compromising their interests by 
sending secret information to England, and 
confronted him (October 1628) with some of 
his letters. ' But when he had given his answers 
they had not much to say '(Misselden to Lord 
Dorchester, 18 Oct. 1628, State Papers, East 
Indies). He was so aggrieved at his treat- 
ment that he declined to have anything fur- 

B 2 



ther to do with the East India Company's 
affairs. His case, however, was taken up by 
the privy council, and reparation was made 
(Court Minutes, 24 and 26 Nov. 1628). 

Misselden threw himself heartily into 
Laud's schemes for bringing the practice of 
the English congregations abroad into con- 
formity with that of the church of England. 
The merchant adventurers at Delft were 
strongly presbyterian, and John Forbes, their 
preacher, exercised great influence. Missel- 
den's attempts to thrust the prayer-book upon 
them were met by plots to eject him from 
his position, and he and Forbes were ' irre- 
concilably at variance ' (William Boswell to 
the council, 18 March 1633, State Papers, 
Dom. Ser.) He was ultimately turned out, 
and the company chose in his place Samuel 
Avery, an ardent presbyterian. Two years 
later (1635) abortive attempts were made 
to obtain his election as deputy-governor at 
Rotterdam, and the king addressed a letter to 
the Merchant Adventurers' Company vainly 
recommending them to deprive Robert Ed- 
wards, whom they had recently chosen for 
that post (the king to the merchant adven- | 
turers, 19 May 1635, ib.} His aid in thrusting 
the prayer-book on the merchant adventurers 
did not constitute Misselden's sole claim to 
recognition ; he had furnished Philip Burla- 
machi with large sums for the king's service, 
of which, in May 1633, 13,000/. remained un- 
paid. He was to be satisfied out of Burla- 
machi's estate l as soon as possible.' 

Misselden was subsequently employed by 
the Merchant Adventurers' Company on 
various missions. A rumour at the end of 
1649 that he was to be appointed deputy at 
Hamburg gave some dissatisfaction, for he 
was 'reported to be not only a royal ma- 
lignant but a scandalous man in his life 
and conversation ' (Walter Strickland to the 
council of state, 23-13 Dec. 1649; CAKT, 
Memorials of the Civil War, ii. 207). He 
was at Hamburg in the following year on 
some business of the merchant adventurers. 
He was ' well-accepted ' and likely to ' prove 
very serviceable to the company' (Richard 
Bradshaw to my Lord President, 3 Sept. 
1650, Hist. MSS. Comm. 6th Rep. p. 430). 
It is probable that he was at this time trying 
to find favour with the parliament. Four 
years later he addressed a letter to Cromwell, 
pointing out his previous services (THITRLOE, 
iii. 13). He had furnished the council of state 
with maps of Holland and Brabant, particu- 
lars relative to the navigation of the Scheldt, 
and a narrative of the Amboyna negotiations. 
But he never received an answere, nor soe 
much as his charges for lawyers' fees, and 
length of time, study, and labour.' 

Misselden's economic writings were pri- 
marily called forth by the appointment of 
the standing commission on trade (1622). In 
his ' Free Trade, or the Means to make Trade 
flourish,' London, 1622, he discussed the 
causes of the alleged decay of trade, which 
he attributed to the excessive consumption 
of foreign commodities, the exportation of 
bullion by the East India Company, and de- 
fective searching in the cloth trade. His 
object appears to have been to disarm the 
opposition to the regulated companies, es- 
pecially the Merchant Adventurers', and turn 
it against the joint-stock associations. The 
views which he put forth on the East India 
trade are inconsistent with those which he 
advocated in the following year. Gerard 
Malynes [q. v.] immediately attacked his 
pamphlet, urging in opposition the princi- 
ples of foreign exchange with which his 
name is identified. In reply Misselden pub- 
lished ' The Circle of Commerce, or the Bal- 
lance of Trade, in Defence of Free Trade, 
opposed to Malynes' " Little Fish and his 
Great Whale," and poized against them in the 
Scale,' London, 1623, 4to. After refuting Ma- 
lynes's views, and stating a substantially ac- 
curate theory of exchange, he discussed the 
balance of trade. He defended the exporta- 
tion of bullion on the ground that by the 
re-exportation of the commodities which the 
country was thus enabled to purchase the trea- 
sure of the nation was augmented. His theory 
of the balance of trade differs in no impor- 
tant respect from that which was afterwards 
elaborated by Thomas Mun [q. v.] Like Mun, 
Misselden lived at one time at Hackney; the 
two writers must have been brought into 
close relations with each other during the 
Amboyna negotiations. 

[The authorities quoted ; Gardiner's History, 
vii. 315 ; Clarendon State Papers, 1621, p. 184; 
Gal. State Papers, East Indies, 1621-9 passim; 
State Papers, Dom. Ser. 1611-43; Hist. MSS. 
Comm. 3rd Eep. p. 174, 12th Rep. i. 465, 467. 
For Misselden's economic views vide authorities 
quoted under G-EBABD MALYNES and THOMAS 
MUN.] W. A. S. H. 


(1650 P-1722), traveller and author, was born 
in France about 1650, and was one of the pro- 
testant judges in the ' chamber of the edict ' 
in the parlement of Paris. On the revocation 
in 1685 he found refuge in England, and was 
chosen by James, first duke of Ormonde [q.v.J, 
to be tutor to his younger grandson, Charles 
Butler, afterwards Earl of Arran. Misson 
made the grand tour with his pupil during 
1687 and 1688, travelling to Italy through 
Rotterdam, Cologne, Nuremberg, Munich, 
and Innspruck, over the Brenner, and thence 




by Verona to Venice. He visited the Santa 
Casa at Loretto and the places of interest 
round about Naples, made a long sojourn in 
Rome, and returned by leisurely stages 
through Bologna, Modena, Parma, Milan, 
Pavia, Genoa, Turin, Chambery, Geneva, 
Strasburg, and Brussels. A product of the 
journey was a work which remained the 
standard ' Handbook ' for Italy for at least 
fifty years after its publication, the much- 
quoted 'Nouveau Voyage d'ltalie, avec un 
Memoire contenant des avis utiles a ceux qui 
voudront faire le mesme voyage,' 2 vols. 12mo, 
the Hague, 1691. The dedication to Charles 
Butler is dated London, 1 Jan. 1691 (2nd 
ed. * beaucoup augmented,' 1694, 12mo ; 4th 
edit. 1698, 12mo ; 5th ed. ' contenant les re- 
marques que M. Addisson a faites dans son 
Voyage d'ltalie,' Utrecht, 1722, 12mo ; 6th 
ed. the Hague, 1731, 8vo. The first English 
translation appeared in 1695, London, 8vo ; 
a second in 1699 ; the fourth in 1714 : it 
formed part, together with the European 
travels of Dr. Edward Brown and John Ray, 
of the second volume of John Harris's ' Navi- 

fantium atque Itinerantium Bibliotheca,' 
705, and occupies vols. xviii. and xix. of 
1 The World Displayed/ 1774). 

Addison, in the preface to his ' Travels,' 
remarked with justice of Misson that 'his 
account of Italy in general is more correct 
than that of any writer before him, as he 
particularly excels in the plan of the country 
which he has given in true and lively colours.' 
The work is not, as has often been stated, 
aggressively protestant ; it nevertheless pro- 
voked in 1705 'Remarques historiques et 
critiques faites dans un Voyage d'ltalie,' by P. 
Freschot, a Benedictine of Franche-Comte, 
Cologne, 1705, 8vo. Misson replied with 
unnecessary acrimony in the preface to his 
edition of the voyages of Francois Leguat 
[q. v.], and Freschot replied in ' Nouvelle 
Relation de la Voyage de Venise.' A few 
historical errors on Misson's part are pointed 
out by Francis Pegge in his ' Anonymiana ' 
(1809, pp. 210-13). 

Misson's second work, which has proved 
itself almost if not quite as quotable as his 
first, was ' Memoires et Observations faites 
par un voyageur en Angleterre . . . avec une 
description particuliere de ce qu'il y a de 
plus curieux dans Londres,' the Hague, 
1798. The plates of the original edition 
are curious, notably one entitled 'Coacres 
et Coacresses dans leurs assemblies.' A 
translation by J. Ozell [q. v.] appeared at 
London in 1719, 8vo. The observations, 
which are disposed in alphabetical order, 
forming a descriptive dictionary of London, 
are both humorous and original ; among the 

most entertaining are those on 'Beaux' 

< "D^ i : . _i? -i 9 t T* . , ^. 

Prince of ' (containing a racy supplement to 
the warming-pan legend), and ' Weddings.' 
The best part of the material is embodied in 
Mr. Ashton's valuable < Social Life in the 
Reign of Queen Anne.' 

From 1698 Misson appears to have lived 
in London and to have participated largely 
in the dissensions of the resident French 
colony. In his ' Theatre Sacre des Cevennes, 
ou Recit des prodiges arrives dans cette 
partie du Languedoc' (London, 1707), he 
espoused the cause of the ' French prophets ' 
with a pathetic credulity, and his champion- 
ship of Elias Marion and his confederates 
might well have brought him to the pillory 
(BoYEK, Queen Anne, 1735, p. 317). For an 
English version of Misson's ' Theatre,' entitled 
'A Cry from the Desart : or Testimonials of 
the Miraculous Things lately come to pass 
in the Cevennes, verified upon oath and by 
other proofs ' (1707), John Lacy [q.v.], the 
pseudo-prophet, appears to have been re- 
sponsible. The work evoked several critical 
and satirical pamphlets (see ' Lettre d'un 
Particulier a Mr. Misson, 1'honnete homme, 
touchant les Miracles, burlesques,' &c., 1707, 
and ' Meslanges de Literature historique et 
critique sur ce qui regarde 1'etat extraordi- 
naire des Cevennois, appelez Camisards.' See 
also authorities under LACY, JOHN). Misson 
died in London on 22 Jan. 1722. Hearne 
calls him, truly, 'vir navus et industrius, 
summaque humanitate prseditus' (Collect., 
ed. Doble, ii. 226). 

[Moreri's Diet. Historique ; Chalmers's Biog. 
Diet. xxii. 200 ; Biog. Univ. xxviii. 400 ; McClin- 
tock and Strong's Cyclopaedia, vi. 382 ; Aikin's 
General Biog. vii. 120; Agnew's Protestant 
Exiles, p. 303; Smiles's Huguenot Kefugees, p. 
415; Weiss's Protestant Kefugees, p. 266; 
Lowndes's Bibl. Man. (Bohn) ; Southey's Com- 
monplace Book, ii. 50; Hudibras, ed. Zach. Grey, 
1819, iii. 92 n. ; Halkett and Laing's Diet, of 
Anon, and Pseudon. Lit. col. 546; Brit. Mus. 
Cat.] T. S. 

MIST, NATHANIEL (d. 1737), printer, 
may have been the son of James Mist of 
Easton, Wiltshire, and Martha Stagg of 
Kensington, to whom a license for marriage 
was granted by the vicar-general in October 
1666. In early life, he tells us, he served in the 
navy, especially in the Spanish seas (Misi s 
Weekly Journal, 25 Oct. 1718), probably as a 
common sailor (Hist.MSS. Comm. 10th Rep. 
pt. i., ' Manuscripts of C. F. W. Underwood, 
esq.,'p.495). On 15Dec. 1716 he was aprinter 
in Great Carter Lane, and commenced a folio 




newspaper of six pages, the 'Weekly Journal, 
or Saturday's Post,' which became the organ 
of the Jacobites and ' High-flyers.' In April 
1717 Mist was arrested on suspicion of print- 
ing libels against the government, but was 
released after examination (Misx's Journal, 
26 April 1717). Next week he was tried for 
printing * The Case of Mr. Francis Francia, 
the Reputed Jew,' but was at once dis- 
charged (ib. 4 May 1717). The 'Journal' 
for 3 Aug. contained an editorial manifesto, 
protesting against charges of disloyalty, and 
promising that every effort should be used to 
obtain early news, especially direct news 
from abroad, 'translated by the ablest hands.' 
This address to the reader is, there can be 
little doubt, the first contribution to the 
paper by Daniel Defoe [q. v.], who, acting as 
an agent of the whig government, introduced 
himself ' in the disguise of a translator of the 
foreign news ' into the office of the ' Journal ' 
with the object of thus rendering its contents 
harmless without exciting the suspicion of 
the proprietor. Defoe's connection with the 
paper was soon well known ; it was referred 
to in Read's whig ' Weekly Journal ' for 
14 Dec., and in the same paper for 28 Dec. 
it was alleged that messengers sent to search 
Mist's house had found the originals of sedi- 
tious articles, which the publisher swore 
were in Defoe's handwriting. In Mist's 
' Journal' for 21 Dec. a correspondent com- 
plained that the paper seemed to be turning 
whig, and a paragraph in reply to Read de- 
clared that Defoe was ' no way at all con- 
cerned ' in it ; yet in the next number ap- 
peared an able article against the imprison- 
ment of honest but disabled debtors, bearing 
Defoe's own initials, ' D. D. F.' 

Between April and June 1718 Defoe placed 
on record, in a series of letters to Mr. Charles 
Delafaye (to be found in Mr. William Lee's 
' Life of Defoe '), an account of his connection 
with Mist's' Journal' and other tory papers. 
Sometimes he sent to the secretary of state's 
office objectionable articles which he had 
stopped; sometimes he apologised for having 
overlooked certain paragraphs, and said he 
had warned Mist to be more wary. At last he 
thought he had Mist ' absolutely resigned to 
proper measures, which would make his paper 
even serviceable to the government.' On 
4 June he spoke of an attempt made by Ed- 
mund Curll [q. v.] to trepan Mist into words 
against the government, with a view of inform- 
ing against him. On 5 and 12 April Defoe 
had published in Mist's 'Journal' attacks on 
Curll's indecent publications, and Curll re- 
plied in'Curlicism display'd ... in a Letter 
to Mr. Mist.' Mist seems to have challenged 
Curll, and he concluded a letter on the sub- 

ject in the ' Journal' for 14 June with the 
'words, ' O Cur thou liest.' According to 
Read's 'Journal' of the same date, Mist was 
the coward, as he did not keep the engage- 
ment. In his ' Journal ' for 21 and 28 June 
and 26 July Mist replied to scandalous tales 
in Ridpath's 'Flying Post/ and each party 
threatened the other with an action for libel. 
On 20 and 27 Sept. Defoe printed letters in 
the ' Journal ' warning Mist not to give the 
government an opportunity of prosecuting 
him. In October Read's ' Journal ' spoke of 
Defoe and Mist as ' Daniel Foe and his 
printer ; ' and in the same month Mist's life 
was threatened by two men because of a 
letter he had published charging some ladies 
with irreverence in church (Journal, 4 and 
11 Oct.) On 17 Oct. Mist was seized by a 
messenger, and on the following day was 
examined before Mr. Delafaye respecting a 
manuscript, 'Mr. Kerr's Secret Memoirs' [see 
KEE, JoHtf, or KEESLAND], which had been 
found upon him. He was told that he might be 
bailed when he pleased, but he did not furnish 
sureties till the following Saturday. Most of 
the time, however, he spent at his own house, 
on parole (State Papers, Dom., George I, 
Bundle 15, Nos. 14, 29). On that Saturday 
(25 Oct.) an article appeared in the 'Journal,' 
signed ' Sir Andrew Politick,' attacking the 
war with Spain; but Defoe appended a note 
qualifying the writer's statements. The num- 
ber was seized, and an official memorandum 
says : ' It is scarce credible what numbers of 
these papers are distributed both in town 
and country, where they do more mischief 
than any other libel, being wrote ad captum 
of the common people' (ib. No. 29). On 
1 Nov. Mist was examined before Lord 
Stanhope and Craggs, when he said that it 
was Defoe who had written the objection- 
able letter, together with the answer ; and 
this statement was to some extent corrobo- 
rated by Thomas Warner, printer of the 
' Journal ' (ib. Nos. 30, 33). In the ' White- 
hall Evening Post ' (1 Nov.) Defoe described 
the searching of Mist's premises, the finding 
of a seditious libel in the ceiling, and the 
committal of Mist, who, however, was soon 
discharged through Defoe's intervention. 
Read's ' Journal ' alleged that Defoe had a 
security of 500/. from Mist not to discover 
him. This Mist denied on 8 Nov., boldly 
saying that Defoe never had any share in the 
' Journal,' save that he sometimes translated 
foreign letters in the absence of the person 
usually employed. Defoe now ceased for a 
short time to have any connection with 
Mist, whose ' Journal ' for 8 Nov. was pre- 
sented by the grand jury for Middlesex on 
28 Nov. as a false, seditious, scandalous, and 




profane libel. In January 1719 Defoe again 
began to write for the paper on the condition 
that its tone was to be very moderate (LEE, 
i. 289). 

Early in 1719 Mist published ' The His- 
tory of the Reign of King George, from the 
Death of her late Majesty Queen Anne to the 
First of August 1718 ; to be continued yearly.' 
James Crossley [q. v.] was of opinion that 
Defoe compiled this volume. No subsequent 
issues seem to have appeared. 

In June 1720 Mist published news articles 
reflecting on the aid rendered to the pro- 
testants in the Palatinate by the interposition 
of the English government ; and Dr. Willis, 
bishop of Gloucester, having brought the 
matter before the House of Lords, Mist was 
ordered to be prosecuted by the attorney- 
general. He was accordingly arrested, and 
committed to the King's Bench prison. 
Defoe, who was ill at the time, found it 
necessary to protest his innocence of any 
share in Mist's present excesses. On 3 Dec. 
Mist was tried before Lord Chief-justice 
Pratt, at the Guildhall, and was found guilty 
of scandalously reflecting on the king's in- 
terposition in favour of the protestants 
abroad. On 13 Feb. 1721 he was brought 
up upon his recognisance for judgment, and 
sentenced to stand in the pillory at Charing 
Cross and the Royal Exchange, to pay a 
fine of 50/., to suffer three months' imprison- 
ment in the King's Bench, and to give 
security for good behaviour for seven years. 
Both at the Royal Exchange, on the 20th, 
and at Charing Cross, on the 23rd, Mist was 
very well treated by the mob (READ'S Journal, 
25 Feb. ; BOTEK, Political State ; Notes and 
Queries, 4th ser. v. 2). Unable to pay the 
fine, Mist remained in prison, and in May, 
owing to the publication in his ' Journal ' of 
articles which reflected upon the king and 
the Duke of Marlborough, he was placed at 
the bar of the House of Commons, and, as 
lie would not give up the names of the 
writers of the letters, committed to New- 
gate, together with several persons who sold 
the paper. Defoe, writing in 'Applebee's 
Journal,' urged the government to show 
clemency towards the offenders, visited Mist 
in prison, and helped him to prepare a selec- 
tion, in two volumes, of the letters that had 
appeared in the ' Journal.' Illness, brought 
on by anxiety and the unhealthy conditions 
of prison life, made it necessary to postpone 
Mist's trial from 9 Oct. to 9 Dec., when, no 
-evidence being brought against him, he was 

The 'Collection of Miscellany Letters, 
selected out of Mist's Weekly Journal/ ap- 
peared on 9 Jan. 1722, in two volumes, with 

I dedications dated from the King's Bench 
prison, 29 Sept. and 10 Nov. 1721 respec- 
tively, m which Mist explained the cause of 
the delay m the publication of the book, and 
said that his troubles had cost him more 
than 1,000/. From 16 Dec. 1721 to 29 Sept. 
1722 the * Journal ' was ' printed by Dr. Gav- 
land for N. Mist/ 

On 8 June 1723 Mist again printed a libel 
upon the government, and was again in 
trouble at the end of the month (Journal, 
6 July), but he was liberated on a recog- 
nisance of 1,400/. On 24 Feb. 1724 he was 
tried at the King's Bench and found guilty. 
The recognisance was estreated (id. 29 Feb.) 
He was brought up for judgment on 18 May, 
and was sentenced to pay a fine of 100/., to 
suffer a year's imprisonment, and to find sure- 
ties for good behaviour during life. Mr. Abel 
Kettelby of the Middle Temple was counsel 
both for Mist and for Payne of the ' True 
Briton,' but though he pleaded eloquently, the 
court ' thought their offences too great to allow 
of any mitigation ' (Parker's London News, 
20 May 1724). One number of the < Journal' 
(20 June) was ' printed by W. Wilkins, at 
the Dolphin in Little Britain, and sold by 
J. Peele, Paternoster Row.' The new Stamp 
Act of 1725 brought the original series to an 
end (24 April), but a new series was begun on 
1 May, with the title ' Mist's Weekly Journal.' 
The price was raised from three halfpence to 
twopence, and the paper reduced to a quarto 
sheet of four pages. The size of the page 
was enlarged on 30 April 1726. On 25 March 

1727 Mist brought out third and fourth 
volumes of ' Miscellany Letters,' taken from 
the ' Journal.' From 2 Dec. 1727 to 31 Aug. 

1728 the 'Journal' was printed by John 
Wolfe, Great Carter Lane. 

In 1727 Mist was again tried at the court 
of king's bench for a libel on George I, and 
was sentenced to pay a fine of 100/., to give 
security for good behaviour during life, and 
to be imprisoned till the sentence was ful- 
filled. The sentence remained in abeyance 
till 15 Sept., when an escape warrant was 
issued for seizing Mist at the King's Arms 
Tavern on Ludgate Hill. Mist's friends are 
said to have turned out the lights and thrust 
him out in the confusion that ensued (Citi- 
zen, 25 Sept.) ; but he surrendered on the 
following day. Mist afterwards, however, 
denied this story (Journal, 30 Sept.), saying 
that when the messenger appeared he went 
with him into another room, and, after ex- 
amining the warrant (the force of which he 
at first disputed, because it was signed in 
the reign of the late King George I), sur- 
rendered himself, and was, he added, still in 



In March 1728 the 'Journal' contained 
several articles directed against Pope, which 
Fenton noticed in writing to William Broome 
[q. v.l on 3 April (POPE, Works, ed. El win 
and Courthope, viii. 143) ; and afterwards 
various letters from Lewis Theobald, hero of 
the ' Dunciad,' were printed. In that poem 
(i. 208) Pope spoke incidentally of Mist 
himself: ' To Dulness Ridpath is as dear as 
Mist ; ' and among the * Testimonies of Au- 
thors ' Pope included many passages from 
the ' Journal.' 

In January 1728 Mist had found it pru- 
dent to retire to France, where he joined the 
banished Duke of Wharton (READ'S Journal, 
20 Jan.) In March James Watson, who was 
in custody for printing matter directed against 
the government, said that Mist had left a 
certain Mr. Bingley in chief charge of his 
affairs, and that Bingley might properly be 
called the author of the 'Journal,' except 
the political essay at the beginning, which 
he knew to be written by another. An un- 
successful attempt was then made to arrest 
Bingley (State Papers, Dom. George II, 
Bundle 7, Nos. 42-5, 106). On 27 July the 
' Journal ' had a paragraph stating that the 
Duke of Wharton had set up a school in 
Rouen, and had taken Bingley, formerly a 
prisoner in Newgate, to be his usher ; and 
that at the same place Mist was driving a 
hackney coach. All were, it was said, in a 
fair way of getting a decent livelihood. 

On 24 Aug. a letter signed ' Amos 
Drudge,' and directed against Walpole and 
the government, was printed in the 'Journal.' 
Active steps were at once taken against 
those who were responsible, but Mist was in 
safety at Rouen (cf. READ, Journal, 31 Aug.) 
The king was of opinion that the author, 
printers, and publishers of the paper should 
be punished with the utmost severity of the 
law (State Papers, Dom. George II, Bundle 6, 
No. 105). The manuscript of the letter signed 
'Amos Drudge ' was seized by the king's mes- 
sengers, and more than twenty persons were 
arrested (ib. Bundle 5, Nos. 71, 74) and ex- 
amined at Hampton Court on 29 and 30 Aug. 
Among those arrested then or in the following 
month were James Wolfe, printer, Elizabeth 
Nutt, widow of Nutt the bookseller, and her 
daughter Catherine, William Burton, printer, 
Mist's maid and nephew, Dr. Gayland, and 
Farley, who had reprinted the letter in a 
paper he published at Exeter. On 31 Aug. 
the grand jury for the county of Middlesex 
expressed their abhorrence at the article, and 
other grand juries followed the example 
(BoTEE, Political State, August and October 
1728). The ' Journals ' for 7 and 14 Sept. ap- 
peared as one number, and the 'Journal ' for 

21 Sept. was the last that appeared. These 
were printed by J. Wilford, and a warrant 
was issued against him on account of an attack 
in the paper for 7 and 14 Sept. upon the 
action of the legislature against the South 
Sea Company. Wilford surrendered him- 
self, and was admitted to bail (READ'S Jour- 
nal, 28 Sept.) Wolfe, who had supervised 
the press for Mist, retired to join his master, 
then at Boulogne (BTJDGELL'S Bee, February 
1733) ; but other friends continued the 
' Journal ' under the new name of ' Fog's 
Weekly Journal,' of which the first number, 
containing a letter signed ' N. Mist,' ap- 
peared on 28 Sept. Various persons had 
been arrested when ' Mist's Journal ' for 7 and 
14 Sept. was seized, and the press was de- 
stroyed. There are several petitions from 
these persons among the ' State Papers ' 
(Bundle 5, Nos. 70, 80-6 ; Bundle 6, Nos. 54, 
55, 74-80). 

About the end of 1724 Defoe, writing 
anonymously in 'Applebee's Journal,' said 
that he had been abused and insulted by one 
whom he had fetched three times out of 
prison ; and that this person had at length 
drawn a sword upon him, but that, being 
disarmed, he had been forgiven, and the 
wound inflicted in self-defence attended to. 
But, said Defoe, this kindness was followed 
only by more ingratitude. In 1730, when 
Defoe was ill and was living in concealment 
near Greenwich, he spoke of having received 
a blow 'from a wicked, perjured, and con- 
temptible enemy, that has broken in upon my 
spirit.' Mr. Lee has argued, very plausibly, 
that this enemy was Mist, who, it is suggested, 
had represented to the English government 
the share Defoe had taken in various tory jour- 
nals, perhaps supporting his statements by 
the production of objectionable articles, with 
alterations in Defoe's writing. The discovery 
by Mist of Defoe's secret understanding with 
the whigs when working for tory papers 
probably accounts for his active hostility. 

In 1734 the titular Earl of Dunbar had a 
clandestine correspondence with Mist. In 
it he requested Mist's aid in bringing out 
some 'Observations,' in answer to a libel 
which had been issued against him by Charles 
Hamilton [q. v.] Mist seems to have com- 
plied. Dunbar thereupon assured his Jacobite 
friends and the pretender himself that the 
paper had been printed without his know- 
ledge. But his letter to Mist was discovered 
in 1737 and forwarded to the pretender as a 
demonstrative proof that Dunbar 'is and has 
been of a long time a hired spy to the Elector 
of Hanover ' (Hist. MSS. Comm. 10th Rep. 
pt. i. pp. 490-1, 493-5, 503, 518). 

Mist died of asthma on 20 Sept. 1737, and 




the ' Gentleman's Magazine/ p. 574, spoke of 
him as ' well esteemed in private life ' (His- 
torical Register, Chron. p. 22 ; London Mag. 
p. 517). Letters of administration were 
granted on 3 Nov. to Anne Mist, widow of 
Nathaniel Mist, ' late of St. Clement Danes, 
but at Boulogne in France deceased.' 

[Authorities cited ; Lee's Life and Newly Dis- 
covered Writings of Daniel Defoe, 1869 ; Cata- 
logue of the Hope Collection of Newspapers in 
Bodleian Library ; Pope's Works, ed. Elwin and 
Courthope, vols. iii. iv. viii. x. ; Curll Papers ; 
Boyer's Political State ; Hist. Keg.] (r. A. A. 

MISYN, RICHARD (d. 1462?), Car- 
melite, and probably bishop of Dromore, 
translated Hampole's ' De Emendatione Vitro ' 
and ' Incendium Amoris ' into English. Both 
are found in the MS. Corp. Christi Oxon. 
ccxxxvi., written on vellum in a clear fif- 
teenth-century hand ; but their claim to be 
in Misyn's autograph and dialect has been 
abandoned. The ' Emendation ' begins on 
f. 45 and has at the end : ' Thus endys the 
xii chapetyrs of Richarde Hampole, in to 
Englys translate be Frere Richard Misyn to 
informacioun of Cristyn sauls, 1434.' The 
'Incendium,' in two books, begins on f. 1 with 
a preface, 'to ye askynge of thi desyre Systre 
Margarete ; ' at the end of book i. is the state- 
ment that the translator is Richard Misyn, 
hermit, and of the Carmelite order, bachelor 
of sacred theology. 1435. The end of book ii. 
further adds that he was then prior of the 
Lincoln house of Carmelites, and wrote and 
corrected the above (though this cannot be 
taken literally) on 12 July, the feast of the 
translation of St. Martin, 1435 (Guild of 
Corpus Christi, York, Surtees Soc. 1872, 
pp. 62, 240, 291). Misyn's Fire of Love ' 
and ' Mending of Life ' are being edited by 
the Rev. Ralph Hardy for the Early English 
Text Society. 

In MS. Vernon and in Addit. MS. 22283, 
f. 147 b (later version), is the ' fourme of 
parfyt living,' by Richard Rolle of Hampole 
[q. v.], and there is no warrant for ascribing 
it to Misyn ( WAETON, ed. Hazlitt, ii. 243 ; cf. 
Cat. MSS. Univ. Cambr. Corrigenda, v. 596). 

The translator is probably identical with a 
Richard Mysyn, suffragan and Carmelite, who 
in 1461 was admitted a member of the Corpus 
Christi guild of York, and also with the 
* Beschope Musin ' whose name is engraved 
on a cup that belonged to that guild. His 
see was probably Dromore, for Richard Mesin 
or Mesyn, bishop of Dromore, according to 
Bale (Carmelite Collections, Harl. MS. 3838, 
f. 38), died in 1462 and was buried in York 
monastery. Pits (Illustr. Angl. Script. p. 897), 
writing of one Richard Mesin as the author 
of several works, the names of which are not 

given, observes that he is said to have been 
buried among the Carmelites of York. Villiers 
de St.-Etienne (Bibl. Carmel. ii. 683-4) quotes 
from the consist orial acts of Calixtus III to 
prove that Richard Messin, Myssin, or Mesin 
was made bishop of Dromore on the death of 
Nicholas, 29 July 1457 ; and he was buried 
among the Carmelites of York. Stubbs (Re- 
gistr. Angl. p. 148) gives Richard Mesin as 
one of the Irish bishops who was suffragan 
to the diocese of York in 1460. 

Another Richard was bishop of Dromore in 
1409 (Cal. Rot. Cane. Hibern. i. 190), and he 
has generally, but without sufficient autho- 
rity, been called Richard Messing (REEVES, 
Eccles. Antiq. of Down, p. 308 ; WAKE, Hi- 
bernia Sacra, p. 92 ; COTTON, Fasti Eccles. 
Hib. iii. 277 ; Notes and Queries, 2nd ser. 
No. 27, p. 1). This so-called Richard Messing 
is said to have made profession of obedience 
in 1408 to John Colton [q. v.], archbishop of 
Armagh, but Colton died in 1404. 

[H. 0. Coxe's Cat. Cod. in Coll. Oxon. vol. ii. 
Corpus Chiistt, No. ccxxxvi. ; Tanner's Bibl. 
Brit. ; Brady's Episcopal Succession ; St.- 
Etienne's Bibl. Carmel. vol. ii.] M. B. 

MITAN, JAMES (1776-1822), engraver, 
was born in London on 13 Feb. 1776, and 
educated at an academy in Soho. In 1790 
he was articled to a writing engraver named 
Vincent ; but, desiring to qualify himself for 
higher work, he obtained instruction from 
J. S. Agar, studied in the schools of the 
Royal Academy, and made copies of Barto- 
lozzi's tickets. Mitan became an able en- 
graver in the line-manner, chiefly of book 
illustrations ; but as he worked largely for 
other engravers, the plates bearing his name 
are not numerous. Of these the best were 
done for Mrs. Inchbald's ' British Theatre/ 
1806-9, Sharpe's l Poets ' and 'Classics/ 
Bannatyne's edition of Shakespeare, T. 
Moore's 'Irish National Airs' (after Slot- 
hard), 1818, Dibdin's < Bibliographical Tour 
through France and Germany/ 1821, and 
'^Edes Althorpianse,' 1822,, and Jarvis's 
translation of ' Don Quixote ' (after Smirke), 
1825. A set of fifty-six small plates of na- 
tural history engraved by Mitan, apparently 
from his own designs, was published in 1822. 
Between 1802 and 1805 he exhibited at the 
Royal Academy a series of compositions 
illustrating George Moore's ' Theodosius de 
Zulvin/ and in 1818 a design for a national 
memorial of the victory of Waterloo. In 
the latter year he also made a design, eighteen 
feet long, for a chain bridge over the Mersey. 
Mitan did much work for the admiralty and 
the Freemasons. He died of paralysis in 
Warren Street, Fitzroy Square, on 16 Aug. 



1822, leaving a wife and family. A plate of 
C. R. Leslie's 'Anne Page and Slender/ 
which Mitan left unfinished, was completed 
fry Engleheart and published in 1823. 

MITAN, SAMUEL (1786-1843), brother 
and pupil of James Mitan, practised in the 
same style. He engraved many of the plates 
in Captain Batty 's ' French Scenery/ 1822, 
and was employed upon Ackermann's various 
publications. He became a member of the 
Artists' Annuity Fund in 1810, and died at 
the Polygon, Somers Town, 3 June 1843. 

[G-ent. Mag. 1823 ii. 86, 1843 ii. 104; Bed- 
grave's Diet, of Artists ; Royal Academy Cata- 
logues.] F. M. O'D. 

{fl. 1816), educational writer, born in Paris 
in 1748, was son of Huguenin du Mitand. 
His father at one time possessed an ample 
fortune, but ultimately lost it. Louis, how- 
ever, received an excellent education, and 
on coming to London about 1777 obtained a 
livelihood by teaching Greek, Latin, French, 
and Italian, according to principles laid down 
in his ' Plan of a New Method for Teaching 
Languages/ 12mo, London, 1778. In the 
introduction of this work he has given a 
humorous account of himself. He undertook 
a work in fourteen languages, to comprise an 
abstract of the best "books written in each of 
them, accompanied by grammars, but did not 
complete it. His Greek and French gram- 
roars and other school-books had a consider- 
able sale. To the * Morning Chronicle ' he 
contributed from time to time Latin verses 
on various public events, which he printed 
in 1780, 4to. He also edited the eighth 
edition of John Palairet's * Abrege' sur les 
Sciences et sur les Arts/ 12mo, London, 1778, 
and published a greatly improved edition of 
Boyer's 'French Dictionary/ 2 vols. 4to, Lon- 
don, 1816. 

[Diet, of Living Authors under Du Mitand.] 

G. G-. 

MITCH, RICHARD (fl. 1557), lawyer, 
of an Essex family, was educated at Cam- 
bridge (B.A. 1542, M.A. 1544). He was 
admitted a fellow of St. John's College 
14 March 1542-3, but subsequently removed 
to Trinity Hall. Mitch was an active op- 
ponent at Cambridge of the growth of the 
reformed religion. On 27 Jan. 1547 he was 
constituted one of Gardiner's proctors to 
produce evidence on the examination and 
trial of that bishop. On the accession of 
Queen Mary he organised a curious attack 
in the regent house on Dr. Sandys, the vice- 
chancellor, who had exhibited sympathy for 
Lady Jane Grey (FoxE, Acts and Monu- 
ments, viii. 592). In 1556 Mitch was one of 

the examiners of John Hullier, preacher, of 
Lynn, on the charge of heresy, for which 
the latter was subsequently burnt, and the 
same year he gave active assistance to 
Cardinal Pole's delegates during the visita- 
tion of the university of Cambridge. He 
was among the lawyers and heads of houses 
who, in January 1556-7, were called and 
sworn to give evidence against the heresies 
of Bucer and Fagius before the exhumation 
and burning of the bodies of those reformers. 
Mitch commenced LL.D. 1557, and was 
admitted an advocate at Doctors' Commons 
26 April 1559, and an advocate of the court 
of . arches about the same date (STKYPE, 
Life of Parker , i. 87). Subsequently, owing 
doubtless to his religious opinions, he left 
the country, and his name occurs in a list of 
recusants from Essex, who were fugitives over 
seas (STKYPE, Annals, vol. ii. pt. ii. p. 596). 

[Lamb's Coll. of Doc. from Corpus Christi 
Coll.; Strype's Annals; Baker's History of 
St. John's Coll. ; Cooper's Annals of Cambridge; 
Cooper's Athense Cantabrigienses ; Coote's Civi- 
lians ; Foxe's Acts and Monuments; Fuller's 
Hist, of Univ. of Cambridge.] W. C. 



[See also MICHELL and 

MITCHEL, JOHN (1815-1875), Irish 
nationalist, the third son of the Rev. John Mit- 
chel of Dromalane, Newry, a presbyterian 
minister, by his wife Mary Haslett, was born 
at Camnish, near Dungiven, co. Londonderry, 
on 3 Nov. 1815. He was educated at Dr. Hen- 
derson's school at Newry, where he became 
acquainted with his lifelong friend John 
Martin (1812-1875) [q. v.], and in 1830 ma- 
triculated at Trinity College, Dublin. Accord- 
ing to his biographer, Mitchel took his degree 
in 1834 (DILLON, i. 15), but his name does 
not appear in the ' Catalogue of Graduates/ 
Though intended by his father for the ministry, 
Mitchel began life as a bank clerk at London- 
derry, and subsequently entered the office of 
John Quinn, a solicitor at Newry. At the 
close of 1836 he eloped with Jane, only 
daughter of Captain James Verner of Newry, 
a schoolgirl of sixteen. The fugitives were 
captured at Chester, and Mitchel was taken 
back in custody to Ireland, where he was 
kept a few days in prison before being re- 
leased on bail. Their second attempt was, 
however, more successful, and on 3 Feb. 
1837 they were married at Drumcree. Mit- 
chel was admitted a solicitor in 1840, and 
commenced practice at Banbridge, some ten 
miles from Newry. In 1842 he became ac- 
quainted with Thomas Osborne Davis [q. v.], 
the friend who, in Mitchel's own words, ' first 
filled his soul with the passion of a great 




ambition and a lofty purpose' (ib. i. 70). In 
the following year Mitchel joined the Repeal 
Association, and in the autumn of 1845 aban- 
doned his profession and accepted a place on 
the staff of the ' Nation' under Charles Gavan 
Duffy. In June 1846 Duffy was prosecuted 
for publishing in the ' Nation ' for 22 Nov. 
1845 Mitchel's 'Railway Article.' which 
was described as a seditious libel. Mitchel 
acted as Duffy's attorney, and the jury was 
ultimately discharged without coming to an 
agreement. Mitchel took a leading part in 
the discussions on the ' moral force ' resolu- 
tions in Conciliation Hall, Dublin, and se- 
ceded from the Repeal Association with the 
rest of the Young Ireland party on 28 July 
1846. Under the influence of James Finton 
Lalor [q. v.], Mitchel's political views became 
still more advanced ; and at length, finding 
himself unable any longer to agree with Duffy's 
more cautious policy ; he retired from the ' Na- 
tion ' in December 1847. As the Irish Con- 
federation failed to concur with his views, 
Mitchel shortly afterwards withdrew from 
any active part in its proceedings, and after 
the Limerick riot resigned his membership. 

On 12 Feb. 1848 Mitchel issued the first 
number of the ' United Irishman,' a weekly 
newspaper published in Dublin, in which 
he wrote his well-known letters to Lord 
Clarendon, and openly incited his fellow- 
countrymen to rebellion. On 20 March fol- 
lowing he was called upon to give bail to 
stand his trial in the queen's bench for se- 
dition. The charge, however, was never 
proceeded with, as the juries could not be 
relied on to convict, and on 13 May Mitchel 
was arrested under the new Treason Felony 
Act, which had received the royal assent in 
the previous month. He was tried at the 
commission court in Green Street, Dublin, 
before Baron Lefroy and Justice Moore, on 
25 and 26 May 1848, and was sentenced on 
the following day to transportation for four- 
teen years. The sixteenth and last number 
of the ' United Irishman ' appeared on 27 May 
1848. In June Mitchel was conveyed in the 
Scourge to Bermuda, where he was confined 
to the hulks. In consequence of the bad state 
of his health he was subsequently removed in 
the Neptune to the Cape of Good Hope. Owing 
to the refusal of the colonists to permit the con- 
victs to land, the Neptune remained at anchor 
in Simon's Bay from 19 Sept. 1849 to 19 Feb. 
1850. In the following April Mitchel was 
landed in Van Diemen's Land, where he was 
allowed to reside in one of the police districts 
on a ticket of leave. Here he lived with his 
old friend John Martin, and in June 1851 was 
joined by his wife and family. In the summer 
of 1853 Mitchel, having previously resigned 

j his ticket of leave, escaped from Van Die- 
1 men's Land with the aid of P. J. Smyth, and 
in October landed at San Francisco, where 
he met with an enthusiastic welcome. On 
7 Jan. 1854 he started a newspaper at New 
York called ' The Citizen,' which was mainly 
distinguished while under his editorship for 
its strenuous opposition to the abolition 
| movement. With the close of the year Mit- 
chel ended his connection with the ' Citizen/ 
and took to farming and lecturing. From Oc- 
tober 1857 to August 1859 he conducted the 
'Southern Citizen,' a weekly journal in the 
interests of the slaveholders, which was first 
published at Knoxville, and subsequently at 
Washington. In August 1859 Mitchel visited 
Paris, where he went to reside in the follow- 
ing year. He returned to New York in 
September 1862, and managed after much 
difficulty to get through the Federal lines to 
Richmond. Finding that he was disqualified 
for military service by reason of his eyesight, 
he accepted the editorship of the ' Enquirer/ 
the semi-official organ of President Davis. 
Owing to the divergence of their views 
Mitchel subsequently resigned this post, and 
wrote the leading articles for the * Examiner.' 
On the conclusion of the war Mitchel went 
to New York, where he became editor of the 
'Daily News.' In consequence of his articles 
in defence of the southern cause Mitchel was 
arrested by the military authorities on 14 June 
1865, and confined in Fortress Monroe for 
nearly five months. Shortly after his release 
Mitchel went to Paris as the financial agent 
of the Fenian Brotherhood in that city, but 
resigning that office in the following year he 
returned to America in October 1866. . In 
February 1867 he refused the post of chief 
executive officer of the Fenian Brotherhood 
in America, and on 19 Oct. following pub- 
lished at New York the first number of the 
'Irish Citizen.' In this paper, which was 
strongly democratic in American politics, he 
managed to offend both the Fenians and the 
home rulers, and owing to his health giving 
way it was discontinued on 27 July 1872. 
In the summer of 1872 Mitchel paid a short 
visit to Ireland, but was unmolested by the 
government. At the general election in 
February 1874 he was nominated as a candi- 
date for the representation of Tipperary, while 
in America, but was unsuccessful. He was, 
however, elected unopposed for that con- 
stituency on 16 Feb. 1875, and landed at 
Queensto wn on the following day. On 1 8 Feb. 
Disraeli's motion declaring Mitchel ' incap- 
able of being elected or returned as a member ' 
on the ground of his being a convicted felon 
was carried, and a new writ ordered (Parl. 
Debates, 3rd ser. ccxxii. 493-539). Mitchel 



was again returned by a majority of 2,368 
votes over his conservative opponent, Mr. 
Stephen Moore, and in his address of thanks 
to the electors he once more declared his in- 
tention of 'discrediting and exploding the 
fraudulent pretence of Irish representation 
by declining to attend the sittings of parlia- 
ment.' Before the petition was presented 
against his return Mitchel died at Dromalane 
on 20 March 1875, aged 59. He was buried 
on the 23rd of the same month in the uni- 
tarian cemetery in High Street, Newry, where 
a monument was erected to his memory by 
his widow. On 26 May 1875 the Irish court 
of common pleas decided that Mitchel, being 
both an alien and a convicted felon, was not 
duly elected, and that Mr. Stephen Moore 
was duly returned (O'MALLEr and HAKD- 
CASTLE, iii. 19-49). 

Mitchel was an honest, but hopelessly un- 
practical man. Though possessing consider- 
able force of character he was deficient in 
judgment, and his whole mind was warped 
by his implacable hatred of England. In 
appearance Mitchel ' was tall and gaunt, his 
eyes were gray and piercing, his expression 
of countenance self-contained, if not satur- 
nine, his features bony and sallow, with an 
inclining to the tawny tint, high cheeks and 
determined chin ' (O'SHEA, i. 12). Mitchel 
was a ready and incisive speaker as well as 
a forcible writer. In his domestic life he is 
said to have been one of the gentlest of men. 
Carlyle, who met Mitchel in Ireland in Sep- 
tember 1846, refers to him as ' a fine elastic- 
spirited young fellow, whom I grieved to see 
rushing on destruction palpable, by attack of 
windmills, but on whom all my persuasions 
were thrown away.' He appears also to have 
told Mitchel that he would most likely be 
hanged, but ' they could not hang the im- 
mortal part of him ' (FROUDE, Carlyle, 1834- 
1881, i. 399). Mitchel had a family of six 
children. His three sons all fought on the 
confederate side in the American civil war. 
The eldest was killed at Fort Sumter, and 
the youngest at Gettysburg, while the second 
lost his right arm in one of the battles round 

Mitchel edited the poems of Thomas Os- 
borne Davis (New York, 1846) and of James 
Clarence Mangan [q. v.] (New York, 1859, 
8vo). The lecture which he delivered at 
New York on 20 Dec. 1872, on 'Froude 
from the standpoint of an Irish Protestant/ 
will be found in ' Froude's Crusade Both 
Sides ' (New York, 1 873, 8vo). He was also 
the author of the following works : 1. ' The 
Life and Times of Aodh O'Neill, Prince of 
Ulster ; called by the English, Hugh, Earl, 
of Tyrone. With some Account of his Pre- 

decessors, Con, Shane, and Tirlough,' Dublin, 
1846, 12mo, in 'Duffy's Library of Ireland ; ' 
as 'Life of Hugh O'Neill, Earl of Tyrone,' 
New York, 12mo, 1868. 2. ' Jail Journal, or 
Five Years in British Prisons,' &c., New 
York, 1854, 12mo ; author's edition, Glasgow 
[1856], 8vo ; new edition, New York, 1868, 
12mo. The 'Journal' was afterwards con- 
tinued by Mitchel in the ' Irish Citizen,' and 
brought down to 1866. 3. ' The Last Con- 
quest of Ireland (perhaps),' New York, 1860, 
Dublin and Glasgow, 1861, 8vo. Reprinted 
in 'The Crusade of the Period,' &c., see 
infra ; ' author's edition,' Glasgow [1876], 
8vo. 4. ' An Apology for the British Go- 
vernment in Ireland,' Dublin, 1860 ; another 
edition, 1882. 5. ' The History of Ireland, 
from the Treaty of Limerick to the Present 
Time ; being a Continuation of the History 
of the Abbe" Macgeoghegan,' New York, 
1868, 8vo ; other editions, Dublin, 1869, 8vo, 
2 vols., Glasgow, 1869, 8vo. The latter por- 
tion was reprinted in 1871 as ' Ireland since 
'98,' &c., Glasgow, 8vo. 6. 'The Crusade of 
the Period : and Last Conquest of Ireland 
(perhaps).' New York, 1873, 12mo, in the 
Irish- American Library, vol. iv. ; a reply to 
Mr. Froude's ' English in Ireland.' 

[Mitchel's Jail Journal, and other works ; W. 
Dillon's John Mitchel, 1888, with portrait; 
Duffy's Four Years of Irish History, 1845-9, 
1883; Sullivan's Speeches from the Dock, 1887, 
pp. 74-96 ; O'Shea's Leaves from the Life of a 
Special Correspondent, 1885, i. 9-24; Hodges's 
Eeport of the Trial of John Mitcbel, 1848; 
May's Parliamentary Practice, 1883, pp. 39, 
724-5 ; Webb's Compendium of Irish Biography, 
1878, pp. 340-2 ; Wills's Irish Nation, 1875, iv,- 
695-7 ; Head's Cabinet of Irish Literature, 1880, 
iii. 329-36 ; Life of Mitchel, by P. A. Sillard 
(Duffy's National Library), 1889; Appleton's 
Cyclop, of American Biog. 1878, iv. 341; Gent. 
Mag. 1875, new ser. xiv. 593-608; Annual Re- 
gister, 1875, pt. i. pp. 8-ll,pt.ii.p. 137 ; Dublin 
Univ. Mag. Ixxxv. 481-92 ; Democratic Review, 
xxiii. 149, xxx. 97-128, with portrait; Times, 
22, 24, 29 March 1875; Freeman's Journal, 22 
and 24 March 1875; Nation, 20 and 27 March 
1875, with portrait; Allibone's Diet, of Engl. 
Lit. Suppl. ii. 1119 ; Brit. Mus. Cat] 

G. F. R. B. 

MITCHEL, JONATHAN (1624P-1668), 
New England divine, born in Halifax, York- 
shire, about 1624, was son of Matthew 
Mitchel (SAVAGE, Genealog. Diet. iii. 220). 
He accompanied his parents to America in 
1635, graduated at Harvard in 1647, and on 
24 June 1649 preached at Hartford, Con- 
necticut, with such acceptance that he was 
invited to succeed Thomas Hooker (1586- 
1647) [q.v.] This offer he declined. In 
May 1650 he was elected fellow of Harvard, 




and appears to have acted as tutor. He did 
much towards promoting the prosperity of 
the college. After being ordained at Cam- 
bridge, Massachusetts, on 21 Aug. 1650, he 
succeeded Thomas Shepard as pastor of that 
town. When his old preceptor, Henry 
Dunster [q. v.], president of Harvard, openly 
announced his conversion to the doctrines of 
the baptists, Mitchel opposed him, although 
retaining his friendship. Dunster died in 
1659, and Mitchel wrote some wretched 
lines in his memory, printed in Cotton 
Mather's ' Ecclesiastes ' (p. 70), and in the 
same author's e Magnalia ' (bk. iv. sect. 175). 
Mitchel hospitably entertained the regicides 
Whalley and Goffe when they sought refuge 
in Cambridge in July 1660. In June 1661 
he was one of the committee appointed to 
defend the privileges of the colony, then 
menaced by the English government. In 
1662 he was a member of the synod that 
met at Boston to discuss questions of church 
membership and discipline. Its report was j 
chiefly written by him, and he was mainly I 
responsible for the adoption of the so-called j 
' half-way covenant.' On 8 Oct. 1662 he | 
and Captain Daniel Gookin [q. v.] were ap- | 
pointed the first licensers of the press in j 
Massachusetts. With Francis Willoughby 
and Major-general John Leverett, Mitchel 
was entrusted with the task of drawing up | 
a petition to Charles II respecting the | 
colony's charter on 3 Aug. 1664, and he 
wrote it entirely himself. In ecclesiastical 
councils, to which he was frequently called, j 
and in weighty cases in which the general | 
court often consulted the clergy, ' the sense j 
and hand of no man was relied more upon 
than his for the exact result of all.' Over- 
work at length told on him, and he died of 
fever at Cambridge on 9 July 1668. 

His union with Sarah, daughter of the 
Rev. John Cotton (d. 1652) [q. v.], having 
been prevented by her death in January 
1650, he married on 19 Nov. following Mar- 
garet Boradale, widow of his predecessor, 
Thomas Shepard, by whom he left issue 
(SAVAGE, iv. 76). 

Mitchel wrote several sermons and trea- 
tises, among which were : 1. * Letter to his 
brother' David ' concerning your spiritual 
condition,' dated 19 May 1649; many 
editions. 2. Propositions concerning the 
subject of Baptism and Consociation of 
Churches, collected and confirmed out of the 
Word of God by a Synod of Elders . . . 
assembled at Boston in 1662,' 4to, Cam- 
bridge, Massachusetts, 1662 ; chiefly written 
by Mitchel. 3. ' A Defence of the Answer 
and Arguments of the Synod met at Boston 
in 1662 . . . against the reply made thereto 

by the Rev. Mr. John Davenport. . By 
some of the Elders,' 4to, Cambridge, Massa- 
chusetts, 1664. Of this work the first 46 
pages, designated 'Answer ' on the title-page 
were by Mitchel. 4. 'A Discourse of the' 
Glory to which God hath called Believers by 
Jesus Christ delivered in some sermons 
together with an annexed letter' [to' his 
brother], edited by J. Collins, 8vo, London, 
1677 ; 2nd edition, with a preface by Increase 

"AT^-i-l, ~ T "*_ 1~1 , T -m * 

Postscript' of Increase Mather's < First 
Principles of New-England,' 4to, Cambridge, 
Massachusetts, 1675. 6. ' The Great End and 
Interest of New England stated by the me- 
morable Mr. J. Mitchel, extracted from an 
instrument of his which bears date 31 Dec. 
1662.' This tract constitutes pp. 1-5 of In- 
crease Mather's ' Elijah's Mantle,' 8vo, Bos- 
ton, Massachusetts, 1722. Mitchel also edited 
Thomas Shepard's Parable of the Ten Vir- 
gins,' fol. 1660. 

[Sibley's Biog. Sketches of Graduates of 
Harvard University, i. 141-57; Cotton Mather's 
Ecclesiastes: the Life of J. Mitchel, 1697; 
Cotton Mather's Magnalia Christi Americana, 
bk. iv. sects. 158, 166; Walker's Hist, of the 
First Church in Hartford.] G. G-. 

MITCHEL, WILLIAM (1672-1740?), 
pamphleteer, known as the ' Tinklarian Doc- 
tor,' seems to have gone to Edinburgh about 
1696 to earn a poor livelihood as a tinsmith 
at the head of the West-Bow. For twelve 
years he superintended the lighting of the 
town-lamps. A disastrous fire at the Bow- 
head (1706?), by which he lost thirteen 
hundred merks, and his dismissal from his 
post in 1707 reduced him to penury. He 
continued his tinkering, but found time to 
issue a large number of ' books,' or rather 
broad-sheets, which he sold at his shop ' at 
very reasonable rates.' In 1712 he was re- 
stored to his former post. He survived the 
Porteous riots (about which he is stated to 
have written a pamphlet) in 1736. Chambers 
states that he died in 1740. 

His tracts deal chiefly with religion and 
church politics, and especially with the short- 
comings of the professional ministry. ' Give 
the clergy,' says his petition to Queen Anne, 
* less wages, and lay more dutie upon gouf 
[golf] clubs, and then fewer of them and 
others would go to the gouf.' His claim was 
1 to give light,' a metaphor which he proudly 
borrowed from his experience in lamps. His 
writings are extremely illiterate, and show, 
even in their titles, the audacity and incohe- 
rence of a madman. They are badly printed on 
shabby paper, most of them on single sheets. 




The following are known : 1. 'Dr. Mitchel 's 
Strange and Wonderful Discourse concerning 
the Witches and Warlocks in West Calder.' 
2. 'The Tinklar's Testament' (in several 
parts, including 'The Tincklar's Reformation 
Sermon ' and a ' Speech in commendation of 
the Scriptures'), 1711. 3. Petitions to Queen 
Anne (ten in number), 1711, &c. 4. ' The 
Advantagious Way of Gaming, or Game to be 
rich. In a letter to Collonel Charters,' 1711 (?). 
5. 'The Tinklar's Speech to ... the laird of 
Carnwath,' 1712. 6. 'The Great Tincklarian 
Doctor Mitchel his fearful book, to the con- 
demnation of all swearers. Dedicated to 
the Devil's captains,' 1712. 7. ' Speech con- 
cerning Lawful and Unlawful Oaths,' 1712. 
8. ' Proposals for the better reformation of 
Edinburgh.' 9. ' The Tinclarian Doctor 
Mitchel's description of the Divisions of 
the Church of Scotland.' 10. ' A new and 
wonderful Way of electing Magistrates.' 
11. 'A Seasonable Warning to beware of 
the Lutherians, writen by the Tinclarian 
Doctor,' 1713. 12. ' Great News ! Strange 
Alteration concerning the Tinckler, who 
wrote his Testament long before his Death, 
and no Man knows his Heir.' 13. 'The 
Tinclarian Doctor Mitchel's Letter to the 
King of France,' 1713 (?). 14. ' Letter to the 
Pope.' 15. ' The Tinclarian Doctor Mitchel's 
Letter to Her Majesty Queen Ann' 'to 
make me your Majesty's Advocat.' 16. 'The 
Tinclarian Doctor Mitchel's Lamentation, 
dedicated to James Stewart, one of the 
Royal Family.' 17. Letter to George I. 
18. ' Inward and Outward Light to be Sold,' 
1731. 19. 'Second Day's Journey of the 
Tinclarian Doctor,' 1733. 20. ' Short His- 
tory to the Commendation of the Royal 
Archers,' &c., with ' One Man's Meat is an- 
other Man's Poison ' (in verse), 1734. 
21. ' The Voice of the Tinklarian Doctor's 
last Trumpet, sounding for the Downfall of 
Babylon, and his last Arrow shot at her,' 
1737. 22. 'Prophecy of an Old Prophet 
concerning Kings, and Judges, and Rulers, 
and of the Magistrates of Edinburgh, and 
also of the Downfall of Babylon, which is 
Locusts, who is King of the Bottomless Pit. 
Dedicated to all Members of Parliament,' 
1737. 23. ' Revelation of the Voice of the 
Fifth Angel's Trumpet,' 1737. 24. 'The 
Tinklarian Doctor's Four Catechisms,' pub- 
lished separately 1736-7-8. 25. ' Tinklarian 
Doctor's Dream concerning those Locusts, 
who hath come out of the Smoke of the Pit 
and hath Power to hurt all Nations,' 1739. 
A number of these broadsheets are found 
bound together with the following title : 
' The whole Works of that Eminent Divine 
and Historian Doctor William Mitchel, Pro- 

fessor of Tincklarianism in the University of 
the Bow-head ; being Essays of Divinity, Hu- 
manity, History, and Philosophy ; composed 
at various occasions for his own satisfaction, 
Reader's Edification, and the World's Illu- 
mination.' In one of his publications of 1713 
Mitchel incidentally remarks that he had 
then issued twenty-one ' books.' 

[Tracts (a) in the Advocates' Library, (b) in 
the possession of William Cowan, esq., Edin- 
burgh; Chambers's Domestic Annals, iii. 361, 
and Traditions of Edinburgh, pp. 53-5; Irving's 
Diet, of Eminent Scotsmen; Maidment's Pas- 
quils, p. 74.] G-. G. S. 


MITCHELL. [See also MICHELL and 

1868), civil engineer, born in Dublin on 
13 April 1780, was son of William Mitchell, 
inspector-general of barracks in Ireland. At 
school he showed a marked taste for mathe- 
matics. In 1802 his eyesight, always defec- 
tive in consequence of an attack of small-pox, 
almost totally failed him. He soon carried on, 
in Belfast, the joint business of brickmaking 
and building, from which he retired in 1832, 
having previously invented several machines 
employed in those trades. In 1842 he became 
known as the inventor and patentee of the 
Mitchell screw-pile and mooring, a simple yet 
effective means of constructing durable light- 
houses in deep water, on mudbanks and shift- 
ing sands, of fixing beacons, and of mooring 
ships. For this invention he was chosen an as- 
sociate of the Institution of Civil Engineers, 
and in 1848 was elected a member, receiving 
the Telford silver medal for a paper on his 
own invention. His system was generally 
approved of by engineers of eminence (Proc. 
of Inst. of Civ. Eng. ii. 150, vii. 108). He 
established himself at Belfast, and at 17 Great 
George Street, Westminster, as ' Mitchell's 
Screw-Pile and Mooring Company.' At the 
expiration of his patent in 1847 the privy 
council, in consideration of its merit, granted 
a renewal for fourteen years. 

Mitchell's screw-pile was first used for the 
foundation of the Maplin Sand Lighthouse 
at the mouth of the Thames in 1838 (id. vii. 
146). In 1839 he designed and constructed, 
with the aid of his son, the Fleetwood-on- 
Wyre Lighthouse, Morecambe Bay. In the 
summer of 1844 a screw-pile lighthouse, 
serving also as a pilot station, was success- 
fully placed by him in Belfast Lough, Car- 
rickfergus Bay ; but his attempt to construct 
a lighthouse on the Kish Bank, between 
Dublin Bay and Waterford, proved a failure. 
He also constructed, in the summer of 1847, 



a screw-pile jetty at Courtown on the coast 
of Wexford. After the success of screw- 
piles had been established, they were applied 
to more extensive undertakings. The great 
government breakwater at Portland, the long 
viaduct and bridges on the Bombay and 
Baroda railway, the whole system of Indian 
telegraphs, and the Madras pier, were among 
the works executed with this invention. 

His improved method of mooring ships was 
likewise generally adopted. The corpora- 
tion of Newcastle-upon-Tyne purchased, for 
2,500/., the right of putting down screw 
moorings in the Tyne. 

Mitchell, who retired from the Engineers' 
Institution in 1857 (ib. xvii. 85), settled first 
at Farm Hill, but latterly at Glen Devis, 
near Belfast, where he died on 25 June 1868. 
He had a family of two sons and three 
daughters, of whom only one, the wife of 
Professor Burden of Queen's College, Belfast, 
survived him. 

He published : 1. ' Description of a Patent 
Screw-pile Battery and Lighthouse,' 8vo, 
Belfast, 1843. 2. ' On Submarine Founda- 
tions, particularly the Screw-pile and Moor- 
ings,' 8vo, London, 1848, a description of his 
invention, read before the Institution of Civil 
Engineers on 22 Feb. 1848. 

[Belfast News-Letter, 29 June 1868; Men of 
the Time, 1868 p. 586, 1872 p. 1001 ; Denham's 
Mersey and Dee Navigation ; Hugh M'CalTs 
Ireland and her Staple Manufactures.] G-. GK 

of William Mitchell, of an Aberdeenshire 
family, minister of St. Giles's, Edinburgh, 
and one of the king's chaplains for Scotland. 
Mitchell received part of his education at 
the university of Edinburgh. Before he was 
twenty-one he married his cousin, Barbara 
Mitchell, an only daughter, and heiress of 
the lands of Thurnston in Aberdeenshire. 
She died about 1729, having given birth to 
an only daughter, who did not survive in- 
fancy. At the time Mitchell was studying 
for the Scottish bar, but the event affected 
him so deeply that he never afterwards re- 
sided in Scotland for any length of time. 
After several years spent in foreign travel, 
he was entered at Leyden University 5 Oct. 
1730, and having formed at Paris an intimacy 
with Montesquieu, he settled in London in 
1735 and studied for the English bar. He 
was elected a member of the Royal Society 
in March 1735, and was called to the bar at 
the Middle Temple on 12 May 1738. In 
1741 he was served, in right of his wife, heir 
to the Thurnston estates. In the following 
year the Marquis of Tweeddale [see HAY, 

JOHN, fourth MAKQUIS], on becoming secre- 
tary of state for Scotland, appointed him 
undersecretary. Quin the actor, in conver- 
sation with Mitchell, hinted that his official 
employment was simply that of Will help- 
ing Jack to do nothing (WALPOLE, v. 235) 
but with the breaking out of the rebellion of 
1745 Mitchell's office became no sinecure. 
His functions ceased in 1747 with the aboli- 
tion of the Scottish secretaryship of state. 
But he was afterwards consulted by the go- 
vernment respecting the aifairs of Scotland, 
and the Duke of Newcastle aided him in what 
proved to be his successful candidature for 
Aberdeenshire. He was elected as a staunch 
whig in 1747. He was an intimate friend 
of James Thomson, the poet of the ' Seasons/ 
who, dying in 1748, left Mitchell one of his 
executors. He spoke occasionally in the 
House of Commons, and in 1751-2 'he was at 
Brussels as one of the British commissioners 
appointed to negotiate a commercial treaty 
with Austria and the Netherlands. From 
1755 to 1761 he was M.P. for the Elgin burghs, 
but during most of the period he was absent 
from England, having been appointed in 1756 
British envoy to Frederick the Great. 

Mitchell reached Berlin just before the 
breaking out of the seven years' war and 
the formation of an Anglo-Prussian alliance. 
Frederick and he became strongly attracted 
to each other. Mitchell was admitted to- 
confidential intercourse with the king, whose 
appeals for a strict fulfilment of the engage- 
ments which England had entered into with 
Prussia were warmly supported by Mitchell 
in his correspondence with his government. 
Frederick willingly acceded to Mitchell's ap- 
plication, made in pursuance of instructions 
from home, to be allowed to accompany him 
in his campaigns, and he was often by the 
king's side in the battle-field and under fire. 
The clear and instructive narratives of mili- 
tary operations sent home by Mitchell inte- 
rested George II, and their value has been 
recognised by Carlyle. Mitchell's reports of 
Frederick's frank and lively conversations 
with him abound in striking traits and anec- 
dotes of the great king. Some remarks in one 
of his despatches appear to have given offence 
to the elder Pitt, and he was recalled, General 
Yorke being sent to supersede him. But 
Frederick insisted that Mitchell should re- 
main, and without quitting Berlin he resumed 
his functions as envoy. This was in 1758, 
and in 1759 he was raised to the rank of pleni- 
potentiary. While attached to Frederick and 
approving of his policy, Mitchell did not 
hesitate to speak his mind freely to him in 
regard both to politics and to religion. They 
had more than once discussions on the provi- 


6 4 


dential government of the world, in which 
Frederick did not believe, while Mitchell 
advocated the orthodox view. In the inter- 
vals of campaigning Mitchell learnt German, 
one of his earliest teachers being Gottsched, 
whose attack on Shakespeare for neglecting 
the unities he repelled with considerable wit 
(CARLYLE, vii. 317). Mitchell's acquaint- 
ance with the rising German literature of 
the time was much greater than that of 
Frederick, on whom he urged its claims to 
royal recognition (ib. ix. 154). 

Lord Bute, on becoming prime minister 
in 1762, aimed at bringing the seven years' 
war to an end, and discontinued the sub- 
sidies to Frederick, who wrote in that year 
to one of his correspondents : l Messieurs the 
English continue to betray. Poor M. Mitchell 
has had a stroke of apoplexy on hearing of 
it.' There was now a diminution of the 
king's confidential intercourse with Mitchell, 
who had become the envoy of a government 
unfriendly to Frederick. In 1764, peace 
having been restored to Europe, Mitchell 
revisited England. He had been re-elected 
for the Elgin burghs in 1761, and continued 
to represent them, at least nominally, until 
his death. In 1765 he was invested, but 
not installed, a knight of the Bath (FosTEE, 
p. 252). In the following year he returned 
as envoy to Berlin. But as Frederick re- 
jected Chatham's proposal of a triple alliance 
between England, Prussia, and Russia, which 
Mitchell was instructed to urge on him, the 
old intimacy of the king and Mitchell re- 
mained in abeyance. Mitchell's later des- 
patches contain severe animadversions on 
Frederick's debasement of the coinage and 
general fiscal policy. 

Mitchell died at Berlin on 28 Jan. 1771, 
and Frederick is said to have shed tears as 
he witnessed from a balcony the funeral 
procession. He was buried in a Berlin 
church, in which a year or so afterwards a 
bust of him was placed at the instance of 
Prince Henry, Frederick's brother. Mitchell 
is described as strongly built, and rather 
above the middle height. His portrait at 
Thurnston is that of a bold, straightforward, 
and most sagacious man. He is said to have 
been taking in his manner, but rather blunt. 
Carlyle speaks of him as l an Aberdeen 
Scotchman creditable to his country ; hard- 
headed, sagacious, sceptical of shows, but 
capable of recognising substances withal and 
of standing loyal to them, stubbornly if need- 
ful . . . whose Letters are among the peren- 
nially valuable Documents on Friedrich's 
History.' The anecdotes of Mitchell, given 
by Thiebault, some of which are often quoted, 
are not to be relied on when Thiebault is 

repeating the gossip of others. Mitchell 
himself, however, told him, he asserts, that 
when Frederick was least satisfied with Eng- 
land, Mitchell was reproached by the govern- 
ment at home with not reporting Frederick's 
bitter sarcasms on their policy, and that in 
reply he declared his determination to resign 
rather than play the part of tale-bearer. 

[Mitchell's Diplomatic and Private Correspond- 
ence, in sixty-nine volumes, is in the British 
Museum, Addit. MSS. 6804-72. Copious and 
interesting extracts from them form the basis of 
Mr. Andrew Bisset's Memoirs and Papers of 
Sir Andrew Mitchell (2 vols. 1850), which is the 
chief printed authority for Mitchell's biography. 
Mr. Bisset has also made use of a considerable 
number of Mitchell's letters in the possession of 
his heirs, and not included in the Museum col- 
lection. Lord Grlenbervie began for publication 
a selection from the Mitchell Papers in the 
Museum, but was stopped by order of George III. 
Those which he did select constitute the volumes 
of Addit. MSS. 1 1260-2. There are a number of 
Mitchell's letters printed in the Culloden Papers 
(1815), and several in the Chatham Correspon- 
dence (1838-40), and in Von Eaumer's Beitrage 
zur neueren Greschichte aus dem Britischen Mu- 
seum und Eeichsarchive ( 1 836-7, English transla- 
tion 1837). The references in the preceding article 
are to Carlyle's History of Friedrich II, library 
ed. 1870; Horace Walpole's Letters (1857-9); 
Foster's Members of Parliament, Scotland (2nd 
edit. 1882); Thiebault's Mes Souvenirs deVingt 
Ans de Sejour a Berlin (2nd edit. 1805), torn, iii., 
' Les Ministres Etrangers a la Cour de Berlin : 
Legation d'Angleterre.'] F. E. 

1806), admiral, second son of Charles Mit- 
chell of Baldridge, near Dunfermline in Fife, 
born in 1757, was educated at the high school, 
Edinburgh. He entered the navy in 1771 
on board the Deal Castle. After serving in 
different ships on the home station, in 1776 
he went out to the East Indies in the Ripon 
with Sir Edward Vernon [q. v.], by whom he 
was promoted to be lieutenant of the Coventry 
frigate, 11 Oct. 1777, and to be captain, also of 
the Coventry, after the skirmish off Pondi- 
cherry on 10 Aug. 1778. His post rank was 
confirmed by the admiralty to 25 Oct. 1778. 
Mitchell continued in the Coventry after 
Sir Edward Hughes [q.v.] took command 
of the station ; and on 12 Aug. 1782 fought 
a severe but indecisive action with the French 
40-gun frigate Bellona off Friar's Hood in 
Ceylon. In September Hughes appointed 
him to the Sultan, in which he took part in 
the fight off Cuddalore on 20 June 1783. 
After the peace Mitchell remained on the 
station as commodore of a small squadron 
(BEATSON, Naval and Mil, Memoirs, vi. 360), 
with his broad pennant in the Defence. He 



returned to England in 1786, having ac- 
quired in ten years' service a very con- 
siderable sum, which was lost by the bank- 
ruptcy of his agent. In the armament of 
1790 he commanded the Asia, which was 
paid off on the settlement of the dispute : 
and in February 1795 he was appointed to 
the Impregnable in the Channel fleet. From 
her on 1 June 1795 he was promoted to the 
rank of rear-admiral. 

On 14 Feb. 1799 he was advanced to be 
vice-admiral, and in April was appointed to 
a command in the North Sea under Lord 
Duncan. In August he had charge of the 
transports for the expedition to Holland ; 
and though Duncan himself convoyed them 
across and superintended the disembarkation 
of the troops, he left the further operations 
to Mitchell, who on 30 Aug. received the 
surrender of the Dutch ships, consequent on 
the mutiny of the Dutch seamen, who re- 
fused to fight against the allies of the Prince 
of Orange. Their brethren on shore took a 
different view of the position, and in con- 
junction with the French repulsed the Eng- 
lish and Russian army ; so that the Duke of j 
York, who was in command, was compelled | 
to ask for an armistice, on the basis of an 
immediate evacuation of Holland. Mitchell, 
who, with a squadron of small vessels, had 
made himself master of the Zuyder Zee, was 
bound by the same treaty, and withdrew his 
ships ; but neither he nor Sir Ralph Aber- 
cromby, who had commanded the army at 
its first landing, was blamed for the igno- 
minious termination of the campaign ; the 
thanks of parliament were given to both, as 
well as to the officers and men ; and Mitchell 
was nominated a K.B., 9 Jan. 1800. The 
city of London, too, presented him with a 
sword of the value of one hundred guineas. 

During 1800 and 1801 he commanded in 
the Channel fleet, under Lord St. Vincent 
and Admiral Cornwallis, and in November 
1801 was detached with a squadron to the 
coast of Ireland and to Bantry Bay. In De- 
cember, on some of the ships being ordered 
to sail for the West Indies, a mutiny broke 
out, especially on board the T6m6raire, the 
flagship of Rear-admiral George Camp- 
bell. The mutiny was suppressed, and some 
twenty of the ringleaders, having been made 
prisoners, were brought round to Spithead, 
where they were tried by a court-martial, 
of which Mitchell was president. The greater 
number of them were found guilty and were 
executed (the minutes of the court-martial 
were published, 8vo, 1802). In the spring 
of 1802 Mitchell was appointed commander- 
in-chief on the North American station. 
On 9 Nov. 1805 he was promoted to be ad- 


miral ; after a short illness he died at Ber- 
muda on 26 Feb. 1806, and was buried there 
with military honours. He was twice mar- 
ried, having by his first wife three sons, 
Charles, Nathaniel, and Andrew (MARSHALL, 
Roy. Nav. Biog. vii. 325, viii. 380, and ix. 
215), who all died captains in the navy. 
By his second wife he had a daughter. His 
portrait by Bowyer has been engraved (Cata- 
logue of the Naval Exhibition, 1891). 

[Ralfe's Nav. Biog. ii. 91 ; Naval Chronicle, 
with portrait after Bowyer, xvi. 89 ; James's Nav. 
Hist.1860, ii. 343.] J. K. L. 

captain in the navy, entered the navy in 
1709 on board the Ranelagh, then carrying 
the flag of Sir John Norris in the Channel. 
On 22 Dec. 1720 he was promoted by Com- 
modore Charles Stewart, in the Mediterra- 
nean, to be lieutenant of the Dover. In 
1726 he was a lieutenant of the Weymouth, 
and in June 1729 he was appointed to the 
Lion going out to the West Indies with the 
flag of his old patron Stewart, at this time 
a rear-admiral. By Stewart he was pro- 
moted, on 14 June 1731, to be captain of the 
Lark, which he took to England and paid 
off in the following February. From that 
time he had no service till August 1739, 
when he was appointed to the Rochester. 
In the following year he was moved into 
the Torbay, and afterwards into the Buck- 
ingham, in which he sailed for the West 
Indies in the fleet under Sir Chaloner Ogle 
(d. 1751) [q. v.] On the way out, however, 
the Buckingham was disabled in a storm and 
was sent home (BEATSOtf, iii. 27), and Mit- 
chell, appointed to the Kent, went out later. 
In December 1743 he was moved by Ogle 
into the Adventure ; and again by Davers in 
July 1745 into the Straflbrd. In the follow- 
ing December, with the Plymouth and Lyme 
frigate in company, he was convoying a 
fleet of merchant ships through the Wind- 
ward Passage, when on the 15th he fell in 
with three French ships of war off" Cape Ni- 
colas. A slight engagement ensued, and, 
content with having beaten off" the enemy, 
Mitchell pursued his voyage. A court-mar- 
tial afterwards decided that he was justified 
in so doing, as the French force was superior, 
and the safety of the convoy was the first 

In August 1746 Mitchell was again in com- 
mand of a squadron, and again met a French 
squadron off Cape Nicolas, but the circum- 
stances were reversed. The French had the 
convoy ; Mitchell had the superior force. He 
had four ships of the line, one of 44 guns, and 
a small frigate, against three ships of the 


line, and one of 44 guns (ib. iii. 65-6). Mit- 
chell, although his duty to attack was plain, 
hesitated ; and when the French, encouraged 
by his apparent timidity, chased, he fled 
under a press of sail. At night he gave 
orders to show no lights; but he did not 
part company with the enemy, and day after 
day the experience was repeated. Once only 
did the squadrons engage, and after a few 
broadsides Mitchell drew off. On the tenth 
day, 13 Aug., the French entered the har- 
bour of Cape Francois, where ' they fired 
guns very merrily, and in the dusk of the 
evening had great illuminations in the town.' 

Mitchell's conduct was severely com- 
mented on ; but the admiral was sick and 
incapable. Mitchell, next to him, was the 
senior officer on the station ; and it was only 
when the affair was reported to the admi- 
ralty that special orders were sent out to 
try him by court-martial. Even then there 
was some difficulty about forming a court, 
and it was thus 27 Oct. 1747 before he was 
put on his trial. The evidence against him 
was very positive ; the hearing lasted nearly 
three months ; the minutes of it fill about 
a thousand closely written foolscap pages ; 
and on 28 Jan. 1747-8 the court determined 
that Mitchell * fell under part of the 12th 
and 14th articles of war,' and sentenced him 
' to be cashiered and rendered incapable of 
ever being employed in his Majesty's ser- 
vice ' (cf. MAHAK, Influence of Sea Power 
upon History, p. 267 n.) There was a strong 
feeling that the punishment was inadequate ; 
so that when in 1749 parliament undertook 
to revise the code of naval discipline the dis- 
cretionary power of courts-martial in cases 
such as Mitchell's was abolished, and under 
the altered regulations Admiral Byng suf- 
fered death in 1757. 

Charnock incorrectly says that Mitchell 
was even restored to his half-pay of ten 
shillings a day. His name does not appear 
on the half-pay lists ; and though it is pos- 
sible that an equivalent pension was given 
him in some irregular manner, no minutes 
of such can be found. There is no official 
record of his death, which is said to have 
taken place in 1749. 

[Charnock's Biog. Nav. iv. 230 ; Beatson's 
Nav. and Mil. Mem. i. 320 ; Campbell's Lives 
of the Admirals, iv. 62 ; minutes of the courts- 
martial, commission and warrant books, and half- 
pay lists in Public Kecord Office.] J. K. L. 

MITCHELL, SIR DAVID (1650 P-1710), 
vice-admiral, was bound apprentice to the 
master of a Leith trading vessel. After- 
wards he was mate of a ship in the Baltic 
trade, and in 1672 was pressed into the navy. 

His conduct and appearance attracted atten- 
tion ; he was placed on the quarter-deck, and 
on 16 Jan. 1677-8 was promoted to be lieu- 
tenant of the Defiance in the Mediterranean 
with Captain Edward Russell, afterwards 
Earl of Orford [q. v.], whom in March he fol- 
lowed to the Swiftsure, and again in August 
1680 to the Newcastle. In May 1682 he 
was appointed lieutenant of the Tiger, and on 
1 Oct. 1683 promoted to the command of the 
Ruby. Whether in compliment to his patron 
Russell, who retired from the service on the 
execution of his cousin William, or finding 
that he no longer had any interest, he also 
seems to have retired. He may have com- 
manded ships in the merchant service, or fol- 
lowed the fortunes of Russell, and acted as 
his agent in his political intrigues at home 
and in Holland. After the revolution he was 
appointed to the Elizabeth of 70 guns, and in 
her took part in the battle of Beachy Head, 
30 June 1690. In 1691, when Russell was ap- 
pointed to the command of the fleet, Mitchell 
was appointed first captain of the Britannia, 
his flagship, an office now known as captain 
of the fleet. He was still first captain of the 
Britannia at the battle of Barfleur, 19 May 
1692, and in the subsequent operations, cul- 
minating in the burning of the French ships 
in the bay of La Hogue, 23-4 May. 

For his conduct on this occasion Mitchell 
was appointed by the king one of the grooms 
of the bedchamber, and on 8 Feb. 1692-3 
was promoted to be rear-admiral of the blue. 
In March, with his flag in the Essex, he 
commanded the squadron which convoyed 
the king to Holland. During the year he 
served with the main fleet under the com- 
mand of the joint admirals, and in October 
escorted the king back from Holland. In 
February 1693-4 he had command of a 
squadron to the westward, for the guard of 
the Channel and the protection of trade ; 
and on his return from this service he was 
knighted. In May he joined the grand fleet, 
now again under the command of Russell, 
whom he accompanied to the Mediterranean. 
When Russell returned home in the autumn 
of 1695, Mitchell was left commander-in- 
chief, till superseded by Sir George Rooke 
[q.v.], who brought out his commission as 
vice-admiral of the blue, and with whom he 
returned to England in the spring of 1696. 
During the rest of the year he was second 
in command of the fleet in the Channel, 
under Rooke ; and in 1697 commanded a de- 
tached squadron cruising on the Soundings 
till the conclusion of the peace. In January 
1697-8 he was sent with a small squadron 
of ships of war and yachts to bring the czar 
Peter to England. He was afterwards, at 


6 7 


the czar's request, appointed to attend on 
him during his stay in this country, and to 
command the squadron which convoyed him 
back to Holland. In this connection seve- 
ral anecdotes of doubtful authenticity are 
related (CAMPBELL, iii. 426). It is also said 
that the czar invited him to Russia, with the 
offer of a very lucrative post, which Mitchell 

In June 1699 he was appointed one of the 
lords commissioners .of the admiralty, in 
which post he remained till April 1701, 
when the Earl of Pembroke was made lord 
high admiral. He was afterwards usher of 
the black rod; and on the accession of Queen 
Anne, when Prince George became lord high 
admiral, Mitchell was appointed one of his 
council, in which office he continued till April 
1708. It was apparently in 1709 that he was 
sent to Holland 'to negotiate matters relating 
to the sea with the States-General.' He died 
at his seat, Popes in Hertfordshire, on 1 June 
1710, ' about the 60th year of his age ' (inscrip- 
tion on his tombstone). He was buried in the 
church at Hatfield beneath a slab, on which 
a lengthy inscription summarises his services. 
It also bears the arms of Mitchell of Tilly- 
greig, Aberdeen (1672). Le Neve (Pedigrees 
of the Knights, p. 461), says, 'He bears arms 
but hath no right,' and tells an absurd story 
how, as l a poor boy from Scotland,' he was 
pressed from a Newcastle collier, and was 
pulled out from under the coals, where he had 
hidden himself. The arms on an escutcheon 
of pretence which he assumed were by right 
of his wife Mary, daughter and coheiress of 
Robert Dod of Chorley in Shropshire , by whom 
he had one son, died an infant. Dame Mary 
died 30 Sept. 1722, aged 62, and was also 
buried in the church at Hatfield ; but the slab, 
bearing the inscription, ' Heare lyes the body,' 
&c., is now in the churchyard (information 
from the sexton of Hatfield; cf. BTTKKE, Hist, 
of Commoners, i. 298). 

[Boyer's Hist, of Queen Anne (App. ii.), p. 
53 ; Campbell's Lives of the Admirals, iii. 423 ; 
Charnock's Biog. Nav. ii. 105 ; inscriptions on 
the tombstones at Hatfield ; that on Mitchell's 
is printed in John Le Neve's Monumenta An gli- 
cana, 1700-15, p. 188.] J. K L. 

1817), colonel, was appointed ensign in the 
101st regiment in January 1782, and was 
promoted to be lieutenant in June 1783. He 
served with that regiment in India and until 
it was disbanded in 1784. In May 1786 he 
was gazetted to the 26th, and served with it 
in the latter part of the campaign of 1801 in 
Egypt. He rose in the 26th to the rank of 
lieutenant-colonel in December 1805. In 
June 1811 he exchanged to the 51st light 

infantry, and commanded that regiment in 
the Peninsula War till its conclusion in 1814. 
He obtained the rank of colonel in June 
1813, and the order of companion of the Bath 
on 4 June 1815. In the Waterloo campaign 
Mitchell commanded a brigade consisting of 
the 3rd battalion of the 14th, the 23rd fusi- 
liers, and the 51st light infantry. 

Wellington was sparing almost nig- 
gardly in his expressions of praise, and 
never mentioned an officer in his despatches 
merely because he commanded a brigade or 
division, or was on the staff. Mitchell was 
the only commander of a brigade at Waterloo 
under the rank of general officer who was 
thus honoured. For his services in the cam- 
paign he received from the Emperor of 
Russia the order of St. Vladimir of the third 
class, and also the Russian order of St. Ann. 

Mitchell died 20 April 1817, in Queen 
Anne Street. London. 

[G-ent. Mag. 1817, pt. i. p. 473 ; Wellington's 
Despatches ; Gazettes ; Army Lists, &c.] 

E. O'C. 


(d. 1678), fanatic, was the son of obscure 
parents in Midlothian. He graduated at 
Edinburgh University on 9 July 1656, and 
at the same time signed the national co- 
venant and the solemn league and covenant. 
He attached himself to the party of remon- 
strator presbyterians, and studied popular 
divinity under David Dickson (1583 P-1663) 
[q. v.] He was refused by the presbytery of 
Dalkeith on the grounds of insufficiency, and 
appears to have become ' a preacher, but no 
actual minister,' in or near Edinburgh. In 
1661 he was recommended to some ministers 
in Galloway by Trail, a minister in Edin- 
burgh, as suitable for teaching in a school or 
as private tutor. He entered the house of 
the Laird of Dundas as domestic chaplain 
and tutor to his children, but was dismissed 
for immoral conduct. Returning to Edin- 
burgh he made the acquaintance of Major 
John Weir [q. v.], who procured for him 
the post of chaplain in a ' fanatical family, 
the lady whereof was niece to Sir Archibald 
Johnston ' of Warriston. He quitted this 
post in November 1666 to join the rising of 
the covenanters in the west at Ayr. He 
was in Edinburgh on 28 Nov., when the 
rebels were defeated at Pentland, but was 
pronounced guilty of treason in a proclama- 
tion of 4 Dec. 1666, and on 1 Oct. 1667 was 
excluded from the pardon granted to those 
engaged in the rising. Mitchell effected his 
escape to Holland, where he joined a cousin, 
a factor in Rotterdam. After wandering in 
England and Ireland he returned to Edin- 




burgh in 1668. There he married, and opened 
a shop for the sale of tobacco and spirits. 

Mitchell resolved to revenge himself on 
James Sharp, archbishop of St. Andrews, for 
his desertion of the presbyterian cause, and 
on 1 1 July 1668 he fired a pistol at him as 
he sat in his coach in Blackfriars Wynd in 
Edinburgh. The shot missed the archbishop, 
but entered the hand of his companion, An- 
drew Honeyman, bishop of Orkney . Mitchell 
passed down Niddry's Wynd without oppo- 
sition, and, despite the reward of five thousand 
marks offered for his apprehension, quitted the 
country. He returned to Scotland towards 
the end of 1673. Early in 1674 he was re- 
cognised in the street by the archbishop, 
whose brother, Sir William Sharp, obtained 
a confession from him, after the archbishop 
had pledged himself that no harm should 
come to him. But he was imprisoned, and 
at the instigation of Sharp brought before 
the council on 10 Feb. 1674. He again made 
a full confession on 12 Feb. on receiving a 
promise of his life. After further imprison- 
ment in the Tolbooth he was brought before 
the justiciary court on 2 March 1674 to re- 
ceive sentence, but he denied that he was 
guilty, though he was told that he would 
lose the benefit of the assurance of life if he 
persisted in his denial. On 6 March the 
council framed an act in which they declared 
themselves free of any promise made. On 
25 March Mitchell was again brought before 
the court, but there being no evidence against 
him beyond the confession, since retracted, 
the lords of justiciary deserted the diet, 
with the consent of the lord advocate, Sir 
John Nisbet [q. v.] Mitchell was returned 
to the Tolbooth and afterwards removed to 
the Bass Rock. On 18 Jan. 1677 he again 
in the presence of a committee of justices, ol 
which Linlithgow [see LIVINGSTONE, GEORGE 
third EARL OF] was chairman, denied his con- 
fession. A further attempt was made on 
22 Jan. with the same result, despite a threat 
of the ' boots.' On 24 Jan., in the Parliament 
House, he was examined under torture as to 
his connection with the rebellion of 1666 
This accusation he also denied, and remindec 
those present that there were two other James 
Mitchells in Midlothian. The torture anc 
questioning continued till the prisoner fainted 
when he was carried back to the Tolbooth. 
In December 1677 the council orderec 
criminal proceedings against him for the at 
tempted assassination of the archbishop. On 
7 Jan. the trial commenced ; he was ably 
defended by Sir George Lockhart [q. v.] anc 
John Elies. His former confession was the 
sole evidence against him. Rothes swore 
to having seen Mitchell sign his confession 

which was countersigned by himself. But 
oth he and the archbishop denied that the 
romise of life had been given. Mitchell's 
;ounsel produced a copy of the Act of Coun- 
;il of 12 March 1674, in which his confession 
inder promise of life was recorded, but a 
request that the books of the council might 
je produced was refused. The trial was re- 
markable for the number of witnesses of high 
station, and the perjury of Rothes, Halton, 
and Lauderdale has rarely been paralleled. 
The following day, 10 Jan., sentence of death 
was passed, and Mitchell was executed in the 
jrassmarket of Edinburgh on Friday, 18 Jan. 

Halton was indicted for the perjury on 
28 July 1681, the evidence against him 
being two letters that he had written on 
10 and 12 Feb. 1674 to the Earl of Kincar- 
dine [see BRUCE, ALEXANDER, second EARL], 
in which he gave an account of Mitchell's 
confession, ' upon assurance of his life.' The 
letters are printed in Wodrow, ii. 248-9. 

Mitchell is described as ' a lean, hollow- 
cheeked man, of a truculent countenance ' 
(Ramllac Redivivus, p. 11). He himself 
attributed his attempt on Sharp as ' ane im- 
pulse of the spirit of God ' (KIRKTON, His- 
tory of the Church of Scotland, p. 387). His 
son James, who graduated at the university 
of Edinburgh on 11 Nov. 1698, was licensed 
by the presbytery there on 26 July 1704, 
ordained on 5 April 1710, and became minis- 
ter of Dunnotar in the same year. He was 
summoned to appear before the justices of 
the peace on 24 March 1713 to answer for 
the exercise of church discipline in the 
session. He died on 26 June 1734. 

[The fullest account of Mitchell's attempt at 
assassination and trials is given in Wodrow's 
History of the Sufferings of the Church of Scot- 
land, e'd. Burns, ii. 115-17, 248-52, 454-73. A 
prejudiced account, entitled Kavillac Redivivus, 
being a Narrative of the late Tryal, was pub- 
lished anonymously in 1678, 4to. It was the 
work of George Hickes [q. v.], who, as chaplain 
to Lauderdale, accompanied him to Scotland in 
May 1677, and was in Edinburgh at the time of 
Mitchell's trial. Somers's Tracts, viii., contains a 
reprint of the work with notes (pp. 510-53). A 
pamphlet entitled ' The Spirit of Fanaticism ex- 
emplified ' is an amplified version of the work, 
published by Curll in 1710. Stephen's Life of 
Sharp, pp. 383, 458-61 ; Omond's Lord Advocates 
of Scotland, i. 192, 214-15; Sir James Turner's 
Memoirs (Bannatyne Club), pp. 166, 180; Kirk- 
ton's Church of Scotland, pp. 383-8 ; Burnet's 
Hist of his own Time, ii. 125-32, 298-9 ; Cob- 
bett's State Trials, vol. vi. cols. 1207-66 ; Mac- 
kenzie's Memoirs, pp. 326-7 ; Edinburgh Gra- 
duates, pp. 77, 161 ; Scott's Fasti Eccles. Scot. 
vol. iii. pt. ii. pp. 861-2.] B. P. 


6 9 


MITCHELL, JAMES (1786 P-1844), 
scientific writer, was born in or near Aber- 
deen about 1786. He was educated at the uni- 
versity of that town, graduated M.A. at Uni- 
versity and King's college in 1804, and was 
subsequently created LL.D. His whole for- 
tune when he came to London in 1805 was 
10, and he supported himself by teaching 
until he became secretary, first to the Star In- 
surance Company, then to the British Annuity 
Company. He was employed as actuary to 
the parliamentary commission on factories, 
and as sub-commissioner on those relating 
to handloom-weaving and the condition of 
women and children in collieries. Overtasked 
by these labours, he was struck with paralysis 
in June 1843, and died of apoplexy on 3 Sept. 
1844, in the house of his nephew, Mr. Temple- 
ton, at Exeter, aged 58. He was a fellow of 
the Geological Society of London, to which he 
made numerous communications, and from 
1823 a corresponding member of the Society 
of Scottish Antiquaries. 

His works include : 1 . ( On the Plurality of 
Worlds,' London, 1813. 2. i An Easy System 
of Shorthand,' 1815. 3. 'A Tour through 
Belgium, Holland, &c., in the Summer of 
1816,' 1816. 4. ' The Elements of Natural 
Philosophy,' 1819. 5. 'The Elements of 
Astronomy,' 1820. 6. l A Dictionary of 
the Mathematical and Physical Sciences,' 
1823. 7. 'A Dictionary of Chemistry, 
Mineralogy, and Geology,' 1823. 8. < The 
Scotsman's Library,' Edinburgh, 1825, &c. 
He left besides many folio volumes in manu- 
script descriptive of the geology of London 
and its neighbourhood ; and he made at great 
expense collections relative to Scottish anti- 
quities, some of which he presented to the 
Society of Scottish Antiquaries, while the 
remainder were bequeathed by him to the 
university of Aberdeen. 

[Gent. Mag. 1844, ii. 432; Ann. Reg. 1844, 
p. 267 ; A115 bone's Diet, of English Literature ; 
Ward's Men of the Reign ; PoggendorfFs Biog. 
Lit. Handworterbuch ; Roy. Soc. Cat. of Scien- 
tific Papers ; Brit. Mus. Cat.] A. M. C. 

MITCHELL, JAMES (1791-1852), line- 
engraver, was born in 1791. His most im- 
portant works were ' Alfred in the Neat- 
herd's Cottage,' 1829, and ' Rat Hunters,' 
1830, both after Sir David Wilkie, R. A. He 
engraved also 'The Contadina,' after Sir 
Charles L. Eastlake, P.R.A., and 'Lady Jane 
Grey,' after James Northcote, R.A., for the 
1 Literary Souvenir' of 1827 and 1832; 'The 
Farewell,' after Abraham Cooper, R.A. ; 
' Saturday Night ' and ' The Dorty Bairn,' 
after Sir" David Wilkie, and 'The Corsair,' 
after H. P. Briggs, R. A., for the ' Gem ' 

of 1829, 1830, and 1832 ; and 'The Secret ' 
after Robert Smirke, R.A., for ' The Keep- 

- ^ I 1 ? 81 ' Besides these he P r ^uced 
Ldie Ochiltree,' after Sir Edwin Landseer 
and five other illustrations, after Kidd, Stan- 
field, J. W. Wright, and Alexander Eraser, 
for the author's edition of the ' Waverlev 
Novels,' 1829-33. He died in London on 
29 Nov. 1852, aged 61. 

ROBERT MITCHELL (1820-1873), his son, 
born on 19 May 1820, engraved in mezzotint 
'Tapageur, a fashionable Member of the 
Canine Society,' after Sir Edwin Landseer, 
1852, and 'The Parish Beauty' and 'The 
Pastor's Pet,' a pair after Alfred Rankley, 
1853 and 1854; and in the mixed style 'The 
Happy Mothers ' and ' The Startled Twins,' 
a pair after Richard Ansdell, R.A., 1850, and 
'Christ walking on the Sea,' after Robert 
Scott Lauder, R.S.A., 1854. He also etched 
several plates, which were completed in 
mezzotint by other engravers. He died at 
Bromley, Kent, on 16 May 1873. 

[Private information.] R. E. Gr. 


(fl. 1556), printer, pursued his trade in St. 
Paul, Canterbury. From ' A Cronicle of 
Yeres ' (1543 and 1544) he compiled, with 
large additions, 'A breviat Cronicle con- 
taynynge all the Kinges from Brut to this 
daye, and manye notable actes gathered oute 
of diuers Cronicles from Willyam Conque- 
rour vnto the yere of Christ a. M. V. c. 1. ii./ 
8vo, Canterbury, 1551 ; another edit. 1553. 
In a quaint dedication to Sir Anthony Au- 
cher, master of the king's jewel-house, whom 
he asks to aid him in improving the next 
issue of the book, he implores his friends 
and brother-printers to suffer him quietly to 
enjoy the benefit of his labours. His request 
was apparently disregarded, as his book was 
reissued at other presses at London in 1555, 
1556, 1559, and about 1561. 

Mitchell printed at Canterbury: 1. 'The 
Psalter . . . after the translacion of the 
great Bible,' 4to, 1549 and 1550. 2. 'A 
Treatise of Predestination,' by John Lam- 
bert, 8vo, 1550. 3. ' Two Dyaloges wrytten 
in laten by Desiderius Erasmus, translated 
in to Englyshe by Edmund Becke,' 8vo 
(1550). 4. ' Articles to be enquired in 
thordinary Visitacion of ... the Lord Car- 
dinall Poole's Grace, Archebyshop of Can- 
terburie within hys Dioces of Canterbury, 
1556,' 4to, 1556. 5. 'A shorte Epistle to 
all such as do contempne the Marriage of 
us poor Preestes,' 16mo, undated. 6. ' The 
spirituall Matrimonye betwene Chryste and 
the Soul,' 24mo, undated. 7. 'An Expo- 
sytion upon the Epistyll of Saynt Paul to 




the Phillipians,' by Lancelot Ridley, 8vo, 
undated. 8. 'The Confession of Fayth, 
writtyn in Latyn by Ph. Melanchton . . . 
translated ... by Robert Syngylton,' 8vo, 
undated. 9. ' Newes from Rome concerning 1 
the blasphemous sacrifice of the papistical! 
Masse/ by Randall Hurlestone, 8vo, undated, 
but about 1560. 

[Tanner's Bibl. Brit.; Watt's Bibl. Brit.; 
Cat. of Books in Brit. Mus. to 1640.] G. G-. 

MITCHELL, JOHN (d. 1768), botanist, 
born and educated in England, graduated 
M.D., although at what university is uncer- 
tain. There were several John Mitchells at 
Oxford at the beginning of the eighteenth 
century, more than one at. Cambridge, and 
one who entered Leyden on 12 Feb. 1712, 
but none of these can be certainly identified 
with the botanist. Mitchell is said to have 
emigrated to America about 1700, and re- 
sided in Virginia, at Urbanna, on the Rappa- 
hannock river, about seventy-three miles 
from Richmond. He devoted himself to bo- 
tanical and other .scientific studies, and dis- 
covered several new species of plants, one of 
which was called after him, * Mitchella 
repens,' by Linnaeus. In 1738 he wrote a 
'Dissertatio brevis deprincipiisbotanicorum,' 
dedicated to Sir Hans Sloane, and in 1741 
' Nova Plantarum genera,' dedicated to Peter 
Collinson [q. v.], both of which were sub- 
sequently printed at Nuremberg, 1769. In 
1743 Mitchell prepared an ' Essay upon the 
Causes of the different Colours of People in 
different Climates,' which was read before 
the Royal Society by Peter Collinson at 
various meetings between 3 May and 14 June 
1744, and published in the ' Philosophical 
Transactions ' (xliii. 102, &c.) It was de- 
signed as a solution of a prize problem set 
by the academy of Bordeaux. Mitchell 
maintains that the influence of climate and 
mode of life is sufficient to account for dif- 
ferences in colour. 

Either in 1747 or 1748 Mitchell returned 
to England. On 17 and 24 Nov. 1748 his 
essay ' Of the Preparation and Use of various 
kinds of Potash ' was read before the Royal 
Society (Phil. Trans, xlv. 541, &c.), and on 
15 Dec. of the same year Mitchell himself 
became F.R.S. In December 1759 he con- 
tributed to the ' Philosophical Transactions 
a ' Letter concerning the Force of Electrical 
Cohesion,' dated from Kew. Mitchell died 
in March 1768. He must be carefully dis- 
tinguished from John Michell (d. 1793) 
[q. v.], astronomer. 

Besides the works already mentioned 
Mitchell published : 1. < A Map of the Bri- 
tish and French Dominions in North 

America/ London, 1755, which is said to 
' mark an era in the geography ' of North 
America, and was often quoted in boundary 
negotiations : a French version was pub- 
lished at Paris in 1756, and a second edition 
appeared in 1757, which was reprinted in 
1782. There are copies of all in the British 
Museum Library. 2. ' The Contest in America 
between Great Britain and France, by an 
Impartial Hand,' London, 1757. 8vo. 3. ' The 
Present State of Great Britain and North 
America,' 1767, 8vo. He also left in manu- 
script 'An Account of the Yellow Fever 
which prevailed in Virginia in 1737, 1741, 
and 1742,' in letters to Cadwallader Colden 
and Benjamin Franklin, which were pub- 
lished, together with Colden's and Franklin's 
replies, by Professor Rush in the ' American 
Medical and Philosophical Register' (iv. 181 

[Works in Brit. Mus. Library ; Lists of 
Fellows of the Royal Society, 1748-67; Phil. 
Trans, passim; Pulteney's Progress of Botany 
(with manuscript notes), ii. 278-81 ; Gent. Mag. 
1768, p. 142; Miller's 'Retrospect of the Eigh- 
teenth Century,i. 318, ii. 367; Ramsay's Eulogy 
on Dr. Rush, pp. 84-5; Thacher's American Me- 
dical Eiog. i. 392-3: Rich's Bibl. Amer. Nova, i. 
36, &c. ; American Medical and Phil. Register, 
vol. iv.] A. F. P. 

MITCHELL, JOHN (1785-1859), major- 
general, born 11 June 1785 in Stirlingshire y 
was the son of John Mitchell of the diplo- 
matic service, sometime consul-general for 
Norway, and afterwards engaged on mis- 
sions to the court of Stockholm and Copen- 
hagen. In 1797 Mitchell went to Berlin with 
his father, who was despatched on a mission 
to the court of the new king, Frederick Wil- 
liam III. He was placed at the Ritter aca- 
demy at Liineburg, where he acquired a 
knowledge of languages and a love of litera- 
ture. In 1801 he was sent to a mathemati- 
cal school in London taught by a Mr. Nichol- 
son, and on 9 July 1803 was commissioned 
as ensign in the 57th regiment. On 5 Dec. 
1804 he was promoted to a lieutenancy in 
the 1st royals, and went with the 1st bat- 
talion of his regiment to the West Indies. 
On 1 Oct. 1807 he was promoted captain in 
the 1st royals. In 1809 he joined the 3rd 
battalion of his regiment at Walcheren, and 
was present at the siege of Flushing. He 
served with the same battalion in the Pe- 
ninsula from 1810 to 1812, and was present 
at the battles of Busaco and Fuentes d'0noro y 
in the action of Sabugal, and in those of the 
retreat of Massena. He accompanied the 
4th battalion on the expedition under Major- 
general Gibbs to Stralsund in 181 3, but served 
on the staff as a deputy assistant quarter- 



master-general. He also served in a similar 
capacity in the campaign of 1814 in Holland 
and Flanders, and with the head-quarters of 
the army of occupation in Paris. His know- 
ledge of languages made him of use to Well- 
ington in correspondence and negotiations 
with the allied powers. He was promoted 
major on 19 July 1821, and placed on the un- 
attached half-pay list on 1 June 1826. His 
father died in Edinburgh on 17 Oct. the same 

Mitchell did not return to military duty, but 
devoted himself to literature, passing a con- 
siderable portion of each year on the continent 
up to 1848, after which he spent the remainder 
of his life with his sisters in Edinburgh. In 
1833-4 he contributed a series of articles to 
'Eraser's Magazine,' under the name of Bom- 
bardino,' or ' Captain Orlando Sabretache.' 
In 1837 he published a life of Wallenstein, 
making himself thoroughly acquainted with 
the scenes of his life by visiting all the \ 
localities. Between 1841 and 1855 he con- ' 
tributed to the ' United Service Journal,' 
and in 1841-2 he wrote seven letters to the 
' Times ' newspaper dealing with defects in ! 
the British army. In 1845 he published j 
' The Fall of Napoleon,' and soon after re- ; 
ceived a diamond brooch from King Augus- ! 
tus of Hanover as a token of his majesty's 
appreciation of the light he had thrown on 
the history of the emperor. He also received 
a complimentary letter from Sir Robert Peel. 
In 1846 he contributed to l Fraser's Magazine ' 
a series of articles on Napoleon's early cam- 
paigns. He was promoted lieutenant-colonel 
unattached on 10 Jan. 1837, colonel 11 Nov. 
1851, and major-general on 31 Aug. 1855. 
Mitchell was a man of handsome exterior and 
pleasing manners and address. He died in 
Edinburgh on 9 July 1859, and was buried 
in the family vault in the Canongate church- 

The following are his principal works: 

1. ' The Life of Wallenstein, Duke of Fried- 
land,' 8vo, London. 1837 ; 2nd edit. 1853. 

2. ' Thoughts on Tactics and Military Or- 
ganisation, together with an Enquiry into 
the Power and Position of Russia,' 8vo, 
London, 1838. 3. 'The Art of Conversa- 
tion, with Remarks on Fashion and Address, 
by Captain Orlando Sabretache,' 8vo, Lon- 
don, 1842. 4. ' The Fall of Napoleon : an 
Historical Memoir,' 3 vols. 8vo, London, 
1845. 5. ' Biographies of Eminent Soldiers 
of the Last Four Centuries : edited, with a 
Memoir of the Author, by Leonhard Schmitz,' 
Edinburgh and London, 8vo, 1865. 

[Cates's Biog. Diet.; Chambers's Biog. Diet, of 
Eminent Scotsmen; Military Kecords; Allibone's 
Diet, of English Lit.] K. H. V. 

MITCHELL,JOHN (1806-1874), theatre 
and music agent and manager, was born on 
21 April 1806. Early in life he was employed 
by William Sams of St. James's Street, Lon- 
don, who started the modern system of theatri- 
cal agency. In 1834 Mitchell opened a library 
in Old Bond Street, the headquarters of his 
extensive business for forty years. He made 
a practice of engaging a large number of the 
best seats in every theatre and public hall. 

In 1836 and the two following seasons 
Mitchell opened the Lyceum Theatre for 
Italian comic opera, giving to it the name of 
' Opera Buffa.' ' L'Elisir d'Amore,' on lODec. 
1836, was the first of a series of light operas, 
which, as well as Rossini's ' Stabat Mater' in 
1842, were thus introduced to England. In 
1842 Mitchell brought over French plays and 
players, who for a number of years performed 
at St. James's Theatre. For the same theatre 
he engaged a French comic opera company, 
which opened with ' Le Domino Noir ' on 
15 Jan. 1849. In 1853 he brought the Cologne 
Choir to London. 

Mitchell was held in great esteem and 
friendship by the leaders of the stage and 
concert-room. He died in London on 11 Dec. 
1874, in his sixty-eighth year, leaving a son 
and daughter. 

[The Choir, xxiii. 400 ; Grove's Dictionary, ii. 
338; Times and Daily Telegraph, quoted by 
Musical World, 1874, p. 842 ; Era, 20 Dec. 1874; 
Athenaeum theatrical notices, 1836 et seq.l 

L. M. M. 


(1804-1886), field-marshal. [See MICHEL.] 

1865), antiquary, was the second son of John 
Mitchell of Falkirk, where he was born in 
1789. Sir Thomas Livingstone Mitchell 
[q. v.] was his brother. He was educated 
at the Polmont school in Falkirk, and sub- 
sequently at the university of Edinburgh. 
For nearly half a century he was engaged in 
business as a merchant at Leith, and for some 
time acted as consul-general for Belgium. 
Nevertheless Mitchell found time for the 
study of archaeology, natural history, and 
mineralogy, and was a student of Scandina- 
vian languages and literature. He was fel- 
low (and joint secretary for its foreign cor- 
respondence) of the Society of Antiquaries of 
Scotland, of the Royal Physical Society, and 
the Royal Society of Northern Antiquaries of 
Denmark, contributing to the 'Transactions' 
of each many valuable papers. He lived on 
terms of friendly intercourse with the king 
of Denmark and the king of the Belgians, 
and received from the latter the gold medal 
of the order of Leopold. Mitchell died at his 



residence, Mayville, Trinity, near Edinburgh, 
on 24 April 1865. He was unmarried. 

Mitchell's chief works were : 1. i Mese- 
howe : Illustrations of the Runic Literature 
of Scandinavia,' Edinburgh, 1863, 4to, in- 
cluding translations in Danish and English 
of inscriptions found in the mound of Mese- 
howe in Orkney, opened in 1861. 2. 'The 
Herring, its Natural History and National 
Importance,' Edinburgh, 1864, 8vo, an elabo- 
rate work, embodying the study and research 
of many years, and constituting an authority 
on the subject to which it relates ; it is an 
expansion of a paper which gained the medal 
offered by the Royal Scottish Society of Arts. 
He was also author of a pamphlet ' On British 
Commercial Legislation in reference to the 
Tariff on Import Duties, and the injustice of 
interfering with the Navigation Laws,' Edin- 
burgh, 1849, 8vo ; 2nd edition, 1852. 

[Works in Brit. Mus. Libr. ; Cat. Advocates' 
Libr. ; Proc. Soc. of Antiquaries of Scotland, 
passim; Gent. Mag. 1865, pt. i. pp. 796-7.] 

W. C. S. 

MITCHELL, JOSEPH (1684-1738), 
dramatist, son of a Scottish stonemason, was 
born in 1684. After receiving (according to 
Gibber) a university education in Scotland, 
he settled in London, where he secured the 
patronage of the Earl of Stair and Sir Robert 
Walpole, and by his steady dependence earned 
the title of ' Sir Robert Walpole's Poet.' Con- 
stantly improvident, he speedily squandered 
1,000/. received at his wife's death. Literary 
friends as well as noblemen helped him, and 
once in his distress Aaron Hill presented to 
him a one-act drama, ' The Fatal Extrava- 
gance,' which was performed at Lincoln's Inn 
Fields 21 April 1721, repeated at Dublin the 
same year, and printed in Mitchell's name in 
1726 (GENEST, iii. 63). Ultimately, however, 
Mitchell disclosed the transaction, which is 
something to set against Gibber's estimate of 
him as 'vicious and dishonest,' 'governed by 
every gust of irregular appetite.' Discourtesy 
seems to have been among his characteris- 
tics, for he returned to Thomson a copy of 
1 Winter,' together with the couplet, 

Beauties and faults so thick lie scattered here, 
Those I could read if these were not so near. 

Thomson winced under his criticism, and 
writing to Mallet in 1726 called him a 
' planet-blasted fool '(Appendix to SIK HARRIS 
NICOLAS'S 'Life of Thompson' in Aldine 
Poets). Gibber mentions that Thomson pinned 
Mitchell in an epigram as a critic with a 
'blasted eye,' but on learning that his victim 
was really captus alter o oculo he wrote 

Why all not faults, injurious Mitchell ! why 
Appears one beauty to thy blasting eye ? 

Pope is said, at Mitchell's own request, to 
have erased his name from the first draft of 
the ' Dunciad.' Mitchell died 6 Feb. 1738. 

Mitchell's ' Poems on Several Occasions,' 
in 2 vols. 8vo, were published in 1729, and 
his opera, ' The Highland Fair, or the Union 
of the Clans,' was performed at Drury Lane 
20 March 1731, and is described by Genest 
as ' a very pleasing piece' (iii. 290). Among 
his occasional verse a poem called ' The Shoe- 
heel ' was ' much read on account of the low 
humour it contains;' another, on the subject 
of Jonah in the whale's belly (1720), was 
ironically dedicated to Dr. Watts on the 
ground that it ' was written to raise an emu- 
lation among our young poets to attempt 
divine composures.' His ' Sick-bed Soliloquy 
to an Empty Purse ' appeared both in Latin 
and English, London (1735), 4to. A tragedy 
entitled ' The Fate of King James I,' upon 
which he was said by Mallet to have been 
engaged in 1721, was apparently never com- 
pleted. He is represented by two songs in 
Ramsay's ' Tea Table Miscellany,' 1724 ; by 
one in Watts's ' Musical Miscellany,' 1731 ; 
by his ' Charms of Indolence,' in Southey's 
'Later English Poets,' i, 361, and by several 
lyrics in Johnson's ' Musical Museum.' As 
! a lyrist Mitchell is fluent, if not always me- 
I lodious, and his heroic couplets are of average 
merit. His dramatic sense was not strong. 

[Theophilus Gibber's Lives of the Poets, 1753, 
iv. 347 sq., v. 197 ; Baker's Biog. Dram. i. 520; 
Chalmers's Biog. Diet, vol.xxii.; Johnson's Scots 
Musical Museum, vol. iv. ed. Laing.] T. B. 

MITCHELL, ROBERT (fl. 1800), archi- 
tect, resided in London, first in Upper Mary- 
lebone Street, and afterwards in Newman 
Street. In the Royal Academy Exhibitions 
of 1782 and 1798 he exhibited .designs for 
ecclesiastical edifices. He designed Silwood 
Park, near Staines (drawing of west front 
in Royal Academy Exhibition, 1796, and 
1 of staircase 1797, view in NEALE, Seats, i. 
1818) ; Heath Lane Lodge, Twickenham ; 
Cottisbroke Hall, Northamptonshire (view 
in BRIDGES, Northamptonshire (Whalley), i. 
554) ; Moore Place, near Hertford ; Preston 
Hall, Midlothian (elevation in Royal Aca- 
demy Exhibition, 1794); and, 1793-4, the 
Rotunda, Leicester Square, for Robert Bar- 
ker (1737-1806) [q. v.], who exhibited there 
his panoramas. The building is now the 
Roman catholic school of Notre Dame de 

He published : ' Plans and Views in Per- 
spective, with Descriptions of Buildings 
erected in England and Scotland ; and also 
an Essay to elucidate the Grecian, Roman, 
and Gothic Architecture, accompanied with 




Designs,' London, 1801, in English and 
French. The work contains views of the 
buildings mentioned above. 

[Diet, of Architecture; Redgrave's Diet, of 
Artists ; Royal Academy Catalogues ; Gent. Mag. 
1801, pp. 639-41.] B. P. 

MITCHELL, THOMAS (jft. 1735-1790), 
marine-painter and naval official, was a ship- 
wright by profession who also practised with 
some success as a painter of marine subjects. 
He first exhibited at the Free Society of 
Artists in 1763, when he was residing on 
Tower Hill. He exhibited there again in 
1768 and the following years, when he was 
employed as assistant shipbuilder at Chatham 
dockyard. In 1774 he appears as builder's 
assistant atDeptford dockyard, and was after- 
wards employed in the navy office, becoming 
eventually assistant surveyor of the navy. 
He exhibited at the Eoyal Academy from 
1774 to 1789. A number of drawings by 
Mitchell are in the print room at the British 
Museum, the earliest dated being a view of 
Westminster Bridge in 1735. Some of his 
drawings were engraved. 

[Redgrave's Diet, of Artists ; Graves's Diet, of 
Artists, 1760-1880 ; Catalogues of the Free So- 
ciety of Artists and the Royal Academy.] 

L. C. 

MITCHELL, THOMAS (1783-1845), 
classical scholar, born on 30 May 1783, was 
son of Alexander Mitchell, riding master, 
successively of Hamilton Place and Grosve- 
nor Place, London. In June 1790 he was ad- 
mitted to Christ's Hospital, and in October 
1802 went to Pembroke College, Cambridge, 
with one of the hospital exhibitions (List 
of University Exhibitioners, ed. Lockhart, 
2nd edit.) In 1806 he graduated B.A. as 
eighth senior optime and was first chancellor's 
medallist. By reason of a novel regulation, 
which enacted that not more than two stu- 
dents educated at the same school should be 
fellows of the college at one time, he was 
refused a fellowship at Pembroke, greatly to 
his disappointment, as he could have held it 
without taking orders. In 1809 he proceeded 
M.A. and was elected to an open fellowship 
at Sidney Sussex, which he had to vacate in 
1812 on account of his refusal to be ordained. 
He supported himself by private tuition and 
literary work. From 1806 to 1816 he was 
tutor successively in the families of Sir George 
Henry Rose, Robert Smith (whose son, after- 
wards the Right Hon. Vernon Smith, was his 
favourite pupil), and Thomas Hope. In 1810 
he was introduced to William Gifford [q. v.], 
and in 1813 he commenced a series of articles 
in the ' Quarterly Review ' on Aristophanes 
and Athenian manners (Nos. xvii. xlii. xliii. 

xlv. xlvin. hv. Iviii. Ixvi. Ixxxviii.), the suc- 
cess of which subsequently induced him to 
undertake his spirited and accurate verse 
translation of Aristophanes's comedies of 
the ' Acharnians,' < Knights/ ' Clouds,' and 
' Wasps/ (2 vols. 1820-2). He declined soon 
afterwards a vacant Greek chair in Scotland, 
on account of his objection to sign the con- 
fession of the Scotch kirk. In June 1813 
Leigh Hunt invited him to dinner in Horse- 
monger Lane gaol, along with Byron and 
Moore (MooKE, Life of Byron, 1847, p. 183). 
Byron afterwards spoke of his translation of 
Aristophanes as ' excellent ' (ib. p. 455). 

For the last twenty years of his life 
Mitchell resided with his relatives in Ox- 
fordshire, occasionally superintending the 
publication of the Greek authors by the 
Clarendon Press. During 1834-8 he edited 
in separate volumes for John Murray the 
1 Acharnians ' (1835), < Wasps ' (1835), 
1 Knights ' (1836), < Clouds (1838), and ' Frogs ' 
(1839) of Aristophanes, with English notes. 
This edition was adversely criticised by the 
Rev. George John Kennedy, fellow of St. 
John's College, Cambridge, and Mitchell 
published a reply to Kennedy in 1841. His 
' Preliminary Discourse ' was republished in 
vol. xiii. of Philippus Invernizi's edition of 
'Aristophanes/ 1826. In 1839 he entered 

1842, Parker suspended the edition on the 
ground that schoolmasters objected to the dif- 
fuseness of English notes. Mitchell, left with- 
out regular employment, fell into straitened 
circumstances, but was granted by Sir Robert 
Peel 150/. from the royal bounty. In 1843 
Parker resumed his publication of ' Sophocles/ 
and Mitchell edited the remaining four plays, 
with shorter notes than before, and in 1844 
he began a school edition of a ' Pentalogia 
Aristophanica/ with brief Latin notes. He 
had nearly completed this task when he died 
suddenly of apoplexy, on 4 May 1845, at his 
house at Steeple Aston, near Woodstock. 
He was unmarried. 

Mitchell also published useful indexes to 
Reiske's edition of the ' Oratores Attici' 
(2 vols. 8vo, Oxford, 1828), < Isocrates ' (8vo, 
Oxford, 1828), and 'Plato' (2 vols. 8vo, Ox- 
ford, 1832). 

In the British Museum Library are Mit- 
chell's copiously annotated copies of ^Eschy- 
lus," Euripides," Aristophanes/ and Bekker's 
edition of the ' Oratores Attici.' 

[Classical Museum, iii. 213-16; Gent. Mag. 
1845 pt. ii. pp. 202-4; Trollope's History of 
Christ's Hospital, pp. 141, 306; Brit. Mus. Cat. ; 
Cambridge University Calendars.] G. G. 




STONE (1792-1855), Australian explorer, 
born 16 June 1792, was son of John Mitchell 
of Craigend, Stirlingshire, by the daughter 
of Alexander Miln of Carron Works. At 
the age of sixteen he joined the army in the 
Peninsula as a volunteer, and three years 
later he received a commission in the 95th 
regiment or rifle brigade. He was employed 
for along time on the quartermaster-general's 
staff, thus obtaining much experience in 
military sketching, and he was present at 
Ciudad Rodrigo, Badajoz, Salamanca, the 
Pyrenees, and St. Sebastian, for which he 
received a silver medal with five clasps. After 
the war was over he was sent back to Spain 
and Portugal on a special mission, to survey 
the battlefields and the positions of the 
armies. He was promoted to the rank of 
lieutenant on 16 Sept. 1813, placed on half- 
pay in 1818, came on full pay again in 1821, 
and served in the 2nd, 54th, and 97th regi- 
ments of foot until 1826, when his active 
career in the army ended. He was promoted 
to the rank of captain on 3 Oct. 1822, and to 
that of major on 29 Aug. 1826. 

In 1827 Mitchell published his < Outlines 
of a System of Surveying for Geographical 
and Military Purposes,' a useful little work 
at the time. During 1827 he was appointed 
deputy surveyor-general to the colony of New 
South Wales, and in the following year he 
succeeded to the surveyor-generalship, an ap- 
point ment he held until his death. During his 
tenure of office his work was of the greatest 
possible use to the colony, especially in con- 
nection with laying out new roads. In 1830 
he completed his survey of the great road to 
the Western Plains and Bathurst, and al- 
though this route was not accepted at the 
time, the soundness of his judgment is proved 
by the fact that both the road and railway 
now follow the track then laid down by him. 
His survey of the colony was published in 
three sheets in 1835, a work remarkable for 
the accuracy with which the natural features 
are delineated. 

Mitchell will, however, be chiefly remem- 
bered on account of his four explorations 
into the then unknown interior of Australia, 
expeditions which place him in the first 
rank of the pioneers of that continent. The 
first exploration was due to the interest 
aroused in the colony by the fabulous tale 
of a convict, who pretended that he had dis- 
covered a wide and navigable river to the 
northward of the Liverpool range, and that 
he had followed it to the north coast. As a 
search for the mythical stream must in any 
case settle many important geographical 
problems, the government accepted Mitchell's 

offer to lead an exploring party in the direc- 
tion indicated. He left Sydney in Novem- 
ber 1831, and entered terra incognita near 
where Tamworth and its railway station 
now stand. Continuing his northward jour- 
ney, he crossed the Gwydir, and struck the 
Barwan near the present boundary of Queens- 
land. This was the furthest point he reached, 
for the murder of two of his party by natives, 
as they were bringing up a reserve supply of 
provisions, made a return to the colony a 
necessity. But during his three months' ab- 
sence he had pro ved that no great river flowing 
northward existed in that part of the country, 
and he rendered it almost certain that all the 
rivers he had crossed flowed into the Darling. 
Mitchell's second exploration was under- 
taken in consequence of representations from 
the government at home that a survey of the 
course of the Darling would be very desirable. 
Leaving Sydney in 1835, he descended the 
valley of the Bogan river, the course of which 
was only partially known, and he reached 
Bourke on the Darling. During this advance 
Richard Cunningham, the botanist to the ex- 
pedition, lost his way and was killed by the 
natives, although every effort was made to 
find him. Bourke had previously been reached 
by Sturt, and that traveller had also disco- 
vered the existence of a large river entering 
the Murray, but the true identity of this 
stream with the Darling was only conjectural. 
Mitchell succeeded in tracing the Darling 
to within a hundred miles of its junction 
with the Murray, but beyond this point it 
was not possible to proceed, on account of 
the threatening attitude of the natives, which 
had already resulted in a conflict and loss of 
life on their side. He traced his way back 
along the bank of this weary river, which at 
this arid season was not joined by a single 
tributary for over three hundred miles, and 
which flowed through a country quite un- 
inhabitable by man or beast, according to our 
explorer, but for this solitary stream. 

Mitchell's third, and perhaps most impor- 
tant, journey was undertaken with the view 
of definitely connecting the Murray with the 
Darling. He left Sydney in 1836, descended 
i the valleys of the Lachlan and the Murrum- 
I bidgee to the Murray, and then passed along 
1 the banks of this latter stream to the mouth of 
; the Darling. He ascended the Darling valley 
; sufficiently far to render it certain that it was 
in fact the same watercourse that he had de- 
scended on his last expedition, and then faced 
about and retraced his steps up the Murray 
river. During this advance he had a somewhat 
serious encounter with his old enemies, the 
Darling tribe, in which several of the natives 
i were killed. From this point his discoveries 




became of the first importance. After ascend- 
ing the Murray to near its junction with the 
Goulburn, he turned off to the south-west, 
drawn in that direction by the fine quality 
of the country. The region he thus opened 
up was called by him Australia Felix, and it 
no doubt forms one of the richest tracts in 
Australia. Continuing his journey in this 
direction, he struck the Glenelg, as he named 
it, after the colonial secretary, Charles Grant, 
lord Glenelg [q. v.], and followed it to the 
sea. At Portland Bay he found one solitary 
settler, Edward Henty [q. v.] He returned 
to Sydney by a route parallel to that of his 
advance from the Murray, but nearer to the 
sea. Here he soon came into country more 
or less known through the travels of Hovell 
and Hume, and near where Albury now 
stands. He found the country on the eve of 
being taken up by colonists. This journey, 
which lasted over seven months, thus added 
greatly to the knowledge of a very fertile 
region of Australia. 

Mitchell went on leave to England in 1839, 
and the value of his services was recognised 
by his being knighted, and he received the 
honorary degree of D.C.L. at Oxford. He re- 
turned to Australia in 1840, and was promoted 
to the rank of lieutenant-colonel on 23 Nov. 
1841. In 1844 he was elected as a member 
of council to represent Melbourne, but on its 
being indicated to him that his vote as govern- 
ment officer was required by the government, 
he resigned his seat. 

The dangers attendant on the navigation 
of the Torres Straits made it appear very 
desirable to open an overland route to the 
gulf of Carpentaria, especially with the view 
of facilitating the trade in horses with India. 
Mitchell's fourth expedition was undertaken 
with the object of ascertaining if a practical 
road could be found. He left Sydney in No- 
vember 1845, accompanied by E. B. Kennedy 
as second in command, and by W. Stephen- 
son as naturalist. He first ascended the 
valley of the Narran, a river which had quite 
recently been discovered by his own son ; 
then, entering quite unknown land, he traced 
the Maranoa up to close to its source, and 
thence struck across more difficult country to 
the head waters of the Belyando. After tracing 
this river for some two hundred miles towards 
the sea, and after coming to the conclusion 
that it must join the Siittor river of Leich- 
hardt [q. v.], he retraced his steps to the Bel- 
yando. Hence he struck out again in a north- 
westerly direction, and discovered the sources 
of the Barcoo. He felt certain but in this 
he was in error that this must be the great 
river flowing into the gulf of Carpentaria, 
along the banks of which the great road to the 

north would be found. He traced the Barcoo 
to within a few miles of the point where it 
turns in a south-westerly direction, and he 
thus found nothing to shake the confidence of 
his belief. This was his furthest point, and 
he returned to civilisation in January 1847, 
after an absence of over a year. 

Despite Mitchell's mistaken supposition,, 
this last journey only served to confirm his 
high reputation as an explorer. On all his- 
expeditions, which made great additions to 
Australian botany, he was accompanied by 
a comparatively large number of followers, 
(twenty-nine men on the last occasion), and 
all the details were carefully thought out 
beforehand. The rank and file of his ex- 
peditions always consisted of convicts, who 
almost invariably did good service in the 
hope of a free pardon as a reward ; but that 
such men should have been led for so many 
months without any serious disturbance must 
be attributed to the personal qualities of their 
chief. A man of great personal courage, he 
had a somewhat imperious manner and 
temper, and spoke out so fearlessly that he 
made many enemies. He was evidently im- 
pressed with a strong sense of justice towards 
the natives and hated cruelty to animals. In 
1851 he was sent to report on the Bathurst 
goldfields. He again visited England in 
1853, and patented a new screw-propeller 
for steam-vessels called the 'Boomerang/ 
respecting which he published a lecture 
delivered at the United Institution. He 
died at his house, Carthona, Darling Point, 
5 Oct. 1855. The cause of his death was va- 
riously attributed to worry concerning an in- 
quiry that was being held on the department 
under his charge, or to exposure while on his 
last expedition. He married in 1818 a daugh- 
ter of Lieutenant-colonel Blunt. His son 
Roderick (1824-1852) was engaged in sur- 
veying to the north of New England (New 
South Wales), and was appointed to the 
command of the expedition in search of 
Leichhardt, but was drowned on the pas- 
sage from Newcastle. 

Mitchell, a fellow of the Royal and Geo- 
graphical Societies, was a man of much li- 
terary culture. He published a technical 
work, ' Outlines of a System for Geographical 
and Military Purposes,' 1827, besides two 
volumes recounting his explorations, which, 
though accurate and painstaking, somewhat 
reflect the monotonous character of the 
country and of the methods of travel de- 
scribed. Their titles ran : < Three Expeditions 
into the Interior of Eastern Australia, with 
Description of the recently explored Region 
of Australia Felix, and of the present Colony 
of New South Wales,' London, 1839 ; < Jour- 


7 6 


nal of an Expedition into Tropical Australia 
in search of a Route from Sydney to the gulf 
of Carpentaria/ London, 1848. Other of 
Mitchell's published works were : 1. ' Notes 
on the Cultivation of the Vine and the Olive 
and on the Method of Making Oil and Wine 
in the Southern parts of Europe,' 4to, Sydney, 
1849. 2. <A Trigonometrical Survey of Port 
Jackson.' 3. 'Australian Geography, with the 
Shores of the Pacific and those of the Indian 
Ocean,' Sydney, 1850. 4. 'The Lusiad of 
Camoens closely translated,' London, 1854 ; 
written in a small clipper during his last 
voyage to England round Cape Horn. 

[Journal of the Eoyal Geographical Society, 
vol. vii. 1837; Annual Register, 1855; Mit- 
chell's Works ; Gent. Mag. 1856,i. 301 ; Heaton's 
Australian Diet, of Dates.] L. D. 

1878), maritime writer, son of John Mitchell 
of Modbury in Devon, was born at Modbury 
in 1811. At an early age he came to Lon- 
don as a journalist, was for some time on 
the 'True Sun,' and from 1836 was chief 
proprietor and editor of the ' Shipping and 
Mercantile Gazette,' a daily paper which he 
established, and which at once took the high 
position it has since maintained. In 1840 
he began to urge the importance, and indeed 
the necessity, of compulsory examinations 
for officers of merchant ships ; and it was 
mainly in consequence of his action that the 
Mercantile Marine Act of 1850 was passed 
(13 & 14 Viet. cap. 93). In 1857 he was 
called on to advise with the registrar-gene- 
ral of seamen in the preparation of the 
measure for the royal naval reserve, which 
eventually took form in the act of 1859 ' for 
the Establishment of a Reserve Volunteer 
Force of Seamen, and for the Government 
of the same ' (22 & 23 Viet. cap. 40). He 
succeeded in introducing an international 
code of signals, which was gradually adopted 
by every maritime country, and in establish- 
ing signal stations for reporting the move- 
ments of all ships using the international 
code. In reward for his public services he 
was knighted in 1867, and in 1869 was 
nominated by the king of Sweden a knight 
commander of the order of St. Olaf. He 
edited ' A Review of the Merchant Shipping 
Bill, being a Series of Leading Articles . . . 
from the " Shipping and Mercantile Ga- 
zette,'" 1869, 8vo, and < Maritime Notes and 
Queries, a Record of Shipping Law and 
1873-6, 4to. He died at Strode, 

near Ivybridge, Devonshire, on 1 May 1878. 
He married in 1835 Caroline, eldest daugh- 
ter of Richard Andrews of Modbury. 
[Men of the Eeign ; Times, 4 May 1878.] 

J. K. L. 

FANCOURT (1811-1884), Australian poli- 
tician, born in England in 1811, was son of 
George Berkley Mitchell, vicar of St. Mary's 
from 1813, and of All Saints' from 1820, both 
parishes of the town of Leicester. At an 
early age William was sent out to Tasmania, 
where on 2 April 1833 he was appointed writer 
in the colonial secretary's office, becoming on 
1 Aug. 1839 assistant colonial secretary. In 
1840 he went over to Port Phillip district 
(afterwards Victoria), and entered on an 
active squatter's life near Kyneton and Mount 
Macedon. On 1 Jan. 1853, when the disco- 
very of gold in Port Phillip threw the whole 
district into disorder, he was specially invited 
by the lieutenant-governor to take the su- 
preme command of the police. In this ca- 
pacity, receiving almost unlimited powers, he 
reorganised the force on a new basis, restored 
order in the gold districts, and stamped out 
bush-ranging. In 1855 private affairs took 
him back to England. 

On his return to Victoria in September 
1856 he was elected to the legislative council 
as one of the five original members for the 
North- Western Province, and joined the 
Haines ministry the first under responsible 
government representing it for six months 
in the upper chamber without portfolio. In 
Haines's next administration he was post- 
master-general from April 1857 to March 
1858, and is credited with a complete reform 
of the post-office. In 1858 he was defeated 
at the polls and was out of parliament for a 
short time, but in 1860 he was again elected to 
the council for the North- Western Province, 
and in December 1861 became commissioner 
of railways in O'Shanassy's administration, 
which lasted till June 1863. Throughout 
the sessions of 1866-8 he devoted special 
attention to the bill respecting the constitu- 
tion of the legislative council, which became 
law September 1868. In 1869 he was elected 
chairman of committees in the legislative 
council, and in 1870 the president of the coun- 
cil. In this capacity he served till his death, 
through a period of considerable anxiety, 
leading the opposition of the council to the 
assembly in the disputes with the govern- 
ment of Sir James McCulloch [q. v.] as to 
the protective tariff and the Darling grant, 
and again respecting payment of members. 
As president he distinguished himself by the 
vigour of his ruling. 

In 1875 Mitchell was knighted. During his 
last years he used crutches. He died at his 
residence, Barfold, near Kyneton, on 24 Nov. 
1884. The house of assembly as well as the 
council adjourned as a mark of respect the 
first time that it had ever adjourned in conse- 




quence of the death of a member of the other 

He was at the time of his death a large 
landed proprietor near Kyneton and the 
chairman of R. Goldsborough & Co. 

[Melbourne Argus, 25 Nov. 1884 ; Mermen's 
Diet. Austral. Biog. ; Victorian Parliamentary 
Debates.] C. A. H. 

MITFORD, JOHN (1782-1831), miscel- 
laneous writer, was born at Newton Red 
House and baptised in the parish church of 
Mitford, on 22 Jan. 1782. He was a member 
of the elder branch of the family of Mitford 
of Mitford Castle in Northumberland, was 
third cousin of the Rev. John Mitford [q. v.], 
and second cousin three times removed of 
William Mitford [q. v.] and of John Free- 
man-Mitford, lord Redesdale [q. v.] In April 
1795, by Lord Redesdale's interest, he en- 
tered the navy as midshipman of the Victory, 
in which he went out to the Mediterranean, 
and was present in the battle off Toulon on 
13 July 1795. In the following year he 
was moved into the Zealous with Captain 
(afterwards Sir Samuel) Hood [q. v.], and in 
her was present in the disastrous attack on 
Santa Cruz in July 1797, and at the battle 
of the Nile 1-2 Aug. 1798, where, according 
to his own statement, he was sent in a four- 
oared boat from the Zealous to the Vanguard, 
and from the Vanguard to the Leander, then 
engaged with the Tonnant. The latter, he 
says, presently struck to the Leander, when 
he was sent back with the news to the ad- 
miral. The story affords a measure of Mit- 
ford's credibility : the Tonnant did not sur- 
render till the forenoon of 3 Aug. ; she sur- 
rendered to the Theseus, and, as it was broad 
daylight and no other fighting was going on, 
it could not be necessary to report it on board 
the flagship by a casual boat from another 
ship. Mitford was afterwards with Hood 
in the Courageux. According to his own 
account, after drinking freely on Christmas 
day 1800, he insulted his captain and left 
the service, that is to say, deserted ; but as 
he was with Hood in 1801 in the Venerable 
the desertion may have been only imagined. 
From 1804 to 1806 he commanded a revenue 
cutter on the coast of Ireland, and from 1809 
to 1811 was acting master of the Philomel 
brig in the Mediterranean. 

Mitford states that he received a letter 
from his wife in September 1811 while at 
Port Mahon, acquainting him with an offer 
made by Viscountess Perceval, a connection 
of Lady Redesdale, to secure him a lucrative 
appointment in the civil service. Accordingly, 
though not without difficulty, he obtained his 
transfer to the Canopus for a passage to Eng- 

land. But Lady Perceval's promises proved 
delusive. She received him on a footing of 
intimacy, but merely employed him to write 
in the ' Star,' edited by John Mayne, or the 
'News,' edited by T. A. Phipps, articles in sup- 
port of the Princess of Wales, to whose cause 
she was enthusiastically devoted. While thus 
employed, Mitford's brain gave way, and he 
was removed to Mr. Warburton's private 
lunatic asylum at Whitmore House, Hoxton. 
Warburton, calling on Phipps on 8 April 
1813, 'stated, in the presence of two wit- 
nesses, that Mitford had been under confine- 
ment at his house from May 1812 to March 
1813' (The Important Trial, &c.,p. 121). In 
March he was liberated at the desire of Lady 
Perceval, but afterwards, finding that her 
writings in the papers were likely to get her 
into serious trouble, she induced Mitford 
and his wife to destroy her letters to him, 
and then brought an action against him for 
having falsely sworn that the articles were 
by her. The case was tried before Lord 
Ellenborough on 24 Feb. 1814, when Phipps 
produced some of Lady Perceval's letters 
which had not been destroyed. The evi- 
dence was conclusive against her, and Mit- 
ford was acquitted. 

At the same time Mitford was discharged 
from the navy as insane, and he took to 
journalism and strong drink. His wife and 
family were provided for by Lord Redesdale, 
but he refused all assistance for himself, and 
sank to the lowest depths of poverty. He 
is said to have edited the 'Scourge, or 
Monthly Expositor of Imposture and Folly,' 
which, after running for five years, died in 
December 1815 ; but though he contributed 
to the last four volumes, it does not appear 
that he was the editor. After this he wrote 
'The Adventures of Johnny Newcome in 
the Navy, a Poem in four Cantos,' 1st edit., 
published under the pseudonym of Alfred 
Burton, 1818, 8vo; 2nd edit. 1819. The 
publisher who employed him found that the 
only way to make him work was to keep 
him without money. He therefore limited 
him to a shilling a day, which Mitford ex- 
pended on two pennyworth of bread and 
cheese and an onion, and the balance on gin. 
With this, and his day's supply of paper 
and ink, he repaired to an old gravel-pit in 
Battersea Fields, and there wrote and slept 
till it was time to take in his work and get 
his next shilling. For forty-three days he is 
said to have lived in this manner, and, the 
weather continuing fine, without being con- 
scious of discomfort. The poem is in octo- 
syllabic verse, reeled off with the most care- 
less ease, but the lines scan, the rhymes are 
good, and the ' yarns ' such as might have 



been heard any day in the midshipman's 
berth. l The Poems of a British Sailor 
1818, 8vo, if more reputable is more stupid 
it consists of occasional verses written during 
his life at sea. 

His other literary work was anonymous. 
He is said to have written ' a libellous life 
of Sir John Sylvester/ recorder of the city 
of London ; to have edited * The Bon Ton 
Magazine/ and to have been kept the while 
by his publisher in a cellar, with a candle, a 
bottle of gin, and a rag of old carpet for a 
coverlet. In 1827 he contributed a memoir 
of William Mitford the historian to the 
4 Literary Gazette' (p. 187), which called 
forth a remonstrance from the family, con- 
tradicting every detailed statement (p. 220), 
and an apologetic note from the editor to 
the effect that the writer had represented 
himself as a namesake and near relative of 
the deceased, and ' we could not be aware 
that he was imposing on us for his wages.' 
But Mitford had lost the power of distin- 
guishing truth from falsehood. Ragged and 
filthy in his person, he was no doubt the 
John Mitford described by Captain Brenton 
as < lodging over a coal-shed in some obscure 
street near Leicester Square ' (NICOLAS, Des- 
patches and Letters of Lord Nelson, iii. 521). 
All attempts made by his friends to reclaim 
him failed. He was editing a paper called 
the ' Quizzical Gazette ' at the time of his 
death, which took place in St. Giles's work- 
house on 24 Dec. 1831. He was buried in 
the graveyard of St. Dunstan's, Fleet Street. 
He had married in 1808 Emily, daughter 
of Charles Street of Dullintabor, N.B., and 
left issue. 

[G-ent. Mag. 1831, pt. ii. p. 647 ; Sketches of 
Obscure Poets, with Specimens of their Writings, 
1833, p. 91 ; Quizzical Gazette, No. 20; Scourge, 
vol. vii. freq. ; A Description of the Crimes and 
Horrors in the Interior of Warburton's Private 
Madhouse at Hoxton, by John Mitford; The 
Important Trial of John Mitford, Esq., on the 
Prosecution of Lady Viscountess Perceval for 
Perjury ; Foster's Peerage, s.n. ' Redesdale ; ' 
private information.] J. K. L. 

MITFORD, JOHN (1781-1859), miscel- 
laneous writer, descended from the Mitfords 
of Mitford Castle, Northumberland, and 
nearly related to John Freeman Mitford, 
lord Redesdale [q. v.], who patronised him, 
and to William Mitford [q. v.], the historian 
of Greece, was born at Richmond, Surrey, 
on 13 Aug. 1781. He was the elder son of 
John Mitford (d. 18 May 1806), commander 
of a vessel engaged in the China trade of 
the East India Company, by his second wife, 
Mary, eldest daughter of J. Allen of Clifton, 
Bristol. Early in life he went to school at 

Richmond, and for a time he was at Tun- 
bridge grammar school, under Vicesimus 
Knox [q. v.], but most of his younger days 
were passed in the diocese of Winchester, 
where the Rev. John Baynes of Exton, near 
Droxford, Hampshire, was his friend and 
tutor. After a brief experience as clerk in 
the army pay office, he on 6 March 1801 ma- 
triculated at Oriel College, Oxford, under the 
tutorship of Copleston, with Reginald Heber 
as his 'intimate associate,' and graduated 
B. A. on 17 Dec. 1804. When Heber won the 
English verse prize with his poem of ' Pales- 
tine,' his most prominent competitor was 
Mitford. In the autumn of 1809 he was or- 
dained in the English church, being licensed 
to the curacy of Kelsale in Suffolk, but he 
had.little aptitude for clerical work. Charles 
Lamb speaks of him as ' a pleasant layman 
spoiled,' and Mrs. Houstoun in graver terms 
condemns some of his errors in conduct. 
Within three months he obtained through 
Lord Redesdale's interest the vicarage of 
Benhall, near Saxmundham, Suffolk, to which 
he was instituted on 17 Feb. 1810, and in 
August 1815 he became domestic chaplain 
to that peer. In the same month he was 
appointed to the rectory of Weston St. Mary, 
and a few years later he was nominated to 
the rectory of Stratford St. Andrew, both in 
Suffolk, and then in crown patronage. The 
whole of these livings were united, during 
his incumbency, in 1824, when he was reinsti- 
tuted, and he retained them all until his death. 
At Benhall he built a handsome parsonage, 
consolidated the glebe, and gratified his love 
of shrubs and books by planting l a great va- 
riety of ornamental and foreign trees,' and by 
forming an extensive library, mainly of Eng- 
lish poetry. Lamb, in a letter to Bernard 
Barton, writes : * Your description of Mr. Mit- 
ford's place makes me long for a pippin, some 
caraways, and a cup of sack in his orchard, 
when the sweets of the night come in.' The 
care of his livings did not hinder him from 
renting for many years permanent lodgings 
in Sloane Street, London, where he enjoyed 
'the most perfect intimacy with Samuel 
Rogers for more than twenty years.' In 
order to indulge his love of paintings and 
landscape gardening he travelled all over 
England, and in search of the picturesque 
he explored the scenery on all the chief rivers 
of Europe. 

In 1833 he began to contribute to the 
Gentleman's Magazine ' a series of articles 
on the old English poets and on sacred poetry, 
paying particular attention to the works of 
Prudentius. During that year William 
Pickering [q. v.], the publisher, purchased a 
share in the magazine, and a new series was 




started in January 1834, when Mitford be- 
came editor. For seventeen years Mitford's 
contributions never failed for a single month, 
and he edited the magazine ' assiduously and 
successfully' until the close of 1850. During 
these years, the palmy years of that periodi- 
cal, he varied this drudgery with the com- 
position of numerous poems signed J. M. 
His communications after 1850 were few. 
One of the last of his articles was a letter 
respecting Samuel Rogers, in the volume for 
1856, pt. i. pp. 147-8. 

After a long life spent in his favourite 
pursuits Mitford was afflicted by a slight 
attack of paralysis, fell down in a London 
street, and never recovered from the shock. 
For some time he was imprisoned in his rooms 
in Sloane Street, but at last he was removed 
to his living, and died at Benhall vicarage 
on 27 April 1859, being buried at Stratford 
St. Andrew. He married at St. George's, 
Hanover Square, London, on 21 Oct. 1814, 
Augusta, second daughter of Edward Boodle, 
of Brook Street, Grosvenor Square, London, 
who died at her son's house, Weston Lodge, 
Hampstead, on 25 Dec. 1886, aged 92, and 
was buried at Hampstead cemetery on 29 Dec. 
The marriage was not attended with happi- 
ness. Their only child, Robert Henry Mit- 
ford, was born on 24 July 1815, and mar- 
ried at Wellow, Somerset, on 12 Aug. 1847, 
Anne, youngest daughter of Lieutenant- 
colonel William Henry Wilby, their eldest 
son being Robert Sidney Mitford of the home 

Mitford is praised by Mrs. Houstoun for his 

* brilliant conversation, totally unmarred by 
any desire to shine.' He was an indefatigable 
student of the Greek and Roman classics, 
and was well acquainted with the principal 
French, German, and Italian authors. In 
English literature he was deeply read, and 
he was an ardent lover of painting, especially 
of the works of the Italian school. Country 
life had many charms for him, and his 
knowledge of the ways of birds and the 
shapes of trees is evidenced in many of his 

As early in his life as 1811 Mitford con- 
templated an edition of Gray's l Works ' (cf. 
SOUTHEY, Letters, ed. Warter, ii. 244). In 
1814 he edited the first accurate edition of 

* The Poems of Thomas Gray, with Critical 
Notes, a Life of the Author, and an Essay 
on his Poetry,' and in 1816 he embodied this 
matter in two quarto volumes of ' The Works 
of Thomas Gray,' which contained very large 
additions to the published letters of the poet, 
and for which the publisher paid him the 
sum of 5001. Much of his work reappeared 
in the Aldine edition of Gray's * Works,' in 

5 vols. (2 vola. in 1835, 2 vols. in 1836, 1 vol. 
in 1843). The last volume, however, con- 
sisted mainly of the poet's correspondence 
with the Rev. Norton Nicholls, and this was 
also issued in a separate volume, with a dis- 
tinct title-page. The first volume of this 
edition, comprising the poems, was reprinted 
in 1853, and reissued at Boston in 1857, and 
in the reprint of the Aldine Poets in 1866. 
The Eton edition in 1847 of the poems con- 
tained 'An Original Life of Gray' by Mit- 
ford, which was inserted in the subsequent 
impressions of 1852 and 1863. In 1853 he 
edited the ' Correspondence of Gray and 
Mason, with some Letters addressed by Gray 
to the Rev. James Brown, D.D.,' and some 
pages of ' Additional Notes thereto ' were 
printed in 1855. Many of Mitford's comments 
are reproduced in Mr. Gosse's edition of Gray, 
while from his manuscripts at the British 
Museum, which were intended 'to supple- 
ment his long labours' on his favourite writer, 
is drawn much of the information in Tovey's 
' Gray and his Friends.' 

When Pickering set on foot the Aldine 
edition of the British poets he enlisted the 
services of Mitford. For it he edited, with 
memoirs, in addition to the poems of Gray, 
those of Cowper, 1830, 3 vols. (memoir written 
by John Bruce in 1865 edit.) ; Goldsmith, 
1831 ; Milton, 1832, 3 vols., with sonnet to 
Charles Sumner, bishop of Winchester ; Dry- 
den, 1832-3, 5 vols. (life rewritten by the 
Rev. Richard Hooper in the 1865 and 1866 
editions); Parnell, 1833 and 1866 (with 
epistle in verse to Alexander Dyce) ; Swift, 
1833-4, 3 vols., and 1866; Young, 1834, 
2 vols. (with sonnet), 1858 and 1866; Prior, 
1835, 2 vols., 1866 ; Butler, 1835, 2 vols. 
(with verses to W. L. Bowles), 1866 ; Fal- 
coner, 1836, 1866 (with sonnet); Spenser, 
1839, 5 vols. (with four sonnets, re-edited by 
J. P. Collier in 1866). The text and lives 
by Mitford in the original Aldine edition 
were reprinted at Boston, United States, in 
1854-6, and his notes to 'Milton's Poems' 
were reprinted, after considerable correction, 
in an edition of the ' Poetical Works of Mil- 
ton and Marvell,' Boston, in 1878. In 1851 
he edited ' The Works of Milton in Verse 
and Prose,' 8 vols., and wrote for it a memoir, 
expanded from that in the 1832 edition of the 
' Poems.' 

Among Mitford's other works were : 
1. 'Agnes, the Indian Captive,' a poem, in 
four cantos. With other poems, 1811. 2. 'A 
Letter to Richard Heber on Mr. Weber's late 
edition of Ford's Dramatic Works,' 1812, a 
severe criticism. The letter to J. P. Kemble 
(1811) on the same subject, which is said by 
Halkett and Laing (ii. 1382) to have been 



' written chiefly by Mitford/ is assigned in 
the British Museum Catalogue to G. D. Whit- 
tington of Cambridge. 3. ' Sacred Specimens 
selected from the Early English Poets, with 
Prefatory Remarks,' 1827. Charles Lamb 
called this a ' thankful addition ' to his shelves, 
but regretted the errors in printing. 4. 'Poe- 
mata Latine partim reddita partim scripta 
a V. Bourne,' 1840 ; with life by Mitford. 
5. ' Correspondence of Horace Walpole and 
Rev. W. Mason,' ed., with notes, by Mitford, 
1851, 2 vols. This, like all Mitford's works, 
shows much knowledge of the last century, 
but great laxity of supervision. Some of his 
annotations are reproduced by Peter Cun- 
ningham in his edition of Walpole's ' Letters.' 
6. ' Lines suggested by a fatal Shipwreck near 
Aldborough, 3 Nov. 1855,' n.p. 1855, 12mo ; 
2nd edit., Woodbridge, 1856. 7. ' Cursory 
Notes on various Passages in the Text of 
Beaumont and Fletcher, as edited by Rev. 
Alexander Dyce,' 1856 ; complimentary to 
Dyce. 8. 'Miscellaneous Poems,' 1858; aselec- 
tion from his fugitive pieces. At the end was 
announced a volume, hitherto unpublished, 
of ' Passages of Scripture, illustrated by Spe- 
cimens from the Works of the Old Masters 
of Painting.' Raw's ' Pocket-book ' for 1830 
and later years contained poems by him ; his 
impromptu lines ' On the Aldine Anchor,' 
printed in the ' Gentleman's Magazine' for 
1836, pt. i. p. 501, and in ' Notes and Queries,' 
3rd ser. x. 327, and 5th ser. xii. 44, were struck 
off for separate circulation. Further poems 
of his composition are inserted in the last 
periodical, 3rd ser. ix. 58, in Mrs. Houstoun's 
1 A Woman's Memories ' and her ' Sylvanus 
Redivivus,' and in Glyde's ' New Suffolk 
Garland,' 1866, p. 375, and some ' Remarks 
by him on the Mustard Tree of Scripture' 
are at the Dyce Library, South Kensington 

Mitford's collections were dispersed after 
his death by Sotheby & Wilkinson. His fine 
art collection of silver Greek coins, cameos, 
and miniatures was sold on 30 June 1859, 
the engravings and drawings on 23 July 1859 
and two following days, his Greek and Latin 
classics on 17 Dec. 1859 and six following 
days. This sale produced 1,0291. 19s. The 
library of English history, plays, and poetry 
was sold on 24 April 1 860 and eleven following 
days, producing 2,999/. 2s. ; and his manu- 
scripts on 9 July 1860, producing 817J. 3s. 
The manuscripts contained three volumes of 
autograph letters, papers relating to Gray, 
his own recollections in fifty-five volumes, 
the correspondence of Toup. Many of the 
books, with his notes, are now in the libraries 
of the Rev. Alexander Dyce and John For- 
ster at the South Kensington Museum, or 

in the library of the British Museum. His 
commonplace-books are Addit. MSS. 32559- 
32575 at the British Museum, and from 
them were printed ' Some Conversations 
with the Duke of Wellington ' (Temple Bar, 
April 1888, pp. 507-13). Mitford was in 
early life a great cricketer, and from the 
conversation of William Fennex, a cricket 
veteran whom he supported by charitable 
work in his garden at Benhall, he wrote many 
newspaper articles and compiled a manu- 
script volume, which he gave to the Rev. 
James Pycroft in 1836, and on it Pycroft 
laid the structure of his work on the ' Cricket 
Field,' 1851 (PYCKOFT, Oxford Memories, ii. 
120-1). On his letters was based a volume 
of ' Sylvanus Redivivus (the Rev. John Mit- 
ford). With a short Memoir of Edward Jesse. 
By M. Houstoun/ 1889, reissued in 1891, 
with new title-page and slip of errata as 
1 Letters and Reminiscences of the Rev. John 
Mitford. With a Sketch of Edward Jesse. 
By C. M.' He wrote many letters to Bernard 
Barton (one of which is printed in ' Selections 
from Poems and Letters of Barton/ 1849, 
p. xxiii, and in ' Poems and Letters of Barton/ 
1853, p. xxiv), and Charles Lamb frequently 
refers to him in his correspondence with 
Barton (ib. pp. 126-39, and LAMB, Letters, ed. 
Ainger, ii. passim). Many of his letters after- 
wards passed to Edward Fitzgerald, who col- 
lected and bound together Mitford's papers 
in the ' Gentleman's Magazine ; ' the volume 
is now the property of Dr. W. Aldis Wright. 
A letter from him on his notice of the early 
works of Mary Russell Mitford [q. v.] in the 
' Quarterly Review/ which was much muti- 
lated by Gifford, is in ' Friendships of Miss 
Mitford/ i. 53-4, and a communication on an 
ancient garden at Chelsea is in L'Estrange's 
' Village of Palaces/ ii. 288-91. He recom- 
mended to J. B. Nichols the publication of 
' Bishop Percy's Correspondence/ which forms 
the staple of the seventh and eighth volumes 
of the ' Illustrations of the Literary History 
of the Eighteenth Century ; ' the seventh 
volume was dedicated to him. 

[Gent. Mag. 1847 pt. ii. p. 534, 1859 pt. i. 
p. 652, pt. ii. pp. 84-6, 206; Foster's Alumni 
Oxon. ; Foster's Index Ecclesiasticus ; Foster's 
Peerage, sub 'Redesdale;' Mrs. Houstoun's 
Woman's Memories, i. 122-5, 178-204; Mrs. 
Houstoun's Sylvanus Redivivus ; information 
from Dr. W. Aldis Wright and Mr. E. H. Mit- 
ford ; Mitford's Works, passim.] W. P. C. 

BARON REDESDALE (1748-1830), younger son 
of John Mitford of Newton House, Kent, 
and Exbury, Hampshire, by his wife Phila- 
delphia, daughter of William Reveley of 
Newby Wiske, Yorkshire, was born in the 




parish of St. Andrew, Holborn, on 18 Aug. 
1748, and was educated with his brother 
William [q. v.] at Cheam, under the Rev. 
William Gilpin [q. v.] At an early age 
he entered the Six Clerks' office, but after- 
wards determined to be a barrister, and in 
1772 was admitted a student of the Inner 
Temple. He was called to the bar on 9 May 
1777, and in 1780 published 'A Treatise 
on the Pleadings in Suits in the Court of 
Chancery by English Bill,' London, 8vo, 
anon. Lord Eldon subsequently characterised 
this treatise as f a wonderful effort to collect 
what is to be deduced from authorities speak- 
ing so little what is clear' (Preface to the 
fifth edition by J. W. Smith, 1847), while Sir 
Thomas Plumer declared that it reduced * the 
whole subject to a system with such uni- 
versally acknowledged learning, accuracy, 
and discrimination, as to have been ever since 
received by the whole profession as an autho- 
ritative standard and guide' (JACOB and 
WALKER, Reports, ii. 151-2). Owing to the 
success of his book (which has passed through 
several English and American editions), Mit- 
ford rapidly acquired a large practice at the 
chancery bar. Through the influence of his 
cousin, the Duke of Northumberland, he was 
returned to parliament for the borough of 
Beeralston, Devonshire, in December 1788, 
and in July 1789 became a king's counsel, and 
was appointed a Welsh judge. In 1791 he in- 
troduced a bill for ' the relief of persons call- 
ing themselves protesting dissenting Catho- 
lics, under certain conditions and restrictions' 
(Part. Hist, xxviii. 1262-4, 1364-5), which 
after some amendment was passed through 
both houses and became law (31 Geo. Ill, 
c. 32). Mitford, however, opposed Fox's 
motion for the repeal of the penal statutes 
respecting religious opinions in the following 
year (ib. xxix. 1398). In January 1793 he 
supported the Alien Bill in a vigorous speech 
(ib. xxx. 217-19), and on 13 Feb. following 
he was appointed solicitor-general in the 
place of Sir John Scott (afterwards Lord 
Eldon), receiving the honour of knighthood 
two days afterwards. As counsel for the 
crown, Mitford took part in the prosecutions 
of Daniel Isaac Eaton, Thomas Hardy, John 
Home Tooke, William Stone, Robert Thomas 
Crossfield, John Reeves, and James O'Coigley 
(see HOWELL, State Trials, vols. xxii. xxiv- 
xxvii.) He succeeded Scott as attorney-gene- 
ral on 17 July 1799, and, resigning his seat at 
Beeralston, was returned for the borough of 
East Looe, Cornwall. On 11 Feb. 1801, after 
a futile attempt at opposition on the part of 
Sheridan, he was elected speaker of the House 
of Commons in the place of Addington (Par I. 
Hist. xxxv. 948-55), and was admitted to the 


privy council on the 18th of the same month. 
On Lord Clare's death Mitford was appointed 
lord chancellor of Ireland (9 Feb. 1802), and 
was created a peer of the United Kingdom 
with^the title of Baron Redesdale of Redes- 
dale in the county of Northumberland, on 
15 Feb. 1802. He was sworn a member of 
the Irish privy council on 9 March, and took 
his seat in the Irish court of chancery for 
the first time on 5 May 1802. Though his 
conduct on the bench was beyond suspicion, 
Redesdale was unpopular with the majority 
of the Irish people, owing to his bitter op- 
position to catholic emancipation and his 
openly expressed distrust of the catholic 
priesthood. His letters to the Earl of Fingal, 
in which he wantonly attacked the Roman 
catholics, were severely criticised in the House 
of Commons by Canning and Fox (Part. 
Debates, 1st ser. i. 760-2, 787-8). In May 
1 804 Cobbett was convicted of libelling Redes- 
dale and Hardwicke (the lord-lieutenant) in 
certain letters on the affairs of Ireland, signed 
' Inverna,' which appeared in the ' Political 
Register.' After his conviction it was dis- 
covered that the letters had been written by 
Robert Johnson, one of the justices of the 
common pleas in Ireland, who was tried at 
bar in the king's bench at Westminster on 
23 Nov. 1805, and found guilty. Redesdale 
made an elaborate speech against Lord Gren- 
ville's motion for a committee on the Roman 
catholic petition on 10 May 1805, and de- 
clared that the abolition of the Roman catholic 
' hierarchy was in his opinion the first step 
to that conciliation which he believed could 
alone produce peace to Ireland' (ib. iv. 1061- 
1082). At the beginning of 1806 he in- 
volved himself in an injudicious controversy 
with Valentine, lord Cloncurry, who was de- 
sirous of being placed upon the commission 
of the peace (Personal Recollections of Lord 
Cloncurry, 1849, pp. 221-30). On the forma- 
tion of the ministry of All the Talents, Redes- 
dale was promptly dismissed from the chan- 
cellorship, and took leave of the Irish bar on 
4 March 1806. He accepted a seat at the 
board of trade and foreign plantations on 
30 March 1808, but refused the offer of his 
old office in Ireland, which his brother-in- 
law, Perceval, is said to have made to him on 
becoming premier. He took an active part 
in the parliamentary debates and in the hear- 
ing of appeals and peerage claims. He in- 
troduced the bill for the creation of the 
office of the vice-chancellor for England 
(53 Geo. Ill, c. 24), and, in spite of the 
opposition of Eldon and Ellenborough, his 
bills for the relief of insolvent debtors (53 
Geo. Ill, c. 102, and 54 Geo. Ill, c. 23) 
passed into law (see Part. Debates, 1st ser. 



xxiv. 182 ; Memoirs of Sir Samuel Romilly, 
1840, iii. 107-13, 118, 120-4). He opposed 
to the last the repeal of the Test and Cor- 
poration Acts and the emancipation of the 
Roman catholics, and continued to support 
the restrictions on the importation of corn. 
He spoke for the last time in the House of 
Lords on 21 May 1829 (ParL Debates, 2nd 
ser. xxi. 1507). He died at Batsford Park, 
near Moreton-in-the-Marsh, Gloucestershire, 
on 16 Jan. 1830, aged 81, and was buried in 
Batsford Church, which he had rebuilt in 

Redesdale was l a sallow man, with round 
face and blunt features, of a middle height, 
thickly and heavily built, and had a heavy, 
drawling, tedious manner of speech' (Sra E. 
BKYDGES, Autobiography, i. 159). Sheil says 
that he introduced a reformation in Irish 
practice by substituting ' great learning, un- 
wearied diligence, and a spirit of scientific 
discussion for the flippant apothegms and irri- 
table self-sufficiency of Lord Clare ' [see FITZ- 
GIBBON, JOHN] (Sketches of the Irish Ear, 
1854, i. 228), and Story has pronounced him 
to be ' one of the ablest judges that ever sat in 
equity' (Commentaries on Equity Jurispru- 
dence, 1884, i. 14). His integrity was un- 
impeachable, his manners were stiff, and his 
sense of humour was deficient. An amusing 
anecdote of his encounter with the wits of the 
Irish bar will be found in Sir Jonah Barring- 
ton's * Personal Sketches of his own Times,' 
1869, i. 185-7. Redesdale married, on 6 June 
1803, Lady Frances Perceval, seventh daugh- 
ter of John, second earl of Egmont, by whom 
he had an only son, John Thomas Freeman- 
Mitford, earl of Redesdale [q. v.], and three 
daughters, viz. Frances Elizabeth, who died at 
Batsford Park on 7 Nov. 1866, aged 62, and 
Catherine and Elizabeth, both of whom died 
young. His wife died in Harley Street, Lon- 
don, on 22 Aug. 1817, aged 49. Redesdale 
was elected a bencher of the Inner Temple on 
13 Nov. 1789, and acted as treasurer of the 
society in 1796. He was elected F.S.A. on 
9 Jan. 1794, and F.R.S. on 6 March 1794. He 
succeeded Eldon as chancellor of D urham, and 
was a member of the first, second, and third 
commissions on public records, and also of 
the commission of inquiry into the practice 
of the court of chancery. On the death of 
Thomas Edwards Freeman (whose ancestor, 
Richard Freeman, held the post of lord chan- 
cellor of Ireland from 1707 to 1710) in Fe- 
bruary 1808, Redesdale came into the pos- 
session of the Batsford property, and assumed J 
the additional surname of Freeman by royal 
license of 28 Jan. 1809 (London Gazettes, \ 
1809, pt. i. p. 131). There is an engraved 
portrait of Redesdale by G. Clint, after Sir 

Thomas Lawrence. Redesdale's Irish judg- 
ments will be found in Schoales and Lefroy's 
' Reports of Cases argued and determined in 
the High Court of Chancery in Ireland,' &c., 
Dublin, 1806-10, 8vo, 2 vols. His letter to 
j Lord Hardwicke upon the state of the public 
records of Ireland is printed in the appendix 
to the ' First General Report from the Com- 
j missioners on Public Records' (pp. 309-10). 
He drew up the ' Report from the Lords' Com- 
mittees appointed to search the Journals of 
the House . . . for all Matters touching the 
Dignity of a Peer,' &c. (ParL Papers, 1821, 
xi. 181 et seq.), and wrote ' a short account' 
of his brother, William Mitford, which was 
prefixed to William King's edition of the 
1 History of Greece,' London, 1822, 8vo. A 
number of Redesdale's letters are published 
in Lord Colchester's ' Diary and Correspond- 
ence,' 1861. 

He was also the author of: 1. 'The 
Catholic Question. Correspondence between 
. . . Lord Redesdale . . . and . . . the Earl 
of Fingall . . , [on the appointment of the 
: latter as a justice of the peace for the county 
' of Meath] from 28 Aug. to 26 Sept. 1803,' 
Dublin, 1804, 8vo. 2. ' Observations occa- 
sioned by a Pamphlet entitled " Objections 
to the Project of creating a Vice-chancellor 
of England,'" London, 1813, 8vo. 3. < Con- 
siderations suggested by the Report made 
to his Majesty . . . respecting the Court of 
Chancery/ London, 1826, 8vo. 4. < An Ad- 
dress to the Protestants of the United King- 
dom . . . and to those Roman Catholics whose 
Religious Opinions do not wholly overcome 
a just regard to the free Constitution of the 
British Government,' &c., London, 1829, 8vo. 
5. ' Nine Letters to Lord Colchester on the 
Catholic Question,' London, 1829, 8vo. 6. ' A 
Political View of the Roman Catholic Ques- 
tion, especially regarding the Supremacy 
usurped by the Church of Rome,' &c., Lon- 
don, 1829, 8vo. 

[O'Flanagan's Lives of the Lord Chancellors 
of Ireland, 1870, ii. 284-322; Burke's Hist, of 
the Lord Chancellors of Ireland, 1879, pp. 181- 
192 ; Townsend's Lives of Twelve Eminent 
Judges, 1846, ii. 145-90 ; Sir E. Brydges's Auto- 
biography, 1834, i. 157-9, 250-1, 260-5,268-9, 
298-9, 306-9, 357-60 ; Walpole's Hist, of Eng- 
land, 1st edit. i. 318, 509, ii. 77, 217-18, 221, 
245, 474, iii. 46, 60 ; Manning's Speakers of the 
House of Commons, 1851, pp. 473-9; Law Mag. 
(1830), iii. 297-9; Gent. Mag. 1830, pt. i. p. 267; 
Ann. Eeg. 1830, pt. ii. pp. 473-9; Doyle's Official 
Baronage, 1886, iii. 103-4; Burke's Peerage, 
1890, pp. 1509-10; Masters of the Bench of the 
Inner Temple, 1883, p. 85; Official Keturn of 
Lists of Members of Parliament, ii. 177, 189, 201, 
202; Diet, of Living Authors, 1816, p. 283; Advo- 
cates' Libr. Cat.; Brit. Mus. Cat] G-. F. R. B. 



MAN-, EARL OF REDESDALE (1805-1886), son 
of John Freeman-Mitford, first baron Redes- 
dale [q. v.], was born in Dublin 9 Sept. 1805. 
He was educated at Eton and New College, 
Oxford (B.A. 1825, M.A. 1828,D.C.L. 1853). 
On the death of his father in 1830 he succeeded 
as second baron, but took little part in the de- 
bates of the House of Lords until 1837, when 
he began to interest himself in the wording 
and detail of parliamentary bills. Wel- 
lington recommended him to study the pri- 
vate business of the house, so as to qualify 
himself for the chairmanship of committees, 
and on the resignation of the sixth Earl of 
Shaftesbury (Cropley- Ashley), 4 Feb. 1851, 
Redesdale was unanimously chosen his suc- 
cessor, with the approval of Lansdowne, 
Stanley, and Wellington (Hansard, 3rd ser. 
vol. cxiv. cols. 47-51). This appointment he 
held with general credit until his death, and 
though assiduous in presiding when bills were 
in committee, made his power chiefly felt over 
private bill legislation. His shrewdness and 
independence of judgment enabled him to 
detect the artifices of attorneys and agents, 
while his dictatorial manner was proverbial. 
Though he regarded all things, great and 
small, with a genuine conservatism, yet he 
never allowed his peculiar views to warp his 
decisions (Lord Granville and Lord Salisbury 
in the House of Lords, 6 May 1886, ib. vol. 
cccv. cols. 355-8). Redesdale was especially 
severe on the drafting of railway bills, and in 
1867 threatened to hale a contractor named 
France to the bar of the house for expressions 
reflecting on him as chairman. The corre- 
spondence showed that he was acting under 
a misapprehension (Lord Redesdale and the 
New Railways ; Correspondence between his 
Lordship and Mr. France, 1867). Never- 
theless his firm and honest management in- 
creased the authority of the House of Lords 
in connection with private business. 

Redesdale was also a frequent speaker on 
general topics, e.g. the Reform Bill of 1867, 
when he opposed Earl Grey's amendment for 
the disfranchisement of certain boroughs, on 
the ground that the matter was beyond the 
proper jurisdiction of the peers, and that it was 
a mistake to make the franchise a party ques- 
tion (Hansard, 3rd ser. vol.clxxxix. col. 935). 
On the Alabama affair he maintained in 1872 
that the United States had no claims to com- 
pensation because the Southerners had re- 
entered the Union at the close of the war 
(ib. vol. ccxi. col. 270). But his interests 
lay chiefly in religious topics, on which he 
assumed a pronouncedly protestant and or- 
thodox attitude. He published in 1849 some 
' Reflections on the Doctrine of Regeneration 

and its Connection with both Sacraments, 
and in 1850 some ' Observations on the Gor- 
I ham Judgment and its Consequences.' In 1 853 
I he was one of the revivers of convocation. 
| He refused to sign the report of the royal 
commission on the law of divorce, of which 
| he was a member, on the ground that the dis- 
| solution of the marriage tie was contrary to 
| Scripture, and besides vindicating his views 
j in a pamphlet entitled 'The Law of Scripture 
j against Divorce' (1856), offered vigorous op- 
position to the measure of the following year 
I (ib. vol. ccxlv. esp. cols. 515-16). Equally 
outspoken was his resistance to the disesta- 
blishment of the Irish church, which he main- 
tained to be a violation of the coronation oath. 
, On 17 July 1868 he moved for a copy of the 
oath (ib. vol. cxciii. col. 1345), besides pub- 
lishing two pamphlets, f Some of the Argu- 
; ments by which Mr. Gladstone's Resolutions 
\ are supported considered' (1868), and 'Lord 
Macaulay on the Coronation Oath' (1869). 
In 1874 appeared 'Reasoning on some Points 
of Doctrine,' and in 1875 Redesdale entered 
into a controversy with Cardinal Manning 
! in the ' Daily Telegraph ' on the subject of 
communion in both kinds (Daily Telegraph, 
| 1 Oct. 14 Dec.) The correspondence was 
I republished by the ' Press and St. James's 
I Chronicle,' under the title of ' The Infallible 
Church and the Holy Communion.' Redesdale 
displayed considerable ingenuity in forcing 
t the cardinal to base his arguments on autho- 
j rities whose cogency he had denied, but, as 
1 might be expected from the predispositions 
j of the dialecticians, the dispute led to no 
i practical result. On 3 Jan. 1877 he was on 
Beaconsfield's recommendation created earl 
of Redesdale. On 14 June he called attention 
in the House of Lords to a manual entitled 
' The Priest in Absolution,' published pri- 
vately for the use of the clergy by the Society 
of the Holy Cross, and elicited a strong con- 
demnation of its doctrines from Archbishop 
Tait (Hansard, 3rd ser. vol. ccxxxiv. cols. 
1741-53, and DAVIDSON and BENHAM, Life 
of Tait, ii. 171 et seq., where the authorship 
of the work is ascribed to the Rev. C. F. 
Chambers). In the same year also appeared 
his 'Apostolic Doctrine of the Real Presence,' 
and in 1879 ' On the Doctrine of the Real 
Presence ; Correspondence between the Earl 
of Redesdale and the Hon. C. L. Wood, a 
discussion evoked by a speech of the latter 
at a meeting of the university branch of the 
English Church Union. 

Redesdale also published 'Thoughts on 
English Prosody and Translations from Ho- 
race,' and 'Further Thoughts on English 
Prosody ' (1859), odd attempts, suggested by 
an article in the ' Quarterly Review,' vol. cxiv., 



8 4 


on * Horace and his Translators,' to formulate 
rules of quantity for the English language 
on Latin models. His last pamphlet was ' The 
Earldom of Mar : a Letter to the Lord Re- 
gister of Scotland, the Earl of Glasgow,' a 
reply to the Earl of Crawford's criticisms on 
Glasgow's judgment. He died unmarried 
2 May 1886, when the peerage became ex- 
tinct. To the end of his days he wore the 
old-fashioned tail-coat and brass buttons of 
the previous generation. 

[Foster's Alumni Oxon. 1715-1886; Burke's 
Peerage for 1886; Times, 3 May 1886; Annual 
Register, 1886.] L. C. S. 

1855), novelist and dramatist, born at Aires- 
ford, Hampshire, on 16 Dec. 1787, was the 
only child of George Mitford or Midford, 
descended from an ancient Northumberland- 
shire family, and of Mary Russell, an heiress, 
the only surviving child of Dr. Richard Rus- 
sell, a richly beneficed clergyman, who held 
the livings of O verton and Ash, both in Hamp- 
shire, for more than sixty years. George Mit- 
ford, who was ten years his wife's junior, had 
been educated for the medical profession, and 
was a graduate of Edinburgh University. He 
was clever, selfish, unprincipled, and extra- 
vagant, with an unhappy love of speculation, 
and an equally unfortunate skill at whist. 
He squandered altogether in his life about 
70,000 L, and finally became entirely depen- 
dent on his daughter's literary earnings. 
William Harness, who knew the family well, 
and was Miss Mitford's lifelong friend, 
heartily disliked him, and called him ' a de- 
testable old humbug,' but his many failings 
never succeeded in alienating the affections 
of his wife and daughter. 

Mary was a very precocious child, and could 
read before she was three years old. In 1797 
she drew a prize in a lottery worth 20,000/. 
The child herself insisted on choosing the 
number, 2224, because its digits made up the 
sum of her age. On the strength of it Dr. Mit- 
ford built a house at Reading. Between 1798 
and 1802 the girl was at a good school at 
22 Hans Place, London, kept by Mrs. St. 
Quintin, a French refugee, where Lady Caro- 
line Lamb [q. v.] had been an earlier pupil, 
and 'L. E. L.' was later educated. In 1802 
Mary settled at home with her parents, and 
her literary taste began to develope. She read 
enormously. In 1806 she mastered fifty-five 
volumes in thirty-one days, and in 1810 ap- 
peared her first published work, ' Miscel- 
laneous Poems.' The volume, dedicated to 
the Hon. William Herbert, is a collection of 
fugitive pieces, written at an earlier period. 
Some were in honour of her father's friends, 
others recorded her own tastes and pursuits, 

and illustrate her love of nature and the 
country. In the spring of the same year she 
made the acquaintance of Sir William Elford 
[q. v.], a dilettante painter, and in 1812 be- 
gan a long correspondence with him . Through 
him she came to know Haydon, who subse- 
quently painted her portrait. Meanwhile 
she continued publishing poetry. ' Christina, 
or the Maid of the South Seas,' appeared in 
1811 ; ' Blanch of Castile,' which had been 
submitted in manuscript to Coleridge, in 
1812 ; and ' Poems on the Female Character,' 
dedicated to the third Lord Holland, in 
1813. Her poems were severely criticised 
in the ' Quarterly,' but the volume of 1810 
passed into a second edition (1811), and 
all the volumes met with much success in 
! America. At this period Miss Mitford paid 
frequent visits to London, and stayed at the 
house of James Perry, editor of the ' Morn- 
ing Chronicle ; ' there she met, among others, 
Lord Erskine, Sir Samuel Romilly. Dr. Parr, 
Lord Brougham, and Moore. 

By March 1820 Dr. Mitford's irregularities 
had reduced his family to the utmost poverty, 
and it was necessary for Mary to turn to 
literature for the means of livelihood. The 
household removed to Three Mile Cross, a 
village on the turnpike road between Read- 
ing and Basingstoke, and lived there in 'an 
insufficient and meanly furnished labourer's 
cottage ' (CnoELET, Autob.} The largest 
room was about 'eight feet square' (Our 
Village). Miss Mitford resided there for 
more than thirty years, allowing herself only 
one luxury a flower garden. She wrote 
much for the magazines, but soon grew con- 
vinced that her talent lay in tragedy, a view 
in which Coleridge, on reading ' Blanch of 
Castile,' had encouraged her. Her earliest 
dramatic efforts were rejected, but Macready, 
to whom Talfourd gave her an introduction, 
accepted ' Julian,' and with the great actor 
in the title-role it was performed at Covent 
Garden, 15 March 1823. Acted eight times, 
it brought her 200/. Macready, in his ' Re- 
miniscences ' (i. 278), states that the perform- 
ance made little impression, and was soon 
forgotten. Neither prologue nor epilogue 
was introduced into the performance, and 
that innovation, which soon became the rule, 
is ascribed to Miss Mitford's influence. A 
second piece by Miss Mitford, ' Foscari/ 
with Charles Kemble as the hero, was pro- 
duced at Covent Garden, 4 Nov. 1826, and 
was played fifteen times. According to her 
own statement, it was completed and pre- 
sented to Covent Garden Theatre before the 
publication in 1821 of Byron's drama on 
the same subject. The best of her plays was 
' Rienzi,' a poetical tragedy of merit, which 



was produced at Drury Lane, 9 Oct. 1828. 
Young played the hero, and Stanfield painted 
the scenery. It was acted thirty-four times, 
and Miss Mitford received 400/. from the 
theatre, besides selling eight thousand copies 
of the printed play. Its success caused a 
temporary coolness between Miss Mitford 
and her friend Talfourd, who fancied that his 
' Ion,' which was being performed at the same 
time, was unduly neglected through ' Rienzi's ' 
popularity. The piece became popular in 
America, where Miss Charlotte Cushman 
assumed the part of Claudia. Another of 
Miss Mitford's tragedies, ' Charles I,' was re- 
jected by Colman because the lord chamber- 
lain refused it his license, but in 1834, when 
urgently in need of money, Miss Mitford 
disposed of it on liberal terms to the manager 
of the Victoria Theatre, on the Surrey side 
of the Thames, and beyond the lord chamber- 
lain's jurisdiction. Miss Mitford also wrote 
' Mary Queen of Scots,' a scena in English 
verse, 1831, and an opera libretto, ' Sadak 
and Kalascade,' produced in 1835, and she 
contributed several dramatic scenes to the 
'London Magazine' and other periodicals. 
Genest (Hist, of the Stage, ix. 201-2, 384-5, 
454-5) finds her plays meritorious, but dull. 
They met with the approval of Miss Edge- 
worth, Joanna Baillie, and Mrs. Hemans. 
After passing separately through several edi- 
tions, they were published collectively in 
1854 in two volumes, with a valuable auto- 
biographical introduction describing the in- 
fluences under which they were written, 
and their adventures among the theatrical 

Happily, the pressing necessity of earning 
money led Miss Mitford to turn, as she says 
herself, 'from the lofty steep of tragic poetry 
to the every-day path of village stories.' Her 
inimitable series of country sketches, drawn 
from her own experiences at Three Mile Cross, 
entitled ' Our Village,' began to appear in 
1819 in the 'Lady's Magazine,' a little-known 
periodical, whose sale was thereby increased 
from 250 to 2,000. She had previously of- 
fered them to Thomas Campbell for the 'New 
Monthly Magazine,' but he rejected them as 
unsuitable to the dignity of his pages. The 
sketches had an enormous success, and were 
collected in five volumes, published respec- 
tively in 1824, 1826, 1828, 1830, and 1832. 
Editions of the whole came out in 1843, 1848, 
1852, and 1856, and selections appeared in 
1870, 1879,1883,1884, 1886, 1891, and 1893 
(edited by Mrs. Richmond Ritchie, with illus- 
trations by Hugh Thomson). 

The book may be said to have laid the 
foundation of a branch of literature hitherto 
untried. The sketches resemble Dutch paint- 

ings in their fidelity of detail, and in the 
brightness and quaint humour of their style. 
Chorley (Authors of England} calls Mitford 
the Claude of English village life. The tales 
at once made Miss Mitford famous. Charles 
Lamb declared that nothing so fresh and 
characteristic had appeared for a long time ; 
Christopher North spoke of their ' genuine 
rural spirit ; ' Mrs. Hemans was cheered by 
them in sickness ; Mrs. S. C. Hall acknow"- 
ledges that they suggested her own ' Sketches 
of Irish Character ; ' Mrs. Browning called 
Miss Mitford ' a sort of prose Crabbe in the 
sun ; ' while Harriet Martineau looked upon 
her as the originator of the new style of 
'graphic description.' Distinguished visitors 
crowded to her cottage. Passing coachmen 
and post-boys pointed out to travellers the 
localities in the village described in the book, 
and children were named after Miss Mitford's 
village urchins and pet greyhounds. She was 
feted on her visits to the metropolis. In 1836 
Mr. Kenyon introduced her to Elizabeth 
Barrett, afterwards Mrs. Browning, and the 
acquaintance speedily ripened into friendship. 
Miss Mitford's popularity enabled her to 
command high prices for her work. Writ- 
ing to Miss Mitford in 1832, Mrs. Trollope 
says that ' Whittaker (the publisher) told me 
some time ago that your name would sell 
anything.' In 1835 Miss Mitford remarked: 
' It is one of the signs of the times that a perio- 
dical selling for three halfpence ['Chambers's 
Edinburgh Journal '] should engage so high- 
priced a writer as myself.' But her mother 
died on 1 Jan. 1830, and her father's increas- 
ing extravagances kept her poor. She con- 
fessed to Miss Barrett that ' although want, 
actual want has not come, yet fear and anxiety 
have never been absent.' Miss Mitford still 
wrote with energy, but the strain injured her 
style. A novel, 'Belford Regis, or Sketches 
of a Country Town,' viz. Reading, appeared in 
1835, and, although Mrs. Browning ranked 
it with Miss Mitford's best work, it plainly 
lacks the spontaneity and charm of 'Our 
Village.' A second and third edition appeared 
respectively in 1846 and 1849. In 1837 she 
received a civil list pension of 100/. a year, 
and on 11 Dec. 1842 her father died. His 
heavy liabilities were met by a public sub- 
scription, which left a surplus to be added 
to the daughter's narrow income. ' I have 
not bought a bonnet, a cloak, a gown, hardly 
a pair of gloves, for four years ' (10 Jan. 1842). 
In 1851 Miss Mitford removed to her last re- 
sidence, a little cottage at Swallowfield, near 
Reading, 'placed where three roads meet' 
(PATN). Though her cheerfulness and in- 
dustry were unabated, her health was broken 
by her earlier anxieties, and she was crippled 

M it ford 



with rheumatism. In 1852 she published 
' Recollections of a Literary Life, or Books 
Places, and People,' three volumes of delight- 
ful gossip, much of it autobiographical. Other 
editions came out in 1853, 1857, and 1859 
Her last production, ' Atherton, and other 
Tales/ published in 1854, won high praise 
from Mr. Ruskin. Her death, hastened by 
a carriage accident, took place at Swallow- 
field on 10 Jan. 1855. On the 18th she was 
buried in the village churchyard. A few 
months before her death Walter Savage Lan- 
dor addressed to her some eloquent verses in 
praise of her ' pleasant tales.' Nor could, he 
concluded, any tell 

The country's purer charms so well 
As Mary Mitford. 

In childhood Mr. Harness remarks the 
' sedateness and gravity of her face ; ' Miss 
Sedgwick describes her in 1839 as * truly a 
little body. . . . She has a pale gray soul-lit 
eye, and hair as white as snow ; ' Mr. Hablot 
Browne spoke of that wonderful wall of fore- 
head ; ' and both Mr. Home and Miss Gush- 
man mention the wonderful animation of 
her face. Charles Kingsley asserts that * the 
glitter and depth' of her eyes gave a Trench 
or rather Gallic ' character to her counte- 
nance. The best portrait of her was that 
painted by Lucas in 1852, now in the Na- 
tional Portrait Gallery. It was engraved by 
S. Freeman. There is a drawing in crayon 
also executed by Lucas in 1852. Haydon's 
portrait is exaggerated and unsatisfactory. 
Her figure appears in outline by D. Maclise in 
'Fraser's Magazine/ May 1831, with a notice 
by Maginn. 

Miss Mitford was an admirable talker; 
both Mrs. Browning and Mr. Home preferred 
her conversation to her books. Mr, Fields 
called her voice ' a beautiful chime of silver 
bells/ About her friends she was always 
enthusiastic, and to the last respected her 
father's memory. She was very widely read 
in English literature, and was catholic and 
unconventional in her literary judgment. 
Her familiarity with French writers is trace- 
able in her clear English style. She was an 
inveterate letter writer, and corresponded 
with scores of persons whom she never met. 
Her letters, scribbled on innumerable small 
scraps of paper, are fully as attractive as her 
books. The most interesting are those written 
to Sir William Elford and Miss Barrett. But 
her correspondents also included Macready, 
Mrs. Hemans, Mrs. Trollope, Dyce, Charles 
Boner, Allan Cunningham, Mr. and Mrs. 
S. C. Hall, Haydon, Douglas Jerrold, Mary 
Howitt, Harriet Martineau, Mrs. Jameson, 
and Barry Cornwall. Vexatious difficulties 

were placed by her servants, her residuary 
legatees, in the way of the publication of 
the letters, but they were finally overcome 
by Mr. L'Estrange, and her correspondence 
was issued in 1870. 

In addition to the works already men- 
tioned, Miss Mitford published: 1. 'Dra- 
matic Scenes, Sonnets, and other Poems/ 
1827. 2. 'Stories of American Life/ 1830. 
3. 'American Stories for Children/ 1-832. 
She contributed to Mrs. Johnstone's ' Edin- 
burgh Tales/ the 'London Magazine/ the 
' Reading Mercury/ Mr. S. C. Hall's ' Amu- 
let/ a religious annual (1826-36), Mrs. S. C. 
Hall's ' Juvenile Forget-me-not/ and others. 
She edited ' Finden's Tableaux/ a fashionable 
annual, from 1838 to 1841, and a selection 
from Dumas for the young, 1846. 

[Life of Mary Russell Mitford, ed. by the Rev. 
A. G. L'Estrange, 1870 ; Friendships of Mary Rus- 
sell Mitford, ed. by same ; Lit. Life of the Rev. 
William Harness, ed. by same; Letters of Mary 
Russell Mitford, 2nd ser. ed. H. Choi-ley ; Chor- 
ley's Memorials of Mrs. Hemans, 1836; Letters 
of Elizabeth Barrett Browning to R. H. Home; 
Chorley'sAutob. 1873; Memoirsof Charles Boner, 
1871 ; Chorley's Authors of Engl. 1861 ; S. C. 
Hall's Book of Memories, 1877 ; James Payn's 
Lit. Recollections, 1885, pp. 74-97-1 E. L. 

MITFORD, WILLIAM (1744-1827), 
historian, bom in London on 10 Feb. 1744, 
was the elder of the two sons of John Mit- 
ford, barrister-at-law, of Exbury House, 
Hampshire, by his wife Philadelphia, daugh- 
ter of W. Reveley of Newton Underwood 
and Throphill, Northumberland. John Free- 
man-Mitford, baron Redesdale [q. v.], lord 
chancellor of Ireland, was the younger son. 
William Mitford was educated at Cheam 
school, Surrey, under William Gilpin [q.v.], 
whom he afterwards presented, in 1777, to 
the vicarage of Boldre in the New Forest 
(NICHOLS, Lit. Illustr. i. 778 ; on Mitford's 
supposed education at Westminster School, 
cf. Notes and Queries, 7th ser. vii. 278, and 
WELCH, Alumni Westmonast, p. 548). He ma- 
triculated at Queen's College, Oxford, 16 July 
1761, but neglected the ordinary studies, and 
left without a degree. At Queen's, where he 
was distinguished by his good looks and his 
personal strength, he was of the same break- 
fast club as Jeremy Bentham, who ' thought 
his conversation commonplace ' (BowEiNG, 
Life of Bentham, p. 40 a). In the vacations, 
however, he read some Greek and attended 
Blackst one's Vinerian lectures at Oxford with 
a view to the bar. He became a student of the 
Middle Temple in 1763, but never practised. 
On his father's death in 1761 he succeeded 
to the property at Exbury. In 1802 he ac- 
quired the Reveley estates in Yorkshire, 



through his mother's family, but continued 
till his death to live at Exbury, where he 
rebuilt the house about 1800. From 1761 
Mitford lived for several years in compara- 
tive retirement at Exbury, and devoted him- 
self to the study of Greek. He was verderer 
of the New Forest in 1778, and was colonel 
in the South Hampshire militia, in which 
Gibbon, the historian, was a brother-officer. 
While in the militia Mitford published a 
'Treatise on the Military Force, and par- 
ticularly the Militia (of England),' and on 
Gibbon's suggestion undertook his principal 
work, the l History of Greece.' The first 
volume appeared in 1784, 4to, and vol. ii. 
in 1790, but the book was not completed 
till 1810. Other editions appeared (1789- 
1818, 4to; 1795-7, 8vo; 1818-20, 8vo; 1822, 
8vo; 1829, 8vo; 1835, 12mo). Mitford's 
history for many years remained popular, 
and had the merit of supplying a laborious 
English work on a comparatively neglected 
subject. It was superior at most points to the 
Greek history by John Gillies (1747-1836) 
q. v.], published in 1786. It was praised by 
Brougham in the ' Edinburgh Review,' and by 
Alison (Hist, of Europe, 1815-52, chap, v.); 
but the obscurity and oddity of the author's 
style have been severely commented on by 
Byron (Don Juan, canto xii. st. xix, note) 
and Macaulay. Clinton (Fasti Hellenici) 
has attacked the work for its chronological 
shortcomings, and Grote (Hist, of Greece, 
Preface) contrasts its tone unfavourably 
with ' the liberal spirit of criticism ' dis- 
played by Thirlwall. Alison considers that 
the author, writing at the time of the French 
revolution, intended chiefly to counteract 
visionary ideas as to the blessings of Athe- 
nian democracy. Dr. Arnold thought that 
Mitford's anti- Jacobin partialities at any rate 
saved his history from dulness (cf. BYRON, 
loc. cit.) Lord Redesdale, in the preface to 
the 1822 edition of the l History of Greece/ 
attempts an ingenious defence of his brother's 
treatment of ancient Hellenic politics. It may 
be added that Mitford never visited Greece, 
never travelling beyond Naples. 

Mitford was M.P. for Newport, Cornwall, 
1785-90 ; for Beeralston, 1796-1806 ; New 
Romney, 1812-18. In parliament he upheld 
the militia system, in which he strongly de- 
precated any innovations, but seldom spoke. 
He was a fellow of the Society of Antiquaries 
and professor of ancient history at the Royal 
A cademy. He died at his seat, Exbury, on 
10 Feb. 1827. There is a monument to him 
in the church at Exbury. A portrait is pre- 
fixed to the last edition of his < History ' (1835). 
Mitford married, 18 May 1766, Frances, 
daughter of James Molloy of Dublin, by 

Anne, daughter of Henry P ye , M.P. for 

Faringdon, Berkshire, and had issue five sons 
and one daughter. Henry Mitford, the second 
son, was captain in the royal navy ; another 
son, Bertram, was LL.D. and a commissioner 
of bankrupts in Ireland. Mrs. Mitford died 
27 April 1827. 

Besides the works already mentioned, Mit- 
ford published: 1. 'An Essay on the Har- 
mony of Language,' &c. (especially the Eng- 
lish language), 1774, 8vo; 2nd edit. 1804. 
2. < Considerations, &c., on the Corn Laws ' 
(contending that England could grow wheat 
enough for its own supply), London, 1791, 
8vo. 3. l Observations on the History . . 
of Christianity, and ... on the Primeval 
Religion, on the Judaic and on the Heathen, 
Public, Mystical and Philosophical, the latter 
... an Appendix to the ..." History of 
Greece," 'London, 1823, 8vo. 4. 'Principles 
of Design in Architecture, traced in Observa- 
tions on Buildings,' &c., 2nd edit. London, 
1824, 8vo. A ' Review of the Early History 
of the Arabs,' in two chapters, which forms 
the introduction to Shakespear and Home's 
' History of the Mahometan Empire in Spain ' 
(London, 1816), may also be safely attributed 
to him. 

[Burke's Landed Gentry, 'Mitford of Exbury;' 
Foster's Alumni Oxon. 1715-1886; Mitford's 
Hist, of Greece, with Lord Redesdale's Memoir; 
Lit. Memoirs of Living Authors, 1798, ii. 49; 
Allibone's Diet. Engl. Lit.; Gent. Mag. 1827, 
pt. i. pp. 368-9 ; Brit. Mus. Cat, ; information 
kindly furnished by the Eev. the Provost, Queen's 
College, Oxford.] W. W. 

MOBERLY, GEORGE (1803-1885), 
bishop of Salisbury, seventh son of Edward 
Moberly of St. Petersburg, a Russia mer- 
chant, by his wife Sarah, daughter of John 
Cayley, British consul-general in Russia, was 
born 10 Oct. 1803. He was educated first 
at Winchester College and then at Balliol 
College, Oxford, where he matriculated with 
a scholarship 13 March 1822. He graduated 
B.A. in 1825 with a first class in literce hu- 
maniores, gained the chancellor's prize for the 
English essay in 1826, on the subject, 'Is a 
rude or a refined age more favourable to the 
production of works of fiction ? ' proceeded 
M.A. in 1828, and D.C.L. in 1836. He was 
select preacher before the university in 1833, 
1858, and 1863, and Bampton lecturer in 1868. 
In 1826 he was elected to a fellowship at 
Balliol College, and was for some years one of 
the most brilliant and successful of the tutors 
who assisted Dr. Jenkyns to make Balliol the 
foremost college in Oxford. He was a public 
examiner in 1830, and again in 1833, 1834, 
and 1835. Manning was among his pupils, 
and also Tait, who succeeded him in his tutor- 




ship, and eventually consecrated him bishop 
of Salisbury. He vacated his fellowship on 
his marriage in 1834 with Mary, daughter 
of Thomas Crokat of Leghorn ; but in 1835 
he was appointed head-master of Winches- 
ter, a post which he held for thirty years. 
Leaving Oxford on the eve of the ' Oxford 
movement,' he took little, if any, active part 
in the various ecclesiastical controversies 
which were occasioned by it. His sym- 
pathies and opinions, however, were of the 
high-church school. Keble was his neigh- 
bour at Winchester and intimate friend, and 
he formally protested against the sentence of 
degradation pronounced upon W. G. Ward 
for the opinions expressed in his ' Ideal of a 
Christian Church considered.' This protest, 
contained in a letter to Richard Jenkyns 
[q. v.], master of Balliol, was published in 
1845. As a schoolmaster he exerted much 
personal influence over his boys. When 
examining Rugby School along with Chris- 
topher Wordsworth he caught from Arnold 
much of his enthusiasm and some of his views. 
He approved the f fagging ' system (cf. his 
Winchester College Sermons, 2nd ser. Pref.), 
supported all the school traditions, and was 
conservative in his modes of teaching. Al- 
though beloved by many pupils, it cannot 
be said that he gave any impulse to the fame 
or progress of the school, and the numbers 
did not increase under his rule. In 1866 he 
resigned, and was presented to the rectory 
of Brightstone, Isle of Wight, and in 1868 
became a canon of Chester Cathedral. 

Moberly had been regarded as a possible 
bishop ever since 1850, and in 1857 an un- 
successful attempt had been made to induce 
the Duke of Newcastle to appoint him bishop 
of Sydney. But his promotion was delayed 
in consequence of his high-church leanings. 
At length in 1869 he was appointed by Mr. 
Gladstone to succeed Walter Kerr Hamilton 
[q. v.] as bishop of Salisbury, the first high- 
church appointment for many years, and he 
was consecrated 28 Oct. 

In the administration of his diocese he fol- 
lowed the lines of his predecessor. He avoided 
dissensions ; he founded a ' Diocesan Synod; ' 
he escaped public attention. He was a dili- 
gent attendant in convocation and an infre- 
quent one in the House of Lords, and, though 
a fairly impressive preacher, spoke rarely in 
either assembly. Though not unfavourable 
to the principle of the Public Worship Regu- 
lation Act of 1874, he voted for its with- 
drawal in deference to the public outcry 
which it occasioned, and refused to sign the 
bishops' pastoral, which was issued before 
the act came into operation. In 1872 he 
issued an appeal to churchmen, much to the 

indignation of the ritualists, to consent to 
the omission of the damnatory clauses from 
the Athanasian Creed; in 1873 he was a 
member of the committee appointed by con- 
vocation to consider the attitude of the 
church towards auricular confession, and as- 
sisted to draw its report ; and in 1877 he 
spoke strongly in convocation against the 
use of the confessional, especially in schools 
(see Chronicle of Convocation, 6 July 1877, 
p. 331). The most concise indication of his 
general ecclesiastical position is to be found in 
the preface to the second edition of his univer- 
sity sermons on the ' Beatitudes ' (1861). His 
publications were numerous, but consisted 
chiefly of single sermons and episcopal charges. 
The others are : ' Remarks on the proposed 
admission of Dissenters to the University of 
Oxford,' 1834; 'Practical Sermons,' 1838; 
1 Sermons at Winchester College,' 1844 (2nd 
series, 1848) ; ' The Sayings of the Great 
Forty Days,' 1844, frequently republished ; 
1 The Law of the Love of God/ an essay on 
the commandments, 1854 ; sermons on the 
'Beatitudes,' 1860 (2nd edition, with remarks 
on ' Essays and Reviews,' 1861) ; ' Letters 
to Sir W. Heathcote on Public Schools,' 1861 ; 
* Brightstone Sermons,' 1867, frequently re- 
published; ' The Administration of the Holy 
Spirit in the Body of Christ, being the Bamp- 
ton Lectures for 1868,' 1868 ; and he also 
contributed to a revision of portions of the 
New Testament, published by ' Five Clergy- 
men ' in 1857, 1858, and 1861. 

For some time before his death his faculties 
had been decaying, and his episcopal duties 
were discharged by J. B. K. Kelly, formerly 
bishop of Newfoundland. In 1884 his resig- 
nation was determined upon, but the papers 
had not received his signature when he died 
at Salisbury on 6 July 1885 Five sons and 
seven daughters survived him. 

[Guardian, 8 July 1885 ; Times, 7 July 1885^ 
Sat. Review, Ix. 47 ; Davidson's Life of Arch- 
bishop Tait ; Wilberforce's Life of Bishop Wil- 
berforce ; T. Mozley's Reminiscences of Oriel ; 
Foster's Alumni Oxon. ; Wilfrid Ward's Life of 
W. G-. Ward ; R. E. Prothero's Dean Stanley, 
1894; Brit. Mus. Cat.] J. A. H. 

MOCHAEI (d. 497), saint and bishop of 
Aendruim, is also known as Cailan or Caelan, 
from caol, i.e. slender, according to Bishop 
Reeves. His mother is said to have been 
Bronach, daughter of Miliuc, son of Buan, 
king of North Dalaradia, co. Antrim. With 
Miliuc St. Patrick was at one time in cap- 
tivity. One day when journeying from Saul 
to Derlas, south of Downpatrick, Patrick 
met Mochaei, then ' a tender youth,' em- 
ployed in herding swine. Observing his 
intelligence, Patrick instructed him in the 


8 9 


holy scriptures, in due time baptised him, 
and eventually ordained him. This occur- 
rence has been doubtfully dated in 433 by 
Bishop Reeves ; it probably belongs to a later 
year. On his ordination St. Patrick pre- 
sented Mochaei with a book of the gospels and 
menistir, apparently the case containing a 
chalice and paten. Another gift of the saint 
was the Eitech Mochaei, or Mochaei's winged 
crozier, which is said to have fallen from 
heaven while Mochaei and Patrick were con- 
versing on sacred things. Mochaei seems to 
have been the first in Ireland to whom St. 
Patrick gave a gospel and a crozier. The 
gift appears to have been made on the occa- 
sion of the foundation of Mochaei's church 
of Aendruim. This church, called in the 
* Acta Sanctorum ' Nendrum, and in the 
'Monasticon' Neddrum, was situate thirteen 
miles N.N.E. of Downpatrick, on an island 
in Strangford Lough now known, after 
Mochaei's name, as Mahee Island. Mahee 
Island contains the remains of a round tower, 
about nine feet high, and the ruins of a church 
enclosed by three ramparts or cashels, evi- 
dently for the security of the community. 
The ruins are not those of the original 
church built by Mochaei, as that was of 
wattles plastered over. According to the 
' Martyrology of Donegal,' Mochaei went 
into the forest with sevenscore young men 
to cut wattles, and a legend states that while 
thus engaged an angel in the shape of a bird 
sang so sweetly to him that ' three fifties ' of 
years passed over like an hour. When the 
song ceased and he awoke from his trance, 
every one he knew was dead, and an ora- 
tory had been built to his memory. The 
' Calendar of Oengus ' says : ' Of the mem- 
bers of the saint's congregation, nothing 
remained but the skulls.' Bishop Reeves 
suggests that the legend may be explained 
by the fact that another Mochaei is re- 
corded as having died in 664, a hundred and 
thirty-eight years later, with whom our saint 
has been confused. The elder Mochaei's 
monastery was also a school for the educa- 
tion of the clergy, and among the pupils 
received there were St. Finnian of Moville, 
and St. Colman of Dromore. 'A shaven 
pig' was annually presented by Mochaei's 
community, in commemoration of the saint's 
original occupation as a swineherd, to the 
church of Down, which was popularly as- 
sociated with the name of St. Patrick. 
Mochaei died on 23 June 497. 

[The Tripartite Life of St. Patrick, by Whitley 
Stokes, D.C.L., Eolls Ser. i. 40 ; Reeves's An- 
tiquities of Down, Connor, and Dromore, pp. 144, 
187-97; Martyrology of Donegal, p. 177; Ca- 
lendar of Oengus, p. cvii.] T. 0. 

(d. 655), was the son of an artisan named 
Beoan, who left his native place, Comnaicne 
(nowConnamara), in Connaught, and settled 
in Hui Conaill Gabhra in the south of 
the county of Limerick. Nessa, who lived 
with her sister Ita in the neighbourhood, 
at Cill-Ita (now Killeedy), became Beoan's 
wife. By Ita's intercession a son was born 
after long delay. Before his birth St. 
Fachtna [q. v.] of Ross Ailither is said to 
have been cured of an affection of the eyes 
by bathing them in the milk of Beoan's 
wife. Ita first named Nessa's son Caem-ghin, 
' a fair offspring,' but afterwards substituted 
off for ghin and prefixed mo, thus forming 
Mochaemog, 'My-fair-youth' (in Latin, Pul- 
cherius). On attaining the age of twenty 
Mochaemog proceeded to Bangor in Ulster, 
where he studied under St. Comgall, and was 
in due time sent forth as a missionary by St. 
Comgall, his companions being SS. Laichtin, 
Molua Mac Ochai, one of the Findbarrs, and 
Luchtigern. Arrived at southern Ely in co. 
Tipperary, he was granted by the chieftain a 
site for a monastery, in a retired part of a 
forest near the marsh of Lake Lurgan ; it has 
since been known as LiathmochaemogorLea- 
mokeavogue, and is in the parish of Twomile 
Borris, barony of Eliogarty, co. Tipperary. 
Subsequently, when Failbhe Fland, king of 
Munster (619-634), who lived at Cashel, sent 
his horses to pasture on the lands of the 
monastery, the saint drove them away, and 
the king straightway ordered the chieftain 
of Ely to expel Mochaemog. The saint went 
to King Failbhe to remonstrate, but the 
latter was obdurate, and taunted Mochaemog 
with baldness. Thereupon Mochaemog is said 
to have caused the king's sight to fail, while 
St. Patrick and all the saints of Ireland, male 
and female, threatened him in visions with 
immediate death unless he treated Mochaem- 
og with respect. 

Failbhe's successor, Ronan, son of Bledin, 
although hostile to Mochaemog, renewed the 
grant to him, and the saint commended his 
soul on his death to God, and defended this 
act of charity against the adverse criticism 
of a scribe. Many other stories prove Mo- 
chaemog's influence with local kings or chief- 
tains. In the ' Calendar of Oengus ' his name 
is associated with that of Cuangus, a student 
of science, who is termed ' the blind youth.' 
He himself, his mother, and aunt, are all cre- 
dited with curing blindness. They doubt- 
less possessed some knowledge of ophthalmic 
science. Among his friends were St. Colman 
of Doiremor, whose monastery was only four 
miles off, and St. Fursa [q. v.] of Peronne in 
France. He was the tutor of Dagan of In- 



verdaoile, who is mentioned as a violent op- 
ponent of the Roman Easter, in the letter 
written in 609 by the bishops Laurentius, 
Mellitus, and Justus (cf. BEDE, Ecclesiastical 
History}. Another church bearing Mochae- 
mog's name is in the barony of Ida, co. Kil- 
kenny. His death took place on 13 March 
655, at an advanced age. Lanigan suggests 
106 years, but this is far exceeded by a poem 
quoted in the 'Four Masters' and the 'Mar- 
tyrology of Donegal,' which prolongs his life 
to 413 years. O'Donovan, however, agrees 
with Colgan that this is due to a scribal error, 
and that the true reading is ' ar coem ced,' 
* over one hundred,' instead of ' four hun- 

[Vita S. Mochoemoci seu Pulcherii Abbatis, 
xiii. Martii, ii. 281 seq, ; Lanigan's Eccles.Hist. 
ii. 3 1 0, 358, iii. 23-8 ; Annals of the Four Masters, 
i. 267; Martyrology of Donegal, at 13 March; 
Calendar of Oengus, pp. Ivi, Ixiii.] T. 0. 

637), was the son of Becan and descended 
from Lugaid (from whom were the Hiii j 
Luigdech) son of Dalann of Ulaid. His j 
mother, Cumne, was daughter of Conamail j 
of the Dal Buain, also of Ulaid. Their family i 
consisted of three sons and three daughters, | 
the least esteemed of the children being j 
Mochua, the hair of whose head, owing to | 
disease, fell out in patches. St. Comgall of 
Bangor happening to visit his father's house, ! 
and finding him neglected by the family, took ! 
him with him to Bangor to educate him. j 
There a woman, who sought Mochua's inter- 
cession with the Lord that she might obtain | 
offspring, found him absorbed in prayer and | 
bathed in tears, but catching his tears in the i 
hollow of her hand she drank them and ob- i 
tained her desire. On the completion of his J 
education at Bangor, Mochua collected a | 
party of his friends, and guided, it is said, by j 
a marvellous moving fountain, which recalls j 
the 'Arabian Nights' Entertainment,' passed | 
through the town of Gael, in the territory of 
the Fir Hois in the south of Oriel, a territory 
which included the present county of Armagh. 
There he visited Bishop Gabren, and then 
passed on to Fobar (Fore) in Westmeath, 
where St. Fechin [q. v.] received him en- 
thusiastically. Mochua is said to have mira- 
culously pierced a mountain which lay be- 
tween Lough Leane and Fore, and thus to 
have brought water to Fore to work a mill 
erected there by Fechin, but hitherto without 
means of propulsion. Travelling from Fore 
by Tech Telle (now Tehelly), near Durrow in 
King's County, and over the Shannon into 
Connaught, Mochua was welcomed by the 
chiefs of Hy Many. Subsequently at Lough 
Cime (now Lough Hackett in the barony of 

Clare, co. Galway), he is reported to have 
subdued a monster which dwelt in the lake. 
Crossing the river Robe to the barony of 
Ceara, he arrived at Ross Darbrech, where 
the miraculous fountain, which is said to 
have hitherto accompanied him, became sta- 
tionary. It was at once surrounded by a 
wall of massive stones a mention of stone 
buildings rare in the seventh century. The 
well thus obtained the name of Balla or 
'The Wall.' The ruins of a church and 
round tower attest the ancient importance 
of the place. Mochua seems to have lived 
there as a hermit, for when Eochaidh Min- 
nech, a chieftain of the Clan Fiachra, came 
to expel him, he was ' in a prison of stone,' 
that is, apparently walled up in a stone cell. 
Eventually this chieftain and his nobles con- 
ferred the site on him, with certain lands 
and revenues, describing him as ' Mochua of 
the narrow prison.' He then appointed three 
bishops to consecrate his graveyards and 
his great churches and to allot the land to 
his monks. When the great pestilence called 
the Yellow Plague raged in Connaught he 
effected many cures, and was believed to 
have transferred the yellow colour from his 
patients to his crozier, which was thence- 
forth known as the Bachall Buidhe or ' Yel- 
low Crozier.' Among the wild heathen 
people of the neighbourhood were two 
amazons named Bee and Lithben, who usu- 
ally stationed themselves by a long, narrow 
creek, with precipitous rocks on either side, 
and swung every passer-by in a basket over 
the awful precipice. Mochua reclaimed 
them from barbarism, and both they and 
their fathers received baptism. He is further 
said by the miraculous shaking of his crozier 
to have created a road connecting Inis Amal- 
gaid (now Inishlee), an island in Lough 
Conn, with the mainland. This mention of 
a causeway, combined with the stories of his 
bringing water to Fore and of the fountain 
attending Mochua, doubtless indicates pos- 
session of some engineering skill. According 
to the ' Lebar Brecc ' he also brought ' bags 
of water from Ulster.' Mochua was thirty- 
five years of age when he came to Balla and 
after labouring twenty-one years, or, as an- 
other reading has it, thirty-one, he died on 
30 March 637. 

[Vita S. Mochuse sive Cronani Abbatis Bal- 
lensis, in Colgan's Act. Sanct. xxx. Mart. pp. 
789 seq. ; Lives of Saints from the Book of Lis- 
more, edited by Whitley Stokes, D.C.L. ; 
Anecdota Oxoniensia, 1890, pp. 281-9, and notes 
pp. 260, 261 ; O'Donovan's Annals of the Four 
Masters, A.D. 837, p. 1179 ; Calendar of Oengus, 
30 March ; Petrie's Essay on the Origin and use 
of the Bound Towers, pp. 349-51.] T. 0. 



MOCHUDA (d. 636), bishop of Lismore. 
[See CAKTHACH, SAINT, the younger.] 

KICHARD (1577-1618), warden of All 
Souls, was born at Dorchester in Dorset in 
1577. He graduated B.A. from Brasenose 
College, Oxford, on 16 Feb. 1595, and was 
elected fellow of All Souls in 1599, proceed- 
ing M.A. on 5 April 1600, B.D. on 23 April 
1607, and D.D. 26 June 1609. George Abbot 
[q. v.], then bishop of London, presented him 
to the rectory of St. Clement's, Eastcheap, on 
29 Dec. 1610, and to that of St. Michael's, 
Crooked Lane, on 1 Oct. 1611. He resigned 
St. Clement's before 9 Dec. 1611, and St. 
Michael's before 17 June 1614. He held the 
rectories of Newington, Oxfordshire, and of 
"West Tarring, Sussex, from 1614, and of 
Monks Bisborough, Buckinghamshire, from 
1615 till his death. He was for some time 
domestic chaplain to Abbot, and one of the 
king's commissioners concerning ecclesiasti- 
cal affairs. From March 1610 to June 1614 
he was actively employed in licensing books 
for entry at Stationers' Hall. On 12 April 
1614 he was elected warden of All Souls' 
College, Oxford. 

The authorship of a curious tract, uphold- 
ing the obligation of the oath of allegiance, 
and entitled ' God and the King,' has been 
ascribed to Mocket. The work was 'Im- 
printed by his Majesties special privilege and 
command,' in London in 1615, in both Latin 
and English ; London, 1616, in Latin only ; 
Edinburgh, 1617, in one or both languages ; 
London, 1663; Edinburgh, 1725; London, 
1727 (published by Nathaniel Booth). The 
book was commanded to be taught in all 
schools and universities, and by all ministers 
of the church, and to be purchased by all 
householders in England and Scotland. This 
command was enjoined by the privy council 
of Scotland in June 1616, and by the general 
assembly at Aberdeen in August 1616, and 
the work had in consequence an enormous 

In 1616, in London, Mocket published a 
volume in Latin, containing (1) Bishop 
Jewel's 'Apology,' (2) The Church Cate- 
chism, (3) Nowell's Catechism, (4) The 
Thirty-Nine Articles, (5) The Liturgy of 
the Church of England, and (6) The Book 
of Ordination of Bishops, Priests, and Dea- 
cons. To these he added a work of his 
own entitled < Doctrina et Politia Ecclesiae 
Anglicanee,' which was a general view of 
ecclesiastical jurisdiction in the English 
church, mainly prepared for the information 
of foreigners. The book offended the king, 
and by public edict was condemned and 

burnt in 1617. Fuller (Church Hist. ed. 
Brewer, v. 444-6) considered that Mocket 
suffered on account of his patron Abbot, 
' against whom many bishops began then to 
combine.' Heylyn (Cyprianus Anglicus, pp. 
75-6), while condemning the writer's ' little 
knowledge in the constitution of the church,' 
and his bias ' towards those of Calvin's plat- 
form,' was of opinion that the real offence 
was the omission of the first clause in the 
translation of the twentieth of the Thirty- 
Nine Articles, which runs : ' The Church hath 
power to decree rites or ceremonies, and au- 
thority in controversies of faith.' It is also 
said that Mocket's extracts from the homilies 
were made so as to support the views of Abbot, 
and that as a translator he had usurped the 
duties of a commentator, while James Mont- 
agu [q. v.], bishop of Winchester, resented the 
order in which the bishoprics were enume- 
rated. The 1616 edition of the 'Doctrina et 
Politia Ecclesiae Anglicanse ' was reprinted 
in 1617. Mocket's work, without the rest of 
the volume, was republished in London in 
1683, under the title, ' Tractatus de Politia 
Ecclesise Anglicanee,' and with it was printed 
Richard Zouch's ' Descriptio Juris et Judicii 
Ecclesiastici.' A third edition appeared in 
London in 1705. 

Mocket died (it is said) from disappoint- 
ment at the reception of his book on 6 July 
1618, and was buried in the chapel of All 
Souls' College. A marble tablet with a Latin 
inscription was fixed to the south wall of the 
inner chapel (removed to the north wall of 
the outer chapel in 1664). 

[Hutchins's Dorset, ii. 376 ; Wood's Athenae, 
ed. Bliss, ii. cols. 232-4; Reg. Univ. Oxon. (Ox- 
ford Hist. Soc.), vol. ii. pt. iii. p. 195; Wood's 
Hist, and Antiq. of Colleges and Halls, ed. 
G-utch, pp. 271, 292 ; Newcourt's Repert. i. 327, 
486; Foster's Alumni Oxon. 1500-1714; Hey- 
lyn 's Examen Historicum, pp. 185-7; Arber's 
Stationers' Registers, vol. iii. passim ; Notes and 
Queries, 2nd ser. iv. 141, x. 27, 295, 5th ser. ii. 
9, 59, v. 236-7 ; Lee's Lectures on the Hist, of 
the Church of Scotland, ii. 364.] B. P. 

MOCKET, THOMAS (1602-1670?), puri- 
tan divine, born in 1602, matriculated as a sizar 
of Queens' College, Cambridge, 4 July 1622, 
and graduated B.A. in 1625, and M.A. in 1631. 
He was incorporated in the latter degree at 
Oxford in July 1639 (WooD, Fasti Oxon. ed. 
Bliss, i. 511). For some time he was chap- 
lain to John Egerton, first earl of Bridge- 
water [q. v.], president of the marches in 
Wales, by whom he was favoured and pro- 
mised preferment. He adopted puritan prin- 
ciples. In 1642 he was preacher at Holt, 
Denbighshire : and in or before 1648 he ob- 
tained the rectory of Gilston, Hertfordshire, 



on the sequestration of Christopher Webb, 
M.A., to whom he resigned the living on the 
Restoration in 1660 (CLUTTERBTTCK, Hert- 
fordshire, iii. 171, 173 n.) He appears to 
have died in 1670. 

His works are : 1. ' The Churches Troubles 
and Deliverance, or certaine Sermons tend- 
ing to shew the Reasons why the Lord doth 
sometimes bring his People into extremities,' 
London [12 Aug.], 1642. 2. ' The Nationall 
Covenant. Or a Discourse on the Covenant. 
Wherein also the severall parts of the late 
Protestation are proved to be grounded on 
Religion and Reason,' London [20 Aug. 
1642], 4to. 3. 'A View of the Solemn 
League and Covenant for Reformation, De- 
fence of Religion, the Honour and Happy- 
nesse of the King, and the Peace, Safety, 
and Union of the Three Kingdoms,' London, 
1644, 4to. The copy in the British Mu- 
seum is dated in manuscript, 21 Sept. 1643. 
4. ' The Covenanters Looking-Glasse ; dis- 
covering his duty and dignity, &c. ; also 
an Epistle containing a relation of all the 
most principal things done in the Parliament 
of England, since their first sitting to the 
present day,' London, 1644, 4to. 5. ' A New 
Catechisme,' London, 1647, 8vo. 6. ' Gospel 
Duty and Dignity. A Discourse of the Duty 
of Christians, and their Priviledges by Christ,' 
London, 1648, 4to. 7. 'Christmas, the 
Christians grand Feast : its Original, Growth, 
and Observation, also of Easter, Whitson- 
tide, and other Holydayes modestly discussed 
and determined, also the beginning of the 
year & other things observable,' London, 
1651, 4to. 8. < Christian Advice to Old and 
Young, Rich and Poor,' London, 1671, 8vo. 
Prefixed is a portrait of the author, engraved 
by Cross at the expense of Edward Brewster. 

[Addit. MS. 5876, f. 90 ; Bodleian Cat. ; Ca- 
lamy's Life of Baxter, i. 368, ii. 531 ; Granger's 
Biog. Hist, of England, 5th edit. iii. 340 ; Pal- 
mer's Nonconformist's Memorial, 2nd ed. ii. 303 ; 
Cat, of Dr. Williams's Library, ii. 253 ; Watt's 
Bibl. Brit.] T. C. 

MODESTUS, SAINT (fl. 777), missionary 
to the Carinthians and regionary bishop, 
was an Irishman by birth (Ep. vii. quoted 
by DEMPSTEK, Hist. Eccles. Gent. Scot. xii. 
No. 920). He was a disciple of St. Fergil or 
Virgilius [q. v.], bishop of Salzburg, who sent 
him with a band of missionaries to preach 
among the Carinthians, then under the rule 
of Chetmar. Modestus received authority as 
a bishop, but probably, after the Irish cus- 
tom, was without a definite see. It is only 
in the late anonymous life of Gebehard 
(Mon. Germ. Scriptores, xi. 38 1. 38), that 
he is called bishop of Liburnia. Modestus 
and his companions founded one church at 

S. Maria in Solio, now Maria-Saal, another at 
a place called Liburnia or Tiburnia, the site 
of which is probably now marked by a field 
called Lurnfeld, in Spital, Upper Carinthia, 
and a third at a place, Adandrinas or Un- 
drimas, spelt by the manuscripts in a variety 
of ways, believed to be a valley situated be- 
tween S. Vitus and Maria-Saal (ib. xi. p. 7 
1. 30 and p. 87 ; EICHHORN, Beitrdge zur 
Gesch. Kdrnthen, ii. 95). Modestus is said 
to have baptised St. Domitian, a Carinthian 
prince, at Milstadt, which may, perhaps, be 
identical with Adandrinas (HANSITZ, Ger. 
Sac. ii. 92 ; Acta SS. 1 Feb. 700). Accord- 
ing to the older manuscripts, Modest us stayed 
in Carinthia till his death ; one late manu- 
script says he died in France (HANSITZ, ib.}, 
but his tomb is shown at Maria-Saal (EiCH- 
HORN, p. 112, 4). His feast is celebrated on 
5 Dec. (DEMPSTEK, Menology, in FORBES, Kal. 
Scottish Saints, p. 221). Dempster calls him 
a companion of St. Boniface [q. v.], and Fer- 
rarius says he is mentioned in Boniface's life 
(Cat. Gen. SS. qui in Martyrol. Rom. non 
sunt, 1625, p. 468). It is probable that in 
both cases St. Fergil was meant. 

A manuscript by him, ' ad ecclesiam suam,' 
was said to be at Salzburg, and a volume of 
his letters at Strasburg (DEMPSTER, Hist. 
Gent. Scot. loc. cit.) Neither manuscript 
can now be traced. 

[Gresta Archiep. Salisbury ; the Life of St. 
Virgilius, by a disciple of Eberhard ; the anony- 
mous Life of St. G-ebehard, all in Pertz's Mon. 
Grerm. Scriptores, vol. xi. ; Tanner's Bibliotheca 
Britannica.] M. B. 

(d. 518), was the daughter of Maucteus 
(Mochta), king of Iveagh in Uladh and of the 
territory round Armagh. He was of the 
race of Irial, son of Conal Cearnach, the 
original possessors of Iveagh. Modwenna's 
mother, Coman, was daughter of Dall- 
bronach, ruler of a terriority in Magh-Breagh 
(Meath), whose fort, ' Fossa [i.e. Raith] Dall- 
bronig,' is mentioned in the ' Tripartite Life 
of St. Patrick.' She is said to have been ori- 
ginally called Darerca, and Ussher doubtfully 
identifies her with a so-called sister of St. Pa- 
trick of that name. But St. Darerca's festival 
was held on 22 March,while that of Modwenna 
was dated 6 July. The name Moninne, by 
which the saint is generally known in Ireland, 
was believed to have some connection with 
that of Nine the poet, who was cured ot 
dumbness through her prayers. When St. 
Patrick was in her neighbourhood she visited 
him, and he ' blessed her [which appears to 
mean that he baptised her] at the little fish- 
pond of a Hospitaller,' which was thence- 
forward credited with healing virtues. Tak- 




ing up her abode at Fochart, now Faugher, 
in the county of Louth, she was joined by 
seven maidens and a widow with an infant 
son, who afterwards became a king. 

Finding herself exposed to the depredations 
of robbers, and too much occupied with secular 
engagements, she removed to one of the remote 
Aran islands, where her kinsman, St. Ibar, I 
was then settled. Subsequently she accom- [ 
panied the saint to another of the islands, and 
finally to that of Beg Eire in Wexford harbour. 
Returning to Faugher with her maidens, now 
1 50 in number, she was disturbed by the coarse 
language and boisterous singing at a wedding 
feast near, and moved away to the north, ar- 
riving at Slieve Cuillinn in the barony of i 
Orior and county of Armagh. Here they 
were reduced to living on the bark of trees, 
while the king was considering whether to 
permit their settlement or no. Modwenna 
succeeded, however, in converting to Chris- 
tianity a robber chief named Glunsalach, of 
the same race as herself, who infested a waste 
territory near, and plundered those who tra- 
velled by the great road from Tara to the 
north, known as the Slighe Midluachra. He 
and his nephew Aiffen left their companions 
and came to her church at Killevy. There 
they were baptised and she taught them the 
psalter, and they became holy bishops. St. 
Kevin or Coemgen [q. v.], whose place in 
heaven she is said to have conferred on the 
robber chief, at the latter's earnest entreaty, 
is represented as being instigated by the devil 
to destroy her monastery. But she disarmed 
St. Kevin's wrath, brought him with her to 
Killevy, and dedicated to him, under the title 
of St. Kevin's Bath, a pool on the mountain- 
side, to which she led the water miraculously 
with her crozier, and in which she used to 
stand up to her breasts all night chanting 
the psalter. ' The Martyrology of Donegal ' 
gives a somewhat different account of the 
relations between St. Kevin and Modwenna's 
robber convert, who is represented merely as 
one of St. Kevin's disciples, and as having 
been buried at Glendalough. 

According to Conchubran's early life of the 
saint, Alfred, son of a king of the Angli, who 
entered the service of Conall, an Irish king, 
was cured by Modwenna of a dangerous ill- 
ness ; but Conall, wishing to make him a pre- 
sent before his return to England, and not 
having the money, ordered the sack of Kil- 
levy, that he might bestow the proceeds on 
the English prince. In great trouble at the 
ruin of her monastery, Modwenna made her 
way to England in search of the English j 
prince, taking with her SS. Brigit and Luga. | 
She found him at Streneshalen, near the wood | 
of Arden in Warwickshire, and on hearing j 

her story he made restitution of all her goods, 
and she and Brigit then returned and rebuilt 
the monastery. She also set up one at Arden, 
in which she was joined by Ita and Ositha. 
But it is very uncertain if this story can 
apply to the Modwenna of the sixth century. 
The English prince referred to was doubtless 
Ailfrid, son of Oswy, king of Northumbria, 
who succeeded to his father's throne in 671, 
and had, according to St. Cuthbert's bio- 
grapher, spent much time previously in Ire- 

I land in an endeavour to obtain the cure of 
an illness, but as another saint of the same 

; name flourished in Ireland in 630, the rela- 
tions with the English prince must be as- 
signed to her. 

The earlier Modwenna doubtless travelled 
to England and Scotland in the course of 
her missionary labours, and founded several 
churches there, among which were Chilna- 
case in Galloway, one on the summit of 
Mount Dundevenal in Laudonia, one on 
Dunbreten, another at Castle Strivelin, a 
fifth at Dunedin, now Edinburgh, one on 
Mount Dunpelder, and one at Lanfortin, near 
Dundee, where she died in 518. In Ireland 
she founded churches at Faugher, Killevy, 
Cheveglas. Surde (Swords), Armagh, and 
Meath. A contest is said to have taken 
place among the English, Irish, and Scots 
for the possession of her remains. She is be- 
lieved to have been buried at Burton-on- 
Trent. Some ruins of her church, near which 
formerly stood a round tower, are still to be 
seen at Killevy. 

[Vita Moduennse seu Monynnse ex codice MS. 
Bi bliothecse Cottonianse ; Bollandists' Acta Sanct. 
vol. ii. Julii 6; Ussher's Works, vi. 248, 347, 604, 
-with extracts from Conchubran's life of the saint ; 
Annals of the Four Masters, A.D. 518 ; Martyro- 
logy of Donegal, 3 June, 6 July ; Calendar of 
Oengus, p. cxvi ; Eeeves's Columba, p. 182, 
note 1.] T. 0. 

merchant, colonial agent, deputy-governor 
of Jamaica, younger brother of Sir Thomas 
Modyford [q. v.], was, as a youth, at Con- 
stantinople in the service of the Turkey 
Company (Cal. State Papers, Dom. 30 June 
1666). Afterwards he appears to have been 
settled at Chelsea as a merchant, and under 
the Commonwealth was employed in Ireland, 
presumably through the interest of his cousin 
George Monck, first duke of Albemarle [q. v.l 
On 18 Oct. 1660 he was appointed ' clerk of 
the first-fruits in Ireland,' was knighted about 
the same time, and on 18 Feb. 1660-1 was 
created a baronet in consideration of his hav- 
ing ' liberally and generously provided and 
sustained thirty men for three years for the 
care and defence of Ireland' (Patent Itoll, 


94 ' 


13 Car. II, pt. i. No. 2). In 1663 lie was 
named as one of the Royal African Company 
(10 Jan. ; Cal. State Papers, America and 
West Indies, p. 121). In that year he was in 
Jamaica, and sent home a survey and descrip- 
tion of the island (ib. p. 177). In 1664, on 
the appointment of his brother as governor of 
Jamaica, he returned to England, and for the 
next two or three years was employed as agent 
for the colony (ib. 13 Oct., 29 Nov. 1664, 
20 Feb. 1665, 1 March, 21 Aug. 1666, fee.) 
On 30 June 1666 he was recommended by 
the Duke of Albemarle for the embassy at 
Constantinople, as one ' who was bred up in 
the country, knows the language, and was 
formerly desired by the Turkey Company for 
the employment' (ib. Dom.) The recommen- 
dation was unsuccessful, and on 10 Nov. fol- 
lowing he was appointed lieutenant-governor 
of the island of Providence, or Santa Catalina, 
then newly recovered by a party of buccaneers 
(ib. America and West Indies ; cf. MORGAN, 
SIR HENRY). Having been detained for eleven 
weeks at Barbados, ' through the ignorance 
rather than the malice of Lord Willoughby,' 
he did not reach Jamaica till 15 July 1667, 
when he found that Santa Catalina had been 
recaptured by the Spaniards (ib. 29, 30 July, 
3 Aug.) He was then appointed by his 
brother lieutenant-general, deputy-governor, 
and chief judge of the admiralty court at 
Jamaica. His commissions appear to have 
lapsed with the supersession of Sir Thomas 
in June 1671, but he remained at Jamaica 
about his private business, and died there in 
January 1672-3 (Addit. MS. 27968, f. 30). 

Modyford married Elizabeth, daughter and 
heiress of Sir Nicholas Stanning of Maristow, 
Devonshire, and by her had issue a son, Tho- 
mas, who succeeded to the baronetcy, but died 
a minor in 1678, when the title became ex- 
tinct. He left also two daughters, Grace 
and Mary. Elizabeth, lady Modyford, died 
30 March 1724 at the age of ninety-four, 
and was buried in the church of Bickleigh, 

[Calendars of State Papers, Domestic and 
Colonial ; Burke's Extinct Baronetcies; Chester's 
Westminster Kegisters, p. 194; Marshall's Ge- 
nealogist, v. 149.] J. K. L. 

1679), governor of Jamaica, son of John 
Modyford, mayor of Exeter in 1622, and of 
Maria, daughter of Thomas Walker, alder- 
.man of Exeter, ^was probably born about 
1620. Sir James Modyford [q. v.] was his 
brother. He was a ' kinsman ' or ' cousin ' 
of George Monck, duke of Albemarle, though 
the exact relationship does not appear (Addit. 
MS. 27968, f. 1646; Cal. State Papers, 

America and West Indies, 16 Feb. 1652, 
25 Jan. 1661, 31 Aug. 1663, &c.) He was a 
barrister of Lincoln's Inn (ib. March 1661, 
No. 40; ib. Dom. 18 Feb. 1664), served in the 
king's army during the civil war, and in June 
1647 sailed for Barbados. There he settled 
down as a planter, buying a half share of an 
estate for 7,0007. (Lieozr, A True and Exact 
History of the Island of Barbados), and seems 
to have immediately taken a prominent place 
in the little community. When the island 
proclaimed Charles II and established the 
church of England, Colonel Modyford figured 
as a zealous royalist; and on 5 Nov. 1651, as a 
member of council, signed the royalist decla- 
ration in reply to the summons of Sir George 
Ayscue (Cal. State Papers, America and 
West Indies, 13 Nov. 1651). Afterwards, 
however, he personally made his peace with 
Ayscue, and won over his regiment to the 
side of the parliament, so that, mainly through 
his defection or treachery, Lord Willoughby, 
I the royalist governor, was obliged to yield 
(ib. 7 Jan., 16 Feb. 1652, August ? 1653, p. 
416). Ayscue renewed Modyford's commis- 
sion as colonel; but he was naturally looked 
on with suspicion by the zealous parliamen- 
tarians, and in the course of 1653 was de- 
S-ived of his command by Governor Searle. 
n his petition to Cromwell, however, he 
was ordered to be restored, and to be put in 
the council (ib. 14 Jan. 1654). And so he 
continued till the Restoration. His name 
frequently occurs in the minutes of council. 
On 20 March 1654-5 he handed to General 
Venables [q.v.] a protestation 'that he utterly 
abhorred and abjured the interest of the 
Stuarts ' (MACRAY, Cal. of Clarendon State 
Papers, iii. 26). On 16 July 1660 he had 
received a commission as governor of Bar- 
bados, dated 24 April 1660, on which 
Searle resigned without dispute and the king 
was proclaimed ( Cal. State Papers, America 
and West Indies). Meantime, on 9 July 
the king had signed a commission appointing 
Lord Willoughby governor of Barbados and 
the adjacent islands. The announcement of 
this reached the island on 17 Dec., and 
though Modyford had an intimation that it 
would not be acted on, he judged it right to 
resign (ib., Modyford to the Duke of Albe- 
marle, 25 Jan. 1661, No. 6). He was then 
made speaker of the assembly ; and though 
charges of treason were alleged against him, 
and letters written denouncing ' his treachery 
in betraying the island to the usurper, and 
his persecution of royalists ever since ' (ib. 
29 March 1661, No. 60), the interest of Al- 
bemarle bore down all opposition and main- 
tained him in his post till, on 15 Feb. 1664, 
he was appointed governor of Jamaica, with 




very full powers and instructions to take as 
many settlers from Barbados as were willing 
to accompany him (ib. Nos. 656, 664, 687, 
&c.) At the same time, 18 Feb., he was 
created a baronet (ib. Dom.) 

In June he arrived in Jamaica, and for the 
next seven years identified himself with the 
island. It was admitted that under his rule 
the colony made rapid advances in material 
prosperity ; but it was alleged that he en- 
couraged pirates, and that the wealth which 
flowed into the island was mainly the ill- 
gotten spoils of piracy, spent in filthy de- 
bauchery. Modyford's friends asserted, on 
the other hand, that while pirates were duly 
hanged, the buccaneers or privateers were 
honest fellows, who, though occasionally too 
convivial, rendered good service to the king 
and the colony, and their gains were not 
nearly so large as was reported. According 
to Modyford, the most ' intemperate ' men on 
the island were the old army officers, ' who, 
from strict saints, were turned the most de- 
bauched devils.' ' The Spaniards,' he wrote, 
* wondered much at the sickness of our 
people, until they knew of the strength of 
their drinks, but then wondered more that 
they were not all dead' (ib. America and West 
Indies, 16 Nov. 1665). It is quite certain 
that the deeds which rendered the name of 
buccaneer terrible and famous were performed 
under valid commissions from the governor in 
council, who, in the king's name, received a 
fifteenth of their prize-money (see MOKGAN, 
SIR HENEY ; ib. 28 June 1671). These com- 
missions, Modyford argued, were rendered 
necessary by the aggressions of the Spaniards 
who had landed in Jamaica, had captured Eng- 
lish vessels, and were preparing for hostilities 
on a grander scale. The king's instructions 
empowered him * on extraordinary cases, by 
the council's advice, to use extraordinary 
remedies' (ib. June ? 1671, No. 578; cf. also 
1 March 1666, No. 1144, 14 Jan. 1667, No. 
1383, 23 Aug. 1669, No. 103, &c.) 

So long as the first Duke of Albemarle 
was living his great interest supported Mody- 
ford. But after Albemarle's death, in January 
1669-70, in order to give effect to 'the 
treaty for establishing peace in America 
concluded at Madrid on 8 July 1670,' Mody- 
ford's commission was revoked in December, 
and Sir Thomas Lynch [q. v.], appointed to 
supersede him, was ordered to send him 
home under arrest (ib. Nos. 367, 405, 602), 
on the charge of ' making war and committing 
depredations and acts of hostility upon the 
subjects and territories of the King of Spain 
in America, contrary to his Majesty's express 
order and command.' In the middle of June 
Modyford received Lynch with ' abundance 

of civility/ but on 12 Aug. he was inveigled 
on board the Assistance frigate, and there 
told that he was to be sent home a prisoner. 
He was allowed to go to England in one of 
his own ships, though in charge of a guard 
(ib. Nos. 587-8, 604, 655). He arrived about 
the middle of November, and was committed 
to the Tower (ib. Nos. 653-4, 17 Nov. 1671). 
On 14 Aug. 1672 he was ordered to have the 
liberty of the Tower, but he seems to have 
been still a prisoner at the end of 1674. It 
is not improbable that he was released and 
went out to Jamaica with Sir Henry Morgan 
in 1675. He died at Jamaica, and was buried 
in the cathedral church at Spanish Town on 
2 Sept. 1679. 

Modyford married, about 1640, Elizabeth, 
daughter of Lewin Palmer of Devonshire. 
She died on 12 Nov. 1668 of, it is said, the 
plague, brought by Morgan from Portobello 
(The Present State of Jamaica, p. 40) leav- 
ing a daughter, Elizabeth, and two sons, of 
whom Charles, the elder, predeceased his 
father. The younger, Thomas, succeeded to 
the baronetcy, which became extinct, with 
the third generation, in 1703 (BuKKE, Ex- 
tinct Baronetcies). 

[Calendars of State Papers, North America 
! and West Indies; Addit. MSS. 12408, 27968; 
! New History of Jamaica, 1740; Present State 
| of Jamaica, 1683 ; Long's Hist, of Jamaica, 
; 1774; Archer's Monumental Inscriptions of the 
! British West Indies; Davis's Cavaliers and 
i Eoundheads of Barbadoes ; Hatton Correspond- 
ence (Camd. Soc.), i. 56, 108.] J. K. L. 

MOELES, BALDWIN or (d. 1100?). 

MOELMUD, DYFNWAL (ft. 500), 

, Northern British prince, appears in the tenth- 
i century genealogies of Harleian MS. 3859 
(Cymmrodor, ix. 174) as a grandson of Coel 
Odebog. This is the sole reference to him 
which can be called historical. In later 
Welsh literature he plays a purely mythical 
part. He becomes the primitive legislator 
of the Britons, the deviser of all early Bri- 
tish institutions. In this capacity he appears 
in the narrative of Geoffrey of Monmouth, 
who makes him the son of Cloten, king of 
Cornwall, and says that the laws drawn up 
by him were still in use among the English. 
Geoffrey's account is accepted by the com- 
piler of the ' Venedotian Code,' who flourished 
about 1220 ; according to this writer, Hywel 
the Good, while altering greatly the old laws 
of Dyfnwal, left untouched the primitive 
land measurements (Ancient Laws of Wales, 
1841 edit. i. 184). Dyfnwal is not men- 
tioned in the two earlier sets of ' Historical 
Triads,' but is prominent in the third, having 


9 6 


a place assigned him among the Columns, the 
Mighty Binders, the Primitive Instructors, 
and the Benign Monarchs of the isle of Bri- 
tain (Myvyrian Archaiology, 2nd edition, 
pp. 400, 404, 406, 407). About the time 
when this series of ' Triads ' was composed, 
viz., in the sixteenth century, the legislator's 
fame stood so high as to induce a Welsh 
antiquary to give the name ' The Triads of 
Dyfnwal Moelmud ' to the collection of 
legal maxims in which he had embodied his 
views as to ideal social relations in Wales. 
These ' Triads ' form book xiii. in Mr. Aneurin 
Owen's edition of the Welshlaws. Attempts 
have been made to show that they contain 
remnants of ancient tradition (e.g. by Peter 
Roberts in an appendix to his translation of 
the ' Chronicle of the Kings of Britain,' 1811), 
but they are beyond doubt modern in form 
and substance. Professor Rhys treats even 
Dyfnwal himself as an entirely mythical per- 
son, classing him with the dark or Chthonian 
divinities of the Celtic pantheon (Celtic Hea- 
thendom, p. 449; Arthurian Legend, pp. 261, 

[Genealogies in Harleian MS. 3859 ; Ancient 
Welsh Laws, 1841 edit. ; Geoffrey of Monmouth ; 
Historical Triads in Myvyrian Archaiology, 2nd 
edit.] J. E. L. 

(Jl. 1250), seneschal of Gascony, was per- 
haps a native of Hampshire. His parentage 
is unknown ; but a Roger de Molis occurs in 
the reign of Stephen. Nicholas de Moels is 
first mentioned as being in the royal service 
in September 1215, and again in March 1217 
(Cal. Rot. Claus. i. 229, 301). In January 
1224 he is said to be going abroad on the 
royal service, and in the following year he 
was sent as a royal messenger to Cologne, in 
connection with the mission of Walter Mau- 
clerk [q. v.] (ib. ii. 11; SHIRLEY, i. 253, 
259). In August 1226 Moels was despatched 
as messenger to the king's brother, Earl 
Richard, in Poitou, and in the following 
March is spoken of as being still in Gascony 
(Cal. Rot. Claus. ii. 133-4, 1796). From 
1228 to 1232 he was sheriif of Hampshire 
and custos of Winchester Castle. In May 
1230 he was with the king in Brittany, and 
was sent by him on a mission to Hugh, count 
of Marche, and his wife, Queen Isabella, the 
king's mother. In 1234 Moels was again 
sheriff of Hampshire, and in the same year 
had charge of the Channel Islands. From 
1239 to 1241 he was sheriff of Yorkshire, 
and in 1241 was guardian of the bishopric of 
Durham during a vacancy (Cal. Documents 
relating to Scotland, i. 1539). In 1242 
Moels accompanied the king to Poitou, and 

was sent with Ralph FitzNicholas on an 
unsuccessful mission to Louis IX at Fron- 
tenay, for the purpose of arranging a truce. 
In the following year, about midsummer, 
Henry appointed Moels as seneschal of Gas- 
cony (MATT. PARIS, iv. 244, 254 ; Fcedera, i. 
253). Moels was in this capacity employed 
at the siege of Gramont, near Bidache, in 
August. Trouble was already impending 
with Thibaut, king of Navarre, who in the 
following year threatened Bayonne. Even- 
tually, in the autumn of 1244, Moels de- 
feated the king (ib. i. 225 ; SHIRLEY, ii. 41 ; 
MATT. PARIS, iv. 396). The only other 
known incident of his seneschalship is a 
conflict with Amigot de Garro, a Gascon 
robber-lord, who had captured certain mes- 
sengers whom Moels had sent to Thibaut. 
Amigot, whose castle was seized by Moels 
in punishment, was afterwards taken into 
favour by Simon de Montfort (BEMONT, pp. 
39, 305-6). Moels appears to have returned 
to England in the early part of 1245, and 
later in that year was employed in Wales as 
governor of Cardigan and Caermarthen 
Castles. On 22 Jan. 1251, on the complaint 
of the Gascons against Simon de Montfort, 
he was despatched with Drogo de Barentin 
to investigate the truth of the charges. The 
general tenor of their report was favourable 
to the earl (ib. pp. 45, 268-77). Moels was 
still in Gascony in June 1252, when he was 
appointed a conservator of the truce there in 
conjunction with Rocelin de Fos (SHIRLEY, 
ii. 391). In 1254, when warden of Oxford 
Castle, Moels gave to Henry de Hanna, the 
provincial of the Carmelites, a house in Ox- 
ford, which was the first establishment of 
that order in the university (WooD, City of 
Oxford, ii. 415, Oxf. Hist. Soc.) In 1257 he 
was engaged in the Welsh war. In January 
1258 he was made constable of Dover and 
warden of the Cinque ports, and in March 
sheriff of Kent, with the charge of the castles 
of Rochester and Canterbury. After the par- 
liament of Oxford, Moels, as a supporter of the 
king, was removed from his office as warden, 
but retained the castles of Rochester and 
Canterbury (Annales Monastici, i. 453). In 
1261 he had charge of Sherborne Castle, 
and in 1263 of Corfe Castle. Probably he 
died not much later. Matthew Paris (iv. 
254) calls him { miles strenuissimus et cir- 

Moels married before 1231 Hawyse, daugh- 
ter of James de Newmarch, in whose right 
he held Cadbury in Somerset, and Sapperton 
in Gloucestershire. He had two sons, Roger, 
and James who was educated with the king's 
son Edward. Roger de Moels fought in the 
Welsh wars of Edward I, and dying in 1285 




was succeeded by his son John (1259-1310), 
who was summoned to parliament from 1293 
to 1310. John was succeeded by three sons, 
Nicholas, Roger, and John, on the death of 
the last of whom, in 1338, the barony fell into 
abeyance between his two daughters. 

[Matthew Paris ; Shirley's Royal and Histo- 
rical Letters of the Reign of Henry III (both 
in the Rolls Series) ; Gal. of Close Rolls (the 
Close Rolls include a number of references to 
Colinus as well as to Nicholas de Moels : it 
seems clear that the two are identical, cf. i. 599) ; 
Foedera (Record edition) ; Bemont's Simon de 
Montfort; Dugdale's Baronage, i. 619-20; Coll. 
Top. et Gen. iv. 360-1 ; Balasque et Dulaurens' 
Etudes Historiques sur la ville de Bayonne, ii. 
84-90.] C. L. K. 

MOETHEU, THOMAS (1530-1620?), 

Welsh bard. [See JONES, THOMAS.] 

antiquary, was minister of a congregation 
of protestant dissenters at the Forest Green, 
Avening, Gloucestershire, at Nailsworth in 
the same county, and lastly at Malmesbury, 
Wiltshire. He died at Malmesbury on 25 Dec. 
1802 (Gent. Mag. 1803, pt. i. p. 193), leaving 
a widow and seven children. 

His writings are: 1. 'The Duty and In- 
terest of every private Person and the King- 
dom at large at the present juncture/ 8vo, 
1778. 2. ^The Protestant's Prayer-Book 
... to which are added Hymns/ &c., 8vo, 
Bristol, 1783. 3. 'The History of the Town 
of Malmesbury and of its ancient Abbey/ 
8vo, Tetbury, 1805, published posthumously 
for the benefit of the author's family. 

[Monthly Mag. 1803, pt. i. pp. 96, 197; 
"Watt's Bibl. Brit. ; Reuss's Alphabetical Regis- 
ter, 1790-1803.] GK G. 

MOFFAT, ROBERT (1795-1883), mis- 
sionary, was born at Ormiston, East Lothian, 
on 21 Dec. 1795. His father was a custom- 
house officer ; the family of his mother, Ann 
Gardiner, had lived for several generations 
at Ormiston. In 1797 the Moffats moved 
to Portsay, near Banff, and in 1806 to 
Carronshore, near Falkirk. Robert went at 
an early age to the parish school, and when 
he was eleven was sent, with an elder bro- 
ther, to Mr. Paton's school at Falkirk. In 
1809 he was apprenticed to a gardener, John 
Robertson of Parkhill, Polmont. During his 
apprenticeship he attended evening classes, 
learned to play a little on the violin, and 
took some lessons at the anvil. In 1811 his 
father was transferred to Inverkeithing, and 
the following year, on the expiration of his 
apprenticeship, Robert obtained a situation 
at Donibristle, Lord Moray's seat near Aber- 


dour, Fifeshire. At the end of 1813 he 
was engaged as under-gardener by Mr. Leigh 
of High Leigh, Cheshire. He had received 
much religious training at home, and while in 
Leigh's service he came under the influence 
of some earnest Wesleyan methodists, which 
determined him to devote his life to reli- 
gious work. After attending a missionary 
I meeting at Warrington, held by William 
! Roby of Manchester, he decided, if possible, 
j to be a missionary. On 23 Dec. 1815 he left 
Leigh's service for the nursery garden of 
James Smith, a pious nonconformist Scots- 
man from Perthshire, who had settled at 
Dukinfield, near Manchester. There Moffat 
contrived to study under the guidance of 
Roby, who interested himself on his behalf 
with the directors of the London Missionary 
Society. His master had married in 1792 
Mary Gray of York, a member of the church 
of England, and two of their sons became 
missionaries. During his stay at Dukinfield 
Moffat became engaged to their only daugh- 
ter, Mary, who, born in 1795 at NewWindsor, 
now part of Salford, had been educated at 
the Moravian school at Fairfield, and had 
formed strong religious convictions. But her 
parents at this time objected to the match. 

In the summer of 1816 Moffat was ac- 
cepted by the society as a missionary, and 
on 30 Sept. was set apart for the ministry in 
the Surrey Chapel, London. On 18 Oct. he 
embarked in the ship Alacrity, Captain 
Findlay, for South Africa, and arrived at 
Cape Town on 13 Jan. 1817. Moffat was 
destined for Namaqualand, beyond the bor- 
der of the colony, but permission to go thither 
was temporarily refused by the governor for 
political reasons, and Moffat went to Stellen- 
booch to learn Dutch. On 22 Sept. permission 
to cross the frontier was given, and Moffat 
started for the interior with some other mis- 
sionaries. Moffat went to the chief Afri- 
kaner's kraal at Vredeburg. He stayed in 
Namaqualand a little over a year, living like 
a native. A long expedition with Afrikaner 
to the north convinced Moffat that there was 
no hope of forming a missionary settlement 
in that quarter. He also made a journey 
to the eastward, across the great Kalahari 
desert, as far as Griquatown and Lattakoo. 
On his return he found himself the only 
European in Namaqualand, as Mr. Ebner, 
a missionary who had accompanied him to 
Vredeburg from Cape Town, and was the 
only other European north of the Orange 
river, was leaving the country. 

At the beginning of 1819 Moffat deter- 
mined to take Afrikaner, who had become a 
true convert, to Cape Town. A few years 
before a price had been set by the govern- 


9 8 


ment on Afrikaner's head; his conversion 
brought home to the authorities that the 
mission had solved a political difficulty, and 
did something to enlist their sympathy. In 
December 1819 Mary Smith, who had over- 
1 come her parents' objection to her marriage 
with Moffat, arrived at Cape Town and mar- 
ried him on 27 Dec. 1819 in St. George's 
church, Cape Town. For fifty years Mary 
Moffat shared all her husband's hardships 
and trials, and her name must be associated 
with his among the pioneers of South African 
mission work. 

A deputation from the London Missionary 
Society, consisting of Dr. Philip and John 
Campbell, arrived at Cape Town at the close 
of 1819. They appointed Moffat superin- 
tendent at Lattakoo, and he set out early in 
1820 with his wife, arriving at Lattakoo, 
about one hundred miles from Griquatown, 
at the end of March. Shortly after their 
arrival they made an expedition to the west- 
ward, along the bed of the Kuruman river, 
among the villages of the Botswanas. On 
their return to Lattakoo they were informed 
by letter from Cape Town that permission had 
not been granted for them to remain there, 
and they went to Griquatown, then inhabited 
by a mixed multitude of Griquas, Korannas, 
Hottentots, Bakwanas, and Bushmen, to as- 
sist Mr. Helm in organising the mission there. 
On permission arriving from Cape Town the 
Moffats returned to Lattakoo 17 May 1821, 
and devoted themselves to mission work and 
to acquiring a knowledge of the language. 

Troubles, however, soon began. The warlike 
Matabele tribe, under Mosilikatse, climbed 
the Kwathlamba range and drove out many 
of the Bapedi and Bakwana tribes, the fugi- 
tives pouring down on the western Bak- 
wanas. Moffat, who had heard only vague 
rumours of what was going on, made a recon- 
naissance to the north-east. On arriving at 
Mosite, after some days of travel, he learnt 
that the Mantatees, as the fugitive tribes 
were called, were in actual possession of the 
Baralong towns close to the eastward of the 
mission, and were on their way to Lattakoo. 
Moffat hurried home, warned his own people, 
and hastened to Griquatown to seek the aid 
of the Griquas. By the time the govern- 
ment commissioner, Mr. Melville, and the 
Griqua chief Waterboer, with one hundred 
men, reached the station, the Mantatees had 
occupied Letakong, only thirty-six miles 
away. The two Europeans, Moffat and Mel- 
ville, with Waterboer and his men, met them 
halfway at the Matl waring river, and after 
vain attempts to get speech with them were 
driven back, and obliged in self-defence to 
fight. About five hundred Mantatees were 

killed, and some thousands put to flight. The 
mission was saved, the invaders retiring never 
to return. Moffat had distinguished himself 
by his devotion to the wounded and the 
women and children, and he gained a per- 
sonal ascendency which he never lost over 
the tribes that he had protected. 

Circumstances, however, still appeared so 
threatening that Moffat sent his wife and 
children for a time to Griquatown, and to- 
wards the end of the year (1823) he took them 
a two months' journey to Cape Town, where 
he obtained supplies, and conferred with Dr. 
Philip about the removal of the mission from 
Lattakoo to Kuruman. They returned to 
their station in May (1824). Moffat went on 
1 July on a long-promised visit to Makaba, 
the chief of the Bangwaketsi, at Kwakwe. 
During his absence his wife was in a position 
of great anxiety. A horde of evil characters, 
marauding runaways of mixed blood, from the 
Cape Colony, with Korannas, Bushmen, and 
Namaquas, had established themselves in the 
mountains to the westward of Griquatown, 
and had been joined by renegade Griquas, 
mounted and armed with guns, who resented 
the discipline of Waterboer and the other 
Griqua chiefs. So great was the disquiet 
and the fear of an attack on Lattakoo that 
a second time Moffat and his family took 
refuge at Griquatown. 

Early in 1825, the western banditti having 
retired, the Moffats commenced to lay out the 
new station at Kuruman, to which they had 
been ordered to remove from Lattakoo. They 
raised three temporary dwellings, when again 
a band of armed and mounted marauders made 
their appearance. The natives at the old 
station gave way before them, losing nearly 
all their cattle, and could not be persuaded 
to return, but drifted away eastward to the 
Hart or Kolong river. With a dwindled 
population the work of the missionaries was 
less onerous, and Moffat commenced his first 
regular effort to lay the foundation of a Sech- 
wana literature. A spelling-book was pre- 
pared and sent to Cape Town to be printed. 
In 1826 steady progress was made in the 
erection of the mission buildings, and Moffat 
devoted all his spare time to manual labour. 
In 1827 the station at Kuruman was suffi- 
ciently advanced to permit Moffat to perfect 
himself in the Sechwana language, by spend- 
ing a couple of months in the encampment of 
Bogacho, a chief of the Baralongs, on the 
border of the Kalahari desert. On his return 
the marauders again appeared, and the mis- 
sionaries had a third time to retire temporarily 
to Griquatown. 

From the commencement stolid indiffer- 
ence to the work had reigned among the 




natives. But the missionaries worked on, 
mainly encouraged by the sanguine temper 
of Mary Moffat. In 1829 the desired awaken- 
ing came. The services were crowded, the 
schools flourished, and gradually and with 
much caution some of the natives were ad- 
mitted to baptism, and a permanent church 
and a schoolhouse were erected by the na- 
tives without cost to the society. Moffat at 
length enjoyed sufficient leisure to translate 
into Sechwana the Gospel of St. Luke and 
a selection of other scriptures. The same 
year Mosilikatse, chief of the Matabele, sent 
messengers to inquire into the manners and 
teaching of the white men at Kuruman. 
Moffat showed them every attention, and 
when difficulties arose as to their return 
through a country occupied by tribes who 
both feared and hated Mosilikatse, he escorted 
them home to the banks of the Oori, a long 
journey through a country which, although 
"it had once contained a dense population, 
had been so ravaged that it had become the 
home of wild beasts and venomous reptiles. 
Moffat stayed eight days with Mosilikatse, 
by whom he was received with many tokens 
of friendship ; he returned to Kuruman after 
an absence of two months. 

In June 1830 the Moft'ats visited Grahams- 
town to put their elder children to school, 
and, leaving his wife to follow by sea, Moffat 
hurried to Cape Town, riding some four hun- 
dred miles in nine days, to start the print- 
ing of such parts of the New Testament as 
had been translated. At Cape Town he 
could find no printing office able to undertake 
the work. But the government put at their 
disposal their own printing office, although 
unable to supply workmen, and Moffat and 
another missionary, Mr. Edwards, with such 
guidance as the man in charge could give 
them, performed the work themselves. The 
exertion, however, brought on an illness, and 
Moffat had to be carried on board ship on his 
return journey to Algoa Bay. He and his 
wife reached Kuruman at the end of June 
1831, taking with them a printing press. 

Early i n 1835 a scientific expedition, headed 
by Dr. Andrew Smith, arrived from Cape 
Colony, and Moffat accompanied them in May 
to Mosilikatse's headquarters, to open a way 
for mission work among the chiefs people, 
and to obtain timber to roof in the church at 
Kuruman. In 1836 Moffat, after seeing his 
wife across the Vaal river on her way to pay 
a visit in Cape Town, made a detour on his 
return to Kuruman to visit Mothibi, the old 
chief of the Batlaping. His journey was well 
timed, and he was cheered by the interest 
taken in his teaching. Some American mis- 
sionaries arrived, who were sent to Mosili- 

katse, and a volume of 443 pages of transla- 
tion of scripture lessons into Sechwana was 
completed before his wife's return in July. 

In 1837 the emigration of Dutch farmers 
disaffected to British rule commenced, and a 
party of them came into collision with Mosi- 
likatse and the Matabele. The American 
mission station was destroyed, and a great 
booty in cattle swept away. Mosilikatse 
and his people disappeared the following 
year into the unknown region south of the 
Zambesi, and missionary work was greatly 
retarded. Towards the end of 1838 Moffat 
went to Cape Town with his family, taking 
with him the complete translation of the New 
Testament into the Sechwana language, and, 
sailing for England, arrived in London in 
June 1839. While the translation was in the 
press, Moffat commenced a translation of the 
Psalms, and stayed in England to complete it. 
It was printed and bound up with the New 
Testament. He also revised the scripture 
lessons, of which an edition of six thousand 
was printed, and wrote 'Labours and Scenes 
in South Africa,' which was published in the 
spring of 1842, and met with a very favourable 
reception. In addition to his literary labours, 
Moffat was much engaged in preaching and 
lecturing all over the country on behalf of the 
London Missionary Society. In 1840 Moffat 
met David Livingstone in London, and was 
the means of securing his services for the Bak- 
wana mission. On 30 Jan. 1843, after vale- 
dictory services, addresses, and presentations, 
the Moffats sailed again for South Africa. 
While waiting at Bethelsdorp in April for 
their heavy baggage, Moffat made a journey 
on horseback to Kaffraria, and visited all the 
eastern stations of the Missionary Society. 
The Moffats and their party were met by 
Livingstone at the Vaal river, and reached 
Kuruman in December. 

The mission staff having been increased, 
the younger missionaries were sent some 
two or three hundred miles further inland, 
to various tribes of the Bakwanas. Living- 
stone, who went to Mabotsa, returned to 
Kuruman after an accident, was nursed by 
the Moffats, and married their eldest daughter 
Mary in 1844. The Livingstones then went 
to Chonwane, and to this and the other 
distant stations Kuruman was a centre of 
administration from which supplies and as- 
sistance were drawn. For several years sub- 
sequent to 1845 Moffat was hard at work 

u -i . j _ O__'U,~ -t-lia V>nr\lr nt I Sfllfl M. 

translating into Sechwana the book of Isaiah, 
Dther parts of the Old Testament, and 
the 'Pilgrim's Progress/ 
_.. 1 in the colony. He 
of the Bakwana tribes. In May 1 54, ac- 
companied by two young Englishmen 

and other parts of the Old Testament, and 
the 'Pilgrim's Progress,' which were pub- 
lished in the colony. He also visited some 





James Chapman and Samuel Edwards 
Moffat crossed the edge of the Kalahari 
desert, found Sechele and his people among 
the precipices of Lethubaruba, passed over 
120 miles of desert to Shoshong, the resi- 
dence of Sekhomi, chief of the Bamangwato 
tribe, then by compass over an unknown 
and uninhabited country in a north-easterly 
direction for eighteen days, until he reached 
Mosilikatse and the Matabele. The chief 
was almost helpless with dropsy, but accom- 
panied Moffat in a further journey to the 
outposts of the tribe, in the hope of hearing 
news of Livingstone. The obstacles at last 
proved insuperable, and Moffat had to con- 
tent himself with an undertaking from the 
chief, which he kept, that he would take 
charge of the supplies for Livingstone, and 
deliver them to the Makololo. Moffat made 
his return journey of seven hundred miles to 
Kuruman without incident. 

In 1857 the translation of the Old Testa- 
ment was finished, and the whole bible in 
the Sechwana language was printed and dis- 
tributed. In the same year, by order of the 
home authorities of the mission, Moffat re- 
turned to the Matabeles and obtained the 
chief's consent to establish a station among 
them. There followed a meeting with Living- 
stone at the Cape to define their spheres of 
labour, and after some delay at Kuruman, 
owing to quarrels between the Boers and 
the natives, during which Moffat printed 
a new hymn-book, he, with three com- 
panions, including his younger son, reached 
the headquarters of the Matabele chief Mosi- 
likatse at the end of October 1859. The chief 
was at first far from cordial, having heard of 
the doings of the Transvaal Boers, who so 
often followed in the wake of the mis- 
sionaries. Eventually, however, in Decem- 
ber a station was formed at Inyati, and 
Moffat worked hard at the forge and the 
bench to help forward the necessary build- 
ings, until in June the mission was suffi- 
ciently established for him to leave it to 

Failing health and domestic troubles led 
Moffat to finally leave Africa for England on 
10 June 1870. He was most warmly received. 
His wife died at Brixton in January 1871, 
and Moffat subsequently until his death tra- 
velled about the United Kingdom preaching 
and advocating the cause of missions. He 
also revised the Sechwana translation of the 
Old Testament. In 1872 he was made a 
D.D. of Edinburgh. In 1873 he settled in 
Knowle Road, Brixton, South London, and 
was presented with upwards of 5,000/. by 
his friends. In 1874 he went to Southamp- 
ton to meet and identify the remains of 

Livingstone, and was present at the funeral 
in Westminster Abbey. In August 1876 he 
was present at the unveiling of the statue of 
Livingstone in Edinburgh, when the queen, 
who was at Holyrood, sent for him and gave 
him a short interview. In April 1877, at 
the invitation of the French Missionary So- 
ciety, he visited Paris, and through Theo- 
dore Monod addressed four thousand French 
children. In November 1879 he removed to 
Leigh, near Tunbridge. He was deeply inte- 
rested in the Transvaal war, and, believing in 
the advantages of British rule for the natives, 
he was greatly shocked at the triumph of the 
Boers and the acquiescence of the English 
government in defeat. On 7 May 1881 he was 
entertained at the Mansion House, London, 
at a dinner given by the lord mayor in his 
honour, which the Archbishop of Canterbury, 
representatives of both houses of parliament, 
and all the leading men of the religious and 
philanthropic world attended. In 1882 he 
visited the Zulu chief Ketch wayo, then in 
England, and was able to converse with one 
of his attendants in the Sechwana language. 
Moffat died peacefully at Leigh on 8 Aug. 
1883, and was buried at Norwood cemetery 
beside the remains of his wife. A monument 
was erected to his memory at Ormiston, his 
birthplace in East Lothian. 

Moffat's eldest son Robert, and his daugh- 
ter, Mrs. Livingstone, both died in 1862. 
Another daughter Bessie married in October 
1861 the African missionary, Roger Price. 
His second daughter married Jean Fredoux, 
a French missionary, who was killed in 1866, 
leaving his widow and seven children unpro- 
vided for. 

Tall and manly, with shaggy hair and 
I beard, clear cut features and piercing eyes, 
I Moffat's exterior was one to impress native 
! races, while his childlike spirit and modest 
| and unselfish nature insured a commanding 
j influence. He was the father and pioneer 
of South African mission work, and will 
! be remembered as a staunch friend of the 
natives, an industrious translator, a per- 
severing teacher, and a skilful organiser. 

Moffat was the author of : 1. f Translation 
of the Gospel of St. Luke into Sechwana,' 
12mo, 1830. 2. ' Translation into Sechwana 
of parts of the Old Testament,' 8vo, 1831. 
3. ' A Book of Hymns in Sechwana, Schlapi 
dialect, 80 pages/ Mission Press, Kuruman, 
2nd edition, 1838. 4. 'Africa, or Gospel 
Light shining in the midst of Heathen Dark- 
ness, a Sermon on Isaiah ix. 2, preached 
before the Directors of the London Missionary 
Society, &c., with Notes,' 8vo, London, 1840. 
5. 'Missionary Labours and Scenes in 
Southern Africa,' 4th edition, London, 8vo, 




1842; llth thousand, with portrait, 8vo, 
London, 1846. 6. ' Mr. Moffat and the Bech- 
wanas,' 32mo, 1842. 7. ' Visit to the Chil- 
dren of Manchester,' 32mo, 1842. 8. -'Hymns 
in the Sechwana Language,' Religious Tract 
Society, 12mo, London, 1843. 9. ' Rivers 
of Waters in Dry Places; an Account of 
the Introduction of Christianity into South 
Africa, and of Mr. Moffat's Missionary La- 
bours,' 8vo, 1863 ; new edition, 1867 ; Phila- 
delphia, 1869. 10. < New Testament trans- 
lated into Sechwana,' 8vo, 1872. 11. 'The 
Bible translated into Sechwana,' 8vo, 1872. 

[The Lives of Robert and Mary Moffat, by 
their son, John Smith Moffat, with Portraits, 
Maps, and Illustrations, 8vo, London, 1885 ; new 
edition, 1886; popular edition, 1889; Heroes 
of the Desert ; The Story of the Lives and 
Labours of Moffat and Livingstone, by Miss A. 
Manning, SVD, 1875 ; new and enlarged edition, 
1885 ; The Farewell Services of Robert Moffat, 
&c., by Dr. John Campbell, 12mo, London, 
1843 ; Life of Robert Moffat, by J. Marrat ; Life 
by D. J. Deane; Life by E. F. Cherry; A Life's 
Labour in South Africa, the Story of the Life 
Work of Robert Moffat, with Portrait, London, 
Aylesbury, 8vo, printed 1871 ; Moffat the Mis- 
sionary, &c., 8vo, London, 1846 ; Robert Moffat, 
an Example of Missionary Heroism, 8vo,London, 
1878.] R. H. V. 

THOMAS (1553-1604), physician and au- 
thor, born in 1553, probably in the parish of 
St. Leonard's, Shoreditch, was of Scottish 
descent, and the second son of Thomas 
Moffett, citizen and haberdasher of London, 
who was also free of the Girdlers' Com- 
pany. His mother was Alice Ashley of 
Kent (Ashmole MS. 799, f. 130). Both the 
physician and his father should, it seems, be 
distinguished from a third Thomas Moffett, 
who in January 1575 was employed at Ant- 
werp on political business, and endeavoured 
under the directions of Burghley and Lei- 
cester to win the confidence of the Earl of 
Westmorland and other English rebels in 
exile, in order to induce them to quit the 
Low Countries (Cal. Hatfield MSS. ii. 86- 
93). This man was reported to be too reck- 
less a dice-player to satisfy his employers 
(eft.), and he is doubtless the ' Captain Thomas 
Moffett ' who petitioned Elizabeth in March 
1589 for a license to export four hundred 
tuns of beer, on the ground that he had 
served Edward VI and Queen Mary in many 
countries (Cal. State Papers, Dom. 1581-90, 
p. 586). 

An elder brother of the physician resided 
at Aldham Hall, Essex. PETER MOFFETT 
(d. 1617), apparently a younger brother, was 
rector of Fobbing, Essex, from 1592 till his 

death in the autumn of 1617 (NEWCOUET, 
Repertorium, ii. 268), and seems to have been 
author of ' The Excellencie of the Mysterie 
of Christ Jesus,' London, 1590, 8vo (dedi- 
j cated to Margaret, countess of Cumberland, 
and Anne, countess of Warwick), and of 
' A Commentarie upon the whole Booke of 
the Proverbs of Solomon, 1 London, 1596, 
12mo (dedicated to Edward Russell, earl of 

After spending, it is said, five years at 
Merchant Taylors' School (FOSTER, Alumni 
Oxon.}, Thomas matriculated as a pensioner 
of Trinity College, Cambridge, in May 1569, 
but migrated, 6 Oct. 1572, to Caius College, 
where he graduated B. A. While becoming 
an efficient classic, he studied medicine 
under Thomas Lorkin [q.v.] and John Caius 
(1510-1573) [q.v.] His fellow-students and 
friends included Peter Turner [q. v.], Timothy 
Bright [q. v.], and Thomas Penny [q. v.J, 
who all distinguished themselves in medical 
science. During his undergraduate days 
he was nearly poisoned by eating mussels 
(Health's Improvement, p. 250 ; Theatrum 
Insectorum, p. 283, in English, p. 1107). 
Choosing to proceed M.A. from Trinity in 
1576, he was expelled from Caius by Thomas 
Legge, the master [q. v.] In 1581 the latter 
was charged, among other offences, with 
having expelled Moffett without the fellows' 
consent. Wood's suggestion that Moffett was 
educated at Oxford appears to be erroneous 
(Athena Oxon. ed. Bliss, i. 574-5). 

On leaving Cambridge Moffett went abroad. 
At Basle he attended the medical lectures of 
Felix Plater and Z winger, and after defending 
| publicly many medical theses there in 1578, 
I he received the degree of M.D. In the same 
I year he published at Basle (1578, 4to) two 
j collections of his theses: one entitled *De 
i Anodinis Medicamentis/ the other <De Venis 
| Mesaraicis Obstrvctis ipsarvmqve ita affec- 
[ tarum Curatione,' with a dedication to Penny. 
j A copy of the latter in the Cambridge Univer- 
sity Library has an affectionate inscription 
in Moffett's autograph addressed to his old 
| tutor Lorkin. In 1579 Moffett visited Italy 
| and Spain ; there he studied the culture of 
I the silkworm, which he made the subject of 
a poem, and became an acute observer of all 
| forms of insect life. He was at Nuremberg 
! in July 1580, and frequently at Frankfort be- 
I tween the following October and the spring 
of 1582. Four letters which he addressed 
I between 1580 and 1582 to Petrus Monavius 
are printed in Laurentius Scholz's ' Episto- 
larum Philosophicarum Volumen,' Frankfort, 
, 1598. 

Moffatt, while on the continent, adopted 
with enthusiasm the Paracelsian system of 




medicine, and when he settled again in Eng- 
land he shared with John Hester [q. v.] the 
chief burden of upholding its principles there. 
He returned to Cambridge in 1582, and was 
incorporated M.D. In July he accompanied 
Peregrine Bertie, lord Willoughby [q. v.], 
to Elsinore, to invest King Frederick of 
Denmark with the order of the Garter. He 
notes that the court dinners lasted from 
seven to eight hours (Health's Improvement, 
p. 294), and that he made the acquaintance 
of Tycho Brahe and Peter Severinus. At the 
end of 1583 he completed in London, with a 
dedication to Severinus, his most elaborate 
exposition of his medical principles, 'De Jure 
et Praestantia Chemicorum Medicamentorum 
Dialogus Apologeticus ' (Frankfort, 1584, 
12mo; new edit. Ursel in Nassau, 1602, 8vo). 
In style Moffett sought to imitate Erasmus's 
' Colloquia.' With this essay he printed five 
letters dated from London between February 
and April 1584 four addressed to ' Phila- 
lethes Gerinanus ' and one to ' Endymion 
Luddipolensis.' The work attracted atten- 
tion abroad and figured in Lazarus Zetzner's 
' Theatrum Chemicum,' Strasburg, 8vo, 1613 
(i. 63-90). Moffett subsequently illustrated 
his sobriety as an investigator by publish- 
ing a digest of Hippocrates, whose merits 
were unduly disparaged by many of the 
newer school of medicine to which Moffett 
belonged. This book he entitled ' Noso- 
mantica Hippocratea sive Hippocratis Prog- 
nostica cuncta ex omnibus ipsius scriptis 
methodice digesta ' (Frankfort, 1588, 8vo). 

By 1588 Moffett had secured a good prac- 
tice, at first apparently in Ipswich and after- 
wards in London. On 22 Dec. 1585 he 
was admitted a candidate of the College of 
Physicians, arid on 29 Feb. 1588 a fellow, 
becoming censor in the same year. Among 
his early patients were Lady Penruddock and 
Sir Thomas and Edmund Kny vet of Norfolk. 
In July 1586 he and Penny attended during 
her last illness at Hans worth Anne Seymour, 
duchess of Somerset, widow of the protector, 
and they attested her will. Moffett seems 
to have first made the lady's acquaintance 
in early youth (Theatrum Insectorum, pp. 
14, 21). In 1590 he was in attendance on 
Sir Francis Walsingham at Barnes Elms, 
Surrey. Next year he was appointed phy- 
sician to the forces serving in Normandy 
under the Earl of Essex ; and on 6 Jan. 
1591-2 he sent a note to the earl from Dieppe 
advising him to return to England (Cal. 
Hatfield MRS. iv. 174). On settling again 
in London, Moffett appears to have spent 
much time at court. He came to know 
Sir Francis Drake, who first showed him a 
flying-fish, ' milvus marinus' (Health's Im- 

provement, p. 245) ; interested himself in the 
eccentricities of Woolmer, ' the foul feeder f 
(ib. pp. 123, 376), and was much patronised 
by Henry Herbert, second earl of Pembroke 
[q. v.], and his family. Mary Herbert [q. v.] r 
the earl's wife, attracted by his cultured 
tastes, ultimately induced him to leave Lon- 
don for her own home in Wiltshire, and the 
latter part of his life was spent at or near 
Wilton as a pensioner of her husband. By 
the earl's influence he was elected M.P. for 
Wilton on 24 Oct. 1597. Walter Sweeper, 
when dedicating to William, third earl of 
Pembroke, his 'Brief Treatise' in 1622, wrote 
that ' that godly and learned phisitian and 
skilful mathematician Mr. Doctor Moffet, 
my most worthy and kind friend,' resided 
in Wilton House, but according to Aubrey, 
his patron soon gave- him the neighbouring 
manor-house of Bulbridge for his residence 
(Nat. Hist. p. 89). He died there on 5 June 
1604, and was buried in Wilton Church. 

Moffett combined with his interests in 
science real literary aptitude. An 'epitaphe 
or epigram or elegies, done by Mr. Morfet/ 
was entered in the books of the Stationers' 
Company, by Edmund Bollifant, 15 Jan. 
1588-9, but of this effort nothing else is 
known. Ten years later he published 
pseudonymously an interesting poem, em- 
bodying some of his observations in Italy 
and Spain. It is entitled t The Silkwormes 
and their Flies; Lively described in verse, by 
T. M. a Countrie Farmar, and an Apprentice 
in Physicke. For the great benefit and en- 
riching of England. Printed at London by 
V. S. for Nicholas Ling, and are to be sold 
at his shop at the West ende of Paules/ 
1599, 4to. It is dedicated to the Countess of 
Pembroke, whom he describes as ' the most 
renowned patroness and noble nurse of learn- 
ing,' and he notices in detail her literary 
labours (COLLIER, Bibl. Cat. i. 539). A copy 
is in the British Museum. Chamberlain wrote 
to Carleton, 1 March 1598-9, 'The Silk- 
worme is thought to be Dr. Muffetts, and in 
mine opinion is no bad piece of poetrie^ 
(CHAMBERLAIN, Letters, Camd. Soc., p. 47). 
' Moffatts Silkwormes and their Flies ' is 
highly praised in Nicholas Baxter's ' Sir 
Philip Sydney's Ourania,' 1606. 

Mofi'ett has been hastily identified with 
the T. M. who wrote the prose tracts ' Father 
Hubbards Tales,' and 'The Blacke Booke, r 
both issued in 1604, but his claim may be 
safely rejected [see MIDDLETON, THOMAS, 
1570 P-1G27]. 

Two professional works by Moffett ap- 
I peared posthumously. He had completed in 
I 1590 a valuable w r ork on the natural history 
I of insects, partly compiled from the writings 




of Edward Wotton and Conrad Gesner, and 
from papers left to him by his friend Penny. 
He obtained permission to print it at the 
Hague on 24 May 1590, and wrote an elabo- 
rate dedication to the queen, but delays fol- 
lowed. Laurence Scholz of Frankfort is 
said to have roughly edited the manuscript 
in 1598. When James I ascended the Eng- 
lish throne, Moffett readdressed the dedica- 
tion to him. At Moffett's death the manu- 
script, still unprinted, came into the hands 
of Darnell, his apothecary, who sold it to Sir 
Theodore Mayerne [q. v.], and in 1634 
Mayerne published it, dedicating it to Sir 
William Paddy, and describing Moffett as 
' an eminent ornament of the Society of Phy- 
sicians, a man of the more polite and solid 
learning, and renowned in most branches of 
science.' The original manuscript, with the 
two dedications addressed respectively to 
Elizabeth and to James I, is now in Sloane 
MS. 4014. The title of the printed volume 
ran: 'Insectorum sive Minimorum Ani- 
inalium Theatrum ... ad vivum expressis 
Iconibus super quingentis illustratum,' Lon- 
don, 1634, fol. Translated into English by 
J. R. as The Theater of Insects, or lesser 
living Creatures/ it was appended with the 
plates to Edward Topsell's ' History of Four- 
footed Beasts and Serpents' (1658). Haller 
in his notes on Herman Boerhaave's 'Me- 
thodus Studii Medici' praises the copiousness 
of the species described and the character of 
the engravings, and while admitting that 
Moffett gave credence to too many fabulous 
reports, acknowledged him to be the prince 
of entomologists before John Swammerdam 

Moffett's second posthumously issued book 
was : ( Health's Improvement ; or Rules com- 
prising and discovering the Nature, Method, 
and Manner of Preparing all sorts of Food 
used in this Nation. Written by that ever 
Famous Thomas Mvffett, Doctor of Phisick; 
corrected and enlarged by Christopher Ben- 
net, Doctor of Physick and Fellow of the 
Colledg of Physitians of London,' London, 
4to, 1655. This is a gossipy collection of 
maxims respecting diet, which Moffett in- 
tended to supplement by a similar work on 
' drinks ' (p. 221). It was probably compiled 
about 1595. Another edition was published 
in 12mo, 1746, with a life of the author, by 
William Oldys, and an introduction by R. 
James, M.D. 

In Sloane MS. 4014 (< Theatrum Insecto- 
rum ') a frontispiece engraved by William 
Rogers supplies a portrait of Moffett, and 
he is there described as ' Scot-Anglus.' Ges- 
ner, Edward Wotton, and Penny are depicted 
on the same plate. 

By license dated 23 Dec. 1580 Moffett 
married, at St. Mary Cole Church, London 
his first wife Jane, daughter of Richard 
Wheeler of a Worcestershire family, though 
she was described at the time of her marriage 
as a spinster of St. Ethelburgh's parish 
(CHESTEK, Marriage Licences, ed. Foster, p. 
952). She was buried at Wilton 18 April 
1600. Moffett's second wife was a widow 
named Catherine Brown. She survived him, 
and to her children by her first husband- 
two sons Richard and Benedict, and two 
daughters Susan and Martha Moffett left, 
with other bequests, his musical instruments, 
including a pair of virginals. Of his will 
(proved 20 Nov. 1604 and printed by Oldys) 
his brothers William and Thomas were over- 
seers, and mention is made in it of his own 
daughter Patience and his dear friend and 
father in Christe, Mr. Parker.' His widow 
appears to have died at Calne, Wiltshire, in 
1626. By her will, proved 26 June in that 
year, she left a portrait of Moffett and a book 
in his writing, probably * Health's Improve- 
ment,' to his daughter Patience. The William 
Moffett (1607-1670), M.A. of Sidney Sussex 
College, Cambridge, and vicar of Edmonton 
from 1631 till his death (NEWCOTJKT, Eepert. 
i. 600), who has verses prefixed to William 
Hodgson's 'Divine Cosmographie,' 1640, was 
doubtless the physician's nephew ; he married, 
as a widower, aged 56, on 24 Oct. 1663, Mary 
Borne of Edmonton (CHESTER, Marriage 
Licences, ed. Foster, p. 931). 

[Life by Oldys in Moffett's Health's Improve- 
ment, 1746; Cooper's Athense Cantabr. ; Hoefer's 
Hist, de la Chimie, ii. 26; Moffett's Works; 
Joannes Antonius Van der Linden's De Scriptis 
Medicis, Amsterdam, 1637, p. 454 ; Hunter's 
manuscript Chorus Vatum (Addit. MS. 24487, 
ff. 441 sq.) ; Brit. Mus. Cat. s. v. 'Moufet ; ' Haz- 
litt's Bibliographical Handbooks.] S. L. 

MOGFORD, THOMAS (1809-1868), 
painter, born at Exeter on 1 May 1809, was 
son of a veterinary surgeon at Northlew, 
Devonshire. He showed an early talent for 
drawing, as well as mechanics and chemistry, 
but eventually decided on painting in pre- 
ference to engineering. He studied in Exeter 
under John Gendall [q. v.], and was articled 
for some years to him and to Mr. Cole. At 
the end of his appenticeship he married Cole's 
eldest daughter, and settled in Northernhay 
Place, Exeter. He sent three pictures to the 
Royal Academy in 1838, and three in 1839, 
including a full-length portrait of Sir Thomas 
Lethbridge, bart., with his horse and dog. 
About 1843 he removed to London, and sub- 
sequently exhibited at the Royal Academy 
portraits of E. H. Baily, R.A. (now in the 
possession of the Royal Academy), Samuel 




Cousins, the engraver, Professor J. 0. Adams, 
the astronomer, for Cambridge University 
(engraved by S. Cousins), Colonel Napier, the 
historian, and others. He also painted and 
exhibited 'The Sacrifice of Noah' and 'The 
Loves of the Angels' (Royal Academy 1846), 
the latter a very original work. Subsequently 
he removed to Guernsey, and practised almost 
entirely as a landscape painter, occasionally 
revisiting England and Exeter to paint por- 
traits. Though for some years crippled by 
palsy through the effects of lead poisoning, 
he continued to paint up to the day of his 
death, which took place at Guernsey in 1868. 
He founded a school of painting in Guernsey. 

[Pycroft's Art in Devonshire ; Redgrave's 
Diet, of Artists; Royal Acad. Catalogues.] 

L. C. 

MOGEIDGE, GEORGE (1787-1854), 
miscellaneous writer, was born on 17 Feb. 
1787, at Ashted, near Birmingham. His 
father, Mathias, a canal agent, was grand- 
son of the Rev. Anthony Mogridge (fl. 1750) 
of Hartley, Worcestershire, who is said to 
have written a book called ' The Conscience's 
Recorder/ and was descended from a John 
Mogridge, who in 1530 founded an almshouse 
at Exeter. George, after attending a school 
at Boarcote, was apprenticed to a japanner 
in Birmingham, and spent his leisure in read- 
ing Chaucer, Spenser, and Ossian. He sub- 
sequently entered into partnership with his 
elder brother in the japan trade at Birming- 
ham, and wrote in the provincial journals 
under the pseudonym t Jeremy Jaunt,'' articles 
urging structural improvements in the town 
of Birmingham and the abolition of the slave 
trade. Failing in business, Mogridge took 
to writing for a livelihood. He died on 2 Nov. 
1854 at Hastings, and was buried there in 
the All Saints' burial-ground. 

Mogridge married, first, Elizabeth Bloomer 
(d. 1822 ?), by whom he had two sons and a 
daughter ; by his second wife, Mary, he had 
one son. A portrait, drawn by A. Stanesby 
and engraved by D. J. Pound, is prefixed to 
' George Mogridge : his Life, Character, and 
Writings,' by the Rev. C. Williams ; another 
to the ' Memoir ' of him published by the Tract 
Society. Mogridge's publications amount to 
nearly two hundred, and consist principally 
of tales and religious books for children, 
religious tracts and ballads. Several ap- 
peared under the various pseudonyms : ' Uncle 
Adam,' ' Old Alan Gray,' < Ephraim Hold- 
ing,' ' Uncle Newbury,' and 'Aunt Newbury.' 
Forty-four appeared under his best-known 
pseudonym of ' Old Humphrey,' and a series 
of ' Tales ' under that of ' Peter Parley.' The 
assumption of the last name by Mogridge j 

was naturally objected to by the American 
writer, Samuel Griswold Goodrich, who was 
the first to adopt it (Recollections, ii. 553-4 ; 
cf. also MARTIN, WILLIAM, 1801-1867). Of 
his religious ballads 'Thomas Brown' was the 
most popular. Besides these works Mogridge 
published nearly fifty under his own name, 
the principal of which are: 1. 'The Juve- 
nile Culprits,' 1829, 12mo. 2. ' The Juvenile 
Moralists,' 1829, 12mo. 3. ' The Churchyard 
Lyrist,' 1832, 12mo. 4. ' The Encourager/ 
1835, 16mo. 5. ' A Ramble in the Woods/ 
1840 (?), 16mo. 6. 'Soldiers and Sailors/ 
1842, 8vo. 7. ' The Old Sea Captain/ 1842, 
16mo. 8. ' Footprints of Popery/ 1843, 
12mo. 9. 'The Indians of North Ame- 
rica/ 1843, 16mo. 10. ' The Country/ 1844, 
12mo. 11. 'Learning to Think/ 1844 (?), 
12mo. 12. ' Old Anthony's Hints to Young 
People/ 1844 (?), 18mo. 13. ' Points and 
Pickings of Information about China/ 1844, 
8vo. 14. ' Learning to Feel/ 1845 (?), 12mo. 
15. ' Rural Pickings/ 1846, 8vo. 16. ' Learn- 
ing to Act/ 1846 (?), 12mo. 17. ' Helps for 
Every Hour/ 1846, 12mo. 18. ' Calls of Use- 
fulness/ 1846, 12mo. 19. 'Wanderings in the 
Isle of Wight/ 1846, 16mo. 20. 'Loiterings 
among the Lakes of Cumberland and West- 
moreland/ 1849, 16mo. 21. ' Things that have 
Wings/ 1851, 16mo. 22. ' Peter and Patty/ 
1852, 16mo. 23. ' Aunt Rose and her Nieces/ 
1852, 16mo. 24. ' Learning to Converse/ 1854, 
18mo. His second wife, Mary, wrote ' Do- 
mestic Addresses/ and edited several of her 
husband's works. 

[Brit. Mus. Cat. ; Allibone's Diet, of English 
Lit. s. v. ' Humphrey, Old ; ' Williams's G-eorge 
Mogridge, his Life, Character, and Writings; 
Memoir published by the Tract Society ; Gent. 
Mag. 1854, ii. 645 ; Goodrich's Recollections, ii. 
553-4.] A. F. P. 

MOHL, MADAME MARY, whose maiden 
name was CLARKE (1793-1883), conversa- 
tionalist, was born at Millbank Row, West- 
minster, in 1793, her father, Charles Clarke, 
being the son of an Irish Jacobite, and her 
mother, Elizabeth Hay, the daughter of Cap- 
tain David Hay of Hopes, Haddingtonshire. 
In 1801 her mother and maternal grand- 
mother took her to Toulouse, where she was 
placed in a convent school. Her mother, 
on becoming a widow, removed with her to 
Paris, and from 1831 to 1838 they occupied 
apartments adjoining those of Madame Re- 
camier at the Abbaye-aux-Bois. For eighteen 
years Mary Clarke was a daily visitor of 
Madame Recamier, helping to amuse Cha- 
teaubriand in his closing years. She became 
engaged to Auguste Sirey, but his early 
death prevented the marriage and led to 
litigation with his family. She seems to 



have been next in love with Claude Fauriel, 
who, however, twenty-one years her senior, 
was accustomed to merely platonic attach- 
ments. He joined the Clarkes in Switzer- 
land in 1823, accompanied them to Milan, 
where he introduced them to Manzoni, and 
parted from them at Venice. He appointed 
Mary his literary executor (1844), and he 
had long previously introduced to her Julius 
Mohl (1800-1876), the accomplished orien- 
talist, whose indications led Botta to the 
discovery of the ruins of Nineveh. In 1847, 
after her mother's death, and after making 
him wait eighteen years, she married Mohl 
and found him a home, for he had till then 
been living with Ampere. Not liking to be 
thought older than her husband, she made a 
mystery of her age, and at her marriage ap- 
pears to have given it, or at least allowed it to 
be entered, as thirty-nine (Le Curieux, August 
1885). Her receptions in the Rue du Bac for 
nearly forty years attracted a galaxy of talent. 
Ticknor in 1837 found her circle, with one 
exception, the most intellectual in Paris, 
and in 1857 he describes her as ' talking as 
amusingly as ever, full of good-natured kind- 
ness, with a little subacid as usual to give 
it a good flavour.' Ampere thought her ' a 
charming mixture of French vivacity and 
English originality,' and her old-fashioned 
English and sometimes peculiar French gave 
an additional zest to conversation quite de- 
void of pedantry, albeit she was a great 
reader and good art connoisseur. She was 
an ardent Orleanist, never referring to Na- 
poleon III except as ' cet homme ' or ' le 
monsieur,' and was so outspoken as some- 
times to give offence. The Queen of Hol- 
land called on her in 1867, and her long list 
of friends included Quinet, one of her earliest 
admirers, De Tocqueville, Guizot, Thiers, 
Mignet, Thierry, the Due de Broglie, Scherer, 
and Renan. Dean Stanley first met at her 
dinner-table his future wife, Lady Augusta 
Bruce, and among her English visitors were 
Thackeray, Nassau Senior, Lord Houghton, 
and Mrs. Gaskell, who wrote while stay- 
ing with her the greater part of her ' Wives 
and Daughters.' Lord John and Lady Rus- 
sell visited them in 1870. On her hus- 
band's death in 1876 Madame Mohl discon- 
tinued her receptions, and her memory was 
latterly impaired. She died in Paris 14 May 
1883, and was buried at Pere-Lachaise. Her 
only, and that an anonymous, attempt at 
authorship was an article on Madame R6- 
camier, in the ' National Review, 1860, ex- 
panded into a volume entitled ' Madame 
Recamier, with a Sketch of the History of 
Society in France,' London, 1862. Her hus- 
band's nieces have carried out her intention 

of commemorating him by endowing a bed 
at the Hospitalit de Nuit, Paris. 

[Mrs. Simpson's Letters of J. and M. Mohl 
London, 1887; N. W. Senior's Conversations' 
London, 1868-78; Life of Ticknor, Boston,' 
1876 ; K. O'Meara's Madame Mohl, London' 
1886 (often inaccurate); Contemp. Eeview' 
1878; Macmillan's Mag. 1883; Journal des 
Debats, 4 and 5 July 1885 ; K. E. Prothero's 
Dean Stanley, 1894.] J. Q-. A. 

MOHUN (1675 ?-l 712), duellist, born, it 
is believed, in 1675, was eldest son of 
Charles, fourth baron (d. 1677), by Philippa, 
fourth daughter of Arthur Annesley, first 
earl of Anglesey. His parents had on 2 Dec. 
1674, after a long estrangement, been recon- 
ciled by the lady's father, the Earl of Angle- 
sey, who took his son-in-law's view of the 
difference, and regretted that he lacked 
power to beat his daughter for f an impudent 
baggage' (Hist. MSS. Comm. 13th Rep. 
App. pt. vi. pp. 275-7). At the time of the 
fourth baron's marriage in 1668, an order in 
council was issued by Charles II, that Lady 
Mohun should, as a Roman catholic, give 
security ' to breed her children in the pro- 
testant religion,' but Mohun can hardly be 
supposed to have derived much benefit from 
religious teaching of any denomination. 
When he was only a year old his father 
was mortally wounded while acting as 
second in a duel between Lord Cavendish 
and Lord Power, and after lingering for 
many months died on 1 Oct. 1677, and was 
buried in St. Giles's-in-the-Fields (ib. 12th 
Rep. App. vii. 130). Thenceforth the young 
peer appears to have been subjected to no 
control. On 7 Dec. 1692 he quarrelled over 
the dice with Lord Kennedy, and was con- 
fined to his lodgings ; he nevertheless broke 
out with the aid of his constant ally, Edward 
Rich, earl of Warwick, and fought his first 
recorded duel, in which both parties were 
disarmed. Two days later he played a sorry 
part in the death of William Mountfort [q. v.] 
He and Captain Richard Hill, who was jealous 
of Mrs. Bracegirdle's supposed partiality for 
Mountfort, paraded Howard Street in com- 

5 any, with their swords drawn, lying in wait 
3r the actor. The latter, upon his arrival, 
was greeted with drunken cordiality by Mo- 
hun. Mountfort, however, thought fit to re- 
monstrate with his lordship upon the com- 
pany he was keeping, whereupon, after a brief 
scuffle, Hill ran the player through the body 
(COLLEY CIBBEE, Apology, ed. Lowe, ii. 243- 
245). Mohun, who, unlike Hill, made no 
attempt to evade justice, was arrested, and the 
grand jury of Middlesex found a true bill of 
murder against him. His trial before his peers 




in Westminster Hall, in January 1692-3, was 
the sensation of the hour. The king is said to 
have been constant in his attendance. After 
a protracted and impartial trial, the accused 
was on 4 Feb. acquitted by sixty-nine votes to 
fourteen. Mohun was consequently released 
from the Tower; he was but seventeen years 
of age at the time (a circumstance omitted by 
Macaulay), and a relative is stated to have 
suggested during the trial that he should ' be 
taken away and whipt ' (Henry North to 
Archbishop Sancroft in Tanner MSS. xxv. 7, 
where there are other curious particulars ; cf. 
State Trials, xii. 950-1050 ; MACAULAY, 
Hist, of England, 1858, iv. 310-11). In 
October of this year Mohun was lying 
dangerously ill at Bath. His recovery was 
followed by a resumption of his riotous life in 
London. In October 1694 he was engaged in 
a duel with Francis Scobell, M.P. for Gram- 
pound, who had remonstrated with him in Pall 
Mall concerning a murderous assault which 
he was making upon an offending coachman. 
In this year also he volunteered for the Brest 
expedition, and was made a captain of horse 
in Lord Macclesfield's regiment. Be served 
with distinction in Flanders during the next 
two years, but returned to England early in 

1697 in as aggressive and turbulent a mood as 
ever. No later than April 1697 he was in- 
volved in a duel with Captain Bingham, in 
St. James's Park, but the combatants were 
separated by the sentinels before any serious 
damage was done. On 14 Sept. however, he 
was in at the death of Captain Hill, which oc- 
curred in a confused and discreditable brawl 
at the Rummer Tavern, and in November 

1698 he was engaged with his old associates, 
Warwick and Docwra, in deep potations at 
Lockets', which were followed by an affray 
in Leicester Square, and a mortal wound in- 
flicted upon a Captain Richard Coote. True 
bills of murder were brought in against both 
Warwick and Mohun, but the latter was not 
tried by his peers until 29 March 1699, when 
he was acquitted. It appeared in evidence 
that he had not fomented the quarrel, but 
rather the reverse ; and before leaving the 
bar he uttered some expression of contri- 
tion for his past life, which seems to have 
been for the time sincere. 

Thenceforward Mohun occasionally took a 
prominent part in the debates in the House 
of Lords, and was a staunch supporter of the 
whigs. On 13 March 1703 he stood proxy 
for the elector of Hanover when the latter 
was installed knight of the Garter. In the 
debate on the Occasional Conformity Bill he 
remarked bluntly that if the Bill passed they 
might as well tack the Pretender to it. When 
in the debate on the Act of Security (1704) 

1 Nottingham appeared to cast a slur upon 
William III, Mohun was with difficulty re- 
strained from proposing to send him to the 
Tower. Finally, when in a debate in the 
House of Lords the Duke of Marlborough 
was grossly insulted by Earl Powlett, it was 
Mohun who was commissioned to bear Marl- 
borough's invitation to the earl ' to take the 
air in the country.' 

Meanwhile in June 1701 Mohun had been 
appointed to attend Charles Gerard, earl of 
Macclesfield [q. v.], who was sent as envoy- 
extraordinary to present the electress-dowa- 
ger Sophia with a copy of the Act of Suc- 
cession. Macclesfield died on 5 Nov. 1701, 
and by his will Mohun came in for the per- 
sonal estate valued at 20,0007. With regard 
to the real property he entered upon a long, 
complicated, and fluctuating lawsuit both 
with the crown and James Douglas, fourth 
duke of Hamilton [q. v.] Mohun claimed 
through his first wife, Macclesfield's niece 
Charlotte, daughter of Thomas Manwaring ; 
Hamilton through his second wife, also a 
niece of Macclesfield's, while the crown 
claimed the reversion on the ground that the 
reversal of Macclesfield's attainder had never 
been legally recorded. In the course of the 
proceedings the duke and Mohun met in the 
chambers of Mr. Oillabar, a master in chan- 
cery, on 13 Nov. 1712. On the duke remark- 
ing of a witness named Whitworth, ' There 
is no truth or justice in him,' Mohun re- 
joined, ' I know Mr. Whitworth, he is an 
honest man, and has as much truth as your 
grace.' A challenge ensued, not from the 
duke, but from Mohun. The duel took place 
in Hyde Park, between 6 and 7 A.M. on Sun- 
day 15 Nov. Mohun spent the previous night 
at the Bagnio in Long Acre. On the parties 
arriving on the ground, Mohun said the 
seconds should have no share, but his friend, 
Colonel George Maccartney [q. v.], demurred, 
and the duke, turning to Colonel Andrew 
Hamilton, remarked, ' There is my friend, he 
will take a share in my dance.' They fought 
until their principals fell, when Maccartney 
went to Mohun and turned him on his face 
' that -he might die the more easily.' Neither 
Mohun nor his adversary attempted to parry, 
but thrust without intermission, ' fighting/ 
says a contemporary, ' like enraged lyons/ 
Mohun was riddled with dreadful wounds 
(see the account of Le Sage, the surgeon), 
but it is said that he only inflicted the duke's 
death-wound with a shortened sword as 
Hamilton was bending over him. The duel 
was at once interpreted by the dominant 
party as a whig conspiracy, Swift in the 
' Post Boy ' (for 18 and 20 Nov.), and in the 
'Examiner' (20 Nov.), suggesting that l the 




faction, being weary of Mohun, resolved to 
employ him in some real service to the cause/ 
i.e. in the prevention of Hamilton's embassy 
to France, which it was dreaded would be 
favourable to the cause of the Pretender. 

Mohun was buried in St. Martin's-in-the- 
Fields on 25 Nov. By his will, proved on 
6 March 1712-13, he left everything to his 
second wife Elizabeth, daughter of Thomas 
Lawrence, state physician to the queen, on 
condition of her paying 1QOI. to ' Elizabeth, 
my pretended daughter by my first wife ' 
(CEISP, Somersetshire Wills, 5th ser. p. 11). 
The peerage became extinct. 

Though perhaps excessively vilified by 
tory writers (who regarded him, not alto- 
gether without reason, as the bully of the 
whig party), there can hardly be two opinions 
as to Mohun's character. Hearne, mention- 
ing his death, says with probable truth, l he 
should have been hanged before . . . divers 
times.' Macky writes, ' In his youth a scandal 
to the peerage, he now rectifies as fast as he 
can his former slips.' By 1705 he certainly 
manifested a tendency to corpulency, hardly 
compatible with the wild excesses of his 
youth. Swift adds to Macky, ' He was little 
better than a conceited talker in company.' 
His only would-be apologist, Burnet, says 
significantly, 'I will add no character of 
him ; I am sorry I cannot say so much good 
of him as I could wish, and I had too much 
kindness for him to say any evil without 
necessity ' (Own Time, ii. 130). The fatal 
duel with Hamilton, coming so soon after 
that of Sir Cholmondeley Dering, evoked 
much unfavourable comment, and a Bill was 
introduced into the Commons for the pre- 
vention of duelling, but was lost on a second 
reading. The duel also forms an incident in 
Thackeray's ' Esmond,' in which novel a Lord 
' Harry ' Mohun, who has little in common 
with the historical character, figures as villain. 

A portrait was painted for the Kit-Cat 
Club, of which Mohun was a member, by 
Kneller and engraved by Cooper. 

[The whole Life and History of my Lord Mohun 
and the Earl of Warwick, with their comical 
frolicks that they played, London, 1711, sm.4to; 
Lives and Characters of the most Illustrious Per- 
sons who died in 1712, pp. 402-10; Smith's Lives 
of the Highwaymen; Burke's Extinct Peerages; 
G-. E. C.'s Peerage; Gent. Mag, 1852, i. 219; 
LuttrelPs Brief Historical Kelation of State 
Affairs, vols. ii.-vi. passim; Wyon's Queen Anne, 
i. 217, 316, ii. 270, 388 ; Swift's Journal to Stella 
and Four Last Years of Queen Anne ; Evelyn's 
Diary; State Trials (Howell),xii. 950, xiii. 306; 
Eoxburghe Ballads, iii. 390-1 ; Hatton Corre- 
spondence (Camd. Soc.), i. 142, ii. 187-9, 235 ; 
Macpherson's Original Papers, ii. 364 ; Boyer's 
Annals of Queen Anne, 1735, passim; Eeliq. 

Hearnianse, i. 208; Henrne's Collectanea, ed. 
Coble, iii. 483-6; Calamy's Hist. Account, i/428^ 
ii. 4, 255; Spence's Anecdotes (1858), p. 256; 
Elwin's Pope, v. 73, ix. 382 ; Macknight's Boling- 
broke, p. 3 1 6 ; Thor nbury's Haunted London, 1 880, 
p. 50; Tom Brown's Works, iii. passim ; Tyburn 
Chron. i. 139 (with fancy picture of the duel); 
Lysons's Environs of London,!. 781 ; Noble's Con- 
tinuation of Granger's Biog. Hist. 1806, ii. 55 ; 
Chambers's Book of Days, ii. 583 ; Larwood's 
Story of the London Parks, i. 101, 103 ; Millin- 
gen's History of Duelling, ii. 29 ; Steinmetz's 
Romance of Duelling (1868), i. 233; Mackay's 
Popular Delusions, ii. 289-91 ; Knight Hunt's 
Fourth Estate, i. 165; Memoirs of the Kit-Cat 
Club, p. 120; Boase and Courtney's Bibl. Cor- 
nub. i. 312 (containing an account of all the 
chapbooks and pamphlets evoked by Mohun's 
trials for murder and more especially by his 
duel with Hamilton) ; Ashton's Social Life in 
the Reign of Queen Anne, p. 362 ; Notes and 
Queries, 2nd. ser. x. 481, 3rd ser. v. 135, 312, 
6th ser. xii. passim ; Add. MS. 33051 f. 223 
(containing the order of Sir Christopher Wren 
to erect seats of 750 persons in Westminster Hall r 
preparatory to trial of Mohun and Warwick) ; 
Egerton MS. 2623 f. 53 ; Hist. MSS. Comm. 
1 1th Rep. App. v. (Dartmouth MSS.) contains a 
full account of the evidence given on the sub- 
ject of the duel before the privy council, pp. 
311-14; see also articles DOUGLAS, JAMES, fourth 

MOHUN, JOHN DE (1270 P-1330), baron, 
lord of Dunster in Somerset, son of John de 
Mohun, the grandson of Reginald de Mohun 
[q.v.] and Eleanor Fitzpiers, was about nine 
years old at his father's death in 1279, and was 
a ward of Edward I (LYTE,p. 16). He received 
many summonses to perform military ser vice , 
as in 1297 to serve in Flanders, in 1299 to 
join the muster at Carlisle, which was after- 
wards put off and held at York on 12 Nov., 
and again in 1300 to serve against the Scots. 
At the parliament held at Lincoln in January 
1301 he joined in the letter of the barons to 
the pope, and is therein described as ' do- 
minus de Dunsterre ' (Fcedem, i. ii. 926). 
He was summoned to the muster at Berwick 
on 24 June, and again to the muster to be 
held at Berwick on 25 May 1303. He was 
at Perth early in 1304, for he dined there 
with the Prince of Wales on Candlemas day. 
He was a conservator of the peace for the 
county of Somerset in 1307, and in 1308 and 
1309 was summoned to do service against 
the Scots. In 1311 he held a commission 
as one of the king's justices. He joined the 
party of Thomas, earl of Lancaster, and was 
concerned in the execution of Gaveston, for 
which he received a pardon in 1313 (ib. n. 
i. 231). Summonses were sent to him to 
serve against the Scots in 1315, 1316, and 


1319. In 1321 he was warned to abstain 
from the parliament that the Earl of Lan- 
caster designed to hold at Doncaster (ib. pp. 
442, 459). He gave charters to the priories 
of Dunster and Bruton, and to the towns- 
men of Dunster (LTTE). Certain lands in 
Ireland [see under MOHTJN, REGINALD DB] 
he exchanged with the king for the manor 
of Long Compton in Warwickshire (ib. ; 
Fcedera, I. ii. 949). He died in 1330. 

He married first Ada, daughter of Robert, 
or Payn, Tiptoft, by whom he had seven sons 
and a daughter, and secondly a wife named 
Sybilla (LTTE). From Sir Reginald, his fifth 
son, descended the Mohuns of Cornwall, of 
which house were the Mohuns, barons of Oke- 
hampton (ib. p. 37). His eldest son, John, 
was a knight-banneret, was present at the 
battle of Boroughbridge, and, dying in Scot- 
land perhaps in 1322, was, it is said, buried 
in the church of the Grey Friars at York (ib. : 
Parliamentary Writs, n. iii. 1177) ; he mar- 
ried Christian, daughter of Sir John Segrave, 
by whom he had a son, John (1320-1376) 
[q. v.],who succeeded his grandfather (LYTE). 

[Lyte's Dunster and its Lords, privately printed, 
and largely from papers in the Archaeological 
Journal, contains full information, with refer- 
ences, concerning John and the house of Mohun 
generally ; Dugdale's Baronage, ii. 498 ; Cal. of 
Docs., Scotland, ii. No. 1516(KollsSer.) ; Prynne's 
Parliamentary Writs, i. 740, ii. iii. 1176, 1177; 
Kymer's Foedera, i. ii. ir. i. passim.] "W. H. 

MOHUN, JOHN DE (1320-1376), 
baron, lord of Dunster, son and heir of Sir 
John de Mohun (d. 1322), the eldest son of 
John de Mohun (1270 P-1330) [q. v.], lord of 
Dunster, was ten years old at his grand- 
father's death in 1330, and was made a ward 
of Henry Burghersh [q. v.], bishop of Lin- 
coln, at whose instance he received livery of 
his lands in 1341, though still under age. 
About that time he married his guardian's 
niece Joan, daughter of Bartholomew, lord 
Burghersh, the elder (d. 1355) [q. v.] In 
the same year he received a summons to do 
service in Scotland, and in 1342 took part in 
the expedition into Brittany, marching under 
the command of his father-in-law. After 
serving as a commissioner of array for the 
county of Somerset in 1346, he joined in the 
invasion of France, where he also appears in 
later years as one of the retinue of the Prince 
of Wales. He was one of the original 
knights of the order of the Garter, and his 
name and arms are still in St. George's 
Chapel, Windsor. He served also in later 
expeditions against the French (DUGDALE, 
Baronage}. He seems to have fallen into 
money difficulties, and in 1369 made over 
his chief estates, the castle and manor of 

Dunster, Minehead, and the hundred of Car- 
hampton, to feoffees for the benefit of his 
wife (LYTE). He gave a charter to the 
monks of Dunster. He died on 14 Sept. 
1376, leaving no sons, and was buried in 
Bruton priory (ib.) By his wife Joan he 
had three daughters, who all made grand 
marriages : Elizabeth married William de 
Montacute, earl of Salisbury (d. 1397), and 
died 1415 ; Philippa married (1) Walter, lord 
Fitz Walter (d. 1386), (2) Sir John Golofre 
(d. 1396), and (3) Edward, duke of York (d. 
1415), and died 1431 ; and Matilda married 
John, lord Strange (d. 1397) of Knockin in 
Shropshire, and died before 1376, leaving a 
son, Richard, in whom the barony of Mohun 
vested (COURTHOPE, Historic Peerage, pp. 
324, 453). There is an idle legend that Joan, 
wife of John, lord Mohun, obtained from her 
husband as much common land for the poor 
of Dunster as she could walk round bare- 
foot in a day (CAMDEN, Britannia, col. 58 ; 
FULLER, Worthies, ii. 289). No such gift 
can be traced (LYTE). After her husband's 
death she obtained from the feoffees a convey- 
ance of the estates vested in them to herself 
for life with remainder to Lady Elizabeth, 
widow of Sir Andrew Luttrell of Chilton 
in Thorverton, Devonshire, who paid her 
for this purchase 3,333/. 6s. Sd. Lady Mohun 
lived much at court, where she and her 
daughter, the Countess of Salisbury, used 
to appear in the robes of the Garter (ib. ; 
BELTZ). She built and endowed a chantry 
chapel in the undercroft of Christ Church, 
Canterbury, and, dying on 4 Oct. 1404, was 
there buried. The effigy on her tomb is 
given by Stothard (Monumental Effigies), 
and has been copied by Mr. Lyte (Dunster 
and its Lords). At her death Sir Hugh 
Luttrell, son of Sir Andrew and Lady Eli- 
zabeth, came into possession of Dunster as 
his mother's heir. 

[Lyte's Dunster and its Lords, pp. 19-23, 34; 
Dugdale's Baronage, i. 498 ; Beltz's Order of the 
Garter, cxlix. and pp. 49-51, 248, 249, 255; 
Nicolas's Historic Peerage, pp. 324, 453, ed. 
Courthope ; Froissart, i. 264, ed. Buchon, i. 
218%. ; Camden's Britannia, col. 58. ed. Gibson, 
1695; Fuller's Worthies, ii. 289, ed. Nichols.] 

W. H. 

1640), royalist politician, was the only son 
of Sir Reginald Mohun, bart., who died 
26 Dec. 1639, by his second wife, Philippa, 
daughter of John Heale. He matriculated 
from Exeter College, Oxford, on 15 Nov. 
1605, aged 13, graduated B.A. on 7 July 
1608, and in 1610 was entered as a student 
at the Middle Temple. In the parliaments 
of 1623-4 and 1625 he sat for the borough 




of Grampound, Cornwall, and was among the 
supporters of the Duke of Buckingham, 
through whose favour he was recommended 
in 1620 for the office of vice- warden of the 
Stannaries. During 1626 and 1627 he was 
a member of several commissions in the 
west of England, including one of inquiry 
into the acts of Sir John Eliot as vice- 
admiral of Devon. At the general election 
in 1627-8 Mohun was put forward by the 
court party for the county of Cornwall in 
opposition to Eliot and Coryton, but lost 
the election. Sir James Bagg, the duke's 
chief agent in the west, thereupon pressed 
for Mohun's elevation to the peerage, and on 
15 April 1628 he was created Baron Mohun 
of Okehampton, Devonshire. The circum- 
stances of this election came before a special 
committee, and Eliot obtained the appoint- 
ment of a committee of the House of Com- 
mons to investigate Mohun's conduct as vice- 
warden of the Stannaries. A formal charge 
was brought against him, and a conference 
of the lords and commons followed, but in 
consequence of the death of Eliot's wife the 
matter was allowed to drop. In 1634 he 
charged Bagg with having ' cozened the king 
of 20,000/./ and the case came on in the Star- 
chamber. The king sent a guarded letter to 
the lords of the council, and after the in- 
quiry had lasted some years, Mohun seems 
to have been fined 500/. l for undue inquiries 
into his majesty's debts.' A man of turbu- 
lent disposition, he quarrelled with another 
peer at the christening in 1633 of James, 
duke of York (STKAFFORD, Letters and Des- 
patches, i. 166). 

Mohun died on 28 May 1640 ( VIVIAN, 
Visitations of Cornwall, p. 324). His wife 
was Cordelia, daughter of Sir John Stanhope, 
and relict of Sir Roger Aston, who was 
buried at St. Martin's-in-the-Fields, Middle- 
sex, 2 Oct. 1639. She was sister to Anne 
Cokayne, mother of Sir Aston Cokayne [q. v.], 
who in his 'Small Poems of divers sorts/ 
1658, included (pp. 80-2) a poetical letter 
to 'John, lord Mohun, my uncle-in-law/ 
and some lines (pp. 156-7) on his visit to 
Mohun's house in Cornwall. Letter xlii. of 
book i. sect. 5 of James Howell's 'Letters/ 
dated 30 Aug. 1632, and descriptive of the in- 
quisition, is addressed to Mohun, and Massin- 
ger, to whom Sir Aston Cokayne introduced 
him, dedicated to him, as his ' especial good 
lord/ the play of the ' Emperor of the East.' 

[Foster's Alumni Oxon. (1500-1714); Max- 
well-Lyte's Dunster and its Lords, p. 37 ; State 
Papers, 1625 et seq. ; Forster's Sir John Eliot, 
passim ; Epistolae Ho-Elianae, ed. Jacobs, i. 290- 
292 ; Boase and Courtney's Bibl. Cornub. i. 364, 
iii. 1285.] W. P. C. 

MOHUN, MICHAEL (1620 P-1684), 
actor, was, according to Bellchambers, born 
about 1625, but 1620 is probably a nearer 
approximation. Before the civil war he 
performed under Beeston, at the Cockpit in 
Drury Lane, where, among other characters, 
he played Bellamente in Shirley's 'Love's 
Cruelty/ licensed 14 Nov. 1631, and pub- 
lished 1640. Subsequently he fought on the 
side of Charles I, attaining the rank of cap- 
tain, and on the close of the wars went to 
Flanders, where he acquitted himself with 
credit, and received the style and pay of major. 
Upon the Restoration Mohun returned with 
Charles II, and resumed his original occu- 
pation, joining Killigrew's company, with 
which he acted, 1660-3, at the theatre in 
Vere Street, Clare Market, erected on the 
site of Gibbon's Tennis Court. It seems pro- 
bable that the company also played at the 
Cockpit in Drury Lane, and at the Red Bull 
Theatre in St. John Street. Pepys saw 
Mohun, or Moone, for the first time at the 
Vere Street Theatre on 20 Nov. 1660 in the 
' Beggar's Bush ' of Beaumont and Fletcher, 
and says that he is declared to be ' the best 
actor in the world.' Mohun was the original 
Mopus to the Scruple of Lacy in Wilson's 
comedy 'Cheats' (1662), and on the opening 
of the Theatre Royal, on the site now occu- 
pied by Drury Lane Theatre, 8 April 1663, 
i with the ' Humourous Lieutenant ' of Beau- 
mont and Fletcher, he was Leontius (GENEST, 
i. 34, 44). He subsequently played Leon in 
I ' Rule a Wife and have a Wife/ and Truewit 
I in Jonson's ' Epiccene, or the Silent Woman/ 
j Face in the ' Alchemist ' and Volpone in the 
I ' Fox ' followed, and in 1665 he was the ori- 
: ginal Montezuma in Dryden's ' Indian Em- 
peror, or the Conquest of Mexico.' Melan- 
tius in the ' Maid's Tragedy 'became one of his 
: great parts. Rymer praises Hart and Mohun 
j in Amintor and Melantius, saying, ' There we 
! have our Roscius and yEsopus both on the 
stage together.' Proof of the estimation in 
which Mohun was held by Charles is supplied 
in the fact that when the king, finding his 
court attacked to his face by Lacy in Howard's 
' Change of Crownes/ forbade the players 
acting again, Mohun obtained a reversal of 
the decision, except so far as that special play 
was concerned. On 2 March 1667 Mohun 
was the original Philocles in Dryden's ' Secret 
Love, or the Maiden Queen ; ' on 5 Oct. 
Alberto in Rhodes's ' Flora's Vagaries/ and, 
19 Oct., Edward III in Lord Orrery's ' Black 
Prince.' On 22 June 1668 Mohun was the 
first Bellamy (to Hart's Wildblood) in Dry- 
den's 'Evening's Love, or the Mock Astro- 
loger.' The same year he played Cethegus 
in ' Catiline/ and in 1669 was lago, Ruy 




Dias in Fletcher's ' Island Princess/ and on 
9 Feb. the original Maximilian in Dryden's 
' Tyrannick Love, or the Royal Martyr.' In 
1670 he was the original Abdelmelech in the 
' Conquest of Granada/ a play by Dryden in 
two parts, and in 1671 the original Valen- 
tius in Joyner's ' Roman Empress/ and Don 
Alvarez in Corey's ' Generous Enemies.' The 
Theatre Royal having been burnt in January 
1671-2, the players opened in February at 
Lincoln's Inn Fields with l Wit without 
Money/ in which Mohun was Valentine. 
He was the first Rhodophil in Dryden's 
' Marriage a la Mode/ Dapperwit in Wycher- 
ley's ' Love in a Wood, or St. James's Park/ 
and Duke of Mantua in Dryden's l Assigna- 
tion, or Love in a Nunnery.' 

At Lincoln's Inn Fields in 1673 he was the 
original Beamont in Dryden's ' Amboyna/ 
and Pinchwife in Wycherley's ' Country 
Wife.' On 26 March 1674 the new Theatre 
Royal, subsequently known as Drury Lane, 
was opened. In the following year Mohun 
was the original Britannicus in Lee's ' Nero/ 
Trivultio in Fane's ' Love in the Dark, or 
the Man of Business/ and Old Emperor in 
Dryden's ' Aurenge-Zebe, or the Great Mo- 
gul.' Augustus Caesar in Lee's ' Gloriana, or 
the Court of Augustus Caesar/ and Hanni- 
bal in the same author's ' Sophonisba, or 
Hannibal's Overthrow/ followed in 1676, and 
Clytus in Lee's 'Rival Queens/ Edgar in 
Ravenscroft's ' King Edgar and Alfreds-/ and 
Matthias in the two parts of Crowne's ' De- 
struction of Jerusalem by Titus Vespasian ' 
in 1677. In 1676 he was Mardonius in 
' A King and No King/ a performance over- 
looked by Genest. In 1678 he was the ori- 
ginal Ventidius in Dryden's ' All for Love, 
or the World well Lost/ Mithridates in 
Lee's ' Mithridates, King of Pontus/ Break- 
bond in the ' Man of Newmarket/ by the 
Hon. Edward Howard [q. v.], and Sir Wild- 
ing Frolick in D'Urfey's ' Trick for Trick, or 
the Debauched Hypocrite.' Mohun is then 
unheard of until, in 1682, he played Ismael in 
Southerne's ' Loyal Brother and the Persian 
Prince/ and he disappears with the part of 
Burleigh in Banks's ' Unhappy Favourite, or 
the Earl of Essex.' He is also known to have 
acted Cassius and Aubrey in ' Rollo/ and to 
have repeated his early character of Bella- 
mente, which was assumed by Bellchambers 
to be a woman, and led him and some other 
stage chroniclers astray. Genest says that 
Mohun 'joined the Duke's company, but did 
not continue long on the stage after the 
union ' of the two companies in 1682. 

Pepys, 6 Feb. 1668-9, says of his lago that 
it was inferior to that of Clun. Downes 
declares that he was eminent for Volpone, 

Face, Melantius, Mardonius, Cassius, Clytus, 
Mithridates, &c., and says: 'An eminent poefc 
[Lee] seeing him act this last [Mithridates], 

| vented suddenly this saying, Mohun, Mo- 

J hun ! Thou little man of mettle, if I should 

j write a hundred plays, I'd write [always] 
a part for thy mouth.' Mohun generally 
played second to Hart, but was scarcely 

j held an inferior actor. Powell, in his dedi- 
cation of the * Treacherous Brothers/ speaks 

i of Mohun and Hart by their good acting 
getting authors their ' third nights/ and 
being consequently more substantial patrons 
than the greatest name in the frontispiece 
of a dedication. In the Epilogue to * Love 
in the Dark ' Dryden says of Mohun that 
Nature 'bid him speak as she bid Shake- 

| speare write/ and satirises the ' cripples in 

j their art ' who 

Miraick his foot but not his speaking part. 

Let them the Tray tor or Volpone try ! 
Could they . . . 

Rage like Cethegns, or like Cassius die? 

From the allusion in the first line Genest 
| supposes Mohun to have suffered from the 
I gout. Rochester praises his dignity and ele- 

fance. Wright, in the ' Historia Histrionica/ 
| 699, speaks of Mohun, with Hart, Burt, and 
i others, as much superior to the actors of sub- 
i sequent days. In the Tatler (No. 99), 26 Nov. 
1709, Steele says: ' My old friends, Hart and 
! Mohun, the one by his natural and proper 
i force, the other by his great skill and art, 
never failed to send me home full of such 
ideas as affected my behaviour, and made me 
insensibly more courteous and humane to 
my friends and acquaintances.' In 'A Com- 
parison between two Stages' Gildon men- 
tions that the plays were at this time so 
| good and so well acted by Hart and Mohun 
that the audience would not be distracted 
to see the best dancing in Europe, and St. 
Andre, a French dancer brought over by the 
Duke of Monmouth, was consequently a 

Mohun lived in 1665 on the south side of 
Russell Street, Covent Garden, and was as- 
sessed at 10s., the highest rate levied in the 
street, and from 1671 to 1676 in a house on 
the east side of Bow Street. He died in 
Brownlow Street (now Betterton Street), 
Drury Lane, in October 1684, and was buried 
in the church of St. Giles's-in-the-Fields. 
Mohun was small and well-built. 

An original picture of Mohun, engraved in 
1793, is now at Knowle Park. It shows a 
young, pleasing-faced boy grasping a sword. 

[Genest's Account of the English Stage; 
Downes's Roscius Anglicanus ; Historia Histrio- 
nica ; A Comparison between two Stages ; Gib- 



ber's Apology, ed. Lowe ; Doran's Their Majes- 
ties' Servants, ed. Lowe ; Pepys's Diary; Wheat- 
ley's London Past and Present.] J. K. 

NALD DB (d. 1257), sometimes called Earl 
of Somerset, was son of Reginald de Mohun, 
lord of Dunster in Somerset, the great-grand- 
aon of William de Mohun (Jl. 1141) [q. v.J, 
earl of Somerset ; his mother was Alice, fourth 
who brought a large inheritance to her hus- 
band's family (DUGDALE, Baronage, ii. 497), 
and married for her second husband William 
Paynell (Excerpta e Rotulis Finium, i. 169). 
Reginald was under age at the time of his 
father's death, which took place in or before 
1213, and was a ward, first, of Henry Fitz- 
Count, son of the Earl of Cornwall, and 
afterwards of his own grandfather, William 
Brewer (ib. pp, 79, 242, 243). In 1234 
he sat among the king's justices (Foss), in 
1242 and 1252 he was ch'ief justice of the 
forests south of Trent, and he received from 
Henry III rights of warren and of the chase 
and of a weekly market at Dunster. Among 
the lands that he inherited from his mother 
was Torre or Tor in Devonshire, where Wil- 
liam Brewer had in 1196 founded a Pre- 
monstratensian abbey (Monasticon, vi. 923). 
There he often resided, having a court-house 
there, whence* the place became called Torre 
Mohun or Tor-Moham. The Mohun arms 
are still to be seen on the ruins of the abbey, 
Reginald having confirmed the grants of his 
grandfather to the convent. His younger 
brother, William, having conveyed to him 
lands at Tor and Maryansleigh in Devon- 
shire, at Endicombe, near Dunster, and at 
Clythorn, near Woodstock, in Oxfordshire, in 
order that he might build a Cistercian abbey 
in a suitable place, desiring that Reginald 
should be the founder and patron, he, with 
the advice of Alcius of Gisors, abbot of 
Beaulieu in Hampshire, founded in 1146 
the abbey of Newenham at Axminster in 
Devonshire, and placed therein a colony of 
monks from Beaulieu, who took possession 
of their new house with much ceremony in 
the presence of Reginald and William on 
6 Jan. 1247. In that year his foundation 
was confirmed by Pope Innocent IV, and a 
curious legend records that the pope, on his 
appearing at the papal court at Lyons, pre- 
sented him with a rose, or other flower, of 
gold, and asked him of what degree he was. 
Reginald replied that he was a plain knight 
bachelor, on which the pope said that, as 
such a gift could be made only to kings, 
dukes, or earls, Reginald should be earl of 
* Este,' or Somerset, and to maintain his title 
granted him two hundred marks a year, and 

created him a count apostolic, with power to 
appoint public notaries (FULLEK, Church 
History, ii. 178-80). It is certain that he 
bore as his arms a dexter hand holding a 
fleur-de-lys and habited in a maunch (figured 
by LTTE, p. 24), and sometimes styled him- 
self Earl of Somerset; he did not, how- 
ever, hold an English earldom. He and his 
brother William joined in laying founda- 
tion-stones of the church of Newenham in 
1254. Reginald also made a grant to the 
convent of Bath for a mass to be .said for 
ever for the souls of his son John, lately 
dead, and other members of his house, by a 
monk of Dunster priory [see under MOHTO, 
WILLIAM DE, ft. 1066], or a secular priest, 
in the chapel of Dunster Castle (LTTE). He 
was a benefactor to the canons of Bruton 
[see under MOHUN, WILLIAM DE, Jl. 1141] 
and the abbey of Cleeve. He gave two 
charters to the townsmen of Dunster (LTTE). 
He^ died at Tor on 20 Jan. 1257, or possibly 
1258 (OLIVER, Monasticon Diocesis Exonien- 
sis, p. 358), and was buried on the left side 
of the high altar at Newenham. A long 
account of his holy death is extant, by a 
monk of Newenham (ib.), who says that 
thirty-five years after Reginald's death the 
writer saw and touched the founder's body, 
which was then uncorrupt. 

Reginald's first wife was named Avice ; her 
surname is not known (it was not Bohun, as 
Dugdale says, mistaking the M of her married 
name for B, LTTE, p. 14 ; Somerset Archcso- 
logical Society's Proceedings, vi. i. 27, 28). It 
has been suggested that she may have been 
the heiress of the Flemyngs of Ottery (LTTE, 
u. s.) By her he had a son John, who married 
Joan, daughter of William Ferrers, earl of 
Derby, and died in Gascony in 1254, leaving 
a son named John (d. 1279), whose son John 
(1270 P-1330) is separately noticed. Regi- 
nald's second wife was Isabel, widow of Gil- 
bert Basset [q. v.], and daughter of William 
Ferrers, earl of Derby, by Sybilla, fourth 
daughter of William Marshal, earl of Pem- 
broke (d. 1219) [q. v.], and so sister of her 
stepson's wife. By this marriage a part of the 
inheritance of the Earls Marshal fell to the 
Mohuns ; this part included certain lands in 
Leinster about which Reginald and his wife 
appear to have been involved in some legal 
proceedings (Calendar of Documents. Ireland, 
i. Nos. 2949, 3080, ii. Nos. 29, 139, 184). By 
Isabel Reginald had a son named William, 
who, besides inheriting part of the Marshal 
estates, was possessed of an estate that be- 
longed to the Flemyngs (this, as Mr. Lyte 
notes, makes his suggestion that Reginald's 
first wife was a Flemyng improbable). Re- 
ginald was succeeded by his grandson John. 




His brother William died on 17 Sept. 1265, 
and was buried in Newenham Abbey. 

[Lyte's Dunster and its Lords, pp. 9-15, 24, 
34 ; Oliver's Monasticon Dioc. Exon. pp. 169, 
185, 357-71; Oliver's Eccl. Antiq. of Devon, 
i. 205-8 ; Davidson's Hist, of Newenham Abbey, 
pp. 2-11, 210-14; Foss's Judges, ii. 409; 
Fuller's Ch. Hist. ii. 178-80, ed. Brewer; Dug- 
dale's Monasticon, v. 690 sq., vi. ii. 926 ; Dug- 
dale's Baronage, ii. 497 ; Savage's Hist. of^Car- 
hampton, p. 468 ; Excerpta e Rot. Fin. i. 79, 
169, 242, 243, ed. Roberts (Record Publ.); Cal. 
G-eneal. i. 94, 227, ed. Roberts (Record Publ.) ; 
Cal. of Docs., Ireland, i. Nos. 2949, 3080, ii. 29, 
139, 184, ed. Sweetman (Rolls Ser.); Somerset 
Archaeol. Soc.'s Proc. 1856, vi. ii. 27.] W. H. 

(/?. 1066), baron and sheriff of Somerset, 
took his designation from the lordship of 
Moyun, near St. Lo in Normandy, which 
remained in his family until 1204 (LYTE, 
Dunster and its Lords, p. 2 ; Somerset Ar- 
chceological Society's Proceedings, xix. ii. 96). 
He followed Duke William when he invaded 
England in 1066 (W T ACE, Roman de Ron, 
1. 13620 ; by a curious error he is stated to 
have had in his following forty-seven or fifty- 
seven of the greatest lords in the army, LE- 
LAND, Collectanea, i. 202 ; DUGDALE, Baron- 
age, i. 497 ; COLLINSON, Hist, of Somerset, 
ii. 7; for the correction of this misstate- 
ment, see PLANCHE, The Conqueror and his 
Companions, ii. 120, and LYTE, u.s.) In 
calling him ' le viel,' Wace merely distin- 
guishes him from his son ; for as William 
de Moion the elder was alive in and perhaps 
after 1090 he can scarcely have been old in 
1066. He received as many as sixty-eight 
manors in the west of England, one being in 
Devonshire, one in Wiltshire, eleven in Dor- 
set, one of them Ham, which fell to a 
younger branch of his descendants, and was 
called Ham-Mohun, or as now Hammoon 
(EYTON, Key to Domesday, Dorset, p. 12), 
and fifty-five in Somerset. In the ' Domes- 
day Survey ' it is noted that he himself 
held 'Torre, and there is his castle.' Torre 
is Dunster, where on the conical hill, or tor 
as it is still called, William no doubt found 
a fortress of older days, which he probably 
to some extent remodelled, though no re- 
mains of Norman work have been found on 
the tor (CLARK ap. LYTE, Dunster, u.s. p. 
xiv). His home estate consisted of the an- 
cient hundreds of Cutcomb and Minehead, 
in the parishes of Minehead, Cutcomb, and 
Dunster, with some additions, being in all 
19,726 acres. He evidently paid some at- 
tention to the breeding of horses, for both 
at Cutcomb and Nunney, near Frome, where 
he had a tenant, there were kept large 

numbers of unbroken brood-mares 
Domesday Studies, Somerset, i. 129, ii. 19, 25). 
Either in his lifetime or shortly afterwards 
his estates were formed into an l honour/ 
Dunstan being the ' caput honoris.' He was 
sheriff of Somerset, whence his estate at 
Brompton-Ralph is in a coeval index called 
' Brunetone Vicecomitis' (ib. i. 110). Wil- 
liam de Moion is usually spoken of as the 
founder of Dunster priory (Monasticon, iv. 
200). What exactly he did in this matter 
was that at some date between 1090 and 
1100 he granted the church of St. George, 
at Dunster, where some Norman work still 
remains (Somerset Archceological Society's 
Proceedings, vi. ii. 6), together with certain 
land and tithes and a tenth of his mares, to 
the abbey of St. Peter at Bath and John 
de Villula (d. 1122) [q. v.], the bishop, that 
they might ' build and exalt ' the said church. 
The convent of Bath accordingly made at 
Dunster a cell of their own abbey under the 
rule of a prior (LYTE, u. s. pp. 4 and 27, 
where William's charter is given from a 
manuscript at Corpus Christi College, Cam- 
bridge). William in this charter declared 
his wish to be buried in Bath Abbey (he was 
therefore not buried at Dunster as Leland, 
u. s., records). His wife's name was Adelisa, 
and he had three sons, William de Mohun, 
earl of Somerset [q. v.], who succeeded him, 
Geoffrey, and Robert, all living at the date 
of his grant to Bath. 

[Lyte's Dunster and its Lords, reprinted for 
the most part from the Archaeological Journal 
of 1880, 1881, with an account of the castle, by 
G-. T. Clark, pp. xiii, xiv, 1-5, 26, 27, contains 
nearly all that is known about W. de Moion. See 
also Wace's Roman de Rou, 1. 13620, ed. Pluquet; 
Leland's Collectanea, i. 202 ; Dugdale's Baron- 
age, i. 497, and Monasticon, iv. 200 ; Ellis's 
Introduction to Domesday, i. 214, ii. 355; Eyton's 
Domesday Studies, Somerset, i. 45, 110, 129, ii. 
19, and passim; Eyton's Key to Domesday, 
Dorset, p. 12; Planche's Conqueror and his 
Companions, ii. 120 sq. ; Somerset Archseol. 
Soc.'s Proc. 1856, vi. ii. 6, 1875, xix. ii. 96; 
Collinson's Hist, of Somerset, ii. 7 ; Hutchins's 
Hist, of Dorset, i. 273.] W. H. 

(Jl. 1141), eldest son of William de Mohun 
(Jl. 1066) [q. v.], by his wife Adelisa, was 

" of f( 

forty-four knights' fees, and in 
1131 was present at the council held by 
Henry I at Northampton, and one of the 
witnesses of the charter there granted by 
the king to the church of Salisbury. He 
rose against Stephen in 1138, and, relying 
on the strength of his castle of Dunster, 
committed many deeds of violence and 



cruelty in the west country. Stephen 
marched against him, but believing Dunster 
Castle to be impregnable, and being unwilling 
to remain long enough before it to compel its 
surrender by blockade, marched away, leaving 
Henry Tracy to carry on the war in those 
parts. This Tracy did with success, pre- 
venting William from continuing his ex- 
peditions from Dunster, and on one occasion 
taking 104 knights prisoners. William was 
humbled and compelled to remain quiet 
(Gesta Stephani, pp. 52, 53). He was with 
the empress at Westminster in June 1141, 
and marched with her to the siege of Win- 
chester. There it is said (ib. p. 81) that the 
empress made him Earl of Dorset, but it ap- 
pears that he was an earl when he was at 
Westminster in June (RouKD, Geoffrey de 
Mandeville, p. 93). He called himself Earl 
of Somerset (Monasticon, vi. 335), but the 
close connection then existing between the 
two shires renders this apparent discrepancy 
of no importance. In 1142 he founded a 
priory at Bruton for Augustinian canons. 
He also granted land to the monks of Dunster 
to pray for the soul of his son Ralph (LTTE, p. 
28). By his wife Agnes he had six sons, of 
whom four were clerks, and another, Ralph, 
predeceased him. A son William succeeded 
him, but did not, as far as is known, bear the 
title of earl, and was in turn succeeded by 
his son Reginald de Mohun, father of Regi- 
nald de Mohun (d. 1257) [q. v.] 

[Lyte's Dunster and its Lords, pp. 5, 6, 28 ; 
Gesta Stephani, pp. 52, 53, 81 (Engl. Hist. Soc.) ; 
Ann. Wav. ap. Ann. Monastici, ii. 226 (Eolls 
Ser.) ; Sarum Charters, p. 7 (Rolls Ser.) ; Liber 
Niger Scacc. i. 91, ed. Hearne; Dugdale's Mon- 
asticon, vi. 335; Dugdale's Baronage, i. 497; 
Round's Geoffrey de Mandeville, pp. 93, 95, 125, 
271, 277 ; Stubbs's Const. Hist. i. 362, 451 ; 
Somerset Archseol. Soc.'s Proc. 1857 vn. ii. 73- 
75, 1873 xix. ii. 96.] W. H. 

MOINENNO, SAINT (d. 570), suffragan 
bishop of Clonfert, was a disciple of St. Bren- 
dan of Clonfert [q. v.] His name also appears 
as Mon-nennio, Moinnend, Maoinenn, or 
Moenu, and in Latin as Moinennus. He must 
be distinguished from Mo-nennius [q. v.], 
bishop of Whithorn ; but whether Moenna 
or Moena, a bishop and disciple of St. Bren- 
dan, has a separate identity is not so clear. 
The bishop of Clonfert's feast is celebrated 
on 1 March, Moenna's on 26 Feb. Colgan 
distinguishes the two by making Moenna 
identical with Moenus, Mainus, who lived 
near Dol in Brittany, but the Breton saint's 
feast is 15 June (ToDD, Book of Hymns, fasc. 
i. 104). St. Moinenno died in 570. The 
feasts of St. Monan [q. v.] and Moinenno both 
fall on 1 March, and Skene suggests that the 


two were confused in the accounts which 
represent St. Monan as the companion of St. 
Adrian, afterwards bishop of St. Andrews 
in his missionary efforts among the Picts of 
the ninth century. According to Skene, the 
monastery with which Moinenno was asso- 
ciated at Clonfert was broken up between 841 
and 845, when St. Adrian's expedition was 
leaving Ireland for Fife, and St. Adrian pos- 
sibly carried with him the relics of the dead 
St. Moinenno, and not the living St. Monan. 
[Colgan's Acta SS. Hibern. 1 March; Skene's 
Celtic Scotland, ii. 314.] M. B. 

MOIR, DAVID MACBETH (1798-1851), 
physician and author, known as Delta (A), 
son of Robert Moir and Elizabeth Macbeth, 
was born at Musselburgh on 5 Jan. 1798, 
and received his school education there. At 
the age of thirteen he was apprenticed for 
four years to Dr. Stewart, a physician in that 
town, and studied medicine in Edinburgh, 
obtaining his surgeon's diploma in his nine- 
teenth year (1816). In 1817 he entered into 
partnership with Dr. Brown of Musselburgh, 
whose practice, he tells us, kept him so 
occupied that he did not spend a night out 
of the town between that year and 1828. 

Moir began to write as early as 1812, about 
which year he sent two essays to ' The Cheap 
Magazine/ published atHaddington. In 1816 
he wrote his first articles for the ' Scots 
Magazine/ and published anonymously ' The 
Bombardment of Algiers, and other Poems.' 
After entering on professional practice he con- 
tributed to ' Constable's Edinburgh Magazine ' 
and to 'Blackwood's Magazine.' In the latter 
he became a regular writer of jeux d 'esprit, 
which were at first ascribed to William Ma- 
ginn [q. v.], as well as of essays and serious 
verse over the signature 'A.' His connection 
with ' Blackwood ' was the means of introduc- 
ing him to Christopher North, and in 1823 
to Gait, the novelist, for whom Moir wrote 
the concluding chapters of ' The Last of the 
Lairds.' In the autumn of 1824 appeared 
' The Legend of Genevieve, with other Tales 
and Poems/ in part a reprint of magazine 
pieces, and the first instalments in ' Black- 
wood' of 'The Autobiography of Mansie 
Wauch/ republished in book form, with ad- 
ditions, in 1828. He had the offer from Mr. 
Blackwood in 1829 of the editorship of the 
1 Quarterly Journal of Agriculture/ and was 
urged by him and other friends to settle in 
Edinburgh, but he refused both proposals 
'Letters quoted by Aird). He continued to 
write for the magazines, and soon included 
Fraser ' and the ' Edinburgh Literary Ga- 
zette' among the periodicals to which he 




Moir's first professional publication was 
' Outlines of the Ancient History of Medi- 
cine' (1831), intended as the first instalment 
of a complete history. Pressure of medical 
duties, caused partly by the serious outbreak 
of cholera in Musselburgh in 1832, and partly 
by the retirement of Dr. Brown early in 1833, 
interfered with his design. He wrote a 
pamphlet entitled 'Practical Observations 
on Malignant Cholera' (1832), being a gene- 
ral answer to the inquiries which he received 
as secretary of the board of health of his 
heavily stricken town. Shortly afterwards 
he published ' Proofs of the Contagion of Ma- 
lignant Cholera,' 1832. In the autumn of that 
year he attended the meeting of the British 
Association at Oxford, and visited Chelten- 
ham and London, where his friend Gait was 
then living. In 1843 appeared ' Domestic 
Verses,' a volume of elegies prompted by the 
deaths of three of his children and of a number 
of the 'Blackwood' circle. In the following 
year he contracted a serious illness by sitting 
all night in damp clothes by the bed of a 
patient, and in 1846 his health was further 
broken by a carriage accident. His remaining 
years were devoted to social functions and to 
intercourse with literary friends. He had al- 
ready edited Mrs. Hemans's works in seven 
volumes, and in 1848 prepared a single volume 
edition. In 1849 he made an excursion to 
the highlands with Christopher North. He 
was a member of several scientific societies, 
including the Medico-Chirurgical, Harveian, 
Antiquarian, and Highland Societies, and he 
was the author of the account of the ' An- 
tiquities of the Parish of Inveresk,' pub- 
lished in the ' Statistical Account of Scot- 
land' in 1845, and separately in 1860. In 
the spring of 1851 he delivered a course of 
six lectures at Edinburgh on ' The Poetical 
Literature of the past Half Century,' pub- 
lished in the same year. In ' Blackwood ' of 
July 1851 appeared his last literary effort, 
' The Lament of Selim.' On 22 June he re- 
ceived further injury when dismounting from 
his horse, and died at Dumfries on Sunday, 
6 July. He was buried at Inveresk. A 
statue by Ritchie was erected in 1854 on the 
bank of the Esk, within his native town, 

He married Catherine E. Bell of Leith on 
8 June 1828, and had eleven children; a son 
Robert was house-surgeon of the Royal In- 
firmary of Edinburgh in 1851, afterwards in 
St. Andrews. 

His literary works, other than those already 
noticed, are: 1. l School Recollections ' (pub- 
lished in 'Friendship's Offering' in 1829). 
2. 'Memoir of Alexander Balfour' (as Pre- 
face to Balfour's ' Weeds and Wild Flowers,' 
1830). 3. ' Memoir of Gait ' (in the ' Literary 

Life'), 1834. 4. ' Life of Macnish' (in ' The 
Modern Pythagorean '), 1837 and 1844. 
5. ' Memoirs of Rennie of Phantassie and Sir 
John Sinclair' (in the * Journal of Agricul- 
ture'), and a sketch of Admiral Sir David 
Milne [q. v.] A list of his contributions to 
' Blackwood,' nearly four hundred in number, 
will be found on p. 128 of the General Index 
to vols. i-1. ' The Poetical Works of David 
Macbeth Moir, A. Edited by Thomas Aird. 
With a Memoir of the Author,' appeared in 
2 vols. at Edinburgh in 1852. 

The eulogies of ' Delta ' by the ' Blackwood ' 
coterie will probably not be accepted by 
present-day critics. His verse will be com- 
mended for its study of nature and its pleas- 
ing rhythm. His humorous pieces, though 
sprightly, have, for the most part, a solely 
contemporary interest. His reputation now 
rests on his novel, ' Mansie Wauch,' written 
in the manner of Gait. 

[Memoir by Aird (see above) ; Blackwood's 
Magazine, pp. Ixx, 249, and passim ; Fraser's 
Magazine, viii. 290, and passim ; Noctes Am- 
brosianse. This biography has been kindly re- 
vised by Dr. Kobert Moir. St. Andrews, and Dr. 
Thomas Scott, Musselburgh.] G-. G. S. 

MOIR, GEORGE (1800-1870), advocate 
and author, son of George Moir, was born in 
1800 at Aberdeen, and educated there. Mi- 
grating to Edinburgh, he entered a lawyer's 
office, but devoted considerable time to lite- 
rary pursuits. In 1824, when engaged on an 
article on the ancient ballad poetry of Spain 
for the f Edinburgh Review,' a common friend 
suggested to Moir that he might seek informa- 
tion from Sir William Hamilton [q. v.] They 
met in the Advocates' Library, and this was 
the commencement of ' a warm and lifelong 
friendship' (VEITCH, Memoir of Sir W. Hamil- 
ton}. On 2 July 1825 Moir was admitted 
advocate. In 1827 he published a verse trans- 
lation of Schiller's ' Piccolomini ' and ' Wal- 
lenstein ; ' it was dedicated to Hamilton, who 
revised the proof-sheets, and it met with a 
favourable reception. This was followed in 
1828 by a translation of Schiller's 'Thirty 
Years' War,' with a short life of the author. 
Moir had been a whig, but now threw in his 
lot with the tories, and became a regular con- 
tributor to ' Blackwood's Magazine.' About 
the same time he made the acquaintance of 
Carlyle. ' Moir,' writes the latter from Edin- 
burgh on 3 Feb. 1833, ' has been here, in all 
senses a neat man, in none a strong one ; ' and 
again on 10 Feb., ' George Moir has got a 
house in Northumberland Street, a wife, too, 
and infants ; is become a conservative, settled 
everywhere into dilettante, not very happy, I 
think; dry, civil, and seems to feel un- 
heimlich in my company' (FnotrDE, First 



Forty Years of Carlyle's Life, ii. 330, 33d). 
From 1835 to 1840 lie was professor of 
rhetoric and belles lettres in the university 
of Edinburgh. He enjoyed a fair practice at 
the Scottish bar, and in 1855 was appointed 
sheriff of Ross and Cromarty, an office which 
in 1859 he exchanged for the shrievalty of 
Stirlingshire. In 1864 the Faculty of Advo- 
cates chose Moir as professor of Scots law in 
the university of Edinburgh, but owing to 
ill-health he resigned in less than a year. 
His shrievalty he gave up in 1868, and died 
rather suddenly at his house in Charlotte 
Square, Edinburgh, on 19 Oct. 1870. His 
death was ' an incalculable loss to the legal 
literature of Scotland.' 

Moir's works are: 1. 'Schiller's Piccolo- 
mini and Wallenstein,' translated, with a cri- 
tical preface, Edinburgh, 1827. 2. 'Schiller's 
Thirty Years' War,' translated, with bio- 
graphical notice, 2 vols. Edinburgh, 1828. 
3. 'The Appellate Jurisdiction of Scotch 
Appeals,' Edinburgh, 1851. 4. ( Magic and 
Witchcraft,' London, 1852. Copious extracts 
from his manuscript lectures were incor- 
porated by Guthrie in the fourteenth edition 
of Erskine's ' Principles of the Law of Scot- 
land,' 1870. Moir also contributed articles 
on poetry and modern romance to the ' En- 
cyclopaedia Britannica,' which, with Spald- 
ing's article on rhetoric, were published in a 
separate volume ; and wrote a ' Sonnet to 
Clara/ privately printed, and included in 
'Poetic Tracts,' 1795-1834, in the British 
Museum, vol. ii. 

[Works in Brit. Mus. ; Scotsman, 21 Oct. 
1870; Froude's First Forty Years of Carlyle's 
Life, ii. 330. 332 ; Veitch's Memoir of Sir W. 
Hamilton, bart., 1869, passim; Edinburgh Univ. 
Cal. ; Annals of our Time ; Allibone's Diet, of 
English and American Lit. vol. ii. and Suppl. 
vol. ii. ; information kindly supplied by the 
keeper of the Advocates' Library.] A. F. P. 

FRANCIS RAWDON-, second EARL, 1754-1826.] 

MOISES, HUGH (1722-1806), school- 
master, son of Edward Moises, M.A., vicar 
of Wymeswold, Leicestershire, was born at 
that place on 9 April 1722, and was edu- 
cated first at Wrexham School, Denbigh- 
shire, and afterwards at the grammar-school 
of Chesterfield, Derbyshire, under the Rev. 
Dr. Burroughs. In 1741 he removed to 
Trinity College, Cambridge, of which society 
his elder brother, Edward Moises, afterwards 
vicar of Masham, Yorkshire, was a fellow. 
He graduated B.A. in 1745, with a good re- 
putation as a classical scholar, and was soon 
afterwards elected a fellow of Peterhouse. 
In the same year he became an assistant in 

the school of his old master at Chesterfield, 
where he continued till 1749. In that year 
he proceeded M.A., and was, on the recom- 
mendation of Bishop Keene, appointed head- 
master of the grammar-school at Newcastle- 
upon-Tyne in succession to Richard Dawes 
[q. v.] The school at the time had scarcely 
any scholars, but Moises soon raised it to a 
high state of efficiency, ' not only,' as Brand 
observes, ' by his great learning and abilities, 
but by the sweetest manners and most uni- 
form conduct' (Hist, of Newcastle, i. 390). 
His dignified demeanour during school-hours 
is said to have inspired his pupils with ' re- 
verence and awe,' but unlike Busby, with 
whom his biographer compares him, he 
' tempered necessary severity with affability 
and kindness.' Early in the year after his 
appointment the corporation of Newcastle 
raised his salary from 50/. to 120/. a year, and 
on 21 April 1761 they appointed him to the 
morning-lectureship of All Saints' in con- 
sideration, of the continued success of the 
school. He was, on 14 June 1779, appointed 
master of St. Mary's Hospital, Newcastle. 
He lived to see many of his scholars occu- 
pying positions of high dignity and import- 
ance. The most distinguished of them were 
John Scott, afterwards Earl of Eldon and 
lord-chancellor ; his brother, William Scott, 
afterwards Lord Stowell ; and Cuthbert 
Collingwood, afterwards Lord Collingwood, 
the admiral. 

In 1787 Moises was presented to the rec- 
tory of Greystoke, Cumberland, and resigned 
the mastership of the school, after holding it 
for nearly forty years, being succeeded by 
his nephew, the Rev. Edward Moises, M.A., 
vicar of Hart and Hartlepool from 1811. 
After residing at Greystoke for some years he 
resigned the rectory at the patron's request, 
and he spent the latter years of his life in 
Newcastle. In 1801 he was appointed one 
of the chaplains to his old pupil, Lord Eldon, 
who had just been raised to the woolsack, 
He died at his house in Northumberland 
Street, Newcastle, on 5 July 1806. In 1810 
a fine mural monument, executed by Flax- 
man, with an elegant Latin inscription com- 
posed by Sir William Scott, afterwards Lord 
Stowell, was erected to his memory in St. 
Mary's porch, St. Nicholas's Church. The 
expenses, amounting to about 400/., were 
defrayed by a subscription among his pupils, 
whose names are printed in Nichols's ( Il- 
lustrations of Literature ' (v. 120). 

[Memoirs by the Kev. John Brewster (pri- 
vately printed), Newcastle, 1823, 8vo, reprinted 
in Nichols's Illustr. of Lit. v. 94-129 ; Camp- 
bell's Lives of the Chancellors, 1847, vii. 7-10, 
15, 19, 66 ; Gent. Mag. July 1806, p. 684; Gra- 




duati Cantabr. ; Martin's Privately Printed 
Books, 2nd edit. p. 310 ; Kichardson's Table 
Book iii. 55 ; Twiss's Life of Lord Eldon, i. 31.] 

T. C. 

MOIVRE, ABRAHAM DE (1667-1754), 
mathematician, was the son of a surgeon at 
Vitry in Champagne, where he was born on 
26 May 1667. His education was begun by 
the Christian Brothers, but he was sent at 
the age of eleven to the protestant univer- 
sity of Sedan, and was there during four 
years trained by Du Rondel in Greek. A 
year's study of logic at Saumur followed ; 
then, after a course of physics in 1684 at the 
College d'Harcourt in Paris, and a trip to 
Burgundy, he devoted himself to mathe- 
matics under Ozanam in Paris, where his 
parents were then settled. The revocation 
of the edict of Nantes in 1685, however, led 
to his temporary seclusion in the priory of 
St. Martin, and on his release, 27 April 1688, 
he repaired to London. A call at the Earl 
of Devonshire's, with a recommendatory 
letter, chanced to introduce him to Newton's 
* Principia.' He procured the book, divided 
it into separate leaves for convenience of 
transport in his pocket, and eagerly studied 
it on the peregrinations intervening between 
the lessons and lectures by which he earned 
a subsistence. In 1692 he became known to 
Halley, and shortly afterwards to Newton 
and Nicolas Faccio [q. v.] His first communi- 
cation to the Royal Society was in March 
1695, on some points connected with the 
1 Method of Fluxions ' (Phil. Trans, xix. 52), 
and he was elected a fellow in 1697. His 
1 Animadversiones in D. Georgii Cheyneei 
Tractatum de Fluxionum Methodo inversa/ 
published in 1704, procured him the notice of 
Bernoulli. The rejoinder of George Cheyne 

tq. v.] was purely personal, and De Moivre 
eft it unnoticed. 

De Moivre's essay, 'De Mensura Sortis,' 
presented to the Royal Society in 1711 (ib. 
xxvii. 213), originated in a suggestion by 
Francis Robartes, later earl of Radnor, that 
he should deal on broader principles with 
the problems treated by Montmort in his 
*Essai d' Analyse sur les Jeux de Hasard,' 
Paris, 1708. The resulting controversy with 
this author terminated amicably. De Moivre 
pursued the investigation in his ' Doctrine 
of Chances,' published in 1718, in the preface 
to which he indicated the nature of * recur- 
ring series.' He introduced besides the prin- 
ciple that the probability of a compound 
event is the product of the probabilities of 
the simple events composing it, and the 
whole subject, Todhunter remarks, ' owes 
more to him than to any other mathemati- 
cian, with the single exception of Laplace ' 

(History of the Theory of Probability, p. 193). 
The first edition of the work was dedicated 
to Sir Isaac Newton ; subsequent enlarged 
editions, dedicated to Lord Carpenter [see 
peared in 1738 and 1756. 

De Moivre came next to Halley as a foun- 
der of a science of life-contingencies. His 
' Annuities upon Lives,' first published in 
1725, with a dedication to the Earl of 
Macclesfield [see PARKER, THOMAS, EARL OF 
MACCLESFIELD], was reissued, corrected and 
improved, in 1743, 1750, 1752, and 1756, 
and in an Italian version by Fontana, at 
Milan, in 1776. The merit and usefulness 
of his celebrated hypothesis, that ' the decre- 
ments of life are in arithmetical progression,' 
were maintained by Francis Baily [q. v.] in 
chap. ix. of his ' Doctrine of Life- Annuities,' 
1813, against the strictures of Price and De 
Morgan. The appearance of Simpson's ' Doc- 
trine of Annuities 'in 1742 gave occasion to a 
groundless imputation of plagiarism made by 
De Moivre in the second edition of his work ; 
it was, however, successfully refuted, and 
silently omitted from subsequent editions. 
De Moivre's most important work, ' Mis- 
cellanea Analytica,' London, 1730, was his 
last. He demonstrated in it his method of 
recurring series, created 'imaginary tri- 
gonometry,' through the invention of the 
theorem known by his name, and generalised 
Cotes's l Theorem on the Property of the 
Circle' (p. 17). Naude's presentation of 
the book to the Berlin Academy of Sciences 
procured the election by acclamation of 
its author as a member of that body on 
23 Aug. 1735. 

Leibnitz, who made De Moivre's acquain- 
tance in London, vainly endeavoured to 
secure for him a professorial position in 
Germany ; and his foreign origin similarly 
barred the way to his promotion in England. 
So he continued all his life to support him- 
self by teaching, and answering questions on 
the chances of play and the values of an- 
nuities. Bernoulli wrote of him to Leibnitz 
in 1710 as struggling with want and misery; 
yet he was one of the commissioners ap- 
pointed by the Royal Society in 1712 to 
arbitrate on the claims of Newton and 
Leibnitz to the invention of the infinitesimal 
calculus. He was the intimate friend of 
Newton, who used to fetch him each even- 
ing, for philosophical discourse at his own 
house, from the coffee-house in St. Martin's 
Lane (probably Slaughter's), where he spent 
most of his time (BREWSTER, Life of Newton, 
i. 248) ; and Newton's favourite method in 
his old age of dealing with questioners 
about the * Principia ' was to refer them to 




De Moivre. The Latin translation of New- 
ton's ' Optics ' was carefully revised by him 
in 1706. 

De Moivre was described by Jordan in 
1733 as ' un homme d'esprit, et d'un com- 
merce tres agreable' (Voyage Litteraire, 
p. 147). He was unmarried, and spent his 
closing years in peaceful study. Literature, 
ancient and modern, furnished his recrea- 
tion ; he once said that he would rather 
have been Moliere than Newton; and he 
knew his works and those of Rabelais 
almost by heart. He continued all his life 
a steadfast Christian. After sight and hear- 
ing had successively failed, he was still capa- 
ble of rapturous delight at his election as a 
foreign associate of the Paris Academy of 
Sciences, on 27 June 1754. He died at last 
by somnolence. Twenty hours' sleep daily 
became habitual with him ; and he ceased to 
wake on 27 Nov. 1754, at the age of eighty- 
seven. His portrait, painted by Joseph 
Highmore [q. v.] in 1736, is in the possession 
of the Royal Society, and was engraved by 
Faber. Dassier executed a medal of him 
1741. His numerous contributions to 



the ' Philosophical Transactions,' 
than his other writings, show great ana- 
lytical power, skill, and inventiveness. 

[Haag's La France Protestante, 1860 ; Grand- 
Jean de Fouchy's Eloge, Me" moires de 1'Acad. des 
Sciences, Paris, 1754, Histoire, p. 175 ; Maty's 
Memoire sur la Vie de M. de Moivre, La Haye, 
1760 ; Phil. Trans. Abridged, iv. 14 ; Gent. Mag. 
1754, p. 530; Montucla's Hist, des Mathe- 
matiques, iii. 155 ; Marie's Hist, des Sciences, 
vii. 199 ; Hoefer's Hist, des Mathematiques, 
p. 519; Button's Mathematical Diet. 1815; 
Weld's Descriptive Cat. of Portraits in the 
possession of the Koy. Soc. p. 49 ; Bromley's 
Cat. of Engraved Portraits, p. 292; Suter's 
Geschichte der math. Wissenschaften, ii. 350 ; 
Poggendorff'sBiog.-Lit. Handworterbuch ; Watt's 
Bibl. Brit.] A. M. C. 

MOLAGA or MOLACA (fl. 650), Irish 
saint, of Leaba Molaga and Tigh Molaga, now 
Timoleage, co. Cork, was son of Duibligid, of 
the family of Ui Coscraidh, descendants of 
the Druid Mogh Ruith, who was of the race 
of Fergus MacRoigh, king of Ulster. The 
family occupied a territory in the present 
barony of Fermoy, their chief town being 
Liathmuine, now Cloghleafin, in the parish 
of Kilgullane. One day, while Duibligid 
was sowing flax-seed near Carncuille, now 
Aghacross, he is said to have been visited by 
SS. Cuimin fada and his brother Comdan on 
their way southward accompanied by a cleri- 
cal party. On learning that he was still 
labouring, notwithstanding his advanced age, 
because he had no son, St. Cuimin foretold he 

should have one who should illuminate both 
bhe Scotias (Ireland and Scotland) with his 
holiness. Seven months later the child was 
born, and was baptised by St. Cuimin. Ar- 
rived at a suitable age, he studied the scrip- 
bures in his native place, and eventually 
built a monastery hard by at Tulach min, 
now Leaba Molaga. He subsequently had 
to leave it, and made his way to Connor 
in Ulster, from which, passing westward, 
tie crossed the Bann at the ford of Camus, 
but having forgotten his bell it was, ac- 
cording to legend, divinely restored to him, 
and the place was thenceforth known as 
Termon an cluig, 'the sanctuary of the 
bell,' now Kilfoda or Senchill. Thence he 
proceeded to Scotland and on to Wales, 
where he and St. David formed a mutual 
Friendship. There he was known as Lachin, 
the usual prefix mo being omitted, and the 
diminutive in added. When leaving, St. 
David gave him a bell, which was known as 
the Boban Molaga. Warned by an angel to 
return to Ireland, he crossed over to the city 
called Dun Duiblinne, the fortress of Dublin, 
otherwise named Ath-diath, or the ford of 
hurdles. At this time the king of Dublin 
was suffering from profuse perspirations, and 
Molaga, having been called in, is said to have 
cured him by transferring the perspiration to 
his bell. The grateful king bestowed on him a 
town in Fingal with a perpetual rent. There 
he erected a church and established a swarm 
of bees, which he obtained from St. Damon- 
goc or Domnog of Tiprat Fachtna in Ossory, 
a pilgrim, who brought them from Wales 
(cf. Calendar of Oengus). The ruins of the 
monastery or church founded by him, and 
which was known as Lann-beachair (the 
Beeman's church), may still be seen to the 
north of Balbriggan, co. Dublin. It is now 
known as Lambechair. Returning thence to 
Tulach min at the request of the people, he 
was appointed confessor to the king, and it 
was determined that his church should be 
constituted a termon or sanctuary. The four 
pillars which marked the boundaries of the 
sanctuary still remain. Some time afterwards 
Flann king of the Hy Fidgeinte, in the pre- 
sent baronies of Upper and Lower Connello, 
co. Limerick, came with a crowd of followers 
to visit Molaga's king, Cai gan mathair, and 
behaved so turbulently that Molaga, accord- 
ing to his biographers, summoned wild beasts 
from the forest, and produced an earthquake, 
in order to terrify the king, and thus induce 
him to protect the monastery. The king is 
said to have prostrated himself before the 
saint, who placed his foot on his neck seven 
times, and, moved by his penitence, declared 
that seven kings should spring from him. 




At this time the pestilence called the Buidhe 
Chojinail, or yellow plague, was raging! at 
Corcabascin, co. Clare, and Molaga success- 
fully exerted himself to arrest its spread. 
He died on 20 Jan., but nothing is known of 
the year beyond the fact that he survived 
the great plague of 664. At Leaba Molaga 
in the barony of Condons and Clongibbons 
are to be seen the ruins of his oratory, with 
the cashel or enclosing wall and two crosses. 
To the south, at a distance of eighty yards, 
are the four pillar stones enclosing the ter- 
mon or sanctuary. A square tomb beneath 
the south wall is supposed to be the grave 
of the saint. 

[Vita Molaggae su Molaci Confessoris ex Hi- 
bernico versa ; Colgan's Acta Sanct. pp. 145 sq. ; 
Calendar of Oengus, p. xlii ; Griraldus Cam- 
brensis's Topographia, cap. v. (Rolls Ser.) ; Die 
Irisehe Kanonensammlung, von H. Wasser- 
schleben, zweite Auflage, p. 175 ; Lord Dun- 
raven's Notes on Irish Architecture, pp. 61, &c. ; 
Lanigan's Eccl. Hist. iii. 83; D. J. O'Donovan's 
Martyrology of Donegal, 20 Jan.] T. 0. 

MOLAISSI (533-563), Irish saint, son of 
Nadfraech and Monua, was a descendant of 
Conall Cernach, and was born in 533. He 
founded a church on an island in Loch Erne 
known in Irish as Daimhinis, or Stag Island, 
and at the present day as Devinish. A round 
tower and a church, both of much later date 
than the saint, with some ancient tombs, are 
to be seen on the island. He lived there with 
a community of monks, subject to a rule 
instituted by him. It was not wanting in 
austerity, for throughout Lent it allowed only 
one handful of barley grain each twenty-four 
hours. He lived through the Buidhe Chon- 
nail, or plague of the reign of Diarmait and 
Blathmac, in which both kings and St. Fechin 
of Fore [q. v.] perished. He is described as 
going about in a hood of badgers' skins, long 
afterwards preserved as a relic, and called 
the brocainech. Another was a little evange- 
listarium called the soiscela beg, which he 
used to carry about with him. He made a 
pilgrimage to Rome. The rest of his life pre- 
sents a long series of miracles and of aus- 
terities. He died on 12 Sept. 563. Michael 
O'Clery mentions an ancient Irish life (Felire 
na Naomh Nerennach, p. 245), and quotes a 
poem on him by Cuimin of Coindeire, be- 
ginning ' Carais Molaisi an locha-Molaissi of 
the lake loves.' S. H. O'Grady has printed 
and translated another Irish life of him from 
a copy in a sixteenth-century Irish manu- 
script now in the British Museum (Addit. 
MS. 18205). He is sometimes called Laisren 
or Lasrianus, and his name is also spelt Mo- 
laise. A fragment of his ancient office has 
been preserved by Michael O'Clery. He is 

described as tall, and had three sisters : 
Muadhnat, Tallulla, abbess of Kildare, and 

He is to be distinguished from Molaissi 
of Leighlin, whose feast was 18 April; from 
Molaissi of Inis Muiredhaigh, who is vene- 
rated on Inishmurray to this day, and whose 
day is 12 Aug. ; and from Molaissi of Cill- 
Molaissi, in South Munster. 

[T. O'Donovan's Martyrology of Donegal, Dub- 
lin, 1864; S. H. O'G-rady's Silva Gadelica, 1892; 
W.Stokes's Calendar of Oengus, 1871.] N. M. 

MOLE, JOHN (1743-1827), mathema- 
tician, the son of an agricultural labourer, 
was born at Old Newton, near Stowmarket, 
Suffolk, 10 March 1743 (O.S.) His mother, 
whose maiden name was Sarah Martin, taught 
him to read, but he received no school edu- 
cation. He obtained employment as a farmer's 
servant, and at the age of twenty-seven dis- 
played extraordinary powers of mental cal- 
culation, and subsequently acquired, without 
tuition, an intimate knowledge of algebra. 
In 1773 he opened a school at Nacton, near 
Ipswich. His ' Elements of Algebra, to which 
is prefixed a choice collection of Arithmetical 
Questions, with their Solutions, including 
some New Improvements worthy the atten- 
tion of Mathematicians,' London, 1788, 8vo, 
was highly commended by the reviews. In 
April 1788 the author paid a visit to London, 
and was introduced to Dr. Tomline [q. v.], 
bishop of Lincoln, and Lord Walpole. He 
was an occasional contributor of pieces in 
prose and verse to the ' Ipswich Magazine ' 
(1799-1800). In 1793 he relinquished his 
school at Nacton, and removed to Witnesham, 
a village on the other side of Ipswich, where 
he again commenced the drudgery of tuition. 
While there he published ' A Treatise on 
Algebra,' Ipswich, 1809, 8vo. In 181 1 he re- 
turned to Nacton, where he died on 20 Sept. 
1827. He was twice married, but left no 

[Addit. MSS. 19167 f. 162, 19170 f. 145; De 
Morgan's Arithmetical Books, p. 1 1 7 ; Gent. Mag. 
1788 p. 410, February 1828 p. 185; Nichols's 
Illustr. of Lit. vi. 887-91.] T. C. 

MOLE, JOHN HENRY (1814-1886), 
water-colour painter, was born at Alnwick, 
Northumberland, in 1814. His early years 
were passed in a solicitor's office in New- 
castle-on-Tyne, but his leisure time was de- 
voted to art, and at the age of twenty-one he 
began his professional career by painting 
miniatures. He first exhibited in London at 
the Royal Academy, where he had four 
miniatures in 1845 and six in 1846. He also 
painted landscapes and figure subjects in 
water-colours, and this led to his election in 




1847 as an associate, and in 1848 as a full 
member, of the New Society of Painters in 
Water-Colours. He then gave up miniature 
painting, and about the same time removed 
to London ; thenceforward he contributed 
regularly to the annual exhibitions of the 
New Society, afterwards the Royal Institute, 
of Painters in Water-Colo urs, of which he be- 
came vice-president in 1884. He occasionally 
painted in oil-colours, and sent a picture, en- 
titled ' Carrying Peat/ to the Royal Academy 
in 1879. His water-colour drawings met 
with considerable success, and three of them, 
* Tynemouth,' ' Coast of Devon, Gleaners Re- 
turning,' and 'Hellersdon Wood, Devonshire/ 
are in the South Kensington Museum. 

Mole died at 7 Guilford Place, Russell 
Square, London, on 13 Dec. 1886, aged 72, 
and was buried in Brompton cemetery. 

[Athenaeum, 1886, ii. 833 ; Catalogue of the 
National Gallery of British Art at South Ken- 
sington, 1893 ; Koyal Academy Exhibition Cata- 
logues, 1845-79; Exhibition Catalogues of the 
New Society (afterwards Royal Institute) of 
Painters in Water-Colours, 1847-87.] 

R. E. G. 

NASSAU (1790-1877), vicar of Rochdale, 
only son of John Molesworth, by his wife 
Prances, daughter of Matthew Hill, esq., 
and great-grandson of Robert, first viscount 
Molesworth [q. v.], was born in London on 
4 Feb. 1790, and educated under Dr. Alex- 
ander Crombie [q. v.] of Greenwich. Passing 
to Trinity College, Oxford, he graduated B. A. 
in 1812, M.A. in 1817, B.D. and D.D. in 
1838. For sixteen years he was curate of Mill- 
brook, Hampshire, and while there wrote, at 
the instigation of Dr. Rennell, dean of Win- 
chester, a reply to Davison's i Inquiry into the 
Origin and Intent of Primitive Sacrifice' 
(1826), awork which procured him thefriend- 
ship of Dr. Howley, then bishop of London, 
afterwards archbishop of Canterbury [q. v.] 
Howley presented him in succession to the 
livings of Wirksworth, Derbyshire (1828), and 
St. Martin's, Canterbury (1829) ; appointed 
him one of the * six preachers ' at Canterbury ; 
recommended him unsuccessfully for the 
vicarage of Leeds when Hook was elected, 
and in 1839 presented him to the vicarage of 
Minster-in-Thanet, and a few months later 
(3 March 1840) to Rochdale. The last pre- 
ferment he held for thirty-eight years. At 
Canterbury, during the stormy period of the 
Reform Bill, his talents, which were allied 
with a combative temperament, found abun- 
dant occupation, and both by voice and pen 
he became recognised as the leader of the 
church party in the diocese. But he was no 
less a zealous parish priest, and to him is due 

the first venture in cheap church periodical 
literature. The 'Penny Sunday Reader' 
which he edited and very largely wrote for 
five years, is said to have enjoyed an extra- 
ordinary popularity among the working men 
of many large towns. At Rochdale Moles- 
worth had an ample field for all his activities. 
He succeeded an Erastian and absentee vicar, 
and found church life and work in the town 
at the last gasp. Dissenters at this time were 
agitating for abolition of church rates, and 
in Rochdale they had a doughty leader in 
the quaker John Bright, who fleshed his 
virgin sword in this controversy. Each party 
started a magazine, in which their case was de- 
fended and their opponents ridiculed. Moles- 
worth fought in behalf of the rates, with a 
vigour and determination which, according 
to Bright (Speeches, ii. 517), was not ' sur- 
passed in any other parish in the kingdom/ 
but his cause was a lost one, and defeat for 
his party inevitable. 

The vicar was able to augment largely the 
value of the living by calling to account the 
leaseholders of its property, who had neg- 
lected to build upon the land according to 
their covenant ; and with the increased means 
at his disposal he promoted church building, 
giving 1,000/. to each new church for which 
the parishioners raised an equal sum. Four 
churches so endowed were added to the ori- 
ginal fourteen. He also rebuilt the grammar 
school founded by Archbishop Parker, and 
built parish schools, which were long cele- 
brated for their efficiency. The value of the 
living, which was 1,800/. when Molesworth 
went to Rochdale, was meanwhile rapidly 
increasing with the spread of factories over 
the vicarage estate and the erection upon it 
of the railway station and canal terminus. 
In 1866, when his income had reached 5,000/., 
Molesworth, following twenty years later 
Hook's example at Leeds, promoted the Roch- 
dale Vicarage Act. by which the thirteen 
chapels of ease were converted into parish 
churches, and their endowments raised, some 
to 200/., some to 300/., and one to 600/. By 
this act his own income was limited to 4,000/., 
while his successor was to receive 1,500/. 

With very many persons and societies in 
his parish did the vicar continue to wage 
war with published letters and tracts. An 
unfortunate difference between him and his 
bishop, James Prince Lee [q. v.], was the sub- 
ject of many pamphlets. Molesworth had 
protested against Lee's appointment in 1847, 
on the ground that a charge of drunkenness 
had been brought against him and remained 
unrebutted. But after a libel action had 
proved the falsity of the accusation, Moles- 
worth and the bishop maintained for some 




two years very friendly relations. A dispute, 
however, subsequently arose over a church- 
building question, and the bishop was deter- 
minedly hostile to the vicar during the last 
twenty years of his episcopate. 

The closing years of Molesworth's life were 
spent in comparative peace. He died on 
21 April 1877, and was buried at St. Martin's, 
Castleton Moor, Lancashire. He was twice 
married, first, in 1825, to Harriet, daughter 
of W. Mackinnon, esq., of Newton Park, by 
whom he had six sons and three daughters, 
among whom were William Nassau Moles- 
worth [q. v.], the historian, and Sir Guilford 
Molesworth, K.C.I.E., the distinguished en- 
gineer ; secondly, in 1854, to Harriett Eliza- 
beth, daughter of the Rev. Sir Robert Affleck, 
bart., and widow of J. T. Bridges, esq., of St. 
Nicholas Court, Thanet, and Walmer. 

Molesworth was a high churchman before 
tractarianism, and, like W. F. Hook, whom 
in many points of character and circumstance 
he resembled, found himself sometimes in 
agreement, sometimes in disagreement, with 
the leaders of the Oxford movement. He was 
a friend of Hugh James Rose [q. v.], and 
contributed to the * British Magazine ' and 
' Encyclopaedia Metropolitana,' of which Rose 
was editor. The courage and zeal with which 
he advocated unpopular opinions could not 
fail to arouse opposition and resentment, but 
his good temper and generosity disarmed 
many an adversary, and it was characteristic 
of him that he never allowed public quarrels 
to be carried into private life. Besides his 
sermons and pamphlets he published ' The 
Rick-burners,' a tale which enjoyed a large 
circulation at the time of the chartist riots. 
There is an engraved portrait by H. Cook. 

[The Vicars of Rochdale, by the Eev. Canon 
Raines (Chetham Soc.) ; Foster's Peerage ; pri- 
vate information.] H. C. B. 

1715), poetess. [See MONCK.] 

VISCOUNT MOLESWOKTH (1680-1758), field- 
marshal, born in 1680, was second son of 
Robert, first viscount Molesworth [q. v.] He 
was destined for the law and was entered at 
the Temple, but abandoning his studies set off 
with a servant to join the army in Holland, 
where he presented himself to his father's 
intimate friend Lord George Hamilton, earl 
of Orkney [q. v.] He served at first as a 
volunteer and was afterwards appointed cap- 
tain in Orkney's regiment, the Scots Royal 
(1st foot), with which he was present at Blen- 
heim (* Blenheim Roll ' in Treasury Papers, 
vol. xciii.) He was one of Marlborough's 

aides-de-camp, and saved the duke's life at the 
battle of Ramillies, 23 May 1706. Different 
versions of the incident have been given, but 
the most authentic appears to be that Marl- 
borough, seeing the allied left, on the open 
ground to the left of the village of Ramillies, 
was sore pressed, had ordered reinforcements 
to proceed thither from the right, and was 
himself personally leading up some squa- 
drons of horse of the left wing which he had 
rallied with great difficulty, when he was 
unhorsed and ridden over by a body of 
Dutch cavalry retiring in disorder. His 
horse galloped away among the Dutch, and 
his aide-de-camp, Molesworth, seeing his chief 
in immediate danger of capture from the pur- 
suing squadrons of French, put him on his 
own horse and persuaded him to ride away. 
In the ardour of the pursuit Molesworth 
was overlooked, and the French were pre- 
sently brought up by the steady fire of Al- 
bemarle's Dutch-Swiss, under Colonel Con- 
stant. Molesworth recovered Marlborough's 
horse from a soldier, and found his chief in 
the village of Ramillies, issuing orders. 
Marlborough essayed to shift back to his 
own horse, when he was stunned by a round- 
shot, which took off the head of his prin- 
cipal aide-de-camp, Colonel Bringfield of 
Lumley's horse, who was holding his stirrup. 
The affair was carefully hushed up at the 

Molesworth was appointed a captain and 
lieutenant-colonel in the Coldstream guards 
the year after, served in Flanders, and was 
blown up by a mine at the siege of Mons, 
but without receiving much injury. In 
1710 he was appointed colonel of a regiment 
of foot, in succession to Colonel Moore, and 
went with it to Spain the year after. The 
regiment was disbanded at the peace of 
Utrecht. Molesworth was made lieutenant 
of the ordnance in Ireland, 11 Dec. 1714, 
and was returned as M.P. for Swords, co. 
Dublin. During the Jacobite rising of 1715 
he raised a regiment of dragoons, with which 
he served, under General Carpenter, against 
the rebels in Lancashire. The regiment was 
disbanded, and on 19 March 1724 Moles- 
worth was appointed colonel of the 27th 
Inniskilling foot. On 5 Oct. 1731 he suc- 
ceeded to the title on the death of his elder 
brother, John, second viscount, ambassador 
in Tuscany and Sardinia [see under MOLES- 
WORTH, ROBERT, first VISCOUNT]. On 31 May 
1732 Molesworth succeeded General Crofts 
as colonel of the 9th dragoons (now lancers) ; 
on 26 Oct. 1733 was sworn of the Irish 
privy council; on 18 Dec. 1735 became a 
major-general; on 19 Dec. 1736 he was 
sworn one of the lords justices of Ireland 




succeeded General Wynne as colonel of the 
5th royal Irish dragoons, 27 June 1737 ; be- 
came a lieutenant-general in Ireland in 1739, 
and master-general of the ordnance in Ire- 
land in 1740; a lieutenant-general on the 
English establishment, 1 July 1742 ; a gene- 
ral of horse, 24 March 1746 ; commander-in- 
chief in Ireland in September 1751, and a | 
field-marshal in 1757. He was governor of | 
Kilmainham, and was admitted a member of 
the Royal Society 15 March 1721 (THOMPSON, 
App. iv. p. xxxv. j He died 12 Oct. 1758, aged 
78. A portrait of Molesworth was painted 
by Lee and engraved by Brooks. 

Molesworth married, first, Jane, daughter 
of Mr. Lucas of Dublin (she died 1 April j 
1742, having had a son, who died an infant, j 
and three daughters, and was buried at 
Swords) ; secondly, Mary, daughter of the 
Rev. William Usher, archdeacon of Clon- 
fert, by whom he had one son, Richard Nas- 
sau, fourth viscount, and seven daughters. 
At his death, Molesworth's widow received i 
a pension of 500/. a year, and seven of his ' 
unmarried daughters pensions of 70/. a year 
each. The second Lady Molesworth met 
with a tragic fate. She, her brother, Cap- 
tain Usher (royal navy), two of her daugh- 
ters, their governess, and four servants were 
burned in their beds by a fire originating in 
the nursery of her house in Upper Brook 
Street, Grosvenor Square, London, early in 
the morning of 7 May 1763. Captain Usher's 
servant, who had in the first instance escaped, 
gallantly went back to save his master, and 
perished. George III directed 200 1. a year 
to be added to the family pension in con- 
sideration of their misfortune (Gent. Mag. 
1763, p. 255). 

[Lodge's Peerage of Ireland, vol. iii.; Burke's 
Peerage, under 'Molesworth;' 'Succession of 
Colonels,' in Cannon's Hist. Rec. 9th Lancers.] 

H. M. C. 

"M COUNT MOLESWOETH (1656-1725), was the 
eldest son of Robert Molesworth (d. 3 Sept. 
1656), who fought on the parliament side in 
/ i&f >'/ * ne civil war, and at its conclusion obtained 
as an undertaker 2,500 acres of land in the j 
^ county of Meath ; he afterwards became a ! 
merchant in Dublin, accumulated great 
wealth, and was high in Cromwell's favour j 
(cf. GILBEET, History of Dublin, i. 58-9). | 
The Molesworth family, of Northamptonshire 
origin, was very ancient. An ancestor, Sir 
Walter de Molesworth, attended Edward I 
to the Holy Land and was appointed sheriff 
of Bedfordshire and Buckinghamshire for a 
period of ten years in 1304. One of Sir 
Walter's descendants, Anthony Molesworth, 
nearly ruined himself by his profuse hospi- 

tality to Queen Elizabeth at Fotheringay. 
The younger of this Anthony's sons, Na- 
thaniel, accompanied Sir Walter Raleigh in 
his voyage to Guiana ; the elder, William, 
who was the first viscount's grandfather, took 
part in Buckingham's expedition to R6, and 
died about 1640, leaving issue a daughter, 
Elizabeth (1606-1661), who was married to 
Gervase Holies [q.v.], and three sons, of whom 
the youngest was the father of the subject of 
this memoir. His mother was Judith, daugh- 
ter and coheiress of John Bysse, by Margaret, 
daughter of Sir Gerard Lowther. 

Born in Fishamble Street, Dublin, on 
7 Sept. 1656, four days after his father's death, 
Robert was educated at home and at Dublin 
University, where he ' had a high character 
for abilities and learning,' and is stated by 
Taylor ( Univ. of Dublin, p. 385) to have gra- 
duated with distinction, though his name does 
not appear in the list of Dublin graduates. In 
the struggle that attended the revolution of 
1688 in Ireland, he became prominent in sup- 
port of the Prince of Orange ; he was conse- 
quently attainted and his estate, valued at 
2,285/. per annum, sequestered by James's 
parliament on 7 May 1689. After the Boyne 
he was restored to his possessions and sum- 
moned to William's privy council. He ap- 
pears to have been sent on a private mission 
to Denmark during 1689-90 and in *69he 
was despatched as envoy extraordinary to 
that country. He managed, however, to give 
serious offence to the court of Copenhagen, 
and left the country abruptly and without 
the usual formality of an audience of leave in 
169& The only account of the circumstance 
is that published by Molesworth's adversary, 
Dr. William King (1663-1712) [q. v.], who 
stated, on the authority of Scheel, the Danish 
envoy, that Molesworth had most unwarrant- 
ably outraged the Danish sense of propriety 
by poaching in the king's private preserves 
and forcing the passage of a road exclusively 
reserved for the royal chariot. The charges are 
probably not devoid of truth, for Molesworth 
was an ardent admirer of Algernon Sidney, 
but the gravity of the offences may have 
been exaggerated by Dr. King. The aggrieved 
envoy withdrew to Flanders, where his re- 
sentment took shape in ' An Account of 
Denmark as it was in the year 1692 ' (Lon- 
don, 1694). There the Danish government 
was represented as arbitrary and tyrannical 
and held up as an object lesson to men of 
enlightenment. The book, which was half 
a political pamphlet in support of revolution 
principles, and was also strongly anti-clerical 
in tone, at once obtained popularity and dis- 
tinction. It was highly approved by Shaftes- 
bury and by Locke, to whom it introduced 




the author ; as late as 1758 it was described 
by Lord Orford in his preface to Whitworth's 
' Account of Russia' (p. iv), as t one of our 
standard books.' The strictures on the 
Danish authorities incensed the Princess 
Anne, the wife of Prince George of Den- 
mark, and interest was made with "William 
to procure the punishment of the author. 
Scheel also protested on behalf of the Danish 
government, but in vain. Vindications ap- 
peared. One by Dr. King, already alluded 
to, entitled ' Animadversions on the Pre- 
tended Account of Denmark,' was inspired 
by Scheel. Two more, one entitled l The 
Commonwealth's man unmasqu'd, or a just 
rebuke to the author of the Account of Den- 
mark/ were issued before the close of 1694, 
and a * Deffense du Danemark,' at Cologne 
two years later. 

Early in 1695 Molesworth returned to Ire- 
land, and during the four following years 
sat in the Irish parliament as member for 
Dublin. He was made a privy councillor 
for Ireland in August 1697, and shortly 
afterwards prepared a bill ' for the encourage- 
ment of protestant strangers ' in Ireland. He 
sat for Swords in the Irish parliament (1703- 
1705) and for Lostwithiel and East Retford 
in the English House of Commons (1705- 
1708). He continued a member of the Irish 
privy council until January 1712-13, when 
he was removed upon a complaint against 
him, presented on 2 Dec. by the prolocutor 
of convocation to the House of Lords, charg- 
ing him with the utterance, ' They that have 
turned the world upside down are come 
hither also.' Steele vindicated him in his 
1 Englishman,' and a few weeks later in ' The 
Crisis ; ' Molesworth was nevertheless let off 
easily in ' The Public Spirit of the Whigs,' 
Swift's tory rejoinder. The political con- 
iuncture occasioned the reprinting of Moles- 
worth's ' Preface ' to a translation of Francis 
Hotoman's ' Franco- Gallia, or an Account of 
the Ancient Free State of France and most 
other parts of Europe before the loss of their 
liberties,' which he had executed in 1711 
(London, 8vo), ' with historical and political 
remarks, to which is added a true state of 
his case with respect to the Irish Convoca- 
tion ' (London [1713] ; 2nd edit. 1721 ; and 
the work was reprinted for the London 
association in 1775, under the title * The 
Principles of a Real Whig '). 

On the accession of George I Molesworth 
was restored to place and fame; he obtained 
a seat in the English parliament for St. 
Michaels, was on 9 Oct. 1714 named a privy 
councillor for Ireland, and in November a 
commissioner for trade and plantations. On 
16 July 1719 he was created Baron Moles- 

worth of Philipstown and Viscount Moles- 
worth of Swords ; in the spring of this year 
he had vigorously supported the Peerage 
Bill, writing in its defence ' A Letter from a 
Member of the House of Commons to a gentle- 
man without doors relating to the Bill of 
Peerage.' In 1723 appeared his ' Considera- 
tions for promoting Agriculture ' (Dublin, 
8vo), described by Swift as ' an excellent 
discourse full of most useful hints, which I 
hope the honourable assembly will consider 
as they deserve.' ' I am no stranger to his 
lordship,' he adds, ' and excepting in what 
relates to the church there are few persons 
with whose opinions I am better pleased to 
agree ' (cf. BKYDGES, Censura Lit. iv. 144). 
Swift subsequently dedicated to Molesworth, 
as an Irish patriot, the fifth of the ' Drapier's 
Letters ' (3 Dec. 1724). The last four years 
of his life were spent by Molesworth in stu- 
dious retirement at his s'eat at Brackenstown, 
near Dublin. He died there on 22 May 1725, 
and was buried at Swords. He had another 
seat in England at Edlington, near Tickhill, 

Molesworth had been an active fellow of 
the Royal Society, to which he was admitted 
6 April 1698 (THOMSON, Royal Society, App. 
iv. p. xxxi), and he is described by Locke as 
' an ingenious and extraordinary man.' Among 
his closest friends were William Molyneux 
[q. v.] and John Toland [q. v.] in conjunction 
with whom he supplied many notes to Wil- 
liam Martin's ' Western Islands of Scotland ' 
(1716). He shared the sceptical views of 
Toland, but left by his will 50/. towards 
building a church at Philipstown. 

Molesworth married Letitia (d. 18 March 
1729), third daughter of Richard Coote, lord 
Coloony, and sister of the Earl of Bellamont. 
By her (she died 18 March 1729, and was 
buried at St. Audoen's, Dublin) he had seven 
sons and four daughters. His eldest son and 
successor, JOHN MOLESWORTH (1679-1726), 
was appointed a commissioner of the stamp 
office in May 1706 (LTJTTRELL, vi. 50), a post 
in which he was succeeded in 1709 by Sir Ri- 
chard Steele. Early in 1710 he was appointed 
envoy to the Duke of Tuscany, but returned 
during the summer. Swift met him frequently 
during September and October 1710, once at 
the house of William Pate [q. v.], the learned 
woollendraper. Charles Dartiquenave [q. v.], 
the epicure and humorist, was another com- 
mon friend. He sailed again for Tuscany on 
3 Nov. 1710, but was recalled from Genoa 
rather abruptly in the following February 
(Hist. MSS. Comm. llth Rep. App. v. 305). 
In December 1715 he succeeded his father as 
a commissioner of trade and plantations, and 
undertook several diplomatic missions. At 




the time of his father's death he was at Turin 
in the capacity of plenipotentiary. He died 
a few months after his succession to the title 
and was succeeded by his brother Richard, 
who is separately noticed. Molesworth's se- 
cond daughter, Mary, who married George 
Monck, is also separately noticed. Her father 
prefixed to her ' Marinda' (1716) a dedication 
to the Princess of Wales, afterwards Queen 

A portrait of Molesworth by Thomas Gib- 
son (1680 P-1751) [q. v.] was engraved by 
P. Pelham (1721), and E. Cooper. 

[Biog. Brit. ; Chalmers's Biog. Diet. ; "Wai- 
pole's Cat. of Eoyal and Noble Authors, ed. Park, 
v. 231-4, 239; Wills's Irish Nation, ii. 729; 
Webb's Compendium of Irish Biography ; Cun- 
ningham's Lives of Eminent Englishmen, iv. 
122; Familiar Letters between Mr. Locke and 
several of his friends, p. 260 ; Georgian Era, i. 
350 ; Lodge's Irish Peerage, v. 134-6 ; The New 
Peerage, 2nd edit. 1778, iii. 209; G. E. C.'s 
Peerage, s.v. 'Molesworth ;' Luttrell's Brief His- 
torical Relation, pas-sim ; Swift's Works, ed. Scott, 
ii. iii. passim and viii. 299 ; Forster's Life of 
Swift ; Granger's Biog. Hist, continued by Noble, 
iii. 63 ; Watt's Bibl. Brit. ; Bromley's Cat. of En- 
graved Portraits, p. 2 10; Hist. Eeg. 1716, p. 353, 
and 1725, Chron. Diary, p. 26.] T. S. 


(18 10-1 855), politician, born in Upper Brook 
Street, London, on 23 May 1810, was son of 
Sir Arscott-Ourry Molesworth, by Mary, 
daughter of Patrick Brown of Edinburgh. 
The Molesworths had been settled at Pen- 
carrow, near Bodmin, Cornwall, since the 
time of Elizabeth. Sir Arscott was the 
seventh holder of the baronetcy, created in 
1688. William had a bad constitution and 
was disfigured in his childhood by scrofula. 
His father disliked him, and he was sent 
very early to a boarding-school near London, 
whore the boys teased him on account of his 
infirmity. His father died 30 Dec. 1823. 
His mother was then able to bestow more 
care upon him ; his health improved under 
medical treatment ; and he was sent to the 
school of a Dr. Bekker at Offenbach, near 
.Frankfort, where he made good progress. 
He was then entered at Trinity College, 
Cambridge, and gave promise of mathe- 
matical distinction. He quarrelled with his 
tutor in his second year, sent him a challenge, 
and crossed to Calais with a view to a duel. 
The tutor did not fight, however, and Moles- 
worth was expelled from Cambridge. His 
mother then went with him and his two 
sisters to Edinburgh (about 1828), where he 
finished his education at the university. He 
then broke away ' for the south of Europe,' 
and stayed for a time at Naples, where he 

found some young Englishmen, with whom 
he indulged in ' some youthful follies.' His 
follies, however, did not prevent him from 
studying Arabic for several hours a day with 
a view to eastern travel. His treatment by 
his father and at Cambridge had made him 
dislike all authority; in Germany he had 
become democratic ; in Scotland, sceptical ; 
and he had found Cambridge at a period of 
remarkable intellectual ' activity ' (Philoso- 
phical Radicals, pp. 50-3). The utilitarian 
propaganda had been actively carried on there 
by Charles Buller [q. v.] and others. Receiv- 
ing news at Naples of the growing excitement 
about parliamentary reform, he thought it a 
duty to take part in the contest. He made 
his first public appearance at a reform meeting 
in Cornwall in 1831 ; and he was returned 
as member for East Cornwall (December 
1832) in the first reformed parliament. His 
Cornish connection made him known to 
Charles Buller, who had also been his con- 
temporary at Cambridge, and was returned 
at the same election for Liskeard. He made 
the acquaintance of Grote in the House of 
Commons, and by Grote was introduced to 
James Mill. Mill thought highly of his 
abilities, and he was accepted as one of the 
faithful utilitarians. Grote was for some 
years his political and philosophical mentor. 
He was also a favourite of Mrs. Grote, to 
whom he confided more than one love affair 
at this period. Two young ladies, to whom 
he made offers, appear to have regarded him 
with favour ; but in both cases their guar- 
dians succeeded in breaking off the match 
on account of his infidel and radical opinions. 
Molesworth was embittered by his disap- 
pointments : and for some years tried to con- 
sole himself by study, and received many 
reproaches from Mrs. Grote for his unsocial 
habits. He declared that he preferred to be 

Molesworth was again returned for East 
Cornwall at the general election at the end 
of 1835. He had meanwhile projected the 
' London Review,' of which the first number 
appeared in April 1835 [see under MILL, 
JOHN STUART]. James Mill contributed to it 
his last articles, and J. S. Mill was practi- 
cally editor ; while it was supported by the 
' philosophical radicals ' generally. In 1837 
Molesworth transferred it to J. S. Mill. 

Molesworth continued to follow Grote's 
lead in politics. He voted against the repeal 
of the malt-tax under Peel's short administra- 
tion in 1835, because he could not bear to 
vote against Grote, though many radicals 
differed from him. He was also a staunch 
supporter of the ballot Grote's favourite 
measure but his especial province was colo- 




nial policy. He obtained a committee to in- 
quire into the system of transportation in 
1837, and wrote the report, which produced a 
considerable impression. He continued to 
attack the system, and contributed to its ulti- 
mate abandonment. In his colonial policy 
he accepted the theories of Edward Gibbon 
Wakefield [q.v.], then in much favour. He 
supported all measures for colonial self- 
government, and protested with his party 
against the coercive measures adopted by the 
whig ministry during the Canadian troubles. 
The 'philosophical radicals,' however, gradu- 
ally sank into insignificance. As early as 1836 
Buller observed to Grote that their duties 
would soon be confined to ( telling ' Moles- 
worth. His Cornish constituency became dis- 
satisfied with him, he was disliked by the 
country gentlemen for his extreme views, the 
whigs resolved to give him up, and he did not 
satisfy the agricultural interest. He wrote 
an address to his constituents (September 
1836) stating that he should not stand again, 
and looked out for a metropolitan constitu- 
ency. He was finally accepted as a candi- 
date for Leeds, and was elected with Edward 
Baines [q. v.] in July 1837, beating a third 
candidate by a small majority. An attempt 
to form a ' radical brigade ' in this parlia- 
ment failed, owing to a proposal from O'Con- 
nell to join it. The radicals were afraid that 
they would be .swamped, and the scheme 
fell through (Phil. Radicals, p. 32). On 
2 March 1838 Molesworth moved a vote 
of censure upon the colonial secretary [see 
amendment was proposed by Lord Sandon 
[see RYDEE, DUDLEY, second EAEL OF HAE- 
EOWBY] condemning the Canadian policy, 
when the original motion was withdrawn. 
The government had a majority of 29, Moles- 
worth and Grote not voting. During the next 
few years Molesworth was much occupied 
with his edition of ' Hobbes's Works.' It was 
published in sixteen volumes, from 1839 to 
1845, with dedication in English and Latin 
to Grote. He engaged as literary assistant 
Mr. Edward Grubbe (ib. p. 67). The book is 
said to have cost l many thousand pounds.' 
It is the standard edition ; but unfortunately 
Molesworth never finished the life of Hobbes, 
which was to complete it, although at his 
death it was reported to be in manuscript 
(Gent. Mag. 1855, pt. ii. p. 647). Moles- 
worth joined Grote in subsidising Comte in 

At the general election of 1841 Moles- 
worth did not stand. He had offended 
many of his constituents in 1840 by holding a 
peace meeting at Leeds during the French dif- 
ficulties of 1840, when he strongly advocated 

an alliance with France and attacked Russia. 
He remained quietly at Pencarrow studying 
mathematics. Another love aifair, of which 
Mrs. Grote gives full details, had occupied 
him in 1840 and 1841, which again failed 
from the objections of the family to his prin- 
ciples. In 1844, however, he met a lady, 
who was happily at her own disposal. He 
was married, on 4 July 1844, to Andalusia 
Grant, daughter of Bruce Carstairs, and 
widow of Temple West of Mathon Lodge, 
Worcestershire. His friends thought, ac- 
cording to Mrs. Grote, that the lady's social 
position was too humble to justify the step. 
Mrs. Grote says that she defended him to her 
friends, but Molesworth, hearing that she had 
made some 'ill-natured remarks about his 
marriage,' curtly signified to her husband his 
wish to hear no more from her. Although 
Charles Austin made some attempts to make 
up the quarrel, the intimacy with the Grotes 
was finally broken off. 

Molesworth after his marriage gave up 
his recluse habits, being anxious, as Mrs. 
Grote surmises, to show that he could con- 
quer the world, from which he had received 
many mortifications. It may also be guessed 
that his marriage had made him happier. 
In any case he again entered parliament, 
being returned for Southwark in September 
1845, with 1,943 votes against 1,182 for a 
tory candidate, and 352 for the representative 
of the dissenters and radicals, Edward Miall 
[q. v.] His support of the Maynooth grant 
was the chief ground of opposition, and a cry 
was raised of No Hobbes ! ' Molesworth 
retained his seat at Southwark till his death. 
On 20 May 1851 he moved for the discon- 
tinuance of transportation to Van Diemen's 
Land, but the house was counted out. He 
gave a general support to the whigs in the 
following years, and upon the formation of 
Lord Aberdeen's government in January 
1853 became first commissioner of the board 
of works, with a seat in the cabinet. Cobden 
regarded his accession to office as an apo- 
stasy, and on the approach of the Crimean 
war taunted him with inconsistency. Moles- 
worth defended himself by referring to the 
Leeds speech of 1840, in which he had 
avowed the same foreign policy. He had, 
however, broken with his old allies. He 
has the credit of having opened Kew Gar- 
dens to the public on Sundays. Upon Lord 
John Russell's resignation in 1855, Moles- 
worth became colonial secretary (2 July). 
It was a position for which he had specially 
qualified himself: but his strength had al- 
ready failed. He died 22 Oct. following, and 
was buried at Kensal Green. 

As Molesworth left no issue, and as his 




brothers had died before him, his cousin, 
the Rev. Sir Hugh Henry Molesworth, suc- 
ceeded to the baronetcy. He left Pencar- 
row to his widow for her life. She was a 
well-known member of London society till 
her death, 16 May 1888. His sister Mary be- 
came in 1851 the wife of Richard Ford [q. v.], 
author of the ' Handbook to Spain.' A bust of 
Molesworth by Behnes, executed in 1843, was 
presented by him to Mrs. Grote, and another 
is in the library of the National Liberal Club. 
There is a drawing of him in the ' Maclise 
Portrait Gallery,' p. 211. Mrs. Grote says 
of him at the age of twenty-three he had 
' a pleasant countenance, expressive blue eyes, 
florid complexion, and light brown hair ; a 
slim and neatly made figure, about 5 ft. 10 in. 
in height, with small, well-shaped hands and 
feet.' His health was always weak, and caused 
him many forebodings. This, as well as his 
unlucky love affairs and the dispiriting posi- 
tion of his party, probably increased his dis- 
like to society in early life. In late years 
he seems to have been much liked ; and his 
speeches in parliament were carefully pre- 
pared and received with respect, although 
he was rather a deliverer of set essays and 
had no power as a debater. 

Molesworth's only separate publications 
were reprints of some of his speeches in par- 
liament, and he wrote some articles in the 
' London and Westminster Review.' 

[The Philosophical Radicals of 1832, compris- 
ing the Life of Sir William Molesworth, and some 
incidents connected with the Reform Movement 
from 1832 to 1844, privately printed in 1866 by 
Mrs. Grote, gives several letters from Moles- 
worth and many anecdotes, not very discreet nor 
probably very accurate. The contemporary 
notices in the Times, 23 Oct. 1855 ; Gent. Mag. 
1855, pp. 645-8; New Monthly, 1855, pp. 394- 
400 ; and other journals are collected in a pri- 
vately printed volume, Notices of Sir W. Moles- 
worth [by T.Woolcombe], 1885. See also Morley's 
Cobden, 1881, i. 137, ii. 127, 160; Boase and 
Courtney's Bibl. Cornub. ; Burke's Peerage and 
Baronetage.] L. S. 

SAU (1816-1890), historian, eldest son of 
the Rev. John Edward Nassau Molesworth, 
[q. v.], vicar of Rochdale, Lancashire, by his 
first wife, was born 8 Nov. 1816, at Mill- 
brook, near Southampton, where his father 
then held a curacy. He was educated at the 
King's School, Canterbury, and at St. John's 
and Pembroke Colleges, Cambridge, where 
as a senior optime, he graduated B.A. in 
1839. In 1842 he proceeded to the degree 
of M.A., and in 1883 the university of Glas- 
gow bestowed on him its LL.D. degree. He 
was ordained in 1839, and became curate to 

his father at Rochdale, but in 1841 the 
wardens and fellows of the Manchester Col- 
legiate Church presented him to the incum- 
bency of St. Andrew's Church, Travis Street, 
Ancoats, in Manchester, and in 1844 his 
father presented him to the church of St. 
Clement, Spotland, near Rochdale, which 
living he held till his resignation through 
ill-health in 1889. Though a poor preacher, 
he was a zealous and earnest parish priest ; 
and in 1881 his labours were rewarded by 
an honorary canonry in Manchester Cathe- 
dral, conferred on him by Bishop Fraser. 
Ecclesiastically he was a high churchman; 
politically a radical. He was the friend of 
Bright, who publicly praised one of his his- 
tories (Speeches, ii. 110), and of Cobden, and 
received information from Lord Brougham 
for his ' History of the Reform Bill.' He 
was among the first to support the co-opera- 
tive movement, which he knew through the 
' Rochdale Pioneers/ Though described as 
'angular in manner,' he appears to have 
been agreeable and estimable in private life. 
After some years of ill-health, he died at 
Rochdale 19 Dec. 1890, and was buried at 
Spotland. He married, 3 Sept. 1844, Mar- 
garet, daughter of George Murray of Ancoats 
Hall, Manchester, by whom he had six sons 
and one daughter. 

Molesworth wrote a number of political 
and historical works, ' rather annals than 
history,' but copious and accurate. His prin- 
cipal work was ' History of England from 
1830 ' [to the date of publication], 1871-3, 
and incorporating an earlier work on the 
Reform Bill ; it reached a fifth thousand in 
1874, and an abridged edition was published 
in 1887. His other works were : 1. ' Essay 
on the Religious Importance of Secular In- 
struction,' 1857. 2. 'Essay on the French 
Alliance,' which in 1860 gained the Emerton 
prize adjudicated by Lords Brougham, Cla- 
rendon, and Shaftesbury. 3. * Plain Lectures 
on Astronomy,' 1862. 4. 'History of the 
Reform Bill of 1832,' 1864. 5. ' History of 
the Church of England from 1660,' 1882. He 
also edited, with his father, 'Common Sense,' 

[Times, 20 Dec. 1890; Manchester Guardian, 
20 Dec. 1890 ; Brit. Mus. Cat.] J. A. H. 


MOLEYNS, ADAM (A. 1450), bishop ot 
Chichester. [See MOLYNETTX.] 

M.D. (A. 1690), anatomist, born in the north 
of Ireland, was educated in Dublin Univer- 




sity, where he graduated B.A. and M.B. in 
1676, and M.D. in 1684 (Cat. of Graduates, 
ed. Todd, pp. 416, 417). In the latter year 
he was apparently elected fellow of the 
College of Physicians in Ireland (Register, 
1865, p. 92). He attempted original research 
in anatomy, and became a prominent mem- 
ber of the Dublin Philosophical Society, to 
which he contributed valuable papers on 
human and comparative anatomy. The most 
important was that in which he described 
the vascularity of the lens of the eye, to the 
discovery of which he appears to have been 
led by the dissection of an elephant. On 
18 July 1683 he was elected F.R.S. (THOM- 
SON, Hist of Roy. Soc. App. iv.) A discredit- 
able love affair obliged him to remove to 
London in 1686, and thence he went with 
William O'Brien, second earl of Inchiquin 
[q. y.], in 1690 to the West Indies, hoping 
to improve his fortunes by the discovery 
of some mines there. He died soon after 
landing at Barbados from the effects of in- 

Mullen published 'An Anatomical Account 
of the Elephant accidentally burnt in Dublin 
on 17 June 1681 ; together with a Relation 
of new Anatomical Observations on the Eyes 
of Animals. By A. M.,' &c., 2 pts. 4to, Lon- 
don, 1682. His examination was made with 
such accuracy that his descriptions have been 
quoted by writers down to the present time. 
The 'Philosophical Transactions' for 1685 
contain an account of his dissection of a 
' monstrous double cat' (xv. 1135). In the 
volume for 1687 he gave a close estimate of 
the quantity of blood contained in the body 
(xvi. 433). His experiments ' On the In- 
jection of Mercury into the Blood' (xvii. 486), 
' On a Black shining Sand brought from Vir- 
ginia' (xvii. 624), and ' Anatomical Observa- 
tions on the Heads of Fowls' (xvii. 711) are 
also recorded. His discovery of several struc- 
tures in the tunics of the eye is acknowledged 
by Albrecht Haller. 

[Ware's Writers of Ireland (Harris), p. 206 ; 
Cameron's College of Surgeons in Ireland,pp.9-l 1 , 
94 ; Mapother's Lessons from the Lives of Irish 

G. G. 

JAMES (d. 1639), surgeon, was born in the 
latter part of the sixteenth century, and ap- 
pears at least as early as 1607 a member of 
the Barber-Surgeons' Company, of which he 
became a warden in 1625, and master in 
1632. He was elected, 20 Jan. 1622-3, sur- 
geon * for the cutting of the stone ' to St. 
Bartholomew's and St. Thomas's Hospitals, 
and held this office till his death in 1639. 
He was a noted surgeon in his day. 

His son, EDWARD MOLINES (d. 1663), was 
appointed surgeon to St. Thomas's Hospital 
in his father's lifetime, and surgeon for the cut- 
ting of the stone to St. Bartholomew's, 6 July 
1639, in succession to his father. He appears 
to have been a man of violent temper, as on 
one occasion he defied the authority of the 
Barber-Surgeons' Company, to which he be- 
longed, being fined in consequence, and never 
holding any office in the company. On the 
breaking out of the war between Charles I 
and the parliament he joined the royal army, 
and was taken in arms at Arundel Castle 
when it was surrendered to the parliamen- 
tary forces in 1643. In consequence, the 
House of Commons ordered the governors of 
St. Thomas's Hospital to dismiss Molines 
from his office, which was done 25 Jan. 
1643-4. He is mentioned as having com- 
pounded for his estate, the matter being 
finally settled in 1653 (GREEN, Cal. State 
Papers, Dom. Ser. ; Proceedings of Committee 
for Compounding, 1643-60, p. 2554). He was 
replaced in his hospital office after the Re- 
storation, 20 July 1660, in compliance with 
a letter from Charles II, and died in 1663. 

JAMES MOLINES (1628-1686), the eldest 
son of Edward Molines, was elected, 8 Nov. 
1663, in compliance with a recommendation 
equivalent to a command from Charles II r 
surgeon to St. Thomas's Hospital ' as to ordi- 
nary avocations,' and joint surgeon with Mr. 
Hollyer ' for the cutting of the stone.' He 
was afterwards appointed surgeon in ordinary 
to Charles II and James II, and received 
the degree of M.D. from the university of 
Oxford 28 Sept. 1681. He died 8 Feb. 1686, 
and was buried in St. Bride's Church, Fleet 
Street, where his memorial tablet still exists. 
His name appears as giving an imprimatur 
to certain surgical works, but he does not 
seem to have contributed to the literature 
of the profession. 

WILLIAM MOLINES (fl. 1680), who was 
possibly a younger son of Edward, is men- 
tioned in the 'Records of the Barber-Sur- 
geons ' as engaged in the anatomical dissec- 
tions at their hall in 1648. He was the author 
or editor of a modest little work on anatomy, 
entitled ' Myotomia, or the Anatomical Ad- 
ministration of all the Muscles of an Humane 
Body' (London, 1680, sm. 8vo), and intended 
as a manual of dissection. 

A third JAMES MOLINES (fl. 1675) appears 
as the author of a manuscript volume in the 
British Museum Library (Sloane, 3293), con- 
taining, among other things, interesting notes 
of the surgical practice at St. Thomas's Hos- 
pital in 1675. He speaks of James Molines 
(the second) as his cousin, and of his father as 
being also a surgeon, so that he may possibly 




have been a son of William Molines. He was 
a student when he wrote these notes, and 
nothing further is known of him. 

[Archives of St. Thomas's and St. Bartholo- 
mew's Hospitals ; Sidney Young's Annals of the 
Barber-Surgeons, London, 1890; Paget's Records 
of Harvey, 1846, p. 30.] J. F. P. 

SIK JOHN DE (d. 1362?), soldier, son of 
Vincent de Molines, who was returned to 
parliament as knight of the shire for South- 
ampton in 1301 (Parl. Writs, i. 471), and 
his wife, Isabella (DUGDALE, Baronage, ii. 
147), is said to have been descended from a 
Robert de Molines of Molines in the Bour- 
bonnais, who came into England in the time 
of Henry I, and was probably connected 
with the Molines or Molyneux of Sefton, 
Lancashire, who traced their origin to the 
same town [see MOLYNEUX, ADAM DE]. John 
de Molines appears to have been in the service 
of the chancellor in 1325 (RYMER, Foedera, 
II. i. 164), and was perhaps a clerk in chan- 
cery. In 1329 he was sent abroad on some 
mission with William de Montacute [q. v.], 
afterwards first earl of Salisbury, in whose 
service he was. Both had returned in 1330, 
and in October were employed to penetrate 
Nottingham Castle and arrest Roger Morti- 
mer, first earl of March [q. v.] (LINGARD, 
iii. 49 ; STUBBS, ii. 390 ; DUGDALE, ii. 145). 
Molines was formally pardoned for killing 
one of Mortimer's attendants, and during the 
next few years Molines received numerous 
grants from Edward III, chiefly of manors and 
seignorial rights (cf. Cal Inquisitionum post 
Mortem; RYMER, Foedera ; DUGDALE, Baron- 
age, passim ; and especially Cal. Rot. Pat. in 
Turri Londin. i. 113-39, where nearly every 
page contains some grant to Molines) . He had 
previously acquired Stoke Poges, Bucking- 
hamshire, by his marriage with Egidia, cousin 
and heir of Margaret, daughter of Robert 
Poges of Stoke Poges, and her husband, John 
Mauduit of Somerford, Wiltshire, and his 
favour with the king enabled him to ' mul- 
tiply his territorial possessions to an enor- 
mous and dangerous extent ' (LiPSCOMB, 
Buckinghamshire, passim). In 1335 he re- 
ceived pardon for entertaining John Mau- 
travers, lately banished, Thomas de Berkeley, 
and others. In the same year he is spoken 
of as 'valettus' to the king, and received 
lands in the manors of Datchet and Fulmer, 
Buckinghamshire, for services to the king 
and to Montacute (Cal. Rot. Pat. in Turri 
Londin. i. 123 b ; Abbreviatio Rot. Orig. ii. 
65), and the king granted him the manor of 
Ludgershall, forfeited by Hugh le Despenser 
the elder (1262-1326) [q. v.] During the 

next two years Molines was serving under 
Montacute in the Scottish wars, for which in 
1338 he received 220/. 10s. Id. as wages and 
compensation for the horses he had lost. In 
1337 he is again spoken of as ' valettus' to the 
king, and was treasurer of the king's chamber, 
in which capacity, perhaps, he was commis- 
sioned to seize all the Lombard merchants 
in London ' exceptis illis qui sunt de societa- 
tibus Bardorum et Peruch ' and hand them 
over to Montacute, governor of the Tower 
(Abbreviatio, ii. 116). On 1 July he was 
commissioned to seize the goods of the French 
king (RYMER, n. ii. 982) ; before the end of 
the year was sent on a mission to Flanders 
in connection with the negotiations with the 
Flemish princes and burghers, and was made 
overseer of certain royal castles and lands in 
the Isle of Wight, Hampshire, and York- 
shire (Abbreviatio, ii. 118). In 1338 he re- 
ceived the custody of the king's hawks and 
other birds and numerous other grants (ib. 
passim), was created a knight-banneret, and 
employed in negotiating an alliance with 
the Duke of Brabant. In November he was 
sent on a similar mission to the German 

In 1340 he was one of those who under- 
took to raise wools for the king's aid ; but 
the supplies which reached Edward were 
quite insufficient. The king was compelled 
to raise the siege of Tournay, returned sud- 
denly to London on 30 Nov., and arresting 
Stratford, to whose party Molines may have 
belonged, and the chief treasury officials, in- 
cluding Molines, imprisoned them in the 
Tower (STTJBBS, ii. 402 ; Cal. Rot. Pat. in 
Turri Londin. I. i. 139 b ; Rolls of Parl. 
ii. 119 a ; LE BAKER, Chron., ed. Maunde 
Thompson, p. 72 ; Year-books of Edward III, 
Rolls Ser. 1341, pp. 138-46 ; DUGDALE, ii. 
146). Molines was apprehended by Mont- 
acute, but escaped from the Tower, and ap- 
parently refused to appear before the king's 
justices. For this l rebellion ' his lands were 
forfeited. In 1345, however, he was par- 
doned, and his lands were gradually restored 
to him, with numerous additional grants. 
On 18 Sept. 1346 he was directed, with all 
the men-at-arms and archers he could muster, 
to proceed to the defence of Sandwich, then 
threatened by the French ; and in 1347 he 
was summoned as a baron to attend a council 
or parliament. But this summons did not 
entitle him to an hereditary writ, and neither 
his son nor his grandson received it. In the 
same year he was summoned to serve in the 
war against France (RYMER, in. i. 120). In 
1352 he became steward to Queen Philippa 
and overseer of her castles, and in 1353 the 
commons petitioned against the excessive 




fines lie levied ; he had previously, in 1347, 
been accused of causing waste in Bern- 
wood forest, and the king promised redress 
to the victims (Rolls of Par I. ii. 253 a). An 
inquiry was instituted into these ' treasons ' 
(Cal. Rot. Parl in Turri Londin. 1676), 
Molines was thrown into prison, and his 
lands were forfeited ; in 1358, however, his 
son William was admitted to some of them, 
and his wife Egidia retained others. In 1359 
Molines was removed from Nottingham 
Castle, the scene of Mortimer's arrest, to 
Cambridge Castle. In 1362 he was accused 
of falsely indicting Robert Lambard for 
breaking into the queen's park (Rolls of Parl. 
ii. 274 b). His death took place probably in 
this year in Cambridge Castle, and he was 
buried in Stoke Poges Church, where a 
monument without any inscription, close to 
the altar, is said to be his. He was a con- 
siderable benefactor to religious foundations, 
especially to the canons of St. Mary Overy, 
Southwark, who inscribed his name in their 
martyrology, and to St. Frideswide's, Oxford. 
His wife Egidia died in 1367, seised of most 
of Molines's lands, which passed to his eldest 
son, William, who in 1355 had been in the 
expedition to France, was in 1379 knight of 
the shire for Bucks, and died in 1381, hav- 
ing married Margery, daughter of Edmund 
Bacoun. His son Richard died in 1384, and 
his grandson, William, was killed at Orleans 
in 1429, leaving an only daughter, Alianore, 
who married Robert Hungerford, lord Mo- 
leyns and Hungerford [q. v.] 

[Lansdowne MS. 229 ; Cal. Eot. Pat. in Turri 
Londinensi, passim ; Bolls of Parl. passim ; 
Cal. Inquisitionum post Mortem ; Inquisit. No- 
narum; Year-books of Edward III, passim ; By- 
mer's Foedera, vols. ii. iii. passim ; Abbreviatio 
Eot. Originalium, ii. passim; Cal. Kot. Charta- 
rum et Inquisit. Ad quod Damnum, passim ; 
Geoffrey le Baker, p. 72 ; Stow's Annals, p. 238 ; 
Dugdale's Baronage, ii. 145-8 ; Monasticon, 
passim ; White Kennett's Parochial Antiquities 
of Ambrosden, Burcester, &c., passim; Barnes's 
Edward III, pp. 47, 101, 104, 213; Sheahan's 
Hist, of Bucks ; Lipscomb's Buckinghamshire, 
passim ; A Brief Hist, of Stoke Poges ; Burke's 
Extinct Peerage ; Gr. E. C.'s Peerage.] 

A. F. P. 

MOLINEUX, THOMAS (1759-1850), 
stenographer, born at Manchester on 14 May 
1759, received his education in the school 
kept at Salford by Henry Clarke [q. v.], who 
taught him Byrom's system of shorthand, and 
before he was seventeen he became a writing- 
master and teacher of accounts in King Ed- 
ward VI's Grammar School at Macclesfield. 
He resigned that situation in 1802, and died 
at Macclesfield on 15 Nov. 1850, aged 91. 

He published ' An Abridgement of Mr. 
Byrom's Universal English Short-hand,' Lon- 
don, 1796, 8vo, called the second edition, 
though it was really the first. It is mainly 
a simpler representation of the system with 
a few alterations. Molineux afterwards 
brought out other works on the same sub- 
ject, with beautifully engraved copperplates. 
One of them is partly written in an epistolary 
form. They were very popular, and passed 
through about twelve editions. Some of these 
are entitled ' An Introduction to Byrom's 
Universal English Short-hand,' and others 
' The Short-hand Instructor or Stenographi- 
cal Copy Book.' To the editions of the * In- 
structor' published in 1824 and 1838 the 
portrait of the author, engraved by Roffe 
from a painting by Scott, is prefixed. Moli- 
neux was also the author of a small treatise 
on arithmetic. 

His letters to Robert Cabbell Roffe, an 
engraver of London, whom he taught short- 
hand by correspondence, and who became 
the author of another modification of the 
same system, were edited and printed pri- 
! vately (London, 1860, 4to), but the impres- 
sion was limited to twenty copies. The 
volume bears the title of 'The Grand Master/ 
suggested by the appellation given to Byrom 
by his pupils. This quaint book contains 
many gossiping notes on shorthand authors, 
including Byrom, Palmer, Gawtress, Lewis 
(whose 'History' and works are alleged to 
have been written by Hewson Clark), Car- 
stairs, Nightingale, Gurney, Kitchingman, 
and Shorter. 

[Bailey's Memoir of Dr. Henry Clarke, p. 
xxxviii ; Biog. Diet, of Living Authors, p. 237 ; 
Evans's Cat. of Engraved Portraits, No. 7276 ; 
Journalist, 15 July 1887, p. 223; Phonotypic 
Journal, 1847, p. 332 n. ; Sutton's Lancashire 
Authors, p. 161 ; Watt's Bibl. Brit.] T. C. 

MOLINS, LEWIS DTJ (1606-1680), non- 
conformist controversialist. | See MOULIN.] 

MOLL, HERMAN (d. 1732), geographer, 
a Dutchman, came to London about 1698, 
and finally established himself ' overagainst 
Devereux Court, between Temple Bar and 
St. Clement's Church in the Strand,' where 
he acquired considerable reputation for the 
excellence of his maps and geographical 
compilations. He was an ' old acquaint- 
ance ' of Dr. William Stukeley, to whom he 
dedicated his ' Geographia Antiqua,' 1721. 
They belonged to the same club (STTJKELEY, 
Diaries and Letters, Surtees Soc. i. 98, 134), 
and Stukeley possessed a profile portrait of 
Moll dated 17 April 1723 (ib. iii. 486). 
Moll died on 22 Sept. 1732 in St. Clements 
Danes (Gent. Mag. 1732, p. 979), leaving all 




he possessed to his only daughter Henderina 
Amelia Moll (will registered in P. C. C. 251, 

Moll published: 1. 'A System of Geo- 
graphy . . . illustrated with history and 
topography, and maps of every country,' 

2 pts. fol. London, 1701. 2. ' A History of 
the English Wars in France, Spain, Por- 
tugal, Netherlands, Germany, &c. . . . with 
a large map of the same countries,' fol. 
London, 1705. 3. ' A View of the Coasts, 
Countries, and Islands within the limits of 
the South Sea Company,' 8vo, London, 1711; 
2nd edit, undated, but about 1720. 4. 'Atlas 
Geographus . . . Ancient and Modern, 
illustrated with about 100 maps,' 5 vols. 
4to, London, 1711-17. 5. ' Geographia 
antiqua Latinorum & Graecorum tabulis 
xxxii . . . expressa,' Latin and English, 4to, 
London, 1721 ; '2nd edit. 1726 ; other edits. 
1732 and 1739. 6. ' A new Description of 
England and Wales ... to which is added 
a new ... set of maps of each county,' 
fol. London, 1724. 

Moll's maps are also found in: 1. 'The 
Compleat Geographer,' 3rd edit. 2 pts. fol. 
London, 1709 ; 4th edit. 1723-22. 2. ' The 
British Empire in America, by John Old- 
mixon,' 2 vols. 8vo, London, 1708 ; also in 
the German translation, 4to, 1776, &c. 
3. ' Modern History, by Thomas Salmon,'' j 
3rd edit. 3 vols. fol. London, 1744-6. 4. ' The ! 
Agreeable Historian, by Samuel Simpson,' 

3 vols. 8vo, London, 1746. 

Of maps of general geography Moll pub- 
lished: 1. ' A Modern Atlas,' without title, 
4to, about 1700. 2. ' Athlas [sic] Royal,' 
fol. 1708-20. 3. 'Atlas Minor ... (62 
maps),' oblong 4to, about 1732. 4. ' New 
Map of y e Earth and Water, according to 
Wright's alias Mercator's projection,' 12 
sheets and index map. 5. ' The Whole 
World,' 2 sheets, 1719 ; others about 1732 
and 1735. Of Great Britain he published 
singly: 'A new Map,' 1710; 'The South 
Part ' (England and Wales), 1710; 'Fifty) 
Maps of England and Wales,' 1724; 'A! 
Pocket Companion of y e Roads of y e South,' i 
1717 ; ' Survey of the Roads from London 
to Berwick (1718), and to Holy Head,' 
about 1718; 'The Towns round London,' 
about 1710; 'Lincolnshire,' about 1724; 
' Scotland,' 1714 ; ' 36 ... Maps of Scot- 
land,' about 1725 ; ' Ireland,' 1714, and with 
P. Lea, 4 sheets ; ' Gurnsey, Jersey, Alder- 
ney,' about 1710 ; ' A Chart of the Channel 
between England and France,' about 1730 ; 
' Parts of the Sea-coast of England, Holland, 
and Flanders,' about 1710; 'A General 
Chart of the Northern Navigation from 
England to Russia,' about 1710. 


His maps of Continental Europe include : 
' Plans of several Roads in different parts of 
Europe/ oblong 4to, 1732 ; ' Europe,' 1708 ; 
* Spain and Portugal,' 1711 ; ' Plan of Gi- 
braltar,' about 1725 ; ' France,' about 1710 ; 
'Italy,' 1714; 'The Upper Part of Italy,' 
about 1731 ; ' Sea-coast of Naples,' about 
1710 ; ' The Turkish Empire in Europe, 
Asia, and Africa ... as also the dominions 
of the Emperor of Morocco,' about 1710; 
'Germany,' 1712; 'The Empire of Germany,' 
about 1740 ; ' The Electorate of Brunswick 
Lunenberg (or Hannover),' about 1715; 
'Les Provinces des Pays-Bas Catholiques, 
or ... Map of Flanders or Austrian Nether- 
lands,' about 1705 ; ' United Provinces or 
the Netherlands,' about 1715; 'Denmark 
and Sweden,' about 1712; 'The Baltick, 
about 1713 ; ' The Caspian Sea,' copied 
from C. van Verden ; ' The North Pole, 
about 1732. 

On Asia he issued : ' A General Map, 
about 1710 ; ' Arabia, agreeable to Modern 
History,' about 1715 ; ' India Proper,' about 
1710 ; ' East Indies and the adjacent Coun- 
tries,' about 1710 ; ' China and Japan/ about 

His maps of Africa comprise 'A Map/ 
about 1710 ; ' The West ( East) part of 
Barbary/ 1732 ; ' Negroland and Guinea/ 
about 1732 ; ' St. Helena/ about 1732 ; ' The 
South Part and . . . Madagascar/ about 
1720 ; ' The Bay of Agoa de Saldhana/ 
about 1732. 

Those of North America, the West Indies, 
and South America comprise: 'America/ 
about 1720 ; ' Map of North America/ about 
1710 ; ' Nieuwe Kaart van Noord-Amerika/ 
about 1720 ; ' A . . . Map of the Dominions 
of the King of Great Britain on y e Con- 
tinent of North America/ 1711 (another, 
2 sheets, 1715) ; ' Dominia Anglorum in 
America Septentrionali/ about 1735 ; ' A 
New Map of the North Parts . . . claimed 
by France ' (Louisiana, Mississippi), 1720 ; 
'A Map of New England, New York, . . . 
New Jersey, and Pennsilvania/ 1730 ; ' New 
Caledonia/ 1699 ; 'Newfoundland, St. Lau- 
rence Bay, the Fishing Banks, Acadia, and 
part of New Scotland/ about 1700; 'Vir- 
ginia and Maryland/ about 1732; 'Caro- 
lina/ about 1710 (another, about 1732) ; 'A 
Plan of Port Royal Harbour in Carolina/ 
about 1710; 'New Mexico and Florida/ 
about 1700; 'Florida/ about 1732; 'A 
Chart of the West Indies/ about 1710 ; ' A 
Map of the West Indies ... (A Draught 
of St. Augustin and its harbour)/ about 
1710; 'Jamaica/ about 1732; 'St. Chris- 
tophers alias Kitts/ about 1732; 'South 
America/ about 1712 (another, 2 sheets, 




about 1720 ; ' The Island of Antego ' [An- 
tigua], about 1700. 

[Brit. Mus. Catalogues of Printed Books and 
Maps ; Allibone's Diet. ; Boase and Court- 
ney's Bibl. Cornub. ; Grough's Brit. Topography; 
Watt's Bibl. Brit.] GK GK 

MOLLINEUX, HENRY (d. 1719), 
quaker, born at Lydiate, near Ormskirk, 
Lancashire, was in 1684 imprisoned in Lan- 
caster Castle for attending quakers' meetings. 
While in gaol he met Mary Southworth of 
Warrington, who was imprisoned on the 
same ground. He married her at Penketh, 
near Warrington, on 10 Feb. 1685, she being 
then thirty-four years old. Mollineux was 
sent to Lancaster Castle again in December 
1690, on this occasion for non-payment of 
tithes, and after being detained several months 
was liberated through his wife's personal ap- 
peal to Bishop Stratford. He died at Lydiate 
on 16 Nov. 1719. He wrote several books 
in defence of quaker principles: 1. 'Anti- 
christ Un vailed by the Finger of God's Power 
. . . ' 1695, 8vo. 2. ' An Invitation from the 
Spirit of Christ to all that are at hirst to come 
and drink of the Waters of Life freely . . . ' 
1696, 12rno. 3. < Popery exposed by its own 
Authors, and two Romish Champions 
checked . . . being an Answer ... to 
James Wetmough and Matthew Hall,' 1718, 

His wife died at Liverpool on 3 Nov. 1695, 
aged 44, leaving children. She was a facile 
writer of pious verse, a collection of which was 
published in 1702, under the title of ' Fruits of 
Retirement, or Miscellaneous Poems, Moral 
and Divine, &c.' It passed through, six 
editions, the last of which was printed in 

[Joseph Smith's Cat. of Friends' Books, ii. 1 80 ; 
Besse's Sufferings of the Quakers, i. 327 ; Mary 
Mollineux's Poems ; Roger Haydock's "Writings, 
1 700 ; extracts from Lancashire Friends' Regis- 
ters, kindly furnished by Mr. Jos. H. King, Man- 
chester.] C. W. S. 

MOLLING (d. 696), saint and bishop. 

MOLLOY, CHARLES (1646-1690), 
legal writer, a native of King's County, born 
in 1646, was probably a member of the family 
of Molloy of Clonbeale, which claims to be 
the representative of the O'Molloys of Farcale 
or O'Molloys' Country. He seems to have 
entered at Lincoln's Inn on the last day of 
Trinity term 1663, and Gray's Inn on 28 June 
1669. In the books of Gray's Inn it is stated 
that in consequence of his previous standing 
at Lincoln's Inn his admission was to date 
from 7 Aug. 1667. 

Molloy was the compiler of an extensive 

treatise on maritime law and commerce, en- 
titled ' De Jure Maritimo et Navali,' which 
was the standard work on the subject till 
superseded by the publications of J. A. 
Park, S. Marshall, and Lord Tenterden. Mol- 
loy's work contained little that was not also 
to be found in the ' Consuetudo vel Lex Mer- 
catoria ' by Gerard Malynes [q. v.] The small 
portion of the book devoted to the law con- 
cerning bills of exchange is said by Kent 
(Commercial and Maritime Law, p. 122) to 
be inferior to the treatise of John Marius. 
1 De Jure Maritimo ' was published in Lon- 
don in 1676, 1677, 1682, 1688, 1690, 1707, 
1722, 1744, 1769, 1778. Molloy also published 
' Holland's Ingratitude, or a Serious Expos- 
tulation with the Dutch,' London, 1666, in 
which he introduced laudatory verses on 
George Monck, duke of Albemarle, and 
Prince Rupert. 

Molloy married, at East Barnet, on 17 Dec. 
1670 (par. reg.), Elizabeth Day, by whom 
he had at least one son, Charles, who edited 
the 1722 edition of ' De Jure Maritimo.' 
Molloy died in Crane Lane Court, Fleet 
Street, in 1690, his wife having predeceased 
him. Administration was granted to his 
creditors in April 1692. 

[Burke's Landed G entry, 1886, vol. ii. ; Webb's 
Compendium of Irish Biography ; Ware's Writers, 
ed. Harris, p. 203 ; Marvin's Legal Bibliography ; 
Reddie's Maritime Commerce, p. 431 ; Story's Mis- 
cellaneous Writings, pp. 265-6 ; Admon. P. C. C. 
April 1692 ; Catalogues of Library at Lincoln's 
Inn, Bodleian Library, Library of Incorporated 
Law Soc. ; Admissions Reg. of Gray's Inn, per 
Dennis W. Douthwaite, esq.] B. P. 

MOLLOY, CHARLES (d. 1767), jour- 
nalist and dramatist, born probably at Bir in 
King's County, was educated in Dublin. The 
statements that he was a member of Trinity 
College, Dublin, and the Middle Temple are 
erroneous. On 23 May 1764, being then a 
resident of St. Anne, Soho, London, he became 
a student of Gray's Inn (Register, ed. Foster, 
p. 384). 

Molloy was author of three dramas : 1. * The 
Perplex'd Couple ; or, Mistake upon Mistake,' 
12mo, London, 1715, a comedy mostly bor- 
rowed from Moliere's ' Cocu Imaginaire.' It 
was brought out at Lincoln's Inn Fields on 
16 Feb. 1715, and acted three times, with 
little success (GENEST, Hist, of the Stage, ii. 
i 567). 2. ' The Coquet ; or, the English 
j Chevalier,' 8vo, London, 1718, a comedy 
' acted with applause at Lincoln's Inn Fields 
; on 19 April 1718 and two following nights, 
and revived at the Haymarket on 23 Nov. 
1793 with alterations (ib. ii. 630). 3. 'The 
Half-pay Officers,' 12mo, London, 1720, a 
comedy founded in part on Sir William 



Davenant's ' Love and Honour.' It was first 
performed at Lincoln's Inn Fields on 11 Jan. 
1720, and ran seven nights (ib. iii. 35). 
Much of its success was due to the fact that 
Peg Fryer, an actress of Charles II's days, 
who was then eighty-five, and had not ap- 
peared upon the stage for fifty years, took 
the part of Widow Rich. She acted ad- 
mirably, and at the close of the performance 
danced a jig with wonderful agility. 

Molloy ultimately adopted whig journalism 
as his profession, and became the principal 
writer in ' Fog's Weekly Journal,' the suc- 
cessor of ' Mist's Journal,' the first number 
of which appeared in October 1728 (Fox 
BOURNE, English Newspapers, i. 122). He 
was also almost the sole author of another 
periodical, entitled ' Common Sense ; or. the 
Englishman's Journal/ a collection of letters, 
political, humorous, and moral, extending 
from 5 Feb. 1737 to 27 Jan. 1739, ^after- 
wards collected into 2 vols. 12mo, 1738-9. 
To this journal Dr. William King, Lord 
Chesterfield, and Lord Lyttelton were occa- 
sional contributors. His papers are remark- 
able for their bright style, knowledge of 
affairs, and closeness of reasoning. 

He died in-Soho Square on 16 July 1767 
(Probate Act Book, P. C. C., 1767), and was 
buried on the 20th at Edmonton, Middlesex. 
In July 1742 he had married Miss Sarah 
Duffkin (1702-1758) of Nuneaton, Warwick- 
shire, who brought him an ample fortune. 
He had no issue (ROBINSON, Hist, of Edmon- 
ton, pp. 72, 105). 

[Baker's Biog. Dramat. 1812 ; Lysons's En- 
virons, ii. 262, 272;- Will of Sarah Molloy, 
formerly Duffkin, in P. C. C. 47, Button ; Will 
of Charles Molloy in P. C. C. 174, Legard.] 

G. Gr. 

FRANCIS (Jl. 1660), theologian and gram- 
marian, was a native of the county of Meath, 
Ireland. The family of which he was a 
member had extensive landed possessions in 
the district known as O'Molloys' Country, 
and some of them engaged actively in the 
Irish movements from 1641 to 1652. 

Francis Molloy entered the order of St. 
Francis, became a priest, was appointed pro- 
fessor of theology at St. Isidore's College, 
Rome, and acted as agent for the Irish 
catholics at the papal court in the reign of 
Charles II. His first published work was 
entitled ' Tractatus de Incarnatione ad men- 
tern Scoti/ 1645. This was followed in 1658 
by ' Jubilatia genethliaca in honorem Pros- 
peri Balthasaris Philippi, Hispani principis, 
carmine,' and by a Latin treatise on theology 
in 1666. A catechism of the doctrines of 
the catholic church in the Irish language 

was published by Molloy in 1676 with the 
title : ' Lucerna fidelium, seu fasciculus de- 
cerptus ab authoribus magis versatis qui 
tractarunt de doctrina Christiana.' It was 
printed at Rome at the press of the Congre- 
gation ' de propaganda fide/ from which, in 
1677, issued another book by Molloy, entitled 
' Grammatica Latino-Hibernica/ 12mo, the 
first printed grammar of the Irish language. 
It is in Latin, and consists of twenty-five 
chapters : nine on the letters of the alphabet, 
three on etymology, one on contractions and 
cryptic writings, and twelve on prosody and 
versification. At the end is an Irish poem 
by Molloy on the neglect of the ancient 
language of Ireland and the prospects of its 

Edward Lhuyd [q. v.], in his ' Archseologia 
Britannica, ' published at Oxford in 1 707, men- 
tioned that he had seen a manuscript gram- 
mar of the Irish language copied at Louvain 
in 1669 which partially corresponded with 
that of Molloy. He added that Molloy's 
grammar, although the most complete extant 
in his time, was deficient as to syntax and 
the variation of the nouns and verbs. The 
date of Molloy's death has not been ascer- 

[Manuscripts in the Library of the Eoyal Irish 
Academy, Dublin; Wadding's Scriptores Ordinis 
Minorum, ed. Sbaralseus, Kome, 1806; Transac- 
tions of Iber no-Celtic Society, 1820 ; Eemarks 
on the Irish Language, by J. Scurry, 1827 ; 
Grammar of the Irish Language, by J. O'Dono- 
van, 1845; Contemporary Hist, of Affairs in 
Ireland, 1641-1652, Dublin, 1879.] J. T. G-. 

MOLUA, SAINT (554?- 


. [See 

LINS, ADAM BE (d. 1450), bishop of 
Chichester, and keeper of the privy seal, was 
second son of Sir Richard Molyneux of Sef- 
ton, Lancashire, by his wife Ellen, daugh- 
ter of Sir T. Ursewick, and brother of Sir 
Richard Molyneux (d. 1439), whose son, Sir 
Richard (d. 1459), is separately noticed. The 
family traced its descent from William de 
Molines,one of the Norman invaders, whose 
name is derived from a town in the Bour- 
bonnais, and stands eighteenth on the Battle 
Abbey Roll. William de Molines obtained 
from Roger of Poitiers the grant of Sefton, 
where the family have since been seated, 
its present representative being William 
Philip, fourth earl of Sefton. Adam's grand- 
father, William Molyneux, was made a 
knight-banneret after the battle of Navarret, 
in 1367, by the Black Prince, with whom he 
served in the French and Spanish wars. 
From 1436 to 1441 Adam was clerk of the 

K 2 




council to Henry VI {Proceedings of the 
Privy Council, v. Pref. viii). Immediately 
before the election of Albert II as king of 
the Romans in 1438 he was ordered to go 
with a knight of Rhodes to Aix-la-Ohapelle 
and Cologne to congratulate the new ' em- 
peror ' (ib. pp. 89, 91). In 1440 he was made 
archdeacon of Taunton (LE NEVE, Fasti, i. 
167), a prebendary of St. Paul's, London (ib. 
ii. 448), and archdeacon of Salisbury (ib. p. 
624). He successfully petitioned the king in 
1441 to confer on him the living of Cotting- 
ham, Yorkshire, and being then dean of St. 
Buryan's College, Cornwall, was elected dean 
of Salisbury (ib. p. 616). In that year he 
was sent on the king's business to Frankfort, 
whence he proceeded to Rome with letters 
from Henry to Pope Eugenius IV, request- 
ing the canonisation of Osmund, bishop of 
Sarum, and King Alfred. In October he 
exhibited articles before the commissioners 
for the trial of Eleanor Cobham, duchess of 
Gloucester [see under HUMPHREY, DUKE OF 
GLOUCESTER], for sorcery (English Chronicle, 
p. 59). By the spring of 1442 he had resigned 
his place as clerk, and become a member of 
the privy council (Proceedings, v. 157, 173). 
He attached himself to the Beaufort party, 
and to the leadership of William de la Pole 
(1397-1450) [q. v.], earl, and afterwards duke 
of Suffolk, and was in February 1443 sent to 
John Beaufort (d. 1444), earl, and in that 
year duke, of Somerset [q. v.], to whom he 
would be an acceptable messenger, with a 
flattering message from the king with refer- 
ence to the earl's new command as captain- 
general of Guienne, and to inquire specially 
as to his intentions with respect to the war 
(ib. p. 226 postea). He received a present of 
a hundred marks from the king for his ser- 
vices, and was commissioned to treat with 
envoys from Holland and Zealand concern- 
ing the complaints of their merchants (ib. p. 
307). On 11 Feb. 1444 Moleyns was ap- 
pointed keeper of the privy seal, in succes- 
sion to Thomas Beckington [q. v.], bishop of 
Bath and Wells, and on the same day was 
commissioned with Suffolk and Sir Robert 
Roos as ambassador to conclude a peace or a 
truce with France (Foedera,xi. 53, 58, 60). In 
May the ambassadors succeeded in arranging 
a truce, and obtained the betrothal of Mar- 
garet of Anjou [q. v.] to King Henry (ib. 
pp. 61, 74). Moleyns was prominent at the 
reception of, and in the negotiations with, 
the French ambassadors who came to London 
in July 1445, when the truce was prolonged 
(STEVENSON, French Wars, i. 101 sq.) He 
was rewarded with the see of Chichester, 
to which he was, after papal provision, con- 
secrated on 6 Feb. 1446 (LE NEVE, Fasti, 

i. 247). He received a grant of exemption 
of all the coast within his lands from the 
jurisdiction of the court of admiralty (STE- 
PHENS), and he held the living of Harriets- 
ham, Kent, in commendam. As Henry had 
not fulfilled his engagement to surrender 
Le Mans, Moleyns was sent to Charles VII 
of France to request an extension of time 
(Fcedera, xi. 138 ; Proceedings of the Privy 
Council, vi. 51). 

As keeper of the privy seal Moleyns must 
in 1447 have sealed the warrant for the arrest 
of Suffolk's great rival, the Duke of Gloucester, 
who died a few days afterwards (STUBBS, 
Constitutional History, iii. 137, where it is 
remarked that there is nothing in the history 
of Moleyns to give probability to a charge 
of connivance at the murder of the duke). 
He received a patent from the king for the 
exportation of wool, which Henry bought 
back from him for 1,OOOZ. (RAMSAY, Lancaster 
and York, ii. 79), and also had license to 
' impark' twelve thousand acres, and to for- 
tify twelve manor-houses (STEPHENS). Le 
Mans being threatened by the French, Mo- 
leyns and Roos were commissioned in 
January 1448 to negotiate for peace or a 
truce, and went to France to do the best they 
could for the town and its garrison (RAMSAY, 
ii. 84 ; Fcedera, xi. 196, 216). They obtained 
an extension of the truce, and made terms 
for the surrender of the town. Other diffi- 
culties having arisen between England and 
France, Edmund Beaufort, duke of Somerset 
(d. 1455) [q. v.], then lieutenant of France, 
requested Charles VII to lay the matters 
before Moleyns and Roos, as more acquainted 
than he was with the arrangements between 
the two courts. By the time that his letter 
arrived the English ambassadors had left the 
French court and gone into Brittany, where 
the duke had cause of complaint against the 
English (RAMSAY, ii. 85, 86). Early in 144& 
Moleyns was engaged in negotiations with 
the Scots. The surrender of Maine and Anjou 
and the failure of Suffolk's policy caused 
general dissatisfaction in England, which was 
increased by the loss of a great part of Nor- 
mandy. Moleyns was regarded as, next to 
Suffolk, responsible for the surrender of Maine, 
and was accordingly the object of popular 
hatred. On 9 Dec. he resigned the privy 
seal, and received the king's permission to 
travel on either side of the Channel (Fcedera, 
xi. 255). He went down to Portsmouth, 
where a force was gathered for the relief of 
Normandy, to pay the men their wages, and 
lodged in the hospital called God's House. 
The men were out of control, and were 
committing all manner of excesses. A dis- 
pute arose about the payment of the sailors. 




Moleyns was accused of docking their wages, 
and is said to have spoken haughtily. The 
sailors cried out that he was a traitor, and 
had sold Normandy to the French, fell upon 
him, and ill-used him so severely that he 
died on 9 Jan. 1450. When attacked he is 
reported to have said something that was 
held to seriously reflect on Suffolk, who when 
on his trial laid the blame of the actual 
delivery of Le Mans on the murdered bishop 
(RAMSAY, ii. 118 ; Rolls of Parl. v. 176, 180). 

Some declared that Moleyns owed his death 
to his covetousness, others ascribed it, though 
without ground, to the procurement of the 
Duke of York (GREGORY, p. 189; STOW, 
Annals, p. 387), and ^Eneas Sylvius believed 
that his head was cut off (^ENEAS SYLVIUS, 
Opp. p. 443). He bequeathed some hand- 
some church, ornaments to his cathedral 
(STEPHENS). Moleyns seems to have been a 
capable and diligent politician of the second 
rank, a useful agent for carrying out the de- 
signs of greater men. The charge that he in 
any way betrayed the interests of England is 
untrue. Suffolk's policy, of which after his 
elevation he was doubtless something more 
than the agent, proved unsuccessful, and its 
failure excited popular indignation against 
him. This indignation is recorded in a con- 
temporary poem (Political Songs, ii. 234, 
where the editor wrongly attributes the re- 
ference to Robert, lord Molines, and Hunger- 
ford [q. v.] ; cf. Sir F. Madden in Archceologia } 
vol. xxix.) He was greedy of gain, though 
probably to no greater degree than most other 
politicians of his time. He evidently had a 
share in the revival of letters, and was a man 
of learning and culture ; for he was a friend 
of 'Vincent Clement' (BECKING TON, Corre- 
spondence, ii. 115), and corresponded with 
and was esteemed by yEneas Sylvius, who 
commended his literary style (^ENEAS SYL- 
VIUS, JEpp. 80, 186 : De Europa, p. 443). An 
epitaph written for him commemorates his 
prudence in affairs and his desire for peace 
(Chronicon Henrici VI, p. 38). 

[Proc. of Privy Council, vols. v. vi. passim, ed. 
Nicolas ; Rymer's Fcedera, xi. 53, 58, 60, 61, 74, 
138, 160, 196, 216, 255, ed. 1710; Rolls of Par- 
liament, v. 176, 180; Le Neve's Fasti, i. 167, 
247, ii. 448, 616, 624, ed. Hardy; Stevenson's 
Wars in France, with W. Worcester, i. 101-21, 
204, 207, ii. 583, 717, 764, 766, 771 (Rolls Ser.); 
Engl. Chron. ed. Davies, pp. 59, 61, 64 (Camden 
Soc.) ; Chron. Hen. VI, pp. 37, 38, ed. Giles ; 
Three Fifteenth-Cent, Chrons. pp. 64, 101, 151 
(Camden Soc.); Collections of London Citizen 
(Gregory), pp. 187, 189 (Camden Soc.); Beck- 
ington's Correspondence, i. 115, 117, 119 (Rolls 
Ser.) ; Stow's Annals, p. 387 ; Polit. Poems, 
ii. 234 (Rolls Ser.) ; Archseologia, vol. xxix. ; 
^Eneas Sylvius (Pius II), Opp. pp. 443, 563, 755, 

d. 1571 ; Stephens 's South Saxon See, pp. 149, 
150; Ramsay's Lane, and York, ii. 59, 79, 84-6^ 
118; Stubbs's Const. Hist. iii. 137, 143, 146; 
Gisborne Molineux's Memoir of the Molineux 
Family. For the pedigree cf. authorities under 
MOLYNEUX, SIB RICHARD (d. 1459).] W. H. 

judge, was eldest son of Sir Thomas Moly- 
neux of Haughton, Nottinghamshire, by his 
second wife, Catherine, daughter of John 
Cotton of Hamstall Ridware, Staffordshire, 
relict of Thomas Poutrell of Hallam, Derby- 
shire. He graduated B.A. at Oxford on 
1 July 1510, and about the same time en- 
tered Gray's Inn, where he was made an 
ancient in 1528, and elected Lent reader in 
1532 and 1536. On 20 Nov. 1542 he was 
called to the degree of serjeant-at-law, and 
on the coronation of Edward VI was made 
a knight of the Bath (20 Feb. 1546-7). He 
appears as one of the witnesses to the patent 
of 24 Dec. 1547, by which the powers of the 
protector Somerset were at once amplified 
and made terminable at the pleasure of the 
king, signified under the great seal. In 1549 
he was placed on the council of the north, 
and on 22 Oct. 1550 was created a justice of 
the common pleas. He appears to have been 
a sound lawyer. He died in 1552. 

Molyneux was lord of the manor of Thorpe, 
near Newark, and of lands adjoining which 
had belonged to the Knights Hospitallers 
of the Preceptory of Eagle. By his wife Jane, 
daughter of John Cheyney of Chesham Bois, 
Buckinghamshire, he had issue four sons 
one of whom, Edmund, is noticed below 
and four daughters. 

[Burke's Extinct Baronetage ; Wotton's Ba- 
ronetage, i. 148-50; Reg. Univ. Oxon. (Oxford 
Hist. Soc.), i. 70 ; Dugdale's Orig. pp. 292, 293 ; 
Chron. Ser. p. 87 ; Nicolas's Orders of Knight- 
hood, vol. iii. Chron. List, p. xiii ; Thoroton's 
Nottinghamshire, pp. 13, 179; Cal. State Papers, 
Dom. 1601-3, Addenda, 1547-65, p. 399; Ar- 
chseologia, xxx. 463 et seq. ; Strype's Mem. fol. 
vol. i. pt. i. pp. 22-3, pt. ii. p. 458; Burnet's Re- 
formation, vol. ii. pt. ii. p. 312; Visitation of 
Nottinghamshire (Harl. Soc.), iv. 72 ; Visitation 
of Huntingdonshire (Camden Soc.), p. 26 ; Plow- 
den's Reports, p. 49 ; Foss's Lives of the Judges.] 

MOLYNEUX, EDMUND (/. 1587), 
biographer, was third son of Sir Edmund 
Molyneux [q. v.] by Jane, daughter of John 
Cheney of Chesham Bois, Buckinghamshire 
(GiSBORNE MOLINEUX, Memoir of the Molt- 
neux Family, p. 30). Tanner, citing ' Cabala,' 
ed. 1663, p. 140, identifies him with ' one 
Moleneux,' who, after being in the employ 
of Sir William Cecil and misusing ' him, 
sought in August 1567 the post of secretary 




to Sir Henry Norris, the French ambas- 
sador. An Edmund Molyneux was admitted 
of Gray's Inn in 1574 (Harl. MS. 1912, 
f. 53). Edmund Molyneux became secre- 
tary to Sir Henry Sidney, and accompanied 
him to Ireland, where he acted as clerk of 
the council (Cal. State Papers, Irish Ser. 
1509-73, pp. 422, 443). Sidney did his best 
to advance his interests at court. On 20 Sept. 
1576 he wrote a long letter in his favour 
to Burghley (ib. 1574-85, p. 99), and in 
November 1576 vainly asked the privy 
council to appoint Molyneux, along with 
another, supervisor of the attorneys, who 
had 'grown very crafty and corrupt' (CoL- 
LINS, Sidney Letters and Memorials, i. 145, 
187-8, 194). In September 1578 he was 
sent by Sidney to London to report upon 
the state of Ireland. On 31 Dec. 1579 he 
petitioned the privy council for his ' despatch 
and payment after long suit' (Cal. State 
Papers, Irish Ser. 1574-85, pp. 142, 203). 

Molyneux furnished an account of Sir 
Henry, Sir Philip, Sir Robert, and Thomas 
Sidney to Holinshed's 'Chronicles' (ed. 1587, 
iii. 1548-56), in which he complained that Sir 
Henry Sidney, however he might strive, never 
succeeded in obtaining for him a comfortable 
office or reward of any kind. The enmity of 
Burghley probably retarded his advancement. 

[Cal. State Papers, Carew MSS. 1515-74, 
pp. 401, 402; Tanner's Bibl. Brit. p. 530; 
Holinshed's Chronicle, ed. 1587, iii. 1590 ; Cal. 
State Papers, Dom. 1547-80, p. 195; Collins's 
Sidney Letters and Memorials, i. 66, 210, 227, 
239, 240, 296.] G. G. 

soldier, was son of Sir Richard Molyneux 
(d. 1439), whose brother Adam Molyneux or 
Moleyns, bishop of Chichester, is separately 
noticed. The father served under Henry V in 
the French wars, and especially distinguished 
himself at Agincourt in 1415, after which 
he was knighted. He was lord of Haydike, 
Warrington, Burtonwood, and Newton-in- 
the-dale, all in Lancashire. In 3 Henry VI 
(1 Sept. 1424-31 August 1425) he had a 
feud with Thomas Stanley, and both were 
arrested for riot (GKEGSON, Portfolio of Frag- 
ments, p. 163). This Sir Richard died in 
1439 at Sefton, Lancashire, where there is a 
monument to his memory (BRIDGETS, Church 
of Sefton). He married, first, Helene, daugh- 
ter of Sir W. Harrington of Hombie, Lanca- 
shire, by whom he had two daughters ; and, 
secondly, Joan, daughter and heiress of Sir 
Gilbert Haydocke of Bradley, Lancashire, and 
widow of Sir Pyers Legh, by whom he had 
eight sons and three daughters (cf. pedigree 
in Visitation of Lancashire, 1567, Chetham 

Soc.) One of his sons, Sir Robert Molyneux, 
was in 1448 taken prisoner by the Turks- 
(Hist, of Chantries, Chetham Soc., p. 110). 

The eldest son, Richard, received, by patent 
dated 26 July 1446, the chief forestership of 
the royal forests and parks in the wapentake 
of West Derbyshire, the constableship of 
Liverpool, with which the family had long 
been connected, and stewardship of West 
Derbyshire and Salfordshire, a grant which 
was confirmed in 1459. He became a favourite 
of Henry VI, was usher of the privy chamber, 
and when, in 1458, a partial resumption of 
grants was made, a special clause exempted 
the lands of Molyneux. He sided with Henry 
in the wars of the Roses, and fell in 1459 at 
Bloore Heath (cf. DRAYTON, Polyolbion, song 
xxii). Some of the family sided with the 
Yorkists, and a confusion among them led to> 
the statement that Sir Richard joined Salis- 
bury on his march to Bloore Heath, and 
fought on the Yorkist side. Molyneux mar- 
ried Elizabeth, second daughter of Sir Tho- 
mas Stanley, and his son Sir Thomas fought 
against the Scots during Edward IV's reign, 
was knighted by Gloucester on 24 July 1482 
at the siege of Berwick, and was one of the 
pall-bearers at Edward IV's funeral. 

SIR WILLIAM MOLYNEUX (1483-1548), son 
of Sir Thomas, by his wife Anne, daughter 
and coheir of Sir Thomas Dutton, led a con- 
siderable force to serve in 1513 under his 
cousin Sir Edward Stanley at Flodden Field, 
where he took with his own hands two Scot- 
tish banners and the Earl of Huntly's arms; 
for this service he was personally thanked in 
a letter by Henry VIII. He joined Derby's 
Sallee expedition in 1536 (GAIRDNER, Letters 
and Papers, ii. 1251), and died in 1548, aged 
65, being buried in Sefton Church, where 
there is a monument and eulogistic Latin 
inscription to his memory. He was twice 
married, and his son Richard by his first 
wife, Jane, only daughter and heir of Ri- 
chard Rydge or Rugge of Ridge, Shropshire, 
was knighted at Mary's accession in 1553, 
served as sheriff of Lancashire in 1566, and 
died in 1569. He also was twice married, 
and by his first wife, Eleanor, daughter of Sir 
Alexander Radcliffe, was father of William, 
who predeceased him in 1567, and grandfather 
of Richard Molyneux, created baronet in 1611, 
who was father of Richard, first viscount 
Maryborough [q. v.] ( Visitations of Lanca- 
shire, Chetham Soc. ; BAINES, Co. Lancaster, 
iv. 216-17 ; cf. also Letters and Papers, ed. 
Brewer and ed. Gairdner, passim ; Ducatus 
Lancastrice, passim ; HALL, Chronicle, p. 240 ; 
STOAV, p. 405 ; STRYPE, Index ; METCALFE, 
Book of Knights: WEBER, Battle ofFlodden y 
and authorities quoted below.) 




[The following of the Chetham. Society's pub- 
lications contain particulars of the Molyneux 
family: Correspondence of the third Earl of 
Derby, Lancashire Funeral Certificates, Visita- 
tions of Lancashire, 1533 and 1567, Wills and 
Inventories, Norris Papers, Hist, of Chantries; 
Proceedings of Historic Society of Lancashire 
and Cheshire, vols. iv. v. vi. ; Eymer's Fcedera ; 
Holinshed's Chronicle, p. 649 ; Eamsay's Lan- 
caster and York, ii. 215; Baines's Lancashire 
and Cheshire Past and Present, i. 377 ; Baines's 
County of Lancaster, passim j Bridgens's Church 
of Sefton ; Ashcroft's Description of the Church 
of Sefton, pp. 14-24 ; Britton's Lancashire ; 
Gregson's Fragments, passim.] A. F. P. 

COUNT MARYBOROUGH (1593-1636), born in 
1593, was eldest surviving son of Sir Richard 
Molyneux of Sefton in Lancashire, and Fran- 
ces, eldest daughter of Sir Gilbert Gerard 
[q. v.], master of the rolls. Sir Richard Moly- 
neux (d. 1459) [q. v.] was his ancestor. He 
succeeded his father as receiver-general of 
the duchy of Lancaster, and on 22 Dec. 
1628 he was advanced to the peerage of Ire- 
land as Viscount Molyneux of Maryborough, 
in consideration of his distinguished merit 
and ancient extraction. He died on 8 May 
1636, and was buried at Sefton. He married 
Mary, daughter and coheiress of Sir Tho- 
mas Caryll of Bentons in Shipley, Sussex, by 
whom he had issue : Richard, second viscount 
Maryborough (see below) ; Caryll, third vis- 
count ; Frances, who died young ; Char- 
lotte, who married Sir William Stanley of 
Hooton in Cheshire ; and Mary, who married 
Sir George Selby of Whitehouse in the dio- 
cese of Durham. Shortly after his death his 
widow married Raphael Tarter ean, carver to 
the queen, and died in 1639, at her house in 
St. Martin's Lane in the Fields. 

MARYBOROUGH (1617 P-1654?), eldest son of 
the above, was born about 1617. On 20 June 

1642 he attended the commission of array on 
Preston Moor, and assisted at the seizure of 
the magazine at Preston. On the outbreak 
of the civil war he raised two regiments, one 
of horse and the other of foot, composed 
chiefly of Roman catholics, for the service 
of the king, forming part of the Lancashire 
forces under the command of the Earl of 
Derby. He was present at the siege of Man- 
chester in September 1642, and on 20 April 

1643 was defeated by Captain Ashton at 
Whalley. After the 'surprise of Wakefield 
on 21 May 1643, the Earl of Derby being 
then with the queen at York, Molyneux was 
ordered to conduct the Lancashire forces 
thither. He was defeated on 20 Aug. 1644 
by Major-general Sir John Meldrum [q. v.] 
at Ormskirk, and narrowly escaped capture 

by hiding in a field of corn. He was at Ox- 
ford on 24 June 1646, when the city surren- 
dered to the parliament. On 30 June 1648 
a warrant was signed by the committee of 
Derby House for his arrest, as having, con- 
trary to an ordinance of parliament, ap- 
proached within twenty miles of London. 
He was suspected of being concerned in the 
rising of the royalist gentry at Kingston on 
5 July, but four days later an order was 
issued for his discharge. He joined Charles II 
on his march to Worcester, and escaped after 
the battle on 3 Sept. 1651, but died shortly 
afterwards, probably in 1654. He married 
the Lady Frances Seymour, eldest daughter 
of William, marquis of Hertford, but had no 
issue, and was succeeded by his brother, 
BOROUGH (1621-1699), who played an active 
part during the civil war on the royalist 
side. His estate was sequestrated by the 
Commonwealth, but after the Restoration he 
lived in great splendour at Croxteth, near 
Liverpool. In the reign of James II, by 
whom he was constituted lord-lieutenant 
and custos rotulorum of the county of Lan- 
caster, and admiral of the Narrow Seas, he was 
the centre of a number of catholic intrigues, 
and in 1688 he appeared in arms against 
William. He was deprived by the revolu- 
tion of his offices and the greater part of his 
influence. He was arrested on 17 July 1694, 
with other catholic gentlemen of Lancashire, 
on a charge of high treason, was tried by a 
special commission at Manchester, and ac- 
quitted. He died on 2 Feb. 1698-9 (or ac- 
cording to Luttrell 1699-1700), and was 
buried at Sefton. He had issue by his wife 
Mary, daughter of Sir Alexander Barlow of 
Barlow in Lancashire, Richard, who pre- 
deceased him ; Caryll, who died young ; 
William (1656-1717), fourth viscount Mary- 
borough ; Mary, wife of Sir Thomas Preston 
of Furness f Frances, wife of Sir Neil O'Neill 
of Killileagh, co. Antrim ; Margaret, who 
married first Jenico, seventh viscount Gor- 
manstown, second Robert Casey, esq., third 
James Butler of Killveloigher in co. Tip- 
perary ; Elizabeth, wife of Edward Widdring- 
ton of Horsley, Northumberland ; and Anne, 
wife of William Widdrington of Cheeseburn 
Grange in the same county. 

[Lodge's Peerage, ed. Archdall, iii. 254-5 ; 
Berry's County Genealogies, Sussex, p. 359 ; 
Docld's Church Hist. iii. 51 ; Cal. State Papers, 
Dom. Ser. 1636 p. 413, 1637-8 pp. 183, 225, 
1639 pp. 308, 359, 385, 1644 p. 443, 1648-9 
pp. 148, 165, 178 ; Baines's Hist, of the County 
of Lancaster ; Gregson's Portfolio of Fragments ; 
Seacome's Hist, of the House of Stanley ; St. 
George's Visitation of Lancaster, 1613 (Chetham 




Soc.) ; Civil War Tracts of Lancashire (ib.) ; 
Lancashire Lieutenancy under the Stuarts (ib.) ; 
Norris Papers (ib.) ; Lancashire Funeral Certifi- 
cates (ib.) ; Dugdale's Visitation of Lancaster 
(ib.) ; Trials at Manchester in ] 694 (ib.) ; Hib- 
bert's Hist, of the Collegiate Church, Manches- 
ter, i. 192 ; Luttrell's Kelation of State Affairs; 
Kingston's True History of the Several Designs 
and Conspiracies against William III ; Grisborne 
Molineux's Memoir of the Molineux Family ; 
Hist. MSS. Comm. 3rd Eep. pp. 148, 150, 4th 
Eep. p. 409, 5th Eep. pp. 142, 278, 293, 7th 
Eep. pp. 18, 190, 502.] E. D. 

MOLYNEUX, SAMUEL (1689-1728), 
astronomer and politician, born at Ches- 
ter on 18 July 1689, was the only child 
of William Molyneux [q. v.] who survived 
infancy. His father zealously undertook his 
education on Locke's principles, but died in 
1698, leaving him to the care of his uncle, Dr. 
(afterwards Sir) Thomas Molyneux (1661 
1733) [q. v.] He had lost his mother in 
1691. Matriculating in his sixteenth year 
at Trinity College, Dublin, he there formed 
a friendship with George Berkeley (1685- 
1753) [q. v.], who dedicated to him in 1707 
his ' Miscellanea Mathematical Having gra- 
duated 1708 and M.A. in 1710, Moly- 
neux devoted two years to the improvement 
of his estate in co. Armagh, then quitted Ire- 
land, and visited the universities of Oxford 
and Cambridge, and the seats of some of the 
English nobility. He met with much civility 
from the Duke and Duchess of Marlborough 
at Antwerp during the winter of 1712 -1 3, and 
was sent by the former in 1714 on a political 
mission to the court of Hanover, where he 
witnessed, in the Herrenhausen Garden, the 
sudden death of the Electress Sophia on 
8 June 1714 (CoxE, Life of Marlborough, iii. 
360, Wade's edition). He accompanied the 
royal family to England after the death of 
Queen Anne, and was made secretary to the 
Prince of Wales, a post which he retained 
until the prince became George II. 

Molyneux married in 1717 Lady Elizabeth 
Capel, eldest daughter of Algernon, second 
earl of Essex. Her fortune was 10,000/., and 
she inherited 18,000/. with Kew House, on the 
death, in 1721, of Lady Capel of Tewkesbury, 
her great-uncle's widow. They had no chil- 
dren. The cultivation of astronomy and optics 
now engaged Molyneux's efforts. He made 
the acquaintance of James Bradley [q. v.], 
and experimented with his assistance, from 
1723 to 1725, on the construction of reflecting 
telescopes of Newtonian design. Their first 
successful speculum, completed in May 1724, 
was of twenty-six inches focus. They after- 
wards turned out one of eight feet, and 
Molyneux presented to John V, king of Por- 

tugal, a reflector made by himself, described 
and figured in Smith's * Optics/ ii. 363, plate 
liii. His communication of the perfected 
process to Scarlett, the king's optician, and 
Hearne, a mathematical instrument maker 
in Whitefriars, was the means of bringing 
reflecting telescopes into general use. 

In 1725 Molyneux resolved to repeat 
Hooke's attempts to determine stellar annual 
parallax [see HOOKB, EGBERT], and ordered 
from Graham a zenith-sector of twenty-four 
feet radius, with an arc of only 25 ', showing 
single seconds by the aid of a vernier. It 
was mounted on 26 Nov. 1725 in his private 
observatory at Kew House, and the obser- 
vations of y Draconis made with it by him 
and Bradley from 3 Dec. 1725 to 29 Dec. 
1727 led to the latter's discovery of the 
aberration of light. Molyneux assisted in 
setting up Bradley's sector at Wanstead on 
19 Aug. 1727, but was unable to prosecute 
the inquiry much further, owing to the 
pressure of public business ensuing upon his 
appointment, on 29 July 1727, as one of the 
lords of the admiralty. He formed schemes 
for the improvement of the navy, which his 
colleagues actively opposed, and these con- 
trarieties perhaps hastened the development 
of brain disease inherited from his mother. 
He was seized with a fit in the House of 
Commons, and, after lingering a few days in 
stupor, died on 13 April 1728, at the age of 
thirty-eight. He was a man of winning 
manners and, obliging temper, and united 
Irish wit to social accomplishments. His 
inflexible integrity seemed alone to stand 
in the way of his high advancement. He was 
a privy councillor both in England and Ire- 
land, represented the boroughs of Bossiney 
and St. Mawes, and the city of Exeter in the 
English parliaments of 1715, 1726, and 1727 
respectively, and was returned in 1727 to 
the parliament of Ireland as member for the 
university of Dublin. He was elected a fellow 
of the Royal Society in 1712. Some time 
before his death he gave his optical collec- 
tions and papers to Dr. Robert Smith of 
Cambridge, inviting him to live in his house 
and complete his proposed investigations. 
The resulting work on ' Optics/ Cambridge, 
1738, included a chapter by Molyneux on 
'The Method of Grinding and Polishing 
Glasses for Telescopes/ and one begun by him 
but finished by John Hadley [q. v.] on ' The 
Casting and Polishing of Specula.' Moly- 
neux's description of his zenith-sector and 
journal of the Kew observations were printed 
by Rigaud in 1832 among Bradley's ' Miscel- 
laneous Works.' Subsequently to the death 
of Molyneux's widow, on 27 May 1730, Kew 
House was leased by Frederick, prince of 




Wales. It was demolished in 1804, and a 
sundial, erected by William IV in 1834, 
now commemorates the observations made 
there. Nothing is known as to the fate of 
the Kew sector. 

[Sir Capel Molyneux's Account of the Family 
of Sir Thomas Molyneux, 1820; Biog. Brit, 
vol.v. 1760 ; Button's Mathematical Diet. 1815 ; 
Bradley's Miscellaneous Works, p. xxix ; De- 
lambre's Hist, de 1'Astronomie au XVIII 6 Siecle, 
p. 414 ; Wolfs Geschichte der Astronomie, 
p. 484; Manning and Bray's Hist, of Surrey, i. 
446 ; R. H. Scott on Hist, of Kew Observatory, 
Proc. of Koy. Soc. xxxix. 37 ; Chron. Diary in 
Hist. Reg. for 1728, p. 23; Hist. MSS. Comm. 
llth Rep. pt. iii. pp. 31-40.] A. M. C. 

MAS (1531-1597), chancellor of exchequer 
in Ireland, was born at Calais in 1531. His 
parents, of whom he was the only child, died 
while he was young, and he was brought up 
by John Brishin, an alderman of Calais. 
When that town was taken from the English 
by the Duke of Guise in 1558, Molyneux was 
made prisoner. Having ransomed himself by 
payment of five hundred crowns, he removed 
to Bruges, and there married Catherine Sta- 
beort, daughter of an opulent burgomaster, 
portraits of both of whom are in the posses- 
sion of Molyneux's descendants. On account 
of Alva's persecutions Molyneux removed to 
London in 1568, and in 1576 settled in Dublin 
(extract from ' Memoranda,' Roll of Excheq. 
of Ireland, p. 4). In 1578 he received a grant 
in connection with the town of Swords near 
that city, and was employed as surveyor of 
victuals for the army in Ireland and as deputy 
to the collector of customs on wines there. 
He was appointed chancellor of the ex- 
chequer in Ireland in 1590, and in the suc- 
ceeding year obtained the office of receiver of 
customs and imposts on wines. At this time 
he contributed 40/. towards the building of 
Trinity College, Dublin. In consequence 
of an impugnment of the legality of Moly- 
neux's official employment under the queen, 
on the allegation that he was an alien, an 
inquiry was instituted in the court of ex- 
chequer at Dublin in 1594. Witnesses ex- 
amined there, before the attorney-general, 
deposed that Molyneux was an Englishman, 
born in Calais, while that town was under 
the crown of England ; that he was a true 
and loyal subject, ' of Christian religion, 
using sermons and other goodly exercises ' 
(ib. p. 4). Molyneux died at Dublin on 24 Jan. 
1596-7, and was buried there in the cathe- 
dral of Christ Church. He left two daugh- 
ters and two sons, Samuel and Daniel, both 
of whom sat in the Irish parliament of 1613 : 
Samuel became surveyor-general of buildings 

and works in Ireland, and Daniel (1568-1632) 
was Ulster king-of-arms, and by Jane, daugh- 
ter of Sir William Usher, had eight children, 
of whom the third, Samuel, was father of 
William and Sir Thomas, who are noticed 

[Chancery and Exchequer Records, Dublin ; 
Extract from the Memoranda Roll of the Ex- 
chequer of Ireland, privately printed at Evesham, 
1850 (?;, 4to ; Account of Sir T. Molyneux, 1820; 
Carew MSS. 1589-1600, p. 255; Gal. State 
Papers, Ireland, 1592-6 ; Lascelles, Liber Mu- 
nerum, vol. i. pt. ii. p. 48.] J. T. G-. 

1733), physician, brother of William Moly- 
neux [q. v.], was born in Dublin, 14 April 
1661. He was educated at Dr. Henry Rider's 
school in Dublin, and entered Trinity College, 
Dublin, in 1676. He graduated M. A. and M.B. 
in 1683, and then started for Ley den in order 
to extend his medical knowledge before pro- 
ceeding to the degree of M.D. He sailed 
from Dublin in the first week of May 1683, 
rested at Chester for five days, and was in- 
troduced to Bishop Pearson [q. v.], whom he 
at once recognised from the frontispiece of 
his ' Treatise on the Creed.' On 12 May he 
arrived in London and took lodgings at the 
Flower de Luce, near St. Dunstan's Church 
in Fleet Street. He called on Nehemiah 
Grew [q. v.], and there met Thomas Burnet 
[q.v.], author of ' TheoriaTelluris,' and Robert 
Boyle [q. v.], at whose house he made the ac- 
quaintance of Sir William Petty [q. v.] Soon 
after he was introduced to Dr. Edward 
Browne [q. v.], and on 23 May attended a 
meeting of the Royal Society in Gresham 
College and saw Sir Isaac Newton, John 
Evelyn, and Dr. Edward Tyson [q. v.] He 
enjoyed the conversation of all these famous 
men as well as that of John Flamsteed [q. v.], 
the astronomer. Early in June he visited 
Eton and saw King William and Queen Mary 
at supper at Windsor, and later in the month 
met Dryden in London. He went to Cam- 
bridge, where he saw 'that extraordinary 
platonick philosopher,' Dr. Henry More, and 
was surprised at the purple gowns of the 
Trinity undergraduates. On 17 July he went 
to Oxford, attended a lecture of Dr. Luff, the 
professor of physic, on the first aphorism of 
Hippocrates, and made the acquaintance of 
several learned men. On 20 July he sailed 
from Billingsgate to Rotterdam, visited Am- 
sterdam, Haarlem, and Utrecht, and finally 
entered at the university of Leyden. While 
there next year he met Locke, who afterwards 
wrote a letter to him from Utrecht on 22 Dec. 
1684, thanking him for his kindness. In 
the 'Philosophical Transactions,' No. 168, he 
published an essay on a human frontal bone 




in the museum at Leyden, of extreme size 
and thickness, an example either of Parrot's 
disease or of the osteitis deformans of Paget. 
On 14 March 1685 he made a report to the 
Royal Society on the collections of Swam- 
merdam and Hermann, and in the same year 
went to Paris, where he stayed till his return 
to London in March 1686. In April 1687 
he returned to Dublin, there graduated M.D., 
and on 3 Nov. 1687 was elected F.R*S. 
The troubles of the times led him to move to 
Chester and begin practice there, but in 1690, 
after the battle of the Boyne, he came back 
to Dublin, lived in his father's house, and 
practised as a physician. He kept up his 
correspondence with Locke, who sometimes 
consulted him, and with other learned ac- 
quaintances, and in the new charter to the 
Irish College of Physicians, 15 Dec. 1692, he 
is named as a fellow. His practice was so 
successful that in 1693 he bought an estate 
of 100/. a year. In the same year (Phil. 
Trans. No. 202) he published an essay on 
calculus, and in 1698 a further paper on the 
same subject. He married in 1693 Catha- 
rine Howard, daughter of Dr. Robert Howard, 
a lady accomplished as a painter. In 1694 
he published in the ' Philosophical Transac- 
tions ' a medical essay ' On the late Coughs 
and Colds,' and shortly after ' Notes on the 
Giant's Causeway,' the first publication in 
which the opinion that it is a natural pro- 
duction and not a work of man is maintained. 
He had a drawing made of it, and in a 
second paper (ib. No. 241) describes the de- 
tails of drawing. He was interested in all 
parts of natural science, and having found 
in the stomach of a codfish a specimen of 
Aphrodite aculeata, an annulate animal with 
iridescent hairs, he dissected it and sent 
an account of its anatomy in a letter to 
Locke, who forwarded it to the Royal So- 
ciety. It is the earliest account of the struc- 
ture of the sea mouse, and is printed in the 
'Philosophical Transactions,' No. 225. In 
April 1696 he published the first scientific 
account of the Irish elk (Cervus megaceros), 
1 A Discourse concerning the large Horns fre- 
quently found underground in Ireland.' He 
also published a letter to Dr. Ashe, bishop 
of Clogher, ' On the Swarms of Insects of late 
years seen in the County Longford.' His 
brother "William, to whom he was deeply 
attached, died in 1698, and Locke wrofe 
him a consolatory letter on the occasion. 
In 1699 he again visited London and was 
painted by Kneller. The picture is preserved 
in Trinity College, Dublin. He next pub- 
lished (Phil. Trans. No. 261) an essay on 
giants, and in 1701 * Notes on an Epidemic 
of Eye-disease which occurred at Castletown 

Delvin, co. Westmeath,' followed in 1702 by 
a ' Letter on the Lyre of the Greeks and 
Romans.' On 19 Oct. 1702 he was elected 
president of the College of Physicians of 
Ireland, and held the same olfice in 1709, 
1713, and 1720. In 1711 he built himself a 
large town house in Peter Street, Dublin, 
and in 1715 he was appointed state physician 
in Ireland, and in January 1717 professor of 
medicine in the university of Dublin. He 
was also physician-general to the army. He 
did not conclude his scientific writings, but 
published in 1715 an account of an elephant's 
jaw found in Cavan, and in 1725 ' A Dis- 
course on Danish Forts.' In 1727 he wrote, 
but did not print, ' Some Observations on the 
Taxes paid by Ireland to support the Go- 
vernment.' On 30 July 1730 he was created 
a baronet, and his successor in title is seated 
at Castle Dillon, co. Armagh. He had six- 
teen children. He died in 1733, and is buried 
in Armagh Cathedral, where there is a fine 
statue of him by Roubiliac (Notes and Queries f 
3rd ser. xviii. 114). His published observa- 
tions show him to have been an excellent 
physician. Several of his zoological papers 
are the first upon their subjects, and he took 
an active interest in every branch of learning, 
and delighted in the society of all learned men. 
He occupied a position in Ireland resembling 
that of Richard Mead [q. v.] in England, but 
in mental activity, as well as in the highest 
qualities included in the term ' good breed- 
ing,' he excelled Mead. 

[Dublin University Magazine, vol. xviii., where 
many of his letters are printed in full ; Locke's 
Works ; Chalmers's Biog. Diet. ; A. Webb's Com- 
pendium of Irish Biography; Sir C. A. Cameron's 
Hist, of the Royal College of Surgeons in Ire- 
land ; Works.] N. M. 

MOLYNEUX, WILLIAM (1656-1698), 
philosopher, was born at his father's house 
in New Row, Dublin, on 17 April 1656. He 
was the eldest surviving son of Samuel Moly- 
neux (1616-1693) by Margaret, daughter and 
coheiress of William Dowdall, esq., of Dublin. 
The family was descended from Sir Thomas 
Molyneux [q. v.], chancellor of the Irish ex- 
chequer in 1590. The father, a gentleman 
of property in several counties, had acquired 
considerable fame as a master-gunner during 
the rebellion, particularly at the battle of 
Ross in 1643 (CAKTE, Life of Ormonde, i. 405), 
and afterwards as an experimentalist in the 
science of gunnery, on which .subject he pub- 
lished a treatise when seventy years of age ; 
j he died on 23 Jan. 1693. A younger son, Sir 
Thomas Molyneux (1661-1 733), is separately 
noticed. After receiving a good elementary 
education, William entered Trinity College, 
Dublin, on 10 April 1671, and was placed 




under the tuition of Dr. "William Palliser 
[q. v.], afterwards archbishop of Cashel (TAY- 
LOK, Dublin Univ. p. 377). Having graduated 
B.A. he quitted the university with credit, 
and proceeding to London entered the Middle 
Temple as a student of law on 23 June 1675. 
The heir to an easy fortune, and having no 
particular predilection for law, he devoted 
himself chiefly to philosophy and applied 
mathematics. In June 1678 he returned to 
Dublin, and with his father's consent mar- 
ried, on 19 Sept., Lucy, youngest daughter of 
Sir William Domvile, attorney-general of Ire- 
land. Mrs. Molyneux was a lady of remark- 
able beauty and of an amiable disposition, 
but unfortunately, only three months after 
her marriage, she was attacked by an illness 
which not only deprived her of sight, but 
until her death, thirteen years later, caused 
her intolerable pain. Molyneux himself suf- 
fered from an hereditary affection of the kid- 
neys, which seriously interfered with his en- 
joyment of life, and was eventually the cause 
of his premature death. 

After some time spent in England in the 
vain endeavour to obtain medical relief for 
his wife, Molyneux settled down in Dublin. 
He resumed his philosophical studies, and 
during the winter of 1679 he made an English 
version of Descartes's 'Meditations,' which 
was published in London in April 1680. His 
interest in optics and astronomy was stimu- 
lated by a correspondence which he opened 
with John Flamsteed [q. v.], astronomer royal, 
in 1681. This intercourse continued till 
1692, when, according to Molyneux, Flam- 
steed broke off relations with him owing to 
some offence Molyneux had given him in his 
'Dioptrica Nova? In the summer of 1682 
he was engaged in collecting materials for a 
* Description of Ireland/ to form part of 
Moses Pitt's ' Atlas ; ' it was never pub- 
lished owing to Pitt's failure to carry out 
his project. Among others with whom he in 
this way became acquainted was Roderick 
O'Flaherty [q. v.], whom he assisted in the 
publication of his <Ogygia/and Peter Walsh 
[q.v.], to whom he owed an introduction to 
the Duke of Ormonde. His interest in science, 
and the example furnished by the Royal So- 
ciety, led him to take an active part in the 
foundation in 1683 of the Dublin Philo- 
sophical Society, the precursor of the Royal 
Irish Academy, of which he was the first 
secretary, and Sir William Petty [q. v.], the 
first president. 

By the influence of the Duke of Ormonde 
Molyneux was in 1684 appointed, jointly with 
(Sir) William Robinson, chief engineer and 
surveyor-general of the king's buildings and 
works, in which capacity he built that part 

of Dublin Castle which stands upon the Piazza, 
with the turrets to the south ; but he was 
ejected from oflice in 1688 by Tyrconnel on 
account of his religion. In 1685 he was 
elected a fellow of the Royal Society; and 
it being his intention that summer to visit 
his brother, Thomas (afterwards Sir Thomas) 
Molyneux [q. v.], at Leyden, he received a 
concordatum of 100/. from the Irish govern- 
ment to enable him to view and make draughts 
of the principal fortresses in Flanders. He 
left Dublin on 13 May, and meeting at Calais 
Viscount Mountjoy he travelled with him 
through the Netherlands and parts of Ger- 
many and France, including Paris, where, 
by means of letters of recommendation from 
Flamsteed, he made the acquaintance of the 
astronomer Cassini and other eminent men 
of science. 

He returned to Ireland at the end ol 
September, and was almost immediately 
prostrated by a severe illness. Early in the 
following year (1686) he published his ' Scio- 
thericum Telescopicum : or, A New Con- 
trivance of adapting a Telescope to a Hori- 
zontal Dial,' with a dedication to the lord- 
lieutenant, the Earl of Clarendon, in which 
he raised the question < whether the natural 
philosophy formerly professed in the schools 
or that which is at present prosecuted by the 
societies lately instituted in several of the 
most noted parts of Europe be the true phi- 
losophy or method of investigating nature ? ' 
The telescopic dial itself never came into 
general use, and was practically condemned 
by Flamsteed. On the appearance of Sir 
Isaac Newton's ' Principia ' in 1687 Moly- 
neux candidly admitted that his knowledge 
of mathematics was not sufficient to enable 
him to understand it. Becoming alarmed at 
the policy of proscription pursued by Tyr- 
connel, and dreading a repetition of the 
horrors of 1641, he retired on 31 Jan. 1689, 
with his wife, to Chester, where he resided 
in a little house outside the north gate for 
nearly two years. There he wrote the 
greater part of his ' Dioptrica Nova/ in which 
he was assisted by Flamsteed. The book, 
which was for a long time the standard work 
on optics, was published at London in 1692, 
the sheets being revised by Edmund Halley 
[q. v.] the astronomer, who, at Molyneux's 
request, allowed his celebrated theorem for 
finding the foci of optic glasses to be printed 
in the appendix. A passage in the Epistle 
Dedicatory in warm commendation of Locke's 
' Essay on the Human Understanding ' ob- 
tained grateful acknowledgment from that 
philosopher, and was the beginning of a 
long and friendly correspondence between 
them (see Some Familiar Letters between 




Mr. Locke and several of his Friends, London, 

Immediately after the battle of the Boyne 
(1 July 1690) Molyneux paid a hurried visit 
to his old father, who had persisted in remain- 
ing in Dublin. On his return through Wales 
he was mistaken by the Denbighshire militia 
for William Molyneux, eldest son of Lord 
Molyneux, for whose apprehension 500/. re- 
ward had been offered ; but having proved 
his identity he was, after a brief detention, 
allowed to proceed on his journey. In De- 
cember 1690 he was suddenly recalled to Dub- 
lin by the news that he had been placed on 
a commission for stating the accounts of the 
army. He was shortly afterwards rejoined 
by his wife and infant son, but recent events 
had proved too much for her delicate con- 
stitution, and on 9 May 1691 she died. A 
parliament, the first with the exception of 
Tyrconnel's convention that had met for 
twenty-six years, having been summoned for 
October 1692, Molyneux was returned as 
one of the representatives of Dublin Uni- 
versity. In the discussion on the right of 
the commons to originate money bills Moly- 
neux appears to have played a neutral part, 
for shortly before the dissolution he was nomi- 
nated a commissioner of forfeited estates, with 
a salary of 400/. a year. But the ill repu- 
tation of the commissioners with whom he 
was to act induced him to decline the ap- 
pointment, and his conduct, which was highly 
applauded, led to a reconstitution of the 
board. In July 1693 Trinity College con- 
ferred on him its honorary degree of LL.D., 
and in 1695 he was again chosen to represent 
the university in parliament. He was assidu- 
ous in his attention to his parliamentary 
duties, and during the absence of the lords 
justices Gal way and Winchester in the winter 
of 1697-8 he shared the responsibility of go- 
vernment with the lord chancellor, John 
Methuen [q. v.], and the lord mayor, Mr. Van 

From his correspondence with Locke it 
appears that Molyneux was at this time en- 
gaged in investigating the effect that the 
recent legislation of the English parliament 
was having on the linen and woollen in- 
dustries of Ireland. His interest in the 
matter moved Molyneux to publish early in 
1698 the work by which he is best known 
viz. ' The Case of Ireland's being bound by 
Acts of Parliament in England stated.' It 
was, he admitted to Locke (Familiar Letters, 

L269), ' a nice subject,' but he thought he 
d treated it with discretion, and conse- 
quently had not hesitated to put his name 
to it and even to dedicate it to his majesty. 
None the less, he thought it prudent, till he 

saw how it was taken by the English parlia- 
ment, not to cross the Channel, for though 
* not apprehensive of any mischief from them, 
yet God only knows what resentments cap- 
tious men may take on such occasions.' In 
substance the book is based on the treatise, 
'A Declaration setting forth how and by 
what means the Laws and Statutes of Eng- 
land from time to time came to be in force in 
Ireland,' attributed by some to Patrick Darcy 
[q. v.] and by others to Sir Richard Bolton 
[q. v.] But Molyneux's effort has special 
value of its own as an attempt to prove the 
legislative independence of the Irish parlia- 
ment. It made an immediate sensation, and 
two replies were at once forthcoming viz. 
' A Vindication of the Parliament of Eng- 
land,' &c., by John Cary [q. v.], London, 
1698, and l The History and Reasons of the 
Dependency of Ireland,' &c., by William 
Atwood [q. v.], London, 1698. The Irish 
government was supposed to have given 
some encouragement to its publication, and 
Methuen, as if to divert responsibility from 
the Irish ministry, himself introduced it to 
the notice of the English House of Commons 
on 21 May 1698 (VERNON, Letters, ii. 83). 
The business was referred to a committee. 
On 22 June the committee reported, and it 
was unanimously resolved ' that the said book 
was of dangerous consequence to the crown 
and parliament of England ' (Parl. Hist. 
v. 1181). An address embodying the reso- 
lution was presented to the king (Journals, 
House of Commons, xii. 337) ; but there ap- 
pears to be no ground for Macaulay's opinion 
(Hist, of England, v. 60) that Molyneux 
himself stood in any personal danger, or for 
the general belief that the book was con- 
demned to be burnt by the common hangman. 
About the beginning of July Molyueux 
went to England in fulfilment of a long- 
standing promise to visit Locke. ' I reckon it 
the happiest scene of my whole life,' he wrote 
(Familiar Letters, p. 272), in reference to 
his meeting with Locke and to the time he 
spent with him at Oates and in London. 
Ele reached Dublin again on 15 Sept., but 
shortly afterwards he was attacked with a 
severe fit of the stone. He died on 11 Oct. 
I 1698, and was buried beside his wife, in the 
tomb of his great-grandfather, Sir William 
Ussher, in the north aisle of St. Audoen's 
; Church, Dublin, where a monument with a 
long Latin inscription (cf. GILBERT, Hist . of 
1 Dublin, i. 283) was erected to his memory. 
The monument was removed by his grand- 
! nephew, Sir Capel Molyneux, in order to be 
repaired, but owing to Sir Capel's death soon 
; afterwards it was never replaced. In 1869 
! a tablet was fixed in the church on its site 




by a niece of Sir Capel's wife, the widow of 
the Hon. Henry Caulfeild (Notes and Queries, 
4th ser. v. 291). The new inscription de- 
scribes Molyneux as one ' whom Locke was 
proud to call his friend.' In appearance 
Molyneux was said somewhat to have re- 
Died Locke (Familiar Letters, p. 172), 
<\rhom in his will, by a clause written 
\vith his own hand, he bequeathed ' the sum 
of five pounds to buy him a ring, in memory 
of the value and esteem I had for him ' (ib. 
p. 292). 

A portrait of Molyneux hangs in the exa- 
mination hall, Trinity College, Dublin, beside 
that of Archbishop King. There is also an 
engraved portrait by Simms prefixed to ' The 
Case of Ireland,' Dublin, 1725. 

Molyneux had two sons, of whom Samuel 
Molyneux [q. v.] survived him. In addition 
to the works already mentioned, Molyneux 
contributed some papers to the Royal Society, 
which were printed in the ' Philosophical 
Transactions,' 1686-9. < A Journal of the 
Three Months' Royal Campaign of His Ma- 
jesty in Ireland ; with a Diary of the Siege 
of Lymerick,' London, 1690, is wrongly attri- 
buted to him. 

[The chief authority for the life of Molyneux 
is a short account written by himself in 1694, at 
the request of his brother Thomas, edited and 
printed for private circulation at Evesham in 
1820 by Sir Capel Molyneux. The best life, 
and that on which the life in the Biographia 
Britannica is based, was contributed by the Rev. 
John Madden in 1738 to Bayle's General Dic- 
tionary (English translation, with additions, 
London, 1734-41), where also is an interesting 
series of letters between Molyneux and Flam- 
steed, communicated by James Hodgson [q. v.], 
who married a niece of Flamsteed. The ori- 
ginals of these letters, with others of Samuel 
Molyneux, subsequently found their way into 
the possession of the corporation of the town 
of Southampton (Hist. MS3. Comm. 1 1th Eep. 
App. iii. p. 31). See also Molyneux's corre- 
spondence with Locke, now in the possession of 
Alfred Morrison, esq. (Hist. MSS. Comm. 9th 
Eep. App. p. 409), but printed in Some Familiar 
Letters between Mr. Locke and several of his 
Friends, London, 1708 ; Letters to Sir H. 
Sloane, in Sloane MS. 4053, if. 175, 177, 181, 
183 ; Molyneux's own works, particularly 
Dioptrica Nova; Birch's Hist, of the Royal So- 
ciety, London, 1756-7, vol. iv. ; Weld's History 
of the Royal Society ; James Vernon's Letters, 
illustrative of the reign of William III ; Notes 
and Queries, 1870.] R. D. 

NAGH, CAHIR MAC ART, d. 1554.] 

MOLYNS, JOHN (d. 1591), divine, 
born in Somerset, was made probationary 
fellow of Magdalen College, Oxford, 1541, 

and proceeded B.A. 1541, M.A. 1545, D.D. 
1565-6. In Queen Mary's reign he left for 
Zurich, after Bishop Gardiner's visitation of 
his college, and at Frankfort was reader in 
Greek to the exiled English. He returned 
to England in Elizabeth's reign, and was 
appointed in 1559 canon of St. Paul's and 
archdeacon of London. In February 1561 he 
was collated to the rectory of Theydon Ger- 
non, Essex, and in May 1577 to the rectory of 
Booking, Essex. He was made dean of Bock- 
ing in October 1583, along with Dr. Still. 
He died in June 1591, and was buried in the 
north aisle of St. Paul's Cathedral. By his 
will he left 200/. to purchase lands to endow 
an exhibition for two scholars at Magdalen 
College. He is said to have published seve- 
ral books and sermons, but there is extant 
only ' Carmina Latina et Graeca in Mortem 
duorum fratrum Suffolciensium, Henrici et 
Caroli Brandon/ 1552, 4to. 

[Strype's Works, passim, vide Index, sub 
'Mullings;' Wood's Athenae Oxon. ed. Bliss, 
i. 581, ii. 8, 34; Tanner's Bibliotheca, p. 530; 
Register of the University of Oxford (Boase), 
i. 200 ; Newcourt's Repertorium, i. 63, 171, 309, 
687, ii. 68-9, 584 ; Dugdale's Hist, of St. Paul's, 
p. 105.] R. B. 

1651 ?), politician, born in 1584, was son of 
Thomas Mompesson of Bathampton, Wilt- 
shire (d. 1587), by his second wife, Honor, 
daughter of Giles Estcourt of Salisbury 
(HoARE, Wiltshire, i. ii. 219 Heytesbury 
Hundred}. He had two brothers, Thomas 
(1587-1640) and John (d. 1645), rector of 
Codford St. Mary (ib. p. 232; Harl MS. 
1443, fol. 161 ; CRISP, Somersetshire Wills, 
4th ser. 28, 6th ser. 14). With a first cousin, 
Jasper Mompesson, two years his senior, Giles 
matriculated from Hart Hall, Oxford, on 
24 Oct. 1600 (Oaf. Univ. Reg., Oxf. Hist. Soc., 
II. ii. 242 ; cf. Cal. State Papers,T)om. 1603- 
1610, p. 511). Neither seems to have taken 
a degree. About 1612 Mompesson married 
Catharine, a younger daughter of Sir John 
St. John of Lydiard Tregooze. The lady's 
elder sister, Barbara, was already the wife 
of Sir Edward Villiers, the half-brother of 
James I's powerful favourite, George Villiers, 
subsequently Duke of Buckingham . Through 
this connection George Villiers came to take 
some interest in Mompesson, and in 1614 he 
was elected to parliament for Great Bedwin 
as a subservient ally of the court (SPEDDING, 
Bacon, v. 65 ; Return of Member s of Parl. App. 
x). In 1616 he suggested to the favourite Vil- 
liers the creation of a special commission for 
the purpose of granting licenses to keepers 
of inns and alehouses, whereby the pockets 
of the special commissioners and the king's 




impoverished exchequer might both benefit. 
Villiers adopted the suggestion. It was urged 
that the functions of the new commissioners 
would clash with those of the justices of the 
peace, but Bacon, then attorney-general, and 
three judges were consulted, and the referees 
were of opinion that the patent for the com- 
mission was perfectly legal. Accordingly, in 
October 1616, Mompesson and two others 
were nominated commissioners for the licens- 
ing of inns, and invested with the fullest 
powers, but the patent was not sealed by 
Lord-chancellor Egerton till March 1617, and 
then only under great pressure from the king 
(Col. State Papers, 1611-18, p. 439). The 
fees which the commissioners were allowed 
to charge for the grant of licenses were prac- 
tically left to their discretion, although it was 
stipulated that four-fifths of the sums received 
were to be paid into the exchequer (SPEDDING, 
Bacon, vi. 98-9 ; Cal. State Papers, 1611-18, 
p. 439). To increase his dignity in his new 
office, Mompesson was knighted by James I 
at Newmarket on 18 Nov. 1616 (NICHOLS, 
Progresses, iii. 227). Bacon wrote to Villiers 
that he was glad that the honour had been 
conferred on Mompesson : l he may the better 
fight with the Bulls and the Bears, and the 
Saracens' Heads, and such fearful creatures ' 
(SPEDDING, vi. 102). Mompesson performed 
his duties with reckless audacity. He charged 
exorbitant fees, exacted heavy fines from re- 
spectable innkeepers for trifling neglect of 
the licensing laws, and largely increased the 
number of inns by granting, on payment of 
heavy sums, new licenses to keepers of houses 
that had been closed on account of disorderly 

Mompesson thus acquired a very evil re- 
putation (cf. Cal. State Papers, 1611-18, p. 
473), but his intimate relations remained un- 
changed with Buckingham and with Bacon, 
who became lord keeper 7 March 1616-17, 
and chancellor 7 Jan. 1617-18. At the end 
of 1619 Bacon frequently consulted him on 
matters affecting the public revenue, and on 
12 Dec. invited him to Kew in order to con- 
fer with him the more quietly (SPEDDING, vii. 

Meanwhile, in 1618, Mompesson's functions 
were extended. Early in the year a com- 
mission had been issued for the purpose of 
imposing heavy penalties on all who engaged 
in the manufacture of gold and silver thread 
without a special license, which the com- 
missioners were empowered to sell at a high 
price. On 20 Oct. 1618 the punitive powers 
of the commissioners were enlarged and their 
number increased by the addition of Mom- 
pesson. He at once set energetically to work, 
and threatened all goldsmiths and silkmen 

that they should ' rot in prison ' unless they 
proved submissive. His activity satisfied the 
court. On 19 Feb. 1619 Sir Henry Savile 
wrote that Mompesson and Sir Albertus 
Morton were acting as clerks of the council 
(Cal. State Papers, 1619-23, p. 16), and on 
9 Nov. 1619 James granted the former the 
office of surveyor of the profits of the New 
River Company, with an annual income of 
200/. 'from the king's moieties of the profits 
of the said river' (ib. p. 91). On 25 April 
1620 he received a license to convert coal and 
other fuel, excepting wood, into charcoal (ib. 
p. 139). But public feeling was running 
very high against him, and his re-election 
as M.P. for Great Bedwin in 1620 was 
quickly followed by retribution. On 19 Feb. 
1620-1 the House of Commons considered 
Noy's proposal to inquire into the procedure 
of all commissions lately created to enforce 
such monopoly-patents as those affecting inns 
or gold and silver thread. Although that re- 
solution was not adopted, a committee of the 
whole house opened, on 20 Feb., an inves- 
tigation into the patent for licensing inns. 
Witnesses came forward to give convincing 
testimony of the infamous tyranny with which 
Mompesson or his agents had performed the 
duties of his office (GA.RDINEE,, i v. 42; Archceo- 
logia, vol. xli.) The patent was unanimously 
condemned. Mompesson at once admitted 
his fault, and, in a petition which was read 
in the house on 24 Feb., threw himself on 
the mercy of the house, but his appeal was 
heard in silence (SPEEDING, vii. 186). In a 
letter to Buckingham he promised to clear 
himself of all imputations if the king would 
direct the commons to specify the charges 
in greater detail (Lords' Debates in 1621, ed. 
Gardiner, Camd. Soc., p. 150). On 27 Feb. 
Coke, when reporting the committee's deci- 
sion to the house, declared Mompesson to 
be the original projector of the scheme, to 
have prosecuted no less than 3,320 innkeepers 
for technical breaches of obsolete statutes, 
and to have licensed, in Hampshire alone, 
sixteen inns that had been previously closed 
by the justices as disorderly houses. Mom- 
pesson was summoned to the bar of the 
house and rigorously examined. He en- 
deavoured to throw the responsibility on the 
lord chancellor and the judges who had de- 
clared the patent to be legal. Finally he 
was ordered to attend the house every fore- 
noon, and to render his attendance the more 
certain he was committed to the care of the 
serjeant-at-arms (Commons' Journals,!. 532). 
The commons, at the same time, invited the 
lords to confer with them respecting his 
punishment. New charges against him ac- 
cumulated daily, and his fears grew propor- 




tionately. On 3 March he managed to elude 
the vigilance of his gaolers, and before the 
alarm was raised was on his way to France. 
Notice was sent to all the ports to stay his 
flight ; a proclamation was issued for his ap- 
prehension, and he was expelled from his 
seat in parliament (ib. i. 536). On 15 March 
the commons sent up to the lords a full ac- 
count of his offences, and on the 27th the 
lord chief justice pronounced sentence upon 
him in the House of Lords, to which the 
commons were specially invited for the occa- 
sion (Lords' Journals, i. 72 &). He was to be 
degraded from the order of knighthood, to 
be conducted along the Strand with his face 
to the horse's tail, to pay a fine of ten thou- 
sand pounds, to be imprisoned for life, and 
to be for ever held an infamous person 
(RTJSHWORTH, Hist. Coll. i. 27; D'EWES, 
Diary, i. 176). On 30 March a printed 
proclamation added, not quite logically, 
perpetual banishment to his punishment. 

A rare illustrated tract, entitled ' The 
Description of Giles Mompesson, late Knight, 
censured by Parliament the 17th [i.e. the 
27th] of March A 1620[-1],' compared him 
to Sir Richard Empson [q. v.J, the extortion- 
ate minister of Henry VII, and credited him 
with having filled his coffers with his ill-gotten 
gains. The indictment against Empson had 
been examined by the lords when they were 
proceeding against him, and a popular ana- 
gram on his name was ' No Empsons ' ( CaL 
State Papers, 1619-23, p. 238). It is pro- 
bable that Sir Giles Overreach (' a cruel ex- 
tortioner'), the leading character in Mas- 
singer's ' New Way to Pay Old Debts,' was 
intended as a portrait of Mompesson. The 
play was written soon after his flight. 

Lady Mompesson remained in England, 
and her friends made every effort to secure 

S revision for her out of her husband's estate, 
n 7 July 1621 the fine of 10,OOOZ. due from 
Mompesson was assigned to his father-in- 
law, Sir John St. John, and Edward Hunger- 
ford, together with all his goods and chattels, 
saving the annuity of 200/. allowed him by 
the New River Company. That asset was 
reserved for Lady Mompesson and her child 
(ib. p. 273). In the same year Mompes- 
son petitioned Charles I to recall him so 
that he might answer the charges alleged 
against him, and he bitterly complained of 
the comparison made between him and 
Dudley or Empson ( Clarendon State Papers 
CaL i. 25). On 17 Feb. 1622-3 Lady Mom- 
pesson presented a similar petition, on the 
ground that his presence in England was 
necessary to settle his estate, most of which 
was illegally detained by his brother Thomas 
(CaL State" Papers, 1619-23, p. 419). Next 

day this application was granted for a term 
of three months, on the understanding that 
Mompesson should not appear at court and 
should confine himself to his private business 
(ib.) Later in the year (1623) Mompesson 
was not only in England, but was, according 
to Chamberlain, putting his patent for ale- 
houses into execution on the ground that it 
had not been technically abrogated by par- 
liament (ib. 1623-5, p. 13). On 10 Aug. 1623 
a new warrant gave him permission to remain 
in England three months longer on the old 
understanding that he should solely devote 
himself to his private affairs (ib. p. 52). On 
8 Feb. 1623-4 he was ordered to quit the 
country within five days (ib. p. 165). If he did 
so, he was soon back again. He lived till his 
death in retirement among his kinsfolk in 
Wiltshire. On 4 Feb. 1629-30 he acted with 
his brother Thomas as overseer of the will of 
his maternal cousin, Edward Estcourt of 
New Sarum (CRISP, Somersetshire Wills, 6th 
ser. p. 7), and he is mentioned in his brother 
Thomas's will, which was proved in 1640 
(ib. 4th ser. p. 28). With Sir Edward Hyde, 
afterwards the great Earl of Clarendon, he 
seems to have been long on friendly terms. 
He employed Hyde in a lawsuit in 1640, and 
lent him 104/. in September 1643 ( Claren- 
don State Papers CaL i. 209, 211, 217, 244). 
Although a non-combatant he was a royalist, 
and in April 1647 went to the king's quarters 
at Hereford. His property was sequestrated 
by the parliament, and on 1 May 1647 he 
was fined 561 L 9s. (CaL of Proc. for Com- 
pounding, pp. 77, 1738). The parliamentary 
committee for the advance of money assessed 
him at 800Z. on 26 Dec. 1645 (ib. p. 666) and 
at 200J. on 2 Sept. 1651 (ib. p. 1388). 

He is not heard of at a later date. He 
bequeathed II. 6s. Sd. to Tisbury parish 
wherewith to buy canvas for the poor (Ho ARE, 
Wiltshire Parish of Dunworth iv. 152). 

[Gardiner's Hist, of England, vol. iv. ; Sped- 
ding's Life of Bacon, vol. vii. ; Wilson's Hist, of 
James I; Lords' Debates, 1621 (Camd. Soc.) ; 
Cat. of Satiric Prints in Brit. Mus. i. .55 ; Jour- 
nals of Lords, i. 72 sq. and Commons, i. 530-75 ; 
Nichols's Progresses of James I, iii. 660.] S. L. 

1709), hero of the 'plague at Eyam,' may be 
identified with the William Mompesson who 
in 1662 graduated M.A. from Peterhouse, 
Cambridge (Cat. Cambr. Grad.) ; the son and 
grandson mentioned below were educated 
at the same college. Becoming chaplain to 
Sir George Savile, lord Halifax, he was pre- 
sented by his patron in 1664 to the rectory of 
Eyam, Derbyshire, then a flourishing centre 
of the lead-mining industry. To this village 
the infection of the great plague was conveyed 




in a box of cloths. The epidemic broke out 
on 7 Sept. 1665, and between that date and 
11 Oct. 1666, 259 persons were carried off (so 
Mompesson's letters ; the register gives 267 
deaths) out of a population of about 350. 
Mompesson and his wife Catherine, daughter 
of Ralph Carr of Cocken, Durham (SuRTEES, 
Durham, vol. iv. pt. ii. p. 208), remained at 
Eyam and did everything that could be done 
for the parishioners. When the plague was 
at its worst, June -August 1666, Mompes- 
son, with the assistance of Thomas Stanley, 
a former rector of Eyam, who had been 
ejected in 1662 (W. BAGSHAW, De Spiri- 
tualibus Peed, 1702), induced the people to 
confine themselves entirely to the parish, 
receiving necessaries from the Earl of Devon- 
shire and from neighbouring villages in ex- 
change for money placed in troughs of run- 
ning water (* Mompesson's Well'). He read 
prayers on Sundays in a small valley known 
as The Delf, and preached from a perforated j 
rock, still called Cucklet Church (figured in I 
Gent. Mag. 1801, pt. ii. p. 785). Dr. Charles 
Creighton (Hist, of Epidemics, pp. 682-7) 
describes this visitation medically, and pro- 
nounces Mompesson's measures well meant, 
but wholly unnecessary and unsound. Mom- 
pesson escaped the disease himself, but his 
wife died on 25 Aug. 1666 ; and after her 
death, while not expecting to survive, he 
wrote farewell letters to his infant children 
and to his patron. Together with a third 
letter, written 20 Nov. 1666, to John Beilby 
of York, these were first printed by William 
Seward (Anecdotes of some Distinguished Per- 
sons, 1795, ii. 27-44) from what were de- 
scribed as the originals, in the possession of a 
gentleman of Eyam (possibly the Rev. Tho- 
mas Seward). They appear to be genuine ; 
but though pathetic, are rather stilted, and 
were probably intended to be copied and pre- 
served as formal records of the events. 

In 1669 Mompesson was presented by 
Savile to the rectory of Eakring, near Oiler- 
ton, Nottinghamshire ; the people, for fear 
of the plague, refused to admit him, and for 
some time he was forced to live in a hut 
in Rufford Park (note in The Desolation of 
Eyam, p. 46). He was subsequently made 
prebendary of Southwell (1676) and York, 
and is said to have declined the deanery of 
Lincoln in favour of Dr. Samuel Fuller (not 
Dr. Thomas Fuller as is frequently stated) in 
1695. Mompesson died 7 March 1708-9 at 
Eakring, where there is a brass plate with 
three modern windows in the chancel to his 
memory (note from the Rev. W. L. B. Gator, 
rector of Eakring). 

By a second wife, the widow of Charles 
Newby, Mompesson had two daughters. His 

only son, George, was rector of Barnburgh, 
Yorkshire, and had two sons : John (d. 1722), 
rector of Hassingham, Norfolk, and William, 
vicar of Mansfield, Nottinghamshire, one of 
whose daughters died in 1798, unmarried, 
while another was represented in 1865 by 
G. Mompesson Heathcote of Newbold, near 

[The best and most accurate account is that 
by William Wood in the History and Anti- 
quities of Eyam, 4th ed. 1865, and the Reli- 
quary, vol. iv. No. 13, 1863. The original au- 
thorities are (1) the letters mentioned above, 
(2) a Juvenile Letter by Anna Seward (whose 
father was rector of Eyam 1739-90), written in 
1765 and printed in Gent. Mag. 1801, pt. ii. 
p. 300), based on the letters, local traditions, 
and (possibly) family information from Miss 
Mompesson. The story of the plague at Eyam 
was popularised mainly by William and Mary 
Howitt in The Desolation of Eyam and other 
Poems, 1827, noticed in Hone's Table Book, ii. 
cols. 481-96, 629. It is the subject of a con- 
siderable number of poems, on which the later 
popular versions appear to be based ; they state 
as facts various details due to poetic imagination. 
Among the latest references see C. M. Yonge's 
Book of Golden Deeds, pp. 290-5, and Lantern 
Reading: the Story of Eyam, Sheffield (? 1881). 
See also Le Neve's Fasti (Hardy). A few facts 
are in Dr. R. Mead's History of the Plague, 1721 
(Works, i. 290 or ed. 1775 pp. 216-17). Miss 
Seward's story of the reappearance of the plague 
in 1757 cannot be substantiated from the parish 
registers, but seventeen deaths from a ' putrid 
fever' are recorded in 1779.] H. E. D. B. 

1878), Irish judge, eldest son of Michael 
Monahan of Heathlawn, near Portumna, in 
Galway,byhis marriage with Mary, daughter 
of Stephen Bloomfield of Eyrecourt in the 
same county, was born at Portumna in 1804. 
He was educated at the endowed school of 
Banagher in the King's County, and at 
Trinity College, Dublin, where he graduated 
in 1823, being first in science, and taking the 
gold medal. Entering the King's Inns, Dub- 
lin, in Easter term 1823, and Gray's Inn 
in Hilary term 1826, he was called to the 
Irish bar in Easter term 1828, and joined 
the Connaught circuit. In Dublin Monahan's 
success was at first slow, and his practice 
mainly on the chancery side, but on circuit 
he rapidly came to the front, and soon ac- 
quired the principal business there. In 1840 
he was appointed Q.C., and from that time 
until he became a judge was one of the re- 
cognised leaders in the court of chancery. 
He practised also on the common law side, 
and was one of the counsel for the defendants 
in the trial of Daniel O'Connell (' the Libe- 
rator ') and others for conspiracy in 1844. 



On the formation of Lord John Russell's 
government, in 1846,Monahan was appointed 
solicitor-general for Ireland, and in the fol- 
lowing year was elected a bencher of the 
King's Inns. At a by-election, in February 
1847, he was returned for Galway Borough, 
after a severe contest, by a majority of four 
votes, but at the general election in August 
of that year the opposition of the Young Ire- 
land party to the government prevented his 
re-election. In December 1847 he became 
attorney-general for Ireland, and in 1848 he 
was sworn of the Irish privy council. As 
attorney-general he conducted in 1848 the 
prosecutions arising out of the revolutionary 
movement of that year, including those of 
Smith O'Brien, Meagher and McManus at 
Clonmel, and of Gavan Duffy, Martin, and 
Mitchel in Dublin. He was accused of jury- 
packing by excluding catholics from the jury- 
box. In his speech in Mitchel's trial he 
warmly repudiated the charge, referred to 
the fact that he was himself a catholic, and 
stated that his instructions to the crown 
solicitor were to exclude no one on account 
of his religion, but only those, whatever their 
religion, who he believed would not give 
an impartial verdict (Report of Trial of John 
Mitchel, pp. 32-3, Dublin, 1848). In October 
1850 Monahan was appointed chief justice of 
the common pleas in succession to Doherty. 
He held that office till January 1876, when he 
resigned owing to failing health. In 1867 he 
presided at the special commission for the 
trial of the Fenian prisoners at Cork and 
Limerick. He was an able and conscientious 
judge, uniting a comprehensive knowledge 
of law with strong, practical common-sense. 
He possessed the confidence alike of the bar 
and the public. The university of Dublin 
conferred upon him the degree of LL.D. in 
1860, and placed him upon the senate. In 
1861 he was appointed a commissioner of 
national education. He died on 8 Dec. 1878 
at his residence, 5 Fitzwilliam Square, Dub- 
lin. In 1833 he married Fanny, daughter of 
Nicholas Harrington of Dublin ; two sons 
(James Henry, called to the Irish bar 1 856, 
Q.C. 1868 ; Henry, registrar of the consoli- 
dated nisi prius court) and four daughters 
survived him. 

[Ann. Reg. 1878 ; Times, 13 Jan. 1876 ; Irish 
Times, 10 Dec. 1878 ; Report of Trial of Wil- 
liam Smith O'Brien, Dublin, 1849 ; Report of 
Proceedings under the Treason Felony Act, Dub- 
lin, 1848 ; Four Years of Irish History, by Sir 
Charles Gavan Duffy; information from family.] 

J. D. F. 

MONAMY, PETER (1670 P-1749), ma- 
rine painter, born of poor parents about 1670, 
was a native of Jersey. He was sent to Lon- 


don when a boy, and apprenticed to an ordi- 
nary house-painter on London Bridge, but 
having a real aptitude for painting he devoted 
himself to drawing the shipping and other 
similar subjects on the Thames. He based 
his manner on those of the two William Van 
de Veldes, and soon became known to the sea- 
faring community. His pictures were marked 
not only by good execution, but by close and 
accurate acquaintance with all the minor 
details of shipping. His colour was, however, 
somewhat tame and ineffective. There are 
two pictures by him at Hampton Court, and 
a large sea-piece by him is in the hall of the 
Painter-Stainers' Company, to which it was 
presented by the painter in 1726. Monamy 
painted parts of the decorative paintings at 
Vauxhall, including some representing Ad- 
miral Vernon's victories. He also decorated a 
carriage for the ill-fated Admiral Byng. He 
resided during the latter part of his life on the 
riverside in Westminster, where he died early 
in February 1749 in poor circumstances, as 
most of his work was done for dealers. His 
portrait, painted by H. Stubly, was engraved 
in mezzotint by J. Faber, junior, in 1731, an- 
other, engraved by Bretherton, is in Wal- 
| pole's ' Painters.' An interesting picture of 
! Monamy showing a picture to a patron, Tho- 
mas Walker, is in the possession of the Earl 
of Derby, and was formerly at Strawberry 
! Hill ; the figures were painted by William 
Hogarth, and the sea-piece by Monamy. 
Monamy also executed a few etchings. 

[Walpole's Anecdotes of Painting, ed. Wor- 
num; Vertue's MSS. (Brit. Mus. Add. MSS. 
23074 f. 1, 23076 f. 13; Redgrave's Diet, of 
Artists ; Catalogue of a Century of British Art 
(Grosvenor Gallery, 1887-8).] L. C. 

MONAN, SAINT (d. 875 ?), missionary in 
Fifeshire, is called in the Scottish calendars 
(FOKBES, Kal. Scottish Saints, passim) arch- 
deacon, confessor or abbot, and his name is 
variously spelt as Mynnanus, Minnan, or 
Monon. According to the legend in the 
Aberdeen Breviary (Pars Hyem. f. lix.), 
he was born in Pannonia, and came over 
to preach among the Picts with a troop 
of Hungarians, numbering 6,606, led by 
St. Adrian, afterwards bishop of St. An- 
drews. This legend was accepted by many 
of the chroniclers (SKENE, Celtic Scotland, ii. 
312) ; but Hector Boece or Boethius [q. v.], 
probably using materials now lost (FOKBES, 
loc. cit. p. 413), states that, though some 
call these men Hungarians, others say they 
were Scots from Ireland and Angles (Scottish 
Hist. vol. x. p. ccvi), and this is far more pro- 
bable, for the Hungarians were not chris- 
tianised in the ninth century (Bollandists' 
Acta SS. I March, p. 86X Scottish clergy, 





moreover, were leaving Ireland in large num- 
bers at that time, and may have joined in 
Kenneth MacAlpine's invasion of the Picts, 
which accounts for the christianising of Fife- 
shire in the middle of the ninth centurv ( Celtic 
Scotland, i. 320). The saint's name with its 
prefix, ' Mo,' also suggests an Irish origin. 

Boethius was the first to call him i Arch- 
deacon of St. Andrews,' and in all proba- 
bility had no historical warrant for so doing. 
According to the Breviary, Monan, after 
preaching on the mainland of Fife, at a place 
called Invere, passed over to the Isle of 
May, in the Firth of Forth, and was there 
martyred with many others by the Danes 
on 4 March 874-5. The Pictish chronicle 
refers to a great fight between the Danes and 
the Scots in 875, and this may be the occasion 
alluded to (SKENE in Proceedings Roy. Soc. of 
Antiquaries of Scotland, iv. 316). 

At the church of Abercromby St. Monance 
the saint's relics are said to have worked 
miracles in favour of David I [q.v.], and in 
the same village a cell is shown which St. 
Monan is said to have occupied when he 
withdrew from the neighbouring monastery 
of Pittenweem in the sixth century (New 
Statistical Account, p. 338), but the legend 
has probably no historical foundation. The 
name of a burn, Inweary, on the west of this 
parish, recalls the ' Invere ' mentioned as the 
saint's temporary home in the Breviary. 
There is a chapelry of St. Monon in Kiltearn, 
Ross (Orig. Par. ii. 478), and a Kilminning 
farm and rock in the parish of Crail (New 
Statistical Account, 'Fife/ p. 966). St. 
Minnan's fair is held on 2 March at an old 
chapel at Freswick in Caithness (FORBES, p. 
413). St. Monan's feast is 1 March. Demp- 
ster states, without authority, that St. Monan 
wrote a book of epistles and of hymns. 

Colgan improbably suggests that an Irish 
saint, named Mannanus, of whom nothing 
is known save that he and his companion, 
named Tiaanus, were probably martyrs, and 
that their feast was celebrated on 23 Feb., 
is identical with the subject of this article 
(Acta SS. Hib. p. 392). Dempster speaks of 
St. Minnan, an archdeacon, living in 878, 
whose feast is celebrated on 1 March, as an 
independent personality. He says that a , 
church, Kilminnan in Galloway, is dedicated i 
to St. Minnan, and that he wrote several 
books. This account cannot be trusted, and 
Minnan is doubtless a variant of Monan 
(Bollandists' Acta SS. 1 March, p. 87). 

[Bollandists' Acta SS. 1 March, pp. 86sqq., 
324-6 ; O'Hanlon's Irish Saints, iii. 63 ; Demp- 
ster's Hist. Eccles. Gent. Scot. xii. No. 834 ; 
Diet. Christ. Biog; see also article MOINENNO.] 

M. B. 

JAMES, 1714-1799, Scottish judge.] 

MONCK. [See also MONK.] 

OP ALBEMARLE (1653-1688), born in 1653, 
only surviving son of George Monck, duke of 
Albemarle [q. v.],was known as Earl of Tor- 
rington from 1660 to 1670. He succeeded his 
father as second duke on his death, 3 Jan. 
1670. Charles II had designed to bestow the 
first duke's vacant garter on his friend and 
kinsman, John Grenville, earl of Bath [q. v.], 
in accordance with a promise under the king's 
sign-manual made to the first duke that the 
Earl of Bath should be made Duke of Albe- 
marle, in case his own son died without issue. 
The Earl of Bath, however, generously re- 
fused the garter, and warmly solicited it for 
the son of his friend. Accordingly when the 
young duke went to Windsor to deliver to 
the king his father's ensigns of the order, 
Charles returned them to him, and declared 
his election as knight of the Garter (Biog. 

In 1673 Monck was made colonel of a 
regiment of foot, and on 15 Oct. 1675 privy 
councillor. In the same year he became lord- 
lieutenant of Devonshire (except Plymouth) r 
and joint lord-lieutenant of Essex. In 1678 
he was made colonel of the 'Queen's' regi- 
ment of horse, and was again sworn privy 
councillor in April of the next year. In the 
following November he became captain and 
colonel of the 1st (King's Own) troop of horse 
guards, in place of Monmouth, with whom lie 
shortly afterwards quarrelled, and captain of 
all the king's guards of horse ; in 1681 joint 
lord-lieutenant of Wiltshire ; in 1682 chan- 
cellor of the university of Cambridge, in place 
of the Duke of Monmouth, and a lord of trade 
and foreign plantations. He was also recorder 
of Colchester, and at the coronation of James II 
(25 April 1685) bearer of the sceptre with 
the dove. In 1685 he raised the militia of 
Devonshire and Cornwall against the Duke 
of Monmouth, when he landed at Lyme in 
Dorset, but retired on the approach of Mon- 
mouth, who wrote to Monck commanding 
him to lay down his arms and repair to his 
camp, where he ' should not fail of receiving 
a very kind reception/ on pain of being de- 
nounced as a rebel and traitor. Monck re- 
plied that he ' never was nor never will be 
a rebell to my lawful king, who is James the 
Second.' On 23 June 1685, a fortnight before 
the battle of Sedgemoor, Albemarle sent from 
Taunton to the Earl of Sunderland for his 
'diversion' ' severall proclamations' issued 
in the city by Monmouth. In May 1686 he 
gave sumptuous entertainment to the king at 



his seat of New Hall in Essex. In 1687 he 
subscribed largely to a plan started by one 
Captain Phipps for fishing on a Spanish wreck 
off Hispaniola. The adventure was success- 
ful, and he received 40,0001. as his share of 
the profits. On 26 Nov. 1687 Monck was 
made governor-general of Jamaica, an honour 
he did not long enjoy, as he died there early 
in the autumn of the next year. He left no 

Sir Hans Sloane, who accompanied him to 
Jamaica as his physician,, gives a detailed 
account of his last illness, which commenced 
before he left England, and appears to have 
been aggravated, if not caused, by his in- 
temperate habits. Sloane describes the duke 
as * of a sanguine complexion, his face reddish 
and eyes yellow, as also his skin, and accus- 
tomed by being at court to sitting up late 
and often being merry' (Collection of Sir 
Hans Sloane's loose papers). He married, at 
the age of sixteen, Elizabeth, eldest daughter 
of Henry Cavendish, second duke of New- 
castle, and after his death she married Ralph 
Montagu, first duke of Montagu [q. v.], but 
left no family by either husband. 

[Biographia Britannic i ; Doyle's - Official 
Baronage of England ; Minutes of the Council 
of Jamaica, 1687-8; Burke's Extinct Peerage; 
Rpresby's Memoirs, passim ; Hatton Corre- 
spondence (Camden Soc.), i. 207, ii. 12, 67, 69 ; 
Egerton MS. 2395 ; Add. MS. 5852 ; Sloane MS. 
3984 ; Notes and Queries, 3rd ser. i. 77, 137.] 

L. M. M. S. 

* MONCK or MONK, GEORGE, first 
* DUKE OP ALBEMAELE (1608-1670), born 
/ 7*- 6 Dec. 1608 at Potheridge, near Torrington 
in Devonshire, was the second son of Sir 
Thomas Monck, knt., by Elizabeth, daughter 
w t of Sir George Smith of Maydford in the same 
county (GTTMBLE, Life of Monck, 8vo, 1671, 
p. 1 ; Visitation of Devonshire, 1620, ed. Colby, 
pp. 188-91). In 1625 the under-sheriff of 
Devonshire perfidiously arrested Sir Thomas 
Monck as he went to pay his respects to the 
king, and George Monck avenged his father's 
wrongs by thrashing the under-sheriff. To 
avoid legal proceedings he took service as a 
volunteer in the expedition to Cadiz, under 
his kinsman, Sir Richard Grenville, who was 
then major to the regiment of Sir John 
Borough. In 1627 he distinguished himself 
by bringing a letter from the king to the 
Duke of Buckingham in the Isle of Re, 
' passing the army, which lay before Rochelle, 
with great hazard of his life.' It was pro- 
bably as a reward for this service that he now 
obtained an ensign's commission in Borough's 
regiment (GUMBLE, p. 4 ; Works of George 
Granville,LordLansdowne, ed. 1736, iii. 253). 
About 1629 Monck entered the Dutch service, 

serving in the regiment of the Earl of Ox- 
ford, which after Oxford's death became the 
regiment of George Goring. At the siege 
of Breda, in 1637, Monck led the forlorn 
hope in the assault on one of the outworks 
of the town. He distinguished himself also 
as a strict disciplinarian, and earned a repu- 
tation as a good officer. A quarrel with the 
magistrates of Dort on the question of their 
jurisdiction over the soldiers under Monck's 
command finally led to his quitting the 
Dutch service. A scheme was at this time 
i on foot in England for the colonisation of 
S Madagascar by a joint-stock company, and 
I Monck thought of becoming one of the ad- 
I venturers in that enterprise. But the out- 
break of the Scottish troubles provided him 
employment in England (GuMBLE,pp.5-ll; 
HEXHAM, Brief Relation of the Siege of 
Breda, 4to, 1637, p. 27). In the list of the 
army under the command of the Earl of 
Northumberland, in 1640, Monck appears as 
lieutenant-colonel of the foot regiment of 
the Earl of Newport (PEACOCK, Army Lists, 
2nd edit. p. 75). Gumble attributes to 
Monck's good conduct the saving of the 
English guns in the rout at Newburn (p. 
10; cf. SKINNEE, Life of Monck. 1724, 
p. 18). 

At the outbreak of the Irish rebellion 
the Earl of Leicester a relative of Monck's 
was lord-lieutenant of Ireland, and at once 
offered Monck the command of his own regi- 
ment of foot. .The regiment, consisting of 
twelve hundred men, landed at Dublin on 
21 Feb. 1642 (GTJMBLE, p. 15 ; NALSON, His- 
torical Collections, ii. 919). Monck gained 
much honour at the battle of Kilrush, and 
I by defeating the Irish in a number of skir- 
mishes and forays (BOELASE, Irish Rebellion, 
1 ed. 1743, p. 100). In June 1642 he 'took 
Castleknock, and killed eighty rebels, besides 
some that he hanged ; and a while after he 
took the castles of Rathroffy and Clongowes- 
wood in the county of Kildare, and did good 
execution upon the enemy ' (CoxE, Hibernia 
Anglicana, ii. 107). In December 1642 he 
relieved Ballinakill, besieged by General 
Preston, and defeated at Tymachoe an at- 
tempt of the Irish to intercept his return to 
Dublin (CAETE, Ormonde, ed. 1851, ii. 386; 
BELLINGS, Hist, of the Irish Catholic Con- 
federation, i. 91, ii. 177). In the summer of 
1643 he conducted an expedition for the 
relief of Castle-Jordan in King's County, 
captured various places in Wicklow, and took 
part in an unsuccessful campaign against 
Owen O'Neill (ib. i. 161, ii. 271, 363 ; CAETE, 
ii. 500). On 7 June 1643 the Earl of Leicester 
commissioned Monck as governor of Dublin, 
with a salary of 40*. a day, but the king, at 

L 2 




the request of the lords justices, appointed 
Lord Lambert instead (ib. ii. 347 ; BELLINGS, 
ii. 44). Though he failed to obtain this public 
recognition of his services, he had gained the 
confidence of his men, and was ' the most 
beloved by the soldiers of any officer in the 
army ' (CARTE, iii. 43). 

Even before the cessation of September 
1643 Monck had obtained leave to return to 
England, possibly on account of the death of 
his father. His refusal to take the oath 
which Ormonde imposed on the Irish army 
before it was transported to England to 
serve Charles I proceeded, according to Carte, 
from a desire to consult his patron, the Earl 
of Leicester, or to obtain his arrears from 
the parliament before again entering the 
king's service, nor did it prevent Ormonde 
granting him a pass. But some loose talk 
of Lord Lisle's about the possibility of gain- 
ing over Monck to the parliamentary cause, 
and a message which Pym had sent to Monck 
with that object, drew suspicion upon him. 
Ormonde consequently sent him under safe 
custody to Bristol till the king's pleasure 
should be known, at the same time telling 
the governor that Monck was a person ' that 
hath very well deserved in the service of 
this kingdom,' and that ' no unworthy thing ' 
was laid to his charge. The governor allowed 
him to go to Oxford to justify himself, which 
he succeeded in doing without difficulty. In 
his interview with Charles I he frankly criti- 
cised the conduct of the war in Ireland, and 
asserted that ten thousand men properly dis- 
ciplined and equipped, and commanded by 
officers of experience, could bring it to a 
conclusion (ib. iii. 37, v. 504, 525 ; GTJMBLE, 
p. 17). 

His old regiment had been given to his 
second in command, but he obtained a com- 
mission to raise a new one. He rejoined the 
army just before its defeat by Fairfax at 
Nantwich(25 Jan. 1644), fought as a volun- 
teer at the head of his old regiment, and was 
taken prisoner. On 8 July he was brought 
to the bar of the House of Commons, charged 
with high treason, and committed to the 
Tower, where he remained for two years, find- 
ing it very difficult even to subsist (SKINNER, 
p. 23 ; CARTE, Original Letters, i. 38, 41 ; 
Commons' Journals, iii. 554). His elder 
brother, Thomas, who was not rich, and was 
actively engaged in the king's cause, sent him 
50/. In a letter begging for another 50/., 
on the score of his great necessities, Monck 
adds : ' I shall entreat you to be mindful of 
me concerning my exchange ; for I doubt all 
my friends have forgotten me.' Prince Rupert 
made an attempt to get him exchanged for 
Sir Robert Pye [q. v.], and the king sent him 

100/., a gift which he often mentioned with 
gratitude in later days (GUMBLE, p. 20; 
SKINNER, p. xix; Hist. M8S. Comm. 6th Rep. 

gratitude in later days (GUMBLE, p. 20; 

p. xix : Hist. MSS. Comm. 6th ] 
p. 63; Cal. of Compounders, p. 1366; Notes 

and Queries, 8th ser. iv. 241). 

In September 1646, when Ormonde was 
negotiating with the parliament, one of his 
requests was that Monck and some other 
imprisoned officers might be released and sent 
over to Ireland, ' being men that knew the 
country and were experienced in the service, 
and therefore fitter to be employed than 
others' (CARTE, iii. 270). For the same 
reason, when the parliament took the Irish 
war into its own hands, it decided to employ 
Monck. On 1 July he obtained leave to go 
beyond seas, on condition of taking the ' ne- 
gative oath.' But Lord Lisle, who was chosen 
by parliament lord-lieutenant of Ireland, per- 
suaded Monck to offer to serve there. On 
12 Nov. 1646 Lisle reported to the lords from 
the Derby House committee that Monck had 
engaged his honour that he would faithfully 
serve the parliament if he were employed 
in Ireland ; and, moreover, that he had taken 
the negative oath, was willing to take the 
covenant, and was ready to start at a mo- 
ment's notice (Commons' Journals, iv. 595, 
720 ; Lords' Journals, viii. 562). The offer 
was accepted, and there can be little doubt 
that Monck actually did take the covenant, 
though the fact has been much disputed 
(GARDINER, Great Civil War, iii. 352 ; GTTIZOT, 
Life of Monck, ed.^Wovtley, p. 39). A royalist 
tradition represents Monck before he left the 
Tower as solemnly begging the blessing of 
his fellow-prisoner, Dr. Wren, and pledging 
himself never to be an enemy to the king. 
Whether the story is true or not, Monck, like 
Lord Broghill and others, certainly drew a 
distinction between bearing arms against the 
Irish rebels and bearing arms against the 
king. But once embarked in the service of 
the parliament, military honour led him to 
be unswervingly faithful to the government 
whose pay he took (BARWICK, Life of John 
Barwick, p. 267). In February 1647 Monck 
set out with Lord Lisle for Munster, with 
the rank of adjutant-general, returning in 
April, when Lisle's commission expired. Par- 
liament now determined to divide the com- 
mand, assigning the government of Leinster 
to Michael Jones [q. v.], and that of Ulster 
to Monck (CARTE, iii. 324, 331 ; GTTMBLE, p. 
25 ; Lords' Journals, ix. 336). 

During the next two years Monck's ability 
was chiefly shown by the skill with which 
he contrived to maintain his position and to 
provide for his men in a ravaged and barren 
country. In October 1647, and again in 
August 1648, he joined Jones, and the two 


i 49 


made brief campaigns together and captured 
a few small fortresses ( Cal. State Papers, Dom. 
1645-7, p. 593 ; Hist. MSS. Comm. 6th Hep. 
p. 205 ; Hist, of the War in Ireland, by an 
Officer of Sir John Clotworthy 's Regiment, 
Dublin, 1873, pp. 58-62 ; Portland MSS. p. 
493). In 1648 the defection of the Scottish 
army in Ulster made his position extremely 
precarious ; but by a skilfully arranged plot 
he surprised their headquarters at Carrick- 
fergus (16 Sept.) and Belfast, and sent their 
general, Robert Monro [q. v.j, a prisoner to 
England (Hist. MSS. Comm. 7th Rep. p. 52; 
BOELASB, p. 255). 

On 28 Sept. parliament appointed Monck 
governor of Carrickfergus, and voted him a 
gratuity of 500/. The king's execution led 
to further divisions among the adherents of 
the parliament, and the ' old Scots ' the 
colony established in Ulster by the planta- 
tion of James I now declared against the 
parliament, and summoned Monck to join 
them in support of Charles II ( The Decla- 
ration of the British in the North of Ireland, 
with some Queries of Colonel Monck, &c., 
1648, 4to ; HILL, The Monty ornery MSS., i. 
177-90). Belfast and Carrickfergus fell into 
their hands, and Monck was obliged to re- 
tire to Dundalk (April 1649). In this ex- 
tremity, finding Jones unable to give him any 
help, he concluded a cessation of arms for 
three months with Owen Roe O'Neill [q. v.] 
(8 May 1649). Monck was well aware that 
the peace propositions put forward by O'Neill 
were not likely to be accepted by the parlia- 
ment. He succeeded in persuading O'Neill 
to modify them, but even when amended 
considered them 'wonderful high,' and be- 
lieved that O'Neill would be satisfied with 
much less than he demanded. As an excuse 
for his action in concluding the armistice he 
pleaded simply military necessity, the ill con- 
dition in which he was between the forces of 
O'Neill and the Scots, and the paramount im- 
portance of preventing O'Neill from joining 
Ormonde in an attempt to drive the English 
out of Ireland. In forwarding the conven- 
tion and O'Neill's propositions to Cromwell 
personally, instead of to the council of state, 
he wrote : ' Since there was great necessity 
for me to do it I hope it will beget no ill 
construction, when the advantage gained to 
the service, by dividing Ormonde and MacArt, 
is fully weighed' (25 May 1649). From a 
military point of view the arrangement with 
O'Neill did produce some of the results anti- 
cipated by Monck. On the other hand, as soon 
as it became known, the fidelity of Monck's 
own men was shattered. Inchiquin, whom 
Ormonde sent against him, took Drogheda, in- 
duced nearly all its garrison to join his army, 

and intercepted the convoy of ammunition 
which Monck forwarded to O'Neill, with a 
request for help (15 July). Two days after- 
wards Inchiquin invested Dundalk, and 
Monck's own soldiers forced him to sur- 
render (17 July). Monck then proceeded to 
England, landed at Chester on 26 July, and 
appeared before the parliament on 10 Aug. 
The house passed a vote in which they 
' utterly disapproved ' of his proceedings in 
the treaty with O'Neill, but declared their 
belief in his good faith, and promised not to 
question his conduct further. Monck asserted 
that he had acted solely on his own respon- 
sibility (Commons' Journals, vi. 277 ; cf. 
Aphorismical Discovery, n. vii. 216 ; CAETE, 
Original Letters, ii. 388 ; WALKEE, History 
of Independency, ed. 1661, ii. 230; The True 
State of the Transactions of Col. Geo. Monck 
with Owen Roe MacArt, O'Neill, &c., 1649, 

In July 1650 Cromwell invaded Scotland, 
and took Monck with him. There was some 
difficulty, however, in finding him a command. 
Bright's regiment, which had fought against 
Monck at Nantwich, was indignant at the sug- 
gestion that he should become their colonel. 
Cromwell formed a new regiment for him, by 
taking five companies from Fenwick's and five 
from Hesilrige's. On 13 Aug. parliament 
ordered the regiment thus made to be placed 
on the establishment, and it became at the 
Restoration the Coldstream guards (Memoirs 
ofCapt. John Hodgson, ed. 1806, p. 139 ; MAC- 
KINNON, The Coldstream Guards, 1833, i. 4). 
At D unbar Monck led the brigade of foot, 
and did good service, though Gumble pro- 
bably exaggerates when he represents him 
as teaching Cromwell and the other officers 
the art of war, and gives him the whole 
credit of the victory (CAELYLE, Cromwell, 
Letter cxl. ; GUMBLE, pp. 34-8). He was sub- 
sequently engaged during November 1650m 
the siege of Dirleton Castle and other small 
places, and in the spring of 1651 in the cap- 
ture of the more important fortresses of 
Tantallon and Blackness. ' Thereby,' says 
Gumble, ' he increased in reputation and 
credit with the general, and seemed to bear 
the greatest sway in the councils of war, 
which drew upon him the envy of all the 
old officers.' 

In May 1651 Monck was appointed lieu- 
tenant-general of the ordnance, and when 
Cromwell marched into England in pursuit 
of Charles II he left Monck as commander-in- 
chief in Scotland (MACKINNON, i. 32-6 : Mer- 
curius Politicus, 29 May-5 June 1651). They 
parted on 4 Aug. 1651, and the forces left 
with Monck amounted, according to Crom- 
well's estimate, to five or six thousand men. 



On 6 Aug. lie summoned Stirling 1 , which 
capitulated on the 14th. On the 28th a party 
of horse, under Colonel Alured, captured the 
Earl of Leven and the Scottish committee of 
estates at Alyth in Perthshire. On 1 Sept. 
Dundee was taken by storm, after it had 
been besieged for about ten days. About five 
hundred of the garrison were killed, and for 
the rest of the day and the following night 
the soldiers were allowed to plunder at will. 
' The stubbornness of the people,' apologised 
Monck to Cromwell, ' enforced the soldiers to 
plunder the town.' Ludlow accused Monck 
of ordering Lumsden, the governor of Dun- 
dee, to be put to death in cold blood, but the 
statement is contradicted by other authori- 
ties, and is improbable. There is no ground 
for charging him with exceptional barbarity, 
and his despatch shows that the garrison were 
not indiscriminately put to the sword (GARY, 
Memorials of the Civil War, ii. 327, 345 ; 
Old Parliamentary History, xx. 18; GUIZOT, 
p. 61). 

In his answer to the thanks of the parlia- 
ment, and in previous letters Monck com- 
plained that he was in urgent need of rein- 
forcements (CART, ii. 365; Cal. State Papers, 
Dom. 1651, p. 399). He himself was taken 
ill with gout or rheumatism soon after the 
capture of Dundee. Hence, though Montrose, 
Aberdeen, and other places submitted, and 
the Marquis of Huntly and other leaders 
laid down their arms, the conquest of Scot- 
land was not completed till the following 
year. Lambert was sent to Scotland in No- 
vember 1651, and eight commissioners, of 
whom Monck was one, were appointed to 
effect the civil settlement of the country 
(25 Oct., Commons' Journals, vii. 30). Monck 
left Scotland in February 1652, and pro- 
ceeded to Bath to recruit his health (GuMBLE, 
?. 46 ; Mercurius Politicus, 6-13 Nov. 1650). 
u June the council of state contemplated 
ordering him back to his command, but on 
second thoughts they retained him in Eng- 
land, to supervise the fortifications of Yar- 
mouth (Cal. State Papers, Dom. 1652-3, pp. 
329, 624). 

With Monck's appointment as one of the 
three generals of the fleet on 26 Nov. 1652, 
a new period in his career begins. Unlike 
his two colleagues, Blake and Deane, he had 
no naval experience, but parliament regarded 
energy, resolution, and the habit of command 
as sufficient qualifications. The fleet put to 
sea on 8 Feb., and a three days' battle with the 
Dutch began off Portland, 18 Feb. 1653. In 
the first day's battle, ' General Monck, in the 
Vanguard, then admiral of the white, and 
all his division, being at least four miles to 
leeward of the other generals when the fight 

began . . . the main stress of the fight lay 
upon the red and blue divisions ' (Memorials 
of Sir William Penn, p. 478). But the white 
division came into action later, and Mildrnay, 
the captain of the Vanguard, was among the 
slain. Of the merchantmen Tromp was con- 
voying twenty-four were taken, while four 
Dutch men-of-war were captured and five 
sunk (ib. pp. 475, 477 : Life of Cornelius 
Tromp, 1697, pp. 89-104). A second battle 
took place on 2 and 3 June, off the coast of 
the Netherlands. Blake's squadron did not 
arrive till after the first day's fight was over, 
and Deane was killed early on the first day, 
so that Monck was in sole command during 
great part of the battle. Tromp admitted 
the loss of eight ships, and the Dutch fleet 
retired behind the shoals known as the Wie- 
lings, between Ostend and Sluys. The com- 
mand of the sea fell into the hands of the Eng- 
lish fleet, many rich merchantmen were cap- 
tured, and the English ' held the coast of 
Holland as 'twere besieged ' (ib. p. 129 ; PENN, 
i. 491-8). Blake having fallen ill, the coun- 
cil of state on 9 July 1652 sent Monck a 
commission authorising him to exercise all 
the powers which had been granted to the 
three admirals jointly (ib. p. 500). Tromp 
sailed out from his anchorage on 27 July, and 
a still bloodier battle took place on 29 and 
31 July, in which Tromp was killed, and the 
Dutch lost twenty-six men-of-war. 

The success of the English fleet was partly 
due to the restoration of discipline among 
the officers, and to improved organisation. A 
letter from Deane and Monck to the council 
of state shows with what vigour they urged 
their advice, and insisted upon extended 
powers when the good of the service required 
it (Life of Deane, pp. 601, 604, 631). As 
much, or more, was due to improved tactics. 
1 Our fleet/ says a description of the second 
battle, ' did work together in better order 
than before, and seconded one another ' (ib f 
p. 648). The third battle, an officer who took 
part in it terms f a very orderly battle,' and a 
French eye-witness describes the English, 
fleet as ' drawn up in a line extending above 
four leagues ' (GuMBLE, p. 67 ; Life of Penn, 
i. 510). Both the biographers of Penn and 
Deane claim the adoption of this system of 
tactics as due to those admirals, but all the 
arguments by which Deane's claim is sup- 
ported apply with equal force to Monck's. 
The essence of the system was the attempt 
to introduce into naval warfare something of 
the order which distinguished scientifically 
fought land-battles. In technical matters 
Monck undoubtedly owed much to his sub- 
ordinates, and his special recommendation of 
Penn to succeed Deane shows that he recog- 



nised the necessity of professional assistance 
(id. i. 492). He held regular councils of 
war, and one of his officers describes him as 
telling his assembled flag-officers, in a meeting 
held after Deane's death, that their joint ad- 
vice should be as binding to him as an act of 
parliament (GUMBLE, p. 64). 

These three great battles practically ended 
the Dutch war, though peace was not con- 
cluded till the following year. The parlia- 
ment voted Monck a gold chain of the value 
of 300/., and a medal commemorating his 
victories (Commons' Journals, vii. 296; cf. 
MACKINNON, i. 58). On 1 Oct. 1653 he re- 
ceived the formal thanks of the house on 
taking his seat there as one of the members 
for Devonshire ( Commons' Journals, vii. 328). 

During Monck's absence at sea Cromwell 
forcibly dissolved the Long parliament 
(20 April 1653). In the ' Declaration of the 
.generals at sea, and captains under their 
command ' (23 April 1653), Monck and his 
colleague Deane accepted the change, and 
replied simply that it was ' set upon their 
hearts ' that they were called and entrusted by 
the nation to defend it against its enemies at 
sea, whether Dutchmen or others, and were 
resolved unanimously to prosecute that end 
(DEANE, Memoirs of General Deane, p. 618 ; 
Cal. State Papers, Dom. 1652-3, p. 289). 
It is evident that Monck did not share the 
enthusiastic hopes with which many of his 
fellow-soldiers regarded this revolution. In 
1659, when he was taunted with his acquies- 
cence in 1653, he explained that ' the variety 
of times doth much vary the nature of affairs, 
and what might then patiently be submitted 
unto, we being engaged with a foreign enemy 
in a bloody war, cannot be drawn into a pre- 
cedent at this time, after our repentance' 
(Letter to Vice-admiral Goodson, 4 Nov. 
1659). According to Gumble, Cromwell did 
not venture to act till he had sounded Monck, 
and discovered that he had no concern for the 
Long parliament, nor any obligation to them 
(p. 73). But this is improbable, for Monck 
had hitherto taken no part at all in political 

In the spring of 1654 Monck again took 
the command of the army in Scotland. A 
royalist insurrection with which his suc- 
cessor, Robert Lilburne, was unable to cope 
had broken out in the preceding summer, 
and was at its height when Monck arrived 
(Monck's commission, dated 8 April 1654, 
is printed in THURLOE, ii. 222). His first act 
was to issue a proclamation offering an 
amnesty to all persons who laid down their 
arms within twenty days, and promising a 
reward of 200/. for Middleton [see MIDDLE- 

| four other leaders of the insurrection, dead or 
! alive (4 May 1654, THURLOE, ii. 261). As he 
i received considerable reinforcements from 
j England, and was assisted by an expedition 
from the north of Ireland, he was able to 
undertake a skilfully combined campaign in 
the highlands. His plan was to burn the 
corn, to destroy the strongholds of the enemy, 
ajxd^to establish garrisons at strategic points. 
SoLclosely were the royalists pressed that 
Middleton's army rapidly diminished, and on 
1^ July Colonel Morgan overtook him at 
Lochgarry (Mercurius Politicus, 27 July- 
3 Aug., and 10-17 Aug. 1654; BAILLIE, iii. 
255). He followed up his victory by t de- 
stroying,' as he terms it, ' those parts of the 
country where the enemy usually harboured 
in winter.' i By this means,' he reported, 
' and by the sending some of them to the 
Barbadoes, their spirits do begin to fail them ' 
(THURLOE, ii. 526, 555). Before the summer 
ended the submission of the royalists made 
rapid progress. The Earl of Glencairn made 
terms on 29 Aug., Lord Kenmure on 14 Sept., 
and Middleton escaped to the continent about 
February 1655 (KiCKoas, Letters and Papers 
addressed to Cromwell, 1743, p. 130). 

In December 1654 the success of Monck's 
work was threatened by widespread dissatis- 
faction among the English troops in Scot- 
land. A portion of the officers were in close 
communication with the parliamentary op- 
position to Cromwell, and were spreading 
seditious pamphlets in the army. Some of 
the non-commissioned officers were conspir- 
ing with the Levellers in England, and a 
plot had been formed to seize Monck and 
march into England to overthrow the Pro- 
tector. Overton, Monck's second in com- 
mand, who was believed to sympathise with 
the movement, was to be placed at its head. 
What made the danger greater was that the 
pay of the soldiers was many months in 
arrear. Monck, with his usual prompti- 
tude, suppressed the incendiary pamphlets, 
arrested the conspirators, cashiered the minor 
offenders, and shipped off the leaders to Eng- 
land. ' My opinion is,' he wrote, ' that unless 
his highness be very severe with those that 
are disturbers of the peace, we shall never 
have any certain settlement ' ( THURLOE, iii. 
45, 76, 179). During the later years of his 
government he carefully purged his army of 
anabaptists and quakers. 

From July 1655 Monck was assisted in 
the civil government of Scotland by a coun- 
cil, to which very extended powers were 
granted. Its most important member was 
Lord Broghill [see BOYLE, ROGER, BARON 
BROGHILL and first EARL OF ORRERY], and 
it contained two Scots, John Swinton and 




AVilliam Lockhart (Cal State Papers, Dtfm. 
1655, pp. 108, 152, 255). But Monck's in- 
fluence alone inspired the government, and 
little difference of policy can be detected. 
Justice was administered without distinction 
of persons, caterans and moss-troopers trans- 
ported to the sugar plantations, and order 
rigidly maintained. * A man/ boasted one of 
the council, ' may ride all Scotland over with 
a switch in his hand and 100/. in his pocket, 
which he could not have done these 500 
years ' (BURTON, Diary, iv. 168). The taxes 
levied on Scotland were extremely heavy, 
and Monck urgently pressed their reduction 
(THURLOE, vi. 330). In ecclesiastical mat- 
ters he favoured the f protesters,' whom he 
termed 'the honest party,' as against the 
* resolutionists,' but strongly opposed a pro- 
posal to interfere with the autonomy of the 
Scottish burghs in favour of the former party 
(ib. \ii. 117, vi. 529). His courtesy to the 
Scottish nobility is highly praised by Gumble, 
and by the end of his rule he had gained 
considerable popularity. ' That worthy per- 
son, General Monck,'' said a Scottish member 
in Richard Cromwell's parliament, t and those 
worthy officers amongst us, have won our 
affections ' (BURTON, Diary, iii. 138; GUMBLE, 
p. 89). 

On the intrigues of the royalists Monck 
kept a very vigilant eye. In December 1654 
there was a rumour that Charles II was 
about to land in Scotland. ' If he comes,' 
wrote Monck, ' I doubt not we shall (through 
the blessing of God) keep him back in such a 
country where he cannot ride or travell but 
in " trowses " and a plaid ' (THURLOE, iii. 
3 ; cf. v. 348). In spite of this Charles II, 
in 1655, sent a letter to Monck, expressing 
the belief that he still retained his old affec- 
tion for his sovereign, and bidding him re- 
serve himself for the opportunity of future 
service. Monck duly forwarded a copy of 
the letter to Cromwell, and abated nothing 
of his activity in arresting the king's agents 
(Guizox, Life of Monck, ed. Wortley, p. 

Between Monck and Cromwell cordial 
and unbroken confidence throughout existed. 
' Your honest general, George Monck, who is 
a simple-hearted man,' was the Protector's 
description of him to one of the officers under 
his command. In 1657 the Protector sum- 
moned Monck to a seat in his new House of 
Lords, but he begged to be excused, on the 
ground that his presence was indispensable 
in Scotland. The royalists eagerly spread 
unfounded reports that he had refused to 
obey the Protector's orders. Cromwell made 
a jest of these stories, and is said to have 
written to Monck : 'There be that tell me 

there is a certain cunning fellow in Scotland 
called George Monck, who is said to lie in 
wait there to introduce Charles Stuart ; I 
pray, use your diligence to apprehend him, 
and send him up to me ' (THURLOE, vi. 741, 
863 ; PRICE, ed. Maseres, p. 712). On Crom- 
well's death Monck wrote to Henry Crom- 
well, promising his support to the new pro- 
tector (Lansdoivne MS. 822, f. 243). He 
procured an address of recognition from the 
army in Scotland, and exerted himself to 
return supporters of the government to par- 
liament (THURLOE, vii. 404, 411, 574, 613). 

A few days after Richard's accession 
Monck sent him, through his brother-in- 
law, Thomas Clarges [q. v.], a paper of ad- 
vice, specially valuable for the light which 
it throws on its author's political views. 
In ecclesiastical matters he advised the pro- 
tector to favour the moderate presbyterians, 
and to call an assembly of divines to en- 
deavour to find some way of union among 
the different sects, hinting, in conclusion, that 
to his mind toleration had gone a little too 
far. In civil affairs he bade him rely upon 
St. John, Broghill, Thurloe, and similar coun- 
cillors, and to endeavour to engage to him- 
self 'those of power and interest amongst the 
people, for which he has a better opportunity 
than his father, having not the same obliga- 
tions to so many disquiet spirits.' Monck's 
distrust of the leaders of the English army 
is very noticeable. He urged Richard to re- 
duce its expense by putting two regiments 
into one, which would give him an oppor- 
tunity to get rid of ' some insolent spirits ' 
among the commanders. ' There is not,' he 
added, ' an officer in the army upon any dis- 
content that has power to draw two men 
after him if he be out of place ' (ib. vii. 37). 

Of his own power to suppress either a 
royalist rising or a military revolt, Monck 
wrote with easy confidence (ib. vii. 545, 616). 
Richard made Monck keeper of Holyrood 
House, and invited him to sit in his House 
of Lords, but, as before, Monck represented 
that he could not be spared from Scotland 
(ib. vii. 526, 579). When the protector 
quarrelled with the army some of his friends 
urged Monck to march into England to his 
support, and he would doubtless have done 
so had not Richard been induced to dissolve 
his parliament. A royalist represents Monck 
as saying : ' Richard Cromwell forsook him- 
self, else I had never failed my promise to 
his father or regard to his memory,' and the 
phrase truthfully sums up his conduct (LuD- 
LOW, Memoirs, ed. 1698, p. 643; GUMBLE, 
p. 97; Clarendon State Papers, iii. 628). 
All parties watched Monck's action with 
great interest, but he took the restoration of 



the Long parliament with composure, and put 
his name to the fervid address of congratu- 
lation forwarded by his army to the parlia- 
ment. In a private letter he simply expressed 
his pleasure that so great a change had been 
effected without bloodshed, and his hope 
that the men in power would ' enter upon 
something to keep us in peace and quietness ' 
(ib. iii. 475, 480 ; THURLOE, vii. 667, 669). 
But when the newly appointed commis- 
sioners for the nomination of officers began 
to remove and to change the officers of the 
regiments under his command, Monck at once 
signified his dissatisfaction (BAKER, Chronicle, 
ed. Phillips, pp. 670, 675 ; Old Parliamentary 
History, xxi. 427). His discontent was well 
known, and in the summer of 1659 overtures 
were made to him from the royalists. 

Immediately on receiving the news of Crom- 
well's death Lord Colepepper had pointed 
Monck out to Hyde as the instrument best 
able to effect the king's restoration. He ' com- 
mandeth,' Colepepper wrote, l absolutely at 
his devotion ... a better army than that in 
England is, and in the king's quarrel can 

bring with him the strength of Scotland I 

need not give you his character ; you know 
he is a sullen man that values him enough, 
and much believes that his knowledge and 
reputation in arms fits him for the title of 
Highness and the office of Protector better 
than Mr. Richard Cromwell's skill in horse- 
racing and husbandry doth. You know, be- 
sides, that the only ties that have hitherto 
kept him from grumbling have been the 
vanity of constancy to his professions, and 
his affection to Cromwell's person. . . . 
Nothing of either of them can now stick 
with him, The way to deal with him is, by 
some fit person to shew him plainly, and to 
give him all imaginable security for it, that 
he shall better find all his ends (those of 
honour, power, profit, and safety) with the 
king than in any other way he can take ' 
(Clarendon State Papers, iii. 413). It was 
accordingly resolved to approach Monck 
through his cousin, Sir John Grenville, and 
his brother, Nicholas Monck [q. v.] Charles, 
on 21 July 1659, gave Grenville full powers 
to treat with Monck, and undertook to make 
good any engagements he might make to 
Monck or his officers. At the same time 
he drew up a letter to the general himself. 
* I cannot think/ he wrote, * you wish me 
ill, for you have no reason to do so ; and 
the good I expect from you will bring so 
great benefit to your country and yourself, 
that I cannot think you will decline my in- 
terest. ... If you once resolve to take my 
interest to heart, I will leave the way and 
manner of declaring it entirely to your own 

judgment, and will comply with the advice 
you shall give me' (BAKER, Chronicle, ed. 
Phillips, p. 672 ; Clarendon State Papers, iii. 
417, 421, 516). Nicholas Monck arrived at 
Dalkeith at the beginning of August 1659, 
on the ostensible pretext of arranging a match 
for his daughter. He communicated the con- 
tents of the king's letter to his brother. The 
general allowed him to talk freely and listened 
favourably, but would not promise to receive 
the letter (ib. iii. 543, 618). Monck's chap- 
lains, Gumble and Price, have both left ac- 
counts of this incident, but Price was at the 
time more trusted. He goes too far, how- 
ever, when he represents Monck as hence- 
forth resolved to restore the king, and has to 
admit that neither then nor much later durst 
he venture to mention his name to the general. 
Both agree, however, in stating that Monck re- 
solved to co-operate with, or take advantage 
of the royalist-presbyterian rising then on 
foot in England, and that he concerted some 
of the necessary military preparations for 
that step. Price himself was charged to draw 
up a letter from the army in Scotland to the 
parliament, declaring for a full and free par- 
liament and for the known laws and liberties 
of the nation. But Monck postponed action 
till the arrival of the next post from England, 
and it brought the news of Lambert's defeat 
of Sir George Booth [q. v.] The plan was 
immediately abandoned, the letter burnt, and 
the conspirators sworn to secrecy. 

Disheartened by this check, and finding 
the independence of his command greatly 
limited by the action of parliament in dis- 
placing many of his officers, Monck wrote to 
Lenthall begging leave to retire (3 Sept.) 
His intention was to go to Ireland and live on 
the estate which he had purchased with his 
arrears of pay. But Clarges, Monck's agent 
in London, and Speaker Lenthall, contrived 
to keep back the letter for ten days, till 
Monck changed his mind (BAKER, p. 675). 
One of the reasons for this course was the 
prospect of an immediate breach between the 
parliament and the army. * I see now,' said 
Monck, ' that I shall have a better game to 
play than I had before. I know Lambert so 
well that I am sure he will not let those 
people at Westminster sit till Christmas-day ' 
(PRICE, p. 726). Through Clarges, Monck pro- 
mised support to the parliamentary leaders, 
and a letter which parliament received from 
him on 5 Oct. emboldened them to deal 
severely with Lambert and his followers. 
When they revoked Fleetwood's commission 
as commander-in-chief, Monck was one of the 
persons in whose hands they vested the com- 
mand of the army (BAKER, p. 682 ; Com- 
mons' Journals, vii. 792; cf. A Letter from 




General Monck to the Speaker, 13 Oct. 4to, 

The army leaders had not anticipated 
Monck's opposition. They invited him to 
sign their petition to parliament, to which 
he returned an emphatic refusal, and sent 
Colonel Gobbet to him to explain the causes 
of their conduct. Monck received the news 
of the expulsion of the parliament on 17 Oct., 
concerted his measures the same night, and 
in the next two days secured Edinburgh, 
Leith, Berwick, and other fortresses, placed 
officers whom he could trust in command of 
his regiments, and arrested those whose de- 
fection he feared. On 20 Oct. he despatched 
a letter to Lenthall announcing his resolve 
* to assert the liberty and authority of par- 
liament,' and with it expostulations addressed 
to Lambert and Fleetwood, telling the one 
that England would not endure any arbitrary 
power, and the other not to be deluded by the 
specious pretences of ambitious persons (Old 
Parliamentary History, xxii. 4 ; BAKER, p. 
685). These were followed by a series of de- 
clarations to the army, the churches, and the 
nation (True Narrative of the Proceedings in 
Parliament, Council of State, General Council 
of the Army, etc., from Sept. 22 to this 
present, 4to, 1659). All were conciliatory 
in tone, and as would-be mediators were 
many, Monck agreed to send three commis- 
sioners to negotiate with the leaders of the 
English army. The commissioners came to 
an agreement on 15 Nov., but he refused to 
ratify it, on the ground that they had gone 
beyond their instructions (BAKER, pp. 693-5). 
Further negotiations to take place at New- 
castle were accordingly agreed to. Delay 
strengthened Monck's position, for he had 
70,000/. in hand, while the troops opposed 
to him under the leadership of Lambert were 
ill-paid and afterwards unpaid. He was also 
enabled thereby to complete his communica- 
tions with the 'opponents of military rule in 
England and Ireland, and to give them time 
to come to his aid. Nine of the old council 
of state met together in London, and sent 
him a letter of thanks (19 Nov.), followed 
by a commission constituting him absolute 
commander-in-chief of all the forces in Eng- 
land and Scotland (24 Nov. ; BAKER, p. 695). 
At their instigation the garrison of Ports- 
mouth declared for the restoration of the par- 
liament (3 Dec.) ; then the fleet in the Downs 
followed Portsmouth's example (13 Dec.), 
and finally a revolution in the Irish army, 
headed by Sir Charles Coote and Lord 
Broghill, placed the government of that 
country in the hands of Monck's supporters 
(14 Dec.) The troops in London abandoned 
the struggle and submitted to the parlia- 

ment, which again resumed its place at 
Westminster on 26 Dec. 

Monck was now able to advance into Eng- 
land. His forces were inferior in number 
to Lambert's, and he was especially weak 
in horse. To remedy this he had increased 
the number of pikemen in each regiment, and 
turned his dragoons into regular cavalry. His 
determination to maintain English authority 
in Scotland obliged him to leave four regi- 
ments of foot to hold the Scottish fortresses 
and to reject suggestions that he should 
summon the Scots to his assistance. A 
certain number of Scotsmen were enlisted 
to fill the vacancies in his foot regiments. 
Monck also persuaded the Convention of Es- 
tates to facilitate his march by guaranteeing 
the early payment of the assessments due 
from the country. More than a benevolent 
neutrality he knew he could not expect, un- 
less he were to declare openly for the king. 

Monck had established his headquarters at 
Coldstream on the Tweed, about nine miles 
from Berwick, a position which would enable 
him either to bar Lambert's advance if he 
marched by the east coast, or to march 
directly on London if Lambert invaded Scot- 
land by way of Carlisle (8 Dec.) On 24 Dec. 
he broke off the negotiations with Lambert, 
and on 2 Jan. 1660 crossed the Tweed into 
England. His forces amounted to about five 
thousand foot and two thousand horse. Lam- 
bert's army broke up as Monck's advanced. 
Monck marched slowly towards London, dis- 
banding or purging the rebellious regiments 
of Lambert's army on his way. An opportune 
riot among some of the soldiers in London 
supplied him with a plausible reason for re- 
quiring that Fleetwood's forces should leave 
London to make room for the troops which 
he brought with him. He felt strong enough 
to send part of his forces back to Scotland, 
and entered London on 3 Feb. with four 
thousand foot and eighteen hundred horse. 

Throughout this journey Monck was be- 
sieged by addresses from all parts of Eng- 
land, asking for the readmission of the ex- 
cluded members of parliament. The city, 
with which he had long been in correspond- 
ence, sent messengers to demand a full and 
free parliament (Old Parliamentary History, 
xxii. 46). Parliament itself had sent two 
commissioners to congratulate Monck, and to 
watch his movements. He frequently left 
them the task of answering the petitioners, 
his own return ' consisting in a nod, a frown, 
or the rubbing of his forehead if the speech 
were long' (PRICE, p. 755). In a letter 
answering the petition of the gentlemen of 
Devonshire, he urged submission to the exist- 
ing parliament, and argued that the read- 



mission of the excluded members or the re- 
storation of monarchy would be contrary to 
the interests of the nation. But to the de- 
mands of some of his officers that he should 
solemnly engage his army to be ' obedient 
to the parliament in all things, except the 
bringing of Charles Stuart/ he answered that 
they must not seem to dictate to parliament, 
or they would fall into the same error as 
the English army (ib. p. 754: KENNETT, p. 
32). And though publicly discountenancing 
the demands of the city he gave private 
encouragement to its leaders through his 
chaplain Gumble (GuMBLE, pp. 209-20; 
Clarendon State Papers, iii. 649). The am- 
biguity of his utterances and the contra- 
diction between his words and his actions 
puzzled the shrewdest observers. Neither 
Hyde nor the royalist agents in England 
could guess whether he meant to serve the 
king or to maintain the Rump in power. 

Parliament had been profusely grateful to 
Monck for Lambert's overthrow. On 2 Jan. 
they elected him one of the council of state, 
on the 12th they ordered a bill to be brought 
in to justify and approve all his actions, on 
the 16th they voted him 1,000/. a year, and on 
2 Feb. appointed him ranger of St. James's 
Park. The commission as commander-in- 
chief, granted him by the old council of state, 
had been confirmed on 26 Jan. Neverthe- 
less, the parliamentary leaders regarded him 
with suspicion. 

Monck entered London on 3 Feb., and on 
6 Feb. was solemnly thanked by Speaker 
Lenthall on behalf of parliament. In reply 
he summarised his answers to the addresses 
he had received, and set forth the policy he 
desired parliament to follow. They were to 
reconcile the ' sober gentry ' to the govern- 
ment and to protect the l sober interest,' 
allowing neither cavaliers nor fanatics any 
share of power. Two points in his speech 
were more alarming. He plainly hinted that 
he had pledged himself that the parliament 
should be filled up, and its sittings speedily 
determined. At the same time he warned 
them against the proposed imposition of an 
oath abjuring the house of Stuart, and it was 
known that he himself, on taking his place 
in the council of state, had refused to take 
the oath (GUMBLE, p. 229). 

Immediately after Monck's arrival the 
quarrel between the parliament and the city 
came to a head, and the latter refused to pay 
taxes. On the morning of 9 Feb. Monck 
marched into the city with orders to arrest 
eleven leading citizens, take away the posts 
and chains in the streets, and make the gates 
indefensible. Having carried out the greater 
part of his task, he wrote to the house that 

he had forborne taking down the gates and 
portcullises in order not to exasperate the 
city, and begged that tenderness might be 
used towards it. But the parliamentary 
leaders were too exalted by his obedience 
to listen to his remonstrances. * All is our 
own,' said Heselrige, ' he will be honest ; ' or, 
according to another story, 'Now, George, we 
have thee, body and soul' (LuDLOW, ii. 825). 
They commanded him to execute his orders to 
the letter, and on the following day he com- 
pleted his task (Old Parliamentary History, 
xxii. 93). The result of the two days' work 
was to change the temper of Monck's sol- 
diers, and rouse their indignation against the 
parliament. No doubt Monck foresaw this 
result, and counted on it. When Price soon 
after asked him how he was engaged to un- 
dertake this detestable piece of service, he 
answered : ' This was a trick you knew not 
of, and I assure you that I could not have 
done my business so soon without it, and 
possibly not at all' (PRICE, p. 763). He now 
drew up a letter to parliament peremptorily 
demanding the issue of writs for a new par- 
liament within the next week, and the fixing 
of a date for the dissolution of the present 
assembly (Old Parliamentary History, xxii. 
98). The letter was presented to the house 
I on the morning of 11 Feb., and on the after- 
noon of the same day Monck met the cor- 
poration in the Guildhall, told them what he 
had done, and apologised for his late ungrate- 
ful duty. His declaration was received with 
general joy, and celebrated by bonfires, in 
| which the Rump was burnt in effigy all over 
1 London. The parliament received Monck's 
I letter with feigned thanks, but showed its real 
j distrust by vesting the control of the army 
in five commissioners, of whom Monck was 
one, while three were of their own faction 
j (LuDLOW, ii. 830). The council of state 
I numbly pressed him to return to Whitehall, 
but Monck turned a deaf ear to their ap- 
peals. He was now bent on procuring the 
readmission of the members expelled in 1648, 
and with that object obtained a conference 
between the ' secluded ' and the sitting mem- 
bers. But the conference led to no result, 
and he solved the difficulty by ordering the 
guards to admit the secluded members to the 
house (21 Feb.) Before they took their seats 
he pledged them to settle the government 
of the army, call a new parliament for 
20 April, dissolve the present one within a 
month, and appoint a new council of state 
to govern in the interval (BAKEE, p. 710; Old 
Parliamentary History, xxii. 140). They 
kept their word, elected a new council with 
Monck at the head of the list (21 Feb.), ap- 
pointed him general-in-chief of all the land 




forces in the three kingdoms (25 Feb.) and 
joint-commander of the navy (2 March). On 
16 March parliament was dissolved, but not 
till it had annulled the engagement to be 
faithful to a commonwealth previously re- 
quired from all persons in office. 

Hitherto Monck had lulled the suspicions 
of the republicans by public and private pro- 
testations of his fidelity to the republic. ' As 
for a Commonwealth,' he wrote to Heselrige 
on 13 Feb., ' believe me, Sir, for I speak it in 
the presence of God, it is the desire of my 
soul, and shall (the Lord assisting) be wit- 
nessed by the actions of my life, that these 
nations be so settled in a free state, without 
a king, single person, or House of Peers, that 
they may be governed by their representa- 
tives in parliament successively ' (Clarendon 
State Papers, iii. 678). In his speeches and 
manifestoes he was equally vehement (KEN- 
NETT, p. 63 ; BAKER, p. 711). Hitherto the 
republicans had hoped that 'Monck could 
not be such a devil to betray a trust so freely 
reposed in him' (LTJDLOW, ii. 816). Now 
convinced that the restoration of the Stuarts 
was imminent, Heselrige and others offered 
the supreme power to Monck, and Bor- 
deaux, the French ambassador, assured him 
of the support of Mazarin, if he chose to ac- 
cept the offer (BAKER, pp. 715, 717 ; GTJIZOT, 
Richard Cromwell, ii. 293). But Monck 
refused to listen to these suggestions, and or- 
dered Bordeaux not to interfere in matters of 

More serious was the danger of a military 
revolt. Monck had prepared to deal with it 
by removing Fleetwood's troops from Lon- 
don, quartering the regiments in small sec- 
tions, and replacing inflexible republicans by 
colonels whom he could trust. On 15 March 
a meeting of officers demanded that he should 
send to the parliament to re-enact the en- 
gagement against a monarchy, but he told 
them ' that he brought them not out of 
Scotland for his nor the parliament's council ; 
that for his part he should obey the parlia- 
ment, and expected they should do the same' 
(Clarendon State Papers, iii. 696 ; BAKER, p. 
716). He then ordered them to their regi- 
ments and forbade them to assemble again, 
and finally obtained from the whole army 
an engagement to submit to whatsoever the 
Lord should bring forth from the consulta- 
tions of the coming parliament (9 April; 
BAKER, p. 719). So effectual were these 
measures, that when Lambert escaped from 
the Tower, he was only joined by seven or 
eight troops of horse and a few cashiered 
officers, and his recapture put an end to the 
insurrection (22 April). 

Before this time Monck had entered into 

direct communication with Charles II. The 
precise date at which he resolved to restore 
the king has been much disputed. Speaking 
of Nicholas Monck's visit to his brother in 
July 1659, Clarendon says : ' At that time there 
is no question the general had not the least 
thought or purpose to contribute to the king's 
restoration, the hope whereof he believed to 
be desperate ; and the disposition that did 
grow in him afterwards did arise from those 
accidents which fell out, and even obliged 
him to undertake that which proved so much 
to his profit and glory . . . ' 'It was the 
king's great happiness that he never had it 
in his power to serve him till it fell to be in 
his power, and, indeed, till he had nothing else 
in his power to do' (Rebellion, xvi. 100, 115). 
On the other hand, Price represents Monck 
as first conceiving the idea of a restoration in 
July 1659, and covertly avowing his inten- 
tion before he entered England (PRICE, ed. 
Maseres, pp. 721, 746). As early as No- 
vember 1659 Monck told Clarges that he in- 
tended to readmit the ' secluded members/ 
and every politician knew that this meant 
the restoration of the monarchy (BAKER, p. 
688). His conduct when he declared against 
the army in October 1659, the foresight with 
which he provided for every possibility, and 
the decision with which he acted, all render 
it difficult to suppose that he had no clear 
conception of his ultimate object. 

Much of Monck's success was due to his 
judicious selection of his instruments. In 
dealing with the republicans he had made 
Gumble his mouthpiece, Sharpe was his 
agent with the presbyterians, and Clarges 
with the officers. To negotiate with royalists 
a new personage was required, and for that 
purpose he had made choice of his relative 
William Morice [q. v.], one of the secluded 
members, whom he summoned from Devon- 
shire and made governor of Plymouth (CLA- 
RENDON, Rebellion, xvi. 162 ; BAKER, p. 712). 
Through Morice he arranged an interview 
with Sir John Grenville (19 March), and at 
last received from his hands the letter the 
king had sent him in the previous summer. 
' My heart,' he told Grenville, < was ever 
faithful to the king, but I was never able to 
do him service till the present time.' He 
refused to give Grenville a letter for the 
king, but made him commit his instructions 
to memory, and despatched him at once to 
Brussels. Monck's recommendations were 
that the king should remove at once to 
Breda, and thence offer a general pardon 
and indemnity, guarantee all sales of land 
effected by the late authorities, and pro- 
mise religious toleration. In the Declara- 
tion of Breda (4 April) the king practically 


T 57 


adopted Monck's suggestions, but by Hyde's 
advice referred to the ultimate decision of 
parliament the interpretation and execution 
of his general promises. With the declara- 
tion, Charles sent Monck a commission as 
captain-general, authority to appoint a secre- 
tary of state, and letters for the city, the 
council of state, and the parliament (PRICE, 
pp. 783-91; CLARENDON, xvi. 166-74). 
Monck silently laid them aside until the 
meeting of parliament. His negotiation 
with the king meant, as Charles told Gren- 
ville, ' the king's restoration without condi- 
tions.' Monck's apology for thus anticipating 
the action of parliament lay in the belief 
that he could not guarantee the peace of the 
nation during the time that a treaty would 
require (BURNET, Own Time,\. 161, ed. 1833). 
Parliament met on 25 April, and the next 
day Monck was solemnly thanked by both 
houses. The king's letters were presented 
on 1 May, and the restoration of the monarchy 
was voted the same day. 

On 25 May the king landed at Dover. 
Monck met him on the shore with expres- 
sions of humility and devotion. Charles 
' embraced and kissed him ' (cf. GUMBLE, 
p. 383). Next day at Canterbury Monck 
was knighted, invested with the order of 
the Garter and made master of the horse 
(Gal. State Papers, Dom. 1659-60, p. 447). 
On 7 July he was raised to the peerage by 
the titles Baron Monck of Potheridge, Beau- 
champ, and Teyes, Earl of Torrington, and 
Duke of Albemarle, granted a pension of 
700/. a year, and given the estate of New 
Hall in Essex. The selection of these titles 
was an implicit admission of the claims set 
forth in the pedigree which his panegyrists 
had lately published, representing him as 
descended from Richard Beauchamp, earl of 
Warwick, and from Arthur Plantagenet, a 
natural son of Edward IV (Complete Peer- 
age, by G. E. C., i. 58). But his paramount 
merit was that set forth in Sir Richard 
Fanshawe's Latin preamble to his patent, 
whose recital of his services closes with the 
words, 'hsec omnia, prudentia ac felicitate 
summa, victor sine sanguine, perfecit ' (PECK, 
Desiderata Curiosa, ii. 514"). For the mo- 
ment the king's obligations made Monck's 
influence enormous, but he used it with 
moderation. He presented Charles with a 
list of about seventy persons recommended 
for office, but greatly to the king's relief 
explained that it was a mere formality. Of 
his kinsmen, Morice became secretary of ' 
state, Nicholas Monck bishop of Hereford, ' 
and Clarges was knighted and made com- ! 
missary-general of the musters. He never 
wearied of advancing the interests of Gren- ; 

ville and his family, and Ashley Cooper owed 
to Monck's special recommendation his im- 
mediate admission to the privy council 
(CLARENDON, Continuation, 13; Cat. State 
Papers, Dom. 1664-5, p. 436). 

Monck's influence was naturally greatest in 
military affairs. His position as captain- 
general was confirmed by a patent for life 
(3 Aug. 1660). While the rest of the army 
was disbanded, his own regiment of foot 
was continued as the king's guards, and a 
large part of his horse regiment was re- 
enlisted in the horse guards. Their necessity 
had been shown by Venner's insurrection 
(7 Jan. 1661). 

In purely political questions Monck's in- 
fluence was far less powerful. His views 
as to the details of the restoration settlement 
are contained in a paper sent to the king 
about 9 May 1660 (LISTER, Life of Claren- 
don^ iii. 500). He proposed that five persons 
only should be excepted from the Act of 
Oblivion ; that the sales of church lands and 
crown lands by the late authorities should 
be confirmed as leases for a term of years ; 
and that those who had bought lands be- 
longing to private persons should have the 
usufruct of them until the purchase-money 
was repaid. The solution which the royal- 
ist zeal of the convention preferred was far 
more sweeping. Monck himself sat among 
the judges of the regicides, but cannot fairly 
be blamed. He was not, like some of his 
colleagues, partly responsible for the policy 
which prepared the way for the king's execu- 
tion ; he had endeavoured to limit the number 
of victims, and he faithfully observed his 
personal pledges to Heselrige and others, 
whose lives he had promised to save (Hist. 
MSS. Comm. 8th Rep. p. 212). 

In ecclesiastical matters also the policy 
adopted was not that which he advocated. 
All the evidence tends to prove that Monck 
was at heart a moderate presbyterian, just 
as his wife was a violent one. ' Moderate, 
not rigid, presbyterian government, with a 
sufficient liberty for consciences truly tender/ 
was his definition of the settlement he de- 
sired the 'secluded members' to establish. 
It was with great difficulty that Price in- 
duced him to promise not to engage himself 
against bishops (Old Parliamentary History, 
xxii. 142 ; PRICE, p. 774 ; WODROW, Church 
History, ed. 1828, i. 5-19). The compro- 
mise Monck proposed to the king was that 
an assembly of divines should be called to 
settle, in conjunction with parliament, the 
future government of the church. As an 
advocate of comprehension he was present at 
the Worcester House conference (22 Oct. 
1660), and two years later intervened in sup- 




port of the attempt to suspend the enforce- 
ment of the Act of Uniformity (CLARENDON, 
Continuation, 335-8 ; PEPYS, Diary, 3 Sept. 

In the settlement of Scotland Monck's 
advice naturally had considerable weight. 
He appears, however, to have been opposed 
to the withdrawal of the English garrisons 
and to the destruction of the forts erected 
there during the English conquest (WoDROW, 
Church History, ed. R. Burns, 1827, i. 44). 
But he had promised the Scots nobility before 
going into England that ' he would befriend 
them in all their just liberties,' and this was 
one of the points they had most at heart. To 
the Scottish clergy, with whose leaders he 
had been in communication through James 
Sharpe, he was pledged for the maintenance 
of presbyterianism, and therefore opposed 
the immediate introduction of episcopacy 
(CLARENDON, Continuation, 105). He had 
recommended Sharpe to Hyde and to the 
king as likely to prove useful in the settle- 
ment of church matters (Clarendon State 
Papers, iii. 741). Clarendon also attri- 
butes Glencairne's employment to Monck's 
recommendation (Continuation, 95). The 
part which Monck took in procuring Argyll's 
condemnation has been much controverted. 
One of the charges against Argyll was his 
active support of the English government of 
Scotland against the Scottish royalists, and 
when there was a difficulty about proving it 
Monck forwarded a selection from Argyll's 
letters to himself and other English governors. 
This fact, asserted by Baillie and Burnet, but 
denied by later writers, is now conclusively 
proved (BURNET, i. 225 ; BAILLIE, ed. Laing, 
iii. 465 ; Hist. MSS. Comm. 6th Rep. p. 617 ; 
for the controversy, see GTTIZOT, Monk, ed. 
Wortley, p. 293). Burnet terms this an 
act of ' inexcusable baseness ; ' on the other 
hand, the letters were not of the private 
nature which he asserts, but a part of the 
official correspondence of the English govern- 
ment in Scotland which had, according to 
custom, remained in Monck's possession (Own 
Time, i. 225). 

At the Restoration Monck had been ap- 
pointed lord-lieutenant of Ireland, but was 
unwilling either to quit England or to resign 
his post. His Irish estate, according to Claren- 
don, amounted to 4,000/. a year, * which he 
thought he could best preserve in the supreme 
government, though he was willing to have 
it believed in the city and the army that he 
retained it only for the good of the adven- 
turers, and that the soldiers might be justly 
dealt with for their arrears ' (Continuation, 
124). In the Act of Settlement provisos 
were inserted in favour of Monck's rights, 

and his influence was undoubtedly used 
on behalf of the English colony. At first 
the king appointed Lord Roberts to act as 
Monck's deputy, but as that arrangement 
proved unsatisfactory three lords justices 
were appointed instead (December 1660). 
The death of one of these caused a new diffi- 
culty, which Monck solved by resigning his 
commission and begging the king to make 
Ormonde lord-lieutenant (November 1661; 
ib. 198, 234). 

Monck's part in the foreign policy pursued 
during the early years of the reign is obscure. 
Burnet, on the doubtful authority of Sir Ro- 
bert Southwell, attributes to him the sugges- 
tion of the Portuguese match. It is clear 
that Monck was a strong supporter of the 
j scheme, if not actually its originator (Own. 
\ Time, i. 300; KENNETT, Register, p. 394; 
| CARTE, Ormonde, iv. 102). Burnet represents 
: him as the chief adviser of the sale of 
i Dunkirk, but, according to the letters of 
| d'Estrades, Clarendon told him that Monck 
! was one of its chief opponents. Nevertheless, 
his position as lord-general naturally led to 
I his appointment as one of the commissioners 
to arrange the details of the sale ( Own Time, i. 
312 ; Clarendon State Papers, iii. Appendix, 
p. xxv ; LANSDOWNE, Works, 1732, i. 459). 
Public opinion regarded Monck as one of the 
instigators of the Dutch war. ' Some,' says 
Gumble, ' did report him the chief councillor, 
but they are mistaken, for he scarce declared 
[ himself in it till the parliament had voted 
to adhere with their lives and fortunes ' (p. 
410). Foreign observers, however, shared 
the popular view, and the Dutch ambassador 
reported to his masters a conversation in 
which Monck announced that at any cost 
England must have her proper share in the 
trade of the world (PONTALIS, Jean de Witt, 
i. 325; CHRISTIE, Life of Shaftesbury, i. 278). 
Throughout the war, whether Monck was at 
home or at sea, the burden of its manage- 
ment rested largely on his shoulders. When 
the Duke of York took command of the fleet 
he deputed his authority as lord high admiral 
to Monck instead of entrusting it to com- 
missioners (22 March 1665 : Memoirs of Naval 
A/airs, 1729, p. 124). ' It is a thing that 
do cheer my heart,' wrote Pepys ; ' for the 
other would have vexed us with attend- 
| ance, and never done the business ' (Diary, 
| 17 March 1665). All through the plague- 
year Monck remained in London, executing 
the duties of his office, maintaining order in 
the city, and, with the assistance of William 
Craven, earl of Craven (1606-1697) [q. v.], 
superintending the measures taken to check 
the plague. His example and his presence 
were of the greatest value (CLARENDON, Con- 



tinuation, 662; GTJMBLE, Life of Monk, 
p. 419). 

In November 1665 the king decided to 
employ Monck at sea. At first he hesitated ! 
to accept, on the ground that he was more 
necessary in London, ( as he thought he had 
done the king better service by staying in > 
London than he could have done in any other ; 
place ' (CLABEKDON). Finally he consented, I 
but begged that his acceptance might remain 
a secret for the present ; 'for if his wife should 
come to know it, before he had by degrees 
prepared her for it, she would break out into ! 
such passions as would be very uneasy to 
him.' Her ' cursed words ' when she did learn 
it are recorded by Pepys (Diary, 9 Dec. 1665). , 

With Rupert as his colleague in command 
Monck put to sea on 23 April 1666. Rupert | 
with twenty ships was detached in May to | 
prevent the j unction of the French squadron 
with the Dutch. This resolution was taken, 
according to Sir William Coventry, 'with 
the full 'consent and advice' of Monck (ib. 
24 June 1666 ; CLARENDON, Continuation, 
868). During Rupert's absence the Dutch 
fleet appeared off the North Foreland (1 June), 
and though Monck had but fifty-four ships 
to their eighty he at once attacked. The 
English fleet had the weather gauge, but 
could not use their lower deck guns. Monck's 
tactics have been highly praised by a modern 
critic, but when the day closed the English 
fleet, especially the white squadron, had lost 
heavily (MAHAN, The Influence of Sea Power 
upon History, p. 121). The Swiftsure, which 
carried the flag of Vice-admiral Sir Wil- 
liam Berkeley, had been taken, and Rear- 
admiral Sir John Harman's ship, the Henry, 
completely disabled. The next day the 
battle was renewed, the Dutch, according 
to English accounts, receiving a reinforce- 
ment of sixteen ships. By night the Eng- 
lish fleet, reduced to thirty-four fighting 
ships, was in full retreat. On the third day 
the retreat continued. l My Lord-general's 
conduct,' wrote Sir Thomas Clifford, ' was 
here well seen to be very good, for he chose 
out sixteen of the greatest ships of these 
thirty-four to be a bulwark to the rest, and 
to bring up the rear in a breast, and so shoved 
on the others in a line before him, and in 
this way we maintained an orderly and good 
retreat all Sunday' (Cal. State Papers, Dom. 
1665-6. p. xx). At three in the afternoon 
Prince Rupert's squadron was sighted, but 
the junction of the two fleets was attended 
by the loss of the Royal Prince, Sir George 
Ayscue's flagship, which struck on the Gal- 
loper Sands, and was burnt by the Dutch. 
Monck's own ship, the Royal Charles, also 
grounded, but was got off, and his evident 

determination to blow her up rather than 
surrender greatly alarmed the gentlemen 
volunteers on board (GTJMBLE, p. 436 ; Workt 
of Sheffield, Duke of Buckingham, ii. 6). On 
the fourth day the English fleet again attacked 
and was worsted, but the Dutch were in no 
condition to keep the seas, and both navies 
returned to their ports to refit. The lowest 
estimate of the English loss was eight hundred 
killed and fifteen hundred wounded. The 
Dutch claimed to have taken twenty-three 
men of war and lost but four. 

Monck's conduct in engaging at once instead 
of waiting for Rupert to join him was severely 
criticised. It was said that his success in 
beating the Dutch in the earlier war had made 
him over-confident and foolhardy (EVELYN, 
Diary, 6 June ; PEPYS, Diary, 4' July). On 
the other hand Monck had good reason to> 
believe that Rupert would have joined him 
before the fleet was shattered by two davs r 
hard fighting. He also complained bitterly 
of the conduct of his captains. ' I assure 
you,' he wrote to Coventry, ' I never fought 
with worse officers than now in my life, for 
not above twenty of them behaved like men r 
(PEPYS, Correspondence, ed. Smith, i. 110). 
The sailors, however, never fought better (cf. 
TEMPLE, Works, ed. 1754, i. 144). 

Monck and Rupert put to sea again on 
17 July, and on the 25th and 26th engaged 
the Dutch. The jealousy which existed 
between Tromp and De Ruyter facilitated 
victory for the English. The Dutch lost two- 
ships only, but three admirals and a great 
number of men, and were driven to take 
shelter in their ports (Life of Cornelius- 
Tromp, pp. 374-89 ; Cal. State Papers, Dom. 
1665-6, p. 579). A fortnight later (8, 9 Aug.) 
a detached squadron of small ships from the 
English fleet landed one thousand men on 
the islands of Vlie and Schelling, and burnt 
160 Dutch merchantmen in harbour, whose 
cargoes were valued at a million sterling. 

Monck was summoned from sea by the 
news of the great fire of London. He was- 
back by 8 Sept., and his influence in the city 
was of the greatest use in restoring order 
(PEPYS, Diary, 8 Sept.) He could not be 
spared to resume his command of the fleet 
during 1666, and for 1667 the government, 
at its wits' end for money, took the fatal 
resolution of laying up the great ships in 
harbour. The lighter ships were to be sent 
out to prey on Dutch commerce, and the 
English coast was to be protected by fortifi- 
cations at Sheerness, Portsmouth, and Har- 
wich. Sir William Coventry was credited 
with the suggestion, but the council in gene- 
ral shares the blame of its adoption, and 
popular rumour represented Monck as un- 




successfully opposing it ( Cal. State Papers, 
Dom. 1667, pp. xxiv, xxvii ; PEPYS, Diary, 
14 June 1667). When the Dutch fleet ap- 
peared in the Thames, he was, as usual, des- 
patched to the point of danger (cf. MAEVELL, 
Last Instructions to a Painter, 1. 510). By 
sinking ships and raising batteries he en- 
deavoured to protect the men-of-war laid up 
at Chatham, and wrote hopefully that he had 
made them safe (PEPYS, Diary, 12 June, 
20 Oct. 1667). But the negligence with 
which his orders were executed rendered all 
his exertions fruitless, for on 12 June the 
Dutch broke the chain across the Medway, 
burnt eight great ships, and captured Monck's j 
old flagship, the Royal Charles. The narra- 
tive which Monck laid before the House of 
Commons proved that he did all a commander 
so badly seconded could do, and the house 
thanked him for his eminent merit in the 
late war (Commons'* Journals, ix. 6, 11). 
' The blockhead Albemarle,' comments Pepys, 
' hath strange luck to be loved, though he 
be the heaviest man in the world, but stout 
and honest to his country' (Diary. 23 Oct. ! 

This was Monck's last public service. He | 
had been appointed first lord of the treasury i 
when it was put into commission (24 May 
1667) ; but he took little part in the business 
of the board. When Clarendon fell into 
disgrace, Monck at first tried to reconcile 
him with the king, but finally used his in- 
fluence in parliament against him (CLAREN- 
DON, Continuation, 1136, 1177). Towards 
the end of 1668 his increasing infirmities 
obliged him to retire permanently to New 
Hall. Ever since, his recovery from a dan- 
gerous fever (August 1661) he had been 
liable to asthma, and to swellings which 
finally developed into dropsy. He was suf- 
fering from these complaints when he enter- 
tained Cosmo III of Tuscany (12 June 1669), 
grew rapidly worse in the following De- 
cember, and died on the morning of 3 Jan. 
1670. He died, wrote an eye-witness, ' like 
a Roman general and soldier, standing almost 
up in his chair, his chamber like a tent open, j 
and all his officers about him' (Monckton \ 
Papers, ed. Peacock, 1885, p. 94). 

His old friend, Seth Ward, who was with 
him in his last moments, preached his funeral 
sermon ('The Christian's Victory over Death,' 
4to, 1670). The grateful king took the 
charge of funeral and monument out of Chris- 
topher Monck's hands, and announced that 
he would bear the cost of both himself. 
Monck's funeral was consequently long de- 
layed. ' It is almost three months,' wrote 
Marvell on 21 March, ' and he yet lies in the 
dark unburied, and no talk of him ' ( Works, 

ed. Grosart, ii. 317). The funeral, celebrated 
with great pomp, took place in Westminster 
Abbey on 30 April 1670 (SANDFORD, The 
Order used at the Solemn Interment of George, 
Duke of Albemarle, fol. 1670; MACKINNON, 
i. 132). The monument Charles never erected, 
but one was at last put up in 1720, in pur- 
suance of the will of Christopher, second 
duke of Albemarle. Monck's effigy, dressed 
in armour, was long one of the sights of the 
abbey, and the contributions of the curious 
were usually collected in his cap. The effigy 
is still preserved, but no longer shown to 
visitors (STANLEY, Memorials of Westmin- 
ster, ed. 1868, pp. 228, 343; DART, West- 
monasterium, i. 153). 

A portrait of Monck, by Walker, is in the 
possession of the Earl of Sandwich, and one 
by Lely is in the Painted Hall at Greenwich ; 
a third, by an unknown painter, was No. 815 
in the National Portrait Exhibition of 1866. 
The Sutherland Collection in the Bodleian 
Library contains about twenty engraved por- 

Monck's appearance is thus described by 
Gumble : ' He was of a very comely personage, 
his countenance very manly and majestic, the 
whole fabric of his body very strong.' A 
French traveller who saw him in 1663 is 
more explicit : ' II est petit et gros ; mais il 
a la physionomie de 1'esprit le plus solide, et 
de la conscience la plus tranquille du monde, 
et avec cela une froideur sans affectation, et 
sans orgueil, ni dedain ; il a enfin tout 1'air 
d'un homme fort modere et fort prudent' 
( Voyages de B. de Monconys, ed. 1695, II. 
ii. 167). An Italian, writing of six years 
later, describes him as ' of the middle size, of a 
stout and square-built make, of a complexion 
partly sanguine and partly phlegmatic, as 
indeed is generally the case with the Eng- 
lish ; his face is fair, but somewhat wrinkled 
with age ; his hair is grey, and his features 
not particularly fine or noble ' (MAGALOTTI, 
Travels of the Grand Duke Cosmo III, 1821, 
p. 469). Of Monck's habits Gumble gives a 
minute account (pp. 465-75). He was very 
temperate, and before his sickness ' was never 
known to desire meat or drink till called to 
it, which was but once a day, and seldom 
drank but at his meals.' But if occasion 
arose he could drink deep, and w T hen some 
young lords forced him to take part in a 
drinking bout, he saw them all under the 
table, and withdrew sober to the privy council ? 
(Jirss BRAND, A French Ambassador at the 
Court of Charles II, 1892, p. 96). Through- 
out he retained much of the puritan in his 
manners, was ' never heard to swear an oath,' 
and never gambled till his physicians advised 
it as a distraction. In religion Monck was 




careful in all observances, at heart ' inclined 
much to the rigidest points of predestination,' 
and he sometimes inserted religious reflec- 
tions in his despatches. His courage, which 
was always conspicuous, was ' a settled habit 
of mind,' and ' as great in suffering as in 
doing.' But the virtue which his biographer 
praises as t paramount in him and mistress of 
all the rest ' was his prudence, including under 
that term the practical dexterity with which 
he made use of all men and all means to bring 
about the Restoration. The perjuries which 
it cost him to effect it never troubled his con- 
science. He regarded them as legitimate 
stratagems sanctified by the end in view. His 
natural reserve had made dissimulation easy 
to him, and his character for honesty and 
simplicity made him readily believed. 

Monck was an indefatigable official, rising 
early, sleeping little, and despatching an enor- 
mous amount of business. He had very little 
education, spelt badly, and expressed himself 
awkwardly, and often tautologically, but his 
letters are always clear and to the point. 
As a general he was remarkable for his care 
of his men, and for a knowledge of military 
science rare among the self-taught com- 
manders of the Commonwealth. He occupies a 
place inWalpole's ' Royal and Noble Authors' 
by virtue of ' Observations upon Military and 
Political Affairs,' written when he was a 
prisoner in the Tower, and published by John 
Heath in 1671. A portrait of Monck by B. 
Walker belongs to the Earl of Sandwich ; 
another, by an unknown hand, to J. B. Monck, 
esq. ; another was painted by Dr. Logan, an 
engraving of which and two others are in the 
possession of James Falconer, esq. 

Anne, duchess of Albemarle, was the daugh- 
ter of John Clarges, a farrier in the Savoy, 
by his wife, Anne Leaver. She married, on 
28 Feb. 1632-3, Thomas Radford, also a 
farrier, and afterwards a servant to Prince 
Charles, ' from whom she was separated in 
1649, but of whose death before her second 
marriage no evidence appears to have been 
obtained.' Her remarriage to Monck took 
place on 23 Jan. 1652-3 at St. George's, 
Southwark (CHESTER, Westminster Abbey 
Registers, p. 171). Aubrey asserts that she 
was Monck's seamstress when he was pri- 
soner in the Tower, and hints that she was 
also his mistress. A letter written in Septem- 
ber 1653, mentioning the marriage, describes 
her character in the harshest terms, but these 
scandalous stories contain inaccuracies which 
destroy their credit (Letters from the Bod- 
/eum,ii.452; THTTRLOE, i. 470). By her Monck 
had two sons: first, Christopher, born in 1653, 
second duke of Albemarle fq. v.] ; secondly, 
George, who died an infant, and was buried 


in the chapel at Dalkeith House (SKINNER, 
p. 70). 

In 1659 all Mrs. Monck's influence with 
her husband was exercised on behalf of the 
restoration of the monarchy. Price dwells 
on the freedom she was wont to use in her 
evening conversations with the general after 
his day's work was over. At night too he 
was sometimes ' quickened with a curtain 
lecture of damnation a text that his lady 
often preached upon to him' (PRICE, ed. 
Maseres, pp. 712, 716). This zeal gained 
her the praise of Hyde's correspondents, who 
speak of her as 'an extreme good woman,' 
and * a happy instrument in this glorious 
work' (Clarendon State Papers, iii. 739, 741, 
749) . After the Restoration her defects became 
more obvious, and Clarendon terms her ' a 
woman of the lowest extraction, the least 
wit, and less beauty ; ' i nihil muliebre praeter 
corpus gerens ' (Rebellion, xvi. 98). To Pepys 
she seemed ' a plain, homely dowdy,' and he 
complains that when he dined at the duke's 
he found him with ' dirty dishes, and a 
nasty wife at table and bad meat ' (Diary, 
4 April 1667). Her worst fault, however, 
was avarice, and she was commonly accused 
of selling offices in her husband's department, 
and of even worse methods of extortion (ib. 
22 June 1660 ; 16 May 1667). She died on 
29 Jan. 1670, said to be aged 54, and was 
buried in "Westminster Abbey on 28 Feb. 
(CHESTER, p. 171). 

[Of separately published lives of Monck the 
most important is The Life of General Monck, 
Duke of Albemarle, with Remarks upon his 
Actions, by Thomas Grumble, D.D., 8vo, 1671. 
Gumble was Monck's chaplain during 1659 and 
part of 1660, and derived much of his informa- 
tion from Monck and his officers. The Life by 
Thomas Skinner is for the most part a mere 
compilation, though Skinner was promised the 
use of original papers by Lord Bath and the 
second Duke of Albemarle (Notes and Queries, 
1st ser. i. 377,8thser.iv. 421). It was first pub- 
lished in 1723 by William Webster, curate of St. 
Dunstan's-in-the-West, London, who added a pre- 
face containing some original documents. Of 
modern lives the most important is that by 
Ghrizot, originally published in 1837. Of this 
there are two translations, the first, published in 
1838, with valuable annotations by J. Stuart 
Wortley, the second, published in 1851, by A. R. 
Scoble, from G-uizot's revised edition of his work 
(1850), with an appendix of diplomatic corre- 
spondence. A life, by Julian Corbett, 1889, is 
included in the series of English Men of Action. 
Lives of Monck are also in Winstanley's Worthies, 
1684; Biographia Britannica, v. 3134; Camp- 
bell's British Admirals, 1744 ; Prince's Worthies 
of Devon, 1701. A pedigree is given in the Visita- 
tions of Devon, ed. by Colby. In 1660 a pamphlet 
was printed, entitled The Pedigree and Descent 




of his Excellency, General George Monk, setting 
forth how he is descended from King Edward III, 
by a Branch and Slip of the White Hose, the 
House of York; and likewise his Extraction from 
Richard, King of the Romans. 

For particular portions of Monck's career the 
following are the chief authorities: 1. For his 
service in Ireland: Carte's Life of Ormonde; 
Carte's MSS. in the Bodleian Library ; Gilbert's 
Aphorismical Discovery of Treasonable Faction. 
2. For his services at sea : Granville Penn's Me- 
morials of Sir William Penn, 1833 ; J. B. Deane's 
Life of Richard Deane ; The Life of Cornelius 
Van Tromp, translated 1697 ; the parliamentary 
newspapers for 1653, and the Calendar of Do- 
mestic State Papers. 3. For his government of 
Scotland: The Thurloe State Papers, 1742; the 
manuscripts of Sir William Clarke in the library 
of Worcester College, Oxford ; Mackinnon's Hist, 
of the Coldstream Guards, 1833; Masson's Life 
of Milton, vol. v. 4. For the Restoration : The 
Mystery and Method of his Majesty's happy 
Restoration, by John Price, one of Monk's chap- 
lains, 8vo, 1680; reprinted by Maseres in Select 
Tracts relating to the Civil Wars in England, 
1815; The Continuation of Sir Richard Baker's 
Chronicle of the Kings of England, by Edward 
Phillips, printed in the edition of 1661 and sub- 
sequent editions, in what relates to Monck is based 
on the papers of his brother-in-law, Sir Thomas 
Clarges; the papers of Monck's secretary, Sir 
William Clarke, throw much light on the his- 
tory of this part of Monck's life ; some of them 
are in the library of Worcester College, Oxford, 
others in the possession of F. Ley borne Popham, 
esq., of Littlecote ; Ludlow's Memoirs, 1698; the 
Clarendon State Papers, vol. iii. ; Guizot's Hist. 
of Richard Cromwell and the Restoration of 
Charles II, translated by A. R. Scoble, 1855. 
Letters and declarations by Monck during this 
period, reprinted from contemporary pamphlets, 
are to be found in the Old Parliamentary History. 
Shortly after the Restoration A Collection of 
Letters and Declarations, &c., sent by General 
Monk, 4to, 1660, was published, which was re- 
printed in 1714 in 8vo. This was meant to 
expose his perfidy, and his protestations in favour 
of a republic were all printed in italics. It con- 
tained a letter to the king on 30 Dec. 1659, 
which is a forgery. 5. For the post-Restoration 
period of Monck's life : Burnet's Hist, of his 
own Time ; the Continuation of Clarendon's Life, 
and the Diary of Samuel Pepys. A Vindication 
of General Monck from some Calumnies of Dr. 
Burnet and some Mistakes of Dr. Echard, in re- 
lation to the sale of Dunkirk and the Portuguese 
match, was published by George Granville. It 
called forth an answer, to which Granville replied 
in A Letter to the Author of Reflections Histori- 
cal and Political, occasioned by a Treatise in Vin- 
dication of General Monk. Both are reprinted in 
the Genuine Works of Lord Lansdowne, 2 vols. 
1736. On Monck's death the university of Ox- 
ford published a collection of Latin verses, 
Epiceclia Universitatis Oxonicnsis in Obitum 

Georgii ducis Albemarlise, fol., 1670 ; and Cam- 
bridge added Musarum Cantabrigiensium Thre- 
nodia, 1 670, 4to. Payne Fisher wrote an Elogium 
Sepulchrale, and Thomas Flatman a Pindarique 
Ode. Robert Wild, Iter Boreale, 1660, 4to, 
celebrates Monck's march from Scotland, and! 
Dryden's Annus Mirabilis, 1667 7 his four days' 
sea-fight.] C. H. F. 

MONCK, MARY (d. 1715), poetess, was 
the second daughter of Robert Molesworth, 
first viscount Molesworth [q. v.], by Letitia, 
third daughter of Richard, lord Colooney, 
and sister of Richard, earl of Bellamont. 
She became the first wife of George Monck of 
St. Stephen's Green, Dublin, and died at Bath 
in 1715. 

By her own application she acquired a 
knowledge of the Latin, Italian, and Spanish 
languages, and read much English literature. 
Some poems by her appeared shortly after 
her death under the title of ' Marinda. Poems 
and Translations upon several occasions,' 
London, 1716, 8vo. A long and fulsome de- 
dication to Carolina, princess of Wales, was 
prefixed by her father, Lord Molesworth. 
On her deathbed she wrote some very affect- 
ing verses to her husband, which are not in- 
cluded in her works, but which were printed 
in Barber's collection of 'Poems by Eminent 
Ladies ' (London, 1755, 12mo), ii. 195. 

[Ballard's Memoirs of Ladies, 1775, p. 288; 
Gibber's Lives of the Poets, iii. 201 ; Hist. Reg. 
1726, Chronology, p. 31 ; Jacob's Lives of the 
Poets, 1720, ii. 106 ; Lodge's Peerage of Ireland 
(Archdall), iii. 138, 140 n. ; Ware's Writers of 
Ireland (Harris), p. 287.] T. C. 


(1610-1661), provost of Eton and bishop of 
Hereford, was the third son of Sir Thomas 
Monck, knt., of Potheridge, Devonshire, and 
younger brother to George [q. v.], the famous 
general. He was born at Potheridge in 1610, 
and in 1629 matriculated at Wadham College, 
Oxford. He graduated B. A. 3 March 1630-1 , 
and M. A. 30 Oct. 1633. Instead of entering- 
the army like his brothers, he took holy orders. 
The small living of Plymtree in Devonshire, 
which he obtained after 1646 through his 
marriage in 1642 with the daughter of the 
then rector, whose family had the presenta- 
tion, was confirmed to him by General Monck's 
influence with Cromwell; but his sympathies 
certainly leaned to the royalist side, and he 
was in 1653 presented by his kinsman, Sir 
John Grenville [q. v.], to the valuable living 
of Kilhampton, Corn wall, worth about 260/. a 
year. After Cromwell's death Grenville sent 
'the honest clergyman' up to London, where 
he received through George Monck's brother- 
in-law, Thomas Clarges [q. v.], instructions to 




go to Scotland and ascertain his brother's in- 
tentions. Nicholas therefore sailed for Edin- 
burgh (August 1659) on the ostensible errand 
of arranging a marriage for one of his daugh- 
ters. He found the general engaged with a 
council of officers, but confided his mission 
to the general's chaplain, John Price, who 
was in the confidence of the royalist party. 
From Price Monck received every encourage- 
ment. The next day the brothers met, and 
various accounts are given of their interview, 
but all agree that the general refused to com- 
mit himself as to his future conduct (cf.KEN"- 
NETT, iii. 215-16, and art. MONCK, GEORGE). 

After the Restoration Nicholas was made 
provost of Eton on the recommendation of 
Grenville. There was no pretence of elec- 
tion on the part of the fellows, who, much 
incensed by Charles's arbitrary proceeding, 
refused to make an entry of the appointment 
in the college register. A copy of the royal 
letter, dated 7 July 1660, nominating Monck j 
is extant in the Eton Library. Most of the I 
puritan fellows resigned or were ejected, and ' 
new regulations were drawn up by the new I 
provost and fellows, the former's stipend 
being fixed at 500/. a year, besides ' wood, 
capons, 20 dozen of candles, and 20 loads of 
hay.' On 1 Aug. 1660 Nicholas was created 
D.D. at Oxford per lift, reg., and on 1 Dec. 
he was appointed bishop of Hereford, a see I 
which had been vacant fourteen years. He 
w r as to hold his provostship in addition for 
two years. Consecrated on 6 Jan. 1660-1 in 
Westminster Abbey by the Archbishop of 
York, he lived to enjoy his new dignity only 
for eleven months. He died on 17 Dec. 1661, 
aged 51, at his lodgings in Old Palace Yard, 
and was buried on the 20th in Westminster 
Abbey, his brother George attending the 
funeral as chief mourner. 

By his wife Susannah, daughter of Thomas 
Payne, rector of Plymtree, Devonshire, and 
widow of Christopher Trosse, whom he mar- 
ried in 1642, Nicholas had two daughters, 
Mary, married to Arthur Fairwell of West- 
minster, and Elizabeth, married to Curwen 
Rawlinson of Carke Hall, Cartmell, Lanca- 
shire. A son Nicholas died young. On the 
daughter Elizabeth's monument, put up by 
her son Christopher Rawlinson at St. Mary's 
Church, Cartmell, Nicholas is described as 
' a great assistant in the Restoration to his 
brother.' In 1723 Christopher Rawlinson 
erected a pyramidical monument of black and 
white marble to the bishop in St. Edmund's 
Chapel, Westminster Abbey. Upon it is an 
elaborate Latin inscription. 

A portrait of Monck in the print of the 
Rawlinson family of Carke Hall, Lancashire, 
is mentioned by Bromley. 

[Wood's Athense Oxon. iv. 815 ; Wood's Fasti, 
i. 454, 469, ii. 236 ; Walker's Sufferings of the 
Clergy, ii. 306 ; Clarendon's History, Clar 
Press edit., 1826, vii. 383 ; Price's Mystery and 
Method of his Majesty's Happy Kestoration, 
London, 1680, p. 5 &c. ; Maxwell Lyte's Hist, of 
Eton College, p. 240; Chester's Kegister of 
Westminster Abbey, p. 155 ; information sup- 
plied by Mrs. Frances Troup, Rockbeare House, 
near Exeter, Devonshire.] E. T. S. 

MONCKTON, MARY, afterwards COUN- 
born on 21 May 1746, was the youngest 
child and only surviving daughter of John 
Monckton, first viscount Galway(1695-1751), 
by his second wife, Jane, fourth daughter 
of Henry Warner Westenra, esq., of Rath- 
leagh, Queen's County, Ireland. From an 
early age she interested herself in literature 
and learning, and as a young woman be- 
came known as a ' blue-stocking.' During the 
whole of her long life she was renowned for 
her vivacity, sparkling wit, and great con- 
versational powers. While young she made 
her mother's house in Charles Street, Berkeley 
Square, London, the rendezvous of persons of 
genius and talent. Dr. Johnson was often her 
guest, and Boswell describes her in 1781 as 
' the lively Miss Monckton who used to have 
the finest bit of blue 1 at her house. ' Her vi- 
vacity,' he goes on, ' enchanted the sage, and 
they used to talk together with all imaginable 
ease.' On one occasion when Johnson denied 
that Sterne's writings were pathetic, Miss 
Monckton declared that they certainly affected 
her. ' That is,' said Johnson, ' because, dearest, 
you're a dunce.' When she reminded him 
of this some time afterwards, Johnson said, 
' Madam, if I had thought so I certainly 
should not have said it' (BOSWELL, Life, ed. 
Hill, iv. 108, passim). After Johnson became 
too ill to go into society Miss Monckton visited 
him at his house. Hannah More, writing to 
her sister in April 1784, says : ' Did I tell you 
I went to see Dr. Johnson P Miss Monckton 
carried me, and we paid him a very long 
visit.' Frances Burney describes Miss Monck- 
ton in 1782 as ' one of those who stand fore- 
most in collecting all extraordinary or curious 
people to her London conversaziones, which 
like those of Mrs. Vesey mix the rank and 
the literature, and exclude all besides. . . . 
She is between thirty and forty, very short, 
very fat, but handsome, splendidly and fan- 
tastically dressed, rouged not unbecomingly, 
yet evidently and palpably desirous of gain- 
ing notice and admiration. She has an easy 
levity in her air, manner, voice, and dis- 
course.' According to Miss Burney the guests 
at Miss Monckton's parties were not an- 
nounced, and the hostess received them seated. 





They were never allowed to sit in a circle, 
since such an arrangement impeded conversa- 
tion, which was as a rule the only amusement 
(Diary of Mme. (TArblay, ii. 179, passim). 
Miss Monckton, like Mrs. Elizabeth Montagu 
[q. v.], deprecated card-playing at private 
parties. Among her guests when Miss Bur- 
ney knew her were, besides Johnson, Burke, 
Reynolds, Sheridan (then only regarded as 
the beautiful Miss Linley's l drag of a hus- 
band'), Horace Walpole, Mrs. Thrale, and 
Mrs. Siddons,who was Miss Monckton's inti- 
mate friend. 

In June 1786 Miss Monckton married 
Edmund Boyle, seventh earl of Cork and 
Orrery, who died in 1798. She was his 
second wife. There were no children of the 

As Lady Cork her passion for entertaining 
persons of note increased. Lady Charleville, 
writing to Mrs. Opie in 1809, says : ' Lady 
Cork's activity in pursuit of amusement is a 
pleasant proof of vivacity and spirit surviving 
youth' (BRIGHTWELL, Memorials of Mrs. 
Opie, p. 139). In her journal for 1811 Miss 
Mary Berry [q. v.] describes one party as 
' curious,' and another as ' a great assembly. 
The prince was there and all the world.' Mrs. 
Opie, whose friendship with Lady Cork was of 
long standing, mentions a reception at Lady 
Cork's at which she was present in 1814, 
when General Bliicher was expected, but 
did not come (ib. p. 101). Mrs. Opie gives 
also an amusing account of Lady Cork's pa- 
tronage of James Hogg [q. v.], the Ettrick 
shepherd (ib. pp. 349-52). The advance of age 
did not diminish Lady Cork's love of society. 
C. R. Leslie, writing in 1834, says : ' Lady 
Cork is very old, infirm, and diminutive . . . 
her features are delicate and her skin fair, 
and notwithstanding her great age she is 
very animated. . . . The old lady, who was a j 
lion hunter in her youth, is as much one 
now as ever' (Autobiography, i. 136, 243). 
To her dinners and receptions in her last 
years came, among others, the prince regent, 
Canning, Castlereagh, Lord Byron, Sir Walter 
Scott, Sheridan, Lord John Russell, Sir 
Robert Peel, Theodore Hook, Samuel Rogers, j 
and Sydney Smith. Her bias was whig, but j 
ability and distinction insured a welcome to | 
members of all parties. 

Of her many peculiarities and eccentrici- 
ties in her old age numerous anecdotes are 
told. It is said that she suffered from klep- 
tomania, and that when she dined out her 
host would leave a pewter fork or spoon in 
the hall for her to carry off in her muff. On 
one occasion when leaving a breakfast party, 
she coolly took a friend's carriage without per- 
mission, and kept it out the whole afternoon. 

On meeting the owner Lady Cork merely com- 
plained that the high steps of the carriage did 
not suit her short legs. Her memory was ex- 
traordinary. One evening, when past eighty, 
she recited, at a friend's house, half a book of 
Pope's 'Iliad' while waiting for her carriage. 
Until a few days before her death she rose at 
six in the morning, and dined out when she had 
not company at home. When out of London 
she spent much time at Fineshade Abbey, 
Northamptonshire, with her brother, Colonel 
the Hon. John Monckton. She died in Lon- 
don at her house in New Burlington Street 
on 30 May 1840, at the age of ninety-four, 
and was buried at Brewood, Staffordshire. 
In the church is a tablet to her memory. 

Lord Beaconsfield knew Lady Cork well, 
and is said to have described her accurately 
as ' Lady Bellair' in ' Henrietta Temple,' and 
it is thought that Dickens drew on her for 
some of the features of 'Mrs. Leo Hunter' 
in ' Pickwick.' 

In 1779 Miss Monckton sat to Sir Joshua 
Reynolds (LESLIE, Life of Reynolds, ii. 278). 
The portrait, a full-length seated, is in the 
possession of Mr. Edward P. Monckton of 
Fineshade Abbey, Northamptonshire. It is a 
very fine picture, and was engraved in mezzo- 
tint by John Jacobe in 1779. A painting 
by H. P. Briggs, R.A., a three- quarter length, 
seated, is in the possession of Viscount Gal way 
of Serlby Hall, Nottinghamshire. Miss Anna 
Maria Monckton of Somerford, a niece of 
Lady Cork, made a sketch of her which still 
exists, and there is written beneath it, 

Look at me, 

I'm 93, 

And all my faculties I keep ; 
Eat, drink, and laugh, and soundly sleep. 

[A Genealogical Hist, of the Family of Monck- 
ton by David Henry Monckton, M.D., pp. 135, 
136, 139-47; Annual Register, 1840, p. 166; 
Bentley's Miscellany, xix. 293 ; information sup- 
plied by Mr. Edward P. Monckton.] E. L. 


1679), royalist, was son of Sir Francis Monck- 
ton, knight, by Margaret, daughter of Thomas 
Savile of Northgate Head, Wakefield. Both 
his father, who was knighted by Charles I 
on 25 June 1642, and his grandfather, Sir 
Philip Monckton of Cavil Hall, near Howden 
in Yorkshire, adopted the cause of Charles I, 
and were fined by the parliament as delin- 
quents (Calendar of Compounders, p. 1074). 
Philip Monckton the younger was captain 
of Sir Thomas Metham's regiment of foot 
when the king attacked Hull in July 1642, 
distinguished himself at the battle of Ather- 
ton Moor, and in Newcastle's campaign 
against the Scots in the spring of 1644. He 




had a horse killed under him at Marston 
Moor, and three at Naseby, and was wounded 
at the battle of Rowton Heath. He was 
knighted at Newcastle, probably in 1644 
(Monckton Papers, pp. 1-21). In the second 
civil war Monckton had (in the absence of 
Sir Marmaduke Langdale) the chief com- 
mand of the Yorkshire cavaliers, which he 
shared with Major-general Gilbert Byron 
and Colonel Robert Portington. He was de- 
feated by Colonel Edward Rossiter at Wil- 
loughby Field, on the borders of Notting- 
hamshire (5 July 1648), and taken prisoner 
(ib. pp. 22, 44 ; ZACHAKY GKEY, Examination 
of NeaVs Hist, of the Puritans, iii. 24; 
RTJSHWOKTH, vii. 1183). After five months' 
imprisonment in Lincoln Castle he was given 
a pass for the continent by Lord Fairfax 
(December 1648), and was allowed by par- 
liament to compound for his estate on pay- 
ment of 220/. 145. 6d. He returned to England 
about 1650, engaged in plots for Charles II, 
and in 1655 was for some months imprisoned 
in Lambeth House (Cal. Clarendon Papers, 
ii. 400, 440 ; Cal. State Papers, Dom. 1655, 
p. 215; Monckton Papers, pp. 86, 100). 
Again, in August 1659, he concerted the sur- 
prise of York, and in January 1660, when 
the gates of York were opened to Lord Fair- 
fax, Monckton claims that he was mainly 
instrumental in procuring the submission of 
the garrison (ib. pp. 24-42 ; KENNETT, Re- 
gister, p. 6). He greatly exaggerated his own 
services, and asserted in 1673 that he was 
1 more instrumental in his majesty's restora- 
tion than any man alive.' In a petition 
which he presented to Charles in 1667, he 
reminded the king of a promise made in 1653, 
that if it pleased God to restore him, Monck- 
ton should share with him (Monckton Papers, 
pp. 86, 102). All he received, however, was 
the post of controller of the excise and cus- 
toms at Dunkirk (August 1661 ; Cal. State 
Papers, Dom. 1661-2, p. 78). On 3 Dec. 1673 
he was granted the profits of the seigniory of j 
Howdenshire belonging to the bishopric of 
Durham (Monckton Papers, p. 105). The 
meagreness of these rewards he attributed 
to the malign influence of Clarendon, who 
' said he was mad and not fit for any employ- 
ment.' Consequently he accused Clarendon of 
duplicity, and of favouring the king's enemies, , 
and complained that he disregarded a dan- | 
gerous nonconformist plot which Monckton's ! 
exertions had discovered (LisTEK, Life of 'j 
Clarendon, iii. 532). He also threatened to : 
accuse Lord Belasyse of betraying the king's 
adherents to Cromwell unless Belasyse [see 
1689] did something for him (Monckton 
Papers, p. 100). It is not surprising that in 

July 1676 Monckton was committed to the 
Tower 'for writing into the country scan- 
dalous letters to defame the government and 
privy councillors ' (Hist. MSS. Comm. 12th 
Rep. pt. vii. p. 128). Monckton was sheriff 
of Yorkshire in 1675, and was returned to par- 
liament for Scarborough in November 1670. 
He also held various military appointments. 
On 16 July 1660 Monck commissioned him as 
captain in the foot regiment of Lord Belasyse ; 
on 2 July 1666 he received a commission as 
lieutenant of Sir George Savile's troop of 
horse, and on 26 March 1668 he was given a 
company in Colonel John Russell's regiment 
of guards. His will, dated 7 Feb. 1678, was 
proved at York on 12 April 1679. 

Monckton married Anne, daughter of Robert 
Eyre of High Low, Derbyshire. His grand- 
son, John Monckton, was in 1727 created 
Viscount Galway in the peerage of Ireland. 
A portrait of Sir Philip and other relics are 
in the possession of the present Viscount 
Galway. The portrait was No. 770 in the 
Exhibition of National Portraits of 1866. 

[The main authority for Monckton's life is 
his own memoir, printed, with letters and other 
documents, from the originals in the possession of 
Lord Galway, by Mr. Edward Peacock, for the 
Philobiblon Society in 1884. Part of this memoir 
is printed in the Annual Register, 1805, p. 883, 
and some extracts are in Kennett's Register, 1728, 
p. 6. and in Lister's Life of Clarendon, 1837, 
iii. 532-5 ; see Lansdowne MS. 988, f. 320. The 
defeat at Willoughby Field is the subject of a 
pamphlet, ' An important and true Relation of 
the great A 7 ictory obtained ... by the conjoined 
Forces of Lincoln, Nottingham, &c., under the 
Command of Colonel Edward Rossiter,' 4to, 1648, 
reprinted in the Monckton Papers, App., and in 
the Life of Col. Hutchinson, ed. 1885, ii. 380.] 

C. H. F. 

MONCKTON, ROBERT (1726-1782), 
lieutenant-general, born on 24 June 1726, 
was second son of John Monckton of Cavil 
and Hodroyd in Yorkshire, who was created 
Viscount Galway in 1727. Lady Elizabeth, 
daughter of John Manners, second duke of 
Rutland, was his mother. Monckton received 
a commission in the 3rd (Earl of Dunmore's) 
regiment of guards in 1741, and on 17 May 
1742 sailed with that regiment for Flanders 
to co-operate with the Dutch in the cause of 
Maria Theresa. He remained at Ghent until 
1743, when the army advanced into Germany. 
At Dettingen he is stated to have served on 
the king's guard (note in manuscript order 
book at Fineshade Abbey, and AIKIN, Nova 
Scotia, p. 391 n.) On 27 June 1744 he received 
a captain's commission in Cholmondeley's 
(34th) regiment of foot (Mil. Entry J3ook,vol. 
xviii., in Record Office). Through the cam- 




paign of 1745 in Flanders he served with the 
Duke of Cumberland, was present at Fontenoy 
(11 May 1745), and on 19 May was appointed 
one of the aides-de-camp to Lord Dunmore, 
who had command of the foot. His regiment 
was recalled to aid in the suppression of the 
rebellion in Scotland in 1745, but Monckton 
remained in Flanders some months longer, 
and it is doubtful whether he took part in the 
war in the north. On 15 Feb. 1747 he became 
a major in the 34th, and on 28 Feb. 1751 
lieutenant-colonel of the 47th, Lascelles's 
regiment 1 of foot (Ledger of Comm. 1742-8, 
and Mil. Entry Book, vol. xxii. f. 181, in Re- 
cord Office). 

In November 1751 Monckton was elected 
M.P. for Pontefract on the death of his father. 
In 1752 he was sent to Nova Scotia, and was 
nominated a member of the council at Hali- 
fax on 28 Aug. 1753 (Underwood Papers; 
Minutes of Council in Record Office, p. 44). 
Soon afterwards he, with two hundred men, 
quelled an insurrection of the German settlers 
in the province at Lunenberg, and on 21 Aug. 
1754 he was appointed lieutenant-governor 
of Annapolis Royal, in the place of Charles 
Lawrence [q. v.], who became lieutenant- 
governor of Nova Scotia (Minutes of Council; 
manuscript at Serlby Hall ; Mil. Entry Book, 
vol. xxiii.) 

Lawrence soon decided to attack the 
French, who occupied the isthmus connect- 
ing Nova Scotia with the mainland, and 
Monckton was sent to Shirley, the governor 
of Massachusetts, in order to raise two thou- 
sand auxiliaries. Meanwhile an attack on 
the French in Nova Scotia was included in the 
plan of campaign for 1755, which Braddock 
arrived from England to carry out (cf. PARK- 
MAN. Montcalm and Wolfe ; BANCROFT, Hist . ; 
WILSON, Diary, in Coll. Nova Scotia Hist. 
Soc. i. 119-40). On 22 May Monckton set 
sail from Boston with a force of about three 
hundred regular troops and fifteen hundred 
provincials. He reached Annapolis 25 May; 
on 1 June sailed up the Bay of Fimdy, and, 
landing on the 2nd, opened fire (14 June) on 
the French fort of Beausejour, which was 
garrisoned by 160 regulars and some three 
hundred Acadians. On the 16th the fort 
capitulated (PARXMAN, Montcalm and Wolfe, 
i. 249 ; BEATSON, Nav. and Mil. Memoirs, 
vol. ii. App. p. 7 ; Letters from Lawrence, 
Record Office ; WILSON, Journal}. A small 
fort named Gaspereau, on the Baye Verte, sur- 
rendered on the 18th, and was renamed Fort 
Monckton. Beausejour was renamed Fort 
Cumberland. Another of the enemy's forts 
at the mouth of the St. John's River was at 
the same time abandoned. Thus the w r hole 
of Nova Scotia was in the possession of the 

; British, and Monckton was ordered by Law- 
rence to expel all French settlers from the 
j province (manuscripts at Fineshade Abbey). 
I In December, when Lawrence was appointed 
j governor, Monckton took his place as lieu- 
| tenant-governor. Both were at Halifax during 
the greater part of 1756-7, and had no small 
: trouble in protecting the outlying settlements 
i from French and Indians. On 20 Dec. 1757 
j Monckton was appointed fourth colonel-com- 
| mandant of the 60th royal American regi- 
ment. Monckton reluctantly remained at 
I Halifax in 1758, while Lawrence was engaged 
| with General Amherst in capturing Louis- 
| bourg. In September Monckton, acting under 
orders from Amherst, destroyed some French 
I settlements up the St. John's River, and early 
I in 1759 he was summoned to New York to 
j take command in the south in the event of 
I General Forbes's death. Forbes died on 
j 11 March, but Pitt had in the meantime 
appointed Monckton second in command of 
j the famous expedition under General Wolfe 
I destined for Quebec. On 4 June Wolfe sailed 
I from Louisbourg, and by the 25th all the 
transports had surmounted the difficulties of 
| the St. Lawrence, and disembarked oft' the 
Isle of Orleans. 

On 29 June Monckton was sent with four 
battalions to drive the enemy from Point 
Levi on the south shore of the St. Lawrence, 
and immediately opposite Quebec, and by 
1 July he had erected batteries, which played 
with terrible effect on the lower part of the 
town of Quebec (WRIGHT, Wolfe, p. 527). 
The French made futile attempts to dislodge 
! Monckton (PARKMAN, ii. 215). On 31 July 
Wolfe made an unsuccessful attack on the 
French who were established between Que- 
bec and the River Montmorenci. Monckton's 
j boats grounded on a ledge, and thirteen com- 
I panies of grenadiers, who, together with two 
hundred of the Royal Americans, were first 
on shore, rushed on the French lines with- 
out waiting for Monckton's men, and were 
repulsed with great loss. Eventually Monck- 
ton's men landed in good order ; Wolfe re- 
called the grenadiers, and the troops were 
drawn off unmolested. Next day Wolfe 
wrote to Monckton: 'This check must not 
dishearten us ; prepare for another and better 
attempt ' (manuscript at Serlby Hall). 

Early in August Brigadier Murray with 
1,260 men was sent up the river, and esta- 
blished himself above Quebec. Wolfe's ill- 
ness caused delay in the further movements 
of the troops, but the position became so 
serious that on 29 Aug. he gave written in- 
structions to the three brigadier-generals, 
Monckton, Townshend, and Murray, to con- 
sider plans for an engagement. They met at 




Monckton's quarters, and advised an attack 
on the town from the west. Wolfe adopted 
their advice. On the 13th the attack took 
place, and the victory was decisive. Wolfe 
died on the field. Monckton was wounded 
while leading Lascelles's regiment, and the 
command therefore devolved on Brigadier 
Townshend, but Monckton was well enough 
on the 15th to write a short note to Pitt, 
and another to Lord Galway (manuscript at 
Serlby Hall, Record Office). 

On 18 Sept. Quebec capitulated. The 
terms were drawn up and signed by Towns- 
hend and Admiral Saunders. Monckton 
to his deep annoyance was not consulted, 
and Townshend subsequently apologised for 
the omission. On 24 Oct. Monckton was 
appointed colonel of the 17th foot. After 
putting things in order at Quebec for the 
winter, and leaving Murray in command, 
Monckton reached New York by 16 Dec. 
Early in 1760 he was appointed to succeed 
General Stanwix in the command of the 
troops at Philadelphia. Later in the year 
he was engaged in a conference with Indians, 
who appeared more favourable to the British 
than formerly, although a great outbreak fol- 
lowed in 1761. He also sought to induce the 
.governments of Pennsylvania, Virginia, and 
Maryland to raise troops. On 20 Feb. (or 21) 
1761 he was given the rank of major-general, 
and on 20 March 1761 he was appointed 
governor of New York, and commander-in- 
chief of the province. 

At the end of 1761 he was placed in com- 
mand of a force destined for the conquest of 
Martinique, and on 19 Nov. he sailed with 
6,667 men from New York. The naval force 
was under Rodney, and the total land force 
under Monckton numbered nearly twelve 
thousand men. They landed on 16 Jan. 1762. 
On 4 Feb., after some sharp fighting, Fort 
Royal capitulated, and this success was fol- 
lowed by the surrender not only of Mar- 
tinique, but also of Grenada, St. Lucia, and 
St. Vincent. Monckton and Rodney received 
the thanks of the House of Commons, and on 
12 June the former was back again in New 

On 28 June 1763 he left for England, and 
on 14 June 1765, when Sir Henry Moore suc- 
ceeded him in New York, he was appointed 
governor of Berwick-on-Tweed and Holy Is- 
land ; on 30 April 1770 he was promoted to 
the rank of lieutenant-general, and on 31 Feb. 
1771 he received the freedom of the city of 
Edinburgh. He was recommended without 
result as commander-in-chief for India in 
1773. In 1778 he became governor of Ports- 
mouth, and he represented that town in par- 
liament from 1779 till his death on 3 May 

1782. He was buried on 26 May at Kensing- 
ton parish church. He was unmarried. Fort 
Monckton, near Gosport, was named after 

His portrait, by Benjamin West, belonging 
to Viscount Galway, was engraved by J. Wat- 
son ; a medallion by James Tassie is in the 
National Portrait Gallery, Edinburgh ; and 
two other portraits are mentioned by Bromley. 

[Dr. Monckton's Hist, of the Family of Monck- 
ton (privately printed), and the authorities cited.] 

H. W. M. 

WOOD of Tulliebole (1750-1827), Scottish di- 
vine, born at Blackford, Perthshire, on 6 Feb. 
1750, was eldest son of Sir William Moncreiff 
(1738-1767), minister of the parish of Black- 
ford, who by the death of Sir Hugh succeeded 
to the baronetcy in 1744. His mother, Catha- 
rine, was eldest daughter of Robert Well wood 
of Garvock. He received his early educa- 
tion at Blackford parish school, and in 1763, 
when only thirteen years old, matriculated in 
Glasgow University, where he continued to 
study till the death of his father in 1767. 
He then removed to Edinburgh University, 
where he finished his course in 1771. Such 
was the respect entertained in Blackford for 
the family that, with the sanction of the pres- 
bytery, the parish was kept vacant from the 
time of Sir William's death until 1771, when 
Henry received the presentation, and on 
15 Aug. was ordained its minister, being the 
third Moncreiff who had held the living in 
succession. He proved himself a very dili- 
gent and efficient clergyman, and when one 
of the charges of St. Cuthbert's, Edinburgh, 
fell vacant, he was, on the recommendation 
of the heritors, appointed to it by the crown, 
as colleague to the Rev. John Gibson. In- 
ducted on 26 Oct. 1775, he quickly became 
one of the most influential ministers of the 
city. A very eloquent and vigorous preacher, 
he also took a leading part in the business of the 
church courts, especially the general assembly, 
where he rose to be the leader of the evan- 
gelical party (vide LOCKHAET'S Peter's Let- 
ters to his Kinsfolk, iii. 45 and 74, for graphic 
sketches of his appearances in the pulpit and 
general assembly). In 1785 he was elected 
moderator of the assembly, and in the same 
year received the degree of D.D. from the 
university of Glasgow, and was appointed 
chaplain to the Prince of Wales. He took 
an active part in the foundation of the So- 
ciety for the Benefit of the Sons of the Clergy 
and in the management of the ministers' 
widows' fund (of which he was collector for 
many years) and of other benevolent schemes. 
In 1793 he was appointed chaplain to 




George III. In 1825 he lost the sight of an 
eye through illness, and on 9 Aug. 1827 he 
died in Edinburgh. He was buried in the 
West Church burying-ground there ; and a 
monument in the vestibule of St. Cuthbert's 
hard by tells of the high place which he 
occupied in the regard of his parishioners 
and of the citizens of Edinburgh generally. 
For over half a century Moncreiff was one 
of the leading figures in the church of Scot- 
land, and perhaps its most influential clergy- 
man (cf. LORD BROUGHAM in Edinb. Review, 
xlvii. 242). 

In 1773 Moncreiff married his cousin, 
Susan Robertson, eldest daughter of James 
Robertson Barclay, writer to the signet, of 
Keavil, Fifeshire, by whom he had five sons 
and two daughters. The eldest son, William 
Wellwood, became judge-advocate of Malta, 
and died in 1813 ; his second son, Sir James 
Wellwood, afterwards Lord Moncreiff, is 
separately noticed. The eldest daughter m ar- 
ried Sir .John Stoddart, afterwards chief jus- 
tice of Malta. 

He added Wellwood to his name at the 
desire of his grand-uncle, Henry Wellwood 
of Garvock, on having the estate of Tullie- 
bole in Kinross-shire, which had previously 
belonged to the Wellwood family, settled 
on him. MoncreifF published, in addition 
to many pamphlets and tracts : 1. Four 
volumes of ' Sermons ' in 1805, 1806, 1822, 
1831. 2. 'Discourses on the Evidence of 
the Jewish and Christian Revelations,' 1815. 
3. ' Account of the Life and Writings of 
John Erskine, D.D./ 1818. 4. < Life of Dr. 
Henry,' prefixed to vol. vi. of his ' History 
of England,' which MoncreifF edited, 1793. 

[Preface by Sir James W. MoncreifF to pos- 
thumous volume of sermons, 1831, pp. ix-xxv ; 
Peter s Letters to his Kinsfolk, iii. 45, 74 ; Edin- 
burgh Keview, xlvii. 242 ; Chambers's Biog. Diet, 
of Eminent Scotsmen, iv. 434 ; Scott's Fasti, 
i. 122 ; Cockburn's Memorials ; information sup- 
plied by Lord Moncreiff.] T. H. 

WOOD (1809-1883), Scottish divine, born at 
Edinburgh 21 May 1809, was eldest son of Sir 
James Wellwood Moncreiff, afterwards Lord 
Moncreiff [q. v.] He was educated at the 
Edinburgh High School and University, but 
(5 April 1827) matriculated at New College, 
Oxford, whence he graduated B.A. in 1831. 
While at Oxford he was on intimate terms 
with Mr. Gladstone. Returning to Scotland 
he studied divinity under Dr. Chalmers, and 
after completing his course was ordained 
minister of the parish of Baldernock in Stir- 
lingshire in 1836. In the following year he 
obtained the more important charge of East 
Kilbride in Lanarkshire. Moncreiff took part 

in the controversy which ended in the dis- 
ruption of the church of Scotland. He joined 
the free church in June 1843, and from that 
date till 1852 he was the minister of Free 
East Kilbride. He succeeded to the baro- 
netcy and assumed the name Wellwood on 
the death of his father in 1851. In 1852 he 
became minister of Free St. Cuthbert's in 
Edinburgh, where his grandfather, Sir Henry 
Moncreiff (1750-1 827) [q. v.], had passed fifty 
years of his ministry. He was appointed 
joint principal clerk to the free general as- 
sembly in 1855, was created D.D. by Glasgow 
University in 1860, and appointed moderator 
of the free church assembly in 1869. In 
1862 he was appointed secretary of the Bible 
Board, and held that office at his death, which 
took place 4 Nov. 1883. 

Moncreiff was twice married, first, on 8 Feb. 
1838, to Alexandrina Mary, daughter of 
George Bell, a surgeon in Edinburgh; and 
secondly in 1875 to Lucretia, daughter of 
Andrew Murray of Murrayshall in Perth- 
shire. There was no issue by either marriage. 
His social position, knowledge of church 
law, and readiness to place his knowledge 
and experience at the disposal of his fellow- 
ministers, rendered Moncreiff one of the most 
influential supporters of the free church. His- 
published writings included ' A Vindication 
of the Free Church Claim of Right ' (1877) 
and 'The Free Church Principle, its Cha- 
racter and History,' being the first series of 
the Chalmers Lectures (1883). 

[Irving's Book of Eminent Scotsmen ; Hew 
Scott's Fasti, ii. 291 ; some autobiographical in- 
formation is contained in The Free Church Prin- 
ciple, its Character and History, publ. 1883, pp. 
330-3 ; Memorials of E. S. Candlish, by Dr. W. 
Wilson, pp. 225-59.] A. J. M. M. 

WOOD, LORD MONCREIFF (1776-1851), 
Scottish judge, was the second son of the 
Rev. Sir Henry Moncreiff Wellwood [q. v.] 
of Tulliebole in Kinross-shire, baronet, a well- 
known minister of the established church of 
Scotland, in which five of his ancestors had 
| served. Born 13 Sept. 1776, James was edu- 
i cated at school in Edinburgh and at Glasgow 
i University, and held an exhibition at Balliol 
! College, Oxford, whence he graduated B.C.L, 
in 1800. He was called to the Scottish bar 
j on 26 Jan. 1799. His family was strongly 
presbyterian, whiggish, and patriotic, and he 
adopted their principles from conviction as 
; well as hereditary association. In 1795, when 
a youth of sixteen, he attracted attention by 
j carrying alighted tallow candle to allow the 
j face of Henry Erskine to be seen at the meet- 
I ing to protest against the continuation of the 
' war; for his share in the meeting Erskine 




was deposed by a large majority from the dean- 
ship of the Faculty of Advocates. He re- 
turned from Oxford as strong a presbyterian 
and whig as when he went there, and through- 
out life took a leading part in support of the 
whig party both in civil and ecclesiastical 
politics. In the assembly of the established 
church he was one of the lay leaders of the 
popular party which opposed private patron- 
age. In 1806 he stood for the office of pro- 
curator or legal adviser of the church, but 
was defeated by Sir John Connell. 

On 7 Feb. 1807 he was appointed sheriff of 
Clackmannan and Kinross, and soon acquired 
a considerable practice at the bar, of which 
he became one of the leaders. On 19 Dec. 
1820 he presided at the Pantheon meeting, 
which passed resolutions in favour of a peti- 
tion to the crown for the dismissal of the 
tory ministry of Lord Liverpool. On 22 Nov. 
1826 he was elected dean of the Faculty of 
Advocates, Jeffrey, though his senior, grace- 
fully ceding his claim in favour of his friend. 
In 1828, following a custom of the bar that 
no criminal however poor should be unde- 
fended, and if necessary might receive the 
services even of its professional head, he de- 
fended the ' resurrectionist ' Burke. In March 
1829 he spoke at a great meeting in Edin- 
burgh in favour of catholic emancipation. 
On 24 June of the same year he was made a 
judge of the court of session by Sir Robert 
Peel, in succession to Lord Alloway, and 
was succeeded as dean of faculty by Jeffrey. 
After becoming a judge he still acted as a 
member of the general assembly, and carried 
in 1834 a motion in favour of a popular veto 
on patronage. According to Lord Cockburn, 
who drew his character with the feelings of 
a friend and the fidelity of an artist, ' while 
grounded in the knowledge necessary for the 
profession of a liberal lawyer, he was not a 
well-read man. Without his father's digni- 
fied manner, his outward appearance was 
rather insignificant, but his countenance was 
marked by a pair of fine compressed lips, de- 
noting great vigour. Always simple, direct, 
and practical, he had little need of imagina- 
tion. . . . He added to these negative quali- 
ties great power of reasoning, unconquerable 
energy, and the habitual and conscientious 
practice of all the respectable and all the 
amiable virtues. His reasoning power and 
great legal knowledge made him the best 
working counsel in court. Everything was 
a matter of duty with him, and he gave his 
whole soul to it. Jeffrey called him the 
whole duty of man ! ' 

Such qualities rendered him one of the 
best judges of his time. At the disruption 
in 1843 he joined the free church, whose se- 

cession was the logical outcome of the views 
he had supported in the assembly. He died 
on 30 March 1851. By his marriage in 1808 
with Ann, daughter of Captain J. Robertson, 
R.N., he had five sons and three daughters. 
His eldest son was the Rev. Sir Henry Well- 
wood Moncreiff [q. v.] His second son, James, 
who followed his father's profession, became 
lord advocate, dean of faculty, and lord justice 
clerk, an office which he resigned in 1889. 

There is an excellent engraving of Mon- 
creiff by Charles Holl in Chambers's ' Emi- 
nent Scotsmen ' (vol. iii.), from a portrait by 
Raeburn, and a bust by Samuel Joseph is in 
the National Portrait Gallery, Edinburgh. 

[Foster's Alumni Oxon. 1715-1886; Brunton 
and Haig's Senators of the College of Justice ; 
Cockburn's Memorials.] IK. M. 

1761), presbyterian minister, born in 1695, 
was the eldest son of the laird of Culfargie 
in the parish of Abernethy, Perthshire, and. 
as his father died when Alexander was a boy r 
became heir to that estate. His grandfather, 
Alexander Moncrieff of Scoonie, Fifeshire, 
was the companion of the martyr James 
Guthrie [q. v.], whose history and character 
deeply influenced Moncrieff. After passing 
through the grammar school at Perth he at- 
tended the university of St. Andrews, where 
he took his degree, and then entered the 
Divinity Hall of the same university. At the 
conclusion of his curriculum, in 1716 he went 
to Leyden, where he pursued his studies for a 
year. He was licensed by the presbytery of 
Perth as a preacher in 1718, and in Septem- 
ber 1720 he was ordained in his native parish 
of Abernethy. Keen controversies were agi- 
tating the church of Scotland. The Marrow 
controversy, in which Thomas Boston [q. v.] 
of Ettrick was a conspicuous leader, began 
shortly after Moncrieff 's ordination, and he 
joined the little band who were contending 
for purity of doctrine in the church. The 
agitation regarding patronage, or the power 
of patrons to present to vacant churches, apart 
from the co-operation or even against the wish 
of the people, followed. Moncrieff joined the 
Erskines in denouncing attempts to invade 
the people's rights. He was one of the four- 
ministers whom the assembly suspended, and 
who, having formally separated themselves- 
from the judicatories of the church of Scot- 
land, formed on 6 Dec. 1733, at Gairney 
Bridge, Kinross-shire, the secession church 
of Scotland [see EKSKINE, EBENEZER]. The 
new denomination met with much sympathy 
and success, and was soon able not only to 
supply ordinances in different parts of the 
country, but even to organise a theological 




hall for the training of its future ministers. 
In February 1742 Moncrieff was unanimously 
chosen professor of divinity, a position which 
he filled with great ability and zeal. He was 
also an active and influential member of the 
associate presbytery and synod. In 1749 his 
son was ordained as his colleague and suc- 
cessor in the charge of the congregation at 
Abernethy. Moncrieff published in 1750 a 
vindication of the secession church, and in 
1756 'England's Alarm, which is also directed 
to Scotland and Ireland, in several Discourses, 
which contains a warning against the great 
Wickedness of these lands/ A little devo- 
tional work by him, entitled ' A Drop of Honey 
from the Rock of Christ,' was published pos- 
thumously at Glasgow (1778). He died on 
7 Oct. 1761, in the sixty-seventh year of his 
age and the forty-second of his ministry. 

He appears to have been a man of resolu- 
tion and daring. He was jocularly called ' the 
lion of the secession church 'by his colleagues. 
With Erskine, William Wilson, and James 
Fisher he was joint author of the 'judicial 
testimony ' against the church of Scotland, 
issued in December 1736. His church, since 
its union with the relief church, forms the 
united presbyterian church. 

[Young's Memorials of the Rev. Alex. Mon- 
crieff of Abernethy, with a Selection from his 
Works, 1849 ; McKerrow's Hist, of the Secession 
Church, 1848; Landreth's United Presbyterian 
Divinity Hall, 1876.] T. B. J. 

MONCRIEFF, JAMES (1744-1793), 
colonel, military engineer, son of James 
Moncrieff, esq., of Sauchop in Fifeshire, was 
born in 1744. He entered the Royal Mili- 
tary Academy at Woolwich on 11 March 
1759, and was appointed practitioner engi- 
neer and ensign on 28 Jan. 1762. He joined 
the expedition under the Earl of Albemarle 
to capture the Havannah, and disembarked 
on 7 June 1762. He was appointed ensign 
in the 100th foot on 10 July. The siege 
was a long and a difficult one, and the brunt 
fell upon the engineers. The Moro Castle was 
captured on 30 July after a struggle of forty- 
four days, but it was not until 14 Aug. that 
the Havannah fell into the hands of the 
British. Moncrieff was severely wounded. 
He continued to serve in the West Indies, 
East Florida, and other parts of North 
America for many years. On the disband- 
ment of his regiment on 18 Nov. 1763 he 
resigned the ensigncy, and was promoted 
sub-engineer and lieutenant on 4 Dec. 1770, 
and engineer extraordinary and captain-lieu- 
tenant on 10 June 1776. On 11 Sept. 1776 
he was present at the battle of Brandy- 
wine and guided the 4th regiment across a 
ford of the river. In 1777 he constructed a 

bridge over the river Rariton, near New 
York, for the passage of the troops: a model 
of this bridge is in the Royal Military Re- 
pository at Woolwich. During 1777 and 
the following year Moncrieff was actively 
employed in the American campaign. 

In 1779 General Prevost [q. v.~| carried 
the war into Carolina, and Moncrieff distin- 
guished himself in the operations. At the 
pass of Stono Ferry Colonel Maitland and 
Moncrieff were strongly posted with the 71st 
regiment, the Hessians, and some militia, 
numbering in all some eight hundred men, 
when they were attacked by five thousand 
men under Major-general Lincoln, but after 
a stubborn fight won the day. Moncrieff 
joined in the pursuit of the flying enemy, 
and captured an ammunition wagon with 
his own hand. After the action Prevost was 
able to establish himself securely in the har- 
bour of Port Royal, which gave him a firm 
footing in South Carolina, while he covered 
Georgia and kept open communication with 

When, on 9 Sept. 1779, Admiral D'Estaing 
anchored his fleet off the bar of Tybee at 
the mouth of the Savannah River, the 
British force was still at Port Royal, but 
General Prevost and Moncrieff were in Sa- 
vannah, where only some ten guns were 
mounted in position. The troops were at 
once summoned from Port Royal, and by 
the extraordinary zeal and exertions of Mon- 
crieff guns were landed from ships and 
taken from store until, in an incredibly 
short space of time, nearly a hundred pieces 
of cannon were mounted and a garrison of 
three thousand men concentrated at Savan- 
nah. D'Estaing sent a summons to the 
towns to surrender on the 9th, but two days 
later, after Generals Lincoln and Pulawsld 
had joined D'Estaing's camp, Prevost, having 
determined to hold out, defied the enemy. 
Moncrieff lost no time in completing his 
line of intrenchments with redoubt and bat- 
teries. He sank two vessels in the channel, 
and constructed above the town a boom, 
which was covered by the guns of the Ger- 
maine. He threw up earthworks with a 
celerity that led the French to declare that 
the English engineer made his batteries 
spring up like mushrooms in a night. The 
forces opposed to the British were much 
superior in number, the assailants being seven 
thousand strong; while the garrison, in- 
cluding sailors and every sort of man, did 
not exceed three thousand. The enemy 
opened their trenches about the middle of 
September, and by the 24th had pushed their 
sap to within three hundred yards of the 
intrenchments. On that day a sortie was 




made which created great havoc in the be- 
sieger's works, but the advance was con- 
tinued until the night of 3 Oct., when a 
violent bombardment was opened upon the 
town from both fleet and army, and on 
9 Oct. a general assault was delivered. The 
assault was successfully resisted, and the 
enemy was forced to retire with a very heavy 
loss. Admiral D'Estaing was among the 
wounded. This failure so disheartened the 
besiegers that on 18 Oct. the operations were 
abandoned. General Prevost, in his despatch 
to the secretary of state, observed in refer- 
ence to Moncrieff's services : l There is not 
an officer or soldier of this little army, capable 
of reflecting and judging, who will not re- 
gard as personal to himself any mark of royal 
favour graciously conferred, through your 
lordship, on Captain Moncrieff.' Moncrieff 
was promoted for his services to be brevet- 
major on 27 Dec. 1779, and the promotion 
was dated, to give it more distinction, from 
the day on which the despatches relating 
the triumph at Savannah were presented to 
the king. 

The troops remained in Savannah during 
the winter of 1779-80, expecting a force from 
New York to enable them to besiege Charles- 
town. This force, under Sir Henry Clinton 
the elder [q. v.], arrived in February 1780, 
and Charlestown was invested. Moncrieff 
was chief engineer. The batteries were 
opened on 10 April, and the siege was pro- 
secuted with vigour and assiduity. On the 
capitulation of the place on 9 May, six thou- 
sand Americans with seven generals and a 
commodore became prisoners, and four hun- 
dred pieces of artillery were captured. The 
French ships lying in the harbour, with a 
thousand seamen, fell into the hands of the 
British. The loss to the British was 76 
killed and 189 wounded. Clinton, in his des- 
patch to Lord George Germaine, on 13 May, 
credited MoncriefF with the success of the 
operations. The only reward which Mon- 
crieff received was promotion to be a brevet 
lieutenant-colonel on 27 Sept. 1780. 

At the close of the war Moncrieff re- 
turned to England and was employed in the 
southern district, chiefly at Gosport. He 
was promoted to be engineer in ordinary 
and regimental captain on 1 Oct. 1784 and 
brevet-colonel on 18 Nov. 1790. On 14 July 
1790 he had been appointed deputy quarter- 
master-general of the forces. In 1792-3 he 
reported to the Duke of Richmond on the 
defences of the coast of Kent, and was a 
member of a committee on the defences of 

When the French national convention 
declared war against Great Britain on 1 Feb. 

1793, Moncrieff was appointed quartermas- 
ter-general to the force sent to Holland, 
under the Duke of York, to operate with the 
allies against the French. At the siege of 
Valenciennes Moncrieff, although on the 
staff, acted as chief engineer for the British 
force. The first parallel was traced on 
13 June, and the batteries opened fire on the 
18th, on which day Moncrieff received his 
promotion as regimental lieutenant-colonel 
of royal engineers. The trenches were 
pushed forward steadily until on the 28th 
the third parallel was formed by flying sap. 
From this poinfc mining commenced, and the 
greater part of July was spent in subter- 
ranean warfare. The assault was delivered 
on 25 July, and the allies established them- 
selves in the outworks. The town surren- 
dered on 28 July. 

On 23 Aug. the Duke of York laid siege 
to Dunkirk, but owing to delay in the arri- 
val of the siege train from England, Mon- 
crieff was unable to trace the first parallel 
until the 29th, and the forces were not in 
position until some days later. In the 
meantime the French were making active 
preparations to raise the siege. On 5 Sept., 
as Moncrieff was arming the batteries, an 
alarm was given of a sortie from the town, 
at midday, and although the sortie was re- 
pulsed by the guard of the trenches, the 
besiegers' position was endangered. On the 
afternoon of the next day the garrison of 
Dunkirk attacked the right wing of the Duke 
of York's besieging army, and although they 
were driven back before sunset the 14th 
regiment suffered severely, and Moncrieff re- 
ceived a mortal wound. He died the next 
day, 7 Sept. 1793, and was buried at Ostend 
on 10 Sept. with military honours, the prince, 
General Ainslie, and all the officers avail- 
able attending the funeral. 

Moncrieff was unmarried and left to his 
sisters the estate of Airdrie in Scotland, 
which he had purchased from Sir John An- 
struther, together with considerable property 
in the West Indies. 

[Despatches ; War Office Records ; Koyal En- 
gineers' Records ; Gust's Annals of the Wars of 
the Eighteenth Century, vols. iii. and iv. ; Scots 
Magazine, 1779 and 1780; Gent. Mag. 1762, 
1779, 1787, 1793; Dodsley's Annual Register, 
1779; Beatson's Naval and Military Memoirs, 
vol. iv. ; Stewart's Sketches of the Highlanders ; 
Hist, of the Civil War in America, 1780 ; Euro- 
pean Mag. 1790, vol. xviii.; Journal and Cor- 
respondence of General Sir Harry Calvert, by 
Sir Harry Verney, 1853.] R. H. V. 


(1794-1857), dramatist, son of a tradesman 
in Newcastle Street, Strand, was born in Lon- 




don on 24 Aug. 1794. About 1804 he became 
a clerk in a solicitor's office, and afterwards 
entered the service of Moses Hooper, solicitor, 
Great Marlborough Street. At this early 
period he wrote songs, among them l Pretty 
star of the night all others outshining,' which 
became popular. He soon became manager 
of the Regency Theatre (afterwards known 
as the Queen's Theatre, and then as the Prince 
of Wales's), for which, in 1810, under the 
name of William George Thomas Moncrieff, 
he wrote ' Moscow, or the Cossack's Daugh- 
ter/ to which succeeded several other original 
dramas. When the theatre closed he wrote 
articles in magazines, and the theatrical 
criticisms for the ' Satirist ' [cf. MANNERS, 
GEORGE] and the ' Scourge.' After gaining 
a livelihood as a working law stationer, he 
was introduced to Robert William Elliston 
[q. v.], lessee of the Olympic, and wrote and 
produced at that house ' All at Coventry,' a 
musical farce, 20 Oct. 1815; 'The Diamond 
Arrow/ a comedy, 18 Dec. 1815 ; ' Giovanni 
in London, or the Libertine Reclaimed/ an 
extravaganza, 26 Dec. 1817 ; and ' Rochester, 
or King Charles the Second's Merry Days/ a 
musical comedy, 16 Nov. 1818. Becoming 
manager at Astley's, he put on the stage an 
equestrian drama, ' The Dandy Family/ which 
ran nearly one hundred nights. From Astley's 
he removed to the Coburg Theatre, which 
he managed for Joseph Glossop, where he 
brought out in rapid succession the ' Vam- 
pire/ l Gipsey Jack/ ' Reform, or John Bull/ 
the ' Ravens of Orleans/ the ' Shipwreck of 
the Medusa/ and, in 1820, the ' Lear of Pri- 
vate Life/ a drama founded on Mrs. Opie's 
' Father and Daughter/ in which Junius 
Brutus Booth [q. v.] played the hero with 
brilliant success for fifty-three nights. In 
1820 he joined Elliston at Drury Lane, and 
wrote for him < Wanted a Wife/ 3 May 1819 
(reproduced under the title of l A Cheque on 
my Banker/ 13 Aug. 1821); 'Monsieur 
Tonson/ a successful farce, 20 Sept. 1821 ; 
< The Spectre Bridegroom/ 2 July 1821 ; ' The 
Cataract of the Ganges/ a romantic drama, 
27 Oct. 1823, which, owing to the introduc- 
tion of a real waterfall, then a great novelty, 
drew large audiences ; and * Zoroaster/ a 
melodrama, 19 April 1824. During the same 
period he became connected with William 
Oxberry [q. v.], comedian and printer, and 
with him published in 1818 and the follow- 
ing years Pierce Egan's ' Boxiana.' He after- 
wards dramatised Egan's ' Life in London/ 
under the title of ' Tom and Jerry, or Life 
in London/ and produced it at the Adelphi 
Theatre on 26 Nov. 1821. The piece met 
with a success only second to that of the 
' Beggar's Opera ; ' 'it ran consecutively for 

nearly two seasons, introduced slang into the 
drawing-room, and was equally popular in 
town and country (0. HINDLBT, The True 
History of Tom and Jerry, 1890; H. B. 
BAKER, London Stage, 1889, ii. 77-82; see 
also EGAN, PIERCE, 1772-1849). At the 
Adelphi he also brought out his ' Secret/ 
29 Feb. 1823 ; Bringing Home the Bride/ 
March 1825 ; ' Monsieur Mallet/ 22 Jan. 1829 ; 
and the ' Hearts of London/ February 1830. 
At Easter 1822 he brought Monsieur N. M. 
Alexandre the ventriloquist to London, and 
wrote for him an entertainment entitled 
' Rogueries of Nicholas/ which well paid both 
author and actor. For his friend Charles 
Mathews the elder [q. v.] he wrote ' The Bash- 
ful Man/ a comic drama, produced at the 
English Opera House (now the Lyceum), 
1826, besides furnishing him with many en- 
tertainments. In 1827 he undertook the 
management of Vauxhall Gardens, when hia 
' Actors al Fresco, or the Play in the Pleasure 
Ground/ a vaudeville, 4 June, and l The Kiss 
and the Rose/ an operetta, 29 June, were 
first seen. In 1828, in conjunction with John 
Barnett, he opened a music shop in Regent 
Street. On 17 Feb. in the same year 'The 
Somnambulist, or the Phantom of the Vil- 
lage/ a dramatic entertainment, was pro- 
duced at Covent Garden, and l One Fault * 
on 7 Jan. 1833. 

At the Surrey also many of his pieces were 
put on the stage, among others, ' Old Heads 
and Young Shoulders/ 8 Jan. 1828; 'The 
Irresistibles/ a comic drama, 11 Aug. 1828; 
' Shakespeare's Festival, or a New Comedy 
of Errors/ a drama, April 1830, and ' Tobit's 
Dog/ 30 April 1838. At the Haymarket ' The 
Peer and the Peasant' was acted 11 Sept. 
1832. He became lessee of the City Theatre, 
Milton Street, in 1833, for which he wrote 
two pieces, both acted on 4 Nov., ' How to 
take up a Bill ' and ' The Birthday Dinner.' 
His next successful plays were ' Lestocq, or 
the Conspirators of St. Petersburg/ 2 March 
1835 ; ' The Jewess, or the Council of Con- 
stance/ 30 Nov. 1835; and 'The Parson's 
Nose/ a comedietta, 1837, all acted at the 
Victoria Theatre. His sight now began to* 
fail him, but he accepted an engagement with 
W. J. Hammond at the Strand Theatre, for 
whom he wrote ' My Aunt the Dowager/ 
5 June 1837 ; ' Sam Weller, or the Pick- 
wickians/ 10 July 1837 ; and ' Tarnation 
Strange, or More Jonathans/ 3 Aug. 1838. 
At Sadler's Wells he produced ' Giselle, or 
the Phantom Night Dancers/ 23 Aug. 1841 ; 
' Perourou, the Bellows Mender, and the 
Beauty of Lyons/ 7 Feb. 1842 ;' The Scamps 
of London/ 13 Nov. 1843 ; and 'The Mistress 
of the Mill/ a comedietta, 17 Oct. 1849. In 




1843 he had become totally blind, but he 
wrote a series of articles entitled ' Ellisto- 
niana ' in the ' New Monthly Magazine.' In 
1844, on the presentation of the queen, he 
became a brother of the Charterhouse. His 
theatrical reminiscences, under the title of 
' Dramatic Feuilletons,' he contributed to 
the ' Sunday Times ' in 1851. He died in 
the Charterhouse, London, on 3 Dec. 1857. 

In addition to writing upwards of 170 
dramatic pieces, he was the author of ' Prison 
Thoughts ; Elegy written in the King's Bench 
in imitation of Gray, by a Collegian/ 1821 ; 

* A New Guide to the Spa of Leamington 
Priors, to which is added " Historical No- 
tices of Warwick and its Castle,'" 1822, 
3rd edition, 1824 ; l Excursions to Stratford- 
upon-Avon, with a Compendious Life of 
Shakespeare, Account of the Jubilee, and 
Catalogue of the Shakespeare Relics,' 1824 ; 

* Poems,' 1829 ; ' Old Booty, a Serio-Comic 
Sailors' Tale,' 1830; 'The 'Triumph of Re- 
form, a Comic Poem,' 1832 ; * Selections from 
Dramatic Works,' 3 vols. 1850, containing 
twenty-four of his own pieces. He likewise 
edited Richardson's 'New Minor Drama, with 
Remarks Biographical and Critical,' 4 vols. 

[Reynolds's Miscellany, 1853, ix. 28-9, with 
portrait; Era, 13 Dec. 1857, p. 11 ; Grenest, 
1832, viii. 688 et seq. ; British Drama, vol. iii. 
et seq. ; Cumberland's Minor Theatre, vol. vii. et 
seq. ; Cumberland's British Theatre, vol. xvi. 
et seq. ; Lacy's Acting Edition of Plays, vol. xxi. 
et seq.; Notes and Queries, 1876, 5th ser. vi. 
160.] G. C. B. 

MO-NENNIUS (ft. 500), bishop of 
Whithorn, and teacher of many Irish saints, 
was of Irish birth, but lived at Whithorn, 
Wigtownshire (Whitaern, Alba or Candida 
Casa), where St. Ninian was bishop early in 
the fifth century. He was apparently a pro- 
tege of that saint, and it is suggested that his 
name, which appears in many forms, was de- 
rived from Nennio, a variant of Ninian, com- 
bined with the Irish prefix Mo-, denoting 
affection. Mo-nennius was a coarb or suc- 
cessor of St. Ninian as bishop of Whithorn, 
probably before 497, when he visited the 
island of Nendrum, now Mahee, on Strang- 
ford Lough, and was described as a bishop 
(Tighernach Annals}. At Whithorn was 
a celebrated school sometimes called Mo- 
nasterium Rosnatense, or by Irish writers 
Futerna, which has occasionally been awk- 
wardly confused with St. David's Magnum 
Monasterium or ' Rosina Vallis ' in Wales. 
Of the establishment at Whithorn Mo- 
nennius, who is otherwise known as Man- 
sennus or Mugint, appears to have been 
master or abbat. While the school was 

under his direction Colman, bishop of Dro- 
more, sent thither Finian of Moville to com- 
plete his education. Saints Eugenius, Enna, 
and Tigernach also seem to have been Mo- 
nennius's pupils, as well as Rioc, Talmach, 
and a lady, Drusticc, daughter of a British 
king, Drustic. The lady Drusticc fell in love 
with her fellow-pupil Rioc, and begged Finian 
to assist her union with Rioc, promising in 
return to get all their teacher's books for him 
to copy. Finian made himself in some mea- 
sure a party to her plot, and when it was 
discovered, Mo-nennius, or Mugint as he is 
called in connection with this story, deter- 
mined to kill him. In the belief that Finian 
would be the first to visit the church, he 
gave orders that the first to arrive there 
should be slain. The blow Mugint destined 
for Finian was, however, received by himself. 
In the lives of Finian the story of the plot is 
told in an altered form. The cause of their 
hostility is here said to have been the superior 
popularity of Finian's lectures. Mo-nennius 
was author of a hymn modelled on the peni- 
tential psalms, which is extant under the 
title of the ' Hymn of Mugint.' It is in Irish 
prose, and parts of it are embodied in the 
Anglican church service. 

GANT (Jl. 6th cent.), a Welsh saint or druid, 
ought probably to be distinguished from the 
foregoing. His father was Gwynd af Hen, 
the son of Emyr Llydaw, and his mother was 
Gwenonwy, daughter of Meirig, king of 
Morganwg, the son of Tewdrig. Meigant 
was president of the college of St. Illtyd 
[q. v.] at Llantwit, called also the White 
House. He seems subsequently to have re- 
moved to the establishment of St. Dubricius 
[q. v.], who died in 612. He is doubtless 
identical with Mancennus or Mancan, who is 
mentioned as the head of a monastery, and 
as having received a present from St. David's 
father to be kept for his unborn son. From 
that time Mancan's house was called the 
' house of the deposit.' 

[In Dr. Todd's Irish Hymns, fascic. i., is 
printed Mugint's hymn with the Scholiast's Pre- 
face (Dr. Todd considers it a document of great 
antiquity, not far removed from Mugint's o-wn 
period). See also Colgan's Acta SS. Hibern. 
p. 438 ; Lanigan's Eccles. Hist. Ireland, i. 437 ; 
Diet. Christian Biog. ; Rees's Welsh Saints, p. 
219 ; lolo MSS. printed for Welsh MSS. Soc., 
p. 132 ; Life of St. David in Capgrave's Nova 
Legenda, and in W. J. Rees's Cambro-British 
Saints.] M. B. 

MONEY, JOHN (1752-1817), aeronaut 
and general, born in 1752, began his military 
career in the Norfolk militia, but entering 
the army became cornet in the 6th Inniskil- 




ling dragoons 11 March 1762, captain in the 
9th foot 10 Feb. 1770, major 28 Sept. 1781. 
He went on half-pay in 1784, and never re- 
joined the active list, hut was made lieu- 
tenant-colonel by brevet 18 Nov. 1790, colo- 
nel 21 Aug. 1795, major-general 18 June 
1798, lieutenant-general 30 Oct. 1805, and 
general 4 June 1814. Money saw a good 
deal of active service. He was present at the 
battle of Fellinghausen in 1761 and in various 
skirmishes with Elliot's light dragoons. He 
served in Canada in 1777 in General Bur- 
goyne's disastrous descent on Albany from 
the north, and was present at several engage- 
ments. He was taken prisoner in September, 
and does not appear to have been released 
till the end of the war. 

Money was one of the earliest English 
aeronauts, making two ascents in 1785, that 
is, within two years of Montgolfier's first 
aerial voyage [cf. LUNAEDI, VINCENZO]. On 
22 July in that year he made an ascent from 
Norwich ; an l improper current ' took him 
out to sea, and then, dipping into the water, 
he ' remained for seven hours struggling with 
his fate,' till rescued in a small boat. In ' A 
Treatise on the Use of Balloons and Field 
Observators ' (1803) he advocated the use of 
balloons for military purposes (Royal Engi- 
neer Corps Papers, 1863). 

Money offered his services to the rebel party 
in the Austrian Netherlands in 1790, when, 
after experiencing some successes, their pro- 
spects were growing critical. After a first 
refusal his offer was accepted. He was given 
a commission as major-general, and was 
placed in command of a force of about four 
or five thousand men at Tirlemont. His 
troops were half-hearted, and in the end, after 
one sharp engagement, he had to join in the 
general retreat on Brussels, a retreat which 
ended the rebellion. He utilised his know- 
ledge of the country in his ' History of the 
Campaign of 1792,' 1794, 8vo. He died at 
Trowse Hall, Norfolk, 26 March 1817. 

[Philippart's Koyal Military Calendar, 1815; 
Monk Mason's Aeronautica, London, 1838 ; 9th 
Regiment Historical Records.] L. D. 

1888), political economist and miscellaneous 
writer, born in London in 1807, was son of a 
French officer who fled to England after Bona- 
parte's coup d'etat in 1798. He was edu- 
cated in the Roman catholic college at Penn, 
Buckinghamshire, and continued his studies 
long after leaving that institution. He en- 
tered commercial life at an early age, and 
was the owner of the first screw steamers to 
the Levant. In 1859 he became a member 
of the firm of H. J. Johnston & Co., and when 

it was broken up in 1864 he began as a corn- 
broker on his own account. In 1862 he 
purchased Heatherside, Surrey. 

Gradually he withdrew from business and 
devoted most of his attention to literary 
pursuits. He had joined the National Poli- 
tical Union in 1831, and in 1872 he was 
elected a member of the Cobden Club, under 
the auspices of which society several of his 
treatises were published. He thoroughly 
grasped the free-trade question, and ex- 
pounded his views on the most difficult 
problems of political economy with great 
lucidity. He was a good musician and an 
excellent botanist, and was elected president 
of the Chess Club in 1839 ; he had a collo- 
quial knowledge of seven languages, could 
recite many pages of the Koran, and spoke 
modern Greek like a native. Mr. Gladstone, 
in recognition of his merits, placed his name 
on the Civil Pension List. Mongredien died 
at Forest Hill, London, on 30 March 1888. 

His principal works are : 1. ' Trees and 
Shrubs for English Plantations ; a selection 
and description of the most Ornamental 
Trees and Shrubs, Native and Foreign, 
which will flourish in the Open Air in our 
Climate .... with Illustrations,' London, 

1870, 8vo. 2. < England's Foreign Policy ; 
an Enquiry as to whether we should con- 
tinue a Policy of Intervention,' London, 

1871, 8vo. 3. i The Heatherside Manual of 
Hardy Trees and Shrubs,' London, 1874-5, 
8vo. 4. ' Frank Allerton. An Autobio- 
graphy,' 3 vols. London, 1878, 8vo. 5. ' Free 
Trade and English Commerce,' 2nd edit. 
London [1879], 8vo ; answered by F. J. B. 
Hooper, 1880 ; and in ' Half-a-pair of Scis- 
sors ; or what is our (so-called) Free Trade ? ' 
(anon.), Manchester, 1885. 6. ' The Western 
Farmer of America,' London, 1880, 8vo, re- 
printed 1886 ; replied to by T. H. Dudley and 
J. W. Hinton. 7. 'History of the Free- 
Trade Movement in England,' London, 1881, 
8vo, translated into French by H. Gravez, 
Paris, 1885, 8vo. 8. 'Pleas for Protection 
examined,' London, 1882, 8vo; reprinted 
1888. 9. ' Wealth-Creation,' London, 1882, 
8vo. 10. 'The Suez Canal Question,' 1883, 
8vo. 11. ' Trade Depression, recent and pre- 
sent ' [1885], 8vo. 12. ' On the Displacement 
of Labour and Capital,' 1886, 8vo. 

[Private information; Times, 4 April 1888, 
p. 10 ; Athenaeum, 7 April 1888, p. 437; Annual 
Register, 1888, Chron. p. 141 ; Appleton's An- 
nual Cycl. 1888, p. 665.] T. C. 

MONK. [See also MONCZ.] 

MONK, JAMES HENRY (1784-1856), 
bishop of Gloucester and Bristol, born early 
in 1784 at Buntingford, Hertfordshire, was 




the only son of Charles Monk, an officer of 
the 40th regiment, and nephew of Sir James 
Monk, chief justice of Montreal; his mother 
was the daughter of Joshua Waddington, 
vicar of Har worth, Nottinghamshire. He was 
first taught at Norwich by Dr. Foster, and 
in 1798 entered the Charterhouse, where, 
under Dr. Raine, he laid the foundation of 
his accurate classical scholarship. He en- 
tered Trinity College, Cambridge, in October 
1800, and was elected scholar in 1801. He 
graduated B.A. as seventh wrangler in 1804, 
in which year he was also second chancellor's 
medallist, M.A. 1807, B.D. 1818, D.D. per 
Lit. Reg. 1822. On 1 Oct. 1805 he was 
elected fellow of Trinity. In October 1807 
he became assistant-tutor of his college, and 
during the fifteen years of his tutorship his 
pupils carried off the greater part of the 
higher classical honours at Cambridge. In 
January 1809, being then only twenty-five, he 
was elected to the regius professorship of 
Greek, in succession to Porson. In this posi- 
tion he published several tracts advocating 
the establishment of a classical tripos, with 
public examinations and honours open only 
to those who had obtained a place in the 
mathematical tripos. His first edition of the 
classics, the ' Hippolytus ' of Euripides, ap- 
peared in 1811, and was favourably noticed in 
the ' Quarterly Review ' by his friend C. J. 
Blomfield [q. v.], afterwards bishop of Lon- 
don. In conjunction with Blomfield he 
edited Person's 'Adversaria' in 1812, and in 
1813-14 was joint editor with Blomfield of 
the ' Museum Criticum,' a publication to 
which several scholars of repute contributed, 
though only eight numbers were issued. 
Monk resigned his Greek professorship in 
June 1823. 

Monk had been ordained deacon in 1809 
and priest in 1810. In 1812 he was White- 
hall preacher, and attracted the attention of 
the premier, Lord Liverpool, who afterwards 
bestowed on him the deanery of Peter- 
borough, 7 March 1822. In right of his 
deanery Monk nominated himself to the rec- 
tory of Fiskerton, Lincolnshire, 12 July 1822, 
afterwards holding the rectory of Peakirk- 
cum-Glinton, Northamptonshire, 27 March 
1829. As dean he collected 6,OOOJ. for the 
restoration of Peterborough Cathedral, him- 
self contributing liberally. In 1830 he was 
given a canonry at Westminster, and in the 
same year he published his ' Life of Richard 
Bentley,' a work which was praised in the 
'Quarterly Review' for November 1831, 
and in ' Blackwood's Magazine ' by Professor 

On 11 July 1830 Monk was consecrated 
bishop of Gloucester. In 1836 the see was 

amalgamated with that of Bristol, in accord- 
ance with the recommendation of the eccle- 
siastical commission, of which Monk was- 
an original member. Monk was not a good 
speaker, and in the House of Lords seldom 
did more than record his vote in the conser- 
vative interest. He had a severe skirmish 
with Sydney Smith, who ridiculed his tory- 
ism in his ' Third Letter to Archdeacon 
Singleton ' on the ecclesiastical commission 
(S. SMITH, Works, 1854, pp. 642-3). On 
religious questions Monk observed ' a safe 
and cautious line, as his easy and open na- 
ture probably inclined him.' His favour, 
however, was generally shown to the high- 
church rather than to the evangelical party, 
whose influence at Bristol, Clifton, and else- 
where in the diocese occasionally proved a 
source of trouble to him. He expressed a 
qualified approval of the Bristol Church 
Union, and supported its demand for the 
revival of convocation. In 1841 he severely 
censured Isaac Williams's ' Tract for the 
Times ' on f Reserve in communicating Re- 
ligious Knowledge ' (cp. MOZLEY, Reminis- 
cences of Oriel, i. 436), and was one of the 
bishops who in 1848 protested against the 
appointment of Dr. Hampden to the see of 
Hereford. Monk gave largely to charities, 
and for many years devoted part of his in- 
come to the augmentation of small livings 
in his diocese. For some years before his 
death he suffered from partial blindness, and 
during the last six months of his life was 
physically almost prostrate. He died at the 
Palace, Stapleton, near Bristol, on 6 June 
1856, aged 72. His wife Jane, only daughter 
of H. Hughes of Nuneaton, rector of Hard- 
wick, Northamptonshire, survived him. By 
this marriage, which took place in 1823, he 
had three daughters and one son, Charles 
James (born in 1824), who graduated at 
Trinity College, Cambridge, became chan- 
cellor of Bristol (1855) and M.P. for Glou- 

Monk's principal publications are : 1. Eu- 
ripides, ' Hippolytus,' with notes, 1811, 8vo; 
1813, 1821, 1823, 1840. 2. < R. Porsoni Ad- 
versaria,' edited by Monk and C. J. Blom- 
field, 1812, 8vo. 3. ' Museum Criticum, or 
Cambridge Classical Researches,' edited by 
Monk and C. J. Blomfield, 1814, 8vo. 4. Eu- 
ripides, ' Alcestis,' Greek with Latin notes, 
1816, 8vo ; 1818, 1823, 1826, 1837. 5. < A 
Vindication of the University of Cambridge 
from the Reflections of Sir J. E. Smith,' &c., 
London, 1818, 8vo. 6. ' A Letter . . . respect- 
ing an additional Examination of Students 
in the University of Cambridge,' by { Philo- 
grantus' (i.e. Monk), London, 1822, 8vo. 
7. ' Cambridge Classical Examinations/ edited 




by Monk, &c., 1824, 8vo. 8. < The Life of 
R. Bentley,' London, 1830, 4to ; 2nd edit. 
1833, 8vo. 9. Euripides, ' Iphigenia in Au- 
lis,' 1840, 8vo. 10. ' Correspondence between 
[Monk] and II. Hallam,' 1844, 8vo. Pri- 
vately printed (as to a note respecting Le 
Clerc in Hallam's 'Literature of Europe'). 
11. Euripides, ' Iphigenia in Tauris,' 1845, 
8vo. 12. Various publications relating to 
Horfield Manor, 1848, 1852, &c. 13. Va- 
rious sermons and charges published from 
1832 to 1854. 14. Euripidis Fabulje qua- 
tuor scilicet Hippolytus Coronifer, Alcestis, 
Iphigenia in Aulide, Iphigenia in Tauris,' 
1857, 8vo (posthumous). 

[Memoir in Gent. Mag. 1856, pt. ii. pp. 115- 
117; J. Foster's Index Ecclesiasticus, 'Monk;' 
Luard's Graduati Cant. ; Life of Bishop S. Wil- 
berforce ; Brit. Mus. Cat.] W. W. 

MONK, RICHARD (/. 1434), chrono- 
loger, described as an English chaplain, com- 
piled at Oxford in 1434 certain chronological 
tables, which are preserved in Laud. MS. 
Misc. 594 in the Bodleian Library. They are 

(1) 'Tabulae de veris litteris dominicalibus 
et primacionibus ab origine mundi,' f. 146; 

(2) ' Kalendarium verum anni mundi,' ff. 15- 
20 ; (3) ' Tabulae Solis versa atque perpetuse,' 
f. 21. 

[Tanner's Bibl. Brit-Hib. p. 530; Cat. of 
Laudian MSS.] C. L. K. 

1889), composer, son of William Monk, of an 
old Oxford family, was born in Brompton, 
London, on 16 March 1823. After studying 
music under Thomas Adams, J. A. Hamilton, 
and G. A. Griesbach, he was organist and 
choir-master successively of Eaton Chapel, 
Pimlico (1841-3), St. George's Chapel, Albe- 
marle Street (1843-5), and Portman Chapel, 
Marylebone (1845-7). In 1847 he was ap- 
pointed choirmaster, in 1849 organist, and in 
1874 (in succession to John Hullah, with 
whose work of ' Popular Musical Education' 
he was early associated) professor of vocal 
music at King's College, London. In 1851 
he became professor of music at the School 
for the Indigent Blind, and in 1853 was ap- 
pointed to his last post of organist at St. 
Matthias', Stoke Newin^ton, where he esta- 
blished a daily choral service, with a voluntary 
choir. He was also professor in the National 
Training School for Music (1876), and in 
Bedford College, London (1878). From 1850 
to 1854 he gave lectures on music at the 
London Institution, and at other times lec- 
tur*ed at the Philosophical Institution, Edin- 
burgh, and the Royal Institution, Manchester. 
In 1882 he received the honorary degree of 
Mus.Doc. from Durham University. He died 

in London on 1 March 1889, and was buried 
in Highgate cemetery, where a memorial 
cross, erected by public subscription, marks 
his grave. 

Monk was best known as the musical editor 
of ' Hymns Ancient and Modern/ which has 
passed through several editions since its first 
issue in 1861, and has had a sale of about 
thirty million copies. He had no share in 
the profits of the work. He was sole musical 
editor of the first edition (the statement in 
GROVE that he was ' one of the editors ' is 
calculated to mislead), and only when an en- 
larged edition was called for did he have 
assistance. He had just sent to press the 
edition of 1889 when he died. His best hymn 
tunes, by which he will be remembered, were 
written for i Hymns Ancient and Modern,' 
but many appear in other collections. A few 
are sung everywhere, a nd ' Abide with me ' 
and l Sweet Saviour, bless us ere we go ' (the 
words of which are by Lyte and Faber re- 
spectively) are not likely to be superseded. 
He was musical editor of the ' Parish Choir' 
from the fortieth number (not the tenth, as 
stated in GROVE) to its close in 1851. He 
also edited for the church of Scotland their 
Psalter, Hymnal, and Anthem Book, the 
tunes to Bishop Wordsworth's i Hymns for 
the Holy Year,' 1865, an edition of Dr. Allon's 
' Congregational Psalmist,' ' The Book of 
Common Prayer, with Plain Song and Ap- 
propriate Music,' and editions of Handel's 
1 Acis and Galatea,' fol., and ' L' Allegro,' 8vo. 
He composed a good deal of miscellaneous 
church music, mostly of an intentionally 
simple nature, such as anthems, chants, Te 
Deums, &c., some of which is widely used. 
He was essentially a church musician, and 
used the organ more for devotion than for 

[Grove's Diet, of Music, ii. 353 ; Musical 
Herald, April 1889, where his portrait is given ; 
Brown's Diet, of Musicians ; Love's Scottish 
Church Music, where date of his death has to be 
corrected ; St. Matthias's Mag., April 1889, De- 
cember 1891 ; Funeral Sermon preached at St. 
Matthias's Church ; Church Times, 6 Nov. 1891 ; 
private information from his widow. The birth 
date on the memorial cross is erroneous, and is 
to be corrected.] J. C. II. 

SIR ROBERT PORRETT, 1817-1886, judge.] 

JAMES, 1649-1685.] 

ROBERT, first EARL, 1560 P-1639 ; CAREY, 
HENRY, second EARL, 1596-1661 ; MORDAUSTT, 




MONMOUTH, titular EAEL OF. [See 
MIDDLETON, CHAELES, 1640 P-1719.] 


1154), bishop of St. Asaph. [See GEOFFEEY.] 


DE (1182 P-1247 ?), lord marcher, born about 
1182, was son of Gilbert de Monmouth, and 
great-great-grandson of William FitzBalde- 
ron, who is recorded in Domesday Book as 
the possessor of many lands and lordships in 
Gloucestershire, Herefordshire, and Mon- 
mouthshire ; Rose or Roysya de Monemue, 
wife of Hugh de Lacy, fifth baron Lacy [q.v.], 
was probably his aunt (cf. Reg. Abbey of St. 
Thomas, Dublin, passim), and her son Walter 
de Lacy married Margaret, the daughter of 
Monmouth's guardian, William de Braose 
[q. v.] In 1201-2 Monmouth was a minor 
in the wardship of De Braose, and the latter 
in 1206 was placed in possession of Grosmont, 
Llantilio, and Skenfrith castles, probably be- 
longing to the Monmouth family. Monmouth 
came of age before 1205, when he held fifteen 
knights' fees, and in 1208 his two infant sons, 
John and Philip, were demanded by King 
John as hostages for his good behaviour, pro- 
bably as a precaution against Monmouth's 
joining William de Braose in his rebellion 
(Rot. Pat. in TurriLondin. i. 87 ; Foss, i. 410) ; 
he paid a large fine for restoration to royal 
favour, and his children were liberated. In 

1213 another son William appears to have 
been held as a hostage by John (Rot. Pat. i. 
103), but Monmouth remained to the end an 
active and faithful partisan of the king. In 

1214 he was ordered to attend John at Ciren- 
cester, and received a completely equipped 
horse for his prompt obedience. On 10 Feb. 

1215 he was appointed one of the custodians 
of William de Lacy, ha]f-brother of Mon- 
mouth's cousin Walter, sixth baron Lacy 
[q. v.] (SWEETMAN, Cal. Doc. 1171-1251, No. 
536), and was commissioned to negotiate with 
the barons of Herefordshire, and in April to 
raise a loan in Gloucestershire (Rot. Glaus, i. 
197 b). On 21 Aug. he was made governor of 
St. Briavel's Castle, Gloucestershire, and later 
in that year and in 1216 he was granted cus- 
tody of the castles of Elmley in Worcester- 
shire, Bramberin Sussex, which had belonged 
to William de Braose, Grosmont, Llantilio, 
and Skenfrith in Wales, the Forest of Dean, 
and lands in Bedford and Cambridge shires 
forfeited by Hugh Malebysse (DFGDALE, 
Baronage, i. 442 ; Foss, i. 410 ; Rot. Pat. i. 
153, 160), besides those of his sister-in-law, 
Albreda de Boterel, who had sided with the 
barons, and of Walbar de Stokes (cf. Close and 
Patent Rolls-, EYTON, Antiquities of Shrop- 
shire, vi. 153). During 1216 Monmouth 


owned a ship in John's service, and was made 
one of the executors of his will (Close Rolls, 
vol. i. passim ; RYMEE, Feeder a, i. i. 144). 

After the accession of Henry III Mon- 
mouth received further promotion. In 1221 
he was justice itinerant in Gloucestershire ; 
in January 1224 he was directed again to 
take over St. Briavel's, but was prevented by 
illness ; on 8 Aug. he was present at Bedford, 
where Falkes de Breaut6 [q. v.] was besieged 
(SHIELEY, Royal and Historical Letters, 
Rolls Ser. i. 511 ; RYMEE, i. 175). Next year 
he was witness to the reissue of the Great 
Charter (LuAED, Annal. Mon. i. 232). In 
1226 he built for the Cistercian order the 
abbey of Grace Dieu in Wales (ib. ii. 302) ; 
and in May became security for his cousin 
Walter de Lacy (SWEETMA*, 1171-1251, No. 
1372-3) ; on 2 Sept. he was appointed to at- 
tend the meeting of Llywelyn, William Mar- 
shal, and other barons at Shrewsbury, and to 
report on the result (cf. LLYWELYN AB IOE- 
WEETH, d. 1240, and MAESHAL, WILLIAM, d. 
1231). In 1228 he was made sheriff of Shrop- 
shire and Staffordshire, but this appointment 
was soon revoked (BLAKEWAY, Sheriff's of 
Shropshire, p. 5) ; in the same year, appa- 
rently by right of his wife, he was keeper of 
New, Clarendon, Pancet, and Bocholte forests, 
offices held by his father-in-law, Walter de 
Waleron (DUGDALE ; Foss ; Cal. Rot. Pat. ii. 
146). In 1229 he mediated between the town 
and abbey of Dunstable, and witnessed a grant 
from Henry to David, son of Llywelyn, and 
other charters (GIEALDTTS CAMBEENSIS, ed. 
Dimock, vii. 231). The castles and honours 
of Striguil and Hereford were committed to 
his custody, on the death of William Marshal, 
in 1231, and in December he negotiated the 
truce that was patched up with Llywelyn. 
In the same year he granted to some monks 
the hospital of St. John at Monmouth. 

On the revolt of Richard Marshal in 1233 
Monmouth bore the brunt of his attack. He 
was justiciar, and commanded the king's 
Poitevin mercenaries in South Wales, and 
on 26 Dec. collected a large force, intending 
to make a secret attack on Marshal. The 
earl, however, learning his design, set an 
ambush for Monmouth in a wood near Gros- 
mont, and completely routed his forces, Mon- 
mouth himself escaping only by a hasty flight. 
Marshal proceeded to destroy Monmouth's 
lands and buildings, including, at the insti- 
gation of his Welsh allies, the abbey of Grace 
Dieu (MATTHEW PAEIS, Chron. Majora, ii. 
254; Hist. Angl. ii. 364, iii. 269; ROGEE 
WEKDOVEE, iii. 60; Annal. Mon. ii. 312, 
iii. 136). On 28 March 1234 Henry informed 
him that he had concluded a truce with 
Marshal and Llywelyn, and in July Mon- 




mouth was ordered to besiege the castles in 
the hands of Peter des Rivaulx, should he 
refuse to give them up. At the marriage of 
Eleanor and Henry III on 14 Jan. 1236 
Monmouth claimed the right as a lord marcher 
to carry the canopy (DTJGDALE). In the same 
year he witnessed the confirmation of Magna 
Charta, and rebuilt the abbey of Grace Dieu. 
At Easter 1238 he was summoned to parlia- 
ment at Oxford to advise Henry on the pro- 
bable outbreak of war with Llywelyn. In 
1240 he was appointed one of the arbiters 
to decide on the disputed points between 
Davydd II [q. v.] and the king. On 2 Jan. 
1241-2 he witnessed at Westminster the 
grant of liberties and franchises to the citizens 
of Cork (SWEETMAN, 1171-1251, No. 2552). 
In 1242 he was ordered to provide five hun- 
dred Welsh soldiers for the expected war 
with France, and in the same year was ap- 
pointed chief bailiff of Cardigan, Caermar- 
then, and South Wales (Cal. Rot. Pat. ii. 
19 b). With the Earl of Clare he resisted 
Davydd's invasion in 1244. receiving a grant 
of three hundred marks on 3 June for that 
purpose, and inflicted a severe defeat on the 
Welsh ; in January next year he was directed 
to summon the Welsh barons to answer for 
the depredations they had committed. He 
died probably in 1247. 

Monmouth married Cecilia, daughter and 
heiress of Walter de Waleron, and by her 
had apparently three sons, John, Philip, and 
William. Of these John alone survived, and 
had livery of his father's lands in 32 Hen. Ill 
(28 Oct. 1247, 27 Oct. 1248). He had two 
daughters, but no male issue, and died in 
1257, leaving the castle and honour to Prince 
Edward. Another JOHN DE MONMOUTH (Jt. 
1320) is frequently mentioned in the ' Par- 
liamentary Writs,' especially cap. II. iii. 1182, 
and was apparently a partisan of Roger Mor- 
timer, first earl of March [q. v.] (cf. BARNES, 
Edward HI) ; a third was in 1297 appointed 
bishop of Llandaff,and died on 8 April 1323 
(LE NEVE, ii. 245-6). 

[Dugdale's Baronage, i. 442-3; Monasticon, 
passim ; Foss's Judges of England, i. 410 ; Close 
and Patent Eolls, vols. i. and ii. passim ; Cal. 
Inquisit. post Mortem, i. 15; Cal. Rotulorum 
Chartarum et Inquisit. ad quod Damnum ; Parl. 
Writs ; Rymer's Foedera, passim ; Annales Mo- 
nastici, Royal and Historical Letters, Hist, et 
Cartul. Mon. S. Petri, Matthew Paris's Chron. 
Majora and Hist. Angl., Roger Wendover, Flores 
Historiarum, Griraldus Cambrensis and Walsing- 
ham's Hist. Angl. and Ypodigma, and Memoranda 
de Parliamento (all in the Rolls Ser. passim) ; 
"VVilliams's Monmouthshire, pp. 190-1, App. p. 
xxxiv; Eyton's Antiquities of Shropshire; Sweet- 
man's Cal. of Documents relating to Ireland, 1171- 
1251 ; Wright's Hist, of Ludlow.] A. F. P. 

known by the surname of BAPTISTE (1634- 
1699), flower-painter, was born at Lille on 
19 July 1634. He went when very young to 
Paris, and his admirable pictures of flowers 
and fruit, which he painted almost always 
from nature, soon gained him a great reputa- 
tion. His works became the fashion among the 
wealthy, and he was received into the Royal 
Academy of Painting on 14 April 1663. His 
admission was afterwards annulled on ac- 
count of some informality, and he was re- 
ceived anew on 3 Oct. 1665. His piece de 
reception, representing flowers and fruit, is 
now in th,e Musee at Montpellier. He ex- 
hibited at the Salon only in 1673, when 
he sent four flower-pieces under the name of 
Baptiste. Although much engaged in the 
decoration of the royal palaces of Versailles, 
Marly, Vincennes, and Meudon, and of the 
Hotel de Bretonvilliers, he was induced by 
Ralph Montagu, afterwards Duke of Montagu 
[q. v.], then British ambassador to France, to 
accompany him on his return to England in 
1678, and to assist in the decoration of Mont- 
agu House, Bloomsbury, which in 1754 be- 
came the British Museum. He subsequently 
painted 'numerous flower-pieces and panels 
at Hampton Court, Kensington Palace, Bur- 
lington House, Kedleston Hall, and other 
royal and noble residences, and often painted 
the flowers in Sir Godfrey Kneller's portraits. 
His works have not the high finish and 
velvety softness of those of Van Huysum 
and some other flower-painters of the Dutch 
school, but they possess greater freshness of 
touch and vigour in composition. The Louvre 
has eight of his undoubted works, and three 
more are attributed to him. Many others are 
in the provincial museums of France and in 
the private collections of England. About 
eighty of them have been engraved by John 
Smith, Poilly, Vauquer, Avril the elder, and 
others. He etched thirty-four of his own 
compositions, consisting of bouquets, gar- 
lands, and vases and baskets of flowers, which 
are for the most part executed on a white 
ground. The ( Livre de toutes sortes de 
fleurs d'apres nature,' often attributed to 
him, was engraved by Vauquer from his de- 

Monnoyer died in London on 16 Feb. 1699, 
and was buried in St. James's Church, Picca- 
dilly. Sir Godfrey Kneller painted his por- 
trait, which was engraved in mezzotint by 
George Smith and by Edward Fisher. 

ANTOINE MONNOTEE (d. 1747), called 
' Young Baptiste,' one of his sons, was his 
pupil, and also a painter of flowers, but his 
works are much inferior to his father's. He 
also came to London, but was in Paris in 1704, 


i 79 


en he was received at the Academy, and 
again in 1715. He returned to England at the 
beginning of 1717, and remained here until 
1734. He died at St. Germain-en-Laye in 
1747. Another of his sons, known as 'Frere 
Baptiste,' who went to Rome and became a 
Dominican monk, was likewise a painter. He 
was a pupil of his father and of Jean Bap- 
tiste Corneille the younger, and painted some 
large pictures of scenes in the life of St. 
Dominic for the schools of his convent. 
Belin de Fontenay (1653-1715) the flower- 
painter was also a pupil of Monnoyer, and 
married his daughter Marie in 1687. 

[Walpole's Anecdotes of Painting in England, 
d. Wornum, 1849, ii. 599 ; Mariette's Abece- 
dario, 1851-60, iv. 7 ; Bellier de la Chavignerie's 
Dictionnaire general des Artistes de 1'Ecole 
Fran9aise, 1868-85, ii. 110 ; Jal's Dictionnaire 
critique de Biographie et d'Histoire, 1872, p. 
880; ViJlot's Notice ^des Tableaux du Musee 
National du Louvre (Ecole Franchise), 1880, pp. 
230-3 ; Robert -Dumesnil's Peintre-Graveur 
Francis, 1835-71, iii. 229-38.] R. E. G. 

MONRO. [See also MUKRO.] 

MpNRO, ALEXANDER (d. 1715?), 
principal of Edinburgh University, was the 
son of Hugh Monro of Fyresh, a branch of 
the house of Foulis. He appears to have 
been educated at St. Andrews (BowEK). In 
1673 he was appointed minister of the second 
charge of Dunfermline, and was translated 
to Kinglassie in 1676, and to Wemyss in 
1678. In 1682 he was created D.D. by the 
university of St. Andrews, and in the same 
year became professor of divinity in St. Mary's 
College there. In December 1685 he was 
appointed principal of Edinburgh Univer- 
sity and minister of the high church, suc- 
ceeding Andrew Cant in both offices. Said 
to have been originally a Roman catholic 
(WoDEOW, Analecta, ii. 49), Monro, though 
professedly presbyterian, had strong leanings 
towards episcopacy, and was strongly at- 
tached to the cause of James II. Conse- 
quently, when the presbyterians came into 
power at the revolution, he resigned his 
ministerial charge, and was forced to demit 
his office of principal. In 1688 he was nomi- 
nated bishop of Argyle by the influence of 
Viscount Dundee, but he was neither elected 
nor consecrated. The commission appointed 
to see the Privy Council Act of 1690 carried 
out in the Scottish universities made many 
charges against Monro, and his replies, given 
in his anonymously published i Presbyterian 
Inquisition*' (London, 1691), throw much 
light on the internal condition of Edinburgh 
University. It was one of the singular cir- 
cumstances of the case that the declaration of 

the Prince of Orange was conveyed to the 
Edinburgh magistrates by Monro, instead of 
being sent directly to them by the govern- 
ment (Council Reg. xxxii. 297). His career 
subsequently to September 1690 cannot be 
definitely ascertained. According to Bower, 
after his expulsion from the university he 
1 acted as an Episcopal clergyman in Edin- 
burgh, and died in 1715,' but there are doubts 
as to the correctness of the date (see SCOTT, 
Fasti}. In 1673 he married Anna Logan, 
by whom he had two daughters and a son 
James [q. v.] As principal he proved himself 
a weak disciplinarian, or else he ' sacrificed dis- 
cipline to ecclesiastical partiality ' (GRANT). 
His published writings, several of which are 
anonymous, include ' An Apology for the 
Church of Scotland,' London, 1693 ; l Spirit 
of Calumny,' <fcc., London, 1693 ; * Sermons 
preached on Several Occasions,' London, 
1693; and 'Letter to Sir Robert Howard 
occasioned by his Twofold Vindication of 
Bishop Tillotson,' London, 1696. 

[Bower's History of the University of Edin- 
burgh, i. 309 ; Sir Alexander Grant's Story of 
the University of Edinburgh, ii. 254, 478; Grub's 
Eccl. Hist, of Scotland, iii. 291, 319; Apology 
for the Clergy of Scotland ; Lawson's Hist, of the 
Scottish Episcopal Church from the Revolution 
to the Present Time; Keith's Catalogue of Bi- 
shops ; Hew Scott's Fasti Ecclesise Scotieanae, ii. 
547, 562, 571 ; Fountainhall's Historical Notices 
(Bannatyne Club) ; Fernie's and Chalmers's His- 
tories of Dunfermline; Wodrow's Analecta 
(Maitland Club) ; Wodrow's Correspondence 
(Wodrow Soc.).] J. C. H. 

(1697-1767), physician, was son of John 
Monro, a surgeon in William Ill's army, 
whose father, Sir Alexander Monro, fought 
in the battle of Worcester on the royalist side. 
His mother was a Miss Forbes of the family 
of Culloden. His father, while the army was 
in winter quarters, annually obtained leave 
to reside in London, where his son Alexander 
was born 8 Sept. 1697. John Monro after- 
wards settled in Edinburgh as a surgeon, and 
his son studied at the university and there 
graduated M.D. He then went to London and 
attended lectures by Hawksbee and Whiston 
on experimental philosophy and dissected 
under Cheselden. He sent home many ana- 
tomical specimens prepared by himself, and 
thus began to establish an anatomical reputa- 
tion in Edinburgh. After some months in Paris 
be went in 1718 to Leyden and studied under 
Boerhaave. In the autumn of 1719 he re- 
turned to Edinburgh, where he was appointed 
professor of anatomy and surgery to the 
Surgeons' Company, and began to lecture in 
the winter of 1720. Up to that time there had 


1 80 


been no professors of anatomy or of medi- 
cine in the university of Edinburgh, and in 
1720 Monro was appointed the first university 
professor of anatomy, but was not formally 
inducted till 1725. Thenceforward he gave 
a course of lectures every year from October 
to May for thirty-nine years, beginning al- 
ways with the history of the subject, then 
treating of osteology, then of the soft parts, 
then of the relation of the anatomy of ani- 
mals to that of man, then of surgical .opera- 
tions, and finally of general physiology. In 
1725 he married Isabella, second daughter of 
Sir Donald MacDonald of the Isle of Skye. 
In 1726 he published 'Osteology, a Treatise 
on the Anatomy of the Human Bones,' which 
went through several editions, to the sixth 
of which, 1758, is added an account of the 
nerves. He begins with an account of the 
periosteum, thence proceeds to the structure 
of bone and of joints, and then to the detailed 
description of the several bones. A medico- 
chirurgical society was formed in Edinburgh 
of which he was secretary, and he edited in 
1732 its first volume of Transactions,' and sub- 
sequently five other volumes, writing in them 
many original papers, all of which are re- 
printed in the collected edition of his ' Works,' 
published in Edinburgh in 1781. After the 
battle of Prestonpans in 1745 he attended 
the wounded on the field, and while firmly 
attached to the house of Hanover did all in 
his power to obtain a pardon for Dr. Cameron 
the Jacobite. In 1764 he resigned his pro- 
fessorship, but continued to give clinical lec- 
tures at the hospital, and in that year he 
published ( An Account of the Inoculation 
of Small-pox in Scotland.' His separate 
papers, fifty-three in number, are on a great 
variety of medical subjects. He had observed 
the results of the falling of solid bodies into 
the appendix vermiformis, and shows much 
sagacity in an argument establishing the 
modern view that jaundice is very rarely, if 
ever, due to any cause but obstruction of the 
common bile duct. He knew a great deal of 
comparative anatomy and was well read in 
authors, especially admiring Wiseman among 
the older surgeons. He was a muscular man 
of middle stature, and was in the habit of 
being bled twice a year. In 1762 he had in- 
fluenza with severe vesical catarrh, and he 
once fractured his heel tendon, and has written 
(Collected Works, p. 661) an account of his 
own case and cure. He died of a pelvic 
cancer 10 July 1767, after a long and pain- 
ful illness, the chief symptoms of which are 
described in a letter to his son, Dr. Donald 
Monro [q. v.], dated 11 June 1766. A portrait 
of Monro, painted by Allan Ramsay, is in 
the National Portrait Gallery, Edinburgh. It 

was engraved by Basire and prefixed to the 
collected edition of his 'Works,' published 
by his son Dr. Alexander Monro secundus 
[q. v.], Edinburgh, 1781. 

[Memoir by Dr. Donald Monro prefixed to 
Works, 1781 ; Works.] N. M. 

MONRO, ALEXANDER, secundus, 
M.D. (1733-1817), anatomist, younger son 
of Alexander Monro primus [q. v.], by Isa- 
bella, second daughter of Sir Donald Mac- 
Donald, bart., of the Isle of Skye, was born 
at Edinburgh 20 May 1733. He was sent 
with his elder brother Donald [q. v.] to the 
school of Mr. Mundell, and in 1752 entered 
the university of Edinburgh. He occa- 
sionally lectured for his father from 1753,. 
and on 12 July 1755 was formally appointed 
professor of anatomy and surgery as coad- 
jutor to his father. He took the degree of 
M.D. 17 Oct. 1755, the subject of his inaugural 
dissertation being ' De Testibus et Semine in 
variis Animalibus.' It is dedicated to his 
father, and shows that he had worked dili- 
gently at minute anatomy. Soon after gra- 
duation he went to London, where he at- 
tended William Hunter's lectures, and after- 
wards to Paris, Leyden, and Berlin. At 
Leyden University he matriculated 17 Sept. 
1757 (PEACOCK, Index, p. 70). He resided 
at Berlin in the house of Professor Meckel 
(Johann Friedrich, the elder), and worked 
under that distinguished anatomist, his obli- 
gations to whom he used to acknowledge in 
nearly every course of lectures which he de- 
livered. In 1758 he returned to Edinburgh, 
was admitted a licentiate of the College of 
Physicians of Edinburgh, and 1 May 1759 1 
was elected a fellow. He became secretary of 
the Philosophical Society of Edinburgh in 
succession to his father. This society pub- 
lished three volumes of essays. The first, 
which appeared in 1754, contains ' a descrip- 
tion of the vesiculse seminales ' and ' observa- 
tions on gravid uteri ' by him ; the second, 
issued in 1756, ' a description of a monster 
without head, arms, heart, or legs,' and 'the- 
history of a genuine volvulus ; ' while in the 
last, in 1771, he wrote a paper on the effect of 
drugs on the nervous system. He published 
two controversial 'observations' on the lym- 
phatics in 1758, maintaining that he, in a 
short essay printed at Berlin in 1758, and 
reprinted in 1761 and 1770, ' De Venis Lym- 
phaticis Valvulosis,' and not William Hun- 
ter, had first correctly described the general 
communications of the lymphatic system. 
Frederick Hoffman had, however, preceded 
both Monro and Hunter in the description. 
In 1783 he published in Edinburgh ' Observa- 
tions on the Structure and Functions of the 




Nervous System,' dedicated to the Right Hon. 
Henry Dundas [q. v.], and it is in consequence 
of the description in this book of the co>m- 
munication between the lateral ventricles of 
the brain that his name is known to every 
student of medicine at the present day. The 
opening now always spoken of as the ' fora- 
men of Monro ' is very small in the healthy 
brain, but when water on the brain is present 
may be as large as a sixpence. It was this 
morbid condition that drewMonro's attention 
to the foramen, and he first described it in a 
paper read before the Philosophical Society 
of Edinburgh in 1764, but gives a fuller ac- 
count in this work on the nervous system 
(Nervous System, tab. iii. and iv.) 

He had always paid much attention to 
comparative anatomy, and published in 1785 
'* The Structure and Physiology of Fishes ex- 
plained and compared with those of Man and 
other Animals.' In 1788 he published an 
account of seventy pairs of bursae under the 
title, ' Description of all the Bursae Mucosse 
of the Human Body, their Structure, Acci- 
dents, and Diseases, and Operations for their 
Cure,' which is stated by several anatomical 
writers to be the first full description of the 
bursse. In 1793 he published ' Experiments 
on the Nervous System with Opium and Me- 
talline Substances, to determine the Nature 
and Effects of Animal Electricity.' These 
experiments led him to the conclusion that 
nerve force was not identical with electricity. 
His last book, * Three Treatises on the Brain, 
the Eye, and the Ear,' was published at Edin- 
burgh in 1797. Manuscript copies of notes of j 
his lectures on anatomy delivered in 1774 and 
1775 are preserved in the library of the Royal j 
Medical and Chirurgical Society of London, ' 
and some ' Essays and Heads of Lectures on 
Anatomy, Physiology, Pathology, Surgery,' 
very imperfectly arranged, were printed by his 
son Alexander [q. v.] in 1840. 

Monro, who in 1777 successfully resisted 
the appointment of a separate professor of 
surgery, gave a full course of lectures every 
year from 1759 to 1800. From 1800 to 1807 he 
delivered part of the course, his son Alexander 
completing it, and in 1808 gave the introduc- 
tory lecture only. This was his last lecture, 
and after it his faculties gradually decayed. 
He became drowsy after dinner, and his nose 
used to bleed from time to time. In 1813 
he had an apoplectic attack, and he died 
2 Oct. 1817. He attained extensive practice 
as a physician, but never allowed his practice 
to interrupt the regularity of his lectures. 
He was fond of gardening, and bought the 
estate of Craiglockhart on the Leith water, 
where lie had a cottage, and cultivated many 
kinds of fruit. He would have no bedroom 

in the cottage, as he thought that a physician 
in practice should always spend the night in 
his town-house. He enjoyed the theatre, 
was a warm admirer of Mrs. Siddons, and 
was proud of having been consulted by her 
about her health. He was a popular mem- 
ber of the Harveian Society of Edinburgh, 
a convivial as well as learned society, and 
at its meetings, according to Dr. Duncan, the 
father of the Royal College of Physicians 
of Edinburgh, ' without transgressing the 
bounds of the most strict sobriety, he afforded 
us demonstrative evidence of the exhilarat- 
ing power of wine.' He was certainly the 
ablest of the three professors of his family. His 
portrait was painted by Kay, by Seton, and 
by Sir II. Raeburn, and an engraving of his 
head from the picture of the last is prefixed 
to his son's memoir of his life ; a bust by an 
unknown sculptor is in the National Portrait 
Gallery, Edinburgh. 

[A . Monro's (tertius) Memoir, Edinburgh, 1 840 ; 
Dr. Andrew Duncan's Account of the Life, Writ- 
ings, and Character of the late Dr. Alexander 
Monro secundus, Edinb. 1818 ; Works.] N. M. 

MONRO, ALEXANDER, tertius, M.D. 
(1773-1859), anatomist, son of Alexander 
Monro secundus, was born at Edinburgh 
5 Nov. 1773. He was sent to the high 
school there, and afterwards to the univer- 
sity, where he graduated M.D. in 1797, writ- 
ing a thesis, ' De Dysphagia.' In 1798 he 
was appointed to assist his father in his lec- 
tures, but the appointment was nominal, as 
he went to London, and there worked at ana- 
tomy underWilson. After also visiting Paris, 
he returned to Edinburgh in 1800, and was ap- 
pointed conjoint professor (with his father) of 
medicine, surgery, and anatomy. From 1808 
he delivered the whole course, and from 1817 
to 1846 was sole professor. His lectures 
were less popular than those of his father and 
grandfather (An Answer to several Attacks 
which have appeared against the University 
of Edinburgh, 1819, p. 65), but among his 
pupils were Christison, Syme, Listen, Ed- 
ward Forbes, Abercrombie, Bright, Marshall 
Hall, Sir Henry Holland, and Sir Humphry 
Davy. He published in 1803 ' Observations 
on Crural Hernia;' in 1811, ' Morbid Ana- 
tomy of the Human Gullet, Stomach, and In- 
testines ; ' in 1813, ' Outlines of the Anatomy 
of the Human Body; ' in 1814, ' Engravings of 
the Thoracic and Abdominal Viscera ; ' in 
1818,' Observations on the different kinds of 
Small-pox ; ' in 1827, ' Morbid Anatomy of the 
Brain,' vol. i., ' Hydrocephalus ' and 'Ana- 
tomy of the Pelvis of the Male;' in 1831, 
' The Anatomy of the Brain ; ' in 1840, ' Es- 
says and Heads of Lectures of A. Munro 




secundus, with Memoir;' and in 1842, ' Ana- 
tomy of the Urinary Bladder and Peri- 
nseum in the Male.' None of his works are 
of permanent value, and those written when 
he was in the prime of life are as confused, 
prolix, and illogical as his senile productions. 
A basis of notes made by his more industri- 
ous father and grandfather is to be detected 
throughout, and to this he has added only 
imperfect observations and superficial read- 
ing. Thus in his account of lead colic he 
shows no acquaintance with the recent and 
admirable discoveries of Sir George Baker 
[q. v.] He died at Craiglockhart, near Edin- 
burgh, 10 March 1859. He married first, 
in 1800, the daughter of Dr. Carmichael 
Smyth, by whom he had twelve children, one 
of whom, Sir David Monro, is separately no- 
ticed ; and secondly, in 1836, the daughter of 
David Hunter, who survived him. A por- 
trait by Kenneth Macleay is in the National 
Portrait Gallery, Edinburgh. 

[Lancet, 1859, i. 331 ; Works.] N. M. 

MONRO, SIR DAVID (1813-1877), co- 
lonial politician, son of Dr. Alexander Monro 
tertius [q. v.], was born in 1813. At a 
very early age he settled in New Zealand. 
When the first general assembly was con- 
vened, 24 May 1854, he was returned as a 
member of it, and was chosen to second the 
address to the governor. He was speaker of 
the House of Representatives in 1861 and 
1862, and was knighted. At the general 
election in 1866 he was elected member for 
Cheviot, and was again speaker until 1870, 
when he retired from this post. He was then 
much incensed at the failure of William Fox, 
leader of the house, to propose any vote of 
thanks for his services ; and in order to 
attack him he obtained a seat, but lost it on 
petition. Thereupon the House of Repre- 
sentatives adopted an address praying that 
some mark of favour might be shown him 
for his long services ; but Fox still refused 
to recommend so outspoken an opponent for 
a seat in the Legislative Council. Monro was 
then elected to the house for Waikonati, and 
opposed Fox's government. He died at New- 
stead, near Nelson, in 1877. His wife was a 
daughter of J. Seeker of Widford, Glouces- 

[Times, 2 May 1877; G-. W. Rusden's Hist, 
of New Zealand.] J. A. H. 

MONRO, DONALD (/. 1550), known 
as * High Dean of the Isles,' first appears on 
record as parson of Kiltearn, in the presby- 
tery of Dingwall, Ross-shire. On 26 Junel563 
he was appointed by the general assembly of 
the kirk commissioner 'within the bounds 

of Ross, to assist the Bishop of Caithness in 
preaching of the Gospell and planting of 
kirkis ' (CALDERWOOD, ii. 224), at a salary of 
four hundred merks for one year. On 27 Dec, 
following a complaint was made in the as- 
sembly that he ' was not so apt to teache as- 
his charge required ' (ib. p. 245). Six mem- 
bers of the assembly were appointed ' to trie 
his gifts,' and to report. His ignorance of 
Gaelic seems to have been his chief fault, for 
on 5 July 1570 it was objected that ' he was 
not prompt in the Scottish tongue.' His- 
commission was, however, renewed in August 
1573 (ib. p. 275). Tradition says that when 
at Kiltearn he lived in Castle Craig, and 
crossed the Firth to his duties. About 1574 
he was translated to the neighbouring parish 
of Lymlair, with a stipend of 66/. 13s. 4?. 
Scots, and kirk-land. His title, ' High Dean 
of the Isles,' may have had some pre-reforma- 
tion significance, but was more probably one 
of those titles of courtesy satirised by Sir 
David Lyndsay in his ' Monarchic ' (bk. iii. 
1290, &c.) 

He made a systematic tour through the 
western islands of Scotland in 1549, of which 
he has left an interesting account. George- 
Buchanan made use of it for the geographical 
portion of his ' History of Scotland,' and ac- 
knowledged his indebtedness ( Works, folio- 
edit. 1715, pp. 13, 18). Monro also wrote a 
small book, entitled ' The Genealogies of the 
Cheiff Clans of the Isles.' Both works were 
printed at Edinburgh, 1773-4, with the com- 
mon title, * Description of the Western Isles- 
of Scotland, called Hybrides. With his Gene- 
alogies of the Chief Clans of the Isles. Now 
first published from the Manuscript.' Another 
edition appeared at Edinburgh in 1805, and 
in 1818 the account was included in the second 
volume of 'Miscellanea Scotica.' Two manu- 
script copies of his works are preserved in the 
Advocates' Library. 

[Calderwood's History of the Kirk (Wodrow 
Soc. edit.) ; Miscellany of the Wodrow Society; 
i. 335 ; Hew Scott's Fasti Ecclesise Scoticanse, 
pt. v. pp. 299, 302, 455.] G. G. S. 

MONRO, DONALD, M.D. (1727-1802), 
medical writer, born in 1727, was second sur- 
viving son of Alexander Monro primus [q.v.],. 
by Isabella, second daughter of Sir Donald 
MacDonald of the Isle of Skye. He was edu- 
cated at Edinburgh under the care of his father,, 
and graduated M.D. on 8 June 1753, the sub- 
ject of his inaugural dissertation being 'De 
Hydrope.' Soon afterwards he was appointed 
physician to the army. On 12 April 1756 
he was admitted a licentiate of the College 
of Physicians, London, and on 3 Nov. 1758 1 
was elected physician to St. George's Hos- 




pital. During his absence abroad as army 
physician, from December 1760 until March 
1763, Dr. (afterwards Sir) Richard Jebb 
[q. v.] was chosen to fill his place at the 
hospital. He was admitted a fellow of the 
College of Physicians, by a special grace, on 
30 Sept. 1771 ; was censor in 1772, 1781, 

1785, and 1789 ; and was named an elect on 
10 July 1788. He delivered the Croonian 
lectures in 1774 and 1775, and the Harveian 
oration in 1775. Ill-health obliged him to 
resign his office at St. George's Hospital in 

1786. At the same time he withdrew him- 
self altogether from practice, and in great 
measure from society. He died in Argyll 
Street on 9 June 1802 (Gent. Mag. 1802, 
pt. ii. p. 687). 

Monro, who is represented as a man of 
* varied attainments, of considerable skill in 
his profession,' and in high esteem with his 
contemporaries, was admitted a fellow of 
the Royal Society on 1 May 1766. He pub- 
lished: 1. 'Dissertatio . . . de hydrope,' 
&c., 8vo, Edinburgh, 1753; reprinted in 
vol. ii. of the Edinburgh 'Thesaurus Me- 
dicus,' 1785. The second edition was pub- 
lished in English as ' An Essay on the 
Dropsy and its Different Species,' 8vo, 
London, 1756; 3rd edit. 1765. 2. 'An 
Account of the Diseases which were 
most frequent in the British Military Hos- 
pitals in Germany from January 1761 to 
. . . March 1763,' c., 8vo, London, 1764. 
Appended is an essay on the means of pre- 
serving the health of soldiers, and conduct- 
ing military hospitals. 3. ' A Treatise on 
Mineral Waters/ 2 vols. 8vo, London, 1770. 
4. ' Prselectiones Medicae,' 8vo, London, 
1776, being his Croonian lectures and Har- 
veian oration. 5. ' Observations on the 
Means of Preserving the Health of Soldiers, 
and of conducting Military Hospitals, and 
on the Diseases incident to Soldiers,' 2 vols. 
8vo, London, 1780, a greatly enlarged edition 
of the ' Essay ' appended to his ' Account.' 
John Millar, M.D. (1733-1805) [q. v.], pub- 
lished in 1784 a reply to Monro's arguments 
in 'Observations,' &c. 6. 'A Treatise on 
Medical and Pharmaceutical Chymistry and 
the Materia Medica,' 3 vols. 8vo, London, 
1788, with a translation of the 'Pharma- 
copeia.' He likewise contributed various 
papers to ' Essays, Physical and Literary,' 
and to the ' Transactions ' of various medical 
societies, and wrote the memoir prefixed to 
the quarto edition of his father's collected 
works, published at Edinburgh in 1781. 

[Munk's Coll. of Phys. 1878, ii. 293-5; Life 
of Dr. A. Monro, prefixed to his Works, 1781; 
Watt's Bibl. Brit. ; Cat. of Libr. of Med. and 
Chirurg. Soc.] G. G. 

MONRO, EDWARD (1815-1866), di- 
vine and author, eldest son of Edward Tho- 
mas Monro, M.D. (1790-1856), physician to 
Bethlehem Hospital, grandson of Dr. Thomas 
Monro [q. v.], and brother of Henry Monro 
(1817-1891) [q. v.], was born at London in 
1815. Educated at Harrow, he graduated 
at Oriel College, Oxford, with third-class 
honours in 1836, and was ordained shortly 
afterwards. From 1842 to 1860 he was 
perpetual curate of Harrow Weald, and from 
1860 till his death vicar of St. John's, Leeds. 
Monro quickly attained a wide reputation 
as a preacher, and was select preacher at 
Oxford in 1862. Originally trained in the 
evangelical school, he was much influenced 
by the tractarian movement, which during 
his college life was in full tide, but the fer- 
vour of his religious zeal and his singular 
affection for the poor neutralised all party 
bias. Devoted to the welfare of boys in 
humble life, he established a college for them, 
called the ' College of St. Andrews,' at Harrow 
Weald, by the help of friends, such as Lords 
Selborne and Nelson, Bishop Blomfield, and 
others. The boys were boarded and received 
the education of gentlemen free of charge, 
and did credit to their training in after life, 
but the great expense of the college led 
the enthusiastic founder into pecuniary em- 
barrassments, from which he was extricated 
with difficulty by friends and admirers. 
Monro had the rare talent of the Italian im- 
provisatore, and most of the stories and alle- 
gories for which he became famous were 
delivered impromptu to village lads. The in- 
stitution was without endowment, and the 
handsome and commodious buildings disap- 
peared after Monro left Harrow Weald. At 
Leeds Monro put into effect on a larger scale 
the noble ideal of parochial work described in 
his books. The candidates for confirmation 
and communicants in his parish reached ex- 
ceptional numbers. But his incessant labours 
affected his health, and he died at Leeds 
13 Dec. 1866, after two years of illness. He 
was buried at Harrow Weald. 

Monro's remarkable influence was extended 
by his writings far beyond the scene of hisper- 
sonal labours. Several of his stories and alle- 
gories passed through many editions, and are 
still in request. His chief publications are : 
1 . ' The Combatants,' 1848. 2. ' The Revellers/ 
1850. 3. ' The Dark River/ 1850. 4. 'True 
Stories of Cottagers/ 1850. 6. ' Sermons on 
the Responsibility of the Ministerial Office. 
6. View of Parochial Life/ 1851. 7. ' The 
Parish/ a poem, 1853. 8. ' Walter the School- 
master/ 1854. 9. ' The Journey Home/ 1855. 

10. ' Daily Studies during Lent/ 1856. 

11. 'Leonard and Dennis/ 1856. 12, .'The 




Dark Mountains,' 1858. 13. ' Characters of 
the Old Testament,' 1858. 14. < Parochial 
Papers,' 1858. 15. 'Parochial Lectures on 
English Poetry/ 1860. 16. ' Pastoral Life,' 
1862. 17. ' Harry and Archie/ 1862. 

Monro married in 1838 Emma, daughter 
of Dr. Hay of Madras. He had no children. 

[Personal knowledge ; John Bull and Church- 
man newspapers.] M. B-s. 


(d. 1693), of Culrain and Newmore, royalist 
general, was the third son of Colonel John 
Monro of Obisdale, by Catherine, daughter of 
John Gordon of Embo. He served in the wars 
of Gustavus Adolphus under his uncle, Robert 
Monro of Foulis (d. 1633) [q. v.], styled the 
' Black Baron/ and was present at the battle 
of Liitzen, 16 Nov. 1632. Afterwards he 
held a command in Ireland under his uncle 
Colonel Robert Munro (d. 1680?) [q. v.], 
who on 21 Jan. 1644-5 sent him to repre- 
sent the grievances of the Scottish army in 
Ireland to both houses of parliament {Hist. 
MSS. Comm. 6th Rep. p. 48), and on 28 Jan. 
he received a commission to command the 
troops sent to reinforce the Scottish army 
there (Cal. State Papers, Dom. Ser. 1644-5, 
p. 277). When Robert Munro was defeated 
by Owen Roe O'Neill at Benburb on 5 June 
1646, George Monro, who, with the rank of 
colonel, was in command of three troops of 
horse and 240 musqueteers, occupied an iso- 
lated position in dangerous proximity to the 
enemy, but after the battle with ' his party 
miraculously retreated home from the enemy' 
' without the loss of a man ' (RUSHWORTH, 
Historical Collections, pt. iv. vol. i. p. 400). 
In 1648 the Scottish parliament recalled 
Monro from Ireland to join the expedition 
into England under Hamilton for the relief 
of the king (GuTHRY, Memoirs, p. 260). He 
left Ireland in opposition to the orders of 
Monck (Thurloe State Papers, ii. 427), with 
a contingent of two hundred foot and one 
thousand horse. Hamilton had begun his 
march before his arrival, but he followed 
hard after him (GUTHRY, p. 279). He was 
not, however, suffered to come up with 
Hamilton, being kept behind to bring up the 
Scottish cannon (ib. p. 283). Consequently 
he was about thirty miles in the rear at the 
time of the battle of Preston, and when Sir 
Thomas Tildesley (who was then besieging 
Lancaster) heard of the disaster, he, with 
his own forces and others he had collected 
from the rout at Preston, retired north to 
Monro, and asked him to put his forces under 
his command and f follow Cromwell in the 
rear as he harassed the Scots ' (CLARENDON", 
History of the Rebellion, iii. 242). This, 

however, Monro declined to do, and after 
lingering for some time in Westmoreland, 
Cumberland, and Northumberland, he also 
declined an offer of the northern royalists to 
assist him in maintaining the cause of the 
king in Scotland, and resolved to march 
thither and await further orders (ib. p. 243). 
In Scotland he was joined by the Earl of 
Lanark [see HAMILTON, WILLIAM, second 
DUKE OF HAMILTON], whom he acknowledged 
as general (GUTHRY, p. 208). On .11 Sept. 
he appeared before Edinburgh, but finding it 
occupied by the whigamores, who pointed the 
cannon of the castle against him, he marched 
westwards with the view of cutting off 
Argyll at Stirling. According to a letter 
from the headquarters of Cromwell, he seized 
the bridge of Stirling while in treaty with 
Argyll (RUSHWORTH, pt. iv. vol. ii. p. 1276). 
Taking up his position at Stirling, he endea- 
voured to make it a rendezvous for reinforce- 
ments, but not succeeding in this, he finally 
agreed, before 1 Oct., to the articles (ib. pp. 
1288-9) providing for the disbandment of 
his forces, on condition that he should not be 
challenged for being accessory to the ' En- 
gagement.' After the disbandment he came 
to Edinburgh, but a proclamation being made 
that all 'malignants' should depart the city, 
and not remain within six miles of it (ib. p. 
1296), he took ship for Holland (GUTHRY, 
p. 296). 

Monro was included in the act passed by 
the Scottish estates on 17 May 1650 exclud- 
ing divers persons i from beyond seas with 
his majesty from entering the kingdom until 
they had given satisfaction to church and 
state' (BALFOUR, iv. 14), and he was in- 
cluded in a similar act passed on 4 June (ib. 
p. 42). He, however, returned to Scotland 
after the arrival of Charles II, and on 22 Nov. 
1650, in answer to a request to the ' king's 
majesty and estates ' for a ' convenient time 
to transport himself out of the country/ the 
committee of estates gave him till 1 Jan. 
(ib. p. 169). When an attempt was made in 
1654 to promote a rising on behalf of Charles 
in the highlands, Monro was appointed lieu- 
tenant-general under Middleton, but his un- 
popularity prevented many of the clans from 
joining it (Clarendon State Papers, ii. 441). 
Its success was further endangered by a 
quarrel between him and the Earl of Glen- 
cairn, whom he challenged to a duel, but 
was defeated (ib. ii. 371 ; BAILLIE, iii. 255). 
This led to strained relations between him 
and Middleton, and in December he deserted 
him and came to terms with the govern- 
ment (THURLOE, iii. 42 ; Hist. MSS. Comm. 
llth Rep. pt. vi. p. 137). 

After the Restoration Monro represented 




Ross-shire in parliament 1661-3, Sutherland 
1669-74, and Ross-shire 1680-6 and 1689- 
1693. In August 1665 he was suspected of 
designs against the government and im- 
prisoned (Cal. State Papers, Dom. Ser. 1664- 
1665, p. 514). According to Wodrow, the 
only reason for his imprisonment was his 
bantering the Bishop of Ross for his igno- 
rance of Latin (Analecta, iv. 4). When he 
received his liberty is uncertain. Lauder of 
Fountainhall mentions that in 1680 Monro, 
while in the streets of Edinburgh, had a 
vision of a man calling on him to tell the 
Duke of York to request his brother the king 
to extirpate papists {Hist. Observes, p. 11). 

Monro was made a knight of the Bath by 
Charles II, but the date or place is not re- 
corded. He subsequently supported the re- 
volution, and, although old and infirm, was 
appointed by the convention in Edinburgh to 
the command of the militia raised to protect 
it against Dundee and the royalists. He 
died 11 Jan. 1693. By his wife Margaret, 
daughter of Sir Frederick Hamilton and 
sister of Gustavus, first viscount Boyne, he 
left issue. The present Sir Hector Munro, 
eleventh baronet of Foulis, is a direct de- 
scendant. Sir George's elder brother, Sir 
Robert, third baronet (d. 1688), was grand- 
father of Robert Munro, sixth baronet [q. v.] 

[Guthry's Memoirs ; Eobert Baillie's Letters 
and Journals (Bannatyne Club) ; Clarendon's 
History of the Rebellion ; Rushworth's Histori- 
cal Collections; Thurloe State Papers; Cal. 
State Papers, Dom. Ser. ; Carlyle's Cromwell ; 
Foster's Members of Scottish Parl. ; Foster's 
Baronetage and Knightage.] T. F. H. 

HENRY (1768-1798), United Irishman, born 
in 1768, was the only son of a presbyterian 
tradesman of Scottish descent settled at Lis- 
burn. The father died in 1793, leaving a 
widow, whose maiden name had been Gorman. 
She brought up Henry and her two daughters 
according to the principles of the church of 
England, and died at Lisburn about 1832. 

Henry received a good mercantile educa- 
tion in his native town, and having gone 
through an apprenticeship entered the linen 
business about 1788. He afterwards paid 
frequent visits to England to buy silks and 
cloth and sell linen. While still a youth 
he joined the volunteers, and is said to have 
been adjutant of the Lisburn corps. He is 
described as rather under the middle height, 
but strong and agile, with deep blue eyes and 
an intelligent expression ; honourable in his 
dealings and prosperous in trade, a good 
speaker, romantic in his views, without de- 
cided intellectual tastes. In 1795 he joined 
the United Irishmen with the view of for- 

warding the cause of catholic emancipation 
and parliamentary reform. 

On the outbreak of the rebellion in co. 
Down in the early summer of 1798, Monroe, 
after the arrest of Dickson, was chosen by 
the committee of leaders at Belfast to take 
the command. On 11 June, while at the 
head of a force of rebels seven thousand 
strong at Saintfield, he sent a detachment 
to seize the town of Ballinahinch, halfway 
between Lisburn and Downpatrick. The 
town was occupied without opposition ; but 
j it was evacuated on the evening of the 12th, 
when General Nugent advanced from Bel- 
fast with a force inferior in numbers to the 
rebels, but much superior to them in artil- 
lery. During the night, word was brought 
to Monroe, who had taken up a position out- 
side the town, that the victorious troops 
within were in a state of disorder, drinking, 
burning, and plundering, but he declined to 
direct a night attack, on the ground that it 
was unfair. The result was that several 
hundred of his best men immediately de- 
serted. About two o'clock on the morning 
j of 13 June the rebels succeeded in effecting 
an entrance into the town, and had appa- 
rently gained the day when the bugle sounded 
I for the retreat of the royal troops, and the 
rebels, mistaking the signal for the pas de 
charge, fled in disorder from the south, while 
Nugent's men were evacuating Ballinahinch 
by the north. The latter soon rallied and cut 
off" the retreat of the Irish in all directions 
but one. Through this loophole Monroe led 
about 150 men after the rest had been hope- 
lessly routed. In the pursuit no quarter 
was given. Monroe fled alone to the moun- 
tains. He was taken early in the morning 
of 15 June about six miles from Ballina- 
hinch. He was immediately removed with 
one Kane, or Keane, who was captured at 
the same time, to Hillsborough, whence he 
was taken to Lisburn, tried by court-martial, 
and hanged opposite his own door, and in 
sight, it was said, of his wife and sisters. 
He behaved with marvellous coolness to the 
last. He settled a money account with Cap- 
tain Stewart, a yeomanry officer, at the foot 
of the gallows, then said a short prayer and 
mounted the ladder. A rung gave way, and 
he was thrown to the ground. On re- 
ascending it, he gave the signal for his ex- 
ecution, after uttering the words, ' Tell my 
country I deserved better of it.' His head 
was afterwards fixed on a pike and placed 
upon the market-house of Lisburn. His 
house and property were destroyed by the 
royal troops. The green and white plume 
which he wore at Ballinahinch was after- 
wards given to Bishop Percy, 27 Oct. 1798. 




A proclamation put in at the court-mar- 
tial advising the soldiers and inhabitants of 
co. Down to pay no rent to ' the disaffected 
landlords, as such rent is confiscated to the 
use of the National Liberty War,' Madden 
thinks a fabrication. 

Monroe married in 1795 Margaret John- 
ston, fourth daughter of Robert Johnston of 
Seymour Hill in Antrim. His widow died 
at Belfast in February 1840. His daughter 
married one Hanson, an independent minister. 

[Madden's United Irishmen, 3rd ser. i. 378- 
401 ; Teeling's Personal Narrative of the Re- 
bellion, Glasgow ed. vol. i. ch. xix.; Sir R. Mus- 
grave's Rebellions in Ireland, 3rd ed. ii. 103-7 ; 
W. H. Maxwell's Hist, of the Irish Rebellion, 
ch. xx. ; A. Webb's Compendium of Irish Bio- 
graphy ; Lecky's England in 18th Cent. viii. 
131-5.] G. LE G. K 

MONRO, HENRY (1791-1814), portrait 
and subject painter, the son of Dr. Thomas 
Monro [q. v.], was born 30 Aug. 1791. After 
two years at Harrow he entered the navy, but 
quitted it from distaste, after a few days on 
board the frigate Amelia. His inclinations 
then wavered between the army and art, 
but he finally chose the latter, and was ad- 
mitted a student of the Royal Academy in 
1806. Here and at the colour school of the 
British Institution he studied with great dili- 
gence and distinction. In 1811 he exhibited 
'A Laughing Boy,' 'Boys at Marbles,' a 
portrait of his father, and two other portraits, 
and in the following year a ' Boy Grinding 
Colours,' a ' Lace-maker,' and four portraits, 
including one of Thomas Hearne and another 
of himself. In 1813 he sent a ' Head,' some 
studies from nature in pen and ink, and 
' Othello, Desdemona, and lago ' to the Royal 
Academy, and ' The Disgrace of Wolsey ' to 
the British Institution ; for the latter he was 
awarded a premium of a hundred guineas. 
In 1811 he had visited Scotland, and sus- 
tained serious injuries by a fall from his horse, 
and in January 1814 he was seized with a 
cold, which affected his lungs, and cut short 
his promising career at the age of twenty- 
three. A portrait by him of his father (in 
coloured chalks) is in the College of Physi- 
cians. He died on 5 March 1814, and was 
buried at Bushey, where a monument was 
erected to his memory. 

[Redgrave's Diet. ; Bryan's Diet. ; Munk's 
Coll. of Phys. (under 'Dr. Thomas Monro'); 
Royal Academy Catalogues; Annals of the Fine 
Arts, 1816, pp. 342-6; Clutterbuck's History 
of Hertfordshire.] C. M. 

MONRO, HENRY (1817-1891), physi- 
cian and philanthropist, second son of Ed- 
ward Thomas Monro, grandson of Dr. Thomas 

Monro [q. v.], and brother of Edward Monro 
[q. v.], was born in 1817, and was educated 
at Harrow and at Oriel College, Oxford (B. A. 
1839, B. Med. 1844, and D. Med. 1863). He 
studied medicine at St. Bartholomew's Hos- 
pital ; became a fellow of the College of Phy- 
sicians in 1848, and, devoting himself to the 
study of insanity, was appointed physician to 
Bethlehem Hospital in the same year. * He 
was the last of a long line of physicians who 
from father to son followed the same spe- 
ciality, four being in direct succession physi- 
cians to Bethlehem Hospital ' [see MONRO, 
JOHN; and MONRO, THOMAS, 1759-1833]. 
In 1864 he became president of the Medical 
Psychological Society. In the midst of the 
engrossing duties of his profession Monro 
found time to establish, like his brother Ed- 
ward, institutions for the benefit of the poor. 
Assisted by many friends, he was the founder 
in 1846 of the House of Charity in Rose 
Street, Soho, which ' still flourishes, with a 
larger development in Soho Square. It is a 
home for the destitute and friendless, chiefly 
those who, by no fault of their own, have been 
plunged into extreme distress and helpless- 
ness.' To this he gave unremitting attention 
for forty-five years, and also, in a less degree, 
to the Walton Convalescent Home, which his 
younger brother, Theodore Monro, founded at 
about the same time. Monro died in 1891. 
He married in 1842 Jane, daughter of Sir Wil- 
liam Russell, bart., and left several children. 
He published in 1850 a treatise on ' Stam- 
mering,' and in the following year his ' Re- 
marks on Insanity,' the principles of which 
were accepted by Dr. D. H. Tuke and by Dr. 
Hughlings Jackson. Monro was no mean 
artist, a gift which was hereditary in his 
family. He painted his own portrait and 
that of his father, for presentation to the 
College of Physicians, where they hang be- 
side portraits of three earlier members of the 
family, Alexander, John, and Thomas, who 
were distinguished as physicians. 

[Journal of Mental Science, July 1891, notice 
by Dr. G. F. Blandford; Memoir privately 
printed by the Rev. Canon W. Poxley Norris, 
M.A. ; personal knowledge.] M. B-s. 

MONRO, JAMES (1680-1752), physi- 
cian, born in Scotland 2 Sept. 1680, was son 
of Alexander Monro (d. 1715 ?) [q. v.] He 
came to London with his father in 1691, 
and matriculated at Balliol College, Oxford, 
8 July 1699, graduating B.A. 15 June 1703, 
M.A. 3 June 1708, M.B. 25 May 1709. He 
does not appear to have practised medicine, 
at least in London, till middle life, since it 
was not till 9 July 1722 that he took the de- 
gree of M.D.,and six years later, 23 Dec. 1728, 




was admitted candidate of the College of 
Physicians of London, succeeding to the fel- 
lowship 22 Dec. 1729. He was elected phy- 
sician to Bethlehem Hospital for lunatics 

9 Oct. 1728, which appointment he held till 
his death. For the rest of his life he devoted 
himself to the treatment of insanity. He is 
said to have been a skilful and honourable 
physician. His policy in not admitting stu- 
dents or physicians to the practice of his hos- 
pital was the subject of hostile criticism in 
Dr. Battle's treatise on i Madness ' (London, 
1758, 4to), and was defended in a pamphlet 
by his son John Monro, who is separately 
noticed. James Monro's only literary pro- 
duction was the Harveian oration at the Col- 
lege of Physicians in 1737. He died 4 Nov. 
1752, at Sunninghill, Berkshire, and is buried 
there. A portrait of him is in the College 
of Physicians. 

[Foster's Alumni Oxon. (1500-1714), Munk's 
Coll. of Phys. 1878, ii. 115; information supplied 
by the family.] J. F. P. 

MONRO, JOHN (1715-1791), physician, 
eldest son of James Monro, M.D. [q. v.], 
was born at Greenwich 16 Nov. 1715. He 
was educated at Merchant Taylors' School, 
and passed in 1733 to St. John's College, 
Oxford, where he ultimately succeeded to 
a fellowship. He graduated B.A. 31 May 
1737, M.A. 11 July 1740, and in April 
1741 was elected Radcliffe travelling fel- 
low, an appointment then tenable for ten 
years, and carrying with it the obligation of 
studying medicine on the continent. He 
studied first at Edinburgh, afterwards at Ley- 
den, and took his degree as M.B. at Oxford, 

10 Dec. 1743. Subsequently he spent some 
years in travelling through France, Holland, 
Italy, and Germany, returning to England 
in 1751. He had the degree of M.D. con- 
ferred on him in his absence by diploma, 
27 June 1747. In 1751 (24 July) he was 
appointed joint physician to Bethlehem Hos- 
pital with his father, whose health had begun 
to decline, and on his death, in the next 
year, John Monro became sole physician to 
the hospital. 

He was admitted candidate of the Col- 
lege of Physicians 25 June 1752, fellow on 
the same date of the next year, was censor 
on several occasions, and delivered the Har- 
veian oration in 1757. In 1787, in considera- 
tion of his failing health, his son Thomas 
was appointed his assistant at Bethlehem 
Hospital. He then gradually retired from 
practice, and died at Iladley, Barnet, 27 Dec. 

Monro, like his father, devoted himself to 
the study and treatment of insanity, and 

is said to have attained eminence and suc- 
cess. He wrote nothing except ' Remarks 
on Dr. Battie's Treatise on Madness,' Lon- 
don, 1758, 8vo. Dr. Battie had alluded to 
certain physicians (meaning the physicians 
to Bethlehem Hospital) who kept their 
knowledge and methods of treatment to 
themselves, not communicating them to the 
profession by writing or teaching. This 
touched John Monro, as well as his father, 
and his answer was, in effect, that a know- 
ledge of the subject could be obtained only 
by observation, and in retaliation he criticised 
very severely other parts of Dr. Battie's 
work. The appointment of physician to Beth- 
lehem and a great reputation in the treat- 
ment of insanity were transmitted in the 
Monro family for several generations. 

Monro had acquired (probably on his tra- 
vels) a taste for the fine arts, especially en- 
gravings, and assisted Strutt in the prepara- 
tion of his ' History of Engravers.' He is also 
said to have communicated notes to Steevens 
for his edition of Shakespeare. A portrait of 
him is in the College of Physicians. His son 
Thomas (1759-1833) is separately noticed. 

[Munk's Coll. of Phys. ; Brit. Med. Journal, 
1851, i. 1262.] J. F. P. 


1633), styled the ' Black Baron,' eighteenth 
chief of Foulis, was the eldest son of Hector 
Monro of Foulis, by Anne, daughter of Hugh, 
sixth lord Fraser of Lovat. His father died 
on 14 Nov. 1603, and while a minor he re- 
ceived a dispensation and special license from 
the king, dated 8 Jan. 1608, upon which by 
a precept from chancery he was infeft in all 
the lands possessed by his father on 26, 27, 
28 and 29 April. On account of expensive 
living during his travels abroad he greatly 
embarrassed his estate ; but having engaged 
his revenues for ten years to pay his creditors, 
he in 1626 joined as a volunteer the Scottish 
corps raised by Sir Donald Mackay, first lord 
Reay [q. v.]. for the German wars. At first 
he was captain of a company of Scots soldiers 
raised by himself. Subsequently he was ad- 
vanced to be colonel of a Dutch regiment of 
horse and foot under Gustavus Adolphus, 
and specially distinguished himself in various 
actions. He died at Ulm in 1633, after six 
weeks' illness from a wound by a musket- 
ball in the foot. Although a spendthrift in 
his earlier years, he latterly became exem- 
plarily pious, being, according to his relative. 
General Robert Monro [q.v.], l a true Christian 
and a right traveller ' (Jtfonno his Expedition 
with the Worthy Scots Regiment, pt. ii. p. 49). 
By his first wife, Margaret, daughter of Wil- 
liam Sutherland, seventh baron of Duffus, he 




had one daughter, Margaret, married to Ken- 
neth Mackenzie of Scotwell,and by his second 
wife, Mary Haynes, an English lady, he had 
a daughter Elizabeth. As he left no male 
issue, he was succeeded in the barony of 
Foulis by his brother Hector, who also ob- 
tained the rank of colonel in the service of 
Oustavus Adolphus, and on his return to 
Scotland was on 7 June 1634 created by 
Charles I a baronet of Nova Scotia. 

[Monro his Expedition with the Worthy Scots 
Regiment, called Mackay's, 1637; particulars 
concerning the Munros in Doddridge's Life of 
Colonel Gardiner ; Douglas's Baronage of Scot- 
land, pp. 83-4.] T. F. H. 

1680 ?), general, was of the family of Foulis 
Castle in Ross-shire, and followed his cousin, 
Robert Monro of Foulis, the ' Black Baron ' 
{q. v.], the then head of the house, to the con- 
tinental war. Thither also went his nephew, 
Sir George Monro [q. v.] The nature of his j 
service there may be gathered from the title- ' 
page of the narrative which he published in I 
London in 1637: 'Expedition with the worthy ; 
Scots Regiment called Mackey's Regiment, \ 
levied in August 1626 ... for His Majesty's ! 
service of Denmark and reduced after the j 
Battle of Nerling [Nordlingen] to one com- j 
pany in September 1634 at Worms . . . after- 
wards under the invincible King of Sweden 
, . . and since under the Director-general, the 
Rex-chancellor Oxenstiern and his Generals.' 
Munro served thus for seven years, begin- 
ning as lieutenant and ending as colonel. 
His first service was in Holstein, in 1627, 
and he notices that ' the Danish king was of 
absolute authority in his kingdom, as all 
Christian kings ought to be.' Denmark made 
a separate peace in 1627, and Munro, with his 
fourteen hundred Scottish comrades, trans- 
ferred his allegiance to Gustavus Adolphus, 
whom, like Dugald Dalgetty, he is fond of 
calling ' the lion of the North.' In the 
Swedish king's service there were at one 
time, it is said, not less th